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Full text of "Colonial records of the New York Chamber of commerce, 1768-1784;"

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COLONIAL RECORDS 



OF THE 



New YoKK Chamber of Commerce, 



1768 — 1784 



WITH HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS Jr. 



NEW YORK: 
JOHN F. TROW & CO., 50 GREENE STREET, 

1867 

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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY; 

LIBRARY 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by 

JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS, Jr., 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 

Dieti'ict of New York. 



JOHN F. TROW & CO., 

PIIINTEHS, STEKEOTYFERS, AND ELECTR0TVPKB8, 

50 Grecac Street, New York. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS OF 
NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 




HERE AS, mercantile societies have been found 
very useful! in tradeing cities for promoting 
and encouraging commerce, supporting indus- 
try, adjusting disputes relative to trade and navigation, 
and procuring such laws and regulations as may be found 
necessary for the benefit of trade in general ; 

For which purpose, and to establish such a society in 
the city of New York, the following persons convened 
on the first Tuesday in, and being the 5th day of, April, 
1768 : 

John Cruger, 



Elias Desbrosses, 
James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Robert Murray, 
Hugh Wallace, 
George Folliot, 
William Walton, 
Samuel Verplanck, 
Theophylact Bache, 



Thomas White, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, 
Robert Ross Waddle, 
AcHEsoN Thompson, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
William McAdam, 
Isaac Low, 
Anthony Van Dam, 



Who agreed that the said Society of Merchants should 
consist of 

A President, 

Vice-President, 

Treasurer, 

Secretary, 



4 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

And such a number of merchants as already, or hereafter 
may become members thereof, to be called and known by 
the name of 

THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

The Members present unanimously chose the follow- 
ing Gentlemen their officers for this year, to commence 
the first Tuesday in May next : 

John Crcjger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President, 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer, 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Then the following resolutions, being read, were 
agreed to. 

That the members of the Chamber of Commerce shall 
meet the first Tuesday in every month, to transact such 
business as may come before them ; and establish such 
rules for the order and good government of the Society 
as they may think proper and find necessary. 

That the first Tuesday in May, August, November, 
and February in every year are declared to be the Grand 
Quarterly Meetings, at which times the accounts of the 
Chamber are to be settled, and any new members who 
desire it and are chosen by ballot are to be admitted. 

The officers of said Chamber of Commerce to be 
chosen yearly by ballot on the first Tuesday in May, and 
to continue for one year. 

Every member of the Society who now is or hereaft^ 
may be admitted into the same, shall pay unto the Treas- 
urer for the use of the said Chamber of Commerce five 
Spanish dollars on his admission, and shall also pay unto 



:er 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. £ 

the said Treasurer for the aforesaid use the further sum 
of one Spanish dollar on each of the four quarterly days 
before mentioned, and such members shall faithfully and 
truly keep, obey, and conform to all rules and regulations 
made and entered into by said Chamber of Commerce, 
which are to be entered into the Books of the said Society 
to be kept for that purpose, on pain of being dismissed 
the said Chamber of Commerce, and having his or their 
names struck off the list. 

Any merchant chooseing to become a member of this 
Chamber of Commerce must give in his name to the 
President for the time being on the first Tuesday in the 
month preceeding the Quarterly meeting, and the person 
proposed is to be balloted for, and if three nays appear 
he cannot be admitted during the government of the 
President in whose year he was so refused, but may be 
proposed the succeeding or any year after, and if not 
again opposed by three nays then to be admitted, but if 
any person is three times refused, he is never to be ad- 
mitted. 

A proper room for the meeting of the members of the 
Chamber of Commerce is to be provided at the expence 
of the members so that it doth not exceed one shilling 
per man, which each person is to pay to the Treasurer at 
their respective meetings. 

The members of the Chamber of Commerce doth 
agree that the Treasurer shall provide for their use a 
strong chest wherein shall be deposited their cash, books 
and papers which is to have three diiFerent good locks and 
keys — one key to be kept by the President, one by the 
Treasurer, and the third by the Secretary ; the chest for 
the present to be kept at the Treasurer's. 

No business to be done by the said Chamber of Com- 



6 NEW YORK. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

merce unless there be twenty-one members present, of 
which the President or Vice-President to be always one 
(unless by committees to be appointed for particular pur- 
poses), the meeting on the first Tuesday in May next only 
excepted, when thirteen or more members may do business, 
and every thing proposed or transacted to be by vote of 
the members present, and the opinion of the majority of 
votes to be conclusive and binding on the members, 
except in admitting new members, which is to be done as 
is herein before directed. 

The President, with the advice of the members of the 
Chamber is to appoint the place of meeting, nothing to 
be done but by application to him, who is to examine and 
sign the Treasurer's accounts, and in general to superin- 
tend all the Society's affairs. 

The Vice-President in the absence of the President to 
have the same power and authority as if the President was 
personally present, who is to keep the President's key 
when absent. 

The Treasurer to provide a proper book at the ex- 
pence of the said Chamber for keeping the receipt of all 
money paid to him, and all money laid out by him for 
the use of the said Society, which are to be fairly entered 
at the meetings held from time to time, and which are to 
be audited on the first Tuesday in May in every year, 
and signed by the auditors to be appointed for that pur- 
pose, when he is to deliver over the cash remaining in 
hand, books and his key to the Treasurer elected, or in 
the absence of the Treasurer so elected, then to the 
President, or in his absence to the Vice-President. 

The Secretary is to keep a fair register of all proceed- 
ings, orders, rules, and regulations of the said Chamber 
of Commerce, which are to be entered in a proper book 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. y 

to be provided for that purpose at the expence of the said 
Society. In the absence of the Secretary, the President to 
appoint one of the members to officiate in his place for 
the time being, to whom, by a written order from the 
President, the Secretary is to deliver his key. 

Every member not attending the monthly meeting, to 
forfeit and pay to the Treasurer two shillings, and such 
who do not attend the quarterly meeting, to pay four shil- 
lings for non-attendance, unless some cause, judged rea- 
sonable by the Society, is admitted by them as sufficient. 
Sickness, and being absent at least six miles from the 
city, to be always allowed sufficient reason for non-attend- 
ance. 

The President is to appoint a proper person, to be 
approved of by the Society, as their Doorkeeper and 
Messenger, who is to be paid by the Treasurer such sums 
as may be hereafter directed by the President, for his serv- 
ices. , 

It is agreed that no new rules, regulations, or orders 
for the government of this Socieiy shall be made, unless 
proposed at a preceeding meeting, that there may be time 
for the general sense of the Society to be known. 

The President, or, in his absence, the Vice-President, 
hath power on any emergency to call a meeting of the 
said Chamber, and all meetings to be at six o'clock in the 
evening of every day that their attendance may be re- 
quired. 

The following gentlemen, who are of the Society, 
not being present, assented to the same : 

John Alsop, Philip Livingston, 

Henry White, James McEvers. 



8 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— New York, 3d May, 1768. 

Present. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 
John Alsop, Thomas Randal, 

Acheson Thompson, / James Jauncey, 

Lawrence Kortright, Robert R. Waddle, 

Walter Franklin, Jacob Walton, 

Robert Murray, Theophylact Bache, 

Isaac Low, Samuel Ver Plank, 

Henry White, George FoUiot, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Thomas White. 

Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 

Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 

Several gentlemen, being desirous to be admitted 
members of the Society, were ballotted for and were 
elected, as follows : 

Robert Watts, Thomas Marston, 

John Harris Cruger, Peter Hasencliver, 

Gerrard Walton, Alexander Wallace, 

Isaac Sears, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Thomas Buchanan, 

Charles McEvers, William Nielson, 

John Moore, Sampson Simson, 

Lewis Pintard, Pet^r Ketletas, 

Levinus Clarkson, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, Jacob Watson, 
Richard Yates. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the several 
gentlemen elected, in writing, as soon as possible, that 
they are unanimously chosen. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentle- 
men are appointed a Comittee, untill the first Tuesday 
in June next, for adjusting any difference between parties 
agreeing to leave such disputes to this Chamber, and that 
they do attend on every Tuesday, or oftener, if business 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. g 

require, at such places as they may agree upon, giving 
notice thereof to the President : 

James Jauncey, Samuel Ver Plank, 

Jacob Walton, Theophy. Bache, 

Robert Murray, Miles Sherbrooke, 
George FoUiot. 

Absent Members. 

John Cruger, President, not well. 

William Walton, Jr., in Connecticut. 

William McAdam, in the gout. 

James McEvers, not well. 
Philip Livingston. 

Ordered and Resolved — That the members of the 
Chamber do meet at Bolton & Sigels'J precisely at the 
usual hour. 

At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, in the 
City of New York, on the 7TH day of June, 1768, 

BEING THE FIRST TuESDAY IN THE MONTH, 

Present. 

John Cruger, Esq., President. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 

Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 

Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 
James Jauncey, Robert Watts, 

Jacob Walton, John Harris Cruger, 

Robert Murray, Gerrard Walton, 

William Walton, Isaac Sears, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

Theophy. Bache, Charles McEvers, 

Thomas White, John Moore, 

Walter Franklin, Lewis Pintard, 

Robert Ross Waddle, Levinus Clarkson, 

Acheson Thompson, Nicholas Gouverneur, 

Thomas Randal, Richard Yates, 

William McAdam, Thomas Marston, 

Isaac Low, Peter Hasencliver, 

Lawrence Kortright, Alexan. Wallace, 



10 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

George Folliot, Gabr. H. Ludlow, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Thomas Buchanan, 

Philip Livingston, Sampson Simpson, 

John Alsop, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Henry White, Peter Keteltas, 

William Neilson, Jacob Watson. 



It is proposed that, in future meetings, any member 
that shall be absent at six o'clock, shall forfeit one shil- 
ling, to be paid to the Treasurer. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentlemen 
are appointed a Comittee, until the first Tuesday in 
July next, for adjusting any differences between parties 
agreeing to leave such disputes to this Chamber, and that 
they do attend on every Tuesday, or oftener, if business 
require it, at such places as they may agree upon, giving 
notice thereof to the President : 



John Alsop, Isaac Low, 

Acheson Thompson, Henry White, 

Lawrence Kortright, Thomas Randal, 

Walter Franklin. 



It is proposed that, at the next meeting, or some fu- 
ture one, it shall be declared whether this Society is de- 
termined to discourage the paper currency of Pennsyl- 
vania^ from passing in this Colony. 

It is proposed that, at the next meeting, or some fu- 
ture one, it shall be declared whether this Society will or 
not receive the paper currency of New Jersey^ thereafter 
in the same advanced proportion as it now in general 
passes, or a Thirty Shilling Bill Proc. for thirty-two shil- 
lings only, and so in proportion. 

It is proposed that every gentleman who hath any- 
thing to propose to this Society, shall do it in writing. 



register of proceedings. ii 

At a Meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, in the 
City of New York, on the ^th day of July, 
being the first Tuesday in this month. 

Present. 

John Cruger, President. 

Vice-President absent. 

Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 

Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 
James Jauncey, Robert Watts, 

Jacob Walton, John Harris Cruger, 

Robert Murray, Gerrard Walton, 

William Walton, Isaac Sears, 

Samuel Verplank, (absent) Jacobus Van Zandt, 

Theoph. Bache, Charles McEvers, (absent) 

Thomas White, John Moore, 

Walter Franklin, Lewis Pintard, 

Robert R. Waddle, Levinus Clarkson, (absent) 

Acheson Thompson, Nicholas Gouverneur, 

Thomas Randal, Richard Yates, 

William McAdam, Thomas Marston, 

Isaac Low, Peter Hasencliver, 

Lawrence Kortright, Alexan Wallace, 

George FoUiot, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Miles Sherbrooke, William Neilson, (absent) 

Philip Livingston, (absent) Sampson Simpson, 

James McEvers, do. Peter Keteltas, 

John Alsop, do. Gerr'd W. Beekman, 

Henry White, Jacob Watson. 

This Chamber having taken into consideration the 
proposal of last meeting, whether the paper currency of 
Philadelphia shall be hereafter discouraged from passing 
in this Colony, and in consequence thereof there appeared : 
For passing 14, For not passing 17. 

This Chamber having taken into consideration the pro- 
posal of last meeting, whether the paper currency of New 
Jersey shall hereafter be received in the same advanced 
proportion as it now passes. When it was unanimously 
determined to take a further time to consider of the same. 



12 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

It is proposed that it be considered whether the price 
of flour and bread casks should not be reduced from the 
present prices, and at what. 

It is proposed that there be some method fallen upon 
to establish a paper currency* in this city, and that it be 
considered of in a future meeting or meetings. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentlemen 
be, and hereby are appointed a Comittee until the first 
Tuesday in August next, for adjusting any differences be- 
tween parties agreeing to leave such disputes to this 
Chamber, and that they do attend on every Tuesday, or 
oftener, if business require it, at such places as they may 
agree upon, giving notice thereof to the President : 

William Walton, Robert Watts, 

Thomas White, John Harris Cruger, 

Robert R. Waddle, Gerrard Walton, 

William McAdam. 

Absent members, viz. : 

Samuel Ver Plank, John Alsop, 

Philip Livingston, Hugh Wallace, 

James McEvers, Charles McEvers, 

William Neilson, Levinus Clarkson. 

Members fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Theophy Bache, Thomas White, 

Robert Watts, Peter Hasencliver, 

George FoUiot, Isaac Sears, 

Acheson Thompson, Richard Yates, 

Anthony Van Dam, James Jauncey, 

Peter Keteltas, Gab. H. Ludlow, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Isaac Low, 

Lawrence Kortright, Thomas Marston, 

John Harris Cruger, Alexan Wallace, 

Robert R. Waddle, Jacob Walton, 

Gerrard W. Beekraan, Gerrard Walton. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I3 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d August, 1768. 
Members Present. 

John Cruger, President. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 

Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Jacob Walton, Gerrard Walton, 

James Jauncey, William Walton, 

Thomas Randal, Isaac Sears, 

Thomas Buchanan, Robert R. Waddle, 

William Neilson, Sampson Simpson, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Henry White, 

Richard Yates, Lawrence Kortright, 

Peter HasencUver, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, Gabriel Ludlow, 

Robert Watts, Gerrard W. Beekman. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentlemen 
be, and are hereby appointed a Committee until the first 
Tuesday in September next, for adjusting any differences 
between parties agreeing to leave such disputes to this 
Chamber, and that they do attend on every Tuesday, or 
oftener if business require it, at such places as they may 
agree upon, giving notice thereof to the President: 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Nicholas Gouverneur, 

Charles McEvers, Richard Yates, 

John Moore, Thomas Marston, 

Levinus Clarkson. 

The consideration of the Jersey paper currency be re- 
ferred to some other meeting. 

Several gentlemen being desirous to be admitted mem- 
bers of the Society, were balloted for, and were elected as 
follows : 

Richard Sharpe, William Seton, 

Peter Remsen, Edward Laight, 

Henry Remsen, jr. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the several 



14 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

gentlemen elected, in writing, as soon as possible, that 
they are unanimously chosen. 

This Chamber having taken into consideration the 
proposal of last meeting, whether the price of flour and 
bread cask should not be reduced, and to what price. 

It was unanimously agreed that, from and after the 
15th day of present month of August, no member of this 
Society will give more than twenty-five shillings and six- 
pence per ton for flour and bread cask, including nailing. 

It is proposed to admit such members who oiFer 
monthly, as the quarterly admissions are found too 
tedious, and that it be considered next meeting. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th September, 1768. 
Members Present. 

John Cruger, President. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 

Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 

Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Samuel Ver Plank, Gerrard Walton, 

Thomas White, Isaac Sears, 

Walter Franklin, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

Robert R. Waddle, John Moore, 

Acheson Thompson, Nicholas Gouverneur, 

WiUiam McAdam, Richard Yates, 

Isaac Low, Alexander Wallace, 

Philip Livingston, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Henry White, William Neilson, 

Peter Remsen, Sampson Simpson, 

Henry Remsen, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Robert Watts, Jacob Watson, 

John H. Cruger, William Seton, 

Edward Laight. 

Members Absent. 
James Jauncey, Richard Sharpe, 

Jacob Walton, Chas. McEvers, 

Robert Murray, Lewis Pintard, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I5 

William Walton, Levinus Clarkson, 

Theophy. Bache, Thomas Marston, 

Thomas Randal, Peter Hasencliver, 

■ Lawrence Kortright, Thomas Buchanan, 

George FoUiot, Peter Keteltas, 

Miles Sherbrooke, James McEvers, 
John Alsop. 

A proposal of establishing a paper currency in this city, 
proposed the first Tuesday in July last, being considered 
of, it is thought proper to defer it to some future meeting. 

The proposal of altering the currency of Jersey having 
been considered of fully, and finding that there would be 
a manifest injury done to the merchants, traders and in- 
habitants of this Colony, do resolve, and it is hereby re- 
solved, that no further notice will be taken untill it may 
become a matter of more concern to this city and prov- 
ince. 

Having taken into consideration the proposal of ad- 
mitting members monthly, instead of quarter days. Re- 
solved unanimously, that any persons offering to become 
members of this Chamber, that they be balloted for the 
meeting after that their names be proposed. 

It is proposed to this Chamber, whether it is not ne 
cessary that there should be sorne regulations respecting 
Inland and West India Bills of Exchange,^ as to damages 
when returned under protest. 

It is proposed that where any person of this Chamber 
purchases any flour, that they order some of the casks to 
be started, to try if they are justly tared; if found 
fraudulent, to have an allowance, and use all means to 
have the transgressor fined, agreeable to a law^ of this 
Colony for that purpose. And it is further proposed to 
have all flour inspected and weighed when purchased. 

It is proposed that Pennsilvania money be taken by 



1 6 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

this Chamber at 6| per cent., as many great incon- 
veniences arise to the trade of this city by refusing it, as 
hath been determined by this Chamber.. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentlemen 
be a Committee, uritill the first Tuesday in October next, 
for adjusting any differences between parties agreeing to 
leave such disputes to this Chamber, and that they do 
attend on every Tuesday, or oftener if business require it, 
at such places as they may agree upon, giving notice there- 
of to the President : 

Philip Livingston, Alex. Wallace, 

Isaac Sears, Gabl. H. Ludlow, 

Lewis Pintard, Thomas Buchanan, 

Peter Hasencliver. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th October, 1768. 
Present. 
John Cruger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Jacob Walton, Lewis Pintard, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Levinus Clarkson, 

Robert R. Waddle, Thomas Marston, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Alexan. Wallace, 

Henry Remsen, Gab. H. Ludlow, 

Robert Watts, Thomas Buchanan, 

Gerrard Walton, Peter Ketehas, 

John Moore. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Hugh Wallace, Lawrence Kortright, 

James Jauncey, Sampson Simpson, 

Thomas Randal, Edward Laight, 

Isaac Low, Isaac Sears. 

Absent. 

Robert Murray, Walter Frankhn, 

William Walton, Acheson Thompson, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. ly 

Theoph. Bache, William McAdam, 

Thomas White, George FoUiot, 

Philip Livingston, Chas. McEvers, 

John Alsop, Nicholas Gouverneur, 

Henry White, Richard Yates, 

Richard Sharpe, Peter Hasencliver, 

Peter Remsen, William Neilson, 

John H. Cruger, Garrard W. Beekman, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Jacob Watson, 
William Seton. 



The proposal of last meeting to consider whether it is 
not necessary that there should be some regulation re- 
specting Inland and West India Bills of Exchange, as to 
damages when returned under protest. 

Resolved — That Messrs. Hugh Wallace, Samuel Ver 
Plank, Isaac Low, Jacob Walton, and John Moore, be a 
Committee to adjust or ascertain the damages that ought 
to be paid on Inland and West India Bills of Exchange, 
and that they do make report thereon in writing to this 
Chamber on the next meeting, as fully and clearly as they 
can. 

The proposal of last meeting for starting of flour, in 
order to see that the casks be duly tared, was considered, 
and it is Resolved by this Chamber unanimously, that one 
barrel of every brand-mark, at least, be started to see 
that it be fairly tared, and if found fraudulent, that they 
use all means in their power to bring the offenders to 
justice, agreeable to an Act of the General Assembly. 

Resolved — That every member of this Chamber do, 
in their future purchase of flour, cause the same to be 
weighed and inspected after purchase, and that the Secre- 
tary do cause these resolutions ' relative to Flour to be 
advertized in the public newspapers, the cost of which to 
be paid by the Treasurer. 



1 8 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

The proposal for taking Pennsilvania money at 6^ per 
cent, advance having been reconsidered, it was Resolved 
by a great rriajority of this Chamber, that it be hereafter 
received by any member that inclines to take it at 6f per 
cent, advance, being the same proportion that Dollars 
pass at. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentlemen 
be a Committee, untill the first Tuesday in November next, 
for adjusting any differences between parties agreeing to 
leave such disputes to this Chamber, and that they do at- 
tend on every Tuesday, or oftner if business require it, 
at such places as they may agree upon, giving notice 
thereof to the President : 

William Neilson, William Seton, 

Peter Keteltas, Edward Laight, 

Garrard W. Beekman, Sampson Simpson, 

Jacob Watson. 

The following gentlemen, having been proposed at the 
last meeting, were balloted for, and elected as follows : 

John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 
Thomas W. Moore. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the several 
gentlemen elected, in writing, as soon as possible, that 
they are unanimously chosen. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist November, 1768. 

Present. 
John Cruger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Samuel Ver Plank, Robert Watts, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, 
Richd. Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, 



John H. Cruger, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Richard Yates, 
Sampson Simpson, 
Henry Remsen. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



William Walton, 
Theophy Bache, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Isaac Low, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Henry White, 
Charles McEvers, 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Robert Murray, 
Thomas White, 
Walter Franklin, 
Acheson Thompson, 
WilHam McAdam, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
George FoUiot, 
Philip Livingston, 
Gerrard Walton, 



Alex. Wallace, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
WiUiam Neilson, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Robert Alexander, 
Thomas W. Moore, 



John Moore. 



Absent. 



Isaac Sears, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Thomas Marston, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Jacob Watson, 
William Seton, 
Edward Laight, 
John Reade. 



Messrs. Hugh Wallace, Samuel Ver Plank, Isaac Low, 
Jacob Walton and John Moore, the Committee appointed 
at the last meeting to ascertain the damages that ought 
to be paid and received on Inland and West India Bills 
of Exchange, Reported that they had considered of the 
same, and delivered their opinion in writing. 

Ordered — That the same be read, which was in the 
words following : 

Agreeable to the desire of the Chamber of Commerce, we, the Committee 
appointed to consider the necessity there is for some regulation relating to 



20 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Inland and West India Bills of Exchange that are returned with protest, 
for which at, present no damages or re-exchange is ascertained. 

It is our opinion that the sum of five per cent, damages ought to be paid 
and received on all Bills from any one Province in North America on an- 
other, recoverable here in full of all damages, re-exchange, cost of protest, 
postage, &c., and that the full amount of the Bill, with damages of five per 
cent, is due and payable immediately on return of said Bill with protest. 

And it is our opinion that the sum of ten per cent, damages ought to be 
paid and received on all Bills drawn from North America on the West 
Indias, or from the West Indias on North America, which may be recover- 
able here in full of all damages, re-exchange, cost of protest, postage, &c. ; 
and that the fuU amount of the Bill, with the damages of ten per cent., is 
due and payable immediately on return of the Bill with protest. 

AH which, however, is submitted to the President and members of said 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Resolved — That the members of this Chamber will in 
future pay and receive damages on West India and Inland 
Bills of Exchange, agreeable to the report of the above 
Committee. 

Ordered — That the same Committee do, by the next 
meeting of this Chamber, consider of, and deliver their 
opinion in writing respecting Bills on Europe,, whether 
the 20 per cent., as is now generally paid, be in full com- 
pensation for damages, cost of protest, postage, &c., and 
if it shall be received in money by the holder of the Bill 
so protested at ye exchange current when it shall be re- 
turned, or in a Bill of Exchange with the addition of the 
damages. 

Ordered— That Messrs. Hugh Wallace, Henry White, 
Robert Watts, Robert Alexander, Robert Murray, Thomas 
Randal, John Moore, William Walton, Sampson Simp- 
son, John H. Cruger, and Isaac Low, be a Committee to 
revise, amend, correct and digest the Articles of this 
Chamber ; and that they do draw up an introduction 
proper to be inserted in the newspapers, in order to in- 
form the publick their use and design. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 21 

And it is proposed that as soon as the articles of the 
Chamber are revised and corrected, that a number of 
copies be printed, that each member be served therewith. 

It is proposed, that as the General Assembly of this 
Province is now sitting, that a Committee be appointed to 
apply to the City Menlbers, and request them to consider 
of such laws as may be necessary for the regulation of the 
Trade of this Colony, particularly as to the more effectual 
Inspection of Flour, Pott-ash, &c. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Elias Desbrosses, John Alsop, 
Samuel Ver Plank, Theophylact Bache, and Isaac Low, 
be a Committee for the purpose aforesaid, and that they 
do report to this Chamber, at their next meeting, the 
result of their application. 

This Chamber being informed that there is a com- 
bination among the Bolters, Millers, Bakers, and sellers of 
flour, with respect to the prices of flour and bread casks, 
and finding they are opposed to the resolution of this Cham- 
ber at their meeting on the 2d August last, when the Cham- 
ber determined on giving 25s 6d per ton for the same, they 
have Resolved, Ordered, and do agree that Mr. William 
Neilson do go to Philadelphia, and purchase there from 
fifteen hundred to two thousand barrels of flour at the 
lowest price he can obtain them at, and that he cause them 
to be shipped to this place, advising this Chamber in what 
vessels they may be put on board. That on their arrival 
here such members as are in want shall be first supplied 
at the \jrased in the manuscript.'] 

any that remains on hand to be disposed of on account of 
this Chamber ; and, if need be, that each member pay to 
the Treasurer his proportion of the quantity to be pur- 
chased, which, on the sale, shall be repaid his full advance, 
the loss or gain to be paid or received from the common 



22 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Stock. And Mr. Neilson is further ordered, while at 
Philadelphia, to correspond with the Secretary, in order 
to have insurance made on the interest shipped, which the 
Secretary is to get effected by the consent of the President 
or Vice-President. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentlemen 
be a Committee, untill the first Tuesday in December 
next, for adjusting any differences between parties agree- 
ing to leave such disputes to this Chamber, and that they 
do attend on every Tuesday, or oftner if business re- 
quire it, at such places as they may agree upon, giving 
notice thereof to the President: 

John Reade, Jacob Walton, 

Robert Alexander, Robert Murray, 

Thomas W. Moore, Samuel Ver Plank, 

James Jauncey. 

A SPECIAL MEETING, on Monday, y 14th Nov., 1768. 

John Cruger, President. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 

Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 

Thomas Buchanan, William McAdam, 

William Walton, Samuel Ver Plank, 

Levinus Clarkson, Jacob Watson, 

Robert R. Waddle, Nichs. Gouverneur, 

Robert Alexander, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Gerrard Walton, Richard Yates, 

Theophy. Bache, Peter Remsen, 

Isaac Low, Lawrence Kortright, 

Sampson Simpson, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Thomas W. Moore, John Moore, 

Robert Murray, Charles McEvers. 

Resolved— That each member of this Chamber do, 
on the morrow, pay unto the Secretary £50 towards re- 
imbursing Mr. Pintard, now at Philadelphia in the place 
of Mr. Nielson, who is purchasing flour for this Chamber. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 23 

Ordered — That the Secretary send by express all the 
Bills that may ccJme to his hands from the members, and 
from £600 or £800 in cash, and that he engage some 
carefull person for that purpose to go to Philadelphia to 
carry the money, which is to be delivered to Mr. Lewis 
Pintard or order. 

Several of the sellers of Flour, Bakers, and Bolters 
attended the meeting, upon notice given them that 
the Chamber was ready to hear anything that could 
be said in support of their late demand of raising the 
price of flour and bread cask from 25s. 6d. to a8s., which 
they demanded lately on account of flour being rather 
scarce. But their allegations did not amount to sufficient 
proof for the Chamber to alter their resolution ; and both 
parties debating thereon, they, the Flour sellers. Bakers, 
and Bolters, acquiesced with charging in future no more 
than 25s. 6d. per ton, craving, at the same time, that the 
Chamber would take into their consideration at their next 
meeting the difficulty they have to make their principals 
give into the measures adopted by the Chamber. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th December, 1768. 

Present. 
John Cruger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

John H. Cruger, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

Robert Watts, Levins Clarkson, 

Sampson Simpson, Richd. Sharpe, 

Robert Murray, William McAdam, 

John Alsop, Nichs. Gouverneur, 

John Reade, Lewis Pintard, 

Isaac Sears, Alex. Wallace, 

Edward Laight, Thomas Marston. 



24 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock. 

Richard Yates, Isaac Low, 

Thomas W. Moore, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Charles McEvers, Thomas Randal, 

John Moore, Theoph. Bache, 

Thomas Buchanan. 

Absent. 

Elias Desbrosses, James Jauncey, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Jacob Walton, 

Peter Remsen, Thomas White, 

Henry Remsen, Walter Franklin, 

William Walton, Lawr. Kortright, 

Robert R. Waddle, George FoUiot, 

Henry White, Philip Livingston, 

Gab. H. Ludlow, Gerr. Walton, 

WiUiam Nielson, Peter Hasenchver, 

Gerrard W. Beekman, Peter Keteltas, 

Robert Alexander, Jacob Watson, 
William Seton. 

Messrs. Hugh Wallace, Samuel Ver Plank, Isaac Low, 
Jacob Walton and John Moore, the Committee appointed 
for to consider of and deliver their opinion in writing re- 
specting Bills of Exchange on Europe, whether the 20 per 
cent., as is now generally paid, be in full compensation for 
damages, cost of protest and postage, have made their re- 
port in writing, which, being read, was in the words follow- 
ing: 

New York, 6th December, 176S. 

In obedience to the order of the Chamber of Commerce, we have con- 
sidered the necessity there is for some fixed rule of payment for European 
Bills returned with protest. 

And it is our opinion that the sum of twenty per cent, ought to be paid 
on all European Bills returned protested, in full for all damages, re-exchange, 
cost of protest, postage, &c., and that all European Bills returned protested 
ought to be paid immediately on return of said Bill with proper protest, to- 
gether with the twenty per cent, damages, in money at the current exchange 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 2^ 

in New York, without regard to the exchange at which said BUI was bought 

or sold. 

All which is humbly submitted by 

Hugh Wallace, 
Isaac Low, 
Jacob Walton, 
John Moore. 

Resolved unanimously, that the same report be entered 
on the minutes of this Chamber, and that the same is agreed 
to. 

Messrs. Hugh Wallace, Robert Watts, Robert Alex- 
ander, Robert Murray, Thomas Randal, John Moore, Wil- 
liam Walton, Sampson Simpson, Jphn H. Cruger, and 
Isaac Low, the Committee to revise, amend, correct and 
digest the articles of this Chamber, and having made their 
report in writing, which, being read, was in the words fol- 
lowing : 

Whereas, Mercantile Societies have been found very usefull in tradeing 
cities for promoting and encouraging commerce, supporting industry, adjust- 
ing disputes relative to trade and navigation, endeavoring to procure such 
laws, establishing such regulations, as maybe found necessary for the benefit 
of trade in general. 

Therefore, to promote and establish so truly laudable an institution in 
this city, the following persons met the 5th day of April, 1768, in order to 
consider of such rules and regulations as might be necessary more effectu- 
ally to carry the design into execution : 

John Cruger, Philip Livingston, 

Elias Desbrosses, James McEvers, 

John Alsop, Samuel Ver Plank, 

Henry White, Theophy. Bache, 

Walter Franklin, Thomas White, 

Robert Ross Waddle, Miles Sherbrooke, 

James Jauncey, Acheson Thompson, 

Jacob Walton, Lawrence Kortright, 

Robert Murray, Thomas Randal, 

Hugh Wallace, William McAdam, 

George FoUiot, Isaac Low, 

William Walton, Anthony Van Dam. 



26 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

who agree that the said Society of Merchants should consist of 

A President, 
Vice-President, 
Treasurer, 
Secretary, 

And such a number of Merchants as already are, or hereafter may become, 
members thereof, and be called and known by the name of 

THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

The members present unanimously chose the following gentlemen their 
officers for this year, to commence the first Tuesday in May next : 

John Cruger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 

Then the following resolutions being read were agreed to. 

That the members of the Chamber of Commerce shall meet the first 
Tuesday in every month, to transact such business as may come before 
them, and estabUsh such rules for the order and good government of the 
Society as they may find necessary. 

That the first Tuesday in May, August, November and February in every 
year are declared to be the Grand Quarterly meetings, at which times the 
accompts of the Chamber are to be settled, and any new members who desire 
it, and are chosen by ballot, are to be admitted. 

The Officers of said Chamber of Commerce to be chosen yearly by ballot, 
on the first Tuesday in May, and to continue for one year. 

Every member of the Society who now is, or hereafter may be admitted 
into the same, shall pay unto the Treasurer, for the use of the said Chamber 
of Commerce, Five Spanish Dollars on his admission, and shall also pay 
unto the said Treasurer, for the aforesaid use, the further sum of One 
Spanish Dollar, on each of the four Quarterly days before mentioned. And 
such members shall faithfully observe and conform to all rules and regu- 
lations made and entered into the Books of the said Society (kept by the said 
Chamber of Commerce for that purpose) on pain of being dismissed the said 
Chamber of Commerce, and having his or their name struck oif the list. 

Any person choosing to become a member of this Chamber of Com- 
merce, must give in his name to the President for the time being, on the 
first Tuesday in the month preceeding the Quarterly Meetings ; and the 
person proposed is to be balloted for, and if three nays appear he cannot be 
admitted during the government of the President in whose year he was so 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 27 

refused, but may be proposed the succeeding or any year after, and, if not 
again opposed by three nays, then to be admitted. 

A proper room for the meeting of the members of the Chamber of Com- 
merce is to be provided, and the Treasurer is to have Bread and Cheese, 
Beer, Punch, Pipes and Tobacco, provided at the expence of the members 
present, so that it doth not exceed one shilling each man, which each person 
is to pay to the Treasurer at their respective meetings. 

The members of the Chamber of Commerce do agree that the Treasurer 
shall provide for their use a strong chest, wherein shall be deposited their 
Cash, Books and Papers, which is to have three different good locks and 
keys — one key to be kept by the President, one by the Treasurer, and the 
third by the Secretary. The chest, for the present, to be kept at the Trea- 
surer's. 

No business to be done by the said Chamber of Commerce unless there 
be twenty-one members present, of which the President or Vice-President 
to be always one (unless by Committees to be appointed for particular pur- 
poses), the meeting on the first Tuesday in May next only excepted, when 
thirteen or more members may do business, and everything proposed or 
transacted to be by vote of the members present, and the opinion of the 
majority of votes to be conclusive and binding on the members, except in 
admitting new members, which is to be done as is herein before directed. 

The President, with the advice of the members of the Chamber, is to 
appoint the place of meeting ; nothing to be done but by application to him, 
who is to examine and sign the Treasurer's accompts, and in general to 
superintend all the Society's affairs. 

The Vice-President, in the absence of the President, to have the same 
powers and authority as if the President was personally present, and is to 
keep the President's key when absent. 

The Treasurer to provide a proper book for keeping the receipt of all 
money paid to him, and all money laid out by him for the use of the said 
Society, which are to be fairly entered at the meetings held from time to 
time, and which are to be Audited on the first Tuesday in May in every 
year and signed by the Auditors to be appointed for that purpose, when the 
Treasurer is to deliver over the cash remaining in hands, books, and his key 
to the Treasurer next chosen ; or, in absence of the Treasurer so elected, to 
the President, or in his absence, to the Vice-President. 

The Secretary is to keep a fair register of all proceedings, orders, rules 
and regulations of the said Chamber of Commerce, which are to be entered 
in a proper book to be provided for that purpose. In the absence of the 
Secretary, the President to appoint one of the members to officiate in his 
place for the time being, to whom, by a written order from the President, 
the Secretary's key is to be delivered. 

Every member not attending the Monthly meetings to forfeit and pay to 
the Treasurer Two Shillings, and such who do not attend the Quarterly meet- 



28 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

ings to pay Four Shillings for non-attendance, unless some cause, judged 
reasonable by the Society, is admitted by them as a sufficient excuse ; sick- 
ness, and being absent at least six miles from the City, to be always allowed 
sufficient reason for non-attendance. 

The President is to appoint a proper person, to be approved of by the 
Society, as their Door-keeper and Messenger, who is to be paid by the Trea- 
surer such sums as may be hereafter directed by the President for his ser- 
vices. 

It is agreed that no new rules, regulations, or orders for the government 
of this Society shall be made unless proposed at a preceeding meeting, that 
there may be time for the general sense of the Society to be known. 

The President, or in his absence, the Vice-President, hath power, on 
any emergency, to call a meeting of the said Chamber ; and all meetings to 
be at six o'clock in the evening of every day that their attendance may be 
required. 

December 6, 1768. 

Examined and revised by order of the Chamber. 

Hugh Walllace, Thomas Randal, 

Robert Murray, Isaac Low, 

Sampson Simpson, Jno. Harris Cruger. 

Resolved — That the same be entered in the minutes of 
this Chamber. 

The same gentlemen report, according to order, the 
draught proper to be inserted in the newspapers — the use 
and design of this Chamber — which, being read, was in the 
words following : 

New York Chamber of Commerce, ") 
December 6, 1768. j 

As Mercantile Societies have been found very usefuU in trading cities 
for promoting and encouraging commerce, adjusting disputes relative to 
trade and navigation, supporting industry, recommending such laws and 
establishing such regulations as may be found necessary for the benefit of 
trade in general, 

A considerable number of the Merchants of New York formed them- 
selves into a Society in May last, and have since been joined by the greatest 
part of the other Merchants in the city, in order to advance so truly laudable 
an Institution. 

They are called the New York Chamber of Commerce ; who meet the first 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



29 



Tuesday of every month, and hear all proposals for the better regulating, 
encouraging and extending trade and navigation. 

A Monthly Committee is appointed, who adjust accounts and settle, 
gratis, all disputes between merchants and traders which the parties may 
think fit to submit to their decision. 

The Chamber, in general, do everything in their power for the interest of 
the Community. 

A plan of the Institution, with the Rules and Regulations relating to the 
Chamber, and the method of admitting members, may be seen by applying 
to 

ANTHONY VAN DAM, Secretary. 

By order of the Chamber. 

Hugh Wallace, Robert Watts, 

Robert Murray, Thomas Randal, 
Sampson Simpson, Jno. H. Cruger, 
Isaac Low. 

Resolved — That the same be entered on the minutes 
of this Chamber. 

Ordered — That the Secretary deliver a fair copy of the 
Articles now read to the printer, and request him to print 
300 copies thereof, and that each member be furnished 
with one. 

Ordered — That a fair copy be made of the writing 
proper to be inserted in the newspapers, to acquaint the 
publick the use and design of this Chamber, and desire 
the printers to publish it in the next papers, and to con- 
tinue it in their papers for six weeks.^ 

Messrs. Elias Desbrosses, John Alsop, Samuel Ver 
Plank, Theophylact Bache, and Isaac Low, the Committee 
appointed to apply to the City Members,' and request 
them to consider of such laws as may be necessary for the 
better regulation of the trade of this Colony, particularly 
as to the more effectual inspection of Flour, Potash, 
Pearl-ash, &c., do make their report in the words follow- 
ing : 



30 NEW YORK. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

The Committee, to whom was referred by the New York Chamber of 
Commerce the consideration of some proper regulation with respect to the 
inspection of Flour exported from this Colony, so as if possible to retrieve 
its general disrepute in all parts of the world, and thereby render effectual 
the intention of the Legislature in providing a law for that purpose, 

Do report it as their opinion : 

That the Flour from this Colony ought to be at least equal to that ex- 
ported firom Philadelphia ; because it is obvious that the wheat brought to 
this market from Jersey and Maryland is as good, and the wheat from the 
North River, in particular, much better, than any which comes to Phila- 
delphia. Therefore, that Philadelphia Flour should have the preference at 
all markets of New York Flour, cannot be attributed to the superior quality 
of the wheat, but to some defect in its manufacture, and the present mode of 
inspection. 

To remedy which the Committee are of opinion that there ought to be 
only one Inspector of Flour in this City, as is the practice in Philadelphia ; 
that he ought to appoint as many deputies under him as might be necessary ; 
and that he should be responsible for their conduct, since he might then 
establish some certain Rule of Inspection, from which his Deputies, being 
under his immediate direction and controul, would not dare to deviate. 
Whereas, on the footing the law now stands, of admitting several Inspectors 
of equal authority, each endeavours to establish a reputation with the Flour 
Sellers and Factors, and to secure a preference of their business ; not by 
vieing with each other who shall inspect best, but who shall suffer the worst 
Flour to pass inspection ; and there have been instances where one In- 
spector has condemned, and for that reason not been allowed to proceed 
any further, when another has given the sanction of his brand to all the 
remaining parcel of the same sort of Flour. 

The Committee are also of opinion, that the Inspector of the Flour 
ought not only to advert to its being of a proper fineness, but carefully to 
examine (either by mixing up a little of the Flour into a cake and baking it, 
or by some other effectual experiment) whether it has not been injured by 
being ground too close, or in some other way, so as to prevent its riseing 
and making light white bread ; and that he ought not to brand it for ex- 
portation if deficient in any of those respects. 

The Committee are further of opinion that it would tend greatly towards 
creating a proper emulation in the manufacturers of Flour, if each of them 
was obliged to brand the initial letter of his Christian name, and the whole 
of his sirname, on the casks, together with the name of the County in which 
he resides ; and that the Inspector of Flour be obliged to brand on the 
casks the name of the Province in which the Flour was manufactured. 

The consideration of a law more effectually to inspect Pott and Pearl 
Ashes, being also referred to this Committee, 

They are of opinion that there ought to be only one Inspector of these 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 3 1 

articles also ; that he should distinguish them under the denomination of 
1st, 2d and 3d quality ; and that the names of the manufacturers, and 
their places of abode, be also branded on the casks, and that the Inspector 
also brand on the casks the quality of the Ashes, together with the name of 
the Province in which they were manufactured. 

Elias Desbrosses, Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, Theophy. Bache, 

Saml. Ver Plank. 

Ordered — That the same gentlemen be a Committee 
to wait on the City members, and inform them of their 
report, and that it hath been read in this Chamber and 
approved of. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Thomas Randal, Richard 
Sharpe, Peter Remsen, Henry Remsen, Theophy Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooke, and George Folliot, be a Committee, 
untill the first Tuesday in January next, for adjusting any 
differences between parties agreeing to leave such disputes 
to this Chamber, and that they do attend on every Tues- 
day, or oftener if business require it, at such places as 
they may agree upon, giving notice thereof to the Presi- 
dent. 

On motion of Mr. Isaac Low, who proposed that, 
as it may be necessary sometimes for the good of this 
Chamber, that a Special Meeting of it be called, as lately 
happened respecting the regulations the Chamber had 
resolved on about the price of Flour casks. 

And, whereas, it is one of the fundamental Rules of 
this Chamber that no new Rule, Order, or Regulation 
can be binding on any of the members, except it be pro- 
posed for their consideration at least one month previous 
to its being resolved on. 

It is proposed that in cases of sudden emergency only, 
when it may-be thought necessary (agreeable to the estab- 
lished Rule of this Chamber) that a Special Meeting of 



32 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

the members should be called, each of them shall be noti- 
fied, in writing, by the President or Vice-President, of 
such meeting; and that in such case any regulation which 
may be agreed to by a majority of the members then pres- 
ent, shall be binding on all the other members, under the 
same Penalties and Forfeitures as are provided for the 
observance of the other Rules and Orders of this Cham- 
ber. Isaac Low. 

Proposed — That the Thanks of this Chamber be 
given to Mr. Pintard, for purchasing a cargo of Flour at 
Philadelphia for them, and that the Treasurer to satisfy 
Mr. Pintard for his expence and trouble in procuring it. 
Proposed also, that Mr. Anthony Van Dam do sell, and 
keep the Accompts of Sales of said Flour, and that he be 
paid a commission of 2 J per cent, for transacting that 
business. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, January 3, 1769. 
Present. 

John Cruger, President. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 

Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 

Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Isaac Low, Walter Franklin, 

Lawrence Kortright, Theophy Bache, 

Sampson Simpson, William Walton, 

Edward Laight, Samuel Ver Plank, 

Robert Murray, Thomas Marston, 

George Folliot, Thomas W. Moore 

Henry Remsen, Robert R. Waddle, 

Richard Yates. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Richard Sharpe, Miles Sherbrooke 

John H. Cruger, Gerrard Walton. ' 



register of proceedings. 91 

Absent. 

James Jauncey, Charles McEvers, 

Jacob Walton, John Moore, 

Thomas White, Lewis Pintard, 

Thomas Randal, Levinus Clarkson, 

William McAdam, Nicholas Gouverneur, 

John Alsop, Peter Hasencliver, 

Henry White, Alexan. Wallace, 

Philip Livingston, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Peter Remsen, Thomas Buchanan, 

William Seaton, William Neilson, 

John Reade, Peter Keteltas, 

Robert Alexander, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Robert Watts, Jacob Watson, 

Isaac Sears, Jacobus Van Zandt. 

The consideration of Mr. Low's proposal. That in 
case of sudden emergency only, when it may be thought 
necessary (agreeable to the established Rule of this Cham- 
ber) that a Special Meeting of the members shall be 
called, each of them shall be notified in writing of such 
meeting. 

Resolved unanimously — That in case any regulation 
which may be agreed to by a majority of the members 
then present at such meeting shall be binding on all the 
other members, under the same penalties and forfeitures 
as are provided for the observance of the other Rules and 
Orders of this Chamber. 

The proposal for the Thanks of this Chamber to be 
given to Mr. Pintard, for the trouble he was at in pur- 
chasing a cargo of Flour at Philadelphia on account of 
this Chamber, having been considered of, it is 

Resolved and Ordered — That the Secretary do take 
an extract from the minutes of this Chamber, and serve 
Mr. Pintard with the same, thanking him for the pains 
and trouble he so generously afforded this Chamber in 
the purchase and shipping at Philadelphia a cargo of 



34 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Flour, when they were opposed by the sellers of Flour 
in this City in the price they had fixed for Flour and 
Bread Casks, and the Treasurer is hereby directed to pay 
Mr. Pintard's expences. 

Resolved unanimously — That the Secretary be paid by 
the Treasurer a commission of 2^ per cent, for his trouble 
of collecting money from the different members, sending 
it to Philadelphia for the purchase of Flour, selling the 
same here, collecting the proceeds, and repaying it to the 
members. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Walton, -Thomas 
White, Walter Franklin, Robert R. Waddle, Lawrence 
Kortright, William McAdam, and Isaac Low, be a Com- 
mittee, untill the first Tuesday in February next, for ad- 
justing any differences between parties agreeing to leave 
such disputes to this Chamber, and that they do attend on 
every Tuesday, or oftener, if business require it, at such 
places as they may agree upon, giving notice thereof to 
the President. 

The following gentlemen, having been proposed at the 
last meeting, were balloted for, and elected, as follows : 

Abraham Lynsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nicholas Hoffman. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the several 
gentlemen so elected, in writing, that they were unani- 
mously chosen. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, February 7, 1769. 
Present. 
John Cruger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 

Treasurer. 
Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



3S 



Robert Murray, 
William Walton, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Jacob Watson, 
Henry Remsen, 
John Reade, 



Robert Watts, 
John H. Cruger, 
Abrah. Lynsen, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Neilson, 
Sampson Simpson. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, 
William McAdam, 
Isaac Low, 
Peter Remsen, 



Thos. W. Moore, 
John Moore, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Richd. Yates, 
Alex. Wallace, 



Isaac Roosevelt. 



Fined for non-appearance, being Quarter Day : 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
George Folliot, 
Theophy. Bache, 
Thomas White, 
Robt. R. Waddle, 
Thomas Randal, 
Peter Keteltas, 
John Alsop, 
Henry White, 
Philip Livingston, 
Richd. Sharpe, 



William Seaton, 
Edward Laight, sick, 
Robert Alexander, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Charles McEvers, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Nichs. Gouverneur, 
Thos. Marston, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Thos. Buchanan, 



Nichs. Hoffman. 



Mr. Lewis Pintard, who purchased a quantity of Flour 
at Philadelphia, and Anthony Van Dam, who was ap- 
pointed to sell it here, having exhibited their accounts, 
relating thereto. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Robert Watts and Thomas 
W. Moore be a Committee to audit the same, and make 
report thereof at the sitting of this Chamber, on the first 
Tuesday in March next. 



36 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the following gentlemen 

be, and hereby are, appointed a Committee, untill the first 

Tuesday in March next, for adjusting any differences 

between parties agreeing to leave such disputes to this 

Chamber, and that they do attend on every Tuesday, or 

oftner if business require it, at such places as they may 

agree upon. 

Robert Watts, Abraham Lynsen, 

John H. Cruger, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Gerrard Walton, Nichs. Hoffman, 

Jacobus Van Zandt. 

As it appears highly necessary for this Chamber to 
have a decent, large and commodious room to meet in, 
and that the Room over the Exchange will be proper for 
that use — 

Ordered — That Messrs. Isaac Low, Isaac Roosevelt, 
Wm. Walton, Lawrence Kortright, and Thomas Randal, 
be a Committee to wait upon the Mayor and Corporation, 
and apply to them for the use of the Room'° over the Ex- 
change, and agree on such terms as they judge reasonable. 

Mr. Hugh Wallace acquaints this Chamber that Mr. 
Nichs. Gouverneur, William McAdam and himself are 
appointed Arbitrators, to settle a long and intricate account 
between Col. John Schuyler^ and Capt. Archibald Ken- 
nedy,^ and desiring that they may be excused from serv- 
ing on any Committee during the time they may be so 
employed, which was granted. 

Several gentlemen who were proposed at the last 
meeting, and are desirous of becoming members of this 
Chamber, were balloted for, and were elected, viz. : 

Hamilton Young, Thomas Walton, 

John Thurman. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the several 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



37 



gentlemen so elected, in writing, that they were unani- 
mously chosen. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, March 7, 1769. 
Present. 
John Cruger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 
Ellas Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anth'y Van Dam, Secretary. 



William Walton, 
Peter Remsen, 
Henry Remsen, 
John Reade, 
Isaac Sears, 



Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Abrah. Lynsen, 



Isaac Roosevelt. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock, viz. : 



John Cruger, P. 
Hugh Wallace, V. P. 
Ehas Desbrosses, T. 
James Jauncey, 
Robert Murray, 
Theoph Bache, 
Walter Franklin, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 
Richd. Sharpe, 
Edward Laight, 
Robert Alexander, 
John Thurman, 
Jacob Walton, 
Lawrence Kortright, 



Absent, viz. 



George Folliot, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Thomas White, Gout, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Thomas Randal, 
William McAdam, Gout, 
Henry White, 



Miles Sherbrooke, 
Robert Watts, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerrard Walton, 
John Moore, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
William Neilson, 
Sampson Simpson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Jacob Watson, 
Nicholas Hoflfman. 
Thomas Walton, 
William Seton, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Gerrard W. Beekman. 

Philip Livingston, 
Charles McEvers, 
Lewis Pintard, * 

Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Thomas Marston, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Alexander Wallace, 



Hamilton Young. 

Mr. Holt's'^ account appeared for printing 300 copies 



j8 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

of the Articles of this Chamber and two advertisements, 
amounting to five pounds ten shillings. 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay that account, and 
charge this Chamber for the same. 

Several gentlemen, having been proposed at the last 
meeting, were balloted for and elected, as follows : 

John Wetherhead, WiUiam Stepple, 

Garret Rapelje, Gerardus Duyckinck. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the several 
gentlemen so elected, in writing, that they were unani- 
mously chosen. 

Messrs. Isaac Low, Isaac Roosevelt, William Walton, 
Lawrence Kortright, and Thomas Randal, reported that 
they had waited on the Mayor ^ and Corporation, to ask 
their assent for the Room over the Exchange, and that they 
were pleased to say that the Chamber should have the 
use thereof for one year from the first of May next, if 
they would put it in such repair as they required, and 
after that to pay £20 per annum. 

Ordered — That Mr. President, Mr. Isaac Low, 
Thomas Randal, and Sampson Simpson, be a Committee 
to employ and agree with some fit persons to make tables, 
&c., and put the said Room in order for the Chamber. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Alsop, Henry White, 
Philip Livingston, Charles McEvers, Hamilton Young, 
Thomas Walton, and John Thurman, be a Committee, 
untill first Tuesday in April next, for adjusting any differ- 
ences between parties, &c. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, April 4, 1769. 
Present. 
John Cruger, President 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 39 

James Jauncey, Sampson Simpson, 

Robert Murray, John Reade, 

Gab. H. Ludlow, Henry Remsen, 

Thomas Buchanan, Nicholas Hoffman, 

William Stepple. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Jacob Walton, Robert R. Waddle, 

Thomas Randal, Peter Remsen, 

Isaac Low, Abram Lynsen, 

William Walton, Hamilton Young, 

Garrard Walton, Robert Watts, 

John Moore, Garret Rapelje, 

Edward Laight, Robert Alexander, 

Garrard W. Beakman, Gerrard Duyckinck, 
John Wetherhead. 

Absent. 

Hugh Wallace, Richard Yatas, 

George Folliot, Thomas Marston, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Philip Livingston, 

Theophy. Bache, Isaac Sears, 

Miles Sharbrooke, Lewis Pintard, 

Walter Franklin, Peter Hasancliver, 

Lawren. Kortright, Alexander Wallace, 

Henry White, William Saton, 

John Alsop, William Neilson, 

Thomas White, Peter Keteltas, 

William McAdam, Jacob Watson, 

John H. Cruger, Thomas W. Moore, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Richard Sharpe, 

Charles McEvers, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Lavinus Clarkson, Thomas Walton, 

Nicholas Gouvarnaur, John Thurman. 

As the usual Tare allowed on Firkin'd Butter and Hog's 
Lard often proves very erroneous and much to the preju- 
dice of the purchasers, It is proposed by Mr. Edward 
Laight, that the just weight of each Firkin be mark'd on 
the head of all Butter or Hog's Lard that shall be here- 
after bought or sold by the members of this Chamber. 

Mr. Anthony Van Dam proposes that when any dif- 



40 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

ferences shall be settled by Committees of this Chamber, 
That the names of the persons who had the dispute, with 
the sums awarded, shall be entered on the Minutes of 
this Chamber, and that such gentlemen who have already 
decided any disputes, who can conveniently give in their 
award, that they be also entered. 

As it is highly necessary that the Quantity of the dif- 
ferent species of Goods usually shipped from this Port be 
ascertained \and it he fixed what ""^ shall be a ton. It is 
proposed that there be a Committee appointed to enumer- 
ate the -different quality of Goods usually exported from 
hence, and fix what shall be a Ton of Flour, Bread, Pork, 
Beef, Rice, Grain, and all kinds of Lumber, &c., &c., &c. 

Mr. William Imlay and Augustus Van Home, who 
were proposed at the last meeting, were balloted for and 
elected. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the gentle- 
men so elected, in writing, that they were unanimously 
chosen. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Levinus Clarkson, John 
Moore, Richard Yates, John Wetherhead, Garret Rap- 
alje, Gerrardus Duyckinck, and William Stepple, be a 
Committee, untill the first Tuesday in May next, for 
adjusting any differences between parties agreeing to leave 
such disputes to this Chamber, and that they do attend 
on every Tuesday, or oftener if business require it, at such 
places as they may agree upon, giving notice thereof to 
the President. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.-Tuesday, May 2, 1769. 
Present. 
John Cruger, President. 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



41 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
William Walton, 
Walter Franklin, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Sampson Simpson 



Garret Rapelje. 



Jacob Watson, 
Peter Remsen, 
Henry Remsen, 
John Reade, 
Nicholas Hofiman, 
Thomas Walton, 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Elias Desbrosses, 
Robert Murray, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Theophy. Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Lawrence Kortright 
Thomas Randall, 
Edward Laight, 
William McAdam, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Isaac Sears, 



Jacobus Van Zandt, 
John Moore, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Nichol. Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
William Neilson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Abram Lynsen, 
John Wetherhead, 
William Stepple, 
William Imlay, 
Augustus Van Home. 



Absent. 



George Folliot, 
Thomas White, Gout, 
Robert R. Waddel, 
Robert Watts, Jersey, 
John Thurman, do. 
Charles McEvers, 
Alexander Wallace, 



Peter Keteltas, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
William Seton, 
Robert Alexander, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Hamilton Young. 



Mr. President reported that the Honorable House 
of Assembly had directed him" to signify their Thanks to 
the Merchants of this City and Colony for their Patriotic 
conduct in declining the Importation of Goods from Great 
Britain at this juncture/' which being read, was in the 
words following : 



4-2 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Gentlemen :— 

I have it in charge from the General Assembly to give the Merchants 
of this City and Colony the Thanks of the House for their repeated dis- 
interested, pubhck spirited and patriotic conduct in declining the importation 
or receiving of goods from Great Britain, untill such Acts of Parliament as 
the General Assembly had declared unconstitutional and subversive of the 
Rights and Liberties of the People of this Colony, should be repealed. 

Ordered — That Mess. Desbrosses, Alsop, Low, Kort- 
right, W. Franklin, and McAdam be a Committee to 
prepare and deliver in to this Board, a draught of the 
Thanks to the Honorable House for the particular notice 
they have taken of the Merchants that compose this 
Chamber, and that they do, when perfected, wait on the 
Honorable House therewith as soon as conveniently 
may be. 

Mr. Treasurer reported that the Committee had ac- 
cordingly drawn up the thanks of this Chamber; after 
some amendments it was read in the words following : 

New York Chamber of Commerce, ) 
May 2, 1769. ) 

The Merchants of the City of New York, at their Monthly Meeting this 
day, having received by the Speaker the Thanks of the Honorable House of 
Assembly for their disinterested and steady regard for the Publick Good, are 
highly sensible of the honour done them, and flatter themselves that their 
endeavours to promote the Trade of the Colony will always merit and re- 
ceive the protection and approbation of the Legislature in general, and this 
Honorable House in particular. 

This being the day appointed by the original institu- 
tion to elect officers for the ensuing year, the following 
gentlemen were balloted for, when the four former were 
rechosen, viz. : 

John Cruger, President. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 

Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



43 



The consideration of Mr. Laight's motion to regulate 
the tare to be allowed on Firkin'd Butter and Hog's 
Lard Is referred to some future meeting. 

Mr. Van Dam's proposal respecting the propriety of 
entering on the Minutes of this Chamber the business 
that may come before the several Monthly Committees 
was considered of, and 

Ordered — That all future Committees do report un- 
to the next sitting of this Chamber what differences be- 
tween parties they have adjusted, with their names and 
sums they have awarded, unless both parties object to the 
same being inserted, and that such gentlemen who have 
decided any controversies are desired to deliver in the 
subject of their awards as soon as may be, and that the 
same be entered. 

Mr. McAdam proposes that the Chamber shall agree 
what are the usual Commissions for doing business at this 
place, as well foreign as inland, and prays that a Commit- 
tee be 'appointed to make enquiry and report to the 
Chamber at their next meeting. 

Ordered — That the Treasurer, Mr. Simpson, Mr. 
Pintard, Mr. Kortright, and Mr. Bache be a Committee 
for that purpose, and that they do make their report at 
the next meeting of the Chamber. 

Mr. Simpson proposes that as an inconvenience at- 
tends the Chamber when any of the members depart be- 
fore the Business before them is done. Moves, that if any 
member departs without leave first obtained from the 
President, that they be fined four Shillings. 

Ordered — That Mr. Franklin, Mr. Buchanan, Mr. 
Van Zandt, Mr. Yates, and Mr. H. Remsen be a Com- 
mittee to audit the Treasurer's Accounts, and sign the 
same agreeable to the Rules of the Chamber. 



44 ^'EW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Mr. Van Dam's Proposal for fixing the Tonnage of 
Goods being considered of and being thought very neces- 
sary and useful to prevent disputes. 

Ordered — That Mr. R. Murray, Mr. Young, Mr. 
Sherbrooke, Mr. Yates, and Mr. P. Remsen be a Com- 
mittee to ascertain the Tonnage'-* of this Port, and that 
they make report in writing on the next meeting of the 
Chamber. 

Ordered — That Mr. Imlay, Mr. Van Home, Mr. 
Sears, Mr. Pintard, Mr. Alex. Wallace, Mr. G. H. Lud- 
low, be a Committee for the month of May, for adjusting 
any diiferences between parties agreeing to leave such 
disputes to this Chamber, and that they do attend on 
every Tuesday, or oftner if business require it, at such 
places as they may agree upon, giving notice thereof to 
the President. 

Messrs. Franklin, Buchanan, Yates, Sharpe, and Van 
Zandt, propose that the Members have a Publick Dinner 
in the Chamber, and that it be on the second Tuesday in 
June for this year, at the expence of each member ; that 
absent members pay Five Shillings, and that Two Stewards 
be appointed on the first Tuesday in June next for this year. 

Mr. Henry C. Bogart and Mr. George Ludlow, who 
were proposed at the last meeting, were balloted for and 
elected. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the Gentle- 
men so elected, in writing, that they were unanimously 
chosen. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th June, 1769. 

Present. 
John Cruger, President 
Hugh Wallace, Vice-President 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Thomas Randal, 
Richard Yates, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan, 



Lewis Pintard. 



Sampson Simpson, 
John Reade, 
Henry Remsen, 
Abrah. Lynsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nicholas Hofiman, 



45 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock ; 



Robert Murray, 
Isaac Sears, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Hamilt. Young, 
William McAdam, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
August. Van Home, 



George W. Ludlow, 
William Neilson, 
William Walton, 
William Seton, 
Peter Remsen, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Isaac Low, 
Robert Watts, 
Thomas Walton, 
John Thurman. 



Fined for non-appearance : 



George FoUiot, 

Samuel Ver Plank, (Bloomandale) ^ 

Henry White, 

John Alsop, 

Thomas White, 

Robert R. Waddle, 

Charles McEvers, (Bloomandale) 

John Moore, 

Levinus Clarkson, (Bloomandale) 

Nicholas Gouverneur, 

Thomas Marston, (flat Bush)'' 

Philip Livingston, 

J'eter Keteltas, 

GerrardW. Beekman, 



Jacob Watson, 
Robert Alexander, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Richard Sharpe, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, F " 
Gerrard Duykink, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Edward Laight, 
William Stepple, 
John Wetherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
William Imlay. 



The Committee appointed to audit the Treasurer's 
Accounts having made their report, which, being read, was 
in the words following, 



46 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Pursuant to an order of this Chamber, of 2d May, We, the Committee 
appointed to Audit the Accounts of Elias Desbrosses (present Treasurer), 
have- audited the said accounts from the 3d May, 1768, to 29th May, 1769, 
and do find a Ballance of Sixty-nine Pounds five Shillings and fivepence 
due from the said Treasurer to the Chamber of Commerce. In Witness 
whereof. We have signed this Report, the 3d June, 1769. 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Thomas Buchanan, 
Henry Remsen, jun., , Richd. Yates. 

The Committee appointed to agree on what are the 
usual Commissions for doing business at this place, as 
well Foreign as Inland, report that they had made some 
progress therein, and desired further time to consider 
thereof, and to deliver in their report. 

Ordered — That leave be given accordingly. 

The Committee appointed to ascertain the Tonnage 
of this Port, having made some progress therein, desired 
leave to sit again. 

Ordered — That leave be given accordingly. 

Mr. Low proposed — That, as the Governor, Council 
and General Assembly of this Province had passed 
an Act'^ at their last Sessions for the better Inspec- 
tion of Flour, &c., and therein had provided that all 
Flour Casks should have Ten Hoops, three of which to 
be on each head; for the encouragement to the Manu- 
facturers of Flour, the Chamber shou'd agree to pay for 
all Flour Casks that shall be well and sufficiently made and 
Hooped with Ten hoops, agreeable to said Law, at and 
after the rate of Twenty-eight Shillings p Ton for Casks 
and Nails. 

Mr. Low proposed — That for the better order and 
more effectual doing of business in this Chamber, that 
every Person who hath any reasons to offer in favour of 
any proposals made to the Chamber, or any objections to 
make against them, shall rise and address himself to the 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



47 



President, on forfeiture of One Shilling for every Offence, 
and the same to be inflicted on any Person who shall 
interrupt another while speaking to the President. 

The proposal of last meeting for the Chamber to 
Dine in Publick on Tuesday next being considered of 
and agreed to. 

Ordered — That Cap. Randal and Mr. Low be Stew- 
ards to provide a Dinner accordingly, and that notice be 
given by the Messenger of this Chamber the day before 
to each Member. 

The Committee for March report that they have 
settled a dispute between 

Moses Franks, by John H. Cruger, his Attor'y, 

and 

Gerrardus Duyckinck j 

And having maturely considered the objections made by Mr. Duyckinck, and 
the allegations of both parties, the Committee, as Arbitrators — to wit, Jacs. 
V. Zandt, J. Roosevelt, Ab. Lynsen, Nich. Hoffman, and Gerrard Walton — 
did Award that Gerra's Duyckinck should pay unto the said John Harris 
Cruger, for the use of the said Moses Franks, the sum of One Hundred 
and Twenty-eight Pounds Sixteen Shillings and Seven Pence, Sterling 
Money of Great Britain. 

The same Committee having considered of 

David Knote, Thomas &" Isaac Potter, Joseph (Sr» Stephen Fleming, 

of New Jersey's, 

dispute with 

Cap. John Anderson, 

Wherein the first Party demand of Anderson ;£io6 9s. 2j;d. ; but on ex- 
amining into the Merits of the dispute, awarded Anderson to pay them £(>^ 
9s. io|d. 

The Committee for May report that they settled a 
dispute between 

John Barnes of Bristol, 

and 

Lambert Garrison; 



48 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

And having duly considered the Proofs and Allegations of both parties, have 
awarded the said Garrison to pay the said Barnes the smn of ^38 4s. gd., 
Sterling money of Great Britain, on or before the first July next ensuing, and 
that on payment thereof the said Barnes do execute to said Garrison a dis- 
charge iu full for that sum and all other expences. 

Isaac Sears, Lewis Pintard, 

Gab. H. Ludlow, AuEXAy;. Wallace, 
Thomas Buchanax. 



Mr. Joseph Bull having been proposed as a member 
of this Chamber, and being balloted for, was chosen. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice thereof, in 
writing, that he was duly elected. 

Ordered — That Messrs. W. Seton, E. Laight, Wm. 
Neilson, S. Simpson, P. Keteltas, H. C. Bogart, and G. W. 
Ludlow, be a Committee to hear and determine disputes 
between parties who shall agree to leave such to this 
Chamber, and that they do make report thereof, in 
writing, to this Chamber, what business hath or shall 
come before them during their appointment. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th July, 1769. 

Present. 

John Cruger, President 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President 

EUas Desbrosses, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretarj-. 
Jacob Watson, James Jauncej-, 

Joseph Bull, Henry C. Bogart, 

Gab. H. Ludlow, Augustus Van Horn, 

Lewis Pintard, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

William Neilson, Thomas Randall, 

Henry Remsen, Jr., Nicholas Hoffinan, 

Sampson Simpson, Robert Watts. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Thomas W. Moore, 
William Seton, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Isaac Low, 
Jno. H. Cruger, 
William Stepple, 
Theoph Bache, 



Levinus Clarkson, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Thomas Walton, 
Gerrard Beekman, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
Thomas White, 
William Walton, 
Samuel Ver Plank. 



49 



Fined for non-appearance 



Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, R. I. 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Henry White, 
John Alsop, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
William McAdam, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 



Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Peter Remsen, 
Hamilton Young, 
William Imlay, 
Philip Livingston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Edward Laight, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Robert Alexander, 
Abram Ljrnsen, (Setauket)'' 
Garret Rapelje, 
George W. Ludlow. 



Mr. Low's proposal at last meeting having been con- 
sidered of, for allowing 28s. p Ton for Flour casks hooped 
with Ten hoops. 

Resolved — That the members of this Chamber, in their 
future purchase of Flour, are willing to pay Twenty- 
eight Shillings p Ton for Casks and Nails, provided that 
they be well and sufficiently made (agreeable to an Act 
of the Governor, Council, and General Assembly of this 
Province, passed at their last Sessions,) and hooped with 
Ten hoops, three of which to be on each Head. 
4 



fO NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Ordered — That the above resolve be published in the 
Papers.'" 

The Committee for enquiring what are the usual 
Commissions as well Foreign as Inland, delivered in their 
report, which, being read, was in the words following: 

Pursuant to an Order of this Chamber of 2d May, We, the Commit- 
tee appointed to enquire what are the usual Commissions for doing Busi- 
ness at this Place, have, agreeable to said order, made Inquiry, and do 
find that the following Commissions are most generally charged, viz. : 

Inland, 2~ per cent, on Sales, exclusive of Storage. 1 Say from Boston to 

2| per cent. Returns. f Philadelphia. 

Foreign, 5 " on Sales, exclusive of Storage. 

5 " Returns. 

Bills of Exchange, Indorsing, Selling, or Negotiating, - - 2L p ct. 

Making Insurance, -J per cent. Recovering of Losses, - 2 J- " 

Outfit of Vessels, 5 percent. Solliciting& Procuring of Freight, 5 " 
Collecting in Freight, 2| per cent. Receiving or Paying of Money, 2I " 

Which is submitted to the consideration of this Chamber. 

Lawrence Kortright, Sampson Simpson, 
Lewis Pintard, Theoph Bache, 

Elias Desbrosses. 

The Chamber agree in opinion that the above Com- 
missions are generally charged in this place, and that in 
case any disputes arise between parties and Referees 
being chosen out of this Chamber, that they do govern 
themselves accordingly, except where special agreements 
have been made to the contrary. 

The Proposal of Mr. Low to inflict a fine of One 
Shilling for any person who hath anything to offer and 
doth not address himself to the Chair standing, or that 
interrupts any of the members while speaking to the 
Chair, being consider'd of. 

Resolved— That it is the opinion of the Chamber 
that the business will be much better attended to if the 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 51 

proposed fine be attended to, and it Is unanimously agreed 
to. 

Mr. Leonard Lispenard, Junr., having been proposed 
at a former meeting, was balloted for and unanimously 
chosen a member of this Chamber. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice, in writing, 
that he was unanimously chosen. 

Ordered — That Messrs. G. W. Beekman, J. Watson, 
J. Reade, R. Alexander, T. W. Moore, R. Sharpe, and 
Jos. Bull, be a Committee untill the first Tuesday in 
August next, to hear and determine disputes between 
parties who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, and 
that they do make report thereof, in writing, to this 
Chamber, what business hath or shall come before them 
during their appointment. 

. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist August, 1769. 

Present. 

John Cruger, President. 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anth. Van 'Dam, Secretary. 

John H. Cruger, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Nicholas Hoffman, Joseph Bull, 

Robert Murray, Isaac Low, 

Sampson Simpson, William Walton, 

Gerrard Walton, Abram Lynsen, 

Thomas Walton, Edward Laight, 

Jacob Watson, Richard Yates, 

James Jauncey, John Moore. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Hamilton Young, Peter Remsen, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, WiUiam Stepple, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Isaac Sears, 

Thomas W. Moore, George Ludlow, 

Robert Watts. 



52 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Fined for non-appearance : 



Hugh Wallace, 

Jacob Walton, 

George Folliott, 

Theophy Bache, 

William McAdam, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, (Jerseys.) 

Charles McEvers, 

Levinus Clarkson, 

William Neilson, 

Peter Keteltas, 

Gerrard W. Beekman, 

John Reade, 

MOes Sherbrooke, 

Walter Franklin, (L. I.) 

Lawrence Kortright, 

Thomas Randall, 

Henry White, 

John Alsop, 

Thomas White, 

William 



Imlay. 



Robert R. Waddle, 
Augustus Van Home, 
Thomas Marston, 
Philip Livingston, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Alexander Wallace, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, (N» Cas- 
tle.) =' 
Thomas Buchanan, 
William Seton, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Robert Alexander, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Henry Remsen, 
John Thurman, 
John Weatherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duykink, 



Mr. William Walton proposes that the Chamber 
should take into their consideration the low rates that 
Gold and Silver Coin passes at, among which are : 



English Guineas & half-Guineas, 
French " & " " 

Moidores & " 

English Crowns & 



French Crowns and half-Crowns, 

Carolines, 

Ducats, 

Chequins, 



Shillings and Sixpences : 

And any other Coins that pass under their value, and 
prays that a Committee be appointed to ascertain their 
true value and make report thereof to this Chamber at 
their next Meeting. 

Ordered— That Mr. Wm. Walton, Sam. Ver Plank, 
Robt. Murray, Ham. Young, and Jno. H. Cruger, be a 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



S3 



Committee for the purpose aforesaid, and that they make 
report thereof accordingly. 

Mr. Moore proposes that as the quality of Lumber is 
an Article of considerable consequence to this Colony, and 
that such as is brought to this Market is generally very 
irregular, that a Committee be appointed to take the 
matter into consideration and to make a report to the 
Chamber of such regulations as they may think necessary 
to be made concerning it. 

Ordered — That Mr, Moore, Mr. Yates, Mr. A. Wal- 
lace, Mr. Watson, and Mr. Bache be a Committee for 
the purpose aforesaid, and that they do make report 
thereof to this Chamber at their next Meeting. 

Capt. Thomas Miller having been proposed at a 
former Meeting, was balloted for and unanimously 
chosen a member of this Chamber. 

Ordered that the Secretary send notice in writing that 
he was unanimously chosen. 

Ordered that Messrs. P. Remsen, H. Remsen, A. 
Lynsen, I. Roosevelt, N. Hoffman, H. Young, and Thos. 
Walton be a Committee until the first Tuesday in Sep- 
tember next, to hear and determine disputes between 
parties who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, and 
that they do make report thereof, in writing, to this 
Chamber what business has or shall come before them 
during their appointment. 

The Committee for June, 1769, report 

That having been applied to by Mr. H. C. Bogart, on the part and 
behalf of Mr. Rhodes, of Boston, and Mr. Lewis Pintard by procuration 
of Peter Pallade for Monsr. La Piere of Port au Prince, wherein Mr. 
Rhodes demands for a * * * * * * 



2i6 5 


- 


43 4 


6 


8 




25917 


6 


67 19 


6 


6 II 


9 


£i3^ 8 


9 



54 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 

Protested Bill of Exchange of 432S litres, 15 J cur- 
rency, 
20 per cent, damages, 
Charges of protest, 



Interest from 13 Sept., 1765, to 9 June, being 3 
years and 8 months & 126 days at 7 per cent. 
Cost of Attachment 



The parties being heard by Messrs. Peter Keteltas, William Wilson and 
Wm. Seton, three of the Committee, who award ^£266 6s. 6d. to be due to 
Mr. Rhodes from Vallade the possessor of Monsr. La Piere's effects. 

The Committee for July, 1769, report 

That, having been applied to by Capt. William Warnock of the one part, 
and John Franklin of the other part, who being heard by Messrs. Jacob 
Watson, Thos. W. Moore, and John Reade, three of the Committee, have 
awarded that there is due from John Franklin to William Warnock the sum 
of ^11. 6s. 3d., with this memorandum : Since settling the above account, 
Cap. Warnock says he delivered a keg of rum more than was specified in 
the biU-lading ; and as he deUvered a barrel flour short, the matter is left 
unsettled till Mr. Franklin's return from Phil'a. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th September, 1769. 

Present. 

John Cruger, Presid't, Lewis Pintard, 

John Reade, G. W. Ludlow, 

Jacob Watson, Samp'n Simpson, 

Robert Murray, Gerrard Walton, 

William Walton, Joseph Bull, 
Jacobus Van Zandt. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Samuel Ver Plank, James Jauncey, 

Peter Remsen, Thomas Walton, 

Miles Sherbrooke, John Moore, 

Hamilton Young, Gab. H. Ludlow, 

Thomas W. Moore. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



55 



As a sufficient number of Members were not convened" 
to do business, all the rest were fined for non-attendance. 



Hugh WaUace, V. P., 
Elias Desbrosses, T., 
Anthony Van Dam, S., 
Jacob Walton, 
George FoUiot, 
Theophy. Bache, 
Walter Franklin, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
Isaac Low, 
Henry White, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
WiUiam McAdam, 
Robert Watts, 
John H. Cruger, 
Charles McEvers, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Philip Livingston, 



Isaac Sears, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
WilUam Seton, 
Edward Laight, 
William NeUson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Gerr'd W. Beekman, 
Robert Alexander, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Henry Remsen, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
John Thurman, 
John Wetherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerr'd Duykink, 
Will. Stepple, 
Will. Imlay, 
Angus. Van Horn, 
Henry C. Bogart. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d October, 1769. 

Present. 
John Cruger, P. 

V. P. 

T. 
Anthony Van Dam, S. 



Jacob Walton, 
Joseph BuU, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Isaac Sears, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Gab. H. Ludlow, 
George Ludlow, 
Richard Yates, 
William Stepple, 



Leonard Lispenard, 
Henry Remsen, 
John Moore, 
Hamil. Young, 
Thomas Walton, 
James Jauncey, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Lewis Pintard, 



56 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



William Walton, 
John H. Cruger, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Augus. Van Horn, 



Samuel Ver Plank, 
Thomas Marston, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Walter Franklin, 



Abram Lynsen. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 
John Thurman. 



Fined for non-appearance 

Hugh Wallace, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
Robert Murray, 
George Folliot, 
Thomas Randal, 
Isaac Low, 
Henry White, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
William McAdam, 
Robert Watts, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, (Phil'a) 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Philip Livingston, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Alexand. Wallace, 
William Seton, 



Edward Laight, 
William Neilson, 
Sampson Simpson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Gerrar. W. Beekman, 
Jacob Watson, 
John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nichos. Hoffman, 
John Weatherhead, 
Gerrars. Duykink, 
William Imlay, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Thomas Miller, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Charles McEvers. 



The Committee appointed to ascertain the Value of 
Gold and Silver Coin^' having made their report, which, 
being read, was in the words following : 

We, the subscribers, being appointed a Committee by the Chamber of 
Commerce to consider what the undermentioned Coins should pass current 
for, do report, viz. : 
A Johannes, weighing eighteen pennyweight, shall for - - £6 S 

and every smaller coin of the same denomination in like 

proportion. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



57 



A Moidore, weighing six pennyweight eighteen grains, for - ;£2 8 
and the smaller coins of same denomination in like pro- 
portion. 

A Caroline, weighing six pennyweight eight grains, for - i i8 

A Spanish Doubleloon, or Four-Pistole piece, weighing seven- 
teen pennyweight eight grains, .... ^ 15 
and the smaller coins in the same proportion. 

An English Guinea, weighing five pennyweight six grains, - 117 
Half and Quarter do. in same proportion. 

A French Guinea, weighing five penn)rweight four grains, i 16 

Half do. in same proportion. 

A Chequeen, weighing two pennyweight four grains - - 14 6 

An English Crown for ... 89 

Half Crowns in same proportion. 

A French Crown for - - - 8 6 

Half Crowns in same proportion. 

A French Pistole, weighing four pennyweight five grains, - 18 

An English Shilling for - .... j q 

Sixpence in same proportion. 

A Pistareen for - - - - - 17 

And for every grain any of the above specified pieces of Gold shall weigh 
less than the weight above directed, there shall be deducted four pence, 
which is humbly submitted by 

William Walton, Hamilton Young, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Robert Murray, 

John H. Cruger. 

Resolved — That this Chamber will pay and receive all 
Gold and Silver in future at the above rates, and Ordered 
that the substance of the above report be published in 
Newspapers/* 

The Committee appointed to report their opinion 
respecting Lumber, having made their report, which, being 
read, was in the words following : 

We, the subscribers, being appointed by the New York Chamber of 
Commerce to be a committee for considering the present state of Lumber 
shipp'd from this Port, and to make report to them of what may appear to 
us necessary for the further improvement of this article of our Exports, do 
give as our opinion ; 

That our Lumber is at present in disrepute at Foreign Markets, and sells 



58 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

considerably under what is Exported from Philadelphia, which we be- 
lieve to be in a great measure owing to a want of proper care in the Dimen- 
sions and Dressing. 

That, in order to give it Reputation, and thereby increase the demand 
for it. We are of opinion that the following regulations will be of service, viz. : 
That every Butt Stave shall be Five feet four inches long, Five inches 
broad in the narrowest part, clear of Sap, One inch and a quarter thick in the 
thinnest place, not more than One inch and three quarters thick in any part, 
and shall not have more than eight worm holes. 

That every Pipe Stave shall be Four feet eight inches long, Four inches 
broad in the narrowest part, clear of Sap, One inch thick in the thinnest 
place, not more than One inch and a half thick in any part, and shall not 
have more than seven worm holes. 

That every Hogshead Stave shall be Three feet eight inches long. Four 
inches broad in the narrowest part, clear of Sap, Three quarters of an inch 
thick in the thinnest place, not more than one inch and one quarter thick in 
any part, and shall not have more than six worm holes. 

That every Barrel Stave shall be Two feet eight inches long, Four inches 
broad in the narrowest part, clear of Sap, Three quarters of an inch thick in 
the thinnest place, not more than one inch and one quarter thick in any part, 
and shall not have more than iive worm holes. 

That every piece of Hogshead Heading shall be Two feet six inches long, 
Seven inches broad in the narrowest part, clear of Sap, and the Cantle pieces 
of the same breadth in the widest part, clear of Sap ; both sorts One inch 
thick, and shall not have more than seven worm holes in each piece, the 
Cutter ha\ing a due regard that there be always a proper proportion of 
middle pieces in such heading. 

That all the aforesaid Staves and Headings shall be regularly split -n-ith 
the grain of the wood, clear of sap, not to exceed the lengths and breadths 
ah-eady mentioned, and be otherwise good and fit for making light casks. 

That aU Hoops brought to Market in order to be shipped off shaU be 
from fourteen to sixteen feet long, and otherv/ise good and sufficient. 

That Oak Plank of aU dimensions shaU be clear of Sap and Shakes, 
edged, and the ends square, and be otherwise good and sufficient 

That Pine Boards of all sorts and dimensions shall be edged clear of 
Shakes, as long and as broad as possible, and o'herwise good and sufficient 

That all Oak Timber brought to Market, in order to be shipped off, shall 

be square both sides, and ends free of [ ] and be otherwise good and 

sufficient 

That Long Shingles shaU be Three feet long, five to eight inches and 
upwards broad, and three-quarters of an inch thick at the Butts. 

That Short Shingles shall be One foot six inches to one foot eight inches 
long, four inches and upwards broad, and half an inch to five-eights'of an inch 
thick. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 59 

That it is further our opinion that, in order to have the above regulations 
duly complied with, one capable and sufficient person be appointed to in- 
spect and cull all such Staves, Heading, and Hoops as shall be brought to 
Market for Exportation, with power of substituting others, if necessary, 
for whose conduct however he is to be accountable. 

That one capable and sufficient person be also appointed to inspect and 
measure all such Oak Plank, Pine Boards excepting such Pine Boards as 
are sold by the Piece, and square Timber, and inspect all such Shingles as 
shall be brought to Market for Exportation, with power of substituting others, 
if necessary, for whose conduct he is to be accountable. 

AH which matters are humbly submitted to the consideration of the 

Chamber. 

John Moore, 
Theopy. Bache, 
Rich'd. Yates. 

Ordered — ^That Mr. John Moore, Mr. Yates and 
Mr. Bache be a Committee to wait on the Mayor ^' and 
ask the favour of him to recommend it to the Corpora- 
tion, that it may be passed into a Bye Law^* of this place. 

Mr. James Beekman and Capt. Samuel Kemble, hav- 
ing been proposed at a former Meeting, were balloted for 
and unanimously chosen Members. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice in writing 
that they were unanimously chosen. 

Mr. Verplank moves that no Persons be admitted 
Members of this Chamber, in future, but Merchants. 

Mr, H. Remsen proposes that the Rules and Regula- 
tions agreed to by this Chamber, and that are now bind- 
ing, be Printed for the use of the Members, and that 
whatever Regulations are hereafter agreed upon be Printed 
every half year. 

Ordered — That Mr. Thurman, Mr. Wetherhead, 
Mr. G. Rapelje, Mr. G. Duyckinck, Mr. Stepple, Mr. 
Imlay, and Mr. Van Home, be a Committee until the 
first Tuesday in November next, to hear and determine 
disputes between parties who shall agree to leave such to 



6o 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



this Chamber, and that they do make report thereof, in 
writing, what business hath or shall come before them 
during their appointment. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th November, 1769. 
Present. 

John Cruger, P. 

Hugh Wallace, V. P. 

Elias Desbrosses, T. 

Anth. Van Dam, S. 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
John Thurman, 
William Neilson, 
Sampson Simpson, 
Robert Alexander, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Peter Remsen, 
Henry Remsen, 
Abraham Lynsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nicholas HofFman, 
Garret Rapelje, 
William Stepple, 
Joseph Bull, 
William Imlay, 
Leonard Lispenard, 



James Jauncey, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Isaac Low, 
Henry White, 
William Walton, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Hamilton Young, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Alexan. Wallace, 



Augustus Van Home. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Samuel Ver Plank, 
Charles McEvers, 

Fined for non-appearance 

Robert Murray, 
George Folliot, 
Walter Franklin, 
Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
William McAdam, 



John Moore, 
George W. Ludlow. 



Peter Hasencliver, 
William Seton, 
Edward Laight, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, (Jerseys) 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Jacob Watson. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 6l 

Robert Watts, John Reade, 

James Beekman, Richard Sharpe, 

Levinus Clarkson, John Wetherhead, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, Garrard Duyckinck, 

Philip Livingston, Henry C. Bogart, 

Isaac Sears, Thomas Miller, (Sea). 

At the desire of several members of the Chamber, 
since last Meeting, they had requested of the Presi- 
dent to apply to Messrs. David Rittenhouse^ and John 
Montresor/ to take the Latitude of the Flag Bastion in 
Fort George,''' in the City of New York. The observa- 
tions of Mr. David Rittenhouse were as follows : 

New York, October 12, 1769. 
Sir, 

At your request, in behalf of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
City New York, I have made the following Observations with the Pennsyl- 
vania Sector, of six feet Radius, on the South West Bastion of Fort George, 
in this city. 

Zenith Distance on the Meridian of Capella : 

o ; (/ 

Octr. 9 Morn, - - - 5 2 oj 

10 ditto, - - - 5 I 59 

Of Castor: 
10 Morn, 8 19 51 

12 ditto, - - - - 8 19 51 

Having carefully computed the Declinations of the above Stars, from 
their Latitudes and Longitudes, as settled by Dr. Bradley,^ reduced to the 
present time and corrected by the aberration of Light and variable motion 
of the Earth's Axis, I find the Latitude of the place from the observa- 
tions of 

o / ;; 

Capella to be - - - 40 42 9 

And from those of Castor, - - - 40 42 7 



A mean whereof is the Latitude of the Fort, ^ ^ - 40 42 8 

I am, Sir, your very humb. Serv't, 

David Rittenhouse. 
To John Cruger, Esq., Presid't of the ) 
Chamber of Commerce. j 



62 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Observations were made at the Flag Bastion in Fort 
George, in the City of New York, principally with the 
Sector belonging to the Province of Pennsylvania, of six 
feet Radius, by Messrs. David Rittenhouse and John 
Montresor, Engineers, October, 1769. 

Zenith Distance of Capella : 
h 
October 9th — 3 50, Morn'g, 
10 — 3 46, morn'g, 

Zenith Distance of Castor: 
h 
October loth — 6 6, Morn'g, 

12— s 58, morn'g, - - - - 






1 


// 


s 


2 


o| 


5 


I 


59 





; 


/; 


8 


19 si 


8 


19 51 





/ 


// 


45 44 


14 


S 


2 


5 


40 42 


9 


32 


22 


7 


8 


19 51 








9 


40 42 


7 



Declination of Capella, 

Zenith distance of Capella, Refraction, 

Latitude, 

Declination of Castor, 
Zenith Distance of Castor, 
Refraction 

Latitude, - - - - 



The mean of the above observations ascertains the 

Latitude of Fort George in - 40 42 8 

I am, with respect. Sir, your most obedient and most h'ble serv't, 

John Montresor. 
To John Cruger, Esq., President of the ") 
Chamber of Commerce at New York, j 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do repay unto the Gen- 
tlemen that are in advance to Mr. Rittenhouse the sum of 
Twenty pounds for his services. 

Mr. President having also taken an abstract from the 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 63 

minutes of the above Gentlemen, who were employed by 
the Commissioners for ascertaining the Line^' between 
New York and Jersey — being read, was as follows : 

Latitudes taken by Mr. Rittenhouse and McLean,"" of Philadelphia, and 
Capt. John Montresor, Engineer, in September and October, 1769. 

o / n 
Mahackomach, ' ° on Delaware, - 41 21 37 

On Hudson's River, 79 chains and 27 Links south of 

the House late Mrs. Corbet's, ^ ' a nmarked Rock, 41 o o 
Light House on Sandy Hook,^^ - - 4° 27 40 

South West Bastion on Fort George, New York, 40 42 8 

Mr. Moore, one of the Committee appointed to wait 
on the Mayor to desire his influence with the Corpora- 
tion to procure a Law for the better Cutting of Lum- 
ber, reported 

That they had waited on the Mayor, and that he was pleased to say 
that he wou'd urge the matter, and be of all the use in his power ; and, 
furthermore, that he had been waited upon by the Public Repackers of Beef 
and Pork in this (city), representing that complaints had been frequently 
made of Beef and Pork shipped from this place, and to that end recom- 
mended that the Chamber would consider of a Petition delivered, which, 
being read, was in the words following : 

We, the Publick Packers ' ^ of this City, whose names are hereunto 
subscribed, hearing frequent complaints of Beef and Pork being Rusty, 
pray the Mayor and Corporation to make the following amendments : 

That all Beef and Pork for Sale in this City shall be well Trim'd and 
filled with pickle before the month of April expires in every year, under the 

penalty of p. barrel. 

That all Beef and Pork which shall be brought to this City for sale after 
the first day of May in every year, shall be pickled within Ten Days after 
it's landed, under the like penalty. 

That all Barrels containing Beef and Pork shall be hooped with 

Hoops, at least. 

Daniel Dunscomb, Peter Stoutenberg, 

Richard Kip, James Dunscomb, 

Theoph. Elsworth, Josep. Godwin, 
Edward Lowne, John Silvester, 

Abra'm Cock, John Post. 



64 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Ordered — That Messrs. C. McEvers, T. Bache, R. 
Yates, J. Moore, T. Buchanan, H. White, J. Thurman, 
and L. Pintard, be a Committee to consider of the nature 
of the Petition, and wait upon the Mayor and Corporation 
with their Report, as well as to Report to this Chamber 
what good purpose it will answer. 

Mr. Ver Plank's motion for not admitting any persons 
Members of this Chamber in future but Merchants, '"• which 
being considered of, a Majority of the members appeared 
in favour of the motion. 

Resolved — That no persons who are hereafter pro- 
posed to be Members of this Chamber be admitted but 
Merchants. 

Mr. Henry Remsen, who proposed that the Rules 
and Regulations agreed to by this Chamber, and that are 
now binding, be printed for the use of the members, and 
that whatever Regulations are hereafter agreed to be 
Printed every half year. 

Resolved — That it is the unanimous opinion that all 
the Rules and Regulations already entered, and engaged 
for by the Members, and what other rules may be made, 
be printed accordingly. 

Mr. Alexander McDonald, who was proposed at a 
former Meeting, was balloted for and unanimously 
chosen a Member. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice in writing 
that he was unanimously chosen. 

Ordered— That Mr. H. C. Bogart, Mr. G. W. Lud- 
low, Mr. Jos. Bull, Mr. L. Lispenard, Mr. Jas. Beekman, 
Mr. S. Kemble, and Mr. James Jauncey, be a Committee 
until the first Tuesday in December next, to hear and 
determine disputes between Parties who shall agree to 
leave such" to this Chamber, and that they do make 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 65 

report thereof in writing what business hath or shall 
come before them during their appointment. 

The Committee for January, 1769, having been 
applied to by Watson and Murray^ Owners^ and Isaac 
Sears, Freighter of the Ship America, on her Voyage 
from New York to Lisbon, on prosecuting which she 
went ashore on Nutten Island," and received some 
damage, do report : 

We, the Subscribers, having been appointed as a Monthly Committee of 
the New Yorlc Chamber of Commerce, have, at the request of the Parties, 
arbitrated and finally determined who ought to bear the Expenses of Unlad- 
ing and getting off the Ship America, Cap. Hervey, when said Ship was 
ashore some time ago, on Nutten Island, on her Voyage from this port (to) 
Lisbon, and do report it as our opinion that the Freighters ought not to be 
chargeable with any Expenses which attended the unlading and getting off 
the said Ship. Witness our hands, this first day of November, 1769, in the 
City of New York. 

Lawrence Kortright, Robt. R. Waddell, 
William Walton, Thomas White, 

Isaac Low, William McAdam. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 5 December, 1769. 

Present. 

Hugh Wallace, V. P. 

Elias Desbrosses, T. 

Anthony Van Dam, S. 
James Jauncey, Edward Laight, 

Isaac Low, William Neilson, 

William Walton, Sampson Simpson, 

Robert R. Waddell, John Reade, 

Robert Watts, Alexander McDonald, 

John H. Cruger, Lawrence Kortright, 

Gerrard Walton, Thomas W. Moore, 

John Moore, Henry Remsen, 

Levinus Clarkson, Nichols. HoflFman, 

Samuel Kemble, Hamil. Young, 

Theophy Bache, Thomas Watson, 

Thomas Marston, John Thurman, 

5 



66 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Isaac Sears, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Gabr. H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan, 



Willliam Stepple, 
George W. Ludlow, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Ver Plank. 



Fined for non-appearance 

John Cruger, P. 
Jacob Walton, 
Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Charles McEvers, 
Nicholas Gouvemeur, 
Richard Yates, 
Jacob Watson, 
Peter Remsen, 
Garret Rapelje, 
William Imlay, 
Joseph Bull, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, 
Thomas Randal, 
Henry White, 
Philip Livingston, 
Peter Hasencliver, 



Alexand. Wallace, 
Robert Alexander, 
Abraham Lynsen, 
Gerrard Duykink, 
Augustus Van Home, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
William McAdam, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, F. 
William Seton, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Gerrard Beekman, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
John Weatherhead, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Thomas Miller, (Sea.) 



The Committee appointed to consider the better in- 
spection and Cutting of Lumber exported from this, report 

That they had waited on the Mayor, who was pleased to deliver 
them a draft of a Law for the better inspection and regulation of Lumber, 
&c., which they exhibited, and being carefully read was [eraseii] and thought 
-would be of great use if made into a Law. 

Mr. Simpson proposed that it be considered by the 
Chamber whether Guineas shou'd not pass for 37s. each 
that weigh 5 dwt. 3 gr., instead of 5 dwt. 6 gr., as estab- 
lished by this Chamber. 

Mr. Simpson also proposed that this Chamber 
do consider of some method to prevent the clipping 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 67 

or filing'^ Gold Coin, and that every half Johannes 
weighing 9 dwt. 4 grains and upwards do pass at 65 
shillings. 

Mr. Van Dam proposed that a Committee be appoint- 
ed to Inspect and transcribe what Rules and regulations 
are proper to be printed, in addition to those already 
done, agreeable to Mr. Henry Remsen, jun'r.'s motion on 
the yth November past. 

Mr. Low proposed that as it would tend greatly to 
promote the Benevolent intentions of this Chamber to 
have it incorporated under proper regulations ; and as 
there is the greatest reason to expect from His Honor 
the Lieut. Governor and his Council all the Counte- 
nance and protection which so usefull an infant Institu- 
tion justly merits. 

Moves that a Committee be appointed from this 
Chamber to wait on his Honor the Lieut. Governor, pray- 
ing the favour of him to invest it with a Charter granting 
such privileges as may be conceived most advancive of 
the important Ends intended by it ; And that the said 
Committee prepare a Draught of the said proposed 
Charter for the approbation of the Chamber at their next 
meeting. I also propose that the rule relative to the 
Election of Members into this Chamber be reconsidered, 
and that instead of three black Balls there shall be at least 
Six, or such greater number as to the Wisdom of the 
Chamber shall seem meet, to prevent any Person hereafter 
proposed from becoming a Member thereof. 

Isaac Low. 

Ordered— That Mr. FoUiot, Mr. Ver Plank, Mr. 
Bache, Mr. Sherbrooke, Mr. W. Franklin, Mr. Kort- 
right, and Mr. T. Randall, be a Committee, until the first 
Tuesday in January next, to hear and determine disputes 



68 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

between parties who shall agree to leave such to this 
Chamber, and that they do make report thereof in writing 
what business hath or shall come before them during their 
appointment. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, January 2, 1770. 

Present. 

John Cruger, P. 

Hugh Wallace, V. P. 

Elias Desbrosses, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 
James Jauncey, Edward Laight, 

Walter Franklin, William NeUson, 

Lawrence Kortright, Samp. Simpson, 

William Walton, Robert Alexander, 

William McAdam, Henry Remsen, 

Gerrard Walton, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Richard Yates, Thomas Walton, 

Lewis Pintard, John Thurraan, 

Alexan. Wallace, Garret Rapelje, 

Gabr. H. Ludlow, William Stepple, 

James Beekman. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Hugh Wallace, Theoph. Bache, 

Elias Desbrosses, John Moore, 

Alexan. McDonald. 

Fined for non-appearance : 

Jacob Walton, Gerr'd W. Beekman, 

Robert Murray, Jacob Watson, 

George Folliot, John Reade, 

Samuel Ver Plank, , Thom's W. Moore, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Richard Sharpe, 

Thomas Randal, Peter Remsen, 

Isaac Low, Abram Lynsen, 

Henry White, Nicholas Hoffman, 

John AIsop, HamUt. Young, 

Thomas White, Robert R. Waddle, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 69 

John H. Cruger, Robert Watts, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, F. William Imlay, 

Charles McEvers, Henry C. Bogart, 

Levinus Clarkson, Thomas Miller, (Sea) 

Nicholas Gouverneur, William Seton, • 

Thomas Marston, Angus. Van Home, 

Philip Livingston, George W. Ludlow, 

Isaac Sears, Samuel Kemble, (Sea) 

Peter Hasencliver, John Weatherhead. 

Thomas Buchanan, Gerrard Duykink, 

Peter Keteltas, Joseph Bull, 
Leonard Lispenard. 



Mr. Simpson's Proposal, whether Guineas should not 
pass at thirty-seven shillings that weigh 5 dwt. 3 grains, 
being considered, and it appearing that 5 dwt. 3 grs. is on 
a medium the general weight of the Guineas amongst us, 

Agreed that Guineas of that weight shall pass at thirty- 
seven shillings, provided they are not apparently defaced. 

Whereas, a resolution of this Chamber fixed the lowest 
weight of half Joha's at Nine pennyweight, induced there- 
to by the custom of the Merchants in a neighbouring 
Colony," but finding the scandalous practice of filing and 
diminishing foreign Gold Coin too much countenanced, 
to encourage which was by no means the intention of this 
Chamber, In order to prevent such base practices here. 

We declare that we will discourage it by all means in 
our power, and hold any person guilty of it in contempt, 
and not proper to be a Member of this Chamber. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Charles McEvers, Jacobus 
Van Zandt, and John Moore, be a Committee to tran- 
scribe such Rules and Regulations entered into by this 
Chamber as are not printed, and that they do prepare the 
same for the inspection of this Chamber at their next 
Meeting. 

Mr. Low's Proposal for appointing a Committee to 



yO NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

wait on his Honor the Lieut. Governor,' praying him to 
Incorporate this Chamber, was considered of and agreed 
to defer its consideration till a future Meeting. 

*The Committee appointed the yth November last, to 
consider the nature of the Petition of the Repackers in 
this City to the Mayor and Corporation respecting the 
better Inspection of Beef and Pork, report in writing 
as follows : 

We, the Subscribers being appointed by the New York Chamber of Com- 
merce to be a Committee for taking into consideration the present mode 
of Packing Beef and Pork in this City, and for reporting any regulations 
that may appear to us necessary for the further improvement thereof, do 
give as our opinion from the best Information we could procure and from 
our own experience — 

That the size of the Barrels in which Beef and Pork are now packed 
is generally too large, from whence an inconvenience arises, not only 
with respect to Stowage, but also with respect to the due preservation of 
these Articles, as we are of opinion that they cannot be so well preserved in 
Casks in which the pieces lie loose as in those in which they are compact 
and close, besides the Sale of these Articles is hurt at foreign Markets by 
being packed in too large Casks, as upon opening a Barrel it does not 
appear to be full and therefore it is hastily concluded that it does not contain 
a sufficient quantity ; in order to remedy these inconveniences, we are of 
opinion that the Barrels should contain not less than thirty nor more than 
thirty-one gallons. 

That the Barrels in which Beef and Pork are packed be made of good 
seasoned and sufficient Stuff, that the Staves be half an inch thick at the 
Chine, and J of an inch thick at the Bilge, at least, and that the Barrels be 
hoopedwith 12 hoops. 

That the Packers have power to condemn all Casks that are not made 
agreeable to the above regulations, and be subjected to a Penalty for brand- 
ing any Provisions that are not well and sufficiently Cured and Merchant- 
able, and that are not packed in Barrels conformable to said Regulations, 
and further, that the said Packers be obliged to give Security for their 
good Behaviour. 

That all Beef and Pork sold in this City shall be Inspected, Repacked, 
and Branded at the time of Sale, and if sold more than once shall be in- 
spected and repacked as often as sold, if Required by the Purchaser. 

That every Barrel of Beef shall contain Two hundred and twenty Suttle 
pounds, and every Barrel of Pork Two hundred and ten Suttle ^^ pounds 
Neat. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 7 1 

That with respect to the Prayer of the Packers Petition, that a Law be 
passed enacting that all Beef and Pork be pickled before the first Day of 
May. We are of opinion that the foregoing Regulations, if duly attended 
to, will of themselves remedy the Evil complained of. 

That if a Law ^ ' be passed for enforcing the above Regulations, we are 
of opinion it should not take place till the first Day of October next. 
All which matters are humbly submitted to the Chamber. 

Theophy Bache, John Moore, 
Lewis Pintard, Rich'd. Yates. 

Mr. Samuel Bayard junr. having been proposed at a 
former Meeting, was Balloted for and chosen a Member 
of this Chamber. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send him notice in 
writing that he was duly elected. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Isaac Low, H. White, J. 
Alsop, W. Walton, T. White, R. R. Waddell, and Rob. 
Watts be a Committee until the first Tuesday in Febru- 
ary next, to hear and determine disputes between Parties 
who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, and that 
they do make report thereof in writing to this Chamber 
what business hath or shall come before them during 
their appointment. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, February 6, 1770. 

Present. 

John Cruger, P. 

Hugh Wallace, V. P. 

Elias Desbrosses, T. 

Anth'y Van Dam, S. 
James Jauncey, Sampson Simpson, 

Jacob Walton, John Reade, 

Samuel Verplank, Thomas W. Moore, 

Theophy. Bache, Richard Sharpe, 

Lawrence Kortright, Peter Remsen, 

Isaac Low, Henry Remsen, 

Henry White, Abraham Lynsen, 

John Alsop, Isaac Roosevelt, 



72 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



WiUiam Walton, 
William McAdam, 
John H. Cruger, 
Geirard Walton, 
Levlnus Clarkson, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Alexand'r Wallace, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
William Seton, 
Edward Laight, 
WiUiam Neilson, 



Nicholas Hoffman, 
Thomas Walton, 
John Thurman, 
Garret Rapelje, 
William Stepple, 
August's Van Home, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Joseph Bull, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
James Beekman, 
Alexander McDonald, 
Samuel Bayard, jr. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



James Beekman, 
Anthony Van Dam, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Isaac Low, 



Henry C. Bogart, 
Edward Laight, 
Robert Watts, 
Alexan'r McDonald, 



John Moore. 



Fined for non-appearance 



Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter FrankUn, 
Thomas Randal, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 
Thomas MUler, (Sea) 
Charles McEvers, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
John Moore, 
Nicho's Gouvemeur, 



Philip Livingston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Samuel Kemble, (Sea) 
Peter Keteltas, 
Gerra'd W. Beekman, 
Jacob Watson, 
Robert Alexander, 
Hamilton Young, 
John Wetherhead, 
Gerrard Duykink, 
William Imlay. 



Mr. C. McEvers, J. Van Zandt, and J. Moore, the 
Committee appointed to Transcribe the Rules and Regu- 
lations of this Chamber, beg'd leave to sit again. 

Mr. Low's proposal for appointing a Committee to 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



73 



wait on the Governor, praying to incorporate this Cham- 
ber, being considered of. 

Ordered — That Messrs. I. Low, Wm. McAdam, J. 
H. Cruger, C. McEvers, R. Sharpe, H. Remsen, Thos. 
Buchanan, S. Simpson, W. Walton, J. Alsop, and Jno. 
Thurman, be a Committee, or any six of them, to prepare 
a draft of a Petition to the Governor and Council, and 
draft of a Charter to incorporate this Chamber, and that 
they do prepare and deliver them in at their next meeting. 

The Report of the Committee appointed to consider 
the present mode of Packing Beef and Pork in this City, 
delivered in at this Board last meeting, being again read, 
and the whole Chamber taking it into consideration, are 
of opinion that the mode proposed therein will answer 
every good purpose for the reestablishing of the credit of 
these Articles ; therefore. 

Ordered— That Mr. John Moore, R. Yates, T. Bache, 
Lewis Pintard, J. Thurman, be a Committee to wait on 
the Mayor with their report to this Chamber, and pray 
him to use his influence with the Corporation to take this 
matter into consideration, and enforce the same by a Law 
of the Corporation. 

Mr. Low proposed that, amongst the judicious Regu- 
lations already made for the good Government of this 
Chamber, there is one wanting which appears to me more 
essential to preserve the spirit of the Institution than any 
which has yet been adopted ; because, I presume, one of 
the principal Objects in pursuit is not only amicably to 
settle and accommodate Accounts and Disputes between 
Merchants and others who may think fit to submit them 
to the Arbitrament of this Chamber, but more especially 
all such Disputes as may arise between its own Members. 
As, therefore, it is absolutely necessary that the Members 



74 NEW YORK (CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

should set the Example which they would have others to 
follow, in order to prevent unnecessary Litigation, I pro- 
pose, as a standing and invariable Rule of this Chamber 
for the Future, that the members shall on their Parts 
never refuse to submit all disputed Matters of Accounts 
they may be concerned in with each other, or any other 
Persons whomsoever, to the final Arbitrament and deter- 
mination of the Chamber collectively, or to such of the 
Members as may be chosen by the Parties, on pain of 
being expelled the Chamber, and disqualified from being 
ever again admitted a Member of it. 

Mr. Low proposed that whenever this Chamber shall 
consist of Eighty members, every Person on being Elect- 
ed a member hereof, he shall pay the sum of four Pounds 
on admission, until this Chamber shall consist of Ninety 
members, after which every member that is admitted shall 
pay a sum not under Five pounds, until the Chamber 
consists of One hundred members, and so on ad infinitum 
for the use of this Chamber. 

Mr. McAdam proposes to the consideration of this 
Chamber, whether it is not necessary to have One or 
more Buoys *° fixed on the most dangerous Sands in the 
entrance to this Harbour, and that a Committee be ap- 
pointed to consult with the Wardens *' of the Port, and 
ask them to cause Two or more Buoys to be placed at 
such places as they shall think proper for the Better pre- 
servation of the Navigation in and out of this Port. 

Mr. Henry Remsen moves that a Committee be 
appointed to consider of some plan, the most eligible, for 
carrying into execution the Whale-Fishery*^ out of this 
Port, which has proved very beneficial to our neighboring 
Colonies, it being very evident that we are as well situ- 
ated for that branch of business as they. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. yf 

Ordered— That Mr. H. Remsen, H. C. Bogart, W. 
Franklin, T. Bache, S. Verplank, J. Thurman, R. Yates, 
and S. Simpson, be a Committee to consult on the sub- 
ject of the Proposal, and deliver into this Chamber their 
thoughts in writing at their next Meeting. 

Mr. Low proposes that no less than thirty Members 
shall hereafter be sufficient to transact business in this 
Chamber, and that instead of three black Balls to dis- 
qualify a person from being hereafter Elected a Member 
of this Chamber there shall be four black Balls whenever 
there be upwards of thirty Members, when more than 
forty, five black Balls, and so on, one black Bali for every 
ten Members that may be present at the election. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Jno. H. Cruger, Ger. Wal- 
ton, J. Van Zandt, C. McEvers, J. Moore, L. Clark- 
son, and R. Yates, be a Committee until the first Tues- 
day in March next, to hear and determine disputes be- 
tween Parties who shall agree to leave such to this 
Chamber, and that they do make report thereof, in 
writing, to this Chamber, what business hath or shall 
come before them during their appointment. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Thursday, 15th Feb., 1770. 
SPECIAL MEETING. 
Present. 
John Cruger, P. 
Anthony Van Dam, S. 
Theophy Bache, Peter Keteltas, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Sampson Simpson, 

Walter Franklin, Leonard Lispenard, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Thomas W. Moore, 

Levinus Clarkson, Henry Remsen, junr., 

Joseph BuU, Hamilton Young, 

Richd. Yates, John Thurman, 

Thomas Marston, William Stepple, 

Lewis Pintard, James Beekman. 



nS NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
William McAdam, 
Robert Watts, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 

Fined for non-appearance : 

Hugh Wallace, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Samiiel Ver Plank, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Philip Livingston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Peter Hasencliver, 

Richard Sharpe, 

Peter Remsen, 

Abraham Lynsen, 

Isaac Roosevelt, 

Thomas Walton, 

Lawrence Kortright, 

Thomas Randal, 

Henry White, 



Thomas Buchanan, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Robert Alexander, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
John Wetherhead, 
Augustus Van Horn, 
Alexander McDonald, 
Samuel Bayard jr., 



William Walton, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
William Seton, 
Edward Laight, 
William Neilson, 
Jacob Watson, 
John Reade, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
William Imlay, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
George W. Ludlow. 



Thomas Miller,) 
Samuel Kemble 



;■[ (Sea). 



The Committee appointed to draw up a draft of a 
Petition to His Honor the Lieut. Governor praying him 
to Incorporate this Society, and to draw up a draft of the 
Charter, Report that they had drawn a draft of the Peti- 
tion, which being read was in the words following : 

To the Honourable Cadwallader Golden, Esquire, Lieutenant Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of New York, and the Terri- 
tories depending thereon in America, 

In Council.'^ 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



77 



The Petition of John Cruger, Esquire, President of a Society of Mer- 
chants of the City of New York, associated for promoting Trade and 
Commerce in behalf of the said Society, 

Most Humbly Showeth 

That the said Society, sensible that ' Numberless inestimable benefits 
have accrued to Mankind from Commerce, that they are in proportion to 
their greater or lesser application to it, more or less opulent and potent in 
all Countries ; and that the Enlargement of Trade will vastly increase the 
value of real Estates as well as the general opulence of this Country ; have 
associated together for some time past in order to carry into execution, 
amongst themselves, and by their Example, to promote in others such 
measures as were beneficial to these Salutary Purposes. And the said 
Society having, with great pleasure and Satisfaction, experienced the good 
Effects which the few Regulations already adopted have produced, are very 
desirous of rendering them more extensively useful and permanent, and 
more adequate to the purposes of so benevolent an Institution. 

Your Petitioner, therefore, in behalf of the said Society, most humbly 
prays your Honor to Incorporate them as a Body Politic, and to invest them 
with such Powers and Authorities as may be thought most conducive to 
answer and promote the Commercial, and consequently the Landed Inter- 
ests of this growing Colony. 

And your Petitioner, as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 

Resolved — That the Petition be engrossed and signed 
by the President, and that he does wait on His Honor 
the Lieut. Governor with the same when perfected, and 
that the Committee before mentioned do attend the Pre- 
sident, and such other Gentlemen of the Chamber as 
please to go. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th March, 1770. 
Present. 

John Cruger, P. 

Hugh Wallace, V. P. 

Elias Desbrosses, T. 

Anthon. Van Dam, S. 
James Jauncey, Lewis Pintard, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Alexander Wallace, 

Theophy Bache, William Seton, 

Robert R. Waddell, Edward Laight, 



78 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Gerrard Walton, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
John Moore, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Isaac Sears, 



Sampson Simpson, 
Robert Alexander, 
Henry Remsen, 
Thomas Walton, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
James Beekman. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock ; 



Hugh Wallace, 
Walter Franklin, 
Isaac Low, 
Henry White, 
William Walton, 
John H. Cruger, 
Charles McEvers, 
Levinus Clarkson, 



Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
John Thurman, 
Augus. Van Home, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph BuU, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Robert Watts. 



Fined for non-appearance ; 



Jacob Walton, 
Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Lawren. Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
William McAdam, 
Philip Livingston, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
William Neilson, 
Peter Keteltas, 

Alexander 



Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Jacob Watson, 
John Reade, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, 
Thomas Miller, (Sea) 
Abraham Lynsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nicholas HofRnan, 
Hamilton Young, 
John Wetherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerr'd Duyckinck, 
William Stepple, 
William Imlay, 
Samuel Kemble, (Sea) 
McDonald. 



The President reported to the Chamber that he had 
with the Committee waited on His Honor the Lieut. 
Governor, and had presented the Petition praying him 
to Incorporate this Society, who was pleased to say : 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



79 



I think it a good Institution, and will always be glad to promote 
the Commercial Interests of this City, and shall deem it a peculiar 
happiness that a Society so beneficial to the General good of the Prov- 
ince is incorporated during my administration. 

It is proposed, that for the good Offices the Attorney- 
General' has shewn in his readiness to forward the Charter 
to Incorporate this Chamber, that he be paid Twenty- 
Guineas for his trouble, by the Treasurer. 

Mr. John Moore, one of the Committee appointed 
to wait on the Mayor with their opinion respecting the 
better curing Beef and Pork Exported from this Colony, 
Report 

That they had waited on the Mayor, who was pleased to say, that He 
would lay it before the Corporation at their next Common Council, and 
recommend that a Law" should be passed for the more effectual cure and 
preserving those Articles of Commerce. 

Mr. Low's Proposal that the Members of this 
Chamber shall in future leave to Arbitration matters of 
Account disputed to a Reference, 

Ordered — That the consideration thereof be referred 
a future meeting. 

Mr. Low's Proposal for admitting Members by pay- 
ing a greater entrance having been very maturely con- 
sidered of by the whole Chamber, 

Resolved — That from and after there be Eighty 
Members belonging to this Chamber, Each Person ad- 
mitted afterwards shall pay to the Treasurer for the time 
being the sum of Ten Spanish Dollars, until there be 
Ninety Members ; that from and after there be Ninety 
Members belonging to this Chamber, Each Person ad- 
mitted afterwards shall pay to the Treasurer for the time 
being the sum of Twelve and a half Spanish Dollars, 



80 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

until there be One Hundred Members; and so on, ad 
infinitum. Two and a half Dollars for every Ten Mem- 
bers, for the use of the Chamber. 

Mr. Low's Proposal, that no less than Thirty Mem- 
bers be sufficient hereafter to compose a Chamber, having 
been considered of. 

It is thought right there should be no alteration from 
the first mode. But that part of the motion which re- 
spects the admitting of New Members by a greater num- 
ber of Nays, it is 

Resolved unanimously, that instead of Three Nays 
to disqualify a Person from being hereafter elected, there 
shall be- Three Nays when only Thirty Members are 
Present at an Election ; whenever more than Thirty Mem- 
bers present. Four Nays ; when more than Forty Mem- 
bers present. Five Nays ; and so on. One Nay for every 
Ten Members after the Number present exceeds thirty 
Persons. 

Mr. Henry Remsen, one of the Committee appointed 
to take into consideration the Whale Fishery to be carried 
on out of this Port, Report that they had made some 
progress therein, but that they were not sufficiently in- 
formed ; therefore prayed for leave to sit again. 

Ordered — That leave be given accordingly. 

Ordered— That Messrs. P. Livingston, T. Marston, 
L Sears, L. Pintard, A. Wallace, G. W. Ludlow, and T. 
Buchanan, be a Committee, until the first Tuesday in 
April next, to hear and determine disputes between Parties 
who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, and that 
they do make report thereof in writing to this Chamber 
what business hath or shall come before them during their 
appointment. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 81 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d April, 1770. 

Present. 
John Cruger, Pres't. 
Hugh WaUace, V. P. 

Antho. Van Dam, Sect'y. 
Jacob Walton, Abram Lynsen, 

Jacob's Van Zandt, Nicholas Hoffman, 

Lewis Pintard, Hamilton Young, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Thomas Walton, 

Samson Simpson, Garrard Duykink, 

John Reade, William Stepple, 

Henry Remsen, jun'r. George W. Ludlow, 

James Beekman. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Hugh Wallace, Levinus Clarkson, 

Theophy. Bache, Richard Yates, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Thomas Marston, 

Lawrence Kortright, Thomas Buchanan, 

Isaac Low, Edward Laight, 

William Walton, William Neilson, 

Robert R. Waddle, Thomas W. Moore, 

William McAdam, John Thurman, 

Robert Watts, Henry C. Bogart, 

John H. Cruger, Joseph Bull, 
Alexan'r McDonald. 

Fined for non-appearance : 

Elias Desbrosses, Peter Hasencliver, 

James Jauncey, Alexand. Wallace, 

Robert Murray, William Seton, 

George FoUiot, Peter Keteltas, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Walter Franklin, Samuel Kemble, (Sea) 

Thomas Randal, Jacob Watson, 

Henry White, Robert Alexander, 

John Alsop, Richard Sharpe, 

Thomas White, Peter Remsen, 

Gerrard Walton, Isaac Roosevelt, 



82 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Thomas Miller, (Sea) John Weatherhead, 

Charles McEvers, Garret Rapelje, 

John Moore, William Imlay, 

Nichola,s Gouverneur, August's Van Home, 

Philip Livingston, Leonard Lispenard, 

Isaac Sears, Samuel Bayard. 

His Honor, Lieutenant Governor Colden, having been 
pleased to grant a Charter to this Chamber, under the 
Great Seal *' of the Province, agreeable to the Petition pre- 
sented to him by the President in behalf of the Chamber, 
the said Charter was ordered to be read, together with the 
address of Thanks presented to His Honor, and his 
honor's answer. 

Ordered — That the same be fairly copied into the 
minutes of this Corporation, and that the said Charter be 
deposited with the Treasurer. 

Ordered — That as Mr. Banyar,'' Deputy-Secretary, has 
been so polite as to make this Chamber a compliment of 
his Fees for recording the Charter, that the President do 
return him the thanks of this Corporation for the favour 
conferred on them. 

Ordered— -That the Treasurer do pay Mr. Attorney- 
General Twenty Guineas for his Services in perfecting the 
Charter incorporating this Chamber, agreeable to the pro- 
posal of last meeting. 

It is proposed that the Treasurer shall pay the Clerk 
who engrossed the Charter Eight Dollars for his Services. 

Mr. Thurman moves that, as it is the desire of a 
number of the Inhabitants of this City to have their 
Estates Insured*^ from Loss by Fire, and that Losses of 
this sort may not fall upon Individuals, Proposed that 
the Chamber take into consideration some plan that may 
serve so good a purpose under the direction of this Cor- 
poration. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 83 

Mr. Yates moves that a Committee of this Chamber 
be appointed to wait on the Mayor praying him to use 
his Influence with the Corporation to make a Law*^ ap- 
pointing Inspectors for the Inspection of Cornell/'' Rye 
Meal, and Indian Meal. 

Mr. Yates also proposes that as the Office of Secre- 
tary to this Corporation is attended with much trouble 
and loss of time, moves that the present and future Sec- 
retarys may be allowed a Salary, whatever may be judged 
adequate to their Services. 

Mr. William Walton — That this Corporation dine 
together on the Second Tuesday in May next, and that 
at the next Meeting three Stewards be appointed to pro- 
vide a suitable Dinner at the Expence of the Members, 
and that absent Members pay five Shillings each. 

The Committee appointed to Transcribe the Regula- 
tions, Rules, and Orders of the Chamber Report : 

Agreeable to an Order from the Chamber of Commerce, dated 2d Janu- 
ary, 1770, 

We, Charles McEvers, Jacobus Van Zandt, and John Moore, being a 
Committee appointed to Collect and Transcribe from the Minutes of this 
Board such Rules and Regulations entered into, as are not yet Printed, have 
duly attended the said Order, and accordingly Selected from the said Min- 
utes the following Resolutions and Orders which we conceive to be the 
most necessary for Publication : 

September 6th, 1768. 
Resolved, unanimously, that any Persons offering to become Members 
of this Chamber be Balloted for the next Meeting after their Names are 
Proposed. 

October 4th. 

Resolved, unanimously, that One Barrel of Flour at least, of every 
Brand Mark, be Started to see that it be Fairly Tared, and if found Fraud- 
ulent, that all possible means be used to bring the Offenders to Justice, 
agreeable to an Act of the General Assembly. 

Resolved, also, that every Member of this Chamber do, in their future 
purchase of Flour, cause the same to be Weighed and Inspected after Pur- 



84 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

chase, and that the Secretary do cause these Resolutions to be Advertised 
in the Pubhc News Papers, the Cost of which to be paid by the Treasurer. 

Resolved, also, by a great Majority of this Chamber, that Pennsylvania 
Paper Money be hereafter received by any Member that inclines to take it 
at 6jper ct. advance being equal to Spanish Mill'd Dollars at 8s. 

Resolved, that the Members of this Chamber will, in future, Pay and 
Receive damages on West India and Inland Bills of Exchange, agreeable to 
the following Regulations, viz. : 

That s per ct. damages be paid and received on all Bills drawn from any 
one Province of North America upon another. Recoverable here in full of 
all damages, Re-Exchange, Cost of Protest, Postage, &c., and that the 
full amount of the Bill with damages of 5 per cent, is due and payable immedi- 
ately on return of said Bill with Protest. That 10 per cent, damages be 
paid and Received on all Bills drawn from North America on the West 
Indies, or from thence on North America, which may be recoverable here, in 
full of all damages. Re-exchange, Cost of Protest, Postage, &c., and that the 
full Amount of the Bill with damages of 10 per cent, is due and payable im- 
mediately on return of the Bill with Protest. 

December 6th. 

Resolved unanimously, that 20 p. cent, be paid on all European Bills 
Returned Protested, in fuU for all damages. Re-exchange, Cost of Protest, 
Postage, &c.. 

And that all European Bills returned protested be paid immediately on 
return of said Bill with proper Protest, together with the 20 p. cent, damages 
in money at the then current Exchange in New York, without regard to the 
Exchange at which said Bill was bought or sold. 

January 3d, 1769. 
Resolved unanimously, that in case of sudden Emergency only, when it 
may be thought necessary (agreeable to the established Rules of this Cham- 
ber) that a Special Meeting of the Members shou'd be called, each of them 
shall be Notified in Writing of such Meeting : And that in case any regu- 
lation which may be agreed to by^ Majority of the Members then Present 
shall be Binding on all the other Members, under the same Penalties and 
Forfeitures as are provided for the observance of the other Rules of this 
Chamber. 

May 2d. 
Ordered— That all future Committees do report unto the next Meeting of 
this Chamber what differences they have adjusted between Parties, with the 
names of the Parties and the Sums they have awarded, unless the Parties 
object to it ; and that such Gentlemen who have decided any Controversies 
are desired to deUver in the subject of their Award as soon as may be, that 
the> same be Entered. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 85 

July 4th. 
Resolved — That the Members of this Chamber, in their Future purchase 
of Flour, do agree to pay Twenty-eight Shillings per Ton for the Casks and 
nails, provided that they be well and sufficiently made (Agreeable to an Act 
of the Governor, Council and General Assembly of this Province, Passed 
at their last Sessions) and hooped with Ten hoops, three of which hoops to 
be on each head. 

Commissions. 

The Chamber of Commerce agree in opinion that the following Commis- 
sions are generally Charged in this Place, and that in case any disputes 
between parties should arise, and Referees be chosen out of this Chamber, 
that they govern themselves accordingly (except where Special Agreement 
has been made to the contrary), viz. : 

Inland Commissions, 2i p. ct. on Sales, exclusive of Storage ; and 2| per 
cent, on Returns, say from Boston to Philadelphia. 

Quere, if we should not have one Stated Commission for the Business 
of the whole Continent. 

Foreign Commissions. 

5 p. Cent, on Sales, Exclusive of Storage. 5 pr. Cent, on Returns. 

Indorsing or Negotiating Bills of Exchange, i\ per cent. 

Making Insurance, - - - - i per cent. 

Recovering Losses, - i\ per cent. 

Outfit of Vessel, - - - 5 per cent. 

Sohciting and Procuring Freight, J per cent. 

Collecting Freight, - - - - 2.\ per cent. 

Resolved — That any member Addressing the Chair shall Rise, under 
the Penalty of One shilling. 

Resolved — That every Member of this Chamber will pay and receive 
Gold and Silver in future at the following Rates : 

' dt. grs. £ s. 

A Johannes, weighing 10 o - - 6 8 

A Moydore, 6 18 • 28 

and the small Coins of the same Denomination in 

like proportion. 
A Caroline, weighing 68 - - - - 118 

A Spanish Doubleloon, ) 

or 4 Pistole piece, S ' ' ' 

and the smaller Coins in proportion. 
An English Guinea, S3-- - i I7 

and Half and quarter ditto in proportion. 



86 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

dt. grs. £ s. 

A French Guinea, 5 4 - - i 16 

Half ditto in same proportion. 
A Chequin, weigliing 24 - 14 6 

An English Crown, and half Crown in same proportion 8 9 

A French ditto, and half ditto in same proportion 8 6 

A French Pistole 45 - 18 

An English Shilling - - - 19 

A Pistereen - -17 

And for every Grain any of the above specified pieces of Gold shall 
weigh less than the Weight above directed, there shall be a Deduction of 
Four Pence. 

Resolved — That this Chamber will pay and receive all Gold and Silver 
in Future at the above Rates, and Ordered that the substance of the above 
Report be Published in the News Papers. 

November 7, 1769. 
Resolved — That no Persons hereafter be proposed to be Members of 
this Chamber can be admitted unless they are Merchants Residents of this 
City. 

Resolved unanimously — That all the Rules and Regulations already 
entered into be Printed for the use of the Members, and also that every 
future Regulation that may be agreed to shall be Printed every half year, 
for the same purpose. 

Whereas, a Resolution of this Chamber has fixed the lowest Weight of 
half Johannes at Nine pennyweight, induced thereto by the Custom of 
Merchants in a Neighbouring Colony ; but finding the true intent and mean- 
ing of the said Regulation perverted by the Base practice of filing and di- 
minishing the Weight of Foreign Gold Coin : to encourage which was by no 
means the intention of this Chamber, 

We declare that we will discourages it by all means in our power, and 
will hold any guilty of it in contempt and not proper to be a Member of this 
Chamber. 

Whereas, a Resolution was entered into by this Chamber on the 3d of 
October last for Regulating the Weight of sundry Gold Coins, wherein the 
Weight of Guineas were fixed at Five pennyweight Six Grains, the Cham- 
ber, on a further and more mature deliberation, did, on the 2d January, 
1770, agree that Guineas Weighing Five penny wht, three Grains, and not 
apparently defaced, Shou'd be paid and received by the Members of this 
Chamber at 37s. each. 

The Committee, in attention to this Regulation, have in the General 
List of Coins in October last, fixed the Weight and Value accordim^ly. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 87 

The Committee beg leave to observe to the President and Members 
of this Chamber, that in the foregoing Regulations they have in some few 
instances deviated from the Strict Letter of the Booli of Minutes, which 
are humbly Oifered to their Consideration. 

Charles McEvers, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
John Moore. 

Several Gentlemen having been proposed to be ad^ 
mitted Members of this Corporation, were balloted for 
and elected, as follows : 

Robert C. Livingston, Isaac Corsa, 

Harman Gouverneur, Jeremiah Piatt. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the sev- 
eral Gentlemen Elected, in writing, as soon as possible, 
that they were duly elected. 

Ordered — That Messrs. W. Seton, E. Laight, W. 
Neilson, Sam'n Simpson, P. Keteltas, G. W. Beekman, 
and John Reade, be a Committee until the first Tuesday 
in May next, to hear and determine disputes between 
parties who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, 
and that they do make report thereof in writing to this 
Corporation. 



On Saturday, the 24TH March, a Committee of 
THIS Chamber waited on His Honor the Lieutenant 
Governor with the following Address : 

To THE Honourable Cadwallader Colden, Esq., 
&c.. Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-chief of 
the Colony of New York and the Territories'" depending 
thereon in America. 

The Address of the President and Members of the 
Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce of the City of 
New York. 



88 new york chamber of commerce. 

May it please Your Honour, 

We, the President and Members of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
City of New York, sensible of Your Honour's desire to encourage every 
Measure that may tend to promote the Interest of the Colony ; take the 
earliest opportunity of returning you our sincere thanks for the Royal Char- 
ter with which you have been pleased to invest us. And we entertain the 
most greatful sense of the confidence thereby reposed in us by Govern- 
ment. 

The important Light in which Your Honour views this Institution has 
been abundantly evinced by that Readiness so conspicuously manifest in 
every part of your conduct, from our first Application to its last happy 
Conclusion. 

The Merchants are now, by Your Honour's favour, enabled to execute 
many Plans of Trade, which, as Individuals, they could not before accom- 
plish, and we flatter ourselves many and great advantages will result to this 
Colony from their Incorporation — 

We beg leave to assure your Honour that our utmost Ambition is to 
approve ourselves useful Members of the Community, submissive to the 
Laws, zealous for the Support of Government, and our happy Constitution, 
and firmly attached to our most Gracious Sovereign ; and that we will exert 
ourselves on all occasions to promote the General Interest of the Colony, 
and the Commerce of this City in particular ; that the Utility of the Insti- 
tution and the Wisdom of its Founder may be equally applauded by the 
latest Posterity. 

Signed by Order of the Chamber, 

John Cruger, President. 

To which his Honour was pleased to return the 
following Answer : 

I return you sincere thanks for this very obliging Address : 
The extensive Property of so considerable a Body of the Mer- 
chants of this City, united with Principles of Loyalty, afford the 
strongest assurance of your Zeal in the Support of the Government 
and our happy Constitution ; while your good Example will, at all 
times, have the most favorable Influence by promoting that due Obe- 
dience to the Laws which is essential to the Security of the Sub- 
ject. I ardently vnsh success to this Institution so well adopted to 
increase the Trade and Opulence, and advance the Prosperity of the 
Colony. 

Fort George, New York, 
March 24th, 1770. 




M^ith.uvl-I .:!! . I'h^X. 



OEUT. ©©V, Si^[Q)WA[L[Li\E)m £(n)[L®[E.t 



iTom Ihelortmilinvosfisnan, or the. Ornnbtr of Gurrmwrce. l.T 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 8q 



CHARTER/" 




EORGE THE THIRD,' by the Grace of God, 
of Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defender 
of the Faith, and so forth — To all to whom 
these presents shall come. Greeting : 

Whereas, a great Number of Merchants in our City of New 
York, in America, have, by voluntary Agreement, associated them- 
selves for the laudable Purposes of promoting the Trade and Com- 
merce of our said Province ; and Whereas, John Cruger, Esq., the 
present President of the said Society, by his humble Petition pre- 
sented in Behalf of the said Society, to our Trusty and well-beloved 
Cadwallader Colden, Esq., our Lieutenant Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of our said Province of New York, and the Territo- 
ries depending thereon in America, and read in our Council for our 
said Province, on the Twenty-eighth Day of February, last past, hath 
represented to our said Lieutenant Governor, That the said Society 
(sensible that numberless inestimable Benefits have accrued to Man- 
kind from Commerce ; that they are, in proportion to their greater or 
lesser Application to it, more or less Opulent and Potent in all Coun- 
tries ; and that the Enlargement of Trade will vastly increase the 
Value of Real Estates, as well as the general Opulence of our said 
Colony) have associated together for some time past, in order to carry 
into Execution among themselves, and by their Example to promote 
in others, such Measures as were beneficial to those salutary Pur- 
poses ; And that the said Society having, with great Pleasure and 
Satisfaction, Experienced the good Effects which the few Regulations 
already adopted, had produced, were very desirous of rendering them 
more extensively useful and permanent, and more adequate to the 
Purposes of so benevolent an Institution ; And therefore the Peti- 
tioner, in behalf of the said Society, most humbly prayed our said 
Lieutenant Governor to Incorporate them a Body Politick, and to 
Invest them with such Powers and Authorities as might be thought 
most conducive to answer and promote the Commercial and conse- 



90 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

quently the Landed Interest of our said growing Colony ; Which 
Petition being read as aforesaid, was then and there referred to a 
Committee of our said Council, and afterwards on the same Day, our 
said Council, in pursuance of the Report of the said Committee, did 
humbly advise and consent, that our said Lieutenant Governor, by 
our Letters Patent, should constitute and appoint the Petitioner, and 
the Present Members of the said Society, a Body Corporate and 
Politick, by the Name of " The Corporation of the Chamber of 
Commerce in the City of New York, in America," agreeable to 
the Prayer of the said Petition : Therefore, We being willing to fur- 
ther the said laudable Designs of our said loving Subjects, and to 
give Stability to an Institution from whence great advantages may 
arise, as well to our Kingdom of Great Britain as to our said Province, 

Know ye. That of our Especial Grace, certain Knowledge and 
mere Motion, We have Willed, Ordained, Given, Granted, Consti- 
tuted, and Appointed, And by these Presents for Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, do Will, Ordain, Give, Grant, Constitute, and Appoint, 
that the present Members of the said Society, Associated for the 
Purposes aforesaid, That is to say, John Cruger, Ellas Desbrosses, 
James Jauncey, Jacob Walton, Robert Murray, Hugh Wallace, 
George Folliot, Wm. Walton, John Alsop, Henry White, Philip Liv- 
ingston, Samuel Verplank, Theophylact Bache, Thomas White, Miles 
Sherbrooke, Walter Franklin, Robert Ross Waddell, Acheson Thomp- 
son, Lawrence Kortwright, Thomas Randal, William McAdam, Isaac 
Low, Anthony Van Dam, Robert Watts, John Harris Cruger, Gerard 
Walton, Isaac Sears, Jacobus Van Zandt, Charles M'Evers, John 
Moore, Lewis Pintard, Levinus Clarkson, Nicholas Gouverneur, Rich- 
ard Yates, Thomas Marston, Peter Hassencliver, Alexander Wallace, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, Thomas Buchannan, Wm. Neilson, Sampson Sim- 
son, Peter Ketletas, Gerard W. Beekman, Jacob Watson, Richard 
Sharpe, Peter Remsen, Henry Remsen, junior, William Seton, Edw. 
Laight, John Reade, Robert Alexander, Thomas W. Moore, Abraham 
Lynsen, Isaac Roosevelt, Nicholas Hoifman, Hamilton Young, 
Thomas Walton, John Thurman, John Weatherhead, Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duyckink, William Stepple, William Imlay, Augustus Van 
Home, Henry C. Bogart, George W. Ludlow, Joseph Bull, Leonard 
Lispenard, Thomas Miller, James Beekman, Samuel Kemble, Alexan- 
der McDonald, and Samuel Bayard, junior, all of our City of New 
York, in our said Province of New York, Merchants, and their Sue- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 9I 

cessors to be Elected by Virtue of this our present Charter, shall for 
ever hereafter be one Body Corporate and Politick in Deed, Fact, 
and Name, by the Name, Style, and Title of " The Corporation of 
THE Chamber of Commerce in the City of New York, in Amer- 
ica," and them and their Successors by the same Name, We do by 
these Presents really and fully Make, Erect, Create, Constitute and 
Declare One Body Politick and Corporate in Deed, Fact, and Name 
for ever ; And Will, Give, Grant, and Ordain, that they and their 
Successors, The Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce in the 
City of New York, in America, by the same Name, shall and may 
have perpetual Succession, and shall and may by the same Name, be 
Persons capable in the Law to Sue and be Sued, Implead and be 
Impleaded, Answer and be Answered, Defend and be Defended, in 
all Courts and elsewhere, in all Manner of Actions, Suits, Com- 
plaints, Pleas, Causes, Matters, and Demands whatsoever, as fully 
and amply as any other our Liege Subjects of our said Province of 
New York may or can sue or be sued, implead or be impleaded, 
defend or be defended, by any lawful Ways or Means whatsoever; 
And that they and their Successors by the same Name, shall be for 
ever hereafter Persons Capable and Able in the Law to purchase, 
take, receive, hold, and enjoy, to them and their Successors, any Mes- 
suages, Tenements, Houses, and Real Estates whatsoever, and all 
other Hereditaments of whatsoever Nature, Kind and Quality they 
be, in Fee simple, for Term of Life or Lives, or in any other manner 
howsoever, and also any Goods, Chattels, or Personal Estate what- 
soever, as well for enabling them the better to carry into Execution, 
encourage and promote by just and lawful Ways and Means, such 
Measures as will tend to promote and extend just and lawfiil Com- 
merce, as to provide for, aid, and Assist, at their Discretion, such 
Members of our said Corporation as may be hereafter reduced to 
Poverty, and their Widows and Children : Provided always, the 
clear Yearly Value of the said Real Estate doth not at any Time 
exceed the Sum of Three Thousand Pounds Sterling, lawful Money 
of our Kingdom of Great Britain. And that our said Corporation 
of the Chamber of Commerce in the City of New York, in America, 
and their Successors for ever, by the same Name, shall and may have 
full Power and Authority to Give, Grant, Sell, Lease, Demise and 
Dispose of the same Real Estate and Hereditaments whatsoever, for 
Life or Lives, or Years, or for ever ; and all Goods, Chattels, and 
personal Estates whatsoever, at their Will and Pleasure, according as 



92 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

they shall judge to be most beneficial and advantageous to the Good 
Ends and Purposes abovementioned. And that it shall and may be 
I^awful for them and their Successors forever hereafter, to have a 
Common Seal, to serve for the Causes and Business of them and 
their Successors, and the Same Seal to Change, Alter, Break, and 
Make new from time to time at their Pleasure. And also that they 
and their Successors by the same Name, shall and may have foil 
Power and Authority to Erect and Build out of their Common Funds 
or by any other Ways or Means, for the use of the said Corporation 
hereby Erected, any House, Houses, or other Buildings, as they shall 
think necessary and Convenient. And for the better carrying into 
Execution the Purposes aforesaid, our Royal Will and Pleasure is, 
and We do hereby Give and Grant to the Corporation of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce in the City of New York, in America, and their 
Successors for ever, that there shall be for ever hereafter belonging 
to the said Corporation, one President, One or more Vice President 
or Vice Presidents, One or more Treasurer or Treasurers, And One 
Secretary ; And for the more immediate carrying into Execution our 
Royal Will and Pleasure herein. We do hereby Assign, Constitute, 
and Appoint the above named John Cruger, Esq., to be the present 
President ; the above named Hugh Wallace to be the present Vice 
President ; tlie above named Elias Desbrosses to be the present 
Treasurer, and the above named Anthony Van Dam to be the present 
Secretary of our said Corporation hereby Erected, who shall hold, 
possess, and enjoy their said respective Offices until the first Tuesday 
in May now next ensuing : — And for the keeping up the Succession in 
the said Offices, Our Royal Will and Pleasure is, and we do hereby for 
us, our Heirs and Successors, establish, direct, and require, and give 
and Grant to the said Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce in 
the City of New York, in America, and their Successors for ever, 
that on the said first Tuesday in May now next ensuing, and Yearly, 
and every Year forever thereafter, on the first Tuesday in May in 
every Year, they and their Successors shall meet at some convenient 
place in our said City of New York, to be fixed and ascertained by 
some of the Bye-Laws or Regulations of our said Corporation, and 
there, by the Majority of such of them as shall so meet, shall by 
Ballot, or in such other manner and Form as shall be regulated by 
the Bye-Laws or Regulations of our said Corporation, Elect or chuse 
One President, One or more Vice President or Vice Presidents One 
or more Treasurer or Treasurers, and One Secretary, to serve in the 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



93 



said Offices for the ensuing Year, who shall immediately enter upon 
their respective Offices, and hold, exercise, and enjoy the same re- 
spectively from the time of such Elections, for and during the Space 
of one Year, and until other fit Persons shall be Elected and chosen 
in their respective Places, according to the Laws and Regulations 
aforesaid. And in case any of the said Persons by these Presents 
Nominated and Appointed to the respective Offices aforesaid, or who 
shall hereafter be Elected and Chosen thereto respectively, shall die, 
or on any Account be removed from such Offices respectively before 
the time of their respective appointed Services shall be expired, or 
refuse or neglect to Act in and execute the Office for which he or 
they shall be so elected and chosen, or is or are herein nominated or 
appointed, that then, and in any and every such Case, it shall and 
may be Lawful for the Members of our said Body Corporate hereby 
erected, to meet at such Time and Times, and at such Place and 
Places within our said City of New York, and upon such Notices or 
Summons as shall for that Purpose be established and directed by 
the Bye-Laws or Regulations of our said Body Corporate, and there, 
by the Majority of such of them as shall so meet, Elect and choose 
other or others to the said Offices respectively, in the Place of him 
or them so dying, removing, neglecting or refusing to Act in manner 
and Form, and after the same method to be observed in the Annual 
Elections of the like Officers respectively, by Virtue of these our 
Letters Patent, and the said Bye-Laws or Regulations of our said 
Corporation, Hereby giving and granting, that such Person or Per- 
sons as shall be so Elected and Chosen by the majority of such of 
the said Members as shall meet in manner aforesaid, shall have, hold, 
exercise and enjoy such the Office or Offices to which he or they 
shall be so Elected and Chosen, from the time of such Election 
until the first Tuesday in May then next ensuing, and until other or 
others be legally Chosen in his or their Place and Stead, as fully 
and amply to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever, as the Person 
or Persons in whose place he or they shall be chosen might or 
could have done by Virtue of these Presents. And our Will and 
Pleasure is, and We do hereby for us, our Heirs and Successors, 
ordain, direct and require, that every President, Vice President, 
Treasurer and Secretary to be Elected by Virtue of these Presents, 
shall, before they Act in their respective Offices, take an Oath or 
Affirmation to be to them administered by the President, or in his 
Absence by One of the Vice Presidents of the preceding year, (who 



94 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



are hereby Authorized to Administer the same,) for the faithful and 
due Execution of their Respective Offices during their Continuance 
in the same respectively. — And We do further, for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, Give and Grant to the Corporation of the Chamber 
of Commerce in the City of New York, in America, and their Suc- 
cessors forever, that besides the Annual Meeting of our said Cor- 
poration herein before Directed and Appointed to be held on the first 
Tuesday in May in every Year, it shall and may be Lawful for them, 
their Heirs and Successors, forever hereafter, for promoting and 
carrying into Execution the laudable Intents and Designs aforesaid, 
and for the Transacting the Business and Concerns of our said Cor- 
poration, to meet together on the first Tuesday in every Month, for 
ever, at such Place or Places in our said City of New York as shall 
for that Purpose be established, fixed, ascertained and Appointed by 
the Bye-Laws and Regulations of our said Corporation : — And that 
the Members of our said Corporation being so met, or so many of 
them in Number at the least as shall by the Bye-Laws or Ordi- 
nances of our said Corporation be for that Purpose from time to 
time established, directed. Ordained or Appointed, shall, together 
with the President, or any one of the Vice Presidents of our said 
Corporation for the Time being, be a legal Meeting of our said Cor- 
poration ; and they, or the Major part of them so met, shall have 
full Power and Authority to adjourn from Day to Day, or for any 
other Time, as the business of our said Corporation may require, 
and to do. Execute, and perform all and every Act and Acts, Thing- 
and Things whatsoever which the said Corporation of the Chamber 
of Commerce in the City of New York, in America, are or shall by 
these our Letters Patent be Authorized to do. Act or Transact, in 
as full and ample manner as if all and every of the Members of the 
said Corporation were present : — And that at any such legal Meet- 
ing of the said Corporation, they shall and may in Writing, under 
the common Seal, make, frame, constitute, establish, and ordain from 
Time to Time, and at all Times hereafter, such Laws, Constitutions, 
Ordinances, Regulations, and Statutes, for the better Government of, 
the Officers and Members of the said Corporation, for fixing and 
ascertaining the Places of Meeting of our said Corporation as afore- 
said, and for regulating all other their Affairs and Business as they, 
or the Major Part of them so legally met, shall Judge best for the 
general Good of the said Corporation, and profitable for the more 
effectually promoting the beneficial Designs of tiieir Institution ; — ■ 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



9S 



All which Laws, Constitutions, Regulations, Ordinances, and Stat- 
utes so to be made, framed, constituted, established, and Ordained 
as aforesaid. We Will, Command, and Ordain by these Presents for 
Us, our Heirs and Successors, to be from Time to Time and at all 
Times hereafter, kept, obeyed, and performed in all things as the 
same ought to be, on the Penalties and Amercements in the same 
to be imposed and limited, so as the same Laws, Constitutions, 
Regulations, and Statutes be reasonable in themselves, and not re- 
pugnant or contrary to the Laws and Statutes of that Part of our 
Kingdom of Great Britain called England, nor of our said Province 
of New York. — And, for the keeping up and preserving for ever here- 
after a Succession of Members for the said Corporation, our Will 
and Pleasure is, and We do hereby for us, our Heirs and Succes- 
sors, Ordain, and Give and Grant to the said Corporation of the 
Chamber of Commerce in the City of New York, in America, and 
their Successors for ever, that at any of the Stated legal Meetings 
of the said Corporation, to be held on the first Tuesday in every 
Month for ever hereafter, but at no other Meeting of our said Cor- 
poration, it shall and may be Lawful for them and their Successors 
for ever, to Elect and choose in such manner and Form, and upon 
such Terms and Conditions, as shall be directed, ordained, and 
established for that Purpose by any of the said Bye-Laws, Statutes, 
Constitutions, or Ordinances of the said Corporation, such and so 
many Persons to be Members of the said Corporation as they shall 
think beneficial to the laudable Designs of the said Corporation ; 
Which Persons, and every of them so from Time to Time Elected 
and Chosen, shall by Virtue of these Presents and of such Election, 
be Vested with all the Powers, Authorities, and Privileges which any 
Member of the said Corporation is hereby Invested with. And in 
case any other extraordinary Meeting or Meetings of the said Cor- 
poration shall at any Time or Times be judged necessary for the 
promoting the Interest and Business of the said Corporation, We do 
hereby for us, our Heirs and Successors, Will, Declare, and- Ordain, 
that it shall and may be Lawful for our said Corporation to meet 
from Time to Time, at such Days and Times, and at such Places in 
our said City of New York, and upon such Notices or Summons as 
shall for that Purpose from Time to Time be Settled, Established, 
and Ordained by the Laws, Ordinances, or Statutes of the said Cor 
poration ; And that the Members of our said Corporation being so 
met, or so many of them in Number at the least as by the said 



g6 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Laws, Ordinances, and Statutes aforesaid shall from Time to Time 
be Established, Directed, Ordained, and Appointed for that Pur- 
pose, shall together with the President, or One of the Vice Presi- 
dents of the said Corporation for the Time being, be a legal Meeting 
of the said Corporation ; And they, or the Major part of them so 
met, shall have fiill Power and Authority to Act, Transact, do, and 
Perform all and Singular whatsoever may be Transacted, done, and 
Performed at any the hereby Stated Meetings aforesaid of the said 
Corporation, saving and Except the Electing Members, Making laws. 
Ordinances and Statutes, and Disposing of the real Estate of the 
said Corporation. And our Will and Pleasure is, that until the same 
shall be otherwise Regulated as aforesaid, that the Meetings of the 
said Corporation shall be held in the great Room of the Building 
commonly called the Exchange, situate at the lower End of the Street 
called broad Street, '' in the saiS City of New York : and that until 
the same shall be also otherwise regulated as aforesaid, that no Act 
done in any Meeting of the said Corporation shall be Legal, Good, or 
Valid, unless the President, or one of the Vice Presidents, and 
Twenty others of the Members of the said Corporation at the least, 
be Present, and the Major Part of them consenting thereto. And 
We do further Give and Grant to the said Corporation of the 
Chamber of Commerce in the City of New York, in America, that 
it shall and may be lawful for the President of the said Corpora- 
tion, at all times hereafter for ever, to Appoint a Door-Keeper, One 
or more Messenger or Messengers, And all such other Inferior 
Officers as shall by him be thought necessary for the said Corpora- 
tion, and to displace them and any or every of them at his Will and 
Pleasure. Provided nevertheless. That no such Door-Keeper, 
Messenger, or other Officer shall hold his or their Office or Offices 
by Virtue of any such appointment, longer than until the then next 
lawful Meeting of our said Corporation, unless such Person or Per- 
sons so appointed shall be then approved of by tlie Majority of such 
of the Members of the said Corporation as shall then be met. — And 
We do further, of our especial Grace, certain Knowledge, and mere 
Motion, for us, our Heirs and Successors, Grant and Ordain, that 
when and as often as the President, or any Vice President, Treas- 
urer or Secretary of the said Corporation, shall misdemean himself 
in his or their said Offices respectively, and thereupon a Complaint 
or Charge in Writing shall be exhibited against him or them, by any 
Member of the said Corporation, at any legal Meeting or Meetings 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. g^ 

of the said Corporation, that it shall and may be lawful for the 
Members of the said Corporation then Met, or the Major Part of 
them, from Time to Time, upon Examination and due Proof, to sus- 
pend or discharge such President, Vice President, Treasurer or 
Secretary, from their Offices respectively, although the Yearly or 
other Time for their respective Services shall not be expired, any 
thing before in these Presents contained to the Contrary thereof in 
any wise notwithstanding. — And further, We do by these Presents, 
for us, our Heirs and Successors, Give and Grant unto the said Cor- 
poration of the Chamber of Commerce in the City of New York, 
in America, and their Successors forever, that this our present 
Charter shall be deemed, adjudged, and construed in all Cases 
most favorably, and for the best benefit and advantage of our said 
Corporation, and for promoting the good Intentions and Designs 
herein before expressed, inducing us graciously to grant the same ; 
And that this our present Grant, being entered on Record as herein 
after is expressed, or the Enrollment thereof, shall be for ever here- 
after good and effectual in the Law, according to our true Intent 
and meaning hereinbefore declared, without any other License, Grant, 
or Confirmation from us, our Heirs and Successors, hereafter by the 
said Corporation to be had or obtained, notwithstanding the not 
reciting or misrecital, or not naming or misnaming of the aforesaid 
Offices, Franchises, Privileges, Immunities, or other the Premises, or 
any of them, And although no Writ of ad quo damnum, or other 
Writs, Inquisitions, or Precepts hath been upon this Occasion had, 
made, issued, or Prosecuted, Any Statute, Act, Ordinance, or Pro- 
vision, or other Matter or thing to the contrary thereof in any wise 
notwithstanding. In testimony whereof, We have caused these our 
Letters to be made Patent, And the Great Seal of our said Prov- 
ince to be hereunto Affixed, And the same to be Entered on 
Record in our Secretary's Office, for our said Province, in one of 
the Books of Patents there remaining. 

Witness our trusty and well-beloved Cadwallader Colden, 
Esquire, our Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-Chief of our 
said Province of New York, and the Territories depending thereon 
in America, by and with the Advice and Consent of our Council 
for our said Province, at Fort George, in our City of New York, 
this thirteenth Day of March, in the Year of our Lord One thou- 
sand seven hundred and Seventy, and of our Reign the Tenth. 
7 



98 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d May, 1770. 

John Cruger, President. 
Hugh WaUace, V. P. 
Elias Desbrosses, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 
William Walton, 
William McAdam, 
Garrard Walton, 
John Moore, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Richard Yates, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Sampson Simson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 



Thomas W. Moore, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Hamilton Young, 
Thomas Walton, 
John Thurman, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
William Stepple, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Joseph Bull, 
James Beekman, 
Alexander McDonald, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Robert C. Livingston. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock, viz. : 



Samuel Verplank, 
Henry White, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddle, 



Isaac Sears, 
Alexan, Wallace, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
August. Van Home. 



Fined for non-appearance 

Robert Murray, 
George Folliot, 
Theoph Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooks, 
Walter Franklin, 
Acheson Thompson, 
John H. Cruger, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, gout, 
Charles McEvers, 



John Weatherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
William Imlay, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
Philip Livingston, 
Robert Watts, 
Isaac Corsa, 
William Seton, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. gg 

Levinus Clarkson, Edward Laight, 

Thomas Marston, William Neilson, 

Peter Hasencliver, Jeremiah Piatt, 

Jacob Watson, Leonard Lispenard, 

Peter Remsen, Thomas Miller, 

Henry Remsen, Samuel Kemble, 
Harman Gouverneur. 

The proposal of Mr. Thurman to take into consider- 
ation some plan to be pursued in Insuring Houses from 
Loss by Fire is referred to a future Meeting. 

Mr. Yates's proposal for a Committee to be appointed 
to wait on the Mayor, praying him to use his influence 
with the Corporation, to make a Law for the Inspection 
of Cornel, Rye Meal, and Indian Meal, is also referred to 
a future Meeting. 

Mr. Yates's proposal for allowing the Secretary of 
this Corporation a Salary '^ for defraying the Expences he 
is put to having been considered. 

Resolved, unanimously, that the present and future 
Secretary of this Chamber be paid annually, on the first 
Tuesday in May in every year, by the Treasurer of this 
Corporation, the sum of Twenty Pounds Currency. 

In consequence of the Motion made by Mr. William 
Walton for this Corporation to Dine together, Messrs. 
William Walton, Richard Sharpe, William McAdam, 
and Gerrard W. Beekman were appointed Stewards to 
order a Dinner " in this Chamber on the Second Tuesday 
of this Month. 

Ordered — That the Secretary do forthwith send 
Notices to and Invite the Lieut. Governor, Council, and 
Members of the General Assembly,'* who may be in 
Town, the Secretaries," the General '* and his Suit, the 
Captains of His Majesty's Ships," the Principal Officers 
of the Customs,'* and the Mayor of the City. 



lOO NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 

Ordered — That Messrs. Samuel Verplank, Peter 
Keteltas, John Reade, John Alsop, and Jacob Walton, 
be a Committee to audit the Treasurers accounts, and 
that they do report to this Corporation what Sum is in 
his hands. 

The Charter of Incorporation as well as the Rules 
of the Chamber, appoint this Day for the Election of 
Officers for the Current Year, when the following Gentle- 
men were Elected, viz. : 

The Hon." Hugh Wallace, Esq., President. 

The Hon. Henry White, Esq | Vice-Presidents. 
Elias Desbrosses, Esq., J 
Theop. Bache, Treasurer. 

Antho Van Dam, Secretary. 

Ordered — That Messrs. R. Alexander, T. W. Moore, 
R. Sharpe, P. Remsen, H. Remsen, Isaac Roosevelt, and 
Nicholas Hoffman, be a Committee, until the first Tues- 
day in June next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, 
and that they do make report thereof in writing to this 
Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, sth June, 1770. 

Present. 
The Hono'ble Henry White, Esqr., } 

Elias Desbrosses, Esqr., j Vice-Presidents. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Cruger, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Jacob Walton, Jacob Watson, 

William Walton, Robert Alexander, 

Gerrard Walton, Nicholas Hoffinan, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Alexan. Wallace, 

John Moore, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



lOI 



Charles McEvers, 
Richard Yates, 
William Seton, 
Edward Laight, 
Sampson Simson, 



Thomas Walton, 
William Stepple, 
Alexand. McDonald, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Robert C. Livingston. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Samuel Ver Plank, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 



Thomas Miller. 



John Harris Cruger, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Henry Remsen, 



Fined for non-appearance ; 

Hugh Wallace, 
James Jauncey, 
Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Theophy. Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, 
Lawrence Kortright, ' 
Acheson Thompson, 
Thomas Randal, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Hamilton Young, 
John Thurman, 
Isaac Corsa, 
John Weatherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 



Thomas White, 
Philip Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Thomas Marston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
WUliam Neilson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
John Reade, 
William Imlay, 
August's Van Home, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Joseph BuU, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Harman Gouverneur. 



The consideration of Mr. Thurman's Proposal for 
Insuring Houses from Fire is postponed to a future 
Meeting. 

Mr. Pettit™ having exhibited an account of Expences 



I02 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 

for Fire-wood, Candles, &c., amounting to Two pounds 
fifteen shillings and two pence, and a year's Salary, due 
the first May last. Proposed that he be paid the same. 

John Cruger, Esqr., Moves — That as the Resolution 
of this Chamber for Regulating Johannes has caused the 
Evil and Scandalous Practice of clipping every Johannes 
before it passes In this Colony, and will encourage 
Foreigners and others to reduce them before they are 
sent hither; therefore moves that it may be taken into 
consideration whether it will not be for the Interest of 
Commerce to Resolve not to take a half Johannes for 
sixty-four Shillings that does not weigh 9 dwt. 3 grains ; 
if under that weight a deduction to be made. 

That as the Committee appointed to ascertain the 
Tonnage of this Port have not Reported, 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Moore and Jacobus Van 
Zandt be added thereto, and that they do report to this 
Corporation the quantity of the different species of Goods 
usually Shipped from this Port, to ascertain the Tonnage 
thereon. 

Ordered — That Messrs. A. Lynsen, H. Young, Thos. 
Walton, J. Thurman, Jno. Weatherhead, G. Rapelje, and 
G. Duykinck, be a Committee, until the first Tuesday in 
June next, to hear and determine disputes between Parties 
who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, and that 
they do make report thereof in writing to this Chamber. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, July 3d, 1770. 
Present. 
Hon'ble Hugh Wallace, Esqr., President 

Elias Desbrosses, Esqr., > 
Hon'ble Henry White, Esqr., | ^ Presidents. 
Theoph. Bache, Treasurer. 
Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



103 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Isaac Low, 
William Walton, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
John Moore, 



Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Henry Remsen, 
Nicholas Hoffinan, 
Hamilton Young, 
William Stepple, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Alexander McDonald, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Robert C. Livingston. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock. ; 



Edward Laight, 
William Nielson, 
Jacob Watson, 



Jeremiah Piatt. 



Thomas W. Moore, 
Abraham Lynsen, 
Isaac Corsa, 



Fined for non-appearance ; 

Robert Murray, 
George Folliot, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, 
Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. WaddeU, 
Philip Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
Robert Watts, 
Charles McEvers, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Nicolas Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Peter Hasencliver, 



Alexander Wallace, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
William Seton, 
Samson Simson, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Thomas Walton, 
John Thurman, 
John Weatherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
William Imlay, 
August. Van Home, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Joseph Bull, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Thomas Miller, 



James Beekman. 



Ordered — That the Treasurer of this Corporation do 



I04 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

pay Mr. Pettit his [account *°] of Money expended for Fire- 
wood and Candles, amounting to £2 15s. 2d., and also 
his Salary of Fifteen Pounds, as Door keeper and Mes- 
senger for one year ending the first of May last. 

Mr. Cruger's motion for half Joes, to weigh ^dwt. 3g. 
to pass for 64s., being considered of and greatly debated, 
on a division, it passed in the Negative. 

Mr. Low moves that Jersey money*' shall not be 
received or paid by any Member of this Corporation for 
more than 6^ per cent, advance, from and after the first 
day of January next ensuing. 

Mr. Low also moves that, to prevent that Scandalous 
practice of clipping half Johannes, that three pence be 
allowed for every grain which a half Joe. weighs more 
than nine pennyweight, and that four pence be deducted 
for every grain it weighs less. 

Order' d — That Messrs. W. Stepple, W. Imlay, A. 
Van Home, H. C. Bogart, G. W. Ludlow, J. Bull, and 
L. Lispenard be a Committee until the first Tuesday in 
August next to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, 
and that they do make report thereof in writing, to this 
Chamber. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, August 17, 1770. 
Present. 
Honble. Hugh Wallace, P. 

Elias Desbrosses, ) 
Honble. Henry White, \ ^- ^• 
Theop. Bache, Treas. 
Anthon. Van Dam, Secty. 
John Cruger, Peter Remsen, 

James Jauncey, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Samuel Ver Plank, Thomas Walton, 

Isaac Low, John Thurman, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



105 



William Walton, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Edward Laight, 
Sampson Simson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
GerrardW. Beekman, 
John Reade, 
Thomas W. Moore, 



Isaac Corsa. 



Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
George W. Ludlow, 
James Beekman, 
Alexander McDonald, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Henry Remsen, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Samuel Bayard, Junr., 



Fined for non-appearance 



Jacob Walton, 
George Folliot, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
Henry White, 
John Alsop, 
Philip Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Lewis Pintard, 

Harman 



Peter Hasencliver, 
Alexander Wallace, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
William Nielson, 
WiUiam Seton, 
Jacob Watson, 
Robert Alexander, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Hamilton Young, L. I. 
John Weatherhead, 
William Stepple, L. I. 
William Imlay, 
Augusts. Van Horn, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Joseph Bull, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Thomas Miller, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Gouverneur. 



On Mr. Low's motion of last Meeting, whether 
there should not be allowed three pence per Grain on all 
half Johanneses that weigh more than nine Penny weight 
being debated in the Chamber, and on a division, passed 
in the Affirmative. 



I06 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Resolved, therefore — That the Members of the Cor- 
poration will in future pay and receive half Johanneses 
weighing Nine penny weight at three pounds four shil- 
lings, and for every Grain they weigh more to allow three 
pence, and to deduct four pence for every Grain they 
weigh less. 

Ordered — That Notice be given in the News Papers.*' 

John Cruger, Esq., begs leave to dissent from the 

above resolution as it tends towards diminishing the 

value of our Currency, and that it be entered on the 

Minutes of this Corporation. 

Ordered — That this dissent be entered accordingly, 
Mr. Low's proposal for receiving and paying Jersey 
Money, from and after the first January next, at 6f per 
cent, advance, is postponed till a future Meeting. 

Ordered — That Messrs. James Beekman, A. McDon- 
ald, S. Bayard, R. C. Livingston, H. Gouverneur, 1. 
Corsa, Jerem. Piatt, be a Committee until the first Tuesday 
September next to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties who shall agree to leave such to this Chamber, 
and that they do make report thereof in writing to this 
Chamber. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th September, 1770. 
Present. 
Honble. Hugh Wallace, P. 

Elias Desbrosses, ) -ir P 
Honble. Henry White, j" 

Theophy Bache, T. 
Antho. Van Dam, S. 
Samuel Ver Plank, Hamil. Young, 

William Walton, Thomas Walton, 

Robert R. Waddell, John Thurman, 

Gerrard Walton, Garret Rapelje, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, Gerrard Duyckinck, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



107 



Edward Laight, 
Sampson Simson, 
Jacob Watson, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 



Willliam Stepple, 
Augus. Van Home, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Bayard. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Hugh Wallace, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Robert Watts, 
Alexan. Wallace, 



Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Robert Alexander, 
Abraham Lynsen, 
Harman Gouverneur. 



Fined for non-appearance : 

James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Walter Franklin, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
Isaac Low, 
John H. Cruger, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
John Reade, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, 



Henry Remsen, 
Nichols. Hoffman, 
John Weatherhead, 
William Imlay, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Henry White, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
Philip Livingston, 
WiUiam McAdam, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
William Seton, 
William Nielson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Robert Livingston, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Joseph Bull, 
Thomas Miller, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Alexander McDonald, 



Jeremiah Piatt. 



The proposal for receiving and paying Jersey Money 
at 6^ per ct. was further postponed. 



I08 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Mr. Hugh Gaine " Printer's account for Work per- 
formed, and Books, &c., furnished this Corporation 
amounting to £12.15, appeared. 

Proposed — That the same be paid. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Cruger, James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, George FoUiot, Samuel Verplank, Theo- 
phylact Bache, and Miles Sherbrooke, be a Committee 
until the first Tuesday in October next to hear and 
determine disputes between parties who shall agree to 
leave such to this Chamber. 

To the Gentlemen Committee of the Chamber of Commerce : 

Messrs. Conyngham Sr" Nesbitt, of Philadelphia, chartered a 
vessel for Lisbon ; the merchant at Lisbon, to whom the Cargo was con- 
signed, sent them by the Master of said Vessel, one hundred half Joes. 
The Vessel foundered at sea, the Crew were taken up by Capt. Warden, 
of Glasgow, who saved part of the materials and brought them to New 
York where he received a Salvage for them. 

Capt. Warden " demands a Salvage on the above one hundred half 
Joes which were in the Captain's chest. Please to give your opinion on this 
matter whether Capt. Warden is entitled to any Salvage, and what ? 

Hugh & A. Wallace. 

We, the Subscribers, are of opinion that Ten per Cent, on Cash saved 
in this case is an adequate Salvage. 

John Cruger, 
James Jauncey, 
Samuel Verplank, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 

Theoph. Bache. 
October i, 1770. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d October, 1770. 

Present. 

P. 



I V. P. 
ite, f 



Hon'ble Henry White 

' T, 
Antho. Van Dam, S. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



109 



John Cruger, Edward Laight, 

James Jauncey, Sampson Simson, 

Walter Franklin, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Isaac Low, Nicholas Hoffman, 

William Walton, Thomas Walton, 

Robert Watts, George W. Ludlow, 

Gerrard Walton, Joseph Bull, 

John Moore, James Beekman, 

Lewis Pintard, Samuel Bayard, 

Gabriel Ludlow, Henry White, F. 
John Thurman, F. 



Fined for non-appearance ; 

Hugh Wallace, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
Jacob Walton, 
Robert Murray, 
George FoUiot, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Theophy. Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Lawren. Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. WaddeU, 
Philip Livingston, 
WiUiam McAdam, 
John H. Cruger, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Charles McEvers, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nichol's Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Alexan. Wallace, 



Thomas Buchanan, 
William Seton, 
WiUiam Neilson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Jacob Watson, 
John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 
Alexand. McDonald, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, 
Henry Remsen, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Hamilton Young, 
John Weatherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
WiUiam Stepple, 
WiUiam Imlay, 
August's Van Home, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Thomas MiUer, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Jeremiah Piatt. 



Mr. John Moore Proposed that the Charter of this 
Corporation be read at every Quarterly Meeting. 



no NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Mr. Moore also Proposed that a Proper Stove** be 
erected at the lower end of this Room, for the comfort of 
the members the approaching Winter. 

Order' d — That the Treasurer do pay Mr. Hugh 
Gaine's Account, amounting to Twelve pounds fifteen 
shillings. 

Mr. Isaac Low beg'd leave to propose to the Cham- 
ber some reasons that may avail to bring into repute the 
lost character of Flour ^' Exported from this market, in 
the words following: 

Mr. President : 

The Disrepute which the Flour, the grand Staple of this 
Colony, suffers at all markets, calls aloud on the Legislature and every Mem- 
ber of the Community to contribute their sincere endeavours to effect a 
thorough reform, and, if possible, to retrieve its lost Reputation ; and as 
nothing can be more worthily the object of the serious attention of this Cor- 
poration than to promote so desireable an end, I beg leave to propose to 
their consideration some of the means which appear to me most conducive 
to remedy the Defects so much complained of, and so severely felt by ever}' 
principal Exporter of Flour in this City. 

First, then, I conceive, and it is demonstrably evident, that the grand 
Reason why Philadelphia has so much the preference of New York Flour 
is because the former chiefly use French Burr Stones ^s for Grinding their 
Wheat, while there is scarce a single pair of them employed by any of the 
Millers in this Colony. For remedy whereof, I propose that the Fund of 
this Chamber, and as much more, to be collected by Subscription from each 
Member of it, as shall be sufficient to purchase Ten or Twenty Pair of 
French Burr Stones, shall be appropriated for that purpose. That application 
be made to the Owners of Ships in the London Trade, either to bring over 
the said Stones as Ballast, or at a very moderate Freight, instead of Coals 
or Grind Stones ; and that when the said Stones arrive here, they shall be 
disposed of at Prime Cost to any Miller in this Colony only who shall apply 
for them. 

The prevalence of habit is such, that it is extr'emely difficult to induce 
People to abandon old Customs, especially where doing so is hkely to be 
attended with considerable Expence, although, as in the present instance 
there is a moral certainty of Success. I conceive, therefore, it is absolutely 
necessary to introduce, on the most easy Terms to the Purchasers, such a 
number of French Burr Stones as may appear to this Chamber adequate to 
the Design ; not only to Evince their great utility, but to excite an Emulation 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. Ill 

in our Millers, as is already the case in Pennsylvania, to use none else ; 
which may be easily effected by this Chamber, after a few of them are intro- 
duced, by giving a due preference to the Flour which shall be ground by 
them. 

But the quality of the Stones is not the only, tho' the principal reason to 
which is to be attributed the defects in our Flour. 

In Philadelphia, I am informed that no Flour may be brought to market 
but in cover'd Waggons and under the Decks of Boats, and that the Trans- 
gressors in either case are subject to very severe Penalties, which are in- 
variably inflicted without respect to Persons. 

Some means ought, therefore, to be devised and recommended to the 
Legislature to enforce hke Regulations in this Colony, as also with regard 
to the Weight and Size of the Barrels, to prevent the Flour from being 
packed too hard, which is a very great fault in our Flour in general, and to 
have the wheat Skreened on Delivery. 

An Amendment to the Inspection Act of Flour was, if I remember 
right, recommended by this Chamber and adopted by the Legislature last 
year : That the Inspectors should not only have a particular regard to the 
fineness of the Flour but also to Grinding — That it should be lively and 
rise well in the Baking, which I am told is, with proper Judges, very easy 
to determine. But experience has evinced that a due regard has not been 
paid to these particulars, especially the latter of them — whence I infer that 
our present Inspectors are either from their great Age become too dim 
sighted, and want the sense of feeling to distinguish properly, or that they 
do not sufficiently understand their Duty. I therefore propose, that if 
Younger Men and better Judges can be found, they be recommended to the 
Legislature as Inspectors of Flour ; which, as we confessedly have better 
Wheat ought to have the preference, rather than be in disgrace, as is 
notoriously the present case at all Markets. And if the Regulations I have 
thought it my duty to recommend to this Chamber together with such others 
as their better Judgements may suggest be properly attended to, I flatter 
myself that in a very short time the lost Reputation of our Flour will not 
only be retrieved, but that it will in fact be equal, if not superior to any made 
on this Continent. 

The advantages which will result from so desireable an Event are too ob- 
vious to require any Arguments with the Members of this Corporation, cheer- 
fiilly to embrace the means which shall appear to them most hkely to promote 
the great object of their steady pursuit, The Good of their Country— 
with same view, and for no other reason, I also beg leave to propose to the 
consideration of this Chamber, whether the Fees for Inspecting Pot Ashes,^" 
which is so rapidly become a considerable Staple of this Colony, ought not 
to be recommended to the Legislature to be reduced. Since, from the vast 
unexpected increase of that Commodity, the Fees of Inspection are, in the 
opinion of many, become greatly more than adequate to the Services ; 



112 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



which operates against its being brought to this Market ; and the contrary- 
ought to be encouraged by every means in our power, whether therefore some 
further Regulations ought not to be made relative to Cooperage, and another 
Inspector appointed at the West end of the City to save Proprietors the 
Expence of double Cartage, and whether all Pott Ash should not be brought 
in Covered Waggons, and under the Decks of Boats, under severe Penalties 
to the Transgressors. All which is humbly submitted to the consideration 
of this Chamber. 

Isaac Low. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th Nov., 1770. 
Present. 



Honble. Hugh Wallace, 

Elias Desbrosses, ) 

Honble. Henry White, S 
Theop. Bache, 
Antho. Van Dam, 



James Jauncey, 
Jacob Walton, 
Walter Franklin, 
Thomas White, 
William McAdam, 
John H. Cruger, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simpson, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Peter Remsen, 
Abram Lynsen, 



Isaac Corsa. 



V. P. 

Treas. 
Secty. 

Isaac Roosevelt, 
Joseph Bull, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
James Beekman, 
Alexan. McDonald, 
Samuel Bayard, jr., 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Gabriel Ludlow, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Hamilton Young, 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock 



Isaac Low, 

John Thurman. 

Fined for non-appearance : 

Robert Murray, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Gerrard Walton, 



Lewis Pintard, 



Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Jacob Watson, 
John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 
Thomas Moore, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I 13 

Charles McEvers, Richard Sharpe, 

John Moore, Thomas Walton, 

Levinus Clarkson, Samuel Ver Plank, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, Robert R. Waddel, 

Richard Yates, Phihp Livingston, 

Thomas Marston, Robert Watts, 

Isaac Sears, John Weatherhead, 

Peter Hassencliver, Garret Rapalje, 

Alexan. Wallace, Gerrard Duykinck, 

Jeremia Piatt, William Steppel, 

George FoUiott, William Imlay, 

Thomas Randal, August. Van Home, 

John Alsop, Henry C. Bogert, 

William Walton, George W. Ludlow, 

Thomas Buchanan, Thomas Miller, 

Edward Laight, Samuel Kemble, 

WiUiam Nielson, Harman Gouverneur. 



Mr. Low's proposal of last meeting was read and con- 
sidered of, respecting of Flour, when Mr. Marschalk,? 
who was attending produced several Samples of Flour, 
as well as Bread baked from it, which the Chamber ap- 
proved of, as being greatly improved in its quality, 
especially such as was ground with Burr Stones ; and it is 
recommended by this Corporation that the Members 
hereof do give a preference in their purchase of such 
Marks as have been exhibited, as well as to those Millers 
who shall use Burr Stones in future. To Skreen the 
Wheat is also recommended, with German Mill Skreens;*^ 
and it appears also to the Chamber that having two In- 
spectors is of bad consequence, and 

It is proposed that this Chamber apply to the Assem- 
bly, at their next Meeting, to appoint only One In- 
spector.^' 

And it appears that there are several Burr Stones 
already sent for, and that therefore it does not seem neces- 
sary for this Chamber to send for any at this time. 
8 



114 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

That this Chamber apply to the Assembly to oblige 
the Millers to Brand the first Letter of their Christian/" 
and their whole Sirname at length on each barrel. 

Upon considering Mr. Low's Proposal relating to 
Pot-ash, it is thought proper to postpone that matter till 
another Meeting, when this Corporation may be better 
informed what quantity is shipp'd off, and what expence 
attends the Inspection. 

Order' d— That Messrs. R. White, McAdam and J. 
Thurman do prepare an Advertisement for Mr. Gaine's 
next Paper,^' to be signed by the Secretary, signifying the 
approbation of this Chamber to the quality of several 
Samples of Flour exhibited by Mr. Marschalk, one of 
the Inspectors, who is required to attend Monthly with 
an account of such Millers as improve in y^ manufacture 
of Flour. 

Ordered— That Messrs. Robert R. Waddell, P. Liv- 
ingston, W. McAdam, R. Watts, J. H. Cruger, G. 
Walton, and J. Van Zandt, be a Committee, until the 
first Tuesday in December next, to hear and determine 
disputes between Parties who shall agree to leave such to 
this Corporation. 

We, the underwritten Arbitrators, indifferently chosen by John Dunlap 
and Lewis Pintard to inspect Mr. L. Jouet's charges at Hispaniola for 
the Snow Peggy and Polly, do award the said John Dunlap to allow the said 
Lewis Pintard, out of the Hire of the said Snow, the Sum of Seventy-one 
pounds Eight shillings and one penny New York Currency, subject to the 
Sum of Seven pounds Eighteen Shillings and two pence N. York Curr'y, to 
be repaid Capt. Dunlap by Lewis Pintard, if Peter Saunders, a Sailor who 
was put in Prison at the Cape, should come to New York and Recover the 
same from Capt. Dunlap, or the owner. 

Witness our hands in New York, this nth [ ] 1770 

John Alsop, 
Isaac Low, 
Willi Walton. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



"5 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, December 4, 1770. 



Present. 



P. 



John Cruger, 
James Jauncey, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 
William Walton, 
Robert R. Waddell. 
John H. Cruger, 



Hon'ble Hugh WaUace, 

Ehas Desbrosses, ) -^ p 

Theop. Bache, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 

Sampson Simson, 
Jacob Watson, 
Robert Alexander, 
Peter Remsen, 
Thomas Walton, 
August's Van Home, 
Joseph Bull, 



Gerrard Walton, 
John Moore, 



Robert C. Livingston, 
Isaac Corsa. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock ; 



Hugh Wallace, 
Nicho's Hoffman, 
Theophy Bache, 



George W. Ludlow, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Alexa. McDonald, 



Samuel Bayard. 



Fined for non-appearance ; 



Jacob Walton, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas White, 
Robert Watts, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Thomas Marston, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, , 
Edward Laight, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
John Weatherhead, 
William Stepple, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Harman Gouverneur, 



Thomas Buchanan, 
WiUiam Neilson, 
John Reade, 
Henry Remsen, 
Hamilton Young, 
Garret Rapelje, 
William Imlay, 
James Beekman, 
Jeremi Piatt, 
George FoUiot, 
Walter Franklin, 
Henry White, 
William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
Richard Yates, 
Alexander Wallace, 



Il6 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Robert Murray, William Seton, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Peter Keteltas, 

Thomas Randall, Thomas W. Moore, 

Philip Livingston, Abram Lynsen, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, John Thurman, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, Gerrard Duyckinck, 

Isaac Sears, Henry C. Bogert, 
Samuel Kemble. 

The following Gentlemen having been proposed at 
the last Meeting were balloted for and elected; Daniel 
Phenix, Walter Buchanan, Benjamin Booth, and John 
Amiel. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the 
several Gentlemen, so Elected, in writing that they 
were unanimously chosen. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Charles McEvers, L. Clark- 
son, N. Gouverneur, R. Yates, Thos. Marston, I. Sears, 
and Louis Pintard, be a Committee till the first Tues- 
day in January next, to hear and determine disputes 
between parties who shall agree to leave such to this Cor- 
poration. 

The Members of this Corporation having met shortly 
after the arrival of His Excellency, the Earl of Dunmore, 
when it was unanimously thought proper to address him 
on his appointment to this Government : the same was 
prepared and approved of, and a majority of the Mem- 
bers presented his Lordship with the following address : 

To HIS Excellency, the Right Honourable John,' Earl of Dunmore, 
Captain General, and Governor in Chief, in and over the Province of 
New York, and the Territories depending thereon in America, Chan- 
cellor and Vice-Admiral of the same : 

May it Please Your Lordship, 

The Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce, of the City of New 
York, beg leave to present to Your Lordship their sincere and most res- 
pectful Congratulations on Your safe Arrival to your Government, and to 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. II7 

assure your Lordship of their zealous and steady attachment to his most 
Gracious Majesty, King George the Third ; whose affectionate Regard for 
his People of this Colony is so conspicuously manifested in the appointment 
of Your Lordship to preside over us. 

It will be the constant Endeavour of this Corporation to answer the Ex- 
pectations which induced the Worthy Lieutenant Governor to invest us 
with a Royal Charter ; as also to evince to Your Lordship the Utility of the 
Institution, by promoting Trade and Commerce, so essential to the Pros- 
perity of the Colony, adjusting controverted and intricate Accounts, and by 
preventing, as much as possible, a spirit of Litigation, ever highly injuri- 
ous to a Mercantile City. 

We hope for Your Lordship's Favour and Approbation, and shall esteem 

it a peculiar happiness if we can be instrumental in rendering the Residence 

of a Governor of Your Lordship's high and distinguished Rank agreeable, 

your administration easy to your Lordship, happy and advantageous to the 

Colony. 

By order of the Corporation, 

Hugh Wallace, President. 

To which his Lordship was pleased to return the fol- 
lowing Answer : 

Gentlemen : Your address is highly pleasing to me ; you may 
depend on my approving every Measure of yours which may tend to 
promote the true Commercial Interest of this Colony. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist January, 1771. 

Present. 
Hon. Hugh Wallace, P. 

Antho. Van Dam, Sect'y. 

John Cruger, Edward Laight, 

James Jauncey, Samson Simpson, 

^ 'William Walton, WiUiam Stepple, 

John H. Cruger, Joseph Bull, 

Lewis Pintard, Samuel Kemble, 

Thomas Buchanan, Isaac Corsa, 

William Seton, Lawrence Kortright, 

Henry Remsen, John Alsop, 

Nicholas Hoffman, William McAdam, 

John Thurman, Isaac Sears, 



ii8 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Harman Gouverneur, 
Jacob Walton, 
Walter Franklin, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexand. Wallace, 



Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
William Neilson, 
John Reade, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Benja. Booth, 
John Amiel. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



John Moore, 
George Ludlow, 



Jacob Watson, 
Benj. Booth, 



William Imlay. 



Fined for non-appearance ; 



Elias Desbrosses, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Thomas White, 
Jacob's Van Zandt, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Robert Alexander, 
Peter Remsen, 
Hamilton Young, 
Thomas Walton, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
James Beekman, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
George FoUiot, 
Thomas Randal, 
Philip Livingston, 
Charles McEvers, 
Richard Yates, 
Peter Keteltas, 



Thomas W. Moore, 
Abram Lynsen, 
John Weatherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Alexan'r McDonald, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Henry White, 
Robert Watts, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Thomas Marston, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Gerrard Duykink, 
August Van Horn, 
Thomas Miller, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Walter Buchanan. 



It is proposed by Mr. John Cruger that the President, 
or one of the Vice-Presidents, with seven or five Members 
have power to adjourn their Meeting provided any Num- 
ber of Members less than Twenty-one appear at their 
future stated Meetings, but not to do Business. 

Ordered— That Messrs. A. Wallace, G, H. Ludlow, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. IIQ 

T. Buchanan, W. Seton, E. Laight, W. Neilson and 
Sampson Simson, be a Committee until the first Tuesday 
in February next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties who shall agree to leave such to this Corpora- 
tion. 

We, the Subscribers, of the Committee of the Chamber of Commerce for 
the Month of January, being applied to in a matter of disputed Accounts 
between Peter Townsend and Thomas Budd, are of opinion and do Award 
that the said Peter Townsend is to pay unto the said Thomas Budd the 
sum of ^44 1 6s 6d New York Currency, which appears to be the Ballance due 
him for his Services at Sterling Ironworks,''^ agreeable to articles executed 
by Peter Townsend the 4th. January, 1 766. And further we do Award, that 
as it appears to us the said Thomas Budd ha.vmg been improperly kept out 
of his Wages, was obliged to commence a Suit against the said Peter 
Townsend, in Hakinsack Court, ' ^ in New Jersey — the Charges that have 
occurred in Law by that means till this day must be paid by the said Peter 
Townsend a.s, taxed, if required by the Chief Justice of that Province,"' which 
Award we now give indented under our hands and seals this i8th January 
of our Lord, 1771. 

William Seton, Wm. Neilson, 
Alex. Wallace, G. H. Ludlow, 
Thomas Buchanan. 

We, the subscribers, are of opinion that Mr. Dennis McCready is to 
deliver Mr. Patrick Loughan 34 Hogsheads of uncleaned Merchantable 
Flax seed here, and that the said Loughlan shall pay on delivery of said 34 
hhds. of seed. Ten pounds seven shillings in New York Currency to the 
said Dennis McCready. We are further of opinion that the money paid by 
Mr. Dennis McCready to Mr. Daniel Criddon remains the property of Mr. 
Dennis McCready only. 

Alex. Wallace, E. Laight, 
Thos. Buchanan, Wm. Neilson, 
Sams. Simson, G. H. Ludlow. 

We, the Subscribers, are of opinion and do award that Walter and 
Thomas Buchanan 6r» Co. are, in ten days, to pay to Robert Munro, ^162 
10 2', New York Currency, to deliver him free of all incumbrances the 
Schooner Dolphin, now in this Port, with all her Sails, Rigging, and other 
appurtenances, also the Sails now in their possession, that did belong to 
the said Munro's Vessels, excepting those of the Ship Dispatch and Schoon- 
er Providence. Also they, the said Walter and Thomas Buchanan fir* Co., 



I20 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

are to reconvey fully and amply the title of all the Estate, with the Sched- 
ulle annexed, which was conveyed by the said Robert Munro to Walter 
Buchanan, at Imlaytown " in Chaleur Bay, on the gth of October, 1770, 
excepting the Schooner Providence, which was sold here and credited on 
their account. They are also to fully impower the said Munro and give 
him sufficient authority to receive from David Coll, or any other person or 
persons under him, them, or either of them, all the Effects belonging to the 
said Munro which were taken in possession by Walter Buchanan, or by his 
order. In consideration of which they, the said Walter and Thomas 
Buchanan &° Co., are to hold as their property, the Sloop Dispatch, 
the Schooner Providence, and also all the Goods they have here on hand, 
formerly belonging to the said Munro, excepting the Schooner Dolphin 
and all the Sails as above recited. 

N. B. Full discharges to be given on both sides, and the Buchanans 
to pay the Expences attending the reference and Award.'" 

Alex. Wallace, Sams. Simson, 
Wm. Seton, , G. H. Ludlow, 
January — , 1771. Edward Laight. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, February 5, 1771. 

Present. 

Honble. Hugh Wallace, P. 
Honble. Henry White, ) y p 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 

Miles Sherbrooke, William Stepple, 

Robert Watts, Isaac Low, 

John Moore, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

Alexan. Wallace, Lewis Pintard, 

Sampson Simpson, William Seton, 

Henry Remsen, Jacob Watson, 

Hamil't Young, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Garret Rapelje, John Thurman, 

Lawrence Kortright, George W. Ludlow, 

Gerrard Walton, Joseph Bull, 

Thomas Marston, Harman Gouverneur, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, James Beekman, 

Gerra'd W. Beekman, Isaac Corsa, 

Abram. Lynsen, Samuel Bayard, 

Thomas Walton, Daniel Phenix, 
John Amiel. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



121 



Fined for non-appearance ; 

Elias Desbrosses, 
James Jauncey, 
George Folliot, 
Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, 
William Walton, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. WaddeU, 
Philip Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
John H. Cruger, 
Charles McEvers, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Niche's Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Jacob Walton, 
Samuel Verplank, 
Isaac Sears, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Edward Laight, 
William Neilson, 



Peter Keteltas, 
John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, S. ™ 
Nicholas HofTman, 
John Weatherhead, 
John Cruger, 
Robert Murray, 
Walter Franklin, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
William Imlay, 
August. Van Home, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Thomas Miller, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Alexan. McDonald, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Walter Buchanan, 



Benj. Booth. 



The Proposal of John Cruger, Esq. having been con- 
sidered of, that the President or one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents, with seven or five Members, have power to 
adjourn, provided any number of the Members, less 
than twenty-one, appear at their future stated Meetings, 
but not to do business. 

Resolved — That it is the opinion of this Corporation, 
and they do determine that the President or one of the 
Vice-Presidents, for the time being, with five other Mem- 
bers shall have power to adjourn, provided any number 
of the Members less than twenty-one appear at the future 
stated Meetings. 

Mr. Jacob Watson proposes that this Corporation 



122 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

procure a set of Weights and Scales for weighing Gold, 
which shall be allowed to be a Standard" by the Members 
of this Corporation. 

Mr. Watson also proposes to this Corporation, that 
instead of Seamens Months advance pay'* in Cash, that 
they give Notes of hand payable in three days after their 
departure from Sandyhoolc. 

Ordered — That Messrs. H. Remsen junr., A. Lyn- 
sen, I. Roosevelt, N. Hoffman, H. Young, Thos. Wal- 
ton, and J. Thurman, be a Committee until the first 
Tuesday in March next, to hear and determine disputes 
between Parties who shall agree to leave such to this 
Corporation. 

We, the Subscribers, as a Committee of the Corporation of the Chamber 
of Commerce, established by Royal Charter, in the City of New York, in 
America, being requested by Mr. Anthony Van Dam, on the part and be- 
half of Mr. William Castel and Captain Joseph Smith, late Commander 
of the Sloop Bellesarius, to settle our account against the said Sloop and 
William Castel, and having heard the Allegations of both Parties, with the 
Evidences produced, do hereby award and determine that the said Anthony 
Van Dam as agent and special bail for the said Williajn Castel, doth pay 
unto the said Captain Joseph Smith, the sum of Fifty-two pounds, eighteen 
shillings, and three pence Currency, and no more in full for and in heu of 
his Account exhibited to us, as also for the profits and advantages arising 
in Sugar and Molasses he claims as his due as well as for all loss, cost of 
Suit and other damages he hath been put to for the recovery hereof. Wit- 
ness our hands this fourth day of February, 1771. 

Sampson Simson, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
William Neilson. 

We, the Subscribers, have considered the Dispute subsisting between 

Messrs. Grant Sr' Fine, Freighters of the Brigt to Quebec, and 

Henry Law and Totten Or' Crosfield, part owners, do determine that the 
quantity each hh'd. should contain, to fix the Freight, is one hundred and 
twelve Gallons 79 outside contents of each hogshead. 

Anthony Van Dam, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
New York, February 24th, 1771. Robert Watts. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



123 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE— Tuesday, 5th March, 1771. 
Present. 

Theophy. Bache, T. 

Anthony Van Dam, S. 

Thomas W. Moore, 
Henry Remsen, 
AbramLynsen, 
Hamil. Young, 
Thomas Walton, 
John Thurman, 
William Stepple, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Bayard, jr., 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benjamin Booth, 
Thomas Buchanan. 



John Cruger, 
James Jauncey, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
William Walton, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
William McAdam, 
Robert Watts, 
Gerrard Walton, 
John Moore, 
Thomas Marston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Edward Laight, 
Sampson Simson, 
Peter Ketletas, 
Jacob Watson, 



Fined for non-appearance 



Hugh Wallace, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
Henry White, 
Jacob Walton, 
George FoUiot, 
Samuel Verplank, 
Walter Franklin, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas Randal, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
Philip Livingston, 
John H. Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Charles McEvers, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 



Alexan. Wallace, 
William Seton, 
William Neilson, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Peter Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Nicholas Hoiiman, 
John Weatherhead, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
William Imlay, 
August Van Home, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph Bull, 
Thomas Miller, 



124 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Richard Yates, Samuel Kemble, 

Lewis Pintard, Alexan. McDonald, 

Peter Hassencliver, Harman Gouverneur, 
John Amiel. 

Mr. Jacob Watson's Proposal for to procure a set of 
Weights and Scales for Weighing of Gold having been 
Considered of. 

Ordered — That Jacob Walton, Hamilton Young and 
Alexander Wallace, be a Committee for that purpose, and 
that they appoint a proper Goldsmith to receive the 
Same, and that the person so appointed to regulate any 
Weights and Scales belonging to the Members of this 
Corporation, who shall require the same. 

Ordered — That Messrs. P. Ketletas, G. W. Beekman, 
J. Watsxjn, J. Reade, R. Alexander, T. W. Moore, and 
R. Sharpe be a Committee until the first Tuesday in 
April next, &c. 

Messrs. S. Hake and J. Ramsay being Proposed at a 
former Meeting, were balloted for and chosen Members. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send Notice in Writing 
that they were duly Elected. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d April, 1771. 

Present. 
Honble. Hugh Wallace, P. 

Elias Desbrosses, ) y P 



Theoph. Bach : T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 
James Jauncey, Thomas Marston, 

William Walton, , Sampson Simson, 

William McAdam, Isaac Low, 

Robert Watts, Joseph Bull, 

John H. Cruger, James Beekman, 

Samuel Verplank, Isaac Corsa, 

Gerrard Walton, Samuel Hake, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



125 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Theoph. Bache, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Robert. R. WaddeU, 
William Stepple, 
Benjam. Booth, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 

Fined for non-appearance : 



Lewis Pintard, 
Alexan. McDonald, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Walter Franklin, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Thomas Walton, 
Robert C. Livingston. 



Henry White, 
George Folliot, 
Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, 
Thomas White, 
Philip Livingston, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Jacob Watson, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Abraham Lynsen, ' 
Hamilton Young, 
Garret Rapelje, 
August Van Home, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Daniel Phenix, 
John Ramsay, 
John Cruger, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Richard Yates, 
Isaac Sears, 
John Reade, 



Richard Sharpe, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
John Thurman, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Thomas Miller, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Jacob Walton, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
William Seton, 
Edward Laight, 
William Nielson, 
Peter Ketletas, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Robert Alexander, 
Henry Remsen, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
John Weatherhead, 
William Imlay, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
John Amiel. 



Mr. William Walton moves that as the Lieut. Gov- 
ernor was very kind in favoring this Corporation with a 
Charter and as there is now a good Limner in Town that 
Mr. President be desired to request the favour of Mr. 



126 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Colden to sit for his Picture'" to be put up in the Cham- 
ber as a Memorial of their Gratitude. 

It is proposed that this Corporation Dine together in 
next Month, and that at next Meeting Stewards be ap- 
pointed to provide a Suitable Dinner at the Expence of 
each of the Members. 

Ordered — That Messrs. J. Weatherhead, G. Rapelje, 
G. Duyckink, W. Stepple, W. Imlay, A. Van Home, and 
H. C. Bogert, be a Committee, until the first Tuesday in 
May next, to hear and determine disputes between Parties 
who shall agree to leave such to this Corporation. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th May, 1771. 
Present. 
The Hon'ble Hugh Wallace, P. 

Elias Desbrosses, 1 -tr P 

Theoph. Bache, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 
John Cruger, John Reade, 

William Walton, Garret Rapelje, 

Lewis Pintard, James Beekman, 

Sampson Simson, Daniel Phenix, 

Thomas Walton, Thomas Buchanan, 

William Stepple, John AIsop, 

Jeremia Piatt, John H. Cruger, 

John Amiel, William Neilson, 

Samuel Ver Plank, (absent) Hamilton Young, 

Robert Watts, Gerrard Duyckinck, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Samuel Bayard, 

Walter Buchanan. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Hugh Wallace, Edward Laight, 

Ehas Desbrosses, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Theoph. Bache, Jacob Watson, 

James Jauncey, Thomas W. Moore, 

Jacob Walton, Henry Remsen, 

Miles Sherbrooke, (absent) Isaac Roosevelt, 

Walter Franklin, (absent) Nicholas HoflFman, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



127 



Lawrence Kortright, (absent) 
Isaac Low, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
John Moore, 
Isaac Sears, 



Augus. Van Home. 



Henry C. Bogert, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Joseph BuU, 
Alexand. McDonald, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Benjam. Booth, 



Fined for non-appearance : 

Henry White, 
George Folliot, 
MUes Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Robert Murray, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Thomas Randall, 
John Thurman, 
John Weatherhead, 
William Imlay, 
Thomas White, 
Philip Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 



Richard Yates, 
Thomas Marston, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Thomas MiUer, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Alex. Wallace, 
William Seton, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Robert Alexander, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Peter Remsen, (lU) 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Samuel Hake, 
John Ramsay. 



Mr. Walton's Proposal, that a Portrait of Lieut. Gov- 
ernor Golden be taken, was unanimously agreed to, and 

Ordered — That the Hon'ble Hugh Wallace do wait 
upon the Lieut. Governor, and Request the favour of 
him to sit for his Picture, which the Treasurer of this 
Corporation will pay for ; and that when finished it be 
hung up in the Chamber in memory of their Gratitude 
for granting them a Charter of Incorporation. 

In consequence of the Proposal of last Meeting for 
this Corporation to Dine together, the following Gentle- 
men were appointed Stewards, viz. : G. Walton, Thomas 
W. Moore, John H. Cruger, and Robert Watts, who are 



128 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

ordered to provide a Genteel Dinner/' and wait upon Lord 
Dunmore to know when it will be convenient for him to 
do them the Honor of Dining with them, and that they 
send notices to and write the Governor and his Secretary/^ 
the Lieut. Governor and his Secretary, the Secretary of 
the Province, the General and his Suit, the Council, the 
Members of the General Assembly that are in Town, the 
Field OiEcers doing duty in this City,^^ the Captains of 
his Majesty's Ships, the Principal officers of the Customs, 
and the Mayor of the City. 

'Order' d — That absent Members pay Eight Shillings 
towards the Expence of the Dinner. 

Robert G. Livingston, jr., having been proposed at a 
former Meeting, was balloted for, and chosen a Member 
of this Corporation. 

Order' d — That the Secretary send notice in writing 
that he was duly Elected. 

Order' d— That Messrs. G. W. Ludlow, J. Bull, L. 
Lispenard, James Beekman, Alex. McDonald, Samuel 
Bayard, and Robert C. Livingston, be a Committee, 
until the first Tuesday in June next, to hear and deter- 
mine disputes between Parties who shall agree to leave 
such to this Corporation. 

The Charter of Incorporation, as well as the Rules of 
this Chamber, appoint this Day for the Election of Officers 
for the current year, when the following Gentlemen were 
balloted fqr, duly Elected, and sworn to perform the Trust 
reposed in them. 

President, Elias Desbrosses, Esqr. 

Vice-Presidents, fiJ^^^^ ^"""' Esqr. 
[ Theop. Bache. 

Treasurer, William Walton. 

Secretary, Anthony Van Dam. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



129 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th June, 1771. 





Present. 




Elias Desbrosses, 


P. 




im Walton, 


V. P 


wmi£ 


T. 


Anthony Van Dam, 


S. 


James Beekman, 




Thomas W. Moore, 


Nicholas Hoifman, 




Wniiam Neilson, 


Peter Ketletas, 




Jeremiah Piatt, 


Edward Laight, 




Hamilton Young, 


George W. Ludlow, 




Isaac Corsa, 


Alexand'r Wallace, 




John Reade, 


Thomas Buchanan, 




Isaac Roosevelt, 


Robert C. Livingston, 


} 


John Ramsay, 




Sampson Simson. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Samuel Hake, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Isaac Sears, 
Isaac Low, 



Lewis Pintard, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Daniel Phenix. 



Fined for non-appearance 

Henry White, 
Theophy. Bache, 
John Amiel, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph Bull, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benjam. Booth, 
John Cruger, 
John Alsop, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
James Jauncey, 
William Imlay, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
9 



WiUiam Stepple, 
Acheson Thompson, 
John Thurman, 
John H. Cruger, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
George FoUiot, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Gerrard Walton, 
William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Thomas Marston, 



130 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Samuel Kemble, Thomas Miller, 

Philip Livingston, Alexand. McDonald, 

Gabr. H. Ludlow, (out of Town) Thomas Randal, 

Abram. Lynsen, John Weatherhead, 

Robert Murray, Samuel Verplank, 

Robert Alexander, Augustus Van Home, 

Peter Remsen, Hugh Wallace, 

Henry Remsen, Jacob Walton, 

Garret Rapelje, Thomas White, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Robert R. Waddle, 

William Seton, Robert Watts, 

Richard Sharpe, Jacob Watson. 



In May, 1770, Messrs. Robert Murray, Hamilton 
Young, Miles Sherbrooke, Rich. Yates, and Peter Rem- 
sen, were appointed a Committee to ascertain the usual 
Tonage of this Port, and in June, 1770, Messrs. John 
Moore and Jacobus Van Zandt were added to said Com- 
mittee, who have hitherto made no report. 

Ordered — That the said Committee do, at the next 
Meeting of this Chamber, deliver in a Report accord- 
ingly, and that they do also collect such information as 
they can, what is usually reckoned a Ton of Goods of as 
many species as possible. Exported from Britain, because 
the mode now practiced is too uncertain either for Ship- 
pers of Goods or Ship Owners, which will prevent many 
disputes if adopted by this Corporation. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Thomas W. Moore, Hamil- 
ton Young, and Henry Remsen, be a Committee to 
audit the Treasurer's Account for the last year, and that 
they do make Report thereof at next Meeting. 

Thomas Petitt, Door Keeper, exhibited an account 
for repairing the Windows i6s. 3d., a quire paper is. 6d., 
and his Year's salary of £15, being due the ist of last 
Month. Proposed that the same be paid. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Harman Gouverneur, Isaac 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



131 



Corsa, Jerem. Piatt, Daniel Phenix, Walter Buchanan, 
Benjamin Booth, and John Amiel, be a Committee, until 
the first Tuesday in July, to hear and determine disputes 
between Parties who shall agree to leave such to this 
Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d July, 1771. 
Present. 



Elias Desbrosses, P. 
William Walton, T. 



John Alsop, 
Samuel Bayard, 
John Cruger, 
John H. Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Daniel Phenix, 



Joseph BuU, 
Samp. Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Jacob Walton, 
Robert Watts, 
Isaac Low, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Hamil. Young, 
John Reade, 
Isaac Sears, 
Gerrard Walton, 



Alexand. Wallace. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock: 



Theoph Bache, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Nicholas Hoffinan, 
WiUiam Stepple, 
Antho. Van Dam, 



Thomas Marston, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
John Amiel, 
Jerem. Piatt, 
WiUiam Seton. 



Fined for non-appearance 

Henry White, 
James Beekman, 
Benja. Booth, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Levinus Clarkson, 



Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Edward Laight, 
Abram Lynsen, 
William McAdam, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 



132 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Gerrard Duyckinck, August. Van Home, 

George FoUiot, Robert R. Waddle, 

Walter Franklin, Jacob Watson, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Harman Gouverneur, Charles McEvers, 

Peter Hassenchver, John Moore, 

John Ramsay, Thomas Miller, 

Samuel Verplank, Alexander McDonald, 

Thomas White, William Nielson, 

John Weatherhead, Thomas Randal, 

Robert Alexander, Peter Remsen, 

Samuel Hake, Henry Remsen, 

James Jauncey, Isaac Roosevelt, 

William Imlay, Garret Rapelje, 

Lawrence Kortright, John Thurman, 

Samuel Kemble, Hugh Wallace, 

Philip Livingston, Thomas Walton, 
Richard Yates. 

Thomas Petitt, Doorkeeper to this Corporation, hav- 
ing exhibited his Account at the last Meeting, amounting 
to £15 17s gd for One Year ending the first of May 
last, 

Ordered — That the Treasurer pay the same. 

The Committee appointed to audit Mr. Bache the 
late Treasurer's accounts. Report 

That they have examined the same and find a Ballance of £gi 13 4 re- 
maining in his hands. 

Ordered — That he do pay the same into the hands of 
Mr. William Walton the present Treasurer and that he 
doth deliver the Book of Accounts to him at the same 
time. 

This Corporation finding it very inconvenient that 
the MaiP* for the Packet to England is made up the first 
Tuesday in the Month, which is the Day appointed to 
hold their Monthly Meetings — agreed that a Representa- 
tion thereof be made and presented to Mr. Foxcroft,^ 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



^33 



Deputy Post Master General for North America — and 
that The Honble. Hugh Wallace, Mr.Theoph Bache, and 
William Walton be a Committee to draw up and present 
him with a Representation of the inconvenience attending 
the Members of the Corporation, and request the favour 
of him to appoint another Day for that purpose. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Thomas Buchanan, S. Hake, 
J. Ramsay, Robt. G. Livingston, H. Wallace, J. Cruger 
and Tames Jauncey be a Committee until the first Tues- 
day in August next, to hear and determine disputes 
between Parties, who shall agree to leave such to this 
Corporation. 

SPECIAL MEETING.— F-BXDA.Y, 12th July, 1771. 
Present. 

Elias Desbrosses, P. 

Theoph Bache, V. P. 

Anthon. Van Dam, Secty. 
John Cruger, Robert C. Livingston, 

Jeremiah Piatt, Daniel Phenix, 

Samuel Verplank, Hamilton Young, 

Alexan. Wallace, Leonard Lispenard, Jun., 

George W. Ludlow, Richard Yates, 

Gerrard Walton, Edward Laight, 

Angus. Van Home, Lewis Pintard, 

Isaac Roosevelt, James Jauncey, 

Robert Watts, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

John Ramsay, Alexan. McDonald. 

Proposed — That as his Excellency William Tryon,' 
Esqr., is arrived to this his Government, that a Commit- 
tee be appointed to draw up an address to be presented 
to him by this Corporation. 

Ordered — That Messrs. J. Moore, S. Verplank, R. 
C. Livingston, W. McAdam, T. Bache, J. Jauncey, 
J. H. Cruger, Isaac Low and Peter Ketletas be a Com- 
mittee to draw up an address to congratulate his Excel- 



[ V. p. 



134 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

lency Governor Tryon on his arrival to his Government, 
and that they do prepare the same ready to be delivered 
on Monday Evfening next, to this Chamber at six 
o'clock. 

SPECIAL MEETING.— yiOTXDKY, isth July, 1771. 
Present. 

Elias Desbrosses, P. 

Theop. Bache, 

Henry White, 

Anthon. Van Dam, S. 
William Stepple, John Thurman, 

George W. Ludlow, Walter Franklin, 

Gerrard Duykink, James Beekman, 

John Reade, Edward Laight, 

Samuel Hake, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Samuel Bayard, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

William Nielson, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

Richard Yates, John Amiel, 

Lewis Pintard, Daniel Phenix, 

John Cruger, Gerrard Walton, 

Peter Keteltas, Alexan. McDonald, 

Samp. Simson, John H. Cruger, 

John Moore. 

The Committee appointed to draw up an Address to 

Congratulate his Excellency, Governor Tryon, on his 

appointment and arrival to his Government of New York 

Report 

That they have prepared an Address, which was order'd to be read, and 
is in the words following : 

To HIS Excellency, William Tryon, Esquire, Captain General and 
Governor in Chief in and over the Province of New York and the 
Territories depending thereon in America, Chancellor and Vice- Admiral 
of the same. 

May it Please your Excellency, 

The Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce of the City of New 
York beg leave to present your Excellency their most cordial and sincere 
Congratulations on your arrival in this Province with your Lady and Family. 

His most gracious Majesty having promoted our late Worthy Governor 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I35 

the Right Honourable the Earl of Dunmore, to the Government of the 
Dominion of Virginia, we esteem ourselves happy in the Appointment of a 
Gentleman of your Excellency's eminent Abilities and amiable Character to 
the command of this Province. 

The Chamber of Commerce, instituted on Principles of general Utility, 
flatter themselves with enjoying under your Excellency's Administration 
that Patronage and Protection which they have experienced from your 
Worthy Predecessors ; and your Excellency may be assured that it wiU be 
the constant Endeavour of this Corporation to deserve your Favour, by 
promoting the Trade and Commerce of this City, so essentially necessary 
for its Increase and Prosperity. 

Attached, from Principle, to our most gracious Sovereign and our happ^ 
Constitution, we promise ourselves the utmost Happiness under the Govern- 
ment of your Excellency, distinguished for your Services to both J and we 
beg leave to assure your Excellency, that it will be our constant Aim to, 
render your Administration easy and agreeable to yourself, as we are con^ 
fident it will be highly beneficial to the Colony. 

By Order of the Corporation, 

EU4s Pesbrossjes, Pj-esideat- 
New York, July 22d, 1771. 

His Excellency's Answer to the Corporation of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the City of New York : 

Gentlemen, 

This polite and warm Address of the Corporation of the 
Chamber of Commerce is highly pleasing to me, and claims my very 
sincere Acknowledgements. 

I am most truly sensible of the Honour I derive from his Majesty's 
gracious Appointment of me to succeed the Earl of Dunmore in the 
Government of this Province, and no less happy in the Testimonies 
you give me of being acceptable to its Inhabitants. 

As it is my Duty, so it is no less my earnest Intention, to advance 
by every means in my power the Honour, Prosperity and true Interests 
of this flourishing Colony : an Institution, therefore, tending to the 
Extension of Commerce upon just Principles, will always be entitled 
to my Zealous Protection. 

I accept with gratefiil respect your kind Assurances of contributing 
to the ease of my Administration, and I promise myself real Advan- 
tage in the concurrence of a Body of your Consideration, actuated by 
Principles so beneficial to Commerce, favourable to Government, and 
Honourable to your Society. William Tryon. 



136 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, August 6, 1771. 

Present. 

Elias Desbrosses, P. 

Theoph. Bache, V. P 

William Walton, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 

Robert C. Livingston, 
John Moore, 
William Nielson, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Hamil. Young, 
Samuel Bayard, 
John Reade, 
Henry Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Samp. Simson, 
William Stepple, 
John Thurman, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Gerrard Walton. 



Henry C. Bogart, 
John Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Walter Franklin, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Samuel Hake, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Isaac Low, 
James Beekman, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Edward Laight, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Leonard Lispenard, 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Elias Desbrosses, Walter Buchanan, 

William Seton, Robert R. Waddell, 

John H. Cruger. 



Fined for non-appearance 

Henry White, 
John AIsop, 
Robert Alexander, 
John Amiel, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Joseph Bull, 
Benja. Booth, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
George Folliot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 



William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas Marston, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Thomas Miller, 
Alexand. McDonald, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Richard Yates, 
Thomas Randal, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I37 

Peter Hasencliver, Richard Sharpe, 

Jacob Watson, Samuel Verplank, 

James Jauncey, Jacobus Vanzandt, 

William Imlay, Augus. Vanhorne, 

Samuel Kemble, Jacob Walton, 

Philip Li^ringston, Thomas White, 

Robert G. Livingston, Robert Watts, 

Robert Murray, Alexand. Wallace, 
John Weatherhead. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Jacob Walton, George Fol- 
liot, Sam. Verplank, Miles Sherbrooke, Thomas Randal, 
John Alsop, and Thomas White, be a Committee until 
the first Tuesday in September next, to hear and deter- 
mine disputes between Parties who shall agree to leave 
such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d September, 1771. 
Present. 
Hon'ble Henry White, Esqr., 1 y P 
Theoph. Bache, j 
William Walton, Tres'r. 
Anth. Van Dam, S. 
Samuel Bayard, Leonard Lispenard, 

Walter Franklin, Robert G. Livingston, 

Harman Gouverneur, Alexand. McDonald, 

Nicholas Hofiftnan, Isaac Corsa, 

Samuel Hake, Lewis Pintard, 

James Jauncey, Daniel Phenix, 

John Cruger, John Reade, 

Edward Laight, John Ramsay, 

George W. Ludlow, Isaac Sears, 

Sampson Simpson. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Henry White, John Thurman, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Hamil. Young, 

John Amiel, John Moore, 
Richard Yates. 



ijs 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Fined for non-appearance 

Elias Desbrosses, 
Gerrard Beekman, 
Joseph Bull, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
James Beekman, 
Walter Buchanan, 
John Alsop, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Philip Livingston, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Robert Alexander, 
Jerem. Piatt, 
Thomas Randal, 
Henry Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Benjam. Booth, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
John H. Cruger, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
George FoUiot, 
Walter FrankKn, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 



Harman Gouverneur, 

Peter Hasenchver, 

William Imlay, 

Alexan. Wallace, 

Abram. Lynsen, 

Robert C. Livingston, 

Robt. G. Livingston, (Albany) 

Robert Murray, 

William McAdam, 

Charles McEvers, 

Thomas Marston, 

Thomas W. Moore, 

Thomas Miller, 

William Nielson, 

John Weatherhead, 

William Seton, 

Richard Sharpe, 

William Stepple, 

Samuel Verplank, 

Jacobus Vanzandt, 

Angus. Van Home, 

Hugh Wallace, 

Jacob Walton, 

Thomas White, 

Gerrard Walton, 

Jacob Watson. 



The Committee for considering the Tonnage ana 
recommending a general Plan, having presented a Calcu- 
lation according to Order, which being read was con- 
sidered of, and agreed to refer it to a future Meeting. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Walter Franklin, Robert 
R. Waddell, P. Livingston, William McAdam, Robert 
Watts, John H. Cruger, and Gerrard Walton, be a 
Committee untill the first Tuesday in October next, to 
hear and determine disputes between parties who shall 
agree to leave such to this Corporation. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



139 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist October, 1771. 

Present. 

Elias Desbrosses, P. 

Theop. Bache, V. P. 

William Walton, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 

Edward Laight, 
Lewis Pintard, 
William Stepple, 
/ John Thurman, 

Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Hamilton Young, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
John Moore, 
Thomas Marston, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Thomas Walton. 



Robert Alexander, 
Joseph Bull, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
John Reade, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Jacob Watson, 
John Cruger, 
Nicho. Hoifman, 
James Jauncey, 
Isaac Low, 



Fined for non-appearance 



Henry White, 
John Alsop, 
John Amiel, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benjam. Booth, 
John H. Cruger, 
Levinus Clarksonj 
Isaac Corsa, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
George Folliot, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Peter Hassencliver, 
Samuel Hake, 
William Imlay, 



George W. Ludlow, 
Robert Murray, 
William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas Miller, 
Alexan. McDonald, 
William Nielson, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Thomas Randal, 
Henry Rerasen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Samuel Verplank, 
August. Van Home, 



140 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Lawrence Kortright, Hugh Wallace, 

Peter Kettletas, Jacob Walton, 

Samuel Kemble, Thomas White, 

Philip Livingston, Robert R. Waddell, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Robert Watts, 

Abraham Lynsen, John Weatherhead, 
Richard Yates. 

The Report of the Committee respecting Tonnage, 
which was read at last Meeting, was again read and de- 
bated upon. 

Ordered — That the same Report be recommitted to 
the same Committee, and that they do report thereon at 
the next Meeting of this Corporation, and that Mr. 
Robert C. Livingston be added to the Committee. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Lawrence Kortright, Isaac 
Low, Jacobus Van Zandt, Charles McEvers, John 
Moore, Richard Yates and Thomas Marston, be a Com- 
mittee until the first Tuesday in November next, to hear 
and determine Disputes between Parties, who shall agree 
to leave such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, sth Nov., 1771. 

Present. 

Elias Desbrosses, P. 

Theop. Bache, V. P. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 

John Alsop, Robert C. Livingston, 

Robert Alexander, Robert G. Livingston, 

John Amiel, WilUam McAdam, 

Gerrard W. Beekman, Charles McEvers, 

Joseph Bull, John Moore, 

James Beekman, Thomas Marston, 

Samuel Bayard, Jacob Watson, 

Walter Buchanan, Thomas W. Moore, 

Thomas Buchanan, Lewis Pintard, 

John Cruger, Jeremiah Piatt, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



141 



John H. Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Walter Franklin, 
Thomas Walton, 
James Jauncey, 
WiUiam Imlay, 
Isaac Low, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Edward Laight, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Leonard Lispenard, 



Daniel Phenix, 
John Reade, 
Henry Remsen, Jun'r, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
WiUiam Stepple, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Jacob Walton, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexand. Wallace, 



Alexan. McDonald, , „ . , , , 

' 5- after six o clock. 
Augustus Van Home. 



■}■ 



Fined for non-appearance ; 

Henry White, 
William Walton, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Benjam. Booth, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
George Folliot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Peter Hassencliver, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Samuel Hake, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Peter Ketletas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Philip Livingston, 
Abraham Lynsen, 
Robert Murray, 



Thomas Miller, 
William Neilson, 
Thomas Randal, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Acheson Thompson, 
John Thurman, 
Samuel Verplank, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Thomas White, 
Robert Watts, 
John Wetherhead, 
Richard Yates, 
Hamilton Young. 



The Report of the Committee respecting the Ton- 
nage^' proposed to be adopted, having been recommitted 
to the same Committee to report thereon after making 
some alterations in the words following : 

We, the Subscribers, being a Committee appointed by this Cor- 
poration to take into consideration the present uncertain State of the 
Tonnage of this Port, and to make report of such regulations as we should 



142 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

deem necessary for the better ascertaining the same, are of opinion that 
those following, if adopted, may be of publick utility, viz. : 

1st. That twenty-two hundred gross weight be deemed a Ton of Flour, 
TaUow, Hams, Butter, Hog's Lard, Beef in Keggs, Pott Ash, dry'd Cod in 
hogsheads. Candles, Soap, Chocolate, Sugar, Honey, Beeswax, Rice, Coffee, 
Cocoa, Tobacco, and Starch. 

2d. That twelve hundred weight be a Ton of Bread in bulk, and eleven 
hundred weight if in bags. 

3d. That eight Barrels be a Ton of Beef, Pork, wet Fish, Pitch Tar, and 
Turpentine. 

4th. That forty Bushels, Winchester 86 measure, be a Ton of Wheat, 
Indian Corn, and other Grain, and that thirty- two bushels Water measure 

be a Ton of Salt, and thirty-six bushels — measure be a Ton of Coals 

in bulk. 

5th. That eleven hundred gross weight be a Ton of Bread in Casks of 
all denominations. 

6th. That two hundred and fifty-tw(o gallons, reckoning the fuU contents 
of the Casks, be a Ton of Oil, Wine, Rum, Molasses, and Beer. 

7th. That twenty hundred weight be a Ton of Bar and Pig Iron, Log- 
wood, Fustick, &c., as also of dry'd Cod Fish in Bulk. 

8th. That thirty-two Bushels, Winchester measure, be a Ton of Flax- 
seed, Pease, Indian Corn, and other Grain in Casks. 

9th. That Forty cubick feet be a Ton of Mahogany, square Timber, Oak 
Plank, Pine Boards ; as also of Beaver Furs and Peltry 87 in Bales and hhds., 
and of Bale Goods of all kinds. 

loth. That considering the great irregularity of Staves usually brought to 
this Market, and of consequence how impracticable it would be to fix upon a 
standard for ascertaining their Tonnage, we are of opinion that the Freight 
of all Staves, Headings, and Hoops, shoiild be rated by the thousand, to be 
regulated according to the quality. 

nth. We are also of opinion, for the same reason, that the Freight of 
Cotton, Sarsparilla, and dry'd Hides, be rated by the pound. 

AU which is humbly submitted to the Corporation of the Chamber of 
Commerce, by their most obedient servants, 

Hamilton Young, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Richard Yates, John Moore, 

Jacobus Vanzandt. 
New York, 3d September, 1771. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



143 



Voted and carried In the affirmative — That this Cor- 
poration will determine thereon at this Meeting. 

Voted by a great majority — That the proposed plan 
shall be carried into execution. 

Dissented — John Cruger, Esq. 

Voted and Ordered — That the Members of this Cor- 
poration do, from and after the first day of May, one 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-two, when they agree 
to Lett or Hire any Vessel or Vessels, and do it by the 
Ton, that the Goods of the several denominations, as re- 
ported by the Committee, shall be adopted a Ton invari- 
ably. This Resolution, however, shall not debar or 
restrain any or either of the Members from making a 
bargain for the whole Vessel by the Run, by the Month,- 
or by Barrel, Piece, or Bushel. 

Mr. McAdam's Proposal, viz. : — Soon after the 
establishment of this Society, I proposed to your consider- 
ation whether it was for the Interest of the Community 
that Jersey paper money should pass in this Province 
higher than it is taken for in the Treasury of the Province 
of New Jersey. 

The Loss and inconvenience arising to the Traders in 
this City from the present practice of passing Jersey 
money for more than its acknowledged value by their 
own Legislature, will, I hope, plead my excuse for renew- 
ing my proposal that this Corporation may enter into an 
agreement to fix a time when they will no longer depreci- 
ate their own Currency by accepting that of another above 
par. I therefore propose, that a time^* may be fixed that 
this Corporation do agree to pay and receive Jersey money 
at the same rate it is received and paid in their own Trea- 
sury. William McAdam. 

November 5, 177 1. 



144 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Lewis Johnston ° ) In an action of debt for £i,^o Currency, being on a 
against V supposition that he had paid Mr. Bayard for a Bill of 

William Bayard.'' ) Exchange, value ^300 sterling, which Mr. Johnston 
never received. 

What gave rise for this action is this, viz. : — 

Mr. Johnston, at sundry times, bought Bills of Mr. Bayard to the 
amount of ;£6,02i, 3s 6d Sterling. Some time in the year 1768 or 69, the said 
Mr. Johnston, in order to frame an Account and transmit it to his Friends in 
England, sent to Mr. Bayard a list of Bills, which he had bought of him, 
and desired that he would let him know the Exchange he had given for 
them, as he had not kept any account thereof. Mr. Bayard, in order to do 
that, had recourse to his Bill Book and furnished him with the Account, at 
the same time, informed him that he had remitted a Bill entered in his 
Book of ^300 Sterling, sold in September, 1757, dated 9th March, 1757. Mr. 
Johnston charges this BiU with the rest, to the Proprietors, but on examin- 
ing the account find that no such Bill was ever sent them. Mr. Johnston, 
therefore, draws this conclusion, that he must have paid Mr. Bayard for 
this Bin, and therefore demands the money without producing any receipt or 
proof of his having paid it. Mr. Bayard says that he has received payment 
from some one, and makes no demand of payment. It appears that from 
the Papers exhibited to us by Mr. David Johnston and Mr. Bayard, and 
that the Society of Proprietors,89 of Jersey, were determined to send Mr. 
Morris'" home on their business, and voted the sum of ^400 sterling 
should be awarded him toward defraying his Expences. Mr. Parker called 
upon Mr. Bayard and took up the BiUs, viz. : i set of ^300, dated the 9th 
of March, 1757, drawn by Apthorp & Son on the Contractors, and another 
set of ;^ioo sterling drawn by Capt. Gordon, which were entered in the 
two several Bill Books to Mr. Johnston as sold to him, being one of the 
Proprietors. It also appears, from two Receipts, that Mr. Bayard did 
receive the Sum of ^573 17s 7d Currency from Andrew Johnston, Esq., by 
the hands of James Parker in part of these very BiUs. Mr. Lewis Johnston, 
therefore, could not have paid for them, and the presumption is still greater 
when you consider that the Treasurer of the Society 9° only kept an account 
of them, for Mr. Lewis Johnston had not any knowledge of the matter from 
the loth September, 1757, until the year 1768-9 ; and surely, if he had ad- 
vanced Mr. Bayard £^/^ currency for Bills which he had not received, he 
would not have left so considerable a sum in his hands so long. It appears, 
fiirther, that Mr. Lewis Johnston did purchase of Mr. Bayard, in the year 
1760, Bills to the amount of /soo sterling, and made full payment at several 
times without making any demand for the sum in contest. 

New York, 29th November. We, therefore, the Arbitrators, chosen to 
give an Award, do say, that Lewis Johnston hath no demand upon Mr. Bay- 
ard j but that he pay all costs of suit. John Alsop, 

Anthy. Van Dam, 
Theop. Bache. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



H5 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d December, 1771. 



Present. 

Henry White, 
William Walton, 
Anthony Van Dam, 



John Alsop, 
Joseph Bull, 
James Beekman, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
John Cruger, 
John H. Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Samuel Hake, 
Jacob Watson, 
James Jauncey, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Isaac Low, 
Robert C. Livingston, 



V. P. 
T. 
S. 

Robert G. Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
Thomas Marston, 
John Moore, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Henry Remsen, jr., 
Garret Rapelje, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Stepple, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Jacob Walton, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 
Gerrard Walton, 



Thomas Walton. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Samuel Bayard, Charles McEvers, 

John Thurman. 

Fined for non-appearance : 



Elias Desbrosses, 
Theoph. Bache, 
Robert Alexander, 
John Amiel, 
Gerrard Beekman, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benj. Booth, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
Peter Ketletas, 
10 



John Ramsay, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
William Seton, 
Samps. Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Augus. Vanhorne, 
George FoUiot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 



146 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Samuel Kemble, Peter Hasencliver, 

Philip Livingston, William Imlay, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Thomas Miller, 

Edward Laight, Alexan. McDonald, 

Abram Lynsen, WiUiam Neilson, 

George W. Ludlow. Jeremiah Piatt, 

Leonard Lispenaid, Thomas Randal, 

Robert Murray, Hugh Wallace, 

Thomas W. Moore, Thomas White, 

John Reade, Alexan. Wallace, 

Isaac Roosevelt, John Weatherhead, 
Richard Yates. 



This Corporation, at their last Meeting, determined 
on the mode of Tonnage to be adopted from and after 
the first Day of May next. 

Anthony Van Dam proposed that the Report of the 
Committee for ascertaining the Tonnage and the order 
and Resolution of this Corporation, be published '' in the 
News Papers once a Month until June next. 

Mr. McAdam's Motion for altering the mode of 
passing Jersey Money by the Members of this Chamber, 
being debated, is postponed until the first Tuesday in 
February next. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Sampson Simson, Peter 
Ketletas, G. W. Beekman, Jacob Watson, John Reade, 
Robert Alexander, and Thomas W. Moore, be a Com- 
mittee until the first Tuesday in January next, to hear 
and determine disputes between Parties, who shall agree 
to leave such, &c. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th January, 1772. 

Present. 

Theoph. Bache, V. P. 
WiUiam Walton, T. 
Anthony Van Dam, S. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



147 



Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph Bull, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Ba}^rd, 
Benjam. Booth, 
John Cruger, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Walter Frankhn, 
Samuel Hake, 
James Jauncey, 
Edward Laight, 
George W. Ludlow, 



Leonard Lispenard, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Thomas Marston, 
Alexand. McDonald, 
John Reade, 
Henry Remsen, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Isaac Sears, 
John Thurman, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
Thomas Walton, 
Hamilton Young, 



Fined for non-appearance ; 

Elias Desbrosses, 
Henry White, 
John Amiel, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
John H. Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
George Folliot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Peter Hassencliver, 
Nicholas Hofiman, 
William Imlay, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Peter Ketletas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
John Alsop, 
Isaac Low, 
Philip Livingston, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Robert Murray, 
William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 

Richard Yates. 



Thomas Miller, 
William Neilson, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Thomas Randal, 
Henry Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Robert Alexander, 
John Ramsay, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
William Stepple, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Samuel Verplank, 
August Van Home, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Jacob Walton, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
John Weatherhead, 
Jacob Watson, 



148 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Anthony Van Dam's Proposal for publishing the 
Report of the Committee for ascertaining the Tonnage 
of this Port: 

Ordered — That the same be published in the three'^ 
several News Papers of this City until June next. 

Walter Franklin proposes that as Flour is one of our 
Staple Articles, it is needful it should be brought to 
Market and Exported with the least Expence possible : 
therefore moves that the Chamber agree not to pay any- 
thing for the weighing of Flour after the first of March 
next. 

Ordered — That Messrs. R. Sharpe, H. Remsen, J. 
Roosevelt, Nich's Hoffman, H. Young, T. Walton, and 
J. Thurman, be a Committee until the first Tuesday in 
February next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties, who shall agree to leave such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th February, 1772. 
Present. 

Henry White, V. P. 

William Walton, T. 

Anthony Vandam, S. 
Robert Alexander, John Moore, 

John Amiel, Thomas Marston, 

Joseph Bull, Thomas Miller, 

Samuel Bayard, Alexander McDonald, 

Thomas Buchanan, William Neilson, 

Walker Franklin, Hamilton Young, 

Harman Governeur, Daniel Phenix, 

Samuel Hake, Henry Remsen, jun., 

James Jauncey, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Alexander Wallace, Garret Rapelje, 

Isaac Low, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

George W. Ludlow, Augusts. Van Home, 

Leonard Lispenard, Robert R. Waddell, 

Robert C. Livingston, Robert Watts, 

Gerrard Walton. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Lawrence Kortright, Lewis Pintard, 

Hugh Wallace. 

Fined for non-appearance : 



[49 



Elias Desbrosses, 
Theophy. Bache, 
John Alsop, 
GerrardW. Beekman, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
James Beekman, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benj. Booth, 
John Cruger, 
John H. Cruger, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
William Imlay, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Philip Livingston, 
Gabriel Ludlow, 
Edward Laight, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
John Reade, 
John Ramsay, 



Jacob Watson. 



MUes Sherbrooke, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Seton, 
Samson Simpson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
WiUiam Stepple, 
John Thurman, 
Samuel Verplanck, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
George Folliott, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Robert Murray, 
Waiiam McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Thomas Randal, 
Richard Yates, 
Jacob Walton, 
Thomas White, 
John Weatherhead, 



Mr. McAdam's and Mr. Franklin's Proposals are 
postponed till next Meeting. 

Ordered — That Messrs. J. Wetherhead, G. Rapelje, 
G. Duyckinck, W. Stepple, W. Imlay, A. Van Home, 
and H. C, Bogart, be a Committee, until the first Tuesday 
in March next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties who shall agree to leave such to this Corpora- 
tion. 



ISO 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d March, 1772. 



Present. 

Elias Desbrosses, 
Theop. Bache, 
William Walton, 
Antho. Van Dam, 



John Alsop, 
Robert Alexander, 
James Beekman, 
Samuel Bayard, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
MOes Sherbrooke, 
William Stepple, 
Benja. Booth, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Hofiinan, 



P. 

V. P. 

T. 

S. 

Samuel Hake, 
Lavnrence Kortright, 
Edward Laight, 
John Moore, 
Thomas Marston, 
Thomas Miller, 
Alexan'r McDonald, 
William Neilson, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
John Thurman, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
August Van Horn, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Alexand. Wallace, 
Jacob Watson. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Henry Remsen, junr., Robert Watts. 

Fined for non-appearance : 



Henry White, 
John Amiel, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Joseph BuU, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
John Cruger, 
John H. Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Gerrard Duyckink, 
George Folliot, 
Walter Franklin, 



Abram Lynsen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Thomas Randal, 
Hamilton Young, 
John Reade, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Seton, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. ICI 

Nicholas Gouverneur, Sampson Simpson, 
Harman Gouverneur, ■ Richard Sharpe, 

Peter Hassencliver, Samuel Ver Plank, 

James Jauncey, Jacob Walton, 

William Imlay, Thomas White, 

Peter Keteltas, Robert R. Waddle, 

Samuel Kemble, Gerrard Walton, 

Isaac Low, Thomas Walton, 

Philip Livingston, John Wetherhead, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Richard Yates. 

Mr. Walter Franklin's Motion of the yth January last, 
having been duly considered at the last and present Meet- 
ings of this Corporation, to whom it was referred; and it 
appearing very evident that the Staple or Export of this 
Province ought to be shipped with as little charge as that 
of any Sister Colony. And the Merchants of this City 
have in most instances paid the Venders of Flour, &c., at 
the rate of one penny half-penny for half weighing, which 
is thought to be an unreasonable charge. 

Resolved, unanimously — That from and after the 
first day of May next ensuing, the Members of this Cor- 
poration, when they purchase Flour, shall not pay one 
penny half penny per Barrel for half weighing as is at 
present charged in some of the Weigh Notes by Sellers 
of Flour. 

Mr. William McAdam's motion of the 5th Novem- 
ber last being read in the words following : 

Soon after the establishment of this Society, I proposed to your con- 
sideration whether it was for the interest of the Community that Jersey 
paper Money should pass in this Province higher than it is taken for in the 
Treasury of the Province of New Jersey. The loss and inconvenience 
arising to the Traders in this City, from the present practice of passing 
Jersey Money for more than its acknowledged value by their own Legisla- 
ture, will, I hope, plead my excuse for renewing my proposal ; that this 
Corporation may enter into an agreement to fix a time when they will no 
longer depreciate their own Currency by accepting that of another above par. 



152 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

I therefore propose that a time be fixed that this Corporation do agree to 
pay and receive Jersey money at, the same Rate it is received and paid in 
their own Treasury. 
November Sth, 1771. William McAdam. 

And the same having been referred to their considera- 
tion, at the succeeding stated Meeting in December fol- 
lowing, when it was adjourned for further deliberation 
to the first Tuesday in February, then again deferred to 
this day, Whereupon it was moved whether this Corpora- 
tion would go upon the subject, and debates arising 
thereon it was put to the vote and passed in the affirma- 
tive, 19 for — 16 against. 

The question was then put that when the Members 
of this Corporation shall pay or receive any Jersey money 
they shall accept it on the same terms that it passes for in 
the Jersey Treasury, that is to say — 

A Bill of ^6 Proclamation money for 16 Dollars, or;£6 8s New York Cur'y- 

ABiUof 3 ■ " " " 8 " or 3 4 " " " 

A Bill of I los " " " 4 '' or I 12 " " " 

ABiUof iss " " " 2 " or 16 shillings. 

And in like proportion for Bills of a less denomina- 
tion, which was also carried in the affirmative, 19 for — 
15 against. 

Then a debate arose when it should take place, and it 
was argued that as many people might be possessed of some 
of that currency, who live in the remote parts of this 
Province, who had taken it at its common current Value, 
and that it would be right to give them an opportunity 
of parting with it without Loss, who might perhaps very 
ill afford to suffer by means of this agreement, and on a 
division whether it should be carried into execution in 
6 or 9 months — 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



^53 



Votes appeared for six months 19, and for nine 
months 15. 

Thereupon Ordered — That the Members of this Cor- 
poration, from and after the third day of September next 
ensuing, shall, in all their dealings and Commercial Con- 
cerns, when they receive or pay Jersey money, accept and 
pay the same agreeable to the above Resolution. 

Furthermore Ordered — That a copy of the foregoing 
Resolutions be delivered to the Printers of the Gazette 
and Journal, and that the same be published" therein 
that all the Members may be apprised thereof. 

Mr. John Schuyler having been proposed to be 
admitted a Member of this Corporation was balloted for 
and elected. Ordered — That Mr. Schuyler be informed 
in writing, that he was duly elected a Member of this 
Corporation. 

Ordered— That Messrs. G. W. Ludlow, J. Bull, L. 
Lispenard, James Beekman, A. McDonald, S. Bayard, 
and R. C. Livingston, be a Committee until the first 
Tuesday in April next. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th April, 1772. 

Present. 

Elias Desbrosses, P. 

Theoph. Bache, V. P. 

William Walton, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 
Henry C. Bogert, Thomas Marston, 

Joseph Bull, Lewis Pintard, 

James Beekman, Daniel Phenix, 

John Cruger, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Isaac Corsa, William Stepple, 

James Jauncey, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Jacob Watson, 

Edward Laight, Hamil. Young. 



154 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock ; 



Theophy Bache, 
William Walton, 
Samuel Bayard, 
John H. Cruger, 
Walter Franklin, 
Isaac Low, 
William McAdam, 
John Moore, 

Fined for non-appearance 

Henry White, 
John Alsop, 
Robert Alexander, 
John Amiel, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benjamin Booth, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerrard Duyckinck, 
George FoUiot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
William Imlay, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Philip Livingston, 
Abram Lynsen, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Robert G. Livingston, 



Thomas McDonald, 
William Neilson, 
John Reade, 
Isaac Sears, 
John Thurman, 
Jacob Walton, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexan. Wallace. 



Robert Murray, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Thomas Miller, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Thomas Randal, 
Henry Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Samuel Verplanclc, 
August's Van Home, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 
Thomas Walton, 
John Weatherhead, 
Richard Yates. 



Thomas Petti t. Doorkeeper and Messenger, acquainted 
this Corporation that he had paid for glazing the "Win- 
dows, which with his Salary to the f rst Tuesday in May 
next, amount to £15 16 6, he prays to be paid for. 

Mr. William McAdam proposes that this Corpora- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



155 



tion dine together on the second Tuesday in May next, 
and that at the Meeting the first Tuesday in that Month, 
three Stewards be named to provide a Dinner and that 
each Member that may be absent at Dinner to pay eight 
Shillings. 

Ordered — That Mr. Petit put the Room in proper 
Order. 

Ordered — That Messrs. H. Gouverneur, I. Corsa, J. 
Piatt, D. Phenix, "Walter Buchanan, B. Booth, and John 
Amiel, be a Committee until the First Tuesday in May 
next, to hear and determine disputes between Parties. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, sth May, 1772. 

Present. 
Elias Desbrosses, P. 
Theop. Bache, ^ v P 



J- 



William Walton, 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 
John Amiel, John Moore, 

Joseph Bull, Lewis Pintard, 

James Beekman, Daniel Phenix, 

Samuel Bayard, John Reade, 

John Cruger, Henry Remsen, Jun'r, 

Isaac Corsa, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Walter Franklin, John Schuyler, 

Samuel Hake, Henry White, 

Peter Ketletas, Jacob Walton, 

Edward Laight, Gerrard Walton, 

Leonard Lispenard, Alexander Wallace, 

Robert C. Livingston, Robert R. Waddle, 

Hamilton Young. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Theoph. Bache, WiUiam Stepple, 

Henry C. Bogert, Thomas White, 

Isaac Low, John Thurman, 

Alexan. McDonald, Angus. Van Home, 



iS6 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



William Neilson, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Thomas Randal, 

Fined for non-appearance ; 

John Alsop, 
Robert Alexander, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benjamin Booth, 
John H. Cruger, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerardus Duyckinck, 
George FoUiot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
John Weatherhead, 
James Jauncey, 
William Imlay, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Samuel Kemble, 
PhiUp Livingston, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 



Thomas Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Richard Yates. 



George W. Ludlow, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 
William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas Marston, 
Jacob Watson, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Thomas Miller, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Samuel Verplank, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 



Robert Watts. 

Thomas Petltt's account. amounting to ^£15 16 6 hav- 
ing been laid before this Corporation at last Meeting, 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay the same. 

The Ceiling of the Chamber being much damaged 
from the leak in the Cupolo,'* proposed that it be re- 
paired, and that Messrs. Robert C. Livingston, Thomas 
Randall, and L. Pintard be a Committee to employ prop- 
er workmen to put it in order. 

Proposed — That seven Guineas be paid to Capt. 
Isaac L. Winn'' in addition to the ten Guineas already 
paid Mr. Bache, late Treasurer, for a Seal '' of this Cor- 
poration. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



157 



Ordered — That Messrs. Peter Keteltas, Robert R. 
Waddell, and Joseph Bull, or any two of them, be a 
Committee to audit the Treasurer's Accounts till this 
day. 

Mr. William Walton proposed that Mr. Patrick 
McDavitt be ballotted as a Member of this Corporation 
at the next Meeting of the Chamber. 

In consequence of Mr. McAdam's proposal of last 
Meeting for this Corporation to dine together, Messrs. 
William McAdam, John Moore, and John Reade, are 
appointed Stewards, who are ordered to provide a suita- 
ble Dinner for the Corporation,'* and wait upon his 
Excellency Governor Tryon to know when he will do 
this Corporation the honour to dine with them, that they 
send written Notices to and invite the Governor and his 
Secretary, Lieut. Governor Colden and his Sectry., the 
Sectry. of the Province, General Gage and his Suit, the 
Members of his Majesty's Council, the Members of the 
Assembly that are in Town, the Field Officers doing 
Duty in this City, the Captain of his Majesty's Ship, 
the Principal Officers of his Majesty's Customs, and the 
Mayor of this City, and it being debated whether absent 
Members should pay Eight Shillings or more was put to 
the Vote and carried, 20 for paying Eight Shillings, 19 
against. 

Mr. John Moore's proposal, viz. : 

As the Quarterage, paid by the Members of this 
Corporation, is by many thought heavy, I propose that 
it may be abolished — 

And further — I propose that the money now in the 
hands of Treasurer, or that may hereafter be in his hands, 
shall be put out at Interest, upon good security, for the 
benefit of this Corporation : — I also propose — that the 



158 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

President for the time being have charge of the Seal of 
this Corporation. 

The Charter of this Corporation, as well as the Rules 
of the Chamber, appoint this day for the Election of 
Officers for the Current year, when the following Gentle- 
men were balloted for and duly Elected, and sworn to 
perform the trust reposed in them, viz. : 
Hon. Henry White, Esq., President. 

ThEOP. BaCHE, 1 -r;-. TJ J ^ 

^^^ _,_. ' y Vice-Presidents. 

William Walton, j 

Isaac Low, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Samuel Hake, John Schuy- 
ler, Robert G. Livingston, John Cruger, Hugh Wal- 
lace, James Jauncey, and J. Walton, be a Committee, 
until the first Tuesday in June next, to hear and deter- 
mine Disputes between Parties who shall agree to leave 
such to this Corporation. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d June, 1772. 
Present. 
The Hon'ble Henry White, P. 

Theop. Bache, V. P. 

Isaac Low, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 
Joseph Bull, John Reade, 

John Cruger, Henry Remsen, 

Isaac Corsa, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Elias Desbrosses, Richard Sharpe, 

Nicholas Hoffman, James Jauncey, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Peter Keteltas, 

George W. Ludlow, Alexa. Wallace, 

Edward Laight, Thomas Marston, 

Leonard Lispenard, Wilham Neilson, 

Robert C. Livingston, Hamilton Young, 

Lewis Pintard, John Thurman, 

Jacobus Van Zandt. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



^59 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock 



Thomas Buchanan, 
James Beekman, 
Robert G. Livingston, 

Fined for non-appearance 

John Alsop, 
Robert Alexander, 
Gerrard W. Beekman, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benjam Booth, 
John H. Cruger, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Gerardus Duyckink, 
George FoUiot, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Samuel Hake, 
Thomas White, 
Jacob Watson, 
William Imlay, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Samuel Kemble, 
PhiHp Livingston, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Robert Murray, 
John Moore, 
Thomas W. Moore, 



William McAdam, 
Charles McEvers, 
Robert R. Waddell. 



Thomas Miller, 
Alexan. McDonald, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Daniel Phenix, 
Thomas Randal, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Robert Watts, 
Richard Yates, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simpson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
William Stepple, 
John Schuyler, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Samuel Verplank, 
August. Van Home, 
William Walton, 
Jacob Walton, 
Thomas Walton, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 
John Weatherhead. 



Ordered — That Messrs. Thomas Randall, Lewis Pin- 
tard, and Rob. C. Livingston, be a Committee to employ 
proper persons to repair the Cupola, &c., of the Cham- 
ber, and that the Treasurer advance the sum, not exceed- 
ing fifty pounds, towards the same. 

Ordered — That seven Guineas be paid to Captain 
Winn by the Treasurer, being the sum advanced by him 
for the Seal of this Corporation. 



l6o NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Messrs. P. Keteltas, R. R. Waddell, and Joseph 
Bull, the Committee, reported that they had audited Mr. 
Walton's account, and that there remained ^£215 15s gd 
in his hands, and the Arrears for that year is =£59 2s. 

Mr. Moore's Proposal for abolishing the Quarterage 
heretofore paid, was carried by a great Majority. 

Ordered — That the Money in the hands of the 
Treasurer be put out at Interest on such Security as the 
President, Vice-Presidents and Treasurer shall approve 
of. 

Ordered — That the President for the time being Keep 
the Seal of this Corporation in his possession. 

Whereas the Reduction of Jersey Money to its real 
Value was thought necessary by this Chamber and carried 
into a Resolution to receive and pay a Jersey £2 Bill for 
£2 4s and no more. It is conceived this Regulation will 
be grievous to some Individuals, and as this Chamber [is] 
moved by just principles, I can not but conclude that 
each Member will readily bear an equal proportion of the 
Burthen. I therefore move that each Member of this 
Corporation shall and may Receive Jersey money (for 
Outstanding Debts that now are or shall become due the 
1st September next only) at the rate of £3 5s for a 
Jersey £3 Bill until the ist May, 1773, and pay such 
Jersey £3 Bill at £3 4s, and bring in an Account attested 
of such difference, and that whatever Loss may arise on 
the receiving and paying such Money, shall be equally 
borne by all the Members of this Corporation. 

John Thurman, Jun'r. 

Mr. President : 

Whereas, a number of the Members of this Chamber 
were not present at the time the Vote was carried for 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. l6l 

reducing Jersey Money, and as most of the Merchants 
who do not belong to it are warmly opposed to altering 
the present mode of receiving it, by which means a num- 
ber of the Chamber will be evident sufferers, I move the 
matter may be reconsidered. 

June 2d, 1772. Joseph Bull. 

Mr. Patrick McDavitt was balloted for and refused. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Jacob Walton, Hugh Wal- 
lace, George FoUiot, Thomas White, Miles Sherbrooke, 
Walter Franklin, and Robert R. Waddell, be a Commit- 
tee until the first Tuesday in July next, to hear and 
determine disputes between Parties, who shall agree to 
leave such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, July 8th, 1772. 





Present. 




Hon'ble Henry 


White, 


P. 


Theop. 


Bache, 


Iv. P. 


William Walton, 


Isaac Low, 


T. 


Anthony Van Dair 


L, S. 


Henry C. Bogert, 




Robert G. Livingston, 


Joseph Bull, 




Charles McEvers, 


Janaes Beekman, 




Alexa. McDonald, 


Samuel Bayard, 




William Neilson, 


Benjam. Booth, 




Daniel Phenix, 


John Cruger, 




John Reade, 


Isaac Corsa, 




Henry Remsen, 


Elias Desbrosses, 




Isaac Sears, 


Walter Franldin, 




Sampson Simson, 


Samuel Hake, 




John Schuyler, 


James Jauncey, 




John Thurmin, 


Peter Ketletas, 




Jacob Walton, 


Edward Laight, 




Thomas White, 


Robert C. Livingston, 




Jacob Watson. 


11 







l62 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



John Amiel, 
Gerra'd W. Beekman, 
John H. Cruger, 
Gerardus Duyckink, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Isaac Low, 
William McAdam, 
John Moore, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Thomas Randal, 

Fined for non-appearance 



Isaac Roosevelt, 
John Ramsay, 
William Seton, 
Richard Sharpe, 
William Stepple, 
Henry White, 
William Walton, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Robert R. WaddeU, 
Richard Yates. 



John Alsop, 
Robert Alexander, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
George Folliot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Harman Gouverneur, 
Peter HassencUver, 
William Imlay, 
John Wetherhead, 
Lawrence Kortright, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Philip Livingston, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
George W. Ludlow, 



Abram. Lynsen, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Robert Murray, 
Thomas Marston, 
Thomas Miller, 
Hamilton Young, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Garret Rapelje, 
Miles Sherbrooke, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, (111) 
Augustus Van Home, 
Thomas Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Robert Watts. 



Mr. Livingston, one of the Committee to employ 
proper Persons to repair the Cupola, reported that they 
had applied to Peter Mersillisy to make an Estimate of 
the repairs, produced the same amounting to ^£92 lis. 4d. 
which the Chamber think excessive high. 

Ordered — That Mr. G. Walton be added to the Com- 
mittee, who are to apply to some other Workman, and see 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 1 63 

whether the Cupola cannot be repaired without new 
shingling'^ the Roof. 

Mr. Thurman's Motion of last meeting being debated, 
was unanimously carried in the negative. 

Mr. Bull's Motion for reconsidering the receiving and 
paying of Jersey Money, was Debated and Carried ; 29 
for Standing to their resolution ; 22 against. 

Ordered — That Messrs. T. Randal, J. Alsop, P. 
Livingston, W. McAdam, J. H. Cruger, G. Walton, 
and C. McEvers, be a Committee, until the first Tuesday 
in August next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th August, 1772. 
Present. 

William Walton, V. P. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 

Samuel Bayard, Henry Remsen, 

John H. Cruger, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Elias Desbrosses, Sampson Simpson, 

Lawrence Kortright, William Stepple, 

Edward Laight, Jacobus Van Zandt, 

Leonard Lispenard, Gerrard Walton, 

Daniel Phenix, Jacob Watson. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Theophy. Bache, John Moore, 

John Cruger, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Gabr. H. Ludlow, Henry White. 

Fined for non-appearance : 

John Alsop, William McAdam, 

Robert Alexander, Charles McEvers, 

Gerrard W. Beekman, Thomas Marston, 

Henry C. Bogert, Thomas W. Moore,' 

Joseph Bull, Thomas Miller, 



164 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Thomas Buchanan, 
James Beekman, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Benjamin Booth, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Gerardus Duyckink, 
George Folliott, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Governeur, 
Harman Governeur, 
Nicholas Hoifman, 
Samuel Hake, 
Peter Hassencliver, 
James Jauncey, 
WilUam Imlay, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Isaac Low, (Out) 
Philip Livingston, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 



Alexander McDonald, 
William Neilson, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Jeremiah Piatt, 
Thomas Randal, 
John Reade, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Isaac Sears, 
William Seton, 
Richard Sharpe, 
John Schuyler, 
Acheson Thompson, 
John Thurman, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
Augusts. Van Home, 
Jacob Walton, 
Thomas Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Alexan. Wallace, 
Robert R. WaddeU, 
Robert Watts, 
Thomas White, 
John Weatherhead, 
Richard Yates, 



Hamilton Young. 

Ordered — That the Committee appointed to employ 
proper Persons to repair the Cupola get it done in the 
cheapest and best manner as soon as possible. 

Sir, 

Whereas, there is a Law pass'd by the Chamber of Commerce, which 
takes place the third of Sept. next, preventing any of the Members taking 
Jersey Currency for more than it passes for in that Province, and knowing 
it will be too much against my Interest to take that Money any other ways 
than it now passes, it puts me under the disagreeable necessity to request 
my name to be struck out as member of that honourable Board. 

Isaac Sears. 
To H. White, Esq., President. 

Ordered — That his name be struck ofF accordingly. 
Ordered—That Messrs. J. Van Zandt, J. Moore, L. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



165 



Clarkson, Richd. Yates, T. Marston, L. Pintard, and A. 
Wallace, be a Committee, until the fifst Tuesday in Sep- 
tember next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties who shall agree to leave such to this Corporation, 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist September, 1772. 

Present. 
Hon'ble Henry White, P. 

WilHam Walton, V. P. 
Anthony Van Dam, S. 

Alexan. McDonald, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Jeremi. Piatt, 
Daniel Phenix, 
John Reade, 



John Amiel, 
Joseph Bull, 
John Cruger, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
Nichol. Hoffman, 
James Jauncey, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Thomas White, 
Edward Laight, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Thomas Moore, 



Hugh Wallace. 



Henry Remsen, 
Isaac Roosevelt, 
Garret Rapalje, 
John Ramsay, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
John Schuyler, 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Samuel Bayard, 
Benjam. Booth, 
Peter Keteltas, 



Gab. H. Ludlow, 
Augus. Van Home, 
Robert R. WaddeU. 



Fined for non-appearance, W.'' 



John Alsop, 

Robert Alexander, (England) 
Theophy. Bache, 
Gerard W. Beekman, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
James Beekman, 
Walter Buchanan, 



Abram Ljmsen, (W. I.) 
Robert C. Livingston, (Manor) 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, (London) 
William McAdam, (Gout) 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Thomas Marston, 



i66 



NEW YORK. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



John H. Cruger, 

Levinus Clarkson, (Boston) 

Gerardus Duyckinck, 

George FoUiot, (L. Island) 

Walter Franklin, (Rho. Island) 

Nicholas Gouverneur, (Nash) '^ 

Harman Gouverneur, 

Peter Hassencliver, (England) 

Niche's Hoffman, 

Samuel Hake, (111) 

William Imlay, 

Lawrence Kortright, 

Samuel Kemble, (London) 

Isaac Low, 

Philip Livingston, 



Thomas Miller, (London) 

William Nielson, 

Thomas Randal, 

Miles Sherbrooke, 

Richard Sharpe, 

William Stepple, 

Acheson Thompson, (Ireland) 

John Thurman, 

Samuel Ver Plank, (L. Island) 

Jacobus Van Zandt, (New Eng) 

Jacob Walton, 

Gerard Walton, 

John Wetherhead, 

Richard Yates, 

Hamilton' Young, (L. I.) 



May it Please the President, 

This Chamber having lately entered into a Resolve to alter the Cur- 
rency of Jersey Bills, which at present I apprehend will be inconvenient for 
me to comply with, I am therefore under the disagreeable necessity of de- 
clining to be any longer a Member of this Corporation, and request the 
favour my name may be Erased. 

I am, with much esteem, thy assured friend, 

Jacob Watson. 
Septem. ist, 1772. 

Ordered — That his name be struck off accordingly. 

Ordered — That Messrs. G. H. Ludlow, W. Seton, 
E. Lalght, W. Neilson, S. Simpson, P. Ketletas, and G. 
W. Beekman, be a Committee until the first Tuesday 
in October to hear and determine disputes between par- 
ties who shall agree to leave such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, October 6, 1772. 
Present. 

Honble. Henry White, P. 

William Walton, V. P. 
Anthony Van Dam, S. 
John Alsop, Joseph Bull, 

Henry C. Bogart, Samuel Bayard, jr., 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



167 



Benj. Booth, 
John Cruger, 
John H. Cruger, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
James Jauncey, 
William Imlay, 
Edward Laight, 
Leonard Lispenard, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
George W. Ludlow, 



Robert C. Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
John Moore, 
Alexand. McDonald, 
John Reade, 
William Stepple, 
John Schuyler, 
John Thurman, 
August's Van Home, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Hamilton Young. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock ; 



Robert Alexander, 
Walter Franklin, 
William Seton, 



Samuel Verplank, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Richard Yates. 



Fined for non-appearance : 



John Amiel, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Walter Buchanan, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Isaac Corsa, 
George FoUiot, 
Nicholas Gouvemeur, 
Peter Hassencliver, 
Samuel Hake, 
Abram L5Tisen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 

John 



Robert Murray, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas Marston, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Thomas Miller, 
Lewis Pintard, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Sampson Simson, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alex. Wallace, 
Thomas White, 
Weatherhead. 



The President exhibited Mr. Pratt's^ account amount- 
ing to thirty-seven pounds for taking Governor Colden's 
portrait in full length, '°° to be placed in the Chamber. 

Ordered — That the same lie till next Meeting. 

Proposed — That a Frame be made for the Lieut. 
Governor's Picture. 



1 68 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Several Gentlemen of the Chamber have, in conse- 
quence of the alteration of Jersey Money, sent in their 
resignations, which were read and accepted, and are as 
follows : 

Isaac Roosevelt, Garrard W. Beekman, 

James Beekman, Henry Remsen, 

Nicholas Hoi&nan, Gerardus Duyckinck, 

Daniel Phenix, Harman Gouverneur, 

William Neilson. 

Moreover — Messrs. 

John Thurman, John Schuyler, 

William Imlay, Leonard Lispenard, 

Declared — That they were, from necessity, obliged to 
receive Jersey money as formerly, and requested their 
resignations might also be accepted, which was granted. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Reade, Robert Alex- 
ander, Thomas W. Moore, Richard Sharpe, Hamilton 
Young, John Weatherhead, and William Stepple, be a 
Committee, until the first Tuesday in November next, to 
hear and determine Disputes between Parties who shall 
agree to leave such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d Nov., 1772. 
Present. 

Honble. Henry White, President. 

Theophy Bache, ) y;j,g.p 

William Walton, i 

Isaac Low, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secrty. 
John Alsop, John Cruger, 

Robert Alexander, John H. Cruger, 

John Amiel, Isaac Corsa, 

Samuel Bayard, Elias Desbrosses, 

Benjam. Booth, James Jauncey, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



169 



Peter Ketletas, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
Robert C. Livingston, 
William McAdam, 
John Moore, 
Lewis Pintard, 
WiUiam Seton, 

Fined for non-appearance : 

Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph BuU, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
George FoUiott, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Peter Hassencliver, 
Samuel Hake, 
Samuel Kemble, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Abram Lynsen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 
Charles McEvers, 



Richard Sharpe, 
William Stepple, 
Samuel Ver Plank, 
August Van Home, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Alexr. Wallace, 
Thomas White. 



Thomas Marston, 
Thomas W. Moore, 
Thomas MiUer, 
Alex. McDonald, 
Thomas Randal, 
Garret Rapelje, 
John Ramsay, 
Sampson Simpson, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Jacob Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 
John Wetherhead, 



Richard Yates. 



Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay Mr. Pratt for 
taking Governor Colden's portrait, £37. 

Ordered — That Messrs. J. Moore, Gerard Walton, 
and Richard Sharpe, be a Committee to agree for a Frame 
for Governor Colden's Picture, which is to be placed in 
the Chamber as soon as it is finished. 

Mr. Robert C. Livingston, one of the Committee ap- 
pointed to employ proper workmen for repairing the 
Cupola of the Chamber, exhibited Jonathan Blake's ^^ 
account for work performed thereon, amounting to Twenty 
Pounds which the said Committee had agreed for. 

Ordered — That it lie for the Vote of the Chamber 
until next Meeting. 



lyO NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Thomas Petit also produced his account for Fire 
Wood, Candles, and glazing of Windows, £3 15s. 5d. 

Ordered — That also remain till next meeting. 

Messrs. Edward Laight and Hamilton Young, have 
sent their resignation to the President, praying that their 
Names may be erased as they cannot any longer, con- 
sistent with their Interest, continue to be Members under 
the Restriction of Jersey Money passing agreeable to 
the Laws of this Chamber. 

Whose Resignations were accepted of. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Augustus Van Home, Joseph 
Bull, Thomas Miller, Alexander McDonald, Samuel 
Bayard, and Robert C. Livingston, be a Committee, until 
the first Tuesday in December next, to hear and deter- 
mine Disputes between parties who shall agree to leave 
such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, Dec. i, 1772. 

Present. 

Honble. Henry White, P. 

WiUiam Walton, V. P. 

Isaac Low, T. 

Antho. Van Dam, S. 
John Alsop, Waiiam McAdam, 

John Cruger, Thomas Miller, 

Isaac Corsa, Lewis Pintard, 

Ehas Desbrosses, Samuel Verplank, 

James Jauncey, Augustus Van Home, 

Peter Keteltas, Jacob Walton, 

Robert C. Livingston, Gerrard Walton, 

Richard Yates. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Alsop, Samuel Kemble, 

Samuel Bayard, Alexander Wallace. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I71 

Fined for non-appearance : 

Theophy. Bache, Charles McEvers, 

Henry C. Bogert, John Moore, 

Benjam. Booth, Alexand. McDonald, 

John H. Cruger, Thomas Randal, 

Levinus Clarkson, William Seton, 

George FoUiot, Sampson Simson, 

Walter Franklin, Richard Sharpe, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, William Stepple, 

Peter Hassencliver, Acheson Thompson, 

Samuel Hake, Hugh Wallace, 

Gabr. H. Ludlow, Thomas White, 

George W. Ludlow, Robert R. Waddle, 

Abram. Ljmsen, Robert Watts, 

Robert Murray, John Weatherhead. 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay unto Jonathan 
Blake the sum of Twenty Pounds for work performed 
and Materials furnished in repairing the Cupola of the 
Chamber. 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay Thomas Petit, 
three Pounds, fifteen Shillings, and five Pence, for Fire 
Wood, Candles, and Glazing Windows, in full. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Hugh Wallace, Elias Des- 
brosses, Samuel Kemble, Isaac Corsa, Benjamin Booth, 
Samuel Hake, and Robert G. Livingston, Jun'r, be a 
Committee untill the first Tuesday in January next, to 
hear and determine Disputes between Parties, who shall 
agree to leave such to this Corporation. 

Mr. John Amiel hath sent in his Resignation to the 
President, requesting that his Name may be erased, as 
he can not, consistent with his Interest, any longer continue 
to be a Member under the Restriction of Jersey Money 
passing agreeable to the Laws of this Chamber. 

Which was accepted. 



172 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, sth January, 1773. 



Present. 
Hon'ble Henry White, President. 



John Alsop, 
Benjam. Booth, 
John Cruger, 
John H. Cruger, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
Walter Franklin, 



'"' I V. 



P. 



William Walton, 

Theoph. Bache, 

Isaac Low, Treasurer. 

Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 
James Jauncey, 
William McAdam, 
William Stepple, 
Jacob Walton, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Richard Yates. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock 



Robert C. Livingston, 
Thomas Miller, 



Samuel Verplank, 
Alexand. Wallace. 



Fined for non-appearance 

Robert Alexander, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph Bull, 
Samuel Bayard, Jun'r, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Isaac Corsa, 
George FoUiot, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Samuel Hake, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
George W. Ludlow, 
Abram. Lynsen, 



Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 
Charles McEvers, 
John Moore, 
Alexand. McDonald, 
Thomas Randal, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Angus. Van Home, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Robert Watts, 
John Weatherhead. 



Ordered — That Messrs. Samuel Verplank, Walter 
Franklin, Thomas Randal, John Alsop, Thomas White, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I73 

Robert R. Waddel, and William McAdam, be a Com- 
mittee until the first Tuesday in February next, to hear 
and determine Disputes between Parties, who shall agree 
to leave such to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, February 3d, 1773. 
Present. 



Theophy Bache, , ,. _ 
William Walton, '" ^- ■^• 



Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 

John Alsop, William McAdam, 

Henry C. Bogert, William Stepple, 

Isaac Corsa, August. Van Home, 

Elias Desbrosses, Alexan. Wallace, 

Walter Franklin, Richard Yates. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock: 

Theophy Bache, Hugh Wallace. 

Fined for not appearing : 

Robert Alexander, Robert G. Livingston, 

Joseph BuU, Robert Murray, 

Samuel Bayard, Charles McEvers, 

Benja. Booth, John Moore, 

John Cruger, Thomas Miller, 

Levinus Clarkson, Alexander McDonald, 

George FoUiot, Thomas Randal, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, WiUiam Seton, 

Peter Hassencliver, Sampson Simsoa, 

Samuel Hake, Richard Sharpe, 

James Jauncey, Acheson Thompson, 

Peter Ketletas, Samuel Verplank, 

Samuel Kemble, Gerrard Walton, 

Isaac Low, Thomas White, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, I obert R. Waddle, 

George W. Ludlow, Robert Watts, 

Abram Lynsen, Henry Whit;, 

Robert C. Livingston, Jacob Walton, 
John Weatherhead. 



174 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



As a sufficient Number of the Members did not ap- 
pear, the Corporation adjourned till the first Tuesday in 
March. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d March, 1773. 

Present. 
Honble. Henry White, President. 

William Walton, Vice do. 
Isaac Low, Treasurer. 

Anthon. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Samuel Bayard, William McAdam, 

Isaac Corsa, William Stepple, 

Ehas Desbrosses, Gerrard Walton, 

Robert C. Livingston, Alexanr. Wallace. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



John H. Cruger, 
Benjamin Booth, 

Fined for not appearing : 



Charles McEvers, 
Richard Yates, 



John Alsop, 
Robert Alexander, 
Theophylact Bache, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph Bull, 
Benjamin Booth, 
John Cruger, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
George Folliott, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Peter Hassencliver, 
Samuel Hake, 
James Jauncey, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
George W. Ludlow, 



John 



Abram Lyrisen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 
John Moore, 
Thomas Miller, 
Alexan. McDonald, 
Thomas Randal, 
William Seton, 
Sampson Simson, 
Richard Sharpe, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Samuel Verplanck, 
Augustus Van Home, 
Jacob Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddell, 
Robert Watts, 
Weatherhead. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I75 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, AprH 6th, 1773. 
Present. 
Honble. Henry White, President. 

Theophy.Bache,) vj^g.p^g^^j^_ 

William Walton, J 

Isaac Low, Treasurer. 

Anthon. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Robert Alexander, Augustus Van Home, 

John H. Cruger, Jacob Walton, 

Isaac Corsa, Garrard Walton, 

Elias Desbrosses, Hugh Wallace, 

James Jauncey, Alexand. Wallace, 

Robert C. Livingston, Thomas White, 

William Stepple, Samuel Bayard. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Benjam. Booth, Charles McEvers, 

John Cruger, Thomas MOler, 

Samuel Verplank. 

Fined for non-appearance : 

John Alsop, Abram Lynsen, 

Henry C. Bogart, Robert G. Livingston, 

Joseph Bull, Robert Murray, 

Levinus Clarkson, John Moore, 

George FoUiot, Alexan'r. McDonald, 

Walter Franklin, Thomas Randal, 

Nicholas Gouverneur, William Seton, 

Peter Hassencliver, Sampson Simson, 

Samuel Hake, Richard Sharpe, 

Peter Ketletas, Acheson Thompson, 

Samuel Kemble, Robert R. Waddel, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Robert Watts, 

George W. Ludlow, John Wetherhead, 
Richard Yates. 

The President having made this Corporation acquaint- 
ed that the Honble. House of Assembly, in their last Ses- 
sions, did grant '°' the sum of Two Hundred Pounds per 



176 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Annum for five years, to be paid to the Treasurer of this 
Corporation, for the encouragement of a Fishery on this 
Coast, for the better supplying the Markets of this City 
with Fish.'"'' In pursuance of the laudable Intentions of 
the Legislature, it was proposed : 

That a Premium of Forty Pounds be paid to the 
Owners and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall 
supply this Market with the greatest quantity of Fish — 
Skate and Ray excepted taken with a Trawl '°' net — from 
the first of May next, to the ist of May, 1774. 

That a Premium of Thirty Pounds be paid to the 
Owners and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall 
supply this Market with the next greatest quantity of Fish 
— Skate and Ray excepted taken with a Trawl net — from 
the first Day of May next, to the first Day of May, 1774. 

That a Premium of Thirty Pounds be paid to the 
Owners and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall 
supply this Market with the greatest quantity of Live Cod 
Fish, from the first Day of November next ensuing, to 
the first Day of May, 1774. 

That a Premium of Twenty Pounds be paid to the 
Owners and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall sup- 
ply this Market with the next greatest quantity of Live 
Cod Fish, from the first Day of November next, to the 
first Day of May, 1774. 

That a Premium of Twenty Pounds be paid to the 
Owners and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall 
supply this Market with the greatest quantity of Live 
Sheeps-Head, from the first Day of May next, to the 
first Day of May, 1774. 

That a Premium of Fifteen Pounds be paid to the 
Owners and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall' 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



177 



supply this Market with the next greatest quantity of 
Live Sheeps-Head, from the first Day of May next, to 
the first Day of May, 1774. 

That a Premium of Ten Pounds be paid to the Own- 
ers and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall supply 
this Market with the greatest quantity of fresh Mackarel, 
from the first day of May next to the first day of May, 

1774- 

That a Premium of Five Pounds be paid to the Own- 
ers and Crew of any one Boat or Vessel who shall supply 
this Market with the next greatest quantity of fresh 
Mackarel, from the first day of May next to the first day 
of May, 1774. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Theophy Bache, J. Walton, 
James Jauncey, and Capt. Thomas Miller, be a Com- 
mittee to advertise the foregoing Premiums in the news- 
papers that are proposed to be given for taking Fish and 
supplying the Market therewith. 

Messrs. William Jauncey, Johnston Fairholme, and 
Daniel Ludlow proposed to become Members.'"* 

Ordered — That Messrs. John H. Cruger, Gerrard 
Walton, Charles McEvers, Richard Yates, Alexander 
Wallace, and John Weatherhead, be a Committee until 
the first Tuesday in May next to hear and determine 
Disputes between Parties who shall agree to leave such to 
this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th May, 1773. 
Present. 
Honble. Henry White, President. 

Theophy. Bache,) vice-Presidents. 
William Walton, ) 
Isaac Low, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
12 



178 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 



Isaac Corsa, 
John Cruger, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
James Jauncey, 
Robert C. Livingston, 



William McAdam, 
William Stepple, 
August Van Home, 
Samuel Verplank, 
Jacob Walton, 



Alexr. Wallace. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Benj. Booth, Hugh Wallace, 

Walter Franklin, Robert R. WaddeU, 

Richard Yates. 



Fined for non-appearance 

John Alsop, 
Henry C. Bogart, 
Joseph Bull, 
Samuel Bayard, 
John H. Cruger, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Samuel Hake, 
Peter Keteltas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
George W. Ludlow, 



Abraham Lynsen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas Miller, 
Alex. McDonald, 
Thomas Randal, 
Sampson Simson, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Thomas White, 
Robert Watts, 
Jno. Wetherhead. 



The Committee appointed to advertise the Premiums 
for supplying this Market with Fish, report 

That they had caused an Advertisement to be inserted in two "^ of the 
Newspapers of this City. 

Ordered — That all Persons who mean to apply for 
the aforesaid Premiums that they do, every Fare'°* they 
make, carry an account thereof to the Secretary of this 
Board for the Time being, who is to keep a regular account 
thereof, and that the Persons make oath before a Magis- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



179 



trate of the quantity brought to Market, each time, if 
required. 

Ordered — That Mr. Verplank, Mr. Robt. C. 
Livingston, and Mr. Yates, be a Committee to audit the 
Treasurer's Accounts, or any two of them, and that they 
report the same at their next Meeting. 

Thomas Petit's Account amounting to ^£7 6s for 
glazing Windows and other petty charges, being exhibited 
with his Salary of £15, proposed to be considered at 
next Meeting. - 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Alsop, Joseph Bull, 
Samuel Bayard, Benjamin Booth, John Cruger, and Elias 
Desbrosses, be a Committee until the first Tuesday in 
June next, to hear and determine Disputes between 
Parties, who shall agree to leave such to this Corpo- 
ration. 

The Charter of this Corporation, as well as the Rules 
of the Chamber, appoint this Day for the Election of 
Officers for the Current Year, when the following Gentle- 
men were balloted for and duly elected, and all but the 
Treasurer, who was absent, were sworn to perform the 
trust reposed in them. 

Theophy Bache, President. 

William Walton, ^ y. p 

Isaac Low, ^ 

John Alsop, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, June ist, 1773. 
Present. 

William Walton, Vice-Pres't. 
John Alsop, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



i8o 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



John Cruger, 
John H. Cruger, 
Elias Desbrosses, 
Johnst. Fairholme, 
Robert C. Livingston, 



William McAdam, 
Samuel Verplank, 
Henry White, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Hugh Wallace, 



Alexand. Wallace. 



Fined for non-appearance : 



Theophy Bache, 
Henry C. Bogert, 
Joseph Bull, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Benjamin Booth, 
Levinus Clarkson, 
Isaac Corsa, 
Walter Franklin, 
Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Peter Hasencliver, 
Samuel Hake, 
James Jauncey, 
Peter Ketletas, 
Samuel Kemble, 
Isaac Low, 



Abram Lynsen, 
Robert G. Livingston, 
Robert Murray, 
Charles McEvers, 
Thomas Miller, 
Alexan. McDonald, 
Thomas Randal, 
Sampson Simson, 
William Stepple, 
Acheson Thompson, 
Augus. Van Home, 
Jacob Walton, 
Thomas White, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Robert Watts, 



Richard Yates. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— New York, 3d June, 1773. 
SPECIAL MEETING. 



Present. 



President. 
Vice-Pres. 



Jv, 



Theophy Bache, 

William Walton, 

Isaac Low, 

John Alsop, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Hugh Wallace, Johnston Fairholme, 

Alexander Wallace, Samuel Kemble, 

John Cruger, Thomas Miller, 

Jacob Walton, Charles McEvers, 

William Stepple, Augustus Van Home, 

Thomas White, Gerrard Walton, 



' REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. l8l 

Samuel Bayard, John H. Cruger, 

Robert R. Waddle, James Jauacey, 

Elias Desbrosses. 

Mr. President made this Corporation acquainted that 
he had been requested by several of the Members to 
convene a Meeting to address General Gage'^^ on his De- 
parture for England.'"' 

Ordered — That Mr. President, Mr. Desbrosses, and 
Mr. John Harris Cruger, be a Committee to prepare a 
Draft of an Address to General Gage, and that they do 
report the same this Afternoon. 

Mr. Francis Lewis, and Mr. James Seagrove were 
proposed to become Members of this Chamber. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— New York, 3d June, 1773. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 

Theophy. Bache, President. 

William Walton, ) 

T T „ r Vice-Presidents. 

Isaac Low, ) 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

John Cruger, Thomas MiUer, 

Hugh Wallace, Charles McEvers, 

John H. Cruger, Augustus Van Home, 

Jacob Walton, Henry White, 

Gerrard Walton, James Jauncey, 

Samuel Bayard, Thomas Randal, 

Johnston Fairholme, Robert R. Waddel, 

! Walter Franklin. 

The Committee appointed to draw up an Address to 
General Gage reported that they had perfected a Draft, 
and submitted it to the consideration of the Corporation, 
which, being read, was approved of, and is in the words 
following : 



182 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

To HIS Excellency the Honourable Thomas Gage, General and 

Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty's Forces in North America. 

The Humble Address of the Corporation of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of the City of New York. 

May it Please your Excellency, 

When we review your conduct as Commander-in-Chief of his 
Majesty's Forces, and reflect on the Happiness derived to this Colony from 
your eminent Justice, from the Discipline and good Order of the Army, and 
your constant Attention to secure to North America the solid Effect of a 
Series of Victories so glorious to the British arms ; ™ when to these we unite 
your engaging Manners and pohte and obliging Deportment, we feel, Sir, in 
common with the rest of our FeUow-Citizens, the Uveliest Sentiments of 
Esteem and Respect for a character so truly valuable. These Impressions, 
as they increase the Regret with which we consider the approach of your 
Departure for England, cannot fail of exciting in us a warm Desire thus 
publickly to testify the high sense we entertain of your exalted Merit. 

We are persuaded, Sir, that as you take with you the deserv'd Applause 
of the Colonies, and the cordial Affections of the Inhabitants of this City, 
long honored by your immediate Residence, so your Zeal and Fidelity in 
the Discharge of a Trust the most important will recommend you to the 
Favour and approbation of our gracious Sovereign. 

Permit us to wish your Excellency, your amiable Lady and Family, an 

agreeable Passage to your Native Country, and every Degree of Felicity, 

both in publick and private Life, so justly due to your distinguished Virtues. 

By order of the Chamber, 

Theo. Bache, Presd't 
Chamber of Commerce, ") 

New York, 4th June, 1773. j 

Order' d — That Messrs. Gerrard Walton, Charles 
McEvers, Johnston Fairholme, be a Committee (and 
John H. Cruger) to wait on his Excellency Genl. Gage, 
with a fair Copy of the Address, and know his Pleasure 
when he will be waited on by this Corporation to receive 
the same. 

The Committee appointed to wait on Genl. Gage re- 
ported. 

That he was pleased to say it would be agreeable to him to receive the 
Address of this Corporation on the Morrow, at two o'clock, at which Time 
all the Members were desired to attend at the Chamber. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 1 83 

His Excellency's Answer to the Gentlemen of the 
Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce of the City of 
New York. 

Gentlemen, 

It is a circumstance the most flattering to me, that my 
Publick and Private conduct should meet the approbation of so re- 
spectable a Body, and I return you my best thanks for your polite and 
affectionate Address. 

I have resided long amongst you, and lived happily with you and 
your Fellow-citizens ; so it is Natural that I should leave you with 
Regret and Concern, and I beg you to believe that I carry with me Senti- 
ments the most friendly to the Colonies in general, and the warmest 
wishes for the Prosperity and Happiness of the Inhabitants of New 
York. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th July, 1773. 

Present. 

Theophylact Bache, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Cruger, Gerrard Walton, 

Hugh Wallace, Henry White, 

Alexan'r Wallace, Richd. Yates, 

Elias Desbrosses, Isaac Corsa. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John AIsop, Samuel Bayard, 

Robt. C. Livingston. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3 August, 1773. 
Present. 
Theophylact Bache, President. 
William Walton, | vice-Presidents. 



Isaac Low, 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Cruger, Robert Waddel, 

John Harris Cruger, William McAdam, 

Elias Desbrosses, William Stepple, 

Hugh Wallace, Samuel Verplank, 

Augustus Van Home. 



184 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7 Sept., 1773. 
Present. 
William Walton, Vice-President. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Cruger, James Jauncey, 

John Harris Cruger, Thomas Randal, 

Elias Desbrosses, Augustus Van Home, 

Gerrard Walton. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 5th October, 1773. 
Present. 
Theophylact Bache, President. 
William Walton, Vice-President. 
John Alsop, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Cruger, Walter Franklin, 

John Harris Cruger, Thomas Randal, 

EKas Desbrosses, Augustus Van Home, 

Gerrard Walton. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d Nov., 1773. 
Present. 

WiUiam Walton, ) vice-Presidents. 

Isaac Low, 1 

John Alsop, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, James Jauncey, 

Isaac Corsa, Thomas Randal, 

Elias Desbrosses, Augustus Van Home, 

Gerrard Walton. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th December, 1773. 
Present. 
Theoph. Bache, 
William Walton, 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, Treasurer. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 1 85 

Richard Sharpe, Thomas Randal, 

John Cruger, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Elias Desbrosses, Joseph Bull, 

Charles McEvers, Augustus Van Home, 

Miles Sherbrooke, Robert Alexander, 

WilUam Seton, Robert C. Livingston, 

George Ludlow, Gerrard Walton, 

John Moore, John H. Cruger, 

Isaac Corsa, Samuel Bayard, 

Richard Yates, Alexander Wallace, 

Benj. Booth, Lewis Pintard, 

Samuel Hake, James Jauncey. 



Messrs. James Seagrove, Francis Lewis, and William 
Jauncey, who were proposed at a former Meeting to be- 
come Members of this Corporation, were Balloted for 
and passed in the affirmative. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the Several 
Gentlemen so elected, in Writing, that they were unani- 
mously chosen. 

Mr. Alsop, the Treasurer, was this night Qualifyed. 
Gilbert Bennit, John Cox, and John Bennit, proposed a 
petition to this Corporation, which was read and ordered 
to lay for further consideration. 

Mr. Robert C. Livingston's Motion : 

This Corporation, having by a Vote passed the and 
March, 1772, Agreed to receive and pay Jersey Money 
at the same Value it is estimated by the Treasurer's in 
that Colony, which was then and is still thought to be a 
necessary and Just regulation, but as I humbly conceive 
it would be more expedient for this Corporation to per- 
mit the Members to receive and pay it at the rate at 
which it passed current before this regulation took place. 

I therefore beg leave to move that every Member of 
this Corporation may be at liberty to receive and pay 
Jersey Money as it formerly passed. 



1 86 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Mr, Charles McEver's Motion ; 

That, as many of the Members of this Corporation 
have sent in their resignations, and others have absented 
themselves from the usual Meetings of this Chamber on 
Account of the regulation entered into for the receiving 
and paying of Jersey Money, which they from Necessity 
could not conform to without prejudice to their Business, 
and as Mr. Livingston has moved this Chamber, that in 
future the Members may be at liberty to receive and pay 
Jersey Money as it formerly passed, should his Motion 
be agreed to : I beg leave to move that those Gentlemen 
who have sent in their resignations, and those who have 
absented themselves from this board may be again received, 
and that notice may be sent them to attend the Chamber 
as usual. 

Ordered — That the foregoing Motions be entered and 
taken into consideration. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, January 4th, 1774. 
Present. 

Theoph. Bache, President. 

William Walton, ) y p 

Isaac Low, j 

John Alsop, Treasurer. 

Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, Leonard Lispenard, 

John Cruger, John Moore, 

John H. Cruger, Francis Lewis, 

Isaac Corsa, Lewis Pintard, 

Elias Desbrosses, William Stepple, 

Samuel Hake, Jacob Walton, 

Peter Keteltas, Robert R. Waddell, 

George Ludlow, Robert Watts. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

James Jauncey, Charles McEvers, 

William Jauncey, Thomas Miller, 

James Seagrove. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 187 

Mr. Robert C. Livingston's Motion that every Mem- 
ber of this Corporation be at liberty to receive and pay 
Jersey Money as it formerly passed, having been debated, 
was agreed to. 

Mr. Charles McEvers having proposed at the last 
Meeting that such Gentlemen who have sent in their re- 
signations, and those that have withdrawn themselves 
from this board, may be again received, having been con- 
sidered and deliberating therein, it was unanimously 

Resolved — That those Gentlemen that have sent or 
given in their resignations be informed that the Chamber 
are at liberty to receive and pay Jersey money as formerly, 
notwithstanding they conceive the evil tendency of receiv- 
ing it for more than its real value in their Treasury, which 
does in the event depreciate our own Currency. That if 
they choose to offer themselves to become members again 
of this Corporation by being balloted for under the same 
restrictions as heretofore, except that no fine or expence 
will attend their admission, and that time is given them 
untill the first Tuesday in May next for that purpose. 

Ordered — That the Secretary deliver to the Door- 
keeper and Messenger a fair Copy of this resolution, to 
be by him shown and served upon each of the following 
Gentlemen, who appear on the registry of this Corporation 
to have given in their resignations, viz. : 

Gerrard Buy kink, William Neilson, 

Henry Remsen, Leo. Lispenard, 

William Imlay, Hamilton Young, 

John Amiel, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Daniel Phenix, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

John Schuyler, John Thurman, 

Isaac Sears, Edward Laight, 

Jacob Watson, NicKs Hoffman, 

James Beekman, Harman Gouverneur. 

\_A true copy.] Anthony Van Dam, Sec'ry. 



Vice Do. 



100 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Robert Alexander, Henry C. 
Bogert, Joseph Bull, Samuel Bayard, Benjamin Booth, 
John Cruger, and John H. Cruger, be a Committee, 
untill the first Tuesday in February next, to hear and 
determine Disputes between Parties who shall agree to 
leave such to this Corporation. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist February, 1774. 
Present. 

Theophylact Bache, President. 

William Walton, \ 

Isaac Low, [«] ™ | 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, Thomas Miller, [6] 

John Cruger, Lewis Pintard, 

Isaac Corsa, William Jauncey, ra 

Elias Desbrosses, Gerrard Walton, 

Francis Lewis, Alexan. Wallace, 

William McAdam, Robert R. WaddelL [q 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist March, 1774, 
Present. 

Theophylact Bache, President 

William Walton, Vice. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Samuel Bayard, Gerrard Walton, 

Isaac Corsa, Hugh Wallace, 

Peter Keteltas, Robert R. Waddel, 

George Ludlow, Robert Watts. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Thursday, 24th March, 1774. 
SPECIAL MEETING. 
Present. 
Theophylact Bache, President. 
Isaac Low, Vice. 

John Alsop, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 1 89 

Peter Keteltas, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Charles McEvers, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Johnston Fairholme, James Jauncey, 

Alex'r Wallace, Samuel Bayard, Jun'r, 

Samuel Hake, Richard Sharpe, 

Ellas Desbrosses, Joseph Bull, 

Robert R. Waddel, Richard Yates, 

Robert Alexander, John Moore, 
William Jauncey. 



The President, at the request of several of the Mem- 
bers of this Corporation who were desireous to address 
his Excellency Governor Tryon before his embarkation"" 
for England, having convened a Chamber, and one being 
drawn up, was read, after some alterations and amend- 
ments was agreed to. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Walton, Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, John Moore, Johnston Fairholme, and 
Elias Desbrosses, be a Committee to wait on his Excel- 
lency with a fair Copy, and know his pleasure when he will 
be pleased to receive the same. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, jth April, 1774. 

Present. 

Theoph. Bache, President. 

William Walton, Vice. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Robert Alexander, George Ludlow, 

Joseph Bull, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

John Cruger, John Moore, 

John H. Cruger, William Stepple, 

Robert Watts. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Elias Desbrosses, Johnston Fairholme, 

Robert R. Waddel. 



jgO NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d May, 1774. 
Present. 

Theoph. Bache, President. 

William Walton, Vice President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Robert Alexander, Garret Rapelje, 

John H. Cruger, William Stepple, 

Isaac Corsa, Richard Sharpe, 

Walter Franklin, James Seagrove, 

Robert C. Livingston, Gerrard Walton, 

George Ludlow, Robert Watts, 

William McAdam, Richard Yates. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

William Jauncey, John Moore, 

Francis Lewis, Robert R. Waddel, 

Jacob Walton, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Thomas Miller, Augustus Vanhorne. 

Mr. Leonard Lispenard, Junr., having desired that 
he might be readmitted a Member of this Corporation, 
and Mr. William Laight having been proposed at a for- 
mer meeting, were balloted for, and unanimously chosen 
Members of this Corporation. 

Ordered — That the Secretary do send them notice in 
writing that they have been unanimously chosen. 

Ordered — That Mr. Richard Yates, Mr. John Moore, 
Mr. Miles Sherbrooke, and Mr. Gerard Walton, be a 
Committee to audit the Treasurer's accounts, until this 
day, and that they report the same to this Corporation. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William McAdam, William 
Stepple, William Jauncey, Robert Watts, and Francis 
Lewis, be a Committee to examine the Claims of Fisher- 
men that have furnished this Market with such Fish as 
this Corporation have thought fit to grant a Bounty there- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



191 



on, and prescribe such modeof Proof as will be necessary to 
entitle them thereto, such report to {he) made at a future 
meeting; and the same Committee are appointed to report 
the necessary premium to be given the ensuing season. 

Mr. Barnard Romans "^"^ having formerly requested the 
countenance and Protection of this board to his design of 
publishing by Subscription several Maps of East and 
West Florida,'" &c., and his Letters being read and re- 
fered to the next meeting of this Corporation : 

Proposed — That Eleven sets be subscribed for, in ad- 
dition to one set the President hath engaged for, and that 
any member be furnished with them at first cost. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Robert Alexander, Theoph. 
Bache, Joseph Bull, Benj. Booth, Thomas Buchanan, 
John Cruger, and Elias Desbrosses, be a Committee to 
hear and determine Disputes that may be left to the 
Chamber, until the first Tuesday in June next. 

The Charter, as well as the Laws of this Corporation, 
appoints this day for the Election of Officers, when the 
following Gentlemen were balloted for and duly Elected : 

William Walton, President. 

Isaac Low, ) -r.. „ -j . 

-r . > Vice Presidents. 

John Alsop, ) 

William McAdam, Treasurer. 

Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 

Mr. William Walton, William McAdam, and An- 
thony Van Dam, being present, were duly sworn agree- 
able to the charter to exercise their respective Offices. 

The President, having been desired by several Mem- 
bers of the Corporation to convene a chamber to Address 
the Governor before his departure for England, the same 
was agreed to and was waited on to deliver the same. 



loa NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

which together with his answer, were in the words fol- 
lowing : 

To His Excellency, William Tryon, Esqr. :^Captain General and 
Governor in Chief of the Colony of New York, and Territories depend- 
ing thereon in America, Chancellor and Vice- Admiral'" of the same. 

The Humble Address of the Corporation of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of the City of New York : — 

May it please your Excellency : 

When publick spirit unites with private virtue in forming the char- 
acter of a Chief Magistrate, and the representative of the Sovereign is 
distinguished no less by his inclination than ability to advance the interests 
of the Province over which he presides, the people become deeply interested 
in his welfare, and wiU omit no opportunity of testifying their gratitude and 
esteem. 

Influenced by these considerations. We, the Members of the Corpora- 
tion of the Chamber of Commerce, Join with the General voice of the 
Colony, in deploring your Excellency's departure from a country which owes 
much to your care, and has flourished under the auspices of a mild, a wise, 
and an impartial administration. 

With pleasure. Sir, we have beheld you, the Governor of a Province, and 
not of a Party, nor can we forbear doing Justice to that Generosity of tem- 
per and liberality of sentiment which has led your Excellency to consider 
every rank and class of People among us, as equally loyal subjects of the 
same Sovereign, and equally entitled to his favours and munificence. 

It is with real concern we anticipate the time when the Community will 
cease to reap advantage from your counsels, the poor lament the absence of 
their benefactor, and the inhabitants of this City regret the loss of a Gov- 
ernor, whose affability, ease of access, and friendly deportment had concili- 
ated their affection and regard. 

We, indeed, derive no little consolation from the abilities and probity 
of the Gentleman"' on whom the command will devolve, of whose attatchment 
to our Interest We have had ample proofs, and to whose attention to the 
advancement of Commerce, We owe our existence as a Corporation. 

Permit us, most sincerely, to wish Your Excellency and family a safe 
and pleasant passage to your native Country ; may health and happiness 
ever attend you, and may you speedily return crowned with the approbation 
and favour of your Royal Master, to a Country where your name wiU 
descend with honour to future generations, and your administration form a 
bright page in their annals. 

By order of the Corporation, 

Theophy. Bache, President 



register of proceedings. i93 

His Excellency's Answer : 

Gentlemen : 

I should be destitute of sensibility if I did not receive this very 
affectionate address of the respectable Chamber of Commerce with 
great satisfaction. 

Your generous approbation of my publick and private conduct, 
your concern at my departure, and solicitude for my health and happi- 
ness, which furnish a testimonial so honourable to my administration 
demand the warmest returns of esteem and gratitude. However my 
Gracious Sovereign may be pleased to dispose of me, I trust you will 
believe that the prosperity of this loyal colony, the increase of its trade 
and riches, and its permanent reputation and tranquility, will not cease 
to be objects very near my heart. 

In leaving a country, to which I have so much reason to be 
attached, it is a pleasing reflection that the Government will devolve 
on a Gentleman whose long and faithfuU services entitle him to the 
confidence of the Crown, and whose great abilities and experience as 
well as inclination will lead him, upon all occasions, to consult the in- 
terest of his Sovereign, and promote the felicity of the people intrusted 
to his care. 

William Tryon. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, June 7th, 1774. 
Present. 

William Walton, President. 

Isaac Low, Vice President. 

William McAdam, Treasurer. 

Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, William Laight, 

Isaac Corsa, Garret Rapelje, 

Samuel Hake, Lewis Pintard, 

Leonard Lispenard, Gerrard Walton. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Francis Lewis, James Seagrove, 

John Cruger, Jacob Walton, 

Anthony Van Dam. 
13 



[54 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, July sth, 1774. 

Present. 
William Walton, President. 

Isaac Low, 1 ,,.„., 

T , A , >■ Vice Presidents. 

John Alsop, ) 

Antho. Van Dam, Secretary. 

John Cruger, William Laight, 

Isaac Corsa, Lewis Pintard, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Alexander Wallace, 

Robert Watts. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock. : 

Theoph. Bache, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Francis Lewis, Robert R. Waddle, 

Gerrard Walton, Richard Sharpe, 

William Stepple, James Seagrove, 

John Moore, Richard Yates. 

The Committee appointed to examine fishermen's 
Claims, report : 

That Fe/er Parks exhibits ample proof that he hath brought to this 
City and exposed to sale in the Publick Market upwards of Eight hundred 
live Cod Fish, between the first day of Nov., 1773, and the first day of 
May, 1774- 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay unto the said 
Peter Parks the sum of Thirty Pounds, it appearing from 
the Committee's report and Vouchers, lodged with the 
Secretary of this Corporation, that he hath brought the 
greatest quantity of Live Cod Fish to Market, within the 
period prescribed by a Vote of this Corporation, on the 
first Tuesday in April, 1773. 

That Robert Heartshorn exhibits proof that he hath, at Divers times, be- 
tween the first day of May, 1773, and the first day of May, 1774, sent to this 
Market four hundred and fifty-six Sheepshead. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. I95 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay unto the said 
Robert Heartshorn, the sum of Twenty Pounds, it appear- 
ing from the Committee's report, and Vouchers lodged 
with the Secretary of this Corporation, that he hath sent 
by divers persons, employed by the said Heartshorne, the 
greatest quantity of Live Sheeps-head to the publick Mar- 
ket""* in this city, within the period prescribed by a Vote 
of this Corporation on the first Tuesday in April, 1773. 

Ordered — That in case any other persons claim the 
Bounty on Fish brought to this Market, between the first 
day of May, 1773, and the first day of May, 1774, that 
when full proof is made to the satisfaction of the Com- 
mittee appointed to examine fishermen's claims, upon the 
diflferent species on which this Corporation have voted 
such Bounty : That the Committee aforesaid do draw an 
order on the Treasurer for the respective sums, and in 
favour of such persons as shall be justly intitled thereto, 
which the Treasurer is hereby ordered to pay and charge 
this Corporation therewith. 

In obedience to the order of the Corporation of the 
Chamber of Commerce, the Committee appointed by them 
have considered what premiums are proper to be proposed 
to encourage bringing Fish to the publick Market in this 
City for the present year. Report as their opinion : 

That the sum of Fifty Pounds be paid to the owners and crews of any 
one Vessel or Boat wlio shall supply this Market with the greatest quantity 
of Fish — Skate and Ray excepted — not less than one thousand pounds weight 
taken with a Trawl net, from the first day of May, 1774, to the first day of 
May, 1775. 

That the sum of Twenty Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of any 
one Boat or Vessel who shall supply this Market with the next greatest 
quantity of Fish — Skate and Ray excepted — not less than seven hundred and 
fifty pounds weight, taken with a Trawl net within the same period. 

That the sum of Thirty Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of any 



196 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

one Boat or Vessel who shall supply this Market with the greatest quantity 
of Live Cod Fish, not less than one thousand fish in number, from the ist 
day of November, 1774, to the ist day of May, 1775. 

That the sum of Twenty Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of 
any one Boat or Vessel who shaU supply this Market with the next greatest 
quantity of Live Cod Fish, not less than seven hundred and fifty Fish in 
number, within the same period. 

That the sum of Twenty Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of 
any one Boat or Vessel who shall supply this Market with the greatest quan- 
tity of Live Sheeps-head Fish, not less than one thousand Fish, from the first 
day of May, 1774, to the 1st day of May, 1775. 

That the sum of Fifteen Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of any 
one Boat or Vessel who shall supply this Market with the next greatest 
quantity, not less than seven hundred and fifty Fish, within the same 
period. 

That the sum of Ten Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of any 
one Boat or Vessel who shaU supply this Market with the next greatest 
quantity, not less than five hundred Sheeps-head, within the same period. 

That the sum of Ten Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of any 
one Boat or Vessel which shall supply this Market with the greatest quantity 
of fresh Mackarel, not less than seven thousand Fish, from the first day of 
May, 1774, to the first day of May, 1775. 

That the sum of Five Pounds be paid to the owners and crew of any 
one Boat or Vessel who shall supply this Market with the next greatest 
quantity, not less than five thousand Mackaral, within the same period. 

That the sum of Twenty Pounds be paid to the owners and Crew of 
any one Boat or Vessel who shall supply this Market with the greatest 
quantity of dryed Herring, sufficiently cured, from the first day of March, 
1774, to the first day of July, 1775. Which is humbly submitted. 

Fran's Lewis. 

William Stepple. 

Robert Watts. 

Ordered — That the above Report be published in the 
several newspapers, which may tend to promote a greater 
supply of Fish to the Inhabitants of this City, and 
answer the end intended by an Act of the Gouverneur 
Council and General Assembly of this Province. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



197 



The following gentlemen having been proposed at a 
former meeting to be Elected Members of this Cor- 
poration, were balloted for, and duly Elected : — Mr. 
John Schuyler, Edward Laight, Isaac Sears, Gerrard W. 
Beekman. 

Order' d — That the Secretary send them written cer- 
tificates of their admission. 

Mr. John Alsop and Mr. Isaac Low were qualified to 
serve as Vice Presidents for the ensuing year, agreeable to 
their Election on the first Tuesday in May last. 

Order' d — That Messrs. Theoph. Bache, Isaac Corsa, 
Geo. FoUiot, "Walter Franklin, Samuel Hake, and James 
Jauncey, be a Committee, untill the first Tuesday in 
August next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties who chose to leave such to their determination. 



r Vice do. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d August, 1774. 

Present. 
William Walton, President. 
Isaac Low, 
John Alsop, 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph BuU, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

John Cruger, William Laight, 

Robt. R. Waddle, WiUiam Stepple, 

Alex'r Wallace. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Isaac Low. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th September, 1774. 



Present. 
William Walton, President. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



198 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Samuel Bayard, Johnston Fairholme, 

John Cruger, William Laight, 

John H. Cruger, William Stepple, 

Isaac Corsa, Gerrard Walton, 

Elias Desbrosses, Hugh Wallace, 

Robert Watts. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

WiUiam Walton, Cerrard Walton, 

Johnston Fairholme, Hugh Wallace. 

The consideration of the motion made for subscribing 
for Eleven more of Mr. Roman's Drafts that he is now 
publishing, being debated. 

Voted — That Eleven sets be subscribed for on account 
of this Corporation, and that any Member in want there- 
of be furnished therewith at first Cost. 

Ordered — That the Treasurer do pay unto Mr. Bar- 
nard Romans the first subscription money for Eleven sets, 
taking his Receipt. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Samuel Bayard, John H. 
Cruger, Johnston Fairholme, William Jauncey, Peter 
Keteltas, Lawrence Kortright, and Philip Livingston, be 
a Committee to hear and determine disputes that may be 
left to the Chamber untill the first Tuesday in December 
next. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th October, 1774. 

Present. 

William Walton, President. 

William McAdam, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph BuU, Leonard Lispenard, 

Benjamin Booth, Edward Laight, 

John Cruger, John Moore, 

Isaac Corsa, Lewis Pintard, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 

George Ludlow, WilKam Stepple, 

Gabriel Ludlow, Gerrard Walton, 

Robert Watts. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

I^obert Watts. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist November, 1774. 
Present. 

William Walton, President. 

John Alsop, I ^.^^ ^^ 

Isaac Low, ) 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Theophylact Bache, John Moore, 

John Cruger, Miles Sherbrooke, 

John H. Cruger, Richard Sharpe, 

Ehas Desbrosses, James Seagrove, 

Robert C. Livingston, Samuel Verplanck, 

George Ludlow, Augustus Van Home, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Gerrard Walton, 

Francis Lewis, Robert R. Waddle, 

William Laight, Robert Watts. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Isaac Low, Miles Sherbrooke, 

John Moore, James Seagrove, 

Robert R. Waddle. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, December 6th, 1774. 

Present. 

William Walton, President. 

Isaac Low, Vice President. 

WiUiam McAdam, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, Francis Lewis, 

John H. Cruger, William Laight, 

Isaac Corsa, William Stepple, 

George Ludlow, Gerrard Walton. 



[99 



200 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Moore, Anthony Van Dam, 

Alex'r Wallace. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d January, 1775. 
Present. 
William Walton, President. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, Isaac Corsa, 

John Cruger, William Laight, 

Robert R. Waddle. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 
Francis Lewis. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, February 7th, 1775. 
Present. 

William Walton, President. 

John Alsop, Vice Pres. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Joseph Bull, Richard Sharpe, 

William Laight, Gerrard W. Beekman, 

John H. Cruger, Edward Laight, 

Johnston Fairholme, Isaac Corsa, 

John Cruger, John Schuyler. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Samuel Bayard, James Seagrove, 

Gerrard Walton. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, March 7th, 1775. 

Present. 
William Walton, President. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Theophy. Bache, WiUiam Laight, 

Joseph BuU, Robert Murray, 

Isaac Corsa, Miles Sherbrooke, 

Robert R. Waddle. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 201 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, April 4th, 1775. 

Present. 
William Walton, President. 
William McAdam, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Elias Desbrosses, William Stepple, 

Peter Ketletas, Hugh Wallace, 

Alexan. Wallace. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Joseph Bull, Jacob Walton, 

William McAdam, Edward Laight, 

Gerrard W. Beekman, Robert R. Waddell. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d May, 1775. 
Present. 

William Walton, President. 

Isaac Low, Vice President. 

William McAdam, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Theoph. Bache, William Laight, 

Joseph BuU, Edward Laight, 

John Cruger, Charles McEvers, 

Isaac Corsa, William Stepple, 

Elias Desbrosses, Augustus Van Home, 

George Ludlow, Gerrard Walton, 

Francis Lewis, Robert R. Waddle, 

Hugh Wallace. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Laight, Wi Ham 
Seton, Miles Sherbrooke, James Seagrove, and William 
Stepple, be a Committee to Audit the Treasurer's accounts 
until this day, and that they report the same to this Cor- 
poration at their next meeting. 

Ordered — That the Treasurer pay unto Mr. Bernard 
Romans, or his Order, One hundred and eight Dollars, 



202 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

being the last payment for Twelve Complete Setts of 
Charts of the Navigation to and in the new ceded Coun- 
tries to the Southward of Georgia,"^ which he hath lately- 
transmitted to the Secretary. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Peter Ketletas, Joseph Bull, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, and Edward Laight, be a Committee 
to examine Fishermen's Claims, that have furnished this 
Market with such Fish as this Corporation have thought 
fit to grant a Bounty thereon, and prescribe such mode 
of Proof as will be necessary to entitle thereto, and that 
they, or any three of them give an order on the Treasurer 
for the Payment, when it shall appear who are the Objects 
of such Bounty, and that they make report thereof to this 
Corporation. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Robert C. Livingston, Geo. 
Ludlow, Gabriel H. Ludlow, Leonard Lispenard, Junr., 
William Laight, Robert Murray, and John Moore, be a 
Committee to hear and determine Disputes that may be 
left to this Chamber, until the first Tuesday in June next. 

The Charter as well as the Laws of this Corporation 
appoints this Day for the Election of Officers when the fol- 
lowing Gentlemen were balloted for and duly Elected. 

Isaac Low, President. 

John Alsop, Vice ) 

William McAdam, Vice j Presidents. 
Charles McEvers, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



Then Messrs. Isaac Low, William McAdam, Charles 
McEvers, and Anthony Van Dam, the Officers elected 
that were present, were duly sworn, agreeable to the 
Charter, to execute their respective offices."* 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 




HE State of PublicAffairs"^ having been such 
as not to require a meeting of the Chamber of 
Commerce at an earlier period, no measures 
were taken for that purpose untill it was conceived that the 
Increase of Commerce/'^ in consequence of the Latitude it" 
derived from the Commissioners'"' benevolent proclama- 
tion,"" rendered a revival of so usefuU an Institution abso- 
lutely necessary. 

At the request, therefore, of a number of the Mem- 
bers, the President issued notices for convening as many 
of them as were now in New York and its vicinity, and 
the following Members appeared accordingly, in the 
Upper long room at the CofFy House.'" 



SPECIAL MEETING.— Moj^mAY, 21st June, 1779. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

William McAdam, Vice President 

Anthy. Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Walton, Alexand'r Wallace, 

Isaac Corsa, Robert R. Waddel, 

Robert Murray, William Laight, 

John Moore, Thomas Buchanan, 

WiUiam Seton, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Thomas MiUer, William Stepple, 

Edward Laight, Richard Yates, 

Hugh Wallace, Gerrard Walton, 

Henry White, Augustus Van Home, 

Benj. Booth, Lawrence Kortright. 



204 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

A draft of a Letter to the Commandant'" was then 
produced in the words following : 

New York, June 21, 1779. 

Sir: 

We beg leave to inform your Excellency that the Subscribers are Mem- 
bers of a Society known by the Style and Title of a Chamber of Commerce 
which, before the present unnatural rebellion, met under certain regulations 
(of which we have the honor of inclosing a copy), and determined the prin- 
cipal matters relative to trade in this City. 

The good elFects of this Institution having been felt and acknowledged 
by all persons concerned in Trade, and the increase of Commerce encour- 
aged by the Proclamations of his Majesty's Commissioners, together with 
the success of Private Ships of War,^^^ has induced the Merchants in general 
(who are ready to join us agreeable to our regulations) to solicit a renewal 
of our Meetings in order that the many mercantile differences which so fre- 
quently happen may be adjusted. 

As Commandant of the City, we esteemed it our duty to lay before you 
the intent of our proposed meetings and at the same time we beg leave to 
assure you that our assistance, when called upon, will at all times be ready 
to facilitate the Public good. 

We have the honor to be, Sir, your Excellency's Most ob't and most 
humble servants. 

His Excellency Daniel Jones,'*'' Esq., 
Commandant of New York, &c. 

The question being put resolved nem. con. that it be 
engrossed and signed by the members present and trans- 
mitted by the President to the Commandant— it was 
signed accordingly. 

The following Gentlemen were appointed till the first 
Tuesday in July next, to hear and determine disputes 
between Parties who shall agree to leave such to the 
determination of this Corporation : 

William Walton, John Moore, 

Isaac Corsa, William Seton, 

Robert Murray, Thomas Miller, 

Edward Laight. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 205 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th July, 1779. 
Present. 

William McAdam, Vice President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
August Van Home, George Ludlow, 

William Seton, Robert Murray, 

Gerrard Walton, Benj. Booth, 

Alex. Wallace, "~ William Walton, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Rob. R. Waddel, 

Isaac Corsa, Thos. Buchanan, 

Edward Laight, William Stepple, 

Hugh Wallace, William Laight, 

Thomas MiUef, Henry White, 

Law. Kortright. 

The Vice President having received a Letter from 
his Excellency Gen'l Jones in answer to one Subscribed 
by this Corporation at their last Meeting, {it) was ordered 
to be enterea on the Minutes, and is in the words 
following : 

New York, June 25th, 1779. 
Gentlemen : 

I have laid the Letter you favored me with before the Comman- 
der in Chief, and I have the Pleasure to acquaint you that his Excel- 
lency approves of the Gentlemen of the Chamber of Commerce re- 
newing their Meetings as formerly. I was happy to hear of this Insti- 
tution and regret only that I have not had the benefit of your assist- 
ance sooner to procure to New York every advantage our present 
situation would admit of, which I have always had much at Heart. 
You may therefore Gentlemen be assured every Proposal coming 
from you, for the good of the City, shall meet with my hearty concur- 
rence and assistance, and when I Quit my present Command I shall 
recommend to my Successor the usefuU assistance that I think may be 
drawn from your Institution. 

I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, 

Your most Obedient and Humble Servant, 

D. Jones, Lt. Gen'l. Commandant 
The Gentlemen of the 

Chamber of Commerce, New York. 



2o6 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Committee to hear and determine disputes until the 
first Tuesday in August. 

Hugh Wallace, William Stepple, 

Thomas Buchanan, Richard Yates, 

Gab'l H. Ludlow, Gerrard Walton, 

Augustus Van Home. 

The following Gentlemen were balloted for, and chosen 
members of this Chamber : 

Fred Rhinelander, John Thurman, 

Jacob Watson, John Miller, 

Nich's Hoffman, Smith Ramadge, 

Neil Jameson. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Monday, 12th July, 1779. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 

Wm. McAdam, Vice President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Hugh Wallace, Isaac Corsa, 

Thomas Buchanan, William Seton, 

Thomas Miller, William Laight, 

Alex'r Wallace, Law. Kortright, 

Gerrard Walton, Gab. H. Ludlow, 

Jacob Watson, Smith Ramadge, 

William Walton, Robt R. Waddell, 

Robt. Murray, John Miller, 

Edward Laight, Fred Rhinelander, 

Will'm Stepple. 

At the request of the Superintendent General, by his 
Letter, a Special Meeting of the Chamber was called by 
desire of the Commandant, and Mr. Elliot ee laid before 
the Corporation the following Letter : 

Major General Pattison ff desires that the Committee of the 
Chamber of Commerce will meet on Monday next, to consider on the 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 207 

most effectual means to be used for the better Cleansing the City, and 
for the raising a necessary Fund for defraying the Expence thereof, as 
likewise to propose such Fines and Penaltys as may be thought suffi- 
cient to prevent the Inhabitants from throwing the Filth and Rubbish 
from tlieir Hous^ into the Streets, and to oblige them to convey it to 
certain Places that may be assigned in each Ward for depositing it, 
and from thence to be regularly taken away at stated times by 
Scavengers to be employed for that Purpose. Hospitals, Barracks, 
and all Public Buildings to be comprehended in whatever regulations 
may be propos'd for carrying into execution this very necessary and 
salutary Plan. The Commandant likewise wishes to know the opinion 
of the Chamber of Commerce respecting the expediency of regulating 
the markets with regard to the Prices to be paid for Butchers'meat ; '^^ 
and further, to prevent the danger of Fire, to which the City is now 
exposed from the Quantities of Naval Stores that are dispers'd through 
the Town. The General, before he gives any order on this important 
point, requests to know what Plan the Merchants would wish to pro- 
pose, that might Combine the safety of the Public together with the 
Conveniencys of Trade. 

New York, loth July, 1779. 

Andrew Elliot, Superintendent, &c., &c., &c. 

Whereupon the following Gentlemen were appointed 
a Committee to take the said Letter into consideration, 
and to report to this Chamber thereon against Monday 
Evening next at six o'clock : William Walton, Jacob 
Watson, William Laight, Lawrence Kortright, Isaac 
Corsa, Isaac Low, John Thurman, William Stepple, 
Benjamin Booth, Nicholas Hoffman, John Miller, Fred'ck 
Rhinelander, Augustus Van Home. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Monday, 19th July, 1779. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



208 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Jacob Watson, Richard Yates, 

Isaac Corsa, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Alexander Wallace, John Thurman, 

Robert Murray, Lawrence Kortright, 

John Moore, William Stepple, 

Smith Ramadge, John Miller, 

Gerrard Walton, Fred'ck Rhinelander, 

Edward Laight, Nicholas Hoffman, 

Hugh Wallace, William Laight, 
Augustus Van Home. 

In pursuance of the order of this Corporation, the 
Committee laid before them their report in the words 
following : 

The Committee of the Chamber of Commerce, to whom is referred 
Major General Pattison's Recommendations to lay before him a Plan for 
the better cleansing the Streets in this City, &c.. Beg leave to observe, 

That as the want of proper regulations for that Purpose has been long 
complained of by everybody ; they are the more happy to find that the 
Commandant regards it as an object of his earliest attention ; and is so 
ready to give the sanction of his authority effectually to remedy so crying 
an Evil, — and although this business does not come within the proper 
Sphere of the Chamber of Commerce, as not appertaining to Trade, they 
very cheerfully accept the Task, and shall be very happy if they can furnish 
any Hints that may be honored with the Commandant's approbation. 

But we presume it is not so necessary to devise a new Plan, as to revise 
that which was formerly in Practice. This City was once as remarkable for 
its cleanliness as it is now for the contrary. 

If, therefore, the same Regulations are adopted which experience mani- 
fested to be so Salutary and Proper, we conceive they will be more likely to 
produce the same good Effects, than any other we might be able to suggest 
for that Purpose. 

The old Corporation ordinances,'''^ matured after various amendments by 
Time and Reflection, contain excellent Regulations for Cleaning and Pav- 
ing the Streets, and also provide amply against Storing Naval Stores within 
the confines of the City, and as the Police ™ are possessed of these Ordinan- 
ces, and the inhabitants probably attached to old Customs, we beg leave to 
recommend an adoption of them, not only with regard to the above Particu- 
lars, but in all other respects where they may be found useful!. And if 
Hospitals,'" Barracks, and all other Public Buildings are (as the Commandant 
generously promises) " to be comprehended in the regulations for carrying 
into execution this Very necessary and Salutary Plan," we conceive every 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



209 



difficulty will be entirely removed. Very different has been the former 
usage relative to these Public Buildings, for notwithstanding repeated repre- 
sentations, it seemed to be the opinion that nothing further was necessary 
than to throw the Straw and Dirt into the middle of the Streets and 
leave it to the Inhabitants and Scavengers to remove in any way they 
pleased. Experience has abundantly evinced that to have all the Dirt and 
Rubbish removed by Scavengers at the Public expence, exceeds almost all 
computation ; and it will be difficult to devise funds adequate to the Pur- 
pose, amidst the necessity there is for large expenditures for the use of the 
Poor, and other indispensable Occasions. Scavengers may nevertheless be 
found very useful!, and a Plan was once handed to the Superintendent and 
some Progress made therein, of advertising for and employing Scavengers 
under the immunity of an exclusive right to take the Dirt and Rubbish out 
of the Streets for their own use. To this it was objected by some Person in 
Power, ^'^^ "that it would interfere with thecommon right of Mankind, because 
every Person who pleased had a right to take Dirt out of the Streets.^'' 
An Hypothesis in our Idea founded neither in Reason or Fact ; and we still 
think the Mode proposed would be the cheapest and best, of employing 
Scavingers. 

With regard to regulating the Price of Butchers meat, Experience justi- 
fies our apprehensions that the remedy may prove worse than the Disease. 
But we are of opinion that limiting the Time of Butchers, Greenwomen, '^' 
or Hucksters, being in the Market, may be attended with very good effects. 
We therefore beg leave to recommend that no Butchers, Greenwomen, 
Poulterers, Sellers of Vegetables, or any Hucksters, to be in the Market 
(Saturday afternoons excepted) after 10 o'clock in the morning, from the' 
Month of April to October ; and not after 1 1 o'clock the remaining Part of 
the Year. And that no fresh Provisions (Fish excepted), Vegetables or 
Poultry, should be suffered to be put into Stores or Cellars, on Penalty of 
being forfeited for the use of the Alms House. '^° 

We beg leave to recommend to your Consideration, whether it is not ex- 
pedient to lower the Prices of Cartmen,^" which are certainly much higher 
than they ought to be, as an industrious Cartman may, as they now Stand, 
earn from 40s to loos p. day.'^^ These high wages have rendered them so 
very nice and Choice, about what and for whom they will Cart ; that it is 
highly expedient the Police should revise the old Laws '" respecting Cart- 
men, and confine them more strictly to their Duty. 

We are of opinion that if the Wages of Cartmen were reduced one third 
from their Present prices they would stiU be amply sufficient. 

Ordered — That a fair Copy be made of the above 
Report, and delivered to the Commandant by the Pres- 
ident. 

14 



2IO NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d August, 1779. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

William McAdam, Vice President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

William Stepple, Alexa. Wallace, 

William Seton, Robert R. Waddel, 

Thomas Miller, Fred. Rhinelander, 

Nicholas Hoffman, John Moore, 

Gerrard Walton, Edward Laight, 

Robert Murray, Hugh Wallace, 

John Thurman, Benj. Booth, 

William Laight, George Ludlow, 

William Walton, Jacob Watson, 

John Miller, Isaac Corsa, 

Smith Ramadge, Gabriel H. Ludlow. 

A Letter from Mr. Elliot, signifying the Command- 
ant's desire that the Chamber would furnish a Table of 
Rates for Cartmen's Wages, being read in the words fol- 
lowing : 

New York, 3d August, 1779. 
Gentlemen : 

I am directed by the Commandant to request you to lay 
before him a Table of such Rates as you think ought to be allowed to 
Cartmen in this City. 

Those now estabhshed were fixt by the Gentlemen of the Old In- 
surance Office,'^ at a time when Provision was higher, but Forage 
lower than at present. 

I have the honor to be. Gentlemen, 

Your very obedt. hble. servt., 

Andrew Elliot, Supert. Genl. 

The Gentlemen of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Ordered — That the following Persons be a Commit- 
tee for that Purpose, and that they report a Table of 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



211 



the said Rates to Mr. Elliot, with all convenient speed : 
William McAdam, John Miller, Benjam. Booth, Fred 
Rhinelander, Edward Laight, Alexander Wallace, Smith 
Ramadge. 

The said Committee are appointed untill the first Tues- 
day in September, to hear and determine disputes between 
parties who are willing to submit the same to this Cor- 
poration. 

Mr. Booth having presented proposals of the Rate of 
Storing Gun-Powder afloat : '" 

Ordered — That the Monthly Committee do take into 
consideration Mr. Booth's proposals about Powder, and 
report to this Corporation the best and cheapest rates of 
storing Gun Powder, and the most proper places for that 
Purpose. 

Several Gentlemen having been proposed to become 
Members of this Corporation, the following were bal- 
lotted for and duly elected. 



' Samuel Donaldson, 
William Kenyon, 
William Backhouse, 
Patrick McDavitt, 
Daniel McCormick, 
Walter Spens, 
Henry Thompson, 
John Murray, 
Charles NicoU, 



John Taylor, 
Thomas C. Williams, 
Thomas Goodwin, 
Harding Burnley, 
John L. McAdam, 
Oliver Templeton, 
John Oothout, 
John Tench, 
Edward Goold, 



William Ustick. 



Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to the res- 
pective Gentlemen in writing, that they are duly elected 
Members of this Corporation. 

Resolved and Ordered — That the Fines for non-at- 
tendance at any Meetings of the Chamber be strictly 
levied, agreeable to the standing rules thereof. 



212 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th Sept., 1779. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

William McAdam, Vice President. 

Anth. Van Dam, Secretary. 
Robert Murray, John Murray, 

Edward Goold, John Miller, 

Edward Laight, John Tench, 

William Kenyon, William Stepple, 

Jacob Watson, John Oothout, 

Isaac Corsa, Benjm. Booth, 

Willm. Backhouse, WiUiam Seton, 

Smith Ramadge, John Moore, 

Patrick McDavitt, Daniel McCormick, 

William Ustick, William Laight, 

Thos. C. Williams, Oliver Templeton, 

Samuel Donaldson, Robert R. Waddell, 

Alex. Wallace. 

Mr. Booth having made further proposals to the 
Chamber, respecting the Storage of Gun Powder : 

Ordered — That it be referred to the Committee of last 
month, and that Mr. John Moore be added thereto. 

This Corporation having occupied the Long Room 
of the CoFFY-HousE : 

It is proposed that Mrs. Smith'''^ be paid at the Rate of 
Fifty Pounds per annum, commencing the ist May last, 
the Chamber finding Firewood and Candles, and that 
John Norris,gg Doorkeeper and Messenger, do furnish 
the same. 

It is proposed that there be allowed and paid to John 
Norris, Door Keeper and Messenger, the sum of Forty 
pounds per annum, comme*ncing the first day of May 
last. 

It is proposed that Thomas Petit, the former Door 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 2I3 

Keeper be paid his accustomed salary to the first day of 
May, 1775. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Robert R. Waddel, Lawrence 
Kortrightj Jacob Watson, Richard Sharpe, Nicholas 
HoiFman, Samuel Kemble, and William Kenyon, be a 
Committee, untill the first Tuesday in October next, to 
hear and determine disputes between Parties who shall 
agree to abide their determination. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, sth October, 1779. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

(■ Vice Presidents. 

Secretary. 
Lawrence Kortright, John Murray, 

William Laight, Jacob Watson, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Isaac Low, Benj. Booth, 

Fred. Rhinelander, Nicholas Hoffman, 

John Tench, Thomas C. Williams, 

William Stepple, Patrick McDavitt, 

William Kenyon, Smith Ramadge, 

William Backhouse, Robert R. Waddell, 

John Thurman, John Moore, 

John Oothout, Danl. McCormick, 

Alex. Wallace, Oliver Templeton. 

Resolved — That in consequence of the proposal of 
last Meeting to pay Mrs. Smith rent for the Long Room 
of the CofFy-House, that she be paid at the rate of £50 
per annum, to commence the ist May last, by the Treas- 
urer for the time being, in quarterly or half year pay- 
ments. 



214 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Resolved — That the Treasurer, for the time being, do 
also pay unto John Norris, Door Keeper and Messen- 
ger, a salary of Forty pounds per annum, commencing 
the first day of May last, and 

Resolved — That the Treasurer for the time being do 
pay to Thomas Petit, the former Doorkeeper, his salary 
for one year ending the first day of May, 1775, the sum 
of £15. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Backhouse, Charles 
Nicoll, John Murray, Samuel Donaldson, John L. 
McAdam, Patrick McDavitt, and Oliver Templeton, 
be a Committee, untill the first Tuesday in November 
next, to hear and determine Disputes between parties 
that shall submit the same to their decision. 

A Petition signed John Van Vart, Henry Shier, and 
John Machet in behalf of themselves and others, the Cart- 
men of the City of New York, requesting that the Cham- 
ber would revise the rates as lately affixed by the office of 
Police, and (attending to the difference of labor. Provis- 
ions, Provender, &c.,) make such an alteration as the 
Wisdom and Justice of the Chamber shall think meet, 
which being considered, it was 

Resolved — That it be recommended.that the following 
Rates be affixed : 

For every common Load, &c., - - 2s 6d. 
Load of Hay, _ _ _ g 

Rum, Wine, Moll's, Sugar, - 4 6 

and that the different Articles be taken out and housed, 
as was formerly accustomed. 

Ordered — That the Committee of the month consider 
and report their opinion, the Price of Labor now de- 
manded by Artificers,'" &c. at the next meeting. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 215 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Friday, 12th October, 1779. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Edward Laight, John Tench, 

William Laight, Fred Rhinelander. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

William Kenyon, Robert R. Waddell, 

Robert Murray, Alex'r Wallace, 

Thos. Buchanan, John Moore, 

Will'm Backhouse, Isaac Low, 

John Oothout, Dan'l McCormick, 

Saml. Donaldson, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Walter Spens, Patrick M'Davitt, 

Thomas Goodwin, Lawrence Kortright, 

John Murray, Thomas C. WiUiaras, 

Will'm Stepple, Edward Goold, 

Jacob Watson, Oliver Templeton, 

Gerrard Walton, Smith Ramadge, 
William Pagan. 

The Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce being convened this 
Even'g for the express purpose of reconsidering a report of the Monthly 
Committee relative to a disputed account between Messrs. Ward b' Silk- 
rig, James Selkrig b^ Co., &^ Alexander Selkrig, with David Black, in con 
sequence of a Memorial of the said David Black to the Police and to the 
Commandant complaining of 111 language. Injustice, and great partiality 
of the Monthly Committee to whom the said controversies were referred. 
The Chamber report that they have carefully examined and attended to the 
several allegations of the Complainant. That it appears to the Chamber their 
Committee were at great pains to investigate the Truth. That the injurious 
reflections c^st on them, and particularly on Mr. Waddle, were without the 
least foundation ; and that Mr. Black's objections to the determination of 
the Committee appear from a number of concurring circumstances calcu- 
lated rather to evade the payment of a just debt by mere Subterfuges than to 
shew any solid reason for his refusal. The Chamber, therefore, cannot 
but confirm the opinion of their Committee without the least deviation or 
exception whatever. 



2l6 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d November, 1779. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Gerrard Walton, Oliver Templeton, 

William Laight, Wniiam Ustick, 

John Tench, John Moore, 

WiUiam Kenyon, Charles NicoU, 

William Backhouse, Patrick McDavitt, 

Frederick Rhinelander, John Oothout, 

Daniel McCormick, WiU'm Stepple, 

Jacob Watson, Saral. Donaldson, 

Smith Ramadge, Alex. Wallace, 

John Murray, Benj'm Booth, 

Isaac Corsa, John L. McAdam, 

Robert Murray, Thomas Goodwin, 

Robert R. Waddell, John Miller. 

The Chamber having had the terms laid before them 
by Mr. Booth for storing Gunpowder at different meet- 
ings on board a Vessel fitted for that purpose, received 
the following 

Rates : 

Every Quarter Cask of Gun-powder received on board the Powder Vessel 
to pay — three shillings. 

Every such Quarter Cask delivered out of the Vessel, provided it has 
been on board no longer [i/ian] three months — three shillings. 

Every such Quarter Cask remaining on board longer than three Months 
to pay at the rate of three pence p. month afterwards over and above the 
rates above-mentioned. 

By a Quarter Cask is meant the fourth part of one hundred pound weight 
of Gun-powder. AU other packages to pay in proportion. 

But since the Chamber of Commerce approved of the 
foregoing rules, Mr. Booth has made a new calculation, 
and is happy to find that he shall be able to lessen the last 
charge of three Shillings, payable on delivery, to Eighteen 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 217 

Pence, at which rate the Storage of loo fts. for the first 
three months will be only i8s, and the accounts will be 
made out accordingly. 

The above rates for Storing Gunpowder on board a 
Ship is approved of by this Corporation. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Oothout, John Taylor, 
Thos. C. Williams, John Tench, Walter Spens, Thos. 
Goodwin, Edward Goold, be a Committee, untill the first 
Tuesday in December next, to hear and determine dis- 
putes between parties who shall leave such to this Cham- 
ber, and that they do make report thereof to this Cor- 
poration. 

The following Gentlemen having been propos'd at a 
former meeting to become members of this Corporation, 
were balloted for, and duly elected : 

William Pagan, Andrew Kerr. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send notice to them in 
Writing, that they are duly elected Members of this 
Corporation. 

It is Proposed and Ordered — That as Mr. William 
McAdam is dead, and Mr. John Alsop is absent,''^ who 
were Vice Presidents of this Corporation — that two others 
be balloted for at the next Monthly Meeting agreeable 
to the Charter. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th Dec, 1779. 
Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Murray, William Ustick, 

Isaac Corsa, Robert Murray, 

William Kenyon, Alex. Wallace, 

Richard Yates. 



2l8 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

William Stepple, William Laight, 

Oliver Templeton, Patrick McDavitt, 

Daniel McCormick, Edward Goold, 

John Tench, Hugh Wallace, 

Andrew Kerr, Robert R. Waddell, 

John Oothout, Fred. Rhinelander, 

William Pagan, Thomas Goodwin, 

Walter Spens, John Moore, 

John Miller, Thomas C. Williams, 

John L. McAdam, Smith Ramadge, 
Thomas Buchanan. 

It having been represented that the Powder-Ship 
will not be safe during the Winter at her present moor- 
ings. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Miller, Will'm Laight, 
and Will'm Ustick, be a Committee to enquire a proper 
situation for the security of the Powder-Ship during the 
Winter, and that the Proprietor be desired to have Her 
removed at a convenient time to such as they shall Judge 
most safe. 

The Corporation proceeded, in consequence of the 
resolve of last Meeting, to the election of two Vice 
Presidents in the place of William McAdam, deceased, 
and John Alsop, absent, when 

The Hon'ble Hugh Wallace, 

Mr. Thomas Buchanan, 
were duly elected to serve to the first Tuesday in May 
next, and untill others were chosen, who were sworn 
accordingly to perform the trust reposed in them agree- 
able lo Charter, and took their Seats accordingly. 

Messrs. William Lowther and Henry Brevoort, being 
proposed at a former Meeting, were balloted for and duly 
elected Members of this Corporation. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 2I9 

Ordered — That Notice be sent them by the Secretary 
in writing that they were duly elected. 

John Murray moves that the dispute between Henry 
White, Esqr., and Donaldson ^ White, determined by a 
Committee of this Chamber, be heard by the Chamber 
of Commerce at large, for to be approved or disapproved 
by this Corporation. 

John Oothout moves that this Corporation direct 
any future Committee to keep a Book in which they shall 
enter every opinion given on any disputed matter referred 
to them by the Commandant, the Police, or mutual 
references of Individuals, and that the said Book of 
proceedings be brought into the Chamber at every 
monthly meeting for their inspection, and delivered to 
the succeeding Committee. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Robert Murray, William 
Walton, Daniel McCormick, William Ustick, William 
Pagan, Andrew Kerr, and Augustus Van Home, be a 
Committee untill the first Tuesday in January next, to 
hear and determine disputes between parties, who shall 
agree to leave such to this Corporation, and that they do 
report the same in writing at their next meeting, 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th January, 1780. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Richard Yates, Jacob Watson, 

Edward Laight, Daniel McCormick, 

William Laight, Fred. Rhinelander, 

John Miller, Thos. C. Williams, 

Andrew Kerr, Gerrard Walton, 

Oliver Templeton, William Backhouse, 

John Murray, Robert Murray. 



220 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Isaac Low, Samuel Donaldson, 

William Kenyon, Alexan. Wallace, 

William Ustick, Augustus Van Home, 

Anthony Van Dam, William Pagan, 

John Moore, William Lowther. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Moore, Robert R. Wad- 
del, Lawrence Kortright, Robert Watts, Gerrard Walton, 
William Lowther, and Henry Brevoort, be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in February next, to hear and 
determine disputes between Parties that shall submit the 
same to this Corporation, and that they report their pro- 
ceedings to this Chamber. 

A Memorial of Messrs. Shedden & Goodrich of the 
said City, Merchants, requesting the Chamber to recon- 
sider a disputed account between them and Capt. McDon- 
ald being read, the Chamber accordingly revised and care- 
fully investigated the proceedings of the Committee; see 
no reason to differ with them in opinion, and therefore 
confirm it in all respects. 

An Application of Issacher Polock to have a rehear- 
ing on a dispute settled by the last month's Committee 
between Barrack Hays and said Issacher Polock ; the latter 
appealing to the Chamber at large, asserting that he had 
more evidence in support of his claim, and several wit- 
nesses, being duly sworn before the Police, to give in 
their evidence, all which being duly attended to : The 
Chamber at large nevertheless confirm the determination 
of the Committee, that is to say 

That it is the opinion of the Committee of the Chamber of Commerce 
that Mr. Issacher Polock do pay unto Mr. Barrack Hays one hundred and 
fifty pounds Currency in fuU for his half commissions, the matter of dispute 
between them. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 221 

Ordered — That Mr. John Murray's motion be con- 
sidered at a future Meeting. 

Ordered — That Mr. John Oothout's motion be con- 
sidered at next Meeting. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist February, 1780. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
.William Laight, Alexr. Wallace, 

Edward Laight, Henry Brevoort, 

Robert R. Waddell. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Frederick Rhinelander, William Stepple, 

William Backhouse, WiUiam Lowther, 

William Walton, Thomas C. Williams, 

Walter Spans, Smith Ramadge, 

Charles Nicoll, Andrew Kerr, 

Jacob Watson, John Oothout, 

Thomas Buchanan, Daniel McCormick, 

Gerrard Walton, William Ustick, 

Augus. Van Home, John Thurman, 

William Seton, Patrick McDavitt, 

William Kenyon, John Moore, 

Robert Murray, William Pagan, 
John Miller. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Robert Watts, Richard Yates, 
Alexander Wallace, Gabriel H. Ludlow, Thomas Bu- 
chanan, Jacob Watson, and William Seton, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in March next to hear and 
determine disputes between parties that shall submit the 
same to this Corporation, and that they report their pro- 
ceedings to this Chamber. 



222 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Mr. John Moore proposed that as the Primage of 
Goods brought into this port, where primage is not spe- 
cified in the Bill of Lading, is at present in a state of un- 
certainty, some paying 5 per cent, and others refusing to 
pay anything, that this Corporation, if agreeable to them, 
will take the same into their Consideration, and allot such 
primage as to them shall seem meet. 

Mr. David Seabury having been proposed at a former 
meeting, was ballotted for and duly elected a member of 
this Corporation. 

Ordered — That notice be sent to him by the Secretary, 
in writing, that he was duly elected a Member of this 
Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, isth February, 1780. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Presidt. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Robert Murray, William Lowther, 

Will'm Kenyon, Andrew Kerr, 

John Miller, Alex'r Wallace, 

William Stepple, Will'm Laight. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Patrick McDavitt, Robert Watts, 

David Seabury, Thomas C. Williams, 

Daniel McCormick, Thomas Buchanan, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, William Backhouse, 

Richard Yates, William Pagan, 

Augustus Van Home, Oliver Templeton, 

Jacob Watson, Charles Nicoll, 

William Seton, Samuel Donaldson, 

Frederic Rhinelander, Robert R. Waddell. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 223 

This Special Meeting having been called to take 
into consideration a Letter from the Police relative to a 
petition of -Mr. William Tongue, who had been deprived 
of His License as a Vendue Master, for refusing to com- 
ply with the determination of the Committee of this Cor- 
poration in paying for a Vessel sold by him for Mr. Lee, 
and the Police refusing to restore to the said William 
Tongue his License as a Vendue Master,"' unless he be re- 
commended for that Purpose by this Chamber — They are 
of opinion, that there was great propriety in the punish- 
ment inflicted on Mr. Tongue for not fulfilling his duty as 
a Vendue Master, yet, having at length complied with 
what was requested of Him, they have no objection to 
Mr. Tongue s being restored to his former Employment. 

A Petition from the Bakers, setting forth that the 
price of Flour being advanced beyond the assized price of 
Bread, and that therefore they cannot afford to carry on 
their Business. 

Ordered — That the President inform the Police, that 
on the most minute enquiry, the Chamber are of opinion 
that Good Flour cannot now be purchased under Three 
Pounds p. Hundred "Weight. 

A Dispute having arisen between Mr. William Pagan 
and Mr. Robert Dale., joint owners in a Privateer, what 
Commissions, or if any, ought to be allowed on the men's 
shares to the acting owner, for transacting the Business, 
where no previous agreement is made between the owners 
themselves, and the Question being put after debate there- 
on, in the words following, viz. : 

Whether the Commission charged by Mr. Pagan on 
the Crew's Shares, shall be divided between the Owners, 
or wholly retained by Mr. Pagan, he having paid the said 
crew. 



224 N^'^ YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Resolved in the affirmative, by a majority of the Cham- 
ber — That Mr. Pagan retain the whole of the said Com- 
missions of 5 p. ct. on the Crew's share. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th March, 1780. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thos. Buchanan, Vice-President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Fred. Rhinelander, Oliver Templeton, 

William Laight, Gerard Walton, 

Robert Murray, William Lowther, 

Gab'l H. Ludlow, Alex'r Wallace, 

William Kenyon, WiUiam Backhouse, 

Edward Laight. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Samuel Donaldson, John Moore, 

John Miller, Robert R. Waddle, 

Thomas C. Williams, David Seabury, 

Smith Ramadge, Rich'd Yates, 

Daniel McCormick, Tho's Buchanan, 

Patrick McDavitt, Charles Nicoll. 

A representation by Mr. Miller and Agent Wal- 
ter, ^^ of the Insecurity of the Powder-Ship, the fol- 
lowing Gentlemen were appointed a Committee to confer 
with proper Judges the propriety of fixing a Conductor 
to secure her against lightning, '■*° and a practical mode of 
receiving and delivering Powder ; John Moore, Samuel 
Donaldson, Smith Ramadge, Gerrard Walton, John 
Miller, who are to report at their next meeting. 

Ordered — That the Thanks of this Corporation be 
given to Lieut. Walter for his great attention and care of 
the Powder-Ship in the Walloon Bay'*' during the Winter. 



register of proceedings. 225 

Sir :— 

I have the Pleasure to inclose you an order of the Chamber of 
Commerce in Testimony of the high sense they entertain of your Services 
in preserving the Powder-Ship, and I have the honor to remain, Sir, your 
most obt. Hbl. Servant, Isaac Low, Presidt. 

Chamber of Commerce. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Fred. Rhinelander, John 
Miller, Smith Ramadge, Will'm Laight, Will'm Ken- 
yon, Rich'd Sharpe, Nich's Hoffman, be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in April next, to hear and deter- 
mine disputes between parties, that shall submit the same 
to this Corporation, and that they report their proceedings 
to this Chamber. 

The Committee of the month are ordered to report 
the Primage due where no bargain hath been made. 

Mr. Richard Smith, having been proposed at a former 
Meeting, was balloted for and duly elected a Member of 
this Corporation. 

Ordered — That notice be sent to him by the Secretary 
in writing that he was duly elected. 

Ordered — That Mr. President represent to the Com- 
mandant & Police regulations respecting bread, which 
was drawn up as follows : — 

The various artifices practiced by the Bakers to take undue advantages 
of the community, are too palpable and notorious to require illustration, 
and call loudly for redress. 

The Chamber of Commerce, therefore, whom the police have honored 
constantly to consult on such occasions, having discussed this subject at 
large at their last monthly meeting, think it incumbent on them to propose 
for the consideration of the Pohce the following regulations as most likely 
to remedy the impositions daily practiced by the Bakers, finding on enquir- 
ing that the Best Flour can now be purchased from 50s to 52 p. cwt., and 
that Flour at Vendue does not exceed 40s p. cwt. 

They are of opinion there might also to be two sorts of bread ; and that 
the former regulations (now totally neglected) of stamping the initial Let- 
ters of the Bakers names on all their Bread, should be revised and Strictly 
enforced under certain penalties, if omitted. 
15 



226 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

That Bread of the finest and best Flour should be baked into long 
loaves of two Pounds weight, for Fourteen Coppers."* 

That all other Flour of inferior quality, or that is in the least degree 
Musty or Sour should (by way of distinction) be baked up into round 
loaves of Two and a half Pounds weight, and sold at the same price of the 
Long Loaves. 

That any Baker presuming to bake other than the best Flour into 
Long instead of Round Loaves, or of less weight than is mentioned, 
should forfeit all the Bread so manufactured for the use of the Alms 
House. 

And that the Bakers may be strictly watched and kept to their duty, a 
public Inspector'** of judgement and reputation should be appointed to vissit 
their Bake Houses at discretion to see that their Bread is made in the man- 
ner above directed, and in case any inhabitants are served with Bread defi- 
cient in any of the particulars before mentioned, it shall be expected as a 
duty they owe to the community that they immediately send such bread to 
thelnspector who should be authorized and required to levy from the Bakers 
a fine of for every loaf of such Bread. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th April, 1780. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Richard Sharpe, William Lowther, 

WilUam Stepple, William Backhouse, 

Gerrard Walton, Robert R. Waddel, 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Daniel McCormick, Alexander Wallace, 

Robert Murray, David Seabury, 

William Ustick, John Moore, 

John MiUer, William Donaldson, 

Patrick McDavitt, John Oothout, 

William Pagan, John Thurman, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Frederick Rhinelander, 

Oliver Templeton, William Laight. 

Disputes daily arise with respect to Freights and 
other contracts made abroad for Sterling money. 

Resolved — That all contracts for Sterling money 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 227 

payable in New York, are to be paid in Dollars at Four 
Shillings and Six Pence, Guineas at Twenty-one Shillings 
and Half Johannes at Thirty-six Shillings Sterling, un- 
less otherwise expressed.'"** 

The Magistrates of Police have thought proper 
to mention several abuses in the sale of Butter, Tallow, 
Candles, Soap and other articles. 

It is the opinion of the Corporation that all such 
articles shall be weighed at the Time of sale and sold by 
the pound, and not by invoice as hath been scandalously 
practised by some. 

They have also represented that many daring cheats 
and abuses, respecting the sale of Beef and Pork have 
been practised of late. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Moore, William Pagan, 
Samuel Donaldson, Robert R. Waddel, John Miller, and 
Daniel McCormick, be a Committee and report to the 
President, the most probable means to prevent the like 
practices as early as possible that he may communicate 
the same to the Magistrates of Police. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Hugh Wallace, William 
Stepple, William Backhouse, Charles NicoU, John Mur- 
ray, Samuel Donaldson, John L. McAdam, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in May next, to hear and 
determine disputes between parties submitting such to 
their determination, and that they report their proceed- 
ings to the Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d May, 1780. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Hugh Wallace, | vice-Presidents. 
Thomas Buchanan, ) 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



228 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Wmiam Stepple, John Murray, 

Robert Murray, Richard Sharpe, 

William Lowther, William Laight, 

Augustus Van Home, David Seabury. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Robert R. Waddel, Patrick McDavitt, 

William Ustick, Samuel Donaldson, 

Gerrard Walton, Smith Ramadge, 

Jacob Watson, Richard Smith, 

William Pagan, Isaac Low, 

Thomas Buchanan, Henry Brevoort, 

Alexander Wallace, Richard Yates, 

Daniel McCormick, Hugh Wallace, 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, OHver Templeton, 

Edward Laight, Will'm Kenyon, 

William Seton, Thomas C. WilUams, 

John MiUer, John Thurman. 

The Royal Charter, as well as the Laws of this 
Corporation, appoints this Day for the Election of officers 
for the ensuing Year, when the following Gentlemen were 
balloted for, and duly elected : 

Isaac Low, President. 

Hugh Wallace, ] ^^. _, . , 

~ „ r Vice- Presidents. 

i homas Jduchanan, J 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

And they being all present, were duly sworn agree- 
able to the Charter to execute their respective offices. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Smith Ramadge, John Thur- 
man, Oliver Templeton, Alexander Wallace, and John 
Miller, be a Committee to Audit Mr. Charles McEvers, 
late Treasurer's accounts, from the last Audit to this day, 
and report in writing ; and that the late Treasurer do pay 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



229 



any balance to Mr, Robert R. Waddel, the Treasurer 
elect. 

John Norris, the former Doorkeeper, dyed lately, and 
Richard Harris" was chosen to succeed him, who is to be 
paid the like Salary in quarterly payments of forty Pounds 
p. annum. 

A Letter from the Superintendent,'*' enclosing one '** 
from his Excell'y General Robertson, JJ relative to 
the encouragement thought necessary to be given to 
Privateers "^^ and other mercantile concerns, was laid before 
the Chamber. 

Ordered — That Messrs. HughWallace, Henry White, 
Thomas Buchanan, Samuel Donaldson, Gerrard Walton, 
and William Seton, be a Committee to draw up answers 
to the above Letters, expressive of the approbation and 
Thanks of this Chamber for the regard manifested by the 
said Letter to the mercantile Interest of this City, and 
that the Chamber meet at six o'clock on Tuesday next 
that the said Letters may be laid before them for their 
approbation. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Oothout, Thomas C. 
Williams, Walter Spens, Patrick McDavitt, Oliver 
Templeton, Richard Smith, and David Seabury, be a 
Committee, untill the first Tuesday in June next, to hear 
and Determine disputes between parties submitting such 
to their determination, and that they report their proceed- 
ings to the Corporation. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 9th May, 1780. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 
Present. 

HughWallace, I Vice-Presidents. 
Thomas Buchanan, ) 
Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



230 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Will'm Laight, Edward Laight, 

Will'm Backhouse. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Murray, Richard Yates, 

Daniel McCormick, Thos. C. Williams, 

William Seton, Patrick McDavitt, 

William Lowther, Gerrard Walton, 

David Seabury, John Miller, 

John Oothout, Smith Ramage, 

Charles Nicoll, Richard Smith, 

Oliver Templeton, Fred. Rhinelander, 

John McAdam, Andrew Kerr, 

William Pagan, Hugh Wallace, 

Jacob Watson, Thomas Buchanan. 



The Committee appointed at last Meeting to draw 
up answers to his Excellency General Robertson and 
the Superintendant Generals Letters laid before them, re- 
port the following Drafts.'*^ 

To HIS Excellency James Robertson, Esq., Captain General and Gov- 
ernor in Chief of the Province of New York and Territories thereon 
depending in America, Vice-Admiral of the same, and Major-General of 
his Majesty's Forces. 

New York, 2d May, 1780. 
Sir, 

It is with great Pleasure we avail ourselves of this first General Meet- 
ing of the Chamber of Commerce since your Excellency's Arrival to con- 
gratulate you on this Event, and with unfeigned Sincerity to assure you that 
it gives us the highest Satisfaction to find our gracious Sovereign has been 
pleased to intrust the Re-establishing and securing the Happiness of this 
Province to your Excellency, who we know to be not only perfectly well 
acquainted with its real Interests, but capable and desirous of promoting 
them. 

The recent Instance your Excellency has given of your Attention to our 
mercantile Interest, not only calls for our immediate Acknowlegements, 
but convinces us how firmly we may rely on your Support 

Both Duty and Inchnation will therefore strongly excite our Endeavours 
to promote your Excellency's Happiness ; nor shall we esteem any Means 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 2^1 

SO effectual as by cheerfully contributing our Assistance to every Measure 
that may be adopted for the public good. 

We have the Honour to be Your Excellency's 

Most obedient humble Servants. 

Isaac Low, President. 
By order of the Chamber of Commerce. 

His Excellency's Answer : 

Gentlemen : 

I am much obliged by a Mark of Esteem from the Chamber 
of Commerce, whose Opinions have ever been received with Respect, 
and followed with Advantage. Duty and Inclination make me wish 
Trade to flourish : a Return of this will bring with it a Return of Hap- 
piness to the Province. Commerce, which enlarges the Mind and de- 
stroys Prejudices, is ever favourable to Freedom, and will not only shew, 
but make the People feel, the Blessings of his Majesty's Government, so 
that a Truth well known in Britain will be acknowledged all over 
America, that the importance and prosperity of both countries depend 
upon their Union. 

Respect for the Body of Merchants will not only make me attentive 
to their Advice, but receive it with Gratitude, as their Lights will pre- 
vent me from mistaking the true Interests of Trade. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6 June, 1780. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, 

Hugh Wallace, 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

WUliam Stepple, William Lowther, 

Edward Laight, Andrew Kerr, 

David Seabury, Alex. Wallace, 

WOliam Laight, Patrick McDavitt, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow. 



Vice-Presidents. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

JohnOathout, Thomas Buchanan, 

John Moore, Oliver Templeton, 

Will'm Ustick, Gerrard Walton, 



232 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Augustus Van Home, Smith Ramadge, 

Richard Sharpe, Hugh Wallace, 

William Pagan, John Murray, 

Lawrence Kortright, Richard Smith, 

Jacob Watson, Isaac Low, 

Fred. Rhinelander, Daniel McCormick, 

Samuel Donaldson, John Miller, 
Charles NicoU. 

Mr. Thomas Buchanan moves that the Thanks of 
this Corporation be given to Capt. Newman'^'' of the late 
Carteret Packet,"'*' and that he be presented with a Piece 
of Plate, value about 20 Gui's, and that the Seal of 
the Corporation be engraved thereon, as a token of their 
regard for preserving the Mails by that Ship when 
attacked by Four Privateers,''" the back of Long Island. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Edward Goold, Thomas 
Goodwin, John Taylor, Robert Murray, William Pagan, 
John Tench, and William Walton, be a Committee untill 
the first Tuesday in July next to hear and determine 
Disputes between Parties submitting such to their deter- 
mination, and that they report their proceedings to the 
Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th July, 1780. 

Present. 
Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 
Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Moore, William Laight, 

Alex. Wallace, William Lowther, 

Edward Laight, Aug's Van Home, 

Patrick McDavitt. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

William Pagan, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

William Kenyon, Richard Smith, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 2^3 

John Miller, John Tench, 

Samuel Donaldson, Rich'd Sharpe, 

Jacob Watson, Edward Goold, 

Oliver Templeton, Daniel McCormick, 

John Oothout, Thomas Buchanan, 

William Stepple, Lawrence Kortright. 

Resolved — That in pursuance of the motion made at 
the last Meeting of the Chamber — That the Thanks be 
given, and the Thanks of this Corporation is accordingly- 
given, to Charles Newman, Esq., Commander of his 
Majesty's late Carteret Packet Boat, for preserving, 
when attacked by four Rebel Privateers, to the Southward 
of Long Island, and bringing, at a great risque, in his boat'" 
to the Post Office ''^ in this City, the Public and private 
dispatches: and in Testimony of his merit, it is ordered that 
a piece of Plate be presented to him of the value of Twenty 
Guineas, or thereabouts, whereon shall be engraved the 
representation of the Seal of this Corporation — underneath 
thereof: 

Presented by the Corporation of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of New York, to Charles Newman, Commander of 
his Majesty's late Packet, the Carteret, for his great atten- 
tion and Prudence, in saving and bringing, at all hazards, his 
Mail to New York. 

Ordered — That Mr. Thomas Buchanan, and Mr. 
Richard Smith, be a Committee to order the above piece 
of Plate to be made, and presented to Captain Newman, 
and that the Treasurer do pay for the same. 

Capt. Newman having been presented with the Thanks 
in writing, and attending replied, also in writing, in the 

following words : 

New York, July 4, 1780. 
Sir, 

I beg the favor of you to return my most respectful thanks to 

the Chamber of Commerce for so honorable a testimony which they have 



234 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

been pleased to shew of their approbation of my conduct, in preserving 
the Mails and Public Despatches in my late unfortunate situation. This 
mark of Distinction from so respectable a body of Merchants will ever 
be remembered with gratitude, and they may be assured it shall always 
be my Study, whilst I have the honor to command one of his Majesty's 
Packets, to accelerate and promote the Correspondence of this City as 
much as it lies in the power of. Sir, your most obedient and most 
humble servant, Charles Newman. 

Isaac Low, Esqr., President of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Ordered — That Copys of the Vote of Thanks, and 
Capt. Newman's answer, be delivered to the Printers for 
their Insertion.'" 

Messrs. Abraham Walton and Vincent Pearce Ash- 
field, having been proposed at former Meetings, were 
unanimously chosen members of this Corporation. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send them notice in wri- 
ting that they were duly elected. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Daniel McCormick, William 
Ustick, Andrew Kerr, Augustus Van Home, William 
Lowther, Henry Brevoort, William Laight, be a Com- 
mittee, untill the first Tuesday in August next, to hear 
and determine disputes between parties submitting such 
to their determination, and that they report their pro- 
ceedings to the Corporation. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist August, 1780. 
Present. 
Isaac Low, President 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Stepple, John Tench, 

William Backhouse, Abram Walton, 

Gerrard Walton, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Jacob Watson, Augustus Van Home, 

WUliam Laight, John Moore, 

William Lowther. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 235 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Patrick McDavitt, Smith Ramadge, 

David Seabury, William Pagan, 

Harding Burnley, Frederic Rhinelander, 

Oliver Templeton, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Charles Nicoll, John MiUer, 

Robert R. Waddel, Thomas C. WiUiams, 
Daniel McCormick. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Thomas Buchanan, Jonn 
Moore, Abra'm Walton, William Seton, Gabriel H. Lud- 
low, Vincent P. Ashfield, and Edward Laight, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in September next, to hear 
and determine disputes between parties, submitting such 
to their determination, and that they report their pro- 
ceedings to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Friday, nth August, 1780. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Tench, William Backhouse, 

Andrew Kerr, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Charles NicoU, John MiUer, . 

WiUiam Pagan, John Oothout, 

Augustus Van Home, John Moore, 

William Laight. ' 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Anthon. Van Dam, Abram Walton, 

John Murray, Thomas Buchanan, 

Samuel Donaldson, Walter Spens, 

Richard Sharpe, Richard Smith, 



2j6 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Robert R. Waddel, Oliver Templeton, 

William Kenyon, Gerrard Walton, 

Thomas C. Williams, William Stepple. 

An Embargo '" having been laid by the Admiral on 
Shipping to answer the purpose of Manning his Maj- 
esty's Fleet, the Merchants become desirous of applying 
to be relieved from the heavy expence daily accumulating 
on Ships and Goods, wish to express their application to 
the Commander in Chief to be relieved if it shall be 
thought expedient for the Public Service, and 

A draft of a Memorial'" to the Commander in Chief 
being read, was ordered to be fairly Copied and signed by 
the President, and that he deliver it to the Superintendant 
General with a desire of him to wait upon the Commander 
in Chief therewith. 

[There is no copy of this Memorial on the Minutes. '\ 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Monday, 14th August, 1780. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 
Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, ) 
Hugh Wallace, ) Vice-Presidents. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

William Laight, Oliver Templeton, 

Edward Laight, Thomas C. WiUiams, 

Jacob Watson, Harding Burnley, 

Vincent P. Ashfield,' John Miller, 

Richard Smith, John Moore, 

Alexand. Wallace, August's Van Home, 

Smith Ramadge, John Murray, 

Daniel McCormick, WiUiam Seton, 

William Kenyon, Samuel Donaldson, 

Abraham Walton, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

John Tench, William Pagan. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 237 

A Letter''^ from the Superintendant General premised 
that he had waited on the Commander in Chief, who was 
pleased to say that it was his intention to take off the 
Embargo as early as possible, and that he had written to 
Admiral Arbuthnot^' to that purpose, andalso expressed 
his great Satisfaction of the Merchants' readiness in fur- 
nishing their Seamen for the Navy.'" 

A Letter''* from the Commandant was read in the 
words following : 

\There is no copy of these Letters on the Minutes^ 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 5 September, 1780. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Walton, William Lowther, 

William Stepple, William Backhouse, 

John Moore, Richard Smith, 

Henry Brevoort. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Gabriel H. Ludlow, Smith Ramadge. 

Thomas C. Williams, John Murray, 

Daniel McCormick, Samuel Donaldson, 

Charles Nicoll, Andrew Kerr, 

John Tench, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Richard Sharpe. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Gerrard Walton, Lawrence 
Kortright, Richard Yates, Alexand. Wallace, Jacob Wat- 
son, John Miller, Fredk. Rhinelander be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in Oct. next, to hear and deter- 
mine Disputes between Parties submitting such to their 



238 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

determination, and that they report their proceedings to 
this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d October, 1780. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 
William Walton, Thomas C. Williams, 

Edward Laight, Oliver Templeton, 

David Seabury, John Murray, 

William Stepple, Jacob Watson, 1 

Samuel Donaldson, Alexan. Wallace, 

WiUiam Laight, Abraham Walton, 

William Lowther, John Moore, 

Andrew Kerr. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Miller, Will'm Backhouse, 

Smith Ramadge, Gerrard Walton, 

Richard Smith, Daniel McCormick, 

Isaac Low, Charles NicoU, 

WiU'm Pagan, Richard Yates, 

Fred. Rhinelander. 

Ordered — That Mr. John Oothout, President of the 
Committee of August, Mr. Gerrard Walton, President 
of the Committee of September, Mr. Thomas C. Williams 
of the August Committee, Mr. Alexander Wallace of the 
September Committee, Mr. John Moore, Mr. Edward 
Laight, and Mr. William Pagan be a joint Committee to 
hear and determine a Controversy between Mr. Samuel 
Rogers, Capt. of the Privateer Auctioneer ''' of the one 
part, and the agents and owners of the Privateer on the 
other part. 

Resolved — That it be a Standing instruction to the 
Presidents of each monthly Committee in future that if 
any matter shall be referred by the Police, which does 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



^39 



not immediately relate to Trade, it shall be return'd back 
to the Police,'^" as this Chamber cannot consistently with 
their Institution interfere in any other matters. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Richard Sharpe, Smith Ram- 
adge, Harding Burnley, Nicholas Hoffman, William 
Kenyon, William Backhouse, and Charles NicoU, be a 
Committee untill the first Tuesday in November next, to 
hear and determine Disputes between Parties submitting 
such to their determination, and that they report their 
proceedings to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th November, 1780. 



Present. 

Isaac Low, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Robert R. Waddle, 
Anthony Van Dam, 

William Lowther, 

Harding Burnley, 

OUver Templeton, 

William Laight, 

Charles NicoU, 

Richard Sharpe, 

WiUiam Walton, 

Andrew Kerr, 

Daniel McCormick, 

David Seabury, 

Patrick McDavitt, 

William Stepple, 

Edward Laight, 



President. 

Vice-Presd. 

Treasurer. 

Secretary. 
Abraham Walton, 
Alexander Wallace, 
John Oothout, 
Vincent P. Ashfield, 
Robert Alexander, 
Samuel Donaldson, 
Jacob Watson, 
Gerrard Walton, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, 
William Backhouse, 
Smith Ramadge, 
John Moore, 
Richard Yates, 



John Miller. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 



Frederick Rhinelander, 
John McAdam, 
Thomas Buchanan, 



Thomas C. Williams, 
John Murray, 
Lawrence Kortright. 



The Committee appointed to Audit the late Treas- 



240 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

urer's accounts having reported that the said accounts had 
not yet been rendered for that purpose, 

Ordered — That the Secretary write a Letter to the 
Treasurer requesting him to furnish the said Accounts 
so that they may be audited and reported at the next 
monthly meeting of the Chamber. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Samuel Donaldson, John 
Murray, Patrick McDavitt, John Oothout, Edward 
Goold, John McAdam, Thomas C. Williams, be a 
Committee untill the first Tuesday in December next, 
to hear and determine disputes between parties, submit- 
ting such to their determination, and that they report 
their proceedings to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 5th December, 1780. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice do. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Richard Sharpe, William Kenyon, 

Gerrard Walton, William Lowther, 

Alexander Wallace, John Murray, 

Patrick McDavitt, William Laight, 

Samuel Donaldson, Abraham Walton, 

Frederick Rhinelander, Jacob Watson, 

William Walton, John Tench. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Moore, Richard Smith, 

Richard Yates, Smith Ramadge, 

John Miller, John McAdam. 

The Magistrates of Police having recommended the 
consideration of a dispute \)ttvittn Abraham Cuyler, Esqr.,'^'^ 
and Sheffield Howard, Esqr.,"^^ security for Will'm Tongue,°° 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 24I 

Auctioneer, with respect to a ballance due Mr. Cuyler, 
Mr. Howard not attending. It was the opinion of the 
Chamber that the President acquaint the Magistrates of 
Police of that circumstance, and that they will meet pur- 
posely on Friday next, to hear Mr. Howard's reasons that 
they may form their opinion. 

The Season of the Year requires that the Powder- 
Ship should be removed. 

Ordered — That Mr. Miller direct that the Powder- 
Ship be transported to Walloon Bay for the Winter. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Pagan, Oliver 
Templeton, John Tench, William Ustick, Robert Alex- 
ander, Andrew Kerr, and William Lowther, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in January next, to hear and 
determine disputes between parties submitting such to their 
determination, and that they report their proceedings to 
this Corporation. 

Messrs. Joseph AUicocke, Joshua Watson, having 
been proposed at a former meeting, were balloted for and 
duly elected Members of this Corporation. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send them notices in 
writing that they were duly elected. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Friday, 8th December, 1780. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 
Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice do. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Gerrard Walton, David Seabury, 

Edward Laight, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

William Walton, William Lowther, 

Frederick Rhinelander, William Stepple, 

16 



242 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

William Backhouse, Jacob Watson, 

John Miller, Richard Yates, 

Abraham Walton, Augustus Van Home, 

WiUiam Laight, Gabriel H. Ludlow, 

Henry Brevoort, John Murray. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Smith Ramage, Andrew Kerr, 

John Moore, Samuel Donaldson, 

Lawrence Kortright, Thomas C. Williams, 

Alex'r Wallace, Patrick McDavitt, 

John Tench, William Kenyon, 
Daniel McCormick. 



In pursuance of the resolution of this Corporation at 
last Meeting to attend to the complaint of Abraham Cuy- 
ler, Esq., against Sheffield Howard, Esq., as security of 
William Tongue, Auctioneer, recommended by the Police. 

The Corporation having heard the parties and debates 
arising thereon, it did appear. 

That Cuyler put into the hands of Tongue (when some 
other person was his security) a quantity of Merchandise 

to be sold for his account on or about the day of 

November last, between which time and the a5th January 
last. Tongue had disposed of part thereof to the amount 
of ^£86 6 i^, when for some irregularity in his conduct 
the Magistrates of Police deprived him -of his Lycence 
and gave notice to this Corporation that if they or any 
of their Friends had any demands on him to make it 
known that justice might be done. Afterwards he was re- 
instated in his business having still Cuyler s goods in 
hand except to the amount of £86 6 i^ as aforesaid, when 
Mr. Sheffield Howard became his security for his faithfuU 
conduct. Afterwards Tongue compleated the Sale of the 
Goods and furnished an account thereof and made pay- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 243 

ments thereon on which there now remains a ballance of 
£217 13 2i curr'y. 

In discussing this business, some urged that the first 
payment in the time of Mr. Howard's security should go 
in discharge of the first part of the Goods sold under the 
former security, others that no part of the Money paid 
after Howard became Security should go in discharge of 
a Debt before he became surety. 

Wherefore a motion was made by the Secretary, 
and Seconded 

That it appears to this Corporation there is a ballance 
due from William Tongue to Abraham Cuyler, Esq., the 
sum of £217 13 2^ Currency on the whole produce of 
Acc't of Sales being £644 i i\. That £8111 the net 
proceeds of £86 6 i| was a Transaction under the 
Security of Hosmer as related. That the Securitys of 
each must bear a proportion of the deficiency, and there- 
fore the last Security entered into the first of March is 
accountable to Mr. Cuyler in the sum of £190 o 2;^ on a 
division. 

For the Motion - - - 25 
Against it - - - - 7 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d January, 1781. 
Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Laight, William Backhouse, 

Jacob Watson, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Edward Laight, Frederick Rhinelander, 



244 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Waiiam Lowther, Abraham Walton, 

William Walton, Smith Ramadge, 

Gerrard Walton, David Seabury. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John-Moore, Andrew Kerr, 

Alex'r Wallace, Joshua Watson, 

Samuel Donaldson, Augustus Van Home, 

Oliver Templeton. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Walton, William 
Stepple, John Taylor, Daniel McCormick, David Sea- 
bury, Henry Brevoort, and William Laight, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in February next, to hear 
and determine disputes between parties submitting such 
to their determination, and that they report their proceed- 
ings to this Corporation. 

Mr. Walton moves that any Gentleman of the Month- 
ly Committee do pay 8 Dollars, if they do not attend the 
whole committee, and 4s. each night, without satisfactory 
excuse. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th February, 1781. 

Present. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Pres't. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

William Laight, Jacob Watson, 

Gerrard Walton, Alexan'r Wallace, 

William Ustick, William Backhouse, 

Andrew Kerr, John Moore, 

William Walton, Edward Laight, 

Vincent P. Ashfield, Joseph Allicocke, 

Frederick Rhinelander, William Lowther, 

Richard Sharpe, Patrick McDavitt, 

Henry Brevoort, Daniel McCormick. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 245 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Thomas Buchanan, Augustus Van Home, 

Joshua Watson, Robert Alexander, 

John Miller, David Seabury, 

Edward Goold. 

The Chamber having taken up the Motion of Mr. 
Abraham Walton, at last meeting, and debating thereon : 

Ordered — That every Member of this Corporation 
who shall be hereafter appointed of the Monthly Com- 
mittee, do pay a Fine of Four Shillings for not attending 
each night that there shall be business, and that they are 
duly notified, provided that the whole Fines do not exceed 
Eight Dollars to a member for the Month : and if they 
fail attending at all for the Month, to pay said Eight Dol- 
lars to the Chairman of the Committee, to defray their ex- 
pences. The attending Members to be judge of the excuse 
offered for being absent. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Moore, William Seton, 
Augustus Van Home, Abraham Walton, Vincent P. Ash- 
field, Joshua Watson, and Joseph Allicocke, be a Com- 
mittee, untill the first Tuesday in March next, to hear and 
determine Disputes between parties submitting such to 
their determination, and that they report their proceedings 
to this Corporation. 

Messrs. James Douglas, John Ponsonby, William 
Hodgzard, and Alexn'r Forteath, having been proposed 
at a former meeting, were balloted for, and duly elected 
Members of this Corporation. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send them notices in 
writing that they were duly elected. 



2.46 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6tli March, 1781. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Pres't. 

Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Smith Ramadge, John Moore, 

Alex'r Wallace, William Lowther, 

William Backhouse, John Tench, 

William Kenyon, Alexnr. Forteath, 

Gerrard Walton, Henry Brevoort, 

Abram Walton, Edward Laight, 

Oliver Templeton, Andrew Kerr, 

Frederick Rhinelander, William Walton, 

Augustus Van Home, Joseph Allicocke, 

William Laight, John MiUer, 
Joshua Watson. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Daniel McCormick, James Douglas, 

John Oathout, William Pagan, 

William Seton, Thomas Buchanan, 

David Seabury, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Richard Yates, Jacob Watson, 

Patrick McDavitt, William Hodgzard, 

John Ponsonby, John Murray, 

Richard Sharpe, Samuel Donaldson. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Hugh Wallace, Edward 
Laight, Gab'l H. Ludlow, Richard Yates, Gerrard Wal- 
ton, James Douglas, and John Ponsonby, be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in April next, to hear and deter- 
mine disputes between parties submitting such to their de- 
termination, and that they report their proceedings to this 
Corporation. 

A Representation from Messrs. Taylor & Rogers, 
by some of the Members to this Corporation. It appears 
that the dutys on a cargo of Wine, arrived from Madeira 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 247 

in the Snow'*' Friendship, has been demanded from them 
by the Hon. Andrew Elliott, Esqr., as Collector of the 
Customs of this Port.'*^ And it also appears by an Act 

of Parliament,'*' passed in the Year of His Majesty's 

Reign, that the Commander-in-Chief for the time being 
is to make the necessary regulations respecting the Trade 
of this Port, and the Collection of such Dutys appearing to 
this Corporation as contrary to Act of Parliament, and a 
very particular hardship on the Importer and Consumer. 

Mr. Donaldson begs leave to move that an address be 
presented to the Commander in chief representing the sen- 
timents of this Chamber on that subject, praying relief 
from the operation of the Collection of such dutys. 

Ordered — That the following Gentlemen be a Com- 
mittee to draw up and address, viz. : Isaac Low, Thomas 
Buchanan, Gerrard Walton, John Moore, William Low- 
ther, Will'm Laight, and John Miller, and report it to 
this Corporation now sitting. 

The Committee having reported a draft of the address, 
was in the words following : — 

To His Excellency, Sir Henry Clinton,''!' Knight of the most honor- 
able order of the Bath, General, Commander in Chief of all his Majes- 
ty's Forces within the Colonies laying in the Atlantic Ocean from Nova 
Scotia to West Florida inclusive. 

The Memorial of the President and Corporation of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce, incorporated by Royal Authority, 

Humbly Sheweth, 

That your Memorialists encouraged by your Excellency's experi- 
enced attention to Protection of Person, Property, and Mercantile Interest 
within the British Lines, as also the Confidence the Military Government 
has reposed in them, in respect to disputes in which Trade is concerned, 
presume to lay before your Excellency the state of Trade since the passing 
of the prohibitory Act, from which Period no regular Plan of Trade for this 
Port (Except such as was carried by Licences) was established, till the 
arrival of his Majesty's Commissioners in the Summer of 1778, by which 



248 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

means the Merchants' Int'rest was not only left in a most precarious situa- 
tion but in some instances suffered severely. 

At the expiration ^"of the Commissioners' Proclamation, they would have 
experienced the same bad effects, had not your Excellency so timely exerted 
your Authority in their favor, by ordering "'^ the Officers Superintending the 
Exports and Imports (from whom we have ever experienced attention and 
despatch) to continue in the same Line of Duty. 

The Act of Parliament that now regulates the Trade of New York, and 
which took place here the 24th of October last, leaves to your Excellency 
the entire regulation of Exports and Imports, (a power that we are sensible 
is essentially necessary during the operation of the Prohibitory Act to be in 
the Commander in Chief, in order to secure the necessary supplies both to 
the Garrison and the Inhabitants under Protection,) and your Excellency 
agreeable to the Powers vested in you by that Act, having continued the 
former appointments in the Superintendant's office, confining them as before 
to their Salaries without burdening Trade with any Tax for Fees. We are 
greatly alarmed by a recent Advertisement™ from Andrew Elliott, Esqr., 
Superintendant of the Port, demanding all duties that were formerly payable 
when the Merchants enjoyed the Benefits of the Acts of Parliament that 
imposed the Same, and which all the American Ports not mentioned in the 
Prohibitory Act, have ever enjoyed, and to which Benefits Georgia ^^' is again 
restored. 

The said Act of Parliament regulating the Trade of New York admits 
of no Exportation to Foreign Ports, the Merchant's Profit on importing 
Wines from Mad'a and the Azores arose formerly from the Exportation of 
the Produce of this Country ; Adventurers to those Ports ^e now obliged 
to send their vessels in Ballast with Bills or Specie to purchase their Car- 
goes, which from the expence of Navigation and high Insurance makes the 
Trade not an object for the Merchant, and the Wines come high to the 
Consumer ; and was it not for the supplies of Wine that come from Portu- 
gal by Licences, this Garrison '"* would suffer greatly for the want of so neces- 
sary an Article. 

Exportation thus stopped makes the demanding the duties on Wines from 
Madeira and the Azores, not only operate to the prejudice ot the Garrison, but 
appears to us inconsistent with the Spirit of the Act that makes them payable. 

The duties laid on foreign Sugars, Indigo, and all Coffee, are conditional, 
either to be paid here, or, if exported to Great Britain within twelve months, 
to be paid there. The Duties "^ are so high on all those articles, that it would 
always be the interest of the Merchant to export them agreeable to the Act 
of Parliament ; but the supplies, particularly of Sugar, depending almost 
solely on captures,"" the consumption of the Garrison has made it necessary to 
prevent the exportation of that article. Therefore, as the Exporting condi- 
tion of the act is not allowed of, we cannot think it reasonable that lie Duty 
should be exacted. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 249 

Being cut off from Foreign Trade, and our circumscribed situation "' not 
affording country Produce to be exported to the British West India Islands, 
tlie Merchant imports Melasses"'' under the same disadvantage that he does 
Wines from Madeira and the Azores. 

From the above state of our situation, we rest assured that your Excel- 
lency's just discernment will view in a proper light the objections we make 
to the demand of Duties now made by y' Superintendent. 
And Most Humbly Pray your Excellency will be favourably pleased to 
suspend the Superintendent's demand of duties, which, if enforced, will 
be attended with the most fatal effects to the supply of this Garrison and 
the Mercantile Interest. 

Ordered — That the President and Vice-President do 
wait upon the Commander in Chief and present the same. 

Jacob Watson moves — That this Corporation take 
into consideration the utility of appointing a Committee 
to draw up a form of a Charter"^ such as would be most 
advantageous to this City, consistent with the Constitu- 
tion offered us by Great Britain, to be laid before a future 
Meeting of this Corporation for their approbation, and 
when approved, to be presented to the Governor,'^"* who 
has signified his willingness to confirm it. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Thursday, 8th March, 1781. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

The President having directed the Doorkeeper to 
convene the Members to receive the Commander in Chief's 
reply to their Memorial, presented by the President and 
Vice-President, which was in these words : 

Nevi^ York, March 7th, 1781. 
Sir, 

I have the honor to acquaint you, in answer to the Memorial 
presented to me this Day, in behalf of the Corporation of the New 
York Chamber of Commerce, that I shall take the earliest opportunity 
to transmit a Copy thereof to His Majesty's Secretary of State for the 



250 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

American Department, in order that the same may be laid before the 
King for his Royal consideration : And, as I shall be happy at all 
times to pay every attention in my power to the Representations of so 
respectable a Body as the Merchants of the City of New York, I shall 
with great pleasure comply with the Prayer of their Petition, and will 
not fail to communicate to them, through you, Sir, the Royal Pleasure 
thereupon, as soon as I am honored with the King's commands upon a 
subject so interesting. 

I have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your Most Obedient and Most Humble Servant, 

H. Clinton. 
Isaac Low, Esqr., 

President of the Chamber of Commerce, New York. 

Ordered — That they do express the Thanks and 
Grateful Acknowledgements of this Corporation to His 
Excellency the Commander in Chief for his readiness and 
great dispatch given to their representation which is here 
inserted — 

Sir, 

The Chamber of Commerce consider it as their indispensable duty, 
and have therefore directed me to return your Excellency their best Thanks 
most respectful and grateful Acknowledgements not only for the readiness 
with which Your Excellency complied with the Prayer of their Petition, but 
also for the very great Dispatch given to that Business. 

They regard it, Sir, as a striking proof [ofyour] Excellency's attention 
and regard for the Mercantile Interest of this City which the United Wisdom 
of the Nation has thought expedient to place under Your Excellency's imme- 
diate Patronage and Protection, together with that of other places on this 
Continent, under a similar Predicament, and while they hope for a favour- 
able ultimate Decision to their, and such other Representations as Your 
Excellency shall think expedient to transmit for his Majesty's Royal Con- 
sideration ; they beg leave to assure Your Excellency that nothing will 
contribute more to their Happiness than to have it in their Power, upon all 
occasions, to merit as they most anxiously wish, the Honour of Your Ex- 
cellency's approbation. 

By Order of the Chamber of Commerce. 

New York, March 8th, 1781. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 25I 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d AprU, 1781. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Jacob Watson, Patrick McDavitt, 

William Backhouse, William Laight, 

John Moore, Abram Walton, 

David Seabury, Gerrard Walton, 

Andrew Kerr, Joseph AUicocke, 

Oliver Templeton, WiUiam Lowther, 

Vincent P. Ashfield, Frederick Rhinelander, 

Daniel McCormick. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Alexa'r Forteath, James Douglass, 

Joshua Watson, Edward Laight, 

WOliam Pagan, William Kenyon, 

John Miller, Smith Ramadge, 
Alex'r Wallace. 

Ordered — That .Messrs. Alexander Wallace, Chair- 
man, Frederick Rhinelander, Robert R. Waddel, John 
Miller, Smith Ramage, Alexander Forteath, and William 
Hodgzard be a Committee, untill the first Tuesday in 
May next, to hear and determine disputes between Par- 
ties submitting such to their Determination, and they re- 
port their proceedings to this Corporation. 

Mr. Strachan'" having hyred the Coffee House where 
this Corporation meet for the Dispatch of Business. 

Ordered — That William Pagan and Anthony Van 
Dam be a Committee to agree with said Mr. Strachan for 
the use of the large Room in the Year as often as the 
Corporation shall require it, and a Room for the Monthly 
Committees, provided that the Yearly Rent does not ex- 



252 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

ceed Eighty Pounds Currency, he finding Firewood and 
Candles as often as they meet. 

Mr. Watson's motion at last meeting for a Committee 
to be appointed for drawing up a Draft of a Charter for 
the City and County of New York, having been debated, 

Ordered — That Mr. President, William Walton, Jacob 
Watson, Thomas Buchanan, Anthony Van Dam, William 
Laight, Wm. Lowther, Law. Kortright, Robert Murray, 
William Seton, John Moore, Frederick Rhinelander, 
William Backhouse, Samuel Donaldson, and Gerrard 
Walton, do prepare the same as soon as possible, and lay 
it before this Corporation at a future meeting thereof 

The President having been desired to Write to Charles 
McEvers, Esqr., late Treasurer, to furnish his accounts 
that they might, be audited by the Committee appointed 
in May last, was in the Words following : 

Sir, 

The Chamber of Commerce, at their last Meeting, having on Enquiry 
found that you had not yet been land enough to furnish Mr. Waddel, their 
present Treasurer, with a State of your accounts, nor delivered over to him 
the Money remaining in your Hands as late Treasurer according to their 
Annual Custom. 

I am directed to request that favour of you ; and that you will be so 
obliging as to comply with it, so that your accounts may be audited at their 
next meeting, being the First Tuesday in May. 

I am, Sir, your most obedient Humble Serv't, 

Isaac Low, Presid't 

Chamber of Commerce. 
New York, 15th March, 1781. 



CHAMBER OP' COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist May, 1781. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Hugh Wallace, Vice-President. 
Thomas Buchanan, Do. 
Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 2^2 

Augustus Van Home, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Andrew Kerr, John Moore, 

Joseph AUicocke, Richard Sharpe, 

Fred'ck Rhinelander, David Seabury, 

William Lowther, John Ponsonby, 

William Backhouse. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Hugh Wallace, James Douglass, 

Gerrard Walton, Thomas Buchanan, 

Isaac Low, Samuel Donaldson, 

Jacob Watson, John Murray, 

Smith Ramadge, Robert Alexander, 

Daniel McCormick, Anthony Van Dam, 

WiUiam Laight, Alexander Wallace, 

William Walton, Richard Yates, 

Alexander Forteath, William Pagan, 
John Miller. 

The Committee for revising the old and preparing a 
New Charter for the City of New York, reported that 
they had made some progress therein, and prayed leave to 
sit again. 

Ordered — That leave be given accordingly. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Jacob Watson, Nicholas 
Hoffman, John Murray, William Backhouse, Lawrence 
Kortright, Richard Sharpe, and William Kenyon, be a 
Committee, untill the first Tuesday in June next, to hear 
and determine disputes between parties submitting such 
to their determination, and they report their proceedings 
to this Corporation. 

The Royal Charter as well as the Laws of this Cor- 
poration appoint this Day for the Election of officers for 
the ensuing year, when the following Gentlemen were bal- 
loted for and duly elected : 



254 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



Isaac Low, President 

Thomas Buchanan, 

Jacob Walton, 

Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer, 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



> Vice-Presidents. 



And all except Mr. Jacob Walton, who was not pres- 
ent, were duly sworn, agreeable to the Charter, to execute 
their respective offices. 

Ordered — That the President and Vice-Presidents do 
write to the Admiral or the Commander of his Majesty's 
Navy for the time being, representing the Distress''* of the 
Commerce of this Coast, and praying that one or more 
Cruisers may protect the Vessells coming to and departing 
from this Port, and such other Convoys as they may think 
expedient. 

Ordered — That Mr. Samuel Donaldson, Mr. Andrew 
Van Home, and Mr. Andrew Kerr, be a Committee to 
Audit Mr. Treasurer's accounts from the time of his 
appointment untill this Day. 

Mr. Pagan and Mr. Van Dam reported that they had 
been with Mr. Strachan, present proprietor of the Coffy 
House, who accepted of the proposed sum of a£8o, find- 
ing the Chamber with Fire Wood, and Candles, and the 
Grand Chamber once a Month, and Committees a room 
whenever they require it, and also upon Extra occasions. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Monday, 8th May, 1781. 
SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President 
Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 255 

Augustus Van Home, John McAdam, 

Gerrard Walton, Abram Walton, 

Robert Murray, Richard Sharpe, 

Alexan'r Forteath, Alexander Wallace, 

John Miller, William Walton, 

Frederick Rhinelander, William Backhouse, 

Joseph AUicocke, John Oothout, 

Oliver Templeton, William Pagan, 

John Murray, William Kenyon, 

Samuel Donaldson, Daniel McCormick, 

David Seabury, Lawrence Kortright, 

John Moore, William Laight, 

Patrick McDavitt, Edward Goold, 

Richard Yates, James Douglass, 
John Ponsonby. 

The Committee to draw up a representation and write 
to Admiral Arbuthnot the situation of the Trade and 
Commerce of this City, reported that they had done so 
and laid a Copy thereof before the Chamber, which was 
in the words following : — 

Sir:— 

I am directed by the Chamber of Commerce to represent to your 
Excellency, 

That the Port of New York is from the Nature of its situation become 
the principal deposit and Magazine of all military as well as Mercantile 
Stores and Provisions from Great Britain and Ireland. 

That its intercourse also with the West Indies and his Majesty's Ameri- 
can Colonies is very considerable. 

That, consequently, the best Cruizing Ground for the Enemy, perhaps 
in the World, is within a small distance of Sandy Hook. 

That more Property has constantly been captured by then- Privateers 
within Fifty Leagues of that Place, than perhaps upon all the rest of the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

That the Success Rebel Privateers have met with in a few Days Cruize, 
(when they can be out and home again, and many of them in so short a 
Time having actually made large Fortunes,) will greatly encoiurage others to 
engage in the same enterprises. 

That from every information many stout Privateers are fitting out in 
the different Rebel Ports to infest this Coast, and that unless effectual 
measures be taken to defeat and blast their designs, very few except Vessels 
of great Force, will either get safe in or out of this Port. 



256 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

That from the many captures which have already been made, the Pre- 
miums of Insurance"' are so much enhanced in London, as greatly to dis- 
courage the Importer. 

That from former Experience (notwithstanding the different Convoys of 
Provisions for the Navy and Army, have generally arrived more fortunately 
than could well have been expected) they, as well as the Inhabitants of the 
Garrison, have at different times experienced great Inconveniences, and 
must have been reduced to the most complicated distress had it not been 
from the large supplies derived from private Importers. 

That by late advices, the Garrison of Gibraltar "* exhibits to public View 
a striking instance of the salutary and invaluable advantages which flow from 
private importations ; and that from this exuberant Source even the Navy 
in this Port are at this Day enabled to purchase a supply of Bread. 

Thus from the preceding, and many other considerations which might be 
adduced, the Chamber of Commerce humbly conceive that no other object 
so easily attainable can be of so great importance as the effectual Protection 
of the Trade of this Port. 

That with aU due deference to your Excellency's better judgment, they 
conceive that a couple of fast sailing Frigates, constantly to cruize between 
Delaware and Block Island,'™ and making the Light House at Sandy Hook 
once or Twice a Week, as the Winds might permit, would effectually protect 
the Trade of this Port from all Invaders. 

That the doing so, considered only as a mere act of Prevention, would dis- 
tress the Rebels more than any Captures made from them could effect : it 
being notorious that their principal Resource and dependence is, and has 
been, from the success of their Privateers, and that they have derived more 
supplies by these means than from all their importations, together with those 
of their AUies, during the Rebellion. 

That, therefore, the Chamber of Commerce are fully convinced that if the 
nature of the public service wiU permit, your Excellency will pay every atten- 
tion that so important an object may seem to require. 

That so deeply are they impressed with the magnitude of its importance, 
that they not only conceive it to be their indispensable Duty to impart their 
Ideas of it to your Excellency ; but in case it should not be in your Excel- 
lency's power to afford the desired relief, to pray it may be granted from 
Home as soon as possible : convinced that the Rebellion can never be hap- 
pily terminated untill so great a source of supply to feed and nurture it can 
be effectually prevented. 

I am directed also to represent the Fishery upon the Banks '^ of Shrews- 
bury as an object of great importance to this Garrison : and that unless a 
proper armed vessell can be appointed daily to protect the Fishermen from 
the Gun and Whale Boats ^^^ that are preparing upon the adjacent Shores to 
attack them, they will find it totally impracticable to pursue that Business. 

Amongst the Variety of important services which must constantly engage 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 257 

your Excellency's attention, the Chamber of Commerce can easily conceive 
the embarrassment they must occasion, to which you should give a pref- 
erence, but they presume the objects they have mentioned are of too much 
consequence not to attract your Excellency's mature consideration ; and they 
are convinced your Excellency will be happy to afford every assistance in 
your power. 

By order of the Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce. 
I have the honor to be. Sir, &c., 

Isaac Low, Presid't 
To His Excellency Marriott Arbuthnot, Esqr., 
Admiral, &c., &c. 

Also, Admiral Arbuthnot's Answer, as follows : 

Royal Oak,'^^ off New York, 3d May, 1781. 

Sir, 

I have just received the Letter you have honored me with, 
pointing out the necessity of Frigates being constantly employed in 
cruizing oiT Sandy Hook, for the protection of the Trade bound to this 
place, as well as for protecting the Fishery upon the Banks of Shrews- 
bury, and to prevent the Rebel Privateers from making such near ad- 
vances to this Port as they have lately done, in which they are reported 
to have met with too much success. 

It gives me no small concern that you should suppose I have been 
in the smallest respect inattentive to this service in the Arrangement of 
the King's Ships'^' under my command, because, since my return from 
Charlestown, the greater part of my Force hath been upon this Coast, 
and during my stay at Gardner's Bay'^+ Frigates have not only been 
cruizing almost constantly off the Barr, but between Montock Point '^s 
and the Delaware. 

As far as circumstances could permit since my leaving Gardner's 
Bay I have detached Cruizers off this part of the Coast. I am sorry 
to say it has not been in my power to Station a single Frigate for the 
protection of the Trade bound to Halifax, ^^ a Post not inferior to any 
in America. 

With respect to the protection of the Fishermen employed on the 
Banks of Shrewsbury for supplying your Market, I cannot help men- 
tioning to you that early after I took the Command on this Station I 
purchased a Vessel mounting Twelve Carriage Guns ; she was fitted 
out at a considerable expence ; I requested that the City would Man 
her, that I would pay the Men, and that her Services should never be 
17 



258 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

diverted to any other purpose than giving such protection; my offer was 
received with a strong degree of coolness and till now I have never had 
any fiirther solicitations on the subject. 

I am, Sir, Your most obedient 

Humble Servant, 
M't. Arbuthnot. 
Isaac Low, Esq., &c., &c. 

When a Report was ordered to be written and signed 
by the President. 

Sir, 

I had the Honor of receiving, on the 5th Instant, Your Excel- 
lency's answer to the representations of the Chamber of Commerce relative 
to the requested Protection of the Trade of this Port which I took the first 
opportunity of laying before them. 

It is with concern they find you have supposed any part of their Letter 
to imply a particular inattention in Your Excellency to this Service, as they 
flatter themselves no part of it will bear such Construction, nor was any- 
thing more distant from their Intention than to give cause of the least 
Offence. 

They meant only to impart to Your Excellency their ideas of the Mode 
(never hitherto altogether adopted) of affording effectual Protection to this 
Port, submitting the result, as in duty bound, to Your Excellency's discre- 
tion and better judgement. 

That it is not in Your Excellency's Power to afford all the Protection 
you wish to the Trade bound to Halifax as well as to this Port, we 
equally lament and although we would not draw a comparison between the 
two Ports in Point of Harbor for Large™ Ships, so neither can we suppose 
Your Excellency means to be understood that the one can bear the least 
competition with the other as to the Importance arising from the Value 
of Imports and Exports which renders the Port of New York so immediately 
and eminently the superior Object of Protection. 

With regard to Your Excellency's Request to the City to Man a Vessel 
for the Protection of the Fishery on the Banks of Shrewsbury, the Chamber 
of Commerce beg leave to assure Your Excellency that no apphcation was 
ever made to this Corporation upon that subject or in all probability they 
had taken it up with the same Zeal which they doubt not Your Excellency 
will admit they manifested to procure Volunteers for Manning His Majesty's 
Ships under your Command. 

And if your Excellency will be so good as to fiirnish a proper Vessel 
with Provisions and Ammunition to protect the Fishermen on the Banks of 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 259 

Shrewsbury for the benefit of this Market, the Chamber of Commerce will 
cheerfully exert their endeavours and they doubt not they will be able in a 
short time not only to procure as many Men as Your Excellency may think 
sufiicient for that purpose but also to raise Funds for paying them, provided 
protection from injuries can be granted by Your Excellency to the Men, and 
that they shall be discharged™ as soon as the Fishing season is over. 
New York, May 8th. 
His Excell'y Marriott Arbuthnot, Esq., Admiral, &c., &c. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, sth June, 1781. 
Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Walton, Patrick McDavitt, 

Oliver Templeton, William Kenyon, 

William Backhouse, Fred. Rhinelander, 

Andrew Kerr, Augustus Vanhorne, 

Gerrard Walton, Alexander Wallace, 

John Moore, William Laight. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Miller, William Pagan, 

Edward Laight, Isaac Low, 

James Douglass, Robert Alexander, 

John Taylor, David Seabury, 

Vincent P. Ashfield, Jacob Watson, 

Samuel Donaldson, Edward Goold, 

Joshua Watson, John Ponsonby, 

Joseph AUicocke, Hugh Wallace, 

William Lowther, John Tench. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John McAdam, Edward 
Goold, William Pagan, Samuel Donaldson, John Ooth- 
out, Oliver Templeton, and William Ustick, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in July next, to hear and 
determine disputes between Parties submitting such to 
their determination, and that they report their proceedings 
to this Corporation. 



26o NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

The Committee appointed to Audit the Treasurer's 
Account, reported : 

We, the Subscribers, being appointed to examine the Account of 
Robert Ross Waddel, Esqr., as Treasurer to the Corporation of the New 
York Chamber of Commerce, do report, that from the 8th June, 1780 to the 
2nd May, 1781 the Treasurer has received on account of the Corporation, 
the Sum of Two Hundred Pounds, and paid away the Sum of One Hundred 
and Ninety-six Pounds, Four Shillings, and Four Pence, N. York currency, 
and that the Sum of Three Pounds, 15s. 8d, now remains in liis hands, being 
the exact Ballance of the Cash Account, which on examining and comparing 
with the Vouchers for Payment therein charged, we do find to be just and 
True in every particular. 

Samuel Donaldson. 

Andrew Kerr. 

August's Van Horne. 
New York, 5th June, 1781. 

The President communicated Admiral Arbuthnot's 
reply to his last Letter, written by order of the Cham- 
ber, as follows : 

Royal Oak, off Sandy Hook, 

27th May, 1 78 1. 
Sir, 

I have received your Letter of the 8th Instant, in the name 
of the Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce. 

I have taken such measures for the Protection of the Port of New 
York as are proportioned to the General and extensive scale of service 
by which I am to regulate my Conduct. It is to be understood that 
offence to his Majesty's enemies, as well as protection to the Loyal part 
of the Community, necessarily engages a degree of our consideration. 
I shall always with pleasure bear testimony to the ready and cheer- 
fiill assistance which the City gave to the raising Volunteers, after the 
arrival of Rear Admiral Graves,'''^ and I doubt not but the Zeal 
which operated so powerfully in that instance will be equally exerted 
on every other important occasion. 

I have the honor to be. Sir, Your mo. obed't Hum'l Serv't, 

M'x. Arbuthnot. 
Isaac Low, Esqr., 

President of the Chamber of Commerce, N. York. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 26 1 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d July, 1781. 
Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice do. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Walton, James Douglass, 

William Lowther, William Laight, 

John Miller, John Moore, 

Jacob Watson, Abraham Walton, 

Gerrard Walton, John McAdam. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Vincent P. Ashfield, Frederick Rhinelander, 

Thomas Buchanan, Oliver Templeton, 

Isaac Low, John Oothout, 

Joshua Watson, Robert R. Waddel, 

Samuel Donaldson, Richard Sharpe, 

William Pagan, John Murray, 

Alexander Wallace, Edward Goold. 

A Letter was communicated by the President from 
the Magistrates of Police with some Papers therein 
inclosed, respecting the ill practices of many of the 
Licenced Auctioneers,'^' whereupon the following Persons 
were appointed a Committee to report to this Corporation 
at an early day, — Oliver Templeton, Frederick Rhine- 
lander, John Murray, Joshua Watson, John Oothout. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Taylor, John Tench, 
Henry Brevoort, Daniel McCormick, William Laight, 
William Lowther, and Andrew Kerr, be a Committee 
untill the First Tuesday in August next, to hear and 
determine disputes between parties submitting such to 
their determination, and that they report their proceed- 
ings to this Corporation. 



262 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Thursday, 19th July, 1781. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 
Present. 

Isaac Low, President 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice do. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Laight, Joseph AUicocke, 

Vincent P. Ashfield, Hugh Wallace, 

Daniel McCormick, David Seabury, 

John Murray, Thomas Buchanan, 

William Lowther, William Hodgzard, 

William Backhouse, Andrew Kerr, 

Alexander Wallace, John Oothout, 

Alexander Forteath, John Miller, 

Patrick McDavitt, Richard Yates, 

John Moore, John Tench, 

Augustus Van Home, Richard Sharpe, 

Samuel Donaldson, Isaac Low, 

Frederick Rhinelander, William Pagan, 

Oliver Templeton. 

The Committee appointed to report on the ill prac- 
tices of some of the Licenced Auctioneers, made the 
same, which being Read, was in the Words following : — 

In order to remedy the Inconveniences and injuries to Trade, arising 
from the improper disposal of Goods at Public Vendue, and exposing Mer- 
chandise for sale on Stands in different parts of this City. It is the opinion 
of your Committee, 

That all Licences heretofore issued to Vendue Masters be called in 
and new ones granted to them only who shall be recommended by the 
Chamber of Commerce. 

That no Pedlar or Petty Chapman''" be permitted to Hawk goods for 
sale or sell them at any Stands erected or to be erected for that purpose 
near the Market Places or in any of the Pubhc Streets of this City. 

That the Proclamation of the 1 2th January, 1 779,"' be chiefly adhered 
to, and for every offence against the Same or the above further regulation, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 26^ 

such oiFender shall incur a Penalty of One Hundred Pounds, one half of 
which to be appropriated for the use of the Poor of this City, and the other 
half for the benefit of the Informer. Oliver Templeton. 

John Murray. 

Fred'k Rhinelander. 

John Oothout. 
Chamber of Commerce, i8th July, 1781. 

And it being debated, when 

The Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce beg 
leave to recommend to the Magistrates of Police to en- 
force the Proclamation of the 12th January, 1779, and 
to call in the Lycences of all those Auctioneers who 
have transgressed the same which will effectually remedy 
the evils complained of in the Memorial. 

Messrs. JVinthrop^^ ^ Kemble,^'^ owners of the Ship 
Vigilant from Jamaica, demand freight from Mr. Augus- 
tus Van Home for 20 hhds. sugar and 40 Puncheons of 
Rum, which being surveyed by the Wardens "'' of the 
Port, most of the Former were found washed out and 
Sea damaged, and some Rum Puncheons injured by dis- 
tress of weather, having met with a Gale of Wind in 
which she sprung a dangerous Leak, no fault being attrib- 
uted to the Stowage, yet Mr. Van Home alledges that it 
is a hardship to pay freight for empty hhds. 

The Bill of Lading being exhibited to the Corporation 
does express that £6 los sterling p. hh'd shall be paid for 
freight of the Sugars and £5 per hh'd for the Rum. 
Some part of the Latter was reed, by Mr. Van Home 
before it was discovered that any of his Sugars were 
washed out, and debates arising on the propriety of the 
demand it was the opinion of the Chamber (except Mr. 
Lowther and Mr. Moore) — 

That — The full freight of six Pounds ten Shillings 
Sterling for the Sugar hh'ds, and Five Pounds Sterling 



264 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

for the Rum is due notwithstanding that almost all the 
Sugar was washed out and some of the Rum-Puncheons 
injured or stove.''* 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th August, 1781. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Lowther, William Ustick, 

Gerard Walton, David Seabury, 

Joshua Watson, Oliver Templeton, 

Alexander Forteath, Isaac Low, 

John Tench, Joseph Allicocke, 

John Moore, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Daniel McCormick, William Laight, 

William Backhouse, Patrick McDavitt, 

James Douglass, Thomas C. Williams, 

Thomas Buchanan. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Vincent P. Ashfield, Joshua 
Watson, Abraham Walton, Joseph Allicocke, John 
Ponsonby, David Seabury, and Harding Burnley, be a 
Committee untill the first Tuesday in September next, to 
hear and determine disputes between parties submitting 
such to their determination, and that they report their 
proceedings to this Corporation. 

The Committee of last month complain to the Cham- 
ber at large that having been desired by the Police to 
adjust a dispute between Messrs. Banan £5? Burke com- 
plainants against Capt. Stone, that they had returned their 
opinion to the Police upon which the said Bannon very 
grossly insulted them, that they had Represented the 
same to the Magistrates of Police, eight days past, who 
had taken no notice thereof 

Ordered — That the President do write to the Ma- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 265 

gistrates of Police, representing their surprise that no 
notice was taken of their Committee's complaint, and that 
unless the Committees can be protected from injurious 
treatment they will be under the necessity to decline the 
trouble of any future decisions. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th September, 1781. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice do. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Moore, William Laight, 

Vincent P. Ashfield, WilUam Backhouse, 

William Kenyon, Jacob Watson, 

James Douglass, David SeabUry, 

William Lowther, Fred'k Rhinelander, 

Andrew Kerr. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

August. Van Home, Samuel Donaldson, 

Alexan'r Forteath, Daniel McCormick, 

Alexan'r Wallace, John Murray, 

Patrick McDavitt, Abraham Walton, 

Richard Yates, John Tench, 

Thomas C. Williams, John Oathout, 
Thomas Buchanan. 

Mr. President reported that, in pursuance of the order 
of the Chamber, he had wrote to the Magistrates of 
Police, had received their Answer and a Letter from Mr. 
Bannon, which were ordered to be entered. 

Gentlemen. 

The Committee for the last Month have complained to the Chamber 
of Commerce that in consequence of having given their decision in a dis- 
pute between Messrs. Banan & Burke, complainants against Capt. Stone, 
the said Banan treated them with very gross insulting Language ; that they 



266 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

had represented the same to the Magistrates of Police more than a Week 
ago, and that no notice had been taken of it. 

I am therefore directed by the Chamber of Commerce to express their 
surprise that no notice had been taken of their Committee's complaint by 
the Magistrates of PoUce, and at the same time to represent, that however 
the Monthly Committee may possibly have erred in their Judgement, no 
Individual can be justified in loading them with abusive or indecent Lan- 
guage. Unless therefore they can be protected from Licentious and in- 
jurious Treatment, and Delinquents punished for their offences against the 
Rules of propriety and Decorum, the Chamber must be under the necessity 
of dechning the trouble of any further decisions. 

Sir, 

We are favored with yours of Wednesday last relative to the 
complaint of the Committee for the last Month against Mr. Bannon, 
and in answer must beg leave to inform you — That immediately on 
receiv'g the inclosed Letter we summoned Mr. Banan to appear before 
us to answer for his conduct ; he immediately came and confessed 
great concern for- what had happened, and declared his willingness to 
wait on all the Gentlemen (Mr. Lowther excepted) and make a.proper 
submission. The reason he alledged against making any apology to 
Mr. Lowther was, that Mr. Lowther had struck him without his ever 
having spoken to him. As this was confirmed to us we really thought 
there was good ground for his objection, as Mr. Lowther had taken his 
own satisfaction. Mr. Mathews informed Mr. Tench of what Mr. 
Banan had said, and expected to have had an Answer from that Gen- 
tleman whether anything more was required. Mr. Banan has called 
on Mr. Mathews several times to know what he is to do, and is ready 
to make any concessions to the Committee (Mr. Lowther excepted). 
The great assistance the Police have received from the Chamber, wliich 
will be always acknowledged with the highest sense of gratitude, will 
induce them at all times to pay every attention to any representation 
from the Chamber, and to take every step in their power to have such 
persons as the Chamber may complain of brought to a proper sense of 
their Duty, and the great obligations they are under to the Chamber 
for their trouble and attendance. We are, with great respect, Sir, 
Your most obed't and Hum'le Serv'ts, 
D. Mathews, Mayor." 
Wm. Walton,'9s Magistr. of Police. 

OfFiCE OF Police, 14th August, 1781. 

Isaac Low, Esqr. 



register of proceedings. 267 

Sir, 

Mr. Burke, my partner, having bo't a parcell of Staves from 
a Mr. Stone, upon which contract he gave him as earnest ^3. 4s., which 
he kept 24 Hours, and then came and offered 3 Guineas to be off of the 
bargain, which Mr. Burke refused, alledging very justly he was acting for 
other people as well as for himself, whereupon Mr. Stone returned the 
earnest ; in consequence we were obliged to Police him, and at my re- 
quest the Gentlemen of the Police submitted the decision to the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, who accordingly met and decided the matter in favor 
of Mr. Stone, wherein I am satisfied they have impartially given their 
opinion, from the evidence that came before them. I made it my busi- 
ness to see Mr. Tench, the Chairman of that Committee the Day fol- 
lowing, to request he would direct me to have a rehearing of this mat- 
ter, whereupon some conversation passed that I am sorry was construed 
into an insult to the Chamber of Commerce, which I assure you was 
never intended, as no man can hold that Body in greater esteem than 
I do ; and if I said anything on that Evening through Hate or Passion, 
I am sorry for it, and do now beg their Pardon : had they known me 
well they would not deem me capable of saying anything that would 
give offence to any man — particularly to a Body of respectable Men 
who meet at their own expense for the good of Trade and their fellow- 
Citizens. Therefore I hope they will suspend any resentment to me 
on that head, as they may be assured I am, with great respect, their 
and your most obedient hie. servant, 

Owen Banan. 

New York, 17th August, 1781. 

Mr. Isaac Low, President of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Moore, William Hodg- 
zard, Gab'l H. Ludlow, James Douglass, Richard Yates, 
William Seton, and Alexander Forteath, be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in October next, to hear and 
determine Disputes between Parties submitting such to 
their determination, and that they report their proceedings 
to this Corporation. 

Messrs. Thomas Charles Williams and Thomas Roy having 
submitted matters of disputed accounts to the Committee 
of last Month, who have decided thereon : 



268 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

It was debated whether the Chamber should or not 
take up the dispute, there being the following clause at 
the Foot of the Bond of submission : 

" N. B. — This Penalty is understood tha't it does not 
exclude either party from appealingto the Chamber at large," 

Resolved almost unanimously — That they will rehear 
the dispute. 

The Parties being required to attend, and having 
exhibited their Accounts and Vouchers, which being read, 
and neither of them having any new matter to offer, It was 

Resolved unanimously by this Corporation — That 
their Committee's opinion be confirmed in every part of 
it. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d October, 1781. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Presid't. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
John Moore, James Douglass, 

Vincent P. Ashfield, Gerrard Walton, 

Andrew Kerr, Daniel McCormick, 

Alexa'r Wallace, John Murray, 

John MiUer, Fred'k Rhinelander, 

Thomas C. Williams, Oliver Templeton, 

Richard Sharpe, David Seabury, 

Joseph AUicocke, Patrick McDavitt, 

Jacob Watson, William Lowther, 

William Pagan. 

Mr. President communicated to the Chamber Copy 
of a Letter that he had written to the Superintendant- 
General on the indecent behaviour of Mr. Bannon, a Let- 
ter from the Superintendant, and one from Mr. Banon, 
which were read and ordered to be entered on the minutes 
as follows : 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 269 

Sir, 

Inclosed you will be pleased to find, agreeable to your request 
the Letter from the Magistrates of Police, and another from Mr. (Banan) re- 
lative to the indecent and abusive Language from the latter to the Monthly 
Committee — The Offence having been given to the Committee, to those 
Members alone can concessions with propriety be made : and untill that was 
done, the Chamber of Commerce at large thought it incumbent on them, in 
justice to their Committee, to direct that no future decisions should be 
given. 

This Resolution it was the duty of my Station to communicate to the 
Police, and that is the only Agency I have had in the matter. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, &c., &c., 

Isaac Low. 
The Hon'ble Andrew Elliot, Esq. 
2ist Sept., 1781. 

New York, zd October, 1781. 

Sir, 

I beg to inclose the two Letters you was so good as to fa- 
vour me with, together with a Letter from Mr. Owen Banan to Mr. 
John Tench. Your delivering it will oblige me, it appearing calculated 
to answer the purpose for which it is intended. 

As I was and still am of opinion that Mercantile disputes cannot be 
adjusted in a more proper or more equitable way than by a reference 
to respectable Merchants, it gave me great satisfaction when the 
method was so generally agreed to, and I flattered myself that, notwith- 
standing the trouble it gave individuals, that it would at least continue 
as long as I had any concern in the Superintendency. I shall be much 
concerned if these my Expectations should be disappointed. The 
present Juncture of Affairs '9* does not seem favorable for any new plans 
to be adopted. It has long be6n proposed (I hope Events are not dis- 
tant that may admit of a Trial) to revive at least such part of the civil 
Authority '97 by which Justice may be administered to the Community. 
Individuals will then be freed from the Burthen of adjusting Mercan- 
tile disputes, and I shall be relieved from a most fatiguing anxious 
situation. But I beg you will assure the Chamber of Commerce that 
in all situations I shall ever retain the highest sense of the Assistance 
and Support they have afforded me. 

I am, with regard, Sir, 
Your most obed't, and most humble Serv't, 
Andrew Elliot, Super't General. 

Isaac Low, Esq., Pres't Ch. of Commerce. 



270 new york chamber of commerce. 

Sir, 

The satisfaction I have on enquiry that you have impar- 
tially decided on the matter in dispute between Mr. Stone and Mr. 
Burke (my partner) induces me to take this opportunity to assure you 
that the Conversation that passed, on the Evening following, twixt you 
and I was never intended as an insult to your decision on that head, 
and, if you think so, that I am sorry for it, and do now assure you 
(though a Stranger) no man can respect the Chamber of Commerce 
more than I do, from the Laudable purposes, I am informed, they 
meet on for the good order of Trade and the Convenience of their fel- 
low Citizens ; therefore hope you will be kind enough to assure the 
Committee of your meeting of those my sentiments and that I am, with 
great respect. Theirs and your most pbe't servant, 

Owen Bannon. 

New York, October, 1781. 

Mr. John Tench, President of a former Committee of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 

And debates arising thereon whether the concession 
made by Mr. Banan is satisfactory or not, 

Agreed — That it is satisfactory. 

The Committee for last month, not having done any 
business, they are hereby appointed for the Present month 
and until! the first Tuesday in November next. 

Mr. President having communicated a Letter from 
the Hon'ble George K. Elphinston," Commander of his 
Majesty's Ship Warwick,''^ Convoy to Troop Ships 
and private Merchantmen to Halifax and Quebec, repre- 
senting the 111 conduct of two of the Convoy belonging to 
this Port. 

Ordered — That the President give the Thanks of this 
Corporation to Capt. Elphinston for the information 
therein : that Capt. Elphinston be requested to order 
the Copy of the Log Books for the further information 
of this Corporation, And that they may have his leave to 
publish his Letter. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 27I 

Warwick, off New York, 28th Sept., 1781. 
Gentlemen : 

Some time ago His Majesty's Ship under my 
Command was ordered to protect a Fleet of Troop Ships to Quebec. 
About the time of sailing ''9 many private traders applyed for Instruc- 
tions which were very readily granted, and every possible attention for 
their Security given. Yet, notwithstanding, two Brigs ^°^ belonging to this 
Port found means to quit the Convoy and are said to have been taken 
by the Rebels. I therefore think it incumbent on me to inform any 
gentlemen who may have insured any part of these Brigs that I have 
reason to suspect their Conduct and that any information that the Log 
Books of the Warwick or Garland ^°' can furnish is at the In- 
surer's ^°^ service. 

I am, with much esteem. Gentlemen, 

Your most ob'dt and hon'ble servant, 

G. K. Elphinston. 
Chamber of Commerce, New York. 



Sir, 

I am happy in taking the earliest opportunity of conveying the grate- 
full sense the Chamber of Commerce entertain for the Favor conferred on 
them by your Letter of 28th Ult., relative to the two Vessells belonging to 
this Port who quitted your Convoy bound to Quebec and are since said to 
be taken by the Rebels. As a Mercantile Body, the Chamber hold them- 
selves bound to the Community to avail themselves of every means in their 
Power to detect the Frauds which there is so much reason to apprehend 
have been practised on both sides of the water since the commencement of 
this most unnatural Rebellion. ™^ I am, therefore, directed by the Chamber 
of Commerce to return you the Thanks of that Corporation, which I am 
proud to have the honor of doing, for your kind communication, and also to 
accept your further obliging offer of the Extracts relative to those Vessells 
from the Log Books of the Warwick and Garland; which, together 
with your Letter on that subject, they beg to have your permission to 
Publish. 

I have the Honor to be, with great respect, by order of the Corporation 
of the Chamber of Commerce, Sir, 

Your most obedient and most H'ble Servant, 

Isaac Low, President 
The Hon'ble Cap. Elphinston. 

New York, Optober 3d, 1781. 



272 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th October, 1781. 
SPECIAL MEETING. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice do. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

James Douglass, William Hodgzard, 

John Murray, William Seton, 

John McAdam, Frederick Rhinelander, 

William Backhouse, Joseph AUicocke, 

Richard Sharpe, Daniel McCormick, 

Thomas C. Williams, Alexan'r Forteach, 

Gerrard Walton, Henry Brevoort, 

John Ponsonby, Joshua Watson, 

Augustus Van Home, Oliver Templeton, 

John Miller, William Walton, 

William Laight, Abram Walton, 

William Lowther, Samuel Donaldson, 

William Ustick, Patrick McDavitt, 

John Moore, John Tench, 
David Seabury. 

The President communicated a Letter from Governor 
Robertson, signifying that the Admiral was in want of a 
number of Seamen to man the Fleet ^°* in this particular 
Season of events ; wherefore, this Corporation, taking the 
Governor's requisition into consideration, think it of the 
utmost importance to his Majesty's service that every aid 
be given thereto; they unanimously agree that this Cor- 
poration will raise among themselves the Sum of Four 
Hundred Guineas, to be paid in Bountys^' to the Seamen 
that shall enter as Volunteers, 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th November, 1781. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 273 

Jacob Watson, William Backhouse, 

William Lowther, Henry Brevoort, 

William Laight, Augustus Van Home, 

Gerrard Walton, William Walton. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clpck : 

Alexanr. Forteath, James Douglas, 

Andrew Kerr, Samuel Donaldson, 

William Pagan, John Moore, 

Fred'k Rhinelander, John Miller, 

William Ustick, Patrick McDavitt, 

Daniel McCormick. 



Ordered — That Messrs. Gerrard Walton, Frederick 
Rhinelander, Lawrence Kortright, Augustus Van Home, 
Alexander Wallace, and John Miller, be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in December next, to hear and 
determine disputes between parties submitting the same 
to their determination, and that they do report their pro- 
ceedings to this Corporation. 

Disputes having arisen between the owners of Ves- 
sells and Freighters on Voyages intended to be made to 
Virginia, which have not been performed, and it appears 
that William Lowther, owner of one Vessell, and Mr. 
Hodgzard, owner of another ; Mr. Douglas, a Freighter 
for himself and others, desire to have the opinion of the 
Chamber at large. 

And debates having arisen, it was determined — 

That a moiety of the Freight paid shall be detained by 
the owner of the Vessell, or if any have not paid they then 
do pay half the agreed freight, the Voyage having been 
set aside by the mutual consent. 

18 



274 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th December, 1781. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Pres't. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
WilUam Laight, Edward Laight, 

Patrick McDavitt, Jacob Watson, 

John Oothout, , Thomas C. Williams, 

Alexan'r Wallace, Gerrard Walton, 

John Moore, Wilham Backhouse, 

Abram Walton, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

William Lowther, OUver Templeton. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Murray, John Miller, 

John Tench. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Samuel Donaldson, William 
Backhouse, Richard Sharpe, John Murray, Jacob Wat- 
son, William Kenyon, and John McAdam, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in January next, to hear 
and determine disputes between parties submitting such 
to their determination and that they do report their 
proceedings to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d January, 1782. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Edward Laight, Jacob Watson, 

William Lowther. 

After six o'clock : 

Wiliiam Backhouse, James Douglas, 

David Seabury. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



275 



Committee for January : William Pagan, Edward 
Goold, John Oothout, Oliver Templeton, John Tench, 
William Ustick. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, jth Februafy, 1782. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Prt. 

_ Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Oliver Templeton, John Tench, 

William Kenyon, David Seabury, 

William Backhouse, Augustus Van Home, 

Samuel Hake, Edward Laight, 

Patrick McDavitt, Abram Walton, 

William Laight, Jacob Watson, 

William Pagan, Gerrard Walton, 
John Miller. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Isaac Low, Frederick Rhinelander, 

Daniel McCormick, Robert R. Waddel, 

John Oothout. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Lowther, Henry 
Brevoort, John Taylor, William Laight, Patrick Mc- 
Davitt, Richard Smith, and David Seabury, be a Com- 
mittee untill the first Tuesday in March next, to hear 
and determine disputes between parties submitting such 
to their determination, and that they do report their 
proceedings to this Corporation. 

Mr. President having convened many of the Mem- 
bers on the 9th Ultimo in consequence of a Letter rec'd 
from the Magistrates of Police, intimating that the 
arrival of the Provision Fleets^"* had reduced the price 
of Flour, he was directed to reply thereto, and both 



276 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Letters are now ordered to be transcribed in the minutes 
as follows :^ 

Police, 8th January, 1782. 
Sir, 

We are informed from the arrival of the Provision Fleet, and 
a number of Prizes, "^7 that the price of Flour is at present reduced, 
and in all probability will continue so for some time. The Chamber 
of Commerce favoring us with the average price of Flour, and their 
opinion of the necessary alteration in the price of Bread, we shall 
immediately lay it before the Commandant for his orders to regulate 
Bread accordingly. If the Chamber of Commerce would be so good 
as to favor us Monthly with their opinion in regard to the price of 
Flour and Bread, we should esteem it a favor. 
We are, with much esteem, 

Sir, Your most obedt. hble servts., 

Andrew Elliot, Supert. Genl. 
D. Mathews, Mayor. 
Isaac Low, Esqr., 

President of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Gentlemen, 

I convened the Chamber of Commerce yesterday, on purpose to 
take into consideration the Letter you honored me with relative to the Price 
of Flour. It is their opinion that the present price of the best fresh Flour 
may be estimated at 56s. p. ct, and, as it is a common practice with the 
Bakers to give Eight Pounds of Bread for Seven Pounds of Flour, and as 
they also gave a Loaf weighing Two Pounds for sixteen Coppe 's ^"^ when the 
Price of Flour was estimated at 70s. per ct., the Chamber of Commerce think 
they can at the present price, equally, if not better, afford to give a Quarter 
of a Pound more in each Loaf for Fourteen Coppers. 

Upon this principle, then, the Long Loaf of the best flour ought to weigh 
Two Pounds and a Quarter, and the Round Loaf Two Pounds and Three 
Quarters for one shilling. The Chamber are, however, sorry to be under 
the necessity of reminding the Police that the last regulation of the heavy 
round Loaves has never, that they can learn, been regarded. And it is too 
evident to require illustration, that unless it be vigilantly and strictly enforced 
[zV] must entirely defeat the whole intention of regulating the Price of Bread, 
and throw all the difference between the price of good and bad Flour altoge- 
ther into the Bakers' Pockets. 

If, therefore, the Bakers can be compelled to make no long Loaves of any 
but the best Flour, and to make up all other that is in the least degree defi- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 277 

cient in fineness or any other respect into tiie round heavy Loaves, and 
that both the long and round Loaves be properly baked and dryed, and not 
delivered, as is too often the case, in so moist a state as to defeat the inten- 
tion of Weighing, the Chamber will be both proud and happy to contribute 
their aid to a Measure in which the Good of the Public is so deeply inter- 
ested. But untill then all other Efforts must prove nugatory and vain. 
I have the honor to be, 

By order of the Chamber of Commerce, 
Gentlemen, &c., 

Isaac Low, President. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th March, 1782. 

Present. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Edward Laight, Gerrard Walton, 

William Laight, William Lowther, 

William Backhouse, William Kenyon, 

Frederick Rhinelander. 



Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

William Pagan, Thomas Buchanan, 

Vincent P. Ashfield, James Douglass, 

Joshua Watson, Richard Smith, 

John Murray, Ohver Templeton, 

Thomas C. Williams, John Miller, 

David Seabury, Andrew Kerr, 

Patrick McDavitt, Samuel Hake, 
John Ponsonby. 



Governor Robertson enclosed a Memorial of the 
Proprietors of Wharfs^"' in this City, praying for an in- 
crease of the pay of Vessels Wharfage/'" which being de- 
bated, the consideration thereof was postponed untill the 
next meeting, that they may inform themselves on the 
Merits of the Petition. 



278 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Vincent P. Ashfield, Joshua 
Watson, Abram Walton, James Douglass, Samuel Hake, 
Joseph Allicocke, and John Ponsonby, be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in April next, to hear and 
determine disputes between parties submitting the same 
to their determination, and that they do report their pro- 
ceedings to this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d April, 1782. 

4 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
David Seabury, Alexander Wallace, 

William Kenyon. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

WiUiam Backhouse, Samuel Donaldson, 

James Douglass, John Taylor, 

John McAdam, Daniel McCormick, 

Richard Smith, John Tench, 

Richard Sharpe, Joshua Watson, 

WiUiam Lowther, William Ustick, 

Patrick McDavitt, Joseph Allicocke, 

John Murray, Samuel Hake. 

Ordered — That Messrs. William Seton, Gabriel H. 
Ludlow, Edward Laight, Richard Yates, Daniel McCor- 
mick, Hugh -Wallace, and Gerr'd Walton, be a Com- 
mittee, untill the first Tuesday in May next, to hear and 
determine disputes between parties submitting such to 
their determination, and that they do report their pro- 
ceedings to this Corporation. 

The Petition of Owners of Wharfs to Governor 
Robertson having been duly considered by the Chamber, 
they are of opinion : 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



279 



That all Owners of Wharfs who shall produce a Certificate from 
the Wardens of the Port that their Wharves are in perfect repair and good 
condition, shall hereafter be intitled to receive from all Masters and Owners 
of Vessells that shall lay fast'ned thereto, for every Vessell not exceeding 
100 Tons Carpenter's measurement, at the rate of three shillings p. Day : 
for all Vessells above 100 Tons and not exceeding 300 Tons, 4s 6d p. Day ; 
and all Vessels above 300 Tons 6s p. Day. 

That all Vessells laying in the outside Berths of the above description to 
pay one half of the above rated Wharfage. 

Whereupon the President wrote the following Letter 
to his Excellency the Governor : 

Sir, 

I have the honor to inclose the opinion of the Chamber of Commerce 
on the Petition your Excellency was pleased to ref^r to their consideration, 
relative to the increase of wharfage and putting and keeping the Wharf in 
repair, so necessary for the accomodation of Trade. 

Those Regulations they conceive will be perfectly agreeable, as well 
to those who pay as to those who receive Wharfage ; and should they be 
honored with your Excelly's approbation, may be put into immediate exe- 
cution. 

The President laid before the Chamber Copies of 
Letters from Capt. St. Clair™ to the President, and one 
from him to Capt. St. Clair, [^wkic/i] were in the words 
following : 

Commandant's Office, 2d March, 1782. 
Sir, 

In consequence of an application from Mr. William Lyon and 
Mr. yohn McCole (recommended by the Magistrates of Police) to 
have a matter of theirs, which has been before a Committee of the 
Chamber of Commerce, laid before the Chamber at large, the Com- 
mandant requests you will please to direct the Gentlemen who com- 
pose that body to meet, when it may be convenient to you and them, 
to hear the parties and report to him your opinion. I have the honor 
to be, Sir, your most obed't H'ble Serv't, 

Jno. St. Clair, Secr'y."' 



28o new york chamber of commerce. 

Capt. St. Clair: 

As I was lame, and could not attend the Chamber of Commerce, I 
sent the Letter you honored me with to Mr. Buchanan, the Vice-President, 
who Informs me that they investigated very minutely the proceedings of 
their Committee from the papers which they were possessed of relative to 
Claims of Mr. William Lyon and Mr. John McCole, which were not (as 
they supposed) passed over unnoticed, but, on the contrary, fully considered ; 
and the Chamber do intirely concur with the Monthly Committee that the 
Claimants are not intitled to any damages from the Vessel, Master, or 
Mariners, for any deficiency or supposed embezzlement alledged against 
them. I have, &c., 

Isaac Low. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th May, 1782. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Pres't. 
Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Patrick McDavitt, William Backhouse, 

Alex'r Wallace, WiU'm Kenyon, 

John Miller. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Joshua Watson, John Obthout, 

Robert R. Waddel, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Thomas Buchanan, WilUam Laight, 

Thomas C. WiUiams, , John Ponsonby, 

William Pagan, Richard Sharpe, 

Samuel Donaldson, Daniel McCormick, 

Samuel Hake, David Seabury, 

Oliver Templeton, Frederick Rhinelander, 
Richard Yates. 

The President laid before the Chamber a Letter 
from Admiral Digby"^^ to Governor Robertson, dated 
the 3d April, when a Special Meeting took the same into 
consideration, and thereupon ordered the President to 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. iSl 

reply thereto. Both Letters are here transcribed, and 
Mr. President's Letter approved of: 

New York, April 3d, 1782. 

Sir, 

There are already above one Thousand Men out in Privateers, 
and four more ready, to man which will take above 200 men. I must 
therefore beg your Excellency will withhold granting any more Com- 
missions till the return of some of the large Privateers whose cruizes 
are expired, as there are two frigates*'^ now in the port that cannot be 
sent to sea for want of men. 

At the same time, I beg it may be understood that I mean to give 
all the encouragement to Privateers in my power, whenever the King's 
service will permit. 

But I must beg leave to take this opportunity of informing your 
Excellency that unless they are kept within bounds, it will be impos- 
sible to carry on the King's service : and that the Perseverance, be- 
longing to Messrs. King^'' & Kemble, and commanded by Mr. Ross,^'* 
has sailed without my pass, and returned to the Hook and sailed again 
after bidding defiance to the Guard Ship and King's Boats, which, if 
suffered to pass unnoticed, must in the end prove a great detriment to 
my Intentions. I have tlje honor to be 

Your Excellency's very ob't servant, 
(Signed,) Robt. Digby. 

His Excellency Lieut. Gen. Robertson. 

Sir, 

I took the earliest opportunity of laying before the Chamber of 
Commerce the Letter relative to privateers which Your Excellency received 
from the Admiral and did me the honor to inclose for that purpose. 

The Chamber of Commerce are exceeding sorry to find his Excellency 
the Admiral intimates that encouraging privateers is incompatible with and 
prejudicial to the King's Service. 

They flattered themselves the reasons urged in a Memorial (a copy of 
which we now beg leave to inclose) presented to his Excellency on that sub- 
ject should, after his arrival to this Command, had convinced him of the 
contrary position 

That there may be Individuals (from which perhaps no Community is 
exempt) who may be disposed to transgress or have actually violated the 
Stipulations set forth in that Memorial in which privateers were permitted 
to fit out, the Chamber of Commerce cannot but sincerely regret and would 



282 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

wish they might on due conviction be punished according to the nature of 
their oiFence, but to take out a great part of the best men and put them on 
board Men of War and thereby in a manner breaking up the Cruise 
without regularly trying the offenders are terms too hard for any owners, 
however opulent, to attempt to combat. 

The best human Laws and Institutions are liable to abuse, but to abolish 
them altogether for that reason were to render the remedy far worse than 
the disease and therefore cannot be the bounds, within which unless priva- 
teering be kept, his Excellency the Admiral means to be understood it will 
be impossible to carry on the King's Service. 

Past uniform experience abundantly justifies us in observing to your 
Excellency that however difficult it may be to carry on the King's Service, 
unless Privateers are kept within bounds, it wiU be found much more so if 
these bounds be reduced to too narrow a compass. 

Due encouragement to Privateers is in other words only to tempt both 
Landsmen as well as Seamen by the most powerful inducements, that of 
making it their Interest, to resort from aU parts of the Continent to this port. 
Nor has any Maxim obtained more universal assent than that all wise 
Governments should assiduously consult and attend to the Temper and 
Genius of the people, and it is notorious that the Genius of no people was 
ever more peculiar or conspicuous than that of the Americans for Privateer- 
ing. "= If therefore, that Genius be counteracted it must necessarily produce 
the evils inseparable from such conduct in all other Cases. 

Within bounds or due encouragement being however indefinite Terms, 
we beg leave to explain to Your Excellency what we mean by the latter, as 
we wish upon an important an occasion to be well understood. 

Due encouragement then in our idea to privateers, or in other words to 
increase the number of Seamen in this Port, and thereby upon any grand 
emergency more effectually to man his Majesty's Ships consists in a few 
simple obvious Principles, not merely to be published to the world, but 
strictly and invariably adhered to, viz : 

To impress no man returning from Captivity by Cartel or Escape untill 
their return to this Port after performing one Voyage. 

To impress no man on shore or from any outward bound Vessels, 
but that this Port should really and truly be an asylum to all of the above 
description, except as is before mentioned, on some grand emergency, for, 
rather than be liable to an impress on board Men of War on their arrival 
here before they have made a Voyage, experience has fully evinced they 
will enter on Board Merchant Vessels and Privateers amongst the Rebels. 

If, therefore, there were Ten Thousand men instead of only One 
Thousand in Privateers from this Port, it were far less an Evil considered 
in the most unfavorable hght, even supposing not one of them could ever be 
got to enter on Board the King's Ships, than to have them in Privateers 
acting against us, which would certainly be the alternative. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 283 

Having thus presumed to give your Excellency our Candid sentiments 
about Privateers ; We bfg leave to add that although it may not be thought 
expedient to give encouragement to them, in the full extent we have men- 
tioned : unless his Excellency, the Admiral, can permit Privateers to fit 
out and Man in this Port upon more liberal and permanent Principles 
than are now granted, particularly as to the number of Men on board 
each Privateer, what is called encouragement is only specious and does not 
merit that appelation. For at present, Privateers, instead of running to 
Men of War for protection, and giving as they might often do, important 
intelligence, they avoid and run from them as they would from an enemy 
for tear of losing many of their Men ; and therefore rather than have 
Privateering admitted upon the present loose footing, the Chamber of 
Commerce evidently wish, and here they are confident they express the 
general sentiments of the Citizens of New York, that if his Excellency, the 
Admiral, can reconcile it with his Ideas of promoting the King's Service, 
Privateering out of this Port may be not only restrained within bounds, but 
altogether suppressed, fdr, although some may thereby be deprived the 
pleasure of being enriched by the Spoils of their Enemies, all will at least 
be. reUeved from the stinging reproach of obstructing his Majesty's Service. 

On the footing of favor they wish not to be gratified in Privatereing, 
nor on any other than that of its being considered and encouraged as one 
of the best means of annoying and humbling his Majesty's Enemies. 

The late unfortunate disasters, the few arrivals, and the peculiar dulness 
of Trade, all conspire to render the want of Seamen greater than usual : 
but when it is considered how many Vessels have been purchased and 
manned for the Public Service, ^'^ besides the King's Ships of various deno- 
minations, and the great number of Seamen which this Port has constantly 
furnished. We rather wonder whence they could be collected than that no 
more have offered, and in this important point of View we are confident this 
Port can be exceeded by none upon this Continent, and perhaps is not far 
below the second in Great Britain. 



Ordered — That Messrs. William Backhouse, Au- 
gustus Van Home, Frederick Rhinelander, John Miller, 
Jacob Watson, Will'm Kenyon, and Alexander Wallace, 
be a Committee untill the first Tuesday in June next, to 
hear and determine disputes between parties submitting 
such to their determination, and that they do report their 
proceedings to this Corporation. 

The Royal Charter, as well as the Laws of this 
Corporation, appoint this Day for the Election of Officers 



284 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

for the ensuing Year, when the following Gentlemen were 
balloted for, and duly elected : 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, 1 ,^. ^ . , 

_ -ritT > Vice- r residents. 

Jacob Walton, j 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

And all except Mr. Jacob Walton, who was not pres- 
ent, were duly sworn agreeable to the Charter to execute 
their respective offices. 

Ordered — That the Committee of the Month Audit 
the Treasurer's Accounts. / 

Ordered — That Mr. Treasurer demand from each 
Member 40s. in advance towards the expence of the Cham- 
ber, and that it be repaid, or a proportion thereof, out of 
the Fines to be collected. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th June, 1782. 

Present. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

Vincent P. Ashfield, Joseph AUicocke, 

Richard Sharpe, William Backhouse. 

Committee in Rotation to hear and determine dis- 
putes until the first Tuesday in July next : John Murray, 
Samuel Donaldson, John L. McAdam, Patrick McDavitt, 
John Oothout, Edward Got)ld, Thomas Goodwin. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 2d July, 1782. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Garrard Walton, William Laight, 

William Backhouse. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 285 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

David Seabury, Samuel Hake, 

John Murray, Edward Goold, 

William Kenyon, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

Samuel Donaldson, Patrick McDavitt, 

Robert R. Waddell, Alexan. Wallace, 

Oliver Templeton, Richard Sharpe, 

Isaac Low, Fred. Rhinelander, 

Andrew Kerr, Thomas Buchanan, 

Daniel McCormick, John Oothout, 
Thomas Goodwin. 

The Register of tlie Monthly Committee's decisions 
being mislaid : 

Ordered — That the Committee for the present month, 
or any member, make enquiry for the same; when found, de- 
liver it to the Secretary, that their reports may be entered. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Oliver Templeton, John 
Taylor, Andrew Kerr, John Tench, Henry Brevoort, 
William Pagan, and William Ustick, be a Committee, 
untill the first Tuesday in August next, to hear and deter- 
mine disputes between parties submitting the same to their 
determination, and that they do report their proceedings 
to this Corporation. 

Ordered — That the President do write to General 
Robertson, requesting to know whether the Letter writ- 
ten to him on the subject of Privateering had been laid 
before the Admiral, and whether any or what Answer had 
been given thereto ; and also that he write to the Admi- 
ral, representing that the Trade and Fishery was unpro- 
tected, and requesting that some means may be pursued so 
as to encourage the Fishermen to take Fish for a supply to 
this Garrison, and that its Commerce may not be annoyed 
by the Privateers and Whaleboats that infest even the 
Narrows/'' 



286 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th August, 1782. 
Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice do. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Backhouse, William Lowther, 

Patrick McDavitt, Oliver Templeton, 

Alexander Wallace. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Murray, Vincent P. Ashfield, 

David Seabury, Frederick Rhinelander, 

Andrew Kerr, Richard Yates, 

Thomas Buchanan, Jacob Watson, 

Samuel Hake. 

Committee in Rotation to hear and determine Dis- 
putes between parties until the first Tuesday in September 
next : Richard Smith, William Lowther, David Seabury, 
William Laight, Abraham Walton, Vincent P. Ashfield, 
and Daniel McCormick. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d September, 1782. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Lowther, William Laight, 

WiUiam Backhouse, Vincent P. Ashfield. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Murray, David Seabury, 

Henry Brevoort, John Tench, 

Richard Yates, William Pagan, 

Joseph AUicocke, Jacob Watson, 

Samuel Hake, Richard Smith, 

John Oothout, Richard Sharpe, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 287 

Patrick McDavitt, Joshua Watson, 

Alexan'r Wallace, Pred. Rhinelander, 

Robert R. Waddell, Samuel Donaldson, 

Abraham Walton. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Ponsonby, Joseph Al- 
licocke, Samuel Hake, Richard Yates, William Seton, 
Hugh Wallace, and Gabriel H. Ludlow, be a Committee 
untill the first Tuesday in Oct. next, to hear and deter-, 
mine Disputes between Parties submitting such to their 
judgment, and that they do report their proceedings to 
this Corporation. 

Disputes having subsisted between Robert JVilkins, 
assured, and John Porteous"^ & Patrick Reed, assurers, on 
the Kitty and Polly from St. Augustine to New York, 
which was referred by the Magistrates of Police to the 
Monthly Committee, who thought that as their decision 
might be brought into precedent, prayed the opinion of 
the Chamber at large, who having heard the Evidences, it 
did appear: 

That the Kitty and Polly departed from New York to St. Augustine, where 
the Factor was to load her back to New York ; before the Owners heard of 
her Arrival there they caused Insurance to be made from St. Augustine to 
New York on Vessell and Goods. 

Her fate was not known when a dispatch Vessell arrived from St. Augus- 
tine, the master informed that the Kitty and Polly ^" was to sail from St. John's 
River, a member of St. Augustine, the same day, or about that time that the 
dispatch Vessell departed ; on which the Broker, at the desire of Mr. John 
Tench, was directed to inform the Assurers of that circumstance, and to learn 
their opinion whether the risque was still good. The Broker related that he 
had waited upon Mr. John Porteous, one of the underwriters, who replied 
that he considered the Vessell out of time, and therefore declared off the 
risque, but did not see Mr. Patrick Reed, the other underwriter. The as- 
sured was advis'd presently that after that it would be best to avoid difficul- 
ties to offer the Assurers an advance premium, rather than leave the mat- 
ter in an uncertain state ; if that could not be effected to promote a new In- 
surance, which could not be procured, when the Assured desired the Broker 
to propose to the underwriters to leave it to reference whether the Assurers 



2»» NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

were on or not : His evidence was that they, or one of them, totally declined 
a submission to an award of Arbitrators. These overtures were before the 
fate of the Kitty and Polly was known. All the parties attended who had 
an Agency in this business, and it was generally agreed that the risque from 
St. John's River was rather less hazardous than from the Harbor of 
St. Augustine, and the Assurers themselves acknowledged that they would 
as readily have wrote from St. John's River, as from the Town of St. 
Augustine, when the application was first made. 

It may be remarked that Mr. yohn Tench as well z& Mr. Robert Wilkins 
were interested in this Vessell and Cargo. That all the Insurance for the 
concerned was directed to be done by Mr. Tench. That Mr. Tench having 
doubts, when the dispatch Boat arrived, about the Vessell's sailing from St. 
John's instead of St. Augustine Harbor, he applied to the underwriters on his 
Policy, who agreed that a note should be mp.de thereon, taking the risque 
from St. John's. This led him to make the same application to the Assu- 
rers on Mr. Wilkins' policy, through the Broker, which was done without 
the privity oiMr. Wilkins, and he (Mr. Wilkins) knew of nothing being done 
therein untill the underwriters, or one of them, refused to continue the risque. 
From all the Facts being collected, and that it appears by the Protest of the 
Master that he sailed in and with the said Kitty and Polly, at the time the 
Master of the Dispatch Vessel did ; that she was taken the third day after 
her departure, and sent into Georgetown.^^" Two points arise that are dis- 
putable. 

1st. Whether St. John's River can be considered at and from Augus- 
tine, and 

2d. Whether, if so, that the underwriters are held to pay the loss, as they 
declined being on the Risque after they had declared off, before it was known 
she was taken. 

To THE First it was debated and generally acknowledged that St. John's 
is the principal port of Newfoundland, as Kingston is the principal port of 
Jamaica, yet that if a Vessell is insured from Newfoundland or Jamaica, the' 
she sails from an outport, so [although^ the Kitty and Polly sail'd from St. 
John's River in St. Augustine it is held to be valid. 

To THE Second, jvhen it was asked, and the underwriters declared off 
the Risque, it did not appear to the Chamber that they were discharged 
because it was requiring their sentiments to avoid Disputes, and the assured 
never gave up his Claim. 

This Corporation divided thereon, and a great 
Majority were of opinion that the Underwriters were 
bound to pay a total loss agreeable to the Policy. 

Mr. John Strachan having been proposed at a former 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 289 

Meeting, was balloted for and unanimously elected a 
Member of this Corporation. 

Ordered — That notice be sent to him by the Secretary, 
in writing, that he was unanimously elected. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist October, 1782. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Laight, John Strachan, 

Samuel Hake, William Backhouse, 

Joshua Watson, Jacob Watson, 

Frederick Rhinelander. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Oliver Templeton, Joseph AUicocke, 

John Oothout, John Murray, 

Thomas Buchanan, William Pagan, 
John Miller. 

Committee in Rotation to hear and determine 
disputes between parties untill the first Tuesday in 
November next : Augustus Van Home, Gerrard Wal- 
ton, Joshua Watson, John Strachan, John Miller. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, sth November, 1782. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Alexander Wallace, William Laight, 

Gerrard Walton, William Pagan. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Joseph AUicocke, John Strachan, 

John Oothout, William Backhouse, 

19 



290 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Frederick Rhinelander, Augustus Van Home, 

John Miller, Patrick McDavitt, 

Jacob Watson. 

Committee in Rotation to hear and determine dis- 
putes between parties untill the first Tuesday in Decem- 
ber next : William Kenyon, Jacob Watson, Richard 
Sharpe, Alexan'r Wallace, Frederick Rhinelander. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 3d December, 1782. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-Pres't. 

Robert R. Waddle, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Jacob Watson, John Murray, 

Richard Sharpe, Oliver Templeton, 

William Backhouse, John Taylor, 

William Laight, Edward Laight, 

Richard Yates, David Seabury, 

Alex. Wallace. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Strachan, Samuel Hake, 

John Miller, Joseph Allicocke, 

Daniel McCormick. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Patrick McDavitt, William 
Backhouse, John L. McAdam, John Murray, and 
Samuel Donaldson, be a Committee untill the first 
Tuesday in January next, to hear and determine dis- 
putes between parties submitting such to their determi- 
nation, and that they do report their proceedings to 
this Corporation. 

The Commandant having recommended a rehearing 
of a dispute between the owners of the Kidnapper and 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 29I 

Ranger, and having heard the parties, the Chamber at 
large confirm their Committee's Opinion. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 7th January, 1783. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Thomas Buchanan, Vice-President. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Edward Laight, Alexan. Wallace, 

William Lowther, John Strachan, 
William Backhouse, John Murray, 

Gerrard Walton, William Walton. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

John Oothout, Patrick McDavitt, 

John Miller, Oliver Templeton, 

Jacob Watson, William Ustick, 

Andrew Kerr, John Tench, 

John Ponsonby, Samuel Donaldson. 



Ordered — That Messrs. Oliver Templeton, John 
Tench, John Oothout, Edward Goold, and Thomas 
Goodwin, be a Committee untill the first Tuesday in 
February next, to hear and determine disputes between 
parties submitting such to their determination, and that 
they do report their proceedings to this Corporation. 

Mr. Strachan, partner to Lee &? Strachan, having made 
an application to the Commandant and the Police, and 
they requesting the Chamber at large to take up a dispute 
between them and Robert Hoakesley, and debates thereon 
arising the Corporation decided, thereupon it appeared 
that there were for rehearing - 5 

against it - - 17 



1^2 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

Mr. John McKenzie having been proposed at a for- 
mer meeting, was balloted for and unanimously elected. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send him notice in 
writing that he was unanimously elected a Member of 
this Corporation. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th February, 1783. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

William Lowther, John Murray, 

David Seabury, Andrew Kerr, 

Samuel Donaldson, Samuel Hake, 

Thomas Goodwin, William Backhouse, 

John McKenzie, John Ponsonby. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

Vincent P. Ashfield, William Laight. 

Committee in Rotation to hear and determine dis- 
putes untill the first Tuesday in March next : Andrew 
Kerr, John Taylor, William Ustick, John McKenzie, 
and William Pagan. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 4th March, 1783. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
Jacob Watson, Thomas Goodwin, 

Joshua Watson, John Ponsonby, 

Frederick Rhinelander, Edward Laight, 

John Murray, John Tench, 

William Laight, Samuel Hake, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS, 293 

William Lowther, Andrew Kerr, 

John McKenzie, John Oothout, 

William Backhouse, Patrick McDavitt, 

Oliver Templeton, William Pagan, 

David Seabury, John Strachan. 

Messrs. Alexander Leckie, William Trenholm, Sam- 
uel Elam, and John Glover, having been proposed at a 
former Meeting were balloted for and unanimously 
elected. 

Ordered — That the Secretary send them notice in 
writing that they were unanimously elected Members of 
this Corporation. 

Ordered — That Messrs. Abram Walton, William 
Lowther, Daniel McCormick, William Laight, and 
David Seabury, be a Committee, untill the first Tuesday 
in April next, to hear and determine disputes between 
Parties submitting such to their determination, and that 
they do report their proceedings to this Corporation. 

Mr. Treasurer reported that he had rec'd from Mr. 
McEvers, former Treasurer, the Books belonging to this 
Corporation, and 

The President laid before the Chamber a Letter rec'd 
from Mr. McEvers, which was read, and ordered to be 
entered on the Minutes. 

Sir, 

My Friend Colonel Cruger ^" this Morning communicated to me that 
the Chamber of Commerce have (in consequence of my silence on a Letter 
rec'd from you as their representative, and from Mr. Van Dam) conceived 
an opinion of an intentional contempt to a Body corporate for whom I would 
wish to testify every mark of respect and esteem. As I ever have thought 
myself much honored in my appointment as an OfBcer to that Board, I of 
course do and shall continue to feel with greater concern the information 
received through my Friend. 

In the first place, I beg leave to say that the Idea of Contempt is re- 
moved from me beyond any descriptive distance ; and in the next place, 
that the cause of my silence was founded in the hope of long before this to 



294 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

have separated from my present small dependence as much as would have 
enabled me to have answered the purport and requisition of your Letter. 
This, with concern, I may say that I am not yet able to do, and that my 
wishes in this respect have long been thwarted by many in this City, who 
can and ought to give me my own. The Book and other matters in my 
charge belonging to the Board shall be sent to your present Treasurer on 
my return to my country Quarters ; and I have only to add that you will, 
I hope, at your next Meeting, do me the justice to represent the anxiety I 
have expressed to you on this occasion. 

I am, with regard, Sir, 

Your most obd't serv't, 

Charles McEvers. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, ist April, 1783. 

Present. 

Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

William Lowther, John Strachan, 

John McKenzie. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

William Backhouse, John Murray, 

WiUiam Trenholm, Oliver Templeton, 

William Kenyon, Patrick McDavitt, 

Isaac Low, Jacob Watson, 

Robert R. Waddel, Alexand'r Leckie, 

Thomas Buchanan, Gerrard Walton, 

David Seabury, John Ponsonby, 

Samuel Elam, John Glover, 

Daniel McCormick, WiUiam Laight. 

Ordered— That Messrs. Vincent P. Ashfield, John 
Ponsonby, Alexander Leckie, Joshua Watson, and Wil- 
liam Trenholme, be a Committee, untill the first Tuesday 
in May next, to hear and determine disputes between 
parties submitting such to their determination, and that 
they do report their proceedings to this Corporation. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 2g5 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 6th May, 1783. 

Present. 
Isaac Low, President. 

Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 
Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 
William Backhouse, ' Samuel Elam, 

William Pagan, Gerrard Walton, 

Alexand'r Leckie, William Lowther, 

John McKenzie. 

Fined for appearing after six o'clock : 

William Kenyon, Patrick McDavitt, 

John Glover, Samuel Hake, 

William Walton, Daniel McCormick, 

John Miller, Oliver Templeton, 

John Oothout, Robert Waddel, 

John Strachan, William Laight, 

Isaac Low, Frederick Rhinelander, 
Thomas Buchanan. 

Ordered — That Messrs. John Strachan, Samuel Elam, 
William Seton, John Glover, and Edward Laight, be a 
Committee untill the first Tuesday in June next, to hear 
and determine disputes between parties submitting such 
to their determination, and that they do report their pro- 
ceedings to this Corporation. 

The Charter as well as the laws of this Corporation 
appoint this day for the choice of Officers, when the fol- 
lowing Gentlemen were duly elected to serve the current 
year, and untill others be elected : 

Thomas Buchanan, President. 

Gerrard Walton, ) ^ . _ 

TTT TTT > Vice-Presidents. 

William Walton, J 

Robert R. Waddell, Treasurer. 

Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 



296 NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

And the Vice-Presidents, Treasurer and Secretary being 
sworn to execute their several offices, Mr. Buchanan 
having declined qualifying, when the Charter directs in 
such an event that another be chosen at the next meeting. 

Ordered — That Mr. Strachan, Mr. Glover, and Mr. 
Elam, be a Committee to audit the Treasurer's accounts 
and report thereon. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— Tuesday, 20th January, 1784. 

Present. 

President. 

Gerard Walton, 1 

WiUiam Walton, \ ^^^^ '^°- 

Robert R. Waddel, Treasurer. 
Secty. 
Andrew Kerr, Thomas Randall, 

Will'm Laight, Edward Goold, 

John Miller, Jacob Watson, 

John Alsop, Saml. Donaldson, 

William Backhouse, William Lowther, 

George Ludlow, August. Van Home, 

Oliver Templeton, John Murray, 

Robert Murray, Jacobus VanZandt, 

Theoph. Bache, Dan'l Ludlow, 

Walter Buchanan, Sam'l Elam. 

Mr. Bache's Motion seconded by R. R. Waddell— 
Whereas, a number of Gentlemen formerly Members of 
this Corporation, and who Resigned their seats on 
Account of a difference of sentiment Respecting the 
passing of Jersey money,"' and are now desirous of 
Becoming Members of the said Corporation. Mr. 
Bache proposes to the Chamber that the following Per- 
sons are admitted to be Members "' and Restored to their 
seats without being Balloted for: — Henry Remsen, Daniel 
Phenix, Isaac Sears, James Beekman, William Neilson, 
and Isaac Roosevelt. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



297 



Ordered — That Notice be sent to those Gentlemen 
to attend the Chamber at the next meeting. 

William Backhouse's Motion seconded by Wm. Laight. 
The Admittance to be a Member of the Chamber of 
Commerce is thought too high for the Propriety of 
Increase of the Chamber. William Backhouse Proposes 
that the fee of Admittance should be reduced to the 
sum of Eight Dollars."'* 

The following Gentlemen wish to become Members 
of this Corporation :^^^ 

Eleazer Miller, Cornelius Ray,^"' and Archibald 
Gamble, Proposed by Henry Remsen and Rob't R. 
Waddell ; Viner Vanzandt, Proposed by Jacobus Van- 
zandt; Sam'l Broome, Jacob Morris, James Stewart, John 
Woodward, Comfort Sands,'™ Robert Bowne,yy Moses 
Rogers, Sam'l Franklin, William Denning, John Shaw, 
Joseph Hallett, William Malcom, and Joshua Sands, ^^ 
Proposed by John Murray. 

Ordered — ^That the Treasurer pay the Bill of this 
night. 





NOTE. 



The Colonial Records properly close with the Meeting of 6 May, 

1783- 

The Colonial period may be considered to have ended with the 
evacuation of the City by the British and its occupation by the Ameri- 
can forces on the 25lh November, 1783. 

In the spring of 1 784 "a Number of the Members of the Chamber 
and other Citizens, on their return to this City, taking into Considera- 
tion the state of the Chamber, and being advised by Counsel that the 
Charter of the said Chamber had been forfeited and lost by reason of 
the Misuser and Nonuser of the same, they thought it most adviseable 
to petition the Legislature for a confirmation of the said Charter 
* * * * the Legislature taking the same into Consideration gi-anted 
the Prayer of their Petition, and did, on the Thirteenth day of April, 
pass a Law Intitled 'An Act to remove doubts concerning the 
Chamber of Commerce, and to confirm the Rights and Priviledges 
thereof" ' 

A Meeting was held on the 20th April, 1784, and the Chamber 
was reorganized. The Act of the Legislature altered the name of 
the Institution to The Chamber of Commerce of the State of 
New York. 



OFFICERS 



NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 
1768-1784. 



PRESIDENTS. 

PAGE ELECTED RETIRED PAGE 

4 1768 Aprils John Cruger 2 May 1770 100 

100 1770 May 2 Hugh Wallace 7 May 1771 128 

128 1771 May 7 Elias Desbrosses 5 May 1772 158 

158 1772 May 5 Henry White 4 May 1773 179 

179 1773 May 4 Theophylact Bache.... 2 May 1774 191 

191 1774 May 3 William Walton 3 May 1775. 202 

202 1775 May 2 Isaac Low 6 May 1783 295 

295 1783 May 6 * 13 April 1784 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

4 1768 Aprils Hugh Wallace 2 May 1770 100 

100 1770 May 2 Henry White 5 May 1772 158 

100 1770 May 2 Elias Desbrosses 7 May 1771 128 

128 1771 May 7 Theophylact Bache 4 May 1773 179 

158 1772 May 5 William Walton 2 May 1774 191 

179 1773 May 4 Isaac Low 3 May 1775 202 

191 1774 May 2 John Alsopt 7 Dec. 1779 218 

202 1775 May 3 Wilham McAdamt i Oct. 1779 — — 

2i8 1779 Dec. 7 Hugh Wallace i May 1781 254 

ii8 1779 Dec. 7 Thomas Buchanan i May 1781 295 

254 1781 May I Jacob Walton 6 May 1783 295 

29s 1783 May 6 Gerard Walton 13 April 1784 

295 1783 May 6 William Walton 13 April 1784 

* Thomas Bmhanan, elected May 6, 1783, but declining to qualify, the office was 
vacant until 13th April, 1784. t John Alsop retired from the city, 1776. 

X William McAdam died, ist Oct. 1779. 



JOO MEMBERS OF 

TREASURERS. 

PAGE ELECTED RETIRED PAGE 

4 1768 April 5 Elias Desbrosses 2 May 1770 100 

100 1770 May 2 Theophylact Bache 7 May 1771 128 

128 1771 May 7 William Walton S May 1772 158 

158 1772 May s Isaac Low 4 May 1773 179 

179 1773 May 4 John Alsop 2 May 1774 191 

191 1774 May 2 William McAdam 3 May 1775 202 

202 1775 May 3 Charles McEvers 2 May 1780 228 

228 1780 May 2 Robert Ross Waddell 13 April 1784 

SECRETARY. 

4 1768 Aprils Anthony Van Dam 13 April 1784 

MEMBERS OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

1768-1784. 

PAGE ELECTED LAST PRESENT PAGE 

18 1768 Oct. 4 Alexander, Robert 5 June 1781 259 

241 1780 Dec. 5 Allicocke, Joseph 3 Dec. 1782 290 

7 1768 April 5 Alsop, John 20 Jan. 1784 296 

116 1770 Dec. 4 Amiel, John 3 Nov. 1772 168 

234 1780 July 4 Ashfield, Vincent Pearce.. 4 Feb. 1783 292 

3 1768 Aprils Bache, Theophylact 20 Jan. 1784 296 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Backhouse, William 20 Jan. 1784 296 

71 1770 Jan. 2 Bayard, Samuel jr 7 Feb. 1775 200 

8 1768 May 3 Beekman, Gerard William. 4 April 1775 201 

59 1769 Oct. 3 Beekman, James 8 July 1772 161 

44 1769 May 2 Bogart, Henry C 3 Feb. 1773 173 

116 1770 Dec. 4 Booth, Benjamin 2 Nov. 1779 216 

218 1779 Dec. 7 Brevoort, Henry 3 Sep. 1782 286 

8 1768 May 3 Buchanan, Thomas ...... . 6 May 1783 295 

116 1770 Dec. 4 Buchanan, Walter 20 Jan. 1784 296 

48 1769 June 6 Bull, Joseph 2 May 1775 201 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Burnley, Harding 7 Nov. 1780 239 

8 1768 May 3 Clarkson, Levinus 3 Mar. 1772 150 

87 1770 April 3 Corsa, Isaac 7 Dec. 1779 217 

3 1768 April 5 Cruger, John .' 2 May 1775 201 

8 1768 May 3 Cruger, John Harris 7 Feb. 1775 200 

3 1768 Aprils Desbrosses, Elias 2 May 1775 201 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Donaldson, Samuel 20 Jan. 1784 296 

245 1781 Feb. 6 Douglass, James 2 April 1782 278 



THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. JOI 

PAGE ELECTED LAST PRESENT PAGE 

38 1769 Mar. 7 Duyckinck, Gerardus 8 July 1772 162 

293 1783 Mar. 4 Elam, Samuel..., 20 Jan. 1784 296 

177 1773 April 6 Fairholme, Johnston* ... . 7 Feb. 1775 200 

3 1768 April 5 Folliott, George 3 Jan. 1769 32 

24s 1781 Feb. 6 Forteath, Alexander 6 Nov. 1781 273 

3 1768 Aprils Franklin, Walter 2 May 1774 igo 

293 1783 Mar. 4 Glover, John J 6 May 1783 295 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Goodwin, Thomas 4 Mar. 1783 292 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Goold, Edward 20 Jan. 1784 296 

87 1770 April 3 Gouverneur, Harman.... 4 Feb. 1772 148 

8 1768 May 3 Gouverneur, Nicholas ... . 2 April 177 1 125 

124 1771 Mar. 5 Hake, Samuel 6 May 1783 295 

8 1768 May 3 Hasencliver, Peter 2 Aug. 1768 13 

245 1781 Feb. 6 Hodgzard, William 4 Oct. 1781 272 

34 1769 Jan. 3 Hoffman, Nicholas 5 Oct. 1779 213 

40 1769 April 4 Imlay, AVilliam 6 Oct. 1772 167 

206 1779 July 6 Jameson, Nielt 

3 1768 April 5 Jauncey, James 24 Mar. 1774 189 

185 1773 Dec. 7 Jauncey, William 2 May 1774 190 

59 1769 Oct. 3 Kemble, Samuel 3 June 1773 180 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Kenyon, William 6 May 1783 295 

217 1779 Nov. 2 Kerr, Andrew 20 Jan. 1784 296 

8 1768 May 3 Keteltas, Peter 4 April 1775 201 

3 1768 Aprils Kortright, Lawrence 8 May 1781 255 

13 1768 Aug. 2 Laight, Edward 4 Mar. 1783 292 

190 1774 May 2 Laight, William 20 Jan. 1784 296 

293 1783 Mar. 4 Leckie, Alexander 6 May 1783 295 

185 1773 Dec. 7 Lewis, Francis 2 May 1775 201 

51 1769 July 4 Lispenard, Leonard, jr. .. . 4 Oct. 1774 198 

7 1768 Aprils Livingston, Philip 6 Sep. 1768 14 

87 1770 April 3 Livingston, Robert C. .. . i Nov. 1774 199 

128 1771 May 7 Livingston, Robert G., jr. . 8 July 1772 161 

3 1768 Aprils Low, Isaac 6 May 1783 295 

218 1779 Dec. 7 Lowther, William 20 Jan. 1784 296 

177 1773 April 6 Ludlow, Danielf 20 Jan. 1784 296 

* Fairholme, Johnston, proposed at meeting of April 6, 1773. His election not 
noticed on minutes — appears in his seat, June i, 1773, p. 180. 

t yameson, Niel, does not appear ever to have taken his seat. 

} Ludlow, Daniel, proposed at meeting of April 6, 1 773. His election not noticed 
on minutes — appears in his seat, January 20, 1 784, p. 296. 



3'02 MEMBERS OF 

PAGE ELECTED LAST PRESENT PAGE 

8 1768 May 3 Ludlow, Gabriel H 8 Dec. 1780 242 

44 1769 May 2 Ludlow, George W 20 Jan. 1784 296 

34 1769 Jan. 3 Lynsen, Abraham 5 Mar. 1771 123 

211 1779 Aug. 3 McAdam, John Loudon.. 2 April 1782 278 

3 1768 April 5 McAdam, William 7 Sep. 1779 212 

211 1779 Aug. 3 McCormick, Daniel 6 May 1783 295 

211 .1779 Aug. 3 McDavitt, Patrick 6 May 1783 295 

64 1769 Nov. 7 McDonald, Alexander... 6 Oct. 1772 167 

8 1768 May 3 McEvers, Charles 2 May 1775 201 

7 1768 May 3 McEvers, James * — — 

292 1783 Jan. 7 McKenzie, John 6 May 1783 295 

8 1768 May 3 Marston, Thomas 2 June 1772 158 

206 1779 July 6 Miller, John 20 Jan. 1784 296 

53 1769 Aug. I Miller, Thomas 3 Aug. 1779 210 

8 1768 May 3 Moore, John 4 Dec. 1781 274 

18 1768 Oct. 4 Moore, Thomas William.. 8 July 1772 162 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Murray, John 20 Jan. 1784 296 

3 1768 April 5 Murray, Robert 20 Jan. 1784 296 

8 1768 May 3 Neilson, William 8 July 1772 161 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Nicoll, Charles 7 Nov. 1780 239 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Oothout, John 6 May 1783 295 

217 1779 Nov. 2 Pagan, William 6 May 1783 295 

116 1770 Dec. 4 Phenix, Daniel i Sep. 1772 165 

8 1768 May 3 Pintard, Lewis 4 Oct. 1774 198 

87 1770 April 3 Piatt, Jeremiah i Sep. 1772 165 

245 1781 Feb. 6 Ponsonby, John i April 1783 294 

206 1779 July 6 Ramadge, Smith i May 1781 253 

124 1771 Mar. 5 Ramsay, John i Sep. 1772 i(f^ 

3 1768 Aprils Randall, Thomas 20 Jan. 1784 296 

38 1769 Mar. 7 Rapalje, Garret 7 June 1774 193 

18 1768 Oct. 4 Reade, John 6 Oct. 1772 167 

13 1768 Aug. 2 Remsen, Henry, jr i Sep. 1772 165 

13 1768 Aug. 2 Remsen, Peter 4 Dec. 1770 115 

206 1779 July 6 Rhinelander, Frederick . . 6 May 1783 295 

34 1769 Jan. 3 Roosevelt, Isaac i Sep. 1772 165 

153 1772 Mar. 3 Schuyler, John 7 Feb. 1775 200 

222 1780 Feb. I Seabury, David i April 1783 294 

185 1773 Dec. 7 Seagrove, James 7 Feb. 1775 200 

* McEvers, James, never took his seat. He died 8th September, 1768. 



THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 303 

I 

PAGE ELECTED LAST PRESENT PAGE 

8 1768 May 3 Sears, Isaac 8 July 1772 161 

13 1768 Aug. 2 Seton, William 4 Oct. 1781 272 

13 1768 Aug. 2 Sharpe, Richard 3 Dec. 1782 290 

3 1768 Aprils Sherbrooke, Miles 7 Mar. 1775 200 

8 1768 May 3 Simson, Sampson i Sep. 1772 165 

225 1780 Mar. 7 Smith, Richard 3 Sep. 1782 286 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Spens, Walter 11 Aug. 1780 235 

38 1769 Mar. 7 Stepple, William 8 Dec. 1780 241 

288 1782 Sep. 3 Strachan, John 6 May 1783 295 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Taylor, John 3 Dec. 1782 290 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Templeton, Oliver 20 Jan. 1784 296 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Tench, John 4 Mar. 1783 292 

3 1768 Aprils Thompson, Acheson 5 July 1768 11 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Thompson, Henry* 

36 1769 Feb. 7 Thurman, John 2 May 1780 228 

293 1783 Mar. 4 Trenholm, William i April 1783 294 

,211 1779 Aug. 3 Ustick, William 7 Jan. 1783 291 

3 1768 April 5 Van Dam, Anthony 6 May 1783 295 

40 1769 April 4 Van Home, Augustus ... 20 Jan. 1784 296 

8 1768 May 3 Van Zandt, Jacobus 20 Jan. 1784 296 

3 1768 Aprils Verplanck, Samuel i Nov. 1774 199 

3 1768 Aprils Waddell, Robert Ross .. . 20 Jan. 1784 296 

8 1768 May 3 Wallace, Alexander 7 Jan. 1783 291 

3 1768 April s Wallace, Hugh 19 July 1781 262 

234 1780 July 4 Walton, Abraham 3 Sep. 1782 287 

8 1768 May 3 Walton, Gerard 20 Jan. 1784 296 

3 1768 April 5 Walton, Jacob 4 April 1775 201 

36 1769 Feb. 7 Walton, Thomas 5 May 1772 156 

3 1768 Aprils Walton, William 20 Jan. 1784 296 

8 1768 May 3 Watson, Jacob 20 Jan. 1784 296 

241 1780 Dec. S Watson, Joshua 4 Mar. 1783 292 

8 1768 May 3 Watts, Robert is Feb. 1780 222 

38 1769 Mar. 7 Wetherhead, John is Feb. 1770 76 

7 1768 May 3 White, Henry 6 July 1779 205 

3 1768 April s AVhite, Thomas 3 June 1773 180 

211 1779 Aug. 3 Williams, Thomas Charles 7 May 1782 280 

8 1768 May 3 Yates, Richard 3 Dec. 1782 290 

36 1769 Feb. 7 Young, Hamilton 6 Oct. 1772 167 

135 Members. 

* Thompson, Henry, does not appear ever to have taken his seat. 



304 



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20 



NOTE. 



The following Memoranda include the names of all the Old Members 
who continued or renewed their connection with the Chamber after its 
reorganization. 

Names of Old Members subscribed to Petition to Legislature of the State 
of New York for confirmation of Charter. 

1784, John Alsop, James Beekman, Gerad. Duyckinck, 

Daniel Phoenix, Jeremiah Piatt, Thomas Randall, 

Isaac Roosevelt, Isaac Sears, Jacob's Van Zandt 

Naines of Old Members present at Reorganization of the Cha7nber accord- 
ing to Act of Legislature. 
1784, Apr. 20.— John Alsop, James Beekman, Gerad. Duyckinck, 

Daniel Phoenix, Isaac Roosevelt, Jacob's Van Zandt, 
Isaac Sears. 

Names of Old Members proposed at meeting for Reorganisation and 
readmitted by ballot. 



1784, May 4. — 

1784, June I. — John J. Glover, 

1784, Aug. 3.— 

1785, Mar. I. — 



Henry Remsen. 
Peter Keteltas, 
John Ramsay. 
Francis Lewis. 
Walter Buchanan. 



William Neilson, 



Names of Old Members readmitted by resolution of iji February, 1787, upon 
appearance at a Stated Meeting. 

1787, Mar. 6. — ^Wm. Backhouse, Patrick McDavitt, Oliver Templeton. 

1787, April 3.— Edward Goold, WiUiam Laight, Daniel Ludlow, 

Gerard Walton, John Miller, John Oothout, 

George W. Ludlow, Robert R. Waddell. 

1787, May I.— Theophylact Bache. 

1787, June 5.— John Thurman, Daniel McCormick, William Lowther. 

1787, July 3. — John Murray. 

1787, Aug. 7. — Wilham Walton. 



NOTES TO REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



HISTORICAL. 

Note i, Page 9. BOLTON & SIGELL'S.— This Public House, which, 
under various names and keepers, was a celebrated resort throughout the 
latter half of the last century, stood, and still stands, on the south-east 
corner of Broad and Dock, now Broad and Pearl Streets. It was built in 
the early part of the century by the Delancey family, on land originally con- 
veyed by Colonel Stephanus Van Cortlandt to Etienne (Stephen) De 
Lancey, his son-in-law, on the nth April, 1700. About the middle of the 
century it was occupied by Col. Joseph Robinson, as appears by the fol- 
lowing advertisement in Hugh Gaine's Mercury, May 28, 1757: — " De- 
lancy, Robinson & Co. have removed their Store to the House wherein 
the late Col. Joseph Robinson lived, being the Corner House next the 
Royal Exchange, where they continue to sell all sorts of European and 
East India Goods, Shoes, Stockings, and Shirts, white and checked, fit for 
the Army, with a variety of other goods." The firm continued their busi- 
ness here until 1761. 

On the 15th January, 1762, this property passed by deed into the owner- 
ship of Samuel Francis, the most noted publican of the day, who here 
opened a tavern, called the " Queen's Head," under the sign of " Queen 
Charlotte." 

In 1765 Francis retired from this enterprise, and was succeeded by one 
John Jones ; but in the year 1766 he also withdrew. 

Bolton & Sigell put forward their first advertisement in Holt's New 
York Journal of January I J, 1767, in the following style : — " Bolton & 
Sigell Take this method to acquaint the Public that they propose to open, 
on Monday next, a Tavern and Coffee House at the House of Mr. Samuel 
Francis, near the Exchange, lately kept by Mr. John Jones, and known 
by the name of the ' Queen's Head Tavern,' where Gentlemen may de- 
pend upon receiving the best of Usage. As Strangers, they are sensible 
they can have no Pretentions to the Favour of the Public but what results 
from their readiness upon all occasions to obhge. Dinners and PubUc En- 
tertainments provided at the shortest notice. Breakfasts in readiness from 
9 to 1 1 o'clock. Jellies in the greatest Perfection, also Rich and plain Cakes 
sold by the weight." 

The house seems to have enjoyed a fair share of patronage. 

The Societies met here as they had done in the time of the favorite host 
Francis, and 'the Chamber of Commerce continued to hold its monthly 
meetings here until it secured a Room of its own. 

But it is doubtful whether the business was a prosperous one, at least 
the connection of the hosts was not of long duration. In Holt's New York 
Journal of February 8, 1770, appeared this notice : — "The partnership of 
Bolton & Sigell being this day dissolved, all those to whom they are in- 



3o8 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



debted are desired to send in a state of their demands, and it is hereby 
humbly requested of those gentlemen who are indebted to them that they 
will be pleased to discharge their accounts, to enable Mr. Sigell to settle 
his affairs as soon as possible. The business, for the future, will be carried 
on solely by Richard Bolton, who begs leave to solicit the continuance of 
the Public's favour. The most respectful attention shall be employed to 
secure the approbation of every gentleman who pleases to frequent the 
house. — February 5, 1770." 

Mr. Bolton retired in May of the same year, and Francis again re- 
turned. It was under the last occupancy of Francis, or, as he signed him- 
self at a later joeriod, Samuel Fraunces, that his house, under the title of 
" Fraunces' Tavern," acquired its celebrity. Here Washington bade farewell 
to his officers on the 4th December, 1783, an affecting and historic scene. To 
this event is owing the present name of the house, " Washington's Head 
Quarters." It is now a hotel of the most ordinary description, and has 
been kept by one E. Beuermeyer for a period of about twenty years. 

Note 2, Page 10. PAPER CURRENCY OF PENNSYLVANIA.— 
The financial position of this colony was at this period in a better condition 
than that of New York, and their trade was in a more flourishing state. 
While exchange on Great Britain was selling at 175 and 170 in New York 
in exchange for currency, it only commanded in Pennsylvania 165 to l6o, 
and so settled was this difference, that in the Almanacs of the Day " Ar- 
bitrations of the most common Courses of Exchange on London between 
New York and Philadelphia " were regularly published. Hugh Gaine's 
Pocket Almanac for 1771 gives a short table showing the equivalents from 
^160 to ^190. As an instance, exchange in New York at ;£i6o = exchange 
in Philadelphia at ^150 ; at ;^I75 = ^^164 is. 3d ; ^190 = ^178 2s. 6d. 

In the same year is published a curious Arbitration of a Remittance in 
Dollars. — " 1000 dollars, upon an average, weigh 866 ounces ; then suppose 
866 ounces of silver at 5^. 6d. = ^238 3s. od., Freight and Insurance and 
Brokerage, three per cent., £"] 3s. od., leaves ;£23i os. od., which with Ex- 
change at 75 is equal to ^404 5J. od., while 1000 Dollars are equal to ^400 
OS. od. ; so that when Dollars are worth ^s. '6d. sterling per ounce in London, 
it is a Trifle better to remit them than Bills at 75, provided there is no other 
Commission than Brokerage 1-2 per cent, charged on sale of said Dollars." 

From this it is clear that the Pennsylvania money, which the Chamber 
voted (October 4, 1760) to take at 6 J per cent, advance, was the legal tender 
currency of that province, and the advance a premium over the legal tender 
currency of New York. 

Note 3, Page 10. PAPER CURRENCY OF NEW JERSEY.— 
At what rate this currency of the neighboring colony should be received 
was a question which greatly disturbed the harmony of the Chamber for 
several years. 

Originally introduced in the June meeting in 1768, its discussion was 
postponed from time to time, but was again brought forward by Mr William 
McAdam, 5th November, 1771 (page 143), and a vote was taken 3d March, 
1772, when It was resolved that it should not be received for more than it 
passed for in the Jersey Treasury (pages 152 and 153). The inconvenience 
which this decision occasioned in the early transaction of business was so 
great that numbers of the members felt obliged to resign their seats. The 
Chamber finally rescinded their vote on the 4th January, 1774 and "invited 
the return of the retired members (page 187). 

New Jersey also labored throughout her colonial history under great 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



3°9 



money difficulties. In 1723, Governor Burnet advised Lord Carteret that 
the Assembly had provided " for ten years to come for the supporting of 
Government, in order to obtain paper money which their necessities made 
inevitable."- — Co/. Doc. v. 705. 

Note 4, Page 12. PAPER CURRENCY IN NEW YORK.— The 
following account of the rise of Paper Money in the Colony of New York 
is given by Governor CUnton, in a letter to the Board of Trade, dated Fort 
George in New York, 26th November, 1749. "When Mr. Hunter came 
Governor into this Province, early in the year 1710, a, strong Faction was 
then formed in the Assembly, as now, on Republican and levelling Princi- 
ples, with a noted Republican (William NicoU of Suffolk County) at the 
head of the Faction and speaker of the Assembly, who obsfinately refused 
to grant any Revenue for support of Government in any manner conforma- 
ble to the King's standing Instructions. Though Mr. Hunter dissolved the 
Assembly several times, it was to no purpose, the Faction still prevailed." 
The bills drawn by Mr. Hunter, by order of Queen Anne, for the Canada 
expedition, were all returned protested. Mr. Hunter and all the officers being 
so far distressed, he was under a necessity of making compliances to the 
Assembly, in order to obtain a support for himself and the other officers of 
Government. Mr. Hunter was likewise obliged to consent to a very large 
emission of PaperMoney, and from this a Paper Currency had its first rise 
in this Government." — Colonial Documents, vi. 535. 

The great colonial historian concurs in this statement : in an account of 
the expedition of 1709 to Canada, he says, " It was at this juncture our first 
act for issuing bills of credit was passed ; an expedient without which we 
could not have contributed to the expedition, the treasury being then totally 
exhausted." — Smith's New York, 1,198. 

Governor Pvobert Hunter, in a letter dated at New York, August 7, 1718, 
to the Lords of Trade, says, " Our money bills are equal to silver over the 
greatest part of the English continent, and 30 per cent, better than the 
country bills upon the change at Boston itself — our credit better than any of 
our neighbors." 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarke, in a letter also to the Board of Trade, 
New York, February 17th, 173^, relates the manner in which the payment 
of. these biUs was secured. " About 20 years ago the excise on strong 
liquors, which before that time had all along been appropriated to the 
Revenue, was given towards the sinking a large sum of Paper Money then 
struck to pay the debts of the Government ; this fund will expire in 1739, 
when I am informed there will be nigh twenty thousand pounds unsunk." — 
Col. Doc. vi. III. 

Meanwhile, as the sinking fund absorbed the legal tender notes, other 
Paper Currency was issued. The large expenditures attendant upon the 
French War had increased its volume, and greatly depreciated its value in 
all the colonies. In 1767 the rates for sterling exchange had risen in New 
York to 175, in Pennsylvania to 165. Meanwhile Parliament endeavored to 
correct the evil, but its measures were too stringent to suit the colonists, 
and on the 19th September, 1764, the Assembly " reported a resolution to 
petition the Commons upon the many inconveniences that will attend the 
Act of Parliament entitled An Act to prevent Paper Bills of Credit here- 
after to be issued in any of his Majesty's Colonies and Plantations in 
America from being declared a legal Tender in Payments of Money, and to 
prevent the legal Tender of such Bills as are now subsisting from being 
prolonged beyond the Periods limited for calling in and sinking the same." 
— Journal of Assembly, 1 1, 754. 



3IO HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

Parliament disregarded tJiis petition, and a crisis in the money affairs of 
the Colony was soon precipitated. The situation was certainly a difficult, in- 
deed, considering the high rates of sterling and of coin, an anomalous one. 
Governor Moore, in a letter to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Fort George, 
May 14, 1768, thus explains the position of affairs : — "After the first day of 
November next there will be none of the Bills formerly issued current, the 
Lyon Dollars (a species of money brought here by the first Dutch settlers) 
are rarely now seen. These and Bills of Credit issued before the Statute 
passed i6th December, 1737, are the only kinds of money that were ever 
made a Tender in this Colony. After the first day of November, therefore, 
we shall have nothing to make a legal tender with." In the same letter he 
says, " The Colony had always kept up the Credit of their Paper Currency, 
and taken particular care it should not be depreciated." This was not diffi- 
cult under the sinking fund system. The necessities became so urgent, 
however, that on the sth January, 1770, Governor Colden assented to a Bill 
for emitting ^120,000 in Bills of Credit, but he writes to Hillsborough that 
" the making of them a tender is carefully avoided, except at the loan offices 
and Treasury."— O)/. Doc. viii. pp. 198-206. 

This Bill was sanctioned by Parliament the same year. 

The desires of the merchants, therefore, beset with the currency of 
neighboring colonies at the period when the subject was brought to the 
notice of the Chamber, are easily comprehended even at this distance of 
time. So late as 1780, the almanacs of the time continued to give tables of 
rates of Pennsylvania and Jersey money reduced to New York currency. 
They must have formed a large part of the circulating medium of the city. 
See Hugh Game's New York Ahnanacs, 1770-1780. 

Note 5, Page 15. WEST INDIA BILLS OF EXCHANGE.— The 
trade of New York with the West Indies was chiefly with the English islands 
of Jamaica, Nevis, Antigua, St. Christopher, and the Barbadoes. The rate 
of damages on protested bills between New York and the islands has re- 
mained unchanged until the present day, ten per cent, being added on the 
return. 

Note 6, Page 15. LAW OF THE COLONY OF NEW YORK AS 
TO TARE. — On the 24th November, 1750, 24, George II, the General 
Assembly passed " An ACT to prevent the Exportation of unmerchantable 
Flour, and the false taring of Bread and Flour Casks," providing, I. That 
all Bolters and Bakers should have Trade marks and enter them with their 
names with the Clerk of the Sessions. II. That all Wheat Flour be made 
merchahtable, fine, and be well packed. III. A penalty of Five ShilUngs 
for every false tare on Casks. IV. That no Flour be exported before it is 
inspected ; and that the Inspectors brand each cask with the Province Arms 
and the initial letters of their own name and Sir-name. V. That all dis- 
putes between owners and Inspectors be determined by three indifferent 
judicious persons on warrant from a Magistrate. VI. Empowers Inspec- 
tors to search vessels for Flour not branded ; such Flour to be forfeited. 
VII. Appoints Francois Marschalk, John Livingston, and Hendrick 
BoGERT, Inspectors ; their successors to be named by the Mayor and Alder- 
men of the City; all Inspectors to be sworn. VIII. Inspectors forbidden, 
under penalty of ^50, from purchasing any Flour they condemn. IX. For a 
penalty of 20 shiUings for any neglect or delay of Inspectors to inspect when 
required. X. For a penalty of /ico for counterfeiting brand marks. XI. 
And a penalty of /loo for emptying branded Casks to export therein Flour 
not branded. XII. For the manner of recovering the fines. XIII. That 



REGISTER' OF PROCEEDINGS. 3 II 

the ACT take effect 21st March, 1751, and continue till ist day of June, 
1752.- — Journal of the Assembly of New York, i, 294. 

This Act was continued ii November, 1752, with an, addition thereto, 
and again continued 24 December, 1757, till January i, 1765, with amend- 
ments. 

Note 7, Page 17. ADVERTISEMENT OF RESOLUTIONS AS 
TO PURCHASE OF FLOUR.— This Advertisement, under the signature 
of Anthony Van Dam, Secretary, appears in Holt's New York Journal 
or General Advertiser, Thursday, 6 Oct., 1768. 

Note 8, Page 29. ADVERTISEMENT OF USE AND DESIGN 
OF THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.— This advertisement may be 
seen in Holt's New York Journal or General Advertiser for Thursday, 8th 
December, 1768. 

Note 9, Page 28. CITY MEMBERS OF THE ASSEMBLY.— 
New York was at this time (December, 1768) represented in the General 
House of Assembly by Philip Livingston, James De Lancey, Jacob 
Walton, and James Jauncey ; all, with the exception of the second named. 
Merchants and Members of the Chamber of Commerce. 

They liad been elected in the preceding March. " Never," says the 
New York Journal oi the loth March, " was an Election in this place carried 
on with so great an Ardour on all sides." To the usual exciting elements 
in the Canvass was added a sharp struggle between the Merchants and the 
Lawyers for supremacy in the Colony, which ended in the total defeat of the 
latter. The result of the poll is stated in Gaine's New York Gazette and 
Weekly Mercury of March 14th : Philip Livingston 1320 ; James De Lan- 
cey 1204; Jacob Walton 1175; James Jauncey 1052; John Morin 
Scott 870 ; Amos Dodge 257, [Total, 5878 votes.] 

The Chamber could therefore apply with confidence to their fellows the 
City Members to consider of Laws for the better regulation of the Trade of 
the Colony. 

The firm opposition of this Assembly to the encroachments of the Crown 
rendered its members obnoxious to the Government, but endeared them to 
the people. This Assembly having been dissolved by the Governor, Sir 
Henry Moore, a new Election was ordered. This extract from Gaine's N. Y. 
Mercury of January 9, 1769, shows the feeling with which the old representa- 
tives were regarded : " At a meeting of a great number of the Freeholders 
and Freemen of this City on Wednesday evening last, at the Change, in 
order to consult as to the propriety of re-electing the late Members for the 
City for their spirited Conduct in asserting and supporting the Rights of 
their Constituents ; Mr. Philip Livingston having publicly declined serv- 
ing again, Mr. John Cruger [the late Mayor] was nominated, and has 
accordingly joined the other Members : At this Meeting it was mentioned 
that Thanks should be returned the late Members for their spirited Conduct 
in the late Assembly, which motion was agreed to and the public Approba- 
tion signified by three huzzas." 

The Election was held on the Green on the 23d January, 1769, when 
these Gentlemen were returned by a great majority. 

Note id, Page 36. ROOM OVER THE EXCHANGE.— The Mer- 
chant's Exchange was a building raised upon arches at the lower_ end of 
Broad Street. Originally projected by the Merchants of the City, who 



312 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

voluntarily subscribed for its erection, the Corporation in the spring of 1752 
voted a sum of money towards its completion, and appointed an Assistant to 
the Board of Managers chosen by the Subscribers. 

The control of the building, both as to the mode of construction, and the 
rental, seems to have been almost immediately assumed by the City Govern- 
ment. 

On the 13th day of July, 1753, the Corporation " Ordered that the second 
story of the Exchange now a building at the lower end of Broad Street, be 
not exceeding fifteen feet in height, and not less than fourteen ; and that the 
Room be arched from the height of the said fourteen feet, and that a Cupola 
be erected on said Exchange, under the direction of the Committee appointed 
for completing the said Exchange." 

The Room was completed in the fall of the year, and on the 15th January, 
1754, was rented to Mr. Oliver Delancey, a merchant of the City, for the 
sum of ^50. On the loth January, 1755, it passed, with the rest of the build- 
ing, for the sum of ^30, into the hands of Messrs. Keene and Lightfoot, 
who at once appKed it to public uses. A Coffee Room was opened below 
stairs, and the Upper Room was leased for balls, concerts, and the tempo- 
rary occupation of Societies. In 1756 Alexander Lightfoot obtained a 
renewal of the lease in his own name at the rate of ;^40. In 1757 Mrs. Sarah 
Lightfoot, probably the widow of the afore-named, again took the building 
at the same terms. The Lightfoots do not appear to have met with 
success in their enterprise, and in 1758 Mr. Roper Dawson, a merchant, 
secured a lease for three years, of the upper Room and the Room below 
stairs, for the annual rent of £s°- 0° the 26th Feb., 1759, it was advertised 
in the JVew York Meratry, " Roper Dawson, in the Room over the Ex- 
change, now seDs at a low Rate for short payment : a large and General 
assortment of European and India Goods, amongst which are Broad Cloths, 
Gilt Leather for Hangings and Screens, Green Tea." In 1763 Mr. Dawson 
was still the occupant of the building. In 1764 one Turner hired the same 
premises at ^80, but the next year a new tenant appears of the name of 
Thomas Jackson, at a rate of £,bo. 

No further entries appear on the minutes of the Corporation until the 
15th February, 1769, when "Messrs. Isaac Low, Thomas Randall, Wil- 
liam Walton, Isaac Roosevelt, and' Laurence Kortright, personally 
made application to this Board for the use of the Exchange House for 
one year, from the first day of May next, for the Chamber of Commerce, 
on such terms as they shall think fit and reasonable ; this Board taking the 
same into consideration, thereupon resolved and ordered, that the said Ex- 
change House be let to them accordingly for one year, on their putting the 
same in good repair, and permitting this Corporation to make use of it as 
often as they shall judge necessary." 

The terms of the agreement were reported to the Chamber by their 
Committee, at the Meeting of the 7th March, 1769 — to be a free occupation 
from the ist of May following, on condition of proper repairs, and "after 
that ^20 per annum." The Royal Charter, granted to the Chamber of Com- 
merce on the 13th March of the year 1770, required "that the Meetings of 
the said Corporation shall be held in the Great Room of the Building com- 
monly called the Exchange, situate at the lower End of the Street called 
broad Street." Here the Chamber remained until the meetings were sus- 
pended in May, 1775, 0° the breaking out of hostilities. 

Note ii. Page 40. " AND IT BE FIXED WHAT."— There is here 
an omission in the Record, the probable sense of which these words are in- 
troduced to supply. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



3^3 



Note 12, Page 41. THANKS OF THE ASSEMBLY TO THE 
MERCHANTS.— " Monday, April lo, 1769. Journal of the General As- 
sembly, Session begun 4 April, 1769. Mr. Livingston moved 'That the 
Thanks of this House be given to the Merchants of this City and Colony 
for their repeated disinterested public-spirited and patriotic conduct in de- 
clining the importation or receiving of goods from Great Britain, until such 
Acts of Parliament as the General Assembly had declared unconstitutional 
and subversive of the rights and liberties of the people of this colony 
should be repealed ; and that Mr. Speaker signify the same to the Mer- 
chants at their next monthly meeting. Ordered : That Mr. Speaker signify 
the thanks of this house to the Merchants of this City at their next 
monthly meeting accordingly.' " 

The mover of this resolution, Mr. Philip Livingston, who sat in this 
Assembly as a representative of the Manor of Livingston, was a member of 
the Chamber. The Speaker of the House was John Cruger, unanimously 
chosen on the 4th of April to preside over the Assembly. Being at the 
same time President of the Chamber, he was directed to convey the Thanks 
of the House to its members. 

Reply of the Chamber to the Thanks of the House : 

" A Committee from the Merchants of the City of New York, attend- 
ing at the door, were called in, and Mr. John Alsop, in behalf of the said 
merchants, addressed himself to the Speaker in the words following : — 

" Sir, — The Merchants of the City of New York, at their monthly meet- 
ing this day, having received by the Speaker the thanks of the Honorable 
House of the Assembly for their disinterested and steady regard for the 
public good, are highly sensible of the honor done them ; and flatter them- 
selves that their endeavors to promote the trade of the Colony will always 
merit and receive the protection and approbation of the Legislature in 
general, and this Honorable House in particular." — Joiirnal of the Asse7nbly, 
Session begun 4th April, 1769. 

Note 13, Page 42. NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENT.— " City 
of New York, October 31, 1765. At a general meeting of the Merchants 
of the City of New York trading to Great Britain, at the House of Mr. 
George Burns, of the said City, Inn-holder to consider what was necessary to 
be done in the present Situation of Affairs with respect to the Stamp Act, 
and the melancholy state of the N. American Commerce, so greatly re- 
stricted by the Impositions and Duties established by the late Acts of 
Trade : They came to the following Resolutions, viz. : — 

" First, That in all orders they send out to Great Britain for Goods or 
Merchandize of any nature, kind, or Quality whatsoever, usually imported 
from Great Britain, they will direct their Correspondents not to ship them 
unless the Stamp Act be repealed : It is nevertheless agreed, that all such 
Merchants as are Owners of, and have Vessels already gone and now cleared 
out from Great Britain, shall be at Liberty to bring back in them on their 
own Accounts, Crates and Casks of Earthenware, Grindstones, Pipes, and 
such other bulky articles as Owners usually fill up their Vessels with. 

" Secondly. It is further unanimously agreed that all Orders already 
sent Home shall be countermanded by the very first conveyance ; and the 
Goods and Merchandize thereby ordered, not to be sent unless upon the 
Condition mentioned in the foregoing Resolution. 

" Thirdly. It is further unanimously agreed that no Merchant will Vend 
any Goods or Merchandize sent upon Commission from Great Britain that 
shall be shipped from thence after the first Day of January next, unless 
upon the Condition mentioned in the first Resolution. 



314 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

" Fourthly. It is further unanimously agreed that the foregoing Reso- 
lutions shall be binding until the same are abrogated at a general Meeting 
hereafter to be held for that Purpose. 

" In witness whereof we have hereunto respectively subscribed our 
Names." 

\^This was subscribed by upwards of Two Hundred principal Mer- 
chants. '\ 

In consequence of the foregoing Resolutions, the Retailers of Goods of 
the City of New York subscribed a Paper in the Words following : — 

" We, the under-written. Retailers of Goods, do hereby promise and 
oblige ourselves. not to buy any Goods, Wares, or Merchandizes, of any Per- 
son or Persons whatsoever, that shall be shipped from Great Britain after 
the first Day of January next ; unless the Stamp Act shall be repealed. 
As witness our Hands. Oct. 31, 1765." — John Holt's New York Gazette 
or Weekly Post Boy, Thursday, 7th November, 1765. 

Note 14, Page 44. TONNAGE OF THE PORT OF NEW YORK. 
— The word Tonnage is here used in a special sense. It refers not to the 
number of tons of Shipping, but to the weight and measurement of goods. 
See the Report of the Committee made 5th November, 1771, page 141-2. 

Note 15, Page 45. B LOO MAN DALE (corruption for Bloomendale). 
Bloomingdale was part of the Out Ward. Its once wide extended limits 
are now restricted to that part of the 22d Ward lying between the 8th 
Avenue, the Western boundary of the Central Park, and the North River, 
extending from 42d to 125th Street. This beautiful piece of country, situated 
on the picturesque bank of the Hudson, was a favorite country residence of 
the wealthy citizens. The Five-Mile Stone (from the City Hall) stands near 
the corner of 74th Street and the Bloomingdale Road, opposite the grounds 
lately owned by Mr. Pelatiah Perit. The Six-Mile Stone is near 96th Street, 
in front of the property of Dr. Williams. The distance from the New York 
limits being about six miles, in the Colonial times, the note on the minutes 
refers to a residence there as a sufficient excuse for absence from the regular 
meeting of the Chamber under its By-Laws. (See Revised Rules and Reg- 
ulations, page 28.) 

Note 16, Page 45. FLATBUSH, Kings County, Long Island.— This 
ancient setdement of the Dutch was begun by them in 165 1, upon which 
they conferred the name' of Midwout, or Middlewood. It is bounded north 
by Brooklyn, south by Jamaica and the Bay, Flatlands and Gravesend, and 
west by Gravesend ; containing an area of about 700 acres. In 1652, Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant gave the inhabitants a patent for a portion of the present 
town, including the village.— 2",^o»2/j-o/z'jZ(7;z|-/y/a:«4 vol. 2, 200. 

Note 17, Page 45. F.— This letter, which occasionally appears after the 
names of members fined for absence or late appearance, is supposed to be 
a private memorandum of Mr. Van Dam, Secretary, regarding the Fine im- 
posed ; probably a note of its payment on the spot. 

Note 18, Page 46. ACT OF THE GENERAL ASST:MBLY AS 
TO INSPECTION OF FLOUR.-On the 20th May, 1769, gth George 
III., the General Assembly of the Colony of New York passed an act to 
amend an act entitled an « act to prevent the exportation of unmerchantable 
Flour, and the false taring of Bread and Flour Casks." its preamble reciting 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 315 

" that notwithstanding the act of 24 George, such great abuses have been 
committed in the manufacture of Flour, that this great staple of the Colony- 
has, in a very considerable degree, lost its reputation in all places to which 
it has usually been exported, which renders some new regulation necessary." 
The .act provides : I. That Flour be inspected before exportation. II. 
That none but such as is merchantable be branded. III. The Inspection 
to be at or after the sale. IV. Two Inspectors, and no more, appointed, who 
are to share the profits equally ; viz., Francis Maerschalk and Henry 
BoGART — the Inspectors to be sworn. V. Ten Hoops to be put on every 
Cask. VI. That the act remain in force till Jan. i, 1775. — Journal of Gene- 
ral Assembly, vol. 2, 536. 

Note 19, Page 49. SETAUKET, or Seatalcott, anciently called Ash- 
ford, and sometimes Cromwell Bay, is the oldest English settlement in. the 
Town of Brookhaven, County of Suffolk, Long Island. Its name is derived 
from the once powerful tribe that possessed it, and was applied to the whole 
territory of the town previous to its being called Brookhaven, the latter name 
becoming more general after the conquest of New Netherlands in 1664. — 
Thompson' s Long Island, vol. i, 433. 

A post-village of Brookhaven Township, Suffolk County, New York, on 
the north side of Long Island, 58 miles E. by N. from New York. It has 
a good harbor, and contains many churches and stores. — French's New York 
Gazetteer, page 633. 

Note 20, Page 50. ADVERTISEMENT OF RESOLUTION AS 
TO FLOUR CASKS. — New York Chamber of Commerce, July 4, 1769. 
Resolved — That the Members of this Chamber in their future Purchases of 
Flour, are willing to pay Twenty-Eight Shillings per Ton for Casks and Nails, 
provided they be well and sufficiently made, agreeable to an Act of the Gov- 
ernor, Council, and General Assembly of the Province, passed at their last 
Sessions, and hooped with ten Hoops each, three of which are to be on each 
Head. Anthony Van Dam, Secretary. 

The Act of Assembly for the better Inspection of Flour takes Place the 
1st of September next, when all Flour Casks are to be hooped as above ; 
but as many of the Manufacturers of Flour may chuse to send theirs to 
market before that time, the Merchants who compose the Chamber think it 
will be of use to advertise the Country of their willingness to come into a 
Measure that must in some measure pay for the two extra Hoops on each 
Cask of Flour ; and as the Flour of this Province has got into a general Dis- 
repute abroad, from its bad Quality, it is hoped that the manufacturers will 
take more Pains in future to regain the Credit that it was in for a number 
of Years ; the Inspectors will do their Duty therein, it may be depended upon, 
according to the new Regulations that will then take place. — Htigh Game's 
New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Monday, loth July, 1769. 

Note 21. Page 52. NORTH CASTLE, Westchester County, N. Y. 
—The Township of North Castle is situated 6 miles North of White Plains, 
36 miles from New York, and 129 miles from Albany ; bounded North by 
New Castle and Bedford, East by Poundridge, South Easterly by the State 
of Connecticut and the Town of Harrison, and West by Mount Pleasant." 
North Castle was at first styled The White Fields, and subsequently (upon 
its division into several patents), the Liberty of North Castle. The present 
Township was organized on the 7th March, i-jZZ.— Bolton' s Westchester, 
vol. I, p. 466. 



3i6 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



Note 22, Page 55. SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF MEMBERS 
WERE NOT CONVENED.— This was the first Meeting of the Chamber 
adjourned for want of a Quorum. 20 members appear to have been in their 
seats. The By-Laws required the presence of 21 to transact business. — (See 
Rules, page 27.) 

Note 23, Page 56. GOLD AND SILVER COIN.— Governor Moore, 
in a Letter to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated at Fort George, May 
14, 1768, writes : " After the first day of November next, there will be none 
of the Bills formerly issued current, the Lyon Dollars (a Species of 
money brought here by the first Dutch Settlers) are rarely now seen. These, 
and Bills of Credit issued before the Statute (passed 16 Dec, 1737) are the 
only two kinds of money that were ever made a Tender in this Colony." 
Colonial Documents, vol. viii. p. 72. 

Hence arose the need of some agreement among Merchants to deter- 
mine the Value at which the various coins in use should pass current among 
themselves. The Coins named in the Report are the 
Johannes, a Portuguese gold coin of the value of eight dollars ; con- 
tracted often into Joe, a Joe, or Half Joe. It is named from thg 
figure of King John, which it bears (Noah Webster's Diet., N. Y., 1828). 
Defoe in his Fictions alludes constantly to " Pieces of Eight." 
MoiDORE, a Portugal gold coin, in value 27s Sterling. — Bailey's Etymo- 
logical Dictionary, London, 1760. 
Caroline, a German coin. Hugh Gaine in his Almanac for 1772 styles it 
the " Gentian Caroline; " a coin weighing 6 dwt. 8 grs., valued at £1 1 8s. 
Doubloon, Doublon, a Spanish coin containing the value of two Pistoles. 
— Sam. Johnson, Diet, Lond. 1790. 

a Spanish and Portuguese coin, being double the value of the 

Pistole. — Webster's Diet. 
Guinea [English], a known Sort of Gold Coin current at ^i is., value 
at Standard Rate £1, weighing 5 Pennyweight gf Grains. — The new 
World of Words, by Edward Phillips, London, 1720. 

— [of Guinea in Africk], a Gold coin, in value 21s. — Bailey's Diet. 

Guinea [French]. What this coin was is uncertain ; whether a French 
coinage of African gold, or a name in use for some piece of French 
money approximating in value to the English coin of the same name. 
Chequeen, Zechin, or Zachin, a Gold coin worth about seven shillings and 
six Pence Sterling ; so called from La Zecha, a Place in the City of 
Venice where the Mint is settled. There is also a Turkish Zechin,, 
valued at nine shillings. — Edward Phillips' Diet. 

Zechin, or Zachin, a Gold coin worth about 7s and 6d Sterhng. 

— Bailey's Etyrao. Diet, 1760. 

Sequin ; sometimes written Chaquin and Zechin. — Webster's 

Diet 
Crown [English], a coin or Piece of Money of five Shillings value.— Edw. 
Phillips' new World of Words, 1720. 

[French], 4 Shillings 6 Pence.— Edw. Phillips' new World of 

Words, 1720. 
Pistole, a Spanish Piece of Gold worth seventeen Shillings Sterlini^-. The 

French Pistole, or Louis d'Or, is also settled at same value Phillios' 

Diet ' ^ 

a French or Spanish Piece of Gold worth 17s. — Bailey's Diet 

Shilling, an English silver coin worth Twelve Pence, and of which Twenty 
make a Pound Sterling ; aUtho' among our Saxon Ancestors it con- 
sisted but of Five Pence. — Phillips' Diet 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. Jiy 

PiSTAREEN, a Silver Coin of the value of I7@i8 cents, or gd Sterling. — 
Webster's Diet. 
The rates given in the report of the Committee are' evidently in exchange 
for the depreciated currency of the day, and not in the legal tender of the 
Province. 

Note 24, Page 56. PUBLICATION IN NEWSPAPERS AS 
TO RATES FOR GOLD AND SILVER COIN.— New York Chamber 
of Commerce, October 3, 1769. At a meeting of the Chamber of Com- 
merce this Day, it was unanimously agreed — That all the Members will 
receive and pay the undermention'd Gold and Silver Coins at the following 
Rates, and their lesser Denominations in the same proportion, viz. : — 
(Here follow the rates.) 

That for every Grain any of the above specified Gold Coins shall weigh 
less than the above respective Weights, Four Pence must be deducted 
therefrom. Anthony Van Dam, Secr'y. — Hugh Game's New York Gazette 
and Weekly Mercury, Monday, October 6, 1769. 

Note 25, Page 69. THE MAYOR AND CORPORATION.— 
During the Colonial period under the English rule, the Mayors of the City 
were appointed by the Governors of the Province. The Aldermen and 
Assistants were elected by Freeholders of the several Wards, and were 
always men of substance, character, and public spirit. The Corporation 
was in 1768-9 : — The Worshipful Whitehead Hicks, Esqr., Mayor ; 
Simon Johnson, Esqr., Recorder. For the South Ward : — Francis Filkin, 
Esqr., Alderman J Mr. John Abeel, Assistant. For the West Ward : — 
Abraham P. Lott, Esqr., Aid.; Mr. Peter T. Curtenius, Ass't. For the 
North Ward : — George Brewerton, Esqr., Aid.; Mr. Benjamin Huggitt, 
Ass^t. For the East Ward : — Ellas Desbrosses, Esqr., Aid.; Mr. Jacob 
Brewerton, AssH. For the Dock Ward : — Andrew Gautier, Esqr., Aid.; 
Mr. James Van Varick, Ass''t. For Montgomerie Ward : — Benjamin 
Blagge, Esqr., Aid.; Mr. Huybert Van Wagner, Ass'''t. For the Out 
Ward : — Cornelius Roosevelt, Esqr., Aid.; Mr. Mathew Buys, Ass't. 

1769-70: — The Worshipful Whitehead Hicks, Esqr., Mayor; 
Thomas Jones, Esqr., Recorder. The Aldermen and Assistants were the 
same as the previous year, except that John Dyckman, Esqr., succeeded 
Cornelius Roosevelt as Aid. of the Out Ward. 

Note 26, Page 59. BY-LAW OF THE CORPORATION AS TO 
THE INSPECTION OF LUMBER.— On the 7th June, 1770, the Com- 
mon Council repealed the Old Law, and passed a Law entitled " a Law 
to ascertain the Size, Dimensions, and Quality of Stave Heading Hoops, 
Board, Timber, Shingles, and Plank, which shall be brought to this City 
for sale," and ordered its publication in the Gazette. This Law was to 
take effect Sept. 1770, and the Inspectors and Measurers ordered by it were 
Isaac Shardavine, Francis Many, Theophilus Hardenbroock, John Blanch. — 
Minutes of Common Council, vol. vii.. p 49. 

Note 27, Page 61. FORT GEORGE.— This defensive work, the first 
beginnings of which date back to the earliest Dutch settlement of the City, 
stood at the lower end of Broadway, opposite the present Bowling Green, and 
faced on the North and East the streets now known as Battery Place and 
Whitehall Street. During the Dutch occupation, and throughout the period 
of Enghsh Colonial rule, this was. the chief point of interest in the Province 
of New York. Within its walls were located the Governor's House, and 



3i8 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



for many fears here stood the only place of worship for the inhabitants of 
the City. In the varied phases of the struggle between England and Hol- 
land for Colonial power as well as naval supremacy, its fortunes were those 
of the Province whose fate its possession decided : with each new master 
its name was changed. 

Fort Manhattes and Fort Amsterdam under the Dutch flag, it became 
Fort James when Gov'r Stuyvesant surrendered its control, and with it the 
hopes of Holland in the New Netherlands, to the English forces. Re- 
captured by the Dutch, it received the name of Fort William Hendrick, 
but its old title was restored when, on the treaty of peace, it returned to its 
English masters. Seized by the train-bands of the City on the news of the 
revolution which put the Prince of Orange on the English throne, it was 
called Fort William in his honor, and thenceforth, as became a Royal 
Fort, its name changed with each new coronation. Fort Anne from 1702 
to 1 7 14, on the accession of the first George in the latter year its title was 
altered for the last time, and during the remainder of its existence, covering 
nearly a century, it was known as FoRT GEORGE. 

During this period it assumed the form of a square earthwork, with 
bastions on the four corners faced with stone set in mortar. Covering a sur- 
face nearly two acres in extent, it enclosed an interior plain about ijo feet 
square, on which were erected the Governor's house and other buildings. 

Built for the defence of the city, it seems never to have answered any 
efficient purpose, and its history is one of bloodless surrenders. Its Dutch 
and English masters were equally unfortunate. Governors and Captains alike 
struck their flags at the first summons. Perhaps this was the misfortune, 
and not the fault, of its commanders ; the control of the river passages no 
doubt rendered the Fort of no value for the defence of the city which clus- 
tered behind its ramparts. 

If not famous in War, it was brilliant in Peace. After the fire which in 
1 741, during the rule of Governor Clarke, wholly destroyed the old build- 
ings, a new mansion was erected on a more imposing scale. Here stately 
Governors held their court, and the intellect and wealth and beauty of the 
Province paid homage to the representative of kingly power. 

During the Stamp Act excitement in the fall of 1765, on the ist Novem- 
ber, the Lt. Governor, Colden, was . hung in effigy before the Fort. The 
gates were closed and the guns were turned on the people ; but General 
Gage, the British commander, peremptorily forbade the soldiers to fire. 
The next day the citizens again resolving to march to the Fort, Gov. 
Colden did not await the carrying out of the threat, but yielded to the popular 
will, and delivered up the obnoxious papers to the safekeeping of the City 
authorities. 

On the night of the 29th December, 1773, the Government House, then 
occupied by Governor Tryon, took fire, and was wholly destroyed ; and here 
ceases the interest attached to the Fort as the Headquarters of the chiefs 
of the State. 

Its history duringthe revolutionary struggle presents nothing of interest. 
It remained a British military post until the evacuation of the city in 1783, 
on the 25th November of which year General Knox entered it with the 
American forces, and ran up the flag of the new Confederation. 

A few years later, about 1788, the whole structure was removed, and a 
mansion erected on its site for the occupation of the President of the United 
States ; but the seat of Government being changed to Philadelphia before its 
completion in 1791, it was applied to the occupancy of the Governor of New 
York, and later served for the United States Custom House. 

Note. — The above facts are chiefly taken from the admirable sketch of 



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319 



the history of the Fort in New York published by D. T. Valentine, Esq., 
in the Manual of the Corporation for 1864, pp. 624 to 647. 

Note 28, Page 61. LATITUDE OF FLAG BASTION, FORT 
GEORGE. — In a description of the Fort in 167 1, it is stated tliat "within 
it, and in the outermost bastion towards the river, stands a windmill and a 
very high staff, on which a flag is hoisted whenever any vessels are seen in 
Godyn's Bay " (now known as the Lower Bay). This outermost bastion 
was the South-west Bastion, where the flag-mount seems to have been 
located from the earliest period. 

The Latitude of New York was established by one of the first scientific 
men of the day, David Rittenhouse, as 40° 42' 8 '. 

, The Report of the United States Coast Survey Office for 1858 (page 54), 
referring to the Observations of the Year, states, that " the Latitude of the 
Station (Rutherford Observatory, No. 175 Second Avenue) was ascertained 
from 89 observations, which were made upon 24 pairs of stairs, by Sub- 
Assistant Goodfellow, with the Coast Survey Zenith Telescope, No. 5. The 
Latitude was determined at 40° 43' 48"." 

Note 29, Page 63. LINE BETWEEN NEW YORK AND JER- 
SEY. — It was in this year, 1769, that, at the request of a Board of Commis- 
sioners authorized by the Legislature of New York and New Jersey, the 
celebrated David Rittenhouse fixed the point where the parallel which 
divides New York from Pennsylvania was to be traced westward. The 
northern limit of New Jersey upon Hudson River is the 41st degree of lati- 
tude. The point where this parallel intersects the shore- was fixed by the 
surveyors at this time. The northern limit of both Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey, upon the Delaware, is the 42d degree of latitude ; and this 
parallel, continued westward, divides Pennsylvania from New York. Rit- 
tenhouse was appointed by Pennsylvania as commissioner to meet a com- 
mission from New York, and determine the place where this parallel inter- 
sects the Delaware." — Dunlap's New York, vol. ii. 

On the I2th April, 1769, the New York Commissioners, John Cruger, 
William Bayard, John Morin Scott, Benj. Kissam, Henry Holland, and Fred. 
Philipse, informed Governor Moore, who in turn, on the 15th, advised 
Governor Penn that they had prevailed on Captain Bernard Ratzers to make 
some preliminary surveys on the Delaware 'R.ivfc."— Pennsylvania Archives, 
1760-76, pp. 338, 339. _ 

The King's Commissioners, Charles Stewart, President ; Andrew Elliot, 
Samuel HoUand, Andrew Oliver, Charles Morris, and Jared IngersoU, met 
at the Long Room called the Chamber of Commerce, in the City of New 
York, the 7th day of October, 1769. — Whitehead'' s New Jersey Boundary. 

Note 30, Page 63. — MAHACOMAC on Delaware : corruption for 
Mahackamach, a stream of water which flows into the Delaware. The Com- 
missioners who met in 1 769 reported that the Fork or Branch formed by the 
junction of the stream of water called the Mahackamach, with the River 
called Delaware or Fishkill, is the Branch (as laid down on Vischer's Map) 
intended and referred to in the deed from the Duke of York, which Fork 
or Branch was found by an observation taken by the surveyors appointed by 
the Court, to be in the Latitude 41° 21' 37". — Whitehead's Northern Bound- 
ary, Proc. N. J. Hist. Soc. viii. p. 181. 

Note 31, Page 63.— HOUSE LATE MRS. CORBET'S. The House 



320 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

of Corbet was afterward called Sneydon's Landing. It was on the west 
shore of the Hudson River, opposite Dobb's Ferry. 

The Commissioners to establish the Boundary Line in 1769, report in 
reference to this point : " We are further of opinion that the Northern 
Boundary on Hudson's River, being by the words of the said Deed from 
the Duke of York, expressly limited to the Latitude of 41° should be fixed 
in that Latitude, which Latitude we have caused to be taken in the best 
manner by the surveyors appointed by the Court, and which falls at a 
rock on the west side of Hudson's River marked by the said surveyors, 
being 79 chains and 27 Hnks to the southward on a meridian from Sneydon's 
House formerly Corbets'." — Whitehead's Northern Boundary, Proc. N. J. 
Hist. Soc. viii. p. 181. 

Note 32, Page 63. LIGHT HOUSE ON SANDY HOOK.— The 
origin of the Sandy Hook Light House was a memorial of the Merchants of 
the City to the Lt. Governor of the Province. The reference to this paper 
may be found in the Message of the Governor to the General Assembly, 
3d April, 1 76 1. 

Gentlemen : The erecting il convenient Building for a Light House 
near Sandy Hook is an object so worthy your consideration and a provision 
for it so essential to the welfare of our commercial Interests and the Preser- 
vation of a very useful Part of the Community, that I cannot avoid recom- 
mending the Memorial I received on this subject to your closest attention. 
The Example of other Trading Places is a proof how necessary these Land 
Marks have been tho't for the safety of Navigation, and the late severe 
losses by Shipwreck on our own Coasts, will, I persuade myself, lead you to 
a measure so well calculated to guard against tlie like Accidents for the 
future. 

The spot best adapted and the only one proper for its Situation for this 
end lying within the Province of New Jersey, it may prevent any delay or 
obstruction to the Design, in case you determine to carry it into Execution, 
that I have it in ray power to communicate your Resolves to that Govern- 
ment while the Branches of the Legislature are convened. 

Cadwallader Colden. 

The Message and Memorial were referred to the Members of the City 
of New York, Richmond, and Westchester County. 

On the 4th April, Alderman [Philip] Livingston from the Committee 
reported. That it appeared to them that a Light House on Sandy Hook is 
necessary for the security of the Trade of this Colony. 

That His Honour, the President, be humbly requested to make Appli- 
cation to the Governor of New Jersey to desire him to apply to the General 
Assembly of that Colony for their assistance in this useful Design which 
will be of great service to the Trade of that Colony though not to so great a 
degree as to that of this. 

That as they have been credibly informed that the Proprietor of Sandy 
Hook is very unreasonable in his Demand for -a small quantity of Land 
necessary for the Purpose of building a Light House, they also conceive 
it necessary that his Honour be desired to apply to the said Governor 
of New Jersey, to desire that he will be pleased to recommend it to the 
other Branches of the Legislature there, to interfere in such a Manner 
as that the Proprietor of the said Land do convey or dispose of tfte 
same at a reasonable Price. 

That they conceive it would be proper for the House to make Provision 
for the purchasing of the said Land, and building the Light House in 
such Proportion as shall be agreed on with the Colony of New Jersey. 



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321 



And that the Expence of maintaining and supporting of the said Light 
House be supported by a small duty of Tonnage on Vessels. 

Which report he read in his Place and afterwards delivered it at the 
Table : where the same were again read and agreed to by the House. 

[Whereupon it was] Resolved that an humble Address be presented to 
his Honor the President, that he will be pleased to acquaint the Governor 
of New Jersey that this House, from the Rejjresentation of several Mer- 
chants of this Province, is convinced of the necessity and utility of a Light 
House being built on Sandy Hook ; tliat the House hath been credibly in- 
formed that the Proprietor of the Land which would be proper for the 
Building the said Light House on is so very extravagant in his Demand 
that it is out of the Power of private Persons to come to any agreement 
with him ; that as the Land lays within the Colony of New Jersey, and is of 
but little value to the Proprietor, yet as the Erecting of the said Light 
House is of the utmost Importance to this and the Colony of New Jersey, 
this House is willing to give the said Proprietor a very valuable consider- 
ation for the same ; and that therefore his Honor would be pleased to desire 
his Excellency Governor Boone to recommend it to the Assembly of his 
Government to prevail with the Proprietor of the said Land in such a Man- 
ner as to oblige him to convey or dispose of the same at a reasonable rate, 
that the Trade of these Colonies may not be any longer subject to the In- 
conveniences they have so long laboured under for want of the said Light 
House. 

Ordered — That Alderman Livingston and Mr. Bayard wait on his Honor 
the President with the same Address. 

Alderman Livingston moved for leave to bring in a Bill for enabling cer- 
tain Persons to raise by Way of Lottery a certain sum of Money towards 
erecting and building a Light House. 

Ordered that leave be given accordingly. 

Alderman Livingston then (according to leave) presented to the House 
a Bill entitled, " An Act to enable the Persons therein named to raise a 

sum not exceeding • Pounds by way of Lottery, for building a Light 

House," which was read the first Time and ordered a second Reading. — 
Journal of the Votes and Proceedings of the General Assembly, vol. ii., p. 

ess- 
May 8, 1761. The Engrossed BiU entitled, "An Act for raising a Sum 
not exceeding Three Thousand Pounds by way of Lottery for building a 
Light House," was read the third time. Resolved that the Bill do pass. — 
Journal of the Assembly, vol. ii., p. 659. 

By this Act, John Cruger, Philip Livingston,^ Leonard Lispenard, and 
William Bayard, Esquires (the City Members), were authorized to establish 
the Lottery; and raised the sum of ^2,664 iss. 6d., May 2, 1762. The As- 
sembly vested the Title to the land purchased in the aforenamed gentlemen 
as Trustees, and, 22d May, 1762, passed an "Act to make Trespasses 
committed on Sandy Hook, in the colony of New Jersey, actionable in the 
colony of New York." In December they authorized the raising of a further 
sum of Three Thousand Pounds. The scheme was as foUows : " The Lot- 
tery is to consist of 10,000 Tickets, at Forty Shillings each, whereof 1,684 
are to be fortunate, subject to Fifteen per cent. Deductions." — Weymaifs 
Nein, York Gazette, Jan. 17, 1763. This Lottery was drawn at Mr. Burns' 
Long Room at the Province Arms, Monday, the 13th June, 1763. 

26th Feb. 1772. An Act was passed "to lay a Duty of Tonnage on 

Vessels for defraying the expense of the Light House at Sandy Hook." 

The Tonnage duty so levied, was of one Penny half Penny for every Ton of 

measurement, exempting all vessels engaged in whaling while so engaged, 

21 



322 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

and all coasting vessels not over 50 Tons' burthen, virholly owned by per- 
sons residing between Cape Henry and New Hampshire. 

The New York Magazine for August, 1790, gives an engraving of the 
Light House at that time, and adds these particulars : " The land was pur- 
chased for the purpose from Robert and Easick Hartshorn, containing about 
four acres of barren land for the moderate jirice of ^750. The Light House 
is built of stone, and measures, from the surface of the earth to the top of the 
lanthorn, 106 feet. The base is 32 feet in diameter, and tapers off at the 
foot of the lanthorn to 16 feet. The light may be seen at the distance of 
10 leagues. It stands in 40^ 25' N. Lat., and T^ 30' W. Long, from 
London." 

This Light House was refitted by the United States Government in 
1857. Its reflector gave place to a Fresnel lens of the third order. It is 
officially described as " a fixed white Bght," and as standing in 40° 27' 39" 
North Latitude, and T^' 59' 49" West Longitude. 

Note 33, Page 63. PUBLIC PACKERS OF THE CITY.— From 
the earliest period of English Government these were public officers. On 
the 3d November, 1740, the General Assembly passed " an Act to prevent 
Abuses in the Repacking of Beef and Pork," which, in its preamble, 
recites the abuses committed and the complaints of " putting the Brand 
mark of the City of New York on Barrels containing Beef and Pork imported 
from other places, particularly North Carolina, Virginia and Maryland, to 
the Disreputation and Undervaluing of the Beef and Pork of this Colony 
exported from hence," and provides an oath to be taken by the " Repackers 
of Meat" and other stringent measures. 

Note 34, Page 64. MERCHANTS ONLY TO BE ADMITTED. 
—The immediate cause of this resolution cannot now be ascertained. It 
was probably an expression of the strong feeling of rivalry which had long 
existed between these classes, and had shown itself in the Assembly 
elections of the previous year, when the lawyers were defeated by the mer- 
chants at the city polls. 

Note 35, Page 65. NUTTEN ISLAND. — Governor's Island, 
origmally called Nutting Island, because of the quantity of hazel and other 
nuts growing there, and furnishing the winter's supply to the citizens. In 
'later times, says Knickerbocker, it was cultivated in gardens for the use of 
the Colonial Governors—" once a smiling garden of the Sovereigns of the 
Province." — Watson's Annals, p. 189. 

This island was known to the Indians by the name of Pugganck and bv 
the Dutch was called Nutten or Nut Island. Governor Wout'er Van 
Twiller bought this island in his own name from the Indian owners. It 
does not seem to have been sold to any individual proprietor after the sale 
to Van Twiller. It was ceded to the United States by an Act of the Leo-is- 
lature, Feb. i;, 1800, and is now occupied solely as a military station oflhe 
United States 2.xmy.— Valentine's Manual for 1855, P- 497- 

Note 36, Page 67 CLIPPING OF COINS.-Withthe depreciation 
■of the currency m the Colony, caused by the new issues at the period of the 
French war and the general stagnation of commerce, the debasement of 
com by clipping and washing had become a general and annoying evil As 
the coms were foreign (the Lyon dollar introduced by the Dutch beine the 
otAj legal tender of coin m the Colony), the Assembly was powerless to 
«medy the evil. The Chamber, therefore, established a rate which soon 



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3^3 



became the custom in trade. The value of th^ Lyon dollar was fixed as 
early as 1720; "seventeen pennyweight for fifteen pennyweight of Sevil 
Pillar or Mexican Plate." It soon after became a scarce coin. 

Note 37, Page 69. CUSTOM OF MERCHANTS IN A NEIGH- 
BOURING COLONY.— This reference is probably to New Jersey. The 
prints of the day make no allusion to the subject. 

Note 38, Page 70. SUTTLE POUNDS.— This word, which does not 
appear in any of the modern dictionaries, in Johnson t)f 1790, or Bailey's 
Etymological Dictionary of 1760, is given in " The New World ofWords 
or Universal English Dictionary " of Edward Phillips, London, of 1720, 
thus—" Suttle Weight " (among merchants), the pure Weight of com- 
modities after the Allowance for Tare is deducted." 

Note 39, Page 71. REGULATIONS AS TO INSPECTION OF 
BEEF AND PORK.— The Report of the Committee of the Chamber was 
laid before the Common Council by the Mayor, 21st March, 1770. — Common 
Council Minutes, vol. vii. p. 35. (For the action taken by the Board, see 
Note 44.) 

Note 40, Page 74. BUOYS IN THE HARBOR.— "For the Safety 
of Vessels coming into and going to Sea from the Port of New York, the 
Masters and Wardens of the said Port did last week place a large Can 
Buoy on the South West Spit of the East Bank, in eighteen feet. Water at 
low water, bearing from the Light House on Sandy Hook N. W. and by 
W. half W., and from the Bluff at Staten Island making the Narrows, S. 
half East. Vessels going down must keep in five Fathom Water till they 
open the Buoy with the Point of Sandy Hook, which will clear them of the 
Spit. They find that the first of the Flood sets about S. W. and by W. for 
two Hours, and is apt to draw vessels over upon the West Bank. 

" The day after placing the Buoy, a Boat going down was seen to run 
directly upon it, supposed intentionally to destroy it. If any Person will 
discover the Boatman to the Master and Wardens that was so wickedly bent 
on injuring the mark set to prevent Vessels running into Danger, so that he 
may be punished, he will receive the Thanks of the said Master and War- 
dens." — Gainers New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, June 17, 1771. 

Note 41, Page 74. WARDENS OF THE PORT.— Among the 
Colonial MSS at Albany there is a warrant dated June 10, 1758, appointing 
a Master and eight Wardens for the Port of New York. A definition of 
their duties appears at a later period. The General Assembly, on the 13th 
December, 1763, passed an Act empowering the Governor or Commander- 
in-Chief of the Colony for the time being, " to appoint one fit and proper 
Person to be Master, and three or more fit and proper Persons to be War- 
dens of the said Port of New York. Their duty — To examine and commis- 
sion all Branch Pilots ; to survey all damaged Goods or Vessels brought 
into Port {Gainers Laws of New York, p. 433) ; to maintain the Light House 
and collect the Tonnage dues ; to place and keep in Repair such Buoys as 
they shall think necessary (26th February, 1772)." — Ibid. 636. 

A notice issued from the Wardens^ office, Feb. 18, 1772, offering a reward 
for the recovery of a lost Buoy, gives the names of John Griffiths, Daniel 
Stiles, and Anthony Van Dam, as acting Wardens. — Holt's New York 
Journal, Feb. 20, 1772. 

Note 42, Page 74. WHALE FISHERY OF NEW YORK.— "An 



324 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

Act Tor the Encouragement of Whaling," passed by the General Assembly, 
18 September, 1708, enacted "That hereafter any Indian that is bound to 
go to Sea a Whale-fishing, shall not at any Time or Times, between the first 
day of November and the fifteenth day of April following, Yearly, be sued, 
arrested, molested, detained, or kept out of that Employment." — Game's 
Laws of New York, p. 71. 

A notice of this enterprise appears in 1768 : " A very beneficial Branch 
of Trade has been long neglected in this Province — that is Whaling, but we 
now have some Hopes of seeing it revived, as Mr. Robert Murray and 
Messrs. Franklins have, at their own Expence, fitted out a Sloop for that 
Purpose, which sailed Last Sunday. In Holland a merchant that is not con- 
cerned in the Whale Fishery is dispised by all the trading Part of the Coun- 
try ; and we are told that the Island of Nantucket alone, last season, got oil, 
&c., to the amount of ;ij7o,ooo." — Holt's New York Journal, April 21, 1768. 

The Law of 1772, lev3ang Tonnage dues, exempted "all vessels engaged 
in Whaling." 

No action seems to have been taken by the Chamber on the proposal of 
Mr. Remsen ; but a few years later a Society was formed. Their first notice 
appears in Rivington's New York Gazetteer, June 2, 1774: "Whale 
Fishery. — Notice is hereby given that the subscription roll of the United 
Whaling Company, established in this City, will be kept open until the 
sailing of the first vessel. Application to be made to J. Allicocke, Secre- 
tary." On the 30th June of same year, the public are advertised that "it is 
Expected the first whaling vessel will sail next week." 

" On Tuesday last, May 30, being the first Anniversary of the New York 
United Whaling Coinpany, the following members were elected by Ballot for 
the ensuing year : Philip Livingston, Esq., President : Charles McEvers, 
Esq., Treasurer : Captains, Wilham Heyer, Patrick Dennis, John Barton ; 
and Messrs. Isaac Stoutenburgh, Anthony Van Dam, and Joseph AlUcocke 
(Secretary), Committee for purchase of Vessels and Sale of Oils." — Gaine's 
N. Y. Gazette, June 5, 1775. 

On the 24th July, 1 776, in Gaine's New York Gazette or Weekly Mercury : 
" The members of the United Whaling Compatty in the City of New York 
are desired to meet at the Merchants' Coffee House, the 6th of August next. 
This is pubUshed at the earnest request of all the members now in Town. 
Those who cannot give their attendance personally are desired to appoint 
some Persons to act for them, otherwise they must abide by the Trans- 
actions of that Evening. All Persons having any accounts against the Com- 
pany are requested to get them ready at that time." This was evidently 
the closing notice of the Company. 

Note 43, Page 76. HIS MAJESTY'S COUNCIL FOR THE 
PROVINCE OF NEW YORK.— A Body of twelve who received their 
appointments directly from the Home Government. The Council was in 
1770 composed of Hon. Cadwallader Colden (Lieut. Gov.), appointed in 
1722; Hon. Daniel Horsmanden, Esq., 1733; Hon. Sir WiUiam Johnson 
Bart, 1751 ; Hon. John Watts, Esq., 1757; Hon. Oliver De Lancey, Esq., 
1760; Hon. Joseph Reade, Esq., 1764; Hon. Roger Morris, Esq., 1764; 
Hon. Charles Ward Apthorp, Esq., 1765 ; Hon. Henry Cruger, 1767; Hon. 
Hugh Wallace, 1769; Hon. Henry White, 1769. 

The following changes occurred in the composition of the Council during 
the remainder of the Provincial rule : 

Hon. William Axtell, Esq., appointed 1771, in place of Hon. Joseph 
Reade, Esq. ; Hon John Harris Cruger, Esq., 1773, in place of Henry 
Cruger, Esq. ; Hon. James Jauncey, Esq., 1775. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



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Note 44, Page 79. LAW AS TO CURING BEEF AND PORK.— 
The subject was laid before the Common Council 21st March, 1770. " Mr. 
Mayor produced to the Board a paper proposing Regulations for the pack- 
age of Beef and Pork within this city as drawn up by a Committee of the 
Chamber of Commerce appointed for that purpose, which, being read it was 
thereupon ordered by this Board that Daniel Dunscomb, one of the Public 
Packers of this city, be served with a copy of said Regulations in order that 
he may communicate the same to those in the like Office that their senti- 
ments may be had at the next Common Council." — Co7n.mon Council Min- 
utes, vol. vii. p. 35. 

As no further action appears, it is to be inferred that the Regulations 
proposed were adopted by the Packers without the formality of a law. 

Note 45, Page 82. THE GREAT SEAL OF THE PROVINCE, 
granted by King George III. — Engraved on the one side with the Effigy of 
the King in his royal robes, and two Indians kneeling and offering presents — 
with the following inscription around the circumference ;, "Sijillum Provin- 
ciae Nostrae Novi Eboraci In America!''' The reverse contained the Royal 
Arms and Titles. 

The first notice of a new seal is found in a letter of Lieut. Gov. Colden 
to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, dated Jan. 10, 1761 : 
" V/hat gives me most concern is that the General Assembly of this Province 
dissolves by the King's death, as there is no provision made in this case, 
either by Act of Parliament, or by Act of this Province. The Council is of 
opinion that I cannot make use of the old seals without the King's warrant 
for that purpose. If so I cannot call a New Assembly, and if I should take 
upon me to do it from the necessity of affairs, the legality of the suits may be 
called in question." — N. Y. Col. Doc, vol. vii. p. 453. 

In the great fire of the 29th December, 1773, which totally consumed the 
Government House in Fort George, this seal was one of the few things 
saved. Gov. Tryon, in a letter of the 31st December, 1773, to Earl Dart- 
mouth, relating the disaster, says : " The Great Seal, which was found this 
evening, notwithstanding the intenseness of the heat, has suffered no in- 
jury." — N. Y. Colonial Documents, vol. viii. p. 407. 

Richard Jackson, the King's Attorney, in a letter to the Lords of Trade, 
2oth April, 1779, o"^ ^^ power of the King to appoint a seal to be used for 
the Great Seal of the Province, speaks of being informed "that it was 
surmised that said seal is at this time in the power of the rebels." — N. Y. 
Colonial Documents, vol. viii. p. 762. 

Note 46, Page 82. FIRE-INSURANCE.— This motion of Mr. 
John Thurman (3d April, 1770), seems to have been the first proposal for in- 
surance against fire in New York. Its consideration was postponed by the 
Chamber, 2d May, 1770 (page 99), and again, 2Sth June, 1770 (page 10 1), 
and never taken up in the Colonial period. 

The first Fire-insurance Company in New York was organized by John 
Pintard. The first notice appeared in 1787. 

" Mutual Assurance Company for insuring houses from loss by Fire in 
New York. — Whereas the insuring of houses and buildings from loss by 
fire has been found of great and public utihty wherever it has been prac- 
ticed ; and although societies have been instituted in different places, yet 
none have hitherto been formed in this city for that laudable and beneficent 
purpose. 

" A number of respectable citizens, as well for their own mutual security 
as for the common security and advantage of their neighbors and fellow- 



326 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



citizens, with the view of promoting the insurance of houses and other build- 
ings from loss by fire upon the most equal terms, and without any views of 
private or separate gain or interest, have estabhshed a company by the 
name of The Mutual Assurance Company, for insuring houses from loss by 
Fire in New York. 

" The utility of an institution in its purpose so laudable cannot fail to 
attract the notice of every citizen, being of so great importance to the security 
of property and the happiness of families, that it is presumed that no person 
of prudence will be found to neglect it. 

" The ofiSce is now opened at No. 57 King Street, where such persons as 
incline to insure their houses and other buildings, may, on application, 
receive every necessary information. John Pintard, Secretary, June 15, 
1787." — New York Packet, July 24, 1787. 

This Company was incorporated under the name of the ^'^ Mutual Insur- 
ance Company of the City of New York," March 28, 1809. — Private Laws 
of New York, 32d Session, p. 154. 

Note 47, Page 83. INSPECTOR OF MEAL.— The consideration 
of this proposal to apply to the Common Council for the appointment of an 
Inspector of Meal, was postponed in May, but was not again brought up. 
No such application appears in the Common Council Minutes. 

Note 48, Page 83. CORNEL. — In grinding the seed of either Wheat 
or Rye, before Flour-bolting was so perfect as now, much of the grain which 
was crushed or coarsely ground could not be bolted. This part, after the 
bran was taken from it, was known as Wheat Cornel or Rye Cornel. — MSS. 
Note of Thomas F. Devoe. 

Note 49, Page 87.— COLONY OF NEW YORK AND TERRI- 
TORIES DEPENDING THEREON.—" In the Duke of York's com- 
mission to his several Lieutenant Governors, Major Edmund Andross, on 
the first day of July, 1664, and Col. Thomas Dongan, on the 3d day of 
September 16S2, among other descriptions of the boundaries of this prov- 
ince are expressly comprehended all the land from the West side of Con- 
necticut River to the East side of Delaware Bay. 

" King WiUiam and Queen Mary, by their Commission dated the 4th day 
of January in the first year of their reign, appointed Henry Slaughter to be 
Governor of the province of New York and the territories depending thereon j 
the boundaries whereof to Connecticut river on the east, by the above and 
many other grants, commissions, and public acts, were notorious. 

" In all subsequent acts and commissions this colony is described by the 
same general words the province of New York and the territories depending 
thereon; and its boundaries have never been altered by the government 
here or at home." — A Statement of the Right of New York to its 
eastern boundary on Connecticut River. Journal of the Assembly, 8th 
March, 1773. 

Note 50, Page 89. CHARTER OF THE CHAMBER.— This 
instrument is on record in the office of the Secretary of State, Albany, as 
well as in the minutes of the Chamber, and may be found printed in Jones 
& Varick's edition of the Laws of New York, vol. i. p. 113, and in 1st 
Greenleaf 78, and in Kings Sketch of the History of the Chamber. The 
original has been many years lost. Mr. Prosper M. Wetmore, when Secre- 
tary of the Chamber, made some interesting statements concerning the old 
document ; 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



327 



" In my search for objects of interest connected with the past history of 
the Chamber, my attention was naturally directed to the original charter, 
granted by Lieut. Gov. Colden, in the name of His Majesty George II I.^ 
and which I knefr had been in existence some few years previously. Every 
effort in my power was made at the time, and has been continued since, but 
as yet without success, for the recovery of this interesting link in our his- 
torical chain. 

" There is a bit of history, also, connected with this old charter. Some 
five-and-twenty years ago. Admiral Walton, of the British Navy, succeeded 
by inheritance to the property of his family in this city ; and on taking pos- 
session, among a vast accumulation of miscellaneous lumber, boxes, baskets, 
and chests, articles of domestic economy, dragoon saddles and Hessian 
muskets, in the spacious attic of ' Walton House,' in Pearl street, was 
found the original charter of the Chamber of Commerce. It was very large, 
about three feet in width, with the massive waxen seal of the crown, six 
inches in diameter, attached, and the whole carefully encased in tin and en- 
closed in mahogany. The Admiral immediately made known the discovery 
to Mr. Pintard, who took possession of the document. 

" Secretary Van Dam was known to have been an intimate friend, prob- 
ably a relative, of the Walton family. William Walton had once been 
President of the Chamber. These facts may account for the situation in 
which the charter had been found, and we must therefore believe that this 
instrument had lain undisturbed in the recesses of Walton House for the 
period of nearly half a century. 

" On the night of the great fire, the mahogany case containing the char- 
ter, was seen in the room occupied by the Chamber at the Exchange. As 
ever3rthing portable was supposed to have been removed from the building 
before its destruction, I indulged for some time a confident hope of being 
able to recover the old charter. In this, I regret to say, I have been dis- 
appointed. If it was saved from the fire, it has ever since been so carefully 
guarded that the most diligent research has not been successful in tracing 
its whereabout. Like the old seal, it may yet turn up in some unexpected 
manner, and then our memorials of an existence of fourscore years will be 
complete." — Letter to Hon. Charles King, N. K, Nov. 20, 1848. (See * p. 371.) 

Note 51, Page 96. THE STREET CALLED BROAD.— Originally 
the line of a brook or inlet. Its early name was the " Heeren-gracht," or 
Gentlemen's Canal. It was called the Moat in the time of Governor Kieft, 
and the Great Dyke at the close of the English Governor Lovelace's ad- 
ministration (1672), when it was ordered to be cleaned, and when also the 
streets of the city were paved. The Dutch called it Breede-gracht (Broad- 
Canal), as well as Heeren-gracht. Three years after this view (viz., 1676), 
the gracht (canal) was ordered to be filled up and the street levelled and 
paved. — Moulton's New O^^ange, p. 31. 

Note 52, Page 99. SALARY OF THE SECRETARY.— This seems 
to have been a nominal sum to cover the expenses incurred for clerk-hire. 

Note 53, Page 99. ANNUAL DINNER OF THE CHAMBER 
(Tuesday, 9th May, 1770). — No notice of this entertainment appears in the 
public prints of the day. 

Note 54, Page 99. MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 
1769-1775. — The last Assembly which sat in the colony of New York under 
Colonial authority. Summoned by writ of Sir Henry Moore, Governor of the 



328 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



Province, in 1769, this Assembly organized with the election of John Cruger 
as Speaker. During the excited period which preceded the Revolution, it 
held a middle course. Although it lost the popular favor by its compliance 
with many of the obnoxious requirements of the " Mutiny Act," it was by 
no means pliant or submissive to the exactions of the Crown, and owed its 
long duration to the fears which the Governors entertained of the result of a 
new election. It was never prorogued, but adjourned, sine die, on the 3d of 
April, 1775. 

List of the Assembly :— John Cruger, James De Lancey, Jacob Wal- 
ton, and James Jauncey, Esquires, city and county of New York ; Jacob H. 
Ten Evckand Philip Schuyler, Esquires, city and county of Albany ; Jaco- 
bus Mynderse, Esquire, town of Schenectady ; Abraham Ten Broeck, Es- 
quire, manor of Rensalaer ; Robert R. Livingston, Esquire, manor of Liv- 
ingston ; Charles De Witt and George Clinton, Esquires, Ulster County ; 
Leonard Van Kleeck and Dirch Brinckerhofif, Esquires, Dutchess County ; 
Jo. De Noyells and Sam. Gale, Esquires, Orange County ; John Thomas 
and Frederick Philipse, Esquires, Westchester County ; John De Lancey, 
Esquire, Borough of Westchester ; Piere Van Cortlandt, Esquire, manor of 
Cortlandt ; Jo. Rapalje and Simon Boerum, Esquires, King's County ; Dan. 
Kissam and Zea Seaman, Esquires, Queen's County ; William Nicoll and 
Jesse Woodhull, Esquires, Suffolk County ; Benjamin Seaman and Chris- 
topher Billop, Esquires, Richmond County. 

In 1772, Isaac Wilkins replaced Piere Van Cortlandt, Esquire, as repre- 
sentative for the manor of Cortlandt ; Samuel Wells and Crean Brush, Es- 
quires, were chosen as representatives of Cumberland County. In 1774, 
Guy Johnson and Hendrick Fry, Esquires, were chosen as representatives 
for Tryon County. 

Note 55, Page 99. SECRETARIES OF THE COUNCIL.— In the 
year 1770 these gentlemen were — Secretary and Clerk of the Council, 
George Clarke, Esq., continued in office until the close of the war ; Deputy 
Clerk of the Council, Goldsborow Banyar, Esq., succeeded by Samuel Bay- 
ard, Jun., Esq., in 1774, who retained the post till the close of the war. 

Note 56, Page 99. THE GENERAL AND HIS SUIT.— General 
and Commander-in-Chief, his Excellency the Honourable Thomas Gage, 
Esq. In 1770 his Aids-de-Camp were Capts. Stephen Kemble and Henry 
Dobson ; Secretary, Gabriel Maturin, Esq. In 1773 Major Kemble was 
promoted to the post of Deputy-Adjutant-General. In 1774 the Aids of 
General Gage were Major Robert Donkin and Lieut. Harry Rooke. In the 
spring of 1774 General Gage was appointed Military Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, and transferred his head-quarters to Boston. 

Note 57, Page 99. CAPTAINS OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS.— 
A Ust of Ships in commission, with their commanders, at Stations in the 
North America, in the year 1770: Romney i^o g\.m€), Samuel Hood, Com- 
modore, Captain John Cosner ; Rippon (60), Samuel Thompson ; Berlin (32), 

Sir Tho. Adams; Garland^ {10), ; Launceston* (44), John GiU ; 

Deal Castle (20), M. Jacobs ; Glascow * (20), William Allen ; Squirrel (20), 
J. Botterell ; Viper (10), Robt. Linzee ; Beaver (14), H. Bellew. — Schom- 
birg's Naval Chronology. 

The vessels [ * ] thus marked are those which appear in New York 
history. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



3'^9 



Note 58, Page 99. PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE CUSTOMS. 
— Collector of Customs and Receiver-General of the Quit Rents, Andrew 
Elliott, Esq., appointed 1764, continued in office until 1783. Deputy Col- 
lector, John Moore, Esq., continued in office till 1783. Comptroller, Lambert 
Moore, Esq., continued in office till 1783. Naval Officer, Charles Williams, 
Esq., succeeded in 1773 by Peter De Lancey, Esq., and in 1774 by Samuel 
Kemble, Esq. Surveyor and Searcher, Alexander Colden, Esq., succeeded 
in 1773 by Richard Colden, Esq., and in 1777 by Samuel V. Bayard. 

Note 59, Page 100. THE TITLE OF HONORABLE.— This title 
was in the Colony only accorded to the members of the Council. At this 
time Hugh Wallace and Henry White were both members of the Council. 

Note 60, Page 104. [ACCOUNT.] — An omission here occurs in the 
minutes, which this word, from the context, properly supplies. 

Note 61, Page 104. JERSEY MONEY.— The rate at which the paper 
money of New Jersey should be taken was before the Chamber as early as 
June, 1768 (page 10), and its consideration postponed to July of the same, 
year (page 11). Here introduced, July, 1770, in a definite form, its consider- 
ation was again postponed to August (page 106), and September (page 107). 
For the action of the Chamber, see Note 88 to page 143. 

Note 62, Page 105. L (ONG) I (S LAND).— These letters set against 
the name of absent members indicate that they were at the time of meeting 
in Long Island, six miles distant from the city, which exempted from fine 
under the rule. (See page 7). 

Note 63, Page 106. NOTICE OF RESOLUTION AS TO HALF 
JOES. — This advertisement, signed by Anthony Van Dam, Secretary, may 
be seen in the issue of Thursday, August 16, 1770, of Holt's New York 
Journal, or the General Advertiser ()Ao. 1441). 

Note 64, Page 1 10. STOVE FOR THE CHAMBER.— This now 
common convenience of modern times was a comparatively recent invention 
at this time (1770). Benjamin Franklin, in "an account of the new-invented 
Pennsylvania Fire-places, Philadelphia," 1744, describes the fire-places before 
in use as follows : " i. The large open fire-places used in the days of our fathers 
and still generally in the country and in kitchens. 2. The newer-fashioned 
fire-places, with low breasts and narrow hearths. 3. Fire-places with hoUow 
backs, hearths and jambs of iron (described by M. Guager in his tract en- 
titled La Micanique de Feu), for warming the air as it comes into the room. 
4. The Holland stoves, with iron doors opening into the room. 5. The 
German Stoves, which have no opening in the room where they are used, 
but the fire is put in from some other room, or from without. 6. Iron pots, 
with open charcoal fires, placed in the middle of a room.'' In his auto- 
biography, Franklifi gives the year 1743 as that of his invention. The 
Franklin Stove, as it is now called, was soon in general use through all the 
Colonies. Those for puWic buildings he describes as " in the form of temples 
cast in iron, with columns, cornices, and every member of elegant archi- 
tecture." — Sparks' s Life of Franklin, vi. pp. 34, 38, 398. 

Note 65, Page no. FLOUR EXPORTS.— From the earliest period 
of the English settlement. Flour was one of the chief products of New 



330 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

York. " The petition of the merchants " to Lord Cornbury, in 1702, coni 
mences with the statement : " That the principall staple of the Trade of this 
Province is the manufactory of wheat, expended chiefly in the West Indies 
by the English," &c. — Col. Doc. iv. 1 133. 

" Flour is also a main article (of our Exports), of which there is shipped 
about 80,000 barrels per annum." — Description of the Colony, 1756, in 
Smith's New York, 2, 331. 

" The natural produce and Staple Commodities of this Province are 
Wheat, Indian Corn, Oats, Rye, &c., &c."— The Report of Governor Tryon 
to the Earl of Dartmouth on the Province of New York, Col. Doc. viii. 449. 

Note 66, Page no. FRENCH BURR STONES.— The Burr Stone, 
or ''Buhr Stone,'' a hard silicious stone, remarkable for its cellular structure 
and rough surface, however worn and levelled. — Bigelow. 

A sub-species of silex or quartz, occurring in amorphous masses. Com- 
pact Uke horn-stone, but containing a greater or less number of irregular 
cavities. It is used for mill-stones. — Cleaveland. 

The French stone has preserved its superiority, and is at this, time one 
of the regular imports to the United States from Havre. 

Note 67, Page hi. INSPECTION OF POT-ASHES.— The Gene- 
ral Assembly, on the 19th December, 1766, passed "an Act to prevent 
Frauds by the Adulteration of Pot-Ash and Pearl-Ash," which, in its pre- 
amble, recites " that the Manufacture of Pot- Ash and Pearl-Ash hath been 
lately introduced into this Colony, and is likely to become a considerable 
Article of Remittance to Great Britain," and provides measures to punish 
offenders. On the 12th March, 1772, a further Act appointed an Inspector, 
and allowed a charge of " Fottr pence for every Hundredweight ; one half to 
be paid by the Purchaser, and the other half by the Vender." — Gaine's Laws 
of New York, 486 & 655. 

Note 68, Page 113. GERMAN MILL SCREENS.— The use of this 
improvement for the cleaning of flour is another evidence of the effort made 
by the New York Colony to keep up the character of this important staple. 

Note 69, Page 113. APPLICATION TO ASSEMBLY FOR ONE 
INSPECTOR. — This application does not appear upon the Minutes of the 
Assembly. Other regulations, adopted at the Twenty-ninth Session, 1770- 
1771, provided for greater strictness on the part of the Inspectors. — 
Gaine's Laws of New York, p. 610. 

Note 70, Page 114. LAW AS TO BRANDING OF FLOUR.— The 
General Assembly, on the loth of February, 1771, passed "an Act further to 
regulate the Inspection and Branding of Flour." 

The third section enacted " That from and after the first day of June 
next, no Inspector of Flour, appointed for the City of New York, shall 
brand or mark, as inspected, any Cask of Flour whatever, manufactured, 
unless the initial Letter of the Christian Name, and the Sirname at Length 
of the manufacturer are first branded thereon, — this Act to remain in force 
until the first day of January one thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
five." — Gaine's Laws of New York, p. 608. 

Note 71, Page 114. ADVERTISEMENT AS TO FLOUR.— C^awz- 
ber of Commerce,Tv£.%da.y Xhs. i6th of November, 1770 — Mr. Francis Mars- 
chalk, Inspector of Flour, produced to the Chamber several samples of flour, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



33^ 



and bread made of it. He informed the Chamber that of late, several 
millers had much improved in the manufacture of flour, particularly those 
who used French burr stones for grinding, and German skreens for cleaning 
the wheat. Agreed, that the members of this Corporation will give all the 
encouragement in their power to the makers of good flour, by giving their 
marks a due preference, and will carefully avoid buying any flour of an in- 
ferior quality. And, Mr. Marschalk was desired to attend the Chamber at 
their monthly meetings to inform the Corporation what improvements have 
been made, and to leave in writing the names and brand marks of the 
makers of good and bad flour. — Anthony Van Dam, Secry. — Ifu£-A Game's 
New York Gazette, November 19, 1770. 

Note 72, Page 119. STERLING IRON WORKS.— "The Stirling 
Iron Works are still in operation. They are situated on the outlet of Stir- 
ling Pond, about five miles southwest of the Sloatsburgh Station on the 
Erie Railway. They are owned by descendants of Peter Townsend, and 
have now been in operation about one hundred years." These works were 
run during the Revolution for the Continental Army. On the 2d of Febru- 
ary, 1778, a contract was entered into with Noble Townsend, the proprietor, 
by order of Genl. Putnam, for the celebrated chain stretched across the 
Hudson River from West Point to Constitution Island. — Boynion's West 
Point, p. 56. 

Note Ti, Page 119. HACKENSACK. — The port and county-town 
of Bergen County, on the right bank of the Hackensack river, fifteen miles 
from its mouth, twelve from New York, and sixty-three from Trenton. — 
Gordon's Gazetteer of New Jersey. 

Note 74, Page 120. IMLAY-TOWN, ON CHALEUR BAY.— Chaleur 
Bay, in Lower Canada, projects west and northwest from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. It has the British Province of New Brunswick on the south, and 
the district and county of Gaspee on the north. On its north there are the 
townships of Hopetown, Cox, Hamilton, North Richmond, Maria and Carlton. 
The river Ristigouche empties into this fine bay. — Morse's American Ga- 
zetteer, 1804. 

Imlay-Town must have been an unimportant place, as it neither appears 
here nor on the celebrated chart, The Atlantic Neptune of 1778. 

Note 75, Page 120. EXPENSES OF REFERENCE AND 
AWARD. — From this it appears that the arbitrators received a fee for their 
services. The same policy has been renewed by the Chamber, and the 
amounts received are set aside to increase its Library of Mercantile Law. 

Note 76, Page 121. S(ick). — This letter set against the name of an 
absent member, indicated absence on account of sickness and an exemp- 
tion from fine. 

Note ^t, Page 122. STANDARD GOLD SCALES.— As no public 
notice appears of this standard, it is probable, if adopted at all, that its use 
was confined to the members of the Chamber. 

Note 78, Page 122. ADVANCE PAY OF SEAMEN.--An early 
effort to check the desertion of Seamen before sailing. The ships of war, 
always in want of seamen, would never return a sailor to a merchant-vessel. 



JJ2 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

Note 79, Page 122. FREIGHT ON MOLASSES CASKS.— The 
custom of the present day is to pay freight on the gross gauge of the casks, 
at a price for each no gallons of such gross gauge. 

Note 80, Page 126. PICTURE OF COLDEN.— This portrait, a 
full length, may be fairly claimed as a fine specimen of early American Art. 
The artist, Matthew Pratt, was a native of Philadelphia, who painted por- 
traits occasionally in New Yor'k.—Dunlap's Arts of Design in the United- 
States, p. loi ; see also page 167 of Register of Proceedings. 

It originally hung in the Long Room over the Exchange which was 
occupied by the Chamber from 1770 till 1775. Whether on the renewal of 
meetings at the Merchants' Coffee House, in 1779, it followed its owners, is 
not now known. If so, it was removed at the close of the war, and appears 
to have fallen into the keeping of the family of the Lieutenant Governor. 
On the first day of February, 1791, it is recorded on the minutes of the 
Chamber : " Mr. Vice-President Murray gave information that a picture of 
Cadwallader Colden, Esq., Lieut. Governor of the late Province of New 
York, who originally incorporated this Chamber, and which had been drawn 
by order and at the desire of its members, was now in good preservation and 
in hands which were willing to restore it to the former owners." Whereupon 
the Chamber resolved that the President be requested to write to the person 
in whose possession the Painting is, and ask its restoration to this Corpora- 
tion. On the 7th May, 1793, the Records show that the picture was returned 
lay Mr. Cadwallader Colden (son of the Lt. Governor). The picture was then 
placed upon the walls of the room used by the Chamber in the Merchants' 
Coffee House, and afterwards, on their changing their place of meetings to 
the Tontine Building, in 1795, it was removed to that place. 

On the 15th April, 1817, the American Association of Fine Arts request- 
ed the loan of this, and the fine full-length of Hamilton, by Trumbull, also 
the property of the Chamber, as the Representative of the Merchants of New 
York for whom it was painted, and the two portraits were placed in their 
hands under certain agreements. They continued for many years to make 
a part of the exhibition of the Academy. 

On the 1st of May, 1827, the Chamber having taken rooms in the Mer- 
chants' Exchange, it was ordered that the pictures should be repaired, their 
frames re-gilded, and that they be hung in their hall, which was on the lower 
floor of the building, on the right of the main entrance. 

On the morning of December i6th, 1835, the second day of the Great Fire, 
they were saved from the flames which consumed the building, and, covered 
with canvas, were deposited in the garret of a store in Wall Street (the 
memory of the precise number of which is now lost ; it was between Water 
Street and the River), where they lay for many years. When Mr. Prosper 
M. Wetmore was appointed Secretary of the Chajnber, in 1843, he instituted 
a search for the old properties of the Corporation, and accidentally fell upon 
a clue which led to their recovery. So quicldy, in the stir and movement of 
this busy city, things of yesterday pass from memory and sight. It was only 
known then of the package, that it contained pictures which were supposed to 
belong to the Chamber. The canvas had never been opened. 

The pictures were again repaired and hung in the Room occupied by the 
Chamber in the Merchants' Bank. 

On the 6th February, 1844, they were again transferred, in accordance 
with the following order : Resolved—" That the Secretary be authorized to 
deposit for safe keeping and due preservation, in the Library of the New 
York Historical Society, the full-length portraits of Lt. Gov. Colden and 
General Alexander Hamilton, belonging to this Chamber, the same to be re- 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



333 



turned to the possession of the Chamber whenever it shall desire to reclaim 
them. 

On the removal of the Historical Society to its fire-proof building in the 
Second Avenue, corner of Eleventh Street, these portraits were transferred, 
and now form part of its fine and growing gallery of American portraits, 
awaiting the time when the merchants of New York shall erect a building 
for tlie Chamber, worthy of its ancient honor and present usefulness. 

Note 8i, Page 128. ANNUAL DINNER of the Chamber, May, 
1771. — No notice of this entertainment appears in the public prints of the 
day. 

Note 82, Page 128. THE GOVERNOR AND HIS SECRETARY. 
— "On Thursday morning last, October 17, 1770, his Excellency, the 
Right Honorable, the £arl of Dunmore, the Governor, arrived at Sandy 
Hook, in his Majesty's ship, the Tweed, . . . and about three in the after- 
noon landed at the White-Hall, accompanied by Sir William Draper, Lord 
Drummond, the Commander of the Tweed, and Capt. Foy, his Lordship's 
Secretary." — Holt's New York Journal, for Thursday, October 25, 1770. 

Note 83, Page 128. FIELD OFFICERS ON DUTY IN NEW 
YORK. — The 6th Regiment was at this time stationed in New York. The 
Field Officers were Colonel John Scott, with the rank of Major General, 
Lieut. Colonel D. Tempter, and Major Charles Preston. — Gaine's New York 
Almanac for 1771. 

Note 84, Page 132. MAIL FOR THE PACKET FOR ENGLAND. 
— •" The names of his Majesty's Packet-Boats with their Commanders, that 
are stationed between Falmouth and New York : The Earl of Halifax, Bal- 
derson ; the Harriott, Oake ; the Duke of Cumberland, Goodridge ; the Lord 
Hyde, Goddard. (And a fifth one building in our yards.) 

" The mail for North America is made up at the General Post Office in 
London, the first Wednesday in every month, and the mail for England is 
made up at the Post Office in New York the first Tuesday in every month, 
and dispatched from each office without delay."— Gaz««'j Almanac for 

1772. 

The mail had been previously made up on the first Saturday in every 
month. — Gaine's Almanac for 1771. 

A notice of a change to Wednesday first appears in 1774. — Gainers 
Almanac for 177^ 

Note 85, Page 141. TONNAGE OF THE PORT.— This word is 
here used in a restricted sense, different from its present meaning. It 
refers to the tonnage of goods by weight or measurement, and not to the 
capacity of vessels. 

Note 86, Page 142. WINCHESTER MEASURE.— "A standard 
English Dry Measure originally kept at Winchester, in England, and used 
till 1826, when the imperial bushel was introduced." — Worcester. 

"The Winchester bushel is i8i inches wide and 8 inches deep, and con- 
tains 2150.22 cubic inches; while the imperial Standard Bushel contains 
2208.1907 cubic inches." — Simmons. 

Note 87, Page 142. PELTRY.— Edward Phillips, in his New World 
of Words (1720), defines Pelt as the "Skin of a Beast,"— /'^//rj', a word 



334 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

so often met with in Colonial history does not appear in Phillips, Bailey, or 
yohnson. Webster quotes Smollett as authority, and defines it as " the skin of 
animals producing fur." 

" The fur trade, though very much impaired by the French wiles and 
encroachments, ought not to be passed over in silence. The building of 
Oswego has conduced, more than anything else, to the preservation of this 
trade. Peltry of all kinds is purchased with rum, ammunition, blankets, 
strouds, and wampum, or conque-shell bugles. (It is computed that for- 
merly we exported 150 hogsheads of beaver and other fine furs per annum, 
and 200 hogsheads of Indian-dressed deer skins, besides those carried from 
Albany into New England. Skins undressed are usually shipped to Hol- 
land." — Description of the Colony in 1756 ; Smith's New York, 11, 332. 

Note 88, Page 143. RESTRICTION UPON TAKING OF 
JERSEY MONEY. — This subject had been several times brought before 
the Chamber, and as often postponed (see pages 10, 11, 104, 106, 107). It 
was, November 5, 1771, again introduced. Again postponed, a vote was at 
last taken, 3d March, 1772, when, by a majority of 19 to 16, the restriction 
was imposed. So many of the members resigned in consequence, that on 
the 4th January, 1774 (page 187), the vote was rescinded. 

The General Assembly of New York took up the subject on the 9th 
March, 1774, and passed "an Act to prevent the depreciating the Paper 
Currency of this Colony." 

" Whereas the Paper Currency or Bills of Credit issued in the neighbor- 
ing Colonies are not made a legal Tender by any Act of this Colony and yet 
for Convenience do pass therein as money, and are often received in this 
Colony at a higher Value than they were emitted for by the Colony issuing 
the same, to the great Discredit and Depreciation of the Bills of Credit of 
this Colony, the Prejudice of Individuals, the draining the Colony of their 
Gold and Silver imported therein, and to the obstruction and detriment of 
Commerce. 

" Be it therefore Enacted, &c.. That after the first day of May next no 
person shall either pass, exchange, pay or receive any BUI of Credit of any 
of the neighboring Colonies for any sum or at any Rates more than the sum 
payable therefor at the Treasury of that Colony in which the same was 
issued, upon Pain of forfeiting a sum equal to the value of the BiUs so 
passed, &c." The following are the Rates at which they are to pass: 
Jersey BiU for ^6, in N. Y. currency £f>. 8 ; for £t, in N. Y. currency, ^3. 4, 
&c., (Xc. — Game's New York Gazette, May 2, 1774. 

Note 89, Page 144. SOCIETY OF PROPRIETORS OF NEW 
JERSEY.— The original Lords Proprietors of East Jersey were Lord 
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, to whom the Duke of York on the 24th 
June, 1664, granted the portion of his tract since known by this name. In 
1680, shortly after the death of Sir George Carteret, the property was offered 
at public sale—" William Penn, with eleven associates of the Quaker persua- 
sion becoming the purchasers for £z,\oo. . . . Their deeds of lease and 
release were dated ist and 2d February, 1681-2, and subsequently each of 
them sold one half their respective rights to a new associate, making in 
all twenty-four proprietaries."— IVhitehead's East Jersey under the Propri- 
etary Governments, vol i. p. 83. 

For many years the Province was under the rule of the Proprietors who 
chose their own Governor, but so much dissension occurred that in 1702 
the " pretended right of Government," as it is designated in the act of sur- 
render, was yielded to the Crown. The Jerseys were united with New 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



33S 



York under one Governor, during the administration of Lord Cornbury. 
Upon the surrender the proprietors secured valuable concessions. — Doug- 
lass' British Settlement (i7SS), p. 281. 

Note 90, Page 144. TREASURER OF SOCIETY OF PRO- 
PRIETORS. — James Parker was elected President of the Board of Pro- 
prietors of the Eastern Division of the State of New Jersey, April 10, 1771, 
and the following year was re-elected. He also was Treasurer for the same 
time. — Note from J. Lawrence Boggs, Register. 

Note 91, Page 146. ADVERTISEMENT AS TO TONNAGE.— 
The Report of the Committee of 3d September, 1771, signed by Hamilton 
Young, Miles Sherbrooke, Richard Yates, John Moore, and Jacobus Van 
Zandt, and the Resolution of 5th November, 1771, may be seen in Gaine's 
New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury for 27th January, 1772. 

Note 92, Page 148. THREE NEWSPAPERS IN THE CITY 
(January, 1772). — " The New York Gazette and the Weekly Mercury., printed 
by Hugh Gaine, Printer and Bookseller and Stationer, at the Bible and 
Crown, in Hanover Square (established 3d August, 1752, discontinued 13th 
October, 1783). 

" The New York fournal, or the General Advertiser, containing the 
freshest articles both Foreign and Domestick, Printed and Published by 
John Holt, on Hunter's Quay, Rotton Row (estabhshed May 29, 1766, dis- 
continued in 1785). 

" The New York Gazette, or the Weekly Post Boy, containing the fresh- 
est Advices, Foreign and Domestick. Established by James Parker 
in January 1742-3. August 27, 1770, Samuel Inslee and Anthony Carr pub- 
Ushed this paper, and continued it two years." — Isaiah Thomas' History 
of Printingin Aiiterica, vol. ii. p. 293-298. 

Note 93, Page 153. ADVERTISEMENT OF RESOLUTION 
AS TO JERSEY MONEY.— A long advertisement of the action taken 
by the Chamber, March 3, 1772, with regard to the charge for weighing of 
flour ; and a full statement of the motion and resolution as to the rates at 
which '■'■Jersey money'''' should be taken, appeared in Holt's New York 
Journal, or General Advertiser for Thursday, March 12, 1772. 

Note 94, Page 156. CUPOLA ON THE EXCHANGE.— This 
was built in accordance with the instructions of the Common Council, who 
on the 13th July, 1753, "■ Ordered 'Ca.-aX ^}ae. second story of the Exchange, now 
a building at the Lower End of Broad street be not exceeding fifteen feet in 
height and not less than fourteen, and the Room be arched from the height 
of the said fourteen feet, and that a Cupola be erected in said Exchange, 
under the direction of the Committee appointed for completing the said Ex- 
change." — Common Council Minutes, vol. v. p. 340. 

Note 95, Page 156. SEAL OF THE CHAMBER.— This Seal was 
made in London, and brought out by Captain Winn, who commanded one 
of the vessels in the trade at the time. It is of solid silver, about three 
inches in diameter, and one inch in thickness. Mr. Prosper M. Wetmore, 
who was Secretary of the Chamber from 1843 to 1849, relates a singular in- 
cident of its loss and recovery : " A somewhat curious story attaches to this 
Seal. Some years after the Revolution, a gentleman interested in the affairs 
of this country, in looking through a sort of curiosity shop in London where 
a miscellaneous collection of personal effects was displayed to catch the eye 



33^ 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



of a purchaser, fortunately discovered this signet of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of New York. He immediately secured the valuable estray, and with 
commendable patriotism restored it to the proper custody." — JVoie of Mr. 
V/etmore to Mr. Charles King ; History of Chamber of Commerce. 

The President was the designated custodian of the Seal by resolution of 
2d June, 1772 (p. 160). It seems probable that the last Colonial President, 
Mr. Isaac Low, took it with him on his retirement with the British troops in 
1783, and that it afterwards found its way into the shop from whence it was 
rescued. 

The device was engraved on the piece of plate presented June 3, 1780, to 
Captain Newman for saving the Mails of the Carteret Packet (page 233). 
The Seal is still in fine preservation, in the custody of the Secretary, and is 
constantly used in authentication of documents. 

Note 96, Page 157. ANNUAL DINNER OF THE CHAMBER, 
(1772). — No notice of this entertainment appears in the public prints of the 
day. 

Note 97, Page 163. ROOF OVER THE EXCHANGE.— This 
shingled roof is another evidence of the poor and temporary character of 
the public buildings of the last century. 

Note 98, Page 165. W. — A private memorandum of the Secretary, 
the meaning of which is now lost. 

Note 99, Page 166. NASH. — The meaning ofthis abbreviation is ob- 
scure. From the context, it is doubtless intended as a designation of some 
locality. 

Note 100, Page 167. COST OF PORTRAIT.— A comparison of 
the encouragement to art a century since, and now, may be drawn from the 
price paid for the full-length portrait of Governor Colden, £y], and the cost 
of the full-length of Mr. President Perit in 1863, $1,000. 

Note ioi, Page 175. ACT OF THE ASSEMBLY AS TO FISH 
BOUNTIES.— This Act, passed by the Twenty-ninth General Assembly, 
8th March, 1773, "for the encouraging a Fishery on the Sea Coast for the 
better supply of the Markets in the City of New York," is recorded in Gainers 
Laws of New York, page 742. 

Note 102, Page 176. FISH OF NEW YORK.— The fish here men- 
tioned are deep sea-fish. The object of the bounty was to foster a fishery on 
the coast. The Ray is stiU abundant in the waters about New York. Mr. 
Devoe in his Market Assistant describes several varieties under the names 
of Clear-nosed Ray, Spotted Ray, Whip-sting Ray, Cow-nosed Ray, Broad- 
sting Ray. The Skate is called, by him, a variety of the Ray, and is descri- 
bed under the name of Smooth Skate. 

Note 103, Pagb 176. TRAWL NET.— " Trawler-men.— A sort of 
Fishermen that us'd unlawful Arts and Engines to destroy the Fish upon 
the River Thames." — Edward Phillips^ Diet. (1720.) 

Troll. — To fish for a pike with a rod which has a pulley towards the bot- 
tom. — Samuel Johnson. 

The net so called was probably the ordinary Fisherman's net. The 
Skate and Ray were excepted because of their great number and poor quality. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



337 



Note 104, Page 177. PROPOSED MEMBERS.— The only entry 
on the minutes about which there is some uncertainty. Of the three mem- 
bers proposed at the April meeting, one, Johnston Fairholme, appears at the 
June meeting, without any notice being given of his, election. William 
Jauncey was admitted 7th December, 1773. Daniel Ludlow takes his seat 
Jan. 20, 1784, without any notice appearing of his election. 

Note 105, Page 178. ADVERTISEMENT OF FISH PREMIUMS. 
— " Chamber of Commerce, New York, 6th April, 1773. Whereas the 
Legislature of the Province of New York have, by an Act passed the 8th 
March last, directed that the Overplus of the Duty of Excise, collected in 
the said City and County, be annually paid, for the first five years next after 
the passing of said Act, to the Treasurer of the Corporation of the Chamber 
of Commerce, to be, by the said Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce, 
disposed of in such Manner as they shall think most proper for encouraging 
a Fishery on the Sea Coast, for the better supplying the Markets in the 
City of New York. In order therefore that the Intention of the Legislature 
may be fully answered, and the Inhabitants of this City receive the Benefit 
of so laudable a Donation ; It is resolved and agreed that the following 
Premiums hereafter mentioned be paid by the Treasurer of the Chamber of 
. Commerce to such Persons who, upon application and due Proof made, to 
the satisfaction of the Chamber, shall be entitled to the same, viz., &c." — 
Rivington's New York Gazetteer, April 29, 1773 (No. 2). 

The notices of the Committee appointed by the Chamber to award the 
premiums for the year ending May i, 1774, calling on all claimants to meet 
at the house of Thomas Doran, on the New Dock, may be seen in Gaine's 
N. Y. Gazette for May 9, 1774. 

The Committee for 1 774-1 775 met at Mrs. Brock's (a tea-house opposite 
the Battery) three days at the close of June. — RivingtojVs N. Y. Gazetteer, 
June 22, 1775. 

Note 106, Page 178. FARE. — This is a very unusual use of this word, 
which is generally applied to the money received for a passage, not to the 
trip of the carrier ; yet it can hardly be termed incorrect, since both Spenser 
and Milton use the word in the sense of " to go." Here it means the fisher- 
man's voyage. 

Note 107, Page 181. DEPARTURE FOR ENGLAND OF GENE- 
RAL GAGE. — " On Tuesday, about eleven o'clock, his Excellency the 
Hon. General Gage, with his Lady, their son and two daughters. Miss 
Morris, Major SheritFe, and the Captains Kemble and Dobson, embarked 
on board the Ship Earl of Dunmore, Capt. Lawrence, for London. The 
Royal Artillery were under arms, and saluted his Excellency with 17 guns, 
a great company of gentlemen attended his Excellency to the ship, express- 
ing in very fervent terms their wishes of safety and felicity to this most 
valuable and sincerely beloved personage, his truly amiable lady and family." 
— Rivington's New York Gazetteer for Thursday, June 10, 1773 (No. 8). 

Note 108, Page 182. SERIES OF GLORIOUS VICTORIES.— 
The allusion is here to the successes of British arms in the French war. 
The expeditions, from the commencement of hostilities, in 175S, to the 
Treaty of Peace with France and Spain, 1763, which resulted favorably, 
were: " 1755, against the French in Nova Scotia, General Winslow with an 
army of Provincials chiefly; 1758, against Louisburg and the Islands of 
Cape Breton and St. John, Admiral Boscawen and General Amherst ; 
22 



;^;^S HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

against Frontenac, Col. Bradstreet with Regulars and Provincials detached 
from General Abercrombie's army ; against Fort du Quesne with Regulars 
and Provincials, General Forbes ; 1759, against Niagara, Gen. Prideauxand 
Sir Wm. Johnston with Regulars and Provincials ; against Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point with Regulars and Provincials, Gen. Amherst ; against Quebec, 
Gen. Wolfe ; 1760, against Montreal, General Amherst with Regulars and 
Provincials ; against Havana, Earl of Albemarle and Admiral Pocock with 
an army of Regulars and Provincials ; 1762, against Newfoundland, Lord 
Colville and Col. Amherst with Regulars and Provincials." — Extract from 
Hugh Game's Almanac for lyji. 

Note 109, Page 188. [6]. — A memorandum of the Secretary, probably 
a note of payment of fines. 

Note iio. Page 189. EMBARKATION OF GOVERNOR TRYON 
FOR ENGLAND.—" On Thursday morning, about ten o'clock, Mrs. and 
Miss Tryon, accompanied by several Ladies of this City, embarked at Mur- 
ray's Wharf, on board the Mercury pacquet (Dillon), and presently after 
his Excellency the Governor proceeded on foot from his house in Broad 
Street, attended by several of the Honourable gentlemen of his Majesty's 
Council and of the Assembly, the Clergy of the different Churches, the 
Mayor and Corporation, and a vast concourse of the inhabitants, to the water 
side, where he was received by his Honour the Lieutenant Governor, and 
after taking a most affectionate leave of them, went on board, under a salute 
of three voUies of Captain Lasher's company, of Grenadiers, which were 
taken up by Captain Samuel Tudor's company of Artillery, who fired a round 
of nineteen guns ; these were succeeded by salutes from a battery of Philip 
Livingston, Esq. ; at St. George's Ferry, Long Island, his Majesty's ship 
the Swan, several other vessels, and from Fort George ; which were returned 
by artillery on board the Mercury ; the pilot-boat, with a number of Gentle- 
men and a fine band of music, waited on his Excellency to Sandy Hook, 
where they took their leave ; and on Sunday morning, at six o'clock, the 
pacquet proceeded to sea, with a steady north-west wind. — Thursday, April 
14, 1774, Rivingtoii s New York Gazetteer. 

Note hi. Page 191. MAPS OF EAST AND WEST FLORIDA. 
— This is hardly a proper designation of the work of Captain Bernard Ro- 
mans, which is entitled " a concise Natural History of East and West Flor- 
ida, containing an account of the Natural Produce of all the Southern Part 
of British America, in the three Kingdoms of Nature, particularly the Ani- 
mal and Vegetable, &c., &c., &c., to which is added by way of appendix. 
Plain and Easy Directions to Navigation over the Bank of Bahama, the 
Coast of the Two Floridas, the North of Cuba, and the Dangerous Gulph 
Passage, &c., &c., illustrated with Twelve Copper Plates, and Two whole 
Sheet Maps. New York, 2 vols., i2mo, 1775. In the list of subscribers 
which precedes the book may be seen the name of the Chamber of Commerce 
for the twelve copies ordered by it. 

Note 112, Page 192. CHANCELLOR AND VICE ADMIRAL.— 
The Governor of the Colony held both these ofiSces. Sinith, in his History 
of New York, gives a full account of the Court of Chancery, and the discon- 
tent on the part of the people and the Assembly at the exercise of the func- 
tions of Chancellor by the Governor. The practice of the Court, he says, 
was copied after Chancery in England. The title of Vice Admiral was of 
•course nominal. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



339 



Note 113, Page 192. GENTLEMAN ON WHOM THE COM- 
MAND WILL DEVOLVE.— On the departure of Governor Tryon for 
England, the Government fell upon Lieutenant Governor Golden, who often 
held this post in the temporary absences of the Chiefs of State. This was 
the last time he held the command. Governor Tryon returned in 1775. 

Note 114, Page 19s. THE PUBLIC MARKET.— There were eight 
Markets in New York at this time (1774). The Old Shp Market, estabhshed 
1691, removed 1779; Coenties Slip Market, 1691-1776 ; the Fly Market at 
the foot of Maiden Lane, 1699-1822 ; the Exchange Market, foot of Broad 
Street, 1738-1799 ; the Peck Slip Market, 1763-1792; the Bear Market, 
1771 (Washington Market was built near its site in 1812); the Crown or 
Mesiers' Market, at Thurman's Shp, on the North River, 1771-1776 ; the 
Oswego Market, junction of Broadway and Maiden Lane, 1772-1811. 

Of these the Old Fly Market was the most celebrated. " It could claim 
the merit of being the best and most liberally supphed with all the various 
articles used for human food." — Devoe's Market Book. 

Note ii;, Page 202. NEW CEDED COUNTRIES.— The new 
ceded countries to the southward of Georgia. — East and West Florida 
were ceded to England by Spain, on the Ratification of Peace by England, 
with France and Spain, on the loth February, 1763. 

Note 116, Page 202. SWORN TO EXECUTE THEIR RESPEC- 
TIVE OFFICES. — The Chamber did not meet agairi until June, 1779, when 
the sessions were resumed. The officers chosen in May, 1775 (except John 
Alsop, who left the city on the British occupation), served in 1779. 

Note 117, Page 203. STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS (1775-1776). 
— For four years the City of New York had been in a state of unquiet which 
rendered commerce uncertain and irregular, and was by no means favorable 
to the meetings of an organized body whose functions were those of Peace. 
Upon the news of the Lexington fight the citizens rose in mass, and on the 
5th of May, 177;, appointed a Committee of Safety to take charge of the 
Government, and business was at once suspended. In June of the same 
year, at the request of the " Provincial Congress," General Wooster, who 
was encamped at Harlem, took command of the city. After the disastrous 
battle of Long Island, in September, 1776, the British under Lord Howe 
resumed their authority, which was ^maintained until the close of the war. 
Many of the citizens left the city witfi the American troops, and in their turn 
many of the refugees from Boston and other places within the American 
lines, came to New York for protection, and established themselves here. 

The fatal fire of 1776, which consumed a large part of the City, caused 
also a derangement of trade from which it did not recover for many years. 
A second calamity of the same nature visited the city in 1778. 

Note 118, Page 203. INCREASE OF COMMERCE, 1779.— The 
City of New York was, during the Revolutionary war, the head-quarters 
of the British army in America, and its great d^pot of supplies. During 
the succeeding year the captures of American vessels had been very numer- 
ous. Governor Tryon alludes to this in his Proclamation of the 8th March, 
1779: "The City of New York is become an immense magazine of all 
Kinds of Supplies for a very extensive Commerce." — Game's New York 
Gazette, March 15, 1779. 



340 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

Note 119, Page 203. HIS MAJESTY'S COMMISSIONERS.— In 
the year 1778 (Eighteenth George III.), Parliament passed an "Act to 
enable his Majesty to appoint Commissioners with sufficient powers to treat, 
counsel and agree upon the means of quieting the disorders now existing in 
certain of the Colonies, Plantations, and Provinces in North America." 
The Commissioners were the Earl of Carlisle, George Johnstone, and 
William Eden. To these were joined Lord Howe and Sir William 
Howe, but they did not act, the former being chiefly with the fleet and the 
latter having returned to England. General (Sir Henry) Clinton took the 
place of General Howe on the Commission. Dr. Adam Ferguson, Pro- 
fessor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, was the 
Secretary. — Sparks's Writings of Washington, v. 397. 

Note 120, Page 203. PROCLAMATION OF THE COMMIS- 
SIONERS. — Failing in their purpose to treat with the Congress which 
declined to negotiate except on the basis of American Independence, the 
Commissioners proceeded to use such of their powers as seemed most fit 
to strengthen the cause of the King. On the 26th of September, 1778, the 
Earl of Carlisle, Sir Henry Clinton, and William Eden issued a 
Proclamation in which they announce their desire "to give all immediate 
relief and security to the trade carried on by his Majesty's loyal subjects at 
the Port of New York — they therefore suspend so much of the Acts of 
Parliament of 1776 as prevents the exportation of goods formerly allowed 
to be shipped from this port to Great Britain, Ireland, Newfoundland, Hal- 
ifax, Rhode Island, East and West Florida, and the British West Indies ; 
the articles of stores and provisions, naval and military stores, excepted." 
They also gave license and warrant to the captains of vessels making 
prizes to " send all such captures to the ports of New York and New- 
port in Rhode Island," and authorize that the captures " may be exported 
into and landed in Great Britain or any other part of his Majesty's 
Dominions," upon payment of the usual duties. — Gaine's New York Gazette, 
October j, 1778. (For renewals of this Proclamation see Note 164.) 

Note 121, Page 203. THE MERCHANTS' COFFEE HOUSE.— 
The place where this building stood is now known as the South East corner 
of Wall and Water Streets, and is the site now occupied by the Journal of 
Commerce. A Coffee House was kept here at a very early period, which 
gave the name of Coffee House Slip to the slip at the foot of Wall street. 

A notice of letters left there by the captain of a vessel in August, 1744, 
for the printer of the chief newspaper of the day, shows that it was a general 
resort. " Whereas, about a Fortnight ago, three or four Letters, directed 
to the Printer of this Paper, were left at the Merchants' Coffee House in 
this city, among many other Letters by Captain Romar from South Caro- 
lina ; which Letters have been by ill-minded Persons either destroyed or con- 
veyed away unknown." Signed by James Parker ; who offers a reward for 
their recovery, and adds in a Postscript, " the keeper of the said Coffee 
House's late Usage to me, obliges me to have no more favourable Senti- 
ments of him than the Case will sWovi."— Parker's Post Boy, (No. 84), Aug. 
27, 1744- 

A second notice, the same year, shows the date at which the dock was 
put out at Wall Street : " To be Sold, by Isaac Abrahams, newly come from 
England, on the New Dock, near the Merchants' Coffee House, all manner 
of Dantzick cordial Liquors, Rum and Brandy and Raspberry Brandy, 
Dr. Forbeno's Bitters with Directions and Hungary Water at reasonable 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 34I 

Rates. Also, all_ sorts of New Market caps and other sorts for Gentlemen 
and Ladies." — Parker's Post Boy (No. 95), November 12, 1744. 

The location of the building is established by an advertisement which 
appears a few years later in the newspaper of the same printer, which had then 
changed its name : " To be sold by Publick Vendue, on Wednesday, the 5th 
instant, at Two of the Clock in the Afternoon, at the Meal Market, near the 
Merchants^ Coffee House in New York, the Sails, Rigging, Anchors, Cables, 
&c., belonging to the Snow Noble Jane, lately lost near the East Bank." — 
The New York Gazette revived in the Weekly Post Boy (No. 298), October 
3, 1748. 

The next year a quaint advertisement defines the exact locaHty with more 
precision : To be sold by Henry Clopper, at the corner of the Meal Market, 
near the Merchants' Coffee House, " All sorts of men's and women's Sad- 
dles, Saddlers' Ware, Breed, Fringe, Plush, Brass Furniture, Brass Nails 
and Tacks, and a large assortment of Horse Whips. He also has several 
riding Chairs and Kittereens ready made for Sale, after the newest Fashion. 
He also mends Coaches, Chaises, Chairs, and Kittereens, after the cheapest 
and best manner." — Parker''s New York Gazette, revived in the Weekly 
Post Boy (No. 323), March 27, 1749. 

Its position in relation to the Meal Market is fully settled by a notice 
which appeared a few years later of James Murray, Druggist, " at the sign 
of the Bell, near the Merchants'' Coffee House, opposite the Meal Market, 
New York."— Gaine's New York Mercziry (No. 150), June 23, 1755. 

For a few years, from 1751 to 1754, this was the great resort for the 
merchants of the city. The journals abound in evidences of the favor it 
enjoyed. Vendues of ships and prizes, of cargoes of goods, of houses, 
land, and negroes, follow each other in rapid succession. The captains 
engage for freight or passage here, and lost articles are to be returned to 
this general place of meeting. 

At this time the house was on the river, which came up to Water Street. 
A proof of this is found in a mercantile notice : " To be sold, on board the 
Snow Jamaica Planter, Samuel Whyting, Master, now lying opposite the 
Merchants' Coffee House, a few barrels of the best Red Herrings."- — Gaine's 
New York Mercury (No. 207), Monday, July 6, 1756. 

The house now begins to lose its old reputation. The Meal Market, ill 
cared for, had been for many years a great nuisance to the neighbors. The 
New Exchange, with its rival Coffee House, began to draw away the throng 
which had made the Merchants'' Coffee House the business centre. 

Who kept the Merchants'' Coffee House during this long period is uncer- 
tain. A notice some years later is one of the first to be met with of a 
keeper of the House. " The Merchants'' Coffee House, late in the occupa- 
tion oi Mrs. Ferrari, and now of Elizabeth Wragg, on the opposite cross 
corner to the New House, is now fitted up in a most neat and commodious 
manner for the reception of Merchants and other Gentlemen who will 
please to favour her with their Company ; where may be had Breakfast 
every morning, and Relishes at all Hours. Coffee as usual, &c." — HoWs 
New York Journal and General Advertiser Q>iQi. 1531), May 7, 1772. 

As no further mention appears on the minutes of any change of place of 
meeting, it is presumed that the Chamber of Commerce continued to hold its 
sessions here until May 6, 1804, when a long break occurred in its history. 

When it was revived on the 4th of March, 181 7, by the active instrumen- 
tality of Mr. John Pintard, for many years after its honored Secretary, it met 
at the Tontine Coffee House, on the north-west corner of Wall and Water 
Streets, a few paces distant from the site of the Old Merchants' Coffee 
House. — MSS. Minutes of the Chamber, vol. i. p. 576. 



342 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

Note 122, Page 204. COMMANDANT OF NEW. YORK.— Major- 
General Daniel Jones succeeded Major-General James Robertson in 
this Post. His first Proclamation, dated May 4, 1778, appointing Andrew- 
Elliot Superintendent-General of the Police, appeared in Game's New York 
Gazette and Weekly Mercury, May 4, 1778. 

Major-General Jones served until the next year. On the 7th July, 1779, 
the following notice was published : " His Excellency, the Commander-in- 
Chief, has been pleased to appoint Major General Pattison Commandant 
of the Garrison of New York, in the room of Lieut. General Jones. — 
Rivington's Royal Gazette, ]-a\y 7, 1779. 

Note 123, Page 204. SUCCESS OF PRIVATE SHIPS OF WAR. 
— Governor Tryon, in a Proclamation issued March 8, 1779, giving notice 
" that ample provision is made by the laudable Ardor of his Majesty's loyal 
Subjects for the employment of all Seamen, Ship-carpenters, and other 
Landsmen, resorting to this Port, in short and successful Cruises against 
his Majesty's Enemies," says, " I have already issued one hundred and 
twenty-one Commissions to as many private Vessels of War, — that in the 
short space of Time elapsed since the eighteenth of September last the 
Prize Vessels arrived here amount to above six hundred thousand Pounds 
Lawful money of New York, at the ancient currency of eight Shillings a 
milled Dollar." — Gains'' s New York Gazette, March 15, 1779. 

This statement was verified by the pubUcation, a few days later, of " A List 
of Vessels commissioned as Letters of Marque from the Port of New York, 
since the 8th of September, 1778 (121 in number), and of their prizes " (165 
in number), published in Gainers New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, 
March 22, 1779. 

Note 124, Page 207. PRICE OF BUTCHERS' MEAT.— During 
the whole war there was a great scarcity of fresh meats in the City, and the 
Chamber naturally advised the Commandant to place no restrictions 
upon its sale, " as the remedy may prove worse than the disease." — (See 
Page 209.) 

Note 125, Page 208. OLD CORPORATION ORDINANCES.— 
By an old law of the City it was ordained that "all and every Citizen, Free- 
holders, House-keepers and Inhabitants living within the Six Wards on the 
South side of the Fresh Water, shall, on every Friday, Weekly, either by 
themselves or Servants, rake and sweep together all the Dirt, Filth and Soil 
lying in the Streets before their respective Dwelling Houses or Lots of Ground, 
upon Heaps ; and on the same Day, or on the Saturday following, shall 
cause the same to be carried away and thrown into the River or some other 
Convenient Place, under the Penalty of Six Shillings for each Neglect, 
Refusal, or Default." The Inhabitants were also required " to well and 
sufficiently pave, or cause to be well and sufficiently paved with Good and 
sufficient Pebble Stones suitable for Paving, aU or so much of the Streets, 
Lanes, and Alleys within the (said) City as shall front the respective Build- 
ings and Lots of Ground that belong to them respectively." 

The Chamber seems to have recommended a mixed plan. On the 27tli 
July, eight days after the recommendation made by them, a notice was 
issued from the Office of Police inviting " any person or persons that may 
be inclined to contract for the cleaning the Streets of the City zmder the 
immunity of an exclusive right to take all the manure and rubbish for their 
own use, to give their proposals."— Ga/«^'j New York Gazette, August 
2, 1779. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 34J 

The next year General James Pattison, then Commandant, issued a 
Proclamation (6th April, 1780) essentially renewing the Old Corporation 
Ordinances. — Gaine's New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, April loth, 
1781. 

Note 126, Page 208. POLICE OF THE CYX\ .—'' Proclamationhy 
Major-General Jones Commanding his Majesty's Forces on the Island of 
New York, Long Island, Staten Island, and the Posts depending — 
Whereas it is thought expedient, in order to give necessary assistance 
to the Commandant of the City, that a Superintendent-General of the 
Police should be appointed : I do hereby appoint Andrew Elliot, Esq., 
Superintendent-General of the Police of the City of New York, and its 
Dependencies, with Powers and Authorities to issue such orders and 
. Regulations from Time to Time as may most effectually tend to the Sup- 
pression of Vice and Licentiousness — the Support of the Poor — the Direc- 
tion of the Nightly Watch — the Regulation of Markets and Ferries and 
all other matters in which the OEconomy, Peace, and Good Order of the 
City of New York and its Environs are concerned. The Superintendent- 
General will be assisted in the Administration of the Police by David 
Matthews, Esq., Mayor of this City : and I do hereby enjoin and require 
all Persons whatever, to pay due Obedience to the Superintendent-General, 
the Mayor and all others acting in Authority under them in the Execution 
of their Duty ; and all Military Officers Commanding Guard, to assist 
them when it shall be foimd necessary. Given under my Hand at Head 
Quarters in New York, this 4th day of May, 1778 — Daniel Jones. By 
order of the General, Nathaniel Phihps, Sec'y. — Gainers New York Ga- 
zette, May 4, 1778. 

Note 127, Page 208. HOSPITALS.— The principal Hospital of the 
City was, at the close of the last century, and has since been, " the New 
York Hospital," situated on the west side of Broadway, opposite the upper 
end of Pearl Street. During the Revolutionary War some of the churches 
were used for this purpose by the military authorities, who had little regard 
for other than the Established Church. 

The first of the New York Hospitals which has for near a hundred years 
been distinguished for the care and .purity of its free management, has been 
thus described : 

"In the year 1770, some of the most respected and public-spirited inhab- 
itants of the City of New York subscribed considerable sums of money for 
the purpose of erecting and establishing a public Hospital ; and a petition 
was presented by Peter Middleton, John Jones and Samuel Bard, three emi- 
nent physicians, to Lieutenant Governor Colden, then administering the 
government of the Colony of New York, for a charter of incorporation, which 
was, in consequence, granted the following year by the Earl of Dunmore, 
Governor and Commander-in-chief of the Province. By this charter, dated 
the 13th of June, 1771, the Mayor, Re'corder, Aldermen and Assistants, of 
the City of New York, the Rector of Trinity Church, one Minister from each 
of the other churches of different denominations then in the city, the Presi- 
dent of King's (now Columbia) College, and a number of the principal and 
most respectable inhabitants of the city, were named as members, and incor- 
porated under the name of the ' Society of the Hospital of the City of New 
York in America.' Twenty-six governors were also named for the manage- 
ment of the affairs and business of the Institution, who held their first meeting 
on the 25th July, 1771. Through the influence of Dr. John Fothergill and Sir 
William Duncan considerable contributions were made to the Society by many 



344 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

inhabitants of London and other places in Great Britain, and in 1772, the Le- 
gislature of the Province of New York granted an annual allowance of 800 
pounds (2000 dollars) in aid of the institution for twenty years. In 1773 the go- 
vernor of the Hospital purchased of Mr. Barclay and Mr. Rutgers, five acres 
of ground for the erection of a suitable edifice. A plan of a building having 
been procured by Dr. Jones, the foundation was laid the 27th of July, 1773 ; 
but on the 28th of February, 1 775, when it was almost completed, the building 
accidentally took fire and was nearly consumed. By this misfortune the Society 
suffered the loss of seven thousand pounds ($17,500), and the execution of 
their benevolent plan would have been wholly frustrated had not the Legisla- 
ture, in March, 1775, granted them the sum of 4,000 pounds towards rebuild- 
ing the house and repairing the loss they had sustained. But the War of 
Independence, which took place in the same year, prevented the completion 
of the edifice. During the war the building was occupied by British and . 
Hessian soldiers as barracks, and occasionally as a hospital." — An Account 
of the New York Hospital. 

Note 128, Page 209. PERSON IN POWER.— Efforts to discover 
the author of the sage remark quoted in the text have proved unavailing. 

Note 129, Page 209. GREENWOMEN. — This word does not appear 
in any of the early Dictionaries of the language. It was applied to the wo- 
men who sold greens and vegetables. 

Note 130, Page 209. THE ALMS HOUSE.—" Certain persons of 
humanity and opulence, in 1774, presented a well-written petition to Robert 
Lurting, Esq., the Mayor, and to the Corporation, on the utility of erecting a 
good and substantial building for the reception of various classes of poor, and 
as a house of correction. Whereupon Messrs. Roome, Bayard, Pell, and 
Burger, who were Aldermen, with three other gentlemen, were appointed a 
Committee to fix upon a suitable piece of ground, and to purchase materials 
for the purpose. They eventually chose a spot then called the Vineyard; the 
very place on which now stands the City Hall. The house was erected ; was 
sixty-five feet by twenty-four, two stories high, with good cellar apart- 
ments. . . . When the war commenced between England and America, 
in the year 1 776, it became necessary to remove the poor, first to Westchester 
and afterwards to Poughkeepsie, under the charge of Mr. John Forbes. Dur- 
ing the war, however, the poor and refractory were received into the Alms 
House, then under the care of Mr. William Littlewood ; who was permitted 

to draw King's rations for nine months to support the poor In 

consequence of the destructive fire which took place in the city on the 21st 
September, 1776, three hundred destitute persons were received into this in- 
stitution."— jo^w .S'/cK/or^'j Sketch, in Valentine's Manual, 1862, p. 658. 

Note 131, Page 209. PRICES OF CARTMEN.— " Cartmen's Rates. 
By order of the Commandant. The following Rates for Cartmen being re- 
commended by the Chamber of Commerce, are to take place from and after 
Monday, the 20th inst., viz. : 

" For Loading, Carting, and unloading Fire-wood and every other com- 
mon Load, to any place within this city. Two Shillings. For a Load of Hay, 
Six Shillings. For every Hogshead of Rum, Sugar, Melasses, and for 
every Pipe of Wme or other Strong Liquors, Four Shillings. For a Hoo-s- 
head of Tobacco, Three Shillings. For a Load of Coal, containing one-thTrd 
of a Chaldron, Three Shillings. For a Whole-Shot Cable, 12 inches cir- 
cumference, or upwards. Fifteen Shillings j under 12 and above 7 inches 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



345 



Ten Shillings j seven inches and under, Seven Shillings and Sixpence j 
Half-Shot one third of the Whole-Shot. The above" Rates are to be paid for 
Carting to any Place within this City, not exceeding One Mile, and in the 
same Proportion for a greater Distance. Any Cartman demanding or 
receiving, on and after the 20th day of this Month, a greater Price for Cart- 
ing a load than the Prices settled by the above rates, or refusing to take up 
the first Load that is offered him on the Stand, shall, upon Proof being made 
before the Police, forfeit Forty Shillings for every such offence, one Half 
to the Informer, the other Half to the City Alms House. Any Person after 
that Day who shall be discovered acting as a City Cartman, without having 
obtained a License agreeable to former Orders, and the Number of his Li- 
cense marked in a conspicuous manner, with red Paint, upon each side of 
his Cart, will be confined and punished for a Breach of Orders. Office of 
Police, Sept. 16, 1779. Andrew Elliot, Superintendant General. David 
Mathews, Mayor. Peter Dubois, Magistrate of Pohce." — Gaine's New 
York Gazette or Weekly Mercury, September 20, 1779. " 

Note 132, Page 209. FORTY TO ONE HUNDRED SHILLINGS. 
— This amount in New Yoj;k currency was the equivalent of twenty-four to 
sixty shillings sterling, i. e., from five to twelve dollars gold in modern com- 
putation. This is on the basis of the Tables of Reduction published in 
Gaine's Universal Register ior 1779, p. 106. 

Note 133, Page 209. OLD LAWS CONCERNING CARTMEN. 
— The first regulation on this subject was the Proclamation of Major-Gen- 
eral James Robertson, Commandant in New York, issued 29th December, 
1777, the Preamble of which reads : " Whereas, it has been represented to 
me that the Inhabitants of this City are daily suffering great Inconveniences, 
as well from the Irregularity of the public Cartmen thereof in declining, un- 
der various Pretences, carting for the Inhabitants, when required, as by the 
exorbitant and increasing demands which they insist on receiving for their 
services : For correcting all such Abuses for the future, I do hereby establish 
the following Regulations : First — That no Cartman be allowed to cart 
without first obtaining a Licence from me for that Purpose, (which will be 
given out to him gratis), and having the number put upon his cart. Secondly 
— That no Cartman, upon the Request of any Person or Persons, shall re- 
fuse, decline, or neglect, upon any improper or false Pretence or Excuses 
whatsoever, to carry from or to any part of the City of New York, any Load 
or Loads of any kind whatever. Thirdly — That the Fare of the said Cart- 
men shall be as foUows." (Here follow the regulations.) — Gaine's New York 
Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Jan. ;, 1778. 

The Rates of which the Chamber complained were established later in 
the year by military authority. 

" By order of the Commandant, the following rates are established for 
Carting, to take place from and after the Tenth day of this instant, Decem- 
ber, viz. : For loading, carting and unloading Firewood, and every other 
common load, to any place within this city, not exceeding one mile. Three 
Shillings. For carting Firewood, or any other common load to any further 
distance, after the same rate. For every load of Hay, Eight Shillings. For 
every Hogshead of Rum or Molasses, Six Shillings ; and in the same pro- 
portion for Tierces or Barrels. For every Hogshead of Sugar, Six Shillings; 
for Tierces or Barrels in the same proportion. For every Hogshead of To- 
bacco, Four Shillings. For every Load of Coals, consisting of one-third of 
a chaldron, Three Shillings. For every Cable, whole shot, of five inches cir- 
cumference to seven inches, Ten Shillings. For every cable, half shot, of 



346 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



like dimensions, Six Shillings. For every cable, whole shot, upwards of 
seven inches circumference to ten inches, Twelve Shillings. For every 
cable, half shot, of Uke dimensions. Eight Shillings. For every cable, whole 
shot, upwards of ten inches circumference. Twenty Shillings. For every 
cable, half shot, of like dimensions, Twelve Shillings. Any Cartman demand- 
ing, or receiving, on or after the Tenth day of this Month, a greater price for 
carting a load than the price settled by the above rates, shall, upon proof 
being made before the Police, forfeit Forty Shillings for every such of- 
fence, one-half to the informer, the other half to the City Alms House. All 
persons that in future intend acting as City Cartmen, are desired, before the 
Twentieth day of this month, to give in their names at the Police Office, 
where they will receive Licences gratis. Any person after that day, who 
shall be discovered acting as City Cartman, without having obtained such a 
License, and the number of his Licence marked with red paint upon each 
side of his cart, will be taken into custody. Superintendant General's Office, 
New York, December 7, 1778. Andrew Elliot, Superintendant General. 
David Mathews, Mayor. Peter Dubois, Magistrate of Police." — Gaines 
New York Gazette, Dec. 14, 1778. 

Note 134, Page 210. THE OLD INSURANCE OFFICE.— The 
names of the Gentlemen of the Old Insurance Office who advised the Super- 
intendent in 1778 as to the proper rate for Cartmen's Wages are not recorded. 
This was of course a Marine Office. There was no Fire Office in New York 
until after the Revolutionary War. 

As early as 1759 there ^^^ ^" Office of Insurance known by this name. 
An advertisement in that year, the first in the New York Journals, reads : 
" The Old Insurance Office is kept at the Coifee House as usual ; where 
all Risques whatsoever are underwrote at very moderate Premiums, and due 
attendance given from Twelve to one and from six to eight by Keteltas & 
Sharpe, Clerks of the Office." — Gainers New York Mercury, November 
Sth, 1759. 

They had been directed to the advertising of their office perhaps by the 
appearance, a few months previous, of a new and rival office — " The New 
York Insurance Office is opened at the house of the Widow Smith, adjoining 
the Merchants' Coffee House, where all risks are underwrote at moderate 
premiums. Constant attendance will be given fi-om the hours of eleven to 
one, and from six to eight in the evening, by Anthony Van Dam, Clerk of 
the Office." — Gaine's New York Mercury, August 27th, 1759. 

A third was announced during the war. " The New Insurance Office 
is opened at the Merchants' Coffee House, where attendance is given from 
twelve to two o'clock in the day, and from seven to nine o'clock in the evening, 
by William Branthwaite, Broker." — Gaine's New York Gazette, ]\i\y 6th, 

1778- 

The New York Insurance Office, which appears to have been closed, 
again opened its doors. 

" The New York Insurance Office is again opened at the Coffee House, 
where the Underwriters will attend from twelve to two o'clock at noon and 
from six to eight in the evening. It is requested that those who want in- 
surance will apply at office hours." — Gaine's New York Gazette, Sept. 8, 
1777. 

A further advertisement shows that these offices were the resort of un- 
derwriters only, and not established companies, where all interested partici- 
pated in the risks, losses, and profits, as under the modern systems. Indeed, 
the application of the mutual or company systems in the city dates from a 
period subsequent to the War. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



347 



" Cunningham & Wardrop, Having annexed to their Business that of 
Insurance Brokers, beg leave to inform their friends they have opened a 
Public Insurance Office. 

" Where Policies are received and offered to the merchants and under- 
writers of the City in general. 

" The benefits which will in all probability result to the Commercial 
Interests of the place from such an Institution are obvious, and they flatter 
themselves with meeting with favour and encouragement from the Pubhc 
in general. December 17, 1779." — Rivingion's Royal Gazette, December 
29, 1779. 

Note 135, Page 211. STORING GUN-POWDER AFLOAT.— 
In the preamble to an ordinance passed " for the better securing of the City 
of New York from the Dangers of Gun-powder," it is recited that " the Cor- 
poration of this City of New York, in order to secure the said City and the 
inhabitants thereof from the Danger they were exposed to by large Quanti- 
ties of Gun-Powder being kept in Houses, Shops and Stores, did erect and 
build a suitable and convenient Magazine, or Powder House, on an Island 
in the Fresh Water of this City, for the Receipt of all the Gun-Powder which 
was or should be imported into the said City." — Holfs Corporation Ordi- 
nances, 1763, p. 39. 

This island was in the Little Collect, a part of the Collect Pond about 
where Duane and Centre Streets now cross each other. On the breaking 
out of war and the large increase of Powder at this central point, a change 
became necessary, and it was removed to a Powder ship. For many years 
afterwards this plan was continued. The site of the Powder House was 
too near the line of city fortification for safety. 

Note 136, Page 212. MRS. SMITH AT THE COFFEE HOUSE. 
— No notice of Mrs. Smith as keeper of the Merchants' Coffee House appears 
in the newspapers. That this was the CoSee House in question is evident 
from a reference to the resolution with regard to the new engagement of the 
Chamber with Mr. Strachan, who hired the Merchants' Coffee House, May 
I, 1781 {see Page 251 and Note 175). There was in 1759 a Widow Smith 
who kept a house "adjoining the Coffee House where the New York 
Insurance Office was opened in August of that year" {see Note 134), 
as may be seen by the Advertisement of Anthony Van Dam, Secre- 
tary, in Gaines N. V. Mercury, Aug. 27, 1759. 

Note 137, Page 214. PRICES OF ARTIFICERS.— In a letter from 
the journeymen to the master-printers of New York, asking for an increase 
of three dollars to their weekly wages, a statement is made as to the prices of 
the day. " There is scarcely a common laborer but gets a dollar per day 
and provisions, and the lowest mechanicks from 12 to i6j. per day." — 
Rivington^s Royal Gazette, Nov. 14th, 1778. 

Note 138, Page 217. ABSENCE OF MR. JOHN ALSOP.— Mr. 
Alsop, who was chosen First Vice-President of the Chamber, 2 May, 1775, 
(p. 202) was a member of the First and Second Continental Congress. On 
the passage of the Declaration of Independence he resigned his seat, and 
withdrew to Middletown, Connecticut. He did not return to New York- 
until after the evacuation by the British in 1783. 

Note 139, Page 223. VENDUE MASTER.— These officers were 
licensed in conformity with an order issued in 1779. 



348 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



"■ By order of the Commandant. From and after the 20th of this month, 1 
no person or persons will be allowed to act as Vendue-Masters for the sale \ 
of any kind of goods at Public Auction, but such as shall receive a licence 
from the Officers of the Police for that purpose, before whom the person 
applying for a licence must take an oath not to be concerned in any collusive 
sales, in order to raise the price of any article of trade or provisions ; and, at j 
the same time, must give approved security in the sum of Five Thousand 
Pounds, New York currency, for the faithful execution of their duty, as well \ 
as for the security of their employers. In all cases where it may be neces- 1 
sary to have proof by whose orders any parcel or piece of goods were sold '. 
at Vendue, the proof to lay with the Vendue-Master who sold such goods ; '■' 
if he fails in this, to forfeit his licence. All damaged goods to be sold as 
such, otherwise the purchaser will not be obliged to take them. Shipping 
and other materials, naval stores, prize goods, provisions and liquors of all "' 
sorts, cabinet ware, and the effects of strangers deceased, may be sold on the ' 
wharf, or near the Coffee-House 'Bridge by the licensed Vendue-Masters. 
Dry-goods, and all other goods that do not come under the above denomina- 
tions, when intended for public Vendue, are only to be sold in Auction Rooms ? 
provided by the licensed Vendue-Masters for that purpose. Permission 
will be granted to any of the licensed Vendue-Masters when required for 
the disposing of household furniture at private houses. For the more ready J,' 
discovery, of any person or persons that may attempt acting contrary to this j 
rule, aU licenced Vendue-Masters are desired to fix over the door of their '''' 

Auction Rooms, 's Licenced Auction Room, and to advertise in the ? 

newspapers their street and number of the house. New York, January 12, ' 

1779. Andrew Elliot, Superintendant General. David Mathews, '^ 

Mayor. Peter Dubois, Magistrate of Police." — Game's New York Gazette, " 

Jan. 18, 1779. i 

Note 140, Page 224. LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR on the Powder - 

Ship. — The cause of the alarm felt by the Chamber may be traced to the -; 

fearful explosion of a Powder-Ship two years previous. This explosion took ^ 

place a few days after the Great Fire of 1778. -': 

The following accounts were published in the papers of the day : " Yes- !s 

terday about one o'clock a flash of lightning struck a magazine of damaged -^ 

powder on board the Ordnance Sloop Morning Star, lying in the East River, J' 

which occasioned the most awful explosion ever perceived in New York, \ 

where most of the houses received very great damage. It had an effect sim- -= 

ilar to that of an earthquake, and occasioned a tremendous alarm, to every 3! 

resident in the city."— Rivington's Royal Gazette, Wednesday, August 5, i 

1778. rj 

" Last Tuesday afternoon, about one o'clock, during a heavy Rain, ac- 

companied with Thunder, the Lightning struck the Ordnance Sloop Morn- 'I 

ing Star, lying off the Coffee House in the East River, with 248 Barrels of it 

Gun-Powder on board ; it produced a most tremendous Explosion. A Num- il 

ber of Houses were unroofed, many Windows broke, and some Furniture ;: 

demolished by the Blast ; the Effects of which were similar to an Earthquake. fe 

Happily there was only one Man in the Vessel when the Accident happened. '\ 

— Game's N. Y. Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Monday, August 10, 1778. 'i 

The invention of Lightning Rods was at this time comparatively recent. > 

•" It was in the Spring of 1752 that Franklin thought of trying the experi- to 

ment with a kite ; and it was during one of the severe thunder-storms of H 

that year that the immortal kite was flown. In Poor Richard's Almanac for ii 

1753, appeared a notice of ' How to secure Houses, &c., from Lightning.' " fe, 

— Parton's Franklin, i, 289-297. , 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



349 



Note 141, Page 224. WALLOON BAY.— This is tlie well-ltnown 
Wallabout, where the United States Navy Yard is now situated (Brooklyn, 
N. Y.). The name of Walloon is said to be derived from the early settle- 
ment of the Walloons at this point. 

Note 142, Page 226. PRICE OF BREAD.— The first Regulation 
of the Military Authorities as to the price of Bread was made January loth, 
1777, shortly after the capture of the City : " Whereas many complaints are 
made by the Inhabitants that Bread is become extravagantly high, either 
from the Exactions of Bakers or Forestallers, it is become necessary to renew 
a mode that was formerly followed in this place, of fixing an Assize. The 
Price of the best Flour being now Thirty shillings the Hundred, and that 
of Fuel and Labour considerably increased, I find that it is the Opinion of 
the most respectable Inhabitants that a Loaf of Bread of the finest Flour, 
-weighing Three Pounds Four Ounces, should be sold for Fourteeji Coppers, 
and in the same Proportion for Loaves of a lesser Weight. Any Person 
who exacts more will be taken into Custody and the Bread in their Pos- 
session will be given to the Poor." James Robertson. — Game's New York 
Gazette, January 13, 1777. 

During the war there were occasional Variations, and necessity arose 
for changes in the Regulations. On the 22d of January, 1779, a second 
rule was issued, on this occasion from the " Office of Police " ■.—^' Assize 
of Bread. Two Potindsfor Twenty-one Coppers. Public Notice is hereby 
given, that from and after the first day of February next, all the Bakers in 
this City are to make their Loaves of Two Pounds Weight, and that no 
Baker or Retailer of Bread shall, from and after that date ask, demand, or 
receive any more or greater sum than Twenty-one Coppers for each such 
Loaf weighing Two Pouttdsj and that from and after the first day of Feb- 
ruary next, every Baker within this City shall put a mark with the initial 
letters of his Christian name and surname upon the Loaf-Bread he shall 
expose to sale, and shall make his Bread Good, and according to the afore- 
said Assize, under penalty of forfeiting all such Bread as shall be defective 
in Quality or deficient in Weight, to the Alms-house in this city ; and any 
person who shall ask, demand or receive any more or greater sum for a Loaf 
of Bread weighing Two Pounds, shall, for every such offence, forfeit the 
sum of Five Pounds to be applied to the use of the Poor of this City. The 
Weight of all Loaves being fixed at Two Pounds, it is intended for the con- 
venience of the Poor, and to avoid fractions in the Weight, which rendered 
detections of fraud in the assize more difficult.— Andrew Elliot, Super- 
intendent-General. D. Mathews, Mayor. Peter Dubois, Magistrate of 
Pohce." — Game's New York Gazette, January 25, 1779. 

On the 7th July, 1779, an order was issued by the same Magistrate : 
" AH loaf Bread to weigh Two Pound each loaf for fourteen coppers each." — 
Game's New York Gazette, July 12, 1779. 

On the 1 8th February, 1780, they announce "the Assize of Bread is to 
continue at Two Pounds each Loaf, but the Price of each Loaf is to be 
Fifteen Coppers.^'' — Gaine's New York Gazette, February 21, 1780. 

On the 15th of March, 1780, they directed that "all Bread made of Flour 
of the first Quality must be baked into Long Loaves of Two Pounds each, 
stamped with the Initials of the Baker's name, and sold for Fourteen Cop- 
pers each Loaf. And all Bread made of merchantable Flour of an inferior 
Quality must be baked into Sound Loaves weighing Two Pounds and one- 
half each, stamped with the Initials of the Baker's name, and sold for Four- 
teen Coppers each Loaf" — Rivington's Royal Gazette, March 18, 1780. 

On the 2oth November, 1780, they order "that all Bread made of wheat 



350 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

flour of the first Quality must be baked into Long Loaves of Two Pounds' 
weight each, and stamped with the Initials of the Baker's name, and sold 
for Sixteen Coppers each Loaf" (Bread of the second quality in proportion 
as before.) — Game's New York Gazette, November 27, 1780. 

On the nth January, 1782, the Loaves are ordered to be of Two Pounds 
and one quarter Weight each, and sold at Fourteen Coppers. — Rivington's 
Royal Gazette, January 12, 1782. 

On the 6th May, 1783, appeared the last order, that the Loaves be of 
Three Pounds' Weight, and sold for Fourteen Coppers. — Rivington's Royal 
Gazette, May 7, 1783. 

Note 143, Page 226. INSPECTOR OF BREAD.— The recom- 
mendation of the Chamber, that a PubUc Inspector of Bread be appointed, 
was immediately adopted. 

On the 15th March an order was issued with certain regulations, and 
announcing that " In order that the above Regulations may be duly en- 
forced, Jeronimus Alstyne is appointed Lnspector of £read, with direc- 
tions and powers constantly to visit the several Bake-Houses in the City, 
and to make Seizure of all such Bread as he may find deficient either in 
the above-mentioned Qualities, Weight or Stamp." — Game's N. Y. Gazette, 
March 27, 1780. 

On the nth January, 1782, Balthazar Creamer was appointed Ln- 
spector of Bread. 

Note 144, Page 227. VALUE OF COINS.— On the 30th April, 1777, 
Sir WiLLi-AM Howe, Commander-in-Chief, issued the following Proclama- 
tion : " Whereas many Inconveniences arise from Merchants and others in 
this City, charging their Goods and Wares, in sterling Money instead of 
Currency of the Province, I have therefore thought fit to issue this Procla- 
mation, hereby strictly charging and commanding that the Prices asked 
for all Goods, Wares, Merchandises and Provisions, hereafter to be sold in 
this City shall be in Currency agreeable, to the following rates : A Guinea 
weighing 5 Pennyweight 7 Grains, one Pound, Seventeen Shillings and 
Four Pence ; A Half Johannes, 9 Pennyweight 3 Grains, Three Pounds 
4 Shillings : a Moidore, 6 Pennyweight 22 Grains, two Pounds Eight Shil- 
lings ; a Spanish milled Dollar, Eight ShiUings ; an English Shilling, One 
Shilling and Nine Pence ; of which all persons are to take notice and govern 
themselves under pain of Military Execution." — Gaine's N. Y. Gazette, 
May 12, 1777. 

The contracts for Sterling alluded to in the text were, in the opinion of 
the Chamber, to be settled for in Coin. The advance over the value of the 
Coin in Great Britain was the ordinary premium on Specie ; the Exchange 
does not enter into the question. Such is essentially the practice at the pres- 
ent day : the seller requires the Sterling money or its equivalent. 

Note 145, Page 229. LETTER FROM THE SUPERINTEND- 
ENT.— Andrew Elliot, afterwards Lieut. Governor, held the office of 
Superintendent of Police at this time. No mention is to be found of the 
letter here alluded to. 

Note 146, Page 229. LETTER FROM GENERAL ROBERT- 
SON.— General Robertson arrived in New York from England byway of 
Savannah on the 23d March, 1780—" And was inducted into the ofiice of the 
Governor of the Province of New York on the 27th." He at once set about 
his duties. The Letter here referred to does not appear in any of the news- 
papers. It seems to have been addressed to the Superintendent of Police. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 35I 

If addressed to the Chamber, it would have been formally acknowledged in 
their Letter of 2d May, 1780. 

Note 147, Page 229. ENCOURAGEMENT TO PRIVATEERS.— 
In the early days of the war the British authorities had shown great unwil- 
lingness to encourage private ships of war. Their hope was then to restore 
good feeling between the Home Government and the Colonies. This was 
made a strong charge against Lord Viscount Howe on his return to England. 
One of the private pamphlets printed to show the (supposed) weakness of his 
rule has these striking passages : 

" You suffered the rebel merchants to carry on a constant and extensive 
trade with all their ports, and even from Egg Harbor, within twenty leagues 
of your head-quarters. And when the Loyalists at New York, enraged at 
your inactivity, and the losses they daily sustained, offered to destroy the 
Rebel Ships in that port, provided you would give them permission with a 
small share of your assistance, they were not obtained. In short, my 
Lord, you suffered the Rebels to import whatever was necessary to relieve 
their distress, and to support that Rebellion you were sent to suppress. . . . 
The Rebels were continually fitting out privateers in almost all their ports. 
These were constantly intercepting the British merchandise in the Euro- 
pean as well as the American seas. In consequence of these in the 
month of April, 1777, authority from the Admiralty was sent over to his 
Majesty's loyal subjects for the like commission against the people in rebel- 
lion Many (of the Loyalists) apphed to the Governors for their 

commissions, and many privateers would have been immediately fitted up 
could they have been obtained. But through your influence and interference 

these commissions were refused. The reason and the only reason 

assigned is an apprehension in your Lordship that the /rzVa/^«rj would take 
from the fleet under your command the seamen necessary to fight and navi- 
gate Nothing, therefore, was necessary to remove this objection 

but a Proclamation prohibiting the Captains of privateers from taking Brit- 
ish seamen Since his Lordship's resignation the Rebel Navy 

has been in a great measure destroyed by the small British force remaining 
in America, and the privateers sent out from New York. Their navy, which 
consisted at the time of his Lordship's departure of thirty vessels, is now 
reduced to eight. And the number of privateers fitted out in New England 
amounting to one hundred and upwards, is now less than forty ; the prices 
of all foreign necessaries and articles of commerce are raised more than 200 
per cent, exclusive of the depreciation of their money. And so great is the 
risk of their trade that no insurance can be procured in America." — Letter to 

Lord Viscount H e on his naval conduct in America, signed by " The 

Friend of your Country P London, 1779. 

These and similar representations had their effect in England. 

Governor Tryon's views were plainly set forth in a letter to Vice- Admiral 
Arbuthnot, dated 29th June, 1779, in which he expresses his "wish for some 
early and explicit declaration in support of the public faith pledged by Admi- 
ral Gambler (and himself)." He states the crews commissioned from this 
port to amount to upwards of six thousand men ; and he complained that 
the "Proclamation of Sir George Collier, of the 13th instant, however well 
intended or proper for the prevention of Desertion from the King's Ships, 
cannot fail of damping the ardour of the Merchants and Adventurers." — N. 
Y. Col. Doc. viii. 772. 

In what mode General Robertson propiosed to aid this already flounshmg 
business does not appear. He probably relieved the ships from the effect of 
the Proclamation of Admiral Arbuthnot, issued Sept. 14, 1779) giving notice 



352 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

of impressment on board privateers and merchant vessels of an equivalent for 
all deserters from the British fleet. The last appearance of this advertise- 
ment was on the 22d April, 1780, in Rivingtotfs Royal Gazette. Governor 
Robertson's first Proclamation was issued on the 15th of the same month. 

Note 148, Page 230. DRAFTS OF LETTERS TO. AND FROM 
GENERAL ROBERTSON.— These letters, the entry of which on the 
minutes had been previously omitted, were recorded thereon in February, 
1867, by the Editor (the Secretary of the Chamber). They v/ere found in 
Rivington^s Royal Gasetteiox Saturday, 13th May, 1780, and in Hugh Gaine's 
New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury for Monday, Ijth May, 1780. 

Note 149, Page 232. THE CARTERET PACKET.— On Wednes- 
day (May 24) arrived the Carteret Racquet, Capt. Newman, in about forty 
days from Falmouth. — Rivingtoiis Royal Gazette for Saturday, May 27, 
1780. 

" PuBLiCK Auction. — This Day, will be sold at the Coffee House, the 
Ship Carteret, packet, Burthen about 230 tons, copper bottomed. As she 
now lies Stranded near Jones's Inlet, on the South side of Long Island, 
with all her materials on board, and those brought on shore, consisting of 
anchors, cables, sails, standing and running rigging, guns, provisions, &c., 
&c., &c. Inventory to be seen with Daniel McCormick." — Game's New 
York Gazette, June 5, 1780. 

" To BE Sold at Private Sale, All the Stores and Materials lately 
belonging to the Ship Carteret Packet, consisting of cables, anchors, 
sails, standing and running rigging, masts,' spars, pumps, a complete six- 
oar'd cutter, 24 feet long, and a new yawl ; also, six pair double fortified 
six-pounders, and two pair of four-pounders, with carriages, breechings, 
tacklings, rammers and spunges, and a quantity of shot. Enquire of No. I, 
Mill Street." — Rivington's Royal Gazette, July 5, 1780. 

" On Monday next, X o'clock, on the Dock below the Coffee House, 
will be Sold by Templeton and Stewart, all the Stores and Materials lately 
belonging to the Ship Carteret Packet, &c., &c." (the notice similar in 
other respects to the preceding). — Rivingtott's Royal Gazette for Saturday, 
July 8, 1780. 

No account appeared in New York of the attack upon the Carteret ex- 
cept in the resolution of the Chamber. 

The following account appeared in the American papers : " Providence, 
May 27, 1780. — We learn that four privateers, three of them belonging to New 
London, on Wednesday last (May 24), drove a copper-bottomed ship ashore 
on Long Island Beach, 6 miles from Sandy Hook ; she mounted 22 nine- 
pounders, and by some papers found on board proved to be the London Pack- 
et from Falmouth, which place she left the 15th of April. Her crew, 55 in 
number, escaped with the mail. . . . Some valuable effects were taken 
from on board the packet, but a fleet from New York heaving in sight and 
some frigates standing for the privateers, they were obliged to leave her." — 
Pennsylvania Packet, June 13, 1780. 

The next year Captain Newman again appears as the Commander of a 
Carteret Packet; whether the old stranded ship saved and repaired, or a 
new one, does not appear. She is noticed as having arrived from Fal- 
mouth, and as being at Staten Island June 26, 1781. — Rivington's Royal Ga- 
zette, June 30, 1781. 

Note 150, Page 232. PRIVATEERS OFF LONG ISLAND.— At 
this time the American privateers were extremely bold and successful. The 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



3 S3 



'French occupation of Newport had called away many British cruisers 
from the station. A short time after the running ashore of the Carteret, 
the Mercury Packet, Captain Dillon, was captured and taken into Philadel- 
phia, and the cutter of the Hon. Major Cochrane was attacked a small dis- 
tance from the Hook. — Gaine's New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, 
August 2 1st, 1780. 

Another instance will serve to show the audacity of these adventurous 
men. " Extract from the Log-Book of the Sloop Comet, Captain Kemp. — 
The 7th of June last, being in f ompany with the sloop Hawk, Capt. Hump- 
stead, was chased by the Iris and escaped. On the 9th, making the east 
end of Long Island, saw a wreck ashore ; out boat with an armed party ; 
went ashore. Took possession of a battery of 10 guns, from which the 
men had fled on seeing the boat going ashore ; found the wreck to be the 
Hawk, which the Iris had drove ashore, her materials being partly carried 
off by the inhabitants of Long Island, who had erected the battery ; took 
off two of her guns, spiked the rest ; took an anchor and cable, with several 
other articles. On the 12th, at half-past four a.m., about two miles off Sandy 
Hook, got in shore of 15 sail, out of which number we captured and manned 
eight, viz. : schooners Free Mason, Lilly, and Sally ; sloops Polly, Driver, 
Dove, Elizabeth, and Elizabeth, aU of which Captain Kemp brought safe to 
port on the i6th, with twenty-eight prisoners." — Pennsylvania Packet, 
Philadelphia, June 24th, 1780. 

■ Note 151, Page 233. CAPTAIN NEWMAN'S ESCAPE IN HIS 
BOAT. — The following account of the escape of Captain Newman was 
pubUshed in a London paper of August 12th, 1780. " By a brig which is 
put into Lisbon from New York, we are informed that His Majesty's packet- 
boat the Cartwright, Capt. Newman, with the mail on board from Fal- 
mouth, was on the i6th of June chased by three American privateers, and 
run on shore at Sandy Hook ; but Captain Newman, ordering his men to 
hoist out his boat immediately, which they did, got the mail on board the 
boat, after which they rowed away, and the privateers kept chasing them 
for several leagues, firing all the time, but Capt. Newman had the good luck 
to escape to New York." — Upcott Collection of Newspaper Cuttings, N. Y. 
Hist. Soc, vol. vi. p. 27. 

Note 152, Page 233. POST OFFICE (1780).— The Post Office was 
at this time in Broad Street, as appears from the following advertisements, 
and there it remained till the close of the war. 

"Run away, a Negro Wench named Hager, about 18 years of age, 
born in this town ; she is about five feet high, had on a white drilling short 
gown and green petticoat. Whoever brings her to the General Post Office 
in Broad Street, or gives intelligence where she may be found, shall be 
handsomely rewarded. She is supposed to have gone on board the fleet." 
—Rivington's Royal Gazette (No. 270), May ist, 1779. 

" Paper Hangings. — A very elegant assortment of plain and printed, 
from 4 to 16s. per piece, may be had at the Paper Hanging Manufactory, 
No. 23 Broad Street, nearly opposite the Post Office," &c. &c. — Gaine's New 
York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (No. 1542), May 7th, 1781. 

" To BE SOLD, and possession given the first of May next, a two-story 
brick house. No. 17 Broad Street opposite the General Post Office, &c. — 
Gaine's New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury {No. 1643), April 14th, 1783. 

Note 153, Page 234. PUBLICATION OF VOTE OF THANKS. 
—The Vote of Thanks to Captain Newman, together with his reply, was 
23 



354 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

published in RivingtotCs Royal Gazette, July 5th, 1780, and Gaines New 
York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, July loth, 1780. 

Note 154, Page 236. EMBARGO ON SHIPPING.— This Embargo 
does not appear in the newspapers. It was no doubt a practical embargo 
enforced by the fleet of Admiral Arbuthnot. The British officers had great 
difficulty in keeping their men. Desertions were constant, and recapture 
rare. On assuming command of the ships on the station, Admiral Arbuth- 
not issued a Proclamation from on board ^!a&JiusselQ& New York, September 
14th, 1779, declaring, "that in future, for every seaman or seafaring man 
that may desert from the King's ships or transports here, I will press, man 
for man, out of the privateers and merchant vessels." This continued as a 
standing Proclamation, and appears in all the newspapers. — Supplement to 
Game's New York Gazette, March 6th, 1780. 

Note 155, Page 236. MEMORIAL TO THE COMMANDER IN 
CHIEF. — No copy of this paper is to be found in any of the journals of the 
time. Sir Henry Clinton held the title of " General and Commander in 
Chief of all His Majesty's Forces within the Colonies lying on the Atlantic 
Ocean from Nova Scotia to West Florida, inclusive." He and Marriott 
Arbuthnot, Vice Admiral of the Blue, Commander in Chief of His Majesty's 
Ships in North America, were " His Majesty's Commissioners to restore 
Peace and Good Government in the several Colonies in Rebellion in North 
America." 

Sir Henry Clinton returned to New York on the 17th June from the 
expedition to the Carolinas, which resulted in the reduction of Charleston. 
— Game's New York Gazette, June 19th, 1780. 

The Admiral was with the squadron off Rhode Island which had re- 
cently been taken possession of by the French fleet under Admiral Tiernay. 
— Rivington's Royal Gazette, August 2d, 1780. 

The Commander in Chief addressed the Admiral at this port in the letter 
alluded to {page 237). 

Note 156, Page 237. LETTER FROM SUPERINTENDENT- 
GENERAL. — No copy of this letter anyivhere appears. The post of 
Superintendent General of Police was held by Andrew Elliot. The trade 
of the City was all carried on under permits from this office, in accordance 
with the Proclamation of Sir William Howe of July 7th, 1777. 

Note 157, Page 237. MERCHANTS' READINESS TO SUPPLY 
SEAMEN. — On the two occasions which were critical in the affairs of the 
British fleet, the presence of the French squadron at Newport in the fall of 
1780 and the dangerous position of Cornwallis in 1781, those merchants, 
who were still loyal to the Crown, came forward to the aid of the British 
Commanders. 

Note 15?, Page 237. LETTER FROM THE COMMANDANT. 
— There is nothmg to show what was the purport of this communication. 
It nowhere appears. The Commandant at this time was Major General 
Daniel Jones. 

Note 159, Page 238. THE PRIVATEER AUCTIONEER. — A 
well-known cruiser. "The schooner Auctioneer, Captain Joseph Nash, in- 
tends sailing on a Cruise on Wednesday next. The Owners and Officers 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



355 



would wish such Commanders as have men missing from His Majesty's ser- 
vice to send on board and examine the Crew. 

" N.B. — Those who have any demands on the outfit of said Schooner are 
desired to send their Accounts, to be paid before she sails, to Barrach Hays 
and Tertulos Dickenson." — Game's New York Gazette, February 22d, 1779. 

In the list of vessels commissioned as letters of marque, published in 
1779, Samuel Rogers appears as the captain of the privateer Mars of 16 
guns. — Game's New York Gazette, March 22d, 1779. 

Note 160, Page 239. THE POLICE.— The PoHce here referred to 
had the entire government of the city in civil affairs. By a notice issued 
April 28th, 1779, "the business of the Commandant in civil matters" was 
transacted at the Office of Police. — Game's New York Gazette, May 3d, 
1779. 

Note 161, Page 247. THE SNOW FRIENDSHIP.— This name 
for a vessel, which sounds strangely to modern ears, was quite common in 
the last century. 

" A vessel equipped with two masts resembhng the main and foremasts 
of a ship, and a third small mast just abaft the mainmast carrying a trysail." 
— Marine Dictionary. 

Note 162, Page 247. COLLECTOR OF CUSTOMS.— On the death 
of Archibald Kennedy, Collector of the Port of New York, Andrew 
Elliot was appointed to that office. His Commission was dated January 
19th, 1764. He held the post till the close of the War.— jV. Y. Col. Doc. 
viii. 96. 

Note 163, Page 247. ACT OF PARLIAMENT.— This Act was put 
in force by General Clinton. " Proclamation. — In pursuance of an Act 
made and passed in the twentieth year of His Majesty's, reign entitled, ' An 
Act to allow the exportation of provisions, goods, wares and merchandize 
from Great Britain, to certain towns, ports, or places in North America 
which are or may be under the protection of His Majesty's arms ; and from 
such towns, ports or places to Great Britain and other parts of His Majesty's 
dominions,' I do hereby appoint and authorize the officers who were ap- 
pointed to superintend the imports and exports at New York, by his Excel- 
lency Sir William Howe, in his Proclamation issued 17th July, 1777, and 
who were afterwards continued in that duty by a Proclamation issued by 
his Majesty's Commissioners on the 26th of September, 1778 ; and who 
since the expiration of the Proclamation last mentioned, have acted under 
my authority to perform the duties required by the above-mentioned Act, 
agreeable to the limitations, restrictions, and regulations therein men- 
tioned. 

"And I do further appoint and authorize the officers who have under my 
authority superintended the imports and exports at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, since its reduction, to perform at that place the duties required by the 
afore-mentioned Act, agreeable to the limitations, restrictions and regula- 
tions therein mentioned. 

" All masters of trading vessels, merchants, traders and others, are hereby 
strictly commanded to pay due obedience to the Superintendents, and their 
officers at the above-mentioned ports in the execution of their duty, asthey 
shall answer the contrary at their peril : And all officers, civil and military, 
are required to aid and assist them in every case, where the same shall be 
found necessary. 



3S^ 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



" The Superintendents, their Deputies, and all Persons acting under them 
at the above-mentioned ports, having their salaries appointed as a full com- 
pensation for the services required of them, no fees are to be offered on any 
account whatever. 

" Given under my Hand,.at Head-Quarters in New York, the 24th day of 
October, 1780. H. Clinton." — Game's New York Gazette, October 30th, 
1780. 

Note 164, Page 248. EXPIRATION OF COMMISSIONERS' 
PROCLAMATION (OF 1778).— The Proclamation issued by the Earl 
of Carlisle, Sir Henry Clinton and Mr. William Eden, His Majesty's 
Commissioners at New York, 26th September, 1778 (see Notes 119, 120) 
suspending the Act of Parliament of 1776, "prohibiting all trade and inter- 
course with certain Colonies," declared that the new orders " should con- 
tinue in force for three calendar months." — Game's New York Gazette, Oc- 
tober 5th, 1778. 

A few days before the departure for England of the Earl of Carlisle and 
Mr. Eden, upon the Petition of the merchants and Traders of the City (signed 
by William Walton, President), 14th November, 1778, the three Commis- 
sioners, under date 18th November, extended by a new Proclamation the 
privileges granted by the old, until the ist of June, 1779. — Game's New 
York Gazette, November 23d, 1778. 

A further renewal, under the signature of Sir Henry Clinton and Mr. 
Eden, on the 22d April, 1 779, declared the regulations to be in force from 
the first day of June, 1779, to the tirst of December next ensuing (1779). — 
Rivington's Royal Gazette, September 29th, 1779. 

Note 165, Page 248. ORDERS OF SIR HENRY CLINTON.— 
On the expiration of the last renewal of the Proclamation of the Commis- 
sioners authorizing trade. General CLiNTON-assumed the responsibility of 
continuing the privileges extended by it to the commerce of New York. In 
his Proclamation of Oct. 24, 1780, he says that " the officers appointed to 
superintend the imports and exports at New York, since the expiration of 
the Proclamation of the Commissioners have acted under my authority^'' — 
{See Note 163.) 

After the departure of Carlisle and Eden, Sir. Henry Clinton, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Army, and Marriott Arbuthnot, Vice Admiral, 
were appointed the King's Commissioners, " to restore Peace and Liberty " 
to the revolted Colonies. 

Note 166, Page 248. ADVERTISEMENT OF SUPERINTEND- 
ENT AS TO DUTIES.—" Public Notice is hereby given. That I am or- 
dered to demand and receive Duties on Prize Goods and on all other Goods 
liable to Duties, imported under License, as also on all Goods hable to Du- 
ties imported into New York by Virtue of the Act passed in the last Ses- 
sion of Parliament. Of which all agents for prizes, merchants, and traders, 
are hereby required to take due notice, and govern themselves accordingly. 
The Duties will be received at the Superintendent's Office, No. 215 Water- 
Street, where attendance will be daily given for that purpose by Andrew 
Elliot. New York, February 24, i7.Zi:'--Rivington's Royal Gazette, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1 78 1. 

A similar notice, dated loth Sept., caUing for all " Duties on Prizes con- 
demned at the Port of New York since October, 1776," appeared in Riving- 
ton's Royal Gazette, September 18, 1778. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



357 



Note 167, Page 248. RESTORATION OF GEORGIA TO 
TRADE.— In the winter of 1775-6, the British Parliament passed an Act 
to prohibit all Trade and Intercourse with certain of the Colonies "during 
the continuance of the present Rebellion within the said Colonies respect- 
ively," of which Georgia was one. — N. Y. Col. Doc.., viii. 668. 

After the fall of Charleston Sir Henry Clinton and Admiral Ar- 
BUTHNOT, " His Majesty's Commissioners to restore the Blessings of Peace 
and Liberty to the several Colonies in America," issued a Proclamation 
dated Charleston, ist June, 1780, in which they declare "that as soon as 
the situation of the Province will admit the Inhabitants will be reinstated 
in the Possession of all those Rights and Immunities which they heretofore 
enjoyed under a free Government, exempt from Taxation, except by their 
own Legislature." — Game's New York Gazette, June 27, 1780. 

" The Province of Georgia having been mostly reduced by the King's 
troops, civil government was re-established on the 4th March, 1779 ; and on 
the 13th of July following, Governor Wright and the other Crown Officers, 
who had taken refuge in England, returned to Georgia and entered anew 
upon the administration of their several oiBces." — Stevens^s History of Geor- 
gia, ii. 185. 

Note 168, Page 248. NEW YORK GARRISON.— The garrison at 
New York was at this time very large. It was determined by Washington 
" twelve months beforehand at all hazards to give out and cause it to be be- 
lieved by the highest military as well as civil officers, that New York was the 
destined place of attack." — Sparks'' s Washington, ix. 403. 

Washington's estimate of the force in New York at this time appears in 
a Letter of Instructions addressed from New Windsor to General Knox, loth 
February, 1781 : "In the conference between Count de Rochambeau and 
myself [held at Hartford, Sept. 21, 1780], it was agreed that if, with the aid 
of our allies, we can have a naval superiority through the next campaign, and 
an army of thirty thousand 7nen, or double the force of the enetny at New 
York and its dependencies" &c., &c. This estimates the garrison at this 
period at fifteen thousand men. — Sparks' s Washington, vii. p. 407. 

Note 169, Page 248. DUTIES ON IMPORTS.— "Articles subject 
to Duty on Importation into any British American Plantation from Foreign 
Plantations : 

" Wines'from Madeira and the Western Islands, the Ton of 252 Gallons, 
£^ OS. od. ; White or Clayed Sugars the H2 lb., ^i 7s. od. ; other Sugars 
the 112 lb., £0 5J-. od. ; Molasses the Gallon, £0 os. id. ; Coffee the 112 lb., 
£2 i<)s. od. ; Indigo the Pound, £0 os. 6d. ' — Gaine's Universal Register for 
1780. 

Note 170, Page 248.— SUPPLY OF SUGAR DEPENDENT ON 
CAPTURES. — The West India Trade had been nearly broken up by Priva- 
teers, who were freed in a great measure from the molestation of the British 
cruisers engaged in watching the movements of the French Fleet. 

Note 171, Page 249. CIRCUMSCRIBED SITUATION OF NEW 
YORK, Feb. 1781. — Outside of the British hnes the country about New 
York was firmly held by the patriots. The American army had gone 
into quarters at the close of November, "The Pennsylvania line near Mor- 
ristown, the New Jersey regiments at Pompton, and the eastern troops in the 
Highlands. The head-quarters of the Commander-in-Chief (Washington), 
were at New Windsor. The French army remained at Newport, except the 



358 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



Duke de Lauzun's legion, which was cantoned at Lebanon, in Connecticut." 
— Sparks^ s Washington, i. 345. 

Major General Heath commanded at West Point, and the militia of Ul- 
ster, Orange, and Dutchess were on the alert to cut off aU supplies from the 
inland to the city. Skirmishes were constant between opposing forces in 
Westchester, and as near the British lines as Morrisania. — Sparks's Wash- 
ington, vii. 427. Heath's Memoirs, 268-273. 

Note 172, Page 249. MELASSES. — This spelling is of early date: 
though adopted by Webster, (who calls " Molasses an incorrect orthography 
of Melasses,") and certainly true to the derivation of the word, it has fallen 
into disuse. Bailey's Dictionary, edition of 1763, gives both varieties, while 
Johnson discards '■'■Melasses" and quotes a variation of " /J/o/ojj^j," which 
is still more strange to modern ears. 

Note 173, Page 249. CHARTER FOR NEW YORK CITY.— The 
action of the Chamber on this subject does not appear to have reached any 
conclusion. 

The condition of affairs was not such in the fall of 1781, after the capture 
of Coruwallis, as to warrant any poUtical changes. Concessions were too late 
at that period. 

The present Charter was granted to the City on the 15th January, 1730, 
by Lieut. Governor John Montgomerie, in the reign of George the Second. 
It was amended in 1830, 1849, and 1857. — Kenfs Charter of New York. 

Note 174, Page 249. GOVERNOR OF THE COLONY.— " Tues- 
day night (22d March, 1780) arrived from England by way of Savannah, in 
Georgia, his Excellency Major-General Qames) Robertson, Governor of 
the Province of New York." 

" On Thursday the Commission of General Robertson was opened in 
the Presence of General Tryon and the Gentlemen of his Majesty's Council, 
when his Excellency took the oaths of Qualification, and was inducted into 
the office of Governor of the Province of New York ; the General's Com- 
mission was afterwards read at the City HaU, and his Excellency there puls- 
licly proclaimed our Governor." — Gaine'sIV. Y. Gazette and Weekly Mercury, 
March 27, 1780. 

He was succeeded by Andrew Elliot in the spring of 1783. 

Note 175, Page 251. MR. STRACHAN AT THE COFFEE 
HOUSE.— "James Strachan, now at the Queen's Head Tavern on the 
Dock — Thanks the Gentlemen of the Navy and Army, also the Public in 
general for the great Regard shewn by them to his Interest since his Resi- 
dence there ; and informs them that on May Day next he intends to open 
business at the place well known by the name of the Merchants' Coffee 
House, where he intends to pay attention not only as a Coffee House, but as 
a Tavern in the truest sense ; and to distinguish the same as the City Tav- 
ern and Coffee House. With constant and the best attendance. Break- 
fasts from seven to eleven. Soups and Rehshes from eleven to half-past 
one. Public or private Dinners will be provided on the shortest Notice. Tea, 
Coffee, &c., in the afternoons as in England. The Viands and Liquors of 
every Quality will be as good as Town and Country can afford, and every 
Exertion made use of to give universal satisfaction. New York, AprU 27, 
1781." — Gaine's New York Gazette for Monday, April 30, 1781. 

A few days later he issues the same notice, except that he informs them 
" that, on Thursday last, being May Day, he opened Business at the place 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



3S9 



known as ' The Merchants' Coffee House.' " — Rivington' s Royal Gazette 
for Wednesday, May 2, 1781. 

Note 176, Page 254. DISTRESS OF BRITISH COMMERCE, 
(May, 1781.) — The American privateers, quiet during the winter, had again 
renewed their cruises, and with little interference, the English squadrons hes- 
itating to separate, while the French fleets hung together awaiting an op- 
portunity to strike a great blow in concert with the land-forces of the allies. 

" The first Rebel Privateer that has appeared on our coast this Spring 
was the Schooner Eagle, Captain Hindman, belonging to the Province of 
North Carolina, but last from New London, of 8 guns and 20 men." — Gaine's 
New York Gazette, April 9, 1781. 

" We learn that there are several stout Privateers now fitting out in the 
Eastern Ports, which we hear are intended to intercept the fleet from Eng- 
land, bound to Quebec, &c., &c., as they did some Time ago ; but we hope 
that they will be disappointed, as we make no doubt whatever vessels may 
come out will have a proper Convoy." (The same paper gives the account of 
eight captures by New London privateers since 8th inst.) — Gaine's New 
York Gazette, April 30, 1781. 

Governor Robertson, then in command at New York, writing on the 6th 
May, 1781, to Lord George Germaine, says that he hopes "soon to be able 
to revive the spirit of Privateering ; the obstructions to this have given the 
Rebels but too many opportunities lately of carrying into their Ports many 
of our Ships, and great numbers of their own." — N. Y. Col. Doc. viii. 
811. 

Note 177, Page 256. PREMIUMS OF INSURANCE AT LON- 
DON. — From the beginning of the war the rates of insurance had been very 
high. On the 17th February, 1778, the Duke of Richmond stated in Par- 
liament " that the price of insurance, to the West Indies and North Amer- 
ica, is increased from ' two, to two and one half to five per cent.' with convoy ; 
but, without convoy and unarmed, the said insurance has been made ?X fifteen 
per cent. But generally ships under such circumstances cannot be insured 
at all." — Annual Register for 1778, page 127. 

Note 178, Page 256. GARRISON AT GIBRALTAR.— Gibraltar 
was at this time besieged by land and sea by the French and Spanish forces. 
The advices of the abundant supplies of the Garrison referred to were the 
following : London dispatches of December 26, 1780, received at New York 
by His Majesty'' s Sloop of War the Cor7norant. " This morning some dis- 
patches were received from Gibraltar, which were brought over in the Nep- 
tune Frigate, arrived at Plymouth, by which we are informed that every 
Thing remained quiet ; and that they had plenty of provisions." — Gaine's 
New York Gazette, April 23, 1781.. 

" The privates in Gibraltar receive fresh meat three times a week. Beef 
is at two pence a pound. An officer writes that the whole army and navy 
of the enemy can never put their Sovereign in possession of that fortress 
while there is provision for the garrison." — Rivington's Royal Gazette, April 
25, 1781. 

Note 179, Page 256. BLOCK ISLAND.— "This island lies in the 
open sea about 14 miles S.S.W. from Judith Point and 13 N.E. from Mon- 
tauk Point, on Long Island, N. Y. It is about 8 miles in length and vanes 
from 2 to 4 miles in width." — Hayward's New England Gazetteer. 



360 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



Note 180, Page 256. SHREWSBURY BANKS.—" Shrewsbury River 
is a continuation of Sandy Hook Bay. Thiis arm of, the bay from the mouth 
of the Nevisink River is about 5 miles long with an average breadth of a 
mile and a half It is separated from the Nevisink by a neck of land 2 miles 
wide." — Gordon's Gazetteer of New Jersey. 

The Fisheries on the Shrewsbury Banks were a main source of supply 
to the New York itiarket. During the war they were greatly interfered with 
by the patriot privateers. 

Note 181, Page 256. GUN AND WHALE BOATS NEAR 
SHREWSBURY. — The Shrewsbury River was a favorite resort of the 
bold Captain Hyler and his Whaleboatmen. It was hardly to be expected 
that he would allow the Fishermen engaged in the supply of the New York 
market to go toll-free while he was attacking armed vessels. The following 
is one of many instances of his treatment. He seems neither to have al- 
lowed commutation nor to have granted passes, as was the habit of the Ad- 
miral on the station. " Last Tuesday night Mr. Hyler took two Fishing 
Boats near the Narrows and ransomed them for loo dollars each : one of 
these Boats he has since captured. "^ — Game's New York Gazette, July 15, 
1782. 

Note 182, Page 257. THE ROYAL OAK.— This vessel, well known 
in the history of the Revolutionary War, was a Frigate of 74 guns (1603 
tons), built at Plymouth in 1769. At the close of the war (1784), she was 
sent to Portsmouth to repair. In 1797 she was fitted for a prison-ship, and 
stationed at Portsmouth. — Exshaw's Register. 

The Royal Oak was the flag-ship of Admiral Arbuthnot. He was 
on board at Gardner's Bay, Feb. 1781, watching the French fleet {Re- 
membrancer for 1782, p. 315), and also in the action off Cape Henry, with 
the French squadron under M. de Ternay on the i6th of March, 1781. — 
Scko?nberg's Naval Chronology, iv. 376. 

Note 183, Page 257. THE KING'S SHIPS UNDER ADMIRAL 
ARBUTHNOT.—" The squadron that sailed from Spithead for North Amer- 
ica under the command of Rear Admiral Arbuthnot, on the ist of May, 1779. 

" Ship Europe, 64 guns. Commander Harriot Arbuthnot, Rear Admi- 
ral of the Blue, Captain Ardesoife ; Robust [74], Philips Cosby ; Russell, 
F. S. Drake ; Defiance, Max Jacobs." — Schomberg's Naval Chronology, iv. 
342. 

" A list of the squadron under the command of Vice Admiral Arbuthnot 
in the action off Cape Henry, with that of the French under M. de Ternay, 
on the 1 6th March, 1781. 

" Ship Royal Oak [74 guns], Commander Marriott Arbuthnot, Esq., 
Vice Admiral of the White, Captain Swiney ; London [98], Thomas Graves, 
Esq., Rear Admiral of the Red, Captain D. Graves ; Robust [74], Ph. Cosby ; 
Bedford [74I, Edmund Affleck ; A7nerica [64], Samuel Thompson ; Pru- 
dent [64], Thomas Berwick ; Europe, [64] Smith Child ; Adamant [50], 

Gideon Johnstone ; Iris [32], ; Pearl iz'i^, George Montagu; Guada- 

loupe [28], Hugh Robinson. — Schomberg's Naval Chronology, iv. 376. 

Note 184, Page 257. GARDNER'S BAY.—" The East extremity of 
Long Island is divided by Great and Little Peconic, and Gardner's Bays 
into two narrow unequal branches, between which are Gardner's, Shelter 
and Robin's Islands." — French's New York Gazetteer, page 631. 

The British Squadron anchored here in the summer of 1780. " From the 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 361 

secure position of Gardner's Island tiie British Fleet (of sixteen ships of war) 
continued to watch the movements (of the Americans and French in New- 
port Harbor) and virtually to blockade the ships and army of the French. 
— Arnold's History of Rhode Island, ii. 462. 

Note 185, Page 257- MONTOCK POINT.— "The eastern ex- 
tremity of Long Island. The eastern part of East Hampton consists of a 
narrow peninsula, to which the name Montauk is applied."' — French's Ga- 
zetteer of the State of New York, p. 634. " The Peninsula of Montock con- 
tains about 9000 acres." — Thompson^ s Long Island, i. 307. 

Note i86, Page 257. TRADE WITH HALIFAX.— " The exports 
from Great Britain to this country (Nova Scotia) consist chiefly of linen and 
woollen cloths and other necessaries for wear, of fishing tackle and rigging 
for ships. The amount of exports at an average of three years before the 
new settlement was about twenty-six thousand five hundred pounds. The 
only articles obtained in exchange are timber and the produce of the fishery, 
which, at a like average, amounted to thirty-eight thousand pounds. The 
whole population of Nova Scotia and the islands adjoining is estimated at 
fifty thousand. This estimate, it is supposed, is considerably too large. . . . 
Hahfax is the capital of the Province. It has a good harbour. . . . It is said 
to contain fifteen or sixteen thousand inhabitants." — ■IVinterbotham's View 
of America, iv. 42. 

Note 187, Page 258. NEW YORK HARBOR FOR LARGE 
SHIPS. — "Though most of the charts are marked with only 3^ fathoms of 
water on the bar, the outside of Sandy Hook, yet the most experienced 
pilots declare they always found the depth 4 fathoms. After getting over 
the bar the water is deeper all the way to New York. Ships of war can go 
up the east river through Hell Gate and the Sound, between Long Island 
and the Continent into the ocean. Sir James Wallace in the Experiment of 
50 guns when chaced by the French fleet oflT the East end of Long Island in 
1777, came through the Sound, Hellgate and the East River to New York. 
The tide flows up Hudson's or the North River 180 miles. Before the re- 
bellion ships went from London Bridge to Albany, which is 170 miles up 
the river ; only 6 miles below it, it was necessary to lighten them by taking 
out part of the cargo." — Political Magazine, 1781, vol. 2. 

Note 188, Page 259. DISCHARGE OF SEAMEN.— One of the 
great troubles under which the British labored arose from the cruel treat- 
ment of men on board their vessels. From this cause, while there were 
always enough sailors to man the privateers commanded by their own 
townsmen, they could not be brought to enlist in the King's service. Oc- 
casional notices of what is called a " Hot-Press^' appeared in the journals. 

On the 6th May, 1781, Governor Robertson informed Lord George Ger- 
maine that " the French Men of War and Transports with Troops on board lay 
ready to sail at Rhode Island, while that under Admiral Arbuthnot, having 
landed 1400 sick and scorbutic men is here unable to go to sea for want of 
hands. On the Admiral's requisition, with the Commander-in-Chief's con- 
sent, other applications having proved inefiectual, all the sailors here have 
been pressed-for the Fleet. This at present puts a stop to privateering ; but 
on my representation to the Admiral that by encouraging privateers and 
giving all men an easy access to them, We not only hurt the enemy's Trade, 
but lessen their army ; whereas by pressing we force the sailors to fly and 
man the Rebel Ships of War, he has promised that as soon as the important 



36: 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



blow, he now meditates, is struck, or as soon as a sufficient number of his 
Sick recover, he will discharge all the men now impressed and will not renew 
a measure, which nothing but his and the present state of his and the 
Enemy's Fleet could justify." — N. V. Col. Doc. viii. 8ll. 

Note 189, Page 261. LICENSED AUCTIONEERS.— For the reg- 
ulations for the government of Licensed Auctioneers or Vendue Masters, 
see the orders of the Magistrates of Police, under date 12th January, 1779 
{Note 139). — Gaine's New York Gazette, Jan. 18, 1779. 

Note 190, Page 262. CHAPMAN. — Edward Phillips, in The New 
World of Words (1720), defines this word as "a Buyer or Customer;" 
Bailey, in his Dictionary, gives the same definition (1763); Johnson essen- 
tially follows his predecessors, " a Cheapner ; one that offers as a purchaser," 
and gives Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and Dryden as authorities ; Webster, 
while giving the old meaning, adds a second definition, " a seller, or market- 
man." 

In the present day the word is held in usage to signify a Peddler. In 
the text the word seems to apply to a small seller in market places as dis- 
tinct from a traveling peddler. 

Note igi. Page 262. PROCLAMATION AS TO VENDUE MAS- 
TERS. — For a copy of this Proclamation see Note 139. It was dated 12th 
January, 1779, and published in Gaine's New York Gazette, Jan. 18, 1779. 

Note 192, Page 263. WINTHROP & KE MB LE.— Advertisements 
of this firm are occasionally met with in the newspapers at this time. " Win- 
throp &= Kemble, have for sale at their store, No. 1 1 Water Street, Port 
Wine in pipes, quarter casks and bottles ; Madeira in ditto, ditto ; Mus- 
covado Sugar in hogsheads, tierces, and barrels ; Loaf Sugar ; Claret in 
cases of six dozen ; Nails, and a few boxes of Spermaceti Candles ; Green 
and Sushong Teas." — Gaine's N. Y. Gazette, Feb. 8, 1779. 

Note 193, Page 263. WARDENS OF THE PORT.— A Proclama- 
tion of James Pattison, Commandant of New York, ist September, 1779, 
gives the names of the Wardens and the Districts assigned to their super- 
intendence. 

" From the Ship Yards to the Crane, Capt. Tho7nas Crowellj ixoxa. the 
Crane to the Fly Market, Capt. Thomas Vardill; from the Fly Market to 
the Old Slip, Mr. Anthony Van Dam; from the Old Shp to Whitehall, 
Capt. John Griffith.''' — Gaine's New York Gazette, September 6, 1779. 

A Proclamation of Samuel Birch, Commandant, dated i ith February, 
1782, gives the names of the same Wardens, and assigns to them the care 
of the same districts. — Rivington' s Royal Gazette, March 13, 1782. 

Note 194, Page 264. FREIGHT ON BROKEN HOGSHEADS. 
— The decision of the arbitration committee of the Chamber, that freight is 
due on empty and broken hogsheads, no matter what the contents, if the 
examination of the Port Wardens shows the cargo to have been weU and 
properly stowed, has been borne out by the practice of New York Mer- 
chants and by the decisions of the courts. 

Note 195, Page 266. WILLIAM WALTON, MAGISTRATE OF 
POLICE. — This was, no doubt, the William Walton who had been the 
President of the Chamber. The office of Magistrate of Police was one of 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. ^6^ 

the most injportant in the city. He succeeded Peter Dubois in that oifice. 
The last proclamation of Peter Dubois as Magistrate was dated 26th Feb- 
ruary, 1780 ; the first of William Walton, nth Jan., i7i2.—J?ivmg(on's 
Royal Gazette, Jan. 12, 1782. 

Note 196, Page 269. JUNCTURE OF AFFAIRS.— The state of 
affairs at the beginning of October, 1781, was by no means favorable for 
the adoption of new plans. The shadows of defeat were falling fast upon 
the British cause. New York was in great anxiety to hear of the fate of the 
fleet which had sailed under Admiral Graves for the relief of Cornwallis, 
who was closely besieged in Yorktown by Washington and Rochambeau. 

" Lord Cornwallis had been completely roused from his dream of security 
by the appearance, on the 28th of March, 1781, of the fleet of Count de 
Grasse within the Capes of the Delaware. Awakened to his danger, Corn- 
wallis meditated a retreat to the Carolinas. It was too late. York River 
was blocked up by French ships ; James River was filled with armed ves- 
sels covering the transportation of the troops. His lordship reconnoitred 
Williamsburg ; it was too strong to be forced, and Wayne had crossed James 
River to join his troops to those under the Marquis. Seeing his retreat cut 
off in every direction, Cornwallis proceeded to strengthen his ranks, sending 
off repeated expresses to apprise Sir Henry Clinton of his perilous situation." 
— Irving's Washington, vol. iv. 340. 

On the 26th September Sir Henry Clinton informs Lord George Ger- 
maine that he had " received a Letter from the Admiral, dated the 9th inst., 
to inform him that the enemy being absolute masters of the navigation of 
the Chesapeake, there was little probability of anything getting into York 
River but by night, and an infinite risk to supplies sent by water, at the same 
time acquainting me that he had on the 5th a partial action with the French 
fleet of 24 sail of the line, and tha.t the fleets had been in sight of each other 
ever since." — Political Magazine, 1781, ii. 668. 

The fleet under Admiral Graves had been too tardy in its movements, 
and De Barras, who sailed with the grain and stores for the besieging enemy 
on the Peninsula, had arrived in safety. On the arrival of the English 
squadron at the mouth of the Chesapeake, De Grasse sailed out with the 
French ships, and in an action, which lasted several hours, the English 
were hardly- handled — " they were so mutilated, that they had not speed 
enough to attack the French." — Gordon's History, iw. 183; Operations of 
De Grasse J Bradford Club. 

" Sir Henry Clinton determined, therefore, to hazard everything for the 
preservation of Virginia, and having embarked seven thousand of his best 
troops, sailed for the Chesapeake under convoy of a fleet augmented to 
twenty-five sail of the line. This armament did not leave the Hook till the 
day in which the capitulation was refused at Yorktown." — Marshall's Wash- 
ington, iv. 476. 

The fears entertained by the British officials in New York were soon justi- 
fied by the result. Lord Cornwallis surrendered on the 19th October to the 
allied armies. " The land forces became prisoners to Congress, but the sea- 
men and ships were assigned to the French admiral." — Gordon's Hist. iv. 196. 

Note 197, Page 269. REVIVAL OF CIVIL AUTHORITY— From 
the time of the entrance of the British troops into the city. New York was 
under martial law. The interests of the military service may have required 
this course ; but it is certain, that it was one unexpected in Great Britain, 
and distasteful in the last degree, even to thos.e who adhered to the Crown, 
in America. 



3^4 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



When Lord Howe took command, in the fall of 1776, an address was 
delivered to him, signed by Daniel Horsmanden, Oliver DeLancey, and 946 
others of the inhabitants who remained in the City ; and a short time after 
an equally loyal address was presented to him from the loyaUsts of Queens' 
County. It was observed of these Petitions, in the Debates of Parliament, 
in 1777, " That the Constitutional supremacy in one and the Constitutional 
authority of Great Britain in the other, were very guardedly expressed, all 
mention of Parliament being omitted, and the great question of uncondi- 
tional submission, left totally at large. . . . These petitions were not at- 
tended to nor were they restored to the rights which they expected^ in 
consequence of the declarations as well as of the late law for the appoint- 
ment of the Commissioners." — Annual Register for 1777, pub. in 1778, 
page 13. 

After the restoration of Georgia by the return of its Governor, the 
inhabitants of New York became restive and anxious for a renewal of civil 
rule. After a long and bitter experience, the great mass of the people hailed 
with delight the final triumph of the American cause and of the cause of 
liberty. 

Note 198, Page 270. HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP WARWICK.— This 
ship, under the command of Captain Elphinstone, arrived in New York on 
the 26th June, 1781, "a part of the Convoy to the Cork Fleet," which 
had touched at Charleston, South Carolina, with reinforcements for Lord 
Rawdon. — Game's New York Gazette, July 2d, 1781. 

The Warwick, of 50 guns, was built in 1767. She remained on the 
American station until the close of the war, and appears in the Register of 
1784 as a Receiving Ship at Chatham. — Exshaw's Registers. 

Note 199, Page 271. SAILING OF TROOP SHIPS.— The coast 
was so covered with privateers, that no public notice was given of tlie date 
at which this expedition sailed. It appears that it was in July, from the fol- 
lowing notice. 

" The Quebec and Halifax fleets, which left this port in July last, under 
command of his Majesty's ships Warwick, Hon. K. Elphinstone, Com- 
mander, and the Garland, Captain Chamberlain, arrived at Halifax on the 
6th day after they left Sandy Hook. — Gainers New York Gazette and 
Weekly Mercury, September 24th, 1781. 

Note 200, Page 271. TWO BRIGS ESCAPE THE CONVOY.— 
These were probably the two vessels referred to in a Boston letter of the 16th 
August as having been sent in. " Also two brigs from New York bound to 
Quebec were captured by a privateer from Portsmouth." — The New Jersey 
Gazette, September 5th, 1781. 

Their companions were more fortunate, if the British account can be 
relied upon. " We are informed that a great number of rebel privateers 
having concocted a design of intercepting the fleet of British merchantmen 
bound for Quebec, and taken their stations in and about the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, they were presently made prizes of by the British cruisers. It is said 
Admiral Edwards had taken the trade under his protection, apprised of the 
formidable number of rebel privateers in the Gulf, twenty-six sail of which 
have been secured ; their names we have in vain endeavoured to procure for 
insertion in this paper ; besides the Congress of 26 gims, the following ships 
are named, the Alexander, the Marquis, and the Neptune. The whole, large 
and small, carry from twelve to twenty-six guns each." — Rivington^s Royal 
Gazette, September 22d, 1781! 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 365 

Note 201, Page 271. HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP GARLAND.— This 
ship, built in 1748, according to Beatson, carried 24 guns, and was under 
the command of Captain Chamberlain. She was on the American station 
until 1783. In the next year her name disappears from the Registers. — 
Exshaw^s Registers. 

This ship had been long known on the American station. On the voy- 
age from Cork, as part of the convoy of the Provision Fleet for America, 
she had the fortune to take a celebrated privateer, which was the cause of 
much rejoicing and boasting among her officers. 

"Extract of a letter from an officer on board the Garland: ' On Wed- 
nesday last (June 2), we took the Fair American, privateer, so remarkable 
for depredations she has committed on the British trade for the two years 
past, and always escaping our cruisers by her swiftness of sailing. This, I 
think, will incontrovertibly, ascertain a fact which some people affect not to 
value, but which is nevertheless true, ' that the Garland sails superior to 
all the cruisers on the coast? " — Rivington^s Royal Gazette, January 9, 1782. 

Note 202, Page 271. THE INSURER. — Underwriting was not, as 
now, the business of companies. One or more individuals would take the 
risks on such terms as could be agreed upon. The insurance offices were 
only places of meeting for those whose habit it was to do this business. 

Note 203, Page 271. "THIS MOST UNNATURAL REBEL- 
LION." — This. phrase, so much used during the late Rebellion (1861-65), 
and in the text appearing in a letter of Isaac Low, President of the Cham- 
ber (October 3, 1781), is to be found in a Proclamation of Sir William Howe 
of the 2ist April, 1777, commencing, " Whereas for the more speedy and 
effectual suppression of the unnattiral Rebellion subsisting in North Amer- 
ica" etc. — Gainers New York Gazette, April 28th, 1777. 

Note 204, Page 272. THE BRITISH FLEET.— Sir Henry Clinton, 
in a letter to Lord George Germaine, dated on board the London, off Chesa- 
peake, 29th October, 1781, says, "Rear Admiral Graves sailed from Sandy 
Hook on the 19th inst., and arrived off Cape Charles on the 24th, when we 
had the mortification to hear that Lord Cornwallis had prepared terms of 
capitulation to the enemy on the 17th. . . . We are, unfortunately, too late 
to relieve him, which, being the only object of the expedition, the Admiral 
has determined upon returning with his fleet to Sandy Hook." — Political 
Magazine, 1781, page 670. 

Note 205, Page 272. BOUNTY OF CHAMBER TO SEAMEN.— 
A curious Proclamation of Mr. Isaac Low, as President, has been preserved 
in the Pennsylvania Packet. It was probably issued as a handbill in New 
York, and for that reason did not find its way into the newspapers : 

"To all Honest Hearts and Sound Bottoms. 

" Not to step forth when all's at stake were a reflection too indignant and 
insupportable for the breast of an English seaman. 

" It is on such grand occasions that those useful men have always shone 
in their true light, and astonished the world by their intrepidity and feats of 
valour. 

" Perhaps there never was a period when an exertion of aU their powers 
was more seriously called for. 

" Without their most strenuous assistance, not only the great exertions of 



366 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



the noble peer and the gallant army he commands, who have already per- 
formed wonders, may be rendered of no effect, but also the endeavours of 
their brave sympathetic fellow soldiers, who would so eagerly fly to their 
assistance, be defeated. 

" AU seamen and able-bodied landsmen are therefore called upon by the 
Admiral to offer their services and fight under his banners. Nor will they 
be called upon in vain, or it would be the first invitation of the kind that 
honest British tars ever refused, or were backward in accepting. 

" Yard arm and yard arm never yet failed evincing their prowess over their 
old implacable foe. ' 

" Greater encouragement was never held out in any country ; not from 
the degrading supposition that their zeal and ardour require any other stim- 
ulation than what flows from a love of their country ; but only by way of 
vieing with them, who, in their different stations, should be foremost on this 
truly grand and important occasion. 

" With this view the Admiral and Governor authorize the publication of 
what cannot but be called great allurements, and the Chamber of Commerce 
and the other loyal inhabitants will add a bounty of Three Guineas to each 
volunteer who goes upon this important service, besides plenty of honest 
grog to cheer their hearts and drink the king's health and success to his 
arms. 

" ' Hearts of oak are our ships ; 
Hearts of oak are our men. 
We always are ready, steady, boys, steady. 
We'll fight and we'll conquer again and again.' 

" This noble chorus again echoed with propriety, will make the heart of 
the young Prince * leap for joy and glory in the profession of a sailor. 

" By order of the Chamber of Commerce and a number of respectable in- 
habitants there assembled. Isaac Low, President." — News from Chatham, 
published in the Pennsylvania Packet, Tuesday, October 30, 1781. 

Note 206, Page 275. ARRIVAL OF PROVISION FLEETS.— 
" Last Saturday( January 5) arrived here from Cork a fleet of twenty-five vic- 
tuallers, convoyed by his Majesty's Ship Quebec, of 38 guns, commanded 
by Christopher Mason, Esq., and the Grana, of 28, by Captain Fortescue. 
They left Cork the 29th of October. On the 27th of December that part of 
the convoy destined for CaroUna, was sent up to Charlestown. On the 28th 
they sailed from the bar of that port, and eight days after, viz. on the 5th 
of January, with the remaining convoy for this garrison, anchored in New 
York Harbour." — Rivington's Royal Gazette, January 9, 1782. 

Note 207, Page 276. ARRIVAL OF PRIZES.— In the twenty days 
preceding the date of the Letter of the Superintendent, the British privateers 
had met with more than usual success. On the 19th December the priva- 
teer sloop Prince William Henry brought in the Brig Experiment, bound 
from Philadelphia to North Carolina. On the 2d January the Orpheus brought 
in two vessels laden with flour. On the 23d January his Majesty's Ship 
Adamant sent in the schooner Delaware, laden with three hundred and fifty 
barrels of flour. The same day the King's Ship Garland sent in the "Fair 

* Prince William Henry, afterwards William the Fourth, third son of George 
the Third, arrived at Sandy Hook September 25, \'J%1.— Rivington's Royal Gazette, 
September 26, 1781. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 367 

American, rebel privateer, so remarkable for the depredations she has so long 
committed on the British trade. The Fair American had on board upward 
of sjo barrels of flour, which she was to unload at the Havana." On the 
3d his Majesty's Ship the Chatham sent in the Sally, bound from Philadel- 
phia to St. Croix, with a cargo of flour, bread, etc. 

These arrivals, together with that of the Cork fleet on the 9th, were a 
great relief to the city. 

Note 208, Page 276. PRICE OF BREAD, January, 1782.— On the 
nth January, 1782, on the advice of the Chamber given in their letter of 
the 8th idem (page 276), the Magistrates of Pohce ordered that Loaves of 
Two Pounds and a Quarter weight each should be sold for Fourteen Cop- 
pers e:2icb.. — Rivington's Royal Gazette, January 12, 1782. For Bread Reg- 
ulations during the British occupation, see Note 142. 

Note 209, Page 277. WHARVES. — The recommendation of the 
Chamber (page 279) was followed by the authorities. On the 12th April, 
1782, Samuel Birch, Commandant of New York, issued a Proclamation : 
" Whereas the proprietors of wharves on the East River, by their petition, 
have prayed an encrease of Wharfage, on condition of putting and keeping 
the said wharfs in repair, and the prayer of the said petitioners appearing 
to be just and equitable, I have thought fit hereby to declare and order that 
such owners of wharfs on the East River as shall produce certificates 
from the Wardens of the Port, that their wharfs are in proper repair and good 
condition, shall hereafter be entitled to receive from all masters of vessels 
that shall lay fastened thereto as follows, viz." (here follow the rates pro- 
posed by the Chamber of Commerce ; see page 279.) — Gaine's New York 
Gazette, April 22, 1782. 

" The wharfs, till the first January, 1779, had been occupied by his Ma- 
jesty's Ships and transports in government service, without paying any 
wharfage ; but as many of them belonged to Loyalists, it was determined, 
that on the proprietors making oath as to the property, and that no persons 
without the British lines (with an exception in regard to any copartner in 
such wharf), were interested or concerned therein, the Commandant gave 
his permission to such proprietor to occupy his wharf or part of a wharf, and 
receive the usual and customary wharfage on condition that such proprietor 
kept the said wharf in good and sufficient repair. Captain Kennedy and 
Mr. Lefiferts owned one of the wharfs in the Commissary General's depart- 
ment ; Captain Kennedy was allowed and paid by the Commissary General 
one dollar per day for his half ; but as Mr. Lefiferts was without the British 
lines, nothing was allowed him. This wharf, as well as all others in the 
Commissary General's department and the stores, were kept in constant 
repair at the expense of government. Wages and material being very high, 
had the Owners been in full possession of their property and rented the 
same for any moderate sum, many of them would have been losers, had they 
been obliged to have kept the premises in repair." — Butler's Case; New 
York City in the American Revolution; N. Y. Mercantile Library, p. 156. 

N0TE2I0, PAGE277. RATES OF WHARFAGE (1782).— "Whereas 
the Proprietors of Wharves on the East River, by their petition, have prayed 
an encrease of Wharfage on condition of putting and keeping the said 
Wharves in repair, and the prayer of the said petitioners appearing to be just 
and equitable, I have thought fit hereby to declare and order that such 
owners of wharfs on the East River as shall produce certificates from the 
Wardens of the Port that their wharfs are in proper repair and good con- 



368 



HISTORICAL NOTES TO 



dition, shall hereafter be entitled to receive from all masters of vessels that 
shall lay fastened thereto, as follows, viz. : 

" For every vessel not exceeding one hundred tons carpenter's measure- 
ment, at the rate of Three Shillings per day. For all vessels above one hun- 
dred tons, and not exceeding three hundred tons, at the rate of Four Shil- 
lings and Six Pence per day. For all vessels above three hundred tons, 
at the rate of Six Shillings per day. That all vessels laying on the out-side 
berths be subject to one-half wharfage, according to their measurement. 

^' Given under my Hand, this 12th day of April, 1782. — Samuel Birch. 
By order of the Commandant : John St. Clair, Secretary.'' 

Note 211, Page 279. SECRETARY OF THE COMMANDANT. 
— " New York, September 23d. The Commandant of New York has ap- 
pointed Mr. John St. Clair to be his Secretary." — Gainers New York 
Gazette, September 25th, 1780. 

Note 212, Page 281. TWO FRIGATES DETAINED.— Another 
instance of the difficulty which the British Commanders had in manning 
their vessels in America, and of the aversion with which the service was 
regarded (see Note 188). 

Note 213, Page 281. KING AND KEMBLE.— The name of King 
and Kemble is not met with as a firm ; their connection was probably only 
that of joint ownership in the privateer brig Perseverance. 

Note 214, Page 281. CAPTAIN ROSS OF THE PERSEVE- 
RANCE. — Two captains of this name appear on the "List of Vessels com- 
missioned as Letters of Marque from the Port of New York, since the 8th 
September, 1778," published 1779— James Ross of the Privateer Roebuck, 
20 guns, and Stewart Ross of the Pollux, 18 guns. The Captain who 
treated the Admiral with so little respect was probably one of those old 
hands who were not respecters of persons. 

Note 215, Page 282. GENIUS OF AMERICANS FOR PRIVA- 
TEERING. — The journals of the last century bear ample witness to the 
truth of this remark. One is struck with surprise at the unending roll of 
captured ships on both sides. During the Spanish and French Wars the 
American rovers reaped rich harvests of plunder from the unfortunate mer- 
chantmen who fell in their way. The same success fbllowed in the War of 
1 81 2 with Great Britain. The colonists were a hardy, adventurous race, 
ready for every enterprise of individual hazard. 

Many of the British statesmen were fully alive to the .results which 
would follow to their commerce from the adventurous spirit of the hardy sea- 
men of the American coast. In 1776 they had warned' the -Ministry that 
" the prohibition of commerce with the Colonies would compel them of neces- 
sity to convert their merchant ships into privateers, whereby our West India 
islands would be totally ruined, and our foreign commerce in general suffer 
greater injury than in any war in whigh we have ever been involved." — An- 
nual Register iox 1776, page 109. 

The fears of these observers were fully justified when no English vessel 
could safely sail ■ without a convoy, and John Paul Jones had struck 
terror into the residents of the English coast. In the debate of 1777 it 
was stated that the home trade had been destroyed by the " swarms of 
American privateers which had during the war infested and insulted our 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 060 

coasts," and allusion was made " to the terror into which the metropoHs of 
Ireland had been thrown, and the need of fortifying for the first time in all 
our wars of its harbour," &c. — Annual Register for 1778. 

Note 216, Page 283. VESSELS MANNED FOR PUBLIC SER- 
VICE. — The proclamation of Governor Tryon (see Note 123), issued in 
i779j gives a statement of the number of private ships of war which were 
sent out from New York. Their number was constantly increasing ; to this 
must be added the transports fitted out for the numerous expeditions along 
the coast. 

Note 217, Page 285. PRIVATEERS AND WHALE-BOATS IN- 
FEST THE NARROWS.— Every day the Privateers became more bold. 
Towards the close of the War the fishing, on which the inhabitants greatly 
depended for food, was almost suspended. Captain Hyler with his boats 
was active and vigilant in his efforts to annoy the British. 

" Friday last a number of Fishing Boats were just on the eve of being 
captured on the Banks by Hyler's Boats ; but luckily the Lark Privateer, in- 
ward bound, saved them from being convoyed to Middletown, &c." — Game's 
New York Gazette, ^mxii 17th, 1782. 

On the very day of the meeting of the Chamber a daring feat of this 
nature was performed, which was probably the immediate cause of the mo- 
tion on the subject. 

" On the 2d instant, in New York Bay, Captains Hyler and Story, with 
two whale-boats, boarded and took the schooner Skip Jack mounting 6 car- 
riage guns besides swivels, but soon after burnt her, finding they could not 
get her off, it being at noon, in sight of the Guard Ship, and several other 
ships of War lying at Sandy Hook. This schooner was tender to the Admi- 
ral's ship. Hyler brought off the captain and 9 or 10 hands, the others having 
escaped in their boats on the approach of the whale-boats. Captain Hyler, 
about the same time, took three other small vessels which were on the 
trading scheme, one of them being loaded with calves, sheep, &c., bound 
from New Jersey to New York." — The Pennsylvania Packet, July i6th, 
1782. 

"About 12 o'clock (Tuesday 2d July), five boats under the command of 
Mr. Hyler, took a Tender of 8 guns near Sandy Hook ; the Guard Ship 
got under way immediately, but there being little Wind she could not recover 
the Prize, which was carried off, and afterwards burnt in the Shrewsbury 
River." — Gainers New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, July 8th, 1782. 

Captain Adam Hyler, of New Brunswick, the hero of these exploits, was 
famous for his daring adventures. A notice of his death on the 6th Septem- 
ber, 1782, pays a tribute to his courage : " his many heroick and enterpris- 
ing acts in annoying and distressing the enemy endeared him to the patri- 
otick part of aU his acquaintance." — The New Jersey Gazette, September 
25th, 1782. 

Note 218, Page 287. JOHN PORTEOUS.— A curious advertisement 
of this person appears in 1780. '■'■ Best Hats. In the military and most fash- 
ionable cock, with gold and silver buttons and loops ; and a variety of feath- 
ers, &c., and a few, well-sorted small packages just imported in the last 
ships from London, and to be sold cheap for cash by John Porteous, next 
door to the Admiral's in Hanover Square. 

" Also carriage-guns, three and four pounders, compleat ; swivels and a 
variety of shot. An elegant pair of looking-glasses, some bales of coarse 
24 



370 HISTORICAL NOTES TO 

woollens, cloths and other articles in the dry good way, and a very fine 
night glass." — Gainers New York Gazette, September nth, 1780. 

There is in the St. Memin Collection (No. 662) a portrait of John Por- 
teous (1809), who is described as a planter of Beaufort, S. C. 

Note 219, Page 287. THE KITTY AND POLLY.— This vessel 
was probably one of the schooners, the capture of which was reported in the 
newspapers. " Yesterday arrived a small sloop from St. Augustine, after 
being chased by two rebel gallies of four nine-pounders each, which have taken 
three schooners bound to this port; their station is off the Light-house, and 
it is said they cruise in concert, the better to check arrivals and injure our 
commerce. The sloop was charged with dispatches, but in the chase they 
were thrown overboard." — Letter from New York, 3d July, published in the 
Pennsylvania Packet, July 21, 1782. 

The fate of this vessel is an example of the hazard which attended all trade 
during the war. The Kitty and Polly had been formerly the Shark Priva- 
teer. — Rivington^s Royal Gazette, February i6, 1782. 

Note 220, Page 288. GEORGETOWN.— The reference in the arbi- 
tration is to Georgetown, South Carolina, situated at the mouth of the Santee 
River. At this time it was in possession of the patriot forces under General 
Marion, who was a native of the Georgetown District. Its fine harbor 
made it a valuable refuge for the American cruisers. 

The New Jersey Gazette of the 4th September gives a notice of " a 
ship said to have been brought into George-Town, South Carolina, by a pri- 
vateer of that place, with 250 slaves onboard, taken on their way to Jamaica 
from Savanna." 

Note 221, Page 293. COLONEL CRUGER.— yo^« Harris Cruger 

was one of the earliest members of the Chamber, elected at its first meeting 
for business, 3d May, I768(page 8). He was last in his seat Feb., 1775 (page 
201). On the breaking out of the war he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel 
Commandant of the First Battalion of Oliver De Lancey's Loyal Brigade. 
He greatly distinguislied himself by his services to the Crown in the South- 
ern campaign, especially by his gallant defence of Post Ninety-six, besieged 
by General Greene in 1780. 

Note 222, Page 296. JERSEY MONEY.— This would indicate that 
the old trouble concerning the rate at which Jersey Money should pass in 
New York was at last settled, but the subject was again to come before the 
Chamber. On the 3d April, 1787, a committee was raised to consider whe- 
ther " countenance should be given to this circulation," who reported, May 
of same year, " that the Chamber ought not for the present to interfere." — 
MSS. Minutes of the Chamber, i. pp. 344, 345. 

Note 223, Page 296. RESTORATION OF MEMBERS WITH- 
OUT BALLOT. — Of these persons, Isaac Sears resigned 4th August, 
1772 (p. 64), the rest named on the 6th Oct., 1772 (p. 168). 

None of them had availed of the privilege of re-admission without en- 
tiance-fee granted by resolution of the Chamber, 4th Jan. 1774 (p. 187). 

Note 224, Page 297. ADMITTANCE FEE TO CHAMBER.— 
On the organization of the Chamber, April 5, 1768, the entrance-fee was fixed 
at Five Spanish Dollars (page 4). On the 6th March, 1770, a sliding 
scale of increase was adopted, from Ten Spanish Dollars upwards, to take 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



371 



effect when the Chamber should reach Eighty members (page 79). The propo- 
sition to reduce this fee to Eight Dollars, made 20th January, 1784 (page 297), 
was never voted upon. On the re-organization of the Chamber, 20th April,' 
1784 {see Note, page 299), the old fee of Five Spanish Dollars was restored! ' 
On the 15th April, 181 7, shortly after the second revival of the Institution, 
the sum was raised to Ten Dollars, at which it has remained until the pres- 
ent day, except that the Chamber has waived the payment of dues of new 
members for the calendar year of admission. 

Note 225, Page 297. NEW MEMBERS PROPOSED.— Of the mem- 
bers proposed at this, the only meeting of the Old Corporation between the 
close of the war and the re-organization of the Chamber under the Act of the 
Legislature, Cornelius Ray, Viner Van Zandt, Samuel Broome, Jacob Morris, 
Comfort Sands, Robert Bowne, William Malcom, and Joshua Sands, were 
petitioners to the Legislature for the confirmation of the Charter, and are 
named in the Act of Re-Incorporation. 

There were elected 4th May, 1784, James Stewart ; June 8, 1784, Samuel 
Franklin, William Denning, Archibald Gamble, and John Shaw ; May i, 
1787, Moses Rogers. 

The others, named Eleazer Miller, John Woodward, and Joseph Hallet, 
do not appear on the books of the Chamber. — MSS. Minutes of the Chain- 
ber of Commerce, vol. i. 



* NOTE ON THE OLD CHARTER. 

About the year 1821 or 1822, Mr. Andrew Warner, now of the Bank for 
the Savings of Merchants' Clerks, then a clerk in the Mutual Insurance 
Company, of which Mr. John Pintard, the Secretary of the Chamber, was 
at the time also the Secretary, at his instance called on Admiral Walton, at 
the Walton House. Mr. Daniel Crommelin Verplanck, the husband of Ann, 
sister of the Admiral, had been charged by him to inform the officers of the 
Chamber that, on taking possession of the old house, on his return to Amer- 
ica, he had found there the original Charter of the Chamber. Mr. Warner 
was received at the old mansion, then in fine order and condition, by 
the Admiral and his wife, and there took possession of the valuable estray. 
It was then in a mahogany box, oblong, with a circle at one end to allow of 
the entry of the old Colonial Seal. 






NOTES TO REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Note a, Page 36. JOHN SCHUYLER, Colonel.— A grandson of 
Philip Pietersen Schuyler, of Amsterdam, the first of the name in America, 
and son of Arent Schuyler, who settled in New Jersey. Col. John Schuyler 
lived at Bellville, New Jersey, where the family owned valuable copper- 
mines. A curious account of his house and family is to be met with in the 
Journal of Isaac Bangs, a private in a Massachusetts regiment stationed 
near BellviUe in 1775, communicated to the New Jersey Historical Society : 
" Mr. Schuyler's Mansion House is a large, grand and magnificent building, 
built partly of stone and the rest brick, most beautifully situated upon an 
eminence on the East Bank of what is called the Hackensack." His farm 
was several miles in extent, and included fine deer-parks. The copper-mines 
had greatly enriched the family. — Letter from S. Alofsen, Esq., of Jersey 
City ; Proceedings N. J. Hist. Soc. xii. 120. 

Note b, Page 36. ARCHIBALD KENNEDY'.— This name was first 
borne in America by a Scotch gentleman who came to New York in 1714, 
and soon after was appointed to the oflSce of Receiver General and Collector 
of the Port. In 1727 he was, on the recommendation of Governor Burnet, 
appointed one of the King's Council. He married Catharine Schuyler, who 
was of one of the old colonial faraihes. He died in New York. 

Captain Archibald Kennedy received his commission as Captain in 
the Royal Navy, 4th April, 1757. In December, 1763, he was in command 
oitheB/oiide, 32 guns. He is best known as, for many years, the Captain of the 
Coventry, a 28 gun ship. During the Stamp Act excitement Governor Col- 
den proposed to put the instruments on board this ship, but Captain Ken- 
nedy declined to receive them. 

He married as his second wife Anne, eldest daughter of Hon. John Watts, 
of New York. His property consisted of several houses situated at the lower 
end of Broadway and near the Battery. The old Kennedy House, No. i 
Broadway, is still standing. It was for a time occupied by Washington as 
his headquarters, and is now called the Washington Hotel. On the death, 
in 1792, of the great-grandfather of Captain Kennedy, the 2d Earl of Car- 
lisle (a Scotch earldom), he succeeded to the title. He died 29th December, 
1794. — Col. Doc. vii. 822 ; Valentine's Manual, 1864, 590. 

Note c. Page 37. JOHN HOLT.— This New York printer was born 
in Virginia. He commenced life as a merchant, and was at one time the 
Mayor of Williamsburg, Virginia. Failing in business, he came to New 
York, and formed a connection with James Parker, then about to open a press 
in New Haven. Returning to New York in 1 760, he managed the New York 
Gazette and Post Boy, ia%t for Parker, and later on his own account. In 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



373 



1766 he established the New York Journal, the well-known liberal paper of 
the Stamp Act period. When the British entered New York in 1776 he re- 
moved to Kingston, where his press was destroyed in Vaughan's expedi- 
tion. He re-established himself at Poughkeepsie. In 1783 he resumed the 
publication of his paper in New York. A memorial card, issued shortly 
after his death by his wife, says he " patiently obeyed Death's awful sum- 
mons on the 30th of January, 1784, in the 64th year of his Age." — Thomas's 
History of Printing, ii. 105. 

Note d. Page 38. WHITEHEAD HICKS, Mayor of New York.— 
The eldest son of Thomas and Margaret Hicks was born at Flushing, L. I., 
August 24th, 172B. Destined for the legal profession, he was placed in the 
office of the Hon. William Smith, and was the fellow-student of William 
Smith, junior, the historian, and William Livingston, afterwards Governor 
of New Jersey. Mr. Hicks was admitted to the Bar of New York October 
22d, 1750, and soon received a share of the best practice of the city. 

In October, 1766, he was chosen by Sir Henry Moore to succeed Mr. 
John Cruger as Mayor of the City of New York, and held the office until 
14th February, 1776, when he was appointed one of the Judges of the Su- 
preme Court of the Colony. He immediately retired to Bay-Side, Flushing, 
where he remained until his death, on the 4th October, 1780. Quiet from 
timidity, he was unmolested during the War. He married Charlotte, the only 
child of John Brevoort, October 5, 1757. — Col. Doc. viii. 594. 

Note a. Page 61. DAVID RITTENHOUSE.— An American ma- 
thematician and astronomer, born in Germantown, Penn., April 8, 1732. His 
knowledge and abilities having attracted public attention, he was commission- 
ed by the Proprietary Government, in 1763, to determine the initial and most 
difficult portion of the boundary line since known as Mason and Dixon's. 
He was subsequently employed in determining the boundaries between New 
York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and several other States, both before 
and after the Revolution. In 1777 he was made Treasurer of Pennsylvania, 
and held that office till 1789. In 1791 he was chosen to succeed Dr. Frank- 
lin as President of the American Philosophical Society, and in 1792 was 
made Director of the United States Mint, which position he resigned in 
1795, and in that year was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Lon- 
don. He died in Philadelphia, June 26, 1796. — New American Cyclopcedm, 
xiv. 98. 

Note f. Page 61. JOHN MONTRESOR.— An ensign in the 48th Regi- 
ment in the Braddock expedition, where he was wounded, and was appointed 
to a lieutenantcy in the same corps on the 4th July, 1 755. He obtained a grant 
of land in Willsboro, Essex Co., N, Y., in 1764, and in 1766 quitted the army. 
He seems later to have occasionally practised the profession of a civil engi- 
neer. In the year 1 772 he purchased the island then known as Little Barneys 
or Talbot's, now called Randall's Island, and resided there with his family 
until the close of the War, when he returned to England with the British 
troops. — Col. Doc. \n. 533; Valentine's Manual, 1855,499. 

Note g. Page 61. JAMES BRADLEY, Dr.— An English Astron- 
omer, born at Sherbourne, Gloucestershire, March, 1692. In 1721 he was 
appointed Savilian professor of Astronomy, and in 1727 published his bril- 
liant discovery of the aberration of light. Ten years afterwards he pubhsh- 
ed the equally valuable discovery of the nutation of the earth's axis. In 
1742 he succeeded Dr. Halley as Astronomer Royal, and in 1752 he received 



374 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES TO 

a pension in consideration of the " advantage of his astronomical labors to 
the commerce and navigation of Great Britain." He died at Chatford, 13th 
July, 1762. — New American Cydopcedia, iii. 612. 

Note h, Page 63. ARCHIBALD McLEAN.— A Civil Engineer of 
distinction in Pennsylvania. In 1777 he was appointed Prothonotary or 
Register and Recorder of Deeds for York County. In 1779 he was one of 
the persons appointed to receive subscriptions in Pennsylvania, agreeably to 
the resolve of Congress, for procuring Twenty Millions of Dollars on Inter- 
est. In Feb., 1781, he was appointed with John Lukins to extend the line 
commonly called Mason and Dixon's line five degrees of longitude from Del- 
aware river, and to run a meridian line north to the Ohio river from the 
western termination of the same for a perpetual boundary between Virginia 
and Pennsylvania. — Pennsylvania Archives. 

Note i. Page 70. CADWALLADER GOLDEN, Lieutenant Gover- 
nor of the Colony of New York. — He was the son of the Rev. Alexander 
Golden, of Dunse, in Scotland, where he was born Feb. 17, 1688 ; graduated 
in Edinburgh in 1705, and engaged in the study of medicine and mathematics 
till 1 708. lie then emigrated to America, and practised physic in Philadel- 
phia till 171 5. On his return to Scotland that year, he married Alice Chris- 
tie, daughter of a clergyman at Kelso. In 1716 he returned to his practice 
in Philadelphia, and in 1718 removed to New York, and, abandoning his pro- 
fession, turned his attention to public affairs. He was successively appointed 
Surveyor General of the Colony, Master in Chancery, Member of the Coun- 
cil, and Lieutenant Governor. His name is connected with the Stamp Act 
period, one of the most instructive in New York history. He was a skilful 
politician. He died at his residence at Flushing, called Spring HiU, on the 
20th September, 1776, at the age of eighty-eight years. — Thompson's History 
of Long Island, ii. 87. 

Note j. Page 79. JOHN TABOR KEMPE, Attorney General of the 
Province of New York. — This gentleman was the son of William Kempe, 
an English Barrister who was appointed His Majesty's Advocate and 
Attorney General for New York in 1751, and whose arrival with his family 
is announced in the New York Gazette for Nov. 6, 1752. The father did not 
live long to enjoy his honors, and upon his death, in 1759, his son John Tabor 
Kempe, who liad been admitted to practice at the New York Bar the pre- 
ceding year, succeeded him in the office. John Tabor Kempe married Grace, 
daughter of Hon. Daniel Coxe, of New Jersey, through whom he became 
possessed of a large landed estate in that Colony. Mr. Kempe remained in 
New York during the War and took the King's side. His estate was confis- 
cated. He returned to England at the Peace. — Col. Doc. vii. 926. 

Note k, Page 82. GOLDSBROW BANYAR, Deputy Clerk of his 
Majesty's Council. — He was born in London, in the year 1724, and is said 
to have come to this country about 1737. He was appointed Auditor Gen- 
eral in 1746, and sworn in as Deputy Secretary of the Province, Deputy Clerk 
of the Council, etc., which office he retained untU the year 1747, when he 
was succeeded by Samuel Bayard, Jr. In 1752 he was appointed Register 
of the Court of Chancery, and the next year Judge of the Probate. At the 
breaking out of the War he retired to Rhinebeck. In 1767 he married Eliz- 
abeth Mortier, daughter of the Paymaster General and widow of John Appy, 
Judge Advocate of the British Army. After the Peace he removed to Albany, 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



375 



where he died on the 4th November, 181 5, at the age of 91, leavin'' to his 
descendants a large estate. — Col. Doc. viii. 189. ^ 

Note 1, Page 89. GEORGE THE THIRD.— Son of Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, and of Augusta, Princess of Saxe-Gotha, was born 24th 
May, 1738. On the death of his grandfather, October 25, 1780, he was pro- 
claimed King of Great Britain and Ireland, under the name of George III. 
On the 8th September, 1761, he married Princess Charlotte, of Mecklen- 
burgh Strelitz (born May 19, 1744, crowned Sept. 22, 1761). From 1787 to 
1789 there was an interregnum in the affairs of England, the King's reason 
being obscured. He died at Windsor Castle, Jan. 29, 1820, in the 82d year 
of his age and 6oth of his reign. His reign was marked by the loss of the 
Colonies, the acquisition of India, and the Continental War which followed 
the French Revolution. — Blake's Biographical Dictiottary, p. 379. 

Note m. Page ioi. THOMAS PETTIT.— Appointed Messenger 
and Doorkeeper of the Chamber as early as 1770 ; was a favorite person in 
this class of employment. On the 30th May, 1774, he was chosen Messen- 
ger of the Committee of Correspondence of Fifty-one, and his name is to be 
found on the Journals of the Council of Safety, 14th May, 1777, as their 
Doorkeeper. In 1780 he lived next door to the Theatre Royal, and sold 
tickets of admission. He died October 13th, 1780. — Gaine's New York Ga- 
zette, Oct. 16, 1780. 

Note n. Page 108. HUGH GAINE.— This well known Printer 
and Bookseller was an Irishman by birth. He served his apprenticeship in 
Belfast. In 1752 he established the New York Mercury, and located him- 
self in Hanover Square, where his sign of the " Bible and Crown " was one 
of the well-known landmarks of old New York. Here he remained for fifty 
years. When the British came into the city he crossed to Newark with his 
press, but soon returned. The New York Mercury was discontinued after 
the Peace in 1783. He died in New York April 25, 1807, aged eighty-one 
years, and was buried in Trinity Church Yard. — Thomas's History of Print- 
ing, ii. 103. 

Note o. Page 108. CAPTAIN WARDEN, of the Rose, arrived in 
New York in 42 days from Madeira, on the 2d August, 1770, and sailed for 
Leith on the nth October following. — Holt's New York journal, Nos. 1439 
and 1449. 

It was, no doubt, upon his arrival trip, that he saved the crew of the ves- 
sel bound from Lisbon to Philadelphia, alluded to in the text. 

Note p, Page 113. FRANCIS MAERS CHALK.— By an Act of the 
General Assembly, passed May 20, 1769, Francis Maerschalk and Henry 
Bryant were named Inspectors of all Flour to be shipped for exportation. 
Their names are recordfed in Gaine's Register for 1775. — Gaine's Laws, of 
New York, 537. 

The family of Maerschalk were interested in the flour-trade in dif- 
ferent ways. In 1740 the Council authorized John Maerschalk to store 
meal in the Meal Market. — Devoe's Market Book, 250. 

Note q, Page 116. JOHN MURRAY, IVth EARL OF DUN- 
MORE.— The grandson of Lord Charles Murray, Master of the Horse to 
Queen Mary, who was raised to the peerage of Scotland i6th August, 1686, 
as Earl of Dunmore. His two sons, John and William, succeeded him in 



376 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES TO 



turn. John, IVth Earl of Dunmore, was the son of William, Hid Earl, 
and Catharine, daughter of Lord WiUiam Murray. He was one of 
the Representative Peers of Scotland from 1761 to 1784. He married, 
2ist February, 1759, Lady Charlotte Stewart, daughter of Alexander, Vth 
Earl of GaUoway. Commissioned Governor of New York on the _2d Janu- 
ary, 1770, he commenced his rule October 19th, 1770, and continued in 
power until July gth, 1771. Lord Botetourt, Governor of Virginia, having 
died, he was promoted to the Government of that Province. He did not 
assume his new government until 1772. 

On the 22d April, 1776, he went onboard the Foway Man of War, and 
carried on predatory excursions against the neighboring country. Forced 
to retire to St. Augustine, he fired Norfolk. At the request of the Assem- 
bly of Virginia, he had named one of his daughters Virginia. He was in 
1786 appointed Governor of the Bahama Islands: he died in England in 
March 1809. One of his daughters, Attgusta, married Prince Augustus 
Frederick, Duke of Sussex. — Burke's Peerage; N. Y. Col. Doc. viii. 209. 

Note r, Page 119. FREDERICK SMYTH, Chief Justice of the 
Colony of New Jersey. — On the death of Robert Hunter Morris, February 
20th, 1764, Charles Read was appointed to succeed him as Chief Justice. 
He officiated, however, but a few months. Whether the appointment gave 
dissatisfaction, or was designed only as a temporary one, the fact is he was 
soon displaced and consented again to take the place of Second Judge 
which he had held for some time before Mr. Morris's death. The last Chief 
Justice of the Colony of New Jersey was Frederick Smyth. He was 
appointed on the 17th October, 1764, and continued in office until the adop- 
tion of the Constitution of 1776. In 1772 he was one of the Commission- 
ers to examine into the burning of the Gaspee by the Whigs of Rhode 
Island. When the War broke out he removed to Philadelphia. His repu- 
tation as a judge was considerable, and he maintained the character of a 
firm and consistent loyalist. — New Jersey Hist. Soc. Coll. iii. 1 59. 

Note s. Page 132.— WILLIAM FOXCROFT.— The Deputy Post- 
masters General for the Northern District were in 1771 Benjamin Franklin 
and William Foxcroft. They were succeeded in 1775 by John Foxcroft and 
Hugh Finley. — Gainers New York Almanacs, 1771-1775. 

Note t, Page 133. WILLIAM TRYON.— Governor of the Colony 
of New York. He entered the British army as Lieutenant and Captain of 
the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards 12th October, 1751 ; in 1757 married 
Miss Wake, a lady of fortune, and on 30th Sept. 1758, became Captain 
and Lieutenant Colonel in the Guards. He was appointed Lieut. Governor 
of North Carolina in 1764, and Governor in July, 1765. In July, 1771, he 
was promoted to the administration of the New York Colony. He resigned 
the government on the 21st July, and was appointed Lieutenant General 
2oth November, 1782. Before the War he seems to have been generally 
esteemed, but his subsequent career in America is " as notorious as it was 
iOdious." He died in London, 27th January, 1788. — Col. Doc. viii. 798. 

Note u, Page 144. LEWIS JOHNSTON.— The sixth son of the 
■well-known Dr. John Johnstone, a druggist of Edinburgh, who emigrated to 
America, and, setfling first at New York in 1685, removed about 1707 to 
Amboy, New Jersey. Through his wife, Eupham Scot, he became posses- 
sed of a grant from the proprietors of Jersey of five hundred acres, on con- 
dition of residence upon it. He died 7th S eptember, 1 732. Lewis was born in 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



377 



October, 1704, and adopting the profession of his father, was much respected, 
both as a man and a physician. His education was received in Holland! 
He married Martha, daughter of Caleb Heathcote, of New York. He died 
November 22, 1773, and it was said of him that "he was a physician of the 
highest reputation and very greatly beloved by all who knew him." — White- 
head's Contributions to East Jersey History, 71. 

Note v, Page 144. WILLIAM BAYARD.— An eminent merchant 
and head of the house of WilUam Bayard and Company. He was one of 
the Committee of Correspondence appointed in 1774, upon the news of the 
passage of the Boston Port Bill ; but it does not appear that he had any 
strong sympathy with the Whig movement. He remained in the city dur- 
ing the British occupation, and signed the loyal address to Lord Howe in 
the fall of 1776. At the close of the War he went to England. His property 
in New York was confiscated. Governor Franklin, of New Jersey, recom- 
mended him to Lord George Germaine for relief. He died very aged, in 1804, 
at his seat, Greenwich House, Southampton, England. — Satinets Loyalists, 
i. 217. 

Note w. Page 144. ROBERT HUNTER MORRIS.— One of the 
proprietors of New Jersey. He was the second son of Lewis Morris (pro- 
prietor of Morrisania, and first Governor of the Province of New Jersey), 
and Isabella, daughter of James Graham, Attorney General of New York. 
He was for nearly twenty-six years one of the Council of the Colony, and 
was also Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania from October, 1754, to Au- 
gust, 1756. He was also Chief Justice of New Jersey, which office he re- 
signed in the fall of 1757. He died February 20th, 1764. — Smith's New 
Jersey, 438, 439. 

Note x, Page 156. ISAAC L. WINN. — A captain in one of the 
London merchant vessels. His arrival in the Downs with his ship, the 
Duchess of Gordon, is noticed in Holt's New York Journal, February 
27th, 1772. An announcement of her arrival on Saturday evening, nth 
April, 1772, in eight weeks from London, with the newest advices, appeared 
in the same journal, i6th of same month. It was, no doubt, upon this ship 
that Captain Winn brought out the Seal for the Chamber. The Duchess 
of Gordon has an interesting record. It was on board this ship, in New 
York Harbor, under protection of the Asia Man of War, that Governor 
Tryon took refuge on the 30th October, 1775, and in her cabin the Council 
meetings were for a time held. Captain Winn also appears in the Revo- 
lutionary period. In September, 1775, having sailed in a sloop bound to the 
eastward, and suspected of a design for furnishing the army and navy 
of the enemy, he was overtaken by Isaac Sears, who pursued him, by 
order of the General Committee, above Hellgate, and brought before the 
Committee of Safety. He cleared himself so entirely of suspicion, that he 
received a certificate of good conduct. — N. Y. Col. Doc. viii. 643 ; Journal 
of Prov. Congress, i. 141. 

Note y, Page 162. PETER MERSILLIS, a Master Carpenter.— The 
family continued in this branch of mechanics for a long period. Their 
names maybe found, as carpenters, in the New York Directories until quite 
recently. 

Note z. Page 167. MATTHEW PRATT.— This early American 
painter was born in Philadelphia on the 23d September, 1734- His taste for 



378 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES TO 



portrait painting sliowed itself when he was still quite young, but he did not 
adopt it as a profession until he became a member of the family of Mr. Ben- 
jamin West, then living in London, with whom there was a distant matrimo- 
nial connection. In 1768 he returned to Philadelphia, and, under the pa- 
tronage of the leading families of the city, soon rose to a considerable local 
eminence. Art was so little encouraged that he was compelled to add sign 
painting to portrait painting. He occasionally painted in New York. — 
DunlajPs Arts of Design, i. 98. 

Note aa, Page 169. JONATHAN BLAKE.— A leading and patri- 
otic mechanic. His name appears on the Journals of the New York Com- 
mittee of Correspondence as Chairman of the Body of Mechanics, signify- 
ing "their concurrence with the other inhabitants of the City in the nomina- 
tion of the Committee." — Force's American Archives, i. 295. 

Note bb. Page 181. THOMAS GAGE, General and Commander in 
Chief of His Majesty's Forces in North America. — An active officer during 
the French War, he was appointed Governor of Montreal in 1760, and suc- 
ceeded General Amherst, in 1763, in the chief command of the British forces 
in America. He resided for many years in New York, and greatly endeared 
himself to the people by his peremptory orders to the troops not to fire on the 
citizens who threatened the Fort in New York, in the Stamp Act excitement 
of the fall of 1765. He sailed from New York for England on 8th June, 1773. 
On the news of the destruction of the tea reaching England, he was sent for 
by the King (George I XL), and engaged with four regiments to reduce the 
Colonies to submission. Appointed Military Governor of the Massachusetts 
Bay, he arrived in Boston on the 17th May, 1774. The expedition to Concord 
to seize the stores there, which resulted in the Battle of Lexington, was made 
by his command. After the disastrous Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17th, 
1775, he was superseded by General Howe, and sailed for England loth 
October of same year. He died at his home, in Portland Place, London, 
April 2d, 1787. 

Note cc, Page 191. BERNARD ROMANS.— Born in Holland. Re- 
moving to England, when quite young, he there received his education as 
an engineer. He was employed on various occasions by the British Govern- 
ment. While engaged in the map and history of Florida (1773), he made 
some investigations on the Compass, which were printed in the Transactions 
of the American Philosophical Society. He was aided in the construction 
of the map by^ Abel Buell, of KilUngworth, Conn., an ingenious mechanician. 
On the breaking out of the War, he was appointed, by the New York Com- 
mittee of Safety, to fortify the Hudson River, and on the 29th August, 1775, 
commenced the erection of the first of the " Fortifications in the High- 
lands." On the i8th September of the same year he submitted his plans to 
Congress. On the 8th February, 1776, he was appointed, by the Committee 
of Safety of Pennsylvania, Captain of the Company of Matrosses (Artillery), 
raised by order of Congress. He remained in service until near the close of 
the War, when he was captured at sea by the British on his way from Con- 
necticut to the Carolinas. He is said to have died about 1783. — Boynton's' 
West Point, 21 ; Journals of N. Y. Prov. Congress j Minutes of Prov. 
Council Penn. x. 479. 

Note dd. Page 204. DANIEL JONES, of the Second Foot.— He 
received the appointment of Lieutenant General in the Army in 1779. — 
Annual Register, xxii. 243. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 



379 



Note ee, Page 206. ANDREW ELLIOT, Superintendent General. 
— He was the third son of Sir Gilbert Elliot, Baronet, Lord Justice Clerk 
of Scotland. On the death of Archibald Kennedy, Collector of the Port 
of New York, he was appointed to the vacant post by a Commission 
dated 19th January, 1764, and held the office till the evacuation of the city. 
He also held the office of Superintendent General during the War, and, 
together with the Mayor and a Magistrate of Police, administered the civil 
government of the City. He was appointed Lieutenant Governor in 1780, 
and held the chief power from 17th April to 25th November, 1783. He 
married a Philadelphia lady. His daughter Ehzabeth married Lord, after- 
wards Earl, Cathcart in 1779. — N. Y. Col. Doc. viii. 96. 

Note ff. Page 206. JAMES PATTISON, Major General.— He was 
appointed Captain of the Artillery, ist August, 1747 ; Lieutenant Colonel 
in the army in 1761 ; Colonel Commandant of Artillery, 25th April, 1777 ; 
Major General 19th February, 1779. He accompanied the expedition 
against Charleston in 1780 ; was raised to the rank of Lieutenant General, 
28th September, 1787, and of General in the army, 26th January, 1797. 
He died in London, March ist, 1805, aged 81 years. — Gentleman's Magazine, 
Ixxv. 291. 

Note gg. Page 212. JOHN NORRIS. — This name appears as early 
as 1735, in the following curious advertisement. " To be sold. Wrought or 
Unwrought, Curious fine flat purple Stones brought from Hide Park for 
Tombs-Stones, Head-Stones, Hearth-stones, Step-stones, Paving-stones, &c. 
Whoever has occasion for any of the afore said Stones may apply to yohn 
Norris, at the house of Mr. Edward Hicks, merchant in New York. — Brad- 
ford's N. Y. Gazette, No. 492, March 24th to 31st, 1735. 

The doorkeeper of the Claamber was a maker of Wigs, as appears by a 
notice of his death. " Last week died at his House in this City, Mr. John 
Norris, Peruke Maker." — Gaine's N. Y. Gazette, April 24th, 1780. 

His death is incidentally mentioned in connection with the appointment 
of his successor by the Chamber, May 2d, 1780 {see page 229). 

Note hh. Page 224. LIEUTENANT WALTER.— This gentleman, 
who received the thanks of the Chamber for his care of the Powder Ship, 
was probably connected with the British Navy, and detailed for this service. 
Whose agent he was does not appear. 

Note ii. Page 229. RICHARD HARRIS.— The doorkeepers of the 
Chamber were unfortunate this year. The death of Richard Harris is re- 
corded on the same day with that of his predecessor, Thomas Pettit. He 
died Friday, 13th October, lyio.—Gaine's New York Gazette, October 
1 6th, 1780. 

Note jj, Page 229. JAMES ROBERTSON, Lieutenant General and 
Governor in Chief. — He was appointed Major of the ist Battalion of the 60th 
or Royal American Regiment, December, 1755 ; was at Louisbourg in 1758 ; 
promoted to be Lieutenant Colonel 8th July, 1758 ; with Amherst on Lakes 
George and Champlain in 1759. In 1772 he became Colonel in the army. 
In July, 1775, he was stationed at Boston; appointed Major General in 
America, ist January, 1776. He was with Lord Howe at Staten Island. 
He returned to England in 1777, and became Major General in the army, 
29th August of that year. On the 4th May, 1779, he was commissioned 
Governor of New York, and was sworn in 23d March, 1780. He became 



38o 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES TO 



Lieutenant General 20th November, 1782 ; embarked at New York for 
England, 15th April, 1783 ; and died in 1788. — N. Y. Col. Doc. viii. 706. 

Note kk. Page 232. CHARLES NEWMAN.— For a full account of 
the loss of the Carteret Packet, see Historical Notes 149, 150, 153, pp. 352, 
354. 

Note U, Page 237. HARRIOT ARBUTHNOT, Vice Admiral of 
the Blue, the son of Robert Arbuthnot. — He was a native of Weymouth, in 
Dorsetshire, and entered the naval service at an early age. He was 
appointed Lieutenant in 1739. ^^ successively commanded the Jamaica 
Sloop, the Triton [24 guns], the Garland [20], the Portland [50], and 
the Terrible [74]. On the breaking out of the American War he was 
appointed Commissioner at the Navy Yard at Halifax. After the trial 
of Admiral Keppel, in which he participated, he was raised to the rank 
of Vice Admiral of the Blue, and appointed Commander in Chief in 
North America. He commanded the squadron which sailed from New 
York for the Carolinas, on the 26th December, 1779, on the expedition 
which resulted in the reduction of Charleston. Having returned to 
New York, and being reinforced by Admiral Graves, he sailed for Rhode 
Island, where the French squadron was laying in Newport harbor. The 
English fleet lay at Gardner's Bay. The French fleet, under M. de Ternay, 
put to sea on the 8th of March, 178 1, and were pursued by Admiral Arbuth- 
not. A long but indecisive action took place off Cape Henry. 

Admiral Arbuthnot, having received his orders of recall in July, 1781, 
shifted his flag from the Royal Oak, where it had been for some time fl)ang, 
to his old ship the Roebuck, and resigning the command to Admiral Graves, 
sailed for Spithead. This closed his active command. On the 24th Sep- 
tember, 1787, he was made Vice Admiral of the Red, and on the ist Feb- 
ruary, 1793, Admiral of the Blue squadron. He died at his house in Great 
Suffolk Street, Charing Cross, on the 31st January, 1794, aged 83. — Ralfe's 
Naval Biography, i. 129 ; The Naval Chronicle, xxiii. 265. 

Note mm, Page 240. ABRAHAM CUYLER.— Of Albany. Confined 
at Hartford, he applied to the New York State Convention in August, 1776, 
for leave to visit his family. Released, after some delay, he was authorized 
to raise a battalion for the King's service. He was at Jamaica, recruiting, in 
1779. He was attainted and his property confiscated. In 1781 he went to 
England. He returned to Albany, but soon withdrew to Canada, where he 
died in 1810, aged sixty-eight. — Sabine's Loyalists, i. 356. 

Note nn, Page 240. SHEFFIELD HOWARD.— Little is known of 
this gentleman. He lost a large amount of property during the War. His 
daughter, Anna, married Major Bingham, and, a widow, became the wife of 
Sir Thomas Hay, Baronet. — Sabine's Loyalists, i. 548. 

Note 00, Page 240. WILLIAM TONGUE.— A Broker and Auction- 
eer, Hanover Square, two doors from Wall Street, opposite Hugh Gaine's 
printing office. He was an addresser of Lord Howe in 1776. Like most of 
the Vendue Masters, his sales were chiefly made on the Coffee-house Bridge. 
His advertisements are frequently met with about the period 1780-81. In his 
announcement " that he has opened a Merchant Broker's Office," at the 
corner house near the Exchange, he says he has had experience in London 
and America for upward of twenty-five yt^rs.—Rivington's New York Gazet- 
teer, Sept. 22, 1774. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 981 

Note pp, Page 247. SIR HENRY CLINTOIJ, Commander in 
Chief. — He was the grandson of Francis, sixth Earl of Lincoln ; and after 
service in the Hanoverian War was sent to America as Major General in 
177;. He took part in the battle of Bunker Hill, and commanded at the 
battle of Long Island, September, 1776, which resulted in the evacuation of 
New York by the American troops. In 1777 he made an ineifectual effort 
to open the Hudson and relieve Burgoyne. Forced to withdraw from Phil- 
adelphia by General Washington, he led in person the expedition which 
captured Charleston in the spring of 1 780. He sailed from New York to 
relieve Cornwallis with seven thousand men, on the very day of the surren- 
der of Yorktown. He was superseded by General Carlfeton in 1781 ; re- 
turned to England in 1782, and was appointed Governor of Gibraltar. He 
died soon after. — New American Cyclopadia, v. 352. 

Note qq, Page 269. THOMAS GRAVES, Rear Admiral of the 
Red. — He was the second son of Admiral Thomas Graves, and was born at 
Thankes in Cornwall. He went to sea at an early age. He was raised to 
the rank of Lieutenant on the 25th June, 1743. His first command was the 
Hazard Sloop, in 1754, and successively the Unicorn of 28 guns ; the Ante- 
lope [60] ; the Temeraire [74] ; and the Raisonable [60]. In 1776 he was 
chosen a Representative in Parliament for the borough of East Looe. In 
1777 he was appointed to the Nonsuch, and afterwards transferred to the 
Conqueror. While on the West India station he received information of 
his elevation to a flag as Rear Admiral of the Blue on the 19th March, 1779. 
On his return to England he was commissioned to the London of 98 guns. 
In 1780 he sailed for America with a reinforcement of six sail of the line 
for the squadron under Admiral Arbuthnot, and arrived at New York on 
the 13th July. On the 26th September he was raised to the rank of Rear 
Admiral of the Red. 

On the recall of Admiral Arbuthnot in July, 1781, the command devolved 
on Rear Admiral Graves. Intelligence reaching him soon after of the sail- 
ing of De Barras from Rhode Island, he put to sea on the 31st August, and 
pushed for the Chesapeake, where they were engaged by the French fleet 
under De Grasse. A long but indecisive action took place, in which the 
English were severely handled, and Admiral Graves was forced to abandon 
the eflbrt to dislodge the French from their position. " The result of this 
encounter decided the fate of the war." On his return to New York he was 
reinforced by Rear Admiral Digby, who had been appointed Commander in 
Chief on the American station, but who waived his rank till the close of the 
expedition undertaken to reheve Lord Cornwallis. Owing to delay in the 
outfit the fleet only sailed from New York on the 19th October, the day of the 
surrender at Yorktown. On hearing of the surrender Admiral Graves re- 
turned to New York, and resigned his command to Admiral Digby. 

On the 24th Sept., 1787, he was made Vice Admiral ; and on the 12th 
April, 1794, Admiral of the Blue. He was wounded at the battle of the 
Nile I St June, 1794, and was rewarded with an Irish peerage. On the ist 
June, 1795, he was made Admiral of the White. 

He married, in 1771, Elizabeth, daughter of William Piere Williams, and 
died in February, 1802. — Ralfe's Naval Biography, i. 174. 

Note rr, Page 263. FRANCIS BAYARD WINTHROP.— The Win- 
throp, of Winthrop & Kemble, was probably the F. B. Winthrop who signed 
the Boston address to General Gage in 1775 and a loyalist. He married 



382 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES TO 



Miss Marston, eldest daughter of Mr. Thomas Marston, of New York, in 
April, 1779. — Game's New York Gazette, April 26, 1779. 

He was residing at 29 Wall Street in 1798. — LongwortKs City Directory, 
1798. 

Note ss, Page 266. DAVID MATHEWS, Mayor of New York.— 
Upon the resignation of Whitehead Hicks, in February, 1776, he was ap- 
pointed Mayor of the City, and, by permission of the Provincial Congress, 
was quaMed by Governor Tryon, on board the ship Duchess of Gordon in 
the harbor. " He was among those who were implicated in the intricacies 
of the Hickey Plot. There is nothing in the evidence, however, which jus- 
tifies the suspicion that he was really concerned in it, beyond acting as a 
messenger in delivering money to Forbes from Tryon. He was removed 
into Connecticut and held in close custody there for some time. He was 
Registrar of the Court of Admiralty in 1 782. After the War he was President 
of the Council and Commander in Chief of the Island of Cape Breton. 
While at Flatbush, in the summer of 1778, he narrowly escaped being cap- 
tured by Marriner, his expedition being undertaken for that purpose. — New 
York City during the Revolution, Mercantile Library, 6'jj Satinets Loyal- 
ists, ii. 50. 

Note tt, Page 270. GEORGE KEITH ELPHINSTONE, the Hon- 
orable. — He was the fifth son of Lord Elphinstone, and born in 1746. He 
went to sea in February, 1762, on board the Gosport. In 1772 he was made 
commander of the Scorpion, 14 guns. In 1778 he was appointed to the 
Warwick, of 50 guns, and in January, 1781, he captured, after a smart con- 
test, a Dutch ship of war of 50 guns and 300 men. During the remainder of 
the War Captain Elphinstone was on the American station under Admiral 
Digby. In the election of 1785 he was returned for the County of Stirling. 
In March, 1797, he was raised to the dignity of a baron of the Kingdom of 
Ireland by the title of Baron Keith ; and on the sth December, 1801, of the 
United Kingdom. He was promoted for various distinguished services, and 
on the 9th November, 1B05, was made Admiral of the White. In May, 
1814, he was created Viscount Keith. He died at TuUian House on the 
i6th March, 1823, aged 77 years. — Mackenzie's Naval Biography, page 
144. 

Note uu, Page 279. JOHN ST. CLAIR.— Captain St. Clair was 
appointed Secretary to James Robertson, Commandant, on the 23d Septem- 
ber, 1780. — Gaine's New York Gazette, Sept. 25th, 1780. 

Note w, Page 280. ROBERT DIGBY, Rear Admiral of the Blue.— 
He was the third son of Hon. Edward Digby and Charlotte, only surviving 
daughter of Sir Stephen Fox and sister of Henry Lord Holland. He was 
appointed Post-Captain August 5, 1755, and his first ship was the Solebay, 
of 24 guns. He commanded in turn the Biddeford, the Rochefort, of 60 
guns. On the breaking out of war with France, Captain Digby was com- 
missioned to the Ramillies, of 74 guns. He was made Rear Admiral of the 
Blue 19th March, 1779. In May he hoisted his flag on board the Prince 
George, and Prince William Henry (afterwards WilUam IV.) was placed un- 
der Ms charge. He twice relieved the Garrison of Gibraltar with supplies. 
In 1781 he was appointed to the chief command on the American station, 
but finding on his arrival that Admiral Graves was engaged in an effort to 
relieve CornwaUis, he waived his rank. On the 24th September, 1787, he 
was made Vice Admiral, and on the 12th April, 1794, Admiral of the Blue. 



REGISTER OF PROCEEDINGS. 383 

He married, in August, 1784, Eleanor, daughter of Andrew Elliot, Esq. (who 
had been Lieutenant Governor of New York), and widow of Mr. Tauncey.— 
Baize's Naval Biography, i. 192. 

Note ww, Page 297. CORNELIUS RAY.— The son of Richard Ray 
and Sarah Bogert, born in New York, 25th April, 1755. He married in Al- 
bany, July, 1784, Ehzabeth, daughter of Peter Edward ElmendorfF, of Kings- 
ton, Ulster county. Mr. Ray was an active merchant in New York, but 
during the Revolutionary War retired to Albany. At the Peace he returned 
to the city. On the establishment of the United States Bank he was chosen 
President of the Branch in this city, and so continued until the expiration of 
its charter in 1810. He was elected President of the Chamber of Com- 
merce in May, 1806, and so continued until 18 19, when he declined further 
service. He died in 1829. — King's History of the Chamber of Commerce, 
page 91. 

Note xx. Page 297. COMFORT SANDS.— The son of John Sands 
and Elizabeth Cornwall, born at Sands' Point, Long Island, 26th Feb., 
1748. _ In 1762 he went to New York and lived with Joseph Duke, a mer- 
chant in Peck Slip. In 1769 he commenced business on his own account, 
and on the 3d June of the same year he married Sarah, daughter of Wilkie 
Dodge, of Cow Neck. He had acquired a considerable property before the 
War broke out. He was one of the Committee of Observation in 1774, and 
a member of the Provincial Congress from Nov., 1775, to July, 1776. He was 
chosen Auditor General of the Public Accounts by the New York Conven- 
tion in 1776, and held the post till October, 1781, when he resigned. In 
1783 he formed a partnership with his brother Joshua, and conducted a large 
mercantile business in New York. The firm continued till 1794. He was 
several times chosen to represent New York City in the Assembly. He was 
one of the first directors of the Bank of New York in 1784, and in 1794 was 
elected President of the Chamber of Commerce. Few persons were more 
active and useful during the trying period of the Revolution, or enjoyed to a 
greater degree the puMic confidence. — Thompson's Long Island, ii. 465. 

Note yy. Page 297. ROBERT BOWNE.— The son of John Bowne 
and Dinah Underhill, born at Flushing, in the year 1744. He married 
Elizabeth Hartshorne. His name does not appear in New York during the 
War. — Thompson's Long Island, ii. 389-90. 

Note zz. Page 297. JOSHUA SANDS.— The son of John Sands 
and Elizabeth Cornwall. He was connected with his brothers. Comfort and 
Richardson, in a contract with Robert Morris, to supply the northern army 
with provisions for 1782. In 1783 he formed a partnership with his brother 
Comfort, and they transacted a mercantile business, under the name of Com- 
fort 6r» Joshua Sands, till 1794. (Their place of business was at 137 Water 
Strttt.}— Thompson's Long Island, ii. 466. 



384 



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VALUE OF COINS. 387 

VALUE OF COINS. 



LONDON. 

Abstract of the Proclamation relative to the Gold Coin. 

Gaine's Pocket Almanac. 

I77S- 

" YESTERDAY, the 2^h of June, 1774, his Majesty's Procla- 
mation was published respecting the Gold Coin. The following is the 
substance of the most material Passages in it, viz. : 

" ' Whereas the Commissioners of the Treasury, by their Order of 
the i^td July last, did direct all Officers of the Revenues to cut, break, 
and deface all Pieces of Gold Coin of this Realm that should be tendered 
to them in Payment more deficient in Weight than the Rates settled in 
the Table following, viz.: Guineas coined since the ^ist of December, 

1771, $dwt. 8gr. Half Guineas during the same Period, idwt. 16 gr. 
Guineas coined during the present Reign and prior to the ist January, 

1772, ^dwt. 6gr. Half Guiftecu during the same Period, idwt. I4gr. 
Quarter Guineas during the same Period, i dwt. T gr. Guineas coined 
priorto the Commencement of the present Reign, ^dwt. "^gr. Half Guin- 
eas during the same period, 2 dwt. i^gr. His Majesty declares and 
commands that all Guineas, Half Guineas, or Quarter Guineas more 
deficient in weight than the Rates before mentioned, be not allowed from 
henceforth to be current, or to pass in any Payment in Great Britain. 

" ' His Majesty further commands that from and after the i^thof 
July next ensuing, all Guineas, Half Guineas, and Quarter Guineas, 
more deficient in Weight than the Rates specified in the following Table, 
viz.: Guineas coined since the list December, 1771, '^dwt. Sgr. Half 
Guineas during the same period, 2 dwt. 16 gr. Guineas coined prior to 
the 1st of January, 1772, 5 dwt. 6gr. Half Guineas during the same 
Period, 2 dwt. I4gr. Quarter Guineas during the same Period, \dwt. 
T gr. be not allowed to be current, except in Payments to be made at the 
Exchequer, or to the Collectors of the Revenues, or to the Bank of Eng- 
land, or to the several Persons in different Country Towns mentioned in 
this Proclamation.^ " 



388 



COLONIAL CURRENCY. 



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IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



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STORES AND RESIDENCES 

OF 

THE MEMBERS OF THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 
1768. 

HoWs N. Y. yournal. — Game's JV. Y. Mercury. 

Alexander Robert. See Thompson & Alexander. 

Allicocke Joseph. Wines, Spirits, Groceries. " Corner House fronting 

Wall and Queen Streets, where Mr. Peter Remsen formerly lived," 

removed May, 1769, to " the House in Wall Street wherein Thomas 

William Moore lately lived." 
Alsop John. General Importing Business. Store in Hanover Square. 
Amiel John. General Groceries. Store in South Street nearly opposite 

Mr. Augustus Van Home. 
Bayard Samuel, Jr. Importer of European and India Goods. Store in 

Queen Street. 
Bache Theophylact. Importer of European and India Goods. Owner 

of ship Grace, William Chambers, Master — Bristol Trader. Han- 
over Square, south side. 
Beekman Gerard William. Importer of Dry Goods. House in Dock 

» Street. 
Beekman James. Importer of European and India Goods. Store in 

Queen Street. 
Bogart Henry C. West India Goods. Smith Street, next door to Mr. 

Robert Ray's, near the Old Dutch Church. 
Booth Benjamin. Importer of European Goods. " Store near the Fly 

Market and the Ferry Stairs in the Street leading from thence to the 

Coffee House — ^removed Feb. 1769 to the large new Store of Mr. 

Peter Clopper, near the corner of Maiden Lane at the upper end of 

the Fly Market." 
Brevoort Henry. Iron Mongery, at the " Sign of the Frying Pan." 

Queen Street between the Fly Market and Burling' s Slip. 
Buchanan Thomas. See Walter & Thomas Buchanan. 
Buchanan Walter & Thomas. Importers from England and Scotland, 

Dry Goods, &c. Queen Street near the Fly Market. 
Bull Joseph. See Corsa & BuU. 
CoRSA & Bull. (Colonel Isaac Corsa & Joseph Bull.) Importers. Shop 

near Peck's Slip. 
Cruger Henry & John. Shipping Business. Owners of Bristol Traders. 

Cruger's Dock. 
Cruger John (late Mayor), of Henry & John Cruger. House opposite to 

Mr. Lott's in Smith Street. 
Cruger John Harris. Importer and Shipping Merchant, English and 

West India Trade. Near the Exchange. 
Desbrosses Elias. Importer of European Goods. Corner House, late 

Major Van Home's— two doors from Abraham DePeyster's, between 

the Fly Market 6^ Merchants' Coffee House. 



394 STORES AND RESIDENCES OF THE 

DuYCKiNCK Gerardus. Drugs, Medicines, Stationery, " The Universal 

Store"— at the "Sign of the Looking Glass and Druggist Pot." 

Dock Street, corner of the Old Slip Market. 
FOLLIOTT George & Co. Importers of European Goods, Dock Street. 
Franklin Walter & Co. General Shipping and Importing Business. 

Store in Wall Street. 
Hoffman & Ludlow. (Nicholas Hoffman & Gabriel H. Ludlow.) Vendue 

Masters. Dock Street. 
Hoffman Nicholas. See Hoffman & Ludlow. 
Keteltas & Sharpe. Peter Keteltas and Richard Sharpe, Clerks of the 

Old Insurance Office at the Coffee House. 
Kemble Samuel, Captain. Commander of snow General Gage. London 

Trader. 
Lai GHT Edward. Iron Mongery & Cutlery. St. George's Square, o^'go- 

site the Hon. William Walton's. 
Lispenard Leonard, Jr. At the " Brewerie " on the North River. 
Livingston Philip. General Importing Business. " Store on the new 

Dock {Bjirnet's Quay) near the Ferry Stairs." 
Low Isaac. General and Importing Business, Beaver Skins, &c. Store 

between the Coenties Market and the Exchange. 
Ludlow Gabriel H. See Hoffman & Ludlow. 
Lynsen Abraham. See Moore & Lynsen. 
McAdam William. General Importer. Smith Street, near the New 

Dutch Church. 
McCormick Daniel. See Moore, Lynsen & Co. 
McDavitt Patrick. Vendue Master, corner of King Street, opposite 

Alderman Desbrosses. 
McDonald Alexander, Captain. Importer of Dry Goods, Madeira 

Wine, &c. — " near the Merchants' Coffee House." 
McEvers Charles. Importer of European and India Goods. Successor 

to James McEvers, Hanover Square. 
McEvERS James. Importer of European and India Goods. Hanover 

Square. 
Marston Thomas & John. General Merchandise. 
Miller Thomas, Captain. Commander of Ship Edward, — London Trader, 

at Murray's Wharf. 
Moore Thomas William. Importer and Vendue Master. See Moore & 

Lynsen. Store in Wall Street, near the Coffee House. 
Moore & Lynsen. Vendue Masters. Thomas William Moore, Abraham 

Lynsen. Dissolved May, 1769. Wall Street. 
Moore, Lynsen & Co. Vendue Masters. Thomas William Moore, Abra- 
ham Lynsen, Daniel McCormick. Wall Street. 
Murray John. See Watson & Murray. 

Murray Robert. Shipping Merchant. Store on Murray's Wharf. 
Neilson William. Importer of Enghsh Dry Goods. Store in Great Dock 

Street. 
Nicoll Charles. Wine Importer at the White-Hall 
Phenix Daniel. House fronting on Burnet's Street, adjoining house 

where Mr. James De Peyster lives. 
Ramadge Smith. Dry Goods Importer. Queen Street. 
Ramsay John. Dry Goods Importer. Near the Fly Market. 
Randall Thomas, Captain. Pearl Street. 
Rapalje Garrett. Dry Goods Importer. Opposite the Fly Market. 

Brew House (William Faulkner, Rem. & Garret Rapalje), Brookland 

Ferry. 



MEMBERS OF THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 395 

Reade John. Importer of European and India Goods. Shipping. Store 
corner of Wall Street, fronting Queen Street. 

Reade & Yates. Lawrence Reade & Richard Yates. Importers of 
European and East India Goods. Store Wall Street. 

Remsen Henry Jr. & Company. Importers of Dry Goods, Prints, &c. 
Store in Hanover Square. 

Remsen Peter. General Importer of Dry Goods. At the corner of King 
Street. 

Roosevelt Isaac. Sugar Refiner. Wall Street. 

Sears Isaac. European and India Goods, Anchors, &c. Queen Street. 

Seton William. Importer of Dry Goods, European and India Goods. 
Store on Cruger's Dock. 

Sharpe Richard. New York Air Furnace Company. Gilbert Forbes, 
Peter T. Curtemus, Richard Sharpe, &c. See Keteltas & Sharp. 

Sherbrooke Miles. (Perry, Hayes & Sherbrooke.) General Importers. 
Bayard Street. 

Simson Sampson. (Sampson & Solomon Simson.) Shipping, Groceries, 
&c. Store in Stone Street. 

Taylor John. European and India Goods. Hanover Square. 

Templeton Oliver. (Templeton & Stewart.) Vendue Masters. Opposite 
the Coffee-House Bridge. 

Thompson & Alexander. (Acheson Thompson & Robert Alexander.) 
Importers of Bottled Beer, Irish Beef, and Wines. Great Dock 
Street, near Coenties Market. 

Thompson Acheson. See Thompson' & Alexander. 

Thurman John, Jr. General Importer. Dry Goods, West India Produce. 
Wall Street, the corner of Smith Street. 

USTICK William. Hardware Merchant. Nail Factory (William Ustick, 
Hubert van Waganen, Henry Ustick). Sign of " the Lock and Key," 
between Burling' s and Beekman^s Slip. 

Van Dam Anthony. Importer of Wines, and Shipping Agent. Store in 
Dock Street. Secretary of the New York Insurance Company. Mer- 
chants' Coffee House. 

Van Horne Augustus. European and India Goods. Smith Street. 

Van Zandt Jacobus. General Importing Business. Dry Goods, Groce- 
ries. Rotten Row, near the Coffee House. 

Verplanck Samuel. General Importer. European Goods. House in 
Wall Street. 

Waddell Robert Ross. (Greg Cunningham & Co.) Shipping Merchants 
and Importers. Hunter's Quay. 

Wallace Hugh & Alexander. Importers from Ireland. Linens, &c. 
." Counting House in Burnet's Street." 

Walton- Jacob & William. Ship Yards on the East River. 

Walton William. See Jacob & WilUam Walton. Residence St. George's 
Square. 

Watson & Murray. (Jacob Watson & John Murray.) General Impor- 
ters of European and India Goods, West India Produce, near Bur- 
ling's Slip. 

Wetherhead John. Importer. Store near the Bowling Green, in the 
Broadway. 

White Henry. General Importer. Cruger's Dock, fronting the East 
River. Removed May, 1769, to the late Treasurer's (Abraham de 
Peyster), between the Fly Market and Coffee House. 

Yates Richard. See Reade & Yates. 



DESCRIPTION 

OF THE 

CITY OF NEW YORK. 
/•"rom CampbelPs Political Survey of Great Britain. 

" THE City of New York is seated in 41 d. 42 m. 
north lat. The road before it, though inconvenienced with 
ice in very hard winters, is notwithstanding always open. 
This, with other circumstances, renders it a place of great 
resort and very extensive Commerce. They export to the 
West Indies, bread, peas, rye, meal, Indian Corn, horses, 
sheep, beef, pork, and at least eighty thousand barrels of 
flour ; their returns are rum, sugar, and molasses. They 
send provisions to the Spanish Main. They have a con- 
siderable share in the logwood trade; wheat, flour, Indian 
corn, and timber, they send to Lisbon and Madeira. They 
have also a correspondence with Hamburg and Holland 
which, A.D. 1769, amounted to 246,522/. In the suc- 
ceeding year the ships entered inwards were 196, sloops 
431 ; cleared outwards, ships 188, sloops 424." 



Population of New York, in 1768, 20,000 Inhabitants. 
The Worshipful Whitehead Hicks, Mayor. 



INDEX. 



Addresses of Chamber, 87, 116, 134, 182, 
192. 

Admissions to Chamber. See Elections. 

Advertisements, 17, 28, 106, 114, 146, 148, 
153. 177. 178, 196, 3". 315. 317, 330> 

., 335.337,353- 

Alsop, John, Founder, 3; Treas. 179; 
Vice-Pres. 191, 202 ; on Committee, 
21, 42, 73, 189; absent, 217, 347. 
See page 306. 

Almshouses, 209, 344. 

Amiel, John, resigns, 171. 

Anderson, John, Capt. vs. Knote, Potters, 
Flemings Arbitration, 47. 

Arbitration Committee, 8, 29, 40, 74; Spe- 
cial do. 238 ; Cases of Schuyler vs. 
Kennedy, 36 ; Franks vs. Duyckinck, 
47 ; Knotes, Potter, Fleming vs. An- 
derson, 47 ; Barnes vs. Garrison, 47 ; 
Rhodes vs. LaPiere, 53 ; Warnock vs. 
Franklin, 54 ; Watson & Murray vs. 
Sears, 65 ; Conyngham & Nesbitt vs. 
Capt. "Warden, 108 ; John Dunlap vs. 
Lewis Pintard, 114; Peter Towns- 
end vs. Thomas Budd, 119 ; Dennis 
McReady vs. Patrick Loughan, 119 ; 
Walter & Thomas Buchanan & Co. 
vs. Robert Munro, 119 ; William 
Castel vs. Capt. Joseph Smith, 122 ; 
Grant & Fine vs. Henry Law and 
Totten& Crosfield, 122 ; Lewis John- 
ston vs. William Bayard, 144 ; Ward 
& Selkrig vs. David Black, 215 ; Hen- 
ry White vs. Donaldson & White, 
219 ; Shedden & Goodrich vs. Capt. 
McDonald, 220 ; Issachar Polock vs. 
Barrack Hays, 220 ; William Pagan 
vs. Robert Dale, 223 ; Capt. Rogers 
vs. Privateer Auctioneer, 238 ; Abra- 
ham Cuyler vs. Sheffield Howard, 
240 ; Winthrop & Kemble vs. Augus- 
tus Van Home, 263 ; Banan & Burke 
vs. Captain Stone, 264 ; Thomas C. 
Williams vs. Thomas Roy, 267 ; 
James Douglas vs. Lowther and 
Hodgzard, 273 ; Lyon vs. McCole, 



79; 



Wilkins vs. Porteus and Reed, 



287 ; Strachan vs. Hoakesley, 291. 
Arbuthnot, Marriott, Admiral, 237, 255, 
257, 260, 360 ; Sketch, 380. 



Articles of Chamber, 20, 25, 29. 

Assembly, General, 311, 327 ; Thanks to 
Merchants, 41, 313. 

Attendance, Tabular View of, 305. 

Auctioneers. See Vendue Masters. 

Bache, Theophylact, Founder, 3 ; Treas. 
100 ; Vice-Pres. 128, 158; Pres. 179 ; 
on Committee, 21, 43, 53, 59, 64, 73, 
75. 133. 177. 181. See page 306. 

Backhouse, William, on Committee, 252. 
See page 306. 

Banan & Burke vs. Capt. Stone, Arbitra- 
tion, 264. 

Banan, Owen, Letter, 267, 268, 270. 

Banyar, Goldsbrow, Dep. Sec. 82 ; Sketch, 

374- 

Barnes, John vs. Lambert Garrison, 47. 

Bayard, William vs. Lewis Johnston, Ar- 
bitration, 144 ; Sketch, 377. 

Beef and Pork, 63, 70, 227, 323, 325. 

Beekman, Gerard W., resigns, 168 ; 
James, resigns, 168. See page 306. 

Biographical Sketches, Arbuthnot, Mar- 
riott, 380 ; Banyar, Goldsbrow, 374. 
Bayard, WiUiam, 377 ; Blake, Jona- 
than, 378 ; Bowne, Robert, 383 ; 
Bradley, James, 373 ; Clinton, Sir 
Henry, 381 ; Colden, Cadwallader, 
374 ; Cuyler, Abraham, 380 ; Digby, 
Robert, 382 ; Dunmore, Earl of, 375 ; 
Elliot, Andrew, 379 ; Elphinstone, 
George Keith, 382 ; Foxcroft, Wil- 
liam, 376 ; Gage, Thomas, 378 ; 
Gaine, Hugh, 375 ; George IIL, 375 ; 
Graves, Thomas, 381 ; Harris, Rich- 
ard, 379 ; Hicks, Whitehead, 373 ; 
Holt, John, 372 ; Howard, Sheffield, 
380 ; Johnston, Lewis, 376 ; Jones, 
Daniel, 378 ; Kempe, John Tabor, 

374 ; Kennedy, Archibald, 372 ; Mc- 
Clean, Archibald, 374 ; Mathews, 
David, 382 ; Maerschalk, Francis, 

375 ; Mersillis, Peter, 377 ; Mon- 
tresor, John, 373 ; Morris, Robert 
Hunter, 377 ; Newman, Charles, 380 ; 
Norris, John, 379 ; Patterson, James, 
379 ; Pettitt, Thomas, 375 ; Pratt, 
Matthew, 377 ; Ray, Cornelius, 383 ; 
Rittenhouse, David, 373 ; Robertson, 
James, 379 ; Romans, Bernard, 378 ; 



398 



INDEX. 



Biographical Sketches — 

Sands, Comfort, 383, Joshua, 383 ; 
Schuyler, John, 372 ; St. Clair, John, 
382 ; Smyth, Frederick, 376 ; Tongue, 
■William, 380 ; Tryon, WiUiam, 376 ; 
Walter, Lieut. 379 ; Warden, Capt. 
375 ; Winn, Isaac L., 377 ; Winthrop, 
Francis Bayard, 381. 

Black, David vs. Ward & Selkrig, Arbi- 
tration, 215. 

Blake, Jonathan, 169, 171 ; Sketch, 378. 

Block Island, 359. 

Bloomandale, 314. 

Bogart, Henry C, on Committee, 75. 

Bolton & Sigel's Tavern, 9, 307. 

Boundary Line N. Y. and N. J., 63, 319. 

Bounties, Fish, 176, 190, 194, 195,336; 
to Seamen, 272, 365. 

Booth, Benjamin, on Committee, 207 ; 
Proposal, 211, 216. 

Bowne, Robert, Sketch, 383. 

Bradley, James, Dr., Sketch, 373. 

Bread, Price of, 223, 225, 349, 367 ; In- 
spector, 226, 350. 

Broad Street, 96, 327. 

Buchanan, Thomas, Vice-President, 217, 
228, 254, 284 ; Pres., 295 ; dechnes, 
296 ; on Committee, 64, 73, 229, 247, 
252 ; Walter, see page 306 ; Walter 
and Thomas & Co. vs. Robert Mun- 
ro, arbitration, 119. 

Budd, Thomas vs. Peter Townsend, ar- 
bitration, 119. 

Bull, Joseph, Proposal, 161. 

Buoys in Harbor, 74, 323. 

Burr-Stones, no, 330. 

By-Laws. See Regulations. 

Captains of King's Ships, 328. 

Carteret Packet, 232, 352. 

Cartmen, 210, 214, 344, 345. 

Casks, Flour and Bread, 12, 14, 15, 17, 
21, 23, 46, 49. 

Castel, William vs. Capt. Joseph Smith, 
Arbitration, 122. 

Chancellor and Vice-Admiral, 192, 338. 

Chaleur Bay, 120, 331. 

Charter of Chamber, 67, 70, 76, 82, 88, 89, 
326,371 ;forNewYorkCity, 249, 358. 

Clinton, Sir Henry, 247, 250, 354, 356 ; 
Sketch, 381. 

Coffee House, Merchants', 203, 212, 251 ; 
Account of, 340. 

Coin, 52, 66, 69, 102, 104, 105, 316 ; Clip- 
ping of, 322 ; Table of, 386 ; Value 

of, 387. 
Golden, Cadwallader, 76, 79, 88, 97, 339 ; 
Sketch, 374; Portrait of, 126, 127, 

332- 
Colony and Territories N. Y., 87, 326. 
Commandant of N. Y., 204, 205, 209, 342. 



Commerce, 203, 339. 

Commissioners' Proclamation, 203, 204, 
248, 340, 356. 

Commissions, Mercantile, 43. 

Committees to be raised, 6 ; on Arbitra- 
tion, 8, 29 ; By-Laws, 20 ; Exchange, 
17 ; Trade of Col. 21, 31 ; Flour pur- 
chase, 35 ; Meeting-room, 36, 251 ; 
Repairs, 38 ; Address to Gen. Assem- 
bly, 42 ; Commissions, 43 ; Tonnage, 
44, 46, 130 ; Coin, 52 ; Lumber, 53, 
57> 59 ; Public Packers, 64, 73 ; 
Rules, 69 ; Charter, 73 ; Whaling. 
75 ; Gold-scales, 124 ; English Mail, 
133 ; Address to Gov. Tryon, 133, 
i8g ; Cupola, 159 ; Portrait, 169 ; 
Fish Bounties, 177, 190, 202; Ad- 
dress to Gen. Gage, 181, 182 ; Street- 
cleaning, 207 ; Cartmen, 210 ; Price 
of Labor, 214 ; Powder-ship, 218, 
224 ; Letter to Gen. Robertson, 229 ; 
Plate to Capt. Newman, 233 ; Letter 
to Gen. Clinton, 247 ; Charter for N. 
Y. City, 252 ; Vendue Masters, 262 ; 
of Arbitration, see Arbitration Com- 
mittee. 

Conyngham & Nesbitt vs. Capt. Warden. 
Arbitration, 108. 

Convoy to Halifax, 270, 364. 

Corbet's House, 63, 319. 

Cornel, Inspection of, 83, 99, 326. 

Corsa, Isaac, on Committee, 207. 

Council of Province, 66, 324. 

Cruger, John, Founder, 3 ; Pres. 4, 42 ; 
Thanks of Assembly, 41 ; Proposal, 
102, 104, 118; Dissents recorded 
106, 143. 

John Harris, on Committee, 52, 73. 
133, 181, 182, 370. 

Cupola, 156, 159, 164, 335. 

Currency, Penn. 10, 11, 15, 18, 308; Ta- 
ble of, 388 ; New Jersey, 10, 11, 13, 
15, 104, 107, 143, 146, 151, 153, 160, 
163, 168, 170, 171, 185, 296, 308, 329, 
334, 370 ; Table of, 384, 385 ; New 
York, 12, 15, 309, 345 ; Table of, 388. 

Customs, 246, 357 ; Officers of, 99, 329, 
356. 

Cuyler, Abraham vs. Sheffield Howard, 
Arbitration, 240 ; Sketch, 380. 

Dale, Robert vs. William Pagan, Arbi- 
tration, 223. 

Desbrosses, Ellas, Founder, 3 ; Treas. 4, 
42; Vice-Pres. 100; Pres. 128; Mem- 
ber of Committee, 21, 42, 181, 189. 

Digby, Robert, 280 ; Sketch, 382. 

Donaldson and White vs. Henry White, 
Arbitration, 219 ; Samuel, on Com- 
mittee, 224, 229 ; Proposal, 247, 252. 

Doorkeeper, 7, 212, 229, 249. 



INDEX. 



399 



Dinner, Annual, 44, 83, 99, 126, 155, 333, 
336. 

Douglass, James vs. Lowther and Hodg- 
zard. Arbitration, 273. 

Dunlap, John vs. Lewis Pintard, Arbitra- 
tion, 114. 

Dunmore, Earl of, u6, 117, 128, 333; 
Sketch, 375. 

Duties, Customs', 246, 356, 357. 

Duyckinck, Gerardus vs. Moses Franks, 
Arbitration, 47 ; resigns, 168. See 
page 306. 

Elections, Annual, 4 ; Rules for, 5, 14, 
15. 67, 75. 79 ; Tabular View of, 304. 

Elliott, Andrew, 2c6, 210, 247, 248, 269, 
276, 355. 356. 358 ; Sketch, 379. 

Elphmstone, George K., Capt., 270, 271 ; 
Sketch, 382. 

Embargo on Shipping, 236, 354. 

Exchange, Col., Table of, 388 ; Euro- 
pean, 20; Inland, 15, 17, 19, 20; 
West India, 15^17, 19, 20, 310. 

Exchange, Room over, 36, 156, 159, 162, 
311.335.336. 

Exports of Flour, Table of Imports and, 

329- 
Fairholme, Johnston, on Committee, 182, 

189. 
Fare, 337. 

Fees of Admission, 4, 74, 157, 297, 370. 
Fines, 7, 10, 50, 211, 244, 245, 284. 
Fire Insurance. See Insurance against 

Fire. 
Fish Bounties, 175, 190, 194, 195, 336. 
Fisheries, 285, 360. 
Flatbush, 314. 
Fleet, British, 236, 360, 365 ; Provision, 

275, 366. 
Fleming, Joseph and Stephen and others 

vs. Capt. John Anderson, 47. 
Florida, Maps of, 191, 198, 202, 338, 

339. 
Flour, Branding, 330 ; Combination of 

Bakers, 23 ; Inspection of, 15, 17, 

21, 29, 46, 113, 314 ; Prices of, 223 ; 

Weighing of, 148. 
FoUiot, George, Founder, 3. 
Fort George, Latitude of, 61, 317, 319. 
Founders of Chamber, 3, 7. 
Foxcroft, William, Dep. Postmaster, 132 ; 

Sketch of, 376. 
Fraunces' Tavern. See Bolton & Sigell, 

307- 

Franklin, John vs. Capt. WilHam War- 
nock, Arbitration, 54 ; Walter, 3 ; 
on Committee, 42, 75. 

Franks, Moses vs. Gerardus Duyckinck, 
Arbitration, 47. 

Freight on Casks, 332, 362. 

Friendship, Snow, 247, 355. 



Gage,^ Thomas, General, 182, 183 ; and 
his Suite, 328 ; Departure for Eng- 
land, 337 ; Sketch, 378. 

Gaine, Hugh, Printer, 108, no; Sketch, 

375- 

Gardner's Bay, 360. 

Garland, King's Ship, 271, 365. 

Garrison, Lambert vs. John Barnes, Ar- 
bitration, 47. 

Garrison, New York, 357 ; Gibraltar, 

359- 

George the Third, Sketch, 375. 

Georgetown, 370. 

Georgia restored to Trade, 357. 

Glover, John T. See page 306. 

Gold Scales, 121, 331. 

Goldsmith to be appointed, 124. 

Goold, Edward. See page 306. 

Gouverneur Harman, resigns, 168. 

Governor of New York, 249, 333, 358. 

Grant and Fine vs. Law, Totten & Cros- 
field. Arbitration, 122. 

Graves, Thomas, Admiral, Sketch, 381. 

Gunpowder, 211, 216, 218, 347. 

Hackensack, 331. 

Halifax, Trade with, 361. 

Harbor of New York, 361. 

Harris, Richard, 229, 379. 

Hays, Barrack vs. Issachar Polock, Ar- 
bitration, 220. 

Hicks, Whitehead, Sketch, 373. 

Hoakesley, Robert vs. John Strachan, 
Arbitration, 291. 

Hodgzard, William, Arbitration, 273. 

Hoffman, Nicholas, resigns, 168 ; on 
Committee, 207. 

Holt, John, Printer, 37 ; Sketch, 372. 

Howard, Sheffield vs. Abraham Cuyler, 
Arbitration, 240, 380. 

Historical Sketches, Bolton & Sigell, 
Fraunces' Tavern, 307 ; Paper Cur- 
rency of N. Y. 309 ; of Penn. 308 
of N. J. 308 ; the Assembly, 3 1 1 
327 ; Merchants' Exchange, 311 
335 ; Non-Importation Agreement, 
313 ; Fort George, 317 ; Latitude of 
New York, 319; Boundary between 
N. Y. and N. J. 319 ; Light-house 
on Sandy Hook, 320 ; Buoys in the 
Harbor, 323 ; Whale Fishery of N. 
Y. 323 ; Seal of the Province, 325 ; 
Fire Insurance, 325 ; Charter of the 
Chamber, 326 ; Sterling Iron Works, 
331 ; Picture of Gov. Colden, 332 ; 
Proprietors of New Jersey, 334 ; 
Newspapers of New York, 335 ; Seal 
of the Chamber, 335 ; Victories in 
t'ne French War, 337 ; Merchants' 
Coffee House, 340 ; New York Hos- 
pital, 343 ; Alms Houses, 344 ; In- 



400 



INDEX. 



surance Offices, 346 ; Powder-ship, 
348; Privateers, 351, 352, 359, 360, 
368, 369 ; Cartaret Packet, 352, 353 ; 
Post Office, 353 ; Aifairs in New 
York, 339, 357, 363 ; British Ships, 
360, 361, 364, 365 ; New York Har- 
bor, 361 ; Wharves, 367. 

Hospitals, 343. 

Imlaytown, 120, 331. 

Imlay, William, resigns, 168. 

Imports, Tables of Exports and. Duties 

on. 357- 

Incorporators, List of, 90. 

Inspection of Beef and Pork, 70, 323 ; of 
Cornel, etc. 83, 99, 326 ; of Flour, 
15, 17, 21, 29, 46, 113, 314 ; of Lum- 
ber, 317 ; of Potashes, 21, 29, 330. 

Inspector of Bread, 360. 

Insurance against Fire, 82, 99, loi, 325. 

Insurance, Marine, Tables of, 359, 365. 

Insurance Offices, 210 ; Case of, 287 ; 
" Old " Account of, 346. 

Jauncey, James, Founder, 3 ; on Com- 
mittee, 133, 177 ; William, on Com- 
mittee, 190. 

Johannes, Half, 102, 104, 105, 227, 329. 

Johnston, Lewis vs. William Bayard, Ar- 
bitration, 144; Sketch of, 376. 

Jones, Daniel, Commandant, 204, 205, 
342 ; Sketch, 378. 

Kempe, John Tabor, Atty. Gen. 374. 

Kennedy, Archibald, Capt. vs. Col. John 
Schuyler, Arbitration, 36 ; Sketch, 

372- 
Keteltas, Peter, on Committee, 133. See 

page 306. 
Knote, Daniel and others vs. Capt. John 

Anderson, Arbitration, 47. 
Kortright, Lawrence, Founder, 3 ; on 

Committee, 36, 42, 43, 207, 252. 
Laight, Edward, Proposal, 39 ; resigns, 

170, 2H ; William, on Committee, 

207, 218, 247, 252. See page 306. 
La Piere vs. Rhodes, Arbitration, 53. 
Latitude of New York ascertained, 61. 
Law of Colony as to Fare, 310. 
Law, Henry, Arbitration, 122. 
Lee & Strachan, 291. 
Letters of Chamber, 204, 225, 230, 250, 

252, 25s, 258, 265, 269, 271, 276, 279, 

281 ; to Chamber, 205, 210, 231, 233, 

257, 260, 266, 267, 269, 270, 271, 276, 

294. 
Lewis, Francis, on Committee, 190. See 

, page 306. 
Lightning Conductor, 224, 348. 
Lispenard, Leonard, resigns, 168. 
Livingston, Robert C, on Committee, 

133, 140, 159, 162, 185 ; Philip, 

Founder, 7. 



Local Sketches. See Historical Sketches. 

Loughan vs. Dennis McCready, Arbitra- 
tion, 119. 

Low, IsJac, Founder, 3 ; on Committee, 
17. 21, 36, 38. 42, 133. 189, 207, 247 ; 
President, 203, 227, 254, 284 ; Pro- 
posal, 31, 46, 67, 73, 74, 75, 104, 1 10 ; 
Treasurer, 158 ; Vice-Pres. 179, 191. 

Lowther, William and William Hodg- 
zard vs. Douglas, Arbitration, 273. 
See page 306 ; William, on Commit- 
tee, 247, 252. 

Ludlow, Daniel, see page 306 ; George 
W., see page 306. 

Lumber, Regulations of, 53, 66 ; Inspec- 
tion of, 317. 

Lyon, William vs. John McCole, Arbi- 
tration, 79. 

Mahacomac, 319. 

Mail for England, 132, 133. 

Markets, 339. 

Marschalk, Francis, Inspector of Flour, 
113, 114; Sketch, 375. 

Mathews, David, Mayor, 266, 276 ; 
Sketch, 382. 

Mayor, 266, and Corporation, 317. 

McAdam, William, Founder, 3 ; Propo- 
sal, 43, 74, 143 ; Committee, 42, 73, 
133, 190, 211; Treas. igi ; Vice 
Pres. 202 ; Death, 217. 

McClean, Archibald, a Commissioner to 
ascertain the Boundary Line, 63 ; 
Sketch, 374.^ 

McCready, Dennis vs. Patrick Loughan, 
Arbitration, 119. 

McCole, John vs. William Lyon, Arbi- 
tration, 279. 

McCormick, Daniel. See page 306. 

McDavitt, Patrick. See page 306. 

McDonald, Capt. vs. Shedden & Good- 
rich, Arbitration, 220. 

McEvers, Charles, on Committee, 64, 
69, 73, 182 ; Treasurer, 202 ; Letter 
to, 252 ; Letter from, 294 ; James, 
Founder, 3. 

Measure, Winchester, 333. 

Meetings of Chamber, Day of, 4 ; Special, 
3 1 ; Quarterly, 4 ; Place of, 5, 6, 9, 
36, 96, 203, 251. 

Members, 6 ; List of, 300 ; Stores and 
Residences of, 393. 

Merchants of N. Y., Thanks to, by Gen- 
eral Assembly, 41. 

Mersellis, Peter, 162, 377. 

Miller, John, on Committee, 207, 211, 
218, 224, 247. See Page 306. 
Thomas, Capt, on Committee, 177. 

Montauk Point, 361. 

Montresor, John, Capt, takes Latitude 
of Flag Bastion, 61 ; Sketch, 373. 



INDEX. 



401 



Moore, John, Member of Committee, 17, 
53. 59, 69, 73, 102, 133, 169, 189, 
212, 224, 247, 252 ; Proposal, 109, 
no; Thomas William, Member of 
Committee, 35. 

Morris, Robert Hunter ; Sketch, 377. 

Munro, Robert vs. Walter and Thomas 
Buchanan & Co., Arbitration, 119. 

Murray, John, on Committee, 261. See 
page 306. Robert, Fomider, 3 ; on 
Committee, 44, 52, 252. 

Neilson, William, to visit Pliiladelphi:^ 
and Purchase Flour, 21, 22 ; Resigns, 
168. See page 306. 

New Jersey, Currency. See Currency. 
Proprietors of New Jersey, 334, 335. 

Newman, Charles, Capt, 232, 233, 234, 
352. 3S3> 380. 

Newspapers of N. Y., 335. 

New York, description of See Bio- 
graphical and Historical Sketches. 

New York, Sketches of See Biographi- 
cal and Historical Sketches. 

Norris, John, 212, 214, 229 ; Sketch, 379. 

Non-Importation Agreement, 41, 313. 

North Castle, 315. 

Nutten Island, 65, 322. 

Officers of Chamber, 3 ; How Chosen, j 

4 ; List of, 299 ; Field on Duty I 

in N. Y., 333. 

Oothout, John, Proposal, 219 ; Member of 
Committee, 217, 261. See page 306. 

Ordinances, City, 208, 342, 345, 347. 

Packers, Public, 63, 322. 

Packet to England, 132, 333. 

Pagan, William vs. Robert Dale, Arbi- 
tration, 223 ; on Committee, 251. 

Pallade, Peter, Procurator for La Piere, 

53- 
Paper Currency. See Currency. 
Parliament, Act of, 247, 355. 
Pattison, James, Maj. Gen., 206 ; Sketch, 

379- 

Peltry, 333. 

Pennsylvania Currency. See Currency. 

Petition for Charter, 77. 

Pettitt, Thomas, Doorkeeper, loi, 104, 
130, 154, 155, 156, 170, 171, 179, 
212 ; Sketch, 375. 

Phenix, Daniel, resigns, 168. See page 
306. 

Pintard, Lewis, to Purchase Flour in 
Philadelphia, 22 ; Thanks to, 33 ; 
Hands in Accounts, 35 ; on Com- 
mittee, 43, 64, 73, 179 ; vs. 

John Dunlap, Arbitration, 114, 

Piatt, Jeremiah. See page 306. 

Police of the City, 208, 343, 355 ; Magis- 
trates of, 227, 238, 261, 263, 265, 
343- 

26 



Polock, Issachar vs. Barrack Hays, Ar- 
bitration, 220. 

Porteous, John and Read vs. Willcins, Ar- 
bitration, 287 ; Notice of, 369. 

Portrait of Lieut. Gen. Colden, 126, 127, 
167, 169, 332, 336. 

Post-Office, 233, 353. 

Potashes, Inspection of, 21, 114, 330. 

Potter, Thomas and Isaac and others vs. 
Capt. John Anderson, Arbitration, 

47- 
Pratt, Matthew, Limner, 167, 169 ; 

Sketch, 377. 
President, Duties of, 6, 7 ; Vice-Pres., 

Duties of, 6, 7. 
Prices Current, Table of, 1765 to 1775, 

389. See Rates. 
Primage on Goods, 222. 
Privateer Auctioneer, 238, 354. 
Privateers, 204, 233, 281, 342, 351, 352, 

357> 359. 360, 366, 368, 369- 

Prizes. See Privateers. 

Proclamations, 203, 248, 263, 340, 343, 
348, 355. 367- 

Proprietors of New Jersey, 334. 

Proposals, to be in writing, 10 ; Price of 
Casks, 12 ; as to Currency, 10, 12, 
15; Admission of Members, 14; 
Bills of Exchange, 1 5 ; Inspection of 
Flour, 15, 113; Printing the Ar- 
ticles, 21 ; Regulation of Trade, 21 ; 
Inspection of Potashes, 21 ; Special 
Meeting, 31 ; Tare on Butter and 
Lard, 39 ; Arbitrations, 39 ; Ton- 
nage of Goods, 40 ; Rates of Com- 
missions, 43 ; Fine for leaving Meet- 
ings, 43 ; Flour Casks, 46 ; to ad- 
dress the Chair standing, 46 ; Rates 
of Coin, 52 ; Regulations as to Lum- 
ber, 53 ; Only Merchants to be Ad- 
mitted, 59 ; Regulations to be Printed, 
64 ; Value of Guineas, 66 ; Clipping 
of Coin, 66 ; to Revise Rules for 
Printing, 67 ; Charter Proposed, 67, 
70 ; to Alter Rules of Admission, 
67 ; to Submit all Disputes to Arbi- 
tration Committee, 74 ; Limit of 
Number of Members, 74 ; Buoys in 
Harbor, 74 ; Whale Fishery, 74 ; 
Mode of Election, 75 ; Salary to 
Sec'y, 83 ; as to Value of Johannes, 
102; Half Joes, 104; Jersey Money, 
104 ; to read Charter every Quarter- 
ly Meeting, no; Flour, no; Ad- 
journment, 118; Gold Scales, 122; 
Seamen's Wages, 122 ; to address 
Gov. Tryon, 133 ; to Publish Report 
of Committee on Tonnage, 146 ; as 
to Weighing of Flour, 148; as to 
Money of Chamber, 157 ; as to Jer- 



402 



INDEX. 



sey Money, i6o, i6i ;' to offer Fish 
Bounties, 176 ; as to Resignations on 
account of Jersey Money, 185 ; as to 
Records of Arbitration Committee, 
219; Thanks of Chamber to Capt. 
Newman, 232 ; as to Fine on Arbi- 
tration Committee, 244, 245 ; to ad- 
dress Commander on Duties, 247. 

Provision Fleets, 275, 366. 

Queens' Head Tavern. See Bolton & 
Sigell's. 

Quorum, 6. 

Ramadge, Smith, on Committee, 211, 224. 

Ramsay John. See page 306. 

Randall, Thomas, Founder, 3 ; on Com- 
mittee, 36, 38, 159. See page 306. 

Rates, 210, 211, 214, 216, 223, 342, 344, 

349, 367- 

Ray, Cornelius ; Sketch, 383. 

Rebellion, this unnatural, 271, 365. 

Records, where to be kept, 5, 6. 

Reed, Patrick & Porteous vs. Wilkins, 
Arbitration, 287. 

Regulations and By-Laws, 4, 10, 20, 25, 
59. 69. 83, 121. 

Remsen, Henry, Proposal, 59, 74 ; on 
Committee, 73, 75 ; Resigns, 168. 
See page 306. 
Peter, on Committee, 44. 

Reports : Bills of Exchange, 19, 24 ; Re- 
vision of By-Laws, 25 ; Inspection 
of Flour, 29 ; Trade of Colony, 29 ; 
Room over Exchange, 38 ; Draught 
of Thanks to Assembly, 42 ; Value 
of Coin, 56 ; Regulation of Lumber, 
57, 63, 66 ; Inspection of Beef and 
Pork, 70 ; of President as to Charter, 
78 ; Visit to Mayor, as to Curing of 
Beef and Pork, 79 ; Regulations, By- 
Laws, 83 ; Address to Gov. Tryon, 
134 ; on Tonnage, 141 ; on Repairs, 
162 ; Address to Gen. Gage, 181 ; 
on Street Cleaning, 208 ; Letter to 
Gen. Robertson, 230 ; Address to Sir 
Henry Clinton, 247; on Meeting 
Rooms, 254 ; on Letter to Admiral, 

I 255 ; Licensed Auctioneers, 262. 

Resignation of Members, 164, 166, 168, 
170. 

Resolutions as to By-Laws, 4 ; Notice to 
New Members, 8 ; Arbitration Com- 
mittee, 8, 40 ; to Price of Casks, 14 ; 
Admission of Members, 15 ; Bills of 
Exchange, 17, 20; tare of Casks, 
17 ; Inspection of Flour, 17 ; Penn- 
sylvania Currency, 18 ; Revision of 
By-Laws, 20 ; to Purchase Flour in 
Philadelphia, 21, 23 ; to Advertise 
Articles, 29 ; Special Meetings, 33 ; 
Thanks to Mr. Pintard, 33 ; Com- 



mission to Sec'y, 34 ; to Audit ac- 
counts of Flour purchase, 35 ; to 
wait on the Mayor, 36 ; to Repair 
Room over Exchange, 38 ; Reply to 
General Assembly, 42 ; to enter Ar- 
bitrations on the Minutes, 43 ; Flour 
Casks, 49 ; Fine for Addressing 
Chair from seat, 50; on Coin, 57; 
to admit none but Merchants, 64 ; 
to Print the Rules, 64 ; as to Value 
of Guineas and Half Joes, 69 ; to 
apply for Charter, 77 ; as to Admis- 
sion of Members, 80 ; as to Coin, 
106 ; as to Adjournment, 121 ; as to 
English Mail, 132 ; Tonnage of Goods, 
143; Weighing of Flour^iSl ; as to 
Jersey Money, 152, 187 ; on Fish 
Bounties, 177; as to Maps of Florida, 
191 ; Thanks to Gen. Clinton, 250 ; 
Address to Admiral on Distress of 
Commerce, 254; Thanks to Capt. 
Elphinstone, 270 ; as to Wharfage, 
279 ; as to Letter on Privateering, 
285. 

Rhmelander, Frederick, on Committee, 
207, 211. 

Rhodes vs. La Piere, Arbitration, 53. 

Rittenhouse' David, takes Latitude of 
Flag Bastion, 61 ; ascertains Boun- 
dary Line, 63 ; Sketch, 373. 

Robertson, James, Gen., 229, 230, 231, 
272, 277, 280, 285, 350, 358 ; Sketch, 

379- 

Rogers, Sam'l, Capt., 238. 

Roosevelt, Isaac, Member of Committee, 
36 ; Resigns, 168. See page 306. 

Romans, Bernard, 191, 198, 201, 338 ; 
Sketch, 378. 

Ross, Capt., 281, 368. 

Roy, Thomas vs. T. C. Williams, Arbi- 
tration, 267. 

Royal Oak Ship, 257, 360. 

Rules and Regulations. See Regulations. 

Sandy Hook Light, 63, 320. 

Sands, Comfort ; Sketch, 383. 

Sands, Joshua ; Sketch, 383. 

Schuyler, John, Col. vs. Capt. Archibald 
Kennedy, Arbitration, 36 ; Sketch, 
372. Resigns, 168. 
John, Jr., 159. 

Seal of Chamber, 156, 158, 159, 160, 
335 ; of Province, George III., 325. 

Seamen, advance pay of, 122, 331 ; Boun- 
ties to, 365 ; Discharge of, 361, 368, 
369 ; Wanted, 272. 

Setauket, 215. 

Sears, Isaac vs. Watson & Murray, Arbi- 
tration, 65 ; Resigns his Seat, 164. 
See page 306. 

Secretary, duties of, 6, 13 ; Salary to, 83. 



INDEX. 



403 



Secretaries of the Council, 328. 

Seton, William, 229, 252. 

Sharpe, Richard, on Committee, 73, 
169. 

Sheddon & Goodrich vs. Capt. McDon- 
ald, Arbitration, 220. 

Sherbrooke, Miles, Founder, 3 ; on Com- 
mittee, 44. 

Ships of War, 254. 

Shrewsbury Banks, 360. 

Simson, Sampson, on Committee, 38, 43, 
73. 75 ; Proposal, 43, 66. 

Sketches. See Historical and Biographi- 
cal. 

Skreens, German Mill, 113, 330. 

Smith, Mrs. 212, 213, 347 ; Joseph, 
Capt. vs. William Cartel, Arbitra- 
tion, 122. 

Smyth, Frederick, Chief Justice, Sketch, 
376. 

St. Clair, John, Sec'y, 279, 368, 382. 

Stepple, William, on Committee, 190, 
207. 

Sterling, 226. 

Stone, Capt. vs. Banan & Burke, Arbi- 
tration, 264. 

Stores and Residences, 393. 

Stove for Chamber, no, 329. 

Strachan, James, 254, 358 ; , John 

vs. Robert Hoakesley, Arbitration, 
291. 

Street Cleaning, 208. 

Sugar, 357. 

Superintendent, Gen., 206, 268, 350. 

Tables of attendance, 303 ; of Coins, 
386 ; of Currency, 384, 385, 388 ; of 
Imports and Exports, 392 ; of Insu- 
rance, 390, 391 ; Prices Current, 

1765-1775. 389- 

Tare of Casks, 15, 17, 310 ; Butter and 
Lard, 39. 

Taylor & Rogers, 246. 

Templeton, Oliver, on Committee, 261. 
See page 306. 

Tench, John, on Committee, 270. 

Territories depending on N. Y., 326. 

Thompson, Acheson, Founder, 3. 

Thurman, John, on Committee, 64, 73, 
75, 207 ; Proposal, 82, i6o ; Resigns, 
168. See page 306. 

Tongue, William, 223, 240, 380. 

Tonnage of Goods, 44, 138, 141, 143, 
148, 314, 333. 

Totten & Crosfield vs. Grant & Fine, Ar- 
bitration, 122. 

Townsend, Peter vs. Thomas Budd, Ar- 
bitration, 119. 

Trade, Regulations, 21, 29; Georgia 
restored to, 248, 357 ; with Halifax, 
361. 



Treasurer of Chamber, 6. 

Tyron, William, Gov. 133, 135, 157, 189, 
192, 193 ; Departure for England, 
338 ; Sketch, 376. 

Ustick, William, on Committee, 218. 

Van Dam, Anthony, Founder, 3 ; elected 
Secretary, 4, 42, 100, 128, 158, 179, 
191, 202, 228, 254, 284, 295 ; hands 
in accounts, 35 ; on Committee, 251, 
252 ; Proposal, 38, 67, 146. 

Van Home, Augustus, on Committee, 
207 ; vs. Winthrop & Kemble, Ar- 
bitration, 263. 

Van Zandt, Jacobus, on Committee, 69, 
102. See page 306. 

Vendue Masters, 261, 263, 347, 362. 

Verplanck, Samuel, Founder, 3 ; on 
Committee, 17, 21, 52, 75, 133 ; Pro- 
posal, 59. 

Victories, English, 182, 337. 

Volunteers for Fleet, 272. 

Waddell, Robert Ross, Founder, 3 ; on 
Committee, 228; Treas. 254, 284, 
295. See page 306. 

Wallace, Alexander, on Committee, 53, 
124, 211 ; Hugh, Founder, 3 ; Mem- 
ber of Committee, 19, 36, 133, 229 ; 
Pres. 100, 127; Vice-Pres. 4, 42, 
218, 228. 

Walloon Bay, 224, 241, 349. 

Walter, Lieut. 224, 379. 

Walton, Abraham, Proposal, 244, 245 ; 
Gerard, on Committee, 162, 169, 182, 
224, 229, 246, 252 ; Vice-Pres. 295. 
See page 306. 

Jacob, Founder, 3 ; on Committee, 
17, 124, 177 ; Vice-Pres. 254, 284. 
William, Founder, 3 ; on Committee, 
36. 52. 73. 133. 189, 207, 252 ; Pro- 
posal, 52, 125 ; Magistrate of Police, 
266, 362; Treas. 128; President, 
191 ; Vice-Pres. 158, 179, 295. See 
page 306. 

Ward & Selkrig vs. David Black, Arbi- 
tration, 215. 

Wardens of the Port, 263, 323, 362. 

Warden, Capt. vs. Conyngham& Nesbitt, 
Arbitration, 108 ; Sketch, 375. 

Warnock, William, Capt. vs. John Frank- 
lin, Arbitration, 54, 

Warwick, King's Ship, 270, 364. 

Watson Jacob, on Committee, 53, 207, 
252 ; Proposal, 122 ; Resigns, 166. 
Joshua, on Committee, 261. 

and Murray vs. Isaac Sears, 

Arbitration, 65. 

Watts, Robert, on Committee, 35, 190. 

Whale Boats, 285, 360 ; at the Narrows, 
369 ; Fishery, 74, 323. 

Wharves, 277, 367. 



404 



INDEX. 



White, Henry, Founder, 7 ; on Commit- 
tee, 64, 229 ; Vice-Pres. 100, 128 ; 

Pres. 158 ; vs. Donaldson 

and White, Arbitration, 219. 
Thomas, Founder, 3. 

Wilkins, Robert vs. Porteous and Reed, 
Arbitration, 287. 

Williams, Thomas Charles vs. Thomas 
Roy, Arbitration, 267. 

Winchester Measure, 142, 333. 



Winn, Isaac L., Capt. 156, 159; Sketch, 

377- 
Winthrop, Francis Bayard; Sketch, 381 ; 

and ICemble vs. Augustus 

Van Home, Arbitration, 263 ; Firm 

of, 362. 
Yates, Richard, on Committee, 44, 53, 

59. 73. 75 ; Proposal, 83. 
Young, Hamilton, on Committee, 44, 52, 

124, 170. 



THE END. 



COLONIAL NEW YORK. 



SKETCHES 



Biographical and Historical 



1768 — 1784. 



JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS Jr. 



NEW YORK: 

JOHN F. TROW & CO., 50 GREENE STREET. 

1867. 

r 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1867, by 

JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS, Jr., 

In the Clerk's Office of tlie District Court of the United States for the Southern 

District of New York. 



JOHN p. TROW & CO., 

FRINTZR3, STEREOTVPERa, AND ELECTROTYPERS. 
60 Greene Street, New York. 



PREFACE. 

The editor tenders his grateful thanks to the Merchants of New York 
for the kind and generous interest they have shown in this effort to preserve 
the record of the Colonial Commerce of the City, and his warm acknowledg- 
ments to the many descendants of the founders and early members of the 
Chamber of Commerce who have aided him in his biographical researches. 

He also records his obligations to those who have favored him with their 
counsel and personal labors in the toilsome and difficult research into the 
newspaper and documentary history of the last century. To Mr. George 
H. Moore, the judicious historian and devoted custodian of the treasures of 
the New York Historical Society, he is indebted for timely and valua- 
ble suggestions. To the pains-taking and courteous assistant in the care of 
this honored institution, Mr. WiUiam Kelby, who may be justly called a 
" living concordance " to the old newspapers of the city, he cheerfully owns 
his daily varied obligation. 

Among those who have shown a practical interest in the work, the editor 
names with pleasure the Hon. Gulian C. Verplanck, from whose store of 
reminiscence he has drawn many interesting facts ; Mr. S. Alofsen, of Jersey 
City, who kindly furnished biographical information of value ; Dr. E. B. 
O'Callaghan, of Albany, to whose labors the State is indebted for the admi- 
rable arrangement of its valuable manuscript documents, and whose ripe 
judgment is ever at the service of the historical student. 





'in passis^im ^Hie dbiWihBlafl'iaiiaMr- 



JOHN CRUGER. 

FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
1 768- 1770. 




HE family of Cruger is variously stated to be of 
Danish and of German origin ; the latter supposi- 
tion being the more probable. The first of the 
family in England are reputed to have emigrated from the 
Continent in the reign of Henry VIII., and to have settled 
at Bristol, where numerous ancient monuments to persons 
of this name still exist in the church-yard attached to the 
cathedral. The fact that one of the American family sent 
to Bristol for a commercial education there received the 
highest political honors, at one time representing this ancient 
city in the British Parliament and at another its Mayor, 
seems to imply some previous connection with its interests 
and families. Yet this unusual honor to the stranger may 
be sufficiently accounted for, perhaps, in the extent of the 
trade of this thriving city with the city of New York, and 
the desire of its people to show their sympathy with the 
Colonies at a period when all American eyes were care- 
fully scrutinizing the conduct of their English cousins in 
the struggle waging for civil liberty on both sides of the 
Atlantic. 

The name of Cruger, now rarely heard in the halls of 
commerce or on the marts of trade, was from the beginning 



6 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

to the close of the eighteenth century beloved and honored 
in the colonial city of New York, and the history of the 
family is almost that of English rule in this provincial 
capital. 

The first emigrant of the name to America, or at least 
the first of whom any mention is to be found in any of the 
old documents of record, whether of baptisms, marriages, 
or wills, was John Cruger, who married Maria Cuyler, in 
the year 1702. He first appears as supercargo of the trad- 
ing ship "The Prophet Daniel," Captain Appel, which 
weighed anchor at New York, Friday, 15th July, 1698, 
bound to the coast of Africa, where she fell into the hands 
of pirates — a misfortune of which he published a curious 
account on his return. 

Entering into active business, he soon became a prosper- 
ous merchant, and was also, during the early part of the last 
century, a prominent public man. He was successively 
chosen Alderman of the Dock Ward (now the First Ward) 
for twenty-two years — from 1712 to 1733. In 1739 he was 
appointed Mayor of the city, and remained in office until 
his death, in 1744. 

By his wife, Maria Cuyler, he left two sons, Henry and 
John. His son Tieliman, (or Telemon,) of whose baptism, 
1705, Nov. 11, the record remains, does not seem to have 
survived him. He probably died at an early age. 

John Cruger, the third son of John Cruger and Maria 
his wife, was born in the city of New York, on the 18th 
day of July, 1710 : the record of his baptism on the follow- 
ing day may be found on the minutes of the Dutch Church. 

He followed closely in the footsteps of his father. He 
also was a successful and eminent merchant. He also was 
the favored choice of his fellow-citizens for one after another 
of the highest positions of trust in their gift. In reviewing 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 7 

his career as a public man, it will be observed with interest 
that he was alike the trusted officer of the Crown, and the 
chosen representative of the people. 

His first connection with the history of the period ap- 
pears in the record of his name, John Cruger, Junior, as 
one of the Grand Jury empannelled by the Supreme Court, 
21st of April, 1741, (Robert Watts merchant, foreman,) 
for examination into the supposed Negro Plot of that year, 
which so alarmed the Colony. All of his fellows on the 
panel were merchants. 

He was elected Alderman of the Dock Ward in 1754 
and 1755, and in 1756 raised to the dignity of Mayor, which 
office he held for ten successive years, until 1765. 

While yet in his first year of office he was called upon 
to check the growing insolence of the British officers, and 
under his lead the city authorities protested against the orders 
of Lord Loudon, Commander-in-Chief of the King's forces in 
America, quartering a large body of troops upon the inhab- 
itants of New York. The protest was unavailing, but the 
magistrates promoted a subscription to defray the expenses 
of the officers' quarters. 

In 1759 he was elected member of the General Assem- 
bly of the Colony; again re-elected in February, 1761, he 
became one of that famous body, the Long Assembly, as it 
was called, of 1761 to 1768, to whose patriotism and courage 
the union of the Colonies and' the successful vindication of 
American liberties was, in a great measure, indeed, it may 
be properly said, chiefly due. 

This Assembly was earnest in protest against the grow- 
ing ursurpation of the Home Government ; and as early as 
the 18th of October, 1764, addressed memorials to the King, 
the Lords, and the Commons, which for fervent appeal and 
bold assertion of rights are not surpassed by any of the doc- 



COLONIAL NEW YORK. 



uments of that age of manly eloquence. So decided was 
the tone of these papers, that it is recorded that no one of 
Parliament was to be found bold enough to present them. 
The Assembly did not stop here, but, as though instinct- 
ively aware of the probable futility of their protest, on the 
same day, and in the same resolutions by which they or- 
dered the transmission of the memorials, they further raised 
a committee " to write to and correspond with the several 
Assemblies, or committees of Assemblies," of the sister Col- 
onies on the several objectionable acts of Parliament " lately 
passed with relation to the trade of the Northern Colonies ; 
and also on the subject of the impending dangers which 
threaten the Colonies of being taxed by laws to be passed in 
Great Britain." This may justly be considered the first step 
towards American Union. Of this Committee of Corres- 
pondence John Cruger was a leading member. 

The petitions of the Colonies were of no avail, and the 
Stamp Act passed Parliament on the 22d March, 1765. 
This news reached New York in April, and was received 
with intense indignation. The people resolved to resist the 
Act, and their leaders were active to obtain harmonious and 
common action from all the Colonies. To this work the 
Committee of Correspondence assiduously devoted them- 
selves; and from their suggestions sprung the Stamp Act 
Congress, held in New York City in October, 1765. In this 
Congress New York was represented by the persons who 
composed the Committee of Correspondence of the As- 
sembly — Robert R. Livingston, John Cruger, Philip Liv- 
ingston, Leonard Lispenard, and William Bayard. John 
Cruger was again earnest in his defence of popular rights, 
and the clear, concise, and able " Declaration of Rights and 
Grievances of the Colonists in America," issued by that 
Congress, was from his pen. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



But the spirit of the people was not content with pro- 
tests alone, and on the 31st October, 1765, the merchants 
assembled in mass meeting, at Burns' Coffee House, and re- 
solved to decline importation from Great Britain until the 
Act should be repealed. 

Meanwhile the stamps had arrived, and the Governor 
had announced his intention to enforce the Act. The Sons 
of Liberty, supported by the merchants and the people, re- 
solved not to permit their delivery from the Fort. 

The 1st of November was the day appointed for the en- 
forcement of the Act. In the evening the people gathered 
on the Commons, and marching to the Fort, burned the 
effigy of Colden on the Bowling Green, under the muzzles 
of the guns. Only the moderation of General Gage, the 
British Commander, in his peremptory orders to the troops 
not to fire on the citizens, averted a rupture otherwise 
inevitable. The next morning Colden declared his inten- 
tion " to do nothing in relation to the Stamps, but leave it 
to Sir Henry Moore (the newly appointed Governor) to do 
as he pleased on his Arrival," then daily looked for. Still 
the people were not satisfied, and, on the 5th of November, 
rallied in large numbers on the Commons, and resolved to 
storm the fort and seize the odious papers — the symbols of 
oppression. 

Again the manly presence of John Cruger, then Mayor 
of the City, is found in the front rank of the defenders of the 
rights of the People — while not unmindful of his official duty 
to preserve the order of the city. Attended by the Aldermen 
of the Wards he visited the Lieut.-Governor, and warning 
him of the imminent danger, received from him the prom- 
ise that the Stamps should be delivered into the custody 
of the city authorities. " They accordingly soon after; ac- 
companied with a Prodigious Concourse of People of all 



lO COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

Ranks, (so runs the newspaper account of the day,) attended 
at the Gate of the Fort, when the Governor ordered the 
Paper to be given up to them ; and upon the Reception of it 
gave three Cheers, carried it to the City Hall and dispersed. 
After which Tranquility was restored to the City." Thus the 
world saw the novel spectacle of the majesty of the King 
compelled to bow to the majesty of the People. 

The moderation of General Gage on these occasions 
greatly endeared him to the people, and won from the city 
authorities a marked testimony of their gratitude. 

The original draft of their address of thanks, in the 
handwriting of Mr. Cruger, still exists. In it, as in all his 
writings, just sentiments appear clothed in graceful and be- 
coming language. His style was of rare beauty. To lim- 
pid clearness and great power of logical statement he united 
a chastened fervor which marked the even mind where 
warm feeling was ever subject to the cool, calm will. 

To his Excellency the Honorable Thomas Gage, Major- 
General and Commander-in-Chief of all his Majesty's 
forces in North America. 

The Humble Address of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Com- 
monalty of the City of New York in Common Council 
convened : 

It is with the greatest joy we beg leave to congratulate 
your Excellency upon the Restoration of the Tranquility of 
this City: and as its Preservation (under God) was emi- 
nently owing to your Prudence, we think ourselves bound 
to render your Excellency our most grateful acknowledge- 
ments. 

As the Destruction of the City and the Effusion of Blood 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. II 

might at this unhappy conjuncture have fed the Spirit of 
Discontent so prevalent in all the Colonies, and involved 
the whole Continent in Confusion and Distress, that Wisdom 
which prevented consequences not to be thought of without 
Horror, deserves our applause and will never be forgotten 
by his Majesty's faithful and loyal Subjects in this City. 
We are with the greatest Esteem and Regard, 
May it please Your Excellency, 
Your Excellency's 

Most obedient and humble servants, 

John Cruger, Mayor. 
Signed by order of the Common Council. 
New York, nth November, 1765. 

The British ministry was not prepared for such stern 
action, and early in the following year the Stamp Act was 
repealed. The gladsome news reached the city on the 20th 
day of May, and was received with great demonstrations of 
joy. A large meeting of citizens was held on the 23d June, 
when the Assembly was petitioned to erect a statue to Wil- 
liam Pitt, to whose eloquent appeals in defence of Ameri- 
can rights the repeal was chiefly attributed. It was John 
Cruger, who, as the head of the New York City delega- 
tion, made this motion in the Assembly. 

Thwarted in their first attempt to reduce the Colonies 
to submission, the ministry endeavored to enforce the pro- 
visions of the Mutiny Act, which required the citizens to 
supply quarters to the King's troops. The Assembly re- 
plied with a limited Supply Bill, which the King refused to 
receive. On the 15th December, 1766, the Assembly an- 
swered the King's refusal with a bold message refusing sup- 
plies, and was at once prorogued by the Governor. Still 
the ministry continued their exactions, and Townshend intro- 



12 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

duced a bill in Parliament imposing duties on tea and other 
articles. The merchants again renewed their non-importa- 
tion agreement. 

On the ) ith of February, 1768, the Assembly was for- 
mally dissolved by Governor Moore, and writs were issued 
for a new election. To this body Philip Livingston was 
chosen in the place of Mr. Cruger, who does not appear to 
have been a candidate, but on its dissolution, in January, 
1769, he was again put in nomination and elected by a 
large majority. On the organization of this, the last Colo- 
nial Assembly, in April, 1769, John Cruger was unani- 
mously chosen Speaker, and retained this position until 
1775', in April of which year it adjourned never to meet 
again, and the direction of the affairs of the Colony passed 
into the hands of a Council of Safety, and subsequently into 
the control of a Provincial Congress. Mr. Cruger, there- 
fore, represented the city of New York in the Assembly 
for sixteen years. 

It was during this exciting period on the 5th day of 
April, 1768, that John Cruger met with a few of the lead- 
ing merchants of this then unconscious metropolis, and laid 
the foundations of the first Mercantile Society in America. 
The tendency of the time was towards union ; a common 
danger drew close the bonds of friendship, sympathy, and 
union. To this characteristic of the day many of the most 
deserving societies of New York, now existing, owe their 
origin. 

On the first organization of the Chamber of Commerce, 
1768, Mr. John Cruger, the first-named of its founders, 
was chosen President. On the 2d May, 1769, he was 
unanimously re-elected, and it is recorded on the still fair 
minutes of the day's proceedings, " that Mr. President re- 
ported that he had it in charge from the General Assembly 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. I3 

to give the Merchants of this city and colony the thanks of 
the House for their repeated disinterested, public spirited, 
and patriotic conduct in declining the importation of goods 
from Great Britain until such acts of Parliament as the Gen- 
eral Assembly had declared unconstitutional and subversive 
of the rights and liberties of the people of this Colony 
should be repealed." 

The transmission of this resolution to the Merchants 
came naturally by Mr. Cruger, who was at once the Speaker 
of the Assembly and the President of the Chamber; it 
owed its origin in the House to that distinguished patriot 
and merchant Philip Livingston, who, for a long period of 
years, shared with Mr. Cruger the honors and the confi- 
dence of the Colony. 

Thus in the infancy of New York the patriotic devo- 
tion of its merchants to the cause of popular rights was 
clearly recognized : and it is a source of just pride to-day 
that the Chamber has lost nothing of its ancient spirit, as 
is abundantly shown by the records of the meeting held in 
its hall Tuesday the 19th day of April, 1861, when, the 
news of the rebellious attack upon a national fortress having 
reached the city, the members rallied in numbers to "pledge 
their hearty and cordial support to such measures as the 
Government of the United States should in its wisdom in- 
augurate," and to directly urge a blockade of the Southern 
ports, from whose commerce the merchants of New York 
derived large profits, — again, after the lapse of a century, 
nobly sacrificing their private interests to the public good. 

At the middle of the last century the commerce of New 
York was yet in its infancy. It was in May, 1763, that the 
Sandy Hook light-house was lighted for the first time. It 
was in November, 1769, that the latitude of Fort George 
was cast for the Chamber. 

27 



14 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

Mr. Cruger retained the ofRce of President of the 
Chamber until it had received its charter from the Crown 
and its permanent existence was secured. In the following 
May, 1770, he retired. As an instance of the faithfulness 
with which he performed the trusts reposed in him, it may 
be noticed that during the two years of his presidency he 
was absent from his seat on two occasions only, on one of 
which he is excused upon the minutes as " not well ; " and 
during all the period of his connection with the institution 
he was one of the most punctual and regular of all the 
members in his attendance. 

In all the early difficulties of the Chamber which sprung 
from differences of opinion with regard to the taking of 
" Jersey currency," he clung steadily to the Chamber, and 
manfully contended for its true interests; but a sea of 
trouble was soon to sweep over the commerce of the Col- 
ony, compared with which all minor differences were but as 
ripples on the wave. 

John Cruger appears to have exercised his great influ- 
ence to moderate the passions of his fellow-men and to har- 
monize the widely differing opinions of the opposing par- 
ties. His course during the stormy spring of 1775, when 
patriotic blood was boiling at fever-heat upon the news of 
the Lexington outrage, was marked by calm and dignified 
self-reliance and courage. His opinions remain on record 
in two able letters, the one addressed to the Committee of 
Safety on the 3d, and the other to General Gage on the 
5th May of that year. 

In the first, signed jointly with Jacob Walton, one of 
his colleagues in the Assembly, he declines to subscribe to 
the Articles of Association entered into by the citizens of 
New York 29th April, 1775, "to adopt and carry into execu- 
tion whatever measures may be recommended by the Con- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



15 



tinental Congress or by the Provincial Convention for the 
purpose of preserving our constitution, and opposing the 
execution of several arbitrary and oppressive acts of the 
British Parliament," presented to him for signature, in these 
forcible words : " Because, as we were elected Representa- 
tives in General Assembly for the City and County of New 
York, we conceive that the faithful performance of that im- 
portant trust requires of us a free, unbiased exercise of our 
judgment. To submit this to the control of any power on 
earth would, in our opinion, be deserting that trust; but to 
engage implicitly to approve and carry into execution the 
regulations of any other body, would justly expose us to the 
reproach of our own consciences, the censure not only of 
our constituents, but of the whole world. In our legislative 
capacity (he continues) we have already transmitted to the 
King and both Houses of Parliament representations of our 
grievances. Upon mature reflection, and after revolving 
our conduct with the most impartial deliberation, we cannot 
but approve what we have done, and will, therefore, 
patiently wait for the event, which will, we hope, be pro- 
ductive of much benefit, not only to this Colony, but to the 
cause of American liberty in general. As the signing of 
this Association, therefore, would, in effect, be to deprive 
ourselves of our legislative powers, we cannot but suppose, 
from the tenor of it, an exemption of us is implied in it." 
And he concludes with an expression " of the most anxious 
concern for the distresses of the inhabitants of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay, and the most sincere wishes for the relief, and 
the liberty and prosperity of all the colonies." 

Yet that he was not personally indifferent to the wishes 
of the General Committee is evident from the fact of his 
liberal contributions to its funds. 

In a letter to General Gage, headed and doubtless 



l6 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

drawn by himself, and signed by fourteen members of the 
Assembly, on the 5th May of the same year, just two days 
subsequent to that last quoted, he urges that officer, then 
commanding the British forces in America, " that, as far as 
consistent with his duty, he would immediately order a ces- 
sation of public hostilities until his Majesty can be apprised 
of the situation of the American colonies," and expresses 
the wish " that no military force might land or be stationed 
in this province." 

But in that day, as in our own, the logic of events 
brought more rapid conclusions than "the resources of 
statesmanship," and in a few months the Revolution had 
swept away the old landmarks. A little later the British 
army took possession of the city, and Washington fell back 
with the American troops upon White Plains. 

Mr. Cruger retired, before the occupation, to Kinder- 
hook, on the Hudson. In a letter to the Council of 
Safety, dated at Kinderhook, Nov. 2, 1777, he states, " it 
is over nineteen months since I left New York with my 
sister and family; since which both she and myself have 
suffered many inconveniences by reason of our age and 
bodily infirmities and the want of necessities to which they 
have exposed us," and asks for a pass to return to the City 
" for himself and family and what little furniture he has at 
Kinderhook." It seems that this pass was not granted, for he 
continued to reside at Kinderhook until the close of the war. 

Through his long public career Mr. Cruger ever upheld 
a manly independence of character. His life presents a rare 
combination of moderation and firmness. Twice his judg- 
ment saved the city from violent outbreak and bloodshed. 
Fearless of kingly power, he resisted with a like courage 
the pressure of angry popular opinion. Once, when in 1747 
he counselled the people against useless resistance to military 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. I7 

exaction; again, when in 1765 he persuaded the Government 
to yield to the imperative popular demand. 

Mr. Cruger appears the central figure of the later 
Colonial period, and around him are grouped the principal 
personages of this historic canvas. What more dramatic 
scenes than those which opened and closed his career as 
Mayor of the City. What finer instance of ' time's revenges ' 
than that of the Magistrate, who had endured in silence the 
insolence of Loudon, receiving in his person a vindication 
of the outraged dignity of his station on the surrender to him 
of the stamps, by the courteous but not less arbitrary Colden. 

Had fortune cast his lot a few years later in time, this 
early, constant choice of the people, and able advocate of 
American liberties, had, perchance, left a revolutionary his- 
tory as brilliant as any of those eventful days ; but at sixty- 
six years of age John Cruger had no longer the youthful 
vigor to plunge into the thick of the terrible struggle, 
and he appears to have taken no further part in public 
affairs. 

Returning to the city, after the peace of 1783, he lived 
with his nephew, Nicholas Cruger, who continued in the 
third generation this eminent race of merchants ; and here, 
on Tuesday, the 27th day of December, 1791, at the ripe 
age of eighty-two years, he died. 

A notice of his death in the " New York Journal and 
Patriotic Register " has the touching phrase : 

" It may be truly said of him, that he was 

The upright man, 

Beloved of all his friends, 

And of whom an enemy 

(If he had one) 

Could speak no evil." 

The Crugers were large ship-owners and engaged in 

2 



COLONIAL NEW YORK. 



general trade, chiefly with Bristol and the West Indies. 
Their place of business was on Cruger's Wharf, which lay 
on the east side of White-Hall Slip, on the East River. 
The great fire of 1776, so fatal to the interests of the city 
for many years, broke out here. Six buildings belonging 
to John and Henry Cruger were destroyed. 

John Cruger never married. The name is now sus- 
tained by the descendants of his brother Henry, also a dis- 
tinguished man in his day, an eminent merchant, a repre- 
sentative of New York for many years in the Assembly, 
and a member of the King's Council for this Province. 
He died at Bristol, February 8th, 1780, and was buried 
within the precincts of the cathedral in that city. Of 
the nephews of John Cruger, sons of this brother, John 
Harris Cruger was one of the earliest members of the Cham- 
ber ; before the Revolution he was Chamberlain of the city. 
In the struggle he clung to the side of the Crown, and be- 
came a distinguished officer in Delancey's brigade. Henry 
Cruger was the colleague of Edmund Burke for Bristol in 
the British Parliament, and a staunch defender of American 
rights. He was afterwards Mayor of Bristol, He died in 
New York, in 1827, and is still remembered by many of the 
older citizens. Nicholas Cruger was a successful merchant 
in the West India trade. It was under his patronage that 
the illustrious Hamilton, then an adventurous boy, came to 
this country. Nicholas Cruger was a strong patriot and an 
intimate personal friend of Washington. 

The engraving which prefaces this sketch is from a por- 
trait in the possession of the Chamber of Commerce, admir- 
ably enlarged by Mr. Thomas Hicks, of New York, from 
a small but exquisitely painted miniature owned by Miss 
Eliza Cruger, daughter of the distinguished Member of 
Parliament above named. 



HUGH WALLACE. 

SECOND PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
1770-1771. 






N the early part of the last century New York 
was a favorite resort of the adventurous from all 
parts of the British Dominions. Many of its 
most distinguished Merchants were born without the Colony. 
Among those whom its growing trade drew to this then far- 
off shore were two brothers of the name of Wallace, the 
elder of whom soon became a leading man in the Province, 
and rose to high places of honor and trust. They were of 
Irish origin, but from what part of the island is not now known. 
Hugh Wallace, the elder brother, was probably originally the 
agent of some of the great linen factories which had already 
gained celebrity by the fineness of their textures. His name 
first appears in an advertisement of goods of this character 
in the " New York Mercury," of Monday, October 23d, 
^753- "Just Imported a large Assortment of Irish Linnens, 
and to be sold cheap by Hugh Wallace, at his Store in 
New-Dutch-Church Street." He did not, however, confine 
himself to any one branch of business, as his occasional 
notices show; on the 31st July, 1758, he informs the public 
that there was " To be sold at Private Sale, by Hugh Wal- 
lace, The Snow La Faveur, lately a French Privateer, with 
or without her Guns and Warlike Stores as the Purchaser 



20 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

pleases. If said Vessel is not sold before she will be sold 
at Publick Vendue at the Merchants' Coffee House on Tues- 
day, the 8th of August next. Said Wallace has a large 
Parcel of Fyall Wines to dispose of which he will sell reason- 
ably." In the same year he applies for commissions for Cap- 
tains of the Ship Terrible, lo guns, and the Snow Montresor, 
also of lo guns. In January, 1762, (Gaines' "New York 
Mercury," 18th inst.,) he advertises a cargo of Coals for sale, 
and again, on the 29th March, of the same year, he announces 
a curious variety of articles, common enough at that period, 
but now never found on the shelves of any one merchant : 
" Hugh Wallace sells on very reasonable Terms Madeira, 
Mountain, Sherry, and benecarlo Wines; Rum, Molasses, 
White and Muscovado Sugar, Oranges and Lemmons, Sallad 
Oil, Olives, Capers and Anchovies, Gold and Silver Lace, 
Men's Shoes and Pumps, Boots and Spatterdashes, Silk 
Handkerchiefs, Scots Carpets, Men's and Women's Gloves, 
Irish Linnens and sundry European Goods." 

Thriving in business, he seems to have resolved to make 
the new country his permanent residence. The " New York 
Mercury," of May 12th, 1760, notices, as an item of inter- 
esting news, that " Last week Mr. Hugh Wallace, of this 
City, Merchant, was married to Miss Sally Low, daughter 
of Cornelius Low, of Rariton, in New Jersey, an agreeable 
Young Lady endow'd with every Qualification requisite to 
render the Marriage State happy." In those days the family 
incidents of the high in station were presumed as of right 
to interest the general public. By this marriage Mr. Wal- 
lace connected himself with some of the most distinguished 
families of the Colony. The Lows were among the earlier 
English settlers, and had intermarried with the Gouverneurs, 
and the Cuylers, who were second to none in the aristocracy 
of the New York Province. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 21 

Strengthened by these alliances and his growing wealth 
and influence, Mr. Wallace now seems to have looked to 
political preferment. In 1760 he was evidently an agent 
of the Government, and in October of that year was 
authorized to impress Vessels to carry troops to Halifax. 
He does not appear to have filled any minor stations, but to 
have reached at once the higher honors. On the retire- 
ment of Mr. Walton he was called to the King's Council, 
a body of twelve, which acted as the advisers of the Gov- 
ernor, and held powers somewhat analogous to those of 
the modern Senate. On the 21st January, 1769, as 
Gov. Moore informs the Earl of Hillsborough, "Mr. 
Wallace took the oaths and his seat at the Board." 
This position he continued to hold until the downfall 
of the King's power in the Colony. His name last 
appears upon the minutes of a meeting of the Council 
held 11 March, 1776, on board the Ship Dutchess of 
Gordon in the Harbour, in which Governor Tryon had 
taken refuge. 

But while thus occupied with the grave affairs of State, 
Mr. Wallace was not indifferent to his business or his call- 
ing. He was one of the founders of the Chamber of Com- 
merce in 1768, and its first Vice-President. On the retire- 
ment of Mr. Cruger, in 1770, he was chosen President of 
the Institution. 

Near this period Alexander Wallace first appears in this 
country. He had no doubt been led hither by the success 
of the elder brother, and a business house was formed be- 
tween them. A notice of this connection appears in Gaines' 
" New York Gazette & Weekly Mercury," July 24th, 1769 : 
" To be sold a handsome Chariot, the Box made to take off 
occasionally, with Harness for four Horses. Enquire of 
Messieurs Hugh & Alexander Wallace." This is curious 



22 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

as showing the state which the grandees of the Colonial 
days maintained. 

This partnership of the two brothers, whose interests 
were still more closely allied by the marriage of Alexander 
with a sister of the wife of Hugh, continued until the close 
of the revolutionary war. Their advertisements, as general 
importers, always include a notice of " large assortments of 
low priced yard-wide Irish Linen by the Box." 

Mr. Wallace upheld the dignity of his station, and 
his mansion was the resort of the great dignitaries of the 
Province. It is recorded in Rivington's " Gazette," of June 
29th, 1775, that Governor Tryon, who came passenger by 
the Ship Juliana, Capt. Montgomery, landed that even- 
ing at New York, " and was conducted to the house of 
the Hon. Hugh Wallace by an immense number of the 
principal people of that city." 

In the struggle between the Colonies and the Crown 
Hugh Wallace stood steadfast to his allegiance, and con- 
trolled the great influence of his connections in the interest 
of the Mother Country. Born in Great Britain and a Coun- 
cillor of the King in the Colony, no other course could 
be expected of him. And he maintained his loyalty as 
firmly in the dark as in the bright hours — nor did he desert 
his post. On the 4th February, 1776, he was invited to 
appear before the Committee of Safety and inform them 
what he knew of the intentions of the British fleet. It had 
been announced that the Mercury Frigate and two other 
transports were below. Mr. Wallace replied that he in- 
tended to go on board of the Governor's Ship that after- 
noon, and would give information of " anything of import- 
ance to the City." 

Early in August, 1776, on the 17th, so runs the account 
given in the Upcott Coll. : iv. 383, of the conversation of a 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 23 

gentleman who had made his escape from the City to the 
British forces on Staten Island, the two brothers, Hugh and 
Alexander Wallace, with other persons of mark, " were 
committed to gaol for having refused to take the oath of 
allegiance to the Congress." Mr. Hugh Wallace was 
ordered to Connecticut by the military authorities, but the " 
confinement of Alexander was of short duration. 

The fact of his imprisonment is confirmed in a letter of 
Governor Tryon to Lord George Germaine, dated New 
York, 24th September, 1776, which gives a melancholy ac- 
count of the state of the King's Government in the Colony, 
and reports " Mr. Hugh Wallace and Mr. James Jauncey 
prisoners with the Rebels." 

Mr. Wallace was now to undergo something of the hard- 
ships of war. His wife remained in New York under the 
care of Alexander. A letter written by Mr. Alexander 
Wallace to a friend and influential patriot, Gouverneur 
Morris, 28th December, 1776, gives an account of the losses 
to which he was at this time subjected : " Mrs. Hugh Wal- 
lace is pretty well in health, but very unhappy about her 
husband being kept so long from her, and what adds to her 
distress is the very heavy loss she has met with about ten 
days ago in losing all her plate. She sent it to Mr. Richard 
Yates last summer at Aquacknock, to be kept there as a place 
of safety ; but upon his leaving that place he had the box 
which contained the plate put on board a brig, commanded 
by Capt. Roche, bound to this place. About five miles 
below Hackinsack the brig was seized by a party of your 
army, and all the goods taken out. The plate cost upwards 
of £1500, this currency. She thinks the gentlemen belong- 
ing to the Convention, when they know it belongs to her, 
will order it to be sent to her immediately, as it would be 
very hard indeed to send her husband away to Connecticut 



24 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

and allow her property to be plundered. I must request 
the favour of you to get this affair settled as soon as pos- 
sible. Enclosed is an inventory of the plate ; it was all in 
one box. My papers are in much better order than I ex- 
pected ; but my brother and I shall suffer greatly by being 
sent away from our property. I have sent your letter to 
your mother, who is very well, as is all your friends. I shall 
go and see your mother in a few days. General Robinson 
assured me all the women and children who have a mind to 
go to their husbands or friends have liberty to go by this 
flag, or any other way they think proper." 

He adds in a postscript : " Please deliver the enclosed 
letters ; give the one for Hugh Wallace to Mr. Samuel 
Loudon, to be sent by post. My brother has lost all his 
clothes in the Jerseys. Mrs. Wallace sent them there." 

The inventory alluded to gives the contents of the box 
of plate : i tea urn, l epergne, i very large bowl, 4 candle- 
sticks, 1 large pudding dish, 2 large salvers, 3 small salvers, 
1 large tankard, 1 coffee pot, l pitcher, 1 cruet stand, 4 long 
handled spoons, 4 scalloped spoons, 6 dozen table spoons, 
1 dozen desert spoons, 1 sugar dish, 1 funnel, l fish trowel, 
6 salts, 2 mustard pots with spoons, 6 skewers, 2 milk pots, 
I tea chest with cannisters, 1 sugar tongs, 4 labels for bottles, 
4 tumblers, 4 rummers, 2 black jacks, l large soup ladle, 
1 marrow spoon. — {Correspondence of Prov. Cong., Vol. 1, 
p. 237.) 

With the family of Gouverneur Morris there was also 
a connection through the Gouverneurs : the second wife of 
Colonel Lewis Morris and mother of Gouverneur Morris 
was Sarah Gouverneur. 

Meanwhile Mr. Wallace was not long detained in 
durance. He and his fellow captives were released upon 
the following written obligation : 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 25 

Whereas, we, Hugh Wallace, Fred Philipse, James 
Jauncey, and James Jauncey, Jun'r, Esqr., and Gerard 
Walton, William Jauncey and John Miller, all of the City 
and Province of New York, have for some time past resided 
at Middletown, in the State of Connecticut, being appre- 
hended and sent thither by His Excellency General Wash- 
ington as suspected of disaffection to the United States of 
America ; and whereas, upon our application. His Honour 
Jona Trumbull, Esq., Governor of the said State of Con- 
necticut, hath permitted us to return to our families in New 
York and reside there till otherwise ordered, we do hereby 
pledge our faith and words of honour to the said Governor 
Trumbull, that we will neither bear arms, nor excite or en- 
courage others to bear arms, against this or any other of the 
United States of America ; and that we will not do any- 
thing in prejudice of the interest or measures of this or any 
of the said United States ; and that we will give no intelli- 
gence to the enemies of the United States of any of the 
councils of war or other the Transactions of this or any of 
the said States ; and that we will return to any place in this 
State when required by His Honour Governor Trumbull, 
the General Assembly of Connecticut, or His Excellency 
the General of the armies of the said United States for the 
time being. 

In witness whereto we have hereunto set our hands, this 
23d day of December, a.d. 1776. 

Hugh Wallace, 
Fred Philips, 
Jas. Jauncey, 
Jas. Jauncey, Jun'r, 
Gerard Walton, 
William Jauncey, 
John Miller. 



26 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

Governor Tryon, in a letter to Lord George Germaine, 
of date New York, 31 Dec, 1776, alludes to the return of 
the prisoners. " Last Sunday evening Mr. Wallace and Mr. 
Jauncey, two of his Majesty's Council of this Province, 
with several other Inhabitants thereof, came to town from 
Connecticut, having been discharged by Gov. Trumbull 
from their confinement upon the express obligation of not 
taking up arms against America, and to return to captivity 
if required." 

The brothers Wallace remained in New York, during 
the war. The newspapers of 1782 and 1783 contain a 
standing advertisement that "Hugh and Alexander Wal- 
lace have for sale, on reasonable terms, a Quantity of good 
sweet Flour, old Lisbon Wine, a large quantity of Queens- 
ware in Crates, Glass and China in Boxes, Cannon, 4, 6 and 9 
pounders. Shot, Swivel guns of newest construction." They 
were also constantly favored by the military authorities, 
and were agents of the Government for the payment 
of prize-money to the British men of war. On May 
5, 1783, they give notice in Gaine's N. Y. Gazette and 
Mercury that they will pay the prize-money for the cap- 
tures of His Majesty's Ship Cyclops. 

The property of Hugh Wallace was confiscated by 
the Provincial Legislature on the 22d October, 1779. The 
confiscated Estates were sold under a further act of the State 
Legislature of 12 May, 1784. 

Hugh Wallace did not remain to witness the new 
order of things, but left with the army in 1783. He re- 
turned to Great Britain, and died at Waterford in Ireland 
in the year 1788. No portrait of Mr. Wallace is known 
to exist in this country. 



ELIAS DESBROSSES. 

THIRD PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
1771-1772. 




T what period the family of Desbrosses came to 
the New York Colony is now unknown. They 
have been called of Huguenot extraction — a view 
to which their warm attachment to the Protestant faith gives 
color ; but this name is not found in the Colonial records at 
the time when the chief part of this emigration reached the 
New World. The town of New Rochelle, in Westches- 
ter County, was settled as early as i68i by French refugees, 
who had fled to England to avoid the persecutions which 
preceded the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. 
The name of Desbrosses does not appear on the lists of free- 
holders of the new settlement of 1708 or 1724. 

The name is first met with in an advertisement in William 
Bradford's "New York Gazette," September 12th to 19th, 
1737, giving notice of "Choice Good Canary Wine to be 
sold at Three Shillings and six pence per Gallon by the five 
Gallons at the Widow Desbrosses, in Hanover Square." 

Elias Desbrosses was born (probably in this city) in the 
year 1718. The family appears, in 1737, to have consisted 
of the widow, her sons Elias and James (and perhaps Ste- 
phen, whose name appears later), and her daughters Mag- 
dalen and Elizabeth. 



28 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

He first comes into notice in the famous report, by 
Horsmanden, of the Negro Plot of 1741. It was the beUef 
of the time that the negroes wer.e set on by Catholic priests. 
The shade of Guy Fawkes yet lurked near every burning 
house. His testimony before the Court on the 24th July, 
1741, is thus given: "Elias Desbrosses, of New York, 
Confectioner ; John Ury, the popish priest, now in jail, came 
with one Webb, a carpenter, to him, and asked if he 
• (deponent) had any sugar bits or wafers, &c., (the bits are 
usually made as the deponent apprehends in imitation of 
Spanish silver coin.) This deponent showed the said Ury 
some confectionary in imitation of dogs, hawks, owls, lambs, 
and swans, supposing that he wished them to give away to 
please children, but told him he had no bits or wafers." 
At this time Catholic worship was punished as a crime, and 
all magistrates were sworn to maintain the Protestant re- 
ligion. This Ury was convicted, and executed on the 29th 
of the same month. 

About this time James Desbrosses, a brother of Elias, 
first appears. One of his negroes. Primus, made confession 
concerning the Plot. He was to have stolen his master's gun 
and helped kill the white people. He resided at the " last 
house on the East River to Kip's Bay," described by David 
Grim as the house at which the line of Palisades of Cedar 
logs commenced, which was stretched across the island to 
the North River, in 1745, "for the security and protection 
of the inhabitants of the city, who were at that time much 
alarmed and afraid that the French and Indians were com- 
ing to invade the City." This house was near the shipyards 
at the foot of Catharine Street. An advertisement in the 
"New York Journal," April 2, 1767, shows that he was still 
residing there. 

A part of the family, however, still occupied the house 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 2g 

in Hanover Square in 1755. An advertisement in Gaine's 
" New York Mercury," of June 16th of that year, gives an 
approximation to its situation. It alludes to a house on 
Hanover Square wherein " Mr. Lewis Morris lived, next 
door to Mr. Walton's, and directly opposite to Mr. Grant's 
and Desbrosses." Here Elias Desbrosses carried on a gen- 
eral business, trading with Madeira and the West India 
Islands. He was also part owner of the sloop Success, as 
his applications to Gov. Hardy for permits show. 

His name now begins to appear quite often in adver- 
tisements of real estate. In Gaine's "Mercury," of Feb- 
ruary 7th, 1757, he calls attention to a tract of land in New 
Jersey which he has for sale. He here signs himself Mer- 
chant. 

James Desbrosses appears also to have been somewhat 
engaged in commerce. An advertisement of "A variety of 
Paper Hangings, imported from London," to be sold by him, 
appeared in 1761. The name of still another of the family 
is recorded in an order issued by Governor Monckton, 
March 5th, 1763, to Capt. Lawrence, of Kings County, to 
deliver a certain negro boy, named Touissani, to Stephen 
Desbrosses, to be sent by him to Mr. Veyer, his former 
master at Martinico. 

With these various enterprises Mr. Elias Desbrosses 
continued to increase his property and influence, and to win 
the esteem of his neighbors. In 1767 he was chosen Alder- 
man of the East Ward, which he continued to represent in 
the City Councils until 1770. 

In 1768 he was one of the founders of the Chamber of 
Commerce, and its first Treasurer — an office which he held 
until 1770, when he was chosen Vice-President, and the 
next year President, of this Corporation. 

Mr. Desbrosses does not seem to have had any desire 

28 



JO COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

for puJDlic life. He was one of the Committee of Corre- 
spondence of fifty-one, chosen by the citizens in May, 1774, 
but the minutes only show him in his seat at the first meet- 
ing. He took no part in the stirring and angry scenes which 
followed. He was too little of a partisan to meet any an- 
noyance from either side, and passed untroubled through 
the occupation of both armies. He showed his strong 
sympathy with the English side by signing the very loyal 
address of Lord Howe, in October, 1776, and though not 
claimed by Sabine as a loyalist in his comprehensive col- 
lection of sketches, he must be classed in this body. 

In May of the following year, when the British author- 
ities undertook to raise troops for the King's service in New 
York, Mr. Desbrosses, whose residence is given as in Queen 
Street, was one of a Committee, together with Henry 
White, Nathaniel Marston, and Thomas White, "appointed 
to receive donations which will be applied for the Comfort 
and Encouragement of such of his Majesty's faithful Sub- 
jects as already have or hereafter shall enter into the Provin- 
cial Regiments raising in this Province." 

In December, 1777, he was named first on the Vestry 
appointed by General Robertson for the Relief of the Poor 
of the City. With him were many of his old commercial 
associates — Miles Sherbrooke, Isaac Low, Charles NicoU, 
Gabriel H. Ludlow, and others. 

He seems to have taken no further active part in busi- 
ness, and when the meetings of the Chamber were renewed 
by such of the members as adhered to the Crown, he did 
not resume his connection with it. 

Mr. Desbrosses was a very religious man, and forward 
in every charitable enterprise. The family were among the 
early and liberal contributors to the Huguenot church, 
L'Eglise du St. Esprit, erected in Pine Street, and James 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. J I 

was one of the elders while the church was under the 
ministry of Jean Carle. Elias Desbrosses early connected 
himself with the Established Church. He was a Vestryman 
of Trinity from 1759 to 1770 and Warden from 1770 to 
1778, and he was a liberal contributor to the support of the 
Charity School of that Corporation. His name appears first 
signed to the report of the great loss the Corporation sus- 
tained in the fire of 1776, amounting to £22,000, — the 
Church, Charity Schools, Library, and Rectory being all 
destroyed, — and it was he who, as Churchwarden, inducted 
Mr. Inglis as Rector, the following year, the ceremony being 
completed by "placing his hand (Mr. Inglis') on the wall of 
the said church, the same being then a ruin." 

H? was one of the early patrons of the New York Hos- 
pital, and a Governor from 1775 to 1778. 

The time was now rapidly approaching when the career 
of Mr. Desbrosses, the latter days of which appear to have 
been devoted to good works, was to close. He died in 
New York on the 26th March, 1778. An elaborate obitu- 
ary notice appeared in Rivington's " Royal Gazette," for 
Saturday, April 4th, 1778, which gives a careful analysis of 
his character. 

" On Thursday, the 26th of last month, departed this life, 
in the 60th year of his age, Elias Desbrosses, Esq., for 
many years an eminent Merchant in this City. By the 
death of this worthy man, who was much loved and re- 
spected, this Community hath lost a most useful member. 

" His conduct through life was regulated by the strictest 
probity; and he ever supported a fine, unspotted character. 
He was active, sober, and just ; mild, easy, and humane ; 
devout, benevolent, and sincere. No man had a more feel- 
ing heart for the distresses, or more interested in the welfare 
of others. In him the poor and needy always found a gen- 



32 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

erous benefactor ; every scheme that could be subservient to 
the comforts of Society, a zealous patron — all who required 
his services (and their number was great), a faithful, steady 
Friend. 

" An invariable adherence to this line of conduct evinced 
that it was the result of fixed principles — that it flowed 
from a deep and awful sense of the Supreme Being, from a 
conscientious regard to the dictates of his revealed will and 
from an habitual piety which without any ostentation always 
influenced his proceedings in every station. 

" An ornament to the Religious Society of which he was 
a member, he was assiduous in promoting its interest, and 
indefatigable in his endeavours to extricate it from those 
embarassments in which the present wanton and unnatural 
Rebellion had involved it. Nor were his views for this 
purpose and the general good of his fellow creatures con- 
fined to the term of his own existence here. By his last 
will he bequeathed considerable sums for the education and 
support of orphans in the Charity School of Trinity Church, 
and for promoting religion. In short, few persons have de- 
served better of society — few have been more justly and 
sincerely lamented than Mr. Desbrosses. His remains were 
interred in the family vault in Trinity Church Yard, at- 
tended by a large number of respectable citizens, on the 
Saturday after his decease." 

The will of Mr. Elias Desbrosses, on file in the Surro- 
gate's office for New York County, dated — June, 1773, and 
finally proved in 1784, recounts the names of his family and 
recites his bequests. By it he bequeathes to his brother, 
James, all the town-land in Hardenbergh Patent ; to his lov- 
ing sisters, Magdalen and Elizabeth Desbrosses, his lot, 
dwelling, and store fronting King, Queen, and Dock Streets, 
bought of the heirs of Cornelius Van Home ; to his niece. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



33 



Mary Ann Desbrosses, the lot and dwelling-house fronting 
Queen Street, bought of the heirs of Piere G. Depeyster ; 
" One thousand Pounds, lawful money of New York, unto 
the Rector and inhabitants of the City of New York in 
communion of the Church of England as by Law estab- 
lished, in trust, to be placed at interest by the Vestry of that 
Corporation for the maintenance of a French Clergyman, 
who shall perform Divine Service in the French language 
in this City according to the liturgie of the Church of Eng- 
land as by law established, and should it be any considera- 
ble time before such establishment is effected, then the 
interest arising from the said thousand pounds shall become 
a principal for the same use — and the sum of five hun- 
dred pounds, lawful money of New York, for the 

clothing and educating the poor children of Trinity Church 
School in this City." 

The Mary Ann Desbrosses here named was married to 
Joseph Waddington, Feb. 6th, 1781. The two sisters of 
Mr. Desbrosses died single at a great age. On the 12th 
July, 1781, they made their wills, in which each styled her- 
self a " single woman," in each other's favor. " The Daily 
Advertiser," for Friday, December 26th, 1794, has a notice 
of the death of the survivor : " Died, on Monday last, Mrs. 
Magdalen Desbrosses, aged 87 years." 

The two wills were proved on the 9th January, 1795. 
That of Magdalen names as her residuary legatees her 
nephew James Desbrosses, (Jr.,) of New York, Merchant, 
and his wife Elizabeth, (he had married Elizabeth Butler, in 
1762,) and two other sons of James, by name Elias and 
William, of whom no other mention appears. 

Between this period and the 5th May, 1809, there was 
great mortality in the family. On this day Letters of Ad- 
ministration were granted to John Hunter and Elizabeth his 
3 



34 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

wife, and to Henry Overing and Charlotte Magdalene his 
wife, " cousins of Elias Desbrosses, late of this City, Mer- 
chant, deceased." All of the legatees and executors are said 
to have died, and these, his grand-nieces, were next of kin. 
The whole property of the family, the accumulations of nearly 
a century, thus passed into the hands of these two ladies. 
The one had married John Hunter, of Hunter's Island, West- 
chester County, the other Captain Overing, of the British 
army. 

The name of Desbrosses thus became extinct in the 
American line, and is only kept in memory by the Street 
on the West side of the City which was called in his honor 
about the beginning of this century. 

The life of Mr. Desbrosses presents many pleasing 
traits, which, derived from his French origin, are re- 
cognized as characteristic of the Huguenot families of 
America. Wherever the old French blood has allied itself 
to the English or Dutch, a fine variety of the human race 
has been the product ; while the traits of the Huguenot are 
alike marked in the new strain as it appears in Charleston 
and New York, the chosen resorts of the early Huguenot 
emigration. Integrity of character, cheerfulness and amiability 
of temperament, and a religious sentiment showing itself in 
practical charity, are the well-known marks of this noble 
stock ; and withal a desire for the quiet social walks rather 
than the busy and crowded scenes of public life. 

A diligent search has not discovered any portrait or 
sketch of Elias Desbrosses from which a picture could be 
made to fill his place upon the walls of the Chamber of 
Commerce, or to keep in memory the features of one whose 
character and life offer so much to imitate and revere. 




Bi^^ij-FSaipm. mm dufiam hpsssmmn ,im Owniir-d'CuimmrrA . 



HENRY WHITE. 

FOURTH PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
1772-1773. 




fUT little is known of Henry White before his 
arrival in the New York Province, beyond the 
fact that he was of Welsh birth and origin. He 
first appears upon the busy scene of Colonial trade in a 
Petition, dated May 8, 1756, for leave to ship bread to 
South Carolina for the use of the Navy, and is called their 
agent by Samuel Bowman, Jr., and Jo. Yates, of Charleston, 
in their request to Governor Hardy, the same summer, for a 
similar authority. 

His first mercantile advertisement may be seen in the 
New York Mercury of December 12, 1757, which sets 
forth that " Henry White has just imported from London 
and Bristol a neat assortment of goods fit for the season, 
which he will sell for ready money or short credit, at his 
store in King Street." 

On the 13th May, 1761, according to the Record of 
New York Marriages, Mr. White formed an alliance with 
Eva Van Cortland, daughter of Frederick, and grand- 
daughter of Jacobus Van Cortland. In her veins ran also 
the blood of the Philipse, another of the wealthiest and most 
important families of the Colony. This connection secured 
the fortune of Mr. White. 



^6 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

In 1762 he appears as the owner of the sloop Moro, lo 
guns. All the vessels sent out from New York at this 
time were armed. The war with France, ended on land, 
still raged on the seas. 

The following year, as appears from a notice in Wey- 
man's Gazette of March 21, 1763, he made a voyage to 
England. A trip across the Atlantic was at this period an 
important matter. He announces himself as " intending 
for England about the end of April next," and invites those 
to whom he is indebted to call for their money. 

While regularly pursuing his business with Great 
Britain, and at times making ventures to the neighboring 
colonies, he seems to have looked to political preferment. 

In 1769, on the refusal of Mr. Delancey to take a seat 
at the Council Board, Mr. White made urgent application 
to the Governor for the vacant place. Governor Moore so 
informs the Earl of Hillsborough in his letter of 21 January, 
and seems to have supported the request, for on the 8th 
March following Mr. White received the Commission, and 
was sworn of the Council- — a post which he retained during 
the remaining period of English rule in America. 

Hitherto he had carried on his trade at his store on 
Cruger's Wharf, but now, his rising fortunes and new honors 
requiring more state, he changes his residence. Hugh 
Gaine's New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury of May 
1, 1769, contains the advertisement that "Henry White 
has removed to the house of the late Treasurer, between 
the Fly market and the CofFee-House, where he has to sell 
the following articles, viz. : Nails of all sizes, Bohea and 
Congo Teas, 6 by 8, 7 by 9, and 8 by 10 Window Glass, 
English Sail Cloth, from No. 1 to 7, Russia do., writing 
paper, English cordage, Bristol Beer, blue duffils, spotted 
rugs, Newkirk and Dutch Ozenbrigs, Madeira Wine." The 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. ^7 

late Treasurer here alluded to was Abraham De Peyster, 
one of the wealthiest of the City magnates, who died in 
1767. 

Henry White was one of the consignees of the tea 
the shipment of which caused great excitement on the 
American seaboard in the winter of 1773 to 1774. The 
East India Company, yielding to the urgent demands of 
Lord North, who had promised the King " to try the ques- 
tion with America," in the fall of 1773 despatched their 
consignments of the forbidden merchandise to all the chief 
coast cities from the Massachusetts Bay to the Carolinas. 
The ship for South Carolina had arrived at Charleston on 
the 2d December, 1773, and the consignees dechning to 
receive the cargo, the duties were not paid, and the tea 
was left to rot in the cellar where it was stored. The three 
ships for Boston were boarded in the night of the 26th De- 
cember, and their cargoes were emptied into the sea ; the 
ship for Pennsylvania arrived at Chester on the 27th De- 
cember, when the Philadelphians gathered in town meeting, 
and the captain was made to promise to return to London 
with ship and cargo the very next day. 

Early advised by the Company of the shipment to New 
York, Henry White, with two of the other consignees, 
Abraham Lott and Benjamin Booth, addressed a memorial, 
i)ec. 1st, 1773, to Governor Tryon for the protection of the 
tea. 

It was not until the l8th of April, 1774, that the Nancy 
reached the offing. Contrary winds had blown her off the 
coast, and she had put into Antigua. She was boarded by 
a Committee of Vigilance at Sandy Hook. Captain Lock- 
yer, her master, was permitted to bring the ship to the city, 
but his men were not allowed to land. 

According to the account given in Hugh Gaine's New 



38 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

York Gazette of April 25th, 1774, "The Committee, early 
next morning, conducted Captain Lockyer to the house of 
the Hon. Henry White, Esq., one of the Consignees, and 
there informed Captain Lockyer that it was the sense of the 
Citizens that he should not presume to go near the Custom 
House, &c." ... To this he answered, " That as the Con- 
signees would not receive his cargo, he would not go to the 
Custom House, and would make all the dispatch he could 
to leave the city." 

Mr. White was unyielding in his opinions, and at no 
period showed any sympathy with those who resisted the 
King's authority. In the summer of 1775, he was in 
correspondence with Governor Martin, of North Carolina. 
A letter from the Govemor to his address, asking for the 
shipment of a marquee "with the royal standard," pre- 
viously asked for, was intercepted and laid before the 
Committee of Safety. Mr. White does not appear to 
have fallen into the hands of the revolutionists. He prob- 
ably left the city before stringent measures were adopted. 
In the summer of 1776, he is spoken of by Govemor 
Tryon, in his account of the breaking up of the Council, as 
in England. He returned to his post when the British re- 
sumed control in the fall of the same year, probably with 
the army, as he v/as one of the signers of the loyal address 
to Lord Howe in October following. In 1777 he was ap- 
pointed first of the committee of four to receive donations 
for equipment of provincial regiments for the King's ser- 
vice, and resided here during the war, acting as the agent of 
the Home Government in various ways — chiefly in the sale 
of captured vessels and cargoes, and the distribution of 
prize-money among the British vessels of war. One of 
many of his advertisements of this kind may be seen in 
Rivington's Royal Gazette of the 23d April, 1783, in 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. ^9 

which he gives notice of a division of the " nett proceeds 
of the ship Tyger and cargo, condemned at Bermuda, and 
of the schooner Neptune and ship Vestal." 

On the 9th October, 1780, he is said by Sabine to have 
appeared before the surrogate to prove the will of the un- 
fortunate Andre, when he declared that he was "well ac- 
quainted with the testator's handwriting, and believed the 
instrument to be genuine." 

He left the city and returned to England with the Brit- 
ish on the evacuation in the fall of 1783. 

His estates were among the earliest confiscated in 1779. 
An advertisement of sale by the Commissioners of For- 
feitures, in KoUock's New York Gazette of May 23d, 
1786, is curious as descriptive of a mansion of those days. 
This house was then in the occupation of George Clinton, 
the first Governor of the State of New York. " On Mon- 
day the 19th June, at the Merchants' Coffee House — That 
large and commodious House and Lot of Ground situated 
on the South Easterly side of Queen Street, in the East 
ward of the said City, now occupied by his Excellency the 
Governor ; the house is three large stories high, and contains 
four large rooms with fire places on each floor, besides a 
convenient kitchen in the rear of and adjoining thereto : in 
the Yard is a large brick building calculated for a store- 
house and coach-house with stables, also a well and cistern ; 
the lot extends nearly through to Water Street, and has a 
spacious gangway for a carriage in the said street ; its situa- 
tion and conveniences are as well calculated for a merchant 
in extensive business as any in this city. The above prem- 
ises were forfeited and vested in the People of this State 
by the attainder of Henry White, Esq., late one of the 
Members of the Council of the late Colony of New 
York." 



40 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

Mr. White did not long survive the war. He died in 
Golden Square, London, on the 23d day of December, 1786. 
His wife, Eva Van Cortland, the daughter of Frederick Van 
Cortland, survived him nearly half a century. She died at 
her residence. No. 11 Broadway, on the 19th August, 1836, 
in the ninety-ninth year of her age. By her Mr. White 
had thirteen children, seven of whom reached years of ma- 
turity. Of these, 1. Henry White married Ann Van Cort- 
land, and lived and died in the United States. 2. John 
Chambers White entered the British navy, rose to the rank 
of Vice Admiral of the White, and was knighted. He 
married, first, Cordelia Fanshawe; second. Miss Dalrymple. 
3. Frederick Van Cortland White entered the British army 
in 1781, as an Ensign, and became General. He married, 
first, Sophia Coore ; second, Miss Davidson. 4. William 
Tryon White lived and died, unmarried, in the United 
States. Of the daughters, 1. Ann married Dr. (afterwards 
Sir) John McNamara Hayes, of Golden Square, London, in 
1787, and lived and died in England. 2. Margaret married 
Peter Jay Munro, and lived and died in the United States. 
3. Frances married Dr. Archibald Bruce, and also lived and 
died in the United States. 

There is a fine portrait of Henry White, senior, by 
John Singleton Copley, in the possession of a great-grandson, 
Augustus Van Cordand, who occupies the Cortlandt House, 
erected at Yonkers by Frederick Van Cortlandt in 1748. 
A picture, also by Copley, belongs to his descendants in the 
line of Munro. The portrait which hangs in the hall of 
the Chamber of Commerce was painted from the Van Cort- 
land picture. The engraving which prefaces this sketch is 
after the same picture. 





f^co^ •^^^a.. 



J^^-'ij-GAM'aU.rrein 



''- ''irefC,^n.mfa.-(.Jrr 



THEOPHYLACT BACHE. 



FIFTH PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



1773-1774- 




F the family of Bache, in England, but little is 
known in America. The name is, without 
doubt, Norman. In English records it is printed 
De la Beche and De la Bache. William Bache, the father 
of Theophylact and Richard Bache, from whom all of 
the name in this country are descended, was a Collector of 
Excise at the town of Settle, in the West Riding of York- 
shire, England. His wife was Mary Blyckenden. They 
were the parents of a large family, Richard Bache being the 
eighteenth child. 

Theophylact Bache was born at Settle on the 17th 
January, 1734-5, old style ; and, as appears in a memoran- 
dum in his own hand-writing, he "arrived at New York 
September 17th, 1751." He came out at this early age to 
the care of Paul Richard, whose wife, Elizabeth Garland, of 
London, was a relation. Paul Richard was a man of dis- 
tinction in the Colony. He was a successful merchant, and 
had at one period held the ofBce of Mayor of the City. 

Young Bache was no doubt the assistant of Mr. Richard 
in his business. He was certainly regarded by him with 
attachment. A codicil to his will, dated 19 Sept., 1756, 



42 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

shortly before his death, leaves to Mr. Bache £300 currency, 
and names him an Executor of his Estate. 

The first mercantile notice of Mr. Bache appears in the 
"New York Mercury," of April nth, 1757 : " To be Sold, 
by Theophylact Bache, at the house of the late Paul Rich- 
ard, Esq., a choice parcel of Madeira Wine, Cheshire Cheese, 
Sperma-ceti Candles, with sundry sorts of European Goods, 
and will be disposed of reasonably to close the accounts." 

In August, 1757, his name is recorded with that of 
Leonard Lispenard as a merchant and owner of the Ship 
Grace — eight guns. Mr. Bache now steadily increased his 
business, and his advertisements appear at intervals in the 
journals — sometimes of cargoes received by him, at others, 
of goods on hand. It is worthy of notice that many of the 
goods were of a kind extremely costly at that period. The 
"New York Mercury," for Monday, March 6th, 1758, an- 
nounces that there had been " Imported on the last vessels 
from London, and to be sold by Theophylact Bache, at his 
store in Hanover Square, a great variety of Velvets, Thick- 
sets, Fustians, Jeans, Pillows, and printed Cottons suitable 
for the approaching season; with a fresh assortment of 
European Goods." 

The next year he seems to have changed his location. 
In Gaine's "New York Mercury," for January 15th, 1759, 
he announces as "Just imported from Liverpool, by the 
snow Betsey, Nathaniel Remmer, Master, a large Assort- 
ment of European Goods proper for the present and ap- 
proaching season, to be sold on reasonable Terms by Theo- 
phylact Bache, at his Store on Hunter s ^ay, next door to 
Mr. Walters. N. B.— He has also fine Blown Salt to dis- 
pose of by the 100 Baskets.'' 

Again, in the same year, July 9th, 1759, in Weyman's 
"New York Gazette," appears the announcement that 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 43 

" Theophylact Bache has imported in the last vessels from 
Europe a general Assortment of Goods proper for the sea- 
son, and has also to dispose of a Parcel of Choice Madeira 
Wine, Flour, Salt, and Cordage." This from his store on 
the Quay; meanwhile he had been making arrangements for 
increased accommodations for his growing business. 

In the " New York Mercury," of August 15th, 1760, he 
announces that he " has removed from his store on Hunter's 
Quay to his new store in the Square, adjoining Mrs. Far- 
mer's, where he has to dispose of a choice assortment of Euro- 
pean and India Goods; also Madeira Wine, Sugar and 
Molasses ; and a few boxes of excellent green Tea." The 
exactions of the British ministry had not yet made tea- 
drinking unfashionable and unpatriotic. 

He now enters upon a more important charge than any 
which had preceded it. On the 16th of October, 1760, he 
married Ann Dorothy, daughter of Andrew Barclay, a 
wealthy gentleman who had come to New York from Cura- 
90a, and established himself as a merchant. This connection 
united him to some of the wealthiest and most distinguished 
families in the Province. Of his wife's sisters, Catharine 
married Augustus Van Cortlandt; Sarah, Anthony Lispe- 
nard ; Ann Margaret, Frederick Jay ; Helena, Major Mon- 
criefF, a British officer of distinction ; and Charlotte Amelia 
became the second wife of Dr. Richard Bailey. 

This Anthony Lispenard was the brother of Leonard, 
who was joint owner with Mr. Bache in the ship Grace. 
This vessel he ran in the English trade, and on the 27th 
February, 1765, he advertises her in the "New York Ga- 
zette and Weekly Post Boy " as shortly to sail for Bristol, 
under the command of WilUam Chambers, Master. 

Meanwhile the younger brother Richard had arrived in 
America, and as early as 1760 established himself in business 



44 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

in Philadelphia. He seems to have acted for the elder 
brother also. A part of this agency was the underwriting of 
vessels and cargoes. There still remains a curious policy, 
issued in the name of the two brothers, at Philadelphia, 31st 
May, 1764, on a shipment from that port to Havana by the 
brig Success, Marshall, Master, for a consideration of three 
and a-half per cent. " Touching the Adventures and Perils 
which the Assurers are contented to bear — they are of Seas, 
Men-of-War, Fire, Enemies, Pirates, Rovers, Thieves, Jeti- 
sons. Letters of Mart and Counter-Mart, Surprisals, Taking at 
Sea, Arrests, Restraints and Detainments, of all Kings, Princes, 
or People of what Nation, Condition, or ^ality soever, &c., 
&c., to be of as much force and effect as the Surest Writing 
or Policy of Assurance heretofore made in Lombard Street, 
or elsewhere in London." In Philadelphia Richard Bache 
connected himself in marriage with one of those names 
which rescue from oblivion even its most distant alliances, 
and give them place on the page of history. On the 29th 
October, 1767, Richard Bache married Sarah, sole daughter 
of the illustrious Benjamin Franklin. 

Theophylact Bache stood high in the confidence of his 
fellow merchants, and was one of the select few who organ- 
ized the Chamber of Commerce on the 5th April, 1768. In 
1770 he was chosen Treasurer, in 1771 Vice-President, and 
in 1 773 President, of this flourishing Corporation. 

He was one of the first petitioners for the Marine 
Society, which was incorporated in April, 1770. He was 
one of the incorporators also of the Society of the New 
York Hospital in 1771. 

How far Mr. Bache identified himself with the great 
public movements in opposition to the Stamp Act in 
1765, is not known. In 1770 he united heartily with his 
fellow merchants in their non-importation agreements, and 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 45 

was one of the committee to see to their execution. He 
does not appear to have sought poUtical distinction. With 
an important business, and with the constant demands 
of a large family circle, he had little inclination to mix in 
the turbulent scenes of this stormy period. His disposition 
was genial, his qualities domestic : to an open-handed hos- 
pitality he added a great love of field-sports, and his dog 
and gun were the constant companions of his hours of 
leisure. His favorite sporting-ground was at Islip, Long 
Island, then abounding in game. There he passed weeks 
in the spring and fall at the house of his friend. Judge 
Thompson. 

That his public course had been satisfactory to all sides is 
evident from the fact that his name was on both the tickets 
for the Committee of Correspondence of fifty-one, and 
stands third upon this list of the magnates of the city. 
This Committee was organized in May, 1774, on the news 
reaching the city of the passage of the Boston Port Bill. 
Mr. Bache was a regular attendant at its meetings, and 
seems to have been a willing promoter of the first Continen- 
tal Congress, which sprung from the suggestions of this 
much abused but really wise and patriotic body. With 
Charles McEvers, he was appointed by it to oversee the 
election of the Deputies to this first Congress. This Con- 
gress, it will be remembered, went no further than to adopt 
a " Declaration of Rights," and to recommend to the Colo- 
nies a non-exportation and a non-importation Act. To 
these orders Mr. Bache faithfully adhered. 

In the early spring of 1775 the aspect of affairs was 
more alarming, and in April the news of the Lexington 
fight threw all into confusion. The summer of 1775 was 
one of great excitement and distress throughout the con- 
tinent. In New York, more than in the older English 

29 



46 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

Colonies, a large proportion of the merchants were English 
born : many had married here. The blood about to flow 
in the contest was on either side the blood of friends. To 
all such the prospect was gloomy and forbidding. 

Meanwhile the leaders of the patriot party saw and felt 
the danger of delay. For them the die was cast, and they 
were content to abide the issue ; but every consideration of 
personal safety and public duty urged them to use all 
means to add to their ranks, and take from the power of 
the royal party. To do this they took instant steps to break 
down the middle party, and to draw a narrow line between 
the friends of King and Country. To men like Mr. Bache, 
whose nature was of the tender kind, such a choice was unu- 
sually painful. Besides the ties of kindred and the early rec- 
ollections of his English home, his family in America were 
divided in opinion. His only brother in the Colonies, 
swayed by the logic of the master-mind of Franklin, and 
nerved, perhaps, by the warm, patriotic heart of his wife, 
one of the noblest of American women, was strong in his 
sympathy with the Revolutionists. On the other hand, 
his wife's sister had married an officer in the King's 
service. Still halting between two opinions, Mr. Bache re- 
mained in New York and hoped to weather the storm. A 
simple incident turned the scale. In the mondi of Sep- 
tember (7th, 1775), one Isaac L. Winn, a Captain of a 
trading vessel, was brought up for examination by the Com- 
mittee of Safety; and although he gave to Messrs. Livingston 
and Scott, who were deputed to examine him, "such suffi- 
cient satisfaction of his friendly dispositions to the liberties 
of America as induced them to believe the suspicions 
against him to be entirely groundless," and received a certi- 
ficate to that effect from the Committee, his papers were 
taken from him. Among them was an unsigned letter 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 47 

directed to Major MoncriefF, at Boston, which from the 
hand-writing and other circumstances was believed to be by 
Mr. Theophylact Bache. It ran as follows : 

New York, Sept. 3, 1775. 

Dear Major : — I wrote to you a few days ago by the 
transport which sailed from hence. I hope you have re- 
ceived it. It is now decreed by the Congress criminal to 
speak, and as it would be equally so to write not knowing 
into whose hands this may fall before this reaches you, I 
am determined not to transgress. I wish to remain in this 
country as long as I can, and not to do anything that may 
cause a banishment, or the punishment of being sent to the 
mines of Symsbury, which are punishments daily inflicted 
on those poor culprits who are found or even supposed 



Don't think of returning here while the unhappy con- 
test continues. You will be ferreted and exposed to insults 
I would wish you to avoid. I will take care of your wife 
as much as a brother or friend can do. She is as well and 
as happy as can be expected. I expect that she will lay in 
at Flatbush, as I think it would be dangerous to bring her 
to town. The late firing of the Asia has been fatal to many 
women in her situation. The family join me in love to 
you, and believe me to be, dear Moncrief, 

Yours, 



To Major Moncrief, Boston. 

Thomas MoncriefF was a Major of Brigade in the Ameri- 
can Establishment, and had married Helena Barclay, the 
sister of Mrs. Bache, in the summer of 1774. 

In consequence of this letter Mr. Bache was ordered to 



48 COLONIAL NEW YORK, 

attend the Committee for examination — Mr. Isaac Roose- 
velt, to his honor be it said, dissenting; but the messenger 
on his return reported that Mr. Bache had gone out of 
town. He had probably received some friendly warning. 

In the summer of 1775 he was again cited to appear be- 
fore the Provincial Congress, and replied in the following 
letter. Throughout, the tone is that of one whose dearest 
wish is to preserve a strict neutrality. 

Flatbush, Monday, 7th July, 1776. 

Gentlemen : — I would have waited upon you this day 
pursuant to your Citation received on Friday last, but the 
distressed state of Mrs. Bache and my numerous family 
since the arrival of the fleet at Sandy Hook, will, I hope, 
be a sufficient apology for my remaining with them as they 
will require all my attention to save them from the horrible 
calamities of the approaching conflict. 

My being represented to the Congress as one of the per- 
sons inimical to the cause of America, fills me with the 
deepest concern ; be assured, Gentlemen, that the accusation 
is unmerited and must have proceeded from those unac- 
quainted with my sentiments. I have not since the unhappy 
dispute began, contravened any order of the Congress, Con- 
tinental or Provincial, nor is it my intention. I sincerely 
hope for a reconciliation — that this once happy country may 
enjoy the blessings of peace; and am. Gentlemen, 
Your most obt. humble Svt., 

Theophylact Bache. 
To Philip Livingston, Esq., and the Gentlemen of Congress. 

About this time he left New York and retreated to the 
British lines. A letter in the Upcott Collection, written on 
the 12th August, 1776, alludes to his arrival on Staten 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 49 

Island with Mr. Augustus Van Cortlandt and others, "having 
narrowly escaped from their pursuers." He returned to 
New York with the troops a little later, and during the war 
divided his time between the City and his residence at 
Flatbush. 

Some account of his residence and life at Flatbush, 
which was a favorite country-seat with New Yorkers, is fur- 
nished by Capt. Alexander Gray don in his memoirs of his 
own time. He was one of the thirty-two Captains commis- 
sioned by Congress in January, 1776, and had been taken 
prisoner at the battle of Harlem Heights in the following 
September. He relates " that he was taken to Flatbush, 
and billeted upon a Mr. Jacob Suydam. His house was 
pretty large, consisting of buildings which appeared to have 
been erected at different times, the front and best of which 
was in the occupation of Mr. Theophylact Bache and his 
family from New York. The morning after our arrival at 
this place we encountered Mr. Bache in the piazza, which 
extended the whole length of the building on the south 
side. His being an Englishman and determined royalist did 
not prevent him from accosting us very civilly, and mani- 
festing a disposition to maintain a friendly intercourse with 
us, notwithstanding the difference in our political senti- 
ments Whatever was the motive, the behaviour of 

Mr. Bache was altogether free from intolerance and party ran- 
cour ; it was more, it was hospitable and kind. In addition 
to frequent invitations to tea and to partake of his Madeira, 
to help us along a little, as he expressed, in allusion to the 
mean fare at Jacob's table, I was indebted to him for the 
offer of his purse, although he neither knew me or my con- 
nexions. As I stood in no need of it, I declined it with a 
due sense of the obligation the mere offer imposed. I 
availed myself, however, of the tender of his services in 
4 



50 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

executing small commissions for me when he went to New 
York, which was almost every day." As a further instance 
of the good feeling of Mr. Bache, Captain Graydon says 
that he afterwards learned from Mr. Bache that he had seen 
him while a prisoner passing the Coffee-house in New York, 
and that he and some other gentlemen had been obliged 
to exert themselves to prevent some blackguards insulting 
him. 

A change was soon to take place in the fortunes of the 
companions. In the night of the 15th June, 1778, William 
Mariner, one of the daring spirits of the day, made a dash 
into the town of Flatbush, and carried off Mr. Bache and 
Major MoncriefF, and freed Capt. Graydon from his captivity. 
Mariner left Middleton, New Jersey, in the evening with 1 1 
men, and returned by six the next morning, having travelled 
by land and water above 50 miles. The attack was made 
in the dead of night, and Mr. Bache was hurried from the 
house without time being given him to put on his clothes. 
Mr. Bache was greatly distressed at his forcible separation 
from his wife and family. The prisoners were taken to Mor- 
ristown, N. J., where they underwent a nominal confinement 
for a short time. Mr. Bache was soon sent home, a general 
exchange of prisoners taking place shortly after. 

Mr. Bache exerted himself during the war to alleviate 
the distresses it occasioned. He was one of the Vestry ap- 
pointed by Gen'l Robertson in 1772 to care for the Poor of 
the City. His kindly feeling never failed him, and he let 
no opportunity for its display pass. It was he who moved, 
in 1784, for the readmission to the Chamber of those who 
had been absent during the war. 

In 1770 Mr. Bache appears to have been the joint owner, 
with Charles McEvers and Hamilton Young, of a certificate 
of location for a tract of 37,000 acres of land, near the tracts 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 5I 

known by the name of Socialborough ; and the next year he 
petitions that it may be erected into a township by the name 
of Newry. Newry is a port on the Irish coast, with which 
New York had some trade at this time. At a later period, 
in 1785, he was again interested, with James Barclay, in a 
claim to a tract of 18,000 acres, on the west side of the 
waters which flow into Lake Champlain. With the peace, 
he resumed his business at his old house in Hanover 
Square, No. 38, and his name appears in the first New 
York Directory, 1787 to 1793, at this place. From 1794 
to 1801 the location is described as No. 122 Pearl Street. 
This house is remembered as an old-fashion brick build- 
ing, on the lower side of the street, with a front of between 
forty and fifty feet, and an entrance nearly on the ground- 
level. As the land was extended into the East River, Mr. 
Bache, as the riparian owner, became possessed of lots on 
Water Street, on which he built three brick houses, which 
were known as 85, 86, and 87 Water Street. In 1802, Mr. 
Bache occupied No. 87. On the further filling in of the 
river-front, four houses were added on Front Street ; and on 
its final extension to South Street, Mr. Bache put up two 
fine warehouses on an improved plan, which for a long time 
served as models for structures of this kind. These build- 
ings were known as 44 and 45 South Street. They were 
later sold to Mr. John G. Coster, and were destroyed in the 
great fire of 1835. This locality is famous in the history of 
New York merchants. Here, on the ground-floor, Mr. 
Jonathan Goodhue, the founder of the well-known house 
of Goodhue & Co., at one time had an oiBce, his firm being 
at that time Goodhue & Swett. No. 45 is now the count- 
ing house of one of the most distinguished merchants of this 
century, Mr. Moses Taylor. 

Mr. Bache passed the greater part of his time at a coun- 



£2 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

try seat a short distance from the city, on what was then 
known as Turtle Bay. This is the first indentation above 
Kipp's Bay, and opposite the Western end of Blackwell's 
Island. In the later Colonial period the King's Stores were 
near this point. The house belonged to Mr. Francis Win- 
throp, a large owner of land in that neighborhood, and was 
on the eastern end of his property. 

This place Mr. Bache called Camperdown, in honor of 
the great victory won by Lord Duncan, in the fall of 1797, 
over the Dutch fleet in the Texel under Admiral De Win- 
ton. This complete defeat of the sea-forces of the Batavian 
Republic was hailed throughout Great Britain with great 
joy, as the downfall of the naval power of Holland, long 
the only rival of England on the seas. With the true pride 
of a Briton Mr. Bache rejoiced in the triumph of his coun- 
trymen. This estate was afterwards purchased by Mr. Isaac 
Lawrence. 

In 1803 Mr. Bache took his son Andrew into his com- 
mercial house, and carried on his business under the style of 
Theophylact & Andrew Bache. Their trade was with 
Bristol, Poole and the ports of the west of England, and 
with Newfoundland, the fisheries of which they supplied on 
the orders of their English friends. They were also the 
agents of the Phoenix Fire Insurance Office of London. 
Although the favored correspondent of English houses, and 
himself experienced in the trade of the period, Mr. Bache's 
business was not prosperous towards the close of his career. 
In this he but shared the common fate. 

The period was one of commercial disaster. All Europe 
was shaken by the tread of vast armies, and the arts of 
peace were rudely set aside in the sharp struggle which fol- 
lowed the French Revolution. It is not easy to measure the 
commercial distress of the earlier days of this century. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. ^^ 

He died on Friday, the 30th October, 1807, in the 
73d year of his age, at his old residence, and was buried 
from the house of his friend and kinsman, Mr. Charles 
McEvers, in Wall Street, on the Sunday following. 

His life presents a fine example of a large manly nature. 
His stature was Norman in its great size, and all his in- 
stincts were noble and generous. His heart was large as 
the frame that contained it, and his attachments were strong 
and lasting. Nor were his interests bound by the circle of 
his family and friends. Wherever there was a good work 
to do, he was among the foremost. 

He was one of the early projectors of the New York 
Hospital, of which he was Governor from 1785 to 1797, 
and President from 1794 to 1797. 

One of the originators of the St. George Society, in 
1786 he was its second President, being chosen to succeed 
Goldsborow Banyar in that office. 

As an instance of the respect which his old companions 
entertained for him, notwithstanding his adherence to the 
British side, it may be mentioned that he was made Vice- 
President of the Chamber in 1788, and re-elected every 
year until 1792. 

In religion, Mr. Bache was a warm supporter of the 
Church of England. He was a Vestryman of Trinity 
Church from 1760 to 1784, in 1788, and from 1792 to 
1800. 

By his wife, Ann Dorothy Barclay, whose death pre- 
ceded his own some years (she died 7th November, 1795), 
he had a numerous issue. Of those who lived to maturity, 
1. Paul Richard, his eldest son, so called after his patron and 
benefactor, married his cousin Helena, the eldest daughter 
of Anthony Lispenard; their only daughter, Sarah, was 
married to Robert Montgomery Livingston. 2. Andrew, 



54 



COLONIAL NEW YORK. 



married in England : of his children two sons, George Perry 
and William Satterthwaite, are now living ; Eliza Barclay 
was married to G. H. Duckwith, and Sarah Bleecker to 
Jacob R. Nevius. 3. William, who was brought up as 
a lawyer, and practised his profession in New York, mar- 
ried Christina Cooper, daughter of Dr. Ananias Cooper of 
Rhinebeck : of this marriage also the only surviving issue 
was in tlie female line ; one of the daughters was married to 
the late Mr. J. W. Schmidt, the Consul of Prussia at New 
York, and the other to Mr. Samuel Patterson, of Charleston, 
South Carolina. 

Of the daughters of Theophylact Bache, the eldest, 

1. Elizabeth Garland, and some years after her death, 

2. Sarah, were married to James, son of Anthony Bleecker ; 

3. Catharine, to an English gentleman, Thomas Wilkinson 
Satterthwaite ; 4. Ann Dorothy, to her cousin Leonard, eldest 
son of Anthony Lispenard ; 5. Mary, to Charles McEvers. 

The Baches of Philadelphia, whose name the late Alex- 
ander Dallas Bache has so greatly distinguished by his con- 
tributions to science, are the descendants of Richard, the 
brother of Theophylact Bache, and Sarah, the daughter of 
Dr. Franklin. 

The portrait which prefaces this sketch is a copy from a 
crayon head drawn by the French emigre St. Memin, when 
in New York in 1797, now owned by Mr. Thomas Wil- 
kinson Satterthwaite of this city, a grandson of Mr. Bache. 
A fine copy of this picture hangs on the walls of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. It was taken in the winter of 1866-7, 
by Mr. Vincent Colyer, for its Gallery of Presidents. 

There is also in the possession of a grand-daughter of 
Mr. Bache, wife of Judge Thomas W. Clerke of this city, 
a fine portrait of Mayor Richard, the early friend of the 
family in this country. 





isi'Uir (;iaimbm fiCHmuii,,! t 



WILLIAM WALTON. 

SIXTH PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
1774-1775- 




O name calls up more pleasant memories of old 
New York than that of Walton. For more 
than a hundred years this family of merchants 
held the first place among their fellows, and were the true 
princes of their time. Their descendants have left the walks 
of trade in which their race found wealth and honor, and 
the name is no more seen upon the roll of New York 
merchants, but the mansion in which their colonial ancestors 
held baronial state is still standing, a mute reminder of the 
splendors of a by-gone age. 

The Waltons were of English origin, and probably 
came from the county of Norfolk. Two families of the 
name appear at about the same period, the one in New 
York, the other in Richmond County, Staten Island. On 
the 12th December, 1689, an order was issued to the Justice 
of Richmond County to assist in taking an inventory of the 
estate of Thomas Walton, deceased. There is little doubt, 
from the sameness of the Christian names used in the two 
branches, that they were very nearly allied. In the New 
York family the name William was carried through a full 
century. The first William Walton of whom mention 
is made, was born sometime in the latter part of the seven- 



56 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

teenth century. In 1698 he was admitted a Freeman of tlie 
City, and in the same year he is said to have married Mary 
Santford. In the Census of 1703 he is recorded as the 
head of a Family, composed of 1 Male, 1 Female, 2 Chil- 
dren, 1 Negro. His name appears upon the list of subscrip- 
tions towards the finishing the steeple of Trinity Church in 
1711. On the 13th October, 1712, Andrew Faneuil, Charles 
Crommelin, Abraham Van Hoorn, and William Walton, of 
New York, merchants and owners of the sloop Swallow, 
Rene Het, Master, petition Governor Hunter for leave to 
convoy French prisoners to the French West Indies, under 
a flag of truce. In 1727 he is cited to appear at the office 
of the Secretary of the Colony, with an inventory of the 
estate of his son Thomas, deceased. About this period he 
purchased several lots on Water Street, and established a 
shipyard. But he was not alone a builder of vessels or a 
shipper of goods ; he appears to have sailed his own vessels 
on his trading voyages to the West India Islands and the 
Spanish Main. In April, 1734, an advertisement of the re- 
moval of the printer of the New York Gazette shows 
" Captain Walton " to have resided at that period in Hano- 
ver Square. In 1736 he subscribed to the enlargement 
of Trinity Church. 

All authorities concur in stating that the origin of the 
fortunes of this enterprising family was the preference of 
trade given, early in the eighteenth century, to Captain 
Walton by the Spaniards of St. Augustine and the West 
India Islands. Fintard so related it as of tradition, and 
Watson tells the same story. The printing of the Colonial 
Manuscripts of New York cleared the subject of every ves- 
tige of doubt. In a letter of Lieut.-Governor Clarke to the 
Duke of Newcastle, dated New York, June 2d, 1738, in 
which he announces the receipt of news that a land and 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



57 



naval force was arrived at St. Augustine from Cuba in order 
to make a descent in Georgia, occurs this passage : — " The 
Council were of opinion that there was sufficient cause to 
embargo Kip and Griffith sloops — ^both owned by one Wil- 
liam Walton, of this town, who, as I am informed, has sup- 
plied that place for many years by contract. He protested 
against the Custom House officers for refusing to clear ships. 
Captain Walton thought it hard that his vessels entering 
and clearing for Carolina (as they always do for some Eng- 
lish port) should be embargoed, while other vessells that en- 
ter for the same place should be suffered to depart ; but I 
can not think it either hard or unjust, Walton being the only 
person in this place whom the Spaniards permit to trade at 
Augustine, where he has a Factor who has resided there 
many years." 

In 1741 his slave Jupiter was indicted for his partici- 
pation in the Negro Plot. 

On Monday, the 25th May, 1747, " The New. York 
Gazette, revived in The Weekly Post Boy," contained a 
notice of his death. " Saturday last, departed this life, Capt. 
William Walton, a very eminent merchant in this city." 
His wife survived him many years. Hugh Gaine's New 
York Mercury for Monday, 12th September, 1768, among 
the deaths, announces, " The 3d instant. Madam Walton, 
of this city in the 90th year of her age." 

William Walton, by his wife Mary Santford, left two 
sons, Jacob and William, the latter of whom rose quickly 
to posts of great distinction in the colony, and added largely 
to the family wealth. 

William Walton, the younger of the sons, appears 
also as sailing his father's vessels. He thus acquired the 
title of captain, by which he is sometimes called. 

In the New York Weekly Post Boy of June 11th, 



^8 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

1744, among the Inward Entries is the report of the ship 
Mermaid, WilUam Walton (master), from North CaroHna, 
and among the Clearances on the 6th February, 1745-6, that 
of the ship William and Mary, William Walton (master), 
for Curacoa. Whether this was the father or the son is not 
certain; but it is hardly probable that the father, whose 
affairs were entirely easy, would have exposed himself in 
sea-voyages at his advanced age. 

After the father's death, the two brothers formed a part- 
nership : on the 26th May, 1747, Jacob and William Walton 
appear as merchants and owners of the ship Mary Magda- 
len. They continued the profitable business established 
by their enterprising father, and enjoyed the " preferences " 
which had been granted to him, by the Spaniards of South 
America and Cuba. The brothers still further united their 
interests by matrimonial alliances with the same family. As 
appears by the records of the Dutch Church, Jacob Wal- 
ton married May 14th, 1726, Maria, daughter of Gerard 
Beekman and Magdalen Abeel, and William Walton, 
January 27th, 1731, Cornelia, daughter of Dr. William 
Beekman and Catharine Peters de la Noy. Cornelia was 
the niece of the lady who had married the elder brother. 

The partnership of the two brothers was soon ended by 
the death of Jacob, the elder, on the 17th October, 1749. 
He was then in his 47th year, and left behind him, to the 
care of William, a large family. Happily for them, their 
uncle had no children of his own. 

The surviving brother continued to carry on the business 
of the family, uniting some of his nephews with him, under 
the firm of William Walton & Company. On the 24th 
December, 1753, under this name they joined the lead- 
ing merchants of the city in an agreement not to receive, 
after that day, " copper Half-pence otherwise than fourteen 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. ^^ 

for a shilling ; " their declared object being to check the 
growing debasement of this coin. This curious document 
may be seen in Hugh Gaine's New York Mercury of that 
date. 

On the lyth December, 1757, Mr. Walton applies for a 
commission for the Captain of the ship William and Mary, 
10 guns; and on the 24th March, 1762, the firm make the 
same request for Capt. Jonathan Lawrence, of the sloop 
Live Oak, 10 guns. While thus adding to their fleet of 
vessels, they kept up the old and lucrative trade with the 
southern ports of the Continent, the Spanish West India 
Islands, and the Spanish Main. Their old friends in Florida 
still gave them the sole preference of their trade. On 
the 3d June, 1757, Lt. Governor De Lancey informed the 
Lords of Trade that Sir Charles Hardy (the Governor) had 
desired him to transmit to their Lordships " copies of the 
Memorial of Mr. Walton to him, of the 29th of January, 
praying leave to continue supplies to the Spanish Garrison at 
St. Augustine, according to his Contract with the Govern- 
ment and Royal Officers." 

Growing in wealth and power, Mr. Walton was now 
looked upon as fitted for political honors. On the election 
in June, 1751, "for a member to serve in the General As- 
sembly, for the City and County of New York, in the room 
of David Clarkson, Esq., deceased. Captain William Wal- 
ton was unanimously chosen." A new summons being is- 
sued, the next season, he was again re-elected, February 24th, 
1752, together with Captain Paul Richard, Henry Cruger, 
and Major Cornelius Von Hoorn, and continued to serve 
until 1759. 

In the Assembly he attached himself to the party of the 
Lieut. Governor, James Delancey, then the ruling spirit in 
the province, and Mr. Smith relates that he also secured for 



6o COLONIAL NEW YORK, 

the Delancey interest the support of " his cousin," also a Wil- 
liam Walton, who sat for Richmond County. This connec- 
tion witli the Lieut. Governor led to promotion. On 3d 
December, 1756, Governor Hardy recommended to, the 
Board of Trade, " John Watts, WiUiam Walton, and Rob- 
ert R. Livingston, to supply vacancies which may happen 
in the Council ; these gentlemen are possessed of consider- 
able estate in the Province and . . . fully qualified for the 
trust." In the summer of 1757, the favorite nephew, name- 
sake, and heir of Mr. Walton, married the daughter of 
Lieut. Governor Delancey. The next year Mr. Walton 
received his appointment. He first took his seat at the 
Council Board on the 14th November, 1758, and was a con- 
stant attendant at its sessions until the 22d March, 1768, a 
few months before his death. The benefit of his political 
position to his business has been illustrated in the interfer- 
ence of Delancey with the Home Government. Another 
instance is recorded. On the 20th April, 1765, William 
Walton & Co. applied to Lieut. Governor Colden " for a 
letter to the Governor of Havana, desiring his countenance 
and aid in collecting divers sums of money due them from 
officers, soldiers, and inhabitants of St. Augustine." From 
this it seems that they supplied the whole settlement. Two 
days later they receive a passport for their sloop Live Oak 
to proceed to Pensacola, touching at Havana. 

About the time of his first entrance into political life 
Mr. William Walton, who had been living in the heart 
of the city, resolved to change his residence. In the year 
1752 he erected the mansion-house which now bears his 
name, on one of the lots which he had inherited from his 
father near the shipyards. The first notice of this house 
appears in the New York Gazette or the Weekly Post Boy 
for May 14th, 1753, in an advertisement of a house for sale 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 6l 

" in the upper end of Queen Street, next door but one to 
Captain Walton's new House, near Peck's Slip." This 
house is still standing, although in a dilapidated state, in 
Franklin Square, and is known as No. 326 Pearl Street. 
In 1752, Pearl was called Queen Street. An inscription 
[The Old Walton House), coarsely painted in dingy white 
on its muddy red walls, arrests the eye of the passing 
stranger. 

The Walton House is indeed a most interesting relic 
of " the good old colony time." Now that the Hancock 
House, once the abode of the great New England merchant 
and patriot, has been destroyed by the march of improve- 
ment, the New York building remains sole witness to the 
power and state of the merchant of the last century. An 
account of the Walton House, written by John Pintard, to 
whose antiquarian taste and graphic pen New York is in- 
debted for many of its most pleasing reminiscences, was 
published in the New York Mirror of Saturday, March 17th, 
1832, with a picture of the building as it then appeared. 
" This family dwelling-house was in its day — indeed, still 
is — a noble specimen of English architecture a century ago. 
It is a brick edifice, fifty feet in front, and three stories high, 
built with Holland bricks relieved by brown stone water- 
tables, lentils and jams, with walls as substantial as many 
modern churches, standing along the south side of Pearl-street, 
formerly called Queen Street. The superb staircase in its 
ample hall, with mahogany handrails and bannisters, by age 
as dark as ebony, would not disgrace a nobleman's palace. 
It is the only relic of the kind, that probably at this period 
remains in the city, the appearance of which affords an air 
of grandeur not to be seen in the lighter staircases of mod- 
ern buildings. 

" This venerable mansion is one of the very few remain- 
so 



62 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

ing in uninterrupted succession in the family of the original 
proprietor. It was erected in 1754(2) by William Walton, 
Esq., and bequeathed by him to his nephew, the late {honor- 
able) William Walton, whose son, advanced in years, now 
occupies the premises . . . Mr. Walton was a merchant, 
and resided in Hanover Square. He acquired an ample 
fortune by an advantageous contract with some Spaniards at 
St. Augustine, which enabled him to build by far the most 
expensive, capacious, elegant house at that period in New 
York. 

" Mr. Walton was very hospitable, and gave, as he could 
well afford, the most sumptuous entertainments of any person 
in those plain but bountiful days. At the termination of the 
old and last French War with this country in 1759 (which 
was crowned by the conquest of Canada, whereby the British 
Colonies in America, and especially the Province of New 
York, were relieved from the incursions and aggression of 
the French, and the dreadful terrors and sufferings by the 
tomahawk and scalping-knife of their savage allies, the In- 
dians), every demonstration of joy was evinced by the good 
citizens of Albany and New York. The British army, on 
its return from Canada, was hailed and treated with the most 
profuse prodigality. Among others, Mr. Walton entertained 
the chief officers in a magnificent manner. His table was 
spread with the choicest viands, and a forest of decanters, 
sparkling with the most delicious wines. The sideboard 
groaned with the weight of brilliant massive silver. . . . 

"After the peace of 1763, the English Parliament mani- 
fested its intention of taxing the Colonies for the purpose of 
refunding the debt incurred by the recent war." The Colo- 
nists objected their poverty and exhaustion consequent on 
the struggle. " The plea was rebutted in Parliament by an 
appeal to the elegant entertainments given by the citizens of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 6;^ 

New York to the officers of the British army, and the daz- 
zling display of silver plate at their dinners, equal if not 
superior to any nobleman's, which hospitality and exhibi- 
tions were adduced as proofs of the wealth and prosperity 
of the Colonies." 

When this sketch was written the memory of the scene 
was still green. The father of John Pintard was a con- 
temporary of the old merchant, and had often sat at his hos- 
pitable board, and tasted of his choice wines. 

Another antiquarian has left the report of an eye-witness 
to the splendor of its festivities. Watson, in his Annals of 
old New York, written in 1 830, says, " it was deemed the 
nonpareil of the city in 1766, when seen by my mother 
greatly illuminated in celebration of the Stamp Act repealed. 
It has even now an air of ancient stately grandeur. It has 
five windows in front, constructed of yellow Holland brick ; 
has a double-pitched roof, covered with tiles, and a double 
course of balustrades thereon. Formerly its garden extended 
down to the river." 

When these notices were written the mansion was still 
" a noble wreck in ruinous perfection," and its approaches 
suited to its dignity and grandeur. Fluted columns, sur- 
mounted with armorial bearings, richly carved and orna- 
mented, upheld its broad portico ; and the heads of lions, 
cut from the freestone, looked down from between the win- 
dows upon the passers. To-day the house is but a ruin. 
Its pitched tilings have given place to a flat roof; its balus- 
trades are seen no more ; its portico and columns, its carvings 
and hatchments, even its doorways, are gone. The broad 
halls and spacious chambers where the courtly aristocracy of 
the Province was wont to meet in gay and joyous throng, 
have been broken into small rooms which now Serve as petty 
shops for tailors and cobblers, or the humble abode of sea- 



64 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

men. The fluted pillars in the hall are fast rotting away, 
yet in their decay convey, to an eye not unused to mas- 
sive structures, a sense of stately grandeur; while without, 
only the dull and stony stare of the dilapidated old lion, 
who still wearily looks down as he did a hundred years ago 
upon the everlasting movements of the seething life below, 
serves to mark this once princely mansion from its vulgar 
and upstart neighbors. 

Here, in the full enjoyment of wealth and honor, the first 
merchant of his time, the honored councillor of his Sovereign, 
beloved of his friends, and his life only clouded by the 
thought that he was childless and his estates must descend 
to another, no son of his succeeding, passed from the 
structure of his raising to a " mansion not made with hands." 

Gaine's New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury for 
Monday, 18th July, 1768, announces that there "Died on 
Monday last (July nth), at his house in this city the Hon- 
orable William Walton, Esquire, in the 63d Year of his 
age. He was one of his Majesty's Council for this Province, 
and for many Years an Eminent Merchant of this City. 
His remains were interred in the Family Vault of this City 
on the Wednesday following." 

His wife survived him many years. When the British 
took possession of the city, this scion of a patriotic stock 
abandoned her honors and station, and took refuge in a 
neighboring colony. An obituary notice in the New York 
Packet of Monday, May 15th, 1786, alludes to this fact. 
" On Monday evening last, the 10th instant, departed this 
life, in the 78th year of her age, Mrs. Cornelia Walton, relict 
of the late Hon. William Walton, Esq., and eldest daughter 
of Dr. William Beekman, deceased. Though childless her- 
self, many there are who will in her death experience the 
loss of a mother, and during her residence in the Jersies 



. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 65 

through the late contest, her benevolence and acts of charity 
will endear her memory to all those who have tasted of her 
liberality. . . . Thus, as she lived beloved, she died justly 
lamented ; and, on the Friday evening following, her remains, 
attended by a Concourse of the most respectable inhabitants, 
were interred in Trinity Church Yard, in the family vault 
where her husband lay, agreeable to her own request, where 
she now rests from all her labors, and her works will follow 
her." 

The will of Hon. William Walton, dated 8th June, 1768, 
and proved on the 14th July, 1768, is still on file in the 
Surrogate's OfRce (liber 26, folio 318). After leaving to his 
wife Cornelia, during her life, the house in which they lived 
(the Walton House) and £800, the amount received " with 
her on our marriage as a marriage portion ; " to his nephew 
Jacob Walton, Lot on Water Street, No. 3, and Lot No. 4, 
bounded by or belonging to estate of " my brother Jacob 
Walton, deceased, which were of the estate of my (his) 
late father William Walton, deceased," and to the other 
children of his brother Jacob handsome legacies ; he devises 
to his nephew William Walton, son of his brother Jacob 
Walton, the rest of his large property, with remainder to his 
grand-nephew William, son of his nephew William Wal- 
ton, and William, son of his nephew Jacob Walton. He 
thus took every means possible to keep his name in memory. 

William Walton, son of Jacob Walton and Maria 
Beekman, was born in the city of New York in the year 
1731. Connected, at an early age, in business with his 
uncle and patron, the name of the young merchant is rarely 
found alone. An instance appears, however, in the deposi- 
tion of William Walton, Junior, of New York, merchant, 
as to a declaration of one Christopher, Lieut, of the ship 
Peggy, dated November 3d, 1758. It is not probable that 



66 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

he ever sailed the vessels of the house in person, like the 
elder Walton. The Captain William Walton who appears 
in command of the ship Prince of Wales, July 23d, 1753, 
was probably some other person, perhaps of the Richmond 
County family. 

William Walton, with his great advantages, fine per- 
son, and prospective wealth, was one of the most distin- 
guished young men of his day, and it is natural to find him 
forming an alliance with one of the highest and proudest of 
the landed aristocracy of the New York Colony. On the 3d 
October, 1757, the Record of New York Marriages gives the 
date of the Bond. William Walton, Junr., married Mary, 
daughter of Lieut. Governor James Delancey. The De- 
lanceys were of French Huguenot descent, had early inter- 
married with the Van Cortlandts, and were at this period, 
under the lead of their great chief the Lieut. Governor, the 
most powerful family in the province. The estates of the 
Delanceys were at Mamaroneck, Westchester County. 

Upon the death of the uncle, in 1768, William Wal- 
ton associated himself with his brother, and carried on the 
business of the family under the style of " William and 
Jacob Walton & Co." Jacob was also a man of mark. 
He had married a daughter of Henry Cruger, a wealthy and 
distinguished merchant, and was a representative of New 
York in General Assembly. About this period, (April 8, 
1772,) they are found among the owners of large tracts 
of land granted at Socialborough, in the northern part of 
the State. They appear too to have been engaged in manu- 
facturing of some kind, as on the 3d June, 1773, they adver- 
tise in the N. Y. Mercury, for sale " the well-known and 
convenient mills of William & Jacob Walton & Co. at 
Pembroke, thirty miles from New York." These were prob- 
ably flour mills. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 67 

Mr. William Walton took the part which became 
his wealth and station in the pubhc affairs of the time. 
He was one of the founders of the Chamber of Commerce 
in 1768, was its Treasurer in 1771, Vice-President in 1772, 
and President from 1774 to 1775. 

He was one of the first petitioners for the Marine Society, 
incorporated in 1770, " for the purpose of improving Mari- 
time Knowledge, and for relieving indigent and distressed 
(and the Wives and Children of deceased) Masters of Ves- 
sels." 

He was warm in support of the measures adopted by the 
merchants to resist the Stamp Act, and the subsequent at- 
tempts of the British ministry to restrict the liberties of the 
Colonies. He was one of the Committee of Correspondence 
of Fifty-One, chosen in May, 1774, when the citizens learned 
of the closing of the Port of Boston. The minutes of the Com- 
mittee show him to have been one of its most regular attend- 
ants. From the recommendations of this Committee sprung 
the First Continental Congress of 1774, whose only act of 
resistance to the Home Government was the adoption of a 
non-importation and non-exportation ordinance. Mr. Wil- 
liam Walton was one of the Committee of Sixty chosen to 
carry out this order in New York. He was also one of the 
Committee of Safety of One Hundred, chosen in May, 1775 

So far Mr. Walton appears to have been willing to go 
with the more patriotic party. His sympathies appear to 
have been on the side of the popular cause, but his famdly 
connections were divided. The Delanceys had nearly all 
taken the side of the Crown, while the Waltons were 
inclined to be neutral in the contest. When the hour finally 
came for a decision, Mr. Walton withdrew from the city 
to his country residence in New Jersey. But he was too 
marked a man to be left in peace, and he was finally forced 



68 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

to return to the city when the British authority was re- 
stored. His Jersey estates were in consequence confiscated. 
He remained in New York during the war, and devoted his 
time and large means to relieve the distress the war brought 
upon so many. He was one of the Vestry named by 
Governor Robertson, December 29, 1779, to look to the 
poor and suffering of the city. It is gratefully remem- 
bered of him that he was unceasing in his efforts to soften 
the terrors of the confinement to which the American pris- 
oners were subjected. 

He was one of those merchants who resumed the meetings 
of the Chamber of Commerce 21st June, 1779, and he ap- 
pears quite regularly in his seat until the close of the war. 
In fact, he was again chosen Vice-President in 1783. 

During this period Mr. Walton did not engage in act- 
ive business, though he continued to reside in the city. 
His death is recorded in " Greenleaf 's New York Journal 
and Patriotic Register," under date of Tuesday, 23d Aug., 
1796 : "Died, on the 18th instant, sixty-fifth year of his age, 
Mr. William Walton, a native and respectable inhabitant 
of this city." He had been long a widower. Holt's " New 
York Journal," of Thursday, 21st May, 1767, contains the 
notice of his wife's death: "Died, Saturday last (16th) de- 
parted this Life in the 31st Year of her Age Mrs. Mary 
Walton of this Place (and Daughter of the late Hon. James 
De Lancey, Esqr.) a Lady whose Death is much regretted." 
By his wife Mary De Lancey, Mr. William Walton left 
three sons, who in turn inherited his estates: William; 
James De Lancey ; Jacob, who entered the British Navy, 
and rose to the rank of Rear Admiral. Ann, a daughter, 
was the wife of Daniel Crommelin Verplanck. 

The old name is now continued by the Rev. William 
Walton, a son of the Admiral. 



ISAAC LOW. 



SEVENTH PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



1775-1783- 





"^ 



ROM the earliest period of English settlement in 
the New York Colony, the name of Low appears 
upon its annals. The first of the family native to 
this country was Cornelius, whose birth is recorded as having 
taken place at Kingston, in the year 1670. His son Corne- 
lius was born in the City of New York, on the 31st day of 
March, 1700. Cornelius Low married, in 1729, Johanna, 
daughter of Isaac Gouverneur (a gentleman of Huguenot 
extraction), and Mary, daughter of Jacob Leisler, and widow 
of Jacob Milbourne — names which recall one of the darkest 
pages in the history of New York. They were tried, con- 
victed, and executed in 1691 for political offences, and have 
been aptly termed "the first victims to arbitrary power in 
the Colony." 

Of the fruits of this marriage two sons, Isaac and Nich- 
olas, became leading men in the province. Nicholas, the 
younger, was a warm and active patriot during the War of 
the Revolution, and an honored and trusted Whig. He 
was one of the New York Convention for deliberating on 
the adoption of the Constitution of the United States, as- 
sembled at Poughkeepsie, June 17, 1788. Two daughters 
were married to the brothers Hugh and Alexander Wallace, 



70 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

gentlemen of Irish birth, both of whom were merchants in 
New York, and strong loyalists. 

Isaac Low, son of Cornelius Low and Johanna Gou- 
verneur, was born in April, 1731, at Raritan landing, near 
New Brunswick, in New Jersey. 

He married a younger daughter of Cornelius Cuyler, 
for many years Mayor of Albany. The Cuylers were a 
family of distinction, and were connected in marriage with 
the Schuylers, the Van Cortlandts, and other notables of the 
Colony. 

Soon after his majority Mr. Low appears as a merchant. 
He had formed a partnership with Mr. Abraham Lott, one 
of a family long and well known in the City. Precisely at 
what date the partnership of Lott & Low was formed is 
uncertain. The Lott of this firm was Abraham Lott, after- 
wards Treasurer of the Province. The name of the subse- 
quent partner of Mr. Low, then Abraham Lott, Jr., appears 
as that of one of "a number of the principal merchants" who 
signed an Agreement on the 24th December, 1753 (N. Y. 
Mercury, No. 72), not to receive coppers "otherwise than 
fourteen for a shilling," in order to check the growing de- 
basement of this coin. Had the connection with Mr. Low 
existed at this time, the joint name of the house would have 
been signed, as in other cases. Abraham Lott, Senior, then 
member of the Assembly, died July 29, 1754. 

The first notice of the young firm (Mr. Low was 
then in his 24th year) appeared in the New York 
Mercury, May 13, 1754. "Lott and Low have just im- 
ported in the Brig Maria, Capt. Thomas Miller, from 
London, a neat assortment of European and India Goods 
proper for the Season, and are to be disposed of on the 
cheapest terms, at their Store, in the house wherein Mr. 
Henry Clopper, Sadler, lately lived, opposite to Mr. Joseph 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 7I 

Reade's, and facing the Meal Market." The " Meal Mar- 
ket^' stood, as Mr. Devoe states in his admirable History 
of the Markets of New York, at " the South end of Clark's 
Slip, at the East end of Wall Street." It was sometimes 
called the "Wall Street Market." It was erected in 1709, 
but became such a nuisance that, on the petition of the 
neighbors, the Common Council, in 1762, ordered it to be 
removed. 

In the New York Mercury for Monday, June 17, 1755, 
it is announced that " Lott and Low have removed to the 
house in Hanover Square, wherein Mr. Lewis Morris lately 
lived, next door to Mrs. Walton's, where they offer for sale 
their late importations from Bristol and London, chiefly of 
European and India goods." Their business must have been 
large to have warranted this step. Mr. Morris, whose house 
they entered, was one of the wealthiest men of the day ; he 
was one of the proprietors of New Jersey, as well as heir 
to the Morrisania Estates. Hanover Square was the centre 
of trade. Here were the counting-houses of Walton, Des- 
brosses, Bache, and other great Merchants of the City. Mr. 
Low was then in his twenty-fifth year. They remained here 
in active trade, as their repeated advertisements show, until 
the fall of 1 765. Among the many changes which were made 
in the circle of trade at this time, was the breaking up of 
their house. On the 26th December, 1765, Lott & Low 
gave notice in Holt's New York Gazette or Weekly Post 
Boy that their partnership, which was probably to end on the 
1st of the new year, was " renewed until the first of May next " 
(1766), to allow of the gathering in of the debts due to 
them. A closing notice followed in the same journal, April 
10, 1766 : "The Co-Partnership of Lott and Low expiring 
on the First Day of May next : They beg leave to introduce 
themselves to their Friends under the separate stiles of 



72 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

Abraham Lott and Isaac Low ; the former living at the old 
store of Lott & Low, and the latter nearly opposite to the 
Queen's Head Tavern, between Coenties Market and the 
New Exchange ; where they each continue to keep an Assort- 
ment of dry Goods, which they will sell on the most rea- 
sonable terms : And as our principal Motive of dissolving this 

Partnership is to collect the debts due to it Those 

persons who are in Arrear upwards of twelve months must 
not take amiss (after the repeated and earnest Requests 
made them to discharge the same) to be now informed that 
this is the last Time of asking, and that if it should not have 
the desired Effect, Process will certainly commence against 
them. Debts will be received by either of the Parties, at 
their respective places of Abode above-mentioned." 

Mr. Abraham Lott does not appear to have long re- 
mained in active business. On the death of Abraham De 
Peyster, Treasurer of the Colony, he was, on the I2th 
December, 1767, appointed to that office. Mr. Isaac Low 
appears at this time to have carried on an extensive business 
in the importation of dry goods. His first notice, issued in 
Holt's New York Journal and General Advertiser for 
Thursday, Nov. 6, 1766, announces that he "Has just im- 
ported an assortment of goods suitable to the season, con- 
sisting of friezes, coatings, broad cloths, flannels, embossed 
serges ; Penistons and half-thicks, spotted ermine, shalloons, 
rattinets, callimancoes, Oznabrigs, sheeting ; Russia drilling, 
dowlass, garlix, Callicoes, cottons, cambricks, lawns ; both 
muslen, taffaties, Persians, cotton, lungee and new silk 
romalls, bandannos and women's gloves ; worsted and cotton 
hose, &c., &c., which he will sell on the most reasonable 
terms at his store, between the Exchange and Coenties 

market. Imported since the above : A fresh assortment 

of beautiful checks and callicoes from the fountain head • 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 73 

Scots handkerchiefs, bed bunts, bed ticks, gartering, bind- 
ing, &c." 

To this curious assortment he adds the next year, as 
appears in Gaine's N. Y. Mercury (Oct. 12, 1767), "red and 
beaver coatings, blue and red ratteen, best London strouds 
and Auroras, Shrewsbury cottons, felt hats, men's 4 thread 
worsted breeches patterns, women's worsted mitts, Marseilles 
quilting ; cloves, cinnamon, meal, and nutmegs ; best Scot's 
snuff, by the hogshead, tierce, or less quantity ; best Pistol 
Powder ; a few Pipes of Madeira Wine, &c., &c., for which 
he will take in barter most kinds of country produce, such 
as flour, pork, flax seed, bar iron, potash, beaver. — Has also 
to sell a few packs of best Michillimachinac beaver." A 
further notice in Holt's N. Y. Journal and General Adver- 
tiser (May 12, 1768) gives the further quaint names of 
flowered petticoating, silk Sooses, and Damascus silk Loret- 
tos, silk burdels, and dressed deer skins. 

The Beaver and Deer Skins which Mr. Isaac Low 
here and often offers for sale, probably came to him from 
the northern border of the Colony, where his wife's con- 
nections (the Schuylers) had their great estates, and constant 
dealings with the Indians, whose chief staple of trade was 
the skins of the Beaver. He seems to have had almost a 
monopoly of the Fur trade at this time. 

The great rivals of Mr. Low at this time in the Dry 
Goods trade were the houses of Rerasen and Beekman. 
Others, with foreign agencies, soon made their appearance. 

At an early age Mr. Low came into notice for his at- 
tention to political questions. In December, 1764, he was 
one of the " Committee on Agriculture and Oeconomy of 
the Society of the Promotion of Arts," the chief association 
of that period. 

The year 1765 was marked by a serious attempt on 



74 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

the part of the Home Government to abridge the liberties 
of the Colonies, and to bring them to a state of vassalage to 
their mother Country. The French war had greatly added 
to the debt of England. Undertaken to check the power of 
France in the New World, it was really but an incident in 
the old rivalry of the neighbor kingdoms, and the British 
ministry were well content to try the wager of battle in a 
far-off land. The issue of such a struggle could not be 
doubtful. England, with her naval power and able seamen, 
aided by a hardy people with the better part of the Ameri- 
can continent at their back, entered into the war with every 
advantage. The struggle closed with the surrender of 
Canada. The fruits of victory had hardly been secured 
when the ministry brought into Parliament a bill to tax the 
Colonies to pay their cost. The Colonies, well versed in 
the principles of liberty, objected to pay a tax voted by a 
Parliament in which they were not represented. They 
claimed equality; they spurned inferiority or servitude. 

All America united in resistance; all classes joined 
together with a singleness of purpose to which the after- 
history of the long contest presents no parallel. The mer- 
chants of New York led the van, and the great popular 
triumph gained in the repeal of the Stamp Act may be 
fairly claimed as the result of their action. Not less than 
two hundred merchants signed their names to the solemn 
agreement of the 31st October, 1765, to trade no more with 
Britain till the Act was repealed. It is a never-ending 
source of regret to the inquirer into the early history of 
New York that the details of this struggle are nowhere 
preserved. The credit due to individuals has all been 
merged, in the lapse of time, into the honor of a class. 

The part taken by Mr. Low in these interesting move- 
ments has shared the common fate. Enough remains to show 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 75 

that there was no holding back by the young and high- 
spirited merchant. 

His name appears with those of James De Lancey, 
William Walton, Jun., John Thurman, Jun., Henry White 
and John Harris Cruger, all leading men, "signed by order 
of and at the request of a considerable number of the 
respectable inhabitants of the City of New York," June 
26th, 1766, to a petition to the City Members to ask the 
General Assembly to erect " an elegant statue of brass to 
William Pitt in honor of his manly stand in behalf of 
Colonial rights." The history of this statue has been too 
often written to need more than passing mention. 

A few years later Mr. Low again changes his place of 
business. In Holt's N. Y. Journal and General Advertiser 
of May 4th, 1769, he announces his removal "into the 
House of Mrs. Lawrence next door to Theodorus Van 
Wyck." The streets do not seem to have been numbered 
as early as this. 

In the year 1770 he again appears in public positions 
of a nature which show that he was the trusted leader of his 
merchant associates. A record of his name as one of the 
" Committee of Merchants appointed to inspect the importa- 
tion of goods " is given in Holt's New York Journal of 
May 31st of that year. 

The continued encroachments of the ministry had led to 
a second renewal of the old agreements as to non-importa- 
tion and exportation, into which all the Colonies had heartily 
entered. Yet the sequel showed that they were only faith- 
fully kept by New York. 

The merchants of New York becoming aware of the 
continued importations of their neighbors, grew restive, 
and in the summer the Committee of Inspection directed 
Mr. Isaac Low, their chairman, to inform the Boston Com- 



76 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

mittee, composed of Thomas Gushing, John Hancock, and 
others, of their discontent. On the 24th July they reply, 
and express a doubt of the New York letter, because only 
signed by four of its numbers. To this the New York 
Committee, i8th Aug., 1770, returned an indignant rejoin- 
der, rejecting the idea that Mr. Low could be unknown 
to them as the " chairman of the New York Committee 
and a gentleman of character," and renewing the charge of a 
breach of the agreements on the part of Boston merchants. 

The letter is worthy of careful study as a proof of the early 
leaning of New York towards a Congress of the Colonies, 
and its resolve to enter into no new agreements except in 
that form. It explains the settled purpose which was evi- 
dent in the course of its merchants at a later period. A few 
extracts will give a clear idea of the tenor of the New York 
letter. It may be seen in Holt's New York Journal of 
30th August, 1770. 

" This Committee used every endeavour in their power 
to harmonize and act in concert with their neighbours, not 
only by the proposal of a Congress, in consequence of in- 
structions from our inhabitants at a general and very full 
meeting, but by faithfully communicating their real senti- 
ments on every occasion afterwards. Your concurrence in 
so salutary a measure as that of a Congress would undoubt- 
edly have satisfied the minds of our inhabitants, and in all 
probability might have had a happy tendency to unite them 
in one system for the whole Continent. This was rejected, 
and gave much discontent — in so much that numbers said it 
was only a scheme in you to continue importing under 
pompous ostentatious resolves against it. 

" The Bills of Entry made at the Custom House in 
London contain the Entries of all kinds of goods, as usually 
shipped for your Port, as if no Agreement existed, and at 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 77 

the same time the Pamphlet appearing of Imports and Ex- 
ports confirming those Entries at your Town, together with 
your former neglect (which some construed wilful) to give 
orders, to the masters of your vessels, not to take in any 
Goods contrary to Agreement. 

" Your merchants coming into Connecticut, particularly 
Middletown, soliciting the custom of people there, alledg- 
ing that as New York was out of Goods, and they having 
General Assortment, it must be of great advantage to 
them to come to Boston and trade ; and the Goods run into 
this City from your Province and Rhode Island, were all 
very aggravating circumstances, which conspired to raise 
such murmurings and clamours in our Inhabitants as no 
arguments could appease, unless at the proposed general 
Congress sufficient evidence had appeared to their Deputies 
to have assured their constituents at their Return that the dif- 
ferent Reports which had been current were void of all just 
foundation, and the Pamphlet spurious, 

"We would long since have inclosed you one of the 
Pamphlets you mention, if we could have possibly supposed 
you ignorant of its true contents, especially as it was origin- 
ally sent us from Boston, and not New- Port as is suggested. 

" That you may not, however, any longer plead ignorance 
of matters it so highly Concerns you to know and clear up, 
too, if possible, we now inclose you the Pamphlet for those 
Purposes. 

" The Conduct of the Merchants of this City has always 
been agreeable to their public declarations and agreements ; 
they have never deceived their Neighbours, but have most 
religiously maintained their engagements." 

This letter was addressed to Messrs. Cushing, Hancock, 
and others, the Committee at Boston. There could not 
have been any ignorance of the facts charged or the pamphlet 

31 



yS COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

concerning them. The Boston Chronicle of Thursday, Feb. 
8, 1770, both malces the charges and provides the proof in 
the pubHcation of the manifests. It even accuses the Com- 
mittee of a neglect to expose those " vi^ho are deceiving the 
Public by false accounts." 

The plan of a Congress was generally entertained in 
New York. An anonymous suggestion of the kind so much 
in fashion, published in Holt's N. Y. Journal and General 
Advertiser, June 20, 1770, says: "a suitable place for a 
Congress, provided a convenient time be given for a meeting 
from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, is an open and 
eligible mode of proceeding." 

The New York Committee went so far as to address 
their correspondents, desiring a Congress of Merchants to 
meet at Norwalk. But nothing seems to have come of 
this plan. The neighboring Colonies found. their advantage 
in what New York felt to be a great burden. Failing in 
their efforts, there was a general resumption of trade by New 
York, except as to Tea. 

Whether a strict adherence to these agreements, and an 
entire stoppage of British trade, would have caused such 
suffering in Great Britain as to force the withdrawal of the 
obnoxious Acts of Parliament, is mere matter of conjecture. 
Many of the wisest observers of that day differed in idea. 
From their failure the Colonies, at least New York, which 
was the greatest sufferer, learned one great lesson, that agree- 
ments were useless, unless there were some power to enforce 
their observance. 

This was the germ of the idea of American Union. The 
Committees of Inspection were the forerunners of the Dele- 
gations to Congress. Indeed, the only act of the first Con- 
tinental Congress was to recommend the Colonies to give 
legal powers to new Committees regularly chosen to enforce 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 79 

the observance of the agreements. So at a later period when 
the old Colonies, then new States, had won their freedom, 
they turned from the weak Confederacy they had formed to 
" a more perfect union." It is an error to suppose that the 
great Republic which to-day stands first in power among the 
nations of the earth, self-sustained and self-sustaining, was the 
result of the deliberations of any body of men. It was the 
growth of years of experience, and the wisest of its statesmen 
were little in advance of the spirit of the age. 

In the first days of May, 1774, the agitation in America 
was at fever-heat. The Colonies waited in anxiety for news 
from the mother country. Each in turn had added action to 
protest. Boston had boarded the tea-ships and thrown their 
cargoes into the sea ; New York and Philadelphia had forced 
the vessels to return ; Charleston had permitted a landing, 
but refused to drink the offered cup. A nameless Nation 
had with one accord defied a Power beneath whose heavy 
hand kingdoms had crumbled to decay. The letters of 
their agents had given word to the Colonies of the King's 
purpose to force them to submission. Every eye was turned 
seaward in eager watching for the coming messenger ; every 
ear was strained to catch the first note of England's answer 
to the Colonial defiance. 

On the 12th of May, the Packet-Ship Samson, Coupar 
master, sailed into the offing. In the letters to merchants 
came copies of a Bill which had passed the Commons and 
the Lords without a dissenting voice, and received the King's 
sanction on the 31st March. This Bill closed the Port of 
Boston, removed the Board of Customs to Marblehead, and 
its seat of government to Salem. News came too that Gen- 
eral Gage had been named civil Governor of the Massachu- 
setts Colony, and was about to sail in the Lively Frigate for 
his new government. The news spread rapidly through the 



8o COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

city. To indignation at the arbitrary measures of the 
Ministry, was added consternation and surprise that all Par- 
liament had joined in the cruel measure. Even the great 
Whig leader Fox had been content to suggest that the powers 
of relief should be lodged with Parliament and not in the 
Crown, and when the final vote was taken his voice was still. 
The excitement in the city was heightened by the report 
of a captain of a schooner that " as they came past Boston, 
Tuesday, the loth, they heard great firing, by which there 
was reason to suppose General Gage had arrived there." This 
was an error. The firing was from the Castle in honor of 
the appointment, the news of which reached Boston that 
day by a merchant-vessel. The Lively Frigate did not ar- 
rive till the 13th. 

If Parliament was of one mind, there were those in Eng- 
land who held other views, and looked upon the issue to be 
tried in the Colonies as a common cause. Letters from some 
of these friends of America were received by the Samson, 
three by private hand. Those dated 5th, yth, and 8th of April, 
were of an important nature. One was " from a military 
officer of eminence, both on account of his rank and literary 
abilities." Who this officer was is uncertain. It was prob- 
ably Colonel Barre, a leading Whig, and an officer of high 
merit, well known in America ; he had been the bosom 
friend of Wolfe ; was with him at Quebec ; and, badly 
wounded himself, had seen his friend and commander fall 
in the moment of victory. Colonel Barre had greatly en- 
deared himself to the Colonies by his manly and eloquent 
appeals in their defence in Parliament in opposition 
to the Stamp Act of 1765". To him was by many as- 
cribed the authorship of the Letters of Junius (1769-1772). 
He had held the post of Adjutant-General of the British 
army, and his military talents were of a high order. He 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 8l 

fully answers the description given of the author of one of 
these Letters. 

The letter of the yth pointed out the encroachments of 
the Ministry on Constitutional rights, the weakness of the 
minority to " stem the torrent of corruption," and urged that 
nothing stood in the way of an assumption of arbitrary power 
but the struggles of the Americans to preserve their liber- 
ties. It warned the Americans to firmness and vigilance. 
" It behooves the Colonies to be united in their intelligence, 
council, and measures ; it is a matter of the last importance 
to them to stand by and support one another : the most 
favoured can only expect to be the last devoured. The 
Ministry are determined to try your metal to the utmost. 
Depend upon it, every Colony is to be subdued into a slavish 
obedience to the tyrannical imposition of Great Britain : 
nothing less will suffice ; nothing less is intended." 

The letter of the 8th urged instant reprisals, and added : 
"the preservation of England itself and her excellent Consti- 
tution require it of you." 

These vigorous letters, printed on the back of the Boston 
Port Bill, and spread over the city in handbills, aroused the 
city to a high pitch of excitement. 

At this period the political state of New York was pecu- 
liar. The harmony which marked the movement of 1 765, 
in resistance to the Stamp Act, had been broken. Party 
feeling was warm on more than one ground of difference. 
The old struggle between the Episcopalians and the Pres- 
byterians had been carried to the polls. The Church-party 
and the landed aristocracy held the Government House 
and its patronage. The Dissenters had their voice in the As- 
sembly, and the ear of the tradesman and the mechanic. 
More than all, the people were restless ; the spirit of lib- 
erty was abroad, and would not be restrained. And it is 
6 



82 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

as true that license is often the first assertion of liberty as that 
oppression is the last stage of arbitrary power. The nightly 
processions and effigy-burnings alarmed the men of property. 
The merchants saw with uneasiness that their interests were 
jeopardized by men whom they could not influence or con- 
trol. 

They now resolved to guide the movement. On Satur- 
day, the 14th, while handbills were freely passing through 
the city, a notice was posted in the Coffee-house, calling a 
meeting of merchants and others at the house of Samuel 
Fraunces, then known as " The Queen's Head Tavern." 
The same day the Vigilance Committee of the Sons of 
Libert}', an order kept alive by the radical leaders of the old 
organization so famous in 1765, addressed a letter to the 
Committee at Boston, announcing the intended meeting, and 
pledging the merchants to a line of conduct not yet adopted 
by them. " The merchants are to have a meeting tomorrow 
evening to agree upon a non-Importation and non-Exporta- 
tion of Goods to and from Great Britain." This step was 
not known until a later day, when a curious mistake gave 
rise to much ill feeling and caused a serious division in the 
city. 

The assemblage, proving too large for the rooms of Mr. 
Francis, adjourned to the Exchange, a few paces distant. 
Two parties appeared at this meeting, with printed lists of 
candidates. The one, a list of twenty-five members, was 
offered by the Sons of Liberty — the mechanics and traders ; 
the other, of fifty members, had been arranged by the 
merchants. One of these tickets was the base of both ; 
ttiere are but two names upon the smaller not found in the 
same order on the larger ticket. Both, in their original 
form, may be seen in the admirable collection of the New 
York Historical Society: as neither is dated, it is at this day 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 83 

impossible to say whether that of fifty had been enlarged 
from the one of twenty-five, or that of twenty-five reduced 
from that of fifty. Both were headed with the name of John 
Alsop, and both were chiefly made up of merchants. 

The merchants' party was headed by Mr. Isaac Low. 
On him all eyes were turned at this crisis. The vigor of 
his intellect, the independence of his character, and his 
manly self-reliance, marked him as a leader of men; he 
had long since proved his abilities in the political discussions 
which were the fashion of the day, and had for many years 
been the favorite chairman of public meetings. A handbill, 
preserved in the New York Historical Society Collection of 
Broadsides, gives a clear account of the proceedings at the 
meeting. 

"At a Meeting at the Exchange, i6th May, 1774, 
Isaac Low chosen Chairman, 

1st. Question put, — Whether it is necessary for the 
present to appoint a Committee to correspond with the 
neighboring colonies on the present important crisis ? Car- 
ried in the affirmative by a great Majority." 

2d. Whether a Committee be nominated this evening 
for the Approbation of the Public ? Carried in the affirma- 
tive by a great Majority. 

3d. Whether the Committee of 50 be appointed, or 25 "? 
Carried for 50 by a great Majority." 

The handbill then names the Committee. 

From a subsequent notice it appears that a quorum was 
fixed at 15 members. This waS a bitter disappointment to 
the more radical, who hoped to retain the direction of affairs. 
But the wisdom of the merchants, the wider range of interest 
represented on their ticket, the high character of the persons 
named and their great stake in the community, and, above 



84 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

all, the demand for union and harmony, happily met by 
them in the appointment of some of the more respected of 
their opponents, carried the day. 

On the 17th, another public notice summoned a meet- 
ing of the inhabitants of all ranks at the Merchants' Coffee- 
house to confirm the choice. Previous to the vote being 
taken, as is related in the journals of the day — 

" Mr. Low addressed his fellow citizens in the following 
words, viz. : 

" Gentlemen, — You have been duly apprised, both by 
Hand Bills and Advertisements in this Day's Papers of the 
intention of your present meeting. I hope, gentlemen, you 
will manifest by your conduct that you are actuated by the 
Dictates of calm reason only in the choice of the Committee 
I am to propose for your approbation. 

" It is but charitable to suppose we all mean the same 
thing, and that the only Difference amongst us is, or at least 
ought to be, the mode of affecting it, — I mean the Preser- 
vation of our just Rights and Liberties. Let us then call 
down Wisdom to our aid, and endeavor to walk in her hal- 
lowed paths. Zeal in a good cause is most laudable ; but 
when it transports beyond the Bounds of Reason, it often 
leaves Room for bitter Reflection. We ought therefore, 
Gentlemen, to banish from our Hearts all little Party Dis- 
tinctions, Feuds, and Animosities- — for to our Unanimity 
and Virtue we must at last recur for Safety, and that Man 
will approve himself the best Friend to his Country whose 
highest Emulation is to inculcate these Principles both by 
Precept and Example." 

The Committee, of fifty nominated at the meeting of 
the 16th, was then carried, and the honored name of Francis 



c 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 85 

Lewis was added to the list, thus raising the number to Fifty- 
one. 

The manuscript minutes of the Committee hint at no 
difference of sentiment on this occasion, and the journals 
are discreetly silent ; but a letter of Mr. Gouverneur Morris, 
who was present, addressed to Mr. Penn the next day, the 
20th May, shows that there was a warm contest. 

The Committee organized on the 23d, with the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Isaac Low Chairman, and Mr. John Alsop 
Deputy-Chairman. At this meeting a letter was read 
from the Body of Mechanics, signed by Jonathan Blake, 
Chairman, concurring in the nomination. At this first 
meeting Paul Revere, the active and patriotic Liberty Boy, 
and Express from Boston to Philadelphia, delivered in 
the official Report of the town meeting held at Boston on 
the 13th May, which had adopted strong importation reso- 
lutions, and recommended a similar course to the other 
Colonies. McDougall, an active and radical son of Liberty, 
Isaac Low, James Duane, and John Jay, were appointed to 
prepare a reply, and the same evening the general com- 
mittee met and ordered the signing of the following letter. 

This letter, as an early announcement of the settled pur- 
pose and views of the majority of the Committee, is of great 
value, and is in itself a sufficient defence against all the 
attacks made upon its course in that day or this. 

New York, May 23, 1774. 
Gentlemen : 

The alarming measures of the British Parliament 
relative to your ancient and respectable town, which has so 
long been the Seat of Freedom, fills the inhabitants of this 
city with inexpressible concern. As a sister Colony, suffer- 
ing in defence of the rights of America, We consider your 



86 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

injuries as a common cause, to the redress of which it is 
equally our duty and our interest to contribute. But what 
ought to be done in a situation so truly critical, while it em- 
ploys the anxious thoughts of every generous mind, is very 
hard to be determined. Our citizens have thought it neces- 
sary to appoint a large committee of fifty-one persons to 
correspond with our sister Colonies in this and every other 
matter of public moment ; and at ten o'clock this forenoon 
we were first assembled. Your letter, enclosing the vote 
of the Town of Boston and the letter of your Committee of 
Correspondence were immediately taken into considera- 
tion. 

While we think you justly entitled to the thanks of your 
sister Colonies for asking their advice in a case of such ex- 
tensive consequences, we lament our inability to relieve your 
anxiety by a decisive opinion. The cause is general and con- 
cerns a whole Continent who are equally interested with you 
and us, and we foresee no remedy can be of any avail 
unless it proceeds from the joint act and approbation of all. 
From a virtuous and spirited union much may be expected, 
while the feeble efforts of a few will only be attended with 
mischief and disappointment to themselves, and triumph to 
the adversaries of our liberty. Upon these reasons we con- 
clude that a Congress of deputies from the Colonies in gen- 
eral is of the utmost moment ; that it ought to be assem- 
bled without delay, and some unanimous resolutions formed 
in this fatal emergency, not only respecting your deplorable 
circumstances, but for the security of our common right. 
Such being our sentiments it must be premature to pronounce 
any judgement on the expedient which you have suggested. 
We beg, however, that you will do us the justice to believe that 
we shall continue to act with a firm and becoming regard to 
American Freedom, and to co-operate with our sister colonies 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 87 

in every measure which shall be thought salutary and condu- 
cive to the public good. 

We have nothing to add but that we sincerely condole 
with you in your unexampled distresses, and to request your 
speedy opinion of the proposed Congress, that if it should 
meet with your approbation we may exert our utmost en- 
deavours to carry it into execution. 

By order of the Committee of Correspondence, 

Isaac Low, Chairman. 

This letter is ascribed by Sparks to John Jay, but no 
authority is given. There is little doubt but that it was 
written by Mr. Low. The style is that of Mr. Low in the 
many communications, which appeared in the journals of the 
period, known to be from his pen, and is in thorough accord 
with that of the subsequent letter to Boston, by a committee 
of which Mr. Jay did not make part. Nor is it probable 
that one of the first merchants of the time, who had presided 
over their earlier committees, and whose habit was that of 
the pen, would have given way to any person at this impor- 
tant crisis. 

The merchants of New York had not yet forgotten the 
result of the old non-importation agreements, which,- dating 
from the original resolve in 1765, had been often renewed, 
nor the bitter correspondence between the New York Com- 
mittee of Inspection, of which Mr. Isaac Low was Chairman, 
and the Boston Committee. This agreement, rigidly ad- 
hered to by New York Merchants to their great detriment, 
had been broken by aH the other Colonies. As the New 
England historian of the United States, Mr. George Bancroft, 
strikingly states it : " Canada, Carolina and Georgia, and even 
Maryland and Virginia, had increased their importations, aiad 
New England and Pennsylvania had imported nearly one half 



88 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

as much as usual; New York alone had been perfectly true 
to its agreements, and its imports had fallen off nearly five 
parts in six. It was impatient of a system of voluntary re- 
nunciation which was so unequally kept, and the belief was 
common that if the others had adhered to it as strictly, all 
the grievances would have been shortly redressed." 

The Merchants of New York had set their faces as flint 
against any plan but that of a General Congress of the Colo- 
nies, similar to the famous Stamp Act Congress, in which 
most of the Colonies took part, in 1765, and the results 
of which were so happy. 

A strange mistake occurred at this time which, for some 
time unexplained, gave rise to doubts in the minds of many 
of the Committee, and has surely been the cause of grave 
errors since by all historians who have written of the action 
of New York in the spring of 1774. This error has left 
a shadow on the fame of the Committee of Fifty-one. 

While the Merchants of New York were weighing their 
course, the letter of the Vigilance Committee of the 14th, 
pledging them in advance to non-importation agreements, 
had reached the Boston Committee of Correspondence, 
whose reply ,came to the hands of the Committee of Fifty- 
one. The Committee met on the 6th June, and ordered an 
answer signifying their adherence to the measures of a Con- 
gress at any time or place, requesting the names of the Bos- 
ton Committee, and informing them of their mistake in an- 
swering the letter which mentioned not a word of the " sus- 
pension of trade," a measure they leave entirely to the Con- 
gress. It appears from this and abundant other proofs, that 
the mind of New York was set on a Congress. The Boston 
Letter called forth a second statement of their fixed views. 
From it as from the first it is clear that New York was resolved 
on a Congress, and nothing but a Congress, of the Colonies: 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 89 

"New York, June 7, 1774. 
"Gentlemen: 

"We have received your favor of the 30th May, and 
you may rest assured we shall eagerly embrace all proper 
opportunities of contributing our mite towards bringing to 
a favorable issue the unhappy disputes which at present ex- 
ist between the Parent State and her Colonies. 

" You say that ' a speedy and united and vigorous effort 
is certainly all that can be depended upon to yield us any 
effectual relief, and that this effort is on all hands acknow- 
ledged to be the suspension of trade so wisely defined by 
you.' To the first we entirely concur ; but in the last we 
apprehend you have made a mistake, for on revising our let- 
ter to you, far from finding a word mentioned of a ' suspen- 
sion of trade,' the idea is not even conceived. That and 
every other resolution we have thought most prudent to 
leave for the discussion of the proposed General Congress. 

" Adhering, therefore, to that measure, as most conducive 
to promote the, grand system of politics we all have in view, 
we have the pleasure to acquaint you that we shall be ready 
on our part to meet at any time and place that you shall think 
fit to appoint ; either of Deputies from the General Assem- 
blies, or such other Deputies as shall be chosen, not only to 
speak the sentiments, but also to pledge themselves for the con- 
duct of the people of the respective Colonies they represent 

" We can undertake to assure you in behalf of the peo- 
ple in this Colony that they will readily agree to any measure 
that shall be adopted by the General Congress. It will be 
necessary that you give a sufficient time for the Deputies of 
the Colonies as far southward as the Carolinas to assemble 
and acquaint them as soon as possible with the proposed 
measure of a Congress. These letters to the southward we 
will forward with great pleasure. 



go COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

" You may have seen all the names of our Committee in 
the public prints, and as we have never heard the names 
of those which constitute your Committee, we request the 
favor of you to give us that satisfaction in your next. 

" We beg that your letters for the future may be sealed 
and directed to our Chairman. 

"We are, Gentlemen, your friends and most humble 
servants. By order of the Committee, 

" I. Low, Chairman." 

In July the concurrence of other Colonies being obtained, 
and the Boston Committee, acting upon the suggestion of 
New York, having named Philadelphia as the place and 
September as the time for the meeting of the Congress, the 
Committee of Correspondence, on the 4th (July, 1774), 
nominated Philip Livingston, James Duane, John Alsop, 
Isaac Low, and John Jay, as delegates for the City and 
County of New York, and called a public meeting to ratify 
their choice. 

The " Body of Mechanics," whose leaders, John Morin 
Scott and Alexander McDougall, had been refused by the 
Committee of Fifty-one as Delegates, presented a new ticket, 
upon which Alexander McDougall and Leonard Lispenard 
were named in the place of James Duane and John Alsop. 
Some difference of opinion arose as to the true mode of choos- 
ing the delegates, but the Committee holding firmly to their 
purpose the rival candidates withdrew their names. All dif- 
ferences were finally healed by an appeal to the people at 
the polls, and at an election held in the seven wards of the 
City on the 28th July, the candidates of the Committee were 
chosen. Three of these delegates were merchants and mem- 
bers of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Meanwhile the radical leaders, discontented with their loss 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. gi 

of control, and without doubt urged by the Boston Commit- 
tee with whom they were leagued in close and friendly 
ties, called a public meeting in the Fields, on the 6th July, 
over which Mr. McDougall (a member of the New York 
Committee of Fifty-one) presided. This meeting, among 
other expressions of opinion, resolved " That a non-importa- 
tion agreement would prove the salvation of North America ;" 
instructed the deputies to Congress to establish a non-impor- 
tation act ; and ordered that the Committee of Correspond- 
ence be instructed to carry their resolutions into effect. 

The next day the call for the "Meeting in the Fields" and 
the course of Mr. McDougall in acting as its Chairman were 
discussed in the Committee-room. It was justly claimed 
that it was unfair to the Committee for a member of it to 
submit " resolves calculated for partial purposes, no motion 
having been made for such resolves in the Committee." 
Warm feeling was shown on both sides, and on the passage 
by a vote of 21 to 9 censuring such proceedings as calculated 
to throw an odium upon the Committee, as well as create dis- 
union in the city, the minority withdrew from the room and 
proclaimed that the Committee was dissolved. 

The Committee then proceeded to express their views 
of the Boston Fort Bill, and of the measures proposed for 
the relief of the sister colony. 

In a report, made on the 13th July, they urged that 
"the proposed Congress of Delegates is the most prudent 
measure that could be devised;" that the whole subject 
should be left in the hands of Congress; . . . that no mea- 
sures calculated to " injure our brethren the manufacturers, 
traders, and merchants in England " should be adopted, ex- 
cept in case of dire necessity (and expressed reliance on the 
co-operation of friends in England) ; . . . " that if a non- 
importation agreement he adopted by Congress^ it ought to he 



92 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

very general and faithfully adhered to, and that a non-impor- 
tation, partially observed like the last, would answer no good 
purpose, but, on the contrary, serve to expose all the Colonies 
to further injuries; .... finally, that the Delegates should 
be SO instructed that they may be able to pledge themselves 
for the good conduct of the people of the Colonies they 
represent." 

With the ^election of the delegates to Congress, the 
object for which the Committee was raised was attained. 
Although occasional meetings were held afterwards, no other 
action was ever taken by it, and on the 15th November it 
was finally ordered, that after a Committee to enforce the 
association of the Congress should be elected, they should 
consider themselves dissolved. There was no later meeting. 

From first to last this Committee never lost sight of the 
object which it set forth in its first letter. Every eJSFort was 
made at the time to force it to adopt again the old and weak, 
measure of a breaking up of commercial intercourse with 
Great Britain, and both in that day and in this their refusal 
has been harshly judged and misrepresented. Had they 
yielded, the scheme of a Congress would, for the time at 
least, have fallen to the ground. It was only when Massa- 
chusetts found that New York would be satisfied with noth- 
ing else than a Congress, that she came into the often pro- 
posed but always rejected scheme. 

Towards the end of August the Eastern delegates ar- 
rived in the city on their way to Philadelphia, to the first 
Continental Congress, and were entertained with great hospi- 
tality. John Adams' account alludes to the courtesy with 
which they were received. "We dined in the Exchange 
Chambers at the invitation of the Committee of Correspond- 
ence, with more than fifty gentlemen, at the most splendid 
dinner I ever saw; a profusion of rich dishes, &c., &c." 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. gj 

He has left a record, too, of the style in which Mr. Low. 
then lived, and of the charms of his family. His house was 
at this time in Little Dock Street. " We breakfasted with 
Mr. Low, a gentleman of fortune and in trade. His lady 
is a beauty. Rich furniture, again, on the tea-table." 

Abundant concurrent testimony bears witness to the fas- 
cination of the wife of Mr. Low. 

Mrs. Grant, in her "Memoirs of an American lady" (Ma- 
dame Schuyler), pays a beautiful tribute to the merits and 
graces of the two unmarried daughters of Mr. Cuyler, nieces 
and constant companions of Mrs. Schuyler. " They were, from 
their beauty and their manners, the ornaments of her society, 
while their good sense, ripened by being called early into 
action, made these amiable and elegant young women more 

a comfort and assistance than a care or charge The 

eldest niece, a remarkably fine young woman, was mar- 
ried to Mr. C. (Cortland) of C. (Cortland) manor, which 
was accounted one of the best matches, or rather the very 
best, in the province. She was distinguished by a figure 
of uncommon grace and dignity, a noble and expressive 
countenance, and a mind such as her appearance led one to 

expect Her younger sister, equally admired, though 

possessing a different style of beauty, more soft and debo- 
nair, with the fairest complexion, and a most cheerful sim- 
plicity of aspect, was the peculiar favorite of her aunt above 
all that she ever had charge of She, too, was soon after 
married to that highly esteemed patriot, the late Isaac 
L(ow), revered, through the whole continent, for his sound 
good sense and genuine public spirit. He was indeed hap- 
pily tempered, mild, and firm." 

The departure of the city delegates for this the first 
Continental Congress on the 1st September, was the occasion 
of a popular demonstration, of which Mr. Low received a 

32 



94 



COLONIAL NEW YORK. 



marked share. "Gaines's New York Gazette " of Septem- 
ber 5th thus describes it: "Mr. Low being under the Neces- 
sity of going by Way of Powles Hook, he was escorted to 
the Ferry Stairs by a considerable number of respectable 
persons, with Colours flying, Music playing, and loud Huz- 
zas at the End of each Street. When they got down to the 
River, he in a very polite Manner took Leave of the Inhab- 
itants, six of whom accompanied him and his Lady over, with 
Music playing God save the King. The Inhabitants then 
returned to the Coffee House to testify the like Respect to 
the other delegates." 

On the 5th September, 1774, the Congress assembled at 
the Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia. All the New York 
members were present. 

The next day two Committees were appointed, one 
upon the Rights of the Colonies; the other "to examine 
and report the several statutes which affect the trade and 
manufactures of the Colonies." Upon this latter, composed 
of eleven delegates, one from each Colony represented in 
the Congress, Mr. Isaac Low sat for New York. 

The opinions of Mr. Low are given in John Adams' 
sketches of the debate. On the 6th of October Mr. Low 
said, 

"Gentlemen have been transported by their zeal into 
reflections upon an order of men who deserve it the least 
of any men in the community. (It is clear that he was 
defending the merchants from some unjust attack.) 

" We ought not to deny the just rights of our mother 
country. We have too much reason in this Congress to 
suspect that independency is aimed at. 

" I am for a resolution against any tea, Dutch as well as 
English. 

" We ought to consider the consequences, possible as 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 95 

well as probable, of every resolution we take, and provide 
ourselves with a retreat or a resource. 

" What would be the consequence of an adjournment 
of the Congress for six months ? or a recommendation of a 
new election of another to meet at the end of six months ? 
Is not it possible they may make it criminal, as treason, 
misprision of treason, or felony, or a praemunire, both in the 
Assemblies who choose and in the members who shall accept 
the trust? Would the assemblies or members be intimi- 
dated ? Would they regard such an act ? 

" Will, can the people bear a total interruption of the 
West India trade ? Can they live without rum, sugar, and 
molasses ? Will not this impatience and vexation defeat 
the measure ? This would cut up the revenue by the roots, 
if wine, fruit, molasses, and sugar were discarded as well 
as tea. 

" But a prohibition of all exports to the West Indies 
will annihilate the fishery, because they cannot afford to lose 
the West India market, and thus would throw a multitude 
of families in our fishing towns into the arms of famine." 

On the 20th October the Congress formed itself into an 
Association of Non-Importation and Non-Exportation, and 
to this agreement Mr. Low subscribed his name. , 

The first Continental Congress, although but ill fitted, 
from the want of uniformity in the representation of the 
different Colonies to assume the functions of government, 
was a great step towards union. They styled themselves 
" the. guardians of the rights and liberties of the Colonies." 
They walked in the old beaten track trodden in 1765. 
They put forth a " Declaration of Rights," but their sole 
measure of redress was the Non-Exportation Act, to take 
effect after the 10th of September, 1774, and the Non-Im- 
portation Act, to date from the 1st of December of the 



g6 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

same year. It finally dissolved itself on the 26th October, 

1774- 

Agreeably to the resolution of Congress, the Committee 

of Correspondence appointed a day for an election of sixty 

Persons, who were styled " The Committee for carrying into 

execution the Association entered into by the Continental 

Congress." Of this Committee of Sixty, or Observation, as 

it is generally called, elected by the freeholders at large of 

the city, Mr. Low was also the Chairman. 

In March, lyy^, the New York Assembly, having re- 
fused to appoint delegates to the second continental Con- 
gress, the Committee of Observation {0/ Sixty) recommend- 
ed the voters of the city to elect deputies to a Provincial 
Convention, " for the sole purpose of appointing out of their 
own Body delegates for the next Congress." This election 
was the occasion of a fresh dispute in the city. Mr. Low, 
and the more moderate men of the old Committee of Cor- 
respondence, were desirous of confining the number of the 
New York Delegates to Five, well satisfied that the dele- 
gates to the First Congress would be renominated, while the 
friends of McDougall, determined to put him upon the 
Convention, proposed to raise the number to eleven, and 
carried this point in the Committee Chamber. 

An election was held in the city the 15th March, 1775. 
and Philip Livingston, John Jay, James Duane, John Al- 
sop, Isaac Low, Francis Lewis, Abraham Walton, Abraham 
Brasher, Alexander McDougall, Leonard Lispenard and 
Isaac Roosevelt were returned by a great majority of the 
Delegates for New York. 

The next day the counties were asked to join in the 
Convention. 

A Letter addressed to them by Mr. Low, on this occa- 
sion, urged " that the Honour, as well as the Interest of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 97 

the Provinces, requires that New York also should be fully 
and properly represented in the next Congress," and express- 
ed the belief that they are " fully sensible that the Happiness 
of this Colony, and the Preservation of our Rights and 
Liberties, depend on their acceding to the General Union, 
and observing such a Line of conduct as may be firm as 
well as Temperate." 

Upon the organization of the Convention, which met at 
the Exchange in New York, 20th April, 1775, Mr. Low 
did not appear with his colleagues, and, on being called 
upon by the Secretary, to inform the Convention whether 
it was to consider him as a member, (as by the terms of 
their appointment delegates could only be selected out of 
their own body,) he replied, that as he had given notice to 
the Committee that, if the number of Delegates for New 
York was raised to eleven, he should decline to serve and 
had afterwards published a declaration to the same effect, 
that the city might fill the vacancy, he should not serve in 
the Convention. The old wound given by McDougall 
the yearbefore was not yet healed, and with his usual inde- 
pendence and tenacity, Mr. Low refused to recede from the 
position he had taken. The respect in which he was held 
is seen in the mode in which the Convention excuse them- 
selves from not renominating him to the Congress. They 
Resolved unanimously " that this Convention, sensible of the 
services of the Delegates from this Colony, who attended 
the Continental Congress, in order to express their approba- 
tion of their conduct, and as a mark of the confidence re- 
posed in them, have unanimously re-elected all of their 
Delegates to attend the next Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia, except Mr. Isaac Low, who had previously de- 
clared that the Convention was not to consider him as a 
member of this Convention, and is therefore ineligible." 
7 



98 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

The Convention adjourned on Saturday the 22d. 

The next day, Sunday, 23d April, " reports were received 
from Rhode Island and New London, that an Action had 
happened between the King's Troops and the Inhabitants 
of Boston which were not credited ; " but about 12 o'clock an 
express arrived from Watertown with the details of the fight 
at Lexington, and later a second Express from Fairfield, with 
an account of the affair, attested to (as a " true copy, as 
received by Express from New Haven") by Jonathan Sturges 
and others of the Fairfield Committee of Correspondence. 

" The news," — says Colonel Willet, an eye-witness and 
actor in the scenes he narrates,- — "produced a general in- 
surrection of the Populace, who assemblyed and not being 
able to procure the key of an arsnell where a number of 
arms belonging to the Colonial Government were deposited, 
forced open the door and took possession of those arms, 
consisting of about 600 muskets, with Bayonets and Car- 
tridge boxes to each, filled with ball cartridges. These arms 
were distributed among the most active of the citizens who 
forijied themselves into a Voluntary Corps, and assumed the 
Government of the City. They possessed themselves of 
the keys of the Custom House, and took possession of all 
the public stores. There was a general stagnation of busi- 
ness. The armed citizens were constantly parading about 
the city without any Definite object." 

The letter to the Counties, dated 28th April, alluded 
to " the distressed and alarming situation of our country, 
occasioned by the sanguinary measures adopted by the 
British ministry (to enforce which the sword has actually 
been drawn against our brethren in the Massachusetts), 
threatening to involve this Continent in all the horrors 
of a civil war," as obliging the Committee to " call for 
the united aid and council of the Colony at this dangerous 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



99 



crisis ; " and urged that no arguments could be wanting to 
evince the " necessity of a perfect union;" and that there 
was no method in which the united sense of the people of 
the Province could be collected but the one proposed. 

This state of affairs called for new powers, and the Com- 
mittee of Observation resolved to propose to the people the 
choosing of a new Committee, and the calling of a Provincial 
Congress. 

New York Committee Chamber, | 
26th April, 1775. j 

The Committee, having taken into consideration the 
commotions occasioned by the sanguinary measures pur- 
sued by the British Ministry, and that the Powers with 
which this Committee is invested respect only the Associa- 
tion, are unanimously of opinion that a new Committee be 
elected by the Freeholders and Freemen of this City and 
County for the present unhappy exigency of Affairs, as well 
as to observe the Conduct of all Persons touching the Asso- 
ciation; That the said Committee consist of 100 Persons; 
that 33 be a Quorum, and that they dissolve within a Fort- 
night next after the end of the next Session of the Conti- 
nental Congress . . . And this Committee is further unani- 
mously of Opinion, That, at the present alarming Juncture, 
it is highly advisable that a Provincial Congress be imme- 
diately summoned, &c. &c. Isaac Low, Chairman. 

The Committee appointed the Friday succeeding for 
the election. But it appears that another division occurred, 
as on Friday an appeal was addressed to the citizens by the 
Chairman. 

" To the Freeholders and Freemen of the City and County 
of New York : 
" We regret, Gentlemen, the necessity we are under of 



lOO COLONIAL NEW YORK, 

addressing you upon this occasion ; and perceive, with anx- 
iety, the disorder and confusion into which this city has 
been unfortunately involved. 

" From cool and temperate counsels only, good conse- 
quences may be expected; nor can union (so essential to 
the success of our cause) be preserved unless every member 
of society will consent to be governed by the sense of the 
majority, and join in having that sense fairly and candidly 
ascertained, 

" Conscious that the powers you conferred upon us were 
not adequate to the present exigency of affairs, we were 
unanimously of opinion that another Committee should be 
appointed ; and well knowing that questions of the highest 
moment and last importance would come under their 
consideration, and call for their determination, we thought 
it most advisable that it should consist of a large number in 
order that by interesting many of weight and consequence in 
all public measures, they might meet with the more advo- 
cates, receive less opposition, and be attended with more 
certain success. 

" The names of loo persons were mentioned by this 
Committee, — ^you were at liberty to approve or reject them 
and appoint others in their room ; and that your sense 
might be the better taken, polls in each ward were directed 
to be opened : What could be more fair ? 

" By all means. Gentlemen, let us avoid divisions ; and 
instead of cherishing a spirit of animosity against one 
another, let us join in forwarding a reconciliation of all 
parties, and thereby strengthen the general cause. 

" Many, no doubt, have become objects of distrust and 
suspicion ; and perhaps not without reason. You have now 
an opportunity of trying them. It surely never can be 
good policy to put it out of their power to join us heartily. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. lOI 

It is time enough to reject them when they refuse us their 
aid. In short, Gentlemen, consider that our contest is for 
Liberty, and therefore we should be extremely cautious how 
we permit our struggles to hurry us into acts of violence 
and extravagance inconsistent with freedom. 

" Permit us to entreat you to consider these matters 
seriously, and act with temper as well as firmness ; and by 
all means join in the appointment of some Committee to 
whom you may resort for counsel, and who may rescue you 
from tumult, anarchy, and confusion. 

" We take the liberty therefore of recommending it to 
you to go to the usual places of election in each of your 
wards on Monday next at 9 o'clock in the morning, and 
then and there give your voices for a committee of 100; to 
consist of such persons as you may think most worthy of 
confidence, and most capable of the arduous task. 

" Being also fully persuaded of the necessity of a Provin- 
cial Convention being summoned with all possible expe- 
dition, we recommend it to you, at the same time, to choose 
21 deputies to represent this city and county, in such Con- 
vention ; to meet here on the 22d day of May next. 
" By Order of the Committee, 

" Isaac Low, Chairman. 
" New York, April 28th, 1775." 

This Address seems to have had the desired effect, and 
on Monday the 1st May the General Committee of 100 
and the twenty-one deputies to the Provincial Congress were 
elected. 

Of this Committee, known by the name of the Commit- 
tee of One Hundred, Mr. Isaac Low was also chosen chair- 
man. 

The Provincial Congress met in this city at the Ex- 



I02 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

change on the 22d May, and assumed the- direction of 
affairs. Mr. Low was a constant attendant at its meetings, 
and was appointed to its most important duties. He was 
made one of the Committee selected to consider the 
expediency of emitting a Continental paper currency, and 
reported in favor of the plan early in June. He was also 
upon the Committee to prepare a plan for an accom- 
modation between Great Britain and the Colonies, and to 
advise Congress of the same. As yet only the most rad- 
ical of the New York members entertained the idea of a 
formal and permanent separation from the mother-country. 

This Provincial Congress finally adjourned on the 30th 
June, 1776. A new Provincial Congress met at White 
Plains on the 9th July of the same year, which on the 15th 
changed its title to " the Convention of the Representatives 
of the State of New York." 

In the intervals between the sessions of these bodies. 
New York was governed by a Committee of Safety raised 
by them. 

Mr. Low's opinions, like those of many of the time, 
were all against a separation from the mother-country. A 
redress of the wrongs of the Colonies, within the British 
Empire, was the object of his hopes. There were many 
who felt that it was a desertion of the men who had fought 
their battles in the British Parliament to break away from 
them forever. New York was closely connected with Great 
Britain. Letters passed freely between her merchants and 
the leaders of the great Whig party. Many in England 
looked upon the struggle as a common cause. Indeed, 
the sword was drawn in America in the King's name, and 
the early commissions granted, ordered their holders to act 
in his interest. 

In the Congress of '74, Mr. Low had strongly ex- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. IO3 

pressed himself against Independence ; and when the Con- 
gress of '76 broke the last tie which bound the Colonies to the 
mother-country, and ushered into the world a new nation, 
his sympathies were all against the movement. 

He retired from the city to the Raritan. Here it 
seems that he was at one time arrested and confined by 
the New Jersey Convention, in consequence of a letter of 
General Washington " advising that body that a number 
of persons deemed unfriendly to the interests of America 
were suspected of holding a correspondence with the ene- 
my from Shrewsbury ; " but upon the General's statement 
that he had received satisfaction with respect to Mr. Low, 
he was released. On the occupation of New York by the 
British he returned to the city, and in 1777 was named 
one of the Vestry for the relief of the poor. 

At a later period Mr. Low seems to have entered heart 
and soul into the British cause, while his brother, Nicholas 
Low, rendered valuable services to .the American cause, and 
was one of the tried and trusty counsellors of the Patriot 
party. 

The family connections of Mr. Low mostly shared his 
opinions. The brothers Hugh and Alexander Wallace — 
the former of whom was a member of the King's Council 
— had married sisters of Mr. Low, and were strong loyal- 
ists ; and the family of his wife (the Cuylers) were equally 
devoted to the Royal cause. One of her brothers, Cornelius 
Cuyler, was in the British service, and rose to high rank and 
honors : he became a Major General, and was knighted. 

To Mr. Low may probably be attributed the revival of 
the Chamber of Commerce and the exercise of its functions 
and influence in aid of the military authorities. 

Mr. Low had been elected President of this mercantile 
body in May, 1775 ; but the state of public affairs was such 



I04 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

that no meetings had been held from that day until June, 
1779, when, the business of the city having somewhat re- 
vived under the authority granted by the King's Commis- 
sioners (the Earl of Carlisle, Sir Henry Clinton, and Mr. 
William Eden), in the preceding fall, a Chamber was con- 
vened. There was, however, little or no healthy commerce 
in the city. The packet had given way to the privateer ; 
the white-winged messenger of Peace and Civilization 
was turned into the instrument of death and destruction ; 
the creature of commerce, its powers were used against 
the author of its being. The extent to which privateering 
was carried is quite surprising. The columns of the news- 
papers teem with lists of captured vessels and notices of 
public vendues of their cargoes. Between the eighteenth of 
September, 1778, and the eighth of March, 1779, one hun- 
dred and twenty-one Letters of Marque were issued by 
Governor Tryon, and their holders brought in one hundred 
and sixty-five vessels which, with their cargoes, were val- 
ued at six hundred thousand pounds. On the other hand 
the patriots were not idle, and the hardy seamen of the coast 
pursued and captured the British traders on every sea, and 
at times cut out whole fleets of merchantmen from under the 
guns of their convoys. Until the close of the war the Cham- 
ber continued to render most efficient service to the authori- 
ties ; in fact, the city was governed by its advice. The records 
contain but little else than debates on regulations asked of 
the Chamber by the Commandant and his subordinates. 

In 1779 the property of Mr. Low was confiscated. At 
the close of the war he withdrew from the city and made 
his residence in England. He died at Cowes, in the Isle 
of Wight, 25th July, 1791. His only son, Isaac, was, in 
1815, a Commissary General in the British Army, and living 
near Lyndhurst, in the New Forest, Hants. 



ANTHONY VAN DAM. 

FIRST SECRETARY OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
1768-1783. 




|ONG after the downfall of the power of Holland 
in the New Netherlands, a scion of the sturdy old 
Dutch stock rose, in spite of the prejudice of race 
with which the early settlers were looked upon by the Eng- 
lish Colonists, to the chief post of honor in the State, and 
revived the memory of the Great Republic. 

The early history of Albany preserves the name of Claes 
Ripse Van Dam, a leading trader in the little settlement 
which had clustered about Fort Orange before its surrender 
to the English in 1664. He was an Alderman, Commis- 
sioner to the Indians, and held other places of trust in the 
infant village. 

Rip Van Dam, whose short rule of the New York Col- 
ony fills a bright page in its annals, is thought to have been 
a son of the old Dutch trader. He was born at Albany 
about the middle of the seventeenth century, though at what 
date is now unknown. Members of his family resided and 
traded there many years after his removal to New York. 

From trading as a captain in one of his own vessels, the 
Sloop Catharine, with the West Indies, he rose as early as the 
beginning of the eighteenth century to the first rank among 
the merchants of the city ; his name appears even before this 



I06 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

period (in 1690), together with those of De Lancey, Van 
Cortlandt, De Peyster, Stuyvesant, Bayard, and De Forest, 
the principal inhabitants of the Province, in a petition to 
William and Mary for reUef against the measures of Leis- 
ler. From this time forward he took open and manly stand 
against all abuses, and watched eagerly over all that affected 
the Trade of the young Colony. Indeed, his first entrance 
into the exciting scenes of politics seems to have been on oc- 
casion of the seizure of his vessels for alleged infringements 
of the Customs Laws during Bellomont's administration. 
Mr. Van Dam eagerly threw himself into the opposition which 
shortly secured the upper hand in the Government. On the 
arrival of Lord Cornbury he was, in June, 1702, appointed 
one of the Council. The Republican party, of which Mr. 
Van Dam was an active leader, had gained great power. 
William NicoU and Lewis Morris, in the Assembly, had 
taken advantage of the needs of the Government, at the 
time of the expedition to Canada, to wring from it cer- 
tain concessions. They had refused all supplies until they 
were granted the power to issue bills of credit for the Colo- 
ny, and until their chief, Morris, was made Chief Justice of 
the Province — the first native of America who held that 
office. 

Mr. Van Dam held his seat in the Council for a long 
period. On the 1st July, 1731, on the death of Governor 
Montgomerie, he became, as senior councillor. President of 
the Council and acting Governor of the Province. This 
position he held until the arrival of Governor Crosby, Aug. 
h 1732- 

Smith, the great authority upon the history of this period, 
speaks in terms of slight of the administrative abilities of 
President Van Dam. On the death of Governor Montgo- 
merie, July 1, 1731, "the chief command then devolved 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 107 

upon Rip Van Dam, Esquire, he being the oldest councillor 
and an eminent merchant of a fair estate, though distinguish- 
ed more for the integrity of his heart than his capacity to 
hold the reins of government. This administration is un- 
fortunately signalised by the memorable encroachments at 
Crown Point ; " — the reason for his poor opinion of Mr. 
Van Dam's powers being what he terms his tardy notice of 
the danger which would result to the English Colonies 
from the French fort at Crown Point. Smith charges that 
the first news of this danger came from Governor Belcher 
of Massachusetts. A reference to the New York Council 
Minutes disproves the correctness of this statement. It there 
appears (vol. xvi. 174) that the letter of Belcher was in 
answer to one written by Van Dam. The Government of 
New York had notice of the design of the French as early 
as Dec. 3, 1730 (ibid. 73), and two months after the Ex- 
ecutive power fell into his hands, the subject was kid before 
the New York General Assembly by President Van Dam. 

On the 2d November, 1731, Van Dam wrote to the 
Board of Trade, London, on the subject. (Col. Doc. v. 925.) 
The letter of Governor Belcher was not received until some 
months later, and was communicated by Van Dam 4th Feb- 
ruary, 1732. (Smith, 220.) 

"Die Jovis, 9 ho. a. m., Sept. 30, 1731. Col. Myndert 
Schuyler brought from the President a Letter from the Com- 
missioners of Indian affairs at Albany ; as also a minute of 
their meeting dated the 25th inst., importing, that the French, 
with about eighty men, had built a Fort and inclosed it with 
Stockadoes, at the Crown Point on the south end of Corlar's 
Lake, near the Carrying Place above Saratoga; that they 
had also built a House of forty feet, and were busy to erect 
two more there ; and that the Persons who brought this ac- 
count did add, that they were credibly informed in Canada, 



I08 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

that the French designed to inclose the said Fort and Build- 
ings with a Stone Wall, next spring ; and they positively 
designed to go up at the same time with 200 men to Fiede- 
rodequat, lying on the south side of Cadaragua Lake, above 
Oswego, near the Senekas Country, in order to stop the Eng- 
lish trade in Oswego. 

" The House, taking the same into consideration, are 
justly apprehensive that if these attempts and encroach- 
ments are not prevented, they may prove of the last conse- 
quence not only to this Colony, but also to several others 
of his Majesty's Colonies on this continent. Inasmuch as 
the French can march from Crown Point in three Days to 
Albany itself (whereby the frontiers would be extreamely ex- 
posed), in case a Rupture should happen between that crown 
and Great Britain, and in the meanwhile they may at Fiede- 
rodequat obstruct the Beaver and Fur Trade at Oswego, 
which has been acquired there at a vast expence; " and there- 
fore came to sundry Resolutions: 'i. That the President 
represent the case to the King. 2. That the Commissioners 
of Indian affairs at Albany dispose the Six Nations, particu- 
larly the Senekas, to prevent the French from obstructing 
the trade ; and finally, that his Honor be further addressed 
that he will be pleased to send Copies of the above-men- 
tioned Letter and Minute to the Governor of Connecticut, 
of the Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, in as much as the 
said attempts may affect them likewise.' 

So far as the judgment of the historian depended on his 
incorrect information on this important matter, it is clear that 
it was erroneous. The error of Smith, in his statement, was 
first pointed out by Dr. O'Callaghan, in a MS. note, com- 
municated to the New York Historical Society. 

The pride of power worked no change in the heart or 
conduct of Mr. Van Dam. As chief of the State he was 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



109 



always faithful to his views of right and duty, without a 
thought of self His course offers one of those rare instances 
of a use of office to secure the rights of the governed rather 
than to add to the pow^er of the governors. There is no 
axiom of government more true, than that authority seeks 
to increase rather than abate the extent of its power. Perhaps 
he had drawn his lesson from the then late example of the 
self-denying character of the great Stadtholder. Tenacity 
has always been a leading trait in the Dutch character. 

Rip Van Dam married Sarah Vanderspiegle in the city 
of New York on the 14th day of September, 1684. By 
her he had many children. The baptisms of fifteen are 
given in the records of the Dutch church, between the 
years 1685 and 1707. The tenth and eleventh of these 
children were twins. 

Many of this large family lived to years of maturity, and 
allied themselves with some of the most powerful families 
of New York. Rip, Richard, and Isaac, continued the name 
in the male line. Rip married Judith Bayard; Richard, 

Cornelia Beekman ; Isaac, Isabella . Of the daughters, 

Maria was married to Nicholas Parcel ; Catalyntie to Wal- 
ter Thong, whose daughter Mary was the wife of Robert, 
third proprietor of the manor of Livingston. Elizabeth 
married, 1st, John Sybrandt; 2d, Jacobus Kiersted. 

Isaac Van Dam, son of Rip Van Dam and Sarah Van- 
derspiegle, was born in New York, and baptized , in the 
Dutch Church on the 9th January, 1704. Of his life little 
is known now ; his marriage does not appear upon the Book 
of New York marriages. He was named one of the ex- 
ecutors of the will of his father, whom he outlived but a 
few months. 

He died on the 10th December, 1749, the last surviving 
son of Rip Van Dam. His will, proved 7th May, 1750, 



33 



no COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

is recorded in the Surrogate's office of New York. In 
it he names six children— four sons, Anthony, Rip, Isaac, 
John ; and two daughters, Sarah and Catharine Mary. 

Anthony Van Dam, the eldest son of Isaac Van Dam 
and Isabella his wife, was born (doubtless in the City of 
New York) in 1731, the year of his grandfather's adminis- 
tration of the government of New York Colony. Of his 
early life nothing is known. The first notice of him as a 
merchant, to be met with, appeared in the New Tork Mer- 
cury for November 12, 1753. 

" Corne & Van Dam, at their store in King Street, next 
to Captain Waddell's, Have Imported Yard-wide Venetians, 
and cross-barred hungarians, watered chines, callimancoes, 
blue, red and green worsted plush, tammies, garlix, bed-ticks, 
china blue calicoe cambricks, common and white chapel 
needles, pins in packs and pounds, best London pewter, 
pint and quart mugs, tea and milk pots, porringers, a large 
assortment of tin ware, nales, sod irons, corks of all kinds, 
shovels, tongs, brass cocks, jew's-harps, iron coffee-mills, 
mouse traps, gimlets, knitting-needles, frying-pans, candle- 
sticks, spades, compasses, saws, bellowses, hob-nails, with 
sundry other goods too tedious to mention." The Corne of 
this firm was Peter Corne, one of the most noted captains 
of the Port of New York. On the 24th December of the 
same year the name of the firm was signed to the agreement 
entered into, by the principal merchants, no longer "to 
receive Copper halfpence otherwise than fourteen for a shil- 
ling." On the first of May, 1754, they removed to the 
house of the Widow Henderson in Queen Street, between 
the Fly and Meal Markets, where they again advertise " a 
choice assortment of hosiery and all sorts of iron-mongery 
for ready money or short credit." Notices of importation, 
from London, of European and India goods by the Packets 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. HI 

occasionally appear. Their business does not seem to have 
been prosperous, and the firm was shortly broken up. They 
announce in the New York Mercury of Oct. lo, 1757, that, 
their partnership having been some time dissolved, their 
debtors must pay before 20th November, " as they intend 
for England this winter;" and on the 12th December fol- 
lowing they inform their delinquent debtors that they are 
indulged till 24th December, after which they will have 
their accounts to settle with an attorney, the firm being 
"determined to have their business settled by the 1st Jan- 
uary." 

Though their mercantile house was dissolved, the part- 
ners had many subsequent joint transactions. On the 28th 
October, 1757, Peter Come and Anthony Van Dam, mer- 
chants and owners of the Brigantine " Betsey " (6 guns) , 
applied for a Commission for the captain of this vessel. 
She was evidently about to start on a privateering expedi- 
tion against the French, the war between England and 
France then being at its height. On the 24th October of 
the next year Anthony Van Dam and Company again ap- 
ply for a captain's commission, this time for Peter Corne 
himself, who resumed his old profession and took command 
of the Brigantine " Nebuchadnezzar," of 8 guns. Captain 
Corne was used to this adventurous life, and had long expe- 
rience in trading on the coast of Africa, and in the private 
cruises which were the fashion of the day. The records of 
the Colonies in the last century are full of accounts of these 
ventures, and it may be truly said that the whole American 
coast from Maine to Georgia swarmed with bold, adventur- 
ous, and too often unscrupulous privateers, who preyed upon 
the commerce of each of the great European nations in turn. 
Large fortunes were rapidly made in this manner. Rich 
Spanish Galleons, laden with the wealth of Mexico and 



112 COLONIAL NEW YORK, 

Peru; French ships, filled with the spices and coffee of 
their Indian provinces, and cargoes of West India Sugars 
and Rum, were constantly being brought into port to the 
joy of the inhabitants, who followed the career of their 
townsmen with interest, and to their own great benefit. 
By sea, as well as by land, the Colonies were gaining an 
experience and self-reliance, which was soon to be used in 
a mode then little dreamed of by British statesmen. 

The next year Mr. Van Dam made some other business 
connection. He had probably been to England during the 
summer, and selected his goods for the coming season. On 
the i8th December, 1758, Anthony Van Dam & Co. an- 
nounce, in the " New York Mercury," that " they have just 
opened the store next door to Mr. Stuyvesant's, in King 
. Street, and have to sell, for ready money only, a variety of 
India and European Goods at the Lowest Prices." This 
rather unusual demand warrants the inference that the young 
merchant had but little money in his business. 

In 1759 he appears to have given up the idea of sup- 
porting himself by trade only, and accepted the post of 
Clerk of the New York Insurance Office. Their first 
notice appeared in the " New York Mercury," on the 29th 
October, 1759. The office was opened at the House of 
the Widow Smith, adjoining the Merchants' Coffee House, 
which stood on the site recently occupied by the Journal of 
Commerce. Here Mr. Van Dam, " Clerk of the Office," 
promised constant attendance from the Hours of Eleven to 
One, and from Six to Eight in the Evening. He was con- 
nected with this office for many years. He signed, for the 
office, the subscription list for the publication of Bernard 
Roman's Maps of Florida in 1775. 

The quiet, simple old Dutch habits were fast changing. 
The " Englishmen from Britain " brought in new fashions 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



113 



and customs with their new tongue. The shops which in 
the good old days of the Stuy vesants and Van Dams were 
plain and substantial, now shone " with painted glare and 
display." The English shopkeepers brought over the last 
London styles. The Hollanders, who loved long and easy 
lives, always closed their stores early enough for an after- 
noon ride or drive in the Bowerie or Bloomendale roads in 
the spring and fall, a walk on the river-banks in the summer 
evenings, or a sleighing in the winter, and all classes of the 
people joined in the amusements. The English opened 
their stores at night as well as by day, and pursued the 
dollar as ardently in the last century as the most eager in 
this. The old language too was almost forgotten, and 
schoolmasters announced instruction in the Dutch and Latin, 
as though both tongues were alike strange. 

With new habits and hours of business they also intro- 
duced a new beverage, which was destined to become one 
of the civilizers of the world, and to do more to refine 
society than any invention of science or act of legislation. 
Ale-drinking had given way to tea-drinking. The fair 
hands of lovely dames no longer swung the heavy tankard, 
and the foam of beer marred no more the beauty of their 
rosy lips. Men left their deep potations to watch the grace- 
ful play of taper fingers dallying with delicate cups of por- 
celain and light spoons of precious metal. At the tea-table 
woman reigned supreme. That soft influence which could 
humanize a Johnson, soon modified the relations of the 
sexes and added to social life a charm before unknown : 
yet not without a murmur here and there from some 
conservative Englishman, who would fain cling to the old 
customs. In 1754 the muse herself was invoked in their 
support. A poem which appeared in the New Tork Mer- 
cury has these lines : 
8 



114 COLONIAL NEW YORK. 

" 'Twas better for each British Virgin, 
When on roast Beef, strong Beer, and Sturgeon, 
Joyous to Breakfast they sat round. 
Nor was ashamed to eat a Pound. 
These were the Manners, these the Ways, 
In good Queen Bess's golden Days." 

The tea-table is now a recognized institution the world 
over, and that region is indeed benighted which has not 
been visited by some John Bull with his national tea-pot 
and felt the influence