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j'jo-. 50.— Boys at Soliool. 

Vase signed ty X)wt:>i. Berlin, 









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Homeric ' Deess . . 1 



Women .... 15 


Deess oe the Female Figtjees in the Aceopolis MrsBUM, 
Athens .... 35 

Unbee-gaements or the Men 43 



IN HiSTOEic Times ... .... 48 



Feet, etc 5" 



' a. Peleus, from a Vase Painting. Pub. in Heydemann's 

" Griech. Vasenb.," T. 6, 4 6 

(Smitli's "Diet, of G-reek and Eoman Autiq.," s.v. 
"Pallium," vol. ii., p. 318. Mmray, 1891.) 

h. Apollo with tbe lyre. Pub. in Gerhard's "Etrus. and 

Campan. Vasenb.," T. 3 6 

(Studniczka's " Beitrage." Kg. 15, p. 66.) 

c. Plute-player, from Gerhard's " Auserl: Vasenb.," iv., 

T. 272 6 

(Studniozka's " Beitrage." Pig. 16, p. 66.) 

2. . " Apollo Citharoedus." Vatican 7 

(Smitli's "Diet, of Greek and Roman Antiq.," s.v. 
" Palla," vol. ii., p. 318. Murray, 1891.) 

3. . "Hermes," from the Prangois Vase, Florence . . 8 

(Smith's "Diet, of Greek and Roman Antiq.," s.v. 
" Pellis," vol. ii., p. 362. Murray, 1891.) 

^ a. Gold Seal from Mycenae 10 

(Schliemami's "Myeenae and Tiryns." Murray, 1878, 
p. 354, No. 530.) 

4. .^ 6. Eutenu Woman 11 

(Studmezka'B "Beitrage." Pig. 11, p. 34.) 

Gem from Vapheio. Pub. '£(J. 'Ap^., 1889. PI. x., 34 11 
(Prom a drawing by Mr. Anderson.) 

5. . "MoirsB," from the Frangois Vase. Florence . . 12 

(Smith's " Diet, of Greek and Roman Antiq.," s.v. 
" Palla," vol. ii., p. 316. Murray, 1891.) 

6. . Women ataFountain. Froma Vase, British Museum,/ace 12 

("Aneient Pottery," S. Birch. Vol. i., p. 273, No. 130. 
Murray, 1858.) 

7. . From a Terra-cotta. Santangelo Coll., Naples Museum. 

Pub. in the " Mittheil. des Kais, Deutsch. ArchEieoL 
Instituts. Eom. Abtheil." Band vi., 1891, p. 253. face 13 
(Prom a photograph of the cut in the " Mittheil.") 



— ■ 8. . Scheme of the Dorian Chiton ..... 17 
(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 6, fig. 1.) 

9. . Selene, from the great altar, Pergamos . . . face 17 
(Reproduction from Baumeister's "Deiikmaler,"p. 1238, 
fig. 1423.) 

10. . Hesperid, from one of the Metopes. Olympia . face 18 
(Reproduction from Bamneister'B"Dentinaler," p. 1081, 
fig. 1286.) 

"11. . Chiton fastened on the Shoulders 18 

(Studniezka's " Beitrage," p. 99, fig. 30.) 

\2. . Dress Open at the Side 18 

(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 7, fig. 2.) 

13. . Dress Open at the Side .18 

(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 7, fig. 3.) 

- 14. . Scheme of the closed Dorian Chiton . . . .19 
(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 10, fig. 6.) 

" T.5. . Girl wearing the closed Dorian Chiton . . . .20 
(Studniezka's " Beitrage," p. 10, fig. 5.) 

16. . Girl putting on the partially-closed Dorian Chiton. Prom 

Herculaneum. Naples Musetrm . . . .20 
(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 10, fig. 4.) 

17. . Bronze Figure from Herculaneum. Naples Museum. 

face 20 
(From a photograph.) 

18. . Figui-e of Athena, from one of the Metopes. Olympia. 

precede 21 
(BVom a photograph.) 

19. . Vase Painting. Procne and Philomela . . .21 

(From a photograph.) 

20. . Scheme of the " Peplos " of Athena . . . .22 

(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 142, fig. 46.) 

21. . The " Varvakeion " Statuette. Athens . . .22 

(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 142, fig. 45.) 

22. . Statuette of Athena. Athens . . . . .23 

(Studniezka's "Beitrage," p. 142, fig. 47.) 

23. . Dress of Modern Egyptian Woman . . . .23 

(Studniezka's " Beitrage," p. 118, fig. 42.) 

24. . Illustration of Sleeve of Chiton made by placing pins at 

intervals. From a Vase . . . . . .24 

(Reproduction from Schreiber's " BUderatlas, " Taf xii 



25. . Mounted Amazon. Athens face 24 

(From a photograpli.) 

- 26. . Scheme of the Ionian Chiton 24 

(Studniczka's "Beitrage," p. 13, fig. 7.) 

27. . Women wearing the Ionian Chiton . . . .25 

(Eieproduotion from Schreiber'a " Bilderatlas," "vii. 1.) 

28. . The Charites. Belief in the Vatican .... 26 

(" Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athena." 
J. E. Harrison. Maomillan, 1890, p. 375, fig. 13.) 


[ a. \ ^ ia. 

h. { Etruscan Fibulae from the collection of Sir John \ b. 

c. I Evans } c. 

d. I (d. 

(From the Originals.) 


30. . Medea. From a Vase Painting 33 

(Reproduction from Schreiber's "Bilderatlas," bfxxiY. 1.) 

31. . Amazon. In the Berlin Museum 33 

(Seyffert's " Dictionary of Classical Antiquities." 
Translated by Nettleship and Sandys. Swan Son- 
nenschein & Co., London, 1891, p. 25. s.v. " Ama- 

32. . The Eunning Girl. Vatican face 34 

(From a photograph.) 

33. . Figure ascribed to a base with the name of the artist 

Antenor. Athens face 36 

(From a photograph.) 

34. . Female Figure discovered on the Acropolis, Athens face 36 

(From a photograph.) 

35. . Female Figure discovered on the Acropolis, Athens precede 37 

(From a photograph.) 

36. . Female Figure discovered on the Acropolis, Athens face 38 

(From a photograph.) 

37. . Bacchante. From a Vase Painting . . precede 39 

(Keproduotion from Baumeister's " Denkmaler," p. 847, 
fig. 928.; 

38. . Female Figure found on the Acropolis, Athens face 41 

(Prom a photograph.) 

- 39. . Bas-relief. Soldier in a short Chiton ... . .45 
(Seyfflert's "Dictionary," p. 130 (1). s.v. •' Chiton.") 

-40. . Charon, wearing the Exomis 47 

(Reproduction from Schreiber's " Bilderatlas," Introd., 
p. 10, Vign. 9.) 



41. . Terra-Cotta Figurine from Tanagra . . . .49 

(Seyffert's" Dictionary," p. 295 (2). s.v. '•Himation.") 

42. . Terra-Cotta Figurine from Tanagra . . . .49 

(Seyffert's " Dictionary," p. 610 (3). s.v. "Pottery.") 

43. . Slab. Central Museum, Athens .... face 50 

(From a photograph.) 

44. . Sophocles. Lateran Museum, Eome . . precede 51 

(Seyffert's "Dictionary," p. 597. s.v. "Sophocles." 
By permission of Messrs. Longman.) 

45. . Penelope and Telemaohos. From a Vase Painting . 51 

(Reproduction from Schreiber's " BUderatlas," Ixxt. 1.) 

46. . Figure from the Francois Vase. Florence . . .52 

(Smith's "Dictionary of Antiq.," vol. ii., p. 319. 
Murray, 1891. s.v. "Pallium.") 

47. . Caryatid from the Brechtheum, Athens. British 

Museum .......... 53 

(Seyffert's "Dictionary," p. 116. s.v. " Caryatides.") 

48. . Eirene with the Infant Ploutos. Glyptothek, Munich . 53 

(Seyffert's "Dictionary," p. 208. s.v. "Eirene.") 

49. . Youth wearing a Chlaiuys 54 

(Smith's "Dictionary of Antiq.," vol. ii., p. 428. 
Murray, 1891. s.i;. " PiUeus.'') 

50. . Boys at School. Vase signed by Duris. Berlin Frontispiece 

(Seyffert's "Dictionary," p. 674. s.v. "Vases.") 

-51. . Greek Babies. Terra- Cottas from Boeotia . . .54 
(From a photograph.) 

51a. . Diana of Gabii. Fastening the " Diplax." Louvre . 55 
(Studniozifa's " Beitrage," p. 78, fig. 21.) 

52. . Stele of Hegeso. Athens face 56 

("Mythology and Monmnents of Ancient Athens." 
J. E. Harrison, p. 691, fig. 25. Macmillan.) 

53. . Athena. Part of slab from the great altar, Pergamos. 

Berlin face 58 

(Seyffert's " Dictionary," p. 470. s.v. " Pergamene 

54. . Fragment of a Eobe. Crimea .... face 60 

(Reproduction from Schreiber's ' ' Bilderatlas," Ixxiv. 11.) 

55. . Vase signed by Hieron. " Departure of Triptolemos." 

British Museum ....... G2 

(Harrison's " Mythology and Monuments," p. l.,'fiff 8* 
MacmiUan.) ' t , a ■ 

56. . Athlete with his hair bound up. OljTnpia . 

(Reproduction from Schreiber's "Bilderatlas," Ixxxv. I.) 




57. . Hair bound with a fillet. Coin of Syracuse. British 

Museum 66 

(British Museum " Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
ed. by R. S. Poole, Loudon, 1876, p. 161.) 

58. . Female Head, from a Ooia of Syracuse. British Museum 66 

(British Museum "Catalogue of Greek Coins, SioUy," 
ed. byE. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 162.) 

' 59. . Pemale Head. The hair bound with beads. Coin of 

Syracuse. British Museum 67 

(British Museum " Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
ed. by R. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 154.) 

60. . Hairbound with a "Sphendone." Coin of Segesta. 

British Museum. 67 

(British Museum " Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
ed. by R. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 133.) 

61. . "Sphendone," wound several times round the head. 

Coin of Syracuse. British Museum . . . .68 
(British Museum "Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
' ed. by R. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 160.) 

62. . Instance of a short, wide " Sphendone." Tetradrachm 

of Syracuse. British Museum 68 

(British Museum " Catalogue of Greek Coins, SioUy," 
ed. by E. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 167.) 

63. . Head bound with a "Sphendone." Tetradrachm of 

Syracuse, by Phrygillos. British Museum . . 69 
(British Museum " Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
^ ed. by R. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 168.) 

64. . Female Head wearing the "Ampyx." Coin of Syra- 

cuse. British Museum 69 

(British Museum "Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
ed. by R. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 164.) 

65. . Female Head wearing "Ampyx" jomed to hair-net 

by a buckle. Coin of Syracuse. British Museum . 70 
(British Museum "Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
ed. by R. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 162.) 

66. . Hair in a Net, with Frontlet. Decadrachm of Syracuse. 

British Museum 70 

(British Museum " Catalogue of Greek Coins, Sicily," 
ed. by R. 8. Poole, London, 1876, p. 175.) 

67. . Female Head wearing the "Sakkos." Coin of Syracuse. 

British Museum 71 

(British Museum " Catalogue cf Greek Coins, Sicily," 
ed. by R. S. Poole, London, 1876, p. 160.) 

68. . Fragment of a Vase with Female Figures and Greo- 

metrical Patterns ....... 72 

(" Tiryns," by H. Sohliemann. Murray, 1886, p. 95, 
No. 18.) 



69. . Varieties of Boots, Shoes, and Sandals . . . .74 

(Smitli's "Dictionary of Antiquities," vol. i., p. 332. 
Mvirray, 1891. s.v. "Calceus.") 

70. . Female Figure found on the Acropolis, Athens . face 74 

(From a photograph.) 

71. . Varieties of the " Petasos " 75 

(Smith "Dictionary of Antiquities," vol. ii., p. 428. 
Murray," 1891. s.». " PiUens.") 

72. . "The Foot-washing of Odysseus." Weariag of the 

"EilQs." From a Vase painting . . . .76 
(Reproduction from Schreiber's " Bilderatlas," hdii. 3.) 

73. . Sailors wearing the " Pilos " . . . . .77 

(Smith's "Dictionary of Antiquities," vol. ii., p. 427. 
Murray, 1891. «.«»." Pilleus.") 

74. . Hephaistos wearing the " Pilos " . . . . .78 

(Seyfiert's "Dictionary," p. 277. s.v. "Hephaestus.") 


In attempting to give a sketcli of the main principles 
on which the ordinary dress of the ancient Greeks was 
based, I do not propose to deal with the subject in an 
exhaustive manner, nor do I for a moment pretend that the 
materials used are entirely original. But, having noticed 
in pictures of classical scenes and in Greek costume when 
exhibited on the stage, some ignorance of the elements 
of the subject, I venture to make public the following 
pages in the hope that they may be of service to those 
who, from archseological or artistic causes, wish to obtain 
a correct insight into the character of the Greek dress in 
classical times. In the desire to make the national col- 
lections as useful as possible, I have made frequent 
reference to examples in the British Museum, Blooms- 
bury, or in the collection of casts at the South Kensington 

My debt to the labours of others, specially of German 
archaeologists, is great. To Dr. Studniczka I tender my 
best thanks for permission to reproduce many illustrations 
from his work. My thanks are also due to Messrs. 
Murray, Macmillan,- and Swan Sonnenschein, as well as to 
the trustees of the British Museum for the loan of woodcuts. 
The sources of the illustrations are acknowledged in the 


list at p. ix. My friend Professor Gardner, of Oxford, 
has added to his many kindnesses that of reading my 

I subjoin a list of works consulted that may be of use 
to other students of the subject. 

"Beitrage zur Greschichte der Altgriechisclien Tracht," von 
Franz Studniczka. Karl Gerold's Sohn. Wien, 1886. 

" Quaestiones de re Vestiaria Graecorum." J. Boehlau. 
Weimar. 1884. 

" Quaestiones Vestiariae." W. Miiller. Gottingen, 1890. 

" Lehrbuch der GriecHschen Privatalterthiimer." Her- 
mann. Dritte Auflage von H. Blumner. (Band iv. of Her- 
mann's Lehrbuch der Griech. Antiquitaten.) J. C. B. Mohr. 
Freiburg, 1882. 

" Die Tracht bei Homer." Friederich. " Eealien " (p. 248 and 
foil.), zweite Ausgabe. F. Enke. Erlangen, 1856. 

" Das Homerische Epos." Helbig. Leipzig, 1884. 

"Social Life in Greece." J. P. Mahaffy. 5th edition. Mac- 
millan. London, 1888. 

"Journal of Hellenic Studies," vol. viii., p. 170. E. Gardner. 
1887. Published for the Society for Promoting Hellenic Studies, 
by Maomillan & Co. 

" Histoire de la Sculpture Grecque." Maxime Colligijon. 
Paris, 1882. 

" A Companion to the Iliad." Walter Leaf Macmillan. 

" Olympia," "Bronzen." A. Furtwaengler, Taf. xxi. and 
foil. (Band iv. of " Olympia," herausgegeben von E. Curtius 
und F. Adler). A. Asher. Berlin, 1890. 

Hope's "Costume of the Ancients." London, 1812. 

Articles on special garments in Daremberg and Saglio's " Dic- 
tionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Komaines." Hachette & 
Co., Paris (still in progress). 

Similar articles in Baumeister's " Denkmaler des Klassischen 
Altertums." Munich and Leipzig, 1885J etc. 

Articles in the " Jahrbuch des Kais. Inst." Berlin, 1892. 
vii. 4., by Mayer, and 1891, vn. 1., by Hauser. 


" Observations sur les statues arehaiques do type feminin du 
Musee de TAcropole." H. Lechat in the " Bulletin de Corre- 
spond. Hellenique," 1890. 

" Die Qriecliischen Meisterschalen," by Paul Hartwig. Pub- 
lished by Spemann, Stuttgart and Berlin, 1893. 

The following table of the periods of Greek Art is 
given for convenience of reference : — 

I. Pbbhistoeic (Mycenae, Tiryns, &c.). To about 700 b. c. 
II, Aechaic. (Artists as Antenor, Calamis, &c.) Circa 
700 to 460 B.C. Period of the Vases with Black 

III. Eakly Fine Art. (Sculptures of Temple of Olympia, 

Parthenon, &c.) Circa 460 to 400 b.c. Period of 
the earlier vases with Bed Figures. 

IV. Late Fine Art. (Artists of the Mausoleum, Praxiteles, 

Scopas, &c.) Circa 400 to 300 b.c. Period of the 
later vases with Red Figures. 
V. Decline. (Artists of Pergamene sculptures, &c.) 
Circa 300 to 100 b.c. Period of the vases of Apulia 
and Campania. 

Maria Milijngton Evans. 

Nash Mills, 

Hemd Hempstead, 

November, 1893. 



To some persons it may seem a trivial undertaking to 
set to work to describe the garments worn by a people so 
far removed in time from our own day as the ancient 
Greeks. But though removed in time, there is no race 
whose spirit is more vitally present as an influence in 
modern- thought. True, that the spirit of a great past 
can be caught without technical accuracy as to its dress 
— as witness the fact that Mrs. Siddons, in an ordinary 
ball-dress of the period, could so play the part of Shak- 
speare's heroines as to make spectators forget the 
anachronism of her clothes. But there can be little doubt 
that a clearer idea of ancient life is obtained if we can 
picture the people "in their habit as they lived." To 
use the words of quaint old Hope,^ " To clothe, as Paul 
Yeronese has done, Alexander in French brocade and 
Statira in Grenoa cut velvet, is beforehand wantonly to 
mar the best fruits of one's labour, the applause of the 
judicious. It is offering a masquerade instead of a 
historic subject, a riddle in place of a tale clearly told." 
But the subject is not without its difficulties. It is 
' Costume of the Ancients, 1812. 


easy to speak of the " Greeks," but Greece was at no 
period a uniform whole, with customs common to every 
part of it. No two towns could have been more dis- 
similar in habits and thought than Sparta, where every- 
thing was subservient to the military ideal, and Athens 
with her " grace without softness." How great, even, 
were the differences between Corinth the commercial and 
Thebes the prosperous, and those more distant centres, 
Miletus, Cyrene, Syracuse, each tinged by influences of 
their surroundings ! 

The sources of information, too, are not quite so numer- 
ous as those available for other branches of ancient history. 
For example — inscriptions, usually such sure guides 
in Greek matters, throw but little light on the subject, 
though certainly one list of the temple treasures at Samos 
gives the wardrobe of the image of Hera,^ a list almost as 
long as the inventory of the ornaments and apparel of a 
mediaeval abbey, or as that of the clothes left by Queen 
Elizabeth. Other lists of garments dedicated in temples 
also occur. 

But the sources readily available for our inquiry are 
mainly two, viz. : — 

1. The literary, i.e. mention of garments, in Greek 
literature, and especially the express statements of some 
ancient Greek historians on the subject. 

2. The artistic, by far the larger class, i.e. garments as 
shown in ancient Greek sculpture, terra-cottas and vase- 
paintings. But here some allowance has constantly to be 
made either for the personal vagaries of the artist, or for 
the limitations of his art. 

* Curtius Urkunde tind Studien ; "Samos," p. 15; Taf., 


In the case of dress in Homer, it is difficult to conclude 
by the light of existing monumerits how far the state of 
culture represented in the poems actually existed, how 
much of what is described was a setting of past and 
present realities tinged by the glamour of poetry, and 
in the case of monuments, how long forms were retained 
in art after they had fallen out of daily use. 

Thus much, however, may be safely inferred from the 
Homeric writings. Garments (cf^ara, ea6'yji) are woven 
by the lady of the house and her maidens.^ Athena, 
the patron of the arts among the gods, does not disdain 
such womanly pursuits. Among mortals the Phoenicians 
are conspicuous. The finest robes in the Trojan king's 
treasure are the " work of Sidonian women."* Woven 
garment-stufis in Homer are stored in large quantity. 
They form part of the treasure (A-e(/x//Aia) of a house. 
When the body of Hector is ransomed from Achilles, 
robes are part of the price paid. They are favourite 
offerings to the gods.* These robes were each woven as 
one garment, separate and complete in itself. There was 
no weaving of a long piece of stuff from which a length 
could be cut as required, a method with which we are 
nowadays so familiar. Such commercial convenience 
was alien to the Greek idea of simple fitness and com- 

These woven materials are stated to have been of wool.^ 
There is no special record of the working of flax in 
Homer, but yet linen (\ivov) is mentioned, as in the case 

' Iliad, iii., 388 ; Od., xviii., 316 ; IHad, xxii., 511, &c. 
* Iliad, vi., 289. 

5 Cf. Iliad, xxiv., 229, VI., 90, 271. 
' Iliad, xvi., 224 ; Od., iv., 50, 135, &c. 
R 2 


of bed-clothes/ a linen corslet/ a fishing-line,^ and fish- 
ing nets^" of flaxen twine. The thread of the Fates was of 
flax.-" From this frequent mention of flax it has been 
conjectured that linen cloth was a home production of 
Greece in Homer's time, though it may have been 
imported from the East, or the thread may have been 
imported and woven in Greece by the women. Linen 
was known in the East at a very early period, and even 
in classical Roman times the wearing of linen garments 
was considered a sign of oriental effeminacy. In those 
days Cos was the centre of a manufacture of transparent 
garments, as may be gathered from the mention of " Coae 
vestes" by Tibullus and Propertius. 

With regard to the dress of the men in Homer, the 
chiton {yj.Twv) played an important part, but the text 
gives no precise information as to its material or form, 
though its appearance is denoted by various epithets, as 
" shining," " soft," and the like.*^ By all accounts it 
seems to have been a sewn, shirt-like garment, not 
fastened with fibulae or pins, and probably made of linen, 
as its brilliancy is insisted upon.^^ In the representa- 
tions of the human figure 'on some of the gems, vases, 
and other relics belonging to the prehistoric period of 
Greece, the men wear a kind of bathing-drawers or short 
double apron {cf. the " Man and Bull " wall-painting 
from Tiryns^* and the gold cups from Vapheio^®). In 

7 Iliad, ix., 661. » j/,-„f;_ ii_^ 539. s xn^ij^^ ^vi., 408. 

" Iliad, v., 487. " Iliad, xx., 128; Od., vii., 198. 

'* Iliad, ii., 42, &e. " Cf. Iliad, xviii., 595. 

^' Given in Sehuchhardt's Sf/i&);7a)m's Excavations. English 
translation by E. Sellers. Macmillan, 1891, p. 120. 

1^ Schuchha.rdt, op. cit. p. 850 ; cf. Dr. Leaf.'s Introductory 
chapter to that same work, pp. xxvii. — xxix. 


Greek art of what is known as the early "archaic" 
period, the short chiton sits closely, jersey-fashion, to the 
skin. On later archaic Greek monuments the short chiton 
worn under armour is fuller and falls in folds {cf. Warrior 
■ of west pediment of Temple of Aegina, cast in British 
Museum, Archaic Room, 160). The length of the Homeric 
chiton does not seem to have been uniform in all cases. 
That worn by Odysseus as a beggar (Od., xiii., 434 ; xix., 
450) must have only reached to the knee, or else the soar 
would not have been visible, but some passages'®" may be 
taken to imply that, at least in the case of elder and 
more venerable wearers and the " lonians," it was longer ; 
and this is borne out by the evidence of archaic monu- 
ments, where the long chiton falls to the feet. (Fig- 1, 
a, h, c.) 

The ordinary daily dress of middle-aged men in Homer, 
when engaged in active pursuits, such as war or hunting, 
seems to have been a kind of jerkin, perhaps of felt or 
leather, worn under the harness to prevent friction to the 
skin, and to promote general comfort {cf. British Museum, 
"Euphorbos pinax," 1st Vase Room, Case D, No. A 268). 
This dress is evidently short. When Menelaos is 
wounded in the side, the blood runs down over his legs, 
implying that these are bare. Sometimes, even, the 
word "chiton," instead of being used for the jerkin, 
designates the actual coat of mail. Idomeneus wounds 
Alcathoos through his yj.Twva. yoKKeov^^ but the word is 
not generally used in this sense. 

As we now find it represented on early black-figured 

15°^ Iliad, v., ,734—736, but cf. W. Miiller : " Quaestiones 
Vestiariae," p. 1 ; xiii., 685 ; Od., xix,, 242. 
'« Iliad, xiii., 439. 


vases made in Greece (for example, in the instances in the 
British Museum, Vase-room II., No. B. 53, pedestal 1 ; 
pub. in Miss Harrison's Myths and Monuments, p. 432) 

!Fig. 1 (a). — Peleus, 
from a Vase Painting. 

Fig. 1 {h). — From a 
Vase Painting. 

Kg. 1 («). —From a 
Vase Painting. 

and as shown in Fig. 1, the long Homeric chiton of 
peace is ungirdled. This custom of wearing the long 
chiton was retained for all " cultus " garments of classical 
Greece, that is for garments worn on solemn and religious 


occasions ; for example, in representations of Apollo play- 
ing the lyre (" Citharoedus ") as in Fig. 1 1), or in the well- 
known statue of this god in the Vatican (Fig. 2), or in the 
figure of the priest of the east frieze of the Parthenon 
(British Museum, Elgin Eoom, Slab No. V., Fig. 33). 

For ordinary informal dress 
in the house in Homeric times 
the woven chiton, long or 
short, seems to have been worn 
alone. Out of doors a cloak 
{yXalva), apparently an early 
variety of the later himation 
{Ifxdmo}'), made of wool and 
dyed in colours, was put on 
scarf fashion or like a shawl 
folded lengthwise (Fig. 1, 
a, b). Being evidently rather 
long and cumbrous it is thrown 
ofi' to increase facilities of 
speed. Odysseus tells how it 
is discarded for convenience 
in moving actively among the 
men.-*^ Telemachos,'* when 
about to make trial of the 
bow, "rising, puts off from his shoulder his purple cloak." 

As an outer covering the skins of animals were worn 
in Homeric times. Agamemnon,^® Diomedes,^* Mene- 
laos^' wear the skins of lions and leopards. Representa- 
tions of such skins, with the paws of the animal hanging 

Ms. 2. 

-Apollo Citharoedus. 

" Od., xiv., 500. 
i» Iliad, X., 23. 
■'' Iliad, X., 29. 

'« Od., xxi., 118. 
■" Iliad, X., 177. 


down as a finish in front, are not at all rare on some early 
Greek vases (Fig. 3), where Heracles, Meleager, Iris, and 
Hermes all wear them. In the country men wear goat 
ekins.'''^ Pan, as a country god in the Homeric hymn 
(19, 23), wears on his shoulders the pelt 
of a spotted lynx. 

The dress of the women in Homer 
consists chiefly of the " Peplos," i.e. an 
under-garment which probably reached 
to the feet and sometimes trailed behind, 
worn with a girdle. The word " peplos " 
is one that occurs in the Greek tragedians 
also, but by them it is not used in quite 
the same sense as by Homer. Thus 
Aeschji-lus uses it both of men's and 
women's dress.^^ In fact, in the trage- 
dians the words TreTrAos', -neTvXwfxa seem to be the general 
poetic term for "garment." The "peplos" in Homer 
may be taken as the equivalent of that dress known in 
later times as the " Dorian " chiton, the typical classical 
dress of Greece, of which I shall have a good deal to say 
later. It is distinguished from the chiton of the men 
by the fact that, whereas theirs is a sewn garment put 
on like a shirt, the women's peplos is a piece of cloth 
merely fastened with pins. The peplos presented by 
Antinoos to Penelope had twelve such pins (jrepovai).^* 
The garment was all of one piece, and was probably left 
open at one side like the dress of the Dorian maidens 
that I shall subsequently describe. "When Aphrodite 

Fig. 3. — Hermes. 

From the Francois 

Vase, Florence. 

^'- Od., xiv., 530. 
" Persae, 468. 1031 ; 
Hec, 465—473. ' 

Cf. Soph. Track., 
' Od., xviii., 292. 

602; and Eur. 


would protect her son Aineias, she flings open her peplos 
and veils him in its shining folds as a protection against 
the darts.^® The most frequent epithet applied to women 
in Homer is " white-armed " (\evKw\evos), which implies 
the absence of a sleeve. This was also a characteristic of 
the true Dorian chiton, which originally seems to have 
been without sleeves and therefore distinct from the dress 
of the Easterns. 

The stuff of the Homeric peplos is never expressly 
mentioned. Its colour is spoken of as " variegated " 
(ttoikiXov),^^ and it is described as jxaXaKOi, soft, and 
XeTtTos,^^ thin or fine. Hence it may, in some degree, 
have resembled our Indian shawls. 

For an over-dress, a veil-like piece of stuff, the " Kre- 
demnon" (Kprjiefjivov), or " Kaluptre " {KaXvTTTpr]), is worn 
by ladies in Homer ;^® Penelope and other ladies of high 
degree are mentioned as wearing it. The maidens of 
Nausicaa lay it aside. Perhaps it may have been an addi- 
tion worn by women of rank. The mourning Thetis^^ when 
preparing to go to Olympus wears a dark-coloured veil, 
but it seems that only in the direst grief was the coun- 
tenance completely covered. The veils in Homer are 
spoken of as white and shining, and may probably have 
been linen, inasmuch as wool would have been too heavy. 
The veil of Hera^" is compared to the sun for brilliancy, a 
simile that would hardly be applied to the dead surface of 
wool, and evidence for silk in Homeric times is hardly 
forthcoming. Many pieces of small, generally folded, 
drapery occur in the Homeric descriptions, such as the 

2= Iliad, v., 315. "' Iliad, v., 735. 

" Od., vii., 97. '' Od., l, 334. 

»" Iliad, xxiv., 94. '" Iliad, xiv., 185. 



"lope" (X^TTi/)'" and others, as well as those I have 
mentioned, but I will not linger over a detailed consider- 
ation of them. 

It is not easy to reconcile the account given in Homer 
with the very earliest prehistoric representations of 
women's dress found in Greece, though a fairly close 
parallel may be established between the decorations of 
early black-figured vases and the Homeric account. 

Fig 4 (")- — Gold Seal from Mjxenae. Twicu linear measure. 

On the gold seal from Mj^cenae (Fig. 4, a) the women 
seem to wear an extremely tight-fitting bodice and a 
frilled or tucked skirt. These frills may represent the 
dress of the period, or the gem may be of foreign work- 
manship denoting foreign, probably oriental, styles of 
dress. A curious parallel is found in the dress of the 
llutenu women of Egyptian wall-paintings (Fig. 4, h). 
A similar dress seems to be represented in a wall-picture 

■'■ (><l., xiii., 224. 



from the group of buildings on the south wall,^^ Mycenae, 
and on the gem from Vapheio (Fig. 4, c).^^" It n^y, 
perhaps, be assumed that the inhabitants of Greece at the 
period represented by the tombs of the " shaft " form at 
Mycenae, wore a somewhat similar dress, though the pin, 
one of the necessities of the Doric chiton, has been found 
there. In the tombs outside the citadel, fibulae of the 
" safety-pin " form have lately been discovered. 

Some authorities (as Studniczka and Miiller) find that 

Pig. i {/>). — Rutenu "Woman. 

Pig. i {r). — Gem from Vapheio. 
Twiue linear measure. 

the Homeric peplos is pretty much the same as the women's 
dress on the Francois vase in the Etruscan Museum at 
Florence, a piece of painting that may be referred to about 
B.C. 550 or earlier, some figures from which are given in 
Fig. 6. On other early black-figured vases also the women's 
garments frequently agree very closely in detail with the 
Homeric description. They generally show the straight 
chiton, shorter or longer as may be, sometimes with a 
girdle, sometimes without, but frequently of so narrow a 

'"■ Figured in Schuchhardt, op. cit. p. 291, fig. 288. 
'-" Cf. ^cj>r]fj.€pk ' ApxaioXoyiKTi, 1889, pi. X., 84. 



shape that walking comfortably in such garments would 
have been out of the question. This excessive narrowness 
can hardly have existed as a fact, but must be set down 
as in a great measure due to the limitations of early art 
and the difficulty it experienced in the adequate repre- 

Fig. 5. — Moirae. From the FraiKjois Vase, Florence. 

sentation of falling folds. Instances of such garments 
are given in Fig. 6. For further instances of them the 
reader is referred to the British Museum, 2nd Vase 
Room, Nos. B 333, Case 45, or B 379, Case H. 

Down the front of these garments broad bands of 
decoration are frequently found. Some writers think 



tHat these served as an edging to an actual opening 
down the front, or were, at any rate, a survival from an 
opening that once existed and was so trimmed. But it 
is a well-known fact in archaic art that, like a child 
attempting to depict the human figure, the early artist 
loves to represent the upper part of the body full-face. 

Fig. 7. — From an archaic Terra Cotta. Santangelo CoUeetion, 
Naples Museum. 

and the lower in profile, and vice versa. It has been sug- 
gested by Helbig that to this custom the stripe down the 
centre of either the body or skirt drapery may be referred, 
being derived from an opening that really ran down the 
side of the wearer — a characteristic in the Laconian- 
Dorian chiton — a pattern of which I propose to give 
later. In archaic black-figured vases, as in Figs. 5 and 


6, it is usual to find the surface of the dresses co-vered 
with minute, elaborately scratched patterns. An instance 
of a richly-decorated robe is given in Fig. 7, where a 
"chores" of dancing men and maidens and a Homeric 
subject (?) are represented on the stiff foldless surface of 
a dress. Occasionally, as I shall subsequently have to insist, 
these patterns on dresses in Greek Art vary suddenly on the 
same surface, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that 
the artist, wishing to make his work as pretty as possible, 
may have been moved to add a band of decoration here 
and there regardless of the actual make of the garment. 
Or, such bands of embroidery may have been imported 
from the East and sewn on as a trimming by the Greeks, 
in similar fashion to the " orphreys " on copes and 
chasubles in mediaeval days. But it is time to return to 
the Homeric description. 

From what I have said I hope it is clear that the 
main divisions of dress in Homeric time, were broadly 
two, both for men and women, viz. : 

1. The class of " endymata " ('cvSiJ^iora), i.e. garments worn 
near or next the skin. 

2. The class of " epiblemata " (cVt^SA.'^/AaTa) , i.e. mantles 
of various cut thrown over these in shawl or veil fashion as a 
suitably modest out-of-doors dress and a protection against the 

These two classes of garments prevailed also in his- 
toric Greek times, both for men and women. For men 
two garments were generally sufficient. In the case of 
women these two were often supplemented by two or 
three others. This may easily be seen in the course of a 
walk round the galleries of the British Museum or the 
Cast Collection at South Kensington. 




I NOW propose to enter more in detail into the two 
classes of garments, the "endymata," or garments worn 
next the skin, and the " epiblemata," or wraps thrown 
over these, which prevailed in Historic as they seem to 
have done in Homeric tim^es. Dates in such matters are 
. exceedingly difficult to give. They have rather to be 
extracted from the evidence than laid down in any 
arbitrary fashion. For instance, the date assigned for the 
commencement of the " Historic " period in Greek 
history has changed a good deal even since Grote's day, 
and is still ever liable to be shifted in consequence of 
fresh results from the excavator's spade. But I will 
endeavour to give a few " milestone " dates, leaving the 
rest to the reader's own industry. 

Taking first the class of "endymata" to which the 
generic name of " chiton " (-^itwu) may be given. The 
origin of the dress is not to be affirmed with certainty. 
The word used {xiruiv = Kuttonet, Kethoneth (Heb.), 
and Kittun (Chald.), as given by Dr. Studniczka (p. 15, 
op. cit.), seems to point to an oriental source. The 
short chiton, according to Dr. Miiller (p. 8, op. cit.), is 


found among the peoples in Asia Minor before the ascen- 
dency of the kingdoms of Lydia and Persia. In a 
slightly longer form it is found among the Egyptians. 
From the East this garment may have madq its way into 
Greece through Phoenician agency. It is mentioned in 
Homer as an accepted and ordinary garment for the 
" lonians," and may have come into Greece from the 
ancient inhabitants of Asia Minor. From the fact that 
the chiton is not found, so far as is at present known, on 
the monuments of prehistoric art at Mycenae and other 
centres, it can hardly be supposed that it was, in the very 
earliest times, known to the Greeks in Greece. The 
Asiatic peoples mentioned above may (I again cite Dr. 
Miiller) have obtained it from Babylon, for the short 
chiton appears on some of their very oldest rock-sculptures 
as having been worn by the Babylonians. 

The long tunic or chiton seems to have come into 
Greece later than the short, though it occurs in the East 
among very much the same people, viz., the Chaldeeans 
and the Assyrians.^* 

Dr. Miiller assumes that the long chiton probably 
passed from Assyria to the Phoenicians, thence to the 
coast of the Asiatic side of the JEgean, and so to Greece 
itself. After the age of Homer the Greeks seem, except 
for wear on solemn and religious occasions, to have pre- 
ferred the short woollen tunic to the long linen one. 

The following is a description of the Dorian or long 
woollen chiton of the women, the '^nwv 7ro5i'/o}y?, which 
in the main seems to correspond with the peplos of 
Homer, together with what appears to have been the 
ancient method of arranging it : — 

'' Cf. Hdt., I., 195. 

Fiy. 9.— Suleiu'. From tliu eiicat Altar, Pcrjrar 



A large piece of material is chosen, a b c b (of. Fig. 
8), in the direction a d and B c about a foot longer 
than the extreme height of the figure of the wearer, and 
in the direction b a and c d as long as the distance 
from tip to tip of the hands with the arms stretched out 
to their widest extent. This piece is then taken, and the 
upper edge of it folded over (aTrorvy fia, apotygma) about 
the depth of from the neck to the waist, a e, b f, of 
the diagram. Then the whole 
piece is doubled at G h, and the 
lengths F G, E G, are divided 
into three. It is generally- 
supposed that these were three 
equal parts, but it is found in 
practice that this leaves too 
much for the neck, and that 
when a garment so divided is 
put on it immediately falls off 
again. This difiiculty seems 
to have been felt by the 
Greeks, and at a later period 
(about 200 — 168 b.c.) some- 
thing very like " gathers " is found on the monuments in 
this part of the dress, and even then it seems slipping 
off! (Fig. 9.) At the finest period a pleated fold occurs 
in the front of the neck, i.e. in the middle section k m, 
I L (Fig. 10), but how this was produced is not very clear. 
It may have been secured by pinning. 

The points i L and k m being taken, the garment is 
folded round the body ; these points are made to corre- 
spond, and are fastened on the shoulder by means of pins 
(Fig. 11). 

Fig. 8. — Scheme of the 
Dorian CHton. 



Thus one gets one side of the person covered by the 
closed side g h, and the side A E D 
and B F c remains open. 

Epithets, such as (j)aivofj.ripU 
(" showing the thigh "), used of 
Laconian maidens, imply that this 
side was so left open among them,^* 
and instances of this custom are 
found in Art (Figs. 12, 13). The 

Iris " of the Parthenon Pediment (British Museum, 

Fig. 11. — Dress fastened 

on tlie Shoulder. 

From a Vase Painting. 

Pig. 12. — Dress open at the side. Fig. 13. — Dress open at the side. 

Elgin Room, No. G) and the woman in the group from 
the Temple at Bassae (British Museum, Phigaleia Poora, 
No. 524) wear chitons open at the side. 

" Cf. Eur. Androm. 598, and Hec. 933. Of. also Miiller's 
Dorians, iv., 2, 3. 

Fig'. 10. — FiguiX' of :i Husperid. Olympiii. 



But in practice this seems to have been generally 
modified. The open side was closed by some means (either 
sewing or pins), partially, at d n, c o (see Fig. 8), or 
wholly (Figs. 14, 15). 

After putting on the chiton, the wearer of the garment 
stands up, with extended arms, and a girdle is passed 
round the waist by some one standing behind, and the 
superfluous length is pulled up through the girdle, and 
allowed to hang over it in 
a kind of bag, the koXttos, 
"kolpos" (Fig. 15). To 
this class of the wholly or 
partially closed Dorian 
chiton belongs the dress of 
the maidens of the Parthenon 
frieze (British Museum, Elgin 
Eoom, JSTo. 324, Slabs VII., 
VIIL, Figs. 52 — 60), the 
Caryatid of the Erechtheum 
porch (same room, No. 407), 
the bronzes from Hercula- 
neum, now in the Naples 

Museum (Figs. 16, 17), and the metope from the Temple 
of Zeus, Olympia (Fig. 18), of which a cast may be seen 
in the South Kensington collection. (Perry's Catalogue, 
No. 78e.) 

Sometimes the piece of the apotygma falling down 
the back is drawn over the head as a veil. The girl, 
in Fig. 17, seems about to draw hers up. 

Another way of dealing with the large square of 
material is to omit the folding over of a e, b f, and to 
take points parallel to i l, k m, in the upper edge of the 

c 2 

Fig. 14. — Scheme of the closed 
Dorian Chiton. 



unfolded stuff, thus having no apotygma, and then to 
draw the whole superfluous length through the girdle (c/. 

Fig. 15.— G-irl wearing the closed Mg. 16. — Girl putting on partially 
Dorian Chiton. closed Dorian Chiton. Naples 


the figure with the child in Fig. 19). Or the piece folded 
over at A E, B r, may be made so deep that no girdle is 
required, since there is nothing left to be drawn through 






W- w^tn 








w , 

Pig. 17. Bronze figure from Herculaneum. Naples Museum. 

yijj,-. IS. — Atlit'iiJL wuiiriii,!;' the clu-sed Dorian Chitini, 


it, Figs. 12, 13 (c/. the " Iris " of the East Pediment 
of the Parthenon, British Museum, Elgin Eoom, No. G). 
A third method, known by the name of the " Peplos 
of Athena," since the goddess generally affects this form 
of chiton, is given in Figs. 20, 21, 22. A glance 

Kg. 19. — Procne and Philomela. From a Vase Painting. 

at the scheme, Fig. 20, will make the arrangement 
clear, and show that the girdle is put on over a 
larger "apotygma" (or "folded-over piece") than in 
scheme Fig. 8, and that no hanging bag, or koXtto^, 
is drawn over the girdle. Fig. 21 is from the "Var- 
vakeion " statuette, in the Central Museum at Athens, 
which may be a far-away echo of the celebrated gold and 



ivory statue set up by Pheidias in the Parthenon about 
the middle of the fifth century B.C. (A cast of the 
Varvakeion statuette will be found in the corner of the 
Elgin Eoom, British Museum, No. 300). In Figs. 21, 
22, over the peplos the goddess wears her "aegis," with 
the head of Medusa in the centre of the chest. 

Tig. 20.— Scheme of the "Peplos 
of Athena." 

Kg. 21. — From the Varvakeion 
Statuette. Athens. 

The Dorian chiton was made of fine wool, and was of a 
kind more or less common to all Indo-Germanic tribes. 
A modern parallel also still exists in the dress worn 
by some Egyptian women (Fig. 23). Very often a 
sleeve is formed, in the Greek edition of the garment, 
by placing buttons or pins at intervals from i k, l m, 
downwards to the elbow (of. the woman with the goat, 



Fig. 24 ; or the -woman with the child, Fig. 19 ; or the 
so-called figure of " Alcestis," British Museum, Ephesus 
Room, H 1). More elaborate girdlings formed by the 
addition of extra cords crossed on the breast, and attached 
to the ordinary girdle, are often found. (Fig. 25.) 

On monuments it is not always easy sharply to dis- 

Fig. 22. — Statuette of Athena. 

Fig. 23. — Dress of modern 
Egyptian Woman. 

tinguish the closed Dorian chiton from the variety that 
must now be discussed, viz., the Ionian chiton. The chief 
distinctive feature of the Dorian chiton consists in the 
pins seen on the shoulders. From this peculiarity it 
received the name irepovarpU {cf. Theocritus, xv., 21). 
The Ionian chiton was entirely a sewn garment, with no 
It was made of linen, and came to Greece, more 



especially to Athens, ia the first half of the sixth century, 
from the lonians of Asia Minor, who borrowed it from 
the peoples of Asia proper. 

Fig. 24.— Illustration of Sleeve of Chiton, made by placing pins at 
intervals. Prom a Vase Painting. 

A plan pf it is given in Fig. 26. It will be seen that 
the piece of material, as a 
whole, is less than that re- 
quired for the several varieties 
of the Dorian chiton, being 
at least a foot less in height. 
This garment may consist 
either of two pieces (one in 
front and one at back), or of 
one piece double the size and 
folded. Instead of the one 
side being closed by pins as in 
Fig. 14, these two pieces are 
joined, and both sides are closed by sewing at g c, h d. 


. 26. — Scheme of the 
Ionian Chiton. 

Fig. 25. — Amazon, with crossed bands from the gii'Jle. Athens. 



and also at the shoulders a e, f b, as indicated by the 
dotted lines. The distance from a to b being hSi the 
full span of the wearer with the arms stretched out, a 
long hanging sleeve is thus obtained (Fig. 27). The 
girdle is put on, as in the Dorian variety, and the extra 
length is drawn up through it so as to hang over and 
form a "kolpos." Por an example of a girl arranging 

Fig. 27. — "Women wearing- the Ionian Chiton. From a Vase Painting. 

her own girdle, the reader may be referred to the vase 
from the Branteghem Collection lately acquired by the 
British Museum. (Third Vase Room, Turret Case C). 

Good instances of this Ionian chiton may be studied in 
the British Museum Archaic Room, Cast 'No. 156, or on 
the figures of the so-called "Harpy Tomb," No. 94, in the 
same room. This dress seems to have been generally made 



of linen. The material, judging from the instances depicted 
on monuments, is of a finely crinkled kind, apparently 
elastic in nature, similar to a stuff still to be found among 
the home productions of modern Greece. It is finished 
off with a selvage, not a hem. This elastic material 

Fig. 28.— Relief of the Charites (Graces). Vatican. 

would close round the neck of a wearer of the Ionian 
chiton after the head had been inserted, as in the case of 
our modern vests and jerseys. A band of decoration is 
occasionally seen round the neck, as in Fig. 27. 

The two great varieties of chiton, the Dorian and the 
Ionian, may be clearly seen side by side in Fig. 28, 


from the " Chiaramonti " collection in the Vatican, Rome, 
of which a cast will be found in the South Kensington 
collection (Perry's Catalogue, No. 54). 

In this group of " Graces " the figure to the extreme 
left wears the ordinary closed Dorian chiton with " kol- 
pos " and " apotygma," as given in Fig. 14. That in the 
centre has the same chiton, apparently open down the left 
side, and arranged as in Fig. 16, while the one to the 
right wears the Ionian chiton of Figs. 26, 27, made of 
the crinkled fine linen material just described. 

In the two figures of this relief that wear the Dorian 
dress, I am bound to say I cannot see the pins as in 
Fig. 15, but the work of the relief is coarse and the style 
heavy, and it may only be an " archaistic " copy of an 
archaic original. The artist in such a case might not 
be very careful to represent exactly what he was copying, 
but there is small doubt of the fact of these two being 
instances of the Dorian chiton. 

With regard to these two kinds of dress (the "Dorian " 
and the " Ionian ") Herodotus makes a definite statement 
in his history.^* The land of the Epidaurians, he says, 
yielded no fruit, so the oracle at Delphi was consulted as 
to a remedy, and the Epidaurians were bidden to set up 
images of Damia and Auxesia (goddesses of increase). 
The material of which these statues were to be made was 
to be cultivated olive wood. The Epidaurians therefore 
besought the Athenians to allow them to take some from 
their olive-trees as they had a large supply. The petition 
was granted on condition of their sending, in return, 
yearly ofi'erings to Athena Polias and Erechtheus in 
Athens. These terms were agreed upon, the wood was 
^ Herod., v., 82; cf. Pausanias, ii., xxx., 5. 


cut, the statues carved, the gods appeased, and the earth 
of the Epidaurians yielded her fruit in due season. 

But it came to pass that the Aeginetans subdued the 
Epidaurians by sea, and carried ofF the statues to their 
own land. Thereupon no more tribute was paid to Athens 
by the Epidaurians, and the Athenians, complaining of its 
cessation, were referred to the Aeginetans, who possessed 
the images. In consequence, the Athenians sent a company 
of men to Aegina to demand the statues. Their request 
was refused. Then force was tried, and the Athenians 
attempted to drag the images from their pedestals. But 
dreadful consequences ensued. It thundered, and the 
earth shook, the statues are said to have fallen upon their 
knees, and madness to have overtaken the men, so that they 
slew one another, and only one returned alive to Athens. 
When he got there and told his tale, the widows of the men were very indignant at his safety. They came 
round him demanding their lost husbands, and finally, in 
their rage, stabbed him with the pins, or clasps (■7Tep6i'i](Tt), 
of their garments till he died. The Athenians, in horror 
at the women's deed, as the most terrible punishment they 
could devise, changed the fashion of women's dress from 
the " Dorian " to the " Ionian," so that they might have 
no further need of clasps or pins, while the Greeks of 
Argos and Aegina made their fastenings larger than before. 
As to this statement of the historian's there is little 
doubt that somewhere about 570 B.C., war was raging 
between the two alwiiys hostile peoples of Aegina and 
Athens, and that somewhere about the same time a change 
took place in the dress of Athenian women, and the fame 
of the two things was connected. From monumental 
evidence it would appear that one of the early forms of 


women's dress is of a " sewn " kind, while dress on monu- 
ments that must be dated after the Persian Wars is of the 
" Dorian " variety, as may be seen in the instances quoted 
above. Figs. 10, 12, 13. The " Dorian," as Herodotus 
points out (v., 88), was in all probability the old universal 
dress of all Hellenic women. Afterwards in Athens, about 
the first half of the sixth century, the so-called " Ionian " 
kind came into fashion, and was in vogue, contem- 
poraneously with the Dorian, till about the time of the 
Persian Wars, 490 — 479 b.c. Then, in the wave of 
renewed Hellenism which spread over Greece in the 
national reaction against everything Eastern, the old 
Hellenic fashion revived, bearing the name " Dorian " 
(ly avTTj TJv TVjv vvv Awptia KaKe.oiJ.ev. Hdt. v. 88), because 
it was among such conservative people as the Spartans 
that it had been preserved. 

But, strong as the reaction was, the " Ionian " dress 
was not absolutely ousted from its place, since Oriental 
influence was still too powerful for its radical rejec- 

The original pin used for the fastening of garments 
among early races appears to have been one made from 
the small bone of the leg of an animal, whence the name 
" fibula," or -Tiepovrj. This is next reproduced in metal, 
furnished with a round head, and decorated with balls of 
bronze, a characteristic Greek type of which may be seen 
on the shoulder of the woman to the left in Fig. 5. In 
some instances the point of such a pia has been bent back, 
evidently to prevent its falling out of the garment when 
once stuck in. It is a tempting hypothesis that from this 
bending back of the point arose that developed form of 
" fibula" of which the modern " safety-pin" is the direct 


and almost unmodified descendant. Such safety-pins in 
bronze have lately been discovered at Mycenae during 
the works carried on by the Greek Archaeological Society 
in 1888 and following years.^^ Fibulae occur among 
the oldest bronzes of Olympia, as will be seen in the 
works of Dra. Furtwangler and Curtius, published by the 
German Archaeological Institute, and included in the list 
of books in my Introduction. They are also found in the 
early graves of Thebes, Athens, Austria, Sicily, and other 
places. Golden fibulae {-jrepovai) are mentioned in Homer 
(as in II. V. 425, &c.), but it is difficult to determine 
whether the Homeric form is that of the straight pin or 
the " safety-pin." 

Most representations on vases seem to depict in long or 
short variety the characteristic Greek type of pin found 
in tombs (cf. Fig. 5). The " safety-pin " type, for some 
reason, seems almost or altogether absent from Greek 
tombs of the sixth and fifth century B.C. 

Wounds would be more deadly and more easily inflicted 
by such pins as those of Fig. 5 than by the point of a 
" safety-pin." The Greek tragedians mention dresses worn 
by women both with and without pins. Polyxena, in the 
Hecuba of Euripides, takes hold of her dress near the 
shoulder and tears it open to the waist, implying a sewn 
garment that could not be simply unpinned at the 
sho alder ; but in the same play Polymnestor is blinded 
by means of the pins or brooches (TropTrij — Trepoi/i]) that 
the women take from their garments for the purpose. In 

'" Cf. Schuchhardt, op, cit. pp. 296, 313 ; Daremberg and 
Saglio's " Dictionnaire," art. " Fibula," p. 2004, Fig. 2977 ; and 
Montelius " Arcbiv fiir Anthropologie," Brunswick, 1892, p. 31, 
Fig. 35. 



the Perscw of Aeschylus {circa 472 b.c.) Hellas wears 
the " Dorian " as the real Greek dress. 

Some tj^pical instances of the developed "safety-pin" 
form of fibula are given full-size in Fig. 29, a, h, c, d, 
from my husband's collection. 

Fig. 29 (fi). 

Fig. 29 (b). 

Existing specimens of pins and fibulae may be studied 
in any good collection, such as that in the Bronze 
Room of the British Museum, or in the Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford. Those of very large size in these col- 



lections may not have been worn, but were perhaps used 
for " ex -votes," or offerings in temples,^' or for fastening 
curtains or other decorative hangings, or, as they are 
found in graves, they may have been made for the decora- 
tion of the dead. A fibula from Halstatt belonging to my 
husband was evidently made for funeral purposes, as it 

Fig. 29 (rf). 

still contains some of the clay used as a core in its manu- 
facture, and the edge of its decoration still feels sharp 
and rough to the finger, in evidence that it was not worn 
previously to its interment. 

In later times, when the conquests of Alexander had let 
loose a new flood of Orientalism on Greece, the " Ionian" 
style with many rich varieties of Eastern decoration 
■" Hdt., V. 88. 



seems to have been largely worn. {Cf. Fig. 30.) This 
figure, however, represents Medea, who can perhaps be 
hardly counted among the pure Greeks. Other instances 
of rich dress may be found in the British Museum 

Kg. 30.— Medea. From a Vase 

Fig. 31. — Amazon. Berlin 

(Fourth Yase Room. Case 18. Vase signed by Python 
(no number), and case 54, F 326, and F 117 pedestal 

The short chiton of the women is also found on monu- 


ments, together with the long. It follows the longer 
style in its varieties of sewing, pinning, and arranging, 
but it is not so Ml, and only reaches to the knee. It is 
worn by women and girls engaged ■ in active exercise or 
when speed is desired. Iris the messenger, Artemis the 
huntress, girls in running contests and warring Amazons, 
all wear it. Instances are numerous in the frieze from 
the Mausoleum, Halicarnassos, in the British Museum, of 
which casts exist at South Kensington (Perry's Catalogue, 
No. 137). Others are given in Figs. 25, 31, 32. 

Sometimes {cf. Fig. 32) it is fastened on one shoulder 
only, and the figure is supported by a broad belt. This 
statue may represent one of the girls who used, according 
to Pausanias (v. 16, 2), to take part in a race at the 
Festival of Hera at Olympia, wearing a garment that 
hardly reached to the knee and left the right shoulder and 
part of the breast uncovered. The race was run in the 
stadium, but only over one-sixth of the course. In 
Fig. 31, a second belt is put on over the top of the 
" kolpos," or bag of material drawn up through the girdle 
beneath it. 

Fi.'. :i-J.— Till- •■EuiiniiK/ Ttirl." Vatioan. 



At this point, before proceeding to a discussion of the 
dress of the men of Greece in historic times and the 
outer garments {epihlemata) of both men and women, it 
wiU be well, I think, to notice the garments on that 
remarkable series of statues of archaic female figures, 
found in the course of the excavations conducted on the 
Acropolis, under the direction of M. Cavvadias in the 
years 1882-8, of which a description is given in M. Col- 
lignon's History of Greek Sculpture^ and in Professor 
Gardner's book.'^^ 

These statues, which were discovered between the 
Erechtheum and the north boundary wall of the Acropo- 
lis, have, owing to the variety of surfaces represented in 
their garments and their brilliant colouring, attracted 
much attention and have given rise to opposite opinions, 
Their brilliant polychromatic decoration is very remark- 
able, hair, eyes, and borders of garments sharing in the 

^ Histoire de la Sculpture Grecque, M. Collignon, p. 340, &o. 

'' New Chapters in Greek History, Percy Gardner, p. 247, &c. 
[Cf. Cavvadias' Les Musees d'Athhnes, and the " e^?;ju6pk 
ap-^atoXoyiKifj, 1883 — 88). 

D 2 


colours which do not always follow natural laws ; for 
instance, the eyes of the figures are sometimes coloured 
red, a tint that seems, to our notions, most abnormal and 

I have on an earlier page spoken of the great difficulty 
of giving precise dates in Greek art. In the case of these 
figures this difficulty is, to a great extent, removed. 
After the Acropolis was sacked by the Persians in 480 b.c, 
and, spoiled and ruined, had once more come into the 
hands of its rightful owners, the victorious Greeks buried 
the fragments of statues and other objects that had deco- 
rated their citadel before its spoliation. 

This was done partly in reverence to the gods, since 
anything once dedicated ,to a deity was always sacred and 
could not be put to profane usage; partly to hide: the 
traces of the Oriental invaders' brief triumph ; and partly 
from utilitarian motives to increase the level space on the 
summit of the Acropolis, since, in the full spring of 
renewed patriotism, the Athenians desired to make " all 
things new," and required other and enlarged temples 
filled with fresh statues. Probably many of the objects 
found in these excavations had only just been made at the 
time of their destruction. Be this as it may, the last of 
the series, which ranges over a considerable period of time, 
cannot be later than 480 B.C. One of the series, Fig. 33, 
is held to belong to a base inscribed with the name of 
the sculptor Antenor.'^" With regard to this artist we 
know that he made the statues of Harmodius and Aristo- 
geiton, who slew the tyrant Hipparchus, 514 B.C. Those 
statues must have been set up soon after the murder, and 

^"■^ Of. Collignon's Histoire, p. 365 and £07;/x, : dpx : 1886 ; 
No. 6, PI. IV., p. 81 ; and C. I. A. iv. 373. 

-Figure ascribed to a Tjush with the ^'^K- ''''^- — Female tiy-iirc disemeird 

name of the artist Anterior. Atliciis. 

on thr Aoropiih.s. Athens 

Fifj. 35. — Fciiuilo figure disc•o^'ercd on tlir Acropolis. Athens. 


probably tlie Acropolis figure to which the Anterior base is 
ascribed is of the same period. By this means we get two 
points of date for the Acropolis series, viz., B.C. 480 back 
to circa B.C. 514 — 510. Another of'the series may, on the 
evidence of style, even go back to 600 B.C. Fourteen of 
these figures came to light at once in February, 1886, 
having been buried together in a single pit, and others 
were found later. The series has given rise to much dis- 
cussion as to whether the figures represent portraits of 
the priestesses of the goddess, of the actual goddess, or 
of the votaries who dedicated the images. Whomsoever 
they are intended to represent, thej' doubtless portray for 
us the costume of Athenian ladies of good position in the 
years preceding the great Persian invasion of 480 b.c. 
Some of the more typical varieties of dress found on them 
are given in Figs. 34, 35, 36. It cannot, however, be 
denied that the. sculptor has allowed himself considerable 
latitude in the treatment of the garments. In consequence 
of this latitude two schools of disputants on their dress 
have arisen, the one typified by M. Lechat,*" the 
other by Dr. Miiller.*^ It is evident to the most casual 
observer that the drapery is not always true to actual 
fact, the curves going across the body when in repose in 
a way that could only be produced by rapid motion.*^ 
Again, it is not unusual to find a garment that shows 
some special and well -defined pattern or border covering 
one part of the body, while where we should expect to 
find the same garment continued, another pattern or 

^ Bulletin de Corr. Hell, 1890. 
^' Quaestiones Vestiariae. W. Miiller. 

^^ See notes on these figures, by Ernest Gardner, in the 
Journal of Hellenic Studies, viii. 1, p. 170. 


border suddenly comes out without apparent reason. There 
can be little doubt that the upper and lower portions of 
such a dress {endyma) do really belong to one and the 
same garment — the Ionian chiton — with sleeves close 
fitting and often elaborately bordered, while over this is 
thrown the ordinary himation (epiblema). But some 
archaeologists (like M. Lechat, already mentioned) have 
endeavoured to make out a separate garment for every 
piece represented by a different pattern or border till, by 
this means, each figure seems to be clothed in three or 
four separate garments, of a kind otherwise unknown, for 
which distinctive titles have to be invented. To such 
critics a difference oi pattern always implies a difference 
of material. Thus for Fig. 34, the existence of an 
under-chiton and a " chitoniscus," or knitted vest put 
over the chiton under the himation is assumed. 

For my own part, I must confess that, in spite of its 
apparent absurdity, the possibility of such a multiplica- 
tion of garments as that indicated by M. Lechat, and 
adopted by M. CoUignon, did remain in my mind, until 
in April, 1892, I had the good fortune, in the course of a 
cruise among the Greek islands, to visit the rough wooden 
shed that does duty for a museum in the little island of 
Mykonos, where are housed some fragments of the 
objects found on neighbouring sites. There, with some 
difficulty, owing to the intense interest taken in our 
visit by every man, woman, and child of the place, I 
came across a piece of sculpture that, to my mind, 
solved the question. I found a headless female figure, 
apparently belonging to the same period of art, and 
dressed in the same manner as the Acropolis statues, 
i.e. in the Ionian chiton, with a himation over it. On 

Fiy. oG. — Fei)]ale figure discovered on tlio Aurojiolin. 

IIl', 37. — A Bacchante. From a Vase Painting 


the left breast of the figure, for a space of about six 
inches square, without the slightest semblance of a join 
in the material of the chiton, the sculptor had suddenly 
changed the pattern of the garment- stuff from one of 
three deeply-crinkled lines, with interspaces of plain 
material, to a patch of close and continuous wavy lines 
with no interspaces. Unfortunately, so far as I know, 
this figure is not published, and I cannot give an illus- 
tration of it. But after my visit to Mykonos, I found, 
in the Acropolis Museum at Athens, a similar instance 
on a female statue (No. 598 in the official catalogue, 
edit. 1891), and the same thing may be noticed in Fig. 
35, where the lines of the pattern coalesce on the right 
side in a way impossible in fact.' Since then I have had it 
brought to my notice, in an excellent article by Dr. 
Hauser,*^ that the same is the case in the dress of the so- 
called " "Woman getting into a Chariot " (cast in British 
Museum, Archaic E-oom, No. 155), where the sleeve only 
of an under-garment that falls in heavy folds to the feet 
is shown with a crinkled surface, the remainder being 
smooth. This figure (be it a woman or a male charioteer) 
seems to me, as Dr. Hauser suggests, to wear a long, 
linen, sleeved, " Ionian " chiton, with a shawl-like wrap 
over it. These differences of creased or crinkled surface, 
therefore, occurring irregularly, do not represent a dif- 
ference of material, and consequently a separate gar- 
ment, but are attempts to show the various ways in which 
the same garment may appear, owing to the folds which 
it assumes and the shape of the body it covers ; falling 
in close, fine folds over the chest and shoulders, and in 

" Jahrhuch des Kais. Deutsch. Arch. Inst. vii. 1, 1892, 
p. 55. 


larger, freer style over the legs (Fig. 37). Other 
instances, both in sculpture and vase-painting, might be 

By this view the " chitoniscus " of Lechat and Boeh- 
lau,** or the "woUene Warns" of the catalogue of 
vases in the Berlin collection, by Dr. Furtwangler, dis- 
appears as a separate garment, and becomes merely the 
upper portion of the Ionian chiton, arranged over the 
girdle in a " kolpos," in the manner described in my 
previous chapter. Figs. 26, 27. There is little doubt 
that the " chitoniscus," mentioned by classical writers,^** 
is the short form of chiton given above (Figs. 25, 31, 32). 

In the case of artists who could so indiscriminately use 
their colours as to paint the eyes of a woman red, as the 
sculptors of the Acropolis figures did, it seems an affec- 
tation to imagine that the lines and patterns on the gar- 
ments, graved by their tools and coloured by their brush, 
must necessarily be exactly true to reality. It is, there- 
fore, unwise to argue from their productions a subservience 
to the exact representation of actual material, only to be 
equalled in the work of the draughtsman of the modern 
fashion-plate. In such early art as that of the period to 
which these figures belong the artist was free and un- 
trammelled, and could change at will from one pattern to 
another in the same garment, without thereby giving 
good grounds for inferring that the material was really 
different. The fact that the garments themselves of this 
series vary in a parallel manner cannot be taken to count 

** Cf. Boehlau's Quaestiones de re vestiaria Graecorum, fig. 
14, p. 38, &c. 

"» E.I/, by Aristoph. Birds, 94G, 955 ; Demosth., 583, 21, 
403, &c. 

Fi^^ 38.— Female fi<j:iii'o found uu the 
Acropolis. Athens, 


for much, as evidence, since, whomsoever they maj' repre- 
sent, they were dedicated to the divinity, and the intense 
conservatism of the Greeks in matters of religion is well 

That these statues vary from each other as much as 
they do is an important advance on statues of the 
class that precedes them — a class marked by an almost 
unvarying similarity of treatment down to the smallest 

One figure of the series. Fig. 38, by exception, seems 
to wear the Dorian chiton, very stiffly depicted. The 
girdle is noticeable for curious hanging bands depending 
from it to relieve the severity of the drapery. 

The outer garment of these female figures is the ordi- 
nary himation that I shall shortly describe. In these 
instances it is often passed under the left arm and, cross- 
ing the chest, secured on the right shoulder (Figs. 35, 
36). Sometimes it is laid over both shoulders like a cloak 
(Fig. 34). In either case the himation seems of a shape 
more oblong than the square it usually assumes. The 
exact regularity of the zigzag folds is not necessarily 
true to life, as these folds occur everywhere in Greek art 
of a certain period, and are the results of a rigid archaism 
and conventionality. The curious way in which the arm 
comes from out of the cloak (Fig. 34), without causing 
any such hanging folds as would be expected, may either 
be another instance of the artist's limitations, or the 
garment may have been scalloped in some manner or 
holes cut in it to allow the arms to pass through. 

Across the breast in Figs. 35, 36, some of the length 
of the himation seems drawn up through the band caused 
by its being fastened tightly on the shoulder, and a frill- 


like effect is thus gained. The key to this arrangement 
is found in the right-hand figure of the Chiaramonti 
relief (Fig. 28), where its scheme can be very plainly 
made out. 

The chitons worn by the Acropolis figures {cf. Fig. 
34) are girdled in the same manner as that suggested for 
putting on the Ionian chiton, but after the " kolpos " 
or bag has been drawn up, the folds of the " petticoat " 
part are neatly arranged in pleats. Sometimes in this 
series, as on the right shoulder of Fig. 35 no very rigid 
distinction is made between the lines of the chiton and 
the himation. 



Herodotus, in his narrative mentioned above, is, as we 
have seen, only concerned with the dress of Hellenic 
women.*^ Thucydides, in the arch^ological preface to 
his history,*^ deals with the dress of the men. 

His words are as follows : — *' " The fashion of wearing 
arms among these continental tribes is a relic of their 
old predatory habits. For in ancient times all Hellenes 
carried weapons because their homes were undefended 
and intercourse was unsafe. . . . They went armed 
in their everyday life. And the continuance of the 
custom in certain parts of the country proves that it once 
prevailed everywhere. The Athenians were the first who 
laid aside arms and adopted a more easy and luxurious 
way of life. Quite recently the old-fashioned refinement 
of dress still lingered among the elder men of their richer 
class, who wore under-garments of linen and bound back 
their hair in a knot with golden clasps in the form of 
grasshoppers (Gr. TerTi'ywi'). The same customs long 
survived among the elders of Ionia, having been derived 
from their Athenian ancestors. 

« Hdt., v., 82. " Thue., i., 6. 

" Professor Jowett's translation. 


" On the other hand the simple dress which is now 
common was first worn at Sparta, and there, more than 
anywhere else, the life of the rich was assimilated to that 
of the people." 

This review of the dress of Greek men by Thucydides 
falls into three periods : — 

(1.) The oldest period, when armour was universally 
worn in ordinary life, a period to which the references 
in Homer may belong with more or less accuracy — a 
fashion preserved in Thucydides' day (b.c. circ. 471 — 
404) only in the country parts of Greece, as Epirus, 
Aearnania, and the like. 

(2.) The succeeding period when, as he puts it, " men 
adopted a more easy and luxurious way of life," probably 
denoting by these words that influx of Oriental customs 
from Ionia typified by the linen chiton of the women (the 
" Ionian chiton " of Chapter II.) worn also by men, and 
the wearing of the long hair bound with gold. 

(3.) The fashion of the date of the outbreak of the 
Peloponnesian War in 431 B.C., " the present fashion " 
(6 vvv TpoTTOi) of Thucydides' ^ day, i.e. the simple so- 
called " Dorian " chiton, made of woollen material, a 
revival from older days, due to the Hellenic reaction 
against Orientalism after the victory over the Persians, 
B.C. 480—79. 

Wool probably then became the prevailing fashion, 
partly as " un-Oriental," and partly as being considered 
more healthy at a period when the " sound mind in 
sound body " was the aim of the Athenian state on behalf 
of her citizens. The hair at this period, too, was cut 
short, giving more freedom and ease. 

The short woollen chiton of the third period was a 



moderately wide garment on the same lines as the Dorian 
chiton of the women given in Fig. 8, with the part below 
the girdle sewn together, the upper part left open and 
fastened on the shoulders with fibulae or buttons. The 
girdling was done in the same way as for the women, but 
there seems to have been no " folded-over " piece or 
" apotygma," such as was general in their case. 

But, contemporaneously with this practical and useful 
garment of everyday life, the longer 
and more dignified linen chiton of the 
Period II. of Thucydides was retained 
as a dress for religious and festival 
occasions in which men took part. 

Period III. of Thucydides, therefore, 
carries on many of the characteristics 
of Period II., but puts them on a basis 
of solemnity, retaining them in the 
service of religion — always the most 
conservative of mistresses. 

In Fig. 39 the soldier wears the 

short, girdled chiton with a "kol- 

„ * . Fig. 39. - Soldier 

pos, or bag, drawn over the girdle rearing Short Chiton. 

in a way that was usual when the From a bas-relief. 

free use of the limbs was wanted 

for war, hunting, manual work, or speed. (Cf. Brit. 

Mus., 3rd Vase Boom, No. E 463, Case G.) 

In the text of Hartwig's Meisterschalen, mentioned in the 

list of books ih my Introduction, there occurs, at p. 219, Fig. 

30&, an instance from a painting on a vase representing a 

youth putting on a short chiton. This dress is very curiously 

drawn as if the wearer was about to put it on after it has 

been drawn in at the waist by a girdle. The lines of the 


folds of the chiton, too, above the waist are differently 
drawn to those below ; but I hope I have said enough to 
prove that this need not necessarily denote two sorts of 
material. "With regard to the chiton having the appear- 
ance of being already drawn in at the waist before being 
put on. Dr. Hartwig makes the ingenious suggestion 
that it is probably due to the fact that the artist was 
accustomed to see the chiton so drawn in when in wear, 
and therefore so depicted it when he wished to represent 
it in process of being put on. 

Artisans and fisher-folk fastened the short chiton on 
one shoulder only, the left, when the name l^r«/xtV (exomis) 
was given to it. Charon, the ferryman, so wears it in 
Fig. 4:0."" (Cf. Brit. Mus. 3rd Vase Room, JSTo. D 24, 
Case F.) 

The long chiton remained at the same period (c. 431 
B.C.) as the dress of men of middle life and distinguished 
rank. It was also worn by younger men when engaged 
in certain functions, as, for instance, when acting as 
priests, flute-players, or charioteers. For a figure of a 
charioteer so clothed, of a period slightly later than this, 
the reader is referred to the slab, perhaps the most 
beautiful of the whole series, from the Mausoleum, 
British Museum, Mausoleum Room (cast at South Ken- 
sington, Perry's Catalogue, No. 137). 

In the chitons on vases of the late Black-figured and 
Red-figured periods the same fine fan-like folds are dis- 
cernible that can be noticed in the Acropolis figures 
(Figs. 34, 35, 36). Endless instances will reward the 
student who looks, even casually, through the 2nd and 
3rd Vase Rooms of the British Museum. They are pro- 

■"" Ircpo/xarrj^aAos ^tTu)v SovXikoi, ijt' i^wfjuSn Xiyovcri, Photius, s.v. 



bably due to the artist's desire to show his skill, and to 
archaic conventionality. But some German critics have 
conjectured that these folds were actually so worn and 

Fig. 40. — Charon, wearing the "exomis." 

produced by some artificial process akin to our plan of 
starching, goffering, or ironing. The evidence for such a 
practice in the case of the Greeks does not, I believe, 
exist, though similar customs were well known in Egypt. 



Under this head come all kinds of garments put on in 
shawl or wrap fashion both by men and women, to which 
the general term " epiblemata " (eTrtjSA^yjuttTa) was applied. 

The chief of these garments is the Himation {Ijxcvtiov), 
to which I have from time to time referred in the fore- 
going pages. The " chlaina " (-^aiva), of Homeric times 
must have been merely a variety of the himation. 

Both men and women seem to have worn a himation 
of the same shape — a large square, sometimes rather 
oblong than square, varying in size according to the taste 
of the wearer and the state of the weather. Both sexes 
followed in the main the rules of arrangement given 
below, but the women did not adhere so rigidly as the 
men to these rules, and were addicted to coquettish varia- 
tions in their draperies. Their himation must usually have 
been larger than that worn by the men, since it was often 
drawn over the head as a covering. Figs. 41 and 42, 
terra-cottas from Tanagra, Boeotia, illustrate this use. 
Fig. 43, a slab now in the Central Museum at Athens, 
shows another pretty way of arranging the folds. In 
deep grief the mantle was used to completely muffle the 


figure of the wearer. Demeter, in the Homeric hymn, 
when going to Metaneira's house as an old nurse, is 
" wrapped and covered from head to foot so that her dark 

Fig. 41. — Terra cotta 
fiorurine from Tanagra. 

Fig. 42. — Terra-cotta figurine from 

robe clung to her as she walked." The general rule for 
putting on the himation in classical times seems to have 
been as follows : — One corner of the square, or oblong, was 
folded or gathered up and grasped by the hand and pulled 



over the left shoulder from the back, then tucked in 
securely and held firmly between the body and the left 
upper arm pressed against the ribs. Then, with the 
right hand, the mantle was pulled out across the wearer's 
back by its right-hand top corner, opposite the corner 
already secured, till the lower edge of the garment 
hung about half way across the calf of the leg. Then 
the wrap was brought round over the right side of 
the body (cTrtSe'^ia)^ to the front, when two ways of 
disposing of this right-hand corner were possible, viz. : 
(a) If the right hand and arm were wanted to be free, 
the himation was brought under the right shoulder, drawn 
across the chest, and the end thrown over the left 
shoulder, (b) In the way considered the more suitable 
for honourable citizens, the mantle was brought over the 
right arm and shoulder (the arm being bent at the elbow) 
so that only the right hand appeared in a sling-like fold 
in the front, and then the end was thrown over the left 
shoulder. Fig. 44, from the well-known figure of the 
Sophocles of the Lateran, illustrates this second method. 

The youth in Fig. 45 has begun to put his himation on 
in the first method, but, standing at ease, the superfluous 
end has slipped from his left shoulder to his arm. To us 
who find it necessary to use pins if we try to drape a 
himation for a wearer who has to move rapidly on the 
stage or elsewhere, it is matter for marvel how the ancient 
Greeks kept theirs in position. The himation was the 
dress of the dignified citizen, and he, though an excitable 
Southern in disposition, had to learn to control his feelings 
in a suitable fashion. Aristotle, in his picture of the 
great and high-souled gentleman, takes it for granted 
** Plato, Thaeet., 175 E., eVtSe'^ta dvaftaWea-Oai iX.evOipu}';. 


that it would not become him to walk " swinging his 
arms about." ''^ But all the same it would be very clever 
of anyone, however dignified, to keep a himation well in 
position through a long day in the jury-courts or the 
senale of Athens, without a sly pin inserted craftily some- 

Fig. 45. — Penelope and Telemaohos. From a Vase Painting. 

where to keep his drapery steady. Little weights of clay 
or lead fastened to the corners of garments were certainly 
used.*^ The himation, however, may have been thrown 
on and off at will, or readjusted from time to time. But 
the arrangement of this garment was always considered 

*8 Aris., Nic. Eth., iv., 3—15. 
« Cf. Figs. 21, 22, 45, 50 (Frontispiece). 
E 2 



a difficulty, requiring practice and assistance. A man's 
character and culture were judged from its folds. In 
the " Characters" of Theophrastus the boor's himation 
does not reach to his knee ; the oligarch goes about with 
his gracefully adjusted. Alcibiades is said to have let his 
trail behind him. 

The narrow doubled himation may be seen on archaic 
vases, as, for example, in the 
British Museum, 2nd Vase 
Eoom, No. B 197, Case K. 
Another instance from the Fran- 
cois vase (Fig. 46) has been 
taken to be of Ionian origin, 
coming in with the longer Ionian 
chiton, which did not require so 
complete an outside wrap as the 
sTiorter Dorian chiton of the 
men. But still it is found on 
some of the oldest vases (from 
one of which our figure is taken), 
and women on the most archaic 
Attic vases also wear it put on cloak-wise from the back. 
A curious survival of it to later classical days may be 
noticed in the dress of the maidens of the Parthenon 
frieze (British Museum, Elgin Room, No. 324, Slabs 
VII., VIII., Figs. 52—60), the figure of the Caryatid of 
the Erechtheum (same room. No. 407 given in Fig. 47) 
and in the " Eirene " of Munich, reproduced here in 
Fig. 48. They, it will be noticed, wear the Dorian 
chiton of Fig. 14 with apotygma, kolpos, and shoulder- 
fastening complete. But these shoulder-fastenings are 
made to do double. duty and to support an extra piece of 

Fig. 46.— From the 
Franijoia Vase. 


oblong drapery at the back — in fact the long, narrow 
himation of older days now fixed securely instead of 
coming cloak-wise over the shoulders as in the dress of 
the Acropolis statue, Fig. 34. 

The chlamys (^Aa/xw) was another wrap for men's use, 
originating in Thessaly as a rider's dress worn over armour. 
From the fifth century onwards it was universal in Greece. 

Fig. 47. — Caryatid. 


Fig. 48. — Eirene, with infant 
Ploutos. Munich. 

It was a short light mantle, made of wool, oblong in shape, 
with square or rounded corners, fastened with a clasp 
either in front or on the right shoulder. With the 
"Petasos" (or flat traveller's hat with flaps), it became 
the general dress for young men of " Ephebos " standing 



{i.e. "just at the threshold of manhood") in Athens, 
serving in the cavalry. Endless 
instances of this dress can be 
discovered in the frieze of the 
Parthenon in the British Mu- 
seum. An example from a vase 
painting is given in Fig. 49. (Cf. 
British Museum, 3rd Vase Eoom, 
Case A, No. E 3.) 

Gods of " Ephebos age " in 
art, as Hermes and Apollo, and 
men both young and old wear 
the chlamys, if engaged in active 
pursuits. Boys below this age 
wear a wide himation (Fig. 50, 
Frontispiece), quite covering the 
person, since it was not correct for 
a boy of good rank to have his 
hands free — perhaps a wise precaution for other nations 
than the Greeks. Infants were closely swaddled in modern 
Italian fashion and wore conical caps (Fig. 51). 

Fig. 49.— Youth in 

, Fig. 51. — Greek Babies. Terra-cottas from Boeotia. 

In Sparta, from their twelfth year onwards, men wore 


winter and summer as an only dress, the Trihon {jpi^wv), 
i.e. the small oblong shawl of the Doric tribes. This was 
also worn in Athens as a special dress for active military 
work. But in the city this old dress, except for such 
occasions, was considered boorish and affected, and was 
only worn by philosophers and persons of peculiar yiews. 
It was not correct for a dignified citizen to go beyond his 
own door in the chiton only 
without an upper garment. It 
was also considered improper to 
wear chlamys or himation with- 
out the chiton. Yet instances of 
such wearing of one garment 
only are undoubtedly found in 
art, and some of them are 
figured in these pages, as, for 
example, the Sophocles of Fig. 

These may only be instances of 
artistic latitude and of the desire, 
at the fine period in Greek art, 
to show as much as possible of 
the human form, for in real life 
in Athens only poor people and 
philosophers wore the upper 
without the under garment in 
public or vice versa.^^" 

A pretty variety of outdoor wrap for women, very 
much on the lines of the men's "chlamys," is the 
" diplax'' (gtTrXag) of Fig. 61a, where, as its name implies, 
the '•' doubled " before being adjusted. 

«" Cf. Dio. Chr. Or., Ixxxii., p. 628, M. Xen. Mem., 1, G, 2. 

Mg. 51fl. — "Diana of 
Gabii." Fastening the 


The custom of doubling the himation that prevailed 
among men in early times has already been mentioned at 
page 52 (Fig. 46.). 

Curious isolated instances of garments are often found 
represented in Greek art, especially in vase paintings. 
They are difficult to classify, and have rather to be con- 
sidered individually. They occur in almost any collec- 
tion. In the British Museum I would refer the student 
to a consideration of the curious jacket worn by the 
woman on the Vase E 120, Case 25 ; or to the chequered 
top garment that looks almost as if distended by artificial 
means worn by the flute-player on the Vase E 286, Turret 
Case H. 

When trousers are found in Greek art they denote un- 
Greek peoples, as Scythians or Persians. Long sleeves 
to the wrist are, in the case of women, a mark of the 
slave. In the accompanying Fig. 52, from a tombstone 
relief in the Central Museum, Athens (cast in the British 
Museum, Phigaleia Room, No. 619), the maid, in a long- 
sleeved dress, is assisting her mistress to prepare her 
toilet for the last time. When men are represented as 
wearing long sleeves they are generally foreigners. The 
origin of such sleeves may be assigned to the fashion of 
the Asiatic Greeks. On the Tower of the Winds, Athens, 
the fierce outlandish god of the north-west wind (Skiron) 
and his fellow of the north (Boreas), wear long sleeves. 
An instance of a young man, however, who is presumably 
Athenian, but who may after all be merely a colonist 
possibly from the Euxine, in a long-sleeved chiton, will be 
found in the British Museum (Elgin Eoom, Parthenon 
Frieze, No. 325, Slab 42, Fig. 109). 

Fig. 52. — Stele of Hegeso. Athens. 



The girdle was an important part of the women's dress 
in Homeric times. Those of Calypso and of Circe seem 
to have been decorated with gold.^° 

This custom of decoration of the girdle lasted on to 
classical times. The Acropolis figure, No. 38, has her 
girdle decorated with pendent ornaments, very probably 
of leather, with gold or silver studs, in the way that 
Greek peasants' belts are decorated at the present time. 
The figure given in cut No. 7, wears a girdle fringed 
below the waist. The height of the girdling of the 
chiton in Greek art varies at different times and is a 
fairly safe guide for assigning a date to monuments. In 
archaic times, when found with the stifi", narrow foldless 
garments of the Black-figured vases it is at the waist 
line. At the period of the finest art (circa B.o. 450), it is 
slightly lower, as may be noticed in the dress of the 
maidens of the Parthenon frieze. Gradually, after this 
time the girdle creeps up, till at the period of the frieze of ' 

5" Ocl., v., 231; Od., x., 544, &e. 


the great altar of Pergamos, Fig. 53 (circa b.c. 200 — 168), 
it has almost reached the arm-pits. 

With regard to material there is considerahle differ- 
ence at different times ; and a certain amount of eyidence 
as to the date of Greek monuments can be extracted from 
the stuff of which garments appear to be made. As I 
have already mentioned, in quite early art and up to the 
time of the Persian invasions, 480 B.C., chitons are fre- 
quently made of a soft crinkled material, very like crape, 
edged with a woven selvage which drapes beautifully. 
But this material goes out of use about the time of 
Pheidias. It was no doubt very like the crape-like 
material still woven in the Greek islands, and procurable 
in Athens, very elastic and fine. I have slept in 
a peasant's cottage in Arcadia in fine creamy crape-like 
sheets, each sheet finished off with selvages, and the crape 
lines occasionally crossed with single threads of red or 
even of gold. This was in a village where old forms were 
very likely to have come down from remote times. There 
the peasant proprietor existed in an ideal fashion, and 
nearly everything in his house was made by the familjr 
itself or in the village, an excellent example of Aristotle's 
avrapKeia, or " self-containedness." 

Apart from the use of wool and linen, a sort of cotton 
(Byssus) was used for head-dresses and smaller pieces 
of the women's dress. It grew in Elis, was rather yellow 
in colour, and so expensive that its use for large garments 
must have been out of the question. Some of the earliest 
gold staters of Tarentum have as their obverse a beautiful 
. head of Demeter or Persephone-Gaia wearing a stephane 
from which hangs a diaphanous veil. This veil is doubtless 
the Tapavriov or TapavTivlhiov, woven from the " byssus " 




of the " Pinna " shell, a form of textile industry that still 
survives among the inhabitants of modern Taranto." 

After the time of Pheidias, the woven selvage of garments 
seems to have been cut off, and the edges finished with 
the ordinary hem. This may be noticed on the drapery 
hanging by the Hernjes of Praxiteles at Olympia. (Cast 
in the British Museum, Ephesus Room, No. K 2, also in 
the South Kensington Cast Collection, Perry's Catalogue, 
No. 114.) This hem does away with a great deal of the 
grace of the falling folds of the Parthenon draperies (as 
No. 324, Slabs VII., VIII., Figs 50—60) making the 
edge much clumsier and stiffer. 

Finest of all materials must have been the muslins of 
Amorgos which are mentioned in Attic Comedy, and were 
no doubt extraordinarily dear.®^ These, together with 
the garments from Cos, remarkable for their transparency, 
and frequently mentioned by authors, specially by the 
Latin poets of the Augustan age,^^ were worn, in all pro- 
bability, chiefly by the class of the " hetairae," though 
respectable married ladies may have used them in the 
extreme heat, in. the strict privacy of the house. On 
vases of the severe and fine Red-figured period it is very 
usual to find the forms of the body showing through 
the garments. This may reflect a current fashion of 
transparent garments, or it may be due to an artistic 
custom of drawing the nude figure on the clay, before 
clothing it with appropriate draperies. 

*i Cf. Pliny., N.H., xix., 20, J. E. Forster de Bysso Anti- 
quorum, London, 1776 ; and The Horsemen of Tarentum, by 
Arthur J. Evans in the Numismatic Chronicle, 3rd series, vol. ix., 
1889, p. 66. 

52 Aristoph., Lysist., 736. 

°3 Hor., Carm., iv., 13, 13; Ov., Ars Am., ii., 298. 


Silk has been supposed by some critics to have been 
the material of which the " Coae Testes " were composed. 
It certainly seems to have been spun and woven at Cos 
at an early period,** but it was rare and dear in Alex- 
andrian times, and not improbably imported from the 
East. Mr. Eennell Eodd- notes the present silk industry 
of modern Greece^^ at Achmetaga, a village in Euboea, 
" an industry of historic antiquity in Greece which might 
be much developed in a country where the mulberry 
tree flourishes as it does here." Perhaps some of the 
"shining" garments of which Homer makes such frequent 
mention were, after all, of silk, though imported. 

The discovery of oriental objects at Mycenae and else- 
where, and the finding of " Mycenaean " objects far up the 
Nile, have made it unwise to insist too much on the 
impossibility of close contact with the East in the very 
earliest days of Greece. But the prehistoric presence 
of silk in Greece is a debateable point, and I leave it 
with the Homeric commentators. 

Gibbon points out the curious suitability of the 
Greek climate to silk-worms, and notices that until the 
twelfth century, when the victorious Roger, the Norman 
King of Sicily, carried off' to Palermo the weavers of 
Thebes, Argos, and Corinth, Greece alone of all European 
countries, possessed the silk-worm. It is, however, said 
by some not to have been introduced into Greece before 
Byzantine times. 

The Eastern fashion of embroidering or weaving stripes 
across the material is of high antiquity in Greece. The 

" Arist., Hist. An., y., 19. 

*^ Customs and Lore of Modern Greece, by R. Eodd. London, 
Stott, 2nd Edit., 1892. 

Fjo-. 54. — Pracnnent of a robe. Crimea. 


decoration of the garments on countless archaic vases 
testifies to the prevalence of this fashion (c/. The Naples 
terra-cotta of Fig. 7). Fringes were also largely used on 
the edges of garments, a fashion derived more or less from 
Asiatic styles. 

In Fig. 45, where Penelope sits sadly at her loom, a 
curious pattern of winged human and animal forms is in 
process of production in a frieze-like band on the web. 
This vase is exceedingly interesting as giving a good 
idea of an ancient Greek loom. The threads at the 
bottom are held down, it will be seen, by small weights. 

So far as I am aware only one ^set of fragments of a 
Greek dress, on which a pattern can be made out, still 
survives. It is given in Fig. 54. It was found in 
a grave in one of the Greek colonies in the Crimea. 
The decoration (human figures between floral bands) 
is much like what may be found on many Greek vases. 
In the British Museum, 3rd Vase Room, No. E 137, Case 
E, on a vase signed by Hieron (Fig. 55), Demeter wears 
a gorgeous himation covered with small figures. As the 
drapery becomes more graceful, after the archaic period 
in art, plainer stuffs as a rule come into use, depending 
for their effect on the hanging of their folds rather ihaA 
on the pattern of the material. 

As to colour, saffron seems to have been a favourite 
with women, together with red. Gentlemen wore white, 
as is specially mentioned by Theophrastus."^ These white 
garments were frequently cleaned by the fuller,^' their 
spotlessness being a test of good breeding. Workmen 
and field labourers wore grey or brown. On the white 

5« Characters, 7, &c., Jebb's Translation, Maemillan, 1870. 
*' Cf. Theoph., Characters, 23, 24. 



Athenian lecythi, 6f which some fine specimens can be 
seen in the British Museum (3rd Vase E,oom, Cases F and 
41, 42) the colours of the garments are very well pre- 
served, and can be easily made out. From them it is 
clear that very brilliant colours were often worn by the 
relations of a deceased person at times when we should 

Eig. 65. — Vase 

. by Hieron. Departure of Triptolemos. 
British Museum. 

expect to find black or neutral tints. In fact I believe 
that on the whole series of these white lecythi, of which 
some thousands exist in the museums of Europe, only a 
very few of the figures of mourners appear dressed in 

'^ Of. M. Pottier's book, Les Lecythes Blancs (Paris, 1883), 
•which deals at some length with the whole subject of this 
particular class of vases. 


The statues of the Acropolis series (Chap. III.) have 
garments of very noticeable brilliancy. The chief colours 
used are blue, red, and green. It is unfortunate that 
these colours are surely if slowly fading from exposure 
to the light and air, but they are extremely interesting 
both from the way in which they illustrate Greek dress 
and from the evidence they afford of the Greek method 
of tinting statues. 

The hair of the men in Homeric times is long. They 
are the " long-haired Achaeans." Euphorbos^^ binds his 
locks with gold and silver. Little spirals of gold have 
been found lying beside the heads of skeletons in graves 
at Mycenae and other sites excavated by Dr. Schliemann, 
which, it is conjectured, were used to encircle locks of hair, 
though they may be only girdle rings. Mr. Leaf®" points 
out that various fashions of hair-dressing may have pre- 
vailed as distinguishing tribal marks ; for example, the 
Thracians " wear the top-knot," &c.®^ In the account 
given by Thucydides of the dress of the men in early 
times it will be remembered that ornaments in the form 
of the tettix are mentioned. It used to be thought that 
this meant a kind of fibula or clasp in the form of the 
tettix, and that the Athenians chose this as a symbol df 
their being " earth-born " (autochthonous) and not tainted 
by descent from any other nation. But, in more recent 
times, by the aid of marbles discovered in various places 
in Greece, it has been found that the long hair of the 
athlete before the middle of the fifth century was braided 
in a heavy lump behind, bound round and round with bands 
of gold or other metal till it resembled the ringed body of 

59 Iliad, xvii., 51. '» Op. cit., p. 82. 

" Iliad, iv., 583. 



the tettix, which is more properly the " tree cricket" and 
not the " grasshopper." Fig. 66 gives an instance of such 
a method of hair-dressing. Athletes often bound their hair 
up with a simple ribbon or fillet only. Another plan of 
disposing of the long hair of the men when engaged in 
active exercise was to plait it in one or two long tails 
and wind these round the head. An instance can be 
studied in the British Museum, Archaic Lobby, N"o. 209, 

Fig. 56.— Athlete with hia hair bound up. Olympia. 

the so-called " Choiseul-Goufiier Apollo." A cast of a 
similar coiffure is in the South Kensington Cast Collec- 
tion, Perry's Catalogue, No. 34. This long plait was 
often dedicated by its owner to a river or marine god at 
some critical moment. The companions of Patroclus 
sacrifice their hair at his pyre ; Orestes offers his to the 

In the British Museum (Mausoleum Annexe, ISTo. 798, 
No. 163 in "Gr. Insc. in Brit. Mus.") is an interesting 
'• II. xxiii., 185, and Aesch. Cho. 6. 


votive tablet from Phthiotic Thebes in Thessaly, dedi- 
cated by two young men, Philombrotos and Aphtho- 
netos, to Poseidon, with a curious representation of two 
long straight plaits of hair (eminently suggestive of 
the Misses Kenwigs), typical of the owners sacrificing 
this proof of their manly vigour to the marine deity 
who was supposed to have life and growth more especially 
under his care. 

From the time of the Persian "Wars, 490 — 479 B.C., 
men in Greece wore their hair shorter than before, but 
not too short — that was the mark of the slave. It will 
be remembered that one of the things that astonished 
the Persian spies at Thermopylae was the care with which 
the Spartans were seen to be dressing their long hair 
before the engagement.*^ 

The hair of Greek women in classical times was 
arranged in an endless variety of ways, which are best 
studied from the monuments themselves, as it is impos- 
sible to give any adequate idea of them by means of 
illustrations. Many interesting varieties can be found 
in the vase-rooms of the British Museum. The terra- 
cotta statuettes (or "figurines") of Tanagra, reproduc- 
tions of which, from the museums of Berlin and Yienna, 
are now so universal, abound in varied methods of hair- 
dressing. Similar instances exist in the terra-cotta room 
of the British Museum. Young girls. in Greece seem 
to have worn the hair loose. In the so-called " Homeric " 
hymn to Demeter, " the daughters of Celeus, like fawns 
gambolling through a spring meadow, rushed down the 
narrow way, holding up the folds of their lovely gar- 
ments, and their hair waved about their shoulders like 

"^ Herod., vii., 208. 



saffron-coloured bloom." Older women wore various 
ornaments to keep the hair in place. Gold pins, of all 
sizes, for this use, are found in women's graves. A fine 
specimen, in elaborate gold-work, set with a fresh-water 


!Fig. 57. — Hair "bound with a fillet. Coin of Syracuse. British Museum. 

pearl, rewarded the excavators in Cyprus a few years 
affo. It is now in the " Gold Ornament Room " of the 
British Museum. A visit to this room will, I may men- 
tion, give all necessary information on the subject of 
Greek jewellery. 


Fig. 58. — Female head, from a coin of Syracuse. British Museum. 

The Greek fillet, or braid wound several times round 
the head, is proverbial as a classical head-dress. It is 
given in Fig. 57 from a coin of Syracuse of the Fine 
Period, in the British Museum. A similar arrangement 
of a cord passing five times round the hair, leaving loose 


locks at the crown, appears in Fig. 58, also from a coin 
of Syracuse in the same collection. Fig. 59 gives an 
earlier version of the same, with one simple row of beads 
keeping the hair in place. 


Fig 59. — Female head, with hair bound with beads. Coin of Syracuse. 
British Museum. 

The "Stephane," or metal circlet rising in front and 
narrowing at the back, where it was tied by a ribbon 
either forming a visible bow or one concealed by a 
knot of hair, was the suitable adornment of dignified, 

Fig. 60. — CoLQ of Segesta. Hair bound with a " Sphendone." 
British Museum. , 

noble matrons. Hera, the Queen of Heaven, generally 
wears it. A fine instance occurs in the British Museum, 
Elgin Room, N"o. 504. 

Casts of similar ornaments may be found in the South 




Kensington Collection, from the well-known busts of Hera 
in foreign museums. 

The " Sphendone " (like a sling in shape, as its name 
implies) was a band of ornamented cloth or leather put 
on either from the back or front, and ending in a tie 


Kg. 61. — Coin of Syracuse. " Sphendone" -wound several times round 
the head. British Museum. 

or band. Fig. 60 gives an example of the art of the 
Finest Period on a coin of Segesta, now in the British 
Museum. Fig. 61, a coin of Syracuse, also in the 
National Collection, shows how the long ends of the 


Pig. G2. — Tetradrachm of Syracuse, with legend " Evuivov." Instance 
of a wide, short " Sphendone." British Museum. 

sphendone might be wound several times round the 
head as a finish. In Fig. 62, from a tetradrachm 
signed by Eumenos in the British Museum, the sphen- 
done is shorter and wider than in tbe previous ex- 
ample, ornamented with stars, and tied on the top of 


the head with a small bow. In Fig. 63 it comes lower 
at the back of the head, and ends in a band across the 

The " Ampyx " was a metal diadem or snood, of which 

I Al 

rig. 63. — Tetradrachm of Syracuse, by Phiygillos. " Sphendoue." 
British Museiun. 

an instance is given in Fig. 64, also from a coin of 
Syracuse signed by Eumenos. 

The " ampyx " is sometimes worn in conjunction with 
the hair-net, as in Fig. 65, again from a coin of Syracuse 


Fig. 64.- Coin of Syracuse. Female head wearing the " ampyx.' 
British Museum. 

in the British Museum. The two ornaments are con- 
nected by a flat buckle above the ear. 

The net, with the " ampyx " reduced to a very small 
frontlet, occurs on the famous decadrachm of Syracuse 



signed by the artist Kimon, of which the Museum is 
justly proud (Fig- 66). 

A head-dress very similar to the " sphendone " but 

Kg. 65. — Coin of Syracuse. Female head wearing "ampyx," joined to 
hair-net by a buckle. British Museum. 

more completely covering the head, called the " sakkos," 
from the goat's-hair cloth of which it was made, wiU be 
found in the cut (Fig. 67) also from a Syracusan coin. In 
archaic monuments, as, for example, in the Acropolis series 

Fig. 66. — Decadrachm of Syracuse. Signed by Kimon. Hair in a net 
with frontlet. British Museum. 

(cf. Figs. 33, 34, 35, 36,) very elaborate crimping and curl- 
ing seems to have been in vogue. The forehead is covered 
with neatly-set wig-like locks that sometimes look almost 


like snail-shells. Long tresses that have been compared 
variously to ropes of pearls or of onions are depicted in a 
painstaking way, very dear to the early artist. At a 
later period much freer modes of treatment prevailed, as 
our illustrations (Figs. 57 — 67) have shown. 

A great deal has been written and said about the great 
beauty of the figures of the Greek women owing to their 
severe disregard of any garment at all corresponding to 
the modern corset. But there is little doubt that under 
the chiton, ladies often wore a broad supporting band round 

Fig. G7.— JFemale head wearing the " Sakkos." Coin of Syracuse. 
British Museum. 

the body over the ribs or breast, (arijOooeafjiO';, " fascia pec- 
toralis"). An instance of such a support can be clearly 
made out on a vase in the British Museum (3rd Vase 
Room, No. E 246, Case 29), where a lady is either 
putting on or taking off her chiton at the bath. This 
band was probably stiffened in some way or made of 
leather — occasionally it seems to be supported over the 
shoulders by strings and buttons, like braces. The famed 
"cestus" of Aphrodite {II. xiv., 214) may have been 
worn nest the skin, but its elaborateness suggests some- 
thing that could be seen, therefore it may have been an 
outer girdle. C!/'. Fig. 31). 



In later times some kind of band was used to repress a 
tendency to over-stoutness.^* 

In verj' early vase-paintings with geometrical patterns 
the waists of the women are so unnaturally narrow that 
they have raised a suspicion of tight-lacing, even at that 
remote period, but as the men share in this anatomical 

Fig. 68. — Fragment of a Vase, with female figures and geometrical patterns. 

peculiarity it is probably due to the artist's early 
endeavours to portray the human form, emerging as his 
art was from purely geometrical forms of triangles and 
squitres (Fig. 68). 

As may be seen in Fig. 32, the " Running Girl " of the 
Vatican iluseum wears a deep supporting belt when 

" Man., 16, 66. 


actively exereising, and at sucli times this must have 
been usual for women of all ages. The elaborate cross- 
girdlings to which I have referred (Fig. 25), and which 
remain in the popular mind as the recognised Greek stjde, 
were probably a reminiscence or repetition of a similar 
girdling^beneath the chiton. 

Sunshades occur with considerable frequency on Greek 
monuments, but, as in the case of the East, whence the 
fashion probably came to Greece, they are generally held 
by an attendant over the heads of persons of importance. 
Eros, in the Parthenon frieze (British Museum, Elgin 
Eoom, No. 324, Slab 6, Fig. 41), holds one for Aphrodite. 
In the Berlin Museum is a vase on which is painted a 
satyr advancing with mincing steps behind a veiled lady, 
carefully holding a parasol to shield her. On later vases 
of post-Alexandrine times (as for instance, in Nos. F 276, 
Case 55 ; F 236, Case 50-51 ; F 336, Case 12 ; F 375, 
Case 13, of the 4th Vase Room of the British Museum) 
they can be noticed in great numbers among the various 
adjuncts of beauty used by the ladies of the time. 

In the house the Greeks seem frequently to have gone 
barefooted, especially in summer. This fashion was 
followed by philosophers who affected simplicity, by arti- 
sans when working out of doors, as well as by Spartans 
old and young. But in Athens the feet were generally 
covered out of doors either by sandals, or mere soles tied 
on with straps, or "made" boots and shoes of leather. 
Hunters, country-folk, and travellers wore high boots. 
Shoemaking is frequently mentioned by Greek authors, 
and various kinds of cut are spoken of as the " Laconian," 
the " Amyclean," and others ; but, although Greek monu- 
ments sbow an extensive variety of boots and shoes, the 



difEerent kinds cannot be identified with any certainty. 
Fig, 69 gives a few of the varieties met with. Well- 
fitting shoes were a token of good breeding in Athens; 
mended shoes are given in Theophrastus® as one of 
the signs of avarice, over-large or nailed shoes were 
" boorish " except for military wear. 

Ladies out of doors covered the head with a fold of 
the himation. On some of the Tanagra figurines outside 
the himation a parasol-like disc is seen on the heads of 
ladies, balanced in a manner impossible in reality (Fig. 

Kg. 69. — Varieties of boots, shoes, and sandals. 

42). Foreign catalogues still define these discs as " straw- 
hats," but it has been suggested that they may be curious 
instances of a survival. On many of the figures found 
on the Acropolis an iron spike is inserted in the crown of 
the head (Fig. 70), in a way that seemed unnecessary and 
puzzling, until the view was propounded that these spikes 
probably supported a wooden conical disc which served to 
protect the fine colouring of the figures from damage by 
rain or birds. And so, when the artist of the smaller kind 
of statue, the " figurine " of Tanagra, set to work, he copied 
^^ Characters, Nos. 14, 25. 

Fig. 70. — Female figure found on the Aoropoli.s. Athen.s. 


the disc on occasions when it was no longer wanted as a 
protection from the weather, and made it appear as part of 
the dress of ladies of the period. Against this view it 
may, perhaps, be urged that the art of the figurines of 
Tanagra is too fresh to be merely a " derived " art. In 
that case the puzzle of the head-dress is still unsolved. 
A covering for the head for men in Greece of very general 
use is the "Petasos" (TreTacro?), or flat felt hat with flaps 
at the front and back and over the ears, these flaps being 

Fig. 71. — ^Varieties of the " Petasos. 

sometimes tied on the crown or under the chin in the 
fashion of the modern " fore-and-aft " cap. Fig. 71 
gives some of the various ways of wearing the Petasos. 
Iti later times ladies seem to have occasionally donned it 
as it occurs on some of the figurines from Tanagra. 
With the chlamys the Petasos is worn in Greek art by all 
travellers and hunters, and therefore, by Hermes, the 
travelling messenger of the gods. 

Artisans and fishermen wear the "Pilos" (tt/Ao?) a 
conical cap of felt or leather. Odysseus as a wanderer 
and seafarer, Charon as ferryman of the dead, and 


Hephaistos as the workman god, all wear it in Greek art. 

Fig. 72 from a vase (being the reverse of the vase, Fig. 
45, representing Penelope at the web), shows Odysseus in 


the Pilos undergoing the foot- washing at the hands of 
the aged attendant, Eurycleia. In Fig. 73 some sailors 
wear it, and in Fig. 74 it is the headgear of Heph- 
aistos. The Pilos seems to have taken the place now 
filled by the skull-cap as a head covering for invalids and 
hypochondriacal patients. Plato'^'^ thus amusingly refers 
to the custom : " When a carpenter is ill he expects to 
receive a draught from his doctor that will expel the 
disease and get rid of it, but if anyone were to presci-ibe 
to him a long course of diet, and to order him to put little 
caps {TTiXicia) upon his head with other treatment to cor- 

Fio-. 73. — Sailors wearing the Pilos. 

respond, he would soon tell such a doctor that he had no 
time to be ill, and wishing his physician a good morning 
he would enter on his usual course of life, or, should his 
constitution prove unable to bear up, death puts an end to 
his troubles." 

There is little doubt that Greek ladies were in the habit 
of rectifying, by artificial means, any defects of complexion 
induced by their confined indoor life and want of exercise. 
In the British Museum (3rd Vase Room, Case 43) is a 
pot, found at the Greek colony of Naucratis, in Egypt, 
which still contains some of the rouge it used to hold. 
«" Republic, Bk. iii. 


In the Oeoonomics of Xenophon, where the whole duty 
of a Greek wife is set forth in most delightful terms, 
the bride is admonished by her husband to abjure rouge 

-irf i^, ;w rf-/- 
Pig. 74. — Hephaistos with the Pilos. 

or powder, false or dyed hair, and high-heeled shoes, as, 
if she manages well, she will not need artificial aids to 
beauty, for time will not damage her influence. 

These artificial additions to personal charms can, how- 
ever, hardly be regarded as properly forming part of my 


subject. The object I had in view in undertaking the 
task which I have now completed was threefold, I 
desired, if possible, to concentrate the light already 
thrown on the nature and character of the dress of An- 
cient Grreece, if not indeed to increase it ; but I also had 
in view the necessities of those who from taking part in 
dramatic representations, or from other causes, wished to 
impersonate ancient Greeks, whether male or female. My 
thi^d desire was to induce my readers to visit the National 
Museums to study the subject at first hand. If I have 
succeeded in any of these aims my work has not been in 


Acropolis, Athens, statues from, 

35 et seqq : 63, 70, 74. 
Aeginetans, their feud with the 

Athenians, 28. 
Amazon from Athens, 24. 

,, in Berlin Museum, 33. 
Amorgos, muslins of, 59. 
Ampyx, the, 69. 
Antenor, the artist, 36. 
Apollo Citharoedus, 7. 
Apotygma, 17. 
Arohaic dress, 6, 13, 35. 
Aristotle on demeanour, 50. 
Athena, from Athens, 23. 

,, „ Olympia, 21. 

,, ,, Pergamos, 58. 

Athens, Persian conquest of, 36. 

,, slab from, 50. 
Athlete, head of, from Olympia, 64. 


Babies, dress of, 54. 

Bacchante on vase, 39. 

Bands, decorated,' 12, 51, 60, 61. 

Belts, 34, 71. 

Boots, 73. 

Boys, dress of, 54. 

Brooches, 30 et seqq : 

Byssus, 58. 


Caryatid, figure of, 52. 
Cestus, the, 71. 
Charites, the, 26. 
Charon, figure of, '47. 
Chiton on archaic momunents, 5. 
ceremonial, 6, 45. 
Dorian, 16, 41, 44. 
etymology of, 15. 
in Homer, 4. 
Ionian, 23. 
origin of, 16. 
short, of men, 44 . 
,, ,, 'vromen, 33, 
Chitonisous, the, 38, 40. 
Chlaiua, the, 7, 48. 
Chlamys, the, 53. 
Colour, use of, 35, 40, 61, 62, 63. 
Cos, transparent garments of, 4, 69. 
Crape-Ute material, 58. 
Crimea, robe from, 61. 


Decorated bands, 12, 51, 60, 61. 

,, robes, 14, 33, 61. 

Demeter on vase, 61. 
Diana of Grabii, 65. 
Diplax, the, 55. 
Disc on head, 49, 74. 



Dorian chiton, 16 et seqq : 

,, „ on AoropoKs figure, 
Dress open at side, 18. 


Egyptian woman, dress of, 22. 
Eirene, figure of, 52. 
Endymata, 14. 
Ephebos, dress of, 53. 
Epiblemata, 14, 48. 
Epidaurians and their statues, 27. 
Exomis, the, 46. 

Fabrics, 57. 

Eeet, coverings of, 57, 73. 

Fibulae, 29 et seqq : 

,, at Mycenae, 11, 30. 
FiUet for hair, 66. 
Folds, zigzag, 41, 46. 
Frangois vase, the, 11, 12, 52. 
Frilled skirts, 10. 


Geometrical vase, 72. 

G-irdles, 19, 21, 25, 34, 42, 45, 57. 

,, varying height of, 57. 
Girdlings, crossed, 23, 73. 
Girls, dress of, 20, 34, 65. 


Hair, the, 63. 

,, dedication of, 64. 
,, of women, arrangement of, 
65, et seqq : 

Hair-net, 69. 

Hartwig, Dr., quoted, 45. 

Hauser Dr., quoted, 39. 

Head, coverings of, 57. 

Hegeso, stele of, 56. 

Hem, use of, 69. 

Hephaistos, figure of, 77. 

Hera, wardrobe of, 2. 

Herculanenm, figure from, 20. 

Hermes on vase, 8. 

Herodotus on Athenian women's 

dress, 27. 
Hesperid, figure of, 18. 
Hieron, vase signed by, 62. 
Himation, the, 41, 48. 

,, method of wearing, 49 

et seqq : 
Homeric dress, 1. 

Ionian chiton, 23 et seqq : 

,, ,, its introduction, 27 
et seqq : 


Kaluptre, the, 9. 
Kolpos, the, 19, 45. 
Kredemnon, the, 9. 

Leaf, Mr., quoted, 63. 

Leohat on Acropolis figures, 37. 

Linen as a material, 3. 

Loom, representation of, 51, 61. 

Lope, the, 10. 




Materials, varieties of, 58 et seqq : 

Medea on vase, 33. 

Men, under-garments of, 43. 

MoiTEe, the, 12. 

Miiller, Dr. , on Acropolis figures, 37. 

,, ,, ,, the chiton, 15. 
Mushn, 59. 
Mycenas, fibulae from, 11, 30. 

„ gold spirals from, 63. 

,, seal from, 10. 

,, tombs of, 11. 
Mykonos, statue at, 38. 

Narrow dresses, 1 2. 


Odysseus on vase, 76. 
Outer garments, 48. 


Patterns, variety of, 38 et seqq : 
Peleus on vase, 6. 
Penelope on vase, 51, 61. 
Peplos, the, 8. 

,, of Athena, 21. 
Pergamos, Athena from, 58. 
Persian conquest of Athens, 36. 
Petasos, the, 53, 75. 
Piles, the, 75. 
Pinna, byssus of, 59. 
Pins, 8, 23, 29. 

,, for hair, 66. 
Plato on invalidB, 77. 
Prehistoric dress, 4, 10. 
Procne and Philomela, 21. 

Rouge, use of, 77. 
Running girl, Vatican, 34, 72. 
Rutenu women, dress of, 10. 

Sailors ■wearing piles, 77. 

Sakkos, the, 70. 

Sandals, 73. 

Scheme of Dorian chiton, 17. 

,, „ closed do. do. 19. 

,, ,, Ionian chiton, 24. 

„ ,, peplos of Athena, 22. 
Selene, figure of, 17. 
Shoes, 73. 
Silk, 60. 

Skins worn in Homeric times, 7. 
Skirts, friUed, 10. 
Sleeves, absence of, 9. 

,, formed by buttons, 22. 
,, „ pins, 24. 

,, ,, „ sewing, 25. 

,, long, 56. 
Sophocles, statue of, 50, 55. 
Sparta, dress ia, 18, 54. 
Sphendone, the, 68. 
Spike on head, 74. 
Stephane, the, 67. 
Stripes down dress, 13. 
Sunshades, 73. 
Syracuse, coins of, 66 «< seqq : 

Tanagra, figurines from, 48, 63, 74. 
Tarentum, byssus fabrics of, 69. 
Telemachos on vase, 51. 



Tettii, the, 43, 63. 
Theophrastus on dress, 62, 61, 74. 
Thucydides on dress, 43, 63. 
Tiryns, -wall painting of, 4. 
Tribon, the, 54. 
Triptolemos on Tase, 62. 
Trousers, 56. 


Vapheio, gem from, 1 1 . 

,, gold cups from, 4. 
Varraieion statuette, 22. 
VeUs, 9. 

Women, under- garments of, 15. 
Wool ae a material, 3. 


Xenophon on duties of a wife, 78. 

Youths, dress of, 53. 

Zigzag folds, 41, 46.