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Full text of "The United States locals and their history"



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FROM THE 

BENNO LOEWY LIBRARY 

COLLECTED BY 

BENNO LOEWY 

1854-1919 
BEQUEATHED TO CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



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The original of this book is in 
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There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924030134013 



THE 



UNITED STATES LOCALS 



AND 



THEIR HISTORY. 



BY OHAS. H. COSTER. 



NEW YORK: 

SCOTT & COMPANY, 146 FULTON STREET. 

1877. 



3o 



Press of John Polhbmus, 102 Nassau Street, New York. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Pbefatokt 

Introductory . 



PAGE 

.. 6 

.. 7 



PAUT I. 

Chapter I.— The Independent Mail Routes of 
1843-5 11 

Chapter n.— Trans-continental Companies and 
their connections 15 

Chapter III.— Miscellaneous Companies. . ; 19 

PART II. 

Chapter L— Explanatory 31 

Chapter II. — New York City— The New York 
City Despatch Post 34 

Chapter III.— New York City, continued— 
Boyd's CiTy Express 36 

Chapter IV.— New York City, Continued- 
Miscellaneous , . . . 39 

Chapter V.— New York City, continued— Hus- 
sey's Post 36 

Chapter VI. — New York City, continued— Mis- 
cellaneous 41 

Chapter VII. — New York City, concluded— 
Miscellaneous 46 

Chapter Vin.— Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — 
Blood's Despatch 48 

Chapter IX.— Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, con- 
tinued— Miacellaneous 52 

Chapter X. — Baltimore, Maryland — Miscellan- 
eous 54 

Chapter XI.— Boston, Massachusetts- Miscel- 
laneous 56 

Chapter XII.— Charleston, South Carolina- 
Honour's Post and its Branches 57 

Chapter XIII.— Chicago, Illinois— Miscellan- 
eous 58 

Chapter XIV.— Cincinnati, Ohio— Miscellan- 
eous 59 



PAGE 

Chapter XV.— Columbia and Wrightsville, 
Pennsylvania^-Bridge Despatch 60 

CHAPTERXVI.—Easton, Pennsylvania— Brown's 
Easton Despatch Post 60 

Chapter XVII.— New Orleans, Louisiana— Mis- 
cellaneous ....... 1 61 

Chapter XVIII.— St. Louis, Missouri— Squier 
&Co 61 

Chapter XIX.— "Washington, D. C— Washing- 
ton City Despatch 63 

Chapter XX.— Califo nia— The Penny Post 
Company of California 63 

Chapter XXL— San Francisco, California — 
Miscellaneous 63 

Chapter XXIL— Concluding Chapter— Miscel- 
laneous 66 

PART m. 

Chapter L— Explanatory 70 

Chapter IL— Printed Franks of various Com- 
panies 71 

Chapter III.— Printed Franks of Wells, Fargo 
&Co ; 86 

Chapter IV.— Handstamps of various Com- 
panies 89 

Chapter V.— History of some of the leading 
Companies whose Franks are described in 
Chapters IL and IV. 

Chapter VL— History of Wells, Fargo & Co.. . 97 

Chapter VII.— Conslusiou to Part III 99 

PART IV. 

Chapter I.— New York City, N. Y., and Philar 
delphia, Pa.— Miscellaneous 103 

Chapter II.— Calif ornia:.-The Penny Post Com- 
pany of California 105 

Chapter IIL— San Francisco, California— Mis- 
cellaneous 113 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Adams & Co. (of the Bast) " 8 

, do toftheWest) 15, ir, 90, 96 

Adams' Express Post 8B 

Alta Express Co 71, 92 

American District Telegraph Co 83 

American Express Co. (New York City) 44 

do do (of the East) 8,97 

do do (of the West) 71,92,96 

American Letter Mail Co 11, 12 

Arizona and New Mexico Express Co 71 

Arthur's City Post , - 8 

Bacon's Express 71 

Bacon & Hardy (see J. Bamber & Co.) 

Baldwin's K. R. Express 8 

Bailou & Co.'s Cariboo Express 71, 92 

Bamber.J. & Co., and Bamber & Co 71,90,92 

Bancroft's City Express 8 

Barker's City Post 8 



PAOE 

Barnard & Co. (Barnard's Express) 15, 18, 72, 73 

Barr's Dispatch 66 

Beekraan's Express 72 

Bell's Dispatch 8 

Bennett, J. P. & Co 72,92 

Bentley's Despatch 34 

Berford & Co 15, 16, 90. 96 

Beveridge & Carrick (see Diamond City Ex- 

press) 

Black & Co.'s Express 78 

Blake, T.W. & Co 90 

Blood's Despatch : 48, 104 

Boaton, John 80 

Bowery. Express 8 

Boyce's City Express Post 43 

Boyd's Despatch 22, 26, 32, 103 

Bowers & Co 96 

Brady & Co. (New York) 44 

do (Chicago) 58 



PAGE 

Brainard & Co 11, 14 

Brigg's Despatch 8 

British Columbia & Victoria Express Co 72 

Broadway Post Office 38 

Bronson & Jorbes 68 

Brooklyn City BxpresB 35 

Brown's Express 9U, 96 

Browne's City Post (Cincinnati) 59 

Browne's Easton despatch 60 

Brown & McGill 46 

Buchanan & Co 72 

Byam's Express 90 

California City Letter Express 68, 109 

California R. K. Express 90 

C. & W. Bridge Despatch 60 

Carnes' City Letter Express 65, 110, 111 

Carrier's Despatch 55 

Carter, G 63 

Central Overland California and Pike's Peak 

Express •. 90 

Central Poet Office 8 

Cheever & Towle 56 

Cherokee Express 90 

Chestnut St. Line 8 

Chicago Penny Post 58 

City Dispatch 46 

City Despatch Post (see New York City Des- 
patch Post) 

City Express Post 33 

City Letter Delivery Ill 

City Letter Express 66, 111 

City Letter Express Mail 46 

Clark & Co .... r 44 

Clarke's Circular Express 44 

Clinton Penny Post 8 

Colby's Nevada and Dutch Flat Express 72 

Compagnie (Cie) Franco-Americain 8 

Comwelrs MadiS'n Square P. O 34 

Cram, Kogers & Co 90, 96 

Cramer's Express 73 

Crawford's Middle Pork Express 73 

Cressman & Co 53 

Crook's Express 96 

Crosby's City Post 45 

Cumming's City Post 31 

Davis' Post 55 

De Ming's Penny Post < 53 

Diamond City Express 73 

Dietz & Nelson 73, 93 

Dodge &Co 90 

Doherty & Martin 90 

Domestic Telegraph Co 83 

Dore's Flat Express 78 

Down Town Letter Express 23 

Downieville & Howland Flat Express 73 

Dupuy & Schenk 31 

Eagle City Post 53 

East River Post Office - 34 

Elko & Mountain City Pony Express 73 

English & 'SVells 73, 93 

Essex Letter Express 43 

Eureka Express Co 74, 93 

Everts, Davis & Co 74, 93 

Everts, Hannon, Wilson & Co 74, 98 

Everts, Wilson & Co 74, 93 

Fettis. M., Oro Pino Express 74 

Fisk&Rice 66 

Fleming's San Leandro Express 74 

Florida Express 8 

Floyd's Penny Post 68 

Ford's Express (J. B. Ford) 74,90 

Fox's, CSiCBter P., Express 74, 90 

Franklin (Head) 9 

Franklin City Free Despatch Post (see Bouton). 

Frazer & Co B9 

Freeman & Co 74, 90, 93 

Gahagan cfe Howe (G. &H.) 64,110,111 

Galeirs, H. F., Stage and|Express Line 7S 



Garland's Exprew 75 

Gautier Frtos & Cie 8 

Gay'sExpress 8 

Gerow & Johnson 75 

Gibbs, W. T., Express 75, 91 

Gilbert & Hedges 96 

Gilpatrick & Co.'s Express 75, 93 

Glen Haven Daily Mail 9 

Godfrey's 9 

Gordon's City Express 33 

Government City Despatch 81, 23 

Grafflin's Despatch 54 

Gray's Express 75 

Greathouse & Slicer 91 

Greenhood & Neubauer 75, 93 

Gregory 00,96 

Gregory & English 75, 93 

Grioiey's Express 76 



Hale & Co 11, 

Hall & Allen's Dutch Flat Express 76, 

Hall & Mills 

Hammond & Wilson's Express 

Hampton, T. A., Despatch Post 

Hanford's Pony Express 

Hamden's Express 

Harrier's, D. W., Express 

Harrison's Susanville & Goose Lake Express. . . 

Hartford Mail 11, 12, 

Hasting's Express 

Hawes, J. &Co 

Hawley & Co 

Haywood's Express 

Henderson & Co. Coast Express 

Here, W. F 92. 

Hinckley, A. M., & Co.'s Express 

Hinckley's, A. M., Express Co 

Hinckley & Co.'s Express Mail 

Hoag, J. W., &Co 

Hodge & Co 

Hodge & Lusk 

Hogan & Co 

HoUaday Overland Mail & Express Co. .76, 94. 97, 

Holland, Morley & Co 77, 94, 

Holland & Wheeler's Daily Express 77, 94, 

Honour's Post 

Hoogs & Madison (see California City Letter 

Express) 

Hopkiusou'b Express 

Hourly Express Post 

Hoyt's Letter Express 11, 12, 

Humboldt Express (see Langton & Co.) 

Hunt's Despatch 

Hunt's, W. P., Warren Express 

Hunt & Hart's Warren Express 

Hunter & Co 91 , 

Huntley, C. C, Stage & Express Line 

Hussey's Post 22, 

Indian Creek Express 

International Express 

James & Co.'s Kootenai Express 

Jameson's, J. C, Express 

Jefferson Market Post Office 

Jenkin's Camden Despatch 

Johnson's Box 



Jones' City Express Post 

Jones & Edgar's Express 77, 

Kennedy & Co 78, 

Kennedy, Long & Co 78, 

Kenson's Owens River Express 

Ker's City Post 

Kersey's, J. D., Express 

Kidder's City Express Post 

Kieinan, Philip J. (see Down Town Letter Ex- 
press) 

Kingman's City Post '. 67 

La Forte Express Co 78 

Lamping & Co.'s Express 78, 87, 94 

Langton & Co 8, 15, 18, 67, 78, 91, 94- 

Lathrop's Express , 



PASS 

Latta Mountain Express 79 

Le Beanos Express 8 

Leland'a Express 91. 96 

Leland & McComb's Express 91, 96 

Letter Express 11, 18, 14 

Livingston & Fargo 97 

Livingston, Pargo c6 Co 97 

Livingston, Wells & Pomeroy 8, 97 

Livingston, Wells & Co 97 

Lockwood, C. M., & Co 79 

Loomis, W. E 65, 110 

Loon Creek Express 79 

Lount's Express 96 

Hann & Co.'s Express 91 

Martin's City Post 57 

Mason & Co 61 

McBean & Co.'s Express 79 

Mclntire's City Express Post 45 

McRobisli&Co 8 

Mead & Clarke 79, 94 

Mead & Davis 94 

Menant&Co 61 

Merchant's Stage and Express Line 79 

Messenkope's Union Square Post Office 33 

Metropolitan City Express Post 47 

Metropolitan Errand and Carrier Exprv^ss Co. 41, 104 

Metropolitan Post Oflice 35 

Mills, G. A 85 

Moody 8 

Morley, Caulkins & Co 79, 95 

Mossraan & Co.'s Express 80 

Mumby & Co 91, 99 

Nevada City and Meadow Lake Express 80 

Newell & Co 96 

New Haven & New York Express 8 

New York City Despatch Post 84, 28 

New York City Express Post" 47 

New York Commissionnaire Co 23 

Nichols & Co.'s Express 80, 95 

Norman's, G. H., Express 80 

Organ & Tibbett's Excelsior Express 80 

Oregon & California E. K. Express 91 

Oroville & Quincy Express Co 80 

Oroville & Susanville Express 91 

Overton & Co 11, 13 

Pacific Express Co 80, 91, 96 

Pacific Stage and Express Co 80 

Pacific Union Express Co 81, 95 

Palmer & Co . . 91 

Panamint Pony Express 81 

Pattison's Express 81 

Pauly's, N. O., Express 81 

Pauly & Nohrman's Express 81 

Petaluma and San Francisco Express 83 

Penman's, K., Express 81 

Penny Post (Boston) 56 

Penny Post Co. of California 62, 105 

Pescadoro and Half Moon Bay Stage Co 81 

Peterson's Lower California Express 91 

Philip & Gregory's Express 82 

Pip's Daily Mail 9 

•Pomeroy & Co 11, 12, 13, 97 

Pony Express (see Wells, Fargo & Co.) 

Post Office Despatch 55 

Post Office, Paid 67 

Price's City Express 47 

Priest's Despatch 53 

Prince's, J. H., Letter Despatch 1!) 

Prindle's Express 91 

Private Post Office 66, 110, 111 

Public Post Office 110 

Public Letter Office 66, 110 

Eamey, J. C, & Co.'s Express 82 

Eanm''s Express 83 

Eeticker's Poney Express 91 

Eeynolds & Co 91, 96 

Eeynolds. Todd & Co 91, 96 

Khodes&Lusk 91 

Ehodes & Whitney 91 

Bichroond 9 



;PAGB 

Eoadman's Penny Post 47 

Eobison & Co 67 

Bobinson & Co. (see San Francisco Letter Ex- 

T)rGBS'l *» ......•.* 

Eockfellow &'c'o.''8 Express 88, 95 

Bowe & Co.'s Express 91 

Boyal Insurance Co 8 

Euby Hill & Schellbnm Express 88 

Eumrill, F., & Co.'s Express 91, 96 

Eundell & Co.'s Express 82 

Eundell & Jones' Express 82 

Bussell's 8th Avenue Post Office 48 

Butherford & Co 95 

Sacramento Eiver Express 82 

Salmon Elver and Nez Perces Express 88 

San Francisco Letter Express (Van Dyck & 

Early) 63, 109 

San Francisco Letter Express (J. C . Robinson) 

64, 109, 111 

Scoch's Copper City Express 83 

Shepherd's Express 83 

Smith's City Express Post 44 

Snow's Despatch 67 

Snow's Express 67 

Snow Shoe Express 83 

Spence & Brown 9 

Springside P. O 9 

Squier & Co 61 

Stait, W , 9,52 

Staten Island Express Post 48 

Steinmeyer's City Post 54 

Stonor & Scott's 91 

Stringer & Morton 68 

Swarfs City Despatch Post 29, 32 

Swift & Co.'s Express 83 

Taggart, Grant J., Weaverville and Shacta Ex- 
press 83 

Teese & Co '. 54 

Third Avenue Post Office , 43 

Thompson & Co 83, 98 

Thomes & Skaden's Express 83 

Tibbett & Co.'s Excelsior Express 83 

Tinnin & Owen's Weaverville & Shasta Express . 83* 

Todd (Todd & Co.) 91, 96 

ToddABryan 96 

Tracy & Co 83 

Troy and Albany Express Post 9 

Truman's, J. C, Express 84,95 

Traman & Chapman's Express 84, 95 

Truman & Co.'s Express 84, 95 

Union Square'Post Office 33 

United States City Despatch Post 81 

U. S. Mail 81, 88 

U. S. Penny Post r 56 

U. S. P. O .33,58 

Waldron's Express (Waldron & Co.) ... 15, 18, 84, 95 

Walker's Posi 9 

Walton & Co T 31 

Warwick's 9 

Washington City Despatch 68 

Wells, L. H 84, 93 

Wells & Herring 85, 93 

Wells, Fargo & Co. (including Pony Express) . . 15, 16, 

72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78. 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 

86, 91, 98, 96, 97. 

Westervelt's Post 19 

Westtown 9 

Wharton's, J. P., Express 85 

Wheeler's Express 85, 95 

Wheeler, Butherford & Co.'s Express 85, 95 

Whiting & Co.'s Feather Eiver Express 86 

Whitney's Express (Whitney & Co.) 92 

Whitney & Co. (Bamber'a successors) . . '. 85, 96 

Whittelsey's Express 68 

Winan's City Post 55 

Wines, G. H., & Co.'s Express ss, 96 

Wood's, A. J., Express 85 

Wood & Co.'s Express 85 

Wyman, W 11, 13 

Zacb's Snow Shoe Express 85 



PREFATORY. 



During the years 1874 and '75 I published in the American Journal of 
Philately a series of papers upon the United States Locals and the Western 
Envelope Franks, which forms the basis of the present work. My original 
articles were the result of some years of careful investigation ; but subse- 
quent events have shown that they were far from complete. Hence, in the 
course of their revision, I have had occasion to insert many new facts, to 
illustrate or describe additional stamps ; and, indeed, to include not a few 
local posts previously unknown. At the same time I have been enabled to 
^ improve the general arrangement of the subject, which is confusing (rather 
than complicated) under any circumstances, and therefore requires to be 
presented with all possible perspicuity. 

Leaving the reader ,to judge for himself as to the measure of success 
which has attended my efforts, I gratefully acknowledge the aid received 
from many friends, among whom I would mention Messrs. J. K. Furlong, 
J. W. Scott and W. P. Beown, of this city ; Mrs. A. G. Ceaig and C. W. 
LoMLEE, Esq., of "San Francisco ; and P. A. Philbeick, Q. C, of London. 

C. H. C. 

Nbw York, July 10th, 1877. 



THE UNITED STATES LOCALS AND THEIR HISTORY. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

The United States Locals may, as a matter of convenience, be divided 
into four classes : 

I. Adhesive stamps issued by companies carrying mail matter between 
different cities or towns. 

II. Adhesive stamps issned by companies carrying mail matter between 
the different portions of the same city or town, or collecting mail matter in 
like manner for transportation to the government post office. 

III. Franks impressed on envelopes issued by companies carrying mail 
matter between different cities and towns. 

IV. Franks impressed on envelopes issued by companies distributing mail 
matter between the different portions of the same city or town, or collecting 
mail matter in like manner for transportation to the government post office. 

The present work will be divided into four parts, to conform to these four 
classes, which, it must be remembered, are made as a simple matter of con- 
venience. Viewing the subject strictly logically, only two general classes 
exist, comprising respectively I. and III., and II. and IV. But a list pre- 
pared upon this plan would result in a hopeless confusion of adhesive and 
envelope franks, and I therefore prefer to follow the less logical but more 
practical system already laid out. 

The distribution of illustrations throughout Parts I. and II. of this work 
has, in most instances, allowed of my dispensing with detailed descriptions 
of the stamps. It may, however, be well to here explain that whenever it 
has been necessary to accompany the letter-press with two illustrations sim- 
ultaneously, the one placed on the left side always represents the type hav- 
ing precedence in the enumeration. 

Before going further I wish to make allusion to the popular fallacy, espe- 
cially in Europe, of accepting as local stamps all sorts of package labels, 
business envelopes, &c., also a number of entirely fantastical things due to 
the counterfeiters, who, not satisfied with swindling the public with " repro- 
ductions " (as they call them) of the genuine locals, have exercised their 
ingenuity by producing labels purporting to have emanated from confpanies 
which in reality had not for the most part even an existence; or, in the few 
instances where they did exist, never issued any stamps whatever. I cannot 
dwell upon the subject at length, and I must therefore content myself with 
an enumeration of a few of the labels of each of the classes described, that 
have generally been included in the European catalogues of the last ten or 
twelve years. Opposite each I note the ground upon which it should be 
excluded from collections. 



8 

American Express Co., Utica. Package label. 

Adams Express Co. Various embossed designs. Simple advertise 
ments cut from the ordinary business envelopes of the company. 

Arthur's City Post. Probably never existed. 

Baldin'in's R. R. Express. Never existed. 

Briggs' Despatch. Never existed. 

Barker's City Post. Barker succeeded Cheever & Towle in Boston, 
but he used only a hand stamp. 

Bowery Express. Existed in New York City, but did not use an 

adhesive stamp. 

Bancroft's City Express. Never had anything more than a ficti- 
tious existence. , 

Bell's Dispatch. Never existed. 

Central Post Office. Only a hand stamp, and certainly a humbug. 

Clinton's Penny Post. Existence doubtful; all the specimens known 
are certainly spurious. 

Cie. Franco-Americain. ) ^-. . , 

~ .. — , ^. f Never existed. 

Gautier Freres et Cie. ) 

Chestnut Street Line. Copied from an omnibus ticket. 

Florida Express. Never existed. 

Gay's Express. Carried parcels, not letters. 

Harnden's Express. Simple advertisement cut from the ordinary 
business envelope of the company. These envelopes being difScult to find, 
though of no value, have been counterfeited by the Boston gang. 

Hunt's Despatch. Never existed. 

International Express. Never existed. 

Johnson's Box. A mere advertisement. 

Ker's City Post. Never existed. 

Iiangton & Co., steamer in centre. Entirely fictitious. 

Lathrop's Express. Never existed. 

lie Beau's Express. Never existed. 

Livingston, Wells & Pomeroy. Only a parcel label; had no value. 

Moody, Chicago. Probably never existed. 

McRobish &. Co. Never existed. 

New Haven & New York Express. Never existed. 

Royal Insurance Co. Cut from the business envelope of a British 
Insurance Company that has an agency in New York. 



9 

Richmond, flag. Never existed. 

Spence & Brovrn. Probably never existed. 

Springside P. O. A mere bazaar stamp. 

W. Stait of the City Despatch, -will call, &,c., &,c. A mere 
advertisement. 
War^w■ick's. Never existed. 
Walker's Post. Never existed. 
WesttO'wn. A college stamp, of no value, and no franking powor. 

The foregoing list must not be accepted as complete. It comprises only 
a few instances, selected at random, to better illustrate the remarks that 
precede. 

Another class of stamps generally included in collections of locals, must 
not go unnoticed. I allude to the various Fair or Bazaar stamps issued at 
Albany, Brooklyn, New York, &c. They certainly are not of any philatelic 
value or interest, and I do not see by what right they are classed as locals. 

In conclusion, I desire to mention a few labels which I have purposely 
excluded from the chapters that follow, for want of sufficient proof as to 
their character, viz. : Franklin (head of Franklin) ; Glen Haven Daily Mail, 
Godfrey's, (this I have never seen) ; Pip's Daily Mail ; and Troy and 
Albany Express Post. I am inclined to think that there may be either one 
or two genuine types of the Glen Haven, though quite different from the 
specimens generally known. My impressions regarding the others do not 
favor their ever having existed in authentic form. 



PART I 



Adhesive Stamps issued by Companies carrying 

mail matter between different 

Cities or To'wns. 



CHAPTER I.— The Independent Mail Routes of 1842-5. 
CHAPTER II. — Trans-continbntal Companies and theie connectioX!- 
CHAPTER III.— Miscellaneous. 



CHAPTER I. 



The Independent Mail Routes ov 1842-5. 

The Independent Mail Routes of 1842-5 owed their origin to the unsatis- 
factory management of the government post-office at that period. The 
United States officials used every means in their power to crush these pri- 
vate enterprises — their mail bags were seized, innumerable law suits com- 
menced, for violation of Acts of Congress, &c., &o. The outside public, how- 
ever, appreciated not only the more moderate charges, but also the greater 
celerity of the private companies, and was not slow in bestowing its patron- 
age accordingly. Finally the government was obliged, in self protection, to 
reduce rates and effect the needed reforms in the service generally. The re- 
sult was that the private companies could no longer control the business, and 
they consequently soon withdrew from the field. 

The com]janies forming the Independent Mail Routes, were Hale &, Co., 
The American Letter Mail Co., Overton & Co., W. Wyman, Brainard & 
Co., Pomeroy & Co., The Letter Express, Hoyt's Letter Express, and the 
Hartford Mail. 

As will be noticed, from the brief outline of the route of each " Post," 
given below, several of the companies ran in direct opposition to each other; 
and, when this was the case, a keen competition generally resulted. 

Hale & Co. — This " Post " was one of the best known in the United 
States and did a large and profitable business. The proprietor, Mr. James 
W. Hale, says that it was organized about November, 1841, or January, 
1842, and had 110 offices, extending from Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
and Baltimore in the East, to Detroit, Michigan, in the West. I am in- 
clined to think, however, that the date as given by Mr. Hale is rather earlier 
than was actually the case. It also seems probable that he reached the 
West by connecting with other expresses, as letters bearing his stamp are 
generally- postmarked from Boston, New York, Philadelphia and interme- 
diate towns. 

Ambeican Letter Mail Co. — Organized in 1844 (possibly rather earlier), 
and carried mail matter between the principal points in Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut, New York City and Philadelphia. 

OvEETON & Co. — Commenced in 1844, and had an existence of about 
one year. They ran from Boston to New York and Philadelphia. They 
also ran a parcel express up the Hudson River, and West to Buffalo. 

W. Wtman started in 1844, and extended from Boston to New York. 

Bkainaed & Co. certainly existed in 1844, if not before. Their route 
was from New York to Albany and Troy. 



12 



Hartfobd Mail. — Started in 1844, its routes extending, apparently, 
from Hartford, Conn., to New York, Boston, Albany, &c. In 1845 it was 
suppressed by the U. S. Government. 

PoMBROY & Co. — This was in all probability the earliest letter express 
in the United States. It was founded in 1842, and carried letters from Bos- 
ton, New York and Albany to Buffalo. 

At Buflfalo, Pomeroy & Co. connected with a concern called the Lbttee 
Express, by means of wliich correspondence was transported to Chicago, 
Milwaukee, and all the towns on or near the lakes. 

Hoyt's Letter Express. — This was probably a short-lived affair. It ex- 
isted in 1844, starting from some unknown point and connecting with Pome- 
roy & Co. at Rochester. 

With this brief history of the several companies, I proceed to the stamps 
which they respectively issued. 

Hale &, Co. 

Type I. — Lithographed in red and in blue on paper 
varying from pure white to a decidedly bluish tinge. 

The red stamp must have had a very short existence, 
as copies are rarely to be met with. 

The address, viz., 13 Court St., Boston, was that of 
the head office of the company, but the label appears 
to have been used by the branches also. 
The location of the Boston office must have soon been changed, as copies 
are frequently to be found with a pen-stroke drawn through the number and 
street. Subsequently, however, a more important al- 
teration was made, and we therefore have Type II., 
which is identical with preceding, with the exception 
of that portion of the address noted above. This vari- 
ety (which is by far the commoner one) is printed in 
blue on white paper. It is also said to have existed 
in red, but no good ground can be given for the asser- 
tion. 



American Letter Mail Co. 






Type I. — Metal plate engi-aving. 
varying materially in shade and 
found in numerous fancy colors. 



Black on white paper, 
quality. Repi-ints are 



Type II. — Engraved on metal by W. L. Ormsby. 
Black and blue impressions on white paper, of several 
distinct shades. 

I am aware tliat I am acting contrary to public opinion 
in this classification of types, but my reasons for so doing 
can be best explained by the following comparative table 
of earliest dates that I have found on letters bearing the 
American Letter Mail Co.'s stamps: 





13 



Type I.-T-PWladelphia, February 3, 1844. 

Type IL— rblack) Philadelphia, September 16, 1844. 

Type II. — (blue) Philadelphia, January 4, 1845. 



Overton &, Go. 

Lithographed by G. Hayward & Co., of Boston. 

Black on thin yellow paper. 

" " greenish -" varying to grey. 



A label similar though not identical in form and inscription to the one 
last described, but having a postman carrying a letter for the central device, 
has recently appeared ; and, while at first sight it impressed me favorably, 
I am now satisfied that it is a hoax. It is printed in blue on white paper, 
and is cancelled by a most natural looking hand stamp. This same hand 
stamp has also been used for the purpose of cancelling well executed coun- 
terfeits of the bird type, presumedly made by the ingenious concoctor of the 
postman variety. 

I have seen the grey stamp of Type I. on a letter bearing a hand-struck 
impression, reading : Forwarded by Davenport & Co., 291 State St., Boston. 
At first I was inclined to think that Davenport & Co. might have been a 
heretofore unknown letter express ; but I am now led to consider it as the 
name of a commercial firm. The hand stamp was probably impressed on 
all letters that they mailed, according to the custom still prevalent among 
many houses. 




W. Wyman. 

Engraved on copper and printed in black on white 
paper. 

A curious thing about these stamps is, that Mr. 
Wyman himself is quite certain that they were printed 
in blue, though nobody has ever seen or heard of speci- 
mens in that color. 



Fomeroy & Co. 

Type I. — Metal plate engraving by Mr. Gavit, more 
recently connected with one of pur Bank Note Companies. 
Red-orange on thin, crisp white paper. 
Blue " " " " 

Black " " " " 

" " thick yellow " 

These have all been reprinted, and an additional color, viz. 
white, added. 




brown on 



14 




Type II. — Same as preceding, but with " $1 ' (see lower 
margin) cut from the frame. 

Black on thick yellow paper. 
In addition to the above there is also found a large rec- 
tangular label bearing the name of Pomeroy & Co., and 
having a locomotive for the central design. This was not, 
however, a postage stamp in any sense of the word, but 
merely a label used for pasting on parcels and money pack- 
to indicate that P. & Co. were the forwarders. 



Brainard & Co. 

Apparently a wood-block, though it has been pronounced 
typographed. 

Black on white paper. 



The Letter Express. 

Types I. and II.— (10 for $1.00) Appar- 
ently from wood-blocks. 
Type I. — Black, on flesh-colored paper. 
" II. — Black, on red glazed paper. 






Type III. — (20 for $1.00) Wood-block impression. 

Black, on green paper. ] 

" " pink " I Generally dull, but 
" " brown " | sometimes glazed. 
" white 



Hoyt's Letter Express. 

Only two specimens of this stamp have ever come under my notice, and 
as neither of them is now in my possession, it will be necessary to 
dispense ■ngth the usual illustration. Describing from memory I can only 
say that the design (if such it may be called) consists of the words " IIoty's 
Letter Expeess to Rochestbe," enclosed in a neat type-set border, the 
whole forming about as insignificant an affair as can well be imagined. A 
variety is also found in having the word "Letter" misspelt '■^ Letter. " The 
impression is in black on red glazed paper. 



15 

Hartford Mail. 

The design was engraved on copper and repeated a sufficient 
number of times to make up a sheet, so that each specimen 
shows minute differences in the details. Across the stamps is 
usually written the destination of the letter, those for New 
York being generally marked S. or South, though sometimes W. 
or West. 

Black, on pink paper. 

" " yellow paper. c- 

The pink stamps were of the value of jw cents, and the yellow ones of ±^ 
cents. 




CHAPTER II. 



Tbajsts-continental Companies and thbib Connections. 

But few of these companies issued adhesive stamps, as their business, for 
the most part, came in such direct competition with the P. O. system of the 
United States that, in order to avoid seizure, on the ground that they were 
reducing the government revenue, they printed their franks on U. S. stamped 
envelopes. Of coursS the government, as long as it got its regular pay, 
did not object to allowing the companies to do the work. These franked 
envelopes form the subject of Part III. of this work. 

The earliest of the companies was Bebfobd & Co., which was started 
in 1849, and which carried mail matter between New York and San Fran- 
cisco, via Panama. So, perhaps, the term trans-continental is a misnomer ; 
but I nevertheless use it in default of a better. 

Wells, Faego & Co. — This company was started in 1852, and is still in 
existence. It is hardly necessary to mention this last fact, as it has a world- 
wide reputation, and its branches are to be found in nearly all portions of 
the globe. 

Among the companies absorbed by it were the following, whose stamps 
are described in this chapter, viz. : 

Adams & Co., 
Langton & Co., 
Barnard & Co., 
Waldron & Co. 
In Parts III. and IV. will be found various items of interest regarding 
the companies mentioned in the present chapter. It» therefore only remains 
for me to enumerate their adhesive locals. 



16 



Berford & Co. 

3 cents, black on white. 
6 " green " 
10 " purple " 
25 " red " 

One original set of the Berford stamps is said 
to exist, in the collection of an individual who, 
perhaps, appreciating their rarity and desiring 
that the semblance of the reality should be within 
the reach of all, caused photo-lithographic " reproductions " to be made a 
couple of years ago. These imitations (or "reprints" as they were called 
by the individual already referred to) have been fully ventilated in the 
columns of the Philatelic press. 





Wells, Fargo Sl Co. 

Type I. — Apparently a fine metal plate engraving, 

10 cents (^ oz.) brown on white paper. 
25 " " blue on white paper 

25 " " red " " 



Type II.- 


—This was employed for all tl 


viz : 






$1.00, red on white paper 
2.00, " 

2.00, green " " 
4.00, " " 
4.00, black " " 




When the use of these stamps was discontinued, a large stock must have 
remained on hand (or else a reprinting must have occurred), which found 
its way into the hands of a prominent New York dealer, so that unused 
copies can easily be obtained. Cancelled specimens exist also in large quan- 
tities with the original gum intact, and showing unmistakable signs of the 
obliteration having been "done to order in quantities to suit." These im- 
positions can easily be recognized by the fresh look which they bear, and 
also by the hand stamp being generally impressed in bright red-brown, a 
color seldom met with in the originals. 

Typbs III. and IV. — Our next 
two illustrations are those of very 
rare stamps, which are respective- 
ly printed in black on white paper, 
and blue on slightly yellow-toned 
paper. 





17 




Type V. — Engraved on metal, and printed in blue 
on white- paper, both imperforate and roughly rou- 
letted. 



There exists a stamp identical in general design with Type V., but so 
much superior to it in the execution of all the details, that I for a long time 
thought it must be a genuine issue. I have since heard that it owes its 
existence to a European dealer in counterfeits, and, if the information be 
correct, the dealer in question is to be congratulated upon having far sur- 
passed the model from which he copied. 

It may not be out of place for me to mention certain peculiarities to be 
found in the label just referred to which distinguish it from authentic 
specimens of Type V. . They are as follows: 

"Wells, Fargo & Co." is on a straight white band. 

No period after the word " Routes." 

The bunches of flowers on the sides are heavier and more clearly denned. 



Type VI. — Engraved on metal and issued in 1875. 
Blue impression on white paper. Imperforate, roulet- 
ted and perforate. 





Type VII. — This has been long obsolete, but I place it sev- 
enth on the list, so as to classify all the newspaper stamps con- 
secutively. It is printed from metal in blue, on white paper. 
Uncancelled copies can be easily obtained. 



Type VIIL— Issued ISTe-'TV. 
on white paper. 



Blue impression 



PUBLISHERS' 

PAIDSTAMP 

W. F. St Co.'s Express. 



Adams &. Co. 

Adams & Co.'s Express was started in California in September^ 1849, as 
an appendage to the still existing Eastern company of like name, which was 
founded in 1840 by Alvin Adams. 

The control of the Western branch (if I may so call it) was entrusted to 
D. Hale Haskell, a man of great energy, who succeeded in. placing the en- 
terprise on a successful footing from the very start. The head ofiice was in 



18 





San Francisco, and the chief occupation of the Company was in the trans- 
portation of gold dust. Among the clerks in the oflSce was John M. Free- 
man, who afterwards became famous as the proprietor of Freeman «fc Co.'s 
Express. (See Part HI.) 

In 1854 Adams and Wm. B. Dinsmore (his partner, now President of 
Adams' Express in the East) retired from the California Company, Has- 
kell and J. C. Woods assuming the proprietorship; but the name of Adams 
& Co. was retained. From one cause or another, the new association was 
not successful like it's predecessor, and bankruptcy, with ultimate absorption 
of assets by Wells, Fargo & Co., resulted. 



Types I. and IT. — These were cer- 
tainly the two earliest adhesive franks 
issued west of the Mississippi river, and 
both of them are of more than ordinary 
rarity. Tradition tells us that the head 
is that of D. H. Haskell. 



Th» type with the head turned towards the right is printed in black on 
blue paper, while the variety with it in the opposite direction is impressed 
in black on white paper. 

The blue paper stamp has the following marginal inscription, half on each 
side of the design : " JSntered according to Act of Congress in the year 
1853, 5y J. G. Woods, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the 
Northern District of California.'''' 



Iiangtou & Co. 

Brown on white paper. Apparently from a metal plate. 



Barnard's Cariboo Express. 

Typographed. The "Paid" 
is printed in black on red 
paper, and the " Collect " in 
black on green. 




BARNARD'S 
Cariboo Express. 



PAID. 



BARNARD'S 
Cariboo Express. 



COLLECT. 



aldron's 

EXPRESS. 



Waldron & Co. 



^ Type, printed in black on claret paper. It is certain 
p that Waldron & Co. carried letters, and it seems probable 
% that the original of the' design herewith reproduced 
I»A.II>. % served for postal purposes. Diligent inquiry, however, 
I Kg fails to settle the matter definitely. 



CHAPTER HI. 



Miscellaneous CosirANiEs. 



.There are only two to mention, viz. 
Despatch. 



Westervelt's Post and J. H. Prince's 



Westervelt's 
IChesteryN.T.l 



Westervelt's Post. 

This was the only stamp issued by Mr. Westervelt for 
strictly postal purposes. As will be observed, it is a very 
plain type-set design, but it is neatly printed in black on 
lavender, and on flesh-colored paper. 

In addition to the foregoing, Mr. Westervelt issued several years ago two 
more pretentious labels, the one being adorned with a very bad likeness of 
General Grant, and the other with the head of an Indian very similar to 
that which we every day see on our one-cent pieces. It is' quite possible 
that a few of these stamps (which are printed in every color of the rain- 
bow) were allowed to pass through Westervelt's post, so as to give them a 
more high-toned character, but in my mind there is no doubt that the main 
object in preparing them was to realize a handsome profit from sales to 
philatelists. 

Of the Indian-head type, two varieties exist. In the first issued (of which 
a few may have passed through the post while it had an existence), there 
are noticeable in the frame directly over " WesterveWs " and under " Post" 
small numerals " 1 "; while in the other variety (which was undoubtedly got 
up to sell) they are not found. 

J. H. Prince. — Letter Dispatch. 

Black on white paper. 
This express formerly ran until within a comparatively 
recent date, between Portland, Maine, and Boston, Mass., 
leaving the former city at 6 p. m. (or three hours after 
closing of the government mail), arriving per steamei", in Boston at an early 
hour on the following morning. 




PART 11, 



Aclhesh'e Stamps issued by Companies carrying 
mail matter bet^^^een the different portions of 
tire same City or Town, or collecting mail 
matter in like manner for transpor- 
tation to the Grovernment P. O. 



CHAPTER I.— EXPLANATOEY. 

CHAPTERS II. to VII.— New York City, N. Y. 

CHAPTERS VIII. and IX.— Philadelphia, Pa. 

CHAPTER X.— Baltimore, Md. 

CHAPTER XI.— Boston, Mass. 

CHAPTER XII.— Charleston, S. C. 

CHAPTER Xni.— Chicago, III. 

CHAPTER XIV.— Cincinnati, O. 

CHAPTER XV.— Columbia and Wrightsville, Pa. 

CHAPTER XVI.— Easton, Pa. 

CHAPTER XVII.— New Orleans, La. 

CHAPTER XVIII.— St. Louis, Mo. 

CHAPTER XIX.— Washington, D. C. 

CHAPTER XX.— Calipornian Cities. 

CHAPTER XXI.— San Francisco, Cal. 

CHAPTER XXII.— Miscellaneous. 



CHAPTER I. 



Explanatory. 

As a I'ule all the City Despatch Companies performed the tieo functions 
either of which entitles them to a place under this class, but there were 
some exceptions which only acted in a single capacity. 

Under the term " various portions of any one city," I include the nume- 
rous suburbs of most of our large towns, which, although they may bear 
distinctive names, are in reality nothing more than the various districts or 
environs of one vast settlement. Thus, for instance, I embrace Brooklyn, 
Jersey City, the Staten Island villages, &c., under the city of New York; 
and an express, of which the route lay among these localities, did actually 
run between the various portions of one city. 

Acting on this principle, I shall take up each city in order, dividing the 
matter into chapters, as indicated on the preceding page. 

It must be borne in mind that only the adhesive labels are here considered. 
Several of the companies also issued prepaid envelopes, and these will be 
found mentioned in Part IV., in accordance with the system adopted at the 
beginning of this work. 

it will be noticed that I have made three omissions, viz.: the stamps 
known as belonging to the United States City Despatch Post, the U. S. 
Mail, One Cent,. Prepaid, and the Government City Despatch. Regard- 
ing these, a few words of explanation may not be amiss. 

The United Si'atbs City Despatch Post labels were issued in 1842, by 
John Lorimer Graham, Postmaster of the City of New York, under special 
authority received by him from the Post Office Department at Washington. 

The object is best explained by the following circular which was published 
by Postmaster Graham, about the same time as the stamps were issued : 

United States City Despatch Post. 

1. « •» * Delivery eveiy day (Sunday excepted), at the principal office, upper P. O., 
"Park, and lower P. O., Merchants' Exchange. 

«**x- ******«*»«.« 

"Letters to be sent free, must have a free stamp attached to them, which can be pur- 
" chased at the upper and lower post oflBces, and at all the stations. The charge will 
"be 36 cents per dozen, 2 dols. 50 cts. per hundred. All letters intended to be sent 
"forward to the General Post Office for the inland mails must have a free stamp at - 
"tached to them. Letters not having a free stamp will be charged three cents on de- 
" livery. John Lorimeii Graham, P. M." 

31 




22 

The stamp in question is herewith reproduced. The origi- 
nal is from a fine metal plate, and is found impressed as fol- 
lows: 

Black on violet colored paper. 
" " straw " " ' 

Black on blue enameled paper of various shades, varying 
to green. 

I may mention that although I consider the impression in black on violet 
(of which only one copy is extant) genuine beyond peradventure, there are 
some well informed persons who are inclined to look upon it as a " change- 
ling " from the blue stamp. 

These United States City Despatch PosTlabelsmust not be confounded 
with those of the City Despatch Post described in the next chapter. The 
latter was entirely a private enterprise, and was founded by Alexander M. 
Greig a few months before the starting of the Government post. Upon the 
formation of this latter, Greig became its first letter carrier; but, neverthe- 
less, his own post was continued, or else, almost immediately afterwards re- 
suscitated by other parties. 

In this connection, certain correspondence published in the American 
Journal of Philately, Vol. XI., page 49, may be read with interest. 

The U. S. Mail, One Cent, Prepaid, was also issued by 
the Postmaster of New York City, in or about the year 1849 ; 
and was at first printed in black on rose paper, and after- 
wards in black on paper varying from bright yellow to pale 
drab, generally glazed. 

In regard to the GovEENiiENT City Despatch, I cannot 
speak so precisely; but, from the result of very careful 
investigation, I am satisfied that it was emitted by the 
Postmaster of the City of Baltimore, Md., in the year 
1860 or 1861. It is a rough, lithographic impression, and 
is found in black and in rose (varying to red) on white 
paper. Specimens of the black stamp have been discovered with the inscrip- 
tion reading one sent instead of one cent. 

From these explanations it will be seen that the labels here mentioned 
were issued by Government Postmasters, and not by private companies. 
They are as much Government, or, rather, semi-oflicial stamps, as the Brattle- 
boro'. Providence, St. Louis, &c. 

One more point before we proceed further. It is a mistake to suppose 
that all local posts have been abolished, for there are two still in existence 
in New York City, viz. : Hussey's and Boyd's, which have a regular daily 
1 and 2c. delivery (circulars and letters); and also perform such special mes- 
senger service as may be desired, making their chnrgL' proportionate to the 
time required. In the way of special messenger service there :ire also two 
other companies, viz.: the Ahikrican District Telegraph Co. and the 
Domestic Telegraph Co. (both incorporated), each of which, in addition 





23 

to such business as is brought by outside customers, has regular subscribers 
in whose counting-rooms or dwellings it inserts very simple telegraphic 
instruments connected with the nearest office of the company, so that mes- 
sengers, policemen or firemen — all of whom are in attendance — can be 
instantly summoned. 

The American Disteict Tblegbaph Co. was incorporated in 18V2, and 
during the month of April in that year, commenced business in New York 
City, soon extending to Brooklyn and Philadelphia. It is now in operation 
at the following places : 

Albany, N. Y. New York, N. Y. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. New Orleans, La. 

Boston, Mass. New Haven, Conn. 

Baltimore, Md. Nevada City, Nev. 

Buffalo, N. Y. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chicago, 111. Pittsburg, Pa. 

Cincinnati, O. Providence, R. I. 

Columbus, O. Rochester, N. Y. 

Dayton, O. Springfield, Mass. 

Detroit, Mich. Syracuse, N. Y. 

Erie, Pa. San Francisco, Cal. 

Elmira, N. Y. St. Louis, Mo. 

Hartford, Conn. Troy, N. Y. 

Jersey City, N. J. TJtioa, N. Y. 

Milwaukee, Wis. Washington, D. C. 

The company has twenty-four offices located in New York, and seventeen 
in Philadelphia. In the other cities there are not, of course, as many. 

The Domestic Telegraph Co. was organized in December, 1874, in op- 
position to the District Co. It is now in working order at 

Baltimore, Md., 1 office. 
Hartford, Conn., 1 office. 
New Haven, Conn., 1 office. 
Newark, N. J., 1 office. 
New York, N. Y., 4 offices. 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 1 office. 
Providence, R. I., 1 office. 

Neither the American District Telegraph Co. nor the Domestic Tele- 
graph Co. has issued any adhesive stamps, though the foi-mer sometimes 
marks letters, &c., delivered by it with a small hand-struck impression, 
reading A. D. T. Co.— Paid. 

A couple of years ago an enterprise was started in New York City under 
the name of the New York Commissionnaire Co., upon the same general 
principles as the French Company whence the name was derived. The pro- 
ject did not succeed, however, and it was abandoned after a short existence. 

I bring this chapter to an end by mentioning the Down Town Letter 
Express, which was opened in New York City some two years ago, and is 
still in existence. The accompanying circular explains the objects of its 
foi'mation. 



24 

Nkw Yobk, 51 William St,. 

September 7th 1875. 
To Merchants & Bankers : 

A Letter Express has this day been opened at the above number by the undersigned 
formerly and for ten years Superintendent -of the Supplementary Mail Office at the 
Merchants' Exchange News Room, Pine Street, with the object of facilitating the prompt 
transmission of mail matter from the lower section of the business portion of the Cit^ 
to the New General Post Office. _ '. 

Letters and other mail matter will be received to connect with all mails, forei^ and 
domestic, leaving the City, up to 5 minutes of the closing of the same, to be delivered 
to the General Post OflBce, by special express, in time for each successive mail as made- 
up there. Facilities wiU be afforded for stamping letters, or addressing them when de- 
sired. Office open from 7 A. M. to 7 P. M. 

Philip J. Kibrnan. 

Ml'. Kiernan has many subscribers who pay him 12.00 per month, and 
have their correspondence cared for in the way explained. His express is a 
great convenience to New York City, being situated in its most active busi- 
ness portion (near Wall St.), which is some distance removed from the main 
Post Office or any of its branches. 

Mr. Kiernan issues no stamps, and it is for this reason that I mention him 
here, rather than in the chapters that follow, as they are devoted entirely to 
the companies that have left philatelic tokens. 



CHAPTER 11. 



New York City. 

The New York City Despatch Post. 

The circular transcribed below will explain the objects for which this 
company was fonned. 

New York City Despatch Post. 

Prindpal Office, 46 WiUiam Btreet. 

The necessity of a medium of communication by letter from one part of the city to 

another being universally admitted, and the Penny Post, lately existing, having been 

relinquished,the opportunity has been embraced to reorganize it under an entirely new 

proprietary and management, and upon a much more comprehensive basis, by which 

Despatch, Punctuality and Security — those essential elements of success — may at once 

be attained, and the Inconvenience now experienced be entirely removed. 

*#»*#«»#»»#■*##* 

The following is a brief outline of the plan : 

Branch Offices. — Letter boxes are placed throughout every part of the city in con- 
spicuous places; and all letters deposited therein not exceeding two ounces in weight, 
will be punctually delivered three times a day, at 9, 1 and 4 o'clock, at three cents each; 
option being given either to free the letter in the mnnner shown in the following regu- 
Intinns, or to leave the postage to be collected from the party to whom the letter is 
addressed. 



25 



Post-Patd Letters. — Letters which the writer desires to send free, must have a free 
stamp affixed to them. An ornamental stamp has been prepared for this purpose, and 
may be procured at the principal office as above, or at those stores which will be adver- 
tised in the daily papers as having authority to sell them. The charge will be 36 cents 
per dozen, or 2 dolls. 50 cents per hundred ; the reduction in price for the large quantity 
being made with a view to the accommodation of those parties sending a considerable 
number of circulars, accounts, &c. Parcels not exceeding 1 lb. in weight will be 
charged a proportionate rate. 

NO MONEY MUST BE PUT INTO THE BOXES. 

All letters intended to be sent forward to the General Post Office for the inland mails, 
must have a free stamp affixed to them. 

Unpaid Letters. — Letters not having a free stamp will be charged three cents, pay- 
able by the party to whom they are addressed, on delivery. 

Registry and Despatch. — A Registry will be kept for letters which it may be 
wished to place under special charge. Free stamps must be affixed to such letters for 
the ordinary postage, and three cents additional be paid (or an additional free stamp be 
affixed), for the Registration ; but all such letters must be especially deposited at the 
principal office. 

A special "Despatch" will be expedited with any Letter or Packet not exceeding one 
pound in weight (to an address within the limits) at 13i cents a mile, upon application 
at the Principal office. 

Alexander M. Greig, Agent. 
The Limits of tTie Despatch Post will extend to Twenty-first Street. • 

It will be noticed that, in this circular, reference is made to an .older city 
post, which had been relinquished, and which was undoubtedly the first in- 
stitution of the kind in the country. But beyond the fact of its existence I 
have been unable to ascertain anything whatever regarding this p'oneer 
company, which probably did not issue any stamp. 

The City Despatch Post was started about January 1st, 1842, by A M. 
Greig, but he soon relinquished its control for a position in the (government 
Post Office. His enterprise seems, however, to have been continued or else 
to have been shortly afterwards revived by other persons. In 1848 it is said 
to have passed into the hands of one Charles Cole, at No. 492 Broadway, 
and he in turn is reported to have been succeeded by Edward N. Barry, by 
whom it was conducted up to 1859. 

The stamps issued while under these several managements are numerous, 
but not difficult of classification. 

Type I.^Fine metal plate engraving. 

3 cents black on white glazed paper. 
3 " " green " 

3 " " yellowish flesh paper. 

3 " " grey " 

2 " " green " 

Type II. — Similar to the preceding, but with the letters 
This change was made during Cole's administration. I 
have also seen a solitary specimen of the 2c. green, reading 
G G, and another with one of the C's reverse^ thus : C 0. 

2 cents black on green. 

2 " " " white. 

2 " " " Vermillion. 

2 « « " yellow. 




at sides. 




26 

The foregoing must not be confounded with the " United States City 
Despatch Post," described in the previous chapter. 



CHAPTER III. 



New Yoek City, Coxtinued. 



Boyd's City Express. 

This post was established about July 1, 1844, by John T. Boyd, and as it 
is still in existence (though under a different management), it can claim the 
honor of being the oldest institution of the kind now in the country. In 
former days it had boxes located in every part of the city to receive letters 
for delivery by its can-iers, or for transportation to the General Post Office, 
but at present its business is confined to letters and circulars left at its office 
for distribution. 

The stamps issued by Boyd's Post are numerous, and have been the sub- 
ject of no little discussion. 



Two Cents Stamps. 

Type I. — Until recently this stamp was almost tradi- 
tional, only one specimen being known. Of late, however, 
a dozen or more copies have come to light. The impres- 
sion is black, and the paper green glazed. 



Types II. and III. are both printed in black 
on green glazed paper. The former seems to have 
been current from October, 1844, to January, 1845; 
and the latter from February to April or May, 
1845. 





TYPE II. 



TYPE III. 




TYPE IV, 



Type IV.-— In use from some time in 1845 till 1848 or early in 
1849. Specimens are frequently found showing more or less de- 
terioration in the design. 

Black on green glazed paper, varying greatly in shade. 
Gold on white " " (for visiting cards, &c.) 



27 



Types V. and VI., of which the former is herewith re- 
produced, are identical with the exception that the first 
named has a period after the word " cents," which is lacking 
in the other. They appear to have been used simultaneously 
■ from 1849 to 1853. ^ 

Type V. — Gold on white glazed paper. 

'; y^ -^\f^ r S^'T PT"- [ More or less glazed. 




type t. 




Type VII.— Date 1854-5. 

Black on green, sometimes glazed, but generally dull. 
The impression is frequently very imperfect. 



TYPE VII. 



Type VIII. — Black on dark olive green. Date 1856. 



Red varying. ) ^^ ^^.^^_ 

to Orange, j 
Black on vermillion glazed. 



185'7. 
about 1805-1875. 




TYPE VIII. 




Type IX. — Black on green glazed paper. Date 
1857-60. 

Type X. — Black on vermillion glazed paper ; 
Gold on green glazed paper ; Gold on blue glazed >g; 



paper ; Gold on crimson glazed paper ; Gold on 
TYPE IX. white glazed paper. Date 1860-65. 




TYPE X. 




Type XL— Date 1876. 

Blue on white paper. 

Specimens of this type are also found in black, but Mr. 
Boyd disclaims their issue; and their general appearance' 
would lead to the belief that they are printers' proofs. 

Type XII.— Date 1876-7. 

Same design as last ; but with address, 1 Park Place, 
added. 

Lilac on rose-tinted paper. Unperforate and perforate. 

Brown on yellow paper. Lilac on bluish tinted paper. 

Type XIII.~Date 1877. 

Same as Type XII., but with the inscriptions — 2c. — omitted from the four 
corners. 

LUac on bluish tinted paper. Perforate. 



Perforate. 



28 



; One Cent Stamps. 

Type XIV. — Same as IX., with value veiy badly altered, so that portions 
of the figure 2 and letter S of "cents" are generally visible. Date 
1857-60. 

Black on green glazed paper. 

« « « " " (Rouletted.) 

Type XV. — Same as X., with value also imperfectly changed. A few 
copies are known reading plainly ".1 cents," no attempt having been made 
to erase the S. 

Black on lavender glazed paper, varying to lilac. Date 1860-70. 

Type XVI.— Date about 1 870-76. 

Black on lilac glazed paper. 
" " blue " " 

Boyd's stamps of Types VI. to IX. are oftentimes found 
punched out (in oval form) from the sheet, by means of an ap- 
paratus which was undoubtedly used in his office to save the 
TYPE XVI. labor attendant upon their separation by scissors. These 
" punched out " varieties are not at all scarce, nor* do they seem to rae wor- 
thy of any special distinction. 

It may be well to mention, that all of Boyd's stamps are imperforate ex- 
cept those otherwise designated under Types XII., XIII. and XPV. 




CHAPTER IV. 




New York City, Continued. — Miscellaneous. 

Svrarts' City Despatch Post. 

The " Chatham Square Post Office," as Swarts' Post was generally called, 
and as, indeed, it is designated on some of the stamps, was one of the largest 
of the local posts in this country. It was established in or about the year 
1845, at the junction of East Broadway and Chatham Square, by Aaron (?) 
Swarts. It afterwards passed into the hands of Mr. Lockwood, by whom 
it was continued until 1863, and perhaps rather later. 

Type I. — This I presume to have been the oldest of 
Mr. Swarts' productions. The portrait is that of General 
Zachary Taylor, better known as " Old Rough and Ready." 
The engraving is on metal and impressed in 

Black on light and dark green glazed paper. 

Lake ] 

Rose , ■. 

Dirty red r"" ^^P^P"'- 
Blue J 

Type II. — Here we have General George Washington, and 
although the engraving, which is on metal, leaves much to be 
desired, we certainly must appreciate Mr. Swarts' patriotic in- 
tentions. 

Of this type two varieties (which we shall designate as a 
and 5, respectively) exist, presenting several minutg points of 
difference. In a the eyes are small and looking straight ahead. The fore- 
head has but little shading, and the mouth has a peculiar, sunken appear- 
ance, as though the General had lost his teeth. 

In h the eyes are larger and turned to the left. The mouth is small but 
firm. The entire face is covered with dots and under the chin is a black 
mark, peculiarities not found in a. 

a is printed in black on white paner. 
rose " " " 
, red " " 

" " slightly bluish paper. 

h is printed in black on white paper, 
rose " " " 




30 




Type III. — Has full justice done to it by the engraving, so 
that I need only add that it is impressed in blue on white paper. 

All of Swarts' stamps have been reprinted, and although 
some of the original colors (blue and green of Type I.) have 
been omitted, the deficiency has been made up by numerous 
fancy hues of Type II. 

Hanford's Pony Express. 

''^^^^S^ This post was evidently started at an early date, as I have 
f2 ^^a S^ one of its stamps on a letter dated November 11, 1845. It 
^J existed until about 1850, or 1851. 

*^^M^^ Apparently a wood engraving. Black impression, on yel- 
low glaized paper, and on thin white paper. 

Mr. Hanford also had two hand stamps, which, although somewhat 
larger, corresponded in general design with his adhesive ; the words ' ' City 
Express Post " being, however, on one of them substituted for " Pony Ex- 
press." They are generally found impressed in orange, black, brown or blue 
on letters not bearing the adhesive, but they did not have any postal value. 




'ATCH P* 




TYPE II. 



John Bouton. 

The date of the establishment of Mr. Bouton's post is uncertain, but I 
find in the New York Directory of 1848, the following advertisement : 

"Franklin and Manhattan City Express Post, for letters and small hand packages. 
John BoutoD, 175 Bowery." 

■ I have Bouton's hand-stamp on a letter dated Februaiy 11, 184S. 

Types I. and II. — The accompanying il- 
lustrations are those of the two earliest 
stamps issued by Mr. Bouton, and neither 
could have been current for any lengthy pe- 
riod, as both are of extreme rarity. The 
TYPE I. " Fbanklin City " is impressed in black 

on green glazed paper, and the " Manhat- 
tan ExPBESs" in black on flesh colored paper. The engraving of the 
" Fkanklin City " can only be regarded as approximate, it having been 
copied from a rough pencil sketch made by me from an original copv several 
years ago. 

The die of Type II. is still in existence, but in such a battered state 
as to render reprinting almost impossible. 

Type III. — (Dots in corners.) 

Black on white, blue and green glazed 
paper. 

Type IV. — (Leaves in corners.) 

Black on white and on green glazed paper. 





31 




Both types are engraved on copper, and have been reprinted, viz. : 

Type III., in black on white paper. 

Type IV., in black, orange, blue, green and mauve on -white paper. 

Cumming's City Post 

was conducted dilring the years 1846-7, by Arthur H. Cumming, his office 
being at No. 19 Nassau street. 

This stamp was very roughly engraved on wood, and the 
accompanying illustration is a greatly flattered likeness. It 
was printed in four colors, viz. : 

Black on white paper. 
" " green " 
" " yellow " 
" " pink 

Camming used a hand stamp, ooncerniag which I find the following in 
Vol. III., page 60, of the American Journal of Philately : 

" There is one remarkable thing connected with local stamps, that may 
" as well be mentioned here as elsewhere. We refer to the fact that they 
" are nearly all cancelled with initials instead of a regular post-mark, and 
"yet all the proprietors of the local offices seem to have been well provided 
" with cancelling stamps; for instance, the letter before us has Cumming's 
" stamp on the upper left-hand corner of fold, cancelled with the initials A. 
" H. C. ; under this is stamped Paid A. H. C. in red ink, and in the centre 
" is starnj^ed a device representing a steam engine on legs, galloping, with 
" Cumming's above and Express below, with 2 and ots. in small squares to 
" the right and left." 

Walton & Co. 

This was a Brooklyn company, and existed in 1846. As I have not at 
present a copy of the stamp before me, I must content myself with a de- 
scription taken from the American Journal of Philately, viz. : — Walton & 
Co.'s City Express Post, 2 Cts., in oval, composed of fancy band, the 
whole enclosed in a rectangle formed of a heavy line. The spandrels are 
filled with a ground work of horizontal lines. Black impression on pink 
paper. 

KIDDER'S \ Kidder's City Express Post. 

This was also a Brooklyn enterprise, and, I believe, con- 
temporaneous with Walton. The stamp seems to be from 
^x ;^.jiajgi»» —x c.-.y a wood-cut, and is printed in black on blue, and on green 
V EXPRESS POSTy glazed paper. Reprints exist on the latter colored paper. 

Dupuy & Schenck. 

Started about 1846, by Mr. Henry Dupuy, and discontin- 
ued about 1848. 

The stamp herewith reproduced was neatly engraved on 
metal, and struck off on smoke-colored paper. 





32 




Gordon's City Express. 

Existed in 1848. From what I can learn I do not tliink it 
could have been in operation for over four years. 
Black on green glazed paper. 



Broadway Post Office. 

"Was started in 1848 on the north side of Canal street, the first door east 
of Broadway, by James C. Harriott, who in 1849 moved it to No. 416 
Broadway, and in 1851 to No. 422| Broadway. In 1855 Mr. Harriott sold 
the concern to Dunham & Lockwood, and they subsequently sold it to 
Charles Miller, who continued it until about 1862-3 when he died at Ma- 
maroneck, Westchester County, New York State. 

Mr. Harriott employed, on an average, four carriers, and on extra occa- 
sions as many as twenty. The business done by this office was large, 
and the receipts therein reached seven thousand dollars per annum up to 
the time Dunham & Lockwood purchased the place. 

The business of the post was the delivery of letters throughout the city, 
and the carrying of mail matter to the \J. S. Post Office. 

The uniform charges were: 

Ic. on each letter or parcel carried to the TJ. S. mail. 

10. on each circular, [ ^eii^gred to any address in New York City. 
2c. on each letter, ) •' ■' 

There was one carrier whose sole 
Office the matter destined for it. 



duty it was to take to the U. S. Post 




The stamps of the Broadway Post Office were printed in 
sheets of 100 from a wood block of the annexed design. 
The colors ran as follows: 

Black on white paper, 
Gold on black glazed paper. 

Although no values were stated on the stamps, a distinction was made 
according to their colors; those in black on white representing one cent; 
and those in gold on blaick, two cents. 

The Broadway Post Office also used various hand stamps, but I will only 
mention the two earliest. One was similar in design to the adhesives, and was 
impressed in i-ed or black ink on unpaid letters; the other differed in having 
the word paid substituted for the locomotive as a central design, and was 
struck (also in red or black) on matter that had been prepaid in cash, 
without the use of the adhesive. 

Sometimes the Broadway P. O. used to turn over matter that it received 
to Boyd or Swarts for delivery, but the general impression that Boyd had 
a contract to deliver all the letters of the Broadway P. O., excepting those 
intended for the government mails, is certainly erroneous. No such con- 
tract existed in the days of Mr. Harriot, nor can I find that one was made 
by any of the successors of that gentleman. 



33 



I may conclude my remarks upon this post by mentioning that its founder, 
Mr. Harriott, died at Brooklyn, New York State, during the month of Octo- 
ber, 1876. 

Union Square Post Office. 

I find this post mentioned in the 1850 Directory, and the name of its pro- 
prietor given as P. C. Godfrey. It subsequently passed into the control of 
J. E. Dunham, and was, I believe, continued until about 1866. 

There is also found a label with the inscription " Messenkope's Union 
Square Post-office," which I presume was identical with the preceding office; 
but as I have been unable to trace up Mr. Messenkope's history, I cannot 
make a positive statement. 

Types I. and II. — (Apparently engraved on 
wood.) These stamps were in use in 1863, and /^ 
perhaps earlier. Originals of both are scarce, \ 
and are printed in black, the one cent on apple 
green and the two cents on pale pink paper. 
Re-impressions, on deeper colored paper, can 
easily be obtained. 

TvpB III. — This is a most wretched lithograph; the central j>^^^Qi^^ 
design being quite undistinguishable, although I am told that it /^ k ■^ 
was intended to represent a mermaid. Black impression on 
green glazed paper. 





It is said that this very simple type-set affair (of which a 
second variety is formed with "LP" substituted for L S, and 
a third without any letters on the sides of " 1 Cent,") was one 
of the early issues of the Union Square Post; but, as I have it on a letter 
from Philadelphia, dated 1 849, the statement is evidently erroneous. 



u. s. P..0. : 

PAID. I 
LI Cent S| 



Adams' Express Post. — City Express Post. 

I cannot give much information regarding these two companies ; indeed, 
it was only quite recently that the first mentioned was brought to my notice, 
and it is still more recently that I satisfied myself beyond doubt that they 
both had a bona fide existence, in or about the year 1850. 

The Adams' Express Post seems to have been the predecessor of the City 
Express Post, and, although I have not at this moment one of the Adams' 
stamps before me, they, if my memory serves me rightly, were identical in 
design with those of their successors, with the exception that on the left 
hand side, where the floral ornamentation exists, the word Adams was sub- 
stituted. The only value of the Adams that I have seen is the 2 cents, but 
probably the 1 cent also exists. As to the colors of the impression, I can 
only say that of those here given the black on white is the best authen- 
ticated, though the blue on white may have been used also by the City Ex- 



34 

press Post after Adams withdrew. I have seen a 2 cents Adams in black on 
blue, which I take to be a proof. Setting it aside, therefore, the set prob- 
ably ran as follows : 

Adams' City Express Post. 

1 cent, black on white. 

2 u a u (( 

City Exi'bess Post. 

1 cent, black on white. 

1 " blue " " 

2 " black " " 
2 " blue " 

Reprints (or else surplus stock) of the City Express Post are 
found in both black and blue on white. 

Cornwell's Madison Square Post Office. 

This label was used in New York in or about the year 1850, 
at the locality named. It is a very rough wood block impres- 
sion in red on bluish and on bluish-white paper. 

Bentley's Despatch, Madison Square. 

Bentley is reputed to have been the successor of Cornwell, and to have 
issued an oblong, type-set stamp, inscribed Bentley's Despatch, Madison 
Sq., printed in bronze on white glazed paper. I saw a specimen some years 
ago which was represented to me as undoubtedly genuine, but have more 
recently had cause to question the accuracy of the information previously 
obtained. I therefore dispense with the usual illustration, satisfying myself 
with this brief allusion to the post. 





Jefferson Market Post Office. 

Having no specimen of this very rare stamp in my possession, I can onlv 
describe it -from memory. The central design is an eagle on a rock, the in- 
scription reads, Jefferson Market Post Office, by C. Schmidt & Co. ; 
the form is a transverse oblong, and the impression lithographic, in black on 
red and on blue paper. 

I understand that the Jefferson Market Post Office was started in 1850, 
at No. 7 Greenwich avenue (Jefferson Market) by Godfrey Schmidt, whose 
name was incorrectly spelt upon the stamp that he issued, as can be seen 
from the description already given. 

East River]^Fost Office. 

Started in 1850-51, by Jacob D. Clark and Henry Wilson, although the 
latter does not appear to have taken any active part in the enterprise. In 
1852 it was bought out by Mr. S. Adler, by whom it was conducted until 
about fifteen or sixteen'years ago. 



35 




At first the office was at 23 Avenue D, but in 1854 it was removed to No. 
19, and in 1855 to No. 18 in the same avenue. 

T vpeI. — This was undoubtedly the first issued, and must have 
had a very short existence, as beyond two " proof " specimens 
no copies have come to light. It was a fine wood engraving 
by Mr. Tudor Horton of this city, and was probably printed 
in black on brown paper. 

Type II. is, in general appearance, similar to Type III. reproduced below. 
All the proportions, however, are larger, and the design is more carefully 
finished. The inscription reads 23 Av. d., the 3 having a flat head, similar 
to that on the circular type. 

Types III. and IV. have ample justice done them by the illustrations. 
Type III. is found in three varieties, showing errors of punctuation. 

Var. (a) 23 . . Av. D. 
" (J) 23 . Av. D. 
" (c) 23 . Av D 

Types II., III. and IV. were the work of Mr. Julius Bien, a well-known 
lithographer of this city, and were printed in black on green glazed paper. 

G. A. Mills— Hall &, Mills. 





G. A. MILLS' 

PKEE 

Despatch Post. 



Type-set. Black on green paper. I 
find Gr. A. Mills' Express in the Directory 
for 1851-2, and infer that these labels 
were in use .about that time. 



HALL & MILLS 

FREE 
SespatchPost. 





Brooklyn City Express. 

This was a Brooklyn City Delivery Company, 
the manager being one Rodgers, who has now 
removed to California. 

1 Cent. — Light blue, dark blue, green. 

2 Cents. — Pink, lake, deep scarlet, vermillion 
and dark blue. 

I have the 2 cents blue on a letter dated 1853, but the express certainly 
existed somewhat earlier, and also much later than that date. 

Reprints of the Brooklyn City Express stamps are found as follows: 

1 Cent. — Pale green, darjc blue, light blue. 

2 Cents. — Lake, deep scarlet, pale blue, red and pink. 

Metropolitan Post Office. 

I have traced this post in the New York Directories of 1854-58, finding 
Mr. W. H. Laws recorded as its proprietor, and No. 13 Bible House as its 
office. 



36 

The stamps used by Mr. Laws are illustrated below; but, before pro- 
ceeding to consider them, I must mention a label that has recently been 
discovered. It is rather larger than Mr. Laws' Type L, and also diflFers from 
it in the inscription, which reads Meteopoi.itan Post OrPiCB. — 162 Ninth 
St. op. Bible House. — New York — L. Williams, Peopkietoe. 

The stamp in question is in red on white paper (the lettering being em- 
bossed; and the ground, solid), and from its appearance one would be led 
to look upon it as genuine. Accepting it as such, I conclude that Williams 
was the predecessor of Laws, as his name, as well as the Ninth street ad- 
dress, is flattened out (evidently intentionally) from the embossed inscrip- 
tion, so that I had to use a magnifying glass in deciphering it. The envel- 
ope to which ■ he stamp is affixed also bears Mr. Laws' hand stamp. 

Types I. and IL — We now come to the 
locals that Mr. Laws issued, and which are 
too well known to require much comment. 

The colors of both types run as follows : 
' Red on white ) The ground being solid, and the I 
Blue " j lettering embossed in white. 

Reprints are found in the original colors, and to Type II. a fancy one — 
brown or white — has been added. 




^,^° 13 -^A^ 

4/54MERICAN ^ 
^BIBLE HOTJSEO 

N.Y. 
yw-^H.LAWS J 

\ PROPRIETOR, y. 



CHAPTER V. 



New York City, Continued. 

Hussey's Post. 

Mr. Geo. Hussey commenced business as the proprietor of a Post, in 
1854, at No. 82 Broadway. In 1856 or 1857 he moved to No. 50 William 
street, and in 1872 to No. 54 Pine street, where he still continues. He has 
a regular daily delivery for letters and circulars, and also has special mes- 
sengers constantly in attendance to carry letters, packages, &c., to any por- 
tion of the city, or even into its suburbs. 

Mr. Hussey's stamps are numerous, and, at first sight, rather perplexing. 
Consequently, collectors will do well to closely study the following list 
thereof : 

Type I. — Issued 1854. View of Bank of America in centre, surrounded 
by inscriptions reading: Bank and Insurance Notice Delxveey Office, 
82 Broadway. The whole enclosed in an upright rectangular frame with 
truncated corners. 

Lithographed in blue upon white paper. 



37 



As may be judged from the foregoing descriptLon, this type is similar in 
general design to Type VI., illustrated further on; but many differences ex- 
ist in matters of detail. For instance : 

Type I. has a small dot outside of each truncated corner of the frame, 
and only has one flourish under the word Notice. 

Type VJ. has no dots outside the truncated corners, and has two flour- 
ishes under Notice. 

Type II. — Issued 1856. Representation of one of Hussey's letter boxes 
in centre, surrounded by inscriptions reading: Baniv and Insurance Letter 
City Post. 82 Broadway. Upright -rectangular frame with truncated 
corners. 

Lithographed in black upon white paper. 

Tfiis type resembles, in a general way, Type VII., of which an illustration 
■will be found in the proper place. Minute differences exist, however, two 
of which I mention as tests: 

Type II. has a small dot outside of each truncated corner of the frame. 
The letter box, forming the central design, is surrounded by a lined back- 
ground. 

In Type YII. the dots in the corners of the frame, and the lined back- 
ground around the letter box do not exist. 

Type III. — Issued 1857. Letter box in centre surrounded by inscriptions 
worded: Bank & Insurance Letter City Post. $1.00 pr 100. 50 Wil- 
liam St. Basement. The whole enclosed in an upright rectangular frame, 
with a small dot outside of each truncated corner. 

Lithographed in brownish red (varying in shade), upon white paper. 

This type very closely approaches to Type VIII., but fortunately there 
are differences suflSciently prominent to be noticeable, and serve as tests, viz: 

In Type III. there are two flourishes (one large and one small) over 50 
W — of the inscription 50, William St. There is also a comma between 50 
and William. 

In Type YHI. there is only one large flourish over 50 W. The comma 
referred to in connection with Type III. is omitted. 

I may further mention that nearly all the lettering of Type III. is percep- 
tibly smaller than is that of Type VIII. 



Type IV. — Issued 1858. Lithographed in black and in 
pink on white paper. 




\50WILL1AW 5TS, 




-Issued 1860. Lithographed in blue upon white 



Type V.- 
paper. 

It was shortly after the issue of Type V. that the demand 
for locals commenced, and thereupon Mr. Hussey undertook to 
supply that demand, so far as in his power. Finding his stock 
of Type I. exhausted, and the plate destroyed, he easily created 
a fresh supply by means of a transfer from Type V., altering 



upon that transfer the address to 82 Broadway. 



38 




'182 BROAD WAY I 



In all Other essential points the designs of Types I. and V. are neai-ly 
identical; although, of course, the dots already referred to as existing out- 
side of the truncated frame of Type I., necessarily do not exist upon the 
82 Broadway stamps, made from the altered transfer of Type V. 

I have therefore to chi-onicle Type VI. — Issued about 1862. 
Altered, as stated, from Type V., so as to resemble Type I. 
as closely as possible; the address being made to conform to 
Type I., viz: — 82 Beoadwat. Such minute points of variance 
as exist have already been mentioned in connection with Type 

Lithographed in blue on white paper. 

In order to supply philatelists with representations of Types II. and III., 
of which the stock was also exhausted, and the stones destroyed, Mr. Hus- 
sey caused new stones, of designs similar to those of these two types, to be 
prepared. To tabulate these remarks, I continue my list by chronicling 
Types VII. and VIII., viz: 

Type VII. — Issued about 1862, from a stone prepared to 
resemble Type II. as closely as possible. The minute points 
of variance that exist have already been mentioned in con- 
nection with Type II. 

Lithographed in red (varying in shade), and in black on 
white paper. 




IL.EX'TEK., 




<f SOWiUiamSt.A 
BASEMEjTT./' 



Type VIII. — Issued about 1862 from a stone prepared to 
resemble Type III. as closely as possible. The minute points 
of variance that exist have already been mentioned in con - 
nection with Type III. 

Lithographed in reddish-brown on white paper. 



The early impressions of Type VIII. invariably and clearly show a small 
dot in each truncated corner of the frame ; but these dots are oftentimes 
scarcely perceptible, and quite frequently not visible at all upon the reprints 
of 1875-6 (mentioned further on), which were made after the stone had be- 
come much worn from previous use. The accompanying illustration was 
prepared from one of these reprints, and to this fact the omission of the cor- 
ner dots must be attributed. 



We now come back again to Mr. Hussey's regular issues : 

Type IX. — Issued in 1861. Lithographic impression in 
lake, orange-red, and in black on white paper. 




39 



SBANK & S 
t INSURANCE-' 
„ Spenal S 
lij MESSAGE i 

§ Post " 



Type X.— Issued in 1862. Lithographed in black, blue, 
green, red, brown, pale drab, lake and violet, on white paper. 



Type XI. — Issued in 1863. Same design as Type X., but 
date (1863) added. Lithographic impression. Two values, 
viz.: 1 cent and 2 cents. 

1 cent in blue, green, red, pale drab and brown. ) on white 

2 cents in blue, red and brown. j paper. 




@> CENTS 



Type XII. — Issued in 1863. "Wood block. Impressed 
in a solid ground of color upon colored paper. Five 
values, viz.: 5, 10, 16, 20 and 25 cents. 
5 cents, black on red glazed paper. 
10 cents, gold on green glazed paper. 
15 cents, gold on black glazed paper. 
20 cents, black on white unglazed paper. 
25 cents, gold on blue unglazed paper. 
Impressions of Type XII., in black on white paper, are sometimes found 
without any value stated upon the oval disk, whereon the numeral of value 
appears in the genuine emissions. Attempts haVe been made by unprin- 
cipled or ignorant vendors to pass these impressions (valueless in every 
sense) as proofs. In reality, they are cut from circulars that Mr. Hussey 
issued some time ago, upon which they were printed solely with a view to 
ornamentation. 

Type XIII. — Issued in 1864. Lithographic impression identical with 
Type XL, except that the date is altered to 1 864. 

2 cents, blue on white paper. 
Type XIV. — Issued in 1865. Same as last, but with the date altered to 
1865. 

2 cents, blue on white paper. 
Type XV. — Issued in 1866. Same as last, but with the date altered to 
1866. 

2 cents, blue on white paper. 
XVI. — Issued in 1867. Same as last, but with the date altered to 



Type 

1867. 

Type 

to 1868. 

Type 
to 1869. 



2 cents, blue on white paper. 
XVII. — Issued in 1868. Same as last, but with the date altered 

2 cents, blue on white paper. 
XVIII. — Issued in 1869. Same as last, but with the date altered 

2 cents, blue on white paper. . 



40 

Type XIX. — Issued in 1870. Same as last, but with the date altered 
to 1870. 

2 cents, blue on white paper. 

Type XX. — Issued in 1871. Same as last, but with the date altered to 
1871. 

2 cents, blue on white paper. 

Type XXI. — Issued in 1872. Similar in general design to Type XI., but 
without date, and with inscription altered so as to read : :Hussey's Bank 
AND Insurance Special Message Post. 54 Pine St. Daily Deliveey. 
Closed at 11 A. M. Lithographed in blue, green and mauve, on white 
wove paper. Also, in black, yellow, lake and red on white laid paper. 

This type, printed in black, is the one that Mr. Hussey to-day sells as 
his current series. 

In the years 1856 and 1857, while the adhesives of Types II. and III. 
were in use, Mr. Hussey had two hand-stamps of designs quite similar to 
them. A false notion prevails that these hand-stamps were used for the 
purpose of making prepaid envelopes, but I am fully satisfied that they 
were never dignified b'y being employed in that way. They were used only 
as cancelling or forwarding marks, and are of no more philatelic value than 
the numerous other hand-stamp designs that Mr. Hussey subsequently 
adopted. 

At periods between 1863 and 1868 reprints were made from the stones of 
Types IV. and V., and in 1875 or 1876 those of Types IV., V., VI., VII. and 
VIII. were subjected to like process. The reprints of 1875-6 are on heav- 
ier afld whiter paper than the original supplies, and the impressions are 
oftentimes poor, showing that the stones, as then existing, were somewhat 
worn. 

It is but justice to Mr. Hussey to add, that while Types VI., VII. and 
VIII., also many of the colors of Types X., XI. and XXL, were made for 
sale to collectors, as were, likewise, the reprints alluded to in the preceding 
paragraph, they are all recognized by him to-day; and any stamp that he 
ever issued, if in an uncancelled state, is still available to prepay the charges 
on matter passing through his post. 

Reprints, made in 1875-76, of Type VIIL, are found in blue on white 
paper, as well as in the original color. These blue impressions are entirely 
due to a misapprehension on the part of the printer, as it was not intended, 
which the reprinting was done, that any fancy color should be prepared. 



CHAPTER VI. 



New Toek City, Continued. — Miscellaneous. 

A. JUL. Hinckley's Express Company. — A. M. Hinckley &, Co.'s 
Express. — The Metropolitan Errand and Carrier Express 
Company. 

The two enterprises under Hinckley's name seem to have been the prede- 
cessors of the incorporated company, of which he became the president. 

Notwithstanding diligent search, I have been unable to learn when Hinck- 
ley started his express, nor have I been able to ascertain positively that he 
used anything more than a hand stamp. There exist, however, adhesive 
labels, bearing his name, having for the central device a large figure 1 en- 
closed in an oval. Above is A. M. Hinckley's Express Co., in two lines; 
below, ONE CENT. Errand and Carrier on the left; For City Delivery 
on the right. The whole on a lined ground and enclosed in an upright, rec- 
tangular frame. No cancelled specimens of this stamp have ever been dis- 
covered, but unobliterated ones (presumedly reprints) exist in black, red and 
blue on white. 

Prom an article in the American Journal of Philately, VoL IH., page 101, 
we learn that : 

" The Metropolitan Errand and Carrier Express Company was organized 
on the 1st of August, 1855, with a capital of $200,000, under a charter from 
the State of New York. The officers of the Company were Abraham L. 
Hinckley, President; Samuel P. Crane, Secretary; Hiram Dixon, Treasurer; 
and George G. Jones, General Agent. The principal office was at No. 11 
Pine Street, New York City. The business of the Company consisted in 
collecting and delivering letters and parcels to or from any house in the 
city to any part of the world. Also, the purchase and delivery of goods on 
orders. 

" It had offices all over the city, and had a special messenger riding 
upon every omnibus or car in the city, whose duty it was to take any 
letter bearing the Company's stamp to the nearest branch office, to be sent 
immediately to the designated address." 

The stamps were of the following values: 1, 5, 10 and 20 cents, and were 
to be used according to the annexed rates: 

" For letters, newspapers or pamphlets, admissible through the aperture 
of the letter-boxes, and addressed to any part of the city below Fortieth' 
Street, 1 cent; if not pre-paid, double that amount on delivery. 



42 



"Packages not over 2 lbs. delivered to any part of the city below Fortieth 
Street, or registered city letters, or letters to any part of the United States 
except to California, 5 cents. 

" Parcels over 2 lbs. and not exceeding 5 lbs., to any part of the city be- 
low Fortieth Street, or letters weighing over ^ oz., to any part of the United 
States, or special message below Chambers Street, 10 cents. 

" Letters not exceeding ^ oz. to California, Oregon, or the Sandwich Is- 
lands, IT) cents. 

"Parcels weighing over 5 lbs. and not exceeding 20 lbs., to any part of the 
city below Fortieth Street, 25 cents. 

"Special message below Fortieth Street, 20 cents; -J- oz. letters to Great 
Britain, 30 cents; -J^oz. letters to Russia, Prussia, German States, or Austrian 
Empire, 40 cents." 

It will be observed from the foregoing that the higher values of the 
stamps had a much wider use than mp^t " city post " labels, as they not only 
represented the company's charge for transporting the letters to the General 
Post-office in New York city, but also the sum which* the Metropolitan Er- 
rand and Carrier Express Co. was in turn obliged to pay the Government 
for transporting the same to any designated part of the world. 

The stamps, of which the values 
have already been mentioned, were 
engraved by Baldwin, Ball & Cous- 
lard, and printed in sheets of one 
hundred. 

Until quite recently, it was gene- 
rally supposed that the only color 
in which the originals existed was 
orange-red, but Mr. Jesse K. Fur- 
long, of this city, in the year 1874, 
resuscitated from among a quantity of old letters belonging to one of his 
relatives, a solitary cancelled specimen of the one cent stamp printed in 
dark blue, and affixed to the original letter. 

I have also seen several copies of the one cent on original envelopes, and 
printed in dark red-brown on brown tinted paper; though formerly all the 
stamps in that color were supposed to be reprints. It may be that the plate 
fell into the hands of a New York dealer, and that he reprinted therefrom 
in dark rod-brown and in blue; but I am inclined to thiuk it more probable 
that the stamps offered by him are remainders of the original supply. Be 
this as it may, there can be no doubt that original copies of the one cent 
(and, probably, the other values also,) were printed and used for a brief 
period in both red-brown and blue, as well as in the orange-red shade al- 
ready mentioned. 

Concerning the blue stamps, the article in the American Journal of Phi- 
lately, referring to the circular previously alluded to, says : 

" The circular before us (from which the rates, etc., are quoted) consists 
of four pages of reading matter and is printed in blue ink; e;ich corner is 
ornamented with a representation of the Company's stamp, say four one cent 
tamps on the first page, four fives on the second, and so on. 'This accounts 





43 




for some blue specimens printed on both sides, that are said to adorn a cele- 
brated European collection, the owner of which was certain that they were 
geniiine, as ho had them before counterfeits or reprints were made." 

These stamps printed on both sides had always been looked upon as 
proofs, but the foregoing explanations show that they were merely cut from 
the circular of the Company. 

Third Avenue Post Office. 

I copy the following verbatim from the Stamp Collector's Magazine, 
Vol. X., page 164: 

"This post was established in 1855 or 1856, by one S. Rothenheim, a car- 
rier for Boyd's post. The stamps he made himself, with a hand stamp of 
either brass or metal. He afterwards gummed and trimmed them carefully, 
and put them up in pill boxes for sale, on the principle that they lost and 
destroyed better in that way, and more were sooner asked for. * * * 
* * * rpjjg stamp was similar in size and shape to the oval East 

River P. O. label, the inscription being Ave. 3. P. O. S. R. Paid. The 
impression was black on green." 

Boyce's City Express Post. 

This post must have lived about 1856, but I cannot give 
the exact date. Black inipressions on green glazed paper. 

Essex Letter Express. 

The history of the Essex Letter Express Company is rather amusing. It 
was established about 1856 by three or four ex-carriers of various New 
York Expresses, who, after they had sold a good supply of their stamps to 
the public, suddenly decamped with the proceeds. And so the matter rested 
imtil about the year 1862, when the rage of the "locals" beginning, a cer- 
tain New York dealer (whom we shall designate as Mr. H.) undertook to 
supply the demand, but as he was unable to obtain the original articles, he 
resorted to the wood-engraver, who helped him out of his difficulty by pre- 
paring numerous " reproductions," although this last fact was not, for obvious 
reasons, made known to the public. 

About this time Mr. W. P. Brown, obtained a number of the genuine stamps, 
which, as will be observed by reference to the engraving, have for a central 
design a ship, from the main-mast of which floats a streamer with the letter 
SX inscribed thereon. 

As Mr. William P. Brown could never miss " his little joke," he took one 
of the genuine stamps and, carefully erasing the SX from the streamer, sub- 
stituted these letters below the ship. A trusty messenger then carried the 
altered stamp to Mr. H., who in a few days astonished the Philatelic world 
by the announcement that he had obtained and could offer for 
sale a limited quantity of undoubtedly genuine Essex locals 
with the SX below the ship! Further comment is unnecessary. 
It therefore only remains for me to say that the genuine stamp 
is evidently a wood engraving, and is printed in black on red 
glazed paper. 





LETTER 1 


X 


(& 


\^ 


LlJ 




\T 


in 




>i73 


m 




Jm 


Ui 


2CTS 


CO 



44 





American Express Company. 

Started about 1856 or 1857, by Messrs. Smith & Dobson. 

Their stamp was a very simple type-set arrange- 
ment, and the market has consequently been flood- 
ed with counterfeits that can hardly be detected 
from the originals. Black impression on green 
glazed paper. 

I understand, on what I believe to be pretty good authority, that Dobson 
after a short time retired, and that the name of the concern was thereupon 
changed to 

Smith's City Express Post. 

Smith is supposed to have issued two or more stamps (including an " Un- 
paid " label) very similar in design to the preceding, but I have never come 
across any specimens which were above suspicion. 

Clark & Co. 

The label herewith reproduced, existed in New York in about 
ISiV. 

Original copies of which are found only in dark red on yel- 
low paper; but reprints come not only in this color but in seve- 
al fancy hues on white paper. 

Clarke & Co. were succeeded by 

Brady & Co., 

who, about January 1st, 1858, used a label very similar to 
that of their predecessors, printed in red-brown on yellow 
paper. 

The genuine stamp, as will be observed from the illustration 
here given, has a comma after the word " Beady." In what is 
generally considered the counterfeit, the comma is absent. 
Many other minor differences are also noticeable. 

A peculiar circumstance in this connection is that these stamps are sold 
by a New York dealer in strips of five, consisting of four of the (supposed) 
counterfeits, and one reprint from the genuine die! Can it be that collectors 
have labored under a mistake, and that both varieties are genuine ? How 
else could they appear in the same sheet ? The vendor of these strips 
claims that they are all reprints from the genuine blocks. 

Clarke's Circular Express, 

As the name implies, oanied circulars, not letters. From 
an inspection of the accompanying illustration it will be 
observed that the oflice was at 436 Broadway. The post 
was founded by Marion M. Clarke in about 1 863, and was 
discontinued two or three years later. The design of the 
stamp was set up in type (with a foundry cut, representing 
some unknown individual, in the centre) and was electro- 
typed in rubber. Impressions were then made in black on 
white paper. 




AA*^^*^ I I I I !■> 




< * 1 1 1 J V 1 1 1 1 1 1 rv 



45 




Mclntire's City Express Post. 

This post was in existence about 1860, its office being at 
No. 2 Maiden Lane. A carefully engraved metal-plate de- 
sign was prepared, and printed in rose on white paper. 



Crosby's City Post. 

I extract the following from the American Journal of 
Philately for June, 18V1. — "The list of locals for our country- 
has lately received an addition to their nnmber, of the annexed 
design. The stamp is issued by the old established house of 
O. H. Crosby, doing business at 19 William Street; it pays 
the postage on letters and circulars delivered anywhere in the 
City. The stamps were designed and engraved by J. W. Scott & Co. 
They are printed in sheets of twenty-five, and imperforated; the color is 
bright carmine." 

Although Mr. Crosby has been established for many years as a news 
agent, I do not think he opened a city despatch until about 18^0, or 1871. 
If I remember rightly, there used to be a young man in his store who, for 
a compensation ot eight cents, would carry letters over to the various Euro- 
pean steamers after the regular mail at the Post-office had closed ; but this 
certainly was not a city delivery company, which was the object of Mr. 
Crosby's subsequent enterprise. 

At present, Mr. Crosby confines himself almost entirely to his regular 
business, which is that of a stationer, and his City Post is a thing of the past. 




CHAPTER VII. 





New York City, Concluded. — Miscellaneous. 

This is a chapter of veritable " stragglers;" i. e., of posts which, though 
accredited to the Metropolis, cannot be assigned to any place in the pre- 
ceding chapters, owing to my inability to ascertain or approximate the years 
in which they severally existed. 

Brown St, McGill. 

Lithographed in blue on white paper. Mr. Scott is un- 
der the impression that he has also seen it in' black. It is 
generally supposed to have been used in New York City, 
and I therefore place it in this chapter. 



City Dispatch. 

This is known to have belonged to some !N"ew York Com- 
pany, and its proprietor is said to have been one Baldwin. 
Black impression on white paper. Reprints, or surplus stock, 
are oifered in large quantities. ' 



City Dispatch. 

This is a very rare local, and, from its extreme ugliness, it 
is almost to be regretted that it is not still rarer. Red on 
white paper. 

City Letter Express Mail. 

Mr. Moens, of Brussels, stands sponsor for this Company. In a recent let- 
ter to me he says: 

" Je puis vous affirmer que le City Letter Express Mail est authentique. 
"Un de mes correspondants le poss6de aniiule dans son album. De ee 
" timbre je puis repondre." 

The stamp in question is in the form of a heart. The background is of 
fine engine turned work. The central design is a largo numeral 1, donoling 
the value. To the left is City ; at top, Letter Express ; at right, Mail, 
and at the foot, Cent. 

1 cent, red on white. 

46 




47 



Hourly Express Post. 

Tradition tells us that this post was formed in 1859, and existed for about 
three weeks, which latter circumstance may account for the fact that no au- 
thentic specimens of its stamps are known. Reprints (or rather what are 
supposed to be reprints) are common, and are printed in black on green 
paper. The design is as follows: — diamond shaped, solid ground inscribed 
" HouELY ExPEESs PosT Lbttee Stamp Ose Cent," in five lines, the first 
being slightly and the fifth considerably curved. 



From the 
is, however, 
cocted by a 
the owners 
paper." 

" The car 
the letters 
ploded." 



Metropolitan City Express Post. 

Sta/mj} Collector's Magazine, Vol. X., page 165, (where the name 
incorrectly given) we learn that " this post was a swindle con- 
party who stationed some boxes at various stores, and supplied 
thereof with some stamps, type set, printed on green glazed 

rier and proprietor of this so-called express must have delivered 
himself at odd times, or after hours. His venture soon ex- 
New York City Express Post. 

The label bearing this inscription and having for its central design an 
eagle standing ujDon a globe, has always been considered by me as a very 
doubtful article. However, as a specimen, which has been pronounced gen- 
uine by good authorities, exists, in the collection of an English amateur, I 
give mention to the fact. The specimen in question is printed in black on 
green paper. The facial value is 2 cts. 



Price's City Express. 

Type I. — An indifferent lithograph. 

Black on green glazed paper. 
" " red " " 



Type H. — Also a lithograph, apparently, but of better 
execution. 

Black on green glazed paper. 

Reprints, or else portions of a large surplus stock of 
Type II., exist. 

Roadman's Penny Post. 

As the authentic character of this label has never been altogether satis- 
factorily shown, I dispense with the usual illustration, and content myself 
with a brief description. 





48 



Transverse oblong border of links. Roadman's Pexnt Post in three 
lines. Type set. 

Rose on white paper. 

Russell's 8th Avenue Post Office. 

A wood engraving. 

Black on pink paper. 
" on brown paper. 
" on green paper. 

Vermilion on white paper. 

Russell's P. O. was located on or near Abingdon Square, and probably ex- 
isted about the year 1851. 




Stateu Island Express Post. 

As the name would imply, this Company ran between 
Manhattan and Staten Islands. 
Red on white paper. 






CHAPTEE VIII. 



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



Blood's Despatch. 

This was the largest city delivery company in Philadelphia, and from its 
litigation with the U. S. Government, it became one of the best known in 
the United States. 

I have always had the impression that it started about 1843 or '44; but 
the earliest date given by the directories is 1846. I condense the informa- 
tion thus obtained through this source. 

1846-8, D. O. Blood & Co., 48 South 3d Street. 

• 48 « 6th " 

26 " 6th " 

26-8 " 6th " 

26 " 6th " 

1853-6, Blood's Despatch, Chas. Kochersperger, 30 and 32 Arcade Street. 
1856-7, Blood's P. 0. Despatch and Penny Post, Chas. Kochersperger & 
Co., 28 South 5th Street. 

1859, Same. 42 South 5th Street. 



1849 


do 


1850 


do 


1851 


do 


1852 


do 



49 

It will be seen that Blood's Despatch, under his and KocLersperger's con- 
trol, had — if the date 1843 be correct — an existence of about seventeen 
years; and it would have continued for even a longer period had not its 
business been summarily stopped by the United States in 1860, as the result 
of the litigation already alluded to. The suit brought by the Government 
against Blood's Post — or, rather, against Kochersperger & Co., its mana- 
gers — was for violation of the Act of Congi-ess which forbade the trans- 
portation of mail matter on post roads except by the U. S. P. O. Depart- 
ment; which Act further declared that all public highways were post roads 
within the meaning of the law. This construction was sustained by the 
Federal Courts, and the blow was thus struck at the despatch posts through- 
out the country, although a few manage to survive in the city of New 
York, being protected there by licenses derived from the municipal authori- 
ties, with whom, as to their right to grant such licenses, the Government 
apparently did not deem it advisable to litigate. 

Pages have already been filled with descriptions of Blood's Stamps, but 
they have one and all been so mixed with inaccuracies, that they might better 
have been left unwritten. Every stamp herein described (except the " dove " 
series) is now before me, so that my descriptions may be relied upon as 
perfectly correct. The " man-stepping-over-houses " types appear to be 
the least understood (doubtless owing to their rarity), consequently I have 
taken pains to collect nearly a dozen specimens. The illustrations, too, have 
been prepared with the greatest care, so as to prominently set forth all the 
minor points of difference between the respective types of the series. 






TYPE I. 



TYPE III. 



These were the first issued, but as to their order I can say nothing. 

The general design is supposed to represent Blood & Co.'s messenger 
stepping over the Philadelphia Merchants' Exchange (the large building in 
the centre with a cupola), in the basement of which building Blood's office 
was located at that time. The edifice to the right was occupied by the Sun 
newspaper, and the one just back of it by the Philadelphia Ledger. T. 
Sinclairs, a lithographer, had his oiEces in the building towards which the 
forward foot is stepping. 

These buildings will hereafter be designated as follows: 
Merchants' Exchange, (a.) Sun (b.) 

Ledger, - - (c.) Sinclairs, {d.) 

Type I.— This, it will be observed, is very different from either of the 
others, especially as regards a. None of the buildings have any inscrip- 



50 



tions. A most peculiai" feature is that while on the bag the word reads 
Dispatch, on another part of the stamp it is spelt Despatch. 

In the lower margin of the stamp, outside of the double lined frame, is 
the following inscription, in such small letters that our engraver has been 
unable to reproduce them on wood, viz.: " T. Sinclairs, lAth?'' 

Type II. — This, in point of execution, is a decided improvement on the 
foregoing. The buildings are more carefully finished, and bear the follow- 
ing inscriptions: 

h. Three indistinct letters (apparently Hau), under the upper windows. 

c. Shows the letters " Ledg " very plainly. 

d. Shows " S " and a couple of indistinct letters (doubtless belonging 
to the name " Sinclaihs ") ; while belov them is " Lithogbaphek " with 
the first letter entirely, and the last two nearly covered by the shading. 

The inscriptions outside the frame read "Lith. of Wagner & McGuigan, 
100 Chestnut St.," and further on the name " Schmit " or " Schmitt " (prob- 
ably the man who executed the design for Wagner & McGuigan), is dis- 
cernable in very small letters in imitation of writing. 

Type III.^ — Still better, so far as the inscriptions are concerned. 

h. " Hau " is plainly printed. 

h. " Suif " appears unmistakeably, near the bottom. 

c. as in II. 

d. reads much more clearly in what looks like Stclaies Lithogeapher, 
in two lines as before, the last two letters of each word being somewhat 
blurred. 

The outside inscription is unaltered from II. 

This completes the list of man-stepping-over-houses stamps, so that I need 
only add that the trio are lithographs and printed in black on white paper 

Type IV. — In use, I think, about 1847, though it could 
not have had a long currency. Black on white paper. 

The illustration of Type IV. is rather inaccurate, having 
been made from the electrotype of Type V., figuring be- 
low. On the original stamps, all the lettering of Type 
IV. is coarser and to some extent different in style from 
that of its successor. 



Types V. and VI. — These must have 
been used almost simultaneously with 
the foregoing, as I have a specimen of 
Type V. on a letter dated November 1, 
1847. Black on white paper. 



Type VII. — I have seen on an envelope filed August 15, 
1848. The stamp is printed in black on white paper with 
a ground work of small blue diamonds, and the word 
Blood's traced thereon in largo open script. 





51 



BLOOD'S 





The 



very 



Type VIIL— Current from about 1848 to 1853. 
Blue impression on lavender paper with small pink dashes in 
Gold " « " « [ground. 

Gold " " black glazed paper. 

Type IX. — Dull bronze letters on dark bi-onze glazed paper. 

This I have on a letter dated January 30, 1849, which also bears 
a considerably larger blue label, reading, "Lawyers, medical 
men, and others, throughout the country, desiring their business 
cards or circulars of any kind or in any quantity distributed in 
Philadelphia, can have them attended to, with care and promptness, by ad- 
dressing Blood's Despatch, 28 South Sixth Street." 

Type X.— (On letter dated February 1, 1849.) Bronze on 
black glazed -paper, the lettering and border being in the color 
of the paj>er. 

Type XL — On letters variously dated from 1850 to 1854. 
later specimens show much wear in the die. 

Bronze on black glazed paper. 

Types XII. and XIII. — Genuine copies of both are 
rare, and I therefore cannot say exactly when 
they were current; but, as will be observed 
in the next paragraph, 1858 is the earliest date 
that I can assign to Type XIV., and I there- 
fore insert these here to fill the hiatus. The 
large one is from a wood block and printed in 
black on green ; and the smaller, a copper-plate 
impression, also in black on green. 

Type XIV. — This was prepared on metal by one of the 
firms afterwards incorporated with the American Bank Note 
Company. The portrait is that of Henry Clay. 

Black impression on white paper. — Current in 1858 and 
perhaps earlier. Reprints are found in black, blue, green, 
violet and other colors. 

There is also another type with a head of Clay for the central device, sur- 
rounded by a, rectangular band, inscribed as in Type XIV. Unfortunately, 
however, its authenticity has never been satisfactorily proven. Setting aside 
a number of acknowledged counterfeits, there are two varieties of this type, 
each of which is claimed to be the genuine article. One has for its cham- 
pion a New York dealer in locals — mostly bogus and reprints — who asserts 
that he obtained the stamps from KocherSperger after the discontinuance of 
the post, together with a quantity of Type XIV., copies of which (reprints ?) 
he has for sale. 

The other's claim is based on the assertion of a party in Philadelphia (not 
a Philatelist) that he bought the stamps from K. & Co. when that despatch 





52 

was in full operation, and has had them lying aside ever since, and only un- 
earthed them recently. When called upon to make affidavit to this effect 
he indignantly declined. 

The main point of difference between the two varieties, which we shall 
designate as a and b respectively, is that in the former the central ground 
work is solid, and in the latter is composed of diagonally crossed lines. 

a is printed in black on white. 

b " " " and on blue. 



CHAPTER IX. 



Philadelphia, Continued. — Miscellaneous Companies. 



W. Stait.— Eagle City Post. 

To better explain the history of Mr. Stait's entei-prise, I condense such 
information as I have obtained from the Philadelphia directories. 
1847-8, "W. Stait, Eagle City Post, Adams' Express Office, 80 Chestnut st. 
1849-51, do. do. do. do. 

1852-53, do. Adams' Express Office, 116 Chestnut & 48 South 3d St. 
1854-58, do. Stait's Despatch, 48 South 3d St. 
1859, General Agent and Express Post, cor 4tli & Walnut st. 

1860-61, (Directoiies missing.) 

The first stamp used was of the accompanying orna- 
mented circular design, and printed in black on white 
paper. It was current from 1847-51. Then, when the 
South 3d street office was op^ened, the unpre- 
tentious oblong rectangular label herewith re- 
produced was issued in red and in blue on 
white paper. In 1854, it will be observed, 
the name of the concern was changed to Stait's Despatch, but the Eagle 
City Post Stamps were used for some time afterwards. Later on, they were 
discontinued, and a simple handstamp reading Stait's Despatch, S. Third 
Street, Paid." substituted. It is generally found struck in red. 

u. s. p. o. 

Referring to the remarks made upon these stamps in connection with the 
Union Square Post Office, New York, I reproduce them here (where they 
belong) without any further comment, beyond the mere mention of the 
fact that the L S (Type I.) was current in 1849, and the others, presumedly, 
about the same time. 





53 



U.S.P.O. 

PAID. 
L 1 Cent. 8 I 

U.S.P.O. 

PAID. 

1 Cent. 



Types I. and II. 

Black on red paper. 



U.S.P.O. 

paid. 
L 1 Cent. F 



Type III. 



Blue on white paper. 
Black on red paper. 



In order to prevent confusion, I take occasion to say that the illustrations 
of Types I., II. and III. are not very accurate, they differing from the origi- 
nal stamps in many details of lettering. 



Type IV. 



Black on blue paper. 
Blue on white paper. 
Gold on black glazed paper. 

G. Carter. 





This I have on a letter dated October 9, 1 850. Black im- 
pression on white paper. The office was at 90 North 5th 
street. 



Priest's Despatch. 



Its 



PAID 



Existed in 1854, and probably earlier, at No. 141 Chestnut Street, 
proprietor was Solomon Priest. 

Black on red and on' yellow paper. 

Some specimens of this stamp show a solid ground with 
all the lettering sharply defined. In others, however, dete- 
rioration is very evident, and two long dashes appear above 

and below the word "Paid." There are also some small strokes on the 
sides of this word, due perhaps to defective printing. These imperfections 
I have noticed only in the red stamps. 

The following posts were also located in Philadelphia or its suburbs ; but 
neither the directories nor any other records at my command give the dates 
when they were severally in operation. 

Cressman &, Co. 



CHESSMAN & GO'S 

PENNY POST 

PHILAD'A. 



Gold on black glazed paper. Originals are 
met with, but first-class counterfeits are common. 

De Ming's Fenny Post. — Frankford. 

Black on white paper. Large surplus supplies or else re- 
prints, exist. Frankford, as most of my readers probably 
know, is a suburb of Philadelphia, 



seldom 




54 




Jenkins' Camden Despatch. 

Camden being virtually a part of Philadelphia, Penna., though actually 
""""""" in another State, I include Mr. Jenkins' post in my list. 

In all original copies of this stamp, the countenance of the in- 
dividual portrayed (presumedly Washington, though possibly 
Jenkins) bears a noticeably serene expression. 

Many years ago the stone from which the stamps were litho- 
graphed, fell into the hands of a New York dealer; but, prior 
to its acquisition by him, it must have undergone retouching, as the re- 
prints that he made show traces of some such manipulation, the mouth 
being smaller and shrunken — suggestive of absent teeth. 

Originals are found only in black on white; but the reprintssj in addition 
to the orthodox color, come in green, blue, red, :uk1 orange. 

Steinmeyer's City Post. 

Black on slate blue. 
Black on pink. 
Black on yellow. 



T£ESE&Co 




Teese &. Co. 

Blue on blue tinted. 



CliAPTER X. 



Baltimore, Mai;yland. 

There existed in this city four or five local posts that issued adhesive 
labels. As to dates, &c., 1 am, in most cases, ignorant, and therefore do not 
follow any particular order in mentioning the following: 

Grafflin's Despatch. 

Date unknowTi. Lithographed in black on wliito paper. 

A second type (of extremely doubtful authenticity) is known, 
and differs from the foregoing in many respects, tlie line<i 
background being intersperced with dots and the execution 
generally not as fine; indeed, it would seem to be from a wood 
engraving. The statue on tlic monument touches the oval 
frame at top, whicli in the first type is at some distance from 
it; while the word " Baltimore " has a fine line intersecting it near the top. 



« wSH^KnS 



55 



probably through some fault of the engraver, a peculiarity which does not 
exist in the undoubtedly genuine type. 



•wnjTJLisrs' 



B! 
H 





■f r 



2 CEISTTS. 



Winans' City Post. 

2 cents, black on white. 
5 " " on yellow glazed. 
10 " " on green. 
20 " " on red glazed. 
These extraordinary labels are said to have been 
used in Baltimore, but I am quite ignorant as to 
their general history. 

The strongest point in their favor is that a set 
came out of the collection of Mr. McCoy, of New 
York City. 




Post Office Despatch. 

Red on bluish paper. 

Dark blue on bluish paper. 

Pale blue on bluish paper. 
These were in use during the year 1852. They are badly 
printed from a wood-cut, which seems to have been re-engraved as many 
times as there were stamps to a sheet. 

Carriers' Dispatch. 

I formerly thought that this stamp was issued by the Government 
post-office in Baltimore, but I am now quite satisfied that 
it owed its origin to private enterprise. It is from a wood 
block, badly executed, and oftentimes defectively printed. 

Red, varying to rose, on white paper. 
Blue on white paper. 

Davis' Post. 

Some years ago I saw a small rectangular label inscribed Davis' Post (or 
Davis' Despatch, I cannot remember the exact wording), Baltimore, and 
printed in black on lavender paper. The stamp was genuine beyond 
doubt. I therefore much regret that I cannot more accurately describe it 
to my readers. 




CHAPTEK XI. 



Boston, Massachusetts. 

Boston does not appear to have been the home of many genuine locals, 
though of the counterfeit article it has certainly furnished its complement. 
The earliest delivery post existing there was that of 



Cheever & Towle. 

The date of its origin is uncertain; but Mr. Towle 
it was sold out in about 1851, to Mr. George H. Barker, 
continued by him on a small scale for some time. 



informs me that 
I believe it was 




Only one type was issued, of which a reproduction is 
annexed, and was printed in blue on yellowish white pa- 
per. 

It will be noticed that it is quite similar to that of Hale 
& Co., with which firm Mr. Towle was for some time a 
clerk. 

When Cheever & Towle sold out, they handed over 

the wood block from which their stamps were made to 

and it finally (in 1870), found its way into the possession of 



their successor 

a New York firm, by whom reprints were made. 



Penny Post. 

^PEWNY » For a long time I supposed that these 
■* P^A^l'^'b ^ locals emanated from the company of the 

*^^^^^^^«S same name in California, but I have since 

ascertained that the " Hub " is their true place of origin. 
I am unable to state when the diamond border was current, but I have the 
" Paid " variety on a letter dated Boston, July 20, 1860. Both are type 
set and printed in blue on white paper, the small one on a very thin quality. 



SpbnnyJ 

A POST } 



U. S. Penny Post. 

The original of the label herewith reproduced was care- 
fully prepared and printed in black on white paper. Al- 
though unable to fix its date of issue, I am in possession of 
information that enables me to guarantee its authenticity. 




56 



CHAPTER XII. 



CiTAELESTON, SoUTH CaKOLINA. 

The only known Despatch company in this city was 



Honour's Post, 

and its branches. It was established in the year 1850, by Jno. D. Honour, 
Jr., he having, (according to his statement) obtained his authority from the 
Post Office Department at Washington. He associated with him his 
brother-in law, Mr. Kingman, who took charge of the western portion of 
the city, leaving the eastern section to Mr. Honour. Thus they continued 
for several years, when Mr. Kingman withdrew, and his place was filled by 
Mr. Martin. Mr. Honour informs me that neither of these gentlemen had 
any authority from Washington, and were only recognized there as his sub- 
ordinates. 

In April, 1860, Mr. Honour relinquished his interest to Mr. Beckman, who 
continued the post until the end of the recent civil war. 




TYPE I. 





TYPE V. 



Types I. and II. — Both issued in 1850, and 
printed in black on lavender paper. Kingman's 
stamp is said to also exist in black on green, but 
I have never seen it in that color. Being type 
set (and very carelessly at that), many varieties 
of Nos. I. and II. exist, differing in the arrange- 
ment of the pearls. 

Type HI. — Date 1851. Black on lavender 
paper. Varieties as in I. and II. 

Type IV. — This is the rarest type of all, as I 
have never seen but one specimen. It was cur- 
rent in 1856, and printed in black on lavender 
paper. 

Type V. — I cannot assign the exact date. 
Black impression on lavender paper. Varieties 
as in I. and II. 

Type VI. — Used in 1860. Black on lavender 
paper. 

Mr. Beckman does not appear to have issued 
any stamp. 



I City Post f 

gPaid — 2 cts.^ 
TYPE II. 



IHONOUB'BS 
'ennyPnst-! 

PAID. 
TYPE IV. 



|H0N0ITB'Sjf 
I City Post I 
PAID. 



s*s 



TYPE VI. 



CHAPTER XIII. 




Chicago, Illinois. 

Being unable to follow the chronological, I must mention in alphabetical 
order the four posts accredited to Chicago. 



Brady & Co. 

A very rare stamp, ^jrinted in lilac on white paper. 



Bronsou &, Forbes. 

This stamp was resuscitated by Mr. Wm. P. Brown several 
years ago, and illustrated by him in the " Curiosity Cabinet." 
Black on green glazed paper. 



Chicago Penny Post. 

Orange on white paper. Reprints, or else an uncom- 
monly large and fresh looking " surplus stock," can easily 
be procured. 

Floyd's Penny Post. 

I have seen undoubtedly original cancelled copies in 
Blue on white paper. 
Brown " " 

Green " " 

Reprints are found in these colors, also in red and black. 
Originals may likewise exist in the two colors last mentioned, 
but none have yet come to light. 






68 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Only two companies, viz: 

Brovrne's City Post. 

" Which is it, Brown or Browne ?" is a ques- 
tion that I have been asked many times, for it 
will be observed that the inscription differs on 
the two values. The reason for this peculiarity 
is unknown to me. 

The stamps are said to have been lithographed 
by Gibson & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, for use in 
that city, and the first part of this statement is 
certainly correct, so far as the lower value is concerned; for on it the large 
central numeral bears the words Gibson, Gin., in script letters. 
The impression in both cases is black on white paper. 





Frazer & Co. 

This has lately been brought to light by Mr. Scott. 
The engraving is on metal, and the impression in 
black on pink. Date, &c., unknown. 

Just as the printer is going to press on this work, it is 
reported to me by one of the best of authorities that 
Frazer & Co.'s stamps have also been seen impressed in black on green and 
on yellow papers. 




t9 



CHAPTER XV. 



Columbia and Weightsvillb, Pennsylvania. 
C. &. W. Bridge Despatch. 



The C. & W. Bridge Despatch had for its object the 
C. Sl W. I transportation of letters between Cohimbia and Wrights- 
BlillDGrE II ville, Pennsylvania, over the bridge connecting the two 
places, which are situated on opposite banks of the Sus- 
quehanna River. 
Type set. Bronze impression on green and on vermillion paper.- 



CHAPTEE XVI. 




?5SS^» 



Easton, Pennsylvania. 

Brovrne's Easton Despatch Post. 

This thriving city was favored in the year 
1856 with the locals of which illustrations 
are annexed. One, it will be observed, was 
a simple type set impression, the color being 
black and the paper red. Of the other, the 
central disk bearing Washington's head is 
engraved, the lettering being from type, for which reason 
several varieties exist, " Easton Despatch " showing the 
most noticeable differences. Black on white paper. 

Owing to lack of patronage, Browne's enterprise soon discontinued. 
N. B. — The type on the left is the greatest rarity, only one copy being 
known. This not being in my possession or accessible, I reproduced the 
stamp from memory, but the printer has altered my design in many particu- 
lars, especially in the border, which should be (if I remember rightly) two 
straight lines, one thick and the other thin. 




TTVO CENTS 



60 



CHAPTER XVII. 



New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Two posts existed in this city, both of which are comparatively recent 
discoveries. 

Menant & Co. 

This Company is probably known to nearly all col- 
lectors, owing to the numerous fanciful designs which 
counterfeiters have inscribed with its nanie. 

The genuine label is after the pattern herewith re- 



\ Express 'Post.y 



MENANT a CO 



^ 

;?^21 Contl Street^ 



produced, and is printed in red on thin white paper. 

Mason &, Co. 

A post of this name existed in 1851, and issued a stamp of which a de- 
scription must suffice, as I cannot procure a copy for illustration. 

Small rectangular label. Frame of serpentine line, with type ornaments 
in corners. Inscription: " Caeb of Mason's New Orleans City Express. 
Paid — 2 Cents.," in five lines. Black im;)ression on yellow glazed paper. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



St. Louis, Missouri. 



Squier & Co. 

This post existed in 1847, and issued stamps of the annexed 
design, in green, rose, puce and, it is reported, black, on 
white paper. They were all rouletted, being, with the ex- 
ception of a few of Boyd's, and of Wells, Fargo & Co.'s, 
the only locals on which any attempt at perforation was 
made. 

The green is also found imperforate. 




CHAPTiJR XIX. 



Washington, District op Columbia. 

Washin^on City Despatch. 

Letter delivery in the Capital must have been a poor 
business, as only one company is recorded as having there 
existed, viz : The Washingtoii City Despatch, which issued 
and used, from about 1852 to 1856, coarsely lithographed 
labels of the pattern herewith reproduced, in 
Blue on white paper, and 
SiwiSHwoTiiirc^Y5 Violet on white paper. 

The American Journal of Philately for 1872, notes, on page 38, two 
stamps of the Washington City Despatch, of different designs from the 
illustration, but fails to state wherein the differences lie. It mentions, how- 
ever, that they are both printed in blue — on white paper, I presume. 




CHAPTER XX. 



The Penny Post Co., of California. 

This company was started in 1855, by J. P. Goodwin. At firet its offices 
were confined to San Francisco, Sacramento, Stockton and Maryville, but 
branches were soon established at Benicia, Coloma, Nevada, Grass Valley, 
and Mokelumne Hill. It had an existence of only six months, and consider- 
ing the shortness of its life, it was wonderfully prolific in postal produc- 
tions. 

The company was essentially a city delivery post, as its business con- 
sisted of. 

First. — Transporting to the Government Post Oflice, in time for the out- 
going mails, letters deposited with it for that purpose. 

Second. — Obtaining from the Government 1 ost Office upon the arrival of 
the inward mails, and distributing throughout the cities where its (the P. 
P. Co.'s) offices were located, letters that had been addressed to its care for 
that object. 



63 



Most of the business of the Penny Post Co. was done by means of the 
prepaid envelopes described in Part IV. ; but it also issued two adhesive 
stamps, of which mention is made below. 




■ -Aftl*l«ly £,"■•0; 

I ^^ 5 Cents, 

'''to the -Bo* , 

]g^'Q'C'C'iB'P'0'g!^ 




Type I. — Wood block impression in blue on yellow- 
ish paper. 

This was used for carrying letters to the post-office. 



Type II — Was for the same purpose as the last men- 
tioned. In reproducing it, the engraver, for some reason 
best known to himself, has given the value as 5 cents, though 
in the original it is 2 cents. 

In this respect it marks an approach towards cheap post- 
age on the Pacific coast, where a company charging five and 
even seven cents used to call itself a penny post ! 

The stamp in question. Type II., is a fine metal plate impression in blue 
on white paper. 




CHAPTER XXI. 



San Feancisco, Califoknia. 



After the Penny Post the next city delivery company that left any franks 
to perpetuate its memory, was the 

San Francisco Letter Express, 

Conducted in 

1860, at 162 Montgomery Street, by Van Dyck & Early. 

1861, at 630 " " by G. E. Early. 

1862, at corner Montgomery and Merchant Streets, probably by G E. 
Early. 

This concern issued the San Francisco City Lettee Express and Ear- 
ly's San Francisco Letter Express envelopes described in Part IV., but 
did not use any adhesive labels. 

Next in order came the 

California City Letter Express, 

which existed in 

1862-3, at 418 Montgomery Street. 

1864-5, at 424 " " 

1866, at 316 " " 

The proprietors were Hoogs & Madison. 

Three adhesive labels were issued, viz. : 



64 



10 Cents. ^ 

^ If yon have Wfidding Cards, 11, , , 

8 Notices, Letters, etc., to beM postage Stamp. 
I delivered, leave them T Tlje iHustrat: 
1 at California City Let- ;;&! 



Type I. — Type set and printed in blue on white 
paper. It is a combination of advertisement and 



The illustration no more than approximates the 
I terExpresB!atHoog8'& ® |f original, many points of variance between the two 

g Madison's Real Estate ft,!,; i,„;„_ nntippablp 

to House Brokers and » i' Deing noiiceaDie. , , . m t 

, Eent Collectors. g.ii Typb II. — Of Same general design as iype L, 

Montgomery Street. ? ; | ij^^ rather larger. The inscription is slightly al- 

^** *^f "-'!.' T-. -^ tered, reading: Wedding Cards, Notices and Let- 

;tr=3t,'Sfo-=S%^ f^^g ^gli^g^g^ 5y t/ie California City Letter Express 

Co. Office at Hoogs <b Madisoti's Real Estate, House Brokers & Eent 
Collectors, 418 Montgomery St., with 10 cents on each side and at top and 
bottom, as in Type I. 

Red on white paper. 



Type III. — Apparently a wood cut with type 
lettering. 

Red on white paper. 

I must mention that while I believe Type III. to 
be genuine, I am not able to endorse it in the 
same unqualified manner that I can Types I. and 
II. 



DISPATCH '" 
POST. 




Hoogs & Madison 

Montgomery E _ . 
* San Francisco, CaL 
o 



I will now pass to the other posts in their order, viz. : 



San Francisco Letter Express, 

Started by John C. Robinson, in 1 862-3, at No. 748 Washington St., and 
in 1864 sold to Dennis Gahagan, who removed it to No. 423 in the same 
ptreet. 

Robinson presumedly issued the two envelope franks bearing his name, de- 
scribed in Part IV. ; also, two adhesive stamps mentioned in the 5th edition 
of Dr. Gray's Catalogue, on page 191, viz.: 

Type I. — Robinson & Co. One Cent. Rectangular; colored impres- 
sion. 

Brown on blue. Black on blue. Red on green. 

Type II. — Robinson & Co., San Francisco Express. Paid. Oblong. 
Black on yellow. 

I have never seen either of these. 

Gahagan & HoTve. 

Mr. Gahagan, who had foi-raerly been a carrier for Robinson, succeeded 
to his business in 1864, as just stated, associating with him one C. E. B. 
Howe, under the firm name figuring above. 

Gahagan & Howe probably issued the San Francisco Letter Express 
(horseman) envelope, described in Part IV., though Robinson may have 
been its originator. At any rate they used it, and also the following adhe- 
sive stamps. 



65 




Types I. and II. — Blue on 
white paper. 

Both of these are type set. 



G. & H.— PAID. 

423WMhingtonS 

S E. cor. SanBomc. 



TYPE I. 



TYPE II. 



Type III. — Black on white paper. Also type set. 



|g>O0C!<>0<>C>0<><><g 

I C. &. H.-PAID. V . ,. , ... 

y S.E. comer Washinton v -^ fourth vaiiety IS Said to exist, but I have never 

y and Sansome Sts. y seen it. 

«!>oo<-^~-'--><>c><>oo< ^ 

TYPE III. 

Games' City Letter Express. 

In the San Francisco City Directories I find 

1864-5, City Letter Express, G. A. Carnes, 29 Government House. 
1866, " " " S. E. corner Washington and 

Sansome. 

The undermentioned stamps are attributed to Mr. Carnes. 

Type I. — Rose on white paper. (Value, 5c.) On St. Val- /'^^^^ 

entine's Day, Mr. Carnes charged double his usual price, and fss/i 

on that anniversary used a very simple provisional stamp, ""*" 
made by surcharging his regular label with a large blue X. 

Type II. — A cheap wood block. Larger than last, with star above the 
bear's head. Black, red, blue, bronze, silver, gold. 

Type III. — Large label for packages. Transverse oval, inscribed " Caknes 
City Leitbe Express." Value in centre. 

15 cents, rose on white. 
25 " " " " 
Type IV. — Same as last, but reading "Carnes & Co. City Package 

EXPEBSS, 621 MONTG. St." 

15 cents, rose on white. 

25 " " " " 
The authenticity of Type I. is beyond doubt. As to the others I cannot 
say as much, and I would not be very much surprised if it should ultimately 
turn out that they were merely made to sell to philatelists, with the per- 
mission of Mr. Carnes, who passed a few of them through his post, so that 
his sanction of their issue might be claimed by their concoctor. 

Wm. E. Loomis. 

Mr. Loomis bought out Gahagan & Howe in or about 1865, and Carnes 
in 1869. At first he used the G. & H. labels of Type III., which, on St. 



66 

Valentine's Day, he uBed to surcharge with an X in blue ink, as Mr. Games 
was also wont to do, or sometimes by writing the numerals 10 across with 
a blue pencil. 

After he got possession of Mr. Games' Type I., he al- 
tered it, as shown by the cut, by erasing the latter's name 
therefrom. The job was done very badly, so much so 
that traces of the first and last letters in Games' name 
are almost always perceptible. Below the stamp he add- 
ed "S. E. COB. Sans'e and Wash'n. (Sansome and 
Washington Streets.) 

Mr. Loomis continued his letter express until a few years ago, when he 
died; and with his life ended the city delivery posts of San Francisco. 




At some now unknown dates the following delivery companies existed in 
San Francisco: 

Public Letter Oifice, 

Private Post OflBce, 
both of which issued prepaid envelopes, but not any adhesive stamps. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



Miscellaneous Gompanibs. 

It will be noticed that I have been able to describe nearly every local 
under the chapter reserved for the city wherein it emanated. A few re- 
main, however, whose birth-places inquiry has failed to reveal, and these 
form the subject of the present chapter. 

Barr's Dispatch. 

Type-set. Black on green glazed, and red on white paper. 
I personally know nothing about this stamp, but as it is ^ - 
generally accepted as genuine, I include it in my list. yfei 

Fisk & Rice. 

I extract a description from Vol. V., page BY, of the American Journal 
of Philately, which must serve instead of the usual illustration: 

" Fisk & Rice's, above, Express below, in curved lines, locomotive steam 
engine in centre, enclosed in rule border. Set up with type and foundry 
cut of engine. Black impression on vermillion glazed paper. Small rec- 
tangle." 




67 



T. A. Hampton. — Despatch Post. 



A large circular label of 
PATCH Post at top. T. A. 
rounded by an inner circle, 
white paper. 



about three centimetres in diameter. Des- 
Hampton, at bottom. Paid in centre, sur- 
Rough wood block impression in black, on 




Jones' City Express Post. 

Black on rose-colored paper. 



liangton &, Co. 

Used by the firm of Langton & Co., in some western 
city of the United States; but exactly where I cannot say. 
Black on white paper. 



Post Ofi&ce Paid. 




P. O, PAID 

1 Cent. 



This is described in the S. C. M. for 1872, page 164. 
Black on white and on blue paper. 



Robisou &. Co. 

Said to have been used in the City of Brooklyn, in the 
State of New York, in 1856. Black on blue paper.- I have 
never seen an undoubtedly genuine copy. 



Snovr's Despatch. 

One of Mr. W. P. Brown's resucitations, or, rather it came 
out of the McCoy collection which he purchased. 
Blue on blue. Black on blue. 




SNOW'S 



Despatch. 



Snovr's Express. 

I extract the following from the S. C. M. for 1872, page 164: "The de- 
sign (if such it may be called) is of the simplest, being an old-fashioned 
looking figure 1, with Snow's reading upwards on one side, and Express 
reading downwards on the other. Above is one between two strokes, and 
below is Cents similarly placed. Blue upon thin paper." 



68 



Stringer & Morton. 

Here, too, I am without the original stamp to illustrate. I therefore tran- 
scribe the A. J. of P.''s not over lucid description, viz: Stbingee and Mob- 
ton's City Despatoh. Small oblong, black on gold. 




Whittelsey's Express. 



Red on white. 
Blue on white. 



PART III. 



Franks impressed on Envelopes issued, by Compa- 
nies carrying Mail Matter bet^veen diflFer- 
ent Cities and Towns. 



CHAPTER I.— EXPLANATOKY. 

CHAPTER n. — Printed Franks of various CoMrANiES. 
CHAPTER IH.— Printed Franks of Wells, Fargo & Co. 
CHAPTER IV. — Hand Stamps of various Companies. 
CHAPTER V. — History of some of the leading Companies 

vsriiosE Franks are described in Chapters II. 

AND IV. 
CHAPTER VI.— History op Wells, Fargo & Co. 
CHAPTER VII.— Conclusion to Part III. 



CHAPTER I. 



EXPLANATOKT, 

The envelopes described in the present portion of this work are so gener- 
ally and so well known as Western Envelope Franks, that any detailed ex- 
planations on the subject become superfluous. 

The adhesive labels of some of these companies were described in Chap- 
ter II. of Part I. ; but, as then said, the adhesives are few in number, the 
general practice with the Western companies having been to issue prepaid 
envelopes impressed with various printed designs. For the most part, the 
U. S. stamped envelopes were thus manipulated, as the business came in 
such direct competition with the U. S. Post Office Department that the .com- 
panies, in order to avoid legal proceedings, based upon the fact that they 
were reducing the Government revenues, used the tJ. S. stamped envelopes 
as already explained. Thereby the Government was defrauded of nothing, 
the companies did the work and collected their own charge accordingly. 

The following abbreviations will be used in describing the franks: 

L. U. C. Impressed in left upper corner of envelope. 

L. 

R. 

R. 

A. 

T. 

Env. Envelope. 

Ord. Env. Ordinary envelope; i. e. without any Government stamp im- 
pressed. 

Obi. Oblong. 

Rect. Rectangular. 

When franks are printed on envelopes with U. S. Government stamps 
impressed, the denomination, color of paper and year of issue alone are 
stated, thus: 

" black on 3c. white, 1864," means "black impression on a white 3 cents 
envelope of the 1864 issue of the U. S." 

As, in this connection, it is not customary to consider the various minutire 
connected with the envelopes themselves, their shape, sub-varieties of the 
Government stamp, &c., no reference to any of these points will be made; 
nor will any distinction be made between the Reay and the Plimpton series, 
both being treated as belonging to the issue of 1870. 

It will be observed that I have included in the lists that follow, a few 
British Columbian Companies. While these are of course not entitled to 

70 



L. C. 




lower " 


L. C. 




" right " " 


U. C. 




" " upper " 


E. 




across left end of envelope, 






at top of envelope. 



71 

a place among United States Locals, they are only few in number and are 
so generally classed with the latter, by collectors, that I felt their omission 
might be more noticeable than their presence 



CHAPTER II. 



Peinted Fbanks of VAEiors Companies. 

Alta Express Co. — I. Obi. rect. frame. "AUa Express Go. Paid.'''' 
River scene, steamboat, mountains, &c. 

L. U. C. Black on ordinary white and buff env. with U. S. adhesives 
affixed. 
. " Black on 3c. white and buff, 1853. 

II. — Same as last but without frame. "Paid!" larger and mountains 
higher. 

L. IT. C. Black on 3c. white and buff, 1853. 

American Express. — Hame above, " Paid " below. View in centre. 
Dog watching safe in foreground, steamlDoat, cars, &c., in distance. 
Black on white, (cut from env). 

Arizona & New Mexico Express Co. — "Paid.'''' Oblong lined 
frame. 

T. Black on 3c. white, 18Y0. 

Bacon's Express. — This Company is mentioned in the Philatelical 
Journal, Vol. I., page 30, but no particulars are given. 

Ballou & Co.'s Cariboo Express. — Inscription as above in ornamen- 
tal border. " Paid'''' below. 

L. TJ. C. Black on ord. white env. 

J. Bamber & Co. — I. Obi. rect. with truncated corners. Solid disk with 
" Pajc?," in background. '■'■ J. Bamher & .Go." s Express, Bacon tk Hardy, 
Oakland Office.^'' All in white letters. 
L. U. C. Black on 3c. white and buff, 1861. 

II.— Scroll with leaves at ends. " Paid. — Bamher S Go.^s Express." 
L. U. C. Blue on 3c. white, buff, 6c. white, buff, 10c. white, buff, 1853 ; 
3c. white, buff, 1857. 
" 'Black on 3c. buff, 1651 ; 3c. buff, 6c. white, 12c., 24c., 1861. 
' " 3c. white, buff, 1 864. 

III. — Scroll with plain ends. Same inscription. 



Y2 

L. U. C. Black on 3c.; white, buff, 6c.; white, buff, 40c., 1864. 

" " " 3c. white, lemon, 6c. white, 1870. 

IV. — Scroll with fancy ends. " Paid Bamber & Oo.^s Mcpress. W. B. 
Hardy's Office, Oakland.'''' 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. white, buff, 6c. buff, 1864. 

V. — Scroll with plain ends. Same inscription. 

L. TJ. C. Black on 12c., 24c., 1861 ; 3c. white, buff, 6c. (rose) white, buff, 

6c. (violet) buff, 1864. 
3c. white, buff, 1870. 

Barnard's Express. — (See Dietz & Nelson.) 

Beekman's Express. — Streamer inscribed '■'^ Paid BeekmarCs Express. 
Jacksonville, Oregon.'''' 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1853 ; 10c. white, buff, 1861 ; 3c. white, buff, 
1864. 

" Blue on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Bennett, J. P. & Co.'s — S. 0. M. d; Mc. Line. Between Santa Fe, N. 
M., El Paso, Ikx., and Tucson, Ar. Principal Office, Las Cruces, JV. M. 
Transv. oval inscribed as above. 

L. U. C. Black on large ord. yellow env. 

Black &, Co.'s Express. — " Paid 5." Streamer. 
L. U. C. Red, blue, black on ord. env. 

British Columbia and Victoria Express Company. — I.— Inscrip- 
tion as above ; " Paid from, Victoria to Lytton or LAlooet " below. 
Black on ord. white envelope. 

II. — Name as before. " Paid from Victoria to Yale or Douglass.''^ 
Black on ord. white env. 

Buchanan &, Co. — I. — "Pa^■(?," in backgrousd. "Buchanan <& Co.'s 
Canon City Express. 

L. U. C. Rose on 3c. white, 1864. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

II. — Obi. disk of green lines. Truncated corners. " Paid Buchanan <& 
Co.'s Express. Over our Dalles and Canyon City Route," in black. 

T. Black and gi-een on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

Colby's Nevada and Dutch Flat Express.— Obi. lined ground in- 
scribed as above. 

T. Black on 3c. (rose) white, buff, 3c. (bronze) white, buff, 6c. (violet) 
white, buff, 1864. 

Cramer's Express.— I.— Purple scroll. Old English letters. 
Black on purple on 3c. white, 1864. 

II. — Cramer'' s Express, connecting teith "Wells, Fargo t6 Co. Purple scroll, 
blue letters. 

T, Purple and blue on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Crawford's Middle Fork Express.— "P(nd" TianSv. obi. fancy 
border. 



73 

T. Black on 3o. buff, 1853. 

Diamond City Express. Beveridge &, Canrich. — "Paid." Obi. 

Blue and red on 3o. buff, 1864. 

Dietz & Nelson and Barnard. 

Dietz S Nelson's British Columbia aud Victoria Express.— ^(sroW in- 
scribed as above. 

BamarWs British Columbia Express. — I. — Scroll inscribed as above. 

Various inscriptions below, viz. : 

(a) Bakkeevillb and Victokia ; (5) Victokia and Yale ; (c) Babkbb- 
viLLE ; (d) Yale, large type ; (e) Yale, small type ; (/) QtrESNELLBr? 
{g) Way ; (A) Victokia and New Westminstbe. 

II. — Type set, in two straight lines. "Paid Barnard''s Express, Colum- 
bia River via Yale, B. C." 

list or ENVELOPES. 

D. & N. in L. U. C on ordinary buff env. J with Canadian and Br. 

" A. E. on 3c. white, buff, 1864, with V Col. & Van Couver's 

W., F. & Co.'s frank at top and ) adhesives. 
Barnard's Type II. below. 
Barnard's Type I. a on ordinary buff^ env. J^jj .^ j^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^ 

» „ ., ,. ^j^g® ,, \ adhesives attached. 

" " " c 10c. white, buff, 1861, with W.,F. & Co. at top. 

" " "<? 10c. white, 1861, " " " " 

" " " 6 10c. buff, " " " " " 

" "/10c. white, buff, 1861, " "• " " 

with Barnard's frank entirely obliterated by a 
large fancy surcharge. 
. Barnard's Type I. h on 10c. buff, 1861, with W., F. & Co. at top. 

All A. E. Various adhesives affixed to some. 

Dore's Flat Express. — (Of this Company I have only the name.) 

Dovrnieville and Hovrland Flat Express. — Small rect. frame in- 
scrilbed as above. " Paid — " below. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. white, 6c. white, 1864. 

Elko &. Mountain City Pony Express. M. O. Freeman & Co.j 
Proprietors.. — " Paid One Dollar," obi. in fancy border. 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 3c. white, salmon, 1870, all with W., 
F. & Co.'s frank. 

English &, Wells. — Obi. frame of large scallops and other type orna- 
ments. " Paid English di Wells, Moore^s Flat and Eureka Express, Con- 
necting at Nevada City and Emigrant Gap" 

T. Brown on 3c., 1864. (?) Black on 3c. white, buff, 6c, white, buff, 1864. 

Purple on ? 



74 

Eureka Express Co. — I. " Eureka Express Co., connecting with Wells, 
Fargo ck Co., Nevada CaV Fancy lettering. '■'■Paid'''' in background. 
Ti-ansverse lined disk with truncated corners. 

T. Black on 3c. white, 1870. 

II. — Different design. "PaM" above. '■'■Eureka Express Co." in centre. 
'■'■Connecting with Wells, Fargo cfc Co.,^'' below. The whole on a trans, lined 
disk with truncated corners. 

T. Black on 6c. lemon, 1870. 

Everts, Davis & Co. Paid Daily Express. — Plain double lined 
obi. rect. frame. 

T. Black on 10c. buflF, 1853. 

Everts, Hannon, Wilson &, Co. Daily Express. — Similar to pre- 
ceding. 

T. Black on 10c. white, 1853. 

Everts, Wilson & Co. — I. Trans, obi. frame of intersected waved 
lines. 

'■'Paid. Everts, Wilson <& Co. Daily ISxpress." Below is " Ooerkmd 
Mail via Los Angeles.'''' 

L. U. C. Eed on 10c. buff, 1853. 

II. — " Everts, Wilson <k Co.^s Express. Paid." Obi. rect. fancy frame. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

T. " " 3c. white, 1861. 

III. — Same inscription, but different design. 

Blue on 3c. buff, 1861. 

Black on 3c. w':;ite, 1861. 

IV. — Transverse oblong frame of floral ornamentation. " Paid. Everts, 
Wilson t& Co. Daily Mcpress" 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 

Fettis's, M., Oro Fino Express. — "■Paid.'''' I. — Streamer inscribed as 
above in open letters. 

L. U. C. Black on 3o. buff, 1864. 
II. — Same inscription. Solid letters. 
L. TJ. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Fleming's San Leandro Express. — (I have only the name.) 

Ford's Express. "Paid.'''' — Heavy lined obi. rect. frame. 
on ordinary yellow env. 

Fox's, Chester P., Half Moon Bay and S. F. Express.— Plain 

obi. frame, angles rounded off. 
Red on plain env. 

Freeman & Co.— I. "Freeman <b Co.'s Express." In large frame, 
with addresses in San Francisco and other places. 

Black on 

II. — " Freeman <& Co.'s California, Athmtic States and European Ex- 
press" in double lined rect. obi. frame. " Paid" below. 



75 

L. TJ. C. Black on ord. buff env., and on 3c. buff, 1853. 

III. — " Paid Freeman <&> Co.'s — Over our Calif ornia and Coast Boxites — 
Mnpress" in scroll inclining towards left. 

T. Red on 3c. white, buff, 1853. 

IV. — Same as last, but scroll inclining towards right. 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1853. 

Green on 10c. white, buff, 1853, over W., F. & Co.'s Cal. and Coast Routes 
in pink. W., F. & Co.'s Cal. and Atlantic Express in pink across end. 

Galen's, H. F., Paid Stage and Express Line. — In three curved 
lines, the word " Paid " being in large shaded capitals. 
L. U. C. Black on 3c. salmon, 18*70. 

G-arland's Express. "Paid." — Plain lined frame. 
Black on 3c. white, 1864. 

Gerow & Johnson. — I. Arms of Great Britain in centre. "Paid" 
above. " Gerow <& Johnson! s " on sides, with " Victoria. Yale," above. 
" British Columbia Express" below. 

T. Black on ordinary manila env. 

" " " orange " with Canadian adhesive. 

II. — " Victoria. Paid. New Westminster" at top. " Gerow <& John- 
sorCs" below. " British Columbia Express" at bottom. Arms of Great 
Britain on left side. 

T. Black on dark manila env., with Canadian adhesive. 

Gibb's, W. T., Express. — In shaded capitals. 
Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

Gilpatrick & Go's Express. —" PaiW. — General office, 422 Sacror 
mento street, 3. F." Type set. 
T. Black on 3c. amber, 18Y0. 

Gray's Express. — "Paid." Obi. lined disk. 

A. E. in black on 3c. buff, white, 1861. ) • ^-u -ixr n^ s i^ ■> t i t rp 
" " blue " 3c. " « " \ '^ith W., P. & Co.'s frank at T. 

Gregory & English Moore's Flat and Eureka Express. — I. 

Obi. frame of large scallops and other type ornaments. "Paid. Gregory 
<& English'','! Moore^s Flat and Eureka Express, connecting at Nevada and 
Emigrant Gap." 

T. Brown on 3c., 1864. Black on 3c., 1864. 

II. — Obi. rect. fram^e of small scallops. Inscribed as before, but " connect- 
ing with Wells, Fargo dt Co., at Nevada City, Cal." 

T. Black on 3c. white, 1864. 

Greenhood & Newbauer Northern Express. — "Paid." Obi. lined 
disk with truncated corners. 

T. (sometimes L. U. C.) Black on 3c., 1853 ; 3c. buff, 1861 ; 3c. white, 
buff, 1864. 



76 

Gridley's Express. — "Paid.'"'' Obi. fancy type border, inscribed as 
above. 

Across end in on 3c. buff. 1863, with W., F. & Co.'s frank at T. 

Hall 8l Allen's Dutch Plat Express, on 3c. buff, 1853, over W., F. 
& Co.'s frank. 

Hammond & Wilson's Express. — "Suscmville and Reno, connecting 
leith Wells, Fargo & Co.'" Scroll. 
Blaqk on lemon (cut). 

Harrier's, D. W., Express.— I. Fancy Scroll. " 2>. W. Harrier'' s Ex- 
press.'''' " Paid'''' below. 

Black on 3c. white, 1861. 

II.— Same inscription in fancy transverse oblong frame. 

Black on 3c. white, 1861. 

III. — Smaller. Same inscription in double lined transverse oblong, with 
truncated corners. 

Slate blue on 3c. white, 1864. 

Deep rose on same. 

IV. — Similar to Type II., but nearly square. Fancy lettering. 

Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

PuT*ple on same. 

Harrison's Susanville and G-oose Lake Express Company. — 

Streamer inscribed as above. "Paid'''' at top. 
T. Red on 3c. white, 1870. 

Hastings' Express. — " Paid.'''' Man on hoi-seback flying over ground, 
and bearing streamer inscribed " iVews." 
L. U. C. Black on ord. yellow laid envelope. 

Haywood's Express. — (See Pac. Union Express Co.) 

Hinckley &. Co.'s Express Mail.— Unrolled scroll. Name as above. 
" Fast Run via Denver. Paid Through.'''' 
L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

Hogan & Co. — I. " Paid. Hogan <t Go. North San Juan and Hum- 
bug Express, Connecting with "Wells, Fargo db Go.,'''' in five lines. Fancy 
border, rounded corners. 

T. Black on 3c. white, lemon, 1870. 

II. — Same inscription in four lines, enclosed in a border consisting of a 
single hair line and scallops. 

T. Black on 3o. white, 1870. 

HoUaday (The) Overland Mail and Express Company. — In- 
scription as above. " Paid,'''' in large shaded letters in background. / 
L. U. C. Black on 8c. white, buff, 1864. 
A. E. Red on 3c. buff, 1864. 



77 

Holland, Morley &. Co.— Scroll. " Paul Holland, Morley & Co.'s 
Express." 

L. TJ. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 
Red OB same. 

Holland & Wheeler's Daily Express. — " Paid " above. Tiansv. 
obi. fancy frame. 

Black on 3c. white, 1861. 

Hopkinsou's Express. — I. "Ton Bet, Nevada County, Cat." Obi. 
rect. in two lines. 

Red on 3c. white, buff, 1861. 

II. — " SopMnson''s Express, Paid," in two lines. Rect. fancy border. 

L. U. C. on 3c. white, 1864. 

III. — Rect. lined back ground, larger than Type II. Same inscription in 
three lines. 

on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

Hunt's, W. P., Warren's Express. — " Paid." Streamer. 
L. F. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1864 ; 3c. flesh, 1870. 

Hunt & Hart's Warren's Express. — " Paid SOc," in oval lined bor- 
der with fancy ornaments. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Huntley, C. C, Stage and Express Line, in red, over " Paid," in 
large shaded mauve letters. 
L. U. C. on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Indian Creek Express. — "Paid." Stage coach crossing mountains. 
T. Black on 3c. (rose) white, buff, 1864. 
Same on 6c. (violet) white, buff, 1864. 

James & Co.'s Kootenai Express. — Name in two lines. 

A. E. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864, with "W., F. & Co.'s frank at top. 

Jamison's, J. C, Express. — " Paid." Large scroll. 
Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Jones &, Edgar's Canyon City Express. — " Paid." I.— Type in- 
scription. 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

II. — Same inscription in three lines of print. 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1861. 

III. — Same In two lines, enclosed in obi. i-ect. fancy border. 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 

IV. — "Jones tfc Edgar's Canyon City Express," in one line. Open letter- 
ing. "Pazc?" beneath. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 

V. — Same. '■' Paid 50 Cents " beneath. All in double lined obi. rect. 
frame. 

Black on 3c., 1861. 



78 _ 

Jones & Edgar's Owyhee Express.— "i'a^'<? 50 Cents." I. — Open 
letters in double lined rect. frame. Type set in two lines. 
Black (cut from envelope). 
II.— Same. "Paid 15 Cents." 
T. Black on 3 c. buff, 1861. 

Kennedy & Co. — I. Obi. rect. frame. " Kennedy <& Co.'s Half Moon 
Bay and Pescadero Express Office, 679 and 681 Market Street, S. F." 

L. TJ. C. Blue on 3c. buff, 1864. 

II. — Same with " Paid " on right side. 

L. U. C. Blue on 3c. buff, 1864. 

There are also "Kennedy, Long cfc Co. Baggage and Transfer Co.," and 
"Mcpress and Transfer Company " on 3c. white, buff, 1 864. 

Kenson's Owens Biver Express. — " Paid," in scroll, aU contained in 
oblong lined rect. 

L. U. C. Red on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Kersey's, J. D., Express, in obi. lined frame with truncated corners. 
Red on 3c. white, buff, 1861. 
Black on 3c. white, 1861. 

La Porte Express Co. — Trans, obi. with truncated corners. Lined 
ground, name as above in shaded letters slanting from left to right, over 
word " Paid."__ 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 6c. (rose) white, buff, 6c. (violet) white, buff, 
1864. 

Xiamping &, Co.'s Express. — Transv. obi. lined ground. Inscription 
as above. "Paid" in ornamental letters in background. 
A. E. Black on 6c. white, buff, 12c., 1861; with W., F. & Co.'s mark at T. 
A. E. Black on 12c., 1861; 3c. white, buff, 6c. white, buff, 1864. 
T. Black on 6c. (rose) buff, 1864. 
T. Black on 6c. (violet) white, buff, 1864. 

Langton&Co. — I. " Langton's Pioneer Mi:press"mo\A.'E,n^\&h. "Paid" 
below surrounded by flourishes, identical with the device of Harrier Type I. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

II. Transv. fancy oval pointed at ends. In middle of frame at top and 
bottom are seven small blocks with thirteen to each side. " LangtorHs Pio- 
neer Express. Paid." 

L. U. C. Black on plain yellow laid envelope; 3c. white, buff, 1853; 10c. 
white, b\iff, 1853; 3c. buff, 1857. 

Blue on uc. buff, 1853. 

III. — Similar to II. but with eleven blocks instead of thirteen. 

L. U. C. Blue on 3c. buff, 1853; 10c. white, 1861. 

Red on 3c. white, 1861. 

Black on 3c. buff, 1857; 3c. white, buff, 6c. white, 10c. white, 1861. 

IV. — Fancy obi. rect. "Langton^s" above, "Pajc?" in outlined letters 
traversed by " Pioneer " in centre; " Express " below. Elaborate ornamen- 
tation. 



79 

L. U. C. Black on 6c. (rose) white, 1861 ; 3c. (rose) white, buflE, 3c. (brown) 
white, buff, 6c. (rose) white, buff, 6c. (violet) white, buff, 1864. 

Blue on 3c. buff, 1864. 

V. — " Langtori's Nevada Mail and Express Co. Paid.'''' Plain, type 
set. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Xjatta's Mountain Express. — " Lattds Mountain Express. Paid" 
in obi. rect. in 3 lines of type in fancy border. Stage coach with four horses 
going to left, on each side of middle word " Express.'''' 

Black on (cut from env.). 

II. — Same device, border and wording. Coaches smaller than in Type I., 
and windows blotched and blacK. In Type I. the passengers can be seen and 
counted. 

T. Black on 3c. white, 1864. 

III. — Same device, border and wording, except that "Express'''' is flanked 
by fancy ornaments in lieu of coach at each side. 

Blue on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

Iiockvrood, C. M. & Co., Canyon City Express. — Type set. No 
border. 

li. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Xjoon Creek Express. — I. Double lined frame. " Paid. Loon Creek 
Express. .Letters for Loon Creek should be addressed Care Shepherd'' s Ex- 
press, Idaho City, I. Ty.'''' 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864, with W., F._ & Co.'s frank A. E. 

II. — "Loon Creek Express. PaidI," in two lines. 

A. E. Black on 3o. buff, 1864. W., F. & Co. at T. 

III. — " Loon Creek Express. C. J. Tassel, Messenger. Paid," in three 
lines. 

T. Black on 3c. white, lemon, 1870, under W., F. & Co.'s frank. 

Mead &. Clarke. — " Paid, over our Clear Creek Route.'''' Like W., F. 
& Co. Name of firm in old English open lettering. 
T. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

McBean & Co.- — I. Granite Creek EJxpress. — Fancy lined rect. bor- 
der. Inscription in two lines. 

A. E. Black on 3c. buff, 1864, with W., F. & Co.'s frank at T. 

II. — McBean & Co.'s Middle Fork Express. — Same as preceding, and 
on similar envelope. 

Merchant's Stage and Express Line, in black type, in three lines 
of scroll across word " Paid " in red. 

L. U. C. Black and red on 3c. buff, 1870. 

Morley, Caulkins & Co., Daily Express.—" Paid:'' Three lines of 
type in double lined rect. frame. 
L. L. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 



80 

Mossman's & Co.'s Express. — " Birigo, Nez Perces and Salmon 
River Mines. Paid.^'' Obi. fancy frame. 
L. TJ. C. on 3c. white, 1861. 

Nevada City and Meadow Lake Express. — Type set in three 
lines on lined background. Obi. 
T. Black on 3c. white, 1864. 

Nichols & Co.'s Express. — " Paid." In three lines, the whole in obi. 
frame with truncated corners. Very plain. 

Blue on 3c. white, 1853. 

II. — " Nichols S Oo.''s Express " above, " Paid" below. View in centre. 
Dog watching safe in foreground ; steamboats, cars, &c., in distance. 

Black on 3c. white, buff, 1853. 

" " ord. bufE env. with U. S. adhesive attached. 

Norman's, G-. H., Express. — " Paid." Three lines in rect. obi. fancy 
border. 

T. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Organ &. Tibbett's Excelsior Express. — Transv. obi. fancy frame. 
L. U. C. Black on 3c. white, 1864. 

Oroville &, Quincy Express Co. — Stage coach in background in 
black, surcharged in red. " Paid. Oroville dt Quiney Express Co. and 
Wells, Fargo as Go.^s Pontes." 

T. Black and red on 3c. amber, 1870. 

Pacific Express. — I. Horseman in centre. " Pacific Express" above. 
"Paid" below. Name repeated on 'saddle. 
L. U. C. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1853. 

" " " 10c. white, 1853. 

II. — Same Inscription altered to " Pacific Express Co." but unchanged on 
saddle. 

L. U. C. Blue on 3c. white, buff, 1853. 

" Black on 3c. " " " 
III. — Same as II., but horse more heavily shaded, and saddle shows C of 
" Co." The word " Paid" is also different, all the letters being thicker and 
shaded. 
L. U. C. Black on ord. buff envelope. 

" " " " yellow laid envelope. 

« " " 3c. white, buff, 1853. 

Pacific Stage and Express Co.— I. Transv. oval with scalloped bor- 
der. " Pacific Stage and Express Co., San Francisco, Sacramento, Auburn, 
Grass Valley, Nevada, Eureka, Virginia." Four-ho.se coach in centre. 
" Paid " below. 

T. Blue on 3c. white, 1861. (Reprinted in L. U. C. of ordinary white 
env.) 

T. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 



81 

II. — Same as last with, list of offices omitted. (This is mentioned to me by 
Mr. Lomler.) 

III. — Transv. obi. '■'■ Pacific Stage and Express Co." above. "Paz^?" be- 
low. Six-horse stage in centre. Truncated corners. 

L. U. C. Rose on 3o. white, 1861. 

" Black on 3c. white, buff, 1861. 

T. Reprinted in black and in rose on ordinary white and buff envelopes. 

IV. — Same as II., but at top of envelope is printed in one line, " San 
Francisco, Sacramento, Auburn, Grass Valley, Nevada, Trochee Meadotos, 
Virginia.'''' 

Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 

Pacific Union Express Co. — "Paid" Scroll inscribed as above, 
■r jj p ") Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 
■ ■ ■ I Red to rose on 3c. white, buff, 6c. white, buff, 1864, 12c., 
,f f 1861. 

J Same on 3 and 6c. white, buff, 1864, with W., F. & Co. over. 
Same, with "Haywood Express Co" printed across in black capitals. 
T. Red on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Many of these come across end of envelope with private advertisements 
at top. 

Fanimint Pony Express. — "Paid 25 Cents — via San Bernardino" 
Elaborate design, horseman, &c. 
T. Black on 3c. lemon, ISYO. 

Pattison's Express. — "Paid.'" Scroll of fancy lines. 
Black on buff (cut). 

Pauly's, N. O., Express. — I. Transv. obi. frame, rounded at corners. 
" JSf. 0. Pauly^s Express. Paid." 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

II.— Same, but single lined frame, fancy ornaments. 

T. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

III. — Same inscription in three lines of type, in small rect. (nearly square) 
double lined frame. 

Black on white (cut). 

Same inscription in two lines of type in fancy border with leaves; Obi. 
rect. 

Black on white (cut). 

Pauly 8l Nohrman's Express. — "Paid" above in small rect. .fancy 
border. 

Black on white (cut). 

Penman's, R., Express. — In one line of type under W., F. & Co.'s 
frank. 

Black on 3c. lemon, 1870. 

Pescadoro and Half Moon Bay Stage Co. 

Said to have issued a frank, but I have never seen it. 



82 

Fetaluma & San Francisco Express. — Paid. Black (?) on 3c., 1864. 

Philip &, Gregory's Express. — Type in fancy obi. frame. 
T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

Ramey, J. C, &, Co.'s Express.—" Paid 50 Cents." 
Black on buff (cut). 

Raums'. — I. "Maums' Ruby Hill, Sehellburn and Rubyville Express. 
Agenvy White Pine Daily News." Fancy obi. frame. 
T. Black on 3c. white, lemon, 1870. 

A. E. Black on 3c. lemon, 1870, with W., F. & Co. at T. 
II. — Type set. " Raums' Ruby Hill, Centerville and Shelburn Express. 
Agency White Pine Daily News." No frame. 
T. Black on 3c. lemon, 1870. 

III. — Type set, but somewhat different. " Centerville " omitted. 
T. Black on 3c. white, 1870. 

RockfellO'W &, Co.'s Express. — " Paid 75 Cents," in design of flour- 
ishes. 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1861. 

Ruby Hill and Sehellburn Express. — " Melt. Raum, Agent." 
Fancy obi. frame, pointed ends. 

T. Black on 3c. lemon, 1870. 

Note. — It will be noticed that on the franks bearing Raum's name two 
different manners of spelling Shellburn exist. 

Rundell & Co.'s Express. — " Paid 50 Cents" in two lines, open let- 
ters. 

T. Black on ord. yellow wove envelope. 

Rundell &. Jones' Express. — " Paid 50 Cents." Black in obi. rect. 
frame of two lines. 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. white, 1861, with W., F. & Co. at T. 

Sacramento River Express. — " 306 Montgomery St. Paid". 

Plain, type set. 

L. U. C. Blue on 3c. lemon, 1870. 

" Black on 3c. white, buff, 1870. 

Salmon River & Nez Ferces Express. — T. Inscription as above in 
two lines. " Paid 50 Cetits " below. The word " Express " is in slanting 
capitals. Oblong double lined frame. 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1861, with W., F. & Co. at T. 

II.— Same. " Paid lb Cents." 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. white, 1861, with W., F. & Co. at T. 

III. — " Express " in straight capitals. " Paid 50 Cents." 

L. L. C. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1861, with W., F. & Co. at T. (See 
also Tracy & Co., Type IV.) 

IV. — " To Salmon River S Nez Perces Mines," in one line under W., F. 
& Co.'s frank. 

Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 



83 

Schoch's Copper City Express. — Obi., with fancy frame. 
T. and L. U. C. on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Sheperd's Express. — (See Tracy & Co.) 

Snovr Shoe Express. — Man on snow shoes in oval. 
I. — Dated 1857. ) R. U. C. Black on ordinary 
II. — No date. ) laid yellow envelope. 

Swift &, Co.'s Express. — I. Obi. shield, " Paid, Swift d> Co. Express.'" 
T. Black on ord. laid yellow env. 
" " " 3c. white, buff, 10c. buff, 1853. 
II. — Double lined rect. frame. Same inscription. 
T. Black on 3c. buff, 1858. 

Taggart's, Grant I., Weaverville and Shasta Express. — 

" Paid " above. Obi. fancy frame. 
T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

Thompson & Co. — Double lined obi. frame. " Paid over Thompson <& 
Co.'s and Wells, Fargo <& Co.'s Calif ornian Pontes ". 
L. TJ. C. and T. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

Thomes and Skaden's Express. — I. Type set. " Paid Thames & 
Skaden's Express, &iisanville <fe Reno, connecting loith Wells, Fargo & Co." 

T. Black on 3o. lemoH, flesh, 1870. 

" Blue on 3c. white, buff, 6c. salmon, 1870. 

Variety. Skadden (with two d's). 

T. Blue on 3c. lemon, 1870. 

II. — Streamer. Inscription as above, but name spelled " Thomes and 
Skadan ". 

T. Black on 3c. white, 1870. 
" " " 3c. plain lemon env., official size. 

III. — Similar to II., but with streamer and lettering slightly altered. In 
II. the centre of the bracket opposite " Susanville S Reno " points to the 
left, — thus { , but in III. to the right, — thus [- 

T. Black on 3o. lemon, 1870. 

Tibbet &. Co.'s Excelsior Express. — Obi. frame, enclosing' three 
lines of type. 

T. Black on white (cut). 

Tinnin &, Owen's Weaverville and Shasta Express. — "Paid" 
above. Obi. frame like W., F. & Co. 
L. U. C. Black on .Sc. white, buff, 1864. 
" " " 3c. lemon, white, 1870. 

Tracy & Co. — I. Obi. ornamented rect. frame. " Tracy & Co.'s FJx- 
press," in Old English letters. "Paid" below, with leaves, &c., on each 
si 

L. IT. C. Black on 3 c. buff, 1853. 



84 

II. — Obi. rect. frame, with five conical shaped ornaments at ends. In- 
scription as in I. "Paid" surrounded by scroll-work. 
L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

III. — Obi. rect. frame of waved line, at top and bottom, and flourishes at 
ends. Inscription as in II. 
L. U. C— Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

IV. — Streamer. " Paid. Tracy <& Co. Oregon Express." 
L. U. C. Blue on 3 c. white, buff, 1853. 
" Black on 3c. white, buff, 1853. 
" " " 3c. buff, 1853, with " Boise Express, Paid 50 Gents," 

in L. .1 C. 
" " " ordinary buff env. with U. S. adhesive. 

" " " 3c. buff, 185V, with '■'■Salmon River and Nez Perces 

Express" in L. L. C. 
" " " ZQ.'buS., \9Ql,vnth." Salmon Miver Express, Paid one 

dollar," in L. L. C. in rect. single lined frame. 

I also have Type IV. surcharged, " Sheperd''s Express to Auburn, John 
Day's and Boise Mitws, Paid." In L. L. C. of env. is "Boise Express, 
PaidbQ Gents." 

Black on 3c. white, 1861. 

Trumau & Chapman's Express, — Trans, obi. Train of cars going to 
right. Name above. " S. F. a: 8. J. Bail Road " below. Rectangular 
double lined frame. * 

L. TJ. C. Black on 3c. buff, white, 1861. 

J. C. Truman's Express. — Same as preceding. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, white, 1861. 

Trumau & Co.'s Express. — I. Obi. frame. Train of cars going to left. 
Name above. " Office in S. F., corner Front and Washington Sts. Pre- 
paid Envelopes $7.00 per Hundred." 

T. and L. U. C. Blue on 3c. buff, 1864. 

" Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

II. — Obi. frame with truncated corners. Lined disk. "Paid. Tnmviu 
& Go.''s Express." 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

III. — Same as II., with address below. " Merchants'' Exchange Building, 
Battery Street, opposite the Post Office." 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

IV.— Same as III., with S. F. <Sb S. J. R. R. Express " above label 

T. Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Waldron's Express.— I. " Waldron's Kootenai Express," surrounded 
by flourishes, &c. 

L. L. C. Black on 3c., 1864, with W., F. & Co.'s frank at top. 

II. — " Waldron d) Go.^s Blackfoot Express." — Ornamental type border at 
top, and flourishes at sides. , 
on . 



Wells, L. H.— Same as " English <& Wei 
T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 



85 

Wells & Herring. — I. Same as '■^ English S Wells," but reading ^'■con- 
necting with Wells, Fargo & Co.'''' instead of " at Nevada City, d>c." 
T. Black on 3c. white, lemon, 1870. 
II. — Inscription as in I., but in obi. rect. frame. 
L. U. C. Black on 3c. lemon, 1870. 

Wharton's, 'J. P., Express. — " Fccid" in obi. fancy rect. frame. 
L. U. 0. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 

Wheeler's Express. — "Paid" in scroll. 

L. IT. C. on 3c. buff, 1861. 

" " 3c. white, 1864. 

Wheeler, Rutherford &, Co.'s Express.— "PcwV?" I.— Scroll in- 
scribed as above. 

L. IT. C. Black on 3c. white, .buff, 1864. 

Whiting &, Co.'s Feather River Express. — I. Trans, obi. single 
lined frame. Name as above. " Paid" at top. 

L. U. 0. Black on ord. yell. env. with U. S. adhesives. 

II. — Scroll, same inscription. 

L. U. C. Purple on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Black " 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

I also hear of a similar frank with " Whiting <b Go." erased from the die, 
and of a third type reading " Feather Hiver FJxpress." 

Whitney's Express — I hear that a frank exists, similar in design to 
Bamber & Go's Type III., but inscribed Whitney's Express, or Whitney tfc 
Go's Express. 

Wines, G. H., & Co.'s. " Paid California Express." Eagle on shield 
holding streamer inscribed as above. 
L. IT. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

Wood's, A. J., Oroville, Susanville & Taylorville Express. — 

In three lines in double lined rect. frame. 
T. and L. U. C. on 3c. white, 1864. 

Wood &, Co.'s Express. — I. In twisted scroll, one letter in each fold. 

T. Black on 3c. white, 1864. 

II. — In fancy obi. border. 

T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

III. — Miner with pick over shoulder and pot in hand. Bench and acces- 
sories. " Wood & Co.'s" above, ^ Expresd" below. In oval, surmounted 
at top by fancy device. Similar device beneath. 

A. E. (Upright) Black on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

Zach's Snoiv Shoe Express, in fancy scroll. 
Black on white (cut). 



CHAPTER III. 



Wells, Faego & Co.'s Pbinted Feanks. 

I \vill first give a list of the franks, and then enumerate the various enve- 
lopes on which they are found. 

I. — Trans, obi. frame with truncated corners. Lined ground (very coarse) 
with flourishes, cfcc, inscribed " Wells, Fargo <& Co." in Old English letters. 
"Paid" above. " Over our California and Coast Moutes" below. 

II. — Trans, obi. frame with truncated corners. Lined ground, inscribed 
" Paid. Wells, Fargo & Co." (the name being in Old English letters), in 
two lines ; also, " Over our California and Coast Routes," the portion of 
the ground on which the latter appears being solid. This is the common 
W., F. & Co. frank, so frequently alluded to in the preceding chapter. 

Sub-Vaeibtibs. 

a. — " For Mexican Ports Paid 25 Gents," in one line, below. 

b. — " Paid over our Mexican Coast and California Fkcpress 25 cts.," in 

two lines, below. 
c. — Same as h, but with two dashes instead of three between " Fix/press " 

and 26. 
d. — Same, " 35 cts." with two dashes. » 

e. — Same, one long dash. 
/.—Same, " |1.05," two dashes. 
g. — Same, "$1.05," but all in one line of print. 
h.- — Same, " Paid over our Mexican Coast Route," — " $1.05 " below. 
«.— Same as/, " $1.40." 
/—Same as g, " $1.40." 
m. — " Paid 25 cts." below. 
n. — §ame inscription, but L. L. C. 

o. — " Victoria, Vancouver Island," below in scrip letters. 
p. — Same in capitals. 
q.—" Victoria and British Columbia." 
r. — " Boise Mines. — Paid 50 cts." below. 
s. — " China and Japan Fhpress " below. 

t. — With ordinary 25c. Pony Ex. stamp impressed alongside in blue. 
u.— " " 25c. " " " rose. 

v.— " " 25c. " " " brown, 

w.— " " 10c. " . " " blue. 

III. — Similar to II., but with " Through our California and Atlantic 
Express " substituted for " Over our California and Coast Routes." 



87 

IV.— ^" Wblk, Mir go dt Co." in large letters, crossed by " -^ Ounce Paid 
From, St. Joseph to Placerville, Per Pony Express.'''' 

Reprints, so-called, exist, but they differ considerably from the originals, 
the letter W being altogether too pointed at the bottom. 

v.— Streamer inscribed " Wells, Fargo <& Co.," (in Old English). " Paid 
Via Omaha, JV. T." (in. smaller Roman capitals). 

VI. — Same, with " Paid Over Our Lower California Interior Route 
Only. Paid Vi.\ cents," printed below in two lines. " Via Omaha, d;c." 
omitted. 

VII. — Same, with "Paid Over Our Lower California Interior Route 
Only" in one line of Roman capitals. Below is " Paid 12^ cents." 

VIII. — Same, with " Via Los Angeles " in print. 

IX. — " Pony Express Stamp " impressed without any other frank. 

TYPE. List. 

I. T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 1853. 
II. T. Blue on 3c. buff, 1853. 

T. Rose on 3c. white, buff, 1864. 
T. (sometimes L. U. C.) 

Black on ord'y buff and lemon envs., with 3c., 1853, adhesives. 
T. Black on 3c. white, buff, 6c. (red) buff, 1853. 
T. " " 3c. white, buff, 1857. 
T. " " 3c. white, buff, 1861, (sometimes with 10 and 25c. Pony 

Express adhesives attached). 
T. " " 6c. white, buff, 12, 24, 30, 40c., 1801. 
T. " " 12c., 1861, with Lamping & Co.'s frank at end, and W., 

F. & Co.'s over it. 
T. " " 3c. white, buff, 6o. (violet) white, buff, 6c. (rose) white, 

buff, 9, 12, 24, 30, 40c., 1864. 
T. " " 3c. white, lemon, 6c., white, 6c. lemon, 1870. 

II. a. Rose on 3c. white, 1861, 3c. white, buff, 1864. 
h. Black on 3c. buff, 1861. 

c. " " 3c. white, buff, 1864. 

d. " " 10c. white, buff, 1861, 10c. white, lemon, 1870. 

e. " " 10c. white, 1861. 
/. " " 30c., 1861. 

m. " " 3c. buffi, 1861. 
n. " " 30. " " 

ord. white envs. ^ ^.^^ gj._ f.^-^_ ^^ Canadian adhesives 



o. 

P- "l I \\ ,, I attached. 

q. " " yellow env. J 

r. Rose on 3c. white, buff, 1861. 

s. Black on lOo. white, 1861, 30c., 40c., 1864. 

t. " " 3c. white, 1861, and 1864. 

u. " " 3c. " 1861. Rose on 3c. white, 1861. 

V. " " 3c. " 1861. 

to. ". " 3c. " 1861. 



88 

III. T. Pink on 10c. buff, 1853, 10c. white, buff. 185r, 10c. white, 

buff, 1861. 

T. (Sometimes L. U. 0.) Black on 3c. white, buff, 10c. buff, 1861, 

3c. white, buff, 6c. (rose) white, 6c. (violet) white, 

buff, 12c. (brown and claret) 18, 24, 30, 40c., 1864. 

IV. A. E. Rose on 10c. white, 1861. Envelope bears printed address, 

" Agent Pony Express. St. Joseph, Mo. For " 

V. L. U. C. Red on 3c., 1853. (Reprinted?) 
VI. A. E. Black on ordinary yellow env. (Reprinted?) 
VII. A. E. " " " ( " ?) 

VIII. L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 
Red on 10c. buff, 1853. 
IX. T. Rose on 3c. white, 1861. 
Type II. is frequently found across the end of 3c. envelopes of 1853-70, 
with various private advertisements at top, the entire face of the envelope 
being generally printed in grey, blue, green, flesh or pink tints. 

Sometimes these advertisements are obliterated by an extensive fancy pat- 
tern, and in one instance by " W., F. & Co." in large letters. I do not at- 
tach much significance to any of these. 

I have also seen W., F. & Co., Type II., printed on the back of a 3c., 
1853, envelope, with an advertisement occupying the entire face. 

This type (as will have been observed in the course of this article, it be- 
ing the " W., F. & Co. frank " so frequently referred to) comes printed on 
envelopes with the franks of other companies. 



CHAPTEE IV. 



Handstamps of Various • Companies. 

The great difficulty in collecting the handstamps issued by so many of 
the early companies, is to distinguish those used for making prepaid envel- 
opes (like the handstruck envelopes of Finland), from those which were used 
merely as forwarding or advertising marks. While the former are clearly 
entitled to a place in collections, the latter, which form by far the larger 
number, are, in my opinion not worth preserving, being mere postmarks and 
nothing more. 

In distinguishing between these two classes, it is necessary to consider the 
following points: 

In the first place, it does not seem possible that the handstamps which 
are dated can have been used for the purpose of making prepaid envelopes, 
for the reason that a common design would naturally have been employed 
by ail the offices of any one company. Furthermorfe, each office could not, 
under any circumstances, have been under the necessity of striking off a 
fresh supply every day, and if (as might otherwise have been the case) the 
supply was intended for use till exhausted, why should it bear any given 
date ? If this does not seem reason enough for their rejection, we find in- 
stances where the companies having subsequently issued printed franks, used 
the same handstamps for mere cancelling marks. Now, if they (the hand- 
stamps) had any franking power in themselves, certainly they and the printed 
designs would not both appear on the same envelope. 

Then again, there are many cases where we meet with two handstamps of 
the same express, each from different towns, on the same envelope. If each 
possessed franking powers, why impress hoth. Clearly they had no such 
quality. 

On many of these envelopes we find separate handstamps reading " Paid" 
or "iVbi Paid." We might think the former of some significance, were it 
not for the fact that the " Paid" is generally so carelessly struck (sometimes 
in one place and sometimes in another, and occasionally upside down) as to 
satisfy me that it was not impressed until after the letter was posted. 

Such stamps as read "Forwarded hy" '■'■From" &o., are evidently intended 
merely to indicate that the companies named were the forwarders. 

It is not at all likely that any Western Express Companies issued prepaid 
letter sheets, so that handstamps found impressed on sheets of paper ^ ought 
to be rejected. 

As to the handstamps not included in any of the foregoing divisions, no 
rules for determining their character can be laid down; but there are of 



90 

course many circumstances connected with each, which collectors must take 
into consideration in forming their opinions. 

In the following list, the handstamps will be indicated as under : 

a Undoubtedly used as franks. 

b Probably used as franks. 

c Undoubtedly not used as franks. 

d Probably not used as franks. 

e Unable to form an opinion. 

List. 

c Adams & Co., (various). 

c J. Bambek & Co.'s ExpEBSS. (San Fkancisco.) Large circular, dated 
handstamp. Blue on ordinary envelopes. 

b J. Bambeb & Co.'s CoNTBA Costa Express. Large oval. 

L. U. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. 

b Same. San Feancisco. 

L. U. C. Black on ordinary buff env., and on 3c. buff, 1857. 

b J. Bambee & Co.'s Express. Same as first. A. K. Bacon's Oakland 
Office. Red on 3c. buff, 1853, with W., F. & Co. at top. 

c Bbefokd & Co.'s California Express. Oval. Blue on ordinary 
envelopes. 

e T. W. Blake & Co. 

c Brown's Express. Muephey's. Oval, on ordinary envelopes. 

Byam's Express. Fiddletown. Oval, on ordinary envelopes. 

a. California R. R. Express, Poetland. Large, round impression, ap- 
parently from a ribbon stamp. 

L. U. C. Blue on 3c. amber, cream, 1870. 

d Cram, Rogers & Co., (Yreka, Weaverville). Oval stamp; ordinary 
envelopes. 

Cherokee Express. Paid. Oval, block type. 

Blue, on 3c. white, 1864. 

c Centeal Oveeland California and Pike's Peak Express. Oval; 
two types (dated and not dated). 

Blue on lOc, 1853 and 1857, respectively. 

c DoHBETT & Martin. 

c Dodge & Co., California Express. Blue, shield shaped. Adhesive 
of 1851. 

c Freeman's & Co.'s Express, Columbia. Oval; black on ordinary en- 
velopes. 

c. Freeman's & Co.'s California, Atlantic States and European 
Express. Black oblong, on ordinary envelopes. 

e J. B. Ford's Rocky Mountain Express. Paid. Double scroll, on 
white envelopes. 

e Fox's Express, Santa Cruz. Oval; struck in blue and in black on 
ordinary envelopes. 

e Chester P. Fox's Half Moon Bay and S. F. Express. Oblong; red 
on plain yellow envelopes. 

c Gebgoby. Various; about seven varieties in all. 



91 

d Gebathouse & Slicee. Octangular oblong; blue, black on 3 cents 
buff, 1853. 

e Wm. T. Gibe's Express. Paid. In one line of open printing; on 3c. 
buff, 1853. 

e Same. Oval; black on ordinary envelopes, with 3c., 1851, adhesive. 

e Henderson & Co., Coast Express. Block letters; blue impression on 
3c. white, 1853. 

c Hunter & Co. Various. 

c Hall & Allen's Express. Dutch Flat. Oval; black on ordinary- 
buff envelopes. 

e Leland & McComb's San Joseph Express. Oval; on 3c. buff, 1853. 

e Lbland's San Joseph Express. Circular; on ordinary envelopes. 

c Langton & Co. Various. 

e MuMBY & Co. Oval; on ordinary envelopes. 

e Mann & Co.'s Express. Oroville. Fancy oval; black on ordinary 
envelopes. 

e Oroville & Susanville Express. Black lettering in oval. Paid, in- 
side. Blue on ordinary envelopes. 

e Oregon & California R. R. Express. Circular ; blue on 3c. amber, 
cream, 1870. 

c Pacific Express Co., San Francisco. Paid. 

Large transv. oval. 

L. IJ. C. Black on 3c. buff, 1853. (Also bears the regular dated hand- 
stamp.) 

c. Pacific Express Co. Various dated hand- stamps. 

d Peterson's Lower California Express. Circular ; blue on ordi- 
nary envelopes. 

d Prindle's Express from Treka to Scott & Klamath Rivers. 
Double lined oval. 

Black on 3c.-buff, 1861. 

e Palmer & Co. Black impression in small oval ; ordinary envelopes. 

c Pont Express, San Francisco. Pony in oval. 

Red on ordinary envelopes. 

Blue on lOc, 1853. 

d Rhodes & Lusk's Express, Treka. Oval. (2 types.) 

Black on ordinary envelopes. 

d Rhodes & Whitney, Yrep;a. Oval ; blue on 3c. buff, 1853. 

c Reynolds & Co.'s Express. 

c Reynolds, Todd & Co. Oval ; blue on ordinary envelopes. 

e Reticker's Poney Express. Three lines on block lettering, on 3c. 
1870. 

e F. RuMRiLL & Co.'s Express, Rabbit Creek. Oval ; blue on 3c. buff, 
1853. 

e RowE & Co.'s, Weavertille. Oval ; blacK on 3c. buff, 1853. 

e Stoner & Scott's. 50c., in 4 lines of block lettering; black on 3c. 
buff, 1861. 

c Todd & Co. (also "Todd's.") Upright rectangle; blue on plain en- 
velopes. 



92 

c Todd & Co. Oval ; blue on ordinary envelopes. 

e Thompson & Co. (Have never seen.) 

c Wblls, Fakgo & Co. Various. 

e Whitney & Co., Feathbe Rivek Expeess. Oval ; black on 3c., 1861. 



CHAPTER V. 



HiSTOEY OF SOME OF THE LEADING COMPANIES WHOSE FeANKS AEE DE- 
SCEIBED IN ChAPTEES II. AND IV. 

Alta Express Co. — This company advertises in San Francisco directory 
for 1858, as follows: — " Daily Express to all the principal cities and towns 
" of California, also connecting with Nichols' Crescent City and Oregon Ex- 
" press, and Freeman & Co.'s Atlantic, Euroj)ean, and South American Ex- 
" press." 

American Express Co. — {See Xichols <& Co.) 

Bamber Sl Co. — Was started by a Frenchman, whose name I think 
was W. F. Here. He sold out to J. W. Hoag and Bamber (under the name 
of J. W. Hoag & Co.). Hoag died or retired, and the firm became J. Bam- 
ber & Co., and afterwards Bamber & Co. 

I find Hoag in the San Francisco Directory for 1858. Bamber appears 
from 1863 to date. 

Bamber's Express still runs from San Francisco through Contra Costa, 
Alameda, and the adjoining counties, and connects with Wells, Fargo & Co. 
Its present proprietors are Whitney & Co., who acquired possession from 
Bamber & Co. in July, 1815. The carriage of letters has recently been dis- 
continued by W. & Co., but is likely to be shortly resumed. 

Ballou & Co. — I cannot find exactly when Ballou & Co. commenced 
business; all that I know is, that they were succeeded by Dietz & Nelson. 
This latter firm, after running for some time in connection with Barnard & 
Co., (F. L. Barnard, I believe,) was finally bought out by that concern. In 
1872 Barnard & Co. sold out to Wells, Fargo & Co. 

The route controlled by these expresses seems to have extended through- 
out the British Columbian settlements; and, in various advertisements, I 
find mention of ofiices at Big Bend (Columbia River), Carriboo, and the 
Northern Mines, Yale, Litton, Lillooet, Clinton, Savonia Ferry, Quesnelle or 
Quesnellemouth, Barkersville, Seymour and French Creek. 

D. & N. and Barnard connected with W., F. & Co. 

J. F. Bennett & Co.'s Southern Overland Mail and Express 
Line. — I extract the following from a letter from the agent of the company, 
dated Las Cruces, N. M., Deo. 8, 1871 : 



93 

" Our Express Line has existed for three years, and does business from 
Tucson, Arizona, to Santa F6, New Mexico. From Sante F6 east, the 
Southern Overland Mail and Express Line takes the business; and the 
Denver and Santa Fe line, north. From Tucson west, John Q. Capron 
carries the mail, hut there is no Express Line running in any direction from 
that place." 

Dietz &. Nelson. — {iSee Bcdhu <b Co.) 

Everts, Davis &, Co., followed by Everts, Hannon, Wilson & Co., 
and lastly by Everts, Wilson & Co. 

From an advertisement in a San Francisco newspaper for 1856, we learn 
that the principal offices of E. W. & Co. were at Marysville, Rabbit Creek, 
Saint Louis, Nelson Creek, and Gibsonville. 

They also had " side offices " at Columbus House, Warren's Hill, Inde- 
pendence Bar, Hansonville, Chandlerville, Poker Flat, Poor Man's Creek, 
American House, Spanish Flat, Scales Diggings, Forrestown, Pine Grove, 
Port Wine, Hopkins Creek, American Valley ; and, on the Feather River 
Route, at Bidwell's Bar, Oroville, Lynchburg. Packages, &c., forwarded 
" through the enterprising express of W. E. Singer & Co. to every portion 
" of the countiy bordering on the Upper Feather River." 

Freeman &, Co. — The San Francisco directory for 1858 furnishes the 
following : " Freeman & Co.'s treasure, freight, package and letter express, 
on the 20th of each month, to all parts of the Atlantic States, Canadas, 
South America, Europe. Connecting at New York with the American- 
European Express and Exchange Co. 

" Packages, parcels, freight and letters forwarded semi-monthly via Pan- 
ama and Nicaragua, in charge of special messengers. 

" Offices in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, New Orleans." 

This, in its day, was one of the largest expresses in the country. As will 
be observed from the advertisement, it carried packages, letters, &c., be- 
tween the Atlantic and Pacific States, via Central America. 

Gillpatrick & Co.'s Express, was started about three years ago and 
is_still in operation. It runs between San Francisco and Vallejo, Benecia, 
Martinez, Antioch, Somersville, Nortonville, Pacheco, Concord. Clayton, 
and some other intermediate points. 

Greenhood &, Neubauer advertise in the San Francisco directory of 
1867 as running to Weaverville, Trinity County, Cal. 

Gregory & English. 

English & Wells. 

L. H. Wells. 

Wells & Herring. 

Eureka Express Co. 



94 

These companies I believe to have followed each other in the order 
named. Their route, to ' quote from the franks, seems to have heen, and to 
still be, (for I believe the " Eureka Express Co." is in existence yet) from 
Moore's Flat and Eureka, connecting with Wells, Fargo and Co. at Nevada 
City and Emigrant's Gap. 

J. W. Hoag &, Co.— {See JBamber <S> Go.) 

Holladay Overland Mail and Express Co. ran through Kansas, 
Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, Montana, and Washington Territory ; was ulti- 
mately absorbed by Wells, Fargo & Co. Its proprietor was Ben. Holladay. 

loSand'fwil^ler''" } ('^^ ^-^^^' ^«^^- ^ ^-) 
Kennedy & Co. 
Kennedy, Long & Co. 

From San Francisco directories : 

1866. — San Francisco and San Jose Baggage Express. M. G. Kennedy. 

186V.— Kennedy & Co. S. F. & S. J. R. R.— General Freight Delivery 
and Baggage Express. 

156Y. — Kennedy & Co.'s Express. Daily to Half Moon Bay and Pesca- 
dero. M. G. Kennedy, F. W. Utter. 

It is my opinion that all the Kennedy & Co. and Kennedy, Long & Co. 
"franks" (so-called) are merely business advertisements; and this certainly 
is the case with those inscribed " Baggage Delivery," &c. 

Langton & Co. — Again the San Francisco directory is called into requi- 
sition, this time the one for 1865. I condense the following from the adver- 
tisement therein contained : 

langton's pioneek express. 

" Established in 1850 by Samuel W. Langton. 

" Connecting with Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express at Marysville and Ne- 
vada City, to all parts of California, Oregon, Atlantic States, and Eui-ope. 
" We will dispatch Daily Express for 
" Sierra County, ") 

" Nevada°County, f (^.^"°»^ P^^°«^ enumerated.) 
" State of Nevada, I 
" Principal office, Downieville. — A. T. Langton, Superintendent." 
In 1865 Langton & Co. appear to have sold out to Liamping & Co., and 
this latter was in due time (about 1866-7, 1 believe) swallowed up by Wells, 
Fargo & Co. 

Mead & Clark. 

Mead & Davis. 

Mr. Pemberton says that these were absorbed by Wells, Fargo & Co. 



95 

Morley, Calkins & Co., (1853.) 
Holland, Morley &, Co., (1861-2.) 
Holland & Wheeler. 
Wheeler's Express, or 
Wheeler & Co. 
Wheeler, Rutherford & Co. 
• Rutherford & Co. 

These companies followed each other in the order given. The accom- 
panying advertisement explains their route : 

"Holland & Co.'s Fast Freight and Express Co. to Washoe (daily). 

" Placerville, Silver City, Virginia, Genoa, Carson, Gold Hill, Dayton, 
and Washoe City. 

Exactly where Holland <& Co. fit in, I cannot say. Holland tfc Wheeler 
is the closest approach found on any frank. 

Nichols 8l Co. — The San Francisco Directory of 1858 supplies the fol- 
lowing ; " California and Oregon Express. Daily to San Mateo, Belmont, 
Redmond City, Santa Clara, and San Jos6 ; and semi-monthly express to 
Oregon and Washington Territories, in charge of regular messengers. 

" Connect with Alta Express to Northern and Southern mines ; and Free- 
man & Co. to Atlantic States and Europe." 

Nichols in due course gave way, I am informed, to the American Express 
Co. I also hear of a frank of this latter company cut out and pasted over a 
"Pacific Express Co." (horseman), from which it seems probable that the 
American also absorbed the Pacific Company. 

Pacific Union Express Co. — Was started in 1865 as an opposition 
line to Wells, Fargo & Co. The older company proved too sti-ong for it, 
however, and- finally a consolidation was effected. 

Rockfellow St. Co. — This was an Oregon company, I believe. Date, 
&c., unknown, except so far as it can be gathered from the envelopes. It 
finally sold out to Waldron & Co. 

Rutherford &. Co. — {See Morley, Calkins & Co.) 

J. C. Truman. 

Truman & Chapman. 

Truman & Co. 

Truman ran this express alone from September, 1863, to March, 1864, and 
possibly earlier. Truman & Chapman followed, and about March, 1865, the 
firm became Truman & Co. At least so says my informant, although the 
dates do not altogether agree with those furnished by the directories. 

This express had boxes distributed throughout the city of San Francisco 
for the reception of letters, which it carried to San Jose, Watsonville, Santa 



Cruz, and intermediate points. It also connected with stages for Warm 
Springs, Alameda, Lexington and Los Angeles. 

Whitney &, X3o. — {See JBamber & Co.) 

I append a list of some of the earliest Western Express Companies, show- 
ing dates of formation, <fcc. 

Those prefixed with a * (star) issued printed franks or else adhesive stamps. 
Those prefixed with a f (dagger) used hand stamps only, so far as known. 
The other companies have left no philatelic record. 

DATE OF 
EXPRESS. EEMAEKS. 

FORMATION. 

*fAdams & Co.'s (of California). Sept., 1849. 

Brown's May, 1850. 

Bowers & Co.'s 

*Berford& Co.'s.. Sept., 1849. 

fCram, Rogers & Co.'s Jan., 1850. 

Crook's. - 

Gilbert & Hedge's 

f Gregory 's Started by Jos. W. Gregory. 

W. F. Here's, Contra Costa Here was probably the pre- 

decessor of J. Bamber & 
Co. 
J. Hawes & Co.'s N. Y. & S. F. 

Hodge & Co.'s... 

Hodge & Lusk's 

Hawley & Co.'s Nov., 1849. 

Hunter & Co.'s Sept., 1850. 

Leland's San Jos6 Started by Geo. H. Leland. 

f Leland & McCombe's May, 1854. The last named Express, 

with addition of J. Mc 
Combe. 

Lount's July, 1850. 

f Mumby's 

Newell & Co.'s Sept., 1851. Started by J. P. Newell and 

B. C. Colt. 

*Pacific March, 1855. Started by former employes 

of Adams'. 

fReynolds & Co.'s 

fReynolds, Todd & Co.'s ' 

Rumrill & Co.'s Northern Feb., 1851. 

jTodd's July, 1851. By C. A. Todd. 

tTodd& Co.'s Aug., 1851. By C! A. & A. H. Todd and 

J. P. Newell & B. C. Colt. 

Todd & Bryan's July 12, '49. By A. H. Todd & W. C. 

Bi-yan " Pioneer Express." 

*G. H. Wines & Co.'s May, 1850. 

*Wells, Fargo & Co.'s July 13, '52. This is the day on which the 

San Francisco QflSce was 
opened. 



CHAPTER VI. 



History of Wells, Faego & Co. 

In the second part of this work, a few remarks wereinade regarding the 
origin of "Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, and I now trace its workings rather 
more fully. 

In the New York City Directories from 1844 to 1853, I find various Ex- 
presses, such as 

Livingston, "Wells & Pomeroy, 

Livingston, "Wells & Co., 

Livingston & Fargo, 

Livingston, Fargo & Co., 

Pomeroy & Co. (already known to Philatelists), 

Wells & Co., 

Wells, Butterfield & Co. 

Their routes seem to have extended from Boston, New York, «fcc., to Chi- 
cago, Milwaukie and St. Louis. 

Speaking of this system of companies, and designating them all by the 
name of the original one, Livingston, Wells & Com.pany, a recent number of 
a San Francisco paper says : 

Having confidence in his idea (of a system of companies to the West), "Wells induced 
one Pomeroy to run an express between Albany and Buffalo, and after a short time joined 
him in the undertaking, along with Crawford Livingston, the firm title being Living- 
ston, Wells & Co. The rates of postage were then very high, and Pomeroy, by carrying 
letters at six cents, compelled the Government to reduce the postage three-fourths. 
Even prior to 1850 the firm had express connections with the great cities of the West — 
Cincinnati, St. Louis and Chicago, and as fast as the increase of population held out 
inducements, new routes were opened and managed with commendable skill. A valuable 
ally in the business was John Butterfield, a man of capital, who had embarked in freight 
transportation across the Isthmus of Panama, in 1849, and was also chief partner in an 
express company founded the same year. Butterfield's influence secured, in 1850, an 
amalgamation of his own and another company with that of Livingston, Wells & Co., 
and the trio became merged as the American Express Company. 

WELLS, FABGO & CO. 

In 1853, Wells, Fargo & Co. formed a joint stock association, and opened their famous 
enterprise in California. From the outset it was highly prosperous. The firm included 
as partners Wells, Wm. G. Fargo, Livingston and Butterfield, and its heads of depart- 
ments were Samuel Carter, General Agent, and R. W. Rowbotham. Mr. Faigo, the 
only one of the firm not already introduced to the reader, was associated with Living- 
ston, Wells & Co. in 1845, and distinguished himself in pushing the carrying business 
into the great West. Carter, we may state, was succeeded in 1853 by Colonel W. J. 
Pardee ; he was succeeded by Louis McLane in 1855, and Chas. E. McLane succeeded 
Louis a year later. The company in 1861 was running its stages via Placerville to Salt 
Lake. At this point Russell's stage line connected with the Missouri River. Ben. Hol- 
laday obtained control of the latter part of the overland route, but in 1866 Holladay 

97 



disposed of the business to Wells, Fargo & Co. , who retained the route to the Missouri 
undisputed until the railroad superseded overland staging. The firm had also branch 
lines to Idaho and Montana Territories. The success of this enterprise in California 
■was brilliant, and as may be imagined from the large quantity of bullion transported, 
the returns earned were enormous. In 1857 the gold carried by their stage lines in 
California alone amounted to $59,884,000. 

THE EOHT EXPRESS. 

In the whole record of express projects in the United States, there is nothing so 
memorable as the postal dispatch by relays of ponies across 2,000 miles of continent 
between Sacramento and St. Joseph on the Missouri. . This distance, by galloping night 
and day, each messenger carrying ten pounds of mail matter, was reduced to nine days, 
and the time was only exceeded under very exceptional circumstances. Another day 
brought the express to San Francisco. From St. Joseph the connection with New 
York was by rail. The route was by Placerville, Carson City, Camp Floyd, Salt Lake, 
Fort Bridger, Laramie, Fort Kearney and Marysville, to St. Joseph. A large capital 
was needed for this dashing enterprise, and as the express was abandoned in 1863, 
when the telegraph wires had been extended across the continent, the company did not 
succeed financially. The loss indeed amounted to $200,000. Stations were established 
all along the route sixty miles apart, and the ponies were kept ready saddled, so that 
not a moment was wasted in transferring the mail from one messenger to another. As 
the rider galloped up to the station and reined in, he threw his bag of dispatches to the- 
man who was to ride to the next station, and who instantly spurred the rowels into the 
flanks of his mount and disappeared, never halting until he reached the relay station 
beyond. The adventures of these hardy, daring men thrill with interest, and have 
often afforded graphic subject matter for the pen of the writer on frontier life. As they 
deserved to be, they were jfiandsomely paid for their bravery and hardihood, receiving 
$1,200 a month. They had frequently to fight their way through hostile bands of 
Indians, speeding on and firing as they sped ; sometimes laying low . the redskin and 
hearing his death-whoop as he bit the dust ; but occasionally themselves toppling out 
of the saddle with an arrow or a bullet through the heart. Their weapons were limited 
to a revolver and a bowie knife. The charge for postage by the pony express was $5 
per quarter ounce, so that each ten pounds of dispatches cost for transmission $3,200. 
The first pony to travel on the route started from St. Joseph, amid popular ovations of 
a most enthusiastic nature, on the 3d of April, 1860, and the relay to Sacramento 
reached thai town on time. The rejoicings in California accorded with the import of 
so marked an advance in the means of communication between the Atlantic and Pacific 
Seaboards. 

BTJSINESS ON A GIGANTIC SCALE. 

"Wells, Fargo & Co. reincorporated in 1869, and the principal business office was 
changed from New York to San Francisco. The Company had 79 offices on this coast 
in 1857 and 122 in 1861. The agencies now number 450. Its messengers and freight 
travel on all passenger-trains, along all stage routes and by inland and ocean steamers, 
and the aggregate distance is 22,033 miles. The employes, whose general reputation 
for fidelity is unimpeached, number 976. The President is Lloyd Tevis, who was 
elected in 1872 ; Treasurer, H. Wadsworth ; Secretary, James Heron ; and the General 
Superintendent, J. J. Valentine. The Company has agencies in British Columbia, 
Washington Territory, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, Mexico, at Panama and 
Aspinwall, in Liverpool, London, Paris, and Hamburg; and there is scarcely a hamlet 
in California where there is not an agent stationed. Nearly all the treasure and bullion 
from Utah, Nevada, and throughout California, ai-e shipped by this firm, and this will 
explain how it is able to bear up against immense losses by highway robberies, the 
amount for 1875 alone being $87,000. Defalcations by any of the employes are 
extremely rare. The Company's banking business is now transacted at Boston, New 
York, Salt Lake, Carson, Virginia City, and in San Francisco at the office on California 
street, lately occupied by the National Gold Bank and Trust Company. This banking 
firm has leased the old office of the Company. As soon as the arrangements are per- 
fected, the express business will be transacted at the Halleck Building, corner of Halleck 
and Sansome streets. 



09 

In further explanation of the preceding remarks on the Pony Express, I 
extract from a recent article in the San Francisco jBulletin the following : 

***** Ninety days by ox team was fast travel. The mails which 
came by steamer occupied twenty rtwo days in transit. The pony express, a creation of 
the fertile brain of Ben Holladay, cut the time down to from twelve to fourteen days, 
but that line only extended from St. Joseph, Mo. , to Sacramento. The distance tra- 
versed was 1,900 miles, nearly all the way through a trackless wilderness. Seventy-five 
horses were ridden each way. Each made 35 miles in a heat. The average speed day and 
night, including stoppages, was seven miles an hour, which was increased to ten or 
twelve miles an hour on good ground, and postage on all letters beyond Salt Lake City 
was charged at the rate of five dollars per half an ounce. The first pony express left St. 
Joseph, Mo., at half -past six P. M., on April 3, 1860 ; reached Salt Lake City on April 
9, at half -past six P. M. ; passed through Carson on April 12, at half -past two P. M., 
through Placerville April 13, at two P.M., and reached Sacramento on April 13, at five 
P. M. Two mails were dispatched each way per week. The arrival of the first pony 
express rider at Sacramento and San Francisco was a day of jubilee. 

In 1861 "Wells, Fargo & Co. acquired Holladay's Pony Express, and 
thenceforth the enterprise was conducted under their name. The exact dis- 
tance traversed on each trip was 1,996 miles. 



CHAPTER VII. 



Conclusion to Paet III. 

In the two preceding chapters I have endeavored to throw what light I 
could on the history of the leading Letter Express Companies existing or run- 
ning west of the Rocky Mountains ; and, although I have been unahle to 
treat the subject with any degree of completeness, I trust that my imperfect 
efforts have been productive of some good. 

As I hardly think that any commensurate advantage could be derived 
from a detailed history of all the smaller companies (even were such a history 
possible), I have coniined myself mainly to the large expresses, as these, of 
course, illustrate better than ariy others the working of the entire system. 
Moreover, the history of many, and, indeed, the majority of the smaller 
companies, is forever lost, and their very names would be forgotten had they 
not these printed franks to perpetuate them. Their character cannot be 
better explained than by quoting what Mr. Pemberton says on the subject, 
in the Stamp Collector's Handbook, on page 199, viz. : 

" The causes which led to the establishment of Express Mail Companies 
in California are briefly these. California was ceded to the United States in 
1848, gold was discovered shortly afterwards, and in 1849 the influx of 
miners commenced. Although the ' rush,' as it is popularly called, was 
made in 1849, it must not be supposed that many arrived early in that year, 
for it was a six months' voyage from Europe there; but so soon as the min- 



100 

ing camps were in full operation, it became a necessity to have a reliable 
means of conveyance for gold dust and letters. This led to the establish- 
ment of Express Companies, mostly located in the country near the miners, 
who then sent their orders down to the town or settlement now called San 
Francisco, for provisions or any other necessities of life. Most of these com- 
panies had but a brief existence, the routes frequently changing hands, and, 
as a rule, eventually passing under the control of Wells, Fargo & Co. These 
companies were rude concerns, for there were no regular post offices at first, 
and as the express carriers went through all sorts of difficulties and dangers, 
their charges were in accordance, five and ten dollars in gold being often 
paid for a single letter." 



PART IV. 



Franks impressed on Envelopes issued by Compa- 
nies distributing mail matter between the va- 
rious portions of the same City or Town, 
or collecting mail matter in like man- 
ner, for transportation to the 
Government Post OflS.ce. 



CHAPTER I.— New York and Philadelphia. 
CHAPTER H.— The Penny Post Co., op California. 
CHAPTER ni.— San Francisco, Cal. 



101 



CHAPTER I. 



New Yokk City, N. Y.; and Philadelphia, Pa. 



There were only two companies in the former and one in the latter city 
that issued prepaid envelopes, viz. : Boyd's, the Metropolitan Ekband & 
Carrier's, and Blood's. As the history of the trio has already been given 
under the proper headings, in Part II., I have now simply to chronicle the 
envelopes issued. 

Boyd's City Express. 

Type I. — Date uncertain. Impressed in right upper cor- 
ner of envelopes of sizes as detailed : 

Dark blue on cream wove paper, 155x87 mm. 
Light " " " " " " 




JJark " 




orange " 
white laid 


a 




Light " 
Dark « 
Brightred ) 
to I 


i( 


canary " 
white " 




161x87 mm. 
211x87 mm. 


Claret red ) 










Pale red 


a 


u ce 


u 


« 


Brightred ) 










to 


. a 


cream wove 


<c 


cut. 


Claret red 










Pale red 


t( 


a <£ 


t,i 


(C 


Brightred ) 

to [ 

Claret red ) 


. i( 


canary laid 


a 


t( 


Pale red 


<( 


Cl ft 


(( 


(C 


Black and ^ 










red, com- 
pound im- 


, a 


cream wove 


cc 


" 


pression. 












Type II. — Date about 1869-74. Impressed in right up- 
per corner of envelopes. The early impressions of this 
type had all the lines very sharply defined. By continual 
use, however, the die appears to have become very much 
worn, so that considerable retouching became necessary, in 
the course of which all the lines were materially widened. 

108 



103 





a. — First stage. 








Red 


on white laid paper. 








a 


" blue wove " 








(( 


" canary wove " 






All 
eni€ 


my specimens are 
nts. 


cut from the envelopes, so that I cannot 


give meas- 




b. — Second stage. (Illustrated.) 






Red 


on cream laid paper, 


139x80 mm. 








11 (c (( a 


149x86 " 








" " wove " 


t( a 








" yellow laid " 


139x80 " 








" orange " " 
" canary " " 
" white " " 


n <c 

137x78 " 
cut. 





Type III. — Date 1874. Same as II. b, but with address erased. The first 
attempt at erasing was not altogether successful, and the impressions as 
originally made show traces of the inscriptions which it was intended to re- 
move. Afterwards, however, a second effort was made, and the traces just 
alluded to wei-e effectually destroyed. The stamp is always printed in the 
right upper corner of the envelopes. 

a. — Mrst stage. 

Red on canary laid paper, 138x78 mm. 

b. — Second stage. 

Red on cream laid paper, 138x78 mm. 
" " pale canary " 136x78 " 

Type IV. — Date 1877. Same as Type III., but with address, No. 1 Park 
Pii. added. Stamp impressed in left upper corner of envelope. Red on 
canary laid paper, 138x78 mm. 

Type V. — Date 1877. Hand struck impression (from hand stamp previously 
used for cancelling purposes only) of ornamental oval design, inscribed 
Boyd's City Despatch. — Paid. — 1 Park Place. 

Mauve on canary laid envelopes, 138x78 mm. The impression is usually in 
the right upper corner, although sometimes it is — through accident — upside 
down in the left lower. 



Boyd has also issued two post cards for special use by the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of New York. 

The card first issued measures about 155x100 mm., is of stout quality, and 
in addition to bearing the formula of the bank, has a stamp identical with 
Type III. {Mrst stage) of the envelopes impressed in the right upper corner. 

The other card is about 155x105 mm., is of much thinner quality, and has 
in the right upper corner a design differing in details from any of Boyd's 
stamps, though. in general appearance it is like Type XII. of the adhesives. 

In both instances the entire impression is in black on white. 



104 




Metropolitan Errand & Carrier Express Company. 

Originals of this envelope are very scarce ; indeed, I 
have never seen an uncut specimen. Keprints (cut square) 
on laid amber paper can easily be obtained. 

The impression is in red, the lettering, &c., being em- 
bossed. 

The figure of value on this stamp is very peculiar, hav- 
ing evidently been altered from a 1 ; an s having been 
simultaneously added to Cent. Presumedly, therefore, 
Ic. envelopes existed, but so far no specimens have come to light. 

Blood's Dispatch. 

-Date 1850 .Red (with embossed 



Type I, 
white lettering) on ordinary letter size white 
and buff envelopes. 

Type II. — ^Date unknown. Lettering &c., 
embossed as before. Bright rose on white en- 
velope. (Cut.) 



Type III. — ^Date unknown. Lettering, &c., as before. 
Red on ordinary white and buff envelopes, extra letter size. 



In addition to the foregoing, Blood & Co. used some two dozen or more 
hand stamps, several of which were quite elaborate. I do not think, how 
ever, that they had any postal significance, and I shall not digress from my 
general rule by describing them. 





CHAPTEK II. 



The Penny Post Co. of California. 

In Chapter XX. of Part II. the history of this Company was given, and 
its adhesive stamps described, but the system adopted would not allow of 
the envelopes being there included. 

The accompanying illustrations render any detailed descriptions unneces- 
sary, so that it only remains for me to give a list of the envelopes on which 
the franks are found. 

a. — 14x7-^ centimetres. 7c.; black on ordinary buff envelope. 

5;— 14x8| " 7c.; " " 3c. buff envelope of 1853 issue. 

On the reverse is printed, " The Penny Post Gompany, Office 135, Cali- 
fornia St., San Francisco. Letters enclosed in the envelopes of the Penny 
Post Gompany and Deposited in any Post-office, are delivered immediately 
on the distribution of the mails in San Francisco, Sacramento, Stockton, J5e- 
necia, Marysville, Goloma, Nevada, Grass Valley, MoTcelumne Hill." 

c. — 15-^x8^ centimetres. 7c.; black on ordinary buff envelope. 
« « gQ « » li (( (( 

N. B. — The 5c. envelope reads For instead of Gare of. 

d. — 14x8 centimetres. 5c.; black on 3c. buff envelope of 1853 issue. 

e.— 14x8i " 7c.; red " « '■ " « " 

f — 14x8 " No value ; black on ordinary buff envelope. 

g. — I also have a frank which is quite similar in design to d, but the entire 
background is of very fine horizontal lines, on which Paid 5 appears in 
white letters, surcharged with From the Postoffice, Care of the Penny 
Post Co., in text hand, above which are the words California Penny Post- 
age, with figures 5 in the background to each side. The small imitation 
stamp is larger, and clearly resembles the 1853 envelope; the impression 
is blue on white paper. 

Sometimes the simple hand stamps of the Penny Post Co. appear on enve- 
lopes not bearing its printed franks. To such hand stamps I attach no 
importance, as they were not used to make prepaid envelopes, but solely to 
indicate that the P. P. Co. had forwarded the letters bearing them. 



los 



106 



Postage must 1>e paid In advance, otberiFlse your lietter fvlll not he torwarAeH, 



Oopy-Siglit Seoniedi 

IjETTERS enclosed In tbese Envelopes, Papers, 
and other mail matter, Small Parcels, Daguerreotypes, &c., 
directed to the Agent of the Penny-Post Co., and deposited 
In ANT Post Office, vrlU l>e delivered Immediately 
on the distrihution of the Mails, in Sak Fbahcisco, Sacba- 
hEnto, Mabtstille and Stocton, and In tbese cities 
only for tbe present. 



CALIFOEBIA 
Fenny Postage. 



PAID 7 



The writer requests the Post Master to deliver this to 



Agent of the Penny-Post Co., 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

CAL. 



Box 5,005. 

The P. P. Co. will please deliver to 

S. W. COIiIilNS, Front Street. 



TO THE PENNY POST CO. 






u^ 



...efiied. 



CAL. 

The party whose name is on this Envelope, is hereby authorized to open the same and appropriate its contents. 



B 



lOY 



TO THE PENNY POST CO. 



[ 



PENNY-POSTAGE PAID, 7. 



^ate Of...... 



CALIFORNIA. 



LETTERS and other mail matter 
deposited in any Post OfHce, will 
be DELIVERED in San Erancibco, 
Saceamento, Stockton, or Ma- 
RTSViLLE, immediately on the arri- 
val of the Mails, if addressed to the 
care of the "PENNY POST CO." 

&<> 






_ = i 


IIA^JAr^ 


f^^sf^j^^ 






qM. 


• 


ofiteei. 










^^. 



108 



Tte Penny-Post Co. 

deliver letters enclosed 

in tiiese Envelopes 

immediately on the 

distribution of the 

Mails, in 

San Francisco, 

Sacramento, 

Stockton, 

Benlcia, 

Maryffrille, 

Ooloma, 

Sevada, 

QrasB Valley, 

Hokelnmne Eill, 




TO THE PENNY POST CO 



e^.. 



..&tiee^^ 



Cal. 



Tbe party to whose care this is directed is hereby authorized to open the same 
and appropriate its contents. 





E 






Letters enclosed in this Envelope aloTie cannot be forwarded, as the Postage is not paid. 
Seal your letter, then enclose in Envelope addressed to the Penny-Post Co. "Write plain. 
Give occupation, number and name of Street, when known. 


So 








Care of tl 






o/he^ 






%i. 


lie Penny-Post Co. 





CHAPTER III. 



San Fbancisco, Calipobnia. — MiscELLANaotrs. 

This history of the San Francisco Companies was given in Chapter XXI. 
of Part II. I now describe the envelope franks in the same order as the 
companies are there enumerated. 

San Francisco Letter Express. 

( Van Dyck <Sa Early — afterwards Q. E. Early — Proprietors^ 
Type I. — Handstruck. San Fkancisco City Lbttee Express. Outlined 
oMong frame, with truncated corners, not unlike Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Cal. 
and Coast Routes. 

Black impression on white envelope. 
Blue " " yellow " 

with frame for marking time of receipt of letter, across the end. 
Type II. — Printed from type. Eably's San Fbancisco Letteb Expbess. 
Lbttees Delivered in all paets of the City, in plain rectangular frame. 

Black on buff envelope. 

California City Letter Express. 

{Hoogs <& Madison, Proprietors.) 
I have an envelope bearing the name of this Company, with a horseman 
(holding streamer inscribed News) underneath to the left, and the proprie- 
tors' announcement to the right. It is evidently nothing more than an adver- 
tisement, and I here merely make mention of its existence, as collectors 
might be disposed to attach to it philatelic importance, and to attribute its 
omission to ignorance of its existence. 

San Francisco Letter Express. 

{John G. Rohinson, Proprietor.) 

Type I. — Having never seen the original, I can only extract the following 
brief description from Dr. Gray's catalogue, 6th edition, page 191. Rob- 
inson & Co.'s San Fbancisco Letter Express. 

Scroll ; blue impression. 

Type II. — Robinson & Co.s Express, above. Paid, below. Bear in cen- 
tre ; hills, trees, &c., in background. The whole enclosed in a double-lined 
oblong frame, pointed at top. 

Black on 3c. buff, 1864. 

Note. — I am rather uncertain as to whether Type II. was issued by the 
San Francisco Robinson, or by some other person of the same name. 



109 



no 

Gahagan & Hovre. 

Type I. — Handstruck. Horseman riding to left. Single lined oval frame, 
inBcribed San Fkancisco Letter Express. 

Blue impressions on various ordinary buff, orange and white envelopes. 

Note. — This hand stamp was sometimes employed for cancelling purposes, 
especially after the post fell into the hands of Loomis. As stated in Chapter 
XXI. of Part II., it is also possible that it was in use before Robinson ceded 
the post to Gahagan & Howe. 

Games' City Letter Express. 

Neither Games nor Loomis, his successor, issued any prepaid envelopes. 
Public Letter Office. 

Type I. — Handstruck. Horseman carrying unrolled scroll inscribed Pub- 
lic Lbttek Office, 5 Keaeny St. Letters and Parcels Delivered 
Every Hour. 

Black impression on white envelope. 

Type II. — Handstruck. Fancy oblong. Public Letter Office, 5 
Kearny Street, S. F. Letters Delivered to any Part of the Citt 
Within One Hour After Mailing. East op Taylor and 6th, 15c.; 
West, 25c. 

Blue impression on white envelope. 

Type IH. — Public Letter Office above, in scroll shape, in lai^e orna- 
mental capitals ; No. 5 in hollow of curve formed by Letter Office ; 
Kearny St. below. Struck in left hand corner of envelope, across the end 
of which is also printed, in old English type. Delivered Within One Hour 
After Mailing. Black on 2c. TJ. S. Post envelope. Alongside the govern- 
ment stamp appears a fancy hand stamp impression, reading " Paid 15 Cts." 
A similar hand stamp of the value of 25c. is said to exist. 

I also have an envelope with the hand stamp entirely omitted, and in place 
thereof Paid 15o. written in red ink. 

Public Post Office. 

There is reported to have existed a post of this name in San Francisco, 
but I fancy that the Public Letter Office, of which I have just described the 
franks, is the concern intended. 

Private Post Office. 

Type I. — ^Type set. Private Post Office, 5 Keaeny St., S. F. Let- 
ters Delivered to any Destination in the City Within One Hour 
After Mailing. 

East of Taylor and Sixth, 15o. 
West" " " " 25c. 
The whole enclosed in a fancy oblong rectangular frame, outside of which 
is a large numeral indicative of value (15 or 25c., as the case may be). 
15c. Blue impression on 3c. white, 1864. 
250. " " " 3c. buff, " 



Ill 

Nearly all these San Francisco companies used hand stamps for the pur- 
pose of cancelling their adhesives or their prepaid envelopes. Many col- 
lectors have been disposed to attribute to these hand stamps philatelic 
value, but I am satisfied that with the exception of those already described 
in this chapter, none of them are worthy of consideration, any more than 
those used to-day by Hussey in New York. 

The following is a list, as far as known to me, of the valueless hand stamps 
used by the San Francisco Companies : 

City Expbbss. — G. & H., 423 Wash'n st., S. E. corner Sansome st. Oval. 

City Letter Deliveey. — S. E. corner Washington and Sansome. Scal- 
loped oval. 

City Letter Express. — Oval. 

Private Post Office. — Round. 

Robinson & Co. City Delivery. — Small oval. 

San Francisco Letter Express. — Horseman. (As explained under 
heading of Gahagan & Howe.) 



FINIS. 



. #* aw- 



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