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Full text of "Easter Island ; the Rapanui speech and the peopling of southeast Polynesia"






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Easter Island : the Rapanui speech and t 




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EASTERN INLAND 



THE RAPANUI SPEECH AND THE PEOPLING 
OF SOUTHEAST POLYNESIA 



BY 
WILLIAM CHURCHILL 

Sometime Consul-General of the United States in Samoa and Tonga, 

Member of the Polynesian Society, the Hawaiian Historical 

Society, the American Philological Association 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 
1912 



EASTER ISLAND 

THE RAPANUI SPEECH AND THE PEOPLING 
OF SOUTHEAST POLYNESIA 



BY 
WILLIAM CHURCHILL 

Sometime Consul-General of the United States in Samoa and Tonga, 

Member of the Polynesian Society, the Hawaiian Historical 

Society, the American Philological Association 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 
1912 



\\ 



^y. 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

PUBUCATION No. 174 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction i 

Chaptbr I. The Polynesian Alphabet 1 1 

Chapter II. Rapanui Sources and Variety 31 

Chapter III. The Paumotu in the Polynesian Scheme 49 

Chapter IV. Mangareva as a Center of Distribution 79 

Chapter V. The Dominance of Tahiti over the Province 107 

Chapter VI. The Marquesas in the Fairway to Hawaii 129 

Chapter VII. Determination of the Place of Rapanui 147 

Rapanui-English Vocabulary 185 

English-Rapanui Finding List 271 

Appendix. Sundry Notices of the Island 309 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



Fu 


Futuna 


Pau 


Paumotu. 


Q 


Geiseler's vocabulary. 


R 


Roussel's vocabulary particularized 


Ha 


Hawaii. 


Rn 


Rapanui. 


Ma 


Maori 


Sa 


Samoa. 


Mg^ 


T Mangareva. 


T 


Tongafiti. 


Mq 


Marquesas. 


T 


(suffixed) Thomson's vocabulary. 


P 


Polynesian general or of indetermi- 


Ta 


Tahiti. 




nate provenance. 


To 


Tonga. 


PS 


Proto-Samoan. 







EASTER ISLAND 

THE RAPANUI SPEECH AND THE PEOPLING 
OF SOUTHEAST POLYNESIA 



INTRODUCTION. 

Rapanui. a tiny islet, is almost over the verge of a distant sea, the 
scanty stepmother-home of less than a battalion of humankind far 
sundered from the folk of its own race. That would be enough in 
itself to attract the attention of the student of the unconsidered back- 
waters and eddies of the currents of human progress. Once attracted, 
the attention is chained by the problems offered by this remote and 
arid speck of land. 

It may not be the purpose of this work to study all of these prob- 
lems — that is beyond our power. Of the most of these mysteries we 
may venture no further than to state the existence. Restricted by 
the natiure of the material with which we are to deal and conditioned 
by the character of our particular research into the mystery of the 
Polynesian race, we shall find sufficient to engage our attention in the 
statement of but one of these problems and in massing such proof as 
we may direct upon its settlement. Yet it will be proper to set forth 
the other and older problems in some such order as in a general way 
comports with the order in which they have come to European atten- 
tion. This is all the more meet since the problem to which this volume 
is addressed is newly discovered; its first presentation was made as 
incidental to those studies of the most remote Pacific area which were 
the theme of "The Polynesian Wanderings." 

1 . The discovery of this rock set in the emptiness of sea is obscure. 
It is credited to Roggeween and his Dutch fleet on Easter Day, April 6, 
1722, whence the name upon the charts. There are discrepancies 
in his narrative, at least in the mutilated state in which alone it is 
available to modern study. Not in every detail may his record be 
reconciled with the physical and other facts of the island itself. Yet in 
the main our best authorities in geography accord him the credit of the 
discovery of this island. But before him in these seas was Davis the 
buccaneer. Something he found in 1686 in those seas so empty be- 
tween the Paumotu and the coast of Peru. The Spaniards (proud, 
and with reason, of the great admiral of the viceroyalty) have assigned 
the credit to Alvaro Mendana in 1566. It may well be so, for Spanish 
discovery was in those stirring times an art and mystery by no means 
to be revealed by publication on charts which any shipman might 
secure, lest the EngUsh sea-rover should discover more than it was 
wholesome for him to know. 

2. We have no sure knowledge of the name of this molecule of land. 
By those who follow the proper principle of geographical nomenclature 
in preserving the indigenous name wherever feasible the designation 

1 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

Rapanui is most in use. It is this wholesome principle which has 
restored the name Hawaii and has relegated the glorification of Cook's 
patron, the Eari of Sandwich, to the gastronomic provision he invented 
to obviate the necessity of remitting his devotions to the aleatory god- 
1 dess of the green cloth, a great soul. But Rapanui is not an ancient 
name. We know it to have been acquired by the people as a gift from 
a foreigner, a visitor from the distant island of Rapa, the Oparo of the 
charts, who discovered what seemed a resemblance to his own and lesser 
island and therefore applied the name Rapanui, Rapa the Great. No 
long time has elapsed, yet the name has obtained Polynesian currency 
and a myth has begun to arise to the effect that Rapanui was settled 
by a colony sailing out of Rapaiti, Rapa the Less. 

Cook and his recorder, Forster, with equal and simultaneous oppor- 
tunity for the settlement of this question, lack agreement; yet this 
is one of the first questions of all discovery, "What is the name of 
this place?" Cook records it as Teapy, Forster obtained it as Vaihu. 
As to one of these names we are in a position to clear up the error. 
Forster's informant did give him the name, but it was the name of a 
land or district and not of the island. It still remains in use, the name 
of a landing-place on the south coast. Cook's name is readily com- 
prehended ; it might have been either a local name or else a description 
of any narrow (api) constricted place, either a neck of land or a settle- 
ment hemmed in between bolsters of the cliff. 

Another name of record is Kiti te Eiranga. Paymaster Thomson 
endeavored to ascertain its accuracy and found it unrecognizable by the 
islanders. This well may be the case, for not only are the two words 
kiti and eiranga absent from this vocabulary record of Easter Island, 
but they are incomprehensible in any of the languages of the Polynesian 
stem. 

Thomson and P^re Roussel* are in accord in assigning the name 
Te Pito te Henua or Te Pito o te Heenua; they disagree upon its 
interpretation. Thomson in his brief sojourn discovered the interest- 
ing fact that the name was ages old and had been given to the island 
by Hotu Matua immediately after its discovery. This recorder finds 
the collocation of vocables to mean "navel and uterus. " P^re Roussel 
translates it as "le nombril de la terre." Reference to the pages of 
this dictionary will disclose how much of reason each has for his render- 
ing. It is true that te pito does mean navel and that te henua may 
mean the uterus or it may mean land. Thomson grows fanciful in 
showing how his rendering fits the terrain, quite failing to recognize 
that his version is Polynesian nonsense. P^re Roussel was correct 
as far as his knowledge went. He was not sufficiently a scholar in the 
f^ Polynesian tongues to know that pito, in addition to its designation 

*The bibliographic record of these observers is presented in the appropriate connection 
some pages later. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

of the navel, means the end of anjrthing. Each recorder has been 
misled by the secondary sense of the former element of the locution. 
Thomson has gone still more astray by accepting a secondary sense 
of the latter element as well. I must disregard Paymaster Thomson's 
story of the antiquity of this name, even though it has passed into 
currency under the dignity of the name of the Smithsonian Institution. 
Each of these interpretations is to be rejected, for the French priest's 
rendering, though marked by simplicity, is at variance with any meta- 
phor which might suggest itself to the islander's mind. The name 
means no more than "the end of the land. " 

Now to denominate an island so situated as is this land of our present 
study by the designation "the end of the land " is a very simple exercise 
of such knowledge of geography as we possess from early childhood, 
the ability to read a map. Tracing out the chains of islands which dot 
the South Sea, we find Easter Island far outlying, and beyond it no 
land at all until we come within sight of the arid snows of the Andes ; 
to ovu comprehension it is an end of the land indeed. But we must 
not lose sight of the fact that for these islanders there existed no chart. 
It was impossible for them, whether in the remote days of Hotu Matua, 
or in any later generation, until some slight modicum of our knowl- 
edge was brought within their reach, to know that their home was the 
end of all land in that sea. In contrary fact their own history taught 
them that if one but sailed far enough from home there was a new home 
awaiting. That was the way in which they came themselves to their 
outpost home; it is within the bounds of possibility that their first 
settlement had seen a second migration find them in their loneliness. 
These considerations are negative : I do not lack positive considerations. 
After examining an Easter Islander sufficiently to discover that in his 
association with European sailors he was able to comprehend a map I 
showed him the chart of his own island and asked as to this name 
Te Pito o te Henua. At once he replied, "there are three," and put 
his finger on each of the terminal promontories, for Easter Island is as 
mathematically a Trinacria as Sicily itself. It seems clear that Te 
Pito o te Henua is not the name of the island, not at least in an indig- 
enous usage, save as forced upon it by contact with foreigners. It 
appears to have been used in the same sense as the designation of 
Land's End at the tip of Cornwall; it is impossible that to the Poly- 
nesian it could have had any particle of such signification as attached 
to the Ultima Thule of our ancient and mediaeval geography. 

Nothing should surprise us in the existence in the South Sea of an 
inhabited island without a name; there are many such. It is quite in 
accord with the islander's habit of mind to speckle his home with names 
changing every few feet and to leave the major divisions nameless. I 
know one Samoan community where the land on the public green is 
parceled out in ownership into estates so restricted in dimensions that 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

a man sleeping on his own domain could not roll over in his slumber 
without committing trespass, yet each of these sites has its name. On 
the other hand there are islands of great area which have no names at 
all whereby they may be designated as geographic units.* It may 
well be the case that Easter Island had no collective name. For our 
own convenience, however, we shall use Easter Island and Rapanui 
interchangeably. 

3. Utterly beyond our comprehension, since apparently so utterly 
beyond the present capacity of the islanders, the enduring memorials 

'of workers in cyclopean stone are preserved in the South Sea. Without 
pretending to offer a list of such structures we note a few of the principal 
buildings of that nature: the Fale o le Fe'e in the mountains of 'Upolu 
behind Apia, the great trilithonof Tonga, the scarped mountain erections 
on Rapaiti, the massive walls of Metalianim Harbor in the Carolines, 
the rows of pillars on Tinian in the Mariannes. Least comprehensible 
of all such works are the stone statues of Easter Island, rude masses of 
tufa-crowned human shapes mounted as termini upon platforms along 
the edges of the cliffs. We find them in all stages of execution from 
the partly hewn block in the quarries to the monument finished and 
erected in its place. They are claimed by the traditions of the islanders 
as the work of their forefathers down to quite recent generations. Yet, 
despite the tradition, we can not see how a people unacquainted with 
metals could hew these great masses of hard volcanic rock ; nor can we 
see how, without mechanical assistance of which they had no knowledge, 
they could lift these weights over the crater rim, transport them for 
considerable distances, and rear them on end. 

4. No South Sea language has attained to the stage of letters. In 
the absence pf graphic symbols the memories of the past have in every 
case been the treasure of the memory of the present. The only record 
has been in the human mind; the island sages are their own books. 
But in Rapanui we have a collection of wooden billets, each bearing 
carefully incised figures neatly ordered in rows after a modified system 
of boustrophedon. At once we jump to the conclusion that these hylo- 
glyphs contain writing ; therefore, if written, they may be read. Again 
a problem. In the first volume of the Journal of the Polynesian Society 
(1892) Dr. A. Carroll, of New South Wales, undertook to read them. 
The reading was far too glib ; it was a record of obscure events upon 
the slopes of the Andes. Called upon to explain the principles of inter- 
pretation. Dr. Carroll vanishes from the record. Paymaster Thomson 
was an eye-witness of the reading of the hyloglyphs by an Easter 
Islander. He has to acknowledge that a fraud was practised upon him 

*"Fur grossere umfassende geographische Einheiten, wie Buchten, Meeresarme, Meeres- 
strassen, Gebirge und ahnliches, besitzen die Eingeborenen keine Namen, wenigstens die 
Melanesier. Ihre geographischen Namen sind individuell, kantonal, lokal beerenzt '-— 
Capt. Georg Fnedenci, "Beitrage zur Volker- und Sprachenkunde von Deutsch-Neuguinea " 

page 10. v.i»6u.iica,. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

by the reader, so simple and so gross as at once to be detected. Yet 
he offers what purports to be the text and translation of several of these 
tablet records. Of the text we need but say that it is not such language 
of Rapanui as is recorded in the pages of this vocabulary, nor is it con- 
sistently the known speech of any Polynesian people, but a jumble of 
several. With such an uncertain base the translation can have no 
value save only in so far as it shows that Dr. Carroll's version is in no 
wise concerned with the same part of the world. 

5. These problems of Easter Island have been presented in brief 
statement in order to show how necessary it will be in the following 
pages to confine our attrition to the discussion and, so far as is possible, 
to the settlement of yet another problem, for the solution of which we 
may feel that we find ourselves in possession of satisfactory and suffi- 
cient data. Our purpose is to trace from linguistic material and through 
philological method the peopling of this remotest outpost of Polynesian 
culture. Incidentally it will involve the race problem of Southeast 
Polynesia. 

In a former work ("The Polynesian Wanderings," 179) I found it 
necessary to subdivide the general Polynesian area by erecting the 
province of Nuclear Polynesia, in which Samoa is the nucleus. Nine, 
Tonga, Viti, Rotuma, Uvea and Futuna, and Fakaafo describe the 
perimeter. In this connection I have encountered, more as a valued 
suggestion than in criticism, the memorandum of S. Percy Smith* that 
there exists a Polynesian name for this region, "Hawaiki-raro or leeward 
Hawaiki in contradistinction to Hawaiki-runga or windward Hawaiki 
as including Tahiti and neighbor archipelagoes." It was not without 
full consideration that I avoided these designations. In the first place 
their ciurency is restricted to the race long after it has passed out from 
Samoa. In the second place it would be doing violence to Polynesian 
thought method to attempt to fix with metes and bounds so general a 
division as these two terms connote. Furthermore, when lajdng out 
Nuclear Polynesia as a geographic and ethnic province, particularly a 
linguistic province, I foresaw that in due course it would become incum- 
bent upon me, as now it has so become, to erect similarly, within the 
diffuse area of Hawaiki-runga, a province of Southeast Polynesia call- 
ing for precise definition. As set off for the purposes of the present 
study this province comprises the Paumotu, including Mangareva geo- 
graphically but particularizing it philologically ; the two groups of the 
Marquesas; Rapanui; and for convenience Tahiti, as the practical 
designation of the archipelago of which that island is the chief. To 
complete the geographical record we may include Pitcairn, but its Poly- 
nesian remains, discovered by the Bounty mutineers, had long been 
mute. From this province I exclude the distal extensions of the race 

*43 Bulletin American Geographical Society, 267. 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

in Hawaii and New Zealand, and the intermediate Cook and Austral 
Groups together with scattered islands in that region of sea, leaving 
their estabUshment as a province to the care of the particular students 
of the Tongafiti migration mth which they seem most associable. In 
this province of Southeast Polynesia we shall devote our attention to 
unraveUng from the language records the story of the peopUng of the 
several lands. 

At this point it is proper to comment upon the source of the lin- 
guistic material and to a certain extent upon the quality of the record. 
One condition runs through all the vocabularies with which we are to 
deal: they have been collected by the French priests, who have devoted 
lives of self-abnegation to the cure of these remote and seldom re- 
sponsive souls. This we shall find appUes to the two vocabularies 
which we possess in an English rendering. The recorders, therefore, 
represent a singularly even type. It will surely not give offense if we 
characterize them as devoid of professional training for such work, 
for they will heartily acknowledge that they have been trained to 
higher things than the things of this world. Each such dictionary 
has been compiled as a necessary adjunct of mission work; it has been 
prepared by each priest to enable him to carry the gospel to the 
savages of his parish, to provide the ready means for his assistants 
or successors to carry on the work. The recorders have lacked time, 
special preparation, even interest in considering any questions of 
comparative philology and ethnology which might arise in connection 
with the speech record. They have gone very directly to a very 
simple end, to prepare such a word-list as might enable them to present 
their message of civilization. There is clear internal evidence that 
even the most finished of these dictionaries has been prepared upon a 
method which must of necessity be misleading. The author, at least 
the original compiler of the first word-lists which have become the 
base of later dictionaries, has begun in the inverted order. He has 
started from his original French and has sought to ascertain the Poly- 
nesian equivalent. The result is that the dictionaries of Southeast 
Polynesia are in no wise comparable with the wealth found in the 
dictionaries of Nuclear Polynesia, that of George Pratt for Samoa 
and of Shirley Waldemar Baker for Tonga. These latter had first 
steeped themselves in the languages of their respective fields of use- 
fulness. When the time came for them to write their dictionaries they 
began with the indigenous word and then sought out its EngUsh 
equivalent. In the French group we find general evidence, in P^e 
Roussel's work we find particular evidence, that each compiler followed 
a certain list of French words and directed his attention more or less 
seriatim to finding equivalents all the way down the list. It has pro- 
duced a monotony of uniformity; at the same time it has left the 
product uniformly comparable. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

The speech of Tahiti is presented to us in the work of its ApostoUc 
Vicar, Monsignor Tepano Jaussen, Bishop of Axieri in partibus in- 
fidelium, "Grammaire et Dictionnaire de la Langue Maorie, Dialecte 
Tahitien, Paris, Neia i te Neneiraa no Belin, 1898." This approxi- 
mates 6,200 entries in the Tahitian vocabulary, and the collation of 
the French-Tahitian section will add considerably to the number. 

For the Marquesas we are indebted to its Apostolic Vicar, Mon- 
signor I. R. Dordillon, Bishop of Cambysopolis, also in partibus, 
"Grammaire et Dictionnaire de la langue des lies Marquises, Paris, 
Imprimerie Belin Fr^res, 1904. " It contains about 12,000 Marquesan 
entries, with the same note as to the collation of the other half of the 
work. 

These two represent an advanced state of the knowledge of the 
respective languages, for each is based upon and is designed to supplant 
earlier and now inaccessible vocabularies. 

For the speech of Mangareva we find our authority in Edward 
Tregear, an indefatigable worker in Polynesian linguistics. Under the 
authority of the New Zealand Institute he compiled "A Dictionary 
of Mangareva or Gambler Islands, Wellington, 1899." This contains 
some 6,600 Mangarevan entries and lacks a check vocabulary in 
EngUsh. The source of this material is not set forth, but it is the 
work of the French missionaries.* 

The same authority gives us, and from similar sources, a dictionary 
of the Paumotu, which may be found in continuous numbers of the Jour- 
nal of the Polynesian Society in the second, third, and fourth volumes. 
It contains about 2,500 entries and lacks the check vocabulary. 

For the language which forms the principal theme of the present 
volume we have " Vocabulaire de la Langue de rHe-de-P4ques ou Rapa- 
nui, par le R. P. Hippolyte Roussel, de la Congregation des Sacr^s- 
Coeurs de Picpus, missionnaire a ITle-de- Piques. " In "Le Museon, " 
published at Lou vain in 1908, this occupies 95 pages, of which 80 
are given to a French-Rapanui dictionary. The fullest credit must be 
given to this work as the basis of the present volume in the fundamental 
material. I have translated it into English, since by far the majority 
of the vocabularies of Polynesian speech are given in English terms 
and it makes for convenience to adopt this as the standard. I have 
compiled therefrom a dictionary of Rapanui-English and a check vocab- 
ulary to facilitate comparison by students into whose hands it may 
come. With this I have incorporated two brief vocabularies earlier 
printed and such material as was of my own acquisition from trust- 
worthy sources in the South Sea. 

The two added vocabularies (they are really mere word-lists) are 
to be found in Geiseler (84 entries) and in Thomson (467 entries). 

*Too late for use in these studies I have the grammar and dictionary of Mangareva of 
the Catholic missionaries published in 1908. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

It is quite clear that they derive, in 1882 and 1886 respectively, from 
succeeding stages of a single prototype; what that may have been is 
merely inferential, each visitor records his vocabulary without credit 
to source. I am strongly of the opinion that each has made a tran- 
scription of some manuscript Ust of words, for in several instances 
Geiseler and Thomson are in accord in perpetuating errors which can 
only be due to misreading of poor chirography. It is quite possible 
that for his own convenience some such Ust was fitfully prepared by 
some aUen resident upon the island. This points particularly to 
Alexander Salmon, who has for many years been in charge of the affairs 
of Rapanui. He is Tahitian, and in the early days of his unfamiliarity 
with the language he might find a convenience in noting various com- 
mon words which varied from the idiom with which he was familiar. 
We must note that, in addition to the faults properly to be credited 
to the prototype manuscript, the vocabulary in Paymaster Thomson's 
Smithsonian paper is disfigured, as is his whole narrative, by a set of 
errors due to the chirography of the manuscript which he supplied to 
the printer.* 

Unfortunately the same comment is to be made upon Pere Roussel's 
vocabulary. The publication was posthumous, and not even the most 
pious care of his brethren could be trusted to see through the press a 
work in an unknown tongue. Some part of this error is automatically 
corrigible in the inversion of the material and offers little difficulty to an 
editor who has any acquaintance with Polynesian languages. Another 
portion may be rectified by comparison with neighboring languages. 
The residuum of error properly chargeable to this source is believed to 
be very small. 

In the introduction to the Roussel vocabulary mention was made of 
the existence of two manuscript copies. I wrote to Professor Colinet, 
of the University of Lou vain, senior editor of "Le Museon," noting the 
errors of this class and bespeaking his aid in securing the loan of one of 
these manuscripts. His response was both prompt and in the highest 
degree cordial; he referred the matter to the author's surviving brother, 
Professor Roussel of Freibourg. I had supposed that the manuscripts 
must be in the possession of the religious of the Sacred Hearts, the con- 
gregation of which PIre Roussel had been a member; but Professor 
Colinet's reference indicated another disposition of these originals. 
After waiting several months and obtaining no response I wrote to 
Professor Roussel, renewing the request and enlarging upon the service 
which the opportunity to collate one of the manuscript exemplars would 
render to science, and suggesting that the present volume would afford 

*We have no difficulty in recognizing yet a third draft upon the same source in the vocabu- 
lary of 116 words, of which none is not contained in Thomson, which is incorporated in the 
Easter Island report of Surgeon George H. Cooke, U. S. N. He visited Rapanui aboard 
the Mohican m the last fortnight of 1886, when that vessel was commissioned to brmg awav 
the statue now m Washington. His paper found belated publication in "Report of the 
United States National Museum," 1897, 689. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

an Opportunity to present in corrected form the work of his brother, 
which must stand as the base and foundation of all knowledge of the 
speech of Rapanui. Apparently these considerations did not appear 
any more valuable on their repetition than when presented through 
the mediation of Professor Colinet. Professor Roussel paid no atten- 
tion whatever to the request; he did not seem to consider it worth even 
so much as a refusal; the letters remain unanswered. Accordingly I 
have been obliged to establish a standard text through my own best 
efforts; for uncorrected errors I am forced to disavow responsibiUty, 
since I did all in my power to secure the means whereby they might be 
corrected. 

In an appendix I have transcribed a considerable mass of scattered 
references to Easter Island in general. It would not be practicable to 
incorporate aU the literature of the subject. I have omitted all such as 
is convenient of access, as, for an instance. Paymaster Thomson's paper 
in the Report of the United States National Museum for 1889. But it 
has seemed of advantage to gather together the stray and less accessible 
accounts and to present them here for the greater convenience of stu- 
dents of this interesting island. 

The position which this investigation of the linguistic problems of 
Southeast Polynesia bears to my major project in Polynesian philology 
calls for a brief consideration. As with two other works which I have 
recently published, this is preliminary to the dictionary of Polynesian 
philology based upon the Samoan. My researches upon that central 
theme are now approaching completion after years of diligent study. 
"The Polynesian Wanderings" was written to clear the way for the 
Nuclear Polynesian studies by differentiating the two streams of migra- 
tion of the Polynesian race which have occupied Samoa and adjacent 
islands in that mid tract of the Pacific. In that work I was able to 
segregate for exhaustive examination the earlier (the Proto-Samoan) 
stream of migration, to split it up into its two component streams, and 
to trace each back to its point of emergence from Indonesia respectively 
north of New Guinea and in the waterway south of that great island. 
In the monograph on the "Beach-la-mar" I found the material where- 
with to discuss a point fundamental in these languages, the beginning 
of the segregation of function in the three recognizable parts of speech, 
and therein I have made a preUminary statement of what is to be the 
manner of treatment which I shall pursue in dealing with the Polynesian 
grammar. 

In Southeast Polynesia I place under examination the utmost limit 
of the Proto-Samoan migration: Rapanui, the final port of voyages 
whose early course we have akeady discovered in Motu and Modnus. 
These are chapters in the speech history of Polynesia of such magnitude 
and of such importance that it has seemed well to present them inde- 
pendently before advancing to the consideration of the main theme. 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

That theme, to which these several items are contributory, is far 
more comprehensive than a mere dictionary of the speech of a socially 
unimportant folk. Its purpose is to provide the orderly arrangement 
of the material whereby we enter upon the systematic study of the 
principles and the methods of the most elemental type of human speech. 
As the placing of the Sanskrit within the reach of investigators created 
the science of comparative philology, even so I indulge myself in the 
reverent aspiration that the presentation of these data for a widely 
extended speech of the isolating type will carry our students very close 
to one of the origins of human utterance of ideas, so close that philology 
may then be justified in calUng upon psychology to explain the process 
whereby the primitive man has learned to differentiate his animal cry 
into thought-directed speech. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE POLYNESIAN ALPHABET. 

In reducing the speech of the Easter Islanders to writing, Pere Rous- 
sel, who had served an apostolate of a dozen years (1854-1866) in the 
Marquesas, employed the alphabet with which he had become famihar 
in the northern archipelago. The priests who introduced writing to 
the Marquesas had also drawn for their alphabet upon that with which 
they had become familiar in Tahiti, which stood as the metropolis of 
this evangelical colony. In Tahiti the priests of the older communion 
were late (and, in the complex of European politics, stormy) comers 
to a field already cultivated.* Thus they found an alphabet already 
adjusted to the phonetics of the Polynesian by the pioneer missionaries 
of the London Missionary Society. Furthermore, since the English mis- 
sionaries, under the stimulus of the restless soul of John Williams, the 
martyr of Eromanga and an interesting blend of pietism and Wanderlust, 
pushed ever into new fields and always carried with them the alphabet 
which they had designed as standard for Tahiti, this has become effec- 
tively the standard for all Polynesia. We have just observed how the 
French missionaries adopted it as already in existence and ready to their 
hands. The mission colony of the American Board of Commissioners 
of Foreign Missions accepted it gladly when Ellis of the London Mis- 
sion was called to their aid in Hawaii; from that new center it was in 
the course of time carried to Micronesia. The Wesleyan Mission 
adopted it for their earliest settlement in Tonga, and thence carried it 
to Viti. It is not until we reach the independent Presbyterian estab- 
lishments in the New Hebrides that we find its neat simplicity disre- 
garded, and even in that western area it is essentially retained by the 
Melanesian Mission of the English establishment. 

An economical motive underlay the adoption of this standard alpha- 
bet of Polynesia at its beginning and equally operative with each new 
extension. In the first party of missionaries who sailed from England 
aboard the Duff for Tahiti in 1796, one of the four ordained ministers 
in the company of thirty-nine, representing many useful trades, has 
set against his name the memorandum "and understands printing." 
The only type which could be available to render this memorandum 

*We must deprecate the assumption of a polemical attitude. With the sagacious Ellis 
("Polynesian Researches" ii, 6) we note so much of priority as may lie in the temporary 
sojourn of two Spanish priests from the Viceroyalty of Peru just twenty-five years before 
the coming of the English missionaries. Doctors of theology will have to pass upon the 
permanence of the theological statement inscribed upon the wooden cross at Taiarapu: 
"Christus vincit et Carolus III imperat, 1774," of which the succeeding diplomatic claim 
was never held vaUd. For all practical purposes the institution of the Catholic mission 
dates from 1838. 

11 



12 EASTER ISLAND. 

of more than curious interest was a small font such as would be found 
at that time in use in the ordinary English chapel, a font of plam book 
roman without diacritical marks. This stock was found ample to 
express the sounds in Tahitian; there were letters to spare.* But the 
Polynesians have, with a few exceptions, a simple sound which m 
English is, through long-perpetuated error, expressed as a double con- 
sonant, the palatal nasal, the ng of singer. But as the same combina- 
tion of consonants represents typographically the true double consonant 
of ngg in finger, there was objection to expressing the palatal nasal of 
Tahiti by ng. Furthermore, the Rev. Thomas Lewis, who ' ' understands 
printing," had other things to do at Matavai; time at the case was 
time ill to be spared at the pulpit. He seems to have been a practical 
man, this reverend printer in his chapel under the palms. The letter 
g was not needed in Tahiti, for the language lacks the sonant palatal 
mute; therefore he used it in place of ng, assigning it once for all to 
the representation of the palatal nasal. Thus, every time he set g for 
ng he saved an en, and a sufficiency of ens saved mounts up to the 
saving of many ems, a consideration of moment to a printer who was 
more zealous in saving souls than in running up a string. The use of 
g for this ng characterizes the written form of all the languages of 
Polynesia, save only the Maori of New Zealand, which was evangelized 
under other auspices. 

The general rule of the first missionaries in Tahiti was to assign to 
the vowels their Italian value and to sound the consonants as in English. 
That rule holds throughout Polynesia. We note a few exceptions, 
more apparent than real, since the systematic collation of comparative 
material will introduce them into the pages of this dictionary. 

The French missionaries have very commonly adopted a system of 
indicating vowels of the long quantity by doubling the vowel. This 
is found in Rapanui, in Uvea, and in Futuna. They have, however, 
adopted from the alphabets of English source the employment of u of 
the Italian sound, and do not transliterate the sound by their more 
familiar ou. The doubled vowel is found in Tonga also, though that 
speech was reduced to writing before the French influence was intro- 
duced. It will be seen that a typographical convenience underlies this 
usage; vowel type cast with macron and micron respectively were 
beyond the reach of missionaries struggling in distant nooks of sea. 

*Such as take an interest in the annals ot typography will welcome a note upon the paucity 
of the first printing establishments in the Pacific. As late as 1845 the mission in Hawaii 
was hard put to it to print the elder Emerson's English-Hawaiian dictionary. The office 
was wofully out of sorts. In the run of T we note these makeshifts: after TaJlness follows 
tallow; the lower case is exhausted at testament, which is followed by -estate; fortunatdy 
the hyphens lasted to complete the signature of 8, for after -yrannical the ensuing signature 
begins with Tyrannize. But one must pity the poor printers who had to run off the edition 
and throw in the cases before they could proceed. In the B run we follow these shifts, from 
Bearer to Beast, from Beguile to -Behave, from Bellows to belly, from bondage to bondmaid 
Whoever can read the story here told will recognize that the pioneers in the Pacific could not 
do as they wished; they could do no more than the type would let them do. 



THE POLYNESIAN ALPHABET. 13 

In certain of these languages a somewhat modern impulse has caused 
the dropping of k. This is strongly marked in Samoa; it is found in 
the Marquesas. In Samoa the k has vanished so recently— let it be 
understood that the reference is to the surd palatal mute and not to 
the kappation of t which is now conquering modern Samoan as it has 
succeeded in conquering Hawaiian— the k has so lately dropped out 
that it actually leaves an audible hole in the word, the vowels remain 
disjunct on either side of the gap, crasis does not take place. In the 
Samoan alphabetical system the place of the vanished k is taken by the 
inverted comma; thus fa' a is the modern form of a preceding faka and 
is pronounced the same in every particular except that the k has gone 
away. The choice of the character is governed in this case also by 
typographical convenience ; as the comma represents the briefest breath- 
pause in the continuing sentence, so the comma inverted might logically 
represent this infinitesimal but positive breath-pause in the continuity 
of the word. The sign is in but rare other use ; the possibility of the 
need arising in Samoan composition to mark the opening of a quotation 
within a quotation seemed, and very reasonably, negligible. In the 
Marquesas the type supplies represented the provision of the common 
French chapel, which in this particular happens to differ from the 
English in the important detail that the marks of quotation Une at the 
foot of the type instead of at the top and are therefore less practicable 
for such employment in representing the absent k. But the French 
fonts must carry a complete supply of accented vowels, a waste pro- 
vision in the Pacific where the seldom- varied penult accent is almost 
autographic. The acutely accented type of these otherwise useless 
characters have been employed by Bishop Dordillon to represent 
vowels from before which consonants have dropped away. We should 
not fail to note that he is by no means accurate in such employment of 
the diacritical mark; in my collation herewith I have not assumed to 
correct his dictionary record, even though the compared material shows 
that no loss of consonant has taken place. 

After this general introduction we now present the alphabet of 
Rapanui in the standard arrangement, the dashes filling the place of 
English sounds which do not occur. 





- 


r,- 


- 




semivowel 




ng 


n 


m 


nn,sa1 


surd 




h 


h 


aspiration 


sonant 
siu-d 


_ 


_ 


1 
J 


► 


sibilant 


sonant 
surd 




_ 


v1 
-J 


> 


spirant 


sonant 
surd 


k 


t 


-1 
PJ 


f 


mute 




palatal 


lingual 


labial 






series 


series 


ser 


ies 





14 RASTER ISLAND. 

It will not escape notice that the vowel tract is incomplete. This 
is by no means to be taken to mean that the Rapanui is less rich in 
vowel sounds than is our own speech. Far otherwise, the vowel is the 
skeleton of every Polynesian vocable, a fixed value, structural entity 
subject only to secular modification and that but rarely. On another 
occasion I have registered my impression of the Polynesian vowel: 

A man with a quick ear and an obedient tongue may, as the result of long 
discipline, acquire almost perfect use of the Samoan consonants, but it is most 
probable that no Caucasian has mastered the art of the Samoan vowels. It 
is as in their music; the intervals, the supertones and the fractions of the tone 
are developed on a system which we find it impossible to acquire. It estab- 
lishes a new group of units of vibration of the vocal cords, for which the 
fundamental diapason of our own speech is not set in unison.* 

Holding this opinion I must discountenance any idea of emptiness 
in the vowel tract. It seems empty only for the reason that the col- 
lectors of the vocabularies upon which our studies are based either have 
failed to catch the rich shadings of the vowels through ears trained to 
find the strength of speech in the consonants, or have recognized their 
inability to represent them by any of the type resources at their com- 
mand. We who can make the type fairly speak for us must commis- 
erate these poor missionaries with their shabby fonts. I might evaluate 
these vowels by proper symbols in several of the languages under col- 
lateral review, but thatwould remain unsatisfactory because incomplete. 
In fact, before these languages have become too far corrupted, records 
should be taken phonographically, so that a careful study may be made 
and a common system of expression devised in order that their full vowel 
beauty may be represented as an object at which to aim, even though 
we may fall short of the mark. Through this lack I am forced to leave 
the vowel area diagrammed by the five fundamental characters. 

When we come to the consideration of the consonants we arrive at 
more certain ground. For immediate comparison I set side by side the 
consonant plan of Rapanui and that of the Proto-Samoan. 

For the information of those who have not examined the preceding 
studies in this work of opening the treasure of the philology of isolating 
speech through its great and widely extended Polynesian family I 
should explain what is indicated under the designation Proto-Samoan. 
It is that ancient speech which from a study of the modern languages 
of Nuclear Polynesia we establish as representing their common parent. 
As in the study of the philology of inflected speech it has been possible 
to segregate a common parent of the Indo-Germanic tongues, the same 
method of research yields equally satisfactory results in this far more 

*i7 Journal of the Polynesian Society, 87. Withdrawn by amputation from the context 
whidi expressed the purpose which the last sentence was designed to serve this may now 
appear misleading. It should be understood that the variety does not obtain in definitely 
measurable vibration of the vocal cords, but does obtain in the mass of overtones derivable 
from changes in the form of the head cavities, whether singly or in conjunction, acting as 
soft-walled sound-chambers. 



THE POIvYNESIAN AlyPHABET. 15 

primitive type of speech. We are here, it should be understood, to 
concern ourselves only with the phonetic side of this ancient speech. 

In this diagram the bold-faced type represents the letters now in 
Samoan use, the itahc those not now employed which are deducible 
from extended comparisons. 

Rapanui. 

r,- 
ng n m 
h h 



Proto-Samoan. 


y 


r,l 


w 


ng 


n 


m 




h 


h 




s 


V 

f 


i 


d 


6 


k 


t 


P 



Inspection of the right-hand diagram shows that the Proto-Samoan 
had 1 8 of the 23 consonants which we employ; but at the same inspec- 
tion the type differentiation shows us how imperfectly it could hold 
these elements of speech ; for in modern Samoan we find that but 9 are 
retained, in Tongan 13 appear in the alphabet, yet owing to the extreme 
rarity of 5 and p this is effectively 1 1 ; in Futuna there are 10, in Niue 10, 
in Uvea 11. 

Since we shall have in these studies to take our departure from this 
carefully reconstituted Proto-Samoan, it will be advisable to pass under 
review its consonant structure toward whatever discovery we may make 
of the vital formative principles underlying it. 

I have already set forth my belief that the strong element, the endur- 
ing element, the root element of the Polynesian vocable lies in its vowel 
structure. Indeed I have made the preliminary announcement of a 
discovery which I find more and more reason to regard as valid and 
upon which I shall elaborate in writing the history of the formative 
stages of isolating speech, namely, that the word-root is reducible to a 
vowel-seed modified by consonantal modulants having a coefficient 
value of certain definite sorts. That the consonants, in comparison 
with this sturdy vowel, are weak is shown by their fluctuations in value 
as the languages of this family undergo their secular changes in two 
somewhat separable households. 

This weakness it is impossible to represent by any system of type 
upon any diagram, which must of necessity be both fixed and formal. 
Upon comparison with the consonant scheme of our own language we 
seem to find that the Proto-Samoan lacks only our palatal sibilants and 
our Kngual spirants. Superficially examined, the Proto-Samoan seems 
to possess in the vertical series exactly our own equipment of labials, 
and in the horizontal series our complete equipment of mutes extending 
across all three buccal areas in which vocal sounds are produced. 

This is misleading; we are errant through the fact that we are obliged 
to set down the primordial and uncertain sounds through the agency of 
our graphic symbols for fixed and positively determined sounds. The 



16 EASTER ISI.AND. 

error would not arise if it were possible to employ comprehensible sym- 
bols expressive each of a germ-sound somewhere midway within those 
pairs of mutes which we classify as sonant and surd ; and in the case of 
the labials the range is wider, for we find not only an interplay between 
sonant and surd, but even one of such wide range as to admit of frequent 
interchanges between mute and spirant; and sometimes this extends 
as far as the aspiration, and even to the semi-vowel proximate to the 
labial series. 

This suggestion of a germ-sound I think it feasible to illustrate by an 
example from EngUsh which doubly covers the point. In a British 
colony, where the common speech is retentive of certain quasi-dialectic 
peculiarities not unknown in the mother country, but noticeable because 
of their reasonable unfamiliarity in American common speech, I heard 
frequently the locution "wisitors, vorshipful sir!" If it be objected 
that this is uneducated English the objection is not a valid one, for we 
are using this for comparison with the speech of Polynesian ancestors far 
removed from the possibility of formal education. The speaker of this 
test phrase could not have acquired his error through eye education, for 
in the characters V and W there can be no confusion, provided the sight 
is sufficiently educated to distinguish one acute angle from two acute 
angles. That the speech contained these two errors is in part an audi- 
tory laches, but there is something beyond this, a determining factor. 
A child in one of our primary schools who should thus exchange his V 
and his W would become the immediate object of the teacher's best 
effort to correct the error, and would be the butt of the excessively 
educational ridicule of his fellow children as soon as recess gave oppor- 
tunity for this potent form of schooUng. That this interplay between 
labial spirant and proximately labial semivowel and vice versa, a plunge 
over a great gap, endured in a number of individuals, schooled if not 
educated, is evidential that the error was not corrected by those in 
monitorial authority. Passing unperceived, it is in that community 
non-existent as error. If it were heard at all, the error would become 
the object of attention and of correction, for it exists side by side with 
the absence of eye-error, that is to say the false speaker spells correctly. 

By careful attention of the ear I found that these speakers said 
neither vorshipful nor worshipful, neither wisitors nor visitors, but an 
intermediate sound or two slightly variant sounds, somewhere midway 
between the sounds accepted by us as standard, the germ-sound. Let 
us temporarily represent this by WV. What was said, then, was the 
midway sounds, WVorshipful and WVisitors. Upon our ears, attuned 
to a sharp distinction between V and W, the impact of WVorshipful 
impressed us with the fact that it declined from the recognized W value ; 
therefore we must go the whole distance to our next recognizable sound, 
the V. Similarly the declension from the standard V in WVisitors 
carries us without a stop to W. Through this instance may we arrive 



THE POLYNESIAN AI^PHABET. 17 

at the comprehension of my idea of a germ-sound, and the equal fact 
that from such a germ-sound final emergence may be made to either one 
of the two limiting sounds. 

Regarded in the hght of this germ-sound characteristic, we shall find 
the Proto-Samoan consonant skeleton to represent a speech-type far 
below our own. The array of mutes really corresponds to a row of three 
germ-mutes, and the series of labials to germ-mute and germ-spirant 
which are still so uncertain that they may interchange the one with the 
other or even with the semivowel. 

The type of the strongest modern speech developed by deviation of 
this nature from the Proto-Samoan is well illustrated by the present 
Samoan; its structure is discoverable upon the Proto-Samoan diagram 
by omitting the itahc letters. The semivowels at the palatal and 
labial extremities have such scant precision that it had not been found 
necessary to give them alphabetic expression; they are recognizable, 
however, in current speech. In the Proto-Samoan the Ungual semi- 
vowel was triple, r, r grasseye, and /. Of these the r grasseye has been 
wholly lost in the modern languages. As between r and / the languages 
of Nuclear Polynesia have chosen the /; in so far as they have determ- 
inant value we may therefore assign the I to the immediate survivors of 
the Proto-Samoan household. 

The most permanent element of the consonant skeleton is the row of 
three nasals, one for each of the buccal speech-areas. This, in fact, 
we should expect to find the case in a language slowly acquiring conso- 
nants as a new device of speech; those which lie nearest the vowels 
should be the first acquired, therefore the practice in their formation 
should have been longest and as a result their fixity the greatest. Of 
the three we find m to exist in all these languages almost without altera- 
tion. This is conditioned by the manner in which the sound is formed ; 
it requires the closing of the lips and then the opening; there can be in 
nature no intermediate possibility, either the lips are closed or they are 
not, the one position creates the m, the other does not. It is foreign to 
our Polynesian inquiry, but none the less interesting to the student of 
phonetics, to note that in my Melanesian studies I have segregated 
instances where the ruder folk of those western and less advanced regions 
have not yet fully acquired the simple precision of even this most ele- 
mentary closure ; they have an w- variant which is most nearly expressed 
by mw. The other nasals are less positive. A frequent error in Samoan 
speech at the present day is to interchange ng and n when they appear 
in close proximity, less frequently is similar substitution made when 
either stands singly. In general we are to say that the languages of 
Nuclear Polynesia retain the full series of nasals ; this, then, is to that 
extent a character of the Proto-Samoan household. 

Granting, now, to a race of speech-beginners the discovery that by 
exerting a power to make various closures they enjoy the capacity to 



18 EASTER ISI<AND. 

form consonants, where in their inexperience should we expect to find 
the next group of such acquisitions after they have found and conquered 
the nasals lying so readily next their possession of the vowels? At the 
further Umit of consonant possibility, to wit, the mutes. 

The case is this: 

The experimenting speaker finds that, by an easy exercise of a 
power, of which after long race-ages he finds himself to be possessed, 
he can enrich his speaking provision by a series of consimilar closures 
applied to each of the three speech-organs. His next essay would be 
to try what he could accomplish by exerting this power to its utmost 
possibility, having had the encouragement of finding an agreeable 
result to follow its first halting exercise. Thus do I account for the 
fact that our next complete series is at the utmost bound of speech 
possibiUty; we have the mutes, at least a series of three germ-mutes, 
one for each of the speech-organs. In speech it is as in music, the 
pianissimo is within the gentle touch of halting fingers on the keyboard, 
the weight of thumping blows can produce without instruction the 
fortissimo; but to effect the graces of the intermediate expressions, 
which give the music its charm, calls for patience and painstaking 
assiduity in the training of the muscles specifically employed in the 
process. Accordingly we find that out of the three germ-mutes Samoan 
has possessed the more distal expression, the surds, and only within 
an appreciably modern period has undergone the loss of the palatal k. 
Of the other languages of Nuclear Polynesia, Uvea, Futuna, and Niue 
have retained the same mutes as the Samoan. We shall see, however, 
that this is not a distinctive character of the Proto-Samoan household ; 
it occurs in the Tongafiti as well. In Tonga we find divarication; a 
double emergence from the germ-mute has taken place; we have not 
only the full surd series k-t-p, but also the full sonant series g-d-b, 
though not acknowledged in type forms except as to the last ; we find a 
further development of the lingual mute, t before i becomes tch and is 
written /. Omitting this special case of Tonga, we note in the selection 
of the mutes by Nuclear Polynesian the utmost effect of that which I 
have termed the fortissimo effect; as between the spirant and the surd, 
the latter represents the farther limit of the consonant-forming power. 

Between the triple and complete series of the nasals, the pianissimo 
expression of the consonant power, and its fortissimo* expression in the 
triple and complete series of the mutes, we pass over the aspiration, 

*In the sister, but more noisy, science of ordnance a high degree of ingenuity has been 
developed in the creation of time fuses and impact fuses whereby the projectile is blown to 
small bits immediately upon attaining the mark at which it is violently directed. It were 
desirable that some such method were applicable to metaphors in diction. Having once 
employed the terminology of piano-forte expression I find it convenient to continue the 
employment. Lest error should arise, however, in proportion as the text progresses away 
from the ongmal mention of the figure, it may be weU to set down the caution that pianissimo 
and fortissimo do not here connote the volume of vocal sound, but refer solely to the degree 
of consciously directed effort in the employment of the power whereby speaking man forms 
the consonants of his speech. '"'»"a 



THE POLYNESIAN ALPHABET. 19 

an incomplete series, the sibilant also incomplete, the spirant incom- 
plete. Now how, in this explanation, are we to account for this 
incompleteness in the intermediate range of possibility? To form the 
sounds which should fill the gap calls for precision in the employment 
of the vocal organs, calls for a training to which the incipient needs 
of the speech-beginner are by no means such as to subject him, calls 
for an elaboration of a system of differentiating his consonantal 
modulants far in advance of the arising of the heed therefor in his 
thought life. I can find no shred of evidence that the Proto-Samoan 
could have had a richer equipment than is here diagrammed. It is 
different with our own speech. Our forebears had a far richer alphabet 
in this central area than we use. Through disuse we have lost the 
power of use. Our former palatal spirants, surd and sonant, gh and ch, 
are retained in the by-ways of our written speech as cumbersome 
monuments which we must revere through piety, but whose inscriptions 
we never read, save we are Scotch and use an older, purer English. 

Hitherto it has served to deal with the consonant diagram in hori- 
zontal series. This is not a mere device of typography, a convenience 
of arrangement for the display of the material upon the page. A 
consistent principle underlies the arrangement. 

In the case of the uppermost of these horizontal tiers the name con- 
notes the unity of principle in thus ordering the three nasals; to the 
vowel production by a vibrant column of air in a soft-walled container 
wholly without closures the first experiment in consonant creation 
adds the supplementary and supporting resonance of the upper head 
cavity, the nose. Though the name mute does not so clearly bespeak 
the unity of principle at that remoter region of consonant possibility, 
yet it is easy to satisfy ourselves that a speech-forming impulse is com- 
mon to all the mutes, no matter upon which of the three organs it may 
be appUed. We may by experiment upon ourselves establish the essen- 
tial variety of the impulses which yield us spirants and sibilants and 
aspirates, even though we find it matter of great difficulty to acquire 
the wealth of consonants in this central area which gives to the Russian, 
for instance, its melody. Is there a good reason to propose why the 
Polynesian has acquired so little in this mid space of speech? 

To examine this in detail requires that we shall leave the horizontal 
order and consider the vertical. In the horizontal order we have con- 
sidered impulses toward consonant creation. We are now to consider 
the reaction possibilities to such impulses which may exist in the three 
speech-organs, the palate, the tongue, and the lips, and the ease or diffi- 
culty with which each organ may be trained to respond to such reactions. 

The three speech-organs perform each a divided duty, their contribu- 
tion to articulation is but one of several natural functions, and in the 
performance of these several functions there is wide variation in the 
familiarity with which they impress themselves upon our acquaintance. 



20 EASTER ISLAND. 

That the tongue is the formative agency in the production of the 
column of consonants from n to t may readily be ascertained. Yet we, 
with perhaps aeons of race reminiscence of animal needs outweighing 
man's few days so full of trouble, think first and most commonly of 
the tongue as the organ of taste. In like manner the exceeding great 
joy which the labial tract may express and to which at the same time the 
paired organs half contribute has served to hide from famiKar knowledge 
the fact that they give us the consonant column from m to p. Least 
conscious are we of the palate at the rear of the mouth in any of its 
functions, speech or other. 

There is physical reason in this and in the part which each organ 
plays in speech. The palate is a broad, a diffuse organ; its musculattue 
does not lend itself to fineness of position. It is easy to observe within 
ourselves in act of speaking the shifts of position of the tongue and of 
the lips, but to become familiar with our palates in speech calls for 
nice observation and particular training. We have been trained to 
speech for ages, we come of a stock which has acquired a wealth of 
consonants, yet because of the hardship of adjusting this dull organ, 
the palate, to a series of frets of which we find it difficult to become 
conscious, we have consented to forego an entire group of palatals, 
the spirants, and that within a very recent period. The adult trained 
to English alone in his early years finds it difficult to master the ch 
of the German, quite as difficult as the German himself in many of his 
dialect provinces is finding it to retain the consonant in its purity. 
Therefore we need feel no surprise that these unskilled men, men so 
primordial in their speech acquisition that we feel convinced that we 
are gazing with eager attention and reverence upon the veritable genesis 
of an art of human speech — we should not wonder that they have 
found it possible to control this difficult organ only so far as to employ 
the rearward closure of the vibrant column of air no further than to fix 
but its pianissimo and its fortissimo positions, the nasal ng and the 
mute k. If we acknowledge that the intermediate positions of the 
palate, although acquired, are too difficult for us to retain we may 
not deny the probability that they were too difficult for this race of 
beginners of speech even to acquire. Rarely in any Polynesian speech 
do we find so much as the suggestion of a sound resultant from any 
intermediate positioning of the palate. Because of this absence of the 
facility to employ intermediate positions we shall find that the two 
palatals interchange across the whole extent of the range of that organ; 
that when, for any reason (and here enters the factor of speech psy- 
chology as yet almost wholly unstudied) the palatal nasal goes out 
of favor it may be replaced with the palatal mute, as we find to be 
the rule in the eastern dialect of the Marquesas, where the Proto- 
Samoan ng appears as k; similarly the mutation of k to ng is not 
unknown, although the common treatment of this consonant when it 



THE POLYNESIAN ALPHABET. 21 

becomes objectionable is to drop it entirely, as we find in Hawaii, 
Samoa, and Tahiti as a consistent practice, and as we find it sporadi- 
cally in many kindred languages. 

From this we deduce that these languages really have acquired the 
use of the palate in general, have imperfectly established the duality 
of its capacity as proved by this readiness of mutation and the wil- 
lingness to sacrifice the mute. An examination of some of the con- 
servative nooks of oxu" own speech will serve to point the way to the 
suggestion that this palatal was the first truly consonant difference to 
be acquired as speech emerged from the cry. What saith the noble 
red man? Let Deerslayer record the grunt of the Mingo, "hugh" — 
a vowel tone with a succeeding consonantal modulant, the palatal 
spirant. From the better English of Fife and all the land about it 
we cite hech in the common phrase ejaculation "hech sirs," again the 
palatal spirant, surd where the other was sonant. Let a child rap 
its risible olecranon, listen to the cry of ouch; again a vowel with a 
final modulant, a palatal sibilant. These are words and yet no words; 
they exist independent of parsing because they survive in a state of 
nature, even though tagged with the interjection label for museum 
display. They are but the first step advanced above the cry, the 
earUest germ of speech. But to our age-long antiquity they and others 
of their sort have preserved the vital difference between the cry of the 
beast and the cry of man. The man has found the way to use his 
palate, the very beginning of speech. These records of Polynesia show 
that we are dealing with a man who can use his palate with whole confi- 
dence in as yet but a single closure. 

Procul, procul! far be it from us to seek to traverse the Jacobean 
theology that "the tongue can no man tame." In philology we do 
indeed recognize the taming of this member, we acknowledge it in 
every reference to linguistics, in our most common conversation we 
interchange with the utmost freedom speech and tongue, Whitsuntide 
commemorates the miracle of the gift of tongues. In physical com- 
parison with the palate we are struck with the reason. The tongue is 
a flexible organ with great possibilities of finding its way to many parts 
of the oral cavity, controlled by muscles which we soon learn to train 
to our service and which we may govern with great precision. In 
English we have famiKarized ourselves, between the semivowel and 
the mute, with a lingual closure of the vibrating air column in no less 
than six distinct positions, covering the whole range of the consonant 
possibilities to which this organ lends itself. In the closure which 
yields the semivowel we find minimum deviations which yield us two 
similar sounds, and we have another sort of duplication of sounds for 
the sibilant, the spirant, and the mute. In our speech, then, the tongue 
affords us ten chstinct and always distinguishable sounds, so truly 
producible and with such positive values that they are almost incapable 



22 



EASTER ISLAND. 



of being muffled by the blanket of coryza, which plays such havoc 
with the rest of the consonants. These ten sounds are but one short 
of being exactly half of the number of our consonants, a good index 
of the amount of speech work done by this small member. A better 
index is shown in a computation of relative frequency of employment 
of the sounds in English, a computation which differs from the common 
table of letter frequency. In preparing this I counted sound by sound 
in a continuous passage of Thomas Hardy's prose until I had reckoned 
exactly i,ooo occurrences of the most frequent vowel, i of the ItaUan 
sound. These are the resulting figures : 



a 722 



e 451 



o 233 



I 1,000 



u 632 



y 48 


r 467 


1 


32s 


ng 58 




n 


479 


1 184 








zh 3 




z 


193 


sh 61 




s 


.^7.S 






dh 


273 






th 


34 


g 67 




d 


411 


k 204 




t 


525 



w 116 



m 167 



V 152 
f 183 
b 144 
P J46 

For purposes of comparison I subjoin a similar table computed for 
modern Samoan from a continuous passage of the Scriptures (Fa'ata'oto 
xiii, xiv), selected because of its freedom from introduced words. 

a 1,000 

e 48s o 450 

i 381 u 224 

1 463 

ng 91 n 131 m 150 

s 46 

V 52 

f 116 

(k) 385 t 228 p 60 

We may obtain a better comparison by presenting these particulars 
in their natural groups in the accompanying table : 

TabIvE I. 





Samoan. 


English. 




Samoan. 


English. 


Vowels 


2540 

1722 

463 

372 

■■46 


3038 
4615 
956 
684 
184 
632 


Spirants 

Mutes 


168 
693 
476 
868 
378 


642 

3082 
908 


Consonants 

Semivowels 

Nasals 


Palatals 

Unguals 

Labials 


Aspiration 

Sibilants 





We may make yet another generalization, the relation per cent 
which the three series of consonants bear to the total number of sounds 
which yield 1,000 utterances of the dominant vowel. 



THE POLYNESIAN ALPHABET. 
These percentages are presented in the following table: 

Tablb 2. 



23 





Samoan. 


English. 


Palatal 


II 

20 

9 


8 
40 

12 


Lingual 


Labial 





It would yield no valuable results to pursue more extensively such 
comparisons of an isolating and an analytic speech, yet there is an 
interest in this simple exhibition of the extent and manner wherein 
they differ. To sum up, we may note that for every 25 Samoan vowels 
that speech makes use of but 17 consonants, whereas in our own speech 
we employ 46 consonants to every 30 vowels, a striking illustration of 
the difference between vocaUc and consonantal speech. The simpler 
language employs its two palatals almost half as much again as we 
use our richer supply of palatals, even after the sacrifice of several 
through disuse. When we examine the two series which we employ 
with such beautiful precision we are struck with the lack of develop- 
ment which is the characteristic of the beginning speech : the Samoan 
employs his tongue but half as much as we, and his lips are but three 
quarters as much occupied as are ours. 

Now when we look more closely into the column of Proto-Samoan 
Unguals and note the play of mutation we shall make an interesting 
discovery. In the descendant languages the lingual pair r-l (in fact 
the apparent pair is really a triplet because of my discovery of the 
early existence of r-grasseye) hands down but one of its members at a 
time ; some use I and some r, none uses both. Next we find a frequency 
of mutation each way between the nasal and the semivowel, n-l and 
l-n respectively. We therefore establish the first lingual closure at a 
point equidistant from liquid and nasal. 

A second pair exists in reference to the aspirate and sibilant. The 
languages of Nuclear Polynesia which have both are Tonga and Uvea ; 
Samoa and Futuna have 5 only; Nine has h doing service for both. 
When we leave Nuclear Polynesia and pass to the homes of Tongafiti 
folk we find that, with the sole exception of little Manahiki, the sibilant 
is an impossibility and is replaced consistently by the aspiration. 

So with the mute pair. Here the surd dominates; the sonant d 
occurs consistently in Viti alone, and even there can not stand without 
a preface of the nasal of the lingual series, nd. 

Thus we see that the tongue is used in pianissimo and fortissimo 
expression, and that particularly in the former its superior flexibility 
and the ease and beginning accuracy of its control enable the man to 
produce at least two distinct sounds. Between the two limiting 
extremes an intermediate sound has become possible, the sibilant; 



24 EASTER ISLAND. 

but we have shown that in most of these languages the tongue control 
has not yet reached a degree of discipline which will give the true 
sound, the sibilant passes into the aspiration, a breathing but faintly 
colored by any activity of the tongue at all. 

Next, and last in this examination of the Proto-Samoan consonants, 
we come to the labials. In considering the nasal series mention was 
made of the fixity of the m value. So far as we may rest an argument 
upon freedom from mutation as evidential of antiquity of acquisition, 
we feel abundantly justified in the beUef that the Une of severance of 
speaking man from crying animal came when man acquired the labial 
m. The first gift of dawning speech Ues exactly in the last gift of 
rational speech, the ability to shut the mouth. As between the fixed 
labial and the imperfectly positioned palatal the labial is surely the 
older. Here our interested delving into the beginnings gives us a 
sketch of emerging man : first he can mumble and then he can grunt, 
but he has begun. 

When we look at the other extremity of the column we find the surd 
mute well established. In Viti it is represented by its sonant, but 
only through the support of the nasal of its own series, mb; in a few 
instances in this language it passes to the sonant spirant v. In Tonga p 
becomes b without support, and this mutation is found somewhat rarely 
in some other languages. 

The intermediate closure through the agency of the lips gives the 
spirants, both surd and sonant. It is easy to see why we can have this 
double effect from a single position which has been found impracticable 
in these languages when the palate and the tongue have been the 
effective organs. For any given closure it is theoretically possible to 
have two effects. If there is no vibration of the air column during the 
continuance of the closure we have the surd or silent consonant ; but if 
during the brief space of the continuance of the closure the lungs force 
into the buccal cavity a supply of air and this is set into vibration before 
the closure is unbarred we have a sounding or sonant result of the clos- 
ure. Thus in the case of these labial spirants, in saying fa the sound 
does not begin until the moment of release of the closure ; in saying va 
it becomes evident in the moment before such release. We may find 
a reason. In the case of the lingual and the palatal the space in which 
vibration before release might take place is occupied by organs under 
less perfect control. In the case of the labials the palate and the tongue 
Ue quiescent, the whole cavity of the mouth is available as a vibrating 
chamber, and the thin and essentially external lips are in no sense in the 
way of such vibration. 

AH the languages of Nuclear Polynesia maintain this duality of the 
spirant. In the Tongafiti household the surd tends to vanish, it is fre- 
quently transformed into the aspiration, and in Rarotonga that breath- 
ing has proved too feeble to endure, while the Maori can come no closer 



THE POI.YNESIAN AI^PHABET. 25 

to it than the supported hw. Except for mutation to the semivowel w 
in Maori and Hawaii, the sonant holds its own. 

One general word should be said as to the character of the mutation 
of the consonants in these languages. It is essentially mutation within 
the series, with two important exceptions later to be noted. The 
reason for this issimple. The consonant is made byone of threespeech- 
organs ; when for any reason that consonant is to undergo variation it is 
only natural that it should vary to some other consonant producible by 
the same organ. For the more part the direction of such mutation is 
upward in the series. This accords with the belief that the consonants 
nearest the vowel area are the first acquired and the most easy to use, 
and in all variety general tendencies to revert to older and to easier 
forms are conspicuous. 

The first exception to the law of mutation in series is the interchanges 
of ng-n and n-ng, each quite common in the nasals, mutation extra 
serient. An examination of the slight variations in the two positions 
of the veil of the palate when more or less completely dropped to afford 
an entrance of the resonating air column to the nose and its outflow 
through the nostrils will prove how easily such two mutations may 
arise.* It fits in with what must rest as the basic principle of all these 
sound varieties, the inept workman's inability to master all at once a 
tool which in dexterous usage may be directed to precise employment. 

The second exception is the kappation of t, which is found in Samoa 
and Hawaii. In each case it has been preceded by the abolition of the 
true k, and then in a quite modern reaction the t has been sacrificed to 
replace the missing sound in the alphabet.f This movement was in 
progress in Hawaii when it was first discovered ; it was facilitated and 
hastened to completion by the missionaries, who chose the new sound 

*We note with the interest which must always attach to the subject an instance in English 
speech. The noun derivative of strong is strength and our standardized pronunciation retains 
the palatal nasal. But there was formerly, in the most excellent authority there yet remains, 
the variant strentk, and this form finds dictionary place even in spelling. The nasal is 
attracted from the palate to the tongue by reason of the superior ease in passing to the next 
succeeding lingual spirant. 

tWithout recognition of the inexorability of the speech-principle here set forth as operative 
the teachers of Samoa are vainly struggling to stay the deformation of the speech. Early 
in November, 1911, Governor-General Crose, U. S. N., in the American colony of Tutuila, 
held the first Teachers' Institute ever brought together in Samoa. From the report pub- 
lished in Samoan in "Le Sulu" we extract this pertinent note. 

"The great difficulty is the nanu (gibberish speech) which destroys and corrupts the 
Samoan speech. The word Udatala in men's speech is distorted into kalakala and it is 
impossible to recognize the diversity of t and k. They should strive after the language in 
its purity as it has been handed down through the generations from their remote ancestors. 
Let no one give attention to the sneer that he is speaking in the tongue of the missionary. 
For it is not the language of the missionary, but it is the true language of Samoa and it 
should be cherished and loved as a sacred possession. So, too, is the continual interchange 
of n and ng. One who comes to ask for medicine on the plea that his mother is ill ('«o tigS, 
lo'u Una) really armounces that his ache has become a mother ('ua tind lo'u tiga). Would 
not one think that this distortion of the Samoan would be uprooted by the Samoan school- 
masters on account of their love for their language in its purity? Nothing of the sort, for 
the majority of the Samoan teachers speak this gibberish all the time and are devoid of 
understanding." 



26 easte;r island. 

when they reduced the language to writing; it has swept over Samoa 
since the corresponding period, and is too powerful a force to be stayed 
by the efforts of the teachers. This as yet evades explanation, it stands 
as an anomaly. Yet by way of comparison we are able to discover a 
very few instances where in secular mutation a Latin / has become k 
in descendant languages, which, it will be seen, is not an exact parallel.* 

A word also remains to say as to the aspiration. Few students of 
phonetics admit it to a consonant place, yet it is clearly not a vowel. 
Whitney sets it to one side in his classic table of the alphabet which 
in other respects we have been following. It is as though a detail of 
composition, which an artist had found it difficult to dispose of on the 
canvas, were painted on the frame. Despite this doubt I have had no 
hesitation in establishing two aspirates and in assigning them to posi- 
tions within the table of the alphabet; but because I can not identify 
any part played in the formation of these aspirations by the three 
consonant-forming organs I have set the two Polynesian aspirates not 
quite in the lingual and labial series, but proximate thereto. The exist- 
ence of the duality of these aspirates is readily to be established in this 
language family. In the lingual series h is the mutation terminus of t 
and of 5 ; and in the labial series h is the mutation terminus of v, off, of p. 
Yet when we find an h carrying on to secondary development a word 
which at last resumes its former estate, this portative h does not carry a 
lingual over into the labial column or a labial into the lingual series; the 
aspirate delivers properly that which it has received. This could not 
be the case if the h resultant from lingual mutation and the h resultant 
from labial mutation were indistinguishable by the people who speak 
these languages. An exception, a case in which an error in deUvery was 
really found, is so unusual that I discussed it at length in "The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings," page 287. 

Throughout these languages runs a consistent principle of word 
mutation quite independent of the mutation by consonant modification. 
In this principle the word is subjected as word to a mutation which is 
governed by other than the simple phonetic laws applicable to conso- 
nant variety. This principle is metathesis, which in Polynesia is far 
more cogent than apparent. In Rapanui I have noted but thirteen 
instances of metathesis, involving twelve words, a very minute per- 
centage of the 3,000 principal entries of this dictionary. In the 
dictionaries of other languages of this family this more or less com- 
plete disguise of familiar words is equally rare of record. 

In the fact metathesis is very prevalent; it is constantly met with in 
the speech of these islanders. The reasons for the paucity of its- dic- 

*One of these instances is the word busk, now obsolescent, which is derivable from the 
Middle Latin bustum. The Latin original, itself of uncertain etymology, affords us in 
forking channels bust in anatomy and busk for the bodice whereby anatomy is tolerated 
in modest society within the temperate zones; near the equator the distinction is far less 
requisite. 



THE POLYNESIAN ALPHABET. 27 

tionary record are not far to seek. In the first place the compilers of 
these vocabularies, cramped for room and held to rigid economy in typo- 
graphical composition, have been at pains to record the standard of 
each speech and to let the variants pass without comment. Thus, in 
the Samoan nofoa means a seat ; there can be no doubt that this is the 
standard form, a derivative from nofo to sit ; it is found in the dictionary ; 
yet on the Ups of men it is frequently sounded /owoa or even fongoa. In 
familiarity with the spoken language we scarcely notice the metathesis, 
certainly it does not seem worthy of dictionary record. But when 
some other branch of the race has accepted for its standard the meta- 
thetic form, that is to say, when it is used more commonly than the 
primitive form, the compiler of a dictionary, in particular one unfa- 
miliar with the other Polynesian languages, unknowingly enters this 
as principal form and regards the true form, if he ever does hear it, as a 
corruption. In such a case we obtain the record of metathesis; we dis- 
cover it by the comparison of other languages. Thus it is that the 
record of such changes is far less abundant than the word-mutation 
itself. 

To this specific and particular reason we are to add another and 
general reason, one which functions with great potency in the laws of 
common thought. The phenomenon has a name, therefore it ceases to 
challenge information. We have to recognize that names, even per- 
fectly good names, throttle investigation, for a certain type of wisdom 
consists in the accumulation of names, and Webster and Worcester are 
leaders of thought. It may well be comprehended that the introduc- 
tion of so simple a designation as eschatology in general and improving 
conversation might lead to no result, the name buries the fact; yet 
introduced to the student keen in the pursuit of knowledge through 
research and investigation the same name might well lead on and yet on 
to the living hope of the joys of a life yet to come. Thus, named and 
satisfactorily named, metathesis has passed practically unstudied as to 
method and principle. 

It has not been easy to codify the instances of metathesis in such 
wise as to establish the principles which underlie this mechanism of 
speech, but after many efforts which have proved fruitless I feel con- 
fident that I have devised a system of record by which all cases may be 
rendered comparable. It wiU be borne in mind that the Polynesian 
syllable is of the simplest structure. There are but two forms — there 
can be no more — the syllable containing a single vowel sound and the 
syllable containing a single vowel introduced by a single consonant 

sound. 

Now before passing to the less familiar Polynesian words it will be 
well to illustrate metathesis through typical instances in our own more 
familiar speech, sometimes jocular, sometimes produced by some mental 
inversion of order of utterance, and then commonly known as Spoon- 



28 EASTER ISLAND. 

erisms, from a distinguished Oxford don who was forever tripping 
after this fashion; in a very few instances really formative as shown 
by language comparison. 

Of the jocular type, there comes to mind the name which the sub- 
urban resident appUes to the implement of his semiweekly exercise, the 
mawnlower. A genuine Spoonerism is the solemn injunction of the 
clergjonan that the congregation shall unite in singing hymn 688, omit- 
ting the last two stanzas, hymn 688, "this world is sure from paw to 
paw " ; possibly less genuine is the similar ascription to the deaconing of 
yet another hymn, "this world is but a shooting flea. " The third type, 
that which alone adds to our permanent vocabulary, is represented by 
the Norman cry of haro, at the sound of which all acts of whatever vio- 
lence must cease until justice were done the petitioners, which has lost 
its gravity in passing into English hurrah. 

If in these three types we disregard the final consonants of the 
respective syllables which compose them we shall find our path easy 
toward the establishment of the two simple classes of metathesis. Upon 
examination we shall at once see that in respect of the elements inter- 
changing position we have two distinct types and a third which com- 
bines them. In mawnlower the interchanged elements are the initial 
consonants ; in hurrah the consonants remain unmoved but the vowels 
interchange; in shooting flea syllable interchanges position with syllable. 
This last type we need not now consider; in Polynesia I have not yet 
identified a single instance in which syllable interchange is positively 
estabUshed, and the few instances with which I am acquainted in Mela- 
nesia are complicated by an alien element in the mixture of languages.* 

So far as these researches have been prosecuted in the Polynesian lan- 
guages, there are but two metathetic types and these two do not com- 
mingle ; a word may interchange its consonants or may interchange its 
vowels, but not both at the same time. 

To secure codification whereby comparison may be possible I have 
hit upon the device of employing the letters of our alphabet as designat- 
ing position, the vowels in order indicating the vowels of each successive 
syllable of the words under examination, the consonants in like manner 
indicating the consonants introductory to each such syllable. Thus B 
will always represent the consonant of the first syllable; the absence of 
B will show that the word lacks a consonant in its first syllable; A will 
represent the vowel of the first syllable, no matter what the word ; c and 
E are assigned to the second syllable, d and i to the third, and so on. 
Thus diagrammed lawnmower is bace, in which b represents /, A repre- 
sents awn, c represents m, and E the scumbled vowel sound ower. In 
like manner bace diagrams haro with b for h, a for o, c for r, and E for o. 

*In "The Polynesian Wanderings" I have listed cases of metathesis as cited in the follow- 
ing list, the references being to the serial number of the items in the Appendix I: Leon 139, 
Retan 193, King 196, Baki 298, Bierian and Baki 321, Saa 351, and Pala on page 108. Even 
though the publication of that work preceded the writing of these pages by less than a year 
it will be seen that therein I was still striving to codify metathesis by a numerical method and 
not meeting with success. 



THE POLYNESIAN ALPHABET. 



29 



When we subject lawnmower to metathesis the resultant ntawnlower 
is represented by cabe. That is the symbol for all metathetics in 
which the consonant of the latter syllable interchanges with the con- 
sonant of the former syllable. 

When we subject haro to metathesis the resultant hurrah is repre- 
sented by BECA. That is the symbol for all metathetics in which the 
vowel of the latter syllable interchanges with the vowel of the former 
syllable. 

Accordingly we have now graphic representations of two primitive 
types, consonantal and vocaUc metathesis. In examining our Rapanui 
examples of metathesis we shall have no difficulty in reduction to these 
types, even in words more extensive than dissyllables. The only con- 
fusion will arise where we have to deal with syllables which lack con- 
sonants. Yet this confusion will vanish when we bear in mind that a 
word lacking a second consonant, symbolized bae, is the same thing as 
BACE, and that the symbol of its consonantal metathesis, abE, is really 
the equivalent of cabe. Accordingly we thus arrange these examples, 
the primitive form preceding in every pair. 



CABE. 

muhu humu 

numi (ha)moni 

vaka kavakava 

mona noma 



I. Consonantal Metathesis. 

ABE. 

foe ohe (Mgv.) 

ABBDI. 

haere ahere 



II. Vocalic Metathesis. 



CAEDI. 

upoko puoko 

CADBI. 

aluga ragua 

DACSI. 

aluga garua 



BKCA. ACIB. 

pusa pahu ariu ami 

tihe tehi 

tufa tahu 

It will readily be comprehended that as yet our material is far too 
scanty and that our method of codification is as yet too newly devised 
to admit of such study as will estabUsh the principles of this word muta- 
tion. But now that comparison may systematically be established over 
the whole Polynesian area it will not be long before the system of 
metathesis will come to light, undoubtedly as simple as are all the 
fundamental rules of this speech family. 



CHAPTER II. 

RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 

We can make no better beginning of the study of the phonetics of this 
speech than by an examination of the mutations to which have been 
subjected those words which the necessities of modern intercourse have 
forced the islanders to natiuralize. These words are of sotuces easily 
recognizable as English, French, and ecclesiastical. Their original 
forms are standard in our famiUar acquaintance; therefore they afford 
us opportunity of examining the treatment to which this Polynesian 
folk has had to subject them for its own currency. To the nmnber of 
66 they are entered in the dictionary with such type differentiation as 
wiU manifest their alien character, and in that place the source of 
each is indicated. For the purpose of this examination they are here 
assembled in two tables. With the French we may properly and do 
include the Latin and Greek borrowings, for all have come through the 
same channel, the mission priests and brethren of the Congregation des 
Sacres-Cceurs de Picpus. The source of the words of English origin is 
less definite. We have information of no such settlement of English- 
speaking folk on Easter Island as would foster the acquisition of this 
score of vocables. A few, such as pakete, paura, uira, manua, tara, peni, 
poti, may have been acquired by islanders drafted into service as boat's 
crews of the whalers who once crowded those seas in their hunt for the 
cachalot. A few others may have been acquired by contract laborers 
in Tahiti, where the London Mission had introduced some EngUsh to 
island Hfe. In this group we may safely place hora, minuta, nira, eteni, 
mitinare, himene, puka, ti, tiki, tokini, and tope — there can be no doubt 
as to the latter moiety, how they smack of the dissenting missionary! 
But hoi in derivation from horse is a puzzle : in kevare we find the French 
word for the same animal ; hoi, therefore, did not arise on Easter Island ; 
it was not likely to be acquired in Tahiti, for puaahorofenua is the name 
there in use. But here are the Usts : 

BNGUSB. 

aniani (onion) mitinare (missionary) puka (book) 

eteni (heathen) moni (money) tara (dollar) 

himene (hymn) nira (needle) ti (tea) 

hoi (horse) pakete (bucket) tiki (sick) 

hora (hour) paura (powder) tokini (stocking) 

manua (man o' war) peni (paint) tope (soap) 

minuta (minute) poti (boat) uira (wheel) 

31 



32 



EASTER ISIvAND. 



FRBNCH AND ECCIESIASTICAI,. 



agera (ange) 
anio (agneau) 
enemi (ennemi) 
epikopo (episcopus) 
etereno (etemel) 
etikaritia (eucharistie) 
evagerio (evangelium) 
hieroturia (hierodoulia) 
hipokerita (hypocrite) 
hipotati (hypostasis) 
hove (veuve) 
iuteo (iudaeus) 
karatia (gratia) 
kevare (cheval) 
kimatiko (schismaticus) 



mereti (mercredi)* 
miterio (mysterium) 
natura (natura) 
nieve (nivis) 
papa (pape) 
papatema (bapteme) 
pateriareka (patriarch) 
peata (beatus) 
penetuli (peinture) 
perehe (plaie) 
peripitero (presbyterus) 
porokimo (proximus) 
porotetani (protestant) 
rapine (lapin) 
reone (Icon) 



retera (lettre) 

ri (riz) 

ropa (robe) 

takarameta (sacrament) 

tameti (samedi) 

taperenakero (tabemaculum) 

teparanate (serpent) 

tiaporo (diabolus) 

tominika (dominica) 

toro (taureau) 

uva (uva) 

veneri (vendredi) 

viatiko (viaticum) 

vicario (vicarius) 

verigine (virgo) 



Even in so simple a matter as the addition of a final vowel to a foreign 
word of closed habit we shall find an indication of a fixed character of 
this as of every speech of the Polynesian family. In these two lists we 
find no instance of the addition of u, nor is it common in such usage 
elsewhere in this family. Another generally uncommon euphonic ter- 
mination applicable to closed foreign words, o, occurs only in the French 
list, and even there (except for the single instance of rapino) is confined 
to the ecclesiastical words, in which we seem to note a tendency on the 
part of the priests to offer to the islanders the oblique cases and open 
forms of the originals. It should be noted that in no case does the 
euphonic addition carry the accent ; it is largely to secure a penult ictus 
in reproducing the original accent of the borrowed word that this extra 
syllable is appended. In the arsis the finer quality of the vowel might 
be expected to attain the full perfection which is the foremost quality, 
almost the most enduring possession, of Polynesian orthoepy. In the 
thesis, particularly a final thesis, the shade of difference between e and t 
may pass unconsidered. We note the cases under each vowel, the 
series of each table being noted independently. 



hora 

minuta 

nira 


paura 
puka 
uira 


agera 

hipokerita 

papatema 


pateriareka 
retera 


ropa 
takarameta 


himene 
mitinare 


pakete 
tope 


E. 

kevare 
reone 

I. 

poti 
tiki 


teparanate 


verigine 


aniani 
eteni 


hoi 
peni 


hipotati 
penetuli 


porotetani 



The proportion contributed to these three lists by the two source 
languages seems to inhere in conditions exterior to Rapanui. The 
French possesses a larger number of vocables of the open habit and 
there is no such ictus upon the ultima as distinguishes many English 
words. Thus, taking into the count the fact that the French list is 
rather more than twice the length of the English list, we estimate a final 



RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 33 

a and a final e as twice as frequently required in English borrowings and 
a final i as four times as frequent. 

No Polynesian speech can accomplish the concurrence of consonants; 
the spirit of the language does not tolerate it. In borrowing words in 
which such concurrence exists two methods of treatment are in use to 
obviate the difficulty. 

One, the method which seems the easier to the foreigner who seeks 
to contribute necessary new words — and that is the position of every 
missionary — is to split up the concurrent consonants by the interjection 
of a light vowel, most commonly assimilated to a stem vowel next ear- 
lier or next later in the word : this we find illustrated in teparanate, in 
which the latter a is assimilated to the former, and in porokimo, where 
the first is assimilated from the succeeding and essentially stem o. 
Or a vowel of a lighter color may be employed, merely as a septum, 
as the last e in taper enakero. By such alien brutality we encounter 
the uncouth forms of the type laikisipositadamapefela and ametamani, 
(Reichspostdampfer and Amtmann) with which the needs of German 
administration have defaced the pleasant rhythm of the Samoan, a 
language sweet in the cadences of love and ample for the orator, sub- 
missive but aghast at such Teutonic additions. 

In a second group of the borrowings we recognize with no difficulty 
the motion of a less external principle, a motion which represents the 
tendency of the island speech. This is perhaps less a matter susceptible 
of positive proof than the recognition of the feel of the language ac- 
quired in years of intimate contact with Polynesian speech and of close 
study of its manners and methods. To these islanders the historic ety- 
mology of the borrowed European word is a thing unknown, never to be 
known, not in the least worthy of consideration. 

That we have written of a certain large reliance on the feel of the 
language is not to be taken as indicative of any shirking of discussion. 
It is possible in a few words to present the difference and to present it 
clearly, a particular presentation of the general statements of the fore- 
going chapter. 

In our Indo-Germanic languages the stem survives in its consonant 
skeleton. In passing from stage to stage in descent from a common 
ancestor the consonants have been subjected to a slow modification, 
but it is so sHght that the laws of Grimm and Verner are sufficient to 
bring almost, if not yet quite, all to plain account. Ear other with the 
vowel elements; these unstopped vibrations of the vocal column of air 
undergo strange alterations, not only secular change in the course of 
long ages but rapid change within the memory of a single generation or 
but of a few. Our veriest school children, if permitted to think at all, 
wonder at the prosody of the mutilated rhyme: 

I am monarch of all I survey. 
My right there is none to dispute, 
From the center all round to the sea — 



34 EASTER ISLAND. 

And in the present score of years London has become alarmed at the 
remarkable spread of the o in lady to a something which we do not 
exactly represent in type by lydy or laidy, the sudden extension of 
a narrowly restricted Middlesex village dialect which had lain dor- 
mant for centuries until this modem weed growth, and now baffles all 
efforts at explanation. 

A very small area of the general vowel-change has been set apart 
into artificial classes and designated ablaut and umlaut, active under 
impulses which we scarcely yet begin to comprehend. In the languages 
familiar to our use the lasting frame is the consonant, the vowel may 
change almost in a year; but in Polynesia the skeleton of the word is 
the vowel. The consonants are yet but few, a sign in this case of recent 
and partial development as genetic conditions have served; they are so 
dotted over the buccal speech-area as to suggest that they are little more 
than samples of what may long ages hence be needed. They are sub- 
ject to mutation along lines which we may readily explain; they are 
frequently subject to extinction without entailing any serious loss of 
comprehensibility. But the vowel remains firm and unwavering; it is 
the real skeleton of the Polynesian speech-body. 

Let us clinch the statement by a simple illustration, and in this we 
may draw upon the Samoan as representing the central and least 
modified type of Polynesian speech. 

We are all familiar with EngUsh types of inflection employing such 
forms as sang, sing, song, sung. This English series has been subjected 
to purposeful vowel change, yet the sense runs one and undivided 
throughout; the stem has but undergone ablaut. Yet if we were to 
attempt to subject to such vocalic mutation a similar Samoan couplet 
of consonants, as i-ng, we should have tagi to cry, togi to peck, tugi to 
set afire. In the Samoan series, which is not in the least a speech-series, 
the same change of vowels gives us a new word in each case. Although 
the consonants remain unaltered in themselves and in their relative 
position the shift of vowel gives a complete alteration of sense. Clearly 
the skeleton of these words is not in the consonants. Now let us 
examine the first of these Polynesian words and notice the consonant 
modifications it may undergo and yet carry the sense unmodified in 
various dialects of the Polynesian family and as loan material in 
Melanesian languages, 

tangi tani taki tai kani angi jangi hai 

Each consonant has undergone each and every of the changes which are 
its phonetic possibility, even to extinction. In the final reduction we 
are led to a specimen so elemental that we find no consonant other than 
an aspirate, a mere initial breathing, scarcely more vocal than an ap- 
pulse; but throughout the changes the vowel a and the vowel i remain 
unchanged in themselves and in their relative position. The life of all 



RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 35 

these words lies in the a-4 collocation; it is this vowel skeleton which 
holds the meaning. 

Look now at our tables of EngUsh and French source and see what 
the Rapanui men under their own instinct of speech have done with 
their borrowings. An excellent illustration is peni, interesting because 
we find it dupUcated by penetuli of the same sense from the French 
peinture. The word paint is on two accounts impracticable for Rapanui 
enunciation; it ends in a consonant; it carries concturent consonants; if 
dealt with by the foreigner intent upon fitting the English word for 
island use by the method of parting the concurrence by a vowel of light 
shade, the word would assume some such form as peniti. This would 
come under the regimen of another rule of Polynesian speech, that of the 
penult accent, and we should find that peniti is unrecognizably remote 
from original paint. Governed by his own comprehension of that which 
is permanent and dominant in every vocable, the Rapanui man seizes 
upon the vowel which meets his ear; of the succeeding consonants 
adopts that which is most lasting in his consonantal scheme, the nasal, 
and rejects the mute. Therefore peni pictures to his eye the distinc- 
tive determinant sound which paint makes upon his ear. 

Thus we are introduced to an important detail of the use of the con- 
sonants. Not only are the Poljnaesians masters of far fewer consonants 
than our needs require, but of those consonants which they do possess 
the mastery is varied in degree. The tier of consonants which Ues 
nearest the vowels is that which alone can be said to be universally in 
Polynesian possession, the palatal nasal ng, the lingual nasal n, the labial 
nasal m. These three are almost constant; mutation inter se is rare, 
and mutation in series (that is to say, m to other labials, and the like) 
is almost wholly restricted to the possibiUty of the l-n and n-l mutation. 
This exception, again, is genetically valuable, for it points the way to a 
Une whereby the vowel in evolution through the channel of the Uquid 
may attain to consonant figure. Our studies of Polynesian etymologies 
show us — ^in fact the tangi illustration shortly heretofore employed 
offers a full exposition — that t is impermanent, it may become k by an 
extraordinary shift to the palatal series, and in its own series it may 
become /, s, h, or vanish entirely. Therefore we are led to the conclu- 
sion that in deaUng with concurrent consonants in its borrowings the 
Poljmesian selects that of each two which is the older and better estab- 
Ushed in his own speech. 

This we find again instanced in nira, a selection of the Uquid over the 
mute in the dl of needle. 

In a considerable group of these borrowed words we have to do with 5 
concurrent with some other consonant, either in the preceding or the 
succeeding position. Here the resultant is conditioned by the fact 
that the sibilant is impossible to the Polynesian in general, the Samoan 
being the chief exception, and commonly is represented by an aspuration 



36 EASTER ISLAND. 

approximate to the lingual positions of the buccal closures and appar- 
ently prior to those positions, for a post-aspirated consonant is scarcely 
to be found in the Polynesian Pacific* Accordingly, in such cases as 
these the impossible sibilant is omitted and sk, ks, sm, sp, of the original 
word are satisfactorily reproduced by the remainder of the pair. Where 
s stands alone it is reproduced by t, thus giving rise to the deliciously 
pious collocation of tiki, tokini, tope of the former table; in which any 
person who has acquired familiarity with the harsh introduction to the 
Pacific islanders of the accidentia of civiUzation will sadly recognize a 
case of hysteron proteron, for tokini and tope are really major and minor 
premises of a fatal syllogism. 

When we pass to the comparison of Rapanui with other languages of 
the Polynesian family we shall have to consider changes less violent, 
changes which are clearly reducible to certain fixed, smoothly acting, 
and, we believe, readily comprehensible laws of mutation not peculiar 
to this remotest speech, but general throughout the family. In order 
to facilitate comparisons of the material I suffix to the last chapter 
finding tables of all such vocables as afford comparable data and 
shall cite them by the assigned serial numbers. It will be seen that 
just one-third of the dictionary material is thus made available to a 
greater or less extent for this particular research. 

Our first inquiry shall be addressed to the vowel changes which 
Rapanui exhibits in comparison with our standard of Polynesian speech. 
Naturally, because of the durabiUty of the Polynesian vowel, the num- 
ber will not be found a large one ; each instance will, therefore, be of 
particular interest. 

a-O The mutation in thesis occurs in 789, 79 1 ; in arsis in 5 14. In the quasi diphthong 
au we find the mutant om in 5 17, 518, 677, 783, but it is not critical in Southeast 
Polynesian, for the duplicate forms exist in these stems quite generally and 
may have been coexistent in the earliest swarms of migration. 

a-e Found in thesis in 375, 470. 

o-a Found in arsis in 730, 873; in thesis in 856. 

o-e Found in thesis in 754. 

o-u Found in thesis in 748. 

Duplicate forms, that is to say, instances of vowel variety which are 
not critical for Southeast Polynesian, are found in 375, 470, 517, 518, 
660, 699, 751, 777, 783, 938. There remain the following, which are 
not to be arranged in the foregoing classes : 

341. The identification is very uncertain both in sense and in source and must be neg- 
lected until better supported. 

452. The Rapanui really represents here the standard form of the Tongafiti migration. 

867. The Rapanui is regular, the Maori an anomalous form. 

920. The word in most of its occurrences shows evidences of an upheaval so violent as 
to remove it from consideration under the ordinary laws of phonetic variety. 

*We note the sh of Tongarewa, its dialectic occurrence as an fe-variant in Maori, and 
traces among the Polynesian loan material in Melanesia; also the dh of Viti in mutation 
from Polynesian h and s; the wh of Maori is, of course, not properly in this list, for it is 
really hw attracted out of order in writing by the influence of the English error. 



RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 37 

We have already, in the preceding chapter, presented a table of the 
alphabet of Rapanui in comparison with the adopted standard of the 
Proto-Samoan. We shall next list the occurrences of the Rapanui 
deviations from the standard, and in the first set of tables shall concern 
ourselves only with the cases for which we have Samoan — or in a few 
instances lacking Samoan we have other Nuclear Polynesian — primi- 
tives as the base of comparison. These tables deal only with deviations ; 
the concords are so many and so consistent that the index table serves 
as a most satisfactory tabulation. I make but one exception, in each 
direction, to this system; the mutation l-r holds so constantly as not to 
call for record, and the h in Rapanui, as a preservation of the Proto- 
Samoan aspiration, needs record because that sound does not appear in 
the modern Samoan. The tables are grouped by series, that is, by the 
three speech-organs employed, beginning at the back of the mouth. 



Palatal: 




























g-n 


686 


785 
























¥~ 


316 


























k— 


419 


534 


730 


745 


822 


















Lingual: 




























I-n 


786 


























I— 


736 


830 
























n-g 


660 


714 


735 






















h-h 296 


351 


359 


771 


792 


824 
















h— 


692 


695 


833 






















s-h 


329 


355 


358 


362 


364 


371 


374 


376 


377 


380 


381 


384 


396 




392 


394 


399 


400 


401 


408 


409 


416 


472 


473 


547 


624 


680 




740 


743 


744 


750 


753 


754 


766 


789 


835 










s — 


325 


470 


823 






















t— 


770 


























Labial: 




























t-h 


297 


299 


300 


301 


304 


335 


336 


337 


338 


349 


350 


351 


35a 




353 


354 


356 


357 


360 


363 


36s 


366 


367 


368 


369 


370 


373 




373 


375 


378 


379 


385 


386 


387 


388 


389 


391 


393 


395 


397 




398 


402 


403 


404 


405 


406 


407 


410 


411 


415 


423 


430 


471 




524 


528 


529 


551 


589 


599 


621 


622 


623 


62s 


626 


656 


679 




694 
817 
528 


698 


741 


742 


745 


746 


747 


748 


749 


751 


752 


755 


756 




























i-v 


329 


























f— 


301 



























Of the two strongly characteristic deviations of Rapanui from the 
Proto-Samoan standard, s-h and f-h, each affecting an intermediate 
closure, of the tongue and lips respectively, each results in an aspira- 
tion, but with a difference in quality whose existence we must recognize, 
even though we can not fully comprehend it as within our own speech 
training. 

In the nasal tier the interchanges g-n and n-g are general and not to 
be regarded as of diagnostic value in determination of dialect movement. 

The minor movements of mutation in the palatal column, the extinc- 
tion of g and of k, are frequent in Polynesian. That of k has akeady 
received sufficient comment, that of g is a dialectic character of Tahiti, 
and is found sporadically in Nuclear Polynesian and in the Maori. 



38 EASTBR ISLAND. 

In the lingual column the mutation l-n is characteristic of Nukuoro, 
a speech that is best considered a somewhat recent Samoan derivative; 
it is sporadic in several languages. The extinction of / is strongly 
marked in Nine, appears somewhat frequently in Tonga, and in South- 
east Polynesia is abundant in the Marquesas. The consideration of the 
retention of the Proto-Samoan aspiration and of its extinction, both 
included in the foregoing tables, is postponed to later studies of the 
aspiration in general. The extinction of the sibilant is common in 
Mangareva, as we see in the chapter deahng with that tongue; it is 
the rule in Rarotonga, it is sporadic in other Tongafiti languages; I 
lack present record of its occurrence in Nuclear Polynesian. 

In the labial column the mutation/-!), an interesting variety since it 
involves the unusual change from surd to sonant, is characteristic of 
Viti, sporadic in several languages in each household. The extinction of 
/ is characteristic of Mangaia, Rarotonga, Bukabuka, strongly marked 
in Mangareva, and sporadic in Nukuoro and Rotiuna. 

We next pass to a similar tabulation of mutation of the Tongafiti ele- 
ment registered upon Maori as the most readily available base. These 
variants are very few; they occur only in the Unguals and labials: 

h — 841 842 hw — 839 844 

hw-A 952 w-» 842 843 864 871 912 955 956 957 

hw-* 922 w-h 850 855 856 858 

The Maori hw being a mutation of Proto-Samoan/, the three entries 
are reducible to f-h, f-v, /-, which have been established in the larger 
table with Samoan comparatives. Similarly as Maori w is a mutation 
of Proto-Samoan v, the foregoing entries reduce to w-v, which therefore 
cancels itself, and v-h. The former of these exhibits Rapanui as closer 
to the Proto-Samoan than the Maori. The latter mutation is very 
rare. In "The Polynesian Wanderings" I noted it once each in three 
languages; three of the instances here noted show great irregularities 
in the comparative histories of the several vocables upon which they are 
based. 

Up to this point we have concerned ourselves with the investigation 
and record of phonetic mutations, a point at which, undoubtedly from 
motives of convenience, philological comparison most commonly re- 
gards its labors as complete. But this is an exaltation of form over 
substance. It does not call for deep insight into speech as the utter- 
ance of the inward thought of sentient man to recognize that form 
may be a grace, but it is the sense that is the life of the word. 

We next shall pass to the examination of these words of Rapanui, 
wherever comparable, in the effort to discover what information they 
may be made to give us of the position of this distant folk among greater 
f amiUes of its race. It may be that we shall not find much ; it may well 
be that rules for the government of such inquiry may not distinctly 
establish themselves, for the field is new. A new acre in a field so Uttle 



RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 39 

tilled may surely yield some crop, as is the way of fallows when brought 
under tilth. 

One general statement must be held to condition this manner of 
inquiry. We are dependent upon brief vocabularies. I would be the 
last to suggest that they be held in disesteem ; they represent, one and 
all, the best result of the life work of men who needed these word-Usts 
as tools for the prosecution of a task to which they had dedicated their 
energies with the blessing and the inspiration of sacrifice of self. I am 
fond of these Polynesian dictionaries, old and warm and now grown 
shabby friends of my study. Their simple statements are the warrant of 
their honesty. But we must recognize that their definitions are incom- 
plete and without exception they are superficial. Not one has felt the 
call to delve below the convenience of the word, as speech medium of 
thought interchange, to discover the germ thought out of which variety 
of expression may derive.* In this dictionary of Rapanui we find that 
tuu may mean a post, it may mean to be; in sister languages it means to 
dwell. Each of these definitions is a good definition so far as it goes. 
It is only when through widely spread comparison we establish for tuu 
its plasm of primary sense, which seems to render it a descriptive desig- 
nation of the relation to the common bench or plane of reference which 
is borne by an object cognizable as in general protrusive or external — ^it 
is only then that we find it possible to regard these three variants as 
equally secondary in varying directions. 

To see our way through these tangles we must have some knowledge 
of what the islander selects for cognition out of anything perceived, 
and what manner of character of any object of such cognition he selects 
as generic and what as individual. We must remember that this man, 
as a thinking man, is not under governance of the laws which we have 
painfully elaborated in the experiences of oiur own thought life. Our 
teachers find it a stupid boy who, when he deals with this problem of an 
arithmetic, once mental but now oral (as perhaps prefiguring a knowl- 
edge in time to come that in its bearing upon culture it is but Hp ser- 
vice), "if there were 27 sheep in a pasture and you saw 3 sheep jump 
the fence how many sheep would be left in the pasture?", answers "no 
sheep. " A most stupid boy, a boy for whom the bottom of the row is 
appointed; a boy most wise, a boy for whom a worthy place in Ufe is 
appointed. For there is a wisdom of figures and there is a wisdom of 
sheep, and this boy knew sheep. Which apologue may serve to remind 
us that in this branch of the inquiry we are to give to savage wisdom 
our attention with no prejudice. 

In the examination of this material for sense concord and for sense 
variety as the data may exhibit, we shall continue to find it advan- 

♦Both simple and superficial we extract from the early pages of Judge Andrews's Hawaiian 

Dictionary: , j , ... 

aapa, adj. Presumptuous, as when a drunken man lies down on a precipice. 



40 EASTER ISlvAND. 

tageous to maintain the segregation of the data by the classes of the 
occurrence of the identification in Polynesia exterior to this southeastern 
province. These are three: (i) identification in both migrations; (2) 
identification in the Proto-Samoan exclusively; (3) identification in the 
Tongafiti exclusively. 

The first of these, much the largest, we shall pass first under review. 
But before we can make much headway it will be necessary to give some 
preliminary consideration to the method by which speech-elements are 
assigned to these three classes. Nuclear Polynesia was the meeting- 
place of the two migration streams, and in that central province Samoa 
is most distinctly the scene of the reunion of the long and widely sun- 
dered branches of this most errant race. We have most conclusively 
established that the early, or Proto-Samoan, migration swarmed out 
from Indonesia through two gateways at, or slightly prior to, the Chris- 
tian era. That it pursued leisurely courses of voyaging, in the Samoa 
stream by way of New Britain, the Solomons, Santa Cruz, and thus to 
the new home in Samoa; in the Viti stream by way of Torres Straits, 
the New Hebrides, and Viti. That in a movement of convection within 
Nuclear Polynesia these two streams rejoined and created a settle- 
ment quite homogeneous save for an anterior Melanesian element in 
Viti and perhaps in Rotuma. Upon this Proto-Samoan colony of 
Nuclear Polynesia arrived (an uncertain number of centuries later and 
by a course which we must positively exclude from the Melanesian 
traverse, but which otherwise we are wholly unable to identify) a 
second migration of the same race, the Tongafiti swarm. 

This had so long been sundered from the earlier and isolated colony 
that independent and divergent development of language had taken 
place. This half-alien swarm, whencesoever it came, rested upon 
Samoa for a period whose beginning we have no present means of 
establishing with accuracy upon our calendar, but which there seems 
somewhat good reason to assign to about 600 A. D. We have excel- 
lent agreement of many Samoan annals to adjust the expulsion of the 
intruders to a period in or about the eleventh century. The Tongafiti 
conquerors of Proto-Samoan Samoa have left such a record of cruelty 
that the wise and brave youth who expelled them in the running fight 
of Matamatame became a national hero and the first of the Malietoas, 
Savea. Yet there was opportunity during these overbearing centuries 
for the two stages of the mother tongue to meet and to some extent to 
mix. This it is which we are to investigate. 

Since the mother tongue was common, a certain and assuredly a 
large proportion in Samoa of the vocables of the two migrations must 
be common property. Let us represent that element by symbols abcd. 
The Proto-Samoan colony, then, would be discovered in the home of its 
remote isolation speaking a language representable by abcd-efgh, in 
which the latter group of symbols may represent ancient and common 



RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 41 

speech material which in time had been lost by the separated branch 
of the family, or which had been acquired along the Proto-Samoan way, 
the latter hypothesis on many accounts being scarcely tenable. 

Centuries later arrives upon Samoa the Tongafiti swarm, speaking a 
language representable by abcd-ijki,, the respective symbols bearing 
similar explanation. Now if we find our present Samoan to consist of 
ABCD-EFGH-i, and our present Maori to consist of abcd-E-ijkl, we 
have no hesitation in ascribing i and E respectively to accumulation 
during contact of the two swarms when convection movement was pos- 
sible. The greater share of such contact is to be attributed to those 
centuries of association, even though violent, in Samoa ; a lesser share is 
to be attributed to contact at distal points of migration in which the 
later comers found an earlier settlement of the older swarm, in support 
of which we have not only the deductions of philological analysis but 
the consenting record of history when we learn to interpret annals of 
the genealogy of this race. 

Accordingly, if in this province of Southeast Polynesia we encounter 
a speech element of the type abcd-eh we shall be justified in assigning 
it to a direct migration from Nuclear Polynesia of Proto-Samoans to 
this natural limit of all successful migration. If, similarly, we find a 
speech element abcd-ik, we shall assign it to a Tongafiti migration. 
This it is which we shall now examine. The first group in the table 
(items 293-728) represents abcd, the common element. These are all 
satisfactory form identifications; the inner content of sense will point 
the more definite assignment of deviation forms to one or to the other 
branch of the family. The material here grouped is of very uniform 
concord. Where variety superficially appears the notes appended in 
the vocabulary to each such item point out the substantial agreement. 
In a few cases, where the reduction to uniformity of signification is 
found impracticable, the compared data show that in general these 
instances upon closer study are more properly to be assigned to one 
or other of the separate migration streams. 

When we turn to the list of identifications which are chargeable to the 
Proto-Samoan source and which show no contamination along the way 
of the sea or in this distant terminus of migration, we find, however, a 
marked difference. The table shows that we are dealing in this class 
of data with 116 items (729-839 of the finding table). Of these no less 
than 31 show such sense deviations as call for the particular study which 
has been recorded in the notes appended to each such item in the vocab- 
ulary. The variant stems are thus listed : 

732 740 754 761 771 780 790 797 801 807 813 818 825 833 

738 745 755 765 774 788 795 800 806 808 817 821 831 837 

739 748 758 

From this list we are obliged to remove those items in which our dic- 
tionary material is either insufficient in sum or else lacking in precision 



42 EASTER ISLAND. 

to such an extent as to bar us from deriving determining conclusions 
from the comparison. These are: 



atariki 


heguhegu 


matahi 


moko 3 


pe s 


garu 2 


kauiui 


mau 4 


nivaniva 


ranorano 


hae I 











In like manner we shall exclude those items in which we can detect 
error in the definitions which our authorities have set down. Recog- 
nizing the existence of this error we avoid employment of it to a wrong 
result, but we do not feel justified in correcting it without confirmation 
from some authority. These are: 

mahaga pokopoko poro taha 2 tiaki i 

In the remainder which is available for the determination of the 
relation of Rapanui to the Proto-Samoan we find two items, haiga and 
tarotaro, in which the Rapanui word expresses a specific detail or 
particularization of the general sense preserved in Nuclear Polynesia. 
Associable herewith is a single instance, rarama, in which Rapanui has, 
through independent processes of evolution, arrived at a secondary 
stage of the primal sense, the deviation being in a direction opposite to 
the particularization of the previously mentioned class. 

In final residuum we are left with eleven vocables of the utmost value 
in our research, namely : 

uki 
varevare 



gogoro 


iko 


pena 


roturotu i 


hogehoge 


okooko 


rakei 


uiui 


huna 









In the vocables of this list one character is constant and distinctive ; 
each presents the word in a type more primal than is to be found for the 
same word in any of the descendant languages as now spoken in the 
province of Nuclear Polynesia. Now join to this constant character of 
the inner content of the word-sense whatever we may discover as to 
form ; that is to say, associate herewith the phonetic record. It is not 
much, just the single fact that iko is found in modern Samoan as i'ofi, 
but it points in the same direction ; it shows that Rapanui hived off with 
the stem ikof and has lost its final consonant, while Samoa at a later 
period acquired the device of the structural i and thus has preserved its 
final stem consonant. 

That which we may deduce from this incontestible residue is that in 
sense and form the Proto-Samoan element in Rapanui represents an 
older and more primitive type than is shown in the modern languages 
of Nuclear Polynesia. Another form of statement of the same result 
of research is that a migration of Proto-Samoans left Nuclear Poly- 
nesia, and many Uttle points indicate with strength of concurrence that 
Samoa itself was the point of departure — that this migration faced 



RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIKTY. 43 

boldly the sunrise sea under the instinct of that heliotropism which 
dominates the race. We discover that this swarming was made at a 
time which is marked upon the calendar of speech, even if not upon a 
tale of numbered years. When the Rapanui forefathers sailed out of 
Samoa the mother tongue was still using its true aspirates, for there 
were two in Proto-Samoan ; and it had not yet acquired the formative 
elements which have availed in Nuclear Polynesia to maintain the final 
consonants of closed stems; and in that mother tongue the accumula- 
tion of a new and fashionable stock of speech material had not yet tucked 
these ancestral words away into the nooks and corners of language to 
live on obscurely as specific survivals. We shaU find occasion in the 
final summation to revert to the several points here estabUshed. 

Another element of a distinctive nature has been segregated in this 
Rapanui vocabulary, the element which is to be credited to a Tongafiti 
source and for which no Proto-Samoan affiliates are identifiable. We 
now pass to the examination of the 1 19 items (839-957) so classed. Of 
these items, those in which there is found such variety in sense between 
the Rapanui and the Maori as to challenge attention are listed in the 
following table : 

840 846 848 85s 865 885 891 907 911 926 934 941 951 954 
842 847 852 861 876 890 902 909 912 932 936 

It will be observed that there is a wide difference in the conditions of 
this comparison when we come to deal with this specifically Tongafiti 
contribution, of practically equal extent with that which we have segre- 
gated as derived from a Proto-Samoan source. In dealing with that 
material we enjoyed the opportunity of making a double comparison. 
Thanks to my discovery and considerable reconstruction of the Proto- 
Samoan mother speech we have been able to compare both Rapanui 
and modern Samoan with that norm, and thus to compare them with 
one another in the computation of the angle of divergence from the 
norm, both in form and in sense. 

But in dealing with the Tongafiti contribution I set beside it for com- 
parison another modern speech, the Maori. This inheres in the condi- 
tions of the research. We have an excellent dictionary of that language ; 
we soon shall have a better, when the Venerable Archdeacon Williams, 
of Gisborne, brings to a conclusion, which may not fail of being brilUant, 
the arduous toil of Maori lexicography upon which he has long been 
engaged. We lack the tertium quid which should make Tongafiti 
comparisons a matter of definitely ascertained and positively fixed 
values, such as the discovery of the Proto-Samoan has given us for the 
elder migration of the race. It has not yet occurred to the workers 
upon the languages of the later migration to delve for the mother speech 
of those more recent migrants. Although we recognize the inaccuracy 
which must attend the comparison of two modern languages when we 



44 EASTER ISI<AND. 

lack the antecedent norm for a standard of deviation, yet we must 
employ the Maori because of its superior dictionary equipment. 

We are well aware that, so long as the comparison must rest upon 
some modern Tongafiti language, we should obtain better results by 
employing some one of the languages spoken in the Hervey or neighbor- 
ing groups. Every argument, every reading of Maori and other tradi- 
tion, points clearly to that region as such a distributing center of the 
later Tongafiti migration as Samoa has been for the Proto-Samoan 
wanderers. But we lack dictionary provision and must content oiu'- 
selves with the Maori. 

Since the subject has arisen for consideration we may, before passing, 
note the geography of that mid region. To the west lies Nuclear Poly- 
nesia, which I set apart as a linguistic province in an earlier work upon 
this theme. To the east lies this province of Southeast Polynesia whose 
essential unity is established in the course of the studies recorded in 
this volume. Spread in the intervening sea lie the Cook and Austral 
groups, together with lesser islets, in which the Tongafiti character is 
well marked, and in which such research as I have been able to conduct 
has revealed very scanty stock of distinctively Proto-Samoan material. 
These islands undoubtedly became the principal home of the Tongafiti 
after the Matamatame onfall drove them from Samoa. It is from 
them that the voyages of discovery and voyages of rediscovery carried 
them to Aotearoa, which lies upon our charts as New Zealand, where 
they found some population of Proto-Samoans who had voyaged thither 
direct from Samoa and whom in time they reduced to subjection but 
not to linguistic extinction. From the same central oceanic base the 
Tongafiti passed to the nearer archipelagoes of Southeast Polynesia in 
whose five languages we are now examining their condition. From the 
same base, either directly or proximately through Tahiti and the Mar- 
quesas, we find that they reached Hawaii, and there, far in the north, 
they subjected a prior population of Proto-Samoans, but not to lin- 
guistic extinction. Here in Southeast Polynesia we find the two stages 
of the language existing without mixture in equal streams. We shall 
find pleasure and profit in studying out, so far as we may, the evidences 
of original colonization and secondary distribution by movements of 
convection within the province. But we must confess that in this 
branch of the investigation we are hampered through the failure to 
estabUsh the Tongafiti mother speech to serve as the standard of com- 
parison in deviation of sense, for with form as phonetics we are to deal 
very lightly. 

The Rapanui variants in the Tongafiti class exhibit a slightly smaller 
percentage than those in the Proto-Samoan class. This might be a 
matter of greater value if the two comparisons were more equal. We 
should expect, moreover, to find such a deviation founded upon the 
marked difference in the age of each migration source within the Pacific. 



RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 45 

Following the system employed in the study of the Proto-Samoan 
variants we may assemble these items into classes. 

We remove from consideration those items in which our dictionary 
material is insufficient to form a proper basis for comparison. These 
are: 

garara gorigori guba 

Similarly we must strike out those items in which dictionary error 
is recognizable. In this series are : 

hakura henua 2 hope puapua 

Of the residue after this eUmination we find two interesting groups. 
In the former the Rapanui offers a more primitive sense than is encount- 
ered in the Maori. It seems closer to the sources of distribution whence 
the two languages have moved. This is the Kst : 

eva ragaraga reva titiri tua 2 

kauihaga reke 

On the other hand we find a slightly longer list of items in which the 
Rapanui is employed in a specific sense where the Maori has the closer 
approximation to the primitive signification so far as we feel justified in 
establishing such sense. These are : 

ariga maki reva tika uga 

kopikopi reherehe teitei titaa umiumi 

Last of all we note two vocables, huhu 6 and mahara, in which the 
Rapanui carries a sense that can only be distinguished as secondary in 
evolution, so great a deviation does it show from the Maori compara- 
tive material. 

For the reasons already set forth we must refrain from the more 
general comment which in summing up might serve to explain these 
variations. 

Two distinct items yet remain for consideration, one of sense and one 
of phonetics, each appUcable to all the languages of this province. 

The former item, deaUng with a certain characteristic of word mean- 
ing, the inversion of sense, must be postponed for later study, because 
in certain psychological peculiarities of Polynesian speech we may best 
find an explanation. 

In the phonetic treatment of Rapanui I have postponed detailed dis- 
cussion of the aspurates. They are very irregular, at least very irreg- 
ularly recorded, in this province, and I shall have to revert to them in 
dealing separately with each language. To facihtate the examination 
I subjoin a series of Usts of all the items in which one or other of the 
aspirates appears, or should appear, in Rapanui. Because our com- 
parative apparatus varies widely in its incidence I have assembled these 



46 EASTER ISLAND. 

lists in accordance therewith. I omit those occurrences, readily dis- 
coverable in the vocabulary, of h in Rapanui where no comparable data 
are available, and also the vocables which are entered in the vocabulary 
both with and without the aspirations . The first table records the items 
in which comparable data go no further than the province of Southeast 
Polynesia, and where, accordingly, we may not establish a determinant 
comparison : 



3 


27 


42 


48 


54 


60 


66 


72 


82 


114 


155 


178 


206 


238 


4 


34 


43 


49 


55 


61 


67 


73 


84 


116 


159 


179 


209 


261 


5 


38 


44 


50 


56 


62 


68 


74 


92 


137 


161 


187 


213 


262 


6 


39 


45 


51 


57 


63 


69 


76 


100 


140 


171 


188 


220 


281 


12 


40 


46 


52 


58 


64 


70 


77 


III 


142 


172 


201 


230 


292 


24 


41 


47 


53 


59 


65 


71 


78 


"3 


144 


173 


20s 


231 





We note these few instances in which the Rapanui aspirate is clearly 
labial : 

43 51 52 59 205 206 209 

In the next group of tables we have the advantage of data for com- 
parison, for these items are drawn from the distinctively Proto-Samoan 
element of the language. 

First we shall examine those items in which we have been able to 
establish in the Proto-Samoan a pure aspirate. In Rapanui this is in 
some cases dropped, in others retained, and in the following table the 
instances of the preservation of that fickle sound are distinguished by 
bold-faced type: 

302 30s 324 345 351 359 418 657 692 69s 

Our next table records the instances in which the Proto-Samoan 
sibilant passes into the lingual aspirate: 

329 358 364 374 377 381 384 392 399 401 409 472 547 680 
355 361 371 376 380 383 390 394 400 408 416 473 624 

In by far the greater number of cases the Rapanui aspirate is a 
mutation product of the Proto-Samoan/, therefore a labial aspiration, 
as shown in the items of this table : 



296 


335 


350 


357 


367 


373 


386 


393 


402 


407 


430 


551 


623 


679 


297 


336 


352 


360 


368 


375 


387 


395 


403 


410 


471 


589 


623 


694 


299 


337 


353 


363 


369 


378 


388 


396 


404 


411 


524 


599 


626 


698 


301 


338 


354 


365 


370 


379 


389 


397 


405 


415 


528 


621 


656 


709 


314 


349 


356 


366 


372 


385 


391 


398 


406 


423 


529 


622 







We next consider the element whose source is found in that insepar- 
able mass of the Polynesian common to both migrations. Inasmuch 
as this affords us Proto-Samoan comparatives it might have been incor- 
porated with the foregoing tables, but since the division has been of 
value in the consideration of other topics it is here maintained for the 
sake of uniformity. 

There are but two items which bear upon the Proto-Samoan aspirate, 
in 792 Rapanui retains it and in 833 it discards it. 



841 


848 


852 


857 


842 


849 


853 


859 


845 


850 


854 





RAPANUI SOURCES AND VARIETY. 47 

The aspirate as mutation product of the sibilant is noted in 

740 743 744 750 753 754 766 789 818 83s 
The labial aspirate is found in 

741 742 745 746 747 748 749 75i 752 755 756 817 

In the final group of the identifications, the Tongafiti element of 
Rapanui, we lack a base upon which to establish comparison of the 
aspirate ; we can do no more than assemble these aspirates in their rela- 
tion to several Maori aspirations, themselves mutation products. 

The Rapanui aspirations which appear in Maori as h are listed in this 
table; three items distinguished by bold-faced type discard the aspirate 
which the Maori retains. 

860 862 864 867 872 890 903 918 930 938 

861 863 865 868 882 896 909 925 934 953 

In the next table we find those Rapanui items whose aspirate cor- 
responds to Maori hw, which we have external reason to consider as 
commonly the labial aspiration; the bold-faced type distinguishes 
those instances in which the Rapanui has lost this aspirate. 

839 844 855 856 858 952 

In 850 we find a solitary instance in which the Rapanui aspiration 
corresponds to a Maori w, of course a weakened form of the labial. 

While the detailed consideration of the various employment of the 
aspiration properly belongs in the chapter in which we shall sum up for 
consideration the information we have been able to acquire upon the 
inner relations of these five languages of Southeast Polynesia, it will not 
be amiss to remark at this point upon one general factor. Our record 
of the five languages with which we are dealing comes to us through 
French agency. With all the respect which lives of devotion to bitter 
hardship, which passionate sacrifice of self to a higher and spiritual duty 
must arouse in all sympathetic souls who in the South Sea have 
observed these French priests, we should be remiss to our philological 
duty if we should omit from the record a condition which functions 
largely. It is not because they are French, these poor missionaries, 
that their linguistic records are to rank somewhat below the maximum 
of excellence ; nor is it because they are clergymen, for all our Polynesian 
records come from missionaries of one communion or another. But of 
the two congregations operative in Polynesia it is well known that the 
mission priests are drawn from the peasant class of France and par- 
ticularly from the northern peasantry. Now it is just in that class 
that the aspirate is uncertain upon the tongue and at the gateway of the 
ear, just as in some dialects of English we are familiar with the same 



48 e;aster island. 

trouble in the same class of speakers. Peasant French or Cockney 
English, the result is one, an aspirate is assumed where none should be, 
and where the aspirate is vital we find a dropped h. This fact must be 
recognized as conditioning the record of these tongues. The aspira- 
tion is too positive in Polynesian orthoepy to permit us to imagine for a 
moment that the Easter Islanders use it or reject it indifferently to any 
such extent as to warrant the numerous duplicate forms which P^e 
Roussel has set down. It is clearly a French type of error. 

In the case of all that element of Rapanui speech for which we have 
comparative data this analysis of the aspiration shows that the Proto- 
Samoan aspirate, at the time when this migration hived off to eastward 
emptiness of sea, was yet sufficiently in vigor to insure its viability to 
the utmost speck of soil upon which Polynesians might land for the 
establishment of a new home. 



CHAPTER III. 
THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 

In the study of Easter Island we have had under review the ultimate 
prolongation of Polynesian migration. How many expeditions passed 
eastward without coming within the horizon of this tiny islet, a circle of 
but a few miles, no man may know. In our acquaintance with the con- 
ditions of such voyaging we see no possibility that any such adventm-ers 
could have survived the sixty thirsty degrees of empty sea which 
intervene between the last landfall of the Paumotu and the nearest 
coast of South America. The Paumotu are selected as the point of 
departure for reasons which will appear upon the charts. 

This archipelago has had abundance of naming. In the geographies 
it is set down as the Low Archipelago, which designation is borne out by 
almost every island and islet, barely land enough to raise into the air a 
forest of that coconut tree which is at its best when its roots reach the 
brine through salted sands. To sailors it is known as the Dangerous 
Archipelago. That also is true naming, for no shipman can feel safe 
when he knows that somewhere athwart the course of his voyaging, in a 
tangle of currents which he can not measure, lies this mole of unlighted 
islands upon whose barrier reefs he may be hurled. Even of the better 
name, better because indigenous, Paumotu, we have variant forms, 
Pomotu, Poumotu. This name is objectionable to the scanty popula- 
tion of the islands ; they have united to secure from the French adminis- 
tration the adoption of the name of their preference, Tuamotu, which 
means simply archipelago. But this designation has not come into 
such generality of employment as Paumotu; and for that reason we 
shall use the latter name, for it seems not quite worth the while to 
sacrifice place in the customary index arrangement. 

If we include Mangareva and Pitcairn (the only high islands) and 
Ducie — and every consideration of geophysics demands such inclusion — 
we are dealing with an extrusive bank whose strike follows that north- 
west-southeast line which is so characteristic in the heights and the 
deeps of the South Pacific, a character in archipelagic mass and in each 
island unit. It is proper to describe this extrusive mass as a bank. 
The southeastern extremity is the one point at which the rock structure 
has reached above the sea. In the islets the rock has been raised to 
that point of approach to the limiting line of sedimentation which per- 
mits the growth of reef -forming corals. The conditions were ideal for 
such growth ; of the seventy-six islands of the more narrowly defined 

49 



50 EASTER ISLAND. 

Paumotu — that is to say omitting the rocky lands of Mangareva, Pit- 
cairn, Ehzabeth (with an elevation of 24 meters), and the atoUonof 
Ducie — but two of the larger lack a lagoon, namely Tikei (which seems 
never to have had the atoll form) and Makatea, in which the lagoon is 
structurally present, but has lost its character either through sedimenta- 
tion or through continuance of that extrusion which brought the bank 
into a bathymetric position where growth of reef -forming corals became 
possible. 

This barrier extends from Matahiva in the extreme northwest 
through 35 degrees of its middle latitude to Ducie; and 20 degrees of 
this extent, as far as Mangareva, is an all but continuous barrier of 
imbricated atolls and intervening shoals. At its northern extremity it 
intervenes between Tahiti and the Marquesas in the fairway of canoes 
working on the wind. With its southern outliers it extends downward 
below the Tropic of Capricorn and into the belt of the westerly variable 
winds. In its northern extent the islands, while low, are sufficiently 
close together to catch and hold chartless voyagers feeling their way 
along the trades. In its southern extent, while there are broader chan- 
nels of clear water, the high lands of Mangareva and Pitcairn extend 
far wider horizons and thus serve equally to catch the wanderers who 
have stood too far to the south and are driven eastward by the anti- 
trades. 

There is one settlement factor in this ordering of the land units within 
the great barrier which is a consideration far more important in the 
study of Polynesian voyages than it is in our sea-ranging with chart and 
compass and the logarithms of navigation. When our shipmaster has 
computed from his chart, with the aid of sextant and chronometer, 
that he is near his destination, he reverts to the old and helpless type ; 
he leaves the deck with the order "keep a sharp lookout forward." 
With the Pacific voyagers blundering over the sea which, despite all 
obstacles, they have made their own, knowing none and hoping all, 
it must have been wholly a matter of keeping a sharp lookout, not only 
forward but abeam. We might compute the horizons of Pitcairn and 
Mangareva were there need, and thus measure the great reduction of 
the width of the open sea between them. Even in the region of the 
lowest atolls a sailor's eye can read in the sky at enormous distances the 
loom of the land. The lagoon of Anaa reflects the sunlight which shim- 
mers on its unruffled surface and casts so distinct a green hue upon the 
trade-wind clouds which it creates that its existence may be known as 
far upon the sea as if it were piercing the heavens a mile high instead of 
lying on the waves scarcely as elevated as the seas which shatter in 
tumult on its reef. 

I have thus sketched the position of the Paumotu because of the bear- 
ing which its geographical situation must have in conditioning its settle- 
ment, as we shall see in the philological record. An important factor 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 51 

in this consideration is the position, geographical and ethnographical, 
of a second and parallel extrusion chain. This extends from Palm- 
erston, which is unimportant, at its northwest tip ; its importance begins 
for our present purpose with the Hervey Islands and with Rarotonga in 
particular; thence it stretches through the Tubuai or Austral Group to 
Rapa and Maretiri, which he farther south of the tropic than any island 
of Polynesia save New Zealand, of later settlement. 

In this chain I find the second station of the Tongafiti migration after 
its expulsion from Samoa, its center of distribution to the seats of the 
present great settlements of this swarm. In advancing upon this chain 
it is possible that the Tongafiti found a population of Proto-Samoans. 
Such an antecedent population need not have been dense, for its origin 
would have come from minor voyages of adventure. But the Tongafiti 
advance upon them would be in considerable numbers. As to this we 
have the most positive statement in Samoa. When Savea and his 
brothers had chased the Tongafiti the length of 'Upolu, from Mutiatele 
to Mulifanua, the vanquished sailed away in a body. Before such an 
advance in force, and with the memory still fresh of past suffering, the 
earlier settlers of this midocean chain would certainly take refuge in 
flight, and the next halting-place must be Tahiti and the Paumotu. 

With these considerations we may pass to the detailed study of what 
the speech of the Paumotu may disclose. 

The alphabet of the Paumotu in its relation to the Proto-Samoan, so 
far as it is based on the comparable data assembled in this Rapanui dic- 
tionary, is set forth in the following table, wherein the bold-faced type 
designates the Proto-Samoan alphabet and the italic the Paumotu 
equivalent. 







aa 










e« 


O 








i i 




Ir 


u 


tt. 





ng ng, n 




nn, «g 
h k.- 

sh.- 






m m 

h V 


Uk 




t< 






V V 

if.v.h 
VP 



The most superficial examination will show how slight is the devia- 
tion. Except for the mutation of sibilant to aspirate the Paumotu 
alphabet is closer to the original than is the modern Samoan. There- 
fore our study of the phonetic form of this speech should proceed with 
particular care in every detail of ascertainable source of the complex of 
elements. 

The data in this work in which Paumotu words are employed in com- 
parison with Rapanui, and, in such conjunction, with other languages of 
Southeast Polynesia, but without identification in more distant lan- 
guages, are noted in the following tables : 



52 



EASTER ISLAND. 



Paumotu-Rapanui: 64 68 237 248 263 285 
Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas^Tahiti: 

17 134 146 186 213 260 264 266 
Paumotu-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti : 86 

Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas: 4 74 130 140 166 174 a68 

Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Tahiti: no 209 

Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva: IIS 157 200 280 
Paumotu-Rapanui-Marquesas: 41 49 
Paumotu-Rapanui-Tahiti : 

18 so 66 73 153 185 195 206 229 246 249 273 

We next take up the group in which we have comparative data in the 
Polynesian common to both migration streams, segregating as before 
the material in terms of its distribution within the province. We find 
one case, 554, in which the identification covers the Paumotu and 
Rapanui and extends no farther. The tables follow : 



Polynesian-Paumotu- 
296 321 368 
298 322 369 

300 326 370 

301 328 371 

302 336 372 

304 339 375 

306 342 376 

309 348 378 

310 351 379 

311 353 380 

312 357 387 

313 359 388 

314 360 389 

316 362 390 

317 365 392 

318 366 383 
320 367 397 

Polynesian-Paumotu- 

303 305 332 
Polynesian-Paumotu- 

307 345 406 
343 

Polynesian-Paumotu- 

308 384 430 

347 
Poljmesian-Paumotu- 
Polynesian-Paumotu- 
Polynesian-Paumotu- 



Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas-Tahiti: 



398 424 451 

399 425 452 

402 426 453 

403 427 4S7 

404 429 460 

405 431 461 

407 432 463 

408 438 464 

410 439 468 

411 441 469 

413 444 470 

414 445 471 

415 446 474 

416 447 475 

417 449 481 
423 450 482 



483 514 

484 515 



491 
492 



516 

517 



494 519 

495 520 
497 522 
500 523 
502 524 

507 525 

508 526 

509 528 

510 530 
5" 532 



512 
513 



534 
535 



542 573 

546 574 

548 575 

552 578 

553 580 
555 582 

557 586 

558 587 

559 588 

560 589 

561 590 

562 591 

566 S92 

567 593 

571 595 

572 601 



603 632 

60s 635 

606 639 

607 640 

608 642 

611 643 

612 646 

613 647 

615 648 

616 649 

618 655 

619 656 

620 657 
623 661 
626 662 
630 663 



665 697 

666 698 

667 702 

669 703 

670 704 

671 708 

672 711 
676 712 
678 713 

682 715 

683 716 

685 718 

686 721 

687 723 

693 727 

694 728 



-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti : 

354 377 486 488 498 527 541 
-Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas : 

434 465 472 476 504 531 536 

-Rapanui-Mangareva-Tahiti : 

462 478 S38 539 544 563 568 

-Rapanui-Mangareva: 437 724 
-Rapanui-Marquesas: 477 

-Rapanui-Tahiti: 428 487 496 



S79 629 650 651 
570 610 645 680 

577 583 594 60a 



The Proto-Samoan element will engage our attention in a series of 
tables segregated by the same elements. 

Proto-Samoan-Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

746 767 768 777 810 812 813 814 827 
Proto-Samoan-Paumotu-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti: 743 775 793 830 
Proto-Samoan-Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas : 754 

Proto-Samoan-Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva : 806 

Proto-Samoan-Paumotu-Rapanui-Marquesas : 783 

Proto-Samoan-Paumotu-Rapanui-Tahiti : 730 

Similar ordering of the Tongafiti element affords this set of tables, 
the single instance of 890 exhibiting a word of this source discoverable 
nowhere outside the Paumotu and Rapanui : 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 53 

Tongafiti-Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

845 857 861 874 886 891 897 912 920 933 937 944 950 954 

850 858 863 877 887 893 905 916 923 935 942 945 953 956 

85s 860 869 882 888 894 910 919 926 936 943 948 

Tongafiti-Paumotu-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

839. 849 867 875 880 899 917 946 952 

Tongafiti-Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Marquesas: 
841 881 883 885 891 911 

Tongafiti-Pamnotu-Rapanui-Mangareva-Tahiti: 
856 889 896 929 939 947 949 

Tongafiti-Paumotu-Rapanui-Mangareva: 884 908 955 

Tongafiti-Paumotu-Rapanui-Marquesas: 862 930 

Tongafiti-Paumotu-Rapanui-Tahiti: 843 864 868 901 

The foregoing lists are based upon that element of the Paumotu 
which occurs in the Rapanuiaswell. Lestthis should prove insufficient, 
or too highly restricted in its character, to afford a clear view of the 
speech of the Paumotu it has seemed advisable to tabulate the elements 
of that language which are traceable elsewhere in the Polynesian family. 
The data thus elaborated are presented on page 64, the serial numera- 
tion continued from the finding-list of the Rapanui material. 

In two of the following groups, the general Polynesian and the Ton- 
gafiti, we lack support from the Maori in several instances, but the 
correlation is establishable through the Hawaiian or, less frequently, 
through Mangaian or Rarotongan of the mid-ocean chain of islands of 
probably Tongafiti settlement. I have accordingly distinguished these 
entries in the proper tables by employing bold-faced type for the 
Hawaiian identification and italic for the mid-oceanic. The Hawaiian 
instances may prove of considerable importance in future study of these 
data, but the discussion of their specific moment is wide of the present 
inquiry. I noteonly that it would not surprise me if, in particular study 
of the Tongafiti race movements, such as I am bestowing upon the 
Proto-Samoan swarms, these data establish a course of migration into 
Southeast Polynesia, and thence out of it to the northward, quite dis- 
tinct from the southern migration which has colonized New Zealand. 

Our first series of tables will be based upon identifications established 
in general Polynesian. 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti-Marquesas-Samoa-Maori: 

963 1028 1047 1084 1090 1120 1164 1192 1286 1334 1443 1497 1626 1710 
1018 1039 1060 1087 1094 1124 1168 1250 1319 1408 1459 1514 1637 171S 
1020 1042 1080 1089 iioi 1146 1179 1285 1322 1428 1489 1621 
Paumotu-Tahiti-Marquesas-Samoa-Maori: 

980 995 1072 1279 1323 1332 1387 1395 1400 1414 1448 1506 1593 1606 
994 1054 1 103 1309 
Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti-Samoa-Maori: 

1105 I I 16 1238 1277 1280 1284 1316 1335 1377 1440 i486 1487 1502 1644 
iiii 
Paumotu-Mangareva-Marquesas-Samoa-Maori: 

1123 1254 1271 1480 1541 1633 1670 1693 
Paumotu-Tahiti-Samoa-Maori : 

958 996 1009 1045 1071 I 142 1256 1336 1466 1472 1482 1550 IS55 1700 
990 1006 1035 1067 1095 1248 1289 1432 1471 1473 1507 
Paumotu-Marquesas-Samoa-Maori: 1352 
Paumotu-Mangareva-Samoa-Maori: 984 1088 1234 1303 
Paumotu-Samoa-Maori: 959 "04 i53i 1678 1713 



54 EASTER ISLAND. 

The Proto-Samoan affiliates provide the tables of the following series: 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti-Marquesas-Samoa: 

1003 1253 151 I 1513 1522 1600 1709 1720 
Paumotu-Tahiti-Marquesas-Samoa : 

(160 1014 1049 IOS3 1 153 1 185 1312 1333 1557 1622 
Paumotu-Mangareva-Marquesas-Samoa: 1295 1609 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti-Samoa: 962 1017 1264 1306 1582 1701 1716 
Paumotu-Tahiti-Samoa : 

987 992 1143 1145 1150 1196 1249 1276 1291 1546 1560 1594 1601 1733 
Paumotu-Mangareva-Samoa: 1013 1031 1274 1454 
Paumotu-Marquesas-Samoa : 

985 1025 1107 1170 1177 1190 1217 1292 1344 1381 1457 1474 1704 1229 
Paumotu-Samoa: 991 1005 ioi6 1019 

From the Tongafiti affiliates we derive the following series of t&bles : 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti-Marquesas-Maori: 

965 988 1097 I 144 1210 1337 1434 1458 1469 1484 1569 1642 1667 1685 

970 1021 I 106 1156 1240 1382 1436 1460 1475 1500 1588 1656 1677 1708 

971 1048 1 1 12 1178 1324 1388 1444 1462 1479 1504 1617 1664 1681 1718 

974 1050 1 136 1 189 1329 
Paumotu-Tahiti-Marquesas-Maori : 

1063 1096 1113 1231 1278 1430 1446 1499 1529 1535 1573 1625 1684 1705 

1081 1108 1162 1233 1399 1441 1453 1508 1530 1571 1624 1662 1703 1706 

1092 
Paumotu-Mangareva-Marquesas-Maori: 1158 1159 1282 1375 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti-Maori : 

loii 1041 1086 1118 1125 1202 1270 1317 1366 1415 1481 1485 1523 1590 

1026 1083 1 1 15 1 12 1 1 140 1225 1294 1363 1404 1455 1483 
Paumotu-Tahiti-Maori : 

1007 1099 I 154 1218 1247 1297 1367 1397 1452 1512 1558 1583 1648 i6p6 

1022 1131 1163 1224 1265 1302 1368 1401 1468 1532 1561 1610 1673 1712 
1037 I 133 1205 1227 1268 1339 1389 1403 1470 1547 1570 1636 1692 I^IQ 
1061 1137 1206 1245 1296 I3S0 1392 1431 1503 1551 1575 1645 1695 1726 
1098 1147 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Maori : 

1036 1075 1152 1161 1167 1241 1266 1288 1320 I3QI 1518 1589 1694 
Paumotu-Marquesas-Maori: 1044 1076 1287 1374 1386 1548 1689 

Paumotu-Maori : 

1023 1040 1122 1141 1197 1207 1251 1315 1349 1385 1456 1477 1492 1528 

1027 1043 I 129 I 186 1201 1209 1298 1321 1378 1445 1464 14S8 1527 1727 
1032 1056 

The next group of identifications, almost equal in number with the 
foregoing, are confined within the limits of this province, Paumotu and 
some one or more of its neighbor archipelagoes. 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti-Marquesas: 

989 1057 1 102 H19 1 184 1237 1267 1341 1476 1491 1632 
Paumotu-Tahiti-Marquesas : 

964 1004 1082 1126 1182 1194 1328 I3S9 1372 1467 1568 1634 1687 1736 

975 1059 1091 1169 1193 1260 1348 1362 1406 1501 1620 1647 1725 1737 
looi 1066 1 109 1173 

Paumotu-Mangareva-Marquesas: 1052 1172 1195 1608 
Paumotu-Mangareva-Tahiti : 

968 1051 1078 I 134 I 160 1301 1371 1442 1447 1505 1584 1717 1723 1728 

972 1070 1114 I 135 1261 1347 1435 
Paumotu-Marquesas : 

983 1199 1239 1343 1461 1494 1597 1605 1607 1655 1657 1697 1707 1724 
1058 1212 1304 1417 
Paumotu-Mangareva : 

997 1024 1034 1138 1187 1228 1338 1373 1413 1439 1493 1635 1649 1650 
1002 1030 1074 I 157 1213 1307 1358 1394 1433 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 55 

Paumotu-Tahiti: 

961 1029 1130 1203 1246 1310 1360 1411 1465 1537 1572 1611 1651 1682 

966 1033 1132 1204 1252 1311 1361 1412 1478 1538 1574 1612 1652 1683 

967 1038 1139 1208 1255 1313 1364 1416 1490 1539 1576 1613 1653 1686 
969 1046 1148 1211 1257 1314 1365 1418 149s 1540 1577 1614 1654 1688 
973 1055 1149 1214 1258 1318 1369 1419 1496 1542 1578 161S 1658 1690 

976 1062 1151 1215 1259 1325 1370 1420 1498 1543 1579 1616 1659 1691 

977 1064 II55 1216 1262 1326 1376 1421 1509 1544 1580 1618 1660 1698 

978 1065 1165 1219 1263 1327 1379 1422 1510 1545 1581 1619 1661 1699 

979 1068 u66 1220 1269 1330 1380 1423 1515 1549 1585 1623 1663 1703 

981 1069 1171 1221 1272 1331 1383 1424 1516 1552 1586 1627 1665 1711 

982 1073 1174 1222 1273 1340 1384 1425 1517 1553 1587 1628 1666 1714 
986 1077 1175 1223 1275 1342 1390 1426 1519 IS54 1591 1629 1668 1721 
993 1079 1176 1226 1281 1345 1393 1427 1520 1556 IS92 1630 1669 1722 

998 1085 1180 1230 1283 1346 1396 1429 1521 1559 159s 1631 1671 1729 

999 1093 1181 1232 1290 1351 1398 1437 1524 1562 1596 1638 1672 1730 
1000 iioo 1183 1235 1293 1353 1402 1438 1525 1563 1598 1639 1674 1731 
1008 mo 1 188 1236 1299 1354 1405 1449 1526 1564 1599 1640 1675 1732 
1010 1117 1191 1242 1300 1355 1407 1450 1533 1565 1602 1641 1676 1734 
1012 1127 1198 1243 1305 1356 1409 1451 1534 1566 1603 1643 1679 173s 
1015 I 128 1200 1244 1308 1357 1410 1463 1536 1567 1604 1646 1680 

Finally a few brief tables will disclose the tale that this arid numerical 
waste has to tell. 

The material available for the foregoing study of the Paumotu is 
summed in 2,550 items. Of these we have developed identifications in 
other Polynesian tongues for i ,335 items, 52 per cent. Of this Paumotu 
element 577 items reveal their affiliations in this province of Southeast 
Polynesia, 43 per cent of Paumotu speech. Similarly we find 758 items 
whose afiiliates are in the Polynesian of the archipelagoes westward 
and earlier along the migration track, 57 per cent. In the more minute 
study of affiUation we see that 455 items are identifiable in Rapanui, 
34 per cent; 1095 in Tahiti, 81 per cent; 583 in Mangareva, 42 per cent; 
645 in the Marquesas, 48 per cent. 

In the preceding paragraph I have first established the percentage 
of affiliates in bulk. Thereafter I have established the percentages 
through the use of 1,335, the sum of the identifications, as the denomi- 
nator. Of course it is possible for those students who prefer it to estab- 
lish the percentages in bulk by the employment of denominator 2,550; 
the relative proportion will not thereby be affected, for the ratio, once 
established, is constant. 

In defense of my method I suggest the following considerations. 
Through initial dichotomy we have established two classes in the Pau- 
motu: that in which exterior affiliation is discovered, that in which 
such affiliation has not yet been discovered — two classes nearly equal 
in extent. We must consider the position of the unidentified class. At 
present it stands simply as speech material peculiar to the Paumotu. 
We then meet the problem, is this peculiar possession Polynesian or 
alien contamination? If aUen contamination, whence comes it? 

There is not an item in this class which might not be Polynesian, 
firmly established by its occurrence in no more than a single outer lan- 
guage of the family. Form, usage, sense-structure, all conform rigidly 



56 EASTER ISLAND. 

to the spirit of the known Polynesian. The only elements which are at 
all to be recognized outside the Polynesian family are a very few of that 
small group common to Polynesian and Malayan. The position of 
this element I have discussed at great length in "The Polynesian Wan- 
derings" and have established the proof of borrowing by the Malayans 
from the earlier Polynesian peoples of Indonesia. This element, there- 
fore, is to be held as true Polynesian, not a Malayan contamination. 
The only other sources of such speech metamorphosis fall into two 
classes, according as we regard the Proto-Samoan migration or the 
Tongafiti migration as colporteurs. For the latter we can not speak; 
not as yet can we identify its voyagings earUer than its appearance 
in Nuclear Polynesia, except that negatively and exclusively we are 
convinced that it did not follow the course along the Melanesian archi- 
pelagoes. To the earUest Proto-Samoan migrants occurred the oppor- 
tunity of acquiring Melanesian speech material. To each item in the 
data of this work where the word is recognizable in Melanesia, despite 
savage mutilations, I have made a note of reference to my former work; 
from this it will readily be seen that the word in Polynesian can not be 
due to Melanesian contamination, but that it occurs among the darker 
race as a borrowing from the more intelligent Polynesian commorant 
for a more or less extended sojourn in their abodes. A discussion of the 
improbability of Melanesian contamination of Polynesian, at far greater 
length than is here desirable, will be found in "The Polynesian Wan- 
derings" at page 149. 

This problem is one which we shall encounter in the detailed examina- 
tion of each Polynesian language; each will exhibit its distinctive per- 
centage of recognized affiliates, each will have a residuum which is not 
to be identified in any other language of the family in that modem 
phase in which alone we may know it. The mere accident that, in other 
languages of the family, these residual vocables have gone into disuse 
need not rob them of their Polynesian heritage. Therefore in dealing 
with the several sets of percentages I adopt for my denominator the 
sum of the affiliates as being the true representative of the character 
of the speech, the unrecognized mass being set apart as not conditioning 
the problem. 

It is easy for a word to go into disuse in any language ; that is one of 
the incidents of growth. Not all of us understand the English of 
Shakespeare, a fact which is scumbled in our perception by the fact that 
in those texts we have the keen zest in the narrative to carry us past the 
incomprehensibilities scarcely noticed. Still less do we comprehend 
the King James EngUsh of the Bible, a fact piously obscured in the gen- 
eral feeling that ignorance is the handmaid of theology. If these facts 
are undeniable in a language of written record and lexicographic exacti- 
tude much more must such be the case in the speech of simple islanders 
who know no letters. The Polynesian is of the earUest type of speech, 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POIvYNESIAN SCHEME- 57 

essentially primordial. Its users are upon a similarly primordial cul- 
ture plane. Their speech they would deal with as they deal with any 
other of their possessions; loss is naturally enormous. Equally, under 
conditions of colonies of the same race parted so far as to preclude 
intercommunication, there will be accretion to meet new needs which 
may arise in one home and not in the other. This also will tend to 
create an unidentifiable residuum. This may be made plain through 
the employment of symbols. Let us regard the mother Polynesian 
as consisting of speech elements abcd-epghi; of this mother speech 
Rapanui has preserved a which has vanished from the Paumotu, Ma- 
ngareva, Tahiti, and the Marquesas, and in conformity with its special 
needs has acquired a speech element designable as a. In the same 
manner loss in foiu: languages has left the Paumotu the only tongue in 
which ancestral b survives and to this is added element b. Thus we 
shall find in Southeast Polynesia five distinct and irreducible residua 
Aa, b6, cc, Dd, "Be. That they are not to be correlated is due to the rude- 
ness of the culture whose speech record we have under review. 

I am the more content to present the matter in this mechanical form 
because in the work* of my friend, Dr. Georg Friederici, of Dorlisheim, 
the topic is illuminated in the most graceful fashion : 

In diesem auf die soeben geschilderte Weise durchWanderungen und Ver- 
mischungen entstandenen Tuamotudialekt von rein polynesischem Grund- 
charakter befindet sich nun eine Zahl von ganz merkwiirdigen, fremdartigen 
Ausdriicken, die, soweit mir bekannt, es bisher niemand gelungen ist, zu einer 
anderen Sprache in Beziehung zu bringen. Nun konnte man vielleicht das 
sogenannte Worttabu hierfiir verantwortlich machen, das in Amerika, so im 
Chaco von Paraguay, im heutigen Staate New York, auf den Aleuten — um aus 
den verschiedensten Gegenden einige Beispiele zu nennen — und auch in der 
Siidsee eine nicht unwesentliche Rolle im Entwickelungsgange von Sprachen 
gespielt hat. Ganz bekannt sind die autokratischen Bemuhmigen des Konigs 
Kamehameha von Hawaii durch Worttabu und Neuersatz das Vokabularium 
dieses polynesischen Dialekts radikal umzuf ormen. Diese bei seinen Lebzeiten 
energisch durchgefiihrte Reform fiel aber nach seinem Tode infolge des Wider- 
standes von Hauptlingen und Volk vollkommen zusammen, so dass die von 
ihm neueingefiihrten Worter nahezu restlos verschwunden zu sein scheinen. 
Gerade diese Entwickelung zeigt aber, dass wir auf Worttabu und willkiir- 
lichen Neuersatz die fremden Elemente im Tuamotu kaum zuriickfiihren 
durfen; denn eine autokratische oder hierarchische, alles umfassende Haupt- 
lings- oder Priestergewalt war in der weitzerstreuten Tuamotugruppe unmoglich, 
und was dem machtigen Kamehameha nicht gelang, hatte nie ein Tuamotu- 
hauptling durchsetzen konnen. Dagegen macht Moerenhout eine Anregung, 
die sehr viel ftir sich hat. Man mag gegen Moerenhout wegen seiner Intrig- 
uen mit Missions- und Staatsgewalt manches sagen; gegen gehassige An- 
griffe hat ihn schon Schirren in Schutz genommen, und was der englisch-protes- 
tantische Verfasser der "Rovings" gegen diesen franzosisch-katholischen 

*Ein Bejtrag zur Kenntnis der Tuamotu-Inseln, page 66. 



58 EASTER ISLAND. 

"notleidenden Belgier" vorbringt, ist in der wut- und hassgeschwangerten 
Atmosphare eines Religionskrieges in der Siidsee ohne Belang. Denn alles 
dies hat nichts zu tun mit der Tatsache, das Moerenhout ein vortrefflicher und 
ein ganz zuverlassiger Beobachter ist. Sowohl bei seinen geographischen, als 
auch bei seinen ethnographischen Angaben habe ich dies mehrfach nachpriifen 
konnen. 

Moerenhout sagt nun, das man im Tuamotumeer verschlagene Blinder im 
Kanu gefunden habe und auf einen Atoll nur eine Frau mit zwei Kindern. 
Wie schon ausgefuhrt, spielen verschlagene Kanus eine erhebliche RoUe in der 
Besiedelung der einzelnen Inseln dieser zahlreichen Gruppe. Der Gedanke 
scheint mir nun sehr einleuchtend, das Kinder, die zwar schon sprechen konn- 
ten, d. h. sich in ihrer Familie und im Dorf das Geriist, den grammatikalischen 
Aufbau ihrer Sprache zu eigen gemacht hatten, aber vorerst nur das beschrankte 
Vokabularium eines Kindes besassen, auf unbewohnte AtoUe verschlagen 
wurden. Als sich dann dem heranwachsenden Geiste Erscheinungen und 
Gedanken aufdrangten, zu deren Bezeichnung das mitgebrachte Vokabularium 
des Kindes nicht ausreichte, wurden neue Bezeichnungen erfunden. Aus den 
herangewachsenen Kindern wurde eine Familie, aus der Familie ein Volk, das 
sich und seine Sprache iiber andere Atolle verbreitete. Bei der vorhin be- 
schriebenen Konsolidierung des Tuamotudialekts sind dann so entstandenen 
fremdartigen Bezeichnungen mit in den Gesamtdialekt iibergegangen. Zahl- 
reich sind sie verhaltnismassig nicht. Der Charakter dieser fremdartigen 
Worter scheint mir wenigstens zum Teil fiir diese von Moerenhout angeregte 
Auffassung einzutreten. Ganz sicherlich tun dies die Zahlen. Sie sind vollig 
abweichend von dem durch alle polynesischen und die meisten melanesischen 
Sprachen durchgehenden polynesischen Zahlensysteme. Wer nun bei Sprach- 
aufnahmenmitNatiu-volkern die immersichwiederholende Erfahrung gemacht 
hat, dass Kinder iiberhaupt im allgemeinen nicht zahlen konnen, und dass 
selbst erwachsene junge Leute erst unter sich diskutieren oder altere Manner 
um Rat fragen miissen, ehe sie richtig bis zehn zahlen konnen, fiir den ist es fast 
ein Postulat, dass die Zahlworter in einer Sprache anders lauten miissen, die 
sich in der soeben erorterten Weise gebildet haben soil. Charakteristisch poly- 
nesisch ist auch, dass sich die verschiedenen Dialekte im Archipel zu einem, 
dem heutigen Tuamotudialekt, ausgewachsen haben. Waren melanesisches 
Blut and melanesische Kultur in einem belangreichen Prozentsatz beigemengt, 
wie man angesichtsder fremdartigen somatischen und linguistischen Elemente 
meinen konnte, dann wurde man mehr von Zersplitterung horen. Denn 
Zersplitterung in Sprachen und Dialekte ist charakteristisch melanesisch. 

We reach less hypothetical ground when we take up the examination 
of the affiliates in the Paumotu and begin to apportion them geographi- 
cally to other members of the great Polynesian family. It has already 
been indicated, the whole course of these studies is intended to make 
it plain, that when properly read these geographical units correspond 
with ethnic units of subdivision within the family of the Polynesian 
race. The whole aim and purpose of these tables is to provide the 
means whereby we may examine in each geographical unit the ethnic 
factors and segregate them in relation to their respective sources. 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POIyYNESIAN SCHEME. 



59 



The summation of this information is presented in the following table : 

Tabi,b 3- 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


Grand 
total. 


South- 
east 
Poly- 
nesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tonga- 
fiti. 


Total. 


South- 
east 
Poly- 
nesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tonga- 
fiti. 


Total. 


Paiitnotu 


6 
8 
I 

7 

2 

4 
49 

12 






I 

40 

I 

7 

3 

2 

4 


1^ 
29 
24 
10 

53 
20 


11 

32 

4 

21 

23 
18 

379 


5 
40 
18 

8 
'5 

4 

25 


8^ 
10 
2 
7 
4 
14 
'4 


30 

47 
29 

4 
25 
"3 

7 
58 


39 
106 

68 
44 

476 


46 
390 
117 

47 
92 

54 
496 


Pau-Mgv-Mq-Ta . 

Pau-Mq-Ta 

Pau-Mgv-Mq 

Pau-Mgv-Ta 

Pau-Mangareva. . . 
Pau-Marquesas. . . 
Pau-Tahiti 

Totals 

Grand total . . . 


227 
'4 

>5 
15 

2 
I 

3 


9 
4 
I 

1 

1 


(89 
1488 


277 
ii6 


6^ 


72 
213 


455 
880 


488 


116 


63 


213 


880 




577 


393 


8o 


285 


1335 



We now reserve until the final chapter the particular study of Rapanui 
in this scheme, except that we divide the Paumotu into the two classes 
of that speech element which is common to Easter Island and that 
speech element in which Rapanui is not represented. Our next table 
will exhibit the proximity of the affinities which the dissection of the 
Paumotu has offered in the foregoing table. In this we deal with all 
the identifications in the neighbor islands of Southeast Polynesia. 

Table 4. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


Total. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


p. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 


Tahiti 


356 

347 
394 


78 
74 
86 


739 

236 
254 


84 

39 
29 


1095 

583 
645 


81 
42 
48 


Mangareva 

Marquesas 



In the next table we shall deal with those identifications which do not 
extend beyond the province of Southeast Polynesia. 

Table 5. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 


Tahiti 


23 
21 

65 


25 
23 

73 


443 
59 
85 


90 

12 
17 


Mangareva 

Marquesas 



60 



EASTER ISLAND. 



In like manner we tabulate the three exterior elements by the Pau- 
motu identifications in the same neighbor islands : 

Table 6. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


p.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Tahiti 


259 
259 
258 


71 
71 
7> 


14 
II 

>5 


4 
3 
4 


60 
60 


16 
16 


98 
67 


25 

'7 
17 


34 
21 

34 


9 

5 
9 


159 
87 


40 
23 
33 


Mangareva 

Marquesas 



Finally, in computing the relation of these three external identifica- 
tions to the mass of Paumotu identifications we obtain this table: 

Table 7. 





Rapanui 
affiliates. 


Extra- 
Rapanui. 


Polynesian 

Proto-Samoan .... 
Tongafiti 


P.ct. 
60.4 

.I3 


P.ct. 

>3-4 

7 

24.3 




80.7 


44-7 



The last table shows at the merest glance that the two elements of 
Paumotu speech vary widely in relation to the rearward past of their 
race. That Paumotu which is recognizable as affiliated with Rapanui 
preserves 80 per cent of its history ; the other Paumotu shows little more 
than half as much. That the two represent different movements of 
population is highly probable, but beyond the expression of the opinion 
that such is the case I hesitate to venture. A certain antecedent prob- 
ability fosters the view that this second Paumotu is the remnant of an 
older population, longer seated in the Paumotu, upon which the Rapanui- 
affiliate Paumotu descended in the course of their voyaging and there 
deposited colonies of the younger stock, while the more venturesome 
pushed bravely out into the enticing east. The prime bases of such an 
opinion are, that this element is numerically almost two-thirds of Pau- 
motu speech as known to us, and that it is fair to consider that the people 
longer separated from the central home of the race must have under- 
gone the greater loss of speech material. This is a justifiable reading of 
the two percentages 80 and 45 . But when we inspect the details of this 
westward affiliation we encounter difficulties which we may not ventmre 
to adjust to such a theory. It might be possible to pursue this farther 
if it were not for the character of that element which I have for con- 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POI^YNESIAN SCHEME. 61 

venience designated Polynesian; being common to the two migration 
swarms, its presence in any given language might be due to a Proto- 
Samoan migration or to a Tongafiti voyage. That is a point which we 
may not determine, the material is incapable of revealing its source; 
being neutral, it removes itself from the computations. The evidence 
of the Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti elements is also negative. On 
the hypothesis of a secondary population receiving accession from a later 
swarm, and taking into consideration otu: knowledge that a migration of 
the Tongafiti left Samoa for new lands, we should expect to find in the 
sedentary people a preponderance of the Proto-Samoan, in the newer 
swarm a preponderance of the Tongafiti. But this table has made it 
plain that the Tongafiti preponderates in each, and that, though the 
figtures vary, the ratio is practically the same ; the Tongafiti outbalances 
the Proto-Samoan just about four to one. In the extra-Rapanui Pau- 
motu there must be some significance in the extreme paucity of the gen- 
eral Polynesian, about half of the Tongafiti. Tentatively I suggest that 
this may signify that the 13 per cent Polynesian was brought in the 
Tongafiti swarm. This contravenes the hypothesis that this Paumotu 
element represents an earlier and sedentary population. 

When we pass backward to the next preceding table, wherein to the 
triple earlier identification of the sources of the material is added the 
record of the affiliation within the province of Southeast Polynesia, we 
find a most interesting and really illuminating condition of affairs. In 
the Paumotu common to Rapanui we find the Proto-Samoan and the 
Tongafiti elements at practically the figure which we established in the 
bulk computation, but the general Polynesian has increased by 10 per 
cent, and that equally in the three other languages. We observe also 
the great evenness of the distribution to Tahiti, Mangareva, and the 
Marquesas ; the percentages vary only in the sUghtest degree. This is 
evidence that the Paumotu element which has reached Rapanui on the 
long eastward voyage has made itself felt most evenly through the more 
compactly placed archipelagoes of the province. But when we turn to 
the other half of the table, that which deals with the Paumotu not shared 
with Rapanui, we find great irregularities. In the elements shared 
with Mangareva and with Marquesas the general Polynesian material 
has increased by about a third over the table discussed in the preceding 
paragraph, and the Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti material remain at 
practically the same figure. But when we examine the Tahiti affilia- 
tions we find a striking change in all except the Proto-Samoan material, 
which has undergone a small and negligible increase. The general Poly- 
nesian has almost doubled, and the Tongafiti falls little short of the 
same increase. This is the first instance in these considerations where 
our attention has been directed to a close alliance between the Paumotu 
and Tahiti. We shall have to concern ourselves again and yet again 
with this alliance. 



62 B ASTER ISLAND. 

We shall next examine in conjunction the two tables in which per- 
centages are first expressed; they di£fer only in the presence and in the 
absence of the westward elements. 

In the former we find in the Paumotu element common to Rapanui 
the same evenness of affiliation distributed over the three other archi- 
pelagoes, such preponderance as exists inclining to the Marquesas, and 
with Tahiti and Mangareva 8 and 12 per cent lower. This preponder- 
ance obtains in the similar table of those elements whose identification 
does not pass beyond the province. In this case the weight of the Mar- 
quesas approximates that of the former table, Tahiti and Mangareva are 
in practical agreement and enormously lower. In the extra-Rapanui 
half of the tables we find the same great upward movement of the Tahiti 
element, percentages of 84 and 90 respectively. Mangareva shows a 
divergence which will fitly become a topic of study in the next chapter; 
its affiliates stand at 39 and 12 per cent respectively. The Marquesas 
is still lower in the scale of affiliation in the broader group, but runs a 
little above Mangareva in the restricted group. 

Again I find it a pleasure to cite Dr. Friederici, whose monograph is a 
model :* 

Finckf ist auf Grund gewiss interessanter, aber einseitiger, well lediglich und 
allein sprachlicher Untersuchungen, zu dem Schluss gekommen, dass die 
Tuamotus nur von Tahiti aus ihre Bevolkerung erhalten haben. Dieses Brgeb- 
nis widersprichtden Ueberlieferungen, Genealogien und ethnologischen Befun- 
den, welche feststellen, dass etwa vom Jahre 1000 unserer Zeitrechnung an 
die Tuamotu-Inseln bewusst von Tahiti im Norden und Mangareva im Suden, 
und unbewusst oder gezwungen auch zum Teil von den Marquesas aus ihre 
Bevolkerung erhalten haben. Finck, der unter grundsatzlicher Vernachlas- 
sigung alien anderen Materials, lediglich unter Beschrankung auf das rein 
Linguistische aus der Untersuchung der feinen dialektischen Unterschiede 
seine Schlussfolgerungen zieht, begeht den Pehler, zu glauben, dass es nur 
einen Tuamotu-Dialekt gab. Das von ihm benutzte ' ' Paumotuan Dictionary 
with Polynesian Comparatives" von Edw. Tregear (Wellington 1895) ist mir 
leider unzuganglich geblieben; ich kann daher nicht sagen, wo und wann es 
aufgenommen worden ist. WahrscheinHch ist es ein Lexikon des jetzigen Tua- 
motu-Dialekts, der sich durch den vermehrten Verkehr in der Gruppe seit 60- 
70 Jahren aus den friiheren Dialekten konsolidiert hat; es mag in den Nord- 
west-Inseln aufgenommen sein. Fiir derartige Untersuchungen aber, wie sie 
Finck anstellt, um dann aus ihnen historische Schliisse zu ziehen, konnen nur 
die urspriinglichen, unvermischten Dialekte als Arbeitsbasis dienen. 

Zwar konnte sich ein Neu-Seeland Maori, der Tahitisch sprach, auf Reao 
verstandigen, ebenso wie ein Marquesaner auf Rapanui und Cooks bekannter 
Tahitier Tupaia auf Neu-Seeland. Aber das will nicht mehr sagen, als wenn 
sich ein Franke mit einem Schwaben unterhalt; die dialektischen Unterschiede, 
auf die Finck seine Untersuchungen aufbaut, bleiben deswegen doch. Wir 
wissen genau, dass sie vorhanden waren. Wir wissen zudem aus den UeberUef- 

*0p. cit., page 61. 

fF. N. Finck, "Die Wanderungen der Polynesier nach dem Zeugnis ihrer Sprachen," 1909. 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 63 

erungen und Genealogien, dass Makatea.Rangiroa, Arutua.Kaukura, Apataki, 
Niau, Toau, Fakarava und Faite ihre Bevolkerung unmittelbar aus Tahiti 
erhidten, und dass anderseits Reao, Pukaruha,Tatakoto, Vahitaki,Hao, Faka- 
ina, Angatau und zum Teil Hikueru von Mangareva aus bevolkert wurden. 
Unsere Nachrichten uber die tatsachliche Verschiedenheit der Bewohner der 
ersten Gruppe von denen der zweiten stimmen hiermit ganz ausserordentlich 
gut uberein. Die Zeiten sind voriiber, in denen man den unkontrollierten, 
teils ungenau wiedergegebenen, zum Teil mit Ungereimtheiten angefuUten 
polynesischen Genealogien so skeptisch gegeniiberstand. Die Arbeiten von 
Schirren, Quatrefages und die betreffenden Abschnitte in Waitz-Gerland, so 
scharfsinnig und wertvoU in ihrer Zeit waren, sind vollig uberholt. * * * 
Die polynesischen Genealogien und Ueberlieferungen unterrichten uns genau 
so gut iiber die polynesische Geschichte, wie die romischen Annalen mit ihren 
Erzahlungen sagenhaften oder atiologischen Charakters uber die alteste 
romische Geschichte. Zu diesen beiden Besiedelungen von Tahiti und Ma- 
ngareva kam nun doch, wie schon mehrf ach angedeutet, eine dritte, hochstwahr- 
scheinlich unfreiwillige, von den Marquesas aus, deren Spuren ethnologisch 
noch vollkommen festzustellen sind. 

Die verschiedenen durch die Besiedelungsgeschichte der Tuamotus begriin- 
deten Dialekte wurden dann durch das, was man die "roving propensities" der 
Tuamotuleute genannt hat, zusammengemengt und zu dem Tuamotu-dialekt 
von heute im allgemeinen verdichtet. Auf nahezu alien Tuamotu-Inseln, 
selbstdenallerunwirthlichsten, sind Spuren ehemaligeroderzeitweiser Bewohn- 
unggefunden woren. Es waren aber nicht allein diese Neigung der Tua- 
motu-Insulaner zum Herumstreif en und eine wikingergleiche Freude am Meer : 
unfreiwillige und gezwungene Wandenmgen kamen in grossem Umf ange hinzu. 
Die Beispiele von verschlagenen Booten in Ost-Polynesien sind sehr zahlreich, 
sdbst die Mangarevaleute auf ihren Flossen machen keine Ausnahme. Sieben 
von ihnen erreichten auf so einem gebrechlichen Fahrzeuge Rapa. Nicht 
zufrieden damit, diese einsame Insel gliicklich gefasst zu haben und von den 
Bewohnem freundUch aufgenommen worden zu sein, schifften sich vier von 
ihnen wieder ein, um zu versuchen, auf demselben Wege wieder in ihre Heimat 
zuruckzukehren. Die rund looo km. von Rapa bis Mangareva entsprechen 
etwa einer Entfernung von Bergen in Norwegen nach Island. Unternehm- 
ender konnten auch die nordischen Wikinger kaum sein. 

With this interesting citation we may leave the final consideration of 
the Paumotu to the summing up of all our discoveries in other of these 
languages, feeling confident that the agreement of other parts of South- 
east Polynesia will remove Dr. Friederici's objections to the linguistic 
method. 

The following list, the serial numeration being continued from the 
Rapanui finding-list ended at page 184, presents that element of Pau- 
motu speech which, through lack of Rapanui affiliates, was not included 
in the Easter Island vocabulary, yet which is properly to be included in 
any philological comparison of Polynesian speech in general. Inas- 
much as we shall next take up in these studies the central and earlier 
languages of Nuclear Polynesia it has seemed advisable in this place to 
make a complete record for Southeast Polynesia. 



64 



EASTER ISI.AND. 



PS8. agoago slender, light, elegant. Ta.: 
ao, thin, wasted. Sa.: agosi, wasted 
by illness. Ma. : angoa, thin, lean. 

959. aha a strong breeze. Sa.: afa, gale. 

Ma.: awha, id. 

960. ahi sandalwood. Ta.: aW, id. Mq.: 

auahi, a variety of breadfruit. _ Sa. : 
asi, sandalwood. Ha.: ili-ahi, id. 

961. aho breath, wind. Ta.: aho, breath. 

Ha.: aho, id. 

962. ahuahu suffocating, stifling. Mgv.: 

dhu, hot, flushed. Ta.: ahu, heat, 
fever. Sa.: afu, heated, as an oven. 

963. akau reef. Mgv.: akau, shoal, rock 

ridge. Ta.: aau, reef. Mq.: akau, 
id. Sa. : a'au, id. Ma. : akau, coast. 

964. akuakutohunt. ta..: auau,iA. Mq.: 

dudu, id. 

965. anake only. Mgv.: anake, id. Ta.: 

anae, id. Ma.: anake, id. 

966. anavai brook. Ta.: anavai, id. 

967. anave to breathe. Ta. : anave, id. 

968. aniani to beseech. Mgv. : ani, to ask, 

to demand. Ta. : ani, id. 

969. anotau time, period. Ta. : anotau, id. 

970. anounu cold. Mgv., Ta., Mq., Ma.: 

anu, id. 

971. ao the world. Mgv.: ao, id. Ta.: ao, 

id. Mq. : aomaama, id. Ma. : ao, id. 

972. ao happy, prosperity. Mgv. : ao, tran- 

quil conscience. Ta. : ao, happiness. 

973. aoi to veer, to turn about. Ta.: aoi, 

mobile. 

974. apuapu pregnant. Ta. : hapu, hapi, id. 

Mq.: hopu, id. Ma.: hapu, id. 

975. araea clay. Ta.: araea, id. Mq.: 

kaaea, red ochre. 

976. arahi to beg, to implore. Ta.: arai, 

to intercede. 

977. area, areka however, in the meantime. 

Ta.: area, but, however. 

978. ariana soon. Ta. : ariana, aria, id. 

979. aruehaga apology. Ta. : arue, to ap- 

plaud, to glorify. 

980. f akaatea to remove, to put away. Ta. : 

alea, clear. Mq. : atea, id. Sa. : alea- 
tea, wide, spacious. Ma. : atea, clear. 

981. au deserving, worthy. Ta.: au, fit, 

worthy. 

982. auhaga sense. Ta.: auraa, id. 

983. eketu fugitive. Mq.: ketu, to chase 

away by force. 

984. emiemi fright, terror. Mgv.: emiemi, 

to tremble. Fu. : emi, sudden move- 
ment of alarm. Ha.: emi, to fail in 
courage. Mq.: emiee, to tremble, 
shiver, quiver. 
. 985 . f aga bent, oblique, to bend over. Mq. : 
fana, bent, oblique. Sa.: faga-tua, 
to wrestle, (?) to bend the back (iua). . 

986. fagof ago hoarse, a snufiier. Ta. : fao, 

a snuffler. 

987. faiere woman in childbed. Ta.: /aire, 

lying-in. Sa.: failele, nurse. To.: 
faele, to bring forth. Fu. : faeleeh,/ 
woman just delivered. Cf. 991. -^ 



988. 



989 
990. 



991 



992, 



993 
994. 



995. 



996. 



997- 
998. 

999- 
1000. 



1001. 



1003. 



1004. 
1005. 
1006. 



1007. 
1008, 



1009. 



^010. 

lOII. 



1012. 



1013. 



faita to grimace. Mgv. : aita, id. Ta.: 
faita, id. Mq.: haita, id. Via.: faita, 
to show the teeth. 

f akaea to repose. Mgv. : akaea, id. 
Ta. : faaea, id. Mq. : hakaea, id. 
f akau to resist. Ta. : faau, resolute. 
Sa. : fa'aU, to insist. Ma. : whakau, 
to make firm. 

f akerekere woman in childbed. Fu. : 
fddeile, woman just delivered. Cf. 
987. 

hakaf ana to fasten the sail to the yard. 
Ta. : /a«i, the yard. Sa.: /ana, the 
mast. 

fanako joy. Ta.: fanao, pleasure, 
glory. 

f ano to set sail. Ta.: /ono, id. Mq.: 
hano, to go. Sa. : fano, id. Ma. : 
ivhano, id. The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, page 226. 

fao steel, metal, collar. Ta.: fao, 
chisel. Mq. : fao, to pierce. Sa. : fao, 
a nail, a gouge. Ma. : whao, an iron 
tool. 

f arara to lean. Ta.: farara, oblique. 
Sa. : falala, aslant. Ma. : wharara, to 
lean. 

faravei fortuitous, casual. Mgv.: 
aravei, confusion of many voices, 
f arerei a rendezvous. Ta. -.farerei, to 
encounter. 

farito to measure. Ta. : faito, id. 
f arofaro to let down, to lower. Ta. : 
faro, to bend down, to stoop. 
fatata to draw near again. Ta.; 
fatata, near. Mq. : atata, id. 
fate to wrestle. Mgv. : ato, to spring, " 
to leap. 

fatufatu to roll, to tuck up. Mgv.: 
atu, to fold. Ta.: faiu, to weave. 
Mq. : fatu, to double. Sa. : fatufatu, 
to fold up. 

f eii envy. Ta. : feii, jealousy. Mq. : 
feii, angry visage. 

fera aside. Sa. : fela, an everted eye- 
lid. 

hakaiiu to reject, to rebuff. Ta.: 
fiu, disgusted. Sa.: fiu, id. Ma.: 
whakawhiu, to oppress. 
gagahere herbs, grass. Ta. : aaihere, 
herbs, bush. Ma. : ngahere, forest. 
gagaoa confused noise. Ta. : aaoaoa, 
noise of a rising assembly. 
gahehe to touch lightly in passing. 
Ta. : ahehe, a dull sound. To. : gae^, 
to move gently along. Ma. : ngahehe, 
to rustle. 

garara hoarse. Ta. : arara, id. 
fakagarearea vacancy. Mgv.: aria, 
a treeless space. Ta.: area, place, 
space. Ma. : area, an open space. 
fakagarearea to amuse. Ta.: area- 
rea, pleasure. 

garegare limpid. Mgv.: garegare, 
yellow, red, any pleasing color. Sa.: 
!e-ato, to be dawn. / 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 



65 



y 



y 



IG14. garepu to stir, to muddy. Ta.:orei>«- 
repu, troubled water. Mq. : ipo, id. 
Sa.: galepu, id. 

1015. garurua together. Ta.: aruru, id. 
y\oi6. gatatata to clang. To.: gatata, to 
jingle. 

1017. gatere to grow. Mgv. : tere, enlarged. 
Ta. : atere, to spread. Sa. : tele, great. 

1018. gati tribe. Mgv.: o<i, descendant of . 
Ta. : ati, nati, descendants. Sa. : ati, 
id. Ma. : ngati, tribe. The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, page 198. 

1019. gatu worn out. Sa.: goto, old siapo. 
Niue: gatu, used, worn. 

1020. gaueue to shake. Mgv.: gerue, id. 
Ta.: aueue, id. Mq.: kaite, neue, 
id. To.: gaue, id. Ma.: ngaueue, 
ngarue, id. 

1021. gavarivari flexible. Mgv.: ga»art, id. 
Ta.: avarivari,i6.. Ma.: ngawari, id. 

1022. gere to deprive. Ta.: ere, destitute. 
^■^ Ma.: ngere, passed by in serving food. 

1023. goge to break. Ma.: ngongengonge, 
crippled. 

1024. gogo the navel and cord. Mgv.: 
gogo, id. 

,1025. gore-nonoi to borrow (gore, to de- 
mand). Sa.: no, to borrow. 

1026. gortl ripe, tumid. Mgv.: gorugoru, 
gougou, large and fat. Ta. : oru, dis- 
tended. Ma.: ngoungou, ripe. 

1027. gotegote to grind. Ha.: nokenoke, 
grinding of a hard substance in the 
teeth. 

p28. guruguru to groan. Mgv.: guru- 
guru, to grunt. Ta. : uuru, to groan. 
Mq.: nunuu, confused noise. Sa.: 
toguZu, to emit a hollow sound. Ma.: 
nguru, to grunt. 

1029. gutuafare to save, to economize. 
Ta. : utuafare, family, residence. 

1030. guturoa to grimace, to pout. Mgv.: 
guturoa, to grimace. 

1031. fakahaha to shun, to evade. Mgv.: 
ha, set aside, prohibited, sacred. Sa. : 
sa, sacred, prohibited. To.: tabu-ha, 
id. 

1032. hahano honor, to glorify. Ha. : hano- 
hano, honor, glory. 

1033. Haifa virile, manly. Ta. : aiaha, a 
brave young warrior. 

1034. hakae coolness. Mgv. : a&ae, to have 
the skin chilled. 

1035. hakahaka lowering, depression. Ta.: 
haahaa, humble, low. Sa. : sa'asa'a, 
short, brief. Ma.: hakahaka, short 
in stature. 

1036. hano to mark, to cover. Mgv. : amo, 
to wash the body all over rapidly. 
Ha. : hamo, to besmear. 

1037. hamuti dung, latrine. Ta. : hamuli, 
latrine. Ma. : hamuti, dung. 

1038. fakahapa to condemn. Ta.: hapa, 
error. 



y 



1039. hape club-foot. Mgv.: ape, club- 
foot, knock-kneed. Ta. : hape, club- 
foot. Mq.: hape, id. Sa.: sape, id. 
Ma.: hape, id. 

1040. hari to dance. Ma. : hari, id. 

1041. haruru a sound. Mgv.: erurururu, 
id. Ta. : haruru, id. Ma. : haruru, id. 

J 042. hau superior, kingdom, to rule. 
Mgv.: hau, respect. Ta.: hau, gov- 
ernment. Mq. : hau, id. Sa. : saua, 
despotic. Ma. : hau, superior. 

1043. hauhau to attack. Ma. : hau, tochop. 

1044. hauaitu stupid. Mq. : hauaitu, list- 
less. Ma.: hauaitu, id. 

1045. hauga odor. Ta.: haud,odoT. Sa.: 
sauga, rank. Ma.: haunga, odor. 

1046. hautaua stupid. Ta. : hautaua, mor- 
tified. 

1047. he false, crooked. Mgv. : Aefte, crazy, 
to wander. Ta. : he, error. Mq. : he, 
confusion. Sa. : sese, wrong. Ma.: 
he, a mistake. 

1048. heke to ptu'ge. Mgv.: heke-toto, 
hemorrhage. Ta. : hee, to ptu'ge. 
Mq.: heke, to drip. Ma.: heke, id. 

1049. hekeheke elephantiasis. Ta.: feefee, 
id. Mq. : fefe, id. Sa. : fe'efe'e, id. 

1050. hemo to disclose, to reveal. Mgv.: 
emo, separated, broken off. Ta.: 
hemo, conquered, to escape. Mq.: 
hemo, to separate. Ha.: hemo, to 
unloose. 

105 1. here dear, to love. Mgv.: akaereere, 
dear, loved. Ta.: here, id. 

1052. heuheu disarranged. Mgy.: heuheu, 
to plan out work. Mq. : heu, confu- 
sion. 

1053. heva to sing, to wail. Ta.: heva, 
mourning. Mq. : heva, a dance. Sa. : 
siva, song with dancing. 

1054. fakahiehie to admire. Ta. : faahia- 
hia,id. Mq. : fo'a, to desire. Sa..: fiafia, 
to rejoice. Ma. : hiahia, to desire. 

1055. higo to look at, to see, mirror. Ta. : 
hid, id. 

1056. fakahihiu to scare away. Ma.: 
whiu, to drive. 

1057. hiki to fondle. Mgv. : /jiyfei, to dandle. 
Ta. : hii, id. Mq. : hiki, id. 

1058. hiki to flee. Mq.: hiki, flight. 

1059. hina posterity. Ta. : /w'»o, id. Mq. : 
hina, id. 

1060. hinagaro to wish. Mgv.: aka-ina- 
garo, ? to call names. Ta.: hinaaro, 
to desire. Mq. : hinenao, to love. 
Sa. : finagalo, to wish. Ma.: hine- 
ngaro, affection. 

1061. hirinaki to incline, to slope. Ta.: 
hirinai, to rest upon. Ma.: irinaki, 
to rest upon. 

1062. hirinaki to be apprehensive. Ta.: 
hirinai, to apprehend. 

1063. hitiki a girdle. Ta.: fetii, to tie. 
Mq.: hitiki, id. Ma.: whitiki, a 
girdle. 



66 



EASTER ISLAND. 



Ta. : ho- 



1064. hoperemu buttocks. Ta. : hoperemu, 
id. 

1065. hopikipiki-rima epilepsy. 
pa, id. 

1066. hora salted, briny. Ta.. horahora, 
bitter. Mq.: hodhod, id. 

1067. horau a shed. Ta. : farau, id. Sa. : 
afolau, a common house. Ma.: 
wharau, shed. 

1068. horiri to shiver. Ta. : horiri, id. 

1069. hota to catch cold. Ta. : hota, a 
cough. 

1070. hotaratara to shiver. Mgv. : tatara, 
id. Ta. : hotaratara, id. 

1071. hua-gakau rupture. Ta.: ddu, en- 
trails. Sa. : ga'au, id. Ma. : ngakau, id. 

1072. huaki to uncover, to expose. Ta. : 
huai, to uncover an oven. Mq. : 
huai, to take food from an oven. Sa. : 
sua, to root up. Ma.: huaki, to 
uncover. 

1073. hue emotion. Ta. : huehue, to show 
fear. 

1074. hue to carry, to conduct. Mgv.: 
akahue, to carry a crop of foodstuff. 

1075. hukahuka a bubble of water. Mgv.: 
huka, froth, foam. Ma.: huka, id. 
Cf. 1694. 

1076. huke digging-stick. Mq. . huhe, to 
scoop out. Ma. : huke, to dig up. 

1077. hunehune itch. Ta. : hunehune, id. 

1078. huru species, disposition. Mgv.: 
huru, shape, figure, form. Ta. : huru, 
species, resemblance. 

1079. ihoariki royalty. Ta. : ihoarii, royal 
dignity. 

1080. ike tapa beater. Mgv. : ike, id. Ta. : 
ie, id. Mq. : ike, id. Sa. : i'e, id. 
Ma. : ike, to strike with a hammer. 

1081. ikeke gracious, pleasant. Ta. : ieie, 
elegant, vain, gracious. Mq. : iSie, 
id. Ha. : ieie, dignified, vainglorious. 

1082. iku to rasp, to grate. Ta. : iu, to 
rasp. Mq. : iku, a rasp. 

1083. inaina to be in a fury, to rage. 
Mgv. : inaina, to warm oneself. Ta. : 
mainaina, to feel angry. Ma. : inaina, 
to warm oneself. Ha. : inaina, anger. 

1084. inanahi yesterday. Mgv. -.inenahi, id. 
Ta. : ananahi, id. Mq. : inenahi, id. 
Sa. : ananafi, id. Ma. : inanahi, id. 

1085. fakaineine to prepare, to fit. Ta.: 
ineine, ready, prepared. 

1086. fakaipoipohaga marriage. Mgv.: 
ipo, married folk. Ta. : faaipoipo, 
to marry. (Sa. : fa'aipoipo, to marry ; 
introduced.) Ma. : i/)o, pertaining to 
love. 

1087. ira skin disease. Mgv. : ira, dark 
patches on the skin. Ta. : ira, skin 
disease. Mq.: id, birthmark. Sa.: 
ila, id. Ma. : ira, a freckle. 

1088. fakairo to signal. Mgv.: akairoga, 
a mark, sign. Sa.: fa'ailo, to make 
known. 



1089. 

1090. 

1091. 

1092. 

1093. 
1094. 

1095. 
1096. 
1097. 

1098. 
1099. 

HOC. 
IIOI. 



H03. 

1 104. 

1 105. 

1 106. 
II07. 

1 108. 

1 109. 
mo. 



fakaiteite to exhort. Mgv. : akakite, 
to show. Ta. : /aaite, to teach. Mq.: 
haaite, to make known. Sa. : 'ite, to 
divine. Ma.: kite, to see. The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, page 294. 
fakaiti reduction. Mgv.: iti, small. 
Ta. : iti, id. Mq. : iti, id. Sa. : iti, id. 
Ma.: iti, id. The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, page 230. 

itoito resolute, in health. Ta. : ito, 
watchful, active. Mq.: ito, brave, 
hearty. 

kaga to insult. Ta.: aa, id. Mq.: 
kaha, to challenge to combat. Ma. : 
kanga, to curse. 

kahaki to lift, to raise. Ta.: afai, 
to carry. 

kahea when. Mgv. : ahea, id. Ta. : 
afea, id. Mq. : afea, id. Sa. : afea, id. 
Ma.: ahea, id. 

kahune to get in harvest. Ta.: 
hune, core of breadfruit. Sa. : fune, 
id. Ma. : hune, down of bulrush. 
f akakai earring. Ta. -.faaai, ear orna- 
ment. Mq.:hakakai, id. Ma..:whaka- 
kai, id. 

kaikaia a league, plot. Mgv. : kaia, 
cruel, cannibal. Ta. : aiaa, fault, sin. 
Mq. : kaia, quarrelsome. Ma. : kaia, 
to steal. 

kaito brave, robust. Ta. : aito, brave. 
Ma. : kaitoa, a brave man. 
kaitoa well and good! Ta.: aitoa, 
good! Ma.: kaitoa, id. 
kaitura bravery, manhood. Ta.: 
turatura, honored, exalted. 
kaka sparkling. Mgv. : kaka, bright 
red. Ta. : aa, to bum. Mq. : kaka, 
to grill. Sa. : 'a'asa, 'a'ava, burning 
hot. Ma. : kaka, red hot. The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, page 251. 
kakano flat, spacious, a plank. 
Mgv.: kakano, wide, broad, large. 
Ta. : aano, breath, width. Mq. : Ao- 
kano, a span. 

kakano spawn. Ta.: aano, melon 
seeds. Mq. : kakano, seed. Sa. : 'a'ano, 
pip of a fruit. Ma. : kakano, seed, 
kakararau cockroach. Sa..: 'alalii, id. , 
Ma. : kekereru, a black wood-bug. 
kakau a handle. Mgv.: kakau, stalk 
of fruit. Ta. : aau, handle. Sa. : 'au, 
id. Ma. : kakau, id. 
kaki the neck. Mgv. : kaki, id. Ta. : 
ai, id. Mq. : kaki, id. Ma. : kaki, id. 
kama stupid. Sa. : ama, to be igno- 
rant. 

kamahatu ingenious. Ta. : amafatu, 
amahatu, adroit. Mq.: kamahatu, 
quick intelligence. Ma. : kama, nim- 
ble, agile. 

kami to drink. Ta. : omi, to absorb. 
Mq. : ami, water falling drop by drop. 
kamikami to smack the lips. Ta.: 
amiami, to move the lips quickly. 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME- 



67 



Mgv. : kemi, to wink. 
Sa.: 'emo, id. Ma.: 



mi. kamo to ogle. 
Ta. : amo, id. 
kamo, id. 

IH2. katnuimui to adhere. Mgv.: amui- 
mui, a swarm of flies. Ta. : amui, to 
join. Mq. : mui, to collect together. 
Ma.: mui, to swarm around. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 384. 

1 1 13. kanaenae to preoccupy the mind. 
Ta. : anae, anai, preoccupied. Mq. : 
anai, to be disquieted. Ma. : kanae- 
nae, bewildered. 

1 1 14. kanakana bright, sparkling. Mgv.: 
kanakana-ura, to have a red color. 
Ta. : anaana, bright, shining. 

1115. kanapa lightning, to shine brightly. 
Mgv.: kanapa, brilliant, sparkling. 
Ta. : anapa, lightning, to glitter. 
Ma.: kanapa, bright, shining. 

1 116. kaoti enough. Mgv.: o/j, enough, to 
end. Ta. : oti, to end. Sa.: oti, to 
die. Ma.: oti, ended. 

1 1 17. kapakapa portion, particle. Ta.: 
apaapaa, fragment, bit, chip. 

11 18. kapi full, replete. Mgv.: kapi, id. 
Ta.: apt, full. Ma.: kapi, to be 
filled up. 

11 19. kapikapi an oyster. Mgv.: apiapi, 
a fish. Ta. : api-pdvau, valve of an 
oyster. Mq. : dpidpi, a fish. 

1 1 20. kapiti to seal up. Mgv.: kapiti, to 
join things so that they touch. Ta.: 
apiti, to join, to unite. Mq. : kapiti, 
to put up in a roll. Sa.: api, to be 
near. Ma.: kapiti, to be close to- 
gether. 

1 12 1. kapoka to hollow, to groove. Mgv.: 
akapoka, to break with a stone. Ta. : 
apoo, a hole. Ma.: poka, a hole, to 
bore. 

1 122. kapokapo to throb, to pulsate. Ha.: 
apoapo, to throb. 

1 123. kaporapori a mat. Mgv.: pora, mat, 
scaffolding of a raft. Mq. : pod, coco- 
nut leaves. Sa.: pola, plaited coco- 
nut leaves. Ma. : porapora, a mat. 

1124. kapukapu palm of hand. Mgv.: 
kapu, a leaf dipper; kapo, to hollow, 
to catch in the hands. Ta. : apu, 
shell, concavity. Mq.: kapu, to dip 
up ; kapo, to catch in the hands. Sa. : 
'apo, hollow of the hand. Ma. : kapu, 
palm of the hand. 

1 125. kara flint. Mgv.: kara, a heavy 
stone. Ta. : ard, a black flint. Ma. : 
kara, basalt. 

1126. karaea clay. Ta.: araea, id. Mq.: 
kaaea, red ochre. Ma. : karamea, id. 

Cf. 975. 

1127. karaga-puruga mother-in-law. Ta. : 
purua, parent-in-law. 

J 128. karaini bait, decoy, allurement. Ta. 

arainu, bait, lure. 
1129. karamea clay. Ma.: karamea, red 

ochre. Cf. 1126. 



II30. 
1I3I. 
1132. 
II33' 
II34. 

1135. 
1 136. 



II37- 
1 138. 

II39- 
1 140. 



1141. 
1 142. 



II43- 
1 144. 

1145- 
1 146. 

1147. 

1148. 

1 149. 
1150- 



1151. 
1152- 



karapoga throat, gullet. Ta.: ara- 
poa, throat, glutton. 
kare a wave. Ta. : are, id. Ma. :- 
kare, a ripple. 

hakarekare disgust, disrelish. Ta.: 
areare, sickness, nausea. 
karere to delegate, to assign, a herald. 
Ta. : arere, messenger. Ma. : karere, id. 
karioi unmarried, obscene, a rake. .. 
Mgv.: karioi, lust, lewdness. Mq. : 
kaioi, sensual, luxurious. Ta. : arioi, 
a lewd, joyous, unmarried band. 
karo quarrel, war. Mgv.: karokaro, 
war, to fight. Ta. : aro, to fight. 
karokaro-poke paste, dough. Mgv. : . 
poke, breadfruit or taro pounded with 
coconut water. Ta. : poe, pudding. 
Mq. : poke, taro prepared with coco- 
nut water. Ma.: pokepoke, to mix 
with water. 

karu pupil of the eye. Ta.: aru- 
mata, upper lid. Ma. : karu, the eye. 
karukaru unbent, slackened. Mgv. : , 
karu, loose. 

karukaru an old man. Ta. : aru, id. ~ 
karuru a screen, house. Mgv.: . 
ruru, to shelter, to screen. Ta. : 
aruru, barricade. Ma.: ruru, shel-^ 
tered. 

katahi now. Ma.: katahi, id. 
katoga unanimous, too. Ta. : aioa, 
all, complete. Sa. : 'atoa, id. Ma.: 
katoa, id. 

katu well arranged. Ta. : atuatu, ar- 
ranged in good order. Sa.: atu, a 
row or line of things. 
katuri earwax. Mgv.: leturi, id. 
Ta. : taturi, id. Mq. : ietui, id. Ma. : 
taturi, id. The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, page 284. 

kaua palisade, to fence. Ta.: aua, 
id. To. : tejia, boundary fence. Fu.: 
kaud, stone wall. 

kauati to make fire. Mgv. : kounati, 
the plowed stick in fire-making. 
Ta. : auati, auai, stick used in fire- 
making. Mq. : koukati, koukani, the 
plowed stick. Viti: kaunita, to rub 
fire. Ma. : kauati, a fire-making stick. 
kaufau (i te utua) to satisfy a de- 
mand. Ta. : aufau, treaty, will, tax. 
Ma. : kauwhau, to admonish. 
kauri iron. Ta. : auri, id. Sa. : auli, ^ 
sad-iron (introduced from Tahiti by 
missionaries). 

kavake moon. Ta. : avae, moon, 
month. 

kavauvau to disapprove; kovau to 
reproach. Ta.: avau, to scold, re- 
prove. Sa. : 'avau, to bawl. 
kaveiga compass. Ta. : aveia, id. 
kegokego dung, pus, to stink. Mgv. : 
egoego, filthy. Ma.: kenokeno, to 
stink. 



68 



EASTER ISLAND. 



1153. kehu flaxen-haired, blond. Ta..: ehu, 
reddish. Mq.:jfeeft«, blond. Sa. :'«/«, 
reddish, brown. 

1154. keia theft, robber. Ta.: lia, robber, 
to steal. Ma.: kaia, to steal. 

1155. keka path. Ta.: Sd, id. 

1 156. keke armpit. Mgv.: keke, id. Ta.: 
ee, id. Mq. : kadke, id. Ma. : keke, id. 

1 157. fakakekekina to grind the teeth. 
Mgv.: kekekeke, to grind or grit the 
teeth. 

1 158. kemokemo a long while. Mgv.: 
kemo, slowly, tardily. Mq.: kemo, 
to postpone, prolong. Ha.: emo, to 
be long, to delay. 

1 159. keokeo a point, hill top. Mgv.: 
keokeo, a slippery rock. Mq. : keo, 
point, sharp. Ma. : keo, hill top. 

1 160. keta strained, stiff, solid. Mgv.: 
ketaketa, stiff, stretched out. Ta.: 
etaeta, hard, strong, firm. 

1 1 6 1 . ketekete to click the tongue. Mgv. : 
kete.id. To.: kelekeie,to chirp. Ma.: 
ngetengete, to click the tongue. 

1 162. ketuketu to dig. Ta.: etuetu, id. 
Mq.: ketu, to dig up with the snout. 
Ma.: ketu, id. 

U63. ki full, replete. Ta.:j, id. Ma.:Ai, id. 

1 164. kiato to pierce and cross for joining. 
Mgv. : kiato, a large raft. Ta. : iato- 
moe, center of a raft. Mq.: kiato, 
outrigger strut. Sa. : 'iato, id. Ma. : 
kiato, thwart of a canoe. 

1 165. kikakika to clean off. Ta.: iaia, a 
coral rasp. 

1 166. fakakina to sharpen. Ta. : mo, sharp, 
cutting. 

1 167. kinikini delicious, delight. Mgv.: 
kinikini, giving great pleasure, nice 
to eat. Ha. : ini, a strong desire, to 
wish for. 

1 168. kiokio to chirp. Mgv.: kio, id. 
Ta.: ioio, to cry, said of a baby. 
Mq.: kiokio, to chirp. Sa. : 'io, id. 
Ha.: ioio, id. 

IJ69. kiriti to uncover, to extract. Ta.: 
^ iriti, id. Mq. : kiiti, to jerk out. 

H70. kiri-togitogi to toss about. Sa.: 
togi, to throw. 

1 171. kill a great number. Ta. : iu, a 
million. 

1 1 72. koari to languish, to fade. Mgv.: 
koari, half -cooked. Mq. : koal, rot- 
ten, insufficiently cooked. 

1173. koata a mesh. Ta. : oata, hole in 
coconuts, etc. Mq. : oata, crevice. 

1 1 74. kof ai indigo plant. Ta. : ofai, a plant. 

1 175. kofati to break. Ta.: ofati, id. 

1176. kof atifati rheumatism. Ta. : o/a/i, id. 

1 177. kohere split, cloven. Sa.: sele, to 
cut. 

1 1 78. kohi to glean. Mgv.: ifeoAi, to gather, 
to collect. Ta. : ohi, to glean. Mq. : 
kohi, id. Ma.: kohi, to gather. 

1179. kohi bamboo. Mgv.: feoAe, id. Ta.: 
ohe,id. Mq.: kohe, id. Sa.:'o/e, id. 
Ma. : kohe, a plant name. 



1180. kohi diarrhea. Ta. : ofej, dysentery. 

1 181. kohinahina gray. Ta.: china, id. 

1 182. kohumu to murmur, to slander. 
Ta.: ohumu,id. Mq.: kohumu,id. 

1 183. koi on the point of, almost. Ta.: 
oi, id. 

1184. koi koi prompt, lively, quick. Mgv.: 
koi, to hurry. Ta. : oi, agile. Mq. : 
koi, quick. 

1 185. koka fern, bracken. Ta. : ooAo, Asple- 
nium nidus. Mq.: koka, breadfruit, 
a banana. Sa. : 'o'a, a tree. 

1 1 86. koki to hop on one leg. Mq.: oi, 
lame. Ma.: koki, to limp. 

1 187. fakakomakoma to straiten, to 
cramp. Mgv.: komakoma, narrow, 
strait. 

1 188. komenemene to roll. Ta.: omene- 
mene, spherical, to roll. 

1189. komiri to wipe. Mgv.: miri, to 
touch, to handle. Ta. : omiri, to caress 
the hand; mirimiri, to touch and 
examine. Mq. : mii, to touch, to 
manipulate. Sa. : mili, to rub. Ma. : 
komiri, to rub with the fingers. 

1 190. komitimiti to whistle, to hiss. Sa. : 
miti, to smack the lips. 

1191. komore a spear. Ta.: omore, id. 

1 192. komotu to break. Mgv.: momoiu, 
id. Ta. : motu, id. Mq.: motu, id. 
Sa. : motu, id. Ma.: motu, id. 

1 193. komua precedent. Ta. : omua, head, 
guide. Mq. : komua, before. 

1 1 94. komumu to whisper. Ta.: omumu, 
to whisper, to murmur. Mq.: 
komumu, a kind of singing. 

1195. komuri the rear, later. Mgy. :komuri, 
the rear, after. Mq. : komuri, behind. 

1196. kona bile, gall, sharp. Ta.: onaona, 
sharp, disagreeable. Sa. : 'ona, bitter, 
poisonous. 

1 1 97. konakona odor, savor. Ha..: onaona, 
a pleasant odor. 

1 198. konakona moustache. Ta.: onaona, 
id. 

1199. koniga live coals. Mq. : konia,konie, 

stone heated for cooking. 

1200. konohi to commit suicide. Ta. : 
onohi, id. 

1201. konokono succulent, delicious. Ha.; 
ono, to be sweet. 

1202. kokopa to incline, to slope. Mgv.: 
kopa, flat, level (a sense invert). Ta.: 
opa, to heel over under the wind. 
Ma. : kopa, bent. 

1 203 . kokopa to be on the flank. Ta. : opa, 
to be at the side. 

1204. kopahi scrofula. Ta.: opahi, id. 

1205. kopahi hatchet. Ta.: opahi, id. Ha.: 
pahi, knife. 

1206. kopani to obstruct, end. Ta.: opani, 
to shut, end. Ma. : kopani, to shut. 

1207. kopare to protect, safeguard. Ma.: 
kopare, to shade the eyes. 

1208. kopatepate to be spotted. Ta.: 
opatapata, id. 



THE PAUMOTU IN THB POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 



69 



1209. kope string, filament. Ma.: kope, 
to bind in flax leaves. 

1210. kopeka transverse, crossed. Mgv.: 
kopeka, to cross the arms. Ta. : opea, 
crossed, transverse, lattice. Mq.: 
kopea, windmill. Ha. : opea, cross. 

121 1. kopie pit oven. Ta.: opio, id. 

12 12. kopiri to yield in battle, coward. 
Mq.: kopii, weak, coward. 

1213. kopiripiri-haere to roam, to ramble. 
Mgv. : kopiripiri, to go from one tree 
to another, as children when called. 

1214. kopua to premeditate. Ta.: opua, 
to resolve, to decide. 

1215. kopuru meteor. Ta.: opurei,\A. 

12 16. koraparapa square. Ta.: orapa, id. 

1217. korereka small. To.: leka, short, 
stmnpy. 

-12 18. korero to interpret, eloquent. Ta.: 
/""^ orero, orator, discourse, to speak. 

Ma.: korero, to say. 
J219. koriorio to wither, to fade. Ta.: 
^' oriorio, id. 

1220. korora a mussel. Ta.: orom, a small 
y^ shell fish. 

1221. kotau right hand. Ta.: otow, id. 

1222. koti to gush, to spout. Ta.: oti, to 
rebound, to fall back. 

1223. kotika cape, headland. Ta.: olid, 
boundary, limit. 

1224. kotohe behind, to go back, withdraw. 
Ta. : otohe, to retire, withdraw. Ma. : 
tohe, anus. 

1223. kotokoto cry of a lizard. Mgv.:Jfeo- 
tokoto, noise of the lips in sucking. 
Ta.: oto, song, groan, sound. Ma.: 
kotokoto, to squeak. 

1226. kotore incision. Ta. : otore, to dis- 
embowel. 

1227. kouma bosom, chest, stomach. Ta. : 
ouma, breast, chest. Ma.: kouma, 
breastplate. 

J. 1228. kovaravara clear, bright, shining. 
/ Mgv.: kovara, to be daylight. Cf. 

1717. 
1229. kovi gangrene, mortified. Mq.: kovi, 

leprosy. Fu.: kovi, ulcerous. 
1-230. koviri savage. Ta.: oviri, id. 

1231. koviriviri twist, contortion, frizzly. 
Ta.: oviri, to twist, to spin. Mq. : 
koviivii, to twist, to turn. Ma.: 
kowhiri, to whirl around. 

1232. kukana to strain, to strive, violence. 
Ta. : uana, strong, violent, zealous. 

1233. kukumi to strangle, to force, to offer 
violence. Ta.: uumi, id. Mq.: ku- 
kumi, id. Ha. : umiumi, to strangle. 

1234. kumete dish, trough, yigv.-.kumete, 
bowl, trough. Sa. : 'umele, id. Ma. : 
kumete,iA. Mq.: «>»ete, trunk, chest, 
box. 

i23'5. kunakuna to adorn. Ta.: unauna, 

ornament. 
1236. kunaunau carelessness. Ta.:«na«- 

nau, heedless. 



1237. kuokuo white, clean. Mgv.: kuo- 
ktto, white. Ta. : uo, id. Mq. : liouo, 
id.; kuo, red and white spotted. 

1238. kuru breadfruit. Mgv.: kuru, id. 
Ta. : uru, id. Sa. 'ulu, id. Ha. : ulu, 
id. 

1239. kutikuti decent, becoming. Mq.: 
kuti, well done. The Marquesan 
word is supported by its affiliate and 
must be accepted as Polynesian. 
This can not be said of Bishop Dor- 
dillon's verekuti "trfis-bien," which is 
English in savage undress. 

1240. hakamaha to soothe. Mgv.: ma- 
maha, ease from pain. Ta. : maha, 
appeased, satisfied. Mq.: maha, id. 
Ha. : maha, to rest easy. 

1241. mahaki softly, gently. Mgv.: ma- 
haki, easily detached. Ma. : mahaki, 
meek, quiet. 

1242. mahemo abortion. Ta..:mahemo,id. 

1243. mahere to occur. Ta.: mahere, to 
become. 

1244. mahoi spirit, soul. Ta.: mahoi, the 
essence or soul of a god. 

1245. mahu steam. Ta.: mahu, cloud, 
mist. Ha.: mahu, steam. 

1246. mahue sudden passion, to tremble. 
Ta. : mahue, to be in fear. 

1247. maikao a claw. Ta.: maiao, leg, 
foot, paw. Ha.: maiao, nail, hoof, 
claw. 

1248. maitnoa plaything, toy. Ta.: mai- 
moa, id. To.: maimoa, id. Ma.: 
maimoa, a pet. 

1249. maineine to tickle, to please. Ta.: 
maineine, ticklish, vexed. Sa. : ene- 
ene, to tickle. 

1250. makariri cold, fever, to shake. Mgv.: 
makariri, cold, to shiver. Ta. : maa- 
riri, cold. Mq. : makaii, cold, shiver. 
Sa. : ma' aim, cold. Ma. : makariri, id. 

1 25 1. makeva to tease, to mock. Ha.: 
maewa, to mock. 

1252. makevakeva to be agitated. Ta.: 
maevaeva, id. 

1253. makuru abortive fruit. Mgv.: ma- 
kuru, a frequent fall of ripe fruit. Ta. : 
mauru, to fall. Mq.: makuu, id. 
Sa. : ma'idu, to drop as rain. 

1254. mamao far. Mgv.: mamao, to go 
away. Mq. : mamao, far away. Sa. : 
mamao, far. Ma. : mamao, distant. 

1255. mamaoroa desert, barren. Ta.:mo- 
maooraroa, desert, uninhabited. 

1256. manako sense, to think. Ta.: ma- 
nao, id. Sa.: »»a»o'o, to desire. Ha.: 
manao, to think of. 

1257. manemanea a finger. Ta.: maniao, 
nails, toes, foot. 

1258. manihinihi to be beside oneself, de- 
mented. Ta. : manihinihi, ill at ease. 

1259. manina to equalize. Ta.: manina, 
smooth, level. 



70 



FASTER ISLAND. 



1260. manuanu detestable. Ta.: manu- 
anu, loathsome, to have nausea. Mq. : 
manuanu, teeth set on edge. 

1261. manuminu lassitude. Mgv.: manu, 
nausea, inclined to vomit. Ta. : ma- 
nunu, lassitude, fatigued. 

1262. maoake east wind. Ta.: maoaS, id. 

1263. maoro-takake far off, distant. Ta. : 
maoro, long. 

1264. mape chestnut tree (Inocarpus edu- 
lis). JAgv.: m,ape,\A. ta..: mape, iA. 
Viti: mala, a tree with edible nut. 
The Poly nesianWanderings, page 2 1 4 . 

1265. mapemape vigilant. Ta.. : napenape, 
vigilance, active. Ma.: napenape, 
quick, speedy. 

1266. mapunapuna to boil, to simmer. 
Mgv.: mapuna, boiling, steam, vol- 
umes of smoke. Ma. : mapunapuna, 
to bubble up. 

1267. marae temple. Mgv.: marae, a sac- 
rifice, festival. Ta.: marae, pagan 
altar. Mq. : mede, sacred place. Sa. : 
malae, town green. Ma. : marae, in- 
closed space. The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, page 369. 

1268. maraga tractable, easy to handle. 
Ta. : maraa, manaa, portable, loose. 
Ha. : malana, easy to pull up, loose. 

1269. kiri-maraia a mat. Ta. : maraia, a 
dark bast cloth. 

1270. marako brightness of a flame, lucid. 
Mgv. : rako, to bleach. Ta. : marao- 
rao, break of day, twilight. Ha.: 
malaolao, twilight. 

1 27 1. maramara portion, fragment. Mgv.: 
maramara, firewood. Mq. : madmad, 
branches, chips. Sa.: malamala, 
chips. Ma.: maramara, id 

1272. marara flying fish. Ta.: marara, id. 

1273. marari to grub up. Ta.: marari, 
cultivated. 

1274. marau to speak. To.: »»a/o«, noisy, 
uproarious. 

1275. marearea yellowish. Ta. : marea, 
yelk of an egg. 

1276. marei a snare. Ta.: marei, id. Fu.: 
malei, id. Sa.: mailei, id. 

1277. marigi to suppurate. Mgv.: merigi, 
to drip, trickle. Ta. : manii, to over- 
flow. Sa.: maligi, to spill. Ma.: 
maringi, id. The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, page 233. 

1278. marihini a guest, host. Ta.: mani- 
hini, id. Mq. : manihii, guest, host, 
stranger. Ma.: manuhiri, visitor. 
Ha.: malihini, stranger. 

1279. marino a calm sea. Ta.: manino, 
calm. Mq. : menino, id. Sa. : mani- 
no, id. To.: melino, id. Ma.: ma- 
rino, id. 

1280. marc hard, rough, stubborn. Mgv.: 
maro, hard, obdurate, tough. Ta.: 
mdrd, obstinate, headstrong. Sa.: 
mMo, strong. Ma. : maro, hard, stub- 
bom. 



1281. maruhi to recover one's senses. Ta.: 
maruhi, soft, smooth. 

1282. matakite to be on one's guard. 
Mgv.: matakite, eyewitness. Mq.: 
matakite, eyewitness, foreseeing. Ma. : 
matakite, one who predicts. 

1283. mataro customary, common. Ta.: 
mataro, accustomed, used. 

1284. matau customary, used. Mgv.: ma- 
tau, id. Ta. : matau, id. To.: faka- 
matau, to accustom. Ma. : matau, to 
know, to understand. 

1285. matau fishhook. Mgv.: matau, id. 
Ta.: matau, id. Mq. : matau, id. 
Sa. : matau, id. Ma.: matau, id. 

1286. matie couch grass. Mgv.: mutie, 
quitch grass. Ta. : matie, grass. Mq. : 
mutie, id. Sa. : mutia, id. Ma. : mati- 
hetihe, a grass along shore. 

1287. matiro to beg, adulation. Mq. : 
mntio, parasite, a trencher knight. 
Ma. : matiro, to beg for food. 

1288. hakamatuatua vain, conceited. 
Mgv.: matau, superintendent, over- 
seer. Ma.: matuatua, important, 
large. 

1289. mauri soul, mind. Ta. : mauri, spirit, 
soul. Mq. : moui, the last sigh of life. 
Sa. : mauli, heart. Ma. : mauri, heart, 
life. The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 258. 

1290. hakamauruuru obliging, kind. Ta.: 
mauruuru, to please. 

1291. mavae split, cloven. Ta. : mavae, id. 
Sa. : mavae, id. 

1292. mehetua to sneeze. Sa.. :mafatua, id. 

1293. memu blunt. Ta. : memu, id. 

1294. menemene round. Mgv. : wene, bent, 
turned. Ta. : jne«e»jene, round, spheri- 
cal. Ha. : menemene, to curl up. 

1295. hakamere to depreciate. Mgv. :ofeo- 
mere, to depreciate, despise, scorn. 
Mq. : jKee,todepreciate, insult, mock. 
Ta. : haamere, to depreciate. Fu.: 
fakamele, to depreciate, discredit, 
mock. 

1296. meru soften, grow tender. Ta.: 
maru, soft, smooth. Sa. : malu, soft. 
Ha.: melu, soft. 

1297. mihi to regret. Ta. : mi^i, pain, grief, 
chagrin. Ma. : mihi, to sigh for. 

1298. mikau hoof, nail, talon. Ma. : mikau, 
nail. 

1299. mikimiki adversary. Ta. : miimii, 
envy, revenge, jealous. 

1300. hakamiomio to plait, to fold. Ta.: 
miomio, folded, wrinkled. 

1301. miri sweet basil. Mgv.: miri, id. 
Ta. : miri, id. 

1302. miri to gum. Ta.: miVt, to embalm. 
Ma. : mirimiri, to smear. 

1303. miro to rope. Mgv.: kou-miro, the 
cotton plant. Sa.: milo, to twist. 
Ma.: miro, id. 

1304. mito cautious, discreet. Mq.: mito, 
taciturn, silent. 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 



71 



1305. mohimohi to dazzle. Ta.: mohi- 
tnohi, dazzled. 

1306. mohinewife. Mgv.: mohine, tender 
term applied to a young daughter. 
Ta.: mahine, young daughter. Sa.: 
mdfine, woman. 

1307. moka defense. Mgv.: »«Oifea, to pro- 
voke a fight. 

1308. moke covetous, greedy. Mq. : moke, 
savage, fierce. 

1309. memo particle, atom. Ta. : momotno, 
to break into bits. Mq.: momo, 
small. Sa. : momo, crumb. Ma. : mo- 
mohanga, remnant. 

1310. hakamomoka to betroth. Ta.: mo- 
mod, to espouse. 

13 u. mono to substitute, to succeed. Ta.: 
mono, id. 

13 1 2. monogi perfume, scented oil. Ta.: 
monoi, id. Mq.: monoi, id. Sa.: 
manogi, fragrance. 

13 13. moora a duck. Ta.: moora, id. 

1314. morai a plug, to stop up. Ta. : morei, 
a plug. 

1315. morearea isolated. Ma.: morearea, 
lonely, dreary. 

1316. moremore smooth, level, polished, 
hairless. Mgv. : moremore, a straight 
young tree. Ta. : moremore, smooth, 
polished, branchless. Sa. : mole, 
smooth. Ma.: more, bare, plain. 

1317. ha-tnorihaga pious. Mgv.: mori- 
mori, to consecrate. Ta. : moria, 
prayer. Ma. : morina, to remove tabu. 

1318. motautau a snare, to ambush. Ta.: 
motautau, to ambush, to surprise. 

1319. moto fist, a blow. Mgv.: moto, a 
blow of the fist. Ta..: moto, id. Mq.: 
moto, to box, to spar. Sa.: moto, a 
blow of the fist. Ma. : moto, id. 

1320. motoro to prostitute, immodest. 
Mgv. : motoro, bastard. Ma. : matoro, 
to woo. 

132 1. muki to prophesy, to perform incan- 
tations. Ha.: muki, to whisper as 
an enchanter. 

1322. muko the heart of a coconut tree. 
Mgv.: muko, the highest shoot of a 
plant. Ta. : muoo, scion, taro shoots. 
Mq.: muko, highest shoot, coconut 
heart. Fu. : muko, scion, bud. Ha. : 
muo, bud. 

1323. mumutakina to hum, to buzz. Ta.: 
mumu, to chatter. Mq. : mumukina, 
grating noise of the teeth. Sa. : 
mumu, to hum {lagomumu). Ma.: 
mumu, to hum. The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 384. 

1324. muna a dermatitis. Mgv. : m«ffa, id. 
Ta.: munaa, id. Mq. : muna, id. 
Ma.: muna, ringworm. 

1325. mure brief, compact. Ta.: mure, 
short, brief. 

1326. mutagaiho former, ancient. Ta.: 
mtUaaiho, id. 



1327. mutamuta to mutter. Ta.: muta- 
muta, id. 

1328. mutoi a defense, keeper. Ta.:mutoi, 
guardian. Mq.: mutoi, id. 

1329. na of. Mgv.: na, id. Ta.: na, id. 
Mq.: na, id. Ha.: na, id. 

1330. nahonaho well arranged, in order. 
Ta. : nahonaho, nahanaha, id. 

1331. nanako to tattoo. Ta.: nanao, tut- 
tooing. 

1332. namu mosquito. Ta.: namu, id. 
Mq. : namu, a. small red gnat. Sa. : 
namu, mosquito. Ma.: namu, sand 
fly. The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 386. 

1333. natnunatnu disagreeable smell or 
taste. Ta. : naminami, repulsive, dis- 
agreeable. Mq.: namunamu, very 
bad tasting or smelling. Sa. : namu, 
to have a bad smell. 

1334. nanao to insert the hand. Mgv.: 
nanao, to take fish out of a wicker 
basket. Ta. : nanao, neneo, to intro- 
duce the hand. Mq. : nanao, to grope 
in. Sa. : naonao, to feel for by intro- 
ducing the hand. Ma.: nao, to feel 
with tiie hand. 

1335 . nanea enough, satisfying, to multiply. 
Mgv.: nenea, to abound, multiply. 
Ta.: nanea, capacious, containing 
much, multiply. Sa. : nanea, food 
affording large portions in the distri- 
bution. Ma.: nanea, copious, satis- 
fying. 

1336. napetoweave, tress, plait. Ta..:nape, 
coir sennit. Sa. : nape, entangled. 
Na. : nape, to weave. 

1337. nati plaster, salve. Mgv. : nati, to tie, - 
to squeeze. Ta. : nati, to tie, to stick 
close. Mq. : nati, to tie, to embrace. 
Ma. : nati, to bind. 

1338. nato ungovernable passion. Mgv.: 
nato, to have strong desire. 

1339. navenave agreeable, delicious, volup- 
tuous. Ta. : nave, id. Ma. : nanave, 
delighted. 

1340. neganega prosperous, flourishing. 
Ta.: nenea, abundant. 

1341. neke to creep. Mgv.: nefo", to creep, 
to crawl. Ta. : nee, to creep. Mq. : 
neke, id. 

1342. nena bent, strained, stiff. Ta..: nena, 
stretched, smooth. 

1343. niganiga mire, mud. Mq. : nika, 
mire, muddy, dirty. 

1344. nimo secret, to conceal. Sa.: nimo, 
out of sight. 

1345. nina to leap up. Ta.: ni'na, to heap 
up, to cover with earth. 

1346. ninamu blue. Ta.: ninamu, blue, 
green. 

1347. ninita, the papaya. Mgv.: ninita, id. 
Ta. : ninita, id. 

1348. noganoga odorous. Ta.: nodnod, id. 
Mq. : nod, odor, perfume. 



72 



EASTER ISLAND. 



1349. nohi eye, face, front, mesh. Ma.: 
kanohi, eye. 

1350. nuka crowd, throng. Ta.: nuii, army, 
fleet. Mangaia: nuku, a host, army. 

135 1. nunaga race, breed. Ta.: nunaa, 
nation, people, famUy, tribe. 

1352. oho to awake, to rouse. Mq.: oho, a 
call of encouragement. To. : fakaofo, 
to siu-prise. Ma. : oho, to awake. 

1353. fakaohu to heap up, to accumulate. 
Ta. : faaohu, to make furrows. 

1354. okoroga bay, gulf. Ta. : ooa, creek, 
bay. 

1355. omohaga a bolt. Ta.: omo, to close. 

1356. opere to set aside. Ta. : opere, por- 
tion, to distribute. 

1357. ota straw. Ta. : ota, straw, chaff. 

1358. hakapa to feel, to touch. Mgv.: 
akapa, to feel, to touch, to handle 
cautiously. 

1359- paave a strap, brace. Ta.: paave, to 
carry on the back, braces, to suspend. 
Mq.: paave, girdle, belt, brace. 

1360. pae shore, bank. Ta. : pae, side. 

1361. pagogo distress, sorrow. Ta.: panoo- 
noo, anxiety. 

1362. pahere to lop, to prune. Ta.: pahere, 
to peel. Mq. : pahee, to cut. 

1363. pahi a ship. Mgv.: pahi, id. Ta.: 
pahi, id. Mangaia: pat, id. 

1364. hakapahi to harass, to tire out. Ta. : 
haapahi, to harass, to vex. 

1365. pahika to polish. Ta.: haapaid, id. 

1366. pahore to peel off, to scale. Mgv.: 
pahore, cut, chop, peel. Ta.: pahore, 
to peel. Mq.: pahore-tue, the head 
clean-shaven. Ma.: pahore, scraped 
off. 

1367. pakara to slap, to strike against. Ta.: 
paara, id. Ma. : pakara, to smack the 
lips. 

1368. pakari strong, wise. Ta. : ;^adrt, hard, 
old, wise. Ma. : pakari, hard, matured. 

1369. pakato to cull flowers for a wreath. 
Ta. : padto, to pluck. 

1370. paki sodomy. Ta.: paia, id. 

1371. paki ka smooth, level. Mgv.: pakika, 
to lose one's balance. Ta. : paia, 
smooth, slippery. 

1372. pakoti to shear, scissors. Ta..: paoti, 
id. Mq. : pakoti, id. 

1373. paku a cloud. Mgv.: pakupaku, 
cloudy. 

1374. pana to rise. Mq. : pana, to jump up. 
Ma.: pana, to cause to come forth. 

1375- panene the head. Mgv.: pane, id. 
Mq. : pane, top of the head of large 
fish. Ma.: pane, the head. 

1376. paniarua a human sacrifice. Ta.: 
paniarua, id. 

1377. papa a rock. Mgv. : papa, a flat rock. 
Ta.: papa, a rock. Sa.: papa, id. 
Ma. : papa, id. The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, page 325. 

1378. papahoro to slip. Ma.: papahoro, 
to drop out. 



1379. papahuaga genealogy. Ta.: papa- 
huaa, to make a genealogy. 

1380. papape rain. Ta.: papape, a rain 
squall. 

1381. paparagi heaven. Sa.: papalagi, for- 
eigner. 

1382. papariga temples, forehead. Mgy.: 
papariga, cheek. Ta.: paparid, id. 
Mq. : papaina, id. Ma. : paparinga, id. 

1383. papu even, flat. Ta. : papu, id. 

1384. hakapapu to tranqullize oneself. 
Ta. : papu,^ inert. 

1385. parakiraki northwest. M.a.: paraki, 
northerly wind. 

1386. paraoa whale. Mq. : /)aaoo, id. Ma.: 
paraoa, id. 

1387. parapara sweepings. Ta.: para,d.W3.g, 
dirt. Mq. : pad, rotten. Sa. : paia, 
id. Ma. : para, sediment. 

1388. parara-magu to broil. Mgv. : />arora, 
to cook over hot coals. Ta. : parara, 
to grill. Mq.: padd, id. Ma.: para- 
hunu, to roast. 

1389. parari to split, to shiver. Ta.: pa- 
rari, broken, split. Ma.: parari, a 
ravine. 

1390. parau nacre. Ta. : parau, id. 

1391. paraurau even, plain, flat. Mgv.: 
paraurau, flat-bottomed boat. Ma- 
ngaia: paraurau, flat. 

1392. parego to drown oneself. Ta.: par- 
emo, drowned. Ma. : paremo, id. 

1393. fakapari to incriminate. Ta.: pari, 
to incriminate, to accuse. 

1394. paroro dearth season. Vigv.: paroro, 
a season. 

1395. paruafish. Ta. :^or«, id. Mq.:/)ajj, 
id. Sa. : palu, id. Ha. : palu, id. 

1396. paruai calico. Ta.: paruai, calico, 
white cloth. 

1397. paruparu weak, enfeebled. Ta.: pa- 
ruparu, weak, enfeebled, soft. Ha.; 
palupalu, soft, soft, feeble. 

1398. pata to prick. Ta. : pata, scorpion, to 
pinch. 

1399. pata-nuni a shower of rain. Ta.: 
pataa, a drop, particle. Mq. : pata, a 
drop. Ma. : pata, a drop of water. 

1400. patapata a spot, stain. Ta.: paia, 
stain; o/)oto spot, mark. Mq. : pata- 
pata, spot, stain, mark, pimple. Sa. : 
pata, pimples on the skin. Ma. : pata, 
pimply. 

1401. patiki skate, ray. Ta. : patii,&a,t,a 
flounder. Ma. : patiki, a flatfish. 

1402. patititonail. Ta.: ^oiV/i, to nail, to 
fix. 

1403. patu to build, structure, wall. Ta. : 
patu, wall, to build. Ma.: patu, a 
wall. 

1404. patu to kill, to beat. Mgv. : patu, to 
strike, war. Ta.: ^ato, to strike with 
a mallet. Ma. : patu, to strike, to kill. 

1405. pauma a kite. Ta. : pauma, id. 

1406. pauma to scale, to climb over. Ta.: 
pauma, to climb, to mount. Mq. : 
pauma, precipice. 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 



73 



1407. paupau breathless. Ta.: paupau, id. 

1408. pe spoilt, damaged. Mgv. : pee, ma- 
cerated, spoUt. Ta.: pe, spoilt, rot- 
ten. Mq.:;^e, id. Sa.: pe, id. Ma.: 
pe, pulpy, purulent. 

1409. peinake perhaps. Ta.: peinae, id. 

1410. pekapeka vexed, unhappy. Ta..:ped, 
in pain, vexed. 

141 1. pekeau companion, friend. Ta.: 
peiau, id. 

1412. pekeutari loyal, true. Ta..: peeutari, 
to attach oneself to the company of. 

1413. penu to fling, to hurl. Mgv.: penu- 
penu, to gesticulate with hands and 
feet in dancing. 

1414. pepe butterfly. Ta..: pepe, id. Mq.: 
pepe, id. Sa. : pepe, id. Ma. : pepe, a 
moth. The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 2SI. 

1415. pepereraufin. Mgv.: pererau, wing. 
Ta. : pererau, id. Ma. : parirau, id. 

1416. pepereru to pound. Ta.: peperehu, 
to crack, to break. 

1417. pere tender, soft. Mq.: pepeS, ten- 
der, soft, flexible. 

1418. pereoo a wheel. Ta.: pereoo, ca.rt. 

1419. pereteki-paka cricket. Ta.: peretei, 
id. 

1420. peru edge, frame, border. Mq. : peil, 
edge, margin, visor. 

1421. peu habit, custom, manners. Ta. : 
peu, custom, habit, usage. 

1422. hakapeu to strut. Ta.: haapeu, id. 

1423. peuke to be thick, coarse. Ta.: peue, 
large, broad. 

1424. haapiaga to learn. Ta.: piahi, 
scholar, disciple. 

1425. pihakiatu beyond. Ta.:pihaiatu,id. 

1426. pihapara a room. Ta. : piha, id. 

1427. pikiafare cat. Ta. : piifare, id. 

1428. hakapiko to fold. Mgv.: piko, 
crooked, athwart. Ta. : pio, id. Mq. : 
piko, id. Sa. : pi'o, id. Ma. : piko, to 
bend. 

1429. pinaki echo. Ta. : pinai, id. 

1430. pinaki to drive back. Ta..: pinai, to 
hold in. Mq.: pinake, constipation. 
Ha. : pinai, to crowd each other. 

143 1 . pinepine to do often. Ta. : pinepine, 
often, frequent. Ha.: pinepine, to 
do often. 

1432. plpiki to close, to contract, to shrink. 
Ta. : pipii, rolled in a circle. Sa. : 
pi'i, curly, to fold the arms. Ma.: 
piki, closely curling. 

1433. pipiri the December season. Mgv.: 
pipiri, the June season. 

1434. pirau stench. Mgv.: pirau, rotten. 
Ta.: pirau, pus, rotten. Mq.: pidu, 
pinau, to smell bad. Ma.: pirau, 
rotten. 

»435- pitaka to split, to shiver. Mgv.: 
pitaka, to open. Ta. : pitaa, sepa- 
rated, to split. 

1436. pee pearl, ring, buckle, curl. Mgv.: 
poe, berry of a necklace. Ta.: poe, 
pearl, necklace. Mq.: poe, clusters 
of fruit. Ha. : poe, globular. 



1437- 
1438. 
1439- 
1440. 

1441- 

1442. 
1443- 

1444- 

1445- 
1446. 

1447- 
1448. 

1449. 
1450. 
1451. 
1452. 
1453- 

I4S4- 
1455. 

1456. 
1457- 
1458. 



"459- 



pof aki to cull, to pick. Ta. : pofai, to 
pluck. 

poihu to be repugnant. Ta.. : poihu, 
weary, disgusted. 

poihuri a slip or cutting of a plant. 
Mgv. : pohuri, small banana scions. 
poiri ignorant. Mgv.: pouri, dark- 
ness. Ta.: poiri, pouri, darkness, 
ignorance. Sa.: pouli, darkness. 
Mangaia: poiri, darkness. 
pokai a roller, to roll a ball. Ta.: 
podi, hall of thread. Mq. : pokai, ball. 
Ma. : pokai, id. 

pokara to clap hands. Mgv. : pokara, 
id. Ta. : poara, to box lie ears. 
ponaponahaga joint, knot. Mgv. : 
pona, a knot. Ta. : pona, joint, knot. 
Mq. : pona, knot. Sa. : pona, id. Ma. : 
pona, id. 

pope ball, sphere. Mgv.: popo, ball. 
Ta. : popo, id. Mq. : popo, id. Ha.: 
popo, id. 

kauri-popo iron rust. Ha.: popo, 
rust. 

poria fat, fleshy. Ta.: poria, fat. 
Mq. : poi, corpulence. Ma.: pari, 
coUops of fat. 

poro to proclaim, to call by name. 
Mgv.: poro, to call, to name. Ta. : 
poro, to cry, to proclaim. 
poro-fana long bow. Ta. : fana, bow. 
Mq. : pana, bow, arrow. Sa.: fana, 
to shoot. Ma.: whana, to spring 
back as a bow. 

poroki a petition, to summon. Ta. : 
poroi, a charge. 

porotaka a wheel. Ta.: porotaa, 
wheel, circular. 

porotata sphere, circle. Ta.: poro- 
tata, circular. 

porovaevae heel. Ta.: poro, heel. 
Ma. : poro, butt end. 
potagotago darkness. Ta.: potaS, 
black. Mq. : potano, darkness. Ma. : 
potangotango, intensely dark. 
potu roof. Mgv. : potu, id. Sa. : potu, 
a room, a screen. 

pouhouto pitching up and down of 
ships. Mgv. : pouto, tassel of a rope. 
Ta.: poito, buoy. Ma.: pouto, id. 
poutu to splash, to bespatter. Ma.: 
pohutu, id. 

puaki to overflow. Sa.: pua'i, to 
vomit. 

puehu rout, defeat. Mgv.: puehu, 
to melt away, to disperse. Ta.: 
puehu, to be dissipated, dispersed. 
Mq. : puehu, dissipated, dispersed, to 
drive away. Ha. : puehu, to disperse, 
to scatter. 

pugaverevere cloth. Mgv. : pugavere- 
vere, spider. Ta. : puaverevere, gauze, 
cobweb. Mq.: punaveevee, spider. 
Sa.: apugaleveleve, spider. Ma.: pu- 
ngawerewere, id. The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 361. 



74 



EJASTBR ISI/AND. 



1460. pukua to choke on a fishbone. Mgv.: 
pukua, to choke on something lodged 
in the throat. Ta. : puunena, to choke, 
strangled. Mq. : pukua, difSculty in 
swallowing. Ha. : puua, to strangle. 

1461. puni year. Ta. : puni, id. 

1462. punipuni to hide oneself. Mgv.: 
pupuni, id. Ta. : pupuni, id. Mq.: 
pupuni, id. Ma.: whakapupuni, id. 

1463. puoro to rub out with a brush. Ta. : 
puoro, to wash, to cleanse. 

1464. pupu shrewd, sagacious. Ma. : pupu, 
wise man. 

1465. puputoa to invest on all sides. Ta. : 
putoa, id. 

1466. pura phosphorescent. Ta. : pura, 
phosphorescent, a spark, to glow. 
Sa. : ^Za, to shine. Mangaia: pura, 
a spark. The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, page 329. 

1467. purao-puaru hibiscus. Ta. : purau, 
id. Mq. : puau, a breadfruit. 

1468. purara to divulge. Ta.. purara, 
scattered. Ma.: purara, open. 

1469. pure-hiva a butterfly. Mgv. : pure- 
rehue, id. Ta. : pure-hua, a moth. 
Mq. : pue-hua, id. Ma. : pure-hua, id. 

1470. purero to emit, to issue. Ta. : purero, 
eloquent. Ma. : purero, to project. 

1471. purotu fine, beautiful. Ta. : purotu, 
id. Sa. : Pulotu, the abode of the 
dead. Ma.: purotu, pleasant. 

1472. pekeremu-puru coconut husk. Sa.: 
pndu, id. 

1473. puru straw. Mq. : puu, a coir cord. 
Ta. : puru, coconut husk. Sa. : pulu, 
id. Rarotonga: puru, id. 

1474. puruhi elephantiasis. Sa. : pulupu- 
lusi, illness. 

1475. puta a gateway, to penetrate, wound. 
Mgv. : puta, a hole. Ta. : puta, open- 
ing, wound. Mq. : puta, opening, 
hole. Ma.: puta, hole. 

1476. putaratara jagged, spiny. Mgv.: 
putaratara, rough, spiny. Ta. : puta- 
ratara, id. Mq. : putad, id. 

1477. putikJ a tress, headdress. Ma.: 
puiiki, id. 

1478. putoketoke to grieve. Ta.: putoe- 
toe, desolate. 

1479. putotoi bloody. Mgv.: putoto, id. 
Ta. : putoto, id. Mq. : putoto, the ap- 
pearance of the menses. Ma. : putoto, 
bloody. 

1480. f akaraga to raise, to lift up. Mgv. : 
raga, to heap up, to float. Mq. : ana, 
to float. Sa.: laga, to rise, to raise. 
Ma.: ranga, to rouse. The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, page 197. 

1481. ragatira chief, owner. Mgv.: raga- 
tira, chief, master. Ta. : radiira, id. 
Mq. : anatia, akatia, proprietor, owner, 
master. Ma. : rangatira, chief. 

1482. rahihaga quantity. Ta.: rahiraa, id. 
Mq.: rarahi, large, long. Sa.: last, 
many. Ma. : rahi, great. The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, page 246. 



1483. rahirahiga the temples. Mgv.: raAj- 
rahiga, id. Ta. : rahirahid, id. Ma. : 
rahirahinga, id. 

1484. rairai light, slender, elegant. Mgv. : 
rahirahi, fine, slender, supple. Ta.: 
rairai, fine, slender, thin. Mq. : ahi- 
ahi, fine, slender, graceful. Ma.: 
rahirahi, thin. 

1485. raka holy. Mgv.: raka, to profane, 
defiled. Ta. : raa, holy. Ha. : laa. Id. 

i486, rakuraku to scrape, rub, scratch, 
claw. Mgv. : rakuraku, to scrape, to 
scratch. Ta. : raiiraii, to scratch. 
Sa.: fela'u, to scratch; la'u, to scrape 
up. Ma. : raku, to scrape. 

1487. raoa to choke on a fishbone. Mgv.; 
roa, a bone stuck in the throat. Ta. : 
raoa, to choke on a bone. Sa. : laoa, 
to have something lodged in the 
throat. Ma. : raoa, to be choked. 

1488. rapa a fool, madness. Ma.: rapa, a 
familiar spirit. 

1489. rapa blade of a paddle. Mgv. : rapa- 
rapahoe, id. Ta. : rapa, id. Mq. : apa, 
id. Sa.: lapa, flat. Ma.: rapa, flat 
part of a shovel. 

1490. rapae a sand-pit. Ta.; rape, arapai, 
id. 

1491. fata-rarapu to dissolve. Mgv.: rapu, 
to dilute. Ta. : rapu, to mix. Mq. : 
dpu, to draw water. 

1492. rarani to set in a row. Ma.: rarangi, 
a row, rank. 

1493. raraninuku defiled. Mgv.: ragina, 
to defile, break a tabu. 

1494. raroa a joint. Mq. : aoa, inner side 
of the thighs. 

1495. rauti to harangue. Ta.: rauti, to 
make a war speech. 

1496. re victory. Ta. : re, prize in any con- 
test, prey. 

1497. rega ginger. Mgv.: rega, turmeric. 
Ta. : rea, id. Mq. : ena, id. Sa. : lega, 
id. Ma. : renga, pollen of bulrushes. 

1498. rei-hopehopega nape. Ta.: rei, id. 

1499. reparepa skirt of a garment. Ta.: 
reparepa, skirt or border of a gar- 
ment. Mq. : epa, swaddling clothes. 
Ha.: lepa, hem, border. 

1500. repo mire, dirt, filth. Mgv.: repo, id. 
Ta.: repo, id. Mq.: epo, id. Ma.: 
repo, id. 

1501. rigorigo soul, mind. Ta.: riorio. 
shade of the dead. Mq. : ioio, spirit 
of god or of the dead. 

1502. rika a vision. Mgv.: ri/fea, to awake 
suddenly; rikarika, to sleep. Ta.; 
ria, phantom, vision. Sa.: H'a, a 
dream. Ma.: rika, disturbed sleep. 

1503. rikarika fear, frightful. Ta.: riaria, 
horror, disgust. Ma. : whakaririka, 
fearful, anxious. 

1504. ripe to undulate. Mgv.: ripo, to put 
out of place. Ta. : ripoa, eddy. Mq. : 
ipoi, current. Ma. : ripo, eddy. 



THK PAUMOTU IN THH POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 



75 



1503. riro to become, to grow. Mgv.: Hro, 
to become, to be made. Ta. : riro, to 
become, to be transformed. 

1506. riu the hold of a ship. Ta.: n'w, bilge- 
water. Mq. : iu, id. Sa. : liu, bilges. 
Ma. : riu, the hold. 

1507. ro-i-nohi a tear. Ta.: ro-i-mata, id. 
Sa. : lo-i-mata, id. Ma. : ro-i-mata, id. 

1508. roaka to find, to gain. Ta. : roaa, to 
gain, to get. Mq. : oaa, to acquire, to 
obtain, to find. Ha. : loaa, to obtain. 

1509. roga mulberry tree. Ta. : roa, id. 

1510. rohirohi weakness. Ta..: rohirohi, id. 

1511. roki abed. Mgv. : rofei, bed, sleepiag- 
place. Ta. : roi, bed. Mq. : oki, 
sleeping-place. Sa.: lo'i, pigsty. 

1512. rokohia surprise, to come unexpect- 
edly. Ta. : roohia, surprised. Ma.: 
rokohanga, to be overtaken. 

1513. roma to shrink. Mgv.: romo, scarce. 
Ta.: roma, to diminish. Mq. : oma, 
id. Sa. : loma, to be quiet, to intermit. 

1514. romiromi to press, to squeeze. Mgv.: 
rami, to press, to squeeze, to rub. 
Ta. : oomi, to press. Mq. : omi, to 
press, to squeeze, to rub. Sa. : lomi, to 
press, to rub. Ma.: rowt, to squeeze. 

1515. roparopa to deform, to spoil. Ta. : 
roparopa, irregular, deformed. 

1516. ruki night. Ta. : rm, id. 

1517. rukuruku to tie, to fasten. Ta. : 
ruuruu, id. 

1518. rumaki to sink. Mgv.: akarumaki, 
to dive. Ma. : rumaki, to duck. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 368. 

1519. nohi-rumaruma dissembler. Ta.: 
rumaruma, dark, obscure. 

1520. ruruhaga an assembly, to collect. 
Ta. : ruru, to collect, to assemble. 

1521. rurutainahaga anguish, pang. Ta.: 
rurutaina, trembling. 

1522. rutu a drtun. Mgv.: rutu, to beat, 
to cause to resound. Ta.: rutu, a 
drum, to drum. Mq. : utu, to drum. 
Sa. : lutu, to shake a rattle. 

1523. tae to arrive. Mgv.: toe, id. Ta.: 
tae, id. Ma. : tae, id. 

1524. taeake brother. Ta. : taeae, brother, 
cousin. 

1525. taehae cruel, savage. Tsl.: taehae, id. 

1526. taetae elephantiasis in scroto. Ta.: 
laetae, ill, illness. 

1527. tagaegae a sacrifice. Ha.: kanae- 
nae, id. 

1528. tagoro to snore. Ha.: kanono, id. 

1529. tagotago ignorant. Ta.: taotao, yery 
dark. Mq.: tano, dark, obscure. 
Ma.: tangotango, intensely dark. 

1530. tahanga indecent. Ta. : toAoo, naked. 
Mq. : tahanahana, cleared, uncovered. 
Ma. : tahanga, naked. 

1531. tahaki the side. Sa.: to/o'», one side. 
Ma. : tahaki, one side. 

1532. tahere armlet. Ta.: tahere, girdle, 
collar. Ma. : tahere, to tie. 

1533. tahinu to anoint. Ta.: tahinu, id. 



1534. tahiti to leap. Ta.: tahili, to stride. 

1535. tahito ancient, long ago. Ta..: tahito. 
old, passed. Mq. : tahito, old, ancient. 
Ma.: tawhito, ancient. 

1536. fakato-tahito to jeer, to scoff. Ta. : 
tahito, to mock. 

1537. tahoko reprisal, revenge. Ta.: tahoo, 
recompense, revenge. 

1538. tahoro to swallow. Ta.: tahoro, id. 

1539. tahua field of battle. Ta.: tahua, id. 

1540. tahua floor. Ta.: tahua, id. 

1541. tahuga wise, capable, doctor, artisan. 
Mgv. : tuhuga, wise, instructed, adroit. 
Mq.: tuhuna, wise, instructed, arti- 
san. Sa. : tufuga, carpenter. Ma.: 
tohunga, adroit, wise, priest. 

1542. tahutahu sorcerer. Ta.: tahu, sor- 
cery. 

1543. taiata obscene. Ta.: taiata, lasciv- 
ious, profane. 

1544. taika affliction. Ta.: taia, to afflict 
oneself, chagrin, fear. 

1545. takahoa impatient, tiresome. Ta. : 
taahoa, wearied. 

1546. takanoa unmarried. Ta. : taanoa, id. 
Sa. : ta'anoa, id. 

1547. takatakai to tread, to trample. Ta.: 
taataahi, to trample under foot. Ma. : 
takahi, to trample. 

1548. takaviriviri to turn round, to writhe. 
Mq.: takavii, to turn round, to twist. 
Sa. : ta'avili, id. Ma. : takawiri, to be 
twisted. 

1549. takerepo to turn upside down. Ta. : 
taere, id. 

1550. taki distributive particle. Ta.:to»,id. 
Sa. : ta'i, id. Ma. : taki, id. 

1531. takirikiri to quiver, to shiver. Ta.: 
tairi, to shake and throw a lance. 
Ma. : takiri, twitching. 

1532. takirokiro to injure. Ta.: tairoiro, 
malice, vengeance. 

1353. tako to say, to speak. Ta.: too, to 

speak, to order, to command. 
1334. takoko to crack, as glass. Ta.: taoo, 

cracked. 
1555- takoto to lie down. Ta.: tooto, to lie 

down, sleep. Sa.: ta'oto, to lie down. 

Ma.: takoto, id. 
1536. tama to purify. Ta.: torao, to wash. 
1557. tamaki war, to fight. Ta.: tamai, id. 

Mq.: tamai, war, to quarrel. Sa.: 

tama'i, to beat, to abuse. 
1358. tamau fixed desire, constant. Ta.: 

tamau, constant, persevering. Ha.: 

kamau, to persevere. 
1559. tamau tinder. Ta.: tamau, id. 

1360. tamore, sweet basil. Ta. : tamore, id. 
Sa. : tamole, purslane. 

1361. tamumu to rustle, a dull sound. Ta.: 
tamumu, a dull sound. Ma. : tamumu, 
to hum. 

1562. tanae gourd, empty coconut. Ta.: 
tanai, a vine. 

1563. fakatano to put in order. Ta. : tano, 
to aim, to direct. 



76 



EASTBR ISLAND. 



1564. taota taste, savor. Ta.: taota, taste. 

1565. tapao symbol. Ta. : to/ioo, sign, mark, 
figm-e. 

1566. tapariri rage, to be angry. Ta.: ta- 
pariri, jealous rage. 

1567. taparu to flatter. Ta. : taparu, id. 

1568. tapea earring. Ta.: tapea, ring, 
buckle. Mq. : tapea-puaina, earring. 

1569. tapiri glue, to adhere. Mgv. : tapiri, 
to be joined without cause. Ta.: 
tapiri, to unite, to join. Ma. : tapiri, 
to join. 

1570. tapitapi to be concerned, perplexed, 
to question. Ta. : tapi, preoccupied. 
Ma.: tapitapi, to grumble at. 

1571. tapona a knot. Ta.: tapona, id. 
Mq. ; tapona, to carry knotted rushes 
symbolically. Ma. : tapona, a bundle 
of herbs. 

1572. taporo lemon. Ta. : taporo, id. 

1573. tapuae footstep. Ta.: tapuae, id. 
Mq. : tapuvae, id. Ma.: tapuae, id. 

1574. tapuhaga a blow, stroke. Ta.: tapu, 
to slap, to cut. 

1575. tapunipuni hide and seek. Ta.: 
tapuni, to hide. Sa. : tapuni, to shut. 
Ma. : tapuni, to mend a net. 

1576. tapupu to portion into small pieces. 
Ta. : tapupu, to cut into bits. 

1577. tapuru to macerate, to soak. Ta.: 
tapuru, id. 

1578. taputo to wrestle. Ta. : taputo, id. 

1579. tararo to pervert. Ta.: tararo, to 

seduce. 

1580. tarahu debt, obligation. Ta..: tarahu, 
wages, salary. 

1581. tarava transverse, across. Ta. : ta- 
rava, id. 

1582. tare glair. Mgv. : tore, spittle. Ta.: 
tare, phlegm, glair. Sa. : tale, cough. 

1583. tareparepa to quiver. Ta.: tarepa, 
to shake in the wind. Ma.: tarepa- 
repa, id. 

1584. tarere a swing. Mgv.: tar ere, sus- 
pended. Ta. : tarere, a swing. 

1585. tariga stalk of fruit. Ta.: toW, id. 

1586. tarihia hanging. Ta.: ton, to hang. 

1587. tariparauadruin. Ta..: tariparau,iA. 

1588. taritari to carry. Mgv.: ton, id. Ta.: 
ton, id. Mq. : tai, id. Ma. : ton, id. 

1589. tatakoto boom. Mgv.: tatakoto, id. 
Ma.: tatakoto, sprit. 

1590. tatua girdle. Mgv.: toiwa, id. Ta.: 
tatua, id. Ma. : tatua, id. 

1591. fakatau indolent. Ta.: faatau, id. 

1592. fakatautau to delay, to defer. Ta.: 
haatautau, id. 

1593. fakatautau to hang up. Ta.: tow- 
tow, id. Mq. : tautau, id. Sa. : tau- 
tau, id. Ma. : tautau, to droop. 

1594. tauaki to exhibit. Ta.: tauai, to 
spread out to sun. To. : tauaki, id. 

1595- tauene to supply the place of. Ta.: 
tatiene, to patch a mat. 

1596. tauga a friend. Ta. : tauga. id. 

1597. taumako jealous. Mq.: taumakou,id. 



1598. taupoo hat. Ta.: taupoo, id. 

1599. hakataupupu to delay. Ta.: tau- 
pupu, heavy, to delay. 

1600. tau ra priest. Mgv.: taura,iA. Ta.: 
taura, id. Mq. : tauA, id. Sa. : taula, id. 

1 60 1. taurekareka adolescent. Ta.: tow- 
rearea, youth. Sa. : taule'ale'a, young 
man. 

1602. taurua holiday. Ta. : towrwa, a feast. 

1603. tauturu to assist. Ta.: tauturu, id. 

1604. fakatetefa to boast. Ta.: tefatefa, 
vain in dress. 

1605. tega to spot, to sully. Mq.: teka, 
disfigurement. 

1606. teka arrow. Ta.: teo, id. 'M.q.:teka, 
a game with darts. Sa.: te'a, id. 
Ma.: teka, id. 

1607. take flower, to fructify. Mq.: teke, 
sprout. 

1608. fakatekeo to intoxicate. Mgv.: tekeo, 
id. Mq. : tekeo, poisonous. 

1609. fakatekiteki to sit on the heels. 
Mgv.: tekiteki, a chair, to sit 
crouched up. Mq. : tiketike, high, ele- 
vated. Sa.: ti'eti'e, to sit on a chair. 

1610. tekoteko vain, proud, conceited. Ta.: 
teoteo, haughty. Ha. : keo, proud. 

161 1. fakateniteni to eulogize. Ta.: teni, 
to exalt another. 

161 2. kata-tiere gay, merry. Ta. : tiere, 
amusement. 

1613. tifai to piece, to patch. Ta. : tifai, id, 

1614. tihaehae in front. Ta.: tihae, to %o 
in front. 

1615. tihaehae to provoke. Ta.: tihae, id. 

1616. tihana to heat, to warm up. Ta. : 
tihana, to warm over. 

1617. tiki a statue. Mgv.: tiki, id. Ta.: 
tii, id. Mq. : tiki, id. Ma. : tiki, id. 

1618. fakatiki to disappoint. Ta.. :faatii, id. 

1619. tikipa sterile, barren. Ta. : tiipa, id. 

1620. tinao to put the hand in. Ta. : tinao, 
id. Mq. : tinao, to grope in. 

1621. tio an oyster. Mgv.: tio, a shellfish. 
Ta.: tio, oyster. Mq.: tio, id. Sa.: 
tio, a shellfish. Ma.: tio, an oyster. 

1622. fakatio to depreciate. Ta.: faatio, 
to defy, insult. Mq. : haatio, to ac- 
cuse. Sa.: tio, to blame, to find 
fault with. 

1623. tioi to veer, to turn about. Ta. : tioi, 
to turn about. 

1624. tipapa lying down flat. Ta.: tipapa, 
to lie down, to prostrate oneself. 
Mq.: tipapa, a.hedot. Ha.: kipapa, 
to pave with flat stones. 

1625. tiputa to bore, to perforate. Ta.: 
tiputa, to pierce. Mq.: tiputa, id. 
Ha.: kipuka, an opening. 

1626. tira mast. Mgv. : tira, id. Ta. : tira, 
id. Mq. : tia, id. Sa. : tila, id. Ma. : 
tira, id. 

1627. tiragorago a joist. Ta.: tiraorao, to 
set the timbers across. 

1628. tirikumu gun. Ta.: <m«»jM, pistol. 



THE PAUMOTU IN THE POLYNESIAN SCHEME. 



77 



1629. titautau to request, to beg. Ta.: 
titau, to ask for, to demand. 

1630. titi slave. Ta.: titi, id. 

1631. fakatitiaua to rival, to vie. Ta.: 
faatitiau, to struggle to outdo. 

1632. tito to peck. Mgv.: tito, to peck, a 
dot. Ta. : tito, to peck. Mq.: tito, id. 

1633. tiu a squall, a gust. Mgv.: tiu, west 
wind. Mq.: tiu, north wind. Sa.: 
fa'atiu, northerly wind. Ma. : Tiu, a 
wind god. 

1634. toahu fustiness, moldiness. Ta.: 
toahu, close, sultry. Mq. : toahu, fine 
rain. 

1635. togere to ring, to tinkle. Mgv.: 
togere, a low, dull sound. 

1636. tohe anus, foundation. Ta. : tohe, 
buttocks, base, bottom. Ha.: kohe, 
vagina. 

1637. tohora cachalot. Mgv.: tohora, id. 
Ta.: tohora, id. Mq.: tohoa, young 
porpoise. Sa. : tafola, whale. Ma.: 
tohora, id. 

1638. tohuga fog and rain. Ta.: tohua, 
fine rain. 

1639. tohu-reko to prophesy. Ta. : tohu, id. 

1640. toiau heavy. Ta.: toiau, id. 

1641. tokatoka disgusted. Ta.: toatoa, id. 

1642. toke toothadie (considered to be 
caused by a worm). Mgv.: toketoke, 
worm. Ta. : toe, id. Mq. : toke, id. 
Ma.: toke, id. 

1643. toketekete to be cold. Ta..: toetoe, id. 

1644. tonatona a wrinkle. Mgv.: tona, a 
venereal disease. Ta.: tona, wart. 
Sa. : tona, the yaws. Ma. : tona, wart. 

1645. tone to direct, to address. Tsi.itono, 
to send a messenger. Ma.: tono, to 
order, to command. 

1646. topakapaka vile, ugly, mean. Ta.: 
topaapaa, ugly, deformed. 

1647. topataadrop. Ta..: topata,id. Mq.: 
ua topata, a drizzle. 

1648. tope to shear, to clip. Ta.: tope, 
to cut off. 

1649. topitipiti drop by drop. Mgv.: 
topiti, to fall drop by drop. 

1650. torai to swim. Mgv. : torai, to swim, 
to float. 

165 1. fakatoro to stretch out the hand. 
Ta. : faatoo, to extend a limb. 

1652. toroa employment, dignity, honor. 
Ta.: toroa, employment, office. 

1653. tote to be vexed, offended. Ta.: tote, 
to be in anger. 

1654. totoa to do badly, malevolent. Ta. : 
totoa, to do badly, to harm. 

1655. fakatotohi to lie in. Mq.: haato- 
tohi, to be in travail. 

1656. tuahine sister. Mgv.: tuehine, man's 
sister. Ta. : tuahine, id. Mq. : tuehine, 
id. Ma.: tuahine, id. 

1657. tuai to scratch, scrape. Mq.: tuai, 
grater. 

1658. tuamoko the spine. Ta. : tuamoo, id. 

1659. tuapuku a hunch. Ta. : tuapuu, id. 

1660. tuaru to exile. Ta.: tuaru, id. 



1 66 1. tuatapapa narrative. Ta.: iuata- 
papa, to recite a history. 

1662. tuatea a wave, biUow. Ta..: tuatea, a. 
long wave. Mq. : tuatea, white waves 
at sea. Ma. : tuatea, breaking crest of 
waves. 

1663. tuetue solid, large. Ta.: tuetue, 
thick, stout. 

J664. tugane woman's brother. Mgv.: 
tugane, id. Ta. : tuane, id. Mq. : 
tuane, id. Ma.: tungane, id. 

1665. fakatugatuga to wrinkle the brows. 
Ta. : tuatua, to frown. 

1666. tuhou novice. Ta.: tuhou, id. 

1667. tui to sew. Mgv.: tui, id. Ta.: tut, 
id. Mq. : tui, id. Sa. : tui, to pierce. 
Ma. : tui, to sew. 

1668. tukau steward, housekeeper. Ta.: 
tuau, chief, steward. 

1669. tukeke to grunt, to growl. Mq.: 
tukeke, to weep with loud howls. 

1670. tuketuke a bend, angle, elbow. Mgv.: 
tube, elbow, heel, finger joints. Mq. : 
tuke, elbow, heel. Sa. : tu'elima, finger 
joints. Ma.: tuke, elbow. 

167 1. tukiate to puff for breath. Ta.: 
tuiate, stomach-ache. 

1672. tukirogo famous, to celebrate. Ta.: 
tuiroo, id. 

1673. tukutuku-rahinuku spider. Ta.: 
tuutuu, id. Ha.: kuukuu, id. 

1674. tunoa a dermatitis. Ta. : tewoo, dark 
spots on the skin. 

1675. tuparu to demolish, to split. Ta.: 
tuparu, to break, to destroy. 

1676. tuperetiki upside down. Ta,.:tupere- 
tii, id. 

1677. tupou to expose the buttocks. Mgv.: 
tupou, to stoop, to abase oneself. Ta. : 
tupou, to show the buttocks insult- 
ingly. Mq.: tupou, to bend down. 
Ma. : tupou, to stoop down. 

1678. tupua ghost, corpse. Sa.: tupua, 
idol. Ma.: tupua, goblin, monster. 

1679. fakatura respectable, venerable. Ta. : 
faatura, to honor. 

1680. turakau-paeha to fence with a spear. 
Ta. : turaau, a fencer. 

l68i. turelaw. Mgv.: ture, id. Ta.: ture, 
id. Mq.: ture, id. Ma.: ture, id. 

1682. tureirei pitching up and down. Ta.: 
tureirei, unsettled, turbulent. 

1683. turepu to carry, conduct. Ta.: 
turepu, conductor, driver. 

1684. turituri noise, hubbub. Ta.: turituri, 
stunned with din. Mq. : luitui, be 
still! Ma.: turituri, noise, uproar. 

1685. turori drowsy, to stagger. Mgv.: 
turori, to roll from side to side. Ta. : 
turori, to reel, to stagger. Mq. : tuoi, 
to nod, to have the head on one side. 
Ma. : turori, to stagger. 

1686. turuki biu-ial-place. Ta.: turui, heap 
of stones. 

1687. fakaturuma grave, serious. Ta.: 
faaturuma, grave, taciturn. Mq.: 
tuuma, anger. 



78 



EASTER ISIvAND. 



1688. tutaekauri rust. Ta: tutaeauH, id. 

1689. tutaepere sulphur. Mq. : tutaepere, 
id. Ha.: kukaepele, id. 

1690. tutuga flea. Ta.: tutua, id. 

1691. fakau to resist. Ta.. faau, resolute. 

Cf. 990. 

1692. uhi tattooing instrument. Ta.: uhi, 
id. Ma.: uhi, id. 

1693. uho heart wood. Mgv.: uho.pithoi 
trees. Mq.: uho, id. Sa.: uso, heart 
wood. Ma.: uho, id. 

1694. ukauka froth, foam. Mgv.: uka, 
froth. Ma.: hukahuka, foam. Cf. 
1075- 

1695. uki age, generation. Ta.: ui, age, 
generation, season. Ma. : uhi, ancient 
times. 

1696. umere wonderful. Ta. : umere, to 
wonder, to brag. Rarotonga: umere, 
to wonder at. 

1697. umeume a palm tree. Mq.: ume- 
ume, a breadfruit tree. 

1698. upoupo stubborn, perverse. Ta. . 
upoupo, ugly, dissatisfying. 

1699. ureuretiamoana waterspout. Ta.: 
ureureiumoana, id. 

1700. uru thicket. Ta. : wrw, thicket, forest. 
Sa. : ulu, grove. Ma.: uru, id. 

1 701. uru to inspire. Mgv.: uru, to cry 
out on account of the presence of a 
god. Ta. : uru, to be inspired. Sa. : 
uluitinoina, possessed by a god. 

1702. utari to accompany, to follow, to 
imitate. Ta. : utari, to follow. Mq. : 
utai, to accompany, to follow, to 
imitate. Ha. : ukali, to follow. 

1703. utere to rub, to scrape. Ta. : utere, 
to rasp, to peel. 

1704. uto buoy. Sa.: «/o, id. 

1705. utu to bestow on. Ta. : utua, pay- 
ment, wages, recompense. Mq. : utu, 
id. Ma.: utu, reward. 

1706. vaere to sweep, to weed, to clear. 
Ta. : vaere, id. Mq.: vavee,id. Ma.: 
waere, to make a clearing. 

1707. vagavaga slender, slim. Mq. : vaka- 
vaka, id. 

1708. vahi a place. Mgv.: vahi, id. Ta. : 
vahi, id. Mq. : vahi, id. Ma. : wahi, id. 

1709. vahi a part. Mgv.: vahi, id. Ta. : 
vahi, id. Mq. : vahi, id. Sa. : fast, id. 

1710. vahine wife. Mgv.: veine, id. Ta. : 
vahine, id. Mq.: vehine, id. Sa.: 
fafine, woman. Ma.: wahine, id. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 337. 

1711., yai to exist. Ta. : vai, to be, to exist. 
1712. vaiho to set down, to place. Ta.: 

vaiiho, to place. Ma.: waiho, to set 

down. 



1713. vaiora to survive. Sa. : vaiola, the 
spring "water of life?" Ma. : waiora, 
water of life. 

1714. hakavaivai to delay. Ta.: vaivai, to 
rest a bit. 

1715. vanavana spur, rough. Mgv.: vana, 
sea urchin. Ta. : vanavana, rough, 
knotty. Mq. : vana, sea urchin. Sa. : 
vana, id. Ma.: wanawana, bristles. 

17 16. varavara scattered, dispersed. Mgv.: 
varavara, scattered, wide apart. Ta. : 
varavara, id. Sa. : valavala, wide apart. 

171 7. hakavaravara to brighten. Mgv.: 
varavara, clear to view. Ta.: vara^ 
vara, transparent. Cf. 1228. 

1718. vare pus. Mgv.: vare, gummy exu- 
dations. Ta. : vare, pus. Mq.: vae, 
gummy exudations. Ma. : ware, any 
viscous fluid. 

1719. vari marsh, mire, dirt. Ta.: vari, 
dirt, mud. Rarotonga: vari, mud. 

1720. varo a mussel. Mgv.: vara, a fish. 
Ta. : varo, a lobster. Mq. : varo, a 
long fish. Sa. : valo, a crayfish. 

1721. vauvau carpet, rug. Ta.: vauvau, 
carpet, mat. 

1722. vauvau to hold, to contain. Ta.: 
vauvau, receptacle, vase. 

1723. vave a fringing reef. Mgv.: taivave, 
a rolling billow. Ta. : vavea, a tower- 
ing billow. 

1724. veke delinquency, crime. Mq. : veke, 
malefactor. 

1725. vekuveku sordid, dirty, mean, slov- 

enly. Ta.: veuveu, dirty, disgusting, 
bristly. Mq. : veku, disordered, slov- 
enly. 

1726. veruveru old, worn out, rags. Ta.: 
veruveru, old, dirty. Ha. : welu, a rag. 

1727. veruverukahu cloth, stuff. Ma.: 
weru, garment. 

1728. veu wool. Mgv. : tJe«iie«, grass, herb- 
age. Ta. : veu, hair, wool, fringe. 

1729. veve miserable. Ta. : j/ew, poor, needy, 
miserable. 

1730. vi to succumb. Ta. : vi, to be sub- 
jugated, the beginning of a retreat. 

1 73 1. vikiviki impure, immodest. Ta.: 
viivii, defiled, polluted. 

1732. viku cooked, done, combustion. Ta. : 
viu, overdone, burnt. 

1733- Tinivini to chirp, to warble. Ta.: 
vini, voluble. Sa. : vivini, to crow. 

1734. viru good, right, decent, pure. Ta.: 
viru, decent, proper. 

1735. kakavitiviti to beautify. Ta.; viti, 
well made, becoming, alert. 

1736. vivi grasshopper. Ta.:wVj, id. Mq.: 
vivi, cricket. 

1737. vivo flute. Ta.:w»o,id. Mq.:»jw,id. 



y 



^ 



^ 



CHAPTER IV. 
MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 

In the prosecution of the dissection of the several factors which enter 
into the speech of Easter Island we are now brought to the examination of 
the language of Mangareva. 

In the preceding diapter we have already oriented this extremely re- 
mote island so far as relates to its geographical position. Regarding the 
Paumotu as the high peaks just awash of a suboceanic mountain chain, 
Mangareva represents the highest peak of the range and, as is so often no ted 
in orographic study, it is found as an outlier in soUtary dignity. From 
the southeastern point of the commonly accepted group of the Paumotu it 
is set apart by considerable stretches of sea, and in the few lines of sound- 
ings which have been made in the intermediate region we see that there is 
equal and distinct bath5rmetric sundering. These stretches of sea amount 
to Uttle in the navigation of such adventurous seafarers as the wandering 
Polynesians. The great double canoes of the epoch of the great voyages 
were sufficient to cover the distance. The inhabitants of Mangareva at 
the time of their discovery by the Europeans were not equipped to make 
these voyages. Timber was to be found in abundance upon their moun- 
tains, the protecting reef gave them the advantage of a quiet harbor to 
encom-age the development of the art of navigation, but through some 
circumstance which we find it hard to comprehend the Mangarevans are 
set at the bottom of the scale* in a race whose elemental characteristic is 
that they shall breast the long waves of the Pacific in voyages immeasu- 
rably longer. The art of the shipwright had unaccountedly vanished from 
this one spot, and with it vanished the art of tracking the sea with the 
guidance of the wind and the stars.f The highest attainment of Manga- 

*The Easter Islanders are quite as devoid of canoecraft, but their plight is other. Their 
sterile island yields no fit timber and their sole dependence is on drift wood and wreck stuff. 

tSuch recession from a cultural acquisition so essential to the conditions of life of folk on 
a small island set in great sea must be unusual. In general the lost arts are few; the loss 
of canoecraft by an insular race is notable. Accordingly we shall find particular interest 
in the report of the same loss of a necessary art by the Torres Islanders of Melanesia, far 
in the west of the Pacific. It is recorded by Mrs. Florence Coombe at page 150 of "Many- 
sided Melanesia:" 

"Clever as these people are at house-building, is it not a siurprising fact that not a soul 
in the Torres Island can build a canoe? Once the art was known as well here as elsewhere, 
but the knowledge was confined to the skilled few who formed a sort of guild of canoe- 
makers. One by one these men died, and the rising generation was presumably too lazy 
to seek admission to the craft. The inevitable day arrived when the last canoe-maker died, 
and all knowledge of canoe-making with him. The canoes he had left behind existed a 
little while longer, but soon the last was broken up and there was no boat left in the group. 
Yet still no man was found with energy, or ambition, or desire enough to set him to solving 
the boat problem for himself. There are plenty of bamboos, and they will float. Tied 
together with creeper-string, one can make a rough-and-ready raft of any size. And so — 
they make shift." 

79 



80 EASTER ISLAND. 

reva in the line of shipping amounted to no more than a raft, safe enough 
within the lagoon, though clumsy, but wholly unfit for voyages upon the 
high sea beyond the coral wall. Yet we find the ancestral spirit alert. In 
the preceding chapter I have ahready had occasion to cite (page 63) Cap- 
tain Friederid's account of one involuntary voyage from Mangareva on 
nothing better than one of these fragile rafts. 

It is impossible to find a wholly satisfactory explanation of the absence 
of navigation from this minor unit of a race altogether and elsewhere naval 
in the highest degree. Because Mangareva must have been populated in 
the beginning by sailors in possession of the two shipping arts (the con- 
stnxction quite as much as the handling of their canoes) it is impossible to 
imagine that Mangareva was thus ignorant at some early period of its 
community hfe. It is not diflficult to construct a hypothesis which will 
comport with Polynesian custom hfe in accounting for the disappearance 
of the art. In all the Pacific communities the canoewrights form an hon- 
orable class in the social organization. Their office is largely hereditary, a 
guild or trade body cutting diagonally through the formal division of the 
body politic into ranks and classes, for I have known divine chiefs and the 
lowest orders in the social scale to meet upon the level terms of their 
craft. The secrets of the craft are piously respected by the commimity at 
large, even though there is nothing which may not be seen by the most 
casual onlooker. The protection of the tabu is at the back of this respect ; 
no person not duly qualified would regard it safe to attempt any of the 
operations of canoe-making. Even the felling of the timber for the canoe 
was far too dangerous to be attempted by the uninitiate. The legends 
contain many tales of profane attempts to cut a tree, and the restdt is 
invariably that next morning it is found erect once more upon its stump. 
It is within the bounds of the possible that the whole guild of canoewrights 
may have left Mangareva ; probably there would not be many on so thinly 
populated an island. They might have been carried away as involuntary 
voyagers in the canoes of some expedition which had made their home a 
port of call; it is equally possible that they would leave in a huff because 
their work was not rewarded to their taste. The tabu would remain 
behind them; none would venture to construct new canoes when those 
already in existence met their sea fate ; in the second generation all knowl- 

This valuable parallel came to hand while this chapter was yet on the galleys: the parallel 
is complete down to the raft in Tegua as in Mangareva. From direct information on the spot 
Mrs. Coombe records the comrse of the loss in practically the order which I have evolved 
a posteriori. Her observation is always accm^ate so far as it goes — I have been able to 
confirm that from my earlier familiarity with many of the spots which she has visited — 
but she does not propose it as anything more than superficial. I have, therefore, no hesita- 
tion in disregarding her really untenable theory of laziness, and in giving full weight to the 
sacrosanct or tabu character of the mysteries of the art. 

The magic of canoe-making is brought out in this note which she derives at page 172 
from a man of Santa Cruz: 

"Only some men may dig out canoes, those whose ancestors dug them out. When a 
father is near death, that father takes water and washes his son's hands, and they think 
that the father is giving to his son understanding and wisdom to make canoes, and he 
signifies it through water." 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OP DISTRIBUTION. 81 

edge of the art would be lost. We have no means of estimating the period 
at which navigation passed from the Mangarevans; the most we may 
know is that at some wholly uncertain epoch in the past the Mangarevans 
became a sedentary people in the sea and had no further direct influence 
upon the languages of their race fellows. 

Yet in the course of this chapter we are to see in a series of tables that 
the influence of Mangarevan speech is strong in certain directions and 
that it is particularly noticeable at the ultimates of migration in three 
diverse tracks. 

In considering this we must fix the attention for a brief memorandum 
upon one of the constants of such voyaging as was performed by these 
Polynesian sailors and adventurers, a constant which is not set down upon 
the charts. It has been made abundantly plain that the wind in the trop- 
ical Pacific is not only motive power, but serves a compass end infixing the 
direction of voyaging. Unwieldy, uncomfortable, and dull sailors before 
the wind, these great double canoes were at their best sailing when snug 
to the wind. Ignorant of the compass, these admirals of the brown could 
estabUsh direction upon the sea only by the constancy of the trade winds. 
These are the considerations which establish the substantial unity of all 
Polynesian voyaging. We find that all of eastward Polynesia was settled 
by eastward voyages, always full and bye on the southeast trade. New 
Zealand was settled by westward voyaging, yet this is no reversal of di- 
rection sense; the course from Rarotonga to New Zealand is full and 
bye on the westerly variables which lie south of the trade-wind region. 
Mangareva lies outside the trade-wind belt; its latitude is higher than the 
southern limit of the regular southeast wind. Each year the trade does 
rekch up to include it for a few short weeks ; for much the greater period of 
the year the westerly winds prevail. Time was nothing to these voyagers, 
there are no conditions of Ufe in which time ever can be an3rthing to 
the Polynesian; they could await contentedly the coming of the wind they 
sought. Thus Mangareva was a convenient point of distribution for 
wanderings back into the torrid zone or into more remote regions in the 
temperate zone to the southward. 

This position relative to windroses must be held to condition the rela- 
tion of Mangareva to the general movement of migration, not only within 
Southeast Polynesia but in the more remote seats of Polynesian cultiu'e. 
Thus we are to find the Mangarevan represented strongly not only in the 
magma which has gone on rather artificial record as the Paumotu speech, 
not only in Rapanui, not only in the Marquesas, but we shall note a some- 
what substantial element of the language which is identifiable only in 
Hawaii. The conditions of the present study will interrupt oiu: detailed 
examination of this problem, but if Mangareva and Hawaii be noted upon 
the wind and current charts now issued by the Hydrographic Office of the 
United States Navy the services of a competent naArigator, skilled in fore- 
and-aft seamanship, will assist the ethnographer to the solution of the 



82 EASTKR ISLAND. 

matter. In navigation it becomes a rather simple problem of sailing close- 
hauled, and to the solver, as to the captain of the canoe, the only serious 
difficulty is to get across the equatorial doldrums. 

We shall now pass to the systematic examination of the speech of 
Mangareva and its general and particular relations as may be deduced 
from the affiliations which we are able to estabUsh. 

We note at the outset Meinecke's very positive statement :* 

Die Bewohner von Mangareva sind Rarotonganer, die von ihnen gespro- 
chene Sprache ist bis auf unbedeutende Verschiedenheiten die von Rarotonga. 

His subsisting authority is not recorded, an unusual neglect to be 
charged against this very painstaking and exact historian; but we may 
infer it from his precisely similar statement! concerning the Paumotu : 

Diese in den ostlichen Inseln jetzt noch gebrauchte Sprache ist nach Caillett 
ein rarotongischer Dialekt, und wenn gleich nicht wenige Worter ganz von den 
in anderen polynesischen Sprachen verbreiteten abzuweichen scheinen, so ist 
doch eine andere Zahl wieder entschieden rarotongisch, imd auch in der Gram- 
matik ergeben sich keine erheblichen Verschiedenheiten. 

We should observe that the Hervey Group is singular among the scenes 
of the activity of the I,ondon Missionary Society in that no dictionary has 
yet been pubhshed. Such a work was undertaken by the Rev. WilUam 
Wyatt Gill, but late in his career of great usefulness he heard the call to 
the apostolate at Port Moresby and soon died of the bitter hardships of 
pioneering in NewGuinea. It was therefore impossible forCaillet to have 
made such a determination, either for the eastern Paumotu or for Ma- 
ngareva, in the absence of material upon which to erect a comparison. It 
appears to me that what he did observe was that in the speech was an ele- 
ment which he could recognize as non-Tahitian, and that he leaped to the 
conclusion that if it were non-Tahitian it must yet have some source and 
that therefore it must be Rarotongan as being next rearward on the track 
of migration. How significant is the marked difference between Manga- 
revan and Rarotongan is seen in the comparison of the alphabetic 
scheme. The aspirate is entirely absent from Rarotonga; it is, indeed, so 
objectionable a sound that f, which is generally mutable to the aspirate 
proximate to the labial series, is for that reason frequently carried thereby 
to extinction. On the other hand Mangareva retains the aspirates with 
considerable persistence and the labial aspirate as a mutation product of f 
is very commonly observed. We may disregard this pronouncement as 
to the Paumotu and Mangarevan, since at the time of CaiUet's investiga- 
tion it had not yet come into the mind of any student to examine speech 
sources through the division into the Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti 
migrations. 

*Die Inseln des stillen Oceans, ii, 222. 

tOp. cit., 215. 

tAnnales hydrographiques, xxxiii, 392. 



MANGARBVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



83 



Referred to the Nuclear Polynesian base, the alphabet of Mangarevan 
is displayed in the following conspectus: 

a a, e 
e e, a o o 

a, e u w 

1 r, n 
ng ng, n n n, ng mm 

h h,- 
s h,- 

V 1) 

fv.h,- 
kk,- tt p p 

The interplay of the palatal and lingual nasals is not critical of 
Mangarevan, it is a mutation which occurs sporadically in most of the 
Polynesian languages and which becomes critical in the Hawaiian 
only. The critical points are the absence of the sibilant and f . The 
speech is therefore one phonetic degree or stage further removed from 
the Nuclear Polynesian than is the Paumotu. 

In the foregoing chapter the tables will be found to include a list of so 
much of the Mangarevan contained in the accompan)ring word-lists as 
is found in the Paumotu, either exclusively or shared as a common 
element with Rapanui. From those tables we sum the result [for 
convenient reference in the following showing: 

Tabi<b 8. 





Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Total. 


Pau-Rn-Mgv-Mq-Ta 

Pau-Rn-Mgv-Mq 


8 

7 

2 

4 


227 

15 

15 

2 


9 

I 

I 


40 
6 
7 
3 


284 
29 
24 
10 


Pau-Rn-Mgv-Ta 


Pau-Rn-Mgv 


Total . . 


21 


259 


II 


56 


347 


Pau-Mgv-Mq-Ta 


II 

4 

21 
23 


40 
8 

'5 

4 


8 

2 
7 
4 


47 

4 

25 

13 


106 
18 
68 
44 


Pau— Mgv— Mq 


Pau-Mgv-Ta 


Pau-Mgv 


Total 


59 


67 


21 


89 


236 


Grand total 


8o 


326 


32 


145 


583 





Referring to the dictionary of Rapanui, we shall in our next series of 
tables record the phases of that element of the speech which Mangareva 
and Easter Island share exclusive of the Paumotu. 

The first group of the tables lists so much of the common element as is 
not identifiable outside the province of Southeast Polynesia: 



Mangareva-Rapanui : 






















5 21 38 


90 


99 


112 


136 


144 


164 


189 224 


239 


2.58 


278 


6 23 42 


94 


100 


"3 


137 


J4S 


165 


212 225 


244 


261 


281 


15 26 61 


96 


lOI 


127 


142 


iSi 


176 


217 233 


2.SI 


269 


383 


19 32 89 


98 


109 


128 


143 


162 


181 


218 238 


254 


277 


393 



84 EASTER ISLAND. 

Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti : 

14 27 45 81 91 105 152 180 204 216 230 241 250 290 

24 33 S6 87 92 132 159 
Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas : 

3 46 63 106 116 118 141 163 179 199 208 23s 247 275 

9 54 71 108 117 131 158 169 196 202 223 24s 272 288 
13 55 104 

Mangareva-Rapanui-Tahiti: 29 31 34 80 192 242 257 289 

The next group of tables includes all those vocables common to Ma- 
ngareva and Rapanui for which affiUation is estabhshed in the general 
Polynesian in which it is impracticable to identify more closely the 
migration stream : 

Polynesian-Mangareva-Rapanui: 333 334 436 455 543 598 7i7 

Polynesian-Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

293 324 341 364 400 422 479 547 585 614 636 668 690 701 

295 329 349 381 401 442 489 550 596 621 638 673 691 70s 

297 330 352 382 418 443 503 551 597 624 644 674 692 707 

299 331 355 385 419 454 518 556 599 627 658 675 696 714 

315 335 356 386 420 456 533 569 604 628 659 679 699 719 

319 337 361 391 421 458 537 576 609 634 660 684 7CX) 725 
323 340 363 396 422 

Polynesian-Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas: 

307 358 433 473 493 529 584 617 625 653 677 689 710 72a 
344 409 467 492 SOI 564 600 622 637 654 

Polynesian-Mangareva-Rapanui-Tahiti: 

308 325 395 448 466 480 490 540 688 709 

Similarly segregated, the Proto-Samoan migration element yields the 
following tables : 

Proto-Samoan-Mangareva-Rapanui : 

735 739 742 749 756 764 769 779 786 794 817 820 
Proto-Samoan-Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

734 736 737 741 757 759 828 832 83s , „ „ „ 

Proto-Samoan-Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas: 729 732 758 766 808 833 
Proto-Samoan-Mangareva-Rapanui-Tahiti : 809 

The element contributed by the Tongafiti migration is exhibited in 
the following set of tables : 

Tongafiti-Mangareva-Rapanui: 848 852 854 871 904 
Tongafiti-Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

842 872 878 879 892 895 900 906 921 922 925 931 941 951 

859 873 
Tongafiti-Mangareva-Rapanui-Marquesas: 

847 865 866 870 907 924 928 938 
Tongafiti-Mangareva-Rapanui-Tahiti : 934 

In the foregoing tabular view we have engaged our attention upon 
only so much of the Mangarevan as finds affiliation with the Paumotu 
and the Rapanui. This, of course, is far from exhausting the identi- 
fiable element of Mangarevan. On pages 89-105 will be found a 
Ust of the remaining vocables of the speech of Mangareva for which 
affiliates have been determined in other languages of Polynesia. It is 
to this special list that reference is made by serial numbers in the suc- 
ceeding tables. In these, as in the corresponding tables in the Paumotu 
chapter, there will be found certain type differentiation ; the italic num- 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OP DISTRIBUTION. 85 

erals indicate that identification is lacking in the Samoan, but that it is 
supplied from some other of the languages of Nuclear Polynesia; the 
bold-faced numerals exhibit those cases in which the identification is not 
found more remotely in the Maori but in the Hawaiian at the other 

verge of the Polynesian area. The segregation of the material is first 
effected by reference to the place of occurrence of the affiliates, and the 
first tables present so much of the data as is found in Southeast Poly- 
nesia and not beyond. 

Mangareva-Marquesas-Tahiti : 

17SI 1784 1829 1906 2030 2114 2160 2182 2237 2316 2377 2404 2474 2535 

1759 1786 1868 1995 2063 2n6 2162 2217 2275 2332 2382 2432 2477 2553 

1783 1802 1894 2028 209s 2124 2163 2218 2315 2348 2400 2450 2528 2570 

Mangareva-Hawaii : 

1811 1920 1984 2050 2091 2128 2189 2210 2269 2290 2353 2429 2457 2503 

1814 1930 1991 2052 2093 2131 2192 2224 2272 2301 2361 2430 2460 2505 

1852 1949 1992 2061 2094 2155 2202 2231 2273 2303 2364 2435 2486 2513 

1854 1967 2002 2065 2112 2168 2208 2243 2276 2304 2402 2444 2497 2514 

1870 1971 2011 2085 2119 2180 2209 2259 2285 2330 2419 2452 2500 2565 
1884 1978 2046 

Mangareva-Tahiti : 

1763 1826 1914 1982 2038 2092 2154 2188 2203 2287 2355 2407 2499 2524 

1789 1848 1921 1986 2044 2132 2166 2191 2215 2297 2356 2464 2511 2526 
1792 1886 1923 2010 2045 2134 2170 2195 2220 2322 2375 2469 2513 2527 
1805 1903 1925 2034 2053 2145 2174 2198 2254 2326 2376 2479 2515 2531 
1808 1905 1931 2035 2068 2151 2183 2201 2281 2342 2398 2496 2517 2546 
1820 1907 1938 2036 2069 2152 

Mangareva-Marquesas : 

1753 1812 1882 1944 1985 2031 2106 2161 223s 2270 2319 2381 2437 2506 

1761 1816 1892 1945 1994 2033 2117 2164 2236 2274 2325 2384 2440 2507 

1762 1818 1895 1955 1999 2039 21 18 2167 2239 2282 2328 2391 2443 2516 

1764 1823 1897 1958 2001 2040 2120 2172 2240 2288 2336 2399 2445 2518 
1785 1824 1909 i960 2003 2051 2123 2177 2248 2289 2346 2401 2448 2523 
1787 1828 191 I 1963 2004 2054 2126 2199 2250 2291 2347 2405 2453 2523 

1790 1836 1913 1964 2009 2055 2129 2205 2252 2293 2349 2408 2461 2547 

1791 1842 1919 1965 2012 2056 2130 2214 2253 2294 2350 2409 2462 2555 
1794 1851 1926 1966 2014 2062 2136 2219 2255 2299 2354 2413 2467 2558 
179s 1856 1927 1968 2015 2071 2140 2222 2258 2300 2357 2414 2476 2SS9 
1796 1862 1928 1969 2016 207s 2146 2223 2260 2302 2358 2420 2483 2563 

1798 1865 1932 1972 2018 2097 2149 2225 2264 2306 2365 2421 2489 2564 

1799 1869 1933 1973 2019 2101 2150 2227 2265 2308 2366 2424 2490 2568 

1800 1873 1941 1979 2022 2103 2158 2230 2266 2317 2367 2431 2502 2569 
1810 1878 1942 1980 2024 2105 2159 2234 2267 2318 2368 

The next series of tables lists the occurrences of vocables which are 
identifiable in that general Polynesian in which the two migration 
streams are not separable : 

Polynesian-Mangareva-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

1749 1775 1853 1888 1916 1956 2059 2107 2193 2262 2327 2379 2449 2534 

1833 1776 1857 1893 1937 2008 2080 2133 2197 2277 2337 2385 2459 2537 

1741 1780 1871 1899 1940 2026 2089 2144 2213 2279 2343 2423 2466 2554 
1748 1843 1874 1908 1951 2047 2098 2148 2216 2295 2370 2425 2473 2556 

1765 1845 1876 1912 1954 2057 2102 2187 2221 2324 2373 2433 2487 2560 
1767 1849 1879 

Polynesian-Mangareva : 

1740 1778 1844 1939 2005 2066 2084 2247 2310 2436 2484 2520 2551 2563 

1772 1837 1900 1946 2058 2078 2197 2244 2378 2470 
Polynesian-Mangareva-Tahiti : 

1742 1806 1840 1850 1867 1910 1934 1975 2178 2256 2323 2463 2557 2548 
1781 1831 1841 1863 1890 1929 2037 2110 2186 2305 2394 247s 

Polynesian-Mangareva-Marquesas : 

188s 1904 2084 2212 2245 2278 2334 2351 2374 2386 2417 2441 2468 2541 
1896 2081 2104 2226 2261 2298 



86 EASTER ISLAND. 

In exclusively Proto-Samoan speech we identify the vocables 
listed in the next series of tables. 

Proto-Samoan-Mangareva-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

1766 1797 1864 1891 2027 2109 2179 2345 2392 2439 2456 2408 2533 2544 

1768 1835 1866 1953 2049 2142 2280 2389 2434 2447 2482 2532 2543 3567 
1777 1855 1875 1990 2070 2169 

Proto-Samoan-Mangareva-Tahiti : 

1757 1774 1779 1817 1830 1872 1898 2076 2082 2090 2099 2113 2190 2249 
Proto-Samoan-Mangareva-Marquesas: 

1756 1819 2073 2121 2127 2184 2232 2313 3329 3393 2426 2455 3535 3553 

J7P3 1846 2108 2125 2141 2185 2293 2320 2380 2395 2428 2485 2543 2566 
1803 1947 211S 
Proto-Samoan-Mangareva : 

1738 1782 181S 1861 1901 1952 2060 2086 2171 2228 2352 2383 2446 2488 

1739 1788 1832 1883 1917 1961 3074 2icx) 2173 2286 23S9 3396 2458 2491 
1752 1804 1834 1887 IQ22 1962 2077 2122 2175 2309 2360 2397 2465 2538 
1760 1809 1859 1889 1943 2023 2079 2139 2176 2339 2369 2427 

The last grouping of the material is by means of the affiliations which 
are not found outside the Tongafiti migration : 

Tongafiti-Mangareva-Marquesas-Tahiti: 

1758 1807 1858 1902 1988 2007 2111 2206 2283 2340 2451 2494 2508 2539 

1769 1813 1880 1924 1996 2025 2157 2241 2284 2363 2454 2501 2510 2549 
1801 1838 1881 1950 2000 2042 2200 2268 2333 2390 2471 2504 2521 2561 

Tongafiti-Mangareva : 

1822 1877 1981 2021 2048 2153 2207 2296 2335 2387 2411 2422 2481 2519 

1825 1948 1993 2029 2064 2156 2229 2311 2341 2406 2415 2472 2495 2530 

1750 1970 1998 2041 2137 2181 2246 2313 2362 2410 2416 2480 2509 2550 

1839 1977 2020 2043 2147 2204 2257 2321 2372 

Tongafiti-Mangareva-Tahiti : 

1821 1754 1773 1915 1959 1989 2013 2135 2196 2238 2271 2338 2388 2443 

1827 175s i860 1935 1976 2006 2083 2165 2233 2251 2331 2371 2403 2540 

1743 
Tongafiti-Mangareva-Marquesas : 

1770 1918 1974 1997 2067 2088 2138 2211 2263 2314 2412 2438 2492 2529 

1771 1936 1983 2017 2072 2096 2143 2242 2307 2344 2418 2478 2493 2536 
1847 1957 1987 2032 

The results of this inquiry may be summed up in Table 9 on page 87, 
in which we retain the division of the material as common to Rapanui 
or otherwise ; to the proper sums of each half of the table are brought 
forward the corresponding sums from Table 3 on page 59 in which 
the Paumotu affiUates of Mangarevan are assembled. 

The material upon which this study of the Mangarevan has been con- 
ducted amounts to 6,600 dictionary items, very nearly three times our 
supply of Paumotu material. This material has provided identifica- 
tions of 1,715 items, 26 per cent; this is exactly half of the percentage of 
Paumotu identifications. Dealing next with the sum of the identifica- 
tions as the base of our further computation we find that 594 items are 
restricted to Southeast Polynesia, 35 per cent. An equal identification 
is found in the general Polynesian, 599 items, 35 per cent. The parallel 
figures for the Paumotu are 43 and 57 per cent respectively; in this it 
appears that the Paumotu is slightly better represented in the corpus of 
the speech of Southeast Polynesia and considerably more representative 
of the general Polynesian. So far as we may permit ourselves the inter- 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



87 



pretationof this phenomenon we may venture to regard the Mangarevan 
as showing evidence of greater age, for the loss of vocables by other 
languages of the family marks the passage of uncertain but undoubtedly 
considerable periods of time. Examining the occurrences of affiliates 
we find that 651 vocables of Mangarevan are common to Rapanui, 38 
per cent, as corresponding closely with the 34 per cent in the Paumotu ; 
973 in Tahiti, 57 per cent, markedly below the 81 per cent which is the 

Table 9. 



Mgv-Rn-Mq-Ta 
Mgv-Rn-Mq . . . . 

Mgv-Rn-Ta 

Mgv-Rn.-. 

Total 

Paumotu 

Mgv-Mq-Ta 

Mgv-Mq 

Mgv-Ta 

Mgv (Ha) 

Total 

Paumotu 

Grand total. 



Southeast 
Polynesia. 



31 
3" 

8 
56 



116 

31 



42 

307 

76 

73 



398 
59 



594 



Poly- 
nesian. 



34 
10 

7 



130 
259 



73 

30 
36 
24 



'43 

67 



599 



Proto- 
Samoan. 



9 
6 
I 

13 



28 
I I 



34 
3" 
■4 
54 



'33 

31 



'93 



Tongafiti. 



30 
56 



43 
32 
29 

5' 



'54 
89 



339 



Total. 



'35 

69 

30 

80 



304 

347 



191 
290 
145 

303 



838 
236 



1715 



Paumotu showing in the same relation; 1,122 in the Marquesas, 65 per 
cent, as against the 48 per cent exhibited by the Paumotu. The rela- 
tions of the two languages with Rapanui are practically equal in the 
sum. The Paumotu and the Mangarevan have in common 583 voca- 
bles, this being 42 per cent of the former language and 34 per cent of the 
latter. In general we conclude that the Paumotu leans toward Tahiti 
by practically the same angle as marks the inclination of Mangareva 
toward the Marquesas. ' 

In continuation of this study of the parallelism of Mangareva with its 
neighbor languages we set a group of tables showing the position of its 
common element in reference to the position of the identification, first 
dealing with all Southeast Polynesia. 

Table 10. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Kxtra-Rapanui. 


Total. 


No. 


p. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 




347 
155 
304 


53 
23 
3' 


336 


23 
31 

45 


583 
491 
616 


It 
36 


Tahiti 


Marquesas 



88 



EASTER ISLAND. 



In this table comparison shows quite clearly that the Rapanui 
element of Mangareva associates most closely with the Paumotu, and 
that in the element not found in Rapanui the Mangarevan associates 
most closely with the Marquesas. 

The next table contains those identifications which are not found 
outside Southeast Polynesia: 

Table n. 





Rapanui afiSliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Paumotu 


21 

52 


15 

31 

40 


59 
Il8 

349 


11 
55 


Tahiti 


Marquesas 



Postulating the greater age of this element which has passed from 
Polynesian memory without this province, we find that each element of 
the Mangarevan in its elder stock exhibits a marked afiinity for the 
Marquesan, then for Tahiti and for the Paumotu, in order, and to prac- 
tically equal extent in each subdivision. 

After the same manner we group the three rearward elements: 

TaBLB 12. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Kxtra-Rapanui. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


No. 


p.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


p.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Paumotu 

Tahiti 

Marquesas 


359 
99 
"3 


66 

25 
29 


II 
10 

'5 


38 
32 

38 


30 

24 


35 

30 
37 


67 
99 
93 


32 

47 
44 


31 

48 
65 


>3 
3> 
42 


89 
7" 
74 


63 
50 
5a 



Last of all, we determine the relation of these three external iden- 
tifications to the mass of Mangarevan identifications. 

Table 13. 





Rapanui 
affiliates. 


Extra- 
Rapanui. 


Polynesian 

Proto-Samoan .... 
Tongafiti 


P.ct. 
59.3 

13.5 


P. a. 
30.6 

14 
'3 


Total 


77.8 


47.6 





MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



89 



In sum this table is found in close accord with the correlated Table 
7 derived from study of the Paumotu, and the divergences in relation 
to the Rapanui element of the two languages are inconsiderable. But 
when we compare the non-Rapanui elements we find a noteworthy differ- 
ence. In the Paumotu the Tongafiti is the stronger element by far; it 
contributes more than three times as much as the Proto-Samoan ; in 
Mangarevan the contributions of the two streams are practically equal, 
yet the Tongafiti element is but half the bulk of that in the Paumotu, 
and the Proto-Samoan element is twice as great. In the two languages 
the two elements fall apart by a fine of distinct cleavage. The element 
which is shared with Rapanui may properly be regarded as the migrant 
element, some homogeneous swarm of adventurers visiting more or less 
generally this tract of sea, leaving settlements as they passed, and van- 
ishing from our knowledge in the untracked sea eastward of Easter 
Island. The other elements in each case may be regarded as the seden- 
tary populations, probably the earlier settlement upon which is overlaid 
the influence of the later migrants. The comparison of sedentary ele- 
ments shows that Mangareva has received twice as much directly from 
Nuclear Polynesia as has the Paumotu. 



1738. aga fish-basket. Sa. : /ogo, fish-trap, 
bird-cage. 

1739. aga to look at. Sa.: feagai, fesagai, 
to be face to face. 

1740. agi a light wind, to blow. Sa. : agi, 
to blow. Ma. : angi, gentle breeze. 

1741. ahaki, hahaki to cut off or pluck 
fruit. Ta.: faifai, to pluck. Mq. : 
hahaki, to pluck fruit by hand. Sa. : 
fa'i, to pluck. Ma.: whawhaki, to 
pluck off. 

1742. ahine woman. Ta.: vahine, id. Sa. : 
fafine, id. Ma. : wahine, id. 

1 743. ahuahu to build with stones, to make 
a raft. Ta. : ahu, to pile up stones. 
Ma.: ahu, to pile up. 

(i 744-1747 withdrawn.) 

1748. ai (koai) who. Ta..: ovai, id. Mq.: 
oai,id. Sa.: 'oai,id. Ma.: wai,id. 

1749. aki to gather with the hand as fruit. 
Ta. : faifai, to gather. Mq. : fai, hai, 
haki, id. Sa.: fa'i, to pluck. Ma.: 
whaki, id. 

1750. aki to push on, to shove on. Ma.: 
akiaki, to urge on. 

1751. akirikiri to talk nonsense, indecency. 
Ta. : hairiiri, indecent. Mq. : haii, 
faii, fantastic, lunatic. Ha. : hailiili, 
to swear profanely, to blackguard. 

1752. akoako to feign, to make believe, to 
sham. Sa. : fa'aa'oa'o, to sham. 

1753. ako a fish. Mq.: haoa, id. 

1754. akunei soon, shortly. Ta.: auenei, 
id. Ma.: akuanei, id. 

1755. amama to yawn, gape, open the 
mouth. Ta. : hamama, to yawn, open. 
Ma.: hamama, open. 



1756. ami breech clout. Mq.: hami,id.. Sa. : 
ami, male genitalia, abusive term. 

1757. ami a substance found in crayfish. 
Ta. : ami, roe of crayfish. Sa. : ami, 
roe of crabs. 

1758. amio to turn hither and thither. 
Ta. : amiomio, id. Mq. : amiomio, cir- 
cumvolution. Ma.: amiomio, to spin 
around. 

1759. amu to pick up food with the Ups. 
Ta. : amu, to eat. Mq. : amu, to 
smack the lips in eating. 

1760. ana-rea a shrub. Sa.: ^araa, maize. 

1761. ane black scurf on the skin. Mq.: 
ane, tanned, sunburnt. Ha.: ane, 
ringworm. 

1762. ani accustomed. Mq.:feo»j, id. (Sa.: 
ma-sani, id.) 

1763. ani to ask, to demand. Ta.: ani, to 
demand, to implore. 

1764. ano a tree with fragrant bloom. Mq. : 
hano, a tree. 

1765. ao cloud, mist. Ta.: ao, id. Mq. : 
ao, id. Sa. : ao, cloud. Ma. : ao, id. 

1766. ao hibiscus. Ta.:/aM, id. Mq.:/aM, 
hau, id. Sa.: fau, id. Ha.: hau, id. 

1767. aoa to long for one, condolence. Ta.: 
aroha, love, pity, grief. Mq. : aoha, 
kaoha, id. Sa. : alofa, talofa, id. Ma. : 
aroha, id. 

1768. ao-tara to ravage, to lay waste. Ta. : 
ao, devastated. Mq. : hao, to ravage, 
to rob. Sa. : fao, to rob with violence. 
Ha.: hao, id. 

1769. apopo to-morrow. Ta.: apopo, id. 
Mq.: apopo, later. Ma.: apopo, to- 
morrow. 



90 



FASTER ISLAND. 



1770. 
1771. 
1772. 

1773- 

1774- 

»77S- 
1776. 

1777- 
1778. 
1779. 
1780. 
1781. 
1782. 

1783- 
1784. 

1785. 

1786. 
1787. 

1788. 

1789- 
1790. 



1791, 
1792. 
1793- 



1794- 
1795- 
1796. 

1797- 

1798. 
1799- 



apuku a fish. Mq. : apuku, hapuku, 

id. Ma.: hapuku, id. 

ara this, that. Mq.: aa, id. Ma.: 

ara, particularly. 

araha a flat, treeless raised place. Sa. : 

lafalafa, the level top of a mountain. 

Ma. : raha, a level stretch of coast. 
arae a barrier, to block up. Ta.: 

arai, obstacle, to interpose. Ma.: 

arai, screen, to block up. 

arato a kind of nettle. Ta. : harato, 

stinging, a plant name. Sa. : salato, 

a stinging tree. 

ata shadow. Ta. : ata, id. Mq. : ata. 

id. Sa. : ata, id. Ma. : ata, id. 

ati to break. Ta.: fati, id. Mq.: 

fati, hati, id. Sa..: fati, id. Ma.: 

whati, id. 

atu a fish. Ta. : atu, id. Mq. : atu, 

bonito. Sa.: atu, id. 

atu fruit stone. Sa. : fatu, id. Ma. : 

■whatu, id. 

atu gizzard. Ta. : fatu, muscle of an 

oyster. Sa.: fatu, gizzard. 

au a current. Ta. : au, id. Mq. : au, 

id. Sa.: au, id. Ma.: au, id. 

au awl, bodkin. Ta.: au, needle. 

Sa.: au, id. Ma.: au, a pin. 

auho provisions for a voyage. Sa. : 

oso, id. 

aye a string. Ta. : ave, strand of a 

cord. Mq. : ave, id. 

avivi sound of water boiling; avi 

noise of spouting water. Ta. : avi, a 

loud noise. Mq. : aviavi, rumbling 

in the ears. 

ea to take breath when coming out of 

the sea. Mq. : ea, to take a moment's 

breath. 

aka-ea to take rest. Ta. : faaea, id. 

Mq. : ea, to have a moment's rest. 
eaea marine substance on which 

young fish are nourished. Mq. : eaea, 

viscous matter on the sea. 
eai a disdainful negative. Sa. : leai, 

no, not. 

ee to saw. Ta. : ee, id. 

aka-ei to frighten fish into the nets. 

Mq. : hakaehi, to chase, to pursue, to 

drive fish. 

eia behold. Mq. : eia, id. 
eie behold. Ta. : eie, this. 
emiemi to shudder, to tremble, to 

shake. Mq. : emiee, id. To. : emiemi, 

to wriggle about. 

emo kidnapped, carried off. Mq. : 

hemo, taken, seized. 

erehi a coconut tree. Mq. : ehi, 

coconut. 

eriri a kind of sea snail. Mq.: it, 

porcelain shell. 

eture a fish. Ta.: ature, id. Mq.: 

e/we, id. Sa.: atule, herring. Ha.: 

akule, id. 

aka-eva to suspend, to hang up. Mq. : 

eva, to dangle, to be suspended. 
gaga a bird. Mq. : kaka, id. 



1800. gaha a skin disease, of women only. 
Mq.: kaha, red lines coming in 
flashes on the skin. 

1 801. gahaetotear. Ta. : atee, torn. Mq.: 
kakae, nehae, id. (Sa. : sae, id.) Ma. : 
ngahae, id. 

1802. gahi a fish. Ta.: ahiahi, id. Mq.: 
kahi, id. 

1803. gahigahi fine, of mats. Mq.: kahi- 
kahi, thin, fine, transparent. To.: 
gaflgafi, a fine kind of mat. Ha.: 
nahinahi, fine, thin. 

1804. gahoa notched. Sa.: s<^fo<i- id- 

1805. gaki to force, to employ all one's 
strength. Ta. : ai, to make oneself 
master. Ha. : nai, to strive hard to 
excel. 

1 806. gagau pincers, to bite, to seize with 
the teeth. Ta. : auau, to chew, to 
gnash the teeth. Sa.: gau, to chew 
sugar-cane. Ma.: ngau, to bite, to 
chew. 

1807. gahugahu to bite. Ta.: aahu, to 
bite, to nip. Mq. : kahu, kakahu, to 
bite, to nibble. Moriori: ngahu, id. 

1808. gaigai fine, soft to the touch. Ta.: 
aiai, small, fine. 

1809. gake the eastward part of an island. 
Sa. : gaga'e, east. 

1810. gairo a timber-boring worm. Mq.: 
kaio, naio, small intestinal worms. 
Ha.: naio, pinworms. 

181 1. gako filament, the veining of objects. 
Ha.: nao, streaks on tapa, ridges of 
twilled cloth. 

1812. gakugaku agony, last gasp, quick 
but feeble respiration. Mq.: kaktt, 
trembling; naku, colic, gripes. Ha.: 
nau, pain, distress. 

18 13. gao grooves on the tapa beater. Ta.: 
ao-areva, id. Mq. : kao, to groove; 
nao, a groove, a stripe. Ma.: ngao, 
thread of a screw. 

1814. gaogao small waves of the sea. Ha.: 
nao, a slight ripple on the water. 

1815. garegare red tinged with yellow. Sa.:^ 
galegale-ata, the flush of coming dawn. 

1 8 16. garua stingy, selfish. Mq.: kaua, id. - 

1 81 7. gatae a large thorny tree with red 
blooms. Mq. : netae, id. Ta. : atae, 
Erythrina indica. Sa. : gatae, id. 

i8i8. gatoro to creep, to crawl. Mq.:- 
katoo, id. 

1819. gauta to go inland. Mq.: kauta, 
nauia, inland. Sa. : gauta, id. 

1820. gehe, geegee to make a rustling noise 
in walking over leaves. Ta. : ee, to 
rustle leaves. Ha. : nehe, to make a 
rustling noise. 

1 82 1 . genegene short but fat. Ta. : eneene, 
double chin, thick neck. Ma. : ngene, 
a scrofulous wen. 

1822. gere a heavy rumbling sound. Ma.: 
ngengere, to growl. 

1823. gerepu indisposed, ill. Mq.: tieepu, 
weak, flabby. 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



91 



^- 



24. gerue to shake, to agitate. Mq. : 
keue, neue, id. 

1825. gio to extinguish. Ma.: ngio, id. 

1826. gogo a conical hole. Ta.: 00, a large 
cavity. Ha. : no, a hole left to draw 
off water from taro patches. 

1837. gogo thin cheeks, sunken eyes. Ta.: 
tu-00, wasted away. Ma.: ngongo, 
emaciated. 

1828. goio a black seabird. Mq.: koio, 
nolo, a bird. Ha.: noio, a small 
black bird that lives on fish. 

1829. gorugoru, gougou large and fat, 
flabby. Ta.: oru, a swelling, puffed 
out. Mq. : koukou, large and fat, 
corpulent. Ha. : nolunolu, fat and soft. 

1830. gugu gout of the feet. Ta.: mm, a 
rheumatic affection. Sa. : gugu, rheu- 
matism. 

1831. guruguru to mutter, to growl, to 
speak indistinctly. Ta. : uruuru, to 
groan, to mutter, to stammer. To.: 
gulu, to grunt. Ma. . nguru, to sigh, 
to grunt. 

1832. ha sacred, prohibited. Mq. : a, a 
sacred spot. Sa.: sa, id. 

1833. hae to tear, to rend, to bark, to strip. 
Ta. : haea, torn. Mq. : haehae, to 
tear, to slit, to break. Sa. : sae, to 
tear. Ma.: hae, id. 

1834. hae to shock, to strike against. Sa.: 
safea, to be struck. 

1835. aka-haehae to tempt, to offer a bait. 
Ta.: faahaehae, to provoke. Mq.: 
hakahae, id. Sa. : fa'asaei, id. Ha. : 
hoohae, id. 

1836. haga a fish. Mq. : haka, id. 

1837. hagaafishtrap. Sa.: /aga, a fish-trap, 
bird-cage. Ma.: hanganoa, a small 
basket for cooked fish. 

1 838. haga a measure of a fathom. Ta. : aa, 
to measure length. Mq.: aka, ana, 
to measure with the arms. Ma.: 
whanga, id. 

1 839. haha to seek kin in an improper place. 
Ma.: haha, to seek, to look for. 

1 840. aka-hahapa to look slantwise, to bend 
the neck. Ta.: hapahapa, twisted, 
irregular. Sa. : sapa, unsymmetrical, 
inclined. Ma.: hapa, crooked. 

1841. haharo to polish, to rub. Ta.: haro, 
to smooth the hair. Sa. : salo, to rub 
smooth. Ma. : haro, to scrape clean. 

1842. hahu to bite pandanus fruit. Mq.: 
hahu, to eat gluttonously. 

1843. hai a fish. Ta.: fai, the stingray. 
Mci.: fai, hai, id. Sa..: fai, id. Ma.: 
whai, id. 

1844. haihai evening (metathetic). Sa.: 
afiafi, id. 

1845. hamu to eat scraps or leavings. Ta.: 
' hamu, a glutton. Mq. : hamu, to eat 

leavings. Sa. : samu, id. Ma. : hamu, 
to feed on fragments. 

1846. hari the god of fishes. Mq.: hai, the 
god of fowls and turmeric. Sa. : sali, 
a fish. 



1847. hari to convey heavy goods. Mq.: 
hai, to carry, to transport. Ma.: 
hari, to carry. 

1848. hatahata to be at one's ease. Ta.: 
fatafata, free from care. 

1 849. he a locust pest of coconuts. Ta. : he, 
caterpillar. Mq.: he, grasshopper. 
Sa. : se, id. Ma.: whe, caterpillar. 

1850. hehe, hee to wander. Ta. : Ae, error. 
Sa. : se, wrong. Ma.: he, id. 

1 85 1. hehe a skin disease. Mq.: fefe, hehe, 
tumor, elephantiasis. Ha.: hehe, an 
ulcerated swelling. 

1852. heihei to chase, to drive away. Ha.: 
heihei, to run a race. (The same sug- 
gestion of pursuit in running is to be 
seen in Sa. : taufetuU, commonly used 
as a plural of momo'e, to run, the 
literal sense being they-are-chasing- 
one-another.) 

1853. heke, eke octopus. Ta.:/ee, id. Mq.: 
heke, feke, fee, id. Sa. : fe'e, id. Ma. : 
wheke, id. 

1854. hema the left hand. Ha.: hema, id. 
To.: hema, left-handed. 

1855. heu little hairs on the body. Ta. : 
veu, down, hair, fringe. Mq. : feu, , 
heu, down, wool. Fu.: veuveu, to 
have fringes, disheveled. Ha.: heu, 
beard in the down. 

1856. hikl to commence or to finish mat 
weaving. Mq. : hiki, to finish mat 
weaving. 

1857. hina white, gray hair. Ta.: hina- 
hina, id. Mq.: hina, id. Sa.: sina, 
id. Ma.: hirm, id. 

1858. hinu oil, grease. Ta..: hinu, id. Mq.: 
Ai»M, to grease. Ma.: AireM, oil, grease. 

1859. aka-hio sickly, unhealthy, to drawl. 
Sa.: sio, discouraged, depressed. 

i860, hira frank and hardy. Ta.: hirahira, 
bashful (sense-invert). Ma.: hihira, 
shy. 

186:. aka-hiria to inquire after. Sa.: sili, 
to ask, to demand. 

1862. hirihiri to fish for turtle. Mq.: 
jiijii, a small net for taking turtle. 

1863. hoaga hone, whetstone. Ta. : hoaa, 
polish. Mq. : hoana, hoakf,, a mortar 
for beating poi.. Sa. : foaga, grind- 
stone. Ma.: haanga. id.' 

1864. hoi a vine with tubers. Ta.: hoi, the- 
wild yam. Mq. : hoi, id. Sa. : soi, 
id. Ha.: hoi, id. 

1865. aka-hoihoi dreadful to the sight, 
horrible. Mq. : hoihoi, monstrous, de- 
formed. 

1866. honu turtle. Ta.: honu, id. Mq.: 
honu, id. To. :fonu, id. Ka..: honu, id. 
The Polynesian Wanderings, page 

346- 

1 867. horo to crumble, fall, slip down. Ta. : 
horo, a landslide. Sa.: solo, to slide 
down, to fall. Ma. : horo, a landslide. 

1868. horuhoru agitated, tossing. Ta.: 
horuhoru, troubled. : hakahouhou, the 
sea in great waves. 



92 



EASTER ISlvAND. 



1869. hota coarse. Mq.: hotahota, lumpy. 

1870. hota to be pressed, squeezed. Ha.: 
hoka, to squeeze, to press. 

1871. hoto a fishbone lance-tip. Ta.: hoto, 
a lance, a tip. Mq.: /toto, barb of the 
stingray, lance-tip. Sa.: foto, id. 
Ma.: hoto, id. 

1872. akahotu the September season. Ta.: 

hotu, to produce fruit. Sa. : fotu, id. 

1873. hu to burst, to crackle, to snap. Mq.: 
hu, explosion, to snap. Ha.: hu, a 
noise. 

1874. huahua pimples covering the face. 
Ta. : huahua, id. Mq. : hua, tubercles. 
Sa. : fuafua, abscess on hands or feet. 
Ma. : huahua, small pimples. 

1875. hue a fish. Ta. : huehue, id. Mq. : 
huehue-kava, id. Sa. : stce, id. 

1876. huha buttocks, scrotum. Ta.: hufa, 
thigh. Mq.: «fea-mo^a, buttocks. Sa. : 
Ufa, id. Ma.: huwha, thigh. 

1877. huka, uka froth or foam of living 
creatures. Ma.: huka, foam, froth. 

1878. huke vengeance. Mq. : huke, id. 

1879. hutuatree. Ta. : ^m/m, Barringtonia 
speciosa. Mq. : hutu, id. Sa. : futu, 
id. Ma. : hutu, a tree. 

1880. i the sign of the indefinite past. Ta. : 
i, id. Mq.: i, id. Ma.: i, id. 

1 88 1. iga to fall, to tumble. Ta.: hia, id. 
Mq. : hina, hika, id. Ma. : hinga, id. 

1882. igogo initiation into religious mys- 
teries. Mq. : hioo, a heathen song. 

1S83. aka-igoigo sulky. Sa.: igo, wearied, 
tired of. 

1884. iha tense, stretched out. Ha.: {ha- 
tha, drawn taut. 

1885. ihe a fish. Mq.: ihe, id. Sa.: ise, 
id. Ma. : ihe, the garfish. 

1886. ihu one who dives deep. Ta.: ihu, 
to dive. 

1887. ikuiku the end of anything. Sa.: 
i'u, the end, extremity. 

1888. inaga a very small fish. Ta.: inaa, 
fish fry. Mq.: j«a^o, very small fish. 

Sa. : inaga, id. Ma.: inanga, id. 

1889. inaho a large family or tribe. Sa. : 
inafo, a great number of persons. 

1890. inaki a basket for catching fish. Ta. : 
hinai, a basket. To. : finaki, a cage. 
Ma. : hinaki, an eel weir. Ha. : hinai, 
basket. 

1891. inano the male pandanus. Ta.: 
hinano, pandanus blossom. Mq. : 
hinano, hinako, hikano, hiano, id. 
Sa.: sigano, id. Ha.: hinalo, id. 

1892. aka-ino to bind round. Mq.: ino, 
curl. 

1893. inu to drink. Ta.: inu, id. Mq.: 
inu, id. Sa. : inu, id. Ma.: inu, id. 
The Polynesian Wanderings, page 
376. 

1894. io at the house of . Ta.: lo, id. Mq.: 
io, id. 

1895. aka-ioio feeble, lean and thin. Mq.: 
hakaioio, to be wrinkled, flabby flesh 
of the aged. 



1896. iramutu nephew or niece. Mq.: 
iamutu, son or daughter of a man's 
sister. Sa. : ilamutu, cousinship of 
children of brother and sister. Ma. : 
iramutu, nephew, niece. 

1897. ireira there, thither. Mq.: ieia, id. 

1898. aka-iriga house, dwelling place. Ta.: 
iri, to be lodged. Sa. : sili, to lodge. 

1899. iro a maggot. Ta.: iro, a worm. 
Mq. : io, iko, id. Sa. : ilo, a maggot. 
Ma.: iro, id. 

1900. aka-iroga a mark, sign. Sa.: fa'(t- 
iloga, id. Ma. : whakairo, to carve, 
ornament. 

1901. iroa ignorant of. Sa.: iloa, to 'know; 
iloga, known; iloga, not known. 

1902. ita to adhere, to stick. Ta.: iita, to 
harden, to become stiff. Mq.: ita, 
tightened, held fast. Ma. : ita, tight, 
fast. 

1903. itike surprise. Ta.: itie, id. 

1904. ivi a hillock. Mq.: ivi, hill, small 
mountain. (Sa. : tua-sivi, the ridge 
of a mountain chain.) 

1905. ivituapu hunchback. Ta..: tuapu.id. 

1906. kae saliva, spittle. Ta.: hoe, id. Mq.: 
kae, id. 

1907. aka-kae to have a nasty taste in the 
mouth. Ta. : aeaea, a diseased mouth. 

1908. kaha to plait coir. Ta. : aha, sennit. 
Mq. : plaited coir. Sa. : 'afa, sennit. 
Ma. : kaha, a rope. 

1909. kaha divination, casting of lots by 
priests. Mq.: kaha, priestly power 
of life or death. Ha. : aha, a prayer 
connected with a tabu. 

1910. kahakaha said of a man who does not 
weep over the death of a parent. Ta. : 
ahaaha, proud, high-spirited. Sa.: 
'afa' afa, strong, robust. Ma.: kaha, 
strong. 

1911. kahi to run, to flow. Mq.: kahi,id. 

1912. kaho rafter. Ta.: aho, id. Mq.: 
kaho, timber which closes the back of 
the house. Sa.: 'aso, rafter. Ma.: 
kaho, roof batten. 

1 913. kahokaho long, slim fingers. Mq.: 
kahokaho, long, fine, slender. 

1914. kai to receive. Ta.: ai, id. 

1915. kaiota raw food. Ta.: ojoto, raw, ill 
cooked. Ma.: kaiota, id. 

1916. kaka the envelop of young coconut 
leaves. Ta.: aa, id. Mq.: kaka, id. 
Sa.: 'a'a, id. Ma.: kaka, anything 
fibrous. The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 318. 

1917. kaka a fish. Sa.: 'a'a, id. Ha.: 
aa, id. 

1918. kakaho a reed. Mq. : kakaho, id. 
Ma.: kakaho, id. 

1919. kakahu to walk fast. Mq.: kakahu, 
to chase, to pursue. 

1920. kakai a hook that is good for catching 
fish. Ha.: aai, the name of the net 
used to catch certain fish. 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



93 



1 92 1. kakama a crayfish. Ta.: aama, a 
small crab. Ha. : aama, a black crab 
living amid rocks. 

1922. kaka-kakameika an herb. Fu.: 
kakamika, an odoriferous plant. 

1923. kakano broad, wide, large. Ta.: 
aano, id. 

1924. kakau a fruit stalk. Ta.: aau, id. 
Mq.: kokau, id. (Sa.: 'om, id.) Ma.: 
kakau, id. 

1925. kake to strike on an ocean reef. Ta. : 
ae, to strand. 

1926. kaki-akaureka to desire ardently to 
speak to a person. Mq.: kakt, to 
desire passionately. 

1927. kako flexible, pliant, infrangible. 
Mq. : kako, elastic, ductile. 

1928. kamo a thief, to steal. Mq.: kamo, 
theft, to steal. 

1929. kanae a fish. Ta.: anae, id. Mq.: 
kenakenae, id. Sa. : 'anae, the mullet. 
Ma.: kanae, id. 

1930. kane the heat of the sun. Ha.: 
anea, id. 

1 93 1. kanokano grain, seed, berry. Ta.: 
anoano, seed of the melon, the gourd 
or the cucumber. Ha. : anoano, seed. 

1932. kaoa a fish. Mq.: feoo, a small fish. 
1933- kapa a song for the dead, chant. 

Mq. : kapa, a heathen song. 
1934. aka-kapakapa an eager desire balked 

by timidity. Ta. : apaapa, to flutter 

the wings. To. : kabakaba, id. Ma. : 

kapakapa, to flutter. The Polynesian 

Wanderings, page 295. 
1935- kapi to meet, to come together. Ta. : 

api, to join, to unite. Ma. : kapi, to 

close up. 

1936. kapo to catch in the hands. Mq.: 
kapa, id. Ma. : kapo, id. 

1937. kapu a vessel, container. Ta. : apu, 
a nut shell. Mq.: kapu, a dipper. 
Sa. : 'apu, a leaf cup. Ma.: kapu, 
the hollow of the hand. 

1938. kapurima palm of the hand. Ta.: 
apurima, id. 

1939. karaga a cry. Sa.: 'alaga, id. Ma.: 

karanga, id. 

1940. karakara to smell slightly a pleasant 
.-- odor. Ta. : aara, good odor. Mq.: 

kakaa, to exhale a pleasant odor. 
Sa. : 'alala, to smell of hot meat. 
- Ma. : kakara, savory. 

1 94 1. karako a bird. Mq. : kaako, id. 
194^2. karapihi suckers of the octopus. 

Mq. : karapihi, kaapihi, id. 

1 943 . karava large veins which appear under 
strain. Sa. : 'alava, veins, fibers. 

1944. kare surface. Mq. : kae, id. 

1945. kari a scar. Mq. : kai, id. Ha.: 
ali, id. 

1946. karo to avert a blow. Sa.: 'alo, id. 
Ma. : karo, to ward off a blow. 

1947. karu dirt, soil. Mq.: kau, ordure, 
debris. Sa.: 'alu, dregs. 

1948. karu-ue meat of the calabash. Ma.: 
, •- karu, meat of the pumpkin. Cf . 2539. 



1949. kataha a plant. Ha. : akaha, a tree. 
Cf. 2328. 

1950. kato to cut unripe leaves. Ta.: aio, 
to gather leaves or fruit. Mq. : kato, 
to pinch off hibiscus leaves. Ma.: 
kato, to pluck. 

1 95 1. kava the pepper plant and the drink 
made therefrom. Ta. : aiia, id. Mq. : 
kava, id. Sa. : 'ava, id. Ma.: kawa, 
a pepper. 

1952. kavakava a fish. Sa. : 'ava'ava, id. 
1953' kavapui a tree. Ta. : avapuhi, a. ira.- 

grant plant. Mq. : kavapui, wild 
ginger. Sa. : 'avapui, id. Ha.: awa- 
puhi, id. 

1954. kave tentacle of the octopus. Ta.: 
aveave, id. Mq. : kave, id. Sa. : 'ave, 
id. Ma.: kawekawe, id. 

1955. keaafish. Mq. : kea,id. Ha. :€0, id. 

1956. kehika a tree and its fruit. Ta.: 
ahia, Eugenia malaccensis. Mq. : 
kehika, kehia, Eugenia jambosa. (Sa. : 
nonufi'afi'a, Eugenia malaccensis). 
Ma.: kahika, the white pine. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 254. 

1957. keho a basaltic stone. Mq. : heho, 
basalt. Ma.: keho, sandstone. 

1958. kei-ara root filaments of pandanus. 
Mq. : kei-aoa, roots of the banyan. 

1959. kei-kamo a habitual thief. Ta. :eia, 
a thief, to steal. Ma. : keia, to steal. 

i960, keitagi jealous, envious. Mq. : kei- 
tani,. id. 

1 961. keke to praise, to felicitate. Sa. : 'e'e, 
to pay respect to. Ha. : ee, caressing, 
kind. 

1962. kekeie sharp, harsh, of the voice. 
To.; keke, to bleat. Ha.: eeina, to 
creak, to grate. 

1963. aka-kemi to push a drawer into place. 
Mq. : kemi, to shorten, to contract. 
Ha. : emi, to retire, to diminish. 

1964. kena a white seabird. Mq. : kena, a 
large bird. 

1965. kerea a cough arising from something 
lodged in the throat. Mq. : keea, to 
choke up. 

1966. kerere a messenger, to send. Mq. : 
keee, an envoy, a messenger. Ha. : 
elele, a messenger. 

1967. kereu prompt, expeditious. Ha. :- 
eleu, alert. 

1968. keue a seabird. Mq. : keuhe, id. 

1969. keukeu to amuse oneself. Mq.: keu, 
to play, to amuse oneself, to divert. 

1970. ki to think, to believe, to imagine. 
Ma. : ki, to think. 

1971. kinakina the choroid flow. Ha.: 
inaina, id. 

1972. kio little, small, said of birds and ani- 
mals. Mq. : kio, young of birds. 

1973- kiokio a fish. Mq. : kiokio, id. 

1974. kivikivi a bird resembling the thrush. 
Mq. : kivi, a bird. Ma. : kiwi, id. 

1975. ko particle of the nominative. Ta. :o, 
id. Sa. : '0, id. Ma.: ko, id. 



94 



RASTER ISLAND. 



1976. koai a plant. Ta.: oai, the wild in- 
digo. Ma. : koai, a plant. 

1977. akakoana-kohatu to make a small 

shapeless hole. Ma. : kohatu, stone. 

1978. koata light of the moon shining before 
the moon rises. Ha. . oaka, a glimpse 
of light. 

1979. koekoe rumbling of the bowels. Mq.: 
koekoe, the intestines. Ha.: oeoe, a 
continued indistinct sound. 

1-980. koere an eel. Mq. : koee, id. 
■ 1981. koeriki a tree. Ma.: koeriki, id. 

1982. kohao a watery evacuation of the 
bowels. Ta. : ofao, an ulcer of dropsy. 
Ha.: ohaohao, dropsical swelling, 
bloat. 

1983. kohari dysentery with gripes. Mq.: 
kohai, diarrhea. Ma.: koharihari, to 
be in pain. 

1984. kohero cloth dyed red. Ha.: ohelo, a 
red berry. 

1985. kohiko a small bag mounted in the 
fruit-picking fork. Mq.: kohiko, a 
small net. 

1986. kohore to cut, to carve, to trim. Ta. : 
ohorehore, peeled. 

1987. kohuhu a grass with edible seeds. 
Mq. : kohuhu, a broom whose sap is 
used as a fish poison. Ma. : kohuhu, 
a pittosporum. 

1988. kolvi the skeleton. Ta.: oivi, the 
body. Mq. : koivi, the skeleton, the 
body. Ma. : koiwi, the skeleton. 

1989. etu-kokiri a shooting star. Ta.: ow, 
the Coal Sacks in the sky. Ma. : kokiri, 
a spear. 

1990. koko-mahi a food made of spoiled 
breadfruit. Ta.: mahi, fermented 
breadfruit. Mq. : mahimahi, fetid. 
Sa. : masi, fermented breadfruit. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 281. 

1991. kokopu a Sweetwater fish. Ha.: 
oopu, id. 

1992. kokorora a small land-snail. Ha.: 
oolola, a fish. 

1993. kokota a small shellfish. M.a. : kokola, 
a bivalve shellfish. 

1994. koku pierced by boring worms. Mq. : 
koku, an insect which eats wood. 

1995- kokuru a small tree. Ta. : ouru, Su- 
riana maritima. Mq. : kokuu, a tree. 

1996. koma a stone axe. Ta.: oma, an a.xe. 
Mq. : loki-koma, a gouge. Ma. : koma, 
a stone axe head. 

1997. komaemae slack, feeble. Mq.: komae, 
soft, flabby. Ma.: komae, shrunk. 

1998. komae a breadfruit tree on which the 
crop has mostly failed. Ma. : komae, 
blighted. 

1999. kotnaga a forked tree, to gather the 
crop. Mq. : komaka, komana, a forked 
pole for gathering fruit. 

2000. komako a bird of sweet note. Ta.: 
omaomao, a song bird. Mq. : komako, 
a bird. (Sa. : ma' oma' o, Leptomis 
samoensis). Ma.: komako, the bell 
bird. 



2001 

2002 

2003 
2004 

2005 

2O05, 



2007 
2008 
2009, 

2010. 

201 1. 

2012. 
2013. 

2014. 
2015. 
20l6. 

2017. 

2018. 
2019. 

2020. 

2021. 

2022. 
2023. 



2024. 
2025. 



2026. 
2027. 
2028. 



komata the place on fruit where the 

stalk is attached. Mq. : komata, id. 

komata the nipple, the teat. Ha.: 

omaka, id. 

komine wrinkled. Mq. : komine, id. 

komuri to retrace one's steps. Mq.: 

komui, id. 

kona the lower abdomen. Sa. : 'ona, 

id. Ma.: kona, id. 
. koni to move about (on hands and 

feet, crouching, sitting). Ta.: oni, 

to climb. Ma.: koni, to alter one's 

position. Cf. 2182. 
. konini a tree, a plant. Ta.: onini, 

fruit just forming. Mq.: konini, a 

plant. Ma. : konini, the berry of the 

fuchsia. 
. kopa deformed, with twisted limbs. 

Ta.: opaopa, fatigued. Mq.: kopa, 

paralyzed. Sa.: 'opa, weak. Ma.: 

kopa, crippled. 
. kopiti to associate with certain per- 
sons. Mq. : kopiti, to form alliances. 
koporo the nightshade. Ta. : oporo, 

Solanum anthropophagorum, and a 

very warm relish. 

kopua a small gathering, a little heap. 

Ha. : opua, a bunch, a collection. 
kopura a fish. Mq.: kopua, id. 
kopurepure spotted, stained. Ta.: 

opure, stained. Ma. : kopure, dotted. 

The Polynesian Wanderings, page 1 96. 

koputu a butterfly. Mq.: koputu, a 

bird. 

korino to make meshes in netting. 

Mq. : koino, plaited. 

korivirivi a very small fish. Mq.: — 

koiviivi, id. 

korokoro a tumor in the neck. Mq. : - 
kookoo, swollen. Ma.: korokoro, the 
neck. 

korotea a banana. Mq. : kootea, id.-"" 
kotai, kotae, kotaka a sea bird. 
Mq.: kotae, kotake, tropic bird, gull, 
kotore any soft substance sticking to 
the rocks. Ma. : kotore, sea anemone. 
kotuku a black and white land bird 
with long neck. Ma.: kotuku, the 
white heron. 

koumea the lower jaw, the chin. 
Mq.: koumea, gills. 
kounati plowed stick in fire-making. 
Viti: feuMwito, fire-making sticks. Fu.: 
kaunatu, the plowing stick. 
kouri a breadfruit. Mq. : koui, id. 
kourima the plowing stick in fire- 
making. Ta. : aurima, id. Mq.: 
kouima, id. Ma.: kaurimarima, id. 
koute the China rose. Ta. : ante, id. 
Mq.: koute,id.. Sa. : 'aute,\i. Ma.: 
kauie, id. 

kou-toki an axe helve. Ta. : aau, 
the handle of a tool. Mq.: kou, id. 
Sa. : 'au, id. 

koutu a cape, a promontory. Ta. : 
outu, a cape, a point. Mq.: koutu, 
rocks along shore. 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



95 



2029. kuare clumsy, inexpert. Ma. ; kaare, 
ignorant, mean. 

2030. kue to lament a death. Ta. : ue, the 
last sigh. Mq. : ue, to bewail, to 
regret. Ha.: ue, to weep, to sigh. 

2031. kuha to regret, to mourn for. Mq. : 
kuha, to regret, to be sad. 

2032. kui mother. Mq.: kui, id. Ma.: kui, 
old woman. 

2033. kukina sound when one swallows with 
difficulty. Mq. : kukina, sound of an 
object when struck, sound of running 
water. Ha.: uina, sound of a gun, 
of a whip, of snapped fingers. 

2034. kuku a mother-of-pearl tool. Ta. : 
uu, a shell knife, netting needle. 

2035. kukui to wipe ofE. Ta. : uui, to wipe, 
to polish a canoe. 

2036. kukumu to press, to squeeze. Ta. : 
uutnu, id. 

2037. kukumu to close the fist. Ta.: 
uumu, id. Sa. : '«'«, id. Ma. : kumu, 
to clench the fist. The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 349. 

2038. kukuororagi a dove. Ta.: uurai- 
raro, id. 

2039. kume to be in agony. Mq. : hume- 
kume, pain. 

2040. kumia a fish. Mq. : kuinia,\A. 

2041. kumu the fist. Ma.: kumu, id. 
Cf. 2037. 

2042. kumukumu to prepare small por- 
tions of food pressed with the hand. 
Ta. : umua, to make into balls, to 
press, to wring. Mq. : kumu-hei, a 
small bundle of fragrant herbs. Ma. : 
kumu, to bring in the hollow of the 
hand. 

kune to become pregnant. Ma.: 
kukune, id. 

kuoga household provisions. Ta.: 
uoa, forbiddance of foods. 
kuokuo white. Ta. : uouo, id. 
kuparu to thrive, said of children. 
Ha. : upalu, to be young and comely. 
kupu a curse, an imprecation. Ta. : 
upu, a prayer. Mq. : kupu, insult, 
injury, to ctu"se. Sa. : 'upu, a word. 
Ma. : kupu, id. Ha. : upu, to vow. 
kure a great talker. Ma.: kure, to 
cry like a sea-gull. 

kuru-oe paste made of abortive bread- 
fruit. Ta. : uru, breadfruit. Mq.: 
kuu, id. Sa. : 'ulu, id. Ha. : ulu, id. 
kutete to shiver with cold, to tremble 
with fear. Ha. : ukeke, a shuddering, 
chill. 

ma fermented breadfruit or taro. 
Mq. : ma, id. 

ma to fade, to lose color. Ha. : ma, 
to fade. 

maa fermented breadfruit. Ta. : maa, 
food, nourishment. Cf. 2051. 
maana clothes. Mq.: kahumahana, 
id. 



2043. 

2044. 

2045, 
2046. 

2047 



J048. 
2049. 

2050. 

2051. 
2052. 
2053. 
2054. 



2055. maevaeva hanging tatters of cloth. 
Mq. : maeva, the strips of cloth hung 
round the house in which the dead lies. 

2056. maha a fish. Mq. : maha, id. 

2057. mahaga twins. Ta..: mahaa,id. Mq. : 
mahana, mahaka, id. Sa. : masaga, 
id. Ma.: mahanga, id. 

2058. mahitihiti to gush out. Sa. : mafiti, 
to spring out. Ma. : mawhiti, to leap. 

2059. mahora to spread, to stretch out, 
level. Ta. : woAora, to be spread out, 
level. Mq. : mahoa, to spread out, 
to display, level. Sa. : mafola, to be 
spread out. Ma. : mahora, id. 

2060. mahu a strong or pleasant odor from 
afar. Sa. : ma{u, to emit a sweet 
smell. 

2061. maitoito a fish. Ha.: maikoiko, id. 

2062. maka a sprout on a tree trunk. Mq. : 
maka, a branch, a bough. 

2063. maka fine, light. Ta.: maa, a little. 
Mq. : maka, id. Ha.: maa, to be 
small, little. 

2064. makaro shortsighted. Ma.: makaro, 
dimly visible. 

2065. makauea weary. Ha..:maauea,la.zy. 

2066. makave coir threads, rain in strings. 
Sa. : ma'ave, a good head of hair. 
Ma.: makawe, a. head of hair. 

2067. aka-makou to commit adultery. 
Mq. : makou, jealousy of the married. 
Ma.: makau, husband, wife. 

2068. aka-makuku to moisten, to sprinkle. 
Ta. : mauu, humid, moist. 

2069. aka-mamahu to take things quietly. 
Ta. : faa-mahu, to be patient. 

2070. mamara acid, sharp, piquant. Ta. : 
mamara, sharp, bitter. Mq. : mamaa, 
bitter. Sa. : mamala, sourness. 

2071. mamuri after. Mq.: mamui, id. 
Ha.: mamuli, id. 

2072. mania slippery, smooth, polished. 
Mq. : mania, id. Ma.: mania, id. 

2073. maniania to have the teeth on edge 
Mq. : maniania, id. To.: fakamani- 
nia, id. Ha.: mania, id. 

2074. maniniafish. Sa..: manini, id. Ha.: 
manini, id. 

2075. manono the dry trunk of the nono 
tree. Mq. : manono, the dry trunk 
of the noni tree. 

2076. manu to have a sore mouth. Ta.: 
manumanu, toothache. Sa.: manu- 
manu, id. 

2077. aka-manumanu tinted, shaded, or 
drawn with little dots. Sa. : mamanu, 
figured, carved. 

2078. maomao a fish. Sa. : maomao, id. 
Ma.: maomao, id. 

2079. mapomapo not sticky or adhesive. 
Sa. : mapomapo, mealy, soft. 

2080. mapu panting, a sigh of fatigue. Ta. : 
mapu, whistling, to sigh with fatigue. 
Mq. : mapu, to whistle. Sa. : mapu, 
id. Ma.: mapu, to whiz, to sigh, to 
sob, to pant. 



96 



EASTER ISI^AND. 



2081. mara open land, cultivated field. 
Mq.: mara, maa, land under tilth. 
Ta. : amara, the first stone of a marae, 
etc. Sa.: mala, a new plantation. 
Ma.: mara, land under tilth. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 369. 

ao82. maraga stations ten days' journey 
apart. Ta.: mandnd, a vagabond. 
Sa.: malaga, a journey, a party of 
travelers. Ha. : malana, a multitude 
moving together. 

2083. maragai the southeast wind. Ta.^^ 
maraai, id. Ma. : marangai, the e%?c 
wind. > 

2084. marari a fish. Mq. : maai, id. Sa^ 
malali-a'a, id. Ma.: marare, id. 

2085. mararo lower, below. Ha.: malalo, - 
downward, below. y' 

2086. marau a fish. Sa. : malau, id. 

2087. marere to fall little by little. Sa.; 
malelelele, to be toppling, overhanging. 
Ma. : marere, to fall. 

2088. marikoriko morning twilight, dawn. 
Mq. : maikoiko, id. Ma.: mariko- 
riko, id. 

2089. maroro the flying fish. (Ta.: marara, 
id.) Mq. : maoo, id. Sa. : malolo, id, 
Ma.: maroro, id. 

2090. maru, tnaruru to tremble through 
fear, shaky. Ta. : marua, to fall down. 
Sa. : malum, shaky. 

2091. maru in the train or retinue of a 
noble. Ha.: malu, to have the pro- 
tection of a chief. 

2092. aka-mata to commence. Ta. : haa- 
mata, id. 

2093. matai by sea. Ha.: makai, at sea, 
seaward. 

2094. mataka a fish. Ha. : makaa, id. 

2095. matakeinaga an assembly, congre- 
gation of persons. Ta. : mataeinaa, a 
district and its inhabitants. Mq. : 
mataeinaa, mataeinana, the people, a 
train. 

2096. matamua first. Mq.: matamua, id. 
Ma.: matamua, id. 

2097. matapua to have dust in the eyes. 
Mq.; wafa^Mfl, one-eyed. 'Ra.r.mata- 
pula, sore-eyed, one-eyed. Cf. 2307. 

2098. matariki the Pleiades. Ta.: matarii, 
id. Mq.: mataiki, mataii, id. Sa. : 
matali'i, id. Ma. : matariki, id. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 196. 

2099. matatai one-eyed. Ta. : matatahi, id. 
Sa. : matatasi, id. 

2 100. mataua to squabble, to dispute. Sa. : 
mataua, jealous, envious. 

2101. matavare blear-eyed. Mq.; matavae, 
lippitude. Ha.: makawale, id. 

2102. mate love, ardent desire. Ta.:mateai, 
lively desire. Mq. : mate, ardent de- 
sire. _ Sa.: mate, id. Ma.: mate, id. 

2103. matiho to spy. Mq.: matio, ma- 
tioo, id. 

2104. mati-kao toe, finger. Mq. : mati-uu, 
nails. Sa. : mati-uu, id. Ma.: mati- 
mati, toe. 



2105. matiki to assuage pain, to relieve. 
Mq.: matike, id. 

2106. matiro to examine, to look closely 
into. Mq. : matio, to regard side- 
wise. Ha. : makilo, to look wistfully. 

2107. matou we exclusive. Ta.: matou, id. 
Mq.: matou, id. Sa.; matou, id. 
Ma.; matou, id. 

2108. maturau a fish. Mq.; matuau, id. 
Sa.: matulau, id. 

109. mau to hold. Ta.; mau, id. Mq.: 

mau, id. Sa.; mau, id. 
no. mau to seize. Ta.; mau, to catch, 

to seize. Sa. ; mau, to take prisoner. 

Ma. : mau, restrained. 

111. maunu dry leaves on a dead tree. 
Ta.: maunu, bald, plucked. Mcf.: 
maunu, to peel, to shed the skin. 
M^. : maunu, to be doffed, as clothes. 

112. mauta by land. Ha.: mauka, by 

land, landward. 

ako-mea a red fish. Ta.: mea, red. 

Sa. : memea, red, yellow, brown. 
mei of, belonging to. Ta.: mei, of. 

Mq. : mei, id. 

mei breadfruit. Mq. : mei, id. To.: 
mei, id. 

meika banana. Ta. : meia, id. Mq. : 
meika, id. 

meimata tears, weeping. Mq. : mei- 
mata, id. 

meire a tree. Mq. : meie, a plant. 
mene blunt, dull. Ha. : mene, id. 
meire not tabu. Mq.: meie, id. 
merino calm, tranquil, silence. Mq. : 
menino, id. To.: melino, peace. 
miha lie rippling of a brook. Fu.: 
misa, to come into sight at the sur- 
face of the water. Ha. : miha, to flow 
with ripples. 

ua-mihi a fine or light rain. Mq. : 
uamihi, id. 

miri to consider, to regard. Ta.: 
mirimiri, to examine. Mq.: mii, to 
consider, to regard. Ha.: mili, to 
look at, to examine. 
aka-moa to cook. Mq. : haamoa, id. 
To.: moa, dried. Ha.: moa, to dry, 
to roast. 

moaga a red beard. Mq.: moaka, 
very red. 

moaga a fish. Mq. : moana, id. Sa. ; 
moaga, id. Ha.; moana, a red fish. 
Cf. 2126. 

moake east wind. Ha.: moae, the 
northeast tradewind. 
moemoe to steal, to purloin at a food 
distribution. Mq. : moemoe, to seize, 
to grasp. 

mohora to stretch out. Mq.: mohoa, 
to spread out. Ha.; mohola, to un- 
fold, to expand. 

mohore to peel off. Ha. ; mohole, to 
rub off the skin. 
2132. mokora a duck. Ta.; moora, id. 



2113. 

114. 

2115. 

2 1 16. 

2117. 

2118. 
2119. 
2120. 
2121. 

2122. 



2123. 



2124. 



2125. 



2126. 



2127. 



2128. 



2129. 



2130. 



2131. 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



97 



2 133. momi voracious. Ta. : momi, to swal- 
low. Mq.: momi, to eat with the 
mouth full, to swallow. Fu.: momi, 
to swallow soft things, to suck. 
Ma. : momi, to suck. Ha. : momi, to 
swallow. 

2134. more branches of whose bark cord is 
made. Ta. : more, hibiscus bark. 

2135. moriga a minor festival. Ta.: worio, 
offering after recovery from illness. 
Ma.; OTon'rea, to remove the crop tabu. 

,2-136. moro dry, withered. Mq.: moo,6xy, 
, ^ arid. 
V 2137. moruga above. Ma.: morunga,iA. 

2138. moteatea mingled with white. Mq.: 
motea, whitish. Ma.: mkea, white- 
faced. 

2139. moto unripe, green, raw. Sa.: moto, 
~~ — g reen, unripe. 

2140. mou^fear, dread, trepidation. Mq.: 
mown, id. 

2 141. muamua the end, extremity. Mq.: 
muamua, the end, extremity, point. 
To. : muamua-nima, the fingertips. 

2142. muhu to talk when in the water 
fishing. Ta. : muhu, to babble. Mq. : 
muhumuhu, to chatter. Sa. : musu- 
musu, to whisper. 

2 143. mui to crowd about a speaker. Mq. : 
mui, to crowd about one. Ma. : mui. 
to swarm. 

2144. munamuna to stammer and stutter. 
Ta. : munamuna, to mutter. Mq. : 
muna, confused. Sa.: muna, to 
grumble. Ma.: muna, to speak of 
privately. 

2145. mure to be finished. Ta. : mure, to 
end, to cease. 

2146. inutu mute, silent. Mq. : mutu, id. 

2147. mutu to cease, to leave off. Ma.: 
whakamutu, id. 

2148. naha (metathetic) a bow. Ta..: fana, 
id. Mq. : pana, id. Sa. : fana, id. 
Ma. : whana, to spring as a bow. 

2149. naho a shoal of fish. Mq. : naho, a 
band, a troop. Ta. : nahoa, a troop, 
a company. 

2150. nai who, for whom. Mq. : nai, id. 

2151. naku to take, to seize, to appropriate, 
to carry off. Ta. : naua, to acquire, 
to win. 

2152. nana to look at, to view, ta.: nana, 
to see, to look at. Ha. : nana, to view 
attentively. 

2153. nana angry, offended. Ma.: nana, 
in a passion. 

2154. nane to mix, to mingle. Ta. : nane, 
mixed, confused. 

2155. nani to chew. Ha.: momi, to bite, to 
catch hold of with the teeth. 

2156. nanu to curse. Ma.: nanu, to grum- 
ble at. 

2157. nao mosquito. Ta.: naonao, id. Mq.: 
naonao, gnat. Ma.: naonao, midge. 

2158. nacre to make smaller. Mq. : naoe, 
naohe, fine, slender, flexible. 



2159. nape to stick out the tongue, to lick. 
Mq. : nape, to stick out the tongue, 
to lap. 

2 160. nati to vow to the gods. Ta. : nanati, 
natiaha, sorcery, enchantment. Mq. : 
natikaha, a magical charm. 

2 161. natu colic. Mq.: nau, id. 

2162. nekoneko dirty, abominable, loath- 
some. Ta. : neo, a stench. Mq. : neko- 
neko, neoneo, dirty, stinking, disgust- 
ing. Ha. : neko, filthy, bad-smelling. 
This is one of the rare instances in 
which the Polynesian k has been 
retained in Hawaiian. 

2163. nenai yesterday. Ta. : nenahi, id. 
Mq. : nenahi, id. 

2164. nenue a fish. Mq.: nenue, id. 

2165. nikau the coco palm. Ta.: niau, 
coconut leaf. Ha. : niau, stem of the 
coconut leaf. Ma.: nikau, an areca 
palm. 

2166. ninita the papaya. Ta. : ninita, id. 
Ha. : ninika, a bush. 

2167. niol a shrub. Mq.: nioi, a plant. 
Ha.: nioi, id. 

2168. niu to turn upon itself, to pirouette. 
Ha.: niu, to whirl about. Probably 
a variant of liu. 

2169. nohu a fish with poisonous spines. 
Ta.: nohu,id. Mq. : »zoAm, a small fish. 
Sa. : nofu, a toad-fish. Ha. : nohu, id. 

2170. nonoatree. Ta. : nono, the morinda. 

2 1 71. aka-nonoku to crouch down gently. 
Sa. : no'uno'u, to stoop. 

2172. norunoru soft flesh, with relaxed 
muscles. Mq.: nounou, tender, deli- 
cate. Ha.: nolu, soft, tender. 

2173. noumati drought, hot weather. Sa.: 
naumati, dry, arid. 

2174. nounou to desire ardently, to lust. 
Ta. : nounou, desire, to covet. 

2175. nuku land, country, place. Sa. : nu'u, . 
district, territory, island. 

2176. nu mi to press, to squeeze. Sa.:numi, 
to crush together. 

2177. aka-nunu to stammer, to stutter. 
Mq.: nunu, id. 

2178. o to give. Ta. : ho, id. Sa. :/oo'», id. 
Ma. : ho, id. 

2179. oha to fall down. Ta. : oha, slanting, 
bent. Mq. : oha, to fall down, slant- 
ing, oblique. Sa. : sofa, to throw down. 

2 1 80. ohotu fourteenth day of the moon. 
Ha. : ohoku, fifteenth day. 

2181. ohua twelfth day. Ha.: ohua, thir- 
teenth day. Ma. : ohua, id. 

2182. oni to climb a tree. Ta. : oni, id. Mq. : 
oni, id. Ha. : oni, to ascend zigzag as 
a kite. Cf. 2006. 

2183. one to splice; onoga a small bundle 
of long things. Ta. : ono, to unite 

2184. ono a fish. Mq. : ono, id. To.: ono, 
id. Ha.: ono, id. 

2185. ono to attend to the fire. Mq.: ono, 
Sa.: Tofaeono, chief's title of the 
Vaimauga. 



98 



EASTBR ISLAND. 



2186. ora to wedge up. Ta.: ora, to twist, 
to lash together the parts of a canoe. 
Sa.: olaola-ati, the wedge of a hatchet 
helve. Ma. : ora, a wedge. 

2187. ori an outcry, shouting. Ta.: ori, to 

dance. Mq. : ori, a song. Sa. : oholi, 
to be joyful. Ma. : oriori, a song of 

2188. aka-orooro to handle. Ta.: orooro, 
to rasp, to grate. 

2189. oru the noise of a branch loaded down. 
Ha.: olu, the springing of rafters 
under the wind. 

2190. ota raw, uncooked. Ta. : ota, raw. 
Sa.: ota, uncooked. 

2191. aka-otooto to sound a long time. 
Ta.: oto. to cry, to sound. 

2 1 92 . oturu one of the quarters of the moon. 
Ha.: okulu, sixteenth day of the 
moon. 

2193. pa an inclosure, a fenced place. Ta. : 
pa, inclosure, fortification. Mq. : pa, 
inclosure. Sa. : pa, a wall. Ma. : pa, 
a fort. 

2194. patotouch. Sa..:pa'i,id. Ma.:^a,id. 

2195. pa to prattle. Ta.: haapapa, to 
recount. 

2196. pae to float, to drift. Ta.: ^ae, to go 
to leeward. Ma.: pae, to drift, to 
float about. 

2197. pae to place in a row, to build. Ta. : 
paepae, a pavement, a scaffold. Mq. : 
paepae, a pavement. Sa. ; paepae, id. 
Ma. : pae, to lie in order. 

2 198. pagoa a small hole in the ground or in 
a rock. Ta. : paoa, a hole in a rock. 
Ha. : panoa, a cavern. 

2199. pagu black. Mq.: paku, panu, id. 

2200. paheke to slip, to slide. Ta.: pahee, 
to slip. Mq. : paheke, id. Ma.: pa- 
heke, id. 

2201. pahere a comb. Ta.: pahee, id. 

2202. pakaokao the side, on a side. Ha.: 
paaoao, sidewise, on one side. 

2203. pakaora victorious. Ta. : paaora, id. 

2204. pake hard. Ma. : pake, obstinate. 

2205. pakihi purslane. Mq. : ^oAjAi, a sor- 
rel. Ha. : paihi, a plant. 

2206. pakipaki to slap. Ta. : paipai, to 
clap hands. Mq. : pakipaki, light 
blows with the hand. Ma.: paki, to 
slap, to pat. 

2207. pake to exhaust every stock or supply 
of food in a famine. Ma.: pako, to 
gather remnants of a crop. 

2208. pakopako a fish. Ha.: paopao, id. 

2209. paku bast cloth. Ha.: pan, a gar- 
ment made of tapa. 

2210. paku-umu soot of an oven. Ha.: 
pau, soot of a lamp. 

2211. pane the foi-ehead. Mq. : /)ane, upper 
side of the head of large fish. Ma. : 
pane, head. 

2212. pani to anoint, to oil. Mq. : pani, id. 
Sa..: pani, to dye the hair. Ma.: 
pani, to anoint. 



2213. pao to be beaten. Ta.: pao, to lac- 
erate the head in mourning. Mq.: 
pao, to beat. Sa. : pao, to chastise. 
Ma. : pao, to beat. 

2214. paoko a fish. Mq. : paoko, paoo, id. 
Ha.: paoo, id. 

2215. paora sunstroke. Ta.: paora, en- 
tirely desiccated. 

2216. papa a plank, a board. Ta. : papa, 
id. Mq.: papa, id. Sa.: papa, id. 
Ma.: papa, id. The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 325. 

2217. papa to clap, to crack. Ta.: papa, to 
snap. Mq. : papa, to crack. 

2218. papa to shine out, to glitter. Ta.: 
papa, id. Mq. : pa,pa, id. Ha. : papa, 
to shine. 

2219. papaga in rows, ranks, tiers. Mq. : 
papa, id. Ha.: papa, id. 

2220. papaha a foreigner. Ta.: papaa, id. 

2221. papakaacrab. Ta. : ^a^oo, id. Mq.: 
papaka, id. Sa.: pa'a, id. Ma.: 
papaka, id. 

2222. papaka a malady in the flesh. Mq. : 
papaka, syphilis. 

2223. papu to roll the trousers up to the 
knee. Mq.: papu, bathing tights. 

2224. parahu spoiled, damaged, decayed. 
Ha. : palahu, rotten, decayed. 

2225. parapu the northwest wind. Mq.: 
paapu, a squall. 

2225. pare a covering for the head. Mq.: 
^oe, id. Sa..: pale, id. Ma.: pare, id. 

2227. pataka to grill over coals. Mq.: 
pataka, id. 

2228. patapata large, gross. Sa. : patapata, 
large, tall. Ha.: pakapaka, large, 
coarse. 

2229. patiti a small implement of tapa 
making. Ma. : patiti, a hatchet. 

2230. patuki a fish. Mq.: patuki, patui, 
id. Ha.: pakuikui, id. 

2231. paua a fish. Ha.: ^o«o, id. 

2232. peau, peahu a wave. Mq. : peau, id. 
Sa. : peau, id. 

2233. pehau a wing. Ta.: pehau, a fin. 
Ma. : pehau, a wing. 

2234. pehe cat's cradle. Mq.: pehe, id. 
Ha. : pehe, a snare. 

2235. pehi a ship. Mq. : pehi, a great canoe. 

2236. pehu to shade, to cover. Mq. : pehu^ 
overcast, somber. 

2237. pei to juggle balls. Ta.: pei, id. 
Mq. : pei, id. 

2238. peiaha jaws, gills of fish. Ta.: pei- 
haha, peiha, gills. Ma.: piha, id. 

2239. peikea a small crayfish. Mq. : peikea, 
a crab. 

2240. peipei to approach. Mq. : peipei, id. 

2241. peka a cross. Ta.: pea, id. Mq.: 
peka, id. Ma.: ripeka, id. 

2242 . pekepeke the tentacles of the octopus 
retracted. Mq. : peke, to tuck up the 
clothes. Ma.: pepeke, to draw up 
the legs and arms. 



MANGAR^VA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



99 



2243. pekepeke a crab. Ha.: pee-one, a 
crab that burrows in the sand. 

2244. pena so, like that. Sa. : fa'apena, id. 
Ma.: pena, id. 

2245. penei so, like this. Mq. : penei, id. 
Sa. : penei, id. Ma.: penei, id. 

2246. pepa to substitute one word for 
another. Ma. : pepa, to forget a word 
in an incantation. 

2247. pera so, like that. Sa.: pela, as if. 
Ma. : pera, so, like that. 

2248. perepere to put to soak. Mq. : pere, 
to dilute poi. 

2249. pereue a garment. Ta. : pereue, a 
long garment. Sa. : peleue, id. 

2250. peta a bunch of bananas. Mq.; peto- 
vii, a kind of banana plant. 

2251. peti not to remain, to disappear and 
never return. Ta.: petipeti, ended, 
finished. Ma.: peti, entirely con- 
cluded and done with. 

2252. peti short. Mq. : petipeti, a. pig yaWh 
^"Sft legs. Ha. : pgke; short. 

2253. pi full, complete. Mq. : ^i, id. 

2254. piere a cake of soft breadfruit. Ta. : 
piere, dried fruit. Ha. : piele, a cake 
of finely grated taro. 

2255. pigao a winged insect. Mq. : pinao, 
a dragonfly. Ha. : pinau, id. 

2256. pihe war cry, joy cry, dance. Ta.: 
pehe, to sing. Sa.: pese, id. Ma.: 
pihe, sound of waUing. 

2257. pic to put out, to extinguish. Ma.: 
pio, quenched, extinguished. 

^2258. piri a very large package of food. 
Mq. : piri, package, bundle. 

2259. piritia packed close together. Ha.: 
^ pilikia, crowded close together. 

2260. tai-piro a calm sea. Mq. : pioo-pe, 
calm. 

2261. pito end, extremity, boundary. Mq. : 
pito, beginning of a cord. Sa. : pito, 
the end of anything. Ma. : pito, end, 
extremity. 

2262. poa bait, chum. Ta.: ^arw-^oa, bait. 
Mq. : poa, to bait, to allure, to poison 
fish. Sa.: poapod, fishy smelling. 
Ma.: poa, to bait, to entice. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 276. 

2263. poatuastone. Mq.: pohaiu, a. rouad 
hammer stone. Ma.: powhatu, a 
stone. 

2264. pogi quick. Mq. : poki-hoo, poni-hoo, 
poi-hoo, quickly, promptly. Ha.: 
poni, suddenly, in an instant. 

2265. poiia open. Mq.: poha, open, to 
split, to crack, to break, to disclose. 
Ha. : poha, to burst, to come to view. 

2266. pohatahata large open eyes, wide 
stalk end of breadfruit. Mq. : pohata, 
pofata, pofafa, wide open, hollow 
within. Ha.: pohaha, round and deep. 

2267. pohore to escape, to get away. Mq.: 
pohoe, to escape, safe, free, at liberty . 

2268. poliue a large-leaved seaside vine. 
Ta. : pohue, generic name of the con- 
volvulus. Mq.:^oAMe, bindweed. (Sa.: 
fue, id.) Ma. : pohue, id. 



2269. pohuri banana scions. (Sa. : suii, id.) 
Ha. : pohuli, scion of any plant. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 211. 

2270. pokai an anchor. Mq. : ^oAae, sinker 
of a fish line. 

2271. poki to cover. Ta.: ^oi, to be covered. 
Ma. : poki, to cover. 

2272. ponini to allow oneself to become 
defiled. (Sa. : nini, to smear.) Ha.: 
poni, to besmear, to daub over. 

2273. poniuniu dizzy, giddy, vertigo. Ha.: 
poniuniu, id. 

2274. aka-poniu to dazzle. Mq.: ponio- 
nio, id. 

2275. popoi cooked paste. Ta. : popoi, id. 
Mq. : popoi, id. Ha. : poi, id. 

2276. pori the lower belly. Ha. :^o/t, id. 

2277. poroaki to send word, to deliver^ an 
order. Ta. : poroi, to order, to take 
leave. Mq. : pooai, to send word to, 
to command. Sa. : poloa'i, to com- 
mand at a distance. Ma.: poroaki, 
to leave instructions, to take leave. 
The Polynesian Wanderings, page 291. 

2278. pororo the July season when tiie 
leaves fall. Mq.: pororo, dry, arid. 
Sa. : palolo-mua, July. Ma. : paroro, 
cloudy weather. 

2279. porotu beautiful, pleasant. Ta. : pu- 
rotu, id. Mq.: pootu, beautiful (of 
women only). Sa. : Pulotu, the abode 
of the dead. Ma. : purotu, pleasant, 
agreeable. 

2280. pota a kind of radish. Ta. : pota, 
small vegetables. Mq.: pota, mus- 
tard, chicory. Sa. : pota, taro leaves. 

2281. potaka round. Ta.: potaa, round, 
oval. 

2282. potea a shellfish. Mq. : potea,iA. 

2283. potiki chUdren as the parents' sup- 
port. Ta. : poti, a young girl. Mq. : 
poiti, potii, child. Ma.: potiki, the 
youngest child. 

2284. potipoti an insect. Ta. : popoti, cock- 
roach, beetle. Mq. : poti, a crab. 
Ma. : potipoti, the sandbiopper. 

2285. pouhu a fish. Ha. : pouhu, id. 

2286. poutu a stay, a prop. (Ta.: poutu, 
erect, upright.) Sa.: /)OMte, the prin- 
cipal post of a house. (Ma.: poutu, 
steep, perpendicular.) 

2287. pu the middle. Ta.; pu, middle, 
center, interior. 

2288. pu suddenly. Mq.: pu, id. 

2289. aka-pu to thicken poi. Mq.: haapu, 
to stir up poi for serving. 

2290. puga breadfruit which is scirrhous. 
Ha.: punapuna, tough, hard to eat. 

2291 . pupu a bundle, package. Mq. : pupu, 
a small fagot. Ha. : pupu, a bundle. 

2292. pupu a bushy, branchy place. Mq. : 
pupu, to clear away brush. Sa.: 
pupu-vao, a thicket. Ha.: pupu, to 
be rough, uneven. 

2293. puhara the pandanus. Mq.: puhaa, 
pufaa, foot of the pandanus. Ma. : 
puhala, the body of the pandanus. 



100 



EASTER ISLAND, 



2294. 
2295. 

2296. 
2297. 
2298. 

2299. 
2300. 
2301. 
2302. 
2303. 
2304. 
2305- 

2306. 
2307. 

2308. 
2309. 

2310. 

2311. 
2312. 

2313- 
3314- 

2315- 
2316. 

a3i7- 
»3iS. 

2319. 



puheke bald. Mq.: pueke, to shave 
the head. 

puhi the sea eel. Ta.: puhi, eel. 
Mq.: puhi, muraena. Sa.: pusi, id. 
Ma. : puhi, eel, lamprey. 
pui a garment, to put on clothes. 
Ma. : pui, a kind of mat. 
puka a blister. Ta.: pua, a boil, 
abscess. 

puka-maga a tree that grows on the 
mountains. Mq. : puka, a tree. Sa. : 
pu'a, id. Ma.: puka, id. 
pukapuka a kind of banana. Mq. : 
puapua, id. 

pukao a univalve shellfish. Mq.: 
pukao, a shell. 

pukava a plant. Ha.: pukawa, the 
kava root, pandanus. 
puke to assemble, to bring together. 
Mq. : puke, a group, troop. 
punavai a spring of water. Ha.. 
punawai, id. 

puni to achieve, to finish, to complete. 
Ha. : puni, to finish, to complete. 
pupuha to blow out smoke. Ta. : 
puha, to spout as a whale. Sa. : pusa. 
to send up a smoke. Ma.: puha, 
to spout. 

pupuha a large sugarcane. Mq.: 
pupuha, id. 

pura to have something in the eye. 
Mq. : pua, one-eyed, to have a black 
eye. Ma.: pura, a foreign body in 
the eye. Cf. 2097. 
pura descendants, lineage. Mq. : pua, 
descendants of a family. 
pura-atea a bank of white sand in the 
sea. Sa. : ^w/a/Jw/a, a shining appear- 
ance of the sea outside the reefs. 
purapura grains, berries. Fu. : pula- 
pula, seeds in general. Ma.: pura- 
pura, seed. 

pureva yellow scum on the sea. Ma. : 
Ma. : pureva, to float. 
puroku to cover the head. Ta. : 
purou, id. Sa.: pulo'u, id. Ha.: 
pulou, id. 

purua to double, to do a second time. 
Ma. . purua, to do a second time. 
putara a spiral shell with a large open- 
ing. Mq. : putara, putaa, a shellfish. 
Ma. : putara, a shell trumpet. 
putea white. Ta. : /)Mteo, white, beau- 
tiful. Mq. : putea, white. 
putu clapping the hands. Ta. : putu, 
id. Ma. : putu, to clap the hands to 
time. 

putuga reins, kidneys. Mq. : puluna, 
stomach, gizzard, crop. 
putuki hair knotted or tangled. Mq. : 
putuki, putui, a knot of women's hair 
worn at one side or at the back of the 
head. 

raga-ua completely saturated with 
rain. Mq. : ana-ua, water which 
flows in the rains. 



2320. rakoa a fish. Mq. : akoa, id. Sa.: 
la'o, id. 

2321. rapahou primipara. Ma.: rapoi.iA. 

2322. raparapa green. Ta.: rapa, id. 

2323. raparapa flat. Ta.: rapa, a flat 
rock. Sa. : /o/)a/a^o, a flat coral. Ma.: 
raparapa, the flat part of the foot. 

2324. rara a branch of a tree. Ta. : rara, 
id. Mq. : rara, small branches. Sa. : 
lata, id. Ma.: rara, id. 

2325. rare to speak as with an impediment. 
Mq. : are, to speak like a croaking 
raven. 

2326. raru cooked. Ta. : raru, ripe, over- 
ripe. 

2327. rata to frequent, to keep company 
with. Ta. : rata, tame, familiar. Mq. : 
ata, wild (a sense-invert). Sa.: lata, 
tame, to feel at home. Ma.: rata, 
tame, familiar. 

2328. raukataha a plant. Mq.: auketaha, 
the birds-nest fern. Cf. 1949. 

2329. re-mai to emerge from prison, to 
recover from illness, delivered from 
evU. Mq. : ee, to go, to escape. Sa. : 
lele, to go out (of the passing soul). 
Ha.: lele, to depart (of the spirit). 

2330. rehe a fish. Ha.: lehe, a shellfish, 
lee, a fish. 

2331. reho a shellfish. Ta.: reho, id. Ma.: 
rehoreho, id. 

2332. rehurehu from early dawn to mid 
morning. Ta. . rehurehu, twilight. 
Mq.: ehuehu, id. 

2333. reira there. Ta. : reim, there, then, at 
once. Mq. : eta, there. Ma. :mra, id. 

2334. rena to stretch, to scatter abroad. 
Mq. : ena, to stretch, to widen, to 
spread out. Sa. : lelena, to spread out 
and smooth. Ma.: rena, to stretch 
out, to extend. 

2335. rere the multitude, every one. Ma.: 
rea, abundant, very numerous. 

2336. ata-reureu the first peep of day. 
Mq. : reua, shades of night. 

2337- reva a plant. Ta. : reva, id. Mq.: 
eva, id. Sa. : leva, id. Ma.: rewa- 
rewa, id. 

2338. reva to cross, to pass across quickly; 

revaga departure. Ta. : reva, to go 
away, to depart. Ma.: reva, to get 
under way. 

2339. ri a string, girdle, to tie together. Sa. : 
li, the sennit lashing of canoe out- 
riggers. 

2340. rino to twist a thread between the 
forefinger and thumb. Ta. : nino, to 
twist, to spin. Mq. : nino, id. Ma. : 
rino, a twist of two or three strands. 

2341 . ririko to shine, to glitter. Ma. : riko, 
to dazzle, to flash. 

2342. ririo to close up (of dry leaves), to 
waste away (of men). Ta. : ririo, 
dried up, shrunk. 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



101 



2343- riro carried off, taken away. Ta.: 
riro, lost, missed. Mq.: io, to dis- 
appear. Sa. : lUo, hidden, concealed. 
Ma. ; riro, to be gone away. 

2344. aka-riroriro to carry. Mq.: haaio, 
to give away. Ma.: riro, to be 
brought. 

2345. riu to double a cape; aka-riu to go 
round. Ta.: riuriu, to turn in a 
circle. Mq. : iu, to turn round. Sa. : 
liu, to turn. 

2346. rogouru ten. Mq.: onohuu, okohuu, 
id. 

2347. roha the comer of a house. Mq. : 
oha, koha, a transverse joist to brace 
the rafters. Ha. : loha, the trimming 
of the comers and ridges of a house. 

2348. rore to go back on one's word, to 
break a promise. Ta.: rore, depre- 
ciation, underhand work. Mq. : rore, 
oe, to withhold, to refuse to give up. 

2349. roroi to express juice through a cloth. 
Mq. : ooi, to express juice, to wring. 

2350. roroi to milk. Mq. : oi, to milk. 
2331. roroi to squeeze or press with the 

hands. Mq. : oi, to knead, to dilute, 
Sa. : loloi, taro kneaded with coconut 
water. Ma.: roroi, to grate to a 
pulp. 

2352. roto profound, deep. Sa. : /o/oio, deep. 

2353- aka-rotu colic, pains in the intestines. 
Ha.: loku, a kind of pain, ache, dis- 
tress. 

2354. rou a leaf. Mq. : ou, id. 

2355. rouru a head of hair dressed with 
ornaments. Ta. : rouru, the hair of 
the head. 

2356. ru eager, in haste, impatient. Ta.: 
ru, impatience, haste. 

2357. ruehine old, aged. Mq.: uehine, old 
woman; ue, an affectionate address of 
husband to wife, child to mother. 

2358. ruerue to wash, to clean. Mq.: ue, 
to wash, to rinse. 

2359. ruha an old but usable roof cord. 
Fu. : lufalufa, a small coir cord. 

2360. ruharuha of large dimensions. Sa. : 
lufa, a large black siapo. 

2361. ruhie a large shark. Ha.: luhia, id. 

2362. ruki to work long at a painful task. 
Ma.: rukiruki, weari.some, tiring. 

2363. ta to make a net. Ta. : to, to make 
the meshes of a net. Mq.: ta, to 
make a net. Ma. : to, to net. 

2364. ta to make a fish-hook. Ha.: ka, id. 

2365. ta to husk a coconut. Mq. : to, id. 

2366. tago to search for something on the 
reef at low tide. Mq. : tano, tako, a 
method of fishing for crabs and cray- 
fish and eels. 

2367. tahaki a man with red hair and florid 
skin. Mq. : tahaki, red. 

2368. taheu to peel a fruit deUcately. Mq. : 
kii taheu, the second skin of a bread- 
fruit. 



2369. taheu to weed a patch imperfectly. 
To.: taheu, to scrape up, to scratch. 
Ha. : kaheu, to weed. 

2370. tahi one. Ta.: tahi, id. Mq.: tahi, 
id. Sa.: tahi, id. Ma.: tahi, id. 

2371. tahihi entangled. Ta.: tafifi, entaa- 
gled, embarrassed. Ma.: tawhiwhi, 
entwined, tangled. 

2372. tahu a tenant farmer. Ma.: tahu, 
opulent, possessing property. 

2373. tahu to stir up a fire. Ta.: tahu, to 
build a fire, to light. Mq.: tahu, to 
light a fire. Sa. :to/«, id. Ma... tahu, 
to set on fire, to kindle, to cook. 

2374. tahuna a shallow, shoal, bank. Mq. : 
tahuna, beach gravel, shingle. Sa. : 
tafuna, a rocky place in the sea. Ma. : 
a shoal, a beach. 

2375. tainoka a plant without leaves. Ta. : 
tainoa, Cassyta filiformis. 

2376. tairi to beat, to whip. Ta. : tairi, a 
whip, to flog, to strike. 

2377. taito ancient. Ta. : tahito, id. Mq.: 
takito, id. Ha.: kahiko, id. Cf. 2431. 

2378. taka to do nothing but walk about. 
Sa. . ta'a, to go at large. Ma. : taka, 
to roam, to go free. 

2379. takahi to trample under foot, to walk 
on. Ta. : taahi, to trample under 
foot. Mq. : ieahi, tekahi, id. Fu.: 
takafi, id. Ma.: takahi, id. 

2380. takaiti to hop, to tumble, somerset. 
Mq. : takafiti, taafiti, taahiti, to leap, 
somerset. Sa. : ta'afiti, to be restless. 

2381. takao a speech, discourse. Mq.: 
tekoM, teao, discourse, conversation, 
to speak. Ha. : kaao, a legend, fable. 

2382. takapeafish. Ta.: taape, id. Mq.: 
tekape, teape, id. 

2383. takape to break off, to snap. Sa. : 
ta'ape, to be separated, scattered. 

2384. takara a small thread with which the 
bait is tied to the hook. Mq. : taaa, 
id. 

2385. takau ten pairs. Ta.: /oo«, id. Mq.: 
tekau, id. To. : iekau, id. Ma. : tekau, 
ten. 

2386. taki to draw or push a raft with the 
hands. Mq. : taki, to drag out. Sa. : 
tata'i, to drag along. Ma.: taki, to 
track or pull from shore. 

2387. takitaki to speak to other people. 
Ma. : taki, to make a speech. 

2388. tamahine the eldest daughter. Ta. ; 
tamahine, a daughter. Ma. : tama- 
hine, a daughter, eldest niece. 

2389. tamanu a tree. Ta.: tamanu, id. 
Mq.: tamanu, id. Sa.: tamanu, id. 

2390. tamau to retain, to keep. Ta. : tamau, 
to take hold of, to get by heart. Mq. : 
tamau, to attach, to make firm. Ma. : 
tamau, to fasten. 

2391. tamike to desire ardently, to long for. 
Mq.: tamike, to desire. 



102 



EASTER ISLAND. 



2392- 



2393- 



2394- 
2395- 

2396. 



2397. 
2398. 

2399- 



2400. 



2401. 
2402. 

2403. 



2404. 

2405. 
2406. 

2407. 
2408. 
2409. 
2410. 
2411. 

2412. 
2413- 



2414. 

2415. 
2416. 



tane a black mark on the skin. Ta. : 
tane, a large blotch on the skin. Mq. : 
tane, a dermatitis. Sa. : tane, stains 
of kava in bowls and ctips, a derma- 
titis. Ha.: kane, a white blotch on 
the skin. 

tanoa a stone trough or bowl. Mq. : 
tanoa, kava bowl. Sa.: tanoa, id. 
Ha. : kanoa, "externally, outside, ap- 
plied to the dish containing awa" — 
Andrews. The afiiliates are clear 
evidence that Judge Andrews has 
mistaken the use of the word. 

tao a lance, spear. Ta. : too, id. Sa. : 
tao. id. Ma.: tao, id. 

taohi to preserve, to take care of. 
Mq. : taohi, to take, to keep, to pre- 
serve. Sa. : taofi, to keep, to retain. 
Ha.: kaohi, id. 

taomi to squeeze, to press down. Sa. : 
taomi, to press down. Ha.: kaomi, 
to press, to squeeze. 

taotaoama a fish. Sa. : taotaoama, id. 

taparau-mea to circulate small talk. 
Ta. : taparau, to converse. 

tapare anything cast away as over- 
plus. Mq. : tapae, to set aside, to 
reserve. 

taparuru trembling, shaking. Ta.. 
taparuru, wrath, rage. Mq. : tapauu, 
vibration of a tense cord. Ha. : kapa- 
lulu, to tremble, to shake. 

tapatu a fish. Mq. : tapatu, id. 

tapeke to catch hold with the hands 
in falling. Ha. : kapeke, a misstep. 

tapena an honorific present. Ta.: 
tapena, a victim, an offering. Ma.: 
tapena, to pass food over a tabu 
person. 

tapere an overhanging lip. Ta. : 
tapere, hung above. Mq.: tapeepee, 
hanging, pendulous. 

tapoa to prepare a bait. Mq. : tapoa, 
to bait for fish. 

tapora to wrap up, envelop. Ma. : 
tapola, to gather whitebait into 
baskets. 

tapotu to whip, to flog. Ta. : tapotu, 
to club. 

tapui to smear, to anoint. Mq.: 
tapui, to anoint. 

tara a species of banana. Mq. : taa, 
a plant. 

aka-tara to indent, to make notches. 
Ma. : whakatara, to notch. 

aka-taratara to put one into a pas- 
sion. Ma.: whakatara, to challenge, 
to defy, to dare. 

tarakihi a fish. Mq.: taakihi, id. 
Ma.: tarakihi, id. 

tarara a harsh strident voice, to wail 
bitterly. Mq. : taaa, eo tarara, the 
voice of wailing. 

tararoa a fish. Mq. : taaoa, id. 

tarea brown. Ma. : tareha, ochre. 

tarehu to bum wood in a pit oven. 
Ma. : tarahu, a pit oven. 



2417. taru a rapidly spreading herb. Mq.: 
tau, a plantation. Sa. : lalutalu, second 
growth timber. Ma. : tarutaru, grass. 

2418. tata close, near by. Mq.: tote, id. 
Ma. : tata, id. 

2419. tata to cut wood. Ha.: kaka, to cat 
or break wood. 

2420. tatamago a grass. Mq. : tatamako, 
a sundew. 

2421. tatapi to bale. Mq.: titapi, id. 

2422. tatara gooseflesh. Ma.: tara, id. 

2423. tatau to be counted, reckoned. Ta. : 
totoM, counting, numbering. Mq. : 
tatau, id. Sa. : tau, to count. Ma.: 
tatau, id. 

2424. tauga a pair. Mq. : tauna, a pair; 
tauka, two pair. Ha. : kauna, four. 

2425. taupe to bend, to bow; akata- 
upeupe to vacillate. Ta. : taupe, to 
hang the head, to bend, to slope. 
Mq. : taupe, dishevelled, hair hanging 
down on the shoulders. Sa. : taupe, 
to swing. Fu. : taupeupe, to vacillate. 
Ma.: taupe, bending, weak, variable. 

2426. tauraga a fishing-place. Mq. : tau- 
ana, tauaka, id. Sa. : taulaga i'a, id. 

2427. tava a shellfish. To.: tava-amanu, id. 

2428. tavake a seabird with a long red tail. 
Mq. : tovake, toae, the tropic bird. 
Sa. : tava'e, id. 

2429. teatea heavy rain. Ha. : feea, the rain 
at Hana and Koolau. 

2430. teiti child, infant. Ha.: keiki, id. 

2431. teito ancient. Mq. : teito, id. Cf. 

2377. 

2432. teka a support, scaffold. Ta.: tea, 
the horizontal balk of a palisade, the 
crossbeam of a house. Mq. : tekateka, 
across, athwart. Ha. : kea, a cross. 

2433. tekere the keel of a canoe. Ta. : 
taere, id. Mq. : tekee, id. Sa. : ta'ele, 
id. Ma.: takere, id. 

2434. tekiteki to fall head over heels. Ta. : 
tei, to hop on one foot. Mq.: teki, 
to hobble, to limp. Sa. : te'i, to jump 
with surprise. 

2435. tepau tar, resin. Ha.: kepau, id. 

2436. tere fat, swollen up. Sa. : tele, large, 
great. Ma.: tetere, swollen. 

2437. tero to have moldy spots. Mq.: teo- 
teo, pale, spotted with white. 

2438. tetahi another, likewise, some. Mq. : 
tetahi, id. Ma.: tetahi, id. 

2439. teve a plant with a poisonous bulb. 
Ta. : teve, id. Mq. : teve, id. Sa. : teve, id. 

2440. tiho to look, to stare, to examine. 
Mq. : tiohi, id. The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, page 422. 

J441. tiketike high, raised. Mq.: tiketike, 
tietie, id. Sa. : ti'eti'e, to sit on a 
raised seat. Ma.: tiketike,'hig\i.,\olty. 

2442. tiki to go in search of, to go fetch. 
Ta. : tii, id. Ma. : tiki, to fetch. 

2443. tikitai one each. Mq.: tikitahi, one 
apiece. 

2444. tila bold, hardy. Ha.: kila, strong, 
stout, able. 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OI? DISTRIBUTION. 



103 



2445. timo to whistle to attract attention. 
Mq.: timo, to whistle, to make any 
signal. 

2446. tinae the belly. Sa.: tinae, entrails 
of fish. Fu. : tinae, the belly. 

2447. tipi a knife, to cut. Ta.: tipi, id. 
Mq.: <i^,tocuttobits. Sa.: tipi, id. 

2448. tire to swell. Mq. : tie, a large boil 
onthe head, to burst (of buds). 

2449. tiri to throw away, to reject, to neg- 
lect. Ta. : tiri, to cast a small net. 
Mq. : tii, titii, to throw away, to 
abandon, to reject. Sa. : tili, a small 
net and its cast. Ma. : tiri, to throw 
one by one. 

2450. tiro spots on linen. Ta.: tiro, to 
mark. Mq. : tiotioa, blotched, cov- 
ered with white spots. 

2451. titi to dig a hole with a nail. Ta.: 
titi, a naU, a peg, a pin. Mq. : titi, 
to calk. Ma.: Ji7t, a peg, a pin, a nail. 

2452. titi to make a mistake. Ma.: titi, to 
wander, to go astray. 

2453. tito to bite at the hook. Mq.:<i/o, id. 
Ha.: kikokiko, to nibble at the bait. 

2454. to sugarcane. Ta. : to, id. Mq. : to, 
id. Ma.: to, the stems of tall straight 
plants. 

2455. to to make a canoe of planks. Mq. : 
to, to build a canoe. Sa. : to, to build. 

2456. toa ironwood. Ta. : toa, id. Mq. : 
toa,\A. Sa.: toa, id. Ha.: *oo, id. 

2457. togi to taste, to nibble, to eat a very 
little. Ha.: koni, to tast^; konikoni, 
to nibble. 

2458. tohetohe a small mollusc attached to 
ships' bottoms. Sa. : tofetofea, a canoe 
folded with weed. Ha.: kohekohe, 
shellfish growing on ships' planks: 

2459. tohi to cut breadfruit paste. Ta.: 
tohi, a chisel, to cut, to split. Mq. : 
tohi, to cut up. Sa. : tofi, a chisel, to 
split. Ma. : tohi, to cut, to slice. 

2460. toko to know where a hidden thing is. 
Ha. : koko, to guess a riddle, to find a 
hidden meaning. 

2461. tohua a place of public assembly. 
Mq. : tohua, public place, soil, land. 

3462. tohuhu a ridgepole. Mq.: tohuhu, 
ridge, roofing. 

2463. toka coral, rock. Ta.: toa, coral, 
lime, rock. Sa. : to'a, a sunken rock. 
Ma.: t-oka, a rock in the sea. Ha.: 
koa, horned coral. 

2464. tokaga a bruise on breadfruit. 
toaa, hard lumps in fruit. 

2465. tokorua a companion, a mate. 
toalua, wife, husband. 

2466. tokoto to be lying down. Ta. 
id. Mq. : takoto, to be at rest. 
ta'oto, to lie down. Ma. : takoto, id. 

2467. topa to be forgiven. Mq. : topa, to 
omit, to forget, to lack. 

2468. tora strong desire. Mq.: too, eroto- 
mania. Sa.: tola, id. Ma.: tora, id. 

2469. tore a thing jutting out, projection. 
Ta. : tore, disposed in rays. 



Ta.: 

Sa.: 

taoto, 
Sa.: 



2470. tore penis. Sa. : lole, pudenda mulie- 
bria. Ma.: tore, id. 

2471. torea sandpiper. Ta. : torea, a bird. 
Mq.: torea, id. Ma.: torea, the oy- 
ster catcher. 

2472. torena to be split, shed. Ma.: 
torena, to overflow. 

2473. toriki to come little by little, to fall in 
drops. Ta. : toriirii, small, to fall in 
fine drops. Mq. : toiki, small (of 
children). Sa.: toli'i, fine and close. 
Ma.: toririki, small. 

2474. toro a net. Ta. : toro, a fishnet. Mq. : 
too, a small net at the end of a pole. 

3475. toroa a bird. Ta. : toroa, a seabird. 

Sa. : toloa, the duck. Ma. : toroa, the 

albatross. 
2476. totai again, more, a second time. 

Mq. : totahi, id. 
3477. totara a fish. Ta. : totara, sea urchin. 

Mq. : totaa, id. Ha. : kokala, a thorny 

fish. 

2478. totara a species of breadfruit. Mq., 
totaa, the custard apple. Ma. : totara : 
a tree. 

2479. tote to strike a stone with a piece of 
wood. Ta. : tote, to strike as a clock. 
Ha. : koke, to strike together. 

2480. toti to limp, to hobble. Ma. : toti, id. 

2481. totorugu a small fish. Ma.: toto- 
rungu, a freshwater shellfish. 

2482. touatree. Ta. : to«, Cordia subcor- 
data. Mq. : tou, id. Sa. : tou, Cordia 
aspera. Ha. : kou, a seaside tree. 

2483. touaki-ra dried in the sun. Mq.: 
touaki, touai, to sun, to dry in the air. 

2484. toumaha a prayer before eating, 
offering of first fruits. Sa. : taumafa, 
to eat, to drink. Ma.: taumaha, a 
thank offering. The Polynesian Wan- 
ings, page 236. 

2485. toume the spathe of the coconut 
flower. Mq.:/oMme,id. Sa. : towme, id. 

3486. toupatu the topmost thatch of a 
house. Ha. : kaupaku, to thatch the 
ridge. 

2487. tourua hung two by two. Ta.: 
taurua, a double canoe. Mq. : tourua, 
a double canoe, two together. Sa.: 
taulua, to hang by twos. Ma.: 
taurua, a double canoe. 

2488. toutahi to hang singly, one by one. 
Sa. : tautasi, id. 

3489. toutoru Orion's belt. Mq.: tautou, 
a constellation of three stars. 

2490. toutoru hung by threes. Mq. : 
tautou, id. 

2491. touveve a cook, to cover the oven. 
Sa. : tauveve, a cook. Ha. : kauwewe, 
covering of an oven. The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 194. 

2492. tu to be pierced by a lance or thorn. 
Mq. : tu, wounded. Ma. : tu, struck, 
wounded. 

2493. Tu the greatest god. Mq.: Tu, god 

of war. Ma.. Tu, id. 



104 



EASTER ISLAND. 



3494. tua to fell, to cut down. Ta. : tua, to 

cut. Mq. : tua, to fell, to cut down. 

Ma.: tua, id. 
2495. tuaki to disembowel. Ma.: tuaki, to 

clean fish. 
3496. tuavera the last breadfruit spoiled by 

the wind. Ta. : tuavera, burnt by the 

sun. 

2497. tuehuehti dirty, moldy. Ha. : kuehu- 
ehu, to throw dirt, to make turbid. 

2498. tuga a worm that devours sugarcane. 
Ta. : tua, a white worm. Mq. : tuna, 
a caterpillar. Fu.: tugd, a destruc- 
tive grub. 

2499. tuga to sit down all day. Ta.: tua, 
to rest, to wait. 

2500. tugou a fish. Ha. : kunounou, id. 

2501. tugou to make assent signs with the 
head, the eyes or the brow. Ta.: 
tuou, to make signs with the head. 
Mq.: tunou, tukou, tuou, to make 
assent signs with the head. Ma.: 
tungou, to nod, to beckon. 

2502. tuhera to open, to gape, ajar. Mq.: 
tuhea, arms and legs sprawled apart. 

2503. tukau fruit stalk, handle, tiller. Ha.: 
kuau, handle, haft, helve. 

2504. tukemata the parts about the eyes. 
Ta. : tuemata, the eyebrow. Mq. : tuke- 
mata, tuemata, id. Ma. : tukemata, id. 

2505. tukiakia to slander. Ha.: kui, to 
use the tongue in slander. 

2506. tukoro a fish. Mq. : tukoo, id. 

2507. tuku tocastafishnet. Mq.: tuku, to 
fish for turtle. Ha.: kuu, to take 
fish in a net. 

2508. tuma units above ten. Ta. : tuma, 
over and above. Mq. : tuma, in 
numerical use. Ma.: tuma, odd 
numbers in excess. 

2509. tumaru shady. Ma. : tumaru, id. 

2510. tumatatega defiance, fear of trickery. 
Ta. : tumatatea, to keep aloof. Mq. : 
tumatatea, tumatatena, inspiring fear, 
horror, disgust. Ma.: tumatatenga, 
fearful, apprehensive. 

25 1 1. tumatutna large and coarse. Ta. : 
tumatuma, vast, large. 

2512. tumimi a crayfish. Ha.: kumimi, a 
poisonous shellfish. 

2513. tumu to take root. Ta. : tumu, a 
root. 

2514. tumu a cold, cough. Ha.: kumu, a 
cough, a hard breathing; "this is a 
vicious pronunciation for kunu" — 
Andrews. Here again the aflSliate 
convicts Judge Andrews of error. 

2515. tuo to speak long without an answer. 
Ta. : tuo, to cry loudly. Ha. : kuo, to 
cry with a loud voice. 

2516. tuore spoilt breadfruit. Mq.: tuoe, 
breadfruit fallen before ripe. 

2517. tupai to beat, to strike. Ta.: tupai, 
id. 

3518. tupere to scrape, to rub off. Mq.: 
tupee, to scrape, to scratch. Ha.: 
kupele, to dig out the inside of a canoe. 



2319. tupere to chatter, to tattle. Ma.: 
tuperepere, noisy. 

2520. tupu the best or worst, used of men 
or of bad qualities. Sa. : tupu, king. 
Ma. : tupu, social position, dignity. 

2521. tupua wise, the master of an art. 
Ta. : tupua, grave, an enchanter able 
to ward off sorcery. Mq.: tupua, a 
wizard. Ma. : tupua, spirit of a power- 
ful wizard. 

3522. turaturaafish. Mq. : tuatua-kaha,id. 

2523. ture to go somewhere else. Mq. : tue, 
to go away, to leave in a huff. Ha. : 
kulekule, to be ousted from place to 
place, unsettled. 

2524. turikopia to walk with knees turned 
in and legs apart. Ta.: turiopa, 
weakness of the knees. 

2525. turoro the cream of cooked coconut. 
Mq. : tuoo, to put coconut milk into 
poi. To. : tulolo, to boil oil in making 
puddings. Ha.: kulolo, a taro or 
breadfruit pudding with coconut. 

2526. turou a great sacrilege or blasphemy. 
Ta. : turou, a curse, to blaspheme. 

2527. turua pillow. Ta.: turua, id. 

2528. tutaepuaka a plant whose berry 
sticks to clothes. Ta. : tutaepuaa, 
Mucuna gigantea. Mq. : tutaepuaka, 
tutaepuaa, a grass. 

2529. tutaki to join, to meet, to associate 
with. Mq. : tutaki, tutai, id. Ma.: 
tutaki, to meet. 

2530. tutata near, in proximity. Ma.. 
tuatala, id. 

2531. tutere to sail in fleet. Ta.: tutere,i6.. 

2532. tutu to beat out bast cloth. Ta.: 
tutu, id. Mq. : tutu, id. Sa. : tutu, 
id. Ha.: kuku, id. 

2533. u to bark, to bay. Ta.: u, to grunt, 
to growl. Mq.: u, the howling of 
beasts. Sa.: u, roaring. 

2534. uaga efflorescence. Ta. : ua, to 
bloom. Mq. : hua, to bear fruit. Sa. : 
fua, flower, fruit. Ma.: hua, fruit, 
blossom. The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, page 426. 

2535. ua, the genitalia. Ta. : hua,\6.. Mq. : 
hua, id. Ha. : hua, testicles. 

2536. uai to push a canoe into the water. 
Mq.: uai, to draw a canoe into the 
water or up the beach. Ma.: u-aki, 
to push endwise, to launch. 

2537. uaikai to take food from the pit. Ta. : 
huai, to uncover an oven. Mq. : uai, 
huai, to uncover an oven, to take 
food from the pit. Sa. : uai, to dig 
up. Ma. : huaki, to open, to uncover. 

2538. uata a crosspiece of wood on a hand 
net. Sa. : fuata, handle of a spear. 

2539. uhe a calabash on the bush unplucked. 
Ta.: hue, a gourd. Mq. : hue, id. 
Ma.: hue, id. Cf. 1948. 

2540. uhi to extinguish fire with water, to 
put linen to soak. Ta.: uhi, to dip 
the hand into water, to rinse, to wash. 
Ma. : uhiuhi, to lave water. 



MANGAREVA AS A CENTER OF DISTRIBUTION. 



105 



2541. uhiuhi to cover over. Mq.: uhi, to 
cover. Sa. : ufi, id. Ma. : uhi, uwhi, 
id. The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 315. 

2542. uhu a fish. Ta. : uhu, id. Mq. : uhu- 
haka, id. Sa. : ufu, id. Ha. : uhu, id. 

2543. ui to gather with the hands. Mq.: 
ui, to pick fruit. Sa. : sui, to take 
down a hanging object. 

2544. ume a fish. Ta.: ume, id. Mq.: 
ume, id. Sa.: ume, id. 

(2545 withdrawn.) 

2546. umere a retinue, to walk in a crowd 
of others. Ta. : umereraa, the review 
of a fleet. 

2547. umu-huke vengeance, reprisals. 
Mq. : umu, to punish, to chastise. 

2548. una to hide. Ta.: huna, id. Sa.: 
funa, id. Ma.: huna, id. 

2549. unuhi to take o£f, to peel off. Ta. : 
unuhi, to unsheathe a knife or sword. 
Mq. : unuhi, to take off clothes. Ma. : 
unu, to pull off clothes, to draw 
out. 

2550. uru southwest. Ma.: uru, west. 

2551. uru to repair a. net. Sa.: ulu, id. 
Ma.: uru, id. 

2552. uruaafish. Mq.: uua.id. Sa.. : ulua, 
id. Ha.: ulua, id. 

2553- utauta the peep of fledglings. Ta. : 
uie, song. Mq. : uta, id. 

2554. uto the flesh in old coconuts. Ta.: 
uto, a sprouting coconut. Mq. : uto, 
id. Sa. : uto, the spongy substance 
in the coconut. Mangaia: uto, the 
kernel of the coconut. 

2555. utu a plural sign. Mq. : utu, id. 



2556. vac uninhabited land. Ta. : vao, end 
of the valleys. Mq. : vao, bottom of 
a valley. Sa.: vao, the bush. Ma.: 
wao, the forest. 

2557. vare inattention, forgetfulness. Ta.v 
vare, duped, tricked. Sa. : vale, a fool. 
Ma. : wareware, forgetful, to deceive. 

2558. vari paste well diluted. Mq. : vaivai, 
to dilute, to thin. Ha.: waliwali, 
soft, pasty. 

2559. varovaro a shrub. Mq. : vaovao, id. 

2560. vavao a defender, a protector. Ta. : 
vavao, mediator. Mq. : vavao, advo- 
cate, mediator, to defend, to protect. 
Sa.: vavao, to forbid. Ma.: wawao, 
to mediate, to part combatants. 

2561. vehevehe to explain, to unravel, to 
divide. Ta. : vehe, to divide, to sepa- 
rate. Mq. : vehe, id. Ma. : wehe, id. 

2562. vehe the new moon first seen. Mq. : 
vehi, twenty-se\enth day of the moon. 

2563. vehe painful, intricate, mixed up. 
Sa. : vesivesi, to be in trouble, tumult, 
confusion. Ma.: wehi, to be afraid. 

2564. vehivehl to be wet with dew. Mq. : 
vehivehi, full of water. 

2565. tutae-veha meconium. Hn.-.weka.iA. 

2566. vete a fish. Mq. : vete, id. Sa. : vete, id 
Ha., weke, id. 

2567. vi a fruit. Ta. : vi, Spondias dulcis. 
Mq.: vi, id. Sa.: vi, id. Ha.: wi, 
the tamarind. 

2568. vi a fish. Mq.: vi, id. 

2569. viripogi eyes heavy with sleep. Mq. : 
viipoki, swooning, vertigo. 

2570. vovo noise of wind or rain or sea or 
speech. Ta. : vovo, distant sounds. 
Mq. : vovovo, sound of the surf. 



1/ 



CHAPTER V. 
THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 

We shall lose the value of these studies if we fall into the way of 
regarding all these words mere dead counters and pawns to be moved in 
a checkered game of tabulations and classifications. It is essential to 
the method that many pages must be given up to arid lines of figures, 
mere indices of the matter which we pass under review; but the method 
has seemed the most simple and the most accurate to employ in drawing 
the threads out from a mass of vocabularies. 

Arrange them as we may find it necessary, the words can never be 
dead. The word never dies, it is only the language that becomes dead. 
The word is never mute, its essence is that it speaks, speaks for ever and 
yet for ever, speaks to the utmost limit of bounding space. It is pleas- 
ant to recall the first word entered of record in the very beginning of a 
Tahiti-English vocabulary, the word taio, friend. This was the very 
first idea which smiling Tahiti sought to communicate to its discoverer. 
It matters not whether Tahiti, on its soft sands beneath the diadem of 
its emerald peaks, by this word taio meant itself or the stranger, for 
friendship is reciprocation, action and reaction in the heart equal 
and, in twisted conformity to a law which violates the laws of mere 
mechanics, in the same direction. 

I have not been at pains to see if Wallis was the first to record this 
initial word. It is enough to read its spirit in the sad story of that mid- 
shipman of the Bounty, Peter Heywood, who suffered all the tortures of 
the "Pandora's box" and narrowly escaped the halter because Bligh's 
mahgnity refused him the proof of his innocence. We find that this 
poor lad improved the hoiurs, while awaiting his disgrace at Execution 
Dock, by writing a vocabulary of Tahiti, the first ever recorded, mem- 
ories in the bitterness of condemnation which composed his mind with 
the recollections of a pleasant place. This is the note which the kindly 
Barrow has set down, for the practice of lexicography under the dan- 
gling shadow of the whip aheady ordered at the yard arm is surely to 
be numbered among the romances of philology :* 

Indeed so perfectly calm was this young man under his dreadful calamity 
that in a very few days after his condemnation his brother says : 

"While I write this Peter is sitting by me making an Otaheitan vocabulary 
and so happy and intent upon it that I have scarcely an opportunity of saying 
a word to him; he is in excellent spirits, and I am convinced they are better and 
better every day. " 

*John Barrow, "A Description of Pitcairn's Island and its Inhabitants, with an Authentic 
Account of the Mutiny of the Ship Bounty and of the Subsequent Fortunes of the Mutineers, ' ' 
chapter 7. 

107 



108 EASTER ISLAND. 

This vocabulary is a very extraordinary performance; it consists of one hun- 
dred full- written folio pages; the words alphabetically arranged, and all the 
syllables accented. It appears from a passage in the "Voyage of the Duff" 
that a copy of this vocabulary was of great use to the missionaries who were 
first sent to Otaheite in this ship. 

Such a vocabulary, so composed, can not fail of interest. It is not 
known that it has been preserved ; therefore we shall find an interest in 
the passage from the "Voyage of the Duf" which Barrow notes. It is 
found on page 13 of the volume: 

An ingenious clergyman of Portsmouth kindly furnished Dr. Haweis and 
Mr. Greatheed [he sounds like an extract from the Pilgrim's Progress] with a 
manuscript vocabulary of the Otaheitean language, and an account of the 
country, which providentially he had preserved from the mutineers who were 
seized by the Pandora and brought to Portsmouth for their trial, which was of 
unspeakable service to the missionaries, both for the help which it afforded 
them to learn before their arrival much of this unknown tongue, and also as 
giving the most inviting and encouraging description of the natives, and the 
cordial reception which they might expect. 

This was the reception when the Duf reached her distant haven: 
"There were soon not less than one hundred of them dancing and 
capering like frantic persons about our decks crying 'Tayo! Tayo!'" 
Courtesy, even extended by savages, demands its response in kind; 
the Englishmen organized a prayer meeting an hour and a quarter 
long and sang the hymn "O'er the gloomy hills of darkness. " 

Tahiti within its own seas remained a place ; in the dimmed recollec- 
tion of the more distant wanderers it took on cloud structure and became 
a tradition ; in Hawaii it served to designate any remote wonderland 
which might be considered to lie far beyond the quest of any canoe. In 
memory of the real Tahiti the map of Kahoolawe still shows upon its 
ultimate point the name Ke Ala i Kahiki, the road to Tahiti. Of the 
fabulous Tahiti we have an interesting record in the great Hawaiian 
chant, the Mele of Kualii, which was ancient literature when Cook dis- 
covered the islands. The problem of placing this Tahiti upon the map, 
the Tahiti of the incomprehensible white man, has defied all attempts 
at solution. The text and translation we owe to Judge Fornander.* 

O Kahiki, moku kai a loa, 
Aina o Olopana i noho ai ! 
Iloko ka moku, iwaho ka la; 
O ke aloalo o ka la, ka moku, ke hiki mai. 
Ane ua ike oe? 
Ua ike. 
Ua ike hoi ail ia Kahiki. 
He moku leo pahaohao wale Kahiki. 
No Kahiki kanaka i pii a luna 
A ka iwi kuamoo o ka lani; 
A luna, keehi iho. 
Nana iho ia lalo. 

*"The Polynesian Race," vol. ii, page 285. 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 109 

Aole o Kahiki kanaka; 

Hookahi o Kahiki kanaka, — he haole; 

Me ia la he akua, 

Me aii la he kanaka; 
He kanaka no, 
Pai kau, a ke kanaka hookahi e hiki. 

Kahiki, land of the far-reaching ocean. 
Land where Olopana dwelt! 

Within is the land, outside is the sun; 
Indistinct is the sun and the land when approaching. 
Perhaps you have seen it? 
I have seen it. 

1 have surely seen Kahiki. 

A land with a strange language is Kahiki. 

The men of Kahiki have ascended up 

The backbone of heaven; 

And up there they trample indeed, 

And look down on below. 

Men of our race are not in Kahiki. 

One kind of men is in Kahiki — the white man. 

He is like a god; 

I am like a man; 
A man indeed, 
Wandering about, and the only man who got there. 

See now the dominance of Tahiti. Sitting in the disgrace of the 
dangling noose, the English sailor lad sends his dying thoughts back to 
the land of his happy sojourn and writes a dictionary that gloomy mis- 
sion men may sing their somber hymns in a land where all is light. A 
volume might be written on the magnificence of the imagery of the verse 

Iloko ka moku, iwaho ka la 

but it will not avail to set upon the geographical coordinates of any of 
our maps the strange land to which Kualii's bard had voyaged and from 
which he returned with strange true tales. Whether mutineer, mission- 
ary, or savage poet — all feel the grip of Tahiti in the remote sea. Still 
more are we to find that grip in Southeast Polynesia in the material of 
our present study, the speech of men, of men above all who say taio first 
to the stranger on their shores. 

These tabulations, these number lists, are particularly irksome to me, 
for the words of Polynesian speech lie warm within whatever Capricorn 
and Cancer tropics may belt the hemispheres of my brain. Thus it is 
that I pause to write this note that the tables made necessary by the 
method which I must follow are but the finger-boards to the words. 

In the examination of the alphabet of Tahiti speech we are to find 
ourselves at almost the ultimate point of phonetic degradation in Poly- 
nesian. Of the eleven consonants of the Proto-Samoan but eight sur- 
vive, the lowest point of degradation is reached in the Hawaiian with 
seven surviving consonants, and the Hawaiian lies without the limits of 
the studies contained in this volume. This estimate, however, is but 
numerical; veracious figures seldom tell the whole truth, for arithmetic 
is scarcely moral, and we shall soon find cause to revise the estimate of 
the figures and to show that Tahiti is really at the extreme of dilapida- 



110 RASTER ISLAND. 

tion of its speech family. Before advancing upon this consideration 
we shall examine the alphabet of Tahiti as adjusted upon its Proto- 
Samoan base. 

a a, « 
e e, a o o 

it u u, i, ia 

Ir, - 
ng - n n m w 

h h.v,- 
sk,f,- 

V V 

ff.v.b 
k- t < pp 

In the vowel tract we encounter a variety unusual in our Polynesian 
experience. The interchangeability of a and e is susceptible of expla- 
nation upon the theory of the neutral vowel which I have already pro- 
posed.* The mutation exhibited by the Tahiti U is unmatched. In 
general this is one of the most permanent of all Polynesian vowels, yet 
here it has undergone one change, the simpler, which yet does great vio- 
lence to any theory of vowel production; and a second change which is 
absolutely abnormal, for in it U has become the two vowels ia, in which 
there is not the slightest suggestion of diphthongal possibility. First 
we shall examine the u-i mutation. It is, of course, understood that 
vowel production is not in the least dependent upon any of the closures 
of the several buccal organs which lead to the production of consonants. 
But it is quite as clearly comprehended that position within the oral 
cavity establishes the diversity of vowel sounds. From central a the 
vowels in matched pairs tend to deflect in their formative positions 
toward the palatal and the labial regions. That u is labial, and very 
strongly labial at that, will appear upon the merest effort to sound it. 
As must frequently be the case in all our studies of phonetics, the best 
sense is frequently to be found in the best folly. In an English sub- 
jacent to the dictionaries we encounter the perfectly recognizable locu- 
tion (also an example of phonetic degradation) "oo's ducky — or other 

*Samoazi Phonetics in the Broader Relation, 27 Journal of the Polynesian Society, 86: 
"We may pursue with interest an investigation into the vowel changes of the phases a-e, 
a-e-o, a-o, tie three phases which underlie the great bulk of vowel mutation in Polynesian. 
As we look upon the chart of vowel positions with which this discussion opens and pencil 
connecting lines from point to point in this group of changes, we find that we construct a 
triangle in the very centre of the edifice of vowel structure. * * * We shall find a plain 
explanation of the central triangle of the vowel changes if we regard the short a, e, 6 as 
merely so many approximations toward a primal obscure short vowel which lies centrally 
situated in respect of these three apical points. One congeries of the Polynesian tongues 
may have had a vibration series and period which inclined its u se of the primal obscure vowel 
somewhat in the a direction, to another congeries the e component was the more grateful, 
to yet another the tendency was in the 6 or labial grade. In all this we should not lose sight 
of the fact that we must rest upon the recognition of these sounds by unattimed European 
ears and their representation by so shabby an instrument as our English alphabet, which 
lacks precision at every one of its six-and-twenty characters. Thus we have no hesitation 
in taking this central triangle of a-e-6 out of the group of vowel changes in Samoan, of 
regarding it as no more than a doubly mulHed rendering of a single central sound, and of 
removing it entirely from consideration among the criteria of vowel changes as dialectic 
indicia." 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE- HI 

similar metaphor, vegetable or animal is immaterial — is oo." Scien- 
tifically is this nonsense constructed, for on the principle of suiting the 
action to the word the whole end and purpose of locution and succeeding 
action is a variety of lip service in which two are not only hearers of the 
word but doers also. There can be no doubt that U incUnes strongly 
toward the labial tract. Equally plain is it that i is quite as distinctly 
placed in the palatal region. The great divergence of the two vowels, 
the distinction which seems almost unbridgeable, is well illustrated in a 
word which Austral English has adopted from the Australian aboriginal, 
the attention call which has the longest range of distinctness, the cooee. 
Except for the preface of a palatal mute, in effect little more than an 
appulse, this is but u-i ; it is audible for miles of saltbush plain simply 
because the two vowels are the most widely sundered of all within the 
range of the human voice. Yet Tahiti has bridged the gap. Those 
who acquire French in their maturer years when the hardened voice is 
less responsive to the ear, may recall that in acquiring the use of u they 
have had to undergo great difficulties in checking the mutation just at 
the proper point short of i. If the investigators of speech psychology 
are ready to inform us of the reasons for this mutation in modern 
French we may perhaps find a suggestion which will be of benefit in 
comprehending the more complete mutation in Tahiti. 

If the U-i mutation is hard to comprehend, still greater incompre- 
hensibility must enshroud the mutation u-ia. It is thoroughly estab- 
lished in Tahiti at the beginning of our acquaintance with the speech, 
but it is clearly quite modern, for almost all the words which involve ia 
are duphcated by U-forms, e. g., tuaio, tiaaio. I am sure that in this 
mutation we are taken out from phonetics and introduced to an ill-com- 
prehended speech psychology. The vocabulary of Tahiti has been sub- 
jected to some violent wrenches on the psychologic side, words have been 
cast aside because of some tabu affecting speech or for some other reason 
which we may comprehend less well ; new words have been created arti- 
ficially to take their place. On this we have an incomplete note by the 
Bishop of Axieri, yet accurate so far as it goes, entered in his dictionary 
s. V. pi: 

Prohibition d'un mot consacr6 comme nom du roi. Cette coutume a 
d^figiu'^ la langue tahitienne, par ce qu'il a fallu remplacer les mots prohib^s. 
Po est devenu rui; mare, hota; vai, pape; hou, api; tu, tia; mate, poke. 

With this custom of te pi known to be operative upon the vocabulary, 
it does not seem violent to regard this u-ia mutation as but an item of 
the incidence of the same degrading custom applied within the word. 

In the consideration of the consonants of this speech the mere tale of 
figures shows Tahiti to be better provided than Hawaii to the extent of 
a single unit. This particular unit is the labial f . It is more specious, 
however, than it is real; the Hawaiian can not pronounce this consonant 
at all; the Tahitian is able to use it, but in many cases where he does 



112 BASTER ISLAND. 

sometimes employ the sound he possesses a duplicate word in h which is 
far more commonly in use. 

The emptiness of the palatal column in the foregoing table of the 
Tahitian alphabet will show that despite the specious numerical supe- 
riority of Tahiti it has undergone a phonetic degradation which entails 
the same result as the atrophy of one of the three speech organs. In 
Tahiti the palate is not once used in speech. I am well aware that the 
k of the Hawaiian is a pseudomorph, the product of a mutation of t 
backward in the mouth to the immediate orifice of the throat. To a 
certain extent this is artificial, for we know that at the time of the dis- 
coveryby Cook — even a generation later, at the period when the Boston 
missionaries reduced the speech to writing — Hawaiian had both t in its 
original value and the k as a t-pseudomorph. For reasons which were 
undoubtedly good to them the missionaries after a time rejected the 
true t and by adopting the k in its room hastened the process which we 
have reason to believe must have been inevitable even without the 
interference. 

We have clear evidence of the inevitableness of this remarkable and 
really violent mutation in the modern phase of Samoan. It was reduced 
to writing a score of years later than the Hawaiian. At that time it 
also had lost the true Proto-Samoan k, perhaps more recently than had 
been the case in the Hawaiian, for it is represented by a gap in the word 
which we represent by the character ' . The t, however, was everywhere 
in use. Since the reduction of Samoan to a written norm, despite the 
fact that no civilized land has anything like the low percentage of illiter- 
ates due to the compulsory system of elementary education, spoken 
Samoan alters every t into k except only in the most formal speech of 
chiefs and in the sermons of village pastors, who none the less practice 
the kappation on the six secular days. 

For the purpose of this phonetic study it is immaterial whether the 
Hawaiian k is the true palatal mute or a pseudomorph upon the lingual 
mute; however that may be, the Hawaiian, after a period in which his 
palate was in speech-idleness, has returned to its employment. The 
Tahitian is yet in the position where he speaks with but two speech 
organs. This is not arrested development. Back of this idle palate 
we readily discover the Proto-Samoan parent vocables in which both 
palatals are in use. Back of this again we have the life-history of this 
speech family in which I have been able to present distinct proof that 
the palatal was the first of the speech organs to be brought under 
control by man in the evolution of speech. 

Tahiti in its other deviations from the Proto-Samoan norm shows 
many instances of degradation, but none is so startling as this complete 
disuse of the first-acquired organ of human speech. It is a speech in 
decrepitude, and the u-mutation is another evidence of seniUty^ Not 
in itself does this argue a hopeless case. We have seen in Hawaii and 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 113 



in Samoa the effort, and phonetically if not etymologically the success- 
ful effort, to repair the damage. But in Tahiti the case is indeed hope- 
less, the speech is as moribund as the speakers, the end is not remote. 
Those whom Tahiti welcomed gladly as taio have but poorly repaid 
the welcome. Landless and laughterless the Tahitian is quietly fading 
beneath a burden which he may not bear. There is an anemia of the 
soul, EngUsh missionary effort and French colonial administration have 
failed to find the disease and certainly have sought to apply no remedy. 
In this language in its marcescence, even though it is riddled with the 
mycelium of such a fungus as we recognize in te pi, with one of the vocal 
organs atrophied, we shall find a melancholy interest in the one basic 
principle of the evolution of speech to which this Polynesian family gives 
us clearer and more direct approach than any other which has passed 
under philological review. The skeleton of these words is in the vowels. 
The alterations which the vowels may undergo are few and are readily 
to be comprehended; it is in them that the sense obtains which is the 
soul of speech. Tahiti shows us that we may excise one whole organ 
of consonant production and yet speak the living principle of the 
mother tongue. Just one example will suflSce to present this to the 
eye. In Tongan we say ngako when we mean the kidney fat of animals ; 
in Samoan we say nga'o, with a slight catch of the vocal breath in place 
of the vanished k; in Tahiti it is enough to say ao, every vestige of 
consonant is lost, but the vital vowels are unaltered and with~ them 
the sense survives. 

Table 14. 





Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Total. 


Pau-Rn-Mgv-Mq-Ta 

Pau-Rn-Mq-Ta 


8 
I 
2 
12 
21 
8 


227 
14 
'5 
3 
89 
10 


9 

4 


9 

I 


40 
9 

7 
4 
16 

I 


284 
28 

24 
20 

•35 
20 


Pau-Rn-Mgv-Ta 


Pau-Rn-Ta 


Mgv-Rn-Mq-Ta 


Mev-Rn-Ta .... .... 


Total. . . ... 


52 


358 


24 


77 


511 


Pau-Mgv-Mq-Ta 


II 

32 

21 

279 


40 
18 
15 
25 


8 
10 

7 
14 
34 
•4 


47 
29 

M 
42 

29 


106 

89 
68 

376 
191 
<45 


Pau-Mq-Ta .... 


Pau-Mgv-Ta 


Pau-Ta 


Mgv-Mq-Ta. . .'. 


Mgv-Ta 


Total 


461 


■97 


87 


230 


975 


Grand total 


5>3 


555 


III 


307 


i486 





In the table above we begin the classifications of the identifiable 
material found in Tahiti. Much of it has been worked out in preceding 
chapters in the cases where the study of the Paumotu and the Ma- 



114 EASTER ISLAND. 

ngarevan has involved this sister speech. As at the end of those chap- 
ters, so at the end of this will be found a collation of that identifiable 
element of Tahiti which has not been gleaned in the collation of the 
other languages. 

In chapters 3 and 4 a certain Tahitian element has been found 
entangled with Paumotu and Mangareva, either in conjunction with 
the Rapanui or free from such association. From the tables and lists 
presented in those chapters Table 14 on page 113 is derived, continu- 
ing to observe, as throughout this inquiry, the presence and the absence 
of Rapanui identifications. 

From the dictionary of Rapanui we derive the next set of tables 
which record those affiliates of Rapanui with Tahiti which are inde- 
pendent of Paumotu and of Mangareva: 

Tahiti-Rapanui: 

I 22 48 75 83 107 122 154 171 193 215 221 236 243 

»o 35 52 79 97 119 129 167 173 194 219 234 240 283 

16 40 58 82 103 120 150 168 175 205 
Tahiti-Rapanui-Marquesas : 

43 121 139 161 172 182 184 203 232 253 253 259 267 286 

93 126 160 

For the vocables designated in these two tables we are unable to 
estabHsh identification beyond the province of Southeast Polynesia. 
The few remaining identifications in which remoter affiUation has been 
established are presented as follows: 

Polynesian-Tahiti-Rapanui: 294 338 394 499 545 565 631 
Polynesian-Tahiti-Rapanui-Marquesas: 

305 327 374 383 435 440 485 521 633 651 

Proto-Samoan-Tahiti-Rapanui: 776 788 789 

Proto-Samoan-Tahiti-Rapanui-Marquesas : 818 

Tongafiti-Tahiti-Rapanui: 846 851 903 932 940 

We are now to tabulate the results of the examination of that larger 
part of the Tahiti vocabulary which is not included in Easter Island. 
As in preceding tables of this class, the italic figures indicate identi- 
fications which are derived from other than the principal language of 
each of the respective groups, the bold-face figures indicate the afl&Uation 
with Hawaii, a theme which is now becoming of great importance. The 
first group of these tables is confined to those identifications which 
yield no affiliations without this province. 

Tahiti-Marquesas : 

2571 2592 2620 2663 2693 2718 2787 2814 2844 2863 2879 2930] 2978 3012 

2572 2597 2621 2666 2697 2733 2790 2821 2847 2866 2885 2933 2981 3017 
2574 2599 2622 2671 2702 2757 279s 2824 2853 2869 2890 2935 2983 3018 
2576 2601 2623 2675 2713 2778 2801 2825 2856 2871 2901 2940 2988 3019 

2582 2607 2635 2687 2714 2779 2803 2828 2857 2872 2903 2941 2990 3033 

2583 2610 2655 2689 2715 2780 2804 2829 2861 2876 2918 2956 3009 304a 
2586 

Tahiti-Marquesas-Hawaii : 

3635 3658 3745 3781 3849 3888 3900 3933 3975 3007 3011 3014 3031 3030 
3653 3717 3756 3843 3883 3893 3919 3934 3003 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 115 

Tahiti-Hawaii: 

3575 2589 2613 2651 2682 2721 2783 2823 2854 2893 2929 2970 3015 3036 

2577 2590 2614 2657 2683 2722 2796 2826 2855 2895 2934 2973 3022 3037 

2578 2591 2616 2662 2684 2730 2800 2827 2859 2896 2937 2977 3023 3039 

2579 2594 2627 2668 2685 2735 2808 2830 2873 2897 2938 2984 3028 3041 

2580 2596 2628 2669 2694 2749 2818 2833 2875 2904 2947 2987 3029 3048 

2584 2598 2634 2673 2695 2751 2819 2839 2877 2916 2958 2989 3031 3050 

2585 2605 2639 2677 2696 2758 2820 2851 2891 2925 2969 3010 3034 3051 
2588 2612 2646 2681 2707 2764 2822 

We next come to the identifications which fall within that inseparable 
group for which we have been employing the designation Polynesian, 
that in which it is impossible to assign any given vocable to one or the 
other migration stream in specific attribution. 

Polynesian-Tahiti : 

2626 2632 2670 2711 2729 2754 2768 2789 2834 2889 2939 2971 3026 3040 
2630 2637 2700 2728 2738 275Q 2786 2802 2846 2927 2957 3013 3038 

Polynesian-Tahiti-Marquesas : 

2587 2619 2650 2680 2732 2770 2813 2836 2882 2909 2913 2949 295s 3016 
2595 2631 2672 2704 2750 2776 2817 2868 2887 2910 2920 2954 2982 3020 
2615 2638 2679 2716 2760 2806 

The Proto-Samoan element, in the next group of tables has a rather 
more considerable representation. 

Proto-Samoan-Tahiti : 

2593 260Q 2649 2661 2699 2725 2741 2766 2774 2815 2932 2953 2965 3003 

2600 2611 26S2 2664 2703 2726 2753 2767 2775 2870 2945 2959 2966 3006 

2602 2624 2654 2674 2720 2727 2755 2769 2788 2884 2948 2962 2993 3027 

2604 2642 2656 2686 2723 2731 2762 2772 2793 2914 2951 2964 2995 3032 

2608 2648 2659 2691 2724 2740 276s 2773 2812 

Proto-Samoan-Tahiti-Marquesas : 

2573 2606 2633 2644 2647 2688 2705 2709 2719 2805 2874 2996 3000 3025 

2581 2617 2636 2645 2678 2690 2708 2710 2746 2867 2899 2997 3004 3033 
2603 2629 

The Tongafiti element presented in the final tables is but little more 
numerous in this element of Tahiti than is the Proto-Samoan. 

Tongafiti-Tahiti: 

2618 2692 2743 2771 2807 2838 2852 2886 2907 2923 2943 2961 2992 3024 

2640 2698 2744 2782 2809 2840 2860 2894 291 I 2926 2944 2963 2998 3043 

2641 2701 2747 2785 2810 2841 2864 2898 2912 2928 2946 2968 2999 3044 
2643 2734 2748 2792 2831 2842 2865 2902 2915 2931 2950 2976 3001 3045 
2665 2737 2752 2794 2832 284s 2878 2905 2917 2936 2952 2985 3002 3047 
2667 2739 2761 2797 2835 2848 2880 2906 2921 2942 2960 2991 3008 3049 
2676 2742 2763 2798 2837 2850 

Tongafiti-Tahiti-Marquesas : 

2660 2777 2791 281 I 2816 2862 2881 2967 2972 2979 2980 2986 2994 3046 
2706 2784 2799 

The sum of this labored investigation is conveniently set forth in 
Table 15 on page 116, retaining as before the division of the material 
as common to Rapanui or otherwise ; with the proper sums obtained 
in each half of the table are brought forward the corresponding sums 
from the similar Table 9 on page 87, in which the Paumotu and 
Mangarevan affiliates of Tahiti are assembled. 

Thematerial offered in Bishop Jaussen's dictionary of Tahiti amounts 
to 6,200 items. This has been supplemented by other material from 
the earlier Davies dictionary, where it offered vocables neglected by the 



116 



EASTER ISLAND. 



Bishop or where the definitions were more complete; the total from this 
source has been, however, so small that it may be neglected in the arith- 
metic of the speech. We are in possession of 2,043 identifications, 





Table 


15- 










Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Total. 


Ta-Rn 


38 
17 


7 
10 


3 


5 



53 

28 


Ta-Rn-Mq 


Total 


55 
52 


358 


4 
24 


5 

77 


81 
511 


Pau-Rn-Mev-Ta 


Total 


107 


375 


28 


82 


592 


Ta-Mq 


85 
23 
105 


34 


30 


"7 


166 
23 

182 


Ta-Mq-Ha 


Ta-Ha 








Ta 


27 


65 


90 


Total . . . 




461 


61 
197 


95 

87 


107 
230 


476 
975 


Pau-Mgv-Ta 


Grand total 


781 


633 


210 


419 


2043 





restricted or general, of Tahiti vocables, 33 per cent of the language; for 
comparison we point to the identification of 52 per cent of the Paumotu 
and 26 per cent of Mangarevan. The occurrence of the several iden- 
tifications is interesting. 



Table i6. 





Tahiti. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


No. 


p. ct. 


P. ct. 


P. ct. 


Southeast Polynesia 

Polynesian 


633 

210 

419 


38 
31 
10 
20 


43 

21 


35 

35 

5 
25 


Proto-Samoan .... 


Tongafiti 





These figures are gross, the unaccented percentages of Tahiti con- 
sidered without regard of the division which hitherto we have found 
instructive, the source division into Rapanui affiliates and these which 
no connection with that remote outpost. 

We discover 592 vocables which Tahiti has in common with Rapanui, 
30 per cent (now as before resting our ratings on identifiable speech 
figures) of the former language, 51 per cent of the latter; with this 30 
per cent we set in comparison the 38 per cent of Mangarevan and the 34 
per cent of the Paumotu. 

The subdivision of the common element of Tahiti in other languages 
of the province is interesting. Table 17 on page 117 sets forth the 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE- 



117 



sums and percentages for all Southeast Polynesia. From this we find 
that the Rapanui element in Tahiti has its more considerable associa- 
tion on practically equal terms with Mangareva and the Marquesas; 
yet in the case of Mangareva the same element was more closely asso- 
ciated with the Paumotu (53 per cent), and in the case of the Paumotu 
the closer association was with the Marquesas (86 per cent). The 
element of Tahiti not found in Rapanui associates most closely with 
the Paumotu (44 per cent), although the range of variation of the three 

Table 17. 





Rapanui afiBliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


Total. 


No. 


p. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


p. ct. 


Paumotu 


463 
475 


60 
78 
80 


639 
510 


44 
35 
37 


995 
973 
1027 


48 
47 
50 


Mangareva 

Marquesas 



items is less than half the range of the Rapanui affiliate element; in 
Mangareva the association is to the same degree (45 per cent) with the 
Marquesas, but far more strongly accentuated; and in the Paumotu 
the association is with Tahiti (84 per cent), the percentages showing 
that the Paumotu derives nearly twice as much from Tahiti as Tahiti 
from the Paumotu. 

We next tabulate the sums of the identifications for which we can dis- 
cover no history earlier or later than their provenance in Southeast 
Polynesia. 

Table 18. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanut. 


No. 


p. ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Paumotu 


23 
39 

47 


21 
36 

44 


344 
150 

"93 


51 
22 

28 


Mangareva 

Marquesas 



In the similar compilation of this material in Table 1 1 on page 88, 
the two elements in Mangareva were found to have affinity for the 
Marquesan, Tahiti, and the Pamotu in order, and with close agreement 
of the percentages. When we pass to Tahiti we find a marked differ- 
ence : the Rapanui element exhibits affinity toward the Marquesas, 
Mangareva, and the Paumotu in order, the Paumotu being about twice 
as remote from the Mangarevan as that from the Marquesas. In the 
extra- Rapanui element the greater affinity is with the Paumotu, and 
Mangareva and the Marquesas average about half as much. When we 
examine the Paumotu we find even more strongly marked this inversion 
of affinities of the two elements ; its Rapanui element affiliates with the 



118 



FASTER ISLAND. 



Marquesas three times as strongly as with Tahiti and Mangareva, and 
its extra-Rapanui content affiliates with Tahiti more than five times as 
closely as with the Marquesas and more than seven times as closely as 
with Mangareva. So far as we are yet justified in judgment upon so 
much of the material, renewing the note that we have reason to regard 
this as a very ancient element of the common speech, we see Mangareva 
conspicuously indicated, in comparison with neighbor archipelagoes of 
the province, as equally infiuenced by the migration to Rapanui and 
by that which failed to reach that ultimate destination. 

The three rearward lines of advancing migration are set forth in the 
next table : 

Table 19. 





Rapanui afi&liates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


PolyncsiaD. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 


Tongafiti. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


p.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Paumotu 


259 

341 

340 


69 
90 


14 
'9 
23 


50 
68 
82 


60 


i 

78 


98 


38 
60 
64 


39 

82 


15 

30 

3' 


159 
143 
135 


44 
42 
40 


Mangareva 

Marquesas 





Tahiti introduces to us a new element in a position of some impor- 
tance. We note here the figures, the comparison may properly be post- 
poned to the next chapter, since this element will be found threaded 
through the Marquesas also. This new element is the affinity with 
Hawaii. It is confined to that subdivision which we designate South- 
east Polynesia restrictively ; Tahiti shows 105 identifications with Hawaii 
which nowhere else appear, and 23 in common with the Marquesas. 

The relation of the three identifica- 
tions of earlier source to the mass of Tablb 20. 
Tahiti identifications is set forth in 
Table 20. 

The sum of the ratios in this table 
varies by but a few points higher than 
in the similar tables for the Paumotu 
and Mangareva, and in the column of 
Rapanui affiliates the difference is equally 
inconsiderable. In the column of the 
extra-Rapanui element Tahiti goes a 

little beyond Mangareva in the accretion of the Proto-Samoan contri- 
bution over the Paumotu, but it is in practical harmony with the 
Paumotu in the enhancement of the Tongafiti element; yet on closer 
examination of the figures a difference is seen. In Mangareva the 
Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti contribute equal amounts of the speech 



Polynesian 

Proto-Samoan. 
Tongafiti 


Rapanui 
affiliates. 


Extra- 
Rapanui. 


P.ct. 
63.3 

4 

14.4 


P.ct. 
18 
12 
23 


8..7 


53 



THE DOMINANCE OP TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 



119 



which has not reached Rapanui, in the Paumotu the Tongafiti contrib- 
utes more than three times as much as the Proto-Samoan ; but in 
Tahiti the Proto-Samoan element is about the same as in Mangareva 
and nearly twice as great as the amount in the Paumotu, and finally 
the Tongafiti contributes to Tahiti about twice as much as the Proto- 
Samoan. 



2571. aa to be quite awakened. Mq.: a, 
aa, ka, to lie awake. 

2572. aa a dermatitis of children. Mq.: aa, 
a black spot on the skin. 

2573. aaa an interjection of surprise. Mq. : 
aa, an interjection of disgust, of aver- 
sion, of refusal. Sa.: aa, an inter- 
jection of disapprobation. 

2574. aahi a rag, a small piece of cloth. 
Mq. : kakahi, a woman's clout. 

3575. aahi wick, lint. Ha.: aahi, a bag in 
which fire materials were carried. 

2576. aahu spasms. Mq.: kakahu, colic, 
gripes. 

2577. aahu a piece of cloth, vesture of any 
kind. Ha. : aahu, a cloak, a robe. 

2578. aai rodent, of an ulcer. Ha.: aai, to 
ulcerate, to eat in as a sore. 

3579. aaiore breadfruit fallen unripe. Ha. : 
aaiole, id. 

2580. aapo apt, quick to comprehend. Ha. : 
aapo, one who learns quickly, a ready 
scholar. 

2581. aata stem of plants or of leaves. Mq.: 

kata, peduncle, petiole. Sa.: ata, a 
branch of kava. 
3582. aata, ata young plants of taro or 
sweet potato. Mq. : kata, sets of 
sweet potato for planting. 

2583. afeafe tall, long. Mq.: afeafe, long. 

2584. ahaha a tree. Ha. : haha, id. 
3585. ahatea a tree (Nauclea forsteri). 

Ha. : dhakea, a yellowish wood. 

2586. aheu a fish. Mq.: aheu, id. 

2587. ahiahi evening. Mq.: ahiahi, id. 
Sa.: afiafi, id. Ma.: ahiahi, id. 

2j88. ahihi to join, to unite. Ha.: ahihi, 
to join with others, to conspire. 

3589. ahonui perseverance. Ha.: ahonui, 
patience, forbearance. 

2590. ahoroa persistence, patience, perse- 
verance. Ha.: aholoa, patient. 

3591. ahua a place crowded with coral. 
Ha. : ahua, a bank in the sea, the bar 
at a river mouth. 

2592. ahupu a garment. Mq. : kahupti, a 
mantle, a coverlet. 

3593. ahuru tainted, spoiled. Sa.: afulu, 
overcooked; afuluga, rotten. Ha.: 
ahutu, overcooked. 

2594. ahuru a fish. Ha. : ahuluhulu, id. 

3595. at a bet, a wager, a game. Mq. : kai, 
to throw lots, to lose a game. Pau. : 
kai, to wager. Sa.: 'ai, a coutnt 
toward the score of a game. Ma.: 
kai, a puzzling toy. 



3596. aiai white. Ha. : aiai, white, fair. 

2597. aihamu to eat leavings. Mq.: kai- 
hamu, id. 

2598. aivaiva abundant, considerable. Ha.: 
aiwaiwa, expresses a superlative. 

3599. ama to be afire, lighted. Mq.: ama, 
light, candle, torch. (Sa. : lama, id.) 

2600. amata auahi a spark or first kindling 
of fire. Sa. : 'amata, to begin. 

2601. amia a plant. Mq. : amiami, id. 

2602. amoamo to make signs, to beckon. 
To.: kamo, id. 

2603. amu to rail, to jest, to mock. Mq.: 
amuamu, to ridicule, to defame. Sa. : 
amuamu, to mock. Ha.: amuamu, 
to revile, to use profane language. 

3604. ana a rasp. Sa. : 'ana, a rough stone 
used for polishing. Ha. : ana, id. 

3605. anaana small stones, shells, coral 
chips. Ha.: anaana, in small balls, 
as sheep dung. 

2606. anaanaea to be refreshed, restored to 
health. Mq.. anaana, to become 
better, to recover. To. : kana-gataa, 
incurable. 

2607. anaiho only. Mq. : anaiho, only, 
solely, absolutely, indeed. 

2608. anapo to-night (future). Sa.. : anapo, 
last night. 

2609. anau to lament, to mourn, to regret. 
Fu.: anaunau, to sigh for one's own 
country. 

2610. anauru a strong wind. Mq. : anauu, 
kanauu, the southwest wind. 

2611. anei the sign of afiirmative interro- 
gation. Sa. : anei, probably. Ha.: 
anei, the sign of a question. 

2612. ano desolate, solitary, deserted. Ha.: 
ano, silent, solitary, as a deserted 
village. 

2613. a noe curious, envious. Ha.: anoi, to 
desire very strongly. 

2614. anoni, anoi to mix, to confuse. Ha.: 
anoni, to mix together. 

2615. ao day. Mq. : 00, day from dawn to 
dark. Sa.: ao, id. Ma.: ao, id. 

2616. ao a bird. Ha.: ao, id. 

2617. aoa a tree. Mq. : aoa, the banyan. 

Sa.: aoa, id. Ha.: aoa, "name of a 
tree, not found on these islands, but 
in some foreign country; often spoken 
of in the ancient meles" — ^Andrews. 

2618. aoa to bark. Ma.: ao, the bark of a 
dog. 



120 



EASTER ISLAND. 



2619. 

2620. 
a62i. 
2622. 
2623. 
2624. 
2625. 

2626. 
2627. 
2628. 
2629. 

2630. 
2631. 

2632. 

2633. 

2634. 
2635. 

2636. 

2637. 

2638. 



2639. 
2640. 



2641. 
2642. 

2643. 
2644. 

2645. 



aoao side, flank. Mq. : aoao, kaokao, 

id. Sa. : 'ao'ao, the armpit. To.: 

kaokao, the side of a canoe. Ma.: 

kaokao, ribs, side. 

aoheohe tall and slender. Mq. : ka- 

oheohe, slim, slender. 

apoi a semicircle. Mq.: apoipoi, 

apokipoki, kapoipoi, round, globular. 

aporo weight, burden. Mq. : apoo, 

lie stone sinker of a fish-line. 

ara-aniho the two rows of teeth. 

Mq. : aa, file, row, rank. 

aramihi a crab. Sa. : 'alamisi, a land 

crab. 

areu a girdle. Mq.: kareu, kaeu, a 

woman's girdle. Ha.: aleuleu, old 

and useless tapa. 

arevareva a cuckoo. Sa. : 'aleva, id. 

Ma. : karewarewa, a bird. 

ariari transparence, brightness. Ha. : 

aliali, white. 

aru miti stormy billows. Ha. : miki, 

energetic, active, urgent. 

atatna intelligent, clever. Mq.: ata- 

mai, adroit, wise, clever. Sa. : atamai, 

intelligent, clever. Ha. : akamai, wise, 

skilful, ingenious. 

ate avae the calf of the leg. Sa.: 

atevae, id. Ma.: ateate, id. 

ati inclosed, entangled. Mq. : kati, 

closed, embarrassed, plugged. To.: 

kajia, to obstruct. Ma.: kati, to 

block, to obstruct. 

ati pi to throw a stone over the surface 

of water. Sa. : tipi, to skim a stone 

on water. Ma. : tipi, id. 

atiuaea a cucurbitaceous plant. Mq. : 

atiu, katiu, a melon. Fu. : aliu, a 

climbing plant. 

aturi a plant. Ha. : akulikuli, id. 

atutu tumult, agitation. Mq. : tutu, 

furious, mad. 

au a sea snail. Mq.: kau, nau, id. 

Sa. : gau, a mollusc. 

au smoke, vapor. Sa. : asu, id. Ma. : 

au, id. 



aua, auaa except, 
prohibitive. Sa. : 
Ma.: kaua, id. 
aufau a tax. Ha. 



Mq. : aua, except, 
'aua, prohibitive. 

: auhau, id. 
aufau-fetii genealogy. Ma.: kau- 
whau, to recite old legends and gene- 
alogies. 

auiaui as in ancient times. Ma.: 
auki, old. 

aumana to chew victuals for another. 
Sa. : 'aumaga, the company of kava 
chewers. 

aupapa a flat surface. Ma.: kau- 
papa, a level surface, a floor. 
auta a groan, a sigh, a murmur. Mq. : 
auta, air, breath, Moriori; auta, to 
sigh, to groan 

ea the thrush, aphthse. Mq. : kea, 
id. Sa. : 'ea'ea, id. Ha.: ea, id. 



2646. haa-eho to suffer from indigestion. 
Ha. : eho, a swelling or bunch internal, 
a kind of disease. 

2647. fa stalk. Mq. : /a, /(o, petiole. Sa.: 
fa, the petiole of taro and banana. 
Ha. : ha, petiole of taro and sugarcane. 

2648. fa the mark at which one shoots or 
aims. Sa.: fa, id. 

2649. fafau to join, to tie. Sa.: fafau, to 
fasten with a ligature. 

2650. fai to confess, to reveal. Mq.: fai. 
hai, haki, id. Sa. : fai, to say. Ma. : 
whaki, to confess, to divulge, to re- 
veal. Pau. : faki, to discover, to 
reveal. 

2651. f aifai a plant. Mq.: AotAai, a tree. 

2652. fanu some. Pau.: toko-fanu, id. 
Nine: faJu, id. 

2653. fatu lord, master. Mq.: /ate, master, 
proprietor. Ha. : haku, lord, master, 
overseer. 

2654. fatupehe song-maker. Sa..: fatupese, 
poet. (Ha.: haku-mele, id.) 

2655. faufau vile, low, disgusting. Mq.: 
faufau, hauhau, the opposite of good 
in all senses. 

2656. fau-poo hat, head covering. Sa.: fau, 
a sort of tiu-ban. 

2657. farapepe Freycinetia demissa. Ha.: 
halapepe, a species of pandanus. 

2658. fei the mountain banana. Mq.: fei, 
a plant. Ha. : hei, the pawpaw tree. 

2659. fenefenea lassitude, fatigue. Sa.: 
fena, id. 

2660. fenuu a strand, to twist. Mq. : fenu, 
strips, bands, straps. Ma.: whenu, 
the warp. 

2661. raho-haari a naked and indecent 
dance. Sa. : fdli, coitus. 

2662. haha to strut. Ha.; haha, to strut, 
to act the fop. 

2663. haha laughter in peals. Mq.: haha- 
haha, id. 

2664. hahara to split. Sa. : sasala, to cut. 

2665. hahau to seek. Ma.: hahau, id. 

2666. hahu a razor, a plane. Mq.: hahu, 
a plane, to polish. 

2667. hanahana splendid, illustrious, glory. 
Ma. . hana, to shine, to glow. 

2668. hanehanea fatigued. Ha.: hanea, 
indolent. 

2669. hanihani to caress, to fondle. Ha. : 
hanihani, to make the first slight 
advances in tempting to adultery. 

2670. hao to encircle. To.: hao,\A. Ma.: 
hao, to inclose, to draw around. 

2671. hapepa paralytic. Mq.: hapepa, a 
sick person confined to the house. 

2672. hava soiled. Mq.: hava, id. Sa. : 
sava, defiled with excrement. Ma.: 
kawahawa, besmeared. 

2673. hea a skin eruption, the shingles. 
Ha.: hea, to be red and sore, as in- 
flamed eyes. 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 



121 



2674. hee to slide, to swim. Sa.: se'e, to 
slide, to shoot the brewers. Ha.: 
hee, id. 

2675. ahee to follow. Mq.: hee, id. 

2676. heepuanui a fine sunset. Ma. : heke, 
to decline toward setting, as the sun. 

2677. hehe to laugh to scorn. Ha.: hehe, 
to laugh, to mock, to deride. 

2678. heiva a dance. Mq. : heva, a very 
indecent dance of naked women. Sa. : 
siva, a dance. 

2679. hi dysentery. Mq. : hi, diarrhea. 
Nine: hihl, id. Ma.: hi, id. 

2680. hia-ai great desire to eat or drink. 
Mq. : hia, fia, wish, desire, to covet. 
Sa. : fia, to wish. Ma.: hia, to de- 
sire. Ha. : hiaai, a strong desire. 

a68i. hiehie wild, furious. Ha.: hiehie, 
overbearing, haughty. 

2682. hihiu savage, shy. Ha.: hihiu,ynld, 
untamed, unsocial. 

2683. hinuhinu lustre, brightness, shining. 
Ha. : hinuhinu, to glisten, to sparkle, 
to be bright. 

2684. hipa pride. Ha.: hipa, to express 
gladness. 

2685. hiro to exaggerate. Ha.: hilohilo, to 
lengthen a speech by mentioning little 
circumstances, to make nice oratori- 
cal language. 

2686. hitahita vivacity, impetuous, to be in 
haste. Sa. : filafita, brave, courageous. 

2687. faa-hiti to pronounce. Mq. : haa- 

hiti. id. 

2688. hiti-mahuta to leap. Mq.: hiti-ee, 
to leap for joy. Sa. : fiti, to leap. Cf . 
2729. 

2689. hito to ridicule. Mq. : hito, vain, 
haughty, proud. 

2690. hoa a pole for carrying a burden. 
Mq. : hoa, small sticks used in fasten- 
ing an outrigger. Sa. : so'a, the brace 
of a house. 

2691. hoani to cajole, to conciliate. Sa. : 
fesoasoani, to help, to comfort, to 
strengthen. 

2692. hoata the name of a night. Ma.: 
hoata, the third day of the moon. 

2693. hopiri to be quiet. Mq. : hopii, id. 

2694. hora Tephrosia piscatoria, to poison 
fish therewith. Ha.: hola, to poison 
fish. 

2695. ahoru to bend as a weak plank. Ha.: 
holu, to bend as an elastic stick, 
flexible. 

2696. hou sweat. Ha.: hou, id. 

2697. ai-huaa genealogy, lineage. Mq. : 
huaa, huaka, family, parents. 

2698. huare phlegm, saliva. Ma. : huare, id. 

2699. huhu a black fly. Sa. : lago-fuju, the 
carpenter bee. 

2700. hui a collective plural (human). Sa. : 
Jut, a cluster, a flock. Ma. : hui, an 
assembly. Ha.: hui, a company, a 
clu.ster. 



2701. hupe mucus. (Sa.: isupe,'\d.) Ma.: 
hupe, id. 

2702. huto anger, displeasure. Mq. : huto, 
dissension, inharmonious. 

2703. ie a sail. Sa.: 'ie, cloth, fine mats. 
Ha. : ie, cloth, canvas. 

2704. ieie a liana, Freycinetia demissa. 
Mq. : kiekie, a tree with a very flex- 
ible root. Sa. : 'ie'ie, a Freycinetia. 
Ma.: kiekie, F. banksii. 

2705. iha displeasure. Mq.: jAo, an inter- 
jection of disgust. Sa. : isa, id. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 401. 

2706. ihaiha to pant because of heat. Mq. : 
ihaiha, cold, to shiver with cold. Ma. : 
kiha, to pant. 

2707. ihe a lance. Ha.: ihe, a. spear. 

2708. ihi the chestnut. Mq. : ihi, id. Sa. : 
ifi, id. Ha. : ihi, an herb. 

2709. ihi to pull up, to carry off. Mq. : ihi, 
to flay, to bark, to peel. To. : ihi, to 
peel. Ha. : ihi, to peel, to flay. 

2710. iho to second. Mq. : iho, id. Sa. : 
ifo, id. Ha.: iho, id. 

271 1. iho essence, nature. Pau. : iho, es- 
sence, substance. Sa. •.fuatia-ifo, con- 
science. Ma. : iho, that in which the 
strength of a thing consists. 

2712. ihoiho a ghost, a spirit. Pau.: faka- 
iho, a ghost. 

2713. iripo whirlpool, vortex. Mq.: iipoi, 
to whirl, to .surge. 

2714. iuiu profoundly (of sleep). Mq. : iu, 
profound, deep. 

2715. aivi eminence, hill, slight elevation. 
Mq. : ivi, hill. Cf . 3004. 

2716. ma washed, clean, pure. Mq. : ma, . 
clarified, clear. Sa. : ma, clean, pure. 
Ma. : ma, white, pale, clean. 

2717. maa a sling. Mq.: maa, id. Sa.:_ 
ma'a-ta, id. Ma.: maka, to throw. 
Ha. : maa, a sling. 

2718. maamaafoolish, simple, stupid. Mq.: 
maamaa, crazy, a simpleton. 

2719. mae weak, soft. Mq.: mae, soft, 
flabby. To. : mae, to wither, to fade. 
Ha.: mae, id. 

2720. maee mobile. Sa. : maee, to shiver. 

2721. haa-maere to astound, to stun. Ha.: 
maele, numb. 

2722. a-maha to divide, to open, to split. 
Ha. : maha, to make a hole in, to tear 
in two. 

2723. mahae torn, rent. Sa. : masae, to 
tear. 

2724. mahamePhyllanthustahitensis. Sa.: 
masame, id. 

2725. mahatea to be fatigued by. Sa.: 
mafatia, weighed down, burdened. 

2726. mahihi obliquely. Sa. : masisi.tohc 
broken obliquely. 

2727. mahiti wrath. Sa.: mafiti, bluster. 

2728. mahore to peel off. Sa.: mafoe, to 
be skinned. Ma.: mahore, to be 
peeled. 



122 



EASTER ISLAND, 



2729. 

2730. 

2731- 
2732. 

2733- 
2734- 
2735- 

2736. 
2737- 
2738. 

2739- 

2740. 
2741- 

2742. 
2743- 
2744- 
2745. 

2746. 

2747. 
2748. 
2749. 

2750. 

2751. 
2752. 

2753- 

2754- 



mahuta to jump, to fly. Sa. : mafuta, 
to rise ia flight. Ma.: mahuta, to 
jump. 

maiere to examine. Ha. : maiele, to 
ask questions with skill so as to puzzle 
one. 

maihe diligently, perfectly. Sa.: 
maise, above all, especially. 
maire Polypodium pustulatum. Mq. : 
maie, a species of breadfruit. To.: 
maile, a shrub. Ma. : maire, various 
trees. Ha.: maile, a vine, Alyxia 
olivaeformis. 

mairi to lie down, to go to sleep. 
Mq. : mail, maiki, a bed, couch. 
maiti to choose, to elect. Ma.: 
mahiti, to sort out. 
mama-orero conclusion of a council. 
Ha.: mama, to finish, to have done 
with a thing. 

manahune plebeian. The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, page 22. 
manono Phyllanthus manono. Ma. ; 
manono, a tree. Ha. : manono, id. 
manu to float, to swim over. Sa.: 
manu, to float high. Ma. : manu, to 
float. 

manufiri, manuhiri host, guest. 
Ma. : manuhiri, a guest, to receive as 
a guest. 

manuia to prosper. Sa.: manuia, 
prosperous, fortunate. 
mac Commersonia echinata. Mq. : 
makomako, a shrub. Sa. : mao, a tree. 
Ha. : mao, a shrub used in dyeing. 
maoa ripe, cooked. Ma.: maoa, 
cooked. 

marara dispersed. Ma.: marara, 
scattered. 

marea a fish. Ma. : marearea, white- 
bait. 

marehurehu morning twilight. Mq. : 
maehuehu, twilight. Ha. : malehulehu, 
morning twilight. 

maro dry, desiccated. Mq.: mao, 
thirst, desiccated. Fu. : mala, dry. 
Ha.: malo, maloo, id. 
maruao break of day. Ma. : maruao, 
dawn. 

maruarua the bed of a stream. Ma. : 
maruarua, a valley. 
maruarua ground grubbed up. Ha. : 
malualua, a little spot dug up for 
planting. 

mata the edge of a tool. Mq. : mata, 
point, edge. Sa.: mata, id. Ma.: 
mata, id. 

matahiti a year. Ha. : makahiki, id. 
matapuna a spring. Ma.: mata- 
puna, id. 

mati Ficus tinctoria. Sa. : mati, a 
fig tree. 

mate a rock, a high rock. Sa. : mato, 
a precipice. Mangaia: mato, a rock, 
a stone. 



2755. 
2756. 

2757- 

2758. 

2759- 

2760. 

2761. 

2762. 

2763. 

2764. 
2765. 

2766. 

2767. 

2768. 

2769. 
2770. 

2771. 
2772. 

2773. 

2774- 

2775. 

2776. 
2777. 
2778. 
2779. 

2780. 
2781. 

2782. 
2783. 

3784. 



matua old. Sa.: matua, elder, ma- 
ture. Ha. : makua, of full age. ^ 
mau a plural prefix. Mq.: mau, id. 
Ha.: mau, id. 

maunauna rough. Mq. : maunauna, 
rough, callous. 

maureu re discouraged, fearful. Ma. : 
maule, dispirited, fearful. 
mavete open. To.: movete, to be 
loose. Ma.: mawete, untied. 
mea to do. Mq. : mea, id. Sa. : mea, 
id. Ma.: mea, id. 

mere a star. Ma.: meremere, the 
evening star. 

a-miimii to curl, to twist. Sa. : migi, 
curly. 

a-mina to desire what another is eat- 
ing. Ma. : mina, to long for. 
moemoe ambush. Ha. : moemoe, id. 
moemoe Phyllanthus simplex. To. : 
mohemohe, a tree. 

momea Lomaria procera. To. : mo- 
mea, a shrub. 

moo-tua grandchild. Nine: moko- 
puna, id. 

mu a confused noise. Nine: mumu, 
to make a noise. Ma.: mumu, a 
gentle noise. The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, page 383. 

muriavai river mouth. Sa. : mulivai, 
id. Ha.: muliwai, id. 
na demonstrative of the middle dis- 
tance. Mq.: na, id. Sa. : lena, id. 
Ma.: na, id. 

na behold. Ma. : nana, id. 
na to quiet a child. Sa. : na, id. Ha. : 
na, quieted, pacified, as a child. 
nahe Angiopteris erecta. Sa.: nase, 
the giant fern. 

nanau to covet. Sa. : naunau, to de- 
sire earnestly. 

nanunanu to coo. Sa. : nanu, to 
speak in an incomprehensible lan- 
guage. 

nau a plant. Mq.: nau, id. Sa.: 
nau, id. Ma.: nau, id. 
naupata a plant. Mq. : naupata, id. 
Ma.: naupata, id. 

nehenehe handsome, comely, elegant. 
Mq. : nehenehe, corpulent. 
a-ninia giddiness, vertigo. Mq. : ni- 
nia, dazzled by too strong light, ver- 
tigo. Sa.: niniva, giddy. 
niuroahiti Leucas decemdentata. 
Mq. : niuoaifiti, a species of coconut. 
noinoi small, fine. Mq. : not, a dwarf, . 
of slow growth. Ha.: noinoi, small, 
as a dwarf. 

noo the stem of a canoe. Ma. : noko, 
id. 

naunau to be fine, elegant. Ha.: 
hoonaunau, to act proudly, to dress 
in gorgeous apparel, 
o spade, pick. Mq.: ko, id. Ma.: 
ko, a digging-stick. 



THE DOMINANCE OP TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 



123 



78s. 
1786. 



.787. 
[788. 

8789. 

2790. 

2791. 



2792. 

2793- 
2794- 
2795- 

2796. 

2797. 
2798. 



2799. 

2800. 

2801. 

2802. 

2803. 
2804. 

2805. 

2806. 

2807. 

2808. 

2809. 

2810. 
2811. 

2812. 
2813- 

2814. 



2815. 
2816. 



2817. 
2818. 
2819- 



o provisions for a journey. Ma. : o, id. 
6 to enter, to penetrate. Sa.: o, to 
penetrate. Ma.: o, to get into a 
place not easily entered. 
6 to husk a coconut. Mq. : \io, id. 
a-ofa to bend, to incline. Sa. : loja, 
to crouch, to cower down. 
ofaa a nest. Sa.: o/ago, id. Ma.: 
ohanga, id. 

ofao-tuna an eel's hole. Mq. : kofao, 
kohao, a crack, a crevice. 
ofiri to twist, to turn. Mq. : kohii, to 
interlace. Ma.: kowhiri, to whirl 
aroimd. 

oheohe a plant. Ma.: kohekohe, id. 
ohie facile, easy. Sa.: -gofie, easy. 
ohimu to backbite. Ma. : kohimu, id. 
ohiohio a sinister glance. Mq.: 
kofiofioa, crosseyed. 
ohiohioa vertigo. Ha. : ohiohio, the 
dizziness of a slight intoxication, 
ohiti to pluck out. Ma.: kowhiti, id. 
ohiti a very small sand crab. Ma. : 
kowhiliwhiti-moana, a small shrimp. 
Ha. : ohiki, a small crab. 
oi sharp, pointed. Mq. : hoi, sharp, 
keen. Ma.: hot, id. 
oi to tmn, to veer. Ha. : oi, to move 
sidewise, to turn the side to one. 
omotu an ember, a coal. Mq. : 
komotu, omotu, firebrand. 
ona he, she. Sa. : ona, his, hers. Ma. : 
ona, id. 

ona rich. Mq. : oria, id. 
onino to twist. Mq.: konino, to 
plait, to twist, to roll. 
00 to cluck. Mq. : 00, id. Sa. : oolo, 
the cry of hens. Ha. : 000, to crow. 
oomo to pierce, to introduce into. 
Mq. : kokonto, oomo, id. Sa. : omo, to 
be sunk in. Ma. : komo, to insert. 
opa an angle. Ma.: kopa, an angle, 
a comer. 

opiropiro stinking. Ha.: opUopilo, 
bad smelling. 

opu to rise, of the sun. Ma. : kopu, 
the morning star. 

opupu a blister. Ma.: kopupv, id. 
oteatea white. Mq. : kotea, id. Ma. : 
kotea, pale. 

oti presage of death. Sa. : oti, to die. 
oti to cut. Mq.: koti, oti, id. Sa.: 
'oti, id. Ma. : koti, id. 
otimo to slander, to calumniate. 
Mq. : kotimo, to make a sign secretly 
to counteract the words of a speaker. 
ou mine. Sa. : o'u, id. Ha. : o'«, id. 
ouru extremity, point; kouu, extrem- 
ity, point, crest, summit, head of a 
river. Ma.: kouru, top of a tree, 
head of a river. 

outou you. Mq.: kolou, otou, id. 
Sa.: 'outou, id. Ma.: kouiou, id. 
ovarivari lazy, indolent, cowardly. 
Ha. : owali, infirm, weak. 
haa-pa to seize, to attack. Ha.: 
hoopa, to hit, to strike. 



2820. paaoaotobethin,lean. Kz.: paaoao, 
weakness, want of strength. 

2821. haa-pae to abandon, to reject. Mq.: 
haapae, id. 

2822. paha perhaps. Ha..: paha, id. 

2823. pahemo to slip, to fall. Ha. : pahemo, 
to slip, to slip off. 

2824. paheru to rake the soil. Mq. : paheu, 
to comb. 

2825. pahoa to beat bark for cloth. Mq.: 
pahoa, id. 

2826. pahono to join, to unite. Ha. : pa- 
hono, to stitch together, 

2827. pahu to splatter. Ha. : /)oAm, to gush 
or burst forth. 

2828. pahuhu to press, to press out. Mq.: 
pahuhu, pahuu, to press, to squeeze. 

2829. pahuru dirty. Mq. : />ater«, to make 
dirty. 

2830. paina to make a noise. Ha.: paina, 
to sound, as in breaking or tearing 
anything. 

2831. pani to close. Ma.: pani, to block 
up, to obstruct. 

2832. paoho to laugh noisily. Ma.: paoho, 
to bark. 

2833. papaitobeat. Ha.: ;^a^(i», to strike. 

2834. papaa crabs. Sa.: pa'a, id. Ma.: 
papaka, id. 

2835. papatea untattooed. Ma..: papatea, 
having no tattoo marks on the face. 

2836. papau shallow. Mq.: papau, low, 
shallow. Sa. : papa'u, shallow. Ma. : 
papaku, id. 

2837. papi to speak quickly and in confu- 
sion. Ma.: papipapi, confused, in- 
articulate. 

2838. papua young sprouts. Ma.: papua, 
fruitful. 

2839. parare to spread out, to be published. 
Ha. : palale, to branch out. 

2840. pare a fort, a place of refuge. Ma.: 
parepare, a breistwork m a stockade. 

2841. pari rocks overhanging the sea. Ma.: 
pari, a cliff, a precipice. 

2842. paruru to shelter, to protect. Ma.: 
paruru, a shelter from the wind. 

2843. pata to beat. Mq.: pata, id. Ha.: 
paka, to strike. 

2844. patia a ^ance, an arrow. Mq.: patia, 
to harpoon, to lance. 

2845. pato to break the shell, to hatch. 
Ma. : pato, to crack, to snap. 

2846. pau consumed, expended. Sa.: pau, 
to come to an end. Ma.: pau, 
finished. 

2847. pau to wet one another. Mq.: pau, 
to moisten. 

2848. pauaua to be vigorous. Mz.: pauaua, 
strenuous. 

2849. pehi to assail with stones. Mq.: />eftt, 
id. Ha.: pehi, to throw stones at. 

2850. pena to cover, to protect, to defend. 
Ma. : penapena, to cherish, to foster, 
to take care of. 



124 



EASTER ISLAND. 



2851. pera a corpse. Ha.: pela, the putrid 
flesh and bowels of a dead body when 
the bones were removed. 

2832. pi young, green. Ma.: pipi, half- 
grown, not matured. 

2853. piee, pihee to purge. Mq.: piee, 
diarrhea. 

2854. haa-piipii to ridicule, to depreciate. 
Ha. : hoopii, to accuse, to lay a charge 
against. 

2855. pipi to sprinkle. Ha.: pipi, id. 

2856. pitao black, sombre. Mq.: pitako- 
tako, pitaotao, sombre, obscure. 

2857. pitoi a bruise on fruit. Mq. : pitoi, 
putoi, id. 

2858. pitopito a button. Mgv. : pitopito, 
id. Pau. : pitopito, id. 

2859. piu to pull in a fishing-line. Jia.. : piu, 
to skip with a rope. 

2860. pi vai the runt of a litter. Ma..: piwai, 
aborted sweet potatoes which are not 
saved. 

2861. ponao thimble. Mq.: ponao-iima, id. 

2862. pono straight, direct. Mq.: pono, 
proper, seemly. Ma.: pono, true, 
upright. 

2863. poo to slap with the palm. Mq.: 
poko, the noise made by slapping with 
the flat of the hand on an arm held 
snug to the body; to slap the water. 

2864. pope pus. Ma.: />0;^o, rotten, worm- 
eaten. 

2865. porehu sombre. Ma.:porehu,dnsky. 

2866. pou to descend. Mq. ; pou-puna, 
grandchildren, descendants. 

2867. puaatree. Mq. :^Ma, id. Sa.: pua, 
id. Ha.: pua, id. 

2868. puatea a tree. Mq.: pukatea, pua- 
tea, id. Nine: pukatea, id. Ma.: 
pukatea, id. 

2869. puita cold, a fit of shivering. Mq.: 
puita, cold, shivering, gooseflesh. 

2870. puna a haunt of fish. Sa.: puna, a 
place where fish abound. 

2871. pupa to slat (of sails). Mq. : pupa, 
id. 

2872. pupo to beat the hands. Mq. : pupo, 
to squeeze in the hands in order to 
soften. 

2873. pupu shells. Ha.: pupu, id. 

2874. pupu-vaha to gargle. Mq.: pupu, 
id. Sa. : pupu, id. 

2875. pureva to be on the eve of going. 
Ha. : puleva, to float here and there. 

2876. purima the hands joined as a trum- 
pet. Mq. : puiima, to whistle with 
the fingers. 

2877. haa-purupuru to care for, to serve. 
Ha.: pulupulu, to cherish, to brood 
as a hen her chicks. 

2878. pute bag, sack, pocket. Ma.: pute, 
a bag, a basket. 

2879. puvaavaa ribbon, furbelow. Mq.: 
puvaavaa, id. (Sa. : puva'ava'a, id.) 

2880. puvatavata to be ill joined. Ma.: />«- 
watawata, full of interstices. 



2881. rae the forehead. Mq. :<ie, id. Pau.: 
rae, id. Mgv.: akarae, to cut the 
hair on the forehead. Ma.: rae, the 
forehead. (Sa. : lae, hairless.) 
rahu sortilege, enchantment. Mq.: 
ahu, a sacred spot. Sa.: lafu, the 
pig tabu. Ma.: rahurahu, herbage 
plucked on a battlefield and used by 
a priest in incantations. 
rapaau medicament, to treat with 
medicine. Mq. : apakau, apau, oint- 
ment for a sore. Ha.: lapaau, to 
administer medicine. 
raparapa square. To. : labalaba, id. 
Ha.: lapalapa, square (of timber, of 
a bottle, of a cow yard). 
raruraru the knees of a boat. Mq. : 
auau, bowsprit, prow. 
2886. rata the chestnut tree. Ma.; rata, a 
tree. 

ratou they. Mq. : atou, id. Sa. : latou, 
id. Ma. : ratou, id. Pau. : ratou, id. 
Mgv.: ratou, id. 
2888. rauhuru dry banana leaf. Mq.: 
auhuu, id. (To. : hulu, leaves dry and 
dead.) Ha. : lauhulu, banana leaf. 
raumati to cease raining, to remain 
fair. Sa. : naumati, dry, arid. Ma. : 
raumati, summer. Cf. 2173. 
2890. raumea, autnea gills. Mq.: oumea, 
koumea, id. 

rauone soil free from stones. Ha.: 
lauone, id. 

ravaai to fish. Mq. : avaia, avaika, 
id. Ha.: lawaia, id. 
raverave a servant, to serve. Ha.: 
lawelawe, to wait on the table, to 
serve. 

ref a to look sidewise. Ma. : rewha, a 
squint. 

reva the firmament, atmosphere. Ha.: 
lewa, the upper regions of the air, 
atmosphere, the visible heavens. 
ri to hang. Ha. : It, to hang by the 
neck. 

riirii little by little. Ha.: liilii, id, 
ropuee a violent blast of wind. Ma.: 
ropu, a gust of wind, a squall. 
rori trepang. Mq. : oi, id. Sa. : loli, 
id. Ha.: loli, id. 

rori to become hard. Mq. : oi, com- 
pact, leathery. Ha.: loliloli, to be 
watersoaked or tough. 
rourou cartilage of the nose. Mq.: 
ouou ihu, id. 

ruahine an old woman. Ma.: rua- 
hine, id. Cf. 2357. 
ruaroa tropic of Capricorn. Mq.: 
uaoa, a constellation, the eleventh 
month. The sense in Tahiti is prob- 
ably that of some constellation which 
may be used to determine the position. 
ruau an old man, an old woman. Ha. : 
luau, a parent. 

rufa worn out. Ma.: ruha, ruwha, 
weary. Cf. 2359. 



2882. 



2883. 



2884. 



2885. 



2887. 



2889. 



2891. 
2892. 
2893. 



2894. 
2895- 



2896. 

2897. 
2898. 

2899. 

2900. 



2901. 



2902. 



2903. 



2904. 



2905 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE- 



125 



./■ 



2906. ruhi sleepy, drowsy. Ma.: ruhi, 
weak, exhausted. Cf. 1510. 

2907. ruhiruhia aged, old. Ma.: ruruhi, 
an old woman. 

2908. rumi, to rub, to massage the limbs. 
Cf. 1514. 

2909. rupe a pigeon. Mq.: upe, id. Sa.: 
lupe, id. Ma.: rupe, id. 

2910. ruru a large aquatic bird, a wood- 
pecker. Mq.: MM, a pigeon. Sa.: 
lulu, an owl. Ma.: ruru, the more- 
pork owl. 

2911. rurua a shelter from the wind. Mgv. : 
ruru, a shelter. Ma. : ruru, id. 

2912. ruta to be in a hurry. Ma.: ruta, 
bluster, rage. 

2913. ta-aa to cut the roots in order to fell 
a tree. Mq.: ta, to beat. Sa. : ta, 
id. Ma.: to, id. 

2914. ta-ia to fish with line or net. Sa.: 
ta-palolo, to fish for palolo. Fu. : to, 
dayUght fishing of women. 

2915. taa to fall. Ma.: taka, to fall off, to 
set. 

2916. taa to go away. Ha.: ioo, gone, ab- 
sent, to remove. 

2917. taa finished. Ma.: tote, to desist. 

2918. taai to voyage, to make the rounds. 
Mq. : takai, taai, id. 

2919. taanini to stagger, to flutter in the 
wind. Mq. : takanini, taanini, ver- 
tigo, staggering. Ha. : kaanini, to be 
agitated, in a flutter. 

2920. taaroa god creator. Mq.: towooa, id. 
Sa. : tagaloa, id. Ma.: tangaroa, id. 

2921. taave to hang, to strangle. Ha.: 
takawe, id. 

2922. tafa sonorous. Mq. : to/a, the soimd 
of a shock. Ha. : kaha, a crack of a 
whip, report of a pistol. 

2923. tahavahava dirty, or soiled. Ma. ;te- 
hawahawa, to de&le, to pollute. Cf. 
2672. 

2924. tahiri a fan. Mq. : tafii, tahii, id. 
Ha.: kahili, a fly brush made of 
feathers. 

2925. tahiri to sweep by striking with a 
cloth or broom, to dust, to wipe. Ha. : 
kahili, to sweep, to wipe. Cf. 2376. 

2926. tahiri to wag the tail. Ma.: tahiri, 
to welcome by waving garments. 

2927. tahitahi to brush with the hand, to 
sweep. Sa. : tafi, to brush, to sweep. 
Ma. : tahi, to sweep. 

2928. tahuhu ridgepole. Ma. : tahuhu, id. 
Cf. 2462. 

2929. tahuti to rot, perishable. Ha.: 
kahuki, corruption, putrefaction. 

2930. tai-ao dawn. Mq. : takitaki te ao, 
just before dawn. 

2931. taimaha heavy. Ma.: taimaha,\A. 

2932. taitahi each, one by one. Sa.: 
ta'itasi, each. 

2933. taitai salt. Mq.: taitai, to salt, to 
pickle. 

2934. tamaa sandals, shoes, foot covering. 
Ha. : katnaa, id. 



2935. tamaa to eat. Mq.: tamaka, tamaa, 
to eat to excess. 

2936. tamahana to heat. Ma.: tamahana, 
to cook a second time. 

2937. tamara pahns, leaves. Hn.: kamala, 
to thatch with leaves for a temporary 
house. 

2938. tamau to persevere. Ha. : kamau, id. 

2939. tane man, husband. Sa.: tone, man. 
Ma.: tane, male, husband. 

2940. taneenee large, abundant. Mq. : 
taneenee, small, few. A sense-invert. 

2941. tanoho to sit, to dwell. Mq. : tonoAo, 
to sit. 

2942. taoa property, possessions. Ma.: 
taonga, property, treasure. 

2943. tapahi to cut. Ma.: tapdhi, to cut, 
to chop. 

2944. tapairu princess. Ma.; tapairu, the 
firstborn girl of a chiefly family. 

2945. tapi-ata difiicult to obtain. Sa.: 
-gatd, difficult to do or be. 

2946. tapii to cling to anything. Ma,; 
tapiki, to lay hold of. 

2947. tapure to be speckled, spotted. Ha. : 
kapule, to be hung up, as a bimch 
of bananas, until the skin turns black 
in spots. 

2948. taputea the rainbow. Sa.: tapuitea, 
the evening star. 

2949. tara the comer of a house, angle. 
Mq. : too, id. Sa. : lala, the round end 
of a house. Ma. : tara, the side wall of 
a house. The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, page 239. 

2950. tara enchantment. Ma.: tara, an 
incantation. 

2951. tara to untie. Sa. : to/a, id. Ha.: 
kala, id. 

2952. tarava to lie horizontally. Ma.: 
tarawa, to hang upon a line. 

2953. tarou to pick fruit with a forked 
stick. Sa. : talou, id. 

2954. tata porringer, cup, to bale. Mq. : 
tdtd, scoop, baler. Sa. : toto, wooden 
baler of a canoe. Ma. ; toto, id. 

2955. tata to strike, to beat. Mq.: toto, id. 
Sa. : tata, id. Ma.: toto, id. 

2956. tatai to expel an evil spirit. Mq. : 
tdtai, to chase, to expel, to exclude. 

2957. tataramoa a prickly shrub. Sa.; 
talatalamoa, a variety of the ifi tree. 
Ma. ; tataramoa, the bramble. 

2958. tati to insult, to reproach. lla..:kaki, 
cross, petulant, angry. 

2959. tatipi to cut with a knife. Sa. : tatipi, 
to cut, to .shred. 

2960. taua demonstrative pronoun, that. 
Ma.: taua, id. 

2961. taua coward. Ma. : to«to«o,cowardly. 

2962. tauama an outrigger canoe. Sa. : 
tauama, one rope of a canoe rigging. 

2963. tauaro the front. Ma.: tauaro, the 
front or principal aspect of a building. 

2964. taui price, wages. Sa. : taut, id. 

2965. taumamao to be out of reach. Sa.: 
taumamao, to be far off. 



126 



EASTER ISLAND. 



2966. taumata a vizor. Sa. : taumata, id. 
Tokelau: taumata, "a curious marine 
animal found on the reefs; it is used 
by the natives as a helmet or cap 
(taumata) because when dried it be- 
comes hard as iron." Tregear, s. v. 

2967. taurua the planet Venus. Mq.: 
takuua, the name of a star. Ma.: 
takurua, Sirius. 

2968. taurua a double canoe. Ma.: taurua, 
id. 

2969. tautai the result. Ha.: kaukai, to 
wait for an event to happen. 

2970. tautau to fish in sweet water. Ha.: 
kaukau, the snaring of fish. 

2971. tauteute a heap of victuals. Sa. : 
taute, to eat, to drink. Ma.: taute, 
to prepare food for cooking. 

2972. tavare to trick, to dupe. Mq. : tavae, 
to cajole, to flatter. Ma. : taware, to 
dupe, to fool, to cajole. 

2973. tavere to tow a thing in the water. 
Ha. : kawewele, the person at the end 
of long ropes when many are dragging 
a heavy object. 

3974. tavini a servant. Mq. : tavini, id. 
Sa. : tavini, id. Bishop Jaussen dis- 
tinguishes this as a neologism in 
Tahiti; it is undoubtedly a natural- 
ized form of servant, a word which at 
the time of the voyage of the Duff and 
on the lips of the pioneer missionaries 
would undoubtedly have been pro- 
nounced sarvent. 

2975. tavovovovo a distant sound. Mq. : 
tavovo, to click the teeth. Ha.: 
kawowo, to make a ruistling sound, 
to sound heavily. 

2976. f aa-te to milk, to squeeze out. Ma. : 
whakate, to squeeze fluid out of any- 
thing. 

2977. tere to slip. Ha.? kele, to slide, to 
slip. 

2978. tetei to clench the teeth. Mq. : tetei, 
to grit the teeth, to show the teeth. 
Ma. : tetea, to show the teeth, to gnash 
the teeth. 

2979. tia the lower belly. Mq.: tia-kopu, 
pubes. Ma. : tia, the lower abdomen. 

2980. tiahonu to piece together. Mq. : 
tuhonu, to mend, to patch. Ma.: 
tuhonu, to join. 

2981. tiao to .seek. Mq. : tikao, tiao, id. 

2982. tiare a gardenia. Mq. : dare, tiae, id. 
Sa. : tiale, id. Ma.: tiare, fragrant. 

2983. tiehi, to expel, to drive away. Mq.: 
tiehi, id. 

2984. tihi the corner stone of a marae. Ha. : 
kihi, the outer corner of a thing. 

2985. tinana trunk, source, foundation. 
Ma. : tinana, the body, the trunk. 

2986. tipona to knot. Mq.: tipona, to tie 
together. Ma.: tipona, to tie in a 
knot. 

2987. tiratira to raise high. Ha.: kilakila, 
height. 



2988. tire enough, have done. Mq.: tie, 
interjection of disapproval. 

2989. faa-titina to force oneself to do too 
much. Ha. : kikina, to urge, to drive. 

2990. titohe trousers, drawers. Mq.: titohe, 
the buttocks. 

2991 . titoo a sprit, to boom out a sail. Ma. : 
titoko, a sprit. 

2992. titore to shred leaves for weaving. 
Ma. : titore, to split. 

2993. tea a gout of blood. Sa.: to' a, to 
coagulate. 

2994. toatoa Elatostemma sessile. Mq.: 
toatoa, a plant. Ma. : toatoa, id. 

2995. toatoa a bad smell of the sea. Sa.: 
to'ato'a, to smell bad. 

2996. toetoe-pahao a crab. Mq.: toetoe, 
id. Sa. : toetoe, id. 

2997. toi Alphitonia zizyphoides. Mq.: toi, 
a climbing plant. Sa. : toi, a tree. 

2998. toimaha heavy. Ma.: toimaha, id. 
Cf. 2931. 

2999. toiri to drag a log. Ma.: tokiri, to 
shove, to thrust lengthwise. 

3000. tope a lock or knot of hair falling 
behind. Mq. . tope, a tuft or tress of 
hair worn on one side of the head in 
sign of vengeance to be exacted. To. : 
tobe, a lock of hair. 

3001. tore to be inflamed with proud flesh. 
Ma.: toretore, inflamed. 

3002. toromiro the sacred tree (Thespesia). 
Ma.: toromiro, a tree. 

3003. toto netting in which a calabash is 
carried. Mq. : <oto, the net in which 
breadfruit is gathered. Ha.: koko, 
netting around a calabash. 

3004. tuaivi crest, summit of a mountain. 
Mq. : tuaivi, a mountain, hill. Sa.: 
tuasivi, chain of mountains, ridge. 
Ha.: kuahiwi, mountain, summit. 
Cf. 2715. 

3005. tuamata eyebrow. Sa. : teowoto, eye- 
lid. 

3006. tuara a sail. Sa.: tuala, to put a 
canoe more before the wind. 

3007. tuatoto miscarriage. Mq. : tuatoto, 
childbirth. Ha.: kuakoko, pains of 
childbirth. 

3008. tuatua an ancient word of address in 
the evening prayer at the marae. 
Ma. : tua, a religious word for god. 

3009. tuferu, tuheru to scratch. Mq.: 
tufeu, tuheu, id. 

3010. tuhituhi sweetish. Ha.: kuhikuhi, 
sweet or pleasant to the taste. 

301 1. tumu blunt. Mq.: tumue, tumuhe, 
blunt, obtuse. Ha.: kumumu, id. 

3012. ra-tumu the sun half-set. Mq.: 
tumu te ani, the horizon. 

3013. tuna the sweetwater eel. Sa.; tuna, 

id. Ma. : tuna, the eel. 

3014. tuoi to stagger. Mq.: hee-tuoi, id. 
Ha.: kuoi, id. 

3015. tuoo to be serious, grave. Ha.: kuoo, 
calm, sober. 



THE DOMINANCE OF TAHITI OVER THE PROVINCE. 



127 



3016. turi deaf. Mq.: tut, id. Sa.: tuli, 
id. Ma.: turi, id. The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 284. 

3017. turuturu posts of a house. Mq.: 
tuutuu, id. 

3018. tutau to cast anchor. Mq.:tofaM, id. 

3019. tutoo a stubborn cough, asthma. 
Mq. : tutoko, tutoo, a cough. 

3020. tutu a plant. Mq.: tutu, id. To.: 
tutu, a shrub. Ma. : tutu, id. 

3021. tutufa, tutuha to split. Mq.: tufa, 
id. Ha.: kuha, id. 

3022. tutui candlenut. Ha.: kukui, id. 

3023. tuturu a support, prop, stay. Ha.: 
kukulu, a pillar, a post. 

3024. u to touch shore, to strand. Ma. : u, 
to reach the land. 

3025. ua a land crab which shears iron. 
Mq. : uka, lobster. Sa. : uga, the her- 
mit crab. 

3026. ua the back of the neck. Sa. : ua, the 
neck. Ma. : ua, the back of the neck. 

3027. uai to face about. Sa. : uai, to turn 
toward. 

3028. uha, Ufa to belch. Ha.: uha, to 
belch, to hawk up mucus. 

3029. uhu a cry of astonishment. Ha.: 
uhu, a cry of grief. 

3030. ui ringing in the ears. Mq. : ui, the 
buzzing of flies. Ha. : ui, to squeak, 
to creak. 

3031. ununu prohibition of fishing on the 
reef. Ha. : ununu, a stick erected in 
sign of a tabu. 

3032. upaupa a bird. Sa.: w/>a, an insect. 

3033. uru the human skull. Mq.: uu, the 
head. Sa.:M/«, id. Moriori; «/«, id. 



3034. uruhia inspired. Ha. : uluhia, to be 
possessed by a spirit. 

3035. utai to be wet with sea water. Mq. : 
utai, utaiea, kutai, damp, waterlogged. 

3036. ha-utiuti to move oneself incessantly. 
Ha. : ukiuki, to be gently in motion. 

3037. uvira lightning. Ha. : uwila, id. 

3038. va space between the leaves in a roof. 
Sa. : va, space between. Ma.: wa, 
interval. 

3039. vae timbers of a boat. Ha.: wae, 
knees, side timbers of a boat. 

3040. vae to share out. Sa. : vae, to divide, 
to share. Ma. : wawae, to divide. 

3041. vahavaha to disdain, to dislike. Ha.: 
wahawaha, to hate, to dislike. 

3042. vaianu a plant. Mq. : vaianu, id. 

3043. vairua, vaerua, verua, virua, vaiite 
spirit, soul. Ma.: wairua, id. 

3044. varea to be sleepy, napping. Ma.: 
warea, under the influence of sleep. 

3045. varovaro vibration of sounds upon 
the ear. Ma.: wawaro, to miumur, 
to sound indistinctly. 

3046. vata opening, space, separated by 
an interval. Mq. : vatavata, id. Ma.: 
watawata, full of holes. 

3047. vava sound of wind or rain. Ma.: 
wawa, to sound like pattering rain. 

3048. vea messenger. Ha. : weawea, a pro- 
curer. 

3049. verevere pudenda muliebria. Ma.: 
werewere, id. (labia minora). 

3050. verovero to twinkle like the stars. 
Ha. : welowelo, the light of a firebrand 
thrown into the air. 

3051. vihi a wrapper. Ha.: uitW, to roll up 
as a bundle. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 

Church twice, twice State — each has essayed the Marquesas and each 
has left its record of double failure, record and echo record. Yet where 
failtu-e, complete and utter loss of effort, has attended the touch of the 
solemn facts of such life as is known to us, romance has found success. 
The unclothed truth has blushed to find herself in company of a race 
whose painfully assumed tracery of tattooing has always seemed suffi- 
cient garb. But fiction with its better truth of the comprehending eye 
has given life to the Marquesas, a Ufe that will far outlast the fast-dying 
race. 

Here we have something that is interesting in detail; we shall find 
some pleasure in looking back to these several efforts, five digits where- 
with we may clasp these remote islands of the sea into some measure of 
comprehension. 

The Marquesas, the islands of the Marquis, they are. Who was this 
Marquis whose title should serve as sufficient designation of islands in a 
remote sea, should endure when the honesty of newer geographical 
nomenclature has shaken the Georgian glory from Tahiti and the fame 
of a petty Earl of Sandwich from Hawaii ? It was Mendoza, marquis of 
Cafiete and grandee of Spain, greater than grandee, the great viceroy of 
Peru in the days of its glory. His admiral it was, Alvaro Mendana de 
Neira, who conferred this name upon these rugged and savage lands. 
It was on Mendana's second and fatal voyage. After eight-and-twenty 
years of belief that far in the west of the great and unknown sea he had 
discovered the Ophir land of Solomon whence came the gold in ships of 
Tarshish, the great admiral had secured sanction for a voyage of col- 
onization. His cabins and holds were filled with a scurvy lot of settlers 
of the new lands, the sweepings of the streets from Panama to I,ima, four 
hundred outcasts. In the early days of the voyage toward a hope that 
could never be fulfilled Mendana discovered new land, the southern 
group of the islands of our study in this chapter, sighted them late in the 
afternoon of July 21, 1595. Drawn by the lure of gold at the other edge 
of the sea whose wastes he had scarcely begun as yet to cross, the 
admiral could not halt for long at these islands of new discovery. He 
skirted each as it rose upon his view, gave them collectively the name of 
his viceregal patron, landed on one that he might take possession in the 
name of Spain and the Chiurch. The proper names of his narrative 
read like a passage from the Acta Sanctorum. The four ships of his 
fleet were foursaints by name, Jerome and Philip in one pair, and on the 
side of distaff sanctity Isabella and Catharine. To each new island, as 

129 



130 EASTER ISLAND. 

it rose to view, he gave pious names : Magdalena served to designate 
Fatuhiva, then followed San Pedro, Santa Christina, and La Dominica. 
It was upon the last, Tahuata, that he elected to land. This was on the 
day of Santiago and to the bay which promised anchorage he gave the 
name of Madre de Dios. All this piety was but the prelude to the bless- 
ing of the heathen land. In all the pomp which belonged to the dignity 
of an admiral of Spain Mendana set foot upon the shore. The altar 
was erected in the abode of joyous paganism; the well-ordered pomp of 
the ritual of the mass attracted the imitation of the savages if it left 
their reverence untouched; the European history of the Marquesas 
opens with the solemn act of religion. Even in this solemnity we have 
the record of the straying attention which sometimes finds food for 
secular thought in church. Beside the admiral sat his wife. Dona 
Ysabel Berreto, destined by bitter fate to become herself an admiral and 
to lead the broken expedition home and away from the inhospitable 
land which was to hold forever hidden the corpse of her husband. Beside 
Dona Ysabel, through all the ceremonies, sat a woman of the island race 
(the chronicler of the voyage narrates that she was more beautiful than 
the ladies of Lima), and fanned the lady with a fan of curious workman- 
ship. Her hair was most magnificent; Dona Ysabel asked to have a 
lock, an ignorant indignity which added its mite to the score which the 
islanders soon sought to settle with their disturbing visitors. "Prob- 
ablement, " says Vincendon Dumoulin, "peu d'heures aprds le moment 
oil les Espagnols avaient rendu gr^ce au del de leur d6couverte les mal- 
heureux Noukahiviens suppliaient leurs divinit6s tutdlaires de les 
d6barrasser de la presence de leurs terribles visiteurs. " Three crosses 
set up along the beach, a name and a date carved in the bark of a tree, 
one Marquesan who had been taught the parrot recitation of a sacred 
name — this was all that the Church gave to the Marquesas when first 
it came into contact with their savagery. Before the fleet had passed 
from sight the crosses, we may be sure, were converted to timber uses ; 
the bark of a tree in the Pacific tropics is no material for enduring mem- 
orials of discovery; as lightly as learned the sacred names would vanish 
from use. This first coming of religion with all its pomp was but vain 
show; it left no mark whatever. 

Even under expeditionary circumstances and in the heart of savagery 
there must have been a certain dignity in this sacrifice of the mass by 
Mendana's men; the Spaniard is mannerly, the Church is ritual. The 
next attempt of religion to ameliorate the Marquesas is absurd. 

Two centuries and two years have passed when the ship Duff finds 
her way into the very bay where Mendana's chaplains had sung the 
mass and set the crosses. For all but the last fragment of these two 
oblivious centuries the knowledge of the Marquesas was kept to the 
islanders, no hardy shipman had cared to seek them out and none had 
chanced upon them in their happy seclusion until Cook restored them 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 131 

to geography in 1 774. There followed fresh discoveries of Ingraham in 
1 791 , Marchand in the same year, and Hergest in the year following. 

We have already seen the Duff with her freight of missionaries at 
Matavai in Tahiti requiting praise with prayer. Her commission went 
farther afield. A mission party was landed in Tongatabu ; two were to 
be settled in the Marquesas, and the choice had fallen upon Mr. Crook 
and upon Mr. Harris . They were representative of the motley character 
of that first modern apostolate to the nations; the former was but 21 
and is set down in the roster as "gentleman's servant and since tin- 
worker, " the latter had reached the age of 39 and had been a cooper. 
Than these three professions none could have been imagined less valu- 
able in the conditions of island economy. The younger man went 
ashore with alacrity, we can easily see in the somewhat solemn narrative 
his gaiety on finding himself on the beach, for we find him making 
friends with the chief of the bay, Tenae, and in this company scamper- 
ing over the hills and exploring the shaded valleys. But Harris was 
evidently afraid; he remained aboard the Duff until Captain Wilson 
practically forced him ashore to carry out the errand upon which he had 
come. When the first gray of morning made it possible to see the land 
the miserable cooper was found in bitter plight of distress. It was not 
easy to rescue him ; the sea was high and the surf upon the rocks pre- 
cluded a landing at the point, from which he would not stir ; he and his 
box were hauled through the breakers at the end of a heaving line. His 
tale was sad. Tenae and Crook had gone off on yet another excursion; 
Harris was left behind to take care of the queen. Early in the evening 
the question arose as to whether he were white all over and it was settled 
by what we may call laboratory methods. The gentle inquisition 
clearly scared the pious cooper, and his terror reached frenzy when the 
rollicking queen turned her maids of honor loose upon him. Seizing 
his box and his few possessions, he rushed forth into the night and sat 
upon the beach resolved to save his life and to preserve that which he 
held dearer. With mingled cowardice and piety he sat on his box 
through the night, bewailing his sad plight given over to the torment of 
these daughters of Belial. Toward morning the merry band of girls 
found him; he forsook his little all, and from a hiding-place in the rocks 
witnessed the glee with which they robbed him of his few poor goods. 
No considerations of duty could induce the wholly terrified man to set 
foot once more upon the all too hospitable shore. Crook remained, 
but his mission was fruitless; his hardships became so great as his 
novelty passed away from his savage hosts that a year later he was glad 
of the opportunity to make his escape. Thus ended the second attempt 
of the Church upon the Marquesas. 

The first attempt of the State upon these islands is one of the least- 
known chapters in our national history. It is well known that in the 
War of 1 81 2 Commodore Porter pushed the Essex around Cape Horn 



132 EASTER ISLAND. 

and harried the Pacific. It is equally well known that his career of vic- 
tory came to its end off Valparaiso, when he was forced into an unequal 
fight with H. B. M. Cherub and was obliged to strike his flag. Yet in 
the course of this dashing campaign he visited the Marquesas and per- 
formed an act of sovereignty for which the United States were long 
years removed from being ready. In the bay of Taiohae in the island of 
Nukahiva he hoisted the American flag and formally annexed the Mar- 
quesas to the United States — ^remote islands of a distant sea to a young 
republic which at that time had scarcely crossed the Alleghanies and 
whose statesmen had not even in dreams the idea of a country bounded 
by two oceans or of a new waterway to join these seas. This was done 
on October 19, 1813, a generation before the United States reached the 
Pacific Ocean, almost three generations before we found it necessary to 
acquire a chain of dependencies set like stepping-stones across that sea 
to a foothold almost on the foreshore of Asia. Possession of the Mar- 
quesas, at least temporary possession, was needed by Porter. He had 
pushed out into the Pacific with but one small ship ; his prizes created 
for him a squadron worthy of any commodore's broad pennant. He 
could easily have held the islands against any force which the British 
then could array against him. But he had the instinct of prevision. 
He did what the greater strategy of to-day would prescribe if it were 
now possible : he seized upon the point which best covers the mouth of 
the Panama Canal. It was not an empty form, the mere hoisting of a 
flag, the vain salvo of artillery. At the head of Taiohae, to which he 
gave the new name of Massachusetts Bay, he built a fort, Fort Madison, 
its walls pierced for 16 guns and four pieces mounted; he built Madison- 
ville with six suitable houses, a ropewalk, a bakery, and other fit shops ; 
he assigned to Nukahiva, in yet further admiring iteration of his loved 
President, the new designation of Madison Island, and for the dual 
archipelago he revived and extended the earlier designation of the Wash- 
ington Islands. At his coming he found war raging in desultory fury 
on Madison Island. That would never do in this newest America; 
peace must reign, even though it should entail the stiffest fighting, and 
Porter's dove had spurs. He found no mean antagonists; more than 
once the issue was, temporarily at least, in no little doubt, but at last all 
the fighters had been fought into submission. Porter's premature act 
received in Washington not so much recognition as might serve to dis- 
avow it ; the archives of the government contain not so much as a mem- 
orandum of the interesting event; we owe our acquaintance therewith 
solely to the commodore's own memoirs. When he sailed away from 
Massachusetts Bay Madison ville reverted to savagery; of Fort Madison 
nothing remains but the trace in the thick undergrowth on a slight bluff 
overlooking the bay; the closest search has failed to bring to light the 
buried bottle in which he placed a copy of his proclamation of annexa- 
tion together with certain coins of American money. In the collation 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 133 

of Bishop Dordillon's dictionary of the Marquesan (the worthy prelate 
had no English and therefore the neologism escaped him) we have won- 
dered if some one of these coins might not perchance have served as the 
basis upon which rests the word koata defined as "pi^ce de monnaie 
(i franc)."* 

If the attempt to introduce republican virtues to Nukahiva ("they 
have requested," says Commodore Porter in his proclamation, "to be 
admitted to the great American family whose republican laws have such 
analogy with their own") was but the breath upon the mirror for dura- 
tion, still more spectral is the royalty of Nukahiva's king. We know 
it only through a scrap of paper which in 1838 Captain Jacquinot found 
in a chief's possession when the corvettes I' Astrolabe and la Zelee came 
to anchor in Taiohae. Thus it read : 

Nous, Charles, baron de Thierry, chef souverain de la Nouvelle-Zflande, 
roi de I'ile Nouka-Hiva, certifions avec plaisir que Vavanouha, chef de Portua, 
est I'ami des Europdens, et qu'il s'est toujours conduit, k notre ^gard, avec 
d^cence et bienvaillance. En consequence de quel, nous le recommandons aux 
bons soins de tous les navigateurs, qui peuvent demeurer id en toute sdcurit^. 
Donn6 k Port-Charles (Anna-Maria), ile Nouka-Hiva, le 23 juillet 1835, 

Charles, baron de Thierry, 
Par le roi, 
Ed. Fergus, colonel, aide-de-camp. 

This Carolus Rex, primus atque ultimus, is a very ghost of a poor 
king. He appears in the history of the early and difficult colonization 
of New Zealand with his attempt at a French settlement in Akaroa ; in 
the narrative of the Wilkes expedition he is found as a center of refine- 
ment at the Bay of Islands ; in the story of the Bounty mutineers on Pit- 
cairn's Island he flashes for a moment in passage. But no research has 
yet added so much as a single line to the figure of the man who parades 
in the royal proclamation as colonel and aide-de-camp, Ed. Fergus. 

If the world's acquaintance with the Marquesas were to rest solely on 
these thin failures of Church and State, the world would know little 
indeed. But romance chanced to touch these green peaks; they live. 
When Herman Melville wrote "Typee" it failed as literature. It was 
not in accord with that fustian stuff which then was the literature of 
America; it violated all the stupid canons of a dull art. He had the eye 
to discern the life beneath the rattling palms; he felt the humanity of 
the savage lust of life and joy of death ; he then had the pen of accuracy. 
Once and again he wrote with unconscious art in sweet verity, "Typee, " 
and "Omoo" a second chapter of the same life, with deep breaths of 
pure air. These done he turned to literature, the literature of the 
second quarter of the last century, a death in Ufe; the antiquarian may 

•Amateurs of the jargon type will find no difficulty in penetrating these other entries in 
the same dictionary. 
tihu, s., ofr. 50. [dix sous.] 
verekuti, a., iris-bien. [very good.] 



134 BASTER ISI<AND. 

give them shelf room for their shadow of a name, yet it would puzzle 
even such an one to recall then: titles. But " Typee" is the history of 
the Marquesas, the geography of Nukahiva, the story of savage life 
before it had begun that change into new conditions which has proved 
fatal. Memory holds the picture of a tattered copy of the first edition 
of "Typee, " picked up on the Broom road in Tahiti at a d^bit for ten 
sous or some such trifling matter, dragged from a pile of undistinguished 
lumber. Its cover, for but one was left, still showed patches of the 
canary-colored glazed paper with which it must have made a fine show 
in booksellers' windows when it came fresh from the presses. It was 
riddled with thread holes, marks of the gnawing insect life of the Pacific 
which goes through literature far more consistently from cover to cover 
than mere humanreaders. A shabby little book, a frowsy beachcomber 
of a book fallen on its evil days, just the worth of perhaps tihu. But 
pocket companion of the arduous scramble to the knife edge of the 
mountain crest which captures the wet clouds over Taiohae, there it 
showed its worth, which had outlived the neglect of man and had with- 
stood the gnawing of the beetle. As in its pages, so before the eye lay 
the valley of the Typees and the valley of the Happars, or, since the 
restlessness of orthography has reached the uttermost sea, we are now 
to designate them as the valleys of Haapa and Taipi. What matters it? 
The same authority which establishes our new spelling shows the vanity 
of it all, "Haapa, now almost entirely extinct;" "Taipi, now almost 
depopulated." Soon the only Marquesans alive will be Mehivi and 
Kory-Kory and Marheyo, and Fayaway forever flitting in the fragrant 
avenues of the humid forest. 

It is depressing to write of these islands of Southeast Polynesia ; we 
may not escape the mortuary and the monumental ; the pen arm is for- 
ever condemned to wear the brassard. We can not finish the briefest 
sketch of Rapanui, of Mangareva, of the Paumotu, of Tahiti, of the 
Marquesas, without touching upon the obituary of each folk in its tiu-n. 
They die, placidly, uncomplainingly; they fade before the bright hght 
of the higher civilization which takes all from them and can give them 
nothing in return for the joy of living of which it has robbed them. I 
recall the saying of an aged Maori to Featherstone : "As the Maori rat 
dies before the Pakeha rat; as the Maori fly dies before the Pakeha fly, 
as the Maori grass dies before the Pakeha grass, so dies the Maori before 
the Pakeha. " It is a sense of personal loss, I have known the Poly- 
nesian so well, the lilt of his life has so much with which I am attuned in 
unison. In an earlier work I mentioned with reverent affection the 
Polynesian debt which I owe to Dana. It came to me to study the 
South Sea as the meet and proper end of my formal education. But to 
that call I might not have given heed had there not been the draft of 
earlier sentiment of attraction. On my desk, as I write the chapters of 
these studies of a most interesting language group, lies the fillip to my 
zeal, the mottled shell of a cowrie. It has been with me in the South 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 135 

Sea, coals to a Newcastle which needs no heat, for it is the commonest 
shell on the island beaches. But it has been with me all my life, a hun- 
dred years ago a great-grandfather brought it back with him, a shell 
from Owhyhee. That was all the story with which it came to me, just a 
name which now we spell othergate, a name to recall ; and in its cham- 
bered recesses at the ear the whisper of booming reefs breaking in marble 
fleece of foam and of the susurrus of the palm. Just a reminder that 
Polynesia from my beginning has called me with a voice I have never 
sought to gainsay. The personal digression may be pardoned if it but 
serve to set the accent on the regret with which are written these notes 
of the unrepining passage of a race as attractive as the butterflies and 
scarcely more thoughtful of the responsibilities of life. 

Had Bishop Dordillon but thought tobemore specificinhis researches 
the language of the Marquesas might properly be considered under the 
heads of two dialects. In a loose sense they are to be regarded as the 
dialects of the southeastern and northwestern groups which compose the 
archipelago. Phonetically the critical points are marked in the variant 
treatment of two palatals. Neither dialect retains in its purity the 
nasal palatal ng; each may elide it; but in general it undergoes hori- 
zontal mutation in the southeastern dialect into n and vertical in the 
northwestern into k. In the matter of the mute palatal k there is less 
distinctive quality; regarded broadly, we may say that the northwestern 
dialect inclines to retain it, that the southeastern tends to elide it under 
the influence which we have already found operative in Hawaii and 
Samoa. The notes of Monsignor Dordillon and of Mr. Christian upon 
the variety of k are to be disregarded ; each has fallen into the error 
of basing comparisons upon the employment of the k as mutation 
ng-product with the n similarly produced, which can, of course, have 
no bearing upon the treatment of the true Polynesian k. 

In the exhaustive collation of the vocabulary I have been led several 
times to the feeling that in the choice of vocables we might in the Mar- 
quesas, as elsewhere, find circumstantial evidence of variant migration 
streams. The proof has always escaped me because the dictionary 
omits the note of dialect distinction. This point, which would be of 
interest and probably of value, we are obliged to pass over, for it is now 
too late to hope to recover the dying speech. 

Bearing in mind this irrecoverable difference of two strongly marked 
dialects, we present the comparative table of the Marquesan alphabet 
set upon the Proto-Samoan base. 

a o, e, i, 
e e, a o o 

it u u 

I r, - 
ng «, fe, - n «, - m »n 

h A, - 
s A, /, - 

V V 

if.v.h 
k k,- tt,n, - p p 



136 



EASTER ISLAND. 



The vowel flexibility lies within the triangle of the neutral vowel; its 
occurrence is in unaccented syllables and it is most strongly marked in 
the mutation e-a, the other alterations being rare. In the consonant 
structure we find that all the palatals and all the Unguals are susceptible 
of extinction. We have already commented upon this as a dialectic 
criterion in the matter of the palatal ng and k. In the Hngual series 
the extinction of the liquid is all but universal ; its retention, in the form 
of r, seems to have no reference to dialect; in the printed vocabulary r 
appears as initial in but 37 entries and its occurrence in the medial posi- 
tion is indicated by no higher note of frequency; the prime character of 
the Marquesan phonetics is the loss of the liquid; it is that which sets it 
off distinctively from all the other languages of the Polynesian family. 
In the labial series we find the same fixed points as in the other lan- 
guages of Southeastern Polynesia, the same variable point, the f , and 
the variants there involve no new principles of phonetics. 

Table 21, 



Pau-Rn-Mgv-Ta-Mq 

Pau-Rn-Ta-Mq 

Pau-Rn-Mgv-Mq .... 

Pau-Rn-Mq 

Mgv-Rn-Ta-Mq 

Mgv-Rn-Mq 

Ta-Rn-Mq 

Total 

Pau-Mgv-Ta-Mq 

Pau-Ta-Mq 

Pau-Mgv-Mq 

Pau-Mq 

Mgv-Ta-Mq 

Mgv-Mq 

Ta-Mq 

Ta-Ha-Mq 

Total 

Grand total 



Southeast 
Polynesia. 



8 
I 

7 

2 

21 

3' 

'7 



87 



II 

32 

4 

18 

42 
207 

85 
23 



422 



509 



Poly- 
nesian. 



227 

14 

>5 

I 

89 
24 
10 



380 



40 

18 

8 

I 

73 
20 

34 



'94 



574 



Proto- 
Samoan. 



3' 



8 
10 

2 
'4 
34 
31 
30 



129 



160 



Tongafiti. 



40 

9 
6 

2 
16 
8 
o 



47 
29 

4 

7 

42 

32 

'7 



178 



259 



Total. 



284 

28 

29 

6 

■35 
69 
28 



579 



106 

89 

18 

40 

191 

290 

166 

23 



923 



1502 



Yet here we find a character which serves to create a class division 
within the province. The mutabiUty which is expressed by the formula 
ff,v,h is found in the Paumotu, Mangareva, and Tahiti. Before we 
set the Marquesas in this company, as might seem justifiable from the 
consonant scheme just presented, we are to note that f-/ characterizes 
the dialect of the southeastern Marquesas, f-h the northwest. The 
only language in which f-h holds exclusive place is Rapanui. 

In the foregoing chapters a considerable amount of the Marquesan 
material has been caught in the meshes of the identification of various 
afiiliates netted in the sedulous examination of the Paumotu, Manga- 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 137 

revan, and Tahiti. Preparatory to the continuance of our study of the 
Marquesan we shall carry that already ascertained material forward 
into the present chapter in Table 21 on page 136, in which we con- 
tinue to maintain the prime dichotomous division based upon the 
presence or absence of tJie Rapanui affiliation. 

From the tabulation of affiliates which has been drawn out in con- 
nection with the Rapanui dictionary we derive the following instances 
of affiUation of Rapanui and the Marquesas which have left no record 
elsewhere in Southeast Polynesia : 

Marquesas-Rapanui : 



2 


30 


53 


65 


67 


88 


123 


138 


156 


190 


207 


222 


252 


274 


7 


36 


57 


67 


77 


95 


124 


147 


177 


191 


210 


226 


256 


276 


8 


37 


59 


69 


78 


102 


125 


148 


178 


197 


211 


227 


265 


279 


II 


39 


60 


70 


84 


III 


133 


149 


187 


198 


214 


228 


270 


284 


12 


44 


62 


72 


85 


114 


135 


155 


188 


201 


220 


231 


271 


291 


20 


47 



























Very little of this material is identifiable in the rearward track of the 
migration. The Tongafiti migration has left no record; the Proto- 
Samoan appears in but the items 784, 791, 800. The general Poly- 
nesian is found in 350. 

Our next contribution is derived from that residual part of the Mar- 
quesas vocabulary which is not recognizable in Rapanui and which has 
escaped collation from the several bases of the other languages of the 
province, Paumotu, Mangareva, and Tahiti. Thus we are left with no 
more than the reference to the groups of earlier migration source and 
to the Hawaiian, as in the preceding chapter, where we found its inclu- 
sion of interest. As in that chapter, we designate the occurrence of 
Hawaiian affiliates by the employment of bold-face figiu-es. 

Marquesas-Hawaii : 

3052 3077 3096 3123 3144 3163 3193 3218 3239 3255 3269 3289 3325 3346 

3053 3083 3098 3124 3145 3164 3196 3221 3240 3256 3271 3302 3330 3348 

3054 3084 3104 3128 3146 3166 3198 3224 3243 3258 3273 3307 3332 3349 

3055 3085 3108 3131 3147 3170 3202 3227 3245 3262 3278 3309 3333 3351 

3056 3088 3112 3132 3148 3171 3203 3229 3248 3263 3279 3316 3334 3353 

3062 3089 3113 3134 3150 3173 3205 3233 3249 3265 3282 3319 3336 3354 

3064 3091 3116 3136 3156 3177 3207 3235 3250 3266 3283 3322 3340 3355 

3066 3092 3118 3138 3157 3184 3211 3236 3253 3267 3286 3323 3344 3358 

3068 3093 3119 3139 3159 3186 3214 3237 3254 3268 3287 3324 3345 3359 

3069 3094 3121 3141 3161 3189 3216 
Polynesian-Marquesas : 

3065 3102 3I20 3122 3187 3199 3228 3234 3242 3246 3297 3304 
Proto-Samoan-Marquesas : 

3057 3075 3095 3106 3129 3149 3185 3204 3222 3247 3281 3303 3318 3343 

3060 3076 3097 3107 3130 3151 3188 3208 3223 3252 3284 3305 3328 3347 

3063 3078 3099 3109 3133 3153 3190 3209 3225 3257 3288 3306 3329 3350 

3067 3081 3100 3115 3135 3154 3191 3213 3231 3261 3292 3312 3331 3353 

3072 3082 3101 3117 3137 315s 3192 3217 3232 3276 3296 3313 3335 3356 

3073 3086 3103 3126 3142 3168 3197 3219 3244 3280 3298 3315 3338 3357 

3074 3087 3105 3127 3143 3178 3201 3220 
Tongafiti-Marquesas : 

3058 3080 3125 3162 3174 3181 3200 3226 3259 3274 3291 3300 33143327 

3059 3090 3140 3165 3175 3182 3206 3230 3260 327s 3293 3301 33173337 

3061 3HO 3152 3167 3176 3183 3210 3238 3264 3277 3294 3308 33203339 

3070 3HI 3158 3169 3179 3194 3212 3241 3270 328s 3295 3310 33213341 

3071 3114 3160 3172 3180 3195 3215 3251 3272 3290 3299 3311 33263342 
3079 



138 



EASTER ISLAND. 



The sum of all these partial results is set forth in the following table, 
still retaining the primal division on the Rapanui base and bringing 
forward the corresponding sums from Table 14 on page 113: 

Table 22. 







Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Total. 


Mq-Rn 




72 
87 


380 


3 

3' 



81 


76 
579 


Pau-Rn-Mgv-Ta-Mq . . . 




Total 






'59 


381 


34 


81 


655 


Mq 








12 



69 
23 


7' 



ij6 


Mq-Ha 


■33 


Total 


133 





12 


92 


71 


308 


Pau-Mgv-Ta-Mq 




422 


'94 


129 


178 


923 


Grand total 




581 


587 


255 


330 


1886 







In Bishop Dordillon's dictionary we count 12,000 entries. This is 
gross exaggeration. It has already been noted that there are two dia- 
lects ; the dictionary is clearly a loose compaction of both. It is quite 
safe to say that practically there is duplication of every item, that its 
form in one dialect and its form in the other dialect double the entries. 
It is inconceivable that the Marquesans possess twice the speech equip- 
ment which the research of careful investigators for more than a century 
has been able to discover for Tahiti. The fact that the count of the 
Marquesas speech is almost exactly double that of Tahiti is evidential 
that the explanation of the discrepancy lies in the agglomeration of two 
dialects, each of about the same figture as that of Tahiti. Since the 

Table 23. 





Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


No. 


P. ct. 


P. ct. 


P. ct. 


P. ct. 


Southeast Polynesia 

Polynesian 


581 
587 
255 
330 


31 
31 

'3 

18 


38 
3' 
ID 
20 


43 
57 

6 

21 


35 

35 

5 

25 


Proto-Samoan 


Tongafiti 





author's designation of dialectic diversity is by no means consistently 
or completely carried out in that dictionary, it is impossible to collate 
the text for the enumeration of each dialect. We shall, however, not 
go very far astray in assuming for the base figure in the computations 
upon which we are next to engage that which we employed in Tahiti, or 
the round number of 6,000. 

We have developed in the Marquesan the identification of 1,886 affili- 
ates, 31 per cent of the language; with this we compare identification in 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 



139 



the Paumotu amounting to 52 per cent, 26 per cent of Mangareva, 33 
per cent of Tahiti. The occurrence of these identifications in com- 
parison of the four languages is shown in Table 23. 

In these figures we have neglected the division upon the Rapanui base. 
This point we shall next examine. We find that the Marquesan has 655 
words in common with Rapanui, 34 per cent of the former, just twice 
as much, 68 per cent of the latter, these ratings resting on identifiable 
speech figures. 

We now pass to the subdivision of the common element of Marquesan 
in the other languages of the province. The first table of this series sets 
forth the sums and percentages for all Southeast Polynesia. 

Table 24. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


Total. 


No. 


p. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 


Paumotu 


347 
579 
475 


60 
82 


253 
605 
923 


59 


600 
I 122 
1027 


40 


Mangareva 

Tahiti 





Herein we see that the Rapanui element of the Marquesan lacks little 
of community with the same element in Mangareva and that it is nearly 
as close to Tahiti, but from the Paumotu it is separated by a consider- 
able interval. At this point of the inquiry into Tahiti we found that its 
Rapanui element associated almost equally with the Marquesas and 
Mangareva, 80 and 78 per cent respectively, and that its association 
with the Paumotu was 60 per cent, the figure which we have now devel- 
oped for the Marquesas. From earUer chapters we continue the note 
that the Rapanui element of Mangareva was more closely associated 
with the Paumotu (53 per cent), and in the Paumotu it associated most 
largely with the Marquesan (86 per cent) . The extra- Rapanui element 
of the Marquesan shows the ^ 

same points of affiliation, clos- 
est with the Mangarevan, next 
with Tahiti by practically the 
same interval as in the Rapanui 
element, but far more widely 
removed from the Paumotu. 
We have seen that this element 
in Tahiti associates most largely 
with the Paumotu (44 per cent) ; in Mangareva there is a 45 per cent 
association with the Marquesas, and in the Paumotu the association 
is with Tahiti to the very considerable extent of 84 per cent. 

Table 25 shows the identifications which do not pass beyond South- 
east Polynesia. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Paumotu 

Mangareva . . . 
Tahiti 


18 
87 

47 


20 

77 
54 


65 
293 

193 


15 
69 
46 



140 



KASTBR ISLAND. 



In each element of this material the Marquesan shows the closest 
association with Mangareva and the position of the Paumotu is rela- 
tively remote. 

As before, we set the three rearward elements of migration source in 

Table 26. 

Tabls 26. 





Rapanui affiliates. 


Extra-Rapanui. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


P. ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 




257 
355 
340 


69 

93 

89 


'4 
25 
23 


50 
80 
74 


57 
70 
65 


70 
86 
80 


67 
141 
165 


11 
80 


34 
75 
82 


15 
34 
37 


87 
125 

135 


35 
50 
54 


Mangareva 

Tahiti 





In our study of the Tahiti material we took occasion to note at this 
stage the identification of 105 items exclusively with Hawaii, and of 23 
identifications shared with the Marquesas. In the collation of the 
Marquesas we find, additional to the 23 items brought over from Tahiti, 
the exclusive identification of 133 items in Hawaii and 23 others for 
which we are able to identify a Proto-Samoan soiu-ce. It would carry 
us beyond the bounds of this province of Southeast Polynesia if we 
were to venture here upon any discussion of this phenomenon. That 
may properly be left to the workers in Hawaii. In the "Polynesian 
Wanderings" the dissection of purely Proto-Samoan material showed 
forth the trace of a migration of that earlier stock due north from Nuclear 
Polynesia with no evidence of an intermediate halt. The items here 
assembled show that a migration of indeterminate source passed from 
Tahiti to Hawaii direct, from Tahiti to Hawaii by way of the Marquesas, 
from the Marquesas to Hawaii, and in all this record of migration there 
is clear evidence that at least one of the squadrons on the Marquesas 
road to Hawaii was Proto-Samoan. 

The relations of the identifications 
of earlier source to the mass of Mar- 
quesas identifications are presented in 
Table 27. 

Comparison with Table 20 in the 
chapter on Tahiti shows that the 
same principles are operative in the 
Marquesas also. In the Rapanui 
element we find the same high per- 
centage appertaining to that indiscriminate source which we can class 
in no other fashion than as general Polynesian, the low percentages of 
the two distinctive migrations; in each language the Tongafiti shows 



Table 27. 





Rapanui 
aflUiates. 


Extra- 
Rapanui. 


Polynesian 

Proto-Samoan . . 
Tongafiti 


P. cl. 
58 

5 
12 


P.ct. 
■ 6 
i8 
20 


75 


54 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 



141 



a trifle more of contributive activity, but so small are the figures 
that this amounts to Uttle in the mass. In the element which we 
can not connect with Rapanui we find in the two languages the some- 
what considerable enhancement of the two distinctive migration 
sources at the expense of the general Polynesian, and in the Mar- 
quesas the Proto-Samoan runs a little higher, the Tongafiti a little 
lower than in Tahiti. 



3052. a with numerals (o tahi, one). Ha.: 
akahi, id. 

3053. aa to be indisposed because of indi- 
gestion. Ha. : oTia, to suffer through 
illness. 

3054. aatohe said of a person who covers 
himself with odors. Ha. : ala, spicy, 
perfumed, aromatic. 

3055. aava a fish. Ha.: aawa, id. 

3056. aie to borrow. Ha. : ate, to owe. 

3057. aiu old, ancient. Sa.:a/wM, long ago; 
Iwu, prematurely aged. Ha. : aliuliu, 
a long time; liuKu, for a long time. 

3058. akatea a bush. Ma.: akalea, a tree. 

3059. akau the nineteenth day of the moon. 

Ma.: rakaunui, the sixteenth day of 
the moon; rakaumatohi, the seven- 
teenth day. 

3060. amona a burden carried on the 
shoulder. Sa. : amoga, id. 

3061. amumu a low, murmuring sound. 
Ma. : hamumu, to mutter, to mumble. 

3062. anahu charcoal, soot. Ha.: lanahu, 
charcoal. 

3063. anu liquor amnii. Sa. : lanu, id. 

3064. ao respiration, breath. Ha.: aho, 
breath. 

3065. ao to collect with hand or net. Sa. : 
ao, to gather. Ma.: ao, to collect. 
Ta.: aoaia, to collect food and other 
things with care. 

3066. aoa a fish. Ha. : aoa, id. 

3067. aoina to pass a sleepless night. Sa. : 
aoina, to lie awake until dawn. 

3068. apana to patch. Ha. : apana, a frag- 
ment, a patch. 

3069. ato to cut with the nails. Ha. : ako, 
to cut as with scissors. 

3070. atua the fourteenth day of the moon. 
Ma.: atua, id. 

3071. atutahi the name of a star. Ma.: 
atutahi, Canopus. 

3072. auau to bathe. Sa. : 'au'au, id. Ha.: 
auau, id. 

3073. auau table cloth. Sa.: /om/om, coco- 
nut leaf plaited for food service. 

3074. auoa a long net of leaves for fishing. 
Sa. : lauloa, id. 

3075. ava a small fish of sweet water. Sa. : 

'ava'ava, a small fish. Ha.: awa, a 
fish. 

3076. aviti liar, to exaggerate. Sa.: 'aviti, 
to bring a false report, to lie. 

3077. ea to be satisfied. Ha.: lea, to be 
pleased, to feel comfortable. 



3078. eeva weak, feeble. Sa. : Vcto, to suf- 
fer from illness, from weakness, from 
hunger. 

3079. ehu to fall in bits. Ma.: rehu, to 
split off in chips. 

3080. ehua, ehuD a large constellation. 
Ma. : rehua, a star or planet, probably 
Jupiter. 

3081. ei (i ma ei) honest, no thief. Sa.: cf. 
lelei, good. 

3082. eki a shrub. Sa. : le'ile'i, a tree. 

3083. fafaua a stingray. Ha.: hahalua, a 
fish tabu to women under pain of 
death. 

3084. fainu, hainu to give to drink. Ha.: 
hainu, id. 

3085. feci eversion of the lids, to open the 
eye with the finger in order to express 
the falsity of what has been said. Ha. : 
helei, to say no by a signal of pulling 
down one corner of the eye slyly. 

3086. feeo, heeo coral. Sa. : feofeo, id. 

3087. fena, hena tight closed, glued. Sa.: 
fenafena, hard, tough. 

3088. fio to take flight. Ha. : hio, to wander., 

3089. haahaha to boast, to brag, to vaimt. 
Ha. : hoohaha, to strut, to be proud. 

3090. haate, hakate to push forward, to 
seek to rise. Ma. : tete, to exert one- 
self, strenuous. 

3091. hae to bark furiously. Ha.: hae, to 
bark. 

3092. hahea grand, important. Ha..: haheo, 
proud, haughty, to put on airs. 

3093. haitara, haitana, haitaa sick abed. 
Ha. : haikala, a fatal disease. 

3094. hanamana miracle, a wonder. Ha. : 
hanamana, id. 

309s . hano to desire, to seek to. Sa. : sano, 
to desire, to long for. 

3096. haore, haoe, ace foreigner, non- 
Polynesian. Ha.: haole, id. 

3097. hatea large, spacious, vast. Sa. 
ateatea, id. Ha.: akea, id. 

3098. hautete the shivering of fever. Ha. 
haukeke, to shiver with cold. 

3099. hee oto to cut. Sa.: sele, id. Ha. 
helehele, id. 

3100. heikai, feikai breadfruit cooked with 
coconut milk. Sa. : fai'ai, id. 

3101. heu hua to dance nude. Sa. : tele- 
fiia, naked. 

3102. hiamoe to sleep. Sa. : jiawoe, drowsy, 
sleepy. Ma. : hiamoe, id. 



142 



EASTER ISLAND. 



3103. 
3104. 

3105. 
3106. 
3107. 

3108. 
3109. 

3110. 

3III- 
3II2- 

3113- 
3114- 

3115. 
3116. 
3117- 
3II8. 

3119. 
3120. 

3121. 
3122. 



3123- 

3124. 
3125. 

3126. 

3127. 

3128. 
3129. 

3130. 

3131- 

3132. 
3133- 



hiapo young banyan, its bast and 
cloth. Sa.: «a^o, bast cloth. 
hinihini mumbling. Ha.: hinihini, 
whispering. 

hitihiti a kind of song. Sa. : fiti, id. 
hivihivi thin, lean. Sa. : iviivia, id. 
ho to rub with the hand, to massage. 
To. : fofo, to rub the hands down the 
belly. 

hoata to be clear, bright. Ha. : hoaka, 
brightness, shining. 
hope moa a hair ornament for the 
girdle. Sa. : sope, a lock of hair left 
longer than the rest. 
hopu to embrace, to clasp about the 
body. Ma. : hopu, to catch, to seize. 
houua to lash two canoes together. 
Ma. : hou, to fasten together. 
hukl small sticks which close up the 
ridge of a house. Ha. : hui, the small 
uniting sticks in a thatched house. 
humu to attach, to tie. Ha. : humu, 
to fasten together by sewing. 
huna the eleventh day of the moon. 
Ma.: huna, the tenth day. Ha.: 
ohuna, the eleventh day. i 
huri resemblance. Sa. : fojiga, to 
resemble. ' 

huru to roast on hot stones. Ha. : ulu, 
name of an oven. 

huru to elbow, to push. To.: huru, 
to push. 

hakaieie proud, pompous, haughty. 
Ha.: hooieie, foppish, proud, vain- 
glorious. 

hakaii a row of things. Ha.: it, a 
collection of small things. 
iki, iini to pour, to spill. Sa. : ligi, 
liligi, id. Ma.: ringi, riringi, id. 
Ta. : ninii, id. Pau. : ririgi, id. 
iko to be on good terms. Ha. : lio, to 
have great affection for. 
ito coconut leaf unexpanded. Ta. : 
litoUto, soft, tender, unripe. Ma.: 
rito, a leaf bud. Ta. : rito, to bud. 
Mgv. : rito, transparent, thin, said of 
leaves just unfolding. 
iuiua that which it makes one dizzy 
to see. Ha. : liua, vertigo. 
ka a bird. Ha. : a, a sea bird. 
kaapaapa brilliant, shining. Ma.: 
karapa, to flash. 

kahua to begin (of a chant, of a 
prayer). Sa. : o/mo, to begin. 
kaiheehee to go from place to place 
to enjoy feasts. Sa. : 'aisee, to beg 
food at feasts. 

kaihue thief. Ha.: ai^Me, to steal. 
kaika a meal, feast. Sa. : 'aiga, meal. 
Ha.: aina, id. 

kaioto a sort of hemorrhage, piles. 
Sa. : 'ailoto, a cancerous ulcer. 
kaitu to perfume oneself during a 
tabu period when it was forbidden. 
Ha.: aiku, to break a tabu. 
kaka sack, pocket. Ha. : aa, pocket, 
bag. 
kaka a fish. Sa.:'a'o, id. Ha.: aa, id. 



3134. kaka the husk. Ha.: oa, outer husk 
of the coconut, hulls. 

3135. kakaa o te haoe a kind of pyrosis. 
Sa.: 'a'ala, to smart, to sting. Ha.: 
aala, a scrofulous sore. 

3136. kakauha decrepit through age. Ha.: 
aaua, epithet applied to a woman as 
she begins to advance in age. 

3137. kakava burnt. Sa. : Voua, very hot. 

3138. kakei long strands of cord with which 
a net is closed. Ha. : aei, a medium- 
sized rope, a net used in catching 
opelu and maomao. 

3139. kako a bird. Ha.: ao, id. 

3140. kapua to wave a torch that it may 
burst into a blaze. Ma.: kapura, 
fire. 

3141. karakara a bird. Ha.: alala, id. 

3142. kato a bag, sack. Sa.: Wo, id. The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 255. 

3143. kaviti a liar. Sa. : 'aviti, a liar, a 
great story-teller. Cf. 3076. 

3144. keetu a red tufa. Ha. : e2e^«, a stone. 

3145. keheu wing of a fowl. Ha.: eheu, id. 
Cf. 3254- 

3146. kehukehu twilight. Ha.: ehuehu, 
darkness arising from dust, fog, or 
vapor. The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 313. 

3147. kena burning, very hot. Ha.: ena, 
red-hot, to burn as a fire. 

3148. ketaha, etaha a fern. Ha. : ekaha, id. 

3149. ketuketu to snuff a candle. Sa.: 
eueu, id. 

3150. keu mischievous, naughty. Ha.: eu, 
disobedient, mischievous. 

3 15 1. ki whistling. Sa.: 'i, to emit a sharp 
sound. 

3152. ki superlative sign, very. Ma.: ki, 
very. 

3153. kii sound. Sa.: 'Hi, to blow a 
trumpet. 

3154. kiki a leguminous plant. Sa.: 'i'i, a 
small plant. 

3155. kikomata the eye. Sa. : 't'omato, the 
eyeball. 

3156. kio said of the women and children 
who run away to the mountain shel- 
ters in time of war. Ha.: kio, to 
flee, to hasten away in fear. 

3157. ko the right or left side of a valley. 
Ha. : 0, a place, but indefinitely. 

3158. koamaacrab. Ma. : /feorama, a shell- 
fish. 

3159. kofaa, kohaa a fish. Ha.: ohaa, id. 

3160. koha a scar, a wound. Ma.: koha, 
a scar. 

3161. kohai a tree. Ha.: ohai, a flowering 
shrub. 

3162. koii withered, sundried. Ma. :Jfeon>t, 
abortive fruit. 

3163. koina enjoyment. Ha. : oWno, to play. 

3164. kokau a fish. Ha.: oaM, id. 

3165. koki song of the ? nightingale. Ma.: 
koki, to sing in the early morning. 

3166. komata a fish. Ha.: omaka, id. 

3167. kotnoe tattooing at the knee. Ma.: 
komore, an ornament for the ankle. 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 



143 



3168. kona drunk. Sa.: 'ona, id. Ha.: 
ona, id. 

3169. konohi mata white of the eye. Ma.: 
konohi, the eye. 

3170. konu fat, gross. Ha.: onu, to swell, 
to enlarge. 

3 171. kopeu a fish. Ha.: opelu, id. 

3172. kopiko going zigzag. To.: opiopio, 
rovingly. Ma.: kopiko, to go alter- 
nately in opposite directions. 

3173. kopio, opio unripe, not fully devel- 
oped. Ha.: opio, young, immature, 
imripe. 

3174. kopipi stunted, shriveled, wrinkled. 
Ma.: kopipi, flaccid, withered. 

3175. koriri stunted, dried up. yia..: koriri, 
abortive, stunted. 

3176. koro a ring. Ma.: koro, a noose, 
loop, ring. The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, page 220. 

3177. kotaa to shiver with cold. Ha.: 
okakala, a chill, shivering. 

3178. kotai, otai a kind of food. Sa. : 
'otai, dracaena root cooked in coconut 
water. But observe To. : otai, a prep- 
aration of food. 

3179. kotava a small shellfish. Ma.: ko- 
tawatawa, id. 

3180. koukou a bird. Ma.: koukou,\A. 

3181. kuai the sea eel. Ma.: Awai, a fish. 

3182. kuku to smooth, to plane. Ma.: 
kuku, to rub over a rough surface, to 
scrape. 

3183. kuvai wet, full of water. Ma.: 
kuwaiwai, wet. 

3184. ma by, through. Ha.: ma, id. 

3185. maava a fish. Sa. : malava, id. 

3186. mahae a fish. Ha.: mahae, id. 

3187. mahea expanded, in bloom. Sa. : 
mafela, orificium vaginae apertum. 
Ma.: mawhera, open. 

3188. mahimahi a great fish. Sa.: masi- 
ntasi, a dolphin. Ha. : mahimahi, id. 

3189. makoa pale. Ha.: maoha, whitish, 
grayish. 

3190. makomako a fish. Sa. : ma'oma'o, 
id. Ha.: maomao, id. 

3191. maku to remain, to dwell. Sa.: mau, 
to dwell. Ha.: mau, to continue in 
the same place. 

3192. mamo a fish. Sa, : mamo, id. Ha.: 
mamo, id. 

3193. mamua before, former, of old. Ha.: 
mamua, id. 

3194. manene a cheat. Ma.: manene, a 
stranger, an alien. 

3195. maoi a banana. Ha.: maoli, id. 
Ma. : maori, a sweet-potato variety. 

3196. matai the thread which snoods the 
bait to the hook or the hook to the 
line. Ha. : makali, to bait a hook. 

3197. matohi to divide poi with the hand. 
Sa.: matoft, to be divided into quar- 
ters. 

3198. matue, matuke brown, of dark com- 
plexion. Ha.: makue, brown, any 
dark color. 



nene. 

Ha.: 

Ma.: 
sneak 



gigi, to 



3199. matuku, matuu a sea bird of heavy 
flight. Sa.: matu'u, a crane. Ma.: 
matuku, the blue heron. 

3200. moehu exiled, banished, prisoner of 
war. Ma. : morehu, a survivor. 

3201. mohe a crab. Sa.: mosi, a young 
crayfish. 

3202. mooa careless, fatigued, indifferent. 
Ha.: moloa, listless, lazy, idle. 

3203. motioho a clever thief, an arrant 
knave. Ha. : mokio, to steal. 

3204. mu a fish. Sa. : mu, id. 

3205. naie a fish. Ha.: naia, a blackfish, 
porpoise. 

3206. naku to scratch. Ma. : naku, id. 

3207. naninani to strut, to show off. Ha.: 
naninani, to enjoy the honors of a 
chief. 

3208. naunau soft, flexible. Sa. : gaugau, id. 

3209. nehunehu a fish. Sa. : nefu, id. 
Ha.: nehu, id. 

3210. nene lasciviousness. Ma. 
orgasm. 

32 1 1. neveneve swollen, bloated. 
newenewe, plump. 

3212. nihi to hide, to steal away. 
nihi, to move stealthily, to 
away. 

3213. nini to be attached to. Sa. 
be fond of. 

3214. noa a game of guessing in which hand 
an object is held. Ha.: noa, the 
stone held in this game. 

3215. noke a sea eel; nokenoke water- 
worms. Ma. : noke, a worm. 

3216. noni a shrub. Ha.: noni, id. 

3217. nono a small diurnal mosquito, flea. 
Sa. : nono, a white ant. 

3218. nono red. Ha.: nono, red. 

3219. nuheke a fish. Sa. : gufe'e, a squid. 
Both Bishop Dordillon and P6re 
Violette employ poisson in their defi- 
nitions; the identification holds good 
despite their ignorance of systematic 
biology. 

3220. oa to end (of war). Sa.: ola, id. 

3221. oama, kokama a fish, a crab. Ha.: 
oama, a fish. 

3222. oata a large ant. Sa.: loata, id. 

3223. oeoe lascivious fondlings. Sa.: ole, 
coitus. 

3224. oeoe to reproach, to reprove. Ha.: 
ole, to rebuke. 

3225. ohoau a canoe shed. Sa. : afolau, a 
type of house without center posts. 

3226. ohoee to awake with a start. Ma.: 
ohorere, to start suddenly. 

3227. ohohina gray hair. Ha. : ohohina, id. 

3228. ohoia, ohoika to start up, to tremble 
with fear. Sa. : oho, to be astonished. 
Ma.: oho, to start from fear or sur- 
prise. 

3229. ohure to cut the hair. Ha.: ohule, 
bald. 

3230. oi to stir, bestir. Ma. : oi, to shudder, 
to shake. 

3231. oca a fish. Sa.: loloa, id. 



144 



EASTER ISI^AND. 



3232. ou-amo a carrying pole, yoke. Proto- 
Samoan: kau, a tree. 

3233. ouou a bird. Ha.: ouou, id. 

3234. pa a hook in bonito fishing. Sa. : pa, 
a pearlshell fishhook. Ma.: pa, a 
fishhook. 

3235. pahikahika to stagger under a heavy 
burden. Ha.: pahiahia, to slip, to 
stumble. 

3236. paiuma to amuse oneself by striking 
the tireast in cadence. Ha.: pai- 
umauma, id. 

3237. paoa a seine. Ha.: ^0/00, id. 

3238. paopao to rap at the door. Ma.: 
pao, to strike with an instrument, as a 
hammer. 

3239. papai to box the ears, to slap. Ha.: 
papai, to smite gently. 

3240. papakaina dinner table. Ha.: papa- 
aina, id. 

3241. papaki to slap. Ma.: paki, id. Cf. 

3239. 

3242. pata small pimples. Sa. : ^ato, pimply. 

Ma.: pata, id. 

3243. pataka to peel wood, to bark a tree. 
Ha.: pakaa, to peel off, to strip off 
the .skin from a vegetable. 

3244. pate a small box. Sa. : pate, a small 
wooden drum. 

3245. patihitihi a fish. Ha.: pakii, id. 

3246. pati-ke to clap the hands in singing. 
Sa.: pati, to clap the hands. Ma.: 
pati, to pat fondly. 

3247. patu hakiuka bloating of the body. 
Sa. : patu, a fatty tumor. 

3248. patuitui a fish. Ha.: pakuikui, id. 

3249. pautu to beat. Ha. : paltiku, id. 

3250. pavai a dam, sluice. Ha.: pawai, a 
watering trough. 

3251. paveavea hot, burning. Ma..: pawera, 
hot, fever. 

3252. peau a wave. Sa.; peau, id. 

3253. peee swollen, distended belly. Ha.: 
pele, fat, to have a large belly. 

3254. peheu, peehu wing. Ha..: peheu id. 

Cf. 3145- 

3255. pekahi to make signs with the hand, 
to blow the fire with a fan. Ha.: 
peahi, id. 

3256. pepepepe low, flat. Ha. : pepepe, id. 

3257. pihonohono to exhale the odor of 
urine. To.: bihogo, stench. 

3258. pikao to envelop, to fold up. Ha.: 
piao, to curl up, to fold up. 

3259. pinai precipice, a steep place. Ma. : 
pinahi, the gentle slope of a hill. 

3260. pioi to roll. Ma. : pirori, to roll along. 

3261. pipi a tree. Sa. : pipi, id. 

3262. pivaivai moist, full of water. Ha.: 
pipiwai, a place where water oozes 
out. 

3263. poea toothless. Ha. : ^o/ea, to sink in 
as cheeks without teeth. 

3264. poeei collar of the small teeth of the 
porpoise. Ma.: poreri-nuku, one of 
the stars fastened by Tane upon the 
breast of his father Rangi to make 
him look beautiful. 



3265. 

3266. 

3267. 

3268. 

3269. 

3270. 

3271. 
3272. 

3273. 

3274- 

3275. 

3276. 
3277- 

3278. 
3279- 
3280. 

3281. 
3282. 
3283. 
3284. 

3285. 
3286. 

3287. 

3288. 
3289. 

3290- 
3291. 

3292. 

3293- 
3291- 



3295. 
3296- 



3297- 
3298. 
3299. 



poekaka to be polished, smooth. Ha. : 
polea, smooth. 

pohoe, pohore excoriated, bruised. 
Ha. : pohole, to bruise, to peel off. 
pohu to end, to finish, to cease. Ha. : 
pohu, to be calm, to lull as the wind. 
pohutu a ball, a small parcel. Ha. : 
pohuku, anything smooth and round. 
pol people, family, collective sign. 
Ha. : poe, a number of persons. 
poipoi rotmd, globular. Ma. : poi, a 
ball. 

pokaa a tree. Ha. : poala, id. 
ponininini to sparkle. Ma.: ponini, 
to glow, to diffuse a red light. 
poniti a climbing plant. Ha. : poniu, 
a low creeping plant. 
poo a roimded bone used as an orna- 
ment. Ma. : poro, anything round. 
pooivi-tua the spine. Ma. : pokohiwi, 
the shoulder. Mgv. : pakuhivi, id. 
poto a crab. Sa. : poto, id. 
pu source, origin. Ma.: pu, root, 
origin, foundation. 
pufii a scar. Ha. : puhili, id. 
puhi to smoke tobacco. Ha. : puhi, id. 
pukapuka a tree. Sa..: pu'apu' a, id. 
Ha.: pua, id. 

punake a bird. Sa. : puna'e, id. 
purupuru cotton. Ha. : pulu, id. 
pute a tree. Ha.: puke-awe, id. 
puvea a steam bath. Ma.: puviera, 
warm. 

taa a bird. Ma. : torn, id. 
taaau to cry, to call. Ha.: kala- 
lau, id. 

taeva to hang in the air. Ha. ; halewa, 
to float in the air. 
tahii a shrub. Sa.: lafili, a weed, 
tahuahi the servant in charge of the 
fire. Ha. : kahuahi, id. 
takapu a girdle. Ma.: takapu, the 
belly. 

take the bottom, source, origin. Ma. : 
take, origin, foimdation, commence- 
ment. 

takee to empty, to lower. Fu. : takele- 
kele, small residue of fluid left in a 
jug. Ha. : kaele, to be partially filled. 
taku slow, of a canoe. Ma.: taku, 
slow, deliberate. 

tamaka a. girdle, a strap. Ma.: 
tamaka, a round cord plaited with fine 
strands. 

tamue a fish. Ma. : tamure, id. 
tanavai salvo on the heights in honor 
of those who have died in battle. 
Sa.: tagavai, a distinctive mark of 
troops in battle. 

tanifa, taniha a large fish. Sa.: 
tanifa, a large shark. Ma. : taniwha, 
a water monster. 

tapaau coconut leaf plaited to serve 
as a mat. Sa.: tapa'au, a coarse 
coconut leaf mat. 

tapatai a dweller on the strand. 
Ma.: tapatai, beach. 



THE MARQUESAS IN THE FAIRWAY TO HAWAII. 



145 



3300. 
3301. 
3302- 
3303. 

3304. 
3305- 

3306. 

3307. 
3308. 
3309. 

3310. 

33II. 

3312. 
3313 



3314- 
3315- 
3316. 
3317- 

3318. 

3319- 
3320. 

3321. 

3322. 

3323. 



3324. 
332s. 
3326. 

3327- 
3328. 



tapeka, tapea to cross the arms. 
Rarotonga: to^efea, to fold the hands. 
tapuke, tapue to heap up. Ma.: 
lapuke, id. 

tarepa trader, merchant. Ha.: ka- 
lepa, to peddle. 

tatau to read, to recite. Sa. : tau, id. 
Ha.: kail, to rehearse in the hearing 
of another that he may learn. 
tauhi to cover. Sa.: taufi, to cover 
with leaves. 

tauua two fruits on one stem, in pairs. 
Sa. : taulua, id. Ha. : kaulua, to put 
two together. 

tavatava a fish. Sa. : tavatava, id. 
Ha.: kawakawa, id. 
tekoteko white. Ha. : keo, id. 
tete a bird. Ma. : tete, id. 
tiaha drinking cup. Ha.: kiaha, a 
cup, mug. 

tihekoa a bird. Ma.: tiheora, id. 
tikao to dig out, to disembowel. Ma. : 
tikaro, to dig out of a hole. 
tike a crab. Sa. : ti'e, id. 
tikoata, tioata clear, limpid, white. 
Sa. : tioata, glass. Nine: tioata, id. 
To.: jioata, id. The anomalous as- 
sumption of the k in the northwestern 
Marquesas dialect is susceptible of 
explanation. If the folk compre- 
hended that the southeastern dialect 
dropped a proper k they might, on 
deriving tioata from the southeast, 
ignorantly insert the k on a mistaken 
idea of uniformity. 
tikoki very high. Ma. : tikoke, high, 
lifted up. 

tic to sprout scions. Sa. : tilo, the 
innermost sprout of the taro. 
tioa to throw any object at another. 
Ha. : kiolaola, to throw stones. 
tiou long pole for picking breadfruit. 
Ma. : tirou, to take up with a fork or 
stick. 

tiporo, tipono lemon, bitter orange. 
Sa. : tipolo, the lemon. 
titi a bird. Ha.: kiki, id. 
tea male. Ma. : tod, id. Mangareva: 
toa, female; a sense-invert. 
tohe obstinate, persistent. Ma. : tohe, 
to persist, urgent. 

toitoi true, right, sincere. Ha.: koi- 
koi, substantial, honorable. 
tokaa roiled, turbid. Ha.: koana, 
clear, as water when the dirt has 
settled. Sa. : to' a, to settle. 
toko to prop, to brace. Ha.: koo, id. 
toku moist, damp. Ha.: kou, id. 
toohenua a plant. Ma. : torowhenua, 
a sweet potato. 
torea a bird. Ma. : torea, id. 
touana a sieve of fibers. Sa. : tauaga, 
a strainer. 



3329. toueve a small parcel of leaves for 
covering what one cooks in an oven. 
Sa. : tauveve, a cook. Ha. : kauwewe, 
the covering of an oven. 

3330. touha dropping of the rectum. Ha. : 
kauha, the rectum. 

3331. toui riches, property. Sa. : taut, 
wages, recompense. 

3332. toveo the end of the loin cloth which 
hangs behind. Ha.: kowelo, to trail 
behind as the tail of a garment. 

3333. tu to anchor, to moor. Ha.: ku, id. 

3334. tu moon, month in general. Ha. : ku, 
name of a month. 

3335. tuaua double. Sa. : tea/wo, id. Ha.: 
kualua, twice. 

3336. tuemi to contract, to shrink. Ha.: 
kuemi, to shrink back. 

3337. tuetieti which will not stay in place. 
Ma.: turetireti, unsteady. 

3338. tui, turi a bird. Sa.: tult, id. 

3339. tuma angry. Ma..:whakatuma,Singei. 

3340. haatumatumatoberough, wrinkled. 
Ha. : kumakuma, rough. 

3341. fae-tumau cook-house. M.a.:tumau, 
a cook. 

3342. tumoe animal with its tail cut off. 
Ma.: tumoremore, stripped of all ap- 
pendages. 

3343. tuna to come into possession of prop- 
erty. Sa. : tuga, acquisition of all the 
great titles. 

3344. tupahi to send. Ha.: kupahi, to 
send away, begone. 

3345. tuto to think, to regret, to long for. 
Ha. : kuko, to desire strongly. 

3346. tutuau a crab. Ha. : kukuau, a four- 
footed animal in the sea; kukua, a 
crab. 

3347. u a taro leaf. Sa. : lu, a dish pre- 
pared from taro leaves. 

3348. uhahapu what causes one to cough. 
Ha. : uha, to hawk up mucus. 

3349. uhi pearlshell. Ha.: «W, a shellfish. 

3350. unoku, unoku the blackening of 
a bruise, ecchymosis. Sa. : uno'o, a 
bruise. 

3351. uouoa a fish. Ha.: uoa.iA. 

3352. utete jewsharp. Sa.: uiete, id. Ha.: 
ukeke, an ancient pulsatile musical 
instrument. 

3353- utu a fish. Ha.: uku, id. 

3354. uutu small, few. Ha.: uuku, id. 

3355- vaimata tears. Ha.: waimaka, id. 

3356. vaitahe a flood. Sa. : vaitafe, a river. 

Ha. : waikahe running water, flood. 

3357. vaitupu spring water. To.: vaituhu, 
well water. 

3358. vau a fish. Ha. : walu, id. 

3359' veo tenth month of the lunar year. 
Ha.: ivelo, a month (about April). 



CHAPTER VII. 
DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 

Having completed this double survey of each of the four other lan- 
guages of Southeast Polynesia, we are prepared to subject Rapanui 
itself to the same mathematical analysis, for now we are in a position 
to establish our comparisons upon the surest possible basis. 

At the outset we present, as in preceding chapters, the systematic 
analysis of that element of Rapanui speech which is identifiable in so 
much as one exterior language of the Polynesian family. The following 
table contains the data upon which our work is based. Piecemeal it 

Table 28. 





Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Total. 


Rn-Pau-Mgv-Mq-Ta 

Rn-Pau-Mgv-Mq 


8 

7 

3 

4 
49 
12 

6 


227 
■5 
15 
14 

2 

3 



9 

. 1 



4 

1 
1 
1 



^6 
7 
9 
3 

2 

4 
I 


284 
29 
24 
38 
10 

53 

30 

7 


Rn-Pau-Mgv-Ta 


Rn-Pau-Mq-Ta 


Rn-Pau-Mgv 


Rn-Pau-Mq 


Rn-Pau-Ta 


Rn-Pau 


Total 


89 


277 


'7 


72 


45S 


Rn-Mgv-Mq-Ta 


21 

^8 
56 


89 
24 
10 

7 


% 

1 
12 


16 
8 

5 


69 

30 

80 


Rn-Mgv-Mq 


Rn-Mgv-Ta 


Rn-Mgv 


Total 


116 


'30 


38 


}o 


304 


Rn-Ta-Mq 


^ 


10 

7 


I 
3 




5 


28 

53 


Rn-Ta 


Total 


55 


17 


4 


5 


8t 


Rn-Mq 


72 



6 


3 
53 



9 


76 
68 


Rn 


Total 


72 


7 


56 


9 


144 


Grand total . . . 


332 


431 


105 


116 


984 





has been offered before, language by language of the province; here it 
is massed and points outward, whereas in earlier discussion it has been 
headed toward Easter Island. 

The first topic which we shall take up for examination is the relative 
extent of the gross element in each of the five languages of Southeast 
Polynesia which is identifiable with the means at our command. This 
is shown in Table 29. 

147 



148 



EASTER ISLAND. 
Table 29. 





Stock. 


Identified. 


Percentage. 


Rapanui 

Tahiti 


3000 
6200 
6000 
6600 
2500 


984 
2043 
1886 
1715 
■335 


33 
33 
31 
26 

53 


Marquesas 

Mangareva 

Paumotu 



From this table we might derive the conclusion that there was a 
widely severed division in Southeast Polynesia when referred to the basis 
of recognizability in other languages of the Polynesian family; that the 
Paumotu stood in one group in the possession of the general treasure of 
Polynesian speech exceeding a moiety of its own speech equipment; 
that, unevenly spaced geographically about this central archipelago, 
four groups of islands shared the Polynesian stock to a fairly even 
extent, that is to say to the extent of rather more than a quarter of their 
vocabulary, yet not quite reaching so high as one- third. Thestudyof the 
tabulations in the foregoing chapters specifically dealing with four of 
these archipelagoes should have served to indicate the fallacy of such an 
opinion, the impropriety of this transaction in gross. We have referred 
once and many times again to the division of Polynesian speech between 
the Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti, and to the mingled yet indiscrim- 
inate stream which has Slowed over Southeast Polynesia and which we 
have been forced to designate as general Polynesian. The only use 
which it is permitted us to make of this table is the consideration of its 
unexpressed member, the unidentified element. 

Here we have something positive to deal with, if we may. It is that 
in the Paumotu slightly less than half of the speech equipment, in the 
other subdivisions of the province a shade more than two-thirds of the 
speech equipment, are wholly unidentifiable elsewhere in Polynesia ; so 
far as we, or any, know, they are quite unknown anywhere in the world. 
This factor we may consider with profit. 

Let us, in a single concrete instance, look further into this. In the 
Rapanui we find the vocable reirei in the sense of trampling or pound- 
ing. It lies within the unidentified two-thirds. Nowhere in Southeast 
Polynesia is any mutation variant of reirei found to carry any such 
signification, nowhere in the distal migrations north or south, nowhere 
does it appear in the Tongafiti stream, nowhere in the earUer Proto- 
Samoan stream ; collation item by item of a dozen Polynesian vocabu- 
laries does not disclose it; in the similar study of more than a hundred 
Melanesian tongues not even so much as its wreck is found as drift and 
jetsam on that traverse of Proto-Samoan fleets almost twenty centtuies 
ago. It is found but here, on this rocky islet and the orient extreme of 
all Polynesian wandering, if diTta^ hyonevov its singularity is so pro- 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OP RAPANUI. 149 

found as to awe us. Yet this is true of two-thirds of the vocabulary, 
not only of Rapanui but of Mangareva, Tahiti, the Marquesas; true as 
to half of the Paumotu. 

We are not done with reirei to trample. It sounds Polynesian, it 
looks Polynesian, it is conduplicated quite after the Polynesian method. 
There is not one slightest particular which would give the thinnest sus- 
picion that this is not a leaf upon the Polynesian tree strictly true to the 
foliation type. The one and only thing that speaks against it is that 
the strictest search has found it nowhere but in Easter Island. If I had 
even found its carcass, perhaps decollated, as the French have dubbed 
Saint- Jean Baptist colloquially Saint- Jean le decollete, perhaps shorn of 
members as poultry come to the oven — ^if I had found its miserable 
remains in all the deformity of the gross mouthings of the folk of Anei- 
t3rum or of Tanna, far in the benighted Black Islands of the remote west 
of the South Sea, I should have had no scruple in taking this Rapanui 
word as the model wherewith to restore to Polynesian life the word- 
corpse found among the cannibals, to bring it back to the citizenship of 
the alert race of navigators. This reirei is but one word of its class in 
Rapanui; I have had to study 2,000 just Uke it. And Easter Island is 
not the only member of the province in which this holds ; a glance at the 
unexpressed member of Table 29 will show upon how many thousand 
similar words standing alone this all-comprehensive attention has been 
directed in search of kin, roundly stated 16,000 derelict speech-units. 
What I have hereinbefore written of reirei is to be written in bulk of 
this complete tale, no thin lexicon in itself. Not one varies from the 
Polynesian norm in any slightest degree, not one suggests in itself the 
sUghtest possibiUty of acquisition on loan or theft from any alien source. 
The only vocables in all Polynesian speech concerning which such sus- 
picion could arise are the scant dozen dozen held in community with 
Malayan speech. Concerning this element I but reiterate what I have 
been at pains to prove elsewhere: that the borrowing was by the 
Malayans from the Polynesians. Furthermore not a single word in 
this unidentifiable class falls within this Malayan category. 

If the unidentified class, then, is Polynesian yet unknown to other 
Polynesians, how may we account for its singularity of persistence? 

As far back as we can see the Polynesian in the Pacific he is under an 
eastward impulse; he orients himself with bravery on the sea even if 
skill in seacraft seem lacking, and that is by no means always the case. 
In earlier studies comprehension has come to me and has set forth the 
two tracks of his earUest swarm through the two waterways which 
almost continental New Guinea has severed, through the wilds of Mela- 
nesia, and so to his home in Nuclear Polynesia; and all this can have 
been but little short of two millenniums ago. In the work which lies 
next my hand to do I shall be engaged in particular proof of the hostile 
advance upon the now sedentary Proto-Samoan in his new home of a 



150 EASTER ISLAND. 

later, probably somewhat more actively energized, swarm of his own 
race. We shall spread before our eyes the drama of welcome extended 
to the newcomer, of the subjection of the earUer resident, of the growth 
of intolerable conditions of tyranny, of the revolt and the abrupt eva- 
sion from Samoa of the insolent oppressor when at long last his power is 
broken. This record, when we come to it, need not be considered com- 
plete ; it is no more than a summary. Even when we deal with the sav- 
age and the primitive we are not debarred from factoring into his prob- 
lem so much of our human nature as we may establish as in community 
of possession. It is only in gnomic wisdom that not-cured and endured 
form a perfect dilemma; in real life there is a very satisfactory third horn 
in dodging; it may be stated with Ciceronian grace as evasit-erupit; in 
EngUsh current this winter it is "doing a bunk, " always man's way out 
by taking to his heels, in token of which Hermes wears the talaria. With 
the sea always within sight and sound, ever enticing to ear and eye and 
to a deeper race instinct of joy afloat with the song of the wind and the 
dance of the stars, we do no violence to Polynesian nature when we put 
forward the idea that the oppressed, when they found or made their 
chance, even as the oppressors at their Matamatame chmax, set forth 
upon the sea to find new lands and to found new homes. 

East of Fiji there is no reason to suppose that the new land upon 
which the wanderers chanced was other than land awaiting men ; every 
consideration with which we study man argues against the existence of 
earlier and alien peopUng, of autochthons before the Polynesian wan- 
derers. Now for each eastward place of settlement of refugees repeat in 
small the story which Samoa has written presbyter large, and we shall 
find a constant eastward flight, a constant ulterior eastward settlement 
of smaller and ever smaller squadrons of such fugitives. At last we 
come to the end of land in the sea; beyond it a waste of ocean where 
Polynesian wanderers must hunger and thirst until at last each in utter 
peace domes upon the enfolding wave just one bubble to last a moment 
in all the glory of the heaven that is his. This end of land in the sea? 
We have been studying it closely in these pages; it is this province of 
Southeast Polynesia. 

Unbooked this people is, unlettered even, its words are in constant 
danger of loss. Where they remain in touch, one family with another, 
island with island, archipelago with archipelago — and this we know to 
have been in many instances the case in the period of the great voy- 
ages — the speech would tend toward the correction of its gradual loss, a 
common vocabulary would exist. But in the case of isolated and remote 
settlements the loss would progress with no possibility of reparation; 
each language would tend more and more to a greater bulk of vocabu- 
lary which elsewhere had fallen or had been forced into disuse. It 
does not surprise us that in four of these languages this individual and 
mutually incomprehensible stock of a primitive common speech should 
amount to two-thirds of the speech in use. 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 151 

Why, then, should the Paumotu differ in so marked a degree from 
the other archipelagoes of the province? The answer is simple. The 
Paumotu are spread over their central sea — ^that is to say, inner with 
respect of the limiting points of the province — ^in a loose chain which 
faciUtates sailing from island to island, no difficulty at all to such navi- 
gators as the Polynesians. At its southern links it lies close enough to 
Mangareva for interchange of visits; at its northern end it lies in close 
touch with Tahiti and the Marquesas. Individually these three archi- 
pelagoes stand at the two-thirds mark of unrecognizability ; the Paumotu, 
enjoying intercourse with all three and then convectively diffusing its 
better education throughout its own extent, stands at the highest point 
of recognizabiUty, as nearly as possible at the half-way mark. 

In conclusion of this disquisition upon the unidentifiable element 
within the province, let me repeat my belief that it is as purely Poly- 
nesian as any that we know. We lack data, of course, whereupon to 
consider its assignment to Proto-Samoan or Tongafiti source ; I have no 
hesitation, however, in holding a personal opinion, on grounds wholly 
a priori, that we should expect to find in such remote lurking-places 
material carried away from their old home by Proto-Samoans making 
their escape from Tongafiti highhandedness. This is not put forward 
dogmatically; really it is no more susceptible of disproof than of evi- 
dential establishment. In fact, after all these pages of figures and 
painful proof I may fairly claim my reward in the happy expression of 
an opinion for which I am well aware no proof could ever be adduced. 

Unto this end, through it, indeed, and to the very end of this end, I 
still maintain my division of the identifiable material into the two 
classes of that which has Rapanui affiUates and that which is extra- 
Rapanui. Proceeding now with our examination of the identifiables, I 
shall direct the attention first upon the latter. 

At this point we shall find it convenient to introduce Table 30 showing 
the extra-Rapanui element of the province in strict parallelism with 
the earlier table (28) of the Rapanui affiliates. 

It will be understood that these identifiables are not of equal value, 
that a vocable of the Paumotu recognizable in Mangarevan alone does 
not properly function as of the same power as one found in all four of 
the languages under this study. To this point we shall presently recur, 
but first we must present in Table 3 1 the record of the sums and the 
percentages of the extra-Rapanui identifications in the four languages. 
The percentage is based on the remnant figure of the gross vocabulary 
after subtraction of the sum of the Rapanui affiliates, which we are to 
keep rigidly apart as a distinct element. 

When we compare this with the undivided results in Table 29, we find 
that the same relative order obtains ; the percentages have been reduced 
by an amount lying between 7 and 10. The larger figure for the Pau- 
motu shows that in this particular group of figures the archipelago 



152 



EASTER ISLAND. 



is clearly under the dominance of freedom of intercommunication. 
These results are still too composite to disclose the details of the real 
story of folk movement. We have already segregated the material as 

Table 3°- 



Pau-Mgv-Mq-Ta 
Pau-Mgv-Mq — 
Pau-Mgv-Ta. . . . 

Pau-Mq-Ta 

Pau-Mgv 

Pau-Mq 

Pau-Ta 

Pau 

Total 

Mgv-Mq-Ta 

Mgv-Mq 

Mgv-Ta 

Mgv 

Total 

Ta-Mq 

Ta-Mq-Ha 

Ta-Ha 

Ta 

Total 

Mq 

Mq-Ha 

Total 

Grand total. . 



Southeast 
Polynesia. 



I I 

4 
21 

32 
23 

i8 

379 
o 



42 
207 

76 

73 



39S 



85 

23 

105 

o 



213 



o 

133 



'33 



1232 



Poly- 
nesian. 



40 
8 

'5 
18 

4 
I 

25 
5 



116 



73 
20 
26 
24 



•43 



34 
o 
o 

27 



61 



332 



Proto- 
Satnoan. 



8 
2 

7 
10 

4 
■4 
>4 

4 



63 



34 
31 
14 
54 



'33 



30 
o 
o 

65 



95 



69 
23 



92 



383 



Tongafiti. 



47 

4 

25 

29 

'3 

7 

58 
30 



213 



42 
32 
29 

5> 



'54 



'7 
o 
o 

90 



107 



7' 
o 



7' 



545 



Total. 



106 
18 
68 

89 

44 

40 

476 

39 



880 



191 

290 

'45 
202 



828 



\66 

23 

105 
182 



476 



152 
156 



}o8 



2492 



it has been identified in the Proto-Samoan, the Tongafiti, or the essen- 
tially indiscriminate general Polynesian. Although the last element is 
neutral, we shall keep the record complete by allotting to it a percent- 

TablB 31. 





Net stock. 


Identified. 


Percentage. 




2500-455=2045 

6600-65 ■ = 5949 
6200-592 = 5608 
6000-655 = 5345 


880 
1064 
145 I 
1231 


26 
23 


Mangareva 

Tahiti 


Marquesas 



age, just as we shall find some light by allotting a percentage to each 
of the really distinctive elements. These ratios are computed upon net 
stocks as presented in Table 31. 

The story which this table has to tell is not hard reading. It is in 
two chapters, and we shall turn first to the minor one, the record of the 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OP RAPANUI. 



153 



element of speech which is recognizable backward along the migration 
com-se. Mangareva shows the three minima of this element, 4 and 3 
and 3; the percentages of the three items are compassed within the 
range of a single per cent ; that one added point is given to the general 
Polynesian item and therefore ceases to be of value in our research; the 
lesser figure appUes alike to the Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti 
streams. 

Tahiti comes next in the advancing order. Its general Polynesian 
content remains the same as in Mangareva ; its Proto-Samoan content 
remains the same; its Tongafiti content is double that of Mangareva. 

Third in order is the Marquesas. Retaining the same general Poly- 
nesian figure, it owes one point more to the Proto-Samoan, the highest 
figure which that element attains in the province; it falls but one point 
below Tahiti in the higher ratio of the Tongafiti. 

But when we reach, last of all, the Paumotu record we find the ord- 
erly table with its flat curves thrown into marked confusion. With 
Mangareva and Tahiti it has the minimum showing of Proto-Samoan 
influence; its general Polynesian content is the highest, yet not strongly 

TablB 32- 





Net 
stock. 


Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


No. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Paumotu 

Mangareva 

Tahiti. . . 


2045 

5949 
5608 

5345 


488 

457 
674 
422 


24 

8 

12 

8 


116 
210 
258 
206 


5 
4 
4 
4 


63 

182 
221 


3 

3 
3 
4 


213 
143 
337 
249 


10 

1 

5 


Marquesas 



removed from the general average wherein the three other archipelagoes 
inosculate. But in the Tongafiti columns it peaks remarkably; it has 
more than three times as much Tongafiti material as Mangareva, its 
southern and next neighbor; twice as much as the Marquesas, very 
nearly twice as much as Tahiti. 

Now apply these records of figures to the known geographical base. 
The Paumotu are a chain of which Mangareva is a loose link at the 
south, Tahiti is the nearer neighbor to leeward of the northern part of 
the chain, the Marquesas the nearer neighbor to windward. Assume a 
migration from the west on the wind along the course which would 
bring the fleet toward the northern Paumotu. The chain in its great 
extent would capture the largest numbers of the fleet, the leeward 
neighbor would hold the next largest, those that by too much northing 
overran Tahiti would show in the Marquesas the next largest number, 
while Mangareva, away to the south, would get but the stragglers and 
the dull sailers. Thus our knowledge of winds and currents and canoe 
seacraft provides a probable explanation. But this variety is note- 



154 HASTER ISLAND. 

worthy only in the Tongafiti element, remembering that in our known 
landmark of Samoan history a primitive race of savages groaned under 
Tongafiti savagery; for there seem to be degrees in that sort of thing 
recognizable when one is on the same plane. Yet in this record we 
have a not inconsiderable Proto-Samoan contingent. The explanation 
seems to me to be that at some spot to the westward a colony of Proto- 
Samoans had settled ; that upon them came a swarm of Tongafiti ; that 
the earlier settlers made their escape up the wind and settled in the 
province ; that in time the Tongafiti marauders, whom we know to have 
been expelled from Samoa, set out in pursuit and added to the record 
this uneven curve. The smoothness of the general Polynesian curve 
and of the Proto-Samoan curve is evidence that the colony from which 
the escape was made must have been a place where the two streams had 
been together sufficiently long to admit of a considerable mingling of 
speech material. We know such to have been the case in Samoa. The 
party which should follow over the same course should be more strongly 
marked as to Tongafiti character. If this place of swarming were 
Samoa, we know that the element expelled was Tongafiti. If it were 
some intermediate spot upon which the Tongafiti sought to repeat their 
Samoan conduct, the party which should set out after the Proto-Samoan 
refugees would be of the dominant Tongafiti oppressors. So far, then, 
as relates to this chapter of the history of the province, I feel convinced 
that in these records we have the history of two migrations, one of a 
somewhat mixed character followed by one strongly Tongafiti. 

There remains that chapter which is to deal with the speech material 
more or less general to Southeast Polynesia, but which has passed 
from use elsewhere in the family. Mangareva and the Marquesas are 
equal at the lowest point; the one lies beyond the extreme weatherly 
point to be reached closehauled on the trade wind when sailing out of 
the west and in the westerly variables, therefore less likely to be reached ; 
the other lies to windward on the other tack, and before it can be reached 
the wandering fleets will have had the opportunity to find settlement 
in Tahiti and the Paumotu. It is for this sea reason that we expect 
to find, and do find, them occupying a higher position in our record, 
Tahiti one and a half and the Paumotu three times the minimum. As 
between the two, we may readily account for the discrepancy, the Pau- 
motu stretches all of three times as far athwart the wind as Tahiti. 

Now we may derive some conclusions as to the relative age of these 
two elements. In the Paumotu the restricted provincial speech is nearly 
five times the general Polynesian, eight times the Proto-Samoan, two 
and a half times the Tongafiti. In Mangareva it is twice the general 
Polynesian, almost three times the Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti. 
In the Marquesas, here also in close association with Mangareva, it is 
twice the general Polynesian and the Proto-Samoan, a little under twice 
the Tongafiti. Finally in Tahiti it is three times the general Polynesian, 



DETERMINATION OP THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 155 

four times the Proto-Samoan and the Tongafiti. Conditioned by the 
fact that between the several members of the Polynesian family there 
existed no marked diversity of culture attainment, we feel justified in 
the assumption that the more numerous and more generally extended 
element of the speech is certainly the senior. Thus again we are brought 
to the same conclusion which on another basis we have reached in 
respect of this provincial element. In general in our studies of the 
South Sea, senior and elder have been found to belong to the Proto- 
Samoan migration, a fact authentically established as to Nuclear Poly- 
nesia and reasonably extensible to Southeast Polynesia. Accordingly 
I have no hesitation in assigning to the province three settlement 
factors: (i) a Proto-Samoan discovery and first settlement; (2) a col- 
ony mixed in some possibly intermediate halting-place but with strong 
Proto-Samoan affiliations; (3) a Tongafiti colony. I shall be the first 
to acknowledge the degree to which the hypothetical enters into this, 
but qua hypothesis it is surely a working one. 

We are by no means done with this record. If we compare Table 32 
with the first of this series of summation tables (Table 28) we see how 
much is revealed by dissection down to particular features. Yet one 
more detailed dissection lies within our reach : in Table 30, which is a 
summation of the extra-Rapanui element, inspection will show that 
there is a wide variety in the language extent of the several charted 
items; for instance, in the general Polynesian column 40 items are 
common to all four languages of the province, 114 to three languages, 
and so along. This introduces to us an element of quality, whereas 
heretofore our examinations have been numerical, quantitative. It 
has seemed to me that it is possible to show forth, still in figures, this 
qualitative character. For this purpose I have selected a modulus 
based on the figure representing the number of occurrences of the words. 
Thus: a word which is found in Tahiti and Proto-Samoan I regard as 
having i for a modulus ; if in Tahiti, Mangareva, and Proto-Samoan as 
having 11 for its modulus, and so on ; where i is the modulus the arith- 
metical percentage based on net stock stands as the index, where 11 is 
the modulus the percentage is multiplied by two, and so on. In the 
rigidly provincial element we lose the prime element of the computa- 
tion. This cuts out all such cases of modulus i. But in the higher 
moduli I preserve the modulus parallel with the foregoing; thus a word 
which appears in all four languages is assigned to modulus iv, just as 
would be the case if we had an exterior identification. Based upon 
this arbitrary modulus system and upon real percentages the resultant 
figure becomes artificial, but it should serve to give us a common system 
of index figures wherewith we may continue our examination into 
quality. We shall establish these figures for the whole province (using 
the sum of the net stocks, 19,000) in order to secure a basis from which 
to note individual deviation. 



156 



EASTER ISLAND. 
Table 33- 





Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


I 


0.93 

8.53 
1.56 
0.23 


0.36 

1.80 
0.84 


1. 01 
0.63 
0.83 
0.16 


'•27 
0.82 
..58 
I .00 


II 

Ill 

IV 

Total . . . 


n.25 


3-57 


2.63 


4.67 



When we compare this with Table 32 we find that, including the ele- 
ment of quality, the general order of the speech components remains 
unaltered. This computation is too general to have value save as set- 
ting conveniently in broad terms a bench-mark of specific comparison. 

Individually treated after this method, reference being made to ascer- 
tained net stocks, the several languages give the following showing: 

Table 34. 





Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


I 


0.00 

8.36 
2.15 


0.29 
2.93 
6.01 
7.82 


0. 19 

313 
3.96 
1. 81 


1.45 
7.61 
8.50 
9.19 


1.23 
10.29 
3.38 
0.76 


0.40 
1.68 
4.67 
2.68 


0-99 
1.65 
2.16 
0-53 


0.86 
2-49 

3-16 


II 


Ill 


IV 

Total.... 

I 


51.58 


17.05 


9.09 


26.76 


15.66 


9-43 


5 33 


10.08 


Tahiti. 


Marquesas. 


1.87 

30.11 

5.08 

0.78 


0.48 
4-55 
5.67 
2-75 


I. 16 
3.10 
2.73 
0.57 


1.60 
5.56 
4.92 
3-35 


2-49 
12.46 
4.38 
0.82 


0.22 
4.06 
5-55 
2-99 


1.72 
2.80 
2.58 
0-59 


■-33 
2,09 

4-21 

4.21 


II 


Ill 


IV 

Total.... 


37.84 


13-45 


7.56 


15-43 


20.15 


12.82 


7.69 


11.84 



It must be understood, it is frankly acknowledged, that these figures, 
while based upon exactly ascertained percentages, are essentially arti- 
ficial and, although decimal in notation, are in no sense the designation 
of any real ratio. But, since the four groups have been developed in 
every part by exactly the same method, the resultant figures, though 
artificially obtained, are fairly comparable. Their purpose is to weight 
the ascertainable figures of each of these languages with an element 
which may express the degree of the extension, through the province 
and more remotely, of the several classes of word occurrence which our 
studies have afforded us. Accordingly we bring the sums for each 
archipelago into a single table, where they may be more readily com- 



DETERMINATION OF THE PIvACE OF RAPANUI. 



157 



parable inter se and with the strictly quantitative results heretofore 
developed and for convenience of such reference included herein under 
italic dififerentiation : 

Table 35- 





Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Polynesian. 


Proto-Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Paumotu 


15.66 

37 84 
20.15 


1 

12 

8 


17.05 
9-43 
1345 
12.82 


5 
4 
4 
4 


9.09 

7.56 
7.69 


3 
} 

i 
4 


26.76 
10.08 

13-43 
11.84 


10 

} 
6 

5 


Mangareva 

Tahiti 


Marquesas 



At a glance we observe that quality apportions these four component 
elements of the province in an order in parts other than that which 
develops out of mere quantity. We shall first examine, as before, that 
element of the material which is identifiable in other seats of Polynesian 
cultiure. It should be borne in mind that these artificial figures of 
quality are an attempt to provide some sort of index for a certain char- 
acter which may be designated the generality, the community — probably 
more accurately than either, the diffusion — of the speech elements 
under review. It is indicative largely of the degree in which each lan- 
guage is the heir to the general stock of the vocabulary. 

Let us look more closely into the double column accredited to the 
general Polynesian. In the italic column of quantitative ratio we find 
that the average possession is 4 per cent and that the preeminence of 
the Paumotu is but a single unit per centum. But when we turn to the 
index of diffusion we find a curve far more strongly accented, the Pau- 
motu still remaining at the peak, but at a marked interval from the 
Tahiti at the second level, which it closely shares with the Marquesas, 
and both distinctly removed from the level at which Mangareva stands 
below the central level by an amount in close correspondence with the 
interval which sets off the Paumotu in first place. The reading of this 
curve is not essentially difficult. We should be puzzled to designate 
what may be the unit which underlies the artificiality of these indices, 
but whatever this unit may be imagined to be we find that the Paumotu 
shares its inheritance nearly twice as much as Mangareva, and that 
Tahiti and the Marquesas jointly occupy the mid space. 

Now what are we to understand by this expression, sharing the 
inheritance ? In other words are we to regard the Paumotu as a chief 
center of distribution to the sister archipelagoes or as a center of deposit? 
Distribution, of course, there has been; but the true reading of this 
record Ues in regarding the Paumotu as a place of deposit. We have 
already observed that the Paumotu lies like a chain across the general 
saiUng-coiu-se up the wind, that in its great extent it must catch and 
hold more of the voyagers than any other group. We have already 



158 EASTER ISIvAND. 

noted that such fleets as stood more to the northward would make the 
Marquesas. "We can see from the chart that Tahiti extends athwart 
the course only about half, or less, the extent of the Paumotu, and that 
Mangareva would be the refuge of the dull sailers who had sagged to 
leeward and down into the westerly variables. This seems to me the 
story which this record has to tell. 

The Proto-Samoan column, with figures of only half the magnitude, 
shows the same ordering. Tahiti and the Marquesas stand in close 
proximity at the middle level, the Paumotu as far above that level as 
Mangareva below it. "We may, accordingly, reason that the action of 
the influence which has produced the general Polynesian and the Proto- 
Samoan results was uniformly exerted upon the province; that is to 
say, in terms applicable to conditions of folk movement as known to us, 
one migration unit produced this effect. 

"When we examine, last of all, the column in which we have evaluated 
the Tongafiti component we find a marked difference to obtain. The 
Paumotu not only stands at the head of this column as well as at the 
head of the others, but its interval above its next successor, Tahiti, 
amounts to more than the whole Tongafiti component of Mangareva. 
Tahiti is parted from its next neighbor, the Marquesas, by a less, yet 
considerable, interval; and Mangareva stands at the bottom by a yet 
smaller interval. From this we determine that the Tongafiti migration 
spent its first force upon the Paumotu and Tahiti, and that a far smaller 
amount overran that landfall either north about in the Marquesas, or 
southward in Mangareva, a relation to the central point of settlement 
which the mind trained in navigation will find no difficulty in compre- 
hending as the various result of saiUng full and bye on starboard or port 
tack when the trade holds steady southeast. 

"We may read this record horizontally with interest and to illustrative 
results. The results of the quantitative analysis of the Paumotu in 
respect of the three components, Polynesian, Proto-Samoan, and Tonga- 
fiti, is expressed by the percentages 5, 3, and 10; the diffusion figures 
run higher, but inspection shows that the continuing ratio is effectively 
the same. In Tahiti there is a difference; its quantitative continuing 
ratio is 4-3-6 ; reduced to the same degree the qualitative record is, say, 
5-3-6. The comparison of the Marquesas in the same way shows 
quantitative 4-4-5 and qualitative 6-4-4. The Mangarevan 4-3-3 
becomes qualitative 5-3-6. The interpretation of these changes lies 
in the understanding of the effect of diffusion. In the Paumotu, where 
the alteration is very slight, we find ourselves dealing with a community 
in which diffusion, that is to say interchanges with neighbor commu- 
nities in the province, has effected the minimum of change. In Tahiti 
the alteration affects the Polynesian component, with Mangareva show- 
ing exactly the same continuing ratio; in the Marquesas the alteration 
affects this component still more prominently. 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 159 

Finding the Proto-Samoan component practically unmoved, the next 
point of variety is in the Tongafiti. In the Paumotu and Tahiti it 
undergoes practically no alteration in the two compared continuing 
ratios; in the Marquesas it becomes sUghtly less on quaUtative reduc- 
tion, in Mangareva markedly higher. Now we may assume, with 
strong probability, that when the two ratios present practically the 
same figures the closer we are brought to a case of direct migration; the 
higher the qualitative figure runs, the greater the eflFect of diffusion, the 
further from direct migration. 

When we examine details within Table 34 we shall find certain dis- 
tinctive features that must be attractive even if not yet wholly compre- 
hended. In the provincial column in each language we find the quali- 
tative index enormous under modulus 11, Paumotu and Tahiti standing 
at one stage, Mangareva and the Marquesas at another. From this 
we see that the diffusion is not a general one in this component; that its 
most prominent characteristic is the sharing of the speech material in 
any one language with one other, the speech with which the sharing 
holds varying in each case. In the columns recording the Polynesian 
and Proto-Samoan, which we regard as practically conjoint, we find one 
group, the Paumotu and Mangareva, in which the higher figures are 
found for each component under modulus iii; a second group, Tahiti 
and the Marquesas, in which the highest figures of the Polynesian col- 
umn appear in modulus in, of the Proto-Samoan in modulus 11. In the 
Tongafiti column the peak for the Paumotu is in modulus iv, for the 
Marquesas a double peak in the two higher moduli, for Mangareva in 
modulus III, and for Tahiti in modulus 11. We feel sure that this show- 
ing points to some successive shading of the influence of this component 
upon the province in this order, direct or inverse. 

A few pages earHer I suggested the story of refugees and pursuit, 
developing the idea from the place of mixed settlement whence flight 
set out and pursuit followed. Samoa we know to have been the theater 
of just such events, some intermediate group possible in the same sense 
and becoming probable with closer reading of the record of tradition 
history. Here I feel that we have the same story, not at its start but at 
its finish. The refugee party keeps together in the hope of mutual pro- 
tection. Quail He close, foolish birds, in the covey, and thereby fall the 
readier prey to their hunters. It is a human motive principle, for biped 
wisdom and biped folly are not restricted to birds. A merry footnote 
to our naval history was written when Clark was driving the Oregon 
at full speed from the Pacific around the Horn to the problem seat of 
war in the Atlantic. Somewhere off the Roque he overhauled a cir- 
cumnavigator, a man coming home alone from around the world in a 
tiny yawl wallowing slowly through the sea. An asterisk in the serious 
history discloses at the foot of the page that the lone navigator hoisted 
on his mere whipstock mast the bunting of the international signal 



160 EASTER ISLAND. 

code which carried the message, "Let us sail in company for mutual 
protection." 

It is only reasonable to suppose that the Proto-Samoan refugees 
clung together in their flight. We see by these indices of diffusion that, 
small a party as they were in the Paumotu, they were no larger in the 
three sister archipelagoes, evidence that when once they had found 
their asylum they clung close to it. But, if flight concentrates, pursuit 
is diffuse. We have evolved the idea of the angered Tongafiti in hot 
haste to overtake the party which has escaped their oppression. There 
is none to tell them where they may come upon their prey, they must 
scatter in search, they must go from island to island, from archipelago 
to archipelago. What else can be read in the greater diffusion of the 
Tongafiti — three times on one scale, three times on the other — than the 
result of this scattering of set purpose of wrath or recovery into the very 
nooks of the sea? 

We next examine briefly the restrictively provincial member of the 
table. In this we can indeed be brief. If my theory of the signification 
of this speech element be tenable we are dealing with the relics of a 
migration movement so ancient that silent history may not be induced 
to speak. Time has removed the asperities of the curves, the indices of 
diffusion do not show any such sharpness of group distribution as is 
fallaciously indicated by the numerical percentages based on the uncon- 
ditioned arithmetic of word count. Yet here, as in the other member, 
we find the Paumotu and the Marquesas in summit association, and 
Tahiti and Mangareva at the bottom. The same explanation holds. 

In this prolonged study of interpretation of philological data into 
terms of geography, seamanship, and folk movement we have laid a 
comparable foundation whereupon we may better adjust the record of 
Rapanui speech and assign to it its position in the history of this remote 
province, of which it is the most remote outlier, the extreme limit of 
Polynesian settlement, the Ultima Thule of the great sea of Kiwa, te 
moana nui o Kiwa, forbidding, arid, unhospitable, yet the home of Poly- 
nesians, and naught beyond but sky to the death horizon in the very 
eye of the wind. 

It will be recalled that throughout this research we have had to bear 
in mind a large component of each language as to which we lack data 
enabling us to coordinate it with the elements which we have been able 
to establish ; I refer to the unidentifiable component. It has seemed to 
me best to deal with this in two ways. In the specific chapters upon 
each language I have laid it aside from the computations ; in this final 
chapter I have included it, thus reducing the size of the severally deter- 
mined figures. In the preceding pages of this chapter in the discussion 
of the extra-Rapanui element I adopted as a net stock that element with 
the unidentified element. Now for the computation of the Rapanui 
affiliates I include once more this unidentified element, deriving a new 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 



161 



net stock by subtraction from the gross of the several sums of the extra- 
Rapanui element. We have no means of knowing in what proportions 
this unidentifiable element may be associated with either of the ele- 
ments of the several languages under comparison, but to include first 
with one element and then with the other ttds irreducible element tends 
to bring the computations of the two series into harmony. We set 
forth in the following table, therefore, this second reckoning of net 
stock for comparison with Table 31. 

Tablb 36. 





Net stock. 


Identified. 


Percentage. 


Paumotu 

Mangareva 

Tahiti 


2500- 880= 1620 
6600-1020=5580 
6200-1451=4749 
6000-1042 = 4958 


455 
651 
592 
705 


28 
12 
12 

>4 


Marquesas 



In comparison with Table 31 we see at once that while the extra- 
Rapanui component enters into the other languages of the province 
in the order Paumotu-Tahiti-Marquesas-Mangareva, the order for the 
Rapanui component is Paumotu-Marquesas-Tahiti-Mangareva, the 
two last standing together. If, temporarily and solely now by way of 
illustration, we treat the Rapanui speech as a unit intrusive to South- 
east Polynesia, these figures will show that on its way to Easter Island 
Hotu Matua's fleet made its largest landfall in the Paumotu, only much 
smaller and fairly equal straggling squadrons scattered to the other 
archipelagoes. 

It will be advantageous to subjoin to this memorandum of the pro- 
portion to which Rapanui enters into sister speech the complement of 
the picture, the relative diffusion computed upon the Rapanui stock: 

Table 37- 





Identified. 


Percentage. 


Paumotu 


455 

651 
592 
705 


15 
22 

'9 

i3 


Mangareva 

Tahiti 


Marquesas 



Here we see that there is a marked difference in the diffusion when 
referred to the Rapanui or to the several exterior bases. Mangareva 
and the Marquesas are equally potent, Tahiti is considerably better 
discoverable in Rapanui than is Rapanui in Tahiti, and the Paumotu 
records are most remarkable in the passage from the top of one Ust to 
the bottom of the other. We shall have to revert to this comparison of 
the two tables when we shall have subjected the material to more 



162 EASTER ISI/AND. 

minute dissection. At this point I wish to employ the comparison 
solely for the purpose of anticipating one particular of criticism. 

From correspondence I am aware that Captain Friederici holds the 
opinion that P^re Roussel's dictionary, basic to this work, has recorded 
a Rapanui speech contaminated through the sojourn of the Easter 
Islanders in Mangareva. We have a record bearing on this point; we 
cite Roussel's pious editor, P^re Ildefonse Alazard : 

Envoy^ en Oc6anie en 1854, il dvang^lisa d'abord les Marquises, puis en 1866 
rile-de-Piques jusqu'en iSji.heure de I'abandon de I'tle par le mission. II se 
r^fugia aux Gambier avec une colonie de ses neophytes, dent il continua h. dtre 
le pasteur bien aim6 jusqu'^ sa mort arrivde le 25 Janvier 1898. C'est le seul 
homme, pensons-nous, qui ait pu composer et qui ait effectivement compost 
un vocabulaire Rapanui. 

A second passage, after detailing the horrors of the labor trade, shows 
that the refugee party comprised most of the population : 

Iy'61oignement extrdme, risolement complet de la petite lie, rendant inutile 
toute protestation, Mgr. Jaussen, vicaire apostolique de Tahiti, enjoignit au 
missionnaire, qui 6tait le R. P. Hippolyte Roussel, d'abandonner Rapanui et de 
se rdfugier aux lies Gambier en emmenant avec lui tous les n^oph)i;es qui vou- 
draient le suivre. Malgr^ les efforts de raventurier pour retenir le gros de la 
popidation dont il avait besoin, presque tous les naturels mont^rent k bord de 
la go^lette qui devait les porter aux Gambier. Le commandant du navire 
pr^texta que son bateau ne pouvait embarquer tant de monde, et 175 indigenes 
furent brutalement ramen^s k terre oii ils restdrent k la merci d'lm m^tre qui 
les traita en consequence. Impossible de d^peindre la douleur du missionnaire 
en se voyant ainsi violemment s^par^ de ses ouailles potu" lesquelles il eiit donnd 
jusqu'k la demi^re goutte de son sang. 

P^re Roussel served five years in Rapanui, enough to give him a good 
foundation in the speech. A prior service of a dozen years in the Mar- 
quesas equipped him to recognize contamination from that northern 
source; twenty-seven years in Mangareva is surely sufficient time in 
which to teach the pious lexicographer to distinguish Rapanui from 
Mangarevan. It should be borne in mind that this dictionary was pre- 
pared primarily for the use of his fellow servants at the altar, and they 
already comprehended the Mangarevan. Our figures speak as forcibly 
against this contamination idea. The number of vocables common to 
Rapanui and Mangareva is 65 1 , of which no more than 80 are restricted 
to Mangareva, 99 occur in Mangareva and one other language, 188 in 
Mangareva and two other languages, 284 in Mangareva and three other 
languages. If a Mangarevan word finds community with the Paumotu, 
with the Marquesas, with Tahiti, we scarcely need to consider its pres- 
ence in Rapanui a contamination which Pdre Roussel overlooked or was 
unable to recognize. At best this could apply to but 80 vocables for 
which alone we have not support elsewhere in the province. Yet even 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 



163 



this sum is too large; of the 80 vocables, 24 are found in the earlier and 
western seats of Polynesian culture, leaving but 56 upon which such an 
opinion might rest. It is a negligible charge. 

Before the bulk figures of Table 36 can be of service to our inquiry we 
must subdivide as in the parallel Table 32. 

Table 38. 





Net 
stock. 


Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


No. 


No. 


P.ct. 


No. 


p.ct. 


No. 


p.ct. 


No. 


P.ct. 


Paumotu 

Mangareva 

Tahiti 


1620 
5580 

4749 
4958 


89 

193 
107 
206 


5 

3 
2 

4 


277 
396 

375 
381 


14 

7 
8 
8 


'7 
5' 

28 

34 


I 

1 


72 

§' 
82 

81 


5 

2 
2 
1 


Marquesas 



The most cursory comparison with the table of the same order for- 
mulated from the extra-Rapanui component shows the complete diver- 
sity of the two components. In the former the provincial element has 
occupied the larger position, in the Paumotu being one and one-third 
times the element of exterior identification, in Tahiti being practically 
on an even footing, in Mangareva a little less than equal, only in the 
Marquesas showing conspicuous inferiority. The general Polynesian 
and the Proto-Samoan are the flattest possible curves, the former peak- 
ing in the Paumotu by but a single unit, the peak of the latter of equal 
height in the Marquesas. The Tongafiti element, however, is sharply 
featured. In the collation of the Rapanui affiliates we find great differ- 
ences. The provincial element is far less important ; instead of equal- 
ing or generally excelUng the wider element, it amounts at best to but 
one-half, one-third, one-quarter, and in Tahiti it sinks to one-fifth. 
Clearly the Rapanui element differs largely from the extra-Rapanui, 
and its influence upon its provincial neighbors has been most unevenly 
exercised. This will best be presented to the eye in a short table in 
which each language is represented by two figures, the former its pro- 
vincial percentage, the latter the sum of the three percentages of its 
exterior identifications. 

Table 39- 





Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Tahiti. 


Marquesas. 


Extra-Rapanui 


24 

5 


18 
20 


8 
3 


10 

10 


12 

2 


«3 
II 


8 
4 


>3 
10 


Rapanui affiliates 



This shows us at once that the diversity holds most distinctly in the 
former of each of these paired figures, the provincial component. The 
interpretation is that the migration which populated Rapanui was 
exterior to the province; that it contained a normal proportion of the 



164 



EASTER ISLAND. 



exterior element, but was laddng in that diffused element which bulks 
so large in the sister archipelagos. It is clear that it was not a settle- 
ment which hived off from the Paumotu, the Mangarevan, the Tahiti, 
or the Marquesas, but one which came driving down upon Rapanui 
from the outside of the province, that is, from somewhere westward. 

Now, recurring to Tables 32 and 38, we find interesting variety in the 
exterior identifications; and before forming the next table it should be 
stated that the unit percentage throughout the Proto-Samoan column 
is a true determination only in the case of Mangareva; in the other lan- 
guages the true percentage is considerably less than unity; we shall 
correct this error of statement by setting the sum of the column at 3 
instead of 4. 

Table 40. 





Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongafiti. 


Extra-Rapanui 


17 

37 


■3 
3 


24 
10 


Rapanui affiliates 



Here we see that the general Polynesian is more than twice as large 
in the Rapanui element as in that outside such association, that the 
Proto-Samoan amounts to less than a quarter, the Tongafiti to less 
than a half. This points to a source of migration in which the two 
migration streams had been in such intimacy of contact as to discard a 
large share of their dialectic diEFerences, or rather, by adoption each 
from the other of dialectic material, to obliterate the difference. In 
still further explication it points to a migration far later than the most 
modern of those which provided Southeast Polynesia with its extra- 
Rapanui component. 

For the continuance of this comparison we shall need to have the 
subdivision of the Rapanui itself on the model of Table 38. 

Table 41. 





No. 


P. ct. 


Rapanui stock 3000 

Southeast Polynesia 

Polynesian 






332 
401 
105 
116 


II 
>3 
3 
3 


Proto-Samoan 


Tongafiti 





This gives a curve widely variant from any which this element dis- 
plays elsewhere in the province ; the nearest curve is that of the Pau- 
motu, the most remote is that of Tahiti ; Mangareva and the Marquesas, 
closely alike inter se, are quite wide from Rapanui. 

We next engage upon the qualitative examination of this component, 
noting that because we now deal with Rapanui in addition to the 



DETERMINATION OF THE PlyACE OF RAPANUI. 



165 



Paumotu, Mangareva, Tahiti and the Marquesas, we have one more 
modulus. 

The first table is, like Table 33, a computation for the whole province, 
the sum of the net stocks being now 22,000: 

Tablb 42. 





Southeast 
Polynesia. 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tongaflti. 


I 


0.03 
1.56 
..65 
0.56 
0.18 


0.24 
0.14 
0.69 
2.42 
5.16 


0.04 
0.17 
0.15 
0.25 
0.20 


0.31 
0. ID 
0.25 
0.65 
0.91 


II 

Ill 

IV 

V 


3.98 


8.65 


0.81 


2.22 



The comparison of Tables 33 and 42 shows how widely the two speech 
elements in the province vary when weighted with this factor of dif- 
fusion. In the individual tables which ensue, modulus i of necessity is 
absent save in the first. 

Tablb 43- 





Rapanui. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


South- 
east 
Poly- 
nesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tonga- 
flti. 


South- 
east 
Poly- 
nesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


Tonga- 
flti. 


South 
east 
Poly- 
nesia. 


Poly- 
nesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


''sr 


I... 
11 .. 
III., 
rv.. 

V... 


0.00 

11.47 
12.10 

4- 13 
>-33 


0.20 

1. 00 

0.50 

17.40 

37.83 


'•77 
1 .20 
1 . 10 
1.87 
1.50 


0.30 
0.73 
1.80 

4-73 
6.66 


















0.74 

12.04 

3.70 

2.47 


0.00 

I . II 

10.87 

70.06 


0.00 

0-55 
1.24 
2.77 


0. 12 

1.66 
4.8. 
1.23 


2.01 
2.31 
2.15 
0.72 


0.25 

1.93 

8.53 

20.34 


0-43 
0-43 
0.72 
0.80 


0.18 
3.59 


29.03 


56.93 


7-44 


14.22 


.8.95 


82.04 


4.56 


7.82 


7.19 


31.05 


2.38 


6. JO 




Tahiti. 


Marquesas. 


II 


1.60 
1.91 
2.02 
0.84 


0.29 
1.24 

9-94 
23.90 


0.13 
0. 19 
1.09 
0.96 


0.21 

2.69 
4.21 


2.90 
5.92 
2.34 
0.80 


0.04 
2.10 

22.89 


0.12 
0.49 
1. 13 
0.90 


0.00 
0.60 
2.50 
4.03 


Ill 


IV 


V 




6.37 


35-37 


2-37 


742 


11.96 


34-55 


2.64 


7-'3 



As before, the summation table for the several languages is combined 
in Table 44 with the percentage results of the quantitative examination, 
the latter set down in itaUc figures. 

It is immaterial how we interpret these findings, the artificial results 
of the employment of a modulus of quality in one set, the percentage 
results in the other. I have been content to denominate the findings of 
the qualitative investigation artificial, yet are they any more artificial 



166 



EASTER ISLAND. 



than the convention known as percentage? As well propose the doc- 
trine that gunny bags are truer textile art than the web which flows 
from Jacquard's loom in Lyons. It is only when we employ the higher 
processes that mathematics becomes instinct with vitaUty. The sim- 
plest arithmetic is as artificial as any ; at its very beginning an arbitrary 
choice is made and arithmetic is discordant on the very tips of the 
convenient fingers, for humanity splits upon the doctrine and practice 
of counting the finger that sticks up or the finger turned down, and the 
whole science is astray from the start.* 

Table 44. 





Southeast 
Polynesia- 


Polynesian. 


Proto- 
Samoan. 


TongaBti. 


Rapanui 

Paumotu 

Mangareva . . - - 
Tahiti 


29.03 

18-95 

7-19 

6-37 

1.-96 


/; 

5 
} 
2 

4 


56-93 
82.04 
31.05 
35-37 
34-55 


'4 

I 
8 


7-44 
4.36 
2.38 

2.64 




14.22 
7.82 
6.50 
7.42 
7-13 


i 
5 

3 
2 
t 


Marquesas 



It is not now really necessary to seek to interpret what meaning may 
underlie these diverse sets of figures. Speech by speech the archipelago 
has been rigidly subjected to two independent inquisitions; whatever 
sense may underlie the results in any one speech must underlie the 
results in each other, for the method of examination has been the same. 
We are justified, therefore, in a comparison of results. 

In Table 44 we shall see that two curves, qualitative and quantitative, 
of Rapanui exhibit a marked individuality. The speech is widely dif- 
ferent from Mangareva, Tahiti, and the Marquesas ; the respective curves 
are of dififerent profiles. The only language of the province which can at 
all be brought into association with Rapanui is the Paumotu ; they lie 
close together in the upper field, and far apart from the other languages. 
The two curves interlace in each series, each twice crosses the other. 
We have evidence of the association of Rapanui and the Paumotu. 

Now what conclusion are we to derive from this painful and minute 
examination? If from these computations and tabulations we can 
extract no tale of the history of folk movement in this province of South- 
east Polynesia, then is all the work as uninspired and uninspiring as the 
minute toil of the petty race of book-keepers, industrially efficient to 

*"The Polynesian Wanderings," page 365. To the instances there noted of Melanesian 
usage I would add the following from a different culture seat and phase: "When he says 
'one' he does not touch his outstretched first finger, as an English boy might do, but doubles 
up the little finger of his left hand by using the first finger of the right hand to close the little 
finger. The third and fourth fingers, bent on to the palm of the hand, indicate the number 
two. The first five numbers are always counted on the left hand by doubling up its fingers, 
one after another, by means of the forefinger of the right hand. For five the whole hand is 
shut. Six is sometimes counted by closing the left hand, opening it, and again doubling up 
the little finger. Sometimes the numbers after five are counted on the right hand by closing 
the fingers one by one, always begitming by closing the smallest finger first." Mrs. Leslie 
Milne, "The Shans at Home," page 53. 



DETERMINATION OP THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 167 

make entries in journals, to post ledgers, and with great labor to come 
to the absurd triumph of the trial balance. 

In the four languages of the province there is a wide speech group of 
broad diffusion and of considerable complexity. Our analysis sub- 
divides this speech group. We find one element of unknown antiquity, 
a corpus of Polynesian speech summed at 16,000 vocables which have 
passed from the use and memory of the others of their race. We find 
reason to consider this due to a Proto-Samoan settlement of uncer- 
tain date, but very possibly coincident with the first arrival of that 
migration swarm within the central Pacific after its divaricated Mela- 
nesian traverse. Upon this settlement was overlaid a migration of a 
later Proto-Samoan colony, refugees from Tongafiti tyranny, at a 
period, therefore, for which we have established in Samoan history the 
critical date of Matamatame, approximately (in the liistory of our own 
race) the date of the Norman Conquest. At the same time a third, 
the second overlying, settlement was made upon these parts of the 
province, the Tongafiti pursuit of Proto-Samoan fugitives. 

At a later period there entered the province, undoubtedly from lee- 
ward, as is the impulse of all Polynesian folk movement, a migration 
representing a different phase. At its place of departure the senior 
Proto-Samoan and the junior Tongafiti had been in community of asso- 
ciation so long and so intimately that the distinctive criteria of each 
language phase had passed most largely into common stock and had 
ceased to be distinctive. This later migration was caught in the Pau- 
motu chain ; only its stragglers, few in number, reached the other archi- 
pelagoes. The conditions of such voyaging depend largely upon the 
necessities of revictualing ; such a voyage must be one of halts, of crop 
colonies.* How long the sojourn upon the Paumotu really was we have 
no means of determining ; it must have been considerable to have led to 
the interlacing of the curves of the two languages as we have developed 
them. In time the voyage was resumed, whether through resumption 
of the impulse of origin, whether from inabiUty to maintain a foothold 
against the earlier inhabitants, whether in such disgust as any Western 
Polynesian would feel at the arid sands of the Paumotu, we can not now 
discover ; but resumed the voyage was, out over unknown sea toward 
the rising of the sun. Only a small part of any fleet could have made 
port in Rapanui, the last home of the Polynesian race — for the rest, sub- 
mersion. That this migration is the most recent of the folk movements 
in the province is shown by the fact that wherever found the Rapanui 
element still retains in sharp distinction its characteristic features. 

As in preceding chapters we have incorporated so much of the 
vocabulary as was pertinent to the inquiry, so at the conclusion of this 
chapter we set a finding-Ust of the vocabulary of Rapanui in sections 
arranged in respect of the prime division of the speech material. 

*"The Polynesian Wanderings," page 139. 



168 



EASTER ISIvAND. 
Data Restricted to Southeast Polynesia. 





Rapanui. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


1 

3 

3 
4 

I 

7 
8 

9 

10 

II 

13 

'3 
'4 

\l 

>7 
i8 

19 

30 
31 
33 
23 

24 

11 

37 
38 

39 
30 
31 
33 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 
48 

49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 


a ^ . 








a 


11:: 






aa 




aeu 




agu, hagu — 
ahu 


aku, haku 




ahu I 


ahu 


ahu 




ahu 2 










ahuahu 




ahu 






ai 2 






ai 




ai ^ 






ai 




aia 




aia 


aia 




aita 








aita 


akatari 






katai 




akatuu 






hakatu 




aku 2 




aku 


aku 




akni 






ukui 




akurakura 




kurakura .... 






amo 2 








amo 


anani 


anani 


anani 


anani 


anani 

anoano 


anoano 

aomai 








aomai 




arakea 






araara, uara . . 




arid 










arurua 








arurua 


atiati 1 




ati 




atiga 




hatiga 


fatina 

ato 


fatiraa 

ato 


ato 




atoga 




atoga 






auahi 




auahi 


auahi 


auahi 


avaava 2 




koava 


avaava 3 . . . . 




avaava 




avaava 


aval 






avai 


e 2 




e. 




e 


eeriki 










eete 




ete 


ete 


eteete 

ehuehu 

ei 


ehuhu 




ehu 




ei I 








ei 2 






ei 




ekieki. . . 






haaekieki 




















heetina 




haavare . 








haavare 


hagihagi 


hasrihaei , . . 




4ni4ni 










hai 2 






hai 


af ai 








houpo 




haki 




aki 


aki 


ai 


hami. . 




hami 


hami 




hanehane . 




ane 




hanohano. . . . 








hanohano 


harai 


arai 




a4hi 


haruharu 

hau 2 








haru 








aufau 

fauununaa. . . 


hau ^ 














ava 


heke 




heke 


heke 




hetuke 




etuke 

hi 


etu6 




hi 1 . . . 




hi 


hi 








hina 












hi6hi6 


hiohio 






fio 


hiti 2 






hitihiti 















DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 169 

Southeast Polynesia — Continued. 





Rapanui. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


6i 
62 

63 
64 

65 
66 

67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 

Ve 

?? 
81 
82 
83 

f4 
85 
86 

8l 
89 
90 

91 
92 

93 
94 

99 
100 
loi 
102 

10} 

104 

'°l 
106 

107 

108 

109 

no 

III 

112 

"3 
114 

III 
117 
iiS 
119 
120 


hiva 




hiva, iva .... 






hivo 










hoe 2 




oe, ohe 






honihoni 2 

hopehope 


honi 










hopee 




hopu 


hopu 






hopu 


hori 2 






oi. . 


horo 2 


horo 


















hua 






hua 




hue 2 




hue 


hue 














huhu 4 


huhu 






huhu 


hukihuki i 

ia 2 


hukihuki 




huki 






ia 


iharaa 






ihara 




iho I 










ikaDuhi 






ikapuhi 




ina I 








ina 


ka 2 




ka 




a . ... 


ka "i 




ka 


ka 


a 










haehaa 

ai 


kai I . . . 








kaihaga 






di 










kaikino 




kaiu . . 


kaiu 




kaiu 


aiu 


kakai 
















tikaue 




kami 




kami 










karu 






kato 2 




kato 


ato 


ato 


kauaha 




kouaa 


kauaha 

kavii 


peihaha 

aviri 






kcnu 




kenu 




ketu 






ketu 




keva 




kevo 






ki 2 








i 


kiakia 




kiakia 






kio 2 . 




kio 






kiokio 




kio, kiohe. . . . 






kiukiu I . . . 




kiukiu 












06 




kokotna . 








ooma 






komari 

komo 

kona 


komai, omai . . 






kokomo 

ona 


omo 


kona 












ooni 


ku 4 




ku 


ti 








ku 






kukuo 


kuku 


kukukuku .... 




uuvao 


rnaeha i 






maeoeo 






magaga 






tnaliatil 




mahatu 












mahiti 




makemakenu. . . 
tnakohe 


makenukenu 


mekanutoi . . . 






mokohe 

mama 

mamari 


mokohe 




tnatna A 




mama 








mamai 










mamau 

mamoe 



















170 



EASTER ISI.AND. 

Southeast Polynesia — Continued. 





Rapanui. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


121 
122 
123 

124 

126 
127 
128 
129 
130 

'31 
132 

134 

'35 

136 

137 
138 

'39 
140 
141 
142 
143 
'44 
145 
.46 

148 

'49 
150 

"51 

152 

'53 
154 
'55 
156 

III 
'59 
160 
161 
162 

164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
'73 
'74 

176 

'77 
178 

'79 








manavai 


anavai 

mania 


maniEra 












ma6 








/matakeke 














matakevo 




ma^t^teatca. . . . . 






matatea 


matatea 


matega 




matega 






matu 






matua i 








matua 




me 







mea 3 










mea 4. 




mea 


mea. . . . 


mea. 












meika 


meika 


meika 


meika, meia. . 
menene. . 


meia 


T"enege 






menia 










mihimihi 




mihi . 
















moeaivi 






hadivi 

moena 


ivi 


moega 


moehega 


moega 

mogugu 

mohia 










mohimohi 








moki 




moki 






mokohi 




mokohe 






more 




akamore. . . 






mori 


mori 






mori 


motare 






motara . 


mou A 






mou 




mou 5 










mou 6 








mou . . 












naaku 




naku 


na*u . . . . 


nau . 


neinei 2 

nenenene 1 


nekineki . . * 




neinei 

nenenene 








niuhi 






niuhi . . . 


no 2 






no 




noa I 


noa 








noa 2 




noa 


noa. . 




nohue 




nohu 


nohu 


nohu 

nou 


noku I 




no'u 


ohoa 2 






oho 


aaoa. 


oi I 




oi 






oko I 




oko 


oko . . 




oko 2 




oko 






okorua 




okorua . . . 






omoomo 

one 


omoomo 


omoomo 


omo 






66 


ooa 










opata 




opata 


opata 




pae 2 


paega 






paha I 








paha 

pahae 

paihi 


pahae 






nehae 


paihi 








pakakina i 

pao 


pakapakakina. . . 


pakakina .... 


pakakina 




paof ai 


paoa 




oaoa 




papaa 










para i 






■narahua 




arapha 




paraha 


pa&ha 















DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 

Southeast Polynesia — Continued. 



171 



Rapanui. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



180 
181 
182 

'?» 
184 

185 

186 

187 

188 

189 

190 

191 

192 

"93 
194 

195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 

206 

207 
208 
209 
210 
211 

212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 

234 

236 

237 
238 



pareu 

pari 

patu I 

pau I 

pau 2 

pake 

pepeke 

petehe 

peupeu 2 . . . 

pikiga 

piniku 

Pipi3 

pirari 

piriaro 

piripou. . . . 

poepoe 

poko I 

pokoga . . . . 

pokoo I 

poopo 

popo 2 

popohaga . . 
poripori 2 . . 
potupotu.. 

pua 2 

puhare 

puheenua . . 

pukao 

puku 3 

pumahana . 

raga i 

raga 2 

ragi4 

rahirahi . . . 

rapa 

rape 

rapu 

rararara. . . 

rata 2 

raukape . . . 
rauoho . . . . 

rauti 

rava6 

ravaika 

reka i 

rekireki . . . 
rere 2 



rere 4 

rere 6 

rerepe .... 

riha 

rihariha 2 . 
rimaetua . . 

ripoi 

ritarita 

ri tori to 

roajl 

rona 

ruhi 



pareu. 
pari . . 



pau. 



pareu. 
patu.. 



pareu. 
patu. . 



peke 

pekepeke . 



pepeke. 



pikiga. 



piran. 



paepae. 



pokokina . 



hakapopo. 



popo. 
popo. 



pon. 
pua. . 



pufenua. 



pumahanahana . 



puku. 



rahirahi . 



ragia 

rahirahi . 



rapu. 
rara. 
rata. 



raveika. . 

reka 

rekireki . 



repe. 



npo. 
rito. 



ruhiruhi . 



eapu. 



peepe6... . 
petehe.. . . 
ha4pe£hu . 



tapau. 
pee. . . 
pepee. 



piniku . 
pipi. . . 



poko 

pokona . 
pokona . 
popo 



piapia. . 
piriaro. 
piripou . 
paepae. 



popom. 
poriri . . 
popotu. 
pua 



pukao 

puku 

pumahana. 

dka 

dka 



popoti 

pua 

pufarefare. 

fpufanua 

\pufenua 



pumahana . . 



dhi&hi. 
&pa 



rahirahi . 



ipudpu. 



rape, 
rapu. 



6uoho . 



rauape. 
rauti. . 



ava 

avaika. 



€i... 
rere. 
«... 



i4 

ihaiha. . 
imaima. 



repe. 
riha. 



ito. 



nmaatua. 

rita 

roaa 



172 



EASTER ISLAND. 

Southeast Polynesia — Continued. 



Rapanui. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



239 
340 
241 
243 
343 
244 

345 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
351 
353 
253 
254 
255 
3;6 

357 
258 
359 
360 
261 
262 
363 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 

273 
274 

375 
276 
377 
378 
379 
280 
281 
382 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 



nunaki 

upou 

a 2 

aaku 

aana 

aka I 

akaure 

akeo 

aki 

akoe 

ana 

ao 3 

ata I 

ata 4 

ataku 

atapu 

auaki 

autau 

;ea 2 

:ekeo 

:ekiteki . . . . 

ere 

ogihia 

oke 

okoe 

oku 

00 I 

opa 2 

opa 3 

opa 6 

opapu 

otoi 

outou 

umumeika . 

upuraki 

utu 2 

utu 3 

utui 

;uu 2 

;uu 3 

uapiki 

uero 

uhuti 

urei 

ureure 

vakavaka... 

vau 

vavovavo. .. 
vekeveke . . . 
vekuveku. . . 

veo 3 

vere i 

voka 

vou 



takeo. 



takoe. 
tana.. 



tere. 



tokoe. 
toku. . 



topa. 
topa. 



tupuaki. 



tuverovero. 



rumaki . 



ta... 
taku. 



ta. 



akataka . 
takaure . . 



taki. 



tikaue . 
taki..! 



taotaovere.. 
ta 



toopuku. 



tata.. 
tatau. 



taputapu. 



touaki. 
tautau. 



akateatea. 
tekeo 



tere. 
togi. 



teki. 
tefi.. 



hadtoke^. 



toku. 
topa. 



topa 

topapu. 



too. . 
topa. 
topa. 
topa. 



tumtuneika., 



toi 

talitati 

tumumeika . 



tutu. 



tutu., 
tutu. . 
tuitui. 



tu. 
tu. 



etuvero. 
uhuti . . . 
urei .... 



uapeke . 



vakavaka. 



vekiveki. 

veo 

veri 



vavo 

vekeveke . 
veku 



veevee. 

oka 



ruporupo. 

ta 

tau , 

tana 



taeo. 



tana. . 
taapu. 



tatau. 
tauai . 



teoteo. 



tei.. 
tere. 



to'u. 



topa. 
topa. 



tupuai . 



veo 

verevere. 



vuho. 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 

General Polynesia. 



173 





Rapanui. 


Samoa. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


293 
394 

396 
297 

299 

300 

301 
302 

303 
304 

306 

309 
310 

31' 
312 

3>3 
314 

319 
320 
321 
322 
323 
324 

III 

III 
329 

330 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 

336 

337 
338 
339 
340 

341 
342 

343 
344 

346 

348 
349 
350 


a I . 


a. . . 




a . 


a 


a 


aana 


ana 








ana 


ae 








ae 


ae 


aha. . . 


a. . . . ... 


aha 


aha 

ahea, aea... 

ere 

ahi 

ahiahi 

vaho 


aha 

afea, ahea. . 

he6 

ahi 

ahiahi 

vaho 


aha 


ahea 


afea 




ahea, afea . . . 

haere 

ahi 


ahere 


To.: haele 

afi 


haere 




ahiahi 

aho I 


afiafi 


ahiahi.. .. 
vaho 


ahiahi 

vaho 


fafo 








vai 


aka 1 


a*a. 


aka.. . ... 




aka 

ako 

amo 

ana 

ao 


aa 


akoako 

amo I 

ana 1 


a'oa'o 


ako 


ako 


a6 


amo 




amo 


ana ... 


ana 


ana 


ana 




ao 






aoi 2 . . . 


aoi 




aoi aoi 




aoi 




ala 


eara 


ara 

ara 

erero 

ariki 

aro 

aroa 

aruaru 

garu 

ata 

ata 

ate 

atu 

etua 

atutiri 


a4 


ara 


ara 2 


ala. . , . 


ara 


ak. 


ara 


arero 

ariki . 




arero 

ariki 


akb 

aiki 

a6 


arero 

arii 


ali'i 




alo 


aro 




aroha 

aruaru 1 

aruaru 2 

ata I 


alofa 


aroha 


a6ha 

aliaii 

nad 

ata 

ata 

ate 

atu 

etua 

fatutii 


aroha 

aruaru 

aru. . 


alualu 


cfalu 


garu 


ata 


ata 




ata 2 


ata 


ata 


ata. 


ate 1 


ate 




ate ; 

atu. 


atu 1 


atu ... 


atu 


atua, etua .... 
atutiri 


atua 


atua 


atua 


faititili 

au 


fatitiri 


patiri 


au 2 


au 




au, hau, 


au 


au 














asu 




au 




au 


aue .... 


aue 


aue 


aue, auhe... 


aue, auhe. . . 

ava 

ava 

vahi 

e 


aue 




va 






ava 2 . . 


ava 


ava 


ava 

vahi 

e 


ava. . 


avahi 

e I . 


f asi 






e 




e. . . . 




e 




e 






e 4 


e 


e 




e 


e. . . 


Ik :::.:::: 


le 




te 








ea 




ea 






eaho. . . 


afo 




aho 

>enuhe 

ehu 


aho 

nuhe 

ehu 


aho 


eanuhe 

ehuehu i 

ehuehu 2 

6ke 


anuf e 


f anuhe 

\hanuhe 


anuhe 


efu 


'efu 




ehuehu 

ee. . . 


e'e 


eke;:::;:::;: 


eke 

ena 

ati 


eke 

ena 

ati 




lena 






etu 


ati 




ati 


earo 


galo 


garo 


garo 

garu 

ganu-u 

gau 


na6 

naii 


aro 


garu I 

garuru 

eau 


galu 


garu 




galulu 




naliu 




gau 


gau, gahu 


nahu 




ge 


gege 






gorogoro 

oni tU 


gogolo 


gooro 

gutu 


goro 






gutu 


gutu 

ha 


nutu 

ha 


utu 


ha 1 


fa 




ha 


haga I 


f aga 






hana 













174 



EASTER ISLAND. 
General Polynesia — Continued. 



Rapanui. 



Samoa. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 

359 
360 
361 
362 

363 
364 

365 
366 
367 
36S 
369 
370 
371 
372 
373 
374 
375 
376 

377 
378 
379 
380 
381 
382 
383 
384 

385 
386 
387 
388 
389 
390 

39" 
392 

393 
394 
395 
396 
397 
398 
399 
400 
401 
402 
403 
404 
405 
406 
407 
408 
409 



haga 2 

hagahuru.. 

hagai 

haha i . . . . 
hahao 2 . . . 

hahie 

haka 

hakahaka . 

hamae 

hanau 

hanuamia.. 
hapai 



hara 1 

hara 2 

hare 

hata I 

hata 2 

hati 

hatu I 

hau I 

hau 4 

hea 

heguhegu 2 . 

hei 

henua i 

here i 

heruheru. . . 

hetu I 

hia I 

hiahia 

hipa 

hipu 

hira 

hiri I 

hiri 2 

hiro 

hiti I 

hitu 

ho 3 

hoa I 

hoe I 

hogi 2 

hoki 1 , 2 

honihoni i . . 
honohono. . . 

honu 

horahora . . . 

horo I 

horo 3 

horo 4 

horoi I 

hou I 

hou 2 

hua 2 

hue I 

hugahuga. . . 

huhuru 

hukihuki 2 . . 
huri I 



aga 

gafulu 

fafaga 

To.: fafa. 

sao 

f afie 

fa'a 

sa'a 

ama 

fanau .... 
nuanua... 
sapai .... 



haga. 



f agai . 
fafa. . 



faka. 



ama. . 
fanau . 



fala. 
sala. 
fale. 
fata, 
fata, 
f ati . 
fatu. 
fau. . 



hopoi . 



fare... 
afata. 
vata. . 
fati... 
pifatu. 
fau . . . 



sau 

fea 

feguigui. 

sei 

f anua . . . 

sele 

selu 

fetu 

fia 

si'a 

sipa 

ipu 

sisila, . . 

sili 

fill 

filo 

fiti 

fitu 

foa'i .... 

soa 

foe 

sogi 

fo'i 



hea. 



henua. 
here . . 
heru. . 
hetu. . 
hia. . . 
ika. . . 



in. . 
hiri. 



hiti... 
ahito . 
ho.... 
hoa. . . 



hogi. 
hoki. 



som 

f ono 

To.: fonu. 

fofola 

folo 

solo 

soloi 

soloi 

To.:fofou. 

f ou 

f ua 

fue 

fuga 

fulu 

su'i 

suli 



hohora. 
horo . . . 
horo. . . 



hou 

hou 

hua, ua. 

hue 

huga 

huru . . . . 
huki . . . . 



haga, aga. 
rogouru. . . 
agai 



hao. . . 
vehie . 
aka. . . 
haka.. 
ama. . 
hanau. 



anuanua. 
apai .... 



ara, hara. 

ara 

hare 

avata. . . . 
kohata... 
ati, hati.. 
atu, hatu. 
hau, eau . . 

hau 

hea, ea. .. 



enua. 
ere. . 



etu 

hia 

hika 

hipa, ipa. 
ipu 



in 

hiri 

hiro, iro. . . 

hiti 

itu 

o 

hoa, oa. . . 
hoe, ohe. . 

ogi 

hoki, oki.. 



hono 

honu, onu. 

hohora 

horo, oro.. 
oro, ohoro. 

oro 

horoi, oroi, 
hou, ou. . . 

hou 

hua 

hue 

huga, uga . . 
huru, uru. . . 
huki, uki.. . 
huri 



hana 

onohull. 
hakai . . 

fafa 

f ao . . . . . 
vehie . . , 

haka 

haka 



anuanua. 
hapai ... 



fa4. . 
hara. 
fae... 
fata., 
fata. . 
fati.. 
fatu. . 
fau. . 
hau. . 
hea. . 



hei . . . 
fenua. 
he6... 
heti. . . 
fetu. . . 
fia. . . . 
hika. . 
hipa. . 
ipu. . . 
hiri . . . 



hii.. 
fi6.. 
fiti. 
fitu. 



hoa. . 
hoe. . 
honi. 
hoi. . 



honu. . , 
hohod. 
ho6. . . , 
ho6.... 

ho6 

ho6i . . , 

hou 

hou. . . . 

hua 

hue 

huna. . . 
hud. . . . 
huki . . . 
hui 



haa 

ahum.. . 

faaai 

fafa 

fafao 

vahie . . . 
faa, haa. 



ama ama. . 

fanau fanau. 



anuanua. 



apai 

hapoi, hopoi. 

fara 

hara 

fare 

fata 

fata 

fati 

fatu 

fau 

hau 

hea 



hei 

fenua 

here 

heru 

fetu, fetia. 

hia 

hia 

hipa 

ipu 

hira 



in 

fin 

hiro 

hiti 

hitu 

ho 

hoa 

hoe 

hoi 

hoi 

honi 

hono 

honu 

hora 

horo 

horo 

horo, oro. 
horoi .... 

hou 

hou 

ua 

hue 



huru. 
but. . 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 
General Polynesia — Continued. 



175 



Rapanui. 



Samoa. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva, 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



410 
411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
416 

4>7 
418 
419 
420 
421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 

427 
428 
429 
430 
431 

432 
433 

434 
435 
436 

437 
438 

439 
440 

441 
442 

443 
444 
445 
446 

447 
448 

449 
450 

45" 
452 

453 
454 
455 
456 

457 
458 

459 

460 

461 
462 
463 
464 
465 
466 
467 



huri 2 . . . 
hutihuti . 
i 

ia 3 

igoa 

iho 3 

ihu 

ika I . . . . 

iku 

inaki. . . . 
iti 



fuli 

f uti 

i 

ia 

igoa 

ifo 

isu 

i'a 

i'u, si'u. 
'ina'i . . . 

iti 

iva 



huri . 
huti. 



huri, uri . 

huti 

i 

ia 

igoa 

iho, io. . . 

ihu 

ika 

iku 

inaki 

iti 

iva 



hui.. 
huti. 



huri . 
huti. 



ivi I , 

kahu 

kai 4 

kakea .... 
kaokao.. . . 

kata 

katikati. . 

kau 

kauha. ... 
kauvae. . . , 

kauae 

kava 

kavakava. 

kave 

kavega 

kavei , 

kekekeke. . 
kerekere. . 

keri 

kete 

ki I 

kia 2 

kiko 

kiore 

kiri 

kirikiri . . . . 

kite 2 

ko 3 

koa 2 

koe I 

korae 

korua 

koti 

koura 2 

kua 2 

kuku 2 . . . . 
kumara..., 
kumi I . . . . 
kumi 2 . . . . 

kupega 



kurakura. . 

kuri 

kutu 

ma I 

ma 2 

maamaa 3 . 
maga 1 . . . . 



Igoa. 
iho. . 
ihu. . 
ika. . 



ivi 

'afu 

'ai 

'a'e 

'ao'ao... 

'ata 

'ati 

'au 

Ufa, fufa. 
'auvae . . 



kahu 

kai 

kake 

kaokao . 
kata. . . . 
kakati . . 

kau 

huha 



ava. . . 
va'ava'i 
'avei... 



kauae. 
kava.. 



kave. 



ave. ... 

'avei 

'e'e 

'ele'elea. 

'eli 

'ete 

'i 

'ia 

'i'o 

'iole .... 

'ili 

'ili'ili. . . 

'ite 

'o 

'oa'oa.. . 

'oe 

lae 

'oulua 

'oti 

ula 

'ua 

'u'u 

'umala. . . 

'umi 

'umi 

'upega . . . 

'ula 

•uli 

'utu 

ma 

ma 

mama.... 
maga . . . . 



keke. 
kere. 
keri. . 



ki. 



kiore. 
kiri . . . 
kiri . . , 
kite.. 



koa. . . 
koe. . . 
rae . . . 
korua. 
koti . . 



kumara . 



kupega. 

kura. . . 
kuri . . . , 

gutu 

ma .... 
mataki. 



la 

inoa. 
iho. . 
ihu. . 
ika. . 
hiku . 
inai.. 
iti . . . 
iva. . 



XVI 

kahu 

kai 

kake 

kaokao . 
kata. . . . 



ivi 

kahu 

kai 

kake 

kaokao . . . 
kata 



kau. 
uha. 



kau. 



la 

i6a . . . 
iho . . . 
ihu. . . 

ia 

hiu. . . 
inai... 

iti 

iva. . . 

ivi 

ahu. . . 

ai 

ae . . . . 
aodo. . 
ata . . . 

ati 

au . . . . 
hufaa. 



kouae . . . . 

kava 

vakavaka. 
kavei 



kouvae 

kouae 

kava 

vakavaka. 

kavei 

kave 



auae. 
ava.. 



kavei . 
keke. . 
kere. . 
keri . . . 



kere. 
kei. . 
kete. 



ki 

kia 

kiko . . . . 
kiore. . . 

kiri 

kiri 

kite 

ko 

koakoa . 
koe 



ere. 
eri., 
ete. 
i 



la 

kiko 

kio£, io6. 

kii 

kii 

kite, ite. . 



rae 

korua. . . 

koti 

ura 

kua 

kuku 

kumara. 
kumi . . . . 



koakoa. . 

koe 

ae 

kotia 

koti, oti.. 
koua, ua. 



la 

i6.... 
iore.. 
iri . . . 
iri . . . 
ite... 
6.... 
oaoa. 
oe. . . 
rae. . 
orua. 
6ti... 
oura. 



kuku, uu. 
kumai. . . 
kumi 



uu 

umara, umaa. 
umi 



kupega. 

kura. . . 
kuri . . . 
kutu. . . 
ma .... 

ma 

mama. . 
maga . . 



fupena. 
\upea. . 
ua . . . . 



kutu, utu. 

ma 

maamaa. . 



mpea. 

ura. . 
uri . . . 
kutu. 
ma. . . 



mana. 



176 



EASTER ISLAND. 
General Polynesia — Continued. 





Rapanui. 


Samoa. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


468 
469 
470 

47' 
472 
473 

474 
475 

476 

477 

478 
479 
480 
481 
482 
483 
484 
485 
486 

487 
488 

489 
490 
491 
492 

493 
494 
495 
496 

497 
498 
499 
500 

501 

502 

503 
504 

505 
506 
507 
508 
509 
510 
511 
512 


maga 4 

magaro 

mageo 




maga 

magaro 


maga 

magaro . . . . 


mana 

manao 

maneo 

meneo 


mai 


magaro 

mageso 


maaro 

mae6 




megeo 

Tmahana 

\maana 

maharo .... 
mahina. . . . 
maina 


mahana I 

mabaro 

mahina 


maf ana 

masalo 


mahana 

maharo 


Imahana — 
maha6 


mahana 




mahina .... 












mai I 


mai 


mai 


mai 

matikuku . . 
matekuku . . 

makona. . . . 

\ 


mai, mei. . . 
maikuku . . . 
matiuu 


mai, mei 

maiuu 


maikuku 


mai'u'u 

mati'u'u 


maikuku 


makona 

makupuna .... 

mama 1 

mama 2 

mama 3 


ma'ona 

^p . fmakabuna . 
■ 'Imokobuna . 


makona 

makupuna 

mokopuna — 
mama 


f makona. . .. 




\maona 




moupuna. . . 




/ 




mama 

mama 

mama 

mana 

manava 

mano 

manu 

mao 




mama 

mama 


mama 


mama 






mana 

manava 

mano 

manu 


mana 

manava 

mano 

manu 


mana 

menava .... 

mano 

manu 

mao 

rmaama. . . . 
\meama 


manava 

mano 


manava 

mano . 


manu 


manu 


maoa i 

marama 

maramarama . 
mare 




malama 

malamalama . . . 
male 






Vmarama 

maramarama. 
mare 


maramarama. 
mare . . . . 






mad 

meie 


marie 

maro 2 

marumaru .... 

mata i 

mata 2 

mata 3 

mata 4 

mata 5 

mata 6 

mata 7 

mataara 

matagi 

mataku 

matamataki . . 

matapo 

matara 

matau i 


malie 




marie 

maro 


marie 

maro 

maru 

mata 

mata 






malu 


maru 

mata 

mata 

mata 


maru 

mata 

mata 


mad 

mata 

mata 


mata 








mata 

mata 










mata 




mata 




mata 


mata 






mata 

mataara . . . 

matagi 

mataku .... 






mata4 




matagi 


matagi 

mataku 


metani 

metad 


matai 

matati 

mataitai 

matapo 

matara 

atau 


mata'u 


Fu.: mataki.. . . 

matapo 

matala 


matapo 

matara 


matapo .... 
akamata. . . 


matapo .... 


matau . 










mate 

matoru .... 

matua 

motua 

mau 

mau 


mate 

fmatoutou . 




matoru 

matua 2 


matolu . . 










matua. . . 


makua 


matua 

motua 

mau 


metua 

metia 

mau 




mau 6 

mau 7 

maua 2 

maute 

mea 2 


mau 










maua 




maua 

ute 

mea 

mimi 

miro 

miti 

moa 

moana 


maua 

aute 


aute 


aute 


eute 

mea 

mimi 

miro 

miti 

moa 

moana 










mimi 

miro 


mimi 

miro 


miro 


milo. 










moa. . . 


moa . . 


moa . . . 


moa 


moana 


moana 


moana 


moana 





DETERMINATION OF THE PL,ACE OF RAPANUI. 
General Polynesia — Continued. 



177 



Rapanui. 



Samoa. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



513 
5 '4 

5>5 
516 
5"7 

518 
5'9 

$30 
521 
522 

524 
$26 

5*7 
528 
529 
530 

531 

532 
533 

534 

535 

536 

537 
538 
539 
540 

54" 
542 
543 
544 

546 
547 
548 
549 
550 
55' 
552 
553 
554 

"I 
556 

557 

558 

559 
$60 

562 

563 
564 

565 

566 



moe.. 
mogo. 



moko I . . 

motu 

mouga 2. 



mounu. 



mua 

muri. . . 

na 2 

na 3 

nei 

niho 

niu 

no I 

noa 3 . . . 
noho. . . 
nohoga. 
noma. ,. 



nonot . 



nui. 
o 3. 



oe I . 
oge. 
oka. 



oone 

ora 2 

ora 5 

orooro 

otaota 

pa I 

pa 3 

paa 

pae 3 

paepae. . . 

pahu 

papa 

papae .... 

para 2 

pehea .... 

pia 

piki 

pikipiki . . 
piko 2 . . . . 

pipi4 

Piri3 

piro 

pito 

po I 

po 2 

poko 2 

popo I 

popopopo. 
poporo . . . 
poto 



moe. 



mago. 
mo'o. . 
motu. 



mauga . 



maunu. . . 

mua 

muli 

na 

a 

nei 

nifo 

niu 

o 

noa 

nof o 

nofoa. . . . 
momona . 

fa'anoi. . . 



ntu. 
o. . , 

'oe. 



oge. 
o'a. 



one 

ola 

ola 

olo 

otaota 

pa 

patagata. . . 

pa 

pae 

paepae 

pusa 

papa 

paeaso 

pala 

pefea 

pia 

pi'i 

pi'ipi'i. . . . 
pi'o 

Pipi 

pilipili .... 

pilo 

pitopito.. . 

po 

po 

To.: boko. 

po 

popo 

polo 

poto 



moe. 



moe. 



mago. 
moko. 
motu. 



mahuga. 



mago . . 
moko . . 
motu. . 
mou. . . 
maga. . 
mounu. 



moe . . . 
mono. . 
mano. . 
moko . . 
motu . . 
mouna . 



moe. 



ma6. . 
mo6. . 
motu. 
moua. 
maua. 



mounu . 



mua. 
muri. 



mua. 
muri. 



na. . . 
nei... 
niho. 
niu. . 
no. . . 
noa. . 
noho. 



na. . . 
nei... 
niho. 
niu. . 
no. . . 



noho 

nohoga... 
momona . 



nui. 
o. . , 



koe. . . 

hoge. . 
fhoka. 
\eoka. . 



koe. 
oge. , 

>oka. 



mua 

mui 

na 

na 

nei 

niho 

niu 

no 

noa 

noho 

nohona.. 
momona. 

("nonoi 

\inoi 

nui 

o 

fkoe 

[oe 

one 

oka 



maunu. 
mua. . . 
muri. . . 

na 

na 

nei 

niho . . . 
niu. . . . 

no 

noa. . . . 
noho. . . 



nm. 
o. . , 



^oe. 
06. 



ora. 
ora. 



one. 
ora. 
ora. 
oro. 



ota. 
pa.. 



pa. 



pa. 
pa. 
pa. 



ota. 
pa.. 



one. 
ora. 
ora. 
oro. 
ota. 
pa.. 



paepae. 



papa. 



paepae . 
pahu. . . 
papa. . . 



paepae. 
pahu. . . 
papa. . . 



pa 

pae 

paepae. 
pahu... 
papa. . . 



pia 

piki 

tupikipiki . 
piko 



para, 
peea. 
pia. . 
piki.. 



paa. . . 
pehea. 
pia . . . 
piki . . . 



para . . 
pehea. 
pia. . . 
pii.... 



piripin. 

piro 

pito 

po 

po 

poko. . . 
po 



poto. 



piko. 
pipi.. 
piri. . 
piro.. 
pito.. 
po... 
po... 
poko. 
po... 
popo. 



poto. 



piko . . . . 

pipi 

pii 

piro 

pito 

po 

po 

pokona. 



popo. 
poto. 



pio 

pipi 

piri 

piro 

pito 

po 

po 

po6po6. 
popo.. . 



oporo . 
poto . . 



178 



EASTER ISLAND. 

General Polynesia — Continued. 



Rapanui. 



Samoa. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



567 
568 
569 
570 
571 

572 
573 
574 
575 

576 

577 
578 
579 
580 
581 
582 
583 
584 
585 
;86 
587 

588 

589 
590 

59' 
592 

593 
594 

595 
596 
597 
598 
599 
600 
601 
602 
603 
604 
605 
606 
607 
608 
609 
610 
611 
612 
613 
614 
615 
616 
617 
618 
619 
620 
621 
632 



pou . . . 
pouri . . 
pu I . . . 
pua I . . 
puaka . 



puga I. 
puhi . . . 
puke. . 
puna. . 

punua . 



pupu I . . . 
pure I . . . . 
pure 2 . . . . 
purepure. 

puru 

putuputu . 

ra I 

ra 2 

raa i 

ragi 1 

rage 

ragua . . . . 

rahui 

rakau i . . . 

rama 

raraga 

raro 

rata i 



rau I . . . . 

rau 2 . . . . 

raua 

rava 5 . . . 
rehu I . . . 

rei 

reo I . . . . 
rere i . . . 
rikiriki. . 
rima I . . . 
rima 2 . . . 
rimu. . . . 

riri 

roa 

rogo I . . . 
rogo 2 . . . 
roto 2 . . . 
rou 2 . . . . 

ru 

rua I 

rua 3 

ruga 

ruku .... 

ta3 

tagata... 

tagi 

taha I . . . 
tahaga i . 



pou. . 
pouli . 
pu... 
pua. . 



pou . . 
pouri. 



pua. . . 
puaka. 



pou. . . 
pouri. . 
pu.... 
pua. . . 
puaka. 



pou. 



pua a 

puga 

To.:bubuhi. 

pu'e 

puna 

punua 



pupu 

pule 

pule 

pulepule.. 

pulu 

putuputu. 

la 

la 

la 

lagi 

lago 

aluga. . . . 

lafu 

la'au 

lama 

lalaga 

lalo 

lata 

lau 



pua. . 
puhi. 
puke, 
puna. 



lau 

laua 

fa'alava.. 

lefu 

lei 

leo 

lele 

li'i 

lima 

lima 

limu 

lili 

loa 

logo 

logo 

loto 

lou 

lulu 

lua 

lua 

luga 

To.: uku. 

ta 

tagata . . . 

tagi 

tafa 

tafaga. . . 



pupu 

pure 

pure 

purepure . 



puga. . 
puhi . . 
puke., 
ptuia. . 

punua. 

pupu. . 
pure. . 



pu.... 

pua 

puaka. 
pua4. . . 
puna. . 
puhi . . 
puke. . . 
puna. . 

punua. 



purepure . . 



pure . . . 
pu6 .... 
puepu6. 



putu. 
ra. . . 



putuputu. 



ragi.... 
rago . . . 

ruruga. 

rahui . . 
rakau. . 
rama. . 
raraga . 
raro. . . 
rata. . . 



rau. 



reo, reko. 

rere 

riki 



rima. 
rimu. 
riri . . 
roa. . 



rogo. 
roto. 
rou. . 
ruru. 



rua. . 
ruga. 



ta 

tagata . 
tagi... 



ra 

ra 

ragi... 
rago. . . 

uruga. . 

rahui . . 
rakau.. 
rama. . 
raraga . 
raro. . . 



/rau 

\rou 

rau 

raua 

ravatua. 
rehu .... 

rei 

reo 

rere 

riki 

rima. . . . 

rima 

rimu. . . . 

riri 

roa 

rogo 

rogo 

roto .... 

rou 

ru 

rua 

rua 

ruga 

ruku 

ta 

tagata . . 

tagi 

taha. . . . 
tahaga. . 



putu . . 

a 

a 

a 

4ni . . . 
dno. . . 

turua. 

ahui. . 
dkau. . 
4ma. . 
dina. . 
46.... 
4ta... 
4u. . . . 
6u.... 
4u. . . . 
4iia... 



6hu. 
«... 
do.. 



pou . . 
pouri. 
pu..., 



pua4 

pu4 

puhi 

pu6 

puna 

Ipunua 

\pinia 

pupu 

pure 

pure 

purepure . 



putuputu. 
ra 



iki 

ima 

ima 

imu 

riri 

6a 

6no 

6no 

6to 

6u 

ti 

Ha. 

lia 

lina 

dku 

ta 

enata .... 

tani 

taha 

tahakahaka 



ra . . . . 

rai 

ra6 . . . 
fturua. 
\urua. . 
rahui . 
ra4u. . 
rama. 
raraa . 
raro . . 
rata . . 



rau. . 
raua. 



rehu. 



reo . . . . 

rere 

rii 

rima.. . 
rima. . . 
rimu. . . 

riri 

roa. . . . 
ro6 



roto. . . . 

rou 

ruru. . . . 

rua 

rua 

nua, nia. 



ta 

taata . 
tai.... 
taha. . 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 



179 



General Polynesia — Continued. 





Rapanui. 


Samoa. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


623 

625 
626 

628 
629 
630 

632 

P^ 
634 

635 
636 
637 
638 
639 
640 
641 
642 
643 
644 
645 

646 

t% 
649 
650 

P' 
652 

654 
655 
656 
657 
658 

660 
661 
662 
663 
664 
66; 
666 

669 

670 
671 
672 
673 
674 

677 

678 
679 


tahe 1 

tahi 


tafe. 


tahe 


tahe 

tahi 

tahua 

tahuri 

tai 


tahe 

tahi 

tauna 


tahe 






tahi 


tahuga 

tahuri 

tai I 


tufa 






tafuli 


tahurihuri 


tahuihui . . . 
tai 


tahuri 

tai 


tai 


tai 2 


tai 




tai 


tai 


tai 


taka 3 

takai 


ta'a 


taka 




taka 

takai 


taa 


ta'ai . . 


takai 


takai 


taai 


taku 




tau 


tama i 

tamaiti 

tamaroa 

tanu 


tama 


tama 


tama 


tama 

temeiti .... 
tama6a. . . . 

tanu 

tao 

tapa 


tama 

tamaiti 

tamaroa 

tanu 


tamaiti 


tamaloa 




tamaroa . . . 

tanu 

tao 

tapa 

tapa 

tapu 

tara 


tanu 


tanu . . . 


tao I 


tao 




tao 


tapa I 

tapa 2 

tapu 


taoa 






tapa 




tapa 

tapu 

tad 

ta4 


topa 


tapu 


tanu 


tapu. . . 


tara 2 

tara 3 

tarai 2 

tariga 

taro 


ta a 


tara 


tara 


tala 


tara 




talai 


tarai 


tarai 

teriga 

taro 

tata 


ta.ki 

puaina 

ta6 

tata 


tarai 


talijra 


tariga 


taria 


talo 


taro 


tata 2 

tatari 

tatou 


To.: tata 

tatali 


tata . . . 




tatari 


/tatai 

\tetai 

tatou 

tau 

tau 

tau 

katau 


>tatari 

tatou 

tau 


tatou . . . . 


tatou 

tau. 


tatou 

tau 

tau 


tau I 


tau 


tau ^ 


tau 


tau 


tau , 


tau 4 


tau 


tau. 


tau 


tau s 


tau 






tau. . . 


tau 6 


tau 








taua I 

taua 2 

tea I 


tau 




tau 

taua 

tea 

tehe 

teina 

tete 

ti 


tau 




taua 




taua 




tea 


tea 


tea 

tehe 

teina, tei4.. 

tete 

ti 


tea . . . 


tehe 3 

teina 


tefe 


tehe . . 


tehe 


tei 


teina 


teina . 


tete 


tete 




tete 


ti 1 


ti 




ti 


tigai 


tinei 




tinai 

tikei 

tiko 

tino 


tinai 

tike 

tiko 

tino, nine . . 




tikea 


'ite 


kite 


ite.. 


tiko 


ti'o 


titiko 

tino 


titio 


tino 


tino 


tino 


titiro 


tilo 






toa 1 


toa 




toa 

toe 

toga 

toka 


toa 

toe 

toka 

toka 




toega 


toe 


toe 


toe 


toga I 

toka 


toga 


to^a. 


toa. . 


to'a 






tokerau 


to'elau 


tokerau 


toerau 






tokorau 

toki 

toko 

tomo 

toko 

toru 

toto 

totoro 

toua 




toki 


to'i 


toki . . 


toki 

toko, to6. . . 

tomo 

toko, to6... 

toru 

toto 

toto6 

toua 


toi . 


tokotoko 


to'oto'o 


toko 


too 


tomo 


tomo 


too 3 


to'a 


toru 


tolu 




toii 


toto 


toto 




toto 


totoro 

toua 


totolo 


totoro 


totoro 




taua 


taua 








tua I 


tua 


tua . 


tua 

tuha 


tua 

tuha 

tufa 


tua 


tuha 






tuha 




tufa 




tufa. . . . 















180 



EASTER ISIvAND. 
General Polynesia — Continued. 





Rapanui. 


Samoa. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


680 
681 
682 
683 

684 

685 

686 

689 
690 
691 
692 
693 
694 

696 
697 
698 
699 

700 
701 
702 
703 
704 
705 

]% 
709 
710 

7'i 
712 
713 
7'4 
7'5 
716 
717 

718 

719 
720 
721 
722 

723 
724 

726 
727 


tuhi I 

tuke2 

tukituki 

tuku 


tusi 


tuhi 


tuhi 


tuhi 




tu'e 








tu'i 


tuki 


tuki 

tuku 

tunu 

tupu 

tupuna 

ttiri 

turu . . 


tuki 

tuku 

tunu 

tupu 

tupuna 


tui 


tu'u 


tuku 




tunu 


tunu 




tunu 


tupu 


tupu 


tupu 


tupu 


tupuna 

turi 


tupuga 


tupuna 

turi 


tupuna 

turi 


tui 


turu I 

tutu 4 

tutu 5 

tuu I 


tulu 






tuturu 


tutu 




tutu 

tutu 

tu 


tutu. 


tu 




tutu 

tu 


tu 


tu 




tu. . 


ua I 


ua 




ua 


ua 


ua 


ua2 


ua 


ua 








uhi 




uhi 


uhi 


uhi 






ufi 




ufi 


uira 2 

uma 


uila 






uia 

uma 

umu 

unahi 




lima , . , 




uma 

umu 

unahi 

unu 


ouma 


umu 


umu 


llTnll , 


unahi 


unafi 


unahi 


unahi 


unu 






inu 






inu 

ui 




ura 1 


ula 




ura 

ura 

ura 

ure 

uriuri 

uru 

uta 

uta 

utuhi 




ura 2 


ula 




ua 




uraura 

ure 


'ula 'ula 

ule 


kura 


ua 




ure 


06 

uiui 

uu 




uriuri 

uru I 


uliuli 


uriuri 


uri 


ulu 




uta I 


uta 




uta 

uta 




uta 2 


uta 


uta. . . 




uutu 


utu 






va 2 


va 




va 


vaa 

vae 

vaena 

vai 

vaipuna 

vaka 

vanana 


fvaevae 

\avae 


vae I 

vaega 

vai 


vae 


vae 


vavae 

vaega 

vai 

vaipuna. . . . 

vaka 

vanaga 


vaega 


vaega 


vaehaa 


vai 


vaipuga 

vaka 


vaipuna 




vaipuna 


va'a 


vaka 


vanaga 

vare 2 

varu I 

varu 2 

vavae 

vera 

vere 2 

veri I 

veri 2 

vero I 

vetevete 

veve 


vagana 


vanaga 


vanaa 


vale 




avaru 


varu 

varu 


vaii 

vali 


fvaru 


valu 


1 vau 


varU; vau 


vae 




vevela 


vera 


vera 

vere 

veri 


vera, vea . . 


vera, vea 


vele 




veli 


veri 


vei 




veli 


veri 




velo 




vero 




■ ■ ' ■ ' 


vevete 




vete vete . 1 




vave 


vave 


vave 

veva 

viri 


vave 

veve 














728 


viri 


vili 


viri 


viS viri 1 


Proto-Samoan. 


729 
730 
73' 
732 
733 
734 


aanu 


anu 




anuanu 






k^ 


'o'e 


koke 




6^ 


arovae 

atariki 

atiati 2 

64 


alofi vae 










atali'i 




atariki 


ataiki 




atia'i 








e 




e 


e 


e 

















DETERMINATION OF THE PlyACE OF RAPANUI. 
Proto-Samoan — Continued. 



181 





Rapanui. 


Samoa. 


Paumotu. 


Mangareva. 


Marquesas. 


Tahiti. 


735 
736 

737 
738 
739 
740 

74 > 

742 
743 

744 

746 
747 
748 

749 
750 

75' 
752 
753 

754 

756 
757 
758 
759 
760 
761 
762 
763 
764 
765 
766 
767 

768 
769 
770 
771 
772 
773 
774 
775 
776 
777 
778 

Wo 

782 

783 
784 

785 
786 

789 
790 
79' 


egaega 

eo 


enaena 




eca 






elo 




eo 


eo 


veoveo 

aeae 


gaegae 

gam 2 

gogoro 


eae 




faeaea 

\gaegae 


naenae 








gogolo . 




gogoro 
















hahi 






hahi 


hahi 






afi 




fafi 


afifi 


hahoa 










musumusu 


muhumuhu. . . 




muhiunuhu. 


muhu 


hahumuhumu . 
hai 1 . 






sai 










haiga 


fa'iga 










hariu 


faliu 


fariuke 


ariu 


f aiu, haiu . . 


fariu 


haro I 

heguhegu i . . . 

heguigui 

hehegaraa. . . . 

henua 3 

hakahepo 

hika 


falo 




f ecTO .... 




















sesega ... 










f anaf anua 










fa'alepo 




















hogehoge 

huna 


sosogo 


hogohogo 


hogohogo . . 


/honohono . . 








fa'afuna 






hurehiu-e 

ia 1 


To.: hafule 




huhure 






'ia 




ia 


ia 


ia 








iko 

kape 


hike 




kaoe 


'ane 




kape, ape . . 


ane 


kauga 

kauiui 

kaukau 2 

kumi 2 

mae . . 


'auga 
















'au'au 




















mae .... 




mae 






mahaga 

mahani 


To.: talimahaga 
masani 












mahani .... 
maki 


mahani .... 






maki 






mai 2 






mai 

maka 


mai 






maka 


maka 

maramara. . 


maa 


mamara 1 . . . . 

manau 

matahi 

mataki 

matatoa 

mau4 

mautini 

mea i 

meitaki 

migosigosi 


malala. 














matai ... 










To ' mataki 










matatoa 




















mautini 


mautini 




mautini .... 


mauteni 

mea 






Niue: mitaki. . . 


maitaki 


meitetaki . . 


meitai 


maitai 






mo 






moko 2 

momomomo. . 

mou I 

mouku 

naa 












motaomo 










mou. . . 












mauku 




mouku 




na 






hakana .... 




nako 


ofa'o 


akohaga 




nako, kao . . 


ao 


namunamu 

nikoniko 

nivaniva 


lamu 




namunamu 




ni'o 


















nivaniva 

neneva 

puahiohio .... 










ohiohio 

okooko 










o'oo'o . 








ootea 








oatea 















182 



792 
793 
794 

795 
796 
797 
798 

799 
8oo 
8oi 

802 

803 
804 
805 
806 
807 
808 
809 
810 
811 
8u 
813 
814 
815 
816 
817 
818 
819 
820 
821 
822 
823 
824 
825 
826 
827 
828 
829 
830 
831 
832 
833 
834 
835 
836 

837 
838 



EASTER ISLAND. 
Proto-Samoan — Continued. 



Rapanui. 



pagaha 2 . . . 

parau 

pe I 

pe 2 

pei 

pena 

poga 

poki 

pokopoko. . 

poro 

pu 2 

puku 4 

pnra 

puta 

rakei 

ranorano . . , 
rarama. ... 

rava i 

rava 2 

rava 4 

roe 

roturotu i . 

rua 2 

tae I 

taga 2 

taha 2 

tarotaro. . . 

tatau 

tau 2 

tiaki I 

to-u 

tuaivi 

tuhai 

tuki 2 

tupa I 

tutu I 

tutua 

tuu 5 

ueue 1 

uiui 

ukauka 2 . . 

uki 

uru 4 

vaha I . . . . 

vaivai 

varavara 1 . 
varevare 2 



Samoa. 



paga 

To.: balau. 



pel 

pe 

pei 

pena 

pogaiisu . . . 

po'i 

po'opo'o. . 
polo 

pu 

pu'u 

pula 

puta 

la'ei 

lano 

lama 

lava 

To.: lava. 

lava 

loi 

lotu 

luai 

To. : tae . . 

taga 

tafa 

talosaga . . 

tatau 

tau 

tia'i 

to'u 

tuasivi . . . . 

tuai 

tu'itu'i 

tupa 

tutu 

tutua 

tu 

lue 



ui 

u'a 

Viti: dhuki. 

uluulu 

vasa 

vaivai 

valavala . . . . 
valevale . . . . 



Paumotu. 



parau. 



rakei . 



rave. 



roe. . . 
rotu. . 
ruaki . 



tutu. 



Mangareva. 



pe. 



rakei . 



rarama. . . 
ravehaga. 
rave 



ro. . . 
rotu. 
ruai. 



tahataha. 



tau. 



tutupa . 
tutu. . . 
tutua. . 



ukauka. . 
uki, huki. 



vaha. 



Marquesas. 



peau. 



pokopoko . 



&4ma. 



o. . . 
6tu. 
da. . 



tataoho. 



tupa. . 
tutu. . 
tutua . 



kaueue. 



ukakoki . 
uki 



vaha. . . 
vaivai . 



Tahiti. 



parau. 



rave, 
rave. 



ro. . . 
rotu. 
ruai. 



tarotaro . 



tupa . . 
tutu. . 
tutua . 



ue. . . 
uaua. 



vaha. 



Tongafiti. 



Rapanui. 



Maori. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



839 
840 
841 
842 
843 
844 
845 
846 



aaki 

ariga. . . . 
ekapua. . 

eva 

eve I . . . . 

gaa 

garahu i 
garara.. 



whaki. .. 

aria 

heka.. . . 
hewa. . . 

ewe 

ngawha . 
ngarahu. 
ngarara. 



faki 

hekaheka . 



faki, haki. 



eka 

eva, heva. 



heka. 
eva. . 



eve .... 
garahu. 



garahu. 



naha, nafa. 
ka&hu 



hevaheva . 

eve 

aha, afa. . . 

arahu 

arara 



DETERMINATION OF THE PLACE OF RAPANUI. 183 

Tongafiti — Continued. 



Rapanui. 



Maori. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



847 
848 
849 
850 
851 
852 

853 
854 

855 
856 

857 
8;8 

859 
860 
861 
862 
863 

864 

865 
866 
867 
868 
869 
870 
871 
872 

873 
874 
875 
876 

877 
878 

879 
880 
881 
882 
883 



885 
886 
887 



891 
892 
893 



895 
896 
897 
898 
899 
900 
901 
902 
903 
904 



gongon . 
guha. . . . 

hae 2 

haha 2 . . 
hakari... 
hakura. . 

hari 

hau 5 . . . 
henua 2 . 
hia 2 . . . . 
higa 2 . . . 
hihi 1 . . . 
hohonu. . 
hoko I . . 
hope. . . . 
hopo . . . . 
hore 

hugavai . 

huhu 6 . . 
huhu 7 . . 
hunoga. . 
hupee. . . 

ii 

ika 2 . . . . 



ivi 2 

kahui. . . . 

kai 3 

kaiga 

kakore . . . 
kauihaga . 

ke 

keukeu i . 

ki3 

kimikimi . 
kino I . . . . 

kohu 

koiro 



koke .... 
kopikopi . 
kopu .... 

kore 

koroua. . 
kume. . . . 

mahara. . 

maki .... 



mamae. 



migo 

moemoea. 
pahure 2 . . 

paka I 

pakahera . 
paopao . . . 
peka 2 . . . 
potaka. . . 
puapua . . . 
puhapuha. 
puku 2 



ngon . . 
nguha. 
hae. . . 
waha . 



hakure. . . . 

hari 

hau 

whenua . . . 

whio 

hinga 

whiwhi . . . 
hohonu. . . 

hoko 

hope 

hopo 

hore 

hungawai . 

huhu 

huhu 

hunaonga . 
hupe 



ika. . . . 
iwi .... 
kahui . . 
koi .... 
kainga . 
kahore. 
kaui . . . 

ke 

keukeu. 

ki 

kimi . . . 
kino . . . 
kohu... 
koiro. . 



kokeke.. 
kopi . . . . 
kopu. . . . 
kore . . . . 
koroua. . 
kume . . . 

mahara . 

maki 



nungo 

moemoea . 
pahore. . . . 

paka 

paka 

paopao 

peka 

potaka. . . . 

puapua 

puha 

puku 



hae. . 
vaha. 



nore. 
guha. 



haha, aha. 
akure 



hae 

haha, fafa. 



hae. . . 
vaha. , 
hadri. 



hai. 



puf enua . 
hiohio . . 

higa 

hihi 



hoko 

hopega 

hopohopo . 
hore 

hogavai. . . 



hau 

enua. . . . 

vio 

higa 

hihi 

hohonu . 
oko. ... 
ope 



f enua, henua 



hore, ore. 



hina 

hihi 

hohonu . . . . 

hoko 

hope 

hopo 

hore 



hio 

hi4 

hihi 

hohonu . 

ho6 

hope. . . . 



huhuhu . . . 
huhu 



hunoga. 
hupe. . . 
fakaii . . 



huhu 

huhu 

hunona. 



hore ... 
fhoovai. 
\hooai . . . 



hunod. 
hupe. . 



kaiga . . 
kakore. 



1 

ika. . . 
ivi. . . . 
kahui . 
koi . . . 
kaiga . 



1 

ika. 



kahui. . 
koi. . . . 
kaina . . 
kakore. 



ahui. 
oi 



ke. 



ke.. 
keu. 
ki.. 



ke, d. . . 
keu, hi. 



e. . . . 
eueu. 
i 



kimi . . 
kiro . . 
kohu. 
kuiru . 



koke... . 
kokopi. . 

kopu 

kore .... 
koroua. . 
kume. . . 
fmahara. 
[mehara. 
maki 



kino . . . 
kou. . . . 
koiro. . 
koere . . 
koke.. . 
kopi . . . 
kopu. . . 
kore . . . 
koroua. 
kume. . 



imi. . 
ino. . , 
kohu. 



mil . 
ohu. 



koee, kue6. 



kopi 

kopu, opu... 

kore 

ko6ua 



opu. . . 
ore . . . 
oroua . 
ume . . 



maori . 
maohi . 
migo. . 



maki... 
mamae. 
maori.. 



maki, mai. 

/mamae 

\memae 

maoi 



pahure. 
paka.. . 



migo 

moemoea. 
pahore. . . . 
paka 



mino 

moemoea. 



paka. 



maon.. . . 
maohi. . . , 

mi6 

moemoea . 
pahore. . . , 
paa 



paopao. 
potaka. 



peka. 



paopao. 
peka. . . 



pao . . . 
pea . . . 
pota& . 



puku. 



puhaha . 



184 



RASTER ISLAND. 
Tongafiti — Continued . 



Rapanui. 



Maori. 



Paumotu. 



Mangareva. 



Marquesas. 



Tahiti. 



905 
906 
907 
908 
909 
910 
911 
912 

913 
914 

9'5 
916 
917 
918 
919 
920 

921 

922 
923 
924 
925 

926 
927 
928 
929 
930 

931 
932 

933 
934 
935 
936 

937 
938 

939 
940 
941 
942 
943 
944 
945 
946 

947 
948 
949 
950 

951 
952 

953 
954 
955 
956 

957 



pukupuku. 
puoko .... 
ragaraga . . 

ran 

reherehe.. 
reka 2 . . . . 

reke 

reva 

rite 

rori I 

rori 3 

roro 

roto I . . . . 

tahu 

tari 2 



taukete. 
taura. . . 



tavin . 
te I . . . 
te 2 . . . 
tehi... 



teitei 

tena 

tenei 

tera 

tetahi . . . . 

tiaki 3 

tika 

tini 

titaa 

titika 

titiri 

toa 2 

tahuti . . . . 
tohuti .... 

tona 

tou 

tua 2 

tuakana . . 

tumu 

tupapaku . 
turaki .... 
turama. . . 
turu 2 . . . . 

tutae 

tute. 

u 

uga 



uha. . . . 
ui I . . . . 
umiumi . 
va I . . . . 
vaero. . 
vaihu. . 



pukupuku . 

upoko 

ranga 

rati 

rehe 

reka 

rekereke . . 

rewa 

rite 

rori 

rori 

roro 

roto 

tahutahu. . 

tari 

taokete . . . 



taura . 



tawhiri . 

te 

te 

tihe 

matihe. 
teitei . . . 
tena . . . . 
tenei.. . . 
tera. . . . 
tetahi . . 
tiaki.. . . 

tika 

tini 

titaha. . 

tika 

tiri 

toa 

tahuti . . 



tona 

tou 

tua tua . . . 
tuakana . . 
tumu .... 
tupapaku. 
turaki ... 
turama. . . 

turu 

tutae .... 
tute 



u 

unga 

uwha 

uha 

ui 

kumikumi. 

wa 

waero 

wain 



puku. 



ran. 



puku.. 
upoko. 
raga. . 
rari. . . 



puku.. 
upoko. 



puu. . 
upoo. 



reka 

rekereke . 
reva 



reka. 
reke. 
reva. 



^ka.. 
neke. 

6va. . 



roro. 
roto. 



tan 

taokete . 
taukete . 



tan . . . . 
tokete . 



te. 



toura . 
taviri. 

te 

te 

tihe... 



teitei . 
tena. . 



teitei . 



tera. . 
tetahi. 



tenei. 
tera. . 



tiaki. 



tini. 



titika. 
titiri.. 
toa. . . 



tini . . . . 
titaha . 
tika. . . 
tiri. ... 
toa . . . . 
tahuti . 



tona. 



tona. 



tuakana 

tumu 

tupapaku. . . . 

turaki 

turamarama. 

turu 

tutae 

tute 

u 



tuatai 

tuakana. . 
tumu .... 
tupapaku. 
turaki . . . . 



koufa. 



turu . . 
tutae . 
tute . . 

u 

uga. . . 



ui 

kumikumi.. 

haava 

vaero 



ui 

kumikumi. 

va 

vero 



roro. 
6to. . 



tai 

tokete . 



toura. 
kavii . 

te 

te 

tihe. . . 



teitei . 
tena. . 
tenei. . 



tetahi . 
tiaki.. 



tini. 



tia.. 
til. . 
toa. 



tohuti . 



tua 

tuakana... 

tumu 

tupapaku. . 

tuaki 

tudma. . . . 



tutae . 



u. . . 
una. 



uha 

ui 

kumikumi . 



ve6. . 
vaiu. 



roro. 
roto. 



tan 

taoete . 



taura. 



tavin. 
te 



maitihe. 
teitei . . . 
tena .... 



tera. 



tiai 

tiaa 

tini . . . . 
titaha . 

tia 

titiri.. 
toa ... 



tona .... 

to'u 

tua 

tuaana. . 
tumu . . . 
tupapau. 

turai 

turama. 
turu .... 
tutae . . . 

tute 

u 

ua 

uf a 

uha 

ui 

umiumi. 



aero, 
vaiu. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



a 1 of. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: o, of. 
a 2 mine. 
a 3 same. 

Ta.: d, same, 
a 4 that place, there. 

met a, from that place, thence, hence, 
a 5 to lead, to conduct, 
a 6 order, series. 

Mq. : aa, order, series, rank, file, 
a 7 causative, see haka. 
a 8 particle expressive of existence. 

ami, now; aneira, at once. 
aa cascade, flood, to inundate. 
aaki to affirm, to assure, to avow, to confess, 
to declare, to disclose, to divulge, 
to profess, to reveal, to speak fine, 
to betray a secret, to warn, to ad- 
vise, to make a false statement or 
accusation (aki). 
aaki ki te mea titika, to attest. 
toe aaki, discreet, to deny. 
aakihaga, advice. 
hakaaaki, to confess. 
T Pau. : faki, to declare, to confess, to re- 
veal. Mq. : faki, haki, fai, hai, to 
affirm, to betray a secret, to make 
known. Ta. : aai, story, narrative. 

aamoni (hamoni). 
aana his. 

poki aana, legitimate child. 
aanu saliva, spittle, to spit. 
PS. Mgv., Mq.: anuanu, id. 
Sa.: a»M, tospit. To.: aanu, id. Fu.: 
aanu, id.; anuanu, to spit often. 
Nine: owm, tospit. Vi.: kanusiva, 
id. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
417.) 
The only other appearance of what this 
stem may have become is in Maori anuanu 
"offensive, disgusting, to loathe; ' and Ta- 
hiti manuanu "loathsome, surfeiting, to be 
qualmish." The wide departure in sense 
militates against these. The augmented 
form of the Tahiti word is imperfectly com- 
prehended as yet, but compare Samoan 
afua and mafua homonyms. 

aaroa (aroha). 
aaru 1 to raise. 

aaru ki te rinta, to raise the arm. 
aaru 2 (haruharu, aruaru). 
aati 1 to imitate. 
aati 2 (atiati). 
aati 3 (hati). 



ae sword (cf. oe, one). 

PS Pau.: koke, id. Ta.: 6S, id. 
Sa.: 'o'e, a knife. 

ae yes. 

P Mq., Ta. : ae, id. Mq., Ta., Mgv. : e, id. 
With two slight exceptions the element 
common to the affirmative words of Poly- 
nesia is e. This vowel has an equal (even 
greater when we include Melanesia) ex- 
tent as a sign representing the substantive 
verb sense in its most absolute nature 
without condition of tense. In my theory 
of the grammar of these isolating languages 
the e and a few other paradeictics similarly 
employed are not verb sign, but the germ 
of the verb idea. Thus e alu is not par- 
sable as e verb sign and alu verb "to go;" 
but alu attributive positing an act of going 
and e positing the substantive idea of 
being, thus in combined phrase "being a 
going." Thus, while in English it is diffi- 
cult to trace a common signification in 
"yes" and a verb sign, it is easy to see 
how the Polynesian may employ his equiv- 
alent for "there is" as an affirmative; and 
this comports with the fact that in reply 
to any question the so-called verb must be 
repeated. The forms of affirmation are 
here tabled: 

e Samoa, Niue, Moriori, Mangareva, Marque- 
sas, Tahiti, Hawaii, Rapanui. 

oe Samoa. 

ioe Samoa. 

lo Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Viti. 

eo Futuna. 

o Rotuma. 

ae Maori, Tahiti, Marquesas, Hawaii, Mangala, 
Tongarewa. 

d Rarotonga. 

The variants from the simple e fall into 
the o-class and the o-class. Upon the first 
inspection the latter is seen to be Tongafiti 
and the o-class to be Proto-Samoan. The 
simple e is found in both migration streams 
and therefore may not be regarded as criti- 
cal, a position which we should be chary 
of assigning to a vocable showing such 
absence of formal development. I have 
provisionally assigned it to a place among 
the Proto-Samoan material, largely be- 
cause of its absence from the Maori. Its 
occurrence at several points in the Tonga- 
fiti stream may be accounted for as shown 
in "The Polynesian Wanderings," page 44. 

aere (ahere). 

agahuru (hagahuru, hagauru). 

agai (hagai). 

185 



186 



EASTER ISLAND. 



agatahi {aga-tahi) one. (hagatahi.) 

agalahi ahi atu, day before yesterday. 
hagatahi ahi, yesterday. 
agera {angera R) angel. 
agoago hunger, to be hungry, to starve. 
This suggests a metathesis upon oge of 
the same sense; but not much value, be- 
cause of the complication of the vowel 
mutation, should be assigned to the sug- 
gestion in the absence of fmrther confir- 
mation. 
agu breath, out of breath, air T. 

agu kore, breathless, seeming death, 
greedy. 
Mgv.: agu, hagu, to murmur mdis- 
tinctly. Mq.: aku, onomatopoeia 
to express the sound of one drinking 
in deep drafts; haku i te pake, to 
emit smoke at the nostrils. 
aguagu 

a. out of breath, to puff, to choke, to pant, 

to breathe, to whisper, to sigh. 

b. to be languid, faint, to have a rattling 

in the throat, to be sick unto death, 
to die. 
tagata aguagu, a dying man. 
agumou {agu-mou 5) to expire. 
agupotu (agu-potu) the last moments of 

life. 
aha which, what. 

e aha, what is it, how. 
ma aha, no te aha, ei aha, on account 
of what, why. 
P Pau. : aha. what, which. Mgv. : aha, 
what; e aha, why, what is it, which. 
Mq., Ta. : aha, e aha, what. 
The Nuclear Polynesian is a (Samoa, 
Futuna, Uvea). The extreme length of 
the quantity of this a shows that the Proto- 
Samoan was aha and after the extinction 
of the aspirate the vowel quantity was 
acquired by crasis. It will be valuable at 
this point to insert a table showing the 
range of the Melanesian forms of the neuter 
interrogative. 

sava Mota, Merlav, Maewo, Marina, Sesake. 

5av Pak, Mosin, Alo Teqel. 

aafa Efat£ (also sefa, sefe). 

sa Mota, Gog, Sesake. 

hava Omba, Arag, Nggela, Bugotu. 

haha Ambrym. 

hav Motlav, Volow, Norbarbar. 

ha Omba, Ambrym, lyakon. 

va Lo. 

tafa Fagani. 

taha Wango, Ulawa, Aniwa. 

dhava Viti. 

These, if at all associable with aha, rep- 
resent a distinct and not readily account- 
able type. In the Tongafiti migration the 
parent aha is preserved except in Raro- 
tonga. The Tongan eha exhibits a vowel 
mutation in the unaccented syllable which 
is characteristic of that speech. In some 
cases aha is prefaced by e, which pro- 
visionally we may take as the verbal 
paradeictic, see note under ae. The occur- 
rence of the Tongafiti forms is: 



aha — continued. 

aha Tahiti, Marquesas, Paumotu, Tongarewa. 

Hawaii, Sikayana {ae-aha, fe-aha). 
aa Rarotonga. 
eaha Tahiti, Mangareva. 
eaa Rarotonga. 

ahatu to stretch out. 

moe vae ahatu, to lie with the legs 
extended. 
ahau 1 a scar. 

ahau hurihuri, cicatrix. 
ahau 2 (hau 5). 

ahe migraine, headache, (eahe.) 
ahea {a i-hea) when. 

P Mgv. : aea, ahea, when. Mq., Ta. : afea, 
ahea, id. 
The stem is fea, but at the stage when 
we make the acquaintance of these lan- 
guages need has arisen for differentiation 
and the simple stem is used in interroga- 
tion of place, where?; when used of time 
a preface is employed, a for the present- 
future, ana for the past, and the stem has 
thereby undergone evolution. The root 
is a, of which the seed signification is that 
which is away from the speaker in time 
or place alike (Cf. 27 American Journal 
of Philology, 393). In Nuclear Polynesia 
we encounter a most unusual sacrifice of 
the very soul of the word in Tonga and 
Nine afe, Tonga anefe. Nine nefe. The 
aea form of Mangareva is repeated in 
Rarotonga, which lacks / and h. 
aheahe a stool. 
ahere 
a. to arrive, to come, to follow, (aere.) 
h. to march, to march with arms and legs 
stiff, to take a walk, to row, to sail. 
c. to raid, 

ahere koroiti, to run lightly. 

ahere no, to roam, to ramble. 

ahere atu ahere mai, zigzag. 

rava ahere, agile, without fixed abode, 

wanderer. 

tagata aere, voyager. 

aherehere, unstable, instability. 

P Pau. : haere, to go, to come. Mgv. : ere, 

to walk, to march, to go. Mq.: 

heS, to go, to march, to depart, to 

follow. Ta. : haere, to go. 

The form of the word appears in Sa- 

moan saele with the meaning to swing the 

arms in walking. This restriction to a 

particular causes me to regard the word 

as a borrowing from the Tongafiti in 

Nuclear Polynesia. In Uvea haele is to 

walk. In Futuna saele signifies to go, to 

walk; and in Nine haele is to go, to come, 

to proceed. In Tonga haele means to go, 

to come, to walk, to travel, to voyage, 

and its restriction to chiefs tends to prove 

it a borrowing by Proto-Samoans from 

Tongafiti. The reduplication offers a 

problem, in Tonga haeleele and Maori 

haereere, but in Futuna saesaele; this makes 

the etymology doubtful. The Rapanui 

is an unusual metathesis. Indeed, so 

unusual is the inversion of consonant and 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



187 



ahere — continued . 

vowel in the same syllable that I prefer to 
regard ahere as derivative by loss of initial 
aspiration from habere as from a stem sahele 
despite the absence of the second aspirate 
in the usually conservative Tongan; the 
existence of the second aspirate may be 
indicated by Marquesas hee, and Manga- 
reva ere points to an early Proto-Samoan 
stem hele. In this case Rapanui is in a 
development stage midway between Pau- 
motu and Mangareva. 
aherepo {ahere— po i) clandestine. 

moe aherepo, sleepwalker, somnam- 
bulist. 
ahi 1 candle, stove, fire (vahi). 
ahi hakapura, match. 
ahi hakagaiei, firebrand waved as a 
night signal. 
P Mgv. : ahi, fire, flame. Mq. : ahi, fire, 
match, percussion cap. Ta.; ahi, 
fire, percussion cap, wick, stove. 
ahi 2 to be night. 

agatahi ahiatu, day before yesterday. 
ahiahi afternoon, night. 
kai ahiahi, supper. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: ahiahi, after- 
noon, evening. 
The Samoans derive afiafi from afi fire, 
as being the time when fires are lighted 
in the houses. No great value attaches 
to these explanations, and we must recog- 
nize that there is an etiological passion 
which is basic in their tradition retro- 
jected into an indefinite past. The only 
other evidence which we can oppose to 
this etymology is the Viti name tor even- 
ing, yakavi, mwhxch aid has a resemblance 
and is remote from the fire sense in that 
language; in considering the value which 
this suggestion may possess we must re- 
gard the dialectic forms kayavi and tara- 
navi, of which the former is metathetic. 
ahipipi {ahi i-pipi 2) a spark, to flash. 
aho 1 outside, out of doors, away. 
ki aho, out of doors, outside. 
no aho, exterior. 
ea ki aho, to send away. 
tokerau aho, west. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: vaho, outside. 
aho 2 (ao i). 

ahu 1 to transfer, to transplant, to take up 
by the roots. 
Pau., Mgv., Mq. : ahu, to move, to trans- 
plant. 
ahu 2 to puff up, to swell, a swelling, pro- 
tuberance. 
gutu ahu, swollen lips. 
ahuahu to swell, plump, elephantiasis, 
dropsy. 
ahuahu pupuhi, ampUtude. 
tnanava ahuahu, indigestion. 
Mgv.: ahuahu, enormous, corpulent. 
ahu 3 paralysis. 

ahu 4 a carved god of dancing, brought forth 
only on rare occasions and held of 
great potency Q. 



ahuahu inflammation. 

Mgv. : ahu, hot, reddened, flushed. 

ahukarukaru {ahu 2-karukaru) dropsy. 

ahuru (auru). 

ai I (ko ai) who, which. 

P Pau.: ko vai, who, which. Mgv. : ai, id. 
Mq. : ai, id. Ta. : vai, id. 
The Proto-Samoan was manifestly hat, 
as we may see from ko hai of Tonga and 
Nine. A somewhat rare mutation gives 
vai in the Paumotu and Tahiti, wai in 
Maori, Hawaii and Sikayana. Viti dhei 
argues that the Proto-Samoan aspiration 
was of that stouter value (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 346) which commonly 
appears in modern Samoan as s; the vowel 
change reflects a Melanesian type. As 
loan material in Melanesia, Proto-Samoan 
hai appears under three vowel guises: 

hai Bugotu 

ai Lemaroro, Savo. 

hei Arag, Norbarbar, Nggela, Nggao. 

he Motlav, Volow, I.o. 

sei Mota, Mosin, Rotuma, Marina. Sesake, Vatu- 

ranga, Merlav, I/akon, Maewo. 
tei Wango, XJlawa, Saa. 
se Efatd, Gog, Pak, Vuras, Alo Teqel. 
si Ambry m. 
oi Duke of York. 

ai 2 then. 

Mq.: ai, then. 
ai 3 consequence. 
Mq. : ai, id. 
ai 4 (hai). 
aia look! 

Mgv.: aia, see there, forward, courage I 
Mq. : aia, there, come on I 
ainara here, ready to, to place. 
(aipoi, hakaaipoi R) hakaripol. 
aita no. 

Ta.: aita, no. 
aite to represent {a causative, ite), (haite). 
aka I root. 

aka totoro, to take root. 
P Pau., Mq. : aka, root. Ta. : aa, id. 
aka 2 anchor. 
aka 3 causative (haka). 
akarau to bite at the hook, to nibble. 
akari aspect, physiognomy, stature, matter. 
akari rivariva, comely. 
akari tino, limb. 

akari pahe, to disguise the appearance. 
akatari gift, pledge, to recompense, to ran- 
som, to remunerate, to pay, to give 
wages, lucrative. 
Mq. : katai, gift, pledge, present. 
The sense agreement satisfies, the form 
is less satisfactory; akatari is an unaspi- 
rated variant of hakatari {tari 2) and in the 
Marquesas it becomes normally akatai. 
The excision of the former syllable, really 
basic to the sense of haka, is unusual. In 
a considerable series of Marquesan voca- 
bles begirming with ka the haka sense is 
obscure, yet it may be recognized in 
kanoho to set in order. 
akatari ga gift, gain, present, remunera- 
tion, retribution, salary, wage. 



188 



EASTER ISLAND. 



akatari — continued. 
akatarika gain. 
akatatariga a present. 
akatuu {aka 3-tuu) symptom. 

Mq.: hakatu, symptom. 
aki (aaki). 
akikuku (akikuhu R) claw, talon (mai- 

kuku). 
akoako to learn, to teach, to midertake, to 
essay, to study, to preach, to exer- 
cise, to instruct. 
P Pau. : ako, to instruct, to advise, to learn. 
Mgv.: ako, to essay, to prove, to 
try, to exercise, to practise. Mq. : 
ako, to teach, to try, to exercise. 
Ta. : ao, to instruct, to advise. 
In all its extent this vocable is suscepti- 
ble of the meanings to teach and to learn, 
but in Polynesia this is not the vulgar 
error which it is in English. The root sense 
which the vocable carries is such an ele- 
ment common to teaching and learning 
that the outward directive aiu suffices to 
express teaching and the employment of 
the inward directive mai serves to desig- 
nate learning. 

akoakoga essay, instruction, lesson. 
Mgv.: akoakoga, test, experience. 
aku 1 ball. 
aku 2 dorado. 

Mgv.: aku, the name of a fish. Mq.: 
aku, a fish with a long snout; but 
not the dorado, which is tiua. 
aku 3 to swallow. 

akuaku noise when swallowing. 
akuaku 1 ambition. 

akuaku 2 soul, shade, ghost, specter, imma- 
terial, spiritual. 
akui 

a. to rub, to scrub. 

b. to sharpen, to put an edge on. 

c. to brush, to daub, to paint, to grease, 

to anoint. 
Mgv. : ukui, to rub, to wipe, to scrape, 
to scratch. Mq. : ukui, to rub, to 
clean, to brush, to polish, to whet. 
Ta. : uui, to rub, to polish a boat. 
This may be associable with the Tonga- 
fiti Maori ukui. 
akurakura (a y-kurakura) to cajole, to 
wheedle. 
Mgv.: kurakura, excellent, esteemed, 
valuable. 
(amaga R) amoga. 
amo 1 a yoke, to carry. 

P Mq. : amo, a carrying pole, to carry on 
the shoulders. Ta. : amo, to carry 
on the shoulders. 
amo 2 to bend, to beat a path. 

^a. : amo, to bend. 
amoatno 1 to feed, to graze. 
amoamo 2 to spread, to stretch (used of 

keeie). 
amoga (amo i) burden, load. 
amokio together. 

amomotanu (amomo-tanu) to plant. 
amua (mua). 



ana 1 cave, grotto, hole in the rock. 

P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta. : ana, cave, 
ana 2 in order that, if. 
ana 3 particle (na 5). 

garo atu ana, formerly. 
mee koe ana te ariki, tibe Lord be with 
thee. 
PS Sa. : na, an intensive postpositive par- 
ticle. 
anake unique. 
T Pau. : anake, unique, to be alone. Mgv. : 
anake, alone, single, only, solely. 
Mq.: anake, anaS, id. Ta.: anae, 
all, each, alone, unique, 
anakena July. 

ananake common, together, entire, entirely, 
at once, all, general, unanimous, uni- 
versal, without distinction, whole, 
a company. 
piri mai te tagata ananake, public. 
kite aro te mautagata ananake, public. 
mea ananake. impartial. 
koona ananake, everywhere. 
anani orange. 

Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.; anani, id. 
The edible orange is an exotic, and the 
agreement of the four languages most 
under French influence suggests that anani 
is a loan; a source thereof is not clear, for 
orange would more readily become oragi. 
In Nuclear Polynesia (including Futuna 
under French influence) the indigenous 
citrus fruits and the exotic orange are all 
known as moli. 
anei (o S-nei). 
aneira (a 8-neiVo). 
aniani onion. 
anio lamb {agneau). 
anoano abyss. 

Pau. : anoano, shallow, superficial. Ta. : 
anoano, depth, abyss. 
anoraro T southeast wind. 
ao 1 authority, kingdom, dignity, govern- 
ment, reign (aho). 
topa kia ia te ao reign. 
hakatopa ki te ao, to confer rank. 
ao ariki, royalty. 

ka tu tokoe aho, thy kingdom come. 
PS Mgv.: ao, government, reign. Mq.: 
ao, government, reign, command. 
Sa. : ao, a title of chiefly dignity; aoao, 

excellent, surpassing, supreme. 
The interrelation of the Polynesian ao 
and aso designating day may lead to con- 
fusion as regards this ao. This sense is con- 
fined to two languages in Nuclear Polynesia 
(Samoa, ut sup. ; Tonga, aoao, sovereignty, 
supreme) and to these three languages 
of Southeast Polynesia. The Tongan 
form shows that the Proto-Samoan had 
no inner aspirate, therefore the alter- 
native Rapanui aho is a case of error. As 
employed in Southeast Polynesia the 
word deviates only in the particularization 
which exists but in our tiiought method, 
government in the South Sea can not exist 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



189 



ao 1 — continued. 

without the title of chiefly dignity and the 
title is always actively employed in 
government. 
ao 2 spoon. 

ao oone, shovel. 
ao 3 dancing club T. 
aomai to proceed. 

Mgv. : aomai, to come hither. 
(aone R) oone. 
aonui (ao-nui a) midnight. 
apaihoru {apai-horu) nannygoat. 

apaihoru taniaroa, buck. 
apl 1 sluice, bung. 

api 2 to be close, to concentrate, to con- 
federate. 
P Mgv. : apiapi, to be pressed, to crowd. 
Ta.: api, full, pressed. 
apitahi to serve, serviceable. 
apo to-morrow, the next night, (o 8~po). 
apoera (apo-era) to-morrow. 

apoera o te po nei, to-morrow. 
ara I path, trail, road, way. 

P Pan. : eara, id. Mgv., Ta. : ara, id. Mq. : 
adnui, id. 
ara 2 

o, to awake, to arouse. 
veve ara, to awaken. 
hakaara, to arouse, to excite. 
6. to be awake. 

hakaara, to be awake. 
ara no, insomnia, sleeplessness. 
c. to watch, to guard. 

tagata ara, sentinel. 
P Pau. : ara, to be awake, to be on one's 
guard. Mgv.: ara, to awake, to 
rouse up; /jara, to be awake. Mq. : 
d, awake; ad, to be awake, to guard, 
to defend, to stand sentinel, to 
protect, to watch over the safety 
of another. Ta. : aro, to be awake, 
to be on guard, vigilant. 
(ara 3) hakaara tradition. 
araha araha hauha, to wait for, to look for- 
ward to. 
arahare {ara i-hare) a street. 
arai (harai). 

arakea abscess, bubo, boil, fester, scrofula, 
tumor, swelling, to swell. 
arakea gao, scrofula. 
Mq.: araara, scrofula, goitre; uara, to 
swell, swollen. 
araruga moe araruga, lying flat. 
aratua 

a. to inclose, to surround, to encompass. 

b. cord, string, girdle, tassel, (haratua.) 
are to dig, to excavate. 

arero the tongue (areto Q). 

arero oeoe, to stammer, to stutter. 
arero koumi, to report, to tell. 
arero roroa, to report, to tell. 
P Pau., Ta.: arero, the tongue. Mgv.: 
erero, id. Mq. : aid, io, id. 
In the Samoan we find an interesting 
item which has a bearing on the subject 
of sense-inverts. A word which is a per- 
fectly good inheritance out of the past has 



arero — continued. 

taken to evil courses, laulaufaiva has been 
manufactured to designate the tongue and 
alelo is used only in the fury of abuse. 
Prom abuse to disuse is no long step with 
a folk so ruled by courtesy as the Samoans. 
It is only through the accident that the 
language was caught for record in the mid 
stage of this development that we are 
spared the necessity of finding a reason for 
the absence of alelo and the intrusion of 
laulaufaiva. The Mangarevan erero Gnds 
an earlier warrant in Tongan elelo. 
aretare altar. 

aretare motu, oratory, chapel. 
ariari sharp, the edge of a sword. 
ariga 1 face, aspect, expression, mien, visage, 
stature, superficies. 
T Ma. : aria, to resemble. 
(ariga 2) hakaariga to encroach. 
ariki chief, king, lord, headman in general. 
hakaariki, to make one a king. 
P Pau., Mgv. : ariki, chief. Mq. : aiki, id. 
Ta.: arii, id. 
The Marquesan uses both aiki and 
hakaiki in the same sense; the latter forms 
with Mangarevan akariki a subordinate 
couple in Southeast Polynesia. Since 
akariki is the only form in Mangareva and 
the Marquesas have both we may regard 
this as indicative of the influence of Ma- 
ngareva upon the Marquesas. In Tonga 
we find only eiki; the vowel change is 
quite in the Tongan manner, the dropping 
of the liquid is most unusual; the eiki form 
appears once more in Mangarevan ata- 
eiki (also a language in which it is unusual 
to drop the liquid) in the sense "to do 
nothing and to dress richly in a luxurious 
way. " 
ariu (hariu). 

aro presence, body, frontispiece. 
ki te aro, face to face. 
P Pau.: aroga, the visage; ki te aroga, 
opposite. Mgv.: aro, presence, 
before; i te aro, in the presence of. 
Mq. : ad, face, in the presence of, 
before. Ta. : aro, face, front, pres- 
ence, view. 
It is probable that more than one word 
is confounded in alo. The significations 
which appear in Southeast Polynesia are 
most likely derived from a Tongafiti alo 
and do not appear in Nuclear Polynesia. 
The alo belly and alo chief which do occur 
in Nuclear Polynesia are also probably 
Tongafiti, for in Samoa and Tonga they are 
honorific and applied only to folk of rank, 
a good indication of borrowing by the 
Proto-Samoans from Tongafiti masters. 
(aroha, aaroa) hakaaroha to love, to 
adore, to be fond of, to esteem, to 
be attached, to caress, to spare; to 
pity, to sympathize, to show grief; 
to honor, to revere, to pay homage, 
to salute, to visit; affable, dear, 
estimable, respectable. 



190 



EASTBR ISLAND. 



(aroha, aaroa) hakaaroha — continued. 
hakaarohaga love, pity. 
hakaarohahaga friendship. 
P Pau. : aroha, love, compassion, to suffer. 
Mgv. : akaaroa, to love, to cherish. 
Mq.: dSha, kaoha, kaokaoha, salu- 
tation, good morning, good night, 
good bye; love, friendship, good- 
will, compassion; to love, to salute, 
to have pity, to regret, to respect, 
to honor. Ta.: aroha, aroharoha, 
love.compassion, interest, kindness, 
pity, mercy, attachment, tender- 
ness, sympathy; to visit, to have 
pity, to love, to spare. 
I must withdraw an earlier note on this 
word (14 Journal of the Polynesian 
Society, 44) in which I was led by Tongan 
ofa, to love, to suggest alofa as a composite 
of alo and ofa. This is negatived by the 
plural duplication in Samoan alolofa, 
Hawaiian alohaloha, Paumotu aroharoha, 
all showing the compounding elements to 
be a and lofa. Furthermore we find the 
second element in independent existence 
in Hawaiian loha and perhaps Tongan ofa 
(the doubt lying in the vanished /, as to 
which see note on ariki) ; and in different 
composition in Marquesan kaoha, where 
again we encounter in kaokaoha a duplica- 
tion which varies strangely from the rec- 
ognized types of that mechanism of 
Polynesian speech. 
arova nei the world, the universe; tem- 
porary. 
arovae {aro-vae i) the sole of the foot. 
PS Sa.: alo, the under side; alofivae, sole. 
To.: aofivae, id. Fu., Uvea: alo- 
fivae, id. Moriori: arowa, id. 
There is such complete accord in sense, 
such an approximation to form accord 
in the Samoan as to constitute this an in- 
teresting problem. For alo the under side 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 193) we 
find no such protecting form as may 
show the abraded consonant, if this were 
in Proto-Samoan a closed stem, unless 
it be this alofi. We note that another alo 
to paddle by its objective aspect form 
alofia is proved to be Proto-Samoan alof; 
and that 'alo to avoid ('alofia) is Proto- 
Samoan kalof. Apart from this compac- 
tion, and from the precisely similar alo- 
filima the palm, alofi is found independently 
in the signification "to sit in a circle" 
and "the circle of chiefs sitting round a 
house, " by no means associable in sense. 
In Tonga (with a dropping of the inner /, 
of which there are two excellent items 
in "The Polynesian Wanderings," items 
327 and 355) we have aofivae and aofinima 
respectively. Futuna and Uvea have the 
Samoan forms alofivae and alofilima; 
Futuna has also alofitinae {Hnae abdomen) 
in the sense of belly, and this I regard as 
sufBcient to establish alofi and alo as full 
and abraded forms of one Proto-Samoan 



arovae — continued. 

stem alof. Nine, commonly pronounced 
in Samoan association, has aloalohui and 
aloaloUma. Our Moriori information is 
scanty, but if wa is the equivalent of vae, 
arowa is alovae. We regard the Moriori 
as preserving traces of a southern Proto- 
Samoan migration to New Zealand. The 
fact that alo appears in Nuclear Poly- 
nesia (Nine) is sufiScient to establish the 
position of arovae as Proto-Samoan 
material. 
aruaru 1 to pursue. 

PMgv. : aruaru, to run after, to pursue, 
Mq. : aiiau, to pursue, to chase, to 
follow. Ta.: aruaru, to pursue. 
aruaru 2 to arise in waves, undulation. 
P Pau. : puhigaru, a bubble of water. 
Mgv. : garu, foam, froth. Mq. : naA, 
waves. Ta.: aru, billow, wave, 
flood. 
aruaru 3 (haruharu). 
arui {ariu metathetic) to turn about to see. 
Mgv. : arui, to face toward, to turn the 
head so as to see. 
arurua general. 

oho arurua, to sail as consorts. 
Ta. : arurua., mutual. 
ata I image, picture, portrait, design; to 
draw, to paint (shadow sense). 
P Mgv. : ata, image, likeness, portrait, 
shadow of a human being, form, 
shape, appearance, imprint, impres- 
sion. Mq. : ata, image, statue, por- 
trait, shadow, surface; to design, to 
mark. Ta.: ata, shade, shadow 
appearance, form, representation 
of an object, cloud, cloudy. 
ata 2 transparency, end of day, sunset 
(bright sense). 
e ata, red clouds. 
ku ata, transparent. 
ata mea, ata tea, ata tehe, dawn, day- 
break, sunrise. 
ataata end of day, sunset. 
P Mgv. : ata, morning or evening twi- 
light, daybreak, dawn; ata haihai, 
evening twilight, a beautiful sunset; 
ataiai, twilight, clouds red with the 
sunset; atakurakura, a beautiful 
sunrise or sunset; atareureu, dawn, 
the first peep of day, morning twi- 
light. Mq.: ata, to appear, to 
rise, to shine (of stars); ata ud, 
morning twilight; ataata, diaphan- 
ous, transparent. Ta. : ata, twilight. 
The shadow sense and the bright sense 
run concurrently in each migration stream. 
ata 3 a designation of space. 
ata hakahohonu, abyss. 
ata hakaneke mai, nearby, close at 

hand. 
ata tapa, lateral, marginal. 
ata 4 ? 

ata kimikimi, to inquire. 
ata puo, to hill a plant. 
ata ui, to examine, to taste. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



191 



atahenua (ato s-henua i) landscape, coun- 
tryside. 
atakai 1 generous, hospitable, beneficent, 
indulgent, liberal, obliging; prodi- 
gality, indulgence. 
rima atakai, benevolent, generous, 
open-handed; gift, liberality. 
atakai 2 calm, unperturbed, grateful. 
atariki first bom, oldest son, elder brother T. 
PS Mgv. : atariki, eldest son. Mq. : ataiki, 
ataii, hakaiki, chief, cf. ariki.) 
Sa. : atali'i, son. 

This form is not only Proto-Samoan, but 
in Nuclear Polynesia is found only in 
Samoa. Its former element is but once 
identified elsewhere in the Pacific, Efatd 
ata man (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
194). Assuming the validity of this 
identification atariki means little man, a 
sense which comports with the use in 
Rapanui and Mangareva. In Nuguria, 
a distant island of the Western Verge, the 
word means son-in-law, a recession but 
not an impossible devolution. In the Mar- 
quesan ataiki chief is found only in the 
southeastern group; the general ariki chief 
is not found save in what appears a sec- 
ondary assumption in the form hakaiki; 
because of the resemblance ataiki may 
have acquired the sense of chief at the 
time when a need of designating diiefs 
arose. If in Southeast Polynesia iJie posi- 
tion of first-bom connotes honor, which is 
not the case in Nuclear Polynesia, the 
ennobling of the word son finds a parallel 
in Samoa, where tama child is an informal 
but affectionate title of respect used of but 
not to chiefs. 
ata-ta T evening (? ataata). 
atatehe (ato i-tehe i) dawn. 

popohaga atatehe, morning, early in 
the morning. 
ate 1 liver, lung. 

mate ate, liver complaint. 
P Mgv.: ate, the liver, inward parts of 
the body. Mq., Ta. : ate, die liver. 
ate 2 a dance, to dance. 
ateate 

a. dear, attached. 
h. joy. 
atehopo (a/e i, the liver as the seat of the 
intelligence-Ao;^o) ambition, envy; 
avid, covetous, desirous, envious. 
ati I ? 

ati ko peka, vengeance, to avenge. 
ati 00, disciple. 
ati 2 (hati). 

atiati 1 to wait for, to hope, to wait, to 
attend (aati). 
Mgv. : ati, to wait for, to hope for some 
time. 
atiati 2 to go boldly. 

PS Sa. : atia'i, to go softly toward in order 
to seize, to take by surprise, 
In the Samoan a'i is verb formative; 
with this element removed from consider- 
ation there is exact agreement of stem 



ataiti 2 — continued. 

form and sufficient accord in sense to 
establish this as a good identification. 
atiave further, ulterior. 
atiga angle, comer. 

Mgv.: hatiga, the corner of a house; 
hatiga, hatihatiga, the joints or artic- 
ulation of a limb. Mq.: fatina, 
hatika, joint, articulation, link. 
Ta. : fatiraa, articulation. 
atikea oa atikea, ignorance, not to know. 
atioo disciple. 
ato to build. 

Mq. : ato, to build a house of wood, to 
raise a tent. Ta. : ato, to build, to 
construct, to roof a house. 
Elsewhere in Polynesia ato designates 
the act of thatching a house. This sense 
may persist in one of the Tahiti definitions 
and by a greater stretch to the Marquesan 
tent usage (of course this is essentially 
modem) ; to consider this extensible to the 
whole building seems too violent, the more 
particularly as the vocable is not critical 
to the argument of this work in any great 
degree. Cf. kato 2. 
atoga event, occurrence. 

Mgv.: atoga, a design, a project. 
atu 1 

a. directive, of motion from the speaker. 

b. somewhat expressive of the compara- 

tive degree. 
P Pau. : atu, away. Mgv. : atu, away, off, 
hence. Mq., Ta.: oto, away, more. 
atu 2 pupil. 

hakaatu proof. 

hakaatuga hare hakaatuga, schoolhouse, 
class. 
atu 3 (hakaatu), to presage. 
atu 4 (hakaatu), mark, object. 
atua god, devil T (etua). 

P Pau., Ta. : atua, god. Mgv. : etua, god, 

deity, divinity; to be wicked, to be 

full of wickedness. Mq. : etua, god, 

divinity. 

The comprdiensiveness of the definition, 

and the same is found in the Maori, is a 

question of orthodoxy, merely a matter of 

lie point of view. Of far more moment 

in our studies is the vowel variety of the 

initial syllable. 

atua Maori, Mangaia, Tahiti, Hawaii, Tonga- 
rewa, Rapanui, Paumotu, Samoa, Futtma, 
Uvea, Niue, Aniwa. 

etua Marquesas, Mangareva, Rapanui. 

otua Tonga. 

The Rotuma oiitu is probably referable 
to aitu. 
atutiri 

a. thunder. 

mate atutiri, to strike with thtmder. 

b. a storm. 

P Pau. : fatitiri, thunder. Mgv. : atutiri, 
id. Mq. : fatutii, hatutii, id. Ta. : 
patiri, id. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 240.) 



192 



RASTER ISLAND. 



au 1 I (vau). 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: au, I. Ta.: vau, id. 

In its simplest Polynesian form this pro- 
noun is compound, tt being the element in 
which inheres the ego sense. We note 
here the occurrence of forms in which au 
is modified. The Maori has ahau, a com- 
posite of a and hau. The vau type is 
found in Rapanui, Paumotu and Tahiti, 
ovau in Tahiti and Paumotu, kovau in 
Rapanui, wau in Hawaii, owati in Hawaii, 
awau in the South Island Maori, avou in 
Aniwa. 
au 2 the gall. 

P Mgv.: au, hau, eahu, gall. Mq., Ta. : 
au, id. 
The aspirated Mangarevan eahu may 
preserve a Proto-Samoan original, for we 
find ahu in Tonga and Nine, two languages 
generally retentive of an original aspira- 
tion which has vanished from Samoan. 
au 3 vapor, smoke T. 

P Mgv.: ahu, au, cloud, mist. Ta. : au, 
smoke, vapor. 
Of the Proto-Samoan stem asu all the 
Tongafiti languages have lost the conso- 
nant, except for its interesting preserva- 
tion as an alternative in Mangarevan, and 
all have lost the distinctive smoke sense. 
The attribution of smoke as a meaning in 
Rapanui we owe to an authority of the 
second rank, but taken with the form 
preservation in Mangarevan this sense 
retention is probable, and taken in coag- 
mentation they bear upon the central 
theme of a Proto-Samoan migration on- 
ward to Southeast Polynesia. 
auahi (au 3-ahi i) smoke. 

miro auahi, steamboat. 
Mgv.: auahi, smoke. Mq. : auahi, 
smoke, vapor. Ta. : auahi, fire. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 287). 
auau to itch, to long. 
aue ah, alas. 
aueue oh. 
P Pau., Ta. : aue, alas. Mgv. : aue, auhe, 
alas Mq. : aue, oh, alas; auhe, a 
sigh. 
Exclamation in general representing the 
most primordial type of speech, it seems 
that this may be reduced to recognizable 
elements. The e is throughout these lan- 
guages a vocative or hailing sign, com- 
monly postpositive in relation to the per- 
son hailed. In the examination of au 1 
we have shown that the primal first person 
singular designation is «. With the com- 
paratively scanty material afforded by. 
this vocabulary we may not attempt to 
define the use of a, but we have no hesita- 
tion in noting that proof based on wider 
studies will show it to have, inter alia, a 
characteristic function as a word-maker. 
In a very high degree, then, a-u-e is repre- 
sented by a common English interjection 
"oh my!" in which oh = o, my=w, and 
e=l. 



auha tuhi auha, middle finger. 

auru to sleep, to put to sleep, sleepy, over- 
come by sleep (ahuru). (kaha- 
uru Q.) 

auru no, to sleep late. 
rava auru, to be a sound sleeper, 
toe aiiru, sleepless. 
hagaauru a vision by night. 
ava 1 

a. distance, distant. 

ava poto, a short distance. 

b. space, interval. 

PS Mq.: ava, distance, space, interval. 
Ta. : ava, interval. 
The simpler form of the root is va, which 
is not found in Rapanui and Marquesan, 
and in Tahiti is narrowly restricted to the 
spacing of thatch, but in Nuclear Poly- 
nesia and in the Tongafiti migration is 
expressive of the sense of distance and 
interval. In Samoa the same meaning is 
carried by an advanced form of the root, 
and ava in this sense is not found elsewhere. 
Its reappearance in these three languages 
of Southeast Polynesia points to a direct 
migration from Samoa. 
ava 2 channel, strait, pass, passage, breach, 
entrance to a harbor. 
PPau.: 0!Ja, harbor, channel, pass. Mgv.: 
ozfd, channel, passage, canal. Mq.: 
ava, channel, passage, creek, defile, 
fissure. Ta.: ava, pass, channel. 
avaava 1 
a. to strike, to slap, to grind, to dent. 
6. to correct, to maltreat, to exterminate. 
avaava 2 angle, chink. 

Mq. : koava, chink, fissure. 
avaava 3 tobacco. 

Mgv., Ta. : avaava, id. 
In this nook of PoljTiesia tobacco and 
its common method of pleasurable use are 
alike imported. In Melanesia tobacco 
was indigenous but was employed for the 
business of medication and not to assuage 
the conditions of cannibal society. The 
leaves when fully grown were shredded, 
macerated and employed as a cataplasm. 
Applied upon the abdomen it was the prin- 
cipal agency in the production of emesis 
and catharsis. Applied secretly in axilla 
it superinduced the ecstasy of the priest 
when in the trance of possession by his 
god. In Fiji it was used as an insecticide. 
avaga T a grave. 
avahi a wedge, to split. 
avahiga part, partial. 
avahiga kore, inseparable. 
P Mgv. : vahi, to split, to cleave. Mq. : 
vahi, to open, to separate, to split 
in two. Ta. : vahi, to open, to split. 
avai to abdicate, to accord, to alienate, to 
disburse, to dedicate, to distribute, 
to give, to afford, to deliver, to 
offer, to place, to procure for, to 
remit, to yield up. 
avai hakahou, a loan, to borrow. 
avai no mai, gratis. 



RAPANUI-ENGI^ISH VOCABULARY 



193 



a vai — continued . 

aval tohaga no mai, free, for nothing. 
avai titikaga, to invest. 
avai varavara, a series, to go one by 
one. 
ke avai 

hinihini ke avai, ancient. 
ika ke avai mo, abuse. 
kori ke avai, abuse. 
maori ke avai, skilful, handy. 
mau ke avai, abundance, to abound. 
pipiro ke avai, disgusting odor. 
tupu ke avai, of rapid growth. 
ua ke avai, a shower, long and heavy 
rain. 
avaihaga bequest. 
avaitahi partial, partiality. 
Mq. : avai, to leave, not to take. 
avamouga {ava i-mouga 2) valley. 
avava to throw, to hurl. 
averi to warn. 

e I by. 

P Mgv. : e, from, by, on account of. Mq. : 
e, by (agent). Ta. : e, by, of. 
e 2 and. 

Mgv., Ta. : e, and. 
e3 oh! 

P Mgv.: e, sign of the vocative; exclama- 
tion "here, take it!" Mq. : e, 
sign of the vocative; interjection 
of grief, surprise, scorn, refusal. 
Ta. : e, sign of the vocative. 
See note under aue. 
e 4 yes. 

PS Mgv. : e, a sign of assent, yes, truly. 
Mq. : e, yes, it is true. Ta. : e, yes. 
Sa. : e, id. 
See note under ae. 
e S verb sign. 

P Pau., Mq., Ta.: e, verb sign, 
e 6 negative verb sign. 

e maaa, inexperienced. 
ina e negative sign. 
ina e rakerakega, innocent. 
ina e ko mou, incessant. 
e ko not, except. 
P Mgv. : te, no, not, without. 

The Rapanui is the only speech which 
preserves for us the form of the preposi- 
tive negative which by inference we judge 
to be primitive. In modern Samoan it 
has become le and in modem Tahitian te. 
In Melanesia a negative of the Viti sega 
type is most frequently found; but for 
comparison we note Omlja he, te, heie, and 
Sesaie and Efate ti. 
e 7 wave T. 

e 8 weak demonstrative, functioning as^arti- 

ticle. 

Mgv. : e, the definite article. 

This is proposed in explanation of the 

forms eako, eanuhe, egarua, a compound 

type which is more common in the Pau- 

motu. The vowel carries the most general 

sense of existence; thus it may serve to 

represent a diffuse speech element from 



e 8 — continued. 

which paradeictic and demonstrative may 
start in specific evolution. In Nuclear 
Polynesia the article is supported by con- 
sonant coefficients, se indefinite, h def- 
inite, which are represented in the Tonga- 
fiti by he and te. This e as article is found 
in Tahiti, which abundantly uses h as an 
j-mutant; in Rarotonga, which is a doubt- 
ful instance since that language lacks 
sibilant and aspiration and might derive 
this e from Tongafiti he; in the Marquesas, 
where it exists concurrently with he as here 
in Rapanui; in Mangareva, where he is 
phonetically possible but is not found in 
use. Its consistent presence in Southeast 
Polynesia not only argues a Proto-Samoan 
source but points to a migration from 
Nuclear Polynesia before the device of 
variety through consonantal coefficients 
had been fairly established even if 
already invented. 
ea to go out, to bring out. 

ea hi aha, to send away. 
raa ea mai, the sun rises. 
ka ea, be off. 
P Mgv. : ea, to spring, to issue. 

The germ sense being regarded as that 
of emergence the unity of signification 
comes into view. 
eaai i^ea-vai) a torrent. 
eaha (aha). 
eahe (ahe). 
eaho fishing line. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : aha, fishing line, thread, 
string. 
eanuhe caterpillar. 

P Pau.: anuhe, snail; hanuhe, caterpillar. 

Mgv.: enuhe, caterpillar. Mq. : 

nuhe, id. Ta. : anuhe, a fern. 

The earliest form of the stem is nufe 

which appears in Viti nuve and Marquesas 

nuhe. The addition of the word-making 

prefix gives the secondary forms: 

anufe Samoa, Maori, Hawaii, Rarotonga, Pau- 

motu, Tahiti. 
enufe Hawaii, Mangareva. 
unufe Tonga. 

Tertiary forms are Paumotu hanuhe and 
Rapanui eanuhe. In general the word 
signifies worm and caterpillar; its altera- 
tion to snail in Paumotu and to a fern in 
Tahiti is not really remote in a classifica- 
tion based on superficial resemblances. 
eeriki carpet. 

Mgv. : eriki-kura, a piece of cloth painted 
yellow used to cover the breast of 
a corpse. 
eete anger, horror; detestable, hideous, hor- 
rible; to astound, to feel repug- 
nance (ete). 
kokoma eete, to abhor, to detest, angry, 

to be in a rage, ungovernable. 
tagata kokoma eete, adversary. 
eete manava, affected, moved. 
manava eete, anger, consternation, 
fright; to astonish, to shudder, to 
tremble. 



194 



EASTER ISLAND. 



eete — continued. 
eteete emotion. 

Mgv.: ete, to be afraid. Mq.: etc, to 
shiver with fear, to tremble with 
fear; tele, id. Ta.: eteete, to be 
shocked, disgusted. 
eeva (eva). 
eeve (eve). 
egaega red. 

PS Mgv. : ega, a plant with a red berry. 
Sa. : enaena, yellowish brown. To.: 

egaega, yellow. 
In Polynesian color-sense the red and 
the yellow fall very readily into a single 
class designation. 
egarua bolster, crossbeam. 

In P^re Roussel's vocabulary this ap- 
pears but once, the entry traversin. In 
the absence of any other instance I have 
had to assign to traversin the two meanings 
which it has in English. I am quite sure 
that bolster is the true meaning, for ega- 
rua is really e garua. The latter is clearly 
another metathesis of aluga (dacei or 
DicBA type) and should be compared 
with ragua. 
egu ? 

egu oone vekuveku, mud. 
eheeuroroa frightful. 
ehehihi Q to enjoy oneself. 
eheva (eva). 
ehu firebrand. 
ehuehu 1 ashes. 

P Mgv.: ehu, ashes, dust; rehu, a cinder, 
ashes. Mq. : ehuahi, ashes. Ta. : 
rehu, ashes, soot, any powder. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 313, 
482.) 
ehuehu 2 brown, brownish. 

P Ta. : ehuehu, red, reddish. Ha.: kehu, 
red or sandy haired. Mq.: kehu, 
fair, blond. Mgv.. keukeu-kura, 
id. Ma.: kehu, reddish brown. 
Sa. : 'efu, id. To. : kefu, yellowish. 
Fu.: fee/w, blond, red. Niue: kefu, 
a disrespectful term of address. 
ragi ehuehu, a cloudflecked sky. 
ehuehu 3 imperceptible. 
ehuhu to set in motion. 

Mgv. : ehu, to trouble, to disturb ; ehuehu, 
to roil. Ta. : ehuehu, to be agitated, 
disturbed. 
ehutai a wave. 
ei 1 for. 

tagata haga ei mea, mercenary. 
Ta.: ei, i, for. 
ei 2 by means of, with. 

mili ei girigapea, to dry with a sponge. 
hirohiroa ei vai, diluted with water. 
hagai ei u, to feed with milk, to suckle. 
Mq. : ei, with, by. Ta. : e, by. 
ekaeka 1 soft to the touch, ductility, glairy, 
mellow, flabby, marrow, soft, ripe, 
tender, smooth (hekaheka). 
ariga ekaeka, amiable. 
kiri ekaeka, leprous. 
hakaekaeka to soften, to loosen. 



(ekaeka 2) hakaekaeka to blend, to mingle, 

to mix. 
ekaeka 3 neuralgia. 
ekapua mouldy. 

piro ekapua, wormeaten. 
T Pau. : hekaheka, discolored. Mgv. : eka, 
mouldiness, musty. Mq. : heka, 
mould. 
eke trestle, stilt; to mount a horse, to go 
aboard. 
hakaeke to cause to mount, to carry on 
a boat. 
P Pau. : fakaeke, to transport, to carry, to 
hang up. Mgv.: eke, to embark, 
to mount upon an elevation. Mq. : 
eke, to rise, to go aboard; hakaeke, 
to heap up, to put upon, to raise. 
Ta. : ee, to mount, to go aboard; 
faaee, to hang up, to transport by 
water. 
ekieki 1 cry of children, to groan, to sob. 
hakaeki to howl, to yell. 
Mq.: eo hadekieki, hadeiei, trembling 
voice. 
ekieki 2 languor, to make tender. 
emu to leak, to drown, to founder, 
toe emu, inexhaustible. 
hakaemu to submerge. 
ena there, behold. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: ena, there. 

Here we have preserved an earlier form 
of the demonstrative pronoun (remote 
sense) than appears in the Samoan lend or 
the Tongafiti tend, the latter form also 
used in Southeast Polynesia. 
enenti enemy. 

eo incense, essence, odor, fragrance, perfume, 
scent. 
hakaeo to perfume. 
PS Mgv. : eo, to exhale a strong smell, as 
a rotting thing. Mq.: eo, rotten, 
putrid; to stink; hakaeo, to cause 
to spoil. Ta. : veoveo, disagreeable 
odor; faaero, rotten (of an egg). 
Sa. : elo, to stink. To., Fu. , Niue : e/o,id . 
The sense accord is satisfactory. Very 
little distinction is made by the Polyne- 
sians in naming an odor; it is practically 
suflicient to say there is an odor and to 
leave the characterization to individual 
discernment or to designate it by specific 
statement of that which emits the odor. 
An interesting light is thrown upon this 
usage by the instructive jargon of the 
Western Pacific in which we find an onion 
described as "apple belong stink " and put- 
ting perfumed oil upon the hair as "slush'm 
grass belong head too much stink " (Beach- 
la-Mar, pages 34 and 49). The extinction 
of a Proto-Samoan I is regular in the Mar- 
quesas; in Nuclear Polynesia it obtains 
somewhat freely in Niue, and has been 
noted in other parts of the Pacific (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 53). Tahiti seowo, 
a satisfactory sense concord, involves the 
difficulty of a frontal accretion; if it does 
not derive from elo, its source is unidenti- 
fiable in any veo or velo stem. 



RAPANUI-ENGIvISH VOCABUIvARY. 



195 



eoeo 1 ash, charcoal, coal. 

(eoeo 2) hakaeoeo to pulverize, to make 

into dust. 
epe ear G. 
eperehe (perehe). 
epeveo ear-ring. 
epikopo bishop (episcopus) . 
era that. 

a mea era, that. 
apo era, day after to-morrow, 
(ere) hakaere to relax, to slacken. 
etahi (tahi). 
ete (eete). 
eteni heathen, idolater, pagan. 

etenihaga idolatry. 
etereno eternal. 
etu tribe. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : ati, a descendant. 

Here we set etu with the ati forms solely 
for comparison. In the collation of ngati- 
ali (The Poljmesian Wanderings, 198) we 
find no trace of such a form and the asso- 
ciation is highly problematical. 
etua 1 god (atua). 

hahumuhumu etua, revelation. 
hakaetua to deify. 
etuahaga divinity. 
etua 2 stranger. 
eua sceptre. 

euai to train, to break in. 
' eueue (ueue). 
(euheu) ariga euheu venerable. 
eukaritia eucharist. 
(euru) hakaeuru to dilute, to dissolve, to 
infuse, to inject, to blend, to falsify; 
infusion, mixture, falsification. 
hakaeuruga mixed, a mixture. 
eva to be delirious, to rave, absxurd (eheva, 
heva, heheva). 
T Mgv. : eva, heva, frenz ed, delirious; stiff, 
said of a sick person; aeva, like a 
madman. Mq. : eva, to be confused, 
perplexed. Ta.: hevaheva, beside 
oneself. 
eoagerio gospel {evangelium) . 
eve 1 placenta, afterbirth (eeve). 

T Pan.: eve, womb. Ta. : eve, placenta. 
Ma. : ewe, id. Ha. : ewe, navel string. 
eve 2 the rear. 

taki eeve, the buttocks. 
hakahiti hi te eeve, to show the but- 
tocks. 
pupuhi eve, syringe. 
eve 3 the bottom of the sea. 

ga (na i, 2). 

gaa to break, to split, to crack, to rive; 
fracture, fissure, break, crack, crev- 
ice (gaaha). 
niho gaa, toothache, broken teeth. 
gaatniro {miro, ship) shipwreck. 
gaapu ipu 2) abortion. 
poki ga&pu, abortive child. 
T Mq.: naha, nafa, split, fissure. Ta.: 
aha, afa, crack, fissure. 
gaatu 1 bulru^, reed. 



gaatu 2 (gatu). 

gaegae short of breath, out of breath, breath- 
less. 
PS Mgv. : aeaea, short of breath, to breathe 
with difficulty, to feel suffocated; 
gaegae, to have a feeble voice. Mq. : 
naenae, kaekae, short of breatii, 
unable to breathe.'suffocated. Ta.: 
dede, short and painful breathing, 
as of one at the point of death. 
Sa. : gae, to breathe hard, to pant, to be 
out of breath. Uvea: gaegae, out 
of breath. Pu.: gaigaisa, id. 
Pratt and Violette record the Samoan as 
ga'e. But the complete absence elsewhere 
in Nuclear Polynesia of a stem gake in an 
associable sense and the presence in Uvea 
of gaegae in a speech which never drops 
Proto-Samoan k prove that ga'e is wrong. 
P^re Violette has slavishly followed an 
early edition of Pratt (probably the sec- 
ond) ; the latter in assigning ' was guided 
solely by ear without seeking to confirm 
his assignment by comparison of other 
languages in which the k is retained. In 
many cases I have abundant authority 
for altering his record in this particular. 
gaehe to boil. 

gaei to shake, to contract, to move (gaeiei, 
gaiei, geigel, garei, gerei). 
ua gaei, pulsation. 
hakagaei to shake, to wave, to waddle, 
to twist the body about. 
ahi hakagaei, a night signal. 
hakagerei to shake. 
gaga to faint, to fall in a swoon, death 

struggle. 
gagata crowd, multitude, people, population 
gagau (gau). 
gaie flexible wood (? gaiei). 
gaiei 1 movement, flexibility; to move; 
flexible, not wholly solid (gaei, 
gaieiei). 
gaiei 2 mixture, mixed. 
gamatnari gland, kernel. 
gao neck, throat (naho Q). 
gao pukupuku, scrofula. 
hore te gao, to cut the head off. 
arakea gao, scrofula. 
gaoaku to yelp (gaugau). 
gaoetu to yelp. 
gaogao calm. 
gaoku to eat greedily. 
gaopu to choke on a bone. 
garahu 1 charcoal, powder used in tattooing, 
ink (garau). 
garau hiva, pitch. 
T Pan. : garahu, live coals. Mgv. : garahu, 
charcoal, soot; garahurahu, small 
pieces of charcoal. Mq.: kadhu, 
charcoal, coal, soot, tattooing ink. 
Ta.: arahu, charcoal. 
garahu 2 mourning. .«-— 
garara cockroach T. - - 

T Ta. : arara, the small lizard. Ma. : nga- 
rara, a reptile, an insect. 
garau (garahu). 



196 



EASTER ISLAND. 



garei (gaei). 

garei ki le vaero, to wag the tail. 
garepe to swell, a swelling, dropsy. 

gareperepe soaked T. 
garo to disappear, to stray, to omit, to lose 
oneself, to pass, absent, to founder, 
to drown, to sink. 
garo noa, to go away forever, to be 

rare. 
garo atu ana, formerly. 
hakagaro to cover with water. 
hakagaro te rakerakega, to pardon. 
P Pau. : garo, absent, lost, ruined. Mgv. : 
garo, to disappear, lost; garo atu 
ara, formerly, of old. Mq.: nao, 
kao, to disappear, to be absent, to 
hide oneself; hidden, sunk, lost, 
drowned. Ta. : aro, to forget, to 
neglect; aroaro, hidden, mysterious, 
obscure, desolate, lost, forgotten, 
neglected, solitary. 
garoa loss, absence, to be away, to drown, 

not comprehended, unintelligible. 
garoaga setting. 

garoaga raa, sunset, west. 
garoraa the sun half-set. 
garovukua to swallow up. 
garu 1 to swim over the waves. (See 
aruaru 2.) 
P Mgv.: garu, foam, froth. Mq. : kad, 
nautai, wave, billow. Pau.: puhi- 
garu, a bubble of water. 
In aruaru 2 is found another galu deriv- 
ative. The sense of this garu is nowhere 
else encountered; the stem means simply 
the waves and involves no idea of 
swimming. We note, however, the Viti 
gaio to swim; an uncertain identification. 
garu 2 garu hoa, a. friend of either sex. 
PS Sa. : galu, a number of young persons 
(galu teine, galu taulele'a). To.: 
? gauta, many in number. 
Data fail for the comparison. The plu- 
ral sense of the Samoan does not appear in 
Rapanui. The Tongan form involves the 
rather infrequent loss of an inner I and 
leaves the latter element ta unexplained. 
garuru headache, vertigo. 

puoko garuru, migraine. 
P Mgv.: garuru, nausea that persists. 
Mq.: nauu, kami, headache, mi- 
graine. 
gatu 1 to feel of, to pinch, to throttle with 
the hands, to touch, to press 
(gaatu). 
gatuga pressure. 
gatugatu to trample down. 
T Mgv.: natu, to press out linen, to 
squeeze a person or a sore place. 
Mq. : natu, to pinch. Ta. : natu, 
to pinch, to bruise. 
gatu 2 to suppurate. 
gatu 3 gatu mat gatu atu, sodomy. 
gatua (gatu 1 ) tractable, to press. 
gau cruel, fierce, to bite. 

Ohio gagau, the bit of a bridle. 
hakagau to gag. 
hakagagau to move to rage. 



gau — continued. 

PPau.: gau, to eat; gagau, the edge of 
tools, gahugahu, to chew; gaugau, 
to stammer. Mgv. : gau, gagau, to 
bite with avidity, to seize with the 
teeth, pincers. Mq. : nahu, kahu, 
to bite, to tear with the teeth. 
That the Proto- Samoan stem was gahu 
may be considered satisfactorily estab- 
lished by the occurrence of the aspiration 
in Paumotu and Marquesas and in Moriori 
gahu. 
gaugau to bark (gaoaku, gaoetu). 
ge dismal. 

P Sa. : gege, to die. Ma.: ngenge, weary, 
tired. Ha.: we, peevish. 
gei taegeimai, unshakable (gaei). 
toe gei, agreeable wind. 
geigei flexible wood (gaei). 
geu serious, a complaint, to murmur (when 
one is dealing with a man or a 
woman who abandons the home), 
gigogi a small univalve T. 
(Mgv.: ninoke, small). 
gihigihi arid, dry, aridity (gii). 
gii glare of the sun. 

giigii burning, stifling, to droop and 
fade. 
giogio bed covering, rags, frippery. 

giogio kore, naked. 
girigapea a sponge. 

miti ei girigapea, to sop up with a 
sponge. 
gita 1 epilepsy, to fall in a fit, idiot, imbecile. 
gita 2 a slip knot. 
gogoraa (gogoroaa). 
gogoro to solemnize. 

PS Mgv. : gogoro, a holiday, a feast, to. - 
make a festival. Sa. : gogolo, to 
come in crowds. 
The Rapanui and Mangareva present 
the same phase of the meaning; the 
Samoan is a specific detail. I regard the 
Southeast Polynesian sense as nearer to 
the primitive signification. 
gogoroaa accident, adversity, calamity, • 
plague, misfortune, fatigue, lassi- 
tude, misery, pain, indifference, 
remorse, care, solicitude, suffering, 
torment, swoon, chagrin, embar- 
rassment, indifferent, preoccupied, 
languid, painful, sad. 
pagaha gogoroaa, ennui, to be tired. 
hakagogoroaa to crush, to compro- ' 
mise, to molest, to harm, to go 
about doing injury. 
gohau a fishing-line. 
gogoro (gorogoro). 

gorigori small, fine, little, modest, medi- 
ocre, insufiicient, stunted (goigoi). 
kai gorigori, one who has naught to 

eat. 
koona goigoi, point of land. 
mata gorigori, lantern-jawed. 
hakagoigoi to make thin. 
T Mgv. : nore, ninore, small, thin, pitiful, 
humiliated, contemptible. Mq. : 
noi, dwarf, stunted. 



RAPANUI-KNGUSH VOCABULARY. 



197 



£origori — continued. 

Ma.: ngori, weak, listless; ngore, soft, 
flaccid. 
gorogoro to snore, to grunt, to sleep deeply, 
nightmare (gogoro) (nogoru Q). 
P Pau. : gooro, tagoro, to snore. Mgv. : 
goro, to snore, to rattle. Ta. : 
ooro, to snore, to rumble. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 392.) 
hakagorogoro to cause to grunt. 
goruru to sleep (auru, ahuru, horuhoru). 
goutu (gutu). 
gu 1 apology. 
gu 2 brusque. 
guha brusque. 
T Mgv. : guha, a deep voice with bad ar- 
ticulation. Ma.: nguha, to snort, 
to rage. 
guregure mottled, to spot. 
tapa guregure, calico. 
guruarapuru hoarse, hoarseness. 
guruhara throat. 
guti Thursday (Jeudi). 
gutu lips, mouth, beak, snout (goutu). 
gutu ahu, swollen lip. 
guti hiti, thick lip. 
gutu mokomoko, pointed lip. 
gutu no, vain words. 
gutu pakapaka, scabbed lips. 
gutu raro, lower lip. 
gutu ruga, upper lip. 
gutugutu snout. 
PPau.: gMto, lip, beak, bill. Mgv.: gutu, 
the chin, the mouth of a fish. Mq.: 
nutu, beak, snout. Ta. : utu, lip, 
mouth, beak, snout. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 349.) 
gutupiri attentively. 
gututae attentively. 

gututae mekenu, a small mouth. 
gututika tattooing on the lips. 



ha 1 four. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: ha, id. 
ha 2 to yawn, to gape. 
ha 3 to heat. 

(ha 4) hakaha to skin, to flay. 
unahi hakaha, to scale fish. 
Mgv. : akaha, to take to pieces, to take 
off the bark or skin, to strip the 
leaves off sugarcane. 
haata (hata). 
haatigo to accompany. 

Mq. : heetina, to accompany. 
haatu (hatu). 
haavare cunning, guile. 

Ta. : haavare, to dupe, to swindle. 
hae 1 smoke with a foul smell. 
PS Sa. : saesae, to bum brightly. 

With form concord and so much of sense 
agreement as may inhere in the fact that 
this and the Samoan are fire words, per- 
haps the fact that hae can be associated 
with no other Polynesian stem may estab- 
lish this identification. In Samoa the 
word has so far lost its meaning that it is 



hae 1 — continued, 
rarely used alone but only in the determi- 
nant compound musaesae. There may be 
a sense-invert here, for such smoke could 
most readily come from a smoldering fire, 
the direct opposite of the Samoan sense. 
hae 2 angry, jealous. 
hakahae to slander. 
T Pau., Ta.: hae, jealous. Mq.: hae, 
angry. 
Ma. : hae, jealous, envious. 
haga 1 bay, strait, anchorage, strand, beach. 
P Mq. : hana, haka, small bay, creek, cove. 
haga 2 work, labor, employment, act, affair, 
creation, design, state, maker, fash- 
ion, manufactiu'e, occupation, pro- 
fession; to do, to make, to con- 
struct, to employ, to form, to 
manufacture, to fashion, to found, 
to be busy with. 
haga rakerake, crime. 
tagaia haga ei mea, mercenary. 
haga no iti, to plot mischief. 
haga ke, to act contrary. 
haga takataka, to disjoin. 
haga nui, difficulty, fatigue, to weary. 
tuhi hi te haga, to give employment. 
haga hakahou, to make over, to renew, 

recovery. 
haga koroiti, to deal prudently. 
haga nuinui ke, to overburden. 
P Pau. : haga, to do, action, work, a deed. 
Mgv. : haga, aga, work, labor. Mq. : 
hana, haka, action, act, work, occu- 
pation. Ta.: haa, work, to labor, 
to make. 
The common consent of the Tongafiti 
branches of the family shows the Proto- 
Samoan to have been haga. This receives 
support within the area of Nuclear Poly- 
nesia in Viti dhaka, the mutation from the 
stronger (lingual) aspiration to dh being 
normal. 
haga 3 agreement, conduct, liking, inten- 
tion, desire, will; to resolve, to 
agree, to consent, to obey, to per- 
mit, to endeavor, to tolerate, to be 
willing, to wish, to approve. 
haga ihoiho, fixed desire. 
haga mat, haga no mai, to agree, to 

hearken favorably. 
tae haga, despite, involuntary, to 

refuse, to renounce. 
noho hakahaga, apathy. 
haga 4 (haka). 

Pau.: haga = haka. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 269.) 
hagaava (haga i-ava 2 ) entrance of a harbor. 
hagahaga 1 (haga 2) work. 
hagahaga 2 hesitation, to hesitate. 
hagahuru ten (agahuru, hagauru). 

P Mq. : onohuu, okohuu, id. Ta. : ahuru, id. 

haga! to feed, to nourish, foster-parent 

(agai). 

hagai ei u, to suckle. 

P Pau.: fagai, to feed, to maintain, to 

support. Mgv. : agai, to nurse, to 



198 



EASTER ISLAND. 



hagai — continued. 

nurture, to give food to, an adop- 
tive or foster father; akaagai, to 
feed. Mq.: hakai, to feed. Ta.: 
faaai, to nourish, a foster-parent. 
The Samoan represents an earlier type 
of the root, but in the case of this compo- 
sition element, the postpositive paradeic- 
tic i of effective transitive value (Beach- 
la-Mar, page 21), we are not justified in 
regarding it as critical in assigning a voca- 
ble to either migration swarm. The Sa- 
moan contains many words of undoubted 
Proto-Samoan provenance which have re- 
ceived this augment, and in the specific 
case of fafaga the sturounding Proto- 
Samoan languages use fagai, except that 
Uvea agrees with the Samoan. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 269.) 
hagaiho (haga ^-iho i) recovery. 
hagakahu Qiaga i-kahu) to weave. 
hagakavaga to judge. 
hagake {haga ^.-ke) to act contrary. 
hagamiro (haga 2-miro} to work in wood. 

tagata hagamiro, carpenter. 
(hagatnoa, hugamoa). 
hagarae (Jiaga ^-rae) creation, to undertake, 

enterprise, promoter. 
hagatahi (agatahi). 
hagatopa {haga 2-topa 6) vain, futile, to do 

to no purpose, failure. 
hagauru (hagahuru, agahuru). 
hage look here! 
hagihagi clear. 

ui hagihagi, to discern. 
Pau.: hagihagi, light, slender, elegant. 
Mq. : dnidni, dkidki, fine, thin, 
clear, transparent. 
hago a musket, to shoot. 
hago poto, pistol. 
(Mgv. : hago, the hole of a snake or an 
eel in the ground. But note P 
fana, to shoot.) 
hagu 1 the temples. 
hagu 2 (agu). 

haguhagu convulsion, spasm, convulsive. 
hagupotu younger son, younger brother T. 
haha 1 to grope, to feel one's way. 
po haha, darkness, obscure. 
P Pau. : fafa, to feel for, to grope. Mq. : 
haha, fafa, to grope, to feel one's 
way with the hand as one blind. 
Ta. : fafa, to touch, to feel with the 
hand. 
The absence oifdfd from the Samoan is 
not in itself sufficient to prohibit entry of 
the word into the general Polynesian, for 
it is found in Tonga, Kutuna, and Uvea; 
Nine, however, follows after Samoan with 
a mutation so clumsy and unusual (Samoa 
/dgotogo, to grope; Nine: tamotamo, id.) us 
to suggest a roundabout acquisition. On 
the other hand the presence of any vocable 
in Tonga, Futuna and Uvea is not wholly 
satisfactory evidence that it is Proto- 
Samoan, for considerably more Tongafiti 
vocables are there encountered than in 
Samoa and Viti. 



haha 2 mouth, chops, door, entrance, 
window. 
haha pipi, small mouth. 
haha pipiro, foul breath. 
ohio haha, bit of bridle. 
tiaki haha, porter, doorkeeper. 
T Pau. : vaha, the mouth. Mgv. : haha, 
aha, the mouth. Mq. : haha, fafa, 
mouth, chops, beak, opening. Ta. : 
vaha, the mouth, beak, chops. 
hahae to walk with legs wide open. 

Mgv.: hoe, unequal, out of tmison, 
longer on one side. 
hahaga ridge, summit, wall plate. 

maroa hahaga, to measure lands, to 
walk at a great pace. 
hahao I a measure, to measure. 
hahao 2 to pack up, to box, to put into, to 
sheathe; scabbard, sheath. 
P Mgv. : hao, hahao, to inclose, to sur- 
round, to envelop, to put a thing 
into a box or sack. Mq. : fao, 
fafao, hao, hahao, to put into, to 
introduce into. Ta. : fafao, to put 
into. 
The Samoan identification is debatable, 
for sao is defined as to "collect together 
food or property preparatory to present- 
ing. " It is only by implication that this 
suggests the custom of collecting the food 
in coconut frails. The Tongan hao, to 
surround, to inclose, is still wider from the 
sense. It may prove safer to include this 
in the Tongafiti material. 
hahari to comb. 
hahati (hati). 
hahatu (hatu). 
hahau (hau). 
hahi package. 

PS Mgv. : hahi, hahihi, a packet or bundle 
of fish enveloped in leaves; to wrap 
up in leaves. Mq.: /a/i,/!oAi, small 
packet in leaves, envelope, wrap- 
per; to envelop, to wrap up. Ta.: 
afifi, to tie up. 
Sa. : afi, afifl, to do up in a bundle. 

Nine: afi, a bundle, to wrap. 
The presence of the initial aspirate in 
Rapanui and Marquesan indicates a 
Proto-Samoan stem hafi. Abrasion of 
afisi appears to have led to a tangle of the 
two stems in the Tongafiti languages (see 
the Polynesian Wanderings, page 277, with 
the later determination on page 290). The 
second form in the Marquesan seems to 
have derived through hahi, where each h 
is misunderstood to stand for an original/. 
The Tahiti afifi is the Samoan plural 
afifl. 
hahie firewood. 
P Ta.: vahie, id. Mgv., Mq.: vehie, id. 

The Rapanui and Tahiti (as well as 
Hawaii, Rarotonga and Maori) follow the 
Samoan in respect of the vowel in the first 
syllable. The Mangareva and Marquesas 
vehie reproduces the Tongan fefie. Mr. 
Tregear cites the Futuna as faei^, but on 
the authority of P^reGrezel this should be 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



199 



hahie — continued. 

corrected to fdfie. Another error on the 
part of Mr. Tregear is to suggest the asso- 
ciation of Maori wahie with wahi to split; 
this is seen in Samoan to be impossible, 
for the latter is fasi. We note a difference 
in the two /s in character: the former 
mutates to v (w) except in Rapanui, and 
the latter to h. 
hahoa (ha causative, hoa) to cut, to wound, 
to hurt. 
PS Mgv. : tahoa, to make papyrus by 
beating. 
Sa.: foa, to chip, to break. To.: foa, 
to crack, to make an opening. Fu. : 
foa, to dig, the rent in a mat. 
Underlying the Nuclear Polynesian sig- 
nifications the primal sense seems to be 
that of a hole. The Rapanui, a causative, 
is a clear derivative in the cutting sense; 
wound and hurt are secondary within this 
language. The Mangarevan composite 
means "to beat until holes appear," 
which is a distinctive character of the 
beaten bast of the paper mulberry in the 
condition in which it is ready for employ- 
ment in making tapa. 
hahumuhumu (ha causative, humuhumu) 
to say, to speak indistinctly, to 
speak in a deep voice, to mutter, 
to whisper, to inspire, lecture, 
reading. 
hahumuhumu etua, revelation. 
hakahahumuhumu to insinuate. 
PS Pau. : muhumuhu, a confused noise. 
Mq. : muhumuhu, to whisper, to 
murmur; kohumu, kaihumu, kaiko- 
humu, to whisper, to murmur, to 
grunt, to growl, to mumble. Ta. : 
muhu, to babble; omuhumuhu, to 
whisper, to mutter. 
Sa. : musumusu, to whisper. To. : muhu, 
to speak quietly together. Fu.: 
musu, to speak in low tones. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 383.) 
The metathesis is not only normal in 
type, but the presence of the two forms 
in the Marquesas is sufficient to establish 
it firmly. 
hai 1 to wrap up, to make into parcels, to 
envelop; food tied up in bundles 
(ai). 
PS Sa. : sat, a tightly bound bundle. To. : 
Aoi/jai, to tie up in a bundle. Fu.: 
sai, to tie; saisaiga, a bundle. 
Niue: hai, to tie fast. 
hai 2 to carry. 

Mq.: hai, to carry, to transport. Ta.: 
afai, to carry an object, to trans- 
port; afafai, capable of carrying a 
heavy burden, to carry here and 
there. 
hai 3 to be in heat, to copulate, to embrace; 
concupiscence, fornication, impur- 
ity; lascivious, impure (ai). 
P Ta. : ai, to copulate. 
halga armpit. 
PS vSa. : fa'iga, a joint. 



haipo heart. 

haipo rahirahi, shortness of breath. 
Mq.: houpo, heart. 
haite (ha causative, ite) numeral. 
paka causative (a, aka, haga, haa, ha). 
P Ma. : whaka, causative. (The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, 270.) 
hakahaka to dance T. 

P Mgv. : haka-emana, to skip with a cord. 
Mq. : haka, to dance. 
hakai R (kakai). 

hakari coconut (in Christian's "Eastern 
Pacific," page 242). 
TTa.: hadri, id. Mangaia: hakari, id. 
haki certainly. 

Mgv. : aki, a cry of joy. Mq. : aki, an 
interjection. Ta. : ai, an exclama- 
tion. 
hakura to pinch. 
T Mgv. : akure, to hunt for lice. Ma. : 
hakure, id. 
hamae outrigger. 
T Mgv. : Mq., Ta., Pau. : ama, id. 

The initial aspirate preserves the Proto- 
Samoan stem found also in Tongan hama 
and Viti dhama, and this is an argument 
in favor of the direct migration to Rapanui 
of Proto-Samoan rovers. The final syl- 
lable is, as yet, inexplicable; no such aug- 
ment appears elsewhere in the widely 
extended history of the word. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 404.) 
hami clothing T. 

hami kaufa, diaper T. 
Mgv., Mq. : hami, loin-cloth. 
hamoni fold, crease, hem (aamoni). 
(? metathetic P numi to fold.) 
hana warmth, heat, suffocation (mahana). 
hanau to be bom. 

vie hanau, midwife. 
P Pau. :/o»a«go,child,descendant,progeny. 
Mgv.: hanau, to be bom, to be 
brought into the world. Mq. : 
fanau, hanau, to be bom, to lie in, 
to bring into the world. Ta.: 
fanau, to be born, to lie in. 
hanehane maea hanehane, black and red 
tufa T. 
Mq. : ane, swarthy, sunburnt. 
hanohano detestable, illicit, impure, im- 
moral; to take exception to, to 
stink. 
kokoma hanohano, vexation, spite; to 
despise, to hate, to be angry, to 
bear a grudge. 
kokoma hanohano ke, to be in a rage. 
kokoma hanohano mai, to be roused to 

wrath. 
kokoma hanohano manava pohi, to 
abhor. 
hakahanohano to be roused to wrath. 
Ta. : hanohano, terrible, frightfiU. 
hanu aid T. 
hanuanua meamea rainbow. 

P Mgv. : anuanua, rainbow, mist, clouds 
on the horizon. Mq.: anuanua, 
rainbow, halo about a star, areola. 
Ta.: anuanua, anuenue, rainbow. 



200 



EASTER ISLAND. 



hanuanua meamea — continued. 

With the Maori aniwaniwa this stands 
in no genetic relation, for there is a con- 
fusion of usage. The simplest form of 
the rainbow vocable is nuanua (Samoa, 
Futuna). The augmented form anuanua 
is found in Mangareva, Marquesas and 
Tahiti, Rarotonga and Hawaii, and in 
Tahiti and Hawaii there is a, variant, 
anuenue; this augmented form receives an 
incongruous aspiration in Rapanui, pos- 
sibly an error of the French recorder. A 
distinct root denotes a distinct heavenly 
body, Samoa: 'aniva, the milky way; 
Tonga and Futuna kaniva, id.; from the 
permanent to the evanescent phenomenon 
this root passes to the rainbow in Maori 
aniwaniwa and Moriori aniniwa. 
hanuru T (auru). 

hapai to lift, to raise, to elevate, to embark, 
to carry, to transport, to offer, to 
accept, to transmit. 
hapai hi ruga, to load, to raise, to 

extract, to exhaust. 
hapai koona he, to transfer, to remove. 
hapai rogo, to announce. 
hapaiaga elevation, to raise. 
hapaihaga burden, offering, assump- 
tion. 
hapaihakahoua to report. 
hapaitari to import. 
P Pau : hopoi, to lift up, to raise. Mgv. ; 
apai, apapai, aapai, to carry, to 
bear. Mq. : hapai, to lift, to raise, 
to take away, to displace. Ta. : 
apai, to bring; hapoi, hopoi, to 
transport. 
Two distinct stages of signification are 
here entangled, but it may be found not 
impossible to dissociate them and assign 
them to their respective sources. 

A. Of a position raised in the hands, 
thence elevated in general, static sense. 

Sa. : sapai, to hold in the hands or arms. 
To. : hapai, to hold up in the hands. Nine : 
hapai, to nurse in hands or arms. Ma.: 
hapai, to lift, to raise. Ha. : hapai, id. 
Rapanui : hapai, id. Mq. : hapai, id. 
Pau.: hopoi, id. There is a distinct loss 
of particular sense in the passage from the 
Nuclear Polynesia to the Tongafiti; the 
former is conditional, the latter causative. 

B. Of carrying, kinetic sense. Ma.: 
hapai, to caxry. Ha.: hapai, id. Rapanui: 
hapai, id. Mgv. : apai, id. Mangaia : apai, 
id. Ta. : apai, hapoi, hopoi, id. The B 
group is wholly Tongafiti. 

hara 1 pandanus. 

P Mgv.: ara, puhara, pandanus tree; 
hara, a bunch of pandanus fruit, 
old pandanus. Mq.: /a<£, too, pan- 
danus. Ta. . fara, id. 
hara 2 error, mistake, oversight, wrong; to 
err, to confound, to mistake. 
manau hara, illusion. 
toiia hara, discussion without knowing 
the object. 



hara 2 — continued. 

P Mgv. : ara, arara, defective, abortive, to 
miss, to fail, a fault, a quarrel; 
hara, a fault, a mistake, an error, a 
dispute, a quarrel, undisciplined. 
Mq. : hara, a rake, libertine. Ta. : 
hara, sin, fault, crime. 
harai to accompany, to escort, to associate, 
to adjoin (arai). 
ka harai kia mea, to accompany. 
Pau. : arai, to conduct, to guide. Mq. : 
adhi, to conduct, to escort, to 
accompany. 
harani France, French. 
haraoa flour, bread, paste, wheat. 
mokohi haraoa, grain. 
kiri haraoa, bran. 
haratua (aratua). 

hare house, cabin, habitation, building, hut, 
structure. 
hare iti, hut. 
hare itiiti no, cabin. 
hare kahu, tent. 
hare neinei, latrine. 
hare no Hi, cell. 
hare nunui, palace. 
hare pohurihuri, prison. 
hare pure, chapel, church. 
ki te hare, at home. 
harepepe kelp. Cf. Chap. V, 2657. 
harepiko 
a. asylum, place of refuge. 
6. ambush, snare. 
harepopo shed. 
harepopokai storehouse. 
PPau.: fare, house. Mgv.: tore, house, 
dwelling. Mq. . fae, hae, building, 
house, umbrella. Ta. : fare, house, 
structure, dwelling. 
hari to bring, to bring back, to fetch, to 
carry. 
T Mgv.: hari, to convey heavy goods. 
Mq. : hai, to carry, to transport. 
hariu to turn aside, to turn the back, to turn 
around, to pirouette, to tiurn a 
canoe (ariu). 
hariti he, to turn from one side to the 
other. 
hariua to be converted. 
hakahariu to change, to turn about. 
PS Pau.: fariuke, to turn away, to turn 
aside, to swerve. Mg. : ariu, to 
turn, to turn oneself around; aka- 
ariu, to turn so as to face any one, 
to face toward. Mq. : faiu, hatu, 
to turn oneself around, to make a 
half turn, to wrest the sense, to 
tack, to face toward. Ta.: fariu, 
to turn, to be converted. 
Sa. : faliu, to turn, to turn the head, to 
look iaack. To. : faliu, to turn and 
look back. Nine: faliu, changed. 
Moriori; whariu, to turn aside, to 
avert. 
haro 

a. to point, to raise the arm, to stretch out 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



201 



haro — continued. 

the hand or other member, to 
spread, to point the yards. 

b. to hoist, to pull up, to entice. 

c. to stiffen, to grasp, to squeeze. 
haroharo to point, to limp. 

PS Sa. : falo, to stretch out. To. : falo, 
to stretch out, to make tense . Fu. : 
falo, to stretch out, to lay hands on. 
haruharu to rob, to steal, to arrest, to 
seize, to cling, to grasp unexpect- 
edly, to take by force; robber 
(aruaru, aaru). 
Pau.: haru, to extort, to carry off, to 
usurp. Ta. : haru, robber, to seize 
by force. 
hata 1 table, bureau. 
P Pau. : afaia, a chest, box. Mgv. : avata, 
a. box, case, trunk, coffin. Mq. : 
fata, hata, a piece of wood with 
several branches serving as a rack, 
space, to ramify, to branch; falad, 
hatad, stage, step, shelf. Ta. : fata, 
scaffold, altar. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 343.) 
(hata 2) hakahata to disjoint. 

hakahatahata to loosen, to stretch. 
P Pau.: vata, an interval, interstice. 
Mgv.: kohata, the space between 
two boards, to be badly joined; 
akakohata, to leave a space between 
two bodies badly joined; hatahata, 
to be large, broad, wide, spacious, 
far off. Mq.; hatahata, fatafata, 
having chinks, not tightly closed, 
disjointed. Ta. : fatafata, open. 
hatahata I calm, loo.se, prolix, vast. 

Mgv.: hatahara, broad, wide, spacious, 
at one's ease. Mq. : hatahata, 
empty, open. 
hatahata 2 tube, pipe, funnel. 
hati to strike, to break, to peel off bark; 
slip, cutting, breaking, flow, wave 
(aati, ati, hahati). 
tai hati, breakers, surf. 
tumu hatihati, weak in the legs. 
hakahati to persuade. 
P Pau.: fati, to break. Mgv.: ati, hati, 
to break, to smash. Mq. : fati, 
hati, id. Ta. : fati, to rupture, to 
break, to conquer. (The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, 219.) 
hatipu slate. 

hatu 1 to fold, to double, to plait, to braid 
(haatu, hahatu, mahatu). 
noho hatu, to sit crosslegged. 
hoe hatu, clasp knife. 
hatuhatu to deform. 
P Pau.: pifatu, to fold. Mgv.: atu, to 
fold in two, to bend double; hatu- 
hatu, to fold with care, to put in 
many pleats; hahatu, to fold in one 
or two thicknesses. Mq. : fatu, 
hatu, to fold, to double. Ta. : fatu, 
to braid. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 228.) 
hatu 2 to recommend. 



hau 1 

a. hibiscus. 

b. wick. 

P Pau. : fau, hibiscus. Mgv. : hau, cau, id. 
Mq.: fau, hau, id. Ta.: fau, id. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 328.) 
hau 2 to contribute. 

Ta.; aufau, to pay, to contribute, to 
subscribe. 
hau 3 hat, cap, helmet. 

hakarere ki te hau, to take off the hat. 
Ta. : fauurumaa, war bonnet. 
hau 4 dew. 

hakaritorito ki te hau, to bleach in the 
dew. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: hau, dew. 
hau 5 to blow freshly, coolness, zephyr, 
salubrious, breeze, wind (hahau, 
ahau). 
kona hauhau, kona hahau, a breezy 

spot. 
ahau era, agreeable breeze. 
hakahahau to hang out in the air. 
hakaahau to blow. 
T Mgv.; hau, to blow, blusterous, to 
breathe. 
haua hoarse. 
(hau ha) araha hauha, to wait for, to look 

forward to. 
hauhau 1 dog (onomatopoetic). 
hauhau 2 

a. to scratch, to scrape, to rub. 

b. wood used in plowing fire. 
hauhau 3 (hau 5). 

haumaru (Juau 5-inarumaru) cool, cold. 

hauii to replace. 

hauva twin, cut T. 

hauvaero (hau 3-Daero) plume, aigrette, 

head ornament. 
hauvarikapau (hau s-varikapau) plume, 

aigrette, head ornament. 
hava (ha causative-»a) to remove, to dis- 
perse. 
Mq. : ava, to be lost, gone, absent, out 
of sight. 
he article. 

P Mgv., Mq. ; e, the. 
Sa. : se, id. 
hea where? 

ki hea, whither? 
P Pau.: tehea, where? Mgv., Mq., Ta.: 
hea, id. Mgv.: ea, id. 
See note under ahea; in this case also 
Tonga and Niue sacrifice the root and em- 
ploy fe as where. 
heaga prey, victim, sacrifice. 

Mgv. : eaga, victim, reprisal, retaliation. 
Mq. : heana, heaka, human victim. 
heatua population T. 
heenua (henua). 
heetuu (hetu). 
heguhegu 1 to desire earnestly. 
PS Sa. ; fego, to look covetously. 

Vowel mutation is much less frequent; 
in my theory of the strong element of these 
languages this is as it should be. But a 
mutation o-u has been observed (The 



202 



EASTER ISI<AND. 



heguhegu 1 — continued. 
Polynesian Wanderings, 51) and especially 
in an unaccented syllable. Data are not 
sufficient for the determination of the 
primitive sense, but the longing of desire is 
common to both. 

heguhegu 2 to murmur. 

P Ma. : whenguwhengu, to snuffle. 

heguigui 

a. to whisper, in an indistinct voice. 

b. to read. 

manava tagi ki le heguigui, studious. 
PS Mgv.: heguigui, to whisper, to speak 
low; eguigui, to hear the sound of 
a person's voice without distin- 
guishing the words. 
Sa.: Jeguigui, to talk in a low tone. 
To.: fegugui, id. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 393.) 
hehegaraa sunrise. 
PS Sa. : sesega, to be dazzled as by the 
sun. Fu.: sega, the beginning of 
daybreak. Niue: hegahega,theTed 
light or rays at sunset. Viti: ie^e, 
to dawn. 
hehehehe clay, muddy, damp. 
hehere (here). 
heheu (heu). 
heheva (eva). 
hei garland. 

P Mq. : hei, garland, necklace, chaplet, 
flower ornament. Ta. : hei, gar- 
land, chaplet, to entwine. 
hekaheka (ekaeka). 

(heke) hakaheke to pull down, to over- 
throw. 
Mgv.: akaeke, to overthrow, to van- 
quish; heke, to fall down, to fall to 
pieces: akaheke. akaheheke, to de- 
molish. Mq.: fee;fee, to crumble, to 
fall down; hakaheke, to demolish, 
to pull down. 
hemahia umbrella T. 

This is probably he malua, see maru- 
maru. In uncertain chirography lua 
might easily be read hia; and other exam- 
ples show that in Paymaster Thomson's 
vocabulary the article he is compacted 
with its noun and I is employed for r. 
heniati dead T, hemati Q (? ^ mate). 
The concurrence of T and Q seems proof 
that each had access to the same manu- 
script source, perhaps notes by Mr. 
Salmon. 
henua 1 land, country, region (heenua). 
henua tumu, native land. 
P Pau.: henua, country. Mgv.: enua, 
land, said of shallow places in the 
sea; mamuenua, the earth. Mq.; 
fenua, henua, land, country, place, 
property. Ta.: fenua, land, coun- 
try, place. 
There is apparently nothing critical in 
the first vowel; e is the most widely ex- 
tended ; a is found only in Samoa, Viti, and 
Rotuma in Nuclear Polynesia, but is the 
dominant vowel in Melanesian survivals. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 341.) 



henua 2 uterus T (cf. eve). 
T Pau. : pufenua, placenta. Mgv. : enua, 
id. Mq.: fenua, henua, id. 
henua 3 ? 

pupuhi henua, volley. 
PS Sa. : fana-fanua, cannon. To.: mea 
fanafonua, id. Fu. : fanafentm,,iA. 
Niue: /o«o/o»«a, id. Yiti: a dakai 
ni vanua, id. 
I can not understand this henua. Of 
course the cannon to which it is applied is 
modem and alien and became known to 
the islanders as part of the equipment of 
the whaler and the explorer. A very 
simple explanation is to regard fanua as 
objective, fanafanua as the shooter at the 
shore; this is doubly negatived, first be- 
cause fana takes for its object the missile 
shot and not the mark aimed at, second 
because Viti requires vanua in a genitive 
character. And if this metaphor is so 
simple, why is it confined to Proto-Samoan 
folk without suggesting itself to their 
Tongafiti kin? I think the applicability 
must rest in some meaning oi fanua which 
has nothing to do with land. 
(hepo) hakahepo to talk in the sleep 
(hakakepo R). 
PS Sa. : fa'alepo, a dream. 

P^re Roussel's vocabulary form haka- 
kepo, which makes no sense, is clearly a 
misreading of the manuscript. Translit- 
erated back to a Samoan form hakahepo 
becomes fa'asepo, which differs from the 
present Samoan /a'a/e^o only by the differ- 
ence between se and le, or that between the 
general and the particular article. 
hera-ki-to-mea luck T. 

Probably he ragi to mea, if such a mean- 
ing may be given to that possible colloca- 
tion of words; other instances are ob- 
served in which Paymaster Thomson has 
used k for g. 
here 1 to lash, to belay, to knot the end of a 
cord, to lace, to tie, to bind, to 
fasten, to knot ; to catch in a noose, 
to strangle, to garrote. 
here pepe, to saddle. 
moa herea, a trussed fowl. 
hehere collar, necklet. 
herega bond, ligament. 
P Pan.: here, a snare, a running knot, a 
tie, to lace up. Mgv. : ere, to hang 
up, to suspend; ereere, to bind 
down, to enthrall, to tie with great 
care. Mq.: hee, to catch in a 
noose, to lace, to strangle. Ta.: 
here, a snare, a cord, to lace, 
(here 2) hakahere to buy, to sell, to barter, 
to part with, to pay for, to do busi- 
ness, to compensate, to owe, to dis- 
burse, to expiate, to indemnify, to 
rent out, to hire, to traffic, to 
bargain, to bribe; merchant, trader, 
business, revenge. 
tagata hakahere, merchant, trader. 
hakahere ki te ika, to avenge. 
hakaherega ransom, redemption. 



RAPANUI-ENGIvISH VOCABUI^ARY. 



203 



(here) 2 hakahere — continued. 

hakahererua to exchange, to avenge. 
here 3 here ei hoiho, incense. 
heregao {here i-gao) scarf, cravat. 
hereo button T (? he veo). 
herepo ice plant T. 
herohero scarlet, suffocating T. 

ura herohero, brilliance of flames. 
heru leg T Q. 
heruheru rake. 

P Pau.: heru, to brush with the hand. 
Mq. : heii, to scrape, to clear away 
by rubbing. Ta. : heru, to scratch 
the ground. 
In sense the Paumotu and Marquesas 
are by no means satisfactorily coordinated, 
but there is no other stem with which they 
may be associated, and it is to be noted 
that the definitions of the Paumotu dic- 
tionary are meager and Bishop Dordillon's 
Marquesas dictionary is scarcely better. 
heruru to calk (cf. uru i). 
hetu I star (heetuu). 
hetu rere, meteor. 
hetu pupura, planet. 
P Pau. ; hetu, star. Mgv. : etu, id. Mq. : 
fetu, hetu, id. Ta.: fetu, fetia, id. 
The alternative forta fetia in Tahiti, now 
the only one in common use, need not be 
regarded as an anomaly in mutation. It 
seems to derive from Paumotu fetika, a 
planet. Its introduction into Tahiti is 
due to the fashion of accepting Paumotu 
vocables which arose when the house of 
Pomare came into power. 
hetu 2 capital letter he tu). 
hetu 3 to amuse. 
hetu 4 to stamp the feet. 
hetuhetu 
a. to calk. 

6. to strike the water. 
hetuke sea urchin. 

Mgv.: etuke, the sea porcupine; points, 
spines of the sea porcupine. Mq. : 
etue, a species of fish. 
(heu 1) heheu. 

ivi heheu, the cachalot, bone needle Q. 
hakaheu spade, to shovel, to grub up, 
to scratch the ground, to labor. 
rava hakaheu, laborious, toilsome. 
(heu 2) hakaheu affair. 
heva (eva). 
hi 1 to angle. 

Mgv. : hi, hipo, to fish with a line. Mq., 
Ta.: hi, id. 
hi 2 asthma, to wipe the nose. 

hihi to have a cold. 
hia 1 e hia, how many? 
P Pau. : ehia, id. Mgv. : e hia, id. Mq. : 
fia, hia, e hia, toohia, id. Ta. : hia, 
e hia, a hia, toohia, id. 
hia 2 to whistle. 

hakahia to turn the stomach. 
T Pau. : hiohio, to whistle, to hiss at. 
Mgv. : vio, to hiss in speaking. Ta. : 
Mo, to whistle, to blow. 
Ma. : whio, to whistle. 



hiahia to saw. 

P Pau. : ika, to cause fire by friction of one 
piece of wood against another. 
Mgv.: hika, id. Ta. : hia, id. Mq.: 
hika, hina, to saw, to obtain fire by 
friction. 
The identification lacks much in sense; 
it would also entail the loss of a stem k. 
Despite the inclusion of the saw sense 
in the Marquesan the fire friction is the 
plow method and differs in a marked 
degree from any sawing. 
hieroturia, sacrilege (fiierodoulia). 
higa 1 to consent, to obey, to give adhesion, 
to acquiesce. 
higahaga agreement. 
higa 2 to fall, to stumble (iga). 
higa iho, to fall down. 
higa hi te amoga (uraga), to fall be- 
neath a burden. 
iga rakerake, ignominy. 
higahiga awry, to stagger. 
hihiga to heel over under the wind. 
T Pau. : higa, to fall. Mgv. : akahiga, 
turned upside down, thrown down, 
upset. Mq. : hina, hika, turned 
upside down, fallen, slipped. Ta.: 
hid, to fall. 
As this occurs in Tongan higa and 
Futuna siga it may be assignable to the 
general Polynesian class, not, however, 
materially affecting any argument in the 
work except to swell the number of the 
neutral element. 
higa 3 to beat down, to defeat, to subject, 
to convince; danger, defeat. 
e ko higa, unconquerable. 
tae higa, invincible. 
higaa conquered, convinced. 
hakahiga to subject, to gain the mas- 
tery, to persuade, to subjugate, to 
conquer; victory. 
hakahakahiga to surpass. 
Mq. : hina, hika, conquered, vanquished, 
surrendered. 
hihi 1 antennae, feelers, lattice, eyebrow T 
(hihu Q). 
hihi keiuketu, to wrinkle, to turn back 
the eyelids. 
hihihihi to lace, to twist; eyebrow. 
hakahihi to cross the legs. 
T Pau.: hihi, a ray, sunbeam. Mgv.: 
hihi, to confuse; akahihi, to con- 
fuse, to ta.nglt; pehehihi, interlaced, 
crossing; tahihi, entangled. Mq.: 
hihi, antennae, tentacles, cat's 
whiskers. Ta. : hihi, sun ray, cat's 
whiskers, antennae. 
Close analysis is needed to clear up the 
situation in this vocable. 

A. A long thread-like object, antenna, 
tentacle, cat's whisker, eyelash, ray: 
found only in Rapanui, Paumotu, Mar- 
quesas, Tahiti, Maori. 

B. A word signifying tangled, inter- 
laced or that which is interlaced: found 
in Maori, Rapanui, Mangareva, Tahiti, 



204 



EASTER ISLAND. 



hihi I — continued. 
Tonga, and perhaps Samoa fifi the small 
intestine. 

In the only two languages which have 
both senses a phonetic difference is noted: 
I, Ta. : hihi, Ma. . hihi; 2, Ta. : fifi; Ma. : 
whiwhi. 
hihi 2 to tear, to strip. 

tutae hihi, constipation. 
momore hihi, to injjire, to damage. 
hihiga (higa 2). 
hihimata [hihi i-mata i) eyelash. 

Ta. : hihimata, id. 
hihiri difficult to reach. 
hiho to come. 
hihoi 1 to divine. 
hakahihoi id. 

Ta.: hiohio, diviner, wizard, spy; to 
observe. 
hihoi 2 to turn into, to transform. 

hakahihoi to infuse, to mix, to blend, 
to falsify. 
hiihii to laugh. 
hika a netting needle Q. 

PS Sa.: si'a, id. Fu., Viti: sika, id. 
hiki tail fin Q (? hiku) 
hikohiko keke hide-and-seek. 
hikuvera brown T. 
himene hymn, song, to sing. 
hinihini remote in time. 

hinihini ke avai, ancient. 
hakahinihini to delay, to postpone, 
to prolong, to prorogue, to retard, 
to put off. 
hio to grasp. 

kia hio, to arrest. 
hakahio to attach, to fix, to force, to 
favor, to rent. 
hiohio 1 by force, strong, earnestly, urgency, 
toe hioa. flexible. 
Mq. : fio, to grasp, to take by force. 
hiohio 2 steel (cf. ohio, iho 4). 
hiohio 3 to affront, to insist, to demand. 
hiohio 4 to clot, to coagulate. 
hi pa to incline, to lean, to deviate, to slope; 
deviation; oblique, tortuous; to 
avoid, to evade, to shun. 
hiriga hipa, to go obliquely. 
hipahaga obliquely. 
hipahipa to incline. 
P Mgv. : akahipa, akaipa, to lift up the 
chin of another person with the 
hand. Mq. : hipa, curved, crooked, 
athwart, oblique, zigzag; to warp, 
to step aside, to limp. Ta. ifaahipa, 
to turn aside. 
hipokerita, hypocrite. 
hipotati hypostasis. 

hipu calabash, shell, cup, jug, goblet, pot, 
plate, vase, bowl, any such recep- 
tacle. 
hipu hiva, melon, bottle. 
hipu takatore, vessel. 
hipu unuvai, drinking glass. 
P Mgv. : ipu, calabash, gourd for carry- 
ing liquids. Mq. : ipu, all sorts of 
small vases, shell, bowl, receptacle. 



hipu — continued. 

coconut shell. Ta. : ipu, calabash, 
cup, receptacle. 
hira to turn the eyes away, to leer. 

hakahira mata hakahira, squint-eyed. 
P Mq. : hiri, crosseyed. Ta. : hira, bash- 
fulness; hihira, to look askance. 
From the fact that in Samoa this is used 
only in the courtesy dialect, which is char- 
acterized by much loan material, we may 
regard this as of Tongafiti source persist- 
ing in Nuclear Polynesia from the time of 
contact in the special Samoan use; in 
Tonga hila to look askant. 
hiri 1 to elevate, to mount. 

hiriga to elevate; elevation, mounted, 
ascension, assumption, declivity. 
hiriga mouga, hillside. 
hirihiri a swing, seesaw. 
P Pau. : iri, to be put up in a place, to 
lodge. Mgv.: iri, placed in a 
higher position than the observer, 
as a box on a high shelf. Ta. : iri, 
to lodge or stick up in a place. 
The germ signification is "above, 
higher." In Samoa it is used most com- 
monly in a tropical sense, but the primal 
sense is sufficiently retained in the signifi- 
cation to lodge, to stick in, to show general 
concord with Rapanui and particular har- 
mony with the other languages of South- 
east Polynesia. 
hiri 2 to make a bag. 

taura hiri, to make a cord. 
rauoho hiri, plaited hair. 
hirihiri frizzed. 
rauoho hirihiri, lock of hair. 
P Mgv.: hiri, to weave, to plait; akahiri, 
to make a mat. Mq. : hii, large 
plait of coconut fiber. Ta. : firi, to 
plait, to braid. 
When we interpret in the sense of local 
conditions Pere Roussel's definition "to 
make a bag" the concord is perfect, for 
bags are woven. The germ sense is 
plainly the act of twining in and out, over 
and under, which, with specific differences 
due to manner and material, may result in 
plaiting or weaving; see hiro. 
hiri 3 to go, to walk, to voyage, to arrive, to 
appear. 
hiri ti reka, to go without noise. 
hiri koroiti, to go softly. 
hiri tahaga no mai, to go without a 
halt. 
hiriga voyage, journey. 

hiriga hakapa, to go by twos. 
hiriga hipa, to go obliquely. 
hiriga feo^e^ofee, togobysudden steps. 
hiriga okorua, to go by twos. 
hiriga tahataha, to go across. 
hiriga tekiteki, to go hopping. 
hiriga ti maiaku, to go fearlessly. 
hiriga totoro, to go on all fours. 
hiriga varikapau, to go in a ring. 
hiriga veveveve, to go boldly. 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABUI.ARY. 



205 



hiro to spin, to twist. 

P Mgv. : hiro, iro, to make a cord or line 
in the native manner by twisting on 
the thigh. Mq.: fid, hid, to spin, 
to twist, to twine. Ta.: hiro, to 
twist. 
This differs essentially from the in-and- 
out movement involved in hiri 2, for here 
the movement is that of rolling on the 
axis of length, the result is that of spinning. 
Starting with the coir fiber, the first opera- 
tion is to roll (hiro) by the palm of the 
hand upon the thigh, which lies conveni- 
ently exposed in the crosslegged sedentary 
posture, two or three threads into a cord; 
next to plait (hiri) three or other odd 
number of such cords into sennit. 
hirohiro to mix, to blend, to dissolve, to 
infuse, to inject, to season, to streak 
with several colors. 
hirohiro ei paatai, to salt. 
hirohiroa to mingle. 
hirohiroa ei vat, diluted with water. 
hita to strangle. 

hiti 1 to rise, to appear, to dawn, (ka-hiti, 
to climb T.) 
hitihaga rising. 

hitihaga raa, sunrise. 
hitihiti to dawn. 

horau hitihiti, break of day. 
hakahiti hakahiti ki te eeve, to show the 
buttocks. 
P Mgv.: hiti, to rise, to appear. Mq.: 
fiti, hiti, to arise, to mount, to go 
toward the mountains or toward 
the east. Ta. : hiti, to rise. Pau. : 
tahiti, to leap, to get over. 
hiti 2 puffed. 

gutu hiti, thick lips. 
Mq. : hitihiti, full of excrescences. 
hitu seven. 

P Pau.: ahito, id. Mgv.: itu, id. Mq. : 
fitu, hitu, id. Ta. : hitu, id. 
hiva strange, alien, foreign; a stranger. 
kuhane hiva. Holy Ghost. 
hakahiva mata hakahiva, to look back. 

(? hakahira.) 
Mq., Mgv.: hiva, iva, a stranger, a per- 
son from another district or coun- 
try. Pau.: pure-hiva, a butterfly. 
hivo capstan. 

Mq. : hivo, to raise the anchor, to weigh, 

to set sail. 
This, despite its occurrence in Marque- 
sas, is an English loan, one of the oldest 
survivals of our marine dialect as seen in 
"Heave-ho and rtmibelow, " of which we 
have a history older than Flodden Field. 
ho 1 ho!, oh! 

Pau., Ta.: ho, id. 
ho 2 lest, on the point of. 
ho 3 to deliver, to give up. 
PPau.: Ao o^«, to despatch. Mgv.: 0, to 
give. Ta. : ho, id. 
It is not common in this material to find 
Southeast Pol5mesia preserving uniformly 
a senior form of any vocable. But this 
word appears in Samoa asfoa'i, in Tonga, 



ho 3 — continued. 
Nine and Uvea as foaki. I have com- 
mented (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
241) upon -aki as a modern mechanism in 
particularizing the verb function of the 
attributive; this instance shows that it 
arose later than the Proto-Samoan migra- 
tion into Southeast Polynesia. 
hoa 1 friend. 

repa hoa, friend (male), comrade, com- 
panion, fellow; to confide. 
repa hoa titika, faithful friend. 
garu hoa, friend (either sex). 
uha hoa, friend (female). 
hoa kona, native T. 
P Pau.: hoa, friend, companion. Mgv.: 
hoa, friend; oa, a friend, said of a 
man loved by another. Mq. : hoa, 
friend, comrade, companion (of 
either sex). Ta. : hoa, a friend. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 306.) 
hoa 2 to abandon, to debark, to cast, to 
launch, to anchor, to let go, to give 
up, to reject, to repudiate, to sup- 
press, to cut off, to jerk out, to 
proscribe, to reprove. 
hoahoa to upset, to destroy. 
hoao ? 

hakapei no kai hoao, abundance, to 

abound. 
toe he mau ku hoao, abundance. 
hoe I paddle. 
P Mgv.: hoe, ohe, id. Mq., Ta.: hoe, id. 

The alternative form in Mangareva is 
susceptible of explanation by metathesis, 
by the general carelessness as to the aspi- 
rate which we observe in this region or in 
its reporters, by the persistence of the 
aspiration of the Proto-Samoan /ofte; see 
The Polynesian Wanderings, 429, and 
Beach-la-Mar, 52. 
hoe 2 to wheeze with fatigue (oeoe 2). 
arero oeoe, to stammer, to stutter. 
Mgv. : oe, to make a whistling sound in 
breathing; ohe, a cry from a person 
out of breath. Mq. : oe, to wheeze 
with fatigue. 
hoe 3 blade, knife. 

hoe hahatu, clasp-knife, jack-knife. 
hoe hakanemu, clasp-knife. 
hoe pikopiko, pruning-knife. 
hogehoge putrid odor. 

PS Pau.: hogohogo, to have an offensive 
smell. Mgv. : hogohogo, to smell a 
bad odor now and then. Mq.: 
honohono, hokohoko, hekoheko, dis- 
gusting odor. 
Sa.: sosogo, to smell of urine. To.: 

hogo, hohogo, to smell like urine. 
There seems suflScient sense association 
to carry the vowel mutation. This muta- 
tion, o-e, is found but once in the mass of 
material discussed in The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 51. 
hogi 1 to smell, to stink. (Cf. hogehoge.) 
hogihogi to scent. 
rori te hoa hogihogi, to follow a scent. 



206 



EASTER ISLAND. 



hogi 2 to kiss, to embrace, to smell. 
hogihogi joy. 
PPau.: /logf', to rub noses, to kiss. Mgv.: 
ogi, to kiss, to embrace, to smell, to 
sniff. Mq.: honi, hoki, to kiss, to 
touch nose to nose, to smell. Ta. ; 
hoi, to embrace, to smell. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 306.) 
hohonu deep. 

hakahohonu to deepen. 
ata hakahohonu, abyss. 
T Mgv. : hohonu, the deep sea, high tide. 
Mq. : hohonu, honuhonu, deep, high, 
hidden, mysterious. Ta. : hohonu, 
deep. 
hohora (horahora). 
hoi I horse. 

hoi 2 hoi atu, to get out of the way. 
hoiho ? 

here ei hoiho, incen.se. 
hoke banana leaf. 
hoki 1 also, what. 

hi ra hoki, precisely there. 
pei ra hoki, similitude, likeness. 
pei ra hoki ta maiou, usage. 
P Pau. : hokihoki, often. Mgv. : hoki, also, 
and, likewise. Mq.: hoi, surely. 
Ta. : hoi, also, likewise. 
hoki 2 to return, to turn back, to draw back, 
to give back, to tack. 
mau e hoki mai, to lend. 
hoki hakahou, to carry back. 
hoki amuri, to retrograde. 
hakahoki to bring back, to send back, 
to carry back, to restore, to renew, 
to revoke, to remove, to dismiss, to 
pay, to pardon, to compress. 
hakahokia given up. 
hakahokihaga obligation. 
P Pau.: hokihoki, to persist, to insist; 
fakahoki, to give back. Mgv. : hoki, 
to return, to retrace one's steps; 
oki, to return, to come back. Ta. : 
hoi, to return, to come back. 
hoko 1 to traffic, to trade, to buy, to ransom 
(hoo). 
hoba te kaiga, to buy land. 
T Pau. : hoko, to buy, to sell. Mgv. : oko, 
id. Mq. : hoko, price, to barter, to 
buy, to sell. Ta. : hoo, price, to 
sell, to barter, to exchange. 
hoko 2 to sport, to play. 
hokohoko T (hakahaka). 
homo thunder. 
honihoni 1 to cut, to carve. 

PTa.: honi, to bite. 
honihoni 2 adultery. 

Pau. : honi, to copulate. 
honohono to join, to fit, to adjust, to unite, 
to patch, joint. 
hakahonohono a joining. 
P Mgv. : hono, to join or fit pieces of wood 
together, to piece out a substance 
with another piece of the same ma- 
terial. Ta.: /(ono, to join, to unite. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 333.) 



honu turtle. 
P Mgv.: honii, onu, id. Mq., Ta. : honu, 
id. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
346.) 
honui great (hoonui). 
honui, chief T. 
tagata hoonui, personage. 
hakahonui to praise, to commend. 
hoo to contain. 
hob (hoko i). 
hoopu (hopu). 
hope spine, backbone. 
T Pau.: hopega, the last; hoperemu, the 
posteriors of an animial. Mgv.: 
ope, the breech, the rump, buttocks, 
the end or tip of fruits. Mq. : hope, 
the rear, tail; hopehope, the but- 
tocks. Ta.: hope, tail. 
hopehope cahn; cooked too much. 

Mq. : hopee, laziness, indolence, feeble, 
soft. 
hope alarm, fear, formidable. 
ate hopo, ambition. 
hopehope languor, fear, timid, to lan- 
guish. 
manava hopohopo, terror, to desolate. 
hopohopo teni, to languish. 
hakahopohopo to alarm. 
T Pau. : hopohopo, coascience, perception. 
Mq. : hopo, fear, dread, remorse. 
hepu bath; to bathe, to cleanse (heopu). 
Pau.: hopu, to bathe. Ta. : hopu, to 
dive. 
hora 1 in haste (horahorau). 
hora 2 summer, April. 
hora nui, March. 
vaha hora, spring. 
hora 3, hour, watch. 
horahora to spread, unfold, extend, to 
heave to. 
hohora to come into leaf. 
PPau.: /jofeoro, to unfold, to unroll; hora- 
hora, to spread out, to unwrap. 
Mgv.: Aoftora, to spread out clothes 
as a carpet; mohora, to stretch out 
(from the smallest extension to the 
greatest). Mq.: ^oAoo, to display, 
to spread out, to unroll. Ta.: 
hohora, to open, to display; hora, 
to extend the hand in giving it. 
horau in haste, on the point of. 
horau hitihiti. daybreak. 
horau mai, to run to, to bring, to 

appear. 
horau marama no iti, daybreak. 
horahorau immediately, sooner, forth- 
with; active, diligent, fecund, gen- 
erous, unexpected, sudden, pressing, 
prompt, rapid, swift, speedy, all at 
once ; to go boldly, to appear sud- 
denly, to be precipitate, to press on, 
to grow rapidly. 
haga horahorau, to shght. 
tae horahorau, to be arrested in 
growth. 
horahoraukina agile. 
horauhorau brief, to continue. 



RAPANUI-ENGIvISH VOCABULARY. 



207 



horau — continued. 
horarau to run. 
(P Pau. : horo, to flee, to run. Mq. : hoS, 
to go quickly, prompt, brisk, to run, 
to make haste. Ta. horo, to run; 
horohoro, activity, quickly. The 
conduplication horakorau militates 
against this identification.) 
horauhopae (horohopae). 
here to hew, to cut off, to amputate, to cas- 
trate, to cut with a knife, to decapi- 
tate, to abridge, to incise, to set 
landmarks; a notch.incision, tenon, 
hore poto, to cut short off. 
hare te gao, to chop the head off. 
horea taken to pieces. 

kai horea, intact, integrity. 
horega chamber, class, debris, half, 
stage, fraction, fragment, shred, 
scrap, string, bit, part, partial, par- 
tition, piece, portion, quarter, sect, 
section. 
horega hare, hall. 
horega kahu, skirt. 
horega kai, ration . 
horega ki, phrase. 
horega no iti, parcel, subdivision. 
horega no iti hakapiri, supplement. 
horega nvi, majority. 
horega tagata, party. 
horehore to carve, to tear, to cut off, 
to lop, to parcel out, to divide into 
parcels, to share, to take to pieces, 
to mark with spots, streaked, color- 
ing, to hew, to torture. 
horehore itiiti, to cut into bits. 
T Pau.: kohore, to make bald; pahore, to 
peel off. Mgv. : hohore, to rough 
hew; oreore, to smooth off, to level 
inequalities. Mq. : Aor^feore, to husk 
grain; hoe, to notch, to channel, 
to plane. Ta.: hore, to peel. 
We have here an interlacing of similar 
vocables. 

A. Cutting sense: Rapanui, Manga- 
reva, Marquesas. 

B. To peel, or its resultant bald: Maori, 
Hawaii, Paumotu, Marquesas, Tahiti. 

hori I calm. 

horihori undecided, inattentive, indif- 
ferent, weary, lassitude. 
hori 2 to be opposed. 

hakahori to exclude. 
hakahoriga to criticize. 
horihori adversity. 
luu mai te horihori, accident. 
horihori maia i te reoreo, to com- 
promise. 
hakahorihori to contradict, to go 

against, to criticize, to perplex. 
Mq. : oi, to refuse to give up, to make 
opposition; hakaoi, to contradict. 
horo I to wash down, to gulp, to swallow, to 
bolt food. 
horohoro to swallow, to gobble, glut- 
tonous, greedy, insatiable, vora- 
cious. 



horo I — continued. 

PPau.: tahoro, to swallow; horomiti, id. 
Mgv.: horo, oro, id. Mq. : ho6, to 
eat poi, to swallow without chew- 
ing. Ta.:Aoro^«M^«M, to bolt food; 
horomii, to swaUow, to devour. 
horo 3 to escape, to hide. 

Pau. : horo, to hide, to bury, to avoid, 
horo 3 to trot (horau). 

P Pau. : horo, to run, to gaUop. Mgv. : 
oro, ohoro, to pass along quickly. 
Mq.: hod, to run, to make haste. 
Ta. : horo, to run. 
The gait specification in the senses run, 
trot, gallop, must be thrown out of the 
reckoning, for the Polynesians had no 
large mammals on which to study differ- 
ences in methods of locomotion. The-- 
germ sense is that of swift motion. 
horo 4 to put an edge on, a jointing plane 
(orooro). 
horohoro to brush, to polish, to clear 
up, to rub wood, to rumple. 
maea horohoro, snowy rock. 
P Mgv. : oro, to rub, to whet, to sharpen. 
Mq. : hod, to rub on a stone. Ta. : 
hororaa to, a cane mill ; oro, to rasp, 
to grate. 
horo 5 to starch (horoi). 
Mgv. : oro, to wash. 
horo 6 to have recourse to, to repass. 
horo 7 ? 

horo varevare, without branches. 
horoga demarcation. 
horohopae to save, to economize, steward 

(horauhopae). 
horoi 1 to dry, to wipe (horo 5). 
horoimata, handkerchief. 
P Mgv. : horoi, oroi, a towel, handkerchief, 
anything used as a wiper after 
bathing. Mq.: hooi, to wash, to 
cleanse, to purify, to scour, to 
rinse, to dry, to bathe, to dry the 
tears, to console. Ta. : horoi, hand- 
kerchief, to wash, to cleanse. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 262.) 
horoi 2 to clean, to efface, to sharpen 
(horo 4). 
Mq. : hooi, to efface. 
horu pig (oru). 

punua horu, suckling pig. 
horuhoru to sleep (ahuru, auru, goruru). 
hoto shoulder. 
hotonuinui fat. 
hotopararaha fat. 
hou 1 to perforate, to drill. 

P Pau. : fakahou, to furrow, to groove, to 
plow. Mgv.: hou, ouou, a drill, 
a wimble, a borer, a gimlet, to 
pierce with a drill. Mq.: hou, an 
auger, a drill, a wimble, corkscrew, 
to pierce with a drill. Ta.: hou, 
auger, to drill. 
hou 2 new, fresh, modem, recent, young, 
youth. 
rae ki te mea hou, to innovate. 
hou anei, modern. 



208 



EASTER ISLAND. 



hou 2 — continued. 

hakahou to reiterate, reparation, to 
restore, to recapitulate. 
haga hakahou, to make over, to renew, 

recovery. 
avai hakahou, a loan, to borrow. 
rere hakahou mat, to rebound. 
hakahou iho, to recommence. 
P Pau. : hou, young, new. Mgv. : hvu, new ; 
akahou, to renew. Mq. : hou, new, 
recent, fresh, young. Ta. : hou, 
new, recent, before. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 327.) 
hove widow, widower. 
Mq. : veve, id. 

As the social condition is matter of no 
great moment in Polynesian life, and of 
less duration, hove and veve may be bor- 
rowed from veuf. 
hu 1 breaking of wind. 
T Mgv., uu, to break wind. Mq., Ta. : 
hu, id. 
hu 2 whistling of the wind, to blow, tempest, 
high wind. 
P Pau. : huga, a hurricane. 
hua 1 the same. 

M hua, again, to continue, to strain, 
to struggle, to move, to repeat, over 
and above. 
Mq. : hua, the same, to return, to recom- 
mence. 
hua 2 to bloom, to sprout; flower, fruit 
(huaa). 
huaa tae oho, huaa vahio, young fruit. 
hua atahi, only son. 
huahaga fruit. 
mei te huahaga tokoe kopu, the fruit 

of thy body. 
tikea huahaga, deceptive appearance. 
PPau.: ua, to be born; huaga, lineage. 
Mgv.: hua, to produce (said of 
trees, grain, etc.), blooming time of 
flowers, abundance of fruit. Mq. : 
hua, to produce, to bear fruit. Ta. : 
ua, to sprout. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 426.) 
huahua 1 a tailless fowl. 
huahua 2 (ua 2). 

hue 1 calabash, gourd, pumpkin, pot, vase. 
P Pau.: hv£, gourd. Mqv.: tee, calabash 
gourd. Mq.: hu£ maoi, calabash; 
hue dkau, pumpkin; hue, every 
sort of vase with a large aperture. 
Ta.: hue, gourd, bottle. 
hue 2 a pile, a heap; to accumulate, to 
agglomerate, to amass, to heap up, 
to collect, to charge, to put in 
charge, to destine, to consider, to 
camp, to pile up, to mass, to 
assemble, to conceal, to reunite. 
hue he, to choose, 
fewe no, a halt. 

hue ki ruga, to put on another. 
hakahue to heap up, to amass, to 

assemble. 
huega mass, sheepfold, camp, collec- 
tion, company, society, council, 



hue 2 — continued. 

corporation, faculty, crowd, group, 
league. 
Mgv. : hue, to collect, to gather together, 
to heap up. Mq. : huevaevae, calf 
of the leg; huefenua, the terrestrial 
globe. Ta. : hue, to heap up. 
huero (uero). 
huga (uga). 

hugahuga to cut off, to divide in parcels, 
fragment, debris, small. 
hakahugahuga to crumble. 
P Pau.: hugahuga, to crumble, a rag, 
tatter. Mgv.: ugauga, crumbs, 
little pieces; hugahuga, a particle, 
a crumb, a tiny piece, a portion of 
anything, a small object, a small 
man; huga, a piece of pandanus 
leaf cut short off from its row; 
akahuga, to bruise, to crush, to grind 
to atoms. Mq. : huka,cnxa^s ; huna- 
huna, small, tiny, slender, slim. 
hugamoa thin, emaciated. 

(Mq.: haamoka, emaciated.) 
The Marquesan is a regularly formed 
causative of moka. This suggests that 
P^re Roussel's hugamoa is a misprint for 
hagamoa. 
hugaraa {hugahuga-raa i) morning twilight. 
hugavai father-in-law, mother-in-law. 
T Pau. : hogavai, father-in-law. Ta. : hooai, 
hoovai, id. 
huhu I atom, molecule. 

hakahuhu, hakahuu, to pulverise. 
huhu 2 sap wood, alburnum. 

(P uso, uho, pith of trees.) 
huhu 3 humming, to buzz, impetuous (of 

wind). 
huhu 4 groove, running-string. 

Pau. : huhu, a groove. Ta. : huhu, run- 
ning string of a bag. 
huhu 5 to take a reef. 
huhu 6 wormeaten. 
T Mgv.: huhuhu, to leave a thing to rot, 
to let it go to corruption. Mq.: 
huhu, a white grub which eats wood, 
the cuttings which it drops. 
The association of the grub, found in 
Marquesas and Maori, with the result of 
its activities, as in Rapanui, finds suffi- 
cient support in Hawaii where huhu is the 
grub and huhuhu means wormeaten. This 
form connects herewith the Mangareva 
huhuhu, although the grub is not specified 
in that definition. 
huhu 7 to strip, to graze the surface. 
T Mgv.: huhu, to wipe off the dust, to 
rake a garden. Mq. : huhu, to rub, 
to shell grains. 
huhu 8 to toll, to ring. 
(huhu 9) hakahuhu to set in motion, to 

apply opeself. 
huhuhuhu to sail toward. 
huhumiro {huhu i-miro) sawdust. 
huhure (hurehure). 
huhuri (huri). 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



209 



huhuru hair, down, plumage, fur. 

P Pau. : huruhuru, coarse hair on the body, 
a feather, wool. Mgv.: huru, uru, 
the hair on the body, a feather; 
uruuru, eyebrows, eyelashes, hair 
on the body, a filament; rouru, the 
head of hair. Mq.: huii, hair, 
feather, fur. Ta.: huruhuru, hair, 
wool, feather. 
- The two forms in Mangareva may de- 
rive from two stems, fulu and ulu, as to 
which see The Polynesian Wanderings, 
267. 
huhuti (huti). 
hui tattooing rod. 

(Cf. Ta.: hui, to prick, to pierce.) 
huira (uira). 
huki 1 to post up, to publish. 

Mgv.: uki, to allude to, to make re- 
marks upon. Mq.: hui, to revive 
a forgotten discourse. 
huki 2 to cut the throat (uki). 
hukihuki I colic. 

Pau.: hukihuki, itching. Mgv.: huki, 
to be in labor, childbirth; ukiuki, 
shooting pains, pangs of childbirth. 
Mq. : huki, lancinating pain. 
hukihuki 2 to transpierce, a pricking. 
P Pau.: hukihuki, to bore, to perforate. 
Mgv.: huki, to pierce through, to 
bury a small piece of wood in the 
ground or in a soft body, to dart 
with a lance, to lance; uki, to stir 
the fire, to break the fire with a 
stick. Mq. : huki, to pierce a fish 
with a bit of pointed wood. Ta.: 
hui, to pierce, to prick. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 225.) 
hukihuki 3 to sink to the bottom. 
huma (uma). 

humu 1 tattooing on the feet. 
(Cf. Ta. : umu, ornament.) 
humu 2 (umu). 
huna thomless. 

PS Sa. : fa'afuna, to moult, to clip the 
hair short. To.,Pu.:/Mna, to moult. 
It is clear that the stem funa refers to 
some condition to which the act of moult- 
ing or haircutting is contributory. As de- 
fining the condition rather than the act 
the Rapanui retains the primitive sense. 
hunoga marriage, son-in-law, daughter-in- 
law. 
T Pau.: hunoga, son-in-law. Mq.: hu- 
nona, hukona, huSna, son-in-law, 
daughter-in-law; hunona koina, 
wedding feast. Ta.: hunod, son- 
in-law, daughter-in-law. 
hupee mucus. 

hupeepee asthma. 
T Pau., Ta.: hupe, mucus. 
hura 1 sling. 

In his brilliant study of the distri- 
bution of the sling in the Pacific tracts. 
Captain Friederici makes this note (Bei- 
trage zur Volker-und Sprachenkunde von 
Deutsch-Neuguinea, page 1156): "Such, 
though somewhat modified, is the case in 



hura 1 — continued. 
Rapanui, Easter Island. The testimony 
of all the reporters who have had dealings 
with these people is unanimous that stones 
of two to three pounds weight, frequently 
sharp chunks of obsidian, were thrown by 
the hand; no one mentions the use of 
slings. Yet Roussel includes this weapon 
in his vocabulary and calls it hura. In my 
opinion this word can be derived only from 
the Mangareva verb kohura, to throw a 
stone or a lance. So far as we know 
Rapanui has received its population in 
part by way of Mangareva." To this 
note should be added the citation of 
kirikiri ueue as exhibiting this particular 
use of ueue in which the general sense is 
the transitive shake. 
hura 2 fife, whistle, drum, trumpet, to play. 
hurahura whistle. 
P Mq.: hurahura, dance, divertissement, 
to skip. Ta. : hura, to leap for joy. 
Pau. : hura-viru, well disposed. 
hurehure to shell, to skin. 
huhure to skin. 
PS Mgv.: huhure, to uncover, to expose, 
to unfold, to unroll, to open, to 
show. 
To. : hafule, to shell. 
In the Tongan hafule the ha is undoubt- 
edly one of the group of which fa' a is the 
type, in this case verb-formative. 
huri 1 stem. 

P Mgv. : huri, a banana shoot. Mq. : hui, 
.shoot, scion. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 211.) 
huri 2 to turn over, to be turned over onto 
another side, to bend, to lean, to 
warp. 
huri ke, to change, to decant, 
toe huri ke, invariable. 
huri ke tahaga no mai, to change as 

the wind. 
toe huri, immovable. 
e ko huri ke, infallible. 
huhuri rolling. 
hakahuri to turn over. 
hakahuri ke, to divine. 
P Pau.: huri, to turn. Mgv.: huri, uri, 
to turn on one side, to roll, to turn 
upside down, to reverse. Mq.: 
hui, to turn, to roll, to change sides. 
Ta. : huri, to turn, to reverse. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 335.) 
huri 3 to throw, to shoot. 
huri 4 to water, to wet. 
huri 5 to hollow out. 
huri huri 1 wrath, anger. 

kokoma hurihuri, animosity, spite, 

wrath, fury, hate, enmity, irritable, 

quick tempered, to feel offended, to 

resent, to pester. 

kokoma hurihuru ke, to be in a rage. 

hurihuri 2 (huri 4). 

hurihuri titi, to fill up. 
hurihuri 3 to polish. 
hurihuri 4 (uriuri). 
hurikea to transfigure, to transform. 



210 



EASTER ISLAND. 



huru 1 huru ke, spotted. 

huru 2 (uru i) 

huti rope T, string T. 

hutihuti to pluck, to pull out, to weed 
(huhuti). 
P Pau.: huti, to hoist; hutihuti, to denude 
the body of hair. Mgv. : hutihuti, 
to pull up, to extract, to draw out 
(said of feathers, hair and pants 
only); utiuti, to pull up stalk by 
stalk. Mq. : hutihuti, to pluck, to 
pull out the hair; huti, to hoist. 
Ta.: huti, to pluck feathers, etc. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 276.) 

huu I (huhu i). 

huu 2 (uu). 

i toward. 

i muri 00 na, to accompany. 
P Mgv.: i, to. Mq.: i, at. Ta. : i, in, at. 
ia I to, toward. 

PS Mgv. : ia, a sign of the dative before 
proper names. Mq. : ia, to (used 
before pronouns and proper names 
of persons). Ta. : ia, to, toward 
(same usage). 
Sa. : 'ia, id. To. : kia, id. Fu. : kia, id. 

Niue: kia, id. 
See also kia 2. The two differ only as 
differ the .simple prepositions, i and ki, 
locative and objective. They agree in 
restriction to the names of persons and 
personal pronouns. In my comprehen- 
sion of the use of kia it becomes somewhat 
clear that it is not a simple preposition but 
a phrase locution {ki-a) of preposition and 
demonstrative object abstractly stated 
and then immediately particularized by 
the name in apposition. This comports 
with another idiom indicating that per- 
sons are considered superior to parsing, 
an idea which must, of course, be held by 
such as have a proper respect of persons : 
'o ai lana igoa in Samoan, dhei na ya- 
dhana in Viti, in each case "who is his 
name? " instead of what. In this under- 
standing of the phrase 'ia Malietoa sig- 
nifies "to that one, viz., Malietoa." 
ia 2 in order to, so that. 

Ta. : ia, in order that. 
ia 3 third personal pronoun singular. 
ko ia, he, she, yes, it is, this. 
ka ko ia, a greeting T. 
ko ia a, oneself, particularly, pre- 
cisely. 
no ia, his, her. 
P Pau. : ia, he, she, it. Mgv. : ia, id. ; ko 
ia, that is it. Mq. : ia, he, she, it, 
that; ia, it is. Ta. : ia, ia, he, 
she, it, that. 
iga (higa 2). 
igeneira actual, to-day, instant, presently, 

at once, now. 
igoa name, noun. 

igoa tapaa, list. 

igoa toe rivariva, nickname. 

igoa topa, .surname. 



igoa — continued . 

tapa igoa, list. 

tapa ki te igoa, to take a census. 
P Pau., Mgv.: tgoa, name. Mq. : inoo, t*oa, 
id. Ta.: i6a, id. 
iharaa usual, ordinary. 

moo iharaa, ordinary. 
kotiru no iharaa no iharaa, usual. 
no iharaa iharaa, common. 
Mq.: ihara, used, worn, shabby. 
ihiihi to hop. 
iho 1 modem, new, recent. 

hakahou iho, to recommence. 
hakaiho to reiterate, to renew. 
hagaiho recovery. 

Mq. : iho, a particle placed after verbal 
adjectives and indicates reduplica- 
tion or an iterative sense, again, 
anew. 
iho 2 a superlative distinction. 
ruga iho, celestial. 
hakamau iho, to immortalize. 
iho 3 down. 

vai iho, water which saps or under- 
mines the soil. 
hakaihoiho counterbalance, counter- 
poise. 
P Pau. : ihoiho, to descend. Mgv. : noho- 
io, to sit down; oni-iho, to climb 
down a tree. Mq., Ta.: ^Ao, down. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 262.) 
iho 4 (cf. hiohio 2). 

ihoiho, very hard stone, bronze; robust, 
solid, tenacious, leathery, durable, 
hard, rigid. 
hakaiho to consolidate. 
ihoiho eager, constant, stubborn, obstinate, 
opinionated, antagonistic, rebelli- 
ous, sure; eagerness, perseverance, 
strife, energy, objection, obstinacy, 
triumph, resistance; to strive, to 
contend, to embolden, to be obsti- 
nate, to oppose, to protest, to deny, 
to overcome difficulties, to try, to 
harden, to toughen, to endure, to 
clot. 
ihoiho ke, to revolt, inflexible. 
haga ihoiho, fixed desire. 
hal<aihoiho to consolidate, to seal, to 
nail, to fortify, to strengthen, to 
cherish, to soUdify, to support, to 
stretch, a bridle, to starch, to 
stiffen, to coat, to strive. 
A remnant of this sense, with a com- 
plete absence of direction, is found ob- 
scurely in Samoan, e.g., toio/Matj'aifo con- 
science. 
ihu nose, snout, cape T (iju Q). 
po ihuihu, prow of a canoe. 
P Pau.: ihu, nose. Mgv.: ihu, nose; 
mataihu, cape, promontory. Mq., 
Ta.: ihu, nose, beak, bowsprit. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 348.) 
ihupagaha to rap on the nose, to 

snuffle. 
ihupiro to rap on the nose, to snuffle. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



211 



U to deteriorate, to go bad. 

T FsiXi. -.fakaii, leaven. Mgv.: i, to taint, 
to spoil, to become corrupt. Mq. : 
i, rotten, corrupt. Ta.: i, to pre- 
pare fermented breadfruit. 
ika 1 fish, animal. 

ika rere, flying fish. 
ivi ika, fish bone. 
mata ika, pearl. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq. : ika, fish. Ta. : ia, id. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 350.) 
ika 2 prey, victim, sacrifice. 
ika ke aval mo, abuse. 
hakarere ki te ika, to avenge. 
T Mgv.: ikaiara, to quaxrel; ikatamamea, 
to be angry because another has 
handled one 's property. Mq. : ika, 
enemy, what causes horror. Ma.: 
ika, the first person killed in a fight. 
Mangaia: ika, a victim for sacrifice. 
ika 3? 

matamata ika, snow. 
ikahi to fish with a line, to angle. 

Mq. : ikahi, id. 
ikakato to go fishing. 
ikakohau to fish with a line, to angle. 
ikapotu cape, end of a voyage, destination. 
ikapotu hakarere, to abut, to adjoin. 
topa te ikapotu, id. 
tehe oho te ikapotu, id. 
mei nei tehe i oho mat ai inei te ikapotu, 
as far as, to. 
ikapuhi to fish with a torch. 

Mq. : ikapuhi, id. 
iko to take away, to carry off, to despoil, to 
seize food, to possess oneself of, to 
dispossess, to deprive, to intercept, 
to subtract, to usurp, to arrogate 
to oneself. 
ikoa to seize, to take possession. 
ikoiko to seize, to deprive. 
PS Mgv.: iko, to take off, to deprive, to 
bereave. Mq. : hiko, to take away, 
to carry off, to take by force, to rob, 
to extract. 
Sa. : i'ofi, tongs. To. : hiko, to take out 

of the fire. 
The final consonant of the Proto- 
Samoan stem hikof is not preserved even 
in the nearer termini of migration. This 
sheds light upon the relative period of the 
Proto-Samoan expeditions outward from 
Samoa. They must have been at some 
time anterior to the compaction with the 
transitive-making i-augment which has 
availed to preserve in present Samoan so 
many closed stems. A party leaving 
Samoa when hikof was current would, 
under the instinct for open syllables, 
abrade this to hiko, whereas if hikofi were 
current the abrasion would have nothing 
to work upon. 
iku tail (of beast or fish) see vaero. 

P Mgv. : iku, the tail of a fish, the end of 
anything. Mq. : hiku, the part of 
a fish extending from the middle of 
the belly to tail; hikupa, the tail 
of a fish. Ta. : hiu, tail of a fish. 



iku — continued. 

The aspirated forms in Marquesas and 
Tahiti may be regarded as persisting from 
the sibilated form in Samoa. 
ina 1 negative, no, not. 

ina e rakerakega, innocent. 
ina ko tikea, unperceived. 
ina e ko mou, incessant. 
ian nei, absent. 
ina kai riva, uncertain. 
ina kai mou, eternal. 
ina kai tikea, unperceived. 
ina kai kai abstinence, fasting. 
ina kai titika, incorrect. 
ina kai rakei, ill prepared. 
Ta. : ina, no. 
ina 2 breath Q. 
inaga lung T. 
inaki allowance of food. 

P Mgv. : inaki, a portion, food eaten with 
some other food as cheese is with 
bread. Mq.: inai, anything that 
serves as sauce or relish to a prin- 
cipal dish. Ta. : inai, allowance of 
meat or fish. 
We seem to notice that the sense passes 
from a narrow particular to food in gen- 
eral, this in Rapanui and Tahiti. In each 
of our French authorities the word is ren- 
dered pitance. But from the English 
dictionary of Tahiti we find inai defined 
as anything which is eaten with some 
principal viand, therefore the same sense 
may be understood as existing in Rapanui 
and the sense concord is satisfactorily 
established. In Polynesian gastronomy 
it is repugnant to the taste to make a meal 
of one dish, food from the sea must be 
accompanied by food from the shore, meat 
with vegetables, each of which may stand 
to the other in the inaki relation. 
inei here. 

Mgv. : inei, oh really ! 
inua cloak Q (nua T). 
iore indistinctly. 
ira 1 then, there, behold. 

ira, no ira, so, wherefore, from that 

time. 
ki re ira, yet, already. 
ira 2 to turn around to look. 

hakaira id. 
iragapea spongy. 
iro a chaplet of long feathers as an ornament 

for the head in dancing Q. 
ite to see (kite). 
iti little, small, medium. 
iti atu, less. 

iti no, small quantity, rare. 
no iti, superficial. 
itia shrunken. 
itiiti scanty, slim. 
hare itiiti no, cabin. 
itiiti noa, mediocre, mediocrity. 
hakaiti to make small, to lessen, to 
weaken, to impoverish, to thin out, 
to reduce, to diminish, to retrench, 
to curtail, to subdue, to mitigate, 
to abate. 



212 



EASTER ISI.AND. 



iti — continued. 

hakaitiiti to squat, to crouch. 
P Mgv. : iti, small. Mq. : iti, id. Ta. : iti, 
id. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
230.) 
iuteo Jew. 
iva nine. 
' P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: iva, id. 
ivi 1 bone, needle. 

ivi ika, fishbone. 

ivi Ohio, needle. 

ivi tika, fishbone, backbone. 

kiko te ivi tika, pancreas. 

ivi heheu, cachalot. 

ivi tupapaku, skeleton. 

ivi uha, to grow (of mankind). 

tooa te kiko e ivi i hakarere, to strip the 

flesh from the bones. 
kai ivi, to eat remnants. 
kore te ivi, cooked too much. 
P M.gv.: koivi, bone; ivitua, backbone. 
McJTTTa. : m,^bone. 
ivi 2 parent, family, ancestry. 
T Mgv.: ivij^a. parent, family, genealogy, 
refated. 
ivietua (ivi 2-etua) pontiff, priest. 

ivietuahaga pontificate. 
ivive a wig of women's hair assumed by men 
to prevent recognition in clandes- 
tine errands of gallantry Q. 

ka I of T. 

ka 3 imperative sign. 

ka oho, ka tere, ka ea, begone! 
ka ko ia, a greeting T. 
ka mou, hush. 
ka oho, goodbye. 
Mgv.: ka, imperative sign. Ta.: a, id. 
ka 3 infinitive sign. 

mea meitaki ka rava, a thing good to 

take. 
ka harai kia mea, to accompany. 
ka 4 a prefix which forms ordinals from 

cardinals. 
ka S the dawning of the day. 

Mgv., Mq. : ka, to kindle (of a fire). 
Ta. : c, id. 
ka 6 different (? ke). 
kagarae R (hagarae). 
kahaka abasement. 

Ta. : haehaa, humble, small, of low 
estate. 
kahiga the edge of a sword, slip T. 
kahu clothing, dress, habit, cloth, curtain, 
vestment, veil, shirt, sheet. 
kahu hakaviri, shroud. 
kahu nui, gown. 
rima te kahu, sleeve. 
kahu rahirahi, muslin. 
hare kahu, tent. 
horega kahu, skirt. 
hakarivariva ki te kahu, toilet. 
rakai ki te kahu, toilet. 
patu ki te kahu, to undress. 
kahu oruga, royal sail. 
kahu hakatepetepe, jib. 



kahu — continued. 

kahu nui, foresail. 
hakatopa ki te kahu, to set sail. 
(hecki keho, canvas T.) 
P Pau. : kahu, dress, garment, native cloth. 
Mgv.: kahu, cloth, stuff, garment, 
clothing. Mq.: kahu, habit, vest- 
ment, stuff, tunic. Ta. ; ahu, cloth 
in general, vestment, mantle. 
The primal sense is that of a covering 
and appears in all Nuclear Polynesia; the 
Tongafiti extension to the garment sense 
is but a particularizing which by no means 
excludes the original meaning. 
(kahiuga) hakakahuga to change place. 
kahui bunch, cluster. 

T Mgv. : kahui. a bunch of grapes or pan- 
danus. Mq. : kahui, a bunch, clus- 
ter, troop, assemblage. Ta.: aAwt, 
heap, collection. 
(Cf. Sa. : fui, a cluster of nuts; fuifui, a 
cluster of fruit, a flock of birds.) 
kahukai {kahu-kai 4) napkin, tablecloth. 
kahutova (kahu-tova) jib. 
kahuvae {kahu-vae i) carpet. 
kahuviri (kahu-viri). 

a. a shroud. 

b. matrix, as that which incloses the child, 
kai 1 negative. 

kai rogo, to fast. 
kai oho, to forego. 
kai maa, to be ignorant, to doubt. 
vave kai kohe, inaccessible. 
ina kai, see ina i. 
Ta. : ai, no. 
kai 2 to undergo, to suffer. 
kai 3 sharp, cutting. 
T Mgv.: koi, koikoi, pointed, sharp, 
adapted for cutting; kokoi, prickly, 
stinging, irritating. Mq. : ^oi,sharp, 
cutting. Ta.: oi, sharp, keen. 
Since this is the only language which has 
kai in this sense the possibility of typo- 
graphical error should not be overlooked. 
The form koi outside of Southeast Poly- 
nesia is found in Maori, Rarotonga and 
Hawaii. 
kai 4 to eat, to feed, to feast; food, meat, a 
meal, repast. 
kai nui, provision, intemperate, vora- 
cious. 
kai no iti, sober, temperate. 
hue ki te kai, to victual. 
kai taria te kai, abundance, to abound. 
hakapee no kai hoao, abundance, to 
abound. 
kaia eaten. 
P Pau.: kai, food, to eat. Mgv.: kai, 
food, nourishment, to eat. Mq.: 
kai, ai, food, to eat. Ta. : ai, to eat. 
(kai 5) tiakakai to take, to attack. 

Mgv.: kai, to receive. Mq.: ai, to 
catch some one, to seek to surprise. 
Ta. : ai, to receive, to get possession 
of, to become master of. 
kaiga land, country, place, region, estate, 
soil (kaina, land T). 



RAPANUI-ENGIylSH VOCABULARY. 



213 



kaiga — continued. 

noho kaiga, indigenous, a native of. 
man kaiga, proprietor. 
hooa te kaiga, to buy land. 
T Pau.: kaiga, the soil. Mgv. : kaiga, 
land, country, property, the earth, 
the world. Mq. : kaina, kaika, resi- 
dence, property, patrimony. Ta.: 
aid, place of residence. 
kaih aga to abstain from. 

Mq. ; di, lack, dearth, privation. 
kaihue {kai ^.-hue 2) a heap of food. 
kaikai 1 (kai 4) mastication, to eat heavily. 
kaikai 2 (kai-3) sharp, cutting, edge of a 
sword, point of a lance. 
moa tara kaikai, cock with long spurs. 
kaikino selfish, avaricious, faithless, ingrate. 
miserly, rascal. 
Mq. : kaikino, selfish, stingy, avaricious. 
kaipurua {kai i-purua) issue, outlet, egress. 
kaitagata {kai ^.-tagata) cannibal. 

paoa kaitagata, cannibal, savage. 
kaiu {kai ^-u) nursling, suckling. 

Pau. : kaiu, a child at the breast. Mq. : 
kaiu, child at the breast, imweaned, 
suckling, young of animals. Ta.: 
aiu, nursling. 
kakai to blame, to chide, to scold, to dis- 
approve, to expel, to reproach, to 
rebuke; debate, anger, dispute, 
discussion, quarrel, reprehension, 
reprimand, hostility. 
ivi kakai mai kakai atu, an inhar- 
monious family. 
kakai rae, to provoke. 
kakai nuinui ke, rage. 
toua kakai, to rebuke. 
Mgv.: kaia, wicked, cruel. Mq. : kaia, 
envious, jealous, shrewish, quarrel- 
some, wrangling, surly. Ta. : aia, 
despicable. 
kakari (karikari). 
kakaure fly T (takaure). 
Mq. : tikaue, the fly. 
The common element is kaure;the pref- 
aces in the two languages may be suscepti- 
ble of coordination. In Marquesan ti is 
sometimes used as an equivalent of haka; 
and in Rapanui ka discloses a verb-forma- 
tive value. 
kakava chemise. 
kakea to come near, to embark. 

PPau. : iaie, to climb, to ascend. Mgv.: 
kake, the arrival of shoals of spawn- 
ing fish. Mq. : kake, to climb up 
a valley. Ta. : ae, to climb, to 
ascend. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 402.) 
kakore no, not. 

kakore ra, kakore ro, or. 
T Pau.: kakore-tarari, not any, no one. 
Mq. : kakore, kakoe, aoe, not, noth- 
ing. Ta. : aore, no, not. 
kamakama to yawn Q. 
(kami) hakakamikami ki te rakau, to im- 
poverish. 
Mgv.: kami, to desire. 



(kami) — continued . 

The connection in sense appears more 
clearly in the succeeding form kami-ora to 
wish health for a sufferer. Then the 
phrase involving the haka form, intensive 
by duplication and by the formative ele- 
ment means "to wish earnestly for the 
property;" in the gentile communism of 
the Polynesians even a very mild desire 
leads to possession, hence in the opinion 
of a thrifty French priest to impoverish- 
ment. 
kamiora to console. 
kamoi good-bye T (? ka moe). 
kamou hush! {ka mou). 
kana pectoral fin Q. 
kanaha R (kauaha). 
kanamunamu glaive R (? glaire). 
(kaneka) hakakaneka, to murmur. 
kao cloth, clothing, garb. (Perhaps a vari- 
ant of kahu). 
kaokao side, flank, lateral. 

P Pau. : kaokao, the side, flank, ribs, lat- 
eral. Mgv. : kaokao, the side, flank. 
Mq. : kaokao, id. Ta. : aodo, id. 
In Nuclear Polynesia this is particu- 
larized, in Samoa to the armpit, in Tonga 
and Futuna to the sides of the canoe. 
Therefore it may be considered a borrow- 
ing from the Tongafiti. 
kape arum, yam. 
PS Mgv. : kape, a plant allied to the taro 
having a long bulbous root. Mq. : 
kape, ape, a large-leaved and very 
bitter taro (Arum costatum) . Ta. : 
ape, id. 
Sa. : 'ape, the bitter taro. To. : kabe, id. 
Fu.: kape, id. Niue: kape, the 
gigantic taro. 
kapu kapu amua, to go ahead, 
kapuivi {kapu-ivi i) the shoulder. 

kara wing. 

karatia grace^^. 

karava 1 cave.— •- 

karava 2 to strain to hit the mark.- — 

karavarava manava karavarava, colic. _ 

(kari) kakari 

ropa kakari kore, petticoatv - 
kakari manava, waist. 
kakari rima, wrist. 
karikarivae {kari-vae i ) ankle T. ■ - 

karo to decline, to be on the wane. 

karoga figure. .- 

karokaro karokaro tariga, ear pendant.""" 
karu 1 to raise the arm for a blow. — 
karu 2 to awake T (? kara for ka ara)r- 

karu 3 large berries, seed -. 

Mgv. : karu, large in appearance.-' _ 
karua {ka /^-rua i ) second. .„ S c & '■' ' 
karukaru a swelling, to swelL 
kata to laugh, to smile. 
kakata tae kakata, doumess. 
P Pau., Mgv.: ato, to laugh, to be happy, 
joyful. Mq.: kata, to laugh, to 
joke. Ta. : ata, to laugh, to smile. 
katikati to scratch, to claw. 

P Pau. : kakali, to bite. Ta. : ati, to bite, 



214 



BASTER ISIyAND. 



katikati — continued. 

to sting. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 355.) 
kato 1 to catch T. 

kato 2 to construct, to build, structure, 
edifice. (Cf. ato.) 
Mgv.: kato, a wall of stones like a 
dyke. Mq. : ato, to build a house, 
to spread a tent. Ta. : ato, to 
build, to construct. 
kau to bathe, to swim. 

hakakau to make to swim. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq. : kau, to swim. Ta. : 
du, id. 
kauae jawbone (kaua Q) (Cf. kauvae). 
PPau. : kauae, the jaw. Mgv.: kouae, id. 
Mq. : kouae, the chin, the jaw. Ta. ; 
auae, inner part of the lower jaw. 
kauaha jaw of fish, gills. 
rei kauaha, fin. 
Mgv.: kouaa, the lower jaw; kouaha, 
the part of the face between the 
jaw and the cheek. Mq. : kauaha, 
small tuft of hair which hangs at 
the side of the ear, gills of fish; 
kouaha, gills. Ta. : peihaha, gills; 
pepeiaha, jaw of fish. 
kauga two by two. 

hakakauga to align, in file, two by two. 
PS Sa. : 'auga, a succession of. To. : kauga, 
a fellow, associate. 
kauha {ka uha) anus. 

hami kauha, diaper. 
P Pau. : huha, the groin. Mgv. : uha, the 
thigh, the breech. Ta.; hufa, the 
thigh. 
The two stems in Samoan, not exactly 
dissociable and possibly deriving from a 
common parent, seem to have undergone 
confusion in Southeast Polynesia. Ra- 
panui, divested of its local formative agent 
ka, and Mangareva derive from uha, Pau- 
motu huha homfufd. Tahiti hufaa comes 
from the same source, as is shown by the 
prolonged quality of the final vowel, al- 
though it is unusual to subject the same 
consonant to diverse mutations within the 
same word; but see hahie. 
kauhaga (kau) swimming. 
kauihaga sewing. 

T Ma.: kaui, a stick on which eels are 
threaded. 
kauiui to mend, to patch. 

PS Sa. : 'auiui, to wind around. 

I am very doubtful about the proposed 
Samoan identification and therefore about 
the assignment to the Proto-Samoan 
source. This, and kauihaga, may be refer- 
able to a kaui meaning to stitch, but that 
is nowhere found. The Maori kaui is a 
very uncertain identification, therefore the 
Tongafiti assignment of kauihaga is in 
equal doubt. 
kaukau 1 tai kaukau, tide. 
kaukau 2 rafter. 
PS Sa. : 'au'au, the ridgepole of a house. 

Particularly from the architecture of 
the Samoan house this may very properly 



kaukau 2 — continued, 
be assigned to the Proto-Samoan kau tree, 
which is now known in Polynesia only in 
composition (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
353). The reduplication would accent 
the idea of strength, for the 'au'au sup- 
ported by the central posts is very impor- 
tant structurally. Moved by similar con- 
siderations we parallel the idea in English 
by the locution rooftree. 

kauvae chin (kauae) (kavai chinbeard Q). 
P Pau. : kauae, id. Mgv. : kouae, id. Mq. : 
kouae, kouvae, id. Ta. : auae, id. 
See kauae. The parallelism of these two 
words extends back into Nuclear Poly- 
nesia. 

A. Sa. : 'auvae, chin. Fu. : kauvae, chin, 
jaw. Nine: kauvehe, chin, cheek. 

B. To.: kouahe, cheek. V\ea.: kauahe, 
jaw. 

Both forms occur in Rapanui, Marque- 
sas, Maori and Hawaii. 
kava bitter, salt. 

vai kava, brackish water. 
hakakava to embalm. 
kavakava acid, sharp, bitter, salt, 
spirituous, vinegar, poisonous, dis- 
agreeable. 
akavakava to make sharp. 
hakakavakava to make acid. 
P Fan.: kava, disagreeable to the taste; 
kavakava, acid, sharp. Mgv. : kava, 
to be bitter, sour, acid, salt. Mq. : 
kava, bitter. Ta. : ava, bitter, acid, 
salt. 
kavahia I comfort, comfortable, to feast. 
hakakavahia comfort, comfortable. 
kavahia 2 repulsive (of food), disgusted. 

hakakavahia repulsion. 
kavakava rib. 

mot kavakava, a house god Q. (See 
Fig. 147, British Museum Hand- 
book Ethnographical.) 
P Mgv.: vakavaka, the breast. Mq.: 
vakavaka, vadvad, rib. 
Ma. : wakawaka, parallel ridges. 
We shall need all the available material 
in order to determine the germ sense of this 
word. Sa. : va'ava'a, the breast-bone of 
a bird; fa' ava' a, the frame as of a slate. 
To.: vakavaka, the side. Fu.: vakavaka, 
the side below the armpit. Ha. : hoowaa, 
to make furrows. In all these we may 
see the idea of ridge or depression, or of 
both, as primal (Rapanui, Samoa, Mar- 
quesas, Maori, Hawaii), and as secondary 
the part of the body where such appear- 
ance is common (Mangareva, Tonga, 
Futuna). 
kavava to fight TQ. 
kave ekave, fish snood T. 

P Pau.: kavekave-makei, the end of a 
cord. Mgv.; kavei, a very small 
fish-hook. Mq.:^a»ei, thread which 
is whipped about the fishing-line 
next the hook ; avei, end of the line 
where the book is attached. 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABUIvARY. 



215 



kave — continued. 

If, and this is most probable, Samoan 
'avei represents an augmented stem, we 
can readily see the handle sense particu- 
larized by form modification applied to 
the stem 'ave to take. This secondary 
form is the only one found in Nuclear 
Polynesia (Tonga, Futuna, kavei). Thus 
it appears that the Paumotu and Rapanui 
received the primitive stem by migration 
out of Samoa anterior to its modification. 
The Maori has kawe, kawai and kawei, the 
first points to the Proto-Samoan migra- 
tion to New Zealand long before the Great 
Voyages (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
49, etc.). In the cord sense we are to 
include Viti kaweki string. 
(kavega) hakavega burden, load. 
P Mq. : kave, to carry away. Ta. : paave, 
to carry on the back. 
kavei stem of fruit. 

P Mgv.: kavei, the handle of a cup or 
vessel. 
See note under kave; the carrying sense 
is here particular, the stem as that by 
which fruit is carried, just as a basket is 
carried by its handles. 
- kaviri to envelop, to wrap. 

Mq.: kami, to make up in a roll. Ta.: 
aviri, to bring together in one. 
ke other, distinct, difiFerent, diverse, special. 
koona ke, elsewhere. 
tagata ke, some one eke. 
mea ke, contrary, distinct, otherwise. 
hakake feint, stratagem, to feign. 
hagake to act contrary. 
T Pau. : ke, different. Mgv. : ke, another, 
other, else, different, of partial 
comparative value. Mq. : ke, i, to 
be different, changed, no longer the 
same. Ta.: e, different, strange, 
other. 
keke {ke) other, distinct, special. 

hikohiko keke, hide-and-seek. 
kekee Qte) irregular, uneven, rough. 
ke avai a superlative expression. 
hinihini ke avai, ancient. 
ika ke avai, abuse. 
kori ke avai, abuse. 
maori ke avai, skilful, handy. 
mau ke avai, abundance, to abound. 
pipiro ke avai, disgusting odor. 
tupu ke avai, of swift growth. 
ua ke avai, a shower of rain. 
keekee niho keekee, long protruding teeth. 
keete (kete). 
keetu (ketu). 
kehokeho dry, arid. 
(kehu) hakakehu to hide, disguise, feint, 

feign, to lie in wait. 
kekeho to clot, to curdle, to coagulate. 

toio kekeho, clotted blood. 
kekehu shoulder Q. 
kekekeke to crackle, to snap. 

P Pau. : keke, to make a harsh noise, to 
grind the teeth. Mgv.: kekekeke, 
to grind the teeth. 



kekekeke — continued. 

The sense lies in the quality of the 
noise produced. Samoa, 'e'e, to squeak; 
Futuna, keke, to emit a loud cry; Tonga, 
keke, to bleat; Maori, ke, to produce a 
sharp abrupt sound, to crack, to snap; 
keke, to quack, to creak; Hawaii, eeina, to 
creak, to grate. The common denomin- 
ator seems to be that of some sound which 
begins suddenly in full volume, no matter 
whether that volume be small or great, 
an idea which we parallel in pop. 
kekeohe leek T. 
kekeri a squall. 
kekeune upper arm Q. 
kekeva (keva). 

(ketno) hakaketno to accuse, to decry, to 
impute, to incriminate, to incul- 
pate, to lead into error, to falsify, 
to debase, to tell stories, to feign. 
kenu husband. 

noho kenu, married. 
Mgv. : kenu, said of the consummation 
of sexual connection. 
keo stomach, dyspeptic, consumptive. 

mate keo, deranged stomach, con- 
sumptive. 
mamae keo, headache. 
kere to moor, to make fast/— — 
kerekere black, dark, blue, obscure, gloom. „ 
niho kerekere, blackened teeth. 
hakakerekere to blacken. 
P Pau.: kerekere, black, dark, somber. 
Mgv. : kerekere, blue, dark blue al- 
most black, the color of the deep 
ocean, black, somber, darkness. 
Mq. : kerekere, keekee, black, som- 
ber, livid; ere, blue, azure. Ta.: 
ereere, black. 
I have allowed this item to stand as 
general Polynesian rather than deal here 
upon partial material with the problem of 
the psychology of the color sense of this 
race. WEmust_^notet_luaKeyer,_that Jn. 
Nuclear PolyneliatEepriine sense isAat 
of e&rth, in the later ~inigrations it refers 
only to dark color ; there are but two excep- 
tions, in Samoa po'ele'ele can mean only 
darkness of night, in Maori kerengeo and 
kerepei alone deal with earth. In Nuclear 
Polynesia a secondary sense is dirty qua 
begrimed with earth. Only in Samoa do 
we find any true color signification, as in 
rust (which, of course, is most modem) 
and blood (and as this forms part of the 
courtesy speech or is used euphemisti- 
cally of the catamenial flow it must be 
regarded as an alien acquisition). We 
should note that the Samoan red nowhere 
appears in the color sense of the Tongafiti 
word. 
kereki nauseated. ""^ ,^ 

kerereki to relieve the stomach, nau- 
seated, eructation, to belch. 
keretohaga faith (credo). -'^ 
keri to dig, to grub up, to root up, to exca- 
vate, to mine; rubbish; the wake 
of a ship; to sow (kekeri). 



216 



EASTBR ISLAND. 



keri — continued. 

kerikeri to scratch. 
keriga excavation. 
kerihaga kerihaga oone, farmer. 
P Pau. : keri, to dig. Mgv. : keri, to dig, 
to scrape. Mq. : kei, to dig, to 
spade up, to excavate, to work the 
soil. Ta. : eri, to mine. 
The manner of digging underlies the 
sense of this word; the digging implement 
is a sharpened stick (oka) driven into the 
earth by arm power and then used as a 
lever to loosen the mold. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 347). 
keriti to attract, brusque. 
kero to crease, to fold. 
kete sack, basket, case, bag, satchel (keete) . 
kete iti, satchel. 
P Mq. : kete, ete, sack, bag, basket. Ta. : 
ete, id. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 256.) 
ketu to bound, to climb over, to leap, to 
jump, to raise (keetu). 
Mq. : ketu, to raise, to lift. 
ketuketu to spread out. 

hihi ketuketu, to turn back the eyelids. 
keukeu 1 affair, movement, to move. 
rava keukeu, to apply oneself. 
T Mgv.: akakeu, to agitate, to make a 
thing stir or move; keukeu, to canse 
to move, to stir up. Mq.: keu, eu, 
toagitate, tomove, tostirup. Ta.: 
eueu, id. 
keukeu 2 to coax, to wheedle. 
keukeu 3 to scratch the earth. 
keva one-eyed. 

kekeva to sleep with the eyes open. 
hakakeva to wink, to point, to aim. 
Mgv.: kevo, squint, crosseyed, one-eyed; 
kevokevo, to wink, to blink. 
kevakeva agony, death throe. 
, keuare horse (cheval). 
ki 1 in, toward, to, for, at. 
ki ra, there. 

ki ra hoki, exactly there. 
ki aho, outside. 

ki roto, within, into, inside, among. 
PPau. : ft;, to, in. Mgv.: ki,to,a.t. Mq.: 
i, id. Ta. : i, id. 
ki 2 in order that. 

Ta. : i, in order that. 
ki 3 to say, to speak, to chat, to pronounce, 
to respond; argument, conversa- 
tion, description, doctrine, expres- 
sion, word, relation. 
ki veveveve, voluble. 
ki vaiapuga, nonsense, to speak much 

and say nothing. 
ki ihoiho, to speak forcefully. 
T Mgv. : ki, to speak, to say. Mq. : i, id. 
Ta. : i, to say. 
kia 1 that, so that. 

kia 2 to, against, toward, for, according to. 
kia kua, concerning. 
P Mgv.: kia, to, at (only before proper 
names and personal pronouns). 
Mq., Ta. : ia, id. 



kia 3 he. 

kia ia, himself. 
kia 4 to decide. 
kia 5 domestic. Cf. kio 2. 
kiakia dove, guU T. 

Mgv.: kiakia, the cry of the kotake (a 
white marine bird.) 
kiata ginger. 
kie ochre, vermilion. 
kihaga {ki 3) argument, advice, teaching, 

belief, expression. 
kihikihi lichen T, stone T. 
kii 1 (ki). 
kii 2 moonlight. 

(kikaa) hakakikaa niho hakakikaa, pro- 
truding teeth. 
kikiri (kirikiri). 
kikiu (kiukiu). 
kiko flesh, meat. 

tooa te kiko e ivi i hakarere, to strip the 

flesh from the bones. 
kiko uaua, muscle T. 
kiko o te ivi lika, pancreas. 
P Mgv.: kiko, the flesh of animals or of 
fruits. Mq.: kiko, flesh, meat, 
muscles, pulp, heart of wood. Ta. : 
io, flesh, meat. 
Since kiko appears in Nuclear Polynesia 
only in Samoan 'i'o to be covered with 
meat (for io is quite another stem) and 
that is a defective sense accord, this voca- 
ble should properly be credited to a Tonga- 
fiti source. We note a few cases in which 
present Samoan includes Tongafiti mate- 
rial persisting from the period which ter- 
minated in the expulsion of Matamatame. 
kimatiko schism. 

kimikimi to seek, to search, to inquire, to 
examine. 
ata kimikimi, to inquire. 
kimikimi ei moni, to speculate, to seek 
money. 
kimikimiga research. 
T Pau.: kimi, to seek, to look for. Mq.: 
imi, to search, to examine, to sift 
thoroughly. Ta.: imi, to seek, to 
search. 
kina more, in a high degree. 
horahorau kina, agile. 
kino I bad, wrong. 
T Pau.: kiro, bad, miserable. Mgv.: 
kino, to sin, to do evil. Mq.: ino, 
bad, abominable, indecent. Ta.: 
ino, Una, bad, evil. 
kino 2 a skin eruption, verruga, blotched 

skin, cracked feet T. 
kinoga (kino i) sin. 

Mgv.: kinoga, sin, vice. 
kio 1 stick wherewith to rake things into a 

heap. 
kio 2 slave, servant, inferior, of low estate, 
husbandman. 
hakakio to enslave, to reduce to sub- 
jection. 
tagata hakakio, master. 
Mgv. : kio, a servant, slave, tiller of the 
soil. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABUI^ARY. 



217 



kio 3 to discourage. 

kioa id. 
kioe (kiore). 
kiokio foul smelling smoke. 

Mgv.: kio, kiohe, to extinguish, to put 
out a light. 
J<iore rat, mouse (kioe). 
kiore hiva, rabbit. 
P Pau., Mgv.: kiore, rat, mouse. Mq.: 
kioe, ioS, id. Ta. : iore, id. 
In this case also we have a Tongafiti 
survival in present Samoan; common in 
the Tongafiti the word remotely appears 
in Sikayana. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 296.) 
,J<iraroiti (ki x-raro-iti) abasement. 
kiraronui (Jki i-i'aro-^ui) fathomless. 
kiraroroa(fei i-raro-roa) inferior, inferiority. 
kirato goddess T. 
kireira yet, already. 
kiri skin, hide, bark, stu^ace. 
kiri ekaeka, leprous. 
kiri haraoa, bran. 
kiri hurihuri, negro. 
kiri maripu, scrotum. 
kiri ure, prepuce. 
PPau. : ^i>i,bark. Mgv.: feirt, skin, bark. 
Mq.: kii, skin, bark, leather, sur- 
face, color, hue. Ta. : iri, skin, 
bark, leather, planking. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 356.) 
kirikiri pebble, gravel, rounded stone, sling 
stone. 
kikiri pebble. 
P Pau.: kirikiri, gravel, stony, pebbly. 
Mgv. : kirikiri, gravel, small stones. 
Mq. : kiikii, gravel, small stones, 
shingle. Ta. : iriiri, gravel, stony, 
rough. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 355) 
kirikirimiro ragi kirikirimiro, sky dappled 

with clouds. 
kirikiri teu soft gray tufa ground down with 
sugar-cane juice and utilized as 
paint T. 
kiriputi (kiri-puii) cutaneous. 

kiriputiti id. 
kirivae (kiri-vae i) shoe. 
kiruga {ki i-ruga) high, superior, upon. 
kirugahaga height. 
kiruganui to grow up, to raise, high, 

eminent, superior, supreme. 
hakakiruganui to raise. 
kite 1 skin T Q. 

kite 2 to see, to know (ite). (Cf. tikea.) 
hakakite to declare, to disclose, to note, 
to initiate, demonstration, notice. 
hakakitega demonstration. 
P Pau. : kite, to know, to perceive. Mgv. 
kite, to see, to perceive, to hear, to 
understand. Mq. : kite, ite, to see, 
to perceive, to know. Ta. : ite, to 
know, to comprehend, science, 
knowledge. 
kiteahaga notion. 
kiteke consumption. 

kiukiu 1 to resound, to ring, sonorous, bell, 
bronze. 



kiukiu 1 — continued. 

kiukiu rikiriki, hand bell. 
tagi kiukiu, sound of a bell. 
kikiu to ring, the squeaking of rats. 

tariga kikiu, din, buzzing. 
hakakiukiu to ring. 
Mgv. : kiukiu, a thin sound, a soft sweet 
sound. 
kiukiu 2 to disobey, disobedience. 
mogugu kiukiu, ungrateful. 
kikiu ka kikiu ro, to importune. 
kivakiva united. 

motu kivakiva, a rock out of water. 
kukumu kivakiva, doumess. 
hakakiva to smooth, serious. 
hakakiva toe makenu, an agreeable 
wind. 
hakakivakiva to smooth, to starch, 
level, serious. 
ko 1 negative. 

e ko not, except. 

e ko ora, incurable. 
ina ko not. 

ina ko tikea, unseen. 
ina e ko not. 
ina e ko mou, incessant. 
ko 2 a particle used before nouns and pro- 
nouns. 
ko van, I. 
ko te, this. 
ko mea tera, this. 
ati ko peka, to avenge. 
ko tnua, first, at first, formerly. 
ko 3 there, yonder. 

P Mgv. : ko, over there, yonder. Ta. : 0, 
there, here. 
koal ? 

rori te koa hogihogi, to follow a scent. 
koa 2 joy. 

koakoa joy, content, happiness, gay, 
satisfaction, hilarity, mirth, to leap 
for joy, to please, to fondle, dear. 
ariga koakoa, good-humored. 
hakakoakoa to rejoice, to leap for joy. 
P Pau.: koa, contented, pleased; koakoa, 
joy. Mgv. : koakoa, rejoicing, joy, 
mirth, to be content, satisfied; koa, 
to mourn. Mq. : koakoa, oaoa, joy, 
happiness, mirth, content, satisfied; 
koa, to mourn. Ta. : oaoa, joy, 
gladness. 
"After the first expressions of joy, which 
the South Sea islanders invariably show 
by weeping." Williams — "Missionary 
Enterprises," page 385. In Nuclear Poly- 
nesia this is found only in the Samoan, 
therefore we regard it as Tongafiti stuff 
held on loan. 
koe 1 thou, you. 

to koe, ta koe, thine, yours. 
P Pan., Mgv., Mq. : koe, thou, you. Ta. : 
oe, id. 
koe 2 not (kore). 

hakarite koe, unequal. 
kohau shaft of a lance. 
kehe vave kai kohe, inaccessible. 
kohaga a pear shaped wooden ornament 
worn by women in the dance Q. 



218 



EASTER ISLAND. 



kohu shade, shadow, fog, haze, coming rain. 
kohu no, gloom, obscurity. 
kohukohu cloud, cloudy, somber, 
storm. 
koona kohukohu, airy. 
ragi kohukohu, a gloomy sky. 
hakakohu to shade, a visor. 
T Pau. : kohu, fog, mist on land. Mgv. : 
kou, clouds low on the peaks of the 
hills. Mq. : kohu, fog, haze. Ta. : 
ohu, cloud settled on the mountain 
tops. 
kohukohu underbrush, brushwood. 
miro kohukohu, bush, thicket. 
kohura^ eclipse. 
koiro eel T. 

P Pau. : kuiru, id. Mgv. : koiro, the name 
of a fish; koere, a sweetwater eel. 
Mq.: koee, kuei, id. 
kokekoke to be lame. 

hiriga kokekoke, to go by sudden steps. 
P Pau.: koke, to stir, to fidget. Mgv.: 
kokekoke, to be unable to advance 
on account of others coming and 
going. 
The suggested identifications are by no 
means satisfactory in sense. The Maori 
yields kokeke in the sense of lameness, but 
no other affiliates are discoverable. 
kokogo asthma, a cold, a cough, to take cold. 
Mq. : 00, asthma, rattling in the throat. 
kokoma bowels, entrails, intestines, rectum, 
garbage, rage, angry. 
kokoma hanohano, spite, to despise, to 
hate, to storm, to bear a grudge, 
vexation. 
kokoma hanohano ke, to be in a rage. 
kokoma hakahanohano, to excite anger, 
kokoma hanohano manava pohi, to 

abhor. 
kokoma ritarita, to abhor. 
kokoma eeie, to abhor, to detest, to be 

in a rage, angry, ungovernable. 
tagata kokoma eete, adversary. 
kokoma hurihuri, animosity, spite, 
wrath, fury, hate, enmity, to pes- 
ter, to resent, irritable, offended, 
hot tempered. 
kokoma hurihuri ke, to be in a rage. 
Ta. : ooma, heart, joy, inclination; 
omaoma, to rail at, to insult. 
kokomo (komokomo). 
kokope to throw down; clubfooted. 
kokoro to widen, to expand. 
kokoti (kotikoti). 
komari pudenda. (Cf. mamari.) 

Mgv. : komari, eggs or spawn of certain 
fish. Mq. : komai, omai, pudenda, 
komaru stand up! T. 
komokomo to stop up tight. 
kokomo to plug, bung. 
Mgv. : komo, to stop up, to choke up, to 
plug; kokomo, a stopper, a plug, an 
obstruction. Mq.: kokomo, lid of 
a calabash, operculum, plug, tam- 
pon. Ta. : omo, to close. 
kona place, locality (koona). 
koona ke, elsewhere. 
ki te tahi koona ke, elsewhither. 



kona — continued. 

koona ananake, everj^where. 
kona nei, here. 
Mgv. : kona, a seat, house, home. Mq. : 
ona, place, locality. 
konakona rippling, shining surface. 

hakakonakona to make mild, a favo- 
rite. 
konee awkwardness, clumsiness. 
(kohi) hakakoni to stir into an uprising. 

Ta. : ooni, aggravating, to provoke. 
konui far T. 
koo mai salutation; good morning, good 

night (kohomai T). 
koona (kona). 

koona ke to displease, to offend. 
kope tugutugu youth T. 
kopikopi to clean the hands. 

rima kopikopi, to wipe the hands. 
hakakopi to take sides secretly. 
T Pau. : kokopi, to shut up. Mgv. : kopi, 
to shut the hands; kopikopi, to 
compress, to squeeze together. 
Mq. : kopi, to close, to wash the 
hands, to wipe the hands. 
The Maori kopi seems to ofifer the germ 
sense, to double together by means of a 
hinge or joint, from which, by neglect of 
the specific character or considering only 
the result, we come to the sense of closing 
or shutting. The occurrence of this sense 
in the Marquesas together with the specific 
use as to washing the hands evidences that 
in the islander's mind there is an associa- 
tion. Thus we come readily at the iden- 
tification of the Rapanui signification. 
kopu heart, breast, paunch, belly, entrails. 
kopu mail, stomach. 
kopu takapau nui, big belly. 
mamae kopu, bellyache. 
T Pau, Mgv. : kopu, belly, paunch. Mq. : 
kopu, opu, belly, stomach, breast. 
Ta.: opu, belly, intestines, spirit, 
intelligence. 
korae {ko-rae) forehead, brow. 

korae pararaha, wide brow. 
korae marego, bald forehead. 
korae mimigo, wrinkled brow. 
P Pau., Ta. : rae, forehead. Mgv. : korae, 
to cut women's hair on the forehead ; 
akarae, to cut the hair in front. 
Mq.: de, forehead. (The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, 304.) 
kore not, without (koe). 
e kore, no, not. 
kore no, nothing, zero. 
kore noa, never, none. 
hakakore to annul, to nullify, to anni- 
hilate, to abrogate, to acquit, to 
atone, to expiate, to suppress, a 
grudge. 
T Pau. : kore, not, without. Mgv. : kore, 
nothing, not, without, deprived of; 
akakore, to destroy, to annihilate. 
Mq.: kore, koS, 6S, nothing, not, 
finished, done, dead, destroyed, 
annihilated, without. Ta.; ore, no, 
not, without. 
korega nothing, naught. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



219 



,koreha eel, worm. 

koreha Iteenua, wonn. 
korereki hiccoughs. 

kori to rob, to seize (food), turbulent, to 
play T. 
kori ke avai, abuse, 
toe hori ili, abuse. 
- koro if. 
koroa (ko-^oa) far, distant, out of reach. 
koroiti slowly, gently, gradually, carefully, 
prudently, secretly; to observe pre- 
caution, to go slowly, to moderate, 
to slacken. 
koroiti no, prudent, nonchalant. 
haga koroiti no, to deal prudently. 
hiri koroiti, to go without noise. 
tito koroiti, to save, steward. 
ahere koroiti, to run nimbly. 
hakakoroiti to moderate, to slacken. 
korokoro to clack the tongue (kurukuru). 
koromaki pine T. 

koroua decrepit, old age, worn with age. 
T Pau. : koroua, decrepit. Mgv. : koroua,, 
a pet name for the youngest of^a 
family. Mq. : kooua, old, a term of 
affection. Ta. : oroua, decrepit. 
korua you. 
f O <f~' "" korua, ta,korua, yours. 
H W /V PPa(U,Mgv.: koj-ua, yontwo. Mq. : koua, 
J*^ .A' oiia, id. Ta.: orua, id. 
^ <" 1^ '^These are properly to be ascribed to the 
" ^^ Tongafiti source. The Samoan 'oulua re- 
(y appears only in Futuna and Uvea koulua 
~v and is suggested in Sikayana kaurua. 

^ koruga {ko-^uga) surface. 
kotaki calm. 
kotikoti to tear. 

kokoti to cut, to chop, to hew, to cleave, 
to assassinate, to amputate, to 
scar, to notch, to carve, to use a 
knife, to cut off, to lop, to gash, to 
mow, to saw. 
kokotiga kokoiiga kore, indivisible. 
kokotihaga cutting, gash, furrow. 
P Pau.: koti, to chop. Mgv.: kotikoti, to 
cut, to cut into bands or slices; 
kokoti, to cut, to saw; akakotikoti, a 
ray, a streak, a stripe, to make 
bars. Mq. : koti, oti, to cut, to 
divide. Ta.: ooti, to cut, to carve; 
otioti, to cut fine. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 256.) 
kotiru kotiru no iharaa no iharaa, usual. 
koto mai to bring T. 
kotokoto hemorrhage. (Cf. kutoto.) 
kototi sea bass T (kodoti T), 
koumi arero koumi, to report, to tell. 

Coming through a French channel ou 
might be intended to note the Polynesian 
sound of u, therefore koumi might be 
transliterated kumi. In that case arero 
kumi in the sense of long tongue might 
readily be used in the sense of telling. 
There are other instances in which P^e 
Roussel has used, through a pardonable 
lapse, his more familiar French notation 
of the sound, t. g., goutu=gutu. 



koura i fry, spawn, roe. 
Jioura 2 flea. , 

P Mgv.: ura, crarash, lobster. Mq.: 
koua, ua, id. Ta.: oura, id. 
The preface ko to the stem ula dis- 
tinguishes the Tongafiti. We therefore 
assign the word in Rapanui and Tahiti to 
a Tongafiti source, in Mangareva to a 
Proto-Samoan source, and Marquesas 
shows both. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 430.) Rapanui is the only lan- 
guage which defines the flea otherwise 
than in terms of the louse, commonly 
kutufiti the jumping louse. Pediculus is 
ancestral in the South Sea, the flea seems 
to have been contributed by the first of 
the explorers. 
ku 1 I. 

kia ku, me. 
ku 2 verb sign. 

ku ohoa, to keep out of the way, 

absence. 
ku higaa, convinced. 
ku taie te tat, to overflow, to go beyond . 
ku magaro, to reconcile. 
ku 3 ? tae he mau ku hoao, abundance. 
ku 4 akaku to be moved, affected. 
hakaku to groan. 

Mgv.: ku, an exclamation, a cry used 
when one has hit the mark aimed 
at. Mq. : m, an exclamation of 
sorrow. 
ku 5 gaoku, to eat greedily. 

Mgv. : ku, to be satiated, glutted. 
kua 1 demonstrative. 

kia kua, concerning. 
kua 2 verb sign. 

kua tau te moa, the hen roosts. 
kua ora te kevare, to give the horse 
water. 
P Mgv.: kua, a particle denoting the 
passive and used for ku before some 
verbs. Ta. : ua, a verb sign. Mq. : 
ua, id. 
kuapu issue. 

kuhane soul, spirit, phantom, immaterial, 
spiritual, supematiu-al (kuhaga T) . 
kuhane hiva. Holy Ghost. 
kuhane no, kuhane iahaga, immaterial. 
Mgv.: kuane, a spirit, the soul, a 
shadow, a shade; kuhane, a spirit, 
a soul that returns to earth. Mq. : 
kuhane, uhane, soul, spirit, intel- 
ligence. 
kuhoao ? tae he mau kuhoao, to abound. 
kui to see T. 
kuia booby (bird) T. 

Ma.: kuia, the brown petrel, the black 
petrel. 
kuikui to stagger. 
kuku 1 to tie up sugar canes. 
kuku 2 to coo, a pigeon. 

P Mgv. : kuku, name of a land bird. Mq. : 
kuku,kukupa,uururu,a.laigepigeon. 
Ta. : uupa, uurairao, pigeon. 
kukumu cheek. 

kukumu kivakiva, doumess. 



220 



EASTER ISLAND. 



kukuo snail. 

Mgv.: kukukuku, a small mollusc. 
Pau. : kuku, a mussel. Ta. : uuao, 
uuvao, a snail. 
kukuto (kutokuto). 
kutnara sweet potato. 

P Pau., Mgv.: kutnara, id. Mq.: kumaa, 
id. Ta.: umara, umaa, id. 
Under the philology are basic problems 
of plant dissemination which rob this word 
of value in such identification studies as 
these. 
kume to pull out, to extirpate, to extract, to 
drag out, to pull, to draw taut, to 
hoist. 
T Pau. : kume, to haul, to drag. Mgv. : 
kume, to pull, to draw, to stretch, 
to lengthen. Ta.: ume, to draw, 
to pull. 
kumi 1 ten fathoms. 

P Mgv. : kumi, ten fathoms. Mq. : kumi, 
ten fathoms, twenty fathoms. Ta. : 
umi, ten fathoms. 
In Nuclear Polynesia this is found only 
in Samoan 'umi, and Niue kumi of the 
same signification. It is quite sufficient, 
for I cannot see any contact of Samoa 
and Niue directly save in the Proto- 
Samoan period. 
kumi 2 large, great. 

pahu kumi, closet. 
miro kumi, ship. 
hakakumi to lengthen. 
PS Sa.: 'umi, long. 
kumu to draw back, to withdraw. 
kunekune blond. 
kupega seine, net. 

kupega nanai, cobweb. 

kupega maito, a long seine. 

P Pau.: kupega, a string, filament. Mgv. 

kupega, a net, a fishing net. Mq. : 

upena, upeka, upea, id. Ta. : upea, 

id. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 

231.) 

kupu times. 

e hia kupu, how many times? 
kura tutui kura, shawl. 
kurakura fair, light. 

hakakurakura to make to blush. 
P Pau.: kurakura, red, violet. Mgv.: 
kurakura, red, yellow, scarlet. 
' Mq. : uAuA, red, ruddy. Ta. : 
uraura, red. 
See note on the color sense s. v. kerekere. 
kuri cat (gooli T). 

P Pau., Mgv.: kuri, dog. Ta.: uri, id. 
Mgv. : kuri, cat. (The Poljoiesian 
Wanderings, 255.) 
We have here an interesting item to put 
with a few others as showing the persist- 
ence of the memory of a name when the 
object to which it is properly applicable 
is unknown. Rapanui had neither cat 
nor dog in its fauna. When the cat 
appeared it received the name universal 
in Polynesia for dog, and it will be noted 
that all ships carry cats because they can- 
not avoid carrying rats, but a dog is carried 



kuri — continued. 

only as a pet, therefore the chances of 
the cat first becoming known are large. 
When the dog was introduced it received 
the onomatopoeia hauhau, its proper name 
having been already expropriated by the 
hereditary enemy. This hauhau is really 
a better onomatopoeia than our equiva- 
lent, bowwow, for in our usage the appulse 
is represented by a labial, which is so far 
from being a possibility of animals that 
we find the Melanesians scarcely capable 
of the use of the lips in speech. For other 
instances of this word memory see the 
note on karavau. The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, page 388. In Wagap in Indonesia 
the cat, by way of distant confirmation, 
bears the dog name, kuli. 

kurukuru to clack the tongue (korokoro). 

Mq.: kurukuru, the glug of a liquid 

issuing from the neck of a bottle. 

kuto a swift canoe. 

kutokuto froth, foam, bubbles, to strangle 
with water, to mislead. 
kukuto froth, foam. 

kutoto to make bloody;to melt (cf. kotokoto). 

kutu louse. 

P Pau. : gutu, id. Mgv. : kutu, id. Mq. : 
kutu, utu, id. Ta. : utu, id. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 357.) 

ma 1 and, with, in addition. 
P Pau. : ma, together with. Mgv. : ma, for, 
with. Mq. : ma, and. Ta. : ma, and, 
with. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 298.) 
ma 2 shame. 

hakama shame, confusion, timid, to 
blush, bashfulness. 
tae hakama, shameless. 
P Fan.: mataki, shame. Mgv.: akama, 
shame, bashfulness, modesty, shy. 
Mq. : maamaa, ninny, simpleton. 
Ta.: haama, timidity, shameful, 
confused. 
maa art, experience, competency, power, 
tact; capable, competent, evident, 
expressly, manifest, instructed, 
wise; to know, to learn, to estimate, 
to recognize, to experiment, to 
succeed. 
tae maa, kai maa, ignorant, incom- 
petent, incomprehensible. 
tagata maa, a wizard. 
maa ki, competent. 
hakamaa to teach, to advise, to in- 
struct, to initiate, to train, to learn, 
to study. 
tagata hakamaa, tesicher, preacher. 
hakamaa ki te evagerio, to preach the 
gospel. 
This may be the common ma prefix of 
condition or ability, which, however, is 
not elsewhere found in independent use. 
maaa e maaa, inexperienced. 
maahaga workman, laborer. 
maaki {maa~ki 3) sermon. 
maamaa 1 capable. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



221 



maamaa 2 (mama i). 
maamaa 3 light, portable, easily, com- 
fortably (mama), 
hakamaa to unload, to lighten. 
hakamaamaa to alleviate, to comfort, 
to console, to ease, to relieve. 
P Mgv. : mama, light not heavy, to be 
relieved, to be eased; akamama, to 
console. Ta.: mama, light. 
maamaaki evident. 
maana, hakamaana (mahana i). 
maata {maa-ta) one who can write. 

tagata maata, scribe. 
maatoua (maa-ioua) quarrelsome. 
maaua thine. 

mae to fade, to wither, stunted fruit. 
PS Mgv. : mae, to fade, to wither, to be 
blighted. Sa. : mae, to be stale (of 
fish). To. : moe, to fade, to wither, 
to smell musty. 
mae atu'ra to cede, to give up. 

This is the only instance of the use, 
which is unexplained, of the character ' by 
Pfa-e Roussel. 
maea stone, rock. 

maea kore, free of stones. 

maea horohoro, snowy rock. 

maea mataa, obsidian used for spear 

heads T. 
maea matariki, stone used for the 

images T. 
maea pupura, hard cellular stones 

used in the platforms T. 
maea puruhare, tile. 
maea regorego, a flinty beach pebble 
used for \he. finest stone imple- 
ments T. 
maea toki, hard slates, black, red and 

gray, used for axes T. 
maea viriviri, grindstone. 
maeha 1 light, brightness; to shine, to be 
bright, to glimmer, to glow. 
maeha mahina, moonshine. 
maeharaa, sunrise. 
maehamaeha bright. 
hakamaeha to brighten. 
Mq. : maeoeo, bright, transparent. 
maeha 2 to get out of the way. 
maeha 3 thin, slender, slight. 
maemae soft. 

maemae no, badly cooked. 
maga 1 {mama 2 ) a mouthful. 
maga nuinui, to gobble. 
P Mgv. : maga, a mouthful. Mq. : mana, 
a bit, a mouthful. 
maga 2 garbage. 
maga 3 index finger. 
maga 4 a branch. 

magamiro, a branch, a limb. 
magamaga fork, finger, claw, rod. 
magamaga miro, a branch, a limb. 
magamaga rima, finger. 
magamaga vae, toe. 
magamaga iumu, great toe. 
hakamaga a roof. 
P Pau. : maga, a branch, division. Mgv. : 
maga, a branch, forked, divided. 
Mq.: ?nana, a branch, fork; mana- 



maga 4 — continued. 

mana, forked, divided. Ta. : mad, 
split, divided; amaa, branch of a 
tree. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 280.) 
magaga fork. 

Mgv. : magaga, the crotch in men. 
magaro calm, sweet, docile, tame, affable, 
gracious, indulgent, suave; to pa- 
cify, to reconcile. 
ariga magaro, amiable. 
tae magaro, ungracious. 
tagata magaro, popular. 
vai magaro, sweet water. 
magaro he kokoma, undisturbed. 
hakamagaro to soothe, to pacify, to 
quiet, to appease. 
P Pau.: magaro, salty, briny. Mgv.: 
magaro, courteous, pleasant, peace- 
ful, quiet; akamagaro, to soothe, to 
tame, to quiet. Mq. : manaonao, 
insipid, tasteless. Ta. : maaro, fresh, 
sweet, not salted. 
In Nuclear Polynesia this sense occurs 
only in Samoa and Niue, as to which see 
note under kumi i . 
magatuhi {maga ^-tuhi) index finger, 
(magaturu) hakamagaturu {maga 4- 

turu) slope of a roof, 
mageoacid, sharp, acrid, purulent; the itch, 
abscess, pustule, ringworm; itching, 
disagreeable, poisonous, spirituous; 
to long for; disgust, poison, mus- 
tard, pepper (megeo). 
hakamageo infection, to infect. 
P Pau. : mageo, to itch. Mgv. : megeo, to 
itch, to long for. Mq. : maneo, to 
itch, to tickle; meneo, mekeo, itch. 
Ta. : maeo, itch. 
In Nuclear Polynesia this is found in 
Samoa mageso, Niue magiho, and Putuma 
mageo. The megeo form is the only one 
known to Mangareva; in Rapanui, Mar- 
quesas, and Hawaii it appears as an alter- 
native of mageo. 
(mageo) hakamageo splice. 
magugupuru miserly, covetous (mogugu- 

puru). 
mahaa obsidian T (? makaa, maka). 
mahaga bait, allurement. 

PS To.: talimahaga, the noose in large 
ropes. Ma.: mahanga, a snare. 
Moriori; mehanga, to ensnare. 
In mounu Rapanui has the common 
Polynesian designation of bait. This I 
incline to regard as an error in recording 
the vocabulary. Assuming a snare encir- 
cling the bait, the answer to PSre Rous- 
sel's demand for a name might refer to the 
important but hidden snare and by him be 
referred to the bait plain in his view. 
mahana 1 heat, hot (maana, hana, 
pumahana). 
mahana ke, suffocating. 
mahana nui, stifling. 
mahana no iti, likewann. 
vera mahana, hot. 



222 



FASTER ISLAND. 



mahana 1 — continued. 

hakamahana to heat, to scald, to warm 
over. 
P Pan.: hakamahanahana, to console; 
pumahanahana, lukewarm. Mgv. : 
mahana, maana, heat, warmth, to 
warm over. Mq.: mahana, heat, 
to warm. Ta. : mahana, heat, sun, 
day. 
mahana 2 finery. 

mahani habit, custom, to accustom, to 
practise, to inure, familiar, sym- 
pathy. 
mahani maia, access. 
hakamahani to tame. 
PS Mgv. : mahani, smooth, even, polished. 
Mq.: mahani, accustomed, habit- 
uated. 
Sa. : masani, to be accustomed to, to be 
in the habit of. To.: maheni, to 
be accustomed or in the habit of. 
Fu. : masani, id. Niue: mahani, 
custom. 
mahara to be in rapture, ecstasy. 
T Pau. : mahara, mehara, to remember, 
sense, reason. Ta.: mahara, to 
recollect. 
Ma.: mahara, thought, memory, recol- 
lection. 
maharo to glorify, to flatter, to admire, to 
amaze, to astonish, to enchant, to 
astound; eulogy, boasting. 
maharo kia ia a, to vaunt. 
maharohaga flattery. 
P Pau. : maharo, to wonder at, to marvel. 
Mgv.: maharo, to praise, to vaunt, 
commendation. Mq.: mahao, to 
praise, admirable, astonishing. 
mahatu Qiatu) twisted. 

rauoho mahatu, lock of hair. 
Mgv.: mahalu, twisted, frizzly (said 
only of the hair). 
mahiahia dry, aridity. 

hakamahia to expose to the air. 
mahina the moon. 

maeha mahina moonshine. 
PMgv.: mahina, light; maina, the moon, 
moonlight. Mq. : mahina, moon, 
month. 
Peculiar interest attaches to Mangareva 
mahina in the sense of light, for before the 
Proto-Samoan was touched by the later 
Tongafiti influence masina was not the 
moon but the shining orb and therefore 
particularly the sun. This bears very for- 
cibly upon the question of Proto-Samoan 
migration to Southeast Polynesia. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 406.) 
mahiti cancer. 

Mq.: mahiti, bubo. 
mahutetutu {mahute-tutu i) bast cloth 
in the last stage of preparation 
(maute). 
mal 1 directive. 

P Pau.: mai, from, since. Mgv.: mai, 
directive. Mq., Ta.: mai,mei,id. 
mai 2 ill, sick. 

mai mate ia, sick unto death. 



mai 2 — continued. 

PS Pau.: maki, sick. Mgv.: maki, an 
ill, a sore spot, a wound. Mq.: 
maki, mai, id. Ta.: mal, sick. 
Sa.: ma'i, ill. 

There is great confusion in regard of 
mai and maki, which is rather stated than 
cleared up in the note in The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 379. Rapanui has both 
forms, so has Marquesan, and Tahiti has 
the reduced mai. It appears that k in 
this word has a tendency to vanish from its 
inner security even in languages which find 
it not ungrateful to their palatal utterance. 
maia 1 (mai i). 

pmte maia mamae, to depress. 
mahani maia, access. 
maia 2 {mai 2) to grow weak. 
maigo to come in great numbers; party, 

following, partisan. 
maikuku finger nail, claw, spur, talon 
(akikuku). 
PPau.: maikuku,hool. Mgv.: matikuku, 
matekuku, nail, claw, talon. Mq.: 
maikuku, maiuu, matiuu, id. Ta. : 
maiuu, id. 
The two forms of the former component 
appear together in Samoa mai'u'u and 
mati'u'u, in Futuna and Maori maikuku 
and matikuku, and in the Marquesas. In 
the Paumotu the same is observable in 
maikao and mitikao, a claw, although the 
latter element of the composite is different. 
maira on the contrary. 
maitaki (meitaki). 
maitakia clean. 
maito kupega maito, the long seine T. 
maka maka motu, a rock T. 

PS Mgv., Pau., Mq. : maka, a sling. Ta. : 
maa, id. Sa.: ma'a, a stone. To., 
Niue, Fu., Uvea: maka, id. 
The word retains a suggestion of its 
value in Rapanui where it is all but sup- 
planted by maea. The latter is not else- 
where identified, therefore is inexplicable 
except in so far as we might give some con- 
sideration to the idea that when k was 
dropped from maka (as from maki) a light 
vowel was thrown in to keep the important 
vowels apart and free of possibility of 
crasis, a suggestion for which I know no 
warrant. Elsewhere in Southeast Poly- 
nesia maka has passed from the stone to 
the sling by which it is cast, not a violent 
figure of Polynesian speech. 
makani R (mahani). 
makemakenu to warp. 
makenu attentively (mekenu). 

toe makenu, difficult to please. 
hakakiva toe makenu, pleasant breeze. 
makenukenu to move, to stir. 
hakamakenukenu to cajole, to shake. 
Pau.: makenukenu, disheveled. Mgv.: 
mekanutoi, to bend, to cause to be 
curved. 
maki a boil, a sore (mamaki). 

P Pau., Mgv.: niaki, a. wound, a sore. 
Mq.: maki, mai, a wound, a sore, 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



223 



maki — continued. 

a pustule, a scar. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 379.) 
makigaa to lance an abscess. 
makohe tropic bird. 

Mgv., Mq. : mokohe, the frigate bird. 
The two birds, while quite distinct, are 
frequently confused in name by Europeans 
in the South Sea. 
makoikoi kidney T. 

makona satiated, to be drunk, to quench, 
to satisfy, to feast, fed ; indistinctly. 
rakerake makona, crapulous. 
hakamakona comfort, comfortable, to 
be drunk, substantial, nutrition. 
P Pau. : makona, full, to satiate. Mgv. : 
makona, satisfied, glutted, gorged. 
Mq. : makona, maona, glutted, sat- 
isfied, drunk. 
makota ambition, jealousy. 
makuo cheek. 

makupuna descendant, grandson, progeny. 
P Pau : mokopuna, grandson. Mgv. : maku- 
puna, grandchild. Mq. : moupuna, 
poupuna, id. 
The duality in this word may not be 
regarded as critical of this far eastern 
migration, for it is found in Nuclear Poly- 
nesia. The simplest forms are in the Viti 
makubu and mokubu. The range of vari- 
ety may thus be listed: 

moko Tonga: mokohuna. Uvea, Nine, Maori, 
Mangaia: mokopuna. Hawaii: moopuna. 

moku Viti: mokubu. Marquesas: moupuna. 

mako Futuna: makopuna. 

maku Viti : makubu. Rapanui, Faumotu -.maku- 
puna. 

maka Tonga: makabuna. 

mama 1 to leak, to ooze, (maamaa). 

P Pau., Mgv., Ta. : mama, id. 
mama 2 to chew. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: mama, id. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 280.) 
mama 3 light not heavy (maamaa). 

P Mgv., Ta. : mama, id. 
mama 4 a limpet (Chiton magnificus). 

Mgv., Mq. : mama, a shellfish. 
mama S to open the mouth. 

hakamama to yawn, to gape, to be ajar. 

Pau.: hamama, to open. Mgv.: aka- 

mama, to burst open. Ta.: haa- 

mama, to open. Mq. : hadmama, 

to open the mouth. 

mamae sick, suffering, weak, ill. 

mate maia mamae, to depress. 
mata mamae, drowsy, sleepy. 
mamae kopu, bellyache. 
mamae keo, headache. 
mamue toto, menses. 
ariga mamae, to look ill. 
hakamamae to make ill. 
T Mgv. : mamae, to be ill, in pain, suffer- 
ing, sorrow. Mq. : mamae, memae, 
suffering, pain, grief. Ta. : mamae, 
pain. 
mamahi to bet, to wager, to guess, to cast 

lots. 
mamaki distress (maki). 



mamara 1 charcoal, coal, tin, lead (mara- 
mara). 

PS Mgv. : maramara, firewood. 
Sa. : malala, charcoal. To. : malala, char- 
coal, embers. Fu., Nine: malala, 
charcoal. 
The sense is in accord. The form differ- 
ence between Southeast Polynesia and 
Nuclear Polynesia is a matter of duplica- 
tion. If the migration left Samoa when 
m^la was the current stem in this sense it 
would be quite possible for the duplicated 
forms to acquire such diversity. In fact 
we note in Southeast Polynesia duplica- 
tions which are impossible in the present 
languages of Nuclear Poljmesia. 
mamara 2 to sparkle, to flash. 
mamara 3 mamara nui, to swell up, to roll. 

mamarahaga ball. 
mamari egg (of fowl or fish) (gamamari). 
(Cf. komari.) 
mamari punua, chicken in the shell. 
Mgv.: mamari, egg. Mq.: mamai, id. 
mamate (mate). 
mamau to arrest. 

Ta. : mamau, to detain. 
mamoi sheep. 

Ta.: mamoe, id. 

Bishop Jaussen in Tahiti distinguishes 
this as a neologism, the animal being a 
newcomer to the islands. In Samoa 
Pratt credits it (mamoe) to Tahiti. The 
source is obscure. 
mana power, influence. 

haga mana, prodigy. 
mana noa, almighty. 
hakamana mirade. 
manahaga power of god. 
P Pau.: mana, to be able; fakamana, to 
honor. Mgv.: mana, powerful, 
mighty, miraculous, supernatural. 
Mq. : mana, power, might. Ta. : 
mana, power, influence, might. 
manana to skip. 

manau sense, sentiment, conscience, reason, 
idea, imagination, instinct, medi- 
tation, design, conjecture, opinion, 
intellectual; to think, perceive, pon- 
der, presume, presuppose, imagine, 
estimate, conjecture, seek, assist. 
tae manau, despair, imprudent, incon- 
siderate, thoughtless, careless. 
no te manau, mental. 
manau hara, illusion. 
manau huri ke, inconsistency. 
manau iho, to cudgel the memory. 
manau ihoiho, resolute. 
manau roto, mental. 
manau no roto, to contemplate. 
manau hohonu, penetration. 
manau mua, to premeditate. 
manau no, preoccupied, to suppose, 

to suspect. 
manau noa, to reflect, to remember. 
manau maramarama, intelligent. 
manua tahaga, to suppose. 
hakamanau pathetic. 
hakamanauhaga to commemorate. 



224 



EASTER ISLAND. 



manau — continued. 

PS Sa., To., Fu., Niue: manatu, to think. 

The sense accord is so clear that we 

must give respectful consideration to the 

possibility of the dropping of t from an 

interior protected position. 

manava belly, abdomen, entrails, interior. 

manava ahuahu, indigestion. 

manava hanohano, high tempered, to 

annoy. 
manava hopohopo, terror, to desolate. 
manava itiili, frugal. 
manava karavarava, colic. 
manava mate, to be in ecstasy, passion, 

intensity of affection. 
manava more, to desolate. 
manava niniki, colic. 
manava nuinui, appetite. 
manava pagaha, affected, to complain. 
manava rakerake, bad character. 
manava riri, anger. 
manava ru, complaint. 
manava ruru, alarm, consternation, 

emotion, swoon. 
manava tagi, eager. 
manava tiha, out of breath. 
manava topa ki raro, humble, to 

humiliate. 
manava vai, simpleton, to have dull 

senses. 
meniri ko manava, little finger. 
kakari manava, waist. 
manava eete, to shudder, to tremble, 
to astonish; anger, fright, conster- 
nation. 
manava eete ki ie mau mea ananake, 

susceptible. 
eete manava, affected, moved. 
manava pohi, hasty, cruel, penitent; 

contrition, indignation. 
kokoma hanohano manava pohi, to 

abhor. 
manava pohi nunui ke, implacable. 
P Pau.: manava, the interior, affected, 
touched. Mgv. : wjoraaz'o, the belly, 
spirit, conscience. Mq. : menava, 
respiration, pulse. Ta. : manava, 
belly, entrails. 
manavai 1 brain. 

manavai 2 valley, ravine, river, torrent, 
brook. 
manavai miro, orchard. 
Mq. : manavai, valley, brook. Ta.: 

anavai, river, brook. 
It scarcely appears that these fully 
coordinate. In Tahiti anavai has a clear 
etymology, ana meaning the bed of a 
stream. In Rapanui and in the Mar- 
quesas mana most readily associates with 
maga, as water in a forked bed. On the 
possibility of the assumption of an initial 
m see the note under aanu, 
manege to grow (menege). 
maniga to be notched, to have lost the edge, 

dull. Ta. : mania, dull. 
maniri chilly, cold. 
mano i,ooo R; 10,000 T. 

P Pau. : manomano, innumerable. Mgv. : 



mano — continued. 

mano, 1,000. Mq. : mano, 2,000, 
4,000. Ta.: ma»o, 1,000. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 195.) 
manu bird. 

manu uru, kite. 
manu rikiriki, insect. 
P Pau. : manu, bird, insect, brute. Mgv. : 
manu, bird, beast. Mq.,Ta. : manu, 
bird, insect. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 372.) 
manu nave great abscess, bubo. 
manua man-o'-war. 
manua wUd, savage, fugitive. 
moa manua, wild fowl. 
manuoau foul smelling smoke. 
mac {soit R; ? typographical error for soif, 

cf. Mq. mao thirst). 
maoa 1 to clear up (of the sky). 

P Mq. : mao, dry, as land once wet. Ta. : 
Tnao, to cease raining, to clear up. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 206.) 
maoa 2 to hold. 

riva maoa, correct. 
maomao {soil, cf. mao). 
maoamaoa to thank. 
maori 

a. of manual training: dexterity, handy, 

industry, artisan. 

b. of mental training: erudite, finesse, 

cleverness, adroit, ingenious, intel- 
ligent, lucid, sage, sense, science, 
talent. 

c. the resultant: memorable, renowned, 

of good reputation. 
tagata maori, carpenter. 
rima maori, left hand, 
toe maori, incompetent. 
maori ke, judicious, sly. 
maori ke avai, adroit. 
T Pau.: maori, maohi, indigenous, sure, 
safe, perfect. Mgv. : moori, belong- 
ing to the country, native, of the 
Polynesian race, right hand. Mq. : 
maoi, native, natural, common, or- 
dinary. Ta. : maori, maohifpropti 
name of the indigenous people of 
Polynesia, native, good, perfect. 
mapahiva diamond. 
marago nearly bald (marego). 
maraka bristly, shaggy. 
marama light, day, brightness, to glimmer; 
month; intelligent, sensible. 
no tera marama, monthly. 
marama roa, a long term. 
horau marama no iti, daybreak. 
hakamarama school, to glimmer. 
hare hakamarama, school, classroom. 
P Mgv.: mdrdma, the light, daylight; 
marima, wise, learned, instructed, 
moon. Mq. : madma, light, broad 
day, bright, instructed, learned; 
meama, moon, month. Ta.: ma- 
rama, moon, month. 
In form conditional this word seems 
derivative from lama, in which the illumin- 
ating sense appears in its signification of a 
torch. The sense of light, and of specifi- 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABUIvARY. 



225 



marama — continued, 
cally the moon, appears in all Polynesia; in 
Futuna and Uvea the word signifies the 
world. The tropical extension to the 
light of intelligence is not found in Nuclear 
Polynesia, therefore not in the Proto- 
Samoan, iDUt is a later Tongafiti develop- 
ment. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 378, and compare sina, page 406.) 
maramara (matnara). 
maramarama bright. 

manava maramarama, intelligent. 
P Pau.: maramarama, intelligent. Ta. : 
maramarama, light, brightness. 
mare to have a cold. 

P Pau. : mare, a cold, catarrh. Mq. : 
mae, mucus, phlegm, saliva. Ta.: 
mare, a cold, to cough. 
This is assigned to Polynesian in general 
classification because of its occurrence in 
Samoa male and Tonga mele. Each of 
these languages has. tale in the same sense, 
the other languages of Nuclear Polynesia 
have only tale.. In Samoa male is in the 
courtesy speech, diagnostic of borrowing 
from an alien source; in Tonga, where the 
courtesy speech is less developed, mele 
means to feign a cough, to cough lightly, 
femeleaki to cough as a signal. We should 
be justified in classing the word as Tonga- 
fiti. 
marego bald (marago). 
marego paka, bald. 
korae marego, bald forehead. 
marere to break, to run aground, ship- 
wreck, to strand, to lose T, to 
launch, prolix (merere). 
takaure marere ke, swarm of flies. 
hakdmarere to destroy, to demolish, 

to scatter, to be diffuse. 
hakamarererere to crumble. 
marie calm, fair weather, unruffled sea. 
mea marie, sweet character. 
vai marie, still water. 
P Mgv.: marie, well, right, proper, fit. 
Mq. : meie, fair weather, fine. Ta. : 
marie, well, slowly, sagely. 
marikuru ash-wood T. 
maripu (miripau). 

kiri maripu, scrotum. 
mariri discolored (meriri). 
maro I June. 
maro 2 dish-cloth T. 

P Mgv.: maro, a small girdle or breech 
clout. Ta. : maro, girdle. 
maroa I a fathom. 

maroa hahaga, to measure. 
Mq. : mao, a fathom. 
maroa 2 upright, stand up, get up, stop, 
halt. 
Mq.: mad, to get up, to stand up. 
maruaki appetite, desire to eat, greedy, 
hunger, fasting, famine, weak from 
hunger, dearth, starvation. 
hakamaruaki to starve. 
We note in Motu maro famine, dearth. 
marumaru shade, thicket, somber, um- 
brella. 



marumaru — continued. 

koona marumaru, sheltered spot, 
copse. 
hakamaru to cover with shade. 
hakamarumaru to shade. 
P Pau.: hakamaru, to shadow. Mgv.: 
maru, shade, shadow, obscurity. 
Mq.: mu4, shade, shadow, shelter. 
Ta.: maru, shade. 
mata t the eye. 

mata neranera, mata kevakeva, mata 

mamae, to be drowsy. 
mata keva, mataraparapa, matapo, 

blind. 
mata hakahira, squint eyed. 
mata pagaha, eye strain. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta. : mata, the eye. 
mata 2 the face, expression, aspect, figure, 
mien, presence, visage, view. 
mata mine, mata hakataha, mata 
pupura, mata hakahire, to consider. 
P Pau. : mata, the appearance, air. Mgv. : 
muta, the face, features, expression. 
Mq.: muta, face, figure, visage. 
Ta.: mata, id. 
mata 3 raw, green, unripe. 
P Pau.: matamata, adolescence. Mgv.: 
mata, raw, uncooked. 
mata 4 a drop of water. 

P Mgv., Mq. : matamata, id. 
mata 5 mesh. 

hakamata to make a net. 
P Mgv., Mq. : mata, a mesh. 
mata 6 cutting, flint. 

P Mq. : mata, sharp point or edge of any 
cutting or piercing implement. 
Ta. : mata, cutting. 
mata 7 point, spear, spike (a fish bone). 
P Mgv. : mata, the extremity of the fish 
hook. Mq. : mata, sharp point. 
mata 8 chancre. 

mataara (mata i-ara 2) to forewarn. 
pupura mataara, projecting eyes. 
P Mgv. : mataara, to be wide awake, on 
the watch. Mq.: matad, watch- 
man, sentinel. 
mataariki {mata 6-riki; the confusion of 
riki with ariki is not uncommon in 
Polynesia) a rasp. 
mataee sleepiness. 

Mq. : matakeke, matakake, insomnia. 
mataerua (mata ■z-e rua i) traitor, man of 

two parties. 
matagi wind, air, breeze, squall, tempest, 
rhumb. 
P Pau.: matagi, the air, wind. Mgv.: 
matagi,wiad. Mq. : metani,metaki, 
wind, air. Ta. : matai, wind. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 317.) 
matahakahireto consider ( ? -hira, cf . ira 2) . 
matahakahiva to look back (ira 2). 
matahakakekeva to look aside. 
matahetuke (mata y-hetuke) a pin. 
matahi age. 

PS Sa. : matai, head of the family. To. : 
matai, clever. Fu. : matai, master 
of craft. Viti: wotoi, canoe-wright. 



226 



EASTER ISLAND. 



matah i — continued. 

T (Pau., Ta. : matahiapo, the first born. 
Ha. : makahiapo, id. Mangaia : ma- 
taiapo, a chief. Ma.: matahiapo, 
a chief, precious.) 
No great weight attaches to the sug- 
gested identifications, for the sense con- 
nection is tenuous or obscure. In the 
Tongafiti forms which contain matahi the 
latter member of the composite avoids 
analysis, and the suggestion that it is 
mata-hiapo leads nowhere. 
mataika pearl. 

matamataika id. 
matakao oar, paddle; clitoris. 
matakeva blind, one-eyed. 

matakekeva to look sidewise, to dazzle. 
matakevakeva sleepy, drowsy. 
hakamatakeva to shade the view, to 

blink. 
Mgv. : matakevo, dim-sighted, one-eyed, 
squinting. 
mataki open, to expand, to clear up (of 
weather), to open into, to debouch. 
mataki hakahoti, mataki iho, to reopen. 
PS To. : mataki, well spread out, stretched 
out. 
mataku alarm, fear, cowardice, terror, 
timid, danger, peril, perplexity; to 
fear, to tremble, 
toe mataku, brave, hardihood. 
hiriga t& mataku, to go fearlessly. 
mataku ke, dangerous, strange, for- 
midable, sinister. 
mataku no, scruple. 
e ko mataku, security. 
mataku verega kore, scruple. 
matakua terrified. 

hakamataku to alarm, affright, scare, 
terrify. 
P Pau.: mataku, fear. Mgv.: mataku, 
frightened. Mq. : hadmetau, fear. 
Ta. : matau, id. 
The vowel variety in Marquesas finds 
a slight echo far back along the migration 
track in Efate and once in Torres Straits. 
matamata (mata 4) sound of water. 
matamataika (mataika) snow, pearl. 
matamataki (mata i-mataki) to examine, 
to pry into. 
P Pau. ; matakitaki, to pay a visit. Ta. : 
mataitai, to see, to visit. 
This is found in Nuclear Polynesia in 
Samoa tulimata'i to look steadfastly; in 
Tonga mataki to spy; in Futuna mataki 
to watch, to examine. 
matanevaneva drowsy, sleepy. 
matapea tattooing on the body. 
matapo blind, one-eyed. 

P Pan., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: matapo, id. 
mataporeko to stare at. 
matapupura spy, to keep the eyes on one 

all the time. 
mataputi chubby cheeks. 
matara (ma-tara) to loose, to untie. 

P Pau. : hakamataratara, to unloose, to 
slacken. Mgv. : akamatara, to cut 
the first thread of a piece of cloth 



matara — continued. 

so that it may be torn across. Ta. : 
matara, to be loosed, untied, par- 
doned. 
matariki maea matariki, stone used for the 

images T. 
mataritorito {mata 2-ritorito) gentle. 
matatea (ptata i-tea) to look at one's cloth- 
ing through vanity. 
matateatea (mata 2-teatea) pale. 

Mq. : matatea, white, of light color, not 
tattooed. Ta. : matatea, pale. 
matatikea {mata i-tikea) to testify. 
matatea {mata 2-ioa) warlike, brave, auda- 
cious, courage, warrior, soldier, vic- 
tor, victory. 
hakamatatoa to drill, to discipline, 
to encourage, to struggle. 
PS Sa. : matatoa, brave-looking. 
matatopa {mata 2-topa) modest, modesty. 
matatoua {mata 2-toua) hostile appearance. 
matau {mata 7-m) nipple, teat. 
matau 1 right. 

rima matau, right hand. 
P Ta. : atau, right. Sa. : matau, id. 

Probably matau is Proto-Samoan. The 
Tongafiti form is katau (Maori, Raro- 
tonga), Paumotu kotau: by loss of k this 
becomes atau in Tahiti and akau in Hawaii, 
matau 2 left (a sense-invert) . 
rima matau, left hand. 
kaokao matau, left side. 
matau 3 brave warrior, hero; courage; 
ardent, bold, martial, celebrated; 
to drill, to affront. 
hakamatau to discipUine, to drill, to 
struggle, to encourage, to rely on. 
matau 4 rustic. 

mataui {mata i-ui) glance; to watch, to fix 
the eyes on. 
mataui a raro, modest, modesty. 
matavat {mata 4-Dai) a tear, lamentation, 

to weep T. 
mate death, to die, to be ill, to be unfor- 
tunate. 
hakamate to kill. 
P Pau.: mate, to die. Mgv.: mate, to be 
sick, dead, love, ardent desire. 
Mq.: mate, illness, death, grief. 
Ta.: mate, death, illness. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 373.) 
matea lifeless, passionate 
matega death. 

Mgv.: matega, illness, death. 
matekeo {mate-keo) pulmonary disease. 
matemanava {mate-manava) to marvel at. 
matemate to have a slight iUness, to suffer 

pain. 
materaa {mate~raa) sunstroke. 
matevai (mate-vat) thirst. 
matoru thick, bushy. 

matorutoru thick, opaque; not com- 
pact (a sense-invert). 
hakamatoru to stock. 
hakamatorutoru to thicken. 
P Mgv. : matoru, thick, gross, heavy, dull. 
Mq.: matoutou, moto4, thick. Ta.: 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



227 



matoru — continued. 

matoru, id . (The Polsmesian Wan- 
derings, 238.) 
matou we. 

to matou, no matou, ours. 
pet ra ta matou, proverb. 
pei ra hoki ta matou, usage. 
matu let us go, to be ready to go. 
gfS- Mgv. : matu, let us go. 
matua 1 chronic. 

Ta. : matua, id. 
matua 2 a parent (tnetua). 
matua tamaroa, father. 
matua tamaahine, mother. 
matua too, adoptive father. 
matua kore, orphan. 
PPaa.-.makuahine, mother. Mgv.: motua, 
father; matua, superintendent, 
overseer. Mq. : matua, any man; 
motua, father. Ta.: metua, metia, 
father, mother, parent. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 271.) 
mau I as soon as, since. 
tnau 2 several. 

te mau tagata, a collective use. 
mau 3 food, meat. 

mau nut, abundance of food, pro- 
vision, harvest. 
mau ke avai, abundance. 
Mq.: mau, a great repast, a feast. 
mau 4 end, to take away. 

PS Sa. : mau, to result, to terminate. 
mau 5_to hold, to seize, to detain, to arrest, 

to retain, to catch, to grasp. 
mau 6 certain, siure, true, correct, to con- 
fide in. 
muu roa, indubitable, sure. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: mau, true, correct. 
mau 7 fixed, constant, firm, stable, resolute, 
calm. 
toe mau, not fixed, unstable. 
mau no, stable. 
hakamau to make firm, to attach, to 
consolidate, to tie, to assure. 
pena hakamau, bridle. 
hakamau ihoiho, to immortalize. 
hakamau iho, restoration. 
P Pan.: mau, solid, stable. Mgv.: mau, 
fibced, firm, stable. Mq.: mau, 
firm, attached, fixed. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 207.) 
mau 8 to give, to accord, to remit, to satisfy, 
to deliver; to accept, to adopt, debt; 
to embark, to raise. 
maua 1 at last. 
maua 2 we. 

to maua, no maua, our. 
PMq. : maua,yrt. Ta.: maua, id. 
mauga mauga kore, impalpable. 
mau mau a step. 
mauoko immovable. 
maute paper mulberry (mahute Q). 
P Mgv.: e«<e, «te, id. Mq.: «te, id. Ta.: 
o«te. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Pau.: 
aute, id. 
Beyond the forms here listed the word 
is known only through Samoa and Maori 
aute. As to the frontal accretion by m 



maute — continued, 
see aanu. We can less readily account 
for the frontal abrasion by which aute 
becomes Marquesas and Mangareva ute. 
mauteki to assure. 

toe mauteki, ina kai mauteki, incred- 
ulous. 
mautini pumpkin, gourd, squash. 

PS Pau. : mautini, gourd, pumpkin. Mq. : 
mautini, a large gonrd. Ta.: mau- 
tini, pumpkin. Sa.: mautini, a 
gourd. 
The Samoan identification rests upon 
the dictionary of P^re Violette, for Pratt 
does not include it. With this exception 
the word is not found outside Southeast 
Polynesia. 
me me mai, from, since. 

Pau. : me, with, since, from. Mgv. : me, 
and, as, like, so, with, for. Mq. : 
me, and, as, like, so, with. 
mea 1 red. 

ata mea, the dawn. 
meamea red, ruddy, rubicund, scarlet, 
vermilion, yellow. 
ariga meamea, florid. 
kahu meamea, purple. 
moni meamea, gold. 
hanuanua meamea, rainbow. 
pua ei meamea, to make yellow. 
hakameamea to redden, to make 
yellow. 
PS Ta. : mea, red. 
Sa.: OTe?»eo, yellowish brown, sere. To.: 
memea, drab. Fu. : mea, blond, yel- 
lowish, red, chestnut. 
mea 2 a thing, an object, elements (mee). 
e mea, circumstance. 
mea ke, different, excepted, save, but. 
mea no iti, easy. 
mea ra, nevertheless, but. 
ra mea, to belong. 
mea rakerake, assault. 
ko mea, such an one. 
a mea nei, this. 
a mea ka, during. 
a mea, then. 

no te mea, because, since, seeing that. 
na te mea, since. 
a mea era, that. 
ko mea tera, however, but. 
hakamea to prepare, to make ready. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: meo, a thing. 
mea 3 in order that, for. 

Mgv.: mea, because, on account of, see- 
ing that, since. Mq. : mea, for. 
mea 4 an individual. 

tagata mea, tagata mee, an individual. 
Mgv. : mea, an individual, such an one. 
Mq., Ta.: mea, such an one. 
mea 5 necessary, urgent. 

e mea ka, must needs be, necessary. 
e mea, urgent. 
mea 6 manners, customs. 
meamee (meemee). 
mee with, and (me). 
mee (mea 2). 



228 



EASTER ISLAND. 



meemee to plot, to intrigue. 
tneemeea contemptible. 
hakamee irony, sarcasm, war song, to 

plot. 
hakameemee to blaspheme, disdain, 
depreciate, derision, abuse, insult, 
menace, despise, mock, oifend, dis- 
parage, ridicule, tease. 
hakatneemeega an insult. 
Mq.: mei, to despise, mock, insult, 
depreciate. 
tnegeo (mageo). 
mei of. 

mei a, here, there, since, to spring 

from. 
mei a mea, issue. 
mei ra, to result. 
mei roto o mea, issue. 
Mq.: mei, of, since. Ta.: mei, of. 
meika banana. 

Pau., Mgv. : meika, id. Mq.: meika, 
meia, id. Ta.: meia, id. 
meitaki good, agreeable, efi&cacious, excel- 
lent, elegant, pious, valid, brilliant, 
security, to please, to approve 
(maitaki). 
ariga meitaki, handsome, of pleasant 

mien. 
mea meitaki ka rava, to deserve. 
meitaki ke, marvelous, better. 
hakameitaki to make good, to amend, 
to do good, to bless, to establish. 
meitakihaga goodness. 
PS Pau.: maitaki, good. Mgv.: meite- 
taki, beautiful, good. Mq. : meitai, 
good, agreeable, fit, wise, virtuous. 
Ta.: maitai, good, well. 
Nine: mitaki, good. 
A pleasant view of the island life obtains 
in the fact that this was one of the first 
words which foreigners learned to recog- 
nize, and the records of Cook and early 
voyagers are dotted with myty, for the 
Polynesian had no intuition to correct his 
happy feeling that all that was new was 
good. The Nine identification proves the 
Proto-Samoan source, but the value of the 
two elements here in composition evades 
determination. These are mei {mai) and 
taki. That it is not a closed stem meit 
with formative augment aki is shown by 
two considerations; the general disproof 
is that our evidence is distinct that this 
Proto-Samoan migration left Nuclear 
Polynesia before these formative augments 
had come into use (see note under iko); 
a particular disproof is found in Ma- 
ngareva where the dissimilar duplication 
tetaki is clear evidence that taki is a stem. 
In the former element we are confronted 
with the problem of mei or woi with three 
instances of the one and two of the other, 
bearing always in mind the rule that vowel 
fixity is a scantily violated principle in these 
languages. Niue exhibits such a number of 
mutations in the quasi diphthongs as to 
establish that variety as a subordinate 



mei taki — continued . 
character of that language. In the mate- 
rial collated in The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 52, we find no evidence bearing on 
ai or ei in Niue, but in Tonga we find one 
instance (Samoa nei, Tonga ni) where ei 
becomes i. I incline to coasider mei the 
origin of this element. We note Mota 
matai good. 
Mekemeke the great spirit, represented by 

a bird T (Makemake Q). 
mekenu (makenu). 
mene thumb Q. 

menege to grow, great, fat, famous, not- 
able (manege), 
menegea grown. 

hakamenege to make large, to aug- 
ment. 
Mq. : m^nene, meneke, to grow. 
menia adulterer. 

Mgv.: munia, sexual feeling, involun- 
tary delight from sexual feeling. 
meniri to sour, to shiver. 

tekeo meniri, to cool, to chill. 
meniri ko manava, little finger. 
merere (marere). 
mereti Wednesday (Mercredi). 
meriri (mariri). 
merita merit. 
merone melon 
meta the mass (messe). 
tnetia Messiah. 
metua (matua). 
meua hopeless. 
migo decrepit, weak, wrinkled. 

mimigo korae mimigo, wrinkled brow, 
migomigo decrepit, weak, wrinkle. 

paa migomigo, sterile. 
hakamigo to mock, mockery. 
hakamigomigo cross, peevish, to dis- 
dain, depreciate, derision, grin, gri- 
mace, irony, despise, defy, ridicule. 
T Pau. : migomigo, wrinkled. Mgv. : migo- 
migo, a fold, a wrinkle. Mq. : mino- 
mino, mikomiko, mimio, id. Ta.: 
miSmid, id. 
migoigoi indefinite number, infinity, innu- 
merable, miUion. 
migorigori (migosigosl). 
migosigosi to interlace (migorigori R, 
probably a typographical error). 
PS Sa.: migomigosi, to twine aroimd. 
Fu.: migo, zigzag. 
If my interpretation of migorigori as a 
printer's error in reading the manuscript 
be correct this will be the sole instance of 
the sibilant in Southeast Polynesia. On 
the other hand the mutation s-r has not 
been identified in a single instance in Poly- 
nesian, and in Melanesian borrowing 
appears in but two instances, and those 
very doubtful. 
mihimihi fine rain, to drizzle, sleet, thick 
fog. 
Mgv.: ua mihi, fine rain. 
mikamika curly. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



229 



mikamika — continued. 

rauoho mikamika, tangled hair. 
Mq.: hadmimiko, curly. 
mimi urine, to make water. 
tae mimi, dysury. 
na mimi, urethra. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: mimi, urine. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 375.) 
mimiro compass, to roll one over another, 
to turn in a circle. 
P Pau.: miro, to rope. 
mine to spy, to make signs with the eyes, 
to glance. 
mala mine, to consider. 
minemine to consider, to make signs 
with the eyes. 
mini to carry one's head high. 
minuta minute of time. 
miramira to shake, to perplex, tangled. 

hakamiramira to perplex. 
mirimiri curly. 

rauoho mirimiri, lock of hair. 
miripau testes T (maripu). 
? miritoun seaweed T. 
miro tree, plant, wood, plank, ship, building. 
miro kohuhoku, bush, thicket. 
miro takataka, bush. 
miro tupu, tree. 
miro vavau, switch. 
P Pau., Mgv., Ta.: miro, a tree with red 
wood, Thespesia populnea. Mq.: 
mio, id. 
miroahi firebrand. 
mlterio mystery. 

miti to sudc, to lap, to lick, to taste, to 
absorb, to drain. 
lae miti, inexhaustible. 
P Pau. : mitimiti, to lap, to lick up. Mgv. : 
miti, to lick, to percolate away. 
Mq. : miti, to taste, to lick, to suck, 
to absorb, to evaporate. Ta.: miti, 
to lick. 
mitimiti to clack the tongue. 
tnitinare missionary. 
mitutika the lip Q. 

In the unfamiliar handwriting of an 
unknown language nu might easily be 
misread as mi; thus we may restore the 
prototype nututika in the manuscript 
source which we infer; then in recognition 
of the frequent n-ng mutation we restore 
the true form gututika, the tattooing on 
the lips. 
mo I for (moo). 

ika ke avai mo, abuse (bad treatment 

too great for). 
riva mo tere, navigable (fit for voy- 
aging). 
pu moo naa, hiding-place (hole for 

hiding). 
koona moo tomo, port (place for enter- 
ing). 
»»oo iharaa, ordinary. 
moo te oone, shovel (for the sand). 
PS Mgv.: mo, for. 
Sa., To., Fu.,Niue,Ma., Aniwa: mo, id. 



mo 2 in order that (moo). 

mo okorua, to accompany, to adjoin 

(in order to be two- together). 
moo arai, to join (in order to be to- 
gether). 
mo 3 a negative value (moo). 
moo aneira, inopportune. 
moa fowl. 

moa toa, cock. 
moa itha, hen. 
moa ohoa, crowing of cocks. 
moa manua, wild fowl. 
moa herea, tame fowl. 
P Pau. : moa, domestic fowl. Mgv. : moa, 
cock. Mq. : moa, hen. Ta. : moa, 
cock, hen. 
moahu to aid. 

moana salt water, deep sea, ocean. 
P Pau.: moana-tekereke, blue. Mgv.: 
moana, the sea, the ocean. Mq. : 
moana, ocean, high sea. Ta.: 
moana, sea, ocean, abysmal depth 
or height, heaven. 
moaua hibiscus. 

moe to sleep, to lie at full length, to dream, 
to brood, to place, to cohabit. 
moe atu, to leave off, to desist. 
moe atu ra, to adjourn, to postpone. 
moe hakahepo, to talk in the deep. 
moe aherepo, somnambulist, sleep- 
walker. 
moe hakataha, to sleep on the side. 
moe no, to oversleep, concubinage. 
moe tahae, to be a light sleeper. 
moe tahaga, a sleeper. 
moe vaeahatu, moe hakaroa, to sleep 

sprawling. 
rava moe, to sleep sound. 
ariga moe ki raro, to lie fiat on the 

ground. 
tae moe, bachelor. 
hakamoe to brood, to fold the wings; 
to reserve, to lay up ; to struggle. 
P Pau.: moe, sleep. Mgv.: moe, sleep, 
to lie down, coitus, to shut the eyes. 
Mq.: moe, to sleep, to lie down; 
hadmoe, to set down on the ground. 
Ta. : moe, to sleep, to lie down. 
moea moea raruga, lying flat. 
moeaivi thin. 

Mq.: ivi, hadivi, id. Ta. : ivi, id. 
moega mat. 

Pau.: moehega, bed. Mgv.: moega, a 
sleeping mat. Mq.: moena,moeka, 
mat, floor cloth, bed. Ta. : moea, 
bed. 
moemata to sleep with the eyes open. 

mea moemata, phantom. 
moemoea a dream, vision. 

tikeahaga moemoea, apparition by 
night. 
T Mgv., Mq., Ta.: moemoea, dream. 
mogo shark. 

PPau.: mago,id. Mgv.: mago,id. Mq.: 
mano, mako, mono, moko, id. Ta. : 
mad, id. 



230 



EASTER ISI/AND. 



mogo — continued. 

In addition to this list the word is found 
as mago in Samoa, Maori, Nine, and in 
Viti as mego. It is only in Rapanui and 
the Marquesas that we encounter the 
variant mogo. 
mogugu orifice, anus, backside. 
mogugu kore, constipation. 
mogugu kiukiu, ingrate, ungrateful. 
Mgv. : mogugu, giUs of fish. Mq. : 
monunu, mokuku, larynx, Adam's 
apple. 
The general sense of orifice suffices 
to coordinate Rapanui and Mangareva; 
the Marquesas is further removed and 
obscure. 
mogugupuru infidelity, unfaithful, ingrate 

(magugupuru). 
mohai idol, image, sculpture, statue (moai 
T, moi Q). 
mohai rikiriki, amulet. 
ragi mohai, dappled sky. 
mohimohi level, to level. 

hakamohi stem, serious, grave. 
Mgv. : mohia, to be straight, rigid. 
mokai {mo i-kai 4) fruit. 
moki signification, sense (mooki). 
Mgv.: moki, subject, occasion. 
(Sa.: mo'i, true; more probably the ' 
represents, though this is quite 
imusual, the » of moni; for mo'iis 
not reproduced as moki in any of 
the languages of Nuclear Polynesia.) 
mokimoki lenitive, emollient. 
moko 1 lizard. 

P Pau., Mgv., Mq. : moko, id. Ta. moo, id. 
moko 2 to stun, to be dizzy. 
PS Sa. : mo'o, to be surprised. 

An interesting parallel comes to mind 
in English astound, which also carries the 
idea of surprise in terms of stun. But 
nothing can be more fallacious than such 
parallels between enormously separated 
languages if we seek to assign them more 
than curious interest, for it is extremely 
unsafe to consider the Polynesians as 
thinking, or as capable of thinking, in 
conformity with the laws of our thought. 
(moko 3) hakamoko to accomplish. 
mokohi grain, full-grown berry (mokoi). 
mokohi haraoa, grain. 
Mgv.: mokohe, food. 
mokoimokoi heart T, kidney. 
mokomoko sharp, pointed, slender, cape, 
headland. 
gutu mokomoko, pointed lips. 
moku bunch grass T (mouku). 
momomomo niho momomomo, decayed 
teeth. 
PS Sa. : momomo, to crumble. To. : memo, 
broken up, crumbled. Fu. : momo, 
to pulverize, to break. Nine: 
momomomo, in driblets. Viti: 
momoka, to break fine. 
momore (more), 
momotu (motu). 
moni money, silver, platinum. 



moni — continued. 

moi meamea, gold. 
moni tara, dollar. 
mooka to implant. 
mooku mine. 

Mgv.: moku, id. 
moomoe {mo i-^noe) nuptial. 
moraoa R (morava). 
morava to catch, to have, to conquer, to 
gain, to obtain, to participate; to 
be able, capable, to procure, to 
profit, to realize, to recover, to find. 
morava iho, to recover. 
more rent, fracture, to break. 

manava more, desolate, to grieve. 
momore breaking. 

momore hihi, to damage, to injure. 
moremore to divide into bits. 
Mgv. : akamore, to decapitate, to cut off 
pieces of wood. 
morega fraction. 
moremorepua to pick flowers. 
mori oil. 

mori eoeo, pomade. 
Pau.: mori, oil for burning. Mgv.: 
mori, candle, taper, wax. Mq.: 
moi, coconut. Ta. : mori, oil, lamp. 
motare clock. 

Mgv., Mq.: motara, id. 
The object being foreign, and the name 
probably a loan, I incline to think that 
the two languages have syncopated 
chronometer. I favor this the more par- 
ticularly since in the language of sailors 
this timepiece is commonly pronounced 
chronomoter, a vowel coloring by attrac- 
tion not unknown to students of orthoepy. 
A derivation from the French montre is 
possible, but it does violence to the 
island treatment of such borrowings. 
motiho land fog. 

motiotio ragi motiotio, sky streaked with 
clouds. 
Mgv. : tiotio, to be specked or marked, 
motu to break, to cut with a knife, to sever, 
to rupture; rent, reef, shoal, rock. 
motu poto, to cut short. 
arelare motu, an oratory. 
motu kivakiva, an uncovered shoal. 
momotu to cut up. 

tae momotu, e ko momotu, indissoluble. 
P Pau.: motu, island; komutu, to break. 
Mgv.: motu, an island, a rock, to 
cut, to be broken. Mq.: motu, 
island, land, to break, to cut up, to 
take to pieces. Ta. : motu, a low 
island, to be broken, cut up. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 383.) 
motuava {motu-ava 1) a hollowed rock. 
motuhaua archipelago. 
motupiri {motu-piri) archipelago. 
motuputuputu {moturputuputu) archi- 
pelago. 
moturauri south wind T. 
moturogorogo to write T. 
mou 1 enough {moua, mouga). 
PS Sa.: mou, many. 



RAPANUI-ENGIvISH VOCABULARY. 



231 



mou 2 to get (mau). 
hakamou id. 

mou 3 to use up, to expend, to absorb. 
hakamou to spend. 
hakamoumou to use up, to expend. 
mou 4 to be silent, shy, dejected, stupid, 
taciturn, mute, uncomplaining, si- 
lence, shut up!, attention! 
mou no, to speak in laconic terms, 
dull, mute, silence. 
hakamou to silence, to shut up, to 

quiet. 
Mq.: mou, peace, tranquil, quiet. 
mou 5 to cease, to end, to finish, to con- 
clude; a pact, agreement. 
mou noa, to endure (mau). 
mou a te toua, reconciliation. 
itia kai mou, always, eternal, per- 
petual. 
ina e ko mou, incessant. 
e ko mou, always, 
toe mou, permanent, perpetual. 
hakamiou to accomplish, to end, to 
conclude, to consummate, to con- 
ciliate. 
mou mou e ko moumou, indissoluble. 
hakamou mou ga the finish, termina- 
tion. 
Mgv.: mou, to quench the thirst. 
mou 6 to harass. 

mou no, to suffer damage. 
hakamou to abolish, abrogate, anni- 
hilate, nullify, annul, impoverish, 
destroy, interrupt, exterminate, 
plunder, smooth out folds. 
moumou to devastate, pillage, devas- 
tation, destruction. 
hakamoumou to demolish, to ravage, 

to suppress. 
Ta. : mou, to extinguish, to destroy. 
moua enough, past (mou, mouga). 
mouga 1 enough, that's all, at last (mou, 

moua). 
mouga 2 mountain, ridge of hills. 
mouga iti, hillock. 
tua mouga, mountain top. 
hiriga mouga, hillside, declivity, slope. 
P Pau. : mahuga, mountain. Mgv. : mou, 
maga, mountain. Mq. : mouna, 
mouka, peak or crest of a mountain. 
Ta.: maua, moua, moimtain. 
Regarding mauga as the basic form we 
note that mouga is found in Rapanui, 
Tonga, Uvea, Niue, and Tahiti. Pau- 
motu mahuga is explicable through care- 
lessness in the use, or record, of the aspirate. 
The two forms of Mangareva indicate that, 
like Tahiti, it had both forms ; in the dilapi- 
dation, itself most unusual, they have 
fared differently. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 195.) 
mouga 3 extinction, end, interruption, solu- 
tion. 
te mouga te hiriga, end of a voyage. 
pUgaha mouga kore, without consola- 
tion. 
mouga 4 to get. 



mouku grass, hay, straw, herb, vegetable 
(moku). 

mouku pakapaka, hay. 
mouku no, meadow. 
pua mouku, herb. 
koona mouku, pasture, grass land. 
PS Mgv. : mouku, a species of scented fern. 
Pau.: mauku, a rush; moku, grass. 
Mq.: mouku, reed. Ta.: mauu, a 
plant resembling rushes. 
Sa.: mau'u, grass and weeds used to 
cover the roots of taro. To. : mo- 
huku, grass. Fu.: mouku, cleared 
land. Uvea: OTotefew, grass. Ma.: 
mouku, a large fern. 
In Samoa this is herbage employed to a 
specific end. The designation of grass in 
general is Samoa mutia, Niue motietie, 
Futima mutie. Uvea musie. The variety 
of sense in Southeast Polynesia may be 
attributed to the specification of other 
herbs commonly used as a mulch. We 
note the intimate agreement of Rapanui 
and Paumotu moku grass, a form not else- 
where found. 
moukuhiva couchgrass. 
mounu bait, lure. 

PMgv.,Mq. : otom«m, bait, to allure. Ta. : 
maunu, id. 
The duplicate forms are thus dis- 
tributed: 

mounu Rapanui, Mangareva, Marquesas, Maori, 

Tonga, Uvea. 
maunu Samoa. Tahiti, Maori. 

They are, therefore, not critical. 
mova marshmallow T {mauve). 
mu huhurumu,v/oolly R (probably an abbre- 
viation of mulone in the MSS.) 
mua the front, that which comes foremost. 
a mau, before, ahead, to precede, 

come on, forward. 
kapu a mua, oho a mua, to go ahead. 
/ i mua, before, heretofore, preceding. 
I i mua atu, sooner. 
i hi mua, at first, before, to go before. 
} ko mua, at first, then, otherwhile. 
mua a mua, to march at the head. 
mua roa, the first. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta. : mua, front, 
foremost. 
muko to announce. 
muraki to bury T. 
muri the rear, that which comes last. 
a muri, future. 
a muri noa atu, never. 
J muri, afterward, henceforth, here- 
after. 
i muri 00 na, to accompany. 
ki muri, after, future, henceforth, 

then, final. 
o muri, last. 
P Pau.,Mgv.,Ta. : muri, last. Mq. : mui, id. 
mutone sheep, mutton. 

While beef, particularly when corned, 
has come to popularity in the islands, 
mutton is considered unpalatable. 



232 



EASTER ISLAND. 



na 1 when, as soon as (ga). 

Mgv.: »a, because, seeing that, whereas. 
na 2 the, that, some, any, certain (ga). 
pei na, thus, like that. 
P-Mqrt na, the (plural). Ta.: na, id. 
na 3 of. 

P Pau. : na, of, belonging to. Mgv. : na, 
of, by, on account of. Mq. : na, of, 
by, for, on the part of. Ta.: na, 
of, by, for. 
na 4 ? possessive. 

na mea, to belong to (? his thing). 
Mgv. : na, him, of him, to him. Ta. : na, 
he, his, him. 
na 5 (ana 2). 

i muri 00 na, to accompany. 
naa to hide, to conceal, occult, secret. 
pu moo naa, hiding-place. 
toe naa, frank, candid. 
naa no, to deny. 
naanaa secretly. 

hakanaa to hide, clandestine, secret, 
to deny, to darken. 
topa hakanaa, unexpected. 
ki hakanaa, a secret. 
vanaga hakanaa, a secret. 
PS Mq. : hakana, hadna, to conceal, hide, 
secrete. 
Sa. : na, to conceal. 
naaku mine. 

Mgv. : naku, id. Mq. : na'u, id. Ta. : 
nau, id. 
naana his. 
naau yours. 
naga some. 

naginagi to feed, to nibble. 
nainai point of a lance. 
nako I fat, grease, lard, marrow, tallow. 
PS Mq. : nako, turtle meat; kao, fat. 
Pau. : akohaga, meat. Ta. : ao, fat 
of fowl or fish. 
Sa.: ga'o, fat, lard. To., Fu., Nine, 

Ma.: gako, id. 
Had Monseigneur Dordillon eaten his 
way to the civic chair of London instead of 
coming to starveling preferment in the 
bishopric of a savage diocese he would 
surely have defined the nako of the Mar- 
quesan turtle in terms of calipash and 
calipee. 
nako 2 squamous, scurfy. 
naku (naaku). 

namunamu 1 to chew, to devour, to lap up, 
food, glutton. 
rava namunamu, to eat noisily, to 
champ when eating. 
PS Mgv.: namunamu, to eat with the 
lips, to nibble. Ha.: namunamu, 
to nibble. 
Sa., To., Fu.: lamu, to chew. 
This involves the l-n mutation. This 
is characteristic of the dependence of 
Nukuoro on Samoa and occurs in other 
languages as well (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 52). Moiki shows uniformly a 
secondary stage of this mutation, Ir-n-ng. 
namunamu 2 to yelp. 



nanagi to tear with the teeth. 
nana! spider. 

kahu nanai, cobweb. 
nanenane sweetness. 
nape to name. 

nape iho, to give a nickname. 
napehaga nomination. 
naponapo handsome, bright, to shine, to 
glorify. 
hakanaponapo to amend, to better, to 
embellish. 
natura natiu-e, essence of god. 
nave manu nave, great abscess. 
neanea rimamatua neanea, thumb. 

Pau.: manemanea, Qngei. Ha.: manea, 
hoof, nail, claw. 
neenee (nene). 
neginegi to shorten. 

nego to be equipped with, to fill up, to 
sufiice, full, complete, plenty, whole, 
plain, quantity, sum. 
nego mat, to assemble. 
tae nego, incomplete, insufficient, im- 
perfect. 
negonego to agglomerate, to heap up, 
cargo, load of fruit. 
negonego mat, to flow in. 
mea negonego, enough, plenty. 
tae negonego, few. 
tai negonego, tide. 
hakanego to enlarge, to supply, to 
accumulate, to assemble, to surfeit, 
to augment, to overrun, populous. 
hakanegonego to accumulate, to fill 
up, to multiply, to amass. 
hakanegonego rakau, to enrich. 
nehe odor. 

nehenehe fern, moss. 
nehu obscure, cloudy. 

hakanehu to disguise. 
hakanenehu serious. 
nei here, this. 

ina o nei, absence, to be away. 
a mea nei, this. 
i nei, kona nei, here. 
hou a nei, modern. 
ki nei, hither. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta. : nei, this, here. 
neinei 1 to defecate, to lay eggs. 
hare neinei, latrine. 
kopu neinei ma te mataku, phobic 

evacuation. 
koona neinei, latrine. 
hakaneinei to purge. 
neinei 2 to squeeze, to press. 

Pau. : nekineki, to compress. Ta. : neinei, 
to press, to oppress, to trample 
down. 
(neira) aneira. 

a . now, actual, at once, this instant, to-day, 

soon, presently, in a little. 

b. to adjourn. 

moo aneira, inopportune. 
aneira nei, soon. 
(neke) hakaneke to move. 

ata hakaneke mai, near by. 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABUIyARY. 



233 



neke — continued. 

Pau. : neke atu, to change out of place. 
Mgv. : akaneke, to come near. 
neku neku ravatotouH, agile. 
nekuneku to grate. 
nemonemo independent, independence. 
(nemu) hakanemu to compress. 
hoe hakanemu, clasp knife. 
nene pulsation. 

«a nene, the pulse. 
nene ki te puoko, to shake the head. 
hakaneenee physician. 
nenehu (nehu). 
nenenene 1 agreeable, suave. 

Ta. : nenenene, agreeable, sweet smelling. 
nenenene 2 intestines T. 
nenere weak. 
neranera (? nevaneva, nivaniva). 

mata neranera, drowsy, sleepy. 
nevaneva mata nevaneva, drowsy, sleepy 

(nivaniva). 
Pnevhive (? hivd). 

maea nevhive, granite used for stone 
axes T. 
nieve snow (neige). 
nihinihi obtuse. 

tuaivi nihinihi, hunchback. 
ninihi surge of the sea. 

manava ninihi, colic. 
hakamanavanihinihi indigestion. 
niho 1 tooth, tongs. 

niho gaa, toothache. 
niho hakakikaa, protruding teeth. 
niho hakarite, regular teetil. 
niho hati, broken teeth. 
niho keekee, protruding teeth. 
niho kerekere, black teeth. 
niho momomomo, decayed teeth. 
niho para, decayed teeth. 
niho reeree, blade teeth. 
niho ritorito, white teeth. 
niho uneki, to show the teeth. 
niho urei, to show the teeth. 
P Pau., Mgv. : niho, tooth. Mq. : niho, 
tooth, horn, tentacle. Ta. : niho, 
tooth, horn. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 302.) 
niho 2 to speak evil, siu-ly. 
nihogau to clench the teeth. 
nihotete to gnash the teeth. 
(nli) hakanii to enlarge (? hakanui). 
nikoniko tortuous. 

PS Sa. : ni'o, to do things in a semicircle. 
To.: taka-niko, circles around the 
moon. Fu. : niko, to turn about. 
Nine: nikoa, a halo. 
ninaa terrific. 
nini dysentery. 

nininini to flow, to fall into, diarrhea, 
to pom- out, hemorrhage, to leak, 
to fall drop by drop, to fly off in 
sparks. 
hakanininini to water, to pass any 
liquid. 
niniko garland. 
niniro garland. 
ninitoto (nini-toto) dysentery. 



nira needle. 

nire virgin. 

nironiro garbage. 

niu coconut, palm, spinning top. 

P Pau., Ta.: niu, coconut. Mgv.: niu, a 
top; niu mea, coconut. Mq.: niu, 
coconut, a top. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 390.) 
niuhi shark T (ninki T). 

Mq. : niuhi, a large fish resembling the 
shark. 
nivaniva absurd, stupidity, bungler, deli- 
rium, madness, to err, to wander 
in mind, folly, foolish, heedless, 
frenzied, imbecile, senseless, odd, 
inconsistent, simple, dupe, stupid, 
flighty (nevaneva). 
nivaniva te mata, lethargy. 
hakanivaniva queer, bewitched, stupe- 
fied, to tell lies. 
PS Ta. : nivaniva, neneva, foolish, stupid, 
mad. 
Sa. : niniva, giddy, dizzy. 
The duplicity of form in Tahiti is suffi- 
cient warrant for the same duplicity in 
Rapanui. Pere Roussel has overdefined 
the word, a common result of his method 
from outside, and this has obscured the 
Rapanui signification. We lack data for 
a satisfactory comparison, but I venture 
upon the suggestion that this word de- 
scribes the situation of one who is not in 
perfect control of his faculties; he would 
recognize in himself the physical effect 
or condition as giddiness or dizziness, as 
in Samoan; his friends would characterize 
his actions as frenzied or any other of the 
hodful of meanings which P^e Roussel 
has been at pains to discover. 
no 1 of (na). 

no te mea, because (of the thing). 

no te ragi, celestial (of the sky). 

no ira, wherefore (of that). 

P Pau.: no, of, belonging to. Mgv., Ta. : 

no, of. Mq.: no, of, for, on. 

no 2 intensive. 

hakapee no kai hoao, abundance. 
riva no iti, convalescence. 
haga no iti, to plot mischief. 
hare itiiti no, hut. 
no mai intensive, spontaneously. 
tuhi no mai, to accuse. 
hiri tahaga no mai, to go on without 

stopping. 
topa tahaga no mai, wholly unexpected. 
Mgv.: noa, wholly, entirely, without 
end. Mq. . no, wholly, entirely. 
no 3 exclusive, unique, that and naught else. 
gutu no, vain words. 
noho no, stay-at-home, apathy. 
Mgv. : noa, to do nothing else, without 
others, unique. 
noa 1 though, although. 

Pau., Mgv.: noa, id. 
noa 2 intensive. 

e kore noa, never. 

garo noa, to go on forever. 



234 



EASTER ISLAND. 



noa 2 — continued. 

a muri noa atu, never. 
uru noa, to enter deeply. 
Mgv.: noa, wholly, entirely, without 
end, to do nothing else, without 
others, unique. Mq.: noa, very, 
greatly, enough. 
noa 3 common, ordinary. 

noa ki te mau, impartial. 
P Pau. : noa, single, simple, spontaneous. 
Mq. : noa, simply, accidentally. 
Ta. : noa, common, simple. 
noa 4 negative. 

mou noa, to endure. 
nohea where? 

noho seat, bench, dwelling, marriage, posi- 
tion, posture, situation, session, 
sojourn; to sit, to dwell, to reside, 
to rest, to halt, to inhabit (kano- 
cho Q). 
noho hahatu, to sit cross-legged. 
noho hakahaga, apathy. 
noho heenua, countryman. 
noho kaiga, native. 
noho kenu, married. 
noho he noho ke, to change place. 
noho muri, to stay behind. 
noho noa, invariable. 
noho opata, to stand on a cliff. 
noho pagaha, badly placed. 
noho pepe, table. 

noho tahaga, bachelor, unmarried. 
noho vie, married. 

noho no, apathy, stay-at-home, col- 
onist, idler, inhabitant, inactive, 
immobile, settler, lazy, loiterer. 
hakanoho to abolish, to rent, to lease, 
to enslave, to dissuade, to exclude, 
to exempt, to install, to substitute, 
hostage. 
hakanohohia stopped. 
P Pau. : noho, to dwell, to reside, to rest. 
Mgv.: noho, to sit, to remain, to 
dwell. Mq.: noho, to sit, to dwell, 
to reside, to remain, to abstain 
from, to be married. Ta.: noho, 
to sit, to remain, to dwell. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 259.) 
nohookotahi isolated. 

hakanohookotahi id. 
nohoga seat. 
P Mgv. : nohoga, a seat, chair, action of 
sitting down. Mq.: nohona,nohoka, 
seat, chair. 
nohoturi to kneel, genuflexion. 
nohovaega to preside. 
nohue ape-fish T. 

Mgv.: nohu, a fish with poisonous spines. 
Mq.: nohu, a small fish. Ta.: 
nohu, a fish with a spine whose 
prick is very dangerous. 
noi to bend down toward the ground, to bow 
down, to worship. 
hakanoi to prostrate oneself. 
nokinoki concave. 



noku 1 mine. 

Mq.: no'u, id. Ta.: nou, id. 
(noku 2) hakanoku to hide, partial, par- 
tiality. 
nokunoku throat. 
noma succulent. 

nomanoma delicate, sweet, a dainty. 
mea nomanoma, to delight. 
P Pau.: momona, odor, savor. Mgv.: 
momona, grease, fat. Mq. : momona, 
exquisite, delicious, fat meat. Ta. : 
momona, sweet, sugar, delicious. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 281.) 
The metathesis (cab5 type) in asso- 
ciating noma with momona entails no 
difiiculty upon the Poljnaesian. 
nonoi to implore, to beg from house to 
house, to make a plea, to petition. 
nonoi pogeha, to beg with insistence. 
nonoi tae hakama, to beg shamelessly. 
nonoihaga petition. 
P Pau.: nonoi, to exact, to require. Mgv.: 
inoi, to demand. Mq. : noi, nonoi, 
inoi, to beg, to solicit. 
The use of i in Mangareva and Mar- 
quesas inoi is a peculiarity repeated in 
Maori, and, so far as we may judge, pro- 
duces no effect upon the sense; equaUy with- 
out effect this augment i is noted in irere 
and iloko, which in nowise differ from the 
sense of rere and toko. 
noona him. 
nua cloak T (inua Q). 
nuehine old woman. 
nui 1 grave, serious. 

nui 2 great, large, numerous, famous, not- 
able, prosperous. 
nui atu, greater. 
nui tahaga, superabundant. 
hakanui to grow, to enlarge, to aug- 
ment, to multiply. 
nuia to prosper. 
nuiga greatness, generality, quantity. 

nuiga tagata, population. 
nuinui great, large. 
manava nuinui, appetite. 
maga nuinui, to bolt the food. 
nuinui ke, wild, numerous. 
nuinuia to grow. 
hakanuinui to amplify. 
nunui great, considerable, plump, enor- 
mous, extreme, fame, famous, con- 
spicuous. 
nunui ke, immense. 
nunuiga intense, intensity. 
hakanunui to exaggerate. 
P Mgv., Mq. : nui, great, large, numer- 
ous. Ta.: nui, great. 
Not appearing in Nuclear Polynesia save 
in Samoa, even there in no great use, nui 
is preferably assigned to the Tongafiti. 
(nuka) hakanukanuka to disdain, 
(nuko) hakanukonuko irony. 
nunu thin. 

nunupaka id. 
nuu bile. 



RAPANUI-ENGIvISH VOCABULARY. 



235 



O 1 lai 0, rippling water. 

(Compare, in some sea sense — Mgv. : akao, 
a narrow arm of the sea, to throw 
stones into the water in order to 
drive fish into a net.) 
o 2 of. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: o. of. 
o 3 a verb sign. 

o mua, at first. 

ina o nei, to be away (not-being-here). 
oa oa atikea, ignorant, not to know. 
oaha actual. 

oaha mai, without consequences. 
oe 1 thou. 

P Pau., Mgv. : koe, id. Mq. : oe, koe, id. 
Ta.: oe, id. 
oe 2 dorsal fin (cf. ae, one, sword). 
oeoe 1 to be lame. 

Ha. : oi, to limp, to walk stiffly. 
oeoe 2 (hoe 2). 
ogaa nest. 
ogahea when. 

Ta. : nafea, nahea, id. Sa. : anafea, id. 
oganeira a little while ago, earlier to-day, 
instant, presently. 
Sa. : analeila, earlier to-day. 
ogapo last night. 

Ta.: inapo, id. Sa. : anapo, id. 
Oge hunger, dearth, famine, hungry. 

P Pau. : hoge, scarcity, dearth, hungry. 
Mgv. : oge, hunger, famine, hungry. 
Mq.: one, oke, id. Ta. : oe, id. 
The Proto-Samoan carried the initial 
aspirate, as shown by hoge in Tonga, Uvea, 
and Nine; thus Paumotu derives from 
Nuclear Polynesia directly. 
Ohio iron, steel, chain, gold coin T (hiohio 2, 
iho 4). 
Ohio gagau, ohio haha, bit (of bridle). 
ohio raparapa, tin. 
ohio tagataga, hinge. 
ivi ohio, needle. 
toto ohio, rust. 

hakamau ei ohio, to put in irons. 
ohiohio whirlwind, waterspout. 
PS Ta. : pTiahiohio, waterspout. 
Sa. : asiosio, id. To. : ahiohio, id. Fu. : 
asiosio, id. Nine: hiohio, id. 
ohititika to go in various directions. 
oho 1 to delegate. 

rava oho, to root. 
oho 2 to go , to keep on going, to walk, to 
depart, to retire. 
ka oho, begone, good-bye (koomai R. 

kohomai T). 
oho amua, to precede. 
oho mai, to come, to bring. 
oho arurua, to sail as consorts. 
hakaoho to send, a messenger. 
oho 3 tehe oho te ikapotu, to abut, adjoin. 

mei nei tehe i oho mai aiineite ikapotu, 

as far as, to. 
kai oho, to abstain, to forego. 
hakaoho to put on the brakes. 
oho 4 the head (only in the composite 
rauoho hair). 



ohoa 1 ku ohoa, absence, to keep out of the 

way. 
ohoa 2 moa ohoa, crow of cocks. (Cf. 00a.) 
Mq.: oho, the squeal of frightened 
swine, noise of fish when the seine 
is drawn. Ta. : aaoa, crow of cocks. 
ohogimai come here T (? hoki mai). 
ohu 1 a cry, a call, to speak in loud tones, 
to promulgate, to publish. 
ohuohu to applaud, a distant sound. 
ohu 2 to fence. 
ohu 3 ear ornament Q. 
oi 1 to approach, draw near. 

oi atu, to make room, begone. 
hakaoi to toss about. 

hakaoi mai, close by, near at hand. 
Mgv. : oi, to approach, to draw near, to 
move, to shift place. 
oi 2 to pull up, to uproot, to devastate, 

to weed, to take out. 
oira (o ira). 

oka digging stick, stake, joist; to prick, to 
pierce, to stick a thing into, to 
drive into, to slaughter, to assas- 
sinate. 
kona oka kai, plantation. 
pahu oka, a drawer. 
okaoka a fork, to prick, to dig. 
okahia to prick. 
P Pau. : hoka, to pierce ; eoka, a fork. Mgv. : 
oka, a digging stick, to spear. Mq. : 
oka, a rafter, fork, to let blood, to 
slaughter, to pierce, to introduce 
into. 
The Proto-Samoan stem was hoka (as 
in Tonga and Niue hoka, by normal muta- 
tion Viti dhoka) which proves in this item 
a direct dependence of Paumotu upon 
Nuclear Polynesia. 
oko 1 hard, grievous, important, difficult. 
mea oko, difiicult. 

oko ke, considerable, hard to under- 
stand, grave. 
okooko ke important. 
Mgv. : oko, strong, solid, firm, hard, ob- 
stinate. Mq. : oko, strong, robust, 
courageous. 
oko 2 ripe. 

huaa tae oko, green fruit, tmripe. 
Mgv. : oko, ripe. 
oko 3 sign of distributive numerals. 

Ma. : hoko, id. 
okooko to pamper, to fondle. 

PS Sa. : o'oo'o, to visit a sick person. 

This is picturesquely human. The prim- 
itive sense is clearly preserved in Rapanui, 
the Samoan retains it only in a specific 
instance which exhibits a character of that 
people in marked and kindly contrast to 
the indifference of the race generally to 
the sick. 
okorua {oko 3--rua i) to aid, to associate, to 
be two together. 
mo okorua, to associate, to accompany. 
hiriga okorua, to go by twos. 
piri okorua, a couple. 



236 



EASTER ISLAND. 



okorua — continued. 

Mgv. : okorua, to replace another, to 
act as substitute. 
okotahi {oko 3-tahi) alone, by oneself, single, 
lonely. 
kai okotahi, to eat without waiting for 
others. 
omo rima onto, infidelity, faithless, unfaith- 
ful. 
omoomo to smack the lips, to suck the 
breast, to smoke tobacco, to taste 
of (one Q). 
hakaomoomo to. suckle, to pant. 
Pau.: omooOTo, to suck. Mgv-: omoomo, 
omo, to suck; akaomo, to suckle. 
Mq. : omo, to suck, to pump, to 
smoke a pipe, to inhale, to swallow 
up. 
one sword. (Cf. oe, dorsal fin; d,i, sword.) 

Ta. : 66, sword, lance. 
one I six. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: ono, id. 
one 2 to pull one another about. 
00 (oho). 
00a cry, noise of a child. (Cf. ohoa.) 

Ta.: 00, borborygmus. 
oohia absurd. 
ooku mine. 
oona his. 

oone sand, clay, dirt, soil, mire, mud, muck, 
gravel, filth, manure, dust, to dirty. 
ao oone, shovel. 
egu oone vekuveku, mud. 
moo ie oone, shovel. 
oone hekaheka, mud. 
puo ei oone, to daub. 
kerihaga oone, husbandman. 
oone veriveri, mud. 
oone no, muck, to dirty, to powder. 
vai oone, roiled water. 
oone rari, marsh, swamp, 
oonea dirty T. 
ooneoone sandy. 
oonevai clay T. 
hakaoone to pollute, to soil. 
P Mgv. : one, land in general, earth, soil. 
Mq. : one, sand, beach. Ta.: one, 
sand, dust, gravel. (The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, 250.) 
ootea noon. 
T Mgv.: avatea, noon, afternoon. Ta.: 
avatea, noon, from 10 to 3. Ma.: 
awatea, noon. Ha. : awakea, id. 
PS Mq.: oatea, day; oatea nui, noon. Sa.: 
oatea, noon. 
ootu 1 to draw up, to take. 
ootu 2 to cook. 

toe ootu, ill cooked. 
hakaootu to cook in an oven. 
oou you, thou. 

opata perpendicular, vertical, cliff, precipice, 
promontory, path among rocks. 
noho opata, to stand on a cliff. 
Mgv. : opata, the end of a piece of land 
at the foot of a mountain. Mq.: 
opata, cliff, precipice. 
opatatai shore. 



opeope spiritless, to waste away, to fast, to 
be hungry. 
T Mq.: hopi, infirm, ill. Ta.: hopii, the 
falling sickness. Ma. : hopi, to be 
afraid, faint-hearted. 
ora 1 December, January. 

ora nui, November, October, 
ora 2 to live, to exist, to draw breath, to sur- 
vive, to subsist, to be well, healthy, 
safe, to refresh, a pause, rest, ease. 
e ko ora, incurable. 
ora tuhai, previous existence. 
ora iho, to resuscitate, to revive. 
ora nui, vigorous. 
oraga life, existence. 

oraga roaroa, oraga roaroa ke, oraga 

ina kai mou, immortality. 
oraga kore, lifeless. 
oraga mau, oraga ihoiho, vivacious. 
oraora oraora no iti, to be better. 
hakaora to draw breath, to revive, to 
strengthen, healthy, to sanctify, to 
animate, to save, to repose, to cure, 
to rest, to comfort, to assuage. 
hakaora ina kai mou, to immortalize. 
hakaoratagata Messiah, Saviour. 
P Pau., Mgv., Ta. : ora, life, health. 

This is essentially Tongafiti despite its 
presence in Samoa and Nine. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 259.) 
ora 3 to give water to. 

kua ora te kevare, to water a horse. 
hakaunu ora, to water. 
ora 4 to staunch, to stop the flow of a liquid. 
ora S to make an escape. 

hakaora to discharge, to deliver, to set 
free. 
P Pau. : fakaora, to set free. Mgv. : ora, 
to escape. Ta. : ora, to be set free. 
ora 6 to be awake (probably ara). 

hakaora to guard. 
ora 7 a zephyr, light wind. 

kona ora, a breezy spot. 
ahau ora, agreeable breeze. 
Mgv. : oraora, wind in the stomach. 
oriare miro oriare zigzag. 
(oriori) hakaoriori profanation. 
oroina to choke on a fish bone. 
orooro to whet, to sharpen (horo). 
P Mgv. : oro, to whet, to sharpen. Ta. : 
oro, to rasp, to grate. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 391.) 
oru (horu). 
oruga (ruga). 

(otaota) hakaotaota to slacken, to unbend, 

to crumble. 

P Pau. : Ota, residue. Mq. : ota, otaota, 

crumbs of kava, of coconut meat 

when grated and oil is expressed, 

wood dust which accumulates in 

plowing fire, ashes of a pipe. Ta. : 

ota, chaff, refuse. (The Polynesian 

Wanderings, 207.) 

This is found in Nuclear Polynesia, 

Southeast Polynesia, Maori and Hawaii. 

It is not reported from languages which 

we may regard as uncontaminated Tonga- 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



237 



(otaota) hakaotaota — continued, 
fiti; if it be really absent therefrom the use 
in Maori and Hawaii will interpose no 
insuperable obstacle to regarding it as 
Proto-Samoan. 

otu hill T. 

otua younger. 

ouo ? e ouo, to smoke T {?eoeo). 

pa 1 a wall, palisade, parapet, rampart, 
obstruction, fortification, fence, 
hedge, to enclose. 
pa varikapau, fence, to inclose. 
titi hi te pa, to enclose. 
P Pau. : pa, a rampart, bulwark. Mgv. : 
pa, a wall, hedge. Mq.: pa, a 
fence, barricade, palisade, any 
obstacle, to close, to inclose, to 
shut. Ta. : pa, a fence, fortifica- 
tion, palisade, wall, hedge. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 274.) 
pa 2 garden, park, inclosure. 

Mgv. : pa, an inclosure, a fenced place. 
(pa 3) hakapa aggregation, to double, to 
graft, to confederate, to league. 
hiriga hakapa, to go two by two. 
P Mgv. : pa, rows of men in many ranks. 
Sa. : patagata, a number of persons 
standing side by side. Ha. : pa, a 
pair. 
This seems to me better to explain the 
Samoan patagata which Pratt under- 
stands as "a wall of men. " He is misled 
by the metaphor of "steadily shoulder 
to shoulder, steadily blade by blade;" 
Samoan bush fighters have no knowledge 
of the elbow touch of the bravely fighting 
old brigade. 
pa 4 to preside. 
paa childless, sterile, barren. 
paa migomigo, barren. 
P Pau., Mgv., Ta. : pa, sterile. 
paatai salt, salty. 

hirohiro ei paatai, to salt. 
Mq. : padtai, salt, sponge. 
pae 1 enough. 
pae 2 division of a subject (paiga). 

Pau. : paega, a party, a side. Ta. : pae, 
division, part. 
pae 3 threshold, sill, joist. 

P Ta. : pae, sill, joist. 
pae 4 to exhaust, to finish, past. 
e ko pae, impregnable. 
hakapae to exhaust, to finish, to end, 
to execute, to accomplish, to con- 
clude, to consummate, to consume, 
to achieve, to acquit. 
paea 1 enough, past. 
paea 2 to decay, to waste away. 

paea tooa, to deprive. 
paega foundation. 
paepae pavement, plank, canoe. 

hakapaepaetolay planks, to floor. 

P Pau. : paepae, a raft. Mgv. : paepae, a 

pavement, to lay up stones with 

regularity in a wall. Mq. : paepae, 

elevated pavement on which the 



paepae — continued. 

house is built. Ta.: paepae, pave- 
ment, raft. 
The pavement sense alone is that which 
is common to the two migrations. As the 
designation of a canoe the word occurs 
only in Rapanui, Paumotu, and Tahiti; 
tantalizingly near is a sense of pae as to 
float, to drift, found in Tonga, Maori, 
Tahiti, Hawaii, Mangareva, but it does 
not seems associable. For comparison 
with this canoe paepae I note paopao in 
the same sense in Samoa, Niue, Futuna, 
, with no known congeners. 
paero all, total, totality, to sweep off all. 
pagaha 1 tattooing on the ears. 
pagaha 2 grievous, hard to bear, to afilict, 
to sadden, to displease, to fatigue, 
to harass, to oppress, painful, 
heavy (panghi, heavy T.) 
pagaha ki te ToMrake, remorse. 
hakapagaha to chagrin, to disquiet, to 
molest, to harm, to offend, to op- 
press, to torture, to torment. 
PS Sa. : pagd, trouble, distress. 

The Proto-Samoan stem is pagahat. 
After abrasion of the final t and the dis- 
appearance of the aspirate characteristic 
of the modern stage of Samoan, pagaa by 
a common crasis becomes paga. 
pagupagu pump. 
paha 1 boar (probably a borrowing). 

Ta. : paha, id. 
paha 2 to exhale an odor. 
pahae rent, tear. 

Mq. : nehae, kehai, to tear, a rent. Ta. : 

pahae, to tear. 
The comparable element is hae, the pre- 
face is formative. 
pahe like, as. 
pahera tortoise shell. 
pahia hot, to sweat, to perspire. 

pahia ke, to fatigue. 
pahora to expand. 

pahu a trough, barrel, cask, cradle, drum, 
chest, box. 
pahu nut, a kettle. 
pahu oka, a drawer. 
pahu papaku, co£Bn. 
pahu rikiriki, sheath. 
pahu viriviri, hogshead. 
pahupahu box. 
P Mgv., Ta.: pahu, a drum. Mq.: pahu, 
a drum, a large cylindrical con- 
tainer. (To.: hahu, a hollow tree 
set in water as a filter.) 
Sa. : pusa, a box. To. : buha, id. Fu. : 
pusa, id. Niue: puha, id. Pau.: 
puha, id. 
pahuahi lantern, beacon. 
pahukumi closet, cupboard. 
pahupopo a mould. 

pahupopokai cupboard for food. 
pahure 1 to sweep everything away. 
pahu re 2 to wound, to lacerate, scar, bruise, 
lesion, sore. 
pahurehure to wound, to scratch. 



238 



EASTER ISI.AND. 



pahure 2 — continued. 

hakapahure to wound. 
T Pau. : pahure, to be skinned; pahore, to 
peel ofiF, to scale. Mgv. : pahore, 
to cut, to chop, to slice. Ta. : 
pahore, to flay, to skin. 
paiga article, subject, chapter, division of a 
subject, phrase, part, portion (pae). 
paiga iti, paragraph. 
paiga nui, majority. 
paiga no tera tagata, intermediary. 
paigahare apartment, room. 
paihega dog T. 
paihi rent, tear. 

Ta. : paihi, to root up, to exterminate, 
(paiku) hakapaiku to cook in the oven. 

(? Eng.: bake). 
paka 1 crust, scab, scurf. 
paka rerere, cancer. 
pakapaka crust, scabby. 
P Pau.: paka, crust, cake, dry exterior, 
scab. Mgv. : paka, a crust, a cake, 
a scale, shell, pieces of flat wood 
like shingles, a cutaneous disease, 
scab, scurf. Mq. : paha, a crust, 
splinter. Ta. : paa, a crust, scale, 
barrel hoop. 
paka 2 calm, still. 
paka 3 intensive. 

vera paka, scorching hot. 
marego paka, bald. 
nunu paka, thin. 
paka 4 to arrive, to come. 
paka 5 to be eager. 
paka 6 to absorb. 
paka 7 shin T. 

pakahera calabash, shell, jug. 
T Ma. : paka, a bowl. Ha. : paka, a flat 
calabash. — 

pakahia to clot, curdle, coagulate. 
pakakina 1 breakers, to break into pieces, 
to shiver. 
hakapakakina to snap, to crack. 
Pau.: pakapakakina, to crackle; paka^ 
kina, noise, battle. Mgv.: paka- 
kina, to crack, to make a noise as of 
striking or breaking. Mq.: paka- 
kina, pakaina, crackling under the 
teeth. 
pakakina 2 to shoot T. 
pakakina 3 to run to. 

pakakina ki raro, to fall by drops. 
pakapakakina to go boldly, to run, swift, 
to be eager, active, beating of the 
pulse. 
pakakina 4 diligent. 

pakapaka dry, arid, scorching hot, cooked 
too much, a desert, to fade away, 
to roast, a cake, active. 
toto pakapaka, coagulated blood. 
hakapakapaka to dry, to broil, to 

toast. 
Mq. : paka, dry, desiccated. Ta. : paa- 
paa, dry, burnt. 
pakeke effrontery. 
pakete bucket. 



pakiroki thin, lean, meager. 

hakapakiroki squat. 
(pakiu) hakapakiu to cook in the oven 

(paiku). 
pakoa peu pakoa, an axe with a poor helve. 
pakoga bay T. 
pakuki to run away, to escape. 

ka too e ka pakuki, to take and run 
away with. 
pakuku to move, to stagger, to wallow. 
pakupaku anguish, to shake. 
panene to boil. 

panepane sharp, edge of a sword. 
pao to cut off, to throw a lance. 
Ta. : paofai, to throw stones. 
paoa to steal, to rob. 

paoa kaitagata, cannibal, savage. 
tagata paoa, cannibal. 
Mgv.: paoa, poor, vagabond. 
paoga forearm T. 
pacha club Q. 

paopao spade, shovel, rubbish, to lacerate, 
to have a quarrel with. 
T Pau. : paopao, to perforate. Mq.: pao- 
pao, an adze. Ta. : pao, to exca- 
vate, dig, lacerate. 
papa shoulderblade. 

P Pau. : papa, rock, shoulder-blade. Mgv. : 
papa, a plank, flat rock. Mq.: 
/>a^a, flat, plate. Ta.: ^o^o, plank, 
bench, rock, shoulder-blade. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 325.) 
The germ sense is breadth and flatness. 
With this in mind the specification of par- 
ticulars need not interrupt the recognition 
of sense concord throughout. 
papa pope. 
papaa tanuga papaa, tomb. 

Mq.: papa, a long plank on which 
corpses are laid to dry. 
papae barrier, to close. 

P Sa. : pae-aso, small rafters of a house. 
To.: bae, a dam, a sill, anything 
which prevents the rolling or mov- 
ing of other matters. Viti: bai, a 
fence around a garden. 
papaka rua papaka, a ditch. 
papaki Portuguese man-o'-war. 
papakina waves which surge, disturbance, 

to precede. 
papaki no northerly and westerly winds of 

ill force T. 
papakona thigh. 
papaku to weaken, dead, dying, corpse. 

hakarivariva papaku, will, testament. 
pahu papaku, coffin. 
rua papaku, grave. 
tanuga papaku, funeral. 
P Pau. : tupapaku, corpse. Mgv. : tupa- 
paku, a sick person, a corpse; pa- 
paku, a funeral where the corpse is 
not present. Mq. : tupapaku, tupa- 
pall, sick, dying, dead, corpse. Ta. : 
tupapau, corpse, specter. 
papakuia in a hurry, haste. 
papapapa a chill, cold, to shiver, to tremble, 
to shudder. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



239 



paparaha a flat stone (paraha). 
papatema baptism. 
pavau to bend back (of sugar canes). 
papekoo cemetery T (? papaku). 
para 1 a short club T. 

Mq. : parahua, a paddle-shaped club. 
para 2 to become bad, to soften, to decay, 
to rot, to ripen, old, used up. 
niho para, decayed teeth. 
para rakerake, overripe, 
toe para, unripe. 
hakapara to mellow. 
P Mgv. : para, ripe, mature; akapara,. to 
ripen, to improve morally. Mq.: 
pad, ripe, soft, overripe, rotten, old, 
used up. Ta. : para, ripe. 
The germ sense is that of softness to the 
touch, the; variety in the meanings is not 
that of deviation but the particularization 
of the degree of such softness. 
para 3 spleen. 
paraha flat. 

paraha rima, palm of the hand. 
Mgv. : paraha, to sit down on the ground 
with the legs thrust out, to lie down 
on the stomach, to brood as a hen. 
Mq. : padha, flat, squashed. 
parapara paper, card. 
pararaha flat, sole Q. 

korae pararaha, wide brow. 
pararaha rima, palm of the hand. 
pararaha vae, sole of the foot. 
pararuga dried fruit. 
parau to speak T, to talk T. 

PS Pan.: parau, to speak. Mq. : peau, 
to say, to talk. Ta. : parau, word, 
speech, to speak, converse, dis- 
course, book. 
To.: halau, to babble. So.: lalau, to 
make a speech. (Ma.: parau, a 
V lie, falsehood. Ha.: palau, id.) 

parehe to break, a crack. 
,J^arei 1 dressed up {pare). 
^ parei 2 to sparkle (of the eyes). 
parera 1 a shallow, a reef. 
parera 2 deep water, profound, gulf. 
parera tai, deep sea. 
tai parera, high tide. 
hohonu parera, fathomless, unsound- 
able. 
parera 3 to lead astray. 

hakaparera to frighten, to scare. 
pareu skirt, apron. 

Mgv., Mq., Ta. : pareu, loincloth, apron. 
pari wave breaking on shore. 

vai pari, a wave high up on the beach. 
paripari tai paripari, a squall. 
Mgv. : pari, a wave, breaker, a wave 
that strikes upon a rock and breaks 
into foam witii a noise. 
paru to boast, to brag. 
parue throw away T Q. 
patara to loosen, to unchain, to release. 
hakapatara to unite, to release, to set 

free, to unfold. 
Ta.: tatara, to untie, to set free, to 
unloose. 



pateriareka patriarch. 
pati blister, wart, dropsy. 
patiga blister. 
patoketoke to be unsteady. 
patu 1 to abandon, to throw away, to quit, 
to omit; to unclothe, to let down 
the hair. 
pati ki te kahu, to undress. 
patu toona rake, immodest. 
Mq. : patu, to throw from one place to 
another, to throw with the fingers. 
Ta. : patu, to throw away. 
patu 2 to come into leaf, to unfold. 
patu 3 to lead away, to turn aside, to dodge. 

patu mai, to lead to, to bring. 
patupatu page. 

(pau 1) ? hakapau to pierce (cf. takapau, 
to thrust into). 
Pau.: pau, a cut, a wound, bruised, 
black and blue. 
pau 2 resin. 

Mq. : e^aMn resin. Ta. : tapau, gum, 
pitch, reSin. 
(paupau) hakapalipau«erimace, irony, to 

grin. \. 

paura, gunpowder. Y 

pava 1 peace, to cease from wrath. 
pava noa, peace. 
hakapava to make peace, to pacify, to 
persuade. 
pava 2 yellow T. 
pe 1 like, as. 

PS Mgv.: pe, as, the same as, also. 
Sa. : pei, like, as. Niue: pehe, thus. 
pe 2 and, also (in numerals). 

e rua te hagahuru pe aha, twenty-four. 
PS Sa. : pe, a restrictive particle in count- 
ing, only. To.: he, only. Uvea: 
pe, id. 
I am more than doubtful as to this iden- 
tification, for the particle is conjunctive 
in Rapanui and restrictive throughout 
Nuclear Polynesia. But the fact that it 
is in each case a particle used in numera- 
tion shows that there exists some inter- 
relation between the two regions in which 
alone it is found. 
peaha perhaps, about, possibly, maybe, 
chance, doubtful. 
reoreo peaha, unlikely, improbable. 
Ma. : pea, perhaps. 
peapea an erasiure, scratch. 

hakapeapea to efface, to erase. 
peata saint. 
peau to sweep all away. 

Ma. : peau, to be turned away. 
(pe6) hakapel no kai hoao, abundance. 
pegopego compact, thick, stuffed, bushy. 
hakapegopego thickness, to thicken, to 
put a burden on. 
pehea how. 

P Mgv. : peea, how, in what manner, how 
many. Mq.: pehea, peheka, how, 
why, who, what. Ta.: pehea, how. 
pei like, as. 

pei ra, thus, like that; such, the same 
as. 



240 



EASTER ISLAND. 



pei — continued. 

pet na, thus, like that. 
pei ra ta matou, proverb. 
pei ra hoki, likeness, similitude. 
pei ra tau, system. 
pei ra hoki ta matou, usage. 
PS Sa.: pei, thus. 

This is particularly interesting as pre- 
serving one of the primordial speech ele- 
ments. It is a composite, pe as, and i a 
demonstrative expressive of that which is 
immediate within sight ; therefore the locu- 
tion signifies clearly as-this. 
peka 1 100,000 T. 
peka 2 a cross. 

pekapeka curly. 

pekapekavae instep T. (? shoelaces.) 
hakapeka to cross. 
hakapekapeka to interlace, lattice. 
TMgv.: peka, a cross, athwart, across; 
pepeka, thick, only said of a num- 
ber of shoots or sprouts in a close 
bunch. Mq. : peka, a cross, dense 
thicket. Ta.: pea, across. 
peke to succeed, to foUow. 

Pau.: peke, to follow, to accompany. 
Ta.: pee, to follow. 
pena strap, thong, bridle, girth, suspenders. 
pena hakamau, bridle. 
pena hakagau, bit. 
hakaihoiho ki te pena, to gird up. 
PS Sa.: petia, a snare, noose. To.: pena, 
to mend nets. 
That which runs through all these 
variants is the cord sense, therefore we 
regard Rapanui as preserving the primi- 
tive which persists in Samoa and Tonga 
only in specific uses. 
penetuli paint {peinture). 
peni paint. 

peni akui, paint. 
pepe 1 a sketch. 

pepe 2 bench, chair, couch, seat, sofa, saddle. 
here pepe, man pepe, to saddle. 
noho pepe, tabouret. 
pepepepe bedstead. 
pepeke lean, weak, effeminate, without 
energy, feeble, incapable, infirm, 
invalid, coward, sluggish, bewil- 
dered. 
Pau.: pekepeke, lively, quick. Mgy.: 
pepeke, feeble, weak, bent with toil. 
Mq.; peepei, soft, light. Ta.: 
pepee, unstable, shifting place. 
pera to forbid (peraa). 

kai peraa mai, to forbid to eat. 
pere doleful, lugubrious. 
perehe cicatrice (plaie) (eperehe). 
perepitero priest. 

perigi a corpse wholly consumed, to fall in 
ruins, shedding, to fall in drops, to 
lose (hakaparigi, perigui R). 
hakaperigi to throw, to turn aside, to 
demolish, to pour out, to shed, to 
pass water, to spill, to empty. 
hakaperigi ke, to decant. 
vai hakaperigi, water over the head. 



peropero greedy. 

hakaperopero to famish, to starve. 
petehe a cut, incision. 

Mq.: petehe, to castrate, to cut up 
tobacco for smoking. 
peti wind in the belly, to blow. 
peu 1 axe, adze, mattock. 

pen pakoa, an axe poorly helved. 
peu 2 energy. 
peugo opaque (? peuga). 
peupeu I to groan. 

peupeu 2 to be affectionate, to grow tender. 
peupeuhaga friendship. 
Mq. : peihu, hadpeehu, pekehu, to make 
tender. 
peva to be in the habit of. 
pia arrowroot T. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : pia, id. Pau. : piapia, 
gum. Ma. : pia, gum of trees. 
Although the word is common to the 
two swarms of Polynesian migration it is 
found in Nuclear Polynesian only in Nine. 
This circumstance sheds an interesting 
light on the problems of the vanished 
words, see also arero. The stem pia has 
two significations, specifications of a basic 
idea plain enough to the Polynesian under- 
standing of what constitutes a generic 
character. In one sense it means semen, ^ 
in the other the arrowroot in preparation 
and fully prepared. In some rather recent 
period tie word masoa has been applied 
to arrowroot in Samoan and Futuna, 
mahoaa in Tonga, probably allied to 
masawe which in Viti is the edible root of 
the Cordyline. In Samoa pia still carries 
the arrowroot sense but is forbidden to use 
on the score of obscenity, a most effective 
principle in the speech of this race which 
in general is far more outspoken in inno- 
cence of thought than many races less 
modest in fact. Thus we are able to 
examine an instance of a word in the van- 
ishing, and as it sinks below the surface 
we may study the reason therefor. 
piere 1 a thousand, a great number. 
piere 2 resin (? Fr.: brat), 
piere hiva, tar, pitch. 
akui ei piere hiva, to tar. 
hakapierehiva to tar. 
pigei rump (pihaigi, piheigi). 
pigoa haunt, den, lair. 
pii to crush. 

hakapiipii id. 
pikea crab. 

piki to climb, to mount, to go up. 
piki aruga, to surpass. 
pikipiki to embark, to go aboard. 
hakapiki to climb. 
P Pau.: piki, to climb, to ascend, to 
mount. Mgv.: piki, to mount, to 
go up, to climb. Mq. : piki, pii, 
to mount, to dimb, to go aloft. 
Ta.: pii, to mount. 
Since this piki appears only in Samoa of 
Nuclear Polynesia it may be not improper 
to assign it to the Tongafiti migration. 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABUI.ARY. 



241 



pikiga ascent, steps, stairs. 

_Mgy.: />jfetga, a stair, ladder, step. 
pikipiki rauoho pikipiki, hair black and 
curly. 
P Pau.: tupikipiki, to curl, to frizzle. 
piko 1 post. 

moa tara piko, cock with long spurs. 
piko 2 crooked, tortuous. 

piko mai piko atu, sinuosity. 
hakapiko pliant, to bend. 
pikopiko crooked. 
hoe pikopiko, pruning knife. 
veo pikopiko, arrow that flies ill. 
P Pau.: piko, bent, twisted, sinuous. 
Mgv. : piko, crooked, twisted, false. 
Mq.: piko, crooked, bent. Ta.: 
pio, id. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 243.) 
piko 3 to hide oneself, to lie in wait, to set a 
trap, to take refuge, to withdraw, 
to beat a retreat, security, ambush, 
padlock. 
piko reoreo, false security. 
piko etahi, to withdraw one after an- 
other. 
pikoga asylum, receptacle, refuge, re- 
treat, snare. 
pine toto pine, bruise, contusion. 
piniku mesh. 

raraga piniku, to net. 
Mq. : piniku, veins of the coconut leaflet. 
pipi 1 to blanch, to etiolate. 
pipi 2 a spark, to sparkle. 
pipi 3 young branches, shoot, sprout, to bud. 

Mq. : pipi, tip of the banana blossom. 
pipi 4 snaU T, pea, bean. 

P Mgv. : pipi, small shellfish in the shape 
of a mussel. Mq.: pipi, generic 
term for shells. Ta. : pipi, generic 
term for beans. 
The change to a vegetable sense in 
Tahiti and Rapanui is inexplicable. In 
Rapanui we have both senses, but not 
from the same source of record. 
pipi 5 to boil with hot stones. 
pipi 6 a wave. 
pipi 7 thorn, spiny, uneven. 
pipi 8 small. 

haha pipi, small mouth. 
pipi 9 rump, the rear. 
pipine to be wavy, to undulate. 
pipu bowl R (? hipu). / 

pirari honey. / 

Mg^v. : pirari, honey or nectar pfnowers. 
Ta. : piapia, nectar of flowers. 
piri 1 with, and. / 

piri 2 a shock, blow. / 

piri 3 to stick close to, to^ apply oneself, 
starch. 
pipiri to stick, glue, gum. 
hakapiri plaster, to solder. 
hakapipiri to glue, to gum, to coat, to 

fasten with a seal. 
hakapipirihaga glue. 
P Pau. : piripiri, resin, glue. Mgv. : piri, 
to stick together. Mq.: pii, to 
glue. Ta.: piri, glue, viscous, to 



piri 3 — continued. 

adhere. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 289.) 
piri 4 to frequent, to join, to meet, to inter- 
view, to contribute, to unite, to be 
associated, neighboring (pire T.) 
piri mai, to come, to assemble, a com- 
pany, in a body, two together, in 
mass, indistinctly. 
piri okorua, a couple. 
piri putupulu, to frequent. 
piri mai piri atu, sodomy. 
piro iho, to be addicted to. 
pipiri to catch. 

hakapiri to join together, aggregate, 
adjust, apply, associate, equalize, 
graft, vise, join, league, patch, unite. 
P Pau.: piri, to adhere; piritaga, to ally 
oneself. Mq. : pii, to be attached, 
united, allied; hadpii, to frequent, 
to patch, to join, to border on. 
piria tagata piria, traitor. 
piriaro {piri 3-aro) singlet, undershirt. 

Ta. : piriaro, id. 
pirihaga to ally, affinity, league. 
piripou (piri 3-pou) trousers. 

Ta. : piripou, id. 
piriukona tattooing on the hands. 
piro poison. 

piro ekapua, wormeaten. 
pipiro fetid, gangrene, rot, rotten, 
putrid odor, decay, to putrify. 
haha pipiro, foul breath. 
toe pipiro, incorruptible. 
vai pipiro, stinking water. 
hakapipiro infection. 
P Pau.: piropiro, dirt, filth. Mgv.: piro, 
stench. Mq.: piro, pio, rotten, 
stinking. Ta.: piro, stench. 
The germ sense is clearly that of an 
obnoxious odor, the variety of the defini- 
tions here included arises from undue 
specification of that which is really a 
general description. ^ 

(piti) hakapiti to pull up, to collect, to lift 

up, to turn up. 
pito navel. 

P Pau., Mgv.: pilo, the navel; pitopito, 
button. Mq., Ta. : pito, navel. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 293.) 
po 1 darkness, night, late. 

po haha, dark night, gloom. 
P Pau. : po-tagotago, darkness. Mgv., Mq., 
Ta.: po, darkness, night. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 330.) 
po 2 calendar day. 

po e rua, Tuesday. 
po te tagata, life T. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: po, calendar day. 
poa shock, to strike, to blot, contagion. 

PS Sa. : po, to slap. Fu. : popo, id. 
poepoe canoe, dugout (paepae). 
Pau., Ta.: paepae, a raft. 
These canoe names suggest Proto- 
Samoan paopao (Samoa, Futuna, Niue); 
see paepae. 



242 



EASTER ISLAND. 



poga cartilage, nostril. 
PS Sa. : pogaiisu, nostril. 

Since the community of the two lan- 
guages Samoan has found it necessary to 
determine the sense of poga by particular- 
ization, pega-i-isu signifies the poga-in- 
the-nose. "'""^ ""' '"'"" 
pogeha to make a noise, to roar, to cry, to 
decry, to curse, to laugh uproar- 
iously, hubbub, tumult, to bluster, 
to prate, to cackle, to talk, head- 
strong, fastidious, impertinent, 
importunate, to give offense, impu- 
dent, insolent, insupportable, obsti- 
nate, rebellious, stubborn, to resist, 
to kick, to prevaricate, to trans- 

tariga pogeha, to disobey, to infringe. 
vie pogeha, a howling woman. 
hakapogeha to make a noise, to stir up 
anger. 
pohi fury T, rage T. 

manava pohi, contrition. 
kokoma hanohano manava pohi, to 
abhor. 
pohiuhiu boom (of a sail). 
pohurihuri (pouri). 
pohutu to disfigure. 

pohutua defaced. 
poihuihu bowsprit, prow. 

poihuihu miro, stern, poop. 
poki child, infant, nephew, grandchild, pos- 
terity, progeny, race. 
iopa te poki, to lie in. 
poki aana, legitimate. 
poki gaapu, abortion. 
poki itiiti, child. 
poki puepue, abortion. 
poki iamaahine, girl. 
poki tamaroa, boy. 
poki titika, legitimate. 
poki tuahuri, abortion. 
pokihaga childhood. 
PS Sa. : po'l, a name of contempt for a 
young man. 
The accented length of the ultima in 
Samoa po't and the imperfect sense accord 
make this identification of no great value. 
On the other hand it is to note that neither 
poki nor po'l is associated with any other 
known stem. 
poko 1 sound of the sea. 
tai poko, breakers. 
pokopoko to slap water. 
Mgv.: pokokina, resonant, clear-toned. 
Mq.: poko, to slap the water in 
imitation of drumming; pokokina, 
sound of water. 
poko 2 rut, beaten path. 

P Pau.: poko, hollow; pokopoko, concave, 
to excavate. Mgv.: poko, to dig, 
to excavate, to hollow out. Mq. : 
pokoko, to crack open; pokona, to 
hollow out, to excavate. Ta.: 
poopoS, hollow, deep. 
poko 3 infernal. 

pokoga hell, infernal, cave. 



poko 3 — continued. 

topa ki te pokoga, to damn (lit: go 
down to hell.) 
Mq. : pokona, cavity, hole. 
pokoo 1 toothache. 

Mq.: pokona, caries. 
pokoo 3 to unsheathe, to draw out. 

pokoo mai, to arrive. 
pokopoko 1 womb. 

PS Sa.: po'opo'o, clitoris. Mq.: poko- 
poko, pudendum muliebre. 
pokopoko 2 pokopoko vae, footprints. 
pokopoko 3 concave, deep, ditch, mys- 
terious. 
pokopoko ihu, nostril (Ta.: po6po6 

ihu). 
pokopoko ke, fathomless. 
pokopoko taheta, concave. 
hakapokopoko to deepen. 
pokupoku to overthrow, to capsize. 
(ponoko) hakaponoko monkey, grimace. 
poopo whitebait T. 

Mgv. : popo, fry of the fish arua. Mq. : 
popo, a small fish, fry of the uua. 
popo 1 waves which strike one another. 
P Pau. : po-karakara, to strike the hands 
together. Mgv.: po-kara, to clap 
the hands loudly and gently in 
alternation. Ta.: /)o/>o, to clap the 
hands. 
popo 2 to wrap up, to bundle, to preserve, 
to put in safety. 
Pau. : hakapopo, to make into a ball. 
Mgv.: popo, to take care of a fish 
net. 
popohaga morning. 

popohaga atatehe, id. 
Mq.: popoui, id. 
popokai (popo 2-kai 4) hare popokai, store- 
house. 
popopopo to deteriorate. 
P Mgv. : popopopo, entirely rotten, de- 
cayed. Mq.: popo, worm-eaten, 
decayed. 
poporakau (popo 2-rakau 2) store, ware- 
house. 
poporo a berry whose juice is mixed with 
ashes of ti leaves in tattooing. 
Ta. : oporo, a capsicum plant. 
The Tahiti oporo is not a degradation of 
poporo but is tiie original poro stem aug- 
mented by that which in Tahiti is word- 
formative in a sense too elusive to find 
expression in European ideas. 
poporohiva milk thistle T. 
popoto (poto). 
Ijoraa j(^(^2-roa 2) day. 
poireliio to lie in, to give birth, to procreate, 
to be bom, to bear, birtii. 
poreko hakahou (iho) to be bom again. 
poki poreko iho, new-born infant. 
porekoa bom. 

porekohaga nativity, a brood, a litter. 
porekoreko fecund. 
poremo abstinence. 
poripori I negro. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



243 



poripori 2 rounded wood. 

Mgv. : pori, to bend into a bow or arch ; 
aia^ofj, bent, curved. Mq. : poriri, 
circumference, circle, round, ring. 
poro to notch. 

PS Sa.: polo, to cut up, to carve. 
porohata to sink into ruin, to crumble. 
poroieko to slip, to slide. 
porokimo next (proximus). 
porotetani Protestant. 
potaka cart, wagon. 

hakapotaka to cart. 
T Pau. : potaka, round, oval. Ta. : potad, 
id. Mgv.: potaka, a wheel, to go 
round. 
poti boat. 

Mgv., Mq., Ta. : poti, boat, canoe. 
The Mgv. tipoti, a small trough, and 
Maori poti, a basket, lead Mr. Tregear to 
the note that this may be not an impor- 
tation. 
poto short, concise, laconic, summary, pres- 
ently. 
polo no, moment, provisional. 
poto noa, concise. 
tagata poto, a dwarf. 
ava poto, a short distance. 
popoto laconic. 
potopoto short. 
hakapoto to decrease, to shorten, 

summary. 
hakapotopoto to abridge, to contract. 
P Pau.: hakapoto, to shorten. Mgv.: 
poto, short; akapoto, to shorten, to 
abridge, to diminish, to lessen. 
Mq.: poto, short. Ta. : poto, id. 
potu end, tip. 
potupotu cockroach. 

Mq.: popotu, id. Ta. : popoti, id. 
pou column, post, pillar. 

P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta. : pou, id. 
pouri darkness. 

pohurihuri gloom. 
hare pohurihuri, prison, jail. 
puru ki te hare pohurihuri, to im- 
prison. 
P Pau.: hakapouri, to hide the view. 
Mgv.: pouri, obscurity, darkness. 
Ta.: pouri, obscurity, darkness, 
ignorant. 
pouro they T. 
pu 1 a trumpet. 

P Mgv. : pu, a marine shell. Mq. : pu, 
conch shell. Ta. : pu, shell, trumpet. 
pu 2 a small opening, hole, mortise, stirrup, 
to pierce, to perforate, to prick. 
pu moo noa, hiding place. 
tahela pu, fountain, spring. 
hakapu to dowel, to pierce, to per- 
forate. 
PS Sa., Fu., Nine: pu, a hole. 
pua I flower, ginger, soap. 
pua mouku, grass. 
P Pau.: pua, a flower. Mgv.: pua, a 
flower, turmeric, starchy matter of 
the turmeric and hence soap. Mq. : 
pua, a flower, soap. Ta. : pua, id. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 427.) 



pua 2 to grease, to coat with tar, to paint. 
(Cf. puo 2.) 
pua ei meamea, to make yellow. 
Mgv.: pua, soap. Mq.: pua, to wash 
witii soap. Ta. : pua, to wash. 
puaka animal, cattle (but not swine horu). 
puaka toro, steer. 
puaka tamaroa, bull. 
puaka tamaahine, heifer. 
tiaki puaka, neatherd. 
P Pau. : puaka, beast, animal. Mgv. : 
puaka, animal, pig. Mq.: puaka, 
puad,id. Ta.: puad,i<i. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 427.) 
puapua a piece of cloth. 
T Ma. : puapua, cloth wrapped about the 
arm. 
puepue poki puepue, abortive child. 
puga 1 coral, lime. 

puga pupu, branching coral. 
P Pau. : -pua, lime. Mgv. : -puga, a kind 
of madrepore. Mq.: puna, puka, 
coral, lime. Ta. : puA, id. 
puga 2 ragi puga, sky with white clouds, 

coming rain. 
pugaehu fine rain, spindrift, fog, mist, haze, 

sleet, (pugaheu R). 
(puhapuha) hakapuhapuha to stuff, to 
cram with food. 
T Ta. : puhaha, the bulky, puffed appear- 
ance of a person. 
puhare emptiness, vacuity. 

Ta. : pufarefare, hollow, empty, vacuity. 
puheenua (henua 2) placenta. 

Pau.: pufenua, id. Ta.: pufanua, pu- 
fenua, id. 
puhi to blow (puhu Q). 

puhi mai, to spring up. 
pupuhi wind, fan, to blow, puffed up, 
to blow fresh, to ferment, to swell, 
to bloat, to spring out, to gush, 
yeast. 
pupuhi vai, syringe. 
pupuhi eve, squirt. 
pupuhi heenua, volley. 
pupuhi nunui, cannon. 
pupuhi nui, swivel gun. 
ahuahu pupuhi, amplitude. 
vai pupuhi, water which gushes forth. 
pupuhihia to carry on the wind. 
hakapupuhi to gush, leaven, volatilize. 
puhipuhi to smoke, to smoke tobacco, 
a pipe. 
P Pau.: puhipuhi, to blow, to breathe. 
Mgv. : puhi, to blow. Mq. : puhi, 
to blow, to smoke, a gun, to shoot, 
Ta.: puhi, to blow; pupuhi, a gun, 
to shoot. 
puhura {pu i-hura 2) fife, flageolet, flute. 
puka 1 book. 

puka 2 to obstruct, to encumber. 
pukao crown. 

Mq. : pukao, pointed; pai pukao, a 
pointed style of hair dressing. 
puke to hill up a plant, tb heap up, to collect, 
to gather into a pile, a heap, mass. 
puke maea, a stone pile. 
hakapuke to heap, to pile up. 



244 



EASTER ISLAND. 



puke — continued. 

P Pau.: pukega, a heap, pile. Mgv.; 
puke, a heap, a pUe, to pile up, to 
heap up, to amass, to assemble, the 
peak of a mountain. Mq.: puke, 
a small hUl, heap, pile, to accu- 
mulate. Ta.: pu&, to hill up the 
soil for plants, a heap, pile. 
(pukou 1) hakapukou a knot, to tie. 
pukou 2 germ, shoot, to sprout. 

pukou mai, to appear, to arrive, to 
dawn. 
puku 1 puku haga oao, east, east wind. 
puku 2 pubes. 
T Mgv.: puku, clitoris; pukuhou, the age 
of puberty; pukutea, a man between 
30 and 45. 
puku 3 unripe. 

puku no, unripe. 
pukupuku green, immature. 
Mgv. : puku, to be unripe. Mq. : puku, 
a fruit which has not yet reached 
its maturity. 
puku 4 to gorge. 

mahaga puku, to take the bait greedily. 
PS Sa.: pu'u, to take the whole at one 
mouthful, to put into the mouth 
whole. Fu.: pukupuku, to rinse 
the mouth, to gargle. Nine : puku, 
to take into the mouth. 
pukuhina {puku 4) to choke on a fishbone. 
Pau. : pukua, to choke with a fishbone. 
Mgv.: pukua, to be suffocated by 
anything that sticks in the throat. 
Mq. : pukua, bad deglutition. Ta. : 
puunena, puufeto, to choke, to gag. 
Ha. : puua, to be choked, to have 
something sticking in the throat. 
pukupuku 1 elbow Q. 
pukupuku 2 wrinkled, knotty, wen, scrofula. 
gao pukupuku, scrofula. 
T Pau.: puku, a swelling; pukupuku, 
a wrinkle, knotty, rough. Mgv.: 
puku, a knot in wood; pukupuku, 
knotted, rough, uneven, lumpy. 
Mq. : puku, knot in wood, boss, 
protuberance, tumor, boil; puku- 
puku, wrinkled, knotty. Ta. : puu, 
boss, protuberance, swelling; puu- 
nono, tumor; puupuii, wrinkled, 
knotty. 
pukuraga servant T. 
puma pu mai puma, good night. 
pumahana heat. 

hakapumaana to heat, to scald. 
Pau.: pumahanahana, lukewarm. Mq.: 
pumahana, heat, sweat. Ta. : puma- 
hana, heat, lukewarm. 
puna spring, fountain, well. 

P Pau. : mapunapuna, to bubble, to boil 
over. Mgv., Mq., Ta. : puna, a 
spring. 
puneki germ, to spring up. 
raa puneki, sunrise. 
punekineki to bubble, to boil. 
punene 1 to bound, rebound. 
punene 2 to leak. 



punipuni to dull. 

punua new-bom of animals, a bird in the 
down, small. 
punua horu, suckling pig. 
kevare punua, foal. 
mamari punua, chick in the egg. 
P Mgv. : punua, the young of animals. 
Mq. : punua, the young of animals, 
small. Ta. : punua, pinia, the young 
of animals. 
puo I to dress, to clothe, to dress the hair. 
puoa clothed. 
puoa tahaga, always dressed. 
puo 2 to daub, to besmear (cf. pua 2). 

puo ei oone, to daub with dirt, to smear. 
puo 3 ata puo, to hill up a plant. 
puoko head, skull, crown of a hat. 
puoko garuru, headache. 
kiri puoko, scalp. 
T yigw.: upoko, head (men or animals). 
Mq. : upoko, upoo, head. Ta. : 
upoS, human head. 
(Sa.: ulupo'o, skull. To.: uluhoko, id. 
Nine: ulupoko, id.) 
puopuo I to display. 
puopuo 2 to whip, to beat, to flog, to box, 

to chastise, to maltreat. 
pupa rat's nest. 
pupapupa bubble of water. 
pupu 1 to collect, to accumulate, collection, 
to embellish. 
pupu mai, together, in a body. 
pupu la, a register. 
pupupu to agglomerate. 
P Pau. : pupu, society, a company of per- 
sons. Mgv.: pupu, to amass, to 
heap. Ta. : haapupu, to class. 
pupu 2 

puga pupu, branched coral. 
pupu taura, whiplash. 
pupugarauahi soot. 
pupuhi (puhi). 
pupupuke {pupu i-/>«fee) a gathering to hill 

yams. 
puputa (puta). 

(pura) pupura to shine, bright, crystalline, 

to glitter, luminous, lustre, radiant, 

to light, resplendent, splendid, a 

star. 

maea pupura, hard cellular stones 

used in the platforms T. 
pupura mai, to ogle. 
pupurahaga splendor. 
hakapura to illuminate, to make bright, 
to flame, a torch, lantern. 
ahi hakapura, match. 
hakapupura to shine upon, lustrous. 
hakapurapura phosphorescence. 
PS Pau: pura, phosphorescent. Mq.: 
pupua, brilliant, luminous, phos- 
phorescent, sparkling. Ta. : pura, 
a spark, to light up, phosphores- 
cent, to glitter. 
Sa. : pula, to shine. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 329.) 
purariki tattooing on the back. 



RAPANUI-ENGWSH VOCABULARY. 



245 



/ 



pure 1 to pray, to supplicate, invocation, 
prayer. 
hare pure, church, chapel. 
toe pure, irreverence. 
purega prayer. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: pure, to pray. 
In assigning this to the general Poly- 
nesian the basis in Nuclear Polynesia is of 
the most scanty. In Samoa, Tonga, Nine, 
Futuna, Uvea, pule means to command; 
but in Futuna the prayer sense is found, 
and we must include Viti mbure for its 
theological import, if not availing prayer 
yet the place in which the priest came 
under the influence of the god, a theme 
of divinity which recalls the note under 
avaava. 
I pure 2 a shell T. 

/ P Pau.: hakapurepure, to dye, to color. 

i Mq. : pue, the porcelain shell. Ta. : 

pure, a mark. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 196.) 
purepure spotted, dappled. 

ragi purepure, dappled sky. 
purepurea spotted. 
P Pau. : hakapurepure, to dye, to color. 
Mgv.: purepure, printed cloth; 
akapurepure, to paint in different 
colors. Mq.: pjie/me, covered with 
pale scars. Ta. : purepure, spotted, 
dappled. 
pureva to throw a stone. 
puru to stuff up, to conceal, lid, to cover 
with a lid, covering of a house, to 
cover, to close, to stanch, to mask, 
recluse. 
mogugu puru, faithless, ungrateful. 
tariga puru, to disobey. 
puru hi te puoko, to cover the head. 
puru ki te hare pohurihuri, to im- 
prison. 
purua covered, shut up, seclusion. 
P Ma. : puru, a plug, cork. 
puruga bung, stopper, mask, veil. 
puruhare roof. 

maea puruhare, tile. 
purukatorio purgatory. 
purumata (puru-mata i) uira purumata, 

spy glass. 
puta fat. 

puputa bulk, voluminous. 
hakaputaputa to gobble gluttonously. 
PSSa. : puta, fat. To.: butobuta,iA. 
puti 1 robust, plump, dropsy. 
puti 2 wind on the stomach. 
putu pure T. 
putuga a plug. 

putuputu assiduous, compact, frequent, 
often. 
piri putuputu, to frequent. 
hakaputuputu to do often. 
P Pau. : hahaputu, to agglomerate. Mgv. : 
putuputu, close, tight, compact, 
often, frequently. Mq. : putu, close. 
Ta. : putuputu, compact. 



ra 1 then. 

P Pau., Ta. : ra, then. Mq. : a, accord- 
ingly, then. 
ra 2 there, is it not? 

i ra, ki ra, there. 

ki ra hoki, there precisely. 

ki re i ra, yet, already. 

mai ra, on the contrary. 

pei ra, thus, so, like that, such, as, the 

same as. 
kakore ra, or. 
P Mgv. : ra, interrogative particle. Mq. : 
a, there. Ta.: ra, there, 
ra 3 an intensive particle. 

moe atu ra, to postpone. 
ra 4 demonstrative pronoun. 
ra, those. 

mea ra, nevertheless. 
ra 5 1,000,000 T. 
raa I the sun. 

raa ea mai, raa puneki, sunrise. 
raa tini, raa too, noon. 
P Mgv., Ta. : ra, the sun. Mq. : a, id. 
raa 2 day, date. 

a raa nei a, to-day, now. 
raa i mua, day before. 
P Mgv., Ta.: ra, a day. Mq.: o, id. 
rae 1 commencement, beginning, to strike 
up, to essay, to occasion, to pro- 
ceed, former, primitive, precedent, 
predecessor, first-fruits. 
rae ki te mea hou, to innovate. 
oho rae, to march at the head. 
tagata rae, advance guard, van. 
raega commencement, beginning, occa- 
sion, first-fruits. 
rae 2 to attack, to provoke. 

kakai rae, toua rae, to provoke, 
raga 1 captive, slave, to take captive. 
hakaraga to enslave. 
Mq.: dka, conquered. 
raga 2 to banish, to expel, to desert. 
ragaraga to send away, to expel. 
hakaraga to banish, to drive off. 
Mq.: dka, wanderer, vagabond. 
ragaraga to float, to fluctuate. 

eve ragaraga, ennui, to weary. 
T Mgv. : raga, to swim or float on the sur- 
face of the water. Mq. : dna, dka, 
to float. 
The germ sense as found in Southeast 
Polynesia recurs in Hawaii, but in the 
Maori it is hard to discover. 
ragi 1 sky, heaven, firmament, paradise. 
no te ragi, celestial. 
P Pau., Mgv. : ragi, sky, heavens. Ta. : 
rai, id. Mq. : dni, dki, sky, heaven, 
paradise. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 359.) 
ragi 2 appeal, cry, hail, formula, to invite, 
to send for, to notify, to felicitate, 
precept, to prescribe, to receive, 
to summon. 
ragi no, to impose. 

ragi tarotaro, to menace, to threaten. 
tagata ragi, visitor. 



246 



EASTER ISLAND. 



ragi 3 commander. 

ragi 4 to love, to be affectionate, to spare, 
sympathy, kind treatment. 
ragi kore, pitiless. 
ragi nui, faithful. 
Mgv. : ragia, precious, dear, beloved. 
ragia guest. 
ragiamo cloudless sky. 
ragiga invitation, observance, precept, order, 

impost. 
ragikai (ragi i-kai 4) feast, festival. 
ragitea {ragi 2-tea) haughty, domineering. 
rago chair, sofa bed, lounge, scaffold, raft, 
table, theater, stairs, tribunal, 
throne. 
haga hi te rago, to make a raft. 
ragorago bed, pulpit, scaffold. 
P Pau. : ti-ragorago, a joist. Mgv. : rago, 
a beam, a cross-beam. Mq. : dno, 
dko, piece of timber on which a 
canoe or any heavy burden is 
rolled. Ta. : rao, post, joist, cross- 
beam, boat. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 257.) 
ragua pillow. 

PPa.u.:ruruga,id. Mgv. -.uruga, id. Mq. : 
turua, id. Ta. : urua, turtia, Id. 
This is clearly metathetic, of a type 
(cADBi) unusual in Polynesia, as appears 
when compared with Samoan aluga; note 
a similar metathesis in puoko from upoko, 
and compare egarua. This word is quite 
interesting when the metathesis is combed 
out, for Rapanui is the only speech of 
Polynesia which follows the Samoan type, 
except for Nuguria far astern in the wake 
of migration. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 241.) 
(ragutu) hakaragutu to hatch. 
rahirahi clear, light, thin, flimsy. 
kahu rahirahi, gauze, muslin. 
haipo rahirahi, short breath. 
rahirahi maeha, thin, slender. 
hakarahirahi a scraper. 
hakarahirahiga scrapings. 
Pau.: rahirahi, to he thin, slender; rahi- 
rahiga, the temples. Mgv. : rahirahi, 
fine, slender, supple. Mq. : dhidhi, 
clear, thin, slender, transparent. 
Ta. : rahirahi, small; rahirahia, the 
temples. 
rahui to forbid, to prohibit, to interdict. 
kai rahui, prohibition of food. 
PPau. : rahui, illicit, forbidden. Mgv., 
Ta.: rahui, to prohibit, to forbid. 
Mq. : ahui, kahui, id. 
It appears in Nuclear Polynesia only in 
the highly specialized Samoan /ct^M to pro- 
hibit the killing of pigs; we may therefore 
assign it to the Tongafiti migration. Note, 
however, that lafu preserves an earlier 
stem form before it had received the 
transitive augment i. 
rakau 1 wood. 

rakau ta, cudgel, stick. 
PPau.: rakau, tree, to dress a wound. 
Mgv. : rakau, wood, timber, a tree; 



rakau I — continued. 

medicine, a remedy; an object. 
Mq. : dkau, wood, tree. Ta. : radu, 
id. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 353) 
rakau 2 medicine, remedy, potion, ointment, 
furniture, any precious object, 
resources, baggage, riches, heri- 
tage, dowry, merchandise, treasure, 
wealth. 
rakau hakaneinei, purgative. 
rakau nui, rich, opulent. 
rakau kore, poor, beggar, indigent, 

miserable, an inferior. 
hakakamikami ki te rakau, to im- 
poverish. 
rakau te miro, ballast. 
Mq. : akau, anything in general. 
The medicine sense is particularized in 
Tonga, Nukuoro, Hawaii, Tahiti, Manga- 
reva, Paumotu. In no other speech does 
wood stand so fully for wealth of pos- 
sessions, but it will be recalled that Rapa- 
nui is destitute of timber and depends 
wholly upon driftwood. 
rake bad, in its most general sense. 

patu toona rake, immodest, to expose 
the person obscenely. 
rakega evil, perversity. 
rakerake abominable, frightful, low, 
shocking, culpable, crime, debauch- 
ery, dishonor, fault, hideous, ig- 
noble, deformed, illicit, immodest, 
immoral, impious, irreligious, las- 
civious, evil, bad, obscene, sinful, 
ugly. 
rakerakega sin, crime, fault, impiety, 

iniquity, evil, vice. 
hakarakerake causative, to make bad, 

etc. 
Pau. : marakerake, afflicted, disconsolate. 
rakei an ornament; to prepare, to embellish, 
to arrange, to adorn, to dress up, 
to make a display, to decorate; to 
clear away, to explain; to put an 
edge on. 
ina kai rakai, ill prepared. 
rakei ki te kahu, toilet. 
rakeia dressed up. 
PS Pau. : rakei, to decorate. Mgv. : rakei, 
to ornament, to adorn, chaplet, 
garland, decoration. 
Sa. : la'ei, ti leaves tied to a stone to 
attract cuttlefish, to dress for a re- 
view of troops, to wear a train. 
To. : lakei, the leaves and stone used 
to catch catfish. Fu.; lakei, to 
have a long train. (The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, 209.) 
The significations reported from South- 
east Polynesia are undoubtedly primitive, 
an idea of decoration which does not exist 
generally in Nuclear Polynesia except as 
it may appear in the Samoan " to dress for 
a review, " and with more particularity in 
Samoa and Futuna "to wear a train." 
Highly specialized is the employment in 



RAPANUI-ENGUSH VOCABUL,ARY. 



247 



rakei — continued. 
Samoa and Tonga of the lure for the 
octopus, long strips of green being every- 
where as peculiarly attractive to that 
beast as in our country life the bullfrog 
will jump for red flannd on the hook. 
rama nut. 

P Pau. : rama, a nut, torch. Mgv. : rama, 
the nut of the native walnut, to 
give light, to go fishing with torches. 
Mq. : dma, candlenut, torch. Ta. : 
rama, torch. 
The nut sense is a remote derivative. 
The stem is that lama which appears in 
malama to give light. Thence derives 
the sense of the light-giver, which in out- 
door conditions is the torch of leaflets of 
the coconut, within doors is the candle 
of threaded nuts of Aleurites triloba or 
moluccana. Thence the sense attaches 
generally to the candlenut itself, and in 
Nine it has passed yet beyond to the soot 
of such combustion, an abundant product. 
ranorano volcano, crater. 

PS Sa. : lano, a crater lake. 
rapa to polish. 

hakarapa to polish, to smooth. 
raparapa to glisten, smooth; tin, zinc, 
drinking cup, lantern. 
Ohio raparapa, tin. 
mata raparapa, blind. 
hakaraparapa to brighten, to plate. 
Mq. : dpa, to be bright, to glisten. 
rape room, chamber. 

rapehare hall, room. 
Ta. : rape, the wall plate of a house. 
rapino rabbit Qapin). 
rape pumice. 

rapu work, workman, to till the soil, to hoe. 
rapurapua kaiga rapurapua, cultivated 

soil. 
Mgv.: rapu, to knead, to bray in a 
mortar, to beat many times. Mq. : 
dpudpu, to knead. Ta. : rapu, to 
scratch. 
rara 1 to meddle with, to insinuate oneself, 
to visit, to spread a report. 
rara hakariva, to intermediate. 
rara 2 to interpret, sentence, sermon. 

tagata rara, interpreter. 
raraga to weave, to braid, to make mats or 
bags. 
raraga piniku, to net. 
P Pau., Mgv.: raraga, to weave, to plait, 
to make mats. Mq. : ddna, ddka, 
id. Ta. : raraa, id. 
rarama to inspect, to review. 

PS Mgv.: rarama, to go to see, to visit. 
Mq.: ddma, to visit, to examine, 
to explore, to spy. 
Sa,, To.: lama, to watch for. Nine: 

lamalamati, to lie in wait for. 
An idea central to all these variants is 
that of looking at or for something with 
fixed or intent gaze, which primal sense 
appears mo.st clearly in Nuclear Poly- 
^ nesia and is almost exactly repeated in the 
spy meaning in the Marquesas. The 



rarama — continued, 
other occurrences of the word are in 
secondary senses. 
rarara condemnation, to condemn. 
rararara to heat. 

Mgv. : rara, to leave by the fire. 
rarau distrust, mistrust. 
rari moist, soaked. 

oone rari, marsh, swamp. 
rarirari muddy, miry. 
hakarari to soak, to wet. 
T Pan.: rari, wet, water; fakarari, to 
moisten. Mgv.: ran, moist, humid, 
muddy, wet, soft. 
rarikau go away T. 
rare under, below, leeward. 
i raro, below, beneath. 
ki raro, under, below. 
raronui, pit, chasm. 
P Pau.: raro, under, beneath, leeward, 
west. Mq.: do, id. Ta. : raro, id. 
Mgv.: raro, under, beneath. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 213, 216.) 
raruga moea raruga, lying flat. 
rata 1 to tame. 

P Pau.: fakarata, to tame. Ta. : rata, 
tame. Mq.: dta, wild, not tame, 
to run when called (a sense-invert) . 
rata 2 to receive, to welcome. 

Mgv.: rata, to welcome. 
rate rat. 
rau I leaf. 

P Pau., Ta. : rau, id. Mgv. : rau, rou, id. 
Mq. : du, 6u, id. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 397.) 
rau 2 hundred. 

P Mgv., Ta.: rau, id. Mq.: du, 200, 400. 
raua they. 

P Mgv., Ta. : ravu, they two. Mq.: 
dua, id. 
(rauga) hakarauga a file, a row. 
rauhiva weak, feeble, ill, malady, fever, 

pale, sallow. 
raukape {rau i-kape) leaf of the yam. 

Ta. : rauape, id. 
rauoho hair (lauocho Q). 

Mq. : ouoho, id. Ha. : lauoho, id. 
raupa large leaves, 
fauti (raw i-ti i) dracaena leaf . 

Ta.: rauti, id. 
rava 1 art, power, capable, possible, means, 
inventor, 
toe rava, e ko rava, impossible, in- 
capable. 
PS Mgv.: ravehaga, to be a worker. Ta.: 
rave, work, operation; ravea, means. 
Sa. : lava, to be able. To.: lava, to 
accomplish. Fu. : lava, to be able 
to carry. Viti: lawa, to be able, 
easy. 
The Nuclear Polynesian source is unmis- 
takable in the exact concord of form and 
sense. The Mangareva and Tahiti words 
contain an important form difference and 
in sense they can be linked only through 
Tahiti ravea and the occurrence of its 
definition "means" in Rapanui; this form 
is found in Maori rawe easy, suitable. 



EASTER ISI^AND. 



rava 2 to get, to have, to attain, to conquer, 
to gain, to obtain, invasion, to 
capture, to procure, to recover, to 
retrieve, to find, to bring back, to 
profit, to assist, to participate, to 
prosper. 
mea meitaki ka rava, to deserve. 
PS Pau.: rave, to take. Mgv.: rave, to 
take, to acquire possession. Ta.: 
rave, to seize, to receive, to take. 
To.: lava, to achieve, to obtain. Viti: 

rawa, to obtain, to accomplish. 
Here again we find the mutation to 
rave in Southeast Polynesia, while Rap- 
anui is in close agreement with the two 
languages of Nuclear Polynesia in which 
the word may be identified. 
rava 3 to know. 

rava iu, to discern. 
rava 4 large. 

hakarava to enlarge, to augment, to 
add. 
PS Sa.: lava, large, very. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 358.) 
(rava 5) hakarava wide, width, across, to 
put across, yard of a ship, firm. 
hakarava hakaiuru, quadrangular. 
P Mgv.: ravatua, the shelving ridge of 
a road, poles in a thatch roof, a 
ridge. 
In the Tongafiti speech this appears 
only in Maori whakarawa to fasten with a 
latch or bolt. We may very properly 
assign it to the Proto-Samoan source. 
rava 6 a prepositive intensive. 
rava oho, to take root. 
rava keukeu, to apply oneself. 
rava ahere, agile, without fixed abode. 
rava hi, to prattle. 
rava vanaga, to prate. 
Mq.: ava, enough, sufiScient. 
(rava 7) hakarava gummy eyes, lippitude. 
(rava 8) hakarava omua to come before, 

to precede. 
ravage! to prattle. 
ravahaga capture. 
ravaika to fish. 

Mgv.: raveika, a fisherman. Mq.: 
avaika, avaid, id. 
ravakai glutton, insatiable (ravekai). 

toe ravekai, frugal. 
ravakata jovial, merry. 

ravakakata id. 
ravaki to prattle, to tell stories, loquacious, 
narrator, orator, eloquent, to boast, 
to speak evil, to defame, slander, 
gossip. 
ravapeto to blab, to speak evil. 
ravapure fervent, earnest. 
ravarae invention. 
ravatere to scare away. 
ravatotouti neku, ravatotouii, agile. 
ravavanaga loquacious, garrulous, to tell 

stories, narration. 
reeree black. 

niho reeree, black teeth. 



regorego round. 

maea regorego, a flinty beach pebble 
used for the finest stone imple- 
ments T. 
hakaregorego to make round. 
rehau head ornament of women's hair. 
reherehe weak, feeble, lean, effeminate, 
lacking energy, clumsy, perplexed, 
rheumatism, tall and slender, mild. 
ariga reherehe, amiable. 
vae reherehe, weak in the legs. 
hakareherehe relaxed. 
T Ma. : rehe, to yield, to succumb. 
rehu 1 dust. 

P Mgv. : rehu, a cinder, coal, ashes. Mq. : 
ehuahi, ashes. Ta. : rehu, ashes, 
soot, any powder. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 313.) 
rehu 2 to omit, to forget, to faint. 

rehurehu to omit, omission, lost to 

sight. 
hakarehu to surprise. 
rehua unintelligible. 
rei mother of pearl. 
rei kauaha, fin. 
PMgv.: rei, whale's tooth. Mq.: Si, id. 
This is probably associable with the 
general Polynesian rei, which means the 
tooth of the cachalot, an object held in 
such esteem that in Viti one tooth (tambua) 
was the ransom of a man's life, the ran- 
som of a soul on the spirit path that led 
through the perils of Na Kauvandra to 
the last abode in Mbulotu. The word 
is undoubtedly descriptive, generic as to 
some character which Polynesian percep- 
tion sees shared by whale ivory and nacre. 
Rei kauaha is not this rei; in the Maori 
whakarei designates the carved work at 
bow and stem of the canoe and Tahiti has 
the same use but without particularizing 
the carving: assuming a sense descriptive 
of something which projects in a relatively 
thin and fiat form from the main body, 
and this describes these canoe ornaments, 
it will be seen that it might be applied to 
the fins of fishes, which in these waters 
are frequently ornamental in hue and 
shape. The latter sense is confined to the 
Tongafiti migration. 
reirei to trample down, to knead, to pound. 
reka 1 then, but, or, therefore. 

Mgv.: reka, accordingly, therefore, or, 
rather, else. 
reka 2 content, gay, pleasant, hilarious, 
noisy, playful, melodious, game, 
foolery, to please, to divert, to 
applaud. 
reka no, to jest. 

hiri a reka, to walk without noise. 
hakareka to amuse, to caress, pleasant 
conversation, to please, playful, 
gay, to chatter, game, to play, 
leisure, droll, pleasant, pleasantry, 
to jest, recreation, to leap for joy, 
holiday, vacation. 
hakareka no, chat. 



RAPANUI-ENGIylSH VOCABULARY. 



249 



reka 2 — continued. 

tagata hakareka no, player. 
tumu o te hakareka, toy, plaything. 
rekareka to long for, an adulterer. 
hakarekareka to tickle, enjoyment. 
T Pau.: rekareka, agreeable, sweet, pleas- 
ant, voluptuous. Mgv. : rekareka, 
joy, pleasure, to rejoice, an itching, 
longing. Mq. : eka, joy, pleasure, 
enjoyment. Ta. : redred, id. 
(Cf. To.: neka, to rejoice, to joy; nekeneka, 
joy, rejoicing, delight.) 
The mutation l-n is so far permissible as 
to admit the Tonga neka as an a£Sliate. 
But as it does not occur elsewhere in 
Nuclear Polynesia it must stand as a 
Tongafiti remnant and not of Proto- 
Samoan source. 
reka 3 to devastate. 

hakareka to lay waste. 
reke spur, talon, claw, heel Q. 

T Pau. : rekereke, the heel. Mgv. : reke, 
the end of a fish hook that is 
attached to the line. Mq.: neke, 
to walk on the heels. 
This word offers an interesting problem 
of evolution in sense. The Mangareva 
precludes us from accepting as basic the 
numerically more weighty signification of 
the heel. No such difficulty attaches to 
the sense which is common to Rapanui 
and Mangareva, a spur, any sharp and 
projecting member, such as a claw or the 
long shank of the shell fishhook to which 
the line is attached not by tying but by 
lashing with a service of thread. Thence 
it is an easy transition from the spur of a 
bird to that part of the human foot which 
occupies the same relative position, the 
heel, the secondary sense which holds in 
Maori and Paumotu and of which a spe- 
cific detail is found in the Marquesas. In 
Rapanui we find a distinct variation in 
rekevae the sole, in which the parent sense 
but scantily appears. 
rekevae sole of the foot. 
rekireki generous. 

Mgv.: rekireki-tahaga, to be easy, un- 
embarrassed. 
(? remrem R couchant.) 
remereme to dazzle. 

reo 1 voice, vocal, word, air of a song, lan- 
guage, story, speech. 
reo nut, bass voice. 
reo ke, changeable voice. 
reo iahi, solo, unison. 
reo torn, trio. 

reo kore, patience, resignation. 
mou te reo, resignation. 
reoreo story, fable, tittle-tattle. 
hakareoreo to tell a story. 
P Pau.: reko, speech: reo, air of a song. 
Mgv.: reo, sound, voice, speech, 
language, order. Mq.: eo, voice, 
speech, language, tone, word, order, 
commandment. Ta.: reo, voice, 
speech, word, language, air of a 
song. 



reo I — continued. 

As already pointed out (The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, 232) the Paumotu reko 
is anomalous as regards the assumption 
of the k. 
reo 2 artifice, trick. 

toua reo, discussion without knowing 

the object. 
hakaaroha reo, vain compassion, to 
adulate. 
reoreo artifice, duplicity, false, knavery, 
fraud, imposture, lying, deceptive, 
to trick, to forswear. 
horihori maia i te reoreo, to com- 
promise one. 
hakarivariva i te reoreo, to drive mad. 
tagata reoreo, false witness, perjurer. 
tuhi reoreo, to accuse. 
reoreo peaha, unlikely, improbable. 
reohirehire {reo i-hire) to stammer, to lisp, 

to use broken speech. 
reokumi (reo i-kumi) to cackle. 
reone lion. 

reopuru {reo i-puru) hoarse. 
reouil {reo i-uu) to stammer, to lisp, 
(repa) repa hoa, male friend, intimate, com- 
rade, companion, fellow student. 
repa hoa titika, trusty friend. 
repureva neck ornament of women made of 

shells strung on hair Q. 
rerarera surface of the sea. 
rere 1 to fly, to run, to leap, to scale, to be 
carried away by the wind. 
ika rere, flying fish. 
rere aruga, to rebound. 
hetuu rere, meteor, flying star. 
hakarere to leap. 
P Pau.: rere, to soar, to fly; fakarere, to 
precede. Mgv., Ta. : rere, to fly, 
to leap. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 421^) 
rere 2 to come, to reach to. 
Mq. : ee mat, to come. 
rere 3 to swerve, to deviate, 
(rere 4) hakarere to cease, desist, post- 
pone, quit, vacation. 
toe hakarere, perseverance. 
Mq. : rere, to disappear, 
(rere S) hakarere to save, preserve, put, 

place, reserve, biu'den, destine, 
(rere 6) hakarere to abandon, forsake, give 
up, depose, expose, leave, omit, 
abjure, repudiate. 
hakarere ki te feoM, to uncover the head. 
hakarere ki te vie, to divorce. 
hakarere ki raro, to put down. 
tooa te kiko e ivi i hakarere, to strip off 
the flesh. 
Mq.: ei, to run away, to escape, 
(rere 7) hakarere? 

ikapotu hakarere, to abut, to adjoin. 
; e tahi hakarere, synonym. 
rer^pe crest. 

Pau.: repe, crest, tuft, topknot. Ta.: 
repe, crest, dorsal fin of a shark, 
bole on a tree, projection. 



250 



EASTER ISLAND. 



rerere to spatter. 

paka rerere, cancer. 
rereva (reva). 
rero to daub. 

rerorero to crush, to bruise. 
reru calf of the leg T (cf. heru). 
rerureru fishgills. 
retera letter. 
retu tattooing on the head. 
reva to hang, to suspend, flag, banner. 
hakareva to hang up. 
hakarereva to hang up, to balance. 
hakarevareva to wave. 
T Pau.: reva, a &a.g; fakarevareva, to hang 
up, to suspend. Mgv. : reva, a 
flag, a signal. Mq.: eva, to hang 
up, to be suspended, to wave a 
signal. Ta.: reva, a flag, banner; 
revareva, to wave. 
The germ sense is that of being sus- 
pended; the passage to that which is sus- 
pended is so short as to be in the use of the 
Polynesian attributive no passage at all. 
Any light object hung up in the island air 
under the steady tradewind will flutter; 
therefore the specification involved in the 
wave sense is no more than normal 
observation. 
ri rice (m). 

(riga) hakariga to subdue. 
riha slow, tardy. 

Mgv. : ria, id. Mq. : id, id. Ta. : riha, id. 
rihariha 1 feeble, cooked too much. 
rihariha 2 greedy. 

Mq.: ihaiha, gorged, stomach filled to 
repletion. 
rike T (reke). 

rikiriki small, dainty, fine, frail, narrow. 
P Pau. : Mgv. : rikiriki, small, little. Mq. : 
iki, small, narrow, thin. Ta. : rii, 
small, young animals. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 229.) 
riku vine (fern) T. 
rima 1 five. 
P Mgv., Ta. : riwo, id. Mq. : ima, id. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 363.) 
rima 2 arm, hand. 

rima atakai, obliging, kind, generous, 

a gift. 
rima luku, elbow. 

rima omo, infidehty, faithless, un- 
faithful. 
rima ie kahu, sleeve. 
kakari rima, wrist. 
P Pau. : rima, hand, arm. Mgv. : rima, 
hand, arm, paw, finger. Mq. : ima, 
hand, arm. Ta. : n'wa, arm, hand, 
finger. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 367.) 
rima 3 to lead into error. 
rimaetua supernatural. 

Mq. : imaima, that which returns after 

a man's death. Ta.: rimaatua, 

plague, dissension, mortal illness. 

The obvious etymology must be put 

aside, for "the hand of god" is without 

meaning in Polynesian theology. The 

explanation is suggested by lie Mar- 

quesan. 



rimahakaviriviri fist, to clench the fist, a 

blow of the fist. 
rimahati (rima 2-hati) one-armed. 
rima ko manaroa little finger T. 
rimamaatoo rapacious. 
rimamatua neanea thumb. 
rimaroaroa tahaga middle finger T. 
rimatitiri to walk with the hands behind 

the back. 
rimaruru to clasp hands. • 
rimatuhi henna (?) index finger T. 
rimatuhi a hana finger ring T (? ring 

finger). 
rimu seaweed, slime, seamoss. 

P Pau.: rimu, moss, seaweed, sponge. 
Ta. : rimu, id. Mgv. : rimu, moss. 
Mq. : imu, moss, seaweed, lichen, 
(ripoi) toe ripoi, blunder, to scare away. 
hakaripoi disorder, blunder, to invert 
the sense, to stray from the subject, 
to damage, to exaggerate, to falsify, 
to pervert, profanation, irreUgious, 
to throw into confusion, to mutilate, 
to vitiate, to paralyze. 
tae hakaripoi, excuse, to excuse one- 
self. 
hakaripoihaga damage, irreligion, per- 
version. 
Mgv.: ripo, to undo, to take asunder, 
to put out of place, disordered, dis- 
arranged, to be impious, wicked. 
riri animosity, ill-will, spite, strength T, 
anger, to disapprove. 
manava riri, wrath. 
ririhaga animosity. 
hakariri to shock, to displease, to be 
rude. 
P Pau. : riri, anger, spite, vexation. Mgv. 
riri, to be angry, to hate, to do 
with violence. Mq.: riri,H,a.ngei, 
force, fury, energy, ardor, faculty, 
strength. Ta.: riri, anger, spite, 
offense, to displease, 
(ritarita) kokoma ritarita, to abhor. 

Ta. : rita, to gnash the teeth. 
(rite) hakarite color, species, class, mode, 
equality, condition, manner, pro- 
portion, sort, figure; even, regular; 
to align, to assimilate, to simulate, 
to compare, to be equal, to imitate. 
tae hakarite, unequal, unfair, inequal- 
ity, irregular. 
hakarite koe, unequal, unfair, incom- 
parable. 
hakarite ke, difference, diversity, un- 
equal, singular, variety, extraordi- 
nary, fantastic, 
e tahi hakarite, thus, so, as, as much, 
as many, equal, tmiform, to re- 
semble, to look like. 
ariga hakarite, to look like. 
niho hakarite, regular teeth. 
hakaritega comparison, agreement, 
parallel, likeness, similitude. 
T Ma.: rite, like. Ha.: like, id. Raro. : 
arite, alike, resembling. 
This is one of several words which P^re 
Roussel, working out his task in inverted 
order, has so overloaded with definition as 



RAPANUI-ENGI^ISH VOCABULARY. 



251 



(rite) hakarite — continued, 
to obscure the germ sense. The word 
appears only in Rapanui, Maori and 
Hawaii, and its simplest signification is to 
be like. By an odd accident, out of the 
billion long odds against such coincidence, 
the eye, yet not the ear, is struck by the 
entry in the Hawaiian dictionary "like 
like." 
ritorito white, neat, clean, handsome, good- 
looking, charming, graceful, ma- 
jestic, to glorify. 
vai ritorito, dear, limpid. 
ritorito he, pure. 
hakaritorito to purify, to better, to 
improve, to beautify, to expiate. 
hakaritorito ki te hail, to bleach in the 
dew. 
Mgv. : rito, clean, bright, clear, fresh, 
pure, beautiful. Mq.: ito, fresh, 
handsome, red, green. 
riva calm, modesty, health; to satisfy, to 
restore, to convert, 
toe riva, coarse, imperfect, uncer- 
tain, inconvenient, inconsistent, un- 
seemly, ineflScacious, inopportune, 
insignificant, dishonest, filthy. 
noho toe riva, indecent. 
riva he, to make famous. 
riva maoa, correct. 
riva mo tere, navigable. 
riva atu, progress. 
riva kia ku, interest. 
riva no iti, convalescence. 
mea riva, seemly. 
vanaga toe riva, confused speech. 
ina kai riva, uncertain, 
e ko riva, incurable. 
rivaga goodness, quality. 

rivaga ke, wonderful, marvelous. 
rivariva neatness, effect, seasonableness, 
magnificence, excellence, curiosity, 
elegance, loyalty, good, well, neat, 
handsome, charming, decent, deli- 
cate, excellent, flourishing, exqui- 
site, good looking, commendable, 
loyal, magnificent, majestic, oppor- 
tune, reasonable, affable, pious, 
agreeable, pleasing, holy, 
toe rivariva, dishonesty, illegal, un- 
worthy. 
igoa toe rivariva, nickname. 
rivariva ke, illustrious, better, best, 

precious, remarkable. 
tagata rivariva, devout. 
rivariva atu, to excel. 
mea rivariva, to delight, to deserve. 
hakatu rivariva, fine appearance. 
rivariva maitai, good. 
rivariva noa, moral, perfect, precious, 
rich. 
rivarivaga perfection. 
rivarivaga ke, pomp. 
hakariva happiness, attention, opera- 
tion; to be happy, to rejoice, to 
make famous, to govern, to rule, to 
operate, to adorn, to cure. 
rara hakariva, to intermeddle. 



rivariva — continued. 

hakarivaga joy, gladness. 
hakarivariva deliberation, explana- 
tion, judgment, justification, ad- 
monition, agreement, paraphrase, 
process, receipt, petition for pardon, 
reparation, resolution, restoration, 
condemnation; to condemn, to cor- 
rect, to judge, to set in order, to 
organize, to refute, to govern, to 
administer, to arrange, to assign, 
to complete, to compose, to deliber- 
ate, to develop, to explain, to jus- 
tify, to adjust, to accommodate, to 
plead, to prepare, to resolve, to 
retrace, to simplify, to care for, to 
stipulate, to convert, to verify, to 
translate, to tell a story, to moral- 
ize, to plot, to join, to reason, to 
remedy, to preach, to sharpen, to 
make ready, to avow, to conciliate, 
to free of difficulties, to clear away, 
to inquire, to intervene, to smooth, 
to traffic, to mitigate, to gorman- 
dize. 
hakarivariva ki toona reoreo, to drive 

mad. 
hakarivariva ki te kahu, toilet. 
tagata hakarivariva, arbiter, umpire, 
interpreter. 
hakariyarivaiho to modify, to renew, 
to rectify, to reform. 
ro 1 of, concerning. 
ro 2 yet, nevertheless, still. 
kakore ro, or. 

ka kikiu ro, to importune (? no). 
roa long, large, extent. 

roaroa to grow, height. 
mea roaroa, a long while. 
roaroa tahaga, middle finger. 
roaroa ke, infinite (time and space). 
roroa far, distant, thin, to grow tall. 
tagata roroa, giant. 
roroa ke, immense. 
arero roroa, to report, to tell. 
vanaga roroa, to chatter, babbler. 
vare roroa, driveller. 
hakaroa to lengthen, to defer. 
hakaroaroa to lengthen, to develop. 
hakaroroa to extend, prolong, defer, 
lengthen. 
P Pau.: roa, long. Mgv.: roa, far, long 
(of time and space). Mq.: 6a, 
long, high, far, distant a long while. 
Ta. : roa, long (of time and space.) 
roaa caught. 

Ta. : rocM, obtained. 
roaga distance, extent, size, length, distant, 

long. 
roau to assist, to celebrate, to venerate, 

respect. 
roe ant. 

PS Pau. : roe, id. Mgv., Ta. : ro, id. Mq. : 
0, ko, id. 
Sa. : hi, id. To., Fu., Nine, Uvea, Viti: 

lo, id. 
It appears that the primal stem is lo. 
From this, by possibly descriptive addi- 



252 



EASTBR ISI.AND. 



roe — continued, 
tions, have developed lot and loala, the 
small ant and the large, venomous ant 
respectively. The form loi is found only 
in Samoa; its reciurence in Rapanui and 
Paumotu groups these languages in their 
relation to a point of departure from 
Samoa restrictively and at a period when 
loi had come into use. 
rogo 1 news, message, errand, messenger, 
deputy; to delegate, to send a mes- 
sage. 
uga ki te rogo, to send a message. 
P Mgv. : akarogo, to carry news, to report. 
Mq. : ono, oko, news, rumor. Ta.: 
ro6, news. 
rogo 2 to hear, to understand, to compre- 
hend, to listen, to believe, to con- 
sent. 
rogo hara, to misunderstand. 
toe rogo, unheard. 
kai rogo, to abstain. 
hapai rogo, to announce. 
hakarogo to hear, to listen, to be atten- 
tive, to comprehend, to understand, 
to collect, to obey, subordination, 
devoted, to adhere, to be deceived, 
toe hakarogo, to disobey, miscreant. 
ho ai a moo hakarogo atu, to disbelieve. 
tariga hakarogo, faithful, obedient, to 
obey. 
P Pau. : rogo, to hear. Mgv.: rogo, to 
hear, to understand, to compre- 
hend, to know, to perceive. Mq. : 
ono, oko, to listen, to understand, 
to comprehend, to perceive through 
touch. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 398.) 
rogoa to believe, belief, intelligible, com- 
prehended. 
kai rogoa, not in use, obsolete. 
roho head (oho). 

Mgv.: oho, the head of human beings. 
Mq.: 66, the head, brains (roro). 
roi knife Q. 
rona drawing, traction. 

Pau.: ronarona, to pull one another 
about. 
ropa robe. 

ropa raro, shirt. 
ropa kakari kore, petticoat. 
fori 1 to invert the sense. 
T Ma. : rori, silly, foolish. 

Data are lacking to carry out the com- 
parison, but it does suggest itself that there 
is some connection between Rapanui and 
Maori, although we want the middle term 
which might make it clear. It does not 
appear to be associable with rori 3, the 
sense there being wholly physical. 
rori 2 to arrive, to come, to result, to issue, 
to come from, 
to rori mat, the futiure. 
rori 3 to go from side to side. 

rori te koa hogihogi, to follow a scent. 
rorirori to stagger, to waver, to luff. 
hakarori to tack about. 



rori 3 — continued. 
TPau. : rorirori, pliant, supple; garori- 
rori, to vacillate. Mgv.: rori, to 
stir, to toss about; akarori, to do 
nothing but come and go. Mq.: 
6i, mobile, hard to restrain. 
roro head, skull, brains. 
T Pau. : taka-roro, headache. Mgv. : roro, 
the head, the cranium, milk, coco- 
nut milk. Mq.: roro, 66, brains. 
Ta.: roro, id. (The Polsoiesian Wan- 
Wanderings, 224.) 
There are three senses in this word as 
here collated, one of which it is violent to 
seek to link with the germ sense of that 
which is palpably soft, i, coconut milk, 
as in Mangareva, a Proto-Samoan signifi- 
cation; note that coconut milk employed 
by writers who know the South Sea does 
not mean the natural water within the nut, 
which is limpid, but is a tincture obtained 
by maceration of the bruised kernel, 
which is white and heavy and thickens to 
a custardy consistency when cooked. 2, 
the Tongafiti sense is the brain, palpably 
the soft contents of the calvarium, some- 
times very soft indeed; this sense is lack- 
ing to Mangareva but is found in Rapanui. 
3, a designation of the hard part of the 
head, found only in Mangareva and Rapa- 
nui, so violently sundered from the germ 
sense underlying 1 and 2 as to indicate 
confusion with a stem of similar form but 
diverse meaning. 
roroa (roa). 

roto i marsh, swamp, bog. 
roto nui, pond. 
roto iti, pool. 
T Pau. : roto, lake. Mq. : 6tovai, pond, 
marsh. Ta.: roto, pond, swamp. 
roto 2 inside, lining. 

roto, interior, issue. 
ki roto, within, into, inside, among. 
mei roto o mea, issue. 
no roto mai mea, maternal. 
vae no roto, drawers. 
P Pau. : roto, in, within. Mgv. : roto, the 
inside, within, entrails, deep. Mq.: 
6to, within, interior, cavity. Ta.: 
roto, in, within. 
roturotu 1 to clap, to wink. 

PS Pau. : rotu, to strike the water. Mgv. : 
rotu, to beat the sea in order to 
frighten fish into the net, to beat a 
drum. Mq.: 6tu, to drive fish 
into the seine. Ta. : rotu, to strike. 
Sa. : lotu, to make a hollow sound in the 

water with the hand. 
Omitting the Rapanui definition to 
wink, which is in no wise correlative, we 
find the germ sense in the making of a 
noise by the hand, and in four languages 
out of the seven this is distinctly an aquatic 
noise, for the Marquesas definition in 
omitting the noise-beat yet leaves it in- 
ferential. I regard the Rapanui as primal 
and associate therewith the Tahiti, though 
the noise is omitted from the definition. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



253 



roturotu 2 to take to pieces. 
rou 1 (feather, cf. raitoho). 
rou meamea, feather. 
Mgv.: rouoho, hair; rouro, id. Mq.: 
ouoho, id. Ta.: rouru, id. 
rou 2 a stick with a crook, a hook. 

P Pau. : rou, a crutch, a hook, to gather 
with a hook. Mgv. : rou, a forked 
pole with which to gather bread- 
fruit. Mq. : ou, id. Ta.: rou, id. 
ru a chill, to shiver, to shudder, to quake. 
manava ru, groan. 
ruru fever, chill, to shiver, to shake, to 
tremble, to quiver, to vibrate, com- 
motion, to apprehend, moved, to 
agitate, to strike the water, to 
print. 
manava ruru, alarm. 
rima ruru, to shake hands. 
P Pau. : ruru, to shake, to tremble. Mgv. : 
ru, to shiver with cold, to shake 
with fever, to tremble. Mq.: u, 
to tremble, to quiver. Ta. : ruru, 
to tremble. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 235.) 
rua 1 two. 

P Mgv., Ta. : rua, id. Mq.: ua, id. 
rua 2 nausea, seasickness, to vomit, disgust. 
hakarua to vomit, to spew. 
PS Mgv. : aruai, ruai, to vomit. Mq. : iia, 
id. Ta. : ruai, id. Pau. : ruaki, id. 
Sa. : lua'i, to spit out of the mouth; 
lulua, to vomit. To. : lua, to vomit. 
Fu. : lulua, luaki, id. Nine: lua, 
id. Viti: lua, id.; loloa, seasick. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 279.) 
The Proto-Samoan form is lua. In 
Samoa and Futuna this form remains in 
use along with the augmented form luaki. 
In Southeast Polynesia, Rapanui and the 
Marquesas alone preserve the unmodified 
Proto-Samoan stem. 
rua 3 cave, hollow, ditch, pit, hole, beaten 
path, grave. 
rua papaka, a ditch. 
P Pau. : rua, a hole. Mgv. : rua, a hole in 
the ground, ditch, trench. Mq.: 
iia, dish, hole, cavern. Ta. : rua, 
hole, opening, ditch. 
ruga high, up. 

a ruga, above. 
ki ruga, on, above, upon. 
ma ruga, above. 
ruga, upper. 
kahu ruga, royal (sail). 
ruga iho, celestial. 
hakaruga to accumulate, to draw up. 
P Pau., Mgv.: ruga, above. Mq.: lirm, 
uka, id. Ta.: nua, nia, id. 
ruhi succulent. 

ruhiruhi delicate, savory, sweet. 

mea ruhiruhi, to delight. 
Mgv.: ruhiruhi, to have a bad taste (a 
sense-invert). 
rukau (lukau coat T). 
ruku to bathe, to immerse, to swim face 
down, to dive, to leap into the 
water from a height. 



ruku — continued. 

hakaruku to cover with water, to 
immerse, to submerge, to moisten, 
to wash, to drink. 
P Mgv. : ruku, to dive, to plunge. Mq. : 
liku, to dive, to immerse. 
rumaki a corpse ready for burial. 

Mgv. : rumaki, to throw or push a quan- 
tity of food into a food pit. 
runu 1 to pluck, to pick, a biurden. 
runu 2 a substitute. 

runurunu a representative. 
rupa handkerchief T (ropa). 
rupou to be in a frenzy. 

Ta. : ruporupo, giddy, vertigo. 
(ruru) hakaruru promise, vow. 

hakaruruga promise. 
ruruku capstan. 
rurururu to drum, to shake. 
rutirae author, to attack, 
(ruto) hakarutoruto to gargle. 
rutu to recite. 

tae rutu, irreverence. 

ta 1 of. 

T Pau. : ta, of, belonging to. Mgv. : to, 
genitive particle for food, for wife, 
for husband. Mq.: to, of, by, for. 
ta 2 this, which. 

Mgv. : to, that which. Mq. : ta, those. 
Ta. : to, the. 
ta 3 primarily to strike: to sacrifice, to 
tattoo, to insert, to imprint, to 
write, to draw, to copy, to design, 
to color, to paint, to plaster, to 
note, to inscribe, to record, to de- 
scribe, number, letter, figure, rela- 
tion, 
to hakatitika, treaty, 
to igoa, to sign. 
ta ki, secretary, 
to kona, to tattoo, 
to vanaga, secretary. 
P Pau.: ta-iro, to mark. Mgv.: to, to 
tattoo, to write. Mq. : to, to strike, 
to beat. Ta. : to, to strike, to 
tattoo, to write. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 411.) 
taaka his. 
taaku mine. 

Mgy.:to*«, id. Ta.:toM, id. 
taana his. 

Ta.: tana, id. 
tae I prepositive negative: without, not, 
none. 
PS To. : tae, prepositive negative. 
tae 2 to remain. 

tae atu ki, as far as, until. 
taehaga (toe i) to shake the head in sign of 
negation, reluctant, to disdain, to 
be displeased. 
taga 1 act, business, anecdote. 

taga poki, anecdote, nonsense, story, 
puerile, childish. 
taga 2 sack. 

PS Sa., Fu., Niue, Viti: taga, a bag. To.: 
taga, the colon; tagai, a sack. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 265.) 



254 



EASTER ISI^AND. 



tagamimi (toga 2-mimi) the bladder T 

(tau a iTiimi R). 
tagata man, mankind. 

tagata ke, some one else. 
tagata no, nation. 
P Pau. : tagata, man. Mgv. : tagata, man 
or woman. Mq. : enata, enana, 
kenana, man. Ta.: taata, id. 
tagataa incarnate. 
tagataga ohio tagataga, hinge. 
tagatahaga human, humanity. 
tag! to cry, to bark, to mew, to bawl, to 
whine, to ring, to wail, to prattle, 
to weep, lamentation, condolence, 
to regret, to affect, to wish, to will, 
to choose, earnestness. 
toe tagi, inhuman, insensible, to 

refuse, to renounce. 
tagi kiukiu, ring of a bell. 
tagi rakerake, to wish one ill. 
tagi kore, indifferent. 
manava tagi, to affect. 
hakatagi to cause to weep, to make 

resoimd, to ring. 
tagitagi to covet. 

tatagi cry, momrung, grief, lamenta- 
tion, to groan, to weep, to be 
affected, to grow tender. 
tatagi tahaga, inconsolable. 
tatagihaga friendship. 
P Pau. : tagi, to weep. Mgv. : tagi, a cry, 
to sing, to weep, to lament, to sigh, 
to desire, to make a noise. Mq.: 
tani, taki, to ring, to sing, to re- 
sound, to bark, to cry, to moo, to 
make a noise, to weep, to desire. 
Ta.: tot, tears, grief, cry, to sound 
as an instrument. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 412.) 
taha 1 to bend, sloping, to go hither and 
thither, to evade. 
ki taha, near. 

taha ke, to go in different directions, 
to separate. 
tahataha frontier, horizon. 

hiriga tahataha, to cross, to go across. 

hakataha to divert, to turn away, to 

go aside, to be on one side, to 

dodge, to shun, oblique, to incline 

the head, to turn over on another 

side, to avoid, to subject. 

mata hakataha, to consider. 

toe hakataha, immovable. 

P Mgv.: taha, near by, close; akataha, to 

shun, to avoid, to evade. Mq.: 

taha, to go, to wEJk. Ta. : taha, side. 

The earliest signification in Nuclear 

Polynesia is the side of an object. This 

occurs as to/a in Samoa and Futuna, as 

tafaaki in Tonga, and in the latter as pala- 

taha in the sense of all on one side. We 

find the same sense of the side in Tahiti 

and Maori taha, Rarotonga too. In Nuclear 

Polynesia we fiiid also the secondary sense 

of going to one side which readily passes 

into the senses recorded from Southeast 

Polynesia, and from the further sense of 



taha 1 — continued, 
going to one side and to another side we 
pass to the Marquesas of going in general. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 211.) 
taha 2 to tear. 
PS Mgv. : tahataha, to cut into pieces. 
Sa., To., Fu. : tafa, to cut, to gash. Viti: 

tava, id. 
In Nuclear Polynesia this is but one of 
several cutting words, and in every case it 
connotes particularly the result of the cut- 
ting rather than the act or the manner of 
the act. Thus we find it easy to pass to 
the expression of such result in Mangareva 
which we may regard as primal, and from 
that sense to Rapanui "tear" (sc. to 
pieces) may be regarded as dictionary 
error. 
tahae moe tahae, to be a light sleeper. 
tahaga 1 only, solely, alone, wholly, with- 
out stopping, always, quite, a sort 
of superlative. 
noho tahaga, bachelor. 
keukeu tahaga, to go without stopping. 
topa tahaga, quite unexpected. 
puoa tahaga, always clad. 
nui tahaga, to superabound. 
tatagi tahaga, inconsolable. 
roaroa tahaga, middle finger (the 

longest). 
tahaga no mai, a more positively 
superlative statement. 
P Mgv. : tahaga, only, alone, solely. Mq. : 
tahakahaka, stripped of brushwood. 
I have associated this with the Samoan 
ta/oga clear of trees, in order to point to a 
source of the Marquesas tahakahaka. The 
Rapanui sense of tahaga reappears only in 
Maori tahanga moderately, and in the 
Mangarevan above cited. It seems to me 
associable with a word for "one," taha, 
which occurs in Tonga and Niue. 
tahaga 2 irascible. 

tuhi tahaga, to accuse, to calumniate, 
tahaga 3 (taha 2) a sacrifice. 
tahatai (taha i-tai) littoral, coast, shore. 
tahatahatai coast. 
Ta. : tahatai, coast. 
tahe 1 to run freely, to flow (tehe 4). 
P Pau.: tahe, a river. Mgv., Mq.: tahe, 
to run, to flow, to melt, to liquefy. 
Ta.: tahe, to run, to flow. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 264.) 
tahe 2 to smooth out wrinkles (tehe 2). 
taheta fotmtain, spring. 
tahela pu, spring. 
pokopoko taheta, concave. 
Cf. Viti: ndaveta, as illuminating the 
possibility of a closed stem tafet. 
tahetoto {tahe i-toto) hemorrhage. 
tahi one, only, simple. 
te tahi, next. 
e tahi, anyone. 
e tahi no, unique, unity. 
e tahi e tahi, simultaneous. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : tahi, one. 
tahia to kill Q. 



RAPANUI-ENGWSH VOCABUIyARY. 



255 



tahito to intone. 

tahitorae intonation. 
tahu to assist. 
T Ma. : tahutahu, to attend upon. 

This is another of a small class in this 
speech which is found in Southeast Poly- 
nesia (commonly inRapanui only), Maori, 
and Hawaii. 
tahuga pair, to share out, to put in order, 
to (Ustribute. 
hakatahuga to put in pairs, to arrange. 
P (Metathetic from stem tufa). Mgv.: 
tahua, a collection of things prop- 
erly classified and kept in order. 
Mq. : tauna, a couple. 
tahuri to pirouette, to turn a boat. 

P Pau. : tahurihuri, to toss about. Mgv. : 
toftttrt, to turn oneself. Mq.itahui- 
hui, to have a rolling motion. 
Ta. : tahuri, to turn, to turn about. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 335.) 
tahuti 1 to run, to hasten together (tohuti). 
tahuti noa, irruption. 
hakatahuti to fight. 
T Mq. : tahuti, to run, to go quickly. 
tahuti 2 variable, varied. 
tai 1 salt water. 

taitai brackish, salty. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: tai, salt water. Mq.: 
taitai, to salt. Ta. : taitai, salty. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 418.) 
tai 2 sea, ocean. 

tai hati, breakers. 
tai hohonu, depths of the sea. 
tai kaukau, tide. 
tai negonego, tide. 
tai o, ripple. 
tai parera, tide. 
tai poko, breakers. 
tai titi, tide. 
tai ua, tide, ebb. 
tai vanaga, ripple. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : tai, sea, ocean. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 418.) 
taie to overflow, to go beyond. 

ku taie te tai, the sea floods high. 
taiko 1 fog, mist. 
taiko 2 to fertilize. 
. hakataiko id. 
taka 1 a dredge. 

P Mgv. : akataka, to fish all day or all 

night with the line, to throw the 

fishing line here and there. 

This can apply only to some sort of net 

used in fishing. We find in Samoa ta'd a 

small fishing line, Tonga taka the short 

line attached to fish hooks, Putuna taka- 

taka a fishing party of women in the reef 

pools (net), Maori taka the thread by which 

the fishhook is fastened to the line, Hawaii 

kaa in the same sense, Marquesas takakoa. 

badly spun thread, Mangareva takara a 

thread for fastening the bait on the hook. 

taka 2 ruddy. 

taka 3 wheel, arch. 

takataka ball, spherical, round, circle, 
oval, to roll in a circle, wheel, cir- 
cular piece of wood, around. 



taka 3 — continued. 

miro takataka, bush. 
haga takataka, to disjoin. 
hakatakataka to round, to concen- 
trate. 
P Pau.: fakatakataka, to whirl around. 
Mq.: taka, to gird. Ta.: taa, cir- 
cular piece which connects the 
frame of a house. 
takai a curl, to tie. 

takaikai to lace up. 
takaitakai to coil. 
P Pau. : takai, a ball, to tie. Mgv. : takai, 
a circle, ring, hoop, to go around 
a thing. Mq.: takai, to voyage 
around. Ta. : taai, to make into a 
ball, to attach. 
takapau 1 coldness. 
takapau 2 a fold, inside out. 
takapau 3 to swell up, tumor, dropsy, 

paralysis. 
takapau 4 to thrust into; a sheath, vagina. 
takapau 5 viri takapau, to go around. 
takarameta sacrament. 
takatore hipu takatore, plate, dish. 
takaure a fly (kakaure T). 
takaure iti, mosquito. 
takaure marere ke, swarm. 
Mgv. : takaure, a fly not found in dwell- 
ings. Mq. : tikaue, a fly. 
takeo bitter. 

Pau.: toifeeo, poisonous. Ta. : toeo, drunk, 
poisoned. 
takere hUl. 
taki a line. 

taki eeve, the buttocks. 
taki tua, vaha taki tua, the perineum. 
taki turi, gills. 
Mgv.: taki, line. Mq.: taki (in com- 
position), id. 
takoe thine. 

Pau.: takoe, id. 
taku prediction, prophecy, prognostic, to 
predict. 
tagata taku, wizard. 
P Ta.: tau, to invoke, to pray. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 225.) 
takurua full of stones, pebbly, stony, a path 

among the rodks. 
tama 1 child. 

P Pau.: tama-riki, child. Mgv.: lama, 
son, daughter, applied at any age. 
Mq. : tama, son, child, young of 
animals. Ta.: tama, child. 
tama 2 to align. 

tamaahine {tama i-ahine) daughter, female. 
tamaiti child. 

P Mq. : temeiti, temeii, young person. Ta. : 
tamaiti, child. 
tamaki to display. 
tamaroa boy, male. 
P Mgv. : tamaroa, boy, man, male. Mq. : 
tamaSa, boy. Ta. : tamaroa, id. 
tameti Saturday (Samedi). 
tana his. 

Pau., Ta.: tana, id. 
tanoa convolvulus T. 



256 



EASTER ISLAND. 



tanu to bury, to plant, to sow seed, to inter, 
to implant, to conceal. 
tagata lanukai, farmer. 
tanuaga burial. 

tanuaga papaku, funeral. 
tanuga plantation. 
tanuhaga funeral, tomb. 
P Pau. : tanu, to cultivate. Mgv. : tanu, 
to plant, to bury. Mq.: tanu, to 
plant, to sow. Ta. : tanu, to plant, 
to sow, to bury. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 308.) 
tao 1 to cook in an oven, to sacrifice. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : tao, to cook in an oven. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 248.) 
tao 2 to carry away. 

tao 3 abscess, bubo, scrofula, boil, gangrene, 
ulcer, inflammation, sore. 
Mgv.: taotaovere, small red spots show- 
ing the approach of death. Mq.: 
toopuku, toopuu, boil, wart, tumor. 
Ta. : taapu, taapuu, scrofula on neck 
and chin. 
taora convulsive, convulsion. 
tapa 1 border, fringe, edge, groin, cloth, 
clothing, dress, garment. 
tatapa lateral, bank. 
tapatapa edge. 
P Mgv. : tapa, the edge of bast cloth, bast 
cloth in general. Mq. : to/>o, fringe, 
cloth. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 248.) 
tapa 2 to name, to mention, to count, to cal- 
culate, to reckon, to number, to 
figure up, to recapitulate. 
tapa ki te igoa, to take a census. 
tapa igoa, list. 
tatapa to count, to number, to reckon. 
tapatapa to mention. 
P Mgv. : tapa, to give a pet name. Mq. : 
tapatapa, to recite, to invoke ; tatapa, 
to take the name of some one, 
to announce by name. Ta. : topa, 
to call by name. 
tapani chisel, scissors, chopper, to shear, 

comb. 
taperenakero tabernacle. 
tapoke to go hither and thither, to stumble, 

to trip, to waver. 
(tapona) hakatapona irresolute, to talk to 

oneself. 
tapu to forbid, to prohibit, sacred, holy. 
hakatapu to forbid, to prohibit, to 
make holy, to consecrate. 
P Pau.: tapu, to swear; fakatapu, to give 
sanction to. Mgv., Mq., Ta.: tapu, 
sacred, holy, forbidden, prohibited. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 263.) 
tapua holy. 
tapuna (tupuna). 
tara 1 dollar. 

moni tara, id. 
tara 2 thorn, spine, horn. 

taratara prickly, rough, full of rocks. 

P Pau.: taratara, a ray, a beam; tare, a 

spine, a thorn. Mgv. : tara, spine, 

thorn, horn, crest, fishbone. Mq. : 



tara 2 — continued. 

tad, spine, needle, thorn, sharp 
point, dart, harpoon. Ta. : tara, 
spine, horn, spur. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 238.) 
tara 3 to announce, to proclaim, to promul- 
gate, to call, to slander. 
tatara to make a genealogy. 
P Pau. : fakatara, to enjoin. Mq. : tad, to 
cry, to call. 
tarai 1 deluge, sound of water. 
ua tarai, a smart shower. 
tarai 2 to carve, to square, to rough-hew, 
to shape. 
taraia rough-hewn. 
P Pau.: tarai, to cut, to hew, to carve. 
Mgv.: toroi, to rough-hew, to carve. 
Mq.: tadi, to cut, to rough-hew, 
to work wood or stone. Ta. : 
tarai, to cut, to fashion. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 310.) 
tarake maize. 
tari 1 to pluck, to gather, to reap, to load. 

kai taria te kai, abundance. 
tari 2 to lead, to carry. 

hakatari to conduct, to guide, to direct, 
to escort, to carry, to bring, to pay. 
hakatari miro, pilot. 
hakatariga payment. 
T Pau.: tari, to carry. Mgv.: tari, to 
carry, to transport ; akatari, to lead, 
to accompany. Mq. : tai, to carry. 
Ta. : tari, to carry. 
I am never cordially inclined to suggest 
that there is such a thing as a "natural 
metaphor," which some students have 
employed, for the habit of thought varies 
in gross and in every minute detail 
between the undeveloped savage of these 
islands and the European. But we may 
note an interesting parallel: in English 
we may say "take me to Boston" and 
"take the barrel to Boston," lead and 
carry in the same word. Accordingly we 
need not segregate these senses in this 
stem. 
tariga ear, earring. 

iariga hakarogo, faithful, observant, 

submissive. 
tariga kikiu, din, buzzing. 
tariga meitaki, to have good hearing. 
tariga pogeha, deaf, to disobey. 
tariga puru, disobedient. 
tariga purua, stubborn. 
P Pau.: tariga, ear. Mgv.: tariga, dar- 
ling; teriga, ear. Mq.: puaina, 
puaika, ear. Ta. : taria, id. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 415.) 
tarigariga chain. 
tarirapa to gather. 
tare Caladium esculentum T. 

P Mgv., Ta. : tare, id. Mq. : too, id. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 415.) 
tarotaro to chide, to censure, to curse, to 
reproach; cross, angry, impatient, 
irascible, quarrelsome, rude, severe, 
vindictive. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



257 



tarotaro — continued. 

ragi tarotaro, to threaten. 
PS Mq.: talaoho, to insult, to abuse; 
tatao, to pray, to devote to the 
good. Ta.: tarotaro, prayer. 
Sa. . lalosaga, a prayer. To. : talotalo, 
to cast lots; talo-monu, to solicit by 
actions the blessing of the gods. 
Fu. : talalo, to desire; latalo-veli, 
malediction, to wish one evil. Viti : 
tataro, to prevent. (The Polyne- 
sian Wanderings, 236.) 
We find grave diflSculty in establishing 
the interrelations of these senses because 
we have no satisfactory record of the Poly- 
nesian connotations of the act of prayer. 
In many instances it seems most to ap- 
proximate imprecation, and from this 
sense the Rapanui, Marquesan, and Viti 
derive as particulars. But the Tonga and 
Futuna words are directed in bonam 
partem. In Samoan legend the story of 
the Thumb of Leutogi records an " answer 
to prayer" according to the dialect of the 
utmost orthodoxy. All theology is ex 
parte, but theology ex partibus infidelium, 
reported through missionary channels, 
offers scant prospect of being a valuable 
contribution to the study of comparative 
religion. 
tarupu I to oppose, to prevent, to hinder, 
to shackle, to interfere, to interpose, 
to intervene, obstacle, to dissuade, 
to stop. 
hakatarupu to set an obstacle. 
tarupuhaga obstacle, hindrance. 
tarupu 2 to aid, to contribute, to defend, 
to interest, to protect, to help, to 
save, to succor, to sustain, to sup- 
port, to urge; favor, zeal, service, 
protection, advocate, mediator. 
tarupuhaga protection, succor, sup- 
port. 
taruri sprain. 

taruriruri to go hither and thither, to 
waver. 
tata I agony, severe pain, apparent death. 

Mgv. : ta, to feel darting pain. 
tata 2 next, proximity. 

hakatata to bring close together. 
P Mgv. : tata, close, near by. Mq. : tata, 
close, near by, proximity. Pau. : 
hakafatata, to draw near again. 
tata 3 to strike. 

tata ei taura, to flog, to lash. 
tata 4 to wash, to clean, to soap, to rinse. 

Mq. : tata, to wash, to clean. 
tata S to appear, to approach, to advance, 
to present. 
hakatata to advance, to propose, to 
accost. 
tataga a body wholly consumed. 
tatagi (tagi). 

tatagiragi itagi-ragi 2) condolence. 
tataku to add, to calculate, to number. 
Mq., Ta. : tatau, to count, to calculate, 
to number. 
tatane Satan. 



tatapa (tapa). 
tatapu border, edge. 

Mgv.: taputapu, tail of a fish, end, 
extremity. 
tatara (tara). 

tatari to wait for, to expect, to hope. 
toe tatari, despair. 
tatarihaga hope. 
P Pau., Ta. : tatari, to wait for. Mq. : 
tdtai, tetai, to wait for, to hope. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 200.) 
tatau to milk. 

PS Sa., Fu., Niue: tatau, to milk. 
tatou we. 

to tatou, no tatou, ours. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta., Pau.: tatou, we. 
tau 1 year, season, epoch, age. 

P Pau. : tau, a season, period. Mgv. : 
tau, a year, the season of breadfruit. 
Mq. : tau, year. Ta. : tau, season, 
time. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 309.) 
tau 2 fit, worthy, deserving, opportune. 

toe tau, impolite, ill-bred, unseemly. 
pei ra tau, system. 
PS Mgv.: tau, fit, suitable, proper. 
Sa. : tau, right, proper. To.: tau, be- 
coming, fit, proper, agreeable. Fu. : 
tau, fit, proper. 
tau 3 to perch. 

P Pau.: tau, a perch for a bird. Mgv.: 
tau, to mount on a person's back. 
Mq. : tau, to perch, to rest on. 
Ta. : tau, to perch, to alight on. 
tau 4 to hang. 

hakatau necklace. 
hakatautau to append. 
P Pau. : fakatautau, to hang up. Mq. : 
tautau, id. Ta. : faatautau, id. 
tau 5 anchor. 

kona tau, anchorage, port. 
PMq.: tetoM, anchor. Ta. :toM, id. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 237.) 
tau 6 to fight. 

hakatau challenge, to defy, to incite. 
hakatautau to rival. 
P Ma. : whakatatau, to quarrel. 
taua 1 to come to, to board. 

P Mgv., Mq. : tau, to arrive, to land. 
taua 2 battle, war, fray (toua). 
taua we two. 

P Mgv., Mq.: taua, id. 
tauaki to hang out clothes, to air. 

Mq. : touaki, touai, to liang out clothes 
to air and sun, to dry. Ta..:tauai,id. 
tauamimi R (tagamimi). 
tauga to distribute, a district. 
tauhoru heetu tauhoru, morning star. 
taukete brother-in-law, sister-in-law. 
T Pau. : taokete, taukete, id. Mgv. : tokete, 
id. Mq. : tokete, toete, id. Ta.: 
taoete, id. 
To., Niue: taokete, an elder brother or 

sister. 
The word is in a state of hopeless con- 
fusion as to the former element. The 
presence of taukete in Paumotu establishes 
the Rapanui form as a recognized variety. 



258 



EASTER ISLAND. 



taukete — continued. 

Mangareva and Marquesas have suffered 
the loss of a. The sense in its two occur- 
rences in Nuclear Polynesia is that of 
uterine relationship, in the Tongafiti it is 
afiSnity, to which the Maori adds the par- 
ticularly interesting item of the relation- 
ship inter se of a man's several wives, rela- 
tives by marriage. We do not identify 
either tao or kete singly in any sense sug- 
gesting family ties. 
taura thread, cord, twine, strand. 
taura hiri, to make a cord. 
pupu taura, whiplash. 
lata ei taura, to flog, to lash. 
T Mgv. : toura, cord, string. Mq. : toud, 
cord, Ta.: taura, cord, thread, 
twine. 
tautau fertile (toutou). 
hakatautau to fertilize. 
Mq.: tautau, fertile; hadtautau, to fer- 
tilize. 
taviri key, lock, to turn a crank. 
hakataviri a pair of compasses. 
T Mgv. : taviri, a key, a lock, to lock, to 
twist. Mq.: kavii, a crank; tavii, 
to twist, to turn. Ta. : taviri, a key, 
to turn, to twist. 
The element viri shows that the primal 
sense is that of causing a motion in rota- 
tion. The key and lock significations are, 
of coiuse, modem and negligible. 
te 1 the, this, which. 
ko te, the. 
T Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta. : te, the. 
See note under e 8. 
t6 2 negative prepositive; without, not. 

hiri ti reka, to walk without noise. 
T Mgv. : te, no, not, without. Mq. : te, 
not (postpositive). 
See note under e 6. 
tea 1 to shine, be bright, brilliant, white. 
tea niho, enamel of the teeth. 
ata tea, dawn, 
teatea white, blond, pale, colorless, 
invalid. 
rauoho teatea, red hair. 
hakateatea to blanch, to bleach. 
P Pau.: faatea, to clear, to brighten. 
Mgv.: tea, white, blanched, pale. 
Mq.: /ea, white, clear, pure, limpid. 
Ta. : tea, white, brilliant. 
tea 2 proud, vain, haughty, arrogance, to 
boast. 
toe tea, humble. 
teatea arrogant, bragging, pompous, 
ostentatious, to boast, to show off, 
haughty. 
hakateatea to show off. 
Mgv.: akateatea, pride, vanity, osten- 
tatious, to be puffed up. Ta.: 
teoieo, boastful, proud, haughty. 
teaniho enamel of the teeth, 
(tee) hakatee to disembowel, to eviscerate 

(cf. tehe 3) 
(tega) hakatega to encroach. 
tehe I to come, to arrive. 



tehe 1 — continued. 

tehe oho te ikapotu, to abut. 
tehe e turn, through and through, 
tehe 2 to smooth out wrinkles (tahe 2). 
tehe 3 to cut. 

tehetehe notch. 
P Pau.: tehega, circumcision; tehe, to cas- 
trate. Mgv.: tehe, to circumcise, 
to castrate, to cut well, to sting 
deeply. Mq. : tehe, to cut, to 
castrate, to circumcise. Ta. : tehe, 
to castrate. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 265.) 
tehe 4 to spurt, to spout, to melt (tahe i ) . 

hakatehe to liquefy. 
tehetoto {tehe 4.-toto) hemorrhage. 
tehi to sneeze (tehu Q). 

T Mgv., Mq. : tihe, id. Ta. : maitihe, id. 
tehu to cough (cf. tehi). 
teina younger brother or sister or cousin. 
P Pau., Mgv., Ta.: teina, young;er 
brother or sister. Mq. : teina, teid, 
id. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
193) 
teitei to grow, to increase, to raise, to ele- 
vate, height. 
hakateitei to be plentiful. 
T Pau.: teitei, high, exalted. Mgv.: 
teitei, high, lofty. Mq. : teitei, 
high, elevated, great, developed. 
Ta, : teitei, elevated, great. 
The germ sease is that of height; the 
secondary sense of increase in any dimen- 
sion is found additional in Rapanui, Mar- 
quesas and Tahiti. 
tekai curl, a round ball, as of twine. 
(tekateka) hakatekateka rudder, helm, 
teke teke ki nei, as far as, until (? tehe i). 
tekeo weak; cold, chilly (tekoo). 
tekeo meniri, to cool, to chill. 
metaku ki te tekeo, sensitive to cold, 
tekeotekeo chilled. 
Mgv. : tekeo, sickness provoked by eat- 
ing certain fish and causing pain in 
all the limbs. 
teketeke crest, ridge. 
teki to traverse. 
tekiteki id. 
tekiteki lame, on the point of going, to hop 
on one foot, to skip. 
tekiteki ke, a new paragraph, break. 
Mq. : teki, lame, to limp. Ta. : tei, to 
jump on one foot, to hop. 
tekoo (tekeo). 
tena that. 

T Pau., Mq., Ta.: tena, id. 
tenei this. 

T Mgv., Mq. : tenei, id. 
teni hopohopo teni, to languish. 
teo to cool. 
teperanate serpent, 
(tepetepe) hakatepetepe kahu hakatepe- 

tepe, jib. 
tepuhanga light variable rain winds T. 
tera every one. 

ko mea tera, that. 
teratera each. 
T Pau., Mgv., Ta. : tera, that. 



RAPANUI-ENGI^ISH VOCABULARY. 



259 



tere to depart, to run, to take leave, to 
desert, to escape, to go away, to 
flee, fugitive, to sail, to row, to take 
refuge, to withdraw, to retreat, to 
save oneself. 
terea rest, defeat. 
^ tetere to beat a retreat, to go away, 
^ ' refugee. 

teretere to go away, hurrah. 
hakatere to set free, to despatch, to 
expel, to let go, to liberate, to con- 
quer, helmsman. 
terega departure, sailing. 
teretai a sailor. 

Pau. : tere, to set out; teretere, to row, to 
paddle; fakateretere, to navigate. 
Mgv.: tere, to sail well, to steer; 
akatere, to be in earnest. Mq. : tee, 
to sail, to go away. Ta.: tere, to 
sail, to advance. 
tetahi (te i-tahi) another, each, anyone. 
ki tetahi koona ke, somewhere else. 
T Pau.: tetahi, other, different. Mq. : 
tetahi, one, other, also, 
(tete) nihotete, to gnash the teeth. 
tetetete fever, to tremble. 
P Mgv. : tete, to shiver with cold. Mq. : 
iete, to tremble, to shiver, to show 
the teeth; hadtete i te niho, to gnash 
the teeth. Ta.: tete, to make a 
noise, to chatter. 
tetere (tere). 
ti 1 dracsena. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta.: ti, id. 
« 2 tea. 
tia to sew (tiha Q). 

T Mgv. : tia, to prick, to pierce, to stick in. 
tiaki 1 rubbish. 

PS Sa. : tia'i, to throw away. To. : jiaki, 
to abandon, to cast away. Fu., 
Nine: tiaki, to throw away. 
This varies from the Proto-Samoan 
primitive only in that it is entered in the 
vocabulary as noun, a situation paralleled 
in our speech where one word does duty 
for the verb waste and the noun denomin- 
ating the thing wasted. 
tiaki 2 to furrow, to plough, to empty the 

earth from a hole. 
tiaki 3 to guard, to watch over, to conserve, 
to close up, to obstruct, to take pre- 
cautions, vigilant, responsible, sen- 
tinel, to preserve. 
tiaki puaka, swineherd. 
tiaki mutone, shepherd. 
tiaki haha, doorkeeper. 
toe tiaki, imprudent. 
T Mgv. : tiaki, to guard, to preserve, to 
watch over. Mq. : tiaki, tiai, to 
guard, to watch, to protect. Ta.: 
tiai, to guard, to protect. 
tiaporo devil {diabolus). 

tute tiaporo, exorcise. 
tigai to put a stop to, to extinguish, to exter- 
minate, to kill, to sacrifice. 
P Mgv. : tinai, to strike, to kill. Mq. : 
tinai, to extinguish, to kill. Ta.: 



tigai — continued. 

tinai, to extinguish, to put a stop to. 
The mutation n-g is peculiar to Rapanui 
in this word. In Samoa are two forms, 
tinai and tinei, of which only the latter 
is found in Maori. 
tigaipoki (tigai— poki) infanticide. 
tigairo homicide. 

tigi 1 a blow, to repress, to reprimand. 
tigiga a blow. 

tigitigi to box, to dent, to bruise, to 
chastise, to correct, to strike, to 
whip, to wound, to punch with the 
fist, to punish, to tortiu'e. 
tigitigi matua, parricide. 
tigitigiga punishment. 
titigi dispute, massacre, repression. 
tigi 2 a small stone hatchet, 
(tigo) haatigo to accompany. 
tigotigi to beat to death (? tigitigi). 
tiha manava tiha, shortness of breath. 
tika class. 

ivi tika, fishbone, spine. 
kiko te ivi tika, pancreas. 
hakatika rava hakatika, to follow a 
track. 
T Ta.: tiaa, band, society. 

We lack the data wherewith to establish 
the Maori tika, straight, in connection with 
the Rapanui and Tahiti words, which are 
clearly allied inter se. But the Maori 
establishes the sense in ivitika and haka- 
tika: also see titika. 
tikea to see, to feel, to recognize, to per- 
ceive, to know, manifest, to appre- 
ciate. 
tikea mai, to appear, visible. 
tikea horahorau, to skim a book. 
tae tikea, unknown, invisible, mis- 
understand, unperceived, unheard, 
tikeahaga science, a dream. 
hakatikea to announce, to make known, 
to prove, to propose, to prejudice, 
to show, immodest. 
hakatikeahaga instruction. 
P (metathetic kite) Pau.: kite, to see, to 
know. Mgv.: tikei, to appear, 
become visible. Mq. : tike, to see, 
to know. Ta. : ite, to know, to 
comprehend. 
tiki sick, ill. 
tiko menstruation. 

P Pau. : titiko, to evacuate the bowels. 
Mgv.: tiko, menstruation, defeca- 
tion. Mq. : tiko, to carry away 
excrement. Ta. : titio, to void 
excrement. 
Rapanui and Mangareva alone employ 
this of the catamenia. That which is dis- 
charged is but an accident of the word, the 
sense lies in the act of evacuation from 
the body. 
time mourning, grief, sorrow; (clappers 
made of flat bones etintoika; when 
an islander is working up his ven- 
geance for the loss of a murdered 
kinsman he puts on a feather head- 



260 



EASTER ISLAND. 



timo — continued. 

dress, goes about behind the houses, 
and makes great yelling and rattles 
the bones Q). 
tini 1 a great number, innumerable, infinite, 
indefinite. 
tinitini million, billion. 
T Pau. : tinitini, innumerable. Mgv. ; 
tini, a countless number, infinite. 
Mq.: tini, id. Ta.: <j»«, numerous. 
tini 2 

raa tini, noon. 
tini po, midnight. 
ki te tini te raa, zenith. 
topa tini, abortion. 
As tinai, middle, midst; in a closer 
approximation as tine in tine-kpwon mid- 
night and tine-hwomaran noon, this stem 
seems to have been preserved in Mota, 
therefore it is Proto-Samoan. 
tino body, matter. 

mea tino, material. 
tino kore, incorporeal. 
P Pau. : tino, a matter, a subject. Mgv. : 
tino, the body, trunk. Mq. : tino, 
nino, the body. Ta. : tino, id. 
tipatipa to shake, contortion, drunk. 

hakatipatipa to shake. 
tipi hip. 

titaa crack, demarcation, line, limit, to 
border on, to bound, to measure 
(titaha). 
hakatitaa to limit. 
T Mgv. : titaha, to lie on the side, to be on 
the sides of. Ta.: titaha, oblique, 
long. 
The common element in all these com- 
paratives is taha the side, but the second- 
ary senses of the compound vary widely, 
and in Tahiti the primal sense does not 
appear at all. 
titi 1 landing-place, shore, to return to the 

boat. 
titi 2 hammer, to nail, to affix, to adjust, to 
construct, to build, to fix, to set up 
a wall, to remain fixed, strict, to 
crucify (titihia). 
titi nui, club. 

titi ki te pa, to inclose, to wall up. 
titititi to close up. 
hakatiti to adjust. 
T Mgv. : titi, to excavate a hole with a peg 
or a pin. Ta.: titi, nail, pin, peg, 
stake, to nail, to fix, to adhere, to 
stick. 
titi 3 to fill up, fuU, plenty, to suffice, to 
mass. 
hurihuri titi, full. 
tai titi, high tide. 
titia fuU. 

Iiakatiti to accumulate, to glut, to aug- 
ment, to supply, to multiply, to 
fructify. 
titigi (tigi). 

titika worthy, exact, formal, lawful, moral, 
honest, sincere, truthful, circum- 
spect, direct, right, impartial, real, 



titi ka — continued. 

proper, legal, reasonable, regular, 
just, to approve, correct. 
toe titika, incorrect, unjust, impolite, 

insufficient. 
titika kore, indirect. 
titika noa, sincere, indubitable. 
tagata titika, heritage. 
aaki ki te mea titika, to attest. 
titikaga power, authority, primacy, 
preeminence, supremacy, reason. 

titikahia due. 

hakatitika to accept, to administer, to 
agree, to appoint, to approve, to 
attest, to authorize, to complete, to 
combine, to decide, to decree, to 
direct, to align, to legalize, to ratify, 
to redress, to reform, to regulate, to 
subscribe, to sanction. 
koona hakatitika, a rendezvous. 
Iiakatitikahaga to accredit, contract, 
agreement, formality, justice, com- 
pact, rule, report, title, tribute, tax, 
assessment. 
T Pau. : pai-titika, direct, straight, per- 
pendicular. Mgv. : tika, right, true, 
just, in a straight fine. Mq.: tid, 
to put in line, to judge, to affirm, 
to bear witness. Ta.: tia, right, 
exact, just. 
titikamaaki direct, perfect. 

tae titikamaaki, indirect, imperfect. 
titimiro {titi 2-miro) mallet, maul. 
titipa {titi 2-pa i) mason. 
titiri to abandon, to abjure. 

rima titiri, to walk with the hands 
behind the back. 
T Pau.: titiri, to abandon, to leave, to 
abjure, to deny. Mgv.: iiri, to 
throw away, to reject, to neglect, 
to lose. Mq.: tii, titii, to throw 
away, to reject, to abandon, to 
leave behind. Ta. : titiri, to reject, 
to throw away. 
titiro to admire. 

P Ma. : tiro, to gaze at. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 422.) 
titivai {titi 3-vai) to cover with water. 
tito frugal. 

tiio koroiti, saving, economical. 
to 1 of. 

T Pau., Ta.: to, of. Mgv.: to, genitive 
sign. Mq. : to, of, for. 
to 2 this, which. 
tea 1 moa toa, cock. 

P Pau.,Mgv.,Mq., Ta.: toa, brave. Mq.: 
toa, male. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 423.) 
toa 2 sugarcane. 
T Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta. : to, id. 

(To., Niue: to, id. Sa., Fu.: tola, id.) 
This form occurs only in Rapanui. In 
New Zealand, where the plant does not 
grow, the name is applied to any similar 
haulm. 
toauira (too 2-uira) spyglass. 



RAPANUI-:eNGIyISH VOCABULARY. 



261 



toega remainder, residue, that which is left 
over, surplus, supplement, super- 
fluity. 
kai toega, to eat the leavings. 
P Pau.: toega, residue. Mgv.: toe, to 
remain, surplus. Mq.: toe, to be 
left over; toena, toeka, remainder. 
Ta. : toe, to be left over, to remain. 
toga I winter. 
P Pau., Mgv.; toga, south. Mq.: tuaioka, 
east wind. Ta. : toa, south. 
toga 2 post, column, prop. 
togatoga prop, stay. 
togariki northeast wind. 
togihia blessed. 

Mgv. : togi, to bless, to praise. 
tohuti to run, to gallop, to trot, to make 
haste, to escape, to depart, to dis- 
perse, to be precipitate (tahuti). 
rava tohuti, to scamper. 
tohuti no, supple. 
T Mgv. : tahuti, to dissipate, to scatter. 
Mq. : tohuti, to run, to gallop, to 
make haste. 
tohutihaga precipitation. 
toka a rock under water. 

P Mgv. : toka, coral. Mq. : toka, a bank 
where the fishing is good. Ta. : 
toa, rock, coral. 
tokatagi sorrow T. 
toke to dupe, to extort, to usurp. 

toketoke to steal, to rob, to extort, to 

defraud, to spoil, thief. 
Mq. : hadtokeS, to retain, to refuse to 
give up. 
tokea a dupe. 
tokenoho intruder. 

tokerau wind, breeze, whistling of the wind, 
season, south. 
ragi tokerau, wind clouds. 
tokerau aho, west. 
PPau.: tokerau, north. Mgv.: tokorau, 
north. Mq. : tokodu, west. Ta. : 
toerau, north, northwest. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 215.) 
toki axe, stone hatchet, stone tool [tanki T 
= }tauki — toki). 
maea toki, hard slates, black, red, and 
gray, used for axes T. 
P Pau. : toki, to strike, the edge of tools, 
an iron hatchet. Mgv.: toki, an 
adze. Mq. : tofo', axe, hatchet. Ta.: 
toi, axe. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 310.) 
tokini stocking. 

tokini rima, glove. 
tokoe thine, yours. 

Pau. : tokoe, thine. 
tokoma dog. 

tokotoko stick, cane, crutches, axe helve, 
roller, pole, staff. 
P Pau. : tokotoko, walking stick. Mgv. : 
toko, a pole, stilts, staff. Mq.: 
tokotoko, tootod, stick, cane, staff. 
Ta. : too, id. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 420.) 



toku mine. 

Pau.: toku, thine. Mgv.: toku, mine. 
Ta.: to'u, thine. 
tominika Sunday, week. 
tomo to contain, to penetrate, to enter, to 
slip in, to sink. 
kona mo tomo, port, harbor. 
tomoa to board. 

hakatomo to introduce, to drive in, to 
recruit. 
P Pau. : fakatomo, to cause to penetrate, 
to insert. Mgv. : tomo, to enter, to 
sink. Mq. : tomo, to enter, to con- 
tain. Ta. : tomo, to enter, to sink. 
tona his. 

P Pau., Mgv., Ta. : tona, id. 
to no to remove, to pass over. 

tono mai tono atu, to pull one another 
about. 
hakatono to balance, to thrust back, 

to rush upon. 
tonotono to rush upon, to shovel, a 

spade. 
totono to drive back. 
tonokio to strike. 

too 1 to adopt, to take, to acquire, to admit, 
to accept, to gather, to dispose, to 
seize, to pull up, to extirpate, 
stripped, to withdraw, to intercept, 
to frustrate, to touch, to employ, to 
serve, 
toe too, to renounce. 
Mq. : too, to take, to receive, to accept, 
to adopt, to seize, to pull up. 
too 3 raa too, noon. 
too 3 numeral prefix. 
P Mgv. : toko, id. Mq. : toko, too, id. 
Ta.: too, id. 
Samoa and Futuna use to'a and toka, 
Tonga and Nine use toko, and the re- 
mainder of Polynesia uses the latter form. 
tooa kai tooa, intact, entire, whole. 

paea tooa, to deprive. 
tooku (toku). 
toona (tona). 

tootahi to give one his share. 
topa 1 wine. 

topa tahaga, id. 
topa 2 to fall in drops, to descend, to go 
down, to abdicate. 
topa iho, to fall. 
hakatopa to knock down, to cause to 
fall. 
hakatopa ki raro, to knock down, to 
subjugate. 
Pau. : topa, to fall, to go down, to err, to 
miss. Mgv. : topa, to fall from a 
height, to let fall; akatopa, to van- 
quish, to conquer. Mq. : topa, to 
fall, to descend. Ta. : topa, to fall. 
Compare with the Mota topa, to fall 
from a tree as a ripe fruit or leaf, the Samoa 
topala to fall rotten-ripe; in the latter case 
Pratt seems to have identified pala as a 
composition member and from it to have 
derived the rotten sense. 



262 



EASTER ISLAND. 



topa 3 chUdbirth, abortion. 
topa te poki, to lie in. 
Mq.: tama topa, abortive child. Ta.: 
topa, abortion. 
topa 4 a feast, to feast. 
topa S to arrive, to result. 
topa roe, new come. 
topa iho, to come unexpectedly. 
topa ke, to deviate. 
topa no mat, topa hakanaa, topa 

tahaga, mau topa pu, unexpected. 
topa okotahi, solitary. 
hakatotopa to excite, to foment. 
topa 6 bad, low, cheap, failure. 
igoa topa, nickname. 
ariga topa, sinister, sly, ill-tempered, 
to hang the head. 
hakatopa to disparage. 
hakatotopa irresolute. 
Pau.: topa, to miss, to err. Mgv.: 
topa, to miss, to fail. Mq. : topa, 
to lose, to miss, to fail. 
topa 7 (of upward movement). 

topa hi raro, to scale, to surpass. 
hakatopa hakatopa hi te ao, to confer a 
dignity. 
hakatopa ki te kahu, to spread a sail. 
hakatotopa to make a genealogy. 
topahaga detachment. 
topanihi to fall head foremost. 
topapu mau topapu, quite unexpected. 

Mgv.: topapu, to fall before maturity, 
to drop behind, to lag. 
toparia to crumble, ruin. 

hakatoparia to demolish. 
topatagi grief. 
topatini abortion. 
tope soap, to wash clothes. 
toro cattie {taureau). 
puaka toro, ox. 
toromiro the heaviest and hardest wood, 

it is used for tapa beaters T. 
toru three. 

hakatoru triple. 
P Mgv., Ta. : toru, three. Mq. : toli, id. 
torutahi Trinity. 

toto blood, bloody, to let blood, to make 
bloody, to bleed, to dissolve, rust. 
ariga toto, florid, ruddy complexion. 
hakatehe ki te toto, to bleed. 
toto pine, to bruise. 
toto Ohio, iron rust. 
Mgv., Mq.: toto, blood. Ta.: toto, 
blood, sap. 
totoi to extirpate, to drag away, to pull, to 
haul. Mq. : toi, to puU, to haul, to 
drag away. 
totona to improve. 
totono (tono). 
totopa (topa). 

totoro to go on all fours, to creep, to crawl, 
to drag oneself along. 
aka totoro, to take root. 
P Pau. : totoro, to creep, to go on all fours. 
Mgv.: totoro, to crawl on hands 
and knees. Mq.: <otoo, to crawl, to 
hobble. Ta. : totoro, to crawl. 



totoua (toua). 
tou thine. 

TTa.: to'u, id. 
to-u to blame, to censure. 
PSSa.: to'u, to scold. 
toua wrath, anger, rage, revenge, battle, 
combat, debate, dispute, dissen- 
sion, uprising, revolt, quarrel, fight, 
hostility (taua). 
toua roe, to provoke. 
rae toua, to open hostilities. 
toua kakai, to rebuke. 
tuki toua, to stir up dissension. 
totoua hostility. 
hakatoua fighter, warrior. 
P Mgv. : toua, war, battle. Mq. : toua, 
war, dispute, quarrel. 
The form in o is found only in these 
three languages, taua is found in the gen- 
eral migration, Rapanui is the only speech 
which has boti. 
toutou fertile (tautau). 
hakatoutou to fertilize. 
Mq.: tautau, fertile. 
touvae to run. 

hakauruuru toia/ae, id. 
tova kahu tova, jib. 
tu to mix, to confound. 
tua 1 behind, back, rear. 
ki tua, after. 
o tua, younger. 
taki tua, perineum. 
P Pau. : tua, the back. Mgv. : tua, the 
back, the rear, behind. Mq. : tua, 
back, spine, rear. Ta.: tua, the 
back. 
tua 2 sea urchin, echinus. 
T Mgv. : tttatai, tuahuru, crayfish. Mq. : 
Ta.: tua, echinus. 
The word must have a germ sense indi- 
cating something spinous which will be 
satisfactorily descriptive of the sea urchin 
all spines, iht prawn with antennae and 
thin long legs, and in the Maori the shell 
of Mesodesma spissa. 
tuaapapa haunch, hip, spine T. 
tuahaigoigo tattooing on the back. 
tuahuri abortion. 

poki tuahuri, abortive child. 
tuaivi spine, vertebrae, back, loins (tuivl Q). 
mate mai te tuaivi, ill at ease. 
PS Sa.: tuasivi, the backbone. Ma.: 
tuaiwi, the back. 
tuakana elder, elder brother. 

tuakana tamaahine, elder sister. 
T Pau.: tuakana, eldest boy, eldest girl, 
elder brother. Mgv.: tuakana, a 
man's elder brother, a woman's el- 
der sister. Mq.: tuakana, tuadna, 
id. Ta.: tuaana, id. 
Cf. Sa. : tua' a, brother, sister. 
tuamouga mountain summit. 

Ta. : tuamoua, chain of mountains. 
tuatua to glean. 

tugu to cough, rheum (tuhu Q). 
tugutugu asthma, to have a cold. 



RAPANUI-ENGIvISH VOCABULARY. 



263 



tugutugu adolescent, young children, 
virile. 
kope tugutugu, youth T. 
tuha to distribute, to share, to divide, to 
apportion, part, district. 
tuha e rtia, to share in two. 
tuha muri, those who remain to be 
served after the others. 
P Mgv. : tuha, to divide, to portion out. 
Mq., Ta.: tufa, tuha, id. 
I have assigned tahuga to this stem as a 
metathetic form because in sense it com- 
ports therewith and because no stem from 
which it might derive directly could afford 
the signification. It will be observed that 
tufa in its proper form is found in all but 
Paumotu of Southeast Polynesia. The 
metathetic tahuga is identifiable in Rapa- 
nui, Mangareva and Marquesas; therefore 
we conclude that the metathesis was estab- 
lished in the parent of these three lan- 
guages and has persisted even when over- 
laid by a migration which brought the 
stem in its proper form. 
tuhai old, ancient, antique, inveterate, lon- 
gevity. 
tuhaituhai long ago. 
hakatuhai to delay, postpone. 
PSSa.: tuai, former, older, to be along 
time. To.: tuai, slow, dilatory, to 
be long. Nine: tuai, old, ancient, 
a long time. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 311.) 
Nowhere else in the history of this word 
do we find the aspirate; its absence from 
Tonga, a speech very conservative of the 
Proto-Samoan aspiration, is proof that in 
Rapanul it is intrusive, or erroneously 
reported. 
tuhi I to point the finger, to show, to indi- 
cate, to design. 
tuhi auha, middle finger. 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq.: tuhi, to point the 
finger, to show. 
tuhi 2 suspicion, to alienate, to estrange, 
to censure, to be painful, to accuse 
falsely. 
tuhi no mai, to accuse. 
tuhi tahaga, to accuse, to decry. 
tuhi tahaga no mai, calumny, to sus- 
pect. 
tuhi reoreo, to charge. 
tuhitaga invective, to curse. 
Mq. : tuhi, to impute, to accuse, to 
curse, to insult. Ta. : tuhi, to curse. 
tui to expel. 
tuitui gold T. 
tukaga porringer (tukuga). 
tuke 1 leaf. 
tuke 2 nape. 

P Ma. : tuke, the elbow. 

Physically the sense is not quite clear. 
There is a Polynesian stem tuke, of which 
the basic signification is an angle. This is 
found in Samoa tu'e in tu'elima the knuck- 
les, in Tonga tuke the knuckles, in Nine 
tukeua the shoulder and probably in tukiua 
nape, in Maori and Mangareva tuke the 



tuke 2 — continued, 
elbow, in Tahiti oiue the fingertips, in 
Hawaii kue any object with an angle, in 
Paumotu tuketuke a bend or angle. The 
agreement of Rapanui and Nine upon the 
nape is scarcely a matter of such observa- 
tion as is possible to us, for in the erect 
carriage and upstanding poise of the Poly- 
nesian head the angle at the seventh cer- 
vical vertebra is not the disfigurement 
which it becomes in certain occupational 
kjfphoses. 
tuke 3 a pile, pier. 
tukegao (tuke 2-gao) gullet. 
tukepaka leafless. 
tuki 1 at the fingertips. 

Mgv.; tuke, the joints of the fingers; 

tuki, to feel, to handle. 

tuki 2 to instigate, to provoke, to influence, 

to stimulate, to tempt, to try, to 

encourage, to corrupt, to debauch. 

tuki pogeha, to stir up trouble, to 

make mischief. 
tuki rakerake, seditious. 
tuki toua, to excite dissension. 
PS Sa. : tu'itu'i, to forbid the doing of any- 
thing. To.: tuki-tala, to warn. 
Here we see clearly a case of sense 
inversion, and the substantial Tongan 
concord with the Samoan establishes the 
direction of the inversion as away from 
the Proto-Samoan primitive. 
tukiga proof. 

tukiga kinoga, temptation. 
tuki tuki to pound, to copulate T. 
tapa tukituki, calico. 
P Pan.: tukituki, to strike, to pound. 
Mgv.: tuki, to bruise, to pound 
with a stamper. Mq.: tuki, to 
beat, to pound. Ta. : tui, id. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 266.) 
tuku to give, to let go, to deliver, to accord, 
to go back to the boat, to dedicate. 
rima tuku, to bend at the elbow 
(? tuke). 
P Pau. : tuku, to lay down, to place, to 
deliver up. Mgv.: tuku, to give, 
to deliver, to let alone. Mq. : tuku, 
to give, to let go. Ta.: tuu, id. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 226.) 
tukuga plate, ladle, porringer, legacy, to 

dedicate (tukaga). 
tumoku a sprain. 

tumu base, cause, element, origin, prin- 
ciple, source, spring, trunk, occa- 
sion, origin, author, subject, motive. 
ina e tumu, accidental, fortuitous. 
tumu kore, causeless, baseless, weak 

in the legs, to waver. 
tumu te hakareka, toy. 
tumu hatihati, weak in the legs. 
tumu te hiriga, purpose of the voy- 
age. 
T Pau.: fakatumu, to lay a foundation. 
Mgv., Mq., Ta. : tumu, cause, base, 
origin, principle, trunk. 
tumumeika (tumu-meika) banana plant. 
Mgv., Mq. : tumumeika, id. 



264 



EASTER ISLAND. 



tunu to cook, to fry. 

hare tunukai, kitchen. 
P Mgv.: tunu, to put to the fire to cook. 
Mq.: tunu, id. Ta.: tunu, to 
roast, to boil, to cook. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 407-) 
tupa 1 land crab. 

PS Mgv. : tutupa, a large crayfish. Mq., 
Ta. : tupa, land crab. 
Sa., To., Fu.: tupa, a land crab with 
large claws. 
tupa 2 mixture, to carry. 

tupatupa to bring in one dead or 
wounded. 
tupapaku corpse. 

T Pau. : tupapaku, corpse, ghost. Mgv. : 
tupapaku, corpse, sick person. 
Mq. : tupapaku, tupapaii, id. Ta. ; 
tupapau, corpse, ghost, specter. 
tupu to grow, to sprout, to germinate, to 
come forth, to conceive, pregnant, 
germ. 
mea tupu, a plant. 
tupu ke aval, of rapid growth. 
tupu horahorau, precocious. 
hakatupu to produce, to stimulate 
growth, to excite. 
P Pau. : fakatupu, to raise up, to create. 
Mgv.: tupu, to grow, to conceive, 
to be pregnant. Mq. : tupu, to 
grow, to sprout, to conceive. Ta. : 
tupu, to grow, to sprout. 
tupuaki near, immediate, closely, face to 
face, next, neighboring, to approach, 
contact, interview, to meet, to 
present oneself. 
hakatupuaki to accost, to advance, to 
join, to approach. 
tupuna ancestors, grandparents, forefathers 
(tapuna). 
P Pau. : tupuna, ancestor. Mgv. : tupuna, 
grandparents. Mq. : tupuna, ances- 
tors, grandparents. Ta. : tupuna, 
id. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 
214.) 
tupuraki occiput, crown of the head. 

Pau.: tupuaki, occiput. Ta. : tupuai, 
top of the head or of a mountain. 
(Cf. Sa. : tumua'i and Ma.: tumu- 
aki, crown of the head.) 
turaki to beat down. 
T Pau. : turaki, to turn upside down, to 
repulse. Mgv.: turaki, to turn 
upside down, to throw down. Mq. : 
tuaki, to throw anyone down on the 
ground. Ta. : turai, turae, to turn 
upside down, to repulse. To.: 
tulaki, to push down. 
(Cf. Sa.: tula'i, to rise up.) 
turama (tu-rama) to illuminate, a lamp, 
(tuurama). 
T Pau.: turamarama, torch, lamp. Mq. : 
tudma, to fish with torches. Ta. : 
turama, torch. 
turi knee. 

P Pau., Mgv., Ta.: turi, id. Mq.: tui, to 
bend. 
turirima elbow. 



turituku to fall on the knee. 
turituri dorsal fin Q. 
turituririma elbow joint. 
turiturivae knee joint. 
turivare abscess at the knee. 
turu 1 to fall in drops, to flow, to leak, to 
descend, a drop. 
turu ki tai, to take refuge at sea. 
hakaturu to cause to descend, to lower, 

to take soundings. 
hakaturuturu to heave and pitch. 
P Mgv. : akaturu, to conduct water in a 
drain. Ta. : tuturu, to fall in drops. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 425.) 
turu 2 to stay, to prop. 
T Pau.: turu, a post, pillar, to sustain. 
Mgv.: turu, a support, rod, stay, 
to sustain. Ta.: turu, stay, sup- 
port. 
turu 3 to come, to arrive, to overcome. 
tehe e turu, through and through. 
hakaturu 
hakarava hakaturu, quadrangular. 
turuga declivity. 
turumea fine grass T. 
turuvai water conduit. 
tutae excrement, dung, ordure, manure. 
tutae hihi, constipation. 
T Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: tutae, dung. 
tute to expel, to disperse, to discharge, to 
tame, to drive away, to impede, to 
scare, to pursue, to overthrow a 
government, to send back, victory, 
to supplant. 
tutega a driving back. 
tutega te ao, overthrow of the govern- 
ment. 
T Pau. : tute, to hunt on foot. Mq. : tute, 
to chase, to reject, to drive away, 
to send back. Ta.: tute, to shove 
back. 
Another instance of the class which asso- 
ciates Maori and Hawaii with Southeast 
Polynesia. 
tutu 1 to beat bark for cloth. 

PS Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: tutu, id. 
Sa., To., Fu. : tutu, id. 
tutu 2 a broom, to sweep, to clean. 
Mq. : tutu, to beat out the dust. 
tutu 3 to shake, to winnow. 

Mgv. : tutu, to tremble, to leap. Mq. : 

tutu, to shake. 

tutu 4 to kindle, to light, to ignite, to set fire. 

tutuga combustion. 

P Mgv. : tutu, a torch, candle, to set fire, 

to bum. Mq. : tutu, to bum, to set 

fire. (The Polynesian Wanderings, 

407.) 
tutu 5 to stand. 
hakatutu to set joists. 
P Mgv., Mq.: tutu, to stand upright. 
Ta.: tu, id. 
tutu a {tutu 1) board on which bark is beaten 
into cloth. 
PS Mgv.: fMtoa, a cloth beater. Mq., Ta.: 
tutua, wood on which doth is 
beaten. 
Sa., Fu. : tutua, id. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



265 



tutui tutui Ohio, chain. 
tutui kura, shawl. 
Mq. : tuitui kioe, chain. 
tutuki shock, contusion, to run against, to 
collide. 
tutukia to run foul of. 
P Pau.: tukituki, to strike, to pound, 
to grind. Mgv. : tukia, to strike 
against, shock, concussion. Mq. : 
tutuki, id. Ta. : iui, id. 
tutuma 1 {tutu i^-^ma) a live coal. 
tutu ma 2 tree trunk T (? tumu). 
tutumata ligament of the eye, orbit, eyelid 

T (tutumate eyelid Q). 
tutuu bristling. 

tuu 1 to stand erect, mast, pillar, post. 
tuu noa, perpendicular. 
tanu ki te tuu, to set a post. 
hakatu tuu, to step a mast. 
tuu hakamate tagata, gallows. 
hakatuu to erect, to establish, to insti- 
tute, to form, immobile, to set up, 
to raise. 
P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : tu, to stand up. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 424.) 
tuu 2 to exist, to be. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 424.) 
Mgv.: tu, life, being, existence. 
tuu 3 to accost, to hail. 

tuu mai te vaka, to hail the canoe. 
Mgv. : tu, a cry, a shout, 
tuu 4 to rejoin. 

tuua to be reunited. 
(tuu S) hakatuu example, mode, fashion, 
model, method, measure, to num- 
ber. 
PS Sa. : tu, custom, habit. Fu. : tuu, to 
follow the example of. 
(tuu 6) hakatuu to disapprove. 

hakatuu riri, to conciliate, to appease 
wrath. 
(tuu 7) hakatuu to presage, prognostic, 

test. 
(tuu 8) hakatuu to taste. 
(tuu 9) hakatuu to mark, index, emblem, 
seal, sign, symbol, trace, vestige, 
aim. 
hakatuu ta, signature. 
akatuu symptom. 
hakatuua spot, mark. 
hakatu haga mark. 
hakatuu tuu demarcation. 
tuuahi (tutu /^.-ahi) smoke, torch. 
tuuaviki to pout. 
tuuraga fat. 

tuuraga nui, girth. 
tuurama (turama). 
tuutuu ventral fin. 

u the breast (hu). 

hagai ei u, to suckle. 
hakau the gums. 
T Pau. : u, the breast. Mgv., Mq., Ta. : 
u, the breast, nipple, milk. 
ua I rain. 

hoa mai te ua, to rain. 
mou te ua, to cease raining. 



ua 1 — continued. 

P Mgv., Mq., Ta. : ua, rain. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 322.) 
ua 3 vein, artery, tendon (huahua i) (uha 
Q). 
ua nene, pulse. 
ua nohototo, artery. 
ua gaei, pulse. 
uaua vein, tendon, line. 

kiko uaua, muscle T. 
hakauaua to mark with lines. 
P Pau. : tare-ua, tendon. Mgv., Mq., Ta. : 
uaua, vein, tendon. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 322.) 
ua 3 wave, surge. 

tai ua, high tide. 
ua 4 a long club T. 
uapiki cramps. 

Mq. : uauapeke, id. 
uaua exigence, to exact. 
ue 1 alas. 

Mq. : ue, to groan. 
ue 2 to beg (ui). 

uero comet, star, twilight, a ray, to be 
radiant (huero). 
huero veravera, burning ray. 
hueroero a ray. 

Pau. : tuverovero, comet. Mgv. : etuvero, id. 
ueue 1 to shake (eueue). 

kirikiri ueue, stone for a sling. 
PS Pau. : u£ue, to shake the head. Mq. : 
kaueue, to shake. Ta. : ue, id. 
Sa. : lue, to shake. To.: we'j, to shake, 
to move; luelue, to move, to roll as 
a vessel in a calm. Niue : luelue, to 
quake,to shake. Uvea : uei,to shake ; 
ueue, to move. Viti : ue, to move in 
a confused or tumultuous manner. 
In The Polynesian Wanderings, page 
235, it was shown that there is a primitive 
stem lu general to Polynesian, that a 
secondary stage of advancement lue is 
Proto-Samoan and is found only in Samoa, 
Tonga, Niue and Uvea. We now find a 
tertiary stage, a degradation form with 
frontal abrasion, ue, encountered in Nu- 
clear Polynesia only in Uvea and Viti, and 
in Tonga ue'i and ueue'i with further ad- 
vancement of transitive augment. This 
Proto-Samoan form, probably caught up 
by the Tongafiti in their sojourn in Nuclear 
Polynesia, has been carried further in 
Tongafiti migration, Maori and Hawaii 
ue to shake. 
ueue 2 to lace. 

uga to send, to despatch, to exhort, to dele- 
gate, to excite, to admit, to expel 
(huga). 
huga mai, to bring in. 
hakauga to instigate, to intrigue, to 
conduct, to bring, to congratulate. 
T Mgv. : uga, to send, to despatch. Mq. : 
una, uka, to send a message, to 
urge. Ta. : ua, to expel, to chase. 
This is of the Maori-Hawaii-Southeast- 
Polynesian class. The secondary senses 
are easy to estabUsh; Rapanui agrees with 
Marquesas in the sense of urging, with 



266 



EASTER ISI^AND. 



uga — continued. 
Tahiti in expulsion. A sense-invert is 
observable between expel and admit. 
ugamoa thin, leanness (hugamoa). 
(ugauga) hakaugauga relaxed. 
uha female. 
T Pan.: koufa, female of animals. Mq.: 
uha, id. Ta.: ufa, uha, id. Ma.: 
uwha, uha, id. 
uhamau {uha-mau 7) to brood, to hatch. 
uhatu to displease. 
uhi yam. 

P Pau., Mgv.: uhi, id. Ta.: uhi, ufi, id. 
Mq. : puauhi, id. (The Polynesian 
Wanderings, 316.) 
(uhu) hakauhu rava hakauhu, to sleep 

soundly. 
uhuti (u-huH) to pull up by the roots. 

Mgv.: uhuti, id. 
ui 1 question, to interrogate, to ask (ue). 
uiui to ask questions. 
T Pau. : uiui, to ask, inquisitive. Mgv. : 
ui, to ask, beg, request, question; 
akaue, to demand, to ask for. Mq. : 
ui, to question, demand, interro- 
gate. Ta. : ui, to question. 
ui 2 to spy, to inspect, to look at, to perceive. 

tagaia ui, visitor. 
uira I wheel, helm. 
uira 2 lightning. 
P Mq.: uid, id. Ta.: uira, id. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 345.) 
uira 3 glass, mirror (huira). 

uira purumata, eyeglass. 
uiui to flee. 

PS Sa.: ui, to go along, to pass along. 
To. : uhi, to go, to come. Fu. : ui, 
to pass by. Viti:«(iAj, togo, torun. 
The Viti persistence of the sense to run 
is clear evidence that Rapanui has pre- 
served the primitive signification. 
uka uha hoa, female friend, companion. 
ukauka 1 firewood. 
ukauka 2 leathery, tough. 

PS Mgv.: ukauka, hard to chew. Mq.: 
ukakoki, leathery. Ta.: uaua, id. 
Sa.: u'a, tough, tenacious, glutinous. 
To. : w^a, sticky. Nine: uka, tough. 
Viti: kaukamea, metal. 
uki digging-stick, bayonet, bodkin, arrow 
(huki). 
PS Mgv. : uki, huki, to pierce, to dart, to 
lance. Mq.: uki, tiller, paddle. 
Viti: dhuki, digging stick. 
The germ sense of Proto-Samoan huki 
is to pierce, to stick into, and in the noun 
implement of such action the digging-stick 
is primal. In Marquesas the sense of 
tiller may be a modem simile based upon 
recognition of form resemblance, for the 
tiller first became known in foreign boats; 
the use of the word in the sense of paddle 
finds some support in the fact that dig as 
a metaphor for paddling is noted in the 
Samoan 'eli. 
uma chest, breast. 
P Mgv., Mq.: uma, id. Ta.: ouma, id. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 235.) 
umiumi tattooing on the chin. 



umiumi — continued. 
T Pau., Mgv.: kumikumi, beard. Mq.: 
kumikumi, umiUmi, id. Ta.: umi- 
umi, id. Viti: kumi, chin, 
umu cooking place, oven (humu). 
P Pau., Mgv., Mq., Ta.: umu, id. (The 
Poljfnesian Wanderings, 199.) 
unahi scale of fish. 

unahi varuvaru, to scale. 
unahi hakaha, to scale. 
P Pau., Ta. : unahi, to scale fish. Mgv. : 
unahi, fish scale, to scale. Mq.: 
unahi, id. (The Polynesian Wan- 
derings, 312.) 
uneki niho uneki, to show the teeth. 
unu to drink, liquor. 
unuga to drink. 
hakaunu to slake thirst. 
hakaunuora to water. 
P Mgv. : unu, to drink. Mq., Ta. : inu, id. 
The variant unu of Rapanui and Ma- 
ngareva from the common t«« is found far 
back on the track of migration, inSikayana 
and Viti at the other edge of Polynesia. 
The occurrences of the same variety in 
Melanesia have been listed in The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, page 376. 
unuvai to drink water. 

hipu unuvai, drinking glass. 
ura I crajrfish, lobster, prawn. 

P Mgv. : ura, crayfish. Mq. : ud, lobster. 
Ta.: oura, crayfish, lobster. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 430.) 
ura 2 fire, burning, to be in flames. 
ura herohero, flash of flames. 
uraga combustion, flame, torch. 
hakaura to cause to glow, to kindle, to 
light. 
P Mgv., Ta. : ura, a flame, to bum. Mq. : 
ud, id. 
uraga burden, load, weight. 
uraura vermilion, scarlet. 

P Pau.: kurakura, red. Mgv.: uraura, an 
inflamed countenance. Mq. : udud, 
red, ruddy. Ta.: uraura, red. 
ure penis. 

kiri ure, prepuce, foreskin. 
P Pau., Mgv., Ta.: «re, penis. Mq.: o^,id. 
(The Polynesian Wanderings, 431. 
urei niho urei, to show the teeth. 

Mgv. : urei, to uncover the eye by roll- 
ing back the lids. 
ureure spiral. 

Ta.: aureure, id. 
uriuri black, brown, gray, dark, green, blue, 
violet (hurihuri). 
hakahurihuri dark, obscurity, to 
darken. 
P Pau.: uriuri, black. Mgv.: uriuri, 
black, very dark, color of the deep 
sea, any vivid color. Mq.: uiui, 
black, brown. Ta. : uri, black. 
uru 1 to enter, to penetrate, to thread, to 
come into port (huru). 
uru noa, to enter deep. 
hakauru to thread, to inclose, to admit, 
to drive in, to graft, to introduce, 
penetrate, to vaccinate, to recruit. 
akauru to calk. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



267 



uru I — continued. 

hakahuru to set a tenon into the mor- 
tise, to dowel. 
hakauruuru to interlace. 

hakauruuru mat te vae, to hurry to. 
P Mgv.: akauru, to attempt to enter, to 
stufi, to cram. Mq.: uii, to enter, 
to introduce. Ta.: uru, to arrive 
in port. 
uru 2 to clothe, to dress, to put on shoes, a 
crown. 
hakauru to put on shoes, to crown, to 
bend sails, a ring. 
uru 3 festival, to feast. 
uru 4 to spread out the stones of an oven. 
uruuru to expand a green basket. 
PS Sa. : uluulu, to remove the stones from 
the oven before lighting the fire. 
Pu.: ulu, to arrange the hot stones 
of an oven in order to put the food 
to cook thereon. Niue: ulu, to 
level stones. 
uru 5 manu uru, kite. 
uruga (uru i) entrance. 
uta 1 inland, landward. 

paepae ki uta, to strand, to run 

agroimd. 
mouku uta,_ herbage. 
PMgv.:«to, inland, landward. Mq. : 
uta, uphill from the coast. Ta.: 
uta, landward. 
uta 2 to carry. 

uta mat, to import. 
hakauta to give passage. 
P Pau.: utaga, burden, cargo. Mgv.: 
akauta, to put things one on an- 
other. Mq. : uta, to carry, to trans- 
port, to conduct. Ta.: uta, to 
carry, to transport by sea. (The 
Polynesian Wanderings, 285.) 
uu add, to be sharp, sour (huu). 
uutu to fill. 

P Mgv. : utuM, to draw water. Ta. : uutu, 
to fill. (The Polynesian Wander- 
erings, 242.) 
uuu red. 
uva grape. 

(va 1) hakava judge, judgment. 
T Mgv.: akava, to judge, to pass sentence. 
Pau.: haava, to judge, to conjec- 
ture. Ma.: whakawa, to charge 
with crime, to condemn. Ta.: 
haava, to judge, 
(va 2) hakava to speak. 
P Mgv.: va, to speak. Mq.: vaa, to 
chatter like a magpie. 
The Marquesan retains more of the 
primal sense although the simile is an alien 
importation. In Samoa va means a noise, 
in Tonga va is a laughing noise, in Futuna 
va is tiie disorderly cry of tumult, and 
probably it is the initial element of Viti wo- 
borabora to speak quickly and confusedly 
as when scolding. Its only identifica- 
tion in Tongafiti territory is Hawaii wawa 
the confused noise of a tumult, and Hawaii 
was itself the terminus of a Proto-Samoan 
migration. It would not be out of order. 



(va 2) hakava — continued, 
therefore, to distinguish this stem as 
Proto-Samoan. 
vaai to alienate, to give away. 
vae 1 foot, paw, leg, limb. 
vae no roto, drawers. 
karikari vae, ankle. 
P Pau.: vaevae, foot, leg. Mgv.: vavae, id. 
Mq.: vae, id. Ta.: vaevae, avae, id. 
vae 2 pupil. 

vae 3 to choose, elect, prefer, promote, vote. 
vavae to destine, to choose. 
vaea predestined. 

Mgv., Mq.: vae, to choose, to select. 
vaea {vae 2) pupil. 
vaeahatu (vae i-ahatu). 

moe vaeahatu, to sleep sprawling with 
legs extended. 
vaega center, middle, within, half. 
o vaega, younger. 

ki vaega, among, between, interme- 
diate. 
P Pau.: vaega, the middle. Mgv.: vaega, 
center, middle. 'M.q,.:vaena,vavena, 
vaveka, id. Ta.: vaehaa, half. 
vaehakaroa (,vae i-roa). 

moe vaehakaroa, to sleep with legs 
stretched out. 
vaehau {vae i-hau 3) pantaloons, trousers. 
vaeherehere {vae i-here i) to attach by the 

paw. 
vaerere {vae i-rere 1) to run. 
vaero tail of a kite, tail of a bird (uero). 
TPau.: toapoero, rump; feaero, tail. Mgv.: 
Dero,tail. Mq.:i;eo, id. Ta.: aero, id. 
In the association of these comparatives 
we find another instance (see taukete) of 
the rare loss of a part of a syllable, in each 
case the vowel a intervening between t 
and a second vowel. The alternative 
form in Rapanui, uero, is clearly asso- 
ciable with the Mangarevan and Mar- 
quesan stage of the world. 
vaha 1 space, before T. 

vaha takitua, perineum. 
PS Mgv. : vaha, a space, an open place. 
Mq.: vaha, separated, not joined. 
Ta. : vaha, an opening. 
Sa. : vasa, space, interval. To.: vaha, 
vahaa, id. Fu.: vasa, vdsad, id. 
Niue: vaha, id. 
vaha 2 muscle, tendon. 

vahavaha id. 
vahahora {vaha i-hora 2) spring. 
vahatoga (vaha i-toga 1) autumn. 
vahi (ahi i). 

Ta. : pu-vahi, to fish with torche 
vahio young. 

huaa vahio, young fruit. 
vai water, liquid, fluid, sap, juice, gravy, 
fresh water as differing from tai 
seawater. 
hakavai to dissolve, to liquefy, to melt. 
P Pau.: ana-vai, a brook. Mgv.: vai, 
water. Mq.: vai, water, liquid, 
juice. Ta.: vai, sweet water, sap, 
juice. (The Polynesian Wander- 
ings, 339) 
vaiapuga lazy, slothful, inactive, inert. 



268 



BASTBR ISLAND. 



vaiapuga — continued. 

indolent, idle, do-nothing, useless, 
neglectful, loiterer, trifler, apathy, 
leisure. 
vaihu (»oi-«) milk. 

T Mq., Ta.: vaiu, milk. 
vaipuga (vai-puna) spring water. 

P Mgv. : vaipuna, water which springs 
from among stones. Mq. : vaipuna, 
spring water. Ta. : vaipuna, a 
spring. 
vaitahe {vai-tahe i) river. 
vaitara winter west wind T. 
vaitoa (vai-toa 2) sugar. 

Mgv.: vaiio, id. 
vaituru (vai-turu i) water conduit. 
vaivai weak. 

PS Mq. : vaivai, soft, pleasant, agreeable. 
Sa., To.: vaivai, weak. 
vaka canoe, boat, bateau, shallop, barge. 
vakapoepoe {vaka-poepoe) boat. 
P Pau. : vaka, canoe. Mgv. : vaka, canoe, 
raft. Mq. : vaka, canoe. Ta. : vaa, 
canoe, boat. 
vakavaka narrow. 

Mq. : vakavaka, vadvad, small, fine, thin. 
vanaga to speak, to say, to chat, to dis- 
course, to address, to recount, to 
reply, to divulge, to spread a rumor; 
argument, conversation, formula, 
harangue, idiom, locution, verb, 
word, recital, response, speech. 
vanaga roroa, chatterbox, babbler. 
rava vanaga, candid, babbler. 
tae vanaga, discreet. 
tai vanaga, ripple. 
vanagarua {vanaga-rua i) echo. 
P Pau. : vanaga, to warn by advice. Mgv. : 
vanaga, orator, noise, hubbub, 
tumult. Mq. ; vanana, to sing, to 
recite genealogies. Ta. : vanaa, or- 
ator, discourse, counsel, advice. 
This is scarcely metathetic when we 
notice the frequency in modern Samoan 
speech of the exchange of these two nasals, 
particularly when they occur in the same 
word, thus finagalo is commonly spoken 
figanalo. In Samoa vdgana means to re- 
sound, but we note with interest a specific 
vdgana meaning the speech of a tulafale 
at Sagana; in Nine note vaga-hau to speak; 
in Tonga we find vago to talk and chatter 
on whilst none care about it; Futuna 
vagana is to talk incessantly. 
vanavana feather garland. 
varahorohoro {vara—horohoro i) appetite. 
varavara 1 not compact, thinly sown, loose, 
sparse, to have spaces, scattered, 
rarity, a Bible verse. 
avai varavara, to go singly. 
varavara no, sometimes. 
hakavaravara thinly sown, spaced. 
PS Pau.: varavara, scattered, dispersed. 
Mgv.: varavara, thin, lightly scat- 
tered. Ta. . z)oraz)oro, sparse, thinly 
sown, rare. 
Sa. : valavala, wide apart, coarse. 
varavara 2 thick (a sense-invert). 
(vare 1) hakavare to crisp, to plaster. 
hakavarevare to level. 



vare 2 driveler. 

P Mgv. : vare, clumsy, inept, 
vare 3 cf. turivare. 
varegao to speak indistinctly, to offend, to 

pretend. 
varevare 1 steep, rugged. 
varevare 2 smooth, plain, without rocks. 
horo varevare, without branches. 
tino varevare, slender. 
kona varevare, open place, court, mar- 
ket place. 
PS Sa. : valevale, fat. To. : valevale, young, 
tender, applied to babies. 
In Nuclear Polynesia it is diflBcultto 
dissociate this vale from the vale conveying 
the sense of ignorance. In Samoa this 
varevare appears only as applied, le 
valevale, to a hog that is not fat. It is 
probable that varevare 2 preserves the 
Proto-Samoan primitive and that the 
sense-invert, in the preceding item, is 
directed away from the germ sense. 
vari about, circumference, to tmm in a circle. 
hakavari pliant, to bend, square. 
varivari about, to go around. 
vavari a garland. 
varikapau circumference, to surround, a 
compass, to admire. 
hiriga varikapau, to go in a ring. 
pa varikapau, to close in. 
varitakataka {vari-iaka 3) to surround. 
varu 1 eight. 

P Pau. : avaru, id. Mgv. : varu, id. Mq. : 
vaii, id. Ta. : varu, vau, id. 
varu 2 to shave, to remove the beard, to 
shear, to clip, to rasp, a plane. 
varuvaru to peel, to remove the bark, 
to plane, to scrape, to shear. 
P Mgv. : varu, to plane, to cut the hair. 
Mq. : vau, to shave, to scrape. Ta. : 
varu, vau, to shave. (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 326.) 
vau ko vau, I. 

Pau.: ovau, I. 
vaua they R. (? raua). Cf. Ta. : vera, they. 
vavae (vae 3) 
vavae to separate, to disunite. 

P Ma. : wawae, to divide. 
vavakai appetite (? ravakai). 
vavari (vari). 
vavau miro vavau, switch. 
vave water in motion, a long wave. 

pokopoko vave, trough of the sea. 
tai vave, rough sea. 
vave kai kohe, unapproachable. 
vavovavo echo, sound of the sea. 

Mq. : vavo, noise of breaking waves. 
Ta. : vevo, echo. 
vekeveke eyelash, banana flower. 

Mq. : vekeveke, veevei, tentacles, bristles. 
veku humus. 
vekuveku, moist, muddy. 

hakavekuveku to dampen, to wet. , 
Mgv.: vekiveki, moist, damp. M.q.': 
veku, veu, moist, wet through. To. : 
. - ' viku, wet. 
veneri Friday {Vendredi). 
veo 1 navel, button. 
epe veo, earring. 
pu veo, buttonhole. 



RAPANUI-ENGLISH VOCABUI.ARY. 



269 



veo 2 (vero i) 

veo 3 metal, copper. 

Mgv.: veo, copper, tin. Ta.: veo, cop- 
per, brass. 
vera hot, &e, to flame, torch, to light, 
kindle. 
vera paka, burning. 
vera Uiiti no, lukewarm. 
vera mahana, hot. 
veraga combustion. 
veravera hot, heat, burning, cooked 

too much. 
hakavera to kindle. 
hakaverapaka to heat up. 
hakaveravera to grill. 
P Pau.: vera, fire; veravera, heat. Mgv.: 
vera, fire among the reeds. Mq. : 
vera, ved, burning, hot, fire, cooked. 
Ta. : vera, vea, id. 
vere I beard, moustache (vede Q). 
vere guiu, moustache, 
verevere shaggy, hairy, tow, oakum. 
Mgv.: veri, bristly, shaggy, chafed (of 
a cord long in use). Mq. : veevee, 
tentacles. Ta. : verevere, eyelash. 
vere 2 to weed (ka-veri-mai, pick, cut- 
grass T). 
verevere to weed. 
P Mgv.: vere, to weed. Mq. : veSveS, 
vavee, id. 
verega fruitful, valuable. 

verega kore, unfruitful, valueless, con- 
temptible, vain, futile, frivolous. 
toe verega, insignificant, valueless. 
mataku verega kore, scruple. 
Mgv.: verega, a design put into execu- 
tion; one who is apt, useful, having 
a knowledge how to do things. 
veri I myriapod, centipede. 

P Pau. : veri, centipede. Mgv. : veri, a 
poisonous marine annelid resem- 
bling the centipede. Mq.: nei, cen- 
tipede, myriapod. Ta. : veri, centi- 
pede, a marine insect. 
veri 2 monster, monstrous. 
veveri execrable. 

veriveri abominable, frightful, hideous, 
horrible, to shock, illicit, impure, 
immoral, ugly, contemptible. 
veriveri ke, detestable, infamous, re- 
pulsive. 
oone veriveri, mud, slime. 
P Pau. : veri, disgusting, hideous. Mgv. : 
veriveri, very bad, disagreeable, 
ugly, repulsive. 
vero 1 arrow, dart, harpoon, lance, spear, 
nail, to lacerate, to transpierce 
(veo). 
P Mgfv. : vero, to dart, to throw a lance, 
the tail; verovero, ray, beam, ten- 
tacle. Mq.: veo, dart, lance, har- 
poon, tail, horn. Ta.: vero, dart, 
lance. 
vero 2 to turn over face down. 
vetevete to imtie, to unbutton, to unbridle, 
to disentangle. 
vevete to absolve, to unchain, to untie, 
to deliver, to set free, to unfold. 



vetevete — continued. 

to unroll, to detach, to Uberate, to 
enlarge, to slacken, 
vevetea slack, loose. 
vevetehaga remission. 
P Mgv., Mq. : vetevete, to untie, to loosen, 
to detach. Ta. : vete, id. 
veuveu kdhu aruga o te veuveu,ToyaX (sail). 
veve in haste, to hurry. 

veveveve to hasten, diligent, greedy, 
prompt, rash, speedy, swift, quick. 
ki veveveve, voluble. 
P Pau.: vave, speedily. Mgv.: vave, 
prompt, quick, to make haste; 
vevaveva, to eat quickly. Mq.: 
veve, vave, prompt, quick. Ta.: 
vave, id. 
veveara (veve-ara 2) waking, to wake up. 
veveri stupefied, commotion, to apprehend, 
to start up out of sleep, sensation, 
vevete (vetevete). 
viatiko viaticum. 
oicario vicar. 
vie woman, wife. 

vie hanau, midwife. 
noho vie, to marry. 
hakarere ki te vie, to divorce. 
uigiria, vigil. 

vihaviha uninhabited, desolate. 
viku 1 sacred. 

koona viku, sanctuary. 
hakaviku to consecrate, to interdict, 
(viku 2) hakaviku to pout. 
vinea vine. 
viretute virtue. 

viri to turn in a circle, to clew up, to groom, 
to twist, to dive from a height, to 
roll (kaviri). 
hakaviri crank, to groom, to turn a 
wheel, to revolve, to screw, to beat 
down. 
kahu hakaviri, shroud. 
viriga rolling, danger. 
viriviri ball, round, oval, bridge, roll, 
summit, shroud, to twist, to wheel 
round, to waUow. 
hakaviriviri to roll, to round. 
rima hakaviriviri, stroke of the fist, 
fisticuff. 
P Pau.: viriviri, to brail, to clew up; 
koviriviri, twisting. Mgv. : viri, to 
roU, to turn, to twist; viviri, to fall 
to the ground again and again in a 
fight. Mq. : vil, to slide, to roll, to 
fail and roll. Ta. : viri, to roll up, 
to clew up. 
virigine virgin. 
viritopa {viri-topa 6) danger. 
vitiviti crayfish. 

Pau. : kohitihiti, a shrimp. Mgv. : kaviti- 
viti, a small crab that hides in the 
sand, 
(viuviu) hakaviuviu to squat. 
voka to put on shoes. 

Mq. : oka, to introduce into. 
vou squeak of rats. 

Mgv. : ? vuho, the noise made by a man 
or fish that escapes. 



ENGLISH-RAPANUI FINDING-LIST. 

It is preferable to present this section of the work as no more than a 
finding-list, leaving to the Rapanui vocabulary, so far as may lie in 
that material, the determination of the manner wherein the several 
vocables may fitly be employed. In accordance with this plan it has 
rarely seemed necessary herein to differentiate those words which have 
various significations under a single form. 



abandon 


hoa, patu, hakarere, titiri. 


accuse 


tuhi, tuhi no mai, tuhi 


abdicate 


avai, topa. 




reoreo, hakakemo. 


abdomen 


manava. 


accustom 


mahani. 


abhor 


kokoma hanohano manava 


achieve 


hakapae. 




pohi, kokoma eete, ko- 


acid 


mageo, kavakava, uu. 


abjure 

able 

aboard 


koma rita. 
hakarere, titiri. 
morava. 
pikipiki, eke. 


acquiesce 

acquire 

acquit 


higa. 

too. 

hakakore, hakapae. 


abolish 


hakamou, hakanoho. 


acrid 


mageo. 


abominable 


rakerake, veriveri. 


across 


hakarava, hiriga tahataha. 


abortion 


gaapu, topatini, poki gaapu. 


act 


haga, taga. 




poki puepue, poki tuahuri. 


active 


paka, pakapakakina, hora- 


abound 


kai taria te kai, hoao, mau 




horau. 




ke avai. 


actual 


aneira, igeneira, oaha. 


about 


peaha, van, hakahariu. 


add 


tataku, hakarava. 


above 


a ruga, ki ruga. 


addict 


piri iho. 


abridge 


hakapotopoto, hore. 


addition 


ma. 


abrogate 


hakakore, hakamou. 


address 


vanaga. 


abscess 


arakea, mageo, makigaa, 


adhere 


hakarogo. 




manu nave, tao, turivare. 


adhesion 


higa. 


absence 


garoa, ku ohoa. 


adjoin 


harai, ikapotu. 


absent 


ina o nei, garo. 


adjourn 


moe atu ra, aneira. 


absolve 


vevete. 


adjust 


honohono, hakapiri, haka- 


absorb 


miti, mou, paka. 




rivariva, titi. 


abstain 


kaihaga, kai oho. 


administer 


hakarivariva, hakatitika. 


abstinence 


ina kai kai, poremo. 


admire 


maharo, titiro, varikapau. 


absurd 


eva, nivaniva, oohia. 


admit 


too, hakauru, uga. 


abundance 


mau ke avai, hoao, kai taria 


admonition 


hakarivariva. 




te kai. 


adolescent 


tugutug^u. 


abuse 


ika ke avai mo, kori ke avai. 


adopt 


too, mau. 




kori, hakamee. 


adore 


hakaaroha. 


abut 


ikapotu. 


adorn 


rakei, hakariva. 


abyss 


ata hakahohonu, anoano. 


adroit 


maori. 


accept 


hakatitika, too, hapai, mau. 


adulterer 


menia, rekareka. 


access 


mahani maia. 


adultery 


honihoni. 


accident 


gogoroaa, horihori. 


advance 


hakatupuaki, tata. 


accidental 


ina e tumu. 


advance guard tagata rae. 


accommodate hakarivariva. 


adversary 


tagata kokoma eete. 


accompany 


i muri oo na, harai, haatigo. 


adversity 


gogoroaa, horihori. 


accomplish 


hakamou, hakapae, haka- 


advice 


aakihaga, kihaga, hakamaa. 




moko. 


advise 


aaki. 


accord 


mau, tuku, avai. 


advocate 


tarupu. 


according to 


kia. 


adze 


peu. 


accost 


hakatupuaki, tuu, hakatata. 


affable 


hakaaroha, magaro, riva- 


accredit 


hakatitikahaga. 




riva. 


accumulate 


hue, pupu, hakanego, haka- 


affair 


haga, hakaheu, keukeu. 




ruga, hakatiti. 


affect 


tagi. 



271 



272 



EASTER ISLAND. 



affected 


akaku, eete manava, ma- 


among 


ki roto, ki vaega. 




nava pagaha. 


amplify 


hakanuinui. 


affectionate 


ragi, peupeu. 


amplitude 


ahuahu pupuhi. 


affinity 


pirihaga. 


amputate 


kokoti, hore. 


affirm 


aaki. 


amulet 


mohai rildriki. 


affix 

afflict 

afford 


titi. 

pagaha. 

avai. 


amuse 
ancestor 


hakareka, hetu. 
tupuna. 


affright 


hakamataku. 


ancestry 


ivi. 


affront 


hiohio, matau. 


anchor 


aka, tau. 


after 


ki tua. 


anchorage 


kona tau, haga. 


afterbirth 


eve. 


ancient 


hinihini ke avai, tuhai. 


afternoon 


ahiahi. 


and 


e, me, ma, pe, piri. 


afterward 


i muri. 


anecdote 


taga. 


again 


ki hua. 


angel 


agera. 


against 


kia, hakahorihori, tutuki. 


anger 


kakai, riri, toua, hurihuri, 


age 


matahi, tau, koroua. 




eete, manava eete, ma- 


agglomerate 


hue, negonego, pupupu. 




nava riri. 


aggregate 


hakapiri. 


angle n 


atiga, avaava. 


aggregation 


hakapa. 


angle v 


hi, ikahi, ikakohau. 


agile 


rava ahere, horahoraukina, 


angry 


hae, kokoma, kokoma eete, 




neku ravatotouti. 




kokoma hanohano, taro- 


agitate 


ruru. 




taro. 


ago 


tuhaituhai. 


anguish 


pakupaku. 


agony 


kevakeva, tata. 


animal 


puaka, ika. 


agree 


haga, hakatitika. 


animate 


hakaora. 


agreeable 


meitaki, nenenene, rivariva. 


animosity 


kokoma hurihuri, riri. 


agreement 


higahaga, haga, hakaritega. 


ankle 


karikarivae. 




hakarivariva, hakatitika- 


annihilate 


hakakore, hakamou. 




haga. 


announce 


tara, hakatikea, muko, ha- 


aground 


paepae ki uta, marere. 




pai rogo. 


ah 


aue. 


annul 


hakakore, hakamou. 


ahead 


a mua. 


anoint 


akui. 


aid 


tarupu, hanu, moahu, oko- 


another 


tetahi. 




rua. 


ant 


roe. 


aigrette 


hauvaero. 


antagonistic 


ihoiho. 


aim 


hakakeva, hakatuu. 


antenna 


hihi. 


air 


matagi, agu, reo. 


antique 


tuhai. 


air V 


hakamahia, tauaki. 


anus 


kauha, mogugu. 


airy 


koona kohukohu. 


any 


na. 


ajar 


hakamatna. 


anyone 


tetahi. 


alarm 


hopo, mataku, manava ruru. 


apartment 


paigahare. 


alas 


aue, ue. 


apathy 


noho hakahaga, noho no. 


alburnum 


huhu. 


ape-fish 


nohue. 


alien 


hiva. 


apology 


gu. 


alienate 


avai, tuhi, vaai. 


apparition 


tikeahaga moemoea. 


align 


hakarite, hakauga, tama 


appeal 


ragi. 




hakatitika. 


appear 


tikea mai, hiti, hiri, horau, 


all 


mou, moua, mouga, paero. 




tata, pukou. 




ananake. 


appease 


hakamagaro, hakatuu. 


alleviate 


hakamaamaa. 


append 


hakatautau. 


allurement 


mahaga. 


appetite 


maruaki, vavakai, manava 


ally 


pirihaga. 




nuinui, varahorohoro. 


almighty 


mana noa. 


applaud 


ohuohu, reka. 


alone 


okotahi, tahaga. 


apply 


keukeu, hakahuhu, piri. 


already 


kireira. 


appoint 


hakatitika. 


also 


hoki, pe. 


apportion 


tuha. 


altar 


aretare. 


appreciate 


tikea. 


although 


noa. 


apprehend 


ruru, veveri. 


always 


ina kai mou, tahaga. 


approach 


tata, tupuald, hakatupuaki, 


amass 


hue, hakanegonego. 




oi. 


amaze 


maharo. 


approve 


titika, hakatitika, meitaki, 


ambition 


akuaku, atehopo, makota. 




haga. 


ambush 


piko, harepiko. 


April 


hora. 


amend 


hakameitaki, hakanapo- 


apron 


pareu. 




napo. 


arbiter 


tagata hakarivariva. 


amiable 


ariga ekaeka, ariga magaro. 


arch 


taka. 



ENGIvISH-RAPANUI FINDING-UST. 



273 



archipelago 


mottihaua, motupiri, motu- 


attentively 


gutupiri, gututae, makenu. 




putuputu. 


attest 


aaki, hakatitika. 


ardent 


matau. 


attract 


keriti. 


argument 


ki, kihaga, vanaga. 


audacious 


matatoa. 


arid 


gihigihi, kehokeho, mahia- 


augment 


hakanui, hakarava, haka- 




hia, pakapaka. 




titi, hakanego, hakame- 


arm 


rima, haro, karu, kekeune. 




nege. 


armpit 


haiga. 


author 


tumu, rutirae. 


around 


takataka, varivari, viri ta- 


authority 


ao, titikaga. 




kapau, hariu. 


authorize 


hakatitika. 


arouse 


ara. 


autumn 


vahatoga. 


arrange 


rakei, hakatahuga, haka- 


avaricious 


kaikino 




rivariva. 


avenge 


hakahere, hakahererua, ati 


arrest 


mamau, mau, haruharu, kia 




ko peka. 




hio. 


avid 


atehopo. 


arrive 


ahere, hiri, paka, pukou, 


avoid 


hakataha, hipa. 




rori, tehe, topa, turu. 


avow 


hakarivariva, aaki. 


arrogance 


tea. 


await 


atiati. 


arrogate 


iko. 


awake 


ara, era, karu. 


arrow 


vero. 


away 


ina nei, aho, tere, tao. 


arrowroot 


pia. 




hakataha, patu. 


art 


maa, rava. 


awkwardness 


konee. 


artery 


ua. 


awry 


higahiga. 


article 


paiga. 


axe 


toki, peu. 


artifice 


reo. 






artisan 


maori. 


babbler 


vanaga roroa, rava vanaga. 


arum 


kape. 


bachelor 


noho tahaga, tae moe. 


as 


pe, pei, e tahi hakarite, pahe. 


back 


tua, tuaivi, hold, hariu. 


as far as 


tae atu ki, teke ki nei. 




kumu, matahakahiva. 


as soon as 


mau, na. 


backbone 


hope. 


ascension 


hiriga. 


backside 


kauha, mogugu. 


ascent 


pikiga. 


bad 


kino, rake, ii, para, topa. 


ash 


ehuehu, eoeo. 


bag 


kete, hiri, raraga. 


aside 


hariu, patu, perigi. 


baggage 


rakau. 


ask 


ui. 


bait 


mounu, mahaga, mahaga 


aspect 


ariga, mata, akari. 




puku. 


assassinate 


oka, kokoti. 


balance 


hakarereva, hakatono. 


assault 


mea rakerake. 


bald 


marago, marego. 


assemble 


nego mai, hakanego, piri. 


ball 


mamarahaga, aku, takataka, 


assessment 


hakatitikahaga. 




tekai, viriviri. 


assiduous 


putuputu. 


ballast 


rakau o te miro. 


assign 


hakarivariva. 


banana 


meika, tumumeika, hoke. 


assimilate 


hakarite. 




vekeveke. 


assist 


rava, roau, manau, tahu. 


banish 


raga. 


associate 


harai, okorua, piri. 


bank 


tatapa. 


assuage 


hakaora. 


banner 


reva. 


assumption 


hapaihaga, hiriga. 


baptism 


papatema. 


assure 


aaki, mauteki, hakamau. 


bargain 


hakahere. 


asthma 


hupeepee, hi, kokogo, tugu- 


barge 


vaka. 




tugu. 


bark 


kiri; tagi, varuvaru. 


astonish 


manava eete, maharo. 


barrel 


pahu. 


astound 


maharo, eete. 


barren 


paa. 


astray 


parera. 


barrier 


papae. 


asylum 


pikoga, harepiko. 


barter 


hakahere. 


at 


ki. 


base 


tumu. 


at first 


ki mua. 


baseless 


tumu kore. 


at last 


mou, moua, mouga. 


bashful ness 


hakama. 


at once 


aneira, igeneira, ananake. 


basket 


kete, uruuru. 


atom 


huhu. 


bass 


reo nui. 


atone 


hakakore. 


bateau 


vaka. 


attach 


vaehere, hakahio, hakamau. 


bath 


hopu. 


attached 


hakaaroha, ateate. 


bathe 


kau, hopu, ruku. 


attack 


rae, rutirae, hakakai. 


battle 


taua, toua. 


attain 


rava. 


bawl 


tagi. 


attend 


atiati. 


bay 


haga, pakoga. 


attention 


hakariva, mou. 


bayonet 


uki. 


attentive 


hakarogo. 


be 


tuu. 



274 



EASTER ISLAND. 



beach 


haga. 




bless 


hakatneitaki. 


beacon 


paliuabi. 




blessed 


togihia. 


bean 


pipi. 




blind 


mata raparapa, matakeva, 


bear 


pagaha. 






matapo. 


beard 


vere, varu. 




blink 


hakamatakeva. 


beat 


puopuo, higa, turaki, 


tutu. 


blister 


pati. 




hakaviri. 




bloat 


pupuhi. 


beautify 


hakaritorito. 




blond 


kunekune, teatea. 


because 


no te mea. 




bloom 


hua. 


bed 


rage. 




blood 


toto. 


bedstead 


pepepepe. 




bloody 


kutoto. 


before 


vaha, a mua. 




blot 


poa. 


beg 


nonoi, ue, ui. 




blotch 


kino. 


beggar 


rakau kore. 




blow 


piri, tigi; puhi, hau, hu, peti. 


beginning 


rae. 




blue 


kerekere, uriuri. 


begone 


ka oho, ka tere, ka ea 


oi. 


blunder 


tae ripoi. 


behind 


tua, noho muri. 




blush 


hakakurakura, hakama. 


behold 


ena, ira. 




bluster 


pogeha. 


belay 


here. 




boar 


paha. 


belch 


kerereki. 




board 


taua, tomoa. 


belief 


kihaga, rogoa. 




boast 


ravaki, paru, tea, maharo. 


believe 


rogo. 




boat 


vaka, poti, tahuri, titi, tuku. 


bell 


kiukiu, tagi kiukiu. 




bodkin 


uki. 


belly 


kopu, manava. 




body 


tino, aro, piri, pupu mai. 


bellyache 


mamae kopu. 




bog 


roto. 


belong 


ra mea. 




boil 


arakea, tao, maki; puneki- 


below 


raro. 






neki, pipi, gaehe, panene. 


bench 


noho, pepe. 




bold 


matau. 


bend 


hakapiko, hakauru. 


laka- 


boldly 


pakapakakina, atiati. 




vari, taha, papau. 


huri. 


bolster 


egarua. 




amo, noi. 




bolt 


maga nuinui, horo. 


beneath 


raro. 




bond 


herega. 


beneficent 


atakai. 




bone 


ivi. 


benevolent 


rima atakai. 




booby 


kuia. 


bequest 


avaihaga. 




book 


puka. 


berry 


mokohi, karu, poporo. 




boom 


pohiuhiu. 


besmear 


puo. 




border 


tapa, tatapu, titaa. 


best 


rivariva ke. 




born 


hanau, poreko, punua. 


bet 


mamahi. 




borrow 


avai hakahou. 


betray 


aaki. 




bound 


ketu, punene, titaa. 


better 


meitaki ke, rivariva ke 


, ora- 


bow down 


noi. 




ora no iti, hakanaponapo. 


bowels 


kokoma. 


between 


ki vaega. 




bowl 


hipu. 


bewildered 


pepeke. 




bowsprit 


poihuihu. 


bewitched 


hakanivaniva. 




box 


pahu; hahao, puopuo, tigi- 


beyond 


taie. 






tigi. 


bile 


nuu. 




boy 


tamaroa. 


bind 


here. 




brackish 


kava, taitai. 


bird 


manu. 




brag 


paru, teatea. 


birth 


poreko. 




bra d 


hatu, raraga. 


bishop 


epikopo. 




brain 


manavai, roro. 


bit 


horega, moremore. 


ohio 


brake 


hakaoho. 




gagau. 




bran 


kiri haraoa. 


bite 


gau, akarau. 




branch 


maga, horo varevare, pipi. 


bitter 


kava, takeo. 




brave 


mata'^oa, tae mataku, ma- 


blab 


ravapeto. 






tau. 


black 


kerekere, hanehane, reeree. 


breach 


ava. 




uriuri. 




bread 


haraoa. 


bladder 


tagamimi. 




break 


gaa, motu, more, hati, pa- 


blade 


hoe. 






rehe, pakakina, gutu, teki- 


blame 


kakai, tou. 






teki ke, marere. 


blanch 


hakatea, pipi. 




break in 


euai. 


blaspheme 


hakameemee. 




breakers 


tai hati, tai poko, pakakina, 


bleach 


hakateatea, hakaritorito. 




pari. 


bleed 


toto. 




breast 


u, uma, kopu, omoomo. 


blend 


hakaeuru, hakaekaeka, ha- 


breath 


agu, ora, ina, haha pipiro. 




kahihoi, hirohiro. 




breathe 


aguagu. 



ENGUSH-RAPANUI FINDING-LIST. 



275 



breathless 


gaegae, haipo rahirahi, ma- 


cabin 


hare. 




nava tiha, aguagu, agu 


cachalot 


ivi heheu. 




kore. 


cackle 


pogeha, reokumi. 


breeze 


matagi, hau, tokerau. 


cajole 


hakamakenu, akurakura. 


bribe 


hakahere. 


cake 


paka. 


bridge 


viriviri. 


calabash 


hue, hipu, pakahera. 


bridle 


pena, hakaiho. 


calamity 


gogoroaa. 


brief 


horauhorau. 


calculate 


tataku, tapa. 


bright 


pupura, maeha, naponapo, 


calf 


reru. 




tea. 


calico 


tapa guregure. 


brightness 


maeha, hakamaeha, haka- 


calk 


akauni, heruru. 




raparapa. 


call 


tara, ohu. 


brightness 


marama. 


calm 


atakai, gaogao, hatahata, 


brilliance 


herohero. 




hopehope, hori, kotaki. 


brilliant 


tea, meitaki. 




magaro, marie, mau, paka. 


bring 


uga mai, hakauga, tupatupa. 




riva. 




hakatari, patu mai, oho 


calumny 


tuhi. 




mai, horau, hari, koto. 


camp 


hue. 




hakahoki, ea, rava. 


cancer 


paka rerere, mahiti. 


bristling 


tutuu. 


candid 


rava vanaga, tae naa. 


bristly 


maraka. 


candle 


ahi. 


broil 


hakapakapaka. 


cane 


tokotoko. 


bronze 


ihoiho, kiukiu. 


cannibal 


kaitagata, paoa kaitagata. 


brood 


porekohaga, moe, uhamau. 


cannon 


pupuhi nunui. 


brook 


manavai. 


canoe 


vaka, poepoe, paepae, kuto. 


broom 


tutu. 


cap 


hau. 


brother 


hagupotu, teina, tuakana. 


capable 


maamaa, rava, morava. 


brother-in-law taukete. 


cape 


ihu, ikapotu, mokomoko. 


brow 


korae. 


capital 


hetu. 


brown 


ehuehu, hikuvera, uriuri. 


capsize 


pokupoku. 


bruise 


pahure, tigitigi, toto pine. 


capstan 


ruruku, hivo. 




rerorero. 


captive 


raga. 


brush 


horohoro, akui. 


capture 


rava, ravahaga. 


brushwood 


kohukohu. 


card 


parapara. 


brusque 


gu, guha, keriti. 


care 


gogoroaa, hakarivariva. 


bubble 


kuto, pupa, puneki. 


carefully 


koroiti. 


bubo 


arakea, manu nave, tao. 


careless 


tae manau. 


bucket 


pakete. 


caress 


hakaaroha, hakareka. 


bud 


pipi. 


cargo 


negonego. 


build 


kato, ato, titi. 


carpenter 


tagata hagamiro. 


building 


hare, miro. 


carpet 


kahuvae, eeriki. 


bulk 


puputa. 


carry 


amo, hapai, hari, hoki, hai, 


bull 


puaka tamaroa. 




tao, tari, tupa, uta, iko. 


bulrush 


gaatu. 


cart 


potaka. 


bunch 


kahui. 


cartilage 


poga. 


bundle 


hai, popo. 


carve 


tarai, kokoti, horehore, honi- 


bung 


kokomo, puru, api. 




honi. 


bungler 


nivaniva. 


cascade 


aa. 


bureau 


hata. 


case 


kete. 


burden 


amoga, hapaihaga, uraga. 


cask 


pahu. 




hakavega, hakarere, ha- 


cast 


hoa. 




kapegopego, runu. 


cast lots 


mamahi. 


burial 


rumaki, tanuaga. 


castrate 


hore. 


burn 


ura. 


cat 


kuri. 


burning 


veravera, giigii. 


catch 


mau, here, kato, morava, 


bury 


tanu, rumaki. 




pipiri. 


bush 


miro kohukohu, miro taka- 


caterpillar 


eamie. 




taka. 


cattle 


puaka, toro. 


bushy 


matoru, pegopego. 


caught 


roaa. 


business 


hakahere, taga. 


cause 


tumu. 


busy 


haga. 


causeless 


tumu kore. 


but 


mea ke, mea ra, reka. 


cave 


ana, karava, pokoga, rua. 


buttocks 


taki eeve. 


cease 


mou, pava, hakarere. 


button 


veo. 


cede 


mae atu'ra. 


buttonhole 


pu veo. 


celebrate 


roau. 


buy 


hoko, hakahere. 


celebrated 


matau. 


buzz 


huhu. 


celestial 


ruga iho, no te ragi. 


by 


e, ei. 


cell 


hare no iti. 



276 



E; ASTER ISIvAND. 



censure 


tarotaro, tou, tuhi. 


clasp 


rimaruru. 


census 


tapa ki te igoa. 


clasp-knife 


hoe hatu. 


centipede 


veri. 


class 


hakarite, horega, tika, hare 


center 


vaega. 




hakaatuga. 


certain 


mau, na. 


classroom 


hare hakamarama. 


certainly 


haki. 


claw 


akikuku, maikuku, maga- 


chagrin 


gogoroaa, hakapagaha. 




maga, reke; katikati. 


cha n 


ohio, tarigariga. 


clay 


oone, oonevai, hehehehe. 


cliair 


pepe, rago. 


clean 


maitakia, ritorito, tata; ho- 


challenge 


hakatau. 




roi, kopikopi, tutu. 


chamber 


horega, rape. 


cleanse 


hopu. 


champ 


namunamu. 


clear 


hagihagi, rahirahi, ritorito. 


chance 


peaha. 




rakei, hakarivariva, horo- 


change 


hakahariu, hurl ke, hakaka- 




horo, maoa, mataki. 




huga. 


cleave 


kokoti. 


changeable 


reo ke. 


clench 


rimahakaviriviri, nihogau. 


channel 


ava. 


cleverness 


maori. 


chapel 


aretare motu, hare pure. 


clew 


viri. 


character 


manava. 


cliff 


opata. 


charcoal 


mamara, garahu, eoeo. 


climb 


ketu, piki. 


charge 


hue, tuhi reoreo. 


cling 


haruharu. 


charming 


rivariva, ritorito. 


clip 


varu. 


chasm 


rare nui. 


cloak 


inua, nua. 


chastise 


puopuo, tigitigi. 


clock 


motare. 


chat 


ki, vanaga. 


close a 


piri, hakatata, titititi, api. 


chatter 


vanaga roroa, hakareka. 




hakai mai, ata hakaneke 


chatterbox 


vanaga roroa. 




mai. 


cheap 


topa. 


close V 


papae, pum, tiaki. 


check 


kukumu, makuo, mataputi. 


closely 


tupuaki. 


chemise 


kakava. 


closeness 


konee. 


cherish 


hakaihoiho. 


closet 


pahukumi. 


chest 


pahu, uma. 


clot 


hiohio, ihoiho, kekeho, pa- 


chew 


mama, namunamu. 




kahia. 


chick 


mamari punua. 


cloth 


tapa, tutu, tutua, puapua, 


chicken 


mamari. 




kahu, kao. 


chide 


kakai, tarotaro. 


clothe 


puo, uru. 


chief 


ariki, honui. 


clothing 


hami, kahu, kao. 


child 


tama, tamaiti, poki, tugu- 


cloud 


kirikirimiro, kohukohu. 




tugu. 




puga. 


childbirth 


topa. 


cloudflecked 


ehuehu. 


childhood 


pokihaga. 


cloudless 


ragiamo. 


childish 


taga poki. 


club 


ao, paoha, para, titi nui, ua. 


childless 


paa. 


clubfooted 


kokope. 


chill 


ru, papapapa, maniri, tekeo 


clumsy 


reherehe. 




meniri. 


cluster 


kahui. 


chilly 


tekeo. 


coagulate 


hiohio, pakahia, kekeho. 


chin 


kauvae, umiumi. 


coal 


tutuma, eoeo, mamara. 


chink 


avaava. 


coarse 


tae riva. 


chisel 


tapani. 


coast 


tahatai. 


choke 


aguagu, gaopu, oroina, pu- 


coat 


hakaiho, hakapiri. 




kuhina. 


coax 


keukeu. 


choose 


hue ke, tagi, vavae, vae. 


cobweb 


kupega nanai. 


chop 


kokoti, here. 


cock 


moa toa. 


chopper 


tapani. 


cockroach 


garara, potupotu. 


chops 


haha. 


coconut 


hakari, niu. 


chronic 


matua. 


coffin 


pahu papaku. 


chubby 


mataputi. 


coil 


takaitakai. 


church 


hare pure. 


cold a 


haumaru, tekeo, maniri. 


cicatrix 


ahau hurihuri, perehe. 




papapapa. 


circle 


takataka, mimiro, vari, viri. 


cold n 


kokogo, mare, hihi, tugu- 


circumference van, varikapau. 




tugu. 


circumspect 


titika. 


coldness 


takapau. 


circumstance 


e mea. 


colic 


manava karavarava, ma- 


clack 


korokoro, kurukuru, miti- 




nava ninihi, hukihuki. 




miti. 


collar 


hehere. 


clandestine 


aherepo, hakanaa. 


collect 


hakarogo, hakapiti, pupu, 


clap 


roturotu. 




puke, hue. 



ENGI^ISH-RAPANUI FINDING-LIST. 



277 



collection 


pupu, huega. 


confess 


aaki, hakaaaki. 


collide 


tutuki. 


confide 


repa hoa, mau. 


colonist 


noho no. 


confound 


hara, tu. 


color 


ta, hakarite, hirohiro, tiore- 


confused 


tae riva. 




hore. 


confusion 


hakaripoi, hakama. 


colorless 


teatea. 


congratulate 


hakauga. 


column 


pou, toga. 


conjecture 


manau. 


comb 


tapani, hahari. 


conquer 


hakatere, rava, morava. 


combat 


toua. 




hakahiga. 


combine 


hakatitika. 


conquered 


higaa. 


combustion 


uraga, veraga, tutuga. 


conscience 


manau. 


come 


ahere, hiho, olio mai, paka, 


consecrate 


hakatapu, hakaviku. 




rori, rere, piri, tehe, taua. 


consent 


higa, haga, rogo. 




turn, uru, tupu, kakea, a 


consequence 


ai, oaha mai. 




mua. 


conserve 


tiaki. 


comely 


akari rivariva. 


consider 


mata, matahakahire, mata 


comet 


uero. 




mine, mata hakataha. 


comfort 


hakaora, kavahia, hakama- 


considerable 


nunui, oko ke. 




kona, bakamaa. 


console 


hakamaamaa, kamiora. 


comfortably 


maamaa. 


consolidate 


hakaiho, hakamau. 


commander 


ragi. 


consort 


oho arurua. 


commemorate hakamanauhaga. 


conspicuous 


nunui. 


commencement rae. 


constant 


ihoiho, mau. 


commend 


hakahonui. 


consternation 


manava eete, manava ruru. 


commendable rivariva. 


constipation 


tutae hihi, mogugu kore. 


common 


no iharaa iharaa, noa, ana- 


construct 


haga, kato, titi. 




nake. 


consume 


hakapae. 


commotion 


ruru, veveri. 


consummate 


hakamou, hakapae. 


compact 


matorutoru, putuputu.pego- 


consumption 


kiteke. 




pego; hakatitikahaga. 


consumptive 


keo. 


companion 


repa hoa, uka hoa. 


contact 


tupuaki. 


company 


huega, piri, ananake. 


contagion 


poa. 


compare 


hakarite. 


contain 


tomo, hoc. 


comparison 


hakaritega. 


contemplate 


manau no roto. 


compass 


mimiro, varikapau, hakata- 


contemptible 


verega kore, veriveri, mee- 




viri. 




meea. 


compensate 


hakahere. 


contend 


ihoiho. 


competency 


maa. 


content 


koakoa, reka. 


competent 


maa. 


continue 


horauhorau, ki hua. 


complain 


manava pagaha. 


contract 


hakatitikahaga; hakapoto. 


complaint 


manava ru, geu. 




gaei. 


complete 


nego; hakatitika, hakariva- 


contradict 


hakahorihori. 




riva. 


contrary 


haga ke, mea ke, maira. 


compose 


hakarivariva. 


contribute 


tarupu, piri, hau. 


comprehend 


rogo. 


contrition 


manava pohi. 


compress 


hakanemu, hakahoki. 


contortion 


tipatipa. 


compromise 


hakagogoroaa, horihori. 


contusion 


toto pine, tutuki. 


comrade 


repa hoa. 


convalescence riva no iti. 


concave 


pokopoko, nokinoki. 


conversation 


ki, vanaga, hakareka. 


conceal 


naa, hue, puru, tanu. 


convert 


riva, hakarivariva. 


conceive 


tupu. 


converted 


hariua. 


concentrate 


api, hakatakataka. 


convince 


higa. 


concerning 


kia kua, ro. 


convinced 


higaa. 


conciliate 


hakatuu riri, hakarivariva. 


convolvulus 


tanoa. 




hakamou. 


convulsion 


haguhagu, taora. 


concise 


poto. 


coo 


kuku. 


conclude 


hakapae, mou. 


cook 


tunu, tao, hakapaldu, haka- 


concubinage 


moe no. 




paiku, ootu. 


concupiscence hai. 


cooked 


veravera, rihariha; kore te 


condemn 


hakarivariva, rarara. 




ivi, maemae no, paka- 


condemnation rarara. 




paka. 


condition 


hakarite. 


cooking-place 


imiu. 


condolence 


tagi, tatagiragi. 


cool 


tekeo meniri, haumaru, teo. 


conduct 


haga; hakatari, a, hakauga. 


coolness 


hau. 


conduit 


turuvai, vaituru. 


copper 


veo. 


confederate 


api, halcapa. 


copse 


marumaru. 


confer 


hakatopa. 


copy 


ta. 



278 



EASTER ISLAND. 



coral 


puga. 


cry 


tagi, ragi, pogeha, ekieki, 


cord 


taura, hiri, aratua. 




ooa, ohu. 


corner 


atiga. 


crystalline 


pupura. 


corporation 


huega. 


cudgel 


rakau ta. 


corpse 


papaku, tupapaku, perigi, 


culpable 


rakerake. 




rumaki. 


cultivated 


rapurapua. 


correct 


riva maoa, mau, hakariva- 


cunning 


haavare. 




riva, titika, tigitigi, ava- 


cup 


hipu. 




ava. 


cupboard 


pahukumi. 


corrupt 


tuki. 


curdle 


kekeho, pakahia. 


couch 


pepe. 


cure 


hakaora, hakariva. 


cough 


tehu, tugu, kokogo. 


curiosity 


rivariva. 


council 


huega. 


curl 


takai, tekai. 


count 


tapa. 


curly 


mikamika, mirimiri, piki- 


counterbalance hakaihoiho. 




piki, pekapeka. 


counterpoise 


hakaihoiho. 


curse 


pogeha, tarotaro, tuhitaga. 


country 


kaiga, henua. 


curtail 


hakaiti. 


countryman 


noho heenua. 


curtain 


kahu. 


countryside 


atahenua. 


custom 


mahani, mea. 


couple 


piri okorua. 


cut 


tehe, hore, hahoa, hoa, motu. 


courage 


matatoa, matau. 




pao, hugahuga, honi, hau- 


court 


kona varevare. 




va, huki, kokoti, petehe. 


cousin 


teina. 


cutaneous 


kiriputi. 


cover 


puru. 


cutting 


mata, kai; hati. 


covet 


tagitagi. 






covetous 


magugupuru, atehopo. 


dainty 


rikiriki, nomanoma. 


coward 


pepeke. 


damage 


moroore hihi, mou no, haka- 


cowardice 


mataku. 




ripoi. 


crab 


pikea, tupa. 


damn 


topa ki te pokoga. 


crack 


gaa, hakapakakina, parehe, 


damp 


hehehehe. 




titaa. 


dampen 


hakavekuveku. 


crackle 


kekekeke. 


dance 


ate, haka. 


cradle 


pahu. 


danger 


higa, mataku, viritopa, 


cram 


hakapuhapuha. 




viriga. 


cramps 


uapiki. 


dangerous 


mataku ke. 


crank 


taviri, hakaviri. 


dappled 


purepure, mohai. 


crapulous 


rakerake makona. 


dark 


kerekere, uriuri, hakahuri- 


crater 


ranorano. 




huri. 


cravat 


heregao. 


darken 


hakahurihuri, hakanaa. 


crawl 


totoro. 


darkness 


po, po haha, pouri. 


crayfish 


ura, vitiviti. 


dart 


vero. 


crease 


kero, hamoni. 


date 


raa. 


creation 


haga, hagarae. 


daub 


akui, puo ei oone, puo, rero. 


creep 


totoro. 


daughter 


tamaahine. 


crest 


rerepe, teketeke. 


daughter-in- 


law hunoga. 


crevice 


gaa. 


dawn 


ata, ata mea ka, hiti, pukou. 


crime 


rakerake, haga rakerake. 


day 


raa, po, poraa, marama. 


crisp 


hakavare. 


daybreak 


ata, horau hitihiti. 


crit cize 


hakahoriga. 


dazzle 


matakekeva, remereme. 


crook 


rou 


dead 


papaku, tupatupa. 


crooked 


piko. 


dear 


hakaaroha, ateate, koa. 


cross 


hakamigomigo, hakapeka. 


dearth 


maruaki, oge. 




tarotaro; peka; hiriga ta- 


death 


mate, kevakeva, agu kore. 




hataha. 




tata. 


cross-legged 


noho hatu. 


death rattle 


aguagu. 


crouch 


hakaitiiti. 


debark 


hoa. 


crow 


moa ohoa. 


debase 


hakakemo. 


crowd 


huega, gagata. 


debate 


kakai, toua. 


crown 


pukao, uru, tupuraki. 


debauch 


tuki. 


crucify 


titi. 


debauchery 


rakerake. 


cruel 


manava pohi, gau. 


debouch 


mataki. 


crumble 


bakahugahuga, hakamarere. 


debris 


horega, hugahuga. 




hakaotaota, porohata, to- 


debt 


mau. 




paria. 


decant 


huri ke, hakaperigi ke. 


crush 


hakagogoroaa, pii, rerorero. 


decapitate 


hore. 


crust 


paka. 


decay 


pipiro, para, paea. 


crutch 


tokotoko. 


decayed 


momomomo. 



ENGIylSH-RAPANUI FINDING-LIST. 



279 



deceived 


bakarogo. 


deserving 


tau. 


December 


era. 


design 


ta, tuhi, haga, manau, ata. 


decent 


rivariva. 


desire 


maruaki, haga, heguhegu. 


deception 


reoreo. 


desirous 


atehopo. 


deceptive 
decide 
declare 
decline 


huahaga. 
hakatitika, kia. 
aaki, hakakite. 
karo. 


desist 
desolate 


hakarere, moe atu. 
manava hopohopo, manava 
more, vihaviha. 


declivity 


hiriga, turuga. 


despair 


tae manau, tae tatari. 


decorate 


rakei. 


despatch 


hakatere, uga. 


decrease 


hakapoto. 


despise 


hakameemee, hakamigo- 


decree 


hakatitika. 




migo, kokoma hanohano. 


decrepit 


migo, koroua. 


despite 


tae haga. 


decry 


tuhi, pogeha, hakakemo. 


despoil 


iko. 


dedicate 


avai, tuku, tukuga. 


destination 


ikapotu. 


deep 


parera, hohonu, poke. 


destine 


hakarere, vavae, hue. 


deepen 


hakahohonu, hakapoko- 
Doko. 


destroy 


hakamou, hakamarere, hoa- 


deface 
defame 


pohutu. 
ravaki. 


destruction 


hoa. 
moumou. 


defeat 


higa. 


detach 


vevete. 


defecate 


neinei. 


detachment 


topahaga. 


defend 


tarupu. 


detain 


mau. 


defer 


hakaroa. 


deteriorate 


ii, popopopo. 


deform 


hatuhatu. 


detest 


kokoma eete. 


deformed 


rakerake. 


detestable 


veriveri ke, eete, hanohano. 


defraud 


toketoke. 


devastate 


hakamou, oi, reka. 


defy 


hakamigomigo, hakatau. 


develop 


hakarivariva, hakaroa. 


deify 


hakaetua. 


deviate 


topa ke, rere, hipa. 


dejected 


hakamou. 


devil 


tiaporo, atua. 


delay 


hakahinihini, hakatuhai. 


devoted 


hakarogo. 


delegate 


oho, rogo, uga. 


devour 


namunamu. 


deliberate 


hakarivariva. 


devout 


rivariva. 


deliberation 


hakarivariva. 


dew 


hau. 


delicate 


nomanoma, rivariva, ruhi- 


dexterity 


maori. 




ruhi. 


diamond 


mapahiva. 


delight 


mea nomanoma, mea riva- 


diarrhea 


nininini. 




riva. 


die 


mate, aguagu. 


delirious 


eva. 


difference 


hakarite ke. 


delirium 


nivaniva. 


different 


ke, ka, mea ke. 


deliver 


ho, mau, avai, hakaora, 


diffuse 


hakamarere. 




tuku, vevete. 


difficult 


hihiri, oko. 


deluge 


tarai. 


difficulty 


haga nui, hakarivariva. 


demand 


hiohio. 


dig 


are, keri. 


demarcation 


horoga, titaa, hakatuutuu. 


digging stick 


oka, uki. 


demolish 


hakamarere, hakamoumou. 


dignity 


ao, hakatopa. 




hakaperigi, hakatoparia. 


diligent 


horahorau, veveveve. 


demonstration hakakite. 


dilute 


hakaeuru. 


den 


pigoa. 


diminish 


hakaiti. 


dent 


avaava, tigitigi. 


direct 


titika, hakatitika, titikama- 


deny 


ihoiho, naa no, tae aaki. 




aki, hakatari. 


depart 


oho, tere. 


dirt 


oone. 


departure 


terega. 


dirty 


oone no. 


depose 


hakarere. 


disagreeable 


kavakava, mageo. 


depreciate 


hakameemee, hakamigo- 


disappear 


garo. 




migo. 


disapprove 


hakatuu, kakai, riri. 


depress 


mate maia mamae. 


disbelieve 


moo hakarogo. 


deprive 


iko, paea tooa. 


disburse 


avai, hakahere. 


deputy 


rogo. 


discern 


ui hagihagi. 


derision 


hakameemee, hakamigo- 


discharge 


hakaora, tute. 




migo. 


disciple 


ati oo. 


descend 


topa, turu. 


discipline 


hakamatau, hakamatatoa. 


descendant 


makupuna. 


disclose 


aaki, hakakite. 


describe 


ta. 


discolored 


mariri. 


description 


ki. 


discourage 


kio. 


desert 


pakapaka; raga, tere. 


discourse 


vanaga. 


deserve 


mea rivariva, mea meitaki 


discreet 


tae aaki. 




karava. 


discussion 


kakai. 



280 



EASTER ISIyAND. 



disdain 


hakameemee, hakamigo- 


doorkeeper 


tiaki haha. 




migo, hakanukanuka, tae- 


dorado 


aku. 




haga. 


dorsal 


turituri, oe. 


disembowel 


hakatu. 


double 


hakapa, hatu. 


disentangle 


vetevete. 


doubt 


kai maa. 


disfigure 


pohutu. 


doubtful 


peaha. 


disguise 


hakakehu, hakanehu, akari 


dourness 


kukumu kivakiva, tae ka- 




pahe. 




kata. 


disgust 


mageo, rua. 


dove 


kiakia. 


disgusted 


kavahia. 


dowel 


hakapu, hakahuru. 


dishcloth 


maro. 


down 


iho, patu; huhuru. 


dishonest 


tae riva. 


dowry 


rakau. 


dishonesty 


tae rivariva. 


drag 


kume, totoi, totoro. 


dishonor 


rakerake. 


drain 


miti. 


dis oin 


haga takataka. 


draw 


ta, ata, kume, oi, hoki. 


disjoint 


hakahata. 




kumu, pokoo, ootu, haka- 


dismal 


ge. 




ruga. 


dismiss 


hakahoki. 


drawer 


pahu oka. 


disobey 


kiukiu, tariga pogeha, tariga 


drawers 


vae no roto. 




puru. 


drawing 


rona. 


disorder 


hakaripoi. 


dream 


moe, moemoea, tikeahaga. 


disparage 


hakameemee, hakatopa. 


dredge 


taka. 


disperse 


hava, tute. 


dress 


tapa, kahu, puo, uru, rakei. 


display 


tamaki, rakei, puopuo. 


dressed 


parei. 


displease 


pagaha, koona ke, uhatu. 


dried 


pararuga. 


displeased 


taehaga. 


drill 


matau, hakamatatoa, hou. 


dispose 


too. 


drink 


unu, hakaruku. 


dispossess 


iko. 


drive 


hakauru, tute, totono, haka- 


dispute 


totia, titigi, kakai. 




tomo, oka, hakaraga. 


disquiet 


hakapagaha. 


driveler 


vare, vare roroa. 


dissension 


toua. 


drizzle 


mihimihi. 


dissolve 


hirohiro, hakavai, hakaeuru, 


drop 


mata, nininini, pakakina. 




toto. 




perigi, topa, turu. 


dissuade 


tarupu, hakanoho. 


droll 


hakareka. 


distance 


ava, roaga. 


droop 


giigii- 


distant 


ava, koroa, roroa. 


dropsy 


ahuahu, ahukarukaru, ga- 


distinct 


ke. 




repe, pati, puti, takapau. 


distinction 


ananake. 


drown 


garo, emu. 


distress 


mamaki. 


drowsy 


mata neranera, mata keva- 


distribute 


avai, tuha, tauga, tahuga. 




keva, mata mamae, mata 


district 


tauga, tuha. 




neva, matakekeva. 


distrust 


rarau. 


drum 


pahu, hura, rurururu. 


disturbance 


papakina. 


drunk 


makona, hakamakona, tipa- 


disunite 


vavae. 




tipa. 


ditch 


rua, rua papaka, pokopoko. 


dry 


mahiahia, pakapaka, gihi- 


dive 


ruku, viri. 




gihi, kehokeho, horoi. 


diverse 


ke. 


ductile 


ekaeka. 


diversity 


hakarite ke. 


due 


titikahia. 


divert 


hakataha, reka. 


dugout 


poepoe, paepae. 


divide 


moremore, tuha, hugahuga. 


dull 


maniga, mou no, punipuni. 


divine 


hihoi. 


dung 


tutae. 


divinity 


etuahaga. 


dupe 


nivaniva, toke. 


division 


pae, paega, paiga. 


duplicity 


reoreo. 


divorce 


hakarere. 


durable 


ihoiho. 


divulge 


aaki, vanaga. 


during 


a mea ka. 


dizzy 


moko. 


dust 


rehu, hakaeoeo. 


do 


haga. 


dwarf 


tagata poto. 


docile 


magaro. 


dwell 


noho. 


doctrine 


ki. 


dwelling 


noho. 


dodge 


hakataha, patu. 


dying 


papaku. 


dog 


hauhau, tokoma, paihega. 


dysentery 


nini, ninitoto. 


doleful 


pere. 


dyspeptic 


keo. 


dollar 


tara, moni tara. 


dysury 


tae mimi. 


domestic 


kia. 






domineering 


ragitea. 


each 


tetahi, teratera. 


do-nothing 


vaiapuga. 


eager 


pakapakakina, paka, ma- 


door 


haha. 




nava tagi, ihoiho. 



ENGL,ISH-RAPANUI IflNDING-LIST. 



281 



eagerness 


ihoiho. 


encourage 


hakamatatoa, hakatnatau, 


ear 


tariga, epe. 




tuki. 


ear-drop 

earlier 

earnest 


karokaro tariga. 

oganeira. 

ravapure. 


encroach 

encumber 

end 


hakaariga. 
hue, puka. 
mau, mou, mouga, pae, 

potu. 
haga. 


earnestly 


hiohio. 


endeavor 


earnestness 


tagi. 


endure 


mou noa, ihoiho. 


ear-pendant 


ohu. 


energy 


ihoiho, pepeke, peu. 


ear-ring 


epeveo, tariga. 


enjoy 


ehehihi. 


ease 


ora, tuaivi, hakamaamaa. 


enjoyment 


hakarekareka. 


easily 


maamaa. 


enlarge 


hakanego, hakanui, haka- 


east 


puku haga oao. 




riva, vevete. 


easy 


mea no iti. 


enmity 


kokoma hurihuri. 


eat 


kai, maruaki, gaoku. 


ennui 


eve ragaraga. 


ebb 


tai ua. 


enormous 


nunui. 


echinus 


tua. 


enough 


mou, mouga, meanegonego, 


echo 


vavovavo, vanagarua. 




pae, paea. ^ 


eclipse 


kohuraa. 


enrich 


hakanegonego rakau. 


economical 


tito koroiti. 


enslave 


hakakio, hakanoho, haka- 


economize 


horohopae. 




raga. 


ecstasy 


mahara, manava mate. 


enter 


tomo, uru. 


edge 


akui, hero, kahiga, pane- 


enterprise 


hagarae. 




pane, rakei, tapa, tatapu. 


entice 


haro. 


edifice 


kato. 


entire 


kai tooa, ananake. 


eel 


koiro, koreha. 


entrails 


manava, kopu, kokoma. 


efface 


hakapeapea, horoi. 


entrance 


haha, uruga. 


effect 


rivariva. 


envelop 


kaviri, hai. 


effeminate 


pepeke. 


envious 


atehopo. 


efficacious 


meitaki. 


envy 


atehopo. 


effrontery 


pakeke. 


epilepsy 


gita. 


egg 


mamari, neinei. 


epoch 


tau. 


egress 


kaipurua. 


equal 


hakarite. 


eight 


varu. 


equality 


hakarite. 


elbow 


turirima, rima tuku, puku- 


equalize 


hakapiri. 




puku. 


equip 


nego. 


elder 


tuakana. 


erase 


hakapeapea. 


elder brother 


atariki. 


erasure 


peapea. 


elect 


vae. 


erect 


tuu, hakatuu. 


elegance 


rivariva. 


err 


hara, nivaniva. 


elegant 


meitaki. 


errand 


rogo. 


element 


mea, tumu. 


error 


hara, hakakemo, rima. 


elephantiasis 


ahuahu. 


eructation 


kerereki. 


elevate 


hapai, hiri, teitei. 


erudite 


maori. 


elevation 


hapaiaga. 


escape 


hero, pakuki, ora. 


eloquent 


ravaki. 


escort 


hakatari, harai. 


else 


ke. 


essay 


akoako, rae. 


emaciated 


hugamoa. 


essence 


eo. 


embalm 


hakakava. 


establish 


hakameitaki, hakatuu. 


embark 


hapai, kakea, mau, pikipiki. 


estate 


kaiga. 


embellish 


rakei, pupu, hakanaponapo. 


esteem 


hakaaroha. 


emblem 


hakatuu. 


estimable 


hakaaroha. 


embolden 


ihoiho. 


estimate 


manau, mau. 


embrace 


hogi. 


estrange 


tuhi. 


eminent 


kiruganui. 


eternal 


ina kai mou, etereno. 


emollient 


mokimoki. 


etiolate 


pipi. 


emotion 


manava rum, eteete. 


eucharist 


eukaritia. 


employ 


haga, too. 


eulogy 


maharo. 


employment 


haga. 


evade 


hipa, taha. 


emptiness 


puhare. 


even 


hakarite. 


empty 


hakaperigi, tiaki. 


event 


atoga. 


enamel 


tea mho. 


every one 


tera. 


enchant 


maharo. 


everywhere 


koona ananake. 


enclose 


pa, titi, ki te pa, aratua, 


evident 


maa, maamaaki. 




hakauru. 


evil 


rakega, rakerake, niho, ra- 


enclosure 


pa. 




vapeto, ravaki. 


encompass 


aratua. 


eviscerate 


hakatee. 



282 



EASTER ISLAND. 



exact 


titika; uaua. 


faculty 


huega. 


exaggerate 


hakanunui, hakaripoi. 


fade 


pakapaka, mae. 


examine 


matamataki, kimikimi. 


failure 


topa, hagatopa. 


example 


hakatuu. 


faint 


aguagu, gaga, rehu. 


excavate 


are, keri. 


fair 


kurakura, marie. 


excavation 


keriga. 


faith 


keretohaga. 


excel 


rivariva. 


faithful 


ragi nui. 


excellence 


rivariva. 


faithless 


rima omo, kaikino. 


excellent 


rivariva, meitaki. 


fall 


topa, turu, higa, nininini. 


except 


e ko, mea ke. 


false 


reoreo, aaki. 


exception 


hanohano. 


falsely 


tuhi. 


exchange 


hakahererua. 


falsification 


hakaeuru. 


excite 


ara, hakatotopa, hakatupu, 


falsify 


hakaeuru, hakakemo, haka- 




uga. 




hihoi, hakaripoi. 


exclude 


hakanobo, hakahori. 


fame 


nunui. 


exclusive 


no. 


familiar 


mahani. 


excrement 


tutae. 


family 


ivi. 


excuse 


tae hakaripoi. 


famine 


oge, maruaki. 


execrable 


veveri. 


famish 


hakaperopero. 


execute 


hakapae. 


famous 


riva ke, hakariva, nui, nu- 


exempt 


hakanoho. 




nui, menege. 


exerc se 


akoako. 


fan 


pupuhi. 


exhale 


paha. 


fantastic 


hakarite ke. 


exhaust 


hapai ki ruga, pae. 


far 


ikapotu, koroa, konui, roroa. 


exhort 


uga. 


farmer 


kerihaga cone, tagata tanu- 


exigence 


uaua. 




kai. 


exist 


era, tuu. 


fashion 


hakatuu, haga. 


existence 


oraga. 


fast 


kai rogo, opeope. 


exorcise 


tute tiaporo. 


fasten 


here, kere. 


expand 


pahora, kokoro, mataki. 


fastidious 


pogeha. 




uruuru. 


fasting 


ina, kai kai, maruaki. 


expect 


tatari. 


fat 


hotonuinui, hotopararaha. 


expel 


tute, tui, uga, hakatere. 




menege, puta, nako, tu- 




raga, kakai. 




uraga. 


expend 


mou. 


father 


matua tamaroa. 


experience 


maa. 


father-in-law 


hugavai. 


experiment 


maa. 


fathom 


maroa, kumi. 


expiate 


hakaritorito, hakakore, ha- 


fathomless 


kiraronui, pokopoko ke. 




kahere. 


fatigue 


pahia ke, pagaha, gogoroaa. 


expire 


agumou. 




haga nui, hoe. 


explain 


hakarivariva, rakei. 


fault 


rakerake. 


explanation 


hakarivariva. 


favor 


tarupu, hakahio. 


expose 


hakarere. 


favorite 


hakakonakona. 


expression 


ariga, mata, ki, kihaga. 


fear 


mataku, hopo. 


expressly 


maa. 


fearless 


tg mataku. 


exquisite 


rivariva. 


feast 


uru, topa, ragikai, kai, kava- 


extend 


hakaroroa, horahora. 




hia, makona. 


extent 


roa, roaga. 


feather 


rou meamea, vanavana. 


exterior 


no aho. 


feather headd 


ress iro. 


exterminate 


hakamou, tigai, avaava. 


fecund 


horahorau, porekoreko. 


extinction 


mouga. 


feeble 


rihariha, reherehe, rauhiva, 


extinguish 


tigai. 




pepeke. 


extirpate 


totoi, too, kume. 


feed 


kai, hagai, amoamo, nagi- 


extort 


toke. 




nagi. 


extract 


hapai ki ruga, kume. 


feel 


tikea, haha, gatu. 


extraordinary 


hakarite ke. 


feeler 


hihi. 


extreme 


nunui. 


feign 


hakakehu, hakake, haka- 


eye 


mata, hakarava, kekeva, tu- 




kemo. 




tumata. 


feint 


hakake, hakakehu. 


eyebrow 


hihi. 


felicitate 


ragi. 


eyeglass 


uira purumata. 


fellow 


repa hoa. 


eyelash 


hihimata, vekeveke. 


female 


tamaahine, uha. 


eyelid 


hihi ketuketu, tutumata. 


fence 


pa, ohu. 






ferment 


pupuhi. 


fable 


reoreo. 


fern 


nehenehe, riku. 


face 


mata, ariga, tupuaki, vero. 


fertile 


tautau, toutou. 




ki te aro. 


fertilize 


hakatautau, taiko. 



ENGI^ISH-RAPANUI FINDING-LIST. 



283 



fervent 


ravapure. 


floor 


hakapaepae. 


fester 


arakea. 


florid 


ariga meamea. 


festival 


ragikai, urn. 


flour 


haraoa. 


fetch 


hari. 


flourishing 


rivariva. 


fetid 


pipiro. 


flow 


hati; era, nininini, tahe. 


fever 


rum, tetetete, rauhiva. 




turu; negonego mai. 


few 


tae negonego. 


flower 


hua, pua, moremorepua. 


fierce 


gau. 


fluctuate 


ragaraga. 


fife 


hura, puhura. 


fluid 


vai. 


fight 


kavava, tau, hakatahuti. 


flute 


puhura. 


fighter 


hakatoua. 


fly 


kakaure, takaure; rere. 


figure 


mata, karoga, ta, tapa, ha- 


foal 


kevare punua. 




karite. 


foam 


kutokuto. 


file 


hakarauga, kauga. 


fog 


pugaehu, mihimihi, motiho, 


fill 


uutu, titi, nego, hurihuri. 




taiko, kohu. 


filthy 


tae riva. 


fold 


hamoni, takapau ; hatu,kero. 


fin 


rei kauaha, kana, oe, turi- 




hakamoe. 




turi, tuutuu. 


follow 


ahere, peke, rava hakatika. 


find 


rava, morava. 


following 


maigo. 


fine 


gorigori, rikiriki. 


folly 


nivaniva. 


finery 


mahana. 


foment 


faakatotopa. 


finesse 


maori. 


fond 


hakaaroha. 


finger 


maga, tuhi; rima ko mana- 


fondle 


koakoa, okooko. 




roa; rimaroaroa tahaga, 


food 


kai, in^i, mau, namunamu. 




tuhi auha. 


foolery 


reka. 


finger-tip 


tuki. 


foolish 


nivaniva. 


finish 


hakamoumouga, mou, pae. 


foot 


vae, hetu. 


fire 


ahi, hauhau, tutu, ura, vera. 


footprint 


pokopoko vae. 


firebrand 


ehu, miroahi. 


for 


ei, ki, kia, mea, mo. 


firewood 


hahie, ukauka. 


forbid 


rahui, tapu, pera. 


firm 


hakarava, mau. 


force 


haruharu, hakahio, hiohio. 


firmament 


ragi. 


forcefully 


ki ihoiho. 


first 


mua. 


forearm 


paoga. 


first-born 


atariki. 


forever 


garo roa. 


first fruits 


rae. 


forefather 


tupuna. 


fish 


ika; ikahi, ikakato, ikako- 


forego 


kai oho. 




hau, ikapuhi, ravaika. 


forehead 


korae. 


fishing line 


eaho, gohau. 


foreign 


hiva. 


fish snood 


kave. 


foremost 


mua. 


fissure 


gaa. 


foresail 


kahu nui. 


fist 


rimahakaviriviri. 


forewarn 


mataara. 


fit 


tau; honohono; gita. 


forget 


rehu. 


five 


rima. 


fork 


maga, magaga, okaoka. 


fixed 


mau, titi, hakahio. 


form 


haga, hakatuu. 


flabby 


ekaeka. 


formal 


titika. 


flag 


reva. 


formality 


hakatitikahaga. 


flageolet 


puhura. 


former 


rae. 


flame 


ura, uraga, vera, hakapura, 


formerly 


garo atu ana. 




herohero. 


formidable 


mataku ke, hopo. 


flank 


kaokao. 


formula 


ragi, vanaga. 


flash 


mamara, ahipipi. 


forsake 


hakarere. 


flat 


paraha, paparaha, araruga. 


forswear 


reoreo. 


flatter 


maharo. 


forthwith 


horahorau. 


flattery 


maharohaga. 


fortification 


pa. 


flay 


hakaha. 


fortify 


hakaihoiho. 


flea 


koura. 


fortuitous 


tumu. 


fledgling 


punua. 


forward 


a mua. 


flee 


tere, uiui. 


foster-parent 


hagai. 


flesh 


kiko. 


foul 


haha pipiro, pipiro, tutukia. 


flexible 


hiohio. 


found 


haga. 


flexibility 


gaiei. 


foundation 


paega. 


flighty 


nivaniva. 


founder 


emu, garo. 


flimsy 


rahirahi. 


fountain 


puna, taheta pu. 


flint 


mata. 


four 


ha. 


float 


ragaraga. 


fowl 


moa. 


flog 


tata ei taura, puopuo. 


fraction 


horega, morega 


flood 


aa. 


fracture 


gaa, more. 



284 



EASTKR ISLAND. 



fragment 


horega, hugahuga. 


gash 


kokoti. 


fragrance 


eo. 


gather 


tari, tarirapa, too. 


frail 


rikiriki. 


gauze 


kahu rahirahi. 


France 


Harani. 


gay 


koakoa, reka. 


frank 


tae naa. 


genealogy 


tara, hakatotopa. 


fraud 


reoreo. 


general 


ananake, arurua. 


fray 


taua, toua. 


generality 


nuiga. 


free 


avai tohaga no mai; haka- 


generous 


rima ataki, rekireki, hora- 




ora, hakapatara, haka- 




horau, atakai. 




tere, vevete. 


gentle 


mataritorito. 


frenzied 


nivaniva. 


gently 


koroiti. 


frenzy 


rupou. 


genuflexion 


nohoturi. 


frequent 


putuputu; piri, piri putu- 


germ 


puneki, pukou, tupu. 




putu. 


germinate 


tupu. 


fresh 


hou. 


get 


rava, mou, mouga. 


Friday 


veneri. 


get up 


maroa. 


friend 


hoa, garu hoa, irka hoa. 


ghost 


akuaku. 


friendsliip 


hakaarohahaga, peupeu- 


giant 


tagata roroa. 




haga, tatagihaga. 


gift 


akatari, rima atakai. 


fright 


manava eete. 


gill 


kauaha, taki turi, rerureru. 


frighten 


hakaparera. 


ginger 


kiata, pua. 


frightful 


rakerake, veriveri, eheeuru- 


gird 


hakaihoiho ki te pena. 




roroa. 


girdle 


aratua. 


fringe 


tapa. 


girth 


pena, tuuruga nui. 


frippery 


giogio. 


give 


avai, ho, tuku, mau, hoki. 


frivolous 


verega kore. 




vaai. 


frizzed 


hirihiri. 


give up 


mae atu'ra, hakarere. 


from 


me mai. 


gladness 


hakarivaga. 


front 


mua. 


glairy 


ekaeka. 


frontier 


tahataha. 


glance 


mataui, mine. 


frontispiece 


arc. 


gland 


gamamari. 


froth 


kutokuto. 


glare 


gii- 


fructify 


hakatiti. 


glass 


uira. 


frugal 


tito, manava itiiti. 


glean 


tuatua. 


fruit 


hua, mokai, pararuga. 


glimmer 


marama, maeha. 


fruitful 


verega. 


glisten 


raparapa. 


frustrate 


too. 


glitter 


pupura. 


fry 


koura; tunu. 


gloom 


pohurihuri, po haha, kohu 


fugitive 


tere, manua. 




no, kerekere. 


full 


titi, nego, topanihi. 


glorify 


maharo, naponapo, ritorito. 


funeral 


tanuhaga, tanuga papaku. 


glove 


tokini rima. 


funnel 


hatahata. 


glow 


hakama, maeha. 


fur 


huhuru. 


glue 


piri. 


furrow 


kokotihaga, tiaki. 


glut 


hakatiti. 


furniture 


rakau. 


glutton 


ravakai, namunamu. 


further 


atiave. 


gluttonous 


horohoro. 


fury 


kokoma hurihiru, pohi. 


gluttonously 


hakaputaputa. 


futile 


verega kore, hagatopa. 


gnash 


nihotete. 


future 


a muri, ta rori mai. 


go 


tere, oho, hiri, kapu, hoa, 
matu, totoro, ohititika. 


gag 


hakagau. 




tuku, taie, taha, tapoke. 


gain 


akatariga, akatarika, rava. 




taruriruri. 




morava. 


go away 


rarikau. 


gall 


au. 


go down 


topa. 


gallows 


tuu hakamate tagata. 


go out 


ea. 


game 


reka. 


go up 


piki. 


gangrene 


pipiro, tao. 


goat 


apaihoru. 


gape 


hakamama, ha. 


gobble 


horohoro, 5 hakaputaputa, 


garb 


kao. 




maga nuinui. 


garbage 


kokoma, maga, nironiro. 


goblet 


hipu. 


garden 


pa. 


god 


atua, etua, moi kavakava, 


gargle 


hakarutoruto. 




ahu. 


garland 


hei, niniko, niniro, vana- 


goddess 


kirato. 




vana, vavari. 


gold 


moni meamea, tuitui, ohio. 


garment 


tapa. 


good 


meitaki, rivariva. 


garrote 


here. 


good-bye 


kamoi, ka oho. 


garrulous 


ravavanaga. 


good-humor 


ariga koakoa. 



ENGUSH-RAPANUI FINDING-LIST. 



285 



good-looking 


ritorito. 


guard 


tiaki, ara, ora. 


good-morning koo mai. 


guess 


mamahi. 


goodness 


meitakihaga, rivaga. 


guest 


ragia. 


good-night 


koo mai, pu mai puma. 


guide 


hakatari. 


gorge 


puku. 


guile 


haavare. 


gormandize 


hakarivariva. 


gulf 


parera. 


gospel 


evagerio. 


gull 


kiakia. 


gossip 


ravaki. 


gullet 


tukegao. 


gourd 


mautini, hue. 


gulp 


horo. 


govern 


hakarivariva. 


gum 


piri. 


government 


ao, tute. 


gums 


hakau. 


gown 


kahu nui. 


gummy 


hakarava. 


grace 


karatia. 


gunpowder 


paura. 


graceful 


ritorito. 


gush 


pupuhi. 


gracious 


magaro. 






gradually 


koroiti. 


habit 


mahani, peva, kahu. 


graft 


hakapa, hakapiri, hakauru. 


habitation 


hare. 


grain 


mokohi. 


hail 


ragi, tuu. 


grandchild 


poki. 


hair 


rauoho, rehau, huhuru, puo. 


grandparent 


tupuna. 




patu. 


grandson 


makupuna. 


hairy 


verevere. 


grape 


uva. 


half 


vaega, horega. 


grasp 


haro, haruharu, hio, mau. 


hall 


rapehare, horega hare. 


grass 


mouku, moku, turumea. 


halt 


hue no, maroa, noho. 


grate 


nekuneku. 


hammer 


titi. 


grateful 


atakai. 


hand 


rima, haro. 


gratis 


avai no mai. 


handkerchief 


horoimata, rupa. 


grave 


hakamohi, nui, oko,ke; rua. 


handsome 


ariga meitaki, ritorito, napo- 




avaga. 




napo, rivariva. 


gravel 


kirikiri. 


handy 


maori ke avai. 


gravy 


vai. 


hang 


reva, tau, tauaki, ariga topa. 


gray 


uriuri. 


happiness 


koakoa, Iiakarivariva. 


graze 


amoamo, huhu. 


happy 


hakariva. 


grease 


nako; pua, akui. 


harangue 


vanaga. 


great 


nui, kumi, honui, menege. 


harass 


pagaha, mou. 


greater 


nui atu. 


harbor 


hagaava, kona rao tomo. 


greatness 


nuiga. 


hard 


oko, ihoiho, pagaha. 


greedily 


gaoku, puku. 


harden 


ihoiho. 


greedy 


maruaki, agu kore, horo- 


hardihood 


tae mataku. 




horo, veveveve, rihariha. 


harm 


hakagogoroaa, hakapagaha. 




peropero. 


harpoon 


vero. 


green 


mata, tae oko, pukupuku, 


harvest 


mau nui. 




uriuri. 


haste 


hora, horau, papakina, veve. 


grief 


topatagi, timo, hakaaroha. 


hasten 


tahuti, veveveve. 


grievous 


oko pagaha. 


hasty 


manava pohi. 


grill 


hakaveravera. 


hat 


hau. 


grimace 


hakamigomigo, hakapau- 


hatch 


uhamau, hakaragutu. 




pau, hakaponoko. 


hatchet 


toki, tigi. 


grin 


hakamigomigo, hakapau- 


hate 


kokoma hanohano, kokoma 




pau. 




hurihuri. 


grind 


avaava. 


haughty 


ragitea, tea. 


grindstone 


maea viriviri. 


haul 


totoi. 


groan 


tatagi, manava ru, peupeu, 


haunch 


tuaapapa. 




ekieki, hakaku. 


haunt 


pigoa. 


groin 


tapa. 


have 


rava, morava. 


groom 


viri. 


hay 


mouku. 


groove 


huhu. 


haze 


pugaehu, kohu. 


grope 


haha. 


he 


ia. 


grotto 


ana. 


head 


puoko,roho, roro, ariga topa, 


group 


huega. 




taehaga, hakataha, oho 


grow 


tupu, teitei, manege, me- 




rae. 




nege, ivi uha, kiruganui, 


headache 


puoko garuru, mamae keo, 




hakanui, roaroa. 




ahe. 


grub 


hakaheu, keri. 


headdress 


iro. 


grudge 


kokoma hanohano, haka- 


head foremost topanihi. 




kore. 


headland 


mokomoko. 


grunt 


gorogoro. 


headstrong 


pogeha. 



286 



EASTER ISIvAND. 



health 


riva. 


hollow out 


huri. 


healthy 


era, hakaora. 


holy 


tapu, rivariva, hiva. 


heap 


hue; puke, negonego. 


homage 


hakaaroha. 


hear 


rogo. 


home 


ki te hare. 


heart 


mokoimokoi, haipo, kopu. 


homicide 


tigairo. 


heat 


mahana, hana, ptimahana, 


honest 


titika. 




veravera, hai; ha, rara. 


honey 


pirari. 


heathen 


eteni. 


honor 


hakaaroha. 


heave 


horahora, hakaturuturu. 


hook 


rou. 


heaven 


ragi. 


hook, to bite at akarau. 


heavy 


pagaha. 


hop 


ihiihi, tekitela. 


hedge 


pa. 


hope 


atiati, tataii. 


heedless 


nivaniva. 


hopeless 


meua. 


heel 


reke; hihiga. 


horizon 


tahataha. 


heifer 


puaka tamaahine. 


horn 


tara. 


height 


kirugahaga, roaroa, teitei. 


horrible 


eete, veriveri. 


hell 


pokoga. 


horror 


eete. 


helm 


uira, hakatekateka. 


horse 


kevare, hoi. 


helmet 


had. 


hospitable 


atakai. 


helmsman 


hakatere. 


hostage 


hakanoho. 


help 


tarupu. 


hostile 


matatoua. 


helve 


tokotoko, pakoa. 


hostility 


toua, kakai. 


hem 


hamoni. 


hot 


mahana, vera, pahia. 


hemorrhage 


kotokoto, kutoto, nininini. 


hour 


hora. 




tahetoto, tehetoto. 


house 


hare. 


hen 


moa uha. 


how 


pehea. 


henceforth 


i muri. 


how many 


hia. 


her 


no ia. 


however 


ko mea tera. 


herb 


mouku. 


howl 


hakaeki, pogeha. 


herbage 


mouku uta. 


hubbub 


pogeha. 


here 


nei, kona nei, mei a, ainara. 


hum 


huhu. 


hereafter 


i muri. 


human 


tagatahaga. 


heretofore 


i mua. 


humble 


manava topa ki rare, tae tea 


heritage 


tagata titika, rakau. 


humiliate 


manava topa ki raro. 


hero 


matau. 


humus 


veku. 


hesitate 


hagahaga. 


hunchback 


tuaivi nihinihi. 


hew 


hore, kokoti. 


hundred 


rau. 


hibiscus 


hau, moaua. 


hunger 


maruaki, agoago, oge. 


hiccough 


korereki. 


hungry 


oge, agoago, opeope. 


hide 


kiri; naa, pike, hakanoku. 


hurl 


avava. 




hakakehu, hero. 


hurrah 


teretere. 


hide-and-seek hikohiko keke. 


hurry 


veve,hakauruuru,papakina 


hideous 


eete, rakerake, veriveri. 


hurt 


hahoa. 


hiding-place 


pu moo naa. 


husband 


kenu. 


high 


ruga, kiruga, mini, parera. 


husbandman 


kerihaga oone, kio. 


hilarious 


reka. 


hush 


ka mou. 


hilarity 


koakoa. 


hut 


hare. 


hill 


mouga, otu, takere; puke, 


hymn 


himene. 




ata puo. 


hypocrite 


hipokerita. 


hillside 


hiriga mouga. 


hypostasis 


hipotati. 


hit 


karava. 






him 


noona. 


I 


ku, vau, au. 


hinder 


tarupu. 


idea 


manau. 


hinge 


Ohio tagataga. 


idiom 


vanaga. 


hip 


tipi, tuaapapa. 


idiot 


gita. 


hire 


hakahere. 


idle 


vaiapuga. 


his 


aana, naana, taka, taana, 


idler 


noho no. 




tana, oona, tona, no ia. 


idol 


mohai. 


hither 


taha, tapoke, taruriruri. 


idolater 


eteni. 


hoarse 


guruarapuru, reopuru, haua. 


if 


ana, koro. 


hoe 


rapu. 


ignite 


tutu. 


hogshead 


pahu viriviri. 


ignoble 


rakerake. 


hoist 


haro, kume. 


ignominy 


iga rakerake. 


hold 


mau, maoa. 


ignorance 


oa atikea. 


hole 


pu, rua. 


ignorant 


kai maa, tae maa. 


holiday 


hakareka. 


ill 


mai, mamae, mate,'tiki, rau 


hollow 


rua. 




hiva, tuaivi. 



ENGUSH-RAPANUI FINDING-UST. 



287 



ill-bred 


tae tau. 


inactive 


vaiapuga, noho no. 


illegal 


tae rivariva. 


inattentive 


horihori. 


illicit 


hanohano, rakerake, veri- 


incapable 


tae rava, e ko rava, pepeke. 




veri. 


incarnate 


tagataa. 


ill-tempered 


ariga topa. 


incense 


here ei hoiho, eo. 


illuminate 


hakapura, turama. 


incessant 


ina e ko mou. 


illusion 


manau hara. 


incise 


hore. 


illustrious 


rivariva ke. 


incision 


petehe, hore. 


ill-will 


riri. 


incite 


hakatau. 


image 


ata, mohai. 


incline 


hakataha, hipa. 


imagination 


manau. 


incomparable 


hakarite koe. 


imagine 


manau. 


incompetent 


tae maori, tae maa. 


imbecile 


gita, nivaniva. 


incomplete 


tae nego. 


imitate 


aati, hakarite. 


incomprehensible tae maa. 


immaterial 


kuhane, akuaku. 


inconsiderate 


tae manau. 


immature 


pukupuku. 


inconsistency 


manau huri ke. 


immediate 


tupuaki. 


inconsistent 


tae riva, nivaniva. 


immediately 


horahorau. 


inconsolable 


pagaha mauga kore, tatagi 


immense 


nunui ke, roroa ke. 




tahaga. 


immerse 


ruku. 


inconvenient 


tae riva. 


immobile 


noho no, hakatuu. 


incorporeal 


tine kore. 


immodest 


rakerake, hakatikea, patu 


incorrect 


ina kai titika, tae titika. 




toona rake. 


incorruptible 


tae pipiro. 


immoral 


hanohano, rakerake, veri- 


increase 


teitei. 




veri. 


incriminate 


hakakemo. 


immortality 


oraga ina kai mou. 


inculpate 


hakakemo. 


immortalize 


hakaora ina kai mou, haka- 


incurable 


e ko era, e ko riva. 




mau iho. 


indecent 


noho tae riva. 


immovable 


tae hakataha, mauoko, tae 


indefinite 


tini. 




htui. 


indemnify 


hakahere. 


impalpable 


mauga kore. 


independent 


nemonemo. 


impartial 


mea ananake, titika, noa ki 


index 


hakatuu. 




te mau. 


index finger 


magatuhi. 


impatient 


tarotaro. 


indicate 


tuhi. 


impede 


tute. 


indifference 


gogoroaa. 


imperceptible ehuehu. 


indifferent 


tagi kore, horihori. 


imperfect 


tae titikamaaki, tae riva, 


indigenous 


noho kaiga. 




tae nego. 


indigent 


rakau kore. 


impertinent 


pogeha. 


indigestion 


hakamanavanihinihi, ma- 


impetuous 


huhu. 




nava ahuahu. 


impious 


rakerake. 


indignation 


manava pohi. 


implacable 


manava pohi nunui ke. 


indirect 


tae titikamaaki, titika kore. 


implant 


tanu, mooka. 


indissoluble 


tae momotu, e ko momotu, 


implore 


nonoi. 




e ko moumou. 


impolite 


tae titika, tae tau. 


indistinct 


heguigui. 


import 


hapaitari, uta mai. 


indistinctly 


hahumuhumu, varegao, pin, 


important 


oko. 




iore, makona. 


importunate 


pogeha. 


individual 


mea. 


importune 


ka kikiu ro. 


indivisible 


kokotiga kore. 


impose 


ragi no. 


indolent 


vaiapuga. 


impossible 


tae rava, e ko rava. 


indubitable 


mau. 


impost 


ragiga. 


indulgence 


atakai. 


imposture 


reoreo. 


indulgent 


atakai, magaro. 


impoverish 


hakakamikami, haamou. 


industry 


maori. 




hakaiti. 


inefficacious 


tae riva. 


impregnable 


e ko pae. 


inequality 


tae hakarite. 


imprint 


ta. 


inert 


vaiapuga. 


imprison 


pohurihuri. 


inexhaustible 


tae emu, tae miti. 


improbable 


reoreo peaha. 


inexperiencec 


e maaa. 


improve 


hakaritorito, totona. 


infallible 


e ko huri ke. 


imprudent 


tae manau, tae tiaki. 


infamous 


veriveri ke. 


impudent 


pogeha. 


infant 


poki. 


impure 


hanohano, veriveri. 


infanticide 


tigaipoki. 


impute 


hakakemo. 


infect 


hakamageo. 


in 


ki. 


infection 


hakapipiro, hakamageo. 


in order that 


ki, ana, ia, mo, mea. 


inferior 


kio, kiraroroa, rakau kore. 


inaccessible 


vave kai kohe. 


infernal 


poko. 



288 



EASTER ISIyAND. 



infidelity 

infinite 

infinity 

infirm 

inflammation 

inflexible 

influence 

infringe 

infuse 

infusion 

ingenious 

ingrate 

inhabit 

inhabitant 

inharmonious 

inhuman 

iniquity 

initiate 

inject 

injure 

ink 

inland 

innocent 

innovate 

innumerable 

inopportune 

inquire 

insatiable 

inscribe 

insect 

insensible 

inseparable 

insert 

inside 

inside out 

insignificant 

insinuate 

insist 

insistent 

insolent 

insomnia 

inspect 

inspire 

instability 

instal 

instant 

instep 

instigate 

instinct 

institute 

instruct 

instructed 

instruction 

insufficient 

insult 

insupportable 

intact 

integrity 

intelligent 

intelligible 

intemperate 

intense 

intention 

inter 



mogugupuru, nma omo. 

roaroa ke, tini. 

migoigoi. 

pepeke. 

ahuahu, tao. 

ihoiho ke. 

mana, tuki. 

tariga pogeha. 

hakaeuru, hirohiro, hakahi- 
hoi. 

hakaeuru. 

maori. 

mogugu kiukiu, mogugu- 
puru, kaikino. 

noho. 

noho no. 

kakai. 

tae tagi. 

rakerakega. 

hakakite, hakamaa. 

hakaeuru, hirohiro. 

momore hihi. 

garahu. 

uta. 

ina e rakerakega. 

rae ki te mea hou. 

migoigoi, tini. 

moo aneira, tae riva. 

hakarivariva, kimikimi. 

ravakai, horohoro. 

ta. 

manu rikiriki. 

tae tagi. 

avahiga kore. 

ta. 

ki roto. 

takapau. 

tae verega, tae riva. 

hakahumuhumu, rara. 

hiohio. 

nonoi pogeha. 

pogeha. 

ara no. 

ui, rarama. 

hahumuhumu. 

aherehere. 

hakanoho. 

aneira, igeneira, oganeira. 

pekapekavae. 

hakauga, tuki. 

manau. 

hakatuu. 

akoako, hakamaa. 

maa. 

hakatikeahaga, akoakoga. 

tae nego, tae titika, gorigori. 

hakameemee. 

pogeha. 

kai horea, kai tooa. 

kai horea. 

manau maramarama, maori, 
marama. 

rogoa. 

kai. 

nunuiga. 

haga. 

tanu. 



intercept 

interdict 

interest 

interfere 

interior 

interlace 

intermediate 

intermediary 

intermediate 

interpose 

interpret 

interpreter 

interrogate 

interrupt 

interruption 

interval 

intervene 

interview 

intestines 

into 

intone 

intrigue 

introduce 

intruder 

inundate 

inure 

invalid 

invariable 

invasion 

invective 

invention 

inventor 

invert 

invest 

inveterate 

invincible 

invisible 

invitation 

invite 

invocation 

involuntary 

irascible 

iron 

irony 

irregular 

irreligious 

irresolute 

irreverence 

irritable 

irruption 

isolated 



itch 



jail 

January 

jaw 

jawbone 

jealous 

jealousy 

jerk 

jest 

Jew 



iko, too. 

rahui, hakaviku. 

riva kia ku, tarupu. 

tarupu. 

manava, o roto. 

migosigosi, haka pekapeka 

hakauruuru. 
rara. 

paiga no tera tagata. 
ki vaega. 
tarupu. 
rara. 

tagata hakarivariva. 
ui. 

hakamou. 
mouga. 
ava. 

hakarivariva, tarupu. 
tupuaki, piri. 
kokoma, nenenene. 
ki roto. 
tahito. 

hakauga, meemee. 
hakauru, hakatomo. 
tokenoho. 
aa. 

mahani. 
teatea, pepeke. 
noho noa, tae huri ke. 
rava. 
tuhitaga. 
ravarae. 
rava. 

hakaripoi, rori. 
avai titikaga. 
tuhai. 
tae higa. 
tae tikea. 
ragiga. 
ragi. 
pure, 
tae haga. 
tahaga, tarotaro. 
Ohio, 
hakamee, hakamigomigo, 

hakanukonuko, hakapau. 
kekee, tae hakarite. 
hakaripoi, rakerake. 
hakatapona, hakatotopa. 
tae pure, tae rutu. 
kokoma hurihuri. 
tahuti noa. 
nohookotahi. 
kuapu, kaipurua, mei a mea, 

o roto, rori. 
mageo, auau. 



hare pohurihuri. 

ora. 

kauaha. 

kauae. 

hae. 

makota. 

hoa. 

reka no. 

iuteo. 



ENGUSH-RAPANUI FINDING-UST. 



289 



jib 


kahu hakatepetepe, kahu- 


landward 


uta. 




tova. 


language 


reo. 


join 


honohono, piri, moo arai. 


languid 


aguagu, gogoroaa. 




hakatupuaki, hakariva- 


languish 


hopohopo teni. 




riva. 


languor 


hopohopo, ekieki. 


joint 


honohono. 


lantern 


pahuahi, hakapiu-a, rapa- 


joist 


pae, hakatutu, oka. 




rapa. 


journey 


hiriga. 


lantern-jawed mata gorigori. 


jovial 


ravakata. 


lap 


nuti, namunamu. 


joy 


koa, ateate, hogihogi, haka- 


lard 


nako. 




reka, hakarivaga. 


large 


nui, hakamenege, kumi.roa. 


judge 


hakava, hagakavaga, haka- 




rava. 




rivariva. 


lascivious 


hai, rakerake. 


udgment 


hakarivariva, hakava. 


lash 


tata ei taura, here. 


udicious 


maori ke. 


lassitude 


gogoroaa, horihori. 


ug 


hipu, pakahcra. 


last 


muri, maua. 


uice 


vai. 


last moments agupotu. 


July 


anakena. 


last night 


ogapo. 


jump 


ketu. 


late 


po. 


June 


maro. 


lateral 


tatapa, ata tapa, kaokao. 


ust 


titika. 


latrine 


hare neinei, koona neinei. 


ustice 


hakatitikahaga. 


lattice 


hakapekapeka, hihi. 


ustification 


hakarivariva. 


laugh 


kata, hiihii, pogeha. 






launch 


hoa, marere. 


kelp 


harepepe. 


lawful 


titika. 


kernel 


gamamari. 


lay eggs 


neinei. 


kettle 


pahu nui. 


lay up 


hakamoe. 


key 


taviri. 


lazy 


vaiapuga, noho no. 


kick 


pogeha. 


lead n 


matnara. 


kidney 


mokoimokoi, makoikoi. 


lead V 


a, patu, tari. 


kill 


hakamate, tahia, tigai. 


leaf 


rau, hohora, patu, tuke. 


kind 


ragi. 


leafless 


tukepaka. 


kindle 


tutu, hakaura, vera. 


league 


hakapa, hakapiri. 


king 


ariki. 


leak 


emu, mama, nininini, pu- 


kingdom 


ao. 




nene, turn. 


kiss 


hogi. 


lean 


pakiroki, pepeke, reherehe; 


kitchen 


hare tunukai. 




hipa, huri. 


kite 


manu uru. 


leanness 


hugamoa. 


knavery 


reoreo. 


leap 


ketu, rere, ruku. 


knead 


reirei. 


learn 


akoako, maa. 


knee 


turi, turituku, turiturivae. 


lease 


hakanoho. 


kneel 


nohoturi. 


leathery 


ihoiho, ukauka. 


knife 


hoe, roi. 


leave 


hakarere, tere. 


knock down 


hakatopa. 


leave off 


moe atu. 


knot 


here, hakapukou. 


leaven 


hakapupuhi. 


know 


rava, kite, tikea. 


leavings 


toega. 






lecture 


hahumuhumu. 


labor 


haga, hakaheu. 


leek 


kekeohe. 


laborer 


maahaga. 


leer 


hira. 


laborious 


rava hakaheu. 


leeward 


raro. 


lace 


hihihihi, here, takaikai. 


left 


matau. 




ueue. 


left hand 


rima maori. 


lacerate 


pahure, paopao, vero. 


leg 


vae, tumu kore, heru, tumu 


laconic 


mou no, poto. 




hatihati, hakahihi. 


ladle 


tukuga. 


legacy 


tukuga. 


lair 


pigoa. 


legal 


titika. 


lance 


pao, vero, kohau, makigaa. 


legalize 


hakatitika. 


lance-point 


nainai. 


legitimate 


poki aana. 


lamb 


anio. 


leisure 


vaiapuga, hakareka. 


lame 


kokekoke, tekiteki, oeoe. 


lend 


hoki. 


lamentation 


tagi, matavai. 


length 


roaga. 


lamp 


turama. 


lengthen 


hakaroa, hakakumi. 


land 


henua, kaiga. 


lenitive 


mokimoki. 


land crab 


tupa. 


leprous 


kin ekaeka. 


landing 


titi. 


lesion 


pahure. 


landmark 


hore. 


less 


iti atu. 


landscape 


atahenua. 


lessen 


hakaiti. 



290 



EASTER ISLAND. 



lesson 


akoakoga. 


longv 


auau, mageo, rekareka. 


lest 


ho. 


longevity 


tuhai. 


let go 


tuku. 


look 


ira, hira, aia, ui; mataha- 


letter 


retera, ta. 




kakekeva, matahakahiva. 


level 


hakakiva, hakavarevare. 




araha hauha, hage, e tahi 




mohimohi. 




hakarite. 


liberal 


atakai. 


loose 


matara, hatahata, varavara. 


liberality 


rima atakai. 




vevetea. 


liberate 


hakatere, vevete. 


loosen 


hakaekaeka, hakahata, pa- 


lichen 


kihikihi. 




tara. 


lick 


miti. 


lop 


horehore, kokoti. 


lid 


puru. 


loquacious 


ravavanaga, ravaki. 


lie 


moe. 


lord 


ariki. 


lie-in 


poreko, topa te poki. 


lose 


marere, perigi, garo. 


lie in wait 


pike, hakakehu. 


loss 


garoa. 


lies, to tell 


hakanivaniva. 


lost 


rehurehu. 


life 


oraga, po o te tagata. 


lots, cast 


mamahi. 


lifeless 


matea, oraga kore. 


loud 


ohu. 


lift 


hakapiti, hapai. 


lounge 


rago. 


ligament 


herega. 


louse 


kutu. 


light 


maamaa, mama, rahirahi; 


love 


hakaaroha, ragi. 




marama, maeha, kura. 


low 


rakerake, topa. 




tahae. 


lower 


hakaturu. 


light V 


pupura, vera, tutu, hakaura. 


loyalty 


rivariva. 


lighten 


hakamaa. 


lucid 


maori. 


lightning 


uira. 


lucrative 


akatari. 


like 


pahe, pe, pei. 


luff 


rorirori. 


likeness 


pei ra hoki, hakaritega. 


lugubrious 


pere. 


liking 


haga. 


lukewarm 


vera itiiti no, mahana no iti. 


limb 


vae, akari tino, magamiro. 


luminous 


pupura. 


lime 


puga. 


lung 


inaga, ate. 


limit 


titaa. 


lung disease 


matekeo. 


limp 


haroharo. 


lure 


mounu. 


limpet 


mama. 


luster 


pupura. 


limpid 


ritorito. 


lying 


reoreo. 


line 


uaua, taki, titaa. 






lining 


rote. 


madness 


nivaniva. 


lion 


reone. 


magnificence 


rivariva. 


lip 


gutu, mitutika, omoomo. 


maize 


tarake. 


lippitude 


hakarava. 


majestic 


ritorito, rivariva. 


liquefy 


hakavai, hakatehe. 


majority 


paiga nui, horega. 


liquid 


vai. 


make 


haga. 


liquor 


unu. 


maker 


haga. 


lisp 


reohirehire, reouu. 


malady 


rauhiva. 


list 


igoa tapaa. 


male 


tamaroa. 


listen 


rogo. 


mallet 


titimiro. 


litter 


porekohaga. 


maltreat 


avaava, puopuo. 


little 


iti, gorigori. 


man 


tagata. 


little finger 


meniri ko manava. 


manifest 


maa, tikea. 


littoral 


tahatai. 


mankind 


tagata. 


live 


ora. 


manner 


hakarite, mea. 


liver 


ate. 


man-o'-war 


manua. 


lizard 


moko. 


manufacture 


haga. 


load 


araoga, hakavaga, uraga, 


manure 


tutae. 




negonego, tari, hapai ki 


many 


hia, e tahi hakarite. 




ruga. 


march ti 


ahere. 


loan 


avai hakahou. 


March 


hora nui. 


lobster 


ura. 


marginal 


ata tapa. 


locality 


kona. 


mark 


hakauaua, hakatuhaga, ha- 


lock 


hirihiri, rauoho mirimiri, 




katuu, horehore, hakaatu. 




rauoho mahatu; taviri. 


marriage 


hunoga. 


locution 


vanaga. 


married 


noho vie, noho kenu. 


loins 


tuaivi. 


marrow 


nako, ekaeka. 


loiterer 


noho no, vaiapuga. 


marsh 


oone ran, roto. 


lonely 


okotahi. 


marshmallon 


mova. 


long 


roa. 


martial 


matau. 


long ago 


tuhaituhai. 


marvel 


matemanava. 



BNGIvISH-RAPANUI FINDING- WST. 



291 



marvelous 


rivaga ke, meitaki ke. 


mine t> 


keri. 


mask 


puru, puruga. 


mingle 


hakaekaeka. 


mason 


titipa. 


miracle 


hakamana 


mass 


piri, puke, titi, hue, tneta. 


mire 


cone. 


massacre 


titigi. 


mirror 


uira. 


mast 


tuu. 


mirth 


koakoa. 


master 


tagata hakakio. 


miry 


rarirari. 


mastery 


hs^ahiga. 


mischief 


haga no iti. 


mastication 


kaikai. 


miscreant 


tae hakarogo. 


mat 


moega, raraga. 


miserable 


rakau kore. 


match 


ahi hakapura. 


miserly 


magugupuru, kaikino. 


material 


mea tino. 


misery 


gogoroaa. 


matrix 


kahuviri. 


misfortune 


gogoroaa. 


matter 


tino, akari. 


mislead 


kutokuto 


mattock 


peu. 


missionary 


mitinare. 


maul 


titi miro. 


mist 


pugaehu, taiko. 


maybe 


peaha. 


mistake 


hara. 


meadow 


mouku no. 


mistrust 


rarau. 


meager 


pakiroki. 


misunderstand tae tikea. 


meal 


kai. 


mitigate 


hakarivariva, hakaiti. 


means 


rava. 


mix 


hirohiro, hakaekaeka, haka- 


measure 


maroa hahaga, habaga, ha- 




hihoi, tu. 




hao, titaa. 


mixed 


gaiei. 


meat 


kiko, kai, mau. 


mixture 


gaiei, hakaeuru, tupa. 


meddle 


rara. 


mock 


hakameemee, hakamigo. 


mediator 


tarupu. 


mode 


hakarite, hakatuu. 


medicine 


rakau. 


model 


hakatuu. 


mediocre 


itiiti noa, gorigori. 


moderate 


koroiti. 


meditation 


manau. 


modern 


hou, hou a nei, iho. 


medium 


iti. 


modest 


gorigori, matatopa, mataui 


meet 


tupuaki, piri. 




a raro, gorigori. 


mellow 


ekaeka, hakapara. 


modesty 


riva. 


melodious 


reka. 


modify 


hakarivarivaiho. 


melon 


merone. 


moist 


rari, vekuveku. 


melt 


hakavai, tehe, kutoto. 


moisten 


hakaruku. 


memory 


manau. 


molecule 


huhu. 


memorable 


maori. 


molest 


hakagogoroaa, hakapagaha. 


menace 


ragi tarotaro, hakameemee. 


moment 


poto. 


mend 


kauiui. 


money 


moni. 


menses 


mamae toto. 


monkey 


hakaponoko. 


menstruation tiko. 


monster 


veri. 


mental 


no te manau. 


monstrous 


veri. 


mention 


tapa. 


month 


marama. 


mercenary 


tagata haga ei mea. 


monthly 


no te marama. 


merchandise 


rakau. 


moon 


mahina. 


merchant 


hakahere. 


moonlight 


kii. 


merit 


merita. 


moonshine 


maeha mahina. 


merry 


ravakata. 


moor 


kere. 


mesh 


mata, piniku. 


moral 


rivariva noa, titika. 


message 


rogo, uga. 


moralize 


hakarivariva. 


messenger 


rogo, hakaoho. 


morning 


hugaraa, popohaga. 


Messiah 


metia. 


morning star 


heetu tauhoru. 


metal 


veo. 


mortise 


hakahuru, pu. 


meteor 


hetu rere. 


mosquito 


takaure iti. 


method 


hakatuu. 


moss 


nehenehe. 


mew 


tagi. 


mother 


matua tamaahine. 


middle 


vaega. 


mother-in-law hugavai. 


midnight 


tinipo, aonui. 


mother-of-pearl rei. 


midwife 


vie hanau. 


motion 


hakahuhu, ehuhu. 


mien 


ariga, mata. 


motive 


tumu. 


migraine 


puoko garuru, ahe. 


mottled 


guregure. 


mild 


hakakonakona, reherehe. 


mould 


pahuporo. 


milk 


vaihu, tatau. 


mouldy 


ekapua. 


million 


tini. 


mount 


piki, piri, eke. 


mind 


nivaniva. 


mountain 


tuamouga, mouga. 


mine 


toku, noku, ooku, mooku, 


mourning 


garahu, tatagi, timo. 




taaku, naaku, a. 


mouse 


kiore. 



292 



CASTER ISLAND. 



moustache 


vere. 


netting needle hika. 


mouth 


gutu, haha, mama. 


neuralgia 


ekaeka. 


mouthful 


maga. 


never 


a muri noa atu, e kore noa. 


move 


gaei, gaiei, ruru, hakaneke, 


nevertheless 


mea ra, ro. 




ki hua, makenu, keukeu. 


new 


hou, iho. 




pakuku. 


newborn 


punua. 


moved 


eete manava, akaku. 


new come 


topa pae. 


movement 


gaiei, keukeu. 


news 


rogo. 


mow 


kokoti. 


next 


tata, tupuaki, te tahi, poro- 


much 


e tahi hakarite. 




kimo. 


muck 


cone. 


nibble 


akarau, naginagi. 


mucus 


hupee. 


nickname 


igoa tae rivariva, nape iho. 


mud 


oone veriveri.egu cone veku. 


night 


po, ahi, ahiahi, ogapo. 


muddy 


rarirari, hehehehe veku. 


nightmare 


gorogoro. 


mulberry 


maute. 


nimbly 


ahere koroiti. 


multiply 


hakanui, hakanegonego, ha- 


nine 


iva. 




katiti. 


nipple 


matad. 


multitude 


gagata. 


no 


aita, ko, kakore, kai, ina. 


murmur 


hakaneka, geu, heguhegu. 


noise 


pogeha, namunamu, ooa. 


muscle 


kiko, kiko uaua, vaha. 


noiseless 


koroiti. 


musket 


hago. 


noisy 


reka. 


muslin 


kahu rahirahi. 


nomination 


napehaga. 


mustard 


mageo. 


nonchalant 


koroiti no. 


mute 


mou. 


none 


kore noa, tae. 


mutilate 


hakaripoi. 


nonsense 


ki vaiapuga, taga poki. 


mutter 


hahumuhumu. 


noon 


raa tini, raa too, ootea. 


mutton 


mutone. 


noose 


here. 


myriapod 


veri. 


northeast 


togariki. 


mysterious 


pokopoko. 


northwest 


papakino. 


mystery 


miterio. 


nose 


ihu, hi. 






nostril 


pokopoko ihu, poga. 


nail 


maikuku, titi, vero, haka- 


not 


tae, t&, noa, mo, kai, koe. 




ihoiho. 




kore, kakore, ko, ina. 


naked 


giogio kore. 


notable 


menege, nui. 


name 


igoa, nape, tapa. 


notch 


hore, kokoti, poro, tehetehe. 


nape 


tuke. 


notched 


maniga. 


napkin 


kahukai. 


note 


hakakite, ta. 


narration 


ravavanaga. 


nothing 


kore no, korega. 


narrator 


ravaki. 


nothing, for 


avai tohaga no mai. 


narrow 


rikiriki, vakavaka. 


notice 


hakakite. 


nation 


tagata no. 


notify 


ragi. 


native 


noho kaiga, henua. 


notion 


kiteahaga, 


nativity 


porekohaga. 


noun 


igoa. 


nature 


natura. 


nourish 


hagai. 


naught 


korega. 


November 


ora nui. 


nausea 


rua. 


now 


aneira, igeneira, a raa nei a. 


nauseated 


kereki. 


nullify 


hakakore, hakamou. 


navel 


pito, veo. 


number 


ta, tapa, tataku, hakatuu. 


navigable 


riva mo tere. 


numeral 


haite. 


near 


ki taha, tupuaki, oi, kakea. 


numerous 


maigo, nui. 


nearby 


ata hakaneke mai. 


nuptial 


moomoe. 


neatherd 


tiaki puaka. 


nursling 


kaiu. 


neatness 


rivariva, ritorito. 


nut 


rama. 


necessary 


mea. 


nutrition 


hakamakona. 


neck 


gao. 






necklace 


hakatau. 


oakum 


verevere. 


necklet 


hehere. 


oar 


matakao. 


need 


mea. 


obey 


haga, higa, hakarogo. 


needle 


ivi, nira. 


ob ect 


hakaatu, mea. 


negation 


taehaga. 


ob ection 


ihoiho. 


neglectful 


vaiapuga. 


ob igation 


hakahokihaga. 


negro 


kiri hurihuri, poripori. 


obliging 


atakai. 


neighboring 


tupuaki, piri. 


oblique 


hakataha, hipa. 


nephew 


poki. 


obscene 


rakerake. 


nest 


ogaa, pupa. 


obscure 


kerekere, po haha. 


net 


kupega, hakamata, raraga 


obscurity 


bakahurihuri, kohu no. 




piniku. 


observance 


ragiga. 



ENGLISH-RAPANUI FINDING-LIST. 



293 



obsolete 


kai rogoa. 


organize 


hakarivariva. 


obstacle 


tarupu. 


orifice 


mogugu. 


obstinate 


pogeha, ihoiho. 


origin 


tumu. 


obstinacy 


ihoiho. 


ornament 


rakei, repureva, rehau, ko- 


obstruct 


tiaki, puka. 




hoga, hauvaero. 


obstruction 


pa. 


orphan 


matua kore. 


obtain 


rava, morava. 


ostentatious 


teatea. 


obtuse 


nihinihi. 


other 


ke. 


occasion 


tumu, rae. 


otherwise 


mea ke. 


occiput 


tupuraki. 


our 


to (no) matou, to (no) tatou, 


occult 


naa. 




to (no) maua. 


occupation 


haga. 


out of reach 


koroa. 


occurrence 


atoga. 


out of the way ku ohoa. 


ochre 


kie. 


outlet 


kaipurua. 


ocean 


moana, tai. 


outrigger 


hamae. 


October 


ora nui. 


outside 


aho. 


odd 


nivaniva. 


oval 


takataka, viriviri. 


odor 


eo, hogehoge, nehe, paha. 


oven 


umu, tao, uru. 


of 


o, no, to, ro, a, na, ka, ta. 


over 


ki hua. 




mei. 


overburden 


haga nuinui ke. 


off 


ka ea. 


overcome 


turu. 


offend 


hakapagaha, hakamee,vare- 


overflow 


taie. 




gao, koona ke. 


overrun 


hakanego. 


offended 


kokoma hurihuri. 


oversight 


hara. 


offense 


pogeha. 


oversleep 


moe no. 


offer 


avai, hapai. 


overthrow 


tute, hakaheke, pokupoku. 


offering 


bapaihaga. 


owe 


hakahere. 


often 


putuputu. 






ogle 


pupura tnai. 


pacify 


magaro, hakapava. 


oh 


e, aue, ue. 


pack 


hahao. 


oil 


mori. 


package 


hahi. 


ointment 


rakau. 


pact 


mou. 


old 


tuhai, para. 


paddle 


hoe, matakao. 


old age 


koroua. 


padlock 


piko. 


old woman 


nuehine. 


pagan 


eteni. 


oldest son 


atariki. 


page 


patupatu. 


omit 


garo, patu, rehu, hakarere. 


pain 


gogoroaa, matemate, tata. 


on 


ki ruga. 


painful 


gogoroaa, pagaha, tuhi. 


once 


horahorau, ananake. 


paint 


penetuli, peni, pua, ta, ata, 


one 


tahi, agatahi, hagatahi. 




akui, kirikiri teu. 


one by one 


avai varavara. 


pair 


tahuga. 


one-armed 


rimahati. 


palace 


hare nunui. 


one-eyed 


keva, matakeva. 


pale 


teatea, rauhiva, matateatea. 


oneself 


okotahi, ko ia a. 


palisade 


pa. 


onion 


aniani. 


palm 


pararaha rima. 


only 


tahaga, tahi. 


pamper 


okooko. 


ooze 


mama. 


pancreas 


kiko o te ivi tika. 


opaque 


matorutoru, peugo. 


pandanus 


hara. 


open 


mataki. 


pant 


hakaomoomo, aguagu. 


opening 


pu. 


pantaloons 


vaehau. 


operation 


hakariva. 


paper 


parapara 


opinion 


manau. 


paradise 


ragi. 


opinionated 


ihoiho. 


paragraph 


tekiteki ke, paiga iti. 


opportune 


rivariva, tau. 


parallel 


hakaritega. 


oppose 


ihoiho, tarupu. 


paralysis 


takapau, ahu. 


opposed 


hori. 


paralyze 


hakaripoi. 


oppress 


pagaha, hakapagaha. 


parapet 


pa. 


opulent 


rakau nui. 


paraphrase 


hakarivariva. 


or 


kakore ra, kakore ro, reka. 


parcel 


hai, horega. 


orange 


anani.