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Full text of "Ancient double-entry bookkeeping. Lucas Pacioli's treatise (A. D. 1494--the earliest known writer on bookkeeping) reproduced and translated with reproductions, notes and abstracts from Manzoni, Pietra, Mainardi, Ympyn, Stevin and Dafforne"

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Cornell University Library 
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Ancient double-entry bookkeeping. 

3 1924 030 162 147 
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Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

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fllucag ^^aicioli'ss tCreatis^e (^. ©. 1494 

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probuceb anb trans^lateb Ixittf) re))robuc= 
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Copyright 1914 
By the Author 



DeDicateD to ^p ^Ife 

tti{)o$e inftjal? 1 batie altnap? loDeD to connect Uiltt) 

|Wp 2tttle ^tueetljEart, 

tt)lt|)out tt)t)ode patience, klnDness, belp, 
anD inDuIgence, my contcttiutions to t^e 
eDucational ftelD of tge professional 
accountant tooulD not liatie tieen possitile. 



Preface , 

Partial Bibliography . 
Historical Eeferences 


Discursion in Theory. 
Lucas Pacioli 


(By Page Lawrence, C.P.A.) 1 

(By the Author) 3 


Domenico Manzoni 

Don Angelo Pietra 

(By the Author) 8 

(" " " ) 14 

Reproduced (Author's explanation) 17 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) 18 

What was his real name 21 

Abbreviations used 24-25 

Peculiar sayings 27 

Comparative index of the earliest writers 29 

Entire Text (photographic reproduction) 32 to 80 

Complete translation of entire text 33 to 81 

Journal (photographic reproduction) 82 

Author's notes on reproduction 83 

Abstracts from text 84 

Rules for Journalizing -. 85 

Index to original text 85 

Journal and Ledger reproduced (Notes by Author) 87 

Index to original text 89 

Extent of original text 91 

Matteo Mainardi 

Jan Ympyn Christoffels 
Simon Stevin 

Richard Daff orne 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) 93 

Chart ( " " ) 94 

Journal ( " " ) 95to96 

Ledger ( " " ) 97 to 107 

Journal reproduced (Notes by Author) 107 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) 108 

Introduction to Executor's Books ( " " ) 109 

Journal ( " " ) 110 

Title Page ( " " ) 112 

Author's notes 113 

Journal and Ledger reproduced (Notes by Author) 114-118 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) , 

Balance Sheet 

Profit and Loss Account. 



Controlling Account 

Partially reproduced (Notes by Author) . 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) 140 




.122 to 127 

.128 to 135 



Epistle Dedicatory. 
Antiquity of Bookkeeping . 





Trial Balance 

Afterword . 




.147 to 171 


.174 to 179 




By Page Lawrence, C.P.A. 

Nearly all historians, when tracing the growth of an art or science from mere empiricism to the estab- 
lishment of recognized principles, are confronted with an apparent insurmountable gap or complete silence 
during the period known in history as the Dark Ages. 

Archaeological and historical researches have convinced this civilization that in Ancient Babylon, 
Greece and Borne there was a high state of civilization — both industrial and social. 

Today we may study Aristotle's politics with great profit in our attempts to understand the political 
and economic conditions confronting this generation. An acquaintance with the Greek philosophers is es- 
sential in understanding our present philosophical thought. 

It would seem that, since we find so much help in consulting these ancient writers in an attempt to 
solve the political problems of today which are presented by this complex civilization, in a large measure 
at least our mentors must have been confronted with the same economic and industrial difficulties that we 
are attempting to solve now as accountants. 

One is convinced that the ancient writers on political economy and commerce were closely allied with ' 
the scribes or accounta,nts who recorded the business transactions of those days. This allegiance seems to : 
have been lost after the Roman supremacy (and the consequent growth and spread of commerce), and it 
is only within recent years that the modern economist and accountant has acknowledged that a truer un- 
derstanding of modern commerce can be had with cooperation and that the two sciences (economics and 
accounting) are finding so much in common that each is dependent upon the other for a full understanding 
of modern business conditions. 

Mr. John P. Young, Editor of the San Francisco Chronicle, ably presented accounting in antiquity 
before the convention of the American Association of Public Accountants at San Francisco (Year Book 
1911, page 153). He showed that Rome in Cicero's time was dependent upon the independent verifica- 
tion of accounts and statements thereof by one skilled in accountancy. The familiarity with which he 
mentions the accountant would seem to indicate that his place in the Roman social organization was well 

However, after the recorded utterances of Cicero the historian finds in the pages of history no further 
mention of those individuals acknowledged to be skilled in accounts, which we are pleased to call account- 
ants, until the writings of Pacioli in 1494 and Stevin in 1604. 

It seems especially appropriate that one so greatly interested as the author in that work dear to the 
hearts of all progressive accountants, and who has done so much to place the ed^^cation of the accountant 
on equal footing with that of law or medicine, should be the first of modern times to translate this first re- 
corded book of the principles of debit and credit into the English language. 

It is a significant fact that the rules and principles elucidated by Pacioli are contained in a book giveiTJ 
over to mathematics. One cannot help but believe that the derivation of double-entry bookkeeping is an 
explanation of the algebraic equation used with such skill by the ancient Greek mathematicians, applied \ 
practically to the scientific recording of business transactions for, just as in algebra, the equation once 
established cannot be changed but by the addition of positive or negative quantities. 

This work will give an added assurance that the apparently empirical rules of commerce are based 
upon an ancient scientific and mathematical foundation, to those who have attempted to instill into the 
commercial mind the idea that accountancy is a science, the prime requisite of a mastery of which is a thor- 
ough education in the theory of economics and allied sciences supplemented by practical experimentation 
in the application of formulae to practical business situations. 

The accountant has to correct constantly, or at least modify, the attitude of the business man toward 
matters which are his dearest heirlooms handed down from the days of the Ancient Guild system, i. e., 
that the only way to learn how to do business is to do it along the rule-of-thumb method communicated 
from father to son by word of mouth. 

Accountants, who remember the dearth of accountancy literature in this country up to a few short 
years ago, are dumbfounded at the mass of accountancy publications which are constantly fiooding the 
market at this time. While I believe that the profession of accountancy as a whole recognizes the ines- 
timable value of these publications, one cannot help but think in perusing their pages that they are largely 
influenced by the empirical methods of general business, rather than based on scientific principles. In 
other words, on "how" but never "why." 

We are wont to look in vain through mazes of descriptions, forms and precedence of some particular 
business enterprise for a principle of accountancy which can be applied to the specific difficulty we have 
in hand. It should be the aim of some of the brilliant members of the profession of accountancy to take 
the great mass of historical records which have been published in the last few years of how this or that 
business should be kept and, with the aid of recognized authorities on economics, codify, with quotation of 
their source, the scattered and ill defined principles of accountancy for the benefit of accountancy educa- 
tion, and to this end no better examples of axiomatic principles can be had than in the books of Pacioli, 
Pietra and Stevin. 


The author, recognizing from his experience as an educator in accountancy (coming as he did from 
Holland some twenty years ago without knowledge of American commercial practices or language) the 
lack of clearly expressed principles in accountancy, commenced researches which have finally culminated 
in this published translation in English of the first known writings on the subject of double entry book- 

At every turn, in the preachment of the scientific principles of his profession to the commercial mind, 
in his successful efforts for the passage of the Certified Public Accounts law in Colorado, then in his work 
as secretary of the first examining board in that state, in his labors as Dean of the School of Commerce, 
Accounts and Finance of The University of Denver, and as an instructor on practical and theoretical ac- 
countancy subjects and, finally as Chairman of the Educational Committee of The American Association of 
Public Accountants, the author has ever been confronted with the dearth of practical exemplification, his- 
torical or otherwise, of the true foundation of what in modem times might be called the Art of Accountancy. 

To weld together into a well balanced whole the two plans of accountancy education, as embraced in 
the curriculi of universities and colleges offering training to the embryo accountant, has long been the goal 
of his educational endeavors, i. e., to leaven the purely academic training by instructors or professors 
whose own knowledge of accountancy is in the main pedagogical, with the practical knowledge as imparted 
by the practicing accountant and the business man. (The author, in the American Association of Public 
Accountants Year Books for 1911-12-13 and 14, has gone into this subject extensively, showing that educa- 
tional institutions of the country have chosen either the one or the other of the two methods of teaching — 
the academic training in pure theory, treated in much the same manner as economic subjects are presented 
and without the same degree of accuracy, or the practical lecturing upon accountancy subjects by practic- 
ing accountants and business men, supplemented by the best text books obtainable — and urging the while 
the necessity for the development together of the two accountancy educational plans, as is done in Great 

While it is true that to men of little or no practical experience in accountancy must be given the credit 
for producing some of the finest examples of purely theoretical accounting which the literature of accoun- 
tancy has today, the first mentioned criticism that this pedagogical instruction does not teach the actual 
application of the theory to modern business, again applies. On the other hand, with the practical ac- 
countant as the instructor or the writer of text books, too little cannot be said of the difficulty he has in 
imparting to students and laymen the principles which seem exceedingly clear to him. And it was through 
this research, this labor to combine in accountancy education theory with practice and practice with theory, 
that this book was born. It is apparent in reading the ancient works of Pacioli, of Stevin and Pietra, in 
their exhaustive explanations and their lengthy and precise instructions that in their endeavors to system- 
atize the recording of the transactions of commerce of their time, they encountered many of the same sort 
of, if not the identical, problems with which we are confronted today. The modern translations of their 
works, with the author's own views presented as notes, it is believed will shed some light into the darkness 
which has so long shrouded the actual foundation of the practice and the theory of the profession of pub- 
lic accountancy. 

Denver, Colorado, August, 1914. 


As no technical books worth while can be prepared without diligent and persistent research, it natur- 
ally follows that no such works can be produced unless there is material furnished to build upon, and the 
cheapest and easiest foundation is usually the writings of men who have excelled in the same line of en- 
deavor. In other words, a library of books is absolutely essential to the advancement of thought on tech- 
nical and professional subjects. 

WhUe studying to Americanize my knowledge of accountancy twenty years ago, I came to the con- 
clusion that there were then on that subject few modern books and stiU fewer ancient ones. This convic- 
tion was constantly strengthened by conversation with my feUow-workers, and it remained unchanged un- 
til a few years ago. 

When my duties came to include the teaching of accountancy and the direction of the thought of my 
students, the choice of books for their reading became a serious problem. It was then my privilege to start 
the collection of a considerable library of works on accountancy and its allied subjects. 

However, I could learn of but few books of ancient date, and they were so scarce, difficult to get, and 
high priced, that most of them remain yet to be acquired. Among those which I did get is an original 
copy of the oldest published work on bookkeeping. The price for copies of this book ranges from $50 to 
$250, and it is thus not within the means of ordinary students and is even beyond the inclination of ac- 
quisition of many of the most wealthy libraries. It became my desire to have it reproduced, together with a 
free translation of its most important parts. 

This desire increased when my research showed me that the first man to follow the teachings of this^ 
Italian book and to translate it into another language, was a fellow-countryman of mine, a Hollander \ 
named Jan Ympyn Christoffels. He translated it into the Holland, French, and English languages, and 
to this day we foUow his lead, (as outlined in the title of his book), of calling double-entry bookkeeping 
by the use of day book, journal, and ledger, the Italian method of bookkeeping. 

The Hollanders of ancient New Amsterdam (now New York) have left their unmistakable impriat | 
on our American political and social life, by the introduction into this country of many things which orig- 
inated iu their mother-country and which were unknown even in England prior to their use in America. 
To this day many of these things remain unused in England, which is one reason why we are so different 
from the English. Among these things may be mentioned :* 

The recording of deeds and mortgages in a public office ; the equal distribution of property among the 
children of a person dying intestate ; the office of a district attorney in each county ; the practice of giving 
a prisoner the free services of a lawyer for his defense ; the township system, by which each town has local 
self-government; the practice of making prisoners work; the turning of prisons into work houses; the 
system of university education ; free public school system ; the red, white and blue striped flag ; the prin- 
ciples contained in our Declaration of Independence ; the granting of religious freedom ; the cultivation of 
roses ; the present banking system ; the use of reading and spelling books for children ; the telescope ; the 
microscope; the thermometer; the discovery of capillary circulation of the blood; the pendulum clock; 
measuring degrees of latitude and longitude ; the compass ; the wind-mill with movable cap ; the glass hot- 
house ; the use of underclothing ; the bedstead ; the brick ; the game of golf. -^ 

It has seemed to me fitting that another Hollander should present to his American professional breth- 
ren, and put vnthin the reach of every student of accounting, for research and study, a reproduction of 
that prized Italian book, which, as we shall see, has influenced us to such an extent that the principles it 
enunciates as of use in its day, remain the foundation of our present methods of bookkeeping. 

It was not my aim to give a complete literal translation, because much of the text is reiteration and 
pertains to subject-matter purely local and now entirely obsolete, which would necessitate lengthy expla- 
nations of ancient methods of no present value or use. Therefore, numerous foreign terms and ancient 
names have been left untranslated. Furthermore, as the book was written in contemporary Italian, or, in 
other words, in the local dialect of Venice, which is neither Italian nor Latin, it is extremely difficult to get 
local talent sufficiently trained in this work to translate it all literally. 

The old style of writing is unattractive and tiresome to follow. While it is customary and proper in 
translations to follow the original style as much as possible, and to change it no more than is necessary to 
make it readily understood and easily read in modern language, it was found extremely difficult to do that 
in this instance, and furthermore, it would have served no practical purpose. And then, who is there at 
the present time but a scholar of some eminence and a linguist of no mean accomplishment, who will pre- 
sume to say what is correct and what is incorrect ? Such authorities never agree among themselves, and it 
would be useless to attempt to please them all. Therefore, we are extending the translations, not so much 
for academic purposes as for the practical use of less pedantic people, upon the theory that they who wish 
to obtain knowledge of any science must first learn its history and then trace its gradual growth. There 
is hardly another science about which there is as much doubt and darkness as bookkeeping, and therefore we 
merely present this translation as a contribution to the history of bookkeeping. 

•William Elliott Griffls in "The Ladles' Home Journal." 

Criticism has been made of the title of this book, "Ancient Double-Entry Bookkeeping," in the use of 
the word "Ancient" as applied to the year 1493 A. D. The long obscurity of the "Dark Ages," during 
which there was no light whatever upon this important subject, has, in our belief, made the treatise of 
Pacioli ancient, and, further the abrupt "leap through the dark" from this ancient work to the works of 
modern times, we believe justifies the title. 

The reader is further referred to the Grerman translation of Pacioli 's book by B. L. Jager which ap- 
peared in 1876, and the Russian translation by E. G. Waldenberg which was printed in St. Petersburg in 

Pacioli 's book was first photographed and plates made from these photographs. Proof sheets from these 
plates were then sent to Rome, Italy, and there transcribed on a typewriter in modern letters, to facilitate 
translating. The typewritten transcript was then translated into English, which was then compared with 
an existing German translation by Dr. Jager. Discrepancies were carefully noted by reference to the orig- 
inal book, and the best possible corrections made. This method brought to the surface obvious and glar- 
ing short-comings in the German translation, and it also demonstrated our own inability to comprehend 
and properly translate some of the old terms and words, which even the Italy of today has long forgotten. 
With it all then, we are free to admit that in numerous places our English translation is defective. How- 
ever, we are not imposing on those who are better scholars than we, because we give the original Italian 
side by side with our English version, and any one so disposed can easily check it and correct our copy to 
suit his fancy. 

The only object of our endeavors is to give something where there was nothing to those who hereto- 
fore could not avail themselves of the contents of this old and pioneer work on a subject now universally 
recognized as being the foundation of all our modern industrial and commercial problems. 

We ask your indulgence for errors and omissions, and for the price of this book, as the work had to 
be done hastily and cheaply, for the financial success of this enterprise is exceedingly problematical, owing 
to the excessive cost of preparation and reproduction, and the very small possible circulation. The work 
therefore should be viewed largely as a labor of love, a voluntary philanthropic contribution to the pro- 
fession of accountancy. 

Acknowledgment is due and most gladly given to : my wife, a Certified Public Accountant of the State 
of Colorado, who aided with the German translation ; to Mr. Robert Ferrari, LL.D. Roma, Italy, who 
aided with the Italian translation ; to Mr. Henry Rand Hatfield, PH.D., University of California, who crit- 
icized the work; and to Mr. Page Lawrence, C.P.A., who wrote the introduction: — truly a veritable com- 
bination (trust) of formidable minds in restraint of duplication (competition) of this work, a combina- 
tion of love and harmony, for without friends and without consideration for our neighbor there is neither 
peace nor accomplishment. 

The book, therefore, is the result of a faithful compliance with the motto of the Boers of South Africa : 
"Eendracht maakt macht," which translated does not mean, as commonly stated, "In union there is 
strength," but rather that "United, harmonious, loving cooperation to the same lawful end tends toward 
power that brings just results. ' ' 

J. B. Geijsbeek Molenaar. 

Denver, August, 1914. 


1494 to 1636. 

Sixteen of the most influential books out of a possible total of 50 works. 


Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, 
Proportioni et Proportionalita. 

Part 1, Section 9, Treatise 11, 
Particularis de Computis et Scripturis. 

Prater Lucas de Burgo Saneti Sepulchri, Ordinis Minorum 
et sacre theologie magister, in arte arithmetice et geometrie. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrenee Library, Denver. 
Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass. 

La Scuola perfetta dei mercanti. 

Fra. Paciolo di Borgo Santo Sepolcro. 

Summa de Arithmetica 

(see full title above, this being practically a duplicate edition of 
1494, but contains less contractions and abbreviations.) 

Venice 1494 

Toscana 1504 

Venice 1523 

Edinburgh, Chartered Accountants' Library. 
Library, University of California. 

Quaderno doppio col suo giornale secondo il costume di Venetia. 

Domenico Manzoni. Venice 1534 

Also 1554-1564-1565-1573-1574 

Edinburgh, Chartered Accountants' Library (1554 edition). 

Indrizzo de gli economi. 

Don Angelo Pietra de Genoa. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrenee Library, Denver. 

Mantua 1586 

La Scrittura Mercantile fatta e riordinata. 

(Reprinted in 1700 under the title of "L'Economo overo La Scrit- 
tura tutelare, Scrittura Mercantile.") 

Matteo Mainardi. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrenee Library, Denver. 


Ein Teutsch vertendig Buchhalten fiir Herren oder Gesellschaf ter inhalt 
Wellischem process. 

Johann Gotlieb. 

Royal Library, Munich, Germany. 

Zwifaeh Buchhalten. 

Wolffgang Schweicker. 

Kheil Library, Prag. 

Edinburgh, Chartered Accountants' Library. 

Buchhalten nach arth und weise der Italianer. 
Passehier Goessens from Brussels. 

State Library, Stuttgart, Germany. 

Bologna 1632 

Nuremberg 1531 

Nuremberg 1549 

Hamburg 1594 


Nieuwe Instructie Ende Bewijs der Looffelijcker Consten des Eeken- 
boeckse ende Rekeninghe te houdene nae die Italiaensche maniere. 
Jan Ympyn Christoffels. 

Antwerp (Dutch) 1543 
Antwerp (French) 1543 
Antwerp (English) 1543 
City Library at Antwerp (Dutch). 
Library of the Nicolai Gymnasium at Reval, Rus- 
sia (English). 
Fideicommiss-Bibliothek at Maihingen-Wallerstein, 
Germany ( French ) . 

Verrechning van Domeine (including chapters on) Coopmans Bouck- 
houding op re Italiaensche wyse and Vorstelicke Bouekhouding op de 
Italiaensche wyse. 

Simon Stevin. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 

Amsterdam 1604 

Hypomnemata Mathematiea. 
Simon Stevin. 

Leijden 1608 


A briefe instruction and maner to keepe bookes of accompts after the 
order of Debitor and Creditor, and as well for proper accompts parti- 
ble, etc. newely augmented and set forth by John Mellis, Scholemaister. 
(purporting to be a reprint of a book by Hugh Oldcastle, London, 

John MeUis. 

Library of Institute of Chartered Accountants in 
England and Wales (London). 

London 1588 

The Merchants' Mirrour or Directions for the Perfect Ordering and 
Keeping of his Accounts. Framed by Way of Debitor and Creditor 
after the (so-termed) Italian Manner. 

Richard Dafforne. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 
Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass. 
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

London 1636 
Also 1651-1660-1684 


Schatzkammer Italienischen Buchhaltens. 

Christophorus Achatius Hagern. 

State Library, Stuttgart, Germany. 

Hamburg 1654 

Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erfindungen. 
Johann Beckmann. 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 
State Library, Stuttgart, Germany. 

Origin and Progress of Bookkeeping. 
B. F. Foster. 

Library of Institute of Chartered Accountants 
in England and "Wales (London). 

Die Bereehtigung der einfachen Buchhaltung gegeniiber der doppelten. 
Ernst Ludwig Jager. 

Library, University of California. 

Leipzig 1786 

London 1852 

Stuttgart 1868 

Beitrage zur Geschichte der Doppelbuchhaltung. 
Ernst Ludwig Jager. 

Library, University of Chicago. 
Library, University of California. 

Stuttgart 1874 

Lucas Paccioli und Simon Stevin. 

Ernst Ludwig Jager. 

Library, University of Chicago. 

Stuttgart 1876 

Luca Pacciolo, considerato come ragionere, lezione tenuto alia r. scuolo di commerzio. 
Guido Brandaglia de Arezzo. 

Elenco Cronologico della opera di computisteria e ragioneira venute alia ence in Italia. 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Venice 1882 
Rome 1886 

Ueber einige altere Bearbeitugen der Buchhaltung — Tractates Von Luca Pacioli. 
Carl Peter Kheil. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 

Prag 1896 

The History of Accounting and Accountants. 
Richard Brown, Editor. 

Edinburgh 1905 


Printing from blocks of wood in which the letters were carved, was known long before the Chris- ^ 
tian era, but this was cumbersome and slow and hence but few books were published in that manner. 
Printing from loose metal type Avhich could be set up in the way known to us to-day did not begin to 
be a success until after A. D. 1462, when the German city of Maintz or Mentz (where the first well- 
known printer, Gutenberg, and his students lived) was sacked by Adolph of Nassau, and those who 
were printers were scattered far and wide through other cities. 

Even during the first part of the sixteenth century, one-fourth of all the books printed came from 
one city only, i. e., Venice in Italy. Therefore a book produced from loose type in 1494 in Venice, must 
have been among the very first printed, and its subject must have been at that time of such prime 
importance as to make it worthy of being among the first to be published. The oldest treatise which 
has come down to us either printed or written on the subject of bookkeeping, is included as a part of a 
rather large printed volume on arithmetic and geometry. This volume was published in November, 
1494, in Venice, Italy. It has been used considerably by later writers on the subject of arithmetic and 
geometry, and is mentioned in numerous works of bibliographers, both ancient and modern. The title 
is : Summa de Arithmetica Geometria Proportioni e Proportionalita. ' ' Bookkeeping is treated in Part 
One, Section 9, Treatise 11, under the chapter title of " Particularis Computis et Scripturis," which 
translated would mean : ' ' Particulars of Reckonings and Their Recording. ' ' 

The exact name of the author cannot be established definitely from this work, as his full name does 
not appear on the title page nor anywhere else. The author calls himself in this book Frater Lucas 
de Burgo Sancti Sepulchri, which translated into English may be called Brother Lucas of the City of 
the Holy Sepulchre. The City of the Holy Sepulchre, or Sancti Sepulchri, is a city in the northern part 
of Italy near Venice. On page 67-2, line 5, of Prater Lucas' book "Summa_jde Arithmetica," he states 
that about A. D. 1470 he dedicated a certain book to his students named Bartolo, Francesco, and Paulo, 
the three sons of a prominent merchant of Venice named (Antonio de) Rompiasi. From other writ- 
ings and other evidence, bibliographers have come to the conclusion through their researches that the 
real name of this "Frater Lucas" was Lucas Pacioli. 

The copyright of the book published in 1494 expired in 1504, and about that time a reprint of 
the chapter on bookkeeping appeared in Toscana, under the title of "La Scuola perfetta dei Mercanti." 
A copy of this reprint was not in the possession of the writer, but it would appear that there the name 
of the author was given as Fra. Paciolo di Borgo Santo Sepolcro. In other writings he is known as 
Patiolus, which is supposed to be the Latin for Pacioli. 

In 1509, shortly before he died, he wrote a book called "Divina Proportione, " in which he gives a 
foreword and reproduces several letters he has written. In these he signs himself as Lucas Patiolus. 
This book was written in Latin. On page 33-b of this book, in section 6, treatise No. 1, chapter No. 1, 
the author refers to his book published in 1494 in the following words: "in opera nostra grande dicta 
summa de arithmetica etc. impressa in Venetia nel 1494 et al Magtianimo Duca d'Vrbino dicata." We 
underscored the word "nostra," which means "our." 

Lucas Pacioli, as we will call him hereafter, believing that to be his proper name, was born about 
1445 in the little city of Sancti Sepulchri, in the Province of Arezzo, of Tuscany, west south-west of 
the City of Urbino. He was a great lecturer, mathematician, writer, scholar, teacher, and traveler, a 
well-known and famous man, who was the first to translate into Latin the works of Euclid. Succes- 
sively he was professor of mathematics at Perugia, Rome, Naples, Pesa and Venice, and was chosen for 
the first occupant of a professor's chair founded by Louis Sforza. He was in Milan with Leonardo da 
Vinci at the Court of Louis the Moor until the invasion of the French. It is not improbable that 
Leonardo da Vinci helped Pacioli in the writing of this work as there are indications of two distinct 
styles of writing. He belonged to the Order of Friars Minor of St. Francis. It is apparent that he 
took the cloth late in life, for protection and standing needed in his many traveling tours, during the 
unrest then existing in Italy. He wrote his treatise on bookkeeping when he was about 50 years old 
and died near the end of the year 1509, at the age of 65. 

It is but natural that bookkeeping should be always in its greatest perfection in those countries 
where commerce has reached its highest stage. It is well known that during the twelfth, thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries Venice was a powerful republic, from which all European commerce 
radiated, until in 1498 the East Indian ocean route was discovered, from which time on the commercial 
power of Venice waned. It is safe to assume that the book here reproduced faithfully depicts the con- 
ditions existing at the time of its writing and the prevailing system of recording the transactions of 
commerce. All the world's commerce, practically speaking, was concentrated in this small territory, 
therefore its system of bookkeeping must have been the most perfect known in the world at that time. 
The existence of a well advanced system of bookkeeping in the centers of commerce must have caused 
considerable confusion and correspondence with the places where such a system did not exist, in order 
to equalize and settle accounts between the merchants residing in these various places. 

It is therefore probable that a great need existed for taking advantage of the facilities which the 
new inventions in printing permitted, to present to the commercial world outside of these centers a 
systematic treatise of the most important part of commerce, namely, the recording of its transactions 


and results. Pacioli does not claim that he Invented double-entry bookkeeping, but on the other hand 
mentions in his book the existence of ancient customs and numerous methods named after the places 
where they were used. Thus he calls the method of bookkeeping he describes, the method of Venice, 
as distinguished from those in use in other cities, the names of which appear in the translation we 
have made of his book. 

While Pacioli gives in his book on arithmetic and geometry copious illustrations, as will be seen 
from the sample page of that portion of the book herein reproduced, he did not give examples and illus- 
trations of the day book, the journal and ledger, which he describes. His book therefore has never 
become as popular as those of later writers who give these examples. Pacioli, however, was very lengthy 
and careful in his minute and detailed description of the various methods employed. The reading of 
his book will be a revelation to those who have an idea that the present high state of development of 
American commerce should have produced methods of bookkeeping unknown at such an early period 
as when Pacioli wrote. They will find that there then existed the little safeguards which are not de- 
scribed or explained in present books of instruction on bookkeeping, but which we accountants are 
always wont to preach about to those bookkeepers who come under our observation, and which we do 
not pass by simply as mere suggestions but upon which we insist emphatically with a "You must do 
this. ' ' Pacioli especially describes these little things with great emphasis, and in a style cunning in the 
extreme, fully punctuated with adages to bring the truth home so no one could forget it. He, howeverT^ 
on the other hand, does not spend any time in explaining the modus operandi of bookkeeping, which we 
learn only by practice (as he puts it), as he doubtless appreciated that he was not writing his treatise 
to teach bookkeeping to those who did not know anything about it, but only describing the advantage 
of the particular method in use in Venice in order to convert merchants to a change from their system 
to the best system then known. 

Writers who have followed after Pacioli have practically all given full illustrations of the journal 
and ledger, but have rather neglected to explain the "whys" and "wherefores" of the little and valu- 
able details upon which Pacioli has laid so much stress, taking them as matters of fact rather than as 
fundamental principles. As we all know, it is the little things which throw the safeguards about a 
proper system of bookkeeping. 

It is not the writer's aim to go into detail as to the history of bookkeeping. Any one desiring to 
study this subject in its entirety, is referred to the most remarkable records and researches of Jager, 
Kheil, and Row Fogo as edited by Brown, the title of whose books are fully described in the bibliog- 
raphy hereto appended. 

Jager and Eleil were prominent Grerman scholars, who must have devoted an enormous amount of 
time to their researches as to the origin and growth of bookkeeping. Jager was somewhat hasty and 
inaccurate; Kheil is somewhat brief, and therefore difficult to understand by those who have not read 
other books on the subject. Both of these books are written in German. 

Happily we Americans have the aid of the recent book written in Scotland by Brown and his asso- 
ciates. The treatise they present is exhaustive, brief, to the point, and exceedingly accurate, fully 
illustrated, and is of immense value to every student of the subject of accountancy. 

The writer does not vsdsh to duplicate the work of any of these three, but by the present volume he 
desires to emphasize the fact that Pacioli 's work is the real foundation of all books published in Ger- 
many, Holland, France, and England within the first hundred years after it was written. We will do 
nothing more than describe the effect of Pacioli 's book on Manzoni and Pietra which appeared in 
Italian, Gotlieb, Schweieker, and Goessens, which appeared in German, Ympyn and Stevin in Dutch, 
Ympyn in French, and Ympyn, Oldcastle, MeUis, and Dafforne in English, as these books undoubtedly 
have been the basis for subsequent works in these various languages, most of which are at present 
available for comparison and study. The titles of other contemporary books can be found in the bibli- 
ography of Mr. Brown's work, for he gives an exhaustive list of over 150 books written on this subject 
between Pacioli 's time and the beginning of the nineteenth century. Of these, 50 were written prior to 
the publication of Dafforne 's "The Merchants' Mirrour" in 1636, which is really the first popular 
English work. Most of these 50 were written in Italian, Dutch, or German, with the honors about 
evenly divided. 

As we have said, Lucas Pacioli 's book appeared in Venice in 1494, with a ten-year copyright. At 
the expiration of that period, or in 1504, the same printers published an exact duplicate of this book, 
under a different title. Twenty-one years after the last date, or in 1525, there appeared in Venice a very' 
unsatisfactory and incomplete work on bookkeeping by Giovanni Antonio Tagliente, of which the his- 
torians do not say much. 

Forty years after Pacioli 's book of 1494, or in the year 1534, Domenico Manzoni published in Venice 
his book on bookkeeping, which proved very popular, as during a period of 40 years it went through 
six or seven editions, which may be termed a tremendous success, considering the conditions of those 

Manzoni dedicated his book to Alouisius Vallaressus, a rich brother of a friend of his named Petrus. 
It seems apparent from his preface that he commenced the book years before it was published, when all 
three (the author, his friend, and the latter 's rich brother) were going to school in Venice. In the 
title he mentions "the method of Venice," but he does not tell anywhere how or where he gained his 
knowledge and does not give Lucas Pacioli any mention or credit. 

Manzoni wrote in dialect, or what is called "patois." He says in his preface that he is not a 
scholar and cannot use flowery language but only the speech of his mother, which he learned by word 

of mouth. He states too that he is a poor man. In those days only the very rich and the clergy could 
attend schools. The poor were usually artisans, learning their trade from their parents. 

Manzoni's book may be termed a revised reprint of Pacioli. Page after page is identical and word 
for word, and the remainder is merely shorn of the religious expressions, adages, and peculiar repeti- 
tions which Pacioli so freely indulged in. Much of value and many of the details given in Pacioli 's book 
are here omitted. 

This book is divided into two parts, one for the text and the other for examples of journal and 
ledger. While the text covers but 12 of the 36 chapters of Pacioli, the two parts combined may be said 
to reproduce about 18 chapters of Pacioli. At the beginning of the writer's translation of Pacioli 's 
book herein, a comparative index is given, which illustrates just how much of Pacioli 's book Ma,nzoni 
copied and what he left out. The only new idea in his book as compared with that of Pacioli, is the 
consecutive numbering of the journal entries. In some respects, however, Manzoni is clearer than 
Pacioli, as for instance, he gives definite rules for the making of journal entries ; tabulates six things or 
matters of information always contained in every journal entry; describes the form of journal better 
by mentioning five "standing" or "down" lines; explains the use of more than one day book; and gives 
a chapter to the apparent transposition of the terms "A" (our "To") and "Per" (our "By") in the 
ledger from its customary use in the journal. 

Manzoni gives full illustrations of the journal and ledger, with its entries, which Pacioli, for rea- 
sons stated, did not deem necessary. The addition of these illustrations of course has made the book 
more popular, and Manzoni, while a plagiarist in other respects, must be given the credit of having 
really been the first to do this. The writer regrets that Manzoni's book is not accessible to him for on 
that account only one reproduction can here be given, namely, the last page of the journal, which is 
taken from Brown's history of accounting. 
"~" In 1586, nearly 100 years after Pacioli wrote, we find that Don Angelo Pietra published a work on 
bookkeeping fully illustrated with numerous examples. The book was printed in Mantua by Franz 
Osanna. Pietra was a monk, born in Genoa, stationed at the Monastery of Monte Cassino, Neapel, 
Province of Caserta, near Sora. He was the auditor, storekeeper, and cellarer of that monastery. He 
belonged to the Order of St. Benedict, and dedicated his book to Lastancius Facius, the abbot of the 
Benedictine monastery at Mantua. Pietra 's style is very clear and concise, and his book contains some 
60 short but pithy chapters. As will be seen from the comparative index heretofore mentioned, and 
given farther on in this book, Pietra had for his guide the books of both Pacioli and Manzoni, for he 
covered matters which Pacioli did, and also the items which we have just seen Manzoni mentioned in 
his book but which we do not find in Pacioli. Especially is this true in the enumeration of the items 
which always must appear in a journal entry. Pietra uses Manzoni's six items in the same order, but 
adds thereto two others. He also gives the definite rules for making journal entries, mentions the trans- 
position of "A" and "Per," the five standing lines in the journal, and enumerates several day books. 
He gives further some 30 additional items which neither Manzoni nor Pacioli mentions. Jager does not 
speak very highly of Pietra, but it seems to the writer that Pietra was an ingenious man, fully as well 
educated as Pacioli, and a good deal more experienced in the necessities required of a bookkeeper. He 
recommends several innovations, prominent among which is double entry bookkeeping for those who are 
not in business for profit but are capitalists or associations not organized for the making of profits, 
which we might call eleemosynary corporations. For this purpose he describes three different ledgers, 
one for merchants, one for bankers, and one for capitalists and those similarly situated. He calls the 
ledger for the capitalist "economic ledger." 

Unlike Pacioli and Manzoni, Pietra does not begin with an inventory, but with a proprietorship 
account. He is exceedingly careful in the taking of his inventory, and gives in his book a large folded 
insert containing a tabular inventory. He gives a tabulation of entries for the ledger which do not 
have to go through the journal (such as closing entries). He advocates the vouchering of disburse- 
ments. He minutely explains that expense accounts can show two balances, and that they can show a 
profit as well as a balance to be carried forward in the nature of an inventory. The detail of some 30 
items which he mentions in his book and which neither Manzoni nor Pacioli describes, we give farther 
on, by the side of the reproduction of some of the pages of Pietra 's book. 
"*~ In 1632 there appeared in Bologna a work on bookkeeping written by Matteo Mainardi. This book 
is of a far later date than the ones heretofore mentioned, but it is somewhat remarkable in that it at- 
tempts to describe, besides the system for the merchants, one for the keeping of executor's and trus- 
tee's accounts. In many respects this book compares favorably with that of Pietra, and Mainardi 
undoubtedly had all the three books just described at his command. In the reproductions herein, we 
are giving only the title, the preface, and two pages of the journal, the last for the purpose of indicat- 
ing the method then in use of showing journal entries with more than one debit or more than one credit, 
and to indicate further that bookkeeping made far greater progress in Holland than in Italy, as will be 
ap parent from the discussion of Simon Stevin's book published in 1604. 

We will now pass to the German authors. We have mentioned before that Venice and other places 
in the northern part of Italy were the centers of commerce from which the distribution of merchandise 
was made to the inland. The nearest commercial city of the inland known in t^hose days was Nurem- 
berg, and it is therefore but natural that we should find there the fia-st work on bookkeeping published in 
the German language. The author was Johann Gotlieb, and the book was published in Nuremberg in 
1531, three years before Manzoni, the second Italian writer, published his book. The author states 
frankly that he has translated his work from the "Welsh," meaning by this term "Italian." His 
book is considered a brief and very poor copy of Pacioli. 


Gotlieb 's book, however, is not the first that we know of in Germany. Henricus Grammateus, who 
called himself in German Heinrich Schreiber, lived for a long while in Vienna and there wrote in 1518 
a book called " Rechenbiichlin, Eiinstlich, behend und gewiss auf alle, Kauffmanschafit gerichtet" con- 
taining mostly a text on arithmetic, but devoting some pages to the description of a very poor system of 
bookkeeping, which by a stretch of the imagination may be identified as possibly covering double-entry 
bookkeeping. This work was printed in Erfurt in 1523, and in Frankfurt in 1572. 

After Gotlieb 's book we find one published in 1549 at Nuremberg entitled "Zwifach Buchhalten," 
by Wolfgang Schweieker. This work can not be called excellent, nor is it as exhaustive or as good as 
that of either Pacioli or Manzoni, but there is no doubt that he had both of these books at his command, 
and especially followed Manzoni. The three German books thus far mentioned were undoubtedly not 
good enough to have become standards, and they have exerted little influence on the methods of book- 
keeping used since then in Germany. 

The first writer who was able to leave an impression which is lasting to this day was Passchier 
Goessens, a Dutchman from,"Brussels. He wrote, in 1594, at Hamburg where he was then living, a book 
on bookkeeping. Go'essens'. states very plainly in his preface where he had learned the art and the 
title indicates that he followed the Italian system. He obtained his information from some of the 
earlier Dutch writings, which we will soon mention. German bookkeepers therefore, have benefited 
more by the knowledge which the Dutch imparted to them than by that which their own countrymen 
brought direct from Italy. — — 

' Next in importance and period of time, we come to the influence of the Dutch writers on the Ger- 
man, French, and English subsequent authors on the subject of bookkeeping. The Dutch for centuries 
controlled the supremacy of the seas, as they were great ship-builders and navigators. They were ex- 
cellent, careful and honest tradesmen, and their trade was sought far and wide. Yet the Italian cities, 
through their ancient relation with the eastern nations, had become the world's leaders in commerce 
and the Dutch people were therefore forced to trade with these Italian republics until the discovery in 
1498 of an all-ocean route to the eastern countries. Thereafter the center of commerce was shifted 
from Venice and its surrounding republics to Holland. As the Dutch were such travelers on water, 
they naturally sent their young men by water to the trade centers, for education and training, and in 
this way the knowledge of commerce also shifted from Venice to the Dutch countries. 

Jan Ympyn Christoffels was one of the Dutch merchants who visited Venice and the northern part 
of Italy and he remained there for twelve years. He returned evidently wise in the knowledge of the 
keeping of books according to the Italian manner and wrote a book on that subject. He did not, how- 
ever, live to see his book published, but his widow Anna Swinters published his manuscripts in the 
Dutch and French languages during the year 1543. Of the Dutch edition there seems to be but one 
copy in existence, which is in the City Library at Antwerp. The French work, however, can be pur- 
chased. The discovery by Hugo Balg of an English copy of this book in a Russian library was reported 
by the German scholar Kheil, although it was so mutilated that the name of the author does not remain, 
and the exact date of its publication is not known. However, from the similarity of the contents Kheil 
established the authorship of this book. The widow of Jan Ympyn Christoffels (better known as Jan 
Ympyn) , says very distinctly in the preface of the Dutch book that it was written by her husband and 
that she merely published it, which statement would indicate that the English book was written prior to 
1543. The illustrations in the book bear date of 1536 and 1537. 

Ympyn claims to have obtained his knowledge in Italy, and says he used Italian books for the foun- 
dation of his work. He gives credit, however, indirectly to a person who has never been known as an 
author on bookkeeping, and historians rather indicate that this person was merely an excellent book- 
keeper from whom he gained considerable knowledge. He mentions, however, very distinctly the book i 
of Lucas Pacioli, although he calls him Brother Lucas de Bargo. We find Lucas Pacioli 's name thus ; 
quoted in a large number of books subsequently published, from which we may infer that Ympyn 's '; 
work was well known and used by a good many writers, because from no other source could they have 
obtained this faulty version of Pacioli 's name. _ 

The next important writer in the Dutch language was Simon Stevin, who wrote in Latin a book on 
mathematics, which was published in Leijden in 1608, in which he includes several chapters on book- ' 
keeping. These were, a reproduction of a book published in the Dutch language on "bookkeeping for / 
merchants and for' princely government^, ' ' which appeared in Amsterdam in 1604, and was rewritten 'i '^, 
in The Hague in ld07 in the^orm oI~a letter addressed to Maximiliaen de Bethune, Duke of Seulley. / 
This Duke was superintendent of finance of France, and had numerous other imposing titles. He had / 
been very successful in rehabilitating the finances of France, and Stevin, knowing him through Prince , 
Maurits of Orange, was very anxious to acquaint him with the system which he had installed and which / 
had proven so successful. This manuscript of 1607 was published in book form by Stevin 's son Hend- ( 
rick "in the second year of the Dutch Peace" of Munster (1648), which ended the eighty year war with ) 
Spain ; this would make the date of publication 1650. Hendrick Stevin dedicated the book to the sister of j 
the deceased Prince Maurits, expressing the hope that she may continue with the system of municipal ( 
bookkeeping which had made her brother 's stewardship of the affairs of government so successful. 
Stevin 's book becomes very important to Americans, because he materially influenced the views of his 
friend Richard Daffome, who through his book "The Merchants' Mirrour," published in 1636, became 
practically: J;li& English guide and pioneer writer of texts on bookkeeping. 

r SimoBL-Steyin, who was born in Bruges near Antwerp in 1548, and died in The Hague in 1620, was a 
traveler, author, mathematician, engineer, and inventor, a highly educated man who thought bookkeep- 
ing important enough to induce Prince Maurits of Orange, the then governor of the Dutch countries, to 


install double-entry bookkeeping throughout his territory, thus practically putting municipal accounting 
on the double-entry system, the very thing we are today after more than three hundred years sighing 
for. Stevin wrote part of the text of his book in the form of a dialogue, consisting of questions and 
answers, which he says actually occurred in the arguments he had while teaching Prince Maurits the 
art of bookkeeping. 

Simon Stevin served his apprenticeship in a mercantile office in Antwerp, where he learned book- 
keeping. After that he held important public offices, such as quarter-master-general, surveyor of taxes 
of Bruges and, under Prince Maurits was minister of finances and chief inspector of public works. 
There he displayed such inventive ingenuity in engineering that he may be said to have been the founder 
of modern engineering. His discoveries were in dynamics and hydrostatics, and among his many other 
inventions may be mentioned an important improvement to the canal locks. He was the first to bring 
into practical use decimal fractions. His works on engineering and fortifications have remained stan- 
dards until the last decade or two. 

Stevin was a prolific writer on many varied subjects. Among other things, he wrote about the art 
of war on land as well as on sea, about the construction of buildings, residences, and fortifications, the 
improvement of cities and agricultural lands, about water mills, canals, the art of singing, the art of 
oratory, rhetoric, mathematics, geometry, and about the weighing of metals and alloys through the 
difference in weight above water and under water. 

The writer would consider Stevin to be one of the first men of whom we have a record as perform- 
ing duties equal to those of a modern accountant. We have seen that his regular work was that of 
superintendent of finance (secretary of the treasury) and chief engineer of fortifications and public 
buildings of Holland, besides being tutor and adviser to Prince Maurits of Orange. In addition to all 
of this, he was continually called in to settle disputes between partners, audited numerous mercantile 
books and drew therefrom financial statements, made up partnership books to obtain their settlements, 
installed systems in all departments of government, in mercantile houses, royal households, municipal- 
ities, for construction of specific fortifications and public buildings, traveled to England, France, Ger- 
many, Italy, Denmark and Belgium, in order to appear before courts to give testimony in the settlement 
of financial affairs, and performed numerous other duties of an accountant, which we may infer from 
his remarks throughout his book. 

Jager, Kheil, and Row Pogo through Brown ridicule to a considerable extent the old writers on 
bookkeeping, instead of describing the worthy things about them and marveling at their accuracy and 
ingenuity. Especially do they harangue about Stevin 's Latin, but overlook entirely the many worthy 
suggestions from Stevin 's inventive genius. 

In Brown's book on the history of accounting Stevin 's treatise on mercantile bookkeeping is highly 
spoken of but Stevin is ridiculed for his endeavor to put municipal accounting on the double-entry sys- 
tem. We feel this to be an injustice to Stevin, for the reason that while his descriptions on municipal 
accounting may at first blush appear to be faulty, we learn from the descriptions and illustrations he 
gives of mercantile bookkeeping that he was exceedingly brief but accurate, and that therefore in the 
text we should take much for granted. 

Stevin did not fuUy illustrate municipal accounting, for three reasons: first of all the officials who 
were to use the system he installed received regular orders with forms attached from headquarters ; 
therefore his book was not a full exposition of all these orders with their forms, but was merely a re- 
view of the entire system. Secondly, (as he states) he was writing an argument in favor of his system 
to those officials who were forced to use it and might hesitate to support it loyally. This he did in an 
authoritative manner, by quoting continually the friendly and close association he had with the Prince, 
which of course he could not make use of in his official orders. Thus he put power and dignity behind 
his orders. Thirdly, he fully illustrated mercantile accounting and insisted on the employment only of 
clerks who were well versed in the art of bookkeeping according to the Italian method. After illus- 
trating mercantile accounting thoroughly, he then simply describes the difference between the two sys- 
tems, which (he reiterates) is his only aim. He gives eight pages of journal and forty pages of ledger 
on municipal accounting, although they contain only opening and not closing entries. The latter he 
explains fully in his text by stating deviations from the system used by merchants. 

Yet apparently Stevin 's treatise on municipal accounting is judged only by the absence of illustra- 
tions, but no credit is given him for the ingenious devices he mentions and which we now call 
internal cheeks. Brown evidently had not read much of the text, nor his son's subsequent book and 
notes, which as we have seen heretofore were published in 1650, at which time his son states that while 
some defects were found in the previous treatise, the system had survived until that day and had been 
improved upon, he describing such improvements in addition to reproducing his father's works. 

Stevin was very ingenious in prescribing methods for what we now are wont to call "internal 
checks." For instance, in order to check the pay roll of the soldiers and other public officials, he de- 
manded that the pay roll be sent direct to the auditors (and he calls them auditeurs, the French for 
auditors), and then insisted that the cook at the mess-house where all the soldiers and officials were 
being fed, should report independently to the auditors the number of meals served. 

Another internal check which he suggested in order to stop the making of errors and the stealing 
in the collection of taxes and rents, was to make the sub-treasurer's report to the general treasurer each 
month of not only the cash receipts and disbursements but the persons remaining delinquent in their pay- 
ments. After the reported delinquents remained so for three months, he suggested the sending of the 
sheriff by the general treasurer (not the sub-treasurers) to sell the property of the delinquent tax-payer 


or to collect from him a bond. He explains that thus you can force the tax-payer to demand a receipt 
from the sub-treasurer when paying, and display it to the sheriff, and thus get evidence against the sub- 
treasurer of stealing. 

Towards the end of this book we are reproducing Stevin's journal and ledger, and appended there- 
to we have given some further remarks describing the superiorities of Stevin's work^ which will prove 
interesting reading. Stevin undoubtedly followed Ympyn, who in turn as we have seen, obtained his 
knowledge from Pacioli. 

Up to this date then, we have, besides general mercantile books, records of specific systems of book- 
keeping for merchants, branch stores, traveling salesmen, partnership^, household accounts, bankers, 
capitalists, monasteries, executors, and municipalities, as we will see from the specialties enumerated 
by these writers. — . 

We next will make a survey of how the knowledge of bookkeeping came to England, whence it prob- 
ably came to America. 

We find that a school teacher by the name of John Mellis wrote in London in 1588 a book on book- 
keeping, which in his preface he states to be a reprint of a book by Hugh Oldcastle, which Mellis says 
appeared in London in 1543 under the title of "A profitable treatyce called the Instrument or Boke to 
learne to knowe the good order of the kepying of the famouse reconynge called in Latyn Dare and 
Habere and in Englyshe Debitor and Creditor." No copy exists as far as is known of this book of 
Oldcastle, and it is not therefore an absolute certainty that it ever existed. It might have been a man- 
uscript only, and again, the date may not be reliable. It may also be that the book was written by some 
one else, and given to John Mellis by Hugh Oldcastle. It may therefore have been Jan Ympyn 's book in 
English, especially as the dates are so close together. However this may be, Mellis 's book is nothing 
more than a translation of Pacioli 's book, and Mellis states that he had traveled and studied in the 
Dutch country. Brown in his history of accounting openly says that every English writer on accounting 
in the early days gained his knowledge from the Dutch, because Holland was the training school for 
English merchants, and he gives numerous instances to support his statement. 

Any one doubting that Mellis 's book is a translation of Pacioli, should compare Mellis 's descrip- 
tion of the checking of the ledger, as quoted by Brown, with our translation of this same subject in 
Pacioli 's book. That Mellis is undoubtedly a copy of Pacioli, appears from an error he made in refer- 
ring in one of his chapters to a chapter previously mentioned, naming it chapter 15, the same as Pacioli 
stated in his chapter 16, but as Mellis left out chapter 5 of Pacioli, containing a short introduction, and 
also chapter 7 about the certification of books by notaries, Mellis 's chapter 14 is the same as Pacioli 's 
16, and Mellis 's chapter 13 is the same as Pacioli 's 15 ; yet Mellis makes reference to chapter 15 the same 
as Pacioli, instead of using chapter 13. The discovery of this error is mentioned in Brown's history of 
accounting. — - 

Next in importance, and the last book we will mention in our survey, is "The Merchants' Mirrour," 
by Richard Dafforne. Dafforne says that in Germany, Italy and Holland, there had existed a great 
many able writers on bookkeeping, and he gives a large list of authors. He attributes the existence of 
these books to the demand, stating that there would not be a supply unless there was a demand. He 
very much deplores the fact that such a demand did not exist in England, nevertheless he contributes 
his book, which is undoubtedly a very able treatise. He even speaks of his acquaintance with Simon 
Stevin, and he writes his book on the same order as Stevin, namely, in dialogue style, or questions and 
answers. Dafforne 's book was published in London for the first time in 1636, and appeared afterwards 
in 1651, 1660, and 1684. Later English writers have followed Dafforne and Mellis. Therefore, direct- 
ly and indirectly, Pacioli through the Dutch, has laid the foundation of our present accounting litera- 
ture and our present knowledge of bookkeeping. 

We are reproducing most of the text of Dafforne 's book and a few pages from the daybook, journal 
and ledger. Anyone doubting that Dafforne followed Simon Stevin and other Dutch writers on bookkeep- 
ing will be convinced by reading his text. Numerous quotations are made from these and other Dutch 
authors throughout the text and even in the title page. In one place an abstract from the bible is ren- 
dered in the Dutch language. Further Dafforne states that he received his knowledge and ideas in Hol- 
land and that part of the illustrations and text was written in Holland. The mentioning of so many Dutch 
customs and Dutch names in the ledger accounts shows that he himself succumbed to what he feared : 
' ' They being then at Rome, will do as there is done. ' ' 

While we have described thus far the oldest text books in existence on the subject of bookkeeping, 
the records of books of account predate these considerably, and for further information on this subject 
we can do no better than refer you to Brown 's history of accounting, where not only detail is given but 
where also convincing illustrations are reproduced. However, the purpose of presenting to the reader 
a correct idea of what was done in this line, we might state that the books of the steward of the city of 
Genoa in 1340 were kept on the double-entry principle. The oldest mercantile ledger at Venice is dated 
1460, and is that of the firm of Donado Soranzo & Brothers. This ledger has a profit & loss and a capital 
account. Specimens of this ledger are reproduced in Brown's history of accounting on pages 99 to 106, 
and will greatly help the reader to understand Pacioli 's instructions, in respect to the year, the Roman 
figures in the money column, and the Arabic figures for the smallest coin or Picioli, etc. 



We find in the translations of the old treatises on bookkeeping the terms debit, credit, inventory, 
journal, cash, capital, balance, per (modern by), a (modern to), assets, liabilities, etc., and a definition 
of each of these with their use in the olden times should prove of interest. 

Our word debit is put in Italian as "dehito", which comes from the old Latin debita and debeo, 
which in business and from the standpoint of the proprietor means "owe" or "he owes to the pro- 
prietor," that which was loaned or given him by the proprietor. (The old authors do not use it in ledger 

Our word credit is put in Italian as "credito," coming from the old Latin word "credo," which 
means "trust or believe," as in business our creditors were "believers" in the integrity of the pro- 
prietor, and therefore loaned or gave him something. Therefore, from the proprietor's point of view, 
the word should be translated as the creditor "is owed by the proprietor," that which was loaned or 
given to the proprietor. (The old authors do not use it in ledger accounts.) 

Inventory in Italian, "inventario," comes from the Latin "invenio," which means to find out or 

Journal in Italian "giornal" comes from the Latin "diurnalis" which means daily happenings or 

Ledger comes from the Dutch "Legger" meaning "to lie down" and was originated probably from 
the necessity that the ledger, which was called the big book, became so large and cumbersome that it 
remained, or was lying, always in one place. 

Cash in Italian, "cassa," comes from case or box, which is the same as the Italian iorscia from the 
Latin bursa or purse. 

Capital, which is mentioned in Italian as "Cavidale," comes from the old Latin "capitalis," which 
means "chief" or "head," and also from the Latin "capitali," which means property. Thus capital 
would mean "the property of the chief," i. e., proprietorship. 

As to the word ' ' balance, ' ' the following will indicate its meaning. A clear distinction is made by 
the old writers between (1) the diiference in an account between the debit amounts and the credit 
amounts, (2) the reason for entering this difference in the account, and (3) the status of the account 
after equalizing both sides by the making of an entry and closing the account. We term all three 
balances and balancing, while two are distinctly opposite. In Italian they call the difference or the 
remainder, "resto," and say they have entered this remainder in order to close {soldo), and then they 
state that the account is in balance (bilancio). 

As to the terms "By" and "To," Manzoni says, as does Pacioli, that in the journal entries the word 
"Per" denotes the debtor and always precedes it, and that "A" denotes the creditor. 

Manzoni then goes on to point out that the prevailing system (which Pacioli describes) in his time 
was to use "Per" only (and not "A") as far as it relates to the ledger. He caUs it a misuse which 
experts do not condone, and in his examples of ledger entries he uses in the debit of the debtor's ac- 
count "A" because the name following it must of necessity be the name of the creditor and, as "A" 
denotes the creditor, so it must here precede the name of the creditor, as well as in the journal, in spite 
of the fact that it is written on the debit side of the ledger. Likewise he puts on the credit side "Per" 
in front of the name of the debtor. Stevin, as explained, follows Pacioli. 

Until the very recent present day we used in the ledger "To" on the debit side as a prefix to the 
name of the creditor and "By" on the credit side as a prefix to the name of the debtor. 

It is difScult to say whether we can translate the Italian "Per" into our "By" and the Italian 
"A" into our "To," as these two expressions or words can be translated in many different ways ac- 
cording to the noun or verb following or preceding it, together with the consideration of the tense and 
case used. 

If, however, we take a literal translation of the Italian ledger heading used for our debit, or "dee 
dare," we come to "shall give." Putting this into a sentence read from a ledger we have as at the 
present time, "John Doe debit to Richard Roe" and in the old Italian, "John Doe dee dare (shall give) 
A (To) Richard Roe," and as to the credit, we have in our present day "Richard Roe credit by John 
Doe," and in the old Italian, "Richard Doe dee havere (shall have or receive) Per (by the hand of) 
John Doe." 

• Our version, therefore, is that today we follow Manzoni rather than Pacioli and Stevin in this 

As to the journal, the old necessity for being particular in designating and separating the debtor 
from the creditor by Per and A and the much commented upon little diagonal lines (//), has been 
obviated through the use of two columns in the journal — one for the debit amount, the other for the 
credit amount — and by the use of two lines of writing and by careful indentation. Thus, while we do 
not use the old expressions (Per and A) in the journal, we are more careful and systematic in separat- 
ing debits from credits than the old authors were. 

It would be interesting to learn when and where and under what circumstances and conditions the 
double column in the journal originated. From the fact that a trial balance, with total debits and total 
credits instead of differences between debits and credits, is called a French trial balance, we might infer 


that that system originated in France because a French trial balance is based upon the system that all 
entries are journalized and the total debits and the total credits of the journal are added to the total 
debits and credits of the previous trial balance in order to arrive at the totals which the present trial 
balance should show. Such a trial balance makes an absolute necessity for the having of two columns 
in the journal. 

Stevin explains debit and credit as follows: 

"Genomen dat ymant met naem Pieter, my schuldich vvesende, doet daer op betaling van 100 L: 
Bnick 't gelt in een casse leggende, al of iet heur te bevvaren gave, segh dat die easse my 't selve gelt 
schuldich is, vvaer deur ick haer al oft een menseh vvaer, debiteur make, en Pieter crediteur, om dat hy 
syn schult vermindert, stellende int lornael 't begin der partie aldus, 'Casse debet per Pieter'." 

The above translated would be about as follows : 

' ' Suppose that some one by the name of Peter owed me some money, on account of which he paid me 
£100, and I put the money in a cash drawer just as if I give it the money for safe keeping. I then say 
that that cash drawer owes me that money, for which reason (just as if it were a human being) I made 
it a debtor and Peter of course becomes a creditor because he reduces his debit to me. This I put in 
the Journal thus: 'Cash Debit Per Peter'." 

From the above translation of the previous Dutch quotation it would seem that the journal entry 
shown is rather a hasty conclusion. The entry, in order to follow his explanations, should have been 
a dduble entry somewhat as follows : Cash Debit to Myself — Proprietor Credit — for the money I gave 
the cash drawer for safe keeping. To be followed by : Myself Debit to Peter Credit — he gave me money 
which I may have to return to him if he does not owe it to me. 

As most of the entries, if made in this form would have both a debit and a credit to the proprietor 
for the same amount, these are simply omitted. 

If we eliminate on both sides, according to algebraic formulae, the word "myself," we then have 
abbreviated the two entries to a real algebraic term, namely, "Cash Debit to Peter." Thus we have 
condensed two entries of thought to one entry written down, very much the same as in algebra a ^ b ; 
b^c; hence a = c. In many of the old Dutch books Stevin 's idea of a twofold double entry is men- 
tioned, and is brought down to the present day, which accounts for the existence of a clear idea on this 
principle in Holland and in modern Dutch books on bookkeeping (see N. Brenkman, 1880, Theory of 
Double-Entry Bookkeeping) . 

It must be admitted that if we today would abolish the use of the words debit and credit in the 
ledger and substitute therefor the ancient terms of "shall give" and "shall have" or "shall receive," 
the personification of accounts in the proper way would not be difficult and, with it, bookkeeping would 
become more intelligent to the proprietor, the layman, and the student. 

Elsewhere we have seen that Stevin insists upon testing when a journal entry in debit and credit 
must be made by asking the question, "When does proprietorship begin" or "When does proprietorship 
end," from which it is apparent that proprietorship must enter in the consideration of each entry and, 
if it is not there, it is simply eliminated by the rules of algebra. This, of course, would at once lead to 
the personification of the capital and profit or loss accounts into "the proprietor" as differentiated 
from "the business," and would then immediately show the fallacy of the statement that capital and 
surplus are liabilities, as well as of the absurd theory that assets must equal liabilities. 

The following translation of the dialogue between Simon Stevin and the Prince Maurits of Orange 
on this subject fuUy illustrates that Stevin then understood his subject far better than do some modern 
text writers and theorists, and it makes certain recent so-called "discoveries" appear mere mental 
vagaries, as far as the credit for discovery is concerned. It merely illustrates that they are today as 
deep thinkers as Stevin was 300 years ago. 
The Prince. I must ask another question. The entries stand in my ledger as debits and credits. Which 

of these two stand to my advantage and which to my disadvantage ? 
Stevin. Debits in the ledger are your advantage, for the more Peter owes you the more your cap- 

ital is, and likewise much pepper in the warehouse, which stands as a debit, will make much 
money in the cash drawer. However, credits are the reverse. 
The Prince. Are there no exceptions to this? 
Stevin. I cannot recall any. 

The Prince. Yet capital as a debit does not seem to me as an advantage, and capital as a credit being 

a disadvantage to me appears entirely wrong. 
Stevin. I forgot that. You are right. I meant to say that capital is an exception. 

The Prince. Further, expense is a debit and it, together with the debit in the profit and loss, are both 

Stevin. Because these two are a part of the capital account they are included in the exception. 

The Prince. The credits in the cloves account in the ledger are in excess of the debits by £74-4-7. 

This is an advantage to me because it represents a profit, yet it is in the credit. 
Stevin. The reply to this would be that if the account were closed (which you can do when you 

please, but usually at the end of the year), the excess in the credits would be transferred to 
the profit and loss account and your question would not arise. 
The Prince. Yet it remains that with accounts like the cloves account, where they show a profit or a 
loss, it is not so frequently true that at all times debit is an advantage and credit a dis- 



Stevin. That appears to be true and in that respect it is somewhat similar to your exception, but 

it shows all the more positively that in all accounts of capital, or those pertaining to cap- 
ital, debit is always a disadvantage and credit an advantage. 
The Prince. Why has capital more exceptions than all the others ? 

Stevin. Because capital debit means as much as though the proprietor said, ' ' I am debit to all the 

other accounts." It follows that the more a proprietor is debtor in this manner the more 
it is to his disadvantage, and the more he is creditor the more it is to his advantage, for 
which reason capital must be the reverse of other accounts, and it is not therefore really 
an exception. 
The Prince. If capital stands for the name of the proprietor, why is the proprietor's name not used 
instead of the word capital inasmuch as through the use of that word so many things be- 
come so difficult to understand? 
Stevin. Merchants often form partnerships with many who together put in one principal sum of 

money. For this reason we need one designation indicating them all at once as proprie- 
tors, and for this the word capital is used with good reasons. 
Furthermore, at that time the words assets and liabilities were not known in bookkeeping. Happy 
days they must have been. These terms ought not to be known or used now. What we now term lia- 
bilities, and some of which some of us are almost tempted to call "near liabilities" very much the same 
as we define "near silk," never are and never will be liabilities, for at the time the financial statement 
is prepared these amounts are not supposed to be due, hence the proprietor cannot possibly be liable 
for them at that time. At most he is "trusted" for them by his creditors, as the old authors expressed it 
correctly. Neither are assets at any time, in a going, solvent business, real assets. The words assets 
comes from "assez" which means "enough." The question of whether the proprietor has enough to 
cover his liabilities does not come up until his ability to meet his obligations is questioned or until he is 
called upon to render a statement to the court wherein he is brought for this purpose to answer the 
question whether he has enough {assez — assets) to cover that for which he is liable (liabilities) or past 
due credits or trustings by the creditors. Those who doubt this should study from the reported court 
cases the difference between mercantile insolvency and legal insolvency. 

In analyzing a financial statement I believe these assets and liabilities may be interpreted to mean 
something like this : The proprietor, in order to be permitted to continue to do business on credit, 
makes here a showing to those interested by which he agrees that his books show that the personifica- 
tions of cash, real property, personal property, merchandise, as well as the persons owing him, are 
obligated to him and "shall give" him the amounts stated on the left hand side of the statement or the 
amounts appearing to the debit of these accounts in the ledger and to the credit of his own account, 
and that thereby the proprietor will be able to meet whatever obligations he contracts with those with 
whom he has dealings. He further states in this report that persons interested should take notice that 
the books show that the following persons "shall have" or "shall receive" from him the items when 
they become due and payable and standing on the right hand side of the statement, or the amounts 
appearing to the credit of these accounts in the ledger and to the debit of his own account. That these 
items are to be deducted from the items of cash, real property, personal property, etc., before those in- 
terested in the statement can judge as to whether they shall trust (credito — credit) him further. Thus 
it becomes at once apparent that capital, together with surplus and losses and gains, represent the owner- 
ship of the things owned less those owed, leaving a net ownership, and net ownership can never be a 
liability (i. e., a thing to be liable for). If surplus ever can be a liability then a minus-surplus or a 
deficit must of necessity become an asset, which is an absurdity. 

The statement of affairs described by Stevin and elsewhere reproduced, may be considered to be 
merely a statement of the closing entries as they would be made in the respective individual ledger ac- 
counts in order to make both the debits and the credits even and equal. For whatever each debit account 
shows more in the debit than in the credit, as Stevin explained, it is given by the owner to that account 
for safe keeping as if it were a person — hence this person or this account owes the proprietor; there- 
fore, the proprietor trusts these personified accounts and becomes the creditor. With the credit accounts 
it is the reverse ; hence Stevin 's statement of affairs is the capital account itemized with a preponderance 
of credits to represent net capital. The English follow this method of rendering a financial statement 
to this day. Why Americans reverse the process is difficult to perceive. 

Prom the foregoing it will further be seen that thus with the aid of ancient terms we can read in- 
telligently and explain the abbreviated forms used in bookkeeping so that it becomes at once apparent 
why accounts like the cash account, which to the uninitiated looks like proprietorship, can be shown 
on the debit side of the ledger and why capital account, which always represents ownership, appears 
on the credit side. This at first thought may seem contradictory, but the reason for this apparent in- 
consistency lies in the elimination (through bookkeeping) of equal terms (as per rules of algebra) 
brought about by the theoretical making of double entries (two entries, each with a common debit and 
credit) and thus abbreviating it beyond the interpretation of ordinary language. Thus we may go on 
and with equal ease prove, as the Grerman scholar Jager has done, that double-entry bookkeeping is 
much older than single-entry bookkeeping, the latter being a still further shortening of methods of 
classification by the use of the terms debit and credit. Stevin very clearly suggests this in his ex- 
planation of the rules of partnership. 

It is to be regretted that in the transfer of the expositions of the theory from the Dutch language 
(as so plainly exemplified by the scholar Simon Stevin) to the English (by the flowery schoolmaster 
Richard Dafforne) should have been so badly done that all records of the scientific part of the art and 
theory have been so completely obscured as to suggest even in the present day an argument on theories so 
well known in those olden days. 



The following eight pages, from 18 to 26, and the succeeding 32 left-hand pages, numbers 28 to 80, 
represent photographic reproductions of the oldest extant book on double-entry bookkeeping, published in 
Venice, Italy, in 1494. The reproductions are of the same size as the original, and fully illustrate the 
make-up of the book, which is one of the oldest books ever printed from loose metal type in Roman letters, 
as explained at the opening of the historical chapter. The ink used was vegetable dye ink, and is today 
as black and as fresh as India ink, after 420 years of use and exposure. It is printed on hand-made rag 
paper, unsized, which after so many years of exposure to air and light is still so far superior to the very 
best modern paper that a comparison cannot be made. 

On page 18 appears the title of this book, "Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Pro- 
portionalita, " (Review on Arithmetic, Geometry, and Proportions) . Below the title is a brief synopsis of 
the contents of the book. Part 1, Section 9, Treatise 11 of this ancient book treats of double-entry book- 
keeping and begins on page 199-a of the original, or page 32 of this volume, under the title of ' ' Particu- 
laris de computis et Scripturis" (Particulars of Reckonings and Their Recording). This can be found in 
the seventh line of page 32. The picture directly under the title, on page 32, is said by some to be that of 
the author of this book, but there is nothing in this or any other book which substantiates this assertion. 

Page 19, which immediately foUows the title page of the original, contains a dedicatory letter by the 
author, whose name appears on the second line. The lower half of this page is occupied on the right by 
an epigram of praise to Paeioli by a friend of his and on the left by an epigram by the author to the reader. 

The first of the four last lines of this page contain, a list of the letters to be used by the printer, 
merely as a guide for those who are not familiar with this style of printed letters. Thereafter, on the last 
line, the year (1494), then the date (November 20th), and then the place (Venetia or Venice), all of these 
pertaining to the record of publication. 

Page 20 is another dedicatory letter to the Duke of Urbino. The author's name appears here in the 
third line. 

On page 22, in the third line of the center paragraph, the author's name is given again, this time in 
the genetive ease, hence Pratris Luce instead of Prater Lucas. 

Pages 24 and 25 are reproduced in order to show the marginal notes there given, indicating the ab- 
breviations used in the book, and their interpretation. Page 25 is also given for the reference the author 
makes in line 7 to three of his pupils, Bartolo, Prancesco, and Paulo, the three sons of a prominent mer- 
chant of Venice named (Antonio de) Rompiasi. The dash over the "o" in the original indicates that an 
"m" follows the "o." 

Page 23 is given to reproduce the type of numerous marginal illustrations the author gives on nearly 
every page of his chapters on geometry and arithmetic, considering the many illustrations here used it 
seems very strange that he should not have given some in his chapter on bookkeeping. 

Page 26 is given to show that our modern so-called "efficiency engineers" have nothing the best of 
this monk of over 400 years ago, as to "organization charts." This chart illustrates the intricacies of 

Pages 28 and 30 contain the index of the chapter on double-entry bookkeeping. No translation is 
given of these pages, because they are merely repetitions of the headings of each chapter, and therefore 
their translation appears at those places. In their stead, a comparative index is given of four of the earli- 
est writers on bookkeeping, in order to illustrate how closely they have followed each other. 

On pages 32 to 80 (left-hand only) are the reproductions of the original chapter on double-entry book- 
keeping. Opposite each reproduction is given the translation in modern English subject to the qualifica- 
tions mentioned in the preface. 


©ilm^ ^cMfitimctioi Ji>co? 
mctmt>^opoitioni i l(i>20/ 

^ontinentia Dctuttalcpem. 

fee nu)iim" c intfure fn tuttf modi occurrenti'. 
1&2opo:nonie4)po?noa[imanocitia Dclf ; oei6}^i 

d(£ ce com' (i alni foi tibn'. 
Cbmi oucro euidcnric numcro. i ;.g le qptifa conn 

nue4)pojnoaIioer.6?c.7T v>c£\m&ctxw^ttt . 
STutte le gti' 9c(aIgo:ilino:cioc,rcIeuare . pti'r. iniiltt/ 

plicarXomarce rotrare cotntttfue <pue i fani e rot' 

ti'.c radW c jJzbgrellioni'. 
£)c la rcgola meronrcfca Oitta od.;.c foi fodameii' 

ricon carier€mplaripcr c;ni?S;.(|>^uada5iii;pcrd( 

tc:tranrpo:rattoni:e jnueftitc. 
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• ni toe tutte fom' radid". 

be lc.5.rcg6lc Of* catayn oftta pofirioe efua oii^t. 
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:^uttero2tebinomii creaTiealtrelince uraridahoel 

^utteresoIcDealgcb?a6itte»el3cofj ek)2 fabji' 


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£K)criti fcmplici' e a capo oanno e aim" termini". 
Kefti.feldi.fconn'.de tempo eoenaricla recarc aun 

dipiu partife* 

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pare o:dinatamet}tCT)e tutte* 
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ino oifufamente per la Tequeiitc tauola appare. 


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mue ad tc recoaiiofcendum raittotcuificancs noftrioWan-auerit qo foles tuiB dicntibue cgregiii pa 
trocuiiuin:miI>i pzeftestobfecro.j^am certusfuni non oefiituroB qui has noftraa w'giluis iniiko ftu 
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gotiarioniopcram funt,oaturi. ©ed videquefo quid nobis obti^eritroum tibi fatiffacere conoj tna^ 
iu9 mibiobligationis vinculum incctomon fati's fiicrattcp tc aucroze neuter liber m lucem p?odtret. 
tutdam ctiam tuam oepofcimus.tlcrmn'quod nos efficere non polTumus ocum optfmum marimus 
ma cum ferafico noftro fancto ^ranciTco adiuuantibus cofratribue noltris frequenter ojabimuo: vt 
iiNpare8gratiadingenio9oarinevirtutt7nobilitatituerefer4iir. tJak Mnon 

5^4.l&ompilij epigfama ad lectojcm^ 

Euc fucrant mediid carie confumpta latcbrid 

TReftituit lucas lecto? amice tibi 
flfeoetiia filapideaquotbabcterecta fubaurad: 

^utobipPoebeoo cwnperer annusequoa; 
£tque cerutew ducat teftdla per undae; 

£t que recKuo cojpo:e figna cadantr 
;t.ineatquid C02pu8:quida'rcu8etangulu8 oi8; 

filue fit apellca picra tabdla maiiu: 
CI Wma que tern's regio-quas fluctibus urbes 

£rtrcmu8 gdidis abluat occeanus. 
STempoze feu certoconcojdem emittere uocem 

j^aiure mojee difcerc fcil cupies. 
fccmere feu numerod numeric (iiic adderetctaa 

S>olidtum medio fea iuuat cfle fowt 
feunc emetquicquid erit liber bic coducet agftii 

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ronefid patrictj i6pigra mma ad auao:an. 
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)lap2atica:^eo:ica e boctrina 

1^ lop2a nonbumanatmadiuina 

I^oggiimp^effa ianenetiaalma dtate 
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£onuernfl bauer fhidiato in medicitia: 

>aftronomia:e in liberal foccina 

be larti tutte:e in le fl^djanicate. 
Clba elTedo cuHI ben dillucidata 

£>a tua erccllcnca in ogniloco e parte 

jeafiJuidotlhardo ^Ifeftreintiiulata 
i^iera da tutto flmondo fitoamata 

£be ogni poema ognieloquenja ctarte 

^icomendarla rimarra eccufata. 
l^ngo fto grandi fale in tua uiuanda 
l^farla fapo?ica ^cuila manda: 

^abula. 9i).c.d^.f.g.b.i'.it.I.m.n,o.p^r.d.tu.]e.y.{.7.?.tt.S3. ©itincGfiint aiiatcr 
Bip2cier ^ quicftquinternu8.iet MH quieftfepterous* 

«Vegi(lrufn 0eometrietqiicre in ulrima carta totfiie opcrt». 
CI^?cccc;i]ditij?p;Mnouemb?i9. venetqe 


C^dfanftrifTimti'piincipeeni.WyAldii 0rbini Suc^a^ontfererAriracdft 
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cnltos^feruf rtflimnrf ratri0 Uucc ^e TQurso fanctt !^epuIcb2i:iD2dmte mtno^ 
9facrcXbcoIogie^agiflri.^n artearitbntcticc:ti6eoinanc. pzcfano. 

M quittea ^a^^gnanimo Dua 

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p qfto Ibano giudtcata ala fubftarta para: € co/ 
mdracoetcrna.iperocbcbano cognofciuto p 
vcril inodo alcuna cofa in re^ natara .ren3a lei 
no porcre ejciftere.per la qual cofa ve lei itMo 
( CO latuto T>e colui cbc U nofth fenfi reggi; tra/ 
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lanni ntettano inopa: fi ce nfieri conto ve mifu 
re:vnde 9t lei parlado no intfdo f e no quato cbe ala pzatica c opare fia ineftiero:me 
fcolldon fecodo iluogbi opoztuni ancoza la tbwzica:e caufa tte tale oparezfi «e nu 
men como ue geometna»^a pzfa acio nieglio qllo cbc fequita fe babia ap^bcndc 
rr-eflaquatitaviuideremofecodo elnfoppofito: ediutdedola aciafcunfuo in^bzo 
ftfTegnaremo fua .pptia e vera X)i«fimti6e e X)cfcripti6e./e aloza poi fequira qllo cbc 
SriJioicifnrecftdopofter.Zfictn{mapmefci(aliadc& babef fuui^d eftac. 

l^tfTinttiones i viuitio vtfcretc t continue qiuntitati9:artictttti« pzimus pttmc 

O^co Sid5€i,7U quatita eflere (mediate bimembte:cioe cotinua e vifcrera. 
2U continua e quella lecbui parti fonno copulate e gionte a certo term inc 
c5mune:c6mef6nolegni:ferro:efd):a'xc. 31aiDifaeta oueramete nfiero: 
c quella lecui parti no fonno giote adalcunoterminec6e:c5moe.i a.^.oc. 
® icbe ptima vela i»ifcreta:cioe T>elnaero:e poi uela continua cioe geometria:qui 
to ftio intento afpecta cbiaramente tractaremo* 

^iffmitio numeri p2opiiiirima.trticulu8 fecundutf. 
.^^^ 0mero e ( fecodo ciafcuno pb^lofopblte ) vna niultitudinc ce vnita copo/ 
■ ■iYa:et efla vnita no e nuincro:iua ben pzincipio oc ciafcun numero:ede qlla 
I Fmediate laquale ogni cofa e Dirta elTcre vna.£ fecodo el feuerin 26oetto in 
•^^ ^fua mufica:e la vnita ciafcfi naero i potctu:i paflTij i fua aritbmetica iftegf 
na e fondamcto Dogni numero lapella. Eaqual piu nugnificada in le cofe naturaU 
^iffe in qllo cbe fa ve vnitate i vno.€> mne q6 eft:idco crt:qi vnu naero eft. fine an/ 
coza el nuero in ifiniti mcbzi x>mi(b:p quel cbe eflTo Snfto.T)i):e:cioe.SiQd tflnitum 
cft:n6erus eft.C pla terja petitioe i>elfeptCo dc ;euchde:la fua ferie in ifinito pote^ 
re j)cedere:et quocuqj nuero i>ato:i>an pot maioz vnitatc addc do.S©a noi piglta/ 
remo quelle parti anoi piu note eaccomodate.C pero dico co gUaltri alcuno efTerc 
pximo:ede quello cbe folo uala vnita e nijerato:e no ba altro nuero: cbe ftegralin^ 
teapoto lo parta.j9ltro evitto c6pofto:ede qllo cbe uaaltro nijero e mefurato: out 
ronuerato-iSjrcDlnpzimiComo.j.y.i i.i y.-ic-Cjccplu fecttdiX6mo.4.cbel 
«oilomefuraenflera:e.8.cbel.2.e.4.'Sli i.i 4.1 3.efimili:tutif6noT>ittinfieric5 
pofti:n6 folo cbe coftino en xjigito 1 articulo ( fecondo facro bufco in fuo algozifino} 
ma pcbe f tegralmcte paltri nfieri fi poflano mef urar e e ptire:fec6do el fefo ;>e CucU 
de in feptlo ancbe. 2 0. 3 o.4o.cbe fono meri articuli:p eflb fono t>itti copoAti. j^' 
cuni fono nderi cotra f e pzimi:'z fono qlU ( como e vetto} cbe p fola vnita fono mefu/ 
rati enOerati: come fono. 1 1 .t 3.1 7.1 9.cbelunoalaltroe^ltroa,lunoe^momec 
rcliqufi p altera itegraliter Diuidl pot vt p5 itueti.£^e tili alcuno po effcre copodo e 
laltro pzimo e luno laltro po etTer pzimo:cdmo p la. 2 4. vel. f fi iDimoflra. /£]c^lu} 



In the historical chapter, we have stated that the name of the author of the first book on bookkeep- 
ing was not definitely known. This is quite apparent from the different versions of the spelling of the 
name, which we find in the various books, and it becomes rather amusing to read how the various au- 
thors mentioning this name take delight in stating that the other fellow is wrong and they are right. Yet 
no two of them apparently give it alike. 

Brown in his history of accounting especially ridicules Ympyn's version, and with it all Brown him- 
self spells it Paciolo, with an "o" at the end, whereas all the authorities he quotes spell it with an "i" at 
the end, and he gives no explanation as to why he prefers the "o". Below we give a tabulation of the 
various spellings of these names by the various authors, each one being preceded by the authority from 
which we have taken the name. We have adhered to the spelling of Lucas Pacioli throughout, because we 
believe that to be the proper spelling, from the two best researchers who have written about him, namely, 
the two Germans Jager and Kheil, and further, because we believe that the "li" in the old Italian was 
Latinized into "lus," and the "c" is the old Italian for the Latin "t" in most all cases where the Latin 
"t" is preceded and followed by a vowel. Furthermore, we have the author's own version of his own 
name, as we have seen elsewhere, in the only book that is published with his name in full, namely : ' ' Di- 
vina Proportione, " which was written in Latin and where he gives the Latin of his own name. While 
"Luca" is the Italian for the Latin "Lucas," we follow the author's own spelling in his Italian as well as 
Latin books, namely "Lucas": 


Summa de Arithmetica 
(author's original) 

Prater Lucas de Burgo Sancti Sepulchri 

(The above name appears first on the second line of page 19 of this book, which is the second page 
of the original; also on the third line, page 20 of this book, which is page 3 of the original; and in 
the third line of the second paragraph, page 22 of this book, being page 4 of the original — ^here, 
however, it is given in the genitive, hence Pratris Luce instead of Prater Lucas). 

La Scuola perfetta dei Mercanti (second edition 
of Summa de Arithmetica by same printers) 

Divina Proportione 
(author's origiaal) 

Contemporary writers 

Jan Ympyn Christoffels 
(in his Prench book) 

Guido Brandaglia 

Ernst Ludwig Jager 

Carl Peter Kheil 

Beckmann's History 

Anderson's History 

Clitofonte Bellini 

(Trattato Elementare Teorico — Pratico di 
Ragionesia Generale) 

V. Vianello 

(Luca Paciolo nella Storia della Ragionesia) 

Pawell Ciompa 

(Grundrisse einer Oekonometrie) 

L. Gomberg 

(Grundriss der Verrechnungswissenschaft) 

V. Gitti 

(De Computio — modern) 

Moritz Cantor 

(Geschichte der Mathematik) 

Sigismund Gxinther 

(Geschichte der Mathematik) 

Catholic Encyclopedia 

Richard Brown 

John B. Geijsbeek 

Pra Paciolo di Borgo Santo Sepolcro 

Lucas Patiolus (the Latin of the Italian Pacioli) 

Lucas Pacciolus 

Prere Lucas de Bargo Sancty Sepulcry 

Luca Pacciolo 

Lucas Paccioli 

Pra Luca Pacioli di Borgo Sansepolcro 

Lucas von Borgo 

Lucas von Borgo 

Luca Paciolo 

Luca Paciolo 

Luca Paciolo 

Luca Paciolo 

Pra Luca Pacciolo 



Lucas Pacioli 

Pra Luca Paciolo Da Borgo San Sepolchro 

Lucas Pacioli 


iriiii'iOp67i$it f^po:ti5sA^ poffi iritaidcreXmo nuUo fU cbc tal [aude feiattribudca ^tafdo 
bo;mai'ognaltra cofa dx tongo fcria el Dirc:ma folo tuctele cofe create fM noHro rpecbio.cbe ntuna 
(i trouera dx fotto numero.pefo e itidura non fia condtruta commo e oino oa raIamonr:nel Tecondo 
oelafapfemia.^ncocniqjpxoculisfummuaopifennfdcftiiim terreftnum<)5 rcrum pifpofitionc 
femper babuicbum ozbium motu8:airfufq5 fyderum 7 planctarum omnium ozdinanffime oifponc 
rct.feccquandocrixrafirmabatfurfum.£tappcndd?atfundamentatcrrc:'r libzabac fotitee acjua' 
rum.£tmari term<numfuumdrctfndat>atlcgemq5 poneneaquia netranfirent fines fuosicumco 
crat cuncra componca 7cfion fia d)i remcrariamcte giudicado oica quel cbe fin qua oe Ic J^bC' 
niariaoifco:fobabiamaiperfua( facto.^la qualCfiando oi lojo^de ognaltra t?cci' 
ienre)non acadeua pcrconnumerarionc oe lunlita fieguein ognj oocmna e pmica percfle perfuadcr 
lie infiammarla a feguirte e abzaciarle. tK>a folo a fuafionie aperimento ve la nobilita e vrilita 
grandiflimaCcommo fopM ©icemmD)oe U Rcuercnti Di.U.D.^. quafi in fimOi ejrerdtandofe lo2Vi 
Mfuftengano.£ommopertutteoegneteiTea.U.£>.t>.fubiecte fifad7ialtrafico.£ aim' laudabiK 
crcrdtij fonno oari-biquaU la oegna.UXita oe tJrbino pjindpalmentc e piena.lafdo oela dta oc 
dgobioefienrial memb20iJe.n.0-i>.la quale oeogniu-aftcorcluce.lafdo f ofamtlJoneXagli c 
flfi)acerata dtaXaftd ourate-iS^atagnflp x flfterc^tella.£ raolriritri luocgl?i 
t>.&XottopoftineIiqralijionmecuro(lenderniepertt>e"©afefiamanifefto.£ibiconpoco c cbi eon 
afai fua vira ererdtandofemp» infu le famofe fiei-c per aqua e per terra. (©» auinegia. ©w a • ftoma. 
€> a fiozen^ fe ritrouano-^fecr le qual cofe non outrfto Iap2dentc6pef a fummamentc eflTcrli graca:c$ 
oofia dx in IdatutteoccunthtieCcommo babian wducto)li(ia fu0ra5ato2i8«e feruente.^on altro 
t per lo pzefcnte a.tJ.i>.^,oa eiponerefe non cbc in'nitti verfi vie e raodilo infimo oe qudla figli(V 
io e feruo frare luca oal 360250 fan ^cpokrc tx lozdinc oe li mino:i bumile oe (acra TClxolo^ P20 
rdTo;e oeuotamente aid fe quallo omniipotence oio fecondo ogni fuo bon oefiddio U 
piicdaacrefcere r am(crmrt con nitnoe la cafa fua ctmax oi qudla beniuoli e^derenti. tlale. 

ad iTluftriflimum iiainapm 6m'.nbaldum tJrbi'ni bucem C^ntis ferctri : ac ourantte 
/Com(tem.6red0latinifq5(ittens ©jnatiflTimumir (QE>ari?emaneeoifciplinedilto2e feruentifTimuj: 
^rarris luce oe J&urgo fancti J©epoldjri:02diBi8 minozum:? facrc Zbeologie iK>9giftri:^n arti 
;j3fubmeticc:'z£kotiKtrie. i^iilola. 

Oom anfinaducrtercm JUuftrilfime i^Hncepe imenfas oulcedineetae 

marimaevtilitatesquaeerbiidldentiidallequimur.que geed matbe^ 

mata noilri Difdplinas poffunt appdlare: fi reae p2an'ce 7X\xo7ict 

BnimooemandenturtConfWnouumboc volume pto ingenij nofbi 

tenuitatecomponerema]l:imeineo2um vfum ac vofupcatem edere qui 

wVturom $elo alfecti eflent.Jn quo Cvt ex fubfcripto ihdicc facile perfpi 

a'pocefljVariaa oiuerfaf(^iiri^metice£kometn'e j&jopo^tionid et 

^jopoTtionalftatfeparteoplurimumnecdfaru^itum in p^atiuum in 

^eorica conegimuorfDrmilTimifqs canonfiTue 7candmbU9 perfectiiS 

mi0fubiedmu0:etatniqui8'7 recemibue pbilofopbis cuiufcunq5p;a/ 

fieindubitata fundatnenta.Chjamobjem nonimmeritDlib7i iiittilue. 

iS>timmaiIritbmettoC!eotnetnej^20p02ttonum 7 -|l^»)pon6)nalitatum Oicatur. tlbianteomnis 

Ruduimue eractam in buiufcemodi facultatibus p^anm tntder^" quemadmodiS et oMinan'ilima eiuo 

ferie l>aud oifficulterintuerilicet.tlerum quia temporibus notlri^ verba p2op2ui mactxfeos cb ran 

carem bonozum p»cept02um apud latinos ferme interiere: cupiens ego vfui e(Te bijd qui veilre vidoi 

parentCnon tgnaruo flilo elegantio».£loquio Ciceroniano te falientem eloquentie vnda; adiri opos 

tere)quid q? vnufqulfq5 non Ixc capcrctifi latine per fcripta elTenttpotiuB vernaculo fcrmone oefcri' 

pfimua.littterature itaq; pen'tis panter.£t imperitis bee commodum et iocunditatem af erent:ft in 

ts fe etercuerint vacent quibuflibet f acultatibus et artibus'.ob per tractata que comunia vnicuiq; vP 

dcnrur 7 optime applicari pofle. £t pzimo qm non oico ooctuBtfed multo minus. $ mediocriter 

cmditus efhqui non perfpicue vtdeat quantum bereant quanmmq; necelTaria fint« iSillrologiecuiuo 

pjmcipes l^ac tempellate vigent auunculus tuua pTinceps ^tauianue: vna cum i^uerendiflimo fo:< 

fimpjonij £p;ifcopo j^ulo mindeburgenliquos in dmnibusfemper admiro: 7 venero: : quo2umqs 

CjCactis uidi<;u8 boc ipfum opus non unmeriro c9rit9teft}biedmHs;Tt que bene Ccrlpta fint app^obcot 


BH^dio (cxU Caprrulom Hrtinm. 4 $ 

to alq.fia1alfnea.q ttxatctto ocl tri'ansd[o.q b dnclquale mcnaro rafi' eqacdiRiw 
tealii It.fd' Iinca.iK.perdxcquedil¥antecla ! ch lt.e fiar 
[^.igualeal.f {.eil triaiigolo.q Mcnnb fimiti.0nde fc trarcmo.r lt.doc.if.ocl.k b. rV 
marranno.b r.^c pmix cglfc'cofKb f.cofi.f i.aWfl. ©ndc muUiiMicandoT f per.^ 
t)iui'dcndo vfennc.j.po'lo carctto.q i0ndc wtta.q f.c.2o.cIx e lalicfta de ta pira^ 

£ iwnuna fpci^fipfglia vupomooalqoale,4-rmcImKfimcnino infra=lo20 
igualic vadi'no ala fupcrftcic ?3cla fpcra cqucHclmcc no fieno invna fupcrfide 
piana <)iki jponto fia flcentro oc (a fpera^iDlerbi' gratia fia la rpcra.a b.e in qlla 
iiii il ponro.i;.;daIqua(e fieno menatt. 44ince infra (0:0 1'gualJ.^ b.( g.<; d.( €X no 
fi'enno IipdntJ.b.g.d»e.(nuna fupoficfcpfana dico t1pont<:>.(.eirerc centro zx la oittaTpcra e 
qiicfto oJidoitcmcntc apparc c feo nona bifogno oc oimonnrarionc 

Qando fiira nicnaco oal ponfo oelcapo Dognf pirainide cdonnale al cecro t>h 
bafafua perpcndiculare fopza la fua baJRaialoza (c Itnee recte dx fonno menace 
oal ponto oel capo fuo al cercBio contenenfe la Tuperfidie oc la fua bafa fonno t 
fra lo20 igiali.£ (a nmbiplicatoe buna DJ queUe (I'nee dx fonno menace oal ca^ 
poId20 al cerd?fo.conccnencc1afuabafa:neIa mica tKl cerd?to concenentela oitca bafa'£ (a 
rca ocla fupcrRc(e ocoicta piramidccolonnafeverbigrankfia la piramidecolonnalca bg 
d.odaquale la fiia fomi'ra fia.a.e la fua bafa fia 1I a'rculo.b g d.Del quale fia it cencro.e.£ (a li 
nea.a cbjtogonalmcncc fia ritta fop?ail piano oel cercbio.b g d.e Dal ponco.a.ala li'nea dr 
a)nfcrennalecontcncnceildrculo.bgd.oelabafaoelat>acapiramideDicolonnafc meni 
tnolte Unee.a b.a g.a d.oico ccrtamete le rectca b.a $.a d.infral I070 ellere^ua me 

Sifc oal reccc.e b.c g.c d4?e fonpo cutce iguali infra lo20.£ percbc.a e.c pcrpen 
iculare f6p:a i! p(arto cd drailo J) g d.fien no gJiaHgoli.a'c b.a e g.a'e drctti". ©nde li' tria 
goli fonnbb;to<^onii.a ^ b.a e g.a e d.e l^ano le t^fe iguali clx fonno.e b.e g.e d.e tllaco.a e.e 
communt ©nde li lacifubtcndenci a gliangoli recti cbe fonno.a b.a;g.a d.fonnowfra I020 
(giraW.£pcf quefto c manifefto dx wcte le rertc linee clx fi polTono menare 03l.a.3la linea 
<ircunfcrente.b g d.ef^re iguali a la Iinea.a b. 

0co2i oico dx inultiplicato.ab.nefe mica Cc la lin^a drcunferente.b g d. fara 
iarca jx la fuperfide oe la piramidetdoe larei oifuo^a oe la fuperfide.a b g 
quale fuperfici^ e oal drculo oela bafa.b g d.infi'no ala fua fummica.£ fc no fof 
fe coft. Blo^afia la muld^licacioe oc la Iinea.a b,.oe la mica ocl drculo.b g 
5texomind:ec^etta,clxfadalareaoelafuperfidcDico dx'quella.quanrica dx fe mul / 
ciplica per.a b.a fare Iarca oe la fuperfici^fua niinox ouer magtbre oe la mica oc la linea cir 
ciiferente.bgd:£ (lak quantica.i(.eilooppio oel.i^.epiiii dxl cerdmbgd . Bdonca fa^ 
ro fopn il cercbio.b g d. vna- figura recti linea bauente e lane gliangoli touali contcncnce 
qaello:e ftenno li lati inOcmi agionti meno dx lo ooppio oel.i^.dx fia la R^ura.l k t.£ me 
tierola linea.a b.faqual<e perpendicular^ fop?a la li'nea.b' quefto modo.)9R>encro la It 
nea.e t.fiienno li quadrati oc le linee.e b.7.b t.igu^li al quadraco oe la linea.e t.e commune a 
tutti fw il quadrato oe la pcrpendiculare.a cfiranno li quadrati oc le linece b.c.b a. ^gua' 
fial quadraco oe lalmea.e t.e communamcnceragionga il quadraco oe la pcrpcndicufarc.3 
c.fiennoliqiiadrat4Delelince.aexb.bc.cioeliquadracioelelinee.ab.e.b t.iguali al qua' 
drato.a tonde langolo.a b t.e retfo.]&erpendicularee adonca la Iinea.a b.fopza la linca-t k. 
0imilmentefimoftra ldlinea.a g.eflere pcrpendiculare fop?a.h l.e.a d.fop:a lalinea^tl. £ 
pcrdx le renca b.a g.a d.fonno infra lozo iguali virfa oc la multiplicatione duna oi qud 
le commo od.a la mita oe lari ocl trtangolo.t k Membado oucr area oe la fupcrficic oe 
la piramidca t k Lmagioxoe la fuperfic ie oe la piramidca b g d.condofta cofa clx la con 
tenga quellatdoe qudlo dx infral cercbio.b g d.e il ponco.a.e la mica oe laci od iriangolo 
.r k l.e mino2e dx fa quann'ta.i<j.Sdoncagia fo la mulciplicacione oe la linca-a b.qudlo cIS 
t meno oe la linca.i <».e magio:e oe la fupeificie oe la ptramida oi colonna dx e iinpolTibi' 
le.Bdonca non ne poflibde dx la mulctpUcationc oe la Iinea.a la liuca dx fia magio^ 
re DC la mita od cercbio4)g d.fia lembado oucr conrincntia oe la fuperficica b g d. Bnco' 
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©utto.a b.i.i<.negucg3lareaoelafupficiei5lapir3inide.abgd.-S[ mulnplicareadocad la 
4.61a drcufactia dl circulo.b g d.farala fugfi'.Diia miore piramide i^ U piramide^ b gd. 


©iftiiKlio qninta .Zracfatns primus. 6 7 

rom:ep9rKndofordipcr.2o.neue i.pcrclxhiira vb1q5fitcncfoldi.20.lcs.poia fame 
o:o:fipartano per la valuta oc quel 0:0 occorrcntc.fccdndo li luogbi.£ quelle cb auanfa 
DC lidpartcHdoliin.iJ.fonno rf.£cio d?c aoan^a oc li ^^ninm.idSdno P.£do clxau§' 
$a'©c le SPamtc in la valuta oc loro occurrente (o\mo.%-£t Uc in cctcrw oifcurrendo: vcr- 
bigr3ti3.i&c)ni3mocl?etu babiarcdure ale magiozivaluteouer magion" monece qucfta ^ 
tisa oc pidolitdoe picioli numcro.96598.£>ico clx pzima facci comino km z>i fop:a in li pe 
fio:dinamente reduccndo p^iitia ala iinmcdiata moneta fcquentetqualccel foldo in que ' 

clx»£ poi\i fame S-partirai qucfti foldi venuti'pcr.2o.ncucnc.402.£ que 
ftc fono S.oe valuta:e au3n$a.9.d?c ron.9.foldi.£ poi per fame ozo-i^artirai Ic S.pcr la 
valutawl oitto 020 a §.£ virranc lo20.£ qucllo clx auanjjara fira s .£6ino fe volelTe far 
oucli quali in quefto bauemo pofto valere gf.y.luno.le oitte g;. venute partirai per .7. nc 
ucn.y7.£ fon ouc^ auan(a.5.dx fon %,&i dx oc p2inio ad vltimuin reducendo li Dim pi 
dolialamagioz moneta firannoouc.5'7.S' J^f •9'^'iO'J^ cofi rcgerate in tutttvalute meno 
ri:rcduccndole ale magion: vt in iHa. 

^cm'um notaiidum.£adem m pzoccdens. 
tJcllo dx l>abianio octto t>eli pcfi c moncta:anco:a fe babia a intederc oc Ic qp 
tita dx vadano a numero:e anclx a mefura fiacolnia:lonsa:erafa fccodo lo' 
ro ingo:dita:ft commo oefopja oicemmo.(CK>cglio:e pe0o:e longoc coKoie 1 
gozdo Diuerfaniente fe atendano:fecondo le quaiuim: vt fupja oeclarauimus. 
SSidx bauendo tu octaui oe b:accio oe panno numero.46f 95". 5X panni a vderli redu 
re a canncla qualcommuniter fe tien b2accia.4.1^2ini3 partirai oitri octaui pcr.2. e virrae 
tc quartciper dx fcmp:e in ogni quatita.2 .oaani fanno.|.e lo remanetc fira octauo. £ poi 
k quarte partirai per.4.c virratte bjacda per clx.4.fanno bjacdb.i .£ lauan«;o fira quar/ 
te.£ poi libzacci partirai per.4.e virf atte cane:e lauan^ ftran bzaccia. i^i comino bauetle 
li octaui pzcdittipamti in.2.neuen.2$297.£fon quarn'. £ auan^a. 1 .dx e./ .octauo . £poi 
parti.2 ?2 97.pcr.4.c virrannc.j82 4.£ fonno b:aaia e aua^. 1 xlx e» ^^q^arta>£ pot par 
tilibzacda per.4.neuen.i 4S6x fonno canocre auan^a nulla dx fon:nuUob2acdo.Sidx 
tK pnmo adultimum la oitta reducnone fa canne. 1 4S(>-b23im quarte. 1 .oaaui. 1 . £ tu t 
mtte altrefinuli per tefarai ?£• 

£hiartum notandum xx carattcribu9 p:aticis bocm opere vfitatis. 
£fticroeanco2aoanotarequdloimponinolicararteriper noim quellopera 
vfitati ado le lo20 abbzeuiature ficn intefe per cbi Icgera bauenga-dx molti per 
le p^pofte quefKoni per fe fteffi le apjcndino.^on oimanco piu fonno qudli 
01 poca pzaticaCper li quali pzindpalmente quefto libzo fi fa ) dx non (onno 
qudli dx intcndano.£ impero qui fequente tutri li'caratteriie abzeuiamre d?e per noi co' 
munamcnte in quefto libjo fe vfaranno:oecbiararemo:fi in larte menoieouer mcrcatojia: 
comnjo in arte magi02e:ouer algebzaXe quali piu perJipdi:e monetetc mefureicbeg al' 
tro fonno trouari-.ejrcepto in algebza dx per fo2«,'aCoifierentie caufa)fo bifogno trouare. 
■ ^ dx non fi potte a turte quanrita metter nome.Jdeo tc. 

Qucfti caratterieab2cuiature commo vedi.Blcuni fonno dx piu cc vna cofa 
rcp2rfent3no.iB>erodx ale volte pefo:e ale volte valuta oimonetcSi commo 
quefto s.dx wd lira a valuta oe moncta:cbe fintcnde foldi.2o.£ libw a pefo 
• dx fintcnde once.i 2.C cofi quefta.p.cbe oid.piu. picioli. pe^^c .pKdi.^r la ql 
cofa tu nclli luogbiooue leiroueraiper ruo ingcgno d?iaro cognofcerai' quale oe luno oc 
quefti te rep2cfentara:fecondod fuon oe la materia dx life ccJjrira.finde fra le valute .p. 
rcnota picioli. fra mefure piedif ra quanrita oe panni pe^^a . Jn operatione oc algeb2a 
piu:e<ofioe ciafcuna oc laltrcifecondo li locWe le matcrie te rep2efentarano luna oe le co-- 
fe oitte qui al fuo incontro fidx tu per te vfarai lo ingegno tuo:el qual bifogna fia fupplc^ 
mcntoaquellocbio mancafle. £5uiafupplcrio fit loco ocfectUB. i£^dxnonepoflibilc 
mai poncre tutto qucllo dx alarte fe ricerca:fi com mo e manifefto a qudlidx oi componc 
r evdumif e oelettano.Jurta fllud.bidte piendes non omnia pofliimua oranC0:e cofi fa/ 

5dem notadum oe caratteribus algcb2atid0.JI 
£r lopcrjre oe larte magio2c:oitta oal vulgo la rcgola oc la cofa oucr algebja 
e amucabala fcruarnno noi in quefto le qui oa lato ab:euiaturcouer caratten: 

I' iii 

buc. oucati. 
p. i&idolo.pidoli.'pe$(a. 
^.q^arn■.qp^q>' <$\ 
£)ct. octauo. octaui. 
b. 362ado. b2ad. 
tn.H^ina. mine. meno. 

in'. Obarca. in'.mardj. 
g*. granc. grant 
Bl 3&olognino.bolognin 


O^care. multiplicarc. 


*^. 2*. CO. cofa. 



•fe. 5*. cc. cc. ccnfo Dccoifo. 

i^. to', p^.r*. pzimordato. 

*^. 7'. cc. cu. ccnfo occutx) c ati" 

•5c. s*. 2"- r: fccundo itfato. 
'$;. 9*. cc. cc cc. ccnfodcccnfo oe 


'^. I o^ cu. cu. cubo oecubo. 
^. II*. cc.p'.r: ccnfo oc p:imo 


•jr. 15*. cu. cc. cc. cubodcccnfo 

occcnfo.Oudi oir cconucrfo. 
'^, 1 4\4''. It quarto rdato. 
•5? . I y^ C€^ 2°. rt ccnfo oc fcc6n' 
, dorclato. 

* :g!. 1 6^ cu. p'. rt cubo xk prfrao 

1^. 1 7*' ce»cc, cc. cc. ccnfodcccfo 

* ■'occcnfo occcnfo. 

, -^z. 1 8^ 5". rt i^ufnto rdato. 

^. 1 9'. cir.'cc. cu, cubo, occcnfo 
' 6e cubo.0 ucr-ccfo cubo cubo. 

•$1.20*. 6". rtfcno rdato. 

•pT. 2 1 ". cc. cc^p". rt ccnfo occ^o 
"'^ocpzimo rdato. 

•ff. 22'. cu.^." rt cubo oc fc6o rt 

* % 2 5^ cc.^*rt ccnfo oc tcr«;o rt 
•pr. 24". /"r". fcptuno rdato. 
•jr. 2 J*, cu. <;c, f;c. cc. cubo occcfo 

occcnfo oeccfo. 0ucr ccnfo ?x 
? cubo occcnfo oeccfo. 0ucr ccn 
fo occcnfo occcnfo oc cubo* 
diK oia idem impo:tan& 
■ |C. 26\ 8°. r". octauo rdato. 
•5:. 2 7^ cc, 4". r'. ccnfo oc quar^ 
' 'to rdato. 

> 1^.2S^ cu. cubo occubo 

•5^. 2 f*. cc. cc. 2 *.r". ccnfo oeccfo 
oc fccundo rdato. 
•§Z'5o*.r".nono rdato. 

•^. TKadici. 


"i? V. iRadid vnuicrfalc. ©ucr 

rodi'dlcgata. £)uoiofrcrad(d 


•a cu.lKadKfcubs. 

©iftmcffo fcrta 2rrflcfahisp«'mij0. 

fi coiwnfrancdja ndlWftri noftri quatro vdumi oc rnnilt oiTcipIinc per noicopflan'f jauc* 
movfatudocinqucUod?colisioucniocpcrofciaiiifitiilaind.i47&-^c* quale non coo 
lanta copiofiiafc tratto.£ andx in qudlo dx a ^ara nd.i 481 .oe cafi piufunlic fo?ri com 
ppncino.£ andx m qudlo d?c nd. 1 47O'Wri0«no ali noftri rdcuaii oifcipulifcr £>arfx 
franccfco c paulo fratcllt ocropiafi oa la sudecaioegni mcrcotanti in rincgia :figl(uoli gia 
oc fer ilntonio. iSotto la cu< omb:a patcrnacfratcrna i lo2p:op2ia cafa me rdcuai.£ a U 
miti fcientic fotto la oifdplina oe nnfcr i^omcncco bzagadino U in Wnegia oa la cxcdfa ft 
gnoji^lcctox oc ogni fdctia publico ocputato.<2ual fo f mediate fuccclfoxtal pcrfpicadf' 
fimo c •ado ooctozcic 01 fan fl&arco canonico maeftro paulo oa la pergola fuo pxcepto^ 
re.£ojaalul:alp»:fcnted iflfbagnificoctcjimiooocto^imfer ^antonio coznaro iioftro 
condifcipuloifotto la ooarina od oitto b2agadino,£ quefto quando crauamo ol ftcolo. 
£R>ao9 poi cbe fabito indegnamante od fcrapbyco fan francdco a votapigliamo:^ oi' 
uerfi padi cc conuenuto andarc pcrcgrinando.£ al pjcfcnte 4 i perofda per puWicot mo/ 
lumcnto a faiiffationc6muna:a fimfli faculta d fcmp?e g ozdine oe li noftrt 
iRcucredi p?daii:marimc od rcuercndiflimo.p.noftro gwcralc pzcfciitc maeftro f raii' 
cdco fafone oa bzddaicozjendoglianni od noftro fcgno?c 5efu £b2ifto. 1 487.l3nno.4''. 
od pontificato od (anctilTimo in d?:ifl:o.p.innocctw octauo. 

iRatojnandoalpzopofitooeli caraitcri quefti fono mar fc in algeb:a .£!» 
ucHga dx ui inftnitumii poflTa pzocedcrc non oimcno quatp al pjopofii^ no/ 
ftro in qudtotli trenta'gradiafccndcna" per V&5 ct nioduin algeba ct alniucj' 
bala. ^»oc eft rdlauranon^ 7 oppofitionid fpnn6 ba(tenn.£ fc pur tu piu. nc 
vowaipcr tcftclTogr3dari5po223ifo:marnc.£<iuen:ifonnDU'gradi quafi modcniamett 
cofi noiati baucnga c\x m mtte Ic co(z li nomi-ficno a5pl8dto.£ fc codo quakbc fimilitndi 
ne materialc ipolW fi commo oi fopza ndia oiftinctionc.2''.nd trattatp.itdaraculo.^'.oc/' 
d?iarammo.£ cofi ancoza fonno a pladto tuttili carattm quali noj qui baWamo pofti D 
dx tantctcrre tantc irtamcjurta illud tot capita tot renfus.£t vdlc fuii cuiq5 ciqucftoa* 
CO ado lu impcriionon eredeffe ncccflitaltro. £)C li quali poi m algcbza trattado rozraarc' 
nv> 1020 lib»tti fi commo in quefto al fuo luogo vedcrai. £ quelle figure ocnan^ pofle 
clxcomcn$ano.'^.p2ima.-^.2*. •0i.;\7c.ffn.'52:.;o'.fono ocnominatiom'oda pMiicaoeal 
gcb2a fccondo li arabi pzimrinuentozi oc fi facte p2atid?coperatiue.£lg>a od numero hgtt 
nerc apzclToligrccifozon fccondo yfido20<tymologi3rum:e molrialiri i^aagozad p2io 
c oa poi lui /5icomaco:oal qual d piu oc la fua aritbmctica jSocpzcfc. £ a p2eflb lilatiiit 
fox)n piima ilpuleo c poi a&occ oe la gcometria forono licgyptij ab in vndatione hili vt 
ipfe ibidem indudt.'^dco H>fum leac qui optimc oc buiufmodi materia iplcrifqj lon'e n-at' 
tat quem plurice memini me tcgiflc wdc 7 tu fac fimiliter 7 pzodcrittibi 7C. 

Diftinaio fejcta oe pMip02tionibue 7 pJopojtibitalitanbus.Z' pzimua. 

/5nmo dx vi npmeri afcum toja ba feripto femp2C ancoza in 
rtemi CO qllt oc mdurc al qu^to l:>a tractato:c i copagnfa oefle 
ocl comun I02 vcfttmcto oitto^po2tionc.£ qfto m maniftfto 
fc be fi leggi oimoltipby lo2 libjuoematlxmandx fbculta c6 
pilati.£omo oe£uclide me^arenfcila cuioj^ femp2crotti li 
BntidjiginnafiKdbeoe ftoyd:acadcmia:peripatetici: platoni' 
d Tcanc oiocgna oi'fdplina madxmatfea illufb-ari. jQdIa q 
k lui oe aritbmcticaidoc oe numcritrati!ando:a nco2a oe gco' 
mcrrca:doc oc inifurc largamctc wlfcc con quelk a giofc (co/ 
ino e oitto^l I02 comun vdo oittoijpoztide.'dndeoiuifc oi't- 
ta opa i.( f .lib2iparttali.bc li qli.i cfono oc gcometr^:doc |^*. 

. 2VA4'.6".n'.i2.i5ti4''."^-^quatrofonnoocaritbmetici 

pncipalmetftdoc.? -S .9 Mo''.evno(atuttiqfticpe:docd4ntoXoocla4)po?ti6e.la5l 
Cc6»no (c oira)cofi fcafpcaa al niio:c6mo ala mdura.ibd feucnno 3&oerioaco?afcben ft 
guarda i (a fua ariibmctica: troucraffe Ic fo2iC oc geo«ictria:c anclx particularc metioc oe 
fc wo2ti6i.£>c tf?ebitanco2a oegno pDo(od ql molto JSoetio crponcdo £udidc fe me^ 
tionctmarimc nd <i"W)pfueopc oiffufam^tc lunae oilaltra ifiemico lc.ppo2rioni trat 
to.£>e£imaofigliuolooc|pfepbCodqualdCRnH^noupon«Iodquitoof £u(;lidc fs 


BUbttc^ fcyta Ztractita$ quartos 








J jU — 



^SSr^' dfT^mm^ 


Ct fir tn ifim'tum in vltimie fpcdcbu0.©ue ofa -z fin 
gula fupia Zbwzrcc 1 'gjiattcc figilla tim ercmpla 
ritcr occlarata mnt.i^aarusivires (x feq uentibus 
cocluTionlbue icafibue manifeftelittcratis 1 vul/ 
Saribueapfwmt.^tibi. 3:dco'zc. 






Chapter 1. "Where there is no order there is confusion." 

2. ' ' Every action is determined by the end in view. ' ' 

3. ' ' Defining diligently and truthfully so that truth will always guide you. ' ' 

4. "More bridges are necessary for a good merchant than a lawyer can make." 

' ' The merchant is like a rooster, which of all the animals is the most alert, and iu winter and 
summer keeps his night vigils and never rests. ' ' 

"Also it is said that the head of the merchant has a hundred eyes and still they are not suf- 
ficient for all he has to say or do. ' ' 

"The law helps those that are awake — not those that sleep." 

"Dante says: 

'My son, it behooves that you quit your laziness. 
God promised the crown to the watchful ones. 
He who lies on feathers or under cover will never amount to anything. Such a one leaves oii 
this earth the same trace as the smoke in the air or foam on the v/ater'." 

"Work should not seem to you strange for Mars never granted a victory to those that spent 
their time resting." 

A sage said to the lazy man to take the ant as an example. 

Apostle Paul says that no one will be worthy of the crown except he who shall fight valiantly 
for it. 

Remember God and your neighbor. 

Attend religious meditation every morning, for through this you will never lose your way. 

By being charitable you will not lose your riches. 

The Saviour in the book of St. Matthew admonishes, "Seek you Christians first the Kingdom 
of God and then the other temporal and spiritual things you will easily obtain." 

18 and 31 Who does nothing makes no mistakes ; who makes no mistakes learns nothing. 

22 Officials do not bother about details. 

23 Accounts are nothing else than the expressions in writing of the arrangement of his affairs. 

which the merchant keeps in his mind. 

If you are in business and do not know all about it, your money will go lilce flies, that is, you 
will lose it. 

29 Books should be closed each year, especially in partnership because frequent accounting 
makes for long friendship. 

33 If the losses are in excess of the gains — from which state of affairs may God keep every one 
who really lives as a good Christian. 

35 If you do not put the place and date on a letter, you will be made fun of, because we say the 
letter which does not bear the date was written during the night, and the letter which does 
not bear the place we say that it was written in the other world and not in this one. 


uanragio e quamo p c. fz cofi pzinia ucdi quanto mcriKiria.: o.dc fcoturo a;o.ooiic:aucdi cbc non 
ba dcbito fcontro baWando.27 oi ucdi cl?e li nianca clx li niacbera oa.2 7.a.;o. 
<I?c fon /5 .ucdi cbc gte fon dc fuo capital cbe c. ■ o cbz ion tato cblx: oi Dlno n I fo ca 
pi'ralc rcfpccro a lalcro.oonca argucfct clx [alrro babia uatagio h.^ldel fuo capitalc cb uol 
dir.i 5'.per.c".d?e ii troua andx a quefto modo diccndo colui mctteiido. 1 o.riraria i S.k mc/ 
tcflTe. I oo.dx tirarauc opera nraria 1 jo.qual falua.iboi p laltro oirai fe.2 y.cbe uo' 
ra.i oo.dx utrra a uolerc 1 ;5'.cb i»cdi cbe matico clx. 1 ^o.del p^.fi cbe cbbc fiiatagio. ti fjge 
QTO g c'.abbati. 1 '^?.de. i f o.rcfta. 1 ^x tato ebbe dano i tutro per bauer mcffo. i occioe l?auc 
damio ta! parte qual fon.i <.dc.i oo.dx fon li ^-lut fupja la'tro auan^o p u cbc lui.i s.m twv 
to clx fon li.jl.pur dei oo.fuo capitaleificlxauaiuagio. 1 ^.^.c^fatta per dx fcinp lal pap 
it quaie gdc Inno qlla mcdefima gre uene a ^a^are l^ro e cofi i baratti. 

Xauola dd iQuaderno. 
DC quelle co-t cbc p:incip3lmi:te fono necelTaric al ucro mcrc^taiuetc De lozdinc a faperc it 

ncre bene vn quadcrno c6 lofuo ^ojnale in uenctia:e ancbc g oq,ni alrro Iuoo;o. ca°.i 
fc)c la p?ima 0te principal oe quertotractato dctP inuentariore 6k cofa fia inuentan'ote co 

me fra mcrcatanti fi babia a fare. ca". j 

5^o?nia ercniplareico tutcc fiie folennita f lo itiuctan'o rcquifitc. ca'. j 

CtiliiTima eroztarionctc falutiferidocuincmi al bon mercataiueDtineti. ca'.4 

be la. 2 ^gre pn'ncipalc Of I p:efac tractato ditta dilpouccoinc lalabbia a itciiderctc 1 cbc c5 

fiftc:circaaltr3fico.ede(i.',.liba'p7i'ncip3liddco2poniercantefco. ca'.J 

t»d p^.libw ditto nicmoziale uer fquartafoblio uadxtta qllo cbc fe itedaic comoi elTo 

fc babia a fcriuere:c per cbl ca'.^ 

bdmocomoi ntolti locbifi babio autcticare tuttililib'.inercatcfcbi:cgclx:cdad?i.c.7 
£6mo fe dcbino oittare le jjtitc \ mtn mcmoziale co ercpli. ca°.g 

£>c li noue modi g liquali comunamete ii cofluma fra li mcrcatanti copazarcic die mcnatic 

quail d piu de Ic uoltede nccclTita a teoo ii cop:ano. ca°»9 

£)dfccondolib:op?incip3lemcrcanccfcooitto giornaletqud cbd (ia ccommcrcdebiaoi 

fponere o:diraitamciuc. ca". 1 o 

bAi ooitcrmmi Hcl ditto giomalc vfitatiiiviyimci ditto i&cr: Wtroditto.a 



The following is a schedule showing comparatively the contents of the chapters of Pacioli, Manzoni, 
Pietra and Ympyn, so that the reader may have a quick perception of the extent to which Manzoni, Pietra 
and Ympyn have followed Pacioli. Only the most important items are given. Carefully note the coin- 
cidence that even the order in which the chapter is given practically remains unchanged from that of 


The things a merchant needs and description of sys- 
tem of keeping a journal and a ledger 

Description of an inventory, movables, immovables, 
accounts receivable, accounts payable 

Sample of an inventory in full detail by lots 

Useful instruction to a merchant 


Introduction to second part of the treatise covering 
' ' Disposition ' ' 

Description, etc., of the day book 

The marking of the books and the use of the cross 
on them 

Authentication of books by notaries 

Sample entry for the day book 

Nine methods of purchasing goods, as many for selling 

Description of the journal 

The two terms "Per" and "A" and the two little 
lines // 

The term "Cash" 

The term ' ' Capital ' ' 

Samples of journal entries 

One kind of money in amount column 

Line under each entry and through money column, 
diagonal line through day book entry when jour- 
nalized, or check off at beginning or end of entry 

The Ledger 

The Index 

Four lines for money, one for ledger pages, two for 

Posting from journal to ledger 

Two diagonal lines, one on left and one on right, when 
entry is posted 14 

Posting figures one above other, divided by a little line 14 

The place for the date 15 

Year in Roman figures 15 

Change in year between entries 15 

In personal account more detail required 15 

Spacing of ledger to save transfer 15 

Index 15 

Further instruction about merchandise entries in the 
ledger 16 













Vol. I/l 

Vol. 1/2 
Vol. 1/3 
Vol. 1/4 

Vol. 1/5 






Vol. 1/7 


Vol. I/ll 


Vol. 1/8 


Vol. I/IO 


Vol. 1/9 


Vol. 1/9 


Vol. 1/12 

Vol. 1/12 


Vol. 1/12 


Vol. II/l 


Vol. I/ll 


Vol. II/l 

Vol. 11/5 


Vol. II/6 

Vol. II/7 


Vol. I/ll 

Vol. 11/2 


Vol. I/ll 

Vol. II/4 

Vol. 1/12 


Vol. I/ll 












Vol. 1/12 



Biftinctio nonaZractatn0.ri^@c (criptms. i 9 s 

c qucflo dx per Io20 (c (?abia 3 oenorare. ca". 1 1 

bel niodo a Cipcr poncrc e oirtarc Ic ptitrc i fo gfojnalc od oarc c oc lancrc c6 molri ercm 

pIi':cTClidoialtritcrmininelqijada*nour«tatiluno octrocaflac lalrro cauedaleic quelle 

dx per cfTi fc babiia iiitcndcrc ca°. 1 c 

Del fcrco 7 vltiino Iib20 pjindpalc mcrcaiitcfco octto cl qdcrno coinmo ocbbc elTcr farto e 

XKl fuo alfabcto conio fe rebtn'a ojdinare vgniolo e oopio. ca^.t j 

t>cl mo a pc»:rarc Ic gtite ocl g^oenale i qdernoic^ clx de ma f gi'oznalc fc iic facia conn q 

dcrno:e ocl modo a Dcpennare Ic parrire m gibznale c de li doi numeri 6 Ic cam ocl qua 

demo cbc m Ic fue margine fi ponc:c fj cbc. ca". » 4 

Del mo a fape oi'ttarc (c gti're oe b calTa c cauedalc nel quadcrno i oarc c l>aucre:c ocl tnilc^ 

fi'mo d?e Di fop:3 iid pj incipio oc la carta a lantico fi mem in cffoic ocia fua mutationcic 

del cogrir (i fpacij oc Ic carti fcoo Ic gtire plccolc e gradi ki>o el bifogno D le 1 5 
iComo k dcbi'no Dirrare Ic partite oc Ic mcrcanric c\xq inuentario altro modo lomo fc n 

rroiiarnd quadcrno »n oarc c in fjaucrc. ca°.i6 

Dd modo a tencr conto con li officii puplid:c per ci?c:c dc la camera oelimp:efhtti in vcnc 

tia cItc fc goncrna per via oc fcrticn. ca? 1 7 

iCommo fe oebia tcner cohro conloificio oc la meffetaria in uenen^ e oel oittare le fue- par-' 

tire in memozialcrgiornaleic qdcrnotc ancoza oc limpzcfli. 'ca". 1 8. 

Dd modo a fapcrc notarc e oittare vna ^a D robba copata a (omiii tuttt.;.Ii libzi doe nic 

mo:i3[c:gio2nale:c quadcrnoie come a gtc cotati e pte tepo al mcdcfimo £apitoIo. 
£emirto fc ocbia ojdinarc el pagamcnto cbc bauefle a fare per oit ta c ba ncbo dcfcripta ne 

li toi libzipjuiapali. ca°.i 9 

De le 0te famofc cpticulan' nd mancggio trafi'cate como fonobaratti copagnic tccdmo 

Ic fc babbino afettarc t ozdinarc nc li libji mercatefd?ite pzima oc li baratti femplid copo 

fli c col tepo CO agti erepli oc tutti C mtmo2ialc:giojnalf e qd crn 0. ca^.zo 

be laltra partitta famofa oitta £omp3gnic:commo fe oebino 02dinare;e dittare in tutti U 

modi ocurrenti in ciafcuno lib20. ca''.2 1 . 

Be {o:dine oe le gtite occiafcuna fpefarcomo oc cafa ozdinarieidraordinaricrc Oi niercan 

ria: falarij oe gar«;oni e facton como fabino a fcriucre:e oittare neli libzf. ca°.2 2 

be lozdincc mo a fag tencr tn coto oc botcga in tua mano o adaltri recomandata e como 

fc oebino nclilib:iautcntirfddpatronecaficbc in qucllide botcga feparatamcnte fcri' 

ucrce oittare. ca''.25 

£6mo fe babino a fettarc nd gioznalc c qdcrno Ic ptite oc li bacbi oc fcrittateqli fe intedi' 

no c ooue ne fia-.o dc cabiitu cd lozofiando mercarantcte tu c6 altriquado foife bad^ieri: 

c oc le quietacc cbe g licabififanno:c p d?c fenefacia ooi oc medefimo tcno:e. ca''.24 

De vnaltra parrita cbe ale uolte fc'coftuma nd qdcrno tenerc oetta cntrata e nfcitac aleuoltc 

fcnefa Iib20 particularc.e per d?c. ca°,2 j 

£6mo fe l>3bino afettarc ndi libzi le ptite dc li uiaggf i fua mano:e qllc dc li afaggi recoma 

dJtite comooc ncceflTta oc tali nafcono ooi quadcrni. ca?26 

Dcunaltraptita famofa cittapzocoannooueroauan^tedefauano'tcommo lafabia a tc 

ncrc nel quadcrnoie p dx elta non fi merta hd giomalc como le altrc ptite. ca*'.2 7 
£6mo fe oebino reportare in an^c le ptite ocl quadcmorquando foflrcropfene:c i dx Inogo 

fabbi a portare d reftotado no fia pzefa'malitia nd quadcrno. ca".2 s 

Del modo a faper mutared milefimo nd quadcrno fra le ptite cbc a la gi02nata acafcano: 

quando ognianno non fi faldafle li libzi. ca?29 

Commo fe dcbia Icuarc vn conto al debitorc cbe lo oomandafTcteiancora alfu patrone (i 

ondo faao2e e comeffo dc mtta la amimliTatide dc le robbe. ca^90 

bcl modo e ordinc a faper rctractarc ueroiftoznare una piu partitetcbc p error baueiTc 

poftc in altro luogo cbe doueflero andarc como aducnc p fmemozaginc. ca".; « 

Commo fc dcbia fare d brtando od lib20 c dd modo a repo2fare vn libro in laltrorcioe d q 

dcrno yccbio nd qdcrno nuouo e dd modo a pontarlo con lo fuo giornale e memoziale c 

altri fcontri dctro c oifuo2 ocl ditto quadcrno. ca"*.; j 

bd modoeo2dine afcriucrelefaccnded?eoccurrelTcrond tempo cl?e IT fad bilandorcioc 

cbc fi faldaiio li lib2i c commo nclili libri HCdn non fi dd)iarcriucrc ne innouare cofa alcu 

na in ditto tcmpozclacagione per dx. ca^33 



About the entries in accounts with public officials and 

Transactions with the market master, and sales for 
cash or on time with brokers' commissions 

Transfer of money through an order on another firm 
or a bank 

Trades and exchanges, and their book entries 

Joint venture accounts and trades 

General expenses, commissions, and salaries, income 
and expenses, profit and loss 

Branch stores or houses 

The bank or private draft and their duplicate receipt- 

A separate book for income and expenses 

A separate ledger and journal when traveling with 

Profit and loss 

Why these entries do not go through the journal 

Transfer of an account to another page in the ledger 
(difference only) ; not entered in journal 

The change in the year between entries in the ledger... 

The preparation of a statement of account for cus- 








Correction of an error in posting 

Balancing of the ledger and transfer to a new ledger... 

Checking with dots _ 

Checking with other marks _ 

What to do with new entries during period of closing 

The balancing of aU accounts 

Profit and loss account 

Final closing of the profit and loss into capital 

The trial balance and balance account 

Letters and documents — how preserved and filed; 
mercantile letters give date and place at top; non- 
mercantile at bottom 

Resume of entire treatise 

Balancing entries marked Ro (resto) 


Manzoni Pietra 

Vol. II/9 

Vol. 1/13 
Vol. II/9 
















Vol. 11/12 




Vol. 11/11 









Vol. 11/10 

















BfllinctieJion9.rr«lcf9tn0 -JC^Be fcripturis 

Conimo ft oebiano faldanr tutte If paiti'te Jxl quadcrno ved?io;e i d?i:c per cbcc oc [a 15 

ma ffimammocloarcccclaucre ultimo fcontrooclbflancjo. a» -h 

Del modo c o:dic a fapcr tcncrc Ic fcripturc menutc como fono fcnpn oc maiiolrc ramilia 

rinoii«;c:4)c<lTi:fcntcricealmiftrumericoditgiftrooc (e latere ipojtan. ca .\s 

epiloQo uero fumaria recolta dc tuttocl pxfente tractato:aaocon wcue fubitatia ic ba 

bia mandarc a mcmozia Ic cofc octte. ^3 . 36 

Oiftincrio.nona.'itracratua.ti'.gticularis Oe copuns 7 fcriptuns. 
, be quelle cofc cbe fono nccelTane al uero mercatanteic oe lo^dinc a fape be tcncre vn q/ 
derno co fuo giomale i vinegia e anclx p ognaltro lupgo. £apifolo p?iiiio. 

•f reuerentilubciifiO£.'a.«>.SJ.0^3fl:nanimo.i:>.acio a piciio 
oe tuttolo:dine mercantcfco babino el birognotoelwerai-ColC. 
lecofeoin3n5eiqft3nfaogaintte)ani:oj3 particular tractsto 
grandemere neceflTano c6pillare.£ in q.lo folo lo iferio: p cbe 
a ogniloro occurrcca elpfcnte lib:oli porta fcrujre.Si oel mo / 
do a contic fcripmreicdmo oe ragioni.£ per cfTo intendo oar/ 
li nozma fuflFicicme e baftante in rcnere ordinatanicnie tutti lor 
contielib2i,'^rocbc.Cc6niofira)trccofem3ume fono opo2' 
tuncia cbiuole con ocb'ta Diligetia le qlilaporif 
fima e la pecunia numcrata c ogni altra faculta fu ftantialcju- 
rta illud pl?y vnQ aliquid neceflariojii e fubftanria.!Se(;a d cui 
fuflragio mill fi po el manegio traficante erercitare. Suega dx 
molti gia nudico bona fedc coraentandoroe gra facade babio farto,£ mcdtante lo credito 
fedelmete feruato i magne rid>esce fieno peruenoti*£l?e afai p vtalia tMfciirrcdo nabiamo 
cognofciliti. £ pin gia ncle gra republid:>e non fi poteua Dire:clx la fedc od bon mercatan 
te.£ a qudia fifcrmaua lo: giuramentotoiccdo.S la fc oe real mercatante.€ cio no oeurf 
fere admirarioneicociofia clx ila fede carolicamctc ognuno fi faluite fenca Ice fia ipoffibile 
piacerc a nto. tg fecoda cof^ cbefirccerca al oebito fraficoifie cbe fia buon ragioncri: e 
^mpro copurifta.£ p quefto'cofeqiiire.Coifopjacomofc ueduto)oal p?iapio alafinc: l?a' 
ucmo Fducro regole e canoni a ciafcuna opatione req«ifiti.5n modo dx m fe:ogni oiligc/ 
te Iccfojc.tuf to potra ipjcndcrc^ d>i oi quefta pte non forte bene armatoila fequete in ua 
no li ferebbc. la.j ^e vliima cofa oportuna fie:cbe c6 bello o:die nittc fue facede ocbiia- 
mete oi'pongatado con bjcuitatporta oe dafcua bauer notitiatquanto aioz oebito c and^c 
credito;cbc circa altro non fatcde el rrafic o.£ qfta ptc fra laltrc e alojo utilirtimaube i lor 
facede altramcte regerfetferia iportibiletfe^a ocbiio ozdinc oe fcriprurc.£ fe^ alcu repofo la 
lo2 mftc fcmpzc ftaria in gran trauagli.£ poado con laltre qfta pofllno bauere.el pflte tra 
amo ozdiai. J^cl qle fc da el mo a tiittc fo?ri oe fcn'ptweia ca'.p ca''.4)cededo.£ be clx no 
a pofh cufiaporo tuno d bifogno fcriuere.^6 oimcno p ql d?e fc oira.£I pegrinotgeg?a 
^lucaln-olaplfcara. £ feruiaremo i cflfo d mo oe rincgia:q!e certamete fraglialtriemolto 
da comedare.£ mediante qlllo i ogm altro fe pojra guidare.£ qfio oiHideremo iJ^i pfi 
dpali.luna d)iamarcmo iuctario.£ laltra oifp6ne.£ p^oc luna:epoi oe laltra fucccrtiua 
mete fe oira fctb lo:die i la ppofla tauola contcnuto.i3)er la ql facilmente d leaozc pozra Ic 
occurJcntie trouare fecondo el numcro oc fuoi capitoli e carri. 

fei CO lo oebiro ozdic cl?e fafpccta uol fap be tcncrc rn qderno co lo fuo g««n3 
le a ql dx quife dira con wligctia ftia a tcto.£ finteda el jfKcflo idurrei 
moicapovnocbemoOinouocome<tiatrafi'carccomopoxlie deba proccdere 
ndtencre foi conti e fcripiure:aciod?e fucjtamcte ogni cofa polTiritrouare porta 
ial fuo luogo p dx no afettandole cofc oebitamcte a li fuoi UioglM uei-cbbc I grandirtimi tra 
uagli e cofufioi oc tutte fue facedc^urtacoe oictu vbi no e o:do ibi eft c6fufio.£ pero a p 
fecto ooc(uncto oogm' mercatantc oe tutto nfo pccfh f aremo como oi fop:a e ditco.2. j^i 
pncip3li.lcqli apramete cj fequete cbiarircmotacio fructo falutifero fabia ipjedcre. £ pria 
dimoftrando ch cofa fia iuetario e como fabia far e £>c la p* ptc pndpale oe qfto tractato 
oetta !uetario.£ dx cofa fia iuctario:e come fra mcrcatanti fabia fere, ca'.z £6uienft 
fldonca p'mcte 4)fupponcree Imaginare dx ogni opante e moflTo oalfine. £p poter qlto 
oebitam^te cofe^rc fa o^ni fuolTo:^o nd fuo ^eflb.vnde d fine oe qludx traficante c oc 
cSfequire Mcito c cdpctete guadagno p fua fubftetatioe .£ po femp« con lo nomc oe mefer 
©omenedio: od?iano comcn^arc lojo faccndc^i nd pn'. dogni lo? fcrtpturcd (uo fan«o 







In order that the subjects of His Illustrious Highness, the most honorable and magnanimous Duke 
of Urbino (D. U. D. S. — Docis Urbini Domini Serenissimi) , may have all the rules that a good merchant 
needs, I decided to compile, in addition to the subjects already treated in this work, a special treatise which 
is much needed. I have compiled it for this purpose only, i. e., that they (the subjects) may whenever 
necessary find in it everything with regard to accounts and their keeping. And thereby I wish to give them 
enough rules to enable them to keep all their accounts and books in an orderly way. For, as we know, 
there are three things needed by any one who wishes to carry on business carefully. The most impor- 
tant of these is cash or any equivalent, according to that saying, Unum aliquid necessarium est substantia. 
Without this, business can hardly be carried on. 

It has happened that many without capital of their own but whose credit was good, carried on big 
transactions and by means of their credit, which they faithfully kept, became very wealthy. We became 
acquainted with many of these throughout Italy. In the great republics nothing was considered superior 
to the word of the good merchant, and oaths were taken on the word of a good merchant. On this confi- 
dence rested the faith they had in the trustworthiness of an upright merchant. And this is not strange, 
because, according to the Christian religion, we are saved by faith, and without it it is impossible to please 

The second thing necessary in business is to be a good bookkeeper find ready mathematician. To be- 
come such we have given above (in the foregoing sections of the book) the rules and canons necessary to 
each transaction, so that any diligent reader can understand it all by himself. If one has not understood 
this first part well, it will be useless for him to read the following. 

The third and last thing is to arrange all the transactions in such a systematic way that one may 
understand each one of them at a glance, i. e., by the debit (debito — owed to) and credit (credito — owed 
by) method. This is very essential to merchants, because, without making the entries systematically it would 
be impossible to conduct their business, for they would have no rest and their minds would always be trou- 
bled. For this purpose I have written this treatise, in which, step by step, the method is given of making all 
sorts of entries. Although one cannot write out every essential detail for all cases, nevertheless a careful 
mind will be able, from what is given, to make the application to any particular case. 

This treatise wiU adopt the system used in Venice, which is certainly to be recommended above aU the 
others, for by means of this, one can find his way in any other. We shall divide this treatise in two prin- 
cipal parts. The one we shall call the Inventory, and the other. Disposition (arrangement). We shall 
talk first of the one and then of the other, according to the order contained in the accompanying Table of 
Contents, from which the reader may take what he needs in his special case. 

He who wants to know how to keep a ledger and its journal in due order must pay strict attention 
to what I shall say. To understand the procedure well, we will take the case of one who is just starting in 
business, and tell how he must proceed in keeping his accounts and books so that at a glance he may find 
each thing in its place. For, if he does not put each thing in its own place, he will find himself in great 
trouble and confusion as to all his affairs, according to the familiar saying, Ubi non est ordo, ibi est confusio 
(Where there is no order, there is confusion). In order to give a perfect model to every merchant, we will 
divide the whole system, as we have said, in two principal parts, and we will arrange these so clearly that 
one can get good results from them. First, we will describe what the inventory is and how to make it. 



First, we must assume that every action is determined by the end in view, and in order to pursue this 
end properly, we must use every effort. The purpose of every merchant is to make a lawful and reasonable 
profit so as to keep up his business. Therefore, the merchants should begin their business with the name 
of God at the beginning of every book and have His holy 

NOTE — The words in parentheses are the author's, as also the punctuation and paragraphing, as the 
original is extremely deficient in these. The words in italics are copied exact from the original. 


&i(h'iict(onoita.z:i'actatudri''. i^cfcriptarid t^y^ 

nome bautrJ mctc 7c£ go p\coucii cl>c facu fuo wligciiK fuct3rio:i qfto mode.c/?c fern 
piep^fcriua iii vn foglio o ucro tibio oj gic.JCiocl>e k nrroua bauer al iiiodoioc mob((e:c 
deft abik:.£ainensando femp oa le cofc cl?: fon j i!i piu pgio e pui labili al pcrdcrc. £61110 
f6(i'6^otam!.i5ioc.i(rgciui?ci5)erc!?eleibbili.£6:noldnoX3fiXerreiii.i.acunc val' 
k.'^:fcbiere e fiinili no fi polfano fmarjrcitomo k cok iHob«h.£ fucceiriuaiiictc poi oe 1119 
{10 imanoXcriuafc laltrci&oncndo fcp.v p' el noine fuo iicl onto 
fucurio.c tmo Ditto iueiario fi dcuctencre in vn medcfimo gio:no:g c\k altraiiictc oarcbc 
trauaglio ncl inacgio futuro.£ go a tuo ei:eplo:po:i «: cj vn pz n'.coino fe ocbw farc-ifcerto 
ql tu gte pozrai i ogiii luogo cl 4>pofito fcquire 7c.vs. 

^ozma excplarc co tuttc fuc foknniia in lo inuentario rcquififc. ca*.; 

Bl nomc oc oio.i 495-9 di.8.noucmb2C in vincgia. 

^^ Ueftofequctcficloiuctaiioocnii.j^.oaWnc^Dcla cotrada ocfco apoJloIo. 

^1 £lqko2denat3inctciooemianianolx)rcripto:oivofattofcnucre oal talctc. 

wj oc tutti li miri beni:itJ^obili: e i5rabili:£>ebiti:c£rcditi dx al inodo mi ntro 


fra papalitfenefiic Uo2Ctini Tclaua^o moetc oargeto c rame oe pin 1 
ccUi.£arlini de re.£ oe p3pa.£ grolU fiozetini. Ziftoni inilancfi 7C.2* Jtte mi trouo i ^0 
ieMg3{ecddligate.i5tftin°.tati'rc.£)eliqlitantif6nobalallii tauola ligati:io2o ancilipc 
fano.^.ecaratn'grani TC.luno uero i fuma.£!uipoi oire a tuo ino ic £ tanci fono fafili 
pur a tauola ifo2magli m oona.i&efano 7c£ tmiiono rubicoculegiii oefligadi pcfano 7C. 
lialtn fono oiamatigrc^ii a tanola:e potidiTc.^arrado le fojtic pefi a tila uogiia- 5'' 5rc 
mi trouo refte dc piu fozte.tatc oc la talc e tante de la rale 7c IH jrrado fuoi c6 iitioi. £olo 
ri:fodre e fogi'e 7C4'. Jtc mi trouo argcti lauoran oc.p. fo2ti.£6nio tac^c bacilt. iRa inC 
£orilen'. -^roni 7c.£ 4 narra tmo k fo:ti a rna p vna 7C.£ pefa ciafcuna \02t3 dagfe lo 
tilmcte.£tit'cdtooepcftieoepefiTc.£oelclesl?e.0 venetiana.^ragufca 7C.£ and?e 
ftapo.o ucro fegnoclx baucffero fame mentioc -zcs^ 5rc mi trouo i nia flaria D panui li 
iu':a'oe tc5oli.'£ouagli,£amife.f a<;iu li 7c£apin?tatitc.lccuolidc.5.teli.£>di.2 Jwcrelc 
iaoli grandi nttanri tc.£ piccoli tanti 7C.noui vfati Tc.a tuo mo narraMc fo2ti. 6'. ^tc; 
mi trouo jecti 6 piijam'-tanti 7tc6 foi caue^ali dc piu'noua ?co vfata ic.fcdaa noua 7C. 
qlipcranoi tutto,o?i?ovnog vno.g. tante ic-JS^eg'tcdd mioffg'.odalt°.cdmoficolru 
ma tc. 7* Jtc mi trouo oc mereantic i cafa oucr i maga<;eiii.7c.oe piu fo;ti.p^ £oUi tan 
ta g fo^'.dittc mcrcantic co tutri cotrafcgnifia polTibik.c co qfta.piu cbiarc^ca fipolTa.ocpc 
to n°.c mifura 7C. 8' 5tc nu trouo colli tanti dc ^c^ari bdlidi 7C£ card?i tati oc pig 7C. 
pig ldgo.o ucrpig todo fc6o cbe fira 7C. £ farditanti dicanellc 7c.pcf3''.7C£ colli miii 
garo'.7c pefa''.7c.c6 fufti polucre c capdleti.o ?po fe^a 7C.£ peftl t3ti.dc K><^ni 7c.pefa°.7c. 
e pc(,-f tanti fan'-roffi biancbi pef3°.7c.£cori andarai mcttcdo g ordic v^.fotto laltro 7c. 
9* 3(C mi tr^pelami da fodrctcioe asndi'.bia'.c albertoi puglicfi mardM'ani Tcn'-ian 

'.ortigctcmete ( 

ado d ucro te l?abia a gnidarc 7c. tlucudo fep aucrtqa a le cofc dx uano a n". £ a qlfc jd:>c 
uano a pefo.£ a qllc eft vano a mifura.gocb di'. fi coftna fare cl irafico g tut (O. 
calcunc fimcrcano a.^''.5ltrea.c''.altrca.S.altrea.(5.altrcan''.cioe acdtocomopdla 
mi tcaltrc a pcfti.cdrao (iioicc pcrle fine 7c. Si c\k di tutte fa ben nota acofa per cola 7c. 
£ qucfte tc baftmo a tua guida.laltre per tc poi fequirai fcmpjc 7c. 1 ' '. ^'Cin 

mi trouo oeftabilc p?iam.vna'cafa a tanti fulan 7c:a tante cam«:re.£o:tc. -^rto. <0no 7C. 
porta in la contra oc fanao apcftolo-.fora canale 7c.ap?cfTo cl talc:e tale 7c.;<^omni3ndo 
u cdfini:c refercdon 3li inftf i fe ui fono anVbi piu vcri 7c.£ cofi fc piu naucfic oc Ic calic i ti 
uer fi luogI?i:nor3rlf a fimilitc. 1 2\ 5tc mi trouo tcrrcni lauoranui capio ucro ftaiojc. o 
ucfo panoja 7c. ^nominadoli fc^ lufo ocl pacfe Ooue te troai.o uero oouc fono firuua 
l< 7C.n!t9ti 7?.%irededo cl capo ucro llaioza oc tauolc tatc cane o gtidx bcuoldx 7C. 
Tfeofti in la tal villa oe padouana altrode 7c.Bp2cf(o libcni ocl tale 7c.£bi3mado li co 
Rni 7c.£ iliftmneti.o uero gtita occatafli.g li qli pagbile farioni i comuno re. ©nali lila 
uoraeltale 7<.rcdano lano oeftttoc6muo:ftara tatic.dtati7«:.£ cofigteua narado tu 
tuoipoffeflffoTC. j^cftiarotfod'. 1 5' 5tc mi tro' ba' ata camc^d ipfti''. oucr alt^motciv* 


name in their minds. To begin with, the merchant must make his inventory (inventario) in this way: He 
must always put down on a sheet of paper or in a separate book whatever he has in this world, personal 
property or real estate, beginning with the things that are most valuable and most likely to be lost, such 
as cash, jewels, silver, etc., for the real estate, such as houses, lands, lakes, meadows, ponds, etc., cannot be 
lost as personal property. Then all the other things must be put down one after another. In the said in- 
ventory give always first the day, the year, the place and your name. This whole inventory must be com- 
pleted in one day, otherwise there will be trouble in the future in the management of the business. 

As an example for you, I will give you, now, an idea as to how the inventory is to be made, so that 
you may use it as a guide in any particular case. 



In the name of God, November 8th, 1493, Venice. 

The following is the inventory of myself, N. N., of Venice, Street of the Holy Apostles. 

I have written down systematically, or had written by Mr. So-and-So, this inventory of all my prop- 
erty, personal and real, what is owed to me {debiti), and what is owed by me (crediti), of which I on this 
said day find myself possessed in this world. 

First Item: First I find myself possessed in cash, in gold and coin of so many ducats, of which so 
many are Venetian, and so many gold Hungarian ; of so many large florins made up of Papal, Siennese 
and Florentine, etc. The rest consists of many different kinds of silver and copper coins, i. e., troni, mar- 
celli, papal and royal carlini and Florentine grossi, and Milanese testoni, etc. 

Second Item : I also possess, in set and unset jewels, so-and-so many pieces, among which are many 
balassi set in gold, rings weighing so-and-so-many ounces, carats, grains, etc., per piece or in bulk, etc., 
which you can express in any manner you wish. There are so-and-so-many sapphires set on clamps for 
women; they weigh so much. And there are so-and-so-many rubies, unset, weighing so much. The rest 
consists of unpolished pointed diamonds, etc. Here you may give such descriptions and weight as you 

Third Item : I have clothes of many kinds ; so many of such kind ; and so many of such-and-such kind, 
etc., describing their condition, colors, linings, styles, etc. 

Fourth Item : I have several kinds of silverware, as cups, basins, rammi, eosileri, piromi, etc. Here 
describe all the different kinds one by one, etc., and weigh each kind diligently. Keep an account of pieces 
and weights, and of the alloy, whether the Venetian or the one used at Ragusa, etc. Also mention the 
stamp or mark that they might have. 

Fifth Item : I have so much massaria dei lini — that is, bed sheets, table cloths, shirts, handkerchiefs, 
etc., so many of each. Of the bed sheets, so many are made three-piece sheets, and so many are three and 
one-half, etc., mentioning whether the linen is Padua linen or some other kind, new or used ; length so many 
braccia, etc. ; so many shirts, etc. ; table cloths of so many threads ; so many big handkerchiefs and so many 
small, mentioning whether new or used, giving the different kind in your own way. 

Sixth Item : I have so many feather beds and their respective pillows, mentioning whether the feath- 
ers are new or used, whether the pillow-cases are new or used, etc., which altogether or one by one weigh 
so much, marked with my mark or with some other mark, as the custom is. 

Seventh Item: I have at home or in the store so much goods of different kinds: First, so many 
cases of ginger michino, weighing so many pounds, marked with such-and-such mark, and so on, describing 
each kind of said goods with all their marks that you might possibly give and with all the possible accu- 
racy as to weight, number, measurement, etc. 

Eighth Item : I have so many cases of ginger bellidi, etc., and so many sacks of pepper, long pepper 
or round pepper, depending on what it is ; so many packages of cinnamon, etc., that weigh so much ; so 
many packages of cloves, etc., that weigh so much, with fusti polvere and cappelletti or without, etc., and 
so many pieces of verzini weighing so much, and so much sandalwood, red or white, weighing so much, and 
so on, entering one item after another. 

Ninth Item: I have so many skins for coverings, that is, so many white kids and so many albertoni 
or marchiani, etc., so many of such-and-such kind, etc., so many fox skins, so many tanned and so many 
raw, so many chamois skins tanned, and so many raw. 

Tenth Item : I have so many fine skins, fore armenti, dossi varii, zebelini, etc., so many of such-and- 
such kind, and so many of such-and-such kind — defiining diligently and truthfully each time so that truth 
will always guide you, etc., distinguishing the things that ought to be entered by pieces from those that 
ought to be entered by weight, and those that ought to be entered by measurement, because in these three 
ways business is conducted everywhere ; certain things are reckoned by the bushel, others by the hundreds, 
others by the pound, others by the ounce, others by number, others by a conto (by single numbers) as leath- 
er goods or skins, others by the piece, as precious stones and fine pearls, etc. ; so you will make a nota- 
tion of each thing. These examples will serve as a guide for all the rest, etc. 

Eleventh Item : I have in real estate : first, a house with so many stories, so many rooms, court yard, 
wells, garden, etc., situated in St. Apostle Street over the Canal, etc., adjoining such-and-such parties, etc., 
giving the names of the boundary line properties, making reference to the oldest and most reliable deeds, 
if there are any ; and so, if you have more houses in different localities, you will enter them in a similar 


©idincfio iionatrj<;tatiW.u*.0cfcr^fttri0 

©ucari fgntidcoucdaffndffrncrcJfCanarffigio'rcCJucropKivnofmicKcpteivnflf 
iro J^ arrando arcora i noinc ded:>i foniio fcrfpn. £ cbiamando d lib20 DC quelle officio 
£1 numcro w k c jrri roue clams parfira.£l nomc od fcriuano dxmn oittoUbzo-.aao c6 
pmtuafcaliraqFdouaiafcorcrcliponitrouar.l&crodxin tali officii bifogna l?auerc iiiol 
ti fvonrn alnioltf pcrlagranmuJnrudmedxciireruicneTc.^nora dmiiefuno cbercfpo 
dano a repo p rcpo acio fappia quido ucngano lifo pro.e quaio per ccto refpodino 7c. 1 4 
5tem Mil rrouo orbiron numero ranti Tc'.luno e f rale od tale lUbc me dcue oarc ouca 
ti ranri 7c.lalrro c d rale od tale 7c. £ cofi narrali a vno:a vno con boni conrra Icgniic co 
gnoiniic liioglJitc quanto tc oebano oarc:c p cbe.£ cofi fc ui fon fcnpti oe ma initrume- 
n oe nodari fra iioi fane menone 7C.Jn lumaoebo fcotere oucatitati TC.De boni6.Se fi / 
ri perfonc pa bene 7c.alfranieTi dirai oc rrifh o.-rc-i f . jKin mitrouocflere Debiroimt- 
ro Du( an tanri tc. ranri a 3I ra!e.c tantial rale 7C.jQominado li roicrediton a uno a viia£ 
fe uifo no d>i3rc^'^c fra uoio DC fcnpri r)e inftrumenri iiominadi.£cbi.£ commo.d di d 
iuogo per inolri cafi porcncno occojrerc in iadicio c fo? oeiudicio -jc. 

tlnhfliina cro:t3rione:cfaluriferir)ocumen3l bo mcrcataregtineri. ca°.4 
£ofi oifco:fo cd diliec<,a rutff If f ^''^f '^''^ ^ ruroui imobae e Itabile: come e occ- 


toa una p<r unatfcfoflfcr ben riedniilia oid>econduioni e faculta h fiaebancbi 
f tmprdlin 7c.rufrc albuono o?dine couicnfe noiiiinaric m Ditto cuetano c6 tur 
n corrafcgni nomi;cc6gnomiqpro fia piu polTibile-l^'cr cb al mcrcaratc ndpofia 
no msi le cofc cflcre noppo cbiare ■|!^er linfinin caH cbc nd rrafico polTatio occozrereicom 
mo ala gio^nat j fa cbi in e(To fc frerara.£ pcro be oin d p?outrbio cbe bifogiia piu poiiti 
fare vn bo mcrcarare. dx a fare vn t»cro:eoe IcggiXbi e coluicbe poiTa nuerare li gtiti: 
rcafifbe ale mani uengonoalimerc3rann.O:a p marc.Oa pterra.^za a tempi oc pacie 
dabondanria. 07a a tempi de guerre c carellje.&ra a (cmpi oc fanita e mozbi. j^c quali tc 
pie Of airrcce li conuicne faper prendere foi partiti. Si P li mercatiicomo g le fieri dx o?a 1 
una pam'a e cita fi fano.£ o:a m lalrra 7c.£ pero bcii (c figura cafimiglia d mercataiue al 
pallo. Quale efraglialfri d piu iiigiTanre animalc d?efia:e Diuerno e 01 ftate fa le fuc noiur 
nciiigjlic.dx maipcr alcii tempo reffa.Buenga cbe oefiloincnafeoicarcioc del rofigiiuo 
lodx mrtala nocrecanti'.nonoimcnoqucflofipjoeftatealcaldocempoucrificare: ma 
non oinuerno: como la erpcrienfa e impjonto adimoftrarlo.£ aiid?o iu fimigliata la fua 
tefia a ma cbc l^abia cctood?i.cbc andJO?a no li fono ballati:ne in oir ne i farclLe^qual co 
fi. 3ncoifai.36rdTini £>ergamafd5L acJIani.Scncfi lucbrfi.i5erurmi.arbiafi.^o^ofim 
p?oniani £3ciicft.£ tJgubini.£aftcllani.Bo?gtxfi.f f ulignanc6-|feifai.}6olognefi. e fc 
(3rcfi.L>'Mtou3i.Ucr6efi.'Uigeti.e i&adouai. '£rani.I.ecia.a5an.c6 3&Cf6ta Icql rpu'.tra 
Islrrc i rralia rd rrafico renganod p:incipato.£fe3iie la crceHa cita oe vencria co fiojcta. 
^o?ma e regola Dogni p3rtito.d?al bifogno ap?endcr fabia. Si dx be ouao le leggi muni 
dp3|iv5. uigrt3nnbu0 7nonoo?mtennbu8 Jura fubuenuinf.cioeacbiueggbiaenoa dn 
©o?mc le If ggi fouengao. £ cofi ndi oiumi officii U fanta oa la fancta cbida.clx idio alt vi 
giTanri a p?omeffo la co2ona.£ pero quef^o fo d oocumcto di rirgilio oato a £>ante:c6ino 
d fuo figliuolo Quando nd cato. : 4"'dc lo iff mo li oici crcrandolo a la fatigaipfr laqlc 
fllmonre df leinrtnreperuiene.O?maiconuienfig(iuolocbf ru re fpolrri. biffe dmac 
flro miodxpurin piuma .^nfama nofiuicne nefotrocoltrc. Sorrola qual cbifuauita 
cofuma. £otal uefhgio oifc in terra lafda. £5ual fume i aire e i aqua la fd?wma 7C, £ vnal 
tro vulgar pccta al medefimo d cofo.^a oiccdo.^f n re para Urania la fariga dj marre no 
tfoncdtmaibatagl a B qudlicbepo(Tandofenurrifa7c.2lofrfmpIo and?o?3ddf3piae 
molfo fo aao conu rnictcDiccdo al pigro fix fi fpffl>iaiTe ndia fo7mid3a.£ paulo apollo 
lodicidxniijfiradcgiiodifo?ona faluofbe cbibara Icginmamcte combattuto 7c.£3uc 
fti record! lio uoluti adure per rua uriliraiaao non tf para graue la coridiana folicirudinc 
in nif faccndc.marmjc m rr ncrc la pcna in cartarc rutf? fcrnifrc a dipt r di:qnd dx k oc- 
co7re:f6mo fe dira nd fcqntr Of^a fepfopra rurro p' idioci ^rio te fia auan gliocbie mai' 
no mancbi daludire la mcfTa la maria iRffOTdadorc dx p Icimai figdccamio .j^c pla c^ 
nrafifcf ma rie 5<(f como p qf\o ktb uerfo (e dici.i*^cf canraf opcftncc milTa miuir iter 7C 
£•3 cjftoci erona d faluatoz i fa matbco q-do ou:i.)E>7nnii qnrc rrgnifciJci:? Ixc oia adiicte 
tw uobi0.;£crcaterpianipmamctedrcame (5h ndic poi laltrecofe lepozalicfpiialifacil 


Twelfth Item : I have so many pieces of land under cultivation (fields or staiore or panora) etc., enter- 
ing them by the name according to the usage of the country where you are, saying where they are situated, 
etc., as, for instance, a field of so many tavole, or canne, or pertiche, or bevolche, etc., situated in such-and- 
such town in the Province of Padua or somewhere else, adjoining the land of so-and-so, giving all the 
boundary lines and referring to deeds or the description from the recorder's office, for which land you 
pay taxes in such-and-such municipality, which are worked by so-and-so with a yearly income of so much, 
and so on; you will enter all your possessions, etc., cattle, etc. 

Thirteenth Item: I have in deposit with the Camera de I'lmpresti (a bank), or with another bank 
in Venice, so many ducats ; or with the parish of Canareggio, etc., or part in one parish and part in another, 
giving the names under which they have been deposited, mentioning the book of the bank, the number 
of the page where your account is, and the name of the clerk who keeps said book, so that you can 
easily find your account when you go to get money, because in such offices they must keep very many ac- 
counts on account of the big crowd that sometimes goes there, and you must also see that dates are put down 
precisely so that you know when everything falls due and what the per cent. is. 

Fourteenth Item: I have so many debtors {deiitori) : one is so-and-so, who owes me (me dee dare — 
shall give me) so many ducats, and so on, giving the names of each one, putting down all annotations as 
to the names, their family names, and how much they owe you {te dehbono dore — shaU have to give you) 
and why; also whether there are any written papers or notarial instruments. In total I have so many 
ducats to coUeet, you will say, of good money, if the money is due from good people, otherwise you will 
say of bad money. 

Fifteenth Item : I am debtor in total to the extent of so many ducats, etc. I owe so many to so-and- 
so. Here mention your creditors (creditori) one by one, writing down whether there are any documents or 
writings or instruments ; if possible, mention the persons present when the debt was incurred, the reason, 
the time and the place, for any case that might arise in court or out of court. 


And so, as we have said, you shall enter diligently every thing that you have, whether personal prop- 
erty or real estate, one by one, even if there were ten thousand items, putting down the condition and 
nature, whether deposited or loaned, etc. You wiU have to mention each thing in proper order in the said 
Inventory -with, all marks, names, surnames — as far as possible — for things are never too clear to a mer- 
chant on account of the different things that may happen in business, as anybody in business knows. 
Right is the proverb which says: More bridges are necessary to make a good merchant than a lawyer 
can make. Who is the person that can count all the things that can happen to a merchant — on the sea, 
on land, in times of peace and abundance and times of war and famine, in times of health or pestilence ? 
In these crises he must know what to do, in the marketplaces and in the fairs which are held now in one place 
and now in another. For this reason it is right to say that the merchant is like a rooster, which of aU the 
animals {animale) is the most alert and in winter and summer keeps his night vigils and never rests. And 
they say of the nightingale that it sings throughout the whole night ; however, this may be in the summer 
during the hot weather, but not during the winter, as experience shows. Also it is said that the head of the 
merchant has a hundred eyes, and stiU they are not sufficient for all he has to say or to do. These things are 
told by people who have had experience in them, such as the Venetians, Florentines, Genoans, Neapoli- 
tans, Milanese, people of Ancona, Brescia, Bragama, Aquila, Sienna, Lucca, Perugia, Urbino, Forosempro- 
nio, CagU, Ugubio, Castello, Brogo, Fuligno, Pisa, Bologna, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona, Vincenza, Padua, 
Trani, Lecce, Bitonto, which are among the first cities of Italy and have the first place in commerce — espe- 
cially the cities of Venice and Florence, which adopt rules that respond to any need. And well say the 
municipal laws : VigUantibus et non dormientibus jura subveniunt — which means. The law helps those 
that are awake, not those that sleep. So in the divine functions of the Holy Church they sing that God 
promised the crown to the watchful ones, and this was the instruction that Virgil gave to Dante as to his 
son, in Canto 24 of the Inferno, where he exhorts him to the work by which one can reach the hill of 
virtue : Now, my son, it behooves that you quit your laziness, said my master, for he who lies on 
feathers or under covers will never amount to anything. Whoever spends his life in this way, he said, 
will leave on this earth the same trace as the smoke in the air or foam on the water, etc.; and another 
Italian poet admonishes us in the same way, saying : Work should not seem to you strange, for Mars 
never granted a victory to those that spent their time resting. And it is also very good to quote that 
sage who said to the lazy man to take the ant as an example ; and the Apostle Paul says that no one will 
be worthy of the crown except he who shall fight valiantly for it. 

I wanted to bring in these reminders for your own good, so that the daily care about your business 
wotdd not seem heavy to you, especially the writing down everything and putting down every day every- 
thing that happens to you, as we shaU unfold in the next chapters. But above all, remember God and your 
neighbor ; never forget to attend to religious meditation every morning, for through this you will never lose 
your way, and by being charitable, you will not lose your riches, as the poet says : Nee caritas, nee Missa 
minuit iter, etc. And to this our Savior exhorts us in the book of St. Matthew, when he says : Primum 
quaeriie regulum dei, et haec omnia adiicietur vobis, which means : Seek you, Christians, first the king- 
dom of God and then the other temporal and spiritual things 


BBWftrtIb noiia za-adohis^rf*.©? fcrfpmrie 200 

mente cciik(\ukac.-^ero chd padre vcfiraccfcrtfak fantolrot'cnc voftro bifccnp -?&£ (I 
fto uoglio tc fia bal^Ste a tuo amacftrsmcro Ciucrano t^c alm'boni eocumri albcnfarc 7i 
Dc la.:*.partc p?icipfllf rcl pfc ntc tractflto wrra riTpdncrcoiii^la fabfa a intcndcrc c Oi 
dxr coliift«:ctrM al traft'cotf de li.?.lil>2i pjrcipali ocl co?pd iiKcatcrco. C.f 

£quira o?a la (cccAq parte pzi'ndpalc rtl pxfr ntc tractate laqiia! wccmo cfltrc 
{a oiTpoftliotiCDtfaqiialcalquatopujlongoccuic cbiofiatdxi lapitd<tf a ben 
d?iflrirl9.£pcro d« lei farcmo coi ^'.luna wfta co:po ue ro mome oe t utto el 
trafico.jlaltra oitta cc»2po wro monte t>e bote fa. £ prima w'rdito cd or po 
generalc ce tutto d inanegio le fue cqgctir. SI quale m'co pjima Iincdiate CK?npo fyo lUeri' 
tflrwbiTo5nare.;.Iib2» gpiu fua oeftreo eeontodita.ltiro oitro mcmojialc.f taltro nctto 
jSioznfllc.lalf ro nctto. ©uaderno.iluega dx molti" n (c pcdx [oif^eende facino folo <ro 
Iiooifcc6di:«oe gt"ojnalceqiiaderno.£ pcrop:i"ma oiremooi (un(xcioemcmo2iaic.£ pot 
fufeqiicrcmde cc lialrri coi odo: inodtiucrfi c vie como wbieno clTerc temiti. £ pjima oa/ 

Del pjimofftjio rirto mcmo:iafeo vero fquartafoglio vacbcrta ql d?c fentcn 
dflecomm otn cffo k babia a fcriucre:e g djf. ca* 6 

' j iJ^de ii'cino^iale o vcro fe condo alcuni vadHtta fqrtafo0to cvn \ib:o nd ^c 

tuftc fe faccde fucd mercarate piccoFe e gr5did?e ama4i wa^no.a giorno g gioz 
no c 02a p 073 if(riuej^dqlerifiirain?tfc0nicof9?3iucdfre e copjareCcaFtri 
m9ne£vi)rcriucdo fe r>id?iara no lafando vn iota £1 c W.£I d)C.£l'quado.£l 00 
nc:c6 nit tc fue cbiareftcie meticnitccnio a pi'eno oi fopw m fo enocnwno te oiffi: fcn^a pitt 
oln-a telcrcpIidM .£ iquello tal lib?o molti rofhimanopoiicrclojofljctario. flOapdjcd 
puenc a moke manic ocbi no laudo re h" mobili e ftabtii fbi a pic no po:rc £ qucflo li" 30 
fol fi h p la furia oc le faccde dx (i felTcnd onaf e reue fcriuerc d i5>atroncli f^nori fiJar/ 
cm' :lec6ncCfe fano^ih gbfcc« 10 rx la'tro.-^ero dxl gr3 mcrcatate no terra fempjg fenwf 
W garconi ne faaoji.d^ o?3 H manda in qnaroja li manda in fan modib die afeuolre luico 
lozo fono fojaXbi a fiere fbi a mercati 'rc.£ folo le voac alcri gar^oni reftano a c«fa cbc 
fo:fca pcna fano fcriucre.£pure fo?o p non etufere liauc luojiconuengano vtndcrec kof 
tere!pagare:ec6p?3rcfecodolo?dined5er3lp2infip«leljf!a fpofto,£1o?ofcc6dolo7opo 
^reognifofatifboiiofai&ierei Ditto mcmoaalenominado fcmplicimete Icm ncrec pdH 
dx fano'.c trar fo?c a tnttc fojtc w monette dx wndanoe c op?ano ucro jpagano e fcota 
ito po dx fR qucfto tale nort fa eafo a ebc moneta ficaui foTCComo nd giojnalc c quader^ 
nofcb wTotto fe dira 7c.cpquadcmieri af<. tta tutto poi Ini quado Pdi pdireigiojnalcGicB 
fomando poifo pzincipalei'ede tiittc fue faccnde e rafcttale fe lipiSre altr«iii6te7f.£ pcroe 
neceflario oitto Iibjo a cbi fa afti facSde."^ cbc fereba fatiga bdlegi'areic ptr ojdine cgni 
cofa la p2inta nolta ntettere 1 li libTi auctentici c con O'Tigcnca tenuti.£ i qi^efto e in f utti al' 
fri p:ima ponere d fegno difoTa r fula copta:acio nd fuccclto zx k faccde fiado ptcno 5 fo^ 
ptura ue ro foznito certo tepo p la qnal cofa tu uojrai vnaltro libjo p:endcre.o ucro dene 
ceflfita te r oucrra quado qucfto folTe pieno. O^st ale uolte iwoUi coftumanolbiucrfe piif: be 
cbc n6 fia pieno anoualmcte far fgldi e andx li libzi niiow como oefotto itederai.£ iTottto 
fecottdo |ib:o per rebito o?dine bifogna renouare fegnale oifcrentc ral pjimoracb tjctcm' 
po in tcpo fipofia co p»flcc<a trouareIg?()fa(ede.i^Cr tal uicanco?a milefimojC pirro b</ 
ne fi coftuma fra liucri catolia" fegnarc li p?imi lo?o libji:de quel glonbfo fegno i^qt ftig 
giogninoftrofpin'tiial nemico:ela catcrua mtta infc rn^ mcrrtaincntc trcfha ddfcsiio: 
cioe de la fanaa crori dal acale ancoja ndi teneriannf a iparar i>e legere (alfabcto c6»ncn 
^afti. £ poili feqnctilfbji fegngraiper o?dinc wlfabeto:f iococ,5.£ poilitcf$'dd.l?.T6 
©ifcorrendo per o^dine ;^a1ftibeto. £ dMamlfejpoi libzicrod ctoc dS>cmo?fe! aoci 
£}}oaii3fcroarcioc filufldcrnofroci'rdoe .alfabetdbnerocrtratto crotKdoc. tc, 
£ poi af i fcDi litoifc o-a' CS^momlM, . (QiJadcmo.S.Tc.£ re tuttfqudh li / 
b2i.d numero w lo? cam" ficonucn fegnare per molti refpecti c caiifde cbc aloperantc fart 
no ce bifogno . flutuga dx mdlti bicbino nd giojnale ememo2iaIe non bifofnarc p<bc 
k cofe fe girfdanoililcate a di p ditvna fotto laltra dxfia baftante a lo2 ritronarc. 0ik 
m" fell w'rcbODOd ucro fc le;faccndet>e vna gio2nata non pafiafiTero vna carta.iQda mivo 
dcntocbif moWitroiritrafifan^inon dx una carta ma doie ire ncpirano in ¥n gi62no oc 
le qual.poiCdsi ooldle far malc)nq)Otrcbbe tagfiarc e cauare nna.Tg:fl qnal Iraude tl5 fi ptf^ 


you will easily obtain, because your Heavenly Father knows very well your needs, etc. 

And this I hope will be sufficient as an instruction for you to make the Inventory, etc., and to do 
other things well. 



Comes now the second principal part of this treatise, which is called disposition, and of this I have 
to talk more at length than of the first part, in order to make it very clear. I will divide it in two parts. 
We shall call the one, Corpo overo monte de sutto el trafico; the other, Corpor overo monte de hotega (Com- 
merce in general, and Your store in particular) . 

First, we shall speak of commerce in general and its requirements. Immediately after the Inventory, 
you need three books to make the work proper and easy. One is called Memorandum (Memoriale) , the 
second Journal (Giornale), and the third Ledger {Quaderno). Many, on account of their small business, 
use only the last two, that is, the journal and the ledger. 

We shall speak about the first — that is, of the memorandum book, and thereafter of the other two, about 
their makeup, and how they should be kept. First of all, we will give the definition of the memorandum 



The memorandum book, or, according to others, scrap book or blotter, is a book in which the mer- 
chant shall put down all his transactions, small or big, as they take place, day by day, hour by hour. In 
this book he will put down in detail everything that he sells or buys, and every other transaction without 
leaving out a jot; who, what, when, where, mentioning everything to make it fully as clear as I have 
already said in talking about the Inventory, so that there is no necessity of saying it over again in detail. 
Many are accustomed to enter their inventory in this book, but it is not wise to let people see and know 
what you possess. It is not wise to enter all your personal property and real property in this book. This 
book is kept on account of volume of business, and in it entries should be made in the absence of the owner 
by his servants, or his women if there are any, for a big merchant never keeps his assistants idle ; they are 
now here, now there, and at times both he and they are out, some at the market place and some attend- 
ing a fair, leaving perhaps at home only the servants or the women who, perhaps, can barely write. These 
latter, in order not to send customers away, must sell, collect or buy, according to the orders left by the 
boss or owner, and they, as well as they can, must enter every transaction in this memorandum book, 
naming simply the money and weights which they know; they should note the various kinds of money 
that they may collect or take in or that they may give in exchange. As far as this book is concerned, it 
is not as important to transfer to standards the various kinds of coin handled as it is with the journal and 
ledger, as we will see hereafter. 

The bookkeeper will put everything in order before he transcribes a transaction in the journal. In 
this way, when the owner comes back he will see all the transactions, and he may put them in a better or- 
der if he thinks necessary. Therefore, this book is very necessary to those who have a big business. It 
would be too much trouble to put down iii a beautiful and orderly way every transaction immediately 
after it take place, in books which are authentic and kepi neat with care. You must make a mark on 
the cover of this book, as well as on all the others, so that you can distinguish them when, in the process 
of the business, the book is filled or has served for a certain period of time and you take another book. 
You must take another book when the first one has been used entirely, yet many are accustomed in differ- 
ent localities to balance annually these books although they are not full ; and they do likewise with the 
other books not yet mentioned, as you will see hereafter. 

On the second book you should put another mark different from the first, so that at any time you can 
trace your transaction easily. For this purpose we use the date. Among true Christians there is the good 
custom to mark their first books with that glorious sign from which every enemy of the spiritual flees and 
before which all the infernal spirits justly tremble — that is, the holy cross, by which in our tender years 
we begin to learn to read. The books that follow, you may mark in alphabetical order, calling A the sec- 
ond, and B the third, etc. So that we call the first books with the Cross, or Memorandum with Cross, and 
the second Memorandum A, Journal A, Ledger A. The pages of each of these books ought to be marked 
for several reasons known to the merchant, although many say that this is not necessary for the Journal 
and Memorandum books. The transactions are entered day by day, one under the other, in such way that 
it may be easy to trace them. This would be all right if all the transactions of one day would not take 
more than one page; but, as we have seen, for many of the bigger merchants, not one, but several pages 
have to be used in one day. If some one would wish to do something crooked, he could tear out one of the 
pages and this fraud could not be discovered, as far as the dates are concerned, for the days would 


l^mnctio Jtoiii tn<titaQ.n*.Bi fcripturia 

HOlT^no iucccmmcntc (cqaircmon omjanco d raancamenroilra fatto.e»dx per qfto 
cfllm afai rcfpccri fciiiparc buono nunierarc£ figiwrc in tutn Ii lfl):< niercanteftb<.£ di^ca 
facdiboiegatuttclccarciTC. "';7 

Del mdcomo i iiidti luogbi fe JmWo auacricarc (ttftilUCb^i mcrcatefcbi e p cb e d jcbi. 
0.uciii tail libJi coiiucgofi fttondo'Iufan^ bone vc ouierfi pacfi: ncli qiwH luo - 
(3;l?i mifo rctrouaro po:rarli: e ap:cfcnrarU a emo officio xx nicrcarari c6mo hn 
ho confoli iida cita oc pcrofa e a (o?o narrate cofno guefh' fono li roi libzi i liqli 
m intcndi fcriucre o iicro far fcriuerc oc nia del tafcrcogniwa faceiidfl oidma^ 
tanicrc.£ oirc a ebe monetc tu li uoli tcnereicioc a.^.JX pie ioli :o iicro a-S-OegroHi-.o uero 
a duc.e.S .tc.0 wo a fio.cX.6.o «>o a.(5 .tari«rani.d.7<:.lLc ql cofc fepze cl real niercafat c 
ftelpjidpio oogni f»o libzo oeuc pocrc nclla p 'cartfl.£ q>do mano fcmutalTc iiella fcripru 
ra oalm d?c nd pzfapio fe oiceflctconuenfe p uia dd ditto otfleio cbiarirlo, B fcrwiapoi 6 
tutto cio fa mctioe i regiflri de oitto ofikio coino i pi oi m pjcfcniafti tali c tali l\b:i fegna 
odd tal feano 7c.£bi9macolir coficlaltro cofi icbi^idnlc a lante carti d tale tare 7c 
liqualioilft Doiicreeflcre tenoti g ma fua o dd tale 7c. flf^a i vno (Ditto nicnro2talc.0 ?ro 
ftadscrta.o fecondo alcuni oitro fquartarflcio).ciafcuno o« fuoi fannliari oc cafa a la q^c: 
«ata poteua fcriuere per le ragioni fopaa afegnate.£ aloja euro foi'ua de fua pzopria inauo 
fn nonie de lofificio fcriuara d meddlmo ndla pjiina carta oe li tiioi libnx fara fede o^ 
to 7c.£ boleralli dd fegno dd oitto offta'o i fede aurentica per tutri li iudicii dx acaeldTe p 
durli.£qucfta tal ufanca merirfl funiam^tec(Terecomcd8ta7C.£fori liliiogbic!?c la obfcr«rod>cmoltirec[anolilo?olibM'C«pii/ano^iemollrai]oalconp:3f0?4:cl9lfro al 
ucr.diro?€pegiacfaondoqudlo. giuranoe fQgiuranoTc.cbcnialin'io fjno.£0og 
tal uia dofficio dc^no andandotno poffauo cofi de faciTi dir bufdaine fraudare e l.primp .7c 
tjiqualipoicon diligcncafcgnarieozdinatamenreDifpofti tu teneuafcolonomcadk) 
a cafa agomecare a fcriuere tue facede j6 p:iina nd giornal? poncre per ozcviticfUffelepHrc 
PC lo inuentario nd modo cbe fequeucc inieHd€rai.^a pzuna imendicdi»e nd niemoziale 

£6mo fe dcbino dittarc le partite i onto mcnionale (6 erepli ca's 

3M c Ditto fe bene ai amcntc c6»no i ditto incmojiale-.o uero uadxtrato vero fqr 
tafado fecondo aim d^e ognuno oi t uoili po fcriiierc.£ per© od oitrarf tal pnre 
i dib no fi po oar« piena doctnna. (&cro cbe cbi intcdcra :c cbi non di toi di ca' 
k.0^ d C6ma coftume e quefto doe.dfkfaino dx tu babi c6p?ato alquanre 
pe?(cocpano( vtpufa,2o.biancbib:cfani)pouc.i:.liinabaftacbefemplidinctc ponfl;fl la 
ptita cofi diced o ooc^n quclTo Di Ijabianio o uero lo o c6p:ato daf fclipo de rufoi oabref 
fajpanin'.? o.biacbi b^effiai pofti i fi\ lauolta di f> llefao ta^ha pictra Tc'.loga lija i) le pt<|?e 
01 c6uetobf.tan' TC.t&erDuc.tanriluna TC-fcgnarc od tal n" TC.nominado fe fdnoatre lici 
oueroa la pianabafiioalti finio tnccgibcrgamarcbi ouigctini o vcr6efipadcanifio?ciini 
o maroai 7c.£ fimilitcr nominar fecifcfle fenfalc c narrar Yd mercato fo a cotati tutto: o !V0 
parte cotatieptctermeiKtedirquaiorcpo.O uero iie»iarfcfol^ ptcD.totaiie parte rdbbc 
£ Ipcdficarc cbe robbex»dc riumcro peic c niifura.£ a cbe p?cgio cl.fl5'*.odc'': o uao .\. 
uero a rafo de conto 7c.0 uero fefodero nitti a tcpo e narrarc d)e rcrmic. O de galie 6 
baruTto.o dc galie dc fiadra o de retorni dc naui tc. £ fpecihcarc la tiujta de dine galie. 
t)cnaui7c.ofcfofletermHieDe ficre:o alrre folcnita: commoperlafcnfapjorinia fumra 
tf .0 uero p la pafqua denadal 7c.o uero Dc rcfureri.o uero carlcuale 7C. i&iu e maco ft 6o 
cbeuoi cScludeftc d mcrcato.£ finalitcr i ditto menioaale no fi conuerria laflare poio ale ii 
no.£ fe poflibile foflS: Dir quate parotic uefintcrpofcro p dx(c6rao ndrnucnrario fop?a io 
dctto^al mercantc k d>iarc?^c mat fozo troppo 7c. 

Oe li.<3.niodi p li qiiali e otnunamcte fi cofluma fra li me rcari c6p?are cdcleinercitie qua 
li al piu D Ic noire oe necelTita atcmpo fi comprano. ca'.9 

l£<oicbe at comp73rcfiainonota dxqudio tbc tu conip:i po acidfrecomuno' 
m enie i.9.Jnodi: cioc a oe nari.conrant i.o uero a tcrnunc.o vcro aiinconrro dar 
robba.£lu3lcaoc6niunamentceditiobMano.o ucroaprebe parte rcrinieo 
vero a parte comJt i c parte robbe.o u tro a pre robbce pre tcrniinc. o rcro p afc 
gnationc de ditta.o uero parte i Ditia c pte termie a te.o ueroptc oitta c pane robl^a/?" l» 
qli .9.modid pm de lenolfe fe coftunia coinp2arc.£ k per altro uerfo facdlc in ucllit.i:i <\l 


follow properly one after the other, and yet the fraud may have been committed. Therefore, for this and 
other reasons, it is always good to number and mark each single page in all the books of the merchants ; the 
books kept in the house or kept in the store. 



All these books, according to the good customs of several countries where I have been, should be taken 
and shown to a certain mercantile officer such as the Consuls in the City of Perosa employ, and to him 
you should state that those are the books in which you intend to write down, or somebody else write down 
for you, all your transactions in an orderly way; and also state in what kind of money the transactions 
therein should be entered — that is, whether in lire di Picioli, or in lire di Orossi, or in ducats and lire, 
etc., or in florins and denari, or in ounces, tari, grani, denari, etc. The good merchant should put down 
these things always on the first page of his book, and if afterwards the handwriting should be done by 
somebody else than the one stated at the beginning of the book, this should be recorded at the office of the 
said officer. The clerk should mention all this in the records of the said officer — that is, on such and such 
a day you presented such and such books, marked with such and such mark, which books are named, one 
so-and-so, the other so-and-so, etc.; of which books one has so many pages, another so many, etc., which 
books you said would be kept by you or by so-and-so ; but that it may be that in said Memorandum Book or 
Scrap Book or Blotter, some person of your family might enter said transaction, as explained before. In 
this case, the said clerk shall write down on the first page of your books, in his own handwriting, the name 
of the said officer, and will attest to the truth of everything and shall attach the seal of that office to make 
the books authentic for any case in court when they might be produced. 

This custom ought to be commended exceedingly ; also the places where the custom is followed. Many 
keep their books in duplicate. They show one to the buyer and one to the seller, and this is very bad, be- 
cause in this way they commit perjury. By presenting books to the said officer, one cannot easily lie or 
defraud. These books, after they have been carefully marked and authenticated, shall be kept in the name 
of Grod in your own place, and you are then ready to start your business. But first you shall enter in an 
orderly way in your Journal all the different items of the Inventory in the way that I will tell you later. 
But first you must understand how entries should be made in this Memorandum Book. 



We have said already, if you will remember, that any one in your family can make entries in the 
said Memorandum Book, or Scrap Book or Blotter. Therefore, it cannot be fully stated how the entries 
should be made, because some members of your family will understand and some will not. But the com- 
mon custom is this: Let us say, for instance, that you bought several pieces of cloth — for instance, 20 
white hresciani, at 12 ducats apiece. It will be enough simply to make the entry in this way: On this 
day we have or I have bought from Mr. Pilippo d'Rufoni of Brescia, 20 pieces of white iresciani. These 
goods are at Mr. Stef ano Tagliapietra 's place ; one piece is so long, according to the agreement, and paid 
for at so many ducats, etc., marked with such and such number, etc. You mention whether the cloth is 
a trelici, or a la piana, wide or narrow, fine or medium, whether the Bergamo kind, or Vincenza, or 
Verona, or Padua, or Florence, or Mantua. Also you have to state here whether the transaction was made 
through a broker and whether it was made in cash entirely or part only in cash and part on time, stating 
the time, or whether it was part in cash and part in trade. In this case you must specify the things that 
were given in exchange, number, weight, measurement, and the price of the bushel or of the piece, or of 
the pound, etc., or whether the transaction was aU by payment on time, stating the time when the payment 
should be made, whether on Galia de Barutto, or on Galia de Fiandra, or on the return day of a ship, or on 
the date of some fair, or other festivity, as for instance, on the next harvest day or on next Easter, or on 
next Christmas, or on Resurrection day or Carnival day, etc., according to what was understood in the 
transaction. Finally, I must say that in this memorandum book nothing should be omitted. If it were pos- 
sible, it should be noted what many others had said during the transaction because, as we have said about 
the Inventory, the merchant never can be too plain. 



Since we are talking about buying, you must know that usually you can make your purchase in nine 
ways — that is : either in cash or on time ; or by exchanging something, which is usually called a trade ; 
or partly in cash and partly on time ; or partly in cash and partly by trading and partly on time ; or by 
draft (assegnatione de ditta) ; or partly by draft and partly on time, or partly by draft and partly by trad- 
ing. In these nine ways it is customary to make purchases. If you would make your purchases in some 
other way 


©iflincfo nom.Zrxc3ta9,xi'.Be fcrfpfaris loi 

modopiopiio fa cbcm'cgli'almpCT re nd rocinoaalc la rum apoiuocon umVa cfjraibc 
nc -zc-iif (fwkiuandotu facciTc Ic rue co/np?c a tCiTipo.£oinmo it coltuma ale voice terfi dc 
giun.0 vero tn'adc.vnii.fali £ curaiui D3bccari.£ fcgl;)i.dx (\ obli^n etue coip^a 
(orcDC oar ructo cl guaro cbe per que( rempo liara. t <oIj el bccaio re iici idc e pjometce cue 
tiU con. pelle.fe^oclx per qllo anno m fua becartatara 7cXa tal fo:ca.pcr tflnto ra :>.tc. 
^larale per tanto 7C. £ coli oc li fegbj oe maiKo.iaftfoni 7C.£ le pclle morofune nerc :^ 
t3ntoelc".ae6ro.£raiuole inoiuonuic bianclx 7C.£ co\\ oc ltguari.£> biade fpccifivafian 
to el Qh''.£. ranro lo Itarooel njoggio.o ta co^baoclc bude:comD inful cl:>iuli oe perolcra 
ficofliima,£oeQuar(.al ]5o:g;ofaicpolcronoftro.flR>crcJtclio.£^antJgniIo.£«rti o eoilcl 
io.^urli 7C.iiM'd?eoepontoin ponio.far mennoneoi tucro a picno in oitfo nienionale. o 
per te:o per altricbe h fcriu j.£ narra la cofj Icinplicimcnre.conniio lenafeiuta 7C.£ Otpoi 
cl boil quadernieri.i capo oc. 4.0.^.0 rero.8.gio:m.|&m e nianco clx Itclfe ocl onto memo 
hale nietarle in g4o:nale.a cU per o\ rurre cominc le lonno lurciute. iQf>J folo in queito oilfc 
reiue-.clx non bifogna clx' in oiuo gio;rjale fc oilteiidj.ton rjntc iibltocct? oe paroUe .com 
mo fe farto m oitro nicmonalc-i^ero clx balta alui vna uolra baucrc lacofa ben oigelta iti 
rirro mcmo:iale.iai qual poi el gio:nalefenip?e fa a rcfcrire.l&cro clx quellidx coituma' 
norenerc.5.lib?i(ainodooirro)maiocb3noponerecola in gio:njle.dx p:iina iionlaomo 
liioirto mcmo:ialc 7C.£quellobaihquanro3lo:dincoe oitco inemo.naU. £1 per teop al 
iri toi fia tenuro 7C. £ nota clx per quantt modi ru oa aim poi comp.^arc.cofi lu per ran 
lipoi vejidcrc.£ perconfequente aUri po comprare oa te..»^cl qual rendere non mi Itedo 
flicra mclicc.l£)cro clx tu per ic babiando qiielta fonna oe coinpa:arc.po.Tai a If rario 7C. 

Dclfolib:op?mci'palemercantelco.Dioogio?nalc:queldxl fia:ecoinmeft ocbia oifpo" 
nerc ozdinataiiiente. £ap«rolo 1 o 

i. fo lib:o o:dtnano mcrcantefco.e oirto giornalc. iBel quale.Cionmie e oirrd) 
oeuc cHrecl medcfimo fegno clx in lomemo2fale:£ earn Icgnacf 7c.£omino 
oifopza oel memo2ial e wtro-i^r Ic once cagioni.£ icmp^e ncl r:M>cipro oeca' 
duna cartaifc Dcue mencre d ODileftmo.c oi.£ oipoi oeinano in mano ponerc 
pjiina Ic parnrc rutte oel (uo cuentano. jQd qual gio^nalec per elkre tuo lib?o leirero)po2 
rai pieno narrarc e oire tuno qudlo clx 01 mobile e Itabile le 1 itroui. IRcfereiidoi c lepre 
al ^iuo I'ogUo cbe per te.o per altri folk fcntto.d quale in qldx calfa.o fcatolao fil$a.o ma^ 
to. rafca : ibecofi fc ufa d feruarai. £ommo te oiro oe le letiere. £ (criprure meiiurc. ma 
Ic partite ocl oitto gjo?nale:fi conuengonofo2ma?e e oit tai c per alrroj modo piu ligwdro: 
non fuperfluo.neandxtropo oiminuro : conimoquifcqnente oc alquaiiteparhrete oaro 
cremplo.iCl^a pzima c oanocare el bifogno 01 001 fcrmim.dx m oino giomale I'l cofluma 
rfare.nda cita marime ercelfa vc Uiiugia.£>i qualli immediate oireino. 

£)C li'^ .termini ncl oitro gio?nale vfifafi.maric i Ucnegia. Luno oiito. per. c Lalcro oit 
lo.S.equdloclxperlo^orcbabiaaocnotarc. ' £apitolo. 11. 

01 fonnoC commo e dirto)li termini vfiiati i ditto giornalcXuno edirrd. per 
£laliroe ditto. B. liqlibanolorofignificati.ciafcunofeparato.i£>er lo. i&cr. 
lempre fedinora d debirore. vno piu dx le ftcno. £ per lo. B. fe dinota lo 
crcditore.0 vnoo piu dx fe ficno.£ mai fi mcrte jJtita ordinaria i gionigleC clx 
al libro gride fabia apo?re) dx no fe dinoti p'.j? lidit ti doi tcrmini.C>di qli.lcpjc nel pzin 
dpio de riafcuna prita fi mcrreel i&cr. i5-ero cf> p^fi deue fpcaTicarc eldebitozcc di poi iinf 
diate elfuo creditox.diuifo lii dalaltro^ doi ;«c?golcrte cofi.i I .£dmo iiclo cr" diforto te fira 
uoio 7c. £>cl modo a fap poncre e dittare le Pure i lo gioznal^ dd dare e dc laaerc c6 
inoln'ejCcpii.£ deli doi altri termini ncl qderno vfiian luno"deito £all&.e lalcro Caucdalc 
£ qudlo dK per ciTi le babia mrendere. £3pttolo. 1 ; . 

£>6ca CO lonomc dedio (omct,arai apocre nd tuo giojnale. lap'.^ira dcltuo 
iuctano.aoc la qj'.ddi 6.c6iafi:cbe re rurom.£ ^ lape ponerc dmo luciuano 
flllib?o.e gibrnole.bilogna cb tu imagini doi altn termini.luno difio.£atfa e lal 
ttro ditto £auedale.i?er la caiTa.fmtcde la tua p'.ovcro bo:faa.#er iicdecut 
rod tuo moiee co:po dc faculta pnie.£lqle cauedalc.i tuni li.p:inapii oc qdermic sicrnali 
iiicrcatefcbi:repredcnclTcrcpol!ocrcdirore.£ladiffacaira Icfuedcueltr poita debinui. 
t'maig nullo tpo ncl mancgiomcrcatelco.lacafla po cere folo dcbiinci overo 
para.i&ero cb qii nd bilaao dc\ libro fi troualTe crcditrici deiiotarebeerrorc ncl Itbe como 
difotcoa fuolocotedarofiimana reco?danva.Ora udoibranalediita txiradccoiitaniifi 
ocue mettcrec dittare in qucfto modo. vj. ' « 


you must state in your memorandum book with precision the way that you have made the purchase, or have 
somebody else do it for you, and you will do well. 

You buy on time usually when you buy guati or oats, wines, salt, remnants from a butcher shop, and 
fats. In these eases, the seller promises to the buyer to give all the giiati that he will have in that season. 
The butcher will sell you and promises to give you all the hearts, skins, fat, etc., that he will have during 
that year. This kind for so mvich a pound, that kind for so much a pound, etc., and similarly for the fat 
of beef, of mutton, etc. ; the black skins of mutton at so much apiece ; and the white mutton skins, etc., and 
so with the oats, or guati; you must specify the price for each bushel or other measure and the kind of oats 
as is the custom at Chiusi de Perugia. In buying guati you must see whether they are of our city San Se- 
polcro, or Mercatello, or Sant' Angelo, or Citta de Costello, or Forli, etc. 

In this memorandum book, whether kept by you or by others, you must mention every single point. 
You state the things in a simple way as they happened, and then the skillful bookkeeper, after four or five 
days, or eight days, may enter all these transactions from the said memorandum book into the Journal, day 
by day; with this difference, though, that it is not necessary for him to put down in the Journal all the 
long lines of words that were used in the memorandum book, because it is sufficient to put them down in 
an abridged way, and besides, references should always be made from one book to the other. Those that 
are used to keeping these three books in the way we have said never must enter one thing in Journal if 
they have not first entered it in the memorandum book. This will be enough as to the arrangement of 
the said memorandum book, whether it is kept by you or others. Remember that there are as many ways 
to buy as to sell ; therefore, I need not explain the ways of selling, because yoii knowing of the ways of 
buying can understand the selling. 



The second common mercantile book is called the Journal (Giornale) which, as we have said, must 
have the same mark that is on the memorandum book and the pages marked as we have said in talking of 
the memorandum book. 

Always at the beginning of each page you must put down the date, and then, one after another, enter 
all the different items of your inventory. 

In this Journal, which is your private book, you may fully state all that you own in personal or real 
property, always making reference to the inventory papers which you or others may have written and 
which are kept in some box, or chest, or filza, or mazzo, or pouch, as is customary and as is usually done 
mth letters and other instruments of writing. 

The different items entered in the said Journal ought to be entered there in a neater and more syste- 
matic way, not too many or too few words, as I will show in the few following examples. But first of all 
you must know that there are two words or expressions {termini) necessary in the keeping of a Journal, 
used according to the custom of the great City of Venice, and of these I will now speak. 



As we have said, there are two expressions {termini) used in the said Journal; the one is called "per," 
and the other is called "a," each of which has a meaning of its own. "Per" indicates the debtor {dehitore) 
one or more as the case may be, and "a," creditor {creditore) , one or more as the case may be. Never is 
any item entered in the Journal which also is to be entered in the Ledger, without preceding it by one of 
the two expressions. At the beginning of each entry, we always provide "per," because, first, the debtor 
must be given, and immediately after the creditor, the one separated from the other by two little slanting 
parallels {virgolette) , thus, //, as the example below will show. 



With the name of God you shall begin to enter into your Journal the first item of your Inventory, 
that is, the quantity of cash that you possess, and in order to know how to enter this Inventory into the 
Ledger and Journal, you must make use of the two other expressions {termini) ; the one called "cash" 
{cassa) and the other "capital" {cavedale). By cash is understood your property or pocketbook {borscia: 
from bursa, or bag) ; by capital is understood the entire amount of what you now possess. 

This capital must always be placed as creditor {creditore) in all the principal mercantile Ledgers and 
Journals and the cash always debtor. Never at any time in the management of your business may cash be 
creditor, but only debtor unless it balances. For if, in balancing your book, you find that cash is in the 
credit, it would denote a mistake in the book, as I will remind you hereafter at its proper place. Now this 
entry ought to be made in the Journal, and ought to be arranged in this way : 





iMfita 2*Bt«e ttiraicofi 


©Iftinrtlo nonfl.lractetu0.]d'.©c fcnptiO<9 

XiaUmvo2o.£ monac ouc.tantiVal i tuno almodo nrovcmmo.^ 020x10c a aro(n.24 
pcpouc.epi'doIu?2.percq*olToaSr.ao20, 2« S; P^ s p 

l&ercrioicfeatccDir(i(iatcoepiufo2ti: Bcaucdalwtto.pcr balam tanturiganTcpcrano 
7C £ fafafranri 7C c rubini c diamari7cXoe age al (opiadixto iuctario.fiuali mmo (I4 
lercacomn codb.libalaintanto. tc. £cofiofraiccdafcwiafojtaJ'uopsuj cduno.nwn 
Mnointuttoouc3titanti7C. vagli'ano. & ^ ^S P 

e baucdo tu nominato vnauolra d oi.£ ancoja cl ccbitojcc tramc 
candofc altra otita poi Dirc.a oi oitto.£ al oitto 7c.pcr piu tecuita. j*. 

!&cr arqentilauoMtiiai w'tto dxfintcdc pur d caucdal gpra fo2tc argcti cal phrc im trouo 
ace 3Dadli tanti 7c.£ rami tanii 7i.£ ta^e tantc 7C.£ ptron ^^i 7C.£ cofiTicr tare ?c. 

pcfanointuttotanto^cval . ^ - r.*... r ■^. j i,^ ®-j^. 

fccftmsucdcbcncoi poto qftc pnme gntc ogni cola cot fdh m to inuctarfo. i&oitcdcli 

tu p te viicoiiiunpm'o.£ faWo araflbpiu pzcfto d« niasro.doc 0criparc dx vagltno. 


po^rflimttelalcrccof^con^uolpd■in^cv!al^tc.7C. 4". . 

^cr panni oc lana oc oolToi^I oirtcg wfte rantcoi »l colore 7C.£ a tal foggta 7cf ode > 

rare 7c.vf3re vero noue 7c.3 mio oolfo^ vero De la inia oona.o ucro oe ftglioU 7c.(Q£ict 


no£vag!iano.7C, " 6». S g a 

;^r Ictti oe piuma: Bl oi'tto 7c^p»ume tare 7c.£ qui iiarra commo lia in lo iiiueniarfo. 
" raontanoovagUano* ?'• ^ g p 

•^r cei^er mecbini: 31 di'rto.^ colli nantf Tcnarra como i coiifencmontano c 

vagIiano9comunc(tinia7c.oi»ctanti7c. i f g f> 

£ cofj poi tu g tc ftefib fe4rai oi pojre tutte taltre ptitc oe qlaltrc robbe.ccdafcuna faeig 
do fua ptita.fepata.como 4 $e«;cr k oitto.;^ncdoli pgio oe comu co2fo.conimo oifop:a 
c citto.£lo:n? rcgni.c pcfi-commo « ponto ftano i oitto fogho oiugtario*£bi«mado wn 
t ro lapnra.cB moneta d? tuvoIi.£ nel trar fo:a.conuc poi (Bficno a vna fiwta.i&ercb noii 
ftaria bcne.a cauar foja^ oincrfc forte 7C. £ tutte oittc gn'tc 6 giojnsrie fcrcrai a 1 '.avna ti 
rando fa riga.oe qpto ittira tua fcriptura. narrariua. fin al tcrmine dsc fi tra fo;a. £1 nicde 
f imo modo fcruarai ale ^titc oel memojiale 7cje f d>e tu oel mcmozialc flJctt3r»M" i giojiia 
fe.cofie vnaa vna.andarai9epenandoilornen102iale.con vnafola.nga.atrauerfo cofi^. 
d^oe^obi^a qlfa talc pn'ta.eer poUa 1 logio2naIe 7c.£ fe tu non voIeHi trauerfare la gtiVo 
fna line fl.e tu laciaraOa pMfa oel pncipio Dda gtita^ uero lulttaxomrao al capo oi qfta."^ 
fatto.0 verofiiratetundteqlcbalt°.regno»talec&tu fteda.g qllooitta^iiracer flats mef 
fa igio2nale 7C.£ auccw S tu m te poUfufarc molti vwii e oiue rfi fcrmmi e fegni.n6 oitnc 
no te D(b{fcp2elludia7e DC vfarelicoumni.dx glialtn trafican i talpaefeficollunu piffl' 
re. Bdonon p«ra tu fia oifcrepante caluricaromodomercatefcotc. 

bel ^''.eiiti.Mil?? pjidpale merc^tefcc.oetto «l qderno como Dcba cer fatto e^l fuoalfa 
beto<ommofewbiao:dinaiT.vgnoloeDopio. £ap? 13. £pofl€cll»et^b« 

raio?dinata>;tete tutte letuoiprite9lgio2na(e47oibirognad7eDiqlloJec3ui.£poetil€ info 
5Mib;o citto qdcrno grade.£lql coniunameteHi colhmia fare oc ooi tare carri cbsri gkam 
fe.Jn toqle conucrra (ft vno aifabero.overo "Kegtojio ovoi oir SCrouardIo fo akuni. af a 
fio2etina fe oici lo nratro.jJdcl ql porzaitutii i>ebito:i4: credito2i. t&er le Ire d?e comcn^ano 
con lo n".oc!e fue carti.doe quclli cbc coHie?Ka p. a. i. a.7c. £ eel oopio 3lfabcta.'£ qpsfto 
fimilincte commo fop2a oicemo conuie d3 fia fegnatood medcmo frgno d3l ^(^mit c mc 
ino?iale.i^ftouid n'.oele fue ca2ti. £ oifop2a i luna bida e (altra. d mikffiw 
£in la p2im«. fua carta.Dentrop02rai commo dlaclap^ Bd^?iTBlc» 
cofi oeue cere p'.nd qderno. £ tutta qll3 colluma bfarla ftare per mta cq^.£ in 
©ar nc i bauere non fi pone altro.f qflo p cbe la calTa fe manegia piu clx pnta (tfio.3 oz3 
g 023.1 marcr e cauar oinari.£ |^ life laffa el capo l3rgo.£ qfto qdcrno couiedx (ia ri^ 
gato.Dc f ate rifel>€.qpte dx tote inonete volitrar fo2c.i6e trarai. fs$t>p, /f »rai".4.»igf>c. 
e oinage ale s.feranc vnaltra-g mctarui d n'.relc c arn oe Ic gtitc cbc ificmi oe wrc. 2 b^ 


FIRST. November 8, MCCCCLXXXXIII in Venice. 

Debit 1. 2 Per cash // A — Capital of myself so and so, etc. In cash I have at present, in gold 

■« and coin, silver and copper of different coinage as it appears in the first sheet of the In- 

Credit 2. -a ventory in cash, etc., in total so many gold ducats and so many silver ducats. All this is 

I our Venetian money ; that is counting 24 grossi per ducat and 32 picioli per grosso in gold 

J is worth : L {Lire ) , S (Soldi) , G ( Orossi) , P (Picioli) . 

For the second item you shall say this way : 

SECOND. Per mounted and unmounted precious stones of several kinds //. A capital ditto for so 
many mounted belassi, etc., weighing, etc., and so many sapphires, etc., and rubies and diamonds, etc., as 
the said Inventory shows to which, according to current prices I give these values : Belassi worth, etc. ; 
and so you shall state a price for each kind in total that are worth so many ducats. Their value is 

L , S , G , P 

After you have once named the day, the debtor and the creditor, you may say for brevity — if you 
don't make any other entry in between : On the day ditto, per ditto, // a ditto. 

THIRD. Per silver //. A ditto — ^by which capital is understood — for several kinds of silver which at 
present I possess — that is, wash basins so many, so many coppers, so many cups, so many pironi, and so 
many cosUier, etc., weighing in total so much. Their value is : L , S , G , P 

You shaU give aU the details in entering these items for everything as you have them in the Inven- 
tory, giving to each thing a customary price. Make the prices rather higher than lower ; for instance, if it 
seems to you that they are worth 20, you put down 24, so that you can make a larger profit ; and so you will 
enter everything, putting down for each thing its weight, number, value, etc. 

FOURTH. Per woolen clothes //. A ditto, for so many clothes of such and such color, etc., of such 
and such style, etc., lined, etc., new or used, etc., for myself or for my wife or for my children, I give the 
total value, according to the current price, so many ducats. And for cloaks, so many of such and such 
color, etc., and so on, for all the other clothes : L , S , G , P 

FIFTH. Per linen //. A ditto, for so many bed sheets, etc., and put down their number and value 
as the Inventory shows : L , S , G , P 

SIXTH. Per feather beds //. A ditto, etc., for so many feathers — and here put down all that the In- 
ventory shows, number and value : L , S , G , P 

SEVENTH. Per ginger //. A ditto, for so many packages, etc., giving all the details that are con- 
tained in the Inventory, number, value, according to common prices, etc., so many ducats : 

L , S , G , P 

In this way you can continue to enter aU the other items, making a separate entry for each different 
lot, and as we have said before, giving the current prices, number, marks, Aveights, as the Inventory shows. 
Indicate only one kind of money, to which you reduce the estimated values. In the column for the 
amounts, only one kind of money should appear, as it would not be proper to have appear in this column 
different kinds of money. 

You shall close each entry in the Journal by drawing a line from the end of the last word of your de- 
scriptive narrative (explanation) up to the column of the figures. You shall do the same in the memoran- 
dum book, and as you transfer an entry into the Journal from the memorandum book, you shall draw a 
single diagonal line (una sola riga a traverse) through it in this way /; this will show that this item has 
been entered (posta) in the Journal. 

If you should not draw this line through the entry, you shall check off (lanciarai) the first letter of 
the beginning of the entry, or the last letter, as we have done at the beginning of this ; or otherwise you shall 
use some other sign by which you will understand that the said item has been transferred into the Journal. 
Although you may use many various and divers expressions or marks, nevertheless you must try to use 
the common ones which are used by the other merchants, so that it will not look as if you would deviate 
from the usual mercantile custom. 



After you have made all your entries in the Journal in an orderly way, you must transfer them to the 
third book, called Ledger (Quaderno Grande, i. e., big book). This Ledger contains usually twice as many 
pages as the Journal. In it there must be an alphabet or repertory or "trovarello" (finding key) accord- 
ing to some; the Florentines call it "Stratio." In this index you shall write down all the debtors and cred- 
itors in the order of their initial letter, together with the number of their respective pages. You shall put 
the names that begin with A in the A page, etc. 

This Ledger, as we have said before, must bear the same sign or mark that is on the Journal and mem- 
orandum book ; its pages should be numbered ; and at the top at the right margin as weU as at the left 
margin, you shall put down the date. On the first page you shall enter cash as debtor. As in the Journal, 
so in the Ledger, cash should be entered on the first page. It is customary to reserve the whole of the first 
page to cash, and not to enter anything else either under the debit (in dare) or the credit (in havere). 
This because the cash entries are more numerous than all others on account of almost continuously paying 
out and receiving money ; therefore, it needs much space. This Ledger must be ruled, and should have as 
many lines as there are kinds of money that you want to enter. If you enter lire, soldi, detiari and picioli, 
you shall draw four lines, and in front of lire you shall draw another line in order to put in the number 
of the pages of the Ledger debit and credit entries. 


&{ftincfonona.Jrr3rt3m0.]ci'.©ffcripfBris 202 

ucrc fc k&tcmno.£ t>inke fani.2.n^c,^ potercmctt« oi5 inano f nwiia commo nc 
U aim qdcmi bai vjfto clje piu non miftcdo i qfto w-g poter trouar pfto Icgnre 7c. /£ pur 
firafegnatocroci commo li aim. . . , ^ ^ . 

t>d modo a po;t3r le ptitc oe giojnalc in quadcrno.e ^>e pc una m gioznaic fcne faaa 
©oiinquadcrno:coclmodoai)cpcnnareIcgritein gi'ojtialccoeliroi numcri oclc earn" 
cclquadcrnodxi'nlefucmarginefiponccBcbc. £ap° •4* 

£r laqual cofa.fappi cbc 01 tutrc IcptiK cl?c tu baraipoftc in qwa 
derno gradcte nc couc fcpzc fare ooi.doe vna in oare c laltra in baucre pcbe (efi 
d?iama oebitozep lo. j&cr* £ locieditojc p lo. B. como Difopja oiccmo cb 
lunococlaltro.fiocuc oa pfefare i".prita:qlla ocl oeWwje.poncrcala man (ini 
ftra.fiS ql a oel credit02c.ala man ocxtra.£ in qlla Del ocbiwccbiamarelacarta. ooue to 
qlla od fuo'frcdiro2C.£ colftn qlla oel crcdiwc.cbiamare la carta 01 qlla ooue fia. £1 fuo 
rcbitozc.£ in qfto modo fcp:c ucgano incaitenate tutrc Ic ptitc od oitro qdcrno grade, ncl 
ql mai (i oeue mctttcc cofa in oare cIjc qlla ancoja non fiponga in baue2e.£coli injifioe ■ 
ue mcitcrc cofa in baud" e clx anco:a.qlla medefima co fuo arnotarc no fi mctta in oare. £ 
01 qua nard^poi-albilancio cbe od lib'.fi fa.nel fuo faldo tato couie dx fia d oarccpto lauc 
re.£ioc fumatc rutte Ic ptitc dx firano pofte in rtare fe foflcro bene. • 0000. oa ptc in fu vn 
foslio.£ oipoi lumatc fimilmcte tntte qlled:>c in baucre ft trouano. tanto ocbbe fare luna 
fu mma ^to laltra.altramctc ocmoftrarcbbc cere erroze nd oitto qdcnio.cde ncl modo dd 
far fuobilancio fe oira apicno ?c.£ cofi rdeoiina oe giornale nc qdemo.cofi a qlla 
pn'M dx od giojnalc lew' farai 001 n'gbc a trauczfo fo d:>VM Ieuando.cioe fc p-'.tu la mem' i 
oarc^na farai i '.riga atraucrfo.verlb al prin'.octe prita.d?c oinota ccr pofta in oare al q 
d(Tno.£ fc la mcttt in baucrc.o p?im8.o poicoc acade ale uolie fare al qdcmicri qpdo li aca 
de fcriucf e i^ liin qlla carta li nandcra.2 .0.;. p no uibaucre a to^narcfcnc fpa(a oi 
mettaieli aloM.£ po fo dx mettc cofi Ocuc ocpcnnarc p baucrla mcflii in baucrcfarai lal 
tra ocpcnaiura.vcrib man ocjctra.oal canto oouc fincfcila pAra dx dnotara ccr iiieife i ba 
ucrc.lcql lince ftaranno coe oifopja in qfto ucdifigurato a lapt^ta.•lJ)^odacall3. luna oitra 
linca.oc oare.e lalt'.oc b3uerc.£ cofioalato i margine oinan^e al'pzincipio bifogna d?c po 

jvcdilialaptii . . „ 

cuni coftumano cofi co ti^mc<;^o. j. a guifa oe rotti.d?c no fa cafo.flg>3 « pm bcllo fenca tra 
wcffo. Bdo adn vcde no parcfTcro fpes^ari. vero rotti tc.£ vol oirc qllo.i °.oi iopn dx 
(a caffij.£ ndla p'-carta od qderno.£l cauedalc.£ ndla fa carta oe oitto qdcrno.i ba«ei c. 
c qlla in oare7C.£ nota dx lepzc q-to piu pffo tu po:r3i meticre clcrcditojc al fuo ocbitoic, 
fcra piu li(adro.auega dx pofto oouc fiuoglia tanto mon'.£Ba p rifpctto od milcfimo.cbe 
olc uolte fc itcrpoe fra 1 ^ptI^e lalt' rcfpodc malc.£ co poca.fe ritrouano loz tpi 
c6c fa cbi ^ua cb ogni cola cofi apicno no fi po oire.fl&a bH'o\cb acoza tu alqjto co tuo na 
luralc ingcgno ta iuti.£ po fepjc lludia oafcttJir ditto crcditore immediate a pflb d fuo dc 
b\to:c in la mcdema fadata.o vcro ila imediate fcqntc.nointerponcdoui fra luno e 
traptita.l&crodxnd'.pp:iogio2nodxn3fdddcbito2einqllo medcmo nafci dcrcditorc 
£ p qllo rifpctto f?prc fe deue acoftar luno a lair 7c. 

bd modo a fape dittarcle j^tc de lacalfa c caocdale nd quadcrno in dare c l39ucrc:e 61 
wilcfimo dx oifop?a nd p:inapio oda carta a lanti co fi mettc in cflro:e dela fua mutatione 
cddcopti rlifpacij ddecartifeleptitcpiccoleegradifodbifognoodefaccde. Cap", ij. 
1 02 qftc cofc difco?re.a tuo amacftramctco^mai ditamo la p^.ptitade la cs»ift i 
dare e poi qlla dd caucdal in bauere in lo libro gradCiPba coc e ditto p\ dcfo - 
p:a nd quadcrno po?rfli d milefimo alabacco antico. cioe per alfabcto cofi. 
fl^ cccc.l]cricriii'.7C.£I di no fe coShima mcttarlo difopra in loquaderno coe in 
logiojnalc.pdx I '.ptita in qu9demo.baraduierfidi.£po ho fipozra feruar o:dinc deli 
di.difopra coe apicno nd fcqnte cap».fe dira.^l^a dctro cJcla ptita coc intcdcrai la p^uolta 
£ poicofidalato in lo fpaa'odx difopra dicemo dinance ala ptita^q'dotafpartiia nafcclfc 
daltro milefimo dx difopza nd principio dda cartafoflc fcriito dx fole aucmre acbi dc an 
no in aimo no ripojta e falda fuoijibri fidx tal milefimo fipo:ra difuora.nndo in marline 
npctto a poto a qlla ptita linata coc uedi pofto quidifotto.qlb folo auciic in lib? grande 
tbc in lialtri no po9uenire.&ocaci3aicofi.t2acdolaforepure alabacco aticoppiubelleja 

^ a 

> " • — « 


Before these lines you shall draw two more lines wherein to mark the dates as you go on, as you have seen 
in the other books, so that you may find each item quickly. This book shall also bear the sign of the cross 
as the others. 



For each one of all the entries that you have made in the Journal you will have to make two in the 
Ledger. That is, one iu the debit {in dare) and one in the credit {in havere). In the Journal the debtor is in- 
dicated by per, the creditor by a, as we have said. In the Ledger you must have an entry for each of them. 
The debitor entry must be at the left, the creditor one at the right ; and in the debitor entry you must indi- 
cate the number of the page of the respective creditor. In this way aU the entries of the Ledger are chained 
together and you must never make a credit entry without making the same entry with its respective amount 
in the debit. Upon this depends the obtaiaing of a trial balance {hilancio) of the Ledger. 

There can not be a closing {saldo) because there must be as much in credit as there is in debit. 
In other words, you shall add together all the debit entries, even if there are ten thousand, on a separate 
sheet, and then add together in the same way all the credit entries ; the totals of the one should be the same 
as the totals of the other ; otherwise it would show that some mistake has been made in the Ledger. We 
will speak at length about this when we talk about the way of making the trial balance {hilancio). And 
since for one entry of the Journal you make two in the Ledger, you shall draw two diagonal lines as you 
make the transfer — that is, if you first transfer the debit entry, you shall first draw a diagonal line {rig a 
a traverse) at the beginning of the entry in the Journal which shows that the entry has been posted {posta) 
to the debit into the Ledger. If you transfer the credit entry, either at this time or later, as it often happens 
that the bookkeeper can make two or three entries on the same page in order to prevent his coming back to 
write on that same page — in which case he should draw a line at the right side where the entry terminates. 
This will show that the entry has been transferred to the credit of the Ledger. These two lines, you may see 
in the preceding diagram, drawn in the margin by the first cash entry ; the one is caUed debit line, and the 
other credit line. At the side, in the marginal part, you shall write down two numbers before the beginning 
of the entry, the one under the other. The upper indicates at what page of the Ledger the debit entry is, 
and the lower indicates the page of the Ledger where the credit is, as you will see at the cash entry in the 
above example, like this I, without a line between them. Some are accustomed to draw a line in between, 
like this, |. This does not matter, but it looks nicer without the line between, so that the figures will not 
appear to the reader as if they were fractions. The upper figure, 1, means cash was entered in the first 
page of the Ledger, and capital was entered in the second page of the said Ledger ; the cash on the debit, 
and the capital on the credit side. You should know that the closer to the debtor you can place the creditor, 
the nicer it will look. It is just the same, however, no matter where it is ; but it may look bad on account 
of the date which at times must be put between entries, and it makes it difficult then to find the dates. 
We can not teU you everything fully, but you with your natural ingenuity must guide yourself. Therefore 
you always try to put the said creditor immediately after its debtor on the same line or on the line imme- 
diately following without entering anything else in between, for whenever there is a debit item there must 
exist at the same time a credit item. For this reason, get the one as near as possible to the other. 



After having told you these things for your instruction, we write now the first entry of the cash in 
the debit column, and then the fitrst entry of the capital in the credit column, in the Ledger. But, as we 
have said, you shall write down in the Ledger the year in the old way by using the alphabet, 
thus: MCCCCLXXXXIII, etc. It is not customary to put the day at the top in the Ledger as in the 
Journal, because one account in the Ledger may have several dates, and therefore you can not keep the 
dates in order by putting them at the top ; but you shall put the days in the body of the entry, as you 
will understand hereafter. 

We put the day to one side, in the space of which I have spoken, just before the entry. If an item re- 
fers to a transaction which happened in a different year than that written at the top of the page, which 
happens when one does not balance and transfer his books at the end of each year, then this year shall 
be put on the side, in the margin near the entry of the item to which it refers. This only happens in the 
Ledger, and can not happen in the other books. In making this entry for the year, use the antique let- 
ters, which are neater, 


tSinindfo nond.2:ractato0.xi^J^fcriptur(0 

lion ofttifttoaqualclxturecauinonfacaro^c. boncapiraicofr. 

y}?9. mxccctxxtxm. . ^ ^ 

£flITa oc cotanri nc ©arc a oi. 8.noucb2C.per caucdal per contanri oc piu fo«:cfra 070 e mo 
n«ciiJ<:rrouobaiicrcinqucllainqucllop:ci:cnKonntuctoca.2. %.%'".( g p 
£ qui noUroQia cbc troppo te ftcda.p baucr be gia llcfo in gibznaic. £J^a (anpic rtudta 
tw'r b:cuf -la pzima nd comcn^arc fc wcialquantoiak fcqucti in (a mcdcnw fol fc oide a 
cioitro7c.pcrlotale. car. , ,^ .J^S.P 

laqual cofi pofta dx Ibarai.oepcnaraiin gtonaTc m oarc commc fopai tc wm.£ poi i (» 
ucrpcrlo cauedaloiraicoft'.vj^ 

ybs C^xifx^.tinxiii 

iCaucdal cc nii talc 7c.oic baucrc a Di-g-noucmbar^vr caffa.pcr ccnttmi me trouo in quef 

lafi'iialoiprcrcntcmo2ic'monctcOcpiufo?Kiniurto. cam. $.X'^.f o g o p o 

£ cofianco?a.i qfla bada fucdniamctc oirc per lacagion fop?a wtra.talrrc poi cbc q fotto 

ala mcdcitia I?aacranno apojrc fin cbc la fia picna baftara adirc.£ o oi tanri 7c.per 

fatal cofa 7c.jr6c ucdiaccnato qui oa canto.c ancoin fin oi qftobarai cjccniplo. cofi fcqui' 

rai con bxuita in tiitte marimc in quelle pamte ilxa te folo 3rpettano.cioe dx non baia 

rcndere conto adal aino. CBs in qlle ct« tu bauerai a renderc coto adaltri.alij'to piu ti co 

uerra cire.aucnga clx fc mp:e fe recoa-e^jer le d?iare«^e al giojnale 7c.£ poi oarai laltra oc 

pcnatura.a qlla oelgionwlc in baucrccocfopra noifliin.! :'.cap*° £ in lamargine ojujn' 

ci.ala grita.pojrai li lioi nuniericoe otffipur in Ditto loco ode earn ooae fono. £1 dcbitoje 

d credifo:c.rioc qllo ocl oebi'tox o<fop?a.£ qllo od crcduox oe fotto coc facemo oiTop^a. 

ala prita re lacaffa.^ poi firtjito po?rai in lo luo 3lfabeto.doe rept02io.qfto Dcbito^e c credi 

fojcognuno ala fua Ifa c6c faicbe wTop7a oiffijCioe la la Ira. £. oicedo octro in q/ 

ibmodo.cioe.£a(raDecdranti. R. i. £anco?adcauedalpo;raial.£.Dtcendo.£a' 

uedal DC mi jppHo. e . 2 . £ cofi p tuo ingegno adarai afoiando. tuttc Ic ptite. c li noi 

t)c li ocbitoji pcrioe e robbe *rc.£ cofi oe c rcditoji.po.Tsi nel oitto rcpcrto«'o. a (efuc Ictterc 

acio poi con facitita poffi fubito rctrouarli in oirro quadcrno grande 7 cetera. 

£nota cbe bauendo m pduto d too qdemo p alcun cafo oerobana.o incedio oi foco.o 
naufragii 7c.£ bauedo tu luno oe li aim doi ltbn.£ioe memo^iale.o vero giornale. co effo 
P02r3i fempje rcfare vnaltro le medefime ptite a oi p m.£ ponerk al nume:o oc 
fe medefime d?e i ql pfo firetrouauan&.^I^rime l>auedo tu el gib;nale.Doue g'do nc leua 
fti le ptiie.£ pdcfti altib'.tu imarigie poneftiJi ©01 nu'.^li cebiwji.c crcditoji-luo foura lal 
tro dx cbiamauano le cam', ocl qderno doiJerano^fituari.e dipoto atante earn li po:rai fa 
re rifojnar co tuo ingegno 7c.£ qfto badi #10 a vna prita porta 7C. ]^i la fa ^m d> 
fo dele ^oic al qdsmo ponedola a fuocodecete luogo diftaraicofi.£ p:i*. fcmprc fcnja piu 
te replrcbi .po?rai diTop?a nd piincipio dda mildimo fe novi foflc pofto p alira pti 
ta. p^ pocbe ale uolte in vna medcma fada el quademie:i afettara.2.o.;.gtite k> dx cogno 
leera lo fpario eer baltarc al manegio di qlla. pdx fbzfe uedara qlla tale prita Iwuerfi d>ia/ 
refi3deadoperar.£pqltolid3ravn luocopiu angulto.dx a quelle cbe fpcflb liacade.a 
dopare:alagio2nafac6edifop?a.alcap?i;°.delacalfeec3UfdaI fo octro ql fifcofhimaua 
lafarii turra jafadara ocl lib'.pdx fpc flTifli'me fiadepccre grSdi le faccdc ficonucgano ma' 
ncgiare. £ qllo fol fi fa pii6 baucr tato fpeflb afar rcpo2(o inacc 7C.02«al^pofito n-ouaro 
hel lof coc fe oici.diraicofi in darcaoe verfoHnan fmiftra.cofi fempre fa apozre d dcbito. 
ipipede piu fo:te. dicnno dare a di-S.noucbx.p cauf dale'j3pe$ci n? tanti Tc.pefano tanto 
7c.dequflli tanri fonnobalafli legari tc.£ tanriiafiU 76 £ tari nibinicoculcgni 7c. £ tanti 
atamanri creci 7c.lcquali in nitto-o vero a fo«a per fo:ta mctto valere a comun pc^'o.oecd 
Bmndue.tanti7c.val car. 2 J<4o.Po.go.po. 

^ 5?ii dcpcnnerai-lapn'tfl in giomak.nd dare rirando k linca commc de fopra al n f cap? 
tc difn.£ poiandarai al caiiedal. £ po:rai qfta medcma con maco paroUe per leragfon oia 
difopra aduttc in quefto capitolo eporrala in baucre fono qudla p*.cb'gia libai pofto dc!a 

"4 J* <Jctto.per(oiedcptiiro?tccommoliapare7c. car.;. S.4o.f'o.go.po. 

& pomi i margme li numcn olc cmi. doue tal ptite al quadcrno ponefh' como dkcmmo 
tnoropra'laln-o^omme quidenancc apare dx meito babi pofta la ptita in dar a carti.).£ 
quadcrcaiiedal (la pure alogo fuo a carri.2 .pfin tanto dxlla non e picna.cbc dipoi mnlijc 


although it doei not matter very much. 

Thus, you shall put it this way : 


Cash is debtor {dee dare — shall give) on November 8, "per" capital. On this day I have in moneys of 
different kinds, gold and other coins ; page 2 : L.X'", S , G , P 

Here you do not need to be very lengthy if you have already given the description in the Journal. 
Try to be very brief. 

At the beginning of the page we say more, but in the entries following it is enough to say : on ditto, 
"per" such and such; page, etc., L , S , G. , P 

After you have made the entry in this way, you shall cancel in the Journal as I have explained to you. 
Then in the credit side you shall write down this way: 

Capital of myself, so and so, is creditor {dee havere — shall have) on November 8, "per" cash. On 
this day I have in cash, in gold and other kinds of money ; page 1 : 

This entry is also sufficient ; express yourself briefly for the reason above said. If there are other items 
to be entered in the same account, it wiU be enough to say, on ditto, "per" such and such, etc., as has just 
been shown. At the end of this treatise, I will give you an example, and thus you will go on expressing 
yourself briefly especially in those things which are private — that is, of which you do not have to give an 
account to any one. But as to other things for which you have to give an account to other people, it will 
be better for you to be more explicit, although for explanations we always rely on the Journal. Then you 
will cancel, by drawing a line, the credit entry in the Journal as I have said above in Chapter 12. In the 
margin, just opposite the entry, you shall write down the two numbers of the pages where the debit and 
credit entries are. That is, you should put the number of the debit page above, and the nmnber of the 
credit page below, as we have done above in the cash entry. Then you shall at once enter in the alphabet 
or repertory (index) this debtor and this creditor, each one under its own letter as I have told you before. 
That is, cash at the letter C, by saying in this way : Cash, page 1. And capital also at the letter C, saying : 
Capital belonging to me, page 2. And so on, you shall enter (in this repertory) all the creditors under 
their respective letters, so that you may find them easily in the Ledger mentioned. 

Take notice, that if by any chance you should lose this Ledger through robbery, or fire, or shipwreck, 
etc., if you have either of the other two books, that is, the memorandum book or Journal, you can, by means 
of this book always make up another Ledger with the same entries, day by day, and enter them on the same 
pages on which they were in the last book ; especially so, if you have the Journal in which, when you trans- 
ferred the different entries into the Ledger, you wrote down at the margin the two numbers of the debit 
entry page, and the credit entry page, the one above the other, which two numbers indicated the pages of 
the ledger where the two entries had been entered. In this way you can duplicate your Ledger. This is 
enough said for the posting of one entry. 

For the second entries, which pertains to precious stones, you shall enter in the Ledger as follows : 

FIRST, without my telling it to you over again, you shall write down at the top of the page the date, 
if there has been no date written before because of another account, for at times on the same page two or three 
accounts are made. Sometimes you won't give much space to one special account because you know that 
you will not have to use that account over again. Therefore you will give to this account a smaller space 
than the space you give to other accounts which you had to use more, as we have said above in Chapter 13, 
when talking about cash and capital, to which we give the whole page, as we have to use these two ac- 
counts very often because of the many transactions. This is done in order to lessen transfers. 

Now then, after you have found the proper place (in the ledger), you shall write down on the left — 
because the debtor must always be at the left: Precious stones of many kinds debit {dienno dare — shall 
give), on November 8, per capital, for so many pieces, etc., weighing so much, so many are counted balassi, 
etc., and so many sapphires, etc., and so many rubies, etc., and so many unpolished diamonds in bulk (or 
divide the different kinds) , for a value of so many ducats ; page 2 : L40 ; SO ; GO ; PC. 

You shall cancel this item in the Journal on the debit side by drawing a line as I have told you in 
Chapter 12. And then you will go to capital, and you shall enter this entry with fewer words, for the rea- 
sons above expressed in this chapter, writing it down on the credit side under the first entry that you have 
already made, and you shall express yourself this way: 

On the day, or ditto, for precious stones of several kinds, as it appears at page 3 : L40 ; SO ; GO ; PC. 

After which you shall draw another line on the credit side of the Journal, as I have shown in Chap- 
ter 12 ; you shall put down in the margin the two numbers of the pages of the Ledger in which you have 
made these entries, one above the other, as I have told you. We shall say, for instance, that you have en- 
tered the debit entry at page 3 ; the capital entry will still appear at page 2, as long as that page is not 


fl tuttclaliv la p02tarai'.c6mcttifotto nc rcpomintcdcraf flpK:iio.£ qrfo p q(la.c9fucfiln( 
Uc lia baftate 7C.£ pofta clx larafa! oitto qdcrno. £ afctrara in giomalcc tu fubCto lapor- 
fai a( rcgtorio o vao alfabetccoc w'fopza i qfto cap? fo octro. €ioc ala fua Ira. 6. o vcro. 
5. ft).gfW 15a la ^fcriraf.coc idiiicrfi pacfi acadccte qui i uincgia inolro fi coftumo ponc' 
reel. 3- w)uc noiin fofcana poncmo e( g.ficbe acojclarala tu a tuo Judi'do 7C. 

£dc fc Dcbi'no oittarc (egtitc ockmcrcanric cbc per iuuenrari'o o altro iiiodo Ibonto feri 
trouatncl quaderno'in Dare c in baucrc. £ap"'. 1 6". 

£ vellc Dcoonb 7C.-($)oi p tc ftelTo facilmerc metrarai rel luctano in gio:ti3lc oc 
poto coe ti le poneHi.oenofate.pclje cde oicemo oifopza cap''.6? qfto t al iniient J 
rio no ficaua oclmemoziale.p la ragi'oe liafegnara.£ go fuo oirrare in gio?na(c 

£ «iico2a nd gra (ib? i oarcc baueit. c oi po?2e alalfabcto.lafa'jro o? inai k^re al tuo pegri 
noingegnoTClql molromc'cofido efo!ol3.7'.pntaoc^e«;cr inedxnicl^eritroniafcffarc 
mo fgiwtifllf .£ ancoea al qdcrrio laql te fta baftare f fulfiactc amaeflraineto a tuttc Ic af nt 
clx oimcrcaria alcuQ- k ritrouafle.I?aiicdo fcpjc tu ra tc inacc gliod>ilo? n'.pcfi.cmifiirc e 
l^alutc i tutti li modicbe tal nicrcatic k colluniaflc vcdcrc.e cdp?are fra incrcati i rialto fo^ hVacfi-odc qli cofc cj apicno no c poffibilc poncre crcpli.nia c6 fadli'ta. oa ^fti ^x)d?i 
ci copcdiofainetc polh' pozrai oi qliicaltri fpzedcrc a ma fufiicie^apo dx k noi roleino t>ar 
tc CKplo od inodo vcrfo e via.oi mcrcare atrani.lecia.bari.£ bcfota.cioc alo? nomi dpcfilo 
ro.£ mifurclo^o '7C.£ cofi oda marca.£ andjc rda nfa tofcana.troppo fcrcbbc graded 
voUHnc.cbecdb:euitaitendo condudcre £pqlla. 7*.t»c<,ccerndgio:nale.oirc colt. V5. 
l&cr i'cnij'cri mecbiiiii mote a rcfufo.0 i collioirai coc a te pare 7c. B\ oitto dK fintede cauc 
d3l.pcl?elioifop:a imcdiatclaraiiJo^diflcoe oitto iuctario-coceiccmo oifopja cap", ii'. 
in (a j^tira fa oc le ^oit,^ colli tanripefano.Tc. £p.g:.tanfe q'do foflero are fuflb i mote 7C. 
qlimeretrouo bauere m lema;ii aldipntemetto oicomfi co?fo valcredc'.o vero la i,7c. 
ouc.tanti7c.m6tanointnttonettiouc.tanti7c.val S f ff P 

£ cofi porta d? larai nd gi02nale.£ ni al mcmoziale.o vero inuetario.laoipena.e 
modo oitto fop'.al.i 2°.cap? 7C.£ cofi obfuaraip tuttc lalt'.7c.£>i c^fta cot fo oetto c oc qfui 
dx aln-a clx i gioanalc fi metta.fcpre al gran Itb'.fi faniio ooppie.cioc 1 *.i oare.e laltra i ba 
ucre coc difopfa otccmo c;p.i 4°.la qual poi nd quadcmo in oarc.poncndola oittarala i 
qrta modo.T&ofto p'.fepjc d milcfimo fc no m" foflTc in capo oela carta.fca mcttarin' d gio? 
no oifopja po d>e coe oiccmo oifopza cap.i f ? £1 oi no fi coftnma pozrc fop:a nel p?in? be 
lacarta od quaderno p rifpc tto clx in qlla meddima fada pot rcbono eere piu ptitc 6 oiucr 
fiod3ifo:i c crcdito?i.lequali bcd?e lcnafd?ino fottovn nnlefimo.flfba firanno in oiuerfi me 
riccorni.c6eoifco:rcdopnitfo poi apjendere.£«j'do bene ancora in oitta facia odlibro 
grande no vi foffc altro d?e 1 '.fola ptita oicafla.o 03ltroanco?a el (^oino polio oifop:a.nd fipotrebbe feruarc^^x in oitta pnta.oco?ira oi mcttcre cafi oco:fi in oiuerfi 
»ncfi£ oi e p qlb c cbc li anrid^i oifop^a nd quadcrno no l?ano i libn' mercjtrfcbi vfitato 
mcttcre d gio:no.pd?e non bano ueduro vcrfo ne via nc modo d?e con ucrita fipoffa afet' 
rardlo 7c. taqualparn'ta in dare cofi pojrai oiccdo 7c. 

5en(cri mecbini.inmontcouero colli 7c.oien oarca oi-S-nonemb^e per caucdal.pcr colli 
tanti 7C.pffano. Stantc Tc.qualimi trouo baucrc in cafa. ucro maga^enal p^efentequM 
oc comun co?fo ftimo valere d cento 7c.ouc.t3nri 7c.£ per tutti monta rmc. g. p.Tc . val 
carri. 2. & 15 g? p 

£ cofi ocpcnnarai la partita od io?nale in oarcdoe a man fendlra come piu uolte to oit" 
to £ poi in Iwucre afcttaralain qfto modo al cauedal commc tc morillrai poncre qudia 
ode voic fop2a a cap". 1 s> cofi v?. 

aoi oetto.pcrcen^ezimedjini in monteo vero colli 5. % (5 g? p. 
£ cofi pofta cbe Ibarai oepennaraila partita od giojiialc in b.iuere.'doe verfo mandC' 
ftra.coe oinan^cwdi fatto,£ poni li numm' ode cartioinai;e alei in margine vno fopja lal' 
tro.Cioe d.;.oifop?a d.i.oifotto pd?e tu bai mdlo d ocbito:ca carti.jnd quadcrno. d crc 
dito?e e 9.2 .Cioc d capital.e fubito poi la mcttiinalfabeto.o vero reptorioala fua Ifa. £ioc 
al.3.fc p.5'la c6[m.o vero al.^.p la rafo oitta in lopcedcte ca».a qlla ptita fa ode (ofe 7c 
bd modo a tcncreconro con li officri publici:e pcrdx:e oe lacamcra odimp^efti in vc 1 
mm dx fc gouerna per via oe feftieri. £ap? 1 7? 

^ iii 


This example will guide you in other cases. 

After you have made the entries in the Ledger and marked it in the Journal, you shall put it at once in 
the index as I have told you above in this chapter — that is, under the letter G or Z, according as to how 
Gioie (stone) is pronounced. In Venice the custom is to pronounce it with Z; in Tuscany, with G. Guide 
yourself according to your own understanding. 



You wiU be able to transfer easily by yourself from the Inventory to the Journal the four items of 
your personal goods — that is, silver, linen, feather beds, clothes, etc., exactly as you write them in the 
Inventory, as we explained in Chapter 6. This Inventory was not contained in the memorandum book, for 
the reasons therein expressed. 

And as to how to make these entries in the Journal and the Ledger, and as to how to record them in 
the Index, I wiU leave to your ability, on which I count very much. 

We shall proceed to enter in the Journal, as well as in the Ledger, the seventh item (of the Inven- 
tory), which pertains to Ginger. This must be a sufficient instruction for you by which to make any other 
entry relative to your merchandise. You should always have in mind their number, weights, measurements 
and values according to the different ways in which it is customary to make purchases or sales among mer- 
chants in the Rialto, or elsewhere. It is not possible to give here full examples for all these operations, but 
from those few that we give here you will be able to understand how to go ahead in any other case. For 
if we wanted to give you an example of aU the ways in which merchants do business in Trani, Lecce, Bari 
and Bitonto — that is, to give you the names of their weights, measurements, etc., and also to tell you about 
the ways that they use them in Marca and in our Tuscany, this would make our treatise very long, which, 
on the contrary, I intend to make short. 

As to this seventh item to be entered in the Journal, we shall proceed thus : Per Ginger in bulk or 
package — ^you shall express yourself as you like — // a ditto — by which capital is understood, because you 
have already mentioned it in the entry immediately preceding, when you entered your second item from 
the inventory, that is, precious stones — as we said in Chapter 12 — I possess on this day so many packages 
weighing so much, or I possess so many pounds, if in bulk, according to the current prices, of a value by 
the hundred or by the pound, of so many ducats ; in total I give them the value of so many ducats. 

L , S , G. , P 

After you have entered it in the Journal in this way, you shall cancel it in the memorandum book or 
inventory, as we have said in Chapter 12, and you shall do the same for the other items. Of this entry, as 
we have said, as well as of any entry made in the Journal, you shall make two different entries in the 
Ledger; that is, one in the debit and the other in the credit. — See Chapter 14. In making the entry in 
the Ledger in the debit, you shall proceed in this way : First you shall put the year, in case there is 
none, at the top of the page, without there putting down the day, for, as we have said in Chapter 15, it is 
not customary to put down the day at the beginning of the page of the Ledger because on that same page 
several entries may be made under the debit and credit which, while belonging to the same year, refer to 
transactions made in different months and days. Even if on that page of the Ledger there was only one 
cash entry or other entry, the day put at the top of the page could not be very well kept because, under 
the said entry, it would be necessary to write down transactions which happened in different months and 
days. For this reason the ancient people never put the day at the top of the pages in mercantile ledgers, 
as they saw that there was no justification for it, etc. 

You shall make this entry in the debit (in the Ledger) in the following manner : Ginger in bulk, or so 
many packages, debit (dee dare — shall give) on November 8 per capital, for so many pieces, weighing so 
many pounds, which I on this day have in my store, or at home in my house, and which according to current 
prices are worth so many ducats and in total so many ducats, grossi, picioli, etc. ; Page 2 : 

L , S , G. , P 

Then you shall cancel this entry on the debit side of the Journal — that is, at the left, as I have told 
you often, and then you shall enter it on the credit side under Capital, as I have shown you in entering the 
precious stones item in Chapter 15, that is: 

On ditto per Ginger in bulk or packages, etc. ; Page 3 : L , S , G , P 

After you have entered it in this way, you shall cancel the entry on the credit side of the Journal — 
that is, at the right — as I have shown you before, and you shall also write down at the margin the numbers 
of the respective pages of the Ledger one above the other — that is, three above and two below, as you have 
made the debit entry at Page 3 and the credit entry at Page 2, and you shall thereafter enter it in the 
alphabet or repertory under its respective letter, which may be Z or G, for the reasons given in the pre- 
ceding chapter. 





B2i dclaltrc no re ne do.altra nc2ma.aocdi qUa dc pcnamf-dafodre cbic tern 
dcwf)3ndo.c fegnaiido in tutrili'Iodsklx non tefcordiperdxal mcrcantc W' 
foona altro ccrudlcdx de bcccaria 7C. 0!UeUa dda camera dipzcftt o dal' 
5c 10 firenca.dmote ddc date i genoa li locWo ucro aim" oflicii c\x fi fonero c» 

DiqUiluod?icili.,..v«»'— , , . , -. .,» 

fti rah' oflficii fpcflb fe foaliano murarc rcriuani. liqli ogimno a fua fanraua uolc guidare ml 
b:i oclo oflFiricWafimado femp^e Ufcriuan pafiatt. d?e non teniuan bon ordinc tc £ feni ' 
p:e ognuno ofuade dfuo o^dine niiglioje ocli altri.imododx ale volte indzociano le ^nrc. 
cd'eapo qfti tali.£ ccrtamcte fo:fi d fano a bon fine no w'mcnd moltrao igno 
raca. £ cofinVrai coro.coli gabdlari.eoatiarioc robbc d?c ru uedic c6p:i.caiue mctnnde 
Kite 7c,£6c fi coftuma fare fn vfnegta.dx ft'ticne ^ li pfu zkI^ tcrraxorologo co lo offido 
©da nieflcraria.d?ia.2.p.c? £ d?ia i'. j>c? £ d?i«.4.pC.7c.£biam9ndo el jib?o. tul fmt 
faro^lx viftnterponc. e notare al wo ljb2o.£ andx la mare.m fu cb ra. aocci ho? roue i» 
in nota li mcrcati al oftro officio d?e cofi lo d?iantano in veneria po dx ciafcuno fenfaro a 
vm libzo.o uero luogo in qualdx lft»ro al ditro ofiidb ooue M va a ©are in nota li mercarf 
d?e coterrieri.coc foreftien altramcte ca^ano in pcna.faltramcrc facdTaro. £ f#nno p?l 
nati.£ bene qllacrcelfa.S. licaftiga e lo:ae fcrwanicb mat (! pojrafcro coe oe moln'me ri 
eo?do.gia ndi ipi palTati cere puniti ftraniani£te.£ do fantaitienre fanno a cpnftiniirevno 
dqlea folo qfta rencdere turti lioffidr-doefeuToro lib'.fono bn.o*o male tenuti ic. 
£onimc fe oebia tencr conto con lo offido oda nidl^taria in vcnet^ c vd oitrare le fuc 
partite in mcmo2i3le.^onialc.cquademo.canco2a xkU impjelli. iCap'. 1 8. 

f ^^srtd fl 5 f '^e q-do voMico tali offitii rener conto-la camera ocimpzeftfti.farai ccbitrid 
r>c tutta fafojtc oe caueoali a tanto d c'.'Zc.TRoiandoli feftieri ooue Ton pofti.£ 
fimjlmcntc fc piu aja Si02nata.nec6p2affc d?e molri fe ne vendano g re o g alrfi 
coe fa cbi realto tfa..^ota bn incbi lono faitd e luogf?i .7c. £ cofi nel fcotercH 
lo2d ^.fep:c farala creditrici.a oi g oi.£ fcftier p fdh'cri 7C.£ cofi coloffirio txla iticfTctarij 
£1 coto tirrai t qfto modo.doe^doni compraraialcuna mcrcantiap me{(o t> fefar{.alora 
»c tuttolo amorare.a rafoncpe.2.0 De.5.0 oe.4.7c.p c".faranecredito?e tlvitxo offido ocfa 
itidl6taria.£ oebJtndqlla tale raercantia.plaql cagidne tu pagl?i 7C.£ go conucne dxl co 
p2ato?c femprc ritcga al iiedito:e nd pagatncto^ contanti-o rtro alrro niodo dx labia 
afatiffare non fa ca1o.pd7d tttttp.officio'non vol andar cercando altro fenon larata cbe U 
ofpetta-aucnga dx lifenfari rcpoi^o d mercato in norj.c6mo^ d>x dx)Jellaro fatto. per 
d^i^rcfte euidcre ©e contraetiq'do fra lojo.nafcefle Differcnca akuna coe ac^de. £1 comun 
^uerbio oici.d?indn fa non falla-c cbi non falla non impara 7c.oelcqliDfetiolendofe le Pi< 
d?iarircl?ano regreffo quale fk)lidecrcti publid lifipHa 
fedc coe a publico inftrumcnto oenotaro.£ k> la fojma o( qllo . dpiu cele volte. £t oegno 
offftio oeconfoli oemcrcann".fo:mano le lo:o-foridicbc (entente ic.bico adonca comppan* 
do tu alcuna robba^ cic fage.qllo dx lei^aga oc in.£ p lamita ucndito?e. £ioe 
fe la robba p3ga.4.p c'.a qllo officio p ^cretopublico od oomin to.£ tu alui rerieni. J . p c? 
£ tanto manco lft:onta.£ l?ara d fuo i>oucre.£ ru poi od tutto rdh obligato al oitto offl' 
rio.£ od tutto larai afar creditojeal tuolib?ocontado c6lui.£ qlla tal mercantia faraioM 
trid^coe oicemo 7c.pcbe d ofrto oflliao non uol dM comp23.£ po pol 
a tal cdmp2ato2i li e conccflb.oi cauare tanro oi qlla mercanria.p q'to a pagato la in. foja 6 
la terra,in lo20 bolette.ala tauola.oe lufdca.o per mare o p terra dx la uo j^iono cauare ala 
gi02rtata.£ po conucgano li mercanri tenerc bco conro con !o oino ofRcfo; ado femp:e fa' 
pino qpto pdUno cauare.pd?e non filalTano cauar^w piu d?e ficompjino fc oi nouo non 
pagbino la rfi.oe conran 11 rc.oelcquali compre c) fequenre ri pongo eteplo.e cofi.ocl Jiitto 
Olfido.comme fe Iwbino a oirtare in gio2n«le. £ ancbc in Wb2o grande.£ ciro cofi. -^i 
ma.m manojiale.fcmpliciraenre.Jojo vcro noi in quefjo 01 pofto oifopra ocompzato 03 ^ 
Suan anionio oa mefina.^ucfljtpalerminicalli n'.tanrc.pani n'.tantf.i3€fand in rurto.Ttetti. 
oe paglie. S tanre per ouc. tan. d c'.moniano oucraritcabarto per4a 
fua parte ocla m .a ragion oe tanto per c°.ouc.g.p.tann Tcfcnfaro 9 ^uan DC gaqliardi. vale 
nctti ouati.g.p.tanti w-paga mmo cojitanrt. 


I shall not give you any more rules for the other items — that is, leather goods for coverings, tanned or 
raw, etc., for each of which you shall make entries in the Journal and Ledger, carefully writing down every- 
thing and checking off, etc., without forgetting anything, because the merchant must have a much better 
understanding of things than a butcher. 

If you have accounts with the Camera de L'Impresti, or with other banks, as in Florence, or with the 
Monte de La Dote, in Gtenoa, as well as similar offices or bureaux with which you have business, see that 
you keep these accounts very clearly and obtain good written evidence as to debits and credits in the hand- 
writing of the clerks in those institutions. This advice you will carefully follow, for reasons to be ex- 
plained in chapter on documents and letters. Because in these offices they often change their clerks, 
and as each one of these clerks likes to keep the books in his own way, he is always blaming the previ- 
ous clerks, saying that they did not keep the books in good order, and they are always trying to make you 
believe that their way is better than all the others, so that at times they mix up the accounts in the books 
of these offices in such way that they do not correspond with anything. "Woe to you if you have anything 
to do with these people. Therefore, be very careful when dealing with them, and be observant at home and 
keep your head in the store. Maybe they mean well, nevertheless they may show ignorance. In this way 
you shall keep accounts with the Gabellari and Datiarii (revenue officers) as to the things that you might 
sell or buy, things that you grow, things that you plant, etc., as it is the custom in Venice where people are 
used to keeping an account through the office of the Messetaria (market master or exchange), some at 2%, 
some at 1%, some at 4:%. You should mention the book of the broker through whom the transaction was 
made, and also mention the special mark that the broker has in this book — that is, the book in which he 
makes a record of the market transaction at said office which they call "Chiamans" in Venice. For each 
broker has a book in the said office, or a place in some book in the said office, in which he has to make a 
record of all the transactions which he has with the citizens of the town or with outsiders. If the broker 
should not do that he would be fined and dismissed. 

And justly the glorious republic of Venice punishes them and their clerks who should misbehave. I 
know of many who in the past years have been heavily punished, and right they are in having one officer 
whose only duty is to oversee all these officers and their books whether they are well kept or not, etc. 



When you want to do business with the said offices, you shaU always charge to the Camera de L'Im- 
presti (municipal loan bank) so many per cent, on all your funds or capital, naming the district where 
one resides. Likewise, for the amount of the daily sales for many are the sales made for you or for others, 
as those people know who are familiar with the Rialto. Be careful to put down the name of the party that 
buys and his place of business, etc. When you withdraw said funds, you shall always credit the said bank, 
day by day and district by district. 

In doing business with the office of the Messetaria (exchange), you shall keep the account in this way: 
When you buy any merchandise through brokers, you shall credit the said office of the Messetari with the 
2% or 3% or 4% of the whole amount, and shall charge it to that specific merchandise, for you are thus 
paying for it, etc. Therefore the buyer, when he makes his payments to the seller, should always retain 
that percentage, no matter whether the payments are made in cash or otherwise, as the said office does not 
concern itself about anything except the rate ( % ) to which it is entitled. The brokers make a report of 
the transaction, how and what for and with whom made, in order to have things clear in case any ques- 
tion should arise, which may happen. 

A common proverb says : Who does nothing, makes no mistakes ; who makes no mistakes learns noth- 
ing, etc. 

If any question should arise and the parties wish to settle it, they would go and examine the records 
of the transaction made by the broker, to which records, according to the public decrees, as full faith is 
given as to a public notarial document, and according to these records very often the office of the Consuls 
of the merchants issues its judgment. 

I say, then, when you buy anything, you must always know what is due to the Messetaria, and you 
withhold half of this from what you pay to the seller ; that is, if the particular thing that you buy is sub- 
ject to a 4% payment to that office, as per public decrees of the Republic, you withhold 2% of what you 
give to the seller. You give him that much less in order that he receives what is due him. You then wiU 
become a debtor for the whole amount which is due the said office, and you shall credit the said office with 
it in your Ledger when you keep an account with that office and charge it to the goods that you have 
bought, as we have said, because that office does not interest itself in the party who sells out, but in the 
party who buys. In accordance with this, the buyer will be allowed to take out of the official warehouses 
merchandise in proportion to the brokerage paid and according to their books kept at the shipping coun- 
ter, whether it came by land or sea. Therefore, the merchants should keep a careful account with the said 
office so that they know how much merchandise they can take out. They are not allowed to take out more 
than they have bought unless they have paid the extra brokerage. 

Of these purchases, I will give you here an example and how the transaction with the said office must be recorded 
In the Journal and In the Ledger. First, you shall express yourself in the memorandum book In the following manner: 

I (or we), on this day above mentioned, have bought of Mr. Zuan Antonio, of Messina, so many boxes of Paler- 
mo sugar and so many loaves of the net weight — that is, without the boxes, wrappers, ropes and straw — so many 
pounds at so many ducats per hundred; I deduct for what is due to the Messetaria at the rate of so much per cent, 
80 many ducats, grossi, picioli, etc. The broker was Mr. Zuan de Galardi; net value, so many ducats, grosai, 
picioU, paid in cash. 


Bfftfndo nona.Zracf3tu0. xi*.©f rcripfnrie 104 

la medcfima m giomafe wra cofi acoTitanri. 

"P*^ cucarioepakrmo. B cuffs corttatia f cuan oc anronio oaincfina^vr calTi n°.fantc pam' 
n- mn. pcfano nctn.oc caflri-pandlc. co:dc( paglK-S-tanrc-a Duc.ranrid c? motano tnic. 
tanri 7C.abatto.p fa fua parte ocla m.a rafon oc wnri per c'. -re. ouc.unti tc. itdanoncm. 
inic.t3iiri7C.fcnfarf.^anocgaiafdi. 8 f' 6 P 

lawdcn'iiiainquadcrno oira cofi. 
3ucar( oc palcrmo.wc oarcadi tale-g cafla conrari a P^uan oantonio oc mcfina. per panni 
numcro ranri prfaiioncm'.S.tantcpcroucfflnndccrtto.montanonemintutto acam'i*. 
£faraicrcditric:'lacaffeoiqudranto7C. S^ ^ S P 

£ fcwp^c farai (oflfitio oda m.crcdito:e dA ooppio cbc f u rettnefti alucditoze. cioc p la 
fua c pfetua ptc* tc.£ fcp:c (ab\t& noraro la rcbba Fnicdiare i vnalf .prita fotro fiarai crcdi 
tox oirtooffido per M'tto <;ucaro coc Ijarai oifotto.£ nibimd oitra robba. t&er crcmplo m 
m pagata a contanti.Oz p^ctidinc vna pre a cotann' c parte, a tpo p'.imemorialc cofi DJrai. 

^ contanti c tcmpo.a di tanti ^c. 
5oocomp?ato a di oetto.oa f (uan oantonio.oamcfina. aicarioe palermo panin'.tantii. 
pefano netri. ^.tante.per ouc.tanri el c'.montano oiic.taini.abatro per fiia parte oe m.a rafo 
oe tann'per c'-ouc-tanti ^cx>c quali al p? no comatitnc . tari p parte e od refto mi 
ffltponntutfoagofto^yrr.dxuiciiTc.fenfarf^anoeccaiardiv.if. one. ff p 
£ fappi chc XX qtic cofe dx fe fcriue incrcato per Fofenfaro.a (oflirio non btfogiw far fcrit 
laoc man ,perd?e el mercato pure a cainda ale uofre fi fa 7c. 

5n giojnale la medema oira cofi. p:imi quel tal oe tuttocrcdiro2e.£ poi ofbito:e wql 
la parte oc 6. d?e f ui Iwue. 

yfts. 1 495-3 01 tantir>d tal mcfe 7c 
"Pcr gucari'palerminf: B f (uait oantonlo x>e mcfina per pani niimcro tanti pefano netti in 
tutto Ji.tantca wictanti d c? montanoouc.tantf 7c.abaf to per la fua pre re mcfTctaria a ra 
fon oe tanti ^Kr c'.ouc.tanti 7c.rdla nmo oucranti 7c .oe quali alpzcfcnte li ncdebo contar 
tanti 7C. £ ocl refto. mi fa terriiine fin tutto ogofto p^orimo d?e vicn. fcnfaro fcr ^uan oe 
gaiardi.val. S f $ p 

^anne credifo:e fubito lofllTcio oela inoda fua rata. 
•^ li oittita loflfiao oda tn.per lamon tar foura ofrto.noe oe oiic.rati 7c a rafo w ran" p c*. 
g lamia parte cqllaoel oebito?e I tuftomontaoucg^.rajirival. % f g P 

Tla parte oe contanti. oebitoj luf.£ erediro^e fa caffa. cofi. 
j&er P 0i3n oatonio.oe mifina: B tsttfa cotati^lui p pre pdi foura vitci ^ucari fo fafojma 61 
mcrcato.ouc.tati7C.apcodreceuercfcrittooefuamano?af» ' % ^ g P 

Jtamedema in quademo oira cofi. 
5ucari oc palermo.oien dare a oi tal oinouemb?e . per f cuan oantonio oamefina. per pani 

n'.tati pefano netti S:t3nte7C.pduc.t3ntidC.mot3no netti oern.R.4. % i' g P 
fiuando uolelfc fame partita nuoua.fl^a uolendo fequitarela p?epofla baftaua oirc a oi. 
tanti7C.paRuano3nt?03mcfinappanin?tatipefano S-rate7c.moia.R.4.S P g p 

lamedenia in l?auere oira cofi. 
Scr ^uan datonio oemefina die bauere a di tanti de noucmb:e.per cucan de palcrmo. pa- 
nin'.tanti pefan netti Stante per ductanri dc'.montano.nctti de rn.duc.tanti.dc quali al 
pzefente fi ne oebio dar contantiductanti 7c.ddau3n(o.mi fa tpo per tutto agoflo .prio fti 
turo.fnifarfiuandcgagliardi.val R.4. % f g P 

5n dare lamedema.^ la parte ddicontanti.dira fofi. 
STer^ianalincomro.diedarea di.tale7C.pcalTa.c6tatiafuipptede^ucari.l3cbi dafui fo 
nfip3ttiduc.tanti7c.apepfuofcrittodemaninlib2eto.val. K.I*, s I' S ^ 

lamedema.ala m .e ancbe per la precedente f quaderno cofi. 
© ff6.dck m.die f >auer.a di tal p ^ucari de palermo cdp?ai03 P cuan danto? de mcfina pfa 
niontarcdcductari.afatipc'.fenfarf^uandcgaiardimonta. R.72 % f* g P 
£ommo fe de bfa ozdiparc d pagamentodx baueffe a fare per ditt a e banco 6 faixi nc 
Ktuoifibrifia'ncipftfi: "" £ap? 19. 

£ofip tal cop2e.qfta ti bafta a guidart^-o fia a tuttt cotanri.o a ptc c6faim'.£ q 
KtOc. ocotatieditta omttim banco.ocotantt ebanco.oc6t3ti.£robbe.orob 
fM.editta.o tutta dirta robbe.c tpo.o robba e banc 0.0 bafico c tpo.o baco c dft 
ta.o banco.cotanti. ditta.c robbe.7c.podx i tutti qfli modi-fe cofhimis cdp:arc. 
leqli ru pertcol fefoddapcedctcmcttcraleimcmo:i3le,£dri<aralefgio:nale.equ3demo. 


The same should be entered in the Journal in the following manner : 

Per Palermo sugar // A cash. Cash paid to Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina for so many boxes and so 
many loaves, of the net weight — that is, without the boxes, wrappers, ropes and straw — so many pounds ; 
at so many ducats per hundred, it amounts to so many ducats ; I deduct what is due to the Messetaria at so 
much per cent., so many ducats, etc. ; net residue, so many ducats, etc. The broker was Mr. Zuan de Gai- 
ardi. L , S , G , P 

In the Ledger you shall make the entries as follows: 

Palermo sugar debit (dee dare or shall give) cash. Cash paid to Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina for so 
many boxes and so many loaves, weighing, net, so many pounds, at so many ducats per hundred, which 
amounts to— Page 1 : L , S , G. , P 

And you shall credit cash with the same amount, and shall always credit the Messetaria with twice the 
amount which you withhold from the price paid to the seller — that is, for the commission due by the seller 
and by you. 

Immediately after, you shall make another entry crediting the said office with the said sugar and charging 
the said merchandise. This will do for a purchase by cash. Now we shall consider one made partly in cash 
and partly on time. 

First, ID the memorandum book you shall say as follows : By cash and on time on such and such day, 
I have bought on the said date of Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina so many loaves of Palermo sugar, weighing 
net so many pounds, at so many ducats per hundred, making a total of so many ducats. This is in part 
payment ; for the rest I shall have time to pay until the whole month of August next, etc. The broker 
was Mr. Zuan Gaiardi. D , G , P 

You must understand that you do not need to have a written paper containing the terms of the trans- 
action, for the broker shall record that in the said OfiBce. This record is enough for you, but as a precau- 
tion, sometimes people require a contract. 

You will make the entry in the Journal as follows : First you shall credit Mr. So-and-So for the total 
amount, and then charge him for the money that he has received. 

JESUS 1493 

On such and such a day of such and such month, etc., per Palermo sugar // A Mr. Zuan Antonio, of 
Messina, for so many loaves, weighing net so many pounds at so many ducats per hundred, making a total 
of so many ducats ; deducting for his share of the brokerage at so much per cent., so many ducats, leaving 
a net balance of so many ducats, of which now I have to pay so many, and as to the rest I have time until 
the end of next August. The broker was Mr. Zuan de Gaiardi ; value L , S , G , P 

Immediately after, credit the office of the Messetaria with the commission due to it : Per ditto // A 
Office of the Messetaria,. For the amount above mentioned — that is, so many ducats at the rate of so much 
per cent, for my share and for the share of the debtor (seller), in all amounting to so many ducats, grossi, 
picioli: value: L , S , G , P 

For the cash payment, you shall charge him and credit cash in the following manner • 

Per Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina // A cash. By cash paid him for part payment of said sugar accord- 
ing to the terms of the transaction, so many ducats, as it appears from his receipt written in his own hand- 
writing. Value : L , S , G , P 

In the Ledger you shall write down as follows : 

Palermo sugar debit {dee dare — shall give) on such and such a day of November, per Zuan Antonio of 
Messina, for so many loaves, weighing net so many pounds, etc., at so many ducats per hundred, making a 
total, net of the brokerage ; Page 4 : L , S , G , P 

These items shall be entered in the credit column as follows : 

Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina, credit (dee havere — shall have), per Palermo sugar so many loaves, weigh- 
ing net so many pounds, at so many ducats per hundred, amounting, net of the brokerage, so many ducats, 
of which I must now pay so many ducats, and for the rest I have time until the end of next August. Brok- 
er, Mr. Zuan de Gaiardi ; Page 4 ; value : L , S. , G , P 

For the cash payment you shall put in the debit column : 

Mr. Zuan, debit (dee dare — shall give), on such and such a day, etc., per cash to him paid for part 
payment on sugar — I received from him according to our agreement — so many ducats, as it is shown by 
his own handwriting in his book ; page 1 : L. , S , G. , P 

The account of the Messetaria in the Ledger shall be as follows : 

Office of the Tlf esse tona, credit (dee havere — shall have), on such and such day, per Palermo sugar 
bought from Mr. Zuan Antonio, of Messina, for the amount of so many ducats, at so many ducats per 
hundred. Broker, Mr. Zuan de Gaiardi ; Page, etc. . L , S , G , P 



And as to the purchases, this should be sufficient to guide you, whether the payment of the purchase 
should be made aU in cash or part in cash and part on time ; or part in cash or part by bill of exchange or 
draft (ditta) ; or all through the bank; or part in cash and part through the bank; or part through the 
bank and part on time ; or part through the bank and part by bill of exchange ; or part through the bank, 
part in cash, part by bill of exchange and part by merchandise, etc. 

For in all these ways it is customary to make purchases, and in each ease you shall make entries, first 
in the Day Book, then in the Journal, then in the Ledger, taking as a guide the foregoing example. 


©f (h'ncff faipturfe. 

bancap pii» ftgurta.vndc ancoza qfta autella fufa p molti c bcne-iydo ben pagaffcro d con 
taniude far per rcfto m band?o.£ j? copito pagamcto 7C.£ pagandolo otcbanco m rob 
ba .parte dina.c parte cotann-dctuttcqftc faralooebifozcfqllctalcorc farale mditrw 
ognuna al fuo luocro -rc.f fc per altri modi tc acadclTc c opzarcper fimii tc goiierna. tc 

£ bmcdo inmo clucrfo dl coprarc ptanti ucrfi pzcderai clvcderc tuo adalrri. fxiaoU 
5eb«'to2i.c otditnViletuc robbc. fE dcbimd lacaTTa.fe ti da contanri.c tbitrid k dineXc tc tc 
cofcgna in pagfltncto.£ crcditojc.d banco.fc tel da. £cofidinjttopoajuie coc difop?a c 
ditto 61 cop?flrc.£ (ui dc tutto qUo n pagamcrofaralo crcditox'icx^fio tibafh' a q 
fta tnatcn'a a tua iiiftructioc 7c. Dele gme famofe e pticulari nel maneggio traft'care coc 
fono baratu' copagnie 7c.cocle fe babbino a fettaree o:diiiare ndiUhH mercatcfcbi. c p'.o 
libaratti fcplici copoftie coltpo c6 apn'ercpli 6 tutn i meitio?iale.(02nale e qder". £3.20. 

fcjta.eoucr oar modo.coc k babino afettdr alene pntc famofe pticulari. cl3 nc 

limaneggij traficati (Ifogliano dpiu txlevoitc.foleni^re.^ nietterle oapTe .aa'o 

oi qlle Biiflintte rfllaltre.fenc poflfa jp e Dano dx oi qlfc fcqflc.coc 

fono Jibarattie Iccopag'.viaggirecomadan.viaggt i fua mano.cotniflioe batiii 

tt p alirf-bandJi oe fcritta ,0 vero oittaXabi rcali .oiHicoto oif bofcga 7c. oelcqli cj fcquetc 

fucdtamctc a tua baftan^fl.te oaro non'tia.coe fe r>cbi' guioare.c rcggere nc (i tiioi Itbri o?di 

natamcte.acio no tc abagli in tuc faccdc •£ p*.moft?arcmo coc fc oebia afettarc i ". barat to. 

i$?6fK)libaram'c6munamctcOc.?.fo2tcccc oifop:a in feragiofo oetto. ^irtictio.g'.^. )°. 

carti.i 61 .fin m. \ 67-flpicno fid?cli rcco:ri a itcnderli. bico adoca cbe in rutti iucrfi (he tc 

ocadeflc fcriuf re i lib? el barattcfcpjc purametc.p*.in lo mcmojiale oebi narrarlo ad Ifam. 

oct'-oafa^ftaco tutnTuomodiccondiri6id?d firallato fatto.ccodufo.o comccani. ofra 

voi foli.€ q'd(4arai cofi narrato.£ tu poi alafine riduralo i fu lic6tanti.'£ To cbc qllc tal 

robbc iicdcr aiualerc.a cotaHtiptaton'rarai foza lapri'.acbe moncta firoglia imemo:ialc. 

cbcnon fa cafo.podx poid qdernieri (a redura tuita a 1 '.fo?ta alaiitcrico.cioe qpdo lainct 

rara al gioznale, £ al qdemo grade 7c.£ qfto fi fa pdx cauado ru fozi le valute ode robbc 

B qtdsc fi ftanno potreftincli tuof con'.e feriptiirccognofccre fc^a gradrflTma 

oiffi'culra.tuo vttlc.o vcropditta fcquita.icqlifcp:ecouicfi redure a cotanti. p folerle ben 

cognofccrctc. £ fe oi tali mercaric bauutc p baratti: wlcfli oapte pticularmcte tencrnc 

coto.p podcr vcdcr il fuo rctratto.fepatamctc oa lalt'.robbc clx Dital forra baue ffcp'-Hi ca 

h.o dx oapoi cop:alTe.p cognofccrcqual fia (lata mcglio?e iccpta.lo poi fart. £ aco?a acii 

mularc tutte mcrcatie inficn«'.coefc l3auefle.p*.«;enccri oa tc.£ boza qflircccuclTi od barat 

to liquali volermcttcrcon lialtri.nel (ojnal t)iraicofi.e<oc. 

l^r ^c^cri bellidi i motc.o vcro in colli: B (ncari oc latal (om ?c. p colli tanti pefano. S tl 

tt baui &af tal abaratto w (ucari fatto i qda fozma-rioc cbc mili mid el c\tk qimri wL 

i 4.7C.C0 qfto d?e mi ocflc e I J.oe con tanti •?c.£ mcttcfc d c? oi jfc^erf ouc.tanti. p liquali 

^n^'.licon'<;ucari.pani.n'j:3nti.pefan 8; tantccfjcacontantidc- v«f duc.2o. £plioitti 

?en?arjncbbeStante7c.panin°.tantiTc.vaglianodafcuno. % ^ g p 

£ pd?c«le volte no fapzai-a poro lo n'-ocli pani-dx p oitti ceticri intra ITe no fa cafo. po cB 

poi ticla ptita fcqntc.fifuplcfd ql dx limanca^fcc ql dye li fofk piu i qlla ccla cafl-i.maca' 

r« no tM'mcno.alMicotro oc^ucari (epjc.barai d oouerc aponto.pdje tutte oua.vano a cu - 

can i modo dx laptita oc ?ucari npn pdc d n? oc ort pefo.pdx no c fepjc pc(T(bi 

fc t)OgmTrafdxtta.Ofl pfe tener coto.7c.©2a oi qlla ptc re cotanti dx vi fono cozfi.fara ' 

nc Dcbitridlacafla. £ pored finiilc.credito?i oitti^ucari.oiccndo cofi.cioe. 

per cafTat5lioitti7f. ifecrcontanribd>indoittobaratto.oalottto7c.pcrpanin», tan' 

ri7c.pefano8:.tanteval. § f g P 

£ flmiliptitc fubito qlli mcttano imediatc nd gioznalc a pfTo qlla od baratto. nd ql batic^ 

(li liconti tcSidx a qdo modo oittardh'.nou volendonc tener feparato conto. flfea fc fc 

paratolotjoitcncrnd gioznafc oiraicofi'.ooe. 

I^cr(cnien'bellidi.pcrcontooib82attofcbbcro oal tale7c: M iucaritcnarrando tutto. 
poi9pontocommooirop.'a.£in loquadcrno.poil?arano loio partita. oiftincta7c.£ 
qucfto uogliocbctibafti-pcrtuttili altri baramdjcfo per tcfenca piumi ftenda .fifapa 

^ bc'laltra partita famofa oitta £ompagnic:commerc ocbino oxJinarc.c oittare in tutti 
iimo4ioccurcnn'mciafcunolib7o. £ap-. 21. 


But when you make a payment part through the bank and part by bill of exchange, deliver first the 
bill of exchange and then settle through the bank, which is safer. Many observe this precaution on good 
grounds, whenever they have to make payments part in cash to settle this balance through the bank, etc. 
If you make payments part through the bank, part by trading something or part by a bill of exchange and 
part in cash, you shall charge the seller for all these things and you shall credit each of the said things, each 
thing in its own place. 

Now that you know how to go ahead whenever you make purchases, you will also know what you have 
to do when you sell. In this case, you shaU charge the different buyers and shall credit the different goods 
that you sell and shall charge cash if you get money for the same, and you shall charge bills of exchange 
if you get a bill of exchange in payment, and credit the latter when the bank pays the exchange. 

Therefore, referring again to the purchase, you shall credit the purchaser with all that he gives you 
in payment, etc. 

This will be enough for your instruction on this subject. 



Now we shall speak of how certain weU-known and peculiar entries should be made which are of the 
highest importance in commerce, and which usually are kept separate from the others so that they can show 
their respective profits and losses {pro e danno). They cover tradings, partnerships, suggested business 
trips, trips on your own ventures, commissions from others, drafts (ditta) or biUs of exchange {hancha 
descritta), actual trades, store accounts, etc. I will tell you briefly about these accounts, how you should 
make the entries in your books so that you don't get mixed up in your affairs. 

First, we shall show how to enter a trade {barato). Trades are usually of three kinds, as we said in 
Section 9 of Treatise III, Pages 161 to 167, where it is stated fully and you can refer to it. 

I say, therefore, that no matter how you make a record of the trade in your books, you shall first enter 
it in the memorandum book, stating in detail all about it, its terms and conditions and whether it was made 
through a broker. After you have so described it, you then at the end shaU. put a money value on it ; and 
you shall put down such price in accordance with the current value which the things that you have traded 
have; reckoning in any kind of money in the memorandum book. Afterwards the bookkeeper, when he 
transfers the entry to the Journal and Ledger, will reduce that money to the standard money that you have 

This is done because, without entering the value of the things that you have traded, you could not, 
from your books and accounts, learn, except with great difficidty, what your profit or loss is. The mer- 
chandise must always be reduced to actual money value in order to take care of it (in the books). 

You may keep a separate account of the goods received in trade, if you wish to do that, in order to 
know how much you make out of them separate from those of the same kind that you might already have 
at home, or separate from those that you might get after that, in order to know which was the best transac- 
tion. You also may keep only one account of all the goods — for instance, if you have already some ginger, 
and you get some more ginger through a trade. In this case you shall make the entries in the Journal as 
f oUows : 

Per Ginger in bulk or in packages // A sugar, such and such kind, so many packages, weighing so 
many pounds. Received from a trade for sugar in this manner : I valued the sugar 24 ducats per hundred, 
of which I should receive one-third in cash, and I valued the ginger at so many ducats per himdred. The 
said sugar is in so many loaves weighing so many pounds, worth 20 ducats per hundred, and for the said 
ginger I received so many pounds of sugar and so many loaves, and their value is : 

L , S , G , P 

And if you do not know exactly how many loaves of sugar you have received for the said ginger, it 
does not matter, because you may correct the mistake in the following entry, whether the mistake was 
made plus or minus, or correct it through the cash entry. On the contrary, you know exactly the weight 
and money value, and you lose nothing in either by not knowing the number of loaves. It is not always 
possible to keep an account of all small details. 

Now you wiU debit cash for whatever cash you received, and you shall credit sugar in the following 
manner : 

Per Cash // A ditto. In the said trade I received cash from so and so for so many loaves of sugar 
weighing so many pounds ; value : L , S , G , P 

You shall record in the Journal direct all these different items soon after the trade is made, and should 
take the name of the merchandise if you do not want to keep a separate account ; but if you want to keep 
them in a separate account, you will write this way in the Journal : 

Per ginger iellidi received by trade from so and so, etc. // A sugar, etc., stating everything as shown 
above. In the Ledger then they will have separate accounts. 

This will be sufScient for you for all kinds of trades. 




@i'(hnctto noM ZrzctataS'Xi*' Bs. fcripturid 30$- 

Sftra partita famofacla c6p'.c&cdaIcuofacdregragi5cdiqlud?cco(afi fa 
fefTc di panniodcfeteo defpcnanco dcgortoi cdf tctojia odeclbiTc.Guc 
ftctaWfimiTifcprc uos(i3ofuflgritaf(:g3taitumli.;»!ii)«dccti ^rip?rioc inc/ 
mmiak pofto dxta barai cl di di fopja narrarala fcpliamac turta con modi c 
coditioi'cft fauctc l^tta alcgan?fcripto oucr altro iftfoci? fra uoifoikcnomdocltpo^to 
|afintcdc:c di d?e faculta fi fa di fatten e gar^omcbc fauclTc a tciif re 7C.c qudlo d?c mcrte 
ciafcu pcrfc dc robba dc d.TCO deWtoji crediton" c di mtto a mo 3 vno farane crcdi 
toTiliccp'ognij'dtqltantodxmette dae^eedcbl'tn'a'Iacal1a^(adcacop^fc da perfela 
tRi cbmc5?rc rcgpcd cl trafico tcncdola fcgata oala cafla tua Btiirulaf q*?tu fo(Tc ql cD talco*. 
i^idaflfe p fa ql tfcoiie fare lib'.oagfe cc qllo?dicnio evia S oi fop c oco:6 tutro d r uo ma 
tKQ&o ^ me b2iga:nd oimeo potredi tutta tencKa nelli medei toilib*. oeri^do noue ptite 
como al piite Dicemo c& fi cbiamao famofe p cer fe^atc oa tutte (alt^.D le q(i (f t€ to d mo 
tamo como laWadittarc ituo mcozialee oipor i gio?nalecqderno ic-tBa tenedo oi (ei 
(fty.fepati no ti 00 alt^oocutfito fend cb tiguidi (i como d tatto el tuo traftco e oco. Dirolta 
eofi ime*. Jn qfto of bfamo fco copied li talie tali alarte 6 la bna pacti e coditib 
wi tc como ape p fcripto ifti'o 7c.p am' tati tc^nde el tal ocjfe cotari tati Tclalt? ballc 
late lana frac*.pcfa nctta S.tatc tc.mellacSto ouctatiel rafTcelaU? afeg?tati veri ocbito 
ri.cio€ el tal ocDuc.tati.el tal xx tmti rc-c cofi io fbojfai d pffte ouc.tati 7c.e fo Umaitav 
to d co2.ouc.tati 7c.-piOi in tuo giojiiale Dirai i qflo modo dfettado tutte cofc a fuo luogo 
imagina v'.caira t{compagnia.evncauedal Dicd'^ccofia tutre le^titcdym metteraioiraf 
(ipit p coto S pp'.acio faWacognofcere t)alt*.toi ptite ^liculari 7U p'.pmo fclli da la caf 
faeomc^araiepoifttccefliuamenteafettarailaltre. i&ercafla oe compa^nia^l tale' 
gion oe compagnia acio fe f?aue(Te aim' conticon tcco iton fimpadiio Tcper contanri m^ 
felqftotrf^faluarata^jflinfipacti'comoaparepfcriptooHeriftfotc.vaf .§. f. g? p. 
t&oifimilmete dirai dele robbe d?e bano melTc cofi. per lana franc'.de la cop^al talc^ 
balfe taiite pefano nette mitto S .fante fo cdta dacojdo con tutti ducati tanti el mffecondo 
lafo2\ddcotrattoouerfcriptofranoi7C4notaftuttocnic.'rc.valS. i^. g? p. £corian 
daraiponcdotuttcplidebitojicofegnatioiraicofi. -[Eserlo tale de ragio de cop*. £ll talc 
qlfecodonfi pacti cicofegnogvcrodtbito^cdeduaantival %. f. «? p. ©jmai 
dx al$to fei itrodutto no mi curo^ftedcrme piu fi como in lo pncifdi qlto trattato fed d?e 
troppo feria auolerte ogni cofa di nuono rcplicare.£ po del tnodo de metterie al qdcruo 
grandc no ne dico perdx fo tc fia facile cognofcedo gia tu in lo giomale ql ua dcbitoze eqf 
credito?e.ficf?c afettarale tu i dare c Ijaucre in quclmodo d?c difopH i quel!o tc ffegnai a 
ca?i f ?e dcpcnarale i gio2nflle como difli di fopja al ca? 1 2?poncdo fcp:e denan^c i marginc 
li nucndel drt>ito7cccredito2e:a q'tecarrilibaraipoftiariibro.ecoficomo tali mettial Iv* 
bx> grandc: cofi li afetta i alfabeto como di fopza piu fiade banento moftro 7c. 

be Tordine de le ptite de ctofaina fpefaicomo decafa 02dinanc:ftra02dinaric:c di mcr 
cantietfalarij dc garjjoni c fact02i como fabino a fcriuere:e dittarc ndli lib2i. ca?22. 

0ltra tUttc Ic core ditte t eouienc l?aucre i tutti toi lib2i qfte ptitccioc IpcfiiJ m'er 
atta fpcfidc cafa 02diarie fpcfc Ih-aordiarie vna de itrata e vfdta c vna dc P20 c 
dano uoi dire auan^' e difaua^i utile c dlf to guadagno e gdita d?c tato va 
le Ic qli pft'tc fono fumamctc neecflaric i ogni co2po mercatdco p potcre femp2C 

cognofcerc fuo capitale.c ala fine nd faldo como gctta el traftco qli 4 feqntc aballan/ 
^a dM'arircmo como fc debino guidare ndlilibji. Ondc qlla de fpefe mcrcatefcbe fi tenc 
p rifpccto d?c n61ep2e ognipelu^o fi po mettere fubito i la piita de la robba dx tuuendi o 
c6p2icomo acade cbe da poi piu di p qlla ticouerra pagarc facbini e pef3do2i e li£tado2i t 
barcaxbaftagi.cfimiliacbivnfoldo.acbi.i.'rc.deleqirroledoncfarepticularpnta fereb 
be logo e no merirano la fpcfa podx de mim'mia no curat pto: 7C.£ aco2a acade dx tu a* 
dop2arai qlli medcfimi baftagi.facbini.barca.c Ie^t02i i vn poto p piu diuerfe cofe como 
ittruenc.cfe i 5 \.mo fcarcado o carcado diuerfe f02te mcrclrie li a fattigarsi e tu li pagbi g 
tutte a vn tratto d?e no potrefti a ogni mercatia carattarc la fua fpefa.f 00 nafci qlla Qti/ 
ta d?iamata fpefe dc nicrcaria la ql fep2e fta acda i dare como tutte laltrc fpefi flno ©ala 
ri! ancoja de fmoii c gar^oni debotcga fi mcttano i qfte e alcuni ne fa ptita afo pofta p fa 
pcre i difri cbe Ipcdano lano 7c.c poi i qfta h faldanotcbc p niu mo nopoffano clferc crc/ 
ditnd:c f dp cofi le trouaflifcria crro2e nd lib20.£ pero i memo2iale ef dirai cofi. 

5n qaettp di babtan pagato abaftafi barcaroUligadort.pefado2i 7c.c5 carcaro c fcarca 
ro tdc tali c tali cofe 7c.dijc.t3nti 7C, 

:^ m 


The other well-known entry is the buying of anything in partnership {compra or compagnie — may 
also mean joint venture but not corporation) with other people, such as silks, spices, cotton, dyes, or 
money exchanges, etc. These accounts must all be entered in all three books separately from your own. 
In the first, that is, the memorandum book, after writing down the date at the top, you shall state in a 
simple way all the purchases with terms and conditions, referring to papers or other instruments that 
you might have made, stating for how long it was made and what were its objects, mentioning the em- 
ployes and apprentices that you should keep, etc., and the share, and how much each of you puts in 
the business, whether in goods or cash, etc., who are the debtors and who are the creditors. You should 
credit the partners (compratori) for the amount which each of them contributes, and you shall debit cash with 
the same if you keep the account with your own. But it is better for the business if you keep this cash 
account separate from your private one when you are the one at the head of the business, in which case 
you should have a separate set of books in the same order and way we have shown previously. This will 
facilitate things for you. However, you might keep all these accounts in your own personal books open- 
ing new accounts which, as we have said, are referred to as well-known accounts because they are kept sep- 
arate from all the others, and I will show here how to enter them in your Day Book and then in the Jour- 
nal and Ledger — ^but if you keep separate books, I will not give you any further instruction, because 
what I have said so far will be sufficient for you — you shall do as follows : On this day we have made a 
contract with so and so, and so and so, jointly, to buy {facto compra) wool, etc., under terms and condi- 
tions, etc., as appears from such and such paper or such and such instrument, for so many years, etc. So 
and so put in as his share, so much in cash ; the other put so many bales of French wool, weighing net so 
many pounds, etc., estimated at so many ducats per, etc. The third, so and so, put in so many credits, 
namely, one for so many ducats, etc. 

Then, in the Journal, putting everything in its own place, you shall imagine that you have a partner- 
ship 's cash (cassa de compagnia) and a partnership's capital (cavedale de compagnia) ; so that in each en- 
try you make, you shall always name the accounts of the partnership so that you can distinguish them from 
your own entries. First, you make the cash entry, and then follow it systematically by the other entries : 

Per Partnership cash // A such and such partner's account — so that if you have other accounts, you 
will not get confused — so and so put in on this day as his share according to our agreement as appears from 
the contract, etc. ; value : L , S , G. , P 

Then you shall mention the other things that they have contributed : 

Per French wool // A partner's account, for so many bales weighing in total, net, so many pounds, as 
examined by all of us, at so many ducats per bushel, according to the terms of the contract we have made, 
etc., worth in total so many ducats ; value : L , S , G , P 

And so on for the other different items, and as to the due bills which have been put in the Company, 
you shall state this way : 

Per Mr. So and So, Partnership 's account // A so and so, according to our agreement, which so and so 
transferred to the Partnership as a good due bill of so many ducats : L , S , G , P 

Now that I have given you a kind of introduction to these new entries, I won't go any further, as it 
would be a very tiresome thing to repeat all I have said. 

And I wiU not say anything as to the way in which to make these entries in the Ledger, as I know it will 
be easy for you to know what should be entered as debit and what as credit from the Journal. You shall 
enter them accordingly as I have told you at Chapter 15, and shall cancel these entries in the Journal as 
I told you at Chapter 12, always writing in the margin just opposite them the number of the debit and 
credit pages of the Ledger, and as you enter them in the Ledger you shall also enter them in the index, as 
I have told you repeatedly before. 



Besides the entries so far mentioned, you shall open these accounts in your books : that is, mercantile 
expenses, ordinary household expenses, extraordinary expenses, and account for what is cashed in (en- 
trata) and what is paid out (uscita) ; one for profits and loss {pro e danno — favor and damages) or {avan- 
zi e desavanzi — increase and deficit), or {utile e danno — profit and damage) or {guadagno e perdita — gain 
and loss), which accounts are very necessary at any time so that the merchant can always know what is 
his capital and at the end when he figures up the closing {soldo), how his business is going. 

I wUl show here clearly enough how these accounts should be kept in the books. The account named 
"small business expenses" is kept because we can not enter every little thing in the account of the mer- 
chandise that you sell or buy. For instance, it may happen that after a few days, for these goods that you 
sell or buy, you will have to pay the porter, the weigher, the packer, the shipper and the driver, and oth- 
ers, paying' to this one one penny, to the other one two pennies, etc. ; if you want to keep a separate ac- 
count for each of these different transactions, it would be too long and too expensive. As the proverb says: 

De minimis non curat Praetor (Officials do not bother with details). And it may be that you will have to em- 
ploy those same people — drivers, porters, shippers and packers — for different things, as, for instance, you may need 
them for loading the several merchandises in a seaport, and you will employ them and will have to pay them for all 
these services at one time, and you could not charge the several kinds of merchandise with its proportion of these ex- 
penses Therefore you open this account which is called "small business expenses," which is always used in the 
debit as are all the other expenses. You enter in this account the salaries of your store employes, although some keep 
a separate account of the salaries that they pay so that they know how much they pay for salaries every year, etc. 
This should also always appear as a debit. If the account should be in credit, this would show that there is a mistake. 
Therefore you shall say as follows in the memorandum book: 

On this day we have paid to drivers, shippers, packers, weighers, etc., who loaded and unloaded such and such 
goods, 80 many ducats, etc.; 


wVai cok ^Pcfio mcrcaria oi'c wrcaditarip caflfa 7C.val ft. S. P. S^. ^\^^F^Jt 


t>i quelle axl traficc no po far fcn^a 7c.e tal Brita ot fpcfi w /« 9'^r?i^ " *^^^^ 


poter poi alafine oe ranno a tqjop tpo fadlraentc fapcre quaw oe w^^^^ 


bvnooucf^cwitwcatmtrattoeweriiDa parte in vnofeclxtwcoiqu^^^^^^^ 

a menufo.i&erd?c no feria pommvm a vna oitali tcnffcom^mmmop^rhm 
mtiinmoMe. 1&errpcfiwcara.5cafraqU tram per fpcndcrcaiwnwo^^^^^ 
tomUamt7c.V3l%. 0. g? p. £poife-npareancaia con qucjcfpefioe cala meter 
ui fc fpcfi ftraojdinarie d?e non fa4:aro.c$mo quado fpendefle per andarcalol3i,i0.e^ rra 

fofTerd toltc o perdefle in marc o per fiiocWtccbe turn' fimilifrntcndano fpefe Itraojdina' 
rfc. Xe ouali ancoia fe Ic vdi tcncreoa partcftmilmeme lo poi' fare e niolri Iqlarto per f* 
per netfoafafin Dclanno quanto l>ano fpcfo oe ftraojdfnario per lequali anco fmiende oo 
ni e pzcfenriclMrtu facdTe adalcunoper alonta cagione t66 le quali fpefe non mi euro piu 
dtr^i flrendermc perod^e fo certo dx tu per re mcglio ozmai l>auendo amcDKJe cole dene 

w'liatice afetrarai'dje p2ima non barefti fectoficbc qucftciafciandowerao oel modo oa 
tare le pam'te ce vna botega fi net tuo'quadcmoc Iibaordinariitcomo fc tu U volelie tc 
iKftuoarecdmolarefhatenerecbcfiabdlacofaafaperefidJCOotale^ ^ 

2>e lozdmc e mo a fap tencr vn coto oe boreoar i tua maao adaltn recomadata c conio 
fe debino ndli Ubzi autenti'ci dd patrone tmOx in qudK oe botega fgjaraiameiite fcriiierc 
cdittare. ^P*'^5. 

^si 5co adonct quado iMiucflc vna botcga la ql teneflfefitHnita alagjojnata fo2 de 
^ I ca(l tua e fo?e dd tno co:po oi cafxaloja g bono ojdine tfrrat.qfto m6:cioe de 
^" ' tutte Ic robbe dx m iri mctterai adi'e 6i ferala ddrftri'a'ali toi libzU.credctna 

. .^Mf qifc tal robbe d^vi mmta rmf p vna cfa.tua imagiattoe cb qfta bote'.ua vna e 
fona.tua dcbitriddi qt tato dx U dai cp lei'fpcdi itutti li modt.£ cofTp lauerfo de tutto ql 
ro d5i«caui' e rec euifarala crcdftrid corno fe folTe vn 6bito:e cKn t^gaflfe aptc po| 

ogm' uoltft d)e m volf con lei cotare tu pojjai vedcrecomo dia tebutta^) bene o male 7C.£ 
coft" pdfapjai gllo arai* afare i f cb mo larai a goueniarc 7c,£ molttfono c& ali foi Iumi fa 
no debiKwe clpncfpale d?e1i atede a ditta boreg^bcdx 4ft<* no fi pofla dd^itamcnrc fc0 
voluta diql talc^ocB mai fideue mettere ne acoza de ra^io fi puopozje vn debitore allib? 
fca fua faputa ncacb credit02e co coditioi aleoe fe^a foa uoluta fe ql cofe faccdde m fere 
ftf niflcodx da bencj^ li toilibn fericno rcputati falfi.e cofi 6 le mafarie cb i qlla mctefie t 
ojdegni neceflarii al a ditta borcga fecodo fua occurf ^-auomo fe foflc fpcdaria tfconucrra 
foaiirla d uafi.caldicri.ramini.da lauo?are •rc.di qU' tutri farala dcbitrid oxolui cbe li aitc^ 
de corao dJtto.e p bello iuctario li leafegna fcripto o fua mao odaltri 6 fua uoluta 7c. ado 
de tuttofia be cbiaf oe qflo voglio fia baftate ^do la botcga baucfle confegnata a vnaltro 
eb p te la faceflfe o foflfc tuo comdfo Tcfl^ fc la dca boiegavp27ai tcnef a tuoi mai q fto 02 
die ftjarai c ftara benete metiamo S c6p:ie traficbimttop la ditta botega e no baui alt? 
maneggioalo2afo2maraililib:icommocdit£o.£ dicio d?e vendiccompzifarai aed\to^ 
ri d3t te da le robbe per tanto rcmpofe comp?i'a tempo e crcditrid la calTa fe comp2i" a cou' 
tantiedebitritila botega.£>quando tu venddfe a menutocioe d?6 non ariualTc a.40.6.du 
cati^caloM tutti ditd 6cmn rcpo22ai in vna canfetta.oufr falua denaro dode i capo 0.8u) 
I o^02ni line cauarai.e alo2afarae debftrici la cafTa c credctrtd la bo^di.ql ia[o:e i kt piita 
diraf p piu robbe ucdutcde^ qlt'gia bauerai tenuto el coto e mdtealt'dcofe in le qlt no mi 


then in the Journal you shall say as follows : 

Per small business expenses // A cash. Cash paid for boats, ropes, etc., for such and such goods in 
total, so many ducats ; value : L , S , G. , P 

In the Ledger, you shall state as follows : 

Small business expenses {dee dare — shall give) debit per cash on this day, etc., value; page, etc. 

L , S , G , P 

We can not do without the account of ordinary household expenses. By these expenses we mean ex- 
penses for grains, wine, wood, oil, salt, meat, shoes, hats, stockings, cloths, tips, expenses for tailors, bar- 
bers, bakers, cleaners, etc., kitchen utensils, vases, glasses, casks, etc. 

Many keep different accounts for all these different things, so that they can see at a glance how each 
account stands, and you may do so and open all these different accounts, and any accounts that you like, 
but I am talking to you about what the merchant can not do without. And you shall keep this account in 
the way I have told you to keep the small business expense account, and make each entry day by day as 
you have such expenses, as for grain, wine, wool, etc. Many open special accounts for these different things 
so that at the end of the year or at any time they may know how much they are paying out ; but for the 
small accounts, as meat, fish, boat fares, etc., you shall set aside in a little bag one or two ducats and make 
small paymente out of this amount. It wiU be impossible to keep an account of all these small things. 

In the Journal you shall state so : 

Per household expenses // A cash. Cash set aside in a little bag for small expenses, so many ducats, 
value: L , S , G , P 

If you wish, you can include in the household expenses the extraordinary expenses, as those that you 
make for amusements or that you lose in some game, or for things or money that you might lose, or that 
might be stolen or lost in a wreck or through fire, etc., for aU are classified as extraordinary expenses. If 
you want to keep a separate account for them, you may do so, as many do, in order to know at the end of 
the year how much you have expended for extraordinary expenses, under which title you should include 
also gifts and presents that you might make to any one for any reason. Of these expenses, I will not speak 
any longer, because I am sure that you, keeping in mind what we have said so far, will know how to man- 
age yourself. And leaving this subject, I will tell you of the way to open your store accounts in the Ledger 
and in the other books as if you wanted to conduct a store for your own account. I shall tell you that you 
must pay good attention, for it is a very nice thing for you to know. 



I say then that if you should have a store outside of your house (branch store) and not in the same 
building with your house, but which you have fully equipped, then for the sake of order you should keep the 
accounts in this way : You should charge it in your books with all the different things that you put into it, 
day by day, and should credit all the different merchandise that you put in it also each one by itself, and you 
must imagine that this store is just like a person who should be your debtor for all the things that you 
may give (dai) it or spend for it for any reason. And so on the contrary you shall credit it with all that 
you take out of it and receive from it (cavi e recevi) as if it were a debtor who would pay you gradually. 
Thus at any time that you so desire, you may see how the store is running — that is, at a profit or at a loss — 
so you win know what you wiU have to do and how you will have to manage it. There are many who in 
their books charge everything to the manager of the store. This, however, can not be done properly with- 
out the consent of that person, because you can never enter in your books as a debtor any person without 
his knowing it, nor put him as a creditor under certain conditions without his consent. If you should do 
these things, it would not be right and your books would be considered wrong. 

As to aU the fixtures which you might put in said store necessary to the running of it according 
to the circumstances — if you had for instance a drug-store, you would have to furnish it with vases, boiling 
pots, copper utensils, with which to work — you shall charge your store with all this furniture. So all of 
these things you shaU charge, and he who is at the head of the store shall make a proper inventory of all 
these things in his own handwriting or in the handwriting of somebody else, at his pleasure, so that every- 
thing should be clear. And this will be sufficient for a store whose management you may have turned over 
to somebody or to some of your employes. But if you want to run the store yourself, you shall do as I 
will tell you and it will be all right. Let us suppose that you buy and do all of your business through the 
said store and do not have to take care of any other business, then you shall keep the books as I have said 
before, whether you buy or sell. You shall credit all those that sell goods to you on time, if you buy on 
time, or credit cash if you buy for cash, and charge the store ; and if you should sell at retail, as when the 
sale should not amount to four or six ducats, and so on, then you shall keep all these moneys in a small 
drawer or box from which you shall take it after eight or ten days, and then you shall charge this amount 
to cash and shall credit the store ; and you shall make this entry as follows : 

Per various merchandise sold — for which you shall have kept an account— and so on. I shall not talk 
at length about this because 


&i(iinctionomZnctitaQ-xi*.Bc(mpmri9 ^o^ 

uoglio troppo DiftcnderC;B dxfocomo wfop:a oiffofamaejbabido Dcoozinai'fepjai' pcrre 
itcdcrlc cociofia cl?c con non fono alrro cl>c i?n oebi'to a»diiie o j la fatipfia cl>e ft fa el iner' 
catantcpcrd qualumTo^incferuacopuencalaiunna t^etuccefucfaccclce ccgnofd facile' 
mere ^ qUo fe le rue cofe uano bene o male.p clx el p;o jcrbio oici d:>i fa mercacia c no la co- 
anofca li foi oenart ooiieian mofca 7ce fecodo le otxurrcnve li fa reniedio, j^ pcro piu e mi 
CO It fipo fanprc agiongcre in numero e i multitudme oe Qmc.£ Qoocqilo tacotcta. 

£6njo fc babinoaleitare nel giojnale e quadeniolepdrateDc Ubacbi oc rcritta:cqlf fei 
redino e ooue iie fta:o oe cabncu c6 lo;o ftandomcrcatarcc ru c6 aim qpdo fofle baci^ieri: 
e oe Ic quie ra(e d?e g li cabi fe fano.e q cbe fenc facia ooi oe medefirno ccnox a , 2 4 
£>ra per li bancbt de fcripra d quali fe iie rroua ogsi dt miwciu \ bruggia fauer 
fa ebari^eloa ecern altnluogbifamorie rrafudtiacouiefag^o Io?o iibzi fcotra' 
re £0 gradilTima oiligetia.'jg peroe da nocar c\k c6 lobaiicbo te pot comunani^ 
re iinpaaare Oa re ponedoui oenan per piu rua f(gure(('<^a:o uero ^ inodo of dX' 
pot ito a la gio7iiata porer con quelfi far ctioi paganieiiti cbijri apiero gioani e martino per 
dTC la oitta ocl baitd^o e coinme publico iilrumcto oc tiocaro g dx fon per liDOminij aid 
gurationdc ponedoui ru dj re.D.farai oebtrox Dirco bandx) noiuinaudo patronio.uero 
(opagni od bad^o e crtditrki la rua caifa c<A\ oicedo i gt02nale i^er barid?o rx Ii pama^ 
ni: B cafTa per coranri li inifi co o alrri cbe per 1 ue foile in queilooi dc mio conco fra 
oroemoncra 7C.i rutrot)ucah7C.Ual.S-^.g.p.;£ faratefsreoal bmchkri ooi uertilfuno 
foglio Q piu caucela.i6 cofi giongedoglme ru ala giojuara farai el ninile;cauandone tn lui 
re fara icriuenc a K el receuereie cofi (e cofe fi uengano feinpze a.niaiener cbiarc: Uero e cbe 
aleuolre tal fcn'rrc no fi coHumano g cbe como e ditco li libri idpand^o femp;e fono pubU 
cbie aureitticMona pur e buonola caurda q cbe como 01 lop^a footrco al mercance ie cofe 
mat fo?6,n-oppo cbi^re.ip^a (eru uolelk cat gnra renerla con liparronito uero copagni dd 
bancbo anco?a lo poi fare cbe tanto uale po dx noiaiido cu d baclx> a modo vi\'op23 linre 
dc liparroi e cop'-de qudloiper li parrom oirelli cofi. pzr nnfer 6irolimo lipamani dal 
bancbo ecopagni ^do folTero piu.B calfa uc fupza fcquita rurro. £ kmp:c farat ndiruoi U^ 
bn mcncione oe le cbiare^'e:parri:e coditioni dTC fra uoi njrcelTero como oe fcripii de ma: c 
ddfuogo Doueli reponi ifiH'a:fcarola:tafcba:o catTa ado polTifacil mete retrouarle:pod^ 
CO bona oiligcva fimili fcripture fi oebono feruare. ad gpemam rei memo:i3:g li gicoli oc 
co:rano 7c £.j^dx aleuolre id lo bad^ieri po2reih baueiui piu faccde e mancgqi t merca 
tia ^ ire o per alrri c6mo comeflb 7c.^o femp.'C cii lui ti couie rencr coti diucrfi p non itriga 
re lance co rond?onicbe nafcieriagra confiilTIoneie oire I le cuegrire g coro de la tal cofa:o 
p coro dd tal p ragio de mcrcanria og ragion de comanii oepofitaii i tuo nomc daln-i 
como e 6rto:lc quali cok fo p ruo igegnoozraai reggcrai7c.£l'imilinrc te reggerat faith' te 
dcondalTe da tepcbe coro fi uolelTe:faralo Debico2e altuo libro p ql tal cdro:cioe 6 pagame 
to noiando p pre p rdlo7c.e ql tale fijr^i credito2e p lo medefimo coto c ftara bene.£ qp 
do tu de dcd bancbo cauaiTe.D.t cotan p paga meti coe adaltri faceile p pte rello uero 
prcmettcrfldakrii altripacfi tc.alo2a faraicl cotrario dcql cbe fino2ae dc6:cioc fe cau< 
cotanti farai debirrto la rua calTa:e crediro2e d bandpo iier parrot di quel tanco dx ne ca 
uafli.£ feru lifcriuefle3daltnfaraidebiro2e^ltaleecrcdito2€dertobancboopatr6idi ql 
tanto noiando dpdje oicedo igioznale pit cotanti cofi. i&ercalTa albancboouer mi- 
fer girolimo li pamani p conranti i tal di.o i qfto di nc trafli a mio bifogno 7c.i tufto.ouc. 
rati -rc'.ual. S-I'g.p. £ fe adaltrili fcriuelTe vtpura amarrio oi ffttcofi. ^er mart'dd ta 
le. B\ ditto ut fup23 per duc.tati 7c.lifcn(Ti p pre prefto abocotoo.p iimdo it i qfto 
oi.u3l. S .f .g.p.£ cofi Icuado oitie pritte 6l gio2nale fcpre a fuo luogo i qderno afertarale:e 
I alfabeto comodi di(bp2a dati c depcnandole como to molh^o in memo2i3lc c gio2nale.p.e 
mancbo per te fteflb jrfogncdoli parollc.po cbe non e pofTibile cj de ttuttoa pieno narrarc 
fi d?e conuic dal tuo cato fia uigilate 7C. £1 medefimo mo te couerra obferuarc p remctre 
re li cabi altroue.come lon':brugia:ro':lid 7U per rirrar daltro 7C.nomin3ndo Uc rcrmi' 
ni 7C.0 ala uifia aladata al fuo piacerdcomo fc coftuma faccdo metloe oe p^2^e.;'. 7C. 
flcio non nafca crrrore fra te d ruo refpondcnre c oe le monere cbe tu traie nmetti c le lor 
ualutc c ^uifioi e fpefr ram c irereflli d>e co li p20tdh podcrcbono nafcere d?c di curro 
fi uol far merioe d p c\x c c6mc.£ come mcflb dx ru babi afare con badjorcofi uerfa nice 
predife folic ru d band?icn mutane mutandis d?eqtjandopag}?ifadcbirorcqud taleela 
tua cafla creditnd e fd tuo crcdiro2c fcnj^acauarcdadaltri li fcriudtc dirai nd tuo gio2ni 


I have given you sufficient explanation previously and you know how to go ahead by this time. For ac- 
counts are nothing else than the expression in writing of the arrangement of his affairs, which the mer- 
chant keeps in his mind, and if he follow this system always he will know all about his business and will 
know exactly whether his business goes well or not. Therefore the proverb : If you are in business and do 
not know all about it, your money will go like flies — That is, you wiU lose it. And according to the cir- 
cumstances you can remedy what is to be remedied; for instance, if necessary, you might open other ac- 
counts. And this will be sufficient for you. 



In respect to banks, which you can find nowadays in Venice, in. Bruges, in Antwerp, Barcelona, and 
other places well known to the commercial world, you must keep your accounts with them with the great- 
est diligence. 

You can generally establish connections with a bank. For instance, you may leave your money with 
the bank as a place of greater safety, or you may keep your money in the bank as a deposit in order to 
make therefrom your daily payments to Peter, John and Martin, for a bank draft is like a public notarial 
instrument, because they are controlled by the state. 

If you put money in the bank, then you shall charge the bank or the owner or partners of the bank and 
shall credit your cash and make the entries in the Journal as follows: 

For Bank of Lipamani // A cash. Cash deposited with so and so by me, or others, for my account, on 
this day counting gold and other money, etc., in aU so many ducats ; value : 

L , S , G , P 

And you will have the banker give you some kind of a written record for your surety; if you make 
other deposits you shall do the same. In case you should withdraw money, the banker shall have you write 
a receipt; in this way, things will be kept always clear. 

It is true that at times this kind of receipt is not given, because, as we said, the books of the bank are 
always public and authentic ; but it is better to require this writing, because, as I have told you, things 
can't be too clear for the merchant. 

If you want to keep this account in the name of the owners or partners of the bank, you may do so, 
as it is the same thing, because, if you open the account under the name of the bank, by the bank you 
mean the owners or the partners. If you keep it under the name of the owners, you shall say this way : 

Per Mr. Girolimo Lipamani, banker, and associates — if there are many — // A cash — and here you 
write as above. In your books you shall always mention all agreements, terms, conditions that there might 
be ; also instruments of writing and places where you keep them, whether file box, pouch or trunk, so that 
you may easily find them, as these papers should be diligently kept for an everlasting memorial of the trans- 
action {ad perpetuam memoriam) on account of dangers. 

As you may have several different business relations with the bankers for yourself, or for others, you 
must keep various accounts with them so that you won't mis one thing with another, and avoid confusion, 
and in your entries you shall say : On account of such and such thing, or on account of so and so, or on 
account of goods, or on account of cash deposited in your name or in the name of others, as we have said. 
You will know yourself how to make these entries. In the same way you will proceed in case others should 
turn money over to you for some account ; you shall charge that account in your book — that is, you shall 
charge the bank, stating whether it was in part payment or in full, etc., and you shall credit the person 
that gave you the money. This wiU be all right. 

When you should withdraw money from a bank either to pay somebody else as part payment or pay- 
ment in full, or to make a remittance to parties in other countries, you shall do in this case just the oppo- 
site of what we just said — that is, if you withdraw money you shall charge your cash and credit the bank 
or owners of the bank for the amount withdrawn ; and if you should give an order on the bank for some- 
body else, you shaU charge this party and credit the bank or owners of the bank for that much, stating the 
reasons. You shall enter the cash item in your Journal as foUows: 

Per cash // A bank, or Mr. Girolimo Lipamani, for cash which on this day or on such and such 
day I withdrew for my need, in all so many ducats, value : L , S , G , P 

And if you should issue an order in favor of Mr. Martino, for instance, you shall say thus : 

Per Martino on such and such a day // A ditto for ditto for cash, etc., for so many ducats, for which 
T gave an order, in part payment or in full payment, or for a loan, etc., on this day ; value : 

L , S , G , P 

Every time you transfer these entries from the Journal into the Ledger, you shall also record them In the Index 
and cancel them, as I have shown you, adding more or less words according to the facts in the case. 

You must do the same in case you want to send drafts elsewhere, as to London, Bruges, Rome, Lyons, etc. You 
shall mention in the letter the terms, conditions, etc., whether these drafts are at sight or at a certain date or at 
pleasure of the payor, as it is customary, mentioning also whether it is a first, second, third draft, etc., so that no mis- 
understanding can occur between you and your correspondent, mentioning also the kind of money in which you draw 
or transmit, their value, the commission, the costs and interest that might follow a protest — in a word, everything must 
be mentioned, why and how. 

I have told you how you have to proceed in dealing with a bank. If on the contrary you are the banker you have 
to do in the opposite way (mutatis mutandis) ; when you pay you charge the man to whom you pay and credit cash. 
If one of your creditors, without withdrawing money, should Issue a draft to somebody else, you shall say in the journal 


©iflincHo nona tractme^ld^Bc fcriphirfd 

rquaSa la Ix)nefta ^iTioe ncl cambio cflcrcfcpjc Itota #do mai nojii cozriffi: Bico- 
lode iJiagato a(n-crcmcireinmanooeKr(epfonc7c.c6monciricambircaU inqftp a fuo 
tt tcjnarc foali PviUcc o altri fcn'pti" (f?c di tua mano bauefle ddcqliquando nc fai fepjc fan 
«e mo libzo niciwoe aci'o k rcco?dia fardc toziiarc c ftraijarlitaci'o no ucniffe a tcpo co 
m aim adomandartccfattcfarcfBp:ebonequi'ctamcc6moco(tomanofaitdnatt^^^ al 
C3bio'.Do d3C Infanta ccf?c fc m viciiuvcrbigfada gincucra con vm dicabiotj m vi .a miP 
mo due. I oo.p altrc tanri cl?f dila IwucfTc ndc man de cbi li fcn'uc co fcgnanraloza el ditto 
inifL6»ouanicc6p*.acceptado la lfa:efb02fciadotcdim'.d.refarafcriBereOtua mano doitjc 
lancc de vn mcdcfimo tcno?e:c (e m no fapcirc fcriuere le far vn tcr^o pte o ?^o hotaro: 
no ffl CO tentara duna D cbc tuna couic cl?e riinandi a ql bancF?tcri a gincucraicbeli rcrmc 

W lui nc vc mw cnouani po a?c le ni lo rent w u iiiwi u ai w wiw quKiuiivi v» ♦"«, "'?"^ "■ ','■ 
tnarcfti confufo'fi cbc turte qftc cofc (bnnocautck c\h ficonucnganooe neccmta fare g la 
poca fede (i troua oggi z>\ be\ quale atto nc nafcano ooi' prite ! lo qderno loro- vna in ql ©i* 
mef giouani far cdo 6bito:e ql cbe liTcriueg vigo2e re la oicabfotelaltra i qlw oel rcfpodc/ 
te a gmeuera faced© crcditwc mfP giouani w quclli ouci ocper virtu oe oitta tua qui'daja 
reccuuta.c quefto e el oebico modo e ozdi'ne oc cambiatoa' g tutto el modo: ado le loz cofc 
vaduio CO cl^iarcfterfi cbe dal tuo lato alquato affarigandoie pozrai ogni cofa con fumnia 
diligen^a afcttarc-rc. 

Of unaltra partita cbc ale uolte fc colluma ncl qderno tenerc oetta cntrata c ufcita c ale 
polte fcncfa libro particulare:e perdue. ca.2f. 

MjR^mi 0nno alcuni cbe ne lo; tibn' ufano tencre vm ^n'ta retta cntrata e tfctta i la ql 
^^^ pogano cofc flrao;di'nane o alnt como ala. fantali'a pare, illcri he cirra una D 
^^^ ipefe ftraozdmarie e I fimili mcttano como f qlla ointrata Ifi'ta pfcti dx li folTer 
fattt.?&.gfa.e codfcdo cbe riceuano e dano e tegano cotoi dare e bauere e poia 

la fine co laltre le faldano i ^ e dano e caucdale como itenderai nel bilando '2'c.£)^ f uero 
qlla oetta oi fopja rpcte di cafa |g tnttc e baftate fe no cbi uolclTc per fua curiofita tener con< 
CO da p fefin a vn potale de llrega cItc lo pozria fare ma acl? finetego fi z9?a a le cofc co bjt 
uita aiettarfe.illtri luogbi cofluma dc Utrata eufcita tenef m litoo a fua polla:epoi quello 
faldanc) a tcpo oel bilado nel vltimo autetico ifiemi c6 k altre faccde:laql cofa non eoabiaf 
mare au^ga fia de piu fatiga. 

£omo fe babino afettare neli lib:i le ^tite De li uiaggi t fua mano:e quelle oe Ih^iagdi w 
comandarite commo di neceflita oe tali nafcono doi quadcmi ca.26. 

[5 uiaggi fi coftumano fare i ooi modi.cioe i fua mano e recomandato.'vnde na- 
fcano diuerfi modi i tcner lo? coti po cbc Icpjc (T pjofupogano libzi ooppJro fia 
f tua mano fia recomandato ii5>crcl?e liiqderno rcfta icafa e laltroticouc fare 
J i uiaggio.vnde fcl ditto viagio fia i tua mano p b6 ojdfe deciocbe tu pozti fo?ma 
tuojuctario qdernertotgioznaletto tctutto como di fopza fc ©cttote uededo copzado ba/ 
ratado Tc.?5e tuttofa debitori e crcd(t02i gfonetrobbe: caflfflrcauedlaltoc uiagcjiore ^ e can 
no de uiaggio tec qfto c lo piu fcbictto e oica cB fi uoglia aim'. Hucga cB poVefti tcner co 
to CO la cafa data^l tu togli la faculta cl?e al ditto uiaggio pozti faccdola nel libzctto oel tno 
uiaggio crcdtWd:e le robbc sjcbitrici a una b v':e cofi fojmarcfti rua c^ t tuo caucdale ic. 
ozdcnatamcte como ncl tno famofo.£ to:nado aTaJuamcto redarelb" alacafa altre robbe ali 
contro.o ucro.d.e co Ici faldarcfl-i coto e lutile oano fecjto afettarerti a fuo luc^o nel qua 
derno grade.fic(?c aqfto modo ancoja Ic me facedc4icrcbono cbiare.fli?>a fcl viaagi'o reco' 
madaffe adaltriialoja farefti de tUtto ncl tuo (ibro d cbitorc ql talc ad?i larecomadi oicedo 
per uiaggio rccoma dato al talc Tce co lui terrefti conto come fe fofle vn tuo auctorc oe tut 
te robbctc 6.a otita per partita 7c.£ lui dal cato fuo fojmara fuo qdcrnettotc iqllo te con/ 
ucrra fare creditor* de tnito.£ retomado fatdara contcco.£ fcl tuo comeiTo folic i Ic bade 


as _ follows : Per that special creditor of yours // A the man to whom the money was assigned. In 
this way you just make the transfer from one creditor to another and you still remain as debtor and 
act as a go-between, as witness or agent of the two parties. For ink, paper, rent, trouble and time you 
get a commission, which is always lawful, even though through a draft there is no risk of travel, or 
the risk when money should be transferred to third parties, etc., as in actual exchanges, of which we 
have spoken in its place. If you are a banker, whenever you close an account with your creditors 
always remember to get back all the papers, documents or other writings in your own handwriting that 
they might have. When you issue any such paper always mention it in your books so that when the 
time comes you will remember to ask for them and to destroy them so that nobody else should appear 
with these papers and ask money for the second time. You must always require good receipts as those 
do who are accustomed to this kind of business. For the custom is this: If you, for instance, come 
from Geneva to Venice with a draft on Messrs. Giovanni Frescobaldi & Co., of Florence, which draft might 
be at sight or on a certain date or at your pleasure, and the amount were for a hundred ducats, that is, for 
as many ducats as you have paid to the drawer of the draft, then the said Messrs. Giovanni & Co., when they 
honor the draft and give you the cash will require you to give two receipts written in your own hand- 
writing, and if you should not know how to write, a third party or a notary public will make them out. 
He will not be satisfied with one because he has to send one to the banker at Geneva, who wrote him to 
pay the hundred ducats to you for his account just to show that he honored his request, and for this 
purpose he will send to the other banker a letter enclosing your receipt written in your handwriting. 
The other receipt he will keep for himself on file so that in balancing with the other banker, the banker 
could not deny the transaction, and if you should go to Geneva you could not complain of him or of 
Mr. Giovanni for if you should complain he would show you your receipt written by yourself and you 
would not play a beautiful part in it. All these precautions ought to be taken by necessity on account 
of the bad faith of the present times. Out of these transactions two entries ought to be made in the 
Ledger, one entry in the account with Mr. Giovanni, in which you shall charge the drawer of the draft, 
{letter de cambio) the other entry in the account of your correspondent at Geneva, crediting Mr. Giovanni 
with that hundred ducats paid through a draft. This is the method that the bankers of aU the world keep so 
that their transaction may appear clear ; therefore you will have to take some trouble on your part and 
try to enter everything in its own place with great care. 



There are some who, in their books, are accustomed to keep an account called Income and Ex- 
penses (Entrata e uscita), in which they enter extraordinary things, or any other thing that they deem 
proper ; others keep an account called extraordinary expenses and in it they record gifts, which they 
receive or give. They keep it as a credit and debit account, and then at the end of the year they ascertain 
the remainder (resto) which is either a profit or a loss and transfer it to capital as you will understand when 
we talk about the balance. But reaUy the account we have called "household expenses" is sufficient for 
all this unless someone should like to keep a separate account for his own curiosity, but it would be of 
no great value because things should be arranged as briefly as possible. In other places it is customary 
to keep the income and expense account in a separate book which is balanced when they balance the 
authenticated books and all other affairs. This custom is not to be criticized but it requires more work. 



Trips are made usually in two ways, either personally or through somebody else ; therefore two are 
the ways to keep their accounts and the book always ought to be in duplicate whether the trip is made 
by you personally or it is in charge of somebody else. One ledger is kept at home and the other one is 
taken along and kept on the trip. If you conduct the trip yourself, for the sake of order and system, 
you must take a new inventory also a small Ledger and small Journal among the things you take with 
you and follow the instruction above given. If you sell or buy or exchange, you must charge and credit 
according to the facts, persons, goods, cash, traveling capital, traveling profit and loss, etc. This is the 
best way, no matter what other people may say. You might keep an account with the mercantile 
house which furnishes you with the goods which you take on the trip. In this case you shall credit the 
said house in your little Ledger and charge the different goods one by one. In this way you would 
open your mercantile house accounts, capital account, etc., as in your main books, and coming back safe 
and sound you would return to the mercantile house either other goods in exchange for those that you 
took or money, and you would close the accounts with the entering in your big Ledger the respective 
profit or loss item. In this way your business will be clear. If, however, you entrust the trip to some 
other party, then you should charge this party with all the goods that you entrust with him, saying : 
Per trip entrusted to so and so, etc., and you should keep an account with him, as if he were one of 
your customers, for all goods and moneys, keeping separate accounts, etc., and he on his part will set 
up a little Ledger in which he makes you creditor for everything. When he comes back he will balance 
with you ; and if your traveling salesman were in fetters (sentence remains unfinished in the original) 


BKHndo nona.&actatug. n*.©f rcriptaria =07 

be I'.pritflfamofa carta ^coanoorcroaoanifieocfautn^udf lafabto.atcnm Pd^dcr 
tit>.e pcbc cHa n5 ft nictra nd ^02nalc commc Ic alrre pritc £«ip°. 17 

f p^;^ 1 ^4^^ Doppoogmal[t'pri^l^d>l'an1at3oe^col^oovoio^rcwTecoa^ofc4ro• 
vcro auan^' c Defaua*,! f o alcao padc ilaqlc tuttc lalt'.oci tuo qder? tep U Im 
no a faldare coe nd bilado fc diVa.^ qfta no bifogna fimctra i gioinalc. n»a'ba 
fta folo nd qdcr° gcK lanafd i qllo dkcofc aua^atc rcro macatc i dare c fjcrc 
P laqle ©frai 4? c oanno ote oarc. £ ^c oano oic bcrcdoe q^do oalda robbaf bauefle pdu 
to.lflcni ptiVpi'u nd tao qdcmo rdlalTe i oare c5 i Ixrc.alow aiutarai d fuo bcrc p pegiar 
la al oarc ado k faldf. w ql tanto dx U inancflltc.oiccdo. e me I>erc^ .p c oino ql £| mctto 
pTaldo DC qfta.pwnno k^to tc.e fcgnarai Iccaiti dl «p c danno ndtra: fijdja l3pri^£ at 
^ c oaoo ^ndarai T oarcijfccdo 4) c oano oi'e oarc a 01 7C.p (acal robte.p oanno (ecjto tan 
to 7c.pollo r ql(a.aldie Ixit p fuo faldd ape acaiti' 7C.£ k la foflc piu i l^ere Ditta robba cb 
i dare.alo:a farcfh plo adueno..£ coft' andarai faccdo a 1 '.p i ".dc tuttc rd)bc finite. ma 
Ic bil S aim andate ado fcp:e.dtuo qdcmo fcritroui paro oc pti'.docc5 tantc fenc tro 
111' I oarc qfic i berc.pcl& colt fedcuc ritrouarc a ftar bfi 0c (c vtra nd bflando. £ ccfi iuccin 
ta mere vcdarai fe guadagm j^o pdi e crto.£ qfta ptfta. poi anco3a (ci (i coucrra faldare 
{ qlla od caucdalclaqle e vim vc tunHi qdcrnie p cofcqiitcrcccptaculo 6 tuttc kalf. coe 
itcdcrai 7C. £oniiiic fe ocbmo rcpo:tare innan^c Ic ptftc 61 quadcrtio.qiiTodero pic 
nc c in cbc luoco fabt'^ po2tarc d rdto.a do no fta pfa nialin'a nd quadcrna. £ap°. 2 g. 
fi1co2acw»notarecpdo I'.pritaepiena.o i oarc of l?ered7e no uifi'nipo metter 
piu b ifogna po^tarla inn3^c imediate a turtc Uli'.no lafdado fpado nd qdcmo 
f ra d oitto rcpono.e l3lt*.pn*4:B fe rcpotaria fraudc nd lib? £ deucfc rcpojtarc 
i qfto inodo.coc Oifop*.oiclnio d faldaric i p c oano.cofi ndi repoznitoj nicde 
Time couicfc obf uazc i oarc c i bcre (ep nicttezic in ^ojnalc pcft U rcpozti no bifogna poncr 
U I ^oznalc bed? fi pontbbe 9cb( voldl^ c vcrria a rcfpodcrc anco: no fa Wfos'.pc& 
fe iTcn'a qlla fanca.piu fc(a frutto.fidx bifogna aiutar la minor ^'.doc fdcpiu in dare c&l 
bcrc oirta pti*.of ql tantoaiuta d fuo b&c 7c.£ p cr'.cbiaro tcncmcttarotS > '• c mcttiamo 
dx iBartino l?abia fatto co teco coto logo oe piu pti'.rniodo.cbe tafua porta fia.oarepo? • 
tarccfia nd tuo qdcr^.a cdrti.5o.e lulti*.ptir'.oe tutto d qder"/)^ a c3rti.6o.i ^"ima.c ala mc 
ddi'ma fa^iata fia luogo oapotcraiartcoza locarc qlla oe £K>nri".£ fiatc 6Wto d ofiro %. 80 
f I ^.g. I S^.2 4'Odiqli in tutto te nabia oato*^ yi.f 9.g.;.p.i y.oico cbc batta d fuo berc df 
fuobarcdoe. 72«9'%«7'rcfta.S: 8l'6g.5'P7.£ oetantoloocuiponari^cbitorc auann.£ 
DC qllo mcddimooeuiaiutarc laprira in bcrce oiraicofi.aoi.7c.p lui mcdcoql po:ro auan 
n in qlVo aloia oarc p rcfto ql pogo 4 p faldo.S: 8 f 6 g 5" p 7. Vfll a carciio.s f g.p.£l5pcnc 
rai lapti*. in oarc c in l?ere co i Minca oi*amctraliter.£ fatto qfto andarai a cam' wf 
£po:rai oitto rcfto ponedo fcp2C oifop'.p'.feno ci foflc d Ob" cot oinan^e fo mto.Bvif 
rai cofi. fl^ariino oie oare a oi 7c.p lui medcmo p rerto t?arto oa 02!cto in qfto pdb aldie 
bcrc p fflldo 6 qlla.val acarri.?o,s 8 f 6 g j p 7.£ qfto mcdcfi? modo obfuarai in tuncpci* 
dH iTaudTc a rcpo2tare auand incatenandole al modo oitto e f e^a intcruallo alciio.po S fe 
pzc le ptit'.fi vogliano poncre c6c nafcano t loogo.fito.Di.c milcfi? ado nifu te pofli calu 
niare.7C. bd modo a faperc mutare d mdefimo nd quaderno fra le pam'te cbc ala (o? 
w ata acafo ano.quandocgnianndndn fifaldafifi titoi. £apitolo. 29. 

©rria cfPaleuoltc cbc ndc mcptitc in quaderno. tu1?ancffii a mutar milcfi? £ 
notbaucflfe faldato-alo^a oitto imfcfi'.ocui poncre in marginc ari|.>erto oitta ptt 
t& S cofi e nata.c6e fo octto fop?a incap.i 5^? £ tuttc laltrc dx la fc(jteranno fc 
inccderanno al oitto mile? £Ba fcpjc e buono ocfaldare ognanno.maicimc dM 
e in cap'.pd?ed <puerbio oid ragion fpdia amifta loga.£ cofi farai a tuttc fimili. 

£ommefe ocbia leuarc vn conro al ocbitoze d?clo oomandal^x anco2a al iuo paffoc 
fiando fato?c e commdfo oc tutta la aminiftrationc oe Ic robbf £apitolo. 50.. 

5fogna olira lioarioocumeti.fapc leuarc vncord al tuo debitozcc^ te lodomi 
dalTc. £lqlc no fi po de ragi'on ncgarc.pfnm $do co teco l?aucfle tenuto conto 
logo, de piu anni e mcfi 7c.aloM farate da pzin? S infiemi baudlc afarc.o da a! 
tro tcrminc cb lui d voldfe #00 fra xoi foflero ftari aim faldi da ql tpd cftlovo 
Icpcrvna vdta i?olcnticrililekua.£detutto farai vna partita in vnfoglio dx uicapa. 
£ q'do in.1 *. fada non capiflc faldarai rano qudlo dx li Iwucrai polio, e po?rcrai d rcfto 
oalaltro lato dd foglio in dare.ovcro l?auere commo nd capifolo.2 g". fo dctto.£ va con - 
tiHiiaiido.£alultiino.rcduno in redo netto ouna fola partita in dare, obaucr fccondo 
dK lanafccra. £ querti tali contt fi uogliano leuarc con grandifBma diligentia. 




After the other accounts, there must follow one which is named variously, according to different localities. Favor 
and Damage (Pro o Danwo), or Profit and Damage {Utile a Danno) , or Increase and Deficit (.Avanzi e Desavanzi). 
Into this other accounts in the Ledger have their remainders, as we will show when we speak of the trial balance. 
You should not put these entries in the Journal, but only in the Ledger, as they originate from overs or shorts In the 
debits and credits, and not from actual transactions. You shall open the account this way: 

Profit and Loss debit (dee dare — shall give), and Profit and Loss credit (dee havere — shall have). 

That is, if you had sustained a loss in a special line of merchandise and In this account in your Ledger would 
show less in the credit than the debit, then you will add the difference (soldo) to the credit so as to make it balance, 
and you shall enter as follows: 

Credit (dee havere — shall have), per Profit and Loss, so much, which I enter here in order to balance on account 
of loss sustained — and so on, and you will mark the page of the Profit and Loss account where you write down the 
entry. Then you go to the Profit and Loss account and In the debit column you shall enter as follows: 

Profit and Loss debit (dee dare — shall give), on this day, to such and such loss sustained, so much — which has 
been entered in the credit of said merchandise account in order to balance it at page so and so. If the account of this 
special merchandise would show a profit instead of loss — that Is, more In the credit than in the debit — then you will 
proceed In the opposite way. The same you shall do one by one for all accounts with merchandise or different things, 
whether they show good or bad results, so that your Ledger always shows the accounts in balance — that is, as much 
In the debit as in the credit. This is the condition the Ledger will be in if it is correct, as I will explain to you when 
I am talking of the balance. In this way you will see at a glance whether you are gaining or losing, and how much. 
And this account must then be transferred for its closing (saldo) into the capital account, which Is always the last 
in all the ledgers and is consequently the receptacle of all other accounts, as you will understand. 



You should know that when an account has been filled out, either in the debit or in the credit, and you cannot 
make any more entries In the space reserved for such an account, you must at once carry this account forward to a 
page after all your other accounts, so that there Is no space left in the Ledger between this transferred account and 
the last of the other accounts. Otherwise it would be considered a fraud. It must be carried forward in the manner 
which we have given above when writing about the balancing of profit and loss. In making the transfers, you should 
make entries on the debit and credit sides only, without making any entry In the Journal. Transfers are not made In 
the Journal; still, if you so desired, you might do that and it would be all right; but it is not necessary, because it 
would be that much more trouble without any necessity. All that need be done Is to increase the smaller quantity — 
that is, if the account shows more in the debit than in the credit, you ought to add the difference to the credit. I will 
give you, now, an example of one of these transfers: 

Let us suppose that Martino has had a long account with you of several transactions, so that his account should 
be transferred from ledger page 30. Suppose further that the last account of your book is at page 60, and Is at the 
top of said page, so that on the same page there is space enough to transfer the Martino account. Suppose that there 
Is on debit side, L 80, S 15, G 15, P 24; and the credit shows that he has given you, L 72, S 9, G 3, P 17. Deducting 
the credit from the debit, there is a remainder (resta) of: L 8, S 6, G 5, P 7. This is the amount that you should 
bring forward to the debit side of the new page, and on the old page you must add the same amount In the credit 
column to make it balance, saying as follows: 

On such and such day, etc., per himself, I bring forward (porta avanti) this amount to the debit side as a re- 
mainder (resta), and the same amount I enter here per closing (saldo), that is: L 8, S 6, G 5, P 7. see at page 60: 

L , S , G , P 

And you shall cancel the account both on the debit and credit side with a diagonal line. After that, you will 
go to page 60 and shall enter in the debit column the said remainder, always writing down at the top of the page the 
year, if none already has been mentioned, as has been said above. You shall enter there as follows: 

Martino debit on such and such day per himself, as per remainder (resta) taken from the page of his old ac- 
count and therein entered per closing (saldo), see page 30: L8, S6, G5, P7. 

This is the way for you to proceed with all occounts that you should transfer: Place them, as I have told you, 
without leaving any space in between. The accounts should be opened in the order In which they originate In such 
place and at such time, so that nobody can speak evil of you. 



It might be that you must change the year in your ledger accounts before you balance it. In this case, you 
should write the year in the margin before the first entry of the new year, as has been previously said at Chapter 
15- all the following entries should be understood as having occurred during that year. 

But it is always good to close the books each year, especially If you are In partnership with others. The proverb 
says: Frequent accounting makes for long friendship. Thus you will do In similar cases. 



In addition you must know how to make an abstract or a statement of an account if your debtor requests It. 
This is a favor that cannot be refused, especially if your debtor has had an account with you for years or months, 
etc In this case you should go away back to the time when you began to have transactions with him, or back to the 
time from which he desires to have his statement, in case you have had previous settlements. And you should do 
this willingly You should copy all his account on a sheet of paper large enough to contain It all. If It should not 
be large enough, you will draw a balance at the end of the page and shall carry the latter. In debit or credit, forward 
to the other side of the sheet, as I told you at Chapter 28. And so on, until the end of the account, and at the end 
you must reduce the whole account to the net remainder In a single entry In debit or credit, according to the facts. 
These statements must be made out very carefully. 


IBIftincrtonon3.rracf3Hi0;]rf*. ©efcripturie • 
£ ofto modo obfHiarai ncli fata tuoi pprii.c ruoi'au'ctoji flf>>a fe tu amiMc ealir/. & ufa 

fli libM faccoore crcdirojc oe too i tpo oelc rw>i <pmfi6i fo vn pam.f poi i fiitc p redo net 
to Satto.farare fuo ocbitoje.o wro ocdirozc g'do Of I teo lilMuem mciTac Iuj polio re 
uedara ootadolo. c6 lifuoi. £ trouadolo ftar bcne.K vo?ra inegJio.£ pm K fidara^ djebt 
fiwna cix oe tutio qllo re a oatoo niafidatod)e oel rcccucrc a Ire oi rua mano li neaieerni 
aminiftrariom" ojdinatainete.f po nora bene. £ p lauerfo farai tu leuario a ruoi farrort. o 
vero comelTffimifiter. tOIba p\d)e fo?a fe oieno li conti ft iiocrfiano ben pontare co tutre lo 
ro Dttre i qdcrno i giojnale e memo2i3lc.£ con tutti luogbi cbe laiicfle fcritte aci'o no nafcef 
fc cn-ox fra le ptt. bclmodo e 02di'ne a Page retratrare.o vcro iftoznarc i ». o piu prire 
c1?c p erro?e baueffc pofte ( alt? luogo cb ooueflero adare coe auene p fmeoragie. f ap? : . , 
1 Hnco:3 neceffarib al bon quademicrt (apcrc rctrattarc . o voi oirc fto?na - 
re ala fiormrina vm parnta cbe per erroje baucfle poUa in altro luogo cbc el - 
(a ooucfle andare . coinnie fe laaeflTc mcffa iii oare. £ oouiala poncrc in baucre 
ft econt ra.£ quando oouta po:la acfonto tk tHJ^arrino £ lui la mi'lTe a conto 
ce«^ ec6tra.i&>cro clx ale volte non fi po tanto eflere arcnro cbc non fi falli commc el 
pjouerbiofona./Tioe cW non fa non falla.£c(M non fall j non«npara.£peroinrerr!3t/ 
rarla-tirrai qfto inodoXi'oc ^do l?aacflc mcffa laprira.poniamoS.i oarc e oouia andare in 
Ijaucre p rctrala pon-aine i ^alt'.alicontro oeffa i baucre ocql taiuo oc ponto. £ oirau'n q 
fto inodo a t)iV7c.p alrretanto polio otncontro al ot'e 03re.£ oou<a metteria 4 i baucreval 
fl carti 'rc.£ tra fo73 qlle mdefimc.$.P.g.p.d>c ponelli'p crro.£ ocname a ditta ptita forai 
I '.'croci.o altro fcgno. acio Icuando tu elcoto lauegbi alalTarc.£ fubi'to polla qfta p retrar 
to.cb e $to fcnulla bauclfe fcritto ocl ocuerc.£ ni poi la re poni I oitto baucre coc oouia an 
darccTtara bri. £ommc fe debbia rareelbilancio oel lib^o e ocl modo a repoztarc rn 
libzo in lalt20.doe clqdemo vccbio nel quadcrnonuouo c ocl modo a pontarlocon lofuo 
gio:nale e memo:iale e aln^i fconm' ocrro c oifuoze ocl oitto quadcrno. jCap". « . 
^1 tieftc cofe fino?3 be not9te bifogna lx):a oar modo al repozro oe vn lib^o in lal 
tro.^do uolelft tnutar lib?o.p cagionc dx folTc picno o wro p ozdine annuale 
oc milefimo cde el piu fi coftumaVare p luocbi famofi cbe ognianno. mariine 
^ annleOimi-nuoui li gran mcrcatanri fcp2C lo obf nano. £ qllo atro inft'emi con li 
fe4nti.£ oetto elbilando ocl libro-laql cofa voler fcc^re.bifogna grandiffima oiligeria.e p 
wdinc tirraiqfto modo.cioe -^.farai oe baucre vn c6p3gno.d?e mal pojrcfti p k folo fjar 
lo.£ alui oarai in mano el gidinale p piu tua cautclla. £ tu r irrai el qdcrno grahde e oirai 
aluigomc^ando oalap*.ptitaoefgiojnaled?ecbiamile carti od tuo qdcrno. oouc qfla 
fiapofta.p^iDarc epoii l>auefe.£cofi tu lubbidirai.£ troiicraifcp» oouc fC manda. £ ql 
K dirala ptita oe cB b oe d>i la fira.£ cpto fia clfuo trarto fo?e. £ cofituvcdarai iql tal luo 
go oouc te manda.fc baucfti ql dbx> ql d>i.£ ql tanto apoato rrattto fo2C.£ trouodadola 
flare aponto cde i gio:nale lancaralaxipe- pontajaJa . ovcro farali qlcbc fcgno alibiro i fu Ic 
S.0 altroue cbe non te 3bagliafle.£ ql tal fcgno o vero lan^ata clx cofi in aim" luocbi fi co 
ftuma oir.oirai dx fa^a'.dcopagno ricl giojnalc.ala mcdcfuna pri^ £ guarda c\x mai tu fc 
^a lui ne lui fen(;a tc potaflc.ovcro la^allc ptita alcua pdx pozrcbe nafccre gradi crroji.po 
ax la ptita potata dx fia vol oire ftar b/i.col ocbito modo.£ qllo ancoza (e ob^ua i leuaf 
w conria ocbitou nance dxli le oagbi in mano |>aiicr{o fcotrato c pontato co li luod?i 61 
qdcrno e ocl giornali o oaltri luocbi dx aucflTc notat^ oitte'ptitc cac fopja al.^ fo 6t 
ro;£ fatto qfto p o?dinc a tutto el qdcrno egio?nale. £ trouando tu aponto coc lui i dare c 
I?aucre le pnte firan giufle ebcn poftcj^ora c5lui nd gio:nale pbona mcmoria fara ooi 
ianiateo vero poti a i "".fola ptita.£ tia nel qdcrno uiei folo afarne i *.p pti*. fi coc cniua pti* 
DC giornalcin qdcrno fcne fa ooi cofi' (i fa ooipontt £ po nel ponrare oel bilancio i giona' 
le acB c buono far ooi poti luo fotto lalt'.ale S o ucro ooilacate i ^ fotto lalt^d? oinora oit 
ta pti'.ftar bff i oarc e berc al qdcr? aicuind giornalc p lodarc pdtano oauati al.p.£ plo 
f?auerco2icto ale [, coc fe fia luo e lair". Ila bn.j^o Dimcno fipo?na fur aco?a co i •'.potatu 
ra fola i giojnalc.cioc folo p fo oarc.pcbc tu poi per tcftctib ix)?rclli pontare Ibaucrc a qual 
partita dx bai in oarc nd quadcrno^ femp?c tc manda pf r dx fubito m l>aiquiui cl numero 
oelc carti' oouc fta Ibaucrc quando bene qnd ocl gio:nalc non tc mandallc licbc fconrran ^ 
dote tu con lui folo indarc per tc flcflb po:rcfli fcquirc lo l>aucrc ma piu commodo tc fia co 
locompagno a modo oitto.£Ba fe fo?niro d gio:nalc oc potarc a tc auancafc in quadcrno 
ptita alcua cbc non ucnilTc potata in oarc o ni baucre ocnocana nd quadcrno clftr crrof . 
doeclx qlla fcrauc poftafupfUia in ql bare o vero baucre. dqual erroze tu fubito rcn*atta^ 


The following is the way you have to proceed in adjusting your own business with the business of 
your employer. But if you should act for others as an agent or commissioner, then you will make out 
a statement for your employer just as it appears in the ledger, crediting yourself from time to time 
with your commissions according to your agreements. Then at the end you shall charge yourself with 
the net remainder, or you shall credit yourself if you had to put in any money of your own. Your 
employer will then go through this statement, compare it with his own book, and if he finds it correct, he will 
like you better and trust you more. For this reason, of all the things that he gave or sent you, you should 
with your own handwriting keep an orderly account when you receive them. Observe this carefully. 

On the contrary, if you are the employer, you may have your managers or commissioners make out 
these statements for you. But before these statements are delivered they ought to be compared care- 
fully with each entry in the Ledger, Journal and Memorandum Book, or with any other paper relative 
thereto, so that no mistake could be made between the parties. 



The good bookkeeper should also know how to take out — or as they call it in Florence "stornare" — 
an entry which by mistake you might have written down in the wrong place as, for instance, if you had 
entered it as a debit instead of a credit entry ; or when you have to enter it in the account of Mr. Mar- 
tino and you put it in the account of Mr. Giovanni. 

For at times you cannot be so diligent that you are unable to make mistakes. The proverb says : 
He who does nothing, makes no mistakes : he who makes no mistakes, learns nothing. 

And you shall correct this entry as follows: If you had placed this entry in the debit column 
while you should have put it in the credit column, in order to correct this, you shall make another 
entry opposite this one in the credit for the same amount. And you shall say thus : On such and such 
day for the amount which has been entered opposite here under the debit and should have been put in 

the credit, see page, etc., and you shall write down in the column of figures: L S G P 

which you wrote down by mistake in the other column. In front of these two entries you shall mark 
a cross or any other mark so that when you make out an abstract or statement of the account you 
should leave these entries out. After you have made this correction it is just as if you had written 
nothing in the debit column. You then make the entry in the credit column as it should have been 
and everything will be as it should have been. 


After all we have said you must know now how to carry forward the accounts from one Ledger 
to another if you want to have a new Ledger for the reason that the old one is all filled up or because 
another year begins, as is customary in the best known places, especially at Milan where the big mer- 
chants renew every year their Ledgers. 

This operation, together with the operations of which we wiU speak, is called the balancing {iilan- 
cio) of the Ledger, and if you want to do this weU you shall do it with great diligence and order. That 
is, first you shall get a helper as you could hardly do it alone. You give him the Journal for greater 
precaution and you shall keep the Ledger. Then you tell him, beginning with the first entry in the 
Journal, to caU the numbers of the pages of your Ledger where that entry has been made, first in debit 
and then in credit. Accordingly in turn you shall obey him and shall always find the page in the Ledger 
that he calls and you shaU ask him what kind of an entry it is, that is, for what and for whom, and you 
shall look at the pages to which he refers to see if you find that item and that account. If the amount is 
the same caU it out. If you find it there the same as in the journal, cheek it {lanzarala — ^mark it with 
a lance A or V) or dot it (pontarala) , or any proper mark over the lire mark, or in some other place, 
so that you can readily see it. You ask your helper to make a similar mark or check — as we are used to 
call it in some places — in the Journal at the same entry. Care must be taken that no entry will be dotted 
(pontata) either by you without him, or by him without you, as great mistakes might be made otherwise, 
for once the entry is dotted it means that it is correct. The same is done in making out statements of 
accounts for your debtors before you deliver them. They should have been compared with the Ledger 
and Journal or with any other writing in which the entries of the transaction have been recorded, as 

we have said at Chapter 30. 

After you have proceeded in this way through all the accounts of the Ledger and Journal and found that the two 
books correspond In debit and credit. It will mean that all the accounts are correct and the entries entered correctly. 
Take care that your helper shall mark each entry in the Journal with two dots or little lances; in the ledger you 
mark down only one for each entry because you know that for each entry in the journal there are two made in the 
Ledger, therefore, the two dots or lances. 

In making this balance it is good if you mark in the Journal two dots or lances under the lire, one under the 
other This will mean that the entry is correct in debit and credit in the Ledger. Some use these marks in the 
Journal- They put a mark before the per for the debit and after the lire for the credit. Any way both customs are 
good however one single mark in the Journal might be enough, that is, only the debit mark, because you can then 
mark yourself' the credit side on the page of the Ledger where that entry is as this page is mentioned in the debit en- 
try in your ledger. It will then not be necessary for your helper to call to you this credit page. So that by compar- 
ing only the debit side with him you could yourself check the credit side. But It would be more convenient for you 
If you proceed with your helper In the manner above said. , .^ ^ , 

After you have finished checking off the Journal, if you find In the Ledger some account or entry which has 
not been checked off in debit or credit, this would Indicate that there has been some mistake in the Ledger, that is, 
that that entry is superfluous whether In the debit or credit, and you shall correct this error 


rfli9flcdoIflitie(J£flim9$».aliHContro.ddc fclafiraoepiu ftt Wix(.£m alcrctsnto poa-af 6t 
bauerc. £t «5tra. laqlcofa coc fabiii adittare oifopTa te fo^tto al cap'.pccdftc. £ coJiba 
rai medicate iutto.£l mcdcfimo fcriii cpdo lui Ixwcrtc m gibznalc pttta fugflua. dx a k ml 
quadcmo mic&fk in oare o in Iwuere d?c pur fallo nd qujdcmo ocnotaitbbc. £1 quale n 
©cue reparc al modocontrario oclfugflooXioe tbc ru al02acitta pti'ta fubito lapcngbii 
9srttin baucre in quadcrno.faccndo niltionc ecla van'cta «l ^omcpcfx lanafcfra mol> 
to poi tarda fti qusdcrtio d^e no zjouil. bele qualiuaricra.fcp:? dbo quadcrni'cro ocuefer 
«cmftibiKpdxlcnafd>ino p Icuarflfnfpctto Dd l(b^amodo d M notaro nelifuoimlmi 
tiicti.Mquali non po nc gtongncit ne finlnnirc fcn(a pn'culare mcrioflc vc Ml augumcto, o 
vcro 8ecrcnieitto.cofi f^pjc tal rdpoto code dx ih nd ton quadernieri. ado la rialita mcr 
cantdca.Bd3teiiii^e fc rewga amattteriUie.fl^a fe fa oi'naprita.folo mancaflc oal wx o t» 
lbauere.aloJ9 bafta la pongW i ".fda volta.oa ql tal laro oouc laitiancafle-cort w'tte mcntio 
Mi.£we c6e p erro^ la< fatto 7c.£ coft" baraituttc ftjftate mc ptfteJcqualt trouaiidofe a foi 
fcontri coi t ofcojfo ocnota dtno quadcmo ecr gfufto e ben tcnuto.tlnde nota d>ciid dft 
toquadcrnofi'rano alcuolte ?tJoltept<te non ponratc con lo fcontro t>d gi'ojnale^ djcnon 
fibano arih-ouare indfe,^ qfteflfratino lirelhpofh'altrfedare.ofti baucre p f8Mtt)clee / 
titc nel portarle bauantf coc ofoeitio in lo cap'.2 8.dld:a oa te ftcffo oi qlf i tali rdti troucrai 
Icitto qdemo fuoi' fcontri.doe in wire.£i*n^2dorc p lo n". ce le carticb Ha oitta 
ptifa notate firano.£ tronado fcontro a fuoifaogbi^udica finultncfedcfdcrno liar IWi 7C 
£ qUo cbe fino2a fcdctro dd fcotro od quademo con lo gioJuale-el fimfle intcdi p*.douerfi( 
fare del memojiale <rue:o fqoartafogHd c6 logi'oznalc a Ai p di qpdo vfaffi tencr meino:ia 
lultimo conuen clTcre dquadcmcdo penulrimo dgfoinale.Sldco 7c. 

fed modo c oxiine afcriuerc lefaccnde cbe<)ccurcflero ml tempo 6^t ii fa elbilana'o.cjoe 
cbefifaldanoWlibzi-ecommc nelilibjiuedjinpnficebiafcriuerenetnnouarccoraalcmta 
I'ndtto tempo elacagfonepercbc. iCap". j?* 

— - — itJtte q(lecrt*e ozdi'natimente fattecobferuate-guardanoninnouafrcpiit pti* 
in alcn libjo antiano al qu9dcrno.aoe immcmo2fatc.£ gi02hale.perd?e d faldo 
tutto ©c tut»' li y&yii lepx fi ocue (ntenderc farto in \ '.medefimo ^ojno i9^a fe fa 

. 1 cende te acaocffe in ql mc^^o cbe fai d nio faldo o verobilancio. po?rale in librf 

nuoui nequaliimedf fare repo2to^oe in lomcmo:i|Ieo no in qnaderno 
pfintanrodxnonTibaiponatilircftiocl p* quaderno.£feanco2a non fjauefleojdinatf 
eIo?a li lepo:raiiignati cbe firan tutti ce nuouo fcghoXioe fe qllidx faldi'ftra regnati.cro 
ci q[(li fegna de. a.Tc. " £6me fe wbiano fsldare tutte Icpttte oel qdernovcf bio.c i dsi 
gpcbete DC la ffimafomariiodnarceodauereirttM) fcontro oelbilado. £ap? 54. 
s Stto c5 barai qfto co oikgerta.iB tu oatc faldarai mtto dwo qdcmoapnata h 
pti*4 qfto modo.cPp'.come$arai53l3cafla Dcbito2i.robbeeauentoa'.£qiJdfc 
po^taraiin lib?o.B. doe in cjuademo nuouo cbe non bifogna coe fo oetto oilb 
— — J pza lirdh poncrc ingibmale. fiimmarai tutte loa ptite in dare e baucre aiutado 
fi^je lameno^e coe te Ditf . fopxj m\ pojtare 3uatf.d?e qfto atto vc \ ? quadcrno in laltro.jg 
se potoftnile aqllo e fra lozo non e altraoifferentia fcnon dx in qllo drefto fipojta auart 
ti nd mcdefifmo quaderno.£ in qfto oc t ? lib» in laltro.£ twue wi qllo cbiamam' Ic carri d 
ql lib:o ^pjio in qfto fid?fama Iccara' oel libzo fequcre in modo dx nd repojto cc xn libjo 
in laltro.folo i \uolta p dafcSo quadernofc niette laptita.£ qfta progatiua gi lirftima gti'ta 
fempjcodiquadernicbenuUaltra mai pol?auere c6e nd^d^oatoba1'ndtato.£t3€ud!e 
tal rrpozto cofi ^'tare.doc mettiamo dx tu babia.£K>artino ocbitox p refto ndlo tuo qua 
dmio.crodacarri.6o.De.§ 1 2.P 1 S'.g iQ.p 26.£babiloi?por^re6i quadcrno. il.aGjrti.8i 
in dare te conuen nd Irbzo crori aJutare Ibauere^wuc dirai cofi defotto a tatte laltre partite 
£ a di 7c*poncdo fcmpzed raedefimo di,dx ffli dbilando.p lui medcrtio po:to in quader 
no. B. Mi< dare per rcfto quial q pogo per faldo de quefta val 3carti.8.S 1 2 J' i f .g ro.p 16 
£ dcpennaraifa dttta partita in dare e Ixincre diamctFalitcr coe nd rapono tc infcgnai (»• 
ncdo lafnma de ttitta laptitaTotto nel capo de ditta ptita in dare e in l>cr6.cibe tatoda ICto 
lato $to dalalt°.adop9 alocbioTubito ftar bileiqlecoe lereccrca:alboftldo. ponedonrt 
trar foza.d numero dele cartidd quademo. il.douetal refto porti. £ poiin Id quademo. 
5. in dare dirai cofi p:ima ponendo fop:a incima de la carta-d Tuo milefimo.£l gionio ite 
topartitd per lacafone dett3 fop:a lii lo cap.! $*.cte i^Bartfiioddtale 7c.dtedareadi.76g 


by making an entry for the same amount in the opposite side — that is, if the superfluous entry was in the 
debit, you make an entry on the credit side, or vice versa. And how you should proceed to correct the error 
I have told you in the preceding chapter. The same would be done in case your helper finds some entry 
which your ledger did not show whether in the debit or credit column, which also would indicate an error 
in the ledger and should be corrected in a different way. That is, you should make that entry or open 
that account in the debit or credit, mentioning the different dates, as the entry would be made later than 
it should have been. A good bookkeeper should always mention why such differences arise, so that the 
books are above suspicion ; thus the notary public in his instruments need not mention what has been added 
or omitted. Thus the good bookkeeper must act so that the mercantile reputation be kept up. 

But if the said entry should have been entered on only one side, debit or credit, then it would be suffi- 
cient for you to put it where it is missing, mentioning how it happened through mistake, etc. So you will 
go on through all your accounts and, if they agree, you know that your Ledger is right and well kept. 

You must know that there may be found in the Ledger some entries which are not in the Journal and 
cannot be found in the Journal. These are the difference between the debit and credit placed there to 
close {per soldi) the different accounts when they are carried forward, as we have said in Chapter 28. Of 
these balances or remainders, you wiU find their correlative entries in the Ledger, whether in debit or credit, 
on the page indicated in these accounts. When you find each correlative entry in its proper place, you 
may conclude that your Ledger is in proper order. 

What we have said so far about comparing the Ledger with the Journal, should be observed also in 
comparing the memorandum book or scrap book with the Journal, day by day, if you use the memorandum 
book, in the manner I spoke about at the beginning of this treatise. If you have other books, you should 
do the same. The last book to be compared should be the Ledger, the next to the last the Journal. 



After you have regularly done and observed all these things, see that no new entry is made in any 
book which comes before the Ledger — that is, in the memorandum book and Journal — because the equal- 
izing or closing {el soldo) of aU the books should be understood to take place on the same day. But if, while 
you are balancing you books, some transactions should occur, you shall enter them in the new books to which 
you intend to carry forward the old ones — that is, in the memorandum book or Journal, but not in the Led- 
ger, until you have carried forward all the different accounts of the old Ledger. If you have not yet a new 
set of books, then you will record these transactions and their respective explanations on a separate sheet of 
paper untU the books are ready. When the new books are ready, you enter them in these books which shall 
bear new marks — that is, if the old ones that you are balancing now were marked with a cross, then you 
should mark these new ones with the capital letter A. 



After you have done this carefully, you shall close your Ledger accounts in this way: You should 
commence first with cash account, then the different debtors, then the merchandise, and then your custom- 
ers. Transfer the remainders in Ledger A, that is, in the new Ledger. You should not, as I have said 
above, transfer the remainders in the new Journal. 

You shall add all the different entries in debit and in credit, always adding to the smaller side the 
difference, as I have told you above when explaining the carrying forward of the remainder. These two 
accounts are practically the same thing ; the only difference is that in the first case the remainder was car- 
ried forward to another page of the same Ledger, while in this instance it is carried forward from one 
Ledger to another. While in the first instance you would mark down the new page of the same Ledger, in 
this case you mark down the page of the new Ledger; making the transfer from one ledger to another, 
any account should appear only once in each ledger. This is a peculiarity of the last entry of the accounts 
of the Ledgers. 

In making the transfer, you should proceed as follows : Let us suppose that the account of Mr. Mar- 
tino has a debit remainder {resto) in your "Cross" Ledger at page 60 of L 12, S. 15, G 10. P. 26, 

and you want to transfer it to Ledger A at page 8 in debit; in the "Cross" Ledger you have to add to 
the credit column and you shall put the following at the end of all the other entries : On such and such 
day — ^putting down always the same day in which you do the balancing {bilancio) — per himself as posted 
to Ledger A to the debit, per remainder {resto), which amount I add here in order to close {soldo) — 
value ; see page 8 : L 12, S 15, G 10, P 26. 

And then you shall cancel the account in the debit and credit diagonally, as I have told you in talk- 
ing about the bringing forward of the accounts. Then put down the total of all the entries, in the debit 
as well as in the credit, so that the eye can see at a glance that it is all even. You shall also write 
down at the new page in Ledger A, in the debit column, as follows: First you put down at the top of 
the page the year, and you put the day in front of the place where you make the entry for the reason 
mentioned in Chapter 15, then you say, Mr. Martino so and so, debit {dee dore — shall give) on such and 
such day 


ioi medemo t> rcfto mtto ocl libj04TOci.pofto a\ OTcI?aUer€pcr MdolxfiUx^a car. 60. 


d?:7occoniun7c.con liqiifllifcvfaakuoltcandarcacomo lon^JTc^aqudkp^we 
ififa.c tuttc fpcft nrao?diharie.fifti'.pcfct6i.fcudi. liuclli tcqftc funai conucgonfc faldare 
in lo incdcfimo lib:o.crodncla j?rita tk\ p c mmo vcro ana^i c oclauaB^ o voi dire vti' 
kc 09no.iqftomodocbe(o20D3repo:tarai'i03rccbrarofipo(rano bauot icredito qllc 
oele fpcfiDiccdo.nel faWo aiutando c6e piu voUec Mttofempx ranjcnozc quantira in oa7C 
i Ixjucrc ^ 4) c oano i qfto a earn rStc tc. £ cofi tuttc le \mitm faldatc i qlta ocy3 e oan 
Hocoue fubito poi fumaiido fuo oarc c baucrc pozrai cogncfccrc tuo guadas».c Bdua g d? 
fira i tal bitando fatto h parira-cibccB Ic cofc cb fe oouia oiffalcarc fimn cnftalcatc que cl)C 
fe oouiano agtongnere fira ^jpojtionatamctc a fuoi luocbi agi6tc.£ ft oe qfta gtfta.fira o 
cl mrc c^ laucrc tu !?9iicra gdutto ql tanto i tuo trafico wcbc lo gom&altij£ fe fia pui lo 
baucrc aloja Di'rai cbc ql tanto babia i Ditto tpo guadaffnato7C.£ vcduto d) baraip qfta 
futilcx oanno tuo rctjtcaloja qfta faldarai i lagrtta ocl caucdalcoouc nd paci'pio ocl tuo 
mancglo ponclli loiuetan'ooc tutta la nia faculta.£ faldarala I qftomodo dxfcl oano fc 
^to fira piu d?c 010 nc guardi ci'afcuno clx rcalmctc fo buon rpiano fc adopa alo:a aiuta • 
rai lobaucrc amodo vfato oicedoc a oi 7cp caucdal i qftop 5?3nno fcdjw a earn TC.val 7c. 
£ocpenerailagritaoiamctralitcr i oarccbaucrc.vt fu'.poncdo purela fijma ncl clpoida 
re c f?i3ucrc cl?c ocucbattcrc para.£poiala grita od caucdalc i oarc oirai.caucdalc trfe oar 
a 01 7c.l>p c oanno. q ©anno fc^to pofto (n qudla al oi'e f>aucrc Q faldo ftio val a carti',7c. 
|(.f .g? p.7C.£ cofi fcnc foflefct^to vrilc.cfe fcrcbbc flpdo qlla od ^ e oanno fc rctrouafic piu 
i baucrc cbc i oarc aloza fugiogwrcftt al oarc g faldo ql tanto d>iamado dciucdalc ale car 
ri fuoi' 7C.C aluila p02rcftii baucrc ifi'cmi Co lalrrc robbc nidbili c (labilu oi nuouo i qfto ca 
tjcdal qlc couic cere Icpzc lulti'.ptita 6 nitti" liqdcrni'.pOTrai fepjc cognofccrc tutta ma facul 
ta-giognedoU ocbiti c crcdiri d?c in lib'. M. pojtafti 7C.£ qfta ocl caucdal ocl qderno. cro 
d faldarai anco:a.£ po2tarala coc laltrc nd qderno. 5. in rcfto e fuma toi a pt&a ^ gri 
ta cbc lo poi and?c farcma fi coftuma farla in fijina gcbc 1 ^ volta tutto tuo iuctario age. £ 
rcco2date cbtamar fuc carti.7c.£ affetarai poi' wtte Icj^tiK 61 lalfabeto ognu 
na al fuo luogo coc OiTop2a te oi(Ti.cap? j''.5abfcp2C poiTi co fadlita trouarc Ic tue faccdc 
(econdo lo70 occurence C cofi fia faldo tutto d p2imo quadcrno con fuo gio2nalc c nicmo2i 
flic. £ acio fia piu d?iaro oe z>itto faldo.farai quel>o altro fcontroXioefummarai in vn fO/ 
glib tutto doarc ocl quadcrno.croci.£ ponlo a man riniftra.£ funimarai mtto fuo f?aucrc 
£p6lo aman Dcrtra.£poi qucftevln'mc funimc rcfumniarai.£faraneoc tuttc qudlc 
od oarvna Junta cbc fi cbiamara fuina ffi niarO.£ cofi farai rna fiima $ tuttc qllc oalaucf 
cbc fid?iamara anco2a lei vna fumafiimani^iBa lap\fira fiima fummarg.od oarcc la fij/ 
fi d?ii3ina fummaffimaru oc lo b3ucrc.02 fc qftc ooif5mc fuininarii fira parcdoc cbc tan 
to fia luna q^to lalrra.V5 qlla od oarcc qlte ocio.baucrc.argufrai el tuo qderno cere bcgui 
dato fcnuto e faldato g la cagioc cb oi fopza nd cap? 1 octto.fl^a fe luna 6 oittc funi 
me fummarfi auancafic laln-a ocnotarcbbccrrond qual poi con oiligctia 
ticouerratrouarlocolaindufhia 616 IrcllcttodxDiotclxioato.ccolartcfitio oderagio 
niclje twrai bene inparato.laqual ]^tc coc nd p2icipio ocl pnte oiccmoc funnnamcte nccef 
faria albon mcrcatante altramentc non fiando bon ragi'oncri ndi foi fatti andara a tartoi 
coc dcc\?o. £ p02allinc fet^rc mdto oano.adonca co ogni Ibidio c cura ffo2^rari fop2a mt 
to ccrcbu^nragionericl?d modoa wa comodira in q'fta fublima opa a pieno a tua baftan lo oato con tuttc fuc regolc a wtri fuo luogbi oebitamcntc coc tutto facilmcte 
per la tauola nc I p2uidpto oi qfta opera pofta po2ra^trou3rc.£ anco2a D le cofe octte ^ fc 
quentecomc oifop2a nelcap'.u" tc^Jinifi apiutuorcco2dofaror.cpiTogo^'ocfum32ia 
rccolta ccnrialc oc tutto d pntc^c molto fcn^a oubio te fia vrilc. £ g mc rccoida f 
rati lalrifllimo pgarc cbc a fuc laudce glo2ia.5o pofla dc bene i mcglio ogado 43cedcrc 7C. 
bel mooo c 02dinc afajp icncr le fcripture mcnute coc fono fcritt i oc mano Icttcrc fami' 
lian police ^ccin: fnlc c altriillrumcric od rcgiftro oc lclfc.fp02tati. /Ca? ?; 
£quita d modo c 02dinc oc fapcr tcner le fcripmre c cbiarc«;cc mcnuic conime 
fonno fcritti oc inano oc pagamcnii facti quittance oc cambi.oc robbc oatc.lct 
tcrc familiadquali cofe fonno fra mcrcanti oc gridiflima ftiina.e molta impo: 


per himself as per remainder {resto) carried from "Cross" Ledger, which has been added in the credit col- 
umn in order to close {saldo), see page 60, value: L 12, S 15, G 10, P 26. 

Thus you win proceed with all the accounts of the Cross Ledger which you want to transfer to Ledger 
A: cash account, capital account, merchandise, personal property, real property, debtors, creditors, 
public officers, brokers, public weighmen, etc., with whom we have sometimes very long accounts. But as 
to those accounts which you should not care to transfer to Ledger A, as, for instance, your own personal 
accounts of which you are not obliged to give an account to another, as, for instance, small mercantile ex- 
penses, household expenses, income and expenses and all extraordinary expenses — rentals, pescioni, feudi or 
livelU, etc. All these accounts should be closed {saldore) in the Cross Ledger into the favor and damage ac- 
count, or increase and deficit, or profit and damage account, as it is sometimes called. You shall enter them 
in the debit column, as it is rare that these expense accounts should show anything in the credit side. As 
I often have told you, add the difference to the column, either debit or credit, which shows a smaller total, 
saying: Per profit and loss in this account, see page, etc. By doing so, you shall have closed {saldore) all 
these different accounts iu the profit and loss account through which then, by adding all the debit and all 
the credit entries, you will be able to know what is your gain or loss, for with this balance aU entries are 
equalized ; the things that had to be deducted were deducted, and the things that had to be added were 
added proportionately in their respective places. If this account shows more in the debit than in the credit, 
that means that you have lost that much in your business since you began. If the credit is more than the 
debit, that means that in the same period of time you have gained. 

After you know by the closing {saldorai) of this account what your profit or loss is, then you shall close 
this account into the capital account in which, at the beginning of your management of your business, you 
entered the inventory of aU your worldly goods. You shall close the account in this way : If the losses 
are in excess — ^from which state of affairs may God keep every one who really lives as a good Christian — 
then you have to add to the credit in the usual manner, saying : On such and such day, Per capital on 
account of losses in this account, see page so and so, value, etc. Then you shall cancel the account with a 
diagonal line in debit and credit, and put in the total amount of aU the debit entries, as well as of the credit 
entries, which should be equal. And then in the capital account, you shall write in the debit column: 
Capital debit {dee dare — shall give) on such and sueh day, per profit and loss account on account of losses 
as marked down in the credit column of said account in order to close {per saldo), value, etc. : 

L , S , G , P 

If instead there should be a profit, which wiU happen when the profit and loss account would show 
more in the credit than in the debit, then you shoixld add the difference to the debit side to make the equali- 
zation, referring to the capital account and respective page. You should credit the same amount to the capi- 
tal account, making the entry on the credit side where all the other goods of yours have been entered, per- 
sonal or real. Therefore, from the capital account, which always must be the last account in the entire 
Ledger, you may always learn what your fortune is, by adding together aU the debits and all the credits, 
which you have transferred in Ledger A. 

Then this capital account should be closed and carried forward with the other accounts to Ledger 
A, either in total or entry by entry. You can do either way, but it is customary to transfer only the total 
amount, so that the entire value of your inventory {inventario) is shown at a glance. Don't forget to num- 
ber the pages, after which you wiU enter aU the different accounts in the alphabet of Ledger A, each at 
its own place, as I have said at Chapter 5, so that you may find very easily the account you want. In 
this way the entire first Ledger, and with it the Journal and memorandum book, are closed and closed up. 

In order that it may be clearer that the books were correct before the said closing, you shall sum- 
marize on a sheet of paper all the debit totals that appear in the Cross Ledger and place them at the left, 
then you shall write down all the credit totals at the right. Of all these debit totals you make one sum 
total which is called grand total {summa summarum), and likewise you shall make a sum total of aU the 
credit totals, which is also called grand total {summa summarum) . The first is the grand total of the debits, 
and the second is the grand total of the credits. Now, if these two grand totals are equal — that is, if one 
is just as much as the other — that is, if those of the debit and those of the credit are alike — then you shall 
conclude that your Ledger was very well kept and closed, for the reason that I gave you in Chapter 14. 
But if one of the grand totals is bigger than the other, that would indicate a mistake in your Ledger, 
which mistake you will have to look for diligently with the industry and the intelligence God gave you and 
with the help of what you have learned. This part of the work, as we said at the beginning, is highly neces- 
sary to the good merchant, for, if you are not a good bookkeeper in your business, you will go on grop- 
ing like a blind man and may meet great losses. 

Therefore, take good care and make aU efforts to be a good bookkeeper, such as I have shown you fully 
in this sublime work how to become one. I have given you all the rules and indicated the places where 
everything can be found, in the table of contents which I have placed at the beginning of this work. 

Of aU the things thus far treated, as I promised you in Chapter 12, I will now give you a summary 
of the most essential things for your own recollection, which no doubt will be very useful to you. 

And remember to pray God for me so that to His praise and glory I may always go on doing good. 



Here follow the manner and rules for keeping documents and manuscripts, such as papers relative to 
payments made, receipts for drafts, or gifts of merchandise, confidential letters, which things are very im- 
portant for merchants 


BWinrto nona Xracfafu?. ri'.Sf fcripfuria i©? 

fatica.e ce gran pcrtcofcv in pcrdtrle e fmam'rlc.^ pzima. zxlc lrftor<famfliar»quafifpeflb 
fratec li'toi' amonpoftino acadtre.qmHc rcprcftcndicrcrbainvnbandxttoaU fined 
mek.£ finitodmck Icgafe invn niafto.e ripolle oajjfc fcgjiando ognuna ocfwf eloiclx la 
rcceuj el oi cbf U refpondi .£ cofi ft fa amcfc g mcfi^ pel a(a fiii oc lanno oc rurti qUi raaj 
ofardi f n ina(o grade c luoga efcgna fuo flD? £ q'do poi alcunalfa a ql ncom. Ijaucm" 
ituo ftudio ovcro fcrifoio mtaffcajicla qlrcppjra* U'c cb liainidte oc[fcro.d? ni c6 Icriioi' 
mandatTc 3fo:a.fcdia' cbc lamandw roina. mcrula in tafca pi joma.c ft a fircii^a in qlla ocfi 
rcnfa 7c.£ poind fpadarc oel fantepigiialc con Ic ruoi a( ruo refpodcnrc in quel ral lupgo 
IcmanDa.gtb* f I fcruirc fetnpK e buonoe andx fufa oar fuo beucragi'o per eer fcruiro tc. 
atOTno e(ib cinta cogrita coe fi fa i pia tafd^etre^riocin tantc q>u fonno (e tcire c luogbiin 
If quail fiji fc torfacedecoc Dia'amo."Koma.^ircve: ji^apoli.jQ^ilanoocnoa.tion.Jlddra 
3&n)Va 7Cv£ fopza oitte tafdJettegojdinc fcnueraiilfuo noiiic.tioea (una oirai'Konja.alal 
ira.f ireca tc.iii le quali poi repozrai Ic Ivc c\x^ qlliluogbi te folfcro mandate oa quolcl? 
ako (\x lanianda(^.£ fatta dJc U barairefpota e niandata.pujc in oitta Ik oc fo;a. coe fe^ 
Jli oel fuo recciicre-e g cbi.£ofi (imilitcr po:rai mcnrione oe la rclpi: Ita. £ pcbi la iiiandalh" 
conlofuogi6:no.£lqu3l oimai in aleu'.tuafacenda fa dxmacbi.op<c<olao grade cbla 
fia niarime in Ire «" If q^' <f P^f •"•* ©euc po::e ilmilcfiino d Di.e luogo-cl noine ruo clqiwl no 

me ficoftuma iiicnarlo oa pedc aman dcrtra oe la Ii*d in vn catooc.d d^^co lo Die luo^o 
fra mercatantife ufa ponerc rifopza iiel pzindpi'o odalfa.trf?)ap'.a iiiodp bonypia^io ba 
raifcp:c amere oe ponerc d ^loriofo nojne o^nf a falutc.cioe d Dod nomc oc W3u.o wro in 
fuo fcabio la figura oc la fca troci.ral cuincme lep tutre le nk ogationi pcbaijo ecr p2ina' 
pmc.e faraf cdflcroci'. 1 494.a oi-i 7-9pJilc « vinegi3.£poifcqta mo oire. aoecariffinio liftudian e altrcgcnricdc fonno rdigiofiTc'.cbe non trafkiano. vfano nd luo^o o^ 
ue lalf ttcra c fatia pcncr oi forr o con lo oi e £B°,£. li mercati coftumano oifc^za a modo 
dif ro alf'.mcnte noji vi poncndod Di fcrcbe confufione. £ di te km fenobdfe oclje fcwiei 
la l2a i1x non !.■« el oi iicrato cbc le fatra re notte.£ qlla cbc non a notara A luogo fe o«( 
cbc fc farra t lalt'.modo.c non in q(W oltra le bdfc c\x pcgio c ne fequc fejmdalpTt l^t 
£rpcdita d?el?arailiia rcfpoftapofdaaldeputato luogo la ponicocbai itrfo»£flll^ d^e 
oirro l?aMamo oe h'.fola itcdilo g tutte. tindeeancoja oanotarc cUq^do It lYedx ta mi 
di foflcro oc fponan^a.qllc rale fe vogbano p' rcgiflraric in vn libio oa gre fdo a qUo tpn 
tato.nd ql rcgiftro fi oeue ponerc la Ifa oe rerbo ad nri^ fella fiao grande ipojtaca coe 
fonnolfcDccambio.o oerobc mancJatco d.7c^ vcro regiftrarcfolola fubiteica,cQcmc/ 
ino:iale oiccdo i qllo oi icbabiamo Icritrto altalc 7c.c6c j? lo rale -Jcliniandamo k talco 
fe -rcfo g t^.foatx o^' raiiti ted comife e ndMde Tcla qual poneino in tafca tc. /= w' ihce 
ftgtlflta cbcf>araila tua else inadi c fatto la fopza fcritta fufa. q inoltipoBenuelfijoYecmo 
ci fuo7e.acio ficognofca dx fia de mcrcann".3 iquali inolro fc oeue bauere rigu^^ iyabe 

Qptc coe fono bolle b^uflegi -re. ^uega dx alcune cofe piu itrifecbe.poga fotrod figillo dl 
pefcfltozc TC.teqli Ire poia mefe g incfc o vero aniiog anno recoa^aii maai overo filcec 
oa ^e le poni ozdinatamcre f vno armaro.o fularerto.recuro.£ coe nafcano afa <o?nata ca 
n lafetta.ado pofli piu pfto a lue occure'ce retrouarle li euro pio oire Deb fo aba 
ftan^a niaiintcfo tc. Saitti oe inano no pagari oe tuoi ocbi'to:ie6mcre acciS oifowa 
Bd cap'. 1 7.reruarai' in vn altro luogo piu kaao coe fon cafli e fcatole pnliate 7C.£jedcd 
5C fimifitcr.fcrua in luogo lecuro |? ogni rcf^Ktro.Of^a cpdo m pagaflct u ad altri eiriteuere 
faralo fcrioere 1 1 ? lib:ctto oe pagameticoe in p2icipio re oin'.acio no (i peffij cott faciTincK 
fmarfre e pdere .£xofi obferuaraioe le polli^c cbe i'po?tano. coe fdno not(^ oe fenfaria d 
inercati".o oc pefadon o bolctte 6 robbc nicfle o tratte oe oogane oamarc o oa tdra e lerccc 
ocamiline oc cdfoli o aim' officii o altri fftruincn oe notari i Bgamena qli fet)d?ano rcpo^ 
re i vn Inogooa |?te.£ coficopiefcnmirce^cefliodire oe^uratox£auocati.£ fimilini 
re ebuonolMucre vn lib''.fcpafoBUreco:di.dxficbiamireco:da(e ndql ala?o?nara farai 
Ic me mcmojie ode cofcclx oubitafle no reco?darte.cbc re po:ic to2nar oano-nd ql ogni o 
al manco la fera nance vadi adawnirc oarai ocbio.fe cofa folTe raffKdire o dafarc cbe non 
fufft crpcdita 7c.alaql fpacata oarai oe^>cn3.£ toft 4 farai memoria oe cofe d?e aluidnoe 
etntcoe vno oDoioi'pftaflecoe fonno vafa oc boregga caldarc c almo?dtg»tc.£:qwi» 


and, if they are lost, may cause great danger. 

First, we shall talk of confidential letters which you may write to or receive from your customers. 
You should always keep these in a little desk until the end of the month. At the end of the month tie 
them together in a bunch and put them away and write on the outside of each the date of receipt and the 
date of reply, and do this month by month, then, at the end of the year, of all these papers make one big 
bundle and write on it the year, and put it away. Any time you need a letter, go to these bundles. 

Keep in your desk pouches in which to place the letters that your friends may give you to be sent 
away with your own letters. If the letter should be sent to Eome, put it in the Eome pouch, and if to 
Florence, put it in the Florence pouch, etc. And then when you send your messenger, put these letters 
with yours and send them to your correspondent in that particular town. To be of service is always a 
good thing, and it is customary also to give a gratuity for that good service. 

You should have several little compartments, or little bags, as many as there are places or cities in 
which you do business, as, for instance, Rome, Florence, Naples, Milan, Genoa, Lyon, London, Bruges, and 
on each little bag you shall write its proper name — that is, you will write on one ' ' Rome, ' ' on another 
"Florence," etc., and in these bags you shall put the letters that somebody might send you to be forwarded 
to those places. 

When you have answered a letter and sent the answer away, you shall mention on the outside of the 
said letter the answer, by whom you sent it and the day, just as you did when you received the letter. 

As to the day, you shall never forget to mark it in any of your transactions, whether small or large, 
and especially in writing letters in which these things must be mentioned, namely : the year, the day, the 
place, and your name. It is customary to put the name at the end of the right side in a corner. It is cus- 
tomary among merchants to write the year and the day and the place at the top at the beginning of the 
letter. But first, like a good Christian, you shall always remember to write down the glorious name of our 
Savior — that is, the name of Jesus, or in its place the sign of the Holy Cross, in whose name our trans- 
actions must always be made, and you shall do as f oUows : Cross 1494. On this 17th day of April in 

And then go on with what you want to say — that is, "My very dear," etc. But the students and 
other people, like the monks or priests, etc., who are not in business, are used to writing the day and year 
at the end after writing the letter. The merchants are accustomed to put at the top as we have said. If 
you should do otherwise and not write the day, there will be confusion and you wiU be made fun of be- 
cause we say the letter which does not bear the day was written during the night, and the letter which 
does not bear the place we say that it was written in the other world, not in this one ; and besides the fun 
made of you, there would be vexations, which is worse, as I have said. 

After you have sent your answer away, you put your letter in its proper place; and what we have 
said of one letter will apply to all the other letters. It must be observed that when the letters you send 
away are of importance, you should first make a record of them in a book which is kept for this special 
purpose. In this book the letter should be copied, word for word, if it is of great importance — as, for in- 
stance, the letters of exchange, or letters of goods sent, etc., otherwise only a record of the substantial part 
should be made similarly as we do in the memorandum book, saying : On this day, etc., we have written 
to so and so, etc., and we send him the following things, etc., as per his letter of such and such date he 
requested or gave commission for, etc., which letter we have placed in such and such pouch. 

After you have sealed the letter on the outside and addressed it, it is the custom of many to mark on 
the outside your special mark, so that they may know that it is correspondence of a merchant, because 
great attention is given to merchants, for they are the ones, as we said at the beginning of this treatise, 
who support our republics. 

For this purpose, the Most Reverend Cardinals do likewise, by writing their name on the outside of 
their coirespondence so that nobody could claim as an excuse that he did not know from whom it was. The 
correspondence of the Holy Father remains open so that its contents may be known, like bulls, privileges, 
etc., although for things which are more personal or confidential the seal representing the Fisherman (Pes- 
catore — St. Peter) is used to seal them. 

All these letters, then, month by month, year by year, you shall put together in a bundle and you will 
keep them in an orderly way in a chest, wardrobe or cupboard. As you receive them during the day, put 
them aside in the same order, so that if necessary you might find them more easily ; and I won 't talk any 
longer about this, as I know that you have understood it. 

You shall keep in a more secret place, as private boxes and chests, all manuscripts of your debtors 
who have not paid you, as I said in Chapter 17. Likewise keep the receipts in a safe place for any emerg- 
ency. But when you should pay others, have the other party write the receipt in a receipt book, as I told 
you at the beginning, so that a receipt cannot be easily lost or go astray. 

You shall do the same as to important writing, as, for instance, memoranda of the brokers, or of mer- 
chants, or of weighmen, or relative to goods placed in or taken out of the custom house, either land or sea 
custom houses, and judgments or decrees of the consuls or of other public officials, or all kinds of notarial 
instruments written on parchments which ought to be kept in a place apart. The same should be said of 
the copies of instruments and papers of attorneys or counselors at law relative to lawsuits. 

It is also wise to have a separate book for memoranda, which we call memoranda book, in which day by 
day you shall keep a record of the things that you might be afraid of forgetting and, if you forget them, 
may prove to be dangerous to you. Every day, the last thing in the evening, just before going to bed, you 
shall glance over this book to see whether everything which should have been done has been done, etc., 
and you shall cancel with your pen the things that have been done, and in this book you shall make a rec- 
ord of the things that you have lent to your neighbor or friend for one or two days, as, for instance, store 
vases, caldrons, or any other thing. 


^i(\inaio nona.Zricfatusxi'-Bc fcript urts 
(.-mill Anfumlti con all aim vnliflimi fopia dari rcpo?rai ri.pia c mko ^onqando cfimfnu 

raifon certoituttetucfaccdcbri tcrcagiarai.jncdiatcdtuopercgrinoingcgno 7C.^ 
£?u.n n irio ve rcgole £ modi fopza il ccncrc vno Ubzo oi incrcami. ^ ^^ 'Cap . i^. 
^utti li acditozi fi( ocbono nictrcrc al litoo oala lua inaiio ocltra.^ h dcWrozi oala tua 
mano fitnllra. Tuttc k pritc cbt (e mettcno allib? Ixjno a €crt poppic-.dbc f< tu fai vno ere 
di'tozc al fi fare i '.oebitozeXiafcua |?rita cofi t oarc coc I Ixre Dbbc cotcncjt ifcj^ofc cioc 
ilgioaio ocl pagamcto-la foma ocl paaani&o.£ la fogioe ocl paganicto. tuln'mo 
nomc ocla Dti'ta ocl ocbito ocbbcccre il pzio ocHa pnra ocl crcdtto. ^nq^lo medcfimo 
ci'dzno clx c fcritta la ptira ocl ocbiro. i qllo mcdcfimo giojno ocbbccerc qlla ocl crcdiro. 
to bilando ocl lib? fintcdc i ? foglio picgato p lo logo ful qtc oala mano wftra fi copiao 
li crcdit02i ocl lib".c oala finiftra li oebito2i.£ vcdcfc fc lafiTi ma oei oarc c^td qlla oc lauc 
rc.£ aIlo?a il lib'.fta bene. £l bilaudo ocl lib:o ocbbe ecrc pari.dbc dx tamo ocbbe cd- 
la fiima lion oico oe ocbit02i.fle>a oicola fiima ocl crcdifo ^to la fuma ocl oc 
bi'to.£ no ecndo fana erro:e nd libzo. £1 como oi caflTa conniene dx fcp:e fia ocbitricc. 
overamcte pari. £ fe attnmctc fufic faria erroze ndlib?o. J^on fi ocbbe c non fipuo fare 
r^.ocbitojeal libro fenca lice<;a c uoluta oi qllo lale d?a acere ocbiroze c fc pure fifaccflc ql- 
la fcrittura fcria falfa iHe fimilmctc non fi puo po:re neppati nc condirioni a. i ? crcdito fc 
<a liccca e volontaoclcrcdito:e.£ fe purefifacc(Teqll3*fc?ittura faria falfa. £llib°.conuie 
ttcd?c fia tutto tratto fuozt ai i *.medcfima m6cta.flf^a octro poibji noi'arc qllo S a cadd 
fc 0UC.0 &.0 f i02(ni.o fcudi oozo.o cjllo dx fulTi i3^a nd rrarrc fuori conuiene cbt fia tut 
to a I '.mcdcfima moncta coc pziripiafti illib'-colT conuicncfcguirc. la ^tita oel ocbiro. 
od crcdito dx fi fa i conto oc calti fi puo abjcuiare cbi vuolccioc fcn^a oire lacagionc fo 
laitictc oire oa rale oi talc.d a tale oi la cagionc fi uienc a oicbiarar ndla giita op 
pofira. feaufdo a fare i ".cdto nuouo fi ocbbe fcniicre i'carra noua fenca to?narc adictro an 
coza d? a orfctro vi trouaffi fpacio oa mctrcrla. j^on fi oic fcriuere idrietro.iQI!>a fcpzc auf 
ri per ozdinc coevanno li giozni octtpo d?e mat' non ritoznano indriero.£ fe pure fi facclTe 
fan'a oa reputare qllo libzo falfo. S e i ".partita folTc alibzo mcflTa per errorc cbc non do 
neffi cere coeaduicnc ale volte per ifmemojaginc etulauolelTiift02nare faraicofi fengna 
qlla t^e partita in margineouna crodoouna. lb. £ dipoifcriui r '.^cita alincontro.ctoea 
lo oppofito oi qlla nel mcdcfimo conto.cioe fda parnra errata fulTc credirricc.poniamo oi 
^Sohot>6£ m la farai odMtrice.£ dirai.c de dare, g; f o.P i o 6 fi.ronno per la partita di' 
ptro fegnata crod- cbc fi ftoma perdxcra errata e non baueiia a cerc.£ qfta partita fcgna 
la. crodcdec lattra e d fatta. £iuandalofpadb duno coto fuffe pieno.iii modo cb no u( 
poteflfe mctterc pin grite.£ tuvolclTi rirarc qllo conto mnan<;i.5a cofiguarda qllo cb e il re 
ftodddfttoa>nto.doefdiren:al?auercoadart ©?aponiamo cbc qllo conto refti baueit 
S 2 8 f 4 6 i.bico d?e tu dcbbi fare i ". verfo folctto oala parte, oppofita fcn^a mctterc gio:^ 
no.e diraicofi'.£dedare.S; 28 P 4 2 per rcfto oiqfto conto poftobauerc in qfto acar.e d 
fatto.£ lo detto verfo fi dcbe fegnarc in marginc dauanti cofi.doc IR". cbc fignifica rcfto 
doc d?el detto ucrfo non ne dcbir?tce ancor cbc fia dala banda dc\ debito:c.Cl^ uienc a cP 
fere trafpoztaro qllo crcdito per la via dddebito.Oza ticouieneuolgere carta candarcta^ 
re gtiia nuoua fc^ mcttcrui il gi02no.£ du*ai cofi tale di talc tali de bere. S r Si' 4 .6 2.f5 
noper rcfto duno fuo conro Icuato in qfto a ca. £ qfta parrita (i dcWji fegnaze in marginc 
con. doc "H^". cbefignifica rcfto£ c fatta.£ cofi commc io to moftro quando ilconto refta 
abauere coff ancorabaiafarc quando rdlaflladare.doe quelle cai mdTo dala banda dd 
atdito mcttcr date b^da dd dcbito. 

tlando£l lib" fulTc tutto picno o ucd^io e tu uoldli ridullo a 1 ° alt" li". nuouo 
fa cofi p .ti couicne vcderc cbc fc il tuo lib", vccbio e fcgnato i fu locoucrra poni 
amo g cafo. B . bifogna cb i ful lib? nuouo ooue lo voi ridurre fia fcanato in fu 
lacoucrta.a&.pclxlilib'.ocmercantivanop02dicluno ooppo laV.FoIeli'e 

txlo.a be 7c.£ oipoilcuarc ilbilando od lib? vedno dx fiia giufto e pori coc ocbba dftrc 
CM qllobilando copiare tatti It creditozi c Dcbit02i i ful lib'.nuouo mm g o?dine c6e> clli 
Ksno i fill biHdo.£ fare tucn'Ii oebit02i e orcditoTi ciafcu oa gfe^ lafcia adafic? tito ^itio 


These rules, and the other very useful rules of which I have spoken before, you shall follow and, ac- 
cording to the localities and times, you shall be more or less particular, adding or omitting as it seems best 
to you, because it is impossible to give rules for every little thing in the mercantile business, as we have 
already said. The proverb says that we need more bridges to make a merchant than a doctor of laws can 

If you understand well all the things that I have spoken of so far, I am sure you with your intelli- 
gence will carry on your business well. 



All the creditors must appear in the Ledger at the right hand side, and all the debtors at the left. 
All entries made in the ledger have to be double entries — that is, if you make one creditor, you must 
make some one debtor. 

Each debit (shall give — dee dare) and credit (shall have — dee havere) entry must contain three things, 
namely : the day, the amount and the reason for the entry. 

The last name in the entry of the debit (in the Ledger) must be the first name in the entry of the 
credit. On the same day that you make the debit entry, you should make the credit entry. 

By a trial balance {bUancio) of the Ledger we mean a sheet of paper folded lengthwise in the middle, 
on which we write down all the creditors of the Ledger at the right side and the debtors at the left side. 
"We see whether the total of the debits is equal to that of the credits, and if so, the Ledger is in order. 

The trial balance of the Ledger should be equal — that is, the total of the credits — I do not say creditors 
— should be equal to the total of the debits — I do not say debtors. If they were not equal there would be a 
mistake in the Ledger. 

The cash account should always be a debtor or equal. If it were different, there would be a mistake 
in the ledger. 

You must not and cannot make any one debtor in your book without permission or consent of the per- 
son that has to appear as debtor ; if you should, that account would be considered false. Likewise you can- 
not add terms or conditions to a credit without permission and consent of the creditor. If you should, 
that statement would be untrue. 

The values in the Ledger must be reckoned in one kind of money. In the explanation of the entries, 
you may name all sorts of money, either ducats, or lire, or Florence, or gold scudi, or anything 
else ; but in writing the amount in the column, you should always use the same kind of money through- 
out — that is, the money that you reckon by at the beginning should be the same all through the Ledger. 

The debit or credit entries of the cash account may be shortened, if you desire, by not giving the rea- 
son for the entry ; you may simply say from so and so, for so and so, because the reason for the entry is 
stated in the opposite entry. 

If a new account should be opened, you must use a new page and must not go back even if there was 
room enough to place the new account. You should not write backward, but always forward — that is, go 
forward as the days go, which never come back. If you do otherwise, the book would be untrue. 

If you should make an entry in the Ledger by mistake which should not have been made, as it happens 
at times through absentmindedness, and if you wanted to correct it, you shall do as follows: Mark with 
a cross or with an "H" that special entry, and then make an entry on the opposite side under the same 
account. That is, if the erroneous entry was on the credit side — say, for instance, for L 50, S 10, D 6 — 
you make an entry in the debit side, saying: Debit (dee dare) L 50, S 10, D 6, for the opposite entry 
cross marked which is hereby corrected, because it was put in through a mistake and should not have 
been made. Then mark with a cross this new entry. This is all. 

When the spaces given to any particular account are all filled so that no more entries can be made 
and you want to carry forward that account, do in this way : Figure out the remainder of the said ac- 
count — that is, whether it is debit or credit remainder. Now let us say that there is a credit remainder 
of L 20, S 4, D 2. You should write on the opposite side, without mentioning any date, as follows : Debit 
L 28, S 4, D 2, per remainder (per resto) of this account carried forward in the credit at page so and so. 
And it is done. The said entry is to be marked in the margin so, namely: Bo, which means "resto" (re- 
mainder) , but this does not mean that it is a true debit entry although it is on the debit side. It is rather 
the credit which is transferred through the debit side. Now you must turn the pages and keep on turn- 
ing them until you find a new page where you shall credit that account by naming the account and mak- 
ing a new entry without putting down any day. And you shall say in the following manner : So and so 
is credit (dee havere) L 28, S 4, D 2, per remainder (per resto) of account transferred from page so and so, 
and you should mark this entry in the margin by Ro, which means "resto" remainder, and that is done. 

In the same way, as I have shown you, you shall proceed if the account has a debit remainder — that is, 
what you enter on the credit side you should transfer to the debit side. 

When the ledger is all filled up, or old, and you want to transfer it into a new one, you proceed in the 
following manner : First you must see whether your old book bears a mark on its cover — for instance, an 
A. In this case you must mark the new Ledger in which you want to transfer the old one by B, because 
the books of the merchants go by order, one after the other, according to the letters of the alphabet. Then 
you have to take the trial balance of the old book and see that it is equal. From the trial balance sheet 
you must copy in the new Ledger all the creditors and debtors all in order just as they appear in the trial 
balance sheet, but make a separate account for each amount ; 


©iftincfonofia.Er9ahJ0,ja*.©fJci1ptnJi0 uo 

Cf to m arbimfberc a rrauagJiare co kco.£ i ciifcat ^tm od offairox f?af a oir< Q riti re fta 
adare fll lib'- uecbk) fcgnaro. il.acarxicufctia^niaodacdMoxbaiaoirc gcanu r€»U 
a l73ucrc a( fib' ncbio Icgnato. B. a car . /£ cof; c riduao 3( (ibjo nuouo.£)2a g canceUar 
il lib;o uccIMo ri couicne a aafcuo coto acccfo ifpepn^rlo td lo bilancio fop:3 wio.«cc fJr 
vno coto c«l lib:o uccbio fara credit o;e clx !o! j£drai q lo btlaiipo faralo ocbito?c c oiroi g 
rann rcfta l>aucrc a qrto coro poflp ocbbi Ixmen ;?{ ia>', nouo fc gnato. £>.; coli Iw 
rat iTpcro runo il lib' uccImox accefo ai [ib" ■mouo.£ coficomo lo to inolh*o ouiio crcdito 
re cofi bai afarc oun'o oebito«.0sriuo cl?€ ooucal crcdito?e fifa DCbiro2c pofto ocbbt ba 
uerc £ m \m a fare crcdiro^c pofto0£bbt oare 7 c fatto . 

£afi clx agticnc amcrrerc ai hbzo oc macanti , 
Citttf II d.c6tanriclx tu n trouaffi dx fuffmo ruoi .f^?u.cioec(x {Mucrtlguadagnarfr 
Oiuofi tpi pel palTar o dx « fuffino (lati laflati oa ruoi parcn mojti.o oonati oa qlclx pH 
cipc farai crcdirojc re medcnio.£ wbitore calTa. Zurte k gioie c mercantie clx fulAno 
tuc .ppric clx tu l?aucfli guadagnate-o S ti faffino ftarc lalDtc ^ reft3inero.o dx ti fufliw) 
rtare oon3re.£ qftc rale cofe ii vogliono ftimarc oa p fc (una oa lalt'-qllo dx wgliano a 6. 
c6t3ntt.£ ranrc grc cofe cUc fono tante prite fare al lib'x fare ciafaiiia ocbitnce e oire g ta 
!c im'rrouo fiimare qWo oi UHti 6.7C.i£H?fto nietiefimoCTedito:e i ql^oa car.£ faraicredi 
ro:e t'l ruo coto.cioe re medefimo oi cufcua ^tm.0P>3 nora cbe qltc ^rirc fintede cb no ftc 
m maco oi weci ouc. (una po cbe le cofe minute oi poco v«lo:e non imietraiio al lib:o-. 

Zuttc Ic cofe Ibbile dx m tj irouafli dx fullino rue ^pnc c6€ fjpno c^fe polTeffioi bottC' 

gl?c l^aiafare rcbitoze retra cafa e ftimarc qllo dx ! a uaie a rua mkrcnoe a d.coranti. £ fa 

ne acdifox re medeitio al luo fopza certo c6to.£ oipct fare ocbiroTC la polTertioe ra gfe c 

fli'marla coe e Ditro e fane credicoK te medenio al tuo fop^adetro coro. e coe iielle regote to 

Ditto lutte I? grite vogdono bere i lojo rre cofe.doe il giorno da (f '. rda pecuia e lacagide. 

£dprecbc tu faccfltoi mcrcinrieo oicbe cofa fi fuik p (i o cotatiocbbi fareobitore qlla 

talc mcrcantia o qlla tale cofa e crcditore la caffa. £ fe w oiceiri. lo lacoprai a 6. cotati coe c 

rifto.CIf^a vno banco glipago p nie.o vcramcre rno ini'o aimco gli pago g mclKifpodotf 

dx a ogni modo bai afare wbirore qlla tale inercanria coe oifopr^.o oitto.iQE>3 ooue io r i 

DilTi faraicrcdito: la cafla tu bat afare creditoP^l banco.o qllo tuo aico cb g re glia p^gati. 

Coprcdx tu faccflfi di mcrcannco did?e cofa fifia a tcrminc dalcuno tpo dcbi fare dc> 

bitore qlla tale mercanciaccrcdiiore colui dacmrulaicopatagqllotpo .£<5predxtu 

fjccfli dt mcrcanria.b diclxcofa fi fia a jjfc ix gte tpo de|3t?i fare debitore qlla tale mcrcat> 

03 £ crcditore colui da cui tu laico^ara g qllo tpo co qfti parti dx li babbi bauere diaamo 

il ter<;o di o.corari £ lorefto fra fci mefi ^rimi futuri:£ doppo qlio fare unaltra gnta.cioc 

dcbirore colui da cui tu laicogara diqlla cr^di6.c6tanrldx iriota qlla ter^a parte cbe fud( 

patfo dicorami £ crcditore la calTa o qllo baucbo d)e glfa)agalTe gte. 'iTutte U ue^irc cl^ 

tu facclTidi mercanric o daltre <ok bai a fare turto coiiu Jifopra faluo djaia mertfrc glo op 

pofitocioe d?c doue diTopra ri difli cbe frprc faccITi debitore lamercantia:ti nclle vcdftfteai 

a fare frpre crcditore la mcrcanria £ dtbisorc calTa fe c ueduta a dxdtanriodd7i'i(n*e<jtban| 

CO cbe te li baucffc ^iiielTi£ lec vcdura a reruiine.bai a fare debitore colui acuity Ibaiuidtt 

ta p qllo rcnninc c fc fufie ueduta a ^rc oe pte tpo bai a fare coe oifopja ci mcrftrai nclk c» 

p:e qllc ouc prirc.. Se tu veddfi wia inc rtacia abaratro Oidaino.'^o bovcdutc libb« mil 

Ic tMlana Dingblirtrra abaratto oi ptwerc aocalibreouimlia oi pcucre ooinandocommc 

fa a coirorc qlia fairrura al lib^ fa,cofiilhma qllo dx vale tipipe a tua oifcretioe a d-coti' 

n'.0: poniamo dx tulo ftimi ouc.oodicf liccro adoqs Ic oumilia libb^c vagUono ouc.24c> 

cotari.e po farai err dtrorc lalana 6 ouc . 2 4o.p qpro lai venduta £ qfto modo obf «a fepx f 

Ifpnrc turre r^libararti w qli fcnc l>auro S-Duamilia ripcuerc fjimato. i4o.ouc.^^ftooa' 

sopewri: ocbbi Darciqllodcar.£fanec>cbiro;eilpcuerc. Oanaricdiann dx rupltani 

aqlcbcwo amico baiafarc wbifo.-c lamicoacbi m glitwipftati e creditozecjiTa. JScni 

nccucITi r>.c6tanri in plhn^a oa qldx amico bai afare Dcbito?e calTa e credirox' lamico. 

Sf tu l.-»auefli pfp orto.o dk:ci.p vcn ouc .p afficurare naue galee o altra cofa ocbbi fa/ 
tx crcdifox fie urta 01 nauilii c cbiartrc dx c cbe c qpdo e ooue e qjto p cero .£ dcbitox coto 
w caffa. £}f^erf aniic the ti fuffino mandate m altri co comiffionc oiuederlc bMTJttaric 
wcquali ru l>aucffi bauc r fa tua ^mfiof Dicodx tu ocbbi fare oebitojcallib^ qlla talc mcr 
cantia atrcncrc al talc n talc p lo po?to.o p gabclla .0 p nolo p metrcrc i magaiino £ ao 
difozecotoruaria. Zuttclcfpck oimercantic oa !5.c6t3nticbetufar3i,opJK>Jo.o|g ga, 
bcHc.omtureo fcnferico po7tanirf fa crcditore la caffa.jgoebrtojequcUa tale mercantts 


and leave to each account all the space that you think you may need. And in each debit account you shall 
say: Per so much as per debit remainder {resta a dare) in the old book marked A, at page so and so. And 
in each credit account you shall say : Per so much as per credit remainder {resta a havere) in the old book 
marked A, at page so and so. In tiiis way you transfer the old Ledger into the new one. Now, in order to 
cancel the old book, you must cancel each account by making it balance, of which we have spoken — ^that is, 
if an account of the old Ledger shows a credit remainder as the trial balance would show you, you shall 
debit this account for the same amount, saying, so much remains in the credit of this account, carried for- 
ward in the credit in the new Ledger marked B, at page so and so. In this way you shall have closed the 
old Ledger and opened the new one for, as I have shown you how to do for a creditor, the same you shall 
do for a debtor, with this difference, that while you debit an account, which may show a credit remain- 
der, you shall credit the account which may show a debit remainder. This is all. 


Of all the cash that you might have, if it is your own — that is, that you might have earned at differ- 
ent times in the past, or which might have been bequeathed to you by your dead relatives or given you 
as a gift from some Prince, you shall make yourself creditor {cr editor e te medesima), and make cash deb- 
itor. As to aU jewelry or goods which might be your own — that is, that you may have got through busi- 
ness or that might have been left you through a wiU or given to you as a present, you must value them in 
cash and make as many accounts as there are things and make each debitor by saying : For so many, etc., 
of which I find myself possessed on this day, so many denari, posted credit entry at such and such page ; 
and then you make creditor your account (^mo con^o), that is yourself {medesimo), with the amount of each 
of these entries. But remember these entries should not be for less than ten ducats each, as small things of 
little value are not entered in the Ledger. 

Of aU the real property that you might own, as houses, lands, stores, you make the cash debitor and 
estimate their value at your discretion in cash, and you make creditor yourself or your personal account 
{tuo sopradette conto). Then you make debitor an account of that special property by giving the value, 
as I have said above, and make yourself creditor because, as I have told you, all entries must have three 
things : The date, the value in cash, and the reason. 

If you should buy merchandise or anything else for cash, you should make a debtor of that special 
merchandise or thing and like creditor cash, and if you should say, I bought that merchandise for cash, 
but a bank wiU furnish the cash, or a friend of mine will do so, I will answer you that any way, you must 
make a debitor of that special merchandise ; but where I told you to credit cash, you should, instead, credit 
that special bank, or that special friend who furnished the money. 

If you should buy merchandise or anything else, partly for cash and partly on time, you shall make 
that special merchandise debitor, and make a creditor of the party from whom you bought it on time and 
under the conditions that you might have agreed upon ; as, for instance, one-third in cash and the rest in 
six months. After this you wiU have to make another entry — that is, make a debitor of the party from 
whom you bought it for the amount of the cash that you have given him for that one-third, and make cred- 
itor cash or the bank which might have paid that much for you. 

If you should sell any merchandise or anything else, you should proceed as above with the exception 
that you should proceed in the opposite way — ^that is, where I told you that when you bought you should 
make the merchandise debitor, when you seU you will have to make your merchandise a creditor and charge 
the cash account if it is sold for cash, or charge the bank that might have promised the payment. And if 
you make a sale on time, you will have to charge the party to whom you sold it on time, and if you make 
the sale partly for cash and partly on time, you shall proceed as I have shown you in explaining about the 

If you should give merchandise in exchange, for instance, let us say I have sold 1,000 pounds of Eng- 
lish wool in exchange for pepper — ^that is, for 2,000 pounds of pepper — I ask, how shall we make this entry 
in the Ledger ? You shall do as follows : Estimate what the value of the pepper is, at your discretion, in 
cash. Now let us say that you estimated 12 ducats per hundred; the 2,000 pounds would be worth 240 
ducats. Therefore, you shall make the wool a creditor with 240 ducats, for which amount you have sold 
it. This is the manner that you should follow in all the trade entries. If you have received 2,000 pounds 
of pepper valued at 240 ducats, you shall make the pepper a debitor and say : Said pepper debtor on this 
day, see page, etc., etc. 

If you should loan cash to some of your friends, you shall charge the friend to whom you have given 
it and credit cash. If you should borrow cash from some friend, you will have to debit cash and credit 
your friend. 

If you have received 8 or 10 or 20 ducats in order to insure a ship or a galley, or anything else, you 
should credit the account ' ' ship insurance, ' ' and explain all about it — how, when and where, and how much 
per cent. ; and shall charge the cash account. 

If anybody should send you any goods with instructions to sell them or exchange them on commis- 
sion, I say that you have to charge in the Ledger that special merchandise belonging to so and so with the 
freight, or duty, or for storage, and credit the cash account. You shall credit the cash for all cash that 
you have to pay on account of goods : for instance, cash paid for transportation or duty, or brokerage, etc., 
and charge the account of that special goods for that which you have paid in money. 



tJtte lemaflm'ric tn cafa o mbortcga cbetu ti triioiu. Om vogliono cIRre per 
oTdmcdoe totr e le cok w' fcrro oa pcrfe con fpario oa potcrc agiongncre fc b^ 
rognafre.£ cofi oa fegnare m margine quelle cbc ftilTino perdutrc o vendutco 
-^ Donate oguafk.(iJfbanonfii'ntcnde m3flS:riricmmutcofpocovalo2c.£farert 
cojdo of nittc k cok oortonc oa pcrfc comme e wtro. ^e rimik tunc tecofc otftagno . £ i? 
itiflerutfc Iccofe oilengno.£ cofi tuttc fe coTc oi'ramc.£ cofi tuttcle cofc oariento c now ?c 
Scmp.Y con f{)atio oi qualcbc carta ua potcrc arrogerc fc WfognajTcc colli oadarc nontii 
»tquc(focf?cmancalTc. "iruttelcmallcucrieoobbzigbio p^omcflccbcpjomettcflTpcrql/ 
cbe aniico. c cbfarirc bene d>e econtme. 'iTuttc Icmcrcantic o altrc cofcdjc ri foflfeno faf' 
fate i girardia o a fcrbo oi pfta^a t>3 cpcfx amico.e cofi tutfc Iccofc cb tu pftafli'aafirt tuoi 
amici. 2'utti Itmercati condin'onatf doe cop?e ovcdttecome ^ crcplovno cotrato ctoecB 
tti mi mandi con (cpjofllmc galccdx toincranno tnngWitcrra tatui Qniara oi lane djUM 
ftri a f afo cbc le ficno buone e redpientf .?o ti oaro tanto od cantaro o ocl cento o Xformb 
K ti niandaro afincontro tanti' cantara W cotront. Cuttc le cafe o poflefTfcmf o bottcgbe 
giofe dx tu aft'falTi a tanti mco a tante lire lanno.£ quando tu rifcoterai afiftto aloja qi 
li>3inari fanno a mettere al libzocomme DiTop^i ri o((TCp:eftando qualdJc gioia o lafdk' 
ineim' oariento o oojo a quakbe tuo aniico per otto o quidici gi'oznt oiqueftc tale co(c no 
Ti mettono al lib? fene fa ricozdo a(erico2datt^e.perdx fra pocbi gio:ni laibariauere. 
£ cofi per contrafc a tc fo(ft'p:cftato fi'imW cofc non li ocbbi ntetterc al libro. Ohz fame me 
ino2«a alericoj(laa!;epercbcp?cftolai'3 rendeit. 

£omme n fcriuono Wre e foldi' e oanarie pi'cfoli e altre abjcuiature. 
Xire fofdt oanarj pidoli IibbTC once oanarpefi gram' carat( oucari fioiinlargbt. 


6 P llbbre @ tp e". r ouc. fioJaf 

Com^ioebbeoettarelcgtitew cdbkoit 

fleece? trrjcicfii*. 
Zddom'cd oi'pieroforeftai' 
oeoare airf4:iui.nouembre. 
contati' in pftai;a.pollo caf 
Taauercacar. 2 % 44^108* 

£ a 01.1 g.oetto S:.r8.f.i i.A 
6.promettemo p lui'a marti 
no oipuro forabofcW afuo 
pi£icefpo(lobatiqllo.3C.2.s iS f\\d6. 

£atki i mano oi fimone oa 
Icflbbc^jeni oe oaf aoi.i 4. 

6.2.0a francefco oantonio 
aualcann in qUo a c.2 % 

6z $1^ &6. 

Cortina oipiero fora bo 
fcbi ocdare a dt.2o.nouem 
bre.j 49^8^*1 8.^.11 .6.64ior 
to luimcdefimo contatipo^ 
ftocalfaacar. 2. s 

^rancefcodantonio caual 
cati oe dare a oi. 1 2 .oi noul 
miflJE anoSlro pi'acef ^ lodo 
uico Dipieroforeftai a c.2. S 

18 ^11 d6. 

20 ^462, 


lodoufcooipiero fojcftai 
©e Jxiuere a oi.22.noucbrc 
1 49h%'io.f.4..t.2 Sono g 
parte per 
Cnfcclia promifli anorfro 
piacere fraccfdx) z^tomo. 
caualcatfpoftooareac.2.g; 20 ^482. 

£afla in mano oi fimone 

oaleflbbobcnioebaiiere a 

di.i 4.nonebrc.i 49?.S:.44. 

P.I .^.g.alo douico dipiero 

foreff ani in q(\o. a car. 2 . $: 44 ^ 1 d & 



piero forabofcb!,ac8.2» % 18 Pi 1 8^. 

fl^tino dipiero fora bo 
fd)idi l:>auereadij 8.notj£ 
^mcttemo a fuo piacere q 
lodoaico oipiero foreflrani 
pofto6bbi'berciqil:08£.2.S; 18 f ii6« 

^rancefcbo datonto caual 
canridc l?auerea di. 1 
rcco lui inedefimo ptan po % 6i$ii^6. 



All the house and store goods that you may find yourself possessed of — these should be put down in 
order — that is, all the things made of iron by itself, leaving space enough to make additions if necessary ; 
also leaving room to mark in the margin the things that might be lost or sold or given as presents or 
spoiled. But I don't mean small things of little value. 

Make a record of all the brass things separately, as I have said, and then a record of the tin things, 
and then the wooden things, and copper things, and then the silver things and gold things, always leaving 
enough space between each class so that you may add something if necessary, and to put down a memo- 
randum of any object that might be missing. 

All sureties or obligations or promises of payment that you might make for some friend, explaining 
clearly everything. 

All goods or other things that might be left with you in custody, or that you might borrow from some 
friend, as well as all the things that other friends of yours might borrow from you. 

All conditional transactions — that is, purchases and sales, as, for instance, a contract that you shall 
send me by the next ship coming from England, so many cantara of wall di li mistri, on condition that 
it is good ; and when I receive it I will pay you so much per cantara or by the hundred, or otherwise ; I 
will send you in exchange so many cantara of cotton. 

All houses, lands, stores or jewels that you might rent at so many ducats and so many lire per year. 
And when you collect the rent, then that money should be entered in the Ledger, as I have told you. 

If you should lend some jewels, silver or gold vase to some friend, say, for instance, for eight or fifteen 
days, things like this should not be entered in the Ledger, but, should be recorded in this record book, because 
in a few days, you wiU get them back. In the same way, if somebody should lend you something like the 
things mentioned, you should not make any entry in the Ledger, but put down a little memorandum in 
the record book, because in a short time you will have to give it back. 

How Lire, Soldi, Denari and Picioli, etc., should be written down as abbreviations. 

Lire; Soldi; Denari; Picioli; Libbre; Once; Danarpesi; Grani; Carati; Ducati; Florin larghi. 

(See other side for their abbreviations.) 


MCCCCLXXXXIII. Lodovico, son 
of Piero Forestani, shall give on 
the 14th day of November, 1493, 
L 44, S 1, D 8, for cash loaned, 
posted cash shaU have at page 2 : 

And on the 18th ditto, L 18, 
S 11, D 6, which we promised to 
pay for him to Martino, son of 
Piero Foraboschi at his pleasure, 
posted said shall have at page 2 : 

Cash in hands of Simone, son 
of Alessio Bombeni, shall give on 
Nov. 14, 1493, for L 62, S 13, D 
2, for Francesco, son of Antonio 
Cavalcanti, page 2: 

L 44, S 1, D 8 

L 18, S 11, D 6 

L 62, S 13, D 6 

Martino, son of Piero Forabos- 
chi, shall give on Nov. 20, 1493, 
for L 18, S 11, D 6, taken by him 
in cash, posted Cash at page 2 : 

L 18, S 11, D 6 

Francesco, son of Antonio Ca- 
valcanti, shall give, on Nov. 12, 
1493, L20, S4, D 2, which he 
promised to pay to us at our 
pleasure for Lodovico, son of Pie- 
tro Forestani ; page 2 : L 20, S 4, D 2 


MCCCCLXXXXIII. Lodovico, son 
of Piero Forestani, shall have, 
on Nov. 22, 1493, for L 20, S 4, D 
2, for part payment. And for him 
Francesco, son of Antonio Caval- 
canti, promised to pay it to us at 
our pleasure ; posted shall give at 
page 2 : L 20, S 4, D 2 

Cash in hands of Simone, son 
of Alessio Bombeni, shall have, 
on Nov. 14, 1493, for L 44, S 1, D 
8, from Lodovico Pietro Fores- 
tani, L 44, SI, D 8 ; and on Nov. 
22, 1493, L 18, S 11, D 6, to Mar- 
tino, son of Piero Forbaschi, 
page 2: 

L18, Sll, D6 

Martino, son of Piero Forabos- 
chi, shall have on Nov. 18, 1493, 
for L18, Sll, D6, which we 
promised to pay him at his pleas- 
ure for Lodovico, son of Pietro 
Forestani ; posted shall give en- 
try at p. 8: 

Francesco, son of Antonio Ca- 
valcanti, shall have on Nov. 14, 
1493, for L 62, S 13, D 6, which 
he brought himself in cash ; 
posted cash shall give at page 2 : 

LIS, Sll, P6 




J94 3? Procrlinno// Adoniudrij.pcridnnofeguido, p^faWarlai^arHdadelidonUonetu 

^^.4.'T r n r»j J- n QD f^ doilrcftodiqudliinpro&danno. 

^ ^ ^ , ^ "^ ^ 

^9S [^ Pro cr ddnno // A Spcfe dt uiuer di cafd , ptr pm V^^^f^^' '* ^^^^^ •*' ^^'*"^ >" <*"*« P'» 
^T^ lp(ftfdtte,comtinej]'ecippar,perfdldodi(jUcUe,9f 

i54^2of^i4 «dl^ 15^ ^a 8f^i4 

. ^ . , 

296 ^ F(>f« rfcffd polfcp-ion dd M oMtt // A Pro CT ddnno P ^^^JJ"^^' ^' *"" **«"* poflcsfion.fn pro 
^ a , P'** pt'o tfi quf ttrf per Vanno prcfentefinird it Ltcto 

i54i,per/tf/do(ieqMeWi9f 4; ^ Udl'^ 4 JP i©^ <SU 

(i^ — ^__, d -^ 

a ^7 ^ Pro CT id^^)o // A Spefe diutrfe per piu lj)efe fdtte ^^^^^^^^ lefpefediucrfe, in dittopto 
^ f y- Vdnno prcfente^comc in e//e <tppdr, perfdldo (uo 9f 

*^ y ^i 7 

298 3? Pro Cr ddtmo // A Spefe de Uldriddi in montt.ptr Di faldar U fpefe de falariadi , inditte 

^A.a.^^'nrr o /• ■ rr pro&danpo. 

•^-- piufpif€iaHelannopYejenU,comeinc}]cdppdr ^ 

4 o 

per/kWodtqMefleSf 48 ^ nf^ MdloP. 4JB 17 d- f^ 

a o o 3? Pro ic :c«cch4 in montt // A Pro CT ddfmo , per uti D' '^'^^^ '" pro <*« seccha, in lo ditto 
C^a Utdfeguidd^comein queUodppdr.pcr fdlio fuo, df 

tso^ f ml^ 15^ ^ f^ 

^ -, <f - 

500 q? Prott/nnoZ/ACducddldtmiAlmrcVdUdrtp, PaL'SfXi'L^^^^^^^ 
^j-y- ptrmlitdfegu'dd dt fdnno i 540 , trdttoiti/cjio, 

p/ [Modi queUo,"^ ^00^ 1 zf\ 17 /ua\% ^$o $ 1^ io<P-i7 

Fine (Jitf refeofe GiowdU^Unulo ptr mi Aluife Vd 

Idre/jTo, per c onto d*ogni trdfjico^^ negolio ^ me oc 

corfoydd di primo Mdrzo i /40,/in ddi ultimo Ff 

braro del ditto miUepmo^ nelqudlordindtdmente de 

giorno in giorno , ho fcritto di mid mdno^nc 

in effo piM wknio fcriuere , per hduer 

i^ueUo conckfo cf fdldato itt 

1 1 pdttidx. , Xec^tsX ho 

—sepondXt fiel /t' 






On the opposite page is given an enlarged reproduction of the last page of Domenico Manzoni 's jour- 
nal. As stated before, the writer has not an original copy of Manzoni 's book at hand, therefore only this 
page can be given which was enlarged from a reproduction appearing on page 121 of Brown's History of 

As we have seen in the historical chapter, Manzoni wrote forty years after Pacioli, but he was the first 
author to give illustrations of the journal and ledger, although in the text he practically copied Pacioli 
verbatim. Therefore, in Manzoni 's book we have the first expressions in examples and illustrations of the 
writings of Pacioli. 

The page here reproduced is the last page of the journal and contains the journal entries covering 
the closing of the profit and loss account {Pro et danno.) 

We will note that the date is in the middle at the top of the page; that the name of the debtor ac- 
count is separated from the name of the creditor account by two slanting lines, thus : // ; that each entry 
is separated by a line in the explanation column only (not in the money column) ; that immediately to 
the left of each entry we fitnd two figures, separated by a short horizontal line or dash ; these are the pages 
of the ledger to which the debit and credit are posted, the top figure representing the debit and the lower 
one the credit. Immediately before these two figures, we find two slanting lines or dashes; they are the 
checking marks. We will see that Pietra uses a dot in this place and that Pacioli prefers a dot but men- 
tions a check mark or any other mark. They are not the two slanting lines which are drawn through an 
entry when it has been posted. These two we find represented in the two little diagonal dashes at the be- 
ginning and end, as well as on the under and upper side, of the lines separating the journal entries. The 
writer believes from the descriptions he has read and illustrations he has seen, that these dashes are the 
beginning and end of the much described "diagonal lines" and illustrates his idea by the two lines he 
added to the reproduction in the last journal entry. The omission of these lines like that of the standing 
lines in the money column, is probably due to lack of printing facilities. You will recall that Pacioli men- 
tions these lines to be made at the beginning of the entry and at the end of the entry, just before the lire 

The numbers from 294 to 300 in the left-hand margin, are the consecutive numbers of the journal en- 
tries, which Manzoni alone and no other writer herein referred to mentions. 

On the right we find the four signs of the various denominations, lire, soldi, denari, and picioli. A 
dash is provided wherever a cypher should appear in the money column. 

The two lines of printing above the money in the money columns are merely directions which Manzoni 
as textwriter gave to his reader. They are not a part of the journal entry. You will note that he prints 
them in different type. The difference in coin between the uniform one used in bookkeeping and the one 
used locally is also apparent, as the local coin is given as a part of the explanation to the journal entry. 
The "p" to the left of the journal entry and to the right of the figures in the margin stands for "per" 
(our by), and immedately after the slanting dashes "//" in front of the name of the credit account is 
used "A" (our to). 

Elsewhere we have stated that except as to numbering the journal entries Manzoni mentioned noth- 
ing that Pacioli did not describe. While he copies whole chapters word for word, in some of them, how- 
ever, he was clearer, more brief and more systematic than Pacioli. We give one of the chapters as an ex- 




Regole breuissime del giornal & quaderno. 

Nota che la Eegola del Giornale & Quaderno, in se contiene sei cose, cio e. 

Dare, Havere, Qualita, Quantita, Tempo & Ordine. 

Dare, significa doner dare, cio e il debitore, o uno o piu che siano. 

Havere, uvol dir doner havere, cio e il creditore, o nno o piu che siano. 

Qualita sono quelle cose che tu maneggi, & siano di che sorte si vogliono. 

Quantita, e il numero, peso over misure, o piccioli, o grandi che si siano. 

Tempo, si e il giorno, ilmese & lanno, sotto il quale tu f ai la partida. 

Ordine, e quello, che nella presente opera con facilita insegnamo. 

Le due prime, sono affermative, e principali in ogi cosa. 

La cosa debitriee, sempre va posta avanti a la creditrice. 

Davanti a la cosa debitriee, vi si pone uno per a questo modo P. 

Davanti a la cosa creditrice, vi si pone uno A cosi A. 

II P, in tal luogo significa la cosa debitriee. 

E lo A in tal luogo significa la cosa creditrice. 

II giornale, si divide il debitore dal creditore, con due liniette a questo modo 

lequali dinotano, che de una partida dalgiornale, sempre se ne convien 
far due nel quaderno. 

II giorno, si nota nel giornal di sopra da la partida. 

Et nel quaderno, si nota, dentro dalla partida. 

II numero de le carte del quaderno, nel giornale, si mette avanti la partida. 

Et nel quaderno, il medesimo si mette dopo la partida. 

Li nomi de le partide vive in I'alfabeto, vi si poneno a man destra. 

Et quelli de le cose morte, si notano a man sinistra. 

Per le cose vive, qui s intende ogni creaturi animata. 

E per le morte, s intende robbe, over ogni altra cosa. 



Very Short Rules for the Journal and the Ledger. 
(In verse form.) 

You should note that the rules for the Journal and the Ledger contain six things, namely i 
Give, Have, Quality, Quantity, Time and Order. 

Give (Debit), means as much as "shall give", that is, the debtor be it one or more. 
Have (Credit), means as much as "shall have", this is, the creditor be it one or more. 
Quality, by this we understand the things you handle of whichever nature they may be. 
Quantity, by this we understand the number, the weight or the measure, be it big or little. 
Time, means the day, the month and the year in which the transaction is made. 
Order, means that which we can easily learn from the present book. 
The first two are most important and refer particularly to all things. 
The things made debtor should be placed before the creditor. 


In front of that which is made debtor is placed "Per", in this way "P". 

Before the creditor we place an "A" in this way "A". 

The "P" signifies that in this spot the things were made debtor. 

And the "A" signifies that in this spot the things were made creditor. 

In the Journal one must divide the debtor from the creditor by means of two small lines in this way //, 
which denotes that from one entry in the Journal two entries should be made in the Ledger. 

In the Journal, The day should be given above the entries. 

In the Ledger, The same is carried into the body of the entry. 

In the Journal, the number of the Ledger pages is placed in front of the entry. 

And in the Ledger we place the same after the entry. 

The name of the living account is written in the Index to the right. 

And those of the dead things are written to the left. 

With "living things" is understood every creature with a soul (ogni creatura animata). 

And with "dead things" is understood merchandise and everything else. 

In Chapter eleven Manzoni also gives eight rules for journalizing. The four principal things pertain- 
ing to buying, selling, receiving, paying, exchanging, loaning and gifts are 

1. The one who gives. 

2. The one who receives. 

3. The thing which is given. 

4. The thing which is received. 

It should be noted that here are four conditions to each transaction. While Manzoni does not explain 
their use, as we will see later on, Stevin gives us the proper interpretation for this, somewhat as follows : 

One transaction will always need a double-entry. If Peter pays £100 we must consider 

1. The one who gives, i. e., Peter. 

2. The one who receives, i. e., proprietor. 

3. The thing which is given, i. e., cash by Peter. 

4. The thing which is received, i. e., cash from the proprietor. 

Hence proprietor debit to Peter and cash debit to proprietor, which combined by eliminating the 
quantities of similar name and value, or by cancelling (as in algebra a=b; b=c; hence a=c) makes cash 
debit to Peter. 

Manzoni then follows with these eight rules : 

1. Debit merchandise for purchase. 

2. Credit merchandise for sales. 

3. Debit cash for cash sales. 

4. Credit cash for cash purchase. 

5. Debit buyer for sales on credit. 

6. Credit seller for purchase on credit. 

7. Debit persons who promise to pay. 

8. Credit persons to whom we promise to pay. 

In order to give the reader some idea of the scope of Manzoni 's work, we give here a translation of 

the Index to his book. 



1. Those things which the merchant needs and the system of keeping a Ledger and its Journal. 

2. The inventory, what it is and how merchants make it up. 

3. Form and example of inventory. 

4. Last urging and good instruction for the merchant in connection with the inventory. 

5. A certain book, which majority of people use and which is called Memorial, Strazze or Vachetta ; 

what it is ; how we must write it up and for whom. 

6. Some special little books, which it is customary to use ; what they are and how they are written up. 

(Separate day books for petty expenses, household expenses, salaries, repairs, rents, separate 
classes of merchandise.) 

7. The manner in which in some places the books are authenticated by law. 



8. The first book, which is called Journal; what it is and how it is started and kept. (Mentioning the 

five customary standing lines of a journal.) 

9. The two terms which are used in the Journal and the Ledger, the one named "Cash," the other 

"Capital," and what they mean. 

10. Two other terms which are used in the Journal and which are mixed quite often, and what they 

mean. ("Per" and "A" — Debits separated from Credits by //.) 

11. The principles underlying the use and arrangement of the Ledger. (Author claims this is very 

difficult to understand; "Per" and "A" used to separate debit from credit, but does not say how 
to make debits and credits except that he gives in connection with the various methods of buy- 
ing and selling, eight rules for Journal entry.) 

12. The manner and system by which each entry in the Journal must be written under the proper 

terms. (Samples of Journal entries, with application of rules from Chapter 11.) 

13. Short rules for the Journal and Ledger, and the six things each entry must contain. 

14. Explanation of old abbreviations and what is meant by "Lire de grossi." The kind of money used 

by merchants in bookkeeping and which really does not exist. Common people use: Lire=20 
soldi; 1 soldi=12 Picioli. 

(In Ducats.) 

1 ducat = 24 grossi. 

1 grosso = 32 Picioli in gold. 

1 Piciolo in gold = 1-15/16 Picioli in money by common people. 

(In Lire de grossi.) 
1 lira = 10 ducats. 1 soldo = 12 grossi. 

1 lira = 20 soldi. 1 grosso = 32 Picioli. 

1 grosso in gold = 5 grossi common money. 

15. Explanation needed in order to understand the examples of journal and ledger entries. 


1. The second and last principal mercantile book, called Ledger ; what it is ; how it is opened and kept. 

2. The manner in which the old year is written in this book and about the kind of money used in post- 

ing. (Year and usually also the money is written in Roman figures; Arabic too easy to change: 
to 6 or 9. Do not repeat date, but put a line. Leave no open spaces for others to fill in.) 

3. The reason for having two entries in the Ledger for each single entry in the Journal. 

4. The manner in which we use both terms for each entry in the Ledger. ("A" on debit of Ledger, 

"Per" on credit of Ledger; unlike the Journal, where "A" denotes credit and "Per" debit.) 

5. The manner and system to be used in transferring entries from the Journal to the Ledger. (Crosses 

Journal entry off with one diagonal line, at the time he enters the Ledger page, but does not say 
where to put this line.) 

6. The manner of marking entries in the Journal which have been posted to the Ledger. 

7. The two numbers of the Ledger pages which are written in the margin of- the Journal, when the en- 

try is posted from the Journal to the Ledger, the one above the other and separated by a liae. 

8. Another number, which we write at the beginning of each entry, through which each entry can 

easily be located again. (Numbers each Journal entry consecutively.) 

9. The manner in which the entries are carried to another place in the Ledger when one page is filled. 

(Cancel blank space on either side to lowest place of writing. Balance not entered in the Jour- 
nal. Carries balance only, with an abbreviation which means "Carried forward.") 

10. The manner and system which should be followed in the cheeking of the books in order to detect 

errors. (Gives Ledger to assistant and keeps Journal, thus reversing method of Pacioli. He does 
not use a dot but ' ' another mark than that used first. ' ' ( See chapter 6 above and two lines be- 
fore each entry in the reproduction.) 

11. The manner in which a correction in the Ledger is made when we have posted an entry to the wrong 

page in the Ledger. (Never cross the wrong entry out or erase it, for you cannot prove what 
was there, and hence it will be construed as deceit. If an entry is posted to debit that should be 
credit, put another on the credit to offset it, for same amount, then proceed correctly. Mark er- 
roneous and corrective entries with an X or H (havere) ; some make correction in one entry by 
using double the amount.) 

12. How to prepare an account for a debtor or a creditor when he asks for a statement of his account. 



As stated in the historical chapter, in 1586, or nearly 100 years after Pacioli wrote, Don Angelo Pietra 
published a work on bookkeeping, which was fully illustrated with numerous examples. Undoubtedly 
Pietra had both Pacioli and Manzoni before him when writing his book, because he describes matters which 
Manzoni omitted but Pacioli gave, and also some which Manzoni mentioned and Pacioli did not. This will 
be explained fully elsewhere. 

Pietra was a monk who endeavored to give a system to be used for monasteries, but which he claimed 
was expedient for those who do not trade, or in other words, for corporations not for profit, and for cap- 
italists. The first page is a reproduction of the title page, in which the reader will find the author's name 
just above, and the date of publication just below, the picture. 

The next page gives a chart of the various methods of buying and of selling, of each of which Pacioli 
says there are nine. Pietra sets them up here in a far more systematic manner, showing fifteen in all. 

We show next the first four lines of the title page to the journal, which are the dedication of the 
journal: "In the Name of the most holy and undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." Also 
note the cross in the sixth line which is the sign used for the first journal and the first ledger when begin- 
ning a new business. Such journal and ledger as we have seen in Pacioli, is called the "cross journal" 
and the ' ' cross ledger. ' ' 

Next we give a page of the journal. From this page, we note : 

(1) That the first page of the journal carries the opening of "In the Name of God." 

(2) That thereafter comes the date in the middle of the page. The date is not again given until it is 
changed and then only the day of the month is given, omitting the year and the name of the month; "a 
di detto, ' ' meaning ' ' on the day of the aforesaid month. ' ' 

(3) That each journal entry is divided by a line, not clear across the page, but from page column to 
money column. 

(4) That as in Manzoni 's journal, no standing division lines in money columns are given (probably 
due to lack of printing facilities). 

(5) That the money consideration of each entry is not only mentioned in the money column but also 
in the explanation of the journal entry. 

(6) That the name of the debit account is given first and the credit last; that they are divided by 
two small slanting strokes followed by the preposition "a" like this: //a. 

(7) That the name of the debit account is not preceded by "P" or by "Per" as Pacioli and Man- 
zoni require. 

(8) That the pages of the ledger to which the entries are transferred or posted are divided by a hori- 
zontal line or dash between the figures, the debit being always on top and the credit below. 

(9) That each entry has a brief but full explanation of the transaction represented by the entry. 

(10) That each entry is carefully checked with a dot (not a check mark as we use and Pacioli de- 
scribed or a dash as Manzoni showed) on the left of the ledger pages in the journal. These dots also ap- 
pear in front of each ledger entry. 

(11) That Pietra shows no combination journal entry or entries with more than one debit or credit. 

(12) That he does not show the diagonal cancellation lines in the journal as an evidence of posting to 
the ledger. 

(13) That he does not give any other value sign than the "Lire," omitting the soldi, denari, and 
picioli signs. 

(14) That he very carefully provides a dash in the money column in the place of the cyphers. 

The illustrations of the journal are followed by those of the ledger. The title page contains the name 
of the ledger, in the fifth line "Libra maestro" (master book or principal book). The ledger has the same 
dedication as the journal. 

Folio one of Pietra 's ledger is the equivalent of an opening balance account, giving the name of the 
old and new account, the page in the old ledger and the page in the new ledger, it being posted from the 
closing balance account in the old ledger and not from the journal. The assets are on the credit side and 
the liabilities on the debit side of the ledger. The account shows a deficit of L 1706 - 10 - 3. The assets 
are divided in two : first, the accounts receivable and their total, then the merchandise and other specific 

This page corresponds to the English form of a balance sheet. It is the proprietor 's half of the open- 
ing inventory journal entry placed direct in the ledger instead of in the journal, and as such this repre- 
sents a proprietor's account upon the theory that the proprietor is credited for furnishing or loaning to 
the personification of the asset accounts and charged with the negative assets or liabilities. As our modern 
capital account represents a net difference between assets and liabilities (leaving surplus out of considera- 
tion), it cannot be said that Pietra employed a modern capital account, although the result is the same. 


Page 59 of this ledger also represents an account with the proprietor or owner, and is really a contin- 
uation of the account on page one. The first entry on the debit is the balance and deficit of L 1706 - 10 - 3, 
properly transferred from page one without the aid of a journal entry. The following five entries are 
entries corrective of the net capital, because they refer to transactions of previous years and are of little 
importance for our study except that they show that the principle of surplus adjustments then existed. 

The seventh entry on the debit, of L 4 - 17 10, refers to the same ledger page as this selfsame account 
bears (namely, 59). We find, therefore, the credit end of the entry on the credit side of this page. This 
entry does not come from the journal, but is merely a "cross" or "wash" entry in the nature of a memo- 
randum for the purpose of recording an omitted transaction. Note how carefully both entries are marked 
with a little circle (o) to set them off from the others, much the same as we use a cross (X) nowadays for 
the same purpose, and as Pacioli and Manzoni also mention. 

The last entry on the debit side (L 3744 - - 3) is made also without the aid of the journal. Its 
counterpart is on page 61 of the ledger. It represesents the net worth or capital invested at the end of 
the year, and balances on page 61 with the difference between assets and liabilities, and is merely a meth- 
odical closing entry in order that all accounts may be closed at the transfer of all open accounts to the 
new ledger. 

On the credit side we find the first five entries to be surplus adjustment entries. The sixth one is the 
cross entry already explained, and the last one, L 5448 - 10 - 5, is the net profit balance transferred from 
ledger page 60 without the use of the journal. Here then we have an account named "Monastery," the 
proprietor for which these books are kept. It stands charged with a capital deficit, credited with the an- 
nual profits and closed with a debit balance representing present net worth, identical with our present day 
Capital account. The deficit in the opening entry, as would appear from the text, seems to be due to the 
low values given to the fixed assets in order to avoid heavier taxation by the church authorities. The ac- 
count shows no definite ledger heading, although the first word on the left page "Monastero" (monastery) 
is the name of the proprietor and is not repeated in each entry. The same method Pacioli and Manzoni 
describe and therefore we have not approached closer to the definite ledger heading. 

Page 60 represents what we call today an "Income and Expenses" account, sometimes misnamed but 
being similar to a "Profit or Loss" account. It is not so named here. The debit side is called "Spesa 
Generate" (General Expenses), — the credit side "Eniraia Generale" (General Income). 

It should be remembered that these books were not kept for a mercantile establishment, which operates 
with the object of a profit in view, but only for a monastery, an eleemosynary corporation, an institution 
or corporation not for profit, hence it could not use the words profit or loss. 

The balance on the debit of L 5448 - 10 - 5 is the excess of general income over general expenses, and 
is transferred to page 59, which we have explained is the proprietor's account or equivalent to our pres- 
ent capital account. 

Page 61 contains the last page of the ledger of Pietra's book. It is similar to page one, except that 
debits and credits are reversed. Here then we have the closing "Balance account," called "Esito," which 
means final or exit. It accurately represents our modern balance sheet, but is placed in the ledger as a 
permanent record and used as a medium to close all accounts in the ledger. It usually was and quite 
often now is the custom to start a new ledger each year, hence all accounts should be closed when the ledger 
is laid away. Pacioli nor Manzoni describe this account. They transfer the open balances of the asset 
and liability accounts direct to the new ledger. 

You will note that the closing entry of L 3744 - - 3 on the credit is taken from page 59, the monas- 
tery or capital account. You will also note that it is on the credit side of the account, and a total of the 
liabilities is drawn before the final balance. This is not done anywhere else in the ledger, showing that 
this account is different and represents two purposes: one, that of a final trial balance (after Profit and 
Loss accounts are closed) and thus becomes a statement of assets and liabilities; and, further, that net 
worth or capital is not considered a liability, but an item distinct from liabilities, for the purpose of closing 
the capital account in the ledger, and transferring it in the new ledger. 

Page 21 of the ledger is given to show how carefully all blank spaces are cancelled by slanting lines; 
how accounts are kept in two kinds of money with the aid of a double column ; that no reference is made 
to the pages in the journal from which the entries were posted, for the reason stated in the text that the 
date was a close enough reference; that the journal entries are not numbered, as was done by Manzoni. 
Pages given immediately before the amounts refer to the ledger page on which the other side of the double- 
entry appears; note that on the debit the preposition "a" is used for our "to" and on the credit "per" 
for our "by;" following Manzoni in this respect, but entirely opposed to Pacioli 's teachings, opening and 
closing entries do not carry these prepositions ; because they do not constitute true debits and credits as 
those transferred from the journal ; printers then, as now, make errors in figures, as the fourth figure from 
the bottom of the debit side should be 250 instead of 205, as per addition and the opening entry on page 
one ; the explanation in the journal is repeated in the ledger and more than one line is iised for an entry 
if needed; a single line is drawn under the figures only and then the total put in; the word "somma" 
(total) is used in front of the figures instead of the double line we now rule under the total; no totals or 
lines are drawn when the account contains only one item ; every entry is carefully checked with a dot in 
the left margin; the name of the account is engrossed at the beginning of the first line on the left and 
thus_ approaches the definite ledger heading of the present day ; the date belonging to each entry is not set 
out in a definite column, although the text mentions this; "dee dare" (should give or debit) and "dee 
havere" (should have or credit) is only stated once at the beginning of each account and not in every en- 
try, as we would infer from Pacioli the custom was. 


In order to give the reader a clear understanding of what is contained in Pietra's book and to show 
how much more polished, complete and advanced it is than the book of either Paeioli or Manzoni, and to 
indicate the many new features he introduces, we are giving here a brief description of each chapter in the 
nature of an index. 

1. Day book or scrap book and similar books are necessary in order to get journal and ledger in good form. 

2. Explains debit and credit as to "A" and "Per"— our "To" and "By," and the two little lines // 

which separate debits from credits. 

3. Makes a distinction between bookkeeping for bankers, merchants, and capitalists. 

4. Describes the three ledgers for these three methods. 

5. Says some more about the ledger for capitalist and calls it the ' ' Economic Ledger. ' ' Author uses 

this kind of ledger in his book of samples which he adapts to the business of a monastery. 

6. The first part of the inventory covering immovable assets. 

7. The second part of the inventory covering merchandise or goods for use in the house (not fixtures — 

they belong to movables). 

8. The third part of the inventory of movable assets. 

9. Gives tabulated detailed inventory of the movable assets of a monastery. 

10. About qualifications of bookkeeper, namely, bright and of good character; good handwriting; also 

knowledge, ambition, and loyalty, and gives reasons for each of these. 

11. Necessity for use of but one particular coin in the Ledger as the money used in Italy is of so many 

different varieties. Here is used 

1 Scuto = 4 Lire = 80 Soldi in gold. 

12. Describes the measures and weights used by the author. 

13. Put a value on those things which are harvested and manufactured, but this should be lower than 

current prices so that the proceeds will not fall below this value in case of sale. What has been 
used should be charged to the proper department at the end of the year. 

14. About the figures to be used. The Roman figures are difficult to change, but because fraudulent 

changes are more to be feared by bankers and merchants, he used the easier and more commonly 
used Arabic figures. Changes can be easily prevented by putting the money sign for lire directly 
in front and separating the divisions of the lire by little dashes, thus L 18 - 8 - 2 — very much the 
same as done at present in England. 

15. About the fiscal year. It can begin when one chooses, but must be twelve months long and must keep 

the same figures for the same year, namely, from June 1, 1586, to May 31st, 1586, not 1587. 

16. Day books or memoranda books are necessary because the journal and ledger, due to their legal au- 

thentication, can be used only by the one bookkeeper appointed therefor and whose signature ap- 
pears therein. Furthermore, transactions must be written down at the time and the place where 
they occur, and that may not be where the books are kept. Therefore, there are several memoranda 
books concurrently used, the first one of which is marked with a cross and those which follow with 
a letter in the order of the alphabet. 

17. There should be at least three of these day books or memorials used — one for the cash receipts and 

disbursements and the deposits in the bank; one for the petty cash disbursements and one for all 
other entries from which the journal is written up, the latter to be in greater detail than the others. 
Other day books can be kept with the sales and purchases, rents, taxes, etc. A book is needed for the 
library and information pertaining to contracts, leases, employes, due dates, etc. Receipts for 
money loaned should be kept in boimd book form so that they may not be lost or stolen. Bach de- 
partment head should keep such a book with its transactions, such as the shoe maker, gardener, 
tailor, etc. 

18. Describes a blotter or tickler which contains a sheet for each month, and a line for each day in which 

the duties of the storekeeper and butler are written, one for each day in the year. 

19. Gives such a book in full detail. 

20. About the journal and how to keep it. Journal is basis of the ledger and therefore it is essential that 

it is kept correctly. 

21. The beginning of the journal, in the name of God. The value of prayer to success and the use of 

the little cross (t) as explained elsewhere. 

22. Entries should be made in the journal from day to day and hour to hour, but some times this is not 

possible, especially in a monastery, where the memoranda or day books of the various departments 
are delivered only once a month. 

23. About the manner and order in which the entries are made in the journal. A list of days on which 

entries are to be made is prepared by days from all the memoranda or day books, the cash entries 
always first. 

24. Gives an example of this list. 

25. Eight things always needed to make a proper journal entry : Debit — Credit — Time — Value — Quality 

— Quantity — Price — Arrangement ; 

The first two being the most important. 

26. The greatest difficulty is to find what to debit and what to credit. All entries can be reduced to 

three principles. 


27. List of above three principles: 

1. (Receipt, sales, payment of an account due, borrowing. 
(Disbursement, purchase, payment of a debt, loaning. 

2. (Purchasing on credit or for cash. 
(Selling on credit or for cash. 
(Exchanging with money or without. 

3. (Assignment of a debt to settle with a creditor, or vice versa, called drafts. 

28. About the six other things needed for a proper journal entry. 

29. How the journal is arranged. (See reproduction of journal page and explanatory notes appended; 

omits the consecutive numbering of Journal entry, as so many do, because the date is a sufficient 
guide to locate the entry in the journal.) 

30. About the ledger and its formation. 

Explains the opening account on page 1 of the ledger, and states it is the reverse of the closing ac- 
count. Here he mentions debit as dehito and credit as credito, although he usually states debit as 
"dee dare" and credit as "dee havere." Capital account is the key and the seal of the ledger. 

31. Explains the use of the two ledger accounts— "Opening" and "Monastery." "Opening" is what 

the merchant calls "Capital" and practically he claims the same for "Monastery." 

32. Explains what entries may be made in the capital account. Corrections of errors and profits or losses 

belonging to previous years. What we call surplus adjustments. 

33. Gives a table of such capital account entries. 

34. About the arrangement of accounts in the ledger, the capital account to be at the end of the book. 

35. List of accounts in the ledger. 

36. The ordinary index. 

37. The special index. 

38. Posting figures in the journal (one above the other). 

39. How the entry is written in the ledger. ("A" on debit side of ledger, "Per" on credit side of 


40. Transfer to a new page is made by drawing the difference between the two sides and transferring 

this to the new page. 

41. How to correct errors in the entries. 

42. Entries which are written direct in the ledger without having been put in the journal. 

43. About the income and expense account and the method of buying and selling. The author here states 

that merchants use this account for their profits or losses. 

44. The vouehering by a signature of the principal disbursements. 

45. About the difference in bookkeeping for land rented and that cultivated for one 's own account. 

46. Three principal reasons why the income should be divided over the same accounts in which the ex- 

penses and salaries are separated, namely to each departmental sub-division. 

47. When the best time is to enter the rentals from lands. In the fall when the harvest is made, as at 

the end of the fiscal year is a busy enough time. 

48. About personal accounts and the carrying of accounts with two different money values. 

49. About the cash account in the ledger, and its peculiar uses. 

50. About the acquisition and alienation of lands, for which separate accounts are provided. 

51. About the accounts with partners or joint ventures. 

52. When and how to check with dots. 

53. A short method of checking with dots. 

54. How to take a trial balance, which also constitutes the balance sheet. Divides the same in four: 1, 

expenses ; 2, income ; 3, assets ; 4, liabilities. 

55. How to find trial balance errors in a checked ledger. 

56. How to refute a wrong opinion about the trial balance. Explains the fact that while debits and 

credits must equal, that such does not mean that the assets equal the liabilities. 

57. How to compute the income and expense account. This he considers the most difficult, as some ac- 

counts will have three closing entries, — one for profit on sales ; one for merchandise used by other 
departments of the business ; and one for merchandise remaining on hand. Furthermore, meas- 
ures and weights should also be brought in balance. 

58. The manner in which the closing balance account is made up. Accounts are only ruled at the end of 

the year by a line under the figures or amounts ; then entering the total, which must be the same on 
both sides. If an account is closed during the year, only a line is drawn, but the total is put inside 
the column and not under the line. 

59. About other methods of closing the ledger and their shortcomings. Here the author describes several 

methods used at that time of closing a ledger and prefers his own because it gives finally in one ac- 
count the status of the capital, whereas the other methods do not do so. 

60. How an account is rendered to the church authorities at the end of the fiscal year. 


In the comparative index we have given the items which are discussed by all the four authors there 
mentioned. There are, however, a number of items which some of the authors use and others do not. 
From among these, the following are taken as the most important. 

Pietra discusses the following in his book, but Pacioli and Manzoni do not : 


3 distinction in bookkeeping for bankers, merchants, and capitalists. 

4 describes three ledgers for these three businesses. 

5 describes more in detail the ledger for capitalists — called "Economic Ledger." 
7 inventory of merchandise in stores. 

10 qualifications of bookkeepers. 

12 description of measures and weights used in book. 

13 put value on things harvested and used, and those not sold but used in other departments. 
15 describes fiscal year — ^use same numerals, although calendar year changes. 

17 separate daybooks for the following subjects: cash — bank — petty cash — library — contracts — 

leases — salaries — due dates — loans — and one for each department. 
18 & 19 daily tickler for bookkeeper and storekeeper's duties. 

22 journal written up once a month in a monastery, because all daybooks are in use. 

23 the order in which transfers from daybook to journal are made — a list of this prepared before- 
hand — cash entries always first. 

25 & 28 eight things always needed in any journal entry. 

26 & 27 rules for journalizing. 

29 arrangement of journal with five standing lines, but omits numbers of journal entries. 

31 divides capital into two accounts — opening capital at beginning of year — closing capital at 
end of year. 

32 interim entries in capital account or surplus adjustments. 

33 table of such capital entries. 

34 capital account always at end of the ledger. 
37 special index. 

39 apparent transposition of "A" and "Per" in ledger from its use in journal. 

42 list of entries which do not go through journal. 

43 vouchering of disbursements. 

45 book for lands rented and cultivated for own account. 

46 income divided in same accounts as expenses. 

47 when to enter rentals — ^in fall or end of fiscal year. 

48 personal accounts and accounts with two different values of moneys. 
50 acquisition and alienation of lands. 

53 a short method of checking the ledger. 

Pietra mentions the following in his book, as does Manzoni, but Pacioli does not, proving by this 
that Pietra had apparently available both Manzoni and Pacioli : 

more than one memoriale 

five standing or "down" lines in journal 

definite rules for journal entries 

six things always needed in each journal entry 

about transposition of "A" and "Per" in ledger from its use in the journal 

(Pietra does not explain definitely although his examples give it.) 
numbering of journal entries. 
Pietra 's Chapter 33 explains all entries which may appear in the capital account and illustrates 
them with the following tabulation : 

1. During the year 

2. At the end of the year 

1. During the year. 
A. Profits. 

a. omitted credits 

a. collected Cash to capital 

b. uncollected Debtor to capital 

b. judgments obtained 

a. collected Cash to capital 

b. uncollected Debtor to capital 


B. Losses. 

a. omitted debts 

a. paid 

b. to be paid 

b. judgments lost 

a. paid 

b. to be paid 


balances of accounts 

a. what is due 

b. what is owed 

balance sheet adjustment 

a. what is owed 

b. what is due 

Capital to cash 
Capital to creditor 

Capital to cash 
Capital to creditor 

2. At the end of the year. 
A. Extraordinary Accounts. 

Capital to creditor. 
Creditor to capital 

several kinds and without 
connection with the books 

B. Ordinary Accounts. 


excess in expenses 
excess in income 

Capital to income 
Expenses to capital 

Pietra's Chapter 42 explains about the many entries which are made in the ledger, without going 
through the journal, and classifies them as follows : 

Refers to entries which we transfer from the old ledger into the new, partly daily, partly at the end 
of the year. 

1. the introduction 

2. the opening of capital account when it is transferred from the closing capital account and not 

from a new inventory. 

3. balances transferred from one account to another. 

4. contra entries to correct errors. 

5. profit or loss due to inventory adjustments. 

6. the balance of the income and expense account. 

7. all closing entries at the end of the year. 

8. the closing of the closing capital account. 


I N D R I Z Z O 













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D I C H R I S T O. 

DELLANNO. 1586. 

Comindato adi primo Giugno . Scricto da mc Don Gabriello da Parma , 

Ccllcrarodeldetto Mona{lcro,diordine del molto Reuerendo 

Padre Don Romano Sene(c Abatcdella Congregation 

Calsinef^ deli, ordine del nodro Sancifsimo 

Padre Benedetto . 



Adi primo dt Gfugno i s s 6 . 

Per Cartoleria/ aCaflTa.lJreventi S lo. fpefeinqueftolibrodoppfo, col fuoGiorna 

V Ic & Alfabeto , con altre due vacchecte , e fquarciafogli ^JC — jo -ioo---. 

,j t _ 

Mutationi A aCaflaJire cinquancacinque S,cioe j? 2 P.D.Benedcc- 
to da Bologuft Decano , mucato quef to capitolo a Modona, per fua mucatio • 

— ne di vn anno,ebuona mano.ejf jj— lo.dateaDonGio.PietrodaSalo, 
'* * mutato aPraglia.per fua mutatione di vn'anno.fpefe fattc.e buona mano, co 

meperloronceuereappare diilintamentencl hbro di efsi '—^ — 5J— >« 

Dettc/ aD.Mauro da Piaceoza Concelleraro, lire dicifette^ x s.conteaD.Va- 

— lentiniano da Napolt mutato« ^^ oma.per fua mutatione e buonamano,di(ne 

■^ ' fi noue,ch'cidimor6 inmuefto Monaaero,comcperfuo riceucre 3^ — 17-1 J 

.?* Cana/'aFedericobarbaroframaIs>>efe,!ire rrccento quarantaotto^ii.con- 
.5/ temipermanodiMarcoSoUtarioform3ggiaro,abu6cotodcl fuo debito^f —34801s 

.3 5 D. Maiiro Concelleraro/ a CafTa. lire cento trenta , contegli per fpendere, 

Tji come almio libretto aj-'parediUintamente ^ — ijo 

•3 8 F.Thomafo di Val camonica fpenditore //a Cafla. lire nonantafette i 14. 8. con 

T* tegli per fpendere a minuto # —97—14—8- 

.;8 Cornelio Landino (eruidore '/aD.Mauro Concelleraro, lire uenti,da luiha- 

.3 5 uutc a buon conto delfuocredico X — ao 

J'- Cafla "adAlcflandro del Sole A ffittuale,Hre quattrocento ottantafette^ 10. 

•s » da lui hauute a buon conto del fuo debico -3e —487—10 

.)? P.D.Placido Mantouano Rettore di Badt'a/ a Cafla,lire cento quarancaiconte- 

•3 * gh da ij5endere , come al mio libretto f —140 

•39 F.Manfueto ITrefciano cuftodealPriorato//aCafla,lirefettantacinquc, con- 

~j ^ tegli da fpendere intornoalle poflefsioni 1 — -TJ- 

.40 P.Vigilantio Comafco Oblato,cuftode a Santi Martiri /a Cafl*a.lire cecouentii 

■} i mandategli da fpendere,pcr mano di Fabritio Gallo noftro fattore jf — 1 10 

j2j Limofine - a D. Mauro,!ire otto, dated'ordine del ReuerendoP.Abate, ad al- 

.3 5 tuni hebrei fatti chriftiani — < 3? .8 

^j^ Berengario Serpcntinocamparo//aF. Manfueto ,llrefettei lo.da lui hauute 

~}cf a buon conto del fuo falario 3? — 7—10. 

^ 8 m.Sigifmondo Tranquillo //a Gordiand Lampridio affiittuale,lire dugento ot- 
. J i tanta,contegU a noftro nome in pagamento 3? —t 80-^ 

^ Badia //al P. D.PIaddo.lire vndeci B i S.per dodici raftelladori,& 14, fbrche di 

•37 legnojcomprepcr raftellarc&cuftodire ilfieno, come al fuo hbro ^ -.11—18 

jj S. Martiri //a F.Vigilantio , lire fette ^ 1 5 . tf. per diece pale comprc per lo fru- 
40 men to, conical fuo libro appare 3? 7— ij-tf- 










D E L L A N N O. 1586. 

Cominciato al primo Giugno . Scritto da mc Don Cefario da Cremona* 

monaco dddctto Monafterojdiordine del molro Reuerendo 

Padre Don Romano Senefc Abate, E del P, D. Gabriello 

Parmiggiano Decano , c Celleraro del decco 

Monafterojdella Congregation Ca(si» 

ncfc > deirordine del noftro 

Santiffimo Padre 



N T R O I T O del prcfentc libro + dec dare adi pr imo Giugtio, 
nerelinfrafcrirtiCredicoi'idel Monaftero.qui tirati daU'Efito 
delllbroJsll'annopaaaro.fcgfldcoZ.circc ^Sd.&aqudlo da 

=^,)iji» 1 cat! loro come appreflb.cioe. 

.AlienarionidallibroZ.- car.-fjp.Tiratoinqueftolibro- — car. 15 ? ^750 - 

Vcn..Congrcgaiio«enoftraCafsincfe — 430 A —$6—^ 7-5-car. 41 J '^ ',/' ^ 

».D..ClemenceAIeni .——- 4jt car. 4^ t,~Jl ^^ 

m. .OttaUio Fortunato inViritgu — 436 A i3oo.a y per loo. car. 45 "^ 't'*^" — 

m. .QuiatilianoPoctamVinegia 436 A-6oo.a 4per 100. car. 4? 5^ 540^^ 

m. .Pompilio Defiderato inVinegja — 4jtf 4J ^ 2400 

m. .BartbobSaladinoin Vinegia 437 A 5 00.34 per 100. car. ^6 X 2000 

m. .ZachcoVeraceinMilano 457 A-600. *4per 46 3? 2400, — ^ — 

.Mario Palmcrino 453 car. 48 3? -S47-KJ 8- 

.Ramondo Pipino 4?8 — car, 48 / -495 10^ 

m. .SabinoPiftoia 438 "■:• 48 ;f - 643 - 1 8 

.Quimilio Ptirpurato 439 car. 4s 3£ -i7o-ij-6.- 

,Sigifmondo Tranquillo 44*5 *ar. .43 ^ --t8o - — > — = 

m. .Torquato Rinieri — 44*5^ car. 49 je — 32J 

.EneaSaiano 448 car. 4P3?_ipj 16 — 

.Illiano dalla Scala 449 car. 49 ;;f - 48^-10 8-. 

m. vLiberio de'Mauri — 449 car. 49 3? -893-iJ $.- 

.Horatio Laur^ato^ 450 car, 49 5^-289-16-2. 

m. .Seneca Valorofoaffittuale 451 car. 52 3? - 785-18 4 

.Agolance de'Mori ferraro ^465 car. 57 aC —127- 12 

.Agrippa Tibullo marangonc 4(^4 car. J7 3f — 6J - 7-8- 

.PompeioBelcolorc ciroico 473- car. 57 5? — ig 10 

.EugeniodaPidoia barbcro 47-1. car. 57 sC— 12 

.Dante Congiurato barbero .474 ^ ' car. 57 jf -.10- 6 

.GerbinoRudicofornaro 476 car. 57 X —37—13-10- 

.Delfino Commodo camparo 477 , car. 58 sf — 7!^ 12 

.Berengario Serpentipo camparo— 477 car. 58 3? — 18 17 8-- 

.AnnibajeGermanoftruidore 480 car. 58 sf — rjo 

.Cornelio Landino feruidorp ^480 car. 585? — 30-15 

.Agapito Pagani feruidore- 481 ■ — car. 58 3? — 12-17-9 

.Somma ^ 2305 2—1 6 - % 


Di 5 8 ^ r 
Ee hawere adi pr imoGiugno* per gl* infrarcritti De&Icorl del Mortaficro , 
qui tirati dairEHro del lib.deirant)opa0aco((<)ucl 
lodai contilorocome appreflo.ciod 
R.D..Lorezo dc'Simonidal libro Z. carcci^] t Ttraeo io quefto libro- car. 

>.ii- .6 — 


.Carlo Bianchino conto di tempo 450 
.EmanocllcClaudiaoocotodi tcpo- 4S1 

.Altolfo Corrado 
.Maggio de' Popoli - 

45 S 



.Oitauiano Giordano 4$^ 

.Ateflandro del Sole affittuale 457 

.Gordiano LampridioafBctuale — 458 

.Fcderico BarbarofTa malghcfc — 459 

.Marino Orlando melinaro 4<5i 

.Ricardo Salomone molinaro 46* 

.Cafsiaiio.^mirantemoliiKiro 46} 

.Deodaco talcone malTaro 4^ $ 

.DeiTKcrioConceftabile mafTaro— 4^^ 

.Valerio Leoni malTaro 4^7 

.FabricioGallo foctorc 476 

.Celcrtino RofTo feruidore 4'8o 


— car. 

— car. 


— car. 

— car. 

— car. 

flaTa70.Mlfturc — . — car. 5 J 


m. .ZerbmioQnaranragiaaffitruale 481 — 
B). .MarcoT.Villanuouagiaafficfuale 45J* 
.FaufloGiouiaIegianoftromafliro48» — 
.liinoccntio Maiorano giafattore- 43) 
•LconcioManfredigianoUromoI. 481 — 

— car. 

— car. 

.^ car. 

— car. 

Reftanci di quedo annv. 



.Magazmo d'Oglio 
.Forno drFarina ■ — 



J»; SalcPefiyo. 

-J»S _„ 

1*7 Farina Stara4j 

FOrmaggio Pefi 50.- 
OglioPef? JO 

S'^mma X i 
car. X X 


.Cantinadi urno in Camerone — 3^4 

•Cantiaa detta 364 

.Cantinadi uinodiuerfa 36^ 

.Cantina di umo in Monaftero 3 w 

.Granarodi frumencoin Cannerone 3^7 

• Granaro detto 367 

.Granarodi Frumento diuerfo 3^9 

.Granarodi FrumetoinMonanero3<^9 

.Granarodetto - .-69 

.Granarodi frumcnrata 370 

.Granaro di Vcna.c Speita 3 8*^ 

.Maga^l(lodl Lino agi 

.CaffadclP. Celleraro ^12 

,D. Mauro ConccIIeraro 


Rafcie pexxe ctnque 
Cordoanii&fuole - 
SaponePcfi 10 




. , — car. 




? t 

7 / 
9 X 

car.%o.di umo peru(o car- -f * 

car.20.da uenderea;r IS — car- H t 
car. 1 8. per ofo car. \s t 

car. 1 8. per 
Harais;per ufo__ 

— car. as 3? 

ftara i S S .da ucoderc a ;r 3 . 1 g car- j 6 je 
A^ri At n<»r vfi% car* 26 3C 

ftara 4$ . per v(b 

Data to. perufo 

-car* 17 t 




Kara lo. per uio tar* »/ ^ 

flara285.da ucr.dereavf 3. iScar. 17 f. 

ItaraSo perufo — — - car. 27 / 

llara 6o.per vfo car. jo / 

Pefi 3o.d«uenderea? 8.6.8. car. ai ^ 

IncoDtanti — car. ix f. 

car. 34 T 

In coDtanti 
In cootanti 




— 70- 

— 22S- 

— lao- 
— . po- 

— jo- 
_ 300 -- 

— 90- 

— 100- 

— 40 

— liO- 




— 75- 


to- 5 


.Somma y; 23053* i'^-* 




, M«6. 21 

Et hauere ;^<Ii ^^.LugUo pf r Cranaro <|el MooaflcrOi per lo pr czzo 

conmiunes a,di ftara x9d.rr4iaieoToMautcgHqaelt*anaOj come 

allibro de'Granariappare dhttw^mcnte car, »7 3? -iP» 

-Ec p»u per Granaro di frmA«rnrat«,hauuragli queflo adno^ragioija- 

taa^^prr«zocommunr . — - ^ -. car. 27 ^ — i?;-; ■ 

£t3idti6.0tti.hre /per Cantinadel Monaf^ero^pcrcarraig. uino, 

bauucogli come fopra ,ragionatoaf 5.pre2zo commune — car. »5 a? — 90 

,Etpiu / perGranarodiMiglio,ftara46,ragi'onaroa J 30. car. a8 5f — 6<f 

Xtpiii /perGranarodiMelega,nara4R.iagionataap30. car. »p ;C — 48 

.Et adi 1 1 . Maggio^ per F.Vigflantio, hauuti da P16 S.di prate affirta 

toa^5.4.aSitnoae Guarnacda car. 40 ^ —.41— ij. 

.Somma jf —7^5-12- 


Ee hauere adi aj.Lnglio /pcri^quiiaCradttoa^ttualeex parter.per 
lo prezzo commune a ;( a.diilaraajoirumeotone decquefta raccol 
ta,perlofittodeIprirooai)no car. fs 3? -500- 

.Etpju /per Aquiladetto, per ftara 4a di Vena, ne dec come fopra, 

rasionata a ^ao.prezzo commune car. ji jf — 40- 

.Eradi atf.Ottobrc/ perAquiladetro, per carra iS.uino cedee co 
mefoprayragionatoalprezzocommune car. ji sr — 90- 

. Somma ^ _ 6}o- 


Eelf^ereadii^.Luglio /perSeoeroBiondo nut(raro,& witcnale, 
perAara70.ft'unftnconcdeeperIofictodiquefto4.anno — car. 52^ »>I49- 

,£t adi 26.0ctobre / per Seuero decro per car lo.dii uino oe dee co> 
n)eibpra.ragtDnatoa/;.pre7zo commune — , car. tt t — jo- 

«Et adi I z.Nouetnbre /per Seuero deno^per lofitw io denari-di que. 
fio quartoaiinoiioicoaS.Marcino«d3pagarci corneal Tuo coco car. 5a 3; ^400- 

.Somma f. • 590- 


Ee hauere adi 37. Lugh'o / per Granaro diPaua, hauutagM qucftoaooo 

IB iKiftra(parce,ragionataa^jd.prezzocommaDe -: car. ap 3? -^5». 

.Etpiu /per Granaro di Legumi>ftara8.bauuct,&ragionat)Ucr.-car. 19 ^ —ix- 
•Et adi atf .Ottobre / per Cantina del Mooafiero,per carra iz.uino ha 
uutoglicomefopra/agionatoalprezzo commune di/y. car. 45 ^ —.66- 


•Sofxiiiia ^— t» 

e hauere adi i4.Aprite / per Cafla,uenineoa C€ 
nieMaffiroino,a3f io.iipefo,permanodelP.D. 

Jni^f f/*!f.'*"**'i? ^^'» ««• J4 Pefi 102. i». 6 ^ toay. 

ttunatodipiu^ieduepartitccotrofcriitc-car. it Pefi-s. 12. tf 

-Somma pefi 105 -jc 1025 


> J5 86> 

IBTR /{ SAl.OK dlli dal Fondico necchio.Maflariaoofhr;!, dee dare adi 
uicimo Maggio / a Valen'o LeonimaAaro.per carrezzi , & opei c da 
liiihauutf qucA'annccome aiTuo li'bro faJdacod accordodiAinca 

Tjcnic appare — — , car. 

.£r piu/ alPEiirrara gcnecaledi quen'anno» ciratogliper (aldo di que 
Ao conco — ...-.-_ - car 

56 / -.JI-.I7. 

.Sonama X -7«j-.i%- 

vJL^VS DEDIT appreflbla Citri, MafTaria noftra^dee dare adt oitimo 

Maggio/aUfntratageneralediqtrcft' 60 jt.«iO. 

.JL^OLANA yiuUnuoua,Mairartanoftra.deedare adijdrftoo Maggio /aO* 

rEtttratageoeoledl3ucfl'aoDO,tiraiognpermdo - ■c a r. to 2-*5P9< 




S»X6N ATlO in Riua,Ronco no{lro,dee dare adi ultimo Maggio /all'Ea 

trata generate di queft'anno, tiratogli per faldo -car. tfe f — itf».io- 

LAGAZINO diLiao«dec dare adi pr. €iugno / all'Iocroi 

todiquefto, pcrreftoquit>ratodacar.j6^.1ibroZcar. I pefi ^o — X *%o$ • 
.Eradi i6.Giugno/a Badia,hauutogliqueftoanno,ftimato 

in circa alprc2zo>& quantity car. 16 pcfi 75 — , gc '-6t$- 

.Etadi i^.Aprile/ aBadia,perraIdodiqueftocontofpet 

canceaeiTaCorce : ^pr, 17 pcfi o — ^ — ije-. 

Sonuna pcH io$-~ jp 1025. 


ONASTEROnoftro del gloriofo Precurfore , e dcgno Martire di 
ChriftoS.Gio: BattiftadOriana,quaIc noftro Sig.per fua diuinabo 
tafidegni diffcndcrce profperare,dee dare adi piimo Giugno / al- 
I'lntroitogeneralc diqucft'anno, tiratogli dacar.4g4.ddJjbro Z. 
dcll'annopaflato car. i jC 170^—10 — j- 

i, .Et adi y.Ottobre / a Caffajconti a Delio Pefcatore , inpagamento di 
quan to reftaua ad hauercper pefce da lui ha uuto quefta quarefima 
pairata,conieperfiialiftainfilza car. j* jf •— 95— .ij — 6- 

6 .Etpiii / aPri(cianQVolpe,j}rcftodipanno,rafcia,etcledaluihauu 
te gli anni paiTatijCome per fua lifta in filza appare diftinca(ncce,che 
pcrifcordononfi fcriflcro ^-car, 50 gC —47 — 8 

T .Ec pill / aCa{ra,conti a m.Bartholomeo CaIcinaco,in uirtu di vna fen 
tenza delta Ruota^per acqua godutagli da noflri di Badiagli anni 
pafTadtdella ruarataparte,comcapparenegliactidim.Andrea Lo 
oouicinotarodifFufamcntc — —car. ja f. — ijy 

% .Et piu / a Santo Squarcialupo,per tanti gli douemo pagatrfra otto 
meHtin uirtu di una fen cenzadellaRuotaArcicane gli atti del detto 
notarOjperriftoroditempcilapatitarannoi$g2.che efTo era Affit 
tualcaS.RemigiOjCon Icfpcfc >— car. 50 gf — IJ5 — 10-— 1— 

9 .Et adi ultimo Maggio /a F.Thomaro fpenditore«per faldo di fuo con 

toquitirato,perfuariooccorfogliqueftoanno < car. jp 3! — o»— 1$ — t— 

lo O .Etpiu /perSuariooccorfoqueft'annonelbilanciOjComefiucdecar. jp jf — 4— «I7— 10- 
«Et piu / airEHtogcaerale di quell 'ahno,tiratogli per faldo di quefto 
conco -^ car. 61 t 3744-^-0 — i" 

.Somma t- 587° — o — 3- 


1^ 1586. 59 

* '-^-^Ee hauereadi prImoOttobre / perCafTa ,contone dal R.P. F.Pietro 

Martire da Turino di S. Domenico,p tati hauuti da un penicete,in 

fodisfattione di vtio debito fuOjche noi fi haueuamo fcordato-car. jx £ ^ivj^^lj — 8- 

* .Et piii / per Riginaldo Campione,per la Bofchettadel Vallone,datta 

gli I'anno paflato dacaglJare, edapagarne a S. Michele profsimo 

paflatOjchcnonfifcrifleperafcordo car. 47 jf »-'jo 

J .Etpiu/ per Cafla,contone daDoninoTurchinogia noflro Affitcualc, 

in viifcu di una Senteza di Rupca,per lo danno da lui hauuco in arbo 
ri tagliati,e non piantatiinquel tempo, come ne gli acti dim. Vince 

zoRoflb notaro appare dilHntamcnte car. ia jC —146 

4 .Et piu / per Naftagio Calandra , per tanti ne dee in uirtii di una fen- 

tenzadel Mag.Pode(hLper I'interrcffe pacito in unoparo di caual- 

lidacarrozzauenduc&e perfani ■ car. 47 gf — 90 . ■ .-. 

1 o .Et adi ultimo Maggie / per D. Mauro (econdo Celleraro , per faido 

del fuo contOjOel quale cfeguitofuario queftoanno — car. i6 fL — \,— ig — <^_ 

It O .Etpiu/perCotrofcrittione delta confimile partita per contro^pofta 

pereflempio,e(rendoilbilanciouero,ereale car. J5> jf 4— 'if 7—10— 

1% .Etpiu /perIaSpe&generale,perraldodiquelcontoquitirato,per 

quantos'efpelbmeaoquefto aano deU'Entratatuuuta car. 60 x 544g—io — jf~ 


.Somma f $370 — o.~}--i 


15 85. 
IPESAgeneraJediqueft'anno , finitoadi ultimo Maggio.deedarc.pcrfal 
dodegli infrafcrittic«)nti,qui tiratij&ellimi dalle loropertitereo 
jne incfsiconiidiftiacameuteappare cioi 

.Ordinaria in danari -^ ^ car. 4 3? 3371 -13-11- 

,Cafciariaformaggiopefi2oz, car. 3 ^-690-' 14 — 4- 

.Maeazinod'Ogliopefii63 — ' — ^^f- 3 ^-719—11-— 

.Foreftcria car. 3 :^ ^lOf -16—5- 

.Forno,diFarinaflara438 car. 4 jf -876 

,Vinoconfumato,farra55 car. ^ jf — itfj 

.Inferaieria car. 4 3! -402 -17 — 5- 

.SpcticrJa car. 5 gf -262 — 17 

.Straordinaria ■■ car. 5 ^ -361-13 — 7- 

.Vcftieria car. 6 t i8pi — .5— -8- 

Xalzoleria car. 7 t -419—12 — 6~ 

.Mutattoni car^ 7 t -276 — 7—6— 

.Viaggi . • car. 8 t- -29% — 6 — i- 

.Tafle,& Annate car. 8 f- 3337 — 4 — 

.Datij.eGrauezzc r~. car. 8 5^ -616—11 

.Spefc Capitolari car. 8 :f. — lOo—K? >■ ■ 

•Carffilcria — — ^ ■■ ■ car. 9 ^ —is6 — 6 — 3- 

.iLU>raria car. 9 ^ —229-16 — 6- 

.Pdrtidiletterc . car. 9 t — 87—13 — <J- 

.Barbaria car. 9 5f —113 — 9 — 8- 

jMaflTeritie car. .10 t —^96 — o^iot. 

.Vtenfigli car. i» ^ -58s— 17 — S— 

.Stalla — • car. u / i9j8 — 4 — 8- 

•Fabrica car. 11 ^ ,iji — ^—6^ 

,Rcpar?tioni ^ . -car. ii # —210 — 9—10— 

,Liti,e Scritture car. la 3^ _^ii_io — 3— 

,Salariati car. la 3? 1095—18 — 8- 

,Limofine car. 13 3C _(S8o 6 — 6- 

.Sagriftia .car. 14 gC ^500— 19 — 4- 

.Acquiftifatti car. ij jC ^^^y — 8 — 6- 

I - - I I I I III ■ 

Somma sf 21^^0—19^-10- 

.Spefomcnodcll'Entratadiqucft'annccheficiraalMonaft.nro-car. 59 3! J448 — 10 — 5- 

. — . ■■ -—t 

.Somma 3? ayiop-^io — j-i- 


<NTR ATA generale diquefl'anno finite adi ultimo Maggio , dee hauere, 

per (aldo degl'infrafcritti Conci qui tirati,& eliinci dalle loroparci 

tejcoine in eisi cbati dininramcnce appare cioe 

.BadiadiS.EulgentioinCamerooe car. 17 t 44i7-.i9 - 10 

.PrioratodiS.RemigiOjCorce noUi* car. lU t i8oj — 9. — j- 

•S.MauroMaflariaieCortenoftra-— car. 19 t i<5»i — 3 

.SiMarciri,Ma(raria>eCotcenoftra car. 19 y -17^—14 — i- 

.Romea,Ma(rarianoftra— car. 20 t 1010-18 

.Acquachiara.Manaria rioftra car. »o ;e 2925 — 11- 

•S.Diohrgi,Ma(1arianoAra — car. lo t -747—10. 

.HoDoraca,Ma<rarianoftra car. Vi t 19S8- 

■PietraSalda.Maflarianoftra car. »» t -7Ji— iS- 

.DeusdtfditjMa/Taria noftra car. »f ^ -djd 

.Ifolana^Maflaria noftra car. »'J 3? - jpo- 

.S.IgnatiojRonconoftro car. a>^ Jf -144—10- 

.Malgherianoftra^ car.'** if -483 — i»-- 

.SocidadiBeftiamf car. ** ^ — $2 

.Razza di Caualli .car. ** 3? 68 


.Tcrratici tliuerfi Car. * * JC 

.SelueieBordit car. **,3f 

.Molina car. *3 3? 1 187— i j.- 

XenfijcLiuetli-^ ^ car. *l t -126—19—11 

.FittidiCafe,eBort^he car. *4 SC —980 4 

.HortodelMboaftero ^ car. *4 t -221 18 

Aumenri dil cotnmun prezzo ^ 

.CanrinadiuiobinC!uneroaetiacarra56.ucnduco — car. *4 5f -444 

.Candnadiucr(S,tncarraio.iienduto car. *5 t- 34 ? — 4 

.CantiDaileIMonaftera,iiiesliTai<>.uend(no'' —car. aj t —128—12 I- 

•XSranaralnCamerohejiiiftara 937 Frumcntouenduto car. itf jf iSi$~i6 

.Granarodiuerib flara 478 — * = .— car. 26 jf 1074 -ly 

.GranarodelMonaftero ftar» 250 car. ij X- ■^9i8'-'i6 

»CraaarodiFiruihencaca-ftara 220 car. 27 g£ —320—10 

•GranarodiSegala ftara 618 car. 28 3? -900 

•Cranaro di Miglio flai'a ^61 car. 28 jf 

.GraoarodiPanigo ftara 175 car. 28 je 

•GranarO di f aua r- ftara i9g _ car. 29 / 

.GraoarordiLcgoRii ftara 1$ car. 29'^ 

.Granarodi Mcl^a^— ftara 230 . car. 29 ^ 

.Granarod'Orgio ftara 30 car. 30 ^ 

.Sotnma 3? 27109 --10 3 


15 86. 
SITOgenerale<Mqu?ft'anno, finito adlultiraoMaggio^ce dare, peril 
ihfrafcritticreditidcl Monaft?ro,quitiratidai condloro,cioe 
.Quilico Fedclejefracclli ' ^Sar. 

m. .Gordiano Lampridio affittualc 
.Eutitio Lancjanofornafaro — 
.Henrico Lanfranco malghefc 

.Ec piiiFruraencoflara lo. 

.Dcmetrio ContcAabile mafliirp 

fVaterio Leoni maflaro 
.VitcoHojC Cortefe PalladinimafTarl- 
,Kina1dQ Sanfone maflaro 
.TemifUo Solimano maflaro- 

.Dante Congiurato barbcro 

Tnersigibi'li,& a lango tempo 

gi, .Marco TullioVillanuouagia affittualc 

.Faufto Giouiale gia n^aflaro 

JnnoccntioMaioranogiafattorc . — ■ -■ ., — 

•LeoDtiQ Manfr c4i gia molinaro 

Reilanti di que(loapno 

.Cafciatia formaggio,pcr ufo pcfl So a jf » 

.Cantina di Camcronc,pcr ufo — carra 1 1 a gf j 

.Cantinadiuerfa,perufQ carra ?o a 3^ j 

.Cantina del Monaftcro, per ufo— 4carra i6 2 X^ 
.CranarodiCamcroncpcrufo ftar^ lo a af i 

.Dauendcre ftara 50 a / 4. le 

.Granarodiuer(b,peru(b Aara 10 a ;f z 

.GranarodelMonafterOfperufo — ftar^ 81 a ^ 1 

.Dauendcre flara 150 a ^ 4. lo- 
.GranarodiVcnateSpelea ftara 50 a ^ t 

,Caffa in comanti — - — • «■» 




- car. 















154 -»4— 7 

Z008— IS— — 5- 

-109 -10—— 

. iO 


58 t 
58 t 
5- t 
58 t 

-J18— »7- 
-588— »8- 

- 75 8 

— 18--' 7—^ 


.car. J 

car. 24 
-car. 15 

car. ij 
-car. \6 

car. z6 
>car. atf 

car. »7 
-car. a7 

car. JO 





5 940 --II. 

- 1 CO — — 

_. 60 • 



— • ao — — 


— ao . 

—164 — 

iiaj I T- 

— JO 

—yptf— ip tf rr 

.Somma / 3431 — x<->9- 



wrfh? bjte .^hc Oa* Qab ,^w? CiJ 

«^ ^dU? &.te ^M? ^.te .^W? &J^ ^ 


EI580 6r 

Srrp generaledi qiieiTanno finito adi ultimo Miggio,dee hauere per gli 
infrafcritri dcbicidelMonanero,qui riratidaiconciloro.cioc 

m. ^artholaSaladinoin Vinegia,aCenfb A {oo. car. 46 

m. .Aquila Gradico tffictaaleyconco di tempo car. $ t 

R.D.CIementeAleninofiroCurarcv— — car. 43 

.FabrinoGatlononrofartore car. 57 

.DelfinoCommodocamparo . - ■ ■ ■ car, jg 

.AnnibalcGcnnanoferuidore car. jj 

■Monaftero noftro refta io credico^come H uede« 






I yoo- 

— J7— \6—-^6- 

— *4 — 5 

Soojma t Ann — I— tf- 
-car. jpif 174^ — o — j- 

•Somma t %4%\'.m,t^,m^^- 



In 1632 there appeared in Bologna a work on bookkeeping, written by Matteo Mainardi. This book 
is of far later date than the ones heretofore mentioned, but as explained in the historical chapter it is 
remarkable in that it attempts to describe, besides the system for the merchants, one for the keeping of 
executors' and trustees' accounts. It follows Pietra and Manzoni closely in a good many instances. 

The illustrations have small value for us except to indicate the little progress that was made in 
Italy with the shifting of the center of trade from Italy to Holland, as Simon Stevin's book herein- 
after reproduced, which was published in 1604 in Holland, was far in advance of this of Mainardi 's. 
"We reproduce the title page of the second edition of this book, and a page which explains the purpose 
of the book as far as trustees' and executors' accounts are concerned. The two pages of the journal 
we give in order to show that each page is provided with the address to the Deity, that the dot is used 
for checking, and that we here find so-called combination journal entries, by which we mean entries 
in which are combined more than one credit or more than one debit in one entry. We do 
not, however, find the use of the word "sundries," as in Stevin's work and as we use it to this day. It 
will be noted that in such entries the debits are always named first and itemized before the credits are 
enumerated, and that the division between debits and credits is made with two horizontal lines or 
dashes, one below the last debit and one above the first credit. We also note the absence of the money 
signs, except the principal or the lire sign. 



R E A L E 



Formalmente Ragguagliato 

D A 


Con diuerfi altri Qucfiti vtili , curiofi , c ncceflarij 

alia Mercatura 

la qut^* auoua Imfrtfftane sggiomoui il mada, 
(hi hoUfSi fi fratiea , 


Per il Longhi. Can licenuM ii Supirim. 



Laude, egloriadellaSantifsima, & IndiuU 
dua Trinita Padre , Figliuolo , e Spirito 
SantO; dclla Glorioffifsima Vergine Maria^ 
delli Santi Apoftoli Pietro ,^ Paolo , e delli 
Santr N.N. noftri Protettori , come ancora 
dituttala Corte Celeftiale. Amen - 

Quefto prefente Libro chiamatoGiornalc^di forma 
N.dicartcN.copcrtodiN.di carte num. N. efegnato 
N.bdiRutiglionglluoIo del gia Sig. LeonidoFonga- 
rellipupiJIo^d'etad'anniN.d erede ( 6abinteftato,b 
tcftamcntario) del fudetto Sig Leonido,pa(Iatoami- 
glior vitali i^.Gennarodelprefenteanno,fottoIatu. 
tdadi N.fopra del quale, per mano di N. fara notaco 
regolatamente, e formalmence, ogni qualita di bent 
(labili, emobili, beftiami, debitor!, e creditor i del d. 
gi^ Sig. Leonido> eperconfeguenzahorafpettance al 
medenmoSig. Rutiglio fuongliuolo, &erede, come 
fopra; e fulleeuentemente tutce l*entrate, e fpefe, 
chefrarannofeguiteranno in quefta eredita, lequali 
partite tutte farannoleuate da quefto Libro, cportate 
per mano del fudetto N.fopra vn altro Libro chiamato 
LibroMaeftro diforma,carta,coperta, efegnocome 
quefto, dicarte num.N.afuoi appartati.luoghi, con- 
forme e lo ftile Mercantile, che pcrb cffb PupilIo(e per 
cffoil Sig.N.fuoCommilTario Tcftamcntario) intende, 
die lifia data piena, & indubicata fede in.giudicio, e 


In fede di che &c. 

io N. Cfimmiftrio Tefl. &c, affermo <jiMnfedlfeip'0. 
lo N. Strhano atcettOy e^iurejuanto di fopra . 

A GlOR- 


15 I ^"^ LausDco, &B.Virg.RofarijM.DC.XXXIIL f 

I Adi ^i.DecembreSabbato* I 

. 10 

. II 
. II 

. n 

. 8_ 
. 9 




w////i Mnnniniy ^c. al banco lir.£[uattrocenfotre,fol. tredici, den. quttttro quat Upor- \ 
to tl mflro Ca neuaro torn an ti , retratti fmo a qm/tQ giornofudetto, di Fajft died- 1 
milh da cauazzatura vendmia minutOt h bohgninifette la carica , e ntfmerofet' | 
tanilla di ')c>Uey a bologmni tren(adue il cento, come ft vede per vna tagiid . ^X^^i* ' J • 4 

^creJito Fo/ft da cauazzatura in cafa num. loooo. L. 291. 13'4 

^cndtto Fajft di vue in c?j/rt www, 7000. JL. II2, 

_ 1 

x^fpefe difuoco lir. vimifei,foL tre^ den. due quat. per num. ottocentaquindici FaJft \ 

da cauazzatura, e num. quattroc^nt'ottantadue diyiteferbati per cafa. LX 26, 5. 

^creditoFaJftdacauazzaturanum.Zi'^. L.20. j.6. 

^ credito Fafft diyitenum /^Sz. ^.5.1^.8. 

.^ Luc a Barhint noftro lauorafore alia Tofsfjpone di Tgndi lir, (entodici^fette quat., 
cioeltr. cento per li patti in denari com ami y e lir. diciafette per cor be qtfattro 
XOrzo hauutopiU mc/ifono dal noftro Fattore, a lir. qumro,fol, cinque la corha, 
d'accordo. i.CllJ. 

U credito alia 'Pofsefsione di Tondi , /. . 1 00, 1 

K/f credito Orzo a Montorio cor. ^. I,, ijy ■ 

^ Domemco Manganella noflro Stfozzo aUa Tofsefftqne di Bellot lir. (;ento.qtiarant* 1 

y>na^ ful. cinque quat. cio} lir. centouinti per li patti , cbe deue pagare in denari [ 

Itr.vent'vnayfol.^. per corbe ^.d'orzo bauuta dal Fattore, d'accardo. I.«^i4i. y, — 

>^ credito alUTofsefsione di Bsllo. L. 120. i 

*^ credito hOrzoingranara di Montorio corbe 5 . £, 2 1 . j . 1 


^ Liuio Carboni , e fratelli no/lri'.mezzaiuoli h Mantoria lir. centafefiantatri „ fol. ' 

due, den. fei quat. cioh lir. cemoquaranta per li patti , cbe pagn in denari, e lir. I 

vemitre, fol. due, den. fei per corbe cfnque,emezad'Orzabautito,^accordo^ L.^16^. 2. 6 

^ credito la 'Pofsejfwne di Montorio . £. 1 40. I 

wf credito Orzo h Montorio corbe cinque, « meza . /., 2 3. ? . 5, I 


^jtngelo Sufa noftro Suozzo a Romanellalir centaquarantatre ,foA due , 4e».fei I 

quat. cioi lir. centouentt per li patti cbepaga indanari , e lir. vintitre ^fql. died, | 

den. fei per corbe cinque, e meza d' Orzo hauuto, d'accordo, piU Sifono. i. tl 43< 2. C 

.A crediu) la Tofsejftone di RamaneUo . L.120. \ 

ui credito Orzo in granarodi Montorio corbe xinque^emeza> L. 23.2.5, } 



Laus Deo, «c B. Virg. Rofari j M. DC. XXXIII. 

AdI 3 <• Decembre Sabbaco. 



• 9 

' 13 
♦ 10 








*^ Micbflf ttindineUi noflro bracente a Romanello lir. vinhnoue , cioi lir. vinti per • 
Jaftgione delta cafa, e lir. notte quat.fer corbe due, quar, due d orzo^ bmuto piU ' 
giornifonodal Fattore^d' accordo . ^ i.f 

,Acredito Lmgo di Romanello . C* »o. 

yAcredUoOrzoiniranarqcor'Z>quar.2. L. 9. 


^fpeje d'Elemofine lir, centononantajbl.otto,quat.difpenfate il Natale pajfato a di- 
uerfi Lrngbi TiJ, & apoueri della nqflra farocbia^per fanima del Sig. Leonido, 
per not dalli Mannini^ 6*0. L. 

K^credito alii Manniniy ^c. al banco , 

•190. 8.— 

v/f Canape grezzo in Filla lir, (inque(entof(fanfanoue,fol, quattordic i quat, per va- 
j luta di lib. duemillaottocentoquarant' otto, e meza di Canape , batinta dalli no/lri 1 
j latioratori tdella fua partCf apprezzata fent,a pregitidiciQ lie. vinti il cento . L, f J*'9' I^' "" 
j K^credito Luca Barbiniper lib. y 37. e meza. ^, 1 071 1 o, \ 

J ^credito Domenica Manganelh per lib.jii, I.. 1 42, 4, 

I ^credito Liuio Carboniper lib. 83 7. e meza. £. 1 67. i o. 

\u4credito.^ngeloSufa,perlib. 6i2.emeza . -C. 1 2 2. 10, 

I w4 credito Micbele Landinelli lib, i j o. /^. 3 o. 


j Jijpefe di reparationi, e fabric be lir, cenmrentanaue^fol. fei^ den. otta quat. pagm 
f per mandata quefiu giornafudetta a At. N, no/lra CapeUetto, e fona , (ioi lir. cin- 
1 quanta per la fua annua pro»iJione di coprire , e riuedere tutte h nojhe cafe di 
! yilla, e di Citta, e il reftoperfpefe, cbe da conto bauerefatto in rifarcire le cafe di 
I yilla, come dt tutta ne appare lift a in filza di piufomma, per mandato dalli Man- 

, 10 

nini, &€. al banco . 
^credito li Manninit&c. al banco. 

l.^ 139, 6. 8 

,^Ua TojfeJJione di Pondi lir, fettantajette ^fol. otto^ den 8. quat.ft fanno buoni a M. ' 
Sabadino Tazaglia di Mal'albergo^ efono per fei nauate diftrama , mandatoci It \ 
mefi paff'ati, comprefoui k condotte, cos) d'accordo infieme. L. ^ 77, 8. S 

3 I ^Alla Toffeftone di Bella lir./ettamafette,fol. otto . den. otto quat. buoni aljudetpo, co- 
—-'I' me fopra,perfe{ nauate di/lramo da lettOi come fopradetto. L.C 

I .Alia Tojfejpone di Momorio lir. ccmacinquetfol, trediciper otto nauate di ftrama da 

I , 1 letto mandatoli ilfudetta^ comefopra , 

8 I v//'/'» 'P.ojfejftone di Romandl» lir. centocinque^fol, tredici quat, buoni al JHdetto per 

■" — — I alpre otto nauate dijlramo da letto bauute^ come fopra^ 
, 14 j yAcredito Sabadino Tazaxjlh lir. ^66. 3, 4, 



77' 8^ » 

^-.[■loj.lj. -» 

105. 1 J.— 




enDe bmii& m looffeltjcbet^Conaen nesi 
3aeUenboed$iS(^mDeiaeHmfnsl)e teljottDme 

fl:etm/5'eei: nut eiiDe p?ofrteli)cft:3lttfo?me^ 
ttmt eenctt ^egl)eUjcfem/!)Qeljv5eftece enpe 
perfecteEeftminsDe Douijmfal mec Dobbel 
ben en affair^ grooteejr:pegtettttecttgl)mfaU 

CdB^ljetranaateert metgtootermitgmtim/ 

B)t Die 3ltaiiaettfc|)e tale in mkti^m^tti 


memojten) CoopmanlKin^atttlbeiJ^ 

)^tti:€nt)tn\x m itefDen en p?of^ 

* teDesfgljemepnenibelttaectjS 

eerfl: tt)tgDegeuenim3laep 



We are reproducing herewith the title page of Ympyn's book, which we have taken from Kheil's book, 
where a thorough comparative study is made between Ympyn and Pacioli. Ympyn, as we have seen, was 
the first Dutch writer who practically translated Pacioli into Dutch, French and English, and from him 
continental Europe has derived its subsequent texts on bookkeeping. The original of this book was not 
available to the writer, but we have taken from Kheil's book the most important subject-matters which we 
review in the following lines : 

Ympyn, as stated heretofore, copied Pacioli practically verbatim. We find, however, here and there a 
few deviations which we think it important to mention at this place. 

Pacioli speaks about the two divisions of his book, one covering inventory and the other "disposi- 
tion." He is somewhat vague in explaining this latter term. Ympyn says that "disposition" is "the 
establishment, systematizing and execution of the current and customary as well as the extraordinary af- 
fairs of a business. 

Ympyn suggests that the index should be bound in parchment and placed either at the beginning or 
the end of the ledger, but in such a manner that it can be taken out if necessary. He uses the Italian 
terms "Per" and "A" untranslated. In front of corrective ledger entries he uses a cross and does not 
mention any other distinguishing marks. The term "cash" is personified to cashier instead of pocket 
book, as used by Pacioli. He enlarges on the terms "Cash" and "Capital" more than Pacioli does. For 
branch stores the sales are entered into a sales journal, and totaled once a week for transfer to the ledger. 
Ympyn is more extensive in his explanations than Pacioli about barrato or trade, also about the draft and 
its use. We should remember, however, that Pacioli describes these more fully in the parts of his book 
not covered by the subject of bookkeeping. 

Ympyn recommends a separate book for household expenses, and a petty expense book for the small ex- 
penses of the business. The totals are transferred from these books to the journal once a month. He men- 
tions a special cash book for special kinds of species or for foreign money which is handled by the firm, 
very much as some banks today use a separate account with bank notes of large denominations. He ad- 
vocates the use of separate books for statistics, or memoranda, in the nature of diaries ; and suggests a 
shipping book. As to accounts, he mentions interest, building rents, ground rents, expenses, household 
expenses, merchandise expenses, building repair, garden expenses, salaries, loans, expenses of childbirths 
and an account for marriage gifts. 

Like Pacioli and Manzoni, Ympyn uses a profit and loss account, very much the same as we do today. 
He also draws off a balance to prove the correctness of the ledger. Ympyn, however, puts the balance at 
the end of the ledger as an account, although he does not explain it as such in his text ; in this he does not 
follow Pacioli. He balances the profit and loss account to capital account without passing it through the 

Ympyn specifically mentions that merchandise must be inventoried at cost and he uses a merchandise 
inventory account, to which .all accounts showing an inventory of merchandise or goods on hand are closed 
and then this account in turn is closed to the balance account. He does not journalize these entries. How- 
ever, we find that he does journalize his profit and loss items, as does Manzoni, hut which Pacioli does not do. 

Assets in the balance account are put on the credit side and liabilities on the debit side. He uses no 
opening balance account in the new ledger, but evidently posts from the old balance account in the old 
ledger in reverse order to the new ledger, because the closing balance account in the old ledger gives the 
folios to which the items are posted in the new ledger. We have seen that Pacioli says that you can trans- 
fer the capital accotint either as a balance in one item, or itemized; the latter having the advantage of 
then representing a summary of the inventory, and each new ledger then starts with an inventory. 

The journal, profit and loss, capital, and balance accounts illustrated by Ympyn are printed in Kheil 's 
Grcrman review of Ympyn, but we regret that he did not reproduce them actually, as with tho modern 
printing much of the form and arrangement is lost. 

Ympyn permits no erasures. He wishes a line drawn through the wrong amount or words the same 
as Pacioli does, in order to be able to prove of what the error consisted. He insists that explanations to 
the journal entries must be so clear that anybody can understand the transactions they record ; that books 
kept in the Italian manner as described by him, with a journal and a ledger, ' ' make everything as clear as 
daylight and will prevent swindles and defalcations, as occur now so frequently and almost daily." 

He adds the freight to the merchandise and posts it to the merchandise account. He deprecates trad- 
ing on long credit, and announces it as bad because "the wolf does not eat any days and the due date 
comes nearer not only by day but as well by night. ' ' 

The two diagonal lines of which Pacioli speaks, are used in the journal when the posting is finished 
and in the ledger when the account is closed or transferred to the new ledger. Capital account Ymypn 
credits with the assets and debits with the liabilities, which agrees with the idea of the personifying of 
accounts and results in a net credit in this account, which net credit is the same as we use in the capital 
account to this day. Ympyn uses no ledger headings and shows but one column in the journal. He uses 
Roman figures in all money columns, both ledger and journal. 



The following pages, Nos. 119 to 136, represent reproductions of the journal and ledger and other 
/ interesting forms as given in the book of Simon Stevin, which appeared in the Dutch language in Am- 
■ sterdam in 1604, was rewritten in The Hague in 1607, republished in Latin in 1608, and republished by 
Stevin 's son Hendrick in 1650. As we have seen, Stevin was a tutor and adviser of Prince Maurits of 
Orange, then Governor of some of the Dutch provinces. Stevin first taught the Prince bookkeeping and 
then induced him to install a double-entry system of bookkeeping throughout his domains and government 

Stevin apologii;es for the use of terms in foreign languages, such as debit, credit, debitor, creditor, 
balance, journal, finance, etc., but says they are necessary because if he used Dutch terms the bookkeepers 
would not understand what he was writing about, and as bookkeepers only are supposed to profit by the 
regulations promulgated and ordered by Maurits, the Prince of Orange, for the double-entry municipal ac- 
counting system, he insists that he must use the foreign terms. 

The objection of the Prince that government clerks would not understand Italian or double-entry book- 
keeping, he overcomes by advising that he could hire and should hire clerks who did know it, for they un- 
doubtedly would be better men. 

The objections to the necessity of double-entry bookkeeping for municipalities and governments he rea- 
sons away by stating that a merchant has some direct personal supervision over his bookkeepers and cash- 
iers, but the government must direct them through other persons. As this is not as safe as the merchant's 
personal supervision, it follows that if a merchant needs double-entry bookkeeping and finds it profitable, 
the government needs it that much more. 

Stevin does not give rules for the making of journal entries, but he explains a difficulty which the 
Prince evidently met, when the latter asks : "If Peter pays me $100, there are two debits and two credits : 
I am his debtor and my cash is also a debtor ; he is my creditor and his cash is also a creditor. Which two 
of these four must I select for my books ? ' ' Stevin answers : ' ' Take always my creditor and my debtor 
because Peter keeps books with his creditor and his debtor. ' ' 

Stevin urges upon the Prince that governmental treasurers invariably become rich, and when they die 
leave such a muddled state of affairs and records that there is nothing left but to forgive and forget, but 
that such is not the case with bookkeepers and cashiers of mercantile establishments ; they invariably die 
poor. A merchant, he says, knows what his bookkeeper or his cashier or treasurer should have, but this 
is not so with a Prince, who has to take the cashier's word for it. 

' The Prince then asks if bookkeeping ever had been worthy of such consideration that books were pub- 
lished on it. Stevin replied that numerous writers had taken up the subject, and that while doubtless the 
double-entry system was originated in olden times, yet in Italy where it is said to have been executed first, 
it is considered an art of which no other is so honorable and worthy. 

The Prince (apparently floored by Stevin 's lucid arguments) thereupon agrees to take up the study 
with the view of installing double-entry bookkeeping in the governmental departments as soon as Stevin 
and he were through with their studies of algebra. 

Stevin has a firm place in the heart of the writer, because he mentions in his book that one of his for- 
bears was a treasurer of the city of Plissingen, thus supplying the missing data for the genealogy of 
his family. 

Comparison of the journal and the ledger with the reproductions of the Italian writers heretofore 
given, will at once show that in printing as well as in arrangement the Dutch were far superior to the 
Italian. A comparison with Pietra and Mainardi will make this very plain. The examples must be pro- 
nounced as being excellent for their time. The journal entries are differently grouped than has been done 
by any previous writers, very much more systematic, and in many instances only totals from other records 
are used. 

It will be noted that all religious terms at the top of pages or at the beginning of books, customarily 
used in the Italian method, have been omitted. The slightest reference to the Deity is absent in these 
books, due to the fight for religious freedom which then waged in Holland. Stevin was a great supporter 
of the Protestant party, so much so that Brown relates that when in 1645 a proposal was made to erect a 
- statue at Bruges to his memory, a Catholic agitation was aroused in the House of Representatives to de- 
feat the project. Even a clerical editor expunged his name from a Dutch dictionary of biography, where 
it had appeared in earlier editions. However that may be, the writer having been born in Holland and 
there having kept numerous sets of books, can vouch that twenty years ago the majority of books which 
came under his supervision were opened and closed in the name of the Diety. 

Stevin 's omission of the use of religious terms was followed in England, whereas Europe to this day 

^follows Ympyn and others, which is corroborating evidence that Stevin through Dafforne has influenced 

English and American bookkeeping more than has Mellis, who followed Pacioli in the use of religious terms. 

Through a peculiar coincidence the use of the terms "pepper" and "ginger" appear as frequently in 
his illustrations and examples, as they do in those of the Italian and other previous writers. 

Stevin personifies the impersonal or economic accounts when he states that cash account is an account 
with the cashier and follows this idea throughout his work in connection with other accounts. He men- 


tions the three methods of buying and selling theretofore described by the Italians, namely, on account, 
for cash, and in trade, and the combinations that can be made with these three. Like his predecessors, he 
states that in the beginning of every book two entries are necessary, which should cover merchandise, and 
cash on hand, as also the debts owing and accounts owning,. and like Pacioli and Ympyn he explains fully 
that sometimes a business can be started on credit but he doubts the advisability. 

Stevin is the first to use the system of controlling accounts, and as shown in the first page herewith re- 
produced, in the second line after the table, the same name for these accounts is retained today. He uses 
the word ' ' contrerole, ' ' which comes from the French ' ' controler, ' ' which in turn comes from the two Latin 
words "contra" and "rotulus" (our roU) and "rota" (our wheel). The definition of the word "con- 
trol" is "to check by a duplicate register" or "verify an account." The total of his controlling account 
was obtained from the detailed monthly reports from the sub-treasurers or cashiers of the various places 
and departments, and were posted to these controlling accounts through the medium of journal entries. 
From these accounts tables were compiled showing the delinquencies for each year of each sub-treasury or 
of each place. He describes that an endless variety of these tables may be made in order to show the true 
status of the various operations at various places. He also states that if no tables are desired, then there 
shoidd be a separate account for each column in these tables, and especially for each year. The table re- 
produced shows how particular and careful he was on this subject. 

The ledger shows both the page of the journal and the page upon which the other part of the double- . 
entry appears in the ledger. This is one of the first writers who enters the journal pages in the ledger. 
The pages of the journal are, however, put in the margin, on the left of the date in the ledger and not 
directly to the left of the amount, as we are accustomed to do at the present time. The explanations in 
the ledger will appear to you to be shorter and clearer and more to the point as to relevancy than was 
customary in the Italian method. It should also be noted that the term "per" is used on both sides of the 
ledger. Stevin says that many bookkeepers use "a" on the debit side where he uses "per." He sug- 
gests that his method is more reasonable, as can be learned by translating the entry in an ordinary sen- 
tence; thus, which is better language? "Peter is debit to me 'for' ('per') pepper sold to him," or "Peter 
is debtor to me 'to' ('a') pepper sold to him." He then states that it is not a matter of importance, that 
his readers can do as they like, but he wishes them to follow the better sentence. 

In the journal he does not use the expression "per" before the debitor, nor "a" before the creditor, 
nor does he divide them with the two slanting lines // as do Pacioli, Manzoni, Pietra and Ympyn. Stevin 
simply used "debit per" between the names of the debtor and creditor thus coming closer to our present 
form of journal entry. 

It is difiicult to state what the two diagonal lines (//) between the debits and credits mean. 

In the chapter entitled "Discursion in Theory" there has been set forth in detail Stevin 's theory of a 
double entry with two debits and two credits, thus carrying the transaction through the proprietor's ac- 
count but eliminating the same by algebraic formula. 

The late Joseph Hardcastle, C.P.A., of New York, in 1903, in his "Accounts of Executors and Trus- 
tees," chapter on "The Personalistic Theory," very plainly sets forth the same idea elucidated by Stevin. 
He even goes so far as to state that Pacioli (he spells it with an "i") and Manzoni used the slanting lines 
between debits and credits to indicate the omission of the word ' ' proprietor ' ' twice. 

Stevin explains that Roman figures in the ledger are not needed because they are never used in the 
journal, which is a book of more importance, and if they are not put in the book of more importance why 
should we put them in the book of less importance? He explains (as does Pacioli) that the ledger is not 
important because if the ledger is lost it can be written up entirely from the journal, whereas the reverse 
is not true, because the detail which the journal contains is lacking in the ledger. He further states that 
in the Italian books Roman figures are not used in the day book. 

It wiU be noticed that each page of the ledger has a consecutive number (not as we number by giving 
two pages, the debit and the credit, one and the same number). Stevin explains that this is better be- 
cause then all your debit pages will be uneven and the credit pages will be even numbers, which will aid in 
checking if an error is made in putting the little dividing line between figures representing the pages of 
the debit and the credit in the journal, as is customary in the Italian method. The fact that but one col- 
umn is used in the journal, makes this little dividing line between the figures of the debit postings and 
those of the credit postings very important. Stevin further explains in this connection that it is still 
more confusing with a combination journal entry, where there are a number of debits and but one credit, 
or vice versa, when the word "sundries" is used. This because the debit of a combination journal entry 
comes first, and thereafter a number of credits, yet the total of the journal entry (which is the amount for 
the debit entry), stands at the last and therefore the debit is posted last, as will be seen from the illustra- 
tion reproduced. 

Stevin is the first of the writers mentioned in this book to use combination journal entries with the 
word "sundries." We have seen that Mainardi has combination journal entries or journal entries with" 
more than one debit and more than one credit, but he does not use the word "sundries." 

In the ledger it will be noted that the first entries, or the opening balances on some of the accounts, 
bear the date of "0 January." The use of the cipher at the beginning of the year, he says is absolutely 
necessary, because the books are opened on neither December 31st nor January 1st. It is a period in be- 
tween these two. He explains this with the illustration that the first rung is not the beginning of the 

The date in the ledger is repeated before each entry, instead of following the Italian method of using 

the words "a di detto, ' ' which mean ' ' the day of the above month, ' ' because he says the date to which 

"ditto" refers may be several pages back and therefore hard to read at first sight. 


Unlike Pacioli, Pietra and Ympyn, Stevin uses definite headings for his ledger accounts, and is the 
first one to use the terms "debit" and "credit" instead of "dee dare" and "dee havere." He puts the 
year on top of the page, and he balances his ledger accounts by making a sub-total. Closing entries do 
not go through the journal. Profit and loss account is written up at the end of the year, and also at the 
close of particular transactions, and while Stevin does not give a trial balance, in his descriptions he speaks 
very particularly of the same, and describes how to prepare it. While in his illustration he credits a legacy 
to the profit and loss account, in his text he admonishes the reader to put it to the capital account, giving 
his specific reasons for it. Cash entries are journalized in daily totals. He maintains a separate cash 
book in which the receipts are put on the debit and the disbursements on the credit, the same as they would 
be found in the ledger if it were a ledger account. He also explains that this looks as if it were double 
work but it is not, as it is not the bookkeeper's work to keep a cash book, but the cashier's. He further 
argues that because the bookkeeper is sometimes also the cashier, that fact should not alter the rule. He 
has a separate cash book for petty expenses, in which to enter small items which are posted to the ledger 
only once a month, in order to lessen the number of entries. 

About the reconcilement of differences between bookkeepers, cashiers, treasurers and others, he claims 
that these variations are due to the different closing periods of accounts and reports by the various officials, 
and requires that they be preserved by writing their full detail in the journal and making a reference of 
the same on the ledger account affected. Stevin says that as the head bookkeepers through these recon- 
cilements would discover entries which belonged to a period previous to the date of their discovery and 
their entry in the journal, that the current date on which the entry is made in the journal should be used 
in that book, but that in the explanation the original date should be used (we now use "as of date" so and 
so). But he warns his readers that when posting these entries to the ledger, the original date and not the 
journal entry date should be used. He advises that trial balances be taken in February, May, August, and 
November, which are customary mercantile due dates, which in turn will lead to a settlement of many 
accounts and will make this work easy and light. Furthermore, it will give data and statistics upon which 
the merchants can base their buying, selling, and credit budgets for the future. /He advises that the 
Italian method of bookkeeping is so adapted to expansion that whereas before but one bookkeeper could be 
employed, under the double-entry system any number of bookkeepers can be used, for, if the work becomes 
too much for one man the system should be revised so as to provide for controlling accounts. This means 
to post in totals only, so that one sub-division can be given to a bookkeeper to be controlled by one head 
bookkeeper, who deals in totals only. 

As to the cash book, it is used because it obviates the making of numerous journal entries every day, 
thus shortening the work greatly. He fully illustrates this, and transfers the totals of the cash book to 
the ledger by journal entries, preferably monthly. 

Stevin provides a double column in the ledger account for merchandise. In one of these he puts the 
weights and measures, and insists that they be balanced also. He says that in his illustrations he made 
them come out even, although he admits that that very seldom happens. The result, however, would be 
the same, for the balance to be carried to the new ledger or to be used in "the statement of affairs" would 
be based upon the weight, and whatever is over or short, as far as weight and measure is concerned, would 
automatically adjust itself in the profit and loss. 

He objects to the name of "memorial" as used in the Latin countries for the day book, stating that 
"memorial" is a book of memoranda (things to be remembered), whereas the day book is used to write in 
roughly the daily transactions preparatory to journalizing them. This he calls a blotter. He draws a 
' line between each journal entry from one side of the book to the other side of the book, through all the 
standing lines and columns. He explains that this line is necessary, because some entries cover several 
pages. (How we accountants wish some bookkeepers would make journal entries with explanations pages 

Stevin says it is customary to ascertain once a year what the profit or the loss of the business has been. 
This is what he calls "balancing" or "making a statement of balance" or "ascertaining of capital." For 
this purpose, he advises to ' ' add together cash and merchandise on hand and actual accounts receivable, 
. deduct therefrom the accounts payable ; the difference is net capital provided the accounts receivable are 
all good. The difference between the net capital of last year and this year is the profit or loss for the 
year. ' ' According to Stevin, the making of a statement of affairs was not done concurrently with the clos- 
ing of the books, the latter being done only when a new ledger is opened or where the merchant retires 
from business or dies. 

To prove his profit and loss arrived at through the making of a statement of affairs as above explained, 
he makes up a profit and loss account, which he calls "proof statement." Therefore, his profit or loss is 
ascertained first from the balance sheet, and in order to prove whether that is correct, he builds a profit 
and loss account. How few modern bookkeepers and young accountants understand this principle today ! 

It will be seen from the reproduction of his financial statement and profit and loss account, that the 
profit and loss statement is just as it would appear in the ledger account if these entries were really posted 
to a ledger account as we do today. The balance sheet therefore represents an unposted journal entry, 
whereas the profit and loss account shows the result of a posted journal entry. In this Stevin is of course 

Stevin makes the statement of affairs a mathematical problem rather than the result of debits and 
credits. He adds and subtracts, but does not reason where "proprietorship begins and ends," as he does 
with all other journal entries. Hence, the entries comprising the closing of the ledger and the profit and 
loss account should not be in the journal (he reasons) , as the making of such entries is only done when pro- 
prietorship is affected. They are merely the bringing together to a conclusion of net proprietorship or 
net capital. 


He further explains that the ledger must always be in balance because of the mathematical rule of 
' ' equal amounts added to equal amounts must give equal totals. ' ' 

In closing the ledger, Stevin transfers the balance of the various accounts direct to other accounts in 
the ledger without the aid of journal entries, and calls it often "by slote" the Dutch, and sometimes "per 
solde" the Italian for "in order to close." He puts his assets and liabilities into the capital account, and 
his profit and losses in the profit and loss account. He finally closes all accounts by closing the profit and 
loss account into the capital account. As the difference between present assets and liabilities or net pro- 
prietorship must be equal to the capital at the beginning of the year, plus or minus the current profits or 
losses, the entering of the present assets and liabilities in his capital account is an unnecessary duplica- 
tion, except it be to effect a closing of all ledger accounts and using the capital account for this purpose 
as a clearing account. 

Stevin explains this method by saying that other writers, and especially the Dutch writer Bertholomi 
de Rentergem, have in the rear of their ledgers a "balance account," (as Pietra and Ympyn) into which 
they close their ledger accounts. This, Stevin says, is built from a journal entry made in the old journal. 
This entry is also posted in reverse order in the new ledger from the journal entry in the old journal. This 
method Stevin does not like. He says these writers when opening their first journal and ledger, in the 
beginning of a new business, start with an inventory (see Pacioli and others), but in subsequent ledgers 
he says they do not do this, and there they call it a balance account. Why not be consistent, he pleads, 
and open each subsequent journal and ledger with an inventory? He dislikes the balance account method 
evidently so very much that he wants to get away from it as far as he can, and thus he dumps it all into 
the capital account, because, he adds, "the result is exactly the same." 

Stevin gives an exhaustive chapter about the settlement of partnership affairs. He states that if all 
the partners are active and were conducting a portion of the business in various cities on the principle of 
branch stores, each partner should keep a separate set of books, very much the same as the method he ex- 
plains for consignments or traveling agents, and at headquarters or at one of the branches there should 
be a joint bookkeeper, whose duty it is to deal in totals, so that each partner may know where he stands in 
relation to the others. If only one partner is active, this partner should keep the books. 

He learned in one instance, as very likely modern accountants wiU learn from time to time, that a 
good merchant, no matter how illiterate he is or how ignorant he may be about bookkeeping, usually can 
tell very accurately whether the accountant's financial statement and bookkeeping results are correct. 
Stevin was called in to adjust the affairs between a number of partners, of a large partnership. The five 
active partners were residents of the cities of Venice, Augsburg, Cologne, Antwerp, and London, where 
they conducted branch establishments of the firm. One of these partners had not kept any books. Stevin 
was finally induced by this partner to visit him and to write up a full set of books of all the transactions 
of the partnership which he could find, and thus ascertain the financial settlement between the partners. 
This he did, after considerable labor. The particular partner who had kept no books, however, objected to 
the settlement, because it was £300 less than he figured was coming to him. To prove this, he stated that 
they had no assets or UabiUties of any kind, having liquidated the business ; therefore he said : " If I de- 
duct my disbursements from my receipts, and add to the balance what is due me from the others, the total 
must be my portion of the profit. ' ' Stevin agreed with him that this was right, and the set of books was 
discarded and a settlement made upon the argument of the partner who was ignorant as far as bookkeep- 
ing was concerned. From this experience Stevin determined upon the following rule : when called in to 
make a partnership settlement, he would demand three things: first, the amount each partner has re- 
ceived more in cash than he paid, or what he paid more than he received ; second, the difference between 
presently existing accounts receivable and accounts payable, to which he added the cash and merchandise 
on hand ; third, what the agreement was between the partners as to divisions of profits and losses. He 
illustrates the application of this rule by the following example : 

A paid more than he received by £2,000 

B received more than he paid by 4,000 

C paid more than he received by 3,000 

The net assets, or the difference between accounts receivable and payable, added to the 
cash and merchandise on hand, amounted to £7,000 

Each partner was to receive one-third of the profits or stand one-third of the losses. He then puts up 
the following account : 

Partnership Debit. Partnership Credit. 

Due A £ 2,000 Due from B £ 4,000 

Due C 3,000 Net assets 7,000 

Total due A and C £ 5,000 £11,000 

Net profit 6,000 

Total £11,000 


As of above profit one- third is due to each of the partners, each partner's account would stand as follows : 

Due A as per above £2,000 

Plus one-third of the profits 2,000 

Due C as per above £3,000 

Plus one-third of the profits 2,000 

Due from B as per above £4,000 

Less one-third of the profits 2,000 




Net assets £7,000 

Those of us who have read the numerous involved court cases on partnership settlement, certainly 
must admire Stevin's ingenuity. 

Consignment accounts, which Pacioli calls traveling accounts, are more thoroughly described in this 
work. Stevin thinks it wrong to debit consignment account and credit merchandise, when the goods are 
shipped on consignment, because the test when to make an entry is "the beginning and the end of pro- 
prietorship." He says it would be foolish to debit a clerk and credit merchandise when a clerk takes 
goods from a cellar or warehouse to the store or from one part of the store to another. And he feels that 
consignment is a transaction of a similar nature, with only a greater distance between the places of stor- 
age. He states if we want to keep track of these consignment transactions, it should be by way of memo- 
randa but not in the regular books. Like Pacioli, he wants the traveling man or consignee to keep books 
on the double-entry system and report sales at convenient times, these reports to be entered in a separate 
journal and ledger until there is "a beginning and an end of proprietorship." It is important to note 
that Stevin very seldom uses the word "capital," but substitutes the word "proprietorship" throughout. 

All the way through, Stevin uses as a test for the making of a journal entry "the beginning and end 
of proprietorship." Thus, when goods arrive in the warehouse, that is the beginning of proprietorship, 
and that account is not touched again, as far as the journal and ledger are concerned, until the goods have 
left proprietorship through consumption. So, if a barrel of beer were received from the brewer, it would go 
into the warehouse account or the merchandise account, and there remain until finally the butler on one of 
the war vessels would distribute it to the sailors, when it would be charged out to them. In the interim, how- 
ever, the warehouse has sent it to a small ship, which brings it to the ocean, there it is transferred onto a 
transport, and probably is transferred on the ocean two or three times from one steward's warehouse on one 
ship to another steward's warehouse on another, until it finally reaches the war vessel upon which it is 
consumed. While he urges the necessity of following this barrel of beer from place to place, he states that 
this should be done only in memorandum accounts and not in the general ledger. 

Equally insistent he is on the reissue of tools used in the construction of fortifications, canals and 
buildings, or on the farms and in the field. He says that tools are first purchased, issued to one particular 
piece of work and then returned to the warehouse and used in other places and transferred from place to 
place until finally worn out. All of this he feels should be carefully recorded but not in the general ledger. 

As to the wages, he very carefully explains that a wages or pay roll account avails one nothing. The 
wages he says should be carefully distributed to each department for which they are incurred, exactly the 
same as we have seen Pietra does. He first distributes his wages, as he distributes all his supplies, to 
definite departments. Thus he says we can arrive at true costs. This method he uses also in checking up 
the supply house and the cook, for he instructs the cook, as we have seen, to give a record of the daily 
meals served in order to check the pay roll, and he checks the cook by instructing the warehouse men to 
figure out the cost of the meals per man. Thus he says, if the cost per meal is considerably higher than the 
average, and the pay roll agrees with the meals served, then the warehouse man has either made an error 
or stolen some goods. 

In this connection, he provides a perpetual inventory, in which each kind of merchandise has two 
columns, one for the receipts or ' ' ins ' ' and one for the disbursements or the ' ' outs. ' ' He balances each 
column when new goods arrive, then counts what is left, and adjusts his books to the actual count. 

Gifts of merchandise, he states, must be valued, for three reasons : first, in order to be able to ascer- 
tain actual expenses and consumption of merchandise for each department; second, the proprietor should 
know at all times for how much he is obligated to others ; third, in order to know exactly the actual capital 

In municipal accounting, he urges that the ledger of any year be held open until at least the end of 
the next year, to prevent heavy transcribing, very much the same as is done now with some tax rolls. 

Stevin in instructing his bookkeepers in the municipal department, tells them to use the words "debit" 
and "credit" in the explanation of each journal entry, thus making it a little plainer to the uninitiated in 
the terms of bookkeeping. Prom the illustrations it will be noted that he does not do so in mercantile 
bookkeeping, but only uses the term "debit." 

What the writer has said in praise of Stevin should not be interpreted as meaning that he considers 
Stevin's system perfect or even as perfect as we have today, for in many respects, it is not. But the writer 
believes that Stevin has left his' unmistakable stamp on modern American methods. It would be interest- 
ing to study the earliest American financial books and ledgers in order to establish that through the Dutch 
settlers of New Amsterdam (now New York) Stevin's ideas were brought to America, rather than by way of 
England through Dafforne, who we will see further on in the book, failed to translate to the English lan- 
guage many of Stevin's ideas. 


D O me" I N E 

Mcttc CONTREROLLEen ander behouften vandien. 
't WeUk. n 

'Vmlaring yanghemeene ^gel, waerdeur Ver- 

bdet warden alle abujfjenmette fwaricheden ujitte felve fpruj/tende, die- 
men tot ttoch toe uyt geenti^kencamers van oometne en Finance 
heejtconnen wercti. 
Wcfendc OcfFeninghen dcs Doorluchtichften Hoo£;ftghc- 
boren Vorft en HeereMAVRITS by Gods Ghc- 
nade Prince van Orange> &c. Ho: Loff: Memorie. 

tofthrerendeut SIMON STEVIN v»n Brugghe, in Hjiilevendes Hooghghemetten Hceie 
PklNCtN Superintendent vande Finance, &c. "En uyi fijn naghelatcn 
Hantrchriften by e?n ghefteltdeor fljn Soon HENDRICK 
STEVIN Atnbaclitshceievan Alphen . 


Ter Druckerye ran IVSTVS LIVIVS, 
I»V tipceie laer des Vredes. 





Roofe gemaeckt op den laetfien December 1600. 
Staet of capitael debet. 

let MruoM lacebs fol.l^ 51. 8. 0. 

Rtft debit hier gefltltbyJloU 
randtfrn - - - J 140. 9.1. 

StrniiK J191, 17,1. 

Staet ot'capitael credit. 

Ptrnetmfol.y •Ijlf^itnt. tot 

j.R't font, com - - 60. If. a 

Per peperfol. j-izof^tol 40 fl 

'tfontt eomt - - - - 20, 0. 0, 

VerOmaerdeSrvartefoLp, - 51J, 12.0. 

Ver Adriain de Winter fol. 11- 150. 6. o. . . 448. o. O. - $4.18.$. 

Per cajfe fol. 19 - - - 1944. 7,$. 

iimmt }i9i. 17. 1. 

Sulcx dat Debiteurs,met gereet gelt en vvarcn,hier 
roeer bcdragen dan Crediteurs voor vveerde des 
capitaeis op den laetftcn van December 1 600 - 5 140.9. it 

Maer op den laetften December, i^^^y of 't begin 
des jaers 1600 dat een felve is , was het capitael 
van2i5?oCj^8§, want treckende den debet 
514 oS 6 JJ,vanden credit 2667 cjS 9 JJ 8 §, blijft 
alsvooren . - - _ - 

VVclcke getrocken vande 3i40ci£9 jj i§, blijft 
voor 't gene datter op dit jaer verovert is,ende ia 
defc ftaet gefocht wicrt _ - - 


987. 5« 5* 


MAer om nu te fienof het bovefchreven vaft gact,fo dient 
dit tot een proef : Ick vcrgaer al de reften der poften van 
vermeerderende of verminderende capitael, 't welck fyn de re- 
ften der poften die indc voorgaende ftaetmaking nieten qua- 




men, alstottcvvcfentlickcftaetnictbchoorende: Endewant 
de felve fyn partyen van vvinfl en .verlics voorgcvallen inden tijt 
defer bouckliouding, datsfedertolanuaiius i6oo> vvelcke by 
aldienmen het bouck flotc (gclijckintvolgcndcio Hooftftick 
gedaenfalvvordenj op rekening van vvinft en veriies fouden 
conimen, foomoetdandaer deuroock vcrovering bevonJen 
vvorden van 987 0S5 jJs^- Tot defen eindc begin ick het 
Schultbouck te ovcrloopcn van voorcn acn , endeontmoet my 
eerft de pofte dcr nagelen fol. 5, vvaer op ick wind bcvinde van 
■75. 4.7. dacr na ontmocten my noten cnandergoedcn, als hicr 
4iavoJght. Doch ftaet noch te gedenckcn , dat overfchietende 
goeden hier berelcent vvorden ten felven prijfe als inden voor- 
gacnden ftact , om dat vvy ncmcn haer vveerde foo te vvefen, 
vvilJeraen in d'ccncn d'andcr ncfncn den prijs verandert te zijn, 
men foudet oock meugen doen. 

VVinften verlies debet. 

Ptr encoflen van cootnfchapfol. 1 6 - 57. 7.0. 
feteiHoflenyandeahuyfi fol. 16 - 107. lo.o. 

Somme 164. 1 7.0. 

Rtfltreiit ahfrtujf^t overetncom- 
menit mettt roorgaendt rtkc- 
vinghia gtfltll per folde - - 9?7-5-5' 

Sommt 1152. 2. J. 

VVinft en verlies credit. 

"Per vrhijl of) nagelen fol, f - . 7J.4. 7, 
Verwinfl 0^ noten fol.y - • 109. 7.2. 
Verrvinflopfeptrfol.j - - iS.ip. O. 
"Peryywjlofgimherfol.g. - - 41. 8,4, 
Ptr rekening van vvuiji en verliet 

( vyicns pojle te gedemken u dm 

ten tijde defer rvercking in debet 

alleenelick hadde tyvee fartyen,te 

yyeten -van i o o — ^ en 1 2 -£ 

maer tn credit drie fartien als ^ 
C^ J-4-"» 'J c^met 1000 
C^)fol. 19 - - - 907. J. 4. 

Sommc 1 1 52. 2. 5. 

Nudanliet prouffijt dcurdefe vvyfepock bcvonden fijndc 
van 987 o^ 5 ,^ 5 ^> als te vooren int flot des ftaets , foo mach 
dit tot prqef des vvercx vcrftrecken. 







■ 1 





PirfibeydiH ftrtien debet fir Capitatt yM my Ditrlc^ Hftfl 
l667'^9j58§> dtHrddtic^tenytiinutmdmdit- 
ge fiaet vmgtrt nni\t«dc , mj iiymden heUi tit tt te- 
hsuren dtnavtlgindefartien yMgtIt , VViO'in tnfihtttdin: 
Endt lerfl : 

Cttjfei/tgtreden glide - » • . 

HAgelen 4 balennTfegfiiJe 
»° J -%j-tari.i.' 



7- sir*"!/ I'O- 

jio-^ittg j^'tftni, ttmi 

W«f» 4 6/i/f « ryegeitje 

"09- 79'"" '•4-'\ 
7 - 8 i /iTC 1 , 4. / 
6.84 /«)'I.2.>N<' 

8- 8o/a»'i.«. \ 

}j;/af ;.o. 

Pf/fr 3 A<i/m ryegende 
n°9- jjo/«'i.o."\ 
10-160 /^/i.o.>N«-,j8^,j,oO 
11 - lJ4/i<r».o.> "^ 

ifmtf tcmt 

764 /rt>»6.o. 
Gimber j i<«/f» vyegende 

■ *9<l '^ N/ ji & 'Ifwitt teat 

I j04-<rfi* iO o. 

Hei navolgende fyn Debiteuts gctrocken uyt ' 
de vootfchrevea fiaet. 

Onuer de Svturtt yerfilrptende 6 Meye 1 fioo. 
^driitn dePT^itterverfehjnende 8 luniut 1 &eo. 
Pietirdef^f'ilteTrerfihynendeioliiniii4\6oo. - - • 
ttuquesdeStmeryetfchyyiende lydatiuiiioo. - - 

CapilAel \/tm myDiiric\ t{po/i debet per yerfibiyde»Cndile»- 
ten, m de Welcl^e »;^ my ten vootntemde dagt dear de yttr- 
fdifeyenfinetmat^itig bevinde /chuldich lefyiutdt ytlght 1 

ItojKoirctrtrfihyaeudedeit 7 Mnerle 1 603. 

Dmil Upeli ytrfijiyande den » Meye 1 600, - 

jlermMt Jacoit yerfchynende den 1 o ^prit 1 tf OD. - - 

D 3 Oxciftm 






3 JO 












't laer i5op; 

OKnJIin vnn etimftbup debit ptreiiffi iilf»filHltUMt/r 
maaitTeimftinitirim Hijc\iHdt iy't miiHtrlatl'PihKtifn 

Oncojlm vmdtn huyfe Jtb'tt fir 'ciijfe,iem bttaelt iaAtfe 
mdmt yan FebruariM ll^c\mdt by 't mtmniailvan dim 



Iddquu de Scmer debet fi' anplen , dmr dat icl^ at hfm ytt- 
cocht heb ib*lente bctalin binnin. i mteitdai, Tne^endt 


■ 6 















■ 6 





Kitai debet per Davit JifeUideurdatic^Vtmhemgeacht heb 
3 bjiltnie betaten binnin 3 mamden, vpegtnde 

5 -80 Mr 1.0. Y'tiitzik-ea'ttii R'tpttt.cmt - 

6-8H4ri.cJ "" 








Onnjlen vm Ctsmfihap debit per ctffi , diHttetaeltindefe 
maent yan Maerti bl^c\endi by 't mimwiail yan dim 

OAcsflen yande huyfe dibit per cajp.dmr betaelt in i(ft mamt 
yanMaerttblijclimdeby'tmemiiriaelyandim - - 

Caffe dibit pirnaiiten,deiir dat le\ antant yerueht htb rba- 

ten an lefip Sander) yy igiudi 
no 4. 861 ta'rt.t.'i 


Gimber debet per Cafe , diurdat it\cmtant ffttda htb j **■ 

Im yan Louyi lanji, vveiindt 

1}" 14- 1*4 tar I. o.'\ 

ti.i7otari.o.>Ntt79tfS''"i°%''f'"' ' 
16 . i66tar i.o.y 

Soo tar 6, o. 

Onaften yanccemfihap debit per cajft , dear ielaelt indefe 
mamt April blijckendi iy't mtrmriait van Jte/r. 

dnnflen yan den buy ft debet per cajje , dmr bitaiU indefe 
maent yan April blijcJjende by 't mtmoriait yan Jim - 

Dtnit R^ils debet per Omair di Syyarte , dmr dat iel^ Davit 
ffajiitneert heb van Omaer t'ontfangen in yfUibilalingh 
yandiet icI^p^itfchMldichbmairvaUirtitim, 1 Maer- 
lt\6oo, in in mindering Vim dill tny Omair/chnldich it, 
yiiyaBmde 6 Meyt 1 600 





























-pOtrfJ'I. o. Y . 

■ saut ,. o. fNeti76iS' tot 10 ,fi't font - 

178 tar I. o. I 
K'ten i bulen vyegeatie 

i4 -88/..ri; 8. fi'iet 171 fg tots ^'tpont - 

'74*-"-3--o- Smme 

Fitter Aeyyitte dehit per TnrfcheydenfM'iieit, m him fmtcht It bt- 

■ taleh biimm f yvetfen, en eerjl .• 
Gimber 8 bxten VTregende 
n" /\- l66litri.o. 

5 • i6o tat t.o. I 

6 • ifS tar 1.0. 

7- 1(14 tarf.o. 

8- 256 tari.o. ' 
M - 264 lar 2.0. j 
I J - 170 tar 1,0. 
iS/ 2£S(or 2.O., 

xio^tar 16.0. 

NeJ/a 7 fd/cn yytienie 
n" "4 - 79 Mr I. o.\ 

S • " 



^ • 80 tar 1.0. I 
!- 82(<<r 1.0. J 
)-79(rfci.4. ^ 

■ 82/.n- I 

■ 84 

5<j6 tar 8. o. 

7. 82/.n- 1.4. 1 
3-84 lari.i.j 
S-SoMr 1. 6 J 

ifSetssS-m tot ti^'t font 


Ca£i debet per Omaer dc Swarti, yun him entfaen in mirid'ering van 
't yerjchenen den 6 TAeye 1600 

Uqs Koircit debet per caffej an hem bitatlt in mindering yan't ytrjcht- 
nen den 7 Maerte 1 600 

^ernoKt laccbr debet per eajjr, an htm betaelt inminderinghyan 
'f Ver/ihenen den t o .^pril 1 600 - " - 

Oucofien yan ccomfchap debet per cajjt, dim betatU in deft maent yan 

Oacojicn yanden huyfe debet ftr cajft , dent iettall in dtfi mamt ym 
Meye Uijc^ende by 't memwiatl yan dim 

Cajfe debit per lacques dt Somer, ran hem ontfaen ia mindain^h yan 
't yirfchenm dm 1 Mdlrte ifioo 














18 A/j/M. 




•OBCoJlen timdm hnyji dtbil ftr t»Jft ■ iiur bttaelt in deft maeitt Van 
iHniiu blijc^enile by 't mtmcritul Vim dim ■ 


8 IhUm. 

■ I 











^it«n4t ItluifJeltt per cnjfe , An hem htUtU tn VotdcAjingli vm 
't ytrfehoun den 1 o ^pril 1 600 • - 

Once/leu van Ccomfihaf dthet per caffe dear beiaelt in dcfe mnent van 

Omtet de Svvatte debet per Verfcheyden partitn , mi hem vernchHi 
hitalen binnta i maeadtn, die ^eleven \ijn in handen Van ^ndriet 
Ctrf/yn FaUeHr,En dat deur lafl vtnden vocrfihreven OmatrMijc 
\(tndi byjyn mitfive vandeii i (> lunim 1 £ao : £» ten eerjlen 

Peper j balta ivegendt 

no ^ - If o tar. z.o^ 

10- i6orar. .. o. Wgf -jX t^tOtidk't pOnt. 
II ■l^^tar.i.o.J ' ' u L 

764 twr. 6.0. 

titlen X balen vvegtade 

"oti •i6lar. I. S.\ -^ „ o> 

I47»<if. 3. o. 

JiaifUn 1 Oaten vtegendt 

noii.golar. ■■0.\ j^j; ,7^ ^(gi ,, R'tpottt - 
li-BStar. i.o.jf ■' iv i 

1 78 tar. 1.0. 


Cajfe debet per verfcheyden perfmnen , vanhemllen onifaen gmet letl 

Mriaen deF'rinter in mindering van vtr/chenen 8 Imiut 1 tfoo 
Pieter deyyitle in Vctte betaling vant verfihenen 1 IuUm 1600 
Pieter de fVitlt in mindtring van 't verfihenen den 5 IuUm 1600 
lacijHeidtStmer in vatlt bttatrng Vant verfchenen i Matt. 1 600 
lacjutt dt Stmer in miadering vant verfchenen 7 Meye 1 600 


f^erfcheydenperfimen debet pa cajfe, an htmlien betaelt^reetgelt ali 

Vtlght : 
iMitioir'it in vcUeietaling van 'I Verfchenen 7 'Marrle 1 600 
Davit geelt ept verfchenen den it'Iur.iiu 1 600 
JLtmontlattbloptverfcheiienden 30 JTwiw ifioo 


Davit Hftti dtbtlper cajfe, an hem betaelt in vtldoeaingh van't ver- 
Jchentil, den li InniM 1 600 

Kottn debet per cafe, deur dat ic\geci)cht hcb 3 balen gereetgdt vve- 
gendeneti^c-f^fet 7 ^'tpmt . . - 











JO o 

Co o 

100! o 

ilO o 





■ 8 

■ 8 






1 1 



Pepw iibitpn utlm,diiir <Ut iel^gmuuitlt hibtupi/tiijriiu Citufi. 

all vlcht : 
Pefir 1 10 -fStot ^o^'tfit tx^ndrifj CUrJi. an my iiUvert, 

ecmt .... 
Katen 6 £ •gg' 1 1 mctn let 6 (t 'tfmi , die icl( ati ^ndries fiUefi. 
geUverl heb, come . . -. 





H_el^tmn^VaaivviH!l invirtiej debet par caffe, deiirdaiicl^mee Ca- 
l/iite mijtt dienflmaecht ten lmvvilic\e geieten hebhe 

1 oo 






ferfcheydia partien debet per Atrnutt lactifi. dear dat jV/J tan hem 

geliehl hebbe i ooo O^ 'f intrejl trgea i » ten hindtrt enters , tn 

dii yen een matnt,vr*erafdi vtrfchejden pariien dufdanich vja: 
Caffe dexr datit^ van him tntfaea hebbe dt btvefihmen fuofifamme 

tan - - - - 
Ssbeuini yaa rvinjl en verties dear dim den intreft der bifefehreven 

httfijtmmetfemtaatnlMuutht • - . 



■ on 


lacijaej de Somer debet per verfcheydenfitrlieu , ^tnr dot icl^hem ^e- 

gf pen htb foo ^ op intreU ttgh> ■ o <"> hmdert ^ftaets , en dJi 

vtn ten maent, trair afde tir/cheydm partien dujdanich ^^» : 

Ca/fidtmrdaiulibem^etell htbbede hovefihreyenhtoftfimmt van 

/(; ^eatng van vvmfi tn verlieJ , daajlien den intereSi der hntfchre. 

Vfihocfifimattp ten maent bedeaecbt - - - 





uldriaindel'lOnlerd'ettiptrVtr/elt^n partien iSog^, dturdat 
hfvanmjtulfitnherftep yvijfll loo, ^ fleeilinif tit jj o 
tetpmt, ttdraffndi 1 6f ^,*>" '" yytaom le bitalen tn Omuer 
deSvranebinnm Itnnen tp tvvie matnier. naficht, het fonifiecr- 
tinxffitlfeni >/ )6 J), yyatr afde Verfihrjden partien dufdamch 

Caji dear dat hj Van my mifaen httfi de burefchretenfimme van 
Kel^ini van win fi en verliei .dtur duo dt vviffel Van j -CirfiHde 

tfdt too ^^flierlincxbedraeihi ... 




Yemeni tanbf\ dcbeljer eaffifOn htm belaeli datter yerfchata vvai 
den It Stptembtr l4oo ... 

■ on 

CaJJidtbttptr retfenin^ van winfi en virlitSf denrgeerft le hebben hei 
gtel m^nt Otmi 



CaJJi debet per laejKtideSomee, yon htm entfaendalttrver/chemn 
vviu den 1 o oHober 1 6oo 


E Omarr 







't laer i6oo. 




Ommt ie Svvurte lot Umen iehe< per .Adtiiien de yf^inler, dem J At 
hy Vitr my mtfuen lieeft of nfijfel VMileufitvea ^driaen , lilljc- 

tfende hyjyn fchrypen. ... 




Oncogen "van caemfchttp debet per t«Jfe,^eHr httaelt inde maenden yun 
IuUm, ^m^uJIm, Septemier, OHdber , Kofemher , en December, 

btijcl^ende by 't memnriul tan dien - - 




ncoficH yandenhny/e debet per CiiJJedcur betde/t inde ntAenden "pMn 
luhuf, ^ii^uflin, September, OHiiber,KeVemler,tn DecemberM'ijC- 

\endeby*t memoriaet>ttndien - . 


Mevcktdatdefe twee lactftcpattien van oncoftcn 

foudcnna 'tgemeen gcbtuyck verdeelt bchoorcn te 

vvotden ten cinde van yder maent , foo veel op elckc 

viel : Doch alfoot vergcten vvas, ick en hcbt niet vvil- 

Icn vctrchry yen , te meet dattct inde daet fomwylcn 





Capitael debet. 't laer 1600, 

pHriutinfil. j,illiirJiilteripiJelliieima^ing bncniten Vfiiij) -Qf 

iiinci<t}»utyciriticl)j Q'tptnttComt - - - 

perpeperfil.jtdmrdniterintleJJatlnuliwgbtvmdtn ^i^fn '»of^, 

I»» yvterdieh 40 fi 'tpmt, comt 
i/cii™. PerOmurdtSfVtrliyi'fihyntnde dtn4t5tftmha en i^Decm- 

htriioofil.g ■ ,',„'■ , 'r, 

liictm. Pn^Hruende fVintervetfihymndedtnS iMiuMieoofil. If 
Deem. PerPitterderyitttVerfchynende den 5 iW/w 1 600 /«/. 1 1 
I>«««: Pre /«7«« dt Stmer yerfilijnende dea 7 Jlfjr* 1 6oo/»/. i j - 
Dtctm. Peictffefol.i^ • . . - 




S' 1 





























Cafle debet. 

P4ft*fit<utfiL J 
PtrOmiurde Srviflffil, 9 
PerlMjtoiieStmirftl. 1 1 

't laer X 600. 

















Nagelen debet. t laer 1600. 

Per capitael fil. j - - -^emeiit taatt fit., If ... 


Peire\eniH!^yimvyinfitn-»nlie$fol.i9 hier gtfett,tj 
Jlttt »4» de/ea, yyefeaie frmfftjt ep nafflea - - 















Noten debet. 'tIaeri(Jop. 

Perenpitatlfil- 3 - - 

Per Diyit Utelifil. 15 
Per .Aermut Itcihfol. If 
Percajfefel. 19 

Petrel{inwgyii>ivvmj}t>ivertiesfsl. i^.hiergejiftliy 
Jtote rim difiii, yye/tnde pnKffijI ep nelin 



























CapitacI credit. 



Pir^HiKnt Uuit Vnfihyiuttdt Jm }o Tmliu i CooftI, 1 4 

Pnn\mii»gyMni>iHiintttliisfil. tS 































CafTecrecflt. 'tIacri6off. 

Per tnufienVMcotrnfchiipfsl. 16 ... 

PertnnfietivnndenhKyfefiil. i6 

Pmncojlmvaneotmfihiipfil. t6 ... 

Per mctften vmden hnyfefil. 16 . _ 

Pergimberfal.S . . ... 

Peroncoflenyaneiiomfihiipfil.tS ... 


Per.Ieoi Niirot fill, li ... 

Per Aerttut laciibsfil. m . ' . , ' 

■PerinecBmVdnaomffhapfiil.xS - a _ 


Per AejnmtlMiibi fill, n 

Pefemcjlen Vim ecomfchapftl. ■ S . . . " 

PemmnHmvimdenhiiyfefiil. 16 • «■ . 

Per verfchtyden partien ... 

Per Davit I{ielsfel. 14 

Perjlit Vdndefc>i,eniv'trgedraimiHdebllf§l.iS 













Nagelcn credit, 't laer 1600. 

Per iMi/uei Je Semer fill, n 

Per caffefol. 4 - . . 

Per Qmaer de Swatfefal. 8 . . . 






















Noteacredit. 'tiaeritfoo. 

PtrPifterdeffiitifil. la 
Per Omae t de Svvartefil. 8 
Ptrfipirfil. 6 • • • 

I ft 


Ptr tupinnlftt. I iiur duller indeftnttnu^ingtevon- 
dat ^i)" > 7 3 •© S »"«" «»'">• »* VViirduh 7 ft 
'<p«iif> fw** • * - 














Peperdebct. tlaeii6oo. 

Peftrcnfilatlfol. j 
I'e/notinfd. 7 


Ve/tr\ining Turn TttinU t» yeriiafil. i y.hier ffP.ilt bj 
Jlilt y.tndefai,'>vr/i)iJrfniiffiilepi>ifar - • 


1 zo 








Gimber debet, 't lacr 1 600. 

Ptrttfiturifil. I . - 

Prrcaftfil. J - - - 


Pernlfmingvait vrinprnftrlieifil. ty.hitr^iJUllhj 
yZtfi vnn dcfm VfifiiHU pnajfijl ffgimiir 

















Omaer de fv,varte debet. 

tiaei' 1600. 

Ptr enfittulvnfibynmJe 6 Mtyi lipofil. ) 

Pw Tmfeliiydenfariim titfchynmit 4 Jf/rt. 1 600 

Ptr Airitin dt yfinttt cf nijfel fcl. 11 




69 } 




Adriaen de Winter debet, 't laer i5oo. 

PtrttfitMiTurfchynemlii iMtiim 1600 fit. y 
Pa intfiheyimfntim ytrfchynndt x momdtn nafieht del yvijfd 
britfi - - - . . 









Peper credit, 't laer 1600. 



Ptrcafitsilfil. zdtnrdittlir inJt /lAelm4\in^htYm'- 
dm \^n 1 io iSt'tptr , tin yfetrdUh 40 ^ ■ f„t^ 
tcmt - • ' 






H o 




Glmber Credit. 

PitPiettrdeyyUufil, le 










Omaer de Svvarte credit, 't laer 1600. 

Per Ditvit l^els opt nrfchmtn 6 idtye 1 600 fil. 14 
PtrcaJJtoptverfchmm 6 ideytx ioofol, 4 

Pir mfitAttfiL i hiirgejiilt Ij/Utt ym dtfia 







■ 1 














Adriaende Winter credit, 'tiaer i^oo. 

Pir etffi eft verfchenm 8 lunim 1 600 fol. ^ 

Per Omaer de Syyurte eft terfihtnea liter nevenfiJ. t 

Per cdpUnelfel. l hiergejiett hjjlele fm defen 












Picter dc VVitte debit, 't laer 1600. 

Pit tepiuri ytrftbyUMJt i o tmiiu 1 6ao fit. 3 
Pit TutfibcjimfMim mrfilijiiendi j Miwitfeo 








lacgues de Somer debet, t laer 1 600. 

Pnuaiilmytrfihjnndt 7 Mey 600 fol. f 
Ptr yttfihtyintfirtkn It btuln i o Offtt. 1 6eo 















loos Noirot debet 't laer 1600. 

Per cd]fiiift Tfitjihmm 7 MMrti 1 fioo/o/. { 
Pf)- f «//? tft rtrfdittim J Mdtrtt 1 600 fit. $ 






Davit Roels debit. t T^er 1600. 

PnOmaerile Sw.vlmft vttfchtnen i Mey* 1 600 fit, 9 
PerCiiJJe oft vtrftlnaen iSImiiu 1 too fit. j 
Pit tuft Oft ytrfehtnrn iS/Ml/w 1600 fil. $ 










Aernout lacobs credit. laer 

Ptr ciffi opt ytrfihtmn 1 ^pril 1 600/0/, { 
Ptr cajfe opt vtrfihenm 1 .Apt'l 1 600 fil. j 
Ptrc/tjfeop'tvtrfihtntn ^olunim iCoofil. { 
PtrtdJJttp'l virfihtntn 11 Stpt. 1600 fit. 19 

ftr enfinulfit. 3 hitritfltlt iyflott »<oi (/f/«» 




■ oil 






IPicter dc VVitte credit, 't laer 1600. 
Pertajfttptvtrfihnm iolnnimtdoofil.^ 
PntaJfitpfrcrfitminflHtiiu 1600 fit. 4 


Ptrcupilttlfil. ihiiriiPelltyJItttrm itfm 



















■ X 




lacques de Sotner credit, t laer 1 60Q. 

Ptttt/Jioftyirfilmm I Miiertei6ctfiL <f 
PtrtajJitftttrfihaitny'Mtmtt iSaofiiL^ 
Pfrujfioptvtrfihenm J Miyti6oofil.'4 . . 

PirtuJ^cflvir/chttunioOSclru i6ooJil.i9 • 

Pirc^itMlfil. I hini^tU tjjhtt ya itp^ 


















loos Noirot credit, t laer 1 600, 

Pncifiuil TurfihjMuie j Utatt i«oofil. ,, 



Davit Rocis credit. 't laer i5oo. 

Per Mpiittd •urIfkyKmie i ifcyt 1 6 o o /»/. » • 

Ptrnttn Turfthjnwdt i8 Ihm^ i 600/H. 6 





Aernout Jacobs credit. 

t laer 1 600. 

Ptrcapitdel yerfchynmia \o .April i Coofoi. jt 

Per yerfiheydenp^itten ver/chynenJe •^o Imtitu 1600 

Piryerfih^tnpAtiienycrJsbynmde «i Stft. 1A09 






1 01 1 



• 4>7 
















Oncoften van Coomfchap dejbct. 't lacr 1600. 

Percajjefol. j 
PerctiJ/ifil. J 
Peicuffifil. J 
Ptrcujjcfil, } 
Pir cafe fill. 5 
PnctUcfol. ij 



















Oncoften vandcn hiiyfe debet, 't laer 1600. 

Percaffifil. S 
Vir taJfefoL j 
Petcoffifiil J 
Pff cajftfil. J 
Pirciilltf'l. i 
Pnttjjtfel. 19 














Caffe debet. 

t laer 1^00. 

Ptrjkt y<m eaUtfol. f , 'I v>il<\ Jan in t ndit^ttncht yvAi 
P'r^ermtitltnbfinfil.\% . . - 

Pfr nJfmiHg yan vrinft tn ytrliijfit. 19 
Ptr Itieqmti Je Stmtrjtl, 1 j 








5 "4 







Rckening van vvinften verlies debet. 

Ptr caffifal. 19 

Ptt jitrnoul iMthftnftU i { 

Ptr oncoPen van ceom/ihapftl. 17- 

PtrmcoJiinyandtnhiiyfif'U ij 


Ptr c*fitiulfcl. 3 hitrgtfltll bjfitit Vm itfm. 





■ 2 













Oncoften van Codtufchap credit, 't laer 1600. 

Per re\tiiiiig »4<» frmfitH yeritriftl. 1 8 hin gifitll hjjlate >«b de 
fin . . - . 





Oncoften vanden huyCe credit, 't laer 1 600. 

Ptrre\fHingyimvvi»J} cnverlirsfil. iS hitrgtfitlt ty/loltvande- 
fin ■ 




Cafie credit. 

't lien Coo. 

luliu. IPtfmttnfil, 6 

•^"i- \Ptrre\cnmgym>tiHjltnfitliltftL iS 

St ft, 

Srpt. Ptr^tfrincadel^f^aterfel. 10 

Seft. Per ^Aernmt lambs fol-n 

Decim. PerOneeBmVtmtoiimfihaffol. li 

Decern. PerOneoJJtnVmdeaJmvriful. id 


Pertaflttelfol, i, hierpjiell hJtttc Vxm dtfm 

























■ 8 












Rekening van vvinft en verlies credit. 1600. 

Per iMgutt de Semerfil. t * 

Per Mrimndef^P^interfel. 10 ... 

PercaJfefil.iS - - - - 

PefPvinRopnaielenfit.^ - - - 

PervpiaJiopmlenfol.C ... 


PcrvyinBopiimberfil.8 ... 


■ 000 














D O M E r N E. 

Reftanten van Hoghenhuyfe. 






500 - - 




150- 0-0 




poo -0-0 



600 -0-0 
350 -0-0 
300 -0-0 





Den fin der voorfchreven tafel is dufdahich : Ghenomen 
d'eerfte vijf jaren van velen , dattet houden der contrerolle 
gheduert heeft , tewefen van 1611. i5iz. 1613.1614.1615, 
Hier af fijn vijf colommen , voorelck jaers befonderconti-e- 
rolle een : Noch fijn op den cant gheftelt derehelijcke vijf ja- 
ren j haer anwijfingh doende cpelckder reften daernevens 
ftaende , waer af'tghebruyck dufdanichis, 

Ghenomen datmen na het jaer 161 5 wil weten de fommen 
der Reftanten dieder fijnten eynde van yder jaer, der jaren 
j611.1611.1613.1614.1615. Oin dat te vinden , ickfiedat 
iievens het jaer 1 615 op den cant ftaen 7 o ' o- o. onder het jaer 
i6ir5Daerna o-o-o.onderi6i2jVoorts3ooonderi6i3.Eiifo 
voorts 700-0 - o.onden6i4.en 5c)o-o-o.onderi6i5.Angaen- 
de voorfchreven 0-0-0. ftaende nevens het jat- r i6i5,en dat 
onder i6i2j fulcx beteyckent het jaer i6u heel voldaen te we- 
fen, fonder daer na van dat jaers rekcning eenighe Reftanten 
ineecte connen vallen. 

O z Het 



In the Library of Congress and in the Library of Harvard College, we find a book by Gerard Malynes, 
printed in London in 1656, under the title of "Gonsuetudo Vel Lex Mercatoira," or "The Ancient Law 
Merchant. ' ' This book is a voluminous work, written in the English language, one-half of which contains 
a digest of the law merchant as then existing ; the other half of the volume is occupied by a reprint of 
Richard Dafforne's book on bookkeeping, "The Merchants' Mirrour." It also contains an introduction 
to merchants' accounts, by John Collins, together with a treatise by Abraham Liset of Ghent, called "Am- 
phithalami or the Aceomptants Closet." 

We have seen that Richard Dafforne was really the first writer in the English language whose work 
went through several editions and therefore may be considered as having been more popular than that of 
his predecessors Ympyn, Oldcastle, MeUis, and Peele. Dafforne resided for a good many years in Holland, 
where he obtained his knowledge of bookkeeping. He was a teacher in the Dutch and English languages, 
and in bookkeeping. Part of his treatise called "The Merchants' Mirrour" was written in Amsterdam be- 
fore he moved to London. The preface to his book indicates his familiarity with the then existing books on 
bookkeeping, as he names quite a number. Most of the authors of these books he discredits, but he seems 
to think highly of Simon Stevin, whom he copied in a number of instances. Simon Stevin, however, was 
a great scholar, whereas Dafforne evidently was but a shallow teacher, for while he quotes freely from 
Stevin on the most important points, yet he omits to bring home the force of the question as Stevin does. 
Thus through Dafforne's faulty transfer of the bookkeeping ideas of the Dutch authors into the 
English language, we have lost the very essence and foundation of the theory of bookkeeping. Any 
one reading Stevin first and then Dafforne, will have no trouble in arriving at this conclusion. It is 
like the reading of a letter from an experienced old man, followed by the treatment of the same subject 
by a high school student. 

In the following pages we are giving a partial reproduction of Dafforne 's book, consisting of the title 
page, the introduction, about half of the text, and a few pages of the journal and ledger, together with the 
entire trial balance. "We are omitting part of the text, because it is simply a repetition of previously men- 
tioned methods, applied to niunerous mercantile transactions. All of the text in which he attempts to give 
some theory or explanations, we have reproduced. It will at once be seen that Dafforne was great at ex- 
plaining HOW a thing should be done, but incapable of expressing clearly why a thing should be done. 
He has attempted this in one or two places, and failed signally. We are reproducing so much of his book, 
because, as explained before, we believe that in Pacioli, Manzoni, Ympyn, Stevin, and Dafforne we have 
the gradual steps of the transfer of bookkeeping knowledge, within a little over one hundred years, from 
the Italian through the Dutch into the En^sh ; unless, indeed, the Dutch transferred their knowledge to 
America, direct through the settlers of New Amsterdam (now New York). 

At the time of Dafforne's writing, English mercantile customs and bookkeeping methods certainly 
were in a bad way, judging by Dafforne's own words and complaints. There is an entire absence in the 
journal and ledger of references to the Deity, although the text is full of them. Dafforne even quotes in 
the language in which it was written a Dutch dissertation on "God, the Giver of all good, all knowl- 
edge, and all wisdom. ' ' 

He explains that a merchant in Amsterdam uses a cash book and a bank book, because his ledger and 
journal are always behind in posting, otherwise "the ledger might cause the avoidance of the use of these 
two books." He urges the use of a petty expense book, the totals of which are posted once a month or 
quarterly, in order to avoid numerous small entries. 

What Pacioli calls the memorandum book he calls a waste book, because he says everything is trans- 
ferred from it into the journal, and when this is done it is useless to preserve it. In Holland they do not 
preserve it. The inventory and the trial balance are not written in this waste book, because they contain 
information of a private nature. Blotting or erasures in the journal are improper. He puts his slanting 
lines (//) in the left-hand margin of the waste book, in order to indicate the transfer to another book, and 
he evidently prefers this method to the diagonal line drawn through the entries, because, as he says, ' ' it ob- 
scures the writing and the figures." Checking of the journal and ledger he calls "re-pointing," using 
the translation of the old Italian expression of "lancing" or "pointing" as explained elsewhere under 
Pacioli. Dafforne, however, does not say how he does it. 


He does not use the expressions "debit" or "credit" throughout his books, but names them debitor 
and creditor. He charges the one and discharges the other. He insists that nothing can be entered in the 
ledger unless it is first entered in the journal. This includes the forwarding of balances from a full page 
to a new page also the closing entries for profit or loss, and the balancing of the accounts. 

Inventory he says consists of stock or estate or capital of the owner, which consists of "increasing im- 
properly" and "decreasing improperly" of the stock or estate. He attempts to explain what the word 
"improperly" means by quoting from Stevin, but he missed entirely what Stevin meant, as he applies it 

He uses the word "stock" wherever Stevin uses the word "capital." As the word "stock" comes evi- 
dently from stick or stem, it really has the same origin as the word "capital," as through all the defini- 
tions and derivations of the word "stock" the thought of "main" or "principal" seems to appear. Prom 
this we might state that capital stock is really tautology, for the two words mean the same thing. 

In explaining the first journal entry "cash debitor to stock," he personifies the cash account, because 
it "represents (to me) a man." He indicates the meaning of debitor by stating that by reason of giving 
the cash to the man, he is obliged to "render it back," or, as we have seen in Italian, "shall give." He 
indicates the meaning of creditor by mentioning the words ' ' upon confidence, ' ' or, as we have seen in Ital- 
ian "trusting." In spite of his quoting so freely from Stevin, and coming so near to what Stevin says, 
Dafforne has failed entirely to transfer to posterity the idea of the real reason for a double entry or two 
debits and two credits. The nearest he comes to it is by stating that cash, merchandise, and all we possess 
are but "members of that whole body (stocke), therefore by the joint meeting of all those members the 
body (stocke) is made eompleat." Thus it goes through the entire book, always how but never why, the 
very opposite of Stevin. 

Merchandise of large size and quantities is always kept in a separate account, designated by the name 
of the merchandise it deals in. If, however, the merchandise consists of small articles of which but a few 
are handled, the account is called a general merchandise account. He credits a legacy in one place to 
stock or capital account, and in several other places direct to the profit and loss account. Debitors he calls 
those "of whom we are to have," or in other words, as written in the Italian, those who "shall give." 
Creditors he calls " debt-demanders " and as far as inventory items are concerned, he says that stocke is 
debitor to these debt-demanders. 

He says that through a personal or private ledger you can keep a secret of a person's present worth 
or estate. He is very emphatic in denouncing the use of the cash account for this purpose, as he states 
three Dutchmen do in their treatise, namely, Waningheii, Buingha, and Carpenter. Here he again barely 
rubs elbows with Stevin 's ideas of proprietorship. He flays the three Dutchmen for promulgating ideas 
as "book deforming" instead of "book reformtag," and he calls their ideas "indefendable errour," 
' ' forged imagineries, " " f orrain bred defects. ' ' He further says : " If we were as exact diseussors as we 
are imitators, we had not been so besotted as to entertain those f orrain defects, having better at home." It 
should be noted that elsewhere he praises Stevin, and nowhere does he flay him like the above three Dutch- 
men, yet had Dafforne been less of a discusser and more of an imitator, he would have presented Stevin 's 
exact theories without fault, and thus preserved them for us in the English language as Stevin did for 
his Dutch countrymen. 

He gives 15 rules each for journalizing debits and credits, but he personifies everything to debitor 
and creditor. In the ledger he uses a double column, one for money, the other for quantities and weights. 
Cash discounts he deducts from cost of merchandise, whereas rebates are credited to profit and loss. Thus he 
disagrees, as he says, with Passehier Goossens, Johannes Buingha, J. Carpenter, and Henry Waninghen. 
Dafforne succeeded here through his faulty reasoning, in mixing up things to such an extent that many 
minds today are still mixed up on this subject. Waninghen and Carpenter want to carry trades of mer- 
chandise through the cash account. Rightly he objects to this, for cash he says should have no entry un- 
less money is really paid or received. 

He does not call in his text the difference between the debits and the credits ' ' the balance, " as we do 
today. He says deduct the lesser from the greater, and make a journal entry for "the difference." In his 
ledger accounts, however, he does not call it, like the Italians do, "difference " but he calls it "balance to 
close." He uses the word "equalizing" where we now use "balancing," the same as we translated Paci- 
oli's word "saldo" into "equalizing" or "closing." The closing of the ledger he calls "baUancing of the 
leager, " or "leagers-conclusion." Like Stevin he claims that the ledger needs to be balanced when new 
books are started, or when the merchant ceases to trade or the owner dies. Balancing, he says, consists of 
three things, the equalizing of all open accounts, the entering of the difference and transferring of the 
same to the new account or to the balance account. He does not like the word "balancing," and prefers 
to call it ' ' estate reckoning, ' ' the same as Stevin does, and in this connection he refers to Stievin by saying 
that Stevin carries his closing balances into his opening capital account, which he calls contradictory, and 
merely a mistake on Stevin 's part. The balancing is divided into a trial balance and a true balance ; the 
trial balance consists of debits and credits of the open ledger accounts before profit and loss entries are 
made. He published in Amsterdam a " three-f old-mony-ballance, " which we have reproduced further on. 
The true balance he says consists of the "remainders" of the ledger accounts after profit and loss entries 
have been made. 

It should be noted that he says "remainders," as does Pacioli, and not "balances," as we use 
today. The remainders of the accounts he puts in the ti'ue balance on the same side as they are in 


the ledger ; namely if cash is debit in the ledger it should be debit in the true balance, for he says, balance 
is a debitor in the place of cash. He gives a detailed explanation of how to close accounts kept in foreign 
money, and to take care of the profit or loss in the exchange at the time of closing. While he exhibits a 
balance account and makes journal entries in order to close all accounts in this balance account, he is very 
particular in explaining that such a procedure is not needed if you desire to use the balance book in the 
nature of private information. In that case, he says, post direct from the old account in the old ledger to 
the new account in the new ledger. 

The illustrations given of the journal wiU show that all entries are numbered, that he uses "debitor 
to" instead of "debit per," as Stevin uses. Neither does he use the slanting lines (//) so customary in 
the Italian method, for a division between the debit and the credit, although but one column is given. The 
ledger page references in the journal are written in the form of a fraction, as Pacioli mentions. Ledger 
headings, while not as used at this day, are more pronounced than the Italian method, and are almost 
identical to Stevin 's ideas. 

In the ledger accounts herewith reproduced, "to" is used on the debit side and "by" on the credit. 
The journal page is also given as well as the ledger folio of the relative entry in the other part of the 
ledger. Both sides of the ledger bear the same number of the page, and they are called folio. He does 
not use the word ' ' sundries, ' ' in the journal nor in the ledger, nor does he use a sub-total in balancing his 
ledger accounts, as Stevin does, but uses in front of the total the Italian word ^'summe." Nowhere in his 
work does he use the term ' ' assets and liabilities. ' ' He uses dots instead of check marks. 


M E R c'h ants 
M I R R O U R. 

D I R E C T I p N S 

For the pcrfedl Ordering and Keeping of his 

Framed by way of D e.b i t o r and Creditor, after the 
(fo termed) Italian Manner : Containing 2 50 <^re Queftions, 
■With their Anfwers, in forme of a Dialogue. 


A WASTE-BOOK, with a complete JonRNAt and Leagbr thereunto appercaininw ; 
Unto the which I have annexed two other Wi/?i?-5«o^ for exercife of the StttdUm: and at the° ' 
end ofeach is entred the brief Contents of the Xw^fr* Accounts, arifing from thence. 


A MONETH-BOOK, very requifite for Merchants, and commodious for all other 
SCIE^CE-LOrS'B^'^ of this Famous Art. 

the Third Edition^ CorreHed and Amended. 

Compiled by Richard Daffornh of Ktrthamfton, Acctuntant^ and 
Teacher of the fame, after an Exquifite Method, in the 
Englifh and Dutch Language,, 

J. Vahden V. 

^00 eenigib ltt^t:^t>erir];ien& ^3^n, 
S)9pn inerb; tomtit, oK foec&t ronteeren, 
Me maccbet teeter, &00 Ijp tan : 
%l^ebb {piote Ititt noc^ meet te Heereti. 

H. L. S; 

£Do2t>eelt temant \mi ^t ILee jtn ; 
i^iet goet ban f^n ^mmx toeefen. 

ILeerense, leett icb. 
The Cemtnu are imMediatelj prefixed before ihe Book. 


Printed by R, H. and ^. G. for Hicholas Bourn , at the South-entrance of the 

Royall Exchange, 1660. 







'Merchants Adventurers of England. 
Englijh Merchants for the Difcovery of New Trades. 
Merchants ef Eafl-land. 
O F ^ Merchants of England , trading into the Levant Seas, 
Merchants of London^ trading into the Eafi- Indies. 

Adventurers of the ciij of London , for a Trade upon the Ccafts and In-lands 
of divers farts of America. 

Richard DAFFORNEfo wiflieth your IJnderftandings 
Illuminatfon , in your Tcrreftriall Talents Adminiftration , that 
witb-comfort you may hear the joyful! Sentence of your twice com- 
mended fervicc ^ Mit. 2 5 . Ver.-i 1,43. 

WeU done thou good , and faithfuU fervant true. 
Thou ha^ been faithfull over things a few^ 
lie make thee Ruler over ntanj things^ 
Poffeffe the joy of thy Lord, King of Kings, 

Right Honourable, ^c, 

Fter many yeers rj^fidenceac Amderdam in Holland, I (upon 
thd often Importunate Letters of fbmc Merchants, my very 
good Friends) refolved to pitch the Tent of my abode in Lon- 
don^ which being cSedled in Anno 1^30-! then (after fonne reft) 
fet my cour(e unto feverall Stationers Shops - tbere gazing a- 
hout me ('as one reviving from a Trance) to view what the Laborious Artift 
had a£ted and divulged in Print (as other Nations) for the AfTiftancc of Mer- 
chandizing, wherewith (Blessed be the Great ALL> this Renowned 
City is througl»ly Enterlaced, and Adorned. 

But as a Shipper anchoring upon an unknown Ilejprefently pcrcei veth thoft 

a i parts 


The Epiflle T>edicatory» 

parts not to be inhabited, by the JSlon'tillage, or the like j even fo Ccontrary to 
my expe£^ation)I perceiving the nuoiber of Writers to J)e fcw/ear^d chat love 
tochis Arc was likewifefmall: Seeing That Good Acceptance Engen- 

DERETH Good Performance. The truth of this lean ayernXfJith ma- 
ny Inftances in fevjerall Authors; as Frnjlain, John Jmpen ^ Cloot ^ Mem- 
ber^ SdVome, Nicholas fieterfon , (^ntergem. Marten Vanden ^jck ^ ffoorr 
beck, <vanDamme^ Wencekus^ Cmtereels^ Simon 5fevi«, hhnWiUemJmyWaninghen^ 
'PaJJdia, Goofjen, and divers others , whofe Books are extant. By which 
may evidently be conjedtired ,that in thofe times,and in their parts where they 
then publifhedcheir Works, were found many Sdwce-Zoverf that affeftedthis 
Art J by whofe allurements thofc worthy Writers were induced to fee Pen to 
Paper, endeavouring with their bcft gifts to fatisfie the defire of thole Art-defi- 

The Merchants of the Low-countries fof whom I can fpeak in part) bein^ 
generally enamoured of this Art;becaufeof its Ucility,aiiure their Teachers to 
induftry, by applauding their Vigilancy; encouraging them {with the pre- 
fence of their Children and Servants in theSchooles^ daily to publifli new 
Queftions j or at leaft to revive the profitable Labours of ancient Authors, 
making them fit for our times. 

But we,alas,the fmall love Cpardon my truth Ipeaking) that a great pare of 
our Merchants bear to this Science, daunteth the Pen of Induftry in our Tea- 
chers,making thern with a fufpedtive fear to doubt(& not altogether ground- 
lefs) that the profit will not countervail their pains ; by which means readers^ 
Merchants f and therefore Touth^ are linked in Ms enemies Jhackies. 

What may be thecaufe ofthis Ignorance ? Are our Teachers Co infufficient ? 
Or hcsih dame Hature^ with her Co4(^yWe or induftry beftowed her Benevo- 
lence more fpar ingly upon our Nation than upon others? The laft: cannot be: 
for we can learn it exquifitly abroad of other Nations (as multitudes can wit- 
nefsjwhy not at home?I anfwer,as before,becau(e at home(for want of love to 
this Art} many Merchants arc infufficient ^rejtdents ro their Servants, who by 
their Documents can be but Eqtdyalent imitators. Want of love to this yirtj is 
thecaufe why James feeky and others that have written in Englirti upon this 
fubjeft, are knowne by l^ame onely^ and not by imitation. Yea, even the me- 
mory oftheir l>lamesdkth, being there is no caufe to commit their painfull 
Labours to the ^ame-reViving Prefs. How then fhall our Youth attain unto 
this Art, but by frequenting abroad amongft other nations ? And 

They beinj^ then at S^owe, 
f^f^tll do as there is done. 

This ftupidity cannot be imputed to our Teachers : for if at home (as other 
people doj we did by Lo^d allure, and with ^ward induce each other to Arc 
by a competent Difpenfation amongft our felves, of that money which we 
beftow abroad amongft Aliens ^ then would ouxTeachers be vigilant, cur IW 
adorned with this Knowledge, and our Ymth fhould not need to be tranl^ 
ported into other Countries for Arts documents. 

Againft the forefaid Ignorance 1 have emboldened my [elf to prepare 



'The Epiflle Dedicatory, 

this /<MW^o^?, being by iv(dfttrc obliged to offer up part of the W'/iioii'gf Mte o^ 
my knowledguntotheL^«<^ofniy 'Breaths firjl dramnp 

Divers are the humours oi men ; therefore there b but fmall Probability 
to pleafe all: yet to endeavour a generall fatisfaftion is uhblameable. 

My intent is not to prefcribe thcfe ^rinci^es as fully fufftcienc, though 
for their timber approveable: fot time at prcfent doth not yield permiflfron to 
irnpart what my Affe<aions dcfired, and Will determined to divulge j but thefe 
are AHmmnts onely, to ftir up the better experienced to amend whae t (through 
want of Art) have not fo compleatly handled as Id€fire,and it defervcSjbeing 
an Art (faith Simon Stevinin his Princely Book-keeping,^/. 7, <ir 1 2.) worthy to 
be numbrcd amongftthe Liberdl Sciences. But 1 already hear Objections a- 
gainft the Firft,8c Semi Wafte- books ; that therein are exercifed fome accounts, 
which m altogether needlefie here in England : as is \ihQ!BaHcK-Accomt.\ grant it 
to bean Account notufefuUin ourKingdomeibut that the knowledge thereof 
fliould be un-ufefull to this Arts-Learners^ 1 deny. True it is,thatby Sirft we 
are Circumferenced ivith the Ocean . but the Great-All hath not fo ftridly limited us 
within the\)Ounds thereof, that we are abridged from the ConVerfition arid En- 
tcyco«>5^ofM«rffeWj;<tn§ with forrain Nations , as well by their frequenting of 
our ^orders^SiS we Commercing with them in the Body of their Cownt/i^f. And 
when our Merchants (Old or Young) trade with them in their places,M«y? noiS 
they learn tsheac^uaint^d with their phrafis ufed amongthem concerning Commerce? 
Of which Banqk is none of the Icaft in feverall places of Europe, tinto which 
our Englifli Merchants have their Concourfe. And muft the advertifementof 
the Co«r/e thereof (before we come to the A ^uallexercife) be a lS/^»i?^,and ic- 
counted as zneedlejfethingm my Booki^gU Worjhipfuts behbld the Rancor of 
black Envy^that endeavoureth to havens ignorant of Martiall afl&its, untill we 
come ta the point of Battail. Thelike Objeftion is alleaged againft my entring 
of an Account of Tiw? Sind^eadj-mony. What if we have them not in ufe a- 
mongfl our felves ? Let us caft up our accounts with other 2S^^fmy, and (to our 
coft) they will teach us how to frame an account of Time and <^ady.mony .^^ out 
Fa^or^ or Correjpondent be in disburfe for us any quantity of mony , and for 
Time worth the reckoning, as experiencrhath (hewed me in many paffiges. 
And what then ? Muft not we fcek the aid of fome experienced to affift us ? be- 
caufe we regarded not the docutnents of them (at home) that endeavoured to 
inform us of the Haurier and Matter. What Antercetrtent doth not this liifdmmr' 
tfcy WilFuU Ignorance merit ? 

Again,the keeping of an account of Time and Ready-mony (fay they)may 
be avoided with an dccomt Currant,- or a General atctfunt, upon whichis cntred 
mzttexsBouibtJSoldpraiPnj^emtedfiiyenflr rakenu^on Depo{ito,and the like: 
of which manner I am no way ignorant.Butlet us cometo the PeriodjOr Foot 
of that General accomt^ind there the Conclufion fheweth.that I am Deb itor. 
to another, or the Cdntrary : how fhall 1 find (^Md[)i-ww«fe)ithatat prefent I am to 
receive ot^ay upon that account ? 


A N T I j^U ITT. 

Good Friend oF mine (faith Simon Steyen) being cxerci- 
fed in the Old Hiflmes^ did fee; this forme of Boofe-kcep 
ing ( rrcanirig his ownej before it was perfected in the 
Prcfle j he was of judgement that it had not been ufcd 
in ifa/;i,. but about two hundred years : But that the ftme, 
or one in many parts very like this,, was u(ed in the time 
of Jttlius Cafar, and in Rome long before ; and that Come Reliqucs of 
Ancient lime are come to thehands of them, that of late have received 

it again. 

Which Opinion I thouglit not to be un-belecming, the rather, becaufe 
it feemeth ftrangc, that fo exquifite a Deep- diving-Science fliould be invent- 
ed fo lately : But be it as it will, I will enter the Opinion of my above- 
faid Friend, who faith, that 

In place of the proper words now ufed in the Icalian-book-kceping, foi 
mcrly other of the like fignification were ufed : as thelc, 

fDebt-book, Great-book, or Leager TaM* mepi & exftnfi. 

I Debitor and Creditor Acctftum& txftnfum. 

For «| Parcells tranfported into the Leager Nomina tra»fiata in Tabulat. 

I Parcells not tranfported Nomenjacem* 

tWafte-book, or perhaps Journall Ad'verfaria. 

All which (faith he) is apparent in innumerable places of the Latine Wri- 
ters, but efpecially ex Oratiom Ciceronis pro ^fcio Cotmdo. And that the onC 
fideof their Book was ufed for t>ehtm^ the other for Creditor ^ is manifeft 
(faith he) in a certain place, lS(aturalii hijhrid Tlinii, lih,2» cap."], where he 
fpeaktng of Fortune, faith thus : 

Huie omnia E x p jb n s A. 

Huic omnia FerunturAcceptA, & in Ma R A T i o N E Mtrtd' 
Utramqjie Pagi k a m fiteit. 

If Others took regard unto this niatter, perhaps further certainty tnrghtbe 
found, and chat this forme of Book-keeping, not onelybythe Romans, 
but might have been in ufe before them anioDgftche Grecians : for being 
the Romans were no great Inventors, but had their exquifite Art from the 
Grecians, it is in reafon moft probable to come from them j whereof fiir- 
ther certainty might be found in reading the Greek Hiftories. Thus much in 
Simon Stmn^ fol. 105, 106, A judicious 


Briefe Contents of the chiefeft Points 
contained in this Book. 

I . An Introduftion unto the matter hj way 
•^^ofa Didlcgue, place 1,2,3. Ag^in^ «»- 

dir the third and fourth place isj^oken, 
2. 0/ 3.fol.4. 

3. Of the Ca(h,<i«<^Banck-bobk,pla.4.fol.4. 

4. of the Specie- Book,place 4.fol.4. 

5. ofthepettj Expences-Book,pla.4.fol.5. 

6. of the Copy- Book of letters^ pla.4.fol.5. 

7. of the Memoxiali^ and ufe thereof, fol. 5. 

8. of the Copy-Book/iT accounts fent to 
4»jf w4», tol.5. 

9. of the Wafte- Books, /«r«» and office, 
place 5.{ol.6. 

10. of the JoaTa3\i&,matter,form,and office, 
place 8.fol.8. 

11. 0/ the 

12. o/the Ready- mony in Caihyandhow to 

13. of the Mony in Banck,4»</ hetp to hook 
«, place i7.fol.9,io. 

14. o//A« Unfold- wares, 4f the making of 
our Inventaryj place 27.fol.11. 

15. ofHeujes, Lands, Rents, and Legacies, 

16. of jewels, Moveables, Ships-parts, 
fol. 1 2. 

ij. of Wares unfold for Fa£iorage accounts, 

iS. of Wares unfold for company- account , 
place 37. fol. 13. 

19. of Wares abroad unfold for proper acr 
count, place s^'f oil $. 

20. of Wares abroad unfold, for his, or their 
account, whofe Falior /4/w,place jp.fol. 13. 

zi.Of Wares abroad unfold for company ac- 
count, phcc 43. fol. 14. 

2 2 . Of Debitors, of rvhom m are to have,p\z<x. 
45. fol. 14. 

33. ofDebt-demandeTS,ph./^6So\.i'). 

24. of Cafl), by fomeentredtn Stockes place, 
fol. 15. place 47. 

2 J. of Stockes concealment, pla. 52.fol.17. 

26. of Traffickes conttnuall exerctfe, place 
d 2. fol. 1 8. with the chief accounts that are kept, 
fol 19. 

j 27. of Rules of Aid , very exftiftte to be 
learned mtho/tt book, foil 9, 20. 

28. o/Troper Accounts, and 

THE DEPENDANCES,pl3Ce63.fol.2I. 

29. ofBujitig Upon feverall conditions, phce 
6. fol.z I. including place 70. fol. 22. 

30. of Barter, or Truck, fhce 72.foI.2 2,in- 
cludingphce 75.fol. 23. 

31. of Wares bought to b: delivered unto me, 
2.3. weekes or moneths after the agreement, 
place76.fol.23. including place 79\fol.24. 

32. of Ships-parts borfght,phcc 80.fol.24. 
33' of Houfes bought, place 81, 82.fol.3ij. 
34. of Legacies ^i»«^/;^pla.83 ,,2 j. 
35 • OfP)ipping of wares to fell for my account, 

place 85. including place pr. fol. 25. 

3 6. of Selling, place 92. fol. 2 5 . including 

37. of felling for other wares,that is. Barter, 
orTruck,phce 97,9^,99- fol.26. 

38. of felling wares, to be delivered by me, 2. 
or 3. weekes, or moneths after the agreement^ 
place 100,101, 102. fol. 26, 27. 

39' of Abatements upon mares bought, ^\kz 

40. of abatements upon wares fold , place 
104,106. fol.27. • 

41, of Abatements fur motif reccivcd,or paid 
before the time, place 107.fol.27. 

^"it of receiving upon feverall conditionf, 
place io8.foJ.28,2p./« iz.ftvcrall Ariicla. 

^3.- of the words. His oicaunt, and My ac- 
count,andthe difference thereof p\.i09So[.i9. 

44> of Gratuities given, or received, place 

45. of pdjing upon feverall coiiditiDtts, place 
I ii.fol.2p,30.' }n9. Articles. 

46. of advice from our Factors^ that the for- 
mer fent commodities, or part of them are fold ■ 
or, that part of thofe fat commodities are loft 

47. of Relumes m wares from our f alter, 
place ii9,i2o.fol.3i. 

48. of Rcturnes m mony from our Fa£ior, 
pla^e I 21. {o\. 31. compared with phct 108. 
Arttcles,9,io,ii, 12. 

49- O/'Facto RAGE Accounts and 

THE DEPENDANCES,place I22.f0l.32. 

50, ofreceits of wares to fell in commifton, 



The Contents of the Book. 

place iz$.folt32JnclaM/igphce 128.fol.33. 
hoied withoat afaffor-hoki 4«</ without an 
account of Time, and Ready mony : asdfo 
with an account of Time and Ready-mony, 
place I29,i30.fol.33.4«<//tf effewrall Fa- 
ritties^ inctuding place 142. fol.3 5. 

5 1 , Receits of mOnj Remitted unto us, place 
tt^l.tnctuding place 145.fol.35. 

%i. Receits fljfwoffjidrawnby US, under the 

53. of Sales of commfton wJtret upon fe- 
verall cinditms, ^hce 146.fol.36. including 


$4.Returnesin wares fent unto our Mafters, 
place i^ZJncluding place 163.fdl.37. 

5 5 . Returnes in monj, remitted by its uato our 
Mdfiers, place 164. and drawn ejoriris^phce 
165.fol.37. including place 168. fol. 38. 

56. of forrain affaires in Faiforage account ^ 
place 169. fol. 3 8. including pla. 17 3.60.3 9. 

57.0/CoMPA.Ny Accounts, and 
THB Dap END ANCESjplace 174 fol. 3p. 

58.o//i&fStockpromifedTo Mee place 


59. Reeeit of the fromifed monj, place 176. 


60. Reeeit of the fromifed wares, place 17.9. 

6i,Bwfing upon fever all conditions^ place 


62. Wares jhfpt to another Land for company, 
place 184.foi.41. 

63. payments ufhnfeverall conditions y^hcc 

64. Sales of wares by means ofmj Admint- 
firation,phK 191.fol.42. 

65 . Sales of wares by Fador, or Correfpon- 
dent,place 1p4.foI.42. 

66. Returnes from Fador, or Correfpon- 
dent in nuny drawn bj us, place ip8. fol. 42. 

67. Returnet in mony remitted to ttt^ place 
ipp. fol.43. 

68. Returnes in warn from Fa(Sor, or Cor- 
tefpondent^lace 201.fol.43. 

69. stock promifedbyMEE,io be f aid pre- 
fently,^\z,(X 202. fol. 43. 

JO. Tranffiorting of Accounts in the Leager, 
fromone leafennto another,'p\zce 207.fol.44.^ 

71. Equalizing of Ovtt, or Under meafares, 
Weight, Leackage, Pounds,EUs,or the like, 

72. Leagers Conclufton, or iallaneing of the 
Leager, phcc 2i6.fol. /^6.Jndtheeau[esthat 
Inay'fMve to a GenerdU Balance. 

73. Of the Tiy!X[-BailittCc^a»dth< manner, 
plKe.2 18/01.46. 

j^. of the True- Ballance, place 

75. Obfervatiom in BaUancmgofthe Leager, 
place 222.fol.47,48,4p,5o. 

•^6. Particular obfervattons upon the Debit 
ftdeefthe True- ballance, place 241.fol.51. 

jy. Particular ohfervations upon the Credit 
fide of the True- Ballance, place 242 fol.51. 

78. of the ^oitrnalls forme, '^hjz^ 343.60.5 2. 

7P. of the Joumalls office, place 244. 

80. of the ftgnifying figures thatfland abovCt 
and under the itnes inthe lournalls margtne, 
place 246.fol. 54. 

81. of theWafie books further Exereife, being 
compiledin London Jdi.^^.LitJ.K.N". J. 

Sz.of the- compleat Journall unto the faid 
Wafie- book, beginning Lit.K.No.2 . continuing 

83. of the Kalchders/tfr«>,4»^Ufe,Lic. N. 

%i^, of the compleat Leager, depending upon 
the fore- faid Wafle-bo0k,and lournaB, Lit. O. 
N% z. continuing Lit.P.Q^R. 

SS' of the Ioarnall,Kalender, and Leager, 
ti" 3. with the order how to begin Ntw boOks^ 

86i Ofthe^xQ. Wafte-Book, entredfor iht 
Beginning Learner t eiieici{e,andtaught by met 
Lit.T. N''.2. compilird in Amfierdam^ivhofc 
Contents (through the varieties of Titles num- 
bers) are apparent, and infkantly discerned by 
the Books Over- view, containing 78. Titles^ 
differing from each ether in matter, for the Be- 
ginners exercife : andfo compiled, that, the fur- 
ther be paQeth,themoretncreafethhis Studies 

^I.Of the Yi^Xtti^Qx, and brie fe Contents of 
the l.ez%tx, depending unto the faid iVafie-book, 
Lit. Bb.N°. I. with athree-foldMony-'Bil- 
hace of the faid Leager^hit.Cc.N°. 2. 

88. of the Second WaJlie-'Book,entredf0r a 
further Exercife of the Beginner -, and taught 
by me, Lit.Dd.N.".!. wboft exquijite varie- 
ftes cannot truely be difeerneibut by the work- 
ing of it ; which work will require m muchferi- 
oat fiudy at the very End, as anjof the former 
PrOpofttiens: vfhtch dpproveth,that in his Lear- 
nings timeno wafie time isfpent. 

8p. of the Kalender, and brief e Contents of 
the Leager, belonging unto the fecond JVafie- 
book. Lit li. Yi''.2.including Kk. K\$^ 

90. of the Vi&or-Book, and uf« th^ofin 
feveratt fnamairatBfemdnces^it.Kk.t^ .4. 

9i,ThenfoHoWetha Table, which jheweth 
How to find what the Principall, dndfimpte 
Intereft of any Given, otTskeviCumme niA 
be at the agreed times end:, \.i Mm.N°. i. 






Tkilo- Mathy^School-'Partner, 

Phil. TTOw now School Partner? Whither away thasfolitary? it fcems you are infomc 
•tJ ferions Meditation. 
Sch. Surely youhave judged aright: for I was mufiog upon our Matters lnftru(aions of 
Book-keeping, taught us by way of Quefltions aud Anfwcrs 5 whereof I have torgotten 
much, becaofe I frequent not the daily examinatioa 

Phil. Very likely : For Exerctfe it the Preserver of Art j therefore do I daily refort to the 
examination,which(you know) our Mafter continually ufcth : the Whic^l not onely confir- 
meth what we have,but it is likewife ah Ai^mentcref KnewUig^ according to the Motto of 
James Peel: Pra£iiee f'roiureth Vtrftdion 

Sch. Surely you fay truth : Therefore I intreat yoir (feeing We have time and opportuni- 
ty) toqueftion me in fuch things as at prefent are. readied in yoarmiod^ beginnin<' with 
the firft grounds of our Mailers Inftru3iions,^d fo in brief fort to wade through the'm alL 
for the refreihiiig of my memory. 

Phil. Very gladly •• for in queftioning of you Khali be the better confirmed In that which 
already I have obteined. But feting that all good gifts (even inmean Mechanical matters) 
proceed from the All-giver^ as in £xod. 3 1 . Ver.2,3,4,<J,7,appearetb, therefore do I hum- 
bly intreat my uoderftandings illummau'on from tbee : 

^! al^eibulleud* <i;en, die ailed Cc^ppe {pt, 

^elfi^noigi) ttKefen, ^mtt Moi, of fo^tn, of SC^nt, 

£D( pt nxt mss begrip, oeuenben &in, of tateu : 

^^re^om, aiihatig^, M^st, en!l^(0peot^t)bo1)entnaten! 

^noemel^^;air, iX&^tttMtt&z i^tuuc ! 

Mkitmi^iaxaiiiitWom !^tojtst)p,te))e|e>cunr, 

€>f &ttael,of ltoi#,of <l5bKtt '. imit mg tDiCDom,anD ?«gl)e, 

E>at itfe oen sctm agt«4)tntt',ena* onoec tuvj* tet uaglie, 

£DitfffD»tmaetltod^teer&iei,M <)U5tieft aoigNeiien, 

M\i Ou^fim bn^en a'erd baah Datrmg s^ren oeeoen, 

^ft al« De spenTcb Ipsbttiesbt (eno'mift nto-l^ulp ^ ^kt) 

^^fnebelt mMimaxta metTcarus tec nkx ! 

0^6 ! iLaat jelf acWtngsi JLief&i of toaan mv Doe gbew f tberaiis, 

€]b«ft m ^ fc^rp besdp, €m az^td, fnare itennti$- 

^et Ding^en onoer IcbetD doiiRi, u^ mpie ILeereh^ 

ffiWtWtw ©o«,tito ©naao, ftalt Dtt ! toatmatib mv tertn ? 

Ba Taking 


An IntroduBion t6 Merchants Jcccmpts, . 

Taking now my beginning from our Matters grounds, 1 intend in order (according to 
capacity) to paffe through them all : and being that Book- writing, by way of Debitor and 
Crcditor,3fter theCCo termed) Italian manner, is renowned to be anexquifite knowledge 
fliew me its event. 

Sch, The Event or End is (faith one)that which moveth to Altion^ and the End finall is 
ever better then that which is for the End ; yet this End cannot be attained, but by another 
thing intended, as a means theieonto ■• So, that all things which fas means) are for, and 
conduce to the Eiid,are not intended, nor profecuted,but out of a deliberate and full intea- 
tion of the End.^ 

Jn like manner. 

The End of Book- writing is to give contentment unto the Book-owner,and to (hew him 
(or them,whom they do concern)at all times, and in every degree, how his Eftate ftandeth 
in the fo written Books. For, the view of a well eftabliflied Eftate in a mans Books, proni- 
reth Contentment unto the pofleffor ^ yet this contentment (for no reft without former la- 
tour j cannot be attained, bnt by another thing intended as a means thereunto: to wit 
Book'keipingkfiorvledge : and being known, profecuted, andaiFeded ; the fame being very 
Reqiiifite, UfefuU , and Commodious for the writing. 

rprincely Revenues, findings of Cuftomes, and the like duties •, of which at 
prefent I intend not to treat, but may hereafter have fome occafion to fhew 
the necelTuy thereof in Princely Courts, as well as in Merchants paffawes 
Ot the which there is a worthy work conapiled in Dutch for Prince Mau- 
rice, Corite of Naffaw, which he learned of the Compiler, Simon Stevia 
hs Mathematician, and exercifed the tame io his Court, winch ftill(asl 
have been informed) is there in ufe, as alfb in the SWethian Court, and elfe- 

I Merchants-trading ? being iotPnftr^ FaifAtagey or Cmpani accounts : of 

Uhis 1 intend to fpeak at prefent. 

And this Mirrour of Eftate is not to be feen in any Book.but oneLy in theI.eage^,wBofe 
proper office it is to (hew the Eftate of the fame to the Book-owner. 

Ofneedleffe Booh 

This reproveth the keeping of a mans Eftate in many Books : as-iaa Book of Bayuiff 
anotherof^Selling, another of Receipts, another of Shipping, and- what not !f AUthefe 
Books cannot ftiew a mans Eftate, nor Cafe of ftanding with any man, or in any Commo- 
dity, untill all matters ai-e drawn to a head upon a paper in form of a Leader % fo that they 
have every way as much trouble in writing their imperfeft form,as we in m'akin» our work 
compleat at once : but the generality want capacity to appreheijd the manner add' reftifie 
their own defers : therefore they affe(a this form but with fniall affedibn. * 

Thil. Being that the tenor of our fpeech concemeth Eooh^ 1 take it not ahfittihe that 
you rehearfe thofe Books that are moft requilite for Merchants avoid all thofe oeed- 
le(re Books. 

of the Cajh-Sookj an4 Banek-Seok. 

Sch. A Merchant in Amfterdam ufeth a Cafti Book, and a Banck-Book becaufe bis 
Journalland Leagerare (in pofting) behind- hand, elfe the Leaser might caufe the avbfd! 
mg for thofe wo Books. " «; ««vom^ 

of the Sftck-Booki 

A Merchant ufeth likewife a Specie- BQok,More ufcfull for the Low-Countries then For 
England,becau(e of the variety of Coines there in ufe •, as Iikewi(€ in times of controverfie 
to approve what Coins palTed in Receipt of Payment : whereof John Comereels of Ant- 



An tnirodtSion to Merchants Jccompts, 5 

werp hath (hewed a worthy example in his Book called SDen ^tiU liinieoeb^^cuctn 

oftkfettj BxfenctS'Soefc. 

More, he afeth a Book of petty Expences for hodfe- keeping, and fmall disburfements 
upon Merchandizing % the which are ported once a moneth, or quarter of a year, into the 
Journall, of which the faid John Coucereels N°. B./fl/.s>,io, 1 1. hath hVely inftances. Si- 
mon Ste\riniii his Princely Book-keeping/o/.jf 2. writeth concerning this Book, thus : 

This Book of Expencesislikewifealtindof aCafli-Book, and is oaely for charges, 
which generally are polled once a moneth in one fume into the Journall .• partly, for bre- 
vity, to poft many petties into one jQimme •• partly, becaufe in great mens boufes, ics the 
proper office of forae one nwn to adrainiftrate thofe petty expences,i: endring an account of 
each particular, as well for Muftard and Mttches to kindle the fire, as of things of greater 
importance} tutto which end there is kept a Particular- Book. 

Cofj Book of Letters. 

More, he keepeth a Copy Book of Letters, which informeth his memory of what he 
hath written unto others 5 and this Book is very requifite againft controverfies o£ advices, 
the Letters fcJiftetirtJes not being well underftood by the receiver. 

of the Memorialt, 

A Merchaiit may ufe a Memorial!, there to note fome things that properly appertain to 
no other Book : as for inftance s I lent unto a man a fhilling,or a pound,for a day or a week, 
its fuflicient to note a word or two fer memory, without making any Journall parcell of 
the fame : yea not in the Clad or Wafte^ Book, for that hath another office. Simon Stevia, 
fol.zi. Some. enter fuch things in the Clad, but the fame is fo large, that by prolongation 
pfrimeit&hardtobefound} and caufeth likewife a doubt in the Accomptanc whether it 

Ciffj Book for Accounts . 

SomeufelikewifeaCopy Book for Accounts, fent, or delivered to any man, becaufe 
the Leager agreeth not compleatly in each particular parcell in order,or day, with the fent 
Account 5 eUe that Book,and the writing thereof m ight be ayoided,Of which form, if any 
man defhre an inftance, may have it in the Book of John Coutereels, lit.o.foLe.&.-j, 

Foof other prindpall Books doth a Merchant ufe in his Traffique, to wit: 

r iVAfte-hook, fore-runner of the Journall 
.y fournall, or Day-book, fore-runner of the Leager. 
"^^Ledger^ or Gather- book,Mirrour of a mans Eftate. 
l^paHor book yiot the entring of each particular received,paek or par- 
cell of wares alQne,that Cometh into his hands to fell, either in Commiffion, or tor Compa- 
ny Account. Of thefe laft four Books I intend to treat, and to explain their proper offices, 
zsmviC\i^i)^Q All<otnfriz*r9[\^\\^\t^^tlom^ my prefent memories apprchenfi- 

bn. fo"^' 

on theet Goi^ I do depend^ 

Ever me rvith thj Shield depend^ 

That ^efas mj Redeeming Lord 

Jifyj. Mercies Jentence me offcrd : 

Avdtbat the illuminating Sfrit 

Grant that I tnaj know mj felf aright, 

7^0 fut mj cenfdence alone 

Irt trinity, hut tffe-where none. 

tor none but thou didfi mfdomegive 

Unto3ezi\et\, Uiisfinrfe .• AjU> 


jfnlntroHu&ion to Merchants Jccowfts. 

And even pflovt thou didfi relieve 
Bim mth another chofett One. 
tORD^fo infufe thy gifts in me. 
And Aid me in. this work of mine, 
that it to manfufefuU he, 
the fraife thereof fhaU all he thine. 


So called, becaufc when the mattet is Written into the Jpurnall,- then is, this book void^ 
and of no efteem 5 efpecially in Holland, where the baying people firoie not the Wiifte- 
book, as here our? Nation do in England. 

rhil. Explaine the office and dependances of the Waftc-book. 
ich. Two things are to be noted in the WaAe-book. 

'£\\^Forme\% that this book is lined towards the left hand with one line (batfomeafe 
two) and towards the right hand with three 5 leaving towardis the left hand a Margine or 
whitenefs of an inch or ieflcj according to the books targeneffe, to enter therein the Day, 
Moneth, Mark of the Commodity, or all : and between the three lines towards the right 
hand, there to enter the mony> as by feverall inftances (hall be made plain. 

The office of this book is, that onely the Daily'Crading onght to be written therein, e- 


Buymg, Selling, Reviving, Paying, Drawing, Remitting, Affignments, Shipping, &c. 
and this ni uft be entred immediately upon the adion of the thing a^ed, to the end no paf- 
fing paicells be forgotten, according to the Dutch Proverb: a>at men iOiVfti, SDat blgflt. 
That which is written, Remaineth, In this book ought neither Inventory nor Ballance of 
the Leager to be entr cd j for that is againft the office of this book .• it being onely to write 
Trafickmg paffages in. In this book may write Maftfer, Accomptant, or ariy Servant of, 
the houie, by whom the thing is ai^ed, or by advice and order of another, in this book 
muft the matter be entred in plain fincerity as^itisaded, without Debitor, or Creditor 
foime •, for that is the proper office of the Journall : likewife maijy people underftand the 
Wafte-book entrances, that apprehend not th^ Jourijall forme. In this book ought the 
paiccls to be entred clofe under each other as they were aded, without leaving of any emp- 
ty paper, to avoid fufpicionof Forging any parcells betwixt them, upon any omitted occafi- 

on : and each parcell ought to be feparated with a line from the other before written, and 
cnfuing parcel. In this book ought the aded matter to be firft entred ; partly, becaule it is 
a fore-runner of the Journakefpeciallywhenthe Merchant ufeth an Accomptant thatdwel- 
Icth without his houfe-,for he may fpmetime be abfent when fuch matters arc aded.A^ain, 
theremay be an error committed in Weight, Meafure, Quantity or Calling. Again° be- 
caufe the matter or condition may be changed, by diminifliirig or augmenting of any,thin«^3 
or by wholly leaving outofanymatrer,the bargain being broken, and fo that parceUcan-' 
celled there •• for Blotching or Racing out of any parcell in the Journall is unbefeeraingr 

Phil' What confiderations elfc areto be obferved in this Wafte-book ? 

Sch. Five other things muft be duely obferved in this book : 

1 . The Year, M(M)eth , Day, Town or Place where fuch matters are aded. 

a. The Name and Surname of the Party with whom we trade : or, if it be Fa(ftora«yc, 
then unto the former name muft- be added the Owners name for whom the thin«> is effe- 
fted, as likewife the place of bis Refidence .'and whether the Bargain b^ for Time or 
Ready mony, that's alike, in refped of Booking the fame unto him whofe Commodities 
they are. ^^ ^^^ 


An JntroifuSm to Merchants jkcompts. 

3. The qaanilty or quality of the tfiing tradedfor: a^ Ells, Pieces, Coioiirsi 
Weight, Mark, Namber,Exchan^8, Affigoments,or the like . 

4. The value of price of the thing tiaded for : whether Wares, Ejtchaages or 
the like. ' 

5. The conditions or ciratmllaoces that were ufed about the matter: as Time 
Sureti(hip« Bonds gitreojor cakea,Brokeridge, &c. ' * 

The Wafte Book parcells are of tenour, as the 
enfumg examples. 

Anno 1 530. thez'i. efHars^, in London. 

Marmaduke Grimjion of Northampton, lefldeth me 68. l". untill the 
firft of May next coming : which fummeCby his alfignmeat)my Cafliier 
receivethof^rf^/i>rJi^40^r/;»^,iDCon(ideration whereof I am td allow 

him certain mony ; being, with principall 

- ■■ ■ ■ 

AH^ed Sjbr4nt^ohn[$n upon ThomUs Coft&y for the accompt of 
Sen^tr solt^to receive,495.r.the rcraainer hath my Cafliier received of 
^thn sjkrantfon^hy zffi^nmsat of the faid Cofier, with 7.1*. 10, for fix 
weeks time forbearance : the whole being 



Agreed with ^aeob ^ohnjon of Marken, to let him have 3000. Flo- 
rines for Franckfprd,at 8i.O. be repayd to me,or Aflignes, 
the firfl of June next \ as the Exchange Ihxll then feturn from Franck- 
ford : this being mony for the Company of tivuri DenU at Nor- 
thampton and me, each one halfe, producing 

In part of payment of the fame,I deliver him iS.Laffs, 7. Madde of 
Rye, being in Company f for Edxvard Df»*f,and f for me -, at i j o. gl. 
each Laft ready- mony jisgl. 3854. 8. 12. Theremainer have I made 
good in Banck (for him) upon the accompt of fnhit ^ohnjon Vinck, 
abating 2 z . f Ql for Banck- mooy,at one fer Cent, the whole produceth 







HU. What ufe have thofe flantling ftrokes that are <(rawB in the Margine i 
Sch, They have two ufes: i. They (hew how far is pofted out of the Wafle-book 
into the Jonrnall •, and tJiey are a fare mark that a man omit no parcell, being called 
away from bis potting : neither to enter one thing twice upon the faid calling away, 
2 . They fliew how "many Journal parcells are ind uded in fuch a Watte Book parcel : 
infomuch, that in re- pointing of the Wafte-Book, a man may the eafier fee the' 
quantity ofthe included parcells, when the Wafte and Journall (hall be compared 
againft each others Some draw thofe flrokes on the right hand, where the mony is % 
but that multitude of Strokes darkneth the mony fummes : each hii choice. The 
Watte-Book parcells ought With all convenient fpeed to be potted into the Jonr- 
nall, andLeager, to the end the Book owner may the better difcern how bis cafe 
ftandeth with each man,and matter. Thus much of the Watte- Book in torm^ office^ 
and Cirmmfianees .• Now, 


It being the firft exquifite Book, wherein carefdly jnoft be obferved, ihat each 
parcel have its Chargeiaod Difcharge •• that is,the true liebitory and Creditor, where- 
with each Journal parcel ought to beginiwhich being well a^prehended,ana with fit 
words(acfiording to the nature of the matter)expre(icd,«* one of the chiefefi pincifUs 



S An IntroduBion to.Merchants Jccompts, 

belonging unto hook- kecfinr. Mark well •, he that can difcern the true Debitor and Creditor^ 
in any propounded propontion (concerning this Art) hath the right (Theorick) inward- 
ground-knowledge and contemplation of the matters : and he, and endj he (with the help 
of Arithmetick j goeth firm in his aiftion , to give eucti man his due, and book his matters 
under due and true Titles. It is very rcquifite (if poflibleit may be effefted) that the 
Journall be written by one man •• for in times of controverfie he can befl anfwer for his own 




Fhil. What things are moft requifite in the Journall to be noted ? 
Sch, Three Notable things are to noted in the Journall •• 

I. The MAtter whereof it is made. 

i. The Form thereof. 

3. The 0/y?« whereunto it is ufed, 


■Phil. Proceed to the Explication of the firft member. 

ifA. The A/<«;ffr whereof the Journall is made, may be drawn to five chief branches: 
for it 

'i. From the Inventary : as in the lo. and fo to 6i. place. 

.2. From Traffickcs continnall Exercife : as in 6i. place (including 


5. From tranfporting of full accounts in the Leager unto a new leaf , Sec 206, 
proccedeth< place. 

j 4. From the equalizing of Over, or Under- Weights, Meatiires, or the like. 

I See 2 1 2. place. 
5. From the LcagerS Conclude, or Ballancing of the Leager. See 21J. 
L place 

Phil. Go on with the firft branch. 

Sfh. An ufuali Inventary generally confifteth in 

"i. Rcady-mofly,and that in Cafh,in Banck,or both. 

a. Wares remaining unfould for proper accompt : under this fecond 
member is included Houfes, Lands,Rents,Ships-pai-ts % as alfo Wares 
unfould for Faftorage, or Company- accompts, and thofe that were 
formerly fliipt unto another place, bcjog as yet unfould for Proper, 
Fa^orage,or Company accompts. 

by fneans of 



5 D-u/?'* People unto whom we formerly fould:or, thatpromifed 
tors- and V "^ Payment of exchanges,and the like. 
, ' V2. Faflors, 5 

°ims ivp- P5"»«"»§that have not as yetgiven us full fatisfadlion. 
^ ^.4. Mafters, ^ 

I" I -People of whom we have bought, or whofc Bills we 
(4. Debt- 1 have accepted. 
Decreafing ; jdem an- ! 2 . Factors, "5 

improperly lders;and "^ 3. Partners, xunto whom we as yet have not given full 
by means of c them in 14. Mafters^ ^ content. 
«. j^5. WareSjpartly fonld for Fa<aoragc,ofCoiopany- account. 

Phil. In the above-ftanding Tabic you Ipeak of Stockes Increafing, and Deaeafing Im- 
properly j explain the wordlmproper. 
Sth, Simon Stfcvin, difcourfing of Merchants Book-keeping, fol. y5, with Prince Haw 



An IntroduBion to Merchants Accompts, 





r/WjConcerning StockeS Increafing, and Decreafing .• the Prince faith, that. Monies^ Wares, 
aod Debitors, Increafe Stock •• for the more a man hath of them^the greater will his Stock 
be. Contrarily, Debt-dmandtrs Decreafe Stock. Simon Stevin replyeth, to be of ano- 
ther Opinion -, exprefling himfelf with the enfuing Inftance .• If (faith he) in former Books 
I bought of Peter a Bale of Pepper upon Time 5 that Pepper augmenteth not my Stock : 
for Peter demandeth of me the value jtime being expired. In like manner, my Stock de- 
creafethnot, htcvi(tyeit)i'\$z Debt-demander : for its as much augmented by the Pep- 
per. But ifa Bale of Pepper be given me, that, truly augmenteth my Slock: for I en- 
ter, F*^^*ir-</f^//*r to Stock. Aod, /tf/54. A Merchant giving certain hundreds to Mar- 
riage with his Daughttr^ that decreafeth Stock. By this may eafily be difcerned, what 
Stock Augmenter.and Diminifter properly is. 

Phil. Speaking of Stocks Increafing,and Decreafing, you rehearfed in how many parts 
thefubftance of an Inventary did confift; but let me now hear you nemimte the true 
Debitors and Credittrs o( the laole enelj , without any other Circumftances of Dilati- 

Sch. To give you the better content, I will fpeakc of each in order as they ftand: and 


Phil. How Book you the Ready- mony after the way of Debitor and Creditor '- 
Sch. Cajh Debitor to stock. 

Phil. Why make you C^/^ Debitor ? 

Sch. BecaufeC/«/)i (having received my mony into it) is obliged to reftore it again at 
my pleafure •• for C4/]!» reprefenteth (to me) a man, to whom I(onely upon confidence) 
have put my mony into his keepings the which by reafonis obliged to render it back, 
or, to give me an account what is become of it.- even fo, if C«/& be broken openj it gi- 
veth me notice what's become of my mony, elG; it would redound it wholly back to 

Phil. Why do youufe the word Cajh, being thie word Movj is in ufe amongft our Na- 

tion . 

Sih. Simon Stevin treating of this word with Prince Maurits of ria(lauy in the fife 
Head pointof his Princely Book-keeping,/*/ 52, faith, that he could give none other 
reafon, but onelj^ that this word is in M/5r, which if it were not, I account i t betterCfaith he) 
to have it\6,Monj is Debitor. 

Our Matter ufually alledged the difference between private, and generall difcourfes, 
(hewing that many words arc ufually among Dutch, French, and other Nations, with 
whom a Merchant doth trafficke- therefore bethought it fitted: to ufe generall words, 
as being generally known, andmoftufefuUln Book-keeping-, elfe (faid*he) why (hould 
not Monj bear its own Name as well as other commodities •^. 

16 ^M. OneotherQueftionI have :o demand before you proceed, which is. Why is 
Stock made Creditor i 

Sch. Bccaufetheword5/of/tcontainethinit, all what a man poffeffeth-, whether Jtffl- 
ney,Wares^Debts dMetoMS, or the like: and (marke this well) Cajh, yea, each particular, 
thing that I poiTeife, is but a member of that whole hoiiy Stacker, therefore by the Joynt 
meeting ofall thofe members,the bodyCSf^f^) is made compleat. 

17' Thil. Having paffed the firft part of Ready-mony,treat now fomewhac" 


Form the hands of the Honourable Xt-ri/ of the Bancke, 1 have a certain fummeof mo- 
ney -, how Mil I Book that f ^ ^^^^ ^^^^j^ 

NOTE —Pages 23 to 43, 10 to 14, 24 to 44, 48, 49 and 53 of the text are omitted, hecause they give 
Questions and answers setting forth how journal entries under differing circumstances are made. They do 
lot present any argumentation or theory, nor do they show why they are made, and therefore are prac- 
tically nothing but repetitions of what has been said in other pages. 


14 Jn IntroduBion to Merchanii Jccompts. 

40 Fhil. Let me hear you enter this according to the nature of the Inventary. 
Sch. They were fent before-, and therefore I enter now. 

Edward Dents of Northampton his account at Roan in France, in the Adminiftratlon 
of P^ D. Debitor to Stock 5 lor the charges by me done at the firft fending. See 46. 






Phil. But fuppofe the charges that you did at the firft fending were writ off from his 
above-named Roan account, unto his account currant, being that I would have all disbur- 
fed money upon one account ; and therefore that account hath no charge now upon it. 

Sch. Edward Denit of Northampton,his account at Roan in France, in the Adminiftra- 
tion of P. D. is Debitor to Stock : Nota, for a Blank fumme, both in Debit and Credit 5 
and muft be fo carried to each account ftr Fermanty becaufe there muft not be a Debitor 
without a Credit or, nor the contrary. 

rhil. Suppofe P. D. had in the former books made fale of part, or whole •, whereof you 
had advice then, but no Returns. See 46- place. 

Sch. P. D. at Roan, for the proper account of E. D. at N. N. Debitor to Stock 5 for as 
much as the known fales import •• and fo I pafs forward, according to the Tables tcnour, 

Wares abroad, unfolc}, for Company- 

Phil. I perceive you cleave clofe to the Table. 

Jf^. School- men (as I have read) fay, that a good Difputant ought never todigrcfle 
from the propounded Propofition, until! it be difcuffed. Neither ought any Writer to 
commit a digreflion from the grounds of his intended fubjeiS, as is here the before- entred 
Table in the 10. place; as alfo the enfuing three Tables •, to wit. The Table of Accounts 
Proper in the 63. place : the Table oiFacierage-accomts in the 122, place : and the Table 
ofCtf?»/'a»;f-accountsin the 174. place. From thefe I intend not to ftray., but in order 
will work upon them fas the Table (hall deliver matter thereunto : ) the more,becaufe any 
one which (hall have occafion to feek a matter in any of thofe particular Tables, whether 
in the Inventariej, Proper^ FaHorage, ox,c«mp*nyTMts^ may prefently know what goeth 
before, or, foUoweth his deiired matter. 

Phil. But to our intended purpofe •, rehearfefome Inftances of Company unfold Wares. 

"Voyage to Roan, con(igned to Pierre dit Ptnt^ being in Company^. 

for ^ames B^rtrAm^ and me, each \ I Debitor 

-SfA.< Voyage to Lisborne, confignedto Fedre del Vtrd» ^ h&ng inV to 
I Company, j for Robert Cltfton, and Partner, \ for ^ames ^oyneri ' Stock, 
[and i for me. J 

Phil. Having in order waded through the fecond branch of the Inventary- Table, in the 
10. place; proceed to the third branch of Stocks iaaeafing: being 


Sch. Four in number are they comprehended under, in the third branch of^he 
and may all be joyned as under one i yet in brief I wiU touch each apart •• as ' 

C1.S.C. to whom we formerly fold, or, that he had accepted our Exchanges 
< Debitor to Stock. ^ ' 

^2. CD. at Venice my account currant, Debitor to Stock. 

3. Partner^ 


'■' ■ ' ■ IWI I 1 1 1 MIM^P— a— ^^1 l—> I iiM^iM^^I 11 ■■■ !■ II ■■ ■ ■ I 

An IntroduBion to Merchants Ac£ompts, 



fWhohath parcof My eftate in his hands, to be imployed, by 

I him for the good of our Company •• N. N. my account by him 

\ in Company,Debitor to Stock. 
1 3. Partner ^ Whofe part of Stock is in my hands to be by me imployed, and 
j ' I am iox hirtj in disburfe : N.N. his account by me in Compa- 

( ny,.Debitor to Stock. 
{/^.M.M' atColchelier his account CurrantjDebitor to Stock. 

By the word Currant^ do not I nnderftand the account tliat is oppofite to an account 
oiTmey (for Idiftingailh them by the name of r/wf, and Ready-mony; but by Currant , 
I ooderftand, a RumingzccomzXconte-Courante) upon the which all things may palTe, as 
well for time, as Ready- mony. 


Phil. Thus I fee you have paffed through the three branches of Stocks Increafing, with 
the depeodanceS of the fame in a briefe manner : what followeth next to treat of ^ 


Sck. In the ro. place is fliewed, that Stock hath (Impr6perly)a Decreafing part 5 and 
that again is divided. into five Sab divi|ions:of thefe in briefe likewifcafter a plain manner.* 
as thus, 

"i. D.E. Of whom we formerly bought, or whofe Bills in former Books 
we accepted, and prefeatly Booked them, but not due to be paid io thofe 
*. £./.atCoDftaottnople,my account Currant i for that he hath made me 
more Returns then my fold Wares didimport. 

/f My account by him in Company , he having paid out more then 
V . his part doth import. 
j.Partner,^Hii accotint by me io Company .• I having received into my hands 
Stocke is ff mony for fold Wares, and detain his part thereof, where he 

Debitor to { « *'°o^* '° ^^*= ''' 

4.f. (?. His account Carrani-y the credit of which being heavier then his 

Debit: hot whether it be in Ready-mony,or, for Wares fold upon time, 

thats not matefiall, in refped of his Running-accounts form . 

j.(?.W. His account of Kerfies, for fo much as was fold upon that account 

in the former Book .• See j6. place. 

Durances in Company,* for A,B.^ for B.C. and j for me .• for fo much as in the 

former Book was fold upon that accoTint : Sec 3 7. place, it being compared 

with this. 

^Edward Denis o(^onhimpton,hi$icco\xMzt Roanin France, in the Admi- 

niflrationofP. D. for as much as the known Sales iinport.. Nt/t*, in th^^i.fhce,. the 

iBadior was made Debitor to. Stock, for. the like fumme: therefore our Stock ftandeth 

well in the like cafe with others. Agaio^ we have our firft charges done 05 good unto oar 

Stock in the 40. place. 

J/<>f* Debitor to Voyage toXisboroe,configned unto Pedro del Fergo, being in Com- 
pany, 7 for Rdert Cliftpft, and Partner^ for ^4mes^ojner,^Dd\(ot me : for as much as 
the known Sales import. You muft conceive, that tedrcdtlVtrio^ our account, being 
in Company, i for Rahert Clifton^ and Partner •, ,; for /./.andi for itie : either pandeth , or, 
AwW^^W Debitor to Stock, for the like fumme, that Stock ftandeth Debitor to the 
Voy^e for the Sales.* for the ^o^agt cannot have a Credit,bat by one, or more Debitours 
i«t tvtn Counter- poTize that Credit, 

rhiL I have fefcn your J)x/fr/»jf in the handling, of the Ihvontary'Table,as alfo in 
the Booking" damans known eftate *but if a Merchant will not have his eftate know% 



1 6 An IntroduBion to Merchants AccomptSf 

howvwUyou behave your felf therein ? Ha! I think I have pos'd you fiovv. Now yoa 
areflall'd,! trow. 

Sch. In fuch difficult Queftions you cannot debarrc me, to take the aid of fome Re- 
nowned Authors .- for ip the firft place of our Dialogue 1 feared my weaknefle, becaufe I 
frequented not the daily Examination •, but although I frequeut not the School, I am yet 
not ignorant ot what the Authors paffages are upon'tbis Sutjeft.- and therefore I -will de- 
cide your Queftion, with the Solution of Mafter Herfrj WAninghen'vaXhc firft Chapter, 
the 1 7. Queftions anfwer ; his words are thefe : C*pi muji he entredin flace ofsmke , mi- 
king all that is due to ui Debitor to fajh : fontrarily^ Cap Debitor to ^11 them that are to have of 

With him (in the very fame words) agrecth his Difciple Joannes Buingba^ vtfho now 
at Amfterdam, after the death of his before-named Mafter,fucceedeth his place in School- 
mafterfcip. See the 38. page of hi? Book,printed 1627, 

3P. Corf enter Gent, in his Mofi Excellent InSriiiiien^ printed in London 1632. is a direft 
Imitator of both the former : See f el. 20.24. o^ his Book : and no mervaile ? tor the grea- 
teft part ofhispubliihed Book, is nothing elfe but a generallcopy-of Henrj JVininghetu 
Book, both in words, and number of the Queftions.^. C. in his Epiftle to the Reader, 
pretendcih Ignorance, of nor knowing the Author, who in the French Language many 
years agone was eafie to be found. 





Phil. Shew me fome laflances how they would Book their paHage?. 
Sch. In briefe I will : and firft, 



Kerfies JgDebitor to Ca(h. 
Durances, j^ 

Of the People that owe to us. 

Robin Good- fellow^ 3 
Herman Hard-head,^\yth\X.ox to Cafh* 
^ ^ohn Gentleman, ^ 

Of the People that we owe unto. 

9Rot»land Red- heard, 
j CaQi Debitor to^Ralph Would-mll. 
L '^'yPp Reach'farre. 

/^/V. Suppofe a man at the making ca' his, Inventary hath fome mony, how (hall he 
Book that i 

Sch. The before-named in the places of their Books mentioned, fay. The ReadH-mwi U 


?hil. Suppofe with part of that concealed mony you bought WaresJoA with other part, 
paid them unto whom you are mdebted : how enter you that* 

Wares,?-. ,, ^ „ 
People,; ^^'''^o^ to Caft. 

gteS"'^^^^''"''"^^^^'''^^^"'^^'^'^'^^^'^^" you conclude i have thefe rthinkyQu)df- 

rt,f„vi*J"^P°^^^''?y^^'^' what's that tome? But becaufe you ftiouldnot flout at me, 
„«?« ^"i^^^Pf'^y '.° ^^ ^0 ^"Pi''> ^b«itis void of diftindlion, IwiUin foroe bncfe 
notes onely touch the fame. ' firftly; 


Jn IntroduBm to Merchants Acompts. 1 7 

Firftjiet nje cosfider whether the -Book-owner be more indebted then his Eftaie H 
WQrtl'5wUic:h.ifhei)e, theti is their entrance good, for hisEftates concealment: for the 
Debit fide of Cattl ought to be heavieft, <»r, having no mony, tt mu(lbe even^ beeauje alt is 
faidcut : but it he have any Eftate, then is the Credit of his Cafti (who ftandeth In 
i/«rjfrj ftead^ heavieft : and therefore an £r>-w/, being there is more paid, then was re- 

Secondly, the commoditits that-we have at the making of our Inventary, were bought 
iaffrmer Books, and there made Debitors -, and that we now enter ihem again Debitors to 
Cajbf is to re-buy them .-and confequeotly, in place of book- reforming, hook- eUformtng^ 
and an undefendable Err our ^ .. 

Thirdly, the People whom we now make Debitors to Cafh^ ZKabfofutely om Debitort* 
and do we fay them,who are to pay us i many men would defire to be our Debitors. 

Bourthly>.As{enfeleffe is-it, to niake Cafti Debitor to People that are to have of us •, will 
they thataretohaveofusibo. l*. for a Bill of Exchange by us accepted, fay, Come mj 
Frkird, you have accepted an Exchange, to pay at time expired, which is now .• fead yottc 
man to my honfe,and the mony fliall incontinently be paid to him ^ i thM nothing leffe, 
fl^j^Fifthly, Ca(b may hevfer hetc^'named, Nota^ not named, but when money is either truly , 
and really paid, or, received, as in the is mentioned. Butif thefe People eater 
/*y^f^ Imaginarics in the i'*r«-/r<?»r of their Books .-what is not to beexpeded before the 

Sixthly, The Stock which they feek to contealt^ is manileft in the difference of Cafh It 
felf. For let then tranfport their Cd/J, and they fhall find (if as before Is (aid, that their 
Eftate'ftandWfill)fthat Crf^'is, and ra tranfpotting forward, alwayes remaineth Creditor, 
Baliance that Cajh, arid tell m€ what (hall be done with the difference. Carry it to anew ac- 
count, what then,? there it will p;ove to he Stock. Carry it to Profit and LofTe, there it 
will prove to be Stockes Augmcnter. Wonder is it^ that thefe and many other Forrain bred- 
defeSis muftnow be eloathed in Engltfh Attiri^ and pafle for currant amongft us 1 Surely, 
oar Judgement is weak in the difeerning of this Art. 



Phil. 1 perceive tteir twiflages in Booking of theit Matters,doth not dfgeft with you 5 is 
there a more plain way ^difccver that. 

Sch, If we were as ExaH Difcu(}brs,zs we are Imitators ; we had not been iobefoned ,as to 
entertain thofe Forrain defeds,having better at home. 

Lookinto ^ames Peele^ whofe well- entrances, through neglefting Age (or dlldain of 
Domeftick Writers^ and extolling of Forrain) are as ftrange to us, as though (as the fay- 
ingis)they were written in Heathen Greek.. He (heweth us the fit ground- work, how to 
eonceale a mans Eftate, in the Booking of his private accounts, and matters manifefted 

for Meichandizip" 


pyi. loftance fome particulars,how to Book the manifefted part. 
Seh.Yoafyezkt^fart; whether he bring in part, or, Atf, who can certainly know 

I that IT being, that we can but ^fiwe at it, as the Blind at the colour of Cloth. And for that 
which he manifeftetb,may be 

/, CaOi, J 

iBanck,— — (( Debitor unto the 

entreckPerpetuaneS,- . I Private account. 

jjMarmaduke Man, ' ^V| 

\^9hti Knoll zt Lisborn, my account Proper,— jl 

Fhil, HowriialltheMafter, or Book-owner, enter into his ;w4^* Books the things 
54 mamfefted for Merchandizing * 

Sch. Generallaccount^Banck, 
for Traffick, Debi-SPerpetuaneS, 
tot £Q )] Jdarmaduke it am 

I ^olfn Knott at LisborD,my account Proper , 


i.S jJnlntroduBm to Merchants Jccomfps. 



^Ai/, Supppfe there is gained upon Wares fould. 

Sch. Wares Debitor to Private account, for the Gaines 5 do the like iii Faftor accouats, 
and allotherjupon which Gaines arifetb. 

J/S/Y. Suppofe I lofe by Wares, or Exchanges. 

Scb, Private accountj Debitor to Wares, Exchang«;s,6r, unto thataccount_L upon which 
|J.pfle arifeth. 

Phil. At the Conclude of my Book, I furrcnder Motiief^ Dehs^ and Unfeuld- fVares. 
^f ^.Private account Debitor to Cafti,Men,and Wares,each »4OTf feverally. 

PM. How fliall the BooK-owner enter back in his private "Books the furrendred feverall 

Ihil. Cafli, Men, Wares, each name feverally. Debitor to Generall account for Traf- 

59 Pkil. How (hall the Book-owner enter into his Private Book, the Gaines that are found 
upon his Book of Traffick i 
Sch. Generall account for Traffick,Debitor to Profit and Loffe. 

to, , Hil. But if he loft in his Book for Traffick. 

^f/&. Profiti and Loffe Debitor to Generall account for traffict; becaufeit hath fur- 
fendredhzck kfle, then formerly was confidented unto the fame: Judge of the GaincS 
like wife, tiiat the Generall account for Traffick yielded more, then thefirft in-laid 
Principall. Here you fee the matter plainly difcurffed. Here you fee the ground-work, 
by which they are confuted, gathered from one of our own' Nation 5 which to their mif-ea- 
tringis might rather have been 

A worthy Refutation, their Approbation. 
To bring them to our Nation, \ 

, Butitfeeemeth that this Abfia-dity (an Jmany more, which upon due Examination of 
their works apparently / can make appear) was not difcerned, or^ being difeerned^ how to 
aniendit. Experience. had not befriended them, 

01 Phil, tlehearfe fome other Inftances of their Mif- entrances, that (for the Reader) they 
may be as Bueyes in this Sea^to keep him from Ignorances Ship- wrack. 

Sch. Very loth am I to fry any further into their Books : for their Adfurditut are ma- 
ilyindiversmatters. Andiflihoulddiveintothemall, it would be thought that I one- 
ly mteredSatyricallSnarlings, where my plain meaning is, toflirre them up to a more 
feripuipdy, that the filly beginner be not fruftrateof his Expeaation": feekinc' in them 
(is one (z[th)Sapientiai but finding Jpedia : therefore let me proceed towards oiu intended 

^^ Phil- Well 5 for this time let as do aS you defire : What foUoweth next to treat of-, 
feeing tbfel«w»wr7, with the Dependances (which is ihtpfi matter whereof the Jonr- 
nall is made) are difcuffed i 

Sch. The fecond matter whereof the ^ottrnall is made, is the next thing in order that 
we are to treat upon 5 and'^oceedeth from 


:^the Ninth place is reheatfed: wherein isto be confidered three PrincipaU accow^s, 


An IntrodHBion to Merchants Accompts, 


la I 


(TDemefttck- affaires: for fo I terme thofe. thitiss i 
lAcconntS: and each^ ^^'^'^ \ [" ^^^^^} Adminiftraxion, adminiftrate as 

jFaffora^e ^* " oniTcfe againnii'^ ^^'^^^ Manager in the tnattei ^'vihithttTaPreP^l 
^Company ^ JJ Faiiora^e^or, Company accounts. 

ic i^tfrr4/w-4/d*w.- for fo do I nominate tk)fe mat- 
ters, that another adminiftrateth as chiefe Ailor in r With the Wares Bills 
thematfier, without hand-adtion of me, or, mine: CJ'rf^yflr \ and Monies that I 

and thus do my — —\pm»er S fend to him, to be 

2| X, itnployed for me. 

IFriead: unto whom I fent my 
Mafters Wares, becaufe they were not Vendible here, as in the 39. place is expreffed •• the 
faid Friend is to be countable for the Sales thereof to me, and I to my Maftw , with 
whofe order I fent theto thither; he not having any acquaintance with the man, nor 
Trading for that place. Of thefe 1 intend to treat in Orrffr,as they are entred in the above- 
ftaading Table : but firA I will Book fome exquifite 

Rules cfaidey very requiftts in Trades continmnce^ to be learned tvithoni Book. 

I.' Whatfoever commethuntoHis (whe* 
ther Mony, or Wares) for Proper, Vi&o- 
rage, or Company account, the fame is 


». Whofoever Promifeth,the Promifer is 
i Debiten 

J. Uftto whom We pay (whether with 
Mony, Wares, Exchanges, Affignations)be- 
ing for his own account -- that man is 
— — ■ D ebitor. 

4.Uflto whdmjwe py (as abote) for 
another mans account : 

The man for whofe 'account we pay, is 
: behitor. 

y. When we boy Wares 'for another 
mans account (Whether we pay them pte- 
fently,or not, that isall one in the entrance) 
and fend chem^onto him,or unto another t^ 
his order* 

The man for whof<f account we bought ,• 
and fent them, is for the Waffes, and Char- 
ges, — ■ -"Debitori 

6. if we deliver an Affignation unto any 
man (whether it be our own, or anotbers) 
that man for whofe account we deliver that 

Affignation in payraent,is Debitor. 


This is much like the third Article, but 
this Is here thus entred, becaufe this Article 
is here more largely explained, for the bet- 
ter anderftanding'of Affignation. 

7. When we,or any other man for ris,f6n- 
deth commodities unto another Land, or 
Towne, tobefoaldjfor Proper ot Company 

1. Whatfoever goeth from us (whether 
Mony, or Wares)for Proper, FaiSorage, or 
Company account, the fame is Cyeditor; 

2. Unto Whom we Promife,the Promi- 
fcd mfanis Criditor, 

3. Of whom we receive (whether Mo- 
ny, Wares, Exchanges, Affignations) be- 
ing for bis own account :' that 'man is 
■ creditor. 

4. Of whom we receive (as abdve) fot 
another mans account : 

The man for whofe account we receive ^ 
is ^ Creditor f 

5. When we buy for ot(r felves, or 'for 
afipthcEman,and pay not prefently;^. 

The man of whom we bougftt thofe 

Wares, is- 

'Cr editor i 

6. Whofoever delivereth an Affignation 
unto us upon any man,for his own account: 
the iriari.of whom we received it, is Creditor. 

Upon whom I deliver mine Affignation, 
to be paid by him for his own account , that 

man is— — - — Cudit/it 

Whofoever (to pleafure, or accommo- 
date me) payeth my AiTi'gnation, the ac- 
commodating man,is — Creditor, 

7. When we receive advice from our 
Fa^or, that thofe fent commodities, or part 
of them: are fo\ild,or loft then is « 

Da Voyage 



An IntroduBion to Merchants Jccompts, 


Voyage to fach a place configned to fuch 
a man Debitor, 

8. When we pay .Cuftotne, Infurance , 
or other chaisges>43pon the fending of thofc 
commoditieSjthen is 

Voyage (as above)-- Debiior. 

9. When we caufc the fent goods to be 
infured, but pay it not prefently, then is 

Voyage fas above)- 



ID. When We enfuje any mans fent 
Wares, and receive the mony prefently , 
then is Caih-^ ■■ '■ Debitor. 

11. When vfe Infuce any mans fent 
Wares, and receive not the mony prefent-; 
ly, then is the man, for who fe account we 
Infured thofe Wares,- ■ Debitor. 

12. When we receive advice, that the 
former fent Wares:, ot part of them arc fold, 
then is 

The Faftor that fold them for oufr ac- 
count Debitor. 

15. If any man draw Exchanges upon 
us for himfelf, or for any other man, the 
man for whof(? account the fame was drawn, 
is-—, ■ — Debitor, 

14. If we remit Exchanges unto any 
man, for bimfelf, for me, or any otber 

The Faftor, 7/ for w/, or the man for 
whofe account it was remitted ,is — Debitor. 

15. Wheft we lofe by gratuities given, 
whether great, or fraall,or howfoever, then 
is Profit and LoflTe ^ Debitor, 

Voyage to fuch a place configne-d to fuch 
a man • Creditor. 

8. Ca(h, or charges of NIerchandizing is 
Creditor. Nota, divers Merchants keep fuch 
an account of charges of Merchandizing, 
pfpecially thofe that have Cafhiers within 
their own houfe. 

p. The Infurer is Creditor. 

10. Infurance-reckoning,"^ 

Or ^is Creditor. 

Profit, and Loffe. — ^ 
Chufe of thefe which you pleafe. 

II. As above - 



Mef chants that trade much in thiskinde, 
ufe an ^count in their Books, called /»/»- 

I J. When we receive Retumes^ either in 
Mony or Wares, in lieu of thofe fould 

The Faftor that payeth us, or caufeth us 
to be paid, '■ — ■ Creditor. 

13. If we draw Exchanges upon any 
man for bimfelf, or for any other man, the 
man for whofe 'account we draw,tbe fame 
is — Creditor, 

14. If any man remjttcth Exchanges nn^o 
us for bimfelf, for me, or for ariother man 5 

The Fitaor, if for me, or the man for 
whofe account the fame Was remitted to m« 
is— -Criditer, 

15. When we gain by gratuities ttcd- 
ved, whether great, or fmall, or howfo- 
ever,then is Profit,and Lotte — '—Creditor 

Phil.^ Having thus placed your i?«/« 0f 4ide,ptocecd (as was dctermiocd) to the firft of 
your before-mentioned Principall accounts. 
Sch. The firft nominated t>rinc{pailaccount(for plain apprehenfions fake) I will di/hlM 
derihe form of account, ^ 

under 1 



' — ~ '■ ' ' I " " ' ) ■ ■ ■■ ■ - — ^ ■ ■ M» 

An IntroduBion to Merchants JccomptSp ii 







^ Buying, opon feverall conditions .• See the 54. place. 
I Shhpng ef Wans to another Towne, or Land, to be 
j lould for my account: See the 85. place. 
ri)emefi/ck-sf aires, 1 ^^^^'f^ "Pon feverall conditions : See the 

whofe parts may be< ^^^rmwr.upon^^'''"'!"^^^ ^^MJ^^"- 
•, ^ ^A/tf»;{: Seethe 109. pl]ac?. 

IKeceiviffgiSec the 108. place,having 12. branches. 
Gratuity : See the i io. place; 
Prefer, ^ Kf^J^fg • See the 1 1 1 . place. 

r Advice , that the fent goods, rSould ^See the i;.. 
^ jf ■ ) or, part of them are \Loft.-Seethe 

Fcrrain-affatres , con-^ '^ S^^w: Seethe IJ9. place, 

(iftmg in ^/{««r«.i in^^^^ . g^^ ^^e 121. place. 

Thil. The Table "being entredin briefe as above, reqaircth an explaiaing ; therefore leC 
me fee your Entrances upon each member apart. 

Sch. The parts being divided into Affaires Borne fiick, and Forraine, I intend to treat firft 
of the fir ft} and therein again of the branches orderly as they follow, whofe beginning is 


i»M. I % Wheatland pay for the fame prefeniiy, even upon the receit thereof: How 
fliall I enter that ^ 

Sch. Wheat Debitor to Cafti. Nota, Some wilUthatof the likePaflages fliouldbe 
made a double Entrance, becaufe upon all Occafions the mans name might he found upon 
the Alphabet : each do his pleafure -, I account this way dear, and evident. For afterward 
if any controverfie.fliould arife, that Book (from whence the Queftion arifeth) will (hew 
the Year, and Mpneth 5 then is it upon my Book eafie to be found, Nota^ All accounts oF 
Commodities \ELV&hv]i\vat%mthitt^ to keep the quantity of £i7/,ArM/»rf, Weighty and the 

Fhil. I Buy Rye Contant,but pay not inftantly, 

Sch, Rye Debitor to the Man of whom T bought it. Noia^ the word Contant fignifietb, 
ufon Demand; and that again,for 1.2.3. daies, of iJ.or three weeks: generally, it is inclu- 
ded under onemoneths time ; for that which is contained under the nomination ofmonetbf^ 
is 1.2.5. or niore moneths. 

Phil. I buy upon two moneths time a little parcell of Pepper, Ginger, Cloves, or the 
like •, fome one parcell. to the value of 10, l* and.forae leffe. 

Sch. Groceries, Debitor to the Af^wof whom I bought them : underftand my meaning, 
which is not, that I (hould make the Commodity Debitor to the Mans fervant^ becaufe I 
bought It of him.^ but unto the Principal!, or Man,, to whom it klongeth, in refpecl of my 
knowledge. Nota^ the Entrance of that which I buy, upon 2. Daies,2. Moneths, 2. Years, 
is all as one •• . for my acknowledged man muft be known upon my Books, as well for 
2. Dales, as for 2. Years, 

Fhil. I buy Latton-wyre upon 3. moneths paying i,, part prefently. 

Sch. Latton-wyre Debitor to the Man Prtnctp^ll^ from Whence it came. And thca^Matt 
Principally DebrtortoCafti,foT the «^-part now paid. I enter this thus in t? parts, be- 
caufe fome make the Bought Wares Debitor to the Selling man, for the part upon Time: 
and Wares Debitor to Cafti, for the part paid. Here you fee Wares are divided Into two 
parts,(which is unfeemly) and therefore muft have two Journall parcells ; fo there is every 
way as much writing, as to make the Wares Debitor to the man for the whole •, and then, 
him Debitor t6 Cafti for the paid part. But if feverall Wares to pay h part in mo- 
ney, what brave divifions would then arife i For each parcell muft have two Debiioi s, and 



2 1 An JtitrociuBion to Merchants Accompts» 

Creditors, whicli will be no fmall trouble 5 or elfe theymuft learn to place their parcels 
with more judgment. 



Phil. I buy Cloth upon 9. mcneihs Time, which is to ride out i^ then to difcount for 6. 
moneths .• paying for them in Banck, and enjoj Banck-monies allowance in hand. 

Sch. Cloth Debitor to the Man, for the whole coft upon 9. Moneths •• and then , the 
Man Debitor to Cloth for the Difcount ; and tbeny the Man Debitor to Banck for the 
fummewrit in.- 4»^//&f», Cafli Debitor -to Profit and Loflej becaufe the monyby me 
written in Banck,and the Difcount, counter- vailed the firft Principall upon p.moncths. 

Phtl. I buy Barly upon s.moneths tim€,difcounting inftantly ; paying part in Mony, part 
byAirignement,part with Rye .-the remainer in Banck, abating fo much as the Banck- 
roonies allowance is worth. 

ich. Barly Debitor to the Man, for the whole upon 8. moneths : 2. the Man Debitor to 
Gafli for the fumme payd .• 3 . the Man Debitor unto him, who was to pay my Aflignati- 
onfor-hisownaccount : 4. The Man Debitor to Rye, for the delivered valuers. The 
Man Debitor to Banck for the fumme made good, cither upon his account, or, upon the 
accoutit ofanother, by his order: 6. The Mai» Debitor to Profit, and Lofle, for Banck- 
monies allowance •, becaufe this, and the Banck-mony, make both but one compleat part 
of payment.- but it I had writ in Banck his compleat part of payment, and he made 
good the mony for Banck allowance to me, by paying it in hahd ^ then rauft we enter, 
CaQi Debitor to Profit, and LofTe : 7. The Man Debitor to Barly for the 8. moneths dif- 
count. Neta,Henry Waninghen^ Chapter 2. ^eftten 14. entereth the Man Debitor to Pro- 
fit, and LofTe, tor the difcount. Pafjchier Gctfj(f«»/, ju ^amfaurglj, printed 1594. farcell 
44. 47. and others, entreth the like. Johannes Buingha, felie^g. ^<f/w» 7, entreth the 
like. 3^.C4y/'f»wr,/o/.34.hisBookingiswith Henry Waninghcn the 14. ^4r«^ alike; and 
,. 'ncly an Imitator: andfo of other Authors. But fremeditation flieweth, that the litf- 
^«»«ofcommoditiesfhould»tf/^ff carried unto Profit, and Lofle, as our printed Authors 
in gencrall do, without any further in- fight into the nature ot the matter : For JSrf/-/;, which 
before was Barly upon T/Vwe, is now become Barh for Readj-menj ; which at che, buying 
(in re^eft of the Time I was to fland out,and have the ufe of the mony in mine own hands) 
coft me ntere then it now will yield me Ready mony ; the while then Barly upon 8. mo- 
neths was more chargecjat the buying, then it now is worth Centant^ reafon requireth that 
Barl/f fliould be dtfcharged^ becaufe I have disburfed my tnony .• See Ralph Handfe» upon 
Abatements in his Table. 

T his muft be well regarded in iJf^^rw, to the end, that tzchHerJe may bear his own 
Burthen •, well neting, that the Rebatei are not made good in mony ■• See Ralph Handfon. 

iE>But if we buy fundry commodities, and have an allowance upon the whole buying 
then mufl we enter. 

The man of whom I bought, Debitor to Profit, and LofTe Proper: iotno one commo- 
dity may rnjsj the allowance made upon the whole Cargo,or ParcclLj and to make a divifi- 
on pto rate, of each commodities Capitall, would be a troublefome (bbt true) worke: 
t herefore Profit and LofTe Js the briefed carriage in fiich matters, being the J'4f» aitcr 
either of the wayes, redoundeth unto our finall advance for the Abatement. This in briefe. 

T. • SFor Ready-mony,and prefently pay : See the 
"y'"S^Upon tiTne,the conditions being feverall : See 65,67,^8,tfp,70e 


-J Phil. I buy WareSjfor other Wares 5 value being equall. 

^f^. In bought WaresCWhat name foever) Debitor to the Deliverd Wares: this is fel- 
dome feen. k> But if writing be not tedious unto us, or we not paper'-penurious , the 
befl,and mofl uni- forme Booking ("in refpedl of the generall verieties) of giving, or recei- 
ving of diverfuies (being Wares, and Mony, or feverall Wares; is to have the received 
Wares Debitor to the Trucking Mw 3 ?nd then,ibe Trucking Man Debitor to ihe Deli- 
vered Wares, 

' Hil. 


An IntfodSion to Merchants Aaombts, 2? 

72 PA/7. You have related your mmdemichings of an Equall value; but If I boy Wares 
payiilg with other y^txts and Mony. 

Sch. Henry Waninghen^ Chapter 2. unto the 6. ^sffiicn, anfwereth in Dutch- 'iToiief 
Datmenfeojt3Peb!taenJCatr«, 3!5aecnaer,Cato3Dcijitaen'tgoetDatment065tjjeft, / Enllijh it: 
The Wares that we buy, Debitor to Cafli •, afterwards^ Ca(h Debitor to the Wares tliat 
we deliver: asthuSyThe Wares that 1 buy are worth loo. 1. and the Wares tliat I deli- 
ver are worth ^o.l.Confequently, 1 fajingthe Matiy he muft have 90. 1. in Wares and 
10. 1. id Menj vfo that Cafh is for the 10, 1. paid, more Credit then Debitj therefore' Cafll 
hith its doe. With Henrf Waningheji agreetTi ^. C arp enter ^^f ok 2. farceuS. as bove % he 
witeth, the goods bought, owe unto Cafli for the whole funame: and after, . Q^^tii ow* 
eth unto the goods, which you have delivered to the Seller, for die value of them. 






fhil. Seeing you Imitate in entring. of their ^t&rds j haVe tii^ your Jpfrohation t 
iSfA. I have related their words, not as an affeihonate- P ollemr, ~b\it ;a.s2a Admirer ot 
their Imitation. For as in the 1 7. and 5 1 . place by this a3» is faid $ C a(h may not be n^t- 
med{ no not Named) but where Meny is either Really paid, or received: Neta^ and the while 
that it isaWblurelyfalfe, that Cafh hath in the above- mefttioned 72. place not fdid oui 
loo.l. butonely lo.I. norhathitrefe»vf</any peny of the $q,\. therefore foe the jo. L 
on each fide, I fay Cafh is an A^e, 

Hit. But in the conclufion, itcometh all foonepnrpofe. 

Sch. Thait is not meteriall : why many words, when few may fuffice < Eor ^. Carpentef 
/o/, 32. p4rrt// 74 anfwereth rfirf^ to the number 5 The goods which you buy, owe to the Stl' 
/fr .• And contrarily, Heowethio Cafhy and to the goods which yoit have deliveredMm. This 
IS fomewhat like a mans mony : Bat as in the 71, place is faid-, Idlenefle in writing, 01? 
Penurioufne(feinpaper,isthecaufeofthefe FoEy entrances. For notonely in this,' but in 
Exch3nges,and the like, becaufe we will not have (as fomc terme it) a Book full of names ^ 
we muft haveourpaffagesfmothered'uhder the covert of imaginary />hfcufity^ wheteas 
we may have them deleclably Booked, if we were not fparing in writing. 3Paet en id. met, 
jonaertjefOiict, Nothing without trouble. But I have no time to difcufle other mens works 3 
therelorelet me proceed. 

Phil. I buy Wares, delivering a g-eat value 5 <ind receiving the Over-plt*s back in 

Sch. In-bought Wares Debitor to rhr Selling Man, for their value; 2. The Man De- 
bitor to Delivered Wares, for their value •■ 3. Ca(h Debitor to the Man, for tbe Received 
mony, to squall the Truck. So, in brief -, it the Wares are of an equall value, then enter 
Bought Wares, Debitor to the.Trading man.- t. Trading Man Debitor to Delivered 
Wares; becaufe the value is eqoall. If un-equall, and Mony given ; then enter, In-boughc 
Wares Debitor to the Trading Man : and /Af»,Trading Man Debitor to Delivered Wares, 
and to Cafll, But if un-equall, and Mony Received^ In^ bought Wares, and Caib, Debitor 
to the Trading Man : andthen^ Trading (VTan Debitor to Delivered Wares. And fo I pro- 
ceed to Wares bought,which are to be 

Delivered race, 2. 3. Weckes, or Moneths after 
the agreement. 

fh'.l. I buy Wares, agreeing now for Quantity, and Price ; but am to receive them 23 
moneths hence. 
Sch. The Premifmg Man is.Debitor to Promt Ce-reckoning. 

Phtl. I have already by this one parcell conceived, that you digrelTc from divers Pnntccf 

Aathors:for, ^ ,>.,.. ys 

Paffchier Ccefjens of Brufjelym the German Language. 
ptefer Nicelaefon Daventrienfis. 



An InlroduBion to Aderchams Accompts. 




Tra-nfporting of Acconnrs in the Lcager from one 

Leafe «;?<c another. 

Phil. What are the Motives ? 

Sch. They may be two •, the one, wben the Leaves of the Leager are full written in 
the Debitor, or Creditor fide, or both. Tlie other, becaufe tlie /<?r;»?r accounts are 
concluded, fo that upon foot of that account, generally there remainetTi a remalner due 
to me, or from me-, and we will have the account begunxie again upon a Ntw 

Phil. Is this all i 

Seh. Herein again is to be obferved , whether thofe accouhts that are to be Tran- 
fported, be Com>wdittei-accsu»ts, which in New leaves are to be continued as upon 
the former: er, whether they are Ships-pms^Houfes, Rents, Lands, Interefts, Infuran- 
ces, Facior-accounts , or the like : oi which (for that time) we make no ejlimaiion cf 
Eftate, but onely a tranfport for Tradings further continuance, untill a Gcnerall Ballance 
be made. 

Phil. Howmuft Commodities-reckonings fitly he tranfportedjto make true^omnaP 
parcellsoftTiem t 

Sch. In all tranfports (if pollible) muft heedfully be heeded, that not any parcell be po- 
fted with (ummes^ or Bfancks, as fame tearme them : that is, Not without Mom- 
[urnmes. Many in their Books tranfport with 5/rf»^f/ in their Leager, yet have Monyto 
tranfport, if they had ^^-r to carry them ^/i»(^ff«?e/)( forwards ; to which end obferve the 
enftiing Documents. 

Suppofe tlie Wares were Cambrix-cloth, and the whole Debitor-fide contained 400. 
PeeceSjWhichcoftytfj.l'.S.g. and that the whole faleinthe Creditor- fide werea78. Pee- 
ces-, producing in mony78s>.l*.io.s. Neta, thefe cannot be fubftraded from each other 
to make Journall parcells, but in the one will be Wares without Mony 5 and in the other 
Mony without Wares : which kind of Tranfports are very abfurd, though ufed by 

Their forme is as tUi Inftance. 


2 JunCjCoft of Peeces, 400, 7 
7 Auguft,carried to new ac- 
count. '$ 

Peeces 400. 783.!^. 10. 1 





July, fales of Peeces.a78. 
Auguftjcarried to new ac- 
count. 1 22 

Peeces 400. 789. f. lo. 

7?P 10- 


To avoid the above-entred abfurdity of mres in one Journall parcell, but »<? m^ty 5 and 
A/tf»7 in the other Journall parcell, but w ^4?-«: enter as the enfuing Joarnall inflance 

Cambrix-cloth upon/o//^ 30. Debitor to Cambrix-cloth upon folio 12, 7^5. t. 8. g. for 
the prefentcofts of 4oo.Peeces, being the whole Debitor- fide, in Wares, and Mony for 
want of place tranfported to anew leafe,the mony is 765.^,8.0. 

And then 

Cambrix-cloth upon/tf//o II. Debitor to Cambrix-cloth upon /<;/« 30. 789. f 10. ©. 
for the fales of 278. Peeces, being the whole Creditor-fide,in Wares, and Moay,- tran- 
fported tor want Of place to a new leafe, the mony being 78^.1*. 10,0. 

Thus ought each Journall parcel! in Wares tranfporting truly to be Journalized , 
then the Leager will ftand as this enfuing inftance inftanceth. 

Ftl. It. 


An Introc/uBm to Merchants Acompu, 

Fol.iz. Bthlter. 

Jane, cofts of Peeces. 40c). 
Augijft , carried to new ac- 
count Peeces, 278 

Peeces 678. 1554. 1'. 18. 0. 






12. Creditor. 

July, fa!es of Peeces. 278 
Auguftjcarried to new ac 

count. 400 307^5 

Peeces.678. 1554.1'. 18.0. I 



And foli» 30. vfili.ftand 
7.Aug.cofts'of Peeces 4oo.7<5y.r.8.0. '7.Aug.fales of Peeces 278.78s).l'.io.0, 

Here you fee the Leager ftand again as formerly it did, to be continued in writing, as 
before : here you fee each Journall parcell compleacely carried : and thus ought Fadlior- ac- 
counts to be crofled •* Forrain-mony, under' Forrain-mony, as here Peeces under Peeces : 
and Inlandi(h-mony under Inlandith-mony, as before is inftanced. Nota, Do the like in 
|€oufes, Lands, Rents, Legacies, Interefts, Ships-parts, Infurances, and the like.- becaufe 
the principall (by Deduftion)(hould'not be Dirniniihed untill the finall finiftiing of thofe 

210 fhil. Is this an ufuall courfe in the tranfporting ofall kinds of accounts ? 

Sch, No.' In your. Generall accounts with Common-trading-people, as alfo in Cajh, 
Bank, Stock, Profit and Lofle, or the like: dedndi the Leffer from the Greater, and make a 
Journall parcell for the difference, as thus : 

If the Debitor- fide of any of the above-named accounts (which are 
to be tranrported))be heavieft, then for the difference make the 

lieHf account Debitor tm the old. 

lit]\t Creditor- fide ht^a^ivk^, then for the difference oi any o( thofe ac- 
counts, make the 

old account Debitor to the ^ew. 

fhil. What Obfervationsarife from hence i 

Sch. Hence is it manifeft, that in the Leager ought to be neither Debit or, nox Creditor, hwt 
fuch as have their 

Original! from the rfoumall, 

whofe proper Office it is,to explain why the one mm, or thing is Indebted unto the orfier, , 
as hereafter in the Explication of the Journall Office fhall appear in the 244, place: and fo 
I end with the Third Ground matter, oi which the Journall is made. 

PhiU Explicate the fourth Ground-matter, of which the Joiirnall is made, 
Sch. The fourth Member of the 9. place, faith,that it proceedeth from the 

EamUzingy or, e^enmaking of o^er , or ^ under-meafuref^ 
Weight, Leackage, Pounds, Ells, 
or the like. 

Phil. Inftancefome matters in Pro/'tfr--«^««»(/. 

Sch. When we find any under- meafure inCorn,.,or Leakage in WiaeiOtShertneffe in 
Length . then enter,Vroi\t and Loffe Debitor to the mnting-matter; rating it as you pleafe : 
for that rating neither augmenteth,nor diminiftieth your Eftate •, but is onely done for de- 
centneiife,to have mony in the Debit,an4 Credit of foch Journall parcell: . 






A<J An IntroduBm to Merchants Jccompts, 





Fhil. Rehearfe fome inftances in Fa£iera^e^zccomts. 

Sch. If in weight I find in any commodity lefle by fales, beciufe of drinefs, or the like • 
enter, ^ohn Knoll his account Curiant, Debitor to ^ohn Knoilhis account of Saffron : rating 
them as before, toWing chem into the true form of debitor and Creditor ,ift Journall and 
Leager. Hence may eafily be gathered how to deal in Company-accounts; whichi now 
pafle, and fo proceed to thfe next matter in order* 

Fhil. Whence arifeth the Fift Ground- matter ^t\\itvMk&t\i^ Member of thd Jourr 

ich. In the p. place it is faid to arife from the 

Ledgers -Conckfton^ or S<^Uanmg of the 

Fhil, What Caufes may move a man toa Generall Ballance i 
Sch. The fame maj be either of thefe three .• 


When the Jouraall, and Leager are' full written 5 5^.. . « , 

fo that there muft be New-Books: j , 

2 . When a Merchant ceafeth from Trading : -? Jf?*^^ '^^^^^' 

■X. When thebook-Owner departeth this world: } ' 

Fhil. What underftand you by the word Ballance ? 

Sch, By Ballance I undcrftatid, An Eiptall- making in Equfvatejti manmr all the Optn- 
flandin^ Leager-accomts%tna(^oxmgA\ thofe Open-ftandinglleager differences under 
One laft framed accounts Title, whofe name Generally we call F4//4»ff .• for being that 
that account incladefh all the Leagers remaining dii&rences ; fo ketncludeth with Ont {ple- 
ly it felf. NotAy the word Ballance feemeth to be borrowed firom a pair of Scales : for as 
true Scales ought neither to be heavier then other ; fo a true taked Generall Ballance ought 
tiotto differ the leaft naming value :for the Generall Debitor and Creditor muft juftly 
counter- poize each other in even- monies nomination.} elfe, the Bbolt is out of fqoore,' the 
fummes ill taken, or amiffe adde,d. In place of the word 54//4»fe, J Ihould rather entei 
I Efiate- reckoning : for by drawing the whole Book to a head, 1 draw with one an account 
of my Effate. Simon Stevjn in his Frihcelj Book-keeping, carrieth the Leagers difference at 
the Years end, unto the fir^ hegun Stock y/heahe vegan his Books rbut he co^itradid^eth 
him felf. fov he began well the Firft dayof January, in making all that owed to him Pr^/- 
/cw to Stock; and Stock Z>f^//<»r to thepl who were D(it-de?nanders: but at his Le:^?rs 
concluding^ the 3 1 , of December, he entreth Stock Debitor to his Debitors ; and he entreth 
his Debt demanders, as Augmentors of his Stock. Such entrances made by him are but a 
miftake onelj •, in me they were meer Abfurdities. 

Ballance is either a TVw//, or Trut'ballance* 
Of tht TryaUhaUance. 

Fhil. Relate the manner of making a Tryall-ballance. 

Seh. Add the Debitor fu'mmes of all the Leag€r Un-eeiuall-efen-fiandftig-alHefMnff 
apoti a Paper together, or -in a Book thereto prepared.- thea, add all the Cre^toc 
parcels in the whole Leager together by themfelveSj-becaufe the^Wfifermiiy of the Geherall 
Additions {hould be manifeffed; if they be to eacli. (ither equivalent^ then (if no 
whole parcell be left put) are the Journal! w<?«jf-f4rcfj^ truely tranfported iiKothcLca» 

J ja ! ^f'^^' What more is to be faidof the Tryall-ballance. . 

Sch. The Trjall'balUme is of tw forts .- The fijft is a Survay (as above) of the Leftger 




An IniroduUionto Merchants AcCompts, ^J 



1 Wco\mts,.fo foon as all the parctlls arc tranfported out of the Wafte-hok into the* Journal!, 

I and^from thence into the Leager : Neu^ before any unfold tv/trexy or GAtn^ and LeffeoiMy 

accounts be meddled with. Of fuch mattccis thefirft hAhace o( the three- feldrmefty- M- 

tance'xn my Great Wafte-Bookj printed 1621. at Amfterdamin EfVgli(h,and Dutch 5 and 

fball Be in this Book. 

^ Phil. Inftance the fecond fort. 

Sch. The fecond fort of the Tryall-haSaHce is feen,whcn alj unfeuld Wares^ and Out-hnd- 
ijh monies are rated •• all Al>*t^meMSyZi.\ikew\k Gahies or Lc(Jes are known. Of fuch matter 
is the fecond Three- de»bU-me»j-balidnte in my Great Wafte-Book s and fliall be in this. In 
ihis/rtff«i balUnce is alfo comprifed the parcells appertaining to the true ballance : *//r,that 
fecond balUnce could not be even- weighty. 

Of iht Tme-hallance. 

Phil. Proceed to the fame. 

Sch. The <^«f-^'i//'*'»«arifeth from the JJmrfwrj of Leager accounts? as well in J^6»jy 
Unfold Wares, Fojages not wholly^ fold, Heufes^ Lands^ Peofle, ^c. not yet compleatly 
perfedied : and are therefore tranfported to the New- Books') to be there fully finirtied: 
Leaving the old- Books to their perpetuall reft, except fome Scrupulous matter moleft 
them. Of fuch matter is the Third ballance of the Threerdouble-menj-balUnce in my Great 
Wafte- Book, and (hall be in.this. 

Ohferyations in hallancing of the 

Butforapreparativ'e, firft fl*w, that «/.?» as the Monies, Waresj Voyages, Houfes, 
Laiids, and people were in their accounts (whether Debitors, or Creditors) even fo muft 
they ftMid in your Ballance:, and fo of each other matter. Reafon, for Ballance repre- 
fentethln that onely aaoDnt,all that: the other Teprefent through the ^hole Book: for if 
they were Debitors, Ballance is a.Debitor in their place: if they were Creditors, Ballance 
is likewife a Creditor. 





phiU Go forwards iothis matter. 

it^. There ought to beobferved>^D;«»# Order [vk Leagers ballancing .• /A<«r «f, Which 
account ought /?r/? to be concluded, and which laft-, both in Dehitorand Creditor fider 
this is notof Neceffity,batfor Deccntnefle in Order* 

Phil. Profecute your opinion in the Order, 

^k Firft, baUarice the accontitsof Ae People of whom you bonghc: or to whom 
youfould: Reafoa: becaufe all Difcounts, Abatements, Mif-caflings,6r Omiffions that 
have happened, may be reaified : to the end-each account may bear its own burthen : take 
then the difference of each mans account (being found to agree) and enter them into yout 
Ballance-Book (as in the 218. place is mentioned) untill the finall Ballance be found even- 

n»/. Which next? ^ ^ * ,r « 

Sch. Secondly, ballance the Peoples accounts with whom you had to deal tor Ex- 
changes, ACTignations, or the like : entring the differences into your Ballance- Book therc- 
iinto prepared, 

Phil. Whatfofloweth'. ^ , 

Sch. Thirdly, ballance your Falfors accounts : firft for Proper, and thert for cmfdnj^ 
(but there is no ncceflicy in this Order, as it faid) the Rcraainers being well found , your 




An IntroduBion to Merchants Accompts» 







For 100. Pieces of Cambrix 
Ihipt at 3. I*, each Piece, is -300.I'. 


For Sales of 80. Pieccs,ac 
2.f .16,0. is 224.1'.- 

Unfold, 20. Pieces, at 
3.1*. fer Piece,- 

Loft by Sales,- 



Siimme— 300.I'. 

Fhil. Go forward in the order of your Leagers Ballancing. 

5ch.YikYi\y^hd\hnctyo\x'c Cemmgdities- accounts -, firft for Proper: then, iotComfanj. 

Thil. Suppofe thera all fold ; and there is Gaines. 
Sch. The firft Voyage is a Piefident. 

fhil. Suppofe your Commodities to be fold in part. 
Sch. The fecond Voyage is an Inftance. 

thil. Suppofe that none of your Commodities are fold. 
Sch. The third Voyage flieweth the form. 

Phil. SuppofelofTe upon the Sale of part of your Conimodities, or upon the whole. 
Sch. If lofle upon part Sales, the Fourth Voyage is an Inftance : If lolTe upon the Saleo( 
a wholeparcelb See 



For i^. Butts of Sack coft 
with charges. 



For Sale of 1 6. Butts, at 
8. r.6. 


Loft by the Sale- 

-i.r. 12 

Summe i34;[ivS. 

Under ths name of Commodities in the fecond branch of the 10. place, is included Hoajes^ 
Lan'ds, Ships-parts; upon which if yon will fee the yearly Gain, or Loffe, t;^» rate them 
as "they goft 5 entring them in Credit as in the fecond Voyage: the/t, in your Houfe, and 
Land will appear what is gained by the Rents, above reparation, and maintaining of them ^ 
and in your Ships parts will be made plain what is advanced by their Voyages, more then 
her vitfiualling: carrying your Proper Gains or LofSjto Profit and Lofs pioper •, and Com- 
panies Gain, or Lofs, to Profit and Lofs in Company. But if you wrll let them run 00 un- 
till tlie finall ending of them •, thea crefs them, as is (hewed in the fecond Inftance of 
Cambrix-dotb, in the 2op, place. 

Phil. Wiiat followeth next in the Ballanf e order ^ 
. 5fA> Sixthly, ballance your Company Profit and Lofs, imparting toea'ch Partner his due 
upon fit account ( and your part upon Profit and Lofs proper. 

Seventhly, ballance your Partners account, tranfperting the difference unto your Bal- 
lance- book (as inthe 218. place is mentioned) untill the finall ballance be found Eaven- 

Eighthly ,ballance Ca(b,and BanK,carrying their differences to your Ballance- boolf. 
' Ninthly, conclude your Profit and Lofs proper, carrying the difference to your Stock- 
Tenthly, conclude your Stpck-accounc , tranfponing that difference (which is t^e 



AnlntroduUim to Merchants Accompts, 51 

jfummeofyourEftatc)uoto your BaUance-book: then ought yourBallance accodntto 
be equaU- weighty. 


Having drawn all your Leager to ahead in your Billance-Book, and tound it co b eright 
taken: then nwy you take your Journall m hand, and poft them as they in order follow 
upon your Ballance-book, unto your Ballance-account in the Leager. 

Ocif you will not make a Ballaoce-account in your Leager, you may let your Ballance- 
book be your private contentment j and trarifport each Ballance-parcell out of the Old 
Leager into the New-" avoiding your Ballance- writing into the Journall, both at the End 
ofthe Old Leageti or beginning of the New.- entring into the Old Leager the /o/w whi- 
ther carried into the New •, andintheNewLeagetthe/?i/from whence that rematner is 
broughtout of the Old Leager? and fo avoid (perhaps) the writing of two or three hun- 
dred journall- parcels in both Leagers; 

(partkuUr Obftryatiom upon each fide of the trut- ballance in l^efit^ 
*ndCredit^fi)r.the Memories refrefh'mg. 

241 tA/7. Rehcarfe firft the Obfervations that arife upon the Del^itorfjideai the True- bal- 
Sch^ln a much -Trafficking- Merchants- Books are five things to be tegarded : 

' Peefle— nnto whom we fold, orihat have ptomifed us payment of Ex- 

rirflli of he- changeSjOrAffignations, and the like. 

it nd i ^''^'''"■'— ""to whom we have delivered Mony or Wares, to be by 

th "" 'i/ \ '^^"^ imployed for the Companies good. 

t em in Faifors— that ferve us in CommilTron,— Cwho as yet have not given 

i,Jif4/?cri— whom we ferve in Commif- <us full fatisfaiftion : Again, 

fion, '• ^ cthe firft of ihefe two may 

a^ife frorti Proper, Factorage, or CqmEfflny- 
5«^W/;, of the Unfold Waries, formerly fliipt to another Town, or land, there to be 
Cold (or Prefer, FaiferagCy ov Cof»fianjrac(fiiifit . 

Thirdly, of Matters as yet remaining U/tfold vrndetour own Adminiftration": confiftinga- 
gain in Wares^ Houjes^LandSyJ^tmls^shifs-farts^znd. the like •• whereof fome of thofe Wares 
may be hx Proper^ Faiforag-e^dcCmfany-acieifHts: and ihoCeShifs farts for Proper, of 
Feurthlji oi the Reddy-Monj inCa(h,in Bank, or in both. 

Laftly, of Company Gain, and Loffe ; of the which we ftill keep an open-ftanding- ac- 
count, becaufe the Company continueth in Trading, upon unchangeable terms. And thefe 
in fubftance are all that concern the Contents of Ballances-Debitor-fidc. 


PW. Proceed to the obfervations in the Creditor-fideof the True ballance. 
Sch. Four things are heedftiUy to be regarded. 


' fecfle—o( vthotti we bought, as alGs, whofe Exchanges we accep- 
ted 5 orwhofe Affignmcnts we promifed unto their Cre- 
ditor, havii^ entred their Creditor into my book inplace 
of them. 

J)ebt'demandtr$ ', \ tartmrt—oi whona we have received Mony, or Wares, toim- 
aadthemin P^oy for Company-account,^unto whom (as yet) we 

jl/*j(f*ry-whom we ferve in Commif-^have not given fall ?on- 

fion, ^tent : The laft of thefe 

\^jp<«5?wi- that ferve us in Commiflion,t may arife, either from 

Proftr^ FaSttragt^ or Ctmfanj-MCtunts. 
H 2 stewAft 


ft An IntroduSwn to Merchan s /ccompts. 

Secondly, \ln(o\d-Wares, fioafes, Lands ^ lewels^ Rents^ Vo;jAgts, and the like •• upon which 
accounts the Gsins ot Lofs (at prefent) is not defued to be known s but are deferred untill 
the firiall fini()^ing ot mat account, tVien to know the Genexall GAin^ or Lb^s upon the fame* 
andthefe for Prober, fome for Fa&orage, and Tome for Comfuinf- accounts. 

Thirdly, in Ccnpanies Profit and Lofs Reckonings, becaafe the divifion is not made in 
thefe Old- books, but profecuced untill the Companies finiKl^hifliing. 

La/fly, in Stock- account , whofe difference muft be carried to Ballance ; for that difference 
muft make ycur Ballance- account E oven- weighty in the Gentrall Addition : Neta^ for in ii is 
contained the trae difference between the Ready- mony^ Wares, Houfis, (jre. Debitors in your 
Ballance- debit -fide, and the Debt-demarJers in the Creditor fide- of your Ballande-ac- 
count. Or more plain-, take the whole Debit- fide of yom Ballance, deduiil from that all 
that you owe : and the differing mony will be Equall-rveighty, with the difference brought 
from your Stock- account. And thus much of the ffth matter , of which the Journal is made, 




Of the Journalls Form. 

tM. This is the/ffow^^z-^wir in the Eight place: of which let tnelieare yourExplic* 

Sch. The Form is generally in folio, or the full bignefs of the Paper, be it fmall,or large: 
Ruled towards the /tf//-A/i»^ with tf»f//»f, and towards t\\t right-hand W\i\\ three : emiing 
between tbem X. S. 6. as in the Wafte-book is, and in the Journals Inftances iha'J be made 

Some ufe two lines towards the left-hand, as doth Simon Stevin in )[{\.% Princely- book- 
keeping- lottrnalluCethice: cntring therein the Day, and Moneth: but that maketh the 
Journall between line, and line, too narrow. My manner of my day, and Mtncths entran- 
ces fliall be (hewed in the Explication of the Journals Office. 

This Book is by/tfwenumbred on each leaves-fide: the beginning • fide witli !• thefe- 
cond with 2. and fo through all the Book : of which I approve, and ufe it. For in a Great- 
trafficking- book (as' an Eafi, Wefl, Turky, or the like Company) feverall fides are oft- 
times filled in one day .• fo that the Margin of the Leagcr qaoteth direllly to the fide of 
that Journall-leaf, where the defired parcel! is: and fo avoideth the pefufall of ncedleffe 
fides. ■ 

Of the Journalls Office. 

Phil. Let me know that : for that is the third Notahle matter mentioned in the Eighth 

Sch, The Journalls froper office is, to have the Matter Cthereunio appertaining) entrcd 
in Book-keepings true method. With aords fuitable to the jlSficn-, plainly ekpreffing what 
ever was obfcurely booked in other books. 

BDok- keepings office is, to book the z€ttd matter in the trtie Neminatien of Debitor and 
Creditor, with the brief (yet plm) Circumftances of the Aftion. -Heedfully in this Jour- 
nall muft be obferved, that the Debitor, that is,the M4n,ot Thing, that ought to be charged, 
be firftnamed, and placed towards theleft-hand, as thus'; 

lames Mirth is Debitor. 
Then enter the Creditor, Man, or Thing, that ought to be difchargcdi as thus 

Tames HirthisDehitor to lehtt Melody. 
Umo them annex the quantity of Mony, as thus : 

lamts Mirth is Debitor to Fohn Melody ^oo.l'.l 2.B. 8.$. 
There-unioaddethereafonwhytheOaeMan, or Thing is indebted to the other .-and 
this is gathered from the z^td matter. 


Sch\ Compare the Waftebook parcels in the 6. place, with the enfuing Jouraall parcels 
framed out.^theOTj and the Jiw/<>w may ^ear by the Circumftaaces. 



^n IntroduBion to Merchants Jccompts, 





J>ito is Debitor to Bank 569. f. 1 5. 10. i tl. written by his order upon thefl IL 
Account oi ^of>a ^ohttfon P'incky being the full of the before- mentioned ex 
chang65the fumme written in, is^ 



Dito is Debitor to Profit and Lofs 3. f .14.8.15. for Bank-mony of $1 
2*40.11.4. pen. at one perceatum, is 



f</jpWi>«»^ of Northampton,**? account by me in Company, is Debi- 
tor to Dito Edmrdlisaccamtoi Readj-monf^ 213. P.— 5 Jfi.for his 3^ of gl, 
3834.8;.i».pen. produft of 18; La:ft, 7. Miidde of Company Rye, fold to 
Ucob Jehnfuh-is above 5 t thereof is 






Phil. What fionifie thofe Fradions \ f„and the like, in the Margine ? 

Sch. Fradlions they are none : but fignifyirig- figures concerning the Leager : for the Fi- 
gures above the ftroke, (hew upon what L(Sager-Leafe the Debitors are to be found 5 and 
the Figures uiidei; the ftroke, point unto the Creditors in the faid Leager. 

Pill. Why are fome pointed, and not other fome ? 

Sch. Thofe that are pointed, are tranfported into the Leager, the other not. 

•Tfjil. Some do not point at alh 

Sch, They are fubjeA to mifiake, or they muft enter each figure above, and under, when 
they have entred the parcell into their Leageir, and that is tedious. The points are very re- 
duifite to avoid OraiflionSjOr not to charge one fumme twice, if a man (hould be called 
from Hs porting. 

Fhfl. When do you efiter the figures abcive, or under the ftroke i 
\ Sch. I lay the Journall open before me, making fiirft the ftraight ft rokes that are between 
the figuresagainft each parcell, on both fides of the Jdurnall : then do I enter the folio, or 
leaves, or thofe figures, before I tooch the Leager. 

PM. How then? 

Sch, Then fetting my Journall tefore nie, I tranfport all the Debitors and Cf editors ( that 
qorrefpond upon one Leager- leafe) one after another into the Leagef ; then removing my 
Hand from the Leager,im'mediately I fet point by that Debitor,or Creditor ,that is pofted 
into the Leager, without removing of my Journall, 

Thtts much in brief of the Mattery Form^ and office of the 
Joitrmll mentioned in the ninth f lace. 







3 » 





Anno ]6^/^,the 7. day off me ia London, ( i; 

fent payment for Company- afe, being- 

ii'j. Thomas TruB it Antwerp for company of RandoU Rice f,and 
t for me, our account of Time, debitor to Voyage tb Antwerp^con- 
figned to dito Thomas for our compaov f , and f l', 1 5 1 J. 7. 0. for 
,the enfuing Wares fold by him : the particulars are, viz. 
8. Bales of Pepper, producing clear Ready - mony, 

as by the account — - — gl>2753>p.4' 

30. Butts of Serrefe to /4^»« Giirmfm% partit 
2. monetbs, producing (whereoff is received) 
as by the account, clear mony — — • Hjl. 1 2400. 

gl. 15153.9,4. pen. reduced at 10. gl> or 53>0.4.ti. are- 

1 18. Dito ThoTrias for our company, as abQve,our account of Rea- 
dy-mony, debitor to the faid ThomAs for company R.R, f, and f me 
our account of Time v. 1 102.— 4.$. for gl.i 1020.3.P. pen. by him 
received of the before cntred mony, is here — — —^ 

The i$.day of Jane. 1534. 

I ip. Debitors to Ucob Sjmohfoa his account of Cambrix-clotb> 
1.405. for 60. Pieces fold joyntly to the enfuing parties, at d I*. 
1 5, 0. upon an equall (hare> at 4. mopeths time, viz., 

^ames Wilkinjon 20. Pieces "l''i35« 

George rinchbackio. Pieces-- l^.iJJ. 

Andrew Hitchcock ao.Pieces- ■ -f .1 35. 

The Rule in the 244. place 
is contra-diHed. 

\io. Jacobs fmdnfon his account of Cambrix- cloth, debitor to 
Cafli f .i^7.§. for Brokage of f .405. at H fer cemum, is — 

iai.D/wioPfofitandLofsl'.8.i2,0. for the enfuing particu- 
lars, viz. 

For Ware* houfe- room at i.tfer Piece l'.— 10. T 
"*•""■ - — l'.8.2.r 

For Provifion of Sales at 2. fer C- 

122. Diito to ^acob sjmojifon his account Currant I'. 390. 14.0. for 
the neat proceed made goodthere,without my prejudice of debts, 
yet ftanding out upon 4. moneths time: the fum now 

123. 5pM« dit Bop for company Rmdoil Rice i, and f for me, our 
account Currant, debitor to Thomas Trufl for dito company % and 
f our account 6fReady-mony ^.1032. 17.10 .ft. for g|.ii02o,re- 
mitted in his own Bills, dated their 2. prefent,.- payable by, and un- 
to himfelf, exchange at 121.6. are ^'J . 3642. 58.6.6. and hereat 

72.$, : ^ _ 

The 2^. day of lane 1624. 

12/^. Randoll Rice his account Currant, debitor to . 2)/>^o 
Farino his account of Fruits f. 541. 4. i. y. 6. fot fcverall 

M forts 



IX — 









1092 17 



Anno 1^34-. the 20 day offuly in London. ( ip I ^ 







185. RaHdollRice his account by me in company debitor to Bal- 
lance l.9pi.7.6.$. for fo muchdue to him upon this account- 

iS^. Htndrkk vander Linden i, ^ohn van pdes ^^ ^aquvs Reinji f, 
their account bf com ntoditics, debitor to; BalUnce 1. 1 $('4. 1 2. i . fi. 
for 160; Pieces of Figs, and4.lBaleS of Pepper fold, being the 
whole Wares in Credit, tranfport^ thus to have the account com- 
pleac in nevv books, as it here ftandeth : the mony is 

1 87. Dito Company their account of Ready- mony debitor to Bal- 
/4»« 1 95^,7.7.$; for conclude due to them 

188. Dito Cmpanj their account of Time, debitor to Ballance 
£.^3.1^.8.$. due to them for conclude of this accaunt,bemg-^ 

i8p.^iii?4w;f debitor toCafb!',947.2,.i.$. and is for fo much by 
conclude remaining theirein, and tranfported, being ■■ 

ijp. Profit and Liifs debitor to Stock f .io46«$. forgaines 
in this handle, tranfported to conclude this account, being 

191. 5/^fit debitor to Ballance f. 2902. 12.7.$. for the diffeterice 
of that account, being my prefent Eftate 5 and^ tranfported thither 
tacondade this, being ■ ■ ■ 

End of the fournall 





iP4 12 















Aving (in form as is inftanced ) entred all the trading- parcels of 
Merchandizing into the Journall in fuch after-following man- 
ner as (hey daily happened ■ then hath the 'Book owmr his 
whole Trading, with all the Circunnftances in writing': but 
notinfuchfort, thathe jsable to confer with any man about 
his accounts : for each liians fevcrall Parcels arc difperfed through the whole 
Journall; neither doth it (in drawing an account to a Head upon a Paper) 
content the mind, fearing that any Parcels might be mif taken or omitted. 
Upon the like Reafon we may conjecture the Obfcurity in knowing what 
mony isinCafli, what weight, meafurCjandcjiiantity of any Commodity 
might be in the Warehoufe ; what Profit or Lofle there is upon any fort of 
Wares, or Matter ^ what Weekly, or Monethly debts are to be reccived^or payd 
for Wares, or Exchanges : and many fuch like. 

For the avoyding of all fuch diffidences, the Journall Parcels muftbc 
tranfported into i\\t Leager in fuch manner, that all what doth concern one 
mans particular, muft (under one accounts Title) be gathered together, to w/f, 
all his Vehtt parcels upon the Left-hand j and all his Credit parcels upon the 
Right-hand of the Open lying Leager.^ of the which manyinftances follow in 
the Leager : the like manner muft beuted in each fort, as Monj, Wares ^Teople^ 
or what ever elfe 5 each rtiuft be gathered together in an Exquifite form,with 
few words. 

The thing charged, or nehitor, muft have its diicharge, or Creditor ^ 

even oppofice againft it felfe when the Leager lieth open. In this Leager, 

where Fol. ftandeth between the lines before the L, both upon the Right 

and Left-hand, are ihany Arithmetical Charadters. TheChaTa(Ster,Cha- 

racTters or Figures that ftand between the two lines upon the Debitor 

fide, point (as with a finger) unto the Folio where each icvcrall lines Cre- 

diter ftandeth in the faid Book, vt^hether it be upoti the fame Leafe , or 

elfe where : Contrarily, the Figures that ftand between the two lines 

I upon the Ct editor Sid^y point at the Folio where each (evcrall lines 

' J>ebit9r 


Of the Leager. 

Debitor ftandeth in the faid Book, whether upon the famt Leafc or elfe- 


In Brief y 

The Owner, er the Owing thing, 
Or what- fo- ever tomes to thee : 
Upon the Left-hand fee thin bring 5 
Ffr there the famf muft f laced be. 


thej unto whom thou doefi owe. 
Upon the Right let them befet^ 
Or what- fo- ere doth from thee go, 
To place them there do not forget. 


Book fiieweth our true Epate in each particular account ; whether Bought^ 
Sold, Sent, or Received , Commodity : People wich-in , or without the 
Land ; Exchanges which way-fo-ever , and the Coynes of thefe fevc- 
rall places j faEiorage , Company ^ or what account elfe belongeth to Trafjick: 
So that the Leager is thcMirriur by which onely the Eftatc can truly ^ and 
plainiji be difcerned. 

















14 2 

1534. IP 



1^33- .1 

Tt^34' 20 



F0I.1.) /nno i6^i» in London, 

Cajb is Debitor. 

Janu. To S tock, for feverall coynes of mony — 

FeBr. To Jaceh Sjmenfen his account Currant— — 

April To George Pinchback, received in full — 

May To Figs f -R. iJ. t for me 

Dito to lames wHkiftfm, received to clear a truck 

June To Diego del rarino his account of Ca(h — 

Dito To Profit and Lofle, gained by Piego's fruits 

July To GeorgtPincbach received by his Affi^nment — 
Dito To lacob Sjmenfon his account Curraint — — 

Dito To i?«»itf//W« his account Currant — 

Dito To Andrew Hitchcock received io part — — 

Sumttie — 

«of* is Debitor. 

Janu. To lacoh Sjmonfon his account Csrrant- 
July To Bdtlancey for conclude carried thither- 


jvares are Debitors. 

Janu. To Stock, refting unfold — 
July to Proft and LolTe gained 























10 u 



















90 it 570 


















I 2 








/ww^ irf;^. /« London, Fol. 1 

C«/^ is Creditor. 

Janu. By George Unchback^ paid in part- 
Difo By fames Wilkinfon^ paid inpart— 
dito By George Pi»chhack, paid him- 

Febr.By lac.Symefifou.his account of Couchane.ille,payd 
Dito by voyage to Lisborn.configned io Diego del, y an- 
no for company t,and 7 paid — — 
March by Danfick-exchange for Arthur Mumf. and nne i 
Dice By Kerfics in Company \ lacob Symonfo/ty 7 for me 
Dito By lacob Sjmonfon his Cambrix cloth — — - 
Dito By lactb Symonfon his account Currant — — 

Dito By Figs in company f R. R. \ for nne — 

Dito By Hendrick vander Linden^ and Company their ac- 
count of commoditieSjfor charges — 

April By Silver, for charges of 8. B^rrs — 

May By Sandoll T^ce his accpunt Currant — 

Dito By Amflerdam- exchanged for J-if*^ Sjmutfon — 

June By Dtego 3tl varino his account of Ca(h — 

Dito By Figs in Company f ^. /?. f for me; 

Dito By Andrew Hitchcock paid him- 

DitoBy/4«^ J;r»iff»/*» his account of Cimbrix-cloth— 
Joly By Baltatice, traofportcd thither to conclude this- 

Summe — 

Stock is Debitor. 

Janu. By Calh, for feverall coyiies of mony — — 

Dito By Wares for fundry forts unfold — 

Dito By Kettles for 5. Barrels unfold — — — 
Dito By lean du Boys at Roan my account Currant— 
Dito By lacoh Symonfon my account by him in company 
Dito By lacob Symonfon his account of Couchaneilie— 
July By Profit add Loffe, gained by this handle— — 


wam are Creditors. 

Janua, By Kerfies in company, by me layd in-- 

March By Jacob Symonfon, fold to him— — 

IL, 1 



Summe— '60^0 



i 144 

4 120 

3 135K5 




o 200 







I ] 

. . 2 







. 23 

. . I 










•• 3 































7) ^«wo 165}- in London, 

Trofitdnd Lojfe in coftipany t. for ;{Wo// /f/Vf, and 

A for me, Debicor. 

Janu. To Profit and Loffe for charges of aRemife 

March. To lean da Soys, for his ProvHioa, and Brokage— 
July To Thomas Tru^yOim account of Ready- mony,loft-- 
Dito To KM.Riee^his account by me in comp.for^ gains 
Dito To Profit and LoiTe, for my part gains 






Trofitand Lo^<r, Debitor. 

Fcbru.ToJrf«^ Sjmonfpn my account of Ready-mony, 

for his charge, being Brokage, and Provifion 

July To lac, SymonfM my account 6f Ready-mony ,loft- 

DitoTo SUver, loft by the fale of 8. Barres IL. 

Dito To Stock, gained by this handle 













444 -P 
196. 6 




. 755; I 







10 .3' 
• 1 1046, 

















'Ballance^ Debitor. 

iuly To ^4cob Sjmenfon my account by hrm in company 
>ito To ^eandu Bejs, for company i?.Ji.i,me^ Currant- 
Dito To Hen. van. Linden^2xd cova^. their coram odies- 
Dito To Voyage to Antw. in comp. R, R. f , and f me — 
Dito to Andrew Hitchcock ^MQ to vat by conclude 

Dito To Arthur Mttmfer[on my account by him in comp. 
Dito To Tho. Truftyiox comp.^./j. |,me t our Time acco. 
Dito To Figs in comp.for lacob Sjmonfon f ^and \ for me- 
Dito To Cafli,refting therein, and brought hither 






. I 























Jnm I ^^4.* in London. Qj 

— - ... 

Contra, Creditor. 

July By Voyage to Lisborn for duo company gained — 
Dito By lun dit Beys^ for dito company, gained- 

Dito By lacoh Sjmonfon, for dito company, gained 

Dito By Voyage to Antwerpi for dito company, gained- 

Summe — 






Fol % 5 

H 2.8 

80 II 

60 — 

600 . 7 

. I 
















contra, Creditor. 

Janu. By Profit and Lgflein company f R.R.fme — 
Fcbru. By lacch symonfen his Couchancille, for provifion 
March By Kerfies in comp. j and | for provifion & gains 
April Bylaccb Symonfott my him in comp.gained 

Dito By Daiafick-exchange, gained by the fame 

May By CeorH Pinchback upon Sugar gained — — 
June By iacob Sjmonfon his Cambrix for provifion 

Dito By Cafli, for provifion o{Piego his Fruits — — 
July By Amiftcrdam- exchange 'mconipany, gained — 
Dito By Figs f , and f in comp.for provifion and gaines— 

2o| Dito By Wares gained thereby^ — — 

Dito By Kettles, gained thereby — — — : — 

Dito By ledn du Bays my account Corrarit gained r 

Dito By Voyage to Amilcrdam configned to I.S.g'aiat^ 
Dito By Intereft- reckoning, gained thereby — — 

Dito By Voyage to Lisborn f, and 3 for my gaines 

Dito By Profit and Loffe f, and 3 for my t gaines 




1534. . 1820 





8,. 10 

8 . 8 



. 20 


81. 63 






. 2 

J — 










. 2 




saltance, Creditor. 

July By idcch Symenfon his account by me in company- 
Dito By RsndaU'Bjce his account by me irt company — 
Dito By Jiendivander Lind, and comp.their coimmodities 
DitoBy Be»d»v4nd. Linden, and comp.their ready- mony 
Dito By Hetid^vdnd.LMd,andcomp.meit Tioie acfcpunt- 
DitoBy Stoci^i for difference thercibeing my preCeltate- 

Summe — 



. I 













/Inno \6^ the i^, ofOBober in zjmjlerdam. 


I _ 


Generall Ballance, or 

Dito.To Banck, as in fol. i . appeareth- 
Dito. To Houfe King David, fol.2 — 
Dito. To iufawa Peeters Orphans — 
Dito. To ^ack Pudding ray account 

Currant - — - — -- 

Dito. To Wines for ij. Butts unfold 
Dito. To French Aquavits, for 58. 


Dito. ToRye,for-i8.Laft, 7. Mudde, 
, fol. 3. — -; — 

Dito. To Coucbaneilie, as in fol. 4. — 

Dito. To Brafil, as in foL- ■-'■ — 

Dito. To Intereft-reckorling, fol — 
Dito. To Profit and Loffe, fol." 

Diio. To Voyage to Lonaon,confign- 

td to ^ack Pudding, (ol 

Dito. To Voyage to Hambroagh,fol. 
Dito. To Voyage to Danfick, fol. — • 
Dito. ToInfurance-reckoning,toj. — 
Plto*. To Cafl), as appeareth in fol. — 
Dito, To Cambrix, 1 1 . Peeces unfold 

Dito. To Ship the Rain-bow, fol. 

Dito. To Hans van Ejfen at Ham- 

brough,my account Currant, fol.— 
Dito. To P/eter Brajfeur at Danfiik, 

my accouijt Currant, tbl. — — 
Dito. To ^ack Pudding at London,his 

account Gurrani, fol. . 

Siimme fA, 

Thus ought youi 
accsUncs tu ((and 
K ihc (i.ft view of 
rhe 6uoVes,whene- 
very thing is tian- 
fporreti out of the 
WaftcBook into the 



. 1260 

17'. 8 

16 8 


.5568 -^ 

. a877 











15 .8 




. I 






Thus ought your 
Second, or Ttiatl- 
BnUance to (tand 
wiih the Lofics. 














.6 .8 


II —. 

8 - 


42124 10 

— ■ -» 

Thui ou^bt your 
True-Ballance to 
(land I which you 
Iranlport ioto youc 


.713 14 

2648 .6 






440 - 

41904 . 6 


Anno idjj. the 25. ofOBober in Amfierdam, 


GeneralUBallance, or 


as Ditb. ByBanck,asinfol.i.appeareth- 
Dito. ByHoufeKingP4a;;V/,tol.2. — 
Dito. By Sufama Peeters Orphans —^ 

'" Dito. By ^ack Pudding my account 

Currant — — ^- — 

Dito. By French Aqua-vitae 58. Hogf- 

heads fold — — — 

Dito. By Rye, for 16. Laft fold, fol. 3 . 
Dito. ByCouchaneillc',asinfol.4. - 

Dito. ByBrafil,asinfol.4. 

Dito. Bylntereft-reckoningjfol. — 
Dito. By Profit and Loffe, fol. 

Thus ought your 
accounrs to (land at 
ihclirftvi-wof your 
Books, wlien each 
parcel it tr'anrpoic- 
«doutof iheWafte- 
Boofc into che four- 
nail and Lcager. 

Dito. By Voyage to London, fol. — 
Dito. By Voyage to Hambrough — 
Dito. By Voyage to Danfick, fol» — 
Dito. By Insurance-reckoning, fol. — 
Dito. ByCalh, dsappearethinfol. — 
Dito, By Cambrix-Cloth, fol. - — 
Dito. ByShiptheR^-boWjfoI. — 
Dito. "By Hans van Men my ncconnt- 
Dito. By Peeter Sra^eur inyaccount- 
Dito. By ^ack Pudding at L'6ndon,his 

account Cumint — — 

Dito. By Stock, for myjuftEftate — 

Summe g|. 



S?i45 — 

(It. I p. 

. 2 











Thus oughr ysur 
Second ,. or fryill- 
Ballante ti ftjod 
with the Gains. 

3805 1 14 






















Thus ought ycur 
True Balliace to 
ftand, vthich you 
cr^inlpoft to NtVf- 




2377 18 
245^2 _ 



2377 18 
- I 395^^ . 8 

41PO4' 6 


Co tf)e reaber'£( ottin jubgrnent tabe been left tbe manp 
conclusiionsi tbat are to be brattin from ttiesle reprobuctionsi of 
book-keeping's; earltesit exponents:. 

Ci)t auti)or in no itnat becfireb to intrube too sitronslp 
bisi oton ibeasi upon bisi reaber. 3t basi been W intent to 
siilotD clearip bob) tfje ibeast exprestsieb bp ^acioli in ti)e earlp 
Italian bernacular came bobin tfjrougb ntanp transilationsi into 
(Jlerman, into ©utclj, into jFrencf) anb laitip into Cnglisif), 
toitijsitanbins all ti)e manp cijansese of lansuage, siurbibing ti)e 
"Barfe iKgesi" of fjijitorp anb retaining uncbangeb tfjrougt) 
tbe centuries; tbeir claritp of tbougfit anb purposie until tobap 
tbe mobern bookkeeper anb tbe profesi£(ional accountant are to 
be founb trubging faitbfullp in tbe footsteps! of tbe Jfrancifican 
Jfriar of mebiebal timesi. 

i^atural preiubice or partialitp totoarb teralbing abroab 
tbe imprint left bp ti)e earlp aut^orsi of W mother countrj^ on 
bisi oton profe£ifiiion in it£i making ii to be expecteb from tlie 
birtter an an ||ollanber=born anb for tbisi reasion, if no otiier, 
be tiass been biffibent to bribe Ijome tte conclusiionsi fie f)imsielf 
tasi formeb. 9t in beboutlp to be tiopeb tfjat tiie reaber biill 
experience tlie s^ame pleasiure in tfie reabing t^at tf)e author 
basi taken in tbe making of tfiisi contribution to W fellobifii.