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Fragmenta antiquitatis: or. AncjCT^^^ 



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" I do marvel many times that my Lord Coke, adorning our Law with so many Flowers of 
Antiqnity and Foreign Learning,, hath not turned into this field, from whence so many roots 
of our Law have been taken and transplanted." 

&PEI.M, Oric, of Terms, c. viii. 




TO ^ 












i V ] 



As readers generally like to acquire some knowledge of the life and cir- 
cumstances of the authors they read, it may not be unacceptable to 
them to find some short account of Mr, Thomas Blount, in this place. Now, 
as Mr. Blount was neither an eminent Statesman, nor a great Churchman, but 
ranked merely in the line of voluminous and useful writers, for such he un- 
doubtedly was in his time, little can be drawn concerning him from any other 
source, than Anthony a Wood's Athenee, and thence we haye accordingly 
transcribed the following account. 

" Thomas Blount, son of Myles Blount, of Orleton, m Herefordshire, the 
fifth son of Roger Blount, of Monkland, in the same county, was born at 
Bordesley, in Worcestershire, (about A. D. 1619.) being of a younger house, 
of an antient* and noble family of his name, but never advantaged in learning 
Ijy the help of an University, only his own genius and industry, together with 
the helps of his scholastical acquaintance during his continuance in the Temple, 
before and after he was a barrister. 

^ His writings are many, and some perhaps not fit here to be put down ; 
among which are, 

1. " The Academy of Eloquence, containing a complete English Rhetoric. 
Printed at London in the time of the rebellion; and several times after. 

3. " Glossographia ; or, a Dictionary interpreting sucih hard Words, whe- 
tlier Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, &c, that are now used in our refined 
English Tongue, &c. London, 1656, octavo, published several times after 
with additions and amendments, 

* See more of his family in the third impression of Hen. Peacham's Complete Gentleman, &c. 
London, 4to. l66l, p. .230, 231, which Discourse ;there of Blount's family, was drawn up by this 
Tho. Blount, and put intoihe hands of the publisher of the said third impression of Peacham. 

3. « Tke 

[ « 3 

3. " The Lamps of tlie Law, and Lights of the Gospel ; or, the Titles of 
some late Spiritual, Polemical, and Metaphysical new Books. London, 1653, 
in 8vo. written in imitation of J. Birkenhead's Paul's Church-yard, and pub- 
lished under the name of Grass and Hay withers. 

4. " Boscobel ; or, the History of his Majesty's Escape after the Battle of 
Worcester, 3d September, 1651. London, 1660, in 8vo. ; there again 1680, 
in 8vo. third edition, translated into French and Portuguese ; the last of which 
was done by Peter Gifford, of White Ladies, in Staffordshire, a Roman Ca- 
tholic. Vide No. 11. 

5. " The Catholic Almanack, for 1661, 62, 63, &c. which selling not so well' 
as Joh. Booker's Almanack did, he therefore wrote, 

6. " Booker rebuked ; or, Animadversions on Booker's Teiescopium Ura- 
nicum or Ephemeris, 1665, which is very erroneous, &c. London, 1665, 
quarto, in one sheet, which made much sport among people, having had the 
assistance therein of Jo. Sargeant and Jo. Austen. 

7. " A Law Dictionary, interpreting such difficult and obscure Words and 
Terms as are found either in our Common or Statute, antient or modern 
Laws. London, 1671, fol. There again in 1691, with some Corrections, and 
the addition of above 600 \^ords. (This is the No/xoAf^ixov.) 

8. " Animadversions upon Sir Richard Baker's Chronicle and its Continua- 
tion, &c. Oxon, 1672, 8vo. 

9. " A World of Errors discovered in the New World of Words, &c. 
London, 1673, fol, written against Edw. Philips his book, entitled, A NeAV 
World of English Words. 

10. " Fragmenta Antiquitatis, antient Tenures of Land, and Jocular Cus- 
toms of some Manors, &c. London, 1679, 8vo. 

11. *' Boscobel, &c, the second part, London, 1681, 8vo, to which is 
added, Claustrum regale reseratum ; or, the King's Concealment at Trent, in 
Somersetshire, published by Mrs. Anne Windham, of Trent. (See No. 4.) 

" Our 

'" Our author Blount also wrote Animadversions upon Britannia, written by 
R. Blome, but whether printed I cannot tell; and translated from French 
into English, the Art of making Devises. London, 1646, and 50, in quarto, 
written originally by Hen. Estienne, Lord of Fossez ; to which Blount added, 
A Catalogue of Coro»et Devisfep, both on the iKipg's wd Pp-rUament's Side, 
in the late Wars. 

" At length, upon the breaking oiit of the Popish Plot, being much af- 
frighted by the violent current of that time, (he himself being a zealous Ro- 
liaan Catholic) he contracted the Palsy, as by his last letter sent to me, dat^tl 
28th April, 1679, I was informsd, adding therein, that he had then quitted 
all books except those of devotion. On the 26th of December following, be*- 
ing St. Stephen's Day, he died at Orleton, in Herefordshire, (where he had 
a fair and plentiful estate) in the year of his age 61, and was buried in th* 
church there, and soon after had a comely monument put over his grave by 
Anne, his relict, daughter of Edmund Church, of Maldon, in Essex, Esquire. 
He th«i left behind him an imperfect Chronicle of England, which he and 
J, B. (that's all I know of him, for Mr. Blount would nevei* tell me his 
name) had for several years been compiling ; but what became of it after?' 

wards I cannot telL" 

Woop, Athen, Oxon. IL col. 73. 


C viii ] 


"l^[^HILST I was perusing many of our both public and private records 
~ * for other ends, I thought a small Collection of some remarkable Tenures 
of land, and unusual Customs of some Manors, might not be unacceptable to 
the studious, who, when weary with poring upon Littleton's Tenures, and his 
learned Commentator, might relaxere fibulam by recurring to these, and 
smile at the inoffensive mirth both of our Kings, in former times, and lords 
of manors in creating them j some of which, I confess, are since converted 
into a rent, having a Modo Arrentattir entered in the record, others are by 
length of time disused, and others yet remain in force : as, not long since, I 
had the curiosity to ask an old officer in the Exchequer, whether he ever 
i-emembered any herring pies paid to the King for the manor of Carlton, in 
Norfolk ? Yes, very well, answered he, for we had some of them in court 
among us here last term. Nor does the late act of parliament (stat. 12 
Car. II. cap. 21.) for taking away all tenures by knight's service and capite, 
extend to the discharging the honorary services of Grand Serjeanty, other 
than of wardship, marriage, &c. but are left standing on their whole foun- 
dation by a particular proviso in that act. 

Neither are tlsese kind of tenures unusual in other countries ; for we read 
of a queen of Haugary, who, upon her death bed, bequeathed the city and 
province of Altenburg to one of the lords of her court, upon condition that 
he and his successors should always keep a certain number of peacocks ; in 
defect whereof the territory should revert to the crown. 

My first intention was to render all the recoi'ds in English ; but, upon 
second thoughts, I judge the original words would be more acceptable both to 
the learned and learner; and for the help of the latter, have explained (to 
the best of my skill) those of any difficulty, at least as many of them as I 
could, for some I believe may pose the ablest glossographer now living ; as 
Warocks, Muta deynectorum Canum, Heymectis, Cyppos, Berbiagium, 


C i't ] 

Chacuros, Sensas, Muta Vini, and Gruna Vini, &c,* Or, to speak more 
truly, I took them as I found them, some out of the very records, others ex- 
tracted thence, and translated to my hand ; for I was not willing to spend 
very much time in rem levem, as Sir Henry Spelman words it upon a like 
occasion. And yet, as light as the subject may seem to be, I am very well 
informed, that Attorney-General Noy had, a little before his death, bespoke 
a copy of all the tenures by serjeanty, remaining upon record j 'tis like he 
judged them useful, or divertising, or both, 

I have purposely omitted, or but rarely mentioned, those inore common^ 
teniires, whereby the owner was obliged to deliver, yearly, into the Exche- 
quer, a mew'd sparhawk, a pair of spurs, gloves, or the like, of wliich kind 
I met with many, and held them not for my purpose,^ which was to take m^ 
none but what were in some respect or other remarkable- Nor must I forget 
to advertise the reader, that the names of divers manors and places,, here 
mentioned, are written otherwise now than they were of old, which the know- 
ing in each county will easily reconcile. 

And however others may like of this essay, some gentlemen of antient 
descent, I presume, will be well enough pleased to see their ancestors names 
thus revived, and transmitted from our seldom seen records to a more public 
register. Nothing of this nature having, to my knowledge, been ever, till 
now, made public. And I will be bold to say, the students in Law-Latin and 
Becord-Learningy sha^U not aay where find so much singular of that kind 
collected in so snaaU a volmiae^ 

Leger ride,: Usee. 


* An explanation, however, of some of these, will be attempted in their places. 


[ ^ 3 


[ 1784. ] 

T^EMANDS being repeatedly made, and almost as often disappointed, 
for copies of this curious book, commonly known by the name of 
Blount's Tenures; which, indeed, after a flux of more than an hundred 
5'ears, are become exceeding scarce, a larg-e number of my friends, as well as 
myself, have thought it might prove an acceptable piece of service to the 
public to recal it to the press> These gentlemen, conceiving some favour- 
able sentiments, not of my abilities, which I acknowledge are but slender, 
but of my diligence and application, have accordingly been induced to im- 
pose the task of revising the woj-k upon me ; and I, more in compliance 
with their request, than from any confidence I could presume to repose in 
my own qualifications, have adventured to ,embai'k in the undertaking. 

Now, in order to give this edition certain im'provements, which were 
thought not only necessary, but might reasonably be expected by the reader, 
I have, in the first place, arranged Mr. Blojint's materials, which are all 
herje preserved entice, in a cleax'er and more commodious manner than they 
now appear in his own edition of 1679^ 

2dl\', The records, which heretofore were only given in Law-Latin., or 
French, are here, according to the best of the Editor's skill, rendered into 
English, and he submits his translations, with all deference, together with the 
notes marked with the letter E, and those mot marked, to the candour and 
impartiality of his readers, whose favour, in this regard, he earnestly 
bespeaks and solicits. In respect of the translations, he begs leave to observe 
further, that an English version of the several extracts fr«m charters, &c. 


■[ ,»i ] 
appeared to him more necessary now, than in the last century, when Mr. 
'Blount misde hi? compilation ; because the law being then in Latin, and the 
reports for the most paxt in French, those. languages were more studied at that 
time, than they can be supposed to ]be at present. 

The Editor, 3dly, has endeavoured, with the help of his learned friends, to 
elucidate such difficult, either Words or Ehrases, as appear to haA^e been unin- 
telligible to, or misunderstood by Mr. Blount ; and yet at last, notwithstand- 
ing all his labour and pains upon this head, some terms remain still, through 
the Editor's incapacity, without explanation, which consequently must be de- 
livered over to the greater sagacity of the intelligent readers. 

But, 4thly, what the Editor values himself most upon, are, the many ad- 
ditions and improvements which; by the favour of his friends, he has been 
enabled to make to Mr. Blount's work. These he justly esteems the most 
Valuable part of his performance, and they are owing to the communications 
and contributions of his much-respected friend and benefactor, Francis Fer- 
rand Foljambe, of Aldwarke, co. Ebor. Esq. ; of whose inestimable MSS. 
he has been indulged with the perusal, and thence has made many very 
important extracts* : also of the learned and Rev. Mr. Sam. Pegge, F. S. A. 
and Rector of Whittington, in Derbyshire, whose copious annotations *, &c. 
are marked P. Of George Allan, of Darlington, Esq. F. S. A. to whom 
he is indebted for many tenures in the Bishopric of Durham *, and the notes 
marked A. Of R. Gough, Esq. Director of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and F. R. S. for a transcript of the late Bishop Kennett's notes on Blount's 
Tenures ; moreover, of Thomas Astle, Esq. Chief Clerk of the records in the 
Tower, F. R. and A. S. S. Of the late Rev. Mr, John Watson, Rector of 
Stockport, in Cheshire, F. S. A. for various articles, all properly denoted : 
also, of the late John Wilson, Esq. of Broomhead, a gentleman of great 
knowledge in antiquities ; and lastly, of Henry Atkinson, of Ripen, Esq. &c. 

• Many of these, as well as several favours of the like kind, from his friends and correspondents, 
the Editor has been unavoidably obliged to omit for want of room ; but should a second volume of 
Ibis work be published, they shall be then inserted. 

^2 ri^j^e 

[ "" ] 

The Editor is extremely desirous of making- his siticerest acknowledgments 
to these gentlemen for their friendly communications, which he does the more 
readily and gratefully, as he is sensible that the very mentidn of their names 
confers the greatest honour upon himself. 

To conclude; notwithstanding these material additions to Mr. Blount's 
■work, the Editor, in the researches he found it necessary to make preparatory 
to his committing the work to the press, (which have greatly retarded tlie 
publication of it) and through the further communications of his learned 
friends, has already collected upwards of three hundred curious Tenures and 
Customs, &c. more than are here exhibited. If, therefore, he meets with 
suitable encouragement in this his first essay, a second volume, or continua- 
tion, of the subject, may, probably, hereafter make its appearance ; but thi^ 
depends entirely on the reception given to the present attempt. 


C "M 3 



*^ I ^Hte Editor bf this enlarged edition of a work which owes its prin- 
cipal success to the reputation of the! first compiler, has been induced, 
by considerations similar to those which actuated his father, above thirty 
years ago, to republish it in the present augmented state. 

The late Mr. Beckwith had collected upwards of three hvmdred various 
Tenures subsequent to the publication of the last edition, witli a view of 
rendering the work more perfect at a future period. In the course of that 
collection he received some valuable communications from various learned 
friends, and particularly respecting the tenures in the Bishopric of Durham, 
from the late Dr. Pegge, the respected Rector of Whittington, in Derbyshire, 
from whom also the present Editor has subsequently derived additional infor- 
mation. The principal part of the valuable matter thus obtained, has been 
placed in the notes, with the initial of Doctor Pegge's name subjoined. 

The letter W. has been added to other of the annotations, in order to 
draw the attention of the reader to some interesting particulars kindly fur- 
nished by Sir Patrick Walker, his Majesty's Gentleman Usher of the White 

These form, however, but a small portion of the numerous favours con- 
ferred by several valued and esteemed friends in communications towards 
forming this extended work, which the Editor feels confident will acquire 


[ xiv ] 

additional interest with the learned reader, from having- to number amongst 
its contributors several gentlemen of the highest celebrity for their attain- 
ments in antiquarian research. 

Possessing thefse advantages, it is not without a considerable degree of 
confidence that the Editor presents his work to the public. The very great 
labour of research bestowed upon it by his father and himself, will be amply- 
compensated by their approbation, which he has little doubt they will freely 
-grant, should it be found to possess such a portion of information and utility 
as to entitle itself to their respect. 


C XV j 


CAP. I. 


Section I. A Definition of the Tenure by ■Grand Serjeanty, .... i 

II. Of Grand Serjeanties performed at the Coronation of the Kings and 

Queens of England and Scotland, by the Great Officers of State, 

and others, in respect of their Offices; or of Baronies, Lands, or 

Tenements, now, or formerly annexed thereto, .... 2 

III. Of Grand Serjeanties performed at the Coronation of the Kings and 

Q,ueens of England, by Persons in respect of Manors, hands, or 
Tenements, ....... 39 

IV, Of .Grand Serjeanties performed, in respect of Manors, Lands, or Tene- 

ments, at other Times, and on other Occasions than the Coronations 

of the Kings and Queens of England, . . • « 72 



Section I. A Definition of the Tenure by Petit Serjeanty, . ^ . , 98 

11. Of Petit Serjeanty by finding Horsemen for the Wars, ... 99 

III. Of Petit Serjeanties by Jinding Footmen for the Wars, . , ', 113 

IV. Of Petit Serjeanties by finding Horses, SjC.for the Wars, . , . 131 
V. Of Petit Serjeanties by finding Arms for the' King in his Wars, S^c. , 145 

VI. Cf Petit Serjeanties, performed in the King's Household, and by fading 

fiim with Clothes and Provisions, S^e, , , . . - * . 1 80 
FII. Of Petit Serjeanties performed by keeping and taking Care of the King's 

Laundresses, Women, ^c. . . ..... 208 

VIII. Of Petit Serjeanties relating to the Execmtion of the Laus, . . 215 
JX. Of Petit Serjeanties performed by keeping the King's Forests, Chaces, 

and Parks, and by hunting, finding, and keeping of Dogs, S^c. . 2S0 


C xvi ] 

Sr.CTioN X. Of Petit Serjeanties, performed by keeping for, and delivering Hatcks 

l^c. to, the King, 

XI. Of Petit Serjeanties, by Religious Services, .... 
XII. Of Petit Serjeanties relating to the providing of Ships, Boats, Sfc. 

XIII. Of Petit Serjeanties performed by manual Labour, ^c. 

XIV. Of Lands formerly held of the Crown by various other Tenures, 





pECTioj* I. Of Lands held of Ecclesiastical Palatines, exercising Regal Authority 
within the Kingdom, by Services of the Nature of Grand and Petit 

Seijeanti/, Isc 343 

II. Of Lands held of Temporal Palatines, exercising Regal Authority within 
the Kingdom, by Services of the Nature of Grand and Petit Ser- 

jeanty, 8sc. 380 

III. Of Lands held of Ecclesiastical Lords by Services of the Nature of 

Grand and Petit Serjeanty, S(c. ...... 393 

iV. Of Lands held of Temporal Lords by Services of the Nature of Grand 

and Petit Serjeanty, Sfc. . . . . . . . . 412 

V, Of Lands held by ViUenag^ Tenure, ...... 464 



Section I. Customs of Manors, 501 

II. Ancient Modes of Trial, and Punishment of Offenders, . . . 641 

III. Ancient Forms of Grants, . 66a 

IV. Reliefs and Fines on Admission to Lands, S;c. 668 


Index to the Names of Places. 

Index of the Names of Persons. 

Index of the Obsolete and difficult Words and Phrases, Customs, ^c. 



. ^ ■ ~ CAP. I. 



A Definition of the Tenure hy. Grand Serjeanty. 

npENURE by Grand Serjeanty, is, where a man holds his lands 
or tenements of our sovereign lord the King, by such services 
as he ought to do in his proper person to the King ; as to carry the 
banner of the King, or his lance, or to lead his army, or to be his 
marshal, or to carry his sword before him at his Coronation, or to 
be his sewer at his Coronation, or his carver, or his butler, or to be 
one of his chamberlains of the receipt of his exchequer, or to do 
other like services, &c. And the cause why this service is called 
Grand Serjeanty, is, for that it is a greater and more worthy service 
than the service in the tenure of escuage. For he which holdeth 
by escuage, is not limited by his tenure to do any more especial 
siervice than any other which holdeth by escuage ought to do : 
but he which holdeth by Grand Serjeanty ought to do some special 
service to the King, which he that holds by escuage ought not to 

* Littleton's Tenures, sect 15S. 



Of Grand Seijeanfies performed at the Coronation of the 

Kings and Queens of England and Scotland, hy the 

Great Officers of State, and others, in respect of their 

Offices ; or of Baro7iies, Lands, or Tenements, now, or 

formerly annexed thereto. And first, of 


The first great officer of the crown, according to the account of 
our ancestors ; called also viceroy or lieutenant. 

Previous to every Coronation he has a commission under the 
great seal, hac vice, to hear and determine the claims for Grand 
Serjeanty, and other honourable services, to be done at the Coro- 
nation, for the solemnization thereof; for which purpose he holds 
his court some convenient time before the Coronation. 

At the Coronation he marches immediately before the King, 
above all other officers of the crown, and bears in his hand St. 
Edward's crown. 

The oth^r parts of his office, respecting the trials of peers of 
the realm, &c. do not properly belong to this treatise, and therefore 
shall be omitted. 


The office of Lord High Steward of England is of great antiquity, 
and was before the conquest, for in the Grand Customier de Nor- 
mandy, it is said that Godwin, Earl of Kent, in the time of King 
Edward the Confessor, for his evil deeds and counsels was ad- 
judged by the Steward of England, and forfeited his earldom*. 

In the time of the Conqueror, William Fitz-Eustace was Steward 
of England. And in the reigns of William Rufus and Henry I. 
Hugh de Grantesmenel, Baron of Hinkley, held that barony by 
the said office^ 

Of antient time this office was of inheritance, and appertained to 
the earldom of Leicester, as it also appears by the said Customier; 
though other records testify that it belonged to the 


The truth is, that Hinkley was parcel of the possessions of the 
Earl of Leicester ; for Robert Bellomont, in the reign of Henry II. 
married Petronilla, daughter and heir of the said Hugh Grantes- 
pienel. Baron of Hinkley, and Lord Steward of England, and in 
her right was Steward of England; and so it continued in that 
family, until by the forfeiture of Simon de Mountfort, Earl of Lei- 
cester, and grandson of the said Petronilla, it came, in 1265, to 
King Henry HI. who, in the 50th year of his reign, (1266) created 

*SicutacciditGodwinoComitiKanciae,tem- et conciliis suis (per Seneschallum. Anglia) 

pore Regis Edwardi antecessoris' Willielmi adjudicatus et forisfecit comitivam suam. Cust,- 

Pucis Normandiae, pro hujusmodi male gestia de Norm. Cap. x.-4 Inst. 58. 

B 2 his 


ins second son Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, Earl of Leicester, 
Baron of Hinkley, and High Steward of England, and also Earl of 
Lancaster, Derby and Lincoln. He was succeeded by his eldest 
5on Thomas^ Mho being beheaded at Pontefract, in the year 1322, 
was succeeded by his brother Henry, who, in the 9th year of the 
reign of King Edward HI. had a grant from that King of the office 
of Steward of England, to him and the heirs of his body. This 
Henry was succeeded by his son Henry, surnamed Grismund, from 
the place of his birth (Grismund Castle in Monmouthshire) and 
Tort col. or Wry-Neck, who was created Duke of Lancaster by 
King Edward HI. and he by his two daughters, Maud and Blanch, 
the elder of whom married Wilham V. Duke of Bayaria, Earl of 
Hainault, Holland, Zeland and Friezland, who died without issue ; 
and the younger, Blanch, was married to John of Gaunt, fourth son 
of King Edward III. who, in her right, succeeded as Steward of 
England, and exercised that office at the Coronation of King 
Richard U. His son Henry, surnamed of Bolinbroke, was the last 
that had any estate of inheritance in the office of the Steward of 
England, for upon the deposing of King Richard, he succeeded 
him in the throne, and the office of Steward became vested in the 
crown ; since which time it has never been granted to any subject, 
but only hac vice. 

The first who was created h4c vice was Thomas, second son to 
King Henry IV. (afterwards Earl of Albemarle and Duke of Cla- 
' rence), who, previous to his father's Coronation, sat as Lord High 
Steward of England, by the King s commandment, in the White- 
hall of the King s palace at Westminster, and, as belonging to his 
office, he caused enquiry to be made what offices were to be exer- 

cised by any manner of persons, on the day of the King's Corona- 
tion, and what fees were belonging to the same ; " causing procla- 
mation to be made that what nobleman or other, that could claime 
any office that day of the solemnizing the King's Coronation, they 
should come, and put in their bylles comprehending their de- 
maundz ; whereupon divers offices and fees were claimed, as well 
by bylles, as otherwise, by speech of mouth*." 

At that Coronation the said Lord Thomas, as Steward of England^ 
claimed and had for his foe the vessels of wine that lay under the 
bar ; notwithstanding that the same were claimed by Thomas Earl 
of Arundel, as chief butler of England -j-. 

The reason why the office of Steward of England has never, since 
it merged in the crown, been granted to any subject, but only h^c 
vice, was because his power was so transcendent that it was not held 
fit to be in any subject's hands : for his office was to oversee and 
rule, under the King, and immediately after the King, the whole 
kingdom of England, and all the ministers of the law within the 
kingdom, both in times of peace and war, &c. :J; 

When the Lord High Steward sits by force of his office, he sits 
tinder a cloth oS estate, and such as direct their speech to him 
say, " Please your Grace my Lord High Steward of England §." 

* Cromp. Jurisdict 84, b. post regem, totum regnUm Angliae, et omnes 

f Ibid. 85, b. ministros leguni infra idem regnum temporibus 

% Et sciendum est quod ejus officium est pacis et guerrarum, &c, 

supervidere et regulare sub rege et immediate § 4 Inst. 59. 


The stile of the said John of Gaunt was, John, son of the King 
of England, King of Leon and Castile, Duke of Aquitaine ancF 
Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester, Steward of Eng- 
land *. 

The other Great Officers of the Crown are, 

2. The Lord High Chancellor. 
S. The Lord High Treasurer. 

4. The Lord President of the Council. 

5. The Lord Privy Seal. 

6. The Lord Great Chamberlain of England. 

7. The Lord High Constable of England. 

8. The Earl Marshal of England. And 

9. The Lord High Admiral. 

But as I do not find that any of these great officers, except the 
Lord Great Chamberlain, the Lord High Constable, and the Earl 
Marshal, perform any honourary services at the Coronation, either 
in respect of their offices, or of any baronies, lands or tenements 
now or formerly annexed thereto, I shall pass by the four first, and 
the last, and begin with 


"Whose office is also of great antiquity. To him belongs livery 
and lodo-ino- in the King's court, and certain fees due from each 

* Joliannes filius Regis Angliaej Rex Legionis Derbise^ Lincolniae, et Leicestriae, Seneschallus 
et Castellffi, Dux Aquitaniseet Lancastriae,Comes Angliae. 4 lust. 59. 


(tttchbishop and bishop, when they do homage or fealty to the King, 
and from all the peers of the realm at their creation, or when they 
do homage or fealty ] and at the Coronation of every King he is to 
have forty ells of crimson velvet for his own robes ] and on the Go- 
ronation-day, before the King rises, he is to bring his shirt, coif, and 
wearing-clothes, and after the King is by him apparelled and gone 
forth, to have his bed, and all the furniture of his bed-chamber, for 
his fees, and all the King's night apparel ; and to carry at the Coro- 
nation the coif, gloves, and linen to be used by the King upon that 
occasion ; also the sword and scabbard, and the gold to be offered 
by the King, and the robe-royal, and crown, and to undress and 
attire the King with the robes-royal, and to serve the King that day 
with water to wash his hands, and to have the bason and towels for 
his fees, &c. * 

To him belongs the government of the whole palace of Westmin- 
ster ; he also issues out his warrants for the preparing, fitting, and 
furnishing of Westminster-hall against Coronations, &c. The 
Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, the yeoman usher and door- 
keepers are under his command -f". 

He disposes of the sword of state to what Lord he pleases, to be 
carried before the King when he comes to the parliament, and goes 
on the right hand of the sword, next to the King's person, and the 
Lord Marshal on the left J» 

Upon all solemn occasions the keys of Westminster-hall, and the 

* Chamberlayiie's present State of Great + Ibid. 

Britain, part I. lib. II. cap. 11. J Ibid. 



keys of the court of wards and court of requests, are delivered f0 

This honour was, hy King Henry II. about the year 1155, con- 
ferred on Aubery de Vere, Baron of Bolebec, Carford and Baddies- 
mere, and Earl of Oxford, and he and his posterity enjoyed it, for 
eighteen descents, till the beginning of the last century. 

At the Coronation of King Richard II., Robert de Vere, then 
Earl of Oxford, exhibited into the court of the Lord High Steward, 
the following petition : viz. 

To my most honourable lord the King of Castile and Leonj, 
Duke of Lancaster and Steward of England : Your petitioner, Ro- 
bert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, prays, that as his ancestors, for time 
out of mind, have in their turns, served the noble progenitors of our 
lord the King that now is, with water, as well before dinner as 
after, on the day of their Coronation, and have had, as their right, 
the basons and the towels with which the said progenitors have 
been served on the days of their Coronation, as appears in the 
records of the King's Exchequer, that it would please your most 
great Highness to grant that he may do the said office, as his ances- 
tors have done before, and have the fees belonging to the said office. 

The judgment of the Lord High Steward thereupon was, 

And because, by the records and evidences shewed in court, on 
the part of the said earl, it sufficiently appears that the said earl, 

* Chamberlayne's present State of Great Britain; part I. lib. JI. cap, 11. 


hath a right to the oiBces aforesaid, as he above prays, to be held in 
fee ; and proclamation being made, if any one will, that he may con- 
tradict his petitions in this part ; and no one having appeared to con- 
tradict his said claim : therefore it was considered, that the said earl 
should personally do and exercise the said office, if the lord the 
King, notwithstanding the minority of the said earl, should gra- 
ciously consent : which said lord the King, afterwards willed and 
granted, that the aforesaid earl, in his proper person, should do the 
offices aforesaid, on the said day of the King's Coronation, notwith- 
standing that he was within age, and in custody of the King. And 
so the said earl performed the same offices in all things, on the said 
Coronation-day, and received to his own use the basons and towels 
wherewith he served, and the fees of the chamberlain *- 

But at the Coronation of the succeeding King Henry IV. Si^ 
Thomas Erpingham, Knight, exercised the office of the Lord Great 

* A mon tres honourable snr Roy de Castile prasdicta prout superius petijt in feodo obti- 
et de Leon, Due de Lane, et Seneschall nend' et facta proclam' si quis peticioni suaa 
d'Englet' supplie vre suppliat Rob. de Veere, in hac parte contradicere vellet, nullus clameo 
Gounte de Oxenford, q- comet ses auncesters suo prsedicto in aliquo cohtradixit — Weo cbu- 
de temps dount memorie ne court servojet as deratum fuit quod idem comes officiu pi'aedic- 
ndble progenitors nostre seigniour le Roy que turn personaliter faceret et exerceret, (si dorai- 
ore est del ewe si bien devaunt manger comes nus Rex ad haec, non obstante minori aetate 
a_pres le jour de lour coronment, et ont ewe ipsius Comitis) graciose vellet consentire. Qui 
come lour droit, les basins et les towels dount quidem dominus Rex postmodum voluit et con- 
ies dits progenitors ount este serviez as ditz cessit, quod praefatus comes, in propria persona 
jours de lour coronment sicome appiert in les sua, oiBcia praedicta dicto <lie Coronationis 
recordes de I' Eschequer le Roy : que il pleas ipsius Regis faceret, eo non obstante quod 
a vf e tres graund hautesse a graunt. que il puit infra zetatem et in custodia Regis existit. Et 
faire le dit office, come ses auncesters ount fait sic idem comes officia ilia, eodem die Corona- 
devantj et a^er les fees au dit office appendats. tionis, in omnibus adimplevit, et pelves et ma- 
— Et quia per recorda et evidencias ex parte nutergia unde servivit, ac feoda camerarij ad 
ipsius comitis in curia prolat' snfficienter con- opus suum proprium recepit. Crompton Ju- 
etat; quod idem comes jus habet ad oificia risdict. 87. 

c Chamberlain, 


Chamberlain, and gave water to the King when he washed, both 
before and after dinner ; having for his fees the bason, ewer, and 
towels, with other things whatsoever belonging to his office, notwith- 
standing Aubery de Vere, Earl of Oxford, put in his petitions to have 
that office, as due to him from his ancestors *. 

The office of Lord Great Chamberlain continued from this time, 
in the family of the Veres, Earls of Oxford, with some interruptions, 
till the reign of King Charles I., when that Monarch, about the 
year 1626, created Robert Bertie, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, 
Lord Great Chamberlain and Earl of Lindsey, and he, his son, 
Montague Bertie, and grandson, Robert Bertie, successively Earls 
of Lindsey, executed that office during the reigns of the two 
Charles's 1st and lid. 

At the Coronation of King James II., the following petitions 
were exhibited to the lords commissioners for hearing claims, 

*' To the right honourable and illustrious lords, the com- 
" missioners of our most renowned sovereign lord King 
" James the Second, assigned to hear and determine, adjudge 
*' and end all sorts of petitions and claims of all kinds of peo- 
" pie who ought to do any manner of service about the King's 
" person on the day of his Coronation, by reason of their inhe- 
** ritances or otherwise." 

* Cromp. 85 ^ 

" Robert, 


*< Robert, Earl of Lindsey, Bai'oh of Willoughby, Beke and 
Eresby, prays that as he is Great Chamberlain of England in fee of 
our most renowned lord the King, it would please your lordships to 
admit htm, as well at this present Coronation, as at others, to per- 
foi^m the said office and the services thereof, as he and his ances- 
tors have done before ; that is to say, That the said earl should have 
livery and lodgings in the King's court for ever ; and that the said 
earl, on the day of the said Coronation, in the morning of the same 
day, before the King rises, should enter into the said King's cham- 
ber, where the King lies, and bring to the said King his shirt, 
stockings, and breeches; and that the said earl, and the Lord 
Chamberlain* for the time being, together, the same day, should 
dress the said King with all his clOaths, and take and have all the 
fees, profits and advantages to this office duly belonging and apper- 
taining, as he and his ancestors heretofore have used and taken on 
every Coronation-day, that is to say, forty yards -f- of crimson vielvet 
for the said earl's robes, against the day of the said Coronation ;■ 
and when the King is dressed, and ready to go out of the said 
chamber, on the said day of the Coronation, that then the said earl 
ought to have and take the bed on which the King lay the nio*ht 
before the said Coronation, and all the furniture thereof, curtains, 
cushions, and linen hanging about in the chamber, on the afore- 
said day; and the King's night-gown, which he had on the night be- 
fore the said Coronation." 

«« The said Earl of Lindsey also prays, that as his said ancestors, 
Great Chamberlains of England, time out of mind, served the noble 

* The Lord Great Chamberlain of the King's Household. f Quaery if not forty ells ? 

c 2 progenitors 


progenitors of our said lord the King with water, as well before 
dinner as after, on the day of their Coronation, and hare had, as 
their right, the basons, towels, and a cup of assay with which the 
said progenitors have been served on the said day of their Corona- 
tion, as appears in the records of the King's exchequer, that he 
may be received to do the said office likewise, as his ancestors have 
done before, and have the said fees belonging to it." 


" To the rio-ht honorable," &c. as before. 

" William Richard George Stanley, now Earl of Derby, sets 
forth, that he is cousin and heir to Henry de Vere, lately Earl of 
Oxford, Great Chamberlain of England ; that is to say, son and 
heir of Chai'ley Stanley, late Earl of Derby, who was son and heir 
of James Stanley, late Earl of Derby, who was san and heir of 
William Stanley, late Earl of Derby, and Elizabeth his wife, which 
EHzabeth was daughter of Edward de Vere, last Earl of Oxford,. 
Great Chamberlain of England, and sister and heiress to the said 
Henry Earl of Oxford, Avho was son and heir of the said Edward 
Earl of Oxford; and which Henry was seised in fee of the 
said office of Great Chamberlain of England, and in possession 
thereof died so seised without issue of his body : wherefore, your 
petitioner, as he is cousin and heir as aforesaid, to the said Henry 
Earl of Oxford, ought to have to him and his heirs the said office 
of Great Chamberlain of England; and your said petitioner prays 
that your lordships would be pleased to admit him to the said office 
of Great Chamberlain of England, with all fees and privileges 
to it belonging and appertaining." 





*' Which petitions being maturely considered, and that the same 
Earl of Lindsey was lately in possession and execution of the 
office aforesaid, and that Robert, not long since Earl of Lindsey 
his grandfather, was put in possession of the said office, by the 
most serene Prince Charles the First, of most happy memory, 
then King of Engljand ; by advice of the lords in parliament; 
which office Montague, late Earl of Lindsey, his father, whose 
heir he is, performed at the Coronation of Charles the Second, late 
King of England : Therefore it is considered by the commissioners 
aforesaid, that the claim of the aforesaid Earl of Lindsey to the 
office aforesaid^ be allowed to the said Earl of Lindsey, to be per- 
formed on the aforesaid Coronation-day ; and that the claim of the 
aforesaid Earl of Derby be not allowed : but as to the fees and per 
quisites claimed by the aforesaid Earl of Lindsey, his claim to the 
cup of assay is not allowed, because it did not appear to the afore- 
said commissioners that the Great Chamberlain had the said cup at 
any preceding Coronation; but as to the other aforesaid claims 
they are allowed to the same Earl of Lindsey " 

" And afterwards, and before the Coronation aforesaid, the said 
forty yards* of velvet were dehvered to the same earl; and compo- 
sition was made for the aforesaid other fees with the aforesaid earl 

* Or forty ellsr 



for ^200 sterling : and the aforesaid Earl of Lindsey executed the 
office of Great Chamberlain of England on the day of the Corona- 

The above-mentioned Robert, first Earl of Lindsey, was son of Pe- 
regrine Bertie Lord Willoughby, of Willoughby, Beke, and Eresby, 
by Mary his wife, daughter to JohndeVere, Earl of Oxford, and sister 
and heir, of the whole blood, to Edward de Vere, the seventeenth Earl 
of Oxford of that surname. And the said Robert, grandson of the 
first Robert Earl of Lindsey, was father of Robert, the first Duke 
of Ancaster, who was grandfather to Peregrine, the third Duke of 
Ancaster, who performed the office of Lord Great Chamberlain 
at the Coronation of their present Majesties, on the 22d September, 

The said Peregrine Duke of Ancaster died in August, 1778, and 
was succeeded in title and estate by his only son Robert Bertie, 
who died in July, 1779, unmarried, in the 23d year of his age, 
and was succeeded in his title of Duke of Ancaster, by his uncle, 
Lord Brownlow Bei'tie, the late duke. But the antient barony 
of Willoughby of Eresby, which is a barony in fee, descended to his 
heirs females, and as such is in abeyance, between his two sisters 
and co-heiresses Lady Elizabeth Priscilla, wife of Peter Lord 
Gwyder, and Lady Georgina Charlotte, wife of George James Earl 
of Cholmondely, 

A question having arisen who should execute the office of Lord 
Great Chamberlain, the same was referred by the House of Lords 

* Sandford's Hist. Coron. Jac. U. p. 134, 135. 



to the twelve judges, and in May, 1781, the following opinion was 
delivered by Sir John Skynner, Lord Chief Baron of the Court of 
Exchequer : 

That the office of Lord Great Chamberlain of England belongs to 
both the sisters of the late Duke of Ancaster. 

That the husband of the eldest is not of right entitled to execute 
the said office. 

That both the sisters may execute it by a deputy to be by them 
appointed, such deputy not to be of a degree inferior to a knight, 
and such deputy to be approved of by his Majesty^ 

This office appears to have been formerly annexed to the manor 


For Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, held the manor of Fingreth, 
in the county of Essex, by the serjeanty of being Chamberlain of the 
lord the King on the day of his Coronation*. 

* Robertus deVere, Comes Oxoniae, tenet die Coronationis suae. Placit. Coron. 13 Ed. I. 
maneriura de Fingreth, in com. Essex, per Essex. Blount, 53. j 
serjeantiiuxi essendi eamerarius domini Regis 




This manor, which had belonged to Wulfwin, one of the thanes 
of King Edward the Confessor, was given by William the Con- 
queror to Aubery de Vere, ancestor of the Earls of Oxford of tliat 
name, and was parcel of the barony by virtue of which they held 
the office of Lord High Chamberlain of England*. 


Hugh de Vere, Earl of Oxford, held the manor of Laveham in 
the county of Suffolk, which belonged to his barony, by being 
Chamberlain of our lord the King -j^. 

He also held the manors of Kensenton in the county of Oxford :|:, 
and Hougham in the county of Essex, both of which appertained 
to his barony by the like service ||. 


Richard Harlakenden held Earls Colne in capite, by the grand 
serjeanty of being Great Chamberlain of England §. 

* Hundred Roll, Edward I. Lysons's Magna % Harleian MS. Brit. Mus. No. 2087, pa. 

Britannia, vol. iL pa. 156. 6. 

•f Hugo de Vere, Comes Oxonise. M. de || Ibid. pa. 14. 

Laveham, et pertinet ad baroniam ut sit Ca- § Richard Harlakenden, in cap. per magnam 

merarius R. Esc. t- Hcnrici Regis filij Regis serjantiam essendi magnus Camarius Angl. 

Jobannis. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 2087, Ibid. No. 5195, pa. 83- 
pa. 8. 



The newt Great Officer of the Crown is 

Whose oflfice, Sir Edward Coke thinks, subsisted, though under 
a different name, before the conquest *. He says that in the ancient 
laws, before the conquest, you shall read of Herefochijs or Here- 
togijs, which he explains by leaders or generals of the army, from 
the Saxon here, an army, and toecu or toga to leadf-: and 
with this definition agrees Skinner in his Etymologicon. 

Sir Edward Coke further says, that Herefochius agrees with 
either of these great offices, the constable or marshal, and that 
they were elected by the common council, for the common good 
of the realm, by the provinces and nobles in full folkmote %, 

The folkmote, therefore, seems to have been the parliament of 
our Saxon ancestors, notwithstanding some opinions to the con- 
trary §; for amongst the laws of Edward the Confessor j|, it is said 
that " all the nobility of the kingdom, and all the knights and free 
men of all the kingdom of Britain ought in full folkmote to do 
fealty to the lord the King <[[, &c." And the learned Sir Henry 

* 4 Inst. 127. ^ Glossary to Brady's Introd. sub. tit. Folk- 

t Ibid. mote, pa. 47. 

J Isti vero eligebantur per commune consi- |{ Cap. 35. 

lium pro communi utilitate regni per provin- % Omnes proceres regni, et milites, et liberi 

cias «t patricios, in pleno folkmote. Hoveden homines umversi, totius regni Britannia facere 

Annal. cap. 35. debent in pleno folcmote fidelitateta domino 

Regi, &c. Leg. Edw. Confess, cap. 35. 



Spelman says, that the folkmote was a sort of annual parliament, 
or convention of the bishops, thanes, aldermen, and freemen, 
upon every May-day, yearly; where the laymen were sworn to 
defend one another, and with the King to preserve the laws of 
the kingdom, and then consulted of the common safety. Mr» 
Somner, in his Saxon dictionary, also says, that it is a general 
assembly of the people for considering and ordering matters of 
the commonwealth. 

Some time after the conquest, viz. about the year 1141, King 
Stephen conferred the dignities of Earl of Hereford and Lord 
Constable of England, on Miles de Gloucester, who held the 
office of constable for his life, and it afterwards descended to his 
four sons, Roger, Walter, Henry and Mahel, successively Earls 
of Hereford J who all died without issue. 

In the year 1199, the first of King John, Henry de Bohun, grand- 
son of Margaret daughter of Earl Miles, succeeded Mahel, as Earl 
of Hereford and Lord Constable, and he and his posterity enjoyed 
these honours till the year 1371, when Humphrey de Bohun, the 
seventh earl of that house, died without issue male, leaving two 
daughters Eleanor and Mary, the former of whom married Thomas 
de Woodstock, seventh and youngest son of the magnanimous King 
Edward III. and the younger married Henry Plantaganet, sur- 
named of Bolinbroke, afterwards King Henry IV. who was eldest 
son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, &c. fourth son of the said 
King Edward. 



Thomas de Woodstock, in the 50th year of his father's reign, sat 
in pariiament by the title only of Constable of England, which olSice 
the King had granted him the same year, it having fallen into his 
hands by reason of the minority of the heirs of the said Humphrey 
Earl of Hereford* 

At the Coronation of his nephew, King Richard II. the said 
Thomas de Woodstock officiated as Lord Constable of England, as 
appears by the following record, viz. 

As to the office of Constable of England, Thomas 4e Woodstock^ 
uncle of our lord the King, who married the daughter and heiress 
of Humphrey de Bohun, late Earl of Hereford, and Constable of 
England, proved as well to our lord the King as to the aforesaid 
steward, that that office of right belonged to the said Earl 
Humphrey and his heirs, and that the heir of the said late earl 
was under age, and in custody of our lard the King; and that the 
said lord the King had committed that office to the said Thomas, 
to perform during the minority of the heir aforesaid; and prayed 
that he might be admitted to perform that office, for the reason 
aforesaid ; whereupon the premises being duly considered, the said 
Thomas was admitted to exercise the said office, at the pleasure of 
the said lord the King : and so he afterwards performed that office 
in all things*. 


* Quoad officiutn Constabul. Angl. Thorn. demonstrabat tarn domino Regi quam praefato 
de Woodstock avunculus domini Regis, qui Seneschall. quod ofHcium illud ad dictum 
fil et h^red. Humfr. de Bohun nuper Com. Humfr. Com. et haered. suos de jure pertinet 
Herefford. et Constabul. Angl. duxit in Ux. et quod hseres ipsius nuper Comitis infra 

D 3 aetatem 


King Richard II. upon the said day of his Coronation, created 
this Thomas de Woodstock, his uncle. Earl of Buckingham, and 
soon after conjSrmed him in the office of Constable: and in the 
ninth year of his reign, advanced him to the dignity of Duke of 
Gloucester. But in the twenty-first year of his reign, having 
conceived a great dislike against him, the poor duke was sur- 
prised by Thomas Mowbray, then, or soon after, Duke of Nor- 
folk, and Earl Marshal of England, at Pleshy, in Essex, and by 
him conveyed over to Calais, where he was inhumanly murdered, 
by being strangled, by the command, as it was said, of his ne- 
phew. King Richard, in 1397. 

Thomas de Woodstock left issue a son and a daughter. His 
son Humphrey, then a minor,^ was soon after his father's death, 
along with Henry, son and heir of Henry de Bolinbroke, before- 
mentioned, sent into Ireland by King Richard, and there impri- 
soned ; but as soon as Henry IV. had attained the Crown, he 
sent for them immediately from their imprisonment, designing for 
this Humphrey all his father's honours, but he unfortunately died 
of the plague, at Chester, on his return. 

Ann, the daughter of Thomas de Woodstock, was first married 
to Thomas Earl of Stafford, who dying without issue, in the six- 
teenth year of King Richard II. she married secondly, Edmund 

aetatem et in custodia domiiri Regis^ fuit, consideratlone rationabiliter ad praemissa, 

quodq domiiius Rex offic. illud eidem Tliomae idem Thomas ad ofScium pned. faciend. ad- 

comisit faciend. durante minore aetate haered. mittitur de voluntate dicti dbmiiti Regis nunc, 

praed. et petit se admltti ad oiEcium praed, et sic officium illud postiiibdum in omnibus 

faciend. ex causa supradicta, per quod habita adimplevit, Cromp. Jiirisdict. 87, b. 



Stafford, Earl of Stafford, brother and heir of her first husband, 
by whom she had issue, Humphrey Stafford, created Duke of 
Buckingham by King Henry VI. ancestor of the iate Earls of 

At the Coronation of King Henry IV. Henry Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, who wjls made Lord High Constable of England 
by the King's grant, claimed that office, and obtained it to enjoy 
during pleasure*. 

King Henry IV- in the fourth year of his reign, granted this: 
office to John of Lancaster, his third son (whom his brother^ 
King Henry V. afterwards created Duke of Bedford,) and cou^- 
firmed the same to him in the eleventh year of bis reign. 

In the first year of King Henry VI. this office was granted to 
Humphrey, the good Duke of Gloucester^ the King's uncle, and 
protector of the realm, during the King's minority, to hold dur- 
ing pleasure^ The same year the office was granted for life, to 
John Duke of Bedford, elder brother to Duke Humphrey and 
Regent of France. In the eighth year of the same King's reign: 
it was granted to Richard Plantagenet Duke of York, during the 
absence of John Duke of Bedford. In the twenty-fifth year of 
King Henry VI. it was granted to John Viscount de Beaumont ; 
and in the twenty-eighth year of King Henry VI. to Henry Earl of 
Northumberland during pleasure; and again, in the twenty-ninth 
of the same King's reign to Edmund Duke of Somerset during 

* Cromp. 84, b* 



King Edward IV. in the first year of his reign, granted the 
office of Lord High Constable to John Tiptoft Earl of Worcester ; 
and in the seventh year of his reign to Richard Widville Earl 
Rivers, father to his Queen Elizabeth. The year following he 
granted the same to his brother George Duke of Clarence ; and 
the following year to his other brother Richard Duke of Glou- 
cester, who was afterwards King Richard III. In the tenth year 
of his reign he granted the same office again to John Tiptoft 
Earl of Worcester, for life ; and in his sixteenth year to his son 
Richard Duke of York, who was afterwards murdered by his 
nncle Kinjj Richard. 

It was also granted, during this reign, to Henry Stafford Duke 
of Buckingham, in fee ; but he being beheaded at Salisbury, in 
the first year of King Richard HI. the King, on the 16th of De- 
cember, in the same year, made Thomas Lord Stanley, Constable 
of England for life, with the fee of ^sCIOO per annum, payable 
out of his revenues in the county of Lancaster, and gave him 
power to make a deputy. The office of Lord High Constable 
was afterwards given in fee to Edward Duke of Buckingham, son 
of Henry Stafford Duke of Buckingham, (who was beheaded at 
Salisbury) ; and he also being beheaded on Tower Hill, the tbir- 
teenih ef Henry Till, anno 1521, the office has never been granted 
but only h^c vice. ■ 

The following determination concerning this office was made in 
Michaelmas Term, sixth Henry VIII. viz. 

Humphrey de Bohun, late Earl of Hereford and Essex, held the 



manors of Harlefield, Newnham, and Whytenhurst, in the county 
of Gloucester, of the King, by the serjeanty of being Constable of 
England, and had issue two daughters, and died seized : they en- 
tered, and took two husbands, (Thomas de Woodstock and Henry 
de Bolinbroke) and the husband of the youngest was afterwards 
made King, and partition was made ; and the King and his wife 
chose the manor of Whytenhurst for their part, and the two other 
manors were allotted to the other husband and wife ; whereupon 
these questions arose : first,, if the reservation of the tenure, at the 
beginning, by the King, was good I and, by the opinion of all the 
judges of England, it was good enough. Second, how the daugh- 
ters, before marriage, could exercise the office ? and to that it was 
clearly resolved that they might make their sufficient deputy to do it 
for them : and, after marriage, that the husband of the elder, alone, 
might do it. The third, and most difficult was — if,^ by the union of 
parcel of the tenancy^ in the King, the office was determined, or had 
its being and continuance in the other coparcener ? And it was re- 
solved, alsOir clearly, by the judges aforesaid, that it had its con- 
tinuance in the other coparcener; for, otherwise, he would have the' 
two manors without doing, any service for them ; and they are com- 
prellable, at the pleasure of the King, to exercise the office : and the; 
King might refuse that,, at his election and pleasure, as well as the 
common lord might refuse to^ receive the homage x)f his tenant, (if 
it was not homage auncestrel)— and the tenure above-mentioned 
was held to be grand serjeanty. And if a father held of one of his- 
two daughters^ and died seized, and he enters, and makes partition, 
the service is whoJly revived, if it be entire, as homage, &c. And 
these resolutions were, by the chief justices, reported to the King 
at Greenwich. But,, because the office above said was very high, 



and dangerous, and also very chargeable to the King in fees, the 
King did not choose to have the office executed. And this was the 
case and claim of Edward the last Duke of Buckingham, made in 
Michaelmas Term, sixth Henry VIII.* 

By this case, and the resolutions of the judges thereon, it mani- 
festly appears, that the office was annexed to the manors of 


The power and jurisdiction of the Lord High Constable is novr 
the same as that of the Earl Marshal, with whom he can sit as judge 
in the Marshal's court ; but anciently it was much greater. 

* Humfrey de Bohum, jades Counte de 
Hereford et Essex tient les manors de Harle- 
field, Newman, et Whytenhurst, in comitatu 
Gloucester, del Roy per servitium essendi Con- 
stabular. Angliee, et avoit issue deux files et 
devie seisie, els enter et prent deux barons, et 
le baron del puisne est apres fait Roy et par- 
ticion est fait, et le Roy et son feme eslyont le 
manor ,<3e W. pur lour part, et les deux auters 
allot al auter baron et feme, et ore iii. ques- 
tions sont. Le primer si le reservation del te- 
nure al commencement per le Roy fuit bone. 
Et per opinionem omnium justiciariorum An- 
gliae, est assetz bone. Le second coment les 
files devant niariage purront exercise roffice,,et 
a ceo full clerement resolve, que els purront 
fair lour sufficient deputie a ceo faire pur eux, 
et apres mariage le baron del eigne poet sole. 
Le iii. plus difficile, viz. si per le unite del par- 
cel del tenancie en le Roy, I'office soit deter- 
inine, ou avera son esse et continuance en 
Tauter coparcener. Et resolve auxi clere- 

ment per justiciarios praetfictos, que il avera son 
continuance en Tauter car auterment ils averot 
les ii manors sans feasant ascun service pur 
eux, et sont compellable al pleasure le Roy de 
exerciser Toffice^ et le Roy poit ceo refuser a 
son election et pleasure, sibien come le com- 
mon seignior poit refuser le receit de homage 
de son tenant (sil ne soit homage auncestrel) 
et le tenur. supra fuit tenus graud serjeantie» 
Et si le pere tient de un de ses ii files et devie 
seisie, ils enter et font particion, le service est 
revive en tout, sil soit e'ntier come homage, &c. 
Et ceux resolutions fueront per les chiefe jus- 
tices report al Roy mesme al Greenewich, mes 
pur ceo que Toffice ^upra fuit very hault et 
daungerous, et auxy very chargeable al Roy en 
fees, le Roy voile disclaimer d'aver le service 
execute. !Et ceo fuit le case et claime de E. 
le Darreine Duke de Buckingham, fait anno 
6 Hen. VHI. Termiao Michaelis. Dyer's- 
Reports, 285, b. , ; 



To him it bcjlongs, at the Coronation, to walk in procession on 
the right hand of the person, who bears the sword of state, in his 
robes, with his coronet and staff of office in his hands. 

The Duke of Bedford exercised this office at the Coronation 
of their present Majesties. 


Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, held of the 
King, in capite, the entire Manor of Caldecote, by the service of 
'beiiig Lord High Constable of England *. 


Is the eighth great officer of the crown : he is an earl, as some 
say, by his office; whereby he takes cognizance, as the Lord Con- 
sta,ble does, of all matters of war and arms, determines contracts 
touching deeds of arms, out of the realm, upon land, and matters 
concerning wars within the realm, which cannot be determined by 
the common law; and in these matters he is chiefly guided by the 
civil law. 

He had antiently' several courts under him, but has now only the 
Marshalsea, where he may sit in judgment against criminals offends 
ing within the verge of the King^s Court. 

* Hutnfredus de Bohun, Comes Hereford. primo Ed. I. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 
et Essex, de R. in c. M. de Caldecote integre, 2087, pa. 24. 
per ser, Constabulariat' Angliae. Esc. de anno 

E This 


This officfe^is of great antiquity in England, and antiently was of 
greater power than now. It has been for many years hereditary in 
the title of Norfolk. 

The first Lord Marshal, of whom I find mention, was Gilbert de 
Clare, who was created Earl of Pembroke by King Stephen in the 
year 1139. He was succeeded by Richard de Clare, surnamed 
Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, and Lord Marshal, who died 
anno 1176; 

To him succeeded John, surnamed Marshall from this office, 
which was conferred upon him by King Henry II. upon the death 
of Richard Strongbow, and he by William Marshall, his grandson, 
who having married Isabel, daughter and heir of Richard Strong- 
bow, was, by King John, created Earl of Pembroke, in the year 
1201. In his family the office of Lord Marshal continued, till 
the death of his five sons, William, who was Lord Chief Justice of 
England, Richard, Gilbert, Walter and Anselm, all successively 
Earls of Pembroke, the last of whom died in the year 1245. 

When Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, in right of his mother, 
Maud, one of the sisters and heirs of the five last Lord Marshals, 
succeeded, and after him, Roger Bigod, his son. Earl of Norfolk 
whose estate being confiscated to the crown, the office, upon his' 
death in 1305, came into the handsof King Edward 11. who, in the 
year 1307, granted it, durante bene placito, to Robert d,e Clifford, 
jand, the year following, to Nicholas de Segrave, Lord Segrave. 

The same King Edward II. in the ninth year of his reign, made 



his half brother, Thomas de Brotherton (whom he had before 
created Earl of Norfolk) Marshal of England, by patent, to him 
and his heirs male lawfully begotten, and his descendant, the pre- 
sent Duke of Norfolk, now enjoys that office. But it has, several 
times, since the death of Thomas de Brotherton, been in other 

Margaret, daughter and heir of Thomas de Brotherton, was 
created Duchess of Norfolk for life, and was often honoured with 
the title of Lady Marshal ; but whether by right, or of courtesy, 
does not plainly appear ; for, in her life-time, the office was exer- 
cised by William de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, Thomas Beau- 
champ the elder. Earl of Warwick, and Edmund Mortimer, Earl 
of March, successively. They might so exercise it as deputies to 
her. For at the Coronation of King Richard II. her claim seems, 
by the following record, to have been left undecided. 

Also, as to the office of Marshal of England, Margaret Countess 
of Norfolk, exhibited her petition before the aforesaid Steward, in 
these words — " To the most honourable lord, the King of Castile 
and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, and Steward of England. Margaret, 
daughter and heir of Thomas de Brotherton, late Earl of Norfolk 
and Marshal of England, prays that you will accept her to do the 
office of Marshal at the Coronation of our Lord the Kinor, as her 
right of inheritance, after the death of the said Thomas her father ; 
doing the office by her deputy, as Gilbert Marshall, Earl of Strygel 
did at the Coronation of Henry II. to wit, to appease the debates 
in die King^s house on the day of his Coronation, and to dispose 
of the places in the bed-chambers, and to giiard the door of the 

E 2 King's 


King's chamber ; having from every baron and earl, made knight 
on that daj , one palfrey with a saddle." 

Whereupon, the said petition being heard, it was alledged for the 
King there, tliat the office remained in the person of the King, to 
be assigned unto, and conferred upon whomsoever the King should 
please ; and upon this hearing, there were many reasons and alle- 
gations urged concerning this matter, as well for the lord the 
King, as for the aforesaid countess. But because it appeared to 
the court that the final discussion of the business aforesaid could 
not be made, on account of the shortness of the time before the 
Coronation aforesaid, Henry de Percy, with consent, and by the 
command of th« same King, was assigned to perform the said office, 
and to take the fees due and accustomed ; saving the right of every 
one. And so the same Henry took that office *. 

* Item quoad officiiim Mairesc. Anglise, 
Margaretta Comitissa Norf. petitionem suam 
coram praefato Senesc. in haec verba exhibuit. 
— Al tres honorable seignior le Roy de Cas- 
tile et Leon, Duke de Lane, et Seneschall 
d'Engl. supplie vous Margaret file et heire 
Thom. de Brotherton nadgaires Counte de 
Norf. et Marshall d'Eug. destre accept al of- 
fice de Marshakey ore al coronment nostre 
seignior le Roy come a son droit d'heritage 
apres le mort le dit Thom. son peere, fesaht 
I'office per son deputie, come Gilbert Mar- 
shall, Countie de Strygel fist al coronment 
Henry le Second, ss de Payser le Bis in la 
Meason le Roy al jour de son coronment et 
faire lewes de Herbergages, et de garder les 
Huis de Chamb. le Roy per ayant de chescun 

baron et countie suis chivaler a eel jour un 
palfreyeove un sell. 

Super quo, audita petitione praedicta, dictum 
fuit pro domino Rege ibidem, quod oificium 
illudin persona domini Regis remansit, ad as- 
signandum et conferend. cuicunq. ipsi Regi 
placeret. Et super hoc audit tam pro domino 
Rege quam pro praefata comitissa pluribus ra- 
tionibus et allegat. in hac parte, prp eo quod 
videbatur Cur.' quod finalis discussio negotii 
praedicti propter temporis brevitatem ante Co- 
ronationem prsedict. fieri non potuit, Henricus 
de Percy ex assensu et per praeceptum ipsius 
Regis assign, fuit ad officium praedictum fa- 
ciend. et percipiend. feoda debita et con- 
sueta. Salvo jure cujiislibet. Et sic idem 
Henricus officium illud percepit. Cronip. 
Jurisdict. 87, b. 



Thomas Lord Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, second and only 
surviving son of John Lord Mowbray of Axholme, by Elizabeth 
his wife, daughter and sole heir of the Lady Margaret Duchess of 
Norfolk, and heir of Thomas de Brotherton, as above mentioned, 
had, by patent from King Richard II., in the eighth year of his 
reign, the title and oflBce of Earl Marshal of England, being the 
first who had the title of Earl Marshal, for before that time they 
were only Marshals. This Thomas was, by the same King, after- 
wards, created Duke of Norfolk; but being, along with Henry, 
Duke of Hereford, (afterwards King Henry IV.) banished the 
realm, he went to Venice, and there died, anno 1400. 

Upon the banishment of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, King Richard 
created Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Duke of Surrey, Earl 
Marshal; but Thomas Lord Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, upon 
his father^s death or banishment, assumed the title of Earl Marshal, 
though the office was executed by John Montacute, Earl of Sa- 

King Henry IV., in tlie beginning of his reign, made Ralph 
Neville Earl of Westmorland, Lord Marshal of England, for the 
term of his life. 

King Henry v., in the beginning <)f his reign, restored to John 

Lord Mowbray, brother of Thomas, called Earl Marshal, and 

younger son of the banished Duke of Norfolk, the titles of Earl of 

JVottingham and Earl Marshal; and in the third year of King 

Henry VL he was also restored to the title of Duke of Norfolk, his 

<^her having died without attainder. 



This Jolin was succeeded in all his titles by his son John, and 
he by his son John, the fourth and last Duke of Norfolk, of the 
surname of Mowbray, who died without issue male, leaving an only 
daughter, Ann, married to Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, 
second son of King Edward IV. when lie was only four < years of 
age ; he was, by his faflier, King Edward, created Duke of Nor- 
folk and Earl Marshal, but, soon after his fether's death, was cruelly 
murderecl by his uncle, Richard III., and the Lady Ann dying without 
issue, that branch of the Mowbray's family became extinct, and the 
inheritance was divided lietween John Lord Howard, husband of 
Margaret, elde^ daughter of Thomas Mowbray, the first Duke of 
Norfolk, and William Lord Berkley, eldest son of James Lord 
Berkley, second husband of Isabel, the second daughter of the 
said Duke ; and King Richard III., on the 28th of June j 1483, in 
the first year of his reign, when his said nephew was certainly alive, 
conferred on this John Lord Howard, the office of Marshal of 
England in tail male, and empowered him, either in the presence 
or absence of the King, to bear a golden staff, tipped at each end 
with black, the upper part thereof to be adorned with the royal 
ftrms, and the lower end thereof with those of his own family; and, 
^or the better impport of the dignity of his office, he got a grant to 
himself and his heirs aforesaid for ever of ^20 annually, payable 
half-yearly out of the fee-farm rent of the town of Ipswich, in 
Snflblk; and on the same day was advanced to the dignity of Duke 
of Norfolk; and Thomas, his son and heir, was created Earl of 
Surrey. He was also, on the 30th of that n»onth, constituted High 
Steward of England for the ceremony of King Richard's Coronation, 
atid attended tliere on *he 6th of July foM^Jwing, wi^ his son Thomas 



Saa*l of Surrey, who bore the sword of state, the Duke himself 
carrymg tii^ King's erpwn, and walking, next before him. 

He ^ntiuued in great favour with Richard during his short reign, 
and was slain with him in the battle, of Bosworth Field, on the 22^d 
of August, 1485, being in the front of th« army ,1,0 ^ . 

King Henry VII., on his attaining the crown, created William 
Lord Berkley, Earl of Nottingham, son of the Lady Isabel Mow- 
bray, the younger daughter of Thomas Mowbray, the first Duke 
of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England; and he dying without issue, 
in 1492, the King created his second son Henry, afterwards King 
Henry VIH., Earl Marshal of England. 

After King Henry VHI. came to the thr^one, ,he, in the second 
jfear of his reign, created the said Thomas Earl of Surrey, son of 
John Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal, and afterwards Duke of 
Norfolk ; who continued those honours till his death, on the 21st ^ 
Msiy, 1524, when he was succeeded by his eldest son 

Thomas, who had been created Earl of Surrey in his life-time. 
He contioiied in the possessii^n of his dignities and honours, till the 
12th of December, 1546, when he and his son were suddenly appre- 
hended and committed prisoners to the Tow^, and both attainted, 
by special bills in parliament, soon after. 

On the 28th of January following, the Lieutenant of the Tower 
received a warrant for beheading the Duke, but the King dying 
Ahat day, the executors of his will did not choose, at that critical 



juncture, to put the wari*ant into execution; yet his enemies were 
so great, that, in the beginning of the reign of King Edward VI., 
when pardon was given, by proclamation, to all persons, for all 
crimes whatsoever, six only excepted, he was the chief of those 
six, and remained prisoner in the Tower during all that reign, and 
till Queen Mary made her triumphant entry into London, on the 
3d of August, 1553; when, without any pardon or restitution, he 
was allowed to be Duke of Norfolk, and had all his lands restored ; 
and, during the reioTi of Edward VI., the office of Earl Marshal 
was executed by Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, uncle to 
the King, and Lord Protector. > 

On the death of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, which hap- 
pened the 25th of August, 1554, he was succeeded by his grandson 
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, and EarlMarshal, who was the 
eldest son of Henry Earl of Surrey, beheaded thie 19th of January, 
1546, for high treason, in the hfe-time of his father- He continued 
to enjoy his grandfather's titles and honours till January, 1571, when 
he was tried by his peers for, and convicted of, high treason, and 
was beheaded on Tower-hill, the 2d of June, 1572, 

On his attainder, Queen Elizabeth made George Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, Earl Marshal ; and, after his death, her favourite, 
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who was also beheaded the 25th. 
of February, 1600. 

At the Coronation of King James I., in 1603, Edward Somerset, 
Earl of Worcester, executed the office of Earl Marshal; after which 
it was generally executed by commission, till the year 1621, when 



Kin^ James I. constituted Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey, 
grandson of Thomas the last Duke of Norfolk, by his son Philip 
Earl of Arundel, Earl Marshal of England for life, with a pension 
of .£2000 a year, he having before been appointed one of the com- 
missioners for executing that office ; and continued in the office till 
his death, on the 4ith of October, 1646. 

He was succeeded by his second and eldest surviving son Henry 
Frederick, Earl of Arundel, &c. who enjoyed the title of Earl 
Marshal till his death, on the 7th of April, 1652, when he was 
succeeded in the titles of Earl of Arundel, &c. by Thomas, his 
eldest son and heir, who was restored by parliament to the title of 
Duke of Norfolk, on th« 8th of May, 1664. He dying unmarried, 
at Padua, in Italy, on the 1st of December, 1667, was succeeded 
by his brother Henry Howard, who, on the 19th of October, 1672, 
was, by King Charles II., created Earl of Norwich, to him and the 
heirs male of his body ; and also, by the same patent, had grante4 
to him the offifce and dignity of Earl Marshal of England, to him and 
the heirs male of his body, with divers remainders over. He diec^ 
the 11th of January, 1683, and was succeeded by his eldest son 

Henry, the seventh Duke of Norfolk, who dying without issue, 
the 2d of April, 1701, was succeeded by Thomas Howard, eldest 
son of Thomas Lord Howard, younger brother of the last Henry 
Duke of Norfolk ; who also dying without issue, the 23d of De^ 
member, 1732, was succeeded by his brother Edward, late Duke o/ 
Norfolk ; and he also dying without issue, on the 20th of Sep- 
tember, 1777, at the great age of ninety-two, was succeeded by the 
present Duke Charles Howard, second son and heir of Charles 

F Howard, 


Howard, of Greystock, Esq. who was eldest son and heir of Charles 
Howard, fourth son of Frederick Earl of Arundel, who died in 
1652, as above mentioned*. 

Sir Edward Coke says-j-, that the office of Marshal ever passed 
by the grants of the King, and never belonged to any subject by 
reason of tenure, as the stewardship and constableship of England 
sometime did; and yet I read that the manor of 


In the county of Berks, was held of old by grand serjeanty, of the 
Kings of England, conditioned that the grantees should, for ever, 
be Knights Marshal, according as the offices of Steward, Constable, 
and Lord High Chamberlain, in those times were granted J. The 
office of Knight Marshal appears to have been substituted in the 
room of the Lord or Earl Marshal, for, antiently, they that had this 
office, were only marshals of the King's house, according as the 
same is now discharged by the Knights Marshal ; but in succeeding 
times it grew to be a place of great power and honour, as it still con- 
tinues §. 

The business of the Earl Marshal, at the Coronation, has been 
in a great measure shewn before, so that there will be no ne- 
cessity of enlarging upon it here, further than to observe, That, 
previous to the Coronation of King James II. the Earl Mar- 

* CoUins's Peerage, passim. J Heylin's Help to Eng. Hist. sub. tit 

+ Inst. 128. Marshall. § Ibid. 



shal df England claimed to appease the debates that might 
arise in the King's house on that day, to keep the doors of the 
same, and of the Abbey, &c. and to dispose of the places to the 
nobles, &c. with all fees belonging thereto : which was disallowedj 
as unprecedented, and several of the particulars were counter- 
claimed by the Lord Great Chamberlain. But such determination 
was made with a salvo jure to the said Earl Marshal*. 

At the Coronation of their present Majesties, the office was 
executed by the late Earl of Effingham, as deputy for Edward, 
late Duke of Norfolk, who, being a person professing the Roman 
Catholic religion, was disqualified by law from executing it iii 
person. And the Earl of Effingham dying in November, 1763, his 
grace then appointed Henry, the late Earl of Suffolk and Berk- 
shire, to be his deputy. Upon the death of the late duke, his 
successor appointed the present Earl of Effingham, son to the late 
carl, to be deputy Earl Marshal of England. 


At the Coronation of King Henry IV. the barons of the five 
ports claymed, and it was granted them, to bear a canapye of 
cloth of golde over the King, with foure staves and foure belles, at 
the foure corners, every staffe having foure of those barons to beare 
it. And to dyne and sitt at the table, next to the King, on his rio-ht 
hande, in the hall, the day of his Coronation : and for their fees to 

* Gent. Mag. vol. XXXI. p. 324. 

F 2 have 


have the saide canapye of golde, with the belles and staves ,; not- 
withstanding the abbot of Westminster claymed the same*. 

And at the Coronation of King James II. the barons of the 
Cinque-ports claimed to carry the canopy over the King, and to 
have the same, with the staves and bells, for their fees, and to dine 
in the hall at the King's right hand ; which claim was allowed -f-. 


At the same Coronation of King James II. the Bishops of 
Durham and Bath and Wells, claimed to support the King in the 
procession : which claim was allowed, the King having graciously 
consented thereto, and the Bishops of London and Winchester 
being appointed to support the Queen J. 


At the Coronation of King James II. the Dean and Chapter of 
Westminster claimed to instruct the King in the rites and cere- 
monies used at the Coronation; to assist the Archbishop in divine 
service ; to have the custody of the Coronation robes; to have robes 
for the dean and his three chaplains, and for sixteen ministers of 
the said church ; the royal habits put off in the church, the 
several oblations, furniture of the church, canopy, staves and 
bells, and -the cloth on which their sMajesties walk from the west 
door of the church to the theatre, &c. Which claim was allowed, 

* Cromp. 86. f Sandf. Hist. Coron. % Ibid. 



except custody of the regalia, said the fees referred to the King's 
pleasure *. 


At the Coronation of King James II. the Master of the King's 
great wardrobe claimed to receive from his deputy a pall of cloth 
of gold, and to «arry it to the altar, for the King to oflFer, and that 
his deputy should attend near Garter King at Arms, in a robe of 
scarlet cloth, with a gold crown embroidered on the left sleeve. 
"Which claim was disallowed, but the claimant left to take his course 
at law, if he thought fit-j-. 


At the Coronation of King James II. the Clerk of the great 
wardrobe claimed to bring a rich pall of cloth of gold, to be held 
over the King's head whilst he is anointed ; as also the armilla, or 
cloth of tissue, and to attend near Garter King at Arms, in a robe 
of scarlet cloth, with a crown embroidered on the left sleeve. 
Which claim was also disallowed, but the claimant left to take his 
course at law, if he thought fit J. 


At-ftie same Coronation;, the Duke of Norfolk, as Premier Earl 
of England, claimed to redeem the sword offered by the King at 

* Sandf. Hist. Coron. -f Ibid. % Ibid. 



tbe altar, and to carry it before His Majesty in his return to his 
palace, and reservation of other rights and dignities, with fees, &c. 
But his claim was not allowed, not being made out, and the same 
being disallowed at the last Coronation *. 



At the same Coronation, claimed to have the cloth lying in their 
parish, whereon the King goes in procession, for the use of the 
poor. But their claim was not admitted •]: 


Also claimed a share of the said cloth for their poor. But their 
claim was not admitted '^ 


At the same Coronation, claimed to attend the Coronation, as 
Serjeant of the Silver Scullery, and to have all the silver dishes 
and plates served on that day to the King's table, with the fees 
thereto belonging, and to take assay of the King's meat at the 
kitchen dresser bar. This was not allowed, because not claimed 
thentofore ; the Master of the Horse, however left to make his ap- 
plication to the King, who was pleased to allow the said service 

* Sandf. Hist. Coron. f Ibid. J Ibid. 



and fees as the Duke of Albemarle enjoyed them on the Corona- 
tion of King Charles II. by virtue of the same post *. 


Of Grand Serjeanties performed at the Coronation of the 
Kings and Queens of England , by Persons in respect 
of Manors y Lands, or Tenements. 



William de la Pole, Marquis of Suffolk, had a grant from King 
Henry VI. of the manors of Nedding and Kettilberston, in the 
county of Suffolk : to hold by the service of carrying a golden 
sceptre, with a dove on the head of it, upon the Coronation-day 
of the King, his heirs and successors. As also a sceptre of ivory, 
with a golden dove on the head of it, upon the day of the Coro- 
nation of the Queens of England -f . 


Magnus HI. King of Norway and Man, the last King of that 
island of the Danish or Norwegian race, dying without issue, about 

f Sandf. Hist Coron. j- Carta 24 Hen. VI. n. 20. Blount, page 2a 



the year 126(5, Alexander III. King of Scotland, partly by arms, and 
partly by money, brought this, and the rest of the Western Islands, 
under his obedience : after which, it was sometimes dependant on 
the crown of Scotland, and sometimes on England, as their for- 
tunes varied ; till, in the end, about the year 1340, William de 
Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, descended from the Norwegian 
Kings of Man, w on it from the Scots, and sold it to William Lord 
Scrope, Earl of Wiltshire, and Lord Treasurer to King Richard II. 
who, being attainted of high treason by King Henry IV. in the first 
year of his reign, and beheaded, the kingdom and island, by his 
attainder, came to the crown, and was the same year granted by 
King Henry to Henry de Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and 
Lord Constable of England, in fee ; by the service of bearing on 
the days of the Coronation of the King and his heirs, at the left 
shoulder of him and his heirs, by himself, or his sufficient and ho- 
nourable deputy, that naked sword, with which he was girded, 
when he arrived in the part (port) of Holderness, called Lancaster 
Sword, during the procession, and for all the time of the solemni- 
zation of the Coronation aforesaid *. 

In the fifth year of the reign of King Henry IV. the said Henry 
Percy, Earl of Northumberland, was attainted of treason ; and, by 
act of parliament, 1st March, seventh Henry IV. it was enacted 
that the Kins should have the forfeiture of all his lands and tene- 
ments, w^hich came to him by descent or purchase -f. 

* Per servicium portawdi diebus Corona- gladium nudum quo cincti eramus quando in 

tionis nostrae et hsBredum nostrorum, ad sini- parte (portu) de Holderness applicuiinus, vo- 

strum humerutn nostrum, et sinistros hunieros catum Lancaster Sword, durante processione, 

haeredum nostrorum, per se ipsum, aut sufE- et toto tempore solemnizationis Corouationis 

cientem et honoiificum deputatum suum, ilium supradictae. 4 Inst. 283. -f Ibid. 


And afterwards, in the same year, the King granted the Isle of 
Man, together with the patronage of the Bishopric, to Sir John Stan- 
ley for hfe ; and afterwards, in the same year, he granted the same 
isle to the said Sir John Stanley and his heirs for ever, with all the 
royalties and franchises thereto belonging, and the patronage of 
the Bishopric there, with the stile and title of King of Man, in as 
full and ample manner as it had been granted to any former lord 
thereof; to be held of the King, his heirs and successors, by liege 
homage ; rendering to the said King two falcons, once only, viz, 
immediately after the homage done ; and rendering to his heirs. 
Kings of England, two falcons, on the day of the Coronation of his 
said h«irs, for all other services, customs and demands; as freely^ 
fully and entirely, as William Scrope, Knight, or any other, held the 
same *. 

This island is now held by the Dulie and Duchess of Athol, in 
ri^ht of the said Duchess, as Baroness Strange of Knockyn, who 
is lineally descended from the said Sir John Stanley, in whose 
family it has ever since been; and is now held by the same ho- 
nourary service, of rendering two falcons on the day of the Coro- 
nation of the Kings of England -f.. 


At the Coronation of King Henry IV. the Lord Henry, the King's 
-eldest sonj whom the King, in right oi his Duchy of Lancaster, 

* Tenend. de Rege, heredibus et successo- dum nostroram, pro omnibus aliis servitiis, con- 

ribus suis, perliomagium ligeum. Reddendo suetudinibus, et demandis, adeo libere plene et 

nobis duos falcones, semel tantum, viz. imme- integre sicut Willielmus Scrope, Chivalier, vel 

diate post homagium hujusmodi fact, et red- aliquis aluis, &c. 4. Inst. 283.' Rot. pat. 7tli 

^dendo haeredibus nostras Regibus Angliae duos Hen. IV. par. 2^ m. 1.8. i , 

falcones, diebus Coronationis eorundem haere- f Stat. 3 Geo. lU. cap. 26. 

r G had 


had appointed to that office, claimed to bear before the King the 
principal sword, called curtana, and had his suit granted *. 


At the Coronation of the said King Henry IV. the Lord Leonard 
Grey of Ruthyn, by petition exhibited before the Lord High Stew* 
ard, claimed to bear the second sword before the King at his Co- 
ronation, by reason of his castle and tower of Pembroke, and of 
his town of Denbigh ; but his claim was at that time disallowed^ 
and the office executed by John Earl of Somerset, by assignment 
from the Ring -f-. 


At the Coronation of King James IL the Duke of Norfolk, as» 
Earl of Surrey, claimed to carry the second sword before the King, 
with all the privileges and dignities thereto belonging: which 
claim was disallowed, not being made out, and the same having; 
been disallowed at the last Coronation J. 


Thomas Beauchampe, Earl of Warwick, by right of inheritance,, 
bare the third sword before the King at the Coronation of King 
Henry IV. and by the like right was Panterer at the Coronation |. 

* Cromp. 84, b. J Sandf, Hist. Coron^ 

■i Cromp. 85^ b. i Cioinp. 85» 




At the Coronation of Henry IV. the Lord Leonard Grey of 
Ruthyn bare the King's great spurs before him, in the time of his 
Coronation, by right of inheritance, as heir to John Hastings, Earl 
of Pembroke *. 

At the Coronation of King James II. Anthony de Grey, Earl of 
Kent, claimed to carry the great spurs before the King ; but not 
being made out, his claim was not allowed. 

The same was eounter-claimed by the Lord de Grey of Ruthyn^ 
and allowed. 

The same was also counter-claimed by the Duke of Norfolk, as 
Earl of Surrey, but disallowed for want of evidence, and because 
it Was not admitted at the preceding Coronation -f. 


John de Sandford held Wolvermerston by service in the Qtieeii*s 
chamber, and Fingret, and Gignes, and Hoiimede and Hucham* 
stede ±. 

* Cromp. 85, h. stone, per serjantiam in camera Reginas, et 

t Sandf. Hist. Coron. Fingret, et Gignes, et Houmede, et Huchan>- 

I Johannes de Sandford tenet Wolvo'mer- stede. Lib, Rub. Scac. lS7. 

G 2 in 


In the time of King Edward I. Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford^ 
held the manor of Fingreth, in the county of Essex, by serjeanty 
of being Chamberlain of our lord the King, on the day of his 
Coronation ; and the same Robert, and Matilda his wife, held the 
manor of Ging-Reginae by the serjeanty of keeping the chamber 
of our lady the Queen on the day of the Coronation aforesaid *. 

And by inquisition taken the sixth of Edward II. it was found' 
that the Earls of Oxford, by the heir of Sandford, antiently held 
the manors of Fingrey and Wulfelmelston, in the county of Cam- 
bridge f, by the serjeanty of Chamberlainship to the Queens of 
England, at the King's Coronation %. 

And at the Coronation of Kinff James II. the lord of the manoc 
of Fyngrith in Essex, claimed to be Chamberlain to the Queen for 
the day, and to have the Queen's bed, and furniture, the basons, 
&c. belonging to the office ; and to have a clerk in the exchequer, 
to demand and receive the Queen's gold, &c. Which claim was 
disallowed, because not made out; but the claimant was left to pro- 
secute it at law, if he thought fit |[. 

As the court of claims never sat after the arrival and marriage 
of her present Majesty, Queen Charlotte, in England, till after the 
Coronation, it is presumed that no person could claim to do this 
service at her Coronation. 

* Robertas de Vere, Comes Oxonias, tenet dominae Regingp, die Coronationis praedictWi! 

manerium de Fingreth, in com. Essex, per Pla. Coron. 13 Edw. I, Essex. Blount^ 53.. 

seijantiam ,essendi camerarius domini Regis, f Forsan, Essex. 

die Coronationis suae ; et idem Robertas, et J Blount, 23. 

Matilda uxor ejus, tenent manerium de Ging- [| Sandf.Hist. Coron; , 

Reginae, per serjaotiani custodieudi cameram : 





The Barons Furnival held Fernham, in the county of Bucks, (now 
called Farnham-Royal) by service of finding their sovereign lord 
the King, upon the day of his Coronation, a glove for his right 
hand, and to support his right arm, the same day, whilst he held 
the regal verge, or scepter in his hands*. 

At the Coronation of King Henry IV., Sir Thomas Neville, Lord 
Furnival, by reason of his manor of Ferneham, with the hamlet of 
Cere, which he helde by the curtesie of England, after the decease 
of his wife, the Lady Joane, gave to the King a glove for his right 
hand, and sustained the King's right arme, so_ long as he bare the 
sceptre -f- 

From the Fiirnivals, this manor, by the daughter of the said Sir 
Thomas Neville, descended to the Talbots, Earls^ of Shrewsbury, 
who, though they exchanged it with King Henry VIH., yet they re- 
served this honourable service to them and their heirs for ever J. 

But the service seems now not to be annexed to this manor, but to? 
the manor of 


For King Henry VIH., in the thirty-third year of his reign^ 

*Esc. 10 Edw. II. n. 17. Orig. de 39 f Gromp. 85. 

Edw.IU. Rot. 3» Blount, 22. - tJBlount. 



granted to George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, the scite and pre- 
cinct of the monastery of Worksop, with its appurtenances, in the 
county of Nottingham; to be held of the King in capite, by the 
service of the tenth part of a knight's fee ; and by the royal service 
of finding the King a right hand glove at his Coronation, and to 
support his right arm, that day, as long as he should hold the 
scepter in his hand; and paying yearly £23 8s. 0|d*. 

At the Coronation of King James II. this service was claimed and 
allowed -f-. And at the Coronation of his present Majesty, the same 
service was performed by the most honourable Charles Marquis of 
Rockingham, as deputy to the Duke of Norfolk, lord of the manor 
of Worksop J. 


John Lord Latimer, although he was under age at the Corona- 
tion of King Henry IV. for himself, and the Duke of Norfolk, not- 
withstanding that his possessions were in the King's hands, by his 
attorney. Sir Thomas Grey Knight, claimed and had the office of 
Almoner, for the day ; by reason of certain lands, which sometime 
belonged to the Lord William Beauchampe of Bedford. They had 
a towel of fine linen cloth prepared, to put in the silver that was 
appointed to be given in alms : and likewise they had the distri- 
bution of the cloth that covered the pavement and floors, from the 
King's chamber doors, to the place in the church of Westminster 

* Pat. S3 Hen. VIII. par. 4. Blount, Q4. J Gazette, No. 10,142. 

f Sandf. Hist. Coron. 



where the pulpit stood. The residue, that was spread in the church, 
the sexton had*. 

At the Coronation of King James II., the Earl of Exeter, Sir 
George Blundell, and Thomas Snaggs, as being seised of several 
parts of the barony of Bedford, respectively claimed to execute the 
office of Almoner; and, as the fees of that office, to have the silver 
alms bason, and the distribution of all the silver therein, and of 
the cloth, spread for their Majesties to walk on, as also the fine 
linen towel, a ton of wine, &c. On reference to the King, to ap- 
point which of them he pleased, the Earl was appointed, pro h4e 
vice, with a salvo jure to the other two: but the silver dish, and the 
cloth, from the throne in Westminster-hall, to the west door of the 
Abbey Church, were only allowed -f.. 


Peter Picot held the half of Heydene,, by the serjeanty of serving 
with a towel at the Coronation of the King : and 

Peter, the son of Peter Picot, held the other moiety, by the 
serjeanty of serving with the basons J, 

In the thirteenth year of King Edward I., John Picot held a 
certain tenement in the town of Heydon, in the county of Essex, 

* Cromp. 80. ronationem Regis. Petms filius Petri Picot 

•\ Sandf. Hist. Coron. tenet aliam medietatem, per serjantiam s^r- 

JPetrus Picot tenet dimid. Heydene, per viendi de bacinis. Lib. Rub; Scaci- 137. 
aerjantiam servicQcli; cum una toalia^ ad Co* 



bj the serjeantj of holding the towel before our lord the King 
on the day of his Coronation. And Peter Picot held a certain 
tenement in the same town, by the serjeanty of liolding the basons 
of water at the GoiX)nation aforesaid *. 

At the Coronation of King Richard II. Jolin Wiltshire, citizen of 
London, exhibited into the court of the Lord High Steward of 
England, a petition, to the following effect, yiz. 

" To the most honourable lord the King of Castile and Leon, 
Duke of Lancaster, and Steward of England. Your petitioner, 
John Wiltshire, shews, that whereas the said John holds certain 
tenements in Hej^don, held of our lord the King, by the service 
of holding a towel when our lord the King shall wash his handa, 
before dinner, on the day of his Coronation ; and that the moiety 
of the said manor lately was in th« seisin of J. Picat, who held the 
same of the Lord Edward, late King of England, great grandfather 
to our lord the King that now is, by the same services, as appears 
by the record of the exchequer of our said lord the King, and^ 
prays that he may be accepted to dp the said office of serjeanty, in 
the form aforesaid. 

" And, it appearing by the record of the exchequer of our lord 
the King, in court shewn, that the aforesaid tenements are held of 
our lord the King, by the services aforesaid; therefore he is admitted 

* Johannes Pycot tenet quoddam tene- Pycot tenet quoddam tenementum, in eadem 

nientum in villa de Heydon, in com. Essex, villa, per serjantiam tenendi pelves, ad aquam 

per serjantiam tenend. manutergium coram dandam, ad Cprpnationem praedictam. Pla.. 

domino Rege, die Coronationis, Et Petrus Corpn. ISEdw. I. Blount, 27. 


to do his service, by Edmund Earl of Cambridge, (the King's uncle) 
his deputy; and so the same earl, in right of the said John, held 
the towel when the lord the King washed his hands, the said day of 
his Coronation, before dinner *." 

At the Coronation of King James II., the lord of the manor of 
Heydon, in Essex, claimed to hold the bason and ewer to the King, 
by virtue of one moiety, and the towel, by virtue of another moiety 
of the said manor, when the King washes, before dinner ; which 
elaim was allowed as to the towel onlyf . 



The prioress of Saint Leonard of Stratford held fifty acres of 
land in Brambelegh, in the county of Middlesex, by the service 
of finding, for the lord the King, a man to hold the towel of the 
same King at his Coronation:^. 

* J. W. Counte (citoyen) de L. porrexit in farre in le forme suisdit. Et hoc appiert 4e 

Cur. quandam petitionem in haec verba. Al r^jcord de scaccario domini Regis in Cur. 

treshonorable seignior le Roy de Castile et de monstrat quod praedicta tenementa tenentur 

leon, Duke de Lauc. et Seneshal d'Aqgl. de domino Rege per servitia praidicta. Ideo 

vre suppl. J. W. que come le dit. J. tient admittatur ad servitium suum hujusmodi 

cerfeine tenements in Heydon quels sont le faciend. per Edm. comitem. Cant, deputatuni 

Hioytie del maner de Heydon tenus de nostre suum. Et sic idem comes in jure ipsius 

seigniour le Roy, per son service le teyner un Johannis manutergia tenuit quando dominus 

to\vell quant nostre seignior le Roy lavera ses Rex lavavit manus suas dicto die Coronationis 

maynes devant manger le jour de son Coron- suas ante prandium. Crompt. Jurisdict. 86. b. 

ment, et que le moytie de dit man. jades fuit -f Sandf. Hist. Coron. 

in le season j. Pygot 4. le tyent de seign. E. ;j; Priorissa Beati Leon^di de Stretford 

nadgayers Roy d'Engleter. Besayle nostre tenet quinquaginta acras terrae in «adem villa, 

seigniour le Roy .que ore est per les services per servitium inveniendi domino Regi, unum 

suisdits coe. appieit per record de I'eschequer hominem ad tenendum manutergium ipsius 

nostre dit seigniour le Roy, et prya que il Regis in Coronatione sua. Pla. Coron. 22 

poet estr. accept, au dit oflBce de serjeantie Edw. I. Blount, 66. 




Robert de Newborough held the manor of Winfred, in the 
county of Dorset, together with the hundred there, of the King 
in capite, by the service of giving water for the hands of our lord 
the King, on the day of his Coronation ; and to have the bason and 
ewer for the service aforesaid*. 


At the Coronation of King James II., a claim was made, by the 
lord of the manor and hundred of Winfred, to do this service, 
which was not allowed : but he was left ta make his application to 
the King, if he thought fit-j-. 


Robert Agyllon held one carucatelj: of land in Addington, in the 
county of Surrey, by the sci^vice of making one mess, in an earthen 
pot, in the kitchen of our lord the King,, on the day of his Coro- 
nation, called Diligrout, and if there be fat§ (or lard) in the mess, it 
is called Maupigyrnun ||. 

Afterwards, in King Edward the Firsf^s time,, William Walcot held 

* Robertus de Novoburgo tenuit maueriMm J Robertus J^guillon tenet unain carucatatn 

de Winfred in com. Dorset, una cum hundredo terrse in Addington, ia Gomitatu Surrey 

ibidem, de Rege in capite, per servitium dandi per serjantiam faciendi unum ferculum in oUa 

aquam mauibus domiui Regis, die Corona- lutea, in coquina domini Regis, die Corona- 

tionis suae, et babebit pelvem cum lavatorio tionis sua:, et vocatur Diligrout; et si sit Seym § 

pro servitio praedicto. Inq. 12 Edw. 111. n.2. (Sagimen) in illo ferculo, vocatur Maupigyr- 

Dorset. Blount, 29- nun jj. Placit. Coron. 39 H»n. III. Rot. 29., 

f Saiidf. Hist. Coron, dorso. Blount^, 1. 



the manor of Addington by the same service*; only, in this record, 
it 13 called a certain pottage called Maupigyrnun -f-. 

This tenure is probably as old as the time of King Henry II. at 
the least, for William Aquilon, who had naarried the heiress of 
Bartholomew de Chene^y, held his land in Addintone, in Suryey, 
which was the inheritance of the said Bartholomew, by serjeanty 
of finding a cook at the King's Coronation, to dress victuals in the 
King's kitchen :|:. And in the time of King Henry 11. William 
Aguillum held three knights fees and a half, and a Bartholomew, 
one knight's fee in the county of Surrey §, and it is very likely that 
these were the very William Aquilon and Bartholomew de Cheney 
above mentioned. 

In Mr. Blount's time this manor was in the possession of Thomas 
Leigh, Esq. who, at the Coronation of his then Majesty, King 
Charles II. in the year 1661, brought up to the King's table a mess 
of pottage called Diligrout, this service being adjudged to him by 
the court of claims, in right of this his manor; whereupon the Lord 
High Chamberlain presented him to the King, who accepted the 
service, but did not eat of the pottage]}. 

And at the Coronation of King James IL, the lord of the manor 
of Bardolfe in Addington, Surrey, claimed to find a man to make a 
mess of Grout in the King's kitchen ; and therefore prayed that the 

* Escaet. 14 Edw. I. Num. l6. J Madox's Hist. Excheq. 453. Mad. Baron^ 

f Quoddam pottagium vocatum Maupigyr- Angl. 248. 
aun. § Lib. Nig. Scacc. 121. 

; "; II Mr. Ashmole's Narrative. Blount, 1. 

^4 H 2 King's 


King's master cook might perform that service : which claim was 
allowed, and the said lord of the manor brought it up to the King's^ 

<iy- A carucate of land, a plow-land, or a hide of land, is not of 
any certain content ; but as much as a plow can, by course of 
husbandry, plow in a year ; and may contain a messuage, wood, 
meadow, and pasture. And every plow-land, of ancient time^ 
was of the yearly value of five nobles {£1. 13s. 4d.) per annum; 
and this was the living of a plowman or yeoman. 1. Inst. 69. a. 

[j-f If Seym, Mr. Blount has rendered the Latin word sagimen, by? 
the general term of fat, which the editor thinks does not suffi- 
ciently express the sense of it ; as it particularly means the fat 
or lard of SAvine that covers the kidneys, &c. This kind ©f fat, 
and no other, is in Yorkshire, and the northern counties, to thi» 
day, usually called by the name of saim, and in Kent seam :; 
perhaps from the sain doux of the French, which signifies hog's> 
lard ; or rather from the British word saim^ sewet. Lhuyd's 
Archaelog. 285. E. 

That part of the manor of Addington, which belonged to the 
Aquillons and Bardolfs, was, and still is, held by a very singular 
species of grand serjeanty, viz. by the service of presenting a 
certain dish to the King on the day of his Coronation. Of the 
origin of this service it seems not an improbable conjecture, that 
the manor was an appendage to the office of the King's cook. 

* Sandf. Hist. CoroH,. 



as Riclimond then Shene, antiently was to the office of butler. It 
is certain that TezeUn, the cook, held it of the Conqueror; being 
afterwards separated from the office, the nature of the serjeanty 
might continue, though confined to the service of presenting a 
dish to the King once in his reign. The service and the dish are 
variously described in the different records. Bartholomew Cheney* 
is said to have holden Addington by the service of finding a cook 
to dress such victuals in the King's kitchen, as the Seneschal shall 
order. This was, in fact, only executing the office of cook by 
deputy; and his son-in-law William Aguillon-f heM it by the ser- 
vice of making hastias :J, as the record expresses it, in the King's 
kitchen, on the day of his Coronation, or of finding a person who 
should make for him a certain pottage called the mess of Gyron ; 
or if seym § be added' to it, is called Maupygeraon ; the seym in 
another record is called unguentum. Sir Robert Aguilion |( held 
it precisely by the same service, and the dish is mentioned by 
the same name (viz le mess de Gyron) in the Pleas of the Crown ; 
though Blount** has quoted it thence by the name of Diligrout, 
and Aubrey has copied his mistake. Thomas Bardolf -j -f-, who died 
seised of Addington in the reign of Edward the Third, held it by 
the service of making three messes of Maupygernon at the Coro- 
nation, one of which he was to present to the King, another to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and the third to whomsoever the King 

* Mag. Rot. 18 Hen. III. Surrey. they make lard. Some derive it from the Latin 

f Harl. MS. Brit. Mus.SlS. f. 22,. b. word seviim, suet. 

J^The word hastia does not occur in any of || Placit. Coron. 39 Hen. Ill, m. 33, and 

the Glossaries. Esch. 14 Edw. I. 

^ Seym or Seim,, is a Saxon. word, signify- ** Blount's Jocular Tenures, p. 1 ; and Au- 

ing fat; it is still in use amongst the butchers, brey's Antiquities of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 39. 

and is usually spelt Seam ; it is now generally ff Esch. 5 Edw. III. 
applied to- the omentum of a pig, of which 



would. This service is still kept up, and a dish of pottage was 
presented to the present King at his Coronation by Mr. Spencer, 
as lord of the manor of Addington ; but I cannot find that there 
exists any antient * receipt for the making of it f. 


In the 41st of Edward IlL Joan, the wife of William Leston, held 
the manor of Overhall in this parish, by the service of paying for, 
bringing in and placing of five wafers before the King as he sits 
at dinner upon the day of his Coronation J. 

Richard Lions held the said manor after her, by the service of 
making wafers upon the day of the King's Coronation, and of 
serving the King with the same w^^fers as he sits at dinner the 
same day§, 

Godfrey Fitz John || held certain lands in Liston in the county 
of Essex, of our lord the King, by the service of making wafers 
at his Coronation**. 

* In a colleotion of antient cookery receipts chicken parboyled and chopped, &c- See pa. 

of the thirteenth century, printed at the end of 466, of Household EstablishoEtents, 4to. 1790. 

the Royal Household Establishoients, pub- -j- Lysons's Environs of London, vol. i. pp. 

lislied by the Society of Antiquaries, is a receipt 5, 6, 49, 50, and notes, 

to make a dish called Bardolf ; though there J Abstract. Rec. in Scaccar. anno 41 Edw. 

is no evidence to support it, it would not be an IH. Weever's Fun. Monum. p. 384. 

unfair conjecture, as the Bardolfs were lords of | Anno 5 Ric. II. Weever's Fun. Monum. 

Addington at the period above-mentioned, to 384. 

suppose, that this might be the disii in question ; |j G odefridus filius Johannis. 

it was called a pottage, and consisted of almond ** Blonnt, 25. 
mylk, the brawn of capons, sugar, and spices, 



At the Coronation of King Henry IV. William le Venoure, by 
reason that he was tenant of the manor of Lyston, claimed and ob- 
tained to exercise the office of making wafers for the King, the day 
of his Coronation *. 

At the Coronation of King James II. the lord of the manor oif 
Liston in Essex, claimed to make wafers for the King and Queen, 
and serve them up to their table ; to have all the instruments of 
silver, and other meted, used about the same, with the linen, and 
certain proportions of ingredients, and other necessaries, and 
liveries for himself and two men : which claim was allowed, and 
the service, with his consent, performed by the King's officers, and 
the fees compounded for at ^30 -j-. 

At the CTbronation of their present Majesties, William Campbell 
ef Liston Hall, Esq. as lord of this manor,, claimed to do the same 
service,, which was allowed ; and the King was pleased to appoint 
his son, William Henry Campbell, Esq. to officiate as his deputy^, 
who accordingly attended, and presented the wafers to their Ma- 


At the Coronation of King Henry IV. John Beaufort, Earl of 
Somerset, half brother to the King, to whom the King, in right of 
his Earldom of Lincoln, had granted to be carver, the day of his> 
Coronation, claimed that office, and had it granted :|:. 

* Grotnp. 86, t Sandf, Hist. Coron. 129. J Cromp. 84, b^ 




Hugh de Nevill held the manor of Wethersfeld in the county of 
Essex of the King, in capite, by the service of setting the first dish 
at the King's right-hand, on his Coronation-day, and he was to have 
the dish and towel * 


The prior of Bilsington held a certain part of a serjeanty in Bil- 
sington, in the county of Kent, by serving the lord the King with 
his cup on Whitsunday -f. 

The ancestors of the Earl of Arundel used to hold the manor of 
Bilsington, in the county of Kent, which is worth jCxx.x a year, by 
the serjeanty of being butler of our lord the King, on Whit- 
aunday X- 

At the Coronation of King Henry IV. Thomas Earl of Arundel, 
chief butler of England, obtained to exercise that office the day of 

* Hugo de Nevile tenuit matier de Welhers- costes, de coupa sua. In Rot. Hundred, anno 

ield, in com. Essex, deR. in capite, per servic' 3 Edw. I. Rot. 7- Kane. Blount, 62. 

assedendi propinquior' ferculuin a dextris Regis J Antecessores Comitis Arundel solebant 

die quo portat Coronam, -et habebit discum et ienere manerium de Bilsynton, in^com. Kantise 

tuellam. Esc. temp. R. H. fil. Reg. Johannis. quod valet per ann. ^xxx per serjantiam .es- 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 708, p. 7- sendi pincerna domini Regis in die Pente- 

■f Prior de Bilsington tenet quandam par- costes. Pla. Coron. 21 Edw. I. Rot. 27. Kane, 

tern serjantiae in Bilsington, in com. Kantiae, Blount, Gl. 
ad serviendum dominum Regem, die Pente- 



the Coronation, and had the fees thereto belonging granted to 
him,, to wit, the goblet with which the King was served, and other 
things to that his office appertaining ; the vessels of wine excepted 
that lay under the bar, which were adjudged to the Lord Steward » 
the said Earl of Arundel's claim notwithstanding*. 

At the Coronation of King Charles II. Robert Bernham, Esq. 
held the manor of East Bilsington in the county of Kent, of the 
King, by the service of presenting the King with three maple cups 
on the day of his Coronation, which service was performed at the 
Coronation of the said King by Erasmus Smith, Esq. in behalf of 
fhe said Robert Bernham -j-. 

And a claim to do the like service was made at the Coronation 
of King James II. by the lord of the manor of Nether Bilsington in 
Kentj and allowed J. 


At the Coronation of King James II. the Duke of Norfolk, as 
Earl of Arundel, and lord of the manor of Kenninghall, in Norfolk, 
claimed to perform, by deputy, the office of chief butler of England,, 
and to have, for his fees, t^e best gold cup and cover, with all the 
vessels and wine remaining under the bar, and all the pots andi 
cups, except those of gold or silver, in the wine-cellar after dinner : 
which claim was allowed, with only the fee of a cup and ewer §, 

* Cromp. «5, b. t Sandf. Hist. Coron. 

•f Narrative of Elias Ashmole, Esq. Hount, § Ibid. 

7. ' '' 




In the year 1337 the following petition was exhibited to the King 
in Council, viz. 

*' To our lord the King and his Council, Richard de Bettoyne of 

London sheweth ; that whereas, at the Coronation of our lord the 

King that now is, he being then Mayor of London, performed the 

office of Butler, with three hundred and sixty valets, clothed in the 

same livery, each one carrying in his hand a white silver cup, as 

other Mayors of London have time out of mind used to do, at the 

Coronation of the King's progenitors ; and the fee appendant to 

that service, that is to say, a gold cup with a cover, and an ewer o£ 

gold enameled, was delivered to him by the assent of the Earl of 

Lancaster, and other great men, then of our lord the King^s 

council, by the hands of Sir Robert de Wodehouse ; and now there 

comes an estreat out of the exchequer, to the Sheriffs of London,. 

for the levying of ^89. 12s. 6d. for the said fee, upon the goods and 

chattels of the said Richard, wherein he prays that remedy may be 

ordained him. And the Mayor and Citizens of Oxford are bound 

by charter, to come to London, at the Coronation, to assist the- 

Mayor of London, in serving at the feast, and so have always used 

to do. Or, if it please our lord the King,^ and his council, we will 

willino-ly pay the fee, so that we may be discharged of that 

service *.'' 


* A nostre seignour le Roy et a son Conseil q'ore est, il adonque Meire de Londres fesoit 
monstie Richard le Bettoyne de Loundres, qe I'ofBce de Botiller cue cecLX vadletz vestuz 
come au Coronement nostre seignour le Roy d'une sute, ehescun portant en sa maime uii 



' This Richard de Bettoyne, who was Lord Mayor of London in 
the years 1326 and 1327, 1st. Edw. III. is by Stowe called Rich- 
ard Britaine, goldsmith : and by Maitland, Betayne. 

At the Coronation of King Henry IV. the citizens of London, 
chosen forth by the city, served in the hall, as assistants to the 
Lord Chief Butler, whilst the King sat at dinner, the day of his 
Coronation. And when the King entered into his chamber, after 
dinner, and called for wine, the Lord Mayor of London brought to 
him a cup of gold, with wine, and had the same cup given to him, 
together with the cup that contained water to allay the wine. After 
the King had drunk, the said Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Lon- 
don had their table to dine at^ on the left hand of the King, in 
the hall* 

At the Coronation of King James II. the Lord Mayor and Citi- 
zens of London claimed to serve the King with wine, after dinner, 
an a gold cnp^ and to have the same cup and cover for his fee ; 
and, with twelve other citizens by them appointed, to assist the 
■chief butler of England in the butlership, and to have a table on 

Coupe blanche Jargent, come antres Meirs de ^lxxxix xiis. vid. pur le fee avantdit, 

Londres ount faitz as Coronementz des proge- dont il prie que remedie lai soil ordeyne. Et 

nitours nestre seignour le Roy, dont »iemorie le Meire et Jes Citeyns ^i'Oxenford ount pev 

die court, et le fee q'appendoit a eel jorne, cest point de chartre, quils vendront a Londres a 

asavoir un Coupe d'or ove la covercle et un Ten Coronement d'«yder le Mcire de Londres 

Ewer d'or enamaille, lui fust livere per assent par servir a la fest «t touta ount usee. Et si il 

.du Counte de Lancastre et d'autfes grant? plest a nostre seignour le Roy €t a son Conseil, 

Ma' adonques y furent dii conseil nostre nous payerons volenters le fee, issent que nous 

seignour le Roy per la Maine Sire Robert soyoms descharges de la service. Petit, in 

Ae WodehQuse: et ore vient en estreite as Pari. Ann. 11 Edw. IIL Blount, 121. 

Viscountes de Londres hors del Chekker de * Cromp. 85, b. 
faire lever de biens et cbateux du dit Richard 

1 2 the 


the left hand of the hall : which claim was not allowed, because 
the liberties of the city were then seized into the King's hands, by 
virtue of the judgment, in quo warranto, given against them, in 
Trinity Term, 35 Car. II. then unreversed ; but yet they executed 
the office, ex gratia, and dined Jn the hall, and had a gold cup for 
their fee *. 

At the same time, the said Lord Mayor and Citizens of London, 
claimed to serve the Queen in like manner, and were only dis- 
allowed at that time, for the same reason -f^.. 

At the Coronation of his late Majesty, King George II. the same 
service was performed by Sir John Eyles, Baronet, Lord Mayor 
of London, and John Boyce,^ Esq. Mayor of Oxford, who was. 
knighted on that occasion J. 

And at the Coronation of their present Majesties, this service 
was performed by Sir Matthew Blackiston, Knight, (afterwards 
created a Baronet) assisted by Thomas Munday, Esq. Mayor of 
Oxford, who was knighted on that occasion.. 


The Mayor and Burgesses of Oxford, by charter, claim to serve 
in the office of butlership to the King, with the citizens of London^ 
with all fees thereunto belonging : which claim was allowed at 
the Coronation of King James II. and to have three maple cups 
for their fee. They had also, ex gratia, allowed a large gilt bowl 
and cover §. 

* Sandf. Hist. Coron. t li^'d. + Compl. Copjhold, 372. § Sandf. Hist. Coron. 




John Knyvett held the manors of Old Bokenham, New Bo- 
kenham, Lathes, with two parts of the manor of Grishag, in the 
town of Wymondham, in the county of Norfolk, with the appur^ 
tenances, which were held of the late King (Richard IIL) in capite, 
by the service of being butler to our lord the King on the day of 
his Goronatioii*. 



John de Clyfton held a part of the manor of Grishawe in Wy- 
mondham, in the county of Norfolk, by the service of being butler 
at the King's Coronation, and the manor of Topcroft by the afore- 
said service -f-; 


This shire, as well as the rest in tlie kingdom, was formerly 
subject to a Thane, i. e. in the old Saxon knguage, as in the present 
Danish, a servant to the King: but Malcolm Canmore appointed 
Macduff, who before was Thane of Fife, first hereditary Earl of 

* Etibm. continetur quod dictus JohaMiies tibnis suoe. Mich'is fines anno xj"". Regis H, 

Knyvett onera'tus fuit de xxi" de relevid suo Septimj. Harl. MS. Brit. M'us. No, 5174, p; 

pro castro de Bokenham cum pertin-ac ma. 13- 

neriis de veteri Bokenham, nova Bbkenham, f Johannes de Clyfton partem m. de Gri- 

Lathes, et.duobus partibus m. de Grishagh, shavve in Wymondham, per serviciam pincernae 

in villa de Wymondham, cu' ptin' in dco com. ad Cqronationem Regis, Topcroft per 

NorfF. que de dc5 nup. Rege tenebantur in C. praedictum servitium. Esc. 11 Rici'. scdi',. 

per servic' essendi pincerna Regis die Corona- Ibid. No. 2087; p. 218, 



Fife, for his services, granting^ to his posterity the right of placing 
the King in his chair at his Coronation, the command of the van in 
the King's army, and power to compound for a sum of money for 
the accidental murder of a nobleman or commoner by any of them. 
There still remains, not far from Lundoris, a stone cross, which 
served as a boundary between Fife and Strathern, with an inscrip- 
tion in barbarous verses, which had such a right of sanctuary, that 
a murderer within the ninth degree of relation t® Macduff, Earl 
of Fife, if he could reach this cross, and pay nine cows with a 
heifer [*], should be acquitted of the murder*. 

[*] Colpindach. 


Geoffry de St, Clare holds Stapelton of our lord the King by 
serjeanty, to wit, of bearing one towel before our lady the Queen, 
at Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmai?^ and at the King's Corona- 
tion -j-. 


Richard de Argentync heldWillemundele, by serjeanty of serving 
with one silver cup at the King's Coronation J. 

Reginald de Argentyne, in King Edward the First's time, was 
seized of the manor of Great Wylmondele, (now called Wimble, in 

* Gough's Camden, Edit. 1789. vol. iii, & Pentecost', 8c ad nativitatem diii & ad dni 

p. 571. Regis Coronationem. Testa de Nevil, p. 162. 

•fGalfridus de Sco' Claro tenet Stapelton de t Ricardus de Argeiitoem tenet Willamdele 

dno per serjantiam scilicet per unam tualliam per serjantiam serviendi cum una cuppa argen- 

ferendam coram diia Regina ad festum Pasch' tea, ad Coronationem Regis. Lib. Rub. Scacc 



the county of Cambridge*) which he held by grand serjeanty, 
to serve our lord the King, on the day of his Coronation, with a 
silver cup, by order of the Lord High Steward i*. 

At the Coronation of King Henry IV,, Sir William Argentyne, by 
reason of hi» tenure of his manor of Willumdale, in the county of 
Hertford, served the King of the first cup of drink, which he tasted 
©f at his dinner the day of his Coronation. The cup was of silver, 
ungilt, which the same knight had for his fees. Notwithstanding 
the petition which John Fitzwarren presented t6 the Lord Steward, 
requiring that office, in right of his wife, the Lady Maudy daughter 
and heir ta Sir John Argentyne, Knight $• 

Atthe Coronation of King Charles H. this manor had descended to 
^e Lord Allingtpn, who> at the Coronation dinner of the said King, 
carried the King his first draught of drink, in a silver-gillt' cup; 
the office of cup-bearer, as also the fee, having been adjudged to 
hina by the Court of Claims, in right of this manor; and when the 
King had drank,, lite said Lord AUington received the cup for his 

And at the Coronation of King James IT. the like claim was made 
Tby the lord of Ibis manor, and allowed ||i 

* Wimondley in com.- Hertford, potius; | Cromp, 85* 

t Escaet. 1 1 Edw. I. n. IQ. Cant. Hmfordi § Blount, 78. 

^com. Hertford) Blouat, 78. • \\ Sandf. Hist. Coron. 133. 




Otho de Grandison, and John de Valletort, and Alice his wifie, 
held the town of Chenes, by serjeanty of finding, on the day of the 
King's Coronation, two white cups at dinner ; and now it is rented 
at VIII shillinffs*. 


William de Hastings, being steward to King Henry I., held that 
office by serjeanty, in respect of the tenure of his manor of Ashele, 
in the county of Norfolk, by the service of taking charge . of the 
napery, (table clothes and other linen,) at the Coronation of the 
Kings of England -j-. 

At the Coronation of King Henry IV. the Lord Leonard Grey of 
Ruthyn, by reason of his manor of Ashelej, in Norfolk, covered 
the tables ; and had for his fee, all the table cloths, as well those in 
the hall, as elsewhere, when they were taken up : notwithstanding 
a petition exhibited by Sir John Drayton to have had that office ^, 

And at the Coronation of King James II., the then lord of the 
said manor claimed to perform the said office, and have the fees, 
&c. His claim was not allowed, because he had not his evidence 
ready to make it out, but with a salvo jure |. 

* Othonus de Grandison et Johannes de et modo arrentata est ad viiis. Plac. Coron* 
Valletorta, et Alicia uxor ejus, tenant villam 19 Hen. III. Surrey^ Blount, 82. 
de Chenes, de serjantia inveniendi, die Core- f Testa de Nevile. Norf. SufF. Slount, 13. 

uationis Regis, duo? albos ciphos ad prandium ; J Cromp. 85. 

§ Sandf. Hist. Coron. 132. 




At the Coronation of King Henry IV., Edmund Chambers claimed 
and obtained the office of principal larderer, for him and his depu- 
ties, by reason of this manor of Sculton, otherwise called Burdel- 
byn-Sculton, in the county of Norfolk*. 

The manor of Sculton, otherwise cialled Burdos or Burdelois in 
Norfolk, was held by this tenure ; that the lord thereof, on the 
Coronation-day of the Kings of England, shouW be chief lar- 

At the Coronation of King James II., the lord of the manor of 
Sculton, alias Bourdelies, in Norfolk, claimed to be chief larderer ; 
and to have forTiis fees, the provisions remaining, after dinner, in 
the larder. Andonireference'to the King, it appearing ihat other 
manors were also severally held by the same service, the lord of this 
manor was xippoiated, pro .hac yice, to do the office, but with a 
salvo iure to the other claimants ±. ,^ , 


'Ralph de Moigue (an error in Blount for le Moigne) [or the Monk] 
held East-Ham, in Essex, by serjeanty,4hat he should be caterer 
(or purveyor) of the lord the King in his kitchen'§. ' * ; 

* Cromp. 86. § Radulphus de le Moigne, &c. ut sit 

♦}• Camden in Norfolk. Blount, 10. «mptor domitii Regis in coquina-sua. Pla. Co- 

X Sandf. Hist. Coron. iSS. ' ron. apud Chelmesf. 11 Hen. HI. Blount, 26. 

'^' K Henry, 


Henry, son and heir of William le Moigne, fined in ^xviii for 
relief of his land of Eystan, which he held of the King in capita^ 
by the serjeanty of the King*s lardinary. Ralph le Moigne^ ancestor 
of Henry, held the land by the same serjeanty ; and the land was 
worth ^xviii a year, as appeared liy the roll*. 

At the Coronation of Kino; Jam«s II. the lord of the manor of 
Eston at the Mount, in Essex, claimed the offices of larderer and 
caterer ; but his claim was at that time disallowed, with a saivo jure ; 
and the King appointed the lord of the manor of Sculton to exercise 
the same pro hae vice -f-. 

N. B. Blount did not make all his extracts himself. 


At the Coronation of King Henry IV. Thomas Beaujehampe, EarE 
of Warwick, was panterer, by right of inheritance '!^. But whether 
he claimed the office, as being lord of this manor,, or otherwise,, 
does not plainly appear. But 

Queen Elizabeth, in the first year of her reign, granted to Siir 
Ambrose Dudley, (afterwards Earl of Warwick) the manor of Kib- 
worth-Beanchamp, in the county of Leicester; to hold by the ser- 
vice of being pantler to the Kings andQueens of this sealm, at theis 
Coronations §. 

* Madox's Excheq. 220. ij: Cromp. So. 

f Sandf. Hist. Coron. 133. ^ Pat 1 Eliz. Blount, S6. 




John de Daufeeny, holds his manor at Kingesham in the county 
of Gloucesfter, by the seFJcanty of keeping the door of the pantry 
of our lord the King ; and the said John said, that on the day of 
the Coronation of our lord the King, that now is (Edward the 
Fiies>t) he did his service in his proper person *. 


William de Leyburn, holds his land of our lord the King, by 
«erjeanty of keeping the larder of our lord the King, the day on 
which our lord the King shall wear his crown -f-. 


Robert de Marmion, Lord of Fonteney in Normandy, and here- 
ditary champion to the dukes thereof, was, by King William the 
Conqueror, for his services, rewarded with the Castle of Tamworth, 
in the county of Warwick, and territory adjacent, which had been 
the royal demesnes of the Saxon Kings ; receiving, about the same 
time, the office of hereditary champion to the King of England 
his heirs and successors, to him and his heirs ; to be held, either 
by tenure of this castle, or of the manor of Scrivelby in Lincoln- 
shire ; it is not quite certain which. 

* Johannes de Daubeny tenet manerium f Willielmus de Leyburn tenet terram suam 

siium apud Kingesham in <:oni. Glouc. per de domino Rege per serjantiam ad custodien- 

serjantiam custodiendi ostium panetrise domini dum lardarium domini Regis, die quo dominus 

Regis. Et prsedictus Johannes dicit quod die Rex portabit Coronam. In Rot. Hundred. 

Coronationis domini Regis nunc, fecit serjan- anno 3 Edw. I. Rot. 7. Kane. Blount, 

tiam suam in propria persona. Pla. Coron. 63. 
i5 Edw. I. Glouc. Blount; 58. 

K 2 From 


From this Robert de Marmion, there were four successive Baron;» 
de Marmion, of Tamworth Castle, and hereditary champions of 
England, in regular descent; the last whereof, Philip, a great 
baron of his time, dying in the twentieth of Edward I., without 
issue male, his inheritance came to be divided amongst his four 
daughters* and heirs; the eldest of whom, Joan, then the wife of 
William Moretein, upon partition of the lands, having the Casde of 
Tamworth for her share, died seised thereof, about three years 
after, leaving no issue ; whereupon, by agreement between the rest 
of the co-heirs, the same was allotted to Alexander de Freville, 
who had married Mazera, daughter and heir of Ralph de Cromwell, 
by Mazera, the second of the daughters f and co-heirs of Philip, 
last Lord Marmion of Tamworth, which Alexander, then Sir Alex- 
ander de Freville, Knight, performed the office of champion, at 
the Coronation of King Edward III., as owner of the said castle. 

At the Coronation of King Richard II., Sir Baldwin Freville, 
Knight, Lord of Tamworth, grandson of Aliexander de Freville, 
exhibited his claim to be the King's champion on that day, and to 
do the service appertaining to that office, by reason of his tenure of 
the Castle of Tamworth, viz. to ride completely armed, upon a 
barbed horse, into Westminster-hall, and there to challenge the 
combat with whomsoever should dare to oppose the King's title to 
the crown ; which service the Barons de Marmion, his ancestors, 
lords of that castle, had thentofore performed. But 

Sir John Dymoke, Knight, counter-claimed the same office, as 

* Or Sisters. f Or Sisters. 



Lord of Scrivelby, in Lincolnshire ; whicli had descended to him 
by an heir female of Sir Thomas Ludlow, Knight, husband of 
Joane, the youngest of the daughters * and co-heirs of Philip, the 
last Lord Marmion of Tamworth, before-mentioned : whereupon 
the Constable and Marshal of England appointed the said Sir John 
Dymoke to perform the ojffice for that time ; with a salvo jure to 
Freville : since which time the Dymoke family have ever retained 
this honour -f-, for the space, now, of above four hundred' years. 

At the Gbronation of King Henry IV Thomas Dymocke, in right 
of his mother, Margaret Dymocke, by reason of the tenure of his 
manor of Scrivelby, claimed to be the King's champion at his 
Coronation, and had his suit panted him.; notwithstanding a claim 
exhibited by Baldwin Freville (son of the former Baldwin)' de- 
manding that office, by reason, of his Castle of Tamworth in War- 
wickshire. The said Dymocke had, for his fees, one of the best 
coursers in the King's stabJe, with the King's saddle, and all the 
trappers and harness appertaining to the same horse or courser. 
He had likewise one of the best armours in the King's armoury for 
his own body,, with all that belonged, wholly thereunto :|:> 

At the Coronation of King Charles IL Sir Edward Dymock, to 
whom the Court of claims had adjudged the office of the King's 
champion,, in right of his manor of Scrivelsby, entered Westmin- 
ster-hall, a little before the second course was served up, on a 
goodly white courser, armed at aU points,- in rich armour, and 
baving a plume of blue feathers in his helm. He there made a 

* Or Sisters. J Cromp. 85, b. 

t CoUins's Peerage, 5tb edit. vol. vi. page 338. 



stand for some time, and then advanced, in manner following, way 
being made for him by the Knight-marshal. 

First, two Trumpets. 

The Serjeant Trumpeter. 

The Serjeant at Arms, 

An Esquire, carrying a target, having the champion's own arms 

depicted thereon. 

An Esquire, carrying the champion's lance, upright, 
Mr, Owen, York Herald. 

The Earl Marshal, The Lord High Con- 
on horseback. The ChAMPIOX. stable, on horse- 
on the left' back, on the right- 
hand, hand. 

At the lower end of the hall, York Herald proclaimed tlie chal- 
lenge in these following words, viz. 

" If any person, of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny 
or gainsay our Sovereign Lord King Charles the Second, King of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, son 
and next heir to our Soyereign Lord Charles the First, the last King 
deceased, to be right heir to the imperial crown of this realm of 
England, or that he ought not to enjoy the same, here is his Cham- 
pion, who saith that he lieth, and is a false traitor, being ready in 
person to combat with him ; and in this quarrel will adventure his 
Jife against hira, on what day soever he shall be appointed." 



Thereupoif tltte champion threw down his gauntlet, which lying 
some small time, and nobody taking it up, it was delivered to him 
again by York Herald. Then all advanced forward, until the 
champion came to the middle of the hall, where York Herald made 
the like proclamation, and the gauntlet was^ again thrown down, 
and, after some time returned to the champion, who advanced to 
the foot of the steps, ascending to the State ^ and at the top of the 
steps, the said herald proclaimed the challenge the third time, 
whereupon the champion threw down his gauntlet again, which 
nobody taking up, it was finally deUvered to him^ 

This beln^ done,, the EarF of Pembroke and Montgomery, with 
Viscount Montague and the Lord Paget, his assistants, presented, 
©n the knee, to the King, a gilt cup, with a cover,, fuH of wine, who 
drank to his Champion,, and, by ihe said earl, sent him the cup, 
who, after three reverences, drank it all off, went a little backward, 
and sa departed the hall, takings the cup for his fee,, according a* 
had been adjudged him by the court of claims *» 

At the Coronation of King James H. the King's Champion 
claimed to perform his office, as lord of the manor of Scrivelsby, 
and to have a gold cup and eover„ wi«th the horse on which he rides, 
the saddle, armour, and fiirniture, and twenty yards of crimson 
satin: which claim was allowed, except as to the said twenty 
yards of satin> 

The said office was also counter-claimed by another branch of 
the family, but not allowed -^f-.^ 

* Narrative of Elias Ashmole, Ess{. I66I. Blount,4,- t Sandf. Hist.-Coron. 



At the Coronation of their present Majesties, 22d September, 
1761, the office of Champion was performed by John Djmocke, 



(yf Grand Serjeanties performed, in respect • of Manors. 
Lands or Tenements, at other Times, and on other Occa- 
sions than the Coronations of the Kings and Queens 
of England^ 


Hugh de Saint Phihbert holds the manor of Creswell, in the 
county of Berks, by the serjeanty of carrying bottles of wine, for 
the breakfast of our lord the King, and it was called the serjeanty 
of the Huse, through the kingdom of England -f-, 


John de Roches holds the manor of Wjnterslew In the county 
of Wilts by the service, that when our lord the King should abid« 

* For an historical account of .the Corona- tiam ducendi butellos vini ad jentaculum do- 

tions of King James the Second and his Queen mini Regis, et vocatur ilia Serjantiu'de ia Huse, 

Mary, and of their present Majesties, see the per regnum Anghae. Elac. Coron. apud Wiu- 

Appendix at the end of this work. desore, 12 Edw. I. Rot. 40. in Dorso. Blount, 

t Hugo de Sancto Philiberto tenet mane- 40. 
rium de Creswell, in com. Berks, per serjaa- 



at Clarendon, he should come to the palace of the King there, and 
go into the butlery, and draw out of any vessel he should find in 
the said butlery, at his choice, as much wine as should be needful 
for making a pitcher of claret, which he should make at the King's 
charge ; and that he should serve the King with a cup, and should 
have the vessel from whence he took the wine, with all the remainder 
of the wine left in the vessel, together with the cup from whence 
the King should drink that claret *, 


Richard Fitz-Aucher holds his tenement in Eppinges and Wal- 
tham,, by serjeanty to attend before the Kingf-. 


King John granted to William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, a 
house in London, in the parish of Saint 3Iargaret, which was 
Isaac^s the Jew of Norwich, to be held of the King and his heirs, 
by this service, to wit, that -he and his heirs should serve before 
the King and his heirs at dinner, on all annual feasts, when they 
-celebrated a feast, with his head uncovered, Without a cap, with a 

, * Johannes de Roches tenet manerium de haliebit ^vas unde vinum extrahet, cum toto 

Wkiterslewancom. Wilte«i, per serv-itium quod residuo vini iu eodem vase dimissp, simul et ci- 

qiiando dominus Rex moram traxerit apud Cla- phum unde Rex potaverit clarettutn illu3. 

rendon, tunc veniet ad palatium Regis ibidem, Escaet. 50 Edw. ni.*No. 24. Wilts. Blouot, 

-et ibit in bottellarium, extrahet a quocunque vase 1 36. 

ifl &ta bottellaria inventa, ubi eligere voluerit, t Ricardus filius Aucheri tenet tenementuni 

vinum quantum viderit necessarium, pro fac- suum in Eppinges et Waltham per sesjantiam 

tura uniUs picheri claretti, quod faciei ad Atcindre coram Rege. Lib. Rub. Scacc. 
fiuinptus R«gi8 ; «t eerviet Reg$ de cipho, et 

1. garland 


garland of the breadth of thfe Uttle finger of him or his heirs, for 
all service. Dated the 27th of June, in the 15th year of his reign*. 


Ela, Countess of Warwick, holds the manor of Hoke-Norton, in- 
the county of Oxford, which was of the barony of D'oyly,. of ©ur 
lord the King m capite, by the serjeanty of carving before the lord 
©ur King,^ on Christmas day,^ and to have the knife of our lord the 
King with which she carved -f. 


John le Unz holds East-Wordhani in the county of SouthamptoB 
of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of bearing a rod before our 
lord the King ; and it is rented at one hundred sliillings a year %^ 


Sir Edward Botiler, Knight, and Ann his wife, sister and heir 
©f Hugli le Despen^er, hold the manor of Boncbby in the county 

* Rex Johannes concessit Willielino de Fer- ^ Ela, Comitissa Warwici, tenet manerium. 

larijs, coiuiti Dterby, domum quae fuit Isaac de Hoke-Norton, in com. Oxon. quod est de 

Judaei de Non^ico, in handan, in parochia baroiria deOyty, de domino Rege in capite, per 

Sanctae Margaretae. tenend. de nobis et liae- serjantiam scindendi coram domino Rege, die- 

redibus nostris, per tale servitium, sciL quod natalis domini, et habere cultellum dominit 

ipse et haeredes sui servieat coram nobis et he- Regis de quo scindit. Pla^ Coron, 13 Edvv-. 

ledibus nostris, ad prandium omnibus festis I. Rot. 30, Oxon. Blount, 73. 

iannualibus,q^uandofestumcelebrabimus, capite J Johannes le Unz teuet Est Wordham in- 

discooperto, sine capello, cum una garlanda de com. Southampton de domino Rege^ per sers- 

latitudine minoris digiti sui, vel haaredum su- jantiam portandi unam virgam coram domino 

oruni,^ pro omni servitio. Dat. 27 Juiiii, IS Rege, et arentatur ad Cs. per annum. Pla.. 

regni. Ex libro magno Ducat. Xanc. Bloimt, Cor. 8Edw. I. Rot. 13, South. Blount, 84. 




of Lincoln, by tbe service of bearing a white rod before our lord the 
King on the feast of Christmas, if the King should be in that 
«ounty at the said feast *. , io'«>* 


Thomas Beauchamp held. South Luffenham and other lands in 
the county of Rutland, by service to be the King's Chamberlain in 
the Exchequer -f'- ^ 


Patrick de Chaiworth holds the manor of Hertlegh in the county 
of Southampton, by performing the service of Chamberlain, at the 
Exchequer of our lord the King J. 


The jurors say, that the manor of Hornmede in' the county of 
Hertford, which the La(dy Lora de Saundford holds iji dower, is 3, 
«€rj©anty of our lord the King by being Chamberlain to our lady 
the Queen |. 

* Edvfardus Botiler, Chiv^ier, et Anna :J Patridus de Cadurcis tenet inaneriium de 

-Mxor ejus, soror et haeres Hugonis le JDespen- Hertlegh in com. praedict. faciendo servitium 

ser, tenent manerium de Bondby in com. Lin- Camerarii, ad scaccarium domini Regis. Pla. 

«oIn, per servitium portandi albam virgam, Cor. 8 Edw. I. Rot. 13. South. Blount, 84. 

-coram domino Rege in feste natalis Domini, si § Juratores dicunt quod manerium de Horn- 

4dem Rex in eodem comitatu ad idemfestam .noede in 90m. H^,tford;^quod domina Loca de 

interesset. Pas. Fines, 4 Hen. IV.iBjQuiiit, Sandford tenet in dotem, est serjantia domini 

135. , Regas, essendi Camerarius dom,inaB Reginse. 

t Fines, 14 >Edw. III. Blount, 23. ■ Pla. 7 Ed w. I. Rot. 39. Blouijt, 60. 




In Williavn the Conqueror's time, this citj (for so it was then 
called) paid yearly seven pounds sixteen shillings and eight pence 
de Gablo. They were reckoned to be two hundred and fifty-two 
citizens, whereof twelve of the better sort were bound to watch 
about the Kings of England when they lay in this city; aad as 
many to attend them, with horse and arms, when they went fortli a 
hunting: which last service, the learned Camden believes, was 
ordained, because not many years before, Edric Streon, Duke of 
the Mercians, a man of great impiety, lay in wait near this place,, 
for Prince Afhelra, and barbai'ously murdered him, as he rode a 
hunting *. 


Solomon de Canipis (or Solomon At-field) holds certain land» 
which are called Coperland (or Keperland) and Atterton in the 
county of Kent, of our lord the King in capite, by the serjeantsy 
and service of holding the head of our said lard the King, between 
Dover and Whitsond, as often as he should happen to pass over sea 
between those ports towards Whitsond '|\. 

In another record it is said, that Solomon Attefeld held land" at 
Keperland and Atterton in the county of Kent, by serjeanty, viz. 

^ Domesday, tit, Sciropescire, Camd. tiam et servitium tenendi caput ipsius doniiui 

Biit. Blouut, 111. Regis inter Dover et Whitsond, quoties. con- 

•(• Solomon de Campis tenet quasdam terras tigerit ipsum inter praedictos portus transfre- 

quje vocantur Coperland et Atterton in com. tare versas Whitsond. Plac. CoroiK 21 Edw. 

Kane, de domino Rege in capite, per serjan^ I. Rot. 45. Kane. Blount, Q\. 



that as often as our lord the King would cross the sea, the said 
Solomon and his heirs ought ta go along with him, to hold his head 
on the sea, if it was needful *. 

Hearne, in his edition of the Black Book of the Exchequer, cit«s 
the former record at length, in the following manner, tIz. " Con- 
cerning serjeanties, the jurors.say, that Solomon de Campis, (&c. as 
above.) And the jurors witness, that the aforesaid serjeant^' is entire, 
and that the aforesaid Solomon fully performed the aforesaid ser- 
Ttice : therefore," &c. -f-. 


The manor of Hoton in the county of Cumberland, is held of" 
our lord the King in capite, by the service of being keeper of the 
f«reM in the Haya of our lord ^e King at Flompton ; aiid besides 
this, by the service of holding the stirrup of our lord the King, 
whilst he should mount his horse in his Castle of Carlisle, and by 
the service of paying 33 s. 4d. ayear at the King's exchequer at 
Carlisle, by the hands of the sheriff of Cunaberland for the time 
being X- 

* Solomon Attefeld tenet terram apud Ke- Neve, Noroy, f. 72, a.. Libi nig, Scacc. 188. 

perland et Atterton in com. Kanciae, perser- Edit. 1771- 

jantiam, viz. quod quotiescunque dominus J Manerium de Hoton iii com. CumBr. te- 

Rex viilt transire mare, idem Solomon et lias- nctur de domino Rege in capite, per servitiiim; 

xedes sui. debent transire cum eo, ad tenendum forestae custodis in Haya domini Regis de 

caput ejus, in mare, si necessefuerit. flaus. Plonipton, et ultra hoc,., per. seuvitium teneridi 

i Edw. I". Blount, 63. slippam (another. CHorof Blount's for stipp^im 

f De serjantiis (juratores) dicuntquod Sa-f or stipam, P.) sellaa domini. Regis dum equum 

lomon de Gampis, Sac. Et juratores testantur suuni in Castro suo Carleoli scanderit, et pec 

4|^od prsedicta seijantia integra est, et quod s^rvitium reddendiper ann. 33 s. 4d. ad Scac- 

praedictus Salomon plene fecit prsedictum ser- carium Regis Carliol. per. manus vicecom; 

«itium. Heo ipse, &c. ex MSj. penegjP. le Cumbriaa, qjii pro tempore fuerit. Esc. de 

anno 5 Hen. VIL Blount, 31, 




King Edward III. granted to Simon de Ruggelei and his heirs, 
the Vineyard 11§11 near Staffoi'd, by the service of holding once the 
Strigib' f of the King at his first mounting upon his palfreys every 
time of his coming to Stafford*. 

fllH Vinariam. Perhaps may mean a Vineyard, from Vinea. 

% Strigib'. I am quite at a loss for the interpretation of this word, 
but by the concurrent sense it seems to mean a Stirrup. 


The sartie kind of ^ant to Ralph Notton, by the same servici?> 
when the King should Come toOambridge-j-. 


William Fitz Warin holds a third part of the town of Esseby, 
in the county of Northampton, of the King of Scotland, by a certain 
service, that he should hold his stirrup on his birth-day: and the 
same King holds of the King of England in chief 4^- 

* Rex concessit Simoni de Ruggelei, et f Pat. 16. Edw. III. p. 2. M. 16. Com- 

heried' Vinariam juxta Stafford, pei- servic. liiunicated by Tho. Asile, Esq. 

teneiidi semel Strigib' Regis ad jjriraum J Willielmus Filius Warini tettet tertiam 

ascensuin suum super pakfridem suutn in partem villae de Esseby, in com. NorthatWpt. 

ijuolibet adventu suo aptid Stafford. Pat. '20. de Rege Scotia?, per quoddam servitium, quod 

Edw. HI. Mem. 33. Gommtinicated by tenedt Strepe suum die natalis. Et idem Rex 

Tho. Astle, Esq. lenet de Rege Angliae in capite. Lib. Feod. 

24. Edw. 1. f«, «92. Blouiit, 33. 




Rowland le Sarcere held one hundred and ten acres of land In 
Hemittgston, in the county of Suffolk, by serjeanty; for which, on 
Christmas-day, every year, before our sovereign loini the King of 
England, he should perform, altogether, and once, a leap, a puff, gind 
a fart; (or, as Mr. Blount has it, he should dance, puff up his cheeks, 
n\aking therewith a sound, and let a crack;) and, because it was 
an indecent service, therefore it was rented, says the record,, at 
XXTis. Tiiid. a year, at the King's exchequer*. 

One Baldwin, also, formerly held those lands by th« sa;me ser- 
vice; and was called by the nickname of Baldwin le Pettour,^ or 
Baldwin the Farter K .^ 


John de Warbleton holds the manor of Shirefeld, in the county 
©f Southampton, of the King in capite, by grand serjeanty, viz. by 
the service of being Marshal of the Whores ||^|, and dismembering- 
condemned Malefactors, and measuring the Gallons and Bushels in. 
the King'^s h©u«ehold [|] -f-., 

* Simul et seme^ unum saltuin^ unum suf- J Johannes- de Warbleton tenet manerium 

ftitn, et unum bombulum, or as we read else* de Shirefeld, in com. Southampton de Reg6 ia 

wibere in French ua.saut, un pet, et un s^flet^ capite,permagnam.serjantiani,viz.perservitiun» 

^mul et semel. Et quin indecens servitium:, essendi Mareschallus de ]VXeretricifous, disiiiem- 

ideo arrentatur ad xxvis. viiid.per annum> brandi Malefactores adjiidicatos, et mensui- 

ad Scaccarium 'Regis. Pla. Coron. MEdw.i. randi Galones et Bussellos in hospitio Regis-. 

Rot. 6. Dorso. Suff. Blount, 10. Fin. Hil. 13 Edw. II. et Pasch. 1 Edw. IIL 

•jr Bloant's Law Diet. tit. Serjeanty, BbWt;^ 1S6. 


|1§|1 ]^Ir. Blount says, that the word Meretrices m former times 
signified Laundresses, as well as Whores. But see further 
und^r Guldeford, 

[t] The late Lord Littleton, in his history of Henry II., denies 
this tenure to be grand serjeanty, and says it was a petit ser- 
jeanty of the meanest, and most dishonourable nature; and so 
it really is, if the definition in Lyttleton's Tenures, cap. 8. sect. 
153. be true; foi' there it is said, that grand serjeanty is where 
a man holdshis lands of our sovereign lord the King, by such 
services as he ought to do in his proper person to the King; 
of Avhich kind this is not ; for though it was to be done for, it 
was not to be done to the King. And yet, if Mr. Blount has 
cited the record truly, it was certainly at that time understood 
to have been a tenure by grand serjeanty; and his lordship 
allows that Mr. Madox calls it so ; and that the record traces it 
up as high as to the reign of King Henry IL Indeed the 
distinctions between grand and petit serjeanty are so nice, that 
the editor chooses, for the sake of a more methodical ari^nge- 
ment of his materials, to refer such tenures as admit of dispute 
to the next chapter^ where he treats of petit serjeanty. 


Ileni'y de la Wade holds ten pounds %^X ^^ ^^nd in Staunton, in 
the county of Oxford, by the serjeanty of carrying a Gerfalcon 
every year, before our lord the King, whenever he shall please to 
hawk with such falcons, at the cost of the said lord the Kino-*. 

* Heiiricus de Ja Wade tenet decern libratas Regi placuerit gpaciari cutn hujusmodi fol- 

terrac in Staunton, in com. Oxon, per sejrjai}- conibus, ad custas ipsios dotni^ii Regis. Pla. 

tjam pofitandi unum Gerefalconem, quolibet Coron. 13 Edw. I. Rot. 26. Oxon. Blount, 

auno, cotani domino Rege, quando domino 73. 


%^X A pound of land (libra sive librata terrse) is commonly sup- 
posed to contain fifty-two acres. But the quantity it con- 
tained, was, amongst the ancients, evidently uncertain. It is 
supposed to have varied according to the fertility or barrenness 
of the soil ; and to have contained sometimes more, and some- 
times fewer acres ; being as much as paid a yearly rent of an 
English pound of twenty shillings*. 

'!^% In Scotland when the tribute to the Danes, the ransom to the 
English for King David, and the dowry of the Princess were 
raised, a valuation by form of inquest or jury was put upon all 
4he land in the country, in order to proportion the burden.. 
Thus in the former they were called shilling lands, and the 
latter pound or pund lands, of old and new extent. These 
sums were called, and are now acknowledged as, the valued rent 
of Scotland, according to which the persons holding those 
lands from the King are or are not entitled to vote for a mem- 
' her of the shire, &c. Thus this note cannot, I think, allude to 
a certain space of ground, but to ground which, probably at 
the time of the Dane Gelt, yielded, or was proved would yield 
ihe annual value of 20 s- sterling. W. 

* Libram sive libratum terrae vulgo censent plures nunc pauciores complecteretur acras, 

LII. acras continuisse, verum enim vero in- tot tamen e quibus annuus esset redditus libra, 

certa plane fuit haec terrarutn apud veteres sive pro supputatione Anglo-Normannica X X 

mensura. Ego existimo variam fuissepro soli, Solidi. Hearne. Lib. nig. Scacc. 95. 
seu fertilitate; seu steriiitate ; adeo ut nunc 




John de Treveilly holds in Penkelly, in the county of Cornwall, 
half a Cornish acre of land, by the serjeanty of receiving a Grey 
Riding Hood 1|*|| at Pauleton Bridge, when the King should be 
coming towards Cornwall, and of going to the Lord of the Bed- 
chamber^, who, on the coming of the King, ought to carry it 
thither and deliver it to the said John ; whi<;h said John ought to 
carry that hood, with our lord the King, through all Cornwall*. 

11*11 Mr. Blount translates the words Capa de Grisauco, by grey 
cloak, from the French cape, a short and sleeveless cloak, or 
garment, which, instead of a cape, has a capouche behind it ; 
and gris, grey : but quaere, if the word cape may not more 
properly be rendered a riding hood ? 

f The words de domino de Cabilia, are by Mr. Blount supposed 
to mean a Lord of the King's Bed-chamber; how truly, the 
editor cannot determine. 

Beckwith remarks, that Blount translated Capa de Grisauco a 

* Johannes de Trevilly tenet in Penkelly, in adventa domiui Regis ibidem, deferre debet, 

cona. Cornub. dimidiam acram terrae Cornu- et earn tradere eidem Johanni, qui quidem 

biensem, per serjantian) recipiendi unam Johannes eaiidem capam ferre debet cum 

Capam de Grisauco ad Pontem de Pauleton, domino Rege per totam Comubiam. Pla. 

cum Rex fueritin veniendo versus Comubiam; Coron. de Ann. 12 Edw. I. Blount, 55. 
et intranto de ~domino de Cabilia, qui earn in 


grey cloak; but asks, may it not be rendered more properly;, a 
riding hood? a question, I leave to be determined by more able 
glossographical critics, adding only, that whether cloak or hood, 
it certainly was by no means an unnecessary, but a very convenient 
article for travelling, if we consider the coverings which our fore- 
fathers wore on their head, (what were they?) and the moist weather 
and heavy rains which so frequently occur in Cornwall : from 
whence, and other instances I could mention, I apprehend, that 
very many of the ancient tenures, however they may now appear 
silly, ridiculous, absurd, indecent, and even immoral, were not 
originally founded in whim and caprice, but were founded, and may 
be even defended, upon the ground of necessity, conveniency, good 
policy, &c. 

Beckwith^s second remark is, that though the words " de domino 
de -Cabilia," are by Mr. Blount supposed to mean " a Lord of the 
Bed-chamber," how truly he cannot determine. Nor was it without 
foundation, that Mr- Beckwith doubted, as the words rather refer 
to a place, not a person or officer of the King, and at first sight 
signify the Lord of Cabilia. 

That such is their meaning the following will possibly prove : 

1st. The printed Domesday, Cornwall, second column of the re- 
verse of leaf 124. 

** Almar tenet de Comite (i. e. Moritoniense) Cabulium." 

M 2 2dly. 

2dly. Carew's Survey of Cornwall, edit. 1769, page 45. 

, " Serjantes Petrus fil. Ogeri 40 Cabulion per unam capara de 
g-resenge in adventum diet. Regis in Cornubiam." 

" Rogerus Cithared, 5 pro portanda ilia capa dum Rex fuerit 
in Cornubia." Extract, de Rubro Libro de Scaecario, 143 Cornub. 

3dly. Cabilia is a manor existing at this time in the possession 
of George Hunt, Esq. and lies on the border of the parish of 
Cardinham, near Bodmin, and may extend into the neighbouring 
parishes of Warleggon and Broadoak. 

The punctuation, then, of the original Latin tenure is false ; as, 
instead of a semicolon after " versus Cornubiam,'^ there ought to 
be a comma only (if any stop at all) and the greater pause ought 
to be after " intrando;" by which means the sense will be very 
different from the present English translation ; viz. instead of 
" receiving a grey hood (or cloak) at Pauletpn Bridge, when the 
King should be coming towards Cornwall, and of going to the 
Lord of the Bed-chamber,^' it will be, " receiving a grey hood 
(or cloak) at Pauleton Bridge, when the King should, be coming 
towards Cornwall and entering, of the Lord of Cabilia," &c. 

How Blount could translate " intrando de domino," going to 
the Lord, I cannot conceive ; but as to the word " Cabilia,'^ hd 
was possibly misled by its similarity to Cubile. 

Pauleton, Poulston, or Polston Bridge, is about two miles from 



Launceston, across the Tamar, which river divides the two counties 
of Cornwall and Devon. 

'As to the situation of « Penkellj," there is but one place of 
that name, which occurs in Martin's large Map of Cornwall; and 
that is situated in the parish of Pelynt and hundred of West, and 
possibly from its vicinity to Pauleston Bridge, not being above 
thirty miles at most distant, may be the place : to whom it belongs 
at present I know not. But should the word " Penkelly" be 
wrongly spelled, or mis-entered, for Pengelly or Pengilly, it will 
be very diflBcult to determine the land held by J*ohn de Trevilly ; as 
those names occur in the parishes of Breage, St. Neot, Creed, Si. 
Breach, St. Teath, Blissand, Callington, Linkinghorn, St, Eue, 
St. Wenn, and St. Erme ; and some of those places are as near, if 
not nearer, than Penkelly in Pelynt^ 

And as to th« quantity of land, in modern measure, held by 
John de Trevilly, that must also be still more uncertain ; as I am 
inclined to think, that at this time it is almost impossible to ascer- 
tain the contents of a Cornish acre at the sera of Domesday. Even 
two centuries ago it was a difficult question, as appears from. 
Hearne's Curious Discourses.. 

Lastly, we must take Petrux fil. Ogeri and Rogerus Cithared, 
mentioned in Carew as taken from the Red Book of the Exchequer, 
as the descendants of, or claimants under Almar in Domesday, 
and John de Trevilly in Blount*. 

* Gent". Mag. January, 1790, pp. U, 12. 



In " Hals' History of Cornwall," under the article St. Breock, 
I find that Hals agrees with me in the rendering: of " et intrando de 
domino de Cabila;" but seems to think that Pengelly, in the 
parish of St. Breock, is to be understood by Penkelly ; and Paw- 
ton-bridge in the same parish, by Pauleton-bridge. Though I 
allow that Pawton was formerly spelled Polton, and Is a very con- 
siderable manor in St. Breock ; yet as there is only a trifling stream 
which runs through that part of the parish, and over which there 
never could have been a bridge of any note, I must still be of opi- 
nion that Polston-bridge by Launceston is the bridge mentioned 
in the tenure, from the very particular circumstance of the word 
intrando *. 


Walter, son and heir of Ade de St. Margaret, gave to the King 
sixteen pence for his relief [*] for certain tenements in Cabilia, which 
he held of the King as of his Honor of Lanceneton, by the service 
of paying to the King one grey cloak (or riding hood,) as often 
as he should pass towards Cornwall through Pouleston-bridge -f. 

[*] Relevium, a relief, or fine paid to the King by all who came to 
the inheritance of lands held in capite, or military service, to re- 
lieve, i. e. lift up again that which has fallen to the lord, or as it 
were to redeem their estate and obtain possession of it. Kennet. 

* Gent. Mag. July, 1790, p. 608. dendi Regi unam Capam d^ panno Criseo, 

f \^'alterus, filius et heres Ade de Sancta quotiens Rex tiansitum fecerit versus Corniib. 

Margareta, dat. iGd. de relevio suo pro qui- per Pontem de PoulestoU. De Termino 

busdam ten. in Cabilia, et tenuit de Rege ut Pasche a°. 10°. E. 2. Harl. MS. No. 34, 

de Hoiiore de Lanceuetoti, per servitium red- p. 74. 




From whence was denominated an ancient family of gentle- 
men surnamed de Pencoit. And here lived John de Pencoit, 
probably a taylor, temp. Hen. III. and Edw. I. who held an acre 
of land in Lamellyn, of 5s. price (that is to say, a Cornish acre, 
consisting of sixty statute acres) for making and keeping the King's 
gray coat, when he came into Cornwall, due out of Cabulion, from 
Peter the son of Oger*. Polwhele, however, in his history of 
Cornwall -f says, that this has been strangely misrepresented, for 
that the words in Carew are, " Petrus fil. Ogeri 40 Cabulion. per 
unam capam de gresenge in adventum dicti Regis in Cornubiam. 
Rogerus Cithared 5 pro portanda ilia dum Rex fuerit in Cornu- 
bia. Johan de Pencoit unam acram in Lamelyn, 5s. fa- 
eiens ibidem custodiam per 40 dies." So that Johannes de 
Pencoit did not hold his acre of land, for making and keeping the 
King*s gray coat when he came into Cornwall, as it was Peter the 
son of Oger. That Peter held Cabulion by the tenure " of pre- 
senting one cap of gray cloth at the arrival of the King in Cornwall," 
as Roger, the harper, held five acres " by the tenure of carry- 
ing that cap after the King while he remained in Cornwall ;" and 
that John de Pencoit held an acre in Lamelyn, of the value of 5 s. a 
year, " by the tenure of keeping watch at Lamelyn over the Kin 
for forty days X- 



The heirs of Maurice de London, for this inheritance, were 

* Capew's CornwaH, p. 45. f Vol. ii. p. 60, J Ibid, 



bound, if our lord the King, or his Chief Jusliciary, should come 
into the parts of Kidwelly Avith an army, to conduct the said army, 
with their banners, and all their people, through the midst of the 
land of Neth to Loofhar *. 


Antiently Sir Roger Northwood held the manor of Shorn in 
Kent, by service to carry, with other the King's tenants a white 
ensign, forty days, at his own charges, when the King should make 
war in Scotland f-. 

Flags, banners, pencils, and other ensigns, are of great anti- 
quity ; their use was, in large armies, to distinguish the troops of 
different nations or provinces ; and in smaller bodies, those of dif- 
ferent leaders, and even particular persons, in order that the prince 
and commander in chief might be able to discriminate the beha- 
viour of each corps or person ; they also served to direct broken 
battalions or squadrons where to rally, and pointed out the station 
of the King, or those of the different great officers, each of whom 
had his particular guidon or banner, by which means they might be 
found at all times, and the commander in chief enabled from time 
to time to send such orders as he might find necessary to his dif~ 
fferent generals. 

The antient ensigns were of different kinds ; some were to be 

* Haeredes Mauiicli de London, pro hae gente sua per mediam terram de Neth usque 

hiEreditate tenebantur, si dominus Rex, vel ca- ad Loghar. Camd. ex vetusta Inquisitjone 

pitalis ejus justiciarius venerit in partibus de Blount, 138. 

Kidwelly cum exercitu, deberent conducere f Camd. Brit. tit. Kent. Blount, 1 10. 
prsedictum esercitum cum vexillis suis et tola 



fixed or planted, being too heavy to be carried by one man ; others 
were attached to different corps or persons, and carried about with 
them. Carrying a banner, or standard, in the day of battle, was 
always considered as a post of honour ; and in our histories we 
frequently meet with several instances of persons rewarded with 
pensions for valiantly performing that duty *. The office of the royal 
standard-bearer was usually granted for life, with a very large 
salary -j*. An entry in the wardrobe account gives a description of 
some of the ensigns of King Edward I. which were thus charged ; 
two with the arms of England, one with those of St. George, one 
with the arms of St. Edmond, and one with the arms of St. Edward ; 
they were all fixed in lances. 

The standards were originally large flags fixed on the tops of 
towers, or other elesated places, and from their being stationary, 
were called standards, though this term was afterwards given to 
moveable ensigns, as, at present, to those boi'ne by the cavalry. 

Banners were small, and of a square figure, somewhat about the 
make and size of the standards now borne by the horse or dra- 
goons. Banners were borne before knights bannerets, whose arms 
were embroidered on them. Grose's 3Iilit. Anliq, vol. ii. pp. 51, 52. 

* A. D. 1350, 24 Edw. III. there is in Ry- f Raufe Vestynden held ^10 per annum, by 
mer, that King's writ to the Treasurer of the letters patent under the great seal, till reward- 
Exchequer^ directing the payment of 200 ed with an office^ this was granted to him by 
marks for life to Guido de Bryan, for his gal- Edward IV. for the good and agreeable ser- 
lant behaviour in the last battle against the vjce (which says the record) he did unto us, in 
French, near Calais, and for his prudent bear- beryng and holdyng of oare standard of the 
ing of the standard there against ^the said ene- black bull, at the batayl of Sherborne, in El- 
mies, and there strenuously, powerfully, and mett. Rot. Pari. 

£rectly sustaining it. 




John, son of Bartholomew de Aveyleres held a certain serjeanty 
in the town of Shelfhanger in the county of Norfolk, and in Brome 
and Everwarton in the county of Suffolk, by the service of being 
Marshal of the foot soldiers of the counties of Norfolk and Suf- 
folk in the King^s araiy in Wales, when the King should happen 
to go thither with his array, at the costs of the counties aforesaid*. 


Alexander de Sunimersham holds half a knight's fee in the town 
of Sutton in the county of Bedford, of our lord the King in capite, 
hy the sorjcanty of being in his proper person with our lord the 
King, wheresoever he should be in war-f, in England or else- 
where X- 

* Johannes filius Bartholomrei de Avyleres 
tenuit qiiandam serjantiam in villa de Shelf- 
hanger in com. Norf. et in Bronie et Ever- 
warton in com. Saffolk, per serjanUam esseudi 
Mareschallus peditum com. Norf. et Suff. in 
exercitu domini Regis in Wallia, cum conti- 
gerit dominum Rcgem ibidem ire cum exer- 
citu; sumptibus commitatuum praedictorum. 
Pla. ann. UEdw.I. Roti3. Noif. 
Blount, 68. 

t In Bibk Colt. Tiberias, E. viii. is a ma- 
nuscript, written about the time of Henry VIII. 
wherein, among divers military arrangements, 
is one entitled the " Order of a kynge, if he en- 
tered to fyghte." " The kynge, arrayed in his 
own coat of armes, must be on horseback, on 
a trood horse, covered also mxh his armes; 

the kynge nmst also wear a crown upon his 
head-piece." Henry V. wore his crown at the 
battle of Agincourt, part of it was cut off by 
the Duke of Alen^on, with a stroke of liis 
sword. King Richard III. wore his crown at 
the battle of Bosworth, which was, according 
to Rapin and others, after his death, found in 
the field of battle by a soldier, who brought it 
to the Lord Stanley. Grose's Milit. Autiq. vol. 
i. p. 102, note (d). 

;j; Alexander de Summersham tenet dimi- 
di^mi feodum militis in villa de Sutton (in com. 
Bedf.) de domino Rege in capite per serjantiam 
esseudi in propria persona cum domino Rege, 
nbicunque fuerit in guerra, in Anglia,seu alibi. 
Pla. Coron. 15 Edw. 1. Blount, 37. 




In the 12th of King Henry II. anno 1165, Richard de Lizures 
was certified to be forester in fee to the King for Northamptonshire, 
and was by his office obhged to attend him in his army, well fitted 
with horse and arms, his horn hanging about his neck*. 



About the 12th year of King John, 1211, Ralph de Toany holds 
Wilcomstowe by serjeanty of going in his proper person with our 
iord ihe King to his army f. 


Sir Osbert de Longchamp^ Knight, holds certain land which is 
called Ovenhelle, in the county of Kent, by the service of following 
our lord the King in his army into Wales forty days, at his own 
costs, with a horse of the price of five shillings, a sack of the price 
jof sixpence, and with a needle (brochia) to the same sack J. 


William Fitz-John holds a tenement in Legre by the serjeantv 

* Lib. Rub. Scacc. tit. Northamptonsliire. quandam terrain quae vocatur Ovenhelle jn 

Blount, 13. com. Kanciae, per servitium quod debet exequi 

f Rad'us de Toany tenet Wilcomstowe per dominum Regem in exercitu suo usque in 

serjantiam eundi in propria persona cum do- Walliam xl diebus propriis sumptibus, cum 

mino Rege in exercitum. Lib. Rub. Scacc. uno equo precii v s. et cum uno sacco precii 

tit. Hertford. Essex. Append, to Brady's In- \i d. et cum brochia ad eundem saccum. In 

troduct. p. 22. Rot. Hundred, anno 3 Edw. L Rot. 7- Kane. 

:fOsbertus de Longchamp, Miles, tenet Blount, 61.. 

n2 of 


of going in the army to Wales with our lord the King, with one 
horse, a sack, and a needle (brocha) *. 


Land in Maperdeshale in the eounty of Bedford, is held in ca- 
pite by the service of being in the King's war, with a horse, not 
appraised, an habergeon (or coat of mail) a sword, a lance,, an iron 
head-piece (or helmet), and a whittle at his own proper costs -f. 


Geoffrey de la Grave holds one yard land in Upton in the county 
of Gloucester, by serjeanty of following our lord the King in his 
army in England, with a bow and arrows, at his own cost, for forty 
days; and afterwards, at the cost of our lord the King:|;. 


This manor was held by Nicholas le Archer, by the service of 
carrying the King's bow through all the forests in England §. 

* Willielmus filius Johaniiis (tenet) tene- tello, sumptibus suis propriis. Pascb. 14 

mentum in Legre per serjantiatn eundi in ex- Edw. II. dors. Blount, 31. 

ercitum in Walliam cum domino Rege cum '^ Galfridiis de la Grave tenet unam virgaT 

uno equo, sacco, et brocha. Lib. Rub. Scacc. tam terrje ia Upton in com.. Glouc. per ser- 

tit. Essex. Hertford. Append, to Brady's In- jantiam quod debit sequi dominum Regem. in 

troduct. p. 22. exercitu suo in Anglia cum arcu et sagittis ad 

•f- Terra in Maperdeshale in com. Bedford ciistum suum propriiira per xl dies, et postea 

teneturin capiteperservitiumessendi inguerra ad custujn domini Regis. Pla. Itin, de anno 

Regis cum uno equo non appreciato, una ha- 5 Hen. HI. Glouc. Blount, 58. 

bergione, gladio, lancea (so it should be ^ Camd. Brit. 524. Compl. Copjhalder, 

amended for lanera), capelo ferreO; et uno cul- 502. 




Simon de Hashwell holds a certain tenement in the town of 
Hashwell in the county of Essex, by the serjeanty of being a spear- 
man of our lord the King *. 

The spear or lance is among the oldest weapons recorded in 
history, and is nearly coeval with the sword or bow, and even seems 
a much more obvious weapon than the latter, probably originating 
in a pole or stake, sharpened at one or both ends, afterwards armed 
with a head of flint, and in process of time, on the discovery and 
use of metals, with copper, brass, or iron. Flint heads for both 
spears and arrows are frequently found in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, as are also spear, javelin, and arrow heads, of a metal 
nearly resembling brass^. Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 275. 


Walter de Molesey holds his land in Molesey of our lord the 
King, by the serjeanty of being his Balistar§*§ in his army for forty 
days at his own costs ; and if he should stay longer, at the co«ts of 
the King "j~. »•**»? ,% 

§*§ He that shot in the engine called balista, or a cross-bowman. 

* Simon de Hashwell tenet quoddam tene- istendi Balistarius dopiini Regis in exercitu 

mentum in villa de Hashwell in com. Essex, suo, per xl dies^ ad custum suum proprium, 

per serjantiam essendi Hastilarius domini Regis. et si amplius ibi moram fecerit, ad custum do- 

Pla. Coron. 13 Edw. I. Essex. Blount, 52. mini Regis. Pla. Coron. 39 Hen. HI. Rot. 

t Walter de Molesey tenet terram suam de 29. dorso. Surrey. Blount; 57. 
domino Rege in Molesey, per serkkntiacp ex- 




John de Arundell of Wolbeding, holds the manor of WolKeding 
in capite of our lord the King by the serjeanty of carrying the 
banner of the footmen :{.§:]: of the county of Sussex through the 
middle of Sussex, when it should happen that the King passed 
in the time of war through the midst of the county of Sussex*. 

J§J Vexillum Peditum. An ensign, or foot colours. Blount. 

:]:§J The colours of the foot, frequently by the old writers stiled 
ensigns, are square, but larger than the banners or standards 
of the horse ; they are fixed on a spear ; formerly there was a 
stand of colours to every company ; they were in time of action 
guarded by two ranks of halberdiers. Grose's Milit. Antiq. 
vol. ii. p. 53. 


Robert Hurding holds an acre of land and a bakerhouse 
in the town of the Castle of Lanceveton, by the serjeanty of 
being in the Castle of Lanceveton with an iron helmet and a 
Danish hatchet <ff for forty days in the time of war, at his own 
proper costs ; and after the forty days, if the lord of the castle 

* Johannes de Arundell de Wolbeding tenet sex, cum contigerit dominum Reg^m tran- 

manerium de Wolbeding in capite de domino situm facere tempore guerrje per medium co- 

Rege per serjantiam deferendi vexillum pe- mitatus Sussesiae. Pla. Cor. l6 Edw. I, Rot. 

dituni de comitatu Sussex, per medium Sus- 67. dorso. Sussex. Blount, 83. 



diooses to detain him in the same castle, it was to be at the cost of 
the said lord *. 

f Hachet Denesh. A Danish hatchet or pole-ax, Blount. In 
Rotul. Hundred, ii. 99. the words are Hackam Denoscham. 


Bartholomew de Avylers holds land in Brom in the county of 
Suffolk, bj the serjeanty of leading the foot soldiers of that county 
into Wales, as often as it should happen that the King should go 
into those parts with his army -j^. 


Thomas Spelman, son of John, who died the 12th of March, 
1st Elizabeth, 1558, h said, in the Inquisition, to have held the 
manor of Narborough, with the third part of the advowson of 
the church, &c. of our lady the Queen, as of her manor of Win- 
grave (Wirmegay) by knight's service, and by paying fourteen 
shillings for Way te-fee 11*[|, and Castle guard. And it was worth 
yearly clear <£31. 17s. 10:|d. as appears in the schedule of livery 

of John Spelman his brother:!^. 

11*11 This 

* Robertus Hurdii^ tenet unam acram f Barthol. de Avylers tenet terram in Broni, 

terrae et unum furnum in villa Castri de Lan- in com. Suffolk, per serjantiam ducendi pe- 

ceveton, nomine serjantiae essendi in Castro dites istius comitatus in Walliam, quoties- 

de Lanceveton cum uno capello ferreo et una cunque contigerit dominum Regem ire ad 

Hachet Denesh, per xl dies^ tempore guerrae, partes illas cum exercitu. Plac. Coron. de 

ad custum suum proprium, et post xL dies, Ah. 14 Edw. I. Rot.. 6. in dorso.' Suffolk, 

si dominus castri velit ipsum tenere in eodem Blount, 77. 

castro, erit ad custus ipsius domini. Pla. Co- ^Thomas Spelman (qui obiit 12. Martii 1. 

ronse de An> 12 Edw. I. Cornub. Blount, 54. Eliz.)*Wciturin Inquisitione tenuisse manerium 



11*11 This Wayte-fee I suppose may be money paid by the tenant, in 
lieu of his waiting, or attendance at the castle. Blount. 


The Barony of Burgh on the Sands in the county of Cumberland, 
with divers other manors and lands in that county, were antiently 
held by the service of Cornage Q]:] *. 

Lands were given to various settlers in those parts, to hold by 
the service of blowing such horns, and being bound to go, at the 
King's command, with his army into Scotland; in which they were 
to be stationed in the van-guard, going, and in the rere-ward 
returning -f-. 

[.|.] To blow a Horn when any invasion of the Scots was perceived, 


Roger de Hesam holds two carucates of land, by the service of 
sounding his horji when the Kin^ enters or leaves the county of 
Lancaster ^, 

de Narborough in com. Norfolk cum tertia * Reg. de Holm Coltram. Blouiit, 13. 

parte advocationis ecclesiae, &t.c, de domina f Camd. Brit. tit. Picts Wall, 

llegina ut de manerio suo de Wirmegay per t Rogerus de Hesam tenet duas carucatas 

^ervitium niilitare, et per redditum xivs. pro terrae, per servitium sonandi cornu suum 

Wayt-fee et Castle guard. Et valet clare per quando Rex intrat et exit comitatum Lan- 

annum ^xxxiv. xviis. xd. quadraptem. castrije. Pla. apud Lanci. 30 Hen. HI. Rot. 21, 

Patet in schedulaliberationis Johannis Spelnian Blount, 58. 
fratris sui, 7 -Aug. 5 Eliz. Blount, J. Blount's 
Law Diet. lit. Wayt€-fee. 



The family of Erles held the manor of Parva Somertoii, or So- 
merton Erleigh, 1st Edward IT. by grand serjeanty of being the 
King's Chamberlain; and 45tb Edward III. by the service of 
pouring water on the King's hands on Easter or Christmas day 



The manor of Downhall, in the reign of Henry VIII. was an- 
tiently held by the service of holding the King's stirrup when he 
mounted his horse at Cambridge Castle -f*. 


Anno 1339, 13th and 14th Edward III. an inquisition was taken 
on the death of Joan, widow of Thomas de Musgrave of Bleches- 
don, wherein it appears that the said Joan held the moiety of one 
messuage, ajad one carueate of land m Blechesdon, of the King, by 
the service of carrying one shield of brawn [-^J, price two-pence, to 
the King» whenever he should hunt in the park of Cornbury ; and' 
do the same as often as the King should so hunt, during his stay at 
his manor of Wodestock J. 

['}"] Hasta porci. A shield of brawn.. Kennet's Gloss.^ to Paroch. 

* Hiitchins's Hist. Dorset, vol; ii. p-. 184. dominus Rex, in propria persona sua, fdgavepit 

t Ljson'is Mag. Brit. vol. ii. p. 80. in parco sue de Combury, hoc sub intdllecto, 

;j: Jurati dieunt, quod J-olianna quae fuit semel dictam hastam, per se, vel per alium de- 

uxor Thorose de Mus^ave, de Blechesdon, ferendo ad primam fftgationem suam, pro toto 

tenuit m^dietntem unius messuagiij et unam tempore quo idem dominus Rex apud mane- 

carucatam ten^, in Blechesdon, de domino rium suum de Wode.<itock moram traxerit. 

Rege, per servitiufm. deferendi domino Regi Kennet's Paroch. Antiq. p. 4i50. 
unam hastam porci; pret, ii d. y et cum idem 




Richard Testard held a certain serjeanty in Geldeford, for which 
he was to be Marshal in the Household of our lord the King, and 
to dismember condemned malefactors, and measure the gallons and 
bushels in the King's household *. 


John le Marshall held the manor of Buxston, of the King in ca- 
pite, as of the barony of Rye, by the service of paying for guarding 
the Castle of Norwich from six weeks to six weeks, one mark, and 
for Wayt-fe 1|:|:|I, at the said Castle, fifteen shillings, at four quar- 
terly terms -f. 

mil Wayt-fe. See note on Narborough. 


Nichola, who was wife of Nicholas de Morteshore, held at her 
death, 3 Edw. III., this manor for term of life, of the feoflFment of 
Sir AVilliam Russel, who held it in chief of the King by serjeanty, 
to count or tell out the King's chessmen in his chamber, and to put 
them in a bag when the King should perform the game with him |.. 

* Serjantia Rici' Testard, in Geldeford, pro solvend. ad ward. Castri Norwici de sex sept. 

quadebuitesseMarescaH'inHospiciodiiiReg', in sex sept., 1 marc, et de Wayt-fe ad idem 

et dismembrare malefactores in hospicio dni Castrum 1 5s., ad 4 anni terminos. Esc. anno 

Regis adjudicates, et mensurare gallones et 10 Edw. I. Ibid. No. 2087? p- 30. 

bussellos in hospicio dni Regis. Seriantia;, J Ad narrand. familiam Schachii [the Chess- 

&c. coniitatu Suneiae tempore Hen. III. Harl. men] Regis in camera Regis, et ponend. in 

MS. Brit. Mus. No. 313, p. 23. loculo, cum Rex ludum.suum perfecerit. Hut- 

f Johannes le Marshall, m. de Buxston, de chins's Hist. Dorset, vol, i. p. 298. 
R. in capite, de baronia de Rye, per servitium 




Isabella, late wife of Hugh le Dispenser, held the manor of Estly, 
b;y the serjeanty of being Chamberlain of the King's Exchequer 



The manor of Sutton, being within the purlieus of the forest of 
Macclesfield, was held formerly by the service of free forestery, by 
which its owner was bound to follow the King's standard in war, 
with the same arms (bows and arrows) with which he guarded his 
bailiwick of the forest, and whilst attending in the wars he was ex- 
onerated from the custody of his bailiwick f. The foresters were 
entitled to timber and fire wood, within their own districts, with 
other perquisites, and they had Uberty of fishing within the forest, 
and of taking foxes, hares, squirrels, bawsons, (badgers) otters, 
musketts, and eagles %. 



Richard de Vernon holds Merphull and Wibreslegh, by the ser- 
vice of free forestery, and he was to come at the summons of our 
lord the King, and follow his standard, with the same arms with 
which he kept his bailiwick (of the forest of Macclesfield,) viz. with 
bows and arrov|i^s, and whilst he was in the army he was not to be 

charged with the custody of his forest §. 


* Isabella, quae fuit uxor Hugouis le Du- i? WoodnotK's Collections, p. 122,123; 

penser, m. de Estly, per seriantiam essendi J MSS. in the possession of David Browne,. 

Caraerarius Scaccarij Regis. Esch. anno 34 Esq. Lysons's Mag. Bi it. vol. iu p. 744. 
Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit Mus. No. 2Q87, § Bicus de Vernon tenet JVJerpliulI et 

p. 49. Wibreslegh, per liberam forestar' ; et veniet ad 

j ij * N a summoiiitioneia. 



Adam le Despenser held the manors of Stanle and Lechampton, 
of the King in capite, by the serjeanty of serving him in the office 
of Steward [-j], at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide *. 

[-j-] Dispensator. Perhaps a Dispenser, either to distribute alms 
for the King at these times (which was anciently a custom at 
certain festivals, or else to pay certain expences as his purse- 
bearer. E. A Dispenser, a steward or officer that lays out 
money. Ainsworth, 


William Hobbshort held an estate in this parish by the serjeanty 
of carrying the King's horn, when he came to hunt within the hun- 
dred of Lambourn -f. 


At the Norman invasion, was in a very flourishing condition, and 
had many burgesses (as they were called) twelve of whom were 
bound to attend the Kings of England in time of war, as appears by 
Domesday Book, (foL 238.) He that failed to attend a summons, 
paid 100 shillings to the King : but if the King went by sea against 
his enemies, it sent either four botesuenes (batsueins) or £4 of 
money (librae denariorum if.) 

summontioneDi dni Regis et sequitur vexillum in cap. ac m. de Lechampton, per seriantiam 

suum cum eisdem armis quibus custodiet ball. deserviendi R. in officio Dispensatoris, diebus 

suarii, viz. cum arcubus et sagittis, et dum sit in Natalis, diii Pascbae, et Perttecostes. Esc. 

exeicitu non erit oneratus de custodiam forestae, anno 23 Edw. I. Ibid. No. 20S7, p. 38. 

Inquis. p. m. Hamonis Massey, 16 Edw, I. f Lysons's Mag. Brit. vol. i, p. 308. 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 21 15, p. 137. % Gough's Camd. vol. ii. p. 328. 
* Adam le Despenser, m. de Stanle, de R. 




In the reign of Henry the Third, as appears from the Testa de 
Nevil, William de Beke held this manor in grand serjeanty, by the 
service of finding one ship for the King whenever he passed the 
seas, and presenting to him three marks *. 


Margaret, who was wife of Thomas de Beauchamp, late Earl of 
Warwick, held the manor of Hampslap, in the county of Bucking- 
ham, by the service of being one of the Chamberlains of the King's 
Exchequer f. 


In the twentieth year of King Henry VI. John Wanstede acknow- 
ledged in the Court of Exchequer, that he held in his demesne, 
as in fee, a messuage and certain lands in Wanstede, of the King 
in capite, by the service of finding one HobeIer|lJ.H in the King's 
Castle of Porchester, for eight days, at his own cost, in time of war; 
and of paying yearly to the King ten shillings ; which service of 
finding a Hobeler was adjudged to be the service of a grand sei?- 
jeanty |. 

* Beauties of England and Wales^ vol. viii. patrem suum tenuisse, die quo obiit, in domi- 

p. 1096. nico suo, ut de feodo, unam messuagium 

f Margarets, quae fuit uxor Thomae de Bel- cum curtillagio, 8cc. Wanstede, de domino 

iocampo, nuper Comitis Warwici, m. de Rege in capite, per servitium inveniendi 

Hampslap, per sef essendi unius Camerar'. unum hobalerium, in castro dicti domini 

Seacearij R. Esc. anno octavo Henrici Quarti. Regis de Porchestre, per octo dies ad custus 

Harl, MS. Brit. Mua. No. 2087, p. 268. suos proprius tempore guerrae, et solvendi an- 

j: Subamtesire. Johannes Wanstede, filius nuatim domino Regi per manus Constabularii 

et bserefi Johannia Wanstede, defuncti, et cog- Castri praedicti xs. Madox's Baronia, p. £46. 
noscit se modd tieneFe, et dictum Jofaaniiem 

yill Hobelers. 


||:|:|| Hobelers. A sort of light horsemen who rode on small nimble 
horses, with light armour, which made them fitter for any ex- 
peditious service, like our present dragoons. Rennet's Gloss, 
to Paroch. Antiq. 


John de Wenoye held a certain serjeanty in Estwerldham and 
Nuttel, in the county of Southampton, for which he was to bear a 
Marshal's wand through the year in the household of our lord the 
Kino: *. 



Sir John Hungerford, Knight, son and heir of Sir Thomas Hun- 
gerford, Knight, deceased, acknowledged himself to hold, and his 
said father, the day he died, to have held the manor of Rowland 
Right, with the appurtenances, in the county of Oxford, by grand 
serjeanty, viz. by serving our lord the King in his Dispensary [^], 
when he should be commanded -j-. 

[f] Dispensarium. See note on Upton, vol. i. p. 129. 


Roger de Montealto, (Monhault) held of the King in capite, 

* Johannis de Wenoye, in Estwerldham et Thoma Hungerford, Mil., defuncti, cogn se 

Nuttel,— pro qua debuit portare unam virgam tenere, et dictum patrem suum tenuisse, die quo 

Marescalcie per totum annum in hospicio do- obijt, man'r de Rowland Right, cum pertin'. 

mini Regis. Serjantia, &c. in com. Suhan- in com. Oxon. per magnam seriantiam ; viz. 

tone temp. Regis Hen. HI. Harl. MS. Brit. serviendi dno Regi in djspenss' sua, quando 

Mus. No. 313, p. 34. precipiatur, &c. Pasch. fin. 17 Hen. Vll. Rt)t 

•{•Johannes Hungerford, MileSjfiliusetheres fol. 18. Ibid. No. 5173, p. 24. 



tlie manors of Castlerisigh, Snotesham, and Kenninghall, by the 
service of being his butler*. 


Gunnore de la Mare held one carucate of land in Winterborne, 
by the service of being usher of the King's hall -f. 


Thomas Gorges, brother and heir of Bartholomew Gorges, held 
seven messuages, and a third part of two water mills, with the 
appurtenances, in Sturmynster Mershall, &c. of the King in capite, 
by the service of rendering to the King at every of his arrivals 
to hunt in the forest of Furboke, one pair of gilt spurs, or six- 
pence X 


Lady Hawis de London held the manor of Esegarston, of the 

King in capite, by serjeanty, viz. as part of Kidwelly, with Ware- 

mestur Kadw^llyj to conduct the vanguard of the King's army as 

often as he should go into Wales with one, and in returning to bring 

up the rereward of the said army §. 


* Rpgerus de Montealto, tenuit de R. in c. ges, teniiit septem mess, et tertiam partem duo- 

m. de Castelrisigh, m. de Snotesham, «t m. de rum molend. aquat' cum pertin' in Sturmyri- 

Kenninghall, per servitium pincernae. Esc. ster Mershall, &c. de R. in c. per servic' reddf. 

anno 26 Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. INo. Regi ad quemlibet adventu' suu' venand' in 

2087, p. 4S, foresta de Purboke, unu' par' calcar' deaurat' 

t Gunnore de la Mare, unu carr' terr' in vel sex denar. De termino Michis anno 

Winterborne, per ser' essendi hostiarius aulie xx""" Hen. VIII. Rot. 2. Ibid. No. 5 1 74, p. 

R. Esc. tempore Hen. Alij Regis Johannis. 44. 

Ibid. No. 2087, p. 10. | Diia Hawesia de London tenuit m. de 

J Thomas Gorges^ frater et heres Barth' Gor- 



This is singular ! but ia the Third Part of King Henry VI. act iii. 
sc. 3. Queen Margaret bids Warwick tell King Edward IV.; 

" My mourning weeds are laid aside, 

" And I am ready to put armour on." 

It was once no unusual thing even for Queens themselves to ap- 
pear in armour at the head of their forces. The suit which Eli- 
zabeth wore, when she rode through the lines at Tilbury, to en- 
courage the troops, on the approach of the Armada, may be still 
seen in the Tower. See Chalmers's edit, of Shakspeare. 


Sir Henry Moigne, Knight, son and heir of John le Moigne, (or 
the Monk) gave to the King £^2. 18s. 2d., for his relief of £G, lis. 4d. 
rent, with the appurtenances, (amongst other things) in Lynde- 
schulne, arising from the rent of free tenements there held of the 
King in capite, by grand serjeaniy, (to wit) of being the King*s 
Lardiner ^5 and Caterer, (or Purveyor) in his kitchen *. 

^ Lardenarius. See note on Writtel. 

Esegarston, de R. in c, per seriantiam viz. Johannis le Moigne, dat Regi .£32, J8s. 2d. 

tnnquam membru de Kidwelly, viz. cum de relevio suo de ;£17- lis. 4d. redd, cum 

Waremestur' Kadwelly, ad conducend' ante- pertinentijs, in Lyndeshulne, provenien de 

gard exercit' R. quoties R. ierit in Walliam ia redd. liberonim ten' ibni' tent' de Rege ia 

cxercitu, et in redfendo ad conducendum re- capite, per magnam serjaiitiam, soil, essendi 

trogardam dci' exercitus. Escaet de anno Lardenarius Regis, et Emptor coquinae Regis. 

i Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 2087, De termino Pasche, a.". 39 Edw. III. Harl 

p. 23, MS. Brit, Mus. No, 34^ p, 234. 
* Henricus Moigne, Miles, filiiis et heres 




Margaret Duchess of Clarence, one of the sisters and heirs of 
Edward, late Earl of Kent, held the manor of Cotingham, in the 
county of York, of the King, by grand serjeanty, viz. by the service 
of finding one horseman, or esquire, suflSciently armed, to carry 
the coat of mail§| of our lord the King, in his war with Wales, 
at her own proper costs, for forty days, if there should be war in 

H Loricam. See note on Borebach and Conclesfeld. 


William Rouce, son and heir of John Rouce, Esq. held of the 
King in capite, (amongst other things) the manor of Im mere, in the 
county of Wilts, by the service of being one of the Chamberlains 
of our lord the King^. , 

* Margareta Ducissa Clarenc', una sororum 4 Hen. VI. H«rl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34. 

et heredum Edw. nup. Cotnit. Kane', tenuit pp. 438, 43g. 

maneriutn de Cotingham, in com. Ebor, de f Will'us Rouce, filius et heres Johanni» 

Rege per magnum serjantiam ; videlicet, per Rouce, ar'. teuuit de Rege in capite, mane- 

servitium inveniendi unum armigerum equi- riam de Immere, in com. Wilts, per servi- 

tem, in competent* armatum, ad deferendum tium essendi unus de Camerarijs diii Regis.- 

loricam, diii Regis in guerra Walliae, sump- De terjnino Pasche. a". 1 Hen. VI. Ibid. p,. 

tibus suiis propriis, per 40 dies, si guerra 427> 
fuerit in VVaJlia, De termina Michis. a% 

** N AURE, 



John de Aure, brother and heir of Thomas de Aure, holds of 
the King in capite one messuage, two gardens, and one carucate of 
land, with the appurtenances, in Aure, in the county of Gloucester, 
by the service of being personally in the chamber of our lord the 
King, wheresoever the King pleases *. 


William, son and heir of William de Hale, pays to the King nine 
shillings and one penny for his relief for certain parts of his ser- 
jeanty which he holds of the King in capite, in Hale, for which he 
is to follow the King in his army in England, with a bow, and 
arrows, for forty days -f-. 


Roger de la More, held the day he died, in the town of La More, 
in the county of Salop, one messuage, with a Curtilage [-[•], one 
hundred and ten acres of land, ten acres of meadow, and one water- 
mill, by the serjeanty of bearing the King's banner in the front of 
his army, when it should happen that the King went through the 

* Johannes de Aure, frater et heres Thomae -f- Willus, filius et heres Willi de Hale, dat 

de Aure, tenet de Rege in capite, unum Regi 9s- Id. pro relevio suo, pro quibusdam 

messuag. duo gardina, et unam carucat. terrae partibus serjantiae suae, quas tenet de Rege in 

cum pertinentijs' in Aure, in com. pdco, per capite, in Hale, pro qua debet sequi Regem 

servitium essendi corporaliter in camera domini in exercitu suo, in Anglia, cum arcu et sa- 

Regis, ubicunque dnus Rex voluerit. De ter- gittis, per 40 dies. De termino Mich. a°. 

mino Mich. a°. 48 Edw. HI. Harl. MS. 24 Edw. I. Ibid. p. 17. 
Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 263. 



parts of Montgomery, with an army, into Wales ; and by the ser- 
vice of being High Constable of the foot soldiers in the county of 
Salop ; to receive daily from the King twelve pence, and also by the 
service of paying to the King yearly thirteen shillings and four- 
pence *. 

[-[•] Curtilagium. A garden or backside ; a fold. Littleton's Diet. 
Law Lat. Curtilage signifieth a garden, a yard, or a field, or a 
piece of Void ground lying near or belonging to a messuage. 


Andrew Billesby, son and heir of John Billesby, Esq. acknow- 
ledged himself to hold the office of door-keeper of the exchequer, 
and one chamber, or lodging, built within the exchequer, viz. in 
the edifice which leads from the passage there on the north part, 
unto the chamber of our lord the King there, called Chester 
Chamber, on the south part ; and also the office of marshal, door- 
keeper, cryer, and keeper of the bar, as well in the common bench, 
as before each of the King's Justices in Eyre, wheresoever they 
should travel in England, of the King in capite, by grand serjeantyf. 


* Rogerus de la More, tenuit die quo obijt, xij d. et etiatn per servic' reddendi R. per an- 
il villa de la More, in com. Salopp, per se- num xiijs. iiijd. Et snnt ib'm. unum mess, 
^iantiam portandi vexillum Regis in anterior! ex- cam curtilag, ex acr. terr. x acr. prati, et unum 
ercitu Regis, cum coutigerit Regem per partes molend. aqnaticum. Esch. anno R. R. E. primi. 
de Montgomery in exercitu ire in Wallia ; et per xxiij. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No^ 70&, p. 72. 
*ervic' essendi superior Constabular' de pedi- t Andreas Billesby, filius et haeres Johannis 
*il)us com. Salop, percipiend' per diem de R. Billesby, ar'. cognovit se tenere officium hos- 

** N 2 tiari 



At the time of the Norman Survey, Becket, or as it was then 
written Becote, belonged to the Earl of Evreux; it was not long 
afterwards in the Crown, and became for some time one of the 
royal palaces. King John occasionally resided there, as appears 
by a mandate to the sheriff of Oxfordshire, signed by the King 
at Becket, in the seventh year of his reign. In the reign of 
Edward III. this manor was in the family of Bacote, or Becket*, 
who held lands in Shrivenham, by the service of coming before the 
King Avhenever in his progress he should pass by Fowyeares Mill 
Bridge, in Shrivenham, bringing him two white capons, and ad- 
dressing him with the following singular speech : " Ecce domine 
" istos duos capones quos alias habebitis sed non nunc-f*." 


William de Montagu, who held the manor of Aston Clinton, in 

tiarij huius Scaccarij, ac unam cameram, sive -f Johannes deBackote ten' terras in Shriven- 

mansionem, infra hoc Scaccarium edificat' viz. ham de R. in c. per tale servitium. Quod quo- 

ab edificat' viz. ab ostro quod ducit in hoc tiescunq. diis R. itinerari placuerit super pon- 

Scaccarium ex parte borialj, usque cameram diii tern de Fowyares mull, quod tunc dominus 

Regis ibm. voc' Chester Chamber, ex parte aus- illius messuagij et terrarum deveniet coram dno 

tralj ; ac officia marescall' hostiar', proclama- Rege, et afFerret sibi duos albos capones, cum 

tor' etljarriar' tam in communj banco, quam hijs verbis. Ecce diie istos duos capones quos 

in singulis itineribus justiciariorum Regis itine- alias habebitis et non nunc. " Behold my 

rantium ubicunque in Anglia ; de R. in c. per " lord these two capons, which you shall 

magnam serianciam, Pasch. fines a". 22 Hen. ** have another time but not now." Harl. 

VII. Rotulo pmo. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 2087, p. 177. Lysons's 

No. 5174, p. 23. Mag. Brit. vol. i. p. 366. 

* Esch. Edw. III. 


the county of Buckingham, held it of our lord the King by grand 
serjeanty, viz. by the service of finding for our lord the King a 
Lardiner f , at his ovrn proper costs *. 

^ Lardenarius. See note on Writtel. 


Reginald Fitz Piers, (amongst other things) held the manor of 
Stanton, in the county of AVilts, of the King, in capite, by the ser- 
vice of being constable (for his lands held in parcenery) in the 
King's army-j". 


Bartholomew de Avelers held, (amongst other things) in Ches- 
hanger, one messuage and sixty acres of land by this serj«anty, 
viz. that he should be constable of the foot soldiers in Norfolk and 
Suffolk, when the King should go with an army into Wales X- 

* Will' de Monteacuto, qui tenet in com. 
Buk. manerium de Aston Clinton, tenet de diio 
Hege per grand seriantium, viz. per servitium 
inveniendi diio Regi un' Lardinar', proprijs 
suis sumptibus etc. Inquis. W. de Montagu, 
anno 13 Edw. II. No. 31. Harl. MS. Brit. 
Mus. 6126. 

f Reginaldus filius Petri, tenuit m. de 
Stanton, in com. Wilt' de R. in c. per ser. 

constabulariae in exercitu Regis, pro parce- 
qeria sua. Esc. anno 13 Edw. I. Ibid. No. 
2Q87, p. 32. 

J Barth'us de Avelers, tenuit in Cheshanger, 
unum messuagium et sexaginta acras terrae, de 
R«ge in capite, per seriantiam talem, viz. q'd 
erit constabularius peditum Norff. et SufF. 
qnando Rex ibit cum exercitu in Wallia. Esc, 
anno 4 Edw. I. Ibid. No. 821, p. 15. 





Richard de Wiggeber held in capite of our lord the King, the 
day he died, one carucate of land in Wiggeber, and a carucate 
of land in Peggenes, by the service that the said Richard and his 
heirs should be ushers of the King's hall in fee *. 


This manor, in the reign of King John, was the property of 
Michael Belet, who held it by the service of being the King's 
butler, it having been granted to his ancestors, with that office 
annexed, by Henry I. -f 


Ralph Russel held one carucate of land in Huxthon, in the 
«ounty of Berks, of the King in capite, by knight's service, and 
by the service of bearing one cup before the King on Christmas- 

* Eicus de Wiggeber, tenuit in c. de d. R. butler to Michael Belet, with the lands which 

die quo obijt, in Wiggeber, 1 car. terr. et in his ancestors enjoyed. This office was esteemed 

Peggenes, 1 car. terr. per servic'. q'd predictus of a very honourable nature, and the Belets 

Rlcus et heredes sui, deberent esse Ostiar' dn'i 'appear to have had a seat in parliament. See 

R. de Aula sua de feodo. Anno 55° Hen. HI. Dugdale's Baronage. Lysons's Environs, vol. 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 4120. p. 11. i. p. 2S6, 7. 

+ No. 313. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. f. 21, J Radus Russel tenuit j caruc. terr. in 

called a transcript of knights fees, and other Huxthon, in com. Berk, de R. in capite, per 

teoares of lands, and also of escheats and servic' militare, et per servic' portandi unam 

wards belonging to the crown in the reign of coupam die Natalis diii coram R. Esc. anno 

Hen. in. and King John. There is a charter R. R. E. primi. 39. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 

in the Tower which confirms the office of 708, p. 4. 




It appears by the depositions of some old persons, taken in the 
year 1720, that the manor of Taxall was anciently held by the ser- 
vice of blowing a horn on Midsummer-day, at a high rock near 
Taxall, called Windgather. And that there was a tradition that the 
lord of this manor was to hold the King's stirrup, and rouse the 
stag, when he should come to hunt in Macclesfield forest *. 


William de Broy held a certain serjeanty in Ayleneton, for which 
he ought to follow our lord the King in his army, within the county 
of Hereford, at his proper costs, so long as our lord the King 
should be there, and without the same county, at the cost of the 
King, to wit, for every day twelve pence -f-. 


Robert de Elenorde held, the day he died, in his demesne, as of 
fee, fifty-two acres of land, and six acres of meadow, in Cote and 
Aston, of the King in capite, by the service of being with a bow 
and arrows, or any other weapons, in every of the wars of our lord 
the King, within England, for forty days, at his proper costs J. 


* Lysons'c Mag. Brit. vol. ii. p. 801. euiidem ad custum diii Regis scilicet quolibet 
f Seriancia — Will'mi de Broy de Ayleneton die pro xij d. De Serjanciis temp. Henrici Re- 
pro qua debuit sequi d'nm Regem in exercitu gis filii Regis Johannis. Harl. MS. Brit. 
«uo infra com. Hereford, ad custum propriu' Mus. No. 6765, p. 21. 
quamdiu dns Rex ibm. fuerit et extra com. J Robertas de Elenorde tenuit die quo obijt, 
' ' - - in 



Wiman Gernet holds two carucates of land of our lord the King in 
Ileschin, by the service of coming towards the King at the borders 
of the county, with his horn and white wand, and of conducting 
hini into the county, and of remaining with him, and also of re-con- 
ductino; him, and it is worth five marks *. 


Roger Malharteis holds two carucates of land at Guedding, by 
the serjeanty of keeping watch about our lord the King -j-. 


By an enquiry made in the reign of Henry III., it appears that 
one Geffrey de Lyston held land in Witham, by the service of 
carrying flour to make wafers on the King's birth-day, whenever 
his Majesty was in the kingdom. 

ill dnica suo ut de feodo, lij acr terr. vj acr. 
prati, in Cote et Astone, de R. in capite, per 
servic' essendi cum arcu et sagiltis sive aliqua 
alia armatura in qual't guerra diii R. infra 
Angl. per xl dies, ad custiim suum propria'. 
Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 821, p. 8. 

* VVimaniis Gernet tenet duoscaruc' terre de 
dno Rege iu Heschin, per serviciii veaiendi 

cont' dnm ad fines com' cu cornu suo & alba 
virga & duceudi eum in com' & esse cu eo & 
iterum reducendi eum & valet v mrc. Testa de 
Nevili, p. 372. 

•f Guedding.Rogerus Malharteis tenet ij car' 
per s'jant' custod. vigil' circa diim R. Ibid. p. 




Adam de Kierkebi held four acres of land there by Cornage *. 


The family of Gredney held the manor of Pembroke in Totten- 
ham, in the county of Middlesex, as of the honour of Huntingdon, 
by the grand serjeanty of giving the King a pair of spurs of silver 
gilded, when the King should take on him the order of knight- 
hood -f*. 

* Mag. Rot. 3. T. Rot. 18. b. Westmerie- f Weever's Fun. Monum. 304. 

land; tit. Nova Oblata. Madox Exchecq. 458. 



CAP. n. 



A Definition of thq Tenure by Petit Serjeanty. 

npENURE by Petit Serjeanty h, where a man holds his land 
of our sovereign lord the King, by giving to him yearly a 
bow, or a sword, or a dagger, or a knife, or a lance, or a pair 
of gloves of mail, or a pair of gilt spurs, or an arrow, or divers 
arrows, or other sms^ll things belonging to war*. 

And such service is but socage in effect, because such tenant, 
by his tenure, was not obliged to go, or do any thing, in his proper 
person, touching the war ; but to render and pay, yearly, certain 
things to the King, as a man paid a rent -f-. 

Note, a man cannot hold by Grand Serjeanty, or by Petit Ser- 
jeanty, but of the King, &c. % 

* Littleton's Tenures, lib. ii. cap. Q. sect. + Ibid, sect. 160. 

159. % ^^^' sect. 161. 



The reservations upon this tenure being of several very different 
kinds, the editor chooses, for the sake of method, to class such as 
are of a similar nature together in one section ; and therefore this 
chapter is divided into as many sections as vt^ill comprehend the 
whole that he finds recorded methodically. By which means he 
hopes the Reader will be enabled the more readily to compare one 
tenure with another, and to make his own remai'ks with less per- 


- Of Petit Serjeanty hy jinding Horsemen for the Wars, 


Hugh' de Baliol was certified to hold the Barony of Biwell, in 
Ihe county of Northumberland, of the King, by the service of five 
knight's fees, and to find thirty soldiers for the guard of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, as his ancestors had done from the time of King Wil- 
liam Rufus (whose elder brother Robert built the castle from 
whence the town takes it name, being before called Monk-Chester,) 
by whom they were enfeoifed of that barony, as the record ex- 
pressedi *^ 

In the eleventh year of King Edward I., Painell de Chaworth -^ 

* Testa de NevU. Northumb. Blount, 14. \ Paganellus de Cadurcisi 

o 2 was 


was found to be seised of a messuage and four hundred acres of 
land in East Gareston, in the county of Berks, held by the service 
of finding a knight, armed with plate armour^, in the King's 
army, when it should be in the territory of Kidwelly in Wales *. 

<f[ When plate armour came into general use, which was about the 
middle of the fourteenth century f, the different pieces for a 
man at arms, were these ; a close helmet, having a visor to lift 
up and let down, or one with a visor and bever, both re- 
volving on the same pivots [f ]. When these were closed, the 
air was admitted through apertures made also for sight, and 
other smaller perforations opposite the mouth and nostrils. The 
neck and throat were defended by a gorget [-|^], or hallercet ; 
the body by a cuirass [-f-j^], formed of two pieces hooked toge- 
ther, denominated backs and breast-pieces, from the parts they 
covered ; to the back was joined, a gard de reines, or culet [§]; 
the arjtns were covered with brassarts ||§||, called also avant bras, 
and corruptly^ yambraces, the hands by gauntlets, the shoulders 
by pouldrons [*], l)i^ tjiighs by cuissarts, (or thigh pieces) and 
;the legs by iron boots^ .called greaves, and sometimes by boots 
.of jacked leather. Under ^11 these w^s worn a jacket of thick 
/ustiaPj or buflf leather ; shields seeni to have been left off by 
the .c^yalry before this alteration, Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. i, 
pp. 104, 105. 

* Escaet. l) Edw. I. n. 35. Blount, 14. dear to be generally worn: there are still many 

f It is not to be supposed that before that specimens of Roman plate armour in the mu- 

time plate armour was unknown ; history af- seums of the curious. Note (h) to Milit. 

fords us plenty of instances to the contrary; Antiq. p. 104. 

but probably, it was in the earlier periods too 

[f ] The 


[f] The visor was opened to obtain a less obstructed sight, and 
the bever to enable the wearer to converse more freelj, and to 
eat or drink ; their use is pointed out by their names. Grose's 
Milit. Antiq. vol. i. p. 104, note (i). 

[•f] The halecret (or halceret) was a kind of corcelet of two 
pieces, one before and on€ behind ; it was lighter than the 
cuirass. Milit Antiq. vol. ii. p. ^50. 

l^ff] The cuirass covered the body before and behind ; it consisted 
of two parts, a breast and back piece of iron, fastened together 
by means of straps and buckles, or other like contrivances. They 
were originally, as the name imports, made of leather, but 
afterwards of metal, both brass and iron. Ibid. p. 249- Some- 
times the part which covers the neck, and connects tlie helmet 
and cuirass, is fixed to the former, sometimes it is separate, 
and is then called a gorget, of which see a representation in 
plate 26, fijg. 4. Ibid, note (i). 

£^] To the back-piece of the cuirass, for the protection of the loins, 
was hooked on a piece of armour called garde des reins, or 
culettes ; and the breast-piece was occasionally strengthened by 
an additional plate called a plaquet Ibid. p. 252. 

dill To the cuirass were buckled the armour for the shoulders and 
arms, the first called pouldrons, the second brassarts, garde 
bras, les avant bras, and corruptly in English vambraces. The 
vambraees included all the defence for the arms from the 
pouldrons to the wrist. Ibid. 

[*] Pouldrons, armour for the shoulders, see note above, ibid. 



In the second year of King Edward II. Peter de Mauley was 
found to be seised of the manor of Bainton, with the advowson of 
the church, by the service of finding two Knights and four Es- 
quires \\%\\ in the King's army for forty days, in time of wai*^; and to 
provide a steward to do suit for him at the King's court at York, 
from six weeks to six weeks *. 

fl§|| In the wardrobe account of the 28th of King Edward I. A.D. 
1300, pubUshed by the Society of Antiquaries, it appears that the 
daily pay of a knight was 2s. and that of an esquire 12d. ; both 
were oblio-ed to have barded horses; those who had them not, 
or neglected to have them mustered and appreciated, had part of 
their pay struck off, of which an instance occurs of an esquire ©f 
the name of John de Clothale^ who instead of 12 d. received only 
8d. per diem, till his horse was mustered and appreciated -f*. 
Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. i. pp. 272, 273. 



Edmund Lord Stafford held the manors of Stafford, Bradeley, 
and Madeley, in the county of Stafford, of the King in capite, by 

* Escaet. a Edw. II. n. 34. Blount, 22. a 24 die Decembr', quo die equus suus fuit ap- 

+ Jobanni de Qothale percipient' per diem ppeciat', usque ullimum diem ejusdcm mensis, 

8d., quia sine equo appreciato, pro vadiis suis, utroque eomputato, per 8 dies, percipient' per 

a 20 die Novembr' anno presenti incipient' diem 12d, 8s. per manus proprias ibidem, 29 

usque 23 diem Decembr', utroque computato, die Decemb. Summa 1 1. 10 s. 8 d. p. 211. 
per 34 dies, 22s. 8d, Eidem, pro vadiis suis^ 



barony, by the service of finding, for forty days, at liis own charge, 
three armed men, with three^ horses, caparisoned or armed for 
war, as often as there should be war with Wales or Scotland *. 

<|f Equis coopertis. Horses harnessed for war. Blount. Equus 
coopertus is a horse in armour. A. Quaere. If it does not rather 
a;uean caparisoned. E. 


Patrick de Chaworth holds the manor of East Gareston in the 
county of Berks, by the serjeanty of finding one armed esquire, to 
be in th« front of tiie army of our lord the King in West Wales, in 
the time of war, for forty days, at his own costs -f, 


Hugh Peverell holds the manor of Saundford in the county of 
Devon, by the serjeanty of finding for our lord the King in his 
army through all England, at his own proper costs, one armed 
horseman and two footmen $. 


Richard Cauus and Sabina his wife, hold a messuage and sixty 

* Escaet. 2 Edw. II. Blount, £5v % Hugo Peverell tenet maneiium de Saund- 

f Patricuis de Cadurcis tenet manerinm de ford in com. Devon, per serjantiatn invenieadi 

East Gareston in com. Ba^s, per serjantiam domino Regi, in exercitu suo, per totam An- 

inveniendi unum armigerum armatum, essendi gliam, sumptibns propriis uinim homineni 

in anteriori parte exercitus domini Regis in equitem armatum et duos homines pedites, 

Westgales, tempore guerrae per xl dies, sump- Pla. Coron. dean. 9 Edw. I. Blount, 45. 
tibus propriis. Plac. Coron. apud'Windesor. 
12 Edw. I. Rot. 28, in dorso. Blount, 38. 



acres of land, in Brambelegli, in the county of Middlesex, by the 
service of finding, for our lord the King, ane armed horseman ^, for 
forty days, at their own charges, as often as it should happen that 
the King should go any where with his army *. 

f The oJHensive arms of a horseman, or man at arms, were a sword, 
or swords f, a lance and a small dagger, cafled a misericorde, 
either from its being mercifully used in putting out of their 
misery persons desperately wounded, or fram the sight of it, 
being apt to cause those against whom it was drawn (commoaly 
knights unhorsed and lying on the ground) to cry " Miseri- 
corde, mercy or quarter." Men at arms also frequently carried 
iron maces, suspended at their saddle bowe.. 

The horses of the men at arms were scarcely less encumbered 
with armour than their riders-; their faces, heads,, and ears were 
covered over with a sort of mask, so contrived as to prevent their 
seeing right before them, in order that they might not be terrified 
from charging or shocking with vigour ; this mask was called a 
chafron or shafront. Frequently from the centre of the forehead 

* Rjchardus Cauus et Sabina uxor ejus tenent culutn Regale, written about the twelfth cen- 

unum messuagium et sexagiiita acras terrae in tury, among other directions for the arming of 

liiambelegh, in com. Middlesex, per servitium a horseman, are these: "let him have two 

inveniendi domino Regi unum hominem equi- swords, one in his belt, and the other hanging 

tem armatum per xl dies sumptibus suis pro- to.his saddle-bowe, with a war-knife," p. 406. 

priis, quotiens contigeut ipsum dominum Re- In a Military Treatise, attributed to Guil- 

gem adire alicubi cum exercitu- Plac. Coron. laume de Bellay, it is said, men at arms should 

22 Edw. I. Blount, 66. have their sword of arms at their side, the estoc 

■f The ancient knights frequently carried two. (a long sharp-pointed sword) at one bow of. 

swords, one in a belt by their side, and the their saddle, and a mace at the other. Note f. 
other fi.\ed tO their saddle-bowe. In the Spe- 



projected an iron spike, resembling the horn given to that fabulous 
animal an unicorn; their necks were defended by a number of 
small plates connected together, called a criniere ^\\1i. or manefaire ; 
they had poitrinals (pectoral or breast plates) for their breasts, 
croupiers and flancois for covering their buttocks and flanks, reach- 
ing down to the hocks ; all these pieces were generally of iron or 
brass, though sometimes of cuir-bouillie, i. e. jacked leather. Oc- 
casionally they were covered all over with mail, or linen stuffed and 
quilted like the Gambeson, and adorned with rich embroidery. 
Horses thus covered were called barded, and corruptly barbed 
horses ; they were also frequently stiled covered horses [fj 

To prevent their horses from being fatigued under all their own 
incumbrances, and the enormous weight of their riders, and to pre- 
serve their rigour for the charge, the men at arms had commonly 
hacknie^ for riding on a march, and did not mount their war horses 
till. they were certain of coming to action; a circumstance which 
has frequently occasioned tbem to be surprised and defeated, before 
they could mount their chargers and form. Barded horses were in 
use in our armies, in the time of King Edward VI. Grose's Milit, 
Antiq. vol. i. pp. 103, 104. 

Xf[t Th6 criniere or manefaire, consisted of a number of small plates, 
generally about twelve, hooked together, and to the'chaufron 
so as to be moveable; their use was to guard the neck of the 
horse-icom the stroke of a cutting svvord. Milit. Antiq. vol. ii. 
pp. 259, 260, 

[f J Barde, in old French, signifies covered, (note g.) 



In the S2dyear of King Edward I. upon the relief paid, by Wil- 
liam de Bauteraux, for the moiety of the town of Alcester in the 
county of Warwick, it is there recorded to be held of the King by 
the service of finding the moiety of an armed knight, with a horse 
without a saddle |1:|:||, in the war of our lord the King *. 

l|j;|l Equo discooperto. A horse without a saddle. Blount, Equus 
coopertus is a horse in armour, consequently equus discoopertus 
is a horse without armour. A. Quaere, if it does not rather 
mean without saddle or caparison ? E. , . 


In the time of King Henry I. Hugh de Longchamp obtained by 
the gift of that King, the manor of Wilton in the county of Here- 
ford : to hold by the service of two men at arms in the wars of 
Wales -f. 


Eustace de Ho held one carucate of land with the appurtenances 
in Rewenhall in the county of Essex, by the serjeanty of finding one 
horseman with a Gambesone % in the army of our lord the King, 

* Per servitium inveniendi medietajtenl equi- f Plac. apud Heref. 20 £dw. I. ^ot. SQ. 

tis armati, cum uno equo discooperto in guer- Blount, 13. 
ra domini Regis. Micbu Rot. 32 £dw. I. 
Blount, S. 



when it happened that he should go into Wales, at his own proper 
charges, for forty days *. » il? ^ p ^ 

% Gambesone. A long horseman's cotit that covered part of the 
legs ; from the French Gambe, or Janibe, a leg. Blount. Gam- 
foeso is a doublet Vide Diicange. Gambeso, Wambais (cor- 
ruptly Vanbrace) from the Saiton Wamb, whence the English 
womb, a thick woollen waistcoat, worn under steel armour, to 
make it sit easy on the body. In this place it may mean such 
a thick quilted coat. A. The author of this note is mistaken in 
taking Vanbrace to be a corruption of Wambais, for as it is 
armatura brachii, it must be the French avant-bras. p 

In Troilus and Cressida, act 1. se. 3. Nestor says to Agamemnon, 
' " Tell him from me, 

" Fll hide my silver beard in a gold beaver, 

" And in my vantbrace put this wither'd brawn ;" 

The note states vantbrace to be armour for the arm, avant-bras. 

Chalmers's edit, of Shaksp'eare. 

Commonly under the hauberk -f-, though sometimes over it, was 

j: Eustach de Ho tenuit uiiam carucatam mail from head to foot. It consisted of a 
terrx cum pertin. in Rewenhall in com. Essex hood joined to a jacket with sleeves, breeches, 
per serjantiam inveniendi unum hominem stockings, and shoes of double chain -mail, to 
equitem cum uno G<afflfoesoiie in exercitu do- which were added gauntlet^ of the same con- 
mini Regis, cum contigerit ipsum ire in Wallia^ struction. Some of these hauberks opened 
sOmptifous suis propriis, per xl dies. Fla. before like a modern co^tj others were ^osed 
Coron. de 13 Edw. I. Blount, 27. like^a shirt. Milit. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 245-6. 

■f The hauberk was a complete covering t)f • ' ^ 

P 2- 'Wom 


worn a loose garment called a gambeson, which descended as low 
as the knees ] it was stuffed with wool or cotton, and quilted ; the 
use of it was to deaden the strokes of the sword or lance, which, 
though they did not divide the mail, might, without the interposition 
of the gambeson, severely bruise the body ; under or between the 
hauberk and gambeson, a breast-plate of forged iron, called a 
plastron, was occasionally put on; over which all men of family 
wore sur-coats of satin, velvet, or cloth of gold or silver richly* em- 
broidered with their armorial bearings X^% Grose's Milit. Antiq. 
vol. i. p. 101. 

Jll- One may judge by this how our knights were loaded, when they 
had all their arms, for they had besides their ordinary clothes, 
the gambeson, which of itself must in summer have been very 
hot, being stuffed "with wool or cotton, above this was their coat 
of double mail, and consequently of an extraordinary weight. 
Princes and certain great lords had over all their coats of arms, 
which held the place of the paludamentum of the ancient Roman 
captains, and was in figure like a dalmatick without sleeves,, and 
descending to the knees ; it was charged with the escutcheons, 
or armorial bearings of the wearer, and often was of cloth of 
gold or silver, rich furs, or cut velvets. But Fauchet has for- 
got, in his description, another species of defensive armour 
which was worn under the gambeson ; this was a plastron of 
iron. P. Daniel, torn. i. p. 388. 


William de Albemarle holds the manor of Windebury in the 
comity of Devon, of our lord the King in capite, by the serjeanty 



of finding a horseman for forty days, at his own costs, in the King^s 
army in Wales*. 


Laurence de Broke holds the hamlet of Renham, in the county of 
Middlesex, of our lord the King in capite, by the service of finding 
for him in his army, wheresoever it should be within the four seas 
of England, one horseman; the price of the horse to be five shil- 
lings, d,nd a sack of the price of five pence, and one Broch^, of 
the piriee of two-^ence three-farthings, for forty days, at the costs 
of the said Laurence. Also he holds the hamlet of Ikenham by the 
same service -f*. 

■•'■-> • 

Henry de Averying held the manor of Morton, in the county of 
Essex, in capite of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of finding 
one man with a horse of the price of ten shillings, and four horse 
shoes, and one leather sack, and one irOn Broch f , as often as it 

* Willklmus de Albemarle tenet inanerium in- capite, per servitium inveniendi domino 

de Windebury in eom. Devon, de domino Rege iRegi in exercitu ubicunque fiierit infrd quatuor 

in capite, per- sftrjantiami inveniendi unum < maria Anglife, unum hominem equitem/ precii 

hominem equitem per xl dies propps sump- equi vs. et unum saccum precii vd. et unam 

tibus in exercitu domini Regis in Wallia. Brochiam precii duorum denariorum ob. qr. 

Plac. Coron. -de An. 9 Edw. 1. Devon. per xl dies sumptibus ipsius Laurentii. Idem 

Blount, 44. tenet villatam de Ikenham per idem servitium. 

t Laurentius de Broke tenet villatam de Esson. capt. apud Crueem Lapideam [*] 3 

Benham iti torn. Middlesex,' de domino Rege Edw. 1. Midd. Rot. 18, Blount, 64. 

Tal This Cfuceta Ldpideanii noted atove, stood- Hear th« May'polc, in the Strand, wJic're the Judges Itinerant, 
in old time, used to sit, Blount. • , 



should happen for the King to go into Wales with his army, at his 
own charges for forty days *. 

% Broehia. A Broch, which was a great pot or jug, to carry liquid 
things, as the sack was to carry the dry, from the French word 
Broc, which signifies a great flaggon, tankard, or pot. So the 
learned Spelman interprets it. (Gloss, p. 88.) Though some are 
not willing to submit to his opinion herein. Blount. Broehia. 
This word occurs very often, and always joined with Saccus. 
I take it to mean only a pin or skewer (in French, Broche) 
to fasten the mouth of the bag. Here we have Broehia ferrea, 
which is not easily reconciled with Spelman's interpretation. 
This opinion is confirmed by an expression under Ovenhelle, 
p. 66. Unum saccura cum Broehia ad eundem saccum. We 
have also in the custom of Whichnor, county of Stafford, " a 
Sakke and a Pryke (saccus cum Broehia) for to convey the 
said baconne and corne." A. The Word Broche, in French, 
also signifies a spit, a knitting-needle, and several other mat- 
ters, E, 

Liquids were carried in a skin or leather sack, and the meat 
was contrived to be dressed or stewed in the same. This was 
peculiarly the case among the heroes of Ossian, in the days of 
Fin-mac-coul. In various cases in the Highlands, and Islands of 

* Henricus de Averyng tenuit manerium de Srochia ferrea, quotiescunque contigerit do- 
Morton in com. Essex, in capite de doinioo minum Regem ire in Walliam cum exercitu, 
Rege, per serjantiam inveniendi unum homi- sumptibus suis propriis, per quadragiuta dies, 
nem cum uno equo precii xs. et quatuor ferris Pkc. Coron. 13 Edw. 1. Essex. Blount, 
equorum, et uno sacco de corio, et una 50. 



Scotland, the marks or notches remain in the rocks which have been 
made to bear the beam by which the sack or skin was suspended 
over their fires. W. 

A buckle to fasten the sack. It resembles the Roman Fibula. 
It is confirmed to be a buckle or fibula by the mode of expres- 
sion in the notes to pp. 66, 67. W> 

Shakspeare uses it in the sense of a spit, for in Titus Andro- 
nicus, act 4. sc. 11, Demetrius says to Aaron, 

" I'll broach the tadpole on my rapier^s point ." 

A broach is a spit. Ill spit the tadpole,, note. Chalmer's edit, 
of Shakspeare. 

. Brooches ; ornamental trjiikets. Stone buckles of silver or gold,, 
with which gentlemen and ladies clasp their shirtrbosoms and 
handkerchiefs, are called in the north brooches. (Gloss, to' Percy's 
Relics of Ancient Poetry). They are mentioned in the old ballad 
©f •'^The Boy and the Mantle," vol. iii. p. 3. 

" A kirtle and a mantle 
" This child had uppon^ 
** With ' brooches' and ringes^ 
" Full riehelye bedone." 


RobeH de St^ Clare holds, ten pounds a year of lands in the 
hiundred of Merfok, of our lord the King in qhief, by the service 



of finding an armed servant (or esquire) with a horse in the King's 
army in Wales, for forty days, at his own costs*. 


Reginald de Grey holds the manor of Waterhall, in the county 
of Bucks, of our lord the King, by the service of finding one man 
upon a horse without a saddle, of the price of fifteen pence, and 
one bow without a string, and one arrow without a head ^, when 
the King shall command him, for his service for the said manor, 
to be in his army -j*. 

f Flaccum sine capite, must doubtless be intended for an arrow 
without a head, from the French Fleche, an arrow or shaft* 

f Flaccum, I presume applies to the feathering of an arrow. The 
family name of Fletcher is derived from Flecher, being a person 
who trimmed and feathered arrows, as we see in several old 
books, especially in Scotland, 

" A feathered shaft." 
Quaery — Is it not a sheaf or quiver ? W. 

* Robeitus de Sancto Claro tenet decern -|- Reginaldus de Grey tenet manerium de 

Ijbratas terras in hundredo de Mertok, de do- Waterhall in com. Buck, de domino Rege per 
mino Rege in capite, per servitium invcniefidi servitium irivemendi unum hominem super 
unum servientem armatum cum uno equo, in unum equum sine sella, precii xv d. et unum 
exercitu domini Regis in Wallia, per xl dies, arcum sine corda, et unum Flaccum sine 
sumptibus suis propriis. Pk, Coroti.dis Ann. capite, cum domiiius Rex mandaverit, pro 
8 £dw. I. Somer. Blount^ 76. servitio suo dicti manerii, habendi in exercitu 

suo, &c. 9. Jan. 17.Edw. I. Inquia. iii com. 

Buck. Blount, 1S8. 




Of Petit Serjeanties h.y finding Footmen for the Wars. 


Roger Bygod, Earl of Norfolk, holds a certain serjeanty in 
Banningham, which is called Tusard, by the service of finding for 
our lord the King, one Balistar, in the time of war, for fifteen days, 
at his own propyer costs *. 


Ralph de Herlham holds the manor of Herlham, in the county of 
Norfolk, by the serjeanty of finding, in the Castle of Norwich, one 
Balistar ^, in the time of war, for forty days, at his own proper 
costs f. 

^ Balistarium. A cross-bow-man, or one that did sling stones or 
shoot darts at the enemy, before the invention of guns. Blount 
Vide p. 66. Molsey. 


Edmund Synagor holds the manor of Stapele, in the county of 

* Rogerus Bygod comes Norf. tenet quan- f Radulphus de Herlham tenet manermm de 

dam serjantiam in Banningham, quae vocatur Herlham in com. Norf. per serjantiam inve- 

Tusard, per servitium inveniendi domino Regi, niendi in Castro de Norwico, unum Balista- 

unum Balistarium, tempore guerrae, per quin- rium, tempore guerrae, xl dies, sumptibus 

decim dies, sumptibus suis propriis. Rot. suis propriis. Plac. Coron. de anno 14 

Tin. 6. Joh. Rot. 54. Blount, 70. Edw. I. Rot. 3. Norf. Blount, 67. 

Q Southampton, 


Southampton, by the service of finding a Serjeant at Arms f in the 
army of our lord the King, every where in England, at his own 
costs, for forty days *. 

f The Serjeants at Arms were first instituted by King Richard I., 
in imitation of a corps of the same name formed fey Philip 
Augustus King of France, when on a crusade, to guard him 
against the subjects of the Old Man of the Mountain, famous 
for their darino- assassinations. 


The duty of those serjeants, originally, was to watch round the King's 
tent in complete armour, with a mace, bow, arrows, and a sword, 
and occasionally to arrest traitors, and other ofienders about the 
court, for which ih^ mace was deemed a sufficient authority. 
They were called the valarou,s force of the King's errand, in the 
execution of justice; they held their places foi; life; their number 
was originally twenty-four, all persons of approved worth, and, 
not under the degree of the son of a knight ; and afterwards the 
sons of gentlemen were admitted into the body. 

In the reign of Edward I. the Serjeants at Arms were allowed two 
marks for winter, and the same for summer robes. Their pay 
in that of Edward II. \vas; twelve; pence per diem, when they 
attended on horseback, and eightrpence when th^y attendtid 
without a horse. Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. i. pp. 178-4. 

* Edmundiis Synagor tenet manerium de in exercitu dpmiiii Regis in Anglia, sumptibiis 
Stapele, in com« Southampton, per serjantiara suis propriisj per xl dies. Plac. Coron. 
invjeniendi unum Serjai^tiuia ad Arma; ubique 8„Edw. I. Rot. 13. South. Blount, 84. 




Richard de Carevile held six pdtinds a year of land, in capite, 
of our lord the King^ in the saiiie hundred, by the service of find- 
ing a certain Serjea;nt at Arms in the King's army, every where in 
England, at his own costs, for fdrty days *. 


Thomas Curzonn holds the manor of Sibertoft, in the county of 
Northampton, of our lord the King in capite, by the service of 
finding a footman, with bows and arrows, in the King's army, for 
forty days., within the four seas, at his <iwii proper costs f. 


Nidlidlas Chauiiceux holds tlie marior'of Upton, in the coiirity of 
Northampton, (which is ahtieht demesne of tlie crown of our lord 
the King) by the service of finding one armed man in the King's 
War, wherisoeve^r it should be needful, Within the four seas of Eng- 
land, for fotrty darys, at Ms oWtl proper dusts .^. 

* Richardus de Carevik teimit sex liteatas quator maria, sumptibus suis propriis, Plac, 

terras in capite de domino Rege, in eodem Coroii. 3 Edw. I. 'Rot. 14. Northamp. 

hundredo, per serjantiam inveniendi quendam Blount, 70. 

Serjantiuin.adArma,ubiqtie inexercitudomim 4^ Nicholas Chaunceux tenet manerium de 

Hegis in Anglia, sumptilMis-sai^, p€r xL dies. Upton, in com. Northaiiipton, quod est de 

Plac. Coron. 8 Edw. I. Rot. 23. South. antiquo dominio Coronx domini Regis, per 

S^ount, 86. servitium inveniendi unum hominem armatum 

-j- Thonia^ Curzona tenet manerium de Si- in guerra domini Regis, quaudocunque necesse 

b'ettoft, in coni. Northampton, de domino fu^rit, infra quatuor maria Anglm, per xi, 

Rege in capite, per servitiund inveniendi unum dies, sumptibus suis propriis. Plac. Coron. 

iiominem peditem, cum arcubus et «agittisj ia 13 £dw. I. Roti 33. Northamp. Blount, 71. 
cxercitu domini Regis, per XL dies, infra 




Peter de Chetwode holds half a carucate of land in Thethercote 
and Cheddich, by serjeanty of finding in the army of our lord the 
King, at his own proper costs, in the time of war, one footman, 
with a lance, and an iron trumpet :|:§|., for forty days *. 

'^^X I^'on Trumpet. Bucinus is mis-read for bacinus, which signifies 
a basin, and thence is easily transferred to a scull-cap or 
head-piece, the sense which it obtains here. It is called Capella 
ferrea, p. 88, and Basnetus, p. 89. P. 

%^X Military music, before the introduction of fire arms, served to 
animate the soldiers in battles and assaults of places, as well 
as for the purpose of signals for the different manoBuvres and 
duties in camp and garrison ; wherefore it cannot be doubted, 
but it was used in our antient armies. 

In an old manuscript chronicle -f- is a ballad made on the victory of 
Kinff Edward III. over the Scots at HalUdowne Hille, in which 
there are these lines : 

This was do with merry sowne. 

With pipes, trumpes, and tabers thereto. 

And loud clariones thei blew also. 

* Petrus de Chetwode tenet dimidiam caru- lancea, ct uno bucino ferreo, per XL dies, 

catam terrae in Thethercote et Cheddich, per quaere. Plac. Coron. 13 Edw. I. Kot. 37. 

•erjantiam quod solebal invenire, in exercitu dorso. Blount, 74. 
domini Regis, sumptibus suis propriis, tempore •{• MS. Harl. No. 4690, 

guerrae, ununi homiuem peditem, cum una 



And in the prose account of the same battle in the same MS. 
" then the Englische mynstrelles beaten their tabors and blewen 
their trompes, and pipers pipedene loude, and made a great schowte 
upon the Skottes/' Notwithstanding this, ueither drummers, 
trumpeters, nor any other minstrels occur in the wardrobe accounts 
of either Edward I. II. or III. Possibly they were part of the royal 
household, paid under some other department. 

The common military instruments of music were the trumpet, 
drum, fife, and horns of different kinds. 

The trumpet is of the most remote antiquity, and frequently 
occurs in the Scriptures as being used by the Israelites. The Ro- 
mans had both the straight and crooked trumpet ; and trumpets of 
both kinds have been found in different parts of England, gene- 
rally supposed to have been Danish* Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. ii. 
pp. 41, 42. 


Robert de Eylesford holds three yard-lands in Lewe in the county 
of Oxfordj of our lord the King, by the service of finding a man, 
with a bow and arrows, for forty days, at his own proper costs, 
whensoever it should happen that the King went into Wales witk 
his army*. 

* Robertiis de Eylesford tenet tres virgatas propriis, quotiescutique contigerit dominuiir 

terne in Lewe in com. Oxon. de domino Rege, regem ire in Walliam, cum exercitu suo. Plac. 

per servitium inveniendi iinuni hominem cutq Coron. 1 3 Edw. I. Rot. 50. dorso. Oxon> 

arcuet sagittasper xL dies, sumptibus suis Bloant, 75-. 




Waller Pychard, of Wrotting in the county of Suffolk, held one 
hundred acres of land, of our lord the King, in chief, by the ser- 
jeanty of finding for him one footman, with a bow and four arrows, 
as often as the King went into Wales with his army, for forty days, 
at his own proper costs *. 



Mayford is a serjednty of our lord the King, and the owner of it 
ought to find an ^ Esquire (servientem) with an haubergeon and 
a lance, for forty days, at his own costs f. 

^ The original has servientem, which I presume does not mean a' 
servant, but a rank next to a knight, viz. an esquire. P. 

^ I do not think servientem is an esquire, for he is a person at arms, 
and of a well established name, besides, the haubergeon and 
lance are not the arms of an esquire, but of a lower person. If 
he was to bear a lance merely for another, I would begin to 
doubt, because that is one of the duties of an esquire, but it is 
evidently to serve in the field so accoutred, not as carrying the 

* Walterus Pychard, de Wrotting in com. exercitu, per XL dies, sumptibus euis propriis. 

Suflfolk, tenuit centum acras terrse, de domino Plac. Coron. 14Edw. iVKbt. 46. JBlount, 78. 

Regein capite, per serjantiam inveniendi dor + Mayford est serjantia dpmini Regis, et 

mino Regi, uniim hproin^m peditem, cum UHO debe:t invenire unum servientem, cum uno 

arcu et qu^tuor sagittis, quotiescupque con- hambergello et una Uncea, per xl dies, ad 

tigerit doininum Regem ire in Waljiam, cum custum suum. Plac. Coron. 19 Hen. III- 

Surrey. Blount, 79. 



arms of another, but his own, with which he is to fight. May it not 
mean a vassal holding his lands for a certain service performed 
to his lord? I do not think serviens implies a menial, but one a 
rank below an esquire, one who had some one between him and 
the King, bound to follow his lord to the field, or perform other 
service for the protection given him by his patron. Perhaps a 
yeoman. I remember to have seen an old drawing of an 
areher, attended or accompanied by a man in the hauberk, with 
a cap of the same^ and a lance in his hand.^ Indeed, they al- 
ways appear to have gone upon service together, the lanceman 
being to swppoptthe archer, who was in a manner defenceless if 
closed upon. Hence serviens, as being in aid and support of the 
archer,, may properly enough apply.. I am confirmed in this, 
by the grant of my office of gentleman usher of the white rod, 
which I hold " cum duobus^ armigeris, duobus arcu tenentibus 
cum suis eqpis et servis administrandis sibi in dicte officio^' 

The hauberk and the name are both Nornian. W 

Grose, in his^ Military Antiq.. vol. i* p; 10^ describes servientes to 
be substitutes for tenants in eapitc 


Thomas Therel had a certain serjeanty in Chinting in the county 
of Sussex, by finding a certain esquire (servientem) whenever the 
King should go with his army into Wales, or elsewhere in Eng- 
land, at his proper costs for forty days *. 


•Thomas Thierel habuit quondam serjan- quendani servientem, quotiescunqli'e contigerit 
tiam/ in Cbintittg in cOm. Sussex, inveiiiendi doniinum Regem> cum exercitu sue, ire in 




And Thomas de Peverel holds lands in Blachington by th« 
same service*. 


James de Hochangre holds Hochangre in the county of South- 
ampton, by the serjeanty of finding a valet||§|| in the army of our 
lord the King, for forty days, and of making the bridge at Ho- 
changre ; and it was worth by the year a hundred shillings -f-. 

|1§|1 Perhaps one who waited upon a man at arms. A. 

mil Either Valectum must mean something else than valet, or talet 
had a different signification to what we now give. Besides, he 
seems to be attached generally to the army, and not as a valet 
to attend a master. 

May it not mean varlet, for in Troilus and Cressida, act 1. sc. 1. 
Troilus says ; 

" Call here my varlet I'll unarm again : 

*' Why should I war without the walls of Troy, 

*' That find such cruel battle here within ? 

Walliam, vel alibi in Anglia, sumptibus suis f Jacobus de Hochangre tenet Hochangrfe 

propriis, per XL dies. Plac. Coron. de7Edw. in com. Southampton, per serjaiitiam inve- 

I. Rot. 81. Sussex. Blount, 83. niendi unum valectum in exercitu domini Re- 

* Et Thomas de Peverel tenet terram in gis, per quadriginta dies, et ad faciendum pon- 

Blachington, per idem servitium. Ibid. RIount, tern de Hochangre, et valet per ann. c s. Plac. 

83. Coron. 8 Edsv. I. Rot. 13. South. Blount, 84. , 



And tRe note explains varlet to have anciently signified a servant 
or footman to a knight or warrior. Chalnaers's edit, of Shakspeare., 

In the vrardrobe account of the 28th of King Edward I. A. D. 
1300, under the article of Esquires, we meet with many persons 
entitled valets, with the daily pay of 12 d. Du Cange, and other 
writers, are of opinion that the appellation of valet was generally 
given to young gentlemen of rank and family who were not yet 
knighted. Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. i. p. 273^, where see more^ 
note (u.) . ,- 


. Thomas de Brustvil holds ten pounds a year of land in Bentlegh 
in the county of Southampton, by the serjeanty of finding a man with 
a bow and arrows in the army of our lord the King, in England 
and Wales, for forty days, at his own costs *. 


Richard de Cardevile holds one hundred shillings a year of land 
in Tudderlegh by the same service -f-. ' 


Rowland de Arley and Henry Wade, hold the moiety of a certain 

* Thomas de Brustvil tenet decern libratas propriis. Plac. Coron. 8 Edw. I. Rot, 20. 

terrae in Bentlegh in com. Southampton, per dorso. Blount, 85. > 

serjantiam inveniendi unum hominem cum •]- Et Ricardus de Cardevile tenet centum 

arcu et sagittis in exercitu dominj Regis in solidatas terrae in Tudderlegh per idem ser- 

Anglia et Wallia, per xl dies, sumptibus suis vitium. Ibid. Blount^ 85. 

B serjeanty 


serjeanty in Casham in the county of Southampton, by finding a 
certain footman to keep the Castle of Porchester, in the time of 
war, for forty days, at their own proper costs. And that serjeanty 
was let upon yearly rent at half a mark *. 


Roger de Wanstede holds half a serjeanty there, by the service 
of finding one valet for eight days, at his own proper costs, with a 
Wambais ^, an iron head-piece, and a lance, to keep the Castle of 
Portsmouth in the time of war ; and it is let upon rent at ten 
shillings yearly -j^-. 

% Wambais. Praepunctum in the Latin, mis-read for perpunctum. 
Wats ad Mat. Par. p. 53. Brady's Hist, of Engl. 204, of 
Appendix. P. 

^ Wambais. Doublets composed of many folds of linen, stuffed 
with cotton, wool, or hair, and commonly covered with lea- 
ther. Note (r) Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. i, p. 10. 


Roger Corbet holds the manor of Chettington in the county of 

* Roulandus de Arley et Henricus Wade, + Rogerus de Waastede tenet dimid. serjan- 

tenent medietatem cujusdain serjantiae in Ca- tiam ibidem, per servitium inveniendi unum 

sham in com. Southampton, ad inveniendum valectum, per octo dies, sumptibus propriis, 

quendam homineni peditem ad custodiendum cum prffipuucto, capella feriea, et lancea, cus- 

Castrum de Porchester, tempore guerrae, per todirc Castrum de Portsmue tempore guerrae, 

XL dies, sumptibus suis propriis, et arrentata ct arrentata est per annum ad decern solidos. 

est serjantia ilia per annum ad dimid. marcam. Plac. Coron. 8 Edw, I. Rot, 41. Blount, 87. 
Plac. Corori, 8 Edw. 1. Rot. 26, dorso. 

Blount, 86. 



Salop, of the King in capite, by the service of finding one footman 
in the time of war, in the King^s army in Wales, with one bow and 
three arrows, and one pale, and carrying with him one bacon or 
salted hog ; and, when he comes to the army, delivering to the 
King's Marshal a moiety of the bacon ; and thence the Marshal is 
to deliver to him daily, some of that moiety for his dinner, so long 
as he stays in the army ; and he is to follow the army so long as 
that half of the bacon shall last *. 


The manor of Aston-Cantlou (so called from the family of Can- 
tilupe) was by inquisition after the death of Laurence Hastings, 
Earl of Pembroke, returned to be held in this form, viz. That that 
manor is held by itself of our lord the King in capite, by the ser- 
vice of finding a foot soldier, with a bow without a string, with a 
helmet ^, or cap, for forty days, at the proper charges of the lor4 
of that manor^ as often as there should be war in Wales -j: 

% Basnetus. A helmet, from the Norman French Bassinet, Basinet, 
or Bacinet ; which signifies the same. E^ 

* RogerMs Corbet tenet manerium de Chet- rit in praedicto exercitu. Et debet sequi exer- 

ington in com. Salop, de Rege in capite, per fitum durante dimidio bacone prsedicto. Lib. 

servitium ioveniendi unum hominem peditem, deTenuris, 24 Edw. I. Blount, 136. 

tempore guerrae, in exercitu Regis Walliae, -f- Quod quidem manerium per se tenetur de 

cum uno arcu, et tribus sagittis, et uno palo ; domino Rege in capite, per servitium inveni- 

et deferet secum unum baconem, et cum ad endi unum hominem peditera cum arcu sine 

«xercitum Regis pervenerit, liberavit Mares- corda, cum uno basneto, sive cappa, per qua- 

challo Regis medietatem baconis, et inde Ma- draginta dies, sumptibus propriis, quoties fuerit 

reschallus deliberavit ei, quotidie, ad prandium guerra in Wallia. Inquis. post mortem Laur. 

«uum, de-prsedieto dimidio baconis, dum stete- Hastings, 22. Edw. III. JBlpunt, 2. 

R 2 ^ Bacinets 


f Bacinets were light helmets, so called from their resemblance 
to a bason, and were generally without visors, though from 
divers quotations cited by Du Cange *", they appear occasionally 
to have had them. Fauchet supposes them to have been a 
lighter sort of helmet, that did not cover the face, and says, he 
finds that the knights often exchanged their helmets for bassi- 
nets, when much fatigued, and wishing to ease and refresh 
themselves; at a time when they could not with propriety go 
quite unarmed. 

Bassinets were worn in the reigns of Edward II. and III. and 
Richard 11, by most of the English infantry, as may be repeatedly 
seen in the rolls of parliament, and other public records. 


In the 47th year of King Henry III, Henry Lovel was found to 
die seised of the manor of Castle Cary in the county of Somerset, 
by him held in capite of the King for a whole barony, by the service 
of finding two soldiers in the King's army, at his own cost, for forty 
days f. 


In the 17th year of King Edward I. John 3Iusard was found to 
be seised of the manor of Staveley in the county of Derby, held of 
the King in capite by barony ; finding for that, and his other lord- 
ships, two soldiers in the King's army in Wales ;J;. 

* Guil. Guiart. 1 _ _, ^ . _„ . Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. ii. pp. 243, 243, 

A ,/,™^ ? Et Clers Bacinez a Visieres. j . / . 

An. 1270. 3 and note (p.) 

A 1304 (Hauberjons,ettaclesEntieres f Escaet. 47Hen. III. n. 11. Blount, 14, 

( Escus, Bacinez a Visieres. J Escaet. 17 Edw. I. n. 6. Derb. Blount, 




The manor of Brineston, in the county of Chester, is held of 
the King in capite, by the service of finding a man in the army of 
our lord the King going into the parts of Scotland, barefoot, 
clothed with a waistcoat f (or shirt) and breeches |.§:|;, (or drawers, 
or trowses) having in one hand a bow without a string, and in the 
other an arrow unfeathered [§] *. 

% Camisia. Probably a shirt ; from the French Chemise. E. 

X^X Braccis. Breeches, or drawers. Blount. 

[I] Tribulum. A Calthrop (ahtiently used in war) without those 
four pricks, which it usually had, to annoy the enemies horses 
feet. But quaere. Blount. It means some larger sort of arrow, 
shot out of a cross-bow. Tribulus is also Calthrop ] but that 
signification is altogether foreign to the passage. A. It seems 
to mean a quarrel discharged from that engine which was called 
a Tribulus ; for which see Du Fresne. P. 


Ralph de Stopham holds the manor of Bryanston, in the county 
of Dorset, by the serjearity of finding for our lord the King, as 

^ Maneriutn de Brineston, in com. Cestriae, pedibus, camisia et braccis vestitum, haben- 

tenetur de Eege in, capite, per seivitium inve- tern in una maiiu unum arcum sine corda, et 

niendi unum bominem in exercitu domini altera manu unum tribulum non pennatum. 

Regis in partibas Scotise profecturum, nudis In^uis. 27 Edw. III. n. 40. Blount, 30, 



often as he should lead his English army into Wales, a boy f^, 
carrying a bow without a string, and an arrow unfeathered §-f^, at 
his own proper costs, for forty days *. 

<ff Gar9ionem. A boy, from the French Garyon. E. A boy carry- 
ing a bow without a string ; but what Buzonem signifies. Lector 
tu tibi Oedipus esto. Blount. 

% The Boys following an army were in the Latin of those days 
(temp. Hen. V.) called Garciones, they were the servants of 
the soldiers. In father De Aquino's Military Dictionary, Garcio 
is explained to be a camp servant, one who fetched water for 
the soldiers : these boys were by the French named Goujats, 
and, according to Richelet, were the servants of foot soldiers ; 
but Boyer calls them the servants of horse or foot soldiers. 
Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. i. p. 183,. note (q). 

§-|-§ Buzonem. An arrow; hence, Arquebuze. P. It may be an 
arrow without feathers (puto) to answer that of a bow without a 
string. A. A. 

5f§ A ball was used often with the cross bow, and if that is here 
meant, the derivation of Arquebuze will be evident, and to that 
opinion I am rather inclined, but if it means an arrow, and not 

* Radulphus de Rtopham tenet tnanerium sine corda, et unum buzonem sine penuis, ad 

dc Bryanstan in com. Dorset, per serjantiam sumptus sues proprios, per quadraginta dies, 

inveniendi domino Regi quotiescunque conti- Plac. Coron. apud Schyrebume, 6 £dw, I, 

gerit ipsum habere exercitum in Angliae in Dorset. Rot. 3. Blount, 45. 
Walliam, gar^ionem, deferentem unum arcum 



the kind of ball above mentioned, I would suspect it does not 
apply to one without feathers, but to a buzzing or whistling 
arrow, often used to dismay an enemy, and as often shot off 
in flights by a body of archers as a feu de joie. In corrobo- 
ration of this, the word Boss is the common term in Scotland for 
a thing that is hollow or empty, and thereby emitting a sound 
when struck or otherwise acted upon. Or does Buzo mean a 
butt arrow in contradistinction to the roving arrows ? W. 


Elena de Gorges holds the manor of Bradepol6, in the county of 
Dorset, by the serjeanty of finding an armed Esquire, (servientem) 
when war shall happen, for forty days *. 


Peter Spileman held of the King in capite, one carucate of land 
in Broken^rst, in the county of Southampton, by the serjeanty of 
finding an Esquire, (servientem) with a Haubergeon f , for forty 
days, in England, Ac-f- 

f Hambergellus. A defence or covering of armour, composed of 
small ringR or circles of iron, woven together J. In French, cote 
de mail; in English, shirt of mail. Blount. Spelm. Gloss 
274- A. 

* Elena de Gorges tenet manerium de Bra- unam carucatam terrae in Brokenerst, in coifi;- 

depole, in com. Dorset, per serjantiam inve- tatu Southamptoniae, per serjantiam inveniendi 

aiendi quendam servientem armatum, cum unum servientem cum. Hambergello, per qua- 

guerra evenerit, per quadraginta dies. Plac. draginta dies, in Anglia, &c. P'ines in. Wiltes 

Coron. apud Schyreburne, 8 Edw. 1. Dorset. and Southampton, anno 1 Edw. II. B}bant,54. 

Rot. 14w Blount,. 47. | Munimen ex. eomplieatis hamis vel circulis 

•i;Petrus Spileman tenuit de Rege in capite^ ferreis, Spelm. Gloss. 274. Blount, 54. 



<[[ Tliis Hambergell was a coat, composed of several folds of coarse 
linen, or hempen cloth ; in the midst of some of which was 
placed a sort of net-work, of strong ringlets of iron, about a quar- 
ter of an inch diameter, interwoven very artificially together; and 
in others of thin iron square plates, about an inch from side to 
side, with a hole in the midst of each, the edges laid one over 
another, quilted through the cloth with small packthread, and 
bedded in paper covered with wool. Parts of two such Hauber- 
geons are now in the editor's possession, either or which would 
be sufficient to defend the body of a man from the stroke or 
point of a sword or lance, if not from a musket-ball, and yet so 
pliable as to admit the person wearing them to use all his limbs, 
and move his joints without the least interruption. 

N. B. The kind of armour mentioned above to be made of iron 
plates, was by the antients called Squamata Vestis. And that 
sort made of links, united together in chain-work, was called by 
them Hamata Vestis ; from which word Hambergell seems to 
have been derived. See Appendix to Dr. Ducarel's Anglo- 
Norman Antiq. p. 1 0. 

*J^ Whitaker, in his history of Manchester, says, the first natural 
armour of all nations, as well as of the Romans, was leather. 
And in this state it was denominated a coat of mail by the Bri- 
tons. Mala, in Irish, being either armour or a bag, a budget, 
and a post-mail. He also derives Cuirass, a breast-plate or coat 
of mail, and Harness, from words signifying leather. Hist, of 
Manchester, lib. H. cap. 8. sect. 1. p. 301. The word Mael in 
Welch, signifies properly steel, and metaphorically, hardness, 
armour. See Rowland's Mona Antiqua. p. 301. edit. 1766. 




Robert d^ Wena holds three Cornish acres % of land in the town 
of Pengeyel, in capite, of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of 
finding five soldiers ^t th^ ^ayte FpriJs pf the Castle of Lance- 
veton, &(!,* 

^ Note, a Cornish acre of land makes sixty of our statute acres, 
or near thereabout. Blount. A large proportion ! Qusere, if 
not six? A, 


Nicholas le Archer holds two ci^rucates of land in the town of 
Stoke, in the county of Gloucester, by the serjeanty of finding for 
our lord the King in his army in Wales, a man with a bow and 
arrows, at his own costs, for forty days-j-. 


Robert Aguillum holds the manor of Watton, in the county of 

Hertford, by the serjeanty of finding a foot soldier, whensoever our 

lord the King should march into Wales, for forty dayis, at his own 

charges 1, 


* Robertus de Wena tenet tres acras Cornu- terrae in villa de Stoke, in com. GIouc. per 

bienids terras in villa de Pengevel, in capita, serjantiam inveniendi domino Riegi in exercitu 

dfe domino Rege, per serjantiam inveniendi Walliae, unum hominem, cum arcu et sagittis, 

qtrinque soldarios ad Vada Gayte Castri de sumptibus suis propriis, per xl dies. Pla. 

Lanceveton, &,c. Pla. Coron. de ann. 12 Cor. 15 Edw. I. Glouc. Blount, 57. 

Edw. I. Cornub. Blount, 55. % Robertus Aguillum tenet manerium de 

•f Nichola? le Archer tenet duas carucatas , Watton, in com. Hertford, per serjantiam 

S inveniendi 



Thomas de Meose holds a messuage, and one water-mill, and 
eight acres of meadow with the appurtenances, in East Smithfield, 
by the service of finding for our lord the King, a footman with a 
bow and arrows, for forty days, at his own charges, in the Tower 
of London, in time of war *. 


Robert de la Sale holds two Yard-lands X^X in Nether Overton, 
by the serjeanty of finding, in the army of our lord the King, a man 
bearing an Ensign ^, for forty days, at his own proper costs ; and 
now it pays a rent at the Exchequer -f. 

X%X Virgata Terrae. Ten acres of land, according to the old custom, 
make a Ferdell, (Fardingdeal, or Farundel) and four Ferdells 
make a Yard-land J. Yard-land is a quantity of land, different 

iuveniendi unum hominem ad pedes, quando- 'f Robertus de la Sale tenet duas virgatas 

cunque dominus Rex vadit in Wailliam, per xL terrae in Nether Overton, per serjantiam inve- 

dies, sumptibus suis propriis. Pla. Coron. ni^ndi, in exercitu domini Regis, hominem 

6 Edw. I. Rot. 39. Hertford. Blount, 59- portantem unum penicillum, per quadraginta 

* Thooias de Meose tenet unum messua- dies, sumptibus suis ; et modo arrentata est 

gium, et unum molendinum aquaticum, et ad Scaccarium. Plac. Coron. 13 Edw. I. 

octo acras prati cum pertin. in East Smith- Rot. 37- dorso. Blount, 73. 

field, per servitium inveniendi domino Regi J Decem acrae terrae faciunt secundum an- 

Bnum hominem peditem, cum arcu et sagittis, tiquam consuetudinem, uiwm Ferdellam, et 

per XL dies, sumptibus suis propriis, in Turri quatuor Ferdellae faciunt yirgatam. MS, 

London, tempore guerrae. Pla. Coron. 32 Cpdex. Blount's Law Diet. ;tit. Virgata Terrae^ 
£dw. L Blount, 66. 



according to the place or country ; as at Wimbledon in Surrey, 
it is but fifteen acres, in other counties it is twenty, in some 
twenty-four, and in others thirty and forty acres *. The fourth 
part of an acre, in some places, is called a Yard-land, and half 
an acre is a Selion. A -f. 

% Penicillum. An ensign, or the colours in an army, or flag. 
Blount. Ending in a tail or point, and borne by knights bache- 
lors 1 the point being cut off, so as to make the ensign square, it 
was then called a banner, and the bearer was, by this ceremony, 
(viz. of cutting off the end of his ensign, and making it a banner) 
created a banneret in the field. A, 

* Braet.,lib. 2. cap. lOi Jacob's Law Diet. f 9 Edw. III. 47^; 

tit. Yard-lwd. 

s 2 SECT. 



tyf Petit Serjeanties, hy finding Horses, S^c. for 

the Wars. 


IVicliolas, son and heir of Sir Nicholas de Longford, Knight, 
liolds four messuages, forty acres of land, ten acres of meadow, 
and forty shillings rent, with the appurtenances, in Kinwaldmersh, 
(now called Killamarsh, and formerly Kilwaldmarsh) of the King in 
capite, by the service of finding one horse, one sack, and one 
pryk f , in the war of Waks, whensoever it should happen that 
the King made war there *- 

f Pryk, signifies a goad or spur, as I suppose, and is elsewhere 
in Latin called Compunctum. Blount. Pryk, joined with sack, 
must be the same as Brochia, above. 

A Prick, or Pryk, as anciently written, means sometimes, no 
doubt, a spur ; the spur formerly consisting of one point instead 
of five, or more. Blount's Tenures, p. 125. Grose on Spurs, in 

* Nicholas, filiuset haeresNicholaide Long- equutn, iinum saccutn, et unum pryk, in 

ford, Chivalier, tenet quatuor messuagia, xl guerraWailiae, quandocuaquecontigerit Regetn 

acras terrae, decern acras prati, et xls. red- ibi guerrare. Fines 1 Ric. II. Derby. Blount, 

ditus, cum pertinentiis, in Kinwaldmersh, de 17. 
Rege in capite, per servitium inveniendi unum 



Archselogia Soc. Antiq. vol. viii. p. 112. seq. Hence, to prick, means 
to ride, quasi, to prick the horse, or put him on. 

" A gentle knight was pricking on the plain." 

Spenser's Fairy Queen. 

So Fairfax, Tasso iii. 21. vii. 27. ix. 22. Flodden Field, stanza 89. 
Percy's Songs, i. p. 25. 42 ; and metaphorically, pricked on, Hamlet 
1- i. is urged on. 

I suspect, however, that both Mr. Blount* and Mr. Grose f are 
mistaken in interpreting the word of a spur or goad, in the terms 
of the tenure 1. R. II. « per servitium inveniendi unum equum, 
unum saccum, et unum pryk, in guerr4 Walliae, quandocunque con- 
dgerit reg«m ibi guerrare f since, in my opinion, this passage, 
wherein pryk is joined with saccus, is to be explained by that in 
p. 26, where the party is to find " unum equum, unum saccum, et 
unam brochiam in «ervitio domini Regis in Wallia, ad custum 
domini Regis." Pryk is again joined with saccus, p. 41 and 6Q, 
and therefore must surely mean in these cases a skewer, to pin 
up or fasten the mouth of the sack. This explanation seems to be 
confirmed by that passage, p. 62, where we have " cum uno equo 
precii vs. -et cum uno sacco precii ti d. et cum brochia ad eundem 
saccum." Brochia here is evidently the same as pryk, from Fr. 
Broche or spit, and, appertaining to the sack, can never be under- 
stood of a spur or a goad. See also p. 65. But the matter is still 
more clear p. 96, where the person that demands the bacon at 
Wicbenour, in Staffordshire, is required to bring " a horse and 

* Blount's Tenures, p. J7. 125. t Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 258. 

a saddle, 


a saddle, a sakke and a pryke, for to convey the said bacon, &c." 
and it is observable, for a conclusion, that in Ray's North Country 
Avords, p. 8. 49, a prick signifies a skewer. 

What is here said may serve to explain that passage, p. 32, to 
which 31r. Blount puts a quaere, " per servitium inveniendi unum 
stimulum ferreum pro una warrocks ^ super quoddam cloth-sack," 
from 22 R. II. for stimulus here is not a spur, but as connected with 
cloth-sack, must mean a skewer; and it appears from hence, that 
the skewers in question were supposed to be made of iron, and it is 
termed stimulus, only because this is Latin for a prick, just as a 
school-boy would render it. 

We have shewn above, that pryk and brochia are equivalent 
words ; and therefore when Mr. Blount expounds brochettus, p. 
71, in this passage, " unum equum, et unum saccum, cum uno 
brochetto," by a little bottle or Jug, he errs most egregiously. He 
was led, however, into this mistake by Sir Henry Spelman, Gloss. 
V. Brochia, who interprets these words of Bracton, " inveniendi 
unum hominem, et unum equum, et saccbum cum brochia pro 
aliqua necessitate, vel utilitate exercitum suum contingente," in 
this manner, " dictum opinor a Gall, broc, quod lagenam majorena, 
aut cantharum, significat, plus minus sex sextarios continenten* ; 
lit sit saccus ad deportationem aridorum brochia vero liquidorum," 
than which nothing can be more foreign from the truth. Great men 
will sometimes err |1^|[. 

^ A war-horse, Blount^s Tenures, p. 107, edit. 1784, quasi war-ag, 
which indeed is ingenious ; but there lie two objections against 
it. First, it makes a word part French, part British; secondly, 

a war- 


a war-horse mounted by a warrior can have nothing to do with 
a cloth-sack; possibly it may be mis-read for carrock, a cart- 
horse, from carrectarius. 

j|§|| There seems some confusion in the explanations of brochia, 
brochetta, and pryk, and they are frequently mistaken for each 
other, when, in truth, they are very different. The brochia is 
neither more nor less than a buckle, resembling the Roman 
fibula, or what is now used as an ornament for the breast. Those 
used by the Romans, and by our ancestors, were often of a large 
size. I recollect to have seen a silver one at Keswick, which 
had been found in Cumberland. It was of Roman workmanship, 
and supposed to have been applied to fasten the entrance pf 
some general's tent. The circular part was eight or nine inches 
in diameter, and the tongue full a foot in length. 

Brochettum or Brochett, is also, I conceive, of a similar form, but 
much smaller, as the addition of ett denotes. I take it to be the 
brochett which is still worn by the women in the Islands of Scot- 
land, now in many instances considered as merely ornamental. 
The most common consists of a strip of circular brass with a 
"tongue. The circumference nearly equals the palm of the hand^ 
and has generally an inscription in the Erse language upon it. 

The pryk, on the other hand, is a skewer or nail, and countrymen 
still fasten the mouth of a coarse sack with a wooden pin or 
'skewer, when they have no cord at hand ; and it will be ob- 
served, that in almost every tenure the brochia and brochetta 
,ar^ connected with a leather sack, though the price of the s^ck 
is often mentioned, when the latter is used in order to shew 



that it Is a small sack, and therefore requires a small buckle. 
On the other hand, I do not remember reading of any leather 
sack accompanying the pryk, but merely a sack, or a saccus 
canabinus. W- 

It is confirmed to be a skewer by the note on the following pas- 
sage in King Lear (act ii. sc. 3.) where Edgar says, 

*' The country gives me proof and precedent 
" Of bedlam beggars, who, with roaring voices, 
" Strike, in their numbed and mortified bare arms 
" Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary " 

Wooden pricks, i. e. skewers. 


Adam de Glanville holds twenty acres of land in Pelstede, by the 
service of keeping two palfreys, at the livery of our lord the King *. 

Walter de Glanville holds forty acres of land in Falsted in the 

county of Essex, by the serjeanty of carrying one seam of Oats t*|, 

at his own proper costs to the horses of our lord the King, whilst he 

resided in the county of Essex, between the bridge of Stratford 

without London, and the bridge of Colchester ; and now that land 

pays a rent -f-. 

X^'t Summa 

* Adam de Glanvile tenet xx acias terraein Coron. apud Chelmsf. 1 1 Hen. III. Blount, 
Felstede, by the service of keeping two pal- 26. 
freys, ad libeiationem domini Regis. Plac. f Walterus de Glanvik tenet quadraginta 



$*|: Summa Avense. A seam or horse load of oats. A seam, in 
some places, is iaceounted eight bushels ; in others, perhaps more 
properly, but four. Blount. 


William, son of John de Legre, held certain lands in Legre in 
the county of Essex, by iserjeanty to find one horse, one sack, and 
a broch, in the service of our lord the King in Wales, at the cost 
of the King *. 



Thomas Carnifex ^ holds of our lord the King, in chief, the ma^ior 
of R. in the county of York, by the serjeanty of finding for him in 
his army in Wales j one horse, a bill-f-4-f, one broch |1§||, and one 
sack, &c. and the aforesaid Thomas was amerced for the unjust 
detention -f*. 

^ Carnifex. A hkngman, executioner, or gaoler. Ainsworth. Per- 
haps also a butcher. E. 

acras terrae in Falsted in com. Essex, per ser- ad custum domini; Regis. Plac. Cor. apud 

jantiam cariandi unam sunimam avenae sui7]p- Chelmsf. 11 Hen. II[. Blount, 26. 

tibus suis propriis, ad equos domini Regis, dum -|- Thomas Carnifex tenet de domino Rege 

tamen dorainus Rex moram fecerit in com, in capite, manerium de R. in com. Ebor. per 

Essex, inter pontem de Stratford extra Lon- serjantiam inveniendi domino Regi in exercitu 

don, et pontem de Colcester, et modo terra suo in Wallia, unum equum, unam falcem, 

ilia arrentata est. Plac. Coron. 13 Edw. I. unam brochiam, et unum sacciim, 8tc. et prje- 

Essex. Blount, 52. dictus Thomas in misericprdia pro iiijusta de- 

* Unum equum, unum saccum, et unam tentione. Pla. Coron. 7 Edw. I. Ebor. 

brochiam, in servitio domini Regi* in WaUia, Blount, 49. 

■■" ' T t-HFalx. 


•f-^'f Falx. An engine of war, crooked like a hook, to pluck the 
stones out of the walls of a besieged city. Ains worth. 

-f^f In Much ado about Nothing, act iii, sc. 3. Dogberry says to 
the 2d Watch, 

" Why, you speak like an ancient and most quiet watchman; 
" for I cannot see how sleeping should offend : only have a care 
" that your bills be not stolen." 

The note states that a bill is still carried by the watchmen at 
Litchfield. It was the old weapon of English infantry, which, says 
Temple, gave the most ghastly and deplorable wounds. It may be 
called securis fialcata. Johnson. 

It also occurs in the Second Part of King Henry VL act iv, sc. 7, 
where Dick, one of Jack Cades followers, asks 

" My Lord, when shall we go to Cheapside, and take up com- 
" modities upon our bills 1" 

Perhaps this is an equivoque, alluding to the brown bills or hal- 
berds, with which the commons were anciently armed- Note. 

And again, Timon of Athens, act iii, sc. 4. 

Lrcius Serv. " Put in now, Titus. 
TiTrs. My Lord, here is my bilL 
Luc. Sert. Here's mine. 
HoRTENSiTJS Sert. And mine, my Lord. 



Both Var. Serv. And ours my Lord. 

Philotus. All Qur bills. 

Ti;i^. Knack pie down with 'em. :. cleave me to the girdle." 

Timon (juibbles. They present their written bills ; he catches at 
the word, and alludes to the bills or battle-axes which the ancient 
soldiery carried, and were still used by the watch in Shakspeare's 
time. Note. 

And in King Lear, act iv, sc. 6. 

Lear. " There^s my gauntlet; 111 prove it on a giant. Bring up 
" fte bpown bills."' 

A bill was a kind of battle-axe affixed to a long staff. Note, in 
CbaloieFs^^ edit, of Shak^e^^re. 

Also, in the old ballad of Chevy Chaee ; |see Percy's Rejics oS 
ancient Poetry, vol. i. p. 6.) 

*' At tibe taste a sqmyar of Northombelonde 

" Lokyde at his hand full ny,. 
" He was war ath the doughetie Doglas comynge ; 

*' With him a mygbte meany, 

" Both with spear, byll, and brande, 
Yet was a mighti sight to se ; 
Hardyar men both off hart nar hande 
" Wear not in Christiante."'' 

Byll, b3ll> an ancient kind of halbert, or battle-ax. Gloss. 
Brochia. Vide pa^,e JW). E. 




Peter the Marshall holds a certain tenement in Springsend in the 
county of Essex, by the serjeanty of keeping one palfrey in the 
stable of our lord the King, at the costs of the King*. 


Robert de Trumpeton holds half a carucate of land in Tey- 
Magna in the county of Essex, by the serjeanty of finding for our 
lord the King, one horse, and one :|.*j: sack of hemp, and one 
broch in the King's army in Wales, for forty days, at his own pro- 
per costs -f-. 

The land held by Robert de Trumpeton, is now the property of 
Thomas Astle, Esq. the lord of the manor, who pays a Crown-rent 
in lieu of the service. 

The tenants of, this manor, now pay to Thomas Astle, Esq. the 
lord, a rent of thirty shillings per annum, in lieu of Ouziellf^. 

The tenants of this manor were formerly bound to maintain a 
number of hawks for the lord's use, till they were a year old. This 
service hath long been ttirned into the above rent of thirty shillings. 

* Petrus le Marshall tenet quoddam tene- rucatam terrae in Tey-Magna in com. Essex, 

mentum in Springsend in com. Essex, per ser- per seijantiam inveniendi domino Regi, unum 

jantiam custodiendi unum palfridum in stabulo equum, et unum saccum de canabe, et unam 

domini Regiis, siimptibus ipsius domini Regis. brochiain, in exercitu domihi Regis in Wal- 

Pla. Coron. 13 Edw.I. Essex. Blount, 53. liam, per XL dies sumptibus suis propjiis. 

•f Robertus de Trumpeton tenet dimid. ca- Ibid. BIouBt, 53. 

X*'t Unum 


X*t Unum Saccura de Ganabe, et unam Brochiam. A bag made 
of hempen cloth or canvas, and a jug or botUe to carry drink. 
See Morton. Blount. Sed. vide p. 110. 

J*J Brochia. Its combination here " with sack and broch," the 
more and more convinces that it means a Fibula, or sort of 
buckle vi^ithout which the sack either could not be fastened or 
fixed on any carriage. Vide p. 135. 

^ Ouziell. Ouzell (young birds) is a diminutive of ouseaux, the 
obsolete French word for oiseaux. Birds *. 

^ Ouzell. The term ouzel does not apply to young birds. It is 
the name of a genus of birds comprehending the blackbirds 
and thrushes, classed by Linnaeus under the name of turdus. 
This tribe are destructive to fruit, and were served up at all 
royal feasts. May ouziell not mean the obligation either to 
furnish ouzels for the table, or to protect the gardens and vine- 
yards by destroying them, or can it be to supply them for the 
aviary? W- 

This bird is spoken of in the Midsummer Night's Dream, act iii, 
sc. 1. where Bottom sings, 

■" The ousel-coek, so black of hue, 
^' With orange tawney bill, 
" The throstle with his note so true, 
*' The wren with little quill." 

* Letter from Thomas Astle, Escj. to the Editor, 27th Nov. 1782. 

^ ■' The 


The ouzel-cock is generally understood to be the oock blackbird ; 
but the ouzel differs from the blackbird by having a white crescent 
upon the breast, and is, besides, rather larger. Note, in Chal- 
mers's edit, of Shakspeare. 


Robert Maunsel holds forty acres of land, with the appurtenances 
in Rode, in a certain place called Somerhale and Lidgate, of the 
honour of Peverell, by the serjeanty of finding for our lord the 
King in his war in Wales, when it should happen, one horse of 
the price of five shillings, and one sack of the price of four-pence 
half-penny, with one Brochett \\%\\, for forty days, at his own proper 
costs *". 

\\m Brochettum. A little bottle or jug. Blount, Diminutive of 
brocha or brochia. A . 

Thi^ confirms the note on brochia above, as the sack being small, 
required only a small fibula, buckle, brochett, or clasp, and they 
are also connected together in unum saccura cum uno bro- 


Roger Rastall held lands in Bulewell in the county of Notting- 
ham, of the King,- by the service of paying every year, a horse 
with a halter -f-. 

* Robertus Maunsel tenet xl acras terras, precii qiiinqvie splid^rui^, et unum saccum 

cum pertin. in Rode, in quodam loco vocato precii ivd. ob. cum uno brochetto, per quadra- 

Somerhale et iadgate, de honore PeverelK, ginta dies, sumptibus sttis -pFopnis. Inq. 1 3> '^ 

per serjantiam inveui^^tdi ^omjflo Regi, in Joli. Ret. 35. Blount, 7 1 . 
guerra sua Walliae, cum acciderit; unum equuiu •)- Testa de Nevill. Blount, 88. 




•Gilbert de Brunnesley held lands in Brunhesley in the county of 
Nottingham, of the honour of Peverell, by serjeanty of finding a 
horse of five shillings price, with a sack and broach, and an halter 
of an halfperiny pi^ice, for forty days, at hi« own cost, in the King's 
army in Wales *. 



Reginald de Colewyke, for the serjeanty of Wyleweby, owes to 
©ur lord the King, in his army in Wales, one horse of the price of 
three shillings and four-pence, and one sack with a broch, and one 
horse collar, with a canvas cloth J|§| of the price of one penny f-. 

||§|| Capistrum cum Canabo. Blount 


. Robert the Marshall, about the time of King Henry II. held one 
Hide ^ of land in Badew by the serjeanty of keeping the King's 
palfrey :|:, ^ 

^HidaTerrae. In a manuscript law book, written by Ambrose 
Couper, Esq. a student in one of the Inns of Court, in the year 

*. Testa de NevilL Blount, 88. Rob, de Pasekw, tempore Hen. Ill, Blount, 

f Reginaldus de Colwyfce, pro serjantia de 131. 
Wileweby debet domino Regi, in exercitusuo in { Robertus Marescallus unam hidam in 

Wallia, unum equunipreciiiiis. ivd. et unum Badew, per serjautiam custodiendi palefridum 

saccum cum brochia, et tuiam Capistrum cum Regis. ^Append, to Brady's Introduct. p.'23. 
canabo,- precii id. De serjautiis ar«atatis per 



1579, now belonging to Francis Ferrand Foljambe, Esq. of Ald- 
warke, near Rotherham, Yorkshire, it is laid down as a rule, 
that a hide of land consisted of 160 acres, and was made up of 
the following parts, viz. ten acres make a ferundel, or farding- 
deal, four ferundels make a yard-land, and four yard-lands a 
hide. So four hides, it is said, or 640 acres, made a knight's 
fee. And that when a knight's fee was taxed at, or paid 40s. 
then a yard-land of forty acres paid 2s. 6d., half a yard-land 
I5d., a ferundel 7|d., and an acre |. And so dcxl acres of 
land made one great knight's fee, which paid for a relief c s. * 

*^ Yet, notwithstanding the positive assertion in Mr. Cdupei-'s MS. 
of the quantity of land contained in a hide, the learned Selden 
as positively asserts that the quantity was doubtless uncertain. 
He says it regularly was, and is, as he thinks, as much land as 
might be well manured with one plough, together with pasture, 
meadow, and wood, competent for the maintenance of that 
plough and the servants of the family ; and his observation is 
certainly very just that it must of necessity be various, accord- 
ing to the nature of. the soil, and custom, of husbandry in every 
country. He also cites a Record, which shews that it had been 
uncertain for ages before he wrote, which is from an old court 
book of the manor of Cranfield, parcel of the possessions of the 
Abbey of Ramsay, Avhere the homage at a court of survey held 
there in the time of Henry HI. said, they did not. know how 

* Sciendum est quod magnum feod. militis una virgata terrse XL acrar. ii s. vi d. et pro 

constat ex quatuor hidis, et una hida ex qua- dimid. vii gat. terrae xvd. etpro ferundel. vud. 

tuor virgatis terra, et una virgata terra ex ob. et pro una acra ob. q. Et sic dcxl act. 

quatuor ferundel. et una ferundel es decern terrje faciunt unum magnum feodum militis, 

acris. Et sciendum est quod quando dabitur quod ad relevium c s. 
ad Stat, pro magno feod. militis xl s. tunc pro 



many acres made a yard-land, because sometimes forty-eight 
acres, and sometimes fewer made a yard-land, and that four 
yard-lands made a hide *► 


Of Petit Serjeanties by Jtnding Arms for the King m 

his Wars, S^.c^ 


Edmund Willoughby held one messuage and six bo vats :|:"* J of 
land in Carleton, in the county of Nottingham, as of the manor of 
Shelford, by the service of one catapultaf by the year for all ser- 
vices f V 

%*% Bovata Terrse. A bovate of land, is as much as one ox can 
plow in a year. Blount. A bovate or oxgang of land contains, 
in general, only about fifteen acres in the county of York, but 
varies according to the difference of soil. See Hidcy p. 143.^ E. 

^ Catapulta. Was an ancient wai'like engine to shoot darts. Blount. 

^ It was an engine of Roman origin, more properly used for throw- 
ing large stones, or driving off a flight of arrows. It acted as a 
lever» one end being so fixed in a twisted rope that the twist 

* Seidell's Titles of Honour, 622, servitium unius catapultaa per annum pro omni 

t Edmundus Willoughby tenuit unum mes- servitio. Lib. Sched. 14 Heu. IV. Nott» 

suagium et sex bovatas terrse^ in Carlton in fo. 210. Blount^ 3. 

com. Nott. ut d« manerio de Shelford; per 

V was 


was increased by drawing back the other end, in which was a 
socket for the stone, and when suddenly let go, the rope acted 
as a powerful spring in drawing back the lever, which being 
checked by a cross rope just when at the extent of its sphere of 
action, projected the stone with great force. To throw arrows 
they were placed in a board, with their knocks projecting, which, 
being struck by the lever, upon the same principle, were con- 
stantly propelled- W- 


Richard Sloley held of the King in capite, one messuage and 
four acres of land, in Sloley^ in the county of Warwick, by ser- 
jeanty, that is, by giving to the King, upon every expedition with an 
army towards Scotland, one pole-ax f , or twelve-pence in silver for 
all services *. 

<|f The pole-ax differs very little from the battle-ax, except in name ; 
some derive its appellation from that kind of ax being much 
used in Poland, and say, that its true name is the Polish-ax ; 
some again deduce it from its supposed use, which was to strike 
at the head or poll ; and others say it is called a pole-ax, from 
being fixed on a long pole or handle. Grose's Milit. Antiq. 
vok t p. 123. 


William Montacute obtained a grant from King Edward IIL of 
the manor of Pole, with the advowson of the chm'ch, in the county 
of Cumberland, paying the King, his heirs and successors, where- 

* Escaet. 9 Hen. V. No. 1 7. Blount, 1 1, 



soever he or they should happen to be, a sword of three shillings 
and four-pence price, in lieu of all services *. 


William de Grescley holds the manor of Drakelow, in the county 
of Derby, in capite, and pays one bow, without a string, and one 
quiver of Tutesbir ^, and twelve arrows, fledged, or feathered |1§||, 
and one unfeathered §*|. -f- 

f Pharetra de Tutesbit. Quaere, the meaning of Tutesbir ? The 
word in the Testa de Nevil is Tutesbir, probably for Tutbury. 

I am inclined to think Tutesbit, or Tutesbir, is not the name of 
a place, but some particular material used for making qui* 
yers. W. 

[1§|1 Sagittas Flectatas. Fledged or Feathered arrows. E. 

|*§ Buzonem. See p. 126. 


King Henry V. granted to Sir Walter Hungerford, the castle 
and barony of Homet in Normandy, in special tail ; rendering to 
the King and his heirs, one lance, with a fox-tail hanging thereat, 
yearly, upon the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, and find- 
ing ten men at arms, and twenty archers, to serve him or his lieu- 
tenant during his wars with France :|:. 

* Carta. Edw. III. No. 26. Blount, 12. . unum buzonem. Veredict. de singulis Wa- 

•|- William de Greseley tenet manerium de pent, in com. Nott. et Detb. Blount, 15. 

Dr^kelaw in com. Derby, in capite, et reddit J Rot. Norman. 6 Hen. V. p. 1. m. 2. 

unum arcum sine corda, et unam pharetram Blount, iQi, 

As Tutesbir, etiiuodecem sagittas fiectatas, et 

tj2 LANTON, 



The Baskervills' antiently held lands there, in chief, as of the ho- 
nour of Montgomery, by the service of giving the King a barbed- 
headed arrow, v»^hen he «ame to hunt in Corndon Chace . 


Edmund Busche holds lands in Morton, in the county of Essex, 
of the King in capite, by the service of finding one iron prick for 
a warrocks ^, upon a certain cloth sack, whensoever our lord the 
King should ride in the army towards AVales in the time of war -f •• 

% Warrocks. See p. 134. This word is one of those which Mr. 
Blount does not attempt to explain, and which he says in his Pre- 
face, might pose the ablest glossographer then living. Notwith- 
standing which discouraging circumstance, the editor is tempted 
again to repeat his conjecture that it wiay mean a war-horse, and 
ought to have been written war-ag, which the ingenious and 
learned author of The Way to Things by Words, &c. p. 31, says, 
is the radical of the word mark, the ancient British word for a 
horse. The word naa:, which is still retained as a name for a 
horse, perhaps ought to be written an ag, having acquired its 
present form by means of the crasis, so common in our language. 
See Gent. Mag. vol. xlvii. p, 320, 372. 

* Fin. Hil. 20 Edw. III. Blount, 24. super quoddam cloth-sack, quandocunque do- 

■f- Edmundus Busche tenet terras in Mor- minus Rex equitaverit in exercitu versus 

ton in com. Essex, per servitium inveniendi partes Walliae, tempore guerriE. Hil. 22 

unum stimulum ferreum pro uno Wiwroks, Ric. II. Essex. Blount, 32. 




Bertram le Wyle holds half a hide of land in the- town of Bruham, 
in the county of Bedford, of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of 
paying yearly one pair of bows for a saddle [§] *. 

[§] Unum par arceonum (dealbaf) ad sellam. Quaere, if it may not 
signify a pair of (white) saddle-bows, from the French word 
arceau (arcon), which denotes as much. Blount. 


The prior of Newnham holds half a hide of land in the town of 
Turvey of our lord the King in capite, by the serjeanty of paying 
yearly one pair of white bows for a saddle, and that land was 
worth ten shillings a year -f-. 


Walter Aungerin holds one carucate of land in Anri and Hole, in 
the county of Devon, by serjeanty, that whensoever our lord the 
King should hunt in the Forest of Exmore, he should find for him 
two barbed arrows. And the land was worth, by the year, twenty 
shillings '^. 

* Bertrammusle Wyle tenet dimidiatnhidatn ilia xs. per ann. Placit. ut supra. Elount, 

terrae in villa de Bruham, com. Bedf. de domi- S7. 

no Rege, per serjantiam reddendi per annum J Walterus Aungerin tenet unam carucatam 

unum par arceonum ad sellam. Placita coram terrae in Auri et Hole, in com. Devon, per 

Joh. de Vallibus et Soc. 15 Edvv. I. Bedford. serjantiam, quod quotiescunque dominus Rex 

Blount, 37. fugare voluerit in Foresta de Exmore, inveniet 

■f Et prior de Neuriham tenet dimid. hidam eidem domino Regi -dnas sagittas barbatas. 

terrae in villa de Turvey de domino Rege in Et valet terra ilia per ami. xx s. Plac. Cor. 

capite, per serjantiam reddendi per ann. unum de 9 Edw. I. Devon. Blount, 43. 
par arceonum dealbat. ad seliam, et valet terra 




Morinus de la Barr held eight acres of land at La Barr, in the 
county of Devon, of our lord the King in capite, by the serjeanty of 
paying him one salmoii and two barbed arrows, whensoever he 
should hunt in the Forest of Exmore *. 


Walter de Bromhall held certain land in Droscumbe, in the 
county of Devon, by the serjeanty of finding for our lord the King, 
whensoever he should hunt in the Forest of Dertmore, one bow and 
three barbed arrows. And it was let at five shillings a year rent'f'. 


William de Albemarle holds the manor of Loston, by the ser- 
jeanty of finding for our lord the King two arrows and one loaf of 
oat bread, when he should hunt in the Forest of Dartraore J. 



Reginald de Colewyke owes, for the serjeanty of Colewyke, to 

* Morinus de la Barr tenuit octo acras cunqiie contigerit ipsum fiigare in Fpresta de 

terrse apud La Eiarr, in com. Devon, de domino Dertmore, ununfi ^rcum et tres sstgittas bar- 

Rege in capite, per serjantiam reddendi doiuino batas ; et arrentata est ad vs. per ann. Ibid. 

Regi unum salmonen et duas sagittas barbatas, Blount, 44. , 

quotiescui\que contigerit ipsum doniinum Re- % Willielmus de Albemarle tenet manerium 

gem fiigare in Exmore. Plac. Cpron. de 9 de Loston, per serjantianfi iuveniendi don^ino 

Edw. I. Devon. Blount, 43. Regi duas sagittas, et unam panem avenae, cum 

•f- Walterus de Bromhall tenuit quandara dominus Rex currit in foresta d§ Dertmore, 

terram in Droscombe, in com. Devon, per It>id. BJount, 44. 
serjantiam inveoiendi domino Regi, quoties- 



our lord the King, on his arrival at Nottingham, once a year, twelve 
arrows *. 

Reginald de Colewike held lands in Over-Cole wick, in the county 
of Nottingham, of the King in eapite, by the service of paying 
him twelve barbed arrows when he should come to Nottingham 
Castle -f-. 


David de Sciredun ^^held lands in Sciredun and Siplegh, in the 
county of Devon, of the King, by the service of finding two arrows, 
when the King, his sovereign lord, should come to hunt in the Fo» 
rest of Dartmore *. 


Ralph dte [le] Fletcher holds in the town of Bradele, in the 
icounty of Lincoln, one messuage and two oxgangs of land, and six 
acres of wood, vvith the appurtenances, of our lord the King in 
<;apite, by the service of paying yearly twenty fletched arrows^ a4 
the exchequer |. 

^ Flectas. Arrows with narrow feathers ; fleet arrows, such as they 
shoot at rovers. Blount. Flectas ironi the word Fleche^ French 
for arrow. A. 

* Eeginaldus de Colwyke debet pro ser- % Camd. Brit. tit. Devon. Blount, 111. 

Jantia de Colw34£e, domino Regi in adventu ^ Radulphus de Fletcher tenet in villa de 

suo apud Nottingham, semel in anno, duo- Bradele, in com. Line, unum messuaginm et 

^eoim «agtttas. De serjantiis arrefttatis per duas bovatas terrae, et sex acias bosci, cum 

Rob. de Paselew, tempore Hen. III. Blount, pertin. de domino Rege in capite, per servi- 

131. tium reddendi per ann. viginti flectas ad scac- 

f Eacaet; 36 Hen. HI. No. 38, Blount, carium domini Regis. Plac. de Libertat. et 

94i Quo Warr. 9 Edw. I. lancoln. Blount, 64' 




Walkelin de Fabrica holds one yard-land in Upton, in the county 
of Gloucester, by the serjeanty of paying, at the manor house, two 
hundred arrow heads. And the jurors said our lord the King was 
in seisin of it *. 


The abbot of Netele (Nutley) holds in Scargerthorpe, Beck- 
ingham, and Sutton, in the county of Lincoln, a certain manor, 
with the appurtenances, which he had of the gift of Walter de 
Burgo, who held it of our lord the King in capite, by the service of 
giving him one head-piece, or helmet, lined with fine linen 1|§1|,. and 
one pair of gilt spurs for all services -f. 

(I^tl A Head-piece lined with syndon, or fine linen, and a pair of 
gilt spurs. Blount. 


Imbert Pogeys holds the manor of Gissag All-Saints, of the gift 
of King Henry, by the service of one pair of gilt spurs. And the 
same Imbert gave the said land to the abbey of Tarent, i&c.J 


* Walkelinus de Fabrica tenet unam virga- quodhabet de dono VValteri de BuigD, qui illud 

tam terrae in Upton, in com. Glouc. per ser- tenuit de domino Rege in capite, per servitium 

jantiam reddendi ad manerium domini ducenta reddeixdi domino Regi unam capellam line^ 

capita sagittarum. £t juratores dicimt quod afam de syndone,et unum par calcarium deau- 

dominus Rex est in seisina. Plac. Coron. 15 ratorum pro omni servitio. Plac. de Libertat 

Edw. I. Glouc. Blount, 58. ct Quo VVarr, 9 Edw. I. Lincoln. Blount, 

f Abbas de Netele (Nutley) tenet in Scar- 6l. 

gerthorpe, Beckingham, et Sutton, in com. ;}: Imbertus Pogeys tenet manerium de 

Lincoln, quoddam maQeiium cum pertin. Gissag Omnium Sanctorum de dono Henrici 




Walter Gs^telyn holds the manor of Westcurt, in the town of 
Bedington, in the county of Surrey, in capite of our lord the King, 
paying therefore to him yearly, a cross-bow J§|: of the price of 
twelve pence*. 

X^t Balista. A cross-bow, or warlike engine to cast stones or darts. 

X^X The cross-bow, or Arbalist, called in Latin Arcus Balistarius, 
or Balista manualis, and in French Arbalet, is said by some to 
be of Sicilian origin ; others ascribe its invention to the Cretans. 
It is supposed to have been introduced into France by the first 
Crusaders, and is mentioned by the Abb6 Suger in the life of 
Louis le Gros, as being used by that prince in the beginning 
of his reign -f*, which commenced in the year 1108. 

Verstigan seems to attribute the introduction of this weapon into 
England to the Saxons, under Hengist and Horsa, but cites no 
authority in support of that supposition. In a print, represent- 
ing the landing of those generals, the foremost of them is deli- 
neated with a cross-bow on his shoulder, and others are seen in 
the hands of the different figures of their followers, landed and 
landing from their ships ; of this print he says, " and because 

Regis, per servitium unius paris calcariorum in eapite de domiDO Rege, re(}dendo mde do- 

deatiratorum : et idem Irnbertus dedit dictam tnino Regi per annum, unam balistam precii 

terram Abbathise de Tarent, &c. Plac. Coron. xiid. Plac. Coron. 19 Hen. III. Surrey. 

apud Schyreburne, 8 £dw. I. Dorset. Rot. 4. Blount, 81. 

Blount, 46. t P- Dankl Hist, de la Mil. Fr. torn. 1. 

* Walterus Gatelyn tenet manerium de p. 42d. 

Westcurt, in villa de Bedinton, in com. Surrey, 



" these noble gentlemen were the first bringers in and conduc- 
" tors of the ancestors of Englishmen into Britaine, from whence 
" unto their posterity the possession of their country hath 
" ensued, I thought fit here in portraiture, to sit down their 
" first arrival, therewithal to shew the manner of the apparel 
" which they wore, the weapons which they used, and the ban- 
" ner or ensign first by them spred in the field." Some writers 
say, William the Conqueror had cross-bows in his army at the 
battle of Hastings. The Genoese were reckoned skilful in the 
use of this weapon ^ a great number of them were in the French 
service at the battle of Gressy. 

TTie effects of this weapon were deemed so fatal and cruel, that the 
use of it was forbidden by the second Lateran council in 1139, 
under the penalty of an anathema, as hateful to God, and unfit to 
be employed among Christians ; which prohibition was confirmed 
by Pope Innocent TIL It was, nevertheless, again introduced 
into our armies by King Richard I, who, being slain by a dart 
shot from one of them, at the siege of the Castle of Chaluz, in 
Normandy, his death was considered as a judgment from 
Heaven, inflieted upon him for his impiety. Notwithstanding 
this example, the eross-bow eontinued to be much used by 
tiie British troops^ and in the list of the forces raised by King 
Edward H. against ^e Scots, the cross-bow men make the 
second article in the en«m«Tation of the different kinds of sol* 
diers of which it consisted. 

The cross-bow kept its footing in our armies even so late as the 
year 15T2, when Queen Elizabeth, in a treaty with Kin^ 
Charles IX. of France, engaged to fiimish him with six thou- 


sand laeUy part of them armed with long bows, and part with 
cross-bows. And in the attack made by the Enghsh on the 
Isle of Rhee, in 1627, some cross-bow men, it is said, accom- 
panied the army. 

Cross4)ows not only discharged arrows, but also darts called 
quarreux, from their heads, which were square pyramids of 
iron, corruptly named quarrels. These were sometimes fea- 
thered (sn& the term was) with wood or brass. Cross-bows also 
shot stones or leaden balls. 

Accordi»g to iS^ir John Smith, im his Instructions and Obyervations, 
&c. p. 204, a cross-bow would kill point blank: between forty 
and ^xty yards, and, if elevated^ six, seven, and even^ eight 
score yards. The range, indeed, depended on the size and 

- strength o£ the bow; but the distances here given are such 
as a eoammon cross-bow wohM carry^ 

Monsieur d'e Bellay (in a military treatise attributed to himy speaks 
highly of the cross-bow, which he prefers to the Harquebus, 
and says it would kill at an hundred or two- hundred paces * ; 
probably he here meant only miUtary paces ©f tw©^ feet„ or two 
feet and a half > 

Cross-bow men were dressed^ and* otherwise, armed, much in the 
same manner as the archers, and like them, were frequently 
mounted on horseback. Grose's Milit. Antiq..voL i. pp.. 148, 
149, and I^, where see a representation of the Arbalist.. 

*Booki. p.'2& 




Certain lands and tenements in the suburbs of Chichester, in the 
parish of St. Pancras, are held of the King in capite, by the service 
of paying to him, whensoever he should come through a street, 
called Goddestrete, on the South Sea, a spindle-full ^ of raw 
thread, to make a false string for the King's cross-bow *. 

f Fucillum, Fusellum, or Fusillum, from Fusus. A. A spindle-full 
of raw thread, to make a false string for the King's balista or 
cross-bow. Blount. 

^ T do not think this translation correct. I think it is a string or 
cord not twisted. The art of making a bow string is to have it 
of raw even strands, almost without a twist, therefore I conceive, 
that as cordam implies it to be twisted, the addition of falsam 
means the reverse, and denotes a cord of a peculiar quality^ 
that is not twisted or plaited. A twisted or plaited cord is quite 
improper for a bow, and cannot stand the jerk, W. 



Thomas, son of Richard de Mareschal of Cerberg, held certain 
land in the hundred of Loseberg, in the county of Dorset, in 

* Qiiaedam terras et tenementa in suburbia venellam, vocatam Goddestrete^ super Mari 

Cicestriae, in parochia Sant^i Pancratii, te- Australi, unutn fucillum plenum fili crudi, ad 

nentur de Rege in capite, per servitium red- falsam "cordam pro balista sua facienda. Rot. 

dendi Regi quandocunque veuerit per quandam fin. 2 Ric. II. Blouut, 92. 



capite of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of finding a certain 
horse-comb, or curry-comb |§i|:, &c.* 

^%X Strigulum. A horse-comb, or curry-comb. Blount. FrOm 
Strigil, or Strigilis. E. 


Henry V., King of England, after his conquest of France, by his 
charter dated the 10th of June, 1419, in the seventh year of his 
reign, granted the county of Eu, or, as he then spelt it, Ewe, 
together with the title of earl, to William Lord Bourchier, who had 
married Eleanor Plantagenet, widow of Edmund Earl of Stafford, 
and daughter of Thomas de Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester^ 
youngest son of King Edward IIL-f rendering to the said King 
and his heirs, at the Castle of Rouen, one Gardebrache J*.]: yearly, 
•at the feast of St. George, &c. J 

p^% This Gardebrache is otherwise called Vambrace, and signifies 
armour for the arm. Blount- Vambrace is a doublet, or the 
cloathing under the «oat of mail, Gardebrache is quite dif- 
ferent. A. See p. 100. 


Thomas de Argentein held a certain serjeanty in Claydoft, for 

* Thoipas, filius Richardi de Mareschal de. f DiKarel's Anglo-Norm. Amtiq. p. 2. '-qd 

Cerbcrg, .tenpit quandam terrain ip, him^r^do J Reddendo dicto Regi et hseredibus suis 

de Los^berg, coin. Dorset, incai^te de domino apud castrum Rothomagi, unum Gardebrache, 

^o^> .i^ serjantiam inveniendi quendam ad fpstum Sancti Georgii, singulis annis, &c. 

Strigulum, &G. Plac. Corpn. apud Schyre- Bar., of E* 2 Par. Bloiint, 104. • "*- 

imrne^ 8 Edw. I, Dorset, Rot. 7- Blount, 46, , 

? ,' which 


which he was to find our lord the Kin^ one horse, one sack, and 
one wooden broch ^, in his army in Wales *. 

f Brochia. See note on Morton, p. 110. 


John de Hillesdon held the manor of Samford Peverell„ and the 
hamlet of Aire Peverell, with the appurtenances, of our lord the 
King in capite, in fee,^ in serjeanty, by finding for our lord the 
King, in his army in Wales and elsewhere in Engl^^nd, whensoever 
war should happen, one man with a horse §|1§ caparisoned or armed 
for war, at his proper costs, for forty days, to abide in the wat 
a.foresaid -\\ 

§li§ Equus eoopertus. See note on Stafford, &e. p. 102^ 


Henry de Havering held the manor of Norton, in the county of 
Essex, by the serjeanty of finding one man with one horse, &c^ 
and one leather-saek, and one iron broeh ^,. 


Robert Wakelyn hokls in Foteburne, and Thomas de Nevill in 

^ SeijjaDt' Tho'^ de Ai'gsnt^W'i i" Ctay- ffepdQ, iivsaegean^ia, ad invenJeBd' dno Regl 

don, pro qua debuit inTOnire dno. Regi unum in exercitu Wallie et alibi in Anglia, quando- 

equum, unum saccum, & unam bFochiam cunqiie guerra eveniat, unum hominem, et 

Ugneam m exercitu suo de Wallia, Serj, &c. unum equum coopertum, ad custos s6os pro- 

eoi Bucks, temp. Hen. III. H^d. MS.. Bidt.^ prios,perxbdies,morando in guewa predictai 

Mus. No.. 313, p. 53. Inquis. p.. m. Tho'. Peverell; anno xxviij; 

t- cjohannes 4e HiUesdon. tea' raaner. de E^. I. Harl. MS, Brit. Mus. No.61'2^ p. 43^ 

Samford Peverell, et hamlett' de Aire Pev€- J Anno 13 Edw. I. Jacob; Law Diet, tit.^ 

rell; cum pertin' de dno Rege in capita^ in Bcocba. 



Snyterby, and Heni^ de Horkestow in Follingliam, six pounds and 
six shillings a year, of land, by the serjeanty of finding one balis- 
farf, with six quarrels [*], and a sumpter horse t^§:|:, in the King's 
ai*my, for fofty days, at their proper costs, and afterwards at the 
cost of the King *- 

^ Balistar. See notes on Molesey and Herlham, pp. 93, 113* 

£*] Qiiai-rel. 1(Fi*o«i qwadreau, Fr, ; quadrella, Italian.) An arfow 
with a square head. It is reported by William Brito, that the 
arcubalista or arbalist, was first sh«w«d to the French by oui^ 
King Richard L, who was shortly after slain by a quarrel 
thereo£ Camden, See p., 155, 

<« Thwang'd <he steing,, outflew. the quarrel long." Fairfax, 

Johnson's Diet. «ub verbo. 

^§t Runcmus. A load-horse or sumpter-horse, a cart-horse or 
rowney. Blount. See alsd Litdeton's and Ains worth's Diet 
Law Lat 



Was long held by the Pichfords by a double fenure; that, men- 
tioned by Mr. Camden, of finding dry wood for the castle, when 
die King was there, which their tenants performed, and that of 
finding an h^rsemafi si'ilh his forniture, (habergeriura) in Wales, to 
he paid by the King, ' which it- was allowed at the assizesj 20 Ed^ 
ward L that the lord migM perform -f-. -.''...... 

* RofcerfuS Wakelyirtehetini^otebume; et custim projirium; et postea* ad cu^t' Re^ 

Thomas de Nevill iu Snyterby,et Henriciis de Inquisi'anilo regni Heiirici fil. Regis Johannis 

Horkestow in Feninghatn.vjTnrrat.etvj "solid: xxviii". Hair. HS7 Brit, Mus: No, 3875, 

'terr. per Serjeant, balistar' cum vj quaTFellis,et p. 165-. 

funo runcino, b exercitu Regis, per xiL <lies, ad f Gough's Camd. vol. ii, p. 409« 




Anno 1302, Robert de Trumpeton enfeoffed Lawrence de Stod- 
ham, and Anne his wife, in one messuage, 90 acres of arable land, 
seven of meadow, 12 of pasture, and 10 acres of wood, liolden 
of the King in capite, of the Honor of Bologne, doing suit at the 
court of Bologne, at Wyham, from month to month. The tenant 
was oblijjed to find one man, and one sack to be fastened with 
[skinillo or spineo f ], in the King's war in Wales, whenever it 
should happen, for forty days, at his own charge 

. * 

^ Skinillo or spineo. These words, which Morant has not ex- 
plained, I conjecture to signify only a pin or skewer, to fasten the 
mouth of the sack, and that they admit of the same interpreta- 
' tion as is attempted to be given to brochia, in the note on Mor- 
ton, p. 110. 

Neither of these are the broch, though the latter probably meant 
a wooden skewer or pin, resembling a spine or thorn. A piece 
of hide or skin was used as a string or strap. May skinillo not 
mean such ? A piece of twine is called skingie in Scotland. W. 


William die Regdon, and Agnes his wife^ sister and heir of John 
Querdebeef, made fine with the King by 10 s. for their relief of 
certain lands and tenements which the said John held of the King 
in capite, the day he died, in Molesham, in the county of Suffolk, 
by the service of providing the King, for forty days, in his army. 

* Inc^ius. 30 Edw. 1. Mbrant's Hist, of Essex/ vol, li. p. 207. 



with one balistar, and two harses, in England, aiid the marches of 


Robert deBilkemore, and Anastaeia his wife, daughter and heir 
of William de Hardene, made fine with the King by c£lO for their 
relief, (amongst other things) of the manor of Westeourte, in Shal- 
deburne, which the said William, held of the King, by the service 
of finding one horseman, with an aketone^, haubergeonll§||, hel- 
met 1|*|1, and gloves of mail, in the King's army, when he should be 
summoned, for forty days, at his own proper costs -f. 

% Acton or Aketon. A kind of armour made of tafi*atY, or leather 
quilted, &c., worn under the habergeon to save the body from 
bruises, f. Hocqueton. Gloss, to Percy's Reliques of Ancient 
Poetry, vol. i. It occurs in the old romantic tale of Sir Cauline : 

" Then manye a knighte was mickle of might 

" Before his ladye gaye ; 
" But a stranger wight, whom no man knewe,. 

*' He wan the prize eche daye^ 

" His ACTON it was all of blacke, 

" His hewberkie, and his sheelde," 4&c. 

' * Wilfiehnus de Regdon, et Agnes uxor -f Robertas de Bitkemore^ et Anastatia uxor 

ejiis, soror et beres Johannis Querdebeef, ejus, filia et heres ^ Willielmi de Hardene, 

finem fecit cum Rege per decern solidis pro fecerunt finem cum Rege, per <£lO pro relevio 

relevio swq, 4e quibusdam ter. et teii. quod die- suo, pro manerio de Westeourte, in., Shalde- 

tus Johannes tenuit de Rege in capite, die quo burn, quod dictiis Willielmus tenet de Rege 

obijt, in Molesham,,. ill com., Suff., per ser- per servitium inveniendi unum hominem equi- 

yitium serviendi domino Regi per 40 dies in tem, cum aketona, haubergello, bacinetto, et 

^xercitn Regis, cum una balista, et diiobus ciroletis (chirothecis) de plata, in exercitu 

equis, in Apglia et march. Wallie, De ter- Regis cum summ. fuerit, per 40 die?, sump- 

mino Mich. a". 3 Edw. II. Harl. MS. Brit. tibus suis proprijs. De terminp. Pasche, a". 

Mus. No. 34,ppv57, 58-. 7" Edw.. III. Ibid. p.. 118. 

'- y The 


The aketon, gambeson, vambasium, and jack, were military vest- 
ments calculated for the defence of the body, differing little 
from each other, except in thejr names: their materials and 
construction were nearly the same ; the authorities quoted 
by Grose, shew they were all composed of many folds of 
linen, stuffed with cotton, wool, or hair quilted, and commonly 
covered with leather, made of buck or doe skin. The aketon 
was long, the sole defensive armour for the body, worn by the 
English infantry ; as it not only covered the breast but also the 
belly, it was by the Germans called wambasiam, or the belly >. 
piece ; the jack gave name to its diminutive the jacket. 

Although the gambeson was chiefly worn under the coat of mail to 
protect the body from being bruised by the strokes of the sword 
or lance, a circumstance that might happen without a division 
of the mail, the verses quoted in the note (g,) from the poem of 
the siege of Karleverock, shew that it was sometimes worn as a 
fur coat, and ornamented with rich decorations. So other au- 
thorities (note h,) point out that the aketon was occasionally put 
on under the jazerant or coat of mail *. 

||§|1 Hambergellus. See note on Brokenerst, p. 127. 

11*11 Bacinetto. The same as basnetus. See note on Aston Cantlou, 
p. 123. 


John Crubbe made fine with the King for himself and others, 
(his partners,) by forty shillings, for iheir relief for the manor of 

* Grose's Milit, Autiq, vol. ii. pp. 246, 247, 248, and notes c, d, e, f,g. 



Newton Reigilj in the County of Cumberland, held of the King by 
the serjeanty of finding for our lord the King, in his army, one 
esquire, or horseman, (serrientem equitem) with an aketone, hau- 
bergeon^^ an iron helmet ^, lance, sword, and long knife, for forty 
days^ at their costs *. 

^ Capello ferreo. See note on Dylew, &e. 

The word knife, which at present has a familiar undignified 
meaning, was anciently used to express a sword or dagger, as ap- 
pears by the following passage in Macbeth, act i. sc. v, where Lady 
Macbeth is made to say, (see note on the passage,) 

" Come, thick night, 

" And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell ! 

" That my keen knife see not the wound it makes ; 

" Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, 

" To cry hold, hold 1" Chalmers's edit, of Shakspeare, 


Adam de Bukesgate, son and heir of Richard de Bukesgate, 

made fine with the King by £4, for his relief for the manor of 

Westuderle, which is held of the King by the service of finding 

one man, in his army in England, with an aketone, haubergeon, 

iron helmet, sword, and lance,^ with one uncovered horse .t§:]:, for 

forty days, at his proper costs -j-. 

X^X Equus 

* Johannes Crubbe fecit finem cum Rege> ton,, uno haubergeon, uno eapello feni, una 

pro se, et aliis particibus, per 40 s., pro relevio lancea, uno gIadio>. uno cultello longo, per 40 

eoriundem participum, pro manerio de New- dies, sumptibus suisv De termino Hill. a°. 17 

ton Reign, in com. Cumbr. Tenet de Rege per Edw. II. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus, No. 34, p» 

eerjantiam inveniendi domino Regi, in exercitn 86. 

8UO, unum sbrvi»rterii equitem, cum uno ake- f Adam de Bukesgate, filius et heres Ri- 

Y 2 chardi 


X^X Equus discoopertus. See note on Alcester, p. 106. 


- John de Estley held of the King (amongst other things) the 
manor of Estley, in capite, by service, (to wit) that when the King 
should take a journey towards Wales, in the time of war, the lord 
of Estley was to find two horsemen who were to follow the King's 
victuals, for forty days, at his proper costs *. 


Sir John Nevill held Wethersfeld, by the service of finding one 
sack, and an iron broch [-f-], (pin or skewer,) in the King's army, 
in Wales -f-. 

["i^] Preue [chenili,] seem to signify the same as brochia. I have 
not been able to discover these words in any of the Glos- 
saries I have consulted, but it appears from the tenure at 
Morton, (p. 110.) that they must severally mean a broch, pin, or 
skewer; for, in the Harleian MS. British Museum, No. 34, 
p. 258, the word chenili occurs, joined to unum saccum de corio. 
In the above cited tenure, given by Blount, Richard, son and 
heir of John Edward de Morton, being there said to have held 
the manor of Morton, of the King in capite, by the service of 

charJi de Btskesgate, fecit finem cuni Rege, * Johannes de Estley tenuit de Rege ma- 

per <£4 de rel. suo, de manerio de Westuderje, nerium de Estley, in capite, per servitium ; 

quod tenelur de Rege per servitium invcniendi scilicet, quod cum dnus Rex itiner. accipit 

unum hominem in exercitu Regis in Anglia, .versus 'Walliam, in gtierra, diis de Estley inve- 

cum aketon,haubergeon,capelloferreo, gladio, niet duos equites, qui debent sequi victual* 

et lancea, cum uno equo discooperto, per 40 Regis, per quadraginta dies, ad sumptum 

•dies, sumptibus propriis. De terminoPasche, suuna proprium. Anno 3 Edw. I. Ibid. No 

a". 10 Edw. II. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 821, p. 12. 

34, p. 74. t Morant's Hist, of Essex, vol. ii. p. 371. 



finding one horse of the price of 10s., and one leather sack, 
" cum quodam chenili de ferro, ad attachiendum dictum 
saccum,^' &c. 


William Tawke, son and heir of Thomas Tawke, acknowledged 
himselr to hold, and the said Thomas his father to have held, the 
day he died, a moiety of the manor of West Tuderley, of the King 
in capite, by grand serjeanty, by the service of finding for our lord 
the King one esquire, (servientem) at his proper costs, for forty 
days in England, M^ith a coat of mail ^, an iron helmet, a sword, 
and a lance : and he paid to the King fifty-three shillings and four- 
pence *. 

% Lorica. See note on Borebach, &c. 


Was antiently the patrimony of gentlemen of that name, who, for 
this estate and other lands, were obliged to provide an hobler, or 
light horseman, for the security of the coast about Genlade iii 
Hoo -f*. 


John de Holt, cousin and heir of William Baxman, of Grafton, 
gave to the King one mark for his relief, for certain tenements in 

. . * Willi^lmus Tawke, filius et heres Thomae glia, cum una lorica, uno capello feareo, uno 

Tawke, cognoyit se tenere, et dictum Thomam gladio, et una lancea, et dat Regi liij s. iv d. 

patretn suum tenuisse, die quo obijt, med. m. Trin. fin. anno, 17 Hen. VII. Harl. MS. 

de West Tuderley, de R. in c. per magnam Brit, Mus. ^o. 5174, p. 18. 

serianciam, per servic. inveniendi dno R. uuum -f Magna Brit. vol. ii. p. 1104. 
servieot. ad custos suos, per 40 dies, in An- 



Grafton, in the county of Wilts, which were worth fifteen shillings 
yearly, held of the King, by the service of finding one horse, to 
carry two budgets or satchels, with the King, as often as he should 
come to hunt in the forests of Sannerk (Savernake) and Chute*. 


Came from the posterity of Theodoric Say to Robert de Mor- 
timer ; and from his posterity to Jeofry de Cornwaile, descended 
from Richard Earl of Cornwall, and King of the Romans,, and his 
family have, to this present time, enjoyed the name of barons, but 
not their rank in parliament. " Burford," says the Inquisition, 40 
Edw. III. is held of the King, to find five men for the army in 
Wales, and by the service of a barony ■]-. I must observe here, that 
those who held an entire barony were commonly accounted barons» 
and, according to the opinions of some of our learned common 
lawyers, baron and barony were connected like earl and earldom, 
duke and dukedom, king and kingdom J. 


Was held by the family of Marmion, and after them by the Fre- 
vills, of the King in capite, by knight's service, and to find' three 
knights at their own costs, for forty days, in the wars of Wales §. 

* Johannes de Hdte, consanguineus et mino Trin. a"- 7 Edw. II. Harl. MS, Brit, 

heres Willi' Baxman, de Grafton,, dat Regi Mus. No. 34, p. 68. 

unani marcam pro relevio suo de quibusdain f De Rege ad inveniendos v. homines pro 

ten' in Grafton, in coin. Wiltes, val. per an- exercitu Walliae, et per servitiura baronia. 

num 15 s. Tenet de Rege per servitium inve- Blount's Law Diet. tit. Biarony. 

niendi unum equum ad cariand' duas bulgeas J Gough's Camd. vol. ii. p. 396. 

cum Rege, quotiescunque Rex veuatum ve- ^ See Scrivelsby, p. 67. 
nerit in foresta de Sauiernak et Chut. De ter- 



The ancient seat of William de Meschines, to whom Henry I. 
gave it by the service of one knight's fee, that he should march at 
the Ring's command, in the army, against Wales and Scotland *. 


Felicia, wife ofWilUam Martell, died 36 Hen. III., folding of 
the King, in capite, ninety-eight acres of arable, four and a half of 
meadow, three of pasture, and 14 s. 4 d. rent of assize, in Rywe- 
hall, by the service of finding one esquire, with a purple lance 
and an iron cap, for forty days f. 


Reginald de Botereus held the manor of Longedon, of our lord 
the King, by the serjeanty of finding two esquires %, one with a 
lance, the other with arrows, in the time of war X' 

% Servientes. See note on Mayford, p. 118. 


Thomas de Walkingham, son and heir of John de Walkingham, 

gave to the King six marks, for his relief, for tenements in North 

Gy»eldall, and East Gyneldall, which he held by the service of 

finding one balistar, towards fortifying the Castle of York, in Ih^ 

time of war§. 


* Oougb's Camd. vol. iij. p. 169. f ittis, in guerra. Escaet. de anno primo Edvv. 

t Inquis, 3.6 and 43 Hen. III. Morant's J. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 2087, p. 24. 
Hist, of Esse3f, vol. ii. p. 147. § TJionjas de Waljciiigham, filius et Ije- 

^ RegijQald le Bpteteus, tenuit m. de Long- res Johannis de Walkingham, dat Regi sex 

don, per seriantiam inveniendi duos servi- marcas pro ten' in North Gyneldall, et Est 
«Otes, unum cum lancea, et alium cum sa< 




John de Plesset, some time Earl of Warwick, held the manor of 
Okenardson, with the manors of Kedelinton and Bradeham, by the 
service of a barony, and to find in the King's army two knights, or 
thirteen esquires, for forty days, at his proper costs *. 


In Edward the Confessor's time it was counted a borough, and 
contained in it (as we find in Domesday Book) two hundred and 
seventy-six houses ^, yielding nine pounds |§^. tax ; and those that 
dwelt there did the King service on horseback, or else§*§ by sea-f-. 

5f Hagas. 
t-^H De gablo. 
|*§ Per aquam. 


John le Roches, who married Alicia, the daughter and heir of 
AVilliam de la Tour, made fine with the King by forty shillings, for 
the relief of her, the said Alicia, for one tenement in Menestokes, 

Glneldale, per servicium inveniendi ununi Henrici Regis, filij Regis Johannis. Ibid, 

balistarium in munitione Castri Eboraci, in No. 2087, p- 2. 

tempore guerrae. De termino Hill. a° 30 Edw. f Burgus habebatur Edwardi Confessoris 

1. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 24. temporibus, etcontinebat(utestineoLibroquo 

* Johannes de Plesset, quondam Comes Anglite Lustrum condebat Gulielmus Primus) 

Warwici, m. de Okenardson, cum m. de Kede- 276 hagas, i. e. domes, reddentes ix libras de 

linton et Bradeham, per ser' unius baroniae, gablo, et qui ■ ibi manebant faciebant servi- 

inveniendi in exercilu Regis duos milites, vel tium Regis cum equis, vel per aquam. Camd. 

13 servientes, per 40 dies, ad custum suum Brit. 205, and Bishop Gibson's edit. 1772, 

proprium. Prima pars Escaet. , tempore vol. i. p. 22G. 



in the county of Southampton, held of the King in capite, by the 
service of finding one archer in the army of our lord the King for 
forty days, at the costs of the King*. 


Richard, son and heir of John Bray, of Netherotton, gave to the 
King twenty-one shillings and eight pence, for his relief for two 
messuages, three yard lands, and seven virgates of land, with the 
appurtenances, in Parva Orton, held of the King as parcel of the 
serjeanty which was formerly of William Fitz Alan, in the said town 
of Parva Orton, in the hundred of Wotton, in the county of Ox- 
ford, held of the King by the service of bearing an ensign in the 
King's army before the foot soldiers of the said hundred of Wot- 
ton -f-^ 


Sir John de Charleton, of Apley, knight, held, the day he died, 
the manor of Harkercet, to him and the heirs of his body, by find- 
ing one footman, with a bow and three arrows, when our lord the 
King should go into Wales, in the time of war, to abide with the 

* Johannes le Roches, qui Aliciam, filiam de Netherotton, dat Regi Sts. Sd. de re^ 

et heredem Willielmi de la Tour, duxit in levio suo, pro ij messuagiiS', i^ virgat', et 

uxorem, fecit finetn cum Rege per xls. pro vij. virgat' terr. cunr pertinentijs' in Parva 

relevio ipsius Alicie, scilicet pro uno ten'to in Orton> ten't de Rege ut p'cell. serjantise que 

Menestok, in com. Sutht. ten. de Rege in quondam fuit Willielmi Filij Alani, in dicta 

capite per .servitium invem'endi unum sagit- villa de Parva Orton, in hundredo de Wotton, 

tarium, in exercitu Regis, per XL dies, sump- in com. Oxon. ten't de Rege per servitium 

tibus Regis. De termino Mich, a" 38 Edw. portaridi pencellum, in exercitu Regis, ante 

III. Rot. iij". Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. pedites dicti hundred! de Wotton, &,c. De 

34, p. 225. .teimino. Mich. a° 27 Edw. III. Ibid. p. 199. 

f RicharduS; filius et heres Johannis Bray, 



King until the said arrows should have been drawn upon the ene- 
mies of our lord the King *. 


Ralph de Stopham held in fee of the Earl of Winchester, at 
Bradeford, six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence^ yearly 
rent of assize, and he was to find for the said manor one footman to 
serve our lord the King with a bow and arrow ^ (Bosone), for 
forty days, at the costs of the said Ralph, for all services -f. 

^ Bosone, the same as Buzonem. See note onBryanston, p. 126. 


The manor of Old Windsor was confirmed, in 1328, to Oliver de 
Bordeaux, who at the same time procured the King's licence to 
empark his wood of Folijohn in the Forest, and a charter of various 
privileges, particularly that all the lands which he had purchased of 
John de London should be out of the regard of the Forest j:. These 
lands were held, it appears, by the service of finding a man, with a 
lance and dart, to attend the royal army §. 

* Johannes de Charleton, de Apley, miles, xiiijs. ivd. de redd. aSsis. per ann. et de- 

tenijit die quo obijt, m. de Harkercet, sibi buit invenire pro dicto m" unutn homiiiem 

et hered. de corpore, ad inveniendum unum peditem, ad servic' domini Regis cum area 

hominem pedit' cum arcu, et iij sagittis, et bosone, per 40 dies, ad custum dicti 

quando dominus Rex adiret Wall, tempore Rad'i. pro omnibus servic'. Anno 56 Hen. III. 

guerre, ad comorand. cum Regi donee trac- Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 4120, p. 11. 

tasset sagittas praedictas hostibus dni Rex. J Pat. 2 Edvv. III. 

Cotton MSS. Titus, C. x. p. 19- § Pat. 5 Edw. II. Lysons's Mag. Brit. 

+ Radulphus de Stopham, tenuit de feodo vol. i. p. 414. 
Comitis Wyachester, apud Bradeford, ^vj 




Henry the Third granted to Peter of Savoy, uncle to his Queen 
Elinor, daughter of Berenger of Provence, all the houses upon the 
Thanaes, where this building novv stands, to hold to him and his 
heirs, yielding yearly at the exchequer three barbed arrows for all 
services *. 


Roger Baudet held a certain serjeanty in Redburgh, for which 
he was to pay yearly at the exchequer one hundred bai'bed ar- 
rows -f-. 

And he also held one yard land in Yeutis and Andover, by the 
like service $. 


Nicholas de Daggeworth, son and heir of John de Daggeworth, 
gave to our lord the King three fletched arrows, feathered with 
eaglets feathers, for his relief for certain lands and tenements in 
Daggeworth, which the said John held of the King in capite, by 
the service of three fletched arrows, feathered with eagle's feathers, 
to be paid to the King yearly §. 

* Pennant's London, p. 146. § Nicholaiis de Daggeworth, films et heres 

•)■ Serjantia Rogeri Baudet, in Redburgh, Johannis de Daggeworth, dat dno Regi tres 

pro qua debuit reddere per annum ad Scacc, flecch. pennat. de Aquila, pro relevio suo, 

centum sagittas barbellatas. Serjantiie, See. de quihusdam terf . et ten. in Daggeworth, quia 

in com. Suhantone, tempore, Regis Hen. III. dictus Johannes tenuit de Rege ia capite, per 

Harl. MS. Brit. Miis. No. 313, p. 34. servitium trium fiecch. pennat. de aquila^ 

:{: Rogerus Baudet tenet ibidem unam virga^ Regis annuatim redd. De terminu Mich, a." 

tam terras per centum sagittas solvend. diio S-Edw. III. Ibid^ No. 34, p. IIQ. 
Regi annuatim. Ibid. p. 27. 




William de la Donne, son and heir of Robert de \a Donne, ac- 
knowledged that he held of our lord the King in eapite, one mes- 
suage, one hundred acres of land, four acres of meadow, three 
acres of pasture, &c. and ten shillings and seven pence rent, with 
the appurtenances, in the town of Bradwell, in the said county 
of Essex, by tlie service of the third-part of one knight's fee, and of 
rendering to our lord the King, whensoever he should pass into 
Wales, for the defence of the kingdom of England, one lance of 
the value of two shillings for all services *. 


John Taverner, son and heir of Elizabeth Taverner, holds the 
manor of Kyngesham, with the appurtenances, together with the 
advowson of the church of the same manor, of the King in eapite, 
by the service of paying to him one spindle full % of thread (to 
make a string) for the King's cross bow, when he should come into 
those parts, for all services -f. 

% Fusillum. See note on Cliichester, p. 156. 

* Willielmus de la Donne, filius et heres Hen. VII. rot. 40. Harl. MS. Brit. Mu6. 

Robert! de la Donne, cogii. se tenere de No. 5173, p. 25- 

Rege in eapite, unum messuag. c acr. terrae, + Johannes Taverner, filius et "heres Eliza- 

■IV acr. prati, iii acr. past. &c. ac xs. viij.d. bethe Taverner, tenet inanerium de Kynges- 

reddit. cum pertin'. in villa de Bradwell, in ham, cum .pertin'. una cum advoc'. ecclesie 

dco com. Essex, per servic' iij ptis. i. feodi eiusdem manery, de Rege in eapite, per ser- 

uul. et per servic'. reddendi dno Regi unam vitium reddendi Regi unum fusillum fili lindi, 

lanceam precii ij s. quan^ocunque eidem R. pro balista Regis cum ipse venerit, in partes 

"Walliam transire placuit pro defensione Regni illas, pro omni servitio. De termino TjLq, a°. 

Angl. pro omnibus servicijs. Trin. fin. 20 19 Ric, II. Ibid. No. 34, p. 340, 




Ralph le Fletcher holds eight pounds of land in Gradele, of the 
gift of our lord the King, by the payment of four marks yearly, 
and two oxgangs of land for twenty fletched arrows yearly *. 


Geoffery de Alba-marlia (D'Aumarle), amongst other things, held 
the hamlet of Leuneston, of our lord the King in capite, rendering 
Cherefore to the King, as often as he should hunt in the Forest of 
Dartmore, one loaf of oat bread of the value of half a farthings 
and three barbed arrows feathered with peacock's feathers [*] ; and 
upon the loaf the price to he marked -j-. 

{*] Tres sagittas barbatas, pennis pavonum pennatas. See note on 

In the 43d year of Edward III. Margaret D'Aumarle (or Albe- 
marle), one of the sisters and heirs of William, son of Sir William 
D^Aumarle, knight, and Elizabeth D^Aumarle, another sjster of the 
said William, gave to the King seventy-five shillings and sixpence 
farthing for their relief for three-parts of one knight's fee, for the 
manor of W'odbury, and sixpence for the price of three barbed 
arrows, and a farthing for the price of one loaf of oat bread, for the 
manor of Leuneston^ held of ,the King; viz. for the ^aid manor of 

* Badulphus le Fletcher tenet viij libr' dendo inde domino Regi quotiens fugauit in 

terrae in Gradele, de domino diii Regis, per iiij Dertemore, unum panem avenum valoris 

marcas per annum, et duas bovatas terra; pro dimid'. quadrantis, et tres sagittas barbatas, 

XX fletchis per annum. HarLMS. Brit. Mas. pennis pavonum pennat. et super praed'. panem 

No. 3875, p. 196. positas. Inquis. post mortem Galf. de Alha- 

t Galfridus die Albamartia, tenet hamlett' de marJia, anno 14 Edw. II. Ibid. No. 6126, 

Leunestpn, de domino Rege in capite, red- Inq. 33. 



Leuneston, which is held of the King in capite, by the serjeanty of 
giving to our lord the King, when he should come to hunt in the 
Forest of Dartmore, three barbed arrows, fixed in a loaf of oat 
bread, when eight loaves were worth one penny ; but it is not said 
how the manor of Wodbury is held *. 


William Randolf held, the day he died, in his demesne, as of 
fee, one messuage, and one fidling mill, with fifty acres of land, 
three acres of meadow, and twelve acres of pasture, with the ap- 
purtenances, in Lakestoke, of the King in capite, paying therefore 
yearly to our lord the King six barbed arrows, at the Feast of the 
Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, to be received by the hands of 
the Keeper of the Forest of Charidonf . 


In the 7th of Henry V. John Morville died seised of this manor. 
John, his brother and heir, held it, according to Mr. Coker, by the 

* Margareta de Albemarla, una sororum manerium de Wodbury tenet. DeterminoTiin. 

et heredu Willielmi filij Willielmi de Alba- a°. 43 Edw. III. Rot. 2°. Harl. MS. Brit, 

marlia, cli'r. et Elizabetli de Albamailia, soror'. Mus. No. 34, pp. i249, 230. 
et heres dicli Willielmi, dant Regl lxxvs. f Willielmus Randolf tenuit die quo obijt, 

vjd. q°. pro relevio suo, pro tribus partibus in dnico suo, ut de feodo, unum messuagium, 

unius feodi mil. in Wodbury; et vjd. de unum molendinum fuUonicum, cum L acr' 

precio triura sagittarum barbill'. et q'. de pre- terrae, iij acr'. prati, et xij acr'. pasturae, cum 

cio unius pauis aven. pro manerio de Leu- pertinen'. in Lakestoke, de Rege in capite, 

neston, ten't de Rege, viz. dictum manerium de per parvam seriantiam, redd', inde annuatim 

Leuneston, de Rege in capite, per serjantiam Regi sex sagittas barbatas, ad f«stum Na- 

dandi domino Regi, cum vencrit ad chaceand'. tivitatis Sci. Johannis Baptistse, •percipiend. 

in I'oresta de Dertraore, tres sagittas barbell'. per nianus custod. Forestae<ie Charidon. Esc. 

fixas in uno pane de aven. unde octo panes, 35 Edw. IIL Ibid. No. 2087, p. 138. 
valent 1 d. ; uon dicit ib'm. qucmodo dciiin 



service of one horse comb, price four pence, to be paid yearly by 
the hands of the sheriff at the Feast of Saint Michael *. 


In or about the 5th year of King Edward III. John de Perton 
held the manor of Perton, in Staffordshire, of the King in capite, 
by grand serjeanty, to wit, by the service of one man, armed with 
an aketon:|:§:]:, an haubergeon^, a steel cap, and a lance, in the 
King^s army, when he was engaged in a war with Wales -f*. 

J^:[. Aketone. See note on Westcourte, p. 161. 
^ Hambergellus. See note on Brokenerst, p. 127. 


Gilbert de Gaunt holds three carucates of land in Heckington, of 
our lord the King in capite, and he was to defend his whole barony 
by the service of fifty knights ]:. 


Peter le Chamberleyn, who married Isabella, the only daughter 
and heir of Ade de Faintro, came to the exchequer, and made for 

* Per servitium unius pectinis equi, pretium capello ferr. et lancea, cum duobus equis 

3y d. per manus vice cotnitis annuatim ad discoopertis, per qiiadraginta dies in exer- 

festum Sancti Michaelis solyend. Hutchins's citu dicti Regis, Walliae, Sec. Staff. Originale, 

Hist. Dorset, ypl. ii. p. 184. 5 Edw. III. rot. 15. Madox's Baronia, p. 

+ Et memorandum quod compertum est 243. 

per inqaisitionem, quod prsedictus Johannes ;}; Gilbertus de Gaunt, tenet tres carucat'. 

tenuit in dominico suo, ut de feodo, die quo terre de domino Rege in capite, et defendit 

obijt, maiierium de Perton, cum pertinentiis tot. baron', per servicium l militum. Inquis. 

in comitatu Staff, de R«ge in capite;, per fca. Wapintag. de Aswardburg. Harl. MS. 

magnam serjantiam, viz. per Servicium unius Brit. Mus. No. 3875, p. 112. 
hominis armati, cum aketon. hauberou. 



his relief for half a mark, for land held of the King tn capite in 
Faintre, as of the inheritance of the aforesaid Ade, by the serjeanty 
of being hostler ^ in the King's army *. 

% Hostiarius, an hostler. Cole's Latin Diet. 


John, son and heir of William de Calthorp, holds of the King in 
capite, one messuage and fifty acres of land in Sythynge, by the 
service of one barbed arrow, of the price of a penny, to be paid to 
the King yearly by the hands of the sheriff -j^. 


Dionysia, daughter and heir of Robert de Crepping, holds one 
toft, and four oxgangs of land, with the appurtenances, in Barneby, 
near Pucklington, in the county of York, by the service of finding 
part of one archer within the King's Castle of York, for forty days, 
in the time of war X' 


John, son and heir of Nicholas de Cotteley, holds the manor of 

* Petrus le Chamberleyn, qui liabet in redd. Regi annuatim per manus vie'. De 

ux. Isabel)', iinica fil''. et heredem Ade de termino Trin. anno 39 Edw. IH. Rot. 1°. 

Faintro, ven'. ad Scace. et finem fecit pro Ibid. p. 2S5. 

relevio per dimid'. marcam, pro terr'. de Rege ;j: Dionisia, fitia et heres Koberti de Crep- 

ten't in capite, in Faintre, de her', predlctae ping, tenet unum toftnm, et iv bovat. terrje, 

i\de, per seriantiam hostiario Regis in exercitu cum pertinentijs, in Barneby juxta Puckling- 

SLio. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 4. ton,, in com. Ebor, per servitiiun inveniendi 

f Johannes, filius et heres Wiliielmi de partem uniu.s sagitt'. infra eastrum Rewis 

Calthorp, tenet de Rege, in capite, unum Ebor. per 40 dies, tempore guerre. De 

niessuagium et 50 acr' terrae in Sytbjuge, termino Hillarij, anno ] 1 Ric. II. Rot. V. 

per servitium uniiis sagitte barbate, precij i d. Ibid. p. 300. 



Hywishe of the in capite, by grand serjeanty, (to wit) by 
finding for our lord the King one armed horseman, or esquire, in 
the King's army in England, at his proper costs, for forty days ■ 



Eve, daughter and heiress of Ralph de Stopham, acknowledged 
to hold as of the inheritance of the said Eve, a certain tenement in 
Blanford Brj an, of the King in capite, by the service of finding 
for our lord the King, in his army in Wales, one footman, with a 
bow without a string, and an arrow ^ without feathers f-. 

^ Buzone. Vide Buzonem, note on Bryanston, p. 126. 


Robert Malenteys holds a certain serjeanty in Waussingel, for 
which he was to find two footmen, for forty days, in the army of 
our lord the King in Wales, as keepers of his small pavilion, with 
bows and arrows, and each of them was to have from our lord the 
King four-pence daily for keeping the same J. ^^ 

* Joharmes, fJIius €t heres Nicholai de . peditem cum arcu, sine chorda, et buzone 

Cotteky, tenet manerium de Hywishe, de sine pennis. De , termino Mich'is. a" 30 

Rege in capite, per magnam serjantiam, scilicet Edw. I. Ibid. p. 23. 

inveiiiendi Regi unum servientetn eqUitem et "^ Serjantia Eoberti Malenteys, in Waus- 

arinatum in exercitu suo in Anglia ad custps ,singel, per qua debuit invenire duos homines 

suos proprios, per xl dies. De termino pedites, per xl dies, in exercitu diii Reg'. 

Pasche, a" 38 Edw. III. Rot. ij°. Harl. MS. in Wallia, custodientes parvum papilonem 

Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 229- cum arcubus et sagittis et quilibet eorum 

•f Eva, filia et heres Radulphi de Stopham, debuit habere de diio Rege iiij d. per diem pro 

cognovit tenere de hered'. predicte Eve custodia. De seijantijs arentatis per Rob'm, 

quffidam ten. in Blanford Bryan, de Rege Passelewe, Testa de Nevill. Ibid. p. 

in capite, per servicium inveniendi domino 357. 
Regi iu exercitu, suo Wallie unum servientem 




Simon Puncliard holds two yard-lands in Hungerford, by the 
serjeanty of being the King's spearman, and they were worth ten 
shillings *. 



Gilbert de Brunsleg holds half a carucate of land in Brunesleg^ 
and half a carucate of land in Broeolmstow, by the service of find- 
ing one bullock or plough horse ^, and one sack in the King's army 
in Wales, by serjeanty -f-. 

% Affri vel Affra. Bullocks or plough horses. And in Northum- 
berland to this day they call a dull or slow horse a false Aver or 
Afer. Spelm. Blount's Law Diet. sub. voce Affrus Affra, a 
bullock or heifer. Law Fr. and Lat. Diet, by F. O. edit. 170L 


Geoffry de Canvill holds a part of the borough,, with the Castle 
of Barnes<apl€, of eur lord the King in eapit«, by th« death of 
Matilda, wife of the said Geoffry, who was heir of Henry de Tracy j^ 
by the service of two knights or four esquires, with coats of mail, 
iron helmets, and lances, when our lord the King should march 
with an army, for forty days, at the cost of the aforesaid Geoffry:^. 


* Simon Punchard tenet daas virg' terre in caruc' terre in Briinesleg, et dimid' caruc' terise 
Hungerford, per serjantiam hastillar' et val. in Broeolmstow, per servic' inveniendi unum 
X sol. Esc. in com. Berks. Testa de Nevill. affrum et unum saccum in exercitu Reg'» 
p. 107. Wallie, per seriantiam. Testa de Nevill. p. 2. 

+ Gilbertus de Brunsleg tenet ^midiaitt tGalfridusde Canvill tenet predictumburgum 




William Buffin holds a fourth part of one knight's fee in Ne- 
thercot, by serjeanty to be with aWambais ^, and an iron head-piece, 
against the King'^s enemies, for forty days, at his proper costs *. 

^ Perpjunctum. See note on the borough of Forchester. 


The serjeSnty whicb was formerly William Russi's, in Hemmin- 
geford, was field, for which he was to find for our lord the King 
one spindle-full of yarn (or worsted), when the King should go into 
Ireland, to repair the pavJUon of our lord the King -f-. 


Lady Custance de Pukereleston holds Pukerele&ton by iiinding^ 
one man and a horse, with a sack and an ax j[or hatchet|, at the sum- 
mons of our lord the King, in his army in Wales J. 

de Baruestaple cum Castello de dno E.ege in prium. Tenentes per serjant' in com. Oxoti. 

.capite, per decensum ' Matild'. ux. predioti Testa de Nevill. p. 108. 

GslUti. que est heises Henr' de Tracy, per ser- f Serjantia que quonda fuit Willielmi 

vic^. duoriim militu vel quaituor armigezar' cum Hussi, in Hemmingeford, per quam debuit 

loric', capeir ferrei», >et Jancea quod dns Rex inveniire dno R. unam fussellata fill lanei 

Tadit in exercitii, per KL dies, ad custum pre- quando Rex ierit in Hibn' ad reparand' pa- 

•dicti Galfrj'. Iiiquis.Co.'JJevbn, a" 3° Bdw. I. j^ffljena dni Reg*. Ibid. p. 357- 

Rot. Hmidr'. *vol. >i. p. 63. No. 3. $ Diia Custaacia de Pukereleston tenet 

* Willielnius Buffin tenet qiiarta partem Pukereleston inveniendo ununi hominem et 

feodi unius militis in Nethercot, per serjant' unum equum, et uuiun saccum et unara 

liabend' perpunctum -et capellum ferreum in securim ad sunimoBitionem dHi Regis ad ex- 

iiost' R. per xx dies, ad custiim suum pro- ercitum suum in Wallia. Ibid. p. l62. 

A A 2 SECT. 



Of Petit Setjeanties, performed in the Kings Household, 
and by finding him with Clothes and Provisions, S^c. 


Peter Spileman paid a fine to the King for the lands which the 
said Peter held by the serjeanty of finding an esquire (servientem) 
with a Hambergell ^, or coat of mail, for forty days, in England, 
and of finding litter for the King's bed ^, and hay for the King's 
palfrey^, when the King should lie at Brokenerst, in. the county of 
Southampton *. 

% A shirt or coat of mail, straw for the King's bed, and hay for 
- his horse. Blount. It is evident that straw was used in the 
King's bed, so late as the time of King Henry VIH. See Ar- 
chseologia, vol. iv. p. 312. See also under Brokenerst, p. 127. 


William, son of William de Alesbury, holds three yard-lands of 
our lord the King, in Alesbury, in the county of Bucks, by the 
serjeanty of finding straw for the bed of our lord the King, and to 
straw his chamber, and by paying three eels to our lord the King, 

* Petrus Spileman finem fecit cum Rage niendi litteriam ad lectum Regis, foenum, ad 

pro terris quas dictus Petrus tenuit, per ser- palefridum Regis, quando Rex jacuerit apud 

jantiam inveniendi unum servientem, cum Brokenerst, in com. Southampton. Fines, 

Hambergello, per XL dies in Anglia, et inve- Hil. 1 £dw. II. Wilts. Blount, 18. 



when he should come to Alesbury in winter [*]. And also finding 
for the King,, when he should come to Alesbury in summer, straw 
for his bed, and moreover grass or rushes to strew his chamber ^, 
and also paying two green geese :|§.j: ; and these services aforesaid, 
he was to perform thrice a year, if the King should happen to come 
three times to Alesbury, and not oftener *. 

[*] Yeme. Winter. 

Shakspeare frequently mentions this custom ; so in Cymbeline, 
Jachimo, speaking of Imogen, (act ii. sc. 2.) has 

— — — " Our Tarquin thus 

" Did softly press the rushes, ere he wakened 
" The chastity he wounded." 

It was the custom in the time of our author to strew chambers with 
rushes, as we now cover them with carpets. 

And, in the second part of King Henry IV. act v. sc. 5. when 
King Henry V. is proceeding to his Coronation, two grooms 
enter strewing rushes. 

The first groom calls for " More rushes, more rushes." 

* Willielmus filius Willielmi de Alesbury, estate stramen ad lectutn suum, et praeter hoc 

tenet tres virgatas terrae de domino Kege in herbam ad juncandam cameram suam, et 

Alesbury, in com. Buck, per serjantiam inve- etiam reddet duas gantas, et hsec servitia prse- 

niendi stramen ad lectum domini Regis, et ad dicta faciet ter in auno, si coutigerit ipsum 

straminandam cameram suam, et reddendi tres Regem ter venire apud Alesbury, et non plu- 

angiullas domino Regi, cum venerit apud ries. Plac. Coron. de 14 Edw. I. Bucks. 

Alesbury in Yeme, et etiam inveniendi dp- Blount, 28. 
mino Regi, cum venerit apud Alesbury, in 



It has been already observed, that, at ceremonial entertainments, 
it was the custom to strew the floor with rushes. Chambers, 
and indeed all apartments usually inhabited, were formerly 
strewed in this manner. As our ancestors rarely washed theii* 
floors, disguises of uncleanliness became necessary things. 
Note in Chalmer s edit, of Shakspeare. 

^ Herbam ad juncandam cameram suam- Grass or rushes to 
strew the King's chamber- 

X^t Duas Gantas. Two green geese. Blount. From Ganza, or 
Ganta, a goose, or perhaps more properly a gander. E. See 
Ainsworth's Diet 

May not this mean Gannets, or Solan geese, as they are now called? 
Or is it the Crested Diver (Podiceps Cristatus) which has 
the pravincial name of Gaunt at this day? Its skin is soft 
and satin-like, and much used for tippets and other ornaments 
ibr ladies. W. 


The King granted to Richard, son of William de Havering, for 
his homage and service, six score acres of land in Havering, by. 
the service of finding litter in the chamber of Havering, on every 
coming of the King there *. 

* Rex concessit Ricardo, filio WiJlielmi vering in quolibet adventu Regis, &c. Claus. 

de Havering, pro homagio et servicio suo 19 Hen. IH. M. 5. Comnuuticated by 

sexies vigijiti acras terra in Havering, per ser- Thomas Astle, Esq. 
viciHin inveniendi litteriam in camera de Ha- 




John de Curtese held thirty acres of land in Stow, in the county 
of Cambridge, fey th« serjeanty of carrying a truss of hay ^ to the 
necessary-house of our lord the King^ when the King passed 
through those parts, and it is rated at the exchequer at ten shillings, 
a year *. 

% Trusula, diminutive of trussa, a truss or bundle. See Ains- 
worth^s Diet, of Law Lat. E. 


William de Bigod holds, with his wife, the town of Bures and 
the hundred, of our lord the King in capite, to wit, the town of 
Bures, by the serjeanty of the chandelry |||f|, and the town was 
worth a hundred shillings, and for the hundred he paid at the 
exchequer eighteen pounds -j: 

jillf Eschauderia. The chandry, where the candles were kept* 


William le Moynfe (or the Monk) holds two hides of land in 
Lindeshull, in the county of Southampton, of our lord the King 

* Johannes de Curtese tenuit xxx acras f Willielmus de Bigod tenet, cum uxore 

terrse in Stow, in com. Cantabr. per segan- sua, villain de Bures, et hundredum, de do- 

tiam adducendi unam trussulam foeni ad miuo Rege in capite; scil. villam de Bures 

cloacham domini Regis, cum ipse Rex tran* per serjantiam eschanderise, et valet villa c sV 

sierit per partes illas, et arrentatur ad Scacca- et de hundredo, reddit ad Scaccarium< x.viii I. 

rium domini Regis ad x s. per ann. Placita Plac. Coron. 1 1 Hen. III. Rot 1. apud 

Coronae apud Caatabrigiam, 21 Edw. I. Chelmsford^ Blount, 50^ 
Blou«t, 28. 



in capite, by the serjeanty of keeping the door of, the King^s 
larder *. 


William le Moyne holds the manor of Sehipton, in the county 
of Gloucester, of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of keeping 
the larder of the King -f-. 


William de WintershuU holds the manor of Frollebury, in the 
county of Southampton, in capite of our lord the King, by the 
serjeanty of keeping the doors of the King's wardrobe X- 


William de Valence holds ten pounds a year of land in that town, 
which had escheated to our lord the King by (the attainder of) 
Hugh Wake, by the serjeanty of keeping the door of the King's 
chamber |. 

* Willielmus le Moyne tenet duas hidas de Frollebury, in com. Southampton, in ca 

tetTX in LyndeshuU, in eom. Southampton, de pile de domino Rege, per serjantiam custo- 

domino Rege in capite, per serjantian custo- diendi hostium garderobae domini Regis, 

diendi hostium lardarii domini Regis. Plac. Plac. Cor, 8 Edw. I. Rot. 23. South. Blount, 

Cor. 8 Edw. I. Rot. 23. South. Blount, 85. 85. 

•f Willielmus le Moyne tenet manerium de § Willielmus de Valence tenet decern libratas 

Schipton, in com. Glouc. de domino Rege, terrae de domino Rege in eadem villa, quae fuit 

per serjantiam custodiendi lardarium domini escaeta domino Regi, per Hugonem Wake, per 

Regis. Plac. Itin. de anno. 5 Hen. III. Glouc. serjantiam custodiendi hostium camerae domini 

Blount, 56. Regis. Plac. Coron. apud Windesor, 12 

J Willielmus de WintershuU tenet manerium Edw. I. Blount, 38. 




Alexander Hered holds half a hide of land in Cumberton, in the 
county of Cambridge, of Our lord the King, by the serjeanty of 
being the King^s baker *. 


John de Hastings holds the manor which is called the Uppe-hall, 
in Ashele, in capite of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of being 
pantler^ to him'|^ 

f Paunetarius. Pander. An officer who keeps the bread in a 
King's or nobleman's house, from the French Panetier. 


Pushill, ip the chiltern parts of Oxfordshire, was held by the 
family of D'Oyly, by paying yearly to the King a table-cloth of 
three shillings price, or three shillings for ^11 service J. 


William Russel holds Kingston, in the county of Dorset, in 
capite of our lord the King, by serjeanty of being keeper of the 
door of his butlery ^, at the four principal feasts yearly §. 

f Boti- 

* Alexander Hercd tenet dimidiani faidam de domino Rege, per serjantian essendi panne- 

terrae in Cumberton, com. Cantabr. de do- tarius domini Regis. Rot. fin. 6. Joh. m. 28. 

niino Rege, per serjantiam efsendi pistor do- in dors. Blount, 68. 

?nini Regis. Plac. Coron. 1 4 Edw. I. Cant. J Holland's Addit. to Camden's Brit. tit. 

Blount, 42. Oxfordshire. 

•}• Johannes de Hastings tenet manerium § Willielmus Russel tenet Kingeston, in 

quod vocatur le Uppe-hall in Ashelt, in capite com. Dorset, in capite de domino Rege, per 

B B serjantiam 


f Botilarium, tlie same as Botelaria. A buttery or cellar. Ains- 
wortli's Diet. Law Lat. 


Jeremy del Ho and Ralph de Coggeshale hold the fee of Ho, in 
Rivahale, which is of the Honor of Bologne, and worth forty shil- 
lings (yearly) and they ought to hold it by the service of the 
chamberlainship j*.|. in the county of Devon, and now they do no 
service for it except payment of two wart-penys ||§|[ a year, to the 
hundred of Witham *. 

J*J Chamberlangeria. Chamberlainship. Blount. 

||§|1 Wart-penys. Ward-pennies, or money paid to the sheriff or 
castellain, towards the guard or defence of a castle. Blount. 


William de Kingsham holds two acres of land there, by the ser- 
jeanty of keeping the door of the King^s dispensary [§] -f, 

[§] Dispensorium. A buttery, from the French defense, aljuttery 
or pantry. 


In the 22d year of King Edward I., Otho Fitz William held the 

serjantiam essendi custos ostii botilarii domini com. Devon, et modo nullum servitium fa- 
Regis, per quatuor principalia festa per annum, ciunt, nisi duos wart-penys per ann. ad huu- 
Plac. Coron, apud Schyreburne, 8 Edw. I Rot. dredum de Wyham. Plac. Coron. 11 Hen. 
14. Blount, 47. III. Rot. 1. apud Chelmsford. Blount, 49. 

* Jereaiy del Ho, et Radulfus de Cogges- "t" Willielmus de Kingsham tenet duas acras 

bale tenent feodum del Ho in Rivahale quod terrae per serjantiam custodiendi bostium Dis- 

est de Honore Bononiae, et valet xls. et de- pensorii domini Regis. Plac. Itin. de anno 

bent tenere per servitium Chamberlangeriae, ia 5 Hen. III. Glouc. Blount, 56. 




manor of Lilleston, in the county of Middlesex, of King Henrv, 
father of the present King, in capite, by the serjeanty of keeping 
the King's money stamp f . But the master of the knight's templers 
now hold it, &c *. 

f Cuneum Monetae. Is expounded by the learned Spelman, sigil- 
lum ferreum quo nummus cuditur, (an iron stamp with which 
money is coined,) the King's stamp for coinage : and from this 
cuneum, comes our word coin, quasi cune. Blount. 


William Drury, who died Tth May, 31 Eliz. 1589, held the manor 
t)f Little Holland, in the county of Essex, of the queen, as of her 
manor of Wickes, aUas Parke-hall, late parcel of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, by the service of one knighf s fee, and the rent of one 
pair of gloves turned up with hare's skin -j-. 


Lands m Henley, in the county of Warwick, were held by Ed- 
mund Lord Stafford, by the service of three shillings, or a pair of 
scarlet hose %. 


Walter de Marisco (or de Marsh) held the manor of Cottinton, 
in the county of Nottingham, by the service of presenting the King 
yearly with a pair of scarlet hose §. 

*GtoFiIius Willielmi tenuit manerium de f Per^ervic. 1. feodi mil. et reddit. unius 

Lilleston in com. Middlesex, de domino Reg« paris chirothecarum de pelle leporina duplicat. 

Hentico, patre domini Regis nunc, in capite, Inquis. 27 Apr. 32 Eliz. No. 210. Commu- 

iper serjantiam custodiendi cuneum monetae nicated by Thomas Astle, Esq. 

domini Regis. Sed magister Militiae Templi % Escaet. 24 Edw. 1. n. 59- Blount, 2. 

modo tenet, &c. Plac. Coron. 22 Edw, I. § Testa de Nevill. Blount, 87. 
Blount, 65. 




John de Metham, and Sybilla his wife, held of the King incapite, 
the moiety of the town of Lyndeby, by the service of paying only a 
coat or cloak of grey furred skins f , at the Exchequer of our lord 
the King*. 

The town of Lindeby, in the county of Nottingham, was an escheat 
of the Kino-'s of the honor of Peverell, and AViUiam de St. Michael 
had one moiety of it, by the gift of King John, paying yearly in the 
King's chamber a fur of grise \\%\\f' 

f PeUcium de Griseo. A grey furred coat or pilch. Blount. 
In Romeo and Juhet, actiii. sc. 1. Mercutio says to Tybalt : 

" Will you pluck your sword out of his pilcher by the et^rs V 

We should read pilche, Avhich signifies a cloak or coat, or skins^ 
meaning the scabbard. Note. Chalmers's edit, of Shakspeare. 

This word occurs in the old ballad of the Turnament of Tottenham, 
where one of the combatants exclaims : 

" I make a vowe, quoth Tirry, and sweare by my crede, 
" Saw thou never young boy forther his body bede ; 
" For when they fight fastest, and most are in drede, 
" I shall take Tib by the hand, and away her lede : 

" Then bin mine amies best ; 

" I beare a pilch of ermin, 

" Fowder'd with a cat's skinne, 
" The cheefe is of perchmine, that stond'th on the crest." 

* Johannes de Metham et Sibilla uxor licium de griseo, ad Scaccarium domini Regis 
ejus tenuerunt de Rege in capite medietatem tantum. Escaet. 5 Edw. II. Blount, 38. 
villse de Lyndeby, f er serviliiim reddendi pel- f Testa Nevilli. Blount, 93. 



Pilch, a vestment made of skins. Gloss, to Percy's Relics of ancient 
Poetry, vol. ii. p. 20. 

||§|| Grey Fur. Blount. Gris was an animal, but not known as I 
take it in England. The fur, however, was in esteem here. Vide 
Cotgrave. Du Fresne, v, Griseum. P. 


One William de Insula (de ITsle) held one carucate of land, 
with the appurtenances in West Haured, by the serjeanty of buying 
ale for the use of our lord the King, and it is worth by the year 
one hundred shillinsfs *. 



Walter de Burgh and his partners, hold sixteen pound f lands 
in Rakey, in the county of Norfolk, by the serjeanty of paying two 
mues|l^|| (or muids) of red wine, and two hundred of pears called 
permeines, to be paid at the feast of St. Michael yearly^at the King's 
Exchequer -f. 

^ Librata Terrse. Is a pound land or so much as is yearly worth 
XX s. Blount. See p. 81. 

jj§|l Mues Vini. Mue, muid, Fr. ; muta, Lat. ; a hogshead. A. See 
3Iuid de Vin. Boyer's Fr. Diet. E. 

* Quidam Willielmus de Insula tenuit unam -j- Walteius de Burgh et partieipes sui, te- 

carucatatn terrae, cum pertin. in West Haured, nent xvi libratas terras in Rakey, in com. Norf. 

per serjantiam emendi cervisiam ad opus do- per serjantiam duorum mues vini nibei et du- 

mini Regis; et valet per ann. cs. Plac.Coron. centorum pirorum de permeines, soivendorum 

apud Windesor, 12Edw. I. Rot, 29j in dorso. ad festum Sancti Michaelis quolibet anno ad 

Blount, 39. Scaccarium domini Regis. Rot. Fin. 6 Job. 

m. 39. Blount, 69. 




Walter de Hevene held the manor of Runham in the county of 
Norfolk, in capite, of our lord the King, by the serjeaiity of two 
mues of wine %*X made of permains, to be paid to the King at his 
Exchequer, yearly, at the feast of St. Michael *. 

X*X How much rauta vini, or a mue of wine was, I know not, but it 
is worth the observing, that in King Edward the First's time, 
permain-cyder was called wine. Blount. Muta vini, a hogs- 
head, A. See the note above. E. 


Bartholomew Peytevyn (Foictouvin) holds two carucates of land 
in Stoney-Aston, in the county of Somerset, of our lord the King in 
capite, by the service of one sextary^ of clove winej|§||, to be paid 
to the King yearly, at Christmas. And the said land is worth ten 
pounds a year -j^ 

^ A sextary of July-flower wine, and a sextary contained about a 
pint and an half, sometimes more. Blount 

[j§jj Sextarium Vini Gariophilati. Clove wine, of the nature of hip- 
pocras, or spiced wine, A. See page 72, Winterslew. 

* Walteius de Hevene tenuit maDerium .<le f Barlholotnaeus Peytevyn tenet duas cam- 

Kunham, in com. Norf. in capite, de domino catas terra in Stoney-Aston, in com. Somerset, 

Rege, per serjantiam duarum mutarum vini de domino Rege in capite, per servitium unius 

facti de permains, solvend. domino Regi ad sextarii vini gariophilati, reddendo domino 

Scaccarium per annum, ad festum Sancti Mi- Regi per annum, ad Natale Domini. Et valet 

chaelis. Rot. fin, 6 Job. m. 48, in dorso. dicta terra per ann. x 1. Plac. Coron. de ann. 

Blount, 69. 8 Edw. I. Somerset. Blount, 76. 




Matthew de Chamfleur holds the manor of Sterte, in the county 
of Somerset, in capite of om* lord the King, by the serjeanty of one 
grune [*] of wine, to he paid yearly, at the King's Exchequer, at the 
feast of St. Michael. It is rat^d at iii s. a year rent* 

[*] What quantity this gruna vini was, I am to seek. Blount. 

N. B. Blount's scribe, I suspected at first, misread gruna for gauna, 
a gallon ; but as 3 s. seems to be too much for a gallon of wine, 
I now think the word was not gauna, but cuna, or cuva. P. 


King Griffin (Griffith ap Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt, or Griffith ap 
Conan) had a manor at Biscopestreu ; and he had one carucate of 
land in demesne, and his men six carucates. When the King him- 
self came thither every carucate paid to him two hundred fowls ^, 
one cask %%% full of ale, and one rushin [$]' of butter -f . 

^ Hesthas. Hestha may be a corruption of the Latin hecta, a 
little loaf of bread.. Sir H. Spelman interprets these hestha's, 
capons, from the Fr. hestaud and hestaudeau; but it seems 
more probable that every plowland should pay two hundred 
loaves, rather than so many capons. Blount. Estaudeaux,^ barn- 

* Mattheus de Chamfleur tenet manerium. f Habuit Rex Griffin unum manerium BIs- 

de Sterte, in com. Somerset, in capite de do- copestneu, et in domino unam carucatam ha- 

mino Rege, per serjantiam unius grunse vini>^ feebat, et homines ejus sex carucas. Quando 

solvend. per annum ad Scaccarium domini ipse Rex ibi veniebat, reddebat ei unaquaeque 

Regis, ad festum Sancti Michaelis. Arrentata caruca cc hesthas, unam cunam (cuvam) 

est ad Ills, per annum. Plac. Cor. de ann. plenam cervisia, et unam butyri ruscam. 

8 Edw. I. Somerset. Blount, 7&. Domesday, tit. Cestre. Blount, 80. 



door fowls, vulgarly so called. Heslaudeau is a young hen, 
(pullet) pronounced corruptedly in the Scottish language at this 
day howtoudys. A. 

X^t Cuna. Cuva, a jug or cask. A. A tub or cup full of ale. 

[:]:] Rusca Butyri. A tub of butter : in Ireland still called a rushin 
of butter. Blount, Rusca, Lat. ; Ruche, Fr. a hive. A. Rusca, 
a tub or barrel ; rusca butyri, a firkin of butter. Ainsworth's 
Law Lat Diet. E. 


This town, by charter, is bound to send to the sheriffs of Nor- 
wich a hundred herrings, which are to be baked in twenty-four 
pies or pasties, and thence delivered to the lord of the manor of 
East Carlton, who is to convey them to the King*. 


Eustace de Corson, Thomas de Berkedich, and Robert de 
Wethen, hold thirty acres of land in the town of Carlton in the 
county of Norfolk, by the serjeanty of can-ying to our lord the King, 
wheresoever he should be in England, twenty-four pasties of fresh 
herrings at their first coming in -f-. * 


Geoffrey Frumband held sixty acres of land in Wingfeud in 

* Camd. Brit. tit. Norfolk. ubicunque fuerit in Anglia, viginti et quatuor 

+ Eiistachius de Corson, Thomas de Ber- pastillos de fresh alec, in primo adventu. Pla, 

kedich, et RoUertits de Wethen, tenant tri- Coron. de ann. 14Edw. I. Rot. 3. Norf. 

ginta acras terrffi in villa de Carlton in com, Blount, 67. 

Morfolk, per serjantiam ducendi domino Regi, 



the county of Suffolk, by the service of paying to our lord the King 
two white doves yearly *. 


William de Thadeham holds two hides of land at Midlovent in 
the county of Sussex, of our lord the King in capite, and he used to 
pay for the same unto him yearly, two white capons f ; and now 
he pays a mark -j-. 

% Duos Chapones albos. Two white capons. 


William Papylon holds land in Bosieham by the same service J. 

Roger Papilon holds one messuage, one mill, and three yard 
lands in Boseham in the county of Sussex, by the service of carry- 
ing two white capons to our lord the King, as often as he should 
pass by the gate of the said Roger |. 


Thomas Rooper and William Wright claimed against Francis 
Leek, Esq. the manor of Elston in the county of Nottingham, with 

* GalfridusFrumband tenuit sexagintaacras :{: Et Willielmus Papylon tenet terrain in 

terrae in Wingfeud in com. Suffolk, per ser- Boseham per idem servitium. Plac. Coron. 

vitium reddendi domino Regi duas albas co- de ann. 7 Edw. I. Rot. 93- Sussex. Blount, 

lumbas per annum. Plac. Coron. 4 Edw. I. 82. 

Rot. 6. dorso. Blount, 77. ^ Rogerus Papilon tenet unum messuagium, 

*f- Willielmus de Thadeham tenet duas hidas unum molendinum, et tres virgatas terrse in 

terrae apud Midlovent in com. Sussex, de do- Boseham in com. Sussex, per servitium por- 

mino Rege in capite, et solebat reddere pro tandi domino Regi duos albos capones, quo- 

eadem terra domino Regi per annum duos tiens transierit per portam ipsius Rogeri. Plac. 

chapones albos, et modo reddit unam marcam. Cor. 16 Edw. I. Rot. 67. dorso. Sussex. 

Plac. Coron. de ann. 7 Edw. I. Rot. 93. Blount, 83. 
Sussex. Blount, 82. 

c c the 


the appurtenances, and the rent of one pound of cummin seed, two 
pairs of gloves, and a steel needle, in El&ton, Thorpe, and Stoke 
by Newark *. 


John Corapes held this manor of King Edward III. by the ser- 
vice of turning the spit at his Coronation f. 


In William the First's time was a royal manor, and some virgates 
of land here were given by the King, that the owner should find 
litter ^, or straw, for the King*s bed, when he came there %. 

^ Literitium. This word, not noticed by our Glos^saries, is derived 
from the Fr. lit, and signifies bedding, though now applied only 
to animals, and frequently to dirt and disorder. Gough. See 
also note under Brokenerst, p. 180. 


Gilbert de Mapertshale holds two hides of land there by serjeanty 
of being lardiner 1[*1| §. 

11*11 The officer in the King^s household who presided over the larder. 
Kelham's Diet, of Norm. French. 

* Mich. 32 Hen. VIII. Rot. 122. Nottingh, § Gilbertus de Mepertshale, tenet daas hidas, 

Blount, 87. per serjantiam lardiriariae. Ex. Lib. Rnb. 

t Carnd. Brit. tit. Essex. Scacc. Appendix to Brady's Introduct. p. 23. 
X Gough's Camd. edit. 1789, vol. i. p. 314. 




Wniiam le Moynne held the manor of Ogres, of our lord the King 
in capite, by the service and serjeanty of being caterer (or pur- 
Veyof) in the King's kitchen, and keeper of his larder *. 


The small manor of Heveds in this parish, belonged, when the 
survey of Domesday was taken, to Erchanger the Baker: it ap- 
pears, that, in the reign of Henry II T. it was the property of Robert 
de Herdewyk, who held it by the serjeanty of providing a hot simnel 
every day for the King's dinner, for which service he was allowed 
a quarter of wheat every week, and all the bran of the bread made 
from the King's demesne -f. This estate being then in the family 
of Heved, is described in a record of the ensuing reign, as held by 
the service of being the King's baker]:. 


Richard de Wells held this manor ever since the Conquest by 
the service of being baker to our lord the King §. 

* WillidmusleMoyniictenuit m. de Ogres, beret idem Robertas habere qualibet septi- 

tie R. in capite, per ser. serjantiae quod esset mana unum quarteriutn frum'ti et totum furfur 

emptor coqitiiiaB, et custos iardenarij R«gis. de paned'nico R«g'. Testa de Nevil, p. 357> 

Esq. anno 23 Edvy. 1. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 605. 
No. 2087, p. 38, and Cajnd. Brit. Dorset. J Lysons's Magna Brit. vol. ii. pp. 168, 169, 

+ Camb. SeijanUai Roberti de Herdewyk cites,Blount's Tenures. ' 

in Cumberton, per <cnjam debuit fe^rrg domino | R. de Welles, t. raanerium de Welles, a 

Hegi unum siminellum calidurp siilgulis diebus Conquestu Anglise per servitium pistoris^ 

ad prandium suum, et pro hoc servicio de- Camd. Brit. Dorset. 




The manor of Wilmington, in Boughton Aluph parish, was 
anciently held by a family of the same name, by the service of 
finding for the King one " pot-hook for his meat" whenever he 
should come within the manor of Boughton Aluph *. 


In the reign of Henry III. the Queen's goldsmith held an acre of 
land in Newington, by the service of rendering a gallon of honey 
to the King j-. 


Ralph the Monk (le Moigne) held Eystan by serjeanty of the 
lardinary ^ %, 

\ See note on Writtel. 


In the time of Edward III. the manor of Chilton was the property 
of the family of de Wigbere, or Wigborough, so denominated from 
their manor of Wiffborouorh, near South Petherton. In the first 
year of that reign Richard de Wigbere held the manors of Chilton, 
Hunstile, and Wigbere of the King in chief, by the service of being 

, * Beauties of England and \\ ales, vol. viii. mino Regi. Inquis. Co. Surrey temp. Regis 

p. 1178. Johannis. Harl. MS. Brit. JSlus. No. 313, 

•f-Lysons's Environs, vol. i. p. 391. Niwe- fol. 21. - 

ton. Regina; Aurifaber tenet unam acram in % R^dulphus Monachus, ten! Eystane, per 

'Niweton de domino Rege in capite, per ser- serjantiam lardinarise. Ex. Lib. Rub. Scacc. 

vitium uniiis galonis de melle reddendo do- Append, to Brady's*Introduct. p. 23. 

■ ^ door- 


door-keeper to the King's chamber, and by the rent of forty shil- 
lings per annum *. 


In the time of King Edward the Confessor was the King's de- 
mesne, and was let out in socage for the reserved rent of one hun- 
dred capons yearly for the King's table ^ -f. 

% In the simplicity of older times, when gold and silver were 
scarce, the household of the King was supported by provisions 
furnished from his demesnes. By degrees the servants here 
employed obtained a fixed tenure of the estates, rendering 
certain services, and supplying certain provisions :|:. Many 
lands were from time to time granted on condition of yielding 
such supplies, but these reservations were small, and many of 
them only to be rendered when the King travelled into the 
country where the lands lay. In some, special care was taken 
that he should not make this service burthensome by coming 
too often ; as in the case of William, son of William Alesbury, 
who held lands in Alesbury, by finding (amongst other things) 
three eels for the King when he should come to Alesbury in 
the winter, and two green geese in the summer; but this was 
not to exceed three times in the year§. The town of Yar- 
mouth in Norfolk i^ bound to send to the sherifi's of Nor- 
wich a hundred herrings, which are to be baked in twenty- 
four pies or pasties, and thence delivered to the lord of the 
manor of East Carlton, who is to convey them to the King. 

* Collinson's Hist, of Somerset, vol. iii. + Blackstone's Com. lib. ii. cap. vi. p. QQ. 

p. 89, • I Blount's Tenures, p. 123. 

"f Kefanet's Paroch. Antiq. p. 52. . 

^ They 


They are still sent to tbe clerk of the kitchen's office at Saint 
James's; but the pies could never have been of much ser- 
vice as provisions, unless they were made differently from 
what they now are, as our ancestors had stronger teeth and 
stomachs than we have*. In 1778 the sheriffs of Norwich at- 
tended with them in person, and claimed the following allow- 
ance in return, viz. ,. 

6 White loaves l « , t-. , , • i 

S-outof the Ivmgs kitchen. 
6 Dishes of meat 3 

1 Flaggon of wine. 

I Flaggon of beer. 

1 Truss of hay. 

1 Bushel of oats. 

1 Pricket of wax. 

6 Tallow candles. 

But no precedent appearing of these things having been delivered, 
they were refused •j^ 


In the reign of King Henry II. the manor of Ashwell was pos- 
sessed by a family surnamed from it de Ashwell, and afterwards 
jointly by the families of Ashwell and Semenour, or SomneriJ:. 
They held it in petit serjeanty, by the service of finding a broche, 
or spit of maple, to roast tlue King's meat, on the day of his Coro- 
nation <[[§^. 

* Blount's Tenures, p. 135. qxas. et Fragm. Antiq. or Antient Tenures, 

t Records of the Board of Greea Glotb. p. 52. 
Archaeologia, vol. viii. pp. 330,^31. § Morant's Hist, of Essex, vol. ii, p. 369, 

J Liber ruber de serjeanc'. fol. 19; et In- and Note, 

f The 


^The serjeancy, at first, was of being hostilarius domini Regis. The 
word hostilarius is derived from the French hostelier, entertainer 
of guests or strangers ; and is used by Henry de Knyghton, 
col. 2371. Query, whether it was not something like almoner? 
In the Inquisition, 22 Edw. I. it is thus expressed; quod 
quidenft servitium solebat fieri per serjantiam hostilarii. It was 
converted into a yearly payment of 6s. 8d. into the King^s Ex- 
chequer. Morant^ 


John Burnell, son and heir of Henry Burnell, Esq. holds three 
messuages, eleven tofts, one pigeon-house, one garden, one caru- 
eate, one hundred and sixty acres of land, &c. with the appur- 
tenances, in Newton Sermanvile, in the county of Somerset, of our 
lord the King, by the service and rent of one table cloth, and one 
towel, of the price of twenty shillings yearly, at the feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel, for all services *. 


William Torell holds Little Torell by serjeanty of the Naperyf f. 
f Napery. See Ashelee, p. 64.. 


Mamgarus le Napper held land in Waithara by serjeanty of the 
Napery J. 

* Johannes Burnell, filius et heres Henrici Michi's f. anno % Henricj VII, Rotulo tertio; 

Burnel, Ar'. tenet tria mess', xi toft, iinum Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 5174, p. 9. 

columbar' unum gardiniim, unam carucatam, f Willielmus Torel tenet Paiva Toriel per 

gIx ace', terx'. &C. cum pertin'. in Newton Ser- Serjantiam Napariae. Ex Lib. Rub. Scacc. 

manvile, in com. predict', de diio Rege, per Append, to Brady's Introduct. p; £3. 

servic'. et redd', vnius mappae, et vnius manu- % Mamgarus le Napper terram in Waltham- 

tergij, precij xx s. annuatim, ad festum Sancti per serjantiam napariae. Ibid. 24. 
Mkhaelis AKhangeli pro omnibus serviciis. 




In the 12th year of King Edward II. Robert de Dunstaple paid 
or rendered at the Exchequer, three pilches of grey ^, each having 
seven fesses, viz. for the 8th, 9th, and 10th year of the present 
King, due for a tenement in the city of VVinchesterj which he held 
of the King in capite. And the said three pilches were delivered to 
John de Stokesby, one of the Ushers of the Exchequer, to be 
carried to Ralph de Stokes, clerk of th« Kind's great wardrobe *• 

% Pellicia de Griseo. See Pelicium de Griseo, in the note on 
Lyndeby, p. 188. 


John Besett, (amongst other things) gave to the King eight-pence 
for his relief for forty-eight acres of land in Elmesale, in the county 
of York, which John his father held of the King, by the service of 
paying at the Castle of Pontefract, one pair of gloves furred with 
fox's skin, or eight-pence, yearly f. 

* Suhamton Robertas de Dunstaple, te- clerico magnae garderobae Regis. Trin. Red- 

nens teriarum qiiffi fuenint Willielrai le Tail- ditus, 12 Edw. II. Rot. 48, a. Madox's 

lour, reddit ad Scaccarium xxviij die Julij, Hist, of the Exchequer, p. 612. 
tria pellicia de griseo, quorum quodlibet est 'f- Johannes Besett, dat Regi 8 d. pro relevio 

de vij fessis, pro tribiis annis, videlicet pro suo, pro 48 acr'- ter'. in Elmesale, in com. 

ahnis octavo, nono, et decimo Regis nunc, pro Ebor'. quod Johannes pater tenuit de Rege 

quodam tenemento quod de Rege tenet in ca- per servitium redd', ad Castrum de Pontefract 

pite in civitate Wyntoniae. Et memorandum ununa par cirotecarum de pelle vulpino furrat', 

quod predicta tria pellicia, liberantur Johanni vel 8d. per annum. De termino Mich, anno 

de Stokesby, uni Hostiar. de Scaccario, eodem 2° Edw, III. Hari. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, 

die, ad defereadum Kadulpho jde Stokes, p. 96. 




Phillip Bassett held of the King in capite, the manor of Wo'cTc- 
ing, in the cojunty of; Surrey, by the serrice of half a knight's fee ; 
and by one pair of gloves furred with grise^, to be paid yearly at 
the King's Exchequer ^^ 

% See note on Lyndeby, p. IdS. 


Wheh'the King himself came in person to Chester, every caru- 
cate' yielded him 200 fowls ^, and one tun of ale, and one rushin$||.^ 
of butter -f •, 

% Hestas. See Hesthas. 

XWX And rusca butyri. Note on Biscopestre, pp, 191, 192. 


William de GundeVill holds a certain serjeanty in Louinton, 
(to wit) one hide 6f; land, by rendering four white capons ^ when 
our lord the .King shall com6 to the Rapte of Arundell; aiid the 
land is worth yearly twenty shillings :|:, 

% Quatuor albos capones. See note on Midlovenf, p. 193. 

* Ph'us Bassett tenuit^ R. iw capite ma- % Will, de Gundevill tenet qUandam ser- 

ner'. de Wotking,iA'coin.'^urr.'per servic'dim. jaatiam in Louinton, scil. unatn hydam terre, 

feodi militiis, et pro uno pari'dfOthecaJum fur- per quatuor albos capoaes, redd, quando dns 

rat'de grisio,reddend.annuatim ad ScaGcarium Rex venerit ad Rapum de Aruhdell ; et terra 

Regis. Esc. teiiip. R^giisEdw.fil. R. Johannis. valet per ann. xx solid. Escaet. in com. Sus- 

Harl.MS.Brit.Mus. No.708,p. 17. sex temp. Hen. III. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. 

t lib, Domesday, tit. Cestre. No. 3 13, p. 24. 




PbilippaRoos (Ladyle Roos), widow, onie of the' sisters and heirs 
of John late Earl of Worcester, Joan IngoldesthorpG another sister 
and heir, of the said late earl, and Edward Dudley, then Lord Dud- 
ley, the next of kin and another heir of the- said late earl, acknow^ 
ledged that they held of the King, in capite, a third part of a capital 
messuage in the manor of Leyhani, in the county of Suffolk, and one 
hundred and eighty acres of land and a half, four acres of pasture, 
&c. rendering one capon, and the third' part of one capon ,j:|t) and 
the third part of one pound of pepper, and by the service of the for^- 
tieth part of one knighf s fee *- ' ■ ' ; , 3 

X^X Tertiam partem unlu« caponis. See note on Redworth, 


Gcoffery de Brauntesdon, son and heir of John de Brauntcsdon, 
made fine with our lord the Kino; for his relief for one messuao-e, 
three cottages, and three yard lands, in Selneston, which the said 
John held of the King, in capite, by the service of keeping the 
King's wines, when they should happen to be in his cellar at 
Selnestonf, .71 \ 

* Philippa Rooa, vidua, Dna le Roos, una 3 Jlfen. VII. Ro. 3. Harl. MS.' Brit, Mus. 

sororum et 'beredum Johannis miper Comitis No. .5174, p. 5. 

Wigorn. Johanna Ingoldesthorpe, altera so- f Galfridus de Brauntesdon, filius et heres 

rorum et heredum ipsius nuper comitis, et Ed- .Johannis d,e: Brauntesdon, fecit finem cum 

wardus Dudley, tunc Dns Dudley, consang'. .dno Rege, .prx) relevio s^O;, pro uno me^sju^- 

et alter hered.lpijius nupex Comitis, .cogji'jie te- gio,,3 cotagiis,ettribiis virgat. terra; in Selnes- 

iiere de R. in capite, -textiam p'tm. capitalis ton, quas dictus Johannes Rewe in 

uiess.m. de Leyham, in coiju S.uff. 180 acr. capite, per servitium, custodiendi vina diiji. 

terr. et dimid'. 4 acr, pastur'.. &.c. rsdd. yij' quando -sunt in celario apud .Selneston. De 

caponis, et tertiam p'tem unius capoais, «t termino Trin. anuo ^o^ Edw. I. Ibjd. 

tertiam p'tem unius libra piperis, de redd, per No. 34, p. 43. 
servicium xl"° p'tis unius f. mil. Hill. fin. anno 




' Margaret, one of the sisters and heirs of Richard de Whelghton, 
held a moiety of one toft, one pigeon-house,. fortj acres of land, and 
half an acre of piasture,; with the appurtenances, at Bradbrugge, in 
Boseham, in the county of Sussex, of our lord the King in socage, 
by the service of two white capons to be paid to our said lord the 
King, when the same lord the King^ should ride through the land 
aforesaid,, for all services *. 


In the ninth year of King Edward II. Ranulph de Helebek ren- 
dered at the Exchequer, two hundred pearmains, and two mo- 
dia ^ o.f wine, for the manor of Ronnehani, which he held of 
the King in capite, in the county of NorfoPc. The pearmains were 
delivered to John de Eggemere, usher of the exchequer, to be sent 
to the treasurer'^s wife,, and the wine was delivered to the same per- 
son, to be kept by him till the treasurer came to the Exchequer -j-.. 

f^ Modius vini. A hogshead of wine. Blount-' 


Margaretaj una filiarum et lieredum lebek reddit ad Scaccaiiuui ducenta pire- 

Eic'i. de Whelghton, tenuit med. unius tofti, manna, et duo media vini, pro manerio de ' 

Miiiiis columbaris, xl. acr'. terr'. et dimid. aor'. Ronneh^m, quod de Rege tenet in capite, iin 

pasture, cum pertinentiis, apud Bradebrugge, comitatu Norfolciae. Et> memorandum quod 

in. Boseham, in com. Sussex, de dno Rege in piremanna predicta- liberantup Johanni de Eg- 

socagio, per servitium' duoruf caponum albo- gemere hostiario ad mittendum consorti The- 

jum, eidem dno Regi solvend. cum idem saurarij penpraeceptum Foj^e,' et vinum 

dSus Rex per terram predictam equitaverit pro prsedictum liberatur praedicto Johanni de Eg- 

omnl servitio. De termino Hiljarii, anno- gemere, custodiendum usque ' ad . adventum 

12 Ric. II-. Ro.. iij?. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus.. dicti Thesaurarij. Mich, fines, &c. 9 Edw. II. 

No. 34, p. 30.5. Rot. 109. Madox's Hist. Excheq. p. 6l 1.. 
t Norfolcia. Redditus. Ranulphus de He* 




The prior of Hereford holds one messuage in Hei'eford, which 
Richard de Hay left to the church 6f St. Guthlace in Alms, and 
that messuage was held of our lord the King by the service of being 
his baker*. 


Alexander de Newburgh owes the service of being vintner to our 
lord the King for Newburgh -j-. 


Richard de Wedon gave to the King twelve shillings and six- 
pence, for his relief of two messuages, and three parts of one yard 
land, &c. with the appurtenances, in Chesham, held of the King by 
the serjeanty of being Naperer f of our lord the King J. 


Walter Mauntel held a certain seijeanty in Little Messenden, by 
being Naperer^ of our lord the King §. 

* Prior de Hereford tenet unuui messuag'. j: Ric'us. de Wedon dat Regi xii s. vi d. pro 

in Hereford, quod Ric'us. de Haya legavit relevio suo de duobus messuagiis, tribiis par- 

eccl'ie. S". Gutblaci in EJymosinam, et mes- tibus unius virg. terras, &c. cum pertinentijs, in 

suagium illud tenebatur de diio Rege per servi- Chesham, de Rege per serjantiam essendi na- 

cium pistoris. De Seriancijs temp. Hen. IL parius diii Regis. De teVminO Mich, anno 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 6765, p. 34, from 13 Edw. IH. Ibid. No. 34, p. 145. 

Testa de Nevil. § Serjantia Walteri Mauntel, in Parva Mes- 

f Alexander de Novo Burgo debet servic'. senden, pro qua debuit esse naparius diii Re- 

vinar' dni Regis de Novo Burg. Salopp. Te- gis. Serj. &c. com; Bucks. Ibid. No. 313, 

nentes in cap. de diio Rege per seriant'. Harl. p. 53. 
MS. Brit. Mus. No. 1087, p. 15. 

f Naparius. 


f Naparius. A table-decker, or one who took charge of the 
napery (table-cloths, and other linen). See Ashelee, p. 64. 


Was obliged yearly for its lands to pay the King of England a 
rich cloak furred with sables, which custom was bought out with 
one thousand marks of silver, by Hugh Bishop thereof, temp. 
Richard I.* 


Joane Swinderton, sister and heir of Thomas Newenton, died in 
1445, possessed of the manor of Redene, alias Reden Court. She 
had in 1422 passed this manor to trustees, I suppose, for a settle- 
ment. It contained one messuage and one hundred acres of arable, 
formerly William Flemings, holden of the King by the service of 
finding Litter Hl:|. in the King's chamber as often as he came to 
Havering f. 

iJIt- See note on Edburton, p, 194. 


John de Clyxby, parson of the church of Symondesburne, ac- 
knowledged himself to hold one messuage, and three oxgangs and 
a half of land, with the appurtenances, in Clyxby, in the county of 
Lincoln, of the King, in capite, by the service of one night-cap, 
(or hood) and one falcon, to be paid to the King yearly at Mi- 

* DanieFs Chron, p. lOi.Polewhele'sHist. -f- Morant's Hist, of Essex, vol. i. p. 64. 

of Cornwall; vol. ii. pp. £0; 61. 



chaelmas, for all services ; which said night-cap was appraised at" ^ 
halfpenny *. 


William de Spersholt holds a third part of Westhenreth, of, the 
King in capite, by the service of purchasing ale in the household of 
our lord the King -j;*. 


Henry Fitz William holds of our lord the King one piece of land 
in Midelinton, by the serjeanty of finding one towel to wipe the 
hands of our lord the King, when he shall hunt in the forest of 
Witchwood, in the parts of Lankeleg, and that land was worth forty 
shillings X' 


Hugh de Saint Pbilibert holds of our lord the King, in the town 
of Bray, fifty shillings of land, by the serjeanty of serving our lord 
tlie King with his boots §v 

* Johannes de Cayxbyj persona ecdfesie de ^bet emere cervis- in hospicio dni Regis, 8cc. 

Symondesburn, attacb. tanquam se tenere unum Rotuli Huiidredorum Berk', vol. i. p. 16. 
ines$uagiutn, et tres bovaS tew. et diniid''. cum J Hemic' filius Willielmi ten', dfe dina 

pertin'. in Clyxby, in com. Lancoln, de Rege, Rege in. Midelinton, una -tia per serjantiam- 

in capite, per servitiiini unius capicij, et pro iiiveniendi una tualliam ad manus dni Regis, 

lino falcone, Regi annuatim solvend'. &d tergend'^ quando' venal' in foresta de Wige- 

festum Sancti Mich'is, pro onini servitio, q^iad wode in p'tibus de Lankekg, et valet XL s. 

quidem ciipitium appreciatur ad ob'. De terra ipa. Escaet' dni Regis de com. Oxon. 

■ termiiio Tr.ii. a"* 33 Edw. III. Rot. 1. Harl. Tfesta de Nevil, p. 107- 

MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 212. | Hugo de Sco' Philiberto tenet ^e dno 

•j- Williehnus de Spersholt tenet terciam par- Rege in villa de Bray l solid', terre per ser- 

tem de Westhenreth de Rege in capite,i quod jaa/serviendi de ocreis dni Reg'. Esc. com. 

Berks. Ibid. p. 108. 



•■ "1 .1 >■■■ ■ ' • '■■■■. ■ ■ ■ ■ 


Emma de Hamton holds of our lord the King in the town of 
Niwenton, forty shillings of land, by the service of cutting out the' 
linen clothes of the King and Queen *. 

> ' ' V , ' , ■ 


William Gardinar holds seven acres of land in Lancaster, by the> 
service that he should find in the castle, pot herbs and leeks, and 
his land is worth two shillings and four-pence -f-- 


Robert de Eston and Jordan de Wotton hold of our lord the 
King one hide of land, in the town of Ludewell, by the serjeanty 
of preparing or dressing the herbs of our lord the King in Wood- 
stock J- 


Gunnore de la More held a certain serjeanty in Winter burn, for 
which he was to keep the brushwood^ and litter of our lord th»e 
King^.; z'' '-■ 'J'' - 

■ ^ 

* Emma de Hamton tenet de <Ko Rege in J Robertus de Eston et Jordanus de Wotton 

viUa de Niwjenton, xl s. terre per serviciu ten', de diio Rege una hidam ter'. in villa de 

iscindeTtidi linos pannos diii R«gis et Regine, Ludewell, per serjantiam parandi herbarios 

Escaet'diii Regis de com. Oxou. Testa de dipi Regis in Wodestokes. Ibid. p. 107. 

Nevil, p. 107. '^ Serjantia Gunnore de la More in Win- 

■f Willielmus Gardinar tenet vij acras terre . Serburn, per quam debuit custodire busCam et 

in Lane', per servic' quod inve'iat' in castro literam diii Reg'. Ibid. p. 146. 
olera et porrecta, terra sua valet ij s. iiij d^u'. 
Ibid. p. 372. 

: ; . . ^ <!|"Busca, 


f Busca, (Fr, Busche) underwood, billet, also brushwood. Blounfs 
Law. Diet. sub. voce. 



Our lord the King had eighteen bovates of land and a half in 
Goul thorp, Billingelay, and in Swinton, which were his escheats, 
and he gave them to Daniel Pincerne by the service of one sex- 
tary [*] of wine, with the flaskets [|§||, to be rendered at London, at 
the feast of Saint Michael, and that land was worth five marks *. 

[*] Sextary. See note on Stoney Aston, p. 190. 

mil Flasketa. See note on Swinton. 


Cff Petit Serjeanties performed by Jceeping and taking 
Care ofi:he Ming's Whores ^ Laundresses, and Women, 


Robert Testard held certain land in the town of Guldeford, by 

* Rex habuit xviij bovat' terre et di' in flaschetis, reddend' apiid London, ad festum 

Goulthorp, Billingelay, et in Swinton, que Sci' Mich'is, valet v m'r. Testa de -N evil, p. 

fuerunt eschaete sue et illas dedit Danieli 875. 
Pinc'ue per servicitt uniiis sextar' vini, cum ; 



serjeanty of > keeping rth^ whores f in the court of our lord thp 
King. And it is set at xxv S. a year rent *. 

Thomas de-la Puill^ holds one serjeanty in the town of Guldeford, 
pf the gift of Riphard Testard, for which he formerly used to keep 
the laundresses §|:§ of the King's court; and now he pays at the 
JGxchequer xxv s. -f* 

% By meretrices was, in these times, understood laundresses, Blount. 
But certainly the King's household used to be furnished with 
meretrices, properly so called ; for, amongst the articles devised 
for the establishment of good order in the King's household, 
22 Hen. VIII. is the following, viz. « That the Knight Marshal 

- take good regard that all such unthrifty and common women 
as follow the court be banished." Cap. 41. Archseologia, vol. iii, 

*- p. 155. 'E. The laundresses are called lotrices in the next 
article. P. 

|l|.§ Lotrices. ' Laundresses. A. t 


William Hoppeshort holds half a yard-land, in that town, of our 
lord the King, by the service of keeping for the King six damsels, 

- * Robertus Testard tenuit quaiidam terrain tiam in villa de Guldeford de dono Richardi 

in villa de Guldjeford, per serjantiani.custodi- Testard, per quam aliquando solebat servare 

tendi meretrices in cnria domini Regis. Et lotrices curiae domini Regis, et modo reddit 

arrentata est ad xxv s. PlacCor. 19 Hen, III. ad Scaccarium xxv s. Plac. Coron. de ann. 

.Surrey. ,. Blount, 8, 39 Hen. HI. Surrey. Blount, 79. 

^\ t Thopaas de I^ Puille tenet upam serjan- 

• E E to 


to wit, whoi'es f , at the cost of the King*. This was called pimp- 
tenure 'j^'. 


Robert de Gatton holds the manor of Gateshill, in the county of 
Surrey, by the serjeanty of being Marshal of twelve girls who fol- 
lowed the King's court J. 

Hamo de Gatton holds the manor of Gateshull, in the county of 
Surrey, of our lord the King, by serjeanty of being Marshal of the 
whores f when the King should come into those parts. And he was 
not to hold it but at the will of the King§. 

^ The word meretrices was heretofore used for lotrices, or laun- 
dresses. Blount. Tralatitious Terins, meretrix meant formerly 
what it now means. Custos meretricium publice venalium in 
Lupanari de Roth. A. 

In the Gent. Mag. for 1773, p. 302, it is said, that, " among 
other strange customs in England, there is one, that, whenever the 
King comes to Lothesly manor, near Guildford, the lord is to pre- 
sent his Majesty with three whores." 

* Willielmus Hoppeshort tenet dimidiam Marescalli duodecim puellarutn quse sequuntur 

virgatam terrse in eadem village doHiiiK) Rege, curMm-dcwHini Regis. Plac. Coron. 19 Hen. 

per servitium custodiendi domino Regi sex III. Surrey. Blount, 80. 

damisellas, scil. meretrices, ad custum domini | Hamo ' de Gatton tenet manerium de 

Regis. Plac. Coron. apud ^^'indesor, 12 Gateshull, in com. Surrey, de domino Rege, 

Edw. I. Rot. 28, in dorso. Blount, 39. per seijantiam ut erit Marescallus meretricum 

f Jacob's Law Diet, sub voce Pimp-Te- cum dominus Rex venerit in partibus illis, et 

nure. non tenet nisi ad voluntatetn ipsius Regis. 

J Robertus de Gatton tenet manerium de Plac. Coroni 19 Hen. Ill, Surrey. Blount, 

Gateshill, in com, Surrey, per serjantiam 82. 



At p. 358, a correspondent in some measure rectifies the mistake, 
by informing us, that, " instead of Lotheslj, it was the manor of 
Catteshill that was meant ;" and that this manor " was holden by 
the service of being Marshal of the meretrices when the King 
came that way ; that it is well known that meretrix, in later Latin 
writers, is equivalent to lavatrix, or lotrix ; and therefore that these 
twelve young women (/or such, as he observes, are they called, and 
such is their number said to have been by Blount, in his Account 
of Ancient Tenures, p. 80), were to follow the court in the capacity 
of laundresses, to be furnished by the lord of the manor of Cattes- 

Another correspondent, in voL xiix. p- 341, carries the custom 
back again to Lothesly, which he tells us *' was holden in grand 
serjeanty by the master of the King's meretrices, i. e. (says he) 
laundresses/' Perhaps a more full and accurate aecount of this 
matter may not be unacceptable. 

From the accession of King Henry IL our Kings had a mansion- 
house and park at Guildford, where they occasionally resided and 
kept their court ; during which time, certain of the inferior offices 
of the household were supplied by the tenants of two different 
estates, holden of the Crown in this neighbourhood. 

1. One of these was what is now called the manor of Poyle, in 
GuildfGHrd, which had been given in earlier times to the family of 
Testard, During the minority of William, an heir of this family, in 
the time of Henry II., the wardship of him and his estate was given 
to one Ranulph de Broc, from whom it descended to Edeline, his 
daughter, who held it " per serjantiam mareschalli in curia don^ini 

E E 2 Regis." 


Regis*." Stephen de Turnham, who married her, succeeded to the 
trust, and held it by the same service -f-. To this WilHam, who died 
in the 14th of Hen. III., anno 1230, succeeded Robert, his son, who 
is described as holding it in 19 Henry HI., 1235, " per serjantiara 
custodiendi meretrices in curia domini Regis :|:." Thomas succeeded 
to the inheritance ; and after him, Richard, his brother ; in the ac- 
count of whose serjeanty it is set forth as a part of his office of 
niareschal, that he was " servare lotrices curise domini Regis §.'* 
About this time Richard sold this estate to Thomas de la Puille, or 
Poyle (from which it took its present name), who held it by the 
same service || ; and in his family it continued till 9 Hen. V. But 
this whimsical tenure, having before this been converted into 
knight's service, we hear no more of it after the Hth Edw. II., or 

2. The other estate holden by this tenure, was the manor of 
Catteshill, in Godalming, distant about four miles from the court at 
Guildford. Ranulph de Broc, already spoken of as guardian of 
the heir of Testard, had a grant of this manor from King Henry II., 
to hold by the service of " ostiarius in camera domini Regis ^" 
Edeline, his daughter, and Stephen de Turnham her husband, held h 
by the same service**. Robert de Gatton, who married a grand- 
daughter and co-heir of Stephen's, is called " mareschallus custo- 
diendo meretrices de curia domini Regis -j -f," and " mareschallus 

* Test, de Nev. in Esch. |[ Blount, p. 79. Plac. Cor. 39 Hen. III. 

t Test, de Nev. % Test, de Nevih 

$ Blount, p. 8, Plac. Com. Surr. 19 Hen. ** Ibid. 

Ill- tt- Plac. Cor. 25 Hen. III. 

§ Blount, p. 79. Plac. Cor. 39 Hen, III. 



j^uodecim puellarum que sequuntur curiam domlni Regis* " Hamo 
de Gatton, his spn and heir, " mareschallus meretricum cum do-» 
minus Rex venerit in iUis partibus f," and " ostiarius camerse 
Jlegis.]:/' Hamo the younger, " mareschallus de communibus de 
fceminis sequentibus hoispitium domini Regis §." Robert de North- 
wode, who married EHzabeth daughter and heir of the last Hamo^ 
and died seised of this manor in 34 Edw. HI., anno 1360, is stiled, 
'* oidtiarius in camera Regis |1." Joan and Agnes, daughters and 
at length; heirs of Robert, on a partition made between them in 
37 Edw. HI., are said to have holden by the service of " mares- 
challui^ in hospitio. Regis f /' After which we hear no more of it, 
except that Nicholas Hering, who married Agnes, claimed in her 
j-ight the; office of usher (Ostiarius) of the King's chamber at the 
Coronation of Richard II., but the consideration thereof was post- 

What we collect from all this is, that the office of Marshal of 
the King's household, as oftieh as the court resides at Guildford, 
was executed by the lords of the manors of Poyle and Catteshill, 
who held their lands by :this tenure ; and that though they are re- 
spectively stiled, in different records,. Marshal of the King's court. 
Marshal of the King's household, and Ostiarius or usher of the 
King's chamber, their office was one and the same ; it being part 
of the office of Marshal, by himself or deputy, to keep the door of 
the King's chamber **. We learn moreover that it was part of their 
duty (as often as the King came into those parts, not otherwise) 

* Blount, p. 80. 

t Blount,_82. Plac. Cor. 7 Edw. I. 

X Esch. 20 Edw. I. n. 25. 

% Esch. 29 E^w. I. n. 58. 


If Esch. 34 Edw. HI. n. 72. 
^ Rot. Commun. 

** Spelm. Gloss. Madox, E.\ch€q. c. 2. 



to provide women servants for the meaner offices of the house- 
hold, and that these women servants were, on different occa- 
sions, called by different names, and amongst the rest by that of 
meretrices ; which last hath given occasion, it seems, to ludicrous 
reflections on the court of that time, as if the grants of the Prince 
had been made subservient to his pleasures. Whereas, in truth, 
the word meretrices was here used in an indifferent sense, and 
agreeably to the known import of the word mereo or mereor, from 
which it is derived, as a general description of such women as 
served for hire, and who, in the present instance, are accordingly 
called, in the different records, puellse, communes feminse, and 
lotrices, the service here spoken of being, after all, no other than 
this, viz- that whereas the court, in those days, was frequently re- 
moved to Guildford, certain persons, who held immediately of the 
King in that neighbourhood, were obliged, by the terms of their 
respective grants, to provide, as often as this should happen, a cer- 
tain number of female servants for the laundry and other inferior 
offices of the household. 

The manor of Shirefield, in Hampshire, was holden temp. 
Edw. II. and III, by John de Warbleton, by the same serjeanty; 
and probably with a vieAV to the occasional residence of the court at 
Odiham, in its neighbourhood *, 



John de Wintershul holds the manor of Schyrefend, in the county 

* Gent. Mag. 1789, p. 320, and seq. 



aforesaid, by the serjeanty of finding a serjeant to keep the whores 
in the army of our lord the King *. See p. 79. 


Henry de la Mare holds, in the town of Eston, two marks of land, 
by the serjeanty of keeping the. whores, who followed the court of 
our lord the King -f-. 


Of Petit Serjeanties relating to the Execution of' 

the Laws. 


Margery de Aspervil held one yard-land of our lord the King in 
capite, in Aylesbury, in the county of Bucks, by the serjeanty of; 
keeping all the distresses madei for the King's debt by the summons 
of the Exchequer $. 

* Johannes de Wintreshul tettet manerium % Margeriade Aspervil tenet unam vii^a- 

de Shyrefend, in com. praedicto, per serjantiam tarn terrse de domino Rege in capite^ in Ayles- 

iiiveniendi unum seijantum ad custodiendum bury, in com. Bucks, per serjantiam custo- 

raeretrices in exercitu domini Regis. Plac. diendi omnes distrietiones factas pro debito 

Coron. 8 Edw. I. Rot. IS. South. Blount, 85. domini Regis per summonitionem Scaccarii, 

+ Henricus de la Mere tenet in villa de Pla. Cor. in com. Bucks, 14 Edw. I. Blount, 

Eston ij marc* terre per serjantiam custo- 41. 
diendi meretrices sequentes curiam dni Regis. 
Testa de Nevil, 




Geoffrey Arblaster holds certain land in Bakton, in the county of 
Devon, by the serjeanty of keeping the gaol of the county of 


Geoffi'ey de la Hull, and Millicent his wife, hold one ferling f of 
land in Brodeham, in the county of Devon, by the serjeanty of 
being bedel of our lordiiie King in that hundred -f*. 

^ Ferlingus, or ferlingata terrse, is the fourth part of a yard-land. 
Blount. See Virgata Terras, under Nether Overton, p. 130, 
and Hida Terrse, under Badew, p. 143. The same as Ferdell, 
Fardingdeal, or Ferundell. But quaere. E. 


John de Windesor held the manor of Windesor, in the county of 
Dorset, which was worth twenty pounds a year, by serjeanty that 
he and his heirs should weigh th« money coming to the Exchequer 
of our lord the Kingt. 

* Galfridus Arblaster tenet quandam terram J Johannes de Windesor tenuit maneriutn 

in Bakton, in com. Devon, per serjantiam de Windesor, in com. Dorset, quod valet per 

custodiendi gayolam, in com. Exoniae. Plac. apn. ^xx, per serjantiam quod ipse et haeredes 

Coron. de annoQ Edw. I. Devon. Blount, 44. sui debent ponderare denarios venientes ad 

f Galfridus de la Hull, et Milliaenta uxor Scaccarium domini Regis. Plac. Coron. apud 

eujus, tenent unum ferlingum terrae in Erode- Schyreburne, 8 Edw. I. Dorset. Rot. 13. 

ham, in coin. Devon, per serjantiam essendi Blount, 47. 
bedellus domini Regis in hundredo isto. Pl^. 
Coron. ut supra. Blount, 45. 




• Anketil Malore holds certain land and ten shillings rent, in 
Oketon and Dalton, in the county of York, by serjeanty to the 
King by archery ; which land the King gave to the said Anketil in 
marriage, with the daughter and heir of William de Muletorp ; 
and he holds the aforesaid land of one archery for finding an 
esquire (servientem) to keep the Castle of York, in the time of 
war, for forty days, at his own proper charge- lie was also to find 
an esquire (servientem) to conduct the treasure of our lord the 
King through the whole county, at his own proper charge, and 
out of the county, at the King's charge *. 


The Knight's Hospitallers hold in Hereford, one messuage, 
with the appurtenances, which Philip Fitz Odo held by the ser- 
jeanty of being a catchpoll f^, or bailiff, and which he left to them 
in pure alms, or frank almoigne -j-. 

f[ Serjantiam Cachepolli. The learned Spelraan says, he under- 
stands the word catchpoll to mean a serjeant at mace. Gloss. 
133. We retain the word catchpoll still for a sheriff's baihff, 
or such-like officer. Blount. 

* Anketil Malore tenet quandam terram et suarum domini Regis, per totum cotnitatum 

X s. redditus in Oketon et Dalton, in com. ad custum proprium, et extra com. ad custum 

Ebor. de serjantia domini Regis, per arcberiam domini Regis. Plac. Coron. 15 Hen. Ill, 

quam terram dominus Rex dediteidemAnketilo Ebor. Rot. ]. dorse. Blount, 48. 

in maritagio cum filia et haerede Willielmi de f Hospitalarii tenent in Hereford, unum 

Muletorp; et tenet praedictam terram unius messuagium cum pertin. quod Pliilippus fiJius 

archeriae, quod inveniet unum servientem ad Odonis tenuit per serjantiam cachepolli, quod 

custodiam Castri Ebor, tempore guerrae, per eis legavit in puram eleemosynam. Testa 

^L dies, ad custum proprium. Debet etiam de Nevil. Blount, 49. 
bvenire unum servientem ad ducendum the- 




Robert le Sauvage holds one yard-land in Twigworth, of our 
lord the King, by the service of five shillings a year ; and he ought 
to carry the King's writs, which come to the sheriff through that 
county, at his own proper charge *. 


John de AUebyr holds one yard-land in Stapelton, in the county 
of Gloucester, by serjeanty of carrying the writs of our lord the 
King from the Castle of Gloucester, one day's journey |1§|I, at his 
own proper charge, and further at the charge of the King-j-. 

11§1| Dieta, A day's journey. Blount. See Ainsworth's Diet, of Law 


Richard de Waleton holds fourteen oxgangs of land ^ with the 
appurtenances, in Waleton, in the county of Lancaster, of our 
lord the King, by the serjeanty of making executions of the writs 
of our lord the King, and attachments in the wapentakes of Derby 
and Makerfield ; and he is bailiff of the same in fee J. 

% See Carleton, p. 145. 


* Robertus le Sauvage tenet unam virgatam terrte in Stapelton, in com. Glouc. per serjan- 

terrae in Twigeworth de domino Rege, per ser- tiam ad portandum brevia domini Regis de 

i^itium quinque solidorum per annum, et debet Castello Gloucestriae, per unam dictam ad 

portare brevia domini Regis quae veniunt ad custum suum proprium, et ultra ad custum 

vicecomitem per comitatiim istud^ ad custum domini Regis. Plac. Itin. ut supra. £lount, 

suum proprium. Plac. Itin. de anno 5 Hen. III. 56. 

Glouc. Blount, 56. + Richardus de Waleton tenet quatuordecim 

t Johannes de AUebyr tenet unam virgatam bovatas terrae cum pertinentiis in Waleton, ia 




Thomas de Singleton holds Little Singleton, in the county of 
Lancaster, by the service of making attachments and executions 
of the writs of our lord the King, and attachments of pleas of the 
crown, in the wapentakes of Araonderness and Blackburnshire, 
from the day his father died seised*. 


Gervas de Glapton, John de Skerrington, and others, hold a 
moiety of one messuage and of three oxgangs of land in Glapton, 
by the service of finding an under-bailiff, for the fee of Peverell, 
in the county of Nottingham -f. 


Lawrence of the Exchequer held two carucates of land in Abbe- 
ford, in the parish of Aston, by the serjeanty of being Marshal 
before the Justices in Eyre, through all England, and before the 
Justices of the Bench, and the Barons of the Exchequer J. 

com. Lane, de domino Rege, per serjantiam rington, et alii^ tenent medietatem unius mes- 

faciendi executiones ad brevia domini Regis, $uagii et trium bovatarum terrae in Glapton, 

et attachiamenta in wapeiitachiis de Derby et per serviiium inveniendi unum sub-ballivum, 

Makerfield, et est ballivus eorundem de feodo. pro feodo Peverelii, in com. Nottingham. Plac. 

Plac. Coron. anno 20 Edw. L Lane. Blount, Coron. de anno 3 Edw, III, Rot. 6. in dors. 

63, Notting. Bbunt, 72. 

* rOiomas de Singleton tenet Parvum Sin- % Laurentiiis de Scaccario tenuit duas caru- 

gleton, in com. L<anc. per servitium faciendi catas terrse in Abbeford, in parocbia de Aston, 

attachiamenta «t exectitipneai ad brevia domini per serjantiam essendi Mareecallus coram Jus- 

Regi$, et attachiamenta ad Plaiiita Coronae in ticiariis Itinerantibus per^ totam Angliam, et 

wapentachiis de Amond^ness et Blakeburn- cor^m Justiciariis de Banco et Baronibus, de 

schire, die qua pater suus obut seisitus. Plac. Scaccario. Plac. Coron. 13 Edw. I. Oxon. 

Coron. ut supra. Blount, 63. Blount, 72. 

/t G^rvasius de Glapton, Johannes de Sker- 

F F 2 NET- 



Oliver de Stanford held certain land in Nettlebed, in the county 
of Oxford, by the serjeanty of being Sealer of the Writs |1§|1 in the 
Chancery of our lord the King *. 

\\%\ Serjantiam Espicurnantise. By the office of spigurnel, or sealer 
of the King's writs in Chancery. Blount. 


Walter de la Lynde holds the bedellery :^*:|: of the hundred of 
Wylington, and of the hundred of West-Peret, in the county of 
Somerset, by the serjeanty of finding bedells X*^, to do the office 
of bedells J*|., in the hundreds aforesaid : and the said Walter 
says, that our lord King Henry (III.) father of our lord the now 
King (Edward I.) granted to John de Lynde, his father, the afore- 
said bedellery j*:|:, by his charter, which he produced, i&c. -f* 

^*J Bedellery, is the same to a bedell, as bailiwick to a baihff; i. e. 
the extent or circuit of his office. Blount. Bedell is derived of 
the French word Bedeau, which signifies a messenger of a 
court, or under-bailiif, a verger or mace-bearer. Co. Litt. 234, b. 
Boyer's French Diet. tit. Beadeau. E. 

* Oliverus de Stanford tenuit quandam ter- 
rain in Nettlebed, in com. Oxon. per serjan- 
tiam espicurnantise in Caucellaria domini Regis. 
Plac. Coron. ut supra. Blount, 72. 

•f Walter de la Lynde tenet bedelleriain 
hundredi dc Wylington, et hundredi de West- 
Peret, in com. Somerset, per serjantiam inve- 

niendi bedellos ad offieium bedellorum faciend. 
in hundredis predictis ; et Walterus dicit quod 
dominas Henrictis Rex, pater domini Regis 
nunc, concessit Johanni de la Lynde patri suo 
prsedictam bedelleriam per cartam suam, quam 
profert, &c. Plac. Coron. de ann. 8 Edw. I. 
Somers. Blount, 75. 




Robert Bardolf holds a certain tenement in Hanlegh, in the 
county of Suffolk, in capite, of our lord the King, by the serjeanty 
of being, and doing the office of bailiff of the Honor of Hanlegh *. 



William Frankelen holds certain land in Lederede, in the county 
of Surrey, of the King's fee, by finding a pavilion or hall [§] for 
the county court, as often as the county court should happen to be 
there held. 

And Walter le Hore holds certain land in the same town, of the 
King's fee, by finding a certain house for a prison, when any pri- 
soner should happen to be taken at the sheriff'^s turn; but the prison 
ought to be in the custody of the sheriff. 

And William de Oxencroft holds certain land, in the same town, 
of the fee of the lord the King, by finding a pound for cattle % 
when any cattle should be taken for the debt of our lord the 
King -f-. 

* Robertus Bardolf tenet quoddam tene- eadetn villa de feodo Regis, inveniendo quan- 

mentuin in Hanlegh, in com. Suffolk, per ser- dam domum ad prisonam, cum contigerit 

jantiam essendi et faciendi officium baltivi ' aliq.uem prisonem capiari ad turnutn vic'eco- 

Honoris de Hanlegh, in capite de domino mitis, sed prisones debent esse in custodia 

R^e. Plac. Coron. de ann. 14 Edw. I. Rot, vicecomitis. Et VVillielmus de Oxencroft 

Q. Suffolk. Blount, 77. tenet quandam terram in eadem villa de feodo 

■j- Willielmus Frankelen tenet quandiim tef- domini Regis inveniendo parcum ad averia, 

ram in Lederede, in com. Surrey, de feodo cum aliquae averia capta fiierint pro debito 

Regis, inveniendo Scaunam ad comitatum domini Regis. Plac. Coronae, 19 Hen. HI. 

qaotiescunque cOntigerit comitatnm ibi teneri. Surrey, Blount, 81. 
JEt .)Yaltejrus le Hore tenet quandam terrain in 

[§] Scaunam. 


[§] Scaunam. In the record it seems to be so written ; perhaps it 
should be Scenam, or a hall or pavilion, wherein the assizes or 
county court was to be held. Blount. 

Quere, Scamnum. A bench? 

f Parcum ad Averia. A pound for cattle. 


Roger de Elyng holds certain land in Elyng, in the county of 
Southampton, by the service of carrying the writs which were 
to be sent to the sheriff of Southampton, in the Isle of Wight, 
and the hundreds of Christ's Church, Ringwood, and Fording- 
bridge *. 


In the fifty-second year of King Henry HI. a writ issued 
to the sheriff of Oxfordshire, reciting, that it appeared by inqui- 
sition that Roger de TExchequer, and his ancestors, held their 
land of Eston, in the county of Oxford, of the King, and his 
ancestors Kings of England, by the service of keeping the door 
of the King's Exchequer, and not by knight's service, of the Honor 
of Wallingford -f . 


William Figge, who died 24th Edw. HI- was seised of a house 

* Rogerus de Elyng tenet quandam tefjam Wight, in Hundnedis de Christ Church, 

in Elyng, in com. Southanjpton, per servitiuio Bingewpde, et Ford. Plac. Coron, 8 Edw. I. 

ad ferenda brevia domini Regis, quae mittenda Rot. SO. South. Blount, 87. 

sunt viceconiiti Southampton, in Insula dfi f Madox's Excbeq. p. 720. 



and lands at Mitcham, which he held by the service of receiving 
the King's distraints for the hundred of Wallington *. And Agnes, 
wife of GeofTry Prior, who died 7th Hen. IV. held a house and 
lands by the same service -f . 


In the year 1285 it was found that Nicholas Attenasse held a 
virgate of land here, by the tenure of providing a pound for the 
King's bailiffs of this hundred to impound cattle, by the sheriff's 
precept and summons of the Exchequer, and the bailiffs used to 
receive sixpence %. 


Henry de Monemouth held Morden by service, for which he was 

to summon the lords of Wiggmore at Wiggmore, Broos at Gingston, 

and of Cary at Webbeley, and distrain on them for the debts of our 

lord the iCing when it should be needful, and to conduct the King's 

treasure from the Castle of Hereford to London, and to have every 

day twelve pence. And because it was an unfit service, therefore 

it was changed by the consent of the same Henry, so that the said 

Henry should pay to the King yearly twelve pence, and do service 

for a moiety of the fortieth part of one knight's fee, and thus be 

quit of the service aforesaid §. 


* Esch. 23 Edw. III. pf. 2. No. 15. ston, et de Cary apud Webbeley, et distringere 

+ Esch. 6 Hen. IV. No. 45. LySons's En- eos pro debitis diii Regis cum necesse fuerit, et 

virons of London, vol. i. p. 352, and notes. conducere thesaurum dni Regis a Castro Here- 

J Morant's Hist.'of Essex, vol. ii. p. 423. ford usque London, et habere quolibet die 

§ Henry de Monemouth held Morden by ser- xiid. Et quia servicium debile est ideo mu- 

vice, pro qua debet summonire dominos de tatur de consensu ejusdem Henrici, ita quod 

Wiggmore apud Wiggmore, Broos apud Ging- dictus Henricus reddat dno Regi per an. xii d. 




William Babington, brother and heir of Edward Babington, de- 
ceased, acknowledged himself to hold, and his said brother to have 
held, the day he died, of the King in capite, one messuage with the 
appurtenances, in the suburbs of London, which is called the 
Prison of Fleet, and a cei'tain rent in the same suburbs and city, 
by the serjeanty of keeping all the prisoners to be committed there, 
and also of repairing the Bridge of Fleet as often as it should be 
needful *. 


The heirs of Robert Wallens held a certain field in the hundred 
of Sutton, called Rede, which was worth yearly ten shillings, and 
they paid therefore to our lord the King thirteen pence ; and their 
ancestors were keepers of the pleas of the crown of our lord the 
King of Lesto and Sutton -f-, 


Guy de Beauchamp, late Earl of Warwick, held the manor of 

Et faciet serviciuni 40"°' partis feodi unius 
militis, et sic quietus sit de predicto servicio. 
Plac. Coroii. 20 Edw. I. Gough's Catnd. 
'Brit. edit. 1789, vol. ii. p. 46l. 

* Willielnius Babington, frater et heres Ed- 
wardj Babington, defunct), cognovit se tenerj; 
et dictum fratrem suutn tenuisse die quo obijt^ 
de Rege in cajjite, unum messuagium cum per- 
tin'. in suburbijs London, quod vocat' Prisons 
de Flete, et quasdam redd', in eisdem sub- 
urbijs et in dicta civitate, per seriantiam cus- 
tod'. omnes prisonas ib'm committeod'. Et 

etiam ad reparandl pontem de Flete, quoties- 
cunq, necesse fuerit. Mich. fin. anno xvj" 
R. Hen. VII. Rotulo quarto. Harl. MS, 
Brit. Mus. No. 5174, p. 17. 

f In hundredo de Sutton, heredes Robert! 
Wallens tenent quendam campum, qui voca- 
tur Rede, et valet per annum x sol. et reddunt 
inde diio Regi xiij d. Et antecessores sui erant 
custodes de Placit. Corone dni Regis de Lesto 
dfi Sutton, Testa de Nevil, temp. Regis 
Hen, IIL Ibid, No. 313, p, 10, 



Southauton as of the inheritance of Alicia, sometime his wife, of 
our lord the King, by the serjeanty of bearing a rod before the 
Justices in Eyre in the county aforesaid *. 


Ralph Holmes,worth held land in Glentworth by the service of 
being Usher before the Justices in Eyre of our lord the King at 
the Common Pleas f. 


William de Monteacute (amongst other things) held Wynford, 
by the gift of Hugh de Courtenay, by serjeanty, viz. by the service 
of finding a bedell f to serve in the hundred of Wynford, in the 
office of bedell for all service X^ 

^ Bedellris. See note on Clymeslond. 


Simon de Stanfforde held one yard land in Kyngestone, by the 
serjeanty of summoning the Bishop of Hereford before the Justices 
of our lord the King§- 

* Guidonis de Bello-Campo, nuper Com. J Et Wynford de diio Hugone de Courte- 

Warr'. ten. maner. de Southauton de hereditate nay per serjeautiam, viz. per servicium inveni- 

Alicie, quondam uxoris sue, de diio Rege, per endi unum bedellum de serviend. hundredo de 

serieantiam portandi virgam coram Justic. in Wynford, in ofBcio bedellar' pro omni ser- 

com. predicto itinerantibus. Inquis. Guid. vicio. Inqtiis. W. de Montagu, anno 13 £dw. 

de Bello-Campo, arino 9 Edw. II. Hari. MS. II. No. 31. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 6126. 

Brit, Mus. No. 6126, p. 21. | Simon de Stanfforde ten. unam virgatam 

•f- Radus Holmeswell terr'. de Glentworth per serianciam summonendi Epum Hereford 

per ser*. essendi Hostiarius coram Justiciarijs coram Justiciarljs diii Regis. De Serianciis 

R. in itinerationifous ad Placita Communia. tempore Henrici Regis filij Regis Johannis. 

Esch. tempore Hen. filij Regis Johannis. Ihid. No. 6765, p. 21. 
Ibid. No. 2087, p. 12. 




John Marshall held the manor of Woodcote, within the parish 
of Bromden, of the King in capite, by the service of keeping his 
gaol in the Castle of Winchester *. 


The heirs of P. de Ulcets held Manefene and Nakerton, by the 
gervice of being Coroners f, 


Robert Fitz Osbert held half a carucate of land there by being 
reeve ^ or bailiff of the manor of Cresby, in the forest of Derby- 
shire X' 

^ Prsepositus. See note on Clymeslond. 


Thomas de la Fede holds the town of Fede by the service of 
weighing the (King's) money at the Exchequer §. 


Simon de Blaveny holds a certain serjeanty in Bridebroke, by 

* Johannes Marshall m. de Woodcote, infra J Robertus filius Osberti tenet dimid. ca- 

parochiam de Bromden, de R. in capite, per rue', ter'. per esse pra?positus de manerio 

ser'. custodiendi gaolani R. Castri sui Win- de Cresby, foreste de Derbyshire. -Feodary 

cestr. Arnio lo Rici'. 11. Harl. MS. Brit. for the county of Lancaster, Harl. MS. Brit. 

Mus. No. 2087, p. 225. Mus. No. 2085, p. 434. 

•\- Hered. P. de Ulcets tenet Manefene et § Thomas de la Fede tenet villain de Fede, 

Nakerton, per servic'. quod sit Coronator. In- per ponderacoem denar' ad Scaccarium. Esc. 

quis. anno regni Regis Henrici II. xxviij de &c. Co. Suhantone, tempore Regis Johannis. 

serjeanc'. Regis, &c. Ibid. No. 3875, p. Ibid. No. 313, p. 32. 



making the distresses and attachments of the fee which were of the 
Earl Marshal*. 


John Thwaytes, and Joan his wife, held the manor of Danygate, 
in the county of York, called the Prison of the Lardonary, with the 
appurtenances, of our lord the King, by the service of keeping the 
King's gaol in liis forest of Galtres, to receive every year of our 
lord the King and his heirs for keeping the said gaol, ^7. 12 s. 1 d. 
by the hands of the sheriff of the county aforesaid, for the time 
being, at Easter and Michaelmas, by equal portions, and two oaks 
every year in the forest aforesaid, and one buck in summer, and one 
doe in winter, every year within the said forest, also with liberty to 
hunt foxes and hares in the said forest, at all times in ^;he year -j •, 


Richard de Okebeare, brother and heir of Roger de Okebeare, 
paid twelve shillings and sixpence for his relief for a fourth-part of 
the manor of Rillaton, held of the King as of his duchy of Cornwall, 
by the service of two shillings yearly, and by the service of doing 
suit at the court of Rillaton, from month to month, and of finding 

* Simon de Blaveny tenet quandam ser- gaole predicte, £v\j. xij s. 1 d, per manus vie', 

jantiam in Bridebroke ad faciend'. districtiones com. predicti pro tempore existen., ad festa 

et attachiamenta de feodis, que fuere Comitis Pasche et Sancti Michi's, per equales portiones, 

Mareschalli. Morant's Hist, of Essex, vol. ii. ac duas quercos quolibet amio in foresta pre- 

p. 345, note (d). dicta, ac unum damum tempore estimal. et 

+ Johannes Thwaytes, et Johanna uxor ejus, unam damam vena!, singulis annis infra fo- 

tenent manerium de Danygate in com. Ebor'. restam predictam, ac ad venandum vulpes et 

vocatHm Prisona Lardonarie, cum pertin'. de lepores in forestam predicta, omni tempore 

Rege, per servitium custodiendi gaolam Regis anni. De t«rmino Hil. anno 4 Hen. VI, 

foreste sue de Galtris, praecipiend'. quolibet Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 441. 
anno de diio Rege et hered'. suis pro custodia 

G G 2 one 


one man every fourth year to oversee the bailiwick of the said 
manor, and to collect the dues arising from the pleas and perquisites 
of the court*. 


John, son of Agnes, late wife of John son of John de St. Piers, 
gave to the King fifteen shillings for six oxgangs of land in Mer- 
deselde, held of the King by grand serjeanty, (to wit) to carry the 
writs of our lord the King through England for forty days, at the 
King's summons, at his proper costs -f-. 



The manors of Hawardyn and Bosele, with the appurtenances, 
in the county of Chester, are held of the King in capite, by Robert 
de Monhault Earl of Arundell, by being Steward of the county of 
Chester, viz. by the service of setting down the first dish before 
the Earl of Chester, at Chester, on Christmas-day : and the manors 
of Leston and La Lee, with a moiety of the town of Wriehholme, 
with the appurtenances, in the county of Chester, are held of our 
lord the King by the service of two knights^ fees and a half, and 

* Ricaidus de Okebeare^ frater et heres 9° Edw. II. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, 

Rogeri de Okebeare, dat 12 s. 6d. de relevio p. 72. 
. suo pro quarla parte manerij de Rillaton ten. •}■ Johannes^ filins iignetis que fuit uxor 

de Kege ut de Diicatu Corniibie, per serv'. Johannis filij Jobannis Sancto Petro, dat Rewi 

duorum solidorum per annum, et per servitium xvs. pro sex bovat'. terr'. in Merdeselde ten. 

faciendi sectam ad curiam de Rillaton de de Rege per magnam serjantiiim, viz. quod 

niense in mensem, et inveniendi unum hoini- tenetur portare brevia domini Regis per Aijo-- 

nem quolibet quarto anno ad intend', bail'io liani, per 40 dies, ad summonitionem Re^is 

dictj manerij, ad levand' debita de placitis et ad cu.stum proprium. De teniuno Pasche, 

perquisitis curie. De termino Pasche, auno anno 30 Edw. I. Ibid. p. 25. 



by the service of finding one judger^ in the county of Chester, 
from six weeks to sjx weeks *. 

f In Cheshire, to be a judger of a town, is to serve at the lord's 
court on the jury. Sir P. Leicester's Hist. Antiquit. Blount's 
Law Diet, sub verbo. 


Edeline de Beoks holds a certain serjeanty in the town of 
Guildford, and beyond by being Marshal in the Court of our lord 
the King, and it is worth yearly one hundred shillings -f-. 


William de Malehovers holds one piece of land with the ad- 
vowson of the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, at York, by the ser- 
vice of finding benches for the county court :|:. 


Gilbert Glutun holds certain land with a bakehouse, in the town 
of Nottingham, which were worth yearly forty shillings, by the 

* Maneria de Hawardyn et Bosele, cum de sex septimanis in sex aeptimanas. De ter- 

pertibentijs, in com. Cestr'. tenentur de Rege mino Hil. anno 31 Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit, 

in capite (per Robert', de Montealto Gom. Mus. No. 34, p. 31. 

Arundell) per servicium Senescaliatus com. i" Edelina de Beoks tenet quandam serian- 

Cestr'. viz. servitium assidendi primum fer- tiam in villa de Geldeford, et extra per Ma- 

culum coram domino Com. Cestr*. apud riscall. in cur', diii Regis, et valet per annum 

Cestr'. die Natalis Domini. Et quod ma- c solid. Escaeta, &c. Com. Surrey, temp, 

neria de' Lestone et La Lee, et medietas ville Regis Johannis. Ibid. No. 313, p. £2. 

de Wrichbolme, cum pertinentijs, in com. J Willielmus de Malehovers tenet una terra, 

Cestr'. ten', de domino Rege per servicium et advocacoem capelle Sancte Marie Mag- 

duorum feod'. mil', et dimid'. et per servicium delene, per servicium inveniendi bancos ad 

invenieadi uaum judicatorem in com, Cesto'. comitatum. Testa de Nevil,, p. 36B. 



service of being suramonerf , and bearing the writs of our lord the 
King through both counties, (to wit) Nottingham and Derby, at his 
proper costs *. 

f Summoner (Summonitor.) Is a small officer that calls or cites 
men to any court. Blount's Law Diet, sub voce. 


Of Petit Serjeanties performed by heeping the King's 
Forests, Chaces, and Parks, and hy hunting, finding, 
and keeping of Dogs, Sfc. 


John Engayne holds one carucate of land in Great Gidding, in 
the county of Huntingdon, by the serjeanty of hunting the wolf, 
fox, and cat, and driving away all vermin out of the forest of our 
lord the King in that county -f. 


Sir John D'Engayne, knight, and Elena D'Engayne, hold of our 

* Gilbertus Glutun tenet quandam terraia i" Johannes Engayne tenet unam canicatam 

cum quodam furno in villa de Nottingh'. que terrae in Magna Gidding in com. Hunt, per 

valet per annum xls. per servic'. existendi serjantiam currendi ad lupum, vulpem, et 

sumouitor et ferendi brevia'. dni Reg', per cattum, et amovendi omnem verminam extra 

utriusque com. soil'. Not', et Derb'. ad cus- forestam domini Regis in comitatu isto. Plac. 

turn suum proprium. Testa de Nevil, p. 17. Coron. 14 Edw. I. Rot, 7- Dorso. Hunt. 

Blount, 60. 



lord the King in capite, twenty pounds of land, with the appur- 
tenances, in Pightesley, in the county of Northampton, by the ser- 
vice of hunting the wolf for his pleasure in that county *. 

Thomas Engaine held certain lands in Pightesle (now called 
Pitchley) in the county of Northampton, by the service of finding, 
at his own proper costs, certain dogs for the destruction of wolves, 
martons, cats, and other vermin within the counties of Northamp- 
ton, Rutland, Oxford, Essex, and Buckingham f. 


King Henry II. enfeoffed one Boscher, his servant, with the 
manor of Bericote in the county of Warwick, by the service of 
keeping a white young Brach ^, (brachetam) with red ears, to be 
delivered to the King at the year's end, and then to receive another 
to breed up, with half a quarter of bran ijl, 

•^ Bracheta. A bitch hound. R. We call a bitch, which follows a 
hare by the scent, a brach, at this time. Spelm. |. A. Fr. Bra- 
ehet. Cotgrave. P. 

It is mentioned in King Lear, act i. se. 4, where the Fool says to 


Truth*s a dog that must to kennel ; he must be whipped out, 
when lady the brach may stand by the fire and stink." 

* Johannes D'Engayne, nniles, et Elena Plac. Coron. 3 Edw. I. Rot. 20, in dorso. 
D'Engayne, tenent de domino Kege in capite, Blount, 71. 

viginti libratas terrse, cum pertin. in Pightesle, fRot. fin. 42 Edw. Ill.m. 13. Blount, J 5^ 

in com. Northampton, per servitium fugandi % Sir W. Dugd. Anti^. of Warwickshire, 

ad lupum pro voluntate sua in cojnitatu isto. Blount, 2. 

I Gloss. 87. 



Brach is a bitch of the hunting kind. Note on the passage, which 
confirms the above note. 

Shakspeare notices the brach again in Troilus and Cressida, act ii. 
sc. 1, where Thersites says to Patroclus : 

" I will hold my peace when Achilles' brach bids me, shall I?" 

The commentators are not agreed on the meaning of this word, 
some referring it to a species of dog, and some to an ornament 
called a broche or broach. Chalmers's edit, of Shakspeare. 


Joan, late wife of John King, holds a certain serjeanty in Stan- 
how in the county of Norfolk, by the service of keeping bracelettum 
deymerettum '1.%% of our lord the King *. 

:J:|^ Bracelettum deymerettum. Bracelettas and bercelettus I con- 
ceive to be the same, and to mean a small hound or beagle, 
from brache. Vide supra. P, and quaere what the meaning of 
deymerettum is ? E. 


Bertram de Criol held the manor of Setene in the county of 
Kent, of the King by serjeanty, viz. to provide one man called vel- 
trarius ^, a vautrer, to lead three greyhounds when the King should 
go into Gascony, so long as a pair of shoes of four-pence price 
should last-f-. 

* Jobanna, quje fnit uxor Johannis King, lettum deymerettum domini Regis. Rot. fin. 
tenet quandam serjantiam in Stanhow in com. 6 Job. m. 58. Blount, 70. 
Norf. per serjailtiam custodiendi unam brace- tEscaet. 34£dw.I. n. 37. Kent. Blount, 9. 



Sir Richard Rockesley, knight, held lands at Seaton in the 
county of Kent,^ by the serjeanty of being the King's vautrer [];], in 
Gascogny, until he had worn out a pair of shoes of the price of 
four-pence *. 

^ This veltrarius, or vautrarius, comes from the French, vaultre, a 
mongrel hound for the chace of the wild boar. This vautrarium 
Regis is by somq mis-written vantrarium, and engjished the 
King's fore-footman. Blount -f'. 

[J] Greyhounds in Germany are called welters, in Italy veltresy 
&c. EJ. 


Sir Stephen de Segrave, in King Henry the Third's time, pur- 
chased the manor of Cotes in the county of Derby, of the daughters 
and heirs of Stephen de Beauchamp, to hold by the service of one 
brache yearly §. 


Hardekyn holds a certain tenement in Wodeham-Mortimer in 
the county of Essex, by serjeanty of nursing one brachet |||ll of oui* 
lord the King, when he should send it to him to nurse, and keeping 
it till it should be fit to run 11. . , 

* Ricliardus Rokesley, Miles, tenebat terras ^ Claus. 13 Hen. III. m. 20. Blount, 11. 

^eatoniae in com. Hantiae, per serjantiam esse || Hardekynus tenet quoddam tenementum 

vautrarium Regis in Gasconixi donee pertisus in- Wodteham-Mortimer in cOm. Essex, "per 

fuit pari solitanimpretii IV d. Rot. fin. Mich. serjantiam ad nutriendam unum Br'acliettafti 

11 Ed"\v. II. Blount, 35. dbmini Regis, cum dominus Rex ei illam nii- 

•f Coke on Lit. fo, 69, b. Speliii. Gloss, p. serit ad nutriendam, et eftstodiendi quousqite 

550. ( habilis fuerit ad currendum. Plac. Coron. de 

t Jac. Law Diet, sub verbo Veltrarius. 13 Edw. I. Blount, 26. - '■ 

, H H mil Brachettara, 


|1§|1 Brachettam. A little brache, or bitch hound. Blount. Vide 
supra, p. 232, 


William Lovell holds two carucates of land of our lord the 
King, at Benhara in the county of Berks, by the serjeanty of keep- 
ing a kennel of^ harriers at the King's cost*. 

^ Meuta Deynectorum Canum. A pack of I know not what dogs. 

N. B. Muta, or Meuta, as more rightly in Blount, page 39, un- 
doubtedly signifies a kennel, and is the word mew Latinized. 
The monstrous word deynectorum is the creation of Blount's 
scribe, either for harectorum, see the next article, and then 
means harriers, or heymectorum, teri'iers. 


John le Bay holds two hides of land of our lord the King, in 
Bokhampton, by the serjeanty of keeping a kennel of little har- 
riers ^, at the King's cost -f. 

% Meuta Caniculorum Harreetorum. A kennel of little hounds, 
called harriers- Blount. 

* Willielmus Lovell tenet duas carucatas f Johannes le Bay tenet duas hidas terra: de 

terrae de domino Rege apud Benham in com. domino Rege in BokbamptCHi, per serjantiam 

Berks, per serjantiam custodiendi unam meu- custodiendi unam meutam caniculorum har- 

tam deynectorum canum, ad custum domini rectorum, ad custum domini Regis. Plac, 

Regis. Plac. Coron. apud Wiridesor, 12 Edw. Coron. apud Windesor, 12 Edw. I. Rot. 28, 

I. Blount, 38. in dorso. Blount, 3Q, 




Juliana, the wife of John Fitz Alan, held half a hide of land in 
Porscaundel, in the county of Dorset, in capite of our lord the 
King, by serjeanty of keeping the lame (hurt or wounded) dogs f^, 
if there should be any such, as often as the King should hunt in 
his forest of Blakemore; and by giving one penny for enclosing ||§{| 
the King's park of Gillingham *. 

^ Canes lesos. Leash hounds, or park hounds, such as draw after 
a hurt deer in a leach, or liam. Blount. I can meet with no 
such word in this sense : why may it not be dogs that have re- 
ceived some hurt ? Isesos, from Isedo. A. 

|j§|I Clausturam. A tax for fencing. A. 


John Engayne holds the manor of Upminster, in the county of 
Essex, which is worth ^xxx a year, by the serjeanty of keeping 
the hare dog or greys hounds J*J of our lord the King -j^. 

X*X Canes Leporarios. Hounds for the hare, or greyhounds. 


William de Reynes formerly held two carucates of land in Boyton, 

* Juliana, uxor Johannis filii Alani, tenuit apud Schyreburne, 8 Edw, I. Rot. 10^ Dor- 

dimidiam hidam terrae in Porscaundel in com. set. Blount, 46. 

Porset, in capite de domino Rege, per serjan- + Johannes Engayne tenet manerium de 

tiam custodieudi canes domini Regis lesos, si Upmenistre in com. Essex, quod valet per ann. 

qui fuerint, quotiescuflque dominus Rex fuga- xxxl. per serjantiam custocliendi canes lepo- 

writ in foresta sua de Blakemore. Et ad rarjos domini Regis. Plac. Coron. 13 Edw. 

dandum unum denarium ad clausturam parci I. Essex. Blount, 50, 
domini Kegis de Gillingham. Plac CorQn. 

H H 2 in 


in the parish of Fiuchingfend (Fin«hingfield) in the county of Essex, 
by the serjeanty of keeping for th« King five wolf dogs f . And the 
dean and chapter of London now hold that land *. 

f Canes Luporarios, Wolf dogs. Blount 


Richard, son of Wydo (Guy) de Aslabie, in the county of York, 
holds two carucates of land by the service of teaching one hare 
dog^*:]:, belonging to the King ^•. 

if* J Canem Liverium. Perhaps the same with leporarium, from the 
French lievre, a hare. A- Or a slip-dog, from Fr. lievrer, i. e. 
greyhound held in a lease or slip. P. £*] 

[*] Slips are a contrivance of leather to start two dogs at the same^ 
time. Thus, in King Henry V. act iii. sc. 1, King Henry says 
to his soldiers : ^ 

" For there is none of you so mean and base, j 

" That hath not noble lustre in your eyes, 

" I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips, 


" Straining upon the start." ' 

Again in Julius Caesar, act ii. sc, 1. 

Marc Antony. 
" And Caesar's spirit ranging for revenge, 

" With Ate by his side, come hot from hell, 

—— — — — ^ — _ ^ 

' * Willielmus de Reynes aliquando tenuit tenent terram illam. PJac. Coron. 13 Edw. I. 
duas carucatas terrse in Boyton, in parochia de Essex. Blount, 52. 

Finchingfend in com. Essex, per serjantiam f Richardus, filius Wydonis de Aslaby, 

eustddiendi domino Regi quinque canes lupo- tenet duas carucatas terra, per servitium ap- 
rarios; et decanus et capital ubi Londonimodo tandi unum canem liverium domini Rcis.' 

M. S. Penes Sam, Roper, Arm. Blount, 108.' 

" Shall 


" Shall in these confineis, with a monarch's voice, ' ' "; 
" Cry Havock, and let slip the dogs of war." 

This is a term belonging to the chace. Slips were contrivances 
of leather, by M'hich greyhounds were restrained till the neces- 
sary moment of their dismission. Note. Chalmers's edit of 


The King commands the barons (of the Exchequer) to allow to 
Robert de Chadworth, sheriff of Lincoln, lti s. viid. which by the 
King's command he delivered to John de Bellovent, for the main- 
tenance^ (food) of seven greyhounds 1I§||, and thrpe falcons and a 
laner hawk J*:|:, and for the wages of ^ huntsman [-j], from the day of 
St John the baptist, to the VigiJ (Eve) of Saint Michael next fol- 
lowing, both days inclusive ; to wit, for the maintenance ^ of each 
dog l|^[| and hawk, a penny halfpenny a day, and for the wages of the 
aforesaid huntsman \_-f] two-pence a day *. 

f Putura. Food or maintenance. Blount, Putura (quasi Potura) 
a custom of foresters and others to take horses and man's mieat, 
&c. gratis, of tenants and neighbouring inhabitants. Ains- 
w;orth's Diet, of Law Lat. E. 

I]§|1 Leporarios. Greyhounds, or harehounds, Blount See p^ 

* Rex inandat baronibus, quod allocenjt ^ichaelis prox. sequeq. utroque die coi;npUT 

Roberto de Chadworth, vicecomiti Lincoln, tato; viz. pro putura cujuslibet Jeporarii et 

iLVi6. VII d. quos per praeceptum Regis libe- falcoiiis per diem id. ob, et pro vadiis prj^ 

.ravitJohaiii)ide:Bellovento, pro putura septem dicti braceuarii per diem i id. Communia 

•leporariorum .et ^iuna falconum, et alanararii, 16 Edw. I. Pasch. Rot. 10. in dorso. Bloiinl^ 

et pro vadiis unius braceuarii, a Pie Sanc^i J25. , . ,, 

Johannk Baptistae usque ad Vigiliam Sancti , , 

c :. '. :^*:t Alanararii. 


X^X Alanararii. A falconer. Blount. A lanier, a kind of hawk. A. 
As the word is Lanarius or Lanerius, it is difficult to account 
for the first vowel in Alanararii, and therefore, if there be such 
a word as Aladarius, I should suspect it to be mis-read for 
Aladarii, i. e. Alaudarii, meaning a hawk to fly at larks, as the 
Espervarius did at sparrows, and other small birds. P. 

[f] Bracenarii. A huntsman, for so Bracenarius signifies, from the 
French Braconnier, which denotes the same. Blount. Keeper 
of the hounds. A. Braconer. A hunter. Kelham's Norm. Fr. 
Diet. E 


From the office of , in the thirty-ninth year of 

Edward III. after the death of T. Lord of Fournyvale. 

County of York ; The castle and lordship of Sheffield, with its 
members and appurtenances, in the county of York, are 
held of our lord the King in capite, as of his Crown, by 
homage and fealty, and by one knight's 

fee, and by the service of paying to the King and his heirs, 
yearly, two white hares ^ on the feast of the Nativity of St. 
John the Baptist *. 

The foregoing is a translation of the title of a roll, as given in the 
Oent. Mag. for 1764, p. 329, in a letter signed E. G. 

* 39 Edw. III. de officio est anno tricesimo mine Regi et lieredibus suis per annum duos 

nono Edvardi Tertii, post mortem T. doniini lepores albos in festo Nativitatis Sancti Jo- 

de Fournyvale. Com. Ebor. Castriim et do- hannis Baptistes. From a MS. written in the 

minium de Sheffield, cum membris et perti- reign of King Henry VII. by Mr. Henry 

Bentibus suis in com. Ebor. tenentur de do- Jakes, in the possession of the Rev. Mr. E. 

mino Rege in capite, ut de corona, per ho- Goodwin, of Sheffield, 1764. Gent. Mag. 

magium et fidelitatem, et per bonum unam vol. 34, p. 329. 
feodum militU et per servitium reddend. Do- 

" I presume 


" I presume it would be a very difficult matter for the present 
" owner of the castle and manor of Sheffield, to procure annually 
" two white hares in this kingdom, and therefore there must be, at 
" first sight, some mistake in the case. But I havie seen the ori- 
" ginal, from whence the above is transcribed, and from thence 
" shall give it, as it ought to be read, since of the transcript above, 
" taken from the magazine, no sense can possibly be made/' 

From the office of the Escheator, in the thirty-ninth year of Ed- 
ward III. after the death of Thomas Lord of Fourneyvale. 

County of York ; The castle and lordship of Sheffield, with its 
members and appurtenances, in the county of York, are 
held of the lord the King in capite, as of his Crown, by 
homage and fealty, and by the service of one knight's fee, 
and by the service of paying to our lord the King and his 
heirs, yearly, two white greyhounds, on the feast of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist *. 

'* It stands now in the MS. Lepor, but it has been corrected 
" so by some ignorant person, for originally it was Lepar, which 
" means Leporarios, greyhounds, and white dogs of that species 
" could easily be obtained ; it was moreover the custom of tenures, 
" as appears from Blount, to present such things as hawks, falcons, 

* De officio Esc. anno 39 Edwardi Tertii, Militaiis) et per servicium reddend. (reddendi) 

post mortem T. doniini de Fourneyvale. Com. domino Regi, et heredibus suis per annum 

Ebor. Cagtrion et dominium de Sheffield, duos Lepor. (i. e.) Leporarios) albos in festo 

cum membris et pertin. (i. e. pertinenciis) suis Nativitatis Sancti Johannis Baptistse. Letter 

in com. Ebor. tenentur de domino Rege in from the Rev. Mi". Pegge to the editor, 20th 

capite, ut de Corona, per homagium et fide- Oct. 1781. ; .', f^ 

litatera et per servicium uuius feod. milit. (i. e. 

" dogs, 


** dogs, spurs, &c. See also Sir James Ware's Antiq. of Ireland, 
« vol. ii. p. 16T. P." 

% Notwithstanding the great scarcity of white hares in this king- 
dom, as mentioned by the learned author of the above obser- 
vations, yet the editor has been informed of several instances 
of such creatures having been seen and caught ; and amongst 
others of the following, viz. that a few years ago a white hare 
was killed in a farm, called Wood-Nook, adjoining to Went- 
worth Park, in Yorkshire, by Mr. William Parker, the then 
occupier of that farm, and Joshua Cobb, park-keeper to the 
late Marquis of Rockingham. E. And about seven years ago, 
a white hare was found in the grounds near Great Aycliff, in the 
county of Durham, which for upwards of two years had been 
several times hunted by many dogs, and as often beat them ; 
for which reason the hare was reputed a witch by the vulo-ar. 
At last she was killed. Mr. Allan, of Darlington, got the skin, 
had it stuffed, and hung up as a curiosity for above two years,^ 
till it decayed, and was throAvn away. It was not of a very white 
fur, but rather a grey. A. Yet these instances are not men- 
- tioned as militating against the observation of the learned author 
of the above note, but merely as being matters of curiosity, 
things given in tenures being usually such as are commonly had 
and procured. E.p*] 

[*] There is no occasion to alter words or misconstrue terms t6 

rempve doubts which do not exist, as the author of the notes 

in the Gentleman's Magazine has done, and I am of opinion, 

that hares, and not hounds, were intended by the grant. There 

' are 


are two distinct species of hares in this country, the commoii 
and the varying hare. The common does sometimes turn white, 
but rarely, the other is smaller than the common, of a lead 
colour in summer, and regularly turns whiter as the winter ap- 
proaches, and in winter becomes all white, except the ears and a 
bluish tinge on the ridge of the back, and regains its blue or 
lead colour with the spring. This species of hare may now be 
extinct in the manor of Sheffield, but it continues in the High- 
lands of Scotlands, where I have often seen them, and is ac- 
knowledged by naturalists to be a distinct species, called the 
varying hare. W. 


In the tenth year of William the Conqueror, Robert de Umfranvil, 
Knight, obtained from that King a grant of the lordship, valley, and 
forest of Riddesdale, in the county of Northumberland, by the 
service of defending that part of the country for ever from enemies 
and wolves, with that sword which King William had by his side, 
when he entered Northumberland, with liberty also to hold and de- 
termine Pleas of the Crown *. 


King Richard I. gave to Henry de Grey, of Codnor, the manor 
of Turroc, in Essex; which grant King John confirmed, and by his 
charter vouchsafed hina the privilege to hunt the hare and fox in any 

* Testa Nevilli. Blount, 15. 

II lands 


lands belongiiig to the Crown, except the King's own demesne 
parks ; a special favour in those times *. 


Gilbert le Harpour held lands in Chesterton, in the county of 
Warwick, of the King by grand serjeanty, viz. to keep the place 
called Teddesley Hay f , within the forest of Canoke, at his own 
cost -j". 

^ Hay. A separate inclosure, within a forest or park, fenced with 
a rail or hedge, or both ; of which there were several An this 
forest of Cank. Blount 


Hugh de Kilpec holds the manor of Litde Teynton, in the county 
of Gloucester, of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of keeping 
the Hay of Hereford |.§^ at his own cost. He had two daughters, 
who were his heirs, of whom Philip Marraion married one, and 
William de Cantilupe had the custody of the other for the King '^ 

Ij^^X This Hay of Hereford was a great woodland ground near the 
city, and heretofore reputed a forest Blount 

* Carta 1 Job. m. 29. Blount, 132. sant ejus haeredes, quarum Philippus Mar- 

•f- Escaet 32 Edw. 1. u. 43. Blount, 36> mien desponsavit unam, et Willielmus de Can- 

;}: Hugo de Kilpec tenet manerium de Parva tilupo habet custodiam ajterius per dotn. 

Teynton, in com. Glouc. de dom. Rege, per Regera. PlaO Coron, 32 Hen. IIL Rot. 10. 

serjantiam servandi Hayam de Hereford ad iu dorso. Blouut, 57- 

eustum suum. Idem habuit duas filiaS; quae 




King Edward the Confessor gave the rangership of Bernwode 
forest, in Bucks, with a hide of land, to Nigell and his heirs, to be 
held by a horn. This Nigell had killed a large boar there, and this 
was his remuneration *. 

King Edward the Confessor had a royal palaee at Brill, or 
Brehull) in Bucks, to which he often retired for the pleasure of 
hunting in his forest of Bernwood. This forest, it is said, was 
much infested by a wild boar, which was at last slain by one Nigell, 
a huntsman, who presented the boar's head to the King; and for 
a reward the Bang gave him one hide of arable Iand» called Dere- 
hyde, and a wood called Hulewood, with the custody of the forest 
of Bernwood, to hold to him and his heirs by a horn, which is the 
charter of the aforesaid forest. Upon this land Nigell built a lodge, 
or mansion-house, called Borestall, in memory of the slain boar. 
For proof of this, in a large folio vellum book, containing tran- 
scripts of charters, and evidences relating to this estate, (supposed 
to have been written in or before the reign of Henry VI.) is a rude 
delineation of the site of Borstall House and manor, and under it 
the figure of a man, presenting, on his knees, to the King, the head 
of a boar on the point of a sword, and the King returning to him a 
coat of arms, argent, a fesse gules^ between two crescents, and a 
horn vert. 

The same figure of a boards head was carved on the head of an 
old bedstead, now remaining in the tower or lodge of that antient 

* Mr. Pegge*s Observations on the Horn as a charter ; Archaeologia, vol. iii. p. 3. Kenuett's- 
Paroch. Antic[. 

1 1 2 house 


house or castle, and the arms are now to be seen in the windows, 
and in other parts. And what is of greatest authority, the original 
horn, tipt at each end with silver, gilt, fitted with wreaths of leather 
to hang about the neck, with an old brass seal ring, a plate of 
brass with the sculpture of an horn, and several lesser plates of 
silver, gilt, with Fleurs de Lis, (supposed to be the arms of Lisures, 
who intruded into this estate an office, at or soon after the Con- 
quest) has been all along preserved by the lords of Borstall, under 
the name of Nigell's Horn, and was in the year 1773, in the pos- 
session of John Aubrey, Esq. (son and heir of Sir Thomas Aubrey, 
Baronet) to whom this estate has descended, without alienation or 
forfeiture, from before the Conquest to the present time, by several 
heirs female, from the family of Nigell to that of Aubrey. 

An inquisition was taken in the reign of King H6nry III. (A. D. 
1266) in which are the following words : " Praedictus Willielmus, 
" filius Nigelli, et antecessores sui, tenuerunt dictas terram et 
" ballivam de domino Rege, ante tempus conquestiis Anglise per 
" unum Cornu, quod est charta praedictse forestse." i. e. the afore- 
said William Fitz Nigell and his ancestors, held the said land 
and bailiwick of our lord the King, from before the time of the 
Conquest of England, by a horn, which is the charter of the afore- 
said forest *. 

And in the reign of King Edward I,, John Fitz Nigell holds one 
hide in Burstall, in the county of Bucks, of our lord the King, in 

* Archaeologia, vol. iii. p. 1,5, where see a descrifrfion of thehora, and a genealogical ac- 
print of the horn, and another of the plan of count of the families who have possessed the 
Borstall above mentioned. Also a particular estate from Nigell to the present time. 



the forest of Bernevvode, by the serjeanty which is called the Der- 
hyde, belonging to his bailiwick of keeper of the forest, whereof 
the said John was keeper in fee *. 


William de Boyville holds a serjeanty by finding a forester in 
the ward of Airedale, and he takes daily, for the support of his 
forester of the town' of Airedale, three-pence from the feast of St. 
Michael to the feast of St. Philip and St, James the Apostles ; 
and from that day to the feast of St. Michael, every day two- 
pence -f-. 


John le, Parker holds half a hide of land by the serjeanty of 
keeping the park of our lord the King, and the out wood ^, and it 
was worth yearly half a mark J. 

^ Boscum Forinsecum. Outwood. E. 

> * Johannes, filius Nigelli, tenet unam hi- libet die iiid. & festo Sancti Michkelis^iisc|ue 

dam in Burstal', in com. Bucks, de domino ad festum apostoloriim Phillipi et Jacobi^ e^.A 

Rege, in foresto de Bernewode, per serjan- die illo usque ad festum Sancti Michaelis sin- 

tiam quae vocatur le Derhyde, pertinentem ad gulis diebus ii d. Plac. Cor. 20 Edw. I,' 

ballivam suam de custodiendo fore&taQi, unde Cumbria. Blount, 43. 

idem Johannes est custos de feodo. Plac. J Johannes le Parker tenet dtmid. hidam 

Coron. in com. Bucks, 14 Edw. I. Blount, terrje, per serjantiam custodiendi parcum do- 

41. mini Regis et Boscum Forinsecum, et valet 

f Willielmus de Boyvile tenet unam serjan- per annum dimidiam marcam. Plac. Cor. 

tiam, inveniendi unum forestarium in warda 11 Hen. III. Rot. 1. apud Cfaelmesford. 

de Airedale, et capit per diem, ad sustenta- Blount, 50. 
tioncm forestarii sui de villa de Airedale, quo- ,t)i.j>iii j , < . 

^" ''"'"'' " " EIVFIELD," 



Richard de Plessetis holds twenty pound lands in Enefend, in 
the county of Middlesex, of our lord the King, by the serjeanty 
of being Chief Forester of the King, in the forests of Menedop, 
Exemore, Rychiche, and Selewode, in the county of Somerset*. 


Henry de Edmunsthorpe holds one yard-land in FroUebury, in 
the county of Southampton, by the serjeanty of keeping the King's 
forest of Wytel -f-. 


Henry Sturmey, and 31. his wife, hold of our lord the King in 
capite, the manors of Borebach and Conelesfeld, with the appur- 
tenances, in the county of Wilts, by the service of keeping the 
bailiwick of the whole forest of Savernake, and the farm ^ which 
is called la Verme, in the forest aforesaid, and also by the service 
of finding one man armed with a coat of mail HI], when the lord the 
King should require him, on this side the sea: and for the keeping 
of the forest and farm ^ aforesaid, they are to enjoy all the. 
rights and appurtenances under-written. All the foresters in fee 

* Ricbardus de Plessetis tenet viginti li- lapideam. See p. 73. Rot. 15. Blount, 65.'' 
tkratas terras in Enefend, in com. Middlesex, -f Henricus de Edmunsthorpe tenet unam 

de domino Rege, per serjantiam essendi capi- virgatam terras in FroUebury, in com. South- 

talis forestarius domini Regis in forestis de ampton, per serjantiam custodiendi forestam ' 

Menedop, Exemore, Rychiche, et Selewode, domini Regis de Wytel. Plac. Cor. 8 Edw. I.= 

in com. Somerset. Plac. Coron, apud Crucera Rot. 23. Blount, 85. 



of the whole forest aforesaid, are to be attendant upon, and an- 
swerable to them, as to the chief forester of the forest afore- 
said ; and they are to have the horse and furniture, saddle, bridle, 
sword, and horn of the foresters in fee when they die : and they are 
to have their estovers, housebote, and heybote, through the whole 
bailiwick aforesaid, and all amerciaments for defaults made in 
the court of the forest aforesaid : and all pleas of hares, nets -f-f-, 
terriers ^., badgers §|, foxes, wild cats **, and partridges : and 
all amerciaments for the escapes of wild beasts [:^.], and for dead 
wood'f-.i.f, through the whole year, except in the fence-month :|,§:|: : 
and to have all their cattle, except sheep and goats, in the forest 
aforesaid, quit of herbage through the year ; and their hogs quit of 
pawnage through the whole year, except the fence-month. And 
they are- to have the estrays through all the forest aforesaid, and 
the amerciaments for the expeditating *** dogs, and the aieries 
of sparhawks, honey, and nuts, and hips ||:|:|1, through all the forest 
aforesaid, after every regard J^ made ; and to have their chace 
through the whole bailiwick of the forest aforesaid, at hares, foxes, 
wild cats **, badgers §§, and all «uch-like vermin. And they are to 
have the dead wood in the aforesaid farm of the Verme, for thre^ 
weeks before the feast of St. Michael, to be felled without a tool. 
And they are to have in the same farm whatsoever is blown down by 
the wind, except the woodfall ^{-4-» which belongs to our lord the 
King. And, after-pawnage ^, from the feast of St. Martin unto 
the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary. And all the 
croppings or boughs of timber '^]^^. felled for the use of our lord 
the King, or given by the King. And liberty to dig for gravel [*], 
and toll for passage ^|||, through all the farm aforesaid : and the 



pasturage of a certain nook (or corner) = of heath ground beyond 
Colput, &c * 

% Farm. Censariam. See Ains. Diet, of Law Lat. 

nil Hominem armatum ad Loricam. Armed with a coat of mail. 

Lorica. A coat of mail, either composed of ringlets of iron or 
small plates like scales, sewed on leather, so as to lap over each 
other. Grose's Milit. Antiq. vol. i. p. 10, note (p.) 

* Henricus Sturmy, et M. uxor ejus, tenent 
de domino Rege in capite maneria de Bore- 
bach et Conelesfeld, cum pertin. in com. 
Wiltes, per servitium custodiendi balivam 
totius forestae de Savernake, et Censariam, 
quae vocatur la Verme in foresta prasdicta, et 
etiam per servitium inveniendi ununi hominem 
armatum ad loricam, quando dominus Rex, 
cum habere voluerit, citra mare. Pro qua 
quidem custodia Forestze et Censariae praedictae 
habere debent omnia jura et pertinentia sub- 
scripta. Omnes forestarii de feodo totius fo- 
restae prsedictae, erunt eis intendentes et re- 
spondentes, tanquam capitali forestario fo- 
restae prajdictae, et debent habere equitaturam, 
sellam, frenum, gladium, et cornu forestario- 
rum de feodo cum obierint. Et debent habere 
estoverium suum ad housebote et heybote, 
per totaui balivam prasdictam, et omnia amer- 
ciamenta facta in curia forestas praedictae de 
defaltis. Et omnia placita de leporibus, 
rechibus, heymectis, tessonibus, vulpibus, 
murilegis, et perdicibus, et omnia amercia- 
meuta de escapiis animalium, et mortuo 
bosco, per totum annum, excepto mense 
vetito. Et omnia averia sua, exceptis biden- 
tlbus et capris, in foresta praedicta quieta de her- 

bagio per annum, et porcos suos quietos depan- 
nagio per totum annum, excepto mense vetito. 
Et debent habere extrahuras per totam forej- 
tam praedictam, et amerciamenta de expedi- 
tatione canum, et aeria espervariorum, mel 
et nuces et cyppos, per totam forestam prjp- 
dictam, post quodlibet regardum factum. 
Et habent cliaceam suam per totam balivam 
forestae praedictae ad lepores, vulpes, muri- 
legos, tessones, et ad omnimodas hujusmodi 
vermes. Et debent habere mortuum boscum 
in praedicta censaria de la Verme, per tres 
Septimanas ante festum Sancti Michaelis, 
sine utensili prosternendum. Et debent ha- 
bere in eadem censaria quicquid vento pros- 
ternitur praeter cablicium quod pertinet ad 
dominum Regem. Et retropannagium a 
festo Sancti Martini usque ad festum Purifi- 
cationis Beatae Mariae. Et omnes Cooper- 
tiones de maeremio prostrato ad opus domini 
Regis, vel date per dominum Regem. Et 
sabulonarium, et chyminagium per totam 
censariam praedictam. Et pasturam cujus- 
dam anguli bruerae extra Colput, &c. Bundei. 
Petit. Pari, ann, incerto Edw. III. in Turrae. 
Blount, 88. 



Loricam consertam hamis, auroque trilicem. 

Virgil JEneid. lib. iii. v. 67. 

Rutulum thoraca indutus ahenis, 

Horrebat squammis. Lib. xi. v. 487. 

Isidorus. Squamma est lorica ex laminis sereis vel ferreis conca- 
tenata, in modum squammarum piscis. Milit. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 
245, notes x, y. 

ff Rechibus. Blount. Rethibus. A. Nets. 

XX Heymectis, (from the British Amhach) a terrier. E. Lhuyd's 
Archseol. fo. 426. 

§1 Tessonibus. Badgers. Blount. From the French Taisson, or 
Tesson, the same. 4 Inst. 294. 

** Murilegis. Wild cats. Blount. So called a legendo mures, of 
catching mice. 4 Inst. 294. 

[I] De Escapiis Animalium. For the escapes of wild beasts* 

•f-.j.'i^ Mortuo Bosco. Dead wood. Blount. 

X^X' Mense vetito. The Fence Month (or forbidden Month) which 
was from fifteen days before Midsummer Day, to fifteen days 
after, and was also called Tempus de Foyneson, because the 
deer did then fawn, or bring forth their young. Blount. 

*** Amerciamenta de Expeditatione Canum. Expeditating dogs 
was the cutting out of the ball of tlieir fore feet, to prevent 
them from running after game. Cromp. Jurisdict. 152. Jac. 
Law Diet. &c. E. 

11+11 ^yPP^**' Hips. Blount. Pi-obably mis-read for Hyppos. P. 

J^ Regardum. Regard. Blount. Visitation by the foresters. A. : 
J ;'- K K 4-4- Cablicium. 


.\4- Cablicium. Woodfall. A. Cablicia, plu. A sort of brush- 
wood, or wind-fallen wood. Cablish. Ainsworth's Law Lat. 
Diet. E. 

Retropannagiam. This reti'o-paunage, I suppose, is the latter 
or after-paunage. For paunage begins at Michaelmas and ends 
at St. Martin's, in which time the beech-mast and acorns are 
ripe and fall. And retro-paunage begins at St. Martin's and ends 
at Candlemas, in which time hips and haws, and such-like 
berries, yield some nutriment to swine and poultry. Blount. 

^X Coopertiones de Maeremio. Crops of wood or timber. Blount. 
Quaere if not mis-read for cropertiones ? P. 

[*] Sabulonarium. Liberty to dig gravel or sand. Blount. From 
sabulum, fine gravel. Ains. A. 

§1I§ Chyminagium. (From the French chemin, a way or road.) Is 
a toll due by custom, for having a way through a forest. Jac 
Law Diet. E. 

= Angulum Bruerse. A nook of heath ground. Blount. 


Some persons formerly held lands at Wormhill, by the service 
of hunting and taking of wolves, from whence those persons were 
called Wolvehunt, as is manifest from the records of the Tower*. 

And Nicholas Foljambe holds one messuage and thirty acres of 
land in Wormhill, by the service of keepmg the forest of High 
Peak in the Champion ^, with a bow and arrows, i&c -f-. 

* Camd. Brit. tit. Derbyshire. rest, de Alto Pecco in Campana, cum arcu et 

•}• Nicholus Foljambe tenet un. mess, et sagitta, &c. Ex recojd. in Turr. Lend. 13 
XXX acr. terr. iu Wormhill, per custod. fo- .Edw. II. MS, penes F. F. Foljambe, Arm. 



f In Caiijpana. This may be rendered in the Champion, from th^ 
Fr. Campagne, vide Du Fresne, vol. ii. col. 99. P. 


The Dones of Utkinton were foresters by inheritance of this 
forest; they were of an honourable family, descended from Ra- 
nulph of Kingleigh, to whom Ranulph the first [de Meschines] Earl 
of Chester gave the inheritance of that office of forester*. Mr. 
Cole -j- says, that in 1755, being at Torporley in Cheshire, he took 
notice of these arms in one of the windows ; argent a bugle horn 
stringed sable : they were also painted on the walls of the church. 
His late worthy friend, that good antiquary, Mr. John Allen, rector 
of the parish, and senior fellow of Trinity College Cambridge, told 
him, that they belonged to the lords of the manor of Utkington, in 
this parish, as hereditary foresters of the forest of Delaraere in 
that neighbourhood. He afterwards shewed him the horn of 
office itself in the library at Utkington, since pulled down, and 
lately belonging to Sir John Crew, a curious antiquary of that 
county, and a descendant from the family of Done of Utkington. On 
Sir John Crew's decease, it came to the present possessor, his heir, 
John Arden, of Yorkshire, Esq. descended from the Done family, 
who has now this horn in his possession. By a monument in Tor- 
porley church, it appears that Sir John Done, who died in 1629, 
bore the said coat on an escutcheon of pretence over his own quar- 
terinffs, as chief forester of Delamere. The office and estate came 
to Henry Done, by Johanna daughter of Richard de Kingley, about 
1233. Utkington, with the village of Kingley or Kingsiey, was 
given by Randal Meschines iJarl of Chester to Randal de Kingsiey, 

* Camd. Brit. tit. Cheshire. I. to the cathedral of Carlisle, Archaelogia, 

t Mr. Cole, on the Horns, given by Henry vol. v. pp. 343, 344. 

K K 2 together 


together with the bailiwick of the forest of Delamere. It appears 
by a deed (6 Edw. II.) that Richard Done held the fifth part of the 
Tillage of Kingsley, &c. by a quarter part of a knight's fee, and the 
master forestership of Mere [Delamere] and Mottram by himself 
and an horseman and eight footmen under him, to keep the forest, 
then valued at £10. 10s. 3d. 


Bryan Aquarius (the Waterman) holds the land which belonged 
to Walter de Martinwas', in Writtel, by the serjeanty of the forester- 
ship, and by twenty shillings rent*. 


John Foljambe, Esq. holds one messuage in Whitfield, and two 
oxgangs of land there, by the service of keeping the King's forest 
in Longdendale, in the forest of High Peak -f. 


Godfrey de Earenton (Barrington) holds half a yard land in 
Ilethfield, by the serjeanty of keeping the King's park, and wood 
in the same town .]:. 


William Hures holds his tenement in Havering by the serjeanty 
of keeping the park §. 

* Bryanus Aquarius tenet terram que fuit J Gofridus de Baientou tenet dimid. virgat. 

Walteri de Martinwas in Writele, per in Helhfeld, per serjantiain custodiendi par- 

ciam forestarise, et per XX sol. Ex Lib. Rub. cum Regis et boscuni in eadeui villa. Ex 

Scacc. Append to Brady's Introduct. fo. 23. Lib. Rub. de Scacc. Append, to Brady's In- 

f Jolianues Eoljambe tenet un'. messuagium troduct. fo. 23. 
in Whitfield, et ii bovat' lerrae per servic'. § ^Viilielmus Hures tenet tenementumsuum 

custod. foiestam Regis in Longdendale, in fo- in Havering per serjantiain custodieudi par- 

resta deAltoPecGo. Ex Record in Tiirr. Lond. cum. Ibid. 24. 
2 Edw. 11. MS. penes F. F. Foljambe, Arm. John 


John Derwine holds his tenement there by serjeanty of keeping 
the Outwood f * . 
^ See note under Beckingtree, p. 245. 


Humfrey Swynerton, son and heir of Anne, who was the wife of 
John Mytton, deceased, and before late wife of Thomas Swynerton, 
father of the aforesaid Humfrey, acknowledged that he hejd of the 
King in capite, the bailiwick and stewardship of the forest of 
Cannok, in the, county of Stafford, by grand serjeanty, viz. by the 
service of being steward and bailiff of the forest aforesaid f-. 


William Heyr held lands in the town of Hope, by the service of 
keeping the Forest of High Peak in Hopdale X' 


Richard Lytelton, and Alicia his wife, daughter and heir of Wil- 
liam Wynwesbury, acknowledged that they held, as in right of her 
the said Alicia, one messuage, one yard land, and twenty-seven 
shilUngs rent in Huntingdon, in the county of Stafford, of the King 
in capite, by grand serjeanty, viz. to keep the hay^ of Tedesley 
in the forest of Cannok, in the county aforesaid §, 

^ Hayara. See note on Brodgate Park. 

*Johannes Derwine tenet tenementum suutn serianciana, viz. per servic' essendi senescallus 

ibidem per serjantkm custodiendi forinsecum et baliivus foreste predicte. Pasch. fin. anno 

boscuni. Ex Lib. Rttb.deScacc. Append, to 19 Hen. VII. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 

Brady's Introduct. fo. 23. 3 1 74, p. 20. 

■j- Humfridus Swynerton, filius et heres J Wiliielmus Heyr ten' terras in villa de 

Annae, que fuit uxor Johannis Mytton de- Hope, per serj.custod. forestam de Alto Pecco 

functj, et antea nuper uxor Thomae Swyner- in Hopdale. Esch. anno 26 Edw. I. Ibid, 

ton, patris predict! Hiimfridj, cognovit se te- No. £037, p. 42. 

nere de Rege in capite ballivam senescalcie ^ Ricardus Lytelton et Alicia uxor eius, 

foreste de Cannok in com. Staff, per magnam filia et heres Willielnii Wynnesbury, cognove- 




Walter Joce held of the King in capite one carueate of land in 
the manor of Gillingham, and he was to keep the forest and 
deer |||§ at his proper costs *. 

§||§ Venationem. Deer, See note on Stanhope. 


William Danvers held the manor of Weldon by the service of 
being the King's huntsman, or keeper of his buck hounds, and he 
was to have in his keeping twent;j-four buck hounds, and six hare 
dogs or greyhounds -f. 

Richard Pexsall, Esq. son and heir of Ralph Pexsall, and 
Editha his wife, held as of the inheritance of the said Editha, the 
manor of Little AVeldon with the appurtenances, in the county of 
Northampton, of the King, by th« service of keeping and feeding, 
at their proper costs, fifteen running or hunting dogs, of our lord 
the King, in the time of Lent J. 

runt se tencreut in iure ipsiiis Alicie, uniim f Willielmus Danvers tenuit WeJdon, 
mess', unam yirgat'. terr' et xxvijs. redd', in pfir«er.' essendi venator R. de canibus suis da- 
Huntingdon, in .com. Staff, de R. in tapite, matias habend. in custodia sua 24 canes dama- 
per magnam serianciam, viz. custodiendi hay- rios et sex leporarios. Esc. anno 35 Edw. 
ain de Tedesley in foresta de Cannok, in com. III. Harl. MS. Brit. Miis. No. 2087, p. 137. 
predicto. Mich'is fin.anno 19 Regis Henrici J Ricardus Pexsall, ar'.filius etheres Radulfi 
VII. Rotulo quarto. Hail. MS. Brit. Mua. Pexsall, ar'. et Edithe uxoris eius, tenet de 
No. 5174, p. 19. hered. dicte Edithe m. de Parva Weldon cum 
* Walter Joce tenuit de R. in capite unam pertin'. in com. predicto, de Rege, per servi- 
car'. terr'. in maner'. de Gellingham, et cus- .cium custodiendi et pascendi sumptibfis suis 
todiet forestam virid. et venae, ad proprium proprijs, tjuindecim canes currentes dni R. 
custum, &c. Abridg. Inquis. post mortem, per 40 dies, tempore Quadragesimalj. Michi's 
County of Somerset, anno 49 Edw. III. Ibid. fin. anno 31 Hen, VUI, Ibid, No, 5174, p. 
No, 4120, p. 8. 56, 



At tlie Coronation of Ring James II. the lord of the manor of 
Littl6 Weld(Hi, who at that time was also seised of the bailiwit;ks 
of keeper of the King's buck hounds, claimed to be keeper and 
master of the same, and to keep twenty-four buck hounds, and 
sixteen harriers, and to have certain fees and liveries for himself 
and servants ;. which claim was at that time disallowed, as not re- 
speesting the Coronation, but the claimant was left to take his course 
at law, if he thought fit *. 


.Peter de Mundevil holds three oxgangs of land in capite, of our 
lord the King, in Angortby, by the service of a brachet ^ of one 
c^our -f. 

f Brachettum. See note on Wodeham Mortimer, p. 234. 


In the 13th year of King Edward II. William de Kerdyff, who 
held the manor of QUeenhuU in Worcestershire, of the King, by 
the service of rendering yearly a dog de mota§||§, rendered at the 
Exchequer six dogs de mota for six years past, which were de- 
livered to Sir David de Betoigne to be carried to the King, who 
was then in Kent '^. 

* Qent. Mag. vol; »xxi. p. 323. servicium leddendi domino Regi per annum 

i- Petrns' de Mundevill tenet tres bovatas unum canem de mota, reddidit hie ad Scac< 

in capite de dno Bege in Angortby, per ser- carium- jixix" die Octobris sex canes de mota 

vicium unius berachat unius coloris. Inquis. pro sex annis prseteritis. Et memorandum 

temp. Hen. UI. DeHonore Lancastr. extra quod praedicti canes liberaatur -eodem die 

Lijo^a^n., Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 5172, Davidr de Betoygne, militi, ad ducendum do- 

p. 19^ n>ini I^egi existenti in comitatu Kanciae; in 

J Wygomia. Redditus. Witlielmus filius partibus de ledes. Trin. Visores, 15 Edw. II. 

ct heres Paulini de KerdyflT, qui tenet mane- Rot. 28, a, Madox's Hist, Excheq. p. 6l2, 

lium de QueenhuU in comitatu Wygornise per and note. 



Mota, or Muta, according to the barbarous and now obsolete 
Latinity of the antient Law-lexicographers, appears to have* 
been used indiscriminately for a mew or kennel. The former 
is known to have been a place for feeding and training hawks ; 
the latter for keeping hounds or dogs used in hunting. The 
editor, aware of this exposition, felt a powerful inducement to 
alter the translation from a dog de mota, as it now stands, to a 
" dog of the kennel," which he presumed to think would 
have been more consonant with the original etymon of the 
word mota, and more illustrative of the usages which pre- 
vailed at a time when falconry and hunting were not only the 
principal amusements of the great, but were in a great measure 
confined to them, and prohibited to their inferiors. A dog de 
mota, therefore, might, it is submitted, be with great propriety, 
and in the sense suggested by the editor, " a dog of the kennel," as 
contradistinguished to animals of the same species, which were 
not congregated or trained in kennels as hunting dogs were. 
But the editor's respect for Mr. Madox's translation, and diffi- 
dence of his own abihties, has induced him to leave the trans- 
lation as he found it, with this note as to the pi'obable sig- 
nification of the passage. 


Hugh Pantulf holds Stanfforde by the gift of King Henry, father 
of King John, by the service of one brachet*. 

* Hugo Pantulfus tenet Stanfforde de dono Serianciis, &c. temp. Hen. H. Harl. MS. 
Henrici Regis patris Regis Johannis, per ser- Brit. Mus. p. 32. 
vicium unius bracheti. Testa de Nevil. De 




Thomas English, son and heir-male of William English, deceased, 
acknowledged himself to hold, and his said father to have held the 
day he died, a certain annual rent of ten pounds, with the appur- 
tenances, in the vill of Southwark, to be received in fee from the 
fee-farm of the vill of Southwark, by the hands of the sheriff 
of London, farmer of the same vill, by grand serjeanty, viz. by 
the service of keeping certain greyhounds, or harehounds ^ of the 
King, at the command of our said lord the King *. 

f Leporarius. See note on Lincoln, p. 237. 


"Was held upon condition to find dogs for the destruction of 
wolves, foxes, &c. -f- 


Cecilia Muchgrave held the manor of Bicknor of the King in 
capite, by the service of fifteen shillings, to be paid yearly, viz. by 
the serjeanty of keeping a certain wood, in the forest of Deane, 
by means of one man with a bow and arrows %. 

* Thomas Englidi, filius et Jieres niasculus Begis. Trin. fua^ axmo ] 7 Hen. VII. Harl. 

Willielmi finglish defunctj, cognovit se tenere MS. Brit. Mms. No. 5174, pp. 18, 19. 
et dictam patrem suum tenuisse, die quo obijt, + Camd. Brit. p. 5?5. 

quendam annualem redd'. £x cum pertin'. in ;{: Cecilia Muchgrave ten', m. de Bicknojr 

iriJla de Suthwerke piiecipiend. de feod. iir- de R. in capite, per servic'. xvs. annuatim 

ma dfi villa de Suthwerke, per roanus vie'. solvend. per seriantiam, viz. custod. quends^qi 

X^ndpiii firmar' eiusdein ville, per magnam JjQsci in foresta de Deane, per unum hotnineo^ 

SerianciiHn, viz. per servicium custodiendi cum arcu et sagittis, 30 Edw. I. Cptton^ 

Queitd' i^^raciuin B. .ad maodat' ipsius dni MS. Brit. Mus. Titus, C. x. p. 17. 




William Michell, son and heir of John Michell, made fine with 
the King, by two shillings, for his relief for one messuage, forty 
acres of land, one acre of meadow, and two shillings and one penny 
rent in Middelton Lillebon, held of the King in capite, by the ser- 
jeanty of keeping his wolf dogs §11§*. 

§1|§ Canes luparios. The same as canes luporarios. See note on 
Boyton, p. 236. 


Alan, son and heir of Walter de Wulf hunte ^, made fine with 
the King by two shillings and four-pence for his relief for one 
messuage and one oxgang of land with the appurtenances in Mam- 
mesfeld Woodhous, in the county of Nottingham, which the afore- 
said Walter held of the King in capite, by the service of hunting 
wolves out of the forest of Shirewood, if he should find any of 
them -f •. 

^ It is probable that the persons called Wolvehunt, mentioned by 
Camden as holding lands at Wormhill in the county of Derby, 
(see p. 251.) were ancestors of, or descendants from this Walter 
de Wulfhunte. 

* Willielnms Michell, filius et lieres Jo- hunte, fecit finem cum Regeper2s. 4d. pro 

})|annis M ichell, fecit finem cum Rege per ij s. relevio suo pro uno messuagio et una bovata 

de relevio suo de uno messuagio, xl acr'. terr'. terras cum pertinentijs in Mammesfeld VVode- 

una acr'. prati, ijs. id. redd, in Middelton hous in com. predicto, q. dictus Walterus 

Xiillebon teiit de Rege in capite, per seijan- tenuit de Rege in capite, per servitium fugandi 

tiam custodiendi canes luparios Regis. De lupos extra forestam de Shirewode, si aliquis 

termino Mich, anno 14 Edw. II. Harl. MS. eos invenerit. De termino Trin. anno 21 

Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 80. Edw. IIJ. Rot. 1". Harl.. MS. :^rit. Mus. 

t Alanus, filius et heres Waltcri de Wulf- No. 34, p. 166. 




Thomas de Langeley, son and heir of John de Langeley, held 
(amongst other things) the manor of Langeley, in the county of 
Oxford, and one hide of land in the hamlet of Middleton, by the 
service of bearing a horn to keep the forest of Whichewode *. 


Robert le Bocer, son and heir of William Bocer, made fine by 
one mark for his relief of land, which he holds of the King in 
capite, in the forest of St. Briavels, by the service of finding One 
footman to keep the forest aforesaid -j^. 


Roger le Forester, of Wellington, gave to our lord the King one 
mark for relief for his lands and tenements in Wellington, held of, 
the King, by the serjeanty of keeping the hay §1|§ in the forest 
of Wrokene |.. 

||1§ Heyam. The same as Hayam. See note on Huntingdon, p. 254. 


John de Putton, son and heir of William de Putton, deceased, 

* Thomas de Langeley, filius et heres Jo- pile de foresta Sancti Briavell, per servic'. in- 

hannis de Langeley, ten', manerio de Langeley veniendi unum hominem peditem ad custo- 

in com. predicto, et unam hidam terr'. in ham- diam forestze praedictse. De termino Mich, 

letto de Middleton de Rege, per servitium por- anno 16 Edw. L Rot. 1. Harl. MS. Brit, 

tandi cornu ad faciend'. custod'. foreste de Mus. No. 34, p. 5. 

Whichewode, &c. De termino Pasche, anno | Rogerus le Forester de Wellington dat 

5 Edw. ill. Rot. 1. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. domino Regi unam marcam de relevio suo pro 

No. 34, p. 111. ter'. et ten't. suis in Wellington lent de Rege,^ 

-f- Robertus le Bocer, filius et heres Willi- per serjantiam custodiendi heyam in foresta 

elmi Bocer, iinem fecit per unam marcam pro de Wrokene. De termino Mich, anno 21 

relevio suo deter', quam de Rege tenet in ca- Edw. L Ibid. p. 14. 

L. L 2 made 


made fine with our lord the King by thirty shillings for his relief 
(amongst other things) of all the lands and tenements which the 
said William his father held of the King in capite the day he died, 
viz. for one messuage and one yard land in Patton, in the county 
of Wilts, which he held of the King in capite by the service of 
one horseman and one footman to keep the forest of our lord the 
Kino- in Clarendon, at the proper costs of the said John *. 


Sir Thomas de Aylesbury, knight, and Katherine his wife, held 
of the King in capite, as of his crown, the manor of Laxton 
(amongst other things) with the appurtenances, in the county of 
Northampton, by grand serjeanty, viz. by the service of taking 
wolves, foxes, wild cats ^, cats, and other vermin, in the counties 
of Northampton, Rutland, Oxford, Essex, Huntingdon, and Buck> 
ingham -f-. 

f Murilegus. See note on Borebach, &c. p. 249. 


William de Stanry, son and heir of William de Stanry, gave to 

• Johannes de Putton, filius et Iieves Willi- Pasche, anno 35 Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit, 

elmi de Puttoiij defuncti, finem fecit cum do- Mus. No. .S4, pp. 45, 46. 

mino R«ge per xxx s. pro reievio suo de om- f Thomas de Aylesbury, chr'. et Katerina 

nibiis ter*. et teii. quod dictus Wiliielmus pater uxor ejus, tenuerunt de Rege in capite, ut de 

tenuit de Rege in capite die quo obijt, viz. de corona sua, manerium de Laxton cum pertin'. 

uno niessuagio, et una virgat. ter'. in Patton in in com. Northt.' per magnam serjantiam, viz. 

com. Wiltes, q. ten. de Rege in capite, per per servitium capiendi lupos, vulpes, murele- 

servitiiun unius equitis et unius peditis custod'. gos, catos, et alia vermina, in com. Northt. 

forestam domini Regis de Clarendon, ad ciis- Rotel. Oxon. Essex, Hunt, et Buk. De ter- 

to8 proprio'i ipsius Johannis. De termino mino Pasche, amio 30 Hen, IV. Ibid. p. 363^ 



the King twenty shillings for his relief for certain lands and tene- 
ments at St. Briavels, held of the King in capite by the serjeanty 
of being his forester in the forest of Deene, and making attach- 
ments of the vert JIJ and venison, and leading the persons attached 
to the Castle of St. Briavels *. 

$§| Vert, (Fr. verd, i. e. viridis, otherwise called green hue.) 
Every thing that grows and bears green leaf within the forest, 
that may cover a deer. Vert is also sometimes taken for that 
power which a man hath by the King's grant to cut green wood 
in the forest. Blount's Law Diet, sub verbo. 


William Larcedekene, brother and heir of Stephen Larcedekene, 
(amongst other things) holds Morton and the manor of Elerkey of 
the King and his heirs, by the yearly rent of one hare dog or grey- 
hound [*], to be paid at Easter, at Bodmyn, by the hands of the 
steward of the said county of Cornwall, for all services f- 

[*] Leporarius. See note on Lincoln, p. 237. 


William de Limeres held of the King in capite, in the county of 

* Willielrnus de Stanry, filius et heres Wil- -f Willielmus Larcedekene, frater et heres 

Helmi de Stanry, dat Regi xx s. pro relevio pro Stephani Larcedekene, tenet Morton et ma- 

quibusdam ter.' et ten. apud Sanctum Bria- nerium de Elerkey de Rege et heredibus suis, 

vellum teiit. de Rege in capite, per serjantiam an. redd, iiniun leporarium ad festunj Pasche, 

essendi forestarius Regis in foresta de Deene, apud Bodmyn, per manus Senescalli ipsius 

et faciendl attach', de virid, et venatione, et com. Cornub. pro omnibus servitijs. De ter- 

ducendi attachiatos adCastrum deSanctoBri- mino Hil. anno 2 Ric. II. Harl. MS. Briti 

avello. De termino Trin. anno 3 Edw. 11. Mus. No. 34, p. 276. 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 56. 



Southampton, one carucate of land in Comelessend, by the service 
of hunting the wolf with the King's dogs *. 


Humphrey de Monte (or Malmains) held the manor of Whitfield, 
with the appurtenances, by the serjeanty of bringing one !)rachet 
for the use of our lord the King, when the same lord the King 
should choose to receive it to hunt the stag hind %, buck, and doe -f-. 

f^ Bissa, (a Grail. Bische) cerva major, a hynd. Blount's Law Diet, 
sub. verbo. 


Richard Engaine holds one hundred shillings of land, in the 
town of Guedding, by the serjeanty of taking wolves, and he was 
to do this service daily X- 

* Willielmus de Litneres tenuit de R. in ca- 
in com, Southampton, 1 caruc. terr. in Co- 
melessend, per servic'. fugandi ad Iiipum cum 
canibus Regis. Esc. temp. H. R. fil. R. 
Johannis, Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 708, 
p. 8. 

+ Umfridus de Monte ten', maner'. de White- 
feld cum pertin'. per serjantiam affectadi 

unum bracketum ad opus dHi'Reg'. cum ipse 
dns Rex preceperit ad currend'. ad cervum et 
bissam etdamum et damam. Testa de Nevil, 
p. 28. 

J Ricaidus Engaine habet in villa de Gued- 
ding c s. terre per serjant'. capiendi lupos, et 
facit servic'. suum cotidie. Ibid. p. 358. 



' SECT. X. 

Of Petit Ssijeanfies, performed hy keeping for, and 
., , delivering Hawks, S^c. to, the King, 


King Henry III. gave to Henry de Alditheley (ancestor to the 
Lord Audley, Earl of Castle-Haven) the lordships of Egmundun 
and Newport, in the county of Salop, for the yearly rent of a 
mewed sparhawk, to be delivered into the King's Exchequer every 
year at the feast of St. Michael *. 


Hubert de Burgo, Earl of Kent, had a grant in fee from King 
Henry III. of the manor of Eastbrig, in Kent, to hold by the ser- 
vice of a sore f sparhawk, at Lammas yearly ^. 

^ I suppose it should be soar, which may mean one trained for the 
net, and taught to soar to make the game sit close. This term I 
see several times occurs, and is called sore by Blount. W. 


The county of Wilts antiently paid to the King ten pounds for a 
hawk, twenty shillings for a sumpter horse *|, one hundred shillings 
for hay, and in money five ores ||§|| %. 

* Carta, 11 Hen. III. p. 1. M. 5. Blount, t Carta, 17 Hen. HI. p. 1. M. 24. Blount, 

10. 12. 

X Domesday,, tit. Wiltes. Blount, 22. 

f Pro 


f Pro Summario. For a sumpter horse. Blount. Summarius 
rather means a liorse for caniage, than what we now call a 
sumpter horse, or lead horse. E. 

11§11 This ore was a Saxon coin, valued at xvid. a piece, and 
sometimes, according to the variation of the standard, at xx d. 


Robert de Tadeshale holds twenty pounds of land in Standebury, 
in the county of Berks, of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of 
keeping one girefaleon for him *. 


Philip de Hertrug held certain land in Hertrug, in the county of 
Berks, which was worth forty shillings a year, by the serjeanty of 
mewing and keeping one goshawk §:J:§ for the lord the King -f. 

Ill Osturcum. A pad, a Spanish gennet. A hawk rather. R. 
Often written Asturcus. Spelnian, p. 441. See likewise the 
two following pages- 


William Loveday holds one messuage and eighty acres of land 
in Great Wilburgham, in the county of Cambridge, of our lord 

* Robertas de Tadeshale tenet viginti li- f Philippus de Hertrug tenurt quandam 

bratas terra in Standebury, in com. Berks, de terratn iti Hertrug, in com. Berks, -quae valet 

domino Kege, per serjantiatB custediendi per ann. xls. per serjantiam njutandi et cus- 

unum girefalconein pro domino Rege. Piac. todiendi unum osturcum domini Regis. Plac. 

Coroa. *pud Windesor, 12 Edw. I. Blount, Coron. apud Windesor, 12 Edw. 1. Rot. 4(3. 

37. Blount, 40. 



Ihe Kiog in capite, by. the serjeanty ol" finding a sore sparhawk, 
and carrying it to the King's court, and there staying twelve days, 
with two horses, two boys Jl]|:, and two greyhounds f , at the cost 
of the King*. 

1^\X Duobus Garcionibus. Two boys or grooms. Blount. 

^ Duobus Leporariis. Two harehounds or greyhounds. Blount. 


Simon de Raghton, and Sir Robert de la Ferte, and Ivo son of 
Hugh de Fornecostes, hold one petit serjeanty in Raghton in the 
county of Cumberland, by keeping the King's aeries of goshawks ||§|[. 
And it was worth yearly nine shillings, which they paid at the King's 
Exchequer -f. 

I|§1J Aerias Austurcorum Domini Regis. The King's aeries of 
goshawks, (or falcons, as some will have it) from the French 
■ Austour, a goshawk. Blount. 

The goshawk has various names, and is called L'Autour by Buffon, 
and Astiir by Brissoh, and there can be no doubt but that 
Osturcum here means the same, as is evident from looking; at 
the note to p. 267. W. 

* WiTlielmus Loveday tenet unani messua- f Simon de Raghton, et dominus Robertus 

gium et octoginta acras terra in magna Wil- de la Ferte, et Ivo filius Hugonis de Forne- 

biiroham, in com. Cantabr. de dominp Rege. costes, tenent unam parvam serjantiam in 

'ill capite, per serjantiam inveniendi sperva- Raghton, in com. Cumbria, custodiendi aerias 

rjum sonim, et cum hoc fecerit deferet ilium austercorum domini Regis. Et valet per ann. 

ad curiam domini Regis, et ibidem faciei mo- ix s. quos reddit ad Scaccarium domini Regis, 

ram per xii dies, cum duobus equis, iluobus Plac. Coron. 20 Edw. I. Cumbria. Blount, 

garcionibus, et duobus leporariis^ ad Custam 42. 
domini Regis. Plac, Coron, 21 Edw. I. Cant. 

Blount, 42, •■ . .. SALING, 

■■ ■' M 51 



Ralph Picot holds one carucate of land in Saling, in the county 
of Essex, by the serjeanty of keeping one sparhawk, at the cost of 
our lord the King. And the King was to find him maintenance for 
three horses, three grooms, and three greyhounds ^. And the said 
Ralph was to mew the said sparhawk at his own proper costs *. 

% Tres Garciones et tres Leporarios. Three boys or grooms, and 
three hounds for the hare, or greyhounds. Blount. 


John Peckam holds the manor of Peckam, in the county of 
Kent, in capite of our lord the King, by the service of mewing 
one goshawk J§|; yearly -f*. 

X%X Servitium mutandi unum Osturcum. Of mewing a goshawk. 
Note, a goshawk is in our records termed by the several names 
of Osturcum, Hostricum, Estricium, Asturcum, and Austurcum, 
and all from the French Austour. Blount. 


Peter, son of Robert le Espicer (spice seller) holds certain land 
in Redenhall, in the county of Norfolk, by the serjeanty of keep- 
ing one of the King^s goshawks, at the costs of the King, from^ the 

* Radulfns Picot tenet unam carucatam Plac. Coron. 13 Edvv. I. Essex. Blount, 

terra in Saling, iu com. Essex, per serjantiam 5 1 . 

custodiendi unum spervarium ad custus doniini + Johannes Peckam tenet manerium de 

Regis. Et dominus Rex inveniet eideni susten- Peckam, in com. Kanciae, in capite de domino 

tationem suam ad tres equos, tres garciones, Rege, per servitium mutandi unum osturcum 

et tres leporarios, et idem Raduifus mutabit per ann. Pliaq. Cofon, 21 Edw. I. Rot. 27. 

pcsedictuo) spervarium sumptibus suis propriis. Kane. Blount, 6t. ' 



feast of St. Michael, till Lent; and afterwards he is to mew the 
same at his own costs *. 


The manor of Radeclyve is held of our lord the King in capite, 
by the service of mewing one goshawk ^, and finding a person to 
carry it at the cost of the Kingf. ^J.,i' 

% Mutandi unum Estricium. Of mewing a goshawk. Blount. 
Taking care of it, and managing it in the moult. A. 

Thus, in King Richard III. act i. sc. 1. Hastings says to Gloucester, 
speaking of Clarence, 

" More pity, that the eagle should be mew'd, 
" While kites and buzzards prey at liberty;" 

A mew was the place of confinement where a hawk was kept till 
he had moulted. See note on the passage. Chalmers edit, 
of Shakspeare. 


John Mauduit holds the manor of Boghton, in the county of 
Oxford, in capite of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of mew- 

* Petrus, filius Roberti le Espicer, tenet f Manerium de Radeclyve tenetur de do- 

quandam terrain in Redenhall, in com. Norf. mino Rege in capite, per servitium mutatidi 

per serjantiam custodiendi unum austurcum unum estriciuni, et inveniendi unutn porta» 

domini Regis, sumptibus domini Regis, a torem ad custos domini R«gis. Plac. Coron. 

festo Sancti Michaelis usque ad Quadrage- de ann. 3 Edw. III. Rot. 6. in dors. Netting, 

simam ; et postmodum ipsum mutare debet Blount, 72. 
sumptibus suis propriis. Plac. Goron. de ann. 
14 Edw. I. Rot, 3. Norf. Blount, 67. 

M M 2 ing 


ing a goshawk 1*% of the King's, or of carrying iit to the King's 

X*t Hostricum. See p. 267. 


John Molyns held the manor of Aston-Bernard, in the county of 
Bucks, of the King in capite, by the service of being Marshal of 
the King's Falcons and other Hawks f. 


Nicholas de Malmayns (malis manibus) holds a hundred shillings 
land in the town of Warneford, in the county of Southampton, for 
one soar sparhawk, to be paid to our lord the King, yearly, at 
the feast of St. Michael, at the Exchequer J. 


Sir John Leeke^ holds the manor of Hucknall-Torcard, in the 
county of Nottingham, and certain messuages, lands, and tene- 
ra^ents in Hucknall-Torcard, of our lord the King in capite, by 
the service of carrying one gerfalcon, from the feast of St. Michael 
tlje Archangel, until Lent, at the costs of the King, with three 
horses, for two shillings a day, and half a sextary of wine, and 
two robes, when he should be summoned to do this service. And 

* Johannes Mauduit tenet manerium de J Nicholas de Malis Manibus tenet centum 

Boghton, in com. Oxon, in capite de domino solidatas terrae in villa de Warneford, in com. 

Kege, per serjantiara mutandi unum hostricum Southampton, pro uno spervario soro, red- 

domiui Regis, vel istam hostricum portandi ad dendo domino Regi, per annum ad festum 

curiam domini Regis. Plac. Coron. 13 Edw. I. Sancti Michaelis, ad Scaccarium. Plac. 

Rot. 50. dorso. Oxon. Blount, 74. Coron. 8 Edw. I. Rot. 30. Blount, 86. 

t Carta, 20 Edw. III. n. 13. Blount, 77. 



if his harses should die in the King's service, the King was to re- 
store his horses to liim *. 

% This Sir John Leeke (who was ancestor to the Lords D'Eyncourt) 
died in the reign of King Henry VIII. Another Sir John Leeke 
held this manor by the same services in the 37th Hen. YI. See 
Blount, 93, and Escaet. 37 Hen. VI. E. 


The Lords Grey of Wilton, held the manor of Acton, in the 
county of Buckingham, by the serjeanty of keeping one gerfalcon 
for their sovereign lord the King : whereupon that family of the 
Greys had, for their badge or cognisance, a falcon sejant upon a 
glove -f •, 


Reginald de Grey holds the manor of Eton, in the county of 
Buckingham, of our lord the King, by the service of keeping one 
falcon until it could fly, and for the keeping of it^ when he took 
it to the King, he is to have the King's horse J§J with all its 
furniture and clothes: and is also to have the King's table, with 
the trestle |||| and table-cloth, and to have all the vessels with which 
the King was served that day: and he is to have a cask of wine^ 
immediately after the King shall have tasted of it X- 

,t§:l: Equitatura 

* Manerium de Hucknall-Torkard, ac certa quando premmiitur ad hoc faciendum. Et si 

messuagia, terr. et ten. in Hucknall-Torkard, equi sui moriantur in servitio domini Regis, 

tenentur de domino Rege in capite, per servi- dictus Rex equos suos sibi lestaurabit. Ex 

tium ad portand. unum gerfalconem a festo M. S. penes F. F. Foljambe, Arm. 

Sancti Miehaelis Archangeli usque ad Qua- f Camd. Brit. tit. Bucks. Blount, 109. 

dragesimam, sumptibus domini Regis, cum J Reginaldus de Grey tenet manerium de 

tribns equis, pro duobus solidis per diem, et Eton, in com. Buckingham, de domino Rege, 

dimidium sextarii vini, et duobus robis, per servitium custodiendi uuum falconem 



X^X Equitatura Regis. Signifies here, as I suppose, the King's 

horse and furniture. Blount. 
nil Tressello. From the French Treteau, or Trusteau, a trestle. E. 

f DoUumVini. A tun, pipe, hogshead, tub, or cask of wine. E. 
A cask. A. 


The King of England gave to the King of Scotland three hun- 
dred pounds of land, for his homage, and for the annual service 
of one gerfalcon §§ *. 

§§ Pro annuo servitio unius Erodii. Mr. Hearne of Oxford, most 
unhappily conjectures that this word ought to have been written 
Corrodii. Now, a Corrody is an allowance of victuals from a 
religious house to a person living out of it, for some valuable 
consideration ; it consequently is entirely foreign to the present 
purpose. 'Tis pity that M. Paris does not mention this service 
or tenure, p. 446, where he speaks of this business. However, 
there is no occasion for any correction or emendation here, 
since by Erodii may either be meant E'^uSioC, an heron, the 
Greek word being only latinized. iRlian. Hist. Anim. lib. i. 
c. 1. et Annot Bocharti Op. torn. iii. col. 321. seq. Or rather, 
that the gerfalcon is intended, called Eurodius by Nic. Upton, 
p. 187, on account of his flying at the heron. The presenting a 

usque ad voktuin, et pro custodia ilia cutn immediate postqnam dominus Rex ex ipso 

falconem ilium duxerit ad Regem, habebit vino gustaverit. 9 Jan. i7 Edw. HI. Inq. in 

cquitaturam Regis, cum toto apparatu et in- com. Buck. Blount, 138. 

dumentis domini Regis : et etiani habebit * Rex Angliae dedit ei (Regi Scotiae) tre- 

mensam domini Regis, cum tressello et mappa, centas libratas terrae pro homagio suo, et prp 

ct habebit omnia vasa de quibus dominus Rex annuo servitio unius Erodii. Annals of Dur»- 

servatus fu rit eo die : et habebit dolium viui staple, p. 254. 



falcon or liawk was a very common service ; and for this sense 
again, see Bochart, col. 325. See also Du Fresne, and Little- 
ton's and Ainsworth's Dictionaries. P. 

The heron, or Ardea Major of Linnseus, is a voracious bird ; and, 
according to Buffon, exhibits a picture of wretchedness, anxiety, 
and indigence. In England this bird was formerly ranked 
among the royal game, and protected as partridges and hares 
are now, by specific .laws. Persons who destroyed their eggs 
were subject to a fine of twenty shillings for each offence. 
Heron hawking was at that time a favourite diversion among the 
nobility and gentry of the kingdom, and at whose table this 
bird was deemed a choice dish. A passage in Shakspeare 
that alludes to the heron, has occasioned much controversy 
with verbal critics. Allusive, and as a reproach to ignorance, 
it states, "He does not know d, hawk from a hand-saw, or 
heron-shaw." The latter is the common name of the fowl ; 
but in vulgar pronunciation it is often called in this proverb, 
hand-saw. An interesting account of the heron, with an accu- 
rate representation of it, are preserved in Bewick's " History 
of British Birds," vol. ii. Brayley and Britton's Beauties of 
England and Wales, vol. ix. p. 735. 

Erodii. If it means a heron, it probably refers to that species 
called the Egret. The egret is the bird that by the statutes of 
the Order furnishes the plumes for the knights of the Thistle, 
and the grant being io the King of Scotland, the reddendo 
of the egret not inaptly connects itself with this explana- 
lion. W. 




At the Coronation of King James II. the lord of the manor of 
Ilmer claimed to be Marshal, Surveyor, and Conservator of his 
Majesty's Hawks in England, with divers fees, and the nomination 
of tinder-officers ; which claim was not allowed, because not re- 
specting the Coronation, but the claimant was left to take his 
course at law, if he thought fit *. 


Richard de Herthull, the day he died, held the maner of Foley, 
in the county of Warwick, in his demesne as of fee, by fealty and 
the service of one sparhawk, or two shillings, at the feast of St. 
James, &e.-f 


King John granted to Robert de Hose, land in Berton, of the 
Honour of Nottingham, to be held by the service of yielding the 
King yearly one soar hawk, &c. % 


In 1296 it was in the family of La Merk§, fi-om whom it obtained 
the name of Merks. It was held by the serjeanty of being keeper 
of the King's falcons, and descended by female heirs to the families 
of JIastings and Longueville.|[. 

* Sandf. Hist. Coron. Gent. Mag. vol. xxxi. cobi, &c. Escaet. de anno 19 Edw. II. num. 

p. 323. 53. Blount's Law Diet. tit. Espaivarius. 

f Ricardus de Herthull, die quo obijt tenuit J Cartular. S. Edmund. MS. Jac. Law Diet, 

manerium de Foley, in com. War. in dominico tit. Sorus Accipiter. 

suo, ut de feodo, per fidelitatem et servitiiini § Cart. 25 Edw. I, 

unius esparvarij. vel h s. ad festum Sancti J a- || Lysons's Mag. Brit, vol, ii. p. l68, 




This manor was held, in the time of King John, by the service 
of bearing one of the King's goshawks beyond sea, when de- 
manded, from the feast of St. Michael to that of the Purification. 
The manor was afterwards divided, and one part is now the pro- 
perty of Lord le Despencer, and the other of the Earl of Tor- 
rington *. 


In 12i96, or 1297, King Edward I. granted to John de Merks, 
in tail-general, the manor of White Roding, and the advowson 
of the chnrch, with remainder to Cecily de Hastings, sister of 
the said John -^^ This Cecily was wife of Humfrey de Hastings, 
and held this manor, and that of Cumbreton in Cambridgeshire, 
at the time of her decease, in 1 304, by the service of keeping two 
lanar falcons, or hawks, for heron hawking; and a greyhound 
trained to make a heron rise, from Michaelmas to the Purification, 
for the King's use '^ 


Walter de HauTill held six^ty shillings of land in Hallingbury de 
WB,lla ^, by the serjeanty of falconry, >vhich he had of the grant of 
King Richard I. § 

^ De Walla. Quaere. The iate Dr. Pegge could not explain this. 

* Beauties of England and Wales, vol. viii. § Walterus de Hauvill tenuit lx sol. terr. 

p. 1285. in Hallingbury de Walla, per serjautiam falco- 

+ Cart. 25 Edw. I. liumb. 6. nariae, per Regem Richardum. Lib. Rub. 

Morant's Essex, voL ii. p. 469^, Scaec. Append. 19 Brady's Introduct. fo. 23. 




King Henry II. is said to have given this town, with Doketon and 
Kettleston, to Ralph de Hauvill, to be held by petit serjeanty, the 
keeping of the King's hawks or falcons ; and in another record it is 
said by keeping of two gerfalcons for the King. Of this family 
were Henry and Hugh de Hauvile ; and King John, in his sixth 
year, ordered the bailiffs of several ports to secure all the hawks 
and gerfalcons which should be brought beyond sea; till the said 
Henry and Hugh should choose what they thought fit for the King's 
use ; and no one was allowed to buy any till this was done *. 

Q^ It is remarkable that in Wales, the Penhebogydd, or Master 
of the Hawks, was the fourth officer in rank and dignity, and sat in 
the fourth place from his sovereign at the royal table ; that he was 
permitted to drink no more than three times, lest he should neglect 
his birds from intoxication; and that when he was more than usually 
successful in his sports, the prince was obliged, by law and custom, 
to rise up to receive him as he entered the hall, and sometimes to 
hold his stirrup as he alighted from his horse. Polewhele's History 
of Cornwall, vol. ii. p. 81. 


Sir Robert Broughton, Knight, acknowledged that he held the 
manor of Wyllyen, in the county of Hertford, of the King in 
capite> by the service of rendering to the King a sore sparhawk, 
or two shillings, yearly, by the hands of the sheriiF of Hertford 
for the time being -f-. 


* Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, vol. iii, f Robertus. Broughton, miles, cognovit 

p. 781. s« tenere m. de Wylljeii, in com. Hertf. 




The heirs of William and Benedict held two oxgangs of land In 
Gressinghana, by the serjeanty of keeping the aeries of hawks of 
our lord the King *. 


Baldwin Fillot holds certain land in the town of Ardeley, by the 
serjeanty of keeping a sparhawk, and that land was worth forty 
shillings -f-. 


William Hurnell holjis the town of Langley, of our lord the 
King, by the service of bearing one falcon, at the cost of the 
King X. 


Henry Michelgrove held (amongst other things) the manor of 
Herst'Faucover, in the county of Kent, which was held of the King 
in capite by homage, and the service of keeping yearly one falcon 
for our lord the King §. 

<3e R. in capite, per servic'. redd'. Regj unum H^n. III. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 5172, 

esparuareum sor'. annuatim vel ijs. ad man'. p. 33. 

vie. Hertf. pro tempore existen. Midi's fin. :{: Willielmus Hurnell tenet villam de X<an- 

anno 6 Hen. VII. Rot. 1. Harl. MS. Brit. geley de diio Rege per servic'. portandi uniim 

Mus. No. 5174, p. 6. aucipe ad custum dni Regis. Ibid. No. 1087, 

*Heres Willielmi et Bened'cti ten', ii bovat. p. 13. 

terre ibni. per seriant'. custodiendi heieras § Henricus Michelgrove (int'. al'.) m. de 

accipitrum diii Regis. Test, de Nevil. Ibid. Herst-Faucouer, in com. Kent, quod tenetur 

No. 2085, p. 431. de R. in capite, per homagiuni et , servic'. 

•\- Baldwinus Fillot tenet in villa de Ar- custodiendi ununi falconem dicti diii Ri, acn- 

deley, quandam terram per seriant'. servandi nuatim. Esc. anno 17 Ric'. II. Ibid. No. 

nisum et valet terr. 40 solid. Inquis. temp. 2087, p. 236, 

jsr N 2 And 


And Godfrey le Hutton held a certain serjeanty in Hurst, for 
which he was to keep the falcons of our lord the King*. 


John Pypard paid to the King (amongst other things) two shil- 
lings for his relief for twelve pounds of land, in Huntlesham, in 
the county of Suffolk, held of the King by the service of one 
sparhawk^, yearly -j-. 

^ Nisus. The lesser hawk, or sparroAv hawk. Cowell's Inter- 

Falco Nisus is the Linnsean specific name of the sparrow hawk, 
but it is a mistake to call it the lesser hawk, which is the 
merlin hawk, and the least of the species that inhabits Great 
Britain. It was used in the humbler kinds of falconry as 
flying at larks, &c. W. 


John, son and heir of Roger de Sannage, gave to the King one 
sore sparhawk for his relief for the manor of Staynesby, in the 
county of Derby, which he holds of the King in capite by the 
service of a soar sparhawk ij:. 

* SeriantiaGodefr'. le Huton, in Hurst, pro Edw. I. Hail. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 

qua debuit custodire falcones diii Reg. De 33. 

serjantijs, &c. com. Kancie, temp. Hen. II. % Johannes filius et heres Rogeri de San- 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 313, p. 11. nage dedit Regi unum spervariiim sori de re- 

+ Johannes Pypard dat Regi 2s. de re- levio sue pro manerio de Staynesby, in com. 

levio suo pro ^xii ter'. in Hmitlesham, in Derby, quod de Rege tenet in capite per ser- 

com. Suff, tenet de Rege per servitium unius vicium uiiius spervarij sori. De termino 

nisi per annu. De termino Pasche, a° 31 Mich'. a° 31 Edw. I. Ibid. No. 34, p. 27. 




Thomas, son and heir of Thomas de Wellesk, paid to the King 
for his relief of a certain serjeanty which he holds of the King in 
capite in Espett (Esperett,) by the service of four shillings, one 
soar sparhawk *. 


Thomas de Lungevill, and Beatrix his wife, daughter and heir 
of Philip de Hastings, made fine with our lord the King, by ten 
marks, for their relief of the manor of Whitewthinges, in the oounty 
of Essex, which is held of the King in capite, by the service of 
coming to his court at the feast of St. Michael, and of keeping there 
two of the King's lanar falcons at his charge, from the same feast, 
until the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, next 
following -j^.. 


Hugh, son and heir of Philip de Stredley, made fine with the 
King by two marks for his relief for the mill of Burge, in the county 
of Derby, which the said Philip held of the King in capite, by the 
service of finding one man bearing an heron falcon, every year in 
season, before the King, when he should be summoned, and^ to 

* Thomas, filius et heres Thomaa de W-el- manerio de Whitewthinges in com. Essex> 

lesk, dat Regi pro relevio sue de quadam ser- quod de Rege tenetur in capite, per servitium 

jaiic. quam de, Rege tenet in capite in Espett veniendi ad curiam Regis ad festum Sancti 

(Esperett) per servic'. iv solid, unum sp'uar. Mich' et custodiendi ibidem duos falcones 

sor'. De termino Trin. anno 18 Edw. I. Regis lanar ad custus ipsius Regis ab eodera 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 9- festo usque ad festum Purificationis Beate 

f Thomas de Lungevill et Beatrix uxor eiiis, Marie prox' sequent. De termino Pasche, anno 

filia et her' Pbilipi de Hastings, fecerunt 9 Edw. III. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No, 34, 

finem cum domino Rege pro relevio suo de p. 126. 



take for performing the said service, at the cost of the King, two 
robes at Whitsuntide and Christmas *. 


Adain de Beyssin held of the King in capite the manors of Wir- 
kiton and WalkeslaAv, by the service of keeping one of the King's 
goshawks % until the feast of St. Michael yearly, or until the King 
should command it to be brought to him, which he was then to 
carry to the King accordingly; and during the season he was to 
abide at court, and to take there five-pence halfpenny daily, and he 
was to eat on all days in the King's household, and to take yearly 
two robes -f-. 

% Osturcum, See note on Peckfaam, p. 260. 


Robert de Tateshale held the manor of Shaldeburne in the 
county of Berks of the King in capite, by serjeanty, viz, by the 
service of mewing and keeping one falcon gentle for the King, and 
of carrying it by himself, or another, to the King at his command, 
at the charge of the said Robert, to abide with the falcon aforesaid, 

* Hugo, filius^t heres Philippi de Stredley, *>- Adam de Beyssin tenuit de R. in capite 

fecit iinem cum Kege per diias marc', pro re- maner'. de Wirkiton et Walkeslaw, per servic'. 

levio suo de molend- de Burgo in com. Derby, custod'. unum Osturcum Regis usq. festum 

q. dictus Philippus tenuit de Rege in capite, Sancti Mich'is annuatim, vel usq. ad man- 

per servitium invenieudi unum hominem por- datu' Regis tunc deffere dictum osturcu'. ad 

tantem unum falconem heronar'. quolibet anno Regeni, et tunc durante seisona comorabit', 

in seisona coram Rege cum per Regem fuerit ad cur', capiend. ad cur' per diem v d. ob. et 

premonit' capiend'. pro dicto servitio faciend'. comedet omnibus diebus in hospitio Regis, et 

ad sumplibus Regis, duas robas ad fest' cepit per annum duas robas. Esc. tempore 

Pent, et Nativitatis Diii. De termino Trin. R. Hen. fil. Reg. Johannis. Harl. MS. Brit, 

anno 21 Edw. HI. Rot. 1. Harl. MS. Brit. Mas. No. 708, p. 6. 
Mus. ISo. 34, p. 167. 



in obedienca to the King so long as he should please, at the wages 
of the said Robert whilst he resided there, for all services*. 


Ralph de Fauconer held of the King in capite four pounds and 
two-pence rent in Kikby, by the petit serjeanty of bearing one 
lanar falcon, at the costs of our lord the King -f-. 


Richard le Chamberleyn, who married Joan the daughter and 
heir of John Gardener, made fine with the King for himself and 
his wife, by one hundred shillings for their relief, for the serjeanty 
of keeping the King^s falcons in Stanbriggs %. 


Robert de Eleford, son and heir of Robert de Eleford, made 

fine with the King by one hundred shillings for his relief, viz. for 

four yard lands which he holds of the King in Lewes, in the county 

of Oxford, by the serjeanty of keeping a falcon in season, at his 

own proper costs §. 


* Robertus de Tateshale tenuit maner'. de Kil«by, per parvam seriantiam portandi unum 

Shaldeburne in com. R. in capite, per falconem laneri, sumptibus doinini Regi». 

seriantiam, viz. per servic'. miiland'. et custod'. Anno 4 Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 

falconeip gentle R. et illu'. deferend. per se 821, p. 34, 

\el per aliu'. R. ad mandatu'. ipsius R. oust'. J Ricardus le Chamberleyn, qjii Johanna 

predict! Roberti morando ciini falcone predict' filiam etjieredem Johaunis Gardener duxit in 

in obsequio R. quamdiu R. piacuit ad vad. uxorem, fecit linem cum Rege pro se et uxore 

ipsius R. dum moram fecerit pro omni servicio. sua per 100 s. pro relevio suo, per serjantiant 

£$c. anno 31 R. Edw. I. Harl. MS- Brit. custodiendi falcon. Regis in Stanbriggs. De 

Mus. No. 708, p. 28. terraino Pasche, anno 29 Edw. 1. Ibid. No. 

•\ Radus de Eauconer tenuit de Rege in ca- 34, p. ,21. 

pite quatuor libras et duos denarios redditus in | Robertus de Eleford, filius et herea Ro- 



In the second year of King Edward I. John de Audeley ren- 
dered a mewed sparrow hawk f at the Exchequer for the manor 
of Echeraendon, which he held of the King in capite *. , 

f Spervarium mutariura. From muto, to mew up hawks in the 
time of their muting, or molting, or casting their plumes. 
Hence the Muta Regia, the Mews near Charing-cross, in Lon- 
don, now the King's stahles, formerly the falconry, or place for 
the King's hawks. Kennet's Gloss, to Faroch. Antiq. in v. 



Walter de Hauvill holds the town of Bladene of the gift of our 
lord the King, by the serjeanty of keeping the King's birds, and 
it was worth seven pounds -f-. 


Richard de Sandiacre holds ten pounds of land in Sandiacre, 
by the serjeanty of keeping a goshawk, and of finding twelve 
carriers (to convey the said goshawk,) and himself to bear a 
tabor :|. 

berti de Eleford, finem fecit cum Rege per 1 & 2 Edw. 1. Rot, 2, a, Madox's Hist. 

100 s. pro relevio suo, viz. pro quatuor virgat'. Excheq. p. 6l2. 

terr'. quas tenet de Rege in capite in Lewes in f Walterus de Hauvill tenuit villum de Bla- 

coni. Oxon. per serjanc'. custod', unum fal- dene de dono diii Regis, per serjantiam custo- 

conem, sumptibiis suis propriis, in seisona. diendi aves dtii Regis, et val'. ofvij. Testa de 

DeterminoMich.anno23Edw. I. Harl. MS. Nevil, p. 107. 

Brit. Mas. ^o. 34, p. 15. % Ricardus de Sandiacre tenet x librat'. terr'. 

* Salopsire. Redditus. Jacobus de Audi- in Sandiacre, per serjantiam ad custodiend*. 

thele reddit ad Scaccarium unum spervarium ostur'. et inveniendum xij portatores, et seip- 

jrutarium pro manerio de Echemendon, quod sum ad ferend'. taborem. Ibid. p. 20. 
de Rege tenet iu capite. Mich. ComiHun. 




Of Petit Serjeanties, hy Religious Services. 


So named of the Greens (persons famed in the sixteenth cen- 
tury for their weaUh) called before Norton-Dauney, was held 
of the King in capite, by the service of lifting up their right-hands 
towards the King, yearly, on Christmas-day, wheresoever the King 
should then be in England *. 


Thomas Winchard held land in Coningston in the county of 
Leicester, in capite, by the service of saying daily five pater-nosters 
and five ave marias, for the souls of the King's progenitors, and 
the souls of all the faithful departed, for all services -f-. 


William de Valoignes holds of our lord the King in capite, a 
moiety of the manor of Maplescaump, by this service, that if the 
King should come to Maplescaump to hear mass, then the said 
William was to find him a penny for an oblation $• 

* Fines 18 Ric. II. Blount, 10. Camd. Rege in capite, medietatem maneiii de Maples- 
Brit, tit. Northamptonshire. Inqiiis. 44 caump, per talem servitium quod si dominus 
Edw, III. Rex venerit usque Maplescaump ad missam 

t Inquis. 27 Edw. III. Escaet. 37 Edvi^. suam audiendam, tunc idem Willielmus inve- 

III. Blount, 16. niet ei unum denarium ad oblationem. In 

4 WUlielmus de Valoignes tenet de domino Parvo Rot. Hundredor. Kantiae. Blount,^ 29. 

oo EAST- 



John Pater-Noster holds one yard land, with the appurtenances, 
in East-Hanred in the county of Berks, by the serjeanty of saying, 
for the soul of our lord the King, one pater-noster daily, and it was 
worth five shillings yearly *. 


John Russell holds in the town of Papworth-Anneys in the county 
of Cambridge, two hides and an half of land of the King in 
capite, by the serjeanty of feeding two poor persons, for the souls 
of his ancestors ; and it is rated at eight shillings a year at the 
Exchequer -f*. 


Alice Pater-Noster holds one yard land in Pusey, in the county 
of Berks, in capite of our lord the King, by the service of saying 
every day five Pater-nosters, for the souls of the King's ancestors ; 
and it was worth five shillings a year J. 

And Richard Pater-Noster, for his relief, said, three times, before 
the present barons, (of the Exchequer) the Lord's Prayer, with the 

* Johannes Pater-Noster tenet unam virga- mabus aiitecessorum suorum, et arrentatur ad 

tam terrzB, cum pertin. in East-Hanred, in Scaeearium pro vnis. Plac. Coron. 14 Edw. 

com. Berks, per serjantiam dicendi, pro anima I. Cant. Blount, 41. 

domini Regis, unum Pater noster quotidi^, et ;{: Alicia Pater-Noster tenet unam virgataui 

valet per anu. vs. Plac. Coron. apud Winde- tenae in Pusey in com. Berks, in capite de do- 

sor, 12 Edw. I. Rot. 29, in dorso. Blount, 39. mino Rege, per servitium dicendi .quolifaet die 

f Johannes Russell tenet in villa de Pap- quinquies Pater noster, pro animabus anteces- 

worth-Anneys in com. Cantabr. dnas hid*i sorum domini Regis, et valet per ann. vs. 

terrae, et dimidiam de domino Rege in capite, Plac. Coron. 12 Edw. I. Rot. 35, dorso, 

per serjantiam pascendi duos pauperes pro ani- Blount, 5 1 . 



Salutation of the blessed Mary, as John his brother had done foi^ 
bis reUef *. See. Holieote, p. 295, 


The manor of Clay-hall was held under the abbess and convent 
®f Barking by a quit rent of 15s. 3 d. and the following services, 
viz. that the tenant should come in person to the Abbey Church 
of Barking,, on the vigil of St. Ethelburgh the Virgin, and there 
attend and guard the high altar from the first hour of vespers till 
nine o'clock the next morning ; and that he should be ready at all 
times with a horse and man tt> attend the abbess and her steward, 
when going upon the business of the convent, any where within 
the four seas ; and lastly, that the abbess should have by way of 
heriot, upon the death of every tenant, his best horse and accou- 


Richard de CamTil, and Eustace his wife, gave a virgate of land ^ 
in Bttrcester to Robert Clerk, yet, so that the aforesaid Robert 
Clerk, or his heirs, should find one lamp before the altar of St. 
Nicholas, in the great church of St. Mary and St. Edburga, in 
Burcester, burning throughout every night and day while divine 
service was celebrated, and at canonical hours %, 

* Et Richardus Pater-Noster, pro relevio, J Ita tamen quod prsedictus Robertus Cle- 

suo ter dixit, coram baronibus modo hie Ora- ricus velhseredes sui invenient lampadem unam 

tionem Dominican], cum Salutatioue B«atse ante altare Sancti Nicholai, in majori ecclesia 

Mariae, sicut Johannes frater ejus- fecerat pro S. Mariae et S. Edburga? de Berencester qua- 

relevio suo. Rot. iin. Pasch. SI Edw. III. libet nocte totaliter, et quolibet die dum divina 

BlOutitjdl. celebrantur, et ad horas canonicales ardeutem* 

ft' Mr. Lethieullier's MS. from Esch. 15 Kennett's Paroch. Anliq. p. 180. 
Edw. IV, Lysons's Envir. vol, iv. pp. 82, 83. 

oca f Lands 


% Lands and rent charges were frequently given to Ifeliglous 
houses and parish churches for the mamtenance of a lamp or 
candle, set burning on the altar of any church or chapel. By 
the ecclesiastical constitutions in Normandy, it was ordained that 
once in a year, about Pentecost, the priest and capeilanes 
should come with their people in a full procession to the mother 
church, and for every house, should offer on the altar, a wax 
taper, to enlighten the church. Rennet's Paroch. Antiq. p. 598, 
and Gloss, sub voce Luminare. See also note on Whickham. 


In the eighth year of the pontificate of Bishop Skirlaw, 1395, 
William de Gourlay was seised in his demesne as of fee of the 
manor of Ponthop, containing sixty acres of land by estimation, 
which was held of the lord bishop in capite, by the service of 
offering and paying yearly one besant f at the shrine of St. Cuth- 
bert:J:*:J:, at his feast in Lent§|l§, to support the oblation of the said 
lord bishop §§§ ; and by the service of paying yearly another be- 
sant f, or two shillings, to the lord bishop and his successors, at 
the time aforesaid ; and by the service of appearing |||||| at the three 
principal county courts ^, and by foreign service [^^ *. 
^ Bisancum. See note under Smalleies. 

X*X Ad Feretrum Sancti Cuthberti. The Shrine of St. Cuthbert, 
interred at last at Durham. P. It is how called St. Cuthberfs 
Feretory, from feretrum. E. 

* Willielmus de Gourlay seis'. fuil io gesima, ad oblationem dicti dni epi'. sustinend^ 

dnico suo ut de feodo maner'. de Pontop, et per serv'. reddend. an', aliud bisancum, vel 

contia'. lx acr*. terr'. per estem'. (estim'.) que ii s. cEo epo'. et succ'. suis ad predictum temp, 

ten', dno epo in capite, per servic'. ofFerendi et per ser'. com', ad tres principal' com. et per 

et reddendi annual, unum bisancum ad feretrum forins'. serv'. Inquis. post Mortem WUlielpii 

Sancti Cuthberti, ad featum suum in Quadra- de Gourlay, 8. Skirlaw. 

§111 Ad festum suum in Quadragesima, 2Qth March. P. 

§§§ Oblationem dicti domini epi\ sustinend'. So that as the bishop 
always made his offering then, this besant of two shilHngs valui^ 
was to be part of it. P. 

mill Com, Comparandi, of appearing at the county courts, E. - 

^ Tres principales com. Quaere of these, as the sheriffs turn was 
but twice a year. P. 

]]J] Forins. Servic'. Foreign service is that, whereby a mesne lord 
holds over of another without the compass of his own fee, of else 
that which a tenant performs either to his own lord, or to thft 
lord paramount out of the fee. And it seems to have been 
knight's service, or escuage uncertain. Blount's Law Diet 
voce Foreign. E. 


William de Bfoynton held half a hide of land there of the gift 
of the Earl of Hereford by suit of court ; and Robert de Thert- 
levile, and his partners, the other moiety, by making one oblation 
of seven shillings upon the altar of St. Ethelbert*.. 


Ralph Blundus,. and WiUiam Fitz Gunnuld, William Fitz Gil- 
bert, and Osbert Malherb, held of our lord the King in capite, half 
a hide of land in alms, by the service of distributing and giving one 

-If I, 

* Willielmurde Brojnton dimid. hidam de septem solid, super altare Sancii Ethelbertr. 

dono Comitis Hereford per secta curie, et Ro- Evjdenciae extract de libro Feodorum &c. 

bertus de Therklevile et socij sui praenominati Com. Hereford, anno primo Regis Edw. IH. 

alteram medietatem, faciend'. unam pblacioiiem H^l. MS. Brit. Mus. No, 6765j p. 15. " 



cask f of ale on the day of All Saints, for tlie soul of our lord the 
King, and his ancestors *. 

f Cuna. See note on Biscopestre, p^ 192. 


The commons of the bishop of Durham, standing upon their 
ancient privilege, did refuse to serve under the King in his wars, 
which he waged with Scotland, for they pleaded, and proved it, 
that they were halywerke folkesJl^H, and held their lands to safe- 
guard and defend the corps of holy St. Cuthbert, neither ought they 
to go out of the precincts of the bishoprick, namely, between Tyne 
and Tees, for King or Bishop f. 

flill See Hallewimen, in the note on Thurgarton, &c. 


Henry de Greene, possessing the lands which were formerly of 
John de Asheby Marsh, acknowledged himself to hold one mes- 
suage, one pigeon-house, thirty-six acres of land, six acres of wood, 
and iifty^six shillings rent in Ashby-rMares (Ashby-Marsh) of the 
King in capite, by the service of lifting up his right-hand yearly on 
Christmas-day towards the King wheresoever he shall be in Eng- 

* Apse. Eadus Blundus, et Willielmus J Henricus de Greene teiiens terrarum que 

Filius Guni^uld, et Willielmus Filius Gilibert, fuere Johannis de Asheby Mares, cognovit se 

et Osbertus Malherbe^ tenent in capite de dno tenere unum messuagium, unum coliinjbum^ 

Rege, dimid. h)dain terre in Elemos' distri- xxxvj acr*. terr'. vj acr'. bosci, lvis. redd', in 

buendi et donandi unam cuvatani cervisie die Asheby- Mares de^ Rege. ia capite, per serVi- 

Omnium Scoru, pro auima dni Regis et ante- tium levandi manum suam dextram annuatim, 

cessorum suorum. Inquis. &c. Com. Surrey, die Nativitatis Diii, erga Regem ubicunque 

temp. Regis Johaiinis. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. fuerit in Anglia. Dfe termino Mich, anno 42 

No. 313, p. 19. Edw. III. Rot. 1, Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 

t Camd. Brit. 736. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. 34, p. 244. 

No. 5127, p. 11. ♦ LYSTON, 



William de Gatesden holds the manor of Lyston, by one pound 
of frankincense for the Kijig's chapel *. 


Of Petit Serjecmties relating to the providing of Ships, 

Boats, ^0. 


William Trevelle holds one Cornish acre of land ^ in Degemue 
and Eglosderi, by the serjeanty of finding one boat and nets for 
fishing in Hellestone Lake, whensoever our lord the King should 
come to Hellestone, and so long as he should stay there -f-. 

f See Fengevel, p. 129. 


The inhabitants of Maiden in Essex, antiently held that town by 
serjeanty, to find the King a ship with its furniture or tackle, as 
often as it should happen that he should go with his army out of the 

'I ■ ■ II \ : ■ 

* Willielmus de Gatesden ten', maner'. de seijantiam inveniendi unam batellum et rethisr 

Lyston, per unam libram thuris ad cap'llam ad piscandum in Lacu de Hellestone, quando-> 

Kegis. Testa de Nevil, p. 193. cunque dominus Rex venerit apud Hellestone, 

i'WillielinusTrevelle tenet unam acramlerrae et q^uamdiu moram ibi fecerit. Plac. Coron. 

Cornubiensem in Degemue et Eglosderi, per de anno 12 Edw. I. Cornub. Blount, £4. 



kingdom of England, for forty days, at their own proper costs; 
and this they were to do on the King's summons *. 


William, son of William Bek, holds his land in Lenyngburn, by 
the serjeanty of finding, when the King crossed the sea towards 
Gascony, one ship, which is called a Baard, at his own proper 
charges -f. 


King Edward I. ordained that his sea-port towns should provide 
for his service certain ships at their own proper costs, and double 
shippage f J. 

^ Sumptibus suis propriis, et duplici eskippamento. Sir Robert 
Cotton (in his answer to motives for war) interprets it double 
shippage, by which I suppose he means double tackle, or fur- 
niture for the ships. Blount. 

I should suppose this double shippage rather to be shipment, and 
means a conveyance to and from a place. It cannot be appli- 
cable to the tackle, as the ships were of course to be fit to go to 
sea, and the after-words seem to allude to the nature of the 
service to be required of them, namely, double shipment, 
though it may probably apply to a double proportion of men, 
which was not an unfrequent obligation. W- 

* Unam navem cum apparatu suo qtioties- terram suam in Lenyngburn, per seijantiam 

eunque contigerit dictum Regem ire cum ex- invehiendt ad transfretationem domini Regis 

ercitu extra regnum Angliae per xl dies, sump- unam navem qua3 vocatur Baard, versus Vasco* 

tibus suis propriis, et hoc ad sunimonitionem niam, sumptibus suis propriis. In Rot. Hun^ 

domini Regis. Plac. Coron. de 13 £dw. I. dred. anno 3 Edsv. I. Kane. Blount, 62. 
Blount, 27. $ Claus. 1 Edw. I. Blount, 62. 

t Willieltnus, filius WiUielmi Bek, tenet BURE- 



Sir John de Ferrers, knight, holds of the honor of the Castle of 
Tremanton, in the county of Cornwall, twenty-one knights fees in 
Bure-Ferrers, and elsewhere, by knight's service, paying at the 
feast of St. Michiael four boatmen X^X to manage the boats at the 
passage of Esse, and supporting twenty-one of the battlements |1§|| 
of the Castle aforesaid, at hi« own proper costs*. 

X^t Virones. Is here ui^ed for boatmen, or such as could manage 
the passage boat. Blount Vide Spelm. in voce. 

Il^ll Kernella Castri. Kernella are the nooks or notches on the top 
of the wall of an embattled castle, which is therefore called 
Castellum Kernellatum, from the Latin crena, a notch, Blount. 
Rather from the French creneller, to make battlements, from 
whence combes the words creneau, a battlement, and crenele, 
embattled. E. 


Matthew de Hastings held the manor of Grenocle in the county 
of Sussex, of the King, by this service, that he should find an 
oar for the King's use, when he should pass over the sea at the 
haven of Hastings ||,| -j^. 

§:|.§ Quaere. Whether this is within the tenure of Voyage-Royal^ 
aboUshed by the stat. 12 Car. H. cap. 24?:;:. 

* Johannes de Ferrers, chevalier, tenet de passagii de Esse, et sustinend. xxi Kernella 

Honore Castri de Tremanton in comitatu Cor- Castri prsedicti, sumptibus suis propriis. An- 

mibiffi, XXI feoda militiim in Bure-Ferrers, et tiq. Supervis. Ducalus Cornubije. Blount, 107. 
alibi, per servitiunimililare,reddend. ad festum -f- Inquis. 5 Edw. I. Blount, 110. 

Sancti Michaelis, quatuor virones ad batellos J Compl. Copyholder, 232. 




Called in Saxon ^aj-cinsa-ceaj-reji, is the chief town of the Cinque 
Ports, and had a mint in the time of King Athelstan. It, with its 
members, Winchelsea, Rye, i&e. was bound to find twenty-one 
ships for any naval expedition, at the King's summons ; and there 
ought to be in every ship twenty-one men, able, fitly qualified, well 
armed and well furnished for the King's service ; yet, so that the 
summons be made on the King's behalf, forty days before : and 
when the aforesaid ships and men were come to the place where- 
unto they were summoned, they were to abide there in the Kino-'s 
service for fifteen days, at their own proper costs and charges ; and 
if the King should ha,ve further need of their service, after the 
fifteen days aforesaid, or would have them stay there any lono-er 
those ships, with the men, while they remained there, were to be 
in the King's service at the King's costs and charges, so lono- as 
the King pleased : the master of each ship was to have sixpence a 
day, and the constable sixpence a day, and every one of the rest 
three-pence a day *. 

From the certificate of Stephen de Pencester, constable of Dover 
Castle, and Warden of the Cinque Ports, in the reign of Edward 
HI. it appears that the manor of Grange was obliged to furnish 
one ship, and two able and well armed men, towards the quota 
which the port of Hastings was bound to supply for the Kino-'s 
service, for forty days. This manor was held by the noble family 
of Hastings during several centuries, by the tenure of grand ser- 
jeanty ; and Matthew de Hastings, who died in the fifth of Edward 
I. was found to have possessed it by the service of findino- one oar 
whenever the King should sail towards the port of Hastiness 4*. 

* Camden, Brit. 249, cites an antient record f Beauties of England and Wales, vol. viii. 

in the King's Eschequer. p, 686. 




In the time of King Edward the Confessor, Dover paid eighteen 
pounds, of which sum Edward had two parts, and Earl Godwin 
th€ third part of one moiety, and the canons of St. Martin the 
other. The burgesses furnished the King with twenty ships once 
in each year, for fifteen days, and in each ship were twenty-one 
men; this they did because he had freed them from sac^ and 

f Sac, signifies a royalty, or rather a jurisdiction of holding plea, 
and correction of trespasses in a manor ; or a power to amerce 
tenants in court Chauncy's Hist. Antiq. of Hertfordshire. 

|§§ Soc, signifies a power or liberty of jurisdiction, or to have suit 
of tenants, or to search for thieves, or stolen goods, within a 
manor or fee, and to do justice upon such inquisition, or tenants 
in a liberty who are exempted from those common services 
which subjects are ordinarily bound to perform to their prince. 


In Dorchestre, in the time of King Edward, were one hundred 
and seventy-two houses which contributed for every service due 
to the King, for ten hides : viz. for the use of the huscarles §*§ 
one mark of silver, except the customs appertaining to the firm of 
one night §-[ | f. 

§*| The King's huscarles were hiis menial servants. Their rank 
among the Saxons is said, by Dr. Henry, to have been that 
of complete freemen. 

* See the Domesday Sarvey, torn, i, fol. 75. + Cough's Camd. Brit, edit, 1789. vol. i. 

p. 44. 

pp2 §^:§Ad 


^t§ Ad firmam noctis^ was a custom or tribute paid towards the 
entertainment of the King for one night, according to Domes- 
day. Blount's Law Diet, sub voce. 


When the King went on an expedition, either by land or water, 
he was to have from this manor either twenty shillings to feed 
his buzecarls, or took with him one man for the honour of five 


In Saxon Tupcej-ij, now a little mean town, but heretofore very 
noted ; for there were in it before the Norman times (as it is in 
Domesday) two hundred burghers, who enjoyed many privileges, 
on condition that they should carry the King's ambassadors as often 
as they came that way, down the river Trent, in their own barges, 
and conduct them as far as York. Their antient charter is still 
preserved ; and they enjoy thereby the privilege of a toll, from 
strangers who bring cattle or goods that way ; as also the privilege 
of a fair on Monday in Whitsun week ■]-. 


Richard de Bet held a certain serjeanty in Buram, for which he 
"Was to find for our lord the King one ship in every of his passages %. 

* Quando Rex ibat in expeditionera, vel t Seriantia Ricardi de Bet in Buram pro 

terra, vel mari, habebat de hoc manerio aut xx qua invenire debuit diio Regi unum naveni in 

sol. ad p:iscendos suos Buzecarl. aiit unum ho- qualibet passagio sue. De Serjantijs aren- 

minetn diicebat secuni pro honore quinque talis in Comitat. Kancie per Roberlum Passe- 

hidarum. Domesd. tit. Wiltse. Wilton. Bio. lewe, tempore Hen. Regis filljRegis Johan. 

Law Diet. Buzecar}. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 315, p. il.'. . - 

t Gough's Camd. vol. ii. p. 227. 




Of Petit Serjeanties performed by manual Labour, Sfc. 


Joceus le Flemmangh came to the Conquest of England, in the 
time of William Duke of Normandy, and purchased in Cukeney 
the third part of a knight's fee. And the aforesaid Joceus begot a 
son of the name of Richard. In the same town, there lived a 
certain man, who was called Gamelbere, and he was an old drey- 
inghe J§:J: before the Conquest ; he held two carucates of land of 
our lord the King in capite, for this service, that he was to shoe the 
King's palfrey iipon its four feet, with the King's nails [*], when- 
soever he should lie at his manor of Mansfield ; and if he should 
lame the King's palfrey, he was to give him a palfrey worth four 
marks. And if the army should be in Wales, he was to perform 
service according to the quantity of two carucates, and likewise for 
homage. The aforesaid Gamelbere died without heirs of his body, 
and his land was an escheat in the hands of King Flenry I. 
And the same King gave that land to Richard, son of Joceus afore- 
said, and his heirs, to be held of the King by the aforesaid service *. 

* Joceus le Flemmangh venit ad Conques- si inclaudet palefridum domini Regis, dabitei 

turn Angliae, tempore VVillielmi Ducis Nor- palefridum qiiatiior marcarum. Et si exer- 

manniae, et quaesivit in Cukenny tertiam partem citus fuerit in Wallia, faciet servitium secun- 

feodi imius niilitis : et prsedictus Joce genuit diim quantitatem duarum carucatarum, et si- 

quendam filium nomine Richardum. In ea- militer pro homagio. Prajdictus Gamelbere 

dem villa manebatqiiidam homo qui vocabatur obiit sine hserede de se, et terra sua fuit escha- 

Gamelbere, et fuit vetus dreyinghe ante Con- eta in manum Regis Henrici primi. Et ipse 

questum ; tenuit duas earucatas terras dedo- Rex dedit illam terrara Richardo filio Jocti 

mino Rege iu capita^ pro tali servitio; defe- praedicli, et hasredibus suis, tenendam de eo 

rendo palefridum domini Regis super quatuor per praedictum servitium. Ex Registro de 

pedes,, de cluario domini Regis, quotiescunqiie Welbec, penes Rob. Comjtem Kingstonisej 

ad manerium suum de Maunsfeld jacuerit ; et anno 1630. a Mon. Ang. 598, a. Blount; 4.* 



Thomas, the son of the said Richard, founded the abbey of 
Welbeck, in the reign of King Henry II *. 

X%t By Dreyinghe is understood a knight, or one that held land by 
knight's service, before the Conquest, and was not ousted of his 
estate by William the Conqueror. Blount. 

[*] De Cluario Domini Regis. With the King's nails and shoeing 
materials. Blount. Claurio, from the French Clou, a nail. E. 
Quaere, if not mis-read for Clavaris? P. 

From the aforesaid Thomas, son of Richard (surnamed Thomas 
de Cukeney) the estate descended to Isabel his daughter, who was 
married to Simon Fitz Simon, and from her to her three daughters; 
Agnes, married to Sir Walter de Fauconberg, Isabel, married to 
Walter de Riboef, and Petronilla, married to Stephen de Faucon- 
berg, brother of Sir Walter. This Stephen was seised of the estate 
at Cukeney, in right of his wife ; and from him descended Henry 
Fauconberg, who held the manor of Cukeney, in the county of 
Nottingham, by serjeanty of shoeing the King's horse when he 
came to Mansfield, as mentioned by Camden -j^ ; and afterwards, in 
the 2d Edw. III. anno 1329, he gave the same, with other posses- 
sions, to John de Hotham, bishop of Ely, who the same year gave 
them to the abbot and convent of Welbeck J . 


John Freeman held one yard-lard in Marden, in the county of 

* Ex registro praedict. Mon. Angl. ii. 598. Rex veniret ad Mansfeld. Camd. Brit. edit, 

b. passim. .1. p. 124. Nottinghamshire. 

-}■ Henricus Fauconberge tenebat manerium ± Ex registro de Welbec prxdict- Mon. 

de Cukeneyj in hoc comitatu in serjantia, per Angl. ii. 598. et seq. passim. Escaet. 3 

g^rvitium ferrandi palfredum Regis quando Edw. III. n. 108, £lount, 4. 



Hereford, by the s^erjeanty of measuring the ditches and works of 
our lord the King, at the cost of the said King *. 


Walter Barun held certain lands and tenements in the town of 
Holecote, of the King in capite, by the service of hanging, upon 
a certain forked piece of wood, the red deer that died of the 
murrain in the King's forest of Exmore ; and also of lodging or 
entertaining the poor strangers, weakened by infirmities, that came 
to him, at his own proper costs, for the souls of the ancestors of 
our lord King Edward -j-. See p. 283, after Pusey. 


Philip de Lardimer (le Lardiner) claims to be salesman for our 
lord the King in fee, within the county of York, of all things to be 
sold for debt owing to the King, and also for Queen-gold ^. 
In this manner, viz. that be or his certain attorney should, at the 
command of the sheriff, go from place to place, within the county, 
at his own charges, to make the said sales, and should take for 
every such sale for his fee xxxii pence::!:. 

* Per serjantiam mensuraiidi fossato, et % Philippus de Lardimer (le Lardiner) 

opera domini Regis, ad custum ipsius domini clamat esse venditiorem domirii Regis de feodo 

Regis. Lib. Niger Heref. Blount, l6. , in com. Ebor. de omnibus rebus quae vendi 

f Walterus Barun tenuit quasdam terras et debent pro debito domini Regis, vel etiam 

quaedam tenementa in villa de Holecote, de pro auro Reginae. Ita, viz. quod ipse vel suus 

Rege in capite, per servitium pendendi super certus attornatus ibit ad mandatum vicecomitis 

quoddam lignum furcatum cei-vos de morina de loco, in locum infra comitatum, sumptibus 

defunctos in foresta Regis de Exemore ; ac suis, ad praedictas vendltiones faciendas ; et 

etiam hospitandi pauperes supervenientes, de capiet de unaquaque venditione, pro feodo 

infirmitate debilitates, sumptibus suis p'ropriis, suo xxxii. denarios. Quo Warr. Ebor. temp. 

pro animabus antecessorum domini Edwardi Edw. 1. Blount, 35. 
Regis. Inquis. 35 Edw. 1. n. 1, Somerset. 
Blount, 30. 



Which tenure was afterwards seised into the King's hands for 
the ahuse thereof, as appears by the great roll in the Pipe Office, 
anno 2 Edw. II. Blount. 

f Queen-gold is a royal duty of ten in the hundred, due to the 
Queen Consort of. England, for all fines and oblations made to 
the King. Blount; who quotes Lib. Nig. Scac. p. 43. 


Peter de Condrey holds the manor of Padeworth, in the county 
of Berks, in capite of our lord the King, by the serjeanty of find- 
ing one servant (servientem) |1§|], in the Queen's ship, as often as 
she should pass the sea to the parts of Normandy, to hold one of 
the cords or ropes of the said ship. And that serjeanty was worth 
yearly ten marks*. 

M See p. 118, after Mayford. 


Richard Pygot holds two yard-lands in Stanford Regis, in the 

county of Hereford, of our lord the King in capite, by the service 

of conducting the King's treasure from Hereford to London, at the 

King's costs, and returning at his own proper costs. And of 

summoning the Bishop of Hereford at the gates of the said bishop's 

manor of Bromyard, if the King should happen to implead the 

said bishop -f 


* Petrus de Condrey tenet maneriutn de manuiae, ,ad tenendam unam cordam ejusdeni 
Padeworth, in com. Berks, in capite de domino navis in eadem. Et valet per ann. seijantiailla 
Rege, per serjantiam inveniendi unum servi- X niarcas. Plac. Coron. apud Windesor, 12 
entena in navi dotninae Reginae quotiescimque Edw. I. Rot. 46. Blount, 40. 
contigerit ipsain transfretare ad partes Nor- f Richardus Pygot tenet duas virgatas terrje 





Walter de Monmouth holds one yard-land in Mawardyn, in the 
county of Hereford, by the serjeanty of conducting the treasure 
of our lord the King to London, as often as he should be sum- 
moned by the sheriff, with one horse and an iron helmet, at the 
costs of the King, to wit, twelve pence a day towards London, 
and returning at his own proper costs *. 

And William Caperon held two yard-lands there, by the serjeanty 
of keeping the gate of the Castle of Hereford, and of having twelve 
pence a day of our lord the King -f. 


Robert Fitz Alexander holds the manor of Wrencholm, by keep- 
ing the King's hogs, from the time of pawnage, until they were 
appraised X- 

in Stanford- Regis, in com. Hereford, de do- nitus fuerit per vicecomitem, cum uno equo 
mino Rege in capite, per servilium conducendi et capello fej-reo sumptibus domini Regis, viz. 
thesaurum domini Regis de Hereford usque xii d. quolibet die versus London, et in re- 
ad London, sumptibus domini Regis, et in deundo sumptibus suis propriis. 
redeundo sumptibus suis propriis ; et etiam f Et Willielmus Caperon tenuit duas vir- 
summonendi episcopuin Hereford, ad portas gatas terrse ibidem per serjantiam custodiendi 
manerii dicti episcopi de Bromyard, si con- portam Castri Hereford, et habendi xii dena- 
tin<'at dominuni Regem praedictum episco- rios per diem de domino Rege. Plac. Coron. 
pum implacitare. Plac. Coron. de anno 20 de anno 20 Edw. I. Heref. Blount, 59. 
Edw. I. Heref. Blount, 58. J Robertus Filius Alexandri tenet manerium 
* Walterus de Monemuwe tenet unani vir- de Wrencholm, per custodiam porcorum Regis, 
gatam tens in Mawardjn, in com. Heref. tempore pannagii donee apprecientur. Inquis, 
per serjantiam conducendi thesaurum dom. 13 Job. Cumber. Blount, 70. 
Regis usque London, quotiescunque ?umnio- 




Robert de Grant held one messuage and thirteen acres of land 
in the hamlet of Thame well, in the county of Oxford, of our lord 
the King, by the serjeanty of keeping the gate, called Woodgate,. 
at Woodstock, in the King's presence, when he should make a 
stay there*. 


Peter de Baldewyn holds a certain serjeanty in Cumbes, in the 
county of Surrey, by gathering wool for our lady the Queen, from 
the white thorns f , if he chose to do it ; and if he refused to 
gather it, to pay twenty shillings a-year at the King's Exchequer f. 

^ Ad colligendara lanam dominse Reginee per albas spinas. To 
go a wool-gathering for the Queen among the thorns and briars; 
though I confess I do but guess at albas spinas, for the record 
is illegible, and seems to make it per albias, with a dash over 
the word. Blount. The hawthorn, in the north, is called white 
thorn, and the sloe, black thorn. A. And so almost universally 
in Yorkshire. E. It is the proper name of the tree. P. 

Divers conjectures have been formed upon a passage in the record 
of Domesday, relating to the manor of Kingston; which states 
that Humphrey, the chamberlain, had oiie of the villains be- 
longing to that manor in his custody, " caus4 coadunandi lanam 

* Robertas de Grant tenuit uniim messua- -)- Petrus de Baldewyn tenet quandam ser- 

gium et xiii acras terrse in hamletto de Thame- jantiam in Cumbes, in com. Surrey, ad colli- 

\vell, in com. O.von. de domino Rege, per gendam lanam dominae Keginae, per albas 

serjantiam custodieudi portam de Wodegate, spinas, si voluerit, et si nolit earn colligere, 

apud Wodestock in presentia domini Regis, solvet ad Scaccarium domini Regis xx s. per 

cum idem domiiius Rex nioram ibidem faceret. aun. Plac. Coron. de ami. 39 Hen. III. Surr. 

Plac. Coron. 13 Edw. 1. Rot. 46. dorso. Blount, 79. 
Oxon. Blount, 74. 

Reginse ;" 


Reginse ;" and that he paid 20 s. for his relief when his father 
died. Salmon says, that the word coadunare signifies " to 
weave f and he supposes that this man carried on a woollen 
manufacture, by which he was enabled to pay a relief of 20 s. 
on his father's death. A MS. in the Harleian collection* 
explains this matter very fully: we are there informed, that 
Ralph Postel held one hide of land in Combe, by serjeanty, 
viz. by the service of collecting (colligendi) the Queen's wool; 
and that the said hide was given to his ancestors, with this 
service annexed, by Henry I. In a subsequent record it is 
said, that Ralph Postel's land, which was worth 20 s. per 
annum, was escheated to the crown, and that it had been held 
by the service of collecting the Queen's wool, and that if he 
did not collect it, he was to forfeit 20 s. to the crown. By 
the same MS. it appears, that the above serjeanty was after- 
wards granted to Peter Baldwin -f-. 

Blount, p. 79, in order to supply the blank in the place where 
he confesses that the record was illegible, and which he only 
does by guess, puts in the word spinas, and then gives this 
account of the tenure, viz. that the Queen's tenant here held 
this little manor by the service of " going a wool-gathering 
for the Queen among the thorns and briars." And the author 
of a treatise since published, called " Domesday Book illus- 
trated," p. 175, follows Blount, without any other explanation 
of him, than by translating the words, " coadunandi lanani 
Reginse," winding or mixing, or working up the Queen's 
wool with other wool, or gathering wool for the Queen. 

: ] ' — 

. * No. 313, called a Transcript of knights the reigns of Hen. III. and King John. The 
fees, and other tenures of lands, and also of originals are not now to be found, 
escheats and wards belonging to the crown in f Lysons's Environs, vol. i. p. 236. 

Q Q 2 Now, 


Now, the truth is, that " the original revenue of our ancient 
Queens, before and soon after the Conquest, consisted in cer- 
tain reservations or rents out of the demesne lands of the 
crow^n, which were expressly appropriated to the Queen, dis- 
tinct from the King. In Domesday Book, after specifying the 
rent due to the crown, it was not uncommon to add likewise 
the quantity of gold, or other renders, reserved to the Queen. 
These were frequently appropriated to particular purposes; 
to buy wool for her Majesty's use, to purchase oil for her 
lamps, or to furnish her attire from head to foot*." 

This manor of Cumbe was plainly one of those " reservations 
or rents out of the demesne lands of the crown," spoken 
of by Blackstone, as " expressly appropriated to the Queen's 
use ;" and, in the present instance, for the first of the pur- 
poses there mentioned, viz. " for buying wool for her Majesty's 
use." Hurafrid the Chamberlain, who farmed this manor of 
the Queen by the service of co-adunating, i. e. getting toge- 
ther this wool, might possibly pay it in kind, collecting their 
respective portions of the several under-tenants. In succeeding 
times, however, particularly when Postel, and afterwards 
Baldwin, farmed this manor, the wool-rent was compounded 
for by the payment of 20 s. a jear, in silver, at the Exche- 
quer ; and a rent paid in silver was always called alba firma. 
The blank therefore in the above-mentioned record of the 
39 Hen. III. is undoubtedly to be filled up by the word 
firmam, whereby the whole will be rendered perfectly intel- 

* See Blackstone's Coram, vol. i. p. 221, and the authorities there cited, among which is the 
•very article in question. 



ligible, viz. that Peter Baldwin held the serjeanty in Cumbes 
by collecting the Queen's wool (not " per albas spinas " oif 
the thorns and briars of the manor, but) " per albam firmam/' 
i. e. by compositions in silver, to be paid by the respective 
under-tenants, to the amount of 20 s. a-year, or whether he 
did or not, should at least pay that sum annually himself for 
the same at the Treasury*. 


In the time of King Henry II. Hugh de Sottebroc held one 
knight's fee at Sottebroc, in the county of Berks, by the service 
of finding coals for making the crown of our lord the King and 
his royal ornaments, taking sixty shillings and ten pence a-year 
for finding the said coals -j-. 


John le Wafre held two virgates of land here by the service 
of conducting the treasure of our lord the King, from Hereford 
to London, as often as he should be summoned by the sherifi*, 
with one horse and an iron helmet, at the costs of the King, to 
wit, twelve pence a day, towards London, and returning at his 
own proper costs:]:. 

* Gent. Mag. 1789, pp. 202, 203. summonitus faerit per vicecomitem cum uno 

f Ex Lib. Niger Scacc. edit, per Tho. eqao et capello ferreo sumptibus dni Regis, 

Hearne, p. 187, inter notas. viz. xii d. quolibet die versus London, et ia 

J John le Wafre ten', ii virgat' ter'. per redeundo sumptibus suis propriis. Plac. 

servitium condncendi thesaurum diii Regis de CorOn. 20 £dw. I. Goiigh's Camd. vol. ii. 

Hereford usque ad London, quotiescunque p. 461. 




John de Liston held the town or farm of Liston, in the county 
of Essex, by the serjeanty of making baskets ^ for the King *. 

f Canistellos. Little baskets. Ainsworth's Law Lat. Diet. E. 


Roger de Leyburn holds Bures, and Robert de Sutton of him, 
by the serjeanty of scalding the King's hogs -f-. 


Margaret Docket held nine messuages, four tofts, and one hun- 
dred and forty acres of land, &c. in the town of Lancaster, of the 
King, as of his Duchy of Lancaster, by serjeanty, and to find one 
bricklayer for the works of the castle of our lord the King, at 
Lancastei', to take one penny per day ; which said work was rented 
at five shillings yearly, and suit to the county court of Lancaster 
and wapentake of Lonesdale, and suit to mill of Loune, for one 
bushel of wheat:]:. 


Robert Sutton holds two yard-lands in Sutton, by the service 

* Ex Lib. Rub. Scacc. 137. Append, to caster de Rege ut de, &c. per seriant' et inve- 

Brady's Introduct. 22. niend'. 1 cement', pro op'ibus Castri dni R. 

■f Rogerus de Leyburn; Robertas de Sut- Lane, capiend'. per diem Id. q. q'd. opera 

ton de eo tenet Bures^ per serjantiam escal- arentat' ad 5 s. per ann. et sect. com. Lane, 

daudi porcos Regis. Es Lib. Rub. Scacc. et wapentake de Lonesdale, et sect, molend 

Ibid. 23. de Loune, pro 1 b. gran. A° 20 Hen. VII. 

X Marg'ta Docket ten'. 9 mess'. 4 toft. Harl." MS. Brit. Mus. No. 2085, p. 436. 
140 acr'. ter'. 8tc. cum pertin'. in villa de Lan- 



of finding one horse to carry the King's treasure towards London* 
twice a-year*. 

And Osbart de Sutton held a certain serjeanty there, for which 
he was to find for our lord the King, one horse with a collar <[f to 
conduct his treasure every year at Michaelmas, from the town of 
Salop -f. 

f Capistrum. See note on Willoughby, p. 143. 


Richard Prepositus (Reeve) holds three oxgangs §||§ of land there 
by keeping the wainhouses .^||$ of our lord the King %. 

§111 Bovata terrse. See note on Carleton, p. 145. 

"i^^WX Waynag, wannagia, wannage, seems to signify wainhx)uses, 
or necessary out-houses for husbandry. Blount's Law Diet, 
sub. voce. 


Henry Pygot holds two yard-lands [-[•], with the appurtenances, 
in Stantfoi'de, by the serjeanty of conducting the King's treasure 

* Robertus Sutton tenet duas virgat'. terr'. quolibet anno ad festum Sancti Mich'is & villa 

in Sutton, per servic'. inveniendi unum equum de Saloppe. Tenentes de domino Rege 

ad ducend. thesaur' Regis versus London, bis Hen. II. De Escaetis Gerardi de Thurnay. 

in anno. Nomina tenentium per serjantiam Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 1087, p. 18. 
de diio Rege Joh'is in com. Salop. Harl. J Ricardus Prepositus tenet 3 bovat'. ter'. 

MS. Brit. Mus. No. 1087, p. 13. per waynag diii R. custodiend'. Feodary for 

t Seriant. Osbart de Sutton, in Sutton, the county of Lancaster. Ibid, No. 2085, 

pro qua debuit invenire diio R. unum equum p. 434. 
cum capistro ad conducend. thesaur' diii R. 



to London, and of summoning his barons to the army, at the 
costs of our lord the King *. 

[•f] Virgata terrse. See note on Nether Overton, p. 130. 


The Knights Hospitallers held a certain place in Hereford, in 
capitc, of the gift of King Henry, father of King John, by the ser- 
vice of mending the causeys in Hereford •]-. 


Henry le Fraunceys held half a hide of land in the town of 
Kingeston, for which he ought to carry the letters of our lord the 
Kihg as often as they should come to Clyfford, in the county of 
Hereford |.. 


Robert, son of Robert le Porter, of Baumburghe, gave to the 
King thirteen shillings and four-pence for his relief, for 36 acres 
of land and five acres of meadow, with the appurtenances, in 
Baumburo-he, which the said Robert his father held of the Kine: 
in capite by the service of keeping the gate of the Castle of 
Baumburghe, to take for keeping the same two-pence a day, and 

* Henricus Pygot tenet duas virgatas terre patris Regis Joh'is pro cauceis emendandis in 

cum pertin'. in Stanfforde per serianciam ad Hereford. Testa de Nevil. Harl. MS. Brit, 

conducend. thes'. diii Kegis apud London, ad Mus, No. 6765, p. 33. 

custum dni Regis ; et ad sumnionend. Baron J Henricus le Fraunceys, tenet in villa de 

ad exercitiim. tie scutagio com. Hereford, Kingeston, dim. hid. Debet portare I'ras dni 

temp. Edw. III. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. Regis, quotiescunque venerunt in com. Here- 

6765, p. 19. ford apud Clyfforde. De Serianciis, temp. 

-f- Hospit'. tenent quandam placeam in Hen. II. Ibid. p. 24. 
Hereford, iu capite de done Henrici Regis, 



of finding one watchman every night in the time of peace and war 
upon a certain gate, called Smythate, in the Castle aforesaid, and 
paying yearly at the Exchequer of the Castle of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, six shillings and eight-pence, and at the town of Bamburgh, 
pur shillings and five-pence *. 


Richard Freman, nephew and heir of William le Freman, made 
fine with the King by half a mark for his relief of certain lands 
and tenements, which the said William held of the King in capite 
the day he died, in Fromynton, in the county of Hereford, by the 
service of carrying one rope, without the wall of the Castle of 
Hereford, whilst it should be measured -f. 


Thomas de Holeford and Cecilia his wife, sister and heir of 
Sibilla de Apetot, gave 12s. for their relief for certain tenements in 
La Oke, which the same Sibilla held of the King in capite, by the 
serjeanty of conducting the King's treasure from the Castle of 
Hereford to London, and by the service of summoning the Bishop 

. — " . ■ ■ I ■! .1 I I I ■ ii.. ■ I I. I M. ■ I I I Mhl 

* Robertus, filius Roberti le Porter, de Baumburgbe 4s. 5 d. De termino Mich'. 

Baumburghe, dat Regi ISs. 4d. de relevio a° 3° Edw. III. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 

siio pro 36 acr'. terr', et 5 acr'. prati, cum 34, p. 99- 

pertin'. in Baumburghe quas dictus Robertas -f* Ricardus Freman, nepos et heres Wil- 

pater tenuit in capite de Rege per servitium lielmi le Freman, finem fecit cum Rege per 

custodiendi portam Castri de Baumburghe, dimidiam marcain pro relevio sua de qui- 

capiend'. pro custodia ejusdem 2 d. per diem, busdam ter'. et ten', q. predictus Willielmus 

et inveniend'. unum vigilatorem qualibet nocte tenuit de Rege in capite die quo obijt, in Fro- 

tempore pacis et guerre super quandam por- mynton, in com. Heref. per servitium portandi 

tarn vocat Smythate in Castro predicto, et unam cordam citra muium Castri Hereford, 

reddend'. per annum ad Scaccarium Castri Novi dum mensural' fuerit. De ternuno Mich', a" 

Castri super Tynam vjs. viijd. et ville de 3 Edw. II. Ibid. pp. 57> SS. 

R R of 


of Hereford at Bromyard, when he should be impleaded by the 

King *. 


Thomas Randoll, son and heir of John Randoll, gave to the 
King forty-pence for his relief for one messuage, a moiety of one 
yard land, and eighteen-penee rent in Skeftynton, held of the King 
in capite, which same messuage or tenement was of the serjeanty 
which Baldwin de Skeftynton sometime held, and for which he was 
to carry the King's writs in his wars in England -f-. 


John de Appleby gave to our lord the King twenty-two shillings 

and two-pence for his relief, viz. twenty-two shillings for the manor 

of Haverisholme, in the county of Cumberland, held of the King in 

capite by grand serjeanty, viz. by the service of finding one tree 

for the King's paunage, in the forest of our lord the King in Ingle- 

wode (Inglewood), and by the service of keeping his hogs in that 

forest until they were appraised, for which service the same John 

was to receive one hog by the hands of the keeper of the forest 

aforesaid, or of his deputy there J, 


* Thomas de Holeford et Cecilia uxor ejus, KaHdoII, dat Regi xLd. pro relevio sue de 

soror et heres Sibillae de Apetot, dant 1 2 s. de uno messuagio niediet' uiiius virgat'. terr'. et 

relevio suo pro quibusdain tent', in la Oke, que 18 d. redditus in Skeftyngton, tent de Rege in 

eadem Sibilla tenuit de Rege in capite, per capite, que quidem tenementa sunt de ser- 

serianc'. conducend'. thesaurum Regis de Castro jantia quam Baldewinus de Skeftyngton ali- 

Heref. usq. London, et per servic'. summon- quando tenuit, et pro qua debet portare Brevia 

endi Episcopum Hereford apud Bromyard, Regis in guerra Anglie. De termino Hil. 

quando impli'tat' per Regem. De termino anno 3 Edw. II. HarJ. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 

Mich, anno 12 Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. 34, p. 54. 

No. 34, p. 2. . . + Johannes de Appleby dat domino Regi 

^ Thomas Randoll, filius et heres Johannis xxiis. ij d. de relevio suo, viz. xxiis. inde pro 




Ralph Barun holds half a bovat of land in Sutherton, by service, 
that he should be bricklayer in the Castle (of Lancaster), or for 
five shilling yearly, at the King's election *. 


David Lardinar holds one piece of land in York, by the service 
of keeping the gaol, and of selling the cattle which were taken for 
the debts of our lord the King, and it was worth yearly five 
shillings -f*. 


William de Meaulinges holds his land by the serjeanty of selling 
the cattle of our lord the King at the market-place of Norwich^ 
and his land in Binston was worth forty shillings J. 


William Lorens (amongst other things) holds one acre of land^ 
five acres in the fields, and one portion of meadow, which is 

manerio de Hauerisholme in com. Cumbr'. inentarius in Castro (Lancastriae) vel per v 

tent, de Rege in capite per magnam serjan- sol', per annum, ad elecoem diii Reg. Testa de 

tiamj viz. per servitium inveniendi ununi libr'. Nevil, p. 372. 

ad pannagium Regis in forest', diii Regis in f David Lardinar' tenet unam terram in 

Inglewode, et per servitium custodiendi por- Ebor. per servicinm 'custodiendi gayolam, et' 

cos in eadem foresta donee appretiantur^ pro vendendi averia que capta sunt pro debitis dni 

quo servitio idem Johannes percipere debet Regis, et valet per annum v solid. Ibid. 

unum porcum per manus custodis foreste pre- p. 368. 

dicte vel ejus locum teneutis ibidem. Ue ter- J Willielmns de Meaulinges ten', terram 

mino Hilarij, anno 9 Ric. II. Harl. MS. Brit. suam per serjantiam vendendi averia dni Reg'. 

Mus. No. 34, pp. 293, ^94. ad forum de Norwico, et valet terram suam la 

* Radus Barun tenet dimidiam bOvatam 'Binston xl a. Xbid. p. 2S4. 
tetre (in Sutherton) per servicium quod sit ce- 
ll R 2 called 


called Sceperdeslond, by the service of seven shillings and one 
penny, or to keep the sheep of our lord the King ; and if he did 
thiji service he was to give nothing*. 


Of I^ands formerly held of the Crown by various other 



William the Conqueror first gave this province to Gherbord |j§lj, 
a nobleman of Flanders, who had only the same title and power as 
the officiary earls amongst the Saxons had enjoyed, the inheritance, 
the earldom and grandeur of the tenure, being not yet settled. 
Afterwards Hugh Lupus, the son of the Viscount of Auranches, a 
nephew of William the Conqueror by his sister, received this earl- 
dom from the Conqueror under the greatest and most honourable 
tenure that ever was granted to a subject ; he gave him this whole 
county to hold to him and his heirs as freely by the sword, as the 
King held the crown of England -f. 

And consonant thereunto, in all indictments for felony, murder, 

* Willielmus Lorens {inter al'.) tenet unam -f- Habendum et tenendum dictum comita* 

«cram, et quinque acras in campis, et unam turn Cestri% sibi et haeredibus suis ita libeie 

porciotiem prati, quod vocatur Sceperdeslond, ad gladium, sicut ipse Rex totam tenebat i^ng- 

per vij s. et unum den', vel custodire oves diii liam ad Coronam. Camd. Brit. tit. Chtshire. 

Regis, et si fac'. serviciuro nihil dabit. Rotuli JBlount, 106. 
jHundredoium, vol. i, p, SH. 

&c. in 


&c. in that county palatine, the form of conclusion was antiently, 
against the peace of our lord the earl, his Sword and dignity*. 

mil Gherhord was brother of Lady Gundreda, who married Earl 
Warren. Order. Vitalis, p. 522. 


In the 6th year of King Edward I. (anno 12T8) after the making 
the statute of Quo Warranto in the parliament held at Gloucester, 
the King, by his justices, questioning certain of his great subjects 
by what title they held their lands ; among others, John Earl 
Warren and Surrey, being called, and demanded by what warrant 
he held his, shewed them an old sword, and unsheathing it, said, 
" Behold, my lords, here is my warrant ; my ancestors coming into 
" this land with William the Bastard, did obtain their lands by the 
" sword, and I am resolved by the sword to defend them, against 
" whomsoever shall endeavour to dispossess me : for that King did 
" not himself conquer the land, and subdue it, but our progenitors 
" were sharers and assistants therein -f." 

And good sharers were they ; for it appears that William the 
first Earl Warren ^, was at the time of making the general survey 
(Domesday) possessed of two hundred lordships in several 
counties of England, whereof Conisborough in Yorkshire was one, 
which had twenty-eight towns and hamlets within its soke $. 

f He married Gundreda, daughter to the Conqueror, and was 
founder of the Abbey of Lewes in Sussex. He had issue by 

• Contta pacem domini comitis Gladium et -}• Bar. of Engl. vol. i. Blount, 9. 

dignitates suas. Blount's Law Diet. tit. Plea« % Blount^ 9. 

«f the Sword. 



her, William de Warren the second earl, who had issue William 
de Warren the third earl, and he had issue Isabell de Warren 
his daughter and heir, who married to her second husband 
Hameline Plantagenet, base son of Geoffrey, Earl of Anjou, 
and half brother to King Henry II. and by him had issue Wil- 
liam Plantagenet, Earl of Warren and Surrey, father of the 
above-mentioned John, who shewed the judges by what warrant 
he held his estate, 


Walter Achard, or Agard, claimed to hold by inheritance, the 
office of escheator and coroner through the whole Honour of Tut- 
bury in the county of Stafford, and the bailiwick of Leyke; for 
which office he could produce no evidences, charter, or other 
waiting, but only a white hunter's horn, decorated in the middle, 
and at each end, with silver gilt: to which also was affixed a girdle 
of fine black silk (byssi nigri) adorned with certain buckles of 
silver, in the midst of which were placed the arms of Edmund XU 
(Crouchback, the first Earl of Lancaster) second son of King 
Henry III *. 

Probably the above-mentioned offices were enjoyed by the family 
of Ferrers of Tamworth f , by this horn, before they came to the 
Ao"ards ; for Nicholas Agard of Tutbury, who was living A. D. 
1569, married Ehzabeth, daughter and coheir of Roger Ferrer-S, 
the eleventh son of Sir Thomas Ferrars of Tamworth. 

* Pro quo officio nuUas evidentias, cartas, argenteis ornatum, in medio quorum posita 

vel alia scripta proferre possit, nisi tantum cor- sunt insignia Edniundi secundi filii Regis Hen- 

nu venatorium album, argento inguratp in me- ricii Tertii. M. S. D. St. Lo. Knivetoiij, fo. 

dio et utroque fine decoratum^ cui etiam affi- g49. Bbun^ 25. 

gilur cingulum bjssi nigri fibulis quibusdam 



Fi*om Agai-d, the horn descended by a marriage with the heiress of 
that family, to the Stanhope's of Elvaston, and was a few years ago 
purchased of Charles Stanhope of Elvaston, esq. by Mr. Samuel 
Foxlowe, of Stavely, in Derbyshire, who enjoyed the posts above- 
mentioned by this tenure, and in virtue of his being in possession of 
the horn. The posts or offices conveyed by the horn, were those of 
feodaty, or bailiff in fdje, i. e, hereditary steward of the two royal 
manors of E^>st and West Leake in Nottinghamshire, escheator, 
coroner, and clerk of the market of the Honour of Tutbury, the 
second of which offices, viz. escheator, is now in a manner ob- 
solete *. 

1\^.\\X This cannot be admitted, for the first coat is quarterly France 
and England, with a label of three points charged with fleurs 
de lis. Now Edmund Crouchback had nothing to do with the 
arms of France, neither is there any instance of his bearing 
them at any time. Besides in the French quarter, the fleurs de 
lis are stinted to three, which was not done in England till the 
reign of Henry IV. or about that time. This coat, therefore, is 
no older than that age, and consequently must be the bearing 
either of John of Gaunt, at the latter end of his time, or of his 
son Henry, afterwards King Henry IV. probably of the former, 
and perhaps may be the sole instance now extant, of his bearing 
the fleurs de lis so stinted. 

f For the arms of Robert de Ferrers, the last Earl of Derby of 
that surname, who was attainted of high treason for taking up 
iirms against King Henry IH. at the battle of Evesham, in 1265, 
and to whom the Honour of Tutbury belonged before such 

* Mr. Pegge's Observations on the Horn as a Charter. Archaeol. vol. iii. p. 5, et sequ. 



attainder, are impaled with the arms of Lancaster. The arms 
of Ferrers are vaire, or, and gules *. 


Sir Robert Plumpton, knight, was seised of one borate of land 
in Mansfield-Woodhouse, in the county of Nottingham, called 
AVolf-hunt-land, held by the service of winding a horn, and chasing 
(driving) or frightening the wolves in the forest of Shirewood -f-. 


Adam de Oakes was found by inquisition to have died seised of 
certain tenements in Pinley in the county of Warwick, which he 
held of the King by the payment of a halfpenny per annum, called 
warth ^ X' 


The Earl of Warwick is lord of Lighthorn in the county of 
Warwick, and holds it of the King in capite, &c. The whole town 
was geldable ||§|1, and paid escuage [:^] and warth ^, and went to the 
two great sheriffs turns §. 

^ Warth is the same with ward-penny, that is, money paid ob Castri 
prsesidiura, vel excubias agendas, i. e. for guarding of a castle, 
or for performing the duty of a centinel or watchman there. 
Blount. See p. 186. 

* Mr. Pegge's Observations on the Horn as § Comes Warwici est domiiius de LigJithorxl 

a Charter. ArchaeoL vol. iii. p. 5, et sequ. in com. Warwic. at tenet de Rege in capite, 

passim. 8lc. Tola villa est Geldabilis et dat scuta- 

t £scaet. 11 Hen. VI. n. 5. Blount, 94. gium et warth, et venit ad duos magnos tuinos 

Archaeol. vol. iii. p. 3. vicecomitis. Inquis. 7 Edward I. in Scacc. 

4: Rot, fin. 18 Edw. II. n. 26. Blount, 8. Blount, 60. 

11§|1 Geldable. 

Geldable. TaxaMe, Kfebk td {>ay tax oi- tribute. KoAnt's La# 
Diet, sUb voce. 

[+] Escuage. A payment in lieu of going in person to the wars. 
Litt. Tenures, sect. 95, et sequent. 


In the 14th year of King Edward II. Richard de San(!^6rd held 
one toft and four yard-lands and a half in King's-Brome, in the 
county of Warwick, of the King in capite, by the service of a pair 
of tongs to be delivered yearly into the Exchequer, by the hands 
of the sheriff of that county *. 


William the Conqueror gave to Simon St. Liz, a noble Normaii, 
the town of Northampton, and the whole hundred of Falkely 
(Fausley,) then valued at forty pounds per annum, to providie shdeST 
for his horses -f. 


■-■'••• -i ■• - 
Ralph de Pitchford behaved himself so valiantly at the Castle of 

Bridgnorth, upon the revolt of Robert de Belesme, Earl of Shrews- 
bury, from King Henry L that the King gare hini Little Brug ntear 
it, to hold by the service of finding dry wood for the great chamber 
of the Castle of Brug (Bridgnorth) against the coniirig of his sbve- 
reign lord the Kingj:. 


Roger, sometime taylor to our lord the King, held one carucate 

* Escaet, 14 Edw. 11. n. 39. Blount, 15. . t Jorval, id est, Joh. ^ronjptoa. Blouut, l6. 
I Camd. Brit. tit. Shropshire. Blount,; 16. ,..,,„ ,j;. 

s s of 


of land in Hallingbury in the county of Essex, by the serjeanty of 
paying at the King's Exchequer, one silver needle yearly, on the 
morrow of St. Michael *. 


King Henry III. gave to William de Plessets, the bailiwick of 
Exmore, in the county of Somerset, by the service of paying to the 
King for the same fourteen little heifers and a young bull, or for 
each of them ten pence ■f. 


In the time of King Edward (the Confessor) the city of Glou- 
cester paid thirty-six pounds by tale, and twelve sextaries ||§|| of 
honey, according to the town's measure, and thirtj-six dickers :|;-jv}: 
of iron, and a hundred slender iron rods ^ for making nails for the 
King's ships, and some other small customs (customary payments) 
in the King's hall and chamber J. 

j|§|| A sextary, was an antient measure, containing our pint and a 
half, and in some places more. Blount. See p. 190. 

X-fX -^ dicker of iron contained ten bars. Blount. From the British 
or Celtic word deg, the Armoric dek, or the French dix, ten. 

* Rogerus-, quondam cissor domini Regis, ]ibet eorum x d. Orig. de anno 35 Edw. III. 

tenuit unani carucatam terrae in Hallingbury, Blount, 29. 

com. Essex, per serjantiam solvend. ad Scac- J Tempore Regis Edwardi reddebat civitas 

carium domiiii Regis unam Acum argeuteam de Gloucestre xxxvi libras numeratas, et xii 

quolibet anno in crastino Sancti Michaelis. sextaria mellis ad mensuram ejusdem burgi, 

Plac. Coron. de IS Edw. I. Blount, 28. et xxxvi ferri, et c virgas ferreas ductiles ad 

•f Henrieus III. dedit Willielmo de-Plessets clavos navium Regis, et quasdam alias minutas 

balivam de Exmore in com. Somerset, per consuetudines in aula et in camera Regis, 

servitium reddendi eidem Regi proinde xiv Domesday, tit. Gloucestre. Blount, 33. 
juvenculas et uuucu tauriculum, vel pro quo- 



The Latin word decern seems to come from the same root, a^ 
well as the Greek a/ka!, ten. E. 

^ Virgas ferreas ductiles. Iron rods wrought into a fit size for 
making nails for the King's ships. Blount. 


In the time of King Edward (the Confessor) there were num- 
bered in the city of Norwich, one thousand three hundred and 
twenty burgesses, at which time it paid twenty pounds to the King, 
and ten pounds to the Earl, and besides these, it paid twenty shil- 
lings, and four prebendaries§§, and six sectaries of honey, and a 
bear, and six dogs for the bear. After the Conquest, it paid seventy 
pounds by weight to the King, and a hundred shillings for ger- 
sum [*J to the Queen, and a palfrey =, and twenty pounds blanch 
money j^ to the Earl, and twenty shillings of gersum [^], by the 
tale *- 

§§ What prsebendarios may here signify, I cannot well tell, some 
think chaplains, others, more probkbly, certain measures of pro- 
vender for horses, which measure debet esse 13 poUicum latitu- 
dinis infra circulum, et altitudinis trium poUicum (i. e. ought to 
be thirteen inches wide within the rim, and three inches high.) 
Blount. The second interpretation I take to be the truer. P. 

[*] Gersuma Regina. Is a fine to the Queen, otherwise called Aurum 
Reginae. Blount. See Queen-gold, p. 296. E. 

* Tempore Regis Edwardi in civitate Nor- et sex canes ad ursum : mode vero reddit Lxx 

•wici Mcccxx burgenses numerabantur, quo libras pensas Regi, et centum solidos de ger- 

tempore reddebat xx libras Regi, et comiti suma Reginje, et asturconem, et xx libras 

X libras, et praeter haec xx solidos et quatuor blancas comiti, et xx solidos de gersuma ad 

prsbeudarios^ et lex sextarios mellis, et ursum, numerum. Domesday, Blount, 137. 

s g 2 Gersuma. 


persiui^a. I suppose to be a fine for a renewfJ af a lease, for I 
take it to be the same with the word in Scot's Practice and Law, 
called Grassum, which has the above signification. W- 

= Asturconem. A little nag or palfrey. Sir Henry Spelman in- 
terprets it, equus generosior. Blount. Quaere, if not a hawk ? 
See pp. 66 and 67. E. 

^ Libras blancas- Is contradistinguished to libras ad numerum, 
the first was money paid by weight, the other by tale. The 

, French indeed call coin of brass, or copper, silvered over, 
monnoye blanche. Blount. 


Sir Marmaduke Darel, knight, holds of our lord the King the 
manor of Fuli^er, in the county of Bucks, by the service of on^ 
»ed rose yearly *. 


\Yi'lUam_ Fitz-Daniel holds four oxgangs and a half of land in 
Svk^inton in the county of York, paying therefore yearly one flas- 


Flasjiettum„ A kind of basket. Blount. Why not flask or 
bottle? Flaska has that: signification, and this seems to be a 
dinjinutlve of it. A- A wash-tub, in the West-Riding of York- 
shire, is usually called a flasket. E. 

* Marmaducus Darel, miles, teuet de do- bovatas terras et dimid. in Swinton in com. 

mine Rege manerium de Fulmer, in com. Ebor. reddendo inde per annum unum flas- 

Bucks, per servitium unius rosae rubeae per kettum, &c. Plac. Coron. 15 Hen. III. Ebor. 

annum. Escaet. 3 Hen. VI. Blount, 41. Rot, 17. Blount, 48. 

t Willieliiius filius Daniel tenet quatuor 



It is impossible^ fkskettimii caiJf ni«an a basket, tinless Mr^ BlouM 
alwcfes to a smali l^ottle or, flask eovefed with basket-work. I 
tMnk it applies to something of that description, of of what a 
soldier tige», called a canteen. W. 

Probably the same with what Shakspeare calls " a twiggen bottle." 
In Othello, act ii, sc. 3, Cassio sajs to Montano, 

" A knave ! teach me my duty ! 

" ril beat the knave into a twiggen bottle." 

(i. e.) A wickered bottle. Note. Chalmers's edit, of Shakspeare. 


The tenement of Newstede, with the appurtenances, in the town 
of Staplehurst, in the county of Kent, is held of the manor of East- 
Oreenwich, by fealty only and in free socage, by a patent dated the 
3d February, 4th Edw. VI. (1549.) And by the payment for smoke- 
silver f yearly to the sheriff, the sum of sixpence*. 

^ There is smoke-silver and smoke-penny paid to the ministers of 
divers parishes, conceived to be paid in lieu of tithe-wood 
(spent for fuel in the parishioner's houses.) Or it may, as in 
many places at this day, be a continued payment of the Rome- 
scot, or Peter-pence. Blount's Law Diet. tit. smoke-silver. 


Walter de Aldeham holds land' of- the King, in the More, in the 

* Tenementum Nf wstedej cum peitin. in liteitem tantum et in libero socagio, per paten, 
villa de Stapleherst, in comitatu Cantiae, te- dat. 3 Feb. 4 Edw., VI. &c. Inquis. post 
netutde maneiio de East Greenwich; per fide- Mortem Domiui Wotton, 162&.. Blount, 123. 



county of Salop, by the service of paying to the King yearly, at 
his Exchequer, two knives, (whittles) whereof one ought to be of 
that value (or goodness) that at the first stroke it would cut asunder, 
in the middle, a hasle rod of a year's growth, and of the length of 
a cubit (half a yard) &c, which same service ought to be done in 
the middle of the Exchequer, in the presence of the treasurer and 
barons, every year, on the morrow of St. Michael : and the said 
knives (whittles) to be delivered to the Chamberlain to keep for the 
King's use*. 


In King Henry the Third's time, Walter de Plompton held 
certain lands in Plompton, in the parish of Kingsbury and county 
of Warwick, by a certain weapon, called a Danish axe, which 
being the very charter whereby the said land was given to one of 
his ancestors, hung up for a long time in the hall of the capital 
messuage, in testimony of the said tenure -f-. 

It appears by several authorities, that the heirs of Sir John 
Bracebrigg were afterwards seised thereof, by the title of the 
manor of Plompton %. r 


Beneath Whittington in Shropshire, one Wrenoc, son of Meuric, 

* Walferus de Aldeham tenet terram de in crastino Sancti Michaelis fieri debet. El 

Rege, in la JVJore, in com. Salop, per servi- dicti cultelli liberentur Camerario ad opus 

tium reddendi Regi per annum ad Scaccarium Regis custodiend. com. Mich. 3 Ric. II. 

suum duos cultellos, quorum unus talis valoris Rot. 1. Salop. Blount, 135. 

esse debet, ut virgam coryleam unius anni, et f Dugdale's Warwickshire, fol. 765, a. 

longitudinis unius cubiti, ad priniam percus- Blount, 18. 

sionem per medium scindere debet, &c. Quod ;}: Dugd. Warw. 765. Comp. Copyholder, 

quidem servitiura in medio Scaccarii in pre- 430. 

geDtia thesaurarii et baronum, quolibet anno, | Camd. Brit. tit. Shropshire, Blount, 17. 



Keld lands by the service of being latimer f between the English 
and the Welshmen *. 

% Latimer. Trucheman, or interpreter. Blount. I believe it should 
be Latiner, for so the modern Latinarius did signify ; one 
whose skill in the Latin was presumed to enable him to under- 
stand all other languages. Bishop Kennetf s notes on Blount, 
communicated to the editor by R. Gough, esq. F. R. S. and 
F. S. A. 



John de Baliol holds the moiety of the hundred of Lidingeland, 
which was seised into the hands of the King, because he did not 
offer himself personally to bear the rod before the justices in eyre 
in the same county ■f. 


Walter le Rus, and Alice his wife, hold twelve acres of land in 
Eggefeild, by the service of repairing the iron works of the King's 
plows :\.. 


The manor of Pusey, in the county of Berks, was long in the 
possession of a family of that surname, and held by a horn, given 
to their ancestors by King Canute. Ingulphus has expressly 

* Camd. Brit. tit. Shropshire. Blount, 17. J Walterus le Rus, et Alicia uxor ejus, te- 

•|- Johannes de Balliolo tenet medietatem nent duodecim acras terrse in Eggefeild, per 

hundred! de Lidingeland, quae seisita fuit in servitium reparandi ferramenta ad carucas 

nianus Regis, eo quod ipse non optulit se Regis. Plac. Coron. 30 Hen, III. Lane. 

personaliter ad portandum virgam coram jus- Blount; 93. 

ticiariis itinerantibus in eodem comitatu. 

Claus. 15 Edw. I. Suffolk. Blount, 24. told 


told us that in tliose days it was comntou to make grants of land^ 
among other things, by horns *. 

Doctor Hickes informs us, that both the liorn and manor were, 
in his time, (about 1685) possessed by Charles Pusey, who had 
recovered it in Chancery before Lord Chancellor Jefferies ; the 
horn itself being produced in court, and with universal admiration 
received, admitted, and proved to be the identical horn, by which, 
as by a charter, Canute had conveyed the manor of Fusey 700 
years before -f-. 

This horn^^ which is now (or was very lately) in the possession of 

Mrs. Jane Allen, of Pusey, sister of the late -^-^ Pusey, esq. 

and representative of the family, has the following inscription in 
Saxon characters round it, viz. 

l&gng EnotoDe geue mgnpam Petose, 
€i)g0 f)Ocne to fiolDe bp t&g lonD J, 


At the parliament held the 18th Edw. I. Ralph, Bishop of 
Carlisle, demanded against the prior of the church of Carlisle the 
tithes of two plots of land, newly assorted (converted into tillage) 
in the forest of Inglewood, whereof one was called Lynthwait, 
and the other Kirkethwait, and which belonged to the aforesaid 
bishop, by reason that th€ aforesaid places were within the limits 

* Conferebantur etiain primo multa praedia, sagitta, Ingulphus, p. 70. Archa^logia, vol. iii. 

nudo verbo, absque scripta vel charta, tantunv p. 2. Camd. Brit. tit. Berkshire, 
cumdominigladiojvel galea, vel CORN V, vel f Thesaurus. PrEef. p. xxv. Archaelog; vol. 

cratera; et plurima tenementa, cum calcari, iii. p. 13. 
cum strigili, cum arcu; et nonnulla cum J Itud, p. 14. 



of his parish church of Aspatrick. And thereupon likewise came 
Mr. H. de Burton, parson of the church of Thoresby, and claimed 
the same tithes as belonging to his church. And the prior came 
and-isaid, that the tithes aforesaid belonged to him and to his 
church of St. Mary of Carlisle, and not to the aforesaid bishop, 
for he said that our lord the old King Henry, granted to God and 
his church of the Blessed Mary of Carlisle, and to the canons 
there serving God, all the tithes of all the lands which the same 
lord the King, or his heirs. Kings of England, within the forest 
aforesaid, should cause to be converted into tillage, and enfeoffed 
the said church thereof by a certain ivory horn ^, which he gave 
to his church aforesaid, and which he the said prior then had; 
and he prayed judgment, &c. And William Inge, who sued for 
the King, said, that the tithes aforesaid belonged to the King 
and to no other person, because they were within the bounds 
of the forest of Ingle wood. And that the King, in his forest 
aforesaid, might build towns, erect churches, assart (cultivate) 
lands, and those churches with the tithes of those lands, at his 
will, to whomsoever he would, might confer, &c. And because 
our lord the King would be certified concerning the premises, 
that he might give to every one his due, &c. The King was 
to be certified at the next Parliament, &c. * 

f The 

* Parliamentum, 18 Edw. I. Radulphus persona ecclesiee de Thorisby, et easdem 

episcopus Karleol. petit versus priorem ec- decimas clamat ut pertinen'. ad ecclesiatft 

clesiae Karleol. decimas duartim placearum suatn, Et prior venit et dicit quod decimae 

terra; de novo assart, in foresta de Ingle- praedictae ad ipsum et ecclesiam suam Beatae 

wood, quarum una vocatur Lynthwait, et alia Mariae Karleol. pertinent, et non ad prasdictum 

Kirkethwait, et quae ad ipsum episcopum per- episcopum, dicit enim quod dominus Hen- 

tinent eo quod praedictae placese sunt infra ricus Rex vetus concessit Deo et ecclesise 

limites parochiae ecclesiae suae de Aspatericho. suae Beatae Mariae Karleol. et canonicis ibidem 

Et super hoc similiter venit Mr. Burton Deo servientibus omnes decimas de omnibus 

T T terri* 


f The liorns, now preserved in the cathedral church of Carlisle, 
are improperly so called, being certainly the teeth of some 
very large fish*. Ray says they have preserved at Carlisle 
two elephant's teeth, fastened in a bone like a scalp, which 
they call the horns of the altar -f : and these are supposed to 
have been given by King Henry I. to the prior and convent 
of Carlisle, when he infeoffed them with the tithes of all assart 
lands within the forest of Inglewood, to be held per quoddam 
cornu eburneum, i. e. by a certain ivory horn, as above men- 
tioned X' 


Is now held of the crown by Owen Holland, esq. at the annual 
rent of six shillings and eight-pence, and a dish of fish to Lord 
Hertford, as often as he passes through the town §. 


Edmund Fauconer, who died in 1398, was seised of a house 
and lands in the parishes of Ileston and Isleworth, which he 
held for terra of life, under Queen Isabel, by a grant of Ed- 

terris quas idem dominus Rex aut baeredes sua, cuicunque voluerit conferre, 8cc. Et quia 

sui Reges Angliae in foresta praedicta in cul- dominus Rex super praemiss. vult certiorari, 

toram redigere fecerint ; et ecclesiam prae- ut unicuique tribuatur quod suum est, assigr 

dictam inde feofFavit per quoddam cornu netur, &c. Et certificent Regem ad proxim. 

eburneum quod dedit ecclesiaj suae prajdictse, Parliamentum, &c. Rot. Plac. Pari, de Ann. 

et quod adhuc habet. Et petit judicium, &c. 18 Edw. I. Rot. 8. 4 Inst. 307. Archaeol. 

Et Willielmus Inge qui sequitur pro Rege dicit vol. iii. p. 22. 

quod decimae praedicta? pertinent ad Regem * Archaeol. vol. iii. p. 22. 

et non ad alium, quia sunt infra bundas fo- •\- Ibid. p. 23. 

restae de Inglewood : et quod Rex in foresta % Ibid. p. 22. 

sua praedicta potest villas aedificare, ecclesias § Cough's Camd. edit. 1789, vol. ii. p. 

coDstruere, terras assartare, et ecclesias illas 559- 

cum decimis terrarum illarum, pro voluntate 



Ward III. The value of the premises was five paunds per annum; 
and the record adds, that the tenant was bound to ride among 
the reapers in the lords demesnes at Isleworth, upon the Bedrepe^ 
day, in autumn, with a sparrow-hawk in his hand *. This estate 
(called Fawkner Field) is now part of the Child's property -f. 

^ Bedrepe or Bederip. See note under Hildsley. 


The honour of Woodstock is held of the King by the tenure 
of presenting a banner yearly, at Windsor Castle, on the 2d of 
August, in memory of the battle of Blenheim, fought on that day 
in the year 1704. The honour of Woodstock was by Queen Anne 
given to John Duke of Marlborough for the victory he obtained on 
that day. 


In the year 1441, the manor of Thebaudes being then vested in 
the crown, was granted to John Carpenter, master of St. Anthony's 
Hospital, in London; John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer; and John Carpenter, jun. to be held of the crown by the 
annual tender of a bow, valued at 2 s. and a barbed arrow, 
value 8d.X 


The records relating to Azores manor, sometimes called Home 

* CI. 21 -Ric. II. pt. 2. m. 3. that year at the Tower, but it appears that the 

t Lysons's Environs, vol. iii. p. 29. roll has been lost. Lysons's Environs, vol. iv. 

t Pat. 19 Hen. VI. p. 2. The substance p. 30. 
of this grant is -expressed in the calendar of 

T T 2 Beddington, 


Beddington, are very complete and satisfactory. The Watevils, 
who held it of Ric. de Tonbridge, in the Conqueror's time, were 
possessed of it in the reign of Hen. II.*. The right of the mesne, 
or intermediate lord, was probably either purchased by or granted 
to that family, as their successors held it immediately of the King, 
by the service of rendering annually a wooden cross-bow, as all the 
records express ■]: 


Blackmoore Forest, in the county of Dorset, is commonly called 
the Forest of AVhite Hart : the inhabitants have a tradition con- 
cerning the occasion of the name, that Henry III. hunting here, 
and having run down several deer, spared the life of a milk- 
white hart, which afterwards T. de Linde, a gentleman of this 
county, and his company, took and killed, at which the King, 
being highly incensed, fined them severely, and the very lands 
they held do, to this day, pay into the King's Exchequer annually, 
a pecuniary acknoAvledgment by way of fine, called White Hart 

Silver. Fuller, in his Worthies, says, that he paid his propor- 




Not far from the church of Brotherton in Norfolk, is a place of 
twenty acres, surrounded by a trench and wall, where, as tradition 
says, stood the house in which the Queen of Edward I. was deli- 
vered of a son (Thomas Earl of Norfolk). The tenants are still 
bound to keep it surrounded by a wall of stone §. 

* Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. i. p. 61. chins's Hist, of Dorset, vol. ii. p. 492. Gilpin 

t LjBons's Environs, vol. i, pp. 49, 60. on Forest Scenery, vol. ii. p. 274. 

1 Fuller's Worthies, Dorsetshire, p. 284. § Gongh's Camd. edit. 1789, vol. iii. p. 

Comp. Copj holder, vol. ii. p. 583. Hut- 46. 




Many estates in this county, Surrey, and Essex, are held of the 
Castle of Rochester by the tenure of Castle Guard; of these the 
manor of Swanscombe is the principal, the owner of which, as 
well as the rest, holding their lands of this Castle, had antiently 
the charge of it committed to them, and owed their particular 
services to the defence of it, called Castle Guard. These services 
have been long since converted into annual rents of money *. 


Adomar de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who died 23d January, 
1323, held the manor of Walbery, of the King in capite, by the 
service of one silver needle -j^. 


King Edward VI., in 1547, granted to Sir Richard Riche,. 
Lord Riche, and his heirs, the manors of Hatfield Braddock and 
Bromshobury, otherwise King's -Hatfield ; Hatfield Park ; the 
Forest, Chace, and Springs of Hatfield, and Hatfield Manor; 
and a windmill, then worth jC80. 9s. 8d. per ann. clear; to be 
hdlden of the King by the service of one knight's fee%. He 
died 12th June, 1566, holding of the Queen by the twentienth 
part of a knight's fee, and the yearly rent of £13. 16s. 4d. The 
manor, park, chace, &c, with the hundreds of Ongar and Har- 
low, and the wardstafi" of the same hundreds, were then valued at 
^101. 15s. 10d.§ 

* Hasted's Hist, of Kent, vol. ii. p. 15. J Lett. pat. I Edw. VI. 

f Morant's Essex, vol. ii. p. 514, cites | Inquis. 19 Eliz. num. 141. 

Inquis, 17 Edw. II. 



Hence it appears that the service of the ward staff came as 
low as Queen Elizabeth's reign. In the valuation of the revenues 
of the priory in this parish, we find, that there was paid into 
the King's hands 11 s. and to the King's bailiff of the hun- 
dred of Harlowe, for the wardstaff 3 s. 4d. There was a rate 
by the name of ward-penny, collected in the hundred from all 
estates but those particularly excepted. The procession of the 
wardstaff, and the land owners under it is entirely lost, unless a 
copy might be found in the evidence house in Hatfield church, 
where are great numbers of writings relating to the monastery 
and lordship *. 

As the wardstaff of this hundred (Ongar) and that of Harlow, 
make a considerable figure in records, it will be proper to insert 
the following account of it here f : 

Auno'r. Hundr. The order of the gathering and yearly making of 
the wardstaff of the King there, with tlie due course and cir- 
cumstance of the yearly watch, ward, and service royall, inci- 
dent to the same, that is to say : 

First. The bailiffe of the said lib'tie or hundred shall gather 
and yearly make the wardstaffe of some willow bough, growing 
in Abbasse Rothing Wood, the Sunday next before Hock Mun- 
day f , which shall containe in length iii quarters of a yard and 
VIII inches rounde in compasse or thereabout: and bee shall 
convey the same yraediately unto the manner place of Ruckwood- 

* Morant, vol. ii. p. 503 and note. had a grant of it for his life, in the 34th year 

fThe manuscript whence this was taken, of Henry VIII. 8tc. Morant, vol. i. pp. 126 

is an account of the rents of the hundred in 127, note(p). 

the time of John Stoner, (of Loughton) who 



Hall, in Abbasse-Rothing afores'd, wbere the lord of the said 
manor for the tyme being shall reverently the same receive intQ 
his house, and shall rowle itt upp in a faire fine lynnen cloth 
or towell, and so lay it upon some pillowe or cushion on a t^ble 
or cubberd standing in the cbiefe or highest place in the hall of 
the said manor place, there to remaine untill the said baihffe 
shall have relieved and refreshed himself. And when the sai4 
bailiffe shall see convenient tyme to dep%, he shall convey the 
same staffe by sunne shineing unto Wardhatch-lane, besides Long 
3arnes in Roothing aforesaid, when and where the said Lord of 
Buckwpod-Hall, and all and everie other tennant and tennants, 
land-owners, which by reason of their tenure doe hould their 
lands likewise by service royall, to watch and warde the said 
staff there upon convenient summons and warning to be given 
unto them yearly by the said Lord of Ruck wood-Hall for the time 
being, with their full ordinarie number of able men, well harnished 
with sufficient weapon, shall attend : whereuppon the Lord of 
Ruckwood-Hall shall then and there yearly, at his proper costs 
and charges, have readie prepared a great rope, called a barr, 
with a bell hanging on the end of the same, which he shall cause 
to be extended overthwart the said lane, as the custom hath 
beene, to stay and arrest such people as would pass by. Att the 
end of which said barr, not far from the said bell, shall be laid 
down reverently the said staffe, upon a pillowe or cushion, on 
the grounde ; which done, forthwith the said bailiffe shall severally 
call the names of all the aforesaid tenants, land-owners, who 
shall present their said ordinarie number of men accordingly. 
Then shall the said bailiffe, in the King our soveraigne lord's 
name, straightlie charge apd comand them iind eyerie of them, 



to watcli and keep the ward in due silence, soe that the King^ 
be harmless, and the countrie scapeless, untill the sunne arrisin^, 
when ffood houre shall be for the said Lord of Ruckwood-Hall, 
to repaire unto the said stalTe, who, in the presence of the whole 
watch, shall take the same staflfe into his hand, and shall make 
uppon the upper rind of the same with a knife, a score or notch, 
as a marke or token, declaring their loyall service done for that 
year in this behalf. And soe shall deliver the said staffe unto the 
bailiffe, sending it unto the lord or land-owner of the manner 
of Fiffeild, or unto the tenants resiant, saying this notable narracon 
of the wardstafFe hereafter written, in the Saxon tongue ; which 
done, they may hale up the said barr, and depart at their 


Iche ayed the staffe by lene |J§ 

Yane stoffe iche toke by lene, 

By lene iche will tellen 

How the staffe have I got, 

Yotlie stoffe to me com 

As he houton for to don, 
Faire and well iche him underfinfft 

As iche houton for to don, 
All iche yer on challenged 
That theareon was for to challenge, 

Namelicke this and this 
And all that thear was for to challenge 
Fayer iche him upp dede 
As iche houton for to don. 



All iche warnyd to the ward to cum 
That thereto houton for to cum. 

By sunne shining 
We our roope yeder brouton, 

A roope celtan as we houton for to don 
And there waren and wakedon, 

And the ward so kept ^^ 

That the King was harmeles 

And the country scapeless ; 
And a morn when itt day was. 

And the sun arisen was, 
Faier honour waren to us take 

Als us houton for to don, 
Fayre* on the staffe we scorden 

As we houton for to don, 

Fayre we him senden 

Hether we howen for to sende, 

Andz if their is any man 

That his witt siggen J§J can 
Iche am here ready for to don, [, 

Ayens himself iche one 
Yother mind him on 
Tender midlyyn feren 
Als we yer waren. 
Sir by leave take this staife 
This is the tale of the wardstaffe. 

% Fortnight after Easter. 

§+§ Lean sighi^cs tribute. 

J§J Witan signifies to blame; so lUittrissen to gainsay; WiteUaf is XMPirNis. 

vv The 

The Munday fol,lawl»g, Galled Hock Monday, the said staffe shall 
be presented yearly unto the lord and owner of the mannor of 
Fiffeild for the time being, or his resient, wlio shall yraediately 
unfold the clothes it is wrapped in, that it may appear by the 
score majde thereon, how the aforesaid Lord of Ruckwood- 
Hall and other tennants, which by reason of their tenures of 
their lands, owe suit and service to watck the said staffe at 
Abb as s-Ro thing aforesaid, have done their watch and service 
royall accordingly the night before. Then, shall he cloth it 
again, lay it in order, and use it in, every degree as the Lord 
of Ruckwood-Hall hath done, &c. This i^ called Abbass 
Rothing Watch. 

This procession seems to have been a yearly muster of fencible 
men, who were appointed to guard the hundred against mur- 
thers and robberies, for both which it was liable to pay a fine. 
If, by preventing these, the King receives no harm, as in the 
loss of a subject or the felonious breach of his peace, the 
subject escapes a fine otherwise due for suffering a murtherer 
or thief to escape. 

The ceremony began at Abbasse Rothing, as at the extremity of 
the hundred, went on to Chigwell, the other extreme, and re- 
turned to High Laver, whicli was in the neighbourhood of 
Ruckwood-Hall. At one of these two manor houses we may 
suppose it deposited, with due regard to royal authority. 

What we learn from records concerning the design of this Cere- 
mony of the wardstaff'e, is, that it was. to repriesent the King's 
person, and to keep the King's peace, Si<Mn? lands were held. 


fey the service of finding two men to watch with the wardstaifcfi 
of keeping the wafdstaffci and of payihg ward silver, and doing 
white service at the wardstaife. To conclude, this wardstaffe 
was to be carried through the towns and hundreds of Essex, as 
far as a place called Attewode, near the sea, and be thrown 
there into the sea. This custom has been long neglected *. 


Margaret Nynge held lour acres of pasture, two acres of mea- 
dow, three acres of wood, in Babingworthe, of our lord the King, 
by the service of keeping the rod of our lord the King, called 
the wardstaff, at Bobbingworthe, yearly, when he should come 
there; by which same rod the person of our lord the King is 
represented -j^ 


John Wright held the manor of Kelvedon of Robert Lord Riche, 
as of the wardstaff, and by the service of finding two men to watch 
with the aforesaid wardstaff for all services, &e. J. 


Reginald Bysmere held the manor of Daweshall, in Lambourn, 
of the Duke of Buckingham, as of his Castle of Ongar, by fealty 

* Morant's Hist, of Essex, vol, i. pp.126, quidem virgam persona dni Regis represen- 

1Q7, and notes. tatur. Inquis. 15 Hen. VTII, March 1, 

t Margaret Nynge, tenet 4 acr'. pasture, 2 ;{: Johannes Wright ten', maner'. deKelvedoa 

acr'. prati, 3 acr'. bosci, in Babingworthe, de de Robto Dno Rich, ut de la wardstaffe, et - 

dilp Rege, per servic'. cuslodiendi virgam diii- per servic'. inveniendi duos homines ad vigi-j 

Regis, vocat'. le wardstaffe, s^pud Bobbing- , land', cum , predicta wardstaffe, pro omnibus 

worthe, auQuatim, cum ibid, vev^rit; per quani serviciis, &c, Incj^is. 6. Jaco. July 16". ■ 

u u 2 and 


and the rent of two slilUings per annum, called ward silver, and by 
doinjr white service to the Lord Duke, at the wardstaff in the 
hundred of Ongar*. 


Cecilia Welis held the manor of Maddels, in Epping, &c, of 
the same duke, by the service of keeping the wardstaff instead of 
all services -f*. 


Isabella de Dover, for half the manor of Chyngelford, was 
bound by the bailiff at Hoke day to bear a certain staff, called 
the wardstaff, for keeping the peace of the King, which staff ought 
to be carried through the towns and hundreds of Essex unto a 
place called Attewede, near the sea, and there to be thrown into 
the sea:]:. 


Nicolas de Mora rendered at the Exchequer two knives, one 
good and the other a very bad one, for certain land, which he held 
in capite, in Shropshire §. 

* Reginald Bysmere ten', mauer'. de Dawes- staff, pro pace Regis servanda, qui baculus 

hall, in Lamboum, de Duce Buck, ut de deferri debet per vill'. et hundr'. Essex usque 

Castro de Ongar, per fid', et reddit'. 2 s. per locum vocat'. Attewede prope mare, et ibi 

ann. vocat'. ward silver, ac ad faciend' dec projici in mare. Rot. Assis. 56 Hen. III. 

duci album servic'. ad le wardstaffe in bun- rot. 4. Morant's Hist, of Essex, vol. i. pp. 

dred'. de Ongar. Iiiquis. 22 Hen. VH. 126, 127, and notes. 

•f- Cecilia Welis ten.' maner'. de Maddels, in § Salopsire. Nicolaus de Mora reddit ad 

£pping, &c. de eodem Duce per servic'. cus- Scaccarium ij cultellos, unum bonum et alte- 

todiendi le wardstaflfe pro onini servic'. &c. rum pessimum, pro quadam terra quam de 

Inquis. 23 Hen. VH. Rege tenet in capite in Mora. Mich. Com- 

^ Isabella de Dover, pro dimid'. maner*- de mun. 29 Hen. III. Rot. 1. b. Madox's Hist. 

Chyngelford, debebat, per ballivum, ad le Excheq. p. 611. 

Hokeday ferre quoddam baculum vocat'. ward- 




Walter le Brun, farrier, jn the Strand, in Middlesex, was to 
have a piee^ of ground in the parish of St, Clement, to place a 
forge there, he rendering yearly six horse shoes for it *. This rent 
was antiently wont to be paid to the Exchequer every year, for 
instance, in the first year of King Edward L f , when Walter Ma- 
rescallus paid at the crucem lapideam ^ six horse shoes, with nails, 
for a certain building, which he held of the King in capite opposite 
the stone cross. In the second year of King Edward I. :|:, in the 
fifteenth year of King Edward II. §, and afterwards. It is still i-en- 
dered at the Exchequer to this day, by the mayor and citizens of 
London, to whom in process of time the said piece of ground was 
granted JJ- 

^ Crucem lapideam. See Renham and Ikenham, p. 109, 


Hoger de Montealto (Monhault) held of the King in capite 
the manors of Castle Rising, Snottesham, and Kemynghall, in 
the county of Norfolk, and the manor of Hawardyn, (Hawarden) 
by the service of being Steward of Chester **. 

* Walterusle Brun, MareseallusdeStranda, crucis lapideae. M«mor. 1 Edw. I. Rot. 1. a. 

r. c, de vj. ferris equorum, pro habenda qua- j; Mich. Communia 1 et 2 Edw. I. Rot. 1. b. 

dam placea in parochia S. Clementis, ad § Ibid. 15 Edw. IL Rot. 29. a. 

fabricani ibidem locandam, sicut continetur in y Madox's Hist. Excheq. p. 6] 1. 

•wiginali, in th. libenivit. Et Q. e. Mag. ** Rog. de Montealto tenet de Rege in 

Rot. 19 Hen. HI. Lond. et Midd. m. 2. b. capite man', de Castlejisinge, Snottesham, et 

t Middlesex. Redditus. Walterus Ma- Kemynghall, in com. Norfolk, et ten', man, 

tescallus ad crucem lapideam reddit sex ferra de Hawardyn, per serric', Senescall.Cestr'. &c. 

equorum cum clavibus, pro quadam fabrica Jnquis. anno 17 Edw. I. Harl. MS. Brit. 

aaam de Rege tenet in capite ex opposite Mus. No. 2079, p. 64. 




Sir William Sandes, knight, and Margaret his wife, acknow- 
ledged to hold in right of her the said Margaret, of the King 
in capite, the manor of Stene and Hynton, with the appurtenances, 
in the county of Northampton, by the service of one rose only, 
to be paid yearly at the feast of St. John the Baptist, foir all 
services : and they gave to the King one penny, for the price 
of the said one rose, as it was appraised by the Barons (of the 


Griffin le Sutton holds Knelton-ollevrthin, Sutton, and Brockton, 
of the gift of King Henry, father of our lord King John, by the 
service of being Latuner ^ between the English and the Welsh- 
men -j •. 

^ Latuner. The same as Latimer. See note on Whittington, p. 


Thomas de Bello-campo (Beauchamp) amongst other things held 
the manor of Flamsted, in the county of Hertford, of the King in 

* WillieliBUS Sandes, miles, et Margeria ricj VII. Rotulo I. Harl. MS. Brit. Mtis. 

uxor eius, &c. cognoverunt se tenere in iure No. 5174, p. 23. 

ipius Margerie de R. in capite m. de Stene -j-Griffinus de Sntton tenet Knelton-ollevr- 

et Hynton, cum pertin'. in com. predicto per thin, Sutton, et Brockton, de dono H. R. 

servicium unius rose ad festum Nativitat'. Scj patr'. dni R. Jdhannis per servic'. esse La* 

Johannis Baptiste annuatim solvend'. t'm pro tuner, int'. Angl. et Wall. Nomina tenea« 

omnibus servicijs. Et dant Regi unum denar', tium de doniinicis Regis a tempore Hcnrici 

de p'cio dc€ unius rose sicut per Baron hie Regis II. Ibid, No. 1087, p. 18. 
appretiatur. Mich. Fin. anno 22 Regis Hen- 



©apite?, by the Service of keeping the highway, called Watlirig- 
»teeet, leading from Redborn tovvairds Markeyate *. 


William Say (amongst other things) held the manor of Burghani 
in the c^Junty of Kent by barony, and he was to maintain part of 
the bridge of Rochester, and a certa:in house (building) in the 
C/astl« of Dover, for his barony in Kent-j-. 



Robert de Clifford (amongst other things) held a messuage in the 
parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the suburbs of London, of 
the King in free burgage f as the whole city of Irtjndon is 
lield t. 

^ Durgagium, Burgage. Is a tenure proper to cities and towns, 
whereby men of cities br boroughs hold their lands or tene? 
ments of the King, or other lords, for a certain yearly rent^ 



tienry the Third granted Hocknorton and Cudlington to John 

* Thomas de Bello-campo ten', m. de Castro Douorre pro baronia sua de Kane'. 

Flamsted in com. Hertf. de R. in capite, per Esc. de anno 1 EdMr. I. Hart. MS. Brit. Mus. 

servitium custodiendi altam viam vocat*. Wat- No. 2087, p. 16. 

lingrstret ducent' a Redborn versus Marfceyate. % Robertas de Gliffdrd ten', unum messua- 

>Anno secundo Regis Henrici IV. Harl. MS. gium in parochia Sancti Duastani West, in' 

Brit. Mus. No. 2087, p. 257. suburbijs London^ de R. in liberum burgagium 

+ Willielnius Say ten-, m. de Burgham in prout tota civitas London tenetur. Esc. annw 

com. Kane', per baroniam, et debet sustinere 18 £dw. Ill, Ibid. p. XOSii 

partenn ppntis Beffen'. et ^^andafn domum in 



de Plessitis, or Plessy, which were the inheritance of Henry 
D'Oily, and fell into the King's hands upon the death of Margaret 
Countess of Warwick, wife of the aforesaid John, as an escheat of 
the lands of the Normans, to have and to hold till such times as the 
lands of England and Normandy should be made common *. The 
antient barony of Hokenorton now lies dormant in the family of 
Sir John Doily, of Chiselhampton, county of Oxford, Bart, which 
family is related to the above-mentioned John de Plessetis, and Ela 
Countess of Warwick, as appears by their pedigree, in the English 
Baronets, vol. ii. p. 445 -f-. 


John Hastings held the Castle of Abergavenny of our lord the 
King, in capite, by service, homage, ward, and marriage, when it 
happened : and if there was war between the King of England and 
the Prince of Wales, the said John was to keep the country Over- 
Went at his own charges, in the best manner he could for his own 
advantage, and the service of the King, and defence of the realm 
of England^. 



Adam de Prestwich holds ten oxgangs of land in Prestwich and 
Farlesworth in capite, of our lord the King in thanage ^ §. 

* Camd. Brit. 297, vide Blount, 73. tibus proprijs meliori modo quod poterit pro 

f Comp. Cop. 299. commodo suo, et utilitate Regis, et defensione 

J Merch-wallias. Johannes Hastinges ten'. regni Angliae. Anno 6 Edw. II. Harl. MS. 

Castrum de Bergeuuenny in Over-Went de R. Brit. Mus. No. 2087, p. 58. 
in capite, per ser'. homag'. ward, et maritag. § Adam de Prestwych tenet 10 bovatas 

cum acciderit, et si guerra fuerit inter Regem terrae in Prestwych et in Farlesworth in capite, 

Angliae et Principem Wallise, dictus Johannes de diio Rege in thanag'. Testa de Nevil. Li- 

deberet custodire patriam de Ourwent sump- quis. temp. Hen. III. Ibid. No. 5172, p. 17. 

% Thanagium. 


f^ Thanagium. A part of the King's i lands whereof the governor 
was called a thane. Littleton's Diet. Law Latin. 


William the Conqueror gave the manor of Boseham to William 
son of Augeri and his heirs in fee-farm, rendering thereforie at the 
Exchequer yearly, forty-two pounds of silver in solid metal [*] for 
all service, &c. * 

[*] Libras ar^as et ponderatas. The same as libras arsas et pen- 
satas. Libra pensa, was a pound of money in weight. It was 
usual in former days, not only to tell the money, but to weigh it ; 
for several cities, bishops, and noblemen had their mints and 
coined money, and often very bad, and therefore, though the 
pound consisted of twenty shillings they weighed it. Thus in 
Domesday we read, reddit nunc xxx libras arsas et pensatas. 
Blount. Libra arsa et pensitata. A pound weight in solid metal. 
Kennet's Gloss, to Paroch. Antiq. 


Thomas Pulteney acknowledged that he held the manor of 
Shenley in the county of Hertford, and the advowson of the church 
of the same manor of the King by petit serjeanty, viz. by the ser- 
vice of one pair of gilt spurs to be rendered to the King and his 
successors at the Exchequer, for all services, and he paid forty- 
pence for the price of the said spurs f. 


* Diis Rex WJllielmus qui venit ad Con- servicio, &c, Tenur. Com. Sussex, temp, 
qnestum Anglie dedit manerium de Boseham Regis Jobannis. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 
Willielmo filio Augeri et heredibus suis ad 313, p. ^1. 

■■ feod'. firmam, reddendo inde Scacc. annuatim f Tbomas Pnltency cognovit se tenere m. 

slij lib. argenti, arsas et ponderatas, pro omni de Shenley cum pertin', in com.Hertf., et ad- 

XX voc'. 



Fulk de Payfover held a certain serjeanty in the county of 
Middlesex, as of the inheritance of Margaret his wife, by the law 
of England, by the service of keeping the King's palace at West- 
minster, and the free prison of Fleet *. 


The city of Leicester, in the time of King Edward, paid yearly 
to the Ring thirty pounds by tale (every orep] of the value of 
twerity-pence) and fifteen sextaries |j§|l of honey. 

When the King marched with his army through the land, twelve 
burgesses of that borough attended him. If the King went over 
sea against the enemy, they sent four horses from that borough as 
far as London, to carry arms or such things as circunastances 
required -f-. 

[*] Ore. See note on the county of Wilts, p. 265, 

|1§|1 Sextary. See note on Gloucester, p. 314. 


John de Chastilon gave to the King two shillings by a certain 
-besant for a relief for the manor of Thornton, in the county of 
Buckingham, held of the King as of his Honor of St. Walery 

voc'. ecclesie eiusdem m. de R. per parvam * Fulco de Payfover tenuit de haereditate 

■eriantiam, viz. per servic'. iinius paris cal- Margeriae uxoris suae per legem Angliae, per 

carum deauratorum Regi et successoribiM «emntiaai - custodian-- palacii -Regis Westm'. 

Siiis ad Scaccarium reddend. pro omnibus et liberse prisonae de Flete. Esc anno 4 Edw. 

gervicjjs, et dat R. 40 d. de precio vnius paris I. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 2087, p. 

calcar'. deaurat', &c. Hilar. F. anno 94 28. 

Hen. VII. Rqt, 1. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. fThrosby's I^eicest, vol, i. p. 30, from 

No. 5174, p. §^. Pouaesday. 



(VaJei^,) then being in the hands of the King by the death of John 
de Mlhaaiiy fey the service of rendering one besa^t ^ at Michiaek> 
mas*. , 

f Besant. See note on Smallies. 


Andrew de Sakevill, and Joan his wife, one of the sisters and 
heirs of John de la Beth, gave to our Ibrd the King five-pence as 
the value of one-third part of one ounce of silk, for her relief of 
the purparty of the said Joan, not yet assigned, on one acre of land 
with the appurtenances, in Burton near Thynden, which is of th^ 
glebe of the advowson of the church of Burton, and which the 
aforesaid Jtihn (de la Beth) held of the King in capite as parcel of 
the manor of Burton, which said acre of land is held by the service 
qf one ounce of silk -f . 


Philip de Okes, son and heir of William de Okes, gave to our 
lord the King one halfpenny for his relief of one messuage, and 
two yard lands, and two acres of meadow, with the appurtenances. 

* Johannes de Chastilon datRegi-2s. no- Beth> dant domino Regi vd. de precio tertie 

Biine eiijusdatn besanti pro releyip pro ma- partis unius uncie serici pro relevio suo de 

nerio de Thornton in com. predicto, ten', de purparte ipsam Johannam contingente de una 
Rfege ut de Honore Sancti Walerici in manu acr'. terr'- cum pertin'. in Burton juxta Thyn- 

R'egis per mortem Johannis de Eltham ex- den, q. est gleba advocationis ecclesie de Bur- 

isten'. per servitium unius besanti, ad festum ton, et quam predictus Johannes de R>ege ten'. 

Sancti Mich'is reddend'. De termino Hil. in capite, ut parcell. manerij de Burton, q, 

anno 13 Edw. III. Harl. MS, Brit. Mus. quidem acr'. terr'. tenetur per servic'. uniuS 

No. 34, p. 147. uncie serici. De terminb Trin. anno 18 Edw. 

t Andreas de Sakevill et Johanna uxor III. Harl. MS. Brit. M^us. No. 34, p. 150. 
cjiis, una sororum et berediim joii^npisde la 

X X 2 m 


in Whitele, held of the King in capite, by the service of paying at; 
the Exchequer yearly, at the feast of St. Martin, by the hands of the 
sheriff of Warwick, one halfpenny, which is called Warth f , for 
all services *. 

% Warth. See note on Lighthorn, p. 312. 


Ralph de Waymer held of the King in fee and inheritance the Stew 
or Fish-pond f^, without the eastern-gate of the town of Stafford, in 
this manner, viz. that when the King should please to fish, he was ta 
have the pikes and breams, and the said Ralph and his heirs were 
to have all the other fishes with the eels coming to the hooks, 
rendering; therefore to the Kino- half a mark at the feast of St. 
Michael -f-. -..{^ 

^Vivarium. The Vinariam mentioned in the note on -Stafford, 
p. 78, must be corrected by this tenure. 


Thomas de Redeman holding lands and tenements which were 
William Stornell's, gave to our lord the King three shillings for the 
relief of the said William, viz. for two messuages, thirty-seven 
acres of land, four acres of meadow, &c. with the appurtenances. 

* Pliilippus de Qkes, filius et heres Wil- 'j- Radus de Wajmer teuuit de R. in feod. 

lielnii de Okas, dat dno Regi uiium ob'. pro et hereditate Vivar.' extra portam orient' villa 

relevio suo pro uno njessiiagio, d.uabus vir- Staff, in hunc modum, viz. quando placuerit 

gat', et duabus acr'. prati cum p€.rt.inentijs iij R, piscar'. R. habebit lupos aquaticos et brey- 

Whitele ten', de Rege in capite, per serviciujp, et idem Radus et hered. sui habebunt 

reddendi ad Scac'. per annum ad festunj omnes alios pisces cum anguillis ad bamas 

Saiicti Martini, per manus vie'. VVarr'. wnurij venien'. reddend. inde R. dimid. njarc'. ad 

ob'. qui dicitur Warth, pro omni servitio. De festum Sancti Mich'is. Esc. anno 2 Edw. I. 

tertjiino Pasche, anno 20 Edw. 111. Rot. 1, Harl. MS, Brit. Mus. No. 708, p. 27. 
Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 160. 



in Hotpn Roef, in the county of Westmorland, held of the King 

in capite, by fealty, and forty-pence yearly, and ten-pence for the 

I ■■_'»■(•. i. , ■ , > ' 

maintenance §!.§ of the King's bailiff in the same county, called 
Serjeant fee*. 

!;]:§ Putura. See note on Lincoln, p. 239. 


, . . * 

Hamo, son and heir of. Robert Sutton, of Lincoln, holds three 
messuages in the suburbs of Lincoln, in the parish of St. Andrew, 
of the.Kingi in icapite, in; free Iwirgage, paying to the King yearly 
threa-^pence, called lancol-penys, for all services f, 


Agnes de Valencia, who holds the lands of Theobald le Moigne, 
gave to our lord the King twenty shillings for a relief for three hides 
of land ^ in Selford, held of the King in capite by the serjeanty of 
being his goldsmith;]: . 

% Hida terrae. See note on Bade^w, p. 143. 

* Thomas de Redeman teneiis terr'. et coin, in parochia Saiicd Andree, de Rege in 
ten', que fuere Willielmi Stoinell, dat dno capite, in libero burgagio, redd. Regi per 
Regi 3s. pro relevio ipsius Willielmi, viz. pro annum 3 d. voc'. lancol-penys, pro omni ser- 
duobus messuagiis, 37 acr'. terr'- 4 acr'. praU, vitio. De termino Hil. anno 6 Hen. VI. 
&c. cum pertinentiis, in Hoton Roef, in com. Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, p. 455. 
Westmorl. ten.' de Rege in capite per fidelit'. $ Agnes de Valencia que ten', terr'. Theo- 
et 40d. per annum, et ]0d. pro putura liall. baldi le Moigne, dat dno Regi xxs. pro re- 
Regis in eodem Com, vocat'. serjanc'. feod. levio pro tribus hidis terr'. in Selford, ten', de 
De termino Hil. anno 35 Edw. HI. Harl. Rege in capite, per serjanciam aurifabrie. De 
MS. Brit. Mus. No. 34, pp. 214, 215. termino Pasche, anno 22 Edw. I. Ibid. p. 

t Hamo, filius et heres Roberti Sutton de 15. 
Lincoln, tenet tria messuagia in suburbis Lin- 




At Huntingdon, the people have a custom of receiving any King^ 
of England that passes in progress that way with a great number 
of ploughs, brought forth in a pedantic or rustic pomp ; and they 
boast that in former times, they have brought out at once nine 
score ploughs. When King James the First came to England, 
the bailiffs of this town presented him with three score and 
ten team of horses, all traced to handsome new ploughs, to shew 
their husbandry ; of which, when the King demanded the reason, 
they told him that it was their antient custom whensoever any King 
of England passed through their town so to present him, and 
added further, that they held their lands by that tenure, being the 
King^s tenants*. 

''■-.• " ■ J_:_ ■ .,/ 

* Universal Library, or complete Summary of Science, edit. 1722, p. 331- 

!t ,!■.< 

CAP. Hi. 





O/* Lands held af Ecclesiastical Palatines, exercising 
Regal Authority within the Kingdom, hy Services of 
the nature of Grand and Petit Serjeanty, S^c, 


TOHN de Wileghby died seised of the manor of Eresby, with 
its members, viz> Spilesby, Greby, Ingoldmeis, Flyxburgh^ 
Tonelby, Friskeny, Biscopthorp, Askeby, Kyrkeby super Bayne, 
Tatersall, and Thorpe ; all which he held of the bishop of Durham, 
by the service of ©ne knighfs fee, and by the service Of being bailiff 
to that bishop for the time being, of all his lands in the county of 
Lincoln, of his fee, viz. to hold his courts, and to make summons, 
attachments, distresses, and whatsoever belonged to the same 
office, at the own proper costs of himself and his heirs ; and also 
to levy all the issues and profits arising thereby, by himself or his 
sufficient deputy, and to be answerable to the bishop and his suc- 
cessors for the same. Likewise by the service of being stevvard to 
him and his successors, and to carry the messes of meat to the t^ble 
upon the day of their consecration, as also at Christmas and Whit- 

' suntide, 


suntide, by himself or his eldest son, in case he were a knight, or 
some other fitting knight thereunto deputed by letters patent *. 


In the eighth year of the pontificate of Walter Shirlawe, bishop 
of Durham, 1395, Sir John Conyers, knight, died seised in his 
demesne, as of fee-tail, to him and the heirs male of his body 
issuing, of the manor of Sockburn, with the appurtenances ; which 
same manor was held of the lord bishop in capite, by the service 
of shewing to the lord bishop one faAvchon (falchion), which after 
having been seen by the bishop was to be restored to huii, in lieu of 
all other services -f*. 

This valuable manor of Sockburn (the seat of the antient family 
of Conyers, in the bishopric of Durham) worth £554: a year, was 
in the year 1771 the estate of Sir Edward Blackett, and is held of 
the bishop of Durham by the easy service of presenting a falchion 
to every bishop, upon his first entrance into his diocese, as an 
embhem of his temporal power J. 

The manor of Sockburne was purchased by the late Sir William 
Blackett, baronet, of the grand-daughter of the last of the family 
of Conyers of Sockburne, whose mother was married into the 
family of the Earl of Shrewsbury. The family of Conyers were 
barons of the palatinate, and lords of Sockburne from the Conquest 
and before, till the inheritance was so carried, within a century past, 
by the marriage of the heiress into the family of the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, as above-mentioned ; and by her daughter was sold amongst 
other estates to Sir William Blackett §. 

* * Escaet. Roll. 46 Edvv. III. n. 78. Dugd. % Mr. Allan's Notes. 

Baronage, vol. ii. p. 84. , Ulount, 133. | Camd. Brit. tit. Durham. 

■\ Id juis. post mortem Job. Conyers, Chr. gJn 


Sir Edward Blackett now represents the person of Sir John 
Confers *, who, as tradition says, in the fields of Sockburne, slew, 
with this falchion -f-, a monstrous creature, a dragon, a worm, or 
flying serpent :|:, that devoured men, women, and children. The 
then owner of Sockburne, as a reward for his bravery, gave him 
the manor, with its appurtenances, to hold for ever, on condition 
that he should meet the lord bishop of Durham, with this falchion, 
on his first entrance into his diocese, after his election to that see §. 

And in confirmation of this tradition, there is painted in a window 
of Sockburne church, the falchion we just now spoke of; and it is 
also cut in marble, upon the tomb of the great ancestor of the 
Conyers's, together with a dog, and the monstrous worm, or ser- 
pent, lying at his feet, of his own killing, of which the history 
of the family gives the above account]]. 

When the bishop first comes into his diocese, he crosses the 
river Tees, either at the ford at Nesham, or Croft-bridge: where the 

* Legend gives some other particulars of •)- " On the pommel are three lions of Eng- 

this valiant knight, which Mr. Allan extracted " land, guardant. These were first borne by 

from the Catalogue of the Harleian MS. No. *' King John, so that this falchion was not 

2118, p. 39. ^ " made before that time, nor did the owner 

" Sir Jn" Conyers de Sockburn, kn'. whoe " kill the dragon. The black eagle, in a field 

" slew the monstrous venom'd and poisan'd " gold, was the arms of Morkar, Earl of 

" wiverne, ask, or worme, w"" overthrew and " Northumberland. This, too, might be the 

" devour'd many people in feight, for the scent " falchion with which the earls were invested, 

" of the poyson was so strong, that noe per- " being girt with the sword of the earl- 

" «on was able to abide it, yet, he by the pro- " dom." 

" videnceof God overthrew it, and lies buried 4^ "The Scots seem to have been intended 

" at Sockburn, before the Conquest. But " by these dreadful animals ; and the falchion 

" before he did enterprise, (liaving but one *' bestowed with an estate as a reward for 

" childe,) he went to the church in complete " some useful service performed by a Con- 

" armour, and offered up his sonne to "the " yers against those invaders." 

" Holy Ghost, w"" monument is yet to see, § Mr. Allan's Notes. 

(' and the place where the serpent lay is called |{ Camd, Brit. vol. \\. p. 132. 
'\ Graystone." 

Y Y counties 


counties of York and Durham divide. At one of which places, Sir 
Edward Blackett, either in person, or by his representative, if the 
bishop comes by Nesham, rides into the middle of the river Tees, 
with the antient falchion drawn in his hand, or upon the middle of 
Croft-bridge; and then presents the falchion to the bishop, ad- 
dressing him in the antient form of words. Upon which the bishop 
takes the falchion into his hands, looks at it, and returns it back 
again, wishing the lord of the manor his health, and the enjoyment 
of his estate *. 

" At Croft-bridge the Bishop used also to be met by the high 

«' sheriff of the county palatine, (who is an officer of his own by pa- 

« tent, during pleasure,) by the members of the county and city of 

" Durham and by all the principal gentlemen in the county and 

" neighbourhood, to welcome his lordship into his palatinate, who 

" conducted him to Darlington, where they all dined with him, after 

" which they proceeded to Durham. Before they reached the city, 

*' they were met by the dean and chapter, with their congratulatory 

•' address ; the bishop and the whole company alighting from their 

" carriages to receive them. When the ceremony of the address, 

** and his lordship's answer was finished, the procession moved on 

«' to the city ; here they were met by the corporation, the different 

" companies with their banners, and a great concourse of people ; 

" they proceeded immediately to the cathedral, where the bishop 

•♦ was habited upon the tomb of the venerable Bede, in the Galilee, 

" at the west end of the church, from whence he went in pro- 

** cession to the great altar, preceded by the whole choir, singing 

" Te Deum ; after prayers the bishop took the oaths at the altar, 

* Mr. Allan's Notes, 

" and 


*S and was then inthroned in the usual forms, and attended to the 
" Castle by the high sheriff and other gentlemen of the county 

, * » 


In the 12th year of the pontificate of bishop Shirlawe, 1399, 
Dionisia, widow of John Pollard the elder, died seised of one 
piece of land, called Hekes, near the Park of Aukland, which was 
held of the lord bishop in capite, by the service of shewing to the 
bishop one fawchon, at his first coming to Aukland after his oon^ 
secration -f-. 

These lands, now called Pollard^s Lands, at Bishop's Aukland^ 
worth above ^200 a year, continue to be held by the same service. 
Doctor Johnson o£ Newcastle, met one ^f the late bishops. Doctor 
Egerton, in September, 1771, at his first arrival there, and pre- 
sented a falchion upon his knee, and addressed him in the old form 
of w^ordss saying, 

^ Mj lord! in behalf of myself, as well as of the several other 
** tenants of Pollard's Lands, I do humbly present your lordship 
*' with this falchion, at your first coming here, wherewith, as the 
** tradition goeth, Pollard slew of old a great and venomous 
*' serpent, which did much harm to man and beast : and by the 
*' performance of this service, these lands are holden %." 

N. B. This tenure, and that at Sockbnrne above-mentioned, are the 
only two performed at this day in the county §, 

* Pennant's Tour in Scotland, edit. 1772, servitium ostend. domino episcopo unum 

vol.iii. pp. 339, 340. fawchon, in primo adventu suo apud Aukland 

•\^ Itionisia, quae fuit ux<)r Johanuis Pol- post consecrac. suam. Inquis. post mortem 

lafd, senior^ obit s. in Dom. &c. de una pec. Dionisiae Pollard, Viduae. 
terras, voc. Hekes, juxta Parca de Aukland, J Mr. Allan's Notes. 

4^£e tenetur de domino episcopo ia capite, per ^ ibid. 





Stanhope, together with AVolsingham and Aukland, in the bi- 
shopric of Durham, were held of the bishop by forest services, 
besides demesnes and other tenures; particularly upon his great 
huntings, the tenants in these parts were bound to set up for him a 
field-house, or tabernacle, with a chapel, and all manner of rooms 
and offices, as also to furnish him with dogs and horses, and to 
carry his provision, and to attend him during his stay, for the supply 
of all conveniencies ; but now all services of this kind are either 
let fall by disuse, or changed into pecuniary payments *. 

N. B. A count palatine, who has jura regalia granted to him, 
may create a tenure in capite, to hold of himself; for by the grant 
it is in a manner disjoined from the ijrown, and out of the King,, 
and he is made a petty King -f^ 


In the sixth year of the pontificate of Lewis de Beaumont, bi- 
shop of Durham, 1322, Robert, son of Stephen de West Morton, 
died seized of one messuage and twenty acres of land in West 
Morton, which were held of the bishop by homage and fealty, and 
paying to the bishop two shillings and three-pence yearly, and for 
cornage yearly three-pence, and doing suit to the wapentake court 
at Sadberg three times a year ^. 

* Camd. Brit. English Copyholder, 511. mag. et fidelitat. reddendo eidem episcopo 

Mr. Allan's Notes. lis. ind. per ann. et per cornag. per ann. 

f Davis's Reports, 62. 66. iiid. et faciendo tres sectas ad wapentag. 

J Robert, fil. Stephi de West Morton obijt Sadberg per ann. Inquis. post moitem Ro- 

seisitus de uno mess, et xx acr'. terra; in West berti fil. Stephi de West morton. 
Morton, et teaentur de diio episcopo per ho- 



In the 20tli year of the pontificate of Thomas Hatfield, bishop of 
Durham, 1364, Agnes de' Morton held of the lord bishop in capite, 
one " messuage and two acres of land, with the appurtenances, in 
West Morton, by homage and fealty, and by paying to the bishop 
yearly for Chastelwarde (Castle-guard) three-pence *. 


In the 10th year of the pontificate of Lewis Beaumont, bishop 
of Durham, 1326, William Riddell died seised of the manor of 
Tylmuth, which he held of the lord bishop, by the service of the 
moiety of one knighf s fee, and by doing suit to the court of Nor- 
liam, and paying yearly for the guard of the Castle of Norham ^ 
twenty shillings -f-. 

^ Norham is a town on the banks of the river Tweed, belonging to 
the bishops of Durham : it was formerly called Ubbanford, and 
it, and the church, were built by Egfrid, bishop of Lindisfarne, 
who was a mighty benefactor to that see ; and his successor, 
Ranulph Flamberd, bishop of Durham, lord treasurer, and 
chief justice to King William Rufus, erected the Castle of 
Norham, on the top of a steep rock, and moated it round, for 
the better security of this part of his diocese against the fre- 
quent incursions of the Scottish moss troopers J 

* Agnes de Morton ten', de drio episcopo nerio de Tylmuth, q'd tenuit de dno episcopo, 

in capite, tin', mess, et duas acr'. terr'. cum per serv'. medietatis uniiis feodi mil', et faci- 

pertin'. in West Morton', pfer hom. et fid. et endo sectam ad cur', de Norham, et reddeiid. 

reddendo dno episcopo per ann. per Chastel- per ann. pro Custodia Castri de Norham vigiiiti 

wardeiiid. Inquis. post mortem Agnet'. de solidos. Inqais. pbst mortem Willielmi Rid- 

Moriton. ddl. 

f Willielmus Riddell obijt seisitus de ma- $ Camd. Brit. 




In the fourth year of bishop Bury, 1836, Nicholas de Oxenhale 
held of the lord bishop in capite, the manor of Oxenhale by ho- 
mage and fealty, and the service of sixty shillings ; and he was to 
do three suits to the county court at Durham ^ yearly ; and he 
was to perform the fourth-part of one drengage [*], to wit, he was 
to plow four acres, and sow it with the seed of the bishop, and 
harrow it, and do four days work in autumn, viz. three with all 
the people of his whole family, except the housewife [f ], and the 
fourth with one man of any house, except his own house, which 
was to be quit ; and he was to keep a dog and a horse for a quarter 
of a year ; and he was to pay tribute [|.] when such was imposed 
in the bishopric *. 

f Ad com. Dun. This means the county of Durham in opposition 
to the wapentake of Sadberg, which, notwithstanding the old 
general grants, was withheld from the church, till bishop Hugh 
(Pudsey, Earl of Northumberland), purchased it of King 
Richard the First, in exchange for other manors in Lincolnshire; 
hence it is distinctly named with Durham in the title of a county 
palatine, as a separate wapentake, which formerly compre- 
hended most of the east side of the county. Camd. Brit. tit. 
Bishopric of Durham. P. 

* Nkji. de Oxenhale ten', de ciiio episcopo cum tota familia domus excepta husewia, et 

in capite, maner'. de Oxenhale per horn, et quartern cum uno hpnjiiie de quacunq. domo, 

fid. et servic'. lx s. et faciei tres sect, ad com. excepta propria domo sua, que quieta erit ; et 

Dun. per ann. et faciet quartam partem unius custodiet canem et equum per quartam partem 

drengagij, scilicet q'd arat (aret) quatuor acras anni, et faciet veware qii positum fuerit in 

et seminat (seminet) de semine episcppi, et epi$copat^tn. Inquis. 

herciat (herciet) et faciet quatuor p'cacoes in Oxenhale. 
iiutjj{|npDQ;^«ciL tiesde omnibus hominibus suis, 

[*] Drengage. 


PJ DrengiEige» A drengage it seems consisted of sixteen acres, to 
be ploughed, sown, and harrowed. P. Drenches or drenges 
(drengi) were tenants in capite, says an antient MS. Domesday, 
tit. Lestresc. Roger Pictaviens, Neuton. Fifteen men, who 
were called drenches, for they held fifteen manors, held the 
other land of this manor*. They were, says Spelman, a kind 
of vassals, but not of the lowest order, for all those who are so 
named in Domesday, were possessed of manors -j^. Such as at 
the coming in, of the Conqueror, being put out of their estates, 
were afterwards, upon complaint unto him, restored thereunto, 
for that they being before owners thereof, were neither in aid 
or counsel against him, of which number was Sharneburne in 
Norfolk X ; and drengage was the tenure by which the drenches 
held their lands §. 

[•f] Husewia. The housewife^ or mistress of the family. I look 
upon this to be a certain interpretation, though I have not met 
with the word elsewhere. We now say hussey. P. This is a 
very common word in the north, and not spoken by way of 
contempt. E^ 

\X] Veware. A difficult word ; if connected with canem et equunr, 
it probably may be vivarium, a park or warren : but perhaps it 
should be read cutware, as in the article of Rethop (infra), and 
then it may mean a tribute. Du Fresne, voce Cut. P. 


In the third year of bishop Bury, 1335, William Gra held in^ 

* Hujus manerij aliam terram xv homines cum singuli qui in Domesd. nominautur sin-r 

quos drenches vocabant pro xv manerijs te- gula possiderent maneria. Spelm. 
nebant. i^ Blount's Law Diet. tit. Drenches. 

-}• £ genere vassallorum non ignobilium, ^ Ibid. tit. Drengesge. capite 


capite of the lord bishop, the manor of Trefford, with the appur- 
tenances, by the service of one pair of white gloves ^, at the feast 
of St. Mary Magdalene, (22d July) for all services *. 

f Cirotecarum albaruni. Par albarum cyrothecarum occurs in the 
register of Darleigh Abbey, penes Ducem Norfolciae. And it 
is written ceroteca in a MS. of John Topham, esq. and anno 
1290, ciroteca, as here ; and see below tit. Blakeston. P. 


William Heryngton held in capite of the lord bishop (Ford- 
ham) one acre of land in Quycham, by the service of one rose 
yearly, at the feast of Pentecost ^, if required -f. 

^ The delivery of a rose is a common tenure, but to give it at 
Whitsuntide is early; si petatur (if required) is a common 
phrase for these small acknowledgments. P. 


In the fifth year of the pontificate of bishop Bury, 1337, Ma- 
tilda, the wife of Thomas de Tesedale, of Tudhowe, was seised of 
the fourth part of a messuage and ten acres of land, with the 
aj)purtenances, in Shaldforth, and they were held of the lord 
bishop in capite, rendering four-pence. And the said Matilda, 
together with her parceners 1|^|-||, was to oversee the carriage of a 
hogshead [*] of wine, once a year, wheresoever the bishop chose 

* Willielmus Gra ten*, in capite de dno -f- Willielmus Herington ten', in capite de 

episcopo manerium de TrefFord, cum pertin'. dno episcopo unum acr'. ter'. in Quycham per 
per servic'. unius paris cirotecarum albarum servic'. unius rosae per ann. ad fin. Pentc- 
in festo S. M. Magdalene pro omnibus ser- cost, si petatur. Inquis. post mortem Wil- 
vitijs. Inquis. post mortem Willielmi Gra. lielmi Heryngton. 

. ,to 


to have that wine, within the bishopric of Durham : and he was to 
give evidence with the baihff of the jury, concerning the jurors 
and summoners, and to help the bailiff of the bishop to drive the 
distresses for the bishop's farm *. 

|I^j-|| Cum parcenarijs. So that, I suppose, she held in coparcenry, 
her sisters, co-heiresses, holding the other three parts. Vide 
Greencroft, infra. P. 

[*] Doleum. A hogshead. See below, sub. tit. Easington, Green- 
croft, and Urpath. P. 


In the sixth year of the pontificate of bishop Bury, 1338, John 
Fayrey died seised of one messuage and thirty acres of land, in 
Easington, and they were held of the lord bishop in capite, by 
fealty and the service of three capital suits at the court of Durham, 
yearly. And he was to drive the distresses \jf] with the bailiff of 
the lord bishop, and to witness the summonses, and to oversee the 
carriage of one hogshead of wine§J§, yearly, and to grind at the 
mill of the lord bishop to the thirteenth sheaf ||§|| -f-. 

* Matilda, ux. Tho. Tesedale, de Tudhowe, ad fugand'. distr'- pro firma dni episcopi. In- 

fuit seisit' de quarta parte unius mess, et de- quis. post mortem Tho. de Tesedale. 

cem acr'. terr'. cum pertin'. in Shaldforth, et f Johannes Fayrey ob. seis. de uno mess, 

teneutur de dno episcopo in capite, red'do iv. et triginta acr'. terras in Esington, et tenentur 

denarios. Et eadem Matild. simul cum per- de diio episcopo in cap', per fid', etservic'.trium 

cenarijs suis supervidebit cariagium unius dolei sectar.' capital', apud Dun. per ann. Et fugabit 

vini, semel in anno, ubicunq. epus voluerit ha- namea cum ballivo diii episcopi, et testificabit 

bere illud vinum infra epatum Dunelm. Et peri- summoniciones et supervidebit carriagium 

hebit (perliibebit) testimonium cum ballivo jur. unius dolei vini per ann. et molet ad molend'. 

de jurat, et sum. et adjuvabij ballivum episcopi diii episcopi ad tercium decimum vas. 

z z [f] Namea" 


[f ] Namea. More commonly written namla, which signifies dis-« 
tresses, viz. cattle distrained. P. 

^X% Dolei Vini. See Shaldforth, above. Fayrey seems to have mar- 
ried a sister of Matilda, mentioned in this article. P. 

1|§|| Ad tercium decimum Vas. To the thirteenth sheaf. Du Fresne, 
voce Vasa Decimae, expl?iining Vas, by Merges and Garba, 
torn. vi. col, 1422. See below, sub. tit. Greencroft and Red- 
worth. P. 

With submission to the authority of Du Fresne, and of the learned 
author of this note, is it not probable that " tertium decimum 
vas" may rather mean the thirteenth dish ? It being the custom 
for millers to take toll or mulcture for grinding corn, by a vessel 
called a toll dish. And see Ordin; pro Pistor. &c. incerti temp. 
Ruffhead's Stat. vol. i. 186. E. 


Nicholas Roughead held in capite of the lord bishop, the moiety 
of the town of Greencroft, with the appurtenances, by fealty and 
the service of two shillings a year, and doing all suits to the court 
of Durham, yearly, and, with his parceners, carrying or over- 
seeing the carriage of the third part of a hogshead of wine§||§, 
yearly : and, with his parceners, repairing or making the third 
part of the mill and mill dam of Langchejster : and he was to 
grind his corn to the thirteenth dishj^jj at the mill of Lang- 
chester ; and pay with his parceners, to the chief forester of the 
lord bishop, yearly, and for assize, two shillings and ten-pence, 



and to the same forester with his parceners, yearly, seventeen 
hens *. 

§||§ Dolei Vini. See Shaldforth, above. 

X^t Tertium decimum Vas. See Easington, above. 


In the sixth year of the pontificate of bishop Bury, 1338, Ralph 
de Rungeton held of Richard [*], son of Richard of the Park, in 
Blakeston, three messuajges, forty acres of land, and four acres of 
meadow, by fealty, and the service of two shillings and four-pence, 
and a pair gloves %f% and half a pound of cummin seed f. 

And in the fifth year of the pontificate of Thomas Hatfield, 
bishop of Durham, 1349, William de Blaykeston held in the town 
of Blaykeston, the same premises of Roger de Blakeston, by fealty 
and homage, and the service of paying to the same Roger, yearly, 
two shillings and four-pence, and one pair of gloves ■fHi", and half 
a pound of cummin seed, yearly :|:. 

* Nich'us Rougheved ten', in capite de dno •]- Radus de Rungeton tenet Rico fil. Rici 

episcopo mediet'. villas de Grencroft, cum per- de Parco de Blakeston, tria mess, xl acr*. 

tin', per fid. et servic'. duor'. solidor'. per ann. ei terras, iiii acr'. p'ti, per fid. et servic'. ii s. iiii d. 

oes sectas cur. Dun. per ann. et faciendo cum et unius par cirotecarium, et medietat. unius 

p'cenar'. suis tertiam p'tem unius dolei vini libre cumini. Inquis. post mortem Radi de 

per ann. et faciendo cum p'cenar.' suis terciam Rungeton. 

p'tem molendini et stagni de Langchestre. Et J Willielmus de Blaykeston ten', in villa 

molet blada sua ad tercium decimum vas ad de Blaykeston tria mess, xl acr'. terra:, et 

molendin. de Langchestre, Et reddendo cum iiii acr.' p'ti, de Rogero de Blakeston, per 

p'cenar'. suis capit'Ii forestar'. dni episcopi per fid. et hom, et servic'. red'do eid'. Rog'o per 

ann. et pro ass. iis. xd. et eid. forestar. cum ann. iis. iHid. et unum par serotecarum,'et 

p'cenar. suis per ann. xvii gallin. Inqujs. post medietat'. unius libre cumint, per ann. Inquis. 

mortem Nich'i Rougheved. post mortem Willielmi de Blaykeston. 

z z 2 [*] Tenet 

[*] Tenet Rico. Tenet de Rico, I suppose. P. 
§t§ Par Cirotecarum. See Trefford, p. 352. 

i ilf Par Serotecarum. An evident corruption of Cirotecarum or 
Cerotecarum, i. e. Chirothecarum. See Trefford, p. 352. P. 


In the eighth year of the pontificate of bishop Bury, 1340, John 
Power was seised in his demesne, &c. of one messuage and two 
acres of land, with the appurtenances, in Stanhope, which he 
held of the lord bishop in capite, by homage, fealty, and the ser- 
vice of five shillings and sixpence; and he was to watch ^ with 
one man for a month, to keep the wild beasts of the bishop in 
the forest in fawning ^-j § time *. 

In the eighteenth year of the pontificate of Thomas Hatfield, 
bishop of Durham, 1362, William Colynson held of the lord 
bishop in capite, &c. two tofts and four acres of land, with the 
appurtenances, in Stanhope, by fealty, and the service of sixteen 
pence, yearly: also, he was to find a man to keep the deerJ-j-J 
of the said lord bishop, with the forester, for four weeks in the 
fence month |1.|.1|, for the quantity of land which he held of William 
Merley -f. 

* Johannes Power fuit s. in dnico, &c. de in capite, &.c. duo tofta et iiii°' acr'. terr'- cum 

uno mess, et duabus acr'. ten', cum pertin'. pertin'. in Stanhop, per fid. et servic'. sex- 

inStanhop, et eaten', dednoepiscopo in capite, decim denar'. per ann. Item inveniet unum 

per horn. fid. et servic'. quinq'. sol. et sex hominem ad custo.diend. venacionem Hicti diii 

denar'. Et faciet stagia cum uno homine per episcopi cum forestar. per iiii°' septi'as tem- 

unam mens, custod'. feras dni episcopi in fo- pore defensionis pro q'ntitate terrae quam tenet 

resta tempore fonnagij. Inquis. post mortem de W Merley. Inquis. post mortem Willielmj 

Johanuis Power. Colynson, 18 Hatfield. 

-j- W'iUielmus Colynson ten', de dno episcopo 

f Faciet 


^ Faciei Stagia. It signifies keeping stations, consequently watches. 
See Du Fresne in voce. P. 

i-f^ Fonnagij. Fawning. Fr. Faonner. 'Tis more commonly written 
Fannatio, or Feonatio. See Spelm voce Fanatio. Fawnyjson 
tyme. Walsyngham, p. 186. P. 

XfX Venatio. Deer. Hence jour word ven son. P. 

||:|:H Tempore defensioriis. The fence month in the forest laws, P. 
The same as the Tempus Fonnagij, above ; or the Mensis vetitus, 
p. 249, so called because it is the fawning month wlien the 
does have fawns, for the preservation whereof they ought to be 
fenced, i. e defended, both from hurt and disquiet. It con- 
sists of thirty-one days, and begins on the fifteenth day l>e- 
fore Midsummer, and ends fifteen days after. See the statute 
entitled Carta de Foresta, cap. 8. 4 Inst. 313. E. 


In the eighth year of the pontificate of bishop Bury, 1340, 
Philip de Ref hop was seised in his demesne, &c, of one messuage 
and thirty-two acres of land, with the appurtenances, in Refhop, 
by fealty, and the service of five shillings yearly ; and doing cut- 
ware ^ and common aid §1|§ when it should happen ; and he held 
them of the lord bishop in capite ^. 

% CJutware. A tribute. Du Fresne, voce Cut. P. And see Oxen- 
hale, p. 350. 

*Philus de Refhop fuU.seis. in dnico,&c. contigerit, et ea tenen. de dno episcapo in 
ide uiio mess, et xxxii. acr'. terrae cum pertin'. capite. Jnquis. post mortem Fhilippi de 
in Refhop per fid. et servic' v. sol. per ann. Refhop, 8 Bury. 
«t -faciendo Cutware et Co'e Auxiliu'. quod 

§|]§ Commune 


III! Commune Auxillum. Common Aid. The word aid has divers 
significations in the law. Sometimes it signifies a subsidy, as 
in 14 Edw. III. stat. 2. cap. 1. Sometimes a prestation due 
from tenants to their lords, as towards the relief due to the 
lord paramount. Glanvil, lib. 9, cap. 8. This the King, or 
other lords, might of old lay on their tenants, for knighting his 
eldest son at the age of fifteen years, or marrying his daughter 
at seven. Register of Writs, fo, 87, a. Blount's Law Diet. tit. 
Aid. And sometimes it signified a customary duty antiently 
payable to sheriflFs out of certain manors, for the better sup- 
port of their offices, and this last was called Auxilium Vice- 
comitis, the sheriff's aid. Jac. Law Diet. sub. voce. And see 
Blaekstone's Comment, lib. 2. cap. 5. E. 


In the eleventh year of the pontificate of bishop Bury, 1343, 
Thomas de Midrigg held of the lord bishop in capite, one mes- 
suage and twenty acres of land, with the appurtenances, in Midrigg, 
paying in the Exchequer of Durham §|j§ six shillings a year, and 
doing three suits at the county court of Durham, yearly, and pay- 
ing one Wodhenne '^^X • ^^^ ^® "^^^ ^^ mow in autumn at the 
Grange |]§|1 of Midrick, or pay one penny ; and to carry the mill- 
stones of the mill of Kempilmilne, if required ^ *. 

Scaccario Dun. Scaccario Dunelmensi. Durham being a county 

* Tho. de Midrigg ten', de diio episcopo ia apud Giigiam de Midrick annuatim vel dabit 

capite, unum mess, et XX acr'.terr'. cum pertin'. unum den: et ad cariand. molas molendini 

in Midrigg, red'do in Scaccario Dun. vis. per de Kempilmilne si petatur. Inquis. post mor- 

ann. et iii sectas ad com. Dun. aiiuatim et tern Thomae die Midrigg, 11 Bury, 
uuam Wedheune, et metebit in autumpuo 



palatine, had its own Exchequer. See Pencher, Cotom, West 
Aukland, and Redworth, infra. P. 

J|$ Wedhenne, read Wodhenne, as in Sokyrton, p. 369. This is 
a very scarce bird now. It occurs not in Pennant's Zoology, 
and, I believe, is peculiar to these northern parts. P. See 
Whitaker's Hist, of Manchester, book i, cap. 10,. sect 1. 
p, 334 E. 

This I presume to be the wood grouse, the Tetras Vrogallus of 
Linnaeus. It has long been extinct in England ] indeed it does 
not seem to have been so frequent there as in Scotland, where it 
is known by the name of Capercailzie. It may now be said to 
be found only in Russia, Sweden, and Norway, none having 
been seen in Scotland for many years. W. 

fmi Grangiam. A house or farm. See Blount's Law Diet, in verbo. 

In Othello, act i, sc. 1. Brabantia says to Rodorigo, 

" What tell'st thou me of robbing ? this is Venice, 
*' My house is not a Grange." 

The note on this passage explains Grange to be strictly and 
properly the farm of a monastery, where the religious re- 
posited their corn. Grangia, Lat. from Granum. But ih Lin- 
colnshire, and other northern counties, they call every lone 
house or farm, which stands solitary, a Grange. 

Chalmer's edit, of Shakspeare. 

f Si petatur. If required. Mill stones not being to be carried every? 
year. See Whickham, p. 352. 




In the tenth year of the pontificate of bishop Bury, 1342, 
John-o*-the-Orehard held one garden, with buildings and ap- 
purtenances, in Durham, by the service of finding pot-herbs [*], 
leeks §•!•§, and other herbs for pottage, at the kitchen -f-l^-f of the 
lord bishop, on all his arrivals at the Castle of Durham ; and the 
constable for the time being was to receive those leeks, pot 
herbs, and other herbs, for his kitchen, every day in the year : 
and the aforesaid John, or his heirs, ought to receive of the said 
lord bishop, with his family, being at Durham, daily, two white 
loaves |1|[||, two flaggons Jt of ale, and two dishes of meat, with one 
garment —, which is called Bedman : and in the same manner he 
ought to receive of the constable of the castle for the time being, 
for eight principal days in the year *. 

[*] Oba. Read Olera. Pot herbs, from this very article, below. P. 

§f§ Porros. Leeks. 

'W-'X Coquina. Kitchen. P. 

mill Panes. Loaves. So at Urpath, p. 369. P. 

%% Lagenas. Flaggons. It occurs again under Urpath, p. 369. 

^ Garriiamento. Read Garniamento, for which see Du Fresne. It 
means Garnishment. P. Garnishment, in legal understanding, 

* Johannes-o'-the-Orchard ten', unum gar- dnoepiscopo'ipso, cum fainilia sua exist, ap. D. 

dm', cum edificijs, et pertin'. suis in Dunelm, cotidie, duos albos panes, duas lagenas cer- 

per servic'. inveniendi oba, porros, et al. visie, et duo fercula cum uno garmamento 

herbas pro potagio, ad coquinam diii episcopi, quod voc. Bedman : et eod. modo debet per- 

pro omnibusadventibus suis ad casirum Dun. et cipe de constab. castri, qui pro tempore fuerit, 

constab. qui pro tempore fuerit porros, olera, et per viii dies principales anni rem. uts". In- 

berbas pro coquina sua omnibus diebus aiii ; et quis. post mortem Joharinis-o'-the-Orcheyard. 

p'd. Johannes vel her. suus debet percipere de 10 Bury. 



ftieans warning, but does not seem to be applicable to this 
ease. May it not rather mean a garment, used by Beadsmen, 
Oratores, Precatores? for which see Skinner's Etymologicon 
Generale, sub verbo, Beads. E. 

In the fifth year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 1349, 
John de Wodesende, the day of his death, held of the lord 
bishop in capite, one burgage [*] with the appurtenances, in 
the borough of Durham, by service for Land male [-j] in the 
bailiwick of the borough of Durham*. 

£*] Unum Burgagium. A tenement held by burgage tenure. See 
Skinner's Etymologiea Expositio Vocum forensium sub voce. P. 
and Coke, sup. Littleton, lib. ii. cap. 10. E. 

[f ] Per servic'. pro Landmal. The pro is here very singular ; as 
to landmal it seems to mean carrying a male or portmanteau, 
though our Forensian Glossographers do not acknowledge this 
word. Quaere therefore, whether for pro we should not read 
PORT, i. e. portandi. Vide New Elvet. 

In the sixth year of the pontificate of John Fordham, bishop of 
Durham, 1386, Thomas Umframvill held of the lord bishop one 
curtilage^ near Durham, by the service of finding daily for the 
kitchen, within the Castle of Durham, pot herbs [*] and leeks [-}-], 
and on the arrivals of the bishop, being at the Castle aforesaid, the 
said Thomas Umframvill and his heirs were to receive daily two 

* Johannes de Wodesende ten', de dno epis- landmal ballivo. burg. Dunel. Inquis. post 

copo in capite, die quo ob. unum burgag. mortem Johannis de Wodesende. 5 Hat- 
cum pertin'. in burgo Dunelm. per servic'. pro field. 

3 A loaves 


loaves [I] and a flaggon of ale [§], and one dish of me&t, from the 
kitchen of the said lord bishop *. 

% Curtilag, This, I presume, is what is in the former article of 
John-o'-the-Orchard, called Gardinum cum Edificijs, and see 
Blount's Law Diet, in voce. P. 

[*] Olera, See above, 

[■f-] Porros. See above. 

[I] Panes. See above. 

[§] Lagenam. See above. 


In the fourth year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 1348^ 
Hugh de Tesedale died seised in his demesne, &e. of one acre of 
meadow, with the appurtenances, in the town of Schurnetauj and it 
was held of the lord bishop in dringage ^ -f. 

^ Dringagium. See Oxenhale, p- 351- 


In the fifth year of bishop Hatfield, 1849, Cecily, then late wife of 
Niehalas de Carlelle, held of the lord bishop in capite, on the day 
of her death, six score and four acres of land, with the appurte- 

* Thomas Umframvill ten', de dno episcopo copi. Inquis. post mortem Thomas Um- 

unum curtilag'. juxta Dimelm, per servic'. framvill. 6 Fordham. 

inveniend'. cotidie, coquine infra Castrum -f Hugh de Tesedale ob'. s'. in dominico> 

Dun', oleti et porro% et in adyentibus epis- &c.. de una act'-prati cum pettin!.-in- villa de 

copi exist', apud Castrum predictum, idem Schurneton, et tenetur de diio episcopo in drin- 

Thomas Umframvil! et heredes sui habebunt gagio. Inquis. post mortem Hugonis de 

cotidie duos panes et unam lagenam cervisise, Tesedale. 4 Hatfield, 
et unutn ferculum de coquiaa dicti dni epie- 



natices, in Pen-cber, rendering yeariy at the Exchequer of Durham 
six marks, and finding the lerd bishop, for the aforesaid land of 
Pencber, in the great chaee [*] (at the great hunt) one man and two 
greyhounds *, 

[*] Magna Chacea. The bishop had many chaces : quaere which 
was the great or principal one ? P, 

And in the fifth year of bishop Fordham, 1385, Robert de Carlele 
was seised in his demesne, &c. of six score and fourteen ^ acres 
of land, with the appurtenances, in Pencber, called Berne we lie, 
which were held of the lord bishop, by fealty, and rendering there- 
fore to the Exchequer at Durham, at the usual terms, six marks, 
and finding for the lord bishop, for the said lands, in his great chaee, 
one man and two greyhounds f-, 

^ Only four in the preceding article, P, 


In the fifth year of bishop Hatfield, 1349, John Couppman died 
seised in his demesne, &c. of one messuage and sixty acres of 
land, with the appurtenances, in West Aukland, and they were held 
in capite of the lord bishop, by fealty, and the service of ten shil- 
lings, and three suits at the chief county courts at Durham |.§:|; ; and 

* Cecilia, que fiiit uxor Nicholi de Carlelfe, nico, &c. de sexci«s viginti et quatuordeqim 

ten', de dHo «piscopo in capite, die quae obiit, acr'. terr'. cum pertin'. in Pencher, vocat Ber- 

sexcies viginti quatuor acr'. teme, cum pertin'. newelle, que teiientur de diio episcopo per fid', 

in Pencher, reddendo per ann, Scaccario Dun. €t redd', inde Scaccario Dun', ad tcrminos 

sex marcas, et inveniendo drio episcopo, pro usual, sex marc', et inveniendo diio episcopo, 

terra predicta de Pencher, in magna chacea, pro dicta terr'.in magna chacea sua, unnm ho- 

unum hominem et duos leporarios. Inquis. mineni et duos leporarios. Inquis. post mor- 

j)ost mortem Cecjliae de Carlelle. 5 Hatfield. tem Roberti de Carlele. 5 Fordham. 
f Robertus de Carlelle fuit seis", in domi- 

3 A 2 he 


he was to plough one half acre of land in the field of the manor of 
Camden, with his plough, every year *. 

J^^Tlie word Comitatus alone is used for the county-court in Magna 
Chiarta, cap. xxxv, " Nullus Comitatus de cetero teneatur," &c. 
a^d in stat. 11 Hen. VII. cap. 15, the words " officers holding 
'■'. and keeping Counties, occur." So again, stat. 2 and 3 Edw. 
VI. cap. 25, " use their Counties to be holden every six weeks," 
' &c. E. 

In the seventeenth year of bishop Hatfield, 1361, WiUiam Fissh held 
lof the lord bishop in capite, one messuage, one cottage, and forty 
acres of land, with the appurtenances, in West Aukland, in dryn^ 
gagef , by the service of five shillings and sixpence to be paid at 
the Exchequer of Durham, yearly ; and he was to perform three 
reap days in autumn at the Grange of Coundon, and to pay to the 
same manor yearly sixpence for Avakresilvr X*t^ and to carry the 
timber for the mill, and repair the mill dam, and to carry the hay 
as the other tenants of the same tenure did in the same town -f'. 

% Dryngagio. See Oxenhale, p. 351. 

J*]: Averakre silver. I take this to be the same as Avacre below, 
the virgula over t being there casually omitted. Now, as Aver 

* Johannes Couppman ob'. s'. in domi- cum pertin'. in West Aukland, in dryngagio, 

«ico, 8cc. de unum mess', et lx acr'. terrae, per servic'. vs. et vid. ad Scaccarium Dun', 

cum pertin'. in West Aukland, et teii'. in ca- solvend'. per annum ; et trium percariar' ia 

pite de diio episcopo, per fid', et servic'. decern autumpno debit' Grangie de Coundon, et sex 

sol. et tres sect', ad capital com. Dun. et ara- denar'. de avakresilvr debit' eideni manerio per 

bit', unam dimid'. acr'. terrae in campo man'. annum, et faciendo in cariacoe me'mij pro mo-r 

de Coundon, cum caruca stia, quoHbet anno. lendiuo, et repacoe stagni molendini, ac leva- 

Inquis. post mortem Jobannis Couppman. coe foeni, sicut alij tenentes ejusdem tenure 

i Hatfield. faciunt in eadem villa. Inquis. post mortem 

t Willielraus Fjssh ten', de dHo episcopo in WiUielmi Fyssh. 17 Hatfield. 

capite, un'. mess', un'. cot', et xt acr'. terr'. 



signifies oats, espeeially in Yorkshire, some may think it may 
denote a payment in lieu of oats, and this indeed might serve 
to explain aver-silver, but does not seem to suffice or account 
for the acre, a material part of the word. Therefore, as in the 
preceding article, we meet with the service of ploughing one half 
acre of land, perhaps it may mean a payment made in money, 
viz. sixpence, instead of ploughing an acre of land for sowing 
oats. P. 

In the third year of bishop Fordham, 1383, Robert Fyssh, of 
West Aukland, died seised in his demesne, &c. of the fourth part 
of a messuage, and forty acres of land, with the appurtenances, in 
West Aukland, which were held of the lord bishop in dryngage, by 
the service of five shillings and sixpence yearly, and three days 
work in autumn, at the bishop's manor of Coundon, and he ought 
to pay to the same manor yearly sixpence of auacre silver, and to 
assist in carrying the timber foi* the mill, and in repairing the dam 
of the same, and in making f the hay of the same manor, as the 
rest of the tenants of the town of West Aukland did *. 

f Levacoe fceni. Making, cocking, or carrying the hay. 

In the eighteenth year of bishop Hatfield, 1362, Robert Fyssh held 
of the lord bishop in capite, two tofts, and forty acres of land, with 
the appurtenances, in West Aukland, by fealty, and paying to the 
Exchequer at Durham, at the usual terms, yearly, six shillings and 

*Robertus Fyssh, de West Aukland, ob'. dni episcopi de Coundon, et vid. de auacre 
Seis'. in dominico, 8cc. dc quarta parte unius silv'. debit' eidem manerio per annum, et fa- 
mess*, et XL acr'. terr'. cum pertin'. in West cicnd.' in cariacoe manerij sicut ceteri tenentes. 
^ukland, que tenentur de dno episcopo in villae de West Aukland faciunt. Inquis. post 
dryngagio, per servic'. v s. et vid.per annum, mortem Roberti Fyssh. 3 Fordham. 
1st trium percariar' in autumpuo debit' manerio 



eight-pence, and by mowing the corn of the lordjjishop growiog at 
Coundon-Grange every year, by himself, or by another, for three 
days, and also by making the hay of the lord bishop for two days 
at West Aukland, every year, by himself or by another*. 

In the twelfth year of the pontificate of bishop SMrlawe, 1395, 
Agnes Tomson, of West Aukland, was seised in her demesne of 
two messuages and forty acres of land, with the appurtenances, in 
West Aukland, which were held of the lord bishop in capite, in 
dryngage, by the service of ploughing and harrowing one acre of 
land at Coundon-Grange, and by the service of mowing for six days 
there, with one man, in autumn, and by the service of making the 
hay of the lord bishop at West Aukland, and by the service of 
going on embassies^ between Tyne and Tees, when forewarned 
so to do -j^. 

^ Loracoibus. Read legationibus. See Heighington, infra. P. 


Alice Bedick was seised in her demesne, &c. of two parts of the 
town of Great Useworth, with the appurtenances, by the service of 

* Robertus F^ssh ten', de dno episcopo in fuit in domlnico suo de diiobiis mess', et xl 

capite, duo tofta et xl acr'. ten', cum pertin'. acr'. terr'. cum pertiii'. in West Aukland, que 

in West Aukland, per fid', et reddendo Scac- tenentur de dno episcopo in capite, in dr^ng. 

oario Dun', ad terminos usual, annuatlm sex per servie'. arandi et berciaudi unam acr'. 

sol. et VIII denar. et metendo blada diii epis- terrae apud Coundon-Grang'. et per servie'. 

copi crescentia apud Coundeu-Grange quo- metendi per sex dies tbidem, cum uno homine 

libet anno, per se vel per alium per tres dies, in autumpno, et per servie'. faciendi foenum dtiii 

ac etiana faciendi foenum diii episeopi pro duos episcopi apud West Aukland, et per servie'. 

dies apud West Aukland, quolibet anno, per se eundi in loracoibus inter Tynam et Tesam, 

vel per alium. Inqujs. post mortem Roberti quando premunitus fuerit. Inquis. post mor- 

Fyssh. 18 Hatfield. tern Agaetis Tomson. 12 Skirlavv. 

+ Agnes Tomson, de West Aukland, seis'. 



fifty shillings and eight-penee a year, and by the service of three 
quarters and a half of barley malt, called statmalt f yearly ; and 
by the service of three quarters and a half of oatmeal yearly, called 
statmele[*], and by the service of seven quarters of oats, called 
stathariore [-f ], yearly ; and the aforesaid two parts of the said town 
were held in capite of the lord bishop *. 

^ Bras ordei vocaf Statmalt. As brasium is malt (see Spelman and 
Blount in voce,) and other grain as well as barley was malted, 
malt made of barley is here specified ; but why it should be 
called statmalt is unknown to me, unless it were for the use of, 
the state, i. e. the public or the court.^ Vide Du Fresne, voce 
Status. P. 

[*] Statmele- See the last note;- 

[•f] Avenar' vocat' statharion^ I know not whether I read the lai&t 
word right, but be that as it will, it should be, as I take it, stat- 
havoine, from the French avoine, oats, quasi state oats.. P. 


In the seventeenth year of bishop Hatfield, 1361, Dionisia de Ose- 
worth died seised in her demesne, &c. of the moiety of the town of 
Little Useworth, with the appurtenances, and she held it of the lord 
bishop by fealty, and by the service of finding for the aforesaid 

* Alicia Bedick fuit seis' in dominic(v dimid. fariae avernar' per annum, vocat'. stat-. 

&c. de duabus partibus villae de Magna Use- mele, et per servic'. septem quarterior' avenar' 

vortb, cum pertin'. per servic'. qu^inquaginta vocat'. stathariore per annum, et predictas duas 

spj. et octo den', per ann. et per servic'. trium partes predicte villas ten', in capite de dno 

quarterior et dimid, bras ordei vocat', statmalt episcopo. Inquis, post mortem Aliciae Bedick.. 

per annum,, et pec smW. trium quarter' et 15 Hatfield. 



bishop one man with a greyhound in his great chace, if sum- 
moned §§§ *. ' 

§§§ S. muneatur. Read si moneatur, i. e. if she be required or 
summoned, a phrase of the same nature as si petatur, as in 
Whickham, p. 352, and see the tenure of Agnes Tomson in West 
Aukland, above. P, 


In the seventeenth year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 1361, 
Thomas de Graystanes held of the lord bishop three messuages, 
the moiety of a water mill, five score acres of land, and eight acres 
of meadow, with the appurtenances, in Cotom, by homage and 
fealty, and ward and marriage, and the service 6f paying nine 
shillings and three-pence, &c. and by paying into the Exchequer of 
Durham yearly, sixpence halfpenny for wardsilver f , and by pay- 
ing also half a pound of pepper §*§, and for wodehyre ||§|| a half- 
penny -f '. 

f Wardesilver. Money paid in lieu of keeping ward at a castle. 
See Blount's Law Diet, and Spelman's Gloss, voce Ward- 
penny. P. 

* Dionisia de Oseworth obit (obijt) seis'. in copo tria mess', medietat'. unius molendini 

dominico, &c. de medietate villae de Parva aquatici, quinquies viginti acras terrae^ et octo 

Oseworth, cum pertin'. et illam ten', de diio acr'. 'prati, cum pertin'. in Cotom, per honi'. 

episcopo per fid', et per servic'. invcniendi pre- et fid', et wardam et maritagium, et servic'. 

dicto episcopo unum hominem cum lepar. ixs. et iiid. solvend'. &c. et reddendo Scac- 

(lepor.) in magna chacea sua, s. tnuneatur, &c. cario Dun', annuatim sex denarios et ob'. pro 

Inquis. post mortem Dionisiae de Oseworth. wardesilver, et reddendo eciam dimid. libr. 

17 Hatfield. piperis, et pro wodehyre ob'. Inquis. post mor- 

tj- Thomas de Graystaues tea', de dno epis- tem Tlio. de Graystanes. 17 Hatfield. 

r§ Dimid. 


§*^ Dimid. lifer, pip'is. Payment of pepper was a common tenure; 
so in Bermeton, trium granorum piperis. P. 

\\m Pro wodehyre oV. This uncommon word may perhaps mean a 
payment for wood taken to his use, though it be so small as an 
halfpenny ; so that in the north it seems to be equivalent to 
firebote, and haiebote. P. 


In the seyenteenth year of bishop Hatfield, 1361, Margaret, late 
wife of Robert de Orlyenes, held of the lord bishop in capite, one 
messuage and fifteen acres of land, with the appurtenances, in So- 
kyrton, by fealty, and paying towards the repairing of the mill- 
stones, and the sogges ^ of the lord bishop's mill at Deriington |lfl|, 
yearly, and one hen, called wodhen :|*:|; *. 

^ Del sogges molendini. The cog-wheejs,, I imagine; sogges being 
either mis-written, or mis-read, for eogges. P. 

Ill-ll Per ann. The sum or quantity of payment, by some means is 

here omitted. P. 
X*X Wodhen. See note under Midrigg, p. 359. 


In the twentieth year of the pontifi^cate of bishop Hatfield, 1364^ 
Thomas de Urpath held of the lord bishop in capite, the manor of 
Urpath, with the appurtenances, (except five Husband Lands ^, 
in the manor, and a certain assart [*] called the Riding) by homage 

* Margareta, quae fuit uxor Roberti de Or- larum, et del sogges molendini dni episcopi de 

lyenes, ten.' de dno episcopo in capite, unum Deriington per annum, et unam gallinam, 

mess.' et quindecini acras terrse, cum pertin'. voc'. Wodhen. Inquis. post mortem Margarets 

in SokyrtOD; per fid.' et reddendo repacoi mo- de Orleyenes. 17 Hatfield. 

3 B and 


and fealty, and by the service of sixty shillings at the Exchequer 
of the lord bishop at Durham, &c. ; and he was to plough and 
harrow at Chester (en le street) eight acres of the land of the said 
bishop, once a year, receiving from the said bishop meat and vic- 
tuals for the days work [-[-] aforesaid : also three days work in 
autumn, to wit, each of them with twenty-four men, and a fourth 
day's work with twelve men ; and he was to find them victuals and 
meat, to wit, for three men one loaf, such as when sixteen loaves 
were made of two bushels of corn, and one flaggon of ale, with 
three herrings, and one slice [:|.] of cheese through the middle of 
a cheese, weighing half a stone, for the days work \_-f] aforesaid ; 
also, he was to do other services to the lord bishop in the name of 
dringage, to feed a dog and a horse of the said lord bishop, and 
to be there at the great chace (hunting) of the lord bishop, with 
two greyhounds, and fifteen ropes or strings [§] at the costs of the 
said lord bishop ; and he was to carry one hogshead of wine once 
a year, within Tyne and Tees, at the will of the lord bishop, and 
to do suit to the court at Durham, &c. * 

% Terr. Husband. Five pieces of land already in tillage, the same 
as terra culta, below. P. 

* Thomas de Urpalh ten', de diio episcopo nem, iinde sexdecim panes evenientde duobus 

in capite, maner'. de Uipath, cum pertin'. bussell. fri (frumenti), et una lagena cervisie, 

(except', quinque Terr'. Husband in mauerio, cum tribus allec' (alec' vel halec'),etunamlecam 

et quodam asserto, quae vocatur le Riddyng) casei per medium unius casei ponder', dimid., 

perhom'. et fid', etper servic'.i^x s. adScacca- petr'. pro diurnis predictis; item fac'. alia 

rium dni episcopi apud Dunelm.&c. etarrabit servicia dno episcopo nomine dringagii, ad 

(arabit) et herciabit apud Cestr'- octo acr'. de pascend'. cariem et equum dicti diii episcopi, 

terr'. dicti dni episcopi una vice per annum, et ibid in magna chacea dtii episcopi, cum du- 

capiendo de dicto- dn<r episcopo- cibariaet vie- oburlep'arijs et quindeeim cordis ad sumptus 

tualia pro diurno ■ pfedicto ; itemtres preca- 'dicti diii episcopi; et cariabit unum doleum 

coes in autumpno, scilicet, unamquamq: cum vini una viceper annum, infra Tynam et Theis 

XXIV hominibus, et quartam precacdem cum pro vohintate'diii episcopi, et faciet sect', cur', 

xn hominibus; et invcniet eis'victualia et Dun'. Inquis; post mortem Tho^ de Urpath. 

cibaria, videlicet, tribus hominibus unura pa- 20 Hatfield. 

[*] Asserto. 


[*] Asserto. Morie commonly Assarto. It signifies a piece of lan4 
converted from wood land into arable, and in the north, and 
elsewhere, is commonly called a ridding. See Blount's Law 
Diet, voce Assart. P. 


[•f-] Diurno. An acre. Du Fresne in voce. Supposing every acre, 
we will imagine, to be a day's work. Vide infra in this ar- 
ticle. P. Farms in the western parts of Yorkshire are now 
commonly distinguished by so many days work, and a day 
work contains about an acre. E. 

[j] Lecam casei. A cut or slice of cheese. P. 

[§] Cordis. Funibus, i, e. chordis, vide Du Fresne, vol. ii. col. 
1067. P. 


In /the twenty-second yeai* of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 
1366, Sir William Wessyngton, knight, held the manor of Wessyng- 
ton of the lord bishop in capite, by service in the great chace 
of the lord bishop with one leash f of greyhounds, at the costs of 
the lord bishop going to the chace aforesaid ; and if he should take 
any thing with the said greyhounds going towards the said chace, 
it W9,s to remain to the use of the bishop ; and in returning at his 
own proper charge if he took any thing, it was to be for his own 
use *. 

* Willielmus Wessyngton, chiv. tenet ma- dictis' leporar'. eund'. versus dictam chaceam 

nerium de Wessyngton (de) dno episcopo in remanebit ad opus dni episcopi, et redeundo 

capite, per servic'. in magna chaceadniepiscopi sujnptibus suis proprijs s^liquid cepit, a^ opus 

per unum leste leporar'. sumptibjis diii episcopi suum proprium habebit. Inquis. post mortem 

ad chaceam predictam, et si aliquid cepit cum Willi^lnii Wessingtoti; chiy. 22 Hatfield. 

3 B 2 f Leste 


f Leste. Perhaps we should read leshe, leash, which implies three, 
it is plainly a plural, as dictis leporarijs follows. P. 


In the twenty-second year of bishop Hatfield, 1366, John de 
Bradley held of the lord bishop in capite, one messuage and 
thirty-two acres of ploughed land, with the appurtenances, in Smal- 
lies, near Wolsyngham, and twenty-eight acres of waste land, ac- 
cording to certain bounds [-f], by fealty, and the service of one 
besant [J], or two shillings *. 

[f] Divisas. Metes or bound-marks. Spelm. in voce. Thoroton 
Antiq. Nott. p. 268. Malt. Paris, p. 567. P. 

[X] Besant. The silver Besant or Bezant, so called from the city o 
Byzantium, was of the value of two shillings. See Ponthop, 
p. 284, and Kennett, Gloss, ad Paroch. Antiq. voce Bezantine. 
In Ponthop it is called Bisancum, mis-read probably for Bisan- 
tum. P. Besants were of two sorts, the gold and silver Be- 
sants. These coins are not now known, but Dunstan, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, (who came to the see in the year 959) 
as it is in the authentical deed, purchased Hendon, in Mid- 
dlesex, of King; Edffar, to Westminster, for 200 Bizantines ; of 
what value they were was utterly forgotten in the time of King 
Edward IH. for whereas the Bishop of Norwich was con- 
demned to pay a Bizantine of gold to the Abbot of St. Ed- 
mundsbury, for encroaching on his liberty In the time of the 

* Johannes de Bradley ten', de dno epis- certas divisas, per fid', et servic'. unius be- 

copo in capite, Un\ mess, et XXXII acr'.terrae santi, vel duor'. sol. Inquis. post mortem 

de terra culta, cum pertin'. in Smallies, juxta Johannis de Bradley. 22 Hatfield. 
Wolsyngham, et xxviii acr'. de vast', per 



.-■■ Conqueror, no man then living could tell how much that .was, 
so that it was referred to the King to rate how much he should 
pay, which was the more strange, considering that but a hun- 
dred years before, 200,000 Bezants were exacted by the Soldan 
. .for redeeming- St. Lewis of France, which were then valued at 
100,000 hvres. Blount's Glossographia voce Bizantine. E. As 
that transaction about Lewis was in the East, the value of the 
Bezant might, nevertheless, be unknown in England. The value 
of the silver Bezant, however, was well known, viz. two shil- 
lings. P. 


In the twenty-fifth year of bishop Hatfield, 1369, John Warde, 
of Hoton, died seised in his demesne, &c. of one messuage and 
sixty acres of land, with the appurtenances, in Hoton, which were 
held of the lord bishop in capite, by homage and fealty, in Drin- 
gage, by six bushels^ of oats, to be delivered at the manor of 
Middleham, and three bushels ^ of barley at the aforesaid manor*. 

^ Bz. Aven. Bz. Ordei. Bussellos, bushels. The word occurs above 
in Urpath, and may be found in Spelman's Glossary. P. 


In the twenty-fifth year of bishop Hatfield, 1369, Thomas d& 
Beyll was seised of two messuages and forty acres of land, held 

* Johannes Warde, de Hoton, ob'. s'. in dringag. per vi bz. aven'. ad man', de Middl^- 

dominico, &c. de uno mess, et lx acr'. terr'. ham, et in bz. ordei ad predictum man', 

cum pertin'. in Hoton, que tenentur de dno Inquis. post mortem Johamiis Warde. 25 Hslt- 

episcopO in capite, per horn', et fid', in field. 

of the lord bishop in Thynawe||l|, by the service of twenty shillings 

a year *. 

§11^ Thynagio. A rare word, which, if it has not respect to the river 
Tyne, may mean cooperagie, tina or tyna, signifying a wooden 
vessel or cask in Du Fresne ; or it may have reference to Thing, 
a part, hundred, or division of a county, for which see Spelm. 
voce Thingus and Thungrerius, and Trithinga. P. 


In the twenty-fifth year of bishop Hatfield, 1369, Thomas de 
Beyll was seised of two messuages and fifty-six acres of land, 
with the appurtenances, in Goswyck, held of the lord bishop in 
Socage ^, and by the service of eight shillings and ten-pence f. 

f Socagio. From the French Soc, a plough-share. Socage is a 
tenure of lands for some small services of husbandry to be 
performed to the lord, which services are now in general 
turned into pecuniary payments ; and all tenures by knights 
service, &c. were by the stat. 12 Gar. II. cap. 24, turned into 
free and common socage. E. 

In the thirty-sixth year of bishop Hatfield, 1380, Robert Gray, 
of Cornale, held lands and tenements in Goswyck, of the lord 
bishop in Dringage, and Sowthfar |]§(|, Biresilver J§J, Burdsilver §§§, 
Oughtrape, and Wamelade 1|[{|| J. 

* Tho. de Beyll fuit seis. (de) duo mess. episcopo in socagio, et perservic'. viijs. x (L 

et X L acr'. terr'. cum pertin'. in Lowlyn, et Inquis. post mortem Tlio. BeyTI. 25 Hatfield, 

tenentur de dno episcopo in Thynagio, per ser- % Robertas Gray, de Cornale, ten', terr*. 

vie'. XX s. per aim. Inquis. post mortem et ten', in Goswyk, que tenentur diio episcopo 

Tho. Beyll. 25 Hatfield. in Dring. et Sowthfar, feresilvir, Burdsilver, 

t Item, fuit seis. (de)ii mess.etLVi acr'. terr'. Oughtrape, et Wamelade. Inquis. post mor- 

cum pertin.' in Goswyck, et tenentur de diio tern R'oberti Gray, 56 Hatfield. 

ill Sowthfar. 


^§11 Sowthfar. It occurs not in the Glossaries, but the sound of 
the word seems to denote going on messages to the south- 
ward. P. 

J^J Biresilver. This again is not found in the Glossaries, but if hire 
be the same as to bear or carry, it may mean money paid to 
be exempt from carrying for the lord. P. 

Biresilver, it is easier to imagine, applies to money for cattle using 
a hire, than to think it refers to bear or carry ; the more so, 
as it more naturally connects with the explanation of burd silver, 
being both incurred at the fair or market. W- 

§§§ Burdsilver. This possibly may be the same as bordhalfpeny, 
which was money paid for erecting a stall in a fair or market. 
Spelman. P. And see Blount's Law Diet, in verbo. E. 

j!|]j| Oughtrape, and Wamelade. I join these two together, because 
in appearance they are correlatives, ham or home being pro- 
nounced in the north worn ; thus they may be interpreted mis- 
chief or injury done abroad and at home. Rape explains itself; 
and for lada see Du Eresne, voce Ladare. P. 

In the eighth year of the pontificate of bishop Skirlawe, 1395, 

Loretta de Butery was seised in her demesne, &c. in twenty acres 

of demesne land, and in nine husband lands ^ in the town of 

Goswyck, and they were held of the lord bishop in capite, and 

paid to him yearly at the four usual terms, by equal portions, 

twenty shillings and ten-pence halfpenny; and she used to pay 

plough silver §:f§ yearly, but at that time it was not paid, because of 

the devastation made by the Scotts *. 

f Terris. 

* Loretta de- Butery fuit seis'. in doini- dnicalis), et in novem terris husband' in vJlla 
BJco, &c. in XX acr'. terrae diiicaliu'. (potius de Goswyk, et ea (potius eae) ten'.'de dno epis- 



% Terris. Closes or fields. See above. And as to Husband, se^ 
tbere also, p. 370. P. 

§-|| Plugh silver. Money paid in lieu of ploughing the lord's land,: 
it explains itself. P. 


In the second year of the pontificate of bishop Fordham, 1382, 
John de Elvet, of Durham, held of the lord bishop in capite, four 
messuages and sixty-four acres of land> with the appurtenances, in 
Plansworth, by fealty, and the service of paying five shillings and 
four-pence to the Exchequer at Durham, at the four usual terms 
(yearly), and four hensj at the office of the master forester <([, at the 
feast of St. Martin*. 

!■" 'h 
' ■ i 

^ Offic. Mag'' Forest. At the office of the principal forester. The 
same, I apprehend, as forestarius capitalis, (Barrington's Ob- 
servations on the Statutes, p. 38,) who had his court. P. 


In the third year of bishop Fordham, 1383, R. de Gretham, of 
Sadberg, held of the lord bishop in capite, two messuages, twenty- 
six acres of land and a half, with the appurtenances, in Sadberg, 

copo in capite, et reddendo ei per ann. ad dno episcopo in capite, iin mess', sexagii^a 

quatuor term', usual', per equal'. porc5es, iiii acr'. terr'. cum pertin'. in Plansworth, 

XX ^ xd. et un'. ob'. Et solebat reddere per fid', et seryic'. reddend'. vs. et mid. 

per ann. plugh silver, sz. modo diu non red- Scaccario Dun', ad quatuor terminos usual', 

didit causa distructionis (destructionis) Scot- et quatuor gallin. offic. mag" forest, ad 

toruni. Inquis. post mortem Lorettae de festum S. Martini. Inquis. post mortem Jo- 

Buttery. 8 Skirlaw. hannis de Elvet. 2 Fordham.. 

* Johaoaes de Elvet, de Dunelm'. ten'»de 



by homage and fealty, and suit to the county court of Sadberg :|:'j~J, 
arid by keeping the gaol of Sadberg, along with the baron of Gray- 
stock, Walter Talboys, and others *. 

XfX Sect. Com. Sadberg. In West Morton, p. 348, it is called the 
Wapentake of Sadberg, but here it is expressly stiled comitatus, 
or county. This place must not be confounded with Sedburg, in 
Yorkshire, where the famous school is. Vide Camden. P. 


In the fourth year of bishop Skirlawe, 1391, John de Redworth died 
seised in his demesne, &c. of two messuages and twenty-six acres of 
land and meadow, with the appurtenances, in Redworth, held of the 
said lord bishop in capite, by homage and fealty, and the service of 
four shillings and ten-pence a year, to be paid at the Exchequer at 
Durham, and the rent of one hen and two parts of a hen ^, to be 
paid at the same Exchequer yearly at Christmas : also every '^^^ 
five acres of the said twenty-six were to find one man to work one 
day at the works of the manor of Midrigg, in autumn, yearly : and 
the said two messuages and twenty-six acres of land and meadow 
were to find a servant to mow, make %'\% or cock, and carry away |j:§, 
the hay of one acre and a half of meadow belonging to the said 
manor : and they were to grind the corn growing upon those lands^, 
at the mill of the lord of Rykenal, to the sixteenth dish §*§. f 

*^ Duarum 

* R, de Gretham, de Sitdberg, ten', de f Johannes de Redwprth ob'. seis. in do- 

diio episcopo in capite, duo mess', viginti et minico, de duob'. mess, et xxvi acr'. terr.' et 

sex acr'. terra, et dimid'. cum pertin.' in Sad- prati, cum pertin'. in Redworth, que ten', de 

berg, per hom'. et fid.' et sect', com. Sadberg, dicto dHo episcopo in capite, per homag'. et 

et custod^ gaolae Sadberg, cum barone de fid', et servic'. quatuor s'. et x den'.~,per ami. 

Graystock, Waltero Talboys, et alijs. Jn- sol', ad Scaccarium Dun', et redditus un'. gal- 

qiiis, post mortem R. de Gretham. 3 Ford- linie et duar', partium un'. gall', sol', ad eund'. 

hup. Scaccarium per ann'. ad Natale Diii t'm. et 

3 C (jualibet 

f Duarum partium unius gallinse. We are not to suppose the hen 
was divided, but having a current value set upon her, two-thirds 
of that value were to be paid. P. 

:]:*]: T'm et quelibet quinque acr'. I know not what to make of this 
abbreviation (t'm) unless it be for turn or item. P. 

§i § Levand'. See note under West Aukland, p. 366. 

§:[.§ Limit. Foeni. I cannot but think limit, is mis-read ; however, I 
can make nothing of it. P. 

§*§ Ad XVI vas. See note under Easington, p. 354. 


In the tenth year of bishop Skirlawe, 1397, William del North 
Was seised in his demesne of one messuage and three oxgangs of 
land, with the appurtenances, in Heighington, held of the lord 
bishop in capite, by knight's service,^ and the service of two shil- 
lings, annual ferm, at the four usual terms of payment in the 
bishopric of Durham, and by the service of paying two shillings 
yearly for cornage f at the times aforesaid ; and by the service of 
paying two shillings to the common aid§j.§, when it runs in the 
bishopric of Durham; and by the service of going on the embas- 
sies §§§ of the lord bishop, when there should be occasion *. 

f It 

qusellbet quinque acr'. dictar'. XXVI acr'. ter' et keiral ad xvi vas. Inquis. post mortem Jo- 

prati invenient unum hominem ad opus unius hannis de Redworth. 4 Skirlaw. 

diei ad opera manerij de Midrigg operanda * Willielmus del North seis'. fuit in domi- 

in autumpno per annum, et dicta duo mess'. nico de unum mess, et tribus bovat'. terr'. cum 

€t XXVI acr'. ter' et prati invenient unum pertin'. in Heighington, que tenentur de dco 

s'vum ad falcand'. levaud'. et cariand'. limit'. dUo episcopo in capite, per servic*. mil', et per 

fceni unius acr'- et dimid. prati pertin'. ad servic'. duor'. sol', annue firme ad quatuor 

dictum manerium, et molent bl'. super easdem term', in epatum Dun', us', et per serv'. solv'. 

terras crescent', ad molendinum dni de Ry- duos sol. ann. pro comag. ad ter'. predictos; 



f It appears from West Morton, p. 348, that cornage is the same as 
chastelwarde, and consequently means blowing a horn for sum- 
moning the guard of a castle together, in order to its defence. 
See note under Burgh on the Sands, p. 96. Camd. Brit. 
Blount's Law Diet, voce Cornage, and Du Fresne, voce Cor- 
nagium. P. 

||.§ Commune auxilium. See note under Refhop, p. 359. 

§|§ Eundi in legationibus. See note under West Aukland, p. 367. 


In the twelfth year of bishop Skirlawe, 1399, Juliana Riall, and 
William Riall, aliened, in fee-simple, without the licence of the lord 
bishop, to John Foweler, one messuage, and one piece of land 
called Spanesfeld, and another piece of land called Spermanland, 
with the appurtenances, in Wolsyngham, which were held of the 
lord bishop in capite, by foreign service ^, and by the service of 
keeping the park J*J of the lord bishop there, for forty days in 
fawnyson-tyme JJ:|:, and for forty days in rutyng-tyme |HJ|1 *. 

f Per for' serv. See note under Ponthop, p. 285. 

J*|. Pecu'. I presume p'cu', P. Perhaps it may be right as it is, 
and that the service might be to keep the bishop's sheep or 
deer at those times. E. 

et per servic'. solv". duos sol. ad coe auxilium, pec', terr'. vocatur Spanesfeld, et alium pec*, 

qti currit in epatum Dun', et per servic', terr', vocatur Spermanland, cum pertin'. ia 

<eundi in legat'. dni episcopi cum opus fuerit. Wolsyngham, que tenentur de dno episcopo in 

Inquis. post mortem Willielmi del North. 10 capite, per for', serv'. et serv'. custod. pecu'. 

Skirlaw. dni episcopi ibid, pro xl dies in fawnyson- 

* Juliana Riall, et Willielmus Riall, alienav', tyme, etpro XL dies inrutyng-tjme. Inquis. 

in feodo simplici Johanni Foweler, absque de anno. 12 Skirlaw-r 
lie', domini episeopi, unum mess.^ et unum 

3 c 2 ttt Fawnyson- 


tlX Fawnyson-tyme. See notes under Stanhope, p. 357. ' 

mill Rutyng-tyme. The month of September, when the deer couple, 
and are fierce. E. 


Of Lands held of temporal Palatines, ewercising regal 
Authority within the Kingdom, by Services of the 
nature of Grand and Petit Serjeanty, S^c. 


Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, created Nigel, or Neale, baron 
of Halton in Cheshire, constable and marshal of Chester, by con- 
dition of service to lead the vauntguard of the earFs army, when he 
should make any expedition into Wales ; so as the said baron should 
be the foremost in marching into the enemy's country, and the last 
in coming back *. 


The Earl of Chester's barons ^ were antiently bound in time of 
war with the Welch, to find for every knight's fee, one horse with 
caparison and furniture, or two without, within the divisions of 
Cheshire ; and their knights and freeholders were to have corslets 
and haubergeons 1|*11, and defend their own Fees with their own 
bodies -f. 

* Chrouicon Cestriae. Blount, lOQ. f Camd. Brit, ex antiq. MS. Blount, 23. 

f The 


f The first Earl of Chester's barons were, Nigel, baron of Halton, 
constable of Chester ; Robert, baron de Mont-hault, seneschal 
or steward of the county of Chester ; William de Malbedenge, 
baron of Malbanc ; Richard Vernon, baron of Sipbroke ; Ro- 
bert Fitz Hugh, baron of Malpas ; Haramon de Mascy ; Gilbert 
Venables, baron of Kinderton ; and N. baron of Stockport*. 

11*11 Haubergella, or hambergellus. See pp. 127, 128, 180. 


John Burden held four bovats of land in demesne in Burton, 
in the county of Nottingham, of the Honour of Tickhill, by the ser- 
vice of finding one horse and one sack when the constables of 
Chester marched in Wales in the King^s service -j^ 

John Burden, for his land in Burton, owes two suits (to the court 
of the Honour of Tickhill ;) and in the army in Wales he is to find 
one horse of the price of five shillings, and one sack and a broch 
of the price of eight-pence: and when the army shall return, he 
shall have his horse and his sack, or the price : and he is to make 
seven feet of the causey :]:|J J. 

'!l^'^^ Calcet. Calcetum. A causey. Ainsw. Diet. Law Lat. Pro- 
bably a road carried over the marshy ground adjoining to 
Tickhill Castle. E. 

* Camd. Brit, ex antiq. MS. Blount, 23., et cun^. exercitus redierit habebit eqiium suum 

f Testa de Nevil. Blount, 94. et saccutn, vel pretium. Et debet fac. septem 

;{: Johannes Burdon, pro terra in Button, ped. super Calcet. Ex vet. Rot. Feodan. 

(Burton) debet duas sectas, et in exercitu Honoris de Tickhull, penes F. F. Foljambe 

Walliae debet invenire unum equum de pretio Arm. 

vs. et unum saccum, et broch. pretii viiid. 




Thomas de Heyton, and Elias Fitz Hubert, held their lands in 
Lund and Clumber, by the same service *. 

And Adam de Hayton, and William Fitz Hubert, hold two parts 
of one carucate of land in Lunde, Clumber, Retford, and Mis- 
terton, of the Honour of Tickhill, for one horse and one sack, to 
the constable of Tickhill, when he should go into Wales, and pay 
no escuage -f-. 


Matthew de Haversegge (now called Hathersedge) for his land 
in Pore did the same service J. 


William de London holds Tinneslowe by serjeanty, and he is to 
receive a hawk at the feast of St. Michael, and to train and teach 
it (custodire) the whole winter, and to have for training it, seven- 
pence halfpenny every day, out of the lord's purse, for his service : 
and his horses were to be appraised, if they died in the same 
service, and the lord was to pay him the price §. 

* Thomas de Heyton, et Elias filius Hub. Dor. facit idem servicium. Ex Rot. praedicto. 
pro terra sua in Luud et Columb, facerint § Praeterea Willielmus de London tenet 

idem servicium. Ex Rot. praedicto. Tineslowe per serjantiam, et debet recipere 

•f Adam de Hayton, et Willielmus filius unum aucipitrem ad festum Sancti Michaelis, 
Hubert!, tenent duas partes unius caruc. et custodire ilium per totum yemem, et debet 
terrae in Lunde, Clumber, Retford, et Mis- habere pro custodia quolibet die viid. ob. 
terlon, de Honore de Tykhull, pro uno equo, de bursa domini, pro servicio suo. Et equi 
et uno sacco> constab. de Tikhull, quando ibit sui debent appretiari si moriaut. in eodem ser- 
in Wal. et nul. scutag. dant. Ex Rot. prae- vicio, debet ei reddece pro praetio. Ex Rot. 
dicto. prffidicto. 

1 Mattheus de Haversegge pro terra sua in 





WilUam Wynttworth holds his tenements in Tynneslowe, by the 
service of training and teaching a hawk (custodiendum ;) and he 
was to have every day, for his charge, seven-pence halfpenny out 
of the lord's purse *. 

And Thomas Denmaii holds the other moiety in Tynneslowe by 
the same service -j-. 


Thomas de Lettewelle holds one acre of land in Lettewelle by 
serjeanty, and he is to receive one brachet ^ at the Nativity of the 
blessed Mary^^J, and to keep it the whole winter, and to have 
every day for keeping it three-pence halfpenny. Inquire concern- 
ing the residue of this serjeanty, because it appears in the book 
of fees that eight oxgangs of land were held of the Honor of 
Tickhill, by the same service J. 

^ Brachettum. A hound dog probably. See note under Bericote, 
p. 231. E. 

f^.%% Nativitatem, Beatse Mariae. 8th September, 


Richard Scrope holds the manor of Bentley, with its members, 

*;WilIielinus Wyntworthe tenet ten. sua in recipere untim brachettum ad Nativitatem 

Tynneslowe, per servicium custodiend. unum Beatae Mariae, et custodire ilium pet totum 

aadpitrem. Et debet h'ere quolibet die pro yeniem, et debet habere quolibet die pro 

cHstag. suoviid. ob. de bursa domini. Ex cnstod. iiid. ob. Inqui. de residuo ist. ser- 

Rot. praedicto. jantife quia in libro feod. patet quod oeto bo- 

+ Thomas Denman tenet al. mediet. in vat. terrae tenent. fuer. de Honore praedicto per 

Tynneslowe, per idem servicium. servicium praedictum. Ex praedicto Rot. 

% Thomas de Lettewelle tenet unam acram I^odar. Honoris de Tickhill. 

terrae in LetteweUe, per-serjtmtiaro, «t debet 



for four knights fees, and pays yearly, at the feast of St. Thomas 
the Apostle, for castle-guard, twenty shillings ; and at the Purifica- 
tion of the Blessed Mary, six shillings and eight-pence ; and at the 
feast of Easter, for meat to the watchmen, eight-pence ; and aid to 
the sheriff, two shillings and sixpence ; and at the feast of the Nati- 
vity of St, John the Baptist, for castle-guard, tAventy shillings ; and 
at the feast of St. Michael, for meat to the watchmen, eight-pence; 
and for aid to the sheriff, two shillings and sixpence ; and does suit 
to the court from three weeks to three weeks : and the said manor 
is now in the tenure of Richard Scrope, Esq. * 

N. B. It afterwards belonged to Adam de Newmarch ; and 19 Eliz. 
1577, to Francis Wyndham, Esq. and was held by the same 
services -|^. 

The heirs of John Annesley hold one knight's fee, of the said four 
knights fees, and pay to the Casde of Tickhill, at the feast of the 
Purification of the blessed Mary, twelve-pence, and more eight- 
pence halfpenny |.. 


Maunesumus^ de liersey holds the whole town of Osberton of 
the Countess of Ewe %{%, by the service of being her steward ] and 

* Ricliardus Scrope tenet manerium de septimanis in tres seplimanas. Et praedicfum 

Bentley, cum membris, pro iiii feod. milit. manerium modo est in tenur. Richardi Scrope, 

et redd, per annum, ad festa Sancti Thomffi armig. Ex Rot. praedict. 

Apostoli, pro warda castri xxs. et Pur. Beatse f Return of a commission to enquire con- 

Mariae, vi s. viiid. et ad festum Paschae, pro cerningthe Honor of Tickhill, dated 28 June, 

cibo vigilat. viii d. et auxilium vie. ii s. vi d. 19 Elizabeth. 

Et ad festa Nat. Sancti JohannisBaptiste, pro J Et hered. Johannis Annesley tenent de 

warda castri xxs. et ad festum Sancti Mi- dictis nir feod. unum feod. et reddit Castro 

chaelis, pro cibo vigilat. vin d. et ad auxilium de TykhuU, ad festum Pur. Beatae Mariae 

vie IIS, vid. Et fact, sect. cur. de tribus xnd. et plus viiid. ob. Ex Rot. praedict. 



the. heir of Alfirton had the land, and kept it by the like ser- 

% This christian name seems to be a corruption of Onesimus. P. 

§|I§ This Countess of Ewe, whose christian name was AHce, I take 
to have been the daughter of that Earl and Countess of Ewe 
who are mentioned, p. 157, for she was living ihe 5th of King 
Edw. IV. 1465, as appears by the feodary roll of the Honor of 
Tickhill, from which these extracts are made. She held thirty- 
nine knights fees, a third part, and a fiftieth part of a knight's 
fee, in the county of Nottingham, of the Honor of Tickhill. E. 



William Clarell formerly did fealty, and acknowledged, that he 
held the manor of Adthewyk, and paid every two years towards 
keeping the Castle (of Tickhill) each year seven shillings and four- 
pence; and every third year eight shillings, and ten shilUngs io 
keep a hawk X^^ : and he said that Hugh Curson, every third 
year, paid fourteen-pence for his tenement in Athewyk -f. 

%^X Osterer. Probably mis-copied for Ostercum, a goshawk. See 
note under Peckham, p. 266. And observe, that Francis F. 
Foljambe, Esq. is now seised of a rent of four shillings and 
eight-pence, issuing out of lands at Mexbrough, the adjoining 
township, every third year, by the name of Hawk-silver. E. 

* Maunesumus de Hersy tenet totam villam wyk et reddendo singulis duob. annis ad cus- 

de Osberton, deComitissa Augy,perservicium todiam castri utroque anno viis. mid. et 

quod sit dispen. ejus, et heres de Alfirton quolibet tercio anno viiis. etxs. ad custo- 

habet terram, et defendit earn per tale ser- diam Osterer. Et dicit quod Hugo Curson 

vicium. £x Rot. predict. quolibet tercio anno sol. xiv d. pro ten. suo 

t Willielmus Clarell quondam fee. fidelit. in Athewyk. Ex Rot. predict, 
et cognovit quod tenebat manerium de Adth- 

3 D I rather 


I rather think this is a term derived from ostiarius, perhaps, in 
common language, called an osterer, or door-keeper. It is more 
natural that this should be the allusion, especially as the duty is 
connected with the keepers of the castle : but it may be a fal- 
coner. W. 

Perhaps the same as astringer, for, in Shakspeare's " All's Well 
that ends Well," act v. sc. 1, there is made to enter on the stage, 
" a gentle astringer." 

A gentle astringer is a gentleman falconer ; the word is derived 
from ostercus or austercus, a goshawk, and thus, says Cowell in 
his Law Dictionary, " we usually call a falconer, who keeps 
that kind of hawk, ap austringer." Note. Chalmers's edit, of 



The tenants of the land of Roger Bacon [*] did fealty, and 
acknowledged that they held in Mekesburgh four oxgangs of 
land, and paid every two years for keeping the Castle (of Tick- 
hill) in each year, two shillings and four-pence, and the third year 
they paid nothing ; and they came to the two great Courts [;j-] *. 

[*] Quaere, if this was not the famous fryer, Roger Bacon ? for 
there is a tradition that he was a native of this part of York- 
shire, and that his brazen head was set up in a field at Roth- 
well, near Leeds, where the editor was born. E. 

* Tenentes terrjae Rogeii Bacon fecerint ii s. ivd. et tercio anuo nichil reddunt et fa- 

fidelit. et co<rnover. quod teiient in Mekes- cerint duos adventus ad duos magn. cur. Ex 

burgh nil bovat. terrae £t reddunt singulis Kot.- predict, 
duob. annis ad custod. <;astri utroque anno 



[f] Two great courts, i. e. at Easter and Michaelmas. The courts 
leetfor this part of the Honor of Tickhill, continue to be held at 
Mexbrough twice a-year. E, 

Note. That the before-mentioned manors and lands at Burton 
Lound, Clumber, Retford, Misterton, Dore, Tinsley, Letwell, 
Bentley, Osberton, Adwick, and Mexbrough, are all held of 
the Honor of Tickhill, parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster; the 
owners of which duchy, before it was annexed to the crown, 
were palatines, and had jura regalia. E. 


Sir Philip de Somervile, knight, held the manner of Whichnour 
in com. Stafford, of the Eirle of Lancaster, then lord of the Ho- 
nour of Tutbury, by these memorable services, viz. by two small 
fees, that is to say, when other tenants pay for releef (of) one whole 
knight's fee, one hundred shillings; he the said Sir Philip shall 
pay but fifty shillings^ and when escuage is assessed througheout 
the land, or ayde for to make the eledest son of the lord knyght, or 
for to marry the eldest daughter of the lord, the sayd Sir Philip shal 
pay hot the moty of it, that other shal paye. Nevertheless the sayd 
Sir Philip shal fynde, meynteinge, and susteigne one bacon flyke, 
hanginge in his halle at Wichenore, ready arrayed all tymes of the 
yere, bott in Lent, to be given to everyche mane or womane mar- 
ried after the day and yere of their mariage be passed ; and to be 
given to everyche mane of religion, arch-bishop, prior, or other 
religious, and to everyche preest, after the year and day of their 
profession finished, or of their dignity reseyved,in forme following, 

* This was a translation in Henry the VII's Illd's tyme, and printed in Bar. AngK Part II. 
tjme, from a roll in French of Edward the fo. 106. 

3 D 2 whensoever 


whensoever that ony such before named wylle come for to enquire 
for the baconne in their owne person, or by any other for them, they 
shall come to the bayliff or to the porter of the lordship of Whiche- 
nour, and shall say to them, in the manere as ensewethe : 

*' Baylife or Porter I doo you to knowe, that I am come for my- 
" self" (or if he come for any other shewing for whome) " to 
•' demand one bacon flyke, hanging in the halle of the lord of 
*' Whichenour, after the forme thereunto belonginge." 

After which relation, the baiUff or porter shal assigne a day to 
him, upon promise by his feythe to returne, and with him to bring 
tweyne of his neighbours, and in the meyn time the said bailif 
shal take with him tweyne of the freeholders of the lordship of 
Whichenoure, and they three shal goe to the mannour of Rudlowe, 
belonging to Robert Knyghtleye, and there shal somon the foresaid 
Knyghtley, or his bayliffe, commanding hym to be ready at Whiche- 
nour the day appointed at pryme ^ of the day, with his carriagCj 
that is to say, a horse and a sadyle, a sakke and a pryke t.§'t, for to 
convey and carry the said baconne and corne a journey |1*|| owt of 
the countee of Stafford at his costages ; and then the sayd bailiffe 
shal, with the said freeholders, somon all the tenaunts of the said 
manoir to be ready at the day appoynted at Whichenour, for to doe 
and performe the services which they owe to the Baconne : and at 
the day assigned, all such as owe services to the Baconne shal be 
ready at the gatte of the manoir of Whichenour, frome the sonne 
risinge to none, attendyng and awayting for the comyng of hym 
that fetcheth the Baconne ; and when he is comyn, there shall be 
delivered to hym and his fellowys chapeletts, and to all those 
whiche shal be there, to doe their services deue to the baconne ; 
and they shall lede the seid demandant wythe tromps and tabours, 



and other manner of mynstralscye to the Hall Dore, where he shal 
fynde the lord of Whichenour or his steward redy to deliver the 
baconne in this manere. 

f Pryme of the day. At dawn. A. 

^^X Pryke. See note under Kinwaldmersh, p. 132. 

11*11 Journey, i. e. A day's journey ; journee, French, from jour, a 
day. A. 

He shall enquere of hym which demandeth the baconne, if he 
have brought tweyne of his neghbours with hym, which must 
answere, *' They be here redy :" and then the steward shall cause 
theis two neighbours to swere, yf the seid demandant be a weddyt 
man, or have be a man weddyt ; and, yf syth his marry age one 
yere and a day be passed : and if he be a freeman or villeyn. And 
if his seid neghbours make othe that he hath for hym all theis three 
poynts rehersed, then shall the baconne be take downe and broght 
to the halle dore, and shal there be layd upon one half a quarter of 
wheatte and upon one other of rye. And he that demandeth the 
baconne shal kneel upon his knee, and shall hold his right hande 
upon a booke, which booke shall be layd above the baconne dnd 
the corne, and shal make oath in this manere : 

" Here ye, Sir Philip de Somervyle, lord of Whichenour, mayn- 
" tayner and giver of this baconne, that I A. syth I wedded B. 
" my wife, and syth I had her in my kepyng and at my wylle, by 
" a yere and a daye after our marryage, I wold not have 
" chaunged for none other, farer ne fowler, richer ne powrer, ne 
♦' for none other descended of gretter lynage, slepyng ne wak- 
" ing, at noo tyme. And if the seid B. were sole and I sole, I 

" wolde 


*' wolde take her to be my wife before all the wymen of the 
*' worlde, of what condytions soevere they be, good or evyle, as 
*' helpe me God and his seyntys, and this flesh, and all fleshes." 

And his neighbours shall make oath that they trust verily he 
hath said truly : and yf it be founde by his neighbours before- 
named, that he be a freeman, there shall be delyvered to him half 
a quarter of wheatte and a cheese : and yf he be a villein, he shall 
have half a quarter of rye withoutte cheese, and then shal 
Knyghtley, the lord of Rudlowe, be called for to carry all theis 
thynges to fore rehersed : and the said corne shal be layd upon one 
horse, and the baconne above yt, and he to whome the baconne 
apperteigneth shal ascend upon his horse, and shal take the cheese 
before hym, if he have a horse, and yf he have none, the lord of 
Whichenour shall cause him to have one horse and sadyl, to such 
tyme as he be passed his lordshippe ; and soe shall they departe 
the manoyr of Whichenour with the corne and the baconne to fore 
him that hath wonne ytt with trompets, tabourets, and other 
manoir of mynstralce. And all the free tenants of Whichenour shal 
conduct him to be passed the lordship of Whichenour, and then 
shall all they retorne, except hym to whom apperteigneth to make 
the carriage and journy withoutt the countye of Staflbrd, at the 
costys of his lord of Whichenour. 

And yf the seid Robert Knyghtley doe not cause the baconne 
and corne to be conveyed as is rehersed, the lord of Whichenour 
shal do it to be carried, and shall distreigne the said Robert 
Knyghtley for his default, for one hundred shillings in his manoir 
of Rudlow, and shale kepe the distresse so takyn, irreplevis- 
able *. 

* Blount, 95. 




Moreover the sayd Sir Philippe holdeth of his lord the erle, the 
manoir of Briddeshalle hy theis services, that att such tyme that 
hys sayd lord holdeth his Chrystemes at Tuttebury, the sayd Sir 
Philippe shall come to Tuttebury upon Chrystemes evyn, and 
shall be lodged yn the town of Tuttebury, by the marshall of the 
erly's bouse, and upon Chrystemas day, he hymself, or some other 
knyght, his deputye, shal goe to the dressour, and shall sev*^e^ 
his lordy's messe, and then shal he kerve|l|| the same mett to his 
sayd lord, and this service shall he doe as vv^ell at souper as at 
dynner, and v^hen his lord hath etyn, the said Sir Phihppe shal sit 
downe in the same place their his lord satt, and shall be served at 
his table by the steward of the erly's house. And upon Seynt 
Stevyn day when he haith dyned he shal take leve of his lorde and 
shal kisse him ; and for his service he shal nothing take, ne nothing 
shall ^yve. And all theis services to fore rehersed, the sayd Sir 
Philippe hath doo by the space of xlviii years, and hys ancestors 
before hym, to his lordys, erles of Lancastre *. 

^ Sewe, Place his lord's mess upon the table. 
'1111 Kerve. Carve. 


Item, the sayd Sir Phelippe holdeth of his seid lorde the erle, 
his manoirs of Tatenhull and Drycotte, en parceneyi^ by theis 
services, that the seid Sir Phelippe, or his atturneye for hym, shal 
come to the Castle of Tuttebury upon Seynt Petyr day in August, 
which is call Lammesse, and shall shew the steward or recever 

* Blount, 100. 



that he is come thither to hunt and catch his lord^s grcese :[,§$, at 

the costages of his lord. Whereupon the steward or the recever 

shal cause a horse and sadyl to be deliveryd to the sayd Sir Phe- 

lippe, the price fifty shillings, or fifty shillings in mony, and one 

hound, and shall pay to the seid Sir Phelippe, every che day, fro the 

seid day of Seynt Petyr to Holye-rood day ||-|[|, for hymself two 

shillings sixpence a day, and everyche day for his servant and his 

bercelett[*] duryng the seid tyme, twelve-pence. And all the 

woodmasters of the foreste of Nedewode and Duffelde, with all 

the parkers and foresters, shal be commanded to awatte and attend 

upon the seid Sir PheUppe while theyr lordy's greese X^X be takyn, 

in all places of the sayd forystes, as upon theyr master duringe the 

sayd tyme. And the sayd Sir Phelippe, or his atturney, shall deUver 

to the sayd parkers or foresters that which shal belonge to their 

lordy's lardere, commanding them to convey itt to the erly's lar- 

dyner ^ abiding at Tuttebury, and with the remanant the seid Sir 

Phelippe shall do his plesoure. And upon Holye-rood day ||f I| the 

sayd Sir Phelippe shall returne to the Castle of Tuttebury, upon the 

sayd horse with his bercelett [*], and shal dyne with the steward or 

receyver ; and after dynner he shall deliver the horse, sadyle, and 

bercelett [*] to the steward or receyveour, and shal kisse the porter 

and depart*. 

%^X Greese. Wild swine. Blount, See Skinner's Etymologicon 
Generale, verbo. Grice. Porcellus. From the French, gris, 
grey. E. See p. 189. 

The common people in Scotland call swine grice at this day. W. 
yf 11 Holye-rood day. 14th September. 

* Blount, 101. 

[*] Bercelett. 


{_*] Bercelett. A hound. Blount. Quaere, if not a shepherd's cur, 
from the Norm. Fr. bercil, a sheepfold. See Kelham's Norm, 
Fr. Diet. E. See under Stanhow, p. 232. 

% Lardiner. The officer who presided over the larder. 

;>ft-;'J. i^i-l 

8v ' 


Of Lands held of Ecclesiastical Lords hy Services of th^ 
n nature of Grand and Petit Serjeanty, ^c, 


On the 13th of the calends of January, (20th December), 1279, 
the Chapter of Saint Peter of York, granted to farm to I. S. all 
their hay §:|:§ of Langwath, with the soil of the same hay, heath, 
marsh, and all other the appurtenances, rendering therefore yearly 
to them, in the buck season % one buck, and, in the doe season <f , 
one doe, &c, * 


§^§ Hay. See notes under Chesterton and Teynton, p. 242. 

% Tempus pinguidinis et tempus firmationis. Buck season and 
doe season. The former word, pinguedinis, from pinguis, fat, 
being the season when bucks were fattest, and the latter. 

* Universis, &c. Capitulum Bead Petri tempore pinguedinis, unuin damum, et fer- 

Ebor. concessisse ad firmatn J. S. totam misonae tempore unam damam, &c. dat. xiii. 

hayam nostram de Langw^ath, cutii solo ejiis- calend. Ja'nuar. anna mcglxxix. £x ipso 

dem haya, bruera, marisco^ et omnibus aliis siutogcapho, Blounf^ 17, 
jpertiaentiiS; reddendo iude annuatim nobis, 

3 E firmisionae 


firmisionse tempus, the venison reason in winter, or doe sea- 
son. See Ainsw. Diet, of Law Lat. and Mr. Pegge's Disserta- 
tion on the word Fermesoun. Blount's Law Diet. tit. Tempus 
Pinguedinis et Firmationis, &c. 


Hugh Courtenay, esq. son and heir of ^ir Hugh Courtenay, 
knight, held the manor of Slapton, in the county of Devon, of the 
bishop of Exeter, by the service of being steward at the installation 
feast of every bishop of that see. The particulars whereof were, 
after «ome controversy, thus ascertained by Walter Stapledon •f-^^-, 
then bishop of Exeter, and his dean and chapter, under their seals, 
at Newton-Ply mpton, the morrow after the feast of St. Thomas the 
Apostle, anno dom. 1308, -2 Edw. H. 

That the said Hugh, or his heirs, shall, at the first coming of the 
bishop to Exeter, meet him at the east gate of the city, when he 
descendeth from his horse, and then, going a little before him on 
the right hand, shall keep off the press of the people, and attend 
him into the choir of the cathedral church, there to be installed : 
and shall, at the installing feast, serve in the- first mess at the 
bishop's own table. 

In consideration of which service, the said Hugh Courtenay and 
his heirs shall have,, for their fee, four silver dishes of those which 
he shall so place at the first mess, four salt-sellers, one cup, wherein 
the bishop shall drink at that meal, one wine-pot, one spoon, and 
two basons, wherein the bishop shall then wash ; all which vessels 
nre to be of ^silver : provided the said Hugh, or his 'heirs, being of 
full age, do attend this service in person, if D^ot^ lyndei'ed by sick- 

ne^, 9p tbe King's writ,^c. then to appoint some worshipful knight 
to supply the place by a deputation, who shall swear that his' lord 
i«fe sjck> &c, * 

fit He came to the see in 1307, was L/ord Treasurer, and. founder 
of Exeter CJollege, Oxford. 


In the third year of King Edward I., 1275, Sir William le Baud, 
knight, made a signal grant to the dean an,d canons of St. Paul's, 
London, of a doe yearly, on the feast of the Conversion of Sts 
Paul, and of a fat buck upon the comm^emoration of the same saint, 
t© h& offered at the high altar in St. Paul's, by the said Sir William, 
smd his household family, and then to be distributed among the 
oa»ona resident; which said doe and buck were so given by him, in 
lieu af twe»ty-two acres of land, lying within the lordship of West- 
Lee, in the countyof Essex, belonging to the said canons* and by 
them graated to him and his heirs, to be inclosed within his park of 
Coringham. But, about the certain time and formality in offering 
the said buck and doe^ there growing afterwards some dispute. Sir 
Walter le Baud, knight, son and heir of the said Sir William, by 
hk deed, dated on the ides (mh) of Juljr, 30 Edw. I., 1302, for 
the health of his sou^, and of his progenitors and heirs, confirmed 
bis said father^s grant, and obliged himself and his heirs, his lands 
and tenements, that every year for ever, on the day of the Conver- 
sion of St. Paul, there should be a good fat doe, brought by one 
of his fitting servants, and not the whole family, at the hour of pro- 
cessiQUy %nd tlmough the midst thereof, and offered at the high al- 

* Antiq. of Exeter. Biount) 34i ' 

3 £ 2 tair. 


tar, without exacting any thing for the said service of the deam and 
canons. And on the day of the Commemoration of St. Paul, in 
summer, (29th June) a fat buck, by some such servant, attended 
with as many of the family as had heretofore been usual, and so 
carried through the midst of the procession, and offered at the high 
altar; the said dean and canons, after the offering thus performed, 
giving, by the hands of their chamberlain, one shilling to the persons 
bringing the buck for their entertainment. And to this grant were 
witnesses. Sir Nicholas de Wokyndon, Sir Richard de la Rokele, 
Sir Thomas de Mandevyle, Sir John de Rocheford, knights, with 
divers others*. 

The reception of which doe and buck was, till Queen Elizabeth's 
days, solemnly performed, at the steps of the choir, by the canons 
of St. Paul's, attired in their sacred vestments, and wearing gar- 
lands of flowers on their heads ; and the horns of the buck carried 
on the top of a spear in procession, round about, within the body 
of the church, with a great noise of horn-blowers, as the learned 
Camden, upon his own view of both, affirms -f-^ 


The jurors said, that Alured de Lincoln held a certain parcel of 
the park of Dunelsshe and Tyley of the abbot of Cerne, by the ser- 
vice of holding his stirrup^ when the abbot was to mount his 
horse J. 

* Dugdale's Hist, of St. Paul's. Blount, servitium tenendi stropem suum quando abbas 

10^. debet ascendere equum suum. Inquis. anno 

t Camden in Middlesex. Blount, ]0(). 48 Hen. IH. No. 19. Dorset, post mortem 

J Juratares dicunt quod Aluredus de Lin- Aluredi de Lincoln. Communicated by Thos. 

coin tenuit quandum perticulam parci de Astle, Esq. 

Dunelsshe et Tjley de abbate de Cerne, per 

f Stropem, 


f Stropem. Stirrup. See Esseby, p. 78. From the Norm. Fr. 
Strepe. This Alured de Lincoln is mentioned in Dugdale's 
Baronage, vol. ii. pp. 412, 413. 


Nicholas de Menyll held the manor of Whorlton, &c. of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, by serving the said archbishop, on the day 
of his consecration, with the cup out of which th^e archbishop was 
to drink that day *. 


About the time of King Canute the Dane, Ulph, the son of Tho- 
rold, a prince of that nation, governed in the western part of Deira,^ 
that division of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria which wasj 
bounded by the river Humber southwards, and to the north by the 
Tyne, which continued so distinguished under the Danes, but is 
now better known by the name of Yorkshire, and the five other 
northern counties of England, " This prince, by reason of a dif? - 
" ference like to happen between his eldest son and his youngest, 
" about his estate after his death, presently took this course to make 
" them equal : without delay he went to York, and taking with him 
" the horn, wherein he was wont to drink, he filled it with wine, 
" and kneeling upon his knees before the altar, bestowed uponGod 
« and the blessed St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, all his lands > 
*' and revenues -j-." The figure of which horn, in memory thereof, " 

* Nicholaus de Menyll teniiit manerium de Coupa, qua idem archiepiscopus bibere ) 

de Whorlton, &c. de archiepiscopo Cantu- debet eodem die. Escaet. 16 Edw. III. 

ariensi serviente (serviens vel serviendo. A.) No. 37. Blount, 121. 
dictum ajctiepiscopum, die consecvationis su» f Camd. Brit. tit. Yorkshire, West Riding.. 



is cut in stone upon several parts of the choir, but the born itself, 
about King Edward VI/s tune, is supposed to have been- sold to a 
goldsmith, who took away from it those tippings of gold, wherewith 
it was adorned, and the gold chain affixed thereto : it is certain that it 
was remaining among many other ornaments, and preserved in the 
Sacristy at York, in the time of King Henry VIII., some time be- 
fore the Reformation : where it, lay from the time of King Ed- 
ward YI. till it fortunately came into the hands of Thomas Lord' 
Fairfax, general of the parliament army, there is no account; but 
he being a lover of antiquities, took care to preserve, it during the 
confusions of the civil wars : and dying in 1671, it came into the 
possession of his next relation, Henry Lord Fairfax, who restored 
it again to its first repository, where it now remains a noble mo- 
nument of modern as well as ancient piety. 

As to its present condition, its beauty is not the least impaired 
by age, it being of ivory (of an eight-square ^ form) : the carving is 
very dutiable, and it is ornamented in the circumference, at the 
large]^ extremity, with the figures of two griffins, a lion, unicorn, 
dogs, and trees interspersed in bas relief, and where the plates are 
fixed, with a foliage after the taste of those times. 

Lojrd Fairfax supplied the want of the plates, which anciently 
embellished this horn, honoured in all probability with the name 
of the donor, (the loss of which original inscription can only be 
lamented, not retrieved) and substituted the present one, with the 
chain of silver gilt : 








ORNAVIT. AN. DOM. 1675*. 


ITlplius, f*rince of the Western Part of Deira, formerly gave this 

Horn, together with all his Lands and Rents : 

Being lost or taiken away, 

Henry Lord Fairfax at "length restored it to the Dean and Chapter^ 

*' newly ornamented, A. D. 1675, 


Jn the seventh year of the pontifi^jstte of Thomas HatfieM, bishop 
of IXurham, 1851, William-o'-the-Rawe held in Cornsow, of the 
Ghantery of Saint Mary of Langchester, eight acres of land^ with 
the appiirtenaiTces, rendering yearly to the same Chantry one pound 

of wax ||§|I 'f-. 

}1§|1 tJnam Libram Cere, i. e, Cerae ; wax for lights in churches, &c. 
being in great request in Popish times. So in tihe next article 
a person is to maintain a lanap in a church. P. 


Ralph Clerk held in capite, of the church of Saint Mary, in 
Qulcbp.m.9 (me. acre of meadow, with the appurteinances, in 

: mw i i — w^^ i'i "' ■ "« 

* ilfdhaeolGrgia, vol. i. p. l€B, tt sfiq. ami. eid'. Cantarise unam libram cere. InquLs^. 

t WiHielmns-tf-the^Rawe tenet in Com- post mortem Willielmi-o'-the-Rawe. 7 Hat- 
sow, de Cantaria Beatae Mariae de Langcest.' fi^ld, 
'^iii acras terrae^ cum pertia'. leddendo per 



Quicham, to find one lamp burning f in the church aforesaid every 

f Lampadem ardentem. A lamp burning. See the foregoing ar- 
ticle. P. 


In the reign of Henry III. an accord was made, by which it was 
agreed, that the Earls of Clare and Gloucester should hold Tun- 
bridge and its lowy -jf, by the grand serjeanty of being chief butlers 
and high stewards at the instalment of the metropolitans, and grant 
them wardship of their children. Whenever one of them attended 
upon the solemnity of enthronization, he was to receive, for the 
service of steward, seven robes of scarlet, thirty gallons of wine, 
fifty pounds of wax for the use of his own lights on the feast, the 
livery of hay and corn for eighty horses for two nights, and the 
dishes and salts which should be placed before the prelate at the 
first course of the feast ; and when the nobleman should take his 
leave, entertainment for three days, at the expence of the archbishop 
and his successors, at their nearest manors by the four quarters of 
Kent, wheresoever the peer should make his election, so that he 
did not go thither with more than fifty horses : and when the castle 
went into the hands of the Stafibrd family, we find that these ser- 
vices were retained : but instead of provisions, it was, in the four- 
teenth century, both to the De Clares and the Staffords, com- 

* Radus Clerk ten', in capite de ecclesia f The term is derived from the Norman 

Beatae Maris in Quicham, unamacraprati; cum French, and signifies an exempt jurisdiction 

pertiu'. in Quicham, ad inveniend'. unum lam- round the castle, chief mansion, or religious 

padem ardentem in ecclesia predicta singulis house, to which it appertained, 
diebus. Inquis. pojt mortem Radi Clerk. 
•3 Hatfield, 



JWMlrided for a sura of money, generally two hundred marks, and the' 
silver gilt c«p with which the earl should serve before the arch- 
bishop. So late as the reign of Henry Vllf., we find Edward Duke' 
of Buckingham executing in person the office of steward at the 
enthronization of archbishop Warham, and the butlership by his 
deputy. Sir Thomas Bourchier *. 

'In an account roll of the archbishops for this manor, in 
Henry III/s time, there is this word, work-gavel, which signifies 
rent-work, which was of two sorts, the one personal, by the tenant's 
person, called manu-opera ; and the other by his carriages, then 
termed carr-opera -f-. 


Some lands in the manor of Fulham, in the county of Middle- 
sex, and elsewhere, are held of the bishop of London by bord ser- 
vice §|§, and the tenants do now pay sixpence per acre, in lieu of 
finding provision for their lord's board or table %. 

%%% Borda signifies a cottage with a small parcel of land annexed, 
held by the service of finding for the lord poultry, eggs, &c. ior 
his board or table. Pennant. 


In 1413, John Shouldham was lord of this manor, and performed, 
homage to the prior, in the chapter house of the priory, on Sun- 
day before the feast of St. Simon and Jude, in these words : " Her 

* Beauties of England and Wales, vol. viii. % Blount's Law Diet. tit. bord lands. Jac. 

p, 1288. Law Diet tit. Bord Service. 

•}• Somner, 24. CompL Copyholder, 561. ^ 

3 P "I become 


" I become yoman from this tyme forth, and truth shall you bear 
" and never armd again you in land of peace, nor of werr, for lands 
" and tenements which I clemyd to hold of you by knyghtes sef- 
" vice, so help me God and holy Dom */' 


In the second year of the pontificate of John Fordham, bishop 
of Durham, 1382, John de Elvet, of Durham, held in his demesne, 
as of fee, four messuages, with the appurtenances, in Aid Elvet, 
of the prior of Durham, by fealty, and doing three suits yearly to 
the court of the said prior of his barony of Elvet [*], and paying 
into the hostillary [-|-] of the said priory five shillings a year -f-. 

[*] Elvet is a place adjoining to the city of Durham, from which it 
is parted by a bridge over the river Were. It appears by this 
record to have been a barony belonging to the priors of Dur- 
ham. E. 

[•f] Hostillar. The hostillary, or hostellary, was that apartment in a 
monastery, where hostes or strangers were received and enter- 
tained. P. 


At the same time the said John de Elvet held of the said prior ten 
messuages, with the appurtenances, in New Elvet, as of burgage <[[, 
and by doing three suits to the court of the borough of Elvet, and 

* Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. iv. p. 150. et faciend'. tres sect', per ann. ad cur', dicti 

t Johannes de Elvet, de Dunelm. ten' in pr. baroniae de Elvet, et reddendo hostillar'. 

dominico, ut de feodo, quatuor mess', cum dicti pro v s. per ann. Inquis. post mortem 

pertin'. in Aid Elvit, de pr. Dunelm. per fid'. Johannis de Elvet. 2 Fordham. 



paying to the said hostillary ye?irly, for laiMlmale]||l|, four shillings 
and two-pence*. 

f Burgage. §ee note under Durham, p. 391. 

|lj:|| Landmale. See note under Durham, p. 391. 


' This manor was anciently held of the see of Canterbury, by the 
tenure of executing the office of chamberlain to the archbishop on 
the day of his enthronization, and for which service the person thus 
officiating was entitled to all the furniture of the archbishop's 
bed-chamber -f-. 


Ralph de Berners, who died in 1297, was seised of the manor 
of Yseldon, held under the bishop of London, as of his castle 
of Stortford, by a certain quit rent, and the service of warding the 
castle %. 


In the 14th of Richard II. John Thornhull de Hargrave held six 
virgates of land here, libere, of the abbot of Sherbprn, paying at 
Candlemas, yearly, a halfpenny §. 

* Johannes de Elvet ten*, de dicto pr'. dec. f Beauties of England and Wales, vol. viiii 

mess, cum pertin'. in Novo Elvet, ut de bur- p. 1189. * 

gagio, et faciend'. tres sect', ad cur', burgi de % Esch. 25 Edvv. I. No. 29- Lysons's En- 

Elvet, et reddend'. dicto hostillar'. per ann. virons of London, vol. iii. p. 128. 
pro landmale, mis. et iid. Inquis. ,post §Sherborn Register. Hutchins's Hist, of 

mortem Johajinis.^e Elvet, 2 Fordham. Dorset, vol. ii. p. 245. 

3 F 2 RABY, 



About the 13th of Edward I. 1285, Ralph Nevill, lord of Raby, 
held Raby, with the eight adjoining townships, of Hugh de Darling- 
ton, then prior of Durham, by the yearly rent of four pounds, and a 
stag, to be offered every year in the abbey of Durham, upon St. 
Cuthbert's day, September the fourth*. 

In the twenty-third year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 
1367, Sir Ralph de Nevyll, knight, held of the prior of Durham, 
the manor of Raby, with the appurtenances, by the service of one 
stag, and one hundred shillings a year -j*. 

And in the first year of the pontificate of bishop Skirlawe, 1388, 
Sir John de Nevyll, knight, held in capite of the prior of Durham, 
the manor of Raby and Stayndrop, with the appurtenances, by the 
same services %. 


This manor was held by the family of Broughton, of the bishop 
of Lichfield's manor of Eccleshall, by the third part of a knight's 
fee, and other services ; viz. 

1st. To find fourteen men at the chace of Padmore, for three 
days, thrice every year. 

2d. To find two ploughs in winter, and as many in Lent, for two 
days each time, to plough the lord's demesne, wherever the lord 
pleases in this manor. 

* Mr. Allan's notes. Dugdale's Baronage, % Johannes de Nevyll, chiv. ten.' in capite 

tit. Neville, where there is a full account of it. de priore Dunelm. manerium de Raby et 

f Radus de Nevyll, chiv. ten.' de pr. Dunel. Stayndrop, cum pertin'. per servic'. unius 

maner'. de Raby, cum pertin'. per servic'. cervi, et c s. per annum. Inquis. post mortem 

unius cervi, et c sol. per annum. Inquis. post Johannis Nevyll, chiv. 1 Skirlaw. 

mortem Radi Nevill, chiv. 23 Hatfield. g j rp 

3d. To find fourteen men to reap in harvest, or to pay five shil- 
lings and nine-pence. 

4th. To keep ward at the Castle of Eccleshall, for the space of 
.forty days j at his own proper co^ts and charges. 



Were held by the same tenure. 


The first of August is said to be called Lammas, quasi Lamb 
Mass, because on that day the tenants that held lands of the cathe- 
dral church of York, which is dedicated to St. Peter ad Vincula, 
were bound by their tenure to bring a live lamb into the church 
at high mass on that day *. 


Among the customary services from the tenants in Blebury to 
the abbot and convent of Reading; the aforesaid abbot was to have 
of them two reap days of every carucate per annum, which are 
called beverches^, and with every plough two men each day to 
the abbot's dinner •i% 

^ Beverches are bed works, or customary services, doue at the 
bidding of the lord, by his inferior tenants. Jacob. ^> 

— , I ' ' . ' — : _. ' :— 

* Blount's Law Diet, in verho. precarias carracarum per annum, que vQcantut 
•|- Inter servitia customaria tenentium in beverches, et cum qualibet carruca duos ho- 
Blebury, de domino abbatis et conventus mines qualibet die ad prandium abbatis. Car- 
Reading. Pre^ctus abbft&habebit de eis duas tular. Radiiig, MS. f. 223, 




There is an estate in this parish, called Brindwood's, held under 
the rectory by the following singular tenure : upon every alienation 
the owner of the estate, with his wife, man servant, and maid ser- 
vant, each single on a horse, come to the parsonage, where the 
owner does his homage, and pays his relief, in the following 
manner: he blows three blasts with his horn, and carries a hawk 
on his fist, his servant has a greyhound in a slip, both for the use of 
the rector that day ; he receives a chicken for his hawk, a peck of 
oats for his horse, and a loaf of bread for his greyhound. They 
all dine ; after which the master blows three blasts with his horn, 
and they depart*. Morant says that this estate was (1768) lately 
in the possession of Daniel Haddon, of Braxted-f-. In a letter 
from the Rev. Francis Haslewood, rector of Ohingford, dated in 
November, 1721, to a friend, transmitted by Mr. Bunce, and in- 
serted in the Gentleman's Magazine :|:; he says, Mr. Haddon, the 
then owner, shewed him proofs of the existence of such a custom 
from Queen Elizabeth's time, inclusive, to his time, according to 
the subjoined form : 

*« Bee it remembred, that the three and twentith day of Octo- 
*' ber, in the yeare of our Lord, 1659, came Samuell Haddon, and 
*' Mary his wyfe, Edmond Cotster his man servant, and Matthew § 
" Walle his maide servant, to the parsonage of Chingford, at the 
" comaund of Thomas Wytham, Master of Artes, and rector of 
*' the said parsonage. The said Samuell Haddon did his homage 
*^' there, and paid his reliefe in maner and forme as hereafter fol- 

• Morant'B Hist, of Essex, vol. i. p. 57. % Gent. Mag, 1790, p. 788. 

f Ljsons'g Environs of London, vol. iv, p. 137, | Intended for Martha, I suppose. E. 

" loweth. 


*-' loweth, for one tenement at Chingford, that is called Scottes May"< 
" hewes, alias Brendwood, which was lately purchased of Daniel 
" Thelwell, Esq. First, the said Samuell did blowe three blastes 
" with a home, at the said parsonage, and afterward received of 
" the said Thomas Wytham, a chicken for his hawke, a peck of 
" oates for his horse, a loafe of bread for his greyhound, and after- 
'? ward received his dinner for himselfe, and also his wyfe, his 
*' man, and his maide. The maner of his cominge to the said par- 
" sonage was on horseback, with his hawke on his fist, and his 
*' greyhound in his slippe : and after dinner blew three blastes with 
" his home at the said parsonage, and then paid twelve-pence of 
" lawful! money of England for his relief, and so departed. All 
" these seremoneys were donne for the homage and reliefe of the 
" said tenement at Chingford-hatch, called Scottes Mayhewes, 
" alias Brendwood, as before hath been accustomed to be donne, 
*' time out of mind. 

** Witnesses to the performance of the seremoneyss aforesaid, 

" Ralphe Delle, 
" Jo. Hette, 
" John Woodward." 


It appears by an Inquisition taken at Hockynden, before the 
King's escheator, in the second year of the reign of King Edward I. 
that Isabella de Monte Alto, who had been deceased three years, 
held in gavelikende, on the day of her death, of the prior of Chiist 
Church, in Canterbury, one messuage, and forty-two acres of land, 
with the appurtenances, in Hokinden, by the service of 10s, 11 d. 
ppr annum, and by the service of ploughing, mowing, and can-ying 



the produce of certain lands of the prior to his Grange at Orping- 
ton, and other services therein mentioned; and by the making suit 
at the court of the prior there, from three weeks to three weeks *. 


Peter, son of Alulph, granted to Geoffry de Lucy, dean of St. 
Paul's -j-, his manor at Acton under the Wood, with the garden and 
grove adjoining, and twenty acres of arable land, held of the King 
by knight's service. The dean granted the said premises, together 
with five acres of land, which he had purchased of Walter de 
Actune, to the chapter, reserving £5, to be paid annually towards 
a chantry which he had founded in St. Paul's cathedral ; viz. five 
marks to a priest to pray for his soul, and the souls of the late 
bishop of London and his successors ; 20 s. yearly to celebrate his 
own obit ; and a mark to celebrate that of Philip de Fauconberg, 
archdeacon of Huntingdon. The chapter afterwards leased all 
their manor of Acton, with the mansion-house, &c. to the said 
Geoffry for his life, rendering annually a wax-light of a pound 
weight:!;; and it was ordained that it should be always held of the 
chapter by his successors in the deanery §. 


Reinald, or Reginald, abbot, by his deed, without date, but in the 
reign of Henry I. granted to Bosceline and Alfnia his wife, the land 
of Ulph, inDepedene, (now called Depedale) on this condition, that 
they should become the abbot's leige people. Sciatis me dedisse 
terram Ulf in Depedene (hodie Depedale) huic Boscehno, et uxori 

» Hasted's Hist, of Kent, vol. i, p. 142. J Cart. Antiq. No. 601 . 603. 

t From the year 1231 to 1241. § Lysons's Environs of London, vol. i. p. S. 



ej«is Alfinse, ita bene sicut homines de Brancestre ilium testificant 
verum habuisse, ek conditione q-uod effecti sunt homines lieges. 
This shews that lords of manors had ^eir lieges, who were bound 
and sworn to pay allegiance to them *. 


In the 33d Edward I. WiUiam Pasturell held twelve oxgangs of 
land in Glastonbury, of the abbot thereof, by the service of find- 
ing a cook in the kitchen of the said abbot, and a baker in the 
bakehouse -f. 


Bartholomew de Capella was lord of this manor in 1251 J. Sir 
William Paynell swore fealty f for it in 1281 §. 

^ Fealty i« the same as fidelitas in Latin ; and when a free tenant 
was to do fealty to his lord, he was to hold his right hand upon 
a book, and say thus : " Know ye this, my lord, that I will be 
" faithful and true unto you, and faith to you will bear for the 
" tenements which I claim to hold of you, and that I will law- 
" fully do to you the customs and services which I ought to do 
" at the terms assigned. So help me God and his saints."' But 
he was not to kneel nor make such humble reverence as in 
homage ; and fealty might be done before the steward of the 
court, but homage could only be done to the lord himself. 
(Litt. sect. 91, 92.) Burn. 

* Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, fol. edit. J See Records of the Dean and Chapter of 

vol. iii. p. 727. St. Paul's, Lib. B. f. 26, 8c Lib. pilos. f. 25. 

t CoUinsoa's Hist, of Somersetshire, vol. ii. § Ibid. Lib. pil. f. 17. 
p. 261, note. 

3 G The 


The value of this manor, as appears by Esch. 3 Ric. II. No. 54, 
was then £, 10 per annum ; this record speaks of it as held of the 
dean and chapter of St. Paul's by the render of a red rose on St. 
John the Baptist's day*. 


Robert de Heyle, in 1368, leased the whole of his manor of 
Chelchith, except Westbourne and Kingsholt, to the abbot and 
convent of Westminster, for the term of his own life, for which 
they were to allow him a certain house, within the convent, lately 
occupied by Sir John Molyns, for his residence, to pay him the 
sum of ^20 per annum, to provide him every day two white loaves, 
two llaggons of convent ale, and once a year a robe of esquire's 
silk f. 


The manor of Banbury was held of the bishop of Lincoln, by 
the serjeanty of one hundred and forty hens, and one thousand 
three hundred eggs %, 


By the Inquisitions of the Wakes and Keynes, 22d & 34th Edw. 
III. 20di Edw. IV. and 37th Eliz. they are said to have held this 
manor of the abbess and convent of Shaftesbury, by the service of 
being stewards of the household, to set the house in order on the 
day of the instalment of every abbess §. 

* Lysons's Environs of London, vol. iv. p. % Item, de serjantia cxl gallinae et mille et 

606, and note. ccc ova. Kennett's Paroch. Antiq. p. 354. 

f CI. 41 Edvv.III. m.16. dors. The King's § Seneschallus intrinsecus ad arraiandum 

licence for this lease is among the records of domum. Hutchins's Hist, of Dorset, vol. ii. 

the dean and chapter of Westminster. Lysons's p. 449. 

Environs of London, vol. ii. p. 74. BURY 



The offic^ of cellerer f , for the time being, of the monastery of 
St. Edmund, in the county of Suffolk, was held of the lord abbot by 
(the payment of) certain seams of oats ^*§ in the name of fodyr- 
corn-jlf, to be paid yearly at the feast of St. Martin, in winter, for 
tenements, and parcels of tenements, lying in several towns *. 

f Cellerer. See note on Thurgarton, &c. 

§*§ See Summa Avenae, note on Felstede, p. 137. 

•j-^f Foder, (poba, Sax. is alimentum,) any kind of meat for horses, 
or other cattle. In some places hay and straw mixed together 
is accounted fodder. Nee non redditus qui dicuntur hidagiura 
et foddercorn in perpetuum abbatibus (de S. Edmundo) de- 
signentur. Mon. Angl. tom. I. fol. 291, a. Blount's Law Diet 
in V- ', and see Forage. 


In Cart. 41 Hen. III. m. 5, there is extant a curious deed, printed 
in Upton de Studio Militari, 1654, wherein one Henry de Fern- 
bureg engages, for the sum of thirty marks sterling, to be always 
ready to fight as the abbot of Glastonbury's champion, in defence 
of the right which he had in the manors of Cranmore and Puckle- 
church, against the bishop of Bath and Wells; the dean of Wells, 
and all other his champions whatsoever; dat. Lond. 28 die Apr* 
42 Hen. HI. f 

.OV—l ' 

* ^ ■" norand. Quod cellerarius Mon. St. parcell'. tenementorutn in diversis villis ja- 

EdmVindi, qui pro tempore fuit tenetur di'cto centibus. Inquis. ca:pta 46 R. Edw. lU. 

domini abbati in certis summis avense nomine Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 4626. 

fodyrcorn, solvend. annuatim ad festum Sancti f CoUinson's Hist, of Somersetshire, vol. ij. 

Martini, in hyeme, pro certis tenemeutis et p, 208. 




Walter, bishop of Exeter, holds the manor of Gargawall of the 
gift of Roger de Valetor, (or Vautor) which is held of the prior of 
Bodmin in free socage, (to wit) by rendering two oxen yearly^ 



Of Lands held of Temporal Lords hy Services of the 
nature of Grand and Petit Serjeanty, S^c. 


John de la Hay took of William Barnaby, Lord of Lastres, in 
the county of Hereford, one parcel of land of the demesne lands, 
rendering therefore twenty-pence a-year, and one goose ^, fit for 
the lord's dinner, on the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, suit of 
court, and other services the'reupon due, &c. -f 

^ Unam aucam habilem pro prandio, &c. A goose fit for the lord's 
dinner on Michaelmas Day. Blount. Aucam, from the Norm. 
Fr. Ave, or the French Oie, a goose. See Kelham's Norm. Fr. 

* Walterus, episcopus Exon*. habet mane- unum parcellum terras de terris dominical ib us. 

rium de Gargawal de dono Rogeri de Valla Reddend. inde per annum xx dq et unam 

Torta, et tenet', de priore de Bodm'. in libero aucam habilem pro prandio domin.^^ festo 

socagio, scilicet, redd', duos boves per annum. Sancti Michaelis Archangeli, sectam curiae et 

Rotuli Hundredorum, vol.i. p.56. alia servitia inde debita, &c. Rot. Cur. 10 

t Johannes de la Hay cepit de Will. Edw. IV. Blount, 8. 
Barnaby, domino de Lastres in com. Heref. 



Diet. But quaere, whenee arose the custom still common in 
Yorkshire, and elsewhere, of having a goose for dinner on 
Michaelmas Day? Blount, in his Glossographia, says, that 
" in Lancashire, the husbandmen claim it as a due to have 
a goose intentos on the sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost ; 
which custom took origin from the last word of the old church- 
prayer of that day. Tua nos qusesimus, domine, gratia semper 
prseveniat et sequatur; ac bonis operibus jugiter prsestet esse 
intentos. And that the common people mistake it for a goose 
with ten toes." But besides that the sixteenth Sunday after 
Pentecost, or after Trinity rather, being moveable, and seldom 
falling upon Michaelmas Day, which is an immoveable feast, 
the service for that day could very rarely be used at Mi- 
chaelmas, there does not appear to be the most distant allu- 
sion to a goose in the words of that prayer. E. Probably no 
other reason can be given for this custom, but that Michaelmas 
Day was a great festival, and geese at that time in highest season. 
In Denmark, where the harvest is later, every family has a 
roasted goose for supper on St. Martin's Eve. Molesworth's 
Account of Denmark, p. 10. P. [*]» 
[*] There is a bird nearly as large as a goose, called an auk, the 
alca of Linnaeus, which was allowed at one time to be eaten 
in Lent. W. 


The manors of Astley, Wedington, Hill-Morton, Milverton, and 
Merston Jabet, were antiently held by Philip de Astley, of WilUara 
Earl of Waro^ick, by the service of holding the earl's stirrup, when 
he should get up, or alight from his horse *. 

* Cartular. Warwici Com. Blount, 11, 




Roger la Zouch, being lord of the manor of Tonge, in the 
county of Salop, did by a fair deed in King Henry III/s time, 
grant to Henry de Hugefort, and his heirs, certain messuages and 
lands lying in Norton and Shaw, in the parish of Tonge, with 
liberty of fishing in the waters, pawnage for hogs, and liberty to 
get nuts for certain days in the woods of the said manor, and that 
they shouhJ have every liberty and free common in woods, in plains, 
in ways, in paths, in waters, in mills, in heaths, in turbaries, in 
quarries, in fisheries, in marie pits, and in all other places and 
easements belonging to the said manor of Tonge. And that they 
might take marie at their pleasure to marie their land, rendering 
therefore yearly, to him and his heirs, one chaplet of roses, on the 
day of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, if they should be in the 
town of Tonge, and if not, then to put it upon the image of the 
blessed Mary in the church of Tonge, for all services *. 

In vol. Lxx of the Gent. Mag. p. 934, a correspondent enquires for 
the origin of the singular custom annually observed here, of 
placing a garland of flowers round the effigies of an antient 
monument to the memory of a Vernon, (see the tenure referred 
to, p. 41C). In another volume, it is said, the Fosters, the 

* Sciant, &c. quod ego Rogerus la Zouche suam marlend. reddendo inde annuatim mihi 

dedi, 8tc. Henrico de Hugefort et ha;redibus et haeredibus meis unum capellum rosarum, 

suis, &,c. et quod habeantomnem libertatem et die Nativitatis Sanct. Johannis Baptiste, si in 

liberam communiain,in boscis, in planis, in viis, villa de Tonge fuerimus, si non, ponatur 

in seniitis, in aquis, ifl molendinis, in bruariis, in super imaginem Beatse Mariae in Ecclesia de 

turbarijs, in quareriis, in piscariis, in niarleriis, Tonge, pro omnibus servitiis. Ex ipso auto- 

et in omnibus aliis locis et aisianientis ad grapho sin edat. penes Gul. Dugdale, Ann. 

praadictum manerium spectantibus. Et quod Blount, 12. Blount's Law Diet. tit. Marle- 

capiant marlam pro voluutat^ sua ad terrain riuin. 



o« owners of the said land, every year put the said ehaplet about 
the work of the statue of the man lying upon this monu- 


Certain tenants of the manor of Rodeley in the county of Glou- 
cester, do pay to this day, to the lord thereof, a rent called Prid- 
gavel ||§||, in duty and acknowledgment to him, for their liberty and 
privilege of fishing for lampreys in the river Severn -f. 

|1§11 Pridgavel. Prid for brevity, being the latter syllable of 1am- 
prid (as this fish was antiently called) and gavel, a rent or tribute. 


At this court, John Rede made fine with the lord for his teme- 
ment, by the service of eight shillings and one Bederip J§J in 
autumn J. < -b- 

'^^'l Bederip, One day's work in harvest. Blount. From bede, a 
prayer, and rip, reap, the same as what is now called a boon- 
day 's-work. E. 


William, Earl Warren, lord of this town in the time of King 
John, standing upon the castle walls, saw two bulls fighting for a 

* Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxi. pp. 715, 716. fineni cum domino pro tenemento suo ■ 

*}• Taylor's Hist, of Gavelkind, fo. 112. per servitium octo solidornm et unius Bederip 

Blount, 18. in autumno. Rot. Curiae maner. de Hildeslegh, 

I Ad istam curiam Johannes Rede fecit in com. Berks, 12 Ric. II. Blount, IQ. 



cow in the Castie Meadow, till all the butchers dogs pursued one 
of the bulls (madded with noise and multitude) clean through the 
town. This sight so pleased the earl, that he gave the Castle 
Meadows, where the bulls duel began, for a common, to the 
butchers of the town, after the first grass was mowed, on condi- 
tion that they should find a mad bull, the day six weeks before 
Christmas-Day, for the continuance of that sport for ever *. 

It is very observable, that here they have the custom, which 
Littleton, the famous common-lawyer, calls Borough-English, i. e. 
the younger sons inherit what lands or tenements their fathers die 
possessed of, Avithin this manor -f-. 


This town was formerly inhabited by a family of that name, from 
whom, by the Ludlowes, it came by inheritance to the Vernons. It 
was antiently held of the honor of Montgomery, by the service of 
being seneschall, or steward of the same honor J. 


Sir Thomas Colevyle, knight, holds the manor of Cuckwold, in 
the county of York, of Thomas, late Lord of Mowbray, as of his 
manor of Threke, (Thirske) rendering one target or shield ^, 
with the arms of the said lord painted thereon, yearly, at Whitsun- 
tide §. 

* Butcher's Survey of Stamford, p. 40. domiuo de Mowbray, ut de manerio suo de 

Blount, 19. Threke, reddendo unum terguoi, sive scutum, 

f Camd. Brit. tit. Lincolnshire. cum armis dicti domiiii depictis, annuatim, die 

± Inquis. 10 Edw. II. Blount, 23. Pentecostes. Escaet. 6 Hen. IV". nu. 43. 

I Thomas Colevyle, miles, tenet manerium Blount, 92. 
de Cukwold, in com. Ebor. de Thoma nuper 



^ The target*, or buckler -j-, was carried by the heavy armed foot; it 
answered to the scutum pf the Romans ; its form was sometimes 
that of a rectangular parallelogram, but more commonly had 
its bottom rounded off ; it was generally convex, being curved 
in its breadth. Targets were mostly made of wood, covered 
with many folds of bull's hide or jacked leather J, and occa- 
sionally with plates of brass or iron; the extremities were 
always bound with metal, and frequently, from the centre of 
the front, projected a boss or umbo armed with a spike. On the 
inside were two handles. Men of family usually had their 
armorial bearings painted on their targets. After the invention of 
fire-arms, instead of the spike the centre of some targets were 
armed with one or more small gun-barrels, a grate or aperture 
being left in the target for the convenience of taking aim ; 
several of these are mentioned in Mr. Brander's manuscript §; 
one is still shewn in the Spanish armory, in the Tower of 

The shields or targets were of different sizes ; those of the antients 
were so large as to cover almost the whole body, so that when a 
centinel had set the case of his shield on the ground ||, he could 
rest his head on the upper margin. They were also large 

* From tergum, a hide. playne without gonnes, 7 ; targett with xx 

•f- Junius derives the word Buclerj from the litle gonnes ; oone target w. four gonnes ; 

German Beucheler, or Bocken-leer, i. e. the oone, a long tergett w. oone gonne ; oone, a 

slcin of a goat. target of the shell of a tortys ; oone, in the 

J By the laws of Ethelstan, any shield- Tower, 
maker covering a shield with sheep skins, for- || An iron spike was fixed to the bottom of 

feited thirty shillings; a prodigious fine in the antient shields, for the purpose of fixing 

those days. See the Saxon laws. them in the ground ; these spikes were also 

§ Targetts steilde w. gonnes, 35 ; targetts useful in battle. 

3 H enough 


enough to convey the dead, or those dangerously wounded, 
from the field, as is evident from the well-known exhortation of 
the Lacedemonian women to their sons and husbands, " Bring 
this back, or come back upon it;" a circumstance that also 
marks the ignominy attending the loss of a shield. This was 
common to all nations; and at the close of the fourteenth 
century, a knight, yvho had lost his shield, was said to want his 
coat armour, and could not sit at the table with the other 
knights until he had, by some honourable exploit, or feat of arms 
against the enemy, obliterated that disgrace ; if, before this 
was achieved, he should attempt to place himself among them, 
it was the duty of the herald to tear his mantle ; an example of 
this is mentioned in the note below *. Grose's MiUt. Antiq. vol. 
ii. pp. 255, 256, where see a figure of a curious shield, plate 
XLVIII. fig. 2- 


Ralph de Belvoir holds two carucates of land in Michelham, of 
Roger de Mowbray, rendering yearly certain hose of scarlet at 
Christmas, for all services -j^ 


The rights that belonged to Robert fitz Water, chastilian and 
banner-bearer of London, lord of Wodeham, were these : 

* Hujusque ritus prseclarum habetur ex- mensae Regis carens insiguie armorum, in- 

emplum apud Willelmum Hedam in Fredrico nuentem insignia ipsius Willelmi apud Frisos 

episcopo Ultrajectensi, sub. ann. 1395; orientales amissa. Du Cange. 
quippe narrat comiti Ostrevandia; Willelmo, f Radulfus de Belvoir tenet dyas carucatas 

mensa; Regis Francorum assidenti cum aliis terra; in Michleham, de Rogero de Mowbray, 

principibus, fecialem quern Heraldam vocant, reddendo annuatim quasdam caligas de scar- 

lacerasse mantile sibi autepositum, objici- leto at Natale domini, pro omnibus servitiis. 

eiitem indignum fore quod aliquis interesset Ex Carta antiqua. Blount, 121. 



The said Robert and his heirs ought to be and are chief ban- 
ners of London, in fee for the chastiliary, which he and his an- 
cestors had by Castle Baynard, in the said city. In time of war 
the said Robert and his heirs ought tp serve the city in manner 
as followeth ; that k, 

The said Robert ought to come, he being the twentieth man of 
arms on horseback, covered with cloth or armour, unto the great 
west door of St. Paul, with his banner displayed before him of his 
arms. And when he is come to the said door, mounted and appa- 
relled, as before is said, the mayor, with his aldermen and sheriffs, 
armed in their arms, shall come out of the said church of St. 
Paul unto the said door, with a banner in his hand, all on foot ; 
which banner shall be gules, the image of St. Paul, gold ; the face, 
hands, feet, and sword, of silver ; and as soon as the said Robert 
shall see the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs come on foot out of 
the church, armed with such a banner, he shall alight from his 
horse, and salute the mayor, and say to him, " sir mayor, I ana 
come to do my service which I owe to the city." 

And the mayor and aldermen shall answer, 

« We give to you, as to our banneret of fee in this city, the 
banner of this city to bear and govern, to the honour and profit of 
this city, to your power." 

, And the said Robert and his heirs shall receive the banner in his 
hands, and go on foot out of the gate, with the banner in hi§f 
hands ; and the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs shall follow to the 
door, and shall bring an horse to the said Robert, worth twenty 

3 H 2 pounds ; 


pounds ; which horse shall be saddled with a saddle of the arms 
of the said Robert, and shall be covered with sindals l|f [j of the 
said arms. 

Also they shall present to him twenty pounds sterling, and deliver 
it to the chamberlain of the said Robert, for his expences that day. 
Then the said Robert shall mount upon the horse which the mayor 
presented to him, with the banner in his hand ; and, as soon as 
he is up, he shall say to the mayor, that he must cause a marshal 
to be chosen for the host, one of the city ; which being done, the 
said Robert shall command the mayor and burgesses of the city 
to warn the commons to assemble, and all go under the banner of 
St. Paul ; and the said Robert shall bear it himself to Aldgate, and 
there the said Robert and mayor shall deliver the said banner of 
St. Paul to whom they think proper. And if they are to go out of 
the city, then the said Robert ought to choose two out of every 
ward, the most sage persons, to look to the keeping of the city 
after they are gone out. And this counsel shall be taken in the 
priory of the Trinity near Aldgate. And before every town or 
castle which the host of London shall besiege, if the siege con- 
tinue a whole year, the said Robert shall have for every siege, 
of the commonalty of London, one hundred shillings, and no 

These were the rights that Robert fitz Water had in time of war: 
the rights that belonged to him and his heirs in the city of London, 
in time of peace, were as follow : 

That is to say, the said Robert fitz Water had a soke f or ward 



m the city,' where was a wall of the canonry of St. Paul, which led 
down by a brewhouse §§ of St. Paul to the Thames, and so to the 
side of the mill which was in the water coming down from Fleet- 
bridge, and went by London-wall betwixt the Friars preachers and 
Ludgate, and so returned by the house of the said friars to the said 
wall of the canonry of St. Paul; that is, all the parish of St. An- 
drew, which was in the gift of his ancestors by the said seniority ; 
and so the said Robert had appendant unto the said soke, all the 
things under-written. 

That he ought to have a sokeman, and to place what sokeman he 
will, so he be of the sokemanry, or the same ward : and if any of 
the sokemanry be impleaded in the Guildhall of any thing that 
toucheth not the body of the mayor that for the time is, or that 
toucheth the body of no sheriiff, it is not lawful for the sokeman 
of the sokemanry of the said Robert fitz Water to demand a cOurt 
of the said Robert ; and the mayor and his citizens of London 
ought to grant him to have a court; and in his court he ought 
to bring his judgments, as it is assented and agreed upon in the 
Guildhall, that shall be given him. 

If any therefore be taken in this sokemanry, he ought to have his 
stocks and imprisonment in his soken ; and he shall be brought from 
thence to the Guildhall before the mayor, and there they shall pro- 
vide him his judgment that ought to be given of him ; but his judg- 
ment shall not be published till he come into the court of the said 
Robert, and in his liberty. 

And the judgment shall be such, that if he have deserved death 
by treason, he to be tied to a post in the Thames at a good 



wharf, where boats are fastened, two ebbings and two flowings of 
the water. 

And if he be condemned for a common thief :J:J, he ought to be 
led to the elms [j.], and there suffer his judgment as other thieves. 
And so the said Robert and his heirs hath honour, that he holdeth 
a great franchise within the city, that the mayor of the city and 
citizens are bound to do him of right ; that is to say, that when the 
mayor will hold a great council, he ought to call the said Robert 
and his heirs to be with him in council of the city ; and the said 
Robert ought to be sworn to be of council with the city against all 
people, saving the King and his heirs. And when the said Robert 
coraeth to the hustings of the Guildhall of the city, the mayor, or 
his lieutenant, ought to rise against him, and set him down near 
unto him ; and, so long as he is in the Guildhall, all the judgments 
ought to be given by his mouth, according to the record of the 
recorders of the said Guildhall : and so many waifes as come so 
lonor as he is there, he ouffht to give them to the bailiffs of the 

O ■'DO 

town, or to whom he will, by the council of the mayor of this city*. 

N. B. The 

* Servitia et libertates Roberti fitz Walter, son destrer covert, montant soi vintisme de» 

de Castro Baynardi, in London. Ces sont hommeSj as armes, as chevaulx coverts de 

les droiets que appendent a Robert fitz Wauter teyle ou de fer tanq ; al graund hiiis de mynstre 

Chastellein de Loundres, Seigneur de Wode- de S. Pol, ove sa banere desploye devant luy, 

ham, en la eitee de Loundres : cestascavoir de ses armes. Et quant il est venuz a grand 

que le dit Robert et ces heirs deivent estre et huis du mynstier avantdit. mountez et appa- 

sont chief banoyers de Londres, de fee^ pour raillez, sicome il est avantdit, si doit le mair 

la dicte chastelrie, queces, auncestres et luy de Loundres venir, ove touz ses viscountz et 

ont du Chastel Baynard en la dicte citee. En ses audermans, armes de leur armes hors du 

temps de guerre doit le diet Robert et ces mynstier de S. Pol, taunq ; au dit huis, ove 

heirs servir la ville en la manere de souz son banere en sa main, tout a pee : et serra 

escript. Que le diet Robert doit venir sus la banere vermaile ove un ymage de S. Pol, 



^. B. The castle, called Baynard's Castle, was built by Baynard, 
a noble Norman, who came in with the Conqueror, and died 


d'or, ove les piez et ies mains, et la teste 
^'argent, od im espeie d'argent en la main le 
diet ymage. Et si tost come le diet Robert 
vena, le meire, et ses vicoHHts, et ses auder- 
mans venir au pee faors del dit mynstre ormez 
pve cete banere; si descendera le dit Robert 
ou ces 4ieii:s, que ceo servise deivent a la dite 
citee de son chival, et saluera le meire come 
son compaignon et son pier, ct lay dirra. 
Sire mair«, ico su veirar pour faire mon ser- 
vice que jeo dei a la cittee. Et le maire, les 
viscounts, ct les audermans divront: nous 
vous baiUons ici come a nostre ban^ de fee, 
de ceste ville, ceste banere de ceste ville a 
porter et governer al honour et a profit de 
nostre citee a vostre poer. Et le dit Robert 
«t ses heirs resceveront ia banere en sa main. 
Et la maire de la dicte citee et les viscounts 
le suiveront al huis, et menercont tm chival 
an dit Robert pris de ^xx. Et serra le chival 
enselle d'un selle d'armes iedit Robert et co- 
vert de cendal de mesme les armes ^ et pren- 
dront £xx d'esterling, et les baudront al 
chamberleyn le dit Robert pour ses depensees 
de eel jour. Et le dit Robert montera le 
cheval, qui le diet maire li ad presente, ouve 
tute le banere en sa main. Et si toste come 
il est monlee, il. dirra au maire q'il face eslier 
un mareschal maintenant, de ost de la citee 
de Londres. Et si tost come le mareschal 
est esleuz, le dit Robert serra commander au 
maire et a ses burgeis de la ville que facent 
soner le sein communal de la dit citee; et 
irront tute le commune suiz la banere S, Pol, 
mesmes seli Robert postera en sa main de- 
mesme tanque a Algate enavansa porter a qui 
le dit Robert et le maire se assentent. Si 

issint soit q'il deivent issue fuire hors de la 
ville si doit donques le dit Robert, de che- 
chune garde de la ville, esiier deux des plus 
sages pour pourveier, coment la ville poet 
mielux estre garde derere eux. Et ceo coun- 
sel serra pris en la priorie de la Trinite, id est 
juxta Aldgate, Et devant chcscun ville on 
chastel que I'ost de Loundres assege sil de- 
morast un an entour le siege, si deit le dit 
Robert avoir pqur chescun siege de la com- 
mune de Ijoandres cent seuz pour son travail, 
et nient plus. Ces sont les drocctures que le 
diet Robert avera en Loundres en temps de 

Ces sont les droectures q'appendent a Ro- 
bert le fitz Walter, et a ces heirs en Loundres, 
en temps de pees. Cestascavoir, que le diet 
Robert ad un sokne et le citee de Loundres ; 
cestascavoir du mure de la chanoniare de S. 
Pol, si come home va aval la rue devant le 
bracine de S. Pol, tanque a Thamise ; et issent 
tanque a cost llu molin q'est en I'eaw queVint 
avale del pount de Flete, et vu issi sus par les 
murs de Loundres tout entour les freres pre- 
chours, tanque a Ludgate : et issint retourne 
jus arere par le meisan de ses ditz freres, tanq. 
a la dit cornere de mure de la dite chanoinerie 
de S. Pol, cestascavoir tout la paroche del 
esglise de S. Andrew, q' est en le donesein de 
ces auncestres par la dit seigneurie. Si ad le 
dit Robert appendant a cele sokne, toutz 
cestes choses desus escritts; q'il doit avoir 
sokman^ et mettre qui q'il voudra sokman mel 
q'il soit de la sokmanrie. Et si nul de la 
sokmanrie soit implede en la gihalle de nul 
chose, que ne touche le corps le meire, qui 
que soit pour le temps ; ou qui touch le coi ps 



in the reign of William Rufus : he was succeeded by Greoffry 
Baynard, and he by William Baynard, in the year 1111, who 
forfeited his estate for felony ; on which King Henry I. gave it 
to Robert, son of Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of 
Pembroke, and his heirs. This Robert died in 1134, and was 
succeeded by Walter, his son, who died in the year 1198, and 
was succeeded by his son, Robert fitz Walter, a valiant knight, 
whose daughter Matilda King John was passionately fond of, 
but she, refusing his addresses, was poisoned, and her father 
banished, but afterwards restored to the King's favour. This 
Robert died in 1234, and was succeeded by Walter, his son, 
and he by Robert, his son, who in the year 1303, before John 
Blondon or Blount, mayor of London, acknowledged his ser- 
vice to the city, and sware upon the Evangelists, that he would 

de nul viscounte de la dicte ville, list a soknian 
de sokmaneri le dit Robert le fitz Water, a 
demauader la court le dit Robert fitz Waulter. 
Et le iiieire et le citizens de Louiidres le dei- 
vent gramiter d'aver sa court ; et en sa court 
doit son juggement perter ainsi come il est 
assentu en la guihalle que done li serra. Si 
nul laron soit pris en san sokne, il doit aver 
son cep, et son prisonment en son sokne ; et 
serra illucq. menez tanq. a la gilialle devant le 
meire, et la paurveiront son juggement qui le 
deit ester donee mes son juggement ne serra 
mie puplic tanq. il veigne en court le dit Ro- 
bert, et en sa franchise. Et serra la jugge- 
ment tiel s'il ad tnort deservi pur traison, q'il 
soit lie au piler que estret en Tliamaise al 
wode warfe, la ou home attache les niefes, 
deux montes et deux recreces del eawe. Et 
s'il soit dampne pur common larcin, il deit 
estr* menee as homeaus (id est helmes) et 
sufi'rir la son juggement come autres communs 
iarouns. Et si ad le dit Robert et ses heires 

an grand honeur, q'il tient a un grant fran- 
chise en la dit citee : que le maire de la citee 
et les citizens de mesme la ville, li deivent 
faire de droit ; cestascavoir, que quant le 
maire voet tenir un grand conseil, il doit 
appeller le dit Robert ou ses heires, per 
estre a son conseil, et a conseil de la 
ville. Et deit le dit Robert estre jurez du 
counseil de ville countra toutz gentz, save le 
Roy d'Engleterre et ses heires. Et quant le 
dit Robert vint a hustings en la gihalle de la 
citee, si deit le meire, ou son lieutenant lever 
countre li, et le mette pres de luy. Et taunt 
come il est en la dite gihalle si deivent tous 
les juggements oste donez par my sa bouche 
sclone le record des recordours de la gihalle. 
Et totz les weyfes qui veignot tanque il y soit, 
il les doit doner as bailiffs de la ville ou a qui 
il voudra per le counseil le maire de la dite 
citee. Ex antiq. MS. penes Gul. Dugdale, 
Mil. Blount, 112. 



be true to the liberties thereof, «&c. Stowe's Survey of London, 
p. 56, edit. 1633. This Robert, who died in the year 1305, is 
the same Robert above-mentioned. E. 

ilfll Sindal. From the Italian zendalo, very thin silk. Skinner's 
Etym. Gen. E. A foot-cloth, sumpter-cloth, or housing. A, 
See Archaeolog. vol. v. p. 214. E. 

f Soke, Sokeman, Sokemanry. Soke, or soc, signifies a franchise 
or liberty, to which a court for the administration of justice was 
incidentally annexed. Sokeman was a person who held land by 
socage tenure, and was a suitor of such court ; and sokemanry 
seems to mean the district of the soke. See Blackstone's Com- 
ment, lib. ii. cap. 6. Blount's Law Diet. sub. voc. Soc. &c. 

§§ Bracine. A brewhouse. Blount. From the Latin bracina. E. 

XX Larcin. A thief. From the French, larcin, theft, robbery. E. 

£J] Elms. These elms stood near Smithfield, and were the place of 
execution before Tyburn had that office. Blount. 


Adam de Dyleu holds in Dilew, in the county of Hereford, two 

yard-lands and a half, rendering therefore yearly to William Fitz 

Warin three shillings in silver, and finding in the time of war, for 

the said William, every year for fifteen days, one man with a horse 

and a prick<([, one iron helmet §|.§, and one lance, at the cost of the 

said William : and if his horse should die or be killed in the service 

of the aforesaid William, the said William was to give him twenty 

shillings for that horse *. 

f Compuncto. 

* Adam de Dyleu tenet in Dylew, in reddendo inde annuatim Willielmo Filio 
com. Heref. duas virgatas et dimid. terree, Warini tres solidos argenti, et invehiendo 

3 I tempore 


f Cumpuncto. See notes under Kinwaldmersh, p. 132. This has 
nothing to do with a prick, but means a wambais, lorica ; for I 
take compunctum to be the same as perpunctum. P. 

^-|.§ Capello ferreo. A scull cap or helmet, vide pp. 92, 95, and 
297. Called capella, p. 122, and capellum, p. 152; and see 
Watts's notes to M. Paris, p. 53. P. 


This is the agreement made at Leycester, on the day of St. 
Vincent the martyr (22d January), in the thirty-first year of 
the reign of King Henry (III.) son of King John (1246), before 
Sir Roger de Turkilby, Master Simon de Walton, Sir Gilbert de 
Preston, and Sir John de Cobham, justices in eyre there, between 
Roger de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, and Roger de Somery, 
that is to say, that the aforesaid Roger de Somery hath granted 
for him and his heirs, that the aforesaid earl and his heirs may 
have and hold his park of Bradgate, so inclosed as it was on the 
octaves of St. Hilary (20th January), in the thirty-first year of the 
aforesaid King Henry, with the deer leaps f then made in the same. 
And for this agreement and grant, the said earl hath granted for 
him and his heirs, that the same Roger de Somery and his heirs 
may come at any hour into the forest of the said earl to hunt§-f-§ in 
it with nine bows, and six hounds X^X, according to the form of the 
indenture before made between the aforesaid Roger, Earl of Win- 
chester, and Hugh D'Albeny, Earl of Arundel, in the court of our 

tempore guerrae dicto Willielmo singulis an- lielmi. Et si equus ejus moreretur vel esset 

nis, per quindecira dies unum hominem cum interfectus in servitio praedicti Willielmi, idem 

uno equo, et uno compuncto, et uno capello Willielmus daret ei xx s. pro equo ipso, 

ferreo, ut ima lancea, ad custum dicti Wil- Carta 34 £dw. III. Blount; 125. 



lord the king at Leycester: and, if any wild beast, wounded 
by any of the aforesaid bows, shall enter the said park by 
any deer leap^, or elsewhere, it shall be lawful to the afore- 
said Roger de Somery and his heirs, to send one or two of his 
men, who followed the aforesaid wild beast, with the dogs fol- 
lowing the same, within the aforesaid park, without bow and 
arrows, and they may take the same that day on which it was 
wounded, without hurting the other wild beasts in the aforesaid 
park : so that, if they are footmen, they enter by any leap % or 
hay mil ; and if they are horsemen, they enter by the gate, if it shall 
be open, and otherwise, they are not to enter before they have 
sounded a horn for the parker, if he will come. And moreover, 
the said earl hath granted for him and his heirs, that they for the 
future, every year, will cause to be taken two bucks in the buck 
season [*], and two does in the doe season [*], and cause them to 
be delivered at the gate of the aforesaid park, to any man of the 
aforesaid Roger de Somery and his heirs, bringing their letters pa- 
tent for the said deer. Also the aforesaid earl hath granted for him 
and his heirs, that they, for the future, will make no park, nor 
enlarge the park, within the bounds of the hunting ground [-f] of 
the said Roger and his heirs, except the ancient inclosure of the 
aforesaid forest. And the aforesaid Roger de Somery hath granted 
for him and his heirs, that they in future will never enter the afore- 
said forest to hunt §f§, but with nine bows and six hounds t^X, and 
that his foresters shall not carry in the wood of the aforesaid Roger 
de Somery and his heirs, any barbed, but piled arrows -j^f. And 
that his men of Barwe, and his foresters, shall, within the octaves of 
St. Michael, at the ford of the park, make oath (fidelitatem facient) to 
the bailiffs of the aforesaid earl and his heirs, that they will faith- 
fully keep the venison of the aforesaid earl and his heirs, and the 

3 I 2 other 


other things which belong to the said forest, according to the pur- 
port of the said indenture before made, between the said Earls of 
Winchester and Arundel. And this ao-reement was made between 
the aforesaid earl and the aforesaid Roger de Somery, saving to the 
same earl and his heirs, and to the aforesaid Roger de Somery and 
his heirs, all the articles contained in the aforesaid indenture, made 
between the aforesaid Earls of Winchester and Arundel. And 
moreover, the same earl hath granted for him and his heirs, that 
one or two of the men of the said Roger de Somery and his heirs, 
who shall follow the aforesaid wounded wild beast, and the dogs 
which follow it, into the aforesaid park, together with the said wild 
beast, if they take it, and if not, with the said dogs shall freely go 
out of the said park, through the gate, and without hindrance. And 
the aforesaid earl and his heirs shall cause it to be made known by 
some of his people, to the aforesaid Roger de Somery and his heirs 
at Barwe, on what day he shall send for the abovesaid deer, at the 
aforesaid place, on the times aforesaid ; and this shall be made 
known six days before the afoi'esaid day. In witness whereof either 
party to the other hath fixed his seal to this writing. And be 
it known that the buck season here is computed between the 
feast of St. Peter ad Vincula (1st August) and the Exaltation of the 
Holy Cross (14th September), and the doe season, between the 
feast of St. Martin (11th November) and the Purification of the blessed 
Mary (2d February) *. 

^ Saltatoriis, 

* Haec est concordia facta apud Leyces- Domino Johanne de Cobham, justiciariis 
triam die Sancti Vincentii maitjris, anno legni tunc ibidem itinerantibus ; inter Rogerum de 
EegisHenricifilii Regis Johannis XXXI. coram Quincy comitem Wintonias, et Rogerum 
Domino RogerodeTurkilby, Magistro Simone Somery. viz. quod prasdictusRogerusde Somery 
de Walton, Domino Gilberto de Preston, et concessit pro se et haeredibus suis, quod prae- 



^ Saltatoriis, Saltatorium. Deer leaps. Blount. 

If^ Ad bersandum. To chace. Blount. Or shoot. Gloss, ad M. 
Paris. P. 

M Sex 

dictiis comes et heredes sui habeant et teneant 
parcum suum de Bradgate, ita inclausum si- 
cut inclusus fuit in octabis Sancti Hilarii, anno 
praedicti Regis Henrici xxxi. cum saltatoriis 
tunc in eo factis. Et pro hac concordia et 
concessione idem comes concessit pro se et 
haeredibus suis quod idem Rogerus de Somery, 
et haeredes sui quacunque bora veniant in fo- 
resta ipsius comitis ad bersandum in ea cum 
novem arcubus, et sex berseletis, secundum 
formam cyrographi prius facti, inter praedic- 
tum Rogerum comitem Wintoniae, etHugonem 
de Albaniaco comitem Arundeliae, in curia 
domini Regis apud Leycestriam : et si aliqua 
fera, per aliquem praedictorum arcuum vul- 
nerata, intraverit prsedictum parcum per ali- 
quem saltatorium, vel alibi, bene licebit prae- 
dicto Rogero de Somery et hseredibus suis 
mittere unum hominem vel duos ex suis, qui 
sequentur prsedictam feram, cum canibus 
illam feram sequentibus, infra prsedictum 
parcum, sine arcu et sagiltis, et illam capiant 
eo die quo vulnerata fuerit, sine laesione aliarum 
ferarum in praedicto parco existeniium : ita, 
quod si sint pedites intrabunt per aliquem salta- 
torium vel hayam, et si sunt equites intrabunt 
per portam, si aperta fuerit, et aliter non intrar 
bunt, antequam cornabunt pro parcario, si venire 
voluerit. Et praeterea idem comes concessit pro 
se et haeredibus suis, quod ipsidecaeteroquolibet 
anno capi facient, duos damos tempore pin- 
guedinis, et duas damas tempore firmationis, 
et eas liberari facient ad portam praedicti 
parci alicui hominum praedicti Rogeri de 
Somery et haeredum suorum, literas patentes 

ipsorum deferent! pro praedictis damis. Con- 
cessit etiam praedictus comes pro se et haere- 
dibus suis, quod ipsi de caetero nullum parcum 
facient, nee parcum augmentabunt infra metas 
bersationis predicti Rogeri et haeredum suo- 
rum, praeter antiqua clausa praedictas forestas. 
Et prxdictus Rogerus de Somery concessit 
pro se et haeredibus suis, quod ipsi de caetero 
nunquam intrabunt praedictam forestam ad 
bersandum, nisi cum novem arcubus, et sex 
berseletis, et quod forestarii sui non porta- 
bunt in bosco praedicti Rogeri de Someiy et 
haeredum suorum sagittas barbatas set (sed) 
pilettas, et quod homines sui de Barwe, et 
forestarii, infra octabis Sancti Michaelis, ad 
vadum parci fidelitatem facient, quolibet annc^ 
ball vis praedicti comitis et heeredum suorum, 
quod venationem praedicti comitis et haeredum 
suorum fervabant fideliter, et alia quae . ad 
dictam forestam pertinent, secundum propor- 
tum dicti cyrographi inter praedictos comiteS 
Wintoniae et Arundeliae, prius confecti. Et hsec 
concordia facia est inter praedictum comitem, 
et praedictum Rogerum de Somery salvis eidem 
comiti et haeredibus suis, et praedicto Rogero 
de Somery, et haeredibus suis, omnibus arti- 
culis in preedicto cyrographo confecto, inter 
praedictos comites Wintonise et Arundeliae con- 
tentis. Et praeterea idem comes concessit pro 
se et haeredibus suis, quod unus vel duo homi-r 
num praedicti Rogeri de Somery et haeredum 
suorum, qui sequentur praedictam feram vul- 
neratam cum canibus earn sequentibus infra 
praedictum parcum, cum praedicta fera si earn 
ceperiut, vel aon, cum praedictis canibus, prae- 


X^X Sex berseletes. Six hounds. Blount. See note under Taten- 
huU and Drycot, p. 393. 

\\%\ Hayam. Haia, a Sax. hseg. A quickset hedge. Ainsworth's 
Diet, of Law Lat. and see notes under Chesterton and Teynton, 
p. 242. 

[*] Tempus pinguedinis et tenipus firmationis. Buck season and 
doe season. See p. 393. 

[•f] Metas bersationis. See Bersandum, above. 

•f §-[• Sagittas pilettas. Sagitta piletta is an arrow that has a round 
knob (pila) in the shank of it, some two inches above the head, 
to hinder the arrows going too far into the deer's body. Blount. 


Fulke Fitz Warine held certain lands in Benham, in the county 
of Gloucester, of Thomas Lord Berkley, lord of Brimmesfeild, by 
serjeanty, to carry a horn in Brimmesfeild park betwixt the feasts 
of the Assumption and the Nativity of the blessed Virgin (15th 
August, and 8th September) at such time as the King should hunt 
there *. 

dicti parci libere exeant, per portam et sine posuit. Et sciendum est quod tempus pm- 

impedimento. Et praedictus comes et haere- guedinis hie computatur inter festum Beati 

des scire, facient aliquem de suis pr8edicto Petri ad Vincula et Exaltationem Sanctae 

Rogero de Somery et haeredibus suis apud Crucis, et tempus firmationis inter festum 

Barwe, quo die mittetur pro supra dictis Sancti Martini et Purificationem Beatae Mariae. 

damis, ad praedictum locum, praedictis tem- Ex Codice MS. penes Elyam Ashmole Arm, 

poribus, et hoc scire eis facient per sex dies Blount, 126. 

ante praedictum diem. In cujus rei testimo- * Escaet. 23 Edw. III. No. 39, Glouc. 

Dium alter alterius scripto sigillum suum ap- Blount, 132. 




John, Earl of Warren and Surrey, granted to one John Howson 
a messuage in Wakefield, the said Howson paying the annual rent 
of a thousand clusters of nuts, and upholding a gauntlet firm and 
strong *. 


John, Earl of Warren and Surrey, quit-claimed to God and St. 
Mary and the prior and canons of the Holy Cross at Reigate his 
right in nineteen shillings and four-pence yearly rent, and one 
plough-share, and four horse shoes with nails, which the said prior 
and canons used to pay to his ancestors, for several tenements in 
Reigate -f. 


John de Warren granted to John, son of Adrian de London, a 
virge of land in East Becheworthe, paying certain gloves of fur 
of gris ^, or forty-pence, at three terms in the year $. 

f Gris. See p. 189. 

* Watson's Memoirs of the Earls of Warren 
and Surrey, vol. i. p. 264, from a deed in 
French, dated 7 Edw. I. late in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Thomas Wilson, of Leeds. 

"f Pat. of Inspeximus. 10 Edw. 11. p. 2, 
la. 12. 2 Mon. Angl. 346. Memoirs of the 

Earls of Warren and Surrey, by the Rev. Mr. 
Watson, vol, i. p. 291- 

J Reddendo quasdam cyrothecas furratas 
de gris, vel quadraginta denarios, ad tres anni 
terminos. Watson's Memoirs of the Earls of 
Warren and Surrey, vol. i. p. 295, from a 
deed; dated 38 Hen. III. 




A farm at Brook-house, in Langsett, in the parish of Peniston, 
and county of York, pays yearly to Godfrey Bosville, Esq. a snow- 
ball at Midsummer, and a red rose at Christmas :|;§"]; *. 

X^X This is certainly a most extraordinary tenure, and yet the 
editor has no doubt but it is very possible to perform the ser- 
vice : he has himself seen snow in caverns or hollows, upon 
the high moors, in this neighbourhood, in the month of June ; 
and as to the red rose at Christmas (as he does not suppose 
that it was meant to have been growing just before it was pre- 
sented) he thinks it is not difficult to preserve one till that time 
of the year. E. As the things tendered in tenures were usually 
such a^ could easily be procured, and not impossible ones, we 
must suppose that the two here mentioned were redeemable by 
a pecuniary payment to be fixed at the will of the lord. P. 


Adam de Brus ^, lord of Skelton, gave in marriage with his 
daughter Isabel, to Henry de Percy, eldest son and heir of Joceline 
de Lovain (ancestor to the present Duke of Northumberland) the 
manor of Levington, for which he and his heirs were to repair to 
Skelton-castle every Chi'istmas day, and lead the lady of that castle 
from her chamber to the chapel, to mass, and thence to her chamber 
again, and, after dining with her, to depart -f-. 

* Extracted from the writings of Godf. f Circ. temp. Ric. I. vel Joh. Regis. Great 

Bosville, of Guuthwaite, Esq. and communi- Percy Chartulary, fo. 60. CoUins's Peerage, 

cated to the editor by John Wilson, of Broom- vol. ii. p. 297, edit. 5. 
bead, Esq. 

f The 


^ The la,te Woodifield Beckwith, Esq. (who as well as the editor, 
was a descendant of the family of Brus of Skelton-eastle) died 
seised of an estate at Kirk Levington, alias Castle Levington, 
near Yarm, in the county of York, in the year 1779. 


John Fleming gave to Adam de Wellum, all the meadow which 
he had between the mill of Elkesley and the bridge of Twifort, 
paying him and his heirs, one spur§^§ (calcariam) of Lincoln, or 
four-pence at Christmas, for all yearly services *. 

||:§ By this it should seem that the city of Lincoln was then famous 
for the spurs there made. Yet the word calcaria is particular 
here, not occurring in this sense in Du Fresne's Glossary -f-. 
But it appears from a deed sans date of the first Ralph Musard, 
of Staveley, com. Derb. that a spur was of the value of four- 
pence i ; and I remember to have seen only one spur paid as 
a rent on other occasions ; so we find " unum equum, unum 
saccum, et unum pryk in guerra Wallise §." One spur was also 
common in wearing ||. Lastly, I observe, that calcarium is 
used for calcar *^ ; and therefore, why not calcaria in the 
feminine ? 

However, to dissemble nothing, and not to conclude too rashly, 
it is possible calcaria may signify a load of lime ; there being 

* Thorotofi's Hist, of Nott. p. 445. where in Latin called compunctum." See him 

t Calcaria in him means a lime kiln, or again, p. 125, (antea, p. 426. Dylew) where 

lime, or a payment for burning Kme. the word compunctum occurs. Hence to 

J A pair of gilt spurs equalled sixpence, prick means to ride. Spenser's Fairy-Queen> 

temp. R. Joh. Chauncey, Hertf. p. 279. lib. 1. 

I Blount's Tenures', p. 17, (antea, p. 132, 1| MS. Tale of -John Le Reve, stanza 10. 

Kinwaldmersh) where he notes "pryksigni- ** Blount Ten. p. 46, (antea, p. 152, Gis- 

fies a goad or spur, as I suppose, and is else- sag.) 

3 K no 


no other authority but this in Thoroton, that I know of, for its 
impoFting a spur, or, I may add, for Lincoln's being remarkable 
for the manufacture of spurs. The hill at Lincoln is noted for 
lime, the stone of which the hill consists burning kindly to a 
calx. And as calcaria is found in the Glossaries to denote a 
lime-kiln, and also a payment for the burning of lime *, it may, 
without much violence, mean a load of lime here. The rock at 
Lincoln, it is observed, is scarce fit for any other use than 
making lime, it being seldom appUed for building, except where 
it is defended from rain and frost, the latter shivering it into 
small pieces or flakes, so that there is but little of it used about 
that noble fabric, the Minster. And as there was an easy 
communication from Lincoln into Nottinghamshire, and vice 
vers4, by water, after the fosse-dike was made in the twelfth 
century, lime was readily conveyed to the city from many parts 
of the latter. On the whole, the reader is left to judge which 
of these two interpretations he ought to adopt. P. 


In the seventh year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 1351, 
Ralph Clerk held in capite of the lady of Ravenshelme, one mes- 
suage, called Fengerhouses, and sixty acres of land, with the ap- 
purtenances, in Ravensworth, by fealty and the service of two 
firrows, feathered with peacock's feathers ^, yearly at Christmas -f-. 

•| Duar. sagittar'. pennat'. pennis pavonum. It is siwgular that these 

* Du Fresne, vol. ii. p. 59- Mr. Pegge's et lx acr'- terr'. cuti» pertin', in Ravensworth, 

Letter to the Editor, dated 13th Oct. 17s 1. per fid', et servic'. duar'. sagittar'. pennat'. 

-|- Radus Clerk ten', in capite de dna de Ra- pennis pavonum per annum, die Natal. Dni 

venshelme unum mess, vocat'. Fengerhouses, Inquis.^post mortem Hadi Clerk. 7 Hatfield. 



should be fletched with peacock's feathers. It was more for 
beauty and ornament, I presume, than any great advantage. P. 

Mr. Pegge is mistaken in supposing it was for beauty and orna- 
ment that peacock's feathers were used, for the reddish fea- 
thers of a peacock's wing are anxiously sought for by the 
archers, as they surpass every feather known for that pur- 
pose. 'W. 



A farm at Softley, in the parish of Peniston, in the county of* 
York, pays yearly to Godfrey. Bosville, of Gunthwaite, Esq. a 
whittle f* 

% Whittle, a knife, Chaucer. Pronounced thwittle in Cheshire 
and La,ncashire. See Gunthwaite. E. 

In Timon of Athens, act v. sc. 2, Timon says to the 1st Senator; 
" ' for myself 

" There's not a whittle in the unruly camp, 
" But I do prize it at my love, before 
" The reverend'st throat in Athens." 

A whittle is still in the midland counties the common name of a 
pocket clasp knife, such as children use. Chaucer speaks of 
a Sheffield thwittell. Note. Chalmers's edit, of Shakspeare. 



In the year 1588, the following rents were paid to Francis Bos- 

* Extracted from the writings of Godfrey cated to the editor's late father by John Wil- 
Bosville, of Gunthwaite; Esq. and communi- sod, of Broomhead, Esq. 

3 K 2 ville. 


ville, lord of this manor, ancestor of the present Godfrey Bosville, 
Esq. viz. 

George Blunt, gent, paid two broode arrowes, with heades. 

James Bileliffe paid a paire of gloves, and 

Thomas Wardsworth, for Roughbankes, paid a thwittel *. 


John de Mojse, who is under age, by assize, impleads Thomas 
de Weylaund, and Margaret his wife, for one messuage, two mills, 
four acres of meadow, and forty-two shillings rent in East-Smith- 
field, without Aldgate. They call to warranty Ralph de Berners, 
who w arrants them, and says, that he claims nothing, except cus- 
tody, for that John, father of the said John, held of him the afore- 
said tenements by homage and the service of sixpence, and by 
finding a certain man for him in the Tower of London, with bows 
and arrows, for forty days in the time of war : John says, that he 
holds the tenements aforesaid, by homage and service of certain 
spurs, or sixpence for all services : and so omitting many things on 
both sides, it will manifestly appear, by the verdict of the jury, and 
the judgment of the court, what was determined in this Assize. 
The jury say, that the aforesaid tenements are held of the aforejsaid 
Ralph, by homage and service of one pair of gilt spurs, or sixpence, 
and by finding a certain man for the said Ralph, in the Tower of 
London, with bows and arrows, for forty days in the time of war, 
in the north angle of the Tower aforesaid, for all services : and 
because it was found, &c. that the said Ralph acknowledgeth in 
his answer, that the aforesaid heir ought to hold the same tene- 
ments by the aforesaid homage and service of the aforesaid spurs, 

* From the same writings. 



or sixpence, and by the serjeanty of finding a man for him in (he 
aforesaid Tower, for forty days : and it manifestly appears that 
petit serjeanties of this sort (which ought to be done for their 
lords, of whom they hold their tenements, by others, except them- 
selves) neither give nor ought to give any custody thereupon to thfe 
same lords, although the same lords, by neglect of the parents, 
have got the custodies of heirs within age in this manner : and the 
said Ralph cannot say, that he hath any seisin of the aforesaid cus- 
tody, unless by his own occupancy, and the neglect of the parents 
of the aforesaid heir of his ancestors, whilst he was within age, 
and not by any other right; therefore, it was considered, that the 
said John should recover his seisin thereupon, &c., and his da- 
mages, &c.* 

* Per assisam, Johannes de Moyse, qui est 
infra aetatem, implacitat Thom. de Weylaund, 
et Marg. ux. ejus, pro uno messuag'. ii mo- 
lendin'. iv acris prati, et xliis. redd', in East 
Smithfield, extra Aldgate : ipsi voc'. ad warr'. 
Rad. de Berners, qui warr'. et dicit quod nihil 
clamat' nisi custod'. eo quod Johannes, pater 
dicti Johannes, tenuit de eo prsedicta ten', per 
homag'. et servic'. "vi d., et inveniendi quendam 
hominem pro eo in Turr. London, cum arcu- 
bus et sagittis, per quadraginta dies tempore 
guerrae. Johannes dicit quod tenet tenementa 
praedicta per homagium et servitium quorun- 
dam calcariorum, vel vi d. pro omni servitio : 
et sic omittendo multa ex utraque parte, mani- 
feste patebit per vered. jur'. et per jud'. cur', 
quid in hac ass', terminatum fuit. Jur'. die', 
quod praedicta tenementa tenent'. de praedicto 
Radulpho per homagium et servic'. unius paris 
calcariorum deauratorum, vel sex denar'. et 
inven'. quendam hominem pro ipso Radulpho 
in Turri Lond'. cum arcubus et sagittis, per 
XL dies tempore guerrae, in boreali angulo 

Turris praedictae, pro omni servic'. Et quia 
compertum est, &c. quod Radulphus cog» 
noscit in respons'. quod praedict'. haeres tenere 
debet eadetn tenemen'. per praedict'. homag.' 
et servic'. praedict'. calcar'. vel sex denar'. et 
per serjaiitiam inveniendi unum homincHipro 
eo in predicti Turri pro x l dies : et manifests 
liquet, quod hujiismodi minores serjantiae quae 
debeiit iSeri pro dominis suis de quibus tenent 
tenementa sua, per alios quani seipsos nullant 
inde dabunt custodiam eisdem dominis, nee 
dare debent, licet ijdem domini infra setatem 
haeredum per negligentiam propinquorum pa- 
rentum hujusmodi custodias occupaverint ; et 
iste Radulphus non potest dedicere quod un-: 
quam aliquam habuit seisiuam de praedict'. 
custod'. nisi per occupationem suam et negli- 
gentiam parentum praedicti hseredis antecessoris 
sui dum infra aetatem fuit, et non alio jure, 
considerat'. est quod praedict'. Johannes rec'. 
inde seis'. Sec. et damn'. &c. Hil. 8 Edw. I. 
in Banco, Rot. 86. 2 Inst. 6. 




In the seventh year of the reign of King Richard II. 1383, 
WilHam Cownall held a tenement in Braithwell, by homage, fealty, 
&c. and suit of court (to the manor of Conisborough,) and by 
finding one footman to guard the Castle for forty days, in the time 
of war, at his own proper costs *. 

At the court held at Conisborough, the 24th of August, 13 Hen. 
IV. 1412, William Eylmyn did fealty to the lord, and acknowledged 
that he held of him one messuage, one toft, and nineteen acres of 
land, in Braithwell, in right of his wife, late belonging to William 
Cresey, by homage, fealty, and the service of ten shillings a year 
rent, and by suit of court to the court of Conisborough, from three 
weeks to three weeks, and by suit to the lord's mill at Conis- 
borough, &c. -j" 


In the first year of the pontificate of bishop Skirlawe, 1388, 
Bertram Monboucher died seised in his demesne, &c. of divers 
lands and tenements, and the service of the freeholders of Pokerley, 
with all their appurtenances, which were held of the heirs of the 

*Willielmus Cownall ten', tenement', in rici IV. post Conquestiim xiii, Willielraus 

llraithewell, per homagium, fidelit'. &c. et Eylmyn fecit diio fidelit'. et cognovit se tenere 

sect', cur', et inveniend'. unum hominem pedi- de diio unum mess.,unum toftum, et xix acr'. 

turn ad wardum Castri, pro XL dies tempore terre in Braithewell, dejureuxoris ejus, nuper 

guerrae, proprijs sumptibus. E.^c cop. Rot. Willielmi Cresey, per homagium, fidelitat. et 

Cur. ten', apud Connesburgh die Mercur. vii" per servic'. de deceih solid, per annum de 

die Octobr., anno regni Regis Eic. II. penes reddit, et sect. cur', ad cur'- de Connesburgh, 

edit. ad tribus septimanas in tres sept', et secta ad 

f Ad cur', ten', apud Connesburgh, xxiv molend'. diii de Connesb. &c. Ex cop. Rot. 

die Mercuris August', auno regni Regis Hen- Cur. penes edit, 



iords of Urpath, by one clove f on St. Cuthbert's day in Septem* 
^^^ §t-§» for all other services *. 

% Clam gariophili. It should be written Clam, meaning clavum 
gariophili, the spice called clove. P. 

§:|:§ The 4th of September, the day of his translation. P. 


Sir Richard Daniel, of Tideswell, knight, by his charter, without 
date, gave, granted, and confirmed to Master Thomas de Wymun- 
deham, precentor of Lichfield, for his service, and for fifteen marks, 
which he gave him in hand, twelve acres of his land in Tideswell, 
to hold to him, his heirs and assigns for ever, rendering yearly to 
the said Sir Richard and his heirs, one pair of white gloves at 
Easter, and sixpence at Michaelmas, for all services -f-. 


Two farms at Carlcoats, in the parish of Peniston and county of 
York, pay to Godfrey Bosville, Esq. the one a right-hand, and the 
other a left-hand glove, yearly %• 

* Bertramus Monboucher ob'. seis'. de do- quindecim marcis quas sibi dedit premanibu^, 

mitiio, &c. de diversis terris et tenement'. duodecim acras terre sue cum pertinentijs ia 

cum servic'. libere tenent'. de Pokerley, cum Tydeswell, tenendas eidem et heredibus suis, 

omnibus suis pertin'. que tenentur de haer'. vel suis assignatis imperpetuum, reddendo inde 

dominorum de Urpath, per unum clam gario- -annuatim dicto Ricardo, et heredibus suis, 

phili die Sancti Cuthberti in Sept. pro omnibus unam par albarum cyrotecarum ad Pascha, et 

alijs servic'. Inquis. post mortem Bertrami sex denar'. ad festum Sancti Michaelis, pro 

Monboucher. 1 Skirlaw. omni servitio. Ex Autographo penes Fr. Fer- 

f Ricardus Daniel de Tideswell, miles, per rand Foljambe, arm. 

cartam suam, sine dat. dedit, concessit, et con- J Extracted from the writings of Godfrey 

firmavit Magistro Thome de Wymundeham, Bosville, of Gunthwaite, Esq. 
precentori Lichfieiden, pro servitio suo, et pro 




The inhabitants have a tenure of land, which Littleton, the 
famous lawyer, calls Borough-English, viz. that the younger sons 
inherit the lands and tenements which their fathers had in this 
manor, if they happen to die intestate *. 


There is the same custom at this place, but it is limited to the 
youngest son *f-. 


Lymbury's, so called from its possessors, was held under the 
Earls of Oxford, of the Honour of Evenyngham, by the service 
of holding the earl's stuTup, whenever he should mount his palfrey, 
in the presence of the owner of that manor J. 


John de Birteley died (in the tenth year of bishop Bury, 1345,) 
seised in his demesne, &c. of twelve acres of land, with the appur- 
tenances, in Pelawe, which were held of Richard Pelawe in capite, 
by the service of paying twelve-pence to the said Richard, and one 
quarter of beans to the rector of the church of Bold on for the 
time being ^. 

* The reference is omitted in the MS. left nio, &c. xii acr'. terr'. cum pertin'. in Pe- 

by the editor's late father. lawe, que tenentur de Ric. Pelawe in capite, 

fibid. perservic'. redd', xii denar'. dicto Ricardo, et 

;j; Escheat Roll, Ljsons's Mag. Brit. vol. ii. unum quarterium fabarum rectori ecclesize de 

p. 2] 6. Boldon, qui pro tempore fuit. Inquis. post 

I Johannes de Birteley ob'. seis'. in domi- mortem J ohannis de Birteley. 10 Bury. 




John, Earl of Warren and Surrey, in the 12th of Edward II. 
granted tliis lordship to Thomas Earl of Lancaster, and his heirs, 
with many others, reserving his own right therein for life, and on his 
death, in the 21st of Edward III, it came to Henry Duke of Lan- 
caster. At this time there was a capital messuage, a park, eleven 
score acres of arable land, and was held in free socage by the 
service of a bell*. 


Randal de Meschines, the third IVorman Earl of Chester, about 
the year 1124, conferred upon Alan Sylvestris the bailiwick of the 
forest of Wirral, by the delivery of a horn, (a bugle ^ horn) which 
was in the year 1751, preserved at Hooton : to this Alan Silvestris, 
Randal Gernouns, the fourth Norman Earl of Chester, son to 
Randal de Meschines, gave Stourton and Pudecan, now Pudding- 
ton, in Wirral. This forest was disafforested, and the lands began 
to be inclosed, in the reign of King Edward III. Edric, surnamed 
Silvaticus, or the Forester, was the supposed ancestor of Alan 
Silvestris, and of the Silvesters of Stourton, foresters of Wirral, 
whose daughter and heiress married the head of that antlent and 
honourable family of the Stanleys, the descendants of which match 
have been for several centuries seated at Hooton in Wirral. The 
arms of Edric (who was a great warrior) on a shield argent a large 
tree torn up by the roots, vert, since born by the Silvesters of 
Stourton in Wirrall, are impressed on the horn f . 

* Bloniefield's Hist, of Norfolk, fol. edit. f Mr. Pegge's Observations on the Horn as 

vol. dv. pp. 317, 318. ■ a Charter. Archaeolog. vol. iii. p. 3, in Annot. 

3 L % Bugle- 


% Bugle-horn. Perhaps from being the horn of the bison, wild 
ox, or buffalo, which Dr. Littleton calls a bugle *. 


In the first year of the pontificate of Richard de Bury, bishop of 
Durham, 1335, Catherine Hornecliffe held of the lord of Twyssil, 
four acres of land at Presthill, by mesne and by foreign ser- 
vice ll§tl f. 

|§1| Per med'm et per forinsecum servicium. Intrinsic and forinsic 
service, are usually opposed to one another, as in Blount's Law 
Diet, voce Forein, and in Du Fresne voce Servicium. (See note 
under Ponthop, p. 285, for an explanation of foreign service.) 
It appears to me that med'ra signifies mean service, and con- 
sequently answers to intrinsic service. See also Wolsyngham, 
p. 379. P. 


The first mention I find of the manor of Edgware, is in the year 
1171, when Henry Becointe paid one mark into the King's Ex- 
chequer, that he might implead William de Reymes for that ma- 
nor J. Soon afterwards it belonged to Ela Countess of Salisbury, 
daughter and heir of William D'Eureux, and wife of William 
Longespee, who granted it to her son Nicholas and his espoused 
wife, to be held of her by the service of a sparrow-hawk |. 

* Mr. Pegge's Observations on the Horn secum servicium. Jnquis. post mortem Ca- 

as a Charter. Archaeolog. vol. iii. p. 11, iu tharinae Hornecliff. 1 Bury. 

Annot. + Madox's Hist, of the Exchequer, p. 296. 

t Catherina Hornecliff ten', de dno de § Cart. Ant. Brit. Mus. 33, B. 12. Ly- 

Twyssil IV acr'. terrae per med'm, et per foriu- sons's Environs of London, vol. ii. p. 242. 




In the year 1572, John Waynwright, of Wytwell-hall, in Halam- 
shire (in the manor of Bolsterstone) paid to Godfrey Bosville, Esq. 
lord of the manor of Oxspring, " two grett brode arrows well 
hedyd, and barbyd ordrly." * 


The family of Floyers were antiently seated at Floyers-hays, in 
the parish of St. Thomas the Apostle, near Exeter, which they held 
by this antient tenure, that if the Courtneys, Earls of Devon, came 
at any time into Ex Isle, they were to attend them decently ap- 
parelled, with a clean towel on their shoulders, a flaggon of wine 
in one hand, and a silver bowl in the other, and offer to serve them 
with drink. This tenure was confirmed with a grant of the land 
to Richard, son of Nicholas, grandson of Richard Fitz-Floyer, by 

Robert son of Henry and afterwards by one of the Earls 

of Devon -f-. 


In the fourth year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 1348, Sir 
Jordan de Dalden, Icnight, died seised in his demesne, &c. of six 
shillings rent, . yearly, issuing out of a certain tenement which 
Hugh de Whittonstall held in the bailiwick of Durham, and he held 
it of the aforesaid Jordan, by the service of six shillings a year, 
and by finding the said Sir Jordan, for himself and his retinue, a 

sufficient chamber and stable in the time of war f 

% Tempore 

* Extracted from the writings of Godfrey •]■ Hutchins's Hist, of Dorset, vol. i. p. 472. 

Bosville, of G until waite, Esq. and commu- J Jordanus de Dalden, mil. ob'. seis'. in do- 

nicated to the editor's late father by John minico, 8cc. de sex solidat. reddit'. per annum, 

Wilson, of Broomhead, Esq. exeunt, de quodam ten', quod Hugo de Whit- 

3 L 2 tonstalL 


f Tempore guerrte. The inhabitants of the county of Durham 
were particularly liable to war in these times, by reason of their 
vicinity to Scotland. See Goswyk, p. 374. P. 


An estate in this parish, called Lambert Farm, was formerly held 
under the manor, by the service of bringing in the first dish at the 
lord's table, on St. Stephen's day, and presenting him with two 
hens, a cock, a gallon of ale, and two nianchets of white bread ; 
after dinner the lord delivered to the tenant a sparrow-hawk, and 
a couple of spaniels, to be kept at his costs and charges, for the 
lord's use ; a composition is now paid in lieu of this service *. 


The manor of Brinnington having been parcel of the barony of 
Dunham-massey, was with other estates given by Hamon de Massey 
to Robert son of Walthesh, for which the said Robert was retained 
to serve him in his chambers, and to carry his arms and clothes 
when the Earl of Chester in his own person should go to Wales ; 
Hamon was to find him a sumpture, a man, and a sack, whilst in 
his service in the army : and the said Robert was to swear, that if 
Hamon were in captivity, he should help to set him free, and also 
help to make his son a knight, and to marry his eldest daughter, in 
token of which Robert gave Hamon a gold ring -f. 

tonstall tenet in ballivo de Dunelm. et illud quis. post mortem Jordani de Dalden, militis, 

tenuit de predicto Jordano, per servic'. sex 4 Hatfield. 

solidor. per annum, et ad inveniend. dictum * Lysons's Magna Brit. vol. i. p. 577-8. 

dominum Jordanum, pro se et suis cameram f Ibid. vol. ii. p. 783. 

et stabulum sufficient', tempore guerrae. In- 




Boydin Aylet holds four pound-lands in Bradwell, by the hand 
of William de Doria, by serjeanty of the mace *. 

And William Cains holds six pound-lands there, by the same 
tenure -f. 


In the fourth year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 1348, 
Peter de Brackenbiry, and Agnes his wife, held the manor of Laton 
of Robert de Mundevill and his heirs, rendering every year to the 
same Robert one barbed arrow for all services |.. 

And in the twenty-fifth year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 
1369, Cecily, the wife of Peter de Brackenbery, died seised, &c. 
of the manor of Laton, with the appurtenances, which were held 
of the heirs of Mundevill, by the service of one arrow at entry, 
and if it was not given, they were to give forty-pence ^ for the said 
arrow §. 

^ Forty-pence is a large sum for a single arrow, but I conceive 
it not to be so much the price of the arrow, as a forfeiture for 
omission. P. 

* Boydin Aylet tenet quatuor lib. terre in pro omnibus serviciis. Inquis. post mortem 

Bradwell, per manum Willielmi de Dona, per Petri de Brackenbiry. 4 Hatfield, 

serjantiam claviae. Ex Lib. Rub. Scac. 137, § Cecilia, uxor Petri de Brackenbiry, ob'. 

Appendix to Brady's Introduction, 22. seis'. &c. de manerio de Laton, cum pertin'. 

t Willielmus Cains tenet sex lib. terre ibi- quod teneturde heredibus del Mundevill, per 

6em, per serjantiam claviae. Ibid. servitium unius sagitte ad introitum, et si non 

JPetrus de Brackenbiry, et Agn'. uxor ejus, detur sagitta dabuntur XLd. pro dicta sagitta. 

tenuerunt maner'. de Laton de Roberto de Inquis. post mortem Ceciliae de Brackenbiry, 

Mundevill et haer'. ejus, reddendo quolibet 25 Hatfield, 
anno eidem Roberto unam sagittam barbatam, 




Within the manor of Bishop's Castle, in the county of Salop, 
Ilowel de Lydom and William ap John held one yard-land, paying 
three shillings at the feast of Pentecost, and three shillings atMichael- 
mas, or three plough-shares, three coulters, and to repair the iron 
work of three ploughs, at the election of the bishop's bailiffs *, 


The manor of Isleham was held in ancient times under the Earl 
of Arundel, by the singular service, that, whenever the earl, in 
going to the wars, should pass Haringesmere, in this parish, the 
tenant should meet him, and present him with a gammon of bacou 
on the point of a lance -f. 


Within the precincts of this manor is cut, upon the side of Edge 
Hill, the figure of a horse in a large shape, and because the earth is 
red, it is called the Red Horse, and gives a denomination to the fruit- 
ful vale about it, called the Vale of the Red Horse. The trenches 
about the horse are cleansed every year by a freeholder, who holds 
his land by that service X- 


William de Moucel holds Little Angre, by serjeanty of being 
marshall of the barony of G. de Toany §. 

* The reference is omitted m the MSS. left § Willielmus Moucel ten'. Parvam Angre, 

by the editor's late father. per serjantiam marescalciae de baronia G. de 

f Hundred Roll, 8 Edw, I. Lysons's Toany. Appendix to Brady's Introduction, 

Mag. Brit. vol. ii. p. 221. p. 23. 

f Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire, 
p. 422. Bray's Tour, p. 35. 




Oxenhoath is now the property and residence of Sir William 
Geary, bart. whose family obtained it by marriage with the Bartho- 
lomews. It was anciently the property of the Colepepers, and was 
formerly held of the manor of Hoo, near Rochester, by the yearly 
payment of a pair of gilt spurs *. 


Near Dacre is Dalemayn, the mansion-house of the Hassels, and 
holden of the barony of GreystQck in cornage ^. -f- 

f See note on Burgh on the Sands, vol. i. p. 96. This tenure by 
cornage was chiefly confined to lands lying adjacent to the Ficts 
Wall, which divided England and Scotland. In this wall, it is 
said, there was a communication between turret and turret, by 
tubes or pipes in the wall, so that notice could be immediately 
conveyed by the voice, and an alarm given, from one end of the 
wall to the other, on the approach of an enemy ; but when the 
wall, and those tubes or pipes, were destroyed by the Picts and 
Scots, another method of giving such an alarm was, through 
necessity, adopted ; and that was, by sounding horns upon the 
frontiers on the approach of an enemy. Vide Speed's Hist^ 
of Britain, lib. vi. cap. 17. Camd. Brit. tit. Picts Wall. 


Sir Hugh de Babington and Sir Henry de Perpont held in Rolles- 
ton, Cottington, Barneby, and CoUjngham, one knight's fee, pay- 

* Beauties oi[ England and Wales, vol. viii. f Camd. Brit, tit. Cumberland, 

p. 1285. 



ing for castle ward Htjl to the Earl of Richmond yearly, ten shil- 
lings *. 

111-11 See note under Ileighington, p. 379. 


An inferior manor, by the name of Camberwell, held of Camber- 
well Buckinghams, by the service of a pair of horse shoes, was the 
property of the Scotts f. Francis Muschamp died seised of it in 
1632 +. 


This manor belonged to John of Gaunt, who granted to John Nor- 
thop, of Manningham, an adjoining village, and his heirs, three mes- 
suages and six bovates of land, to come to Bradford, on the blowing 
of a horn, on Saint Martin's Day in winter, and wait on him and his 
heirs, in their way from Blackburnshire, with a lance and hunting 
dog for thirty days, to have for yeoman's board, one penny for him- 
self and a halfpenny for his dog, &c.. for going with the receiver or 
bailiff to conduct him safe to the castle of Pontefract. A de- 
scendant of Northop afterwards granted land in Horton to Rush- 
worth, of Horton, another adjoining village, to hold the hound 
while Northop's man blew the horn. These are called hornman or 
hornblow lands, and the custom is still kept up : a man coming into 
the market-place with a horn, halbert, and dog, is met by the 

* Dns Hugo de Babington et Dns Henr. (before the suppression of the knights 

de Perpont tenent in Rolliston, Cotyugton, templars) in the hands of F. F. Foljambe, of 

Barneby, et Colyngham, i feod'. niilitis, Aldwarke, county of York, esq. 

reddend'. pro warda castri x s. From an ori- f Cole's Escheats, Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. 

giiial MS. roll of knights' fees, held of the No. 759, p. 25. 

Earl of Richmond, in the counties of Not- J Ibid. No. 758, p. 156. Lysons's Environs 

tingham and Lincoln, in the time of Edw. II. of London, vol. i. p. 72. 



owner of the lands in Horton. After proclamation made, the former 
calls out aloud, " Heirs of Rushworth, come hold me my hound, 
" whilst I blow three blasts of my horn, to pay the rent due to our 
" sovereign lord the king." He then delivers the string to the man 
from Horton, and winds his horn thrice. The original horn, re- 
sembling that of Tutbury in Staffordshire, is still preserved, though 
stripped of its silver ornaments *. 



This town was formerly held by the Martyns, by serjeanty to find 
a man, with a bow and three arrows, to attend the Earl of Glou- 
cester when he should hunt thereabouts -f. 


The lord of the manor of Essington (either by himself, deputy, 
or steward) oweth, and is obliged yearly to perform service to the 
lord of the manor of Hilton, a village about a mile distant from 

this manor. The lord of Essington (now or late the estateof 

St. John, esquire,) is to bring a goose every New Year's Day, and 
drive it round the fire, in the hall of Hilton, at least three times, 
(which he is bound to do as mesne lord) whilst Jack of Hilton is, 
blowing the fire. This Jack of Hilton is an image of brass, of 
about twelve inches high, kneeling on his left knee, and holding his 
right hand upon his heiad, and his left upon pego, or his viretrum, 
erected, having a little hole at the mouth, at which being filled with 
water, and set to a strong fire, which makes it evaporate like an 

* Cough's Camd. Brit. edit. 1789, vol. iii. t Camd. Brit. tit. Devonshire. 

p. 45. 

3 M aeohpile, 


seolipile, it vents itself in a constant blast, so strongly that it is yery 
audible, and blows the fire fiercely. 

When the lord of Essington has done his duty, and the other 
things are performed, he carries his goose into the kitchen of Hilton 
Hall, and delivers it to the cook, who having dressed it, the lord of 
Essington, or his deputy, by way of further service, is to carry it to 
the table of the lord paramount of Hilton and Essington, and re- 
ceives a dish of meat from the lord of Hilton's table for his own 
mess, and so departs. This service was performed by James Wil- 
kinson, then bailiff to Sir Gilbert Wakerinff, lord of this manor of 
Essington, to the Lady Townsend, who was lady of the manor of 
Hilton, as was testified in 1680 to Doctor Plott, by Thomas and 
John Stokes, two brothers, who were present at the performance 
of it *. 


This manor (as is evident by an old feodary book) was granted by 
Robert Earl of Leicester, about the time of King Henry II., to 
William, one of his followers, to hold of him by this service, viz. to 
keep his faulcons ; which oflSee gave unto his posterity the surname 
of Faulconer, who thereupon also bare argent three faulcons 

ules -f*. 


It appears that, at an early period, WilKam Willaston held the 
manor of Willaston, and lands in Rope, Willaston, &c. in the 
county of Chester, by the service of finding a man and horse to 

* Plot's Hist, of Staffordshire, p. 423. \ Burton's Hist, of Leicestershire, p. 287. 



keep the fairs at Chester twice a year, according to the custom of 
the fairs *. A glove is hung out at St. Peter's church, fourteen days 
before the commencement of each fair, and till its conclusion. It 
is not improbable that the glove might allude originally to what was 
considered as the staple trade of the city ; in corroboration of which 
it may be observed, that at the Midsummer show a glove was for- 
merly delivered by the wet glovers to the mayor, as part of their 
homage, and to this day it is not unusual for the glovers to present 
the mayor with a pair of gloves on his election -f-. 



In the fourth year of the pontificate of bishop Hatfield, 1348, 
Thomas de Bermeton died seised, &c. of one oxgang of land, with 
the appurtenances, in Bermeton, and it was held in capite of 
Robert de Skirnyngham, by the service of three grains of pepper 
yearly t 


Sir William Marche died anno 1398, seised of an estate called 
the manor of Finehley, with eighty acres of land in Finchley and 
Hendon. He held it (jointly with William Brynkley and John 
Beestchurch) of Philip Pelytot, by the annual rent pf a pound of 
pepper §, 

* Woodnoth's Collections, f. 237, b. per gervic'. trium granor' pip'is per ann. In- 

t Lysons's Mag. Brit. vol. ii. p. 606. quis. post mortem Thonaze de Bermeton. 4 

I Thomas de Bermeton ob'. s'. &c. de Hatfield. 

•ana bovat'. terrje, cum pertin'. in Bermeton, et | Lysons's Environs of London, vol. ii. p. 

tenetur in capite de Roberto de Skyrnyngham, 336. 





A farm called Unshriven Bridge (vulgo Unsliven Brigg), in Hun- 
shelfe, in the parish of Peniston, in the county of York, pays yearly 
to Godfrey Bosville, Esq. of Gunthwaite, in the same parish, two 
broad-headed and feathered arrows *. 


The manor of Broughton is held of the lord of the manor of 
Castor, or of Harden, a hamlet in the parish of Castor, by the fol- 
lowing service : on Palm Sunday, a person from Broughton attends 
with a new cart-whip, or whip-gad (as they call it in Lincolnshire), 
made in a peculiar manner ; and, after cracking it three times in 
the church porch, marches with it upon his shoulder through the 
middle aisle into the choir, where he takes his place in the lord of 
the manor's seat. There he remains till the minister comes to the 
second lesson : he then quits the seat with his gad, having a purse 
that ought to contain thirty silver pennies (for which, however, of 
late years, half a crown has been substituted) fixed to the end of 
its lash, and kneeling down on a cushion, or mat, before the read- 
ing desk, he holds the purse, suspended over the minister's head, 
all the time he is reading the second lesson ; after which he returns 
to his seat. The whip and purse are left at the manor house. Some 
ingenious persons have devised a reason for every circumstance of 
this ceremony : they suppose that the thirty pennies are meant to 
signify the thirty pieces of silver, mentioned in the second lesson, 

* Extracted from the writings of Godfrey Bosville, Esq. 



which Judas received to betray his master ; that the three cracks of 
the whip in the porch allude to Peter's denying Christ thrice, 
&c. &c.* 


Gilbert de Ecclesia was obliged, by the tenure of his lands, to 
find a man to gather nuts for the lord of the manor. In a survey of 
this manor (St. Paul's), made about the year 1245, two payments are 
mentioned called wodeselver, and averselver ^, (a composition for 
labour) -f-. 

% See note under West Aukland, p. 365. 


WilHam de St. Clere, who had a moiety of the inheritance of Sir 
Richard Butler in this county and town, conveyed it by fine, in the 
57th of King Henry III., to William, son of William de Heving- 
ham, to be held of him and his heirs, by the service of a sparrow- 

This extended into Swafield, Worsted, and Westwick ; William, 
son of Reymer, had an interest therein, Beatrix, his wife, being 
the relict of Sir Nicholas Butler, she being in court, and doing 
homage §-j^ with the said William ; which shows how strict the law 
of homage was at that time J. 
^-j^ Homage. See note on Shouldham, p. 402. 


A record, entitled, " The Claims of the Citizens of Chester,' 

• Gent. .Mag. voj. Ixix. p. 940. f Parkins's edit. Blomefield's Hist, of Nor- 

f Lib. pilos, f. 40, a. Lysons's Environs folk, vol. xi, p. 74. 
of London, vol. iv. p. 131. 



after reciting their claim to various privileges and iinmunities, states 
that there were certain customary tenants of the fcity, sixteen in 
number, who, by their tenure, were bound to watch the city three 
nights in the year, which are specified, and also to watch and 
bring up felons and thieves condemned, as well in the court of the 
justiciary of Chester, in the county there, as before the mayor of 
Chester in full crownmote, as far as the gallows, for their safe 
conduct and charge, under the penalty which thereto attaches ; for 
which services the said customary tenants had certain privileges and 
exemptions *. 


In this manor the antient custom of socage is still kept up ; the 
tenant not paying his rent in money, but in so many day's work-j^. 


The lords of the wood in the wealds of Kent, used to visit those 
places in summer-time, when their under-tenants were bound to 
prepare little summer-houses for their reception, or else pay a 
composition in money, called summer-hus silver if:. 


In an old rental of this manor, mentioned by Somner in his 
Treatise on Gravelkind, mention is made of a service called ser- 
vitium liberum armorum, which was a service done by feudatory 

* Black Book of the City of Chester, p. J Custura, de Sittingbourne, MS, Jacob's 

57. Lysons's Mag. Brit. vol. ii. p. 571. Law Diet. verb. Sutnmer-Hus Silver. 

t Camd. Brit. 467. 



tpsjiaftts, who were called liberi hoiijines, aijd distinguished from 
vassals as was their service, for they were not bound to any of 
the base services of ploughing the lord's land, &c. but were to 
find a man and a horse, or go with the lord into the array, or to 
attend his court, &c. * 


Gilbert de Grauneestre held a hundred acres of land, under the 
;manor of Edgware, anno 1328, by the service of a pair of gilt 
spurs ; and William Page fifty acres by the rent of a pound of 
cummin -f*. 



William Hunt, of Carleton by Rothwell, holdeth freely from all 
services and demands (except one rose in the time of roses, if 
demanded) in Carleton aforesaid, one capital messuage, six curti- 
lages, four cottages, two carneals (carucates) of land and meadow, 
and six assarts f , inseparable at all times in the year, with their 
appurtenances, of the Earl of Lincoln (Henry de Lacy), as of his 
manor of Rothwell, and the same WiUiam and his heirs shall have 
and for ever enjoy, in the manor of the said earl there, without the 
park there, a leash of greyhounds and six hounds, and the sai<} 
William and his heirs shall be ready and prepared^ when they shall 
be required by the forester there for the time being of the aforesaid 
earl, and his heirs, with the greyhounds and hunting hounds afore- 

*Somner on Gavelkind, p. 56. Jacob's f Lysons's Environs of London, vol. ii. p. 

Law Diet. tit. Servitium liberum. 244. 



said, to hunt and kill fat venison of the aforesaid earl and his heirs, 
in venison season, in the said park *. 

% See note under Urpath, p. 371. 


Geoffery, son of William de Brimington, gave, granted, and 
confirmed to Peter, son of Hugh de Brimington, one toft, with the 
buildings, and three acres of land in the fields there, with twenty 
pence yearly rent, which he used to receive of Thomas, son of 
Gilbert de Bosco (Wood), with the homages and services, reliefs 
and escheats, rendering yearly to him and his heirs a pair of white 
gloves, of the price of an halfpenny, at Christmas, yearly, for all 
services -j^. 


In the year 1666, the Earl of Leicester paid six shillings and 
eight-pence, rent of ward and castle-guard silver, to Lord Windsor, 
for his lordship of Coiety J. 


Sir Roger de Hyngoldyeby held in Foulbeck, Hetham, Westby, 
and Heryerby, three knight's fees, rendering yearly to the said 
earl for Castle Ward thirty shiUings §. 

* Ex Record. 13 Edw. VI. SiDns Rogerus de Hyngoldyeby tenet in 

•)- From a MS, without date iu the hands Foulbect, Hetham, Westby, et Herierby, 

of F. F. Foljamb, Esq. tria feoda militis redd', pro ward Castri xxxs. 

J Ex MS. Supervis. capt. anno 1666, in from the same, 
custod. authoris libri cui. tit. " Complete Eng- 
lish Copyholder." 




The whole town is antient demesne, and enjoys the privileges of 
that tenure, as also those of the Duchy of Lancaster, of which thi^ 
manor is a member, and consequently within its liberty, but was 
exempted from the jurisdiction of the duchy by John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster : in token whereof at this day a brazen gauntlet 
(or hand) is still carried before the lord of the manor, or his steward 
whenever they hold court here, on the same day, as the device 
or rebus of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, who assigned all 
the royalties to be held of him by the lords of the manor ; and 
the plow coulter in the hand denotes the manor to be held in 
free socage and not in capite, or by knighfs service. This I 
take to be the real fact, though there are other accounts that say, 
that this manor was held of the duchy, from its first erection, by 
the service of being Champion to the Dukes of Lancaster, of which 
olfice the gauntlet is a token, it being the very thing which every 
one that challenges another to fight, according to the law of arms, 
throws down, and if the challenged takes it up, the combat is 
agreed on, and now the sending and accepting a glove (the 
gauntlet being the iron glove of a suit of armour) is the way of 
giving and accepting an honorable challenge 



Daniel de Charleton possessed this manor in the reign of King 
Edward 11. as did his descendant John de Charleton, in the 
twentieth year of King Edward III. when he paid respective aid 

* Bloroefield's Hist, of Norfolk, vol. iii. p. 538. 

. 3 N for 


for it, at the making the Black Prince a knight, as one knight's fee, 
which he held of William de Leybourne *. 


The capital seal and barony of the Redversies, or de Ripariis, 
how called Rivers. It was given to them by King Henry I. and 
they had a castle here, of which many tenants held their lands 
adjoining by a certain tenure, which the lawyers called Castle 
Garde, because they were bound to defend it and repair the walls 
of it when it was needful f. 


In the 14th Richard II. John Denbaud held at his death the 
manor of Stokelynch-Ostricer, with the advowson of the church, 
of the Earl of Huntington, as of his manor of Ilaselborough, by 
the service of keeping a hawk (ostrum) every year, till it should 
be completely fit for service. And when the said hawk should 
be so fit, he was to convey it to the lord's manor-house, attended 
by his wife, together with three boys, three horses, and three 
greyhounds, and to stay there forty days at the lord's expence, 
and to have the lady's second-best gown for his wife's work J. 


Ralph Scales gave the Knights Templars one hundred and 
sixty-two acres of arable, three of meadow, and five of pasture, 
in Rowenhalle. And they had other lands here : the tenant of 

* Hasted's Hist, of Kent; vol. ii. p. 419. t Collinson's Hist, and Antiq. of Somer- 

•j- Magna Britannia; vol. i. p. 469. setshire, vol. iii. p. 115. 



some of which was to ^t in lieu of all services. " Manducabit 
pro omni servitio */' 


In the 40th Edw. III. Gilbert de Engaine gives to William 
Wybergh and JElianore his wife, a^ti the heirs of their bodies 
lawfully begotten, his whole moiety of a moiety of the manor 
of Clifton, in demesne and in services, with the services of free 
tenants, and with the bondmen (cum nativis et eorum sequelis ^) 
in the said mqiety pf the paoiety of the said ;mmor belonging, 
where we may observe that the free tenants (liberi tenentes) were 
not what are now called freeholders, as seised of a freehold estate, 
in opposition to tenant right ; but only that they were not bondmen 
or villains of the lord holding in drengage-j^ 

^ Et eorum sequelis. The retinue, and appurtenances to the goods 
and chattels of villains, which were at the absolute disposal 
of the lord. In former times, when any lord sold his villain, it 
was said, " Dedi B. nativum meum cum tota sequela sua," 
which included all the villain's offspring. iParoch. Antiq. p, 316. 
288. Jac. Law Di«t. 

And in the 18th Hen. VIII. Thomas Wyborgh, Esq. held of 
Henry Earl of Cumberland the manor of Clifton, by cornage^, 
owino" also wardship, marriage, relief, and suit to the county court; 
owino- also further, by the custom of the Castle of Burgham, twenty- 
one quarters and a half of aats issuing out of tljie manor aforesaijj, 
which custom is called Dringage J. 
•1 See note under Heighingt^n, p. 379. 

* Monast. Angl. vol. ii. pp. 526. 543, &c. f Burn's Hist, and Antiq. of Westmorland 

^orant'^Hist. of Essex, vol. ii. p. 149. and Cumberland, vol. i. p. 417. 

t Ibid. p. 418. 




The prior of Kyme, in the county of Lincoln, holds two caru- 
cates of land in Thorpe, by the service of ten pounds of money 
yearly, for aid to the sheriff^ *. 

^ Auxilium vice-comitum. The aid or customary dues paid to the 
sheriff for the better support of his office. Kennett, and see 
note under Refhop, p. 358. 


/ Amory de St. Amand held the manor of Grendon, in the county 
of Bucks, and the advowson of the church of Beckley, in the 
county of Oxford, by the petty serjeanty of furnishing the lord 
of the honor with one bow of ebony and two arrows, yearly, or 
sixteen pence in money f. 


Richard de Grey and Matilda de Seretaand and Geoffery Con- 
stantyn, held the whole town of Saxby Bondby of William Solers, 
for their service to cross over the sea with him, at his costs, into 
Normandy, for forty days J. 

* Prior de Kime, com. Line, tenet duas 
carucatas terrae in Thorpe, per servitium xl 
denariorum per annum, ad auxilium vice-co- 
mitis. Mon. Aug. torn. ii. p. 245, a. Ken- 
nett's Gloss, to Paroch. Antiq. v. Auxilium, 

t Gul. Dugd. MS. A. 1. p. 177. Kennett's 
Paroch. Antiqs. p. 358. 

J Ricardus de Grey et Matilda de Sere- 
taand, et Galfridus Constantyn tenent totam 
villam de Saxby Bondeby de Willielmo Solers, 
pro servicio suo ad transfretand'. cum eo ad 
custum suum in Normand. per xl dies. In- 
quis. facta in Wapentagio de Walscroft. Halt. 
MS. Brit. Mus. No. 3875, p. 83. 




John Bradshaw held one acre and a half of land, &c. in the 
town of Horwood, of Sir Edward Trafford, knight, in socage, by 
rendering one iron arrow to be paid yearly, and it was worth three 
shillings and four-pence *. 


Richard Wrotham held of Roger Stawle two yard-lands 5f in 
Nieveton, by the service of one white rod -j-. 

^ Virgata terrse. See note on Nether Overton, p. 130. 


Alan la Zouche held the manor of Great Gatesdene, with the 
advowson of the same church, of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, as 
of the inheritance of Alicia his wife, by the service of onie 
knight's fee, and rendering one pair of gloves furred with grise§^ 
at Christmas J. 

§§ See note on Lyndeby, p. 189. 

* Johannes Bradshaw ten'. 1 aci'. et dim', 
cum pertin'. in villa de Horwood, de Edw. 
Trafford milite, in soc. per redd'. 1 sagitt. 
ferrl annuatim solv. val, 3 s. 4 d. A° 2 Edw.VI, 
Tenures, &c. co. Lancaster. Harl. MS. 
Brit. Mus. No. 2085, p. 486. 

t Ricardus de Wrotham tenuit de Rogero 

Stawle, in Nieveton, ij virgat'. terr'. per serv'. 

• unius albe virge. Ahridgm. Inc[ui». post 

mortem, co. Somerset. Anno 35 Hen. III. 
Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 4120, p. 2. 

J Alanus la Zusche ten' . manerium de Magna 
Gatesdene, cum advocac5ne eiusdem ecclesiae, 
de Thoma Comite Lancastriae, ut de here- 
ditate Alesias uxoris sue, per servicium unius 
feodi milit'. et reddendo unum par ceroce- 
tarum furretar' de griso, ad fin Natalis dni. 
Inquis. p. m. Alani le Zuche. Anno 7 Edw. II. 
Ibid. No. 6126, p. 10, 




Robert, son of William Creuel of Crendon, holds one hundred 
shillings of land there of the Earl of Pembroke, by the service of 
one chap1(3t of roses at Christmas, and pays no escuage^l *• 

5f Escuage. See note on Lighthorn, p, 313. 


Robert de Wilminton holds a serjeanty of the honor of Bologne 
and Wilumton, which was worth yearly two marks, and he holds it 
by the serjeanty of being cook of the Earl of Bologne -j-. 


The prior of Norton held the town of Midleton by the service of 
the fourth part of one knight's fee, and of finding one judger in 
ihe court of Halton every fortnight '^.. 


John Sutton holds the towns of Budworth and A^hton, near 
Budworth, two oxgangs of land in thiB town of Lower Tubbeley, 
and a certain, parcel of the hamlet of Lith, with a third part of the 
town of Higher Tubbeley, by the service of one knight's fee, and 

* RobertuSjfiliusWillielmi Creuel, de Cren- tiam quod sit cocus com. Bononie, Temp, 

don, tenet c solid, terreper servic'. unius ca- Regis Hen. III. Testa de Nevil. 'Harl. MS. 

pelle de rosis ad Natal, nee dat scutag. Te- Brit. M us. No. 313, p. 10. 

Bures CO. Bivcks tempore Regis Hen. IH. J Prior de Norton ten', vill. de Midleton 

Harl. MS. Brit. Mus. No. 313, p. 44. per servic'. 4 partis feod. milit'. et per servic'. 

■f Robertas de Wilminton tenet unam ser- inveniendi unum judicatorem in cur', de Halton 

jantiam de honore Boun et Wilumton, et valet de quindina in quindina. Extenta Castri de 

per annum ij marc, et tenet illam per serjan- Halton^ 2 Edw. HI. Ibid. No. 2115, p. lOQ. 



by finding one judger§§ in the court of Halton every fortnight, for 
his tenements in Bud worth; and for his other tenements he did 
suit by afforciament ||§|1 *. 

§§ Judger. See note on Hawardyn and Bosele, p. 229. 

|j§|| Aiforciamentum curise. The calling of a court upon a solemn 
and extraordinary occasion. Cowel's Interpreter. Afforcia- 
mentum. A forcing or compelling to do something. Ainsworth's 
Diet. Law Lat. sub. voce. 


Richer de Eldresfeld holds one hide of land in Eldresfeld, of 
the honor of Gloucester, of the gift of Robert Earl of Gloucester, 
by the service of providing him with hose of scarlet on hi^ birth- 
day -f.. 


Geoffery de la Worthy holds one tenement, four acres of land andT 
a half, and two gardens, (of Henry de la Pomeray) in Bery, render- 
ing at Easter and Midsummer five shillings and nine-pence, and 
one pound of wax and three capons, the price of the wax sixpence, 
and of the capons one penny :|:. 

* Johannes Sutton tenet villas de Bndworth ter'. in Eldresfeld, de honore Glouc'. de dono 

et Ashton juxta Budworth, 2 bovat'. terr'. in Robert] com. per servicium serviendi in rubeis 

villa de Tubbeley irjferiori et quandam parti- caligis die nat'. Testa de Nevil, p. 43. 

cula'r. hamletti de Lith, et 3 partem villae de ;]; Galfridus de la Worthy tenet unum ten'. 

Tubbeley superior, per servic'. 1 feod. mil. iiij ac's terre et dim', duo gardin' r'. ad Pasch'. 

inveniend. unum judicatorem in curia de Hal- et ad nat'. bi'. Johannis Baptiste vs. ix den', 

ton, de quiudena in qiiin'm pro ten', in Bud- j libram cere et iij capon', p't cere vi den', 

worth, et pro alijs ten', suis facit sect', per p't capon', id. Extent', terrarum et ten', 

afforciamentum. Extent, ut supra. , Henrici de la Pom 'ay in Bery, in com. De- 

f RicherJHS de Eldresfeld tenet j hydam von, &,c. Ibid, p. 185. 



Of Lands held by Villenage Tenure *. 


In King Edward the First's time, Adam Underwood held one 
yard-land ^ in Brayles, in the county of Warwick, of William, Earl 
of Warwick, paying therefore seven bushels of oats yearly and a 
hen, and working for the lord, from Michaelmas till Lammas, every 
other day, except Saturday, viz. at mowing, as long as that season 
lasted, for which he was to have as much grass as he could carry 
away with his scythe ; and at the end of hay-harvest, he and the rest 
of his fellow mowers, to have the lord's best mutton, except one, 
or sixteen-pence in money, with the best cheese, saving one, or 
rsixpence in money, and the cheese-vat, wherein the cheese was 
made, full of salt. From Lammas to Michaelmas, he was to work 
two days in the week, and to come to the lord's reap with all his 
household, except his wife and his shepherd, and to cut down one 
land of corn, being quit of all other work for that day. That he 
should likewise carry two cart loads and an half of the lord's hay, 
and seven cart-loads of stones for three days, and gather nuts for 
three days. And in case the lord kept his Christmas at his manor 
of Brayles, to find three of his horses meat for three nights. That 
he should plough thrice a-year, viz. six selions :|;§|;, and make three 
quarters of malt for the lord, and pay for every hog he kept above 
a year old a penny, and for every one under, a halfpenny. An^ 

*For the nature of the tenure in villenage, see latt. Tenures, hb. 2, cap. 11, and Coke's 
Comment thereon. 



lastly, that he, and the rest of the tenants of this manor, should 
give twelve marks yearly to the lord at Michaelmas, by way of 
aid, and not marry their daughters, nor make their sons priests |lj.||, 
without licence from the lord *. 

^ Yard-land. The fourth part of an acre, in some places, is called 
a yard-land, and half an acre is a selion, 9 Edw. III. 479. In 
England the land was divided into hides, (usually taken for six 
score acres) carucates and acres, and none of them are men- 
tioned in Domesday. Virgates and seliones being uncertain, 
according to the custom of the country. A. See notes under 
Nether-Overton, p. 130, and under Badew, p. 143. E. 

:f§t Selions. From the French seillon, ridges of land. A. 

jj:|:|| Nor make their sons priests. Nee filios coronare. To give the 
tonsure ; such as were admitted to holy orders had the upper 
part of the head close shaven, sO that the lower parts of the 
hair formed a circle, or croWn, about the middle of the head. 
Hence, shaven and bald priest is frequent in old English 
writers. A. This was an usual restraint of old in villenage 
tenure, to the end the lord might not lose any of his villains, by 
their entering into holy orders. Blount. See note under Cly- 
raeslond, p. 467. 


The knights of St, John of Jerusalem in England, had at New- 
bigging, thirteen oxgangs of land of assize held by these men. 
Baldwin held one oxgang for two shillings and an half, and two 
hens, and twenty eggs, and four days work f in autumn with one 

^ .^ * Inquis. per H. Nott. tit. Brayles. Blount, '20. 

3 o man, 


man, to plough twice, to harrow twice, to mow once, to make hay 
once, and when there should he occasion, to repair the mill-dam, 
and draw or carry the mill-stones |;§:|: : and to wash sheep one day, 
and another day to shear them. Bertram and Osbert, for one ox- 
gkng of land, paid thirty-pence, and the aforesaid service, &c. 
And it is to be known that all the cottagers ought to spread and 
cock hay once, and to wash and shear the sheep, and repair the 
mill-dam, as those which held an oxgang of land *. 

% Precarias. Reap-days. Blount. Boon-days. A. 

X^X Molas attrahere. I know not what molas attrahere should sig- 
nify, unless to draw or carry mill-stones. Blount. What else 
should it signify, but what the words properly mean ? A. 


A. B. A bondman or villain by birth ^§J sometime held one mes- 
suage with the appurtenances, in Clymeslond in the county of 
Cornwall, and answered for the same yearly, at four terms, two 
shilHngs and four-pence, and a rent called berbiage§j§, at the 
feast of St. Philip and James, of sixteen-pence : and did suit to 
the court of the lord from three weeks to three weeks ; and was to 
be reeve ^, decennier [*], and bedel ||jj, when he was chosen. And 
when our lord the prince should come to Latinceston, he was to 

* Apud Newbigging xiii bovatae assisse de mus et Osbeitus, pro una bovata xxxd. et 

liiis homiiiibus ; Baulduinus una bovata, pro praedictum servitium, Stc. Et sciendum quod 

II s. et dim. et ii gallinas, et xx ova, et qua- cotarii omnes debent faenum spargere et levare 

tuor precarias in autumpno, cum i iiomine ; semel, et oves lavare, et tondere, et staguum ■ 

bis arrare, bis herciare, semel falcare, semel reparare, sicut illi qui teneut unam bovatam. 

faenum levare, et cum opus fuerit stagnum re- Inquis. capt. anno 1 135. Mou. Angl. torn, iu 

parare et molas attrahere, et oves, uno (una) p. 539. Blount, 24. 
die levare, et altersi (allero) tondere. Bertra- 



'fcarrj, as tyften as the lofdl pleased, one carriage of wood daily 
from Clymeslond to Launceston, at his own charge. And his 
youngest son who should be living at his death, was to have his 
lands by a fine, which he was to make with the lord at his will : 
^nd he was not to be removed from his lands for all his life-time. 
He was not to send his son to school, nor marry his daughter 
i^vithout the prince's licence, and when he died the lord was to 
have all his chattels *. 

X^X Nativus de stipite. This nativus de stipite was a villain or 
bondman by stock or birth, and differed from nativus conveh- 
tionarius, who was so by contract or covenant. Blount. 

§-f I Berbiagii. For the meaning of berbiagii you mu«t consult 
some learned Cornish man ; it seems to have been a certain rent, 
but why so called, quaere, Blount. Berbiagium, from berbia, 
corrupted from vervex, Fr. berbis (berbrees, berbets) or brebis, 
a sheep, seems to imply some payment of money for liberty of 
feeding sheep on the lord's ground. A. This is an ingenious 
plausible conjecture, if it can but consist with the premises, viz. 
one messuage with the appurtenances. P. See Calistoke, p. 
469. E. 

* A. B. Nativus de stipite quondam teniiit de Clymeslond usque Launceston, ad custum 

unam inessuagium, cum pertin. in Clymeslond proprium. Et filius ejus, novissime natus, 

in com. Cornubiae, et reispondet inde per annum quern reliquerit superstitem habebit terras 

ad quatuor terminos lis. iv d. Et berbiagii ad suas, per finem quem fecerit, cum domino ad 

festum Apostolor. Phillippi et Jacobi xvi d. voluntatem suani, et non amovebitur a terra 

]Et faciei sectam ad cuiiam domini de tribus sua pro vita sua. Non mittet filium suum ad 

septimanis in tres septimaflas, et erit prtepo- scholas, nee iiliam suam maritabit, sine licentift 

situs, decennarius, et bedellus, cum electus principis: et cum obierit, dominus habebit 

fuerit. Et cum dominus princeps in ierit apud omnia catalla sua. Antiq. supervis. Ducatus 

Launceston cariabit, qudtieus dictus dominus Comubi*. Bloant, l07. 
voluerit, uuum carriagium per diem' de bosco 

3o2 In 


In pages 250, 252 of Blount's Fragmenta (Beckwitb's edition,) the 
nativi tenentes de Calistoke, and A. B. nativus de stipite ia 
Clymeslond, in com. Cornub. are said to pay a certain rent, 
called in the original Latin berbiagiam and berbiagii. 

Concerning these words, Blount refers you to some learned Cornish 
man to seek for their meaning, Beckwith suggests, that from 
the French word berbis, a sheep, transposed into brebis, it 
implies a rent or payment for liberty of feeding sheep on the 
lord's ground. 

This difficulty will possibly vanish upon making the following quo- 
tations from Hals's History. Under the article Bodman, he 
says, that " the jurisdiction and royalty over the river Alan, 
from Camelford to Padstow-rock, was given to this prior (i. e. of 
St. Pedyr, or Peter, in Bodmin) by Algar, Earl of Cornwall, in 
right of the manor of Helston, in this hundred, excepting the right 
of 'free fishine: to the tenants thereof. But since the dissolution 
of this priory by King Henry VHI., this royalty is disjointed, 
if not quite dismembered from it, and enjoyed by such in co- 
partnership as are the now owners of its lands and revenues, 
and by some others whose lands are contiguous with that river ; 
though the now duchy tenants of the manor of Helston aforesaid, 
still pay barbeagu, or barba-gue money (i. e. barbed spear 
money) annually to the Duke of Cornwall, who is lord thereof, 
for free fishing with salmon spears, for this sort of fishes^ 
therein " 

Under the article Calstock, Hals'^ quotes the very tenure inserted 

by Blount; and adds, that " barba-gue, barba-gyu, is in Cornish 

a bearded or barbed spear, such as is commonly used for 

kiUing salmons in the Tamer, and other rivers." 



As Calstock and Olymeslohd are adjoining parishes, and both 
situated on the river Tamer, I presume that the meaning of 
berbiagiam is sufficiently ascertained *► 

% Preepositus. Reve, or Greve. Germanice Grave. Sax. Gerefa. 
The bailiff of a franchise or manor. Blount's Law Diet, sub voce 
Reve. E. 

[*■] Decennarius. A juryman of the leet, or sheriff's turn. For an 
explanation of the veord, see Blount's Law Diet, sub voce 
Deciners. E. 

[Ill Bedellus. A cryei* or messenger of a court, an under-bailiff of 
a manor, &c. See Blount's Law Diet, voce Bedel. E. 


The native tenants, or villains, of Calistoke, in the county of Corn- 
wall, paid yearly nineteen shillings of a certain rent called ber- 
biage ^, at the Hokeday 1[§1|. -f 

% Berbiagium. Why this rent was called berbiagium, I am to 
^.f seek. Blount. But see berbiagii, p. 467. E. j^N »< 

lllll It was payable at Hokeday, of which there were two, viz. Mon- 
day and Tuesday se'nnight after Easter week ; but I think Tues- 
day was the chief Hokeday, which day was long celebrated here 
in England, in memory of the expulsion of the domineering 
Danes. Blount, Rather Easter Tuesday, from this following 
quotation, viz. " King Hardeknute, on the third day after Easter, 

* Gent. Mag. July, 1790, p. 608. ditu vocata berbiagiam, ad le Hojceday. Ibid. 

+ Nativi tenentes de Calistoke, in com. Blount^ 133. 
Cornubiae, reddunt per annum de certo red- 

! 1 suddenly 


' suddenly died, to the great joy of all England, in sign of which, 
even to this time, on that day, commonly called Hoxtuisday, 
they play in the towns, drawing ropes, with other jests *." A. 
Speed, in his life of Hardiknute, says, that, " in a solemne 
assembly and banquet at Lambeth, the 8th of June, revelling 
and carousing amidst his cups, he sodainly fell downe without 
speech or breath, ever since (which) the day of his death is an- 
nually celebrated, among the common people, with open pas- 
times in the streets, which time is now called Hoctide, or 
Hucxtide, signifying a time of scorning," &c. Speed's Chron. 

' 415, citing Simeon Dun. Matth.West. and Lambard's Peramb. in 
Sandwich. E. The quotations from Ross and Speed do not at all 
accord, for Easter Tuesday and the 8th of June cannot possibly 
be the same season. It appears to be a moveable day ; however, 

' it* was an usual day of payment. Spelm. Gloss, p. 294, and 
Cowell's Interpreter. P. 


■ Roger de Wellesburae held the moiety of one hide of land in 
Tachebroke, in the county of Warwick, and was to come, at the 
great reap-day^ in autumn, with all his reapers, and to be at the 
lord's diet %^X twice a day -f-. 
f Magna precaria, is a general reap day, in some places called a 

love-reap. Blount. 
.^§|. Ad puturara domini. At the lord's diet for two meals. Blount. 

* Rex Hardeknutus, feriatertia post Pascha, f Roger de Wellesburne tenuit medietatem 

subito obiit, in totitts Ai^rae maxtmum gua- iinms hidte terras in Tachebroke, in comitatu 

djuni : in cujus signiim, usque hodie, ilia die, Warwici, et veniet ad magnam precariam in 

Vulo'ariter dicta Hoxtuisday; ludunt in villis, autumno, cum omnibus messoribus suis ad 

trahendo cordas partialiter, cum aliis jocis, puturam domini bis in die. Lib. niger Lich- 

Ex Hist. J.Rossi-Warwicens. A. feldiae. Blount, 110. 



i v>! K ApelDERHAM, county of SUSSEX. 

John Aylemer holds, by court roll, one messuage and one yard- 
land, &c. in Apelderham, in the county of Sussex, and ought to 
findv a man with a horse to harrow one day every week at each seed 
time in winter and lent [*], whilst there should be any thing to har- 
row [_-Y] in the lord's land : and he who was to harrow was to receive 
every day a repast, viz. bread, pottage, companage [.|.], and drink 
of the price of one penny; and, for every horse harrowing, he was 
to have every day as many oats as he could carry between his twa 
hands. And also he ought to come every year at two plough-days [§J, 
with his plough, if he had a whole plough, or with such part as he 
had, if he had not a whole plough, and then he ought to plough 
every day as much as he could from morning to noon ; and both [||] 
(viz. the holder of the plough and the driver) were to have a solemn 
repast on each of the said plough-days [§]. And he ought to find at 
three reap-days in autumn, every day, two men, and was to have, 
for each of the said men, on every of such reap-days, viz. on eadh 
of the two first days, one loaf, of wheal and barley mixed, weigliing 
eighteen pounds of waxf , every loaf to be of the price of a penny ^ 
farthing; and at the third reap^day, each man was to have a loaf, 
of the same weight, all of wheat, of the price of a penny half- 
penny ; and the said two men were to have jointly, at which of the , 
said three reap-days they would, pottage, and a dish of flesh meat,- 

without drink, of the price of one penny *. 

[*] Semen; , 

♦Johannes Aylemer tenet per Irrotulamen- ad herciandum qualibet septimana per unum 
turn Curiae unum raessuagium et unam virgatam diem ad utrumque semen yemale et quadragesi- 
terrffi, &c. in Apelderham, in com. Sussex, et male, dum aliquid fuerit ad herciandum in terra 
debet jnvenire unum hominem, cum uno equo domini. Et ille qui herciat ^uolibet die recipiet 



[*] Semen yemale et quadragesimale. Winter seedness and lent 
seedness. Blount. 

[t] Ad herciandum. To harrow. Blount. 

[X] Companagium. Bread and meat, or quicquid eibi cnm pane 
sumitur, (whatsoever meat is eaten with bread.) Blount. 

[§] Precarias carucae. Work-days of the plough. Blount. Boon- 
days. A. 

DO Uterque tentor. I suppose uterque tentor, &c. may signify 
(how properly I will not determine) both the man that held the 
plough, and he that drove it, who were to have a solemn repast. 
Blount. The original should be pointed thiis,^et uterque, tentor, 
viz. carucae, et fugator, and then the version will be plain, thus, 
and both, viz. the holder of the plough and the driver. P. 

f Pounds of wax. This is very singular. Was wax weighed by a 
particular weight? One would suppose so. It was an article 
"♦ then of great traffic. P. 

unum repastum, viz. panem, potagium, com- 
panagium, etpotem precii i d. et quilibetequus 
hercians babebit quaiibet die tantum de aveuis 
sicut capi potest inter duas manus, et etiam 
debet venire quolibet anno ad duas precarias 
carucae cum caruca sua, si habeat iiitegram 
carucam, vel de parte quam habet carucae, si 
carucam non habeat integram, et tunc arare 
debet utroque die quantum potest a mane ad 
meridiem, et uterque, tentor, viz. carucae, et 
fugator habebunt unum pastum solempnem 
utroque die predictarum precariaruni. Et de- 
bet invenire ad Ires precarias in autumpno 

quolibet die duos homines, et habebit uterque 
dictorum hominem ad utrumque diem precari- 
arum, primus (prime) unum panem utroque 
die de frumento et ordeo mixto, qui pondera- 
bit XVI II libras cerae, pretium cujuslibet panis 
] d. q. Et ad tertiam precariam habebit 
uterque homo unum panem praedicti pouderis, 
totum de frumento, prec. I d. ob. et habebunt 
praedicti duo homines conjunctini, ad quanili- 
bet de praedictis tribus precariis, potagium 
et ferculum de carne, sine potu, prec. i d. 
Consuetudinar. Monast. de Bello. Blount, 




Richard de Harrecurt gave and granted to William de Sutton, 
for his homage and service, all that virgate of land in Sutton, with 
one messuage, and the appurtenances : but the said William and his 
heirs were to plough one selion of land at winter seed time f , and one 
selion at lent seed time ^X% and one selion at fallow f *f , and to weed 
for one day with one man, and to mow for one day with one man in 
summer ||§||, and they were to find one man to make hay, and to 
carry the said hay with one cart, until it was all fully carried to the 
court of Sutton, (which was their lord's house) : and they were to 
find one man to make cocks, or ricks of hay [*], till they were fi- 
nished ; and to do four days work in autumn, with two men, 
the three first days at their own diet, and the fourth at their 
lord's ; and to carry corn for one day with one cart, and to find 
one man for one day to make mows [-f] in the grange, or 
barn, &c. * 

^ Yevernagium. Winter seedness. Blount. See semen yemale, in 
p. 472. 

* Sciant praesentes et futuri^ quod ego prata cum uua carecta, quousque cariata sint 

Kicardus de Harrecurt dedi et concessi Willi- pleuarie iu curiam de Sutton, et irivenient 

elmo de Sutton pro homagio et servitio sue, unum hominem ad faciendum muilones foeni 

totam illam virgatam terras in Sutton, cum quousque perticiantur, et facient quatuor pre- 

uno messuagio et pertin'. Dictus vero Wil- cariais autumpnales cum duobus hominibus, 

lielmus et haredes sui arabunt unam seilonem scil. tres ad cibum illorum proprium et quar- 

ad yevernagium, et unum seylonem ad semen tam ad cibum domini, et cariabunt bladum 

quadragesimale, et unum seylonem ad warec- • per unum diem cum una carecta, et invenient 

tam, et sarclabunt per unum diem cum uno unum hominem per unum diem ad faciendum 

homine, et falcabunt cum uno homine per meyas in grangia. Htec omnia Servitia, &c. 

unum diem in esteia. Et invenient unum ho- Hiis Testibus. Ex ipso Autographo, penes 

minem ad levandum prata, et cariabunt dicta Tho. Wollascot, Arm. Blount, 130. 

3 p §!-§ Quadragesimale. 


§|.§ Quadrag-esimale. Lent seedness. Blount, See p. 472. 

t*t Warectani. Fallow. See Ainsw. Diet, of Law Lat. E. See 
p. 148, Warrocks, or ploughman, one who lays down in 
fallow. W. 

\m\ Esteia. Summer, for so I thinli^ is meant by esteia, from aestate, 
though I have not elsewhere met with the word. Blount. Not 
directly from sestate, as Blount supposes, but Fr. Este. P. 

[*] Mullones Foeni. Cocks or ricks of hay. Blount. 

[f ] Meyas. Moughs or Meys. Blount. See Ainsw. Diet, of Law 


Richard de Penelesdon (Pulesdon) holds lands and tenements in 
Worthynbury, in the parts of 3Iailer Says-nec, in the county of 
Flint, which are held of our lord the king by certain services, and 
by ammobragium ^, which extended to five shillings, when it hap- 
pened, as by the inquisition, &c. * 

^ Ammobragium. A pecuniary acknowledgment paid by the te- 
nants to the king, or vassals to their lord, for liberty of marrying 
or not marrying. Thus Gilbert de Maisnil gave ten marks of silver 
to Henry III. for leave to take a wife, and Cecily, widow of Hugh 
Pevere, that she might marry whom she pleased -}:-. It is strange 
that this servile custom should be retained so long. It is pre- 
tended that the amobyr among the Welsh, the lyre-wite among 

* Ricardus de Pynelesdon tenet terras et te- bragium, quod ad quinque solidos extenditur 

iiementa in Worthynbury, in partibus de ^lailer cum acciderit, sicut per Iij4''*sitionem, &c. 

Says-nec, in com. Flint, quae tenentur de do- Pat. 7 Edw. II. p. 2. m. 7. intus. Blount, 7. 
mino Rege per cert^ servitia, et per ammo- t Madox's Excheq. I, 456. 6. 



the Saxons, and the mercheta mulierum among the Sdots, were 
fines paid by the vassal to the superior, to buy off his right to the 
first night's lodging with the bride of the person who he'ld from 
him : but I beliove there never was any European nation (in the 
periods this custom is pretended to exist) so barbarous as to 
admit it. It is true that the power above cited was introduced 
into England by the Normans out of their own country. The 
amobyr, or rather gobr merch, was a British custom of great 
antiquity, paid either for violating the chastity of a virgin, or for 
the marriage of a vassal, and signifies the price of a virgin *. 
The Welsh Laws, so far from encouraging adultery, checked, 
by severe fines, even unbecoming liberties f. The amobyr was 
intended as a preservative against lewdness. If a virgin was 
deflowered, the seducer, or, in his stead, her father, paid the 
fine. There is one species so singular as to merit mention : if 
a wife proved unfaithful to her husband's bed, the poor cuckold 
was obliged to pay his superior five shillings as long as he did 
cydgysgu, i. e. sleep with her ; but if he forbore cohabiting with 
her, and she cydgysgu'd with her gallant, the fine fell on the 
offending fair. To cuckold the prince was expiated at a very 
high rate J; the offender was fined in a gold cup and cover as 
broad as his majesty's face, and as thick as a ploughman's nail 
who had ploughed nine years, and a rod of gold as tall as the 
king, and as thick as his little finger ; a hundred cows for every 
cantref he ruled over, with a white bull with different coloured 
ears to every hundred cows. 

The recompence to a virgin, who had been seduced, is very 

;: , : . ; 

* Leges Wallicae, 92, et Glossar. 554. % Leges Wallicae, 199. 

"t*- Leges Wallicae, 78. 

3 p 2 singular: 


singular : on complaint made that she was deserted by her lover, 
it was ordered by the court, that she was to lay hold of the tail 
of a bull of three years old, introduced through a wicker-door, 
and shaven and well greased. Two men were to goad the beast : 
if she could, by dint of strength, retain the bull, she was to have 
it by way of satisfaction ; if not, she got nothing but the grease 
that remained in her hands *. 

It is singular, that the ancient Britons should make so light of 
the crime intended, when one nation of our Celtic ancestors, 
the Germans, (but quaere whether the Germans were Celtse) in- 
flicted the most cruel punishment on the female offender at 
least -i-. , 

The Saxons had their lyre-wyte, or lecher-wyte, for the same end 
that the Welsh had their amobyr. The crime is mentioned 
often in the Saxon laws % '• once with a cruel penalty denounced 
against the offender ; and a second time, with a strong dehorta- 
tion from the commission. 

In general the crime was expiated with money, according to 
the deoree of the person injured. The Indians at this time 
commute in certain degrees of offence ; but oftener punish it 
with burning, and other excruciating deaths §. 



The tenants of these manors held their lands by these customs 

* Leges Wallicae, 82. * § Gentoo Laws, 268, Sic. I^ennant's Tour 

+ Tacit, de Mor. Germ. in Wales, 1773, pp. 221, 454, &c. 

:!; Leges Sax. 40, 132. 



and services. Evei*y native, or villain, (which were such as we now 
call husbandmen) paid each a cock and a hen, besides a small rent 
in money, for a toft and one bovate of land, held of the priory of 
Thurgarton. These cocks and hens were paid the second day in 
Christmas, and that day, every one, both cottagers and natives, 
dined in the hall, and those who did not, had a white loaf and a 
flagon of ale, with one messe from the kitchen. Every villain gave 
a halfpenny towards cleansing the mill-dam. The freeholders were 
bound to tribus arruris (three plough-days) for the lord with one 
plough, which were then valued at twelve-pence, and likewise three 
days work in harvest, the first day with one man, the second day 
with two, and the third day with five workmen, and one of them- 
selves in person, and every day to have their refection. The na- 
tives were likewise bound to give three plough-days each, and every 
plough was to be allowed four boon loaves, and to harrow three 
days, and every harrower was allowed a brown loaf, and two her- 
rings a day. Likewise all the natives and cottagers were to reap 
every other day in harvest ; the first day every two were to have one 
brown loaf and two toillects ^, the second day two brown loaves 
and one toillect, and afterwards every two men to have every day 
three brown loaves ; and on the day of the great bidrepe J||, which 
>vas called the prior's boon, every native was to find three workmen, 
and the cottager one. Every of the said natives were to make carriage 
from the foreign granges thrice a year, each with one horse, and 
evervtime to have a miche|l*l[, or white loaf; and all the reapers in 
harvest, which were called hallewiraen [.j^], were to eat in the haU 
one day in Christmas, or afterwards, at the discretion of the cel- 
lerer ^. Likewise every naif Jl, or she villain, that took a husband, 
or committed fornication, paid merchet ^§, for redemption of hea* 
blood, five shillings and four-pence, and the daughter of a cottager 



paid but half a merchet. And every native paid for paunage of 
every swine in the park, three-pence, &c. * 

% Toillects. These must be something to eat, perhaps tripes for 
V. Cotgrave, voce Toile. P. 

J§:|: Bidrepe. See note under Hildsley, p. 415. 

11*11 Miche. A loaf. Fr. 

52 Hen. III. Michia idem est quod mica, et Gallicum xjne miche, 
panis nempe parvulus sive ut nos Angli, a manchet.— 
Hearne's Lib. Nig. Scacc. Oxf. 1728, vol. ii. pp. 654, 655. 

[X] Hallewimen. I conjectured that these might be holy women. 
So called because they worked for the priory or religious house 
of Thurgarton. For such persons within the bishopric of Dur- 
ham as held their lands by the service of defending the corpse 
of St Cutbbert, were called Halywercfolk, and claimed the 
privilege of not being forced to go out of the bishopric, either by 
the king or bishop. Hist of Dunelm. apud Whartoni Ang. Sac. 
par. I. p. 749. Jac Law Diet, sub voce Halywercfolk. But the 
learned Mr. Pegge says this can have nothing to do with women; 
as he thinks the word should be divided Hallewi-men, so called 
either from leaving their harvest work at All-saints, i. e. All- 
Hallows, or rather perhaps from being entitled to the Christmas 
entertainment in the hall of the priory. 

^ Cellerer. Was an office in a monastery, who kept and delivered 
out the victuals, &c. to the friars or monks (qui fratrum sti- 

* Reg. Priorat. de Thurgarton, cited by Dr. Thoroton in his Antiq. of Nottinghamshire. 
Blount, 142. 



pendta servat et administrat.) MS. Blount's Law Diet, voce 

tt Naif. Nativa. A bond- woman or she-villain. Blount's Law Diet, 
voc. Neif.' 

§§ Merchet. The same as Ammobragium. See p. 474. 


The custom was here for the natives and cottagers to plough and 
harrow for the lord, and to work one boon-day for him every week 
in harvest, when every two workmen had three boon-loaves with 
companage [*] allowed them. Each customary tenant in Fiskerton 
and Moreton, one day in the year found a man to cleanse the dam 
of Fiskerton Mill. If any ale-wife brewed ale to sell, (si quis 
braciatrix braciaverit cerevisiam) she was bound to satisfy the 
lord for Tolsester ^. If any native or cottager sold a male young- 
ling after it was weaned, he paid four-pence to the lord as a fine; 
or killed a swine above a year old, he paid the lord one penny, 
which was called Thistletac §§i Every she-native that married, or 
committed fornication, paid for redemption of her blood (pro 
redemptione sanguinis) five shillings and four-pence to the lord, 
which was in lieu of merchetta mulierum J§^ *. 

[*] Companage. See note under Apelderham, p. 472. 

€ Tolsester. A fine for licence to brew. A. See Blount's Law 
Diet, in verbo. E. 

^§^ Thistletac. See Jac. Law Diet, in verbo. But quaere, whether 
he be not in an error respecting this word ; and further, quaere, 

* Reg. Priorat. de Thurgarton. Blount, 153. 



what is the meaning of it. Mr. Pegge conjectures that the word 
is mis-read for Thristletac, and that it means the bringing of the 
swine to the threstle, whereon it was to be laid when killed. 

$§| Merchetta Mulierum. Whether from mark, a horse in the 
old Gallique, (implying the obscene signification of equitare) 
as Mr. Selden thinks, or from marca, the sum of money by 
which it was afterwards commonly redeemed, I cannot deter- 
mine. Blount. More likely the latter ; but see Ammobragium, 
p. 474, and Mercheta, p. 483, E. 


The manors of East and West Enborne, in the county of Berks, 
have this custom; that if a copyhold tenant die, the widow shall 
have her free-bench ^ in all his copyhold lands, whilst she con- 
tinues sole and chaste (dura sola et casta fuerit) ; but if she 
commits incontinency, she forfeits her widow's estate ; yet, after 
this, if she comes into the next court held for the manor, riding 
backward upon a black ram, with his tail in her hand, and says 
the words following, the steward is bound by the custom to re- 
admit her to her free-bench. 

" Here I am, 

" Riding upon a black ram, 

" Like a whore as I am ; 

" And for my crincum crancum, 

" Have lost my bincum bancum; 

" And for my tail's game, 

" Am brought to this worldly shame, 

" Therefore, good Mr. Steward, let me have my lands again*." 

* Blount, 144. 

f Free- 


f Free-bench (franc-bank, francus bancus, i. e. sedes libera), is 
that estate in copyhold lands, which the wife, being espoused 
a virgin, hath, after the death of her husband, for her dower, 
according to the custom of the manor, &c. See Blount's Law 
Diet. tit. Free-bench. 


There is the like custom in this manor, and other parts of the 
west *. 


At Orleton, in the county of Hereford, the relict of a copyhold 
tenant is admitted to her free-bench, that is, to all her husband's 
copyhold lands, during her life, the next court after her husband's 
death -f-. 


At Kilmersdon, in Somersetshire, by the custom of the manor, 
the wife has widow's estate, which she loseth if she marries, or is 
found incontinent; but to redeem this last, if she come into the 
next court, riding astride upon a ram, and in open court do say 
to the lord, if he be present, or to his steward, these words, 

" For mine a — e's fault take I this pain, 

" Therefore, my lord, give me my land again," 

She is by the custom to be restored to it, without further fine, 
doing this penance %. 

* Blount, 144. X MS. penes Sam. Roper, arm. Blount^ 

t Blount's Law Diet, tit. Free-bench, 149. Leland's Itiq. vol. iii. p, 106. 

3 Q BRUG, 



Be it known, that when any customary tenant of the manor of 
Burg, in the county of Salop, dies, the bishop is to have his best 
beast, all his swine, bees, whole bacon, a young cock, a whole 
piece of cloth, a brass pan, a rundlet ]:§.|: of ale, if it be full. And 
if he marries his daughter out of the fee, he was to give three 
shillings. Also he was to give for every lierwyte^, two shil- 
lings *. 

X^X Tenella, or tonella cervisiae, is a little tun, tub, or rundlet of 
ale. Blount. 

f Lierwyte, or lairwyte (from the Saxon la^an, concubere, to lie 
together, and wite mulcta, a fine) signifies a fine, or mulct, by 
the custom of some manors imposed upon offenders in adultery 
or fornication, and due to the lord of the manor. Blount. See 
Ammobragiura, p. 474, and Merchetta Mulierum, p. 480, and 
Oras, in the next page. E. 


The men of Berk-holt, in the county of Suffolk, say, that in the 
time of King Henry, grandfather of our lord the present King, 
(Henry IH.) they used to have this custom ; that when they would 
marry their daughters, they used to give to the lord for licence 
so to do, two Ores [*], which were worth thirty-two pence -f*. 

[*] Oras. 

* Sciendum est, quod quando aliquis custo- quaudo maritabit filiam extra feodum, dabit 

marius manerii de Burg, in comitatu Salop, tres solidos ; dabit etiam pro qualibet lier- 

moritur, episcopus habebit melius averium, wyte ii s. Liber ruber Castri Episcopi. 

omnes porcos, apes, baconem integrum, pul- Blount, 145. 

lum masculum, pannum integrum, ollam f Homines de Berk-holt, in com. Suffolk, 

ienam, tenellam cervisiae, gi sit plena. £t dicunt quod tempore Regis Henrici, avi 



{*] Oras. Here these ores (which were Saxon coins) are declared 
to be in value of our money, sixteen-pence a-piece ; but after, 
by the variation of the standard, they valued twenty-pence 
a-piece. And this fine for the tenant's marrying their daugh- 
ters (pro filiabus suis maritandis) was, without doubt, in lieu 
of the mercheta§§ mulierum, or first night's lodging with the 
bride, which the lord anciently claimed in some manors. 

|§ Mercheta (of the Scottish feuds in particular), is certainly 
British. This term, which has given occasion to that fiction 
of folly in the best histories of Scotland, that the lord had a 
privilege to sleep with the bride of his vassal, on her wedding 
night ; which has been explained by derivations equally obscene 
and stupid, is apparently nothing more than the merch-ed of 
Howel-Dha, the daughter-hood, or the fine for the marriage of 
a daughter. Whitaker's Hist, of Manchester, lib. ]. cap. 8, 
sect. 3. p. 265. 

In Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, vol. iv. p. 221, it is stated (under 
the article Wretton), that in the 24th Hen. III., there was a 
suit carried on by the prior of Shouldham, whose manor of 
Caversham extended therein, the prior claiming merchettam 
(for a marriage) from William de la Ferte of this town, who, 
proving himself a freeman and no villan, was acquitted. Blome- 
field explains merchetta to be the fine of a mark, paid to be 
free from a savage custom in many manors, for the lord to lie 
the first night with the bride of his tenant. 

domini Regis nunc, solebant habere talem filiabus suis maritandis duas oras, qua; valent 
consuetudinem, quod quando maritare vole- xxxii denarios. Plac. coram. Rege. Mich, 
bant filias suas, solebant dare (domino) pro 37 Hen. Ill, Rot. 4. Blount^ 159. 

3 Q 2 Many 


Many estates in the manor of Great Tey, in the county of Essex, 
were subject to the mercheta mulierum, which custom has 
commonly been supposed to be a right which the lord had 
of passing the first night after marriage with his female villan. 
*' The best historians," says Mr. Astle *, " as well as several 
foreign authors, have given many marvellous particulars con- 
cerning this custom ; but, on diligent enquiry, I am of opinion, 
that this kind of intercourse between the lord and his female 
villain never existed. I am persuaded the mercheta was a 
compact between the lord of the manor and his villan, for 
the redemption of an offence committed by the unmarried 
daughter of his vassal ; but more generally it was a fine paid 
by a sokeman, or a villan, to his lord, for a licence to marry 
his daughter ; and if the vassal gave her away without ob- 
taining such licence, he was liable to pay a fine. The probable 
reason of the custom appears to have been this. Persons of 
low rank residing on an estate, were generally either ascripti 
glebse, or were subjected to some species of service similar 
to the ascripti glebse ; the tenants were bound to reside on 
the estate, and to perform several services to the lord. As 
women necessarily followed the residences of their husbands, 
the consequence was, that when a woman of low rank married 
a stranger, the lord was deprived of part of his live stock ; 
he therefore required a fine to indemnify him for the loss of 
his property. In process of time, this composition was thrown 
into the aggregate sum of quit rents, as appears by an ancient 
survey of this manor." 

* Illustrations of the Tenures and Customs and Britton's Beauties of England and Wales, 
of this Manor, by Mr. Ast4e ; printed in the vol. v. pp. 338-9, 
Arcbaeologia, vol. xii. pp. 25. 40, Brayley 




In the soke of Hecham, in the county of Norfolk, are twenty- 
four husbandmen ^, the custom of whom it is, that every one of 
them ought to work from Michaelmas to autumn, every week for 
one day, either with a fork, or with a spade J§t, or a flail §§, at the 
pleasure of the lord, with a corredy at noon [*], and one loaf at 
evening ; or if this work was dispensed with, every one of them 
was to give in lieu of it sixpence *. 

^ Lancetse. The learned Spelman says, these lancetse were hus- 
bandmen ; but of an unknown sort (agricolse qusedam, sed 
ignotse speciei). Gloss. Blount. 

Jll Besca. A spade or spittle, from the French bescher, to dig or 
delve. Blount. 

§§ Flagellum. A flail. Blount. 

[*] Cum corredio ad nonam, signifies meat and drink, or dinner, 
at noon. Blount. Corrodium, or corredium. A corody, was a 
sum of money, or allowance of meat, drink, and cloathing, due 
to the king from an abbey or other house of religion, whereof 
he was founder, towards the reasonable sustenance of such an 
one of his servants or vadelets, as he thought good to bestow 
it on. Blount's Law Diet, tit, Corody. E. And was granted 
very commonly to subjects, as well as to the king. P. 

* In soca de Hecham, in comitatu Nor- domini, cum corredio ad nonam, et unp pane 

folk, sunt xxiv lancetae ; consuetudo eorum ad vesperam, vel si eis remittitur hoc opus, 

est, ut unusquisque eorum debet ©perari a quisque eorum dabit pro hoc opere sex de 

Sancto Michaele usque ad autumpnum una- narios. Customar. Prior Lewensis., Blount, 

quaque !:ebdomada per unam diem, sive cum 146. 
furca, sive cum besca, vel flagello, ad libitum 




W. M. holds nine acres of customary land in Bosbury, in the 
county of Hereford, and a certain water-mill, at the will of the 
lord, and owes certain customs, viz. tak ^, and toll [*], and 
faldfey X^X, and to buy his blood |1§I1 *. 

f Tak. A tax. See Madox, Formul. p. 188, and Du Fresne voce 
Tac, and Tacus. P. 

Tak, or tack, in Scotland, is applied to an annual payment or 
lease, so that tak means a certain annual sum for right to the 
use of the mill, and a toll, a certain rate or duty, when the right 
is at any time exercised. W. 

[*] Toll. A tribute or custom paid for passing, buying, selling, &c. 
Blounf s Law Diet, in verbo. 

t^X Faldfey. I suppose this faldfey may signify a fee or rent 
paid by the tenant to his lord, for leave to fold his sheep on his 
own ground. Blount. 

jj^lt Sanguinem suum emere. I suppose by this was meant that the 
tenant, being a bond-man, should buy out his villanous blood, 
and make himself a freeman. Blount. 


The tenants of the manor of Honington, in the county of War- 
wick, were by antient custom to perform several services to the 
lord, every other day, from Midsummer to Michaelmas. To pay 

* W. M. tenet novem acras terrae custo- mini, et debet quasdam consuetudines, viz. tak 
mariae in Bosbury in com. Heref. et quoddam et toll, et faldfey, et sanguinem suum emere. 
molendinum aquaticum ad voluutatem do- LibernigerHeref. fo. 138. Blount, 155. 



six shillings and eight-pence yearly for maintenance of the lord's 
corn cart, and none of them to sell his horse-colt without Ucence 
from the lord * 


The tenants at Hampton-Bishop, in the county of Hereford, were 
to get yearly six horse loads (summas f ) of rods or watdes, in the 
**^y +§+ wood near Hereford, and bring them to Hereford, to make 
booths [Jll at the fair, when they should be required; and for every 
load (summa) of the said rods, they were to be allowed a halfpenny 
at the fairs -j^. 

f Summas virgarum. Horse loads of rods, or wattles. Blount. 
See Summa Avense, note under Felstede, p. 137. 

:[.§$ Hayajuxta Hereford. See p. 242. 

IIJI Cletas. Booths. A. Hurdles to pen sheep in at the fair. For 
Cleta I suppose is made a Latin word from the French word 
claye, which signifies a hurdle or watUed gate. Blount. I think 
I have heard these hurdles called clares in some country, for 
they have many and very different names. P. 

This tenure, I conjecture, relates to one particular fair only, and 
not to all the fairs held at Hereford. The word nundinee is in- 
deed in the plural number; but as it has no singular number, it 
is from thence that the uncertainty arises. The fair, which I sup- 
pose the tenure concerns, begins on the 19th of May, and, from 

* Inquis. per H. Nott. Blount, ]60. nundinarum faciendas, quando fuerint requisiti, 

•|- Terientes de Hampton episcopi in com. et pro qualibet summa dictarum virgarum 

Hereford, debent quaerere annuatim sex sum- allocabitur eis obalum de nundinis. Lib^ nig. 

mas virgarum, apud boscum de Haya juxta Heref. Blount, 160. 

Hereford, et apportare ad Hereford ad cletas 



its continuing nine days, is called the nine-day fair. From time 
immemorial, this fair is proclaimed with certain formalities, by 
the bishop of Hereford's bailiff, or his deputy, and the tolls of 
the fair belong to one or both of these officers. During the 
continuance of the fair, the bishop's bailiff supersedes the mayor 
of Hereford, and is the acting magistrate. The fair also is not 
held in the usual place, but in a street before the bishop's 
palace. The bishop of Hereford has likewise had, at all times, 
an intimate connexion with the parish of Hampton-Bishop, (as 
may be insinuated from its ns^me) being the patron of the 
rectory, and keeping in repair a large embankment of the river 
Wye. He is, I believe, paramount lord over the greatest part, if 
not the whole, of the parish. 

These are my grounds for supposing the nine-days fair only to 
be alluded to in the foregoing tenure : and could it be made 
to appear that the hay wood had ever any dependance on the 
bishop of Hereford, my conjecture would be more strongly 

This tenure may properly enough use the plural of fair, and yet 
apply (as it seems certainly to do) only to one fair, because 
the tenure looks forward to an annual fair, and consequently 
provides for the service to be performed at all the nine-day 
fairs thereafter. W. 

Mr. Kelham, in his Domesday Book illustrated, to " heimaris," in 
the collection of difficult passages explained, adds a note, ex- 
pressive of his inability to understand the words, " lector tu tibi 
Oedipus esto." 



Without aiming at a claim to the skill of an Oedipus, I beg leave 
to offer an explanation of the term : the passage as quoted is, 
" medietas unius heimaris et quarta pars alterius medietatis 
" tunc reddebant 20 mill, alletium, modo 25 mill/' I have no 
copy of Domesday to consult, but suppose that the quotation 
occurs in the account of some county on the coast, possibly 
Suffolk, as St. Edmund is mentioned as having the soc and sac. 
I take the meaning therefore, of the word to be a w^ear or dam, 
or some kind of inclosure of the sea, or else some species of 
net for the taking of sea fish ; and that the word is compounded 
of haia or heia, and mare *. 


The customary tenants of this manor were to mow, spread, turn, 
cock, carry to the manor of the lord, and pitch to the stack [*], one 
acre of meadow, of the meadow of the lord. They ought also to 
find, throughout all autumn, one man to stack the corn of the lord 
in the said manor, whilst any of the lord's corn shall remain to be 
stacked -f-. 

[*] Ad tassum furcare. To pitch to the mough. Blount. 


In the manor of Stoneley in the county of Warwick, there were 

* Gent. Mag. January, 1791, p. 31. num unum hominem ad tassandum blada do- 

•f- Tenentes debent falcare, spergere, vertere, mini in dicto manerio, diinii blada domini ibi- 

cumulare, cariare in maneriiim domini, et ad dem tassanda fuerint. Customar. de Bello iu 

tassum furcare unara acram prati, de prato com, Sussex. Blount, 164. 
domini : et iovtnient etiam per totam autump- 

3 R antiently 


antiently four bondmen, whereof each held one messuage, and one 
quartron of land f , by the service of making the gallows, and 
hanging the thieves. Each of which bondmen was to wear a red 
clout betwixt his shoulders, upon his upper garment; to plough, 
reap, make the lord's malt, and do other servile work *. 

Sir Edward Coke says the worst tenure he has heard of is to 
hold lands to be ultor sceleratorum condemnatorum, ut alios sus- 
pendio, alios menibrorum detruncatione, vel aliis modis juxta quan- 
titatem perpetrati sceleris puniat, that is, to be a hangman or exe- 
cutioner, &c. -f* 

% Quaere if a quartron of land was not the same as a ferdell, far- 
dingdeal, or ferundell of land, that is, the fourth part of a 
yard-land. See pp. 130, 144, 216. 

THE MANOR antiently called BUTLERS, alias HERE- 

In 1256 there was a long suit between Nicholas de Pincerna, 
who assumed the name of Stalham, and William son of Richer de 
Bosco, or Bois, for not taking his homage, and demanding an 
unreasonable relief of him, for lands held of him here, to which 
Nicholas pleaded that he was his villan belonging to this manor, 
and that he and the rest of the villan s of this manor, were taxable 
at their lord's will, and that they paid a fine for leave to marry their 
daughters and sisters, and that he took a mark, for leave to marry, 
as his fine, and that therefore it was not unreasonable, which being 
proved the lord recovered ; I mention this, to shew in what a miser- 
able state the under tenants were in at that time J. 

* Reg. de Stoueley Monast. Blount, 3. J Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, vol. iii. 

+ Coke Liu. fo. 86, a. Blount, 139. p. 676. 





The inhabitants of Bickton were bound by their tenure to carry 
the lord's dung into his fields, to plough his ground at certain days, 
sow and reap his corn, &c. and even to empty his jakes. But this 
was afterwards turned into a rent, now called Bickton silver, and 
the villanous service excused. Bickton was held of Clun Castle ia 
Shropshire *. 


About the time of King John, mention is made of certain tenants 
"belonging to the prior and convent of Norwich, called Lanceti, who 
were to have their sheep in the lord's fold from Martinmas to Candle- 
mas, and then to have their ewes out of the fold, and to pay fold- 
age, but their other sheep continued in the lord's fold, the whole 
year f. 

A lancetagium seemed to contain eiglit acres. Blomefield. See 
Lancetse, under Ilecham, p. 485. 


In the manor of Builth, in the county of Radnor, every tenant 
paid maiden rent, viz. a noble at their marriage, antiently given to 
the lord for his omitting the custom of merchetta, whereby he was 
to have the first night's lodging with his tenant's wife; brtt it was 
more probably a fine for licence to marry a daughter if. 

* Blount's Law Diet. tit. Villehage. % Jacob's L*w Diet. tit. Maiden Rent, 

t BlomefieM's Hist.jof Norfolk, vol. v. p. 

3 R 2 This 


This tenure is still subsisting, but the lord generally chooses to 
tap a hogshead of eider rather than have the virgin *. 


In the reign of Edward III. there belonged to this manor a 
profit called love-bone ; to wit, that all residents in Grimestone, 
having horses with a cart, should work for the lord, for the redeeming 
of the common of Grimestone, one day's journey of barley seed 
time, each to have for his breakfast one penny halfpenny ; and all 
keeping cows on the common, were to do a day's work in harvest, 
and at three o'clock each to have flesh to eat, and ale to drink, 
and three loaves every evening; and if they refused then it was 
lawful to distrain on the said common, &c. -j- 


In the Harleian collection at the British Museum, there is an 
antient survey of the manor of Barking (without date and imper- 
fecta) In this survey the services due from the inferior tenants to 
the abbess and convent are stated at large. One of them (Robert 
Gerard) was, among other services, to gather a full measure of 
nuts, called a pybot, four of which should make a bushel ; to go 
a long journey on foot, once a year, to Colchester, Chelmsford, 
Ely, or the like distances, on the business of the convent, carrying 
a pack ; and other shorter journies, such as to Brentford, &c. 
maintaining himself upon the road. He was to pay a fine for the 
marriage of his daughter, if she married beyond the limits of the 

* Conip. Copyholder, 79- t From an old parchment roll. Blome- 

field's Norfolk, vol. iv. p. o48. 



manor, otherwise to make his peace with the abbess, as well as he 
could ; if his daughter should have a bastard child, he was to 
iHake the best terms that he could with the abbess for the fine 
called kyldwyte. It appears also that he could not sell his ox, 
fed by himself, without the abbess's permission. Some of the 
tenants were obliged to watch and guard thieves in the abbess's 


Alexander de Whitworth held the manor of Wodham in capite, 
ot the prior of Durham, by fealty, and by the service of xvi s. and 
VIII d. a year ; and he was to do suit to the court of the prior, and 
to grind his corn at the mill of Ackley to the twentieth dish ^, and 
all his tenants were to grind there to the thirteenth dish ^, and he 
was to give aid, and to find, from every house, except the hall §-}-§, 
one man to mow at Akley, who was to have meat once a day •]■: 

^ See note under Easington, p. 354. 

§f § De qualibet domo prseter aulam. Meaning from every house, 
except the manor-house. P. 


In the 8th of Edw. I. Jordan Foliot was lord of this town with 
its members, and Thomas de Rotheband being one of his villans. 

* Lysons's Environs of London, vol. iv. vas, et omnes tenentes sui molent ibidem ad 

p. 74. tertium decimum vas, et dabit auxilium et in- 

f Alexander de Whitworth tenuit manen' veniet de qualibet domo, praster aulam, unum 

de Wodham de pr'. Dunelm. per fid', et per hominem ad metend'. apud Akley, et habebit 

servic'. xvi s. et viii den. per ann. et faciei cibum semel in die. Inquis. post mortem 

sect', ad cur', pr'. et molet proprium bladum Alexandride Whitworth. 2 Bury, A. D. 1336. 
suum ad molendibum de Akley ad "vicesimnm 



he was found to have a right of taxing him high or low at his will, 
and the custom of merchet ; and in the fourteenth of that king, he 
claimed free-warren, and assize of bread and beer &f his tenants, 
frank-pledge, by view of the king's bailiff, and a weekly market on 
Monday, and a fair on the vigil, the day, and day after St. Michael *. 


Richard Burr holds one messuage, and owes tallage^, suit of 
court, and merchet §§§ in this manner, that if he should marry his 
daughter with a free man, without the town, he shall make his peace 
with the lord for marriage, and if he should marry her to any cus- 
tomary tenant he shall give nothing for marriage f-. 

f Tallage. A tax or tribute. Blount. 

|§§ Merchet. The same as Ammobragium, p. 474. 


William Maynard, who held lands in Heurst, acknowledged him- 
self to be villan of the abbot of Abbendon, and to hold of him in 
villenage, and by the customs of villenage, viz. by the service of 
18 d. per annum, and of giving for marriage and merchet with his 
daughter and sister, at the abbot's will, and in performing all vil- 
lanous customs '^. 

* Parkins's edit, of Blomefield's Hist, of J Willielinus Maynard, qui tenuit terras in 

Norfolk, 8vo. vol. ix. p. 512. Heurst, cognoscit se esse viilanum abbatis de, 

•f Ricardus Burr tenet unum messuagiuin, et Abbendon, et tenere de eo in viUenagio, et per 

debet tallagium, sectam curiae, et merchet hoc viilanas consuetudines, viz. per servitium 18 d. 

modo, quod si maritare voluerit filiam suam per annum, et dandi maritagium et merchetum 

cum quodarn libero homine extra villam, faciet pro filia et sorore sua ad voluntatem ipsius 

pacem doniini pro maritagio, et si earn mari- abbatis, et faciendo omnes viilanas consuetu- 

taverit alicui customario villse nil dabit pro dines. Placita de BancQ, Pasch. 34 Hen. 

maritagio. Anno Dom. 1230. Blount's Law III. Rot. 20. Berks. 

D act tit. Merchet. WROTHAM, 


This manor was given to Beck Abbey in Normandy, by the 
Ralph de Toni, who held it at the survey, from which time it enjoyed 
all the privileges belonging to that monastery. In the register of 
the abbey, (fol. 58, b.) the customs of the manor are entered, among 
which it appears, that the tenants were to pay scot and lot, by way 
of aid to the abbots, when they came into England, or their proc- 
tors, if the necessities of the abbey were very urgent : they could not 
sell a horse-colt, nor an ox of their own bringing up, without their 
lord's leave, nor marry their daughters, nor go to live out of the 
manor, nor remove their chattels out of it without licence. They 
paid at every death their best beast for a heriot, or thirty-second in- 
stead of it, and if any one died intestate, all their chattels were at 
the lord's disposition. When the harvest work was finished by the 
tenants, they were to have half an acre of barley, and a ram let 
loose in the midst of them, and if they catched him, he was their 
own to make merry with, but if he escaped from them he was the 
lord's, which custom is still kept up at Eton College, there being a 
ram every year let loose among the scholars, on a certain day, to 
be runned down by them, the original of which might come from 
the custom of this manor*. 


Robert, son of Nicholas Germeyn, held one messuage, and half 
a yard land in villenage, at the will of the prioress (of Merkyate,) 
and owed one day's work at the plough ^ in winter, arid one day's 
weedino-[*,] and one wedbedrip [f], (bederip) according to the 
pleasure of the prioress, and he was to have one repast ; also, he 

*Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, vol. i. pp. 315, 316. The custom 6f the ram at Eton 
Cpllege is now given up. 



was to do the service of mowing once [fl for half a day ; and 
for an entire yard land[§] of the same tenure, he was to have 
livery [II] at vespers, which are called evenyngs H*!], as much as 
a mower could make by his scythe, and carry home by himself; 
also for half a yard land of the same tenure he was to have livery 
at vespers, with a companion, so much as a mower could make by 
his scythe, and bear home ; and the mower was to have his break- 
fast of the lady prioress, and he the said Robert, and all others, 
customary tenants of the prioress, were to have grass delivered in 
the meadow, called Gilberdesham, without dinner. They were after- 
wards to turn and cock the hay, and then make mows [[-j || or ricks, 
and every one was to carry four teams of hay to the court of the 
prioress, and to have a breakfast of the prioress ; and for a yard 
land of the same quality he was to do three days work in autumn, 
to wit, reaping with three men without dinner, and one day's work 
without dinner with one man ; and if the binder should be at the 
said reap days, he was to have one garb ||;[:|| of the grain from the 
last corn bound, and also owed one day's reaping at the will of 
the prioress with his whole family, except his wife, and was to be at 
the dinner of the prioress, yet as often as the binder had his dinner, 
he was not to have a garb ; and he was to carry four teams of corn 
in autumn to the manor of the prioress, and to have a breakfast, 
and owed to be taxed (owed tallage |]§||) at Michaelmas, at the plea- 
sure of the prioress ; he was not to sell his male horse, nor an ox 
of his own nurture, nor put his son to school 1|||||, or marry his 
daughter, without the licence and consent of the prioress ; and 
if the prioress should be present, the said Robert was to find 
and carry meat and drink for the time which she should stay 
in the county for her pleasure, and, moreover, pay yearly at 



the four usual terms, two shillings and sixpence, and do suit of 
court *. 

^ Una arura. One day's work at the plough. Kennett's Gloss, 
sub voce Arura. 

P] Una sarculatura. The service of one day's weeding. Keunett. 

[-f] Wedbedrip. The same as bederip. See note under Hildsley, 
p. 415, and Kennett's Gloss, sub voce. 

[^ Falcatura una. Was the service of one time mowing, or cutting 
grass in the demesne meadow of the lord. Kennett. 

[§] Virgata terrse. See note on Nether Overton, p. 130. 

* Robertas, filius Nicholai. Germeyn, tenet 
unutn messuagiurh, et ditnidiatn virgatam terras 
in bondagio ad voluntatem dominae, et debet 
unam aruraoi in yeme, et imam sarculaturam, 
et debet unam wedbedrip, pro voluntate do- 
minae, fet habebit unum repastum, et debet 
unam falcataram per dimidiam diem, et vir- 
gata terrae integra ejusdem tenurae habebit 
liberam ad vesperas, quas vocatur evenyngs, 
tantam sicut falcator potest per falcem levare, 
et domum portare per ipsam ; et dimidia vir- 
gata terrae ejusdem tenurae habebit liberam 
ad vesperas^ cum quodam socio, tantam sicut 
falcator potest per falcem levare, et domum 
portare ; et falcator habebit jentaculirai suum 
de domina priorissa, et ipse Robertus, et 
omnes alii custumarii dominae, liberam fal- 
catam in prata vocata Gilberdesham, sine 
prandio, debent tornare et inde fcenum levare, 
et mulliones inde facere, et debet quilibet ca- 
riare quatuor carucatas foeni ad curiam prio- 
rissae, et habebit unum jentaculum de domina 
priorissa : et virgata terrae ejusdem conditionis 
faciei tres precaiias id autumpQO, videlicet. 

precariam sine prandio cum tribus hominibus, 
et unam precariam sine prandio cum uno ho- 
mine, et si sit ligator ad dictas precarias ha- 
bebit unum garbum seminis de ultimo blado 
ligato, et debet etiam unam precariam pro 
voluntate dominae cum tota familia sua, praeter 
uxorem suam, ad prandium dominae, et quo- 
tiens ligator habet prandium non habebit gar- 
bam ; et debet cariare quatuor carucatas bladi 
in autumpno ad manerium dominae, et habebit 
unum jentaculum, et debet talliari ad festum 
S. Michaelis pro voluntate dominae priorissae ; 
nee debet vendere equum masculum, neque 
bovem de proprio nutrimento suo, neque filium 
suum ad literaturam ponere, neque iiliam suam 
maritare, sine licentia et voluntate priorissae ; 
et si domina priorissa sit praesens, ipse Ro- 
bertus qua?ret et cariabit escnlenta et potitlenta 
priorissae pro tempore quo moram fecerit iii 
comitatu pro voluntate sua, et reddet etiam 
per annum ad quatuor terminos consuetos 
IIS. V I d. et sectam curiae. Kennett's Paroch. 
Antiq. p. 401. 

3 s 

[llj Libera. 


[II J Libera. A livery, or delivery of so much grass or corn to a 
customary tenant who cuts down or prepares the said grass or 
corn, and receives some part, or small portion of it, as a reward 
or gratuity : so the livery of hay and oats, as giving out such a 
quantity of provender for the feeding of horses. Kennett. 

11*11 Evenyngs. The delivery at evening or night of a certain portion 
of grass or corn to a customary tenant, who performs his wonted 
service of mowing or reaping, for his lord, and at the end of his 
day^s work receives such a quantity of the grass or corn to carry 
home with him as a gratuity or encouragement of his bounden 
service. Kennett. 

Ij-j II Mulliones. The same as mullones, under Sutton Courtenay, 
p. 474, from muUo — muUio, a cock, or pout of grass, or hay ; 
hence in old English, a moult, now a mow. Mofe, Sax. of hay or 
corn. Kennett. 

mil Garba. A sheaf of oorn, of which twenty-four made a thrave. 
It extended to a cock of hay, a faggot of wood, or any other 
of the fruits or product of the earth. Kennett. 

||§|| Talliari de certo tallagio. To be assessed or taxed at such a rate 
or proportion, imposed by the king on his barons or knights, 
or by them on their inferior tenants. The inferior tenants 
sometimes made a composition with their lords for this tallage. 
This tallage of the customary tenants was sometimes fixed and 
certain, and sometimes at the arbitrary pleasure of the lord* 
The lords in Ireland impose an arbitrary tax on their tenants, 
which they call a cutting, the hteral meaning of the French 
word taillage. Kennett. 

II II Ij Ad hteraturam ponere. To put out children to school, which 



liberty was denied to some parents, wlio were servile tenants, 
without consent of the lord. Kennett. 


The manor of Nicholas Malory, of Draughton, in Northampton- 
shire, part of which he gave to Roger his brother, and part to 
John Fitz Sampson, to hold of him in villenage ; a tenure, says 
John Breton, as ancient almost as Noah, when it was agreed, that 
captives in war should not be killed, but become villans or bond- 
men. The nature of this tenure was, 1. That the lord might use 
the villan at his pleasure, and he must do whatever his lord 
commanded him. 2. If a villan purchased any lands, his lord 
might put him out and seize it ; and if he bought any goods, the 
lord might take them for his use. 3. If any man took away a 
villan by force, the lord might have an action of trespass, and if 
he ran away, the lord might have a writ, de native habendo, di-^ 
rected to the sheriff to bring him again *. 


Richard de Bynedon held one messuage and one carucate of 

land at Bynedon, of the abbey of Montes Burgh, by the service of 

ploughing, sowing, mowing, gathering, carrying, (the produce of 
the land) and being reeve ^ or bailiff of the lord abbot -f. 

^ Prsepositus. See note on Clymeslond, p. 469. 

* Mawna Brit. vol. ii. p. 1345. seminandi, falcandi, metendi, cariandi, et es- 

•f Ricardus de Bynedon ten', unum messua- sendi praepositus dni abbatis. Inquis. anno 8 

gium, et unam carucatain terre apud Bynedon, Edw. II. Harl. MS. Brit. Mua. No. 6126. 

d« Abbe Montes Burg, per servicium arandi, 

, 'ii:''" 

3 s 2 GRENDON, 



Omnes customarij tenentes de manerio de Grendon debent san- 
guinem suum emere*§§. This was where yillans were bound to 
buy or redeem their blood, and make themselves freemen -f-. 

§§ See note on Bosbury, p. 486. 


Every alepiman^ of the whole soke of Hecham, owes each 
year one penny of chevage:|:J; and he is to work for three days 
in autumn, except those who are free from this servitude. J. 

% Alepiman. Alepimannas. Country servants. Blount's Law Diet, 
sub verbo. Alepimannus. A kind of vassal. Littleton's Diet. 
Law Lat. 

%X Chevage. Is a tribute or sum of money formerly paid by such 
as held lands in villenage to their lords in acknowledgment, 
and was a kind of head or poll-money. Jacob. 

* Lib. niger Heref. 

•f Jac. Law Diet. tit. Sanguinem emere. 

J Omnis alepiman de tota soca de Hecham, 
debet singulis annis unum denarium de che- 
vagio, et operabitur per tres dies in autumpno^ 

exceptis illis qui ab hie servitute liberi sunt. 
Consuetudinar de Hecham, Prior. Lew. MS. 
p. 21. Blount's Law Diet, sub verb. Ale- 





Customs of Manors. 


A N inquisition of the jury taken at this view (of frank-pledge) 
before Geoffery de Okenham, steward ; by the oath of Anselm 
de Clifton, &e. jurors charged (to enquire) of the antient customs 
of this lordship, as well of freemen as of bondmen ; what customs 
they were wont to do and have, before the Coronation of our lord 
King Henry, grandfather to the present King, from the time of 
Athelstan, sometimes King of England, &c. 

Who say, that every freeman of Sutton ought to hold his lands 
and tenements by the force and effect of his original charter, &c. 

Also, those who held half a yard-land, or a nook %% of land, or 
a cottage of bondage-tenure, were used to be bedell lj|| of the manor, 
and decenary §§. 

Also, all those who held in bondage-tenure, were wont to be 
called customary tenants (custumarii). And whensoever the lord 
should go a hunting, those customary tenants used to drive the 
wanlass f to a stand, in hunting the wild beasts, according to the 
quantity of their tenure, as those who held a whole yard-land for 
two days, and so of others. And they used to have among them 



the half part of the fee of a woodward of the venison taken. And 
they used to be keepers of Colfield Heath [*], as often as they 
were chosen by the neighbours at the court, «&c. 

And also, if any of those customary tenants intended to go out_ 
of the lordship, they used to come into court, and surrender into 
the hands of the lord their bondage-tenure, with all their male 
horses and young male foals, and cart bound with iron, with their 
male hogs, their whole pieces of cloth, their wool not spun (non 
formata) and their best brass pan, and then go and stay where- 
soever they would, without challenge of the lord, and he and . all 
his family were to be free for ever. 

And also they say, that they have heard their ancestors say, that 
at the time when the manor of Sutton aforesaid was in the hands of 
the Kings of England, all the chace was afforested, and all the 
dogs within the forest used to be lawed|||.||, and the left claw of 
the foot cut off: and after it came into the hands of the Earl of 
Warwick, they had leave to have and hold dogs of all kind 
unlawed §||§. 

And also, all the freeholders used to be summoned three days 
before the court, and the customary tenants likewise ; and if there 
was any plea between neighbours, and the defendants denied and 
waged law t^S against the plaintifiF, they used to make their law with 
the third hand ; and they used to essoign themselves twice by com- 
mon suit of court, and the third time to appear and warrant the 
essoign. And in like manner of the plea, as well of the plaintiff as 
of the defendant, to be essoigned twice of the plea and twice of 
the law, and the third time to appear or have the judgment (con- 

siderationem) of the court. 



And the aforesajd customary tenants were wont to repair the 

ford about the mill-dam [f] of the lord of Sutton, with earth*. 

J.]: Nocatam terrae. A nook of land. A. Noy, in his Complete 

Lawyer, p. 57, says, two fardels of land make a nook, and 

four nooks make a yard-lard. Blount's Law Diet. tit. Fardel. 
See pp. 130. 144. 216. E. 

* Inquisitio xii. juratorum capta ad hunc 
visum coram Galfrido de Okenham, senes- 
challo, per sacramentum Anselmi de Cliftona, 
8tc. juratorum oneratorum de antiquis consue- 
tudinibus istius dominii, tarn de libertate quam 
de bondagio, quales consuetudines solebant 
facere et habere, ante Coronationem domiiii 
Henrici Regis, avi domini Regis nunc, a tem- 
pore Athelstani quondam Regis Angliae, &c. 
Qui dicunt, quod unusquisque liber homo de 
Sutton solebat terras et tenementa sua, vi et 
efFectu cartas suae originalis, tenere, &,c. Item, 
illi qui tenuerunt dimidiam virgatam terras, vel 
nocatam terrae, vel cotagium de bondagii te- 
nura, solebant esse bedellum manerii et decen- 
narium. Et etiam omnes illi qui tenuerunt in 
bondagii tenura, solebant vocari customarii. 
Et quotiescunque ^lominus ad venandum ve- 
nerit,illi customarii solebant fugare wanlassum 
ad stabulum in fugatione ferarum bestiarum, 
secundum quantitatem tenurae suae, ut illi qui 
tenuerunt integram virgataTn terrae, per duos 
dies, et sic de aliis. Et solebant habere inter 
eos, dimidiam partem feodi woodwardi de ve- 
natione capta. Et solebant esse custodes 
Bruerae de Colfeild, quotiescunquae fuerint 
electi per vicinos ad curiam, &c. Et etiam 
si aliqui de hujusmodi customariis exierint de 
domino, solebant venire in curiam et sursum 
reddere in manum domini tenuram suam bon- 
dagii, cum omnibus equis suis masculis, et 

pullis, masculis, et carectam ferro ligatam, 
cum porcis masculis, panna sua integra, lana 
lion formata, et meliorem ollam suam asneam, 
et exire, et trahere moram ubicunque voluerit, 
sine calumpnia domini, et ipse, cum omni 
sequela sua esse liber iraperpetuum. Et etiam 
dicunt quod audieruiit antecessores dicere, 
quod tempore quo manerium de Sutton prse- 
dicta, fuit in manibus regum Angliae, tola 
chasea fuit afforestata, et omnes canes infra 
forestam solebant impediari, et amputari si- 
nistro ortello. Et postquam devenit in manum 
comitis Warwici, licentiam habere et tenere 
canes opertias, ex omni genere canum et nod 
impediatas. Et etiam omnes liberi tenentes 
solebant sumnioneri per tres dies ante curiam 
et customarii similiter ; et si aliquod placitum 
fuerit inter vicinos, et defendentes negaverint 
et vadierint legem versus quaerentem solebant 
facere legem cum tertia manu, et solebant se 
essoiniare de communi secta curiae bina vice, 
et tertia comparere et warrantizare essoinium. 
Et similiter de placito tam quaerentis quam 
defendentis, bis de placito, et bis de lege 
essoiniari, et tertia vice venire, seu habere con- 
fiiderationem curiae. Et praedicti custumarii 
solebant reparare vadum circa stagnum nio- 
lendini domini de Sutton, in opere terreno. 
Antiq. of Warwickshire, b)? Sir W. Dugdal^. 

Blount, 140. 

», ■ ■ i . , 

nil Bedellum. 


till Bedellum. See note under Clymeslond, p. 469. E. 

§§ Deeenarium. Ibid. p. 469. 

f Fugare wanlassum ad stabulum. To drive the deer to a stand 
that the lord may shoot. Blount. But quaere the meaning of 
the word wanlassum. E. 

[*] Bruerae de (^olfield. Brueria, from the French bruyere, heath. 
Though Ainsworth's Diet, of Law Lat. derives it from the 
Sax. broer, briar, or brush-wood. See Angulum Bruerse, p. 
250. E. 


Canes impediati (impediari) et amputati (amputari) sinistro 
ortello. Dogs lawed (ringed or wired) on the left claw of the 
foot. Blount. 

|1|§ Canes opertias, &c. (q. apertias or apertas) et non impediatas. 
Dogs unlawed, or with whole feet. Blount. 

tg? Facere legem. To make law (wage law) by bringing three others 
to swear besides himself. Blount. For the nature of the law 
wager, see Blaclist. Comment, lib. iii. ch. 22. sect. 6. 

[<|] To repair the ford of the mill-pond. Blount 


In the year 1276, the following Constitution was made by Ro- 
bert de Insula (de Lisle) bishop of Durham, viz. Concerning 
tithes which arise from cows, we have thought proper to ordain, 
that wheresoever there shall be a receptacle of them, although 
it be in neighbouring parishes, horn with horn ^, according to 
the English language, where they seek their pasturage, yet the 



whole tithes shall 'remain where their abode and residing place; 
shall be *\ . 

^ Horn with horn. This horn with horn is, when horned beasts 
of several adjoining parishes do promiscuously intercommon 
together, per cause de vicinage. Blount. 


Robert de Brus hath at Hartlepool, in the county of Durham, 
a sea-port, and there takes keelage |§, to wit, of every ship with 
a boat nil arriving there, eight-pence, and of every ship without a 
boat, four-pence ■\\ 

§§ Killagium. Keelage, whereby he had by custom what is here 
expressed, for the keel of every ship that came into his sea- 
port with a boat. Blount. 

IIJI Batello. Batellus. A small boat. Ainsworth's Diet, of Law 


On King's Hill, in Rochford, in the county of Essex, on every 
Wednesday morning next after Michaelmas-day at cocks crowing, 
there is by antient custom a court held by the lord of the honour 
of Raleigh, which is vulgarly called- the -Lawless Court. The 

* De decimis quje de vaccis proveniunt + Robertas de Brus habet apud Hartle- 

statuendum duximus, quod ubicunque fuerit pool, in com. Dunelm. portutn maris, et 

receptaculum earum, licet in vicinis parochiis capit ibi killagium, scil. de qualibet navi cum 

horn with horn, secundum Anglicam linguam, batello, applicante ibi, octo denarios, et de 

pascua quierant, ilia remaneat tota decima ubi qualibet navi siue batello, quatuor denarios. 

fuerit domicilium et remanentia, Constitut. Hot, Pari. 21 Edw. I. J31ount; 146. 
Eob. Duuelin. Episc. Ann. 1 276. Blount, 14a. 

St steward 


steward and suitors whisper to each other, and have no candles, 
nor any pen and ink, but supply that office with a coal; and he 
that owes suit or service thereto, and appears not, forfeits to the 
lord double his rent, every hour he is absent. The court is called 
Lawless, because held at an unlawful or lawless hour, or quia 
dicta sine lege. The title of it in the court rolls runs thus to 
this day§§. 

i^Ro^H"J"„'. J«{ Curia de domino Rege, 
Dicta sine lege, 
Tenta est ibidem 
Per ejusdem consuetudineni ; 
Ante ortum solis, 
Luceat nisi polus, 
Nil scribit nisi oolis. 
Totius voluerit, 
Gallus ut cantaverit ; 
Per cujus solum sonitum 
Curia es summonita. 
Clamat clam pro Rege, 
In curia sine lege, 
Et nisi cito venerint 
Citius pcenituerint ; 
Et nisi clam accedant 
Curia non attendat ; 
Qui venerit cum lumine 
Errat in Regimine, 
Et dum sunt sine lumine 
Capti sunt in crimine; 
Curia sine cura 
Jurati de injuria, 



Tenta ibidem die Mercurii (ante diem) proximi (r. proxime or 
proximo) post festum Sancti Michaelis Archangeli, anno regni 
Regis, &c. 

This Lawless Court is imperfectly mentioned by Camden f^ i|i 
his Description of Essex; who says, this servile attendance was 
imposed on the tenants of that manor, for conspiring, at the like 
unseasonable time to raise a commotion*. 

§§ So said by Mr. Blount, in 1679. 

% Mr. Blount refers to Camd. Brit. fo. 441, and the reader will 
find it amongst Dr. Holland's insertions in the text of Camden, 
though not in the text itself. 

Mr. Camden says-f, that this strange kind of punishment may 
seem to be inflicted for the negligence of the inhabitants in 
guarding the sea costs ; and in another place he observes J, 
that it seemeth to be a remainder of the old feodary custom, 
used by the Emperors of Almain and Kings of France, who, 
when they passed into Italy to receive the imperial crown at 
Roncalia, neare to Placentia, encamped, and hanging up a 
shield upon an high pole, summoned, with a low voice, all that 
held in fee of them to be present and answer to their names, 
at midnight, which whosoever neglected was amerced with the 
loss of his landes. Of this you may reade (says he) Gunther 
the old Germane poet, in his secund booke. Mr. Weever§, 
likewise, gives a particular account of this odd custom, 4&c.|| 

* Ex. Rot. Curiae, ib. Blount, 147. + In p. 65 of the same work. 

•j- In his Supplement to the Topographical § Fun. Mon. p. 605. 

Pescription of Britain in MS. under the an- ]| Leland's Itinerary, Oxford, 1712, vol. ix. 

thor's own hand, penes me inter Codd, Smi- pp. 169, 170. 
thianos, b. vii. p. 27. 




At Kidlington, in Oxfordshire, the custom is, that on Monday 
after Whitsun-week, there is a fat live lamb provided, and the maids 
of the tovrn, having their thumbs tied behind them, run after it, 
and she that with her mouth takes and holds the lamb, is declared 
Lady of the Lamb, which being dressed, with the skin hanging on, 
is carried on a long pole before the lady and her companions to the 
green, attended with music, and a morisco dance of men, and 
another of women^ where the rest of the day is spent in dancing, 
mirth, and merry glee. The next day the lamb is part baked, 
boiled, and roast, for the lady's feast, where she sits majestically, 
at the upper end of the table, and her companions with her, with 
music and other attendants, which ends the solemnity *. 


In the 45th year of Hen. III., 1261, the jurors upon their oath, 
say, that no person of this borough, for any fact committed by 
him, ought to be hanged: for, according to the custom of this bo- 
rough, he ought to be deprived of his eyes and testicles, and that 
such privilege hath been used time out of mind -f, 


The tenants of South-Mailing, in the county of Kent, ou^t, by 
a custom amongst them, to make scot-ale ^ of sixteen-pence half- 

* Ex relatione habitantium. Blount, 149. burgi, .debet oyels (ceils) et testiculis pri- 
•f Juratores dicunt super sacramentum vari, et tali Jibertate usi sunt a tempore quo 
suum quod imllus de natione istius burgi non extat memoria. Placita apud Kading, 
pro quocunque facto quod fecerjt debet sus- 45 Hen. III. Rot. 29. Blount, 150. 
pendi : nam secundum consuetudinem istius 

penny ; 


penny; so that from every sixpence there be given a penny-half- 
penny to drink with the bedel of the lord archbishop, upon the 
aforesaid fee *. 

% To make a scot-ale, is to make a collection of a sum of money to 
be spent in ale. And in like sense does Manwood interpret it 
in his Forest Laws, Blount. See 4 Inst. 307. 


Whereas through scolds and whores many evils arise in the town, 
viz. strifes, fightings, defamations, &c. and many other disturbances, 
by their shouting and bawling |:§]:, our practice concerning them is, 
that when they are taken they are adjudged to the goging-stoole ||:|:|], 
and there to stand with their feet naked, and their hair hanging and 
dishevelled, for such time as they may be seen by all persons pass- 
ing that way, according to the will of our chief bailiffs f. 

$11. Hutesias et clamores. Shouting and bawling. A. See 3 Inst 

Iffll Ooging-rstoole. ITiis goging-stoole is the same which in our law 
books is written cucking-stool and coke-stool ; anciently tumbrel, 
or trebucket, by Bracton, tymborella : the Saxons (for it is of 

, * Tenentes de South Mailing, in com. diffamationes, See. ac alias multas iiiquietationes 

CanCiae, debent, de consuetudiiie inter eos, fa- per earuin hutesias et clamores ; igitur utimur 

cere scotaliuni de sex decim denariis et ob. de eisdem, quod cum captee fuerint, habeant 

Ita quod de singulis sex denariis detur unum judicium' de la goging-stoole, et ibi stabunt, 

denarium et -ob. ad potandum cum bedello nudis pedibus, et suis crinibus pendentibus et 

dominiarchiepiscopi super prasdictum feodum. dispersis, tanto tempore ut aspici possint ab 

Ex vet, Consuetud. in Archivis Archiep. Cant, omnibus per viam transeuntibus ; secundum 

Blount, 130. voluntatem balivorum nostrorura capitalium. 

f Quia per objurgalrices «t meretrices M.S. L.L. liberi Burgi de Mountgomery. 

multa mala in villa oriuntur, viz. lites, pugnae, Blouat, 150. 



great antiquity) called it a scealfing-stole (from scealfing, scold- 
ing) i. e. a chair in which scolding women were placed, and 
plunged over head in water *. Blount. 


In the town of East Rudham, in the county of Norfolk, the cus- 
tom of all the lands which are held within the borough (burgagium) 
concerning inpeny and outpeny, is this, that he who will sell or give 
the said tenure to any one, shall give for his going out of the same 
tenure one penny, and the like for the entry of the other ; and that 
the bailiff of the lord shall be present at the delivery of every livery 
of seisin : and if the aforesaid pennies shall be in arrear, the bailiff 
of the lord may distrain for the said pennies in the same tenure -f. 


In the 14th of Henry Vlf., 1498, Thomas Venables claims, that 
if any tenant or resiant within the lordship or manor of Kinderton, 
in the county of Chester, committed felony, and his body was taken 
by the said Thomas for the fact, and the party convicted, he should 
have pelf ^, viz. he was to seize all his goods and chattels ; and that 
which belonged to the earl, he was to present at Chester Castle, 
and to have all his household furniture (inventa domestica) and of 
all kind of oxen, cows, steers, heifers, pigs, and sheep, one, to wit. 

* Cathedra in qua rixosze mulieres sedentes, eadem tenura, unum deuarium et simile pro 

aquis demergebantur. Query, if scealfing is ingressu alterius ; et quod balivus doniini erit 

Dot rather the shelving stool. ad deliberationem cujuslibet seisiiiiB delibe- 

•f De inpeny et outpeny, consuetndo talis randae : et si praedicti denarii aretro fuerint, 

est in villa de East Rudham, in com. Norf. balivus domini distringet pro eisdem denariis 

de omnibus terris quae infra burgagium tenen- in eadem tenura. Reg. Priorat. de Cokes- 

tur, viz. quod ipse qui vendiderit vel dederit ford. Blount, 151. 
dictam tenuram alicui dabit pro exitu suo de 



the best; and if he had none, except one of those kinds, he claimed 
to have that one, with all the small animals, as cocks, hens, geese, 
and such like, and all the pieces of cloth cut and begun with :]:§+, 
and all the joints of meat begun with, or cut in part (carnes attaini- 
atas), and all the malt except one quarter §§ : and from every stack 
of corn he claimed to have a whole groundstall f *f of each stack, 
and all the lead out of the furnace, and all the wooden vessels, all 
the table-cloths, towels, and all belonging to the bed, linen and 
woollen, and all the carts not bound with iron, and all the ploughs, 
with all their furniture [.j], &c. * 

f Pelfram. Pelf, or pelfre, appears here to signify such a quantity 
of goods and chattels as are here expressed, which to this day, 
in common speech, we call worldly pelf. Blount. 

J§.| Attainiatos, What this word may signify I am to learn. 

§§ Totum brasium infra unum quarterium. All the malt except one 
quarter. Blount Or under a quarter, P. 

•f-*f Groundstall integrum. Of every mow of corn he claimed to 

* Thomas Venables clamat quod si aliquis cum aliis minutis animalibus, ut gallis, gallinis, 

tenentium visl residentium infra dominium sive aucis, et hujusmodi, et omnes pannos tallia- 

manerium de Kinderton, in com. Cestriap, tos et attainiatos, et omnis carnes attainiatas, 

feloniam fecerit, et corpus ejus per ipsum et totum brasium infra unum quarterium, et 

Thomam super factum illud captum, et con- de quolibet tasso bladi clamat habere ground- 

victus fuerit, habere pelfram, viz. omnia bona stal integrum cujascunque tassi, et totum 

«t catalla hujusmodi seisire ; et ea quae do- plumbum extra fornacem, et omnia vasa lig- 

mino comiti pertinent, ad Castrum Cestriae nea, omnes mappas, manutergia, et omnia kd 

praesentare, et habere omnia inventa domestica lectum pertinentia^ linea et lanea, et omnes 

et de omnr genere boum, vaccarum, bovicu- carrectas ferro nou ligatas, et omnes carrucas, 

lorum, juvencarum, porcorum, bidentium, cum tota apparnra, &c. Plac. in Itin. apud 

unum, viz. melius ; et si de aliquo genere non Cestriam, 14 Heu. VII. Blouot,^ 15 1. 
Iiabueiit nisi, unum clamat habere illud unum. 




have as much as would cover the ground or floor vi^here the corn 
lay. Blount. Onstand. A. Staddle, Derbyshire. P. 

[1] Carruca cum tota apparura, is a plough with all its furniture. 


They have an ancient custom at Coleshill, in the county of War- 
wick, that if the young men of the town can catch a hare, and 
bring it to the parson of the parish, before ten of the clock on 
Easter Monday, the parson is bound to give them a calve's head 
and a hundred of eggs for their breakfast, and a groat in money *. 


At Stanlake, in the county of Oxford, the minister of the parish, 
in his procession, in Rogation Week, reads the Gospel at a barrel's 
head, in the cellar of the Chequer Inn in that town, where some 
say there was formerly an hermitage, others that there was anciently 
across, at which they read a Gospel in former times; over whicli 
the house, and particularly the cellar, being built, they are forced to 
continue the custom in manner as above -j . 


About the year 750, a battle was fought near Burford, in Ox- 
fordshire, perhaps on the place still called Battle-Edge, west of the 
town, towards Upton, between Cuthrerd or Cuthbert, a tributary 
Kino- of the West Saxons, and Ethelbald, King of Mercia, whose 
insupportable exactions the former king not being able to endure, 

* Blount, 153. 

t Nat. Hist, of Oxfordshire, fo. 203. Blount,. 154. 



iie came into the field against Ethelbald, met, and overthrew him 
there, winning his banner, whereon was depicted a golden dragon ; 
in memory of which victory, the custom (yet within memory) of 
making a dragon yearly, and carrying it up and down the town in 
great jollity on Midsummer Eve, to which they added the picture of 
a giant, was in all likelihood first instituted *. 


It has been the custom at Ensham, in Oxfordshire, for the town's 
people on Whit-Monday, to cut down and bring away (wherever the 
church-wardens pleased to mark it out, by giving the first chop) as 
much timber as could be drawn by men's hands into the Abbey-yard, 
whence if they could draw it out again, notwithstanding all the impe- 
diments that could be given by the servants of the Abbey, and since 
that by the family of the lord, it was then their own, and went, in part at 
least, to the reparation of their church : and by this custom, as some 
will have it, they hold both their Lammas and Michaelmas common -f. 


In the manor of Lodebrook, in the county of Warwick, whereof 
the Catesbyes were heretofore lords, each tenant paid swarf-mo- 
ney^ yearly, which was one penny halfpenny ; it must be paid (says 
the rental) before the rising of the sun, the party must go thrice 
about the cross, and say, " the swarf-money," and then take witness, 
and lay it in the hole ; and when he hath so done, he must look w,ell 
that his witness do not deceive him, for if it be not paid, he giveth 
a great forfeiture, thirty shillings and a white bull ."j:. 

* Nat. Hist, of Oxfordshire, 34^. Blount, % Ex antiq. Reutali ejusd. Man. Blount^ 

154. 156. 

t Nat. Hist, of Oxfordshire. Blount, 155. 

3 u f Swarf- 


% Swarf-money. I know not what this swarf-money may signify, 
unless it were mis-written for warth-money, or ward-money, 
Blount. See pp. 186, 312. Perhaps it is another term for the 
smoke-silver known in other manors. W. 


By the custom of Wareham, in the county of Dorset, both males 
and females have a right, equally, in the partition of lands and tene- 
ments ; tenementa in Warham sunt partibilia inter masculos et 
fceminas, says the record ; and is so unusual a custom, that perhaps 
it may be hard to find the like elsewhere in England *. 



The jurors say, that, when at first the miners come into the field 
to seek for mines, and a mine is found, they should come to the 
bailiff', who is called berghmayster, and demand from him two 
meers, if it be in the new field ; and they are to have one for the 
finding, and the other by the right of miners ; and every meer shall 
contain four perches, and to their mine (pit, or shaft) seven feet, 
and every perch shall be of twenty-four feet, &c. Also they say, 
that pleas of bergmote ought to be held from three weeks to three 
weeks, upon the mines in the Peak, &c. -f 

* Plac. de Jur. et Assis. de anno 16 Edw. I. mineratorum, et unaquseque meta continet 

£Iount, 160. quatuor perticatas, et ad foveam suam septem 

+ Juratores'dicunt quod in principio quaiido pedes, et unaquaeque perticata erit de xxiv 

mineratores veniunt in campum mineriae, quae- pedibus, &c. Dicunt etiam quod Placita de 

rentes inventa minera, venient ad ballivum bergmote, debent teneri de tribus septimanis 

qui dicitur bergmayster, et petent ab eo duas in tres septimanas, super minerias in Pecco, 

metas, si sit in novo campo, et habelDunt 8lc. Escaet. de anno 16 Edw. J. No. 34, 

unam, scil. pro inventione, et aliam de jure Derby. Blount, 159. 




It is the custom of some manors, within the honor of Cluu, in 
the county of Salop, that at the entrance of every new lord of that 
honor, the tenants shall pay him a certain sum of money called mise- 
money ^. In consideration whereof, they claim to be acquit of all 
fines and amerciaments which are recorded at that time in the court 
rolls, and not levied, which they call white books *. 

^ Mises. Costs or expences. X. Perhaps it means money remitted 
or forgiven. P. 

A correspondent in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. lii. p. 422, 
suggests whether the money called mise-money may not be 
derived from the French word " remise," which is rendered 
by Cotgrave " acquittance," &c. 


Memorandunr, that on the first day of the coming of our lord the 
king to Rochester, the sealers of his writs %%% ought to have four 
loaves of esquires bread, and four loaves of grooms bread H-fjl ; also 
they ought to have four gallons of convent ale, and four gallons of 
common ale ; also from the kitchen, four dishes of meat wilh which 
the convent is served, and four dishes of common meat, to wit, 
twenty-four herrings, and twenty-four eggs : also for provender §*§, 
seven small bushels ; also they ought to have eight halfpence to buy 
hay. And this was -provided and ordained by the lord King 
Henry III., son of King John, and by Hubert de Burgo and G. de 
Craucumbe. And for this provision and grant, the prior and con- 

* Antiq. Supervis. Honorii de Clan. Blount, 162. 

Su 2 , vent 


vent of Rochester, wheresoever our lord the king shall be, ought to 
be quit for wax for the seal. And if the king should make a stay in 
Rochester for two days or more, the sealers of writs were not to 
have the things aforesaid ; but if he went out of Rochester and re- 
turned, then they were to have them as at his first coming, as afore- 
said *. 

X^X Spigurnelli. These Spigurnelli were sealers of the king's writs ; 
foy King Henry III. appointed Geoffrey de Spigurnell into that 
office (Pat. 11 Hen. HI. m. 7), and perhaps the first in it ; or for 
some other eminency in him it was, that these officers were after- 
wards for some time called Spigurnels. Blount. 

|[f-|[ Panes garcionum. Garcio, from the French garcon, a lad or 
page. Ainsworth's Diet, of Law Lat. 

§*§ Prebendam. Provender. Blount. 


All the burgesses of Bishop's Castle, in the county of Salop, 
ought to find one man three times a year for the hunting stand ^, 
the diversion to be taken whenever the bishop should please -f. 

* Memorandum, quod primo die adventus Cracumbe. Pro ista autem provisione et con- 

domini regis ad Roffensem, debent Spigur- cessione debet prior et conventus Roffensis, 

nelli habere quatuor panes de pane armigero- ubicunque dominus rex fuerit, quieti esse pro 

rum, et quatuor panes de pane garcionum. cera ad sigilluni. Item' si dominus rex fecerit 

Item debent habere quatuor galones cervisiae moram in RofFense per duos dies vel amplius, 

conventual is, et quatuor galones cervisiae non habebunt Spigurnelli de praedictis sed si 

communis. Item de coquina quatuor fercula, exierit, et redierit habebunt sicut in primo ad- 

quibus conventus servitur et quatuor fercula de ventu ut praedictum est. Liber de Consuetud. 

communi, scil. xxiv haleces, et xxiv ova. Eccl. RofF. fact. 1314. Blount, 163. 

Item ad prasbendam septem parvos bussellos. -f- Omnes burgenses de Bishop's Castle, it) 

Item debent habere octo obolos ad emendum com. Salop, debent invenire uiuim hominem 

foenum ; et hoc provisum et statufum est per ter per annum, ad stabliamentum -pro vena- 

dominum Regem Henricum, filium Regis tione capienda, quando episcopus voluerit. 

Johannis;, et per Hubertum de Burgo et G. de Liber niger Heref. Blount, 165. 

, f Ad 


f Ad stabliamentum pro venatione capienda. For driving deer to 
a stand in order to shooting them, or into buck-stalls, or deer- 
hays, for taking them. Blount. 


When the king went a hunting, from every house, by the custorft, 
there was to go one man to drive the deer to a stand % in the forest ; 
other men, not having dwelling-houses [*] entirely their own, were 
to find inner-guards §f § for the hall, when the king was in the city. 
When a burgess, serving with a horse :];§:|:, died, the king was to 
have his horse and arms : from him who had not a horse, the kino", 
on his death, was to have either ten shillings, or his land and 
houses. If any one, prevented by death, had not devised his sub- 
stance or effects, the king was to have all his cattle ||§||, &c. * 

f Stabilitionem in sylva. Is the same with stabliamentum pro vena- 
tione ; expounded above. See Bishop's Castle. Blount. 

[*] Masuras. Dwelling-Chouses. Blount. 

§f§ Inewardos. I suppose may signify such as guarded the king's 
person. Blount. 

.m Cum caball. serviens. Caballus, a horse. Fr. ChevaL 

* Quando. rex venatui instabat de unaquaq.ue equum non habebat, si moreretur, habebat rex 

domo per consuetudinem ibat unus homo ad aut decern solidos aut terram suain cum domi- 

stabilitionem in sylva ; alii homines noii ha- bus. Si qui murte prseveiitus non dt yisisset 

bentes integras masuras iuveniebunt inewardos qir<£ sua eraiit, rex habebat ouinem ejus pecu- 

ad aulam quando rex erat in civitate, bur- niam, 8cc. Domesday, tit. Heref. Blount, 

gensis cutn caballo serviens, cum moriebatur, 166. 
habebat rex equuoi et arma ejus ; de eo qui 

H§|| Pecunia. 


||§|1 Pecunia. Is here used for cattle and goods, for of old pecunia 
pro peeude often occurs. See Law Dictionary. Blount. 


Whenever the king's army should go against the enemy, the men 
of Urchenfeild, in the county of Hereford, by custom, made the 
avantward (vanguard) and in returning the rereward. The jurors 
of the hundreds of Irchenfeild, Webtre, and Gretre, say, that 
Bothohn, who held the town of Comboglin, ought to make suit to 
the hundred aforesaid, and to be a domesman l^j-l of the same hun- 
dred *. 

§'j^ This domesman is one of those that sit in the court in ju- 
dicature with the steward ; for dome in Saxon signifies judg- 
ment ; and there are nine of these domesmen continued to this 
day in Irchenfeild, and were so from a long and unknown be- 
ginning, of which see Taylor's Hist, of Gavelkind. Blount. 


All the bondmen (servi) of Chakendon, in the county of Oxford, 
for the service of ^ mowing were to have of the lord one ram of the 
price of eight-pence at least, and every mower was to have a loaf of 
the price of a halfpenny ; and they jointly were to have a cart-load 
of wood, and a cheese of the price of four-pence, and a certain 

* Cum exeixitus regis in hostem pergat, quod Botholin, qui tenuit villain de Combog- 

homines de Urchenfeild, in com. Hereford, lin, solebat facere sectam ad hundredum pree- 

per consuetudjnem faciunt avantward, et in dictum, et esse unus domesman de eodetn 

reversione le rerewarde. Jurati hundredorum bundredo. Domesday. Rot. de Quo Warr, 

de Irchenfeild, Webtre, et Greytre, dicunt 20 Edw. I. Heref. Blount, 165. 



Quantity of small-beer |§. And every yard-land was to have six tods 
af grass |1:|:||, and half a yard-land three tods *. 

% Pro servitio falcationis. For the service of shearing or raow- 


§§ Batinum sab. I take batinus to mean a measure or certain quan- 
tity. Vide Du Fresne, v. Battus. P. Sab probably is an ab- 
breviation of the word sabia, small-beer. Vide Du Fresne in 
voce. E. 


Sex toddas herbse. Six tods of grass. I cannot find the word 
tod applied to any thing but wool. A tod of wool is 28 lb. six 
of which amount to a very small proportion of the produce of a 
yard-land, (see pp. 130, 465), even supposing it to mean no 
more than a rood ; and therefore I apprehend either that I do 
not understand, or that Mr. Blount has not tndy copied the 
record. E. I do not understand that six tods were the whole 
produce, but that each mower was to have six tods for his per- 
quisite ; for the record is plainly speaking here of what the 
mowers were to have. P. 


Robert Fitzwalter -f-, living long beloved of King Henry, son of 
King John, as also of all the realme, betook himself in his latter 
dayes to prayer and deeds of charity, gave great and bountifull 

* Omnes servi de Chakendon, in com. tuor denariorum, et iinum batinum sab. Et 

Qxon. pro servitio falcationis, habebunt domino quselibet virgata terrae habebit sex toddas 

unum arietem precii octo denariorum ad mi- herbae, et dimidia virgata terrte tres toddas. 

nus, et quilibet falcans habebit unum panem Tnquis. temp. Edw. I. de Hundr. de Langtre. 

precii oboli. Et hi conjunctim habebunt unam in com. Oxoii. Blount, l66. 

carectatam bosci; et unum caseum precii qu»* t See Castle-Baynard, p. 41 61. 



aliiies fo the poor, kept great hospitality, and re-edified the decayed 
prison (priory) of Dunnaowe, which one Juga (Baynard) a most 
devout and reUgious woman, being in her kinde his ancestor, had 
builded ; in which prison (priory) arose a custome, begun and in- 
stituted, eyther by him, or some other of his successours, which is 
verified by a common proverbe or saying, viz. That he which re- 
pents him not of his marriage, either sleeping or waking, in a year 
and a day, may lawfully go to Dunmow and fetch a gammon of 
bacon. It is most assured that such a custome there was, and 
that this bacon was delivered with such solemnity and triumphs as 
they of the priory and the townsmen could make. I have enquired 
of the manner of it, and can learne no more but that it continued 
Tuntill the dissolution of that house, as also the abbies. And that 
the party or pilgrim for bacon was to take his oath before prior and 
convent, and the whole town, humbly kneeling in the church-yard 
upon two hard-pointed stones, which stones some say are there 
yet to be seen in the prior's church-yard ; his oath was ministred 
with such long process, and such solemne singing over him, that 
doubtless must make his pilgrimage (as I may terme it) painfull : 
after, he was taken up upon men's shoulders, and carried, first 
about the priory church-yard, and after, through the town with 
all the fryers and brethren, and all the town's-folke, young and 
old, following him with shouts and acclamations, with his bacon 
borne before him, and in such manner (as I have heard) was sent 
home with his bacon ; of which I find that some had a gammon, 
and others a flecke, or a flitch ; for proof whereof I have, from the 
records of the house, found the names of three several persons tha^ 
at several times had it. 

Anno 23 Hen, VI. (1445). Memorandum, that one Richard 



Wright, of Badbury, near the teity of Norwich, in the county of 
Norfolk, labourer, (plebeius) came to Dunmow and required the 
bacon, to wit, on the 2Tth of April, in the 23d year of the reign 
of King Henry VI. and, according to the form of the charter, was 
sworn before John Cannon, prior of the place and the convent, and 
very many other neighbours, and there was delivered to him the 
said Richard a side or flitch of bacon. ^ *| j 

Anno 7 Edw. IV. (1467). Memorandum, that one Stephen 
Samuel, of Ayston Parva, in the county of Essex, husbandman, on 
the day of the blessed Virgin, in Lent, (25th March) in the 7th 
year of King Edward IV., came to the priory of Dunmow, and re- 
quired a gammon of bacon ; and he was sworn before Roger 
Bulcott, then prior of the place and the convent, and also before a 
multitude of other neighbours, and there was delivered to him a 
gammon of bacon. 

Anno 2 Hen. VIIL Memorandum, that in the year of our lord 
1510, Thomas le Fuller, of Cogshall, in the county of Essex, cam& 
to the priory of Dunmow, and on the 8th day of September, being 
Sunday, in the 2d year of King Henry VIII., according to the 
form of the charter, was sworn before John Tils, then prior of the 
house and the convent, and also before a multitude of neighbours, 
and there was delivered to him, the said Thomas, a gammon of 

Hereby it appeareth, that it was according to a charter, or dona- 
tion, given by some conceited benefactor to the house ; ajid it, is> 
not to be doubted, but that at such a time, the bordering tawnes and 
villages resorted, and were partakers of their pastimes, . and laught 
fo scorne the poor man's paynes. 

3 X TH^ 



' You shall swear by custom of confession, 
If ever you made nuptial transgression. 
Be you either married man or wife, 
If you have brawls or contentious strife ; 
Or otherwise at bed or at board. 

Offended each other in deed or word ; ^ n 

Or since the parish clerk said amen, j ■ •; 

Yo wished yourselves unmarried agen, 
Or in a twelve-moneth and a day 
Repented not in thought any way ; 
But continued true in thouo-ht and desire. 
As when you joined hands in the quire. 
If to these conditions, without all feare, 
Of your own accord you will freely sweare, 
A whole gammon of bacon you shall receive. 
And bear it hence with love and gfood leave : 
For this is our custom at Dunmow well knowne. 
Though the pleasm'e be ours, the bacon's your own*. 

Since the suppression of the priory, this custom is still kept up, 
and the ceremony is performed at a court baron for this manor, by 
the steward ; of which we have the following instances : 

At a court baron of Sir Thomas May, knight, holden on the 

* Ex Colleclan. D. Richsrdii S. Georg. variations. Ex Reg. Priorat. de Dunmow. 
Equit. Auiat. Arniorum Regis, 1640, 2 Mon. JBioiint, 162. See also the new edition of 
Angl. 78. See the same account, with some Brand's Popular Antiquities. 



Tth of June, 1701, before Thomas Wheeler, gentleman, steward,: 
the homage being five fair ladies, spinsters, namely, Elizabeth 
Beaumont, Henrietta Beaumont, Annabella Beaumont, Jane Beau- 
mont, and Mary Wheeler ; they found that John Reynolds, of Hat- 
field Brodoke, gentleman, and Anne his wife, and William Parsley, 
of Much Easton, butcher, and Jane his wife, by means of their 
quiet and peaceable, tender and loving cohabitation for the space 
of three years last past and upwards, were fit and qualified per- 
sons to be admitted by the court to receive the antient and ac- 
customed oath, whereby to entitle themselves to have the bacon 
of Dunmow delivered unto them according to the custom of the 
manor. Accordingly, having taken the oath, kneeling on the two 
great stones near the church door, the bacon was delivered to each 

The last who received it were John Shakeshanks, wool-comber, 
and Anne his wife, of Wethersfield, on the 20th of June, 1751 *. 


Randall Blundeville, Earl of Chester, towards the latter end 
of the reign of King Richard I., being suddenly besieged by the 
Welch in the Castle of Rutbelent, in Flintshire, sent to his con- 
stable of Cheshire, one Roger Lacy (for his fierceness surnamed. 
Hell) to hasten with what force he could to his relief. 

It happened to be on Midsummer-day, and a great fair then 
held at Chester; whereupon Roger immediately got together a 
great lawless mob of fidlers, players, coblers, and the like, and 

■ * Morant'g Hist, of Essex, vol. ii. p. 430. ~ '' 

8x2 marched 


inarched instantly towards the earl ; and the Welch, perceiving a 
great multitude approaching, raised the siege and fled. 

The earl being thus freed, came back with his constable to 
Chester; and in memory of this service, by a charter, granted to 
Roger Lacy and his heirs, power over all the fidlers, letchers, 
whores, and coblers, in Chester. 

About the latter end of the reign of King John, or beginning of 
King Henry III., Roger Lacy, being dead, his son, John Lacy, by 
the following deed, granted to one Hugh Button, his steward, and 
to his heirs, the rule and authority over all the letchers and whores 
in the county, viz. 

" Know all men present and to come, that I John, constable of 
Chester, have given and granted, and by this my present 
charter have confirmed to Hugh de Dutton, and his heirs, 
the government of all the letchers ^ and whores of all 
Cheshire, as freely as I hold that government of the earl, 
saving my right to me and my heirs *" 

Though the original grant makes no mention of giving rule over 
fidlers and minstrels, yet ancient custom has now reduced it only 
to the minstrelsey ; for probably, the rout which the constable 
brought to the rescue of the earl, were debauched persons drink- 
ing with their sweet-hearts at the fair, the fidlers that attended 
them, and i^uch loose persons as he could get. 

* Sciant praesentes et futuri, quod ego, tiatum omnium leceatorum et meretricum 

jobatines constabularius Cestriae, dedi et con- totius Cestershiriae, sicttt liberius ilium magis- 

cessi, et hac praesenti charta mea confirmavi tratum teneo de comite. Salvo jure meo, mihi 

Hugoni de Dutton et haeredibus suis, magis.- ctbsBredibusmeis. Sine dat. circa annum 1220. 



In the 14th Hen. VIT. a quo warranto was brought against Law- 
rence Button, of Button, esquire, to shew why he claimed dll the 
minstrels of Cheshire and the city of Chester, to appear before 
him or his steward, at Chester, yearly, on the feast of St. John the 
Baptist, and to give him at the said feast, four flaggons of wine 
and a lance, and also every minstrel then to pay him four-pence 
half-penny, and why he claimed from every whore in Cheshire 
and the city of Chester, exercising her trade, four-pence, to be 
paid yearly at the feast aforesaid *. To which he pleaded pre- 
scription -f •. 

In the statutes of the 14th Eliz. cap. 5, and the 39th Eliz. cap. 4, 
the first intituled, " An Act for the Punishment of Vagabonds, and 
for the Relief of the Poor and Impotent ;" and the latter intituled, 
" An Act for Punishment of Rogues, Vagabonds, and Sturdy 
Beggars," both now repealed, are inserted the following pro- 
viso, viz : 

" Provided always, that this act, or any thing therein contained, 
or any authority thereby given, shall not in any wise extend to 
disinherit, prejudice, or hinder John Button, of Button, in the 
county of Chester, esquire, his heirs or assigns for, touching, or 

* Laurentius dominus de Dutton clamat retrice infra comitatutn Cestriae et infra Ce;^ 

quod omnes mihstrelli infra civitatem Cestriae triam manente, et ofBciam suum exereente, 

et infra Cestriam manentes, vel officia ibidem quatuor denarios per ann. ad festum pree- 

exercentes, debent convenire coram ipso, vel dictum, &c. Inter Placita apud Cestriam, 14 

senescallo suo apud Cestriam, ad festum nativi- Hen.VII. Blount, 157. Law Diet, sub voce 

tatis S. Johannis Baptists^, annuatim, et dabunt Minstrel. 

sibi ad dictum festum quatuor lagenas vini et- f Sir Peter Leycester's Antiq. of Chesh. 

unam lanceam; et insuper quilibet eorum 141,142.251. Burn's Justice, tit. Vagrants, 

dabit sibi quatuor denarios et unum obolum Blount, 158. 
ad dictum festum, et habere de qualiliet me- 



concerning any liberty, pre-eminence, authority, jurisdiction, or 
inheritance, which the said John Dutton now lawfully useth, or 
hath, or lawfully may, or ought to use, within the county paVitine 
of Chester and the county of the city of Chester, or either of 
them, by reason of any antient charters of any kings of this 
land, or by reason of any prescription, usage, or title whatso- 
ever *." 

In the 43d Eliz. cap. 9, which continued the said act of the 39th 
Eliz. the above clause was continued only for one year, except 
before the end of the said year, the said John Dutton, or his heirs, 
should procure the Lords Chief Justices and Lord Chief Baron, 
or two of them, on hearing his allegations and proofs, to make 
certificate into the Chancery, to be there enrolled, that the said 
John Dutton, or his heirs, ought lawfully (if no statute against 
rogues or beggars had been made) by charter, tenure, or pre- 
scription, to have such liberty of licensing of minstrels as he 
claimed and used f-. 

In the statute of the 1st Jac. I. cap. 25, the same clause was con- 
tinued without limitation ; so that it is probable such proof had then 
been made as is above mentioned 1^:. 

And in the act of the 17th Geo. II. cap. 5, commonly called the 
Vagrant Act, a like proviso is inserted in favour of the heirs or 
assigns of John Dutton, of Dutton, esquire. So that the right has 
now been established, by act of parliament (ever since the year 
1572) above two hundred years §. 

* Stat. 39 Eliz. cap. 4. J Stat. 1 Jac. I. cap. 25, sect. 20. 

t Ibid. 43 Lliz. cap. 9. § Ibid. 17 Geo. II. cap. 0. 



The heirs of the said Hugh Button enjoy the same power and 
authority over the minstrelsy of Cheshire, even to this day *, and 
keep a court every year upon the feast of St. John the Baptist, at 
Chester, being the fair-day, where all the minstrels of the county 
and city do attend and play before the lord of Button, upon their 
several instruments ; he or his deputy then riding through the city, 
thus attended, to the church of St John the Baptist, many gentlemen 
of the county a^cconipanying him, and one walking before him in a 
surcoat of his arms, depicted upon taffata ; and after divine service 
ended, holds his court in the city, where he or his steward renews 
the whole licences granted to the minstrels, and gives such new 
ones as he thinks fit, under the hand and seal of himself or his 
steward, none presuming to exercise that faculty there, without it. 
But now-f- this dominion or privilege is by a daughter and heir of 
Thomas Button, devolved to the Lord Gerard of Gerard-Bromley, 
in Staffordshire X- 

^ Leccatorum. Leccator, a riotous debauched person, a roaring 
boy, a tavern-hunter. Blount's Law Bict. in verbo. Buffoons. A. 


" Henry the Sixth, by the grace of God, King of England and 
France, and Lord of Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall 
come : greeting. We have seen the letters patent of John, late 
King of Castile and Leon, Buke of Lancaster, our great-grand- 
father, in these words :" 

•' John, by the grace of God, King of Castile and Leon, Buke 

* So said by Mr. Blount, anno lt579. t Sir Peter Leicester's Antiq. of Chesh. 

tibid. Bloun;, 156. 



of Lancaster, to all those who these our letters shall see or hear : 
greeting. Know ye that we have ordained, constituted, and as- 
signed our well-beloved king of minstrels, within our ho- 
nour of Tuttebury, \vho now is, or shall be for the time coming, 
to take and arrest all the minstrels within our said honour and 
franchise who refuse to do their services and minstrelsy to them 
belonging, from time out of mind, at Tuttebury aforsaid, yearly, 
on the day of the Assumption of our Lady, (15th of August). Giving 
and granting to the said king of minstrels, for the time being, full 
power and commandment to execute reasonable judgment, and 
to constrain them to do their services and minstrelsies in the man- 
ner that belongs to them, and as they have been used, and of old 
time accustomed. And in witness of this, we have caused these 
our letters patent to be made. Given under our privy seal, at our 
Castle of Tuttebury, the 22d day of August, in the fourth year of 
the reign of our most gracious King Richard II. 1380." 

" And we, at the request of eur beloved in Christ, Thomas 

Gedny, prior of Tuttebury, have by these presents caused the 

aforesaid letters patent to be exemplified. In witness whereof, we 

have caused these our letters to be made patent. Given under 

the seal of our duchy of Lancaster, at our palace of Westminster, 

the 22d day of February, in the twenty-first year of our reign, 

1442 *." 


* Henricus Sextus, Dei gracia Rex Angliae par le grace de Dieu Roy de Castille et de 

et Franciae, et dominus Hiberniae, omnibus ad Leon, Due de Laiicastre, a touts ceux qui 

quos presentes literae perveuerint salutem. castes nos letres verront ou orront saluz. 

Inspeximus literas patentes Johannis nuper Saches nous avoir ordenoz constitut et assignez 

Regis Caslellse et Legionis, Ducis Lancastriae, nostre bien ame Roy des miustraulx 

proavi nostri, factas iu haec verba. Johan, deins nostre honor de Tuttebury quore est, 



Also there is there a certain custom, that the players coming to 
morning prayers on the feast of the Assumption of the blessed 
Mary, (I5th August) are to hare a bull from the prior of Tutte- 
bury, if they can take him on that side the water of Do\e next 
Tuttebury, or the prior is to give them forty pence; for which 
said custom twenty pence shall be given to the lord at the said 
feast, yearly *. 

The prior of Tutburye-f-, shall have yearly, one oure Lady- 
dey, the Assumption, a bukke delivered him of seyssone by the 
wood-master and kepers of Nedewoode : and the wood-master and 
kepers of Nedewoode shale, every yere, mete at a lodgge in Nede- 
woode, called Birkeley Lodgge, by one of the cloke att afternone 
one Seynt Laurence Dey ; at which dey and place a wood-moote 

ou qui pur le temps serra, pur prendre et 
arrester touts les minstralx deins mesme nostre 
honeur et franchise, queux refusont de faire 
lour services et minstrakie as eux appurte- 
nants, a faire de antient temps a Tuttebury, 
suis dit annualment hs jours del Assumption 
de nostre Dame. Donants et grantants au 
dit roy de minstralx pur le temps, esteant 
plien poyer et mandement de les faire rea- 
sonablement juslilier, et constrener de faire 
Jour services et niinistralcies en manere come 
appeint, et come illongnes ad este use et de 
antient temps accustome. Et en teslmoig- 
niance de quel chose nous avons fait faire 
cestes noz letres patents. Don souz nostre 
privie seale, a nostre Chastel de Tuttebury 
le XXII. jour de August le an de Regne 
nostre tres dulce le Roy Richard Quart. 
!Nos autem literas praedictas ad requisitionem 
dilecti nobis in Christo, Thomas Gedney, 
prioris de Tuttebury, duximus exempliiicandas 

per presentes. In ciijus rei testimonium has 
literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Datum 
sub sigillo nostri Ducatus Lancastr. apud par 
latium nostrum de West, xxii die Febr. anno 
Regni nostri vicessimo primo. Ex Regist. de 
Tutebury, penes Henricum Agard, militem-, 
Mon. Angl. i. 35.5. Blount, I67. 

-* Item est ibidem qusedam consuetudo 
quod histriones venientes ad matutinas in festo 
Assumptionis beatse Marias habcbimt unum 
taurum de priore de Tuttebury, si ipsum 
capere possunt citra aquam Dove propin* 
quiorem Tuttebury, vel, prior, dabit eis XLd^ 
pro qua quidem consuetudine dabuntur domino 
ad dictum festum annuatim xxd. Ex Regist, 
de Tutbury, Mon. Angl. i. 335. Blount, 

-t* The Earl of Devonshire was in the placie 
of prior in Mr. Blount's time, as the Duke ctf 
Devonshire is -now. 




shall be kept, and every keper makinge deffalte shall loose xii d. to 
the kitige, and there the wood-master and kepers shall chose ii of 
the kepers yearly as itt coraeth to their turne, to be stewards for to 
prepare the dyner at Tutburye Castell one oure Ladye-dey, the As- 
sumption, for the wood-master, and kepers, and officers within the 
chase, and there they shall appoint in lykewyse where the bukke 
shall be kylled for the prior against the saide Ladye-deye ; and also 
where the bukke shall be kylde for the keper's dyner ageinst the 
same day ; and on the saide feaste of Assumption the wood-master 
or his lyvetenant, and the kepers and their deputies, shall be at 
Tutburye, and every man one horsebake, and soo ryde in order two 
and two together from the Yate, called the Lydeat, goinge into the 
common felde unto the highe crose in the towne ; and the keper in 
whose office the Seynte Marye bukke was kylled, shall beire the 
bukk's heede garnished aboute with a rye of pease ; and the bukk's 
heede must be cabaged ^ with the hole face and yeers beinge one 
the sengill[*] of the bukke, with two peces of fatte one either sids 
of the sengill must be fastened uppon the broo-anklers['j] of the 
same heed, and every keper must have a grene boghe in his hand ; 
and every keper that is absent that day, beinge nodder sikke nor in 
the king's service, shall lose xii d. and soo the kepers shall ridde 
two and tAvo together tyll they come to the said crosse in the towne ; 
and all the minstrells shall jjoe afore tliem one foote two and two 
together ; and the wood-master, or in his absence his lyvetenant, 
shall ride hindermast after all the kepers ; and at the said crosse in 
the town the foremast keper shall blow a seeke [:}:;], and all the other 
kepers shall answcre him in blowinge the same, and when they 
come to the Cornell ageinst the Yue-hall, the formast keper shall 
blowe a recheate [§], and all the other kepers shall answere hyme in 
blowinge of the same ; and so they shall ride still tyll they come into 



the church-yorde, and then light and goo into the ehurche in like 
arrey, and all the minstrels shall pley one their instruments duringe 
the offeringe tyme, and the wood-master, or in his absence his live- 
tenant, shall offer up the bukk's head mayd in silver, and every 
keper shall offer a peny, and as soone as the bukk's head is offered 
uppe, all the kepers shall blovve a morte[H], three tymes; and then 
all the kepers goo into a cliappell, and shall there have one of the 
monks redye to sey them masse ;tand when masse is done, all the 
kepers goo in like arreye uppe to the castell to dynner; and when 
dynner is done the stewartis goo to the prior of Tutburye, and he 
shall give them yeerly xxx s. towards the charges of ther dynner; 
and if the dynner come to more, the kepers shall beir it amongst 
them : and one the morrow after the Assumption there is a court 
kept of the minstrells, at which court the wood-master or his lyve- 
tenant shall be ; and shall oversee that every minstrell dwellinge 
within the honor and makinge defaute shall be amereyed ; whiche 
amercement the kinge of the minstrels shall have ; and after the 
courte done, the pryor shall deliver the minstrels a bull, or xTiii s. 
of money; and shall turne hyme loose amongs them, and if he 
escape from them over Dove-river, the bull is the priour's owne 
ao-ene ; and if the minstrels can take the bull ore he gett over Dove, 
then the bull is their owne ^. i 

f Cabaged. Cabossed. Cut off close behind the ears. 

[*] SengilL Single, or tail. 

[f] Broo-ankelers. Brow-antlers. 

^ Ont of the Coucher-book of the honour of Tutbury. Cap. de Libertatibus. Blount, 168,: 

3 T 2 [X] Blowe 


[:|:] Blowe a seeke. A manner of blowing a huntsman's horn, sueh 
as is used when they seek a deer. 

[I] Blowe a recheate. Such as the huntsmen blow to call the 
hounds back from a false scent. 

It occurs in Much Ado about Nothinff, act i. sc. i. where Benedick 
says to ClaLudio : 

" That a woman conceived me, f thank her ; that she brought me 
" up, I likewise give her most huriible thanks : but that I will 
" have a recheate winded in my forehead, or hang my bugle in 
" an invisible baldrick, all women shall pardon me." 

A recheate is the sound by which dogs are called back. Johnson. 

Chalmers's edit, of Shakspeare. 

[II] Blowe a morte. A particular air that is blown on the horn when 
the deer is killed, or killing. 


Upon the morrow after the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, 
being the 26th (16th) of August, all the musicians within the honour 
are to repair to the bailiff's house in Tutbury, where the steward of 
the court * (who is usually a nobleman), and the wood-master or his 
lieutenant are to meet them, from whence they go to the church in 
this order : first, two wind musicians, as trumpets or long pipes ; 

* The steward in Mr. Blount's time was prior. Blount, 171. At present his Grace the 
the Duke of Ormond, and Mr. Edward Fo- Duke of DeTon$hire is the owner of it. - 
, 4en his deputy. The Earl of Devon was then 



ihen four stFing musicians, two and two, all playing ; then the 
steward of the court, or his deputy, and the bailiff of the manor, 
deputed by the Earl of Djevon *, the kiiig of music going between 
them : after whom the four stewards of music, each with a white 
wand in his hand, and the rest of the company follow in order. 

At the church, the vicar of Tutbury for the time being, reads the 
service of the day, for which every musician pays him a penny ; 
then all go from the church to thife castle, in manner as before, where 
the steward takes his place upon the bench in court, assisted with 
the bailiff and wood-master, the king of music sitting between them 
to see that every minstrel within the honour, being called, and 
making default, be presented and amerced by the jury, which 
amerciaments are collected by the stewards of music, who account 
the one moiety to his majesty's auditor, the other they retain them- 
selves, for their pains in collecting them. When the king, steward, 
and the rest, are so sate, the steward commands an oyez to be 
made three times bj one of the musicians, as cryer of the court, that 
all minstrels within the honour, residing in the counties of Stafifbrd, 
Derby, Nottingham, Leicester, or Warwick, do appear to do their 
suit and service, on such pain and peril as the court shall inflict for 
their default ; essoigns nevertheless are allowed, in excuse of de- 
faulters, upon good reason shewed. 

After which all the said minstrels are called by a suit-roll, as 
suitors are in a court-leet, and then two juries are impannelled of 
the chief minstrels, by the stewards of music, each jury consisting of 
twelve, which are returned into the court, where the steward swears 
them ; the form of their oath is the same which is given in a court- 

* Now Duke of Devonshire, 



leet, only in a leet the jury swear to keep the king's counsel, their 
fellows and their own ; in this, to keep the king of music's coun- 
sel, their fellows and their own. 

The better to inform the jurors of their duty, the steward gives 
them a charge *, in commendation of the ancient science of music, 
shewing what admirable effects it has produced, what kings and 
noble persons have been professors of it, what manner of persons 
the professors ought to be, and to admonish them to choose skilful 
and good men to be officers for the year ensuing. The officers 
chosen by the juries are one king and three stewards of music ; the 
fourth is chosen by the steward of the court. The king is chosen 
one year out of the minstrels of Staffordshire, and the next year 
out of those of Derbyshire. 

The steward of the court issues out warrants to the stewards of 
music in their several districts, by virtue whereof they are to dis- 
train and levy in any city, town corporate, or other place within the 
honour, all such fines and amerciaments as are imposed by the 
juries on any minstrel for offences committed against the dignity and 
honour of the profession ; the one moiety of which fines the 
stewards account for at the next audit, the other they retain them- 

As soon as the charge is given, an oyez is made, with a pro- 
clamation, that if any persons can inform the court of any offence 
committed by any minstrel within the said honour, since the last 
court, which is against the honour of his profession, let them come 

'"* The former editor of this work was pro- Jalyi 17&2, p. 336, but which was not ob- 

mised a copy of the accoimt of the minstrel's tained. A copy has been since procured, und 

court, and of the Charge given at it to the_- will be found inserted at the end of the pre- 

minstrels, by a gentleman who signed A. W. senjt article, 

to a letter in ibe Genllenaan's Magazine for forth 


forth and they shall be heard. Then the juries withdraw td con- 
sider of the points of the charge, and the old stewards of music 
bring irito^the court a treat of wine, ale, and cakes, and at the same 
time some minstrels are appointed to entertain the company in 
court with some merry airs ; after which the juries present one to 
be l^ing for the year ensuing, who takes his oath to keep up all the 
dignities of that noble science, &c Then the old king ariseth from 
his place, resigning it and his whijte wand to the new king, to whom 
he also drinks a glass of wine^ and bids him joy of his honour : 
and the old stewards do the like to the new ; which done, the court 
adjourns to a certain hour after noon, and all return back in the 
same order they came to the castle, to a place where the old king, 
at his own cost, prepares a dinner for the new king, steward of the 
court, bailiff, stewards of music, and the jurymen. 

After dinner all the minstrels repair to the Priory Gate in Tut- 
bury, without any manner of weapons, attending the turning out of 
the l)ull, which the bailiff of the manor is obliged to provide, and 
is there to have the tips of his horns sawed off, his ears and tail cut 
off, his body smeared all over with soap, and his nose blown full of 
beaten pepper. Then the steward causes proclamation to be made, 
that all manner of persons, except minstrels, shall give way to the 
bull, and not come within forty foot of him, at their own peril, nor 
binder the minstrels in their pursuit of him : after which proclama- 
tion the prior's bailiff turns out the bull among the minstrels, and 
if any of them can cut off a piece of his skin before he runs into 
Derbyshire, then he is the king of music's bull ; but if the bull gets 
into Derbyshire, sound and uncut, he is the lord prior's again. 

If the bull be taken, and a piece of him cut off, then he is 
brou«J-ht to the bailiffs house, and there collared and roped, and so 



brought to the Bull-riug, in the High-street in Tutbury, and there 
baited with dogs ; the first course, in honour of the king of music ; 
the second, in honour of the prior ; the third, for the town ; and if, 
more, for divertisement of the spectators ; and after he is baited, the 
king may dispose of him as he pleases. 

This usage is of late perverted, the young men of Stafford and 
Derby shires contend with cudgels about a yard long, the one party 
to drive the bull into Derbyshire, the other to keep him in Stafford- 
shire, in which contest many heads are often broken. 

(The king of music and the bailiff have also of late compounded, 
the bailiff giving the king five nobles (£l 13 s. 4d.) in lieu of his 
right to the bull,^ and then sends him to the Earl of Devon's manor 
of Hardwick, to be fed and given to the poor at Christmas *.) 

N. B. The minstrels court, bull running, &c, at Tutbury, were 
entirely abolished by the Duke of Devonshire in the year 1778, at 
the request of the inhabitants of that village, owing to the outrages 
usually committed on those occasions •\: 


" Quickly after the Conquest, Henry de Ferrars, a nobleman of 
Normandy (as Mr. Camden stiles him), who came in with Duke 
William, and had large possessions in the counties of Derby, Staf- 

fprd, Warwick, Leicester, Nottingham, &c. built Tutbury Castle 

■ '■ _____ _ » 

* Blount, 167, to the end. 

•f See Letter signed A. W. Gentleman's Magazine for July> 1782, p. 336, 

J See the note, p. 534, 



upon that hill of alabaster where it now stands, which continued in 
his faluiily till Robert de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, (after pardon ob- 
tained for a former rebellion) revolted a second time and joined with 
Simon Mountford against King Henry III., by whom, being taken 
prisoner, he was fined for his offence ^50,000 sterling, (a vast sum in 
those days) to be paid simul et semel in uno die ss. in quindena Job; 
Bap. which fine the king gave to his son Edmund, Earl of Lancaster; 
Earl Robert obliging himself, upon non-payment, to forfeit all his lands, 
except Chartley in Staffordshire, and Holbrocin Derbyshire, to the 
saidEdmund, which (because such a sum could by no means be raised) 
was accordingly done, and so Tutbury came to the family of Lancaster, 
and at length to be the head seat of the duchy, in which it flourished 
till the rebellion of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, anno 1322, temp. 
Edw. II., who fortified it against the king, but could not hold it, 
when, as Mr. Erdeswicke thinks, this first castle was^brought to 
decay, and not re-edified till it came into the possession of John of 
Gaunt, who built the present castle, walling it oh all sides but 
one, where the hiJl is so steep that it needed no such fence ; from 
whose time it continued in tolerable condition till the late civil war, 
temp. Car. I,, when it was taken, and for the most part demolished 
by the rebels, as may be seen by the ruins, it remaining much in the , 
same condition they left it to this very day- 

« Durino- the time of which ancient Earls and Dukes of Lancaster, 
who were ever of the blood royal, great men in their times, had 
their abode, and keeping a liberal hospitality there at their honour of 
Tutbury, there could not but be a general concourse of people from 
all parts hither, for whose diversion all sorts of musicians were per- 
mitted likewise to come to pay their services, amongst whom (bein^ 
jiumerous) some quarrels and disorders now and then arising, it was 

S z found 


found necessary, after a while, that they should be brought under 
rules, divers laws being made for the better regulation of them, 
and a governor appointed them by the name of a king, who had 
several officers under him to see to the execution of those laws, full 
power being granted to them to apprehend and arrest any such 
minstrels appertaining to the said honour as should refuse to do 
their services in due manner, and constrain them to do theni, as 
appears by the charter granted to the said king of minstrels by 
John of Gaunt, King of Castile and Leon, and Duke of Lancaster, 
bearing date the 22d of August, in the fourth year of the reign of 
King Richard II., intituled, ' Carta le Roy de Ministraulx," a trans- 
lation of which has been already given, p. 527. 

" Upon this, in process of time, the defaulters being many, and 
the amerciaments by the officers perhaps sometimes not over rea- 
sonable, concerning which and other matters, controversies fre- 
quently arising, it was found necessary that a court should be 
erected to hear plaints and determine controversies between party 
and party before the steward of the honour, which is held there to 
this day on the morrow after the Assumption, being the 16th of August, 
on which day they now also do all the services mentioned in the 
abovesaid grant, and have the bull due to them anciently from the 
prior of Tutbury, now from the Earl of Devonshire, whereas they 
had it formerly on the Assumption of our Lady, as appears by an in- 
speximus of King Henry YI. relating to the customs of Tutbury, 
already quoted. 

" Thus, I say, the services of the minstrels were performed, and the 
l)ull enjoyed anciently on the feast of the Assumption; but now they 
are done and had in the manner following : on the court day, or 
morrow of the Assumption, being the 16th of August, at which 



time all the minstrels within the honour come first to the bailiff'^ 
house of the manor of Tutbury (who is now the Earl of Devonshire );, 
where, the steward for the court to be holden for the king as Duke 
of Lancaster (who is now the Duke of Ormond), or his deputy^ 
meeting them, they all go from thence to the parish church ,of 
Tutbury, two and two together, music playing ; before them, .the 
king of the minstrels for the year past walking between the 
stew§ird and the bailiffs, or their deputies, the four, stewards ov 
under officers ^of the said king of minstrels, with each a white 
wand in his hand, immediately following them, and then the rest 
of the company in order. Being come to the church, the vicar reads 
them divine service, choosing psalms and lessons proper for the oc- 
casion. In the year 1680, the psalms were the 98th, 149th, and 
150th; the first lesson the 2d book of Chronicles, chapter 5, and 
the second lesson the 5th chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians, 
to the 22d verse; for which service every minstrel offered a penny^ 
as a due always paid to the vicar of the church of Tutbury upon 
this solemnity. I , 

" Service being ended, they proceed in like manner as before from 
the church to the castle-hall or court, where the steward or his de- 
puty taketh his place, assisted by the bailiff or his deputy ; the king 
of the minstrels sitting between them, who is to oversee that every 
minstrel dwellino- within the honour, aiid making; default, shall be 
presented and amerced, which that he may the better do, an oyez is 
then made by one of the officers, being a minstrel, three times, 
givihg notice by direction of the steward to all manner of minstrels 
dwelling within the honour of Tutbury, viz, within the counties of 
Stafford, Derby, Nottingham, Leicester, and W^trwick, owing; suit 
and service to his majesty's coiirf of music, here holden as this 

3z-2 " ' * 'dkyl 


day, that every man draw near and give his attendance, upon pain 
and peril that may otherwise ensue, and that if any man will be 
essoigned of suit or plea, he and they should come in, and they 
should be heard. Then all the musicians being called over by a 
court roll, two juries are impannelled out of twenty-four of the suffi- 
cientest of them, twelve for Staffordshire and twelve for the other 
counties, whose names being- delivered in court to the steward 
and called over, and appearing to be full juries, the foreman 
of such is first sworn, and then the residue, as is usual in 
other courts, upon the Holy Evangelists ; then to move them the 
better to mind their duties to the king and their own good, the 
steward proceeds to give them their charge, first commending to 
their consideration the origin of all music, both wind and string 
music, the antiquity and excellence of both, setting forth the force 
of it upon the affections by divers examples ; how the use of it has 
always been allowed (as is plain from holy writ) in praising and 
glorifying God, and the skill in it always esteemed so considerable, 
that it is still accounted in the schools one of the liberal arts, and 
flowed in all godly Christian commonwealths ; where, by the way, 
he commonly takes notice of the statute which reckons some musi- 
cians as vagabonds and rogues, giving them to understand that 
such societies as theirs, thus legally founded, and governed by 
laws, are by no means intended by that statute ; for which reason 
the minstrels belonging to the manor of Dutton, in the county 
palatine of Chester, are expressly excepted in that act; exhorting 
them, upon this account, to preserve their reputation ; to be very 
■careful to make choice of such men to be officers amongst them as 
fear God* and are of good life and conversation, and have know- 
ledge and skill in the practice of their art. The charge being 
ended, the jurors proceed to the election of the said officers ; the 



king being to be cbopen out of the four stewards of the preceding 
year, and one year out of Staffordshire and another year out of Derbyr 
shire, interchangeably, and the four stewards [two] out of Stafford- 
shire and tw« out of Derbyshire, three being chosen by the jurors, 
and the fourth by him that keeps the court, and the deputy steward 
or clerk. 

" The jurors departing the court for this purpose, leave the steward 
with his assistants still in their places (who, in the mean time, make 
themselves merry with a banquet, and a noise of musicians playing 
to them, the old king still sitting between the steward and bailiff as 
before) but returning again after a competent time, they present first 
their chiefest oflScer by the name of their king ; then the old king 
arising from his place, delivereth him a little white wand in token 
of his sovereignty, and then taking a cup filled with wine, drinketh 
to him, wishing him all joy and prosperity in his office : in the like 
manner do the old stewards to the new ; and then the old kino- 
riseth, and the new one taketh his place, and so do the new stewards 
of the old, who have full power and authority, by virtue of the 
king's stewards warrant, directed from the said court, to levy and 
distrain in any city, town corporate, or in any place within the 
kinar's dominions, all such fines and amerciaments as are inflicted 
by the said jurors that day upon any minstrel, for his or their 
offences, committed in the breach of any of their orders made for 
the good rule and government of the said society ; for which said 
fines and amerciaments, so distrained, or otherwise peaceably col- 
lected, the said stewards are accountable at every audit, one moiety 
going to the king's majesty, aad the other the said stewards have 
for their own use. 




" The election, &c. being thus concluded, the court riseth, and all 
persons then repair to another fair room, within the castle, where 
a plentiful dinner is then provided for them, which, being ended, 
the minsti'els went antiently to the abbey gate, now to a little 
barn by the town side, in expectation of the bull to be turned forth 
to them, which was formerly done by the prior of Tutbury, late by 
the Earl of Devonshire, according to the custom before mentioned, 
pp. 535, 536. 

" And thus this rustic sport, which they call the bull-running, 
should be annually performed by the minstrels only, but now a-days 
they are assisted by the promiscuous multitude that flock hither 
in great numbers, and are much pleased with it, thougb sometimes 
through emulation in point of manhood, that has been lono- che- 
rished between the Staffordshire and Derbyshire men, perhaps as 
much mischief may have been done in the trial between them, as 
in the Feu de Taureau, or Bull-fighting practised atValentia, Madrid, 
and in many other places in Spain, whence, perhaps, this our 
custom of bull-running might be derived, and set up here by John 
of Gaunt, who was King of Castile and Leon, and lord of the 
honour of Tutbury ; for why might not we receive this sport from 
the Spaniards, as well as they from the Romans, and the Romans 
from the Greeks, wherein I am the more confirmed, for that the 
Italians, who first instituted this game, and of whom Julius Csesar 
learned it, and brought it to Rome, were celebrated much about 
the same time of the year as our bull-running is, viz. on the 12th 
of August, which perhaps John of Gaunt, in honour of the Assump- 
tion of our Lady, being but three days after, might remove to the 
15th, as after ages did (that all the solemnity and court might 
be kept on the same day to avoid further trouble) to the 16th of 

August." rpjj^ 




First, call the court after this manner, with three oyez's, viz. 

' All minstrels within this honour, residing in the counties of 
Stafford, Derby, Nottingham, Leicester, and Warwick, come in 
" and do your suit and service, or you will be amerced." 

Then call over the suit roll. 

After that call over two juries, one for Staffordshire and another 
for Derbyshire ; swear the foremen by themselves, and the rest by 
three or four at a time. 


" You, as foreman of this Inquest, shall diligently enquire and 
*;' true presentment make of all such articles, matters, and things, 
" as shall be given you in charge; the king of the minstrel's coun- 
" eels, your fellows, and your own, you shall keep secrete and 
^' not disclose but in open court; you shall present no man for 
?' hatred or malice, or spare any man for fear, favour, affection, 
<' or hope of reward, but in all- things, according to the best of 
" your knowledge, and information that you shall receive, you shall 
" present the truth,, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. 

« So help you God." 

Then swear the rest thus : , . " 

" The same oath that your foreman hath taken on his part, you 
" and every! of you, on your parts, shall well and truly observe, 

" perform, >and keep, ui A si 

,. ..„ • . i " So help you God." 

,: >i!i>. ■ Then 


Then make proclaoiation thus : 

" You gentlemen that are here sworn, draw near and hear your 
*« charge, and all other persons are commanded to keep silence, 
" on pain of being fined." 

Then give the charge, vide p. 545. 

After the charge is given, proclamation is to be made thus : 

" If any can inform the steward of this court, or these inquests, 
" of any offence committed by any minstrel, within this honor, 
" since the last court, against the dignity of his profession, let 
" them come forth and they shall be heard." 

Then the jurors will present a king, who is to be sworn as 
follows : 

" You as king of the minstrels belonging to this honorable and 
" ancient court, shall, to the uttermost of your power, maintain 
" all the customs and rights heretofore established in this court, 
*' and shall preserve unto the society of the minstrels, all their 
*' ancient rights, privileges, and customs anciently by them en- 
" joyed, and which of right do belong unto th^m, and that what 
" you now promise you will perform and keep. 

" So help you God." 

Then two stewards for Derbyshire, and two for Staffordshire, are 
to be sworn thus : 

" You shall swear that you, and every of you, shall well and 
" truly serve the king of the minstrels in the offices of stewards, 
" and shall do right to all the minstrels ^nd others therein con- 

" eerned, 


" cerned, according to the usages and customs of this court, and 

" shall endeavour, to the utmost of your power, to collect and 

" gather all such fines and amerciaments as shall be delivered 

" to you in the estreats extracted out of this court, and shall 

" faithfully perform and do all other matters and things belonging 

" to the stew^ards of the minstrels' office. 

« So help you God." 


" All manner of persons (except the minstrels) shall give veay to 
" the bull, and not<iome within forty feet of him at their peril, nor 
" hinder the minstrels in their pursuit of him." , , 



" Gentlemen of these Inquests, 

" The annual custom and usajre of this honorable and ancient 
court having now called you together, something I suppose 
it is expected should be said of the delightful art and harmo- 
nious science you profess. 

*' Gentlemen, 

" The nature of your art consists in raising and skilfully regu- 
lating harmonious sounds. All sounds (as the philosopher ob- 
serves) arise from the quick and nimble elision or percussion of 
the air, being either divided by the lips or reeds of pipes, haut- 
boys, flutes, or other wind instruments, or else struck and put 
into motion by the tremulous vibration of strings, yielding an agree- 
able sound to the ear. Now it is your art and business, gentle- 

4 A men, 


men, to regulate, compose, and express these sounds, so as to 
cause the different tones or notes to agree in concord, to make up 
one perfect concert and harmony. 

" As for the antiquity of music, it will suffice that we read of 
Juhal, the son of Lamech, the seventh from Adam (whom some 
will have to be the i\ polio of the Heathens) being the father of all 
such as handle the harp and organ, and probably most other sorts 
of music. About the time of the confusion of tongues, Mitzraim, 
the son of Ham, is said to have carried this art with his company 
into Egypt, where it was so much practised and improved, that 
succeeding generations, who knew not the writings of Moses, 
believed the Egyptians were the first inventors of music. Laban, 
the Syrian, expostulated with his son-in-law, why he would not 
let him send him away with mirth and with songs, with tabret and 
with harp. 

*' But the heathen writers are much divided about the author, 
or first inventor thereof, some say Orpheus, some Lynus, (both 
famous poets and musicians) others Amphion, and the Egyptians 
ascribed the invention to Apollo ] but, as I before observed, the 
sacred history puts an end to this contest, by telling us that Jubal, 
the son of Lamech, and brother of Noah, was the father of all 
such as handle the harp and organ, and probably many other 
kinds of music, for what variety of inventions, as well as improve- 
ments of musical instruments, might not be expected from such 
a genius in the space of seven or eight hundred years expe- 
rience. This Jubal (as I before said) is by the learned thouo-ht 
to be the Apollo of the heathens, but sacred and profane history 



makes them contemporary; we may reasonably infer that the 
Egyptiaris held this science in the highest esteem, from their 
making Apollo (the god of wisdom) the god of it. 

. " There is not the smallest orb we behold amidst the glorioui^ 
canopy of the heavens, nor the minutest species of the animal or 
vegetable creation throughout the terraqueous globe, as well in its 
make, motion, and appearances, but in its motions, composition, 
and economy, like an angel sings, for when we consider the exqui- 
site harmony that visibly appears through the whole creation, and 
the feathered race as one heavenly chorus, continually warbling 
forth their praise to the great Creator, I say, when we permit such 
thoughts as these to have their due influence upon us, we must con- 
clude that the universal frame is derived from harmony, and that 
the eternal mind composed all things by the laws of music, and 
which gives plain and evincing hints to mankind, that as nothing 
but beauty, symmetry, and true harmony is discovered through the 
creation, so their duty to their great Creator would be best ex- 
pressed by a chain of harmonious actions agreeable to reason and 
the dignity of their natures, and such as would really bespeak 
God's service to be the most perfect freedom. 

" Thus is music a representation of the sweet content and har- 
mony which God, in his wisdom, has made to appear throughout 
all his works; with what noble and sublime contemplations ought 
the melodious science of music naturally to inspire our minds 

"Thus holy David, the royal psalmist, well experienced the 
pov^^rful effects of music. You seldom meet him without an 
instrument in his hand and a psalm in his mouth ; holy metres and 

4 A 2 psalms 


psalms he dedicated to his chief musician Jeduthun, to compose 
music to them. He was one in whom the spirit of God dehghted 
to dwell ; no evil spirit can subdue that mind where music and 
harmony are lodged. When David played before Saul, the evil 
spirit departed immediately. The use of music was continued in 
the Jewish church until the destruction of the temple and nation 
by Titus, and the use of it began in the Christian church in the 
time of the Apostles ; the Christian emperors, kings, and princes, 
in all ages and all nations to this day, have had this divine science 
in orreat esteem and honour, as well for divine as civil uses. Not 
only Jews and Christians, but most of the heathen poets and philo- 
sophers were skilful musicians. Homer, who was a skilful master 
in that science, introduces Achilles quelling his rage against Aga- 
memnon by the help of music, and the poet feigned that Orpheus 
drew trees, stones, and floods, since nought so stockish, hard, and 
full of rage, but music for the time doth change its nature. Plu- 
tarch tells us of Terpander's appeasing a seditious insurrection 
in Lacedemonia, by his harmonious lays. Pythagoras is said to 
have softened fierce minds. Asclepiades to have put a stop to 
sedition. Damon to have reduced drunken men to sobriety, and 
petulant men to a modest behaviour ; and Xenoerates to have 
brought madmen to themselves : and all by the help of musical 
sounds. The evil spirit was removed from Saul, and he prophe- 
sied, and this by the efficacy of music. And Elisha, when he was 
consulted by the three kings that marched against Moab, called 
for a minstrel, and when the minstrel played, the hand of the 
Lord came upon him. Music expels poison by rarifying and 
exhilarating the spirits. Persons bit by the tarantula have been, by 
good authors, affirmed to have been cured by music. Amphion was so 



great an orator and musician, that by the force of his oratory and 
powerful touch of his musical lute, the stones that builded Thebes, 
a city in Egypt, danced after him to the place where they should 
be laid, and his moving oratory, sweet harmony, and musicaL 
sounds, did so creep unto the ears, and steal upon the hearts of 
a people, rude and uncivilized, as engaged them to live peaceably 
together at Thebes, where he was king. 

" Musical sacrifices and adorations claimed a place in the laws 
and customs of the most different nations. The Grecians and 
Romans, as well as Jews and Christians, unanimously agreed in 
this, as they disagreed in all other parts of their ceremonies. The 
Greeks and Romans had their college or society of musicians, 
whose art they fought useful to introduce virtue and excite cou- 
rage. Tully tells us that the ancient Grecians (the politest peoples 
of the ao-e) did not think a o-entleman well bred, unless he could 
perform his part at a concert of music, insomuch that Themistocles 
(though otherwise a great man) was taxed for being defective in 
this accomplishment. 

" But to come nearer to ourselves. History tells us that the 
ancient Britons had Bards before they had books, and the Romans, 
by whom they were conquered, confess the mighty .power the 
Druids and Bards had over the people, by recording in their 
songs the deeds of heroic spirits, and teaching them both laws 
and religion in rhymes and tunes. 

" And the long continuance of this very court of minstrelsy is 
a testimony of the antiquity of music amongst us. 

" Theodorick, 


" Theodorick, in an epistle to Boetius, sajs, when this queen of 
the senses comes forth in her gay dress, all other thoughts give 
way, and the soul rallies its powers to receive the delight which she 
gives, she cheers the sorrowful, softens the furious and enraged, 
sweetens sour tempers, gives a check to loose, impure, and wanton 
thoughts, and melts to pure and chaste desires ; she captivates 
the straying faculties, and moulds them into a serene, sober, and 
just economy. 

" T say, gentlemen, the force of music is wonderful : how 
strangely does it awaken the mind ; it infuses an unexpected vigour, 
makes the impression agreeable and sprightly, gives a new capacity 
as well as satisfaction, it raises and falls, and counter-changes the 
passions ; it charms and transports, ruffles and becalms ; governs 
with an almost arbitrary power. There is scarcely any constitution 
so heavy, or reason so well fortified, as to be absolute proof against 
it. Ulysses, as much a hero as he was, durst not trust himself 
with the Syren's voices. Timotheus, a Grecian, was so great a 
master of music, that he could make a man storm and swagger 
like a tempest, and then, by altering his notes and time, he w^ould 
take him down again, and sweeten his humour in a trice. One 
time, when Alexander was at dinner, this man played a Phrygian 
air, the prince immediately rises, snatches up his lance, and puts 
himself in a posture of fighting, the retreat was no sooner sounded 
by the change of the notes, but his arms were grounded, and his 
fire extinct, and he sat down as orderly as if come in from one 
of Aristotle's lectures. 

" Have you, gentlemen, never observed a captain at the head 
of a troop or company, how much he has been altered at the 



sound of a trumpet or the beat of a drum? What a vigorous^ 
motion, what an erected posture, what an enterprising visage 1 
All of a sudden his blood changes in his veins, and his spirit 
jumps like gunpowder, and seems impatient to attack the enemy. 
Music is able to exert its force not onl^' upon the affections, but 
on the parts of the body, as appears from Mr. Derham's story 
of the Gascoign knight that once had disobliged him, and to be 
even with him, caused at a feast a bagpipe to be played, when 
he was hemmed in with the company, which made the knight 
bep— s himself, to the great diversion of the company. 

" But further, gentlemen, not only mankind, but the very beasts 
of the field are delighted with music, the beasts of the plough, 
their toil is rendered easy, and the long fatigue they daily undergo, 
is insensibly shortened by the rural songs and cheering whistle of 
their drivers. Not only dogs and horses, (those docile and saga- 
cious animals) but even the rugged bears themselves dance to the 
sound of pipes and fiddles. 

*' Do but note a wild and wanton herd or race of youthful and 
unbacked colts, fetching mad bounds, bellowing and neighing 
aloud, (the hot conditions of their blood) if they perchance to hear 
a trumpet sound, or any music touch their ears, you shall perceive 
them make a mutual stand, and their savage eyes turned to a 
modest gaze by the sweet power of music. 

"The famous Mr. John Play ford tells us a remarkable story 
to this purpose : That himself once travelling near Royston, met 
a herd of stags, about twenty, upon the road, following a bag- 
pipe and violin ; when the music played, they went forward ; 



when it ceased, they all stood still; and in this manner they were 
cotjducted out of Yorkshire to the King's palace, at Hampton* 

" But not only brute beasts, but even inanimate bodies are af- 
fected with sounds. Kircher mentions a large stone that would 
tremble at the sound of one particular organ pipe. Mersenne 
^Iso, among many relations, tells .us of a particular part of a pave- 
ment that would shake, as if the earth would open, when the 
organ played ; this is more probable than what he relates about 
antipathy, (to wit) ; that the sound of a drum, made of a wolf's 
skin, would break another made of a skeep's skin, and that poultry 
would fly and cackle at the soun^ of a harp string made of a fox's 
gut. The great Boyle also tells us, that he tried an arch that 
would answer to C fa. and had done so one hundred years, and 
that an experienced builder told him any well-built vault would 
answer some determinate note ; and Mr. Derham tells us, that one 
Nicholas Fetter, a Dutchman, could break round glasses with the 
Kound of his voice. 

" It is the common or civil use of music that concerns you, 
gentlemen, that owe suit and sersjce to this court, and in that 
the world has not wanted examples even of emperors, princes, 
and the greatest and most illustrious persons, that have not dis- 
dained both to learn and practice your art ; 'tis music which gains 
you admittance and acceptance in courts and palaces ; in short, 
gentlemen, what feast, what play, what assembly, or ball? what 
country wakes, merriment, or entertainment, can be well held, 
without some of your society ? 

" Our 


" Our great dramatic poet says : 

' The man that hath not music in himself, 

' And is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, 

' Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils ; 

' The motions of his spirit are dull as night, 

' And his affections dark as Erebus/ 

" And now, gentlemen, having spoke a few words of the nature, 
antiquity, usefulness, and wonderful effects of music, I shall now 
proceed to inform you, that as long as the ancient Earls and Dukes 
of Lancaster, who were ever of the blood royal, had their abode 
and kept a liberal hospitality at their honour of Tutbury, there 
could not but be a general concourse of people from all parts', 
for whose diversion all sorts of musicians were permitted likewise 
to come to pay their services, amongst whom some quarrels and 
disorders now and then arising, it was found necessary, after a 
while, that they should be brought under rules and laws, and that 
the end of your attendance and service, at this time, is the pre- 
servation of the dignity of this noble science, and for putting those 
laws into execution, by punishing all abuses and disorders hap- 
pening, by any of your society, within this honour, for which end 
you have a governor appointed you by the name of a king, who has 
several officers under him to see to the execution of the several 
laws and customs belonging to this ancient community. 

" Gentlemen, you are to enquire into the behaviour of the several 
minstrels within this honour, since the last court. 

2d. " Whether any of them have abused or disparaged their 
honourable profession by drunkenness, profane cursing and swear- 

4 B ing. 


ing, singing lewd or obscene songs, playing to any company or 
meetings on the Lord's-day, or by any other vice or immorality, 
or by intruding into any company unsent for, or by playing for any 
mean or disgraceful reward. 

3d. " Whether any of the minstrels, within this honour, that 
should be the known masters of concord and harmony, have been 
themselves guilty of any brawls, quarrels, or disorders. 

4th. " Whether the minstrels, within this honour, have been de- 
cent in their apparel, and skilful in their art, and respectful to their 
supreme, the king of the minstrels ; whether their last year's officers 
of the minstrelsy have well performed the duty of their respective 

5th. " Whether any minstrels, that owe suit and service to this 
court, have appeared and done their suit. 

6lh. " Whether any minstrels have executed their art within this 
honour, not being allowed and inrolled in this court ; and if you 
find any minstrels, within this honour, to have offended in any of 
these particulars, you are to present them. 

" And in the last place, gentlemen, it must be recommended to 
you, that you choose skilful and good men to be officers of the 
minstrelsy for the ensuing year. The king is to be chosen out 
of the four stewards for the preceding year; and one year out 
of Staffordshire, and another out of Derbyshire, interchangeably; 
and the four stewards, two out of Staffordshire, and two out of 
Derbyshire, three of them to be chosen by you, and the fourth 



fey the steward of this court and the bailiff to the Earl of 
Devon*." . ^ 


Near this town, which lies a few miles from Ripon, there is a 
large common, called Hutton-Conyers Moor, whereof William Ais- 
labie, esq. of Stud ley-Royal (lord of the manor of Hutton-Conyers) 
is lord of the soil, and on which there is a large coney -warren be- 
longing to the lord. The occupiers of messuages and cottages 
within the several towns of Hutton-Conyers, Melmerby, Baldersby, 
Rainton, Dishforth, and Hewick, have right of estray for their 
sheep to certain limited boundaries on the common, and each town- 
ship has a shepherd. 

The lord's shepherd has a pre-eminence of tending his sheep on 
any part of the common, and wherever he herds the lord's sheep, 
the several other shepherds are to give way to him, and give up 
their hoofing-place, so long as he pleases to depasture the lord's 
sheep thereon. The lord holds his court the first day in the year, 
and to entitle those several townships to such right of estray, the 
shepherd of each township attends the court, and does fealty by 
bringing to the court a large apple-pye, and a twopenny sweet-cake 
except the shepherd of Hewick, who compounds by paying sixteen- 
pence for ale, (which is drunk as after mentioned) and a wooden 
spoon ; each pye is cut in two, and divided by the bailiff, one half 
between the steward, bailiff, and the tenant of the coney-warren 
before mentioned, and the other half into six parts, and divided 

* Communicated to the editor's father by the correspondent in the Gentleman's Magazine 
before mentioned. See p. 534. 

4 B 2 amongst 


amongst the six shepherds of the before-mentioned six townships. 
In the pye, brought by the shepherd of Rainton, an inner one is 
made filled with prunes. The cakes are divided in the same man- 
ner. The bailiff of the manor provides furmety and mustard, and 
delivers to each shepherd a slice of cheese and a penny roll. 
The furmety, well mixed with mustard, is put into an earthen 
pqt^ and placed in a hole in the ground, in a garth belonging 
to the bailiff's house, to which place the steward of the court, 
with the bailiff, tenant of the warren, and six shepherds, adjourn, 
with their respective wooden spoons. The bailiff provides spoons 
for the steward, the tenant of the warren, and himself. The 
steward first pays respect to the furmety, by taking a large spoon- 
ful ; the bailiff has the next honour, the tenant of the warren next, 
then the shepherd of Hutton-Conyers, and afterwards the other 
shepherds by regular turns ; then each person is served with a glass 
of ale (paid for by the sixteen-pence brought by the Hewick shep- 
herd) and the health of the lord of the manor is drunk ; then they 
adjourn back to the bailiff's house, and the further business of the 
court is proceeded in *. 

In addition to the above account, which the editor received from 
the steward of the court, he learnt the following particulars from a 
Mr. Barrowby of Dishforth, who has several times attended the 
court, and observed the customs used there. He says, that each 
pye contains about a peck of flour, is about sixteen or eighteen 
inches diameter, and as large as will go into the mouth of an ordi- 
nary oven : that the bailiff of the manor measures them with a rule, 

♦ From a letter addressed by Henry Atkinson, esq. of Ripon, to the editor, dated 19th Ja- 
nuary, 1778. 



and takcis the diametef, and -if they ire not of a iuffioient eatJ9,city, 
he threate^iis to return them, and fine the town. If they are lar^e 
enough, he ditides therii with a rule and fcdttipasses into foUr equdl 
parts, of Which the steward elaittis one, the warrerier another, and 
the remainder is divided amongst the shepherdil. In respect to the 
furmety, he says, that the top of th^ dish in which it is put is placed 
level with the surface of the ground ; that all persons present are 
invited to eat of it, and tho^e who do not are not deemed loyal to 
the lord : that every shepherd is obliged to eat of it, and for that 
purpose is to take a spoon in his pocket to the cOuVt, for if any of 
them neglects to carry his spoon with him, he is to lay him doWp' 
upon his belly, and sup the furmety with his face to the pOt or dish ; 
at which time it is usual, by way of sport, for sonfe of the by- 
standers to dip his face into the furmiety ; and sometimes a, shep- 
herd, for the sake of divers^ion. Will purposely leave his spoon at 


In the fifth year of the reigU of King. Henry H., after the don- 
quest of England by William Duke of Normandy^' the lord bf 
Uglebarnby, then called William de Bruce f, the lord of Snayn- 
ton [*], called Ralph de Percy [-j-], and a gefntleman freeholder, called' 
Allotson, did, on the 16th daiy of October, meet to hunt the Wild 
boar, in a certain wood or desart called Eskdale-Side : the wood or 
place did belong to the abbot of the monastery of Whitbyi who was 
then called Sedman, and abbot of the said place. 

Then the aforesaid gentlemen did meet with their hounds and 
boar-staves in the place afwesaid, and there found a great wild 
boar; and the hounds did run him very hard near the chapel and 



hermitage of Eskdale-Side, where there was a monk of Whitby, 
who was an hermit ; and the boar being so hard pursued, took in 
at the chapel door, and there laid him down, and died imme- 
diately, and the hermit shut the hciunds out of the chapel, and kept 
himself at his meditation and prayers : the hounds standing at a 
bay Avithout, the gentlemen in the thick of the wood, put behind 
their game, in following the cry of the hounds, came to the her- 
mitage, and found the hounds round the chapel; then came the 
gentlemen to the door of the chapel, and called on the hermit, 
who did open the door, and then they got forth, and within lay 
the boar dead, for which the gentlemen in a fury, because their 
hounds were put out of their game, run at the hermit with their 
boar-staves, whereof he died ; then the gentlemen knowing, and 
perceiving that he was in peril of death, took sanctuary at Scar- 
borough ; but at that time, the abbot, being in great favour with 
the king, did remove them out of the sanctuary, whereby they 
came in danger of the law, and not privileged, but like to have the 
severity of the law, which was death. But the hermit, being a holy 
man, and being very sick, and at the point of death, sent for the 
abbot, and desired him to send for the gentlemen, who had 
woundied him to death ; so doing, the gentlemen came, and the 
hermit, being sick, said, "I am sure to dieof these wounds:" the 
abbot answered, "They shall die for it;" but the hermit said, " Not 
so, for I will freely forgive them my death, if they are content to be 
enjoined this penalty (penance) for the safe-guard of their souls :" 
the gentlemen being there present, bid him enjoin what he would, 
so he saved their lives : then said the hermit, " You and yours 
shall hold your land upon (of) the abbot of Whitby and (his) suc- 
cessors in this manner ; that upon Ascension-day-even, you, or 
some of you, shall come to the wood of Strayheads, which is in 



fiskdale-Side, and the same day (Ascension-day at sun-rising), and 
there shall the officer of the abbot blow his horn, to the intent that 
you may know how to find him, and deliver unto you, William de 
Bruce, ten stakes, eleven strut-stowers, and eleven yadders, to be 
cut with a knife ^f a penny price ; and you, Ralph de Percy [-f], 
shall take one and twenty of each sort, to be cut in the same man- 
ner ; and you, Allotson, shall take nine of each sort, to be cut as 
aforesaid, and to be taken on your backs, and carried to the town 
of Whitby, and to be there before nine o'clock of the same day 
before mentioned ; and at the hour of nine o'clock, if it be full sea? 
to cease their servic