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Cornell University Library 
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History of Franklin and MarslJ,?'!,,?.?,',!,^* 


3 1924 030 634 459 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

HOTOJ-fiAVc'f^E G C. 









Audenried Professor o/ History and Arckaology 
in J^ttnklin and Marshall College 













SAMirEL H. Eanck, Ohairman. 
Key. Adam S. Wbbee, D.D. 
Rev. Chasles W. Levan. 
Pbesident John S. Stahr, En-Officio. 


Fbakei^in ahd Makshall Collkse 
Alumhi Associatioh. 


Tre New era printing Compahy, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

V 'I I J- v. .-■ v/ 1 1/: 1 1 


In response to a request of the Alumni Association of 
Franklin and Marshall College the author has prepared 
the following pages. It seems strange that this work was 
not done many years ago, when the necessary material 
might have been more easily collected. Now that the 
historic renaissance has come upon us it is frequently in- 
timated by the friends of the institution that the time 
for such a publication has fully come and that there must 
be no further delay. 

The preparation of this volume was directly suggested 
by the approaching Semi-centennial Celebration of the 
union of two colleges and of the consequent organization 
of Franklin and Marshall College, at Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania. For telling the story of the development of 
the educational movement which these institutions have 
represented this festival was regarded as a peculiarly 
auspicious occasion, and it was speedily determined that 
some one must write a book. Knowing that the task was 
accompanied by peculiar difficulties the present writer 
would have been well pleased if it had been assigned to 
another; but he was at last persuaded that he could not 
honorably decline an invitation which had been most 
courteously extended. 

In the earliest instructions of the Committee of Publi- 
cation the author was reminded that he was expected to 
limit his studies to the history of the College, introducing 
that of the Theological Seminary at certain periods only^ 


when the two institutions were so closely connected that 
it might be difficult to gain a proper idea of the develop- 
ment of one without becoming familiar with conditions 
that prevailed in the other. To follow these instructions 
was sometimes difficult, and the author must crave in- 
dulgence for occasionally trespassing on a field that has 
been reserved for another. It should, however, be under- 
stood that he has not attempted to write the history of 
the Theological Seminary, except during certain periods 
and in an external and formal way, and that a careful 
and critical study of the life and doctrine of that insti- 
tution remains a desideratum. 

The composition of this volume has demanded more 
research than was at first anticipated. Portions of the 
early history of Franklin College are very obscure and 
consequently require renewed study of original sources. 
It has, for instance, been generally supposed that the cele- 
brated astronomer, Daniel Kirkwood, was in his youth 
an instructor in the Lancaster County Academy; but it 
now seems plain that he was not connected with that 
institution, but must be regarded as one of the earliest 
principals of the Lancaster City High School. 

Marshall College is, of course, better known, but of the 
men who were partakers of its peculiar life there are very 
few survivors. Hitherto it has been usual to contemplate 
this period from a purely theological standpoint, in close 
connection with the development of " Mercersburg Theol- 
ogy"; but the author has ventured to tell the story as he 
heard it from the lips of older men, and to introduce 
incidents and anecdotes which belong peculiarly to Mar- 
shall College and inay perhaps be appreciated by a younger 
generation of students. 


In writing the history of Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege during the past half century the chief difficulty has 
been that of selection. Material is abundant, but in some 
instances there may be an honest difference of opinion 
with regard to the sequence of events. To have told the 
story in all its breadth and fulness would have extended 
the work beyond its proper limits, and omissions were 
therefore unavoidable. That we have been unable to 
give a full account of the special work of many faithful 
laborers is greatly to be regretted; but we may perhaps 
be permitted to call attention to the fact that additional 
information is given in the " Catalogue of Officers and 
Students" which is issued in connection with the present 

The author is under many obligations to the members 
of the Committee of Publication for aid in the prosecu- 
tion of this work. They have superintended the publica- 
tion, selected the illustrations, assisted in reading proof 
and furnished many valuable suggestions, besides attend- 
ing to other details which are ordinarily burdensome to 
the author. Other friends have kindly responded to 
requests for aid and information. To Mr. D. MclN". 
Stauffer, of New York, we are greatly indebted for re- 
producing the portrait of Dr. Frederick A. Rauch from 
a posthumous sketch and for drawing the seals of the 
institutions. The Pennsylvania-German Society also has 
our thanks for the use of several interesting illustrations. 
Though we have throughout the volume given credit to 
our coadjutors, it affords us pleasure to repeat that we 
are under special obligations to the E,ev. Professor Wil- 
liam J. Hinke, the Kev. Dr. James I. Good, Dr. J. A. 


Melsheimer, Dr. W. M. Green, Messrs. George Steinman, 
Daniel H. Heitsliu, L. Nevin Wilson and many others. 
The preparation of this volume has given pleasure to 
the author, though it demanded earnest and unremitting 
labor. He is aware of its imperfections, and can only 
say that under somewhat unfavorable conditions he has 
tried to do his best. 




Early Conditions — Schlatter and Muhlenberg — Charity 
Schools — J. Daniel Gros — Ktinze and Helmuth — German 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania 3-14 


Four Eminent Ministers — Petition to the Legislature — 
General Plan of the College — Benjamin Franklin — Sub- 
scription List 15-23 


Incorporation — The Trustees — Charity School — ^The Brew 
House — The Store House — Letter from General Knox 24-32 


Preparations — Correspondence — Procession and Program 
— Election of Professors — Addresses by Drs. Muhlenberg 
and Hutchins 33-53 


Crevecoeur's Statement — Franklin at the Constitutional 
Convention — The AbbS Morellet — Franklin's Letter to his 
Sister — His Presence at the Opening of the College 54-60 




The Professors — ^Hendel's Letters to Dr. Rush — ^List of 
Students — Annual Festivals 61-79 



Local Opposition — ^"Hans Ehrlieh" — ^Appeal for Aid — 
Dr. Rush's Letter — ^Melsheimer's Report — ^The Fathers in 
Holland — German Department 80-89 


Imperfect Minutes — College Lands — " The Squatters " — 
Dr. Muhlenberg's Diary — ^Dr. James Ross — Poole's Franklin 
Academy — ^Professor Schipper's Dictionary — Dr. Brownlee 
— Professor Norr — Presidents of the Board — Proposed 
Theological Seminary 90-114 


County Academies — State Appropriation — ^A New Build- 
ing — Successive Principals — Lancasterian Schools — Sale of 
the " Store House "—The Academy Closed 115-126 



An Onward Movement — ^The Building Enlarged — Pro- 
fessors F. A. Muhlenberg and James Regan — Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Bowman, Acting President — Professor Jacob Chap- 
man — ^A Professor of Law 127-135 


Proposed Enlargement — Plans for Union — Agreement 
with Marshall College — ^Dr. J. C. Bucher's Success — Pur- 
chase of the Lutheran Interest — Confirmation of the Union 136-147 





The Charter — ^Theological Seminary — Classical Institu- 
tion at York — ^The Principal of the School — ^Literary So- 
cieties 151-163 



Choice of Location — The Reverend Jacob Mayer — Mer- 
cersburg — ^The Old Academy — First Board of Trustees — A 
Small Faculty 164-170 



The Organization — President Frederick Augustus Ranch 
— Biography and Personal Characteristics — Psychology — 
The Seminary Building — The Law School — Early Pro- 
fessors — Arrival of Dr. J. W. Nevin — ^Death of Dr. Rauch . . 171-188 



President John Williamson Nevin — Professor William M. 
Nevin — Dr. Traill Green — Professors Porter, Baird and 
Appel — Dr. Philip Schaff — A Brilliant Reception — Literary 
Labors — Peculiar People — Recreations 189-212 



Plan and Purposes-Rivalry of the Literary Societies — 
Enthusiasm of the Students — Cabinets and Museums — 
" Electioneering " — German Literary Societies — ^Deserted 
Halls 213-222 




Early Conflicts— The Abolition Rio1^-"The Big Fight" 
—Mild Discipline 223-228 



Peculiar Laws — Early Poets — " Youth's Phantasies " — 
" SlubberdfiguUious " 229-236 



Gradual Increase — Preparatory Department — Tutors — 
Financial Trouble — Scholarships — Statement of Funds and 
Property — Invitation from Lancaster — The Removal 237-247 




Lancaster Fifty Years Ago — James Buchanan — ^Promi- 
nent Citizens — College Faculty — Formal Opening of the 
College — First Alimmi Dinner — College Life — Presidential 
Campaign — Early Difficulties 251-262 



Dr. John W. Nevin's Election — Letter of Declination — 
Call to Dr. Philip Schafif— His Reply— Dr. Schafif's Visit 
to Germany — Election of Dr. E. V. Gerhart — Acceptance.. 263-273 


Grounds and Buildings — Preparatory Departments — 
Choosing a Site — Plan of College Building — ^Haden Patrick 
Smith — ^Laying of Corner-stone and Dedication — Society 
Halls — ^Additional Buildings 274-281 




Scholar and Historian — Early Life — Professor in Greece 
— ^Removal to America — ^An Impressive Lecturer — ^Personal 
Eccentricities — ^Literary Work — Leaves Lancaster — Returns 
to Greece— Tutor to the Crown Prince— Last Days 282-293 



An Eminent Professor — Clergyman, Botanist and Liter- 
ary Critic — ^An American Epic — Interesting Lectures — 
Translations — Later Years 294-301 



Political Excitement — The Civil War — Buildings Occu- 
pied as Hospitals — ^Mr. Buchanan's Retirement from the 
Presidency of the Board — Election of Mr. Cessna — Tem- 
porary Scholarships — Tercentenary Year — The Fisherman — 
Changes in the Faculty 302-314 



Dr. Nevin's Second Presidency— Controversies — New In- 
stitutions — Removal of the Theological Seminary to Lan- 
caster — Enlargement of the Faculty — Harbaugh Hall — The 
Audenried Bequest — ^Dr. Nevin's Educational Theory — ^Re- 
tirement — The End of a Well-spent Life 315-333 



President Thomas G. Apple — The Wilhelm Estate — 
Charles Santee — The Centennial — Dr. Apple's Retirement . . 334-348 



President John S. Stahr — ^Death of Hon. John Cessna — 
Election of Dr. Geo. F. Baer — Free Tuition — Biennial Tests 
— ^Athletics — ^Military Science — New Theological Seminary 
— Present College Faculty — Death of Dr. W. M. Nevin — 
Watts-dePeyster Library — Science Building — Academy.... 349-370 




The Church — College Y. M. C. A. — ^Literary Societies — 
Fraternities — Clubs — Publications — Entertainments — Stu- 
dent Life 371-378 



A Common Purpose — A Peculiar Life — ^An Unfaltering 
Trust 379-381 


INDEX 395-402 



Benjamin Feankmn facing page 1 

I^ANKLiN College Tbustees " " 32 

g. h. e. muhlenbekg " " 48 

John Mabshatt, " " 160 

Fredekiok a. Rauch " " 169 

John W. Nevin " " 192 

Marshall College Peofessobs " " 198 

Mekcersbueg in 1846 " " 223 

James Buchanan " " 248 

Emanuel V. Geehabt " " 274 

John Cessna " " 305 

Former Professors " " 328 

Thomas G. Apple " " 336 

John S. Stahb " " 349 

George F. Baer " " 352 

Professors and Instructors " " 360 

Group op Buildings " " 368 


Seal of Coetus 6 

Seal of Franklin College 25 

The Brew House 30 

Order of Procession at the Dedication of Franklin College, in 

German and English 41 

Franklin Arms 59 

Old Franklin College (The Store House) 61 

Latin Ode 102 

Title-pages of Dictionary 108 

Seal of Lancaster County Academy 115 

Franklin College (The Academy) 128 

Theological Seminary in York 155 

High School in York 158 

Samuel Reed Fisher 159 

Seal of Marshall College 171 

Theological Seminary in Mercersburg 178 



Society Hall 213 

Old Houses in Lancaster 252 

Seal of Franklin and Marshall College 273 


Michael Schlatter 4 

Benjamin Franklin 20 

W. Hendel 69 

W. Reichenbaeh 74 

Henry Muhlenberg, V.D.M.. 87 

B. I. Schipper 107 

Lewis Mayer 153 

F. A. Rauch 173 

J. F. Berg 180 

J. W. Nevin 191 

Wm. M. Nevln 194 

Philip SchaflE 199 

A. L. Koeppen 282 

Thomas C. Porter 294 

Henry Harbaugh 322 

J. Watts de Peyster 363 




Eablt Conditions — Schlatter and Muhlenbebg — Chabity 

Schools — J. Daniel Gbos — Kunze and Helmuth — 

German Department op the University of 


The year 1V8V, in which Franklin College was founded, 
18 memorable in American history. The weak Confedera- 
tion of States had served its purpose, and eminent states- 
men were engaged in framing a national constitution. 
Many of the heroes of the Revolution were still living, and 
these joined with a younger generation in the earnest hope 
that the time for the establishment of an American nation 
had come at last. It seemed to be an auspicious year for 
the revival of purposes which on account of the disturbed 
condition of the country had long been deferred. 

Among the plans which had been entertained at an 
earlier period was one for the founding of an institution 
of advanced grade in the special interest of the German 
people of Pennsylvania. That such an institution was 
desirable had always been freely acknowledged. The early 
German settlers had been as well educated as those of other 
nationalities; but their children lacked the advantages 
which their parents had enjoyed in the fatherland and were 
growing up destitute of culture. Congregational schools 
had been established by the founders of the principal Re- 
formed and Lutheran churches, but the instruction im- 
parted in them was lamentably insufficient. 

The pastors were agreed in regarding the establishment 
of schools as a question of paramount importance. Michael 



Schlatter — ^the founder of the Reformed synod — said in 
his "Appeal," in 1751 : "If there are no schools, provided 
with qualified schoolmasters, of whom there are here al- 
most none, or very few, will not the children who are not 
instructed in reading and writing, in two or three genera- 
tions become like the pagan aborigines, so that neither 
book nor writing will be found among them? Yea, if 
the children are not instructed in the principles of divine 
worship, according to their capacity, will not their external 
devotional exercises, if any shall yet remain among them, 
degenerate into superstition, and will they not in time, 
corrupted into an entire neglect of God's service, in this 
respect also become like the blind heathen among whom 
they dwell?"! 

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, "the patriarch of the 
Lutheran church," wrote in 1Y53: "In our country dis- 
tricts schools and teaching are still miserable, because 
capable and worthy teachers are scarce, and salaries are 
utterly inadequate; the members of the churches live far 
apart, and most of them are poor; in winter the roads are 
too bad, and in summer the children are put to work."^ 

Michael Schlatter twice visited Europe, in 1751 and 
1754, in behalf of the religious and educational interests 
of the Germans of Pennsylvania. His appeals were not 

•Harbaugh's Life of Schlatter, p. 218. 

* Hallesche Nachrichten, new edition, II., p. 431. 


without effect, and besides the large contributions se- 
cured in Holland for the Reformed churches of Pennsyl- 
vania, a fund was gathered by the Rev. David Thomson 
in England and Scotland for the establishment of schools 
among the Germans in America. Unfortunately, in col- 
lecting this sum the Germans were greatly misrepresented. 
No notice was taken of the fact that they had founded 
many parochial schools, and that they had been peculiarly 
active in literary publication; but on the contrary it was 
declared that they were fast becoming "like unto wood- 
born savages" ; and Archbishop Hering even intimated 
that unless they were speedily anglicized, the Germans 
might make common cause with the French and drive the 
English out of America. Naturally the Germans were 
displeased when they heard of these things, and the 
Charity Schools were unpopular from the beginning. 

Schlatter was chosen Superintendent of Schools and 
labored with all his might for their success. He was recog- 
nized and supported by the government,* and the Re- 
formed and Lutheran ministers aided him in every pos- 
sible way. He succeeded in establishing about a dozen 
schools,^ but popular prejudice against the British charity 
became so violent that in 1757 he was compelled to resign 
his office. We believe, however, that in several instances 
the schools continued to live on, even after the British 
stipend had ceased, and became important educational 

iffallesche Nachrichten, II., p. 192, new edition. 

2 The schools which from various sources we have been able to 
identify were situated at the following places: Lancaster, York, 
Eeading, Trappe, Upper Dublin, Northampton (Bucks County), 
Falkner Swamp, Skippack, Goshenhoppen, Vincent (Chester County), 
Tulpehocken and Easton. 


It was evident from the beginning that the establishment 
of public schools could not fully meet the educational re- 
quirements of the community. Nearly all the ministers 
of the Reformed and Lutheran churches had been edu- 
cated in Europe ; but it could hardly be expected that the 
church in Europe would continue to send ministers after 
the pioneers had passed away. What was to become of the 
churches without educated ministers? The question was 
constantly in the minds of the pastors and was frequently 
uttered at the meetings of the synods. In their correspond- 


ence with the fatherland the Keformed ministers fre- 
quently appealed for aid in establishing a gymnasium, but 
there was no favorable response. "The fathers" in Hol- 
land were liberal in everything that directly concerned 
the churches, but absolutely declined to engage in the 
work of higher education in America. They held that if 
any American desired to enter the ministry he ought first 
to visit Europe to be educated and ordained. As this was 
practically out of the question there were few Pennsylva- 
nia-German boys who received a liberal education. 


As early as 1767 the Kev. John Leydt appeared before 
the Grerman Ccetus as a delegate from "the Coetus of New 
Jersey and JSTew York" to solicit aid for a high-school to 
be established in New Jersey. In its action on the sub- 
ject the German Coetus says: "We will assist in estab- 
lishing the high-school, having appreciated its necessity. 
It would be much better to prepare ministers in this coun- 
try than to put the fathers to the expense of paying their 
passage from Germany." 

In 1784 the Rev. Dr. J. Daniel Gros, pastor of the Ger- 
man Reformed church of the city of New York, became a 
professor in Columbia College, and while he occupied this 
position trained several young men for the Reformed 
ministry. Among these were Philip Milledoler and Wil- 
liam Hendel, Jr., who became eminent in their chosen 

In their letter to Holland, in 1785, the Reformed min- 
isters once more appealed for aid in the establishment of 
a high-school. They reminded the fathers that they had 
spent much money in sending ministers to America and 
had often been disappointed. "The Presbyterians," they 
say, "have established their second high-school at Carlisle. 
They desire our aid and offer to appoint several Reformed 
professors ; but we fear that these professors would be ac- 
cepted merely pro forma, and that it would finally lead to 
the rejection of the German language and the injury of the 
German people. Let the fathers apply their gifts to the 
establishment of such an institution." 

In 1T86 there is a similar appeal, and the ministers de- 
clare that they will "gladly renounce the annual contribu- 
tions" which they receive from Holland, if the amount 
can be applied to a high-school. They insist that under 


present conditions "no minister can save enough to educate 
his children," The appeal, however, was in vain, and 
"the fathers" in Holland remained inflexible. 

In the Lutheran church the early history of the move- 
ment for higher education closely resembled the one which 
we have attempted to describe. With regard to the im- 
portance of establishing a literary institution there was no 
difference of opinion, but means were lacking for such an 
enterprise. The churches were poor, and the pastors did 
not venture to give up their only means of support to en- 
gage in a doubtful undertaking. Several pastors per- 
sonally conducted private schools, but it was not until Pro- 
fessor J. 0. Kimze founded the German Department of 
the University of Pennsylvania that anything important 
was accomplished in the cause of higher education. As 
Dr. Kunze himself relates the story,^ it was in 1779 that 
the College in Philadelphia was incorporated as a Univer- 
sity. According to the charter the oldest pastor of each 
religious denomination in Philadelphia became a member 
of the Board of Trustees. According to this arrangement 
Drs. Kunze and Weiberg respectively represented the 
Lutheran and Eeformed churches of Philadelphia. At 
one of the earliest meetings of the Board Dr. Kunze pro- 
posed that something should be done for the German 
population of the State. "I represented," he says, "that 
there are entire counties which are occupied entirely by 
Germans whose children cannot speak a single word of 
English." It was finally determined to appoint a German 
Professor of Philology who was to prepare German stu- 
dents for the university, and also to teach Greek, Latin 

•Letter to Dr. Freylinghausen, June 15, 1780. See Ballesche 
Nachrichten, II., p. 738. 


and Hebrew to advanced classes. Dr. Kunze was elected 
to this position, and began to give instruction early in 
1780. He was assisted by a Tutor, the Eev. Henry 
Moller, afterward of Albany. By a private arrangement 
Dr. Kunze divided his work in the university with his col- 
league in the pastorate, J. H. C. Hebnuth, to whom on 
the removal of the former to New York the professorship 
was transferred. 

The German Department, as we should now describe it, 
was a section of the preparatory school. Most of the in- 
struction was imparted in Grerman, but the students were 
required to devote two hours daily to the study of English. 
After they were admitted to college they were expected to 
recite in English. The Grerman instructors were also pro- 
fessors in the college, but Dr. Kxmze complained that the 
students did not take readily to the study of Greek and 

The German Department was opened in the spring of 
1780 with thirty-two pupils. In June, 1783, Dr. Hel- 
muth writes:^ "Our Academy is becoming more popular. 
We have now almost forty scholars. Several of these come 
from the country. In consequence of numerous duties in 
our large congregation our labor is often very exhausting, 
but we are cheered by the hope that it will not be altogether 
in vain. Among the earliest scholars — some of whom are 
of American birth — ^there are several who are very promis- 

In another letter, dated April 14, 1785, the same writer 
says: "Our Academy is very prosperous. I have now 
about sixty scholars. . . . The Trustees are so well pleased 
with the school that they have transferred the English 

» Hallesche Nachrichten, new ed., II., p. 742. 


school to my apartment and mine to that of the English 
school, the largest and most convenient in the whole build- 
ing, because my school is more than twice as large as the 
other. The Trustees have further granted me three Tutors, 
and help me in every way. Among the teachers there is 
fraternal unity and cooperation.^ On the 20th of Sep- 
tember, 1786, the German Department held a kind of 
Commencement which is thus described by Dr. Helmuth : 

"To-day our Actm Oratorius, the first in America among 
us Germans, was celebrated in an imposing manner. The 
members of the Legislature, the Supreme Executive Council 
and Censors of the State, the Magistrates, the Trustees of 
the University, the entire Faculty and the German Society, 
together with many other gentlemen and ladies, honored us 
with their presence. The German Society had made arrange- 
ments for the music, which was performed during the inter- 
vals. I began with a prayer in the English language, after 
which one of my pupils very politely returned thanks to the 
Trustees for their favor towards the Germans in establishing 
a German professorship. One of the students gave an account 
in the German language of the establishment of the school. 
Two scholars entertained the audience with the discovery of 
a planet, the journey to and residence upon it, also in the 
German language. This contained a hidden moral. An- 
other described, in German verse, the Day of Judgment; after 
him another, also in German verse, spoke of the greatness of 
God. Next four scholars came forward and conversed in Ger- 
man about ghosts and witchcraft, and the recent discovery of 
so-called Animal Magnetism was described by one of them. 
Three others engaged in a dialogue on Keligious Toleration. 
Three scholars represented farmers' children, of whom one 
who had been at school for two years gave instruction to the 
others upon subjects with which they had no acquaintance. 
'■Eallesche Nachrichten, new ed., II., p. 784. 


This was intended to encourage our wealthy fanners to give 
their children a better education. Afterwards, as a member 
of the German Society, I delivered an address and our Pro- 
vost closed with an English prayer." 

Another "Commencement" exercise was held in 1787, 
but soon afterwards the German Department was discon- 
tinued.^ That it had proved a failure we are not prepared 
to admit. The school had been as prosperous as could 
reasonably have been expected, and it was not until it had 
been determined to establish another school in the interest 
of the Germans that it began to decline. 

According to Dr. M. D. Learned the causes of this decline 
were two-fold: "First of all, the constant and systematic 
efforts of the English to anglicize the Germans. This led to 
a corresponding fear on the part of the Germans that they 
would lose their German characteristics. Secondly, the 
influence of the English in the University and the second- 
ary position to which the Germans were reduced." Addi- 
tional causes might perhaps be suggested, not the least of 
which was the fact that the school had hitherto been mainly 
local, and that it had not been possible to interest the Ger- 
man people of the country districts in its development. It 
was therefore but natural for its friends to conceive the 
idea that if a similar institution were founded with a 
more favorable environment it would be more likely to 
meet the requirements of its German patrons. That this 
view was also taken by the English members of the Board 
of Trustees is evident from the interest which they mani- 
fested in the plan as soon as they comprehended it. They 
may have been tired of the German " annex," but their 

> Dr. Learned's address at the opening of the Bechstein Germanic 
Library, March 21, 1896. 


Kberality in behalf of an institution which might have 
been dreaded as a possible rival is not to be doubted. 
There may have been a certain alienation on the part of 
the Germans, but it was by no means personal. It has in- 
deed been suggested that the separation was the result of a 
quarrel,^ but we cannot discover even a trace of mis- 
understanding. In an address to the Germans of Penn- 
sylvania — apparently written in 178Y by Dr. Weiberg, but 
signed also by Dr. Helmuth — ^we read: 

"There is already a High School in Philadelphia. Give it 
your support and your children and children's children will 
call you blessed. Another High School is to be founded in 
Lancaster in the special interest of the Germans. 0, that the 
German inhabitants of that fertile region appreciated the 
blessings which such an institution might convey to their 
descendants ! May they embrace the opportunity now afforded 
them, and grant their aid so that the proposed school may as 
soon as possible be crowned with prosperity ! ' ' 

The Germans of Pennsylvania were certainly not pre- 
pared to perform the proposed work without the aid of the 
English community. If they had been a united people the 
case might have been different ; but apart from the fact that 
they consisted of various religious denominations which 
had never been trained to concerted action, there were 

■See Braun's Mittheilungen aus Amerika, where the author says 
that the whole movement was the result of envy and hatred {Neid 
und Misgtmst) against Dr. Helmuth. This is certainly a mistake, 
caused by confounding two entirely different matters. Dr. Helmuth 
and his associate Dr. Schmidt were violently opposed by members 
of their congregation because they were not favorable to the use of 
the English language in any of the services of the church; but this 
opposition did not actually begin until 1804 and had nothing to do 
with the university. Dr. Helmuth remained Professor of German 
and Oriental Languages in the University of Pennsylvania until 1810. 


many among them who were indifferent if not positively 
hostile to the cause of higher education. It was, there- 
fore, fortunate that the most eminent ministers of the 
Lutheran and Eeformed churches were on intimate terms 
with men of distinction throughout the State and had no 
difficulty in securing their cooperation.^ 

In a certain sense, of course, the German Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania had failed to meet the 
purposes of its promoters. It had become evident that a 
bilingual institution could not be permanently established 

iThe following interesting letter from Dr. Hendel to Dr. Benjamin 
Rush is preserved in the Ridgway branch of the Philadelphia Library 

" Sir, 
" It gave me great Pleasure to hear that a College was to be 

erected for the Benefit of the forlorn Germans; that Dr. Rush was 

amongst those who first moved for and encouraged so laudable an 

institution, greatly increased the Regard I had for you as a true 

Lover of Mankind and zealous promoter of useful and religious 


" Your favor of the 13th inat. informed me of one of the funda- 
mental articles that is reasonable and liberal, viz., that the Power 
and Ofiices shall be held equally and alternately by the Reformed 
(why our English Brethren call us Calvinists is unknown to me, I 
hope the expression will not be used in the charter) and by the 
Lutherans. Since our excellent Constitution hath put all Denom- 
inations of Christians on the same footing, I must beg leave to ob- 
serve that it is equally liberal in both parties to join in this useful 

"I can, therefore, as to the other points which you are pleased 
to propose, only say this, that I expect they will be determined after 
the same reasonable and liberal principles. 

"That God, the giver of all good and perfect ^fts, may grant 
to this institution a flourishing success and make it subservient to 
the spread of His Knowledge and the glory of His Name, is the 
fervent wish of 

"Your sincere Friend and obedient Servant, 

" Wm. Hendel. 

"Lancaster, Jan. 26, 1787." 


in Philadelphia. As Mr. J. G. Kosengarten has very 
courteously said:* "The experiment was not successful, 
but it led to the establishment of what is to-day Franklin 
and Marshall College, of Lancaster, which was to do for 
our Pennsylvania Germans what the College of Philadel- 
phia and the University of Pennsylvania had not been able 
to do." 

1 Address at the opening of the Bechstein Library. 



FoTJB Eminent Ministers — Petition to the Legislatube — Gen- 

EBAi Plan of the College — Benjamin Fbanklin — 

SuBSCBiPTioN List. 

The founding of Franklin College cannot be ascribed to 
any single individual. It sprang, of course, in the first 
instance, from the united efforts of the ministers of the 
Reformed and Lutheran churches, and its establishment 
had been frequently discussed at synodical meetings as an 
object for which all should strive. There were, however, 
four eminent ministers — two Lutherans and two Reformed 
— ^who seem to have been the first to take active measures 
in the inauguration of the new educational movement, and 
who are accordingly deserving of especial honor. These 
men were the Rev. Drs. Helmuth,^ Weiberg,^ HendeP 

^Justus Heinrich Christian Helmuth was bom May 16, 1745, in 
Brunswick, Germany; died in Philadelphia, February 5, 1825. He 
studied at Halle and was sent to America in 1769 as a missionary 
to the Germans. From 1769 to 1779 he was pastor of Trinity 
Lutheran church of Lancaster, and was then chosen to the pastorate 
of Zion's and St. Michael's churches of Philadelphia, which he faith- 
fully served until 1820. He was the author of several volumes in 
prose and verse and edited the Evangelical Magazine. Among his 
publications his Brief Account of the Yellow Fever (1793) is prob- 
ably now best known. 

^Caspar Dietrich Weiberg (or Weyberg) was a native of Westofen 
in the county of Marck, Germany. He was educated at Duisburg 
and came to America as an ordained minister in 1762. He was 
pastor of the Reformed Church of Easton in 1763, and of the Race 
Street Reformed Church, Philadelphia, from 1763 to 1790. During 
the Revolution he was imprisoned by the British for his devotion 
to the American cause. He died August 21, 1790. 

' Johann Wilhelm Bendel was born at Durkheim in the Palatinate 
and was educated at Heidelberg. In 1764 he was sent to America 



and H. E. Muhlenberg.* They were men of great ability 
and influence and were also intimate personal friends. 
Helmuth — who outlived the others — recorded his affection 
for Weiberg in a beautiful poem, and at the funeral of 
Hendel he preached a sermon on the text : "I am distressed 
for thee, my brother Jonathan: very pleasant hast thou 
been unto me." 

That Helmuth was popularly regarded as the leader of 
the movement for the establishment of a German College 
is sufficiently plain, but he was ably seconded by Dr. Wei- 
berg. The charter of the University of Pennsylvania did 
not allow a professor to be a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees, and Dr. Helmuth was compelled to resign his seat^ 
when he entered the Faculty. It therefore became the 
province of Dr. Weiberg to represent the Germans at the 
meetings of the Board, and in this respect he accomplished 
a very important work. He was a man of high culture and 
agreeable manners, and it was greatly due to his efforts 
that so many eminent men became interested in the cause 
which he so earnestly advocated. Hendel and Muhlenberg 
were pastors of the Reformed and Lutheran churches of 

by the synods of Holland and was successively pastor of the following 
charges: Reformed Church of Lancaster, 1765-'69; Tulpehocken, 
1769-82; Lancaster, the second time, 1782-94; Philadelphia, 
1794-'98. He died of yellow fever, September 29, 1798. 

1 Ootthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, youngest son of the Rev. 
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, " the patriarch of the Lutheran Church 
in America," was born at New Providence, Montgomery County, Pa., 
November 17, 1753; died at Lancaster, Pa., May 23, 1815. He 
studied at Halle, became assistant pastor of the Lutheran Church 
of Philadelphia in 1774 and was pastor of Trinity Lutheran Church, 
Lancaster, from 1780 until his death. He was a celebrated botanist 
and an active member of the American Philosophical Society and 
other learned bodies. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Bic^- 
raphy says: "His works are regarded as standards by scientists." 

2 Hallesche Naehrichten, new ed., IL, p. 739. 


Lancaster. They were men of influence and on their 
earnest cooperation the Philadelphia pastors greatly de- 
pended. In Lancaster there had been a classical school, 
and the people may have been to some degree prepared for 
an institution of more advanced grade. Concerning the 
classical school I. D. Rupp says :^ 

"About the year 1780, Jasper Yeates, Esq., Casper Shaffner, 
Esq., Col. George Eoss, Charles Hall, Esq., and other gentle- 
men of the place, finding that the existing schools under the 
charge of the Lutheran and German Eeformed congregations, 
as also the one established a number of years previous by the 
Moravians, and conducted upon the same plan, were inade- 
quate to the growing wants of the people, and incapable of 
teaching the higher branches, engaged the services of a teacher 
of recommended abilities, to conduct a select academy for the 
education of their male children. The Academy continued in 
existence for several years as the High School of the place, 
until, owing to the violent temper of the teacher and the many 
indignities which he ofiEered to the pupils under his charge, 
it was finally suspended. This school suggested the idea of 
establishing another, but upon a surer basis, under the con- 
trol of Trustees by an act of incorporation, and ultimately 
begot the application to the Legislature for the incorporation 
of Franklin College." 

The last sentence of the above quotation contains a 
manifest error, but it is otherwise interesting as showing 
how the way was prepared for the founding of a college 
in Lancaster. That the application to the Legislature did 
not originate in Lancaster is evident from the following 
petition which was signed exclusively by Philadelphians. 
It was presented to the Legislature by Col. Hubley as 
early as December 11, 1Y86 : 

• History of Lancaster County, by L Daniel Rupp, 1844, p. 446. 


"To the Honourable the Representatives of the Freemen of 

Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, — 
"The petition of the Trustees of the German College and 

Charity School to be established in Lancaster, 

"Respectfully sheweth, 

"That your petitioners have been led to undertake the 
charge of this institution from a conviction of the necessity of 
diffusing knowledge through every part of the State, in order 
to preserve our present republican system of government, as 
well as to promote those improvements in the arts and sciences 
which alone render nations respectable, great and happy. 

"That notwithstanding the prospects of your petitioners 
of obtaining funds to carry their designs into effect are con- 
siderable from private contributions, yet they a:;e induced to 
apply to your honorable House for a donation of a proportion 
of the lands that were appropriated by a former assembly 
for the support of public schools, in order that they may lay 
a more solid foundation for their extensive and charitable 
views in establishing this seminary. 

"Your petitioners pray likewise for a charter of incorpora- 
tion, conferring such powers and privileges as are usually 
given to colleges, and which have been found so useful and 
necessary in promoting industry, emulation and laudable 
ambition in literary pursuits. 

"Your petitioners have taken the liberty to accompany 
their petition with a list of the trustees who have been nomi- 
nated and the proposed general plan of the institution. 

"Thomas McKean, "Benjamin Eush, 

"J. H. Christian Helmuth, "Philip Wagee, 

"Caspaeus Weibeeq, "William Bingham, 

"Petee Muhlenberg, "William Eawle, 

"Lewis Paemee, "William Sheaff." 

The above petition was accompanied by the following: 


General Plakt of the College. 

"A number of gentlemen of this commonwealth having 
taken into consideration the necessity and advantage of dif- 
fusing literature among their German fellow-citizens, have 
come to a determination to establish a German college and 
Charity School in the borough of Lancaster. They have 
been led to make choice of this place from its central and 
healthy situation, the character of its inhabitants, the con- 
veniences with which students of every description may be 
accommodated with board and lodgings, and the probability 
that the necessary buildings may be immediately procured, 
and at a moderate expense. 

"The design of this institution is to promote an accurate 
knowledge of the German and English languages, also of the 
learned languages, of mathematics, morals, and natural 
philosophy, divinity, and all such other branches of literature 
as will tend to make good men and useful citizens. 

"It is proposed that this institution shall be put under the 
direction of forty trustees, fourteen of whom shall be chosen 
from the Lutheran and fourteen from the Eeformed, or Cal- 
vinist. Churches. The remaining trustees to be chosen indis- 
criminately from any other society of Christians. And in 
order to secure the seminary at all times from any departure 
from its original principles, it is laid down as a fundamental 
article that the principal of the college shall be chosen from 
the Lutheran and Eeformed (or Calvinist) churches alter- 
nately, unless such of the trustees as belong to these two socie- 
ties shall unanimously agree to choose two or more persons in 
succession of the same denomination, or some suitable per- 
son or persons of any other Society of Christians. From a 
profound respect for the character of His Excellency the 
President of the State, the institution shall be called Franklin 

Benjamin Franklin was the most distinguished citizen 


of Pennsylvania, and was certainly highly deserving of the 
honor which it was proposed to confer upon him. He had 
been instrumental in the establishment of many educa- 
tional and philanthropic institutions. Among these may 
be mentioned the Philadelphia Library Company, the 
Pennsylvania Hospital, the American Philosophical So- 
ciety and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin had, 
indeed, come to be regarded as the natural patron of every 
important literary or benevolent enterprise, and the insti- 

tution was deemed fortunate which secured his cooperation 
and thus became to some extent a partaker of his brilliant 
reputation. That he took a profound interest in the col- 
lege that was to bear his name we have every reason to be- 
lieve. He had for many years claimed to be in a special 
sense the friend of the Germans of Pennsylvania, with 
whom he had been associated in many important enter- 
prises. He had printed a number of their books, and on 
innumerable occasions had served as their political ad- 
viser. In later years their mutual relations had become 
less intimate, but he was earnestly desirous of retaining 
their favor. Though he was now advanced in years it 
must have caused him the keenest pleasure to be instru- 
mental in the educational advancement of a people who 
had long been his trusted supporters. 

It is to be regretted that the original list of subscriptions 
to the endowment of the new college has not been preserved. 


The following memorandum^ is interesting because it gives 
the amount of a few of the earliest subscriptions : 

"The following Gentlemen have paid their subscriptions 
towards Franklin College in Lancaster — 

" His Excellency Benjn. Franklin, Esq., Cash 

paper £200 

Robert Morris, Esq., being old Continental Loan 
office Certificates in favour of John McMickin, 
who not being a Resident in this State cannot 
be charged by the Comptroller. The amount 
600 Drs. which have drawn interest in 
France for some years. 

Hon. Peter Muhlenberg, Esq., in Certifs 50 

Charles Biddle, Esq., Do 18.17 

William Rawle, Esq., Do 37.10 

George Fox, Esq., Do 37.11.11»4 

Frederick Kuhl, Do 50. 5. 3 

Robert Traill, Esq., Paper Money 3. 0. 

Samuel Dean, Esq., Ditto 3 

John Smilie, Esq., Ditto 3 

John Beard, Esq., Ditto 3 

David Reddiek, Esq., Ditto 3 

John Arndt, Esq., Ditto 4.10. 

Henry Hill, Esq., A Certificate 37.10 

Interest received on some of the Certificates. . . 6.19. 3 

£226. 9. 3 
Paid at several times per order 91. 0.11 

Remains in my hands a balance of £135. 8. 4 


" Fbedebick Kuhl." 

In the above list the names of some of the most promi- 
nent of the founders do not appear, though it may be taken 
for granted that they contributed to the funds. Benjamin 
Eush^ was one of the most active of the friends of the new 

'The original is in the possession of Mr. D. McN. StaufiFer, of 
Yonkers, N. Y. Though it bears no date it must have been written 
very soon after the founding of the college. 

2 Benjamin Rush, M.D., was born near Philadelphia, December 24, 
1745, and died April 19, 1813. He studied in Edinburgh, London 


college, and in subsequent years was always ready with 
advice and assistance. 

Gen. Peter Muhlenberg^ was also greatly interested in 
the new college and is believed to have been the author of 
several enthusiastic articles which appeared in the papers 
of the day. He was at this time Vice-President of the 
Executive Council of Pennsylvania and exerted his in- 
fluence to secure the favor of the Legislature. His signa- 
ture appears on several documents relating to the real 
estate of the new institution. 

Pranklin College was founded in the interest of the Ger- 
mans, but it was never intended to be exclusively a Ger- 
man institution. It was expressly declared that the stu- 
dents were to learn English, besides "all those branches of 
literature which are usually taught in the colleges of 
Europe and America." Indeed, in the course of instruc- 
tion the English language was always most prominent, and 
knowledge of German was never a requirement for admis- 
sion. The main purpose of the founders, as we conceive 
it, was to establish an institution in which German life 
and literature would be appreciated, and in which the sons 
of Germans might be educated without becoming alienated 

and Paris, and was for many years a professor in the Medical College 
of Philadelphia. Taking an active part in public affairs he was chosen 
a, member of the Continental Congress and became a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. He was the author of " Diseases of 
the Mind " and many other publications. 

' John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, son of the Rev. Henry Melchior 
Muhlenberg, was born at the Trappe, Pa., October 1, 1746, and died 
October 1, 1807. He studied in Germany and was for several years 
a minister, but at the beginning of the Revolution he entered the 
American army, rising to the rank of a Major-General. After the 
war he was United States Senator and also held several important 
civil appointments. 


from the faith of their fathers. It was in sympathy with 
this spirit that Dr. Kush wrote/ in 1789 : 

"Legislators of Pennsylvania, learn from the history of 
your German fellow-citizens, that you possess an inexhaustible 
treasure in the bosom of the State, in their manners and 
arts. Continue to patronize their newly established Semi- 
nary of learning (Franklin College) and spare no expense in 
supporting their free-schools. ... Do not contend with their 
prejudices in favor of their language. It will be the channel 
through which the knowledge and discoveries of the wisest 
nations in Europe may be conveyed into our country. In pro- 
portion as they are instructed and enlightened in their own 
language, they will become acquainted with the language of 
the United States." 

• " Manners of the German Inhabitants of Pennsylvania." Re- 
printed with notes by Professor I. Daniel Rupp, Philadelphia, 1875, 
page 60. 



Incokpobation — The Trustees — Charity School — The Beew 
House — The Store House — Letter from General Knox. 

The Charter of Franklin College was granted by the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania on the 10th of March, 1787, 
and was duly attested by Thomas Mifflin as Speaker of the 
House. The earliest copy cannot now be found, but we 
have an exact transcript, made in 1828 and certified by 
John Andrew Shulze, Governor of Pennsylvania. It ap- 
pears, of course, among the Laws of Pennsylvania, but 
there are also two pamphlets which claim to contain the 
original charter — the one in German and the other in 
English.-' These printed pamphlets vary slightly in con- 
tents, the German leaving a blank space for the number 
of acres of land to be appropriated by the Legislature and 
the English adding the names of five trustees who do not 
appear in the German edition. We take it for granted that 
the German version was printed before the law was actually 
passed, and as the English literally corresponds with the 
official copy we shall follow it in what we have to say con- 
cerning the Charter. 

Legal documents are rarely interesting to the general 

' Preyheitsbrief der Deutschen Hohen Schule (College) in der 
Stadt-Lancaster, in dem Staate Pennsylvania; nebst einer Anrede an 
die Deutschen dieses Staats, von den Trusties der besagten Hohen 

Philadelphia, Melehior Steiner, 1787. 
Charter of Franklin College. Published by Resolution of the 
Board, Passed 19th October, A. D. 1837. 

Lancaster, Bryson and Forney, 1837. 



reader, and we shall, therefore, not repeat what the Char- 
ter has to say concerning "messuages, lands, tenements, 
hereditaments, goods, chattels, monies, or other effects." 
It may he said, however, that its scope and character were 
anticipated in the "General Plan" which we have repro- 
duced. The institution was incorporated as "a College 
and Charity School," and "from a profound respect for 
the talents, virtues and services to mankind in general, 

but more especially to this country, of His Excellency 
Benjamin Franklin, Esquire, President of the Supreme 
Executive Council" it was denominated "Franklin Col- 
lege." The institution received authority to hold prop- 
erty and receive bequests, "provided always the same do 
not exceed in the whole the yeatly value of ten thousand 
pounds, valuing one Portugal half Johannes, weighing 
nine pennyweight, at three pounds." It is needless to say 
that this provision was never infringed. 

The following Trustees were thus nominated in the 
charter :^ 

The Honorable Thomas Mifflin, Esquire; The Honor- 
• A few manifest errors in orthography have been corrected. 


able Thomas McKean, Esquire, Doctor of Laws; The 
Eeverend Doctor John Henry Christian Helmuth; The 
Keverend Caspar Weiberg ; The Eeverend Henry Muhlen- 
berg; The Reverend William Hendel; The Eeverend 
IN^icholas Kurtz; The Eeverend George Troldenier; The 
Eeverend John Herbst; The Eeverend Joseph Hutchins; 
The Eeverend Frederick Weinland; The Eeverend 
Albertus Helffenstein ; The Eeverend William Ingold; 
The Eeverend Jacob Van Buskirk ; The Eeverend Abraham 
Blumer; The Eeverend Frederick Dallicker; The Eev- 
erend Christopher Emanuel Schultz; The Eeverend John 
B. Cousie;-' Peter Muhlenberg, Esquire; The Eeverend 
Frederick Valentine Melsheimer; John Hubley, Esquire; 
Joseph Hiester, Esquire; Casper Schaffner; Peter Hoof- 
nagle, Esquire ; Christopher Crawford -^ Paul Zantzinger ; 
Adam Hubley, Esquire; Adam Eeigart; Jasper Yeates, 
Esquire; Stephen Chambers, Esquire; The Honorable 
Eobert Morris, Esquire; George Clymer, Esquire; Philip 
Wager; The Honorable William Bingham, Esquire; Wil- 
liam Hamilton; William SheafF; Doctor Benjamin Eush; 
Daniel Hiester, Esquire; William Eawle, Esq.; Lewis 
Farmer, Esquire; Christopher Kucher; Philip Green- 
waldt; Michael Hahn; George Stake, Senior, Esquire; 
John Musser. 

This was a very intelligent and distinguished body. 
Eush, McKean, Clymer and Morris had been signers of 
the Declaration of Independence; Muhlenberg, Mifflin, 
the two Hiesters, Chambers, Farmer, Crawford, and pos- 

' Roman Catholic priest in Lancaster. In the German copy his 
name appears as " J. B. Kauss." 

2 In the German list this name appears as " Grafifert " and this 
was probably the original spelling. He was a prominent citizen 
of Lancaster and had been an officer in the Revolution. 


sibly others, had been officers in the war of the Eevolution ; 
Mifflin, McKean, and Joseph Hiester became Governors of 
Pennsylvania; Jasper Yeates and William Kawle v/ere 
distinguished Jurists; and Bingham and Muhlenberg be- 
came Senators of the United States. Of the ministers 
whose names appeared seven were Reformed, an equal 
number were Lutherans, one was Moravian and one 
Eoman Catholic. In brief, every name on the list was that 
of an intellectual and influential man. 

According to the charter fifteen members of the Board 
were forever to be "chosen from the members of the 
Lutheran church, and the like number from the members 
of the Eeformed church, and the remainder from any 
other society of Christians." All members were required 
to be residents of the State, and no member of the faculty 
could hold the office of Trustee. The Principal (or Presi- 
dent) was to be alternately chosen from the Lutheran and 
Reformed churches, unless the Board, at an annual or ad- 
journed meeting, should unanimously decide otherwise. 
Professors could be removed only "for misconduct or a 
breach of the laws of the institution." The Faculty were 
granted power to enforce the rules and regulations adopted 
by the Trustees, to reward and censure students, and to 
suspend such students as proved refractory after repeated 
admonitions until the Board of Trustees could take final 
action in the premises. With the approbation and consent 
of the Board of Trustees the Faculty was also authorized 
to confer "such degrees in the liberal arts and sciences to 
such pupils of the said college, or other persons, who by 
their proficiency in learning or other meritorious distinc- 
tions they shall think entitled to them, as are usually 
granted and conferred in other colleges in America and 


Europe, and to grant to such graduates, diplomas or certi- 
ficates, under their common seal and signed by the Faculty, 
to authenticate and perpetuate the memory of such gradua- 

The thirteenth article of the Charter now appears 
curious. It reads as follows : 

"To facilitate the acquisition of learning to all ranks of 
people being one of the primary and fundamental objects of 
this institution, one sixth part of the capital real and personal 
fund of the said college, not including the monies paid for 
tuition, shall be irrevocably appropriated, together with such 
gifts and bequests as may be hereafter made to the said col- 
lege for that special purpose, to the maintenance and support 
of a Charity School, for children of both sexes and all re- 
ligious denominations, on the most liberal plan consistent 
with the ability of the said college. ' ' 

The exact purpose of this article it is not easy now to 
determine. It seems to have included a reminiscence of 
Schlatter's Charity Schools, and may have been intended 
to secure from the authority certain favors which are 
usually accorded to benevolent institutions. Possibly, it 
was hoped that by making provision for the establishment 
of a primary school the sympathy of the community might 
be most readily secured. Whatever may have been the 
expectations of the founders, it is certain that the plan of 
establishing a charity school was never carried out. In 
the report of a treasurer, some thirty years later, it is no 
doubt truly stated that "the sixth part of the income was 
never sufficiently large to be taken into separate account," 
but the spirit of the provision was believed to be fully met 
by the free tuition of a nimiber of poor children. 

In the fourth section of the Charter it was enacted by 


the Legislature that "ten thousand acres of land, together 
with a six per centum allowance, set out and surveyed 
within the unappropriated lands of this State be, and they 
are hereby granted to the said Trustees of 'Franklin Col- 
lege,' in the borough and county of Lancaster, to have 
and to hold the same to them, their successors and assigns 
forever." It was further enacted that the Surveyor-Gen- 
eral be required to issue the warrants as they might be 
applied for by the Trustees and that the surveying should 
be done at the charge of the State. 

Some of the friends of Franklin College were dissatis- 
fied because the gift of the Assembly did not include an 
appropriation in money. A correspondent to a local news- 
paper of that day complains that the Legislature is always 
ready to favor the University of Pennsylvania, but has 
nothing for the poor Grermans except wild lands. It 
should, however, be remembered that the friends of the 
institution, in the petition for incorporation, had asked for 
nothing but their "proportion of the lands appropriated 
by a former Assembly for the support of public schools," 
and this they had received. A more humble petition might 
have secured a more abundant donation. Still, as the lands 
appropriated were in those days regarded as practically 
worthless, it must be confessed that the gift of the Legis- 
lature was by no means liberal. A supplementary act was, 
however, passed on the 27th of February, 1788, "vesting 
the public Store House and two lots of grounds in the bor- 
ough and county of Lancaster, in the Trustees of Franklin 
College for the use of said institution." The Store House 
was situated on North Queen Street, near James, and was 
then practically "out of town." 

Until the second grant had been made the college occu- 



pied the "Brew House," on Mifflin Street west of Duke 
Street, near Trinity Lutheran church. A school must have 
been kept there at an earlier date, for Dr. Muhlenberg says 
in a letter to Dr. Eush, dated June 25, 1787, that it is 
proposed to begin instructing the students "in the Brew 
House, the former place," and to ask the next Assembly 
for a gift of the Store House.^ 

The Brew House was subsequently used as a station- 
house or lock-up. It has recently been taken down, but the 


accompanying illustration was sketched from a photograph 
in possession of the author. 

The Store House was erected during the Revolution for 
the preservation of government stores. It was a plain, 
brick building, one hundred feet in length and thirty-five 
in breadth. It was neither handsome nor commodious and 
required expensive alterations before it could be used as a 
school-building. It is still standing, though long ago 
divided into dwellings, and now constitutes a part of what 

> Preserved among the " Rush Papers " in the Ridgway Library, 


is known as Franklin Row. In the second story of the 
southern gable the outlines of a large door, which has been 
bricked up, may still be traced. 

When the Store House was transferred to the College 
it still contained certain public stores, which were the 
property of the United States. That these remained there 
longer than had been expected appears from the following 
letter of General Knox, Secretary of War, of which the 
original is in the collection of Mr. George Steinman : 

"Wae Office, 17th April, 1790. 

' ' By some mistake I find your letter of the liSth of January 
last has not been answered. 

"An expectation of some general arsenals being perma- 
nently established has hitherto prevented the removal or dis- 
posal of the few public stores in Lancaster. The expectation 
still continues but its accomplishment does not appear to be 
immediate. I must therefore leave to your Judgment — in case 
the college should demand the buildings or rent for the same 
— to make the best disposition of the stores in case of being 
obliged to remove them or bargain for the rent of the build- 
ings in which they now are. 

"It will not be necessary to make any returns at stated 
periods, but only on such occasions as from any causes shall 

"I am, Sir, 

"With great respect, 

"Your most obedient servant, 
"H. Knox." 
"The Honorable General Hand." 

At what time the last remaining public stores were re- 
moved from the college building is now unknown. 

The charter has been described as liberal, but this can 


only be said with respect to the authority which was 
granted to the Board of Trustees. In some respects it was 
cumbrous and defective, and it was at times no easy matter 
to guard the rights of all the parties which claimed an in- 
terest. Of the board it might have been said, as was said 
of early Home, that it was composed of three tribes, each 
of which was mainly solicitous of preserving its original 

The founders were, however, greatly encouraged by the 
subscriptions which they had received, especially in Phila- 
delphia, and fondly imagined that when the Grermans be- 
came fully aware of the work that was done in their behalf 
they would be ready to give their enthusiastic support. 
They accordingly proceeded to make arrangements for a 
public festival in connection with the opening of the col- 
lege, and certainly did all in their power to render it an 
occasion that might attract general attention and be long 
and favorably remembered. 

^H^^BL ^^i^B 





^H&k s^^B 

IBI^HbSol 191 





J. H. C. Helmuth. 
Jasper Yeates. 
Benjamin Rush. 

Thomas MacKean. 
Robert Morris. 
Thomas Miffun, 



June 6, 1787. 


Election of Peofbssoes — Addresses by Dks. Muhlen- 

Preparations for the dedication — as it was generally 
called — ^began to be made many months before its actual 
occurrence. At the time of the annual meeting of the Ee- 
formed Coetus, in 1786, the exact date had not been de- 
termined, so that body adjourned sine die, to meet in Lan- 
caster whenever the members were notified that the festival 
was to be held. The earliest document in our possession 
is a printed circular addressed to Pastor Muhlenberg, of 
Lancaster, of which the following is a translation: 

"S. T. Eespected Sirs, 
"Dearest Friends , 

"You have no doubt read in the papers published by Mr. 
Steiner and others, that agreeable prospects have been opened 
to our German nation in this western land, concerning the 
establishment of a German school. In all parts of the world 
God has for centuries distinguished the Germans as the re- 
cipients of his care; but it is in North America and especially 
in Pennsylvania that they have experienced the special 
blessings of His Providence. Most of the Germans were poor 
and forsaken when they came to this country, but their in- 
dustry and the blessing of the Lord has placed many of them 
in prosperous circumstances, so that there are comparatively 
few of them who are unable to make a comfortable living. It 



is not too much to say that the Germans occupy the front 
rank among the people who have made Pennsylvania a fertile 
field, even the garden of all North America. 

"But with all these advantages most of them have remained 
standing on the lowest plane of service. The Germans, on 
account of their peculiar virtues, have hitherto been very 
necessary members of the Eepublic; but they have not con- 
sidered that a true republican must also possess education, 
so as to take part in directing the rudder of the government, 
and to give his children an opportunity of rising to the higher 
levels of republican utility. 

"The fortunate moment appears to have arrived when 
the Germans of America are offered an opportunity of ad- 
vancing their educational institutions to the fortunate posi- 
tion occupied by those of their brethren in Europe. 

"The first German college in America is about to be 
foimded, and the project is supported with great zeal even by 
persons who are not Germans, so that there can be no doubt 
that the whole movement is directed by more than a human 

"We send you herewith the Charter of this German insti- 
tution. The Assembly, without the slightest contradiction, 
has expressed its approval of this enterprise, and there is not 
the least doubt that this charter will be confirmed at the next 

"Honored Sirs, you have been appointed trustees of this in- 
stitution, and even without our encouragement you will not 
fail to labor to secure for our children and children's children 
an opportunity to become useful citizens of our republic. 
Encourage others — English or Germans, who are so inclined 
— to aid you in your neighborhood in securing subscriptions. 

"In Philadelphia several liberal subscriptions have already 
been received, and the subscribers are laboring earnestly to 
secure additional contributions for this institution. 

' ' On the 6th of June of the current year the first meeting 


■will (D. V.) be held in Lancaster. Please present yourselves 
at the appointed time and place, to return your subscription 
papers and those of others who have assisted in this work in 
your vicinity, and afterwards, under the blessing of God, to 
assist in placing the institution upon such a foundation that 
the welfare of the state and the honor of the Lord in churches, 
schools and courts may thereby be everywhere advanced. 
"We remain 

"S. T. Eespected Sirs, 

"Dearest Friends, 
' ' Your most obedient servants and 
affectionate Friends. 
"To the Trustees and other earnest 
promoters of the German High School 
to be founded in Lancaster. 

"(Signed in manuscript) 
Heinrich Helmuth. 
Caspakus Weibehg; 
iy order of the other Trustees 
in Phila. 
"Phila., Jan. 19, 1787, 
"To Pastor Muhlenberg." 

On the opposite page of the above circular is the follow- 
ing manuscript note. 

"P. S. Enclosed is a letter from Mr. Schmidt; more from 
me hereafter. Only this : According to our plan you are to be 
the Principal and Pastor Hendel the Vice- Principal of the 
new academy. May God grant an abundant blessing to the 
work! What will the Address^ accomplish among the Ger- 
mans? "Your old acquaintance, 

"Heinrich Helmuth."^ 

^Am-ede an die Deutschen, published with the German edition of 
the Charter. 

2 It will be observed that the above was written in January, 1787, 
while the election of the members of the Faculty did not take place 
until the following June. 


This note would alone be sufficient to settle all possible 
questions concerning the relations of Dr. Helmuth to the 
new institution. It has been intimated that he desired 
to be himself elected to the presidency, but this is certainly 
a mistake. To have accepted such a position woilld have 
demanded extraordinary self-denial ; and though he would 
no doubt have been willing to make the sacrifice if the occa- 
sion had demanded it, the prospect of leaving Philadelphia 
to become the president of an impecunious college was cer- 
tainly not alluring. Dr. Muhlenberg was pastor of the 
Lutheran church of Lancaster ; and it does not appear that 
he ever accepted a salary for his services in the new insti- 

Dr. Helmuth was very active in making preparations 
for the formal opening of the college, and seems to have 
been in some degree the master of ceremonies. The fol- 
lowing is a translation of an interesting letter addressed by 
him to Dr. Muhlenberg : 

"Philadelphia, March 19, 1787. 
"Dearest Brother in Christ, — 

"I must be careful not to exceed the space which has been 
left for me, for this letter was signed before it was written, 
and I cannot be expected to address you in the dignified style 
which one ought to employ when writing in the name of the 
gentlemen whose names are subscribed. How would it do to 
fill up the page with an obligation? Just think, three such 
papers have been committed to my care ; you may judge how 
well my credit must stand with these people. 
"But to business: 

"1. You or Pastor Hendel must undertake to preach a ser- 
mon in German. This sermon must earnestly and effectively 
impress upon the people of Lancaster the importance of 
higher education. N". B. — ^But it must under no circum- 
stances be more than twenty-five minutes in length. 


"2. If Dr. Hendel should undertake to preach the sermon, 
you will offer a prayer in German at the altar; and in your 
prayer, in returning thanks, you will make special mention of 
the prosperity of the Germans and of its increase by means 
of education. 

"3. I send you herewith several copies of the Order of 
Dedication. When I meet you personally I will give you the 
reasons why the procession was arranged according to the 

"As regards the verses you will have to accept them as com- 
posed by men who are overloaded with more work than they 
can possibly perform. 

"Mr. Ott sends you the music for the several pieces, so that 
your Lancaster singers may rehearse them properly. Several 
of our best singers have already been engaged, and will be in 
Lancaster at the proper time to assist in the music. The solos 
and antistrophes will be sung by the singers from Philadel- 
phia; the echo requires that the singers should stand oppo- 
site to each other, and therefore the solos and antistrophes 
might also be sung by these gentlemen from the north side of 
your church, opposite to the organ. Concerning the German 
hymn, I have to say that the response is to be sung by the chil- 
dren. This may, in my opinion, be thus arranged: you can 
have the space before the altar occupied with benches, on 
which the children may be seated and there sing their re- 
sponse. It is presumed that this would make a good im- 
pression on their parents. Lutheran and Eeformed children 
must sing together. 

"Let the choir be pretty large. There are singers enough 
among the Lutherans and especially among the Reformed. 

"I hope the gentlemen of Lancaster will not be displeased 
because we are so busy and help to make arrangements sixty- 
six miles away, especially as one of the Lancaster members is 
aiding us. Here the majority of the Trustees live near to- 
gether, and it is at any rate always necessary that some one 
should take the initiative. 


"Lancaster owes much to Dr. Eush, and the university will 
always find in him an active supporter. Our subscriptions 
indicate that we shall be able, without doubt, to bring about 
£2500 with us to Lancaster. I hope you will love the con- 
tributors and most cheerfully do what they tell you.^ 

"Four thousand copies of the Order of Exercises are to be 
printed, which will be distributed on the day of dedication. 

"Please provide lodgings for my singers — ^they are four ia 
number, and Mr. Ott will be one of them. The trustees will 
pay the expenses of the journey; their board, I presume, they 
will receive gratuitously. 

"Ah! here already are the signatures, and I can therefore 
only add, that the following gentlemen are your good friends 
and feel confident that you will carefully attend to the above 
matters and make all necessary preparations. 

"Caspakus Weiberg, 
"Thos. McKean, 
"p. muhlenbeeg, 
"Dan. Hiester, Jr., 
"Jos. Hiester, 
"Philip Wager, 
"Wm. Sheaff, 
"Ben J. Rush, 
"Heinrich Helmuth." 

There can be no doubt that the necessary preparations 
for the formal opening were carefully made, and that 
everything possible was done to render it a brilliant suc- 
cess. Beautifully engrossed invitations were extended to 
the officers of all the churches of Lancaster, and there is 
every reason to believe that they were generally accepted. 
The following specimen is in possession of Mr. Greorge 
Steininan : 

iThis no doubt refers to Dr. Muhlenberg's acceptance of the 
presidency of the college. 


"The Trustees op Franklin- College 
"Eequest the Officers of the Moravian" Congregation 
to meet them on Wednesday, the 6th day of June instant, at 
nine o'clock in the morning, at the Court House in the Bor- 
ough of Lancaster, to walk in procession to the German 
Lutheran church, where the dedication of Franklin College 
is to be conducted. 

"Lancaster, June 1st, 1787." 

That special invitations were extended to eminent men 
who were not directly connected with the movement ap- 
pears from the following letter of the Hon. Wm. Augustus 
Atlee, Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, of 
which a copy is preserved among the Records of the Col- 

"Acton, 6th June, 1787. 
"Dear Sir, 

"I was yesterday honoured with a billet from the Trustees 
of Franklin College requesting me to meet them at 9 o'clock 
this morning at the Court House, to walk in procession to the 
Church where the dedication of the College is to be conducted. 

"As I think you are one of the Trustees I take the liberty 
of troubling you to present my most respectful compliments 
to those gentlemen and to mention that I should have waited 
on them with the greatest cheerfulness; but cannot con- 
veniently leave home at present as I have matters on hand 
which I cannot neglect and am preparing for a journey to 
Maryland on business respecting my brother's estate which 
requires my attention. 

"Inclosed is Five pounds which you will please to place 
among the collections of the day as my mite for the benefit 
of the Institution with my best wishes for its success. 

"I am. Sir, 

"Your most obdt. servt., 

"WiLLM. A. Atlee." 

"Jasper Yeates, Esquire." 


On the 5th and 6th of June there was a great gathering 
of the friends of the new institution. The Lutheran Min- 
isterium and the Reformed Ccetus had hoth met in Lan- 
caster hy appointment, in order that all the ministers 
might he in attendance on this interesting occasion. 
Nearly all the appointed members of the Board of Trus- 
tees were present at their first meeting.^ There must 
have been a long procession of carriages bringing friends 
from Philadelphia, and there were representatives from 
all the principal towns of Pennsylvania. 

The program, of which according to Dr. Helmuth's 
letter four thousand copies were to be distributed, has now 
become exceedingly rare. Besides the copy in possession 
of the author but two or three specimens are known. It is 
is a quarto of eight pages, with a German and an English 
title-page. The Order of Exercises is printed in English 
and German on opposite pages, with no important differ- 
ence in contents, except that several poetic compositions, in 
English and German, are respectively printed at length 
only in the appropriate program. We here reproduce the 
English title-page and program as nearly as modem typog- 
raphy will permit : 

"Feanklist College. 

"A meeting of the Trustees of Franklin College to be held 
at the Court-House, in Lancaster, on the 5th of June, at 
Three o 'Clock in the Afternoon, when the Officers of the 
Board and the Faculty of the College are to be chosen. 

"On Wednesday, the 6th of June, at 9 o'clock in the Morn- 
ing, the Gentlemen mentioned in the following Order of 

' Among the Rush papers in the Eidgway Branch Library there is 
a letter from Michael Hahn, of York, asking to be excused for non- 
attendance. George Stake is also known to have been absent. We 
have no records of other absences. 












































*- S5 




s .-- 

® B 

s " 




a. °J 
-o - fe 
^ 11 


Procession are to meet at the Court House, and proceed from 
thence two and two to the German Lutheran church. 


"1. Sheriff and Coroner of the County. 

"2. Pupils. 

"3. Faculty of the College. 

"4. President, Vice-President and Secretary of the Board 
of Trustees. Memhers of the Board, two and two. 

"5. Corporation of the Borough and Justices of the Peace. 

"6. Ccetus of the Eeformed Church, President, Secretary 
and Memhers, two and two. 

"7. Corporation of the Lutheran Congregation. 

"8. Elders and Officers of the English Presbyterian Con- 

"9. The Officers of the Eoman Catholic Congregation. 

"10. The Vestrymen and Church Wardens of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Congregation. 

"11. The Officers of the Moravian Congregation. 

"12. Corporation of the Reformed Congregation. 

"13. Evang. Lutheran Ministry. 

"14. County Lieutenant and Officers of Militia. 

"After they are seated in Church, the Dedication to be 
conducted in the following Manner. 

"1. Prayer before the Altar in German. 

"3. The following Ode in English: 

"Hail, ye Banks of Conestogoe! 
Fertile, favor 'd Region, hail! 

What but Good can here prevail? 
Science never comes alone. 
Peace and Plenty, 
Heaven itself support her Cause. 

THE ODE. 43 

"Creator, hail! thy Light and Glory 
Rejoice the Good, the Bad dismay. 
Dispel the Mists of Vice and Folly, 

And consecrate this happy Day. 
Now doubly blest the favor 'd Eegion, 
Where Science joins with mild Religion, 
To raise their grateful Hymns to God. 

"By JEHOVAH'S Care protected 
The Fabric gains a Height sublime. 
Truth expands its bright Effulgence, 

Error seeks another Clime, 
All its dark and base Attendants, 
Pride and Discord fly from Truth. 

"All in the glorious Work assisting. 

We build on Christ, the Corner-Stone. 
The Walls may bear diverse Directions, 
The Building still shall be but One, 
Devotion pure and peaceful Science 
United, bid their Foes Defiance, 
While Time remains, the Work shall stand. 

"3. A Hymn in German. 

"4. A Sermon in German. 

"5. A Solo. The first Strophe of the German Hymn. 

"6. A Sermon in English. 

"7. A Solo. The Second Strophe of the English Ode re- 
peated in German. 

"8. Prayers before the Altar in English. 

"9. Dr. Watts' Imitation or Paraphrase of the 19th and 
133d Psalms: 


"Where shall we go, to seek and find 
An Habitation for our GOD, 
A Dwelling for the eternal Mind 
Among the Sons of Flesh and Blood? 

' The God of Jacob chose the Hill 
Of Zion for his ancient Eest; 
And Zion is his Dwelling still; 

His Church is with his Presence blest. 

'Here will I fix my gracious Throne, 

And reign forever, saith the LOED : 
Here shall my Power and Love be known. 
And Blessings shall attend my "Word. 

'Here I will meet the hungry Poor, 

And fill their Souls with living Bread, 
Sinners that wait before my Door, 
With sweet Provision shall be fed. 

'Girded with Truth and cloathed with Grace 

My Priests, my Ministers, shall shine. 
Not Aaron in his costly Dress 
Made an Appearance so divine. 

'Sun, Moon and Stars convey his Praise 

Pound the whole Earth and never stand. 
So when his Truth began its Pace, 
It touch 'd and glanc'd on ev'ry Land. 


"Nor shall his spreading Gospel rest, 

'Till thro' the World his Truth has run, 
'Till Christ has all the Nations blest, 
That see the Light or feel the Sun. 

' ' 10. An Ode in German. 

"11. A Collection for the Benefit of the Institution. 
"The Procession to return to the Court House in the fore- 
going Order." 

We do not know who was the author of the ode which 
appears in the English program. The German poetical 
compositions were imdoubtedly written by Dr. Helmuth, 
and are, we think, of a superior order. Though it might 
serve no useful purpose to reproduce these poems in the 
original, the following stanza is not without interest as 
containing a direct reference to Benjamin Franklin: 

"Komm und besuehe, du Heiland der Menschen, 
Deine Frahkline, dir heute geweiht, 
Sie sey die wiirdige Tochter des Greisen, 
Dessen Erkenntnisz die Staaten verneut, 
Hore, wir singen in betenden Weisen, 
Komm und beziehe 

Ja eigne sie heut. " 

This stanza may be roughly rendered: 

"Come Thou and visit, Saviour of Mankind, 
Pranklinia, which this day thy blessing awaits. 
May she deserve to be known as the daughter 
Of the sage who renews the union of States. 
Hear us, Lord, while we sing as we pray. 
Come Thou and dwell with 

Accept her to-day ! ' ' 


Even with the imperfect data at our command it might 
be possible to paint a picture of some of the events of the 
one great day in the history of Franklin College. It would 
not be difficult to secure portraits of many of the eminent 
men who dignified the occasion by their presence. Unfor- 
tunately there were no reporters in those days, and the ac- 
counts contained in the papers of the times are exceedingly 
meagre. There is, in fact, so far as we know but one com- 
paratively full account of the proceedings of the day, and 
this, though anonymous, was certainly written by Dr. 
Rush. It appeared on the same day, June 13, 1787, in 
both the Pennsylvania Gazette and the Pennsylvania 
Advertiser, and a literal translation was published in the 
Philadelphische Correspondenz of the 19th of the same 
month. This article consists of two parts which seem at 
first to be separate contributions, but they are internally 
connected and were evidently prepared by the same hand. 
The following has been transcribed from the Pennsylvania 


"Lancastee, June 8, 1787. 

"Tuesday last being appointed by the charter of the Ger- 
man College for the first meeting of the Trustees, they assem- 
bled at ten o'clock at the Court House and unanimously 
elected : 

"The Eev. Henry Muhlenberg, Principal of the College; 

"The Eev. William Hendel, Vice-Principal; 

"The Eev. Frederick Valentine Melsheimer,^ Professor of 
the Latin, Greek and German languages; 

"Mr. William Eeiehenbach, Professor of Mathematics; 

"And the Eev. Joseph Hutchins, Professor of the English 
language and Belles Lettres. 

" In the original article the name of Dr. Hendel is misspelled 
" Handell " and that of Professor Melsheimer appears as " Miltz- 


' ' The next day the Faculty of the College, followed by the 
Trustees, the Clergy of the German Reformed Coetus and 
the Lutheran Synod, the ofiicers of all the religious societies 
in the town, and many other respectable citizens, proceeded in 
procession from the Court House to the Lutheran church, 
where the Eev. Mr. Weiberg opened the divine service with 
an excellent prayer, suited to the occasion. Afterwards the 
Rev. Mr. Muhlenberg delivered an elegant discourse in the 
German language, in which he recommended in strong terms 
the necessity of human learning to his German fellow-citi- 
zens, and showed its influence upon religion, government, 
manners and the various professions and occupations of man. 
This discourse was followed by one in English, in which the 
same subjects were handled with great ingenuity by the Rev. 
Mr. Hutchins. Several hymns composed and hymns chosen 
for the occasion, in German and English, were sung (accom- 
panied with the organ) in a manner that pleased and 
afEected everybody. The whole was concluded with a well 
adapted prayer by the Rev. Mr. Herbst, Minister of the 
Moravian church of this town, to the great satisfaction and 
entertainment of a very crowded audience. 

"Extract from a letter from Lancaster, dated June 7. 

"We were yesterday gratified with a scene to this part of 
Pennsylvania entirely new, and which is both grand and im- 
portant — I mean the consecration and dedication of a Semi- 
nary of Learning. 

"On this occasion the people assembled from all parts of 
the adjacent country, to the amount of some thousands. The 
ceremony was calculated to excite in the minds of the very 
crowded audience the most agreeable emotions. The whole 
was conducted with a degree of decorum and splendor which 
I cannot find words to describe. But a circumstance which 
must be truly grateful to the mind of every good man, justly 


deserves to be mentioned. It was a spectacle beautiful in 
itself, and which we may with certainty pronounce no age or 
country, nor any set of people, ever beheld before. On the 
same day, in the same church, and to the same set of Chris- 
tians, the ministers of different religious persuasions succes- 
sively joined in the worship and adoration of the Supreme 
Being! a type, however small, of the glorious reign of the 
Messiah which we are promised will one day come. 

"The music was well adapted to the solemn occasion, and 
was performed in a masterly manner. The principal who, I 
am told (for I have not the pleasure of a personal acquaint- 
ance with him)^ is a man of extensive learning and great 
liberality of sentiment, and who is universally beloved, de- 
livered a judicious and elegant sermon, and after some inter- 
ruption of music, a sensible discourse in English was delivered 
by one of the professors. The subject of this last sermon was 
the general utility of learning, and was calculated to impress 
upon every heart the exalted principles of benevolence. 

"All the teachers in the college are equally qualified with 
the principal for the branches of literature assigned to them. 
Mr. Hendel, the Vice-Principal, is a man of profound learn- 
ing and of a most exemplary character. The Professor of the 
Latin, Greek and German languages is a stranger to this 
place, but comes recommended to us as a man of critical 
knowledge and taste in polite literature. Mr. Hutchins, who 
was educated in the college of Philadelphia under Drs. Smith 
and Allison, is greatly esteemed among us, and has taught 
a school here for some time past with great reputation. The 
Professor of Mathematics is said to be an able man in his 
way. In short, a cluster of more learned or better qualified 
masters, I believe, have not met in any university. 

' ' I am informed that in the prosecution of the business re- 

^Dr. Rush was not at this time acquainted with Dr. Muhlenberg, 
but they began to correspond in the same month and soon afterwards 
became intimate friends. 


lative to the institution the greatest unanimity and har- 
mony subsisted among the trustees, tho' composed of gentle- 
men of a variety of different denominations and even of 
different countries — a striking mark of the powerful effect of 
a liberal education, which (with perhaps a few instances to 
the contrary) will enlarge the mind and fill it with the 
purest sentiments of patriotism and public spirit! And it 
may not be unjustly remarked that men of science never 
suffer form to impede the prosecution of any undertaking 
which may tend to the general welfare. 

' ' From the establishment of this college a new era will com- 
mence in Pennsylvania. The introduction of the English lan- 
guage among our Germans, who constitute at least one fourth 
of the inhabitants of the State, cannot fail of being attended 
with the happiest consequences both to themselves and to 
the public, while their own language will hereby be pre- 
served from extinction and corruption by being granmiatically 
taught in the college, a circumstance which will enable them 
to become a vehicle to our country of all the discoveries of one 
of the most learned nations of Europe." 

To this account of the "Dedication" we may be per- 
mitted to add a few remarks. Dr. Muhlenberg's discourse 
was in fact a sermon, based on Ephesians 6, 4: "Ye 
fathers, bring up your children in the nurture and admoni- 
tion of the Lord." It was well prepared, according to ac- 
cepted standards, but its exhortations were general and it 
contained nothing of historic interest. This discourse was 
subsequently printed, and a copy is now in our possession.^ 

'Eine Rede, gehalten den 6ten Juny 1787, bey der Einweihung 
von der Deutsohen Hohen Schule oder Franklin Collegium in Lancas- 
ter, von Gotthilf Hen. Muhlenberg, Principal des CoUegiums und 
Pastor der Dreieinigkeits Kirche daselbst. Auf Verlangen der 
Trustees zum Druck befordert. Lancaster: Gedruckt by Albrecht 
und Lahn, 1788. 


The selection of the Eev. Joseph Hutching to preach the 
English sermon was possibly a mistake. He was rector of 
St. James Episcopal church, of Lancaster, which was then 
a very small parish, and had been chosen professor of 
English in the new institution. It was naturally sup- 
posed that he was especially qualified to speak in the lan- 
guage of which he was an acknowledged master. It 
seems, however, that he was lacking in tact and uncon- 
sciously failed to be in full sympathy with the cause 
which he had been called to advocate. In a letter, dated 
June 25, 1T87, Dr. Muhlenberg says: "Mr. Hutchins, 
I am sorry to inform you, is very ailing. He is a gentle- 
man very fit for his business — only a little prejudiced 
against the Germans. However, that wiU wear off." 

The sermon preached by Mr. Hutchins was an excellent 
literary production. The text was: "And the Jews mar- 
velled, saying, 'How knoweth this man letters, having 
never learned ?'" John 1, 15. Unless the utterances of the 
speaker were greatly toned down in the printed copy, this 
discourse did not deserve the sharp criticism which it re- 
ceived; but it certainly contained passages which were 
liable to misconstruction and might better have remained 
unspoken. Dr. Hutchins said: 

"When liberal knowledge shall be more generally diffused 
it wiU open more extensive prospects in religion to the view 
of the different Christian societies, convincing them that the 
more restrictive their rules may be for confining their disciples 
within a particular pale, the more inconsistent they are with 
the universal charity prescribed by the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 
Men ■will then grow ashamed of keeping up unsocial and un- 
christian distinctions among disciples of the same master, 
founded merely upon old scholastic unintelligible tenets of 


faith, ignorant corruptions of primitive Christianity, and 
traditional prejudices in favour of languages, forms, and cus- 
toms, at best indifferent, and often destructive to Christian 
charity and social peace. Enlightened by the penetrating 
beams of science. Christians will fix the Bible as the universal 
standard of their faith, and being more capable of under- 
standing its doctrines, will sacrifice all inferior considerations 
to the establishment of one Catholic church." 

To such sentiments no valid exception can be taken, but 
it is easy to see how readily they might be misinterpreted. 
Dr. Hutchins was an Episcopal clergyman, and must have 
known that his election was not regarded with universal 
favor. The enemies of higher education had boldly as- 
serted that its introduction would result in the establish- 
ment of a national church after the English pattern; and 
any remarks which might even remotely be understood 
as favoring such a purpose should have been carefully 

In his argument for the general use of the English lan- 
guage Dr. Hutchins was even less prudent. The follow- 
ing extracts will show its general character: 

"Let these schools be the vehicles of a more accurate and 
general knowledge of the English language. Whatever im- 
pediments you throw in the course of spreading this language 
in its true pronunciation and elegance among your children, 
will be so many obstructions to their future interest in private 
and public life, to their future eminence in the public coimcila 
of America, and to that national union with their fellow citi- 
zens of the United States which the charity of the Christian, 
the humanity of the philosopher, and the wisdom of the poli- 
tician are anxiously wishing to promote. As the limited 
capacity of man can very seldom attain excellence in more 
than one language, the study of English will consequently 


demand the principal attention of your children. ... On the 
score of religion you can have no reasonable objection to the 
use of the English tongue, because it is undoubtedly as proper 
as the German for the conveyance of religious instruction to 
your children. The German may be studied as a secondary, 
useful language, and no English American would ever wish to 
oppose it in that view; for we must all allow a skill in lan- 
guages to be frequently a useful and at all times an ornamental 
part of a liberal education; and I particularly regret that my 
own deficiency has deprived me to-day of much pleasure and 
improvement from my learned brother's German discourse." 

In the course of time the correctness of the orator's 
views has become evident ; but their utterance on this occa- 
sion was at least premature. It must be remembered that 
the larger part of the audience was composed of men whose 
chief purpose in the establishment of the new college was 
the preservation and advancement of the German lan- 
guage in America. They had hoped to found an institution 
in which the study of German would "demand the prin- 
cipal attention of their children" and English might be 
studied as "a secondary, useful language." It was a vain 
hope, but it might have been better to suffer them to learn 
the facts by actual experience. 

Curiously enough Dr. Hutchins seems never to have 
realized the fact that he had made a mistake. After nine- 
teen years — ^when he seems to have forgotten the exact 
date of its delivery — ^he published his address in pamphlet 
form,' dedicated "to the Germans and their descendants 
in the Borough of Lancaster, Pennsylvania." In a brief 

lA Sermon preached in the Lutheran Church on the opening of 
Franklin College, in the Borough of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, July 
17, 1787. By Joseph Hutchins, D.B., Philadelphia: Printed by 
Daniel Humphreys, No. 272 South Front Street, 1806, pp. 22. 


introduction he stated that "previously to the opening of 
Franklin College" he had been requested by nine of the 
Trustees in the city of Philadelphia "to show that the Col- 
lege was founded for cultivating the English language as 
well as other literary purposes." He says : 

"When the usual complinient of requesting me to publish 
it was paid me by the Trustees, I was discouraged by some par- 
ticular circumstances from the publication: But as a great 
change in your opinions and my situation has been made since 
that period, and some of my friends encourage me to hope for 
the public indulgence of this limited performance, I take the 
liberty of dedicating it to your particular patronage, and of 
expressing my grateful acknowledgment of the many favors 
which I have received from the respectable inhabitants of 

It is not easy to account for the publication of this ad- 
dress, so many years after the occasion that produced it. 
Possibly its contents had been misrepresented, and its 
author may have suffered from what he regarded as a bur- 
den of unjust imputations. Under such circumstances it 
was, of course, desirable that it should be printed ; but re- 
membering the conditions under which it was delivered it 
is easy to see that its general effect must have proved at 
least discouraging. 



Crevecoeub's Statement — Franklin at the Constitution ai Con- 
vention — The Abb£ Mobbllet — Franklin's Letter to 
His Sister — His Presence at the Opening of 
THE College. 

"Was Benjamin Franklin present at the Opening of the 
College?" At the Centennial in 188Y this question was 
frequently discussed. In the program of the Opening Ex- 
ercises, in 1787, the name of Franklin did not appear, 
nor was it mentioned in the reports which appeared in 
the papers of the day. Franklin was at that time past 
eighty-one years of age, and was actively engaged in Phil- 
adelphia as a member of the Constitutional Convention. 
It, therefore, seemed hardly probable that he would have 
undertaken a toilsome journey to Lancaster to be present 
merely as a spectator. 

Under these circumstances no one would have ventured 
to assert that Franklin was personally present at the open- 
ing of the College that was to bear his name, if it had not 
been for certain explicit statements in Duyckinck's " Cyclo- 
paedia of American Literature."^ In a sketch of the life 
and works of Hector St. John Crevecoeur,'* the author says 

iSee Vol. 1, pp. 174 and 175. 

2 Hector St. John Creveeoeur was born in 1731, at Caen in Nor- 
mandy, and died at Sarcelles, November, 1813. He was educated 
in England, and in 1754 came to America, settling on a farm near 
New York. In 1781 he returned to France, publishing in London, 
in English, his Letters from an American Fa/rmer, which were after- 
wards translated and published in French. In 1783 he returned to 



concerning his Voyage: "It contains mucli interesting 
matter relating to the Indians, the internal improvements 
of the country, agriculture, and a curious conversation on 
the first peopling and the antiquities of the country with 
Tranklin, vs^hom St. John accompanied in 1787 to Lancas- 
ter, when the sage laid the foundation-stone of his German 
college at that place." Turning to the opposite page we 
find the following paragraph, translated from Orevecoeur's 

"In the year 1787 I accompanied the venerable Frank- 
lin, at that time Governor of Pennsylvania, on a journey 
to Lancaster, where he had been invited to lay the corner- 
stone of a college which he had founded there for the Ger- 
mans. In the evening of the day of the ceremony, we were 
talking of the different nations which inhabit the continent, 
of their aversion to agriculture, etc., when one 6f the prin- 
cipal inhabitants of the city said to him: 'Governor, where 
do you think these nations came from? Do you consider 
them aborigines? Have you heard of the ancient fortifica- 
tions and tombs which have been recently discovered in the 
west?' " 

Then follows a long and interesting discussion of the 
subject which was thus introduced, but with this we are not 
now especially concerned. Our chief interest in the con- 
versation is derived from the fact that it was held in Lan- 

New York as French Consul, retaining his office until 1793. At this 
time he travelled extensively and in 1801 published in three volumes 
a work entitled: Voyage dans la HoMte Permsylvanie et dans I'Etat 
de New York. Samuel Breck, of Philadelphia, who saw him in 
Paris, says concerning him in his Recollections : " St. John was by 
nature, by education, and by his writings a philanthropist; a man 
of serene temper and pure benevolence. The milk of human kindness 
circulated in every vein. Of manners unassuming; prompt to serve, 
slow to censure; intelligent, beloved and highly worthy of the esteem 
and respect which he everywhere received." 


caster on the evening of the formal opening of Eranklin 

Of course, the occasion to which reference is here made 
■was not literally the laying of a corner-stone, for the col- 
lege had no building of its own until a later period. It 
was the laying of a corner-stone in a figurative sense ; or, 
as it is expressed in the "Address to the Germans," "the 
beginning of an institution that was to be erected." 

The presence of Dr. Franklin was at one time questioned 
on the ground that he was, from May 25 to September 17, 
1787, a member of the Constitutional Convention, con- 
vened in Philadelphia, and that he could not well have been 
absent from his place. In reply it might be urged that 
Franklin was not one of the original delegates to the Con- 
vention, and did not appear there until the 25th of May. 
He was at the same time Governor — then termed President 
of the Supreme Executive Council — and was no doubt at 
liberty, more than others, to be absent from the sessions of 
the Convention for important reasons. It was never inti- 

1 At the request of the present writer the late Rev. Dr. F. A. 
Muhlenberg examined the French edition of Crevecoeur's work, of 
which a copy is preserved by the Philadelphia Library Company. la 
a letter dated July 24, 1887, he says: " In the 2d chapter I found the 
same in substance with that given in Duyckinck, and the conversation 
of Dr. Franklin with one of the citizens of the ' ville ' on the subject 
of the Indians of the country. The conversation is said to have 
taken place after the ceremonies. The words used by Mr. Crevecoeur 
are ' la premiere pierre.' Such an explicit statement with such de- 
tails could not be questioned. No man, in the possession of reason, 
would attempt to deceive the world in such a fashion. Besides, in 
the other parts of his work, consisting of three volumes in this 
edition, he gives descriptions of our country with engravings which 
prove that he was an eye-witness of what he describes, and his truth- 
ful character. Still farther, all the books on bibliography repre- 
sent him as a reliable author. Dr. Franklin was, therefore, in Lan- 
caster at what Mr. Crevecoeur calls the laying of the ' premiere 
pierre' in the year 1787." 


mated that his membership in the Convention induced him 
to neglect his duties as Governor of the State. On this sub- 
ject "we are not, however left in the dark. The records of 
the Convention have been frequently and carefully ex- 
amined, and it is plain that he was absent from its sessions 
at the time of the opening of Franklin College. Perhaps 
we can do no better than to quote from the letter of Dr. F. 
A. Muhlenberg to which we have already referred: "I 
have examined Madison's, Elliott's and Yates' Reports, 
and one other the author of which I do not now remember. 
I find that Dr. Fraiiklin is reported by one and all of these 
authorities as present at the Constitutional Convention on 
Saturday and Monday, the 2nd and 4th of June, taking 
part also in the proceedings, but there is no mention of his 
name or allusion to him on Wednesday, Thursday and 
Friday, the 6th, 7th and 8th of June, but on Saturday, 9th, 
his name again appears. Here is a margin to render it 
probable that he was absent for cause. What other cause 
coidd be assigned than the one in which he was deeply in- 
terested, for which he had labored earnestly, to which he 
had contributed £200 — an institution called by his honored 
name, and for the benefit of the Germans for whom he had 
been performing services in many ways, even to the pub- 
lishing of catechisms and religious books in their native 
language. On these days, it may be said, there were no 
subjects under discussion demanding his presence." 

On this subject it is not necessary to enlarge, as the fact 
that he was absent from the Convention at the time men- 
tioned is now generally acknowledged. 

Since the publication of the author's monograph on 
"The Founding of JFranklin College" certain facts have 
come to our knowledge which would strengthen our posi- 


tion, if that were necessary. Immediately after the Dedi- 
cation Franklin wrote to his friend the Abbe Morellet, in 
Trance, sending him at the same time a pamphlet which 
was probably a copy of the Charter. In his reply, dated 
"Auteuil, July 31, 1Y87," Morellet says: 

"In the dedication of your college in the county of Lan- 
caster and the fine procession, and the religious ceremony, 
where were met together Presbyterians, Episcopalians, 
Lutherans, Catholics, Moravians, e tutti quanti, there was 
toleration in practice. I have translated the whole of the 
pamphlet which you sent me, and had it inserted in our 
Mercury."^ We are unable to resist the conclusion that 
Franklin had given his friend a written description of 
"the fine procession and the religious ceremony" which 
he had witnessed when he visited Lancaster. 

To add to the evidence thus gathered a letter was dis- 
covered, written by Franklin to his sister, Mrs. Mecom, 
of Boston, in which the philosopher expressed his intention 
of going to Lancaster, to be present at the opening of the 
new college. This letter was discovered by the late Dr. F. 
D. Stone, librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the fact of its existence was soon afterwards 
communicated to the present writer. Dr. Stone died sud- 
denly, failing to furnish the college with a copy of this 
letter, as had been expected ; but it was shown by him to 
Dr. John Bach McMaster, Professor in the University of 
Pennsylvania. Dr. McMaster's recollection of the subject 
is clear, and he has kindly permitted us to refer to him 
with regard to the letter and its contents. Though at 
the present writing the locality of the original letter cannot 

iThis letter appears in Bigelow's Edition, X., 399. For this 
reference the author is indebted to the late Paul Leicester Ford, 
of New York. 


be determined, the fact of its existence may be regarded as 

The fact of Dr. Franklin's presence at the Formal Open- 
ing having been established, it remains for us to suggest an 
explanation of the silence which we observe in the publica- 
tions of the day. As far as the Program is concerned it 
appears from Dr. Helmuth's letter that it was printed be- 
fore the 19th of March ; and at Franklin's great age he can 
hardly have deemed it safe to make engagements so far 
ahead, but when the time came he joined the company of 
eminent Philadelphians in their excursion to Lancaster. 
Though he may not have been strong enough to deliver an 


extended address, we do not read that he suffered his age to 
excuse him from the performance of official duty; and it 
was as Governor of the State, as well as patron of the insti- 
tution, that he undertook this journey. Possibly, at a suit- 
able place in the exercises, he may have spoken a few words, 
formally declaring the college opened ; but the main thing 
was — as another has expressed it — that "he was present 
and beamed upon the multitude." 


Men rarely seem as great to their cotemporaries as they 
appear to subsequent generations; and if the name of 
Franklin does not appear in the brief notices contained in 
cotemporary newspapers, the editors probably did not re- 
gard the fact of his presence as peculiarly interesting to 
their readers. To them he was merely the most distin- 
guished of a large company of prominent men. The only 
reporter for the press — so far as we know — ^was Dr. Benja- 
min Rush, who was next to Franklin the most eminent 
man in the State. May it not here be suggested that, in 
writing to the papers. Dr. Rush did not regard himself as 
especially called upon to increase the glory of his great 
cotemporary ? 

Undoubtedly Dr. Franklin was present at what has 
euphemistically been called"the laying of the corner-stone." 
Less than three years after this event he finished his career, 
and beyond his early liberality and patronage he could 
accomplish but little for the infant college. The fact of 
his earnest participation in this educational movement 
should, however, not be forgotten. It is an honor to the 
institution which he helped to found; and his honorable 
career may be held up as an ideal to many subsequent gen- 
erations. Take him all in all, the world has had few 
greater men than Benjamin Franklin. 



The PEorESsoBS — Hendel's Lettbes to De. Rush — List op 
Students — Annuai, Festivais. 

On the 18th of July, 1787, the work of instruction was 
begun in the "Brew House." Dr. F. A. Muhlenberg has 
preserved the tradition that the building was too small to 
accommodate the school, and that recitations were also held 
in the parochial school-houses of the Lutheran and Re- 


formed churches. In the meantime, however, the "Store 
House" was put into proper condition, and was occupied 
as a college building not later than the Spring of the fol- 
lowing year.^ 

iln the recently published Life of Henry Harbaugh, page 179, 
appears a memorandum, written by Dr. Harbaugh himself, in which 
it is stated that Franklin College " was first held on Water Street, 
the second house above or north of Orange on the west side, in a 
atone building which was afterwards turned into a brewery." This 



The Faculty of the new institution consisted of men of 
decided ability, of whom Dr. Eush, as already quoted, had 
justly said: "A cluster of more learned or better qualified 
masters, I believe, have not met in any university." Con- 
cerning the President and Vice-President — Drs. Muhlen- 
berg and Hendel — ^we have already spoken at some length ; 
but several other members of the Faculty were hardly less 

Feedeeick Valentine Melsheimee was Professor of 
Greek, Latin and German. He became the head of the 
German department, and may have been regarded by the 
students as the President of the college, though we can find 
no proof that he ever actually occupied that office. In the 
scientific history of America he holds a prominent place, 
having frequently been called "the father of American 
entomology."^ Though there was no titular professor of 

statement was made on the authority of Col. Mayer, who was at the 
time of writing seventy-nine years old. After carefully examining 
the subject we are, however, forced to the conclusion that Col. Mayer 
must have been mistaken. If a school was ever held at the place 
indicated it may have been the Select School which was held in 
Lancaster prior to the incorporation of the college, or possibly it was 
occupied at some subsequent time when the college building was being 

1 Frederick Valentine Melsheimer was born in Negenborn, near 
Holzminden, Brunswick, Germany, September 25, 1749. His father, 
John Sebastian Melsheimer, was superintendent of forestry to the 
duke. The son was educated at Holzminden and at the University 
of Helmstadt. Having been ordained to the ministry he was ap- 
pointed Chaplain of the Brunswick regiment of dragoons and came 
to America in 1776, landing at Quebec. On June 3, 1779, he was 
married at Bethlehem, Pa., to Mary Agnes Mann. In 1779 he be- 
came pastor of five congregations in Dauphin county; was admitted 
to membership in the Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania in 
1785; removed to Manheim, Lancaster county, and thence to New 
Holland in the same year. Having been elected professor in Frank- 
lin College in 1787 he resided in Lancaster for about two years. He 


Natural Sciences in Franklin College, the presence in the 
Faculty of such men as Muhlenherg and Melsheimer might 
have afforded to students in this department opportunities 
for advanced study which could hardly have been found 
elsewhere in America. 

William EEiCHEiirBACH, Professor of Mathematics, was 
bom January 26, 1749, in Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Ger- 
many; and died in Lancaster, May 15, 1821. Concerning 
his early life little is known ; but he was thoroughly edu- 
cated at Marseilles,^ France, and elsewhere. In 1785 he 
left Germany, and after spending some time in travel 
arrived in America. Having been chosen a professor in 
Franklin College he was present on the first day of the first 
session, and made the earliest record of students, which is 
still extant. Even at this early date he wrote English cor- 
rectly, as appears from the records of the college; but his 
private memoranda were frequently in Latin. He seems 
to have served as treasurer of the Faculty. 

was elected pastor of the Lutheran Church of Hanover, Pa., August 
19, 1789, and served that charge until his death, June 30, 1814. 

Professor Melsheimer was a voluminous author. Among his 
theological writings was a Reply to Thomas Paine which was 
highly appreciated. It was, however, as a scientist that he achieved 
the highest distinction. His Insects of Pennsylvania, published 
in 1806, contained a description and classification of 1,363 species of 
beetles and was the first work of its kind ever published in America. 
It was succeeded by a more extensive work, entitled American Ento- 
mology, or Description of the Insects of North America, Philadel- 
phia, 1810. His entomological work was continued by his sons, 
who added largely to his collection which is now part of the Agassiz 
collection of Harvard University. Schierenbeck says : " Melsheimer 
was a highly cultured and many sided scholar who sympathized with 
everything that was useful and beautiful." 

For much of this information the author is indebted to Dr. J. A. 
Melsheimer, of Hanover, Pa. See also Sallesche Nachrichten and 
Schierenbeck's Ldves of Lutheran Ministers. 

' Professor S. S. Rathvon, in Harris's Biographical History. 


How long Professor Reichenbach continued in the ser- 
vice of the college we cannot certainly say; but it is most 
probable that he nominally retained his professorship to 
the end of his life. As late as 1819 — ^two years before his 
death — ^he was directed, with two members of the Board, 
"to have a room prepared for a library."^ He bequeathed 
a collection of books — ^mostly Latin folios and quartos — ^to 
Franklin College ; and a list of these volumes, in Professor 
Eeichenbach's autograph, is in possession of the institution. 
These books — about seventy in number — ^no doubt consti- 
tuted the nucleus of the college library. The first volume 
on the list is entitled: "Manuscript Records of the Trans- 
actions and the Accounts of the Federal Society for sup- 
porting a school in Lancaster, 1791." This precious docu- 
ment, alas ! is no longer to be found. 

Soon after Eeichenbach's arrival a German noble- 
man, Heinrich von Biilow, settled in Lancaster. Von 
Billow was an enthusiastic Swedenborgian, and through 
his influence Professor Reichenbach, who had previously 
been a Moravian, publicly embraced the doctrines of 
the great mystic philosopher. After the return of Von 
Biilow to Europe Reichenbach was for many years the 
leader of the little band of "Receivers" which had been 
organized in Lancaster, and wrote extensively in behaK of 
the new doctrine. His best known work is "Agathon" 
which appeared in English and German.* Though the 
English version modestly claims that its substance is "ex- 
tracted from the voluminous writings of an eminent and 

•Minutes of the Board, page 25. 

Agathon on Divine Worship. Translated from the German 
original Manuscript. Lancaster, Joseph Ehrenfried, 1812. 

Agathon fiber Wahren Gottesdienst. UrsprUnglich Deutsch in 
Pennsylvanien gesehrielen. Lancaster, Joseph Ehrenfried, 1813. 


enlightened scribe of the Lord" — probably Baron Von 
Biilow — the two versions differ greatly, and it is evident 
that a large part is original with Keichenbach. 

Another book which bears traces of Eeichenbach's hand 
is an edition of Swedenborg's "Commentary on the 
Twenty-fourth Chapter of Matthew," published in Han- 
over, Pennsylvania, in 1806, by William D. Lepper. 
There is also a History of the Destruction of Jerusalem, 
translated by Eeichenbach and published by Ehrenf ried in 

Professor Eeichenbach was married in Lancaster to 
Elizabeth Graeff and they had several children. He be- 
came a prominent citizen, and after the college failed to 
provide him with an adequate income was widely known 
as an accomplished surveyor. Professor Eathvon says: 
"Eeichenbach was an extensive writer, and at his death 
left a large mass of manuscript, which was never utilized, 
and finally became extinct through age, mould and mice." 
His tombstone bears the following curious and thoroughly 
Swedenborgian inscription : 

" By a process which we call death the earthly part sunk here pre- 
cipitated ; 
The nobler part, by our good Lord, rose heavenly sublimated." 

Concerning the Eeverend Joseph Hutchins we have 
little information besides that which has already been 
given. He became Eector of St. James, Lancaster, in 
1783, and also taught a private school. When he resigned 
his professorship, in June, 1788, he published an adver- 
tisement which we reproduce exactly as it appeared, capi- 
tals and all: 

'The books here mentioned are in the library of the author. 
Minute research would probably reveal others, for Reichenbach was 
tor many years Ehrenfried's chief literary adviser and assistant. 


' ' Notice. 

"The Subscriber finding himself totally discouraged from 
staying in Lancaster, and unwilling to leave it with an un- 
faTorable Opinion of the Punctuality or Honesty of any 
Individual, will be exceedingly obliged to those who are in- 
debted to him for the schooling of their Children, to pay him 
in the Course of the present Month. His sole Dependence for 
his hard earned Money will be the Honor and Generosity of 
his Debtors; for he will sooner lose it than have recourse to 
legal Compulsion. If there are any too poor to pay him, a 
confession of their Inability will produce them a Eeceipt in 

"Joseph Hutchins. 

"Junes, 1788." 

Dr. Hutchins removed from Lancaster to Philadelphia, 
and subsequently became an influential clergyman. At 
this time, however, his circumstances can hardly have been 
encouraging ; for in a letter to Judge Yeates, dated Phila- 
delphia, September 20, 1788, he declared that he had "no 
resource but to solicit the equitable kindness of Franklin 

Immediately after the resignation of Dr. Hutchins the 
Board advertised for a successor, and William Stewart, 
A.M., was chosen in the following month. In 1Y89 he 
conducted public examinations in the college building, and 
on July 30, 1790, it is incidentally stated in the minutes 
that the meeting of the Board was held in Mr. Stewart's 
recitation room. On January 1, 1792, we find the Board 
once more directing an advertisement "in order to obtain 
a good and able teacher of the Latin and English lan- 
guages in the college." This was evidently soon after 
Professor Stewart's resignation. 

In brief, little is known concerning this professor, ex- 


eept what is contained in the following letter of recom- 
mendation from Dr. Rush, of which a copy is foxmd in 
the records : 

"Philada., July 13, 1788. 
"Dear Sir, 

' ' The bearer of this letter, Mr. Stewart, has been invited by 
your advertisement to offer himself as a Master of the Eng- 
lish and Latin School in Franklin College. He brings letters 
to this city from Ireland which speak in high terms of his 
moral character. His diploma and other certificates from the 
College of Glasgow in Scotland bear ample testimony to his 
literary qualifications. I hope he will suit the college and that 
you and he will long be happy together. 

"I lament that I had not the pleasure of seeing Dr. 
Muhlenberg last week. I did not know that he was in town 
till he had left it. Remember Mr. Tench Coxe. His zeal and 
abilities render him a most worthy and suitable instrument to 
advance the interest of the Germans in Pennsylvania. 

"With respectful compliments to your brother, Mr. Yeates, 
Mr. Chambers, Dr. Muhlenberg and all the members of the 

"I am. Dear Sir, 

"Yours sincerely, 

"Benjn. Bush." 

"John Hublet, Esq." 

In the meantime Muhlenberg and Hendel labored to- 
gether harmoniously as Principal and Vice-Principal. Im- 
mediately after the opening of the school Dr. Rush had 
written to both these gentlemen, delicately inquiring 
whether denominational differences might not interfere 
with their work. In his reply, dated June 25, 1787, Dr. 
Muhlenberg says : 

"We have hitherto lived in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, and though we differ in some little points in divinity 


and politics, I think in science and languages and the man- 
agement of the college we shall agree very well. The jealousy 
is chiefly among the common people, and is seldom observed 
among the more enlightened. ' ' 

Dr. Handel's letter is not quite so clear, though it is per- 
haps sufficiently intelligible. The writer was older than 
his colleague, to whom he referred in terms of the highest 
respect, but he could not help feeling that he had been 
placed in a position in which he could exert but little in- 
fluence. We shall not attempt to remove obscurities, but 
will give the letter as it was written: 

"Lancaster, August 8, 1787. 
"Dear Sir, 

"Having now on account of my circumstances given up the 
thought of going to Philadelphia this summer, I take this 
opportunity to acknowledge your favor of the 15th of June. 

"You were informed, I suppose, that the college hath been 
opened last month and from present prospects I hope with 
good success. It is quite necessary that we must endeavor to 
collect money for carrying on the Institution. I make no 
doubt that the subscription on our side will c&teris paribus not 
be behind those of other denominations. 

"It was not from jealousy but from a sensation common 
to all men my uneasiness took its rise. Regard is always had 
to seniority in such cases, and deviation from this rule hardly 
ever fails to produce disadvantageous reflections. It had been 
intimated to me very early that the institution would fail if 
the first principal was not chosen from the Lutherans ; this in- 
duced me to think that something more was intended by it 
than to give a proof of regard for a venerable minister who 
had zealously devoted his talents and his time to the service of 
the church. This added to the foregoing hindered me from 
sacrificing my feelings to the great esteem I have for the 
reverend father and his respectable family. 


"Belying, however, on the gracious assistance of God I have 
resolved to accept what has or will be entrusted to me, and as 
far as I am enabled to discharge it faithfully. 

"Your solemn assurance gives new life to the expectation 
I entertained, that you with Dr. White and the other trustees 
will be careful that the spirit as well as the letter of the 
Charter will be duly attended to. I think it the more neces- 
sary as the present proceedings will set precedents for future 

"May the merciful father of light kindle in every one of us 
a flame of holy desire to join hearts and hands for promoting 
through this Institution the glory of His name and the happi- 
ness of our fellow Christians. 

"I am with unfeigned respect, 

' ' Sir, your most humble servant, 

"Wm. Hendel."! 

The College of I^ew Jersey at Princeton, at its annual 
commencement in 1787 conferred the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Divinity on Helmuth, Weiberg, Muhlenberg and 

Hendel. This was a very unusual honor and indicated 

high appreciation of the part vrhich these gentlemen had 

taken in the establishment of Franklin College. In this 

connection the following letter from Dr. Hendel to Dr. 

Rush may be worthy of preservation : 

' The original of Hendel's letters here quoted are among the 
Rush papers. They are helieved to be the only letters written by 
Hendel in the English language now extant, and have surprised ua 
by their fluency in what was to him a foreign language. At a com- 
paratively early age the writer had suffered from a paralytic stroke 
which caused his hand to tremble — reminding us of the signature ot 
Stephen Hopkins attached to the Declaration of Independence — ^but 
his manuscript is neat and can be easily read. 


"Lancaster, October ye 8th, 1787. 
"Dear Sir, 

"The information you were pleased to communicate to me 
in your Favour of the 29th ult. was quite unexpected. I return 
my sincere thanks for your friendly congratulations. Your 
generous Friendship towards me hath certainly been the 
cause of using your connexion and influence with the vener- 
able gentlemen of the College of New Jersey to receive me, 
who is not personally acquainted with them, among the num- 
ber of their graduates. 

"As I observe that the manner of proceeding in this case 
differs from that which is usual with us, give me therefore 
leave to make a confidential request, that you would be so kind 
as to inform me when and how it might be proper to make 
an acknowledgment to the College. Your compliance with 
this request will add great obligations to the unfeigned respect 
and high esteem that is entertained by 

"Your most obedient servant, 

"Wm. Hendel." 

In a letter written in April, 1Y88, by the Rev. Frederick 
Delliker to the "Fathers" in Holland, in behalf of the Re- 
formed Ccetus, we find the following interesting passage. 

"We are encouraged by the fact that the College of New 
Jersey has conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity on 
Messrs. Hendel and Weyberg, and by the establishment of a 
German college in Lancaster. In order that you may under- 
stand the origin and arrangement of this very useful institu- 
tion, I enclose the Charter which has been granted by our 
honorable Assembly. I have nothing further to mention, 
except that the institution since its solemn inauguration on 
the 6th of June, 1787 (of which occasion I also enclose a 
printed program), has been conducted by its appointed teach- 
ers and professors, of whom Domine Hendel is Vice-Princi- 
pal, and has enjoyed a tolerably encouraging degree of pros- 
perity. ' ' 


In so far as the number of students was concerned the 
institution was certainly sufficiently prosperous. It was, 
however, found necessary, during the first year, to divide 
the college into two departments, German and English. 
It was prohably this fact that suggested the remark of a 
correspondent of the Lancaster Unpartheyische Zeitung 
of October 5, 178Y: "The English and Germans can never 
work together. The one says Shibboleth, the other says 

The German Department is known to have consisted 
chiefly of advanced students, but does not seem to have 
been very well attended. It was under special charge of 
Professor Melsheimer who reported to the Board that from 
October 17, 1788, to January 17, 1789, he had fourteen 
students.* In the previous year the number was probably 

iThe following list, signed by Professor Melsheimer has recently 
been discovered: 

" Names of Students instructed in the College from October 17, 
1788, to January 17, 1789: 

1. Peter Roth (Rhoads), Greek, Latin, History Geography, Corre- 


2. John Neuman, Greek, Latin, History, Geography, Corre- 

spondence, Mathematics, Composition. 

3. Abram Hendel, ditto. 
4.. John Faber, ditto. 

5. Henry Muhlenberg, History, Geography, Correspondence, Math- 

ematics, Composition. 

6. Frederick Muhlenberg, ditto. 

7. George Hendel, ditto. 

8. Carl Melsheimer, ditto. 

9. John Sehaflfner, Latin, German, Mathematics and Composi- 


10. Ludwig Schmidt, Will be admitted next Monday; to be 

instructed in the Sciences. 

11. Jacob MJiller, German, Reading, Composition, Mathe- 


12. Valentine Host, ditto. 

13. Henry Muhlenberg, ditto. 

14. Ernst Melsheimer, ditto." 


greater, but of this department we have no complete 
records. The English Department was more successful. 
It was evidently a somewhat miscellaneous school, consist- 
ing of hoys and girls of various grades of proficiency. In 
fact it was a high-school rather than a regular college. On 
the first floor of the college building there were three large 
rooms which were separated by folding-doors that could 
be opened as occasion demanded ; but it is to be feared that 
those that divided the Germans from the English were not 
thrown back as often as they should have been. 

We have a list of the scholars admitted to the English 
department of Franklin College during the first year of its 
existence.^ This list was printed, in 1887, in the Cen- 
tennial Catalogue of Franklin and Marshall College, but 
is deemed sufficiently interesting to be included in the 
present volume. 

Students in English Department. 

Samuel Bethel, Latin, Israel Cope, 

John Bradbum, Jasper Cope, 

George Bird, Latin, John Doersch, 

Mark Bird, George Eicholtz, 

William Coleman, Jacob Eicholtz, 

John Eicholtz, Michael Hubley, 

John Eberman, Henry Hubley, 

George Eberman, Samuel Hubley, 

John Pichtner, John Kagey, 

Casper Pordney, Jacob Krug, 

Jacob Frank, Henry Loeher, 

iThis manuscript was presented to Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege some years ago by the heirs of Professor Eeichenbach. It also 
contains a list of bills sent out by Dr. Hutchins, and thus incidentally 
gives the names of many early patrons. 



William Frank, 
Andrew Graff, 
M. George Graff, 
George Graeff, Jr. 
John Graeff, Jr., 
Hyman Gratz, 
Kichea Gratz, 
John Gibson, Oerma/n, 
Benjamin Grimier, 
Francis Hager, 
William Hamilton, Latin. 
Ludwick Heck, 
Abraham Hendel, 
George Hendel, 
Benjamin Henry, 
John Henry, 
Matthew Henry, Latin, 
William Henry, Latin, 
John Hoofnagle, 
Edward Hubley, 
George Hubley, 
Christopher Eeigart, 
Henry Eeigart, 
John Eeigart, 
Patton Eoss, 
William Eoss, Latin, 
Adam Eudisill, 
George Shell, 

Henry Moore, Latin, 

Frank Musser, 

George Musser, 

Augustus Miller, 

Frederick Miller, 

Timothy Miller, 

William Mars, 

William McCormiek, Latin, 

Frederick Miller, 

Henry Muhlenberg, 

Frederick Muhlenberg, 

John Nagle, 

Isaac Neaff, 

Daniel Newman, 

John Newman, Latin, 

Jacob Offner, 

John Offner, 

James Old, 

John Old, 

William Old, 

Lewis Peters, 

Henry Slough, Latin, 

George Stoneman, 

George Swope, 

Samuel Swope, 

Jacob Weidell, 

John Yeates, Latin, 

Barton Zantzinger, Latin. 

Susanna Bethel, 
Margaret Coleman, 
Susanna Frick, 
Elizabeth Graff, 
Elizabeth Graeff, 


Mary Hoofnagle, 
Eebecca Hoofnagle, 
Susanna Irich, 
Elizabeth Krugg, 
Frances Lowrey, 




Catharine Graeff, Margaret Moore, 

Mary Graff, Mary Musser, 

Mary Graeff, Catharine Musser, 

Sarah Graeff, Harriet Musser, 

Elizabeth Grubb, Juliana Musser, 

Catharine Hand, Sophia Musser, 

Dorothy Hand, Catharine Eeinig, 

Sarah Hand, Ann Euss, 

Augusta Hubley, Mary Sayre, 

Charlotte Hubley, Theodosia Sayre, 

Juliana Hubley, Mary Weaver, 

Catharine Hoofnagle, Mary Zantzinger, 

Charlotte Hoofnagle, Sarah Zantzinger. 

Though we have no complete list of the students of the 
German department, we know that several of them after- 
wards became distinguished. Among these were the Rev. 
John Theobald Faber, Jr., the Eev. Dr. Jacob Miller and 
Judge Peter Ehoads. There is no proof that this German 
department was kept separate after the resignation of Pro- 
fessor Melsheimer. 

It is not supposed that Pranklin College ever formally 
graduated students or conferred degrees in the liberal arts. 
It was, however, for some years customary to hold an 
annual festival which in some respects resembled a modem 
commencement. In the Lancaster Neue Unpartheyische 
Zeitung for November 5, 1788, we find a communication 
giving some account of the earliest of these festivals. It 
purports to be an extract from a letter addressed by a gen- 
tleman in Lancaster to a friend in Philadelphia. 

The following is a translation: 

"You inquire concerning the annual examinations of 
Franklin College, and whether it is worth while further to 


sustain the institution. On this subject I can give full in- 
formation, as I was from the beginning to the end an inter- 
ested spectator, and am glad to state that the exercises were 
equally honorable to teachers and students. They commenced 
at 9 o'clock A. M., October 17, and continued until 1 P. M. 
Dr. Muhlenberg opened with prayer. Immediately afterward 
two young orators invoked the interest and attention of the 
audience, and recommended the institution to their favor. 
This was done for the German students by Henry Muhlenberg, 
of Philadelphia, and for the English by Samuel Bethel. After 
these speeches the German class was examined. The pupils 
read slowly and distinctly, and replied very satisfactorily to 
certain questions in Christian doctrine. After this Peter Eoth, 
of Northampton, delivered a German oration to the effect that 
arts and sciences are conducive to rational advancement, and 
John Yeates recited an English ode to the Deity. Next the 
class in English reading was examined. I was curious to 
observe whether our German boys could pronounce English 
well, and I cannot say that I observed the slightest difference, 
in this respect, between them and those who were English 
born, except that the Germans read more slowly and dis- 

"This exercise was followed by two orations — one in Eng- 
lish, by Edward Hubley, and another in German, by Abraham 
Hendel — on the theme, ' How literary institutions may best be 
established.' Then the German students were examined in 
history and geography, particularly in those of the United 
States. You know how important this subject is, and you will 
approve of the fact that an hour daily is devoted to it in the 
college. The ready answers showed that it was a subject of 
interest. Immediately afterwards the pupils of the English 
class were examined in English grammar, and they answered 
very promptly. Next came a young Latin orator, John Neu- 
man. Whether it was the Latin language that affected me, 
or his gentle, cultured manner, I cannot tell. His beautiful 


discourse, based on Proverbs III., 13, 14, interested me ex- 
ceedingly. I am told that he is a young man who is distin- 
guished by industry, talents and good manners, but he is the 
son of a poor widow. If I were connected with the German 
society of Philadelphia, I should venture to recommend him 
to its good offices. The worthy members of that society have 
done much good to the youth of Philadelphia ; would they not 
be willing to extend their hand a little further? 

"Besides this oration, another discourse in Latin, pro- 
nounced according to the English dialect, was delivered by 
Henry Moore. You are probably aware that the English 
patrons have their children instructed in English Latin by the 
English professor, the German professor teaching the lan- 
guage with the German pronunciation. The great difference 
between these two methods of pronunciation I observed during 
the examination of the pupils. The German Latinists trans- 
lated a passage and freely answered questions in grammar 
antiquities and history, and I believe every unprejudiced judge 
must have acknowledged that, considering the time employed 
in study, the students had made remarkable progress. The 
English Latinists were of various degrees of proficiency, and 
translated from Virgil down to the simplest exercises. I am 
not sufficiently familiar with their dialect to pass judgment on 
their scholarship. They answered every question promptly. 

' ' After these examinations there were exercises in declama- 
tion. Barton Zantzinger and Henry Schlauch recited English 
verses, and the exercises concluded with two pleasantly written 
dialogues. The subject of the first was, 'The Advantage of 
Education for Mechanics.' George SchafEner and George 
Hendel spoke on this subject, to the great satisfaction of the 
audience. The second dialogue treated the question, 'Why 
do so few Germans give their children a good education?' 
This dialogue was spoken by Frederick Muhlenberg, of Phila- 
delphia, Jacob Miller and George Prick, and this concluded 
the examination. 


"The attention of the audience, and their pleased expression 
of countenance, were certain signs of their satisfaction, and I 
feel sure that the college will receive their future support. 

"After the examination Dr. Hendel, in the name of the 
trustees, thanked the professors, Messrs. Melsheimer and 
Stewart, expressed equal satisfaction with the students, gave 
the latter some wholesome advice, and commended the insti- 
tution to the providence of God. 

"As all this had been done in German, a similar address 
was made in English by the Eev. Mr. Herbst,^ pastor of the 
Moravian church. Possibly I may soon send you copies of 
some of the orations and addresses, which I am sure you will 
read with pleasure. I trust you will continue to be a faithful 
friend of Franklin College." 

In the following year, 1789, the closing exercises were 
held on the 3d of July. From an article which greatly re- 
sembled the one which we have quoted, and was evidently 
written by the same hand, we learn that there had been 
"evident improvement since the last examination." Ora- 
tions were delivered in English by Messrs. Moore and 
Eoth, in German by John T. Faber, and in Greek by John 
INeuman. The writer says: "The Greek classes are still 
rather weak. The English students translated passages 
from the ISTew Testament, and the Germans rendered ex- 
tracts from Lucian and from a small Greek chrestomathy, 
which has been introduced in the institution." The report 
concludes as follows: 

'This gentleman, it will be remembered, offered prayer at the 
formal opening of the college, June 6, 1787. A contemporary manu- 
script copy of that paper is in our possession. As it covers ten 
closely written pages one might almost be tempted to say of it, as 
^schines did of some of the Resolutions of Demosthenes, that "it 
is as long as the Iliad." It closes with a special intercession for 
" the noble Protector of this College, His Excellency President Ben- 
jamin Franklin." 


"When we consider the hrief time that has elapsed since 
the founding of the school it must be aekowledged that much 
has been done, and it certainly deserves our warmest sympathy 
and support. It would be a great pity if — as has been sug- 
gested — the institution should finally fail for lack of funds. 
I am not willing to give up the hope that the German national 
spirit will finally awake, and that Franklin's school will be 
properly supported. If this does not speedily occur the Ger- 
mans of Pennsylvania will fail to know the things which 
belong to their peace, and a late repentance will not atone for 
their present neglect." 



Local Opposition — "Hans Ehelich" — Appeal foe Aid — De. 

Rush's Letter — Melsheimee's Report — The Fathers in 

Holland — Geeman Depaetment. 

At the founding of Franklin College it had been con- 
fidently expected that the Grermans of all denominations 
would immediately gather to its support; but in this re- 
spect the founders must have been grievously disappointed. 
Though the Reformed and Lutherans and the "outside 
community" of the town of Lancaster were sufficiently 
sympathetic, it seemed impossible to inspire the country 
people with any degree of interest. The so-called "Sect- 
People" were apathetic, if not hostile; and, in fact, very 
few uneducated people appreciated the value of higher 
culture. 'No doubt the objections which were urged 
against the new institution were sufficiently stupid, but 
we cannot help regarding it as a mistake that some of its 
supporters rushed into print, and employed ridicule as a 
weapon of defense. "Hans Ehrlich" assimied the char- 
acter of a farmer, and expressed himself in language 
which was all the more cutting because it was based on 
sentiments which actually existed in certain rustic com- 
munities. In one of his articles he says : 

"I am told that Lancaster has been selected to be the seat 
of a German college. Possibly, it is intended to make the 
children wiser than the parents and that does not please me 
at all. I am not a learned man, but I have no occasion to 



know more than I already know. My deceased father did not 
know as much as I do, for he could neither read nor write, 
and when he wanted to cipher he counted his fingers, or 
made crosses over the door. For all that, he was an excel- 
lent man, ate his pork and drank his cider daily with a good 
appetite, and died peacefully in his eighty-sixth year, having 
first bequeathed his entire farm to me. My two boys need 
not know more than I do, for the egg must not be wiser than 
the hen. My wife would like to send my son, Christopher, 
to college, for his mother's brother was a Master of Arts; 
but I shall have a word to say to that, for the husband is the 
head of the wife, as it is written in Ephesians." 

"Sarcasm and ridicule," it has been said, "are weapons 
which may wound but cannot kill." Articles, like the one 
from which we have quoted, can have done no good. Their 
only effect must have been to change indifference into 
positive hostility. 

That the question of language, and other difficulties to 
which we have alluded, were sources of disquietude is 
perfectly plain; but these might have been overcome if 
it had not been for the all-engrossing trouble of finance. 
Indeed, from our present point of view, it is astonishing 
that the promoters of the institution could have expected 
to accomplish their task with the means at their command. 
We have no present means of determining the amount of 
subscriptions; but we know that many of these remained 
unpaid, and that there were financial difficulties from the 
very beginning. On the 20th of September, 1787, John 
Hubley, Esq., Vice-President of the Board, wrote to Dr. 
Kush, pleading for immediate aid. On the same day the 
following circular was addressed to the members of the 
Board : 


"Lancastee, Sept. 20, 1787. 

Agreeable to a resolye of the Board of Trustees, at a meet- 
ing held the 13th day of September instant, you will be so 
obliging as to forward the monies and donations subscribed 
within your district for the use of the College to Mr. Jacob 
Krug in Lancaster, Treasurer : And it is earnestly requested 
by the Board, that you wiU use every endeavor to procure such 
further subscriptions as may be attained by you for the ad- 
vancement and support of that useful Institution, and for- 
ward them to the Treasurer with all convenient speed. 

"I have the honor to be, with much esteem and respect, 
your most obedient and most humble servant. 

"John Hublet." 

The receipts from tuition were smaller than had been 
expected. To extend the advantages of the institution 
the cost of instruction had been fixed at the lowest possible 
figures: £1 per session for German, 50 shillings for Ger- 
man and English, and £4 for all branches. With regard 
to the actual receipts authorities differ; but the following 
memorandum, which was subsequently entered on the 
records, may be supposed to be authoritative: 

First year produced cash £200.0.0 

Arrears still due about 26.0.0 

■ £226.0.0 

Mr. Hutehins' Salary £200.0.0 

Mr. Melsheimer 200.0.0 

Mr. Keichenbach 50.0.0 

House Kent 20.0.0 

Deficiency to be paid out of the funds 244.0.0 



At this rate it did not take long to get to the bottom 
of the purse. On the 22d of October, 1788, Mr. Hubley 
wrote to Dr. Kush: 

"I wrote to you some time ago how poorly our college 
stands and how far we are in arrears; these arrears increase 
daily, and imless you gentlemen in Philadelphia will put 
your shoulders to the wheel, we must inevitably perish and 
that very soon." 

It might be possible to prepare a consecutive account of 
these early troubles, but v^e believe it to be better, when- 
ever this is possible, to quote contemporary documents. 
Though some of these may lack interest for the general 
reader they have a certain historic value, and to the care- 
ful student convey an idea of the character of the times 
which it is otherwise not easy to secure. 

The following letter from Dr. B. Kush to Dr. H. E. 
Muhlenberg was in part read by Dr. F. A. Muhlenberg 
in 1887, at the centennial celebration of Franklin and 
Marshall College. The original manuscript is now de- 
posited in the college library. It alludes to the financial 
difficulties of Franklin College, and is otherwise so inter- 
esting that we print it in full: 

"Philadelphia, Feb. 15, 1788. 
"Dear Sir: 

"I was much mortified in finding that a letter from you 
dated in June, 1787, by some strange fatality did not reach 
me till the 4th of this month. The sentiments of friendship 
and benevolence contained in it are of so warm a nature that 
even the length of time that intervened between its being 
written and received had not cooled them. I rejoice to hear 
of the harmony that subsists between you and Dr. Hendel, 


and the zeal with which you are both actuated in promoting 
the great objects of the institution. 

"I lament the languor that has infected our trustees in 
this city. I have tried in vain to bring about a meeting in 
order to collect our certificates and draw our interest on 
them. The present turbulent era is imfavorable to all peace- 
able enterprises ; nothing now fills the mind but subjects that 
agitate the passions. Let us not despair. As soon as our 
new government is established, the public spirit of our coun- 
try will be found to feed upon undertakings that have science 
or humanity for their object. 

"The conduct of the minority of our convention, and of a 
majority of my old friends beyond the Susquehanna, deter- 
mine me more than ever to look to my German brethren 
(indulge the term) as the future reservoirs and vehicles to 
posterity of a great part of the knowledge, virtue and religion 
of Pennsylvania. I rejoice in the part a great majority of 
them have taken in the great contest about the federal con- 
stitution. On them I rely chiefly to out vote, to out work, 
and to out pray the anti-federalists in our State. I hope you 
do not neglect to fill your gazette with federal essays, anec- 
dotes and intelligence. Hall and Sellers ' paper is filled every 
week with them all. Newspapers form the principles and 
direct the conduct of the greatest part of mankind in all 

"There is no doubt now of the adoption of the new gov- 
ernment by nine States before the 1st of June, and by twelve 
before the 1st of August. 

"The constitution has been well received in England, and 
is much commended by the friends of America, especially 
by the great and good Dr. Price. 

"Will not a letter of thanks from you and Dr. Hendel be 
expected to the trustees of New Jersey College for the de- 
grees in divinity lately conferred upon you ? It may be con- 


veyed to them through the Eev. Dr. Witherspoon, the Presi- 
dent of the College. 

"With eompliinents to Dr. Hendel, I am, dear Sir, your 
friend and humble servant, 

"Benjamin Eush." 

On the 27th of February, 1788, Dr. Melsheimer wrote 
an article for the Neue Unpartheyische Zeitung, of which 
the following is a translation: 

"What is the condition of the College in Lancaster? 
Will the work be continued, or must its doors again be 
closed ? 

"As I am pretty well acquainted with the present condi- 
tion of the school, I regard it as my duty to answer these 
questions as briefly and plainly as possible; partly to direct 
the attention of the German people in general to this insti- 
tution, but also in part to indicate to its patrons and to the 
friends of the Germans the extent in which their philan- 
thropic purposes have been attained. 

"There are at present three teachers in the school who 
give instruction in the German, English and Latin lan- 
guages, as well as in mathematics and composition. The 
number of scholars is one hundred and five, and of these 
there are twenty who are to be trained in the higher branches 
of science. From the beginning we have sought to remove 
obstacles that might interfere with the prosperity of the in- 
stitution, and the cost of tuition has therefore been made as 
low as possible. What German who is in good circumstances 
can object to paying for his children annually 20 shillings 
for German, 50 shillings for both German and English, or 
£4 for all the branches taught in the course? Or who can 
regard the price of board, which varies from 25 to 14 pounds, 
as too high? 


"Though this arrangement is of advantage to our patrons 
it involves the great inconvenience that the amount of tuition 
is not sufficient to pay the salaries of the professors, so that 
the deficit must be met by drawing on the general fund. The 
gentleman who has charge of the accounts has assured me 
that the amount received for tuition in the first quarter did 
not exceed 40 pounds, and in the second quarter was not 
more than 70 pounds. The three regular teachers are to 
receive salaries amounting to £450, and of this sum £250 
must be supplied during the present year. 

"From these data every one can easily answer the above 
questions. If the Germans of this country learn to love the 
arts and sciences; if their love for their country and for pos- 
terity induces them to increase the endowment by their con- 
tributions, so that a part of the expenses may thus be met, 
the College in Lancaster will soon be among the most pros- 
perous institutions in Pennsylvania; if this shoidd not hap- 
pen [a blank]. But how could it be possible that 

our people should sink to such a depth of degradation? 
Should we not deserve to be represented as mean and con- 
temptible, standing like nude statues before the world, with 
nothing to cover us, unless it should be our ancient honesty? 
No, my friends ! let us show the whole world that the Ger- 
mans of Pennsylvania not only have hands to labor, but 
heads to acquire all learning as soon as they have the oppor- 
tunity of developing their talents. 

"P. V. Mblsheimee, 
"Professor at the College in Lancaster." 

That the financial question was of paramount impor- 
tance is evident from scattered notices in the papers of 
the day. As early as January 2, 1788, Professor Mel- 
sheimer advertised that he would privately teacli Ger- 
man, " with a near (sic) knowledge of the best authors 


of Germany. Price, 20 shillings per quarter." Pro- 
fessors Reichenbacli and Hutchins also sought to increase 
their income by outside labor. In the Neiie Unparthey- 
ische Zeitung for March 12, 1788, a correspondent sug- 
gests that the professors might bridge over the financial 
difficulties of the college by accepting an annual salary 
of £100, instead of £200, as they have private means." 
The next nimiber of the paper contains a reply, stating 
that the professors are doing the very thing that has been 
suggested. "One of them is working for one fourth of 
what had been promised him, and all are willing to make 
any possible sacrifice." 

The resignation of Professor Melsheimer, in July, 
1789, was a misfortune which, though xmavoidable, was 
very serious. Indeed, it was currently reported that the 
college had closed, and from this time onward its patron- 
age was almost entirely local. If either of the synods 

had possessed supreme control, it is possible that arrange- 
ments might have been made to meet the deficiencies of 
income by special contributions from the churches, but 
the responsibility was divided, and each depended upon 
the other. There was a period of deep depression, so 
that, in !N"ovember, 1792, Dr. Muhlenberg could write 
to Dr. Hush : "Our Frankliniana is much like the daughter 
of Jairus. O, for a commiserating hand that could raise 

In a letter addressed in June, 1790, to the authorities 
in Holland, by the Kev. ^Nicholas Pomp, of the Reformed 
Church, appears the following interesting passage: 


"In reference to your inquiries concerning the purpose of 
the College in Lancaster, we have to reply, that the institu- 
tion failed a year ago, because the professors no longer re- 
ceived their salaries in consequence of the prevailing scarcity 
of money. We therefore deem it unnecessary to furnish a 
circumstantial account of this institution to your Eeverend 
body. We beg to say, however, that it has not yet entered 
our minds to dissolve the intimate bonds which connect us 
with the Eeverend Fathers, and that our chief purpose in the 
establishment of this school was to have our German youth 
instructed in such languages and sciences as might render 
them capable of occupying offices in the republic, and that 
possibly also, if the school should continue, we might in 
future times educate young men for the ministry. ' ' 

The "Fathers" in Holland were evidently unable to 
understand the situation. On March 7, 1791, they wrote: 

"We are surprised that the Academy has come to so speedy 
an end; and since the Eeverend Ccetus professes its inclina- 
tion to keep up correspondence with our synods we hope that, 
in accordance with the present acts of the Coetus, its subse- 
quent actions will correspond thereto, so as to prevent es- 
trangement and unpleasant consequences." Again, at the 
meeting of the Deputies, in March, 1792, the following action 
was taken: "The Deputies took the liberty of reminding 
the Committee on Pennsylvania affairs as to the erection of 
that High School, that this was not an institution of the 
church authorities in those regions, and thus the professors 
were not paid out of the income of the church, but that this 
High School was established by the State's legislature of 
that country, and that the same had granted a parcel of 
land from whose proceeds the professors were to have their 
subsistence. Hence the Deputies do not understand how the 


school had to fail on account of the non-payment of the pro- 
fessors, for which reason the Deputies desire further infor- 
mation, how to reconcile the one thing with the other; al- 
though they were otherwise not much pleased with the found- 
ing of the aforesaid institute, as little as the committee and 
the synods of North and South Holland, who had always dis- 
approved of the erection thereof, and long held back as is 
evidenced by their acts." 

The good Hollanders failed to comprehend that the 
relations of the college to the legislature were purely 
formal and that the gift of land was in those days a 
burden rather than a blessing, 

Notwithstanding frequent announcements of failure, 
there is plenty of evidence to prove that Franklin College 
was not actually closed. The German department was 
not continued after the resignation of Professor Mel- 
sheimer; and this fact, together with the well-known 
financial troubles of the institution, naturally conveyed 
to the Grerman churches an impression of failure; but 
the school was continued, though its original plan was 
necessarily modified. It became a local academy, rather 
than a regular college. In the words of one of its later 
professors, Dr. T. A. Muhlenberg: 

"Its services to our people were humble and did not obtain 
public notoriety. It aimed to maintain a good classical and 
mathematical Christian school, or college; and this it did, 
under various forms of organization, until the time of its 
successful union with Marshall College." 


Impebfeot Minutes — Coixeoe Lands — " The Squattees " — Db. 


UN Academy — Peofessoe Schippee's Diction aey — 

De. Beownlee — Peofessoe Noes — Peesidents op 

THE BoASD — Proposed Theologicai Seminaet. 

The early records of Franklin College are very unsatis- 
factory. Indeed it was not until 1818 that the Board 
of Trustees directed its secretary to procure a minute- 
book, and for some years after this date the minutes were 
not regularly recorded. Fortunately one of the early 
secretaries — probably Judge Dale — transcribed into this 
book a number of loose minutes and other documents 
which happened to be in his possession, so that the thread 
of history remains unbroken. Besides these a number 
of minutes of early meetings were found, some years ago, 
among the papers of Judge Jasper Yeates, but these con- 
tain nothing of special importance. From the minutes 
we learn that the meetings of the Board were regularly 
convened, though they sometimes failed to secure a quo- 
rum ; that vacancies were carefully filled by new elections ; 
and that the Trustees never wavered in their purpose to 
accumulate a fund for the endowment of an institution of 
higher grade. 

The minutes, it must be confessed, are very uuinterest- 
ing. For several years they are mainly occupied with 
matters pertaining to the collection of unpaid subscrip- 
tions to the endowment; then they turn to the almost 



hopeless task of obtaining financial returns from the 
lands which had been granted to the college by the legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania. 

These lands were for many years a source of trouble. 
When the charter was granted it was no doubt supposed 
that they would be located and surveyed at the expense 
of the state; but the law was otherwise interpreted by 
the authorities, and it was soon found that they could 
not be secured for the college without the expenditure of 
a considerable sum. In 1789 the Hon. William Bing- 
ham advanced £60 for surveying a part of the college 
lands, and this sum was in 1807 repaid to his estate. 

Ten thousand acres had been granted to the college by 
the state and these were located in several widely sepa- 
rated tracts. There may have been some carelessness 
with regard to the recording of titles. In a letter to 
Samuel W. Morris, dated July 17, 1818, Mr. John 
Hubley says: 

"Whether even the title of the college lands was filed in 
any of the comities where they lie I do not know. Originally 
they were situated in Northumberland and Luzerne counties, 
afterwards transferred to Tioga and other counties, and I 
had not always the care of them." 

In 1828 Judge Samuel Dale visited the lands of the 
college and presented an elaborate report, from which it 
appears that by actual survey there were ten thousand 
eight hundred and thirty-one acres and ninety-five hun- 
dredths, including the usual allowance for roads, etc., and 
that the lands were situated as follows: In Venango 
County, 5,279.95 acres ; in Tioga and Lycoming counties, 
1,200 acres; and in Bradford, 4,352 acres. By this 


time, however, 4,771 acres had been sold for $14,061.71, 
and after deducting commissions, $12,655.55 were paid 
to the treasurer of the college. In describing the lands 
in Bradford County Judge Dale says: 

"I found it to be thin soil and gravelly land, neither well 
timbered nor watered, thickly covered with oak, hickory, and 
maple imderwood, some saplings of the same kind, and some 
scattering large pine trees." 

In some localities in Bradford County the soil was 
better and there was a heavier growth of timber; so that 
it was soon seized by "squatters" whom it was found 
difficult to dislodge. The following letter will give some 
idea of the state of afEairs: 

"Stowb, September 13, 1813. 
"Gen. Francis Swainb, 


"As I have not any acquaintance with Doctor Muhlen- 
berg and do not know even the names of the other trustees 
of Franklin College, I shall state to you in order that you 
may communicate the information the following circiun- 
stances which if they have not already attracted the atten- 
tion of the Trustees may be of use to the Institution. 

"It appears by some drafts which I have seen that Frank- 
lin College owns seven or eight tracts of land on and near 
to Towandy in Bradford county, late Luzerne county. Such 
of those tracts as adjoin Towandy Creek have no doubt set- 
tlers on them, as it is closely settled on the creek from the 
river to the head of it. Many of these settlers have lived a 
long time on the lands and on an ejectment brought for a 
tract which I believe adjoins the College lands intend to 
prove twenty-one years' possession. If they cannot do this 


now, they will in a short time be able to do so. It is of 
importance, therefore, that the trustees should attend to this 
business, otherwise they will lose the lands. I may add that 
wherever there is valuable timber it is daily going and nearly 
gone, and no doubt every good freshet some of the lumber 
reaches Columbia or New Haven in the neighborhood of Lan- 

"Dickinson College has lands adjoining and in the same 
situation. "With respect. Yours, 

"Sam. Baird." 

In the records there are many references to the "squat- 
ters" and to the troubles which their presence gave. No 
doubt the annoyance was greatly due to the fact that 
these unbidden settlers were sometimes left for years in 
undisturbed possession, to be at last surprised by the 
Board in a spasmodic attempt to recover its rights. In 
a letter, dated September 7, 1815, Mr. Hubley says: 

"There is no adage more true than this, that what is 
everybody's business is nobody's business — and it is equally 
true that in this country no concerns are more neglected than 
the concerns of corporate bodies, especially if not attended 
with a certain profit or interest, immediate or expectant, to 
the individual members of the corporation." 

Under such condition it is not surprising that the pay- 
ment of taxes on the college lands was frequently neg- 
lected until it was almost too late. On several occasions 
the lands were advertised for sale for unpaid taxes, and 
it was only by extra labor and expense that they were 
recovered for the institution. There was, however, a 
difference of opinion on the question whether the lands 
were legally taxable, but the frequent efforts by the Board 


to be exonerated appear to have been unsuccessful. In 
writing to Walter Pranklin, Esq., in January, 1816, 
Mr. Hubley says: 

"Hitherto the lands haye been expensive to the Trustees 
in respect of taxes, and no funds to defray them except what 
arose out of private subscriptions, the legislature never hav- 
ing granted a cent in aid thereof. In the Borough of Lan- 
caster the legislature granted a brick building, which was 
built for the use of Public Stores, of 100 feet in front and 
35 feet in depth, two stories high; this building has been 
constantly in use by the College for schools. The repairs 
thereof have also been at a considerable expense, such as new 
roofing, building chimneys and accommodations thereto; but 
the Commissioners of the county have never taxed it, know- 
ing that no rent arises thereout and that all the benefit of it 
reverts to the public. If this buildiag with something better 
than an acre of ground on which it is erected, and the lands 
now belonging to the College can be retained there can be 
no doubt that in time it will be of great utility to the state 
of Pennsylvania. The Board, therefore, make every exer- 
tion to uphold and transmit this promising seminary to the 
rising generation." 

Again, writing to Mr. Samuel W. Morris in 1818, Mr, 
Hubley says: 

"It was always doubtful whether these lands were taxable 
so long as they remained the property of the College, the State 
having granted them for a public seminary, not for a par- 
ticidar county but for the use of the whole State, and no 
part of their property was ever attempted to be taxed in 
Lancaster county, though a considerable part thereof lies 
within the city of Lancaster." 


Having quoted so largely from the letters of Mr. John 
Hnbley, it may be well to state that their writer was by 
far the most active and energetic member of the Board 
of Trustees. He was successively Vice-President, Sec- 
retary, Treasurer and President; and at times he seems 
to have practically combined these offices in his own per- 
son. In 1818 the Board took the following action: 

"Resolved, That the thanks of the Board be given to our 
President, John Hubley, Esquire/ for the care and attention 
that he has so diligently and assiduously given to the inter- 
ests of the institution." 

It is to be regretted that during this period we have 
no consecutive account of the internal development of the 
school. We are even unable to furnish a list of teachers, 
though the names of some of them may be found in finan- 
cial accounts or in local publications. There were no 
annual reports of the President — such as have since be- 
come usual — and all the information we have been able 
to gather is of necessity fragmentary. 

Dr. Muhlenberg kept a sort of diary, or common-place 

book from which some fragments of information may be 

gathered. His grandson, the late Dr. P. A. Muhlenberg, 

transcribed for the author such portions as seemed to refer 

to Franklin College; but he was forced to confess that in 

some places the manuscript was hardly legible and in 

'John Hubley was born in Lancaster, December 25, 1747, and died 
there June 2, 1821. He read law under the instruction of Edward 
Shippen, and was admitted to the bar in 1769. Delegate, in 1776, 
to the convention which met to adopt a State Constitution; in the 
same year became a member of the Committee of Safety. In 1777 
he became Commissary of Continental stores at Lancaster, with the 
rank of Major. Member of the Supreme Executive Council, and 
delegate to the State Convention that ratified the Federal Constitu- 
tion. — Harris's Biographical History of Lancaster County. 


Others utterly unintelligible. The elder Dr. Muhlenberg 
seems to have had the habit of "thinking with his pen"; 
that is, while thinking, he took notes — sometimes writing 
only a word or two to indicate a train of thought — ^with- 
out caring in the least for style or chirography. We 
shall endeavor to translate several passages which may 
be found interesting: 

"Aug. 6, 1789. 

"What is to be the fate of our college? 

"1. Thus far there are no funds at hand to accomplish 
anything; but ought not the scholars themselves to furnish 
some revenue if the school is properly conducted? How do 
those of our teachers support themselves who receive no pub- 
lic stipend? 

"2. Instruction shoidd not merely consist in teaching 
languages, but should include 

" (1) Christianity — a thorough and complete knowledge 
of the subject. Here is a difficulty: the denom- 
inational differences. 

"(2) History, Geography, Mathematics and Natural Sci- 

"(3) Ordinary reading, writing and ciphering should be 
a requirement. Writing letters. 

"3. Pastors might spare us two hours each day, every fore- 
noon. I formerly did so. 

"4. Might not contributions still be collected here and 
there in the country ? 

"5. An ordinary Tutor might give instruction in reading 
and writing German, Arithmetic, Composition, Geography 
and History. Advanced scholars to receive instruction in 
languages in the forenoon for at least two hours. 

"6. I prefer to teach Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Geography, 
History, Botany, Mineralogy or Dogmatics. Where? In 
one of the rooms of the college or privately? 

"7. An opportunity for the Germans is now at hand — will 
it ever appear again? Or is it necessary to lay so much 


stress on German? I think we ought to preserve our lan- 
guage for the sake of our religion. Ministers who preach 
German and English will in time be very necessary. 

"8. Latin and Greek to be taught only to scholars of spe- 
cial talents and to those who desire to become ministers. 
Others had better at once be admitted to an English class — 
doctrine, etc., to be taught separately. 

"9. A Tutor for the German language and literature and 
for those who desire to study for the ministry. Salaries to 
be paid individually; pupils to be arranged according to 
religious denominations — ^two or three hours each day. 1 
hour, reading; 1, grammar; 1, composition; 1, mathematics; 
1, geography and history. 

"A tutor who can play the organ would be most desirable. 

"I do not think we can continue our German class (depart- 
ment) unless we instruct many or all of the pupils gratis. 
English scholars should always pay tuition. 


"1. Teachers to be paid from the regular income of the 
school. House-rent alone to be allowed. 

"2. Each denomination to raise collections for its bene- 
ficiaries; income of endowment to be applied to similar pur- 
poses; contributors may nominate a beneficiary. Subscrib- 
ers retain the privilege of appropriating their gifts to stu- 
dents of the Lutheran or Eeformed churches or of any other 
denomination of Christians. Faculty to determine whether 
students are to be admitted. 

"3. The capital fund had better remain at interest. The 
sixth part of the income must be appropriated (according to 
the charter)." 

(Here follows a sketch of a public appeal in behalf of 
the college which we do not deem it necessary to translate.) 

"4. As soon as the funds permit tuition shall be free for 
all students without distinction. 

"5. The tuition of pupils who do not learn English, with- 
out languages, to be only £3. 


"6. If the college should fail, what then? As long as 
there is any money left it must not fail." 

Another extract from Dr. Muhlenberg's diary is some- 
what amusing. We do not know the name of the 
"master" to whom it refers, and perhaps it is better that 
we do not; but is shows that Dr. Muhlenberg, as Presi- 
dent of the institution, regarded it as his duty to look 
into, and correct, if possible, the faults of his subordi- 
nates. He says: 

"Dec. 20, 1789. 

"Our Latin master is not acceptable. 

' ' 1. He is too careless in dress — ^his poverty is not the only 
reason. He might brush his clothes and shoes and be more 
neat. That indicates little consideration. Whoever •would 
get along in the world must be xdafiio?. 

"2. He is hasty and noisy in manner, speaks roughly to 
his pupils, interrupts them too frequently and makes them 
mere repeaters of what he has said. He ought to be more 

"3. He is careless in domestic affairs; never makes him- 
self useful; is ashamed of labor; therefore he is a burden to 
others and becomes contemptible. 

"4. He has no worldly wisdom; is unable to make pur- 
chases ; knows nothing except dead languages, and these alone 
do not suffice to help any man through this present world. 

"Reflections: 1. Be neat in your attire. 

2. Be not hasty nor noisy. 

3. Take heed to your domestic affairs. 

4. Learn to know the world." 

Dr. Muhlenberg does not often refer to Franklin Col- 
lege in his diary, but on the 20th of April, 1810, we find 
the following entry: 

"In our College — at least in so far as I am concerned — 
more attention should be given 


"1. To Chronology and Geography; 
"2. Composition and Oratory; i'i, v, 

"3. And Natural Sciences. 

"Orbis Pictus is reaUy, so far as style and thought are con- 
cerned, a good and useful book." 

It is therefore evident that, within five years of his 
death, Dr. Muhlenberg was still teaching in Frantlin 

In respect to the organization of the institution Dr. 
Muhlenberg's suggestions appear to have been generally 
accepted. There were practically three schools whose 
teachers were mainly supported by fees paid for tuition. 
One of the schools was nearly always a select school in 
which the higher branches were taught. The teachers 
were appointed by the Board of Trustees, and stood under 
the paternal supervision of Dr. Muhlenberg. The build- 
ing was kept in good repair by the Board of Trustees,^ 
and the teachers paid no rent for the use of their school- 
rooms. Some of them received an allowance for house- 
rent, but this was not always granted. 

As has already been intimated, the minutes of the 
Board of Trustees give us little information concerning 
the professors in Franklin College during the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century. The names of some of them 
are incidentally mentioned, but how long they served it 
is often impossible to determine. Among them were 
several men of decided ability, who became well known 
as successful literary workers; but it is a curious fact 
that concerning their personal history very little is known. 

James Eoss, LL.D., was one of the foremost classical 

'In 1810 the sum of $1,680.21 was expended in repairs and im- 


scholars in America. He was a native of Delaware/ and 
was probably a member of the well-known Koss family 
of New Castle. He was born in 1743, and died in Phila- 
delphia, July 6, 182Y, aged eighty-four.^ In 1784 he 
was chosen a member of the original faculty of Dickinson 
College, but as early as 1796 had removed to Chambers- 
burg, where he conducted the Chambersburg Academy. 
There he published the first edition of his celebrated 
Latin Grammar, which was for many years almost exclu- 
sively used in the classical schools of this country. Sub- 
sequent editions were published while he taught in Lan- 
caster, and in these he was careful to state on the title- 
page that he was professor of Ancient Languages in 
Franklin College. He came to Lancaster in 1801 and 
remained here until 1809. The author has seen a letter 
addressed by him, in 1806, to Judge Jasper Yeates in 
which he invites him to be present at the annual examina- 
tions of "our little college." 

Professor Koss published several additional text-books 
which were highly appreciated. Among these were a 
Greek Grammar* and an edition of the Colloquies of 
Corderius. He also translated the " Shorter Catechism " 
into Latin. Dr. Theodore Appel gives some account of 
a discussion between Professor Ross and the Eev. Dr. 
C. L. Becker* — a dispute which began on the street and 

'^ History of Franklin County, by Samuel P. Bates. 

'He was buried in the graveyard of the old Ranstead Court 
Church, but when the property was sold his remains were removed 
to Carlisle for reinterment. 

3 Historical Magazine, 1862. 

♦Christian L. Becker, D.D. (1756-1818), was, from 1806 to 1818, 
pastor of the Reformed Church of Lancaster. He was the author 
of a volume of sermons. 


ended in the newspapers. !For some now forgotten reason 
they began an earnest discussion, but found it difficult to 
understand each other, as the one spoke German and the 
other English. Becoming more excited they began to 
speak Latin; but here the difficulty occurred that the 
pronunciation of one was British and the other conti- 
nental. Finally they secured space in a newspaper and 
continued the discussion by publishing Latin articles 
which can hardly be supposed to have been edifying to 
the general reader. There appears, however, to have been 
no real animosity; for Dr. Becker's son, Jacob Christian 
— afterwards an eminent minister — remained a student 
in Franklin College and a favorite pupil of the professor. 

In 1804 Professor Ross published a Latin Ode in mem- 
ory of the Eeverend Charles Msbet, D.D.,^ first president 
of Dickinson College. An original copy in possession 
of the author is dated : " Coll. Franklin, Lancastrise, Kal. 
Mart. 1804." 

After leaving Lancaster Professor Ross taught for some 
years in Philadelphia^ and was also for a short time Pro- 

1 Charles Nisbet was born at Haddington, Scotland, January 21, 
1736; died at Carlisle, Pa., January 18, 1804. He was in 1783 per- 
suaded by Dr. Rusb to accept the presidency of Dickinson College, 
which had just been founded at Carlisle, Pa. He was received in this 
country with expressions of great rejoicing. " Processions were 
formed, bells were rung, and addresses of welcome delivered in Eng- 
lish and Latin. This auspicious beginning was followed by long 
years of trial and discouragement, incident to the building up of 
an institution of learning in an American wilderness." — Wicker- 
sham's History of Education in Pennsylvania, p. 397. 

2 In Philadelphia one of his pupils was the afterwards celebrated 
James Waddell Alexander. Dr. Alexander was accustomed to speak 
with enthusiasm of the extraordinary attainments of his teacher. 
While at school Professor Ross was in the habit of calling him 
" Alexander Magnus " — in facetious allusion, it is said, to his rather 




Hos ego verGculot; in ineinoriafn viri in* 
tegerrimi, nee non et ex omnibus 'quos xtas 
prasfens, annia multis per orbem terrarunt 
tulit, doAidimi, uflerulam honoris,- typis, ad 
Te, tuis mandandos, mitto ; quippe qui te 
facllem et commodum tnets, aliis octaQoni* 
busi baud fetnel prccibas dedifti. 

JJt. Ross, 

In Obitum 
Viri clariffimi CAROLI NISBET, D. t>, 
Coll. DtckinTon. Prslidis, qui oAodecidiO 
Januarii, A. D. 1804, vita deceffit. 

TE quoque, qui nostris dignatus vivere, Nisbett 

Finibus, eripuit mors ! fera Te.eripuit I 
Tu, tandem, fessus, metam finemque laboitini« 

Doctc, invenisti, corpore deposito. 
Frxclanu, turbas hominum, socio^que relictos, 

Morce rrdemptus, nunc despicis altivolus. 
Bivitias quoque habes partas hie, munera culm 

Mentis nempe bonZ) quas dedit ipse Decs. 
Hxc autem, vestes, aunim, popularis et aura. 

Grata licet quondam, et fulgida, diffugiunt. 
Finite ergo opete, propter quod missus inorbep*- 

Tempore et expleto, convenit ut redee*. 
Haud alitcr servus, longaslegatusin oras 

Qui, domino, rediit, jam revocante domtutl, 
Nuncius Americorum hie tristespervolatoras, 

" Nisbet mortuus ! Heu ! doctus et Ule perit !•* 
Mentibus, ore, oculis, Studiosi (Academiaploiat) 

Nisbet nunc quarunt auxiljo ut subeat ! 
Nisbet namque docens, vestigia, qus sua, presuts 

Non aliena sequens: legit at ille sua. 
Nisbet eos docuit falso secemere verum, 

Atque domiqne foris sedulus officio. 
Nisbet' eos docuit renim cognoscere causas ( 

Nisbet et instituitquxrerevera bdna. 
O quoties, prxco pandis cum themata sacra. 

" Vivito" di.\i " nee sit itjevis hofa tua j 
" OfelLt, sortitaHunc, feuita Columbia, tellus! 

" Vivito Nisbet! nee mors fera Te rapiat ! " 
• Fidite ne vestris ; heu! vana opera omnia.* dinC^ 

_' Confugite ad Jesum, vita in eoque salus/ 
Vivere si licuisset nunc, osi! frueiemur 

Voce tua, Aspeccu, consilioqne pio. 
O utinam yixisses ! omnia namque videntnr 

Rapta simul Tecum, votaque nostra jacent ! 
Cecropidx Anytique reum flebantque Platona. 

Nisbet. Te Juvenes non secus atque geraeiit ! 
Vivet in aternum virtus tua, nulla vetustas 

Ueicbit famam, conspicuumque decus- 
De patriaque tua fors si certabitur dim, 

Te volet esse suum hac, ula/jue etesse suum. 
Nulla xtasque futura tacrjit nomina Nisbet, 
Per terrarum orbem dara, negata rnori. 
Coll. Franklin, L,»nccittri«, Kal. JUart. 1804. 



fessor of Ancient Languages in Dickinson College. He 
was twice married. His first wife, Rosanna, died April 
13, 1788 ; his second wife, Catharine Irvin, died Decem- 
ber 1, 1846, aged 82 years. 

Dr. Joseph Smith says in his "History of Jefferson Col- 
lege": "The author [of the Latin Grammar], James Ross, 
a graduate of Princeton College, in the Fall of 1766 — 
was a good classical scholar. His talents lay all in that 
direction, and he became a prodigy of pedagogical learn- 
ing, though his knowledge of Mathematics and the moral 
and metaphysical sciences was but slender. Like the 
celebrated Kousseau, he never could clearly comprehend 
some of the simplest propositions in Euclid, and it was with 
some difficulty he succeeded in obtaining a degree of A.B., 
though he was, in after life, honored with the title of 
LL.D. He became an eminent teacher of the dead lan- 
guages and in this vocation he continued till he was ad- 
vanced in years, and old age disqualified him for his use- 
ful profession. But though of an obtuse mind for other 
branches of learning, he was pre-eminent as a linguist. 
We remember to have seen him when he was probably 
eighty years of age, at the first church in Philadelphia, 
of which Dr. Wilson was then the pastor. His seat was 
in the gallery; and before him he had fixed, on a little 
shelf, attached to the parapet or breastwork of the gallery, 
nearly a dozen of books — a Greek Testament, a Hebrew 
Bible, Concordance, Lexicons, etc. When the Doctor an- 
nounced his Text, which happened to be, 'Come unto me 

diminutive stature; but it is possible that he rather referred to his 
unusual mental ability. 

For much of the above information the author is indebted to 
Miss Martha B. Clark, of Lancaster. 


all ye that labor,' etc., Mr. Koss immediately took his 
Greek Testament, turned to the passage, and seemed for 
some time to be earnestly studying it. Such was the man 
who wrote the Latin Grammar that was long used at Jef- 
ferson College." 

In 1807 Franklin Academy was opened under the 
direction of Thomas Poole, Professor of Languages,* who 
had taught school in Lancaster since 1805. He was, we 
think, the successor of Professor Eoss, but modestly pre- 
ferred to call his school an academy. When he took 
charge of the school he issued the following circular, of 
which an original copy has been presented to the author 
by Mr. Eudolph E. Kelker, of Harrisburg: 



In the Borough of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

In this institution are taught Latin, Greek, English, French, 
and all the branches of classical education; also History, Geog- 
raphy, the use of the Glovesj' Surveying, Algebra, Geometry, 
practical and theoretical. 

The classes are thus arranged and nominated. 




' In Ellis and Evans's " History of Lancaster County " it is stated 
that this school was kept in a new building on South Queen Street. 
We think it much more likely that it occupied the building of 
Franklin College on North Queen Street, which we know was thor- 
oughly repaired about this time. It is hardly possible that in the 
same small town there should simultaneously have been two literary 
institutions bearing the name of Franklin. 

2 Read Globes — an evident misprint. 



Latin and Greek, $6.67 per quarter. 

Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, and Booh-heeping, $5 per 

Pupils in the class of Little Figures, that is, spelling arid 
reading, $4 per quarter for the first year. The additional 
charge for either French, Geography, Surveying, Algehra, or 
Geometry, $2 per quarter. 

An able assistant is employed to instruct tlie pupils applying 
solely to the English branch of education. 


The school hours, from the 1st of April to the 1st of October, 
commence at 6 J and end at Yf ; again from 9 and continue till 
12 o'clock, and then from 2J and terminate at 5J. 

From the 1st of October until the 1st of April, begin at 9 
and continue till 12; and again from 2 till 5. 

The periods of entrance are the 1st of January, the 1st of 
April, the 1st of July, the 1st of October; but any pupil may 
enter on any day, and pay up in proportion to the ensuing 

No deduction will be made for any pupil who may quit be- 
fore the expiration of his quarter. 

A quarterly examination is held in the presence of parents, 
visitors, and other friends of literature. He who excels hie 
class-mates shall be distinguished by premixmis. 

And he who, by his teachers and companions, shall be deemed 
to give the best example in moral rectitude is to be pre-emi- 
nently distinguished. 

Every reasonable point of discipline wiU be practiced for the 
improvement of the young gentlemen, as well in their moral 
as in classical attainments. 

This Academy is limited to 35 in the languages, and 40 in 

Young gentlemen from a distance can be accommodated at 
the Professor's house, which is adjacent to the Academy, at $30 
per quarter, washing and linen mended included. 

The greatest attention will be paid to such as are entrusted 
to the special care of the Professor, both in their moral recti- 
tude and classical attainment. 



R. E. 

Each pupil that enters this Academy must contribute his 
quota for fire-wood and for the rent of the school-rooms. 

Everything that contributes to the rapid progress of the stu- 
dents in this institution will be attended to by the Professor. 
Hence the gentlemen, whose names are subscribed, will from 
time to time visit the Academy and examine the progress of 
the pupils. 

Heney Muhlenberg, D.D., 
Colin MoFarquhar, Minister, 
John Henry Hoffmeier. 
Nathaniel E. Snowden, V.D.M., 
William Montgomery, 
Andrew Ellicott, 
T. M. Thomson, 
Charles Smith, 
Matthias Barton, 
George Duffield, 
George Eoss, 
James Hopkins, 
William Barton, 


In the records of these early days we find occasional 
references to teachers in Franklin College, but we have 
little precise information concerning their term of labor. 
Among the Rush papers there is a curious letter, dated 
February 14, 1794, from Frederick Ludwig Heimberg 
Drude, Director of Catharine College, Brunswick, Ger- 
many, in which the writer applies for the position of 
president of Franklin College. He explains in very 
tolerable English that he is a successful physician, and 
intimates that he might soon build up a medical practice, 
thus partly relieving the Board of the expense of his sup- 
port. It does not appear that this letter was brought 
to the attention of the Board. 

The following abstracts from advertisements in local 
papers are interesting for their references to Franklin 
College : 


"Feb. 28, 1801. Mr. Doyle's Seminary will continue the 
ensuing summer and fall in Franklin College, as usual." 

"August 10, 1804. The ladies of Lancaster advertise for 
subscriptions to repair the store-house, to render it a com- 
fortable place for the accommodation of the several schools 
now taught in it." 

Sept. 30, 1808. Nathaniel E. Snowden advertises that 
"the trustees are finishing the room for the accommodation 
of the Latin and Greek students in the college, and that he 
expects to move his school to that place in October." 

On September 12, 1809, Benedict J. Schipper adver- 
tised that on the 13th instant he would open an academy 
"in Franklin College, permission being granted by the 
trustees." Where he came from we do not know; but 
from his minute acquaintance with the German language 




it may be presumed that he was a native of Germany. 
For many years Professor Schipper not only taught 
Greek and Latin, but had general charge of the grounds 
and buildings. In 1821 the Board purchased "a high 
arm-chair" for his recitation-room, and in 1823 he was 
reimbursed for sundry repairs made to the college-build- 


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In 1812 Dr. Muhlenberg and Professor Schipper 
joined in the publication of an English-German and Ger- 
man-English Dictionary — ^the first of its kind printed in 
America. For the times in which it was published it 
was undoubtedly a great work, and even now it has not 
entirely lost its value. It consists of two large octavo 
volumes, and is especially remarkable for a great collec- 
tion of idiomatic phrases. At the time of publication 
Dr. Muhlenberg was advanced in years and greatly in- 
terested in scientific studies, so that it has been supposed 
that this great German dictionary was mainly prepared 
by Professor Schipper. At any rate the publication was 
a great credit to the college in the days of its infancy. 

Professor Schipper is said to have spent his later years 
in Philadelphia ; but the dates of his birth and death are 
alike unknown. That there is no extant biography of 
this eminent man is a fact which is greatly to be regretted. 

Among the early instructors in Pranklin College there 
were others whose connection with the institution deserves 
to be remembered. The Reverend Dr. William C. 
Brownlee — afterwards a very distinguished minister in 
iN^ew York — ^taught here for several months, in 1815, be- 
fore he became rector of the academy at IsTew Brunswick. 
The late Dr. John L. Atlee was one of his pupils. The 
following extract from the minutes of the Board, May 
17, 1815, refers to his appointment: 

"Resolved, That Mr. Joseph Clarkson, Samuel Humes and 
John Hubley be a committee to view the College and find a 
proper apartment for Mr. Brownlee, to teach the Latin and 
Greek languages, as well as the most useful branches of 
English literature; having respect to the apartment now 
occupied by Mr. Cassidy and Mr. Armstrong; that the ex- 


pense of preparing the accommodation of the said teacher and 
that of Mr. Brownlee for tuition be discharged by the persons 
who employ Mr. Brownlee." 

Professors Cassidy and Armstrong we have not been 
able to identify. They probably belonged to families 
bearing these names which have been prominent in the 
history of Lancaster. 

For the following incident we are indebted to the late 
Dr. John S. Messersmith : One of the early teachers in 
Franklin College was a young Dane named Thor T. l^orr. 
He was a brilliant man and was highly esteemed by the 
community. After resigning his position he undertook 
a journey to the South; but at Norfolk, Virginia, he lost 
his life in a remarkable manner. A negro had fallen 
into the water and was in danger of drowning. Without 
a moment's hesitation Mr. Norr leaped into the water 
and swam to his rescue; but was himself drowned while 
attempting to perform this act of genuine philanthropy. 
We regret that we have no further information concerning 
the biography of this noble foreigner. 

Though our knowledge of these early times is neces- 
sarily fragmentary, there are, as we have seen, certain 
names which stand out prominently in this period of de- 
pression. These are the names of Muhlenberg, Mel- 
sheimer, Eoss and Schipper, which, with brief intermis- 
sions, constituted a succession extending through the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century. No doubt there were 
teachers whose names are now forgotten; but we may 
confidently affirm that the work of education was not 
suspended. The Board of Trustees maintained its or- 
ganization and the financial investments of the college 
were well guarded. 


The following gentlemen are known to have held the office 
of President of the Board of Trustees of Franklin College : 
General Daniel Hiester until his death, in 1804; John 
Hubley, Esq., Vice President and acting President until 
1813; was elected President June 17, 1813, and served 
until his death; Kev. Christian Endress, D.D., elected 
July 27, 1821, died September 30, 1827 ; Adam Eeigart, 
Esq., President pro tern., 1827-1828 ; Kev. John C. Baker, 
D.D., elected June 11, 1828, and continued in office until 
his removal from Lancaster in 1853. 

In 1818 it was proposed to extend the scope of the 
institution by the establishment of what was termed a 
joint theological seminary, representing the Lutheran and 
Reformed churches. As we understand it, this movement 
began in the Reformed synod which, at its meeting in 
Carlisle, appointed committees to confer with the Ee- 
formed Dutch and Lutheran churches on the general sub- 
ject of theological education. The conference with the 
Dutch church had no important results — principally, it 
is believed, on account of the difference in language; but 
in 1819 the second committee reported that they had 
attended the Lutheran synod and had been very kindly 
received. There was a very general opinion that the old 
endovsrment at Lancaster might be utilized for the estab- 
lishment of a literary and theological institution that 
would serve the wants of both denominations ; and, indeed, 
so far as we can see, there was in those days no insuperable 
obstacle to the accomplishment of such a purpose. The 
committee appointed by the Reformed synod consisted of 
five ministers : J. H. Hoffmeier, F. Herman, W. Hendel, 
Thomas Pomp and S. Helffenstein. The chairman of 


the Lutheran committee was Dr. J. G. Schmucker, who 
was profoundly interested and prepared an elaborate plan. 

"The name of the institution was to be 'The Theological 
Seminary for the Education of Pious Young Men to the 
Evangelical Ministry. ' There were to be two professors, one 
elected by the synod of each denomination, and eighteen 
trustees, also equally divided. Among their duties they were 
to 'watch against the gradual introduction of error, and lead 
the students to a knowledge of unadulterated truth,' but 
what this error and this truth are is not specified. A ' Maga- 
zine' was to be published by the faculty, to which the pastors 
of both synods were expected to subscribe, and for which 
they were to secure subscriptions within their congregations. 
The professors were to be members of the board, with both 
a seat and vote, except in matters of personal interest. Both 
synods were to make equal contributions towards the sem- 
inary. ' '^ 

A joint meeting of the conference was held in August, 
1820, at the house of the Eeverend J. H. Hoffmeier, in 
Lancaster, but the result was not entirely satisfactory. 
Dr. Endress was opposed to the plan and expressed his 
views in the most decided manner.^ At the meeting of 
his synod he had said: "Let the Reformed people cook 
their soup on their own fire!" The phrase was fre- 
quently repeated and its effect may readily be surmised. 
At the conference Dr. Schmucker's plan was read and 
debated, but Dr. Endress retained the document. As the 
latter had for years managed the affairs of Franklin Col- 

'" History of the Evangelical Lutheran Churchea in the United 
States, by Henry Eyster Jacobs," American Church History Series, 
Vol. IV., p. 323. 

'Letter from the Rev. J. H. Hoflfmeier to Rev. Casper Wack. — 
Harhwugh Papers. 


lege it is perhaps not surprising that he should have de- 
sired to control its future policy. 

After this conference the plan for the establishment of 
a union theological seminary appears to have been quietly 
given up. At their meetings in the autumn of 1820 the 
Lutheran ministerium and the Eeformed synod each voted 
an appropriation of one hundred dollars for the support 
of Franklin College; but it was well understood that 
these gifts were chiefly made for the purpose of better 
securing their rights in the history and property of the 
institution. During the same year several of the classes 
of the Reformed Church took action on this general sub- 
ject. The Classis of Lebanon expressed its regret that 
the plan for a union theological seminary had not been 
laid before it but was favorable to its establishment; the 
Classis of Zion was willing to cooperate if the plan was 
accepted by the synods, but preferred an exclusively Ee- 
formed institution, and suggested Chambersburg as a 
suitable location; and instructed its delegates to synod 
to exert all their influence in favor of the establishment 
of a Reformed theological school. The Eeformed Synod 
accordingly, at its meeting in Hagerstown, Maryland, in 
September, 1820, adopted a plan for the establishment 
of a theological seminary, and elected the Rev. Philip 
Milledoler, of New York, to the professorship of theology. 
It was not, however, until 1825 that the seminary was 
actually founded at Carlisle. 

The Proceedings of the Reformed synod and classes 
in subsequent years contain occasional references to 
Pranklin College, but these are not generally important 
or interesting. The following extracts from the minutes 


of classes may convey some idea of the divergent views 
which were then prevalent : 

"Whereas, this Classis can conceive of no advantage to 
be derived by the German Church from Franklin College, in 
Lancaster; therefore, 

"Besolved, that this Classis does not regard it as expedient 
to apply funds from the synodical treasury to this purpose." 
— Minutes of Zion's Classis, 1823, Session III., § IS. 

"The Committee begs leave to report it as their judgment 
that our synod should under no circumstances relinquish its 
share in Franklin College." — Minutes of Leianon Classis, 
182S, Session II., § 4. 

From what we have gathered it may seem that at this 
period Franklin College was in a moribund condition; 
but it appears from the minutes that the Board of Trus- 
tees never lost hope. The funds of the institution were 
gradually increasing; a good school was maintained, and 
it was firmly believed that in due time an institution of 
higher grade would be established. The name and fame 
of the earliest patron were not forgotten. At a banquet 
given in the college on New Year's day, 1801, in com- 
memoration of the election of Thomas Jefferson to the 
presidency of the United States,^ the following toast was 
offered by Governor Thomas MacKean and received with 
great enthusiasm: 

"Franklin College: May her sons emulate the virtue and 
useful knowledge of the great man whose name she bears." 

* An interesting account of this occasion appeared at the time in 
the Lancaster Intelligencer, and was reproduced by photo-engraving 
in the issue of that paper on the 31st of December, 1900. 



County Academies — State Appeopeiation — A New Building — 

Successive Pbincipals — Lancastebian Schools — Sale of 

the " Stobe House " — The Academy Closed. 

In 1827 an academy was founded in Lancaster. It 
was not intended to be a rival to Franklin College — as 
has sometimes been supposed; but was founded and con- 
ducted by men who were at the same time members of 
the college board. Though actually independent, its 
relations with the college were so intimate that it deserves 
a place in this general history. 

It had come to be felt that the college had failed to 
accomplish its original purpose. The synods had with- 
drawn their patronage; and the elements constituting the 
board were by no means harmonious. After the resigna- 
tion of Professor Schipper the college-building was for 



some time unoccupied, except by the janitor, who received 
his rent and a stipend of two dollars per month for the 
performance of duties which were by no means onerous. 

For the first time in many years Lancaster had no class- 
ical school, and a number of the prominent citizens of 
Lancaster undertook to supply the want. For this pur- 
pose they could not employ the funds of Franklin College, 
but it was hoped that an academy might be founded by 
private subscription which would serve to bridge the 
chasm and prepare the way for further developments. 

There was at this time an important educational move- 
ment throughout the state which, a few years later, re- 
sulted in the establishment of a system of public schools. 
The Legislature had in several instances made appropria- 
tions in aid of local academies, and it was believed that 
an application in behalf of Lancaster would not be re- 
fused. Though these appropriations were small, and 
were always conditioned on a fixed amount of local con- 
tributions, they led to the establishment of a number of 
local academies. 

In Lancaster between two and three thousand dollars 
were subscribed. One of the original subscription papers 
in our possession reads as follows: 

"We, the subscribers, believing that the establishment of 
an Academy in the County of Lancaster, under the conditions 
contained in the Bill now pending before the Legislature for 
the incorporation of the 'Lancaster County Academy' is not 
only desirable but necessary, hereby agree to contribute the 
sums affixed to our names respectively in aid of the same. 
The money to be paid to such person as shall be designated 
by the Trustees when demanded. Jany. 31, 1827. 


Edward Coleman $150 Molton C. Sogers $50 

Wm. Jenkins 100 James Buchanan 50 

Geo. B. Porter 100 Thos. G. Henderson. . . 50 

Wm. Kirkpatriek 100 Eobt. Evans 50 

Mrs. Yeates 100 Jasper Slaymaker 50 

Langdon Cheves 100 Sam. Dale 50 

William Coleman 150 Amos EUmaker 50 

Cyrus Jacobs 150 E. C. Eeigart 50 

Thomas B. Coleman. 100 F. W. Muhlenberg 50 

Jno. KeynoldS 50. " 

The act of incorporation of the Lancaster County 
Academy was passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
April 14, 1827.^ It was brief and simple, being evi- 
dently intended to avoid the complications of the college 
ehartfer. The corporators were: E,ev. William Ashmead, 
Eev. Joseph Clarkson, Rev. Christian Endress, Adam 
Keigart, George B. Porter, Edward Coleman, William 
Jenkins, John Eeynolds, George Musser, Erederick A. 
Muhlenberg, Samuel Dale, George H. Krug, George L. 
Mayer and Jasper Slaymaker, all of the city of Lancaster. 
The first president of the corporation was the Reverend 
Joseph Clarkson. 

By the act of incorporation the sum of three thousand 
dollars was granted to the school; "two thousand dollars 
thereof to enable them to erect a suitable building or 
buildings for the said academy, and to purchase books, 
mathematical instruments, and the necessary philosophical 
apparatus . . . and the remaining one thousand dollars 
to be placed in some productive fund, or funds, and the 
income or profits thereof to be forever applied in aid of 

' The Charter, By-Laws, and Regulations of the Lancaster County 
Academy. Lancaster: John Reynolds, Printer, 1827. 


other revenue and resources, to compensate a teacher or 
teachers in said academy."* The sum appropriated was 
not to be paid to the trustees until at least two thousand 
dollars had been secured by private contributions. Four 
scholars, at least, were to be instructed free of charge. 

It may be supposed that the new academy might have 
found a lodging in the buildings of Franklin College; 
but apart from the fact that these were too large for the 
purpose, it is probable that the state appropriation could 
be secured only by the erection of a new edifice. 

At any rate the new Board proceeded to purchase from 
Michael Gundaker a lot of ground at the northeast corner 
of Orange and Lime streets, on which the academy build- 
ing was erected. The dimensions of the lot were sixty- 
eight feet on Orange street and two hundred and forty- 
five on Lime street. The building was put up in the 
simmier of 1827 by Jacob Hensel and Joshua W. Jack, 
contractors, for $2,325. It must, however, be remembered 
that only a part of the building, as some of us remember 
it, was erected at this time. As described in the original 
plan it was of two stories, containing in front thirty-eight 
feet in the clear and extending thirty feet in depth. On 
each story there was a room thirty feet square, and on 
the northern side an entry eight feet wide, in which the 
stairs were placed. At the head of the stairs, on the 
second story, there was a small room, about eight by 
twelve feet in size. The roof, which was covered with 
slate, was four-sided, coming to a point in the center, on 
which was erected a small cupola, to contain the bell.^ 

' It may be interesting to note that this sum was invested in stock 
of the Bank of the United States. 

'The bell is still in existence, and is in possession of a gentle- 
man residing near Petersburg, Lancaster County. 


The Eev. Joseph Barr, of Williamstown, was chosen 
principal of the academy, and though at first inclined to 
accept the call, he finally declined at the request of his 
congregations. James P. Wilson, Jr., a son of the Rev. 
James Patriot Wilson, D.D., pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church, of Philadelphia, was then elected, and the 
school was formally opened on the fourth Tuesday of 
October, 182Y. In a circular issued at this time we find 
the following rather curious statement: 

"Youth may be here qualified to enter at least the Junior 
Class in our most respectable colleges ; and as it is presumed 
that Dickinson College will be generally preferred by parents 
and guardians in this and the adjoining counties, particular 
reference will be had to the requisites for admission to the 
several classes of that Seminary."^ 

Mr. Wilson conducted the academy about two years. 

At the opening there were about twenty scholars, and it 

does not seem that the number was at any time much 

larger. Why the school failed to prosper it might now 

be difficult to determine; but we have seen a letter in 

which it was claimed that the school was too exclusive, 

and that the esteem in which scholars were held was 

' The following text-books were ordered by the Board to be used 
in the Academy: In English — ^Murray's Grammar, Woodbridge's 
Geography, Rett's Elements, Blair's Lectures, Tyler's History, 
Watt's Logic. In the Languages — Ruddiman's and Ross's Grammar, 
Corderius Historia Sacra, Viri Romse, Selectse e Profanls, Csesar, 
Ovid, Terence, Sallust, Virgil, Cicero, Horace, Juvenal and Persius. 
In Greek — Wettenhal's Grammar, Testament, Grseca Minora, Lucian, 
Xenophon, Grseca Majora, Homer, Epictetus and Longinus, Tooke's 
Pantheon, Kennett's or Adam's Roman Antiquities and Potter's 
Grecian Antiquities, Mair's Introduction, and Neilson's Greek Ex- 
ercises. In Mathematics — Pike's or Bonnycastle's Arithmetic, 
Bonnycastle's or Day's Algebra, Euclid, Hutton's Mathematics. — 
Regulations of Lancaster County Academy, 1827. 


greatly influenced by the social position of their parents. 

The following letter of resignation sufficiently indicated 

that the principal was not satisfied with the condition of 

the school: 

"Lancaster, Feb. 19, 1829. 

"Dear Sir, 

"My own interests now clash with a longer residence in 
Lancaster and render it my duty to resign. I am young 
and cannot waste the best part of my life in doing nothing 
to any purpose. I feel grateful to the Trustees for their 
kindness and attention, and proud also in having done my . 
duty, I hope to their satisfaction. I shall remain till the 
close of the session. 

"Hoping that the Institution may prosper, and leaving 
this as my resignation to the Trustees, 

"I am. Sir, yours respectfully, 

"James P. Wilson, Je." 
"To the Eevd. Joseph Clarkson." 

Kobert Birch, A.B., was the second principal of the 
academy, if we except J. Erwin, who taught but a single 
month. Mr. Birch was elected in 1829, having been 
graduated at Dickinson College in the same year. He 
brought highly commendatory letters — the originals of 
which are still in the archives of the college — ^from Pro- 
fessors Alexander McClelland, Henry Vethake and Joseph 
Spencer. He was to receive an annual salary of $500, 
but was subsequently granted the privilege of increasing 
his income by giving private instruction. In his letter 
of resignation, dated December 27, 1830, he says: 

"I am pained to think that I have been incompetent to 
the task of placing the institution committed to my charge 
in that scale of literary and scientific advancement it so 


deservedly merits. ... If vigorous endeavors are persevered 
in with my more suecessful successor 'hand dubie' you will 
obtain the consummation devoutly to be wished." • 

"On October 25, 1831, John B. Patterson became prin- 
cipal, and was succeeded by Dr. James Power on June 8, 
1832, who in turn gave place, August 16, 1833, to John Kee- 
nan. Eev. A. Marcelus was principal in 1837, and engaged 
J. J. Van Antwerp to assist him in the mathematical scien- 
tific departments. It is probable that these were the last 
teachers of the institution. "^ 

During a part of its history the academy received stu- 
dents from the public schools, on certificate from their 
principal teacher. Many of these certificates are pre- 
served in the archives of the college, and of these the fol- 
lowing may serve as a specimen: 

"Lancaster, Jan. 19, 1828. 

"George Hubley has been a member of the Public School 
in this city upwards of three years. He has passed through 
all the different degrees of preferment until he has attained 
the station of monitor of' the first grade, a dignity inferior 
only to that of Tutor. He is a very studious and intelligent 
lad, making it his pride and his pleasure to secure the appro- 
bation of being not only one of the best scholars but one of 
the best boys in his class. His proficiency in Arithmetic, 
English Grammar and Geography, well qualified him for a 
more extended course of study. 

"With many wishes for his future welfare I can cheerfully 
recommend him as a youth of good disposition and one of 
whom I have conceived no ordinary expectations. 

"Alexe. Vaeian, 
"Teacher of the Public School, Lancaster." 

' Ellis and Evans's " History of Lancaster County," page 407. 


It will be observed that the public schools were con- 
ducted according to the so-called Lancasterian system,^ 
and that the relation between the schools and the academy 
was very intimate. With all that could be done the latter 
institution was, however, never prosperous. Some of the 
original subscriptions remained unpaid, and, on the 19th 
of October, 1830, the following circular was addressed to 
delinquents : 

"Dear Sir, 

"To a Gentleman of your intelligence it would certainly 
be useless to say one word about the Importance of Educa- 
tion. It was discreditable to the City that we had no Acad- 
emy or Grammar School. A number of public-spirited indi- 
viduals petitioned the Legislature, who granted a Charter of 
Incorporation in the usual manner, with an appropriation to 
be paid to us on condition that we should raise by subscrip- 
tion $3,000. Having obtained this subscription we pur- 
chased a lot and erected a building; and since then a very 
useful school has been kept in it. The number of scholars 
is, however, barely — or perhaps not quite — sufficient to pay 
the Principal and the current expenses. We are yet in debt 
for a small part of the building, and are now called on for 
the balance for the Lot. We have no funds to meet these 
demands. Shall we suffer the school to be broken up, and 
this Public Building to be sold under the Hammer for about 

^ The Lancasterian Schools derived their name from Joseph Lan- 
caster (1778-1838), an educational reformer who established schools 
for the poor in England and America. He devised the plan of ap- 
pointing some of the pupils as monitors and tutors to instruct the 
others. The several classes, which were instructed by monitors, were 
separated by screens or curtains, but could be overlooked by the 
master, who occupied a platform at the end of the room. The school- 
building at the corner of Chestnut and Prince streets, in the city of 
Lancaster, was erected as a Lancasterian school. 


$550? TJnless those who subscribed, and on the faith of 
whose subscription the building was put up, come forward, 
this must be the case. No further appeal need, we trust, be 
made to induce you to call upon the Treasurer at once and 
pay the amount you owe. 

"We address a similar letter to each delinquent subscriber, 
and should this last notice not be attended to, after years of 
indulgence given, you cannot blame either the Committee or 
the Board for resorting to the only remaining mode of 
enforcing payment. We ask you to discharge this sum before 
the next meeting of the Board, which will be on the 37th 
inst. We are convinced that you do not know the need we 
have for money, or you would have paid this small siun long 

"Duty to the public is the only motive which could induce 
us to be thus urgent. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Your friends and obt. servts.. 

It does not appear that this urgent appeal brought the 
expected relief. For some years the academy struggled 
on until its condition was almost hopeless. Its liabilities 
were not large; but it may as well be confessed that no 
philanthropist had sufficient confidence in its future to 
make it the object of his benevolence. At last some one 
wisely conceived the idea that the academy might secure 
relief by reunion with the institution from which it had 

Franklin College had in the meantime maintained its 
organization, though it had not been active in the work 
of education. At a meeting held March 12, 1828, all 
the vacancies in the Board were filled by election. This 


was not an easy matter as, in order to meet the require- 
ments of the charter, it was necessary to choose three 
Lutheran ministers, two Lutheran laymen, one Reformed 
minister, six Reformed laymen, two ministers of other 
denominations and five laymen of other denominations. 
In 1832 the college-building was repaired. It was sub- 
sequently occupied by an "Infant School" which had at 
one time more than one hundred scholars. 

Eev. John C. Baker, D.D., pastor of Trinity Lutheran 
Church, was elected President of the Board of Trustees 
of Franklin College, June 11, 1828. He was also chosen 
President of the Board of the Lancaster County Academy. 
At the same time the Hon. Samuel Dale served as Secre- 
tary of both boards. Dr. Baker was a man of great 
ability and force of character, and mainly by his influ- 
ence the ancient institution soon began to give signs of 
new life. 

In 1837 the charter of Franklin College was printed 
in pamphlet form in the English language. Its resources 
were carefully husbanded; so that, in July, 1840, the 
endowment amounted to $27,826.79, and the entire assets 
were estimated at $38,069.78. 

It is not surprising that at this period the records of 
the college and academy are somewhat confused, and that 
it is sometimes difficult to determine to which of these 
institutions a document properly belongs. It appears, 
however, that the academy appealed to the college for 
financial aid, especially for the purpose of satisfying a 
mortgage which was about to be foreclosed. It was sug- 
gested that the college board might sell its old building 
on North Queen street and apply the proceeds to the relief 
and restoration of the academy, without trenching on the 


invested funds of the college. At last, at the annual 
meeting of the college board, held October 19, 1837, it 
was, on motion of Dr. Schmucker, 

"Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to dispose of 
the present Eeal Estate of FraUklin College in the city of 
Lancaster, provided the Trustees of the Lancaster Academy 
are willing to dispose of their Eeal Estate in the city of 
Lancaster and are able to make a good title for it; and that 
if said Academy can be procured at a reasonable price the 
same Committee be authorized to purchase the said academy 
for the corporation of Eranklin College." 

The proposed arrangement was soon effected, as was 
no doubt anticipated when the above resolution was 
adopted. The old college-building was sold at private 
sale for $2,000 ; and by an act of the Legislature, passed 
May 15, 1839, the trustees of the academy were author- 
ized to convey their building and grounds to the trustees 
of Franklin College. It appears that the latter paid for 
the property of the academy the exact amount of the 
pressing claim to which we have referred. The follow- 
ing order — ^which is unfortunately not dated — is in the 
archives : 

"Treasurer of the Franklin College, pay to Samuel Dale, 
Five Hundred and ninety-three dollars and thirty-four cents, 
for the Heirs of Michael Gundaker to procure a release of the 
said heirs of their claim on the Lot on which is erected the 
Lancaster County Academy, which sum is to be applied in 
the purchase of the said Academy for the use of Franklin 

"John C. Baker, 
"$593.34. Pres." 


So far as Franklin College was concerned this was an 
excellent stroke of business. Apart from an actual finan- 
cial profit, the college secured a better location than the 
one which it had previously occupied. In the autumn 
of 1839 the academy was closed, and its board of trustees 
practically ceased to exist. If the college was to continue 
to exist it was desirable that a possible rival should be 
removed, and this result was accomplished in the most 
agreeable and satisfactory manner. Thus the way seemed 
to be prepared for the reorganization of the college on a 
new and more comprehensive plan. 



An Onwaed Movement — The Building Enlakged — Peofessobs 
F. A. Muhlenberg and James Regan — Rev. Db. Samuel 
Bowman, Acting Pbesident — Professoe Jacob Chap- 
man — A Professoe of Law. 

A serious responsibility now rested upon the trustees 
of Franklin College. An important work was expected 
of them; but they could not fail to recognize the fact 
that they were not ready to perform it. Some there were 
who were desirous of establishing a full college at all 
hazards, though the means at hand were manifestly in- 
sufficient for such a purpose. Others went to the opposite 
extreme and proposed that the academy board should be 
revived, the use of the building to be given them at a 
nominal rent, with the promise of an annual appropria- 
tion from the college fund that might enable them to 
maintain a first-rate boarding-school. The view which 
finally prevailed was in fact a compromise between these 
opposite opinions. The institution which they deter- 
mined to establish was to be known as Franklin College, 
though at first it could hardly be expected to accomplish 
more than had been proposed for the academy. The 
academy building was to be enlarged for the use of the 
college by the erection of a northern wing, which was to 
be the exact counterpart of the one already existing. It 
was resolved to elect a president at an annual salary of 
$1,200, and two assistants each of whom was to receive 
$750. The election of a president was, however, subse- 



quently indefinitely postponed, and a committee of super- 
vision was appointed, consisting of the Reverend Samuel 
Bowman,* the Reverend George F. Bahnson^ and John 
R. Montgomery, Esq.* This committee attended faith- 
fully to its duties, and Dr. Bowman was for some years 
president of the college in all but name. 


The addition to the academy building on Lime street 
was erected in 1840 by Mr. John Sehner at a cost of 
$1,972. In 1841 a small house was built for the janitor 
at the northern end of the lot, at a cost of about $1,000. 

On the 11th of September, 1840, Frederick Augustus 

* Samuel Bowman was born in Wilkesbarre, May 21, 1800; died 
near Treeport, Pa., August 3, 1861. Rector of St. James' Church, 
Lancaster, 1827-1858; P. E. Bishop of Pennsylvania, 1858-1861. 

'Pastor of the Moravian Church, Lancaster, 1839-1849. Bishop 
of the Unitas Fratrum. 

"A very distinguished lawyer. Died November 3, 1854. 


Muhlenberg^ and James Regan were elected professora 
in Franklin College, as now reorganized. That Mr. 
Muhlenberg had previously taught for a short time in 
the academy is altogether probable, but the fact is not on 
record. As a native of Lancaster and a member of a 
prominent family he enjoyed certain advantages which 
soon gave him the most influential position in the school, 
though it was explicitly stated in the action of the board 
that all the teachers were to be of equal rank. For six 
years Mr. Muhlenberg was annually reelected, but on the 
1st of June, 1846, he was unanimously chosen Professor 
of Languages in Franklin College. 

Concerning Professor James Regan we have little in- 
formation. He was a native of England, to which coun- 
try he returned in the summer of 1846. That he was 
highly esteemed by the board appears from the following 
extract from a report presented by Dr. Bowman, January 
4, 1842: 

"Two of our teachers having made no application for an 
increase of their salaries, the committee will confine them- 
selves to the case of Mr. Eegan. His circumstances are pecu- 
liar; being a stranger in the country he labors under various 
disadvantages, to which a native is not liable. He has a 

1 Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, D.D., LL.D., a grandson of the 
first president of the college, was born in Lancaster, August 25, 
1818; and died in Reading, Pa., March 21, 1901. He was graduated 
at Jefferson College in 1836 and at Princeton Theological Seminary 
in 1838. In 1855 he was ordained a minister of the Lutheran Church. 
He was a professor in Franklin College, 1840-1850; professor of 
Greek in Pennsylvania College, 1850-1867; first president of Muhlen- 
berg College, 1867-1876; became professor of the Greek language 
and literature in the University of Pennsylvania in 1876, and sub- 
sequently held a similar position in Thiel College, Greenville, Pa, 
As a Greek scholar he held high rank and he was also an influential 


family to support and children to be educated. But not to 
insist on these points, Mr. E. is, we believe, a scholar of such 
attainments as we shall hardly meet with again — ^indefatiga- 
ble and enthusiastic in his profession — and possessing skill 
and experience which admirably qualify him for his present 
post. Thorough master of four languages besides his own, 
the committee are quite confident that should we lose the 
services of Mr. K., it will not be possible to find one equal 
to him, for anything like the salary which he receives, if 
at all. 

"For these reasons the committee recommend the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

"Resolved, That an addition of $100 per annum — a sum 
about equivalent to his house rent — ^be made to the salary of 
Mr. Eegan, beginning with Jan. 1, 1843. 

"Resolved, That by this increase of Mr. E.'s salary no 
precedence in point of rank is intended to be given him, the 
addition being grounded entirely upon the facts and reasons 
above stated, and his standing and authority to remain in 
all respects what they were before." 

When Mr. Eegan resigned his position, in 1846, very 
complimentary resolutions were adopted, assuring him 
of "the affectionate wishes of the Board, for his future 
happiness and prosperity." 

In 1841 an English Department was added to Franklin 
College. Gad Day was principal, and for a time was 
very popular. Mr. Day was the oldest of the four sons 
of a New Englander, their names being Gad, Asa, Ira 
and Dan. Gad Day was in 1838 teacher of the principal 
public school in Lancaster, receiving a salary of $800, 
which was in those days an unusually liberal compensa- 
tion. In 1839 he was chosen Superintendent of all the 

GAD DAY. 131 

public schools in Lancaster, and was so popular with the 
board that "seldom were any new departures made with- 
out first consulting Mr. Day and getting his views.* 
When he became connected with the college he had no 
difficulty in gathering a large school; so that for a time 
it seemed as if the English Department would swallow 
up the rest of the institution. It was, however, said that 
Mr. Day was too fond of novelties, and that the results 
of his teaching were showy rather than permanent. He 
was also accused of increasing the number of his scholars 
by lowering the standard of admission. There was some 
disagreement, and on the 5th of August, 1844, the fol- 
lowing preamble and resolutions were adopted by the 
board : 

"Whereas, sudden and frequent changes in a collegiate 
institution are to be deprecated; and, whereas, justice to our 
teachers demands that they should not be discharged from 
our service without timely notice given them; therefore, 

"Resolved, That the college as at present constituted be 
continued in operation until the 1st of April next, provided 
that the expense thereof can be met without encroaching on 
the capital of the institution. 

"Resolved, That from and after the 1st day of April next 
the English department be abolished and the branches therein 
taught transferred to the instructors in classics and mathe- 
matics. ' ' 

It may, we presume, be taken for granted that the 
above date indicates the conclusion of the labors of Mr. 
Gad Day. 

The Keverend Jacob Chapman was, on the 1st of May, 

' Ellis and Evans's " History of Lancaster County," p. 412. 


1846, elected Professor of Mathematics in Franklin Col- 
lege. He had previously been a Congregational minister, 
but in the same year joined the Keformed Church and 
became a member of the Classis of Lebanon. In this 
way the Eeformed Church secured a representative among 
the teachers of the college. 

Mr. Chapman never was pastor of a charge in the 
Eeformed Church, but he frequently supplied vacant 
congregations and did some missionary work in Harris- 
burg. He was very active at the time of the organiza- 
tion of St. Paul's Church, Lancaster, and was very 
highly respected. His literary labors were chiefly de- 
voted to genealogical researches, in which he manifested 
unusual patience and accuracy. In 1853 he was dis- 
missed by the Classis of Lebanon to the Wabash Congre- 
gational Association, of Illinois. 

In the spring of 1902 Mr. Chapman was still living 
at the age of ninety-two.^ Mr. D. H. Heitshu — a mem- 
ber of St. Paul's Church, who had once been his pupil — 
wrote him a courteous letter and received the following 
interesting autograph reply: 

"Exeter, N. H., April 1, 1902. 
"D. H. Heitshu, Lancaster, Pa. 
"My Dear Friend, 

"I am too old and feeble to tell you many things which 
happened to me at Lancaster, Pa. But I am obliged for the 
information you gave me. I am glad to hear there were 51 
additions to the church and that it has grown to near 800. 
I wish I could remember to tell you of the history of the 
church in Lancaster. We had a sad time when compelled 

^It was recently stated in the newspapers that he was one hun- 
dred years old, but this was an exaggeration. 


to come out and organize a new church. But we had many 
friends; and the blessing of God rested upon us and has fol- 
lowed the church. 

"I think my labors in Harrisburg and the town above 
were blessed. In 1853 I began preaching in Marshall, 111., 
for twelve years. The chills and fever led me to return to 
New Hampshire and preach six years in Deerfield and seven 
years in Kingston. At the age of seventy I settled in Exeter, 
where I expect to finish my labors before long. I have writ- 
ten (I think) five volumes of the history of my labors. 

"It is interesting to learn that the Lord has blessed your 
church with such wonderful prosperity. I am obliged to 
you for telling me of the continued prosperity which has 
followed the church in which I always feel such an in- 
terest. I always labored to aid the good work in which 
the college was engaged. It never failed to have my sym- 
pathy and assistance. I visited many places in the vicinity, 
and lent my aid to build up the College which came in for 
aid and support, though I had no expectation of having any 
return for my labors. The college which came in from Mer- 
cersburg had no place for me or my service, only to aid in 
its commencement. I had an offer of a place among its 
faculty, but it was not such a place as I would choose or 
easily fill. I accepted a call to three churches near Terre 
Haute, Indiana, and remained in the church at Marshall, 
111., twelve years. Returned on account of the chills to N. 
Hampshire and preached till I was seventy years of age ; then 
wrote four volumes — ^history of my second wife's relatives 
and my own father's early relatives in Greenland, N. H., etc. 

"I think you will find in the Chapman Genealogy (which 
I think I sent you) a more complete history of my labors in 
the West. Now I am drawing near to the close of my labors, 
continued so many years. It is not easy to write, as it used 
to be, and the memory of many things is passing away. I 


wrote a History of Kingston, N. H., where I taught and 
afterwards preached for some years. But I must close. 

"Yours truly, 

"Jacob Chapman, 
"Exeter, N. H." 

Though the above letter contains some repetitions, the 
fact is explained by the extreme age of the writer, and 
it is otherwise so interesting that we have not ventured 
to abbreviate it. As perhaps the last survivor of the 
men who were prominent in the later history of Franklin 
College, Mr. Chapman deserves a prominent place in the 
records of the united institution. 

In March, 1846, a union — or rather alliance — ^was 
formed between the trustees and the directors of the pub- 
lic schools of the city of Lancaster, and this arrangement 
was annually renewed until September, 1849. During 
this period the school board paid the salary of the pro- 
fessor of mathematics, in consideration of the fact that 
advanced scholars of the public schools were admitted to 
the college free of charge for tuition, and that a room in 
the college-building was granted without rent to the school 
board for its meetings. The arrangement was terminated 
by the school board in view of its purpose to erect a sep- 
arate high school. 

About this time signs of a new life began to appear. 
In 1848 attendance on morning prayers was made obliga- 
tory, and students were required to commit to memory 
the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Com- 
mandments. That there was more confidence in the 
future of the institution is indicated by the fact that in 
September, 1848, Mr. Coultas presented a herbarium and 
that, one year later, H. E. Muhlenberg deposited in the 


library a mineralogical collection for the use of the college. 
A larger immber of books was annually purchased for 
the library and the old Benjamin Franklin Debating So- 
ciety was revived.* Through the instrumentality of the 
Honorable Thaddeus Stevens many government publica- 
tions were secured from Washington. 

In response to a petition signed by several members of 
the bar, the board of trustees, on September 7, 1846, 
established a professorship of Law and Medical Juris- 
prudence in Franklin College, "provided that the salary 
of the professor be not drawn from the funds of this 
board." The Hon. Ellis Lewis* was elected to this pro- 
fessorship. It was the evident purpose of the promoters 
of this movement to establish a law school under the 
charter of Franklin College, but it does not appear that 
Judge Lewis accepted the appointment. The fact was, 
however, universally acknowledged that the time for an 
onward movement of some kind had come at last. 

" The Lancaster Athenseum was closely connected with Franklin 
C!ollege and maintained a reading room in the college building. 

^ Ellis Lewis, LL.D., was born in York County, Pa., May 16, 1798, 
and died in Philadelphia, March 19, 1871. Attorney General of 
Pennsylvania, 1833; judge of Supreme Court, 1851; chief justice, 
1854. He received the honorary degree of M.D. from the Philadel- 
phia College of Medicine in recognition of his knowledge of medical 



Proposed Enlaegement — Plans foe Union — Agebement with 

Maeshall College — De. J. C. Buchee's Success — Pttechase 

or THE Lutheran Inteeest — Confiemation of the Union. 

The expansion of Franklin College was delayed by 
what seemed to be insurmountable difficulties. It is, of 
course, true that the means at hand were not sufficient for 
the establishment of an important institution; but by an 
earnest effort the endowment might have been increased. 
The chief obstacle, as we apprehend it, was the recent 
establishment of denominational colleges which were sup- 
posed to have occupied the field; so that at best the insti- 
tution in Lancaster could hardly hope for more than local 
patronage. The only conceivable way of escape from this 
difficulty appeared to be to unite with some existing insti- 
tution ; thus not only increasing the endowment, but secur- 
ing the favor and patronage of that branch of the church 
which it represented. 

As early as 1835 the Board of Trustees of Erantlin 
College had addressed a communication to the Reformed 
synod, convened in Chambersburg, inviting that body to 
remove its high school from York to Lancaster. The 
proposition was rather formally worded, "as follows, to 

"That should it please your body to pass a resolution re- 
moving the Classical School attached to the Seminary at 
York, in this State, from the town of York to Lancaster, 



they, the trustees, from the disposition manifested at the 
present meeting have no hesitancy in saying that they will 
elect as Principal and Assistant the Principal and Assistant 
of said classical school at York, and apply for their use and 
accommodation their available funds and their buildings at 
Lancaster and the lots on which the same are erected, they, 
the present board of trustees, reserving to themselves and 
their successors the right they now hold of acting as trustees, 
agreeably to all the provisions of the charter of said college. 

"Furthermore, That so soon as the President of this 
board is apprized of the acceptance of this proposition, and 
of the passage of a resolution removing the said classical 
school to this place, measures shall be adopted to place the 
buildings in a suitable state of repair." 

To this proposition we shall have occasion to refer here- 
after. At this place we can only say, that the Reformed 
Synod was naturally unwilling to establish an institution 
whose management would be beyond its control. The 
proposition was accordingly declined and the school was 
removed from York to Mercersburg. 

After this failure there were many conflicting proposi- 
tions. In 1844 it was proposed by some of the trustees 
to set aside one-sixth of the capital of the college "for the 
purpose of erecting a Charity School, in accordance with 
the provisions of Article 13, of the charter of incorpora- 
tion." It is supposed that this proposition was made in 
behalf of the so-called "Infant School" which occupied a 
part of the college-building. It was, however, finally 

The outlook was not promising, but positive action had 
become a necessity. Propositions for union with Mar- 
shall or with Pennsylvania College would have been wel- 
comed, but there were none forthcoming. At last, on the 


3d of September, 1849, the board adopted the following 
preamble and resolution: 

"Whereas, in the opinion of this board, it is absolutely 
necessary for the welfare of Franklin College and the more 
complete carrying out of the provisions of the charter, to 
have a new and larger edifice erected for the accommodation 
of students from abroad; therefore, 

"Resolved, That Five Thousand dollars out of the treas- 
ury, and such sum as may arise from the sale of the lot and 
buildings on Orange and Lime streets, be appropriated to 
effect the same; provided that not less than Ten Thousand 
dollars be raised by subscription for the same purpose." 

At the meeting at which this action was taken a bare 
quorum was present, and there was no unanimity of senti- 
ment. It is said, however, that within a short time about 
$7,000 were subscribed for the proposed building. When 
the board met again, three months later, it was found that 
opposition had become formidable. It was urged that the 
erection of a new building would by no means insure the 
prosperity of the college. As it would necessarily become 
a rival of existing colleges, would it not provoke their 
hostility, if it did not actually become a cause of conten- 
tion in the denominations which they represented ? It is, 
therefore, not surprising that the following action was 
immediately proposed: 

"Resolved, That in the estimation of the Board, the pur- 
poses of the charter of Franklin College can in no way be so 
effectually and successfully accomplished as by an equal divi- 
sion of the funds of said college between the Boards of Mar- 
shall College, at Mercersburg, and Pennsylvania College, at 
Gettysburg, respectively. ' ' 


This would, no doubt, have been the easiest way out of 
the difficulties of the situation, and might have been es- 
pecially agreeable to the trustees of Pennsylvania College, 
who had never manifested any inclination to remove from 
Gettysburg. Such action would, however, have involved 
the dissolution of Franklin College, and this was what 
the local members especially desired to prevent. Though 
the college was a small affair, it was their own. They 
had waited for many years for the establishment of such 
an institution as their fathers had proposed and naturally 
did not desire their long cherished ideal to be shattered 
in a moment. As it was known that such sentiments were 
entertained by the majority of the trustees the proposed 
resolution was finally withdrawn. 

Immediately afterwards it was moved and seconded — 
we do not know by whom: 

"That in the estimation of this Board the ends and pur- 
poses of the charter will be best secured and most success- 
fully carried out by the merging of said college in Marshall 
College, now at Mercersburg, in this State; provided that 
said Marshall College, with its faculty, funds, and students, 
be transferred and be established in the city of Lancaster. ' ' 

This resolution was immediately capped with an amend- 
ment to the effect that "the same offer in substance be 
made to the other Christian denominations, and that terms 
be entered into with such body as shall make the most 
advantageous proposals to this Board." 

This proposed action was possibly premature, but it 
led to a discussion that continued through two succeeding 
days and actually opened the way for final union. On 
the 5th of December, 1849, Dr. F. A. Muhlenberg offered 
the following substitute: 


"Whereas, the appropriate time has arrived for expand- 
ing the usefulness of Franklin College as a literary institu- 
tion, and preliminary steps having already been taken under 
a resolution of this board for collecting a sufficient fund to 
erect suitable college edifices; therefore, be it, 

"1. Resolved, That an invitation be respectfully given to 
Pennsylvania College, at Gettysburg, and Marshall College, 
at Mercersburg, to unite their respective interests with Frank- 
lin College, in the city and county of Lancaster, that an insti- 
tution with foundation broad and deep may be erected, suffi- 
ciently extensive to supply the wants and demands of the 
Germans of Pennsylvania and their descendants for whose 
benefit this corporation was erected. 

"2. Besolved, That so soon as a junction of one or more 
of these interests be effected, this Board will pledge itself to 
elect one-third of the Faculty from the Lutherans, one-third 
from the German Eeformed, and another from the third 
denominations represented under the charter, the Principal 
and Vice Principal to be selected as therein directed. 

"3. Resolved, That this institution is worthy of the hon- 
orable name she has assumed and will retain it. Since the 
year 1787, under adverse circumstances, she has sustained a 
classical and mathematical school, without participating in 
the bounty of the State. It is true she received 10,000 acres 
as a donation in waste lands from the State, but for many 
years worthless and expensive to the Corporation; neverthe- 
less, by careful conduct and an economical policy, she has 
accumulated a capital of $40,000, whilst other sister institu- 
tions, although sectarian and receiving the full bounty of 
the State, have failed. 

"4. Resolved, That as these propositions are of vital in- 
terest to the future literary existence of Franklin College, no 
final action be taken until the next annual meeting of this 
Board, in December, 1850." 


The plan which was here proposed we can only char- 
acterize as splendid. If it could have been carried out 
the result would have reflected the highest glory on its 
promoters. A little reflection is, however, enough to show 
that it was, in fact, a revival of the plan of the original 
founders of Franklin College, a plan which though mag- 
nificent on paper had proved a lamentable failure. It 
was probably for this reason that the above resolutions 
failed to be adopted. 

At this point the name of the Rev. John Casper Bucher 
for the first time appears prominently on the records. 
Immediately after the presentation of Dr. Muhlenberg's 
paper, he moved that the fourth resolution be amended 
to the following effect: 

"That this Board will merge the two thirds of the funds 
of Franklin College into Marshall College, or the institu- 
tions at Mercersburg, Pa., on the condition that said Mar- 
shall College be brought here; and we will pay one third of 
said fund into the hands of the Trustees of the Lutheran 
church, which one third they inay use as an endowment of a 
professorship, on which they may elect a professor of their 
denomination and call it the Lutheran professorship." 

That Mr. Bucher did not make this proposition with- 
out authority goes without saying. The whole matter 
had been fully discussed in the Reformed Synod, held in 
itforristown in October, 1849, and Mr. Bucher was simply 
the informal representative of his church. How the way 
was prepared for such a proposition we shall see hereafter 
when we come to relate the history of Marshall College. 

The minutes of the meetings whi«h were successively 
held in 1849-50 are fairly complete; but it would be a 
tedious task to consider anew all the propositions which 


were then presented. There were frequent disagreements, 
and motions to amend or to reconsider — to postpone or to 
lay on the table — ^were exceedingly numerous. Gradually, 
however, a plan of union was evolved from what at times 
appeared to be confusion. A committee of conference — 
consisting of three Lutheran and three Reformed mem- 
bers — reported on the 5th of December, 1850, that they 
had unanimously agreed to propose a plan of union on 
the following conditions : 

"1. That the two boards of Trustees apply to the next 
Legislature for an alteration in their respective charters, so 
that the new corporation may be called 'Franklin Marshall 
College' to be established in the city of Lancaster or its 
immediate vicinity. 

"2. That provision be made in the new charter that one 
third of the Board of Trustees shall forever be Lutherans, 
and two thirds German Reformed, or such other persons as 
the said Lutheran and German Eeformed members of the 
Board may respectively see fit to elect. 

"3. Two professors of the faculty to be nominated by the 
Lutherans and elected by the board, their salaries to be equal 
to those of the other professors." 

These terms were referred to the Board of Trustees of 
Marshall College, and were by them somewhat radically 
amended. In the first article the word "and" was in- 
serted between the words "Franklin Marshall," so as to 
read "Franklin and Marshall SOoUege."^ The second 
article was amended by striking out all after the word 

^ It is rather amusing to observe how much zeal was expended on 
this little matter. Attempts were subsequently made to strike out the 
word " and " from the college title, and to substitute a hyphen, so 
as to read " Franklin-Marshall " ; but the present form was finally 


"charter" and inserting "that two-thirds of the Board of 
Trustees shall forever be Grerman Eeformed, one-sixth 
Lutherans, and the remaining one-sixth of said Board 
shall be chosen from any other society of Christians." 
The third article was entirely stricken out and the follow- 
ing substituted: 

"That one of the professors shall be of the Lutheran 
church, whose salary shall rate with that of the other pro- 
fessors generally ; and a second professor may be chosen from 
the Lutheran church, provided that a fund for his support 
be created by said church." 

Marshall College also added the following condition : 

"That the people of the city and county of Lancaster be 
required to raise an amount not less than twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars to purchase the ground and defray the expenses 
of erecting the buildings for the college and professors' 
houses, without touching the present funds of either Frank- 
lin or Marshall College, the proceeds of the sale of Marshall 
College to be placed in the general fund for the endowment 
of Franklin and Marshall College." 

Of these amended terms the first and fourth were ac- 
cepted, but the second and third were rejected. There 
was renewed controversy, and it seemed as if the proposed 
union had utterly failed. It had become evident that if 
the institution was to succeed it must be placed under the 
care of a single religious denomination; and it was then 
proposed that the Reformed Church should pay to the 
Lutherans the value of their part of the property and 
endowment of Franklin College. This was found to be 
the only satisfactory course. The property of Franklin 
College, in real estate and endowment, was carefully as- 


sessed, and found to amount to $51,508.84. One-third 
of this amount, representing what was known as the 
Lutheran interest, was to be retained by the Board until 
the Eeformed Church paid an equal amount into the 
treasury, so that the original endowment might remain 
intact. As soon as this was done the amount of this third 
interest ($17,169.71) was to be paid to the Lutheran 
members of the Board, by whom it was to be transferred 
to the trustees of Pennsylvania College, at Gettysburg, for 
the support of a professorship of ancient languages, the 
first incmnbent to be chosen by the Lutheran members of 
the Board of Franklin College, and subsequent nomina- 
tions to be vested in the old Evangelical Synod of Penn- 
sylvania. It was also resolved that before the union of 
the colleges could be consummated the sum of twenty-five 
thousand dollars must be raised by the citizens of Lan- 
caster city and county and paid "in current funds" into 
the treasury for the purchase of grounds and erection 
of buildings for the use of Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege. These conditions were to be inserted into the bill, 
the enactment of which was to be solicited of the Legis- 
lature, and none of the previous resolutions were to be 
valid unless they were literally complied with. 

It was not generally believed that the Reformed Church 
would be able to secure the required funds within the 
stipulated time. The work was however undertaken with 
great vigor, and the results were satisfactory. The Eev. 
J. C. Bucher was appointed the agent of the Board of 
Franklin College to secure the sum of $25,000 for the 
building fund, and labored in Lancaster with the energy 
for which he was famous. For some time he was effi- 
ciently assisted by the Kev. David Bossier. 


The Synod of the Reformed Church undertook to raise 
the sum needed to purchase the Lutheran interest in the 
college. It was known as the Seventeen Thousand Dollar 
Fund, and its collection in the brief time required de- 
manded extraordinary efforts. Indeed, we may now con- 
fess — ^what was in those days a profound secret — that not 
all the money was actually in hand when its payment was 
imperatively demanded; but several good friends quietly 
advanced what was still needed, and were, of course, sub- 
sequently reimbursed, when the subscriptions had all been 

It is said that the meeting of the Board of Trustees of 
Franklin College, held December 21, 1852, was decidedly 
interesting. The Reformed members were slow in appear- 
ing, and it was believed by some that their work had failed. 
In a few minutes new propositions would have been pre- 
sented, and an effort have been made to secure a declara- 
tion that the conditions of union had not been met. Then, 
however, the representatives of the Reformed Church 
appeared and paid the amount due to the uttermost cent. 
On the proceedings of this meeting the following resolu- 
tions appear: 

"Resolved, That the treasurer of Franklin College is 
hereby directed to pay over to the Lutheran portion of the 
Trustees of Franklin College, $17,169-^^1^, being the one 
third of the appraised value of the property of said college. 

"Resolved, That the President of Franklin College is 
hereby authorized to certify that Twenty-five Thousand Dol- 
lars have been paid by the citizens of the City and County of 
Lancaster to a joint committee of Franklin and Marshall 
Colleges; also that the German Eeformed Church have paid 
into the treasury of Franklin College, Seventeen Thousand, 


One Hundred and Sixty-nine -^^^ Dollars, being the one 
third of the appraised value of the property of Franklin 
College, and that the same amount has been authorized to be 
paid to the Lutheran portion of the Trustees of said Boards 
and has been so paid over. ' ' 

It is but just to state that the success which attended 
the negotiations between the colleges was greatly due to 
the aid and sympathy of the Hon. James Buchanan and 
the Eev. Dr. Samuel Bowman. Mr. Buchanan served 
as President in the absence of Dr. Baker, and Dr. Bow- 
man remained Secretary until the final dissolution of the 
Board. They were faithful friends of the college, and 
at this trying time their wisdom was "better than rubies." 

Of course, there were many things to be done before 
the union of the colleges could be actually consummated. 
By a vote of the tax-payers of the city the third part of 
the property of Franklin College, which was supposed to 
be vested in "the outside community," was formally trans- 
ferred to the Reformed Church; and on March 1, 1853, 
the Hon. James Buchanan was authorized "to transfer 
and convey all the estate real and personal of Franklin 
College to Franklin and Marshall College."^ On the 
same day the treasurer of Franklin College was directed 
to hand over to the treasurer of Franklin and Marshall 
College all the securities and other articles of value 
then in his possession. These were the last important 
acts of the Board of Franklin College, though several 
meetings were held afterwards to fill vacancies in the 
building committee. The last meeting of which we have 
any record was held July 2Y, 1853. 

'■ This deed was executed by Mr. Buchanan, June 28, 1853. 


The act of the Legislature confirming the union with 
Marshall College was signed by the Governor April 29, 
1850. The amount paid the trustees of Pennsylvania 
College for the Lutheran interest in Franklin College was 
duly applied to the endowment of the Tranklin professor- 
ship of Ancient Languages, and the Rev. F. A. Muhlen- 
berg became its first incumbent. The Lutheran Synod, 
at its meeting in Pottsville, in 1850, "heartily approved" 
of the arrangement. 

Fifty years ago the union of the colleges was some- 
times playfully referred to as the marriage of "Sir Mar- 
shall and Lady Franklin" ; and in after-dinner speeches 
there were pleasant allusions to the youthful bridegroom 
and his somewhat venerable bride. Pursuing the ancient 
analogy, we now beg leave to introduce the knight who 
came from afar to woo and wed the lady whose story we 
have tried to tell. 




The Chabteb — Theological Seminary — Classical Institution 
AT York — The Principal of the School — liiTERABY Societies. 

The charter of Marshall College was granted by the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania during its session of 1835- 
1836, receiving the signature of Governor Joseph Eitner 
on the 31st of March, 1836. In this charter the first 
article declares: "That the High School of German Ee- 
formed Church, located at Mercersburg, be and hereby is 
erected into a college for the education of youth in the 
learned languages, the arts, sciences, and useful litera- 
ture." It must, therefore, be our first purpose to give 
some account of the High School vehich was thus honored, 
though it may be well to premise that the latter institution 
was itself derived from the Theological Seminary of the 
Eeformed Church. 

Though it is not our purpose to write the history of the 
Theological Seminary, it is not easy to give a full account 
of the college without trenching to some extent upon the 
field properly reserved for the historian of the theological 
institution. The seminary and college are closely related ; 
and in the days when they occupied the same building 
strangers sometimes found it difficult to distinguish be- 
tween them. Eeferring to this intimate relation the cata- 
logue of Marshall College says, in 1840: 

"The primary object of the two institutions may be re- 
garded as one and the same. The church needs ministers, 
and she is concerned to have them properly educated for their 



high and responsible work. It is her zeal for this work which 
has given birth to Marshall College. Harvard University, 
Yale College, and Nassau Hall owe their origin mainly to a 
similar zeal on the part of the religious denominations by 
which they were founded." 

The best men in the Keformed Church had long desired 
the establishment of a theological seminary, but several 
successive efforts had resulted in disappointment. In 
1820 it was proposed to found such an institution in 
Frederick, Md., and the Rev. Dr. Philip Milledoler was 
chosen Professor of Theology. There was much enthu- 
siasm, and upwards of $30,000 were promised for the 
endowment. Unfortunately these subscriptions were con- 
ditioned on the acceptance of Dr. Milledoler; and when 
the latter finally declined, after holding the call for two 
years, the disappointment was keenly felt, and for some 
time it seemed unlikely that the project would be revived.^ 

The demand for educated ministers, however, still con- 
tinued, and it became evident that unless existing vacan- 
cies in important pastorates were speedily supplied, the 
churches themselves must be lost to the denomination. 
The matter was felt to be of paramount importance, and 
in 1823 the Synod of the Reformed Church resolved to 
establish a seminary in Harrisburg, and the Rev. Dr. 

* It was understood that if Dr. Milledoler had acepted the call, 
Col. Henry Rutgers, of New York, would have contributed a large 
part of the endowment. When Dr. Milledoler, in 1825, became presi- 
dent of the college in New Brunswick, the name of that institution 
was changed from Queen's College to Rutgers, " in honor of one, 
its distinguished benefactor, Col. Henry Rutgers, of New York city." 
We have heard it stated that it was once proposed to call the institu- 
tion now in Lancaster " Rutgers College," but beyond these facts 
there seems to be no authority for this statement. 


Samuel HelfEenstein, of Philadelphia, was chosen to the 
first professorship; but this plan was not carried out, 
for reasons which we have no space to relate. In 1824 
the trustees of Dickinson College presented a plan which 
was deemed feasible, and it was accordingly accepted. 
It was proposed that the seminary should be founded in 
Carlisle, Pa., and that the professor of theology, in 
return for the use of a recitation-room and the payment 
of his house rent, should serve as professor of history 
and German literature in Dickinson College. 

Dr. Helffenstein was again elected professor of theol- 
ogy, but he declined the call, and it was finally accepted 
by the Kev. Dr. Lewis Mayer.^ 

"When I accepted that call," said Dr. Mayer subse- 
quently," "the prospect of establishing a Seminary was so 
dark and discouraging that no brother, whose situation at the 
time was pleasant, could have been induced to accept the pro- 
fessorship. I gave up a certainty for an uncertainty, relin- 
quished a better living, and subjected myself to a series of 
untried labors; resolved, at the hazard of all that I held 
dear, if it were the will of God, to make the effort to lay the 
foundation of an institution which I hoped would be a bless- 
ing to the church for ages to come. ' ' 

■Lewis Mayer was born in Lancaster, Pa., March 26, 1783; died 
at York, Pa., August 25, 1849. Pastor, Shepherdstown, Va., 
1808-21; York, Pa., 1821-25. Professor of Theology, 1825-37. 
Author of " Sin against the Holy Ghost," " Lectures on Scriptural 
Subjects," " History of German Reformed Church," Vol. I., and many 

' Letter to Dr. D. Zacharias, December 27, 1836. 


The Theological Seminary was opened at Carlisle on 
the eleventh day of March, 1825, with five students, but 
within a year the number had increased to ten. They 
were devout young men, but their teacher was greatly 
discouraged by their lack of preparatory training. In 
his successive reports to synod he complained that most 
of the students were so imperfectly prepared that he was 
actually compelled to spend most of his time in teaching 
primary branches. 

It had been expected that special opportunities for in- 
struction would be afforded by Dickinson College; but 
the condition of that institution was most discouraging. 
The college had been founded as a Presbyterian interest, 
but other literary institutions had been founded elsewhere 
by the same denomination, and it now lacked adequate 
support. Indeed, it was regarded as almost ruined, and 
its authorities utterly failed to provide for the theological 
seminary, so that Dr. Mayer found himself compelled to 
give instruction in his private residence. A few years 
later Dickinson College was transferred to the Methodist 
Church and since that time it has enjoyed a high degree 
of prosperity. There can be no doubt that the Eeformed 
Church had a prior opportunity of securing this valuable 
location, and that it was neglected was subsequently the 
cause of much regret. 

In Carlisle the seminary had many troubles, and in 
1829 Dr. Mayer, on his own responsibility, removed to 
York, where he had purchased what he regarded as a suit- 
able property. This property the Church subsequently 
accepted at the price which Dr. Mayer had paid for it. 
Here the seminary was reopened, and the Kev. Daniel 
Toung became assistant professor of theology. In the 



same year Dr. Mayer earnestly appealed to synod to es- 
tablish a classical institution. At the same time he re- 
quested the synod to investigate the affairs of Franklin 
College, at Lancaster, and if possible to secure the value 
of the Reformed interest in that institution for the pur- 
pose of endowing the proposed school. Dr. Mayer's plan 
was approved and it was resolved to establish a classical 
institution as soon as the way was open. In 1830 a com- 


mittee was appointed to confer with the Lutheran Synod 
with regard to the reestablishment of Franklin College, 
and the following year the Eeformed Synod expressed its 
willingness to cooperate in such an undertaking; but it 
need hardly be said that these efforts proved unsuccessful. 
In the autumn of 1831 the Board of Visitors appointed 
the Rev. S. Boyer "classical teacher" in the theological 
seminary. He seems to have been kept sufficiently busy. 


for at the end of the session he examined his classes in 
Geography, Jacobs' Eeader, Virgil, Cicero, and the New 
Testament in Greek. He did not remain long, for in 
the summer session his place was supplied by the Rev. 
W. A. Good, who was at the same time a student of theol- 
ogy. Dr. Mayer taught German and some other branches 
which were not properly included in his department as 
Professor of Theology. 

As soon as the seminary was thus enlarged the number 
of students rapidly increased. Among the applicants 
there were several who had no immediate purpose of 
studying for the ministry. The time had now come for 
the establishment of a classical institution, and with it 
came the man. 

The choice of a principal for the proposed institution 
was not an easy matter. There were few ministers who 
had enjoyed a classical education, and among these there 
was not one who would have ventured to undertake the 
work. There was some talk about calling a distinguished 
graduate of some other institution ; but it was feared that 
such a man would find it difficult to accommodate himself 
to new and peculiar conditions. It was, therefore, a 
most auspicious event when, at the meeting of synod held 
in Frederick, Md., in September, 1832, a young man 
appeared who evidently possessed the highest qualifica- 
tions for this important work. 

Dr. Frederick Augustus Kauch occupies so prominent 
a position in this history that in a subsequent chapter we 
shall endeavor to give a full account of his brief but bril- 
liant career. At the time of his appearance at the synod 
of Frederick he was but twenty-six years old — a hand- 
some man of highly intellectual appearance, with manners 


that were unusually genial and sympathetic. As he had 
heen but a year in America his knowledge of the English 
language was still imperfect; but when his errors were 
pointed out they caused him a great deal of amusement.-' 
Those who feared that the matter of language would 
interfere with his usefulness did not recognize that to 
a man so thoroughly trained in philology the acquisition 
of an additional language was not a very serious matter. 

Fortunately a number of Reformed ministers had made 
the acquaintance of Dr. Eauch in the previous year, when 
he was giving instruction in German in Lafayette College, 
at Easton. It speaks well for the discernment of these 
men that they discovered in this young German the ele- 
ments necessary for successful labor in the institutions of 
the Reformed Church. Letters of recommendation were 
addressed to the synod by the Rev. Messrs. Hoffeditz, 
Pomp, J. C. Becker and Isaac Gerhart, and it was to 
these letters that the election of Dr. Rauch was chiefly due. 

In the previous year the Rev. Daniel Young, Assistant 
Professor in the Theological Seminary, had died, and 
there was therefore a vacancy in that institution. The 
synod elected Dr. Rauch to this position as Professor of 
Biblical Literature, and at the same time directed him 
to have exclusive charge of the Classical Institution. For 
this double service he was to receive an annual salary of 
$600. He declined a larger salary on the ground that 
he had not yet proved his fitness for the position. 

'It is said that Dr. Rauch began an English speech with the 
words : " I am very much not glad." Many years afterwards the 
incident was related to Dr. Schaff, while his knowledge of English 
was still inadequate. " Yes ! " he responded reflectively : " That 
was certainly a great mistake. He ought to have said : ' I am not 
very much glad.' " 



In establishing the Classical Institution Dr. Eauch was 
very successful. In 1833 he reported that the number 
of students was forty-seven and in the succeeding year 
it had increased to seventy-six. The synod was so well 
pleased that, in 1833, it directed the churches to take up 
collections for the classical institution, as well as for the 
theological seminary. Dr. Kauch was installed at York 
on the 17th of October, 1832. 


Tor one year the Eev. J. H. Agnew was Dr. Eauch's 
assistant. Mr. Agnew taught English, Latin (Virgil and 
Horace), U. S. history, mental arithmetic, algebra, geog- 
raphy and natural philosophy. In the autumn of 1833 
the Eev. H. Miller and the Eev. C. Dober were appointed 
assistants. Mr. E. Blech also taught for some time at 
the request of Dr. Eauch, but does not seem to have been 



regularly appointed. Mr. Miller having resigned at the 
close of the winter session, the Board selected Samuel A. 
Budd, A.B., as his successor. Professor Budd subse- 
quently became a member of the Taculty of Marshall 
College and was very highly esteemed. 

In 1835 the name of the Classical Institution was 
changed by synod to "High School of the Keformed 
Church." No doubt it had previously been popularly 
known by the latter title. By this time the school ap- 
peared to be firmly established; and among the students 
there were a number of brilliant young men who subse- 
quently gave a good account of themselves in church and 


state. In those days it was the highest object of a young 
man's ambition to become a good writer and speaker, and 
there was hardly a good school in the country which had 
not a debating society. Such a society had been organized 
in the High School at an early date, but as is often the 
case after a year or two of activity, the society became 


moribund and seemed atout to expire. Then, however, 
a young man appeared to whose energy and perseverance 
the organization of the literary societies is mainly due. 

Samuel Eeed Fisher^ was a graduate of Jefferson Col- 
lege, Canonsburg, Pa., and was now a student in the 
theological seminary at York. While he was a student at 
college he had been an active member of a literary society, 
and was therefore well qualified to appreciate its benefits. 
He was welcomed as a member of the Debating Society, 
which at his suggestion was named "Diagnothian."^ The 
society became prosperous and Mr. Fisher suggested that 
it should be divided into two societies, standing towards 
each other in the relation of generous rivals. 

The proposed division was actually accomplished on 
Monday evening, June 8, 1835. John B. Cox and Jesse 
Steiner were directed to effect the division. Casting lots 
for the first choice, the students present were alternately 
chosen for one or the other society until all had been 
placed. The following arrangement was finally adopted: 

1. George W. Williard, Henry Williard, S. E. Fisher, 
John B. Cox, Moses Kieffer, Isaac H. McCauley, William 

'The Rev. S. E. Fisher, D.D., was born at Norristown, Pa., June 
2, 1810, and died in Tiffin, Ohio, June 5, 1881. For many years he 
was editor of The Messenger and Superintendent of the Publication 
Interests of the Reformed Church. 

"There is a tradition that the Diagnothian Society was named 
after the literary society of which Dr. Fisher was a member while 
he was a student of Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. This, how- 
ever, appears to be a mistake. " The literary societies of Jefferson 
College were the Philo and the Franklin; those of Washington Col- 
lege the Union and the Washington. Since the union in 1869 the 
societies have been united under the names Philo and Union, Frank- 
lin and Washington." — Letter of President J. D. Moffat of Washing- 
ton and Jefferson College, Septemier 10, 1902. 


F. CoUiflower, Daniel Y. Hinkle, Amos H. Kremer and 
Daniel Miller. 

2. Jacob Ziegler, Jesse Steiner, Andrew S. Young, 
Charles F. McCauleyj Isaac E. Houser, George H. Mar- 
tin, Michael Eyster, John R. Kooken, E. V. Gerhart and 
J. H. A. Bomberger. 

Several students who were not present at this prelimi- 
nary meeting connected themselves with the societies at 
their first regular meeting, but by their absence at the time 
of the division missed the opportunity of being enrolled 
among the founders. Among these was Charles A. Hay 
— subsequently professor of theology at Gettysburg — 
whom the Diagnothian Society regards as its first initiate. 

Immediately there was a spirited contest for the posses- 
sion of the original name; but Mr. Eisher persuaded the 
first section to call itself "Goethean," thus giving the 
name "Diagnothian" to the second. This was regarded 
as a generous concession, and served to keep the peace 
between the societies. 

When Dr. Kauch was infomaed that one of the literary 
societies had been named after Germany's greatest poet 
he was greatly delighted. He evidently regarded the fact 
as a personal compliment, and at once became the enthu- 
siastic champion of the Goethean Society. The Goetheans 
were naturally elated, but the Diagnothians, of course, 
were correspondingly depressed. If the principal of the 
school favored their rivals what could the Diagnothians 
hope to accomplish ? Would it not be better to acknowledge 
defeat and disband the society ? 

Charles F. McCauley — afterwards an eminent minister 
— ^was an enthusiastic Diagnothian, and — as he long after- 
wards told the writer — was so worried that he could 


neither eat nor sleep. At last he solicited an interview 
with Dr. Eauch and respectfully told him his trouble. 
"It is not just," he said, "that you should give your 
influence to our rivals." 

Dr. Kauch received his visitor very kindly, but seemed 
greatly affected by the implied reproof. "Do you blame 
me?" he inquired. "If you were a poor refugee in a for- 
eign land, as I am, would you not be pleased if a literary 
society were named after the greatest man of your native 
country? I thought your society could depend for its 
membership on the prevailing English element of this 
country, and that I might safely urge those who are proud 
of German descent to do honor to the name of Goethe ; but 
I find I was wrong, and henceforth I will occupy a strictly 
impartial position between the two societies." "This 
interview," said Dr. McCauley, "accomplished all that 
was desired ; but before we were through with it we both 

The students of the High School differed greatly among 
themselves in knowledge and culture. The leaders were 
young men who proposed to study for the ministry; but 
students soon appeared whose early training had been 
neglected, and who rather deserved pity than the ridicule 
which they generally received. Dr. Fisher used to tell a 
story about a country boy who gave his associates a good 
deal of amusement. His name was Schof {i. e., Schaf), 
but he had conceived the idea that as he was about to be 
anglicized even his name must assume an English form. 
When he entered the recitation room his appearance was 
as comical as can well be conceived, and when the pro- 
fessor asked him, "What is your name?" he promptly 
replied: "My name is Mister Sheep." Immediately the 


boys began to bleat — "Baa! Baa!" — and the poor fellow 
took his seat in confusion, not knowing what was wrong. 
He remained in the school only a few days. 

As the High School increased in numbers and efficiency 
there was a general desire that it should be raised to the 
rank of a college. This desire was no doubt strengthened 
by the fact that the Lutheran Church had, in 1832, 
founded Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg. Why the 
institutions of the Reformed Church were not left in York 
it is now not easy to explain. The location appears to 
have been suitable, and the community was one in which 
such institutions might have been expected to flourish. 
Dr. Appel intimates^ that the seminary was under a cloud, 
in consequence of a lawsuit which was one of the unfor- 
tunate results of its troubles at Carlisle. The fact is that 
these institutions might easily have been retained at York 
if there had been any one to awaken the people to a sense 
of their importance. As it was, while other places con- 
tended for their location, the town of York made no 
motion, and in the fall of 1835 the High School was 

•"Recollections of College Life," p. 85. 



Choice of Location — The Revebend Jacob Mater — Mercebs- 

BUEO — The Old Academy — First Board of Trustees 

— A Smaix Faculty. 

Though the High School had done good work it had 
financially been less successful than might have been ex- 
pected. There was a deficit which in 1835 had grown 
to $2,037.87, and this sum had to be paid out of the 
treasury of synod. That it was more alarming than a 
much larger debt would prove at the present day, is per- 
fectly plain. 

A convention of ministers met at the invitation of the 
Board of Visitors, in Jtme, 1834, to consider the affairs 
of the High School and to propose to synod such action 
as might be advisable. The attendance was not large; 
but it was generally agreed to recommend to synod to 
establish its literary institution, not necessarily in York, 
but in the town from which the most advantageous offers 
might be received, whether in the way of subscription to 
the endowment or by the erection of necessary buildings. 

Among the ministers present on this occasion was the 
Reverend Jacob Mayer, pastor of the Reformed congrega- 
tion at Mercersburg.-' That he conceived the idea of 

' Jacob Mayer was born in Lykena Valley, Pa., September 15, 
1798; and died in Lock Haven, October 29, 1872. He was succes- 
sively pastor at Woodstock, Va., Shrewsbury, Pa., and Mercersburg 
and Greencastle, Pa. For eight years he was the financial agent of 
Marshall College and the Theological Seminary. He was not re- 
lated to Dr. Lewis Mayer. 



securing the location of the institutions for his place of 
residence, may almost be regarded as a stroke of genius. 
Mercersburg was a village of less than a thousand inhabit- 
ants, situated among the mountains of Franklin County. 
The people were mostly of Scotch-Irish descent, belong- 
ing to several branches of the Presbyterian church; but 
there was a small Union church in which the Reformed 
and Lutherans alternately worshiped. The Reformed con- 
gregation was not large, but it included a number of in- 
telligent and influential families. 

Under such circumstances few men would have ven- 
tured to undertake the task of making Mercersburg an im- 
portant theological and educational center. Mr. Mayer 
was, however, a man of extraordinary energy, and every 
difficulty spurred him on to greater efforts. He succeeded 
in convincing the entire community that this was an oppor- 
tunity which, if promptly embraced, would bring dignity 
and prosperity to their beloved town. Wot only the mem- 
bers of the Reformed church, but Presbyterians and 
Seceders, Lutherans and Methodists, were equally en- 
thusiastic, and there was no difficulty in securing subscrip- 
tions. Never before in the history of the town had there 
been such unanimity in sentiment and purpose. Even the 
Africans — ^who were very numerous — ^were affected by the 
prevailing enthusiasm, and are said to have inquired of 
every stranger : " When will the college come ?" 

When the synod met in Pittsburg, in September, 1834, 
the people of Mercersburg were ready with a subscription 
of $10,000, and offered other substantial contributions if 
the institutions were removed to their town. The only 
additional proposals came from Chambersburg and Lan- 
caster, but these appeared to be less liberal. As the num- 


ber of delegates in attendance in Pittsburg was unusually 
small it was thought best to refer the question of removal 
to the consideration of a special Synod, to be held in Har- 
risburg in the following December. At this meeting a com- 
mittee, of which the Kev. Dr. B. S. Schneck was chair- 
man, was directed to visit the places from which proposals 
had been received, and to report at length in the following 

The report which was presented at Chambersburg in 
1835 was in some respects curious, and may even now be 
read with considerable interest. Its authors expressed 
their desire to be entirely impartial, and yet there are indi- 
cations of a decided bias. Chambersburg had offered a 
subscription of $4,500, together with the local Academy 
and a building known as the Hall. The committee, how- 
ever, expressed a doubt whether the trustees had a legal 
right to transfer the property of the academy, and there 
were minor objections which we need not enumerate. 

The invitation from Lancaster seemed cold and formal, 
and was decidedly objectionable because the trustees of 
Franklin College proposed to retain control of the united 
institution after the removal of the High School. It was 
suggested that though the Lancaster Board might elect Dr. 
Eauch to the presidency there was no assurance that his 
position would be permanent. Evidently, however, the 
committee did not fully appreciate the value of the offer 
from Lancaster. The assets of Franklin College were esti- 
mated at $27,000, but it was cautiously suggested by the 
committee that the unsold lands of the College might have 
little actual value. We are not surprised that the pro- 
posal from Lancaster was rather coldly received, for in the 
form in which it was presented it Was certainly not 


Mercersburg, in the opinion of the committee, possessed 
excellencies which could not be too highly regarded. "The 
situation of the village is healthy ; and on every side nature 
presents the most impressive and charming prospects." 
" Virtue and industry characterize the inhabitants — and 
board is cheap. "^ 

The liberality of the people of Mercersburg is highly 
commended. " They have not only subscribed ten thousand 
dollars, but also offer to present to the institution a lot of 
ground bearing a stone building, and will provide dwell- 
ings for the professors until permanent residences are 
erected." "The latter propositions, it is true, have not 
been formally presented ; but the committee is assured by 
the Reverend Jacob Mayer — ^who represents the people of 
Mercersburg — that these assurances are thoroughly re- 
liable." The building which was thus offered was the so- 
called Academy, situated in the rear of the Presbyterian 

On Friday afternoon, October 1, 1835, the question of 
removal was finally decided. On the first ballot it was 
foimd that neither of the places proposed had received a 
majority of votes, and the name of Chambersburg was 
withdrawn. The second ballot resulted in the selection of 

Immediately afterwards the following committee was 
appointed to superintend the removal of the Institutions 
to their new location: Kev. Henry L. Kice, Rev. John 
Rebough, Rev. William A. Good, and the elders, Heyser, 
King and Bantz. A board of trustees was also appointed, 
and directed to take general charge of the affairs of the 

'These extracts are translated from the German edition of the 
Minutes of Synod, 1835. 


High School, and as soon as possible to secure a collegiate 
charter. This board, as originally constituted, consisted of 
the following members: John E. Hoffman, of Heading; 
Daniel Shafer, William McKinstry, Elliott T. Lane, Dr. 
P. W. Little, William Metcalf and William Dick, of Mer- 
cersburg; George Besore, of Waynesboro; Frederick 
Smith, Barnard Wolff, John Smith, Hon. G. Chambers 
and Hon. A. Thomson, of Chambersburg ; Hon. Peter 
Schell, of Bedford; David Krause, of Harrisburg; Peter 
Snyder, of Easton ; David Middlekauff, of Adams county ; 
and Henry Schnebly, of Greencastle. 

The Synod ordered its property in York to be sold, and 
directed that the Institutions should be removed as soon 
as its committee had received satisfactory security for the 
payment of the subscriptions made in Mercersburg. Un- 
fortunately, the latter direction appears to have been par- 
tially neglected; for truth compels us to state that the 
larger part of the Mercersburg subscriptions remained 

It had been proposed to remove both, institutions imme- 
diately, but in regard to the Theological Seminary an 
unexpected difficulty appeared. It -was believed that in 
case of removal the seminary would forfeit its charter, and 
the treasurer actually declined to pay the salaries of the 
professors unless the institution remained in York. The 
matter demanded legal investigation and more than a year 
passed before it became plain that there was no ground for 
fear. It was also known that Dr. Mayer did not desire to 
leave York, and so the removal of the seminary was de- 
layed. In the case of the High School there were no such 
difficulties, and preparations were made for its immediate 

^-ci '^^A. 


On a beautiful day in November, 1835, the students 
arrived in Mercersburg. Fourteen of them came in two 
stages, seven in each. " Four others were stragglers, who, 
with the faculty consisting of two professors, reached their 
place of destination in some other way. Seven of them 
were Diagnothians and eleven Goetheans. This was about 
all that was left of the High School to be removed."^ 

The people of Mercersburg received the students with 
great kindness and did all in their power to make them 
feel at home. Evidently, however, the removal had been 
premature. The Academy needed extensive repairs, and 
for a while the school occupied an old frame building, a 
little west of the square, or " diamond," as it was generally 
called. This building, after the organization of the college, 
was for some time occupied by the preparatory department, 
and was finally destroyed by fire. The houses which had 
been promised to the professors were not ready, and dur- 
ing the first winter the school and its teachers suffered 
many privations. 

Dr. Ranch and Professor Budd at first constituted the 
entire faculty. Fortunately both were versatile as well as 
learned, and taught uncomplainingly from morning till 
night. Dr. Eauch was not fond of text-books; and this, 
when we call to mind the character of the text-books which 
were generally used in those days, is certainly not sur- 
prising. Once, we have been told, he undertook to teach 
logic in the usual way; but after several unsatisfactory 
lessons he suddenly hurled the book across the room, and 
exclaimed : " I don't want it ! I can teach you all that is 
in Aristotle without a book." 

Professor Samuel W. Budd was a man of high culture 

' Appel's " Recollections of College Life," p. 94. 


and great ability. He was not only a fine mathematician, 
but possessed many social accomplishments which rendered 
him popular. Both professors were young, and — as Dr. 
Appel says — " looked out upon the world through gold- 
rimmed spectacles." 

The number of students rapidly increased and an appli- 
cation for a charter was made to the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania. It was a happy day when the news was brought 
to Mercersburg that Marshall College had been incorpor- 
ated, and that the legislature had generously added an 
appropriation of ten thousand dollars to the endowment 
of the new institution. 



The Obganization — Pkesident Frederick Augustus Rauch — 

Biography and Personal Characteristics — Psychology 

— The Seminary Bctldinq — The Law School — 

Early Professors — Arrival op Dr. J. W. 

Nevin — Death of Dr. Rauch. 

Marshall College is said in its charter to have been 
named " in testimony of respect for the exalted character, 
great worth, and high mental attainments of the late John 
Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States." Who it 
was that first suggested the name might now be difficult to 


determine. There is a tradition that it was due to an 
agreement between several friends of the institution in 
Virginia; and it is altogether probable that Dr. Bernard 
C. Wolff, who was a native of Martinsburg in that state, 

was the actual sponsor. 



The name of the college appears to have been accepted 
some time before the incorporation. Judge Marshall died 
at Philadelphia, July 6, 1835; but before his death he 
was informed that a college was to be named after him, and 
he is said to have been gratified by this information. The 
portrait which appeared on the seal was presented to the 
college by a member of his family. 

Judge Marshall was recognized as the foremost Ameri- 
can jurist, and the college that was founded in the year 
of his death was justly regarded as a proper monument 
to his memory. 

The Board of Trustees of Marshall College held its first 
meeting in Mercersburg at the house of John Shaffer on 
the 12th of July, 1836. The Hon. Alexander Thomson 
was temporarily called to the chair; but when the board 
was permanently organized the Kev. Henry L. Rice was 
elected president. According to a plan which was then 
adopted, the new institution was to consist of two depart- 
ments: the College and the Preparatory School. In the 
College provision was made for five departments of instruc- 
tion: Ancient languages and literature, including Latin, 
Greek and Hebrew ; mathematical and natural sciences, in- 
cluding chemistry, mineralogy, geology and botany; in- 
tellectual and moral sciences; belles lettres and history; 
and the German language and literature. It was resolved 
that Commencement should be annually celebrated on the 
last Wednesday in September, and that the winter session 
of the College should open in six weeks from that day. 

The election for members of the Faculty was not ex- 
citing. Dr. Kauch and Professor Budd each received the 
compliment of a unanimous election. The former was 
elected president and professor of Hebrew, Greek and 


German; the latter became professor of mathematics, nat- 
ural philosophy, chemistry and mineralogy. Two addi- 
tional professors were to be chosen as soon as a special 
committee was prepared to present suitable candidates.-^ 
Frederick Augustus Kauch, Ph.D., who thus became the 


first president of Marshall College, was bom at Kirch- 
bracht, Hesse Darmstadt, July 27, 1806, and was the son 
of a Reformed pastor. Concerning his early life very little 
is known. He was fond of music and at an early age be- 
came an accomplished pianist. At the age of eighteen he 
entered the University of Marburg, where in 1827 he re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Subsequently 
he spent a year at Giessen and another at Heidelberg. At 
the latter university he came under the personal influence 
of the celebrated eclectic philosopher and theologian, 
Charles Daub, who showed him much kindness and to 
whom he became warmly attached. Daub was not only a 
man of immense learning, but was recognized as one of the 
most profound thinkers of Germany. Though he could 
hardly be said to have formulated an independent system, 
he had studied and comprehended the works of all the great 
philosophers from Kant to Hegel, assimilating their dis- 

'A professorship of mental and moral philosophy was offered 
to the Rev. Dr. Samuel A. Van Vranken, then pastor of the Reformed 
Dutch Church at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., but the invitation was de- 
clined. Dr. Van Vranken was subsequently professor of didactic 
theology in the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick and also 
professor of Christian evidences and logic in Rutgers College. Dr. 
Corwin says concerning him : " He never made any special preten- 
tious display of scholarship — not because he did not possess it but 
because he was above it." — Manual of the Reformed Ghurck in 
America, p. 864. 


coveries and rejecting their errors. As an instructor he 
was unequalled, and the brightest young men of the father- 
land were inspired by his genius. " He was a man," says 
Dr. IN'evin, " who lived for the invisible and the eternal, 
and on whose soul the visions of the Almighty, in the per- 
son of Jesus Christ, had unfolded their glory." 

Having completed his course at the university Dr. Kauch 
served as professor-extraordinary at Giessen, and was then 
appointed to a full professorship in the department of 
metaphysics in the University of Heidelberg. This was a 
distinguished honor and seemed to open the way to a bril- 
liant career. Dr. Ranch was at that time only twenty- 
four years old. " Such an appointment at so early an 
age," says Dr. Schiedt,^ " has to my knowledge only once 
been repeated in this century — ^viz., in the case of Friedrich 
Nietzsche, who is by many considered the profoundest 
philosophical thinker of modem Germany." 

Just at this time occurred the events by which the career 
of Dr. Ranch was entirely changed. He still retained many 
of the enthusiasms of his student days and on some public 
occasion said a word in behalf of the political fraternities 
(Burschenschaften) which existed among the students, but 
which the government was seeking to suppress. It was an 
imprudent act, as he afterwards confessed, but when the 
word had been spoken it could not be recalled. In such 
cases the government was merciless, and his only hope was 
in instant flight. After a brief interview with his father 
at midnight he hurried across the frontier, and as soon as 
possible sailed to America. 

When Dr. Ranch arrived in this country, in 1831, he 
was almost destitute. He found his way to Easton, Penn- 
sylvania, where he became German instructor in Lafayette 

' " On the Threshold of a New Century," p. 27. 


College, at the same time teaching music to a number of 
pupils in the town. Here he made the acquaintance of sev- 
eral Reformed ministers, and mainly through their in- 
fluence became principal of the High School at York. 
That his work was appreciated is evident from the fact that 
he was chosen the first President of Marshall College. 

It has been said that Dr. Eauch had enough enthusiasm 
to found a university. He rapidly acquired the English 
language and became an acceptable preacher. His learn- 
ing and piety were undoubted ; but there was in his nature 
a joyous element which endeared him to his students. The 
reminiscences of his own school-days were still fresh, and 
he could sympathize with boys who found it difficult to 
submit to strict scholastic discipline. Indeed, it might 
have been said of him, as it was of Loyola, that he made 
special efforts to gain the friendship of unruly boys and 
rarely failed to convert them to better things. 

Once — it is related — ^while he occupied a room on the 
first floor of the college building, he was roused from sleep 
by a tremendous noise. In a few minutes the noise was 
repeated, and it became certain that some one was rolling a 
log down the circular stairs from an upper story. Hastily 
dressing, the Doctor left his room, and taking his place in 
a corner of the hall, watched for the offender. Very soon 
a student, whom he recognized, stole down the stairs with 
the evident purpose of securing the log and repeating the 
exercise. The Doctor made an attempt to catch him, but 
before he could succeed the student — ^pretending not to 
recognize the professor — ^turned upon him and, shaking 
him violently, exclaimed : " Who are you, anyhow ? I 
could not sleep on account of the noise, and have come 
down to see what is the matter. I'll report you to Dr. 


Kaucli — that's what I'll do !" At this the Doctor could no 
longer restrain himself and burst into loud laughter. " Go 
to your room," he said, " and I will see you in the morn- 
ing." Next day he called the student aside and whispered : 
" I ought to punish you for that aflfair last night, but it 
was too funny. Don't tell anybody — let us keep it a 

This may have been poor discipline, but somehow the 
President found the way to the student's heart. 

As a lecturer Dr. Eauch was absolutely splendid. He 
possessed the unusual gift of making difficult things appear 
easy, at the same time adorning them with the choicest 
flowers of poetry. 

It was, of course, as a teacher of mental and moral 
science that he excelled. Though in philosophy he was 
accounted a Hegelian he had experienced Schleiermacher's 
sense of dependence, and was not without sympathy for the 
mysticism of Schelling. As he himself said, there was no 
reason why the wonderful discoveries of German philoso- 
phers should be rejected on account of the occasional 
aberrations of their promoters. It was his purpose to in- 
troduce the study of German thought to the attention of 
American thinkers, and to this end he worked with all his 
might. In 1840 he published his " Psychology — a View 
of the Human Soul," which was intended to be the first 
of a series treating of the same general subject. As was 
said in the preface it was " the first attempt to unite Ger- 
man and American mental philosophy," and as such it was 
enthusiastically received by the most competent critics. It 
was recognized as a work of genius, and became a text- 
book in many literary institutions. Though now super- 
seded for purposes of instruction, it occupies a position in 


the history of education of which it can never be deprived. 
It was Dr. Kauch who in America introduced the study 
of psychology as a distinct science. 

In his domestic relations Dr. Eauch was unusually for- 
tunate. His wife was a woman of great ability and force 
of character. She was a daughter of Loammi Moore, of 
Morristown, New Jersey, and a younger sister of Mrs. 
Sarah A. Young, the widow of the Eeverend Daniel 
Young, who had been in York, a professor in the Theologi- 
cal Seminary. Mrs. Young had established a select school 
for girls in Mercersburg, and it was there that Dr. Ranch 
made the acquaintance of her sister.-' 

Mrs. Ranch became her husband's assistant in many 
ways, and was his competent instructor in the use of the 
English language. By the students she was always re- 
garded with profound respect. 

The labors which Dr. Ranch was called to perform were 
numerous and varied. Immediately after the removal to 
Mercersburg the synod authorized the erection of a build- 
ing for the theological seminary. This building, it was 

' The Moore family was intimately eomiected with the early his- 
tory of Marshall College, especially on account of the marriage of 
several of the daughters, all of whom were women of remarkable 
intellectual ability. The author is, therefore, pleased to reproduce 
an extract from a letter of Dr. Edgar Moore Green, dated November 
10, 1902. Dr. Green says: 

" My grandfather, Loammi Moore, married Huldah Byram, and 
had the following children: Sarah Ann married Silas Pierson; after 
his death she married the Rev. Daniel Young. Naphtali Byram 
married Eliza Woolfolk. Susan Maria married Caleb D. Baldwin. 
Phebe Bathiah married the Rev. Dr. P. A. Rauch; after his death 
she married Dr. John P. Hiester. Abby Elizabeth married the Rev. 
Andrew S. Young; after his death she married Professor James 
Henry Coffin. William Henry married Annie E. Irwin. Harriet 
married Dr. Traill Green. James Edgar died unmarried." Several 
other children died in infancy. 



understood, was to be of sufficient size to acconunodate both 
the seminary and college until the number of students 
should render the erection of a college-building imperative. 
Dr. Rauch's peculiar relation to both institutions rendered 
him the natural superintendent of the work, though he 
was ably assisted by "William McKinstry, Daniel Shafer, 
James O. Carson, and other residents of Mercersburg. 


The Seminary Building was erected in the summer of 
1836. The grounds, originally consisting of four acres at 
the eastern end of the village, were purchased of Mr. Wil- 
liam McKinstry for $500, which was the exact amount of 
his subscription. The contractor and builder was Nicholas 
Pearce, of Chambersburg. He undertook to put up the 
building for $9,500, leaving the basement and upper 
story unfinished, engaging at the same time to complete 
the unfinished stories for $1,600. As the building was at 
once completed we may conclude that its cost, according to 
the contract, was $11,100 ; but as the contractor complained 


that he had lost money, the synod in 1837 made him a 
free gift of $400. There may possibly have been other 
extras ; but the building was substantial and beautiful, and 
the cost was almost incredibly low. According to the re- 
port presented to synod, in 1837, it contained forty-four 
rooms, besides spacious corridors extending the whole 
length of the building ; thirty-four rooms were to be occu- 
pied by students, and there were also a chapel, a library, 
four recitation rooms, a refectory, and rooms for the 
steward and his family. The building was entirely com- 
pleted in December, 1837. In the same year one of the 
professors' houses was erected, and the other was com- 
pleted in the subsequent summer. As soon as the building 
was completed it was leased, by order of synod, to Mar- 
shall College, the Seminary retaining only the use of such 
rooms as it absolutely needed. In lieu of rent the Semi- 
nary received for each room occupied by a college student 
a fee of $2.50 in summer and $3.50 in winter. 

The first severe blow which fell upon the young institu- 
tion was the unexpected death of the president of its Board 
of Trustees, the Rev. Henry L. Eice,^ of Chambersburg. 
He had been enthusiastically devoted to the work of estab- 
lishing the new college, and in a few months had by per- 
sonal solicitation collected nearly six thousand dollars. His 
death was believed to have been caused by labor and ex- 
posure. Dr. Eauch delivered his eulogy which was pub- 
lished and extensively circulated. Col. David Schnebly 

" Henry Leffler Rice was bom in Washington county, Pa., June 
25, 1795, and died at Chambersburg, Pa., May 3, 1837. He was 
graduated at Troy University, 1818, and studied theology at Prince- 
ton. After serving as missionary in the west be became pastor of 
the Reformed (Dutch) Church at Spotswood, N. J., Pastor of Ger- 
man Reformed Church, Chambersburg, 1834-37. 


became the successor of Mr. Kice as President of the Board 
of Trustees. 

There was some difficulty in securing a professor of 
Ancient Languages and Belles Lettres; but on November 
13, 1836, the Eev. Joseph F. Berg,^ of Harrisburg, ac- 
cepted the position. He remained in Mercersburg about a 
year, resigning September 27, 1837. As a teacher he was 
not very successful, and when he resigned the Board inter- 
posed no objection, though it formally protested against 
the suddenness of his departure. He does not seem to have 
liked Mercersburg, and possibly that mountain village did 
not furnish a field for the exercise of his peculiar talents. 

When Dr. Berg resigned Mr. Edward Bourne was tem- 
porarily engaged to fill his professorship. He was a gradu- 
ate of the University of Dublin, and his scholarship was, 
of course, beyond dispute ; but he was eccentric, and though 
the students liked him they laughed at him. One of his 
peculiarities was to fill his pockets with silver coin, and 

' Joseph Frederick Berg, D.D., LL.D., was born June 3, 1812, on the 
island of Antigua, W. I., where his father was a, Moravian mission- 
ary; and died, July 20, 1871, at New Brunswick, N. J. He was 
educated in England and at the Moravian Seminary. Having con- 
nected himself with the German Reformed Church he became, in 
1835, pastor in Harrisburg. After leaving Mercersburg he was 
called to the pastorate of the Race Street church, Philadelphia, 
where he remained until 1852. Having become involved in a con- 
troversy with the theological professors at Mercersburg, he joined 
the Reformed Dutch Church and served for nine years as pastor 
of the church at Seventh and Brown Streets, Philadelphia, and then 
became professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology of New Bruns- 
wick. He was a powerful controversialist and voluminous author. 


when he walked or talked he amused himself by jingling 
his money. 

The Reverend Albert Smith, of Williamstown, Mass., 
was elected professor of ancient languages, April 14, 1837. 
The ministers of the Board declare him to have been a 
graduate of the University of Cambridge and " preemi- 
nently qualified for his position." His inaugural address 
— delivered at Commencement, September 26, 1838 — was 
certainly a production of a very superior order. It was 
not only printed but enjoyed the extraordinary honor of a 
second edition. 

In 1838 Professor Smith was granted the privilege of 
nominating an assistant, and at his suggestion David T. 
Stoddard, of New Haven, Conn., was appointed tutor. He 
was, we believe, a near relative of Professor Smith. Mr. 
Stoddard's scholarship could not be questioned, but he 
seems in some way to have provoked the hostility of the 
students, and they were merciless. He remained but a 
single year. Professor Smith held his professorship until 
1840, and then returned to New England. He was highly 
esteemed, but it is said that he could never become quite 
reconciled to the " Anglo-German " character of Marshall 
College. On the 29th of September, 1840, the Board 
elected as his successor, William M. ISTevin, Esq., then of 
Sewickley, Pa. Professor Nevin's long and faithful labors 
are still affectionately remembered, and we shall have fre- 
quent occasion to refer to them in subsequent chapters. 

It was fortunate for the new institution that among the 
earliest students there were a number of talented young 
men who were able to assist in teaching. Several of these, 
after graduation, served as tutors in the college or academy 
while they were students in the theological seminary. 


Here we need mention only the names of such men as John 
H. A. Bomberger, E. V. Gerhart, Andrew S. Young, Moses 
Kieffer and George H. Martin, all of whom subsequently 
became eminent in their chosen profession. 

The Law School was established at Chambersburg in 
February, 1838, and the Hon. Alexander Thomson was 
elected professor of law. Judge Thomson was one of the 
most learned jurists in the country, and a number of 
students read law in his office. As he was an enthusiastic 
friend of Marshall College, and a prominent member of 
its Board of Trustees, it was suggested that he should 
organize a Law School and " give instruction to graduates 
of the college and other young gentlemen " who might 
desire to prepare themselves for the legal profession. This 
school, which was maintained in Chambersburg until the 
death of Judge Thomson, in 1848, was not closely con- 
nected with the institutions in Mercersburg; but the stu- 
dents who had completed their course were annually grad- 
uated by Marshall College, receiving the degree of Bachelor 
of Laws. Among these graduates was the Hon. John 
Scott, U. S. Senator from 1869 to 1875, and subsequently 
General Solicitor of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The Hon. 
Thomas A. Hendricks, Vice-President of the United 
States, was a nephew of Judge Thomson and completed 
his legal studies in his uncle's school, but for some unex- 
plained reason he appears never to have been formally 

The Theological Seminary and College continued to 
occupy the same building and their relations were neces- 
sarily intimate. In the Seminary there were theological 
disagreements; but it is not in our province to examine 
them in detail. In a general way it may be said that two 


types of theology were there represented, and when they 
came into contact there was considerable friction. As the 
main subjects of discussion were theological, even the col- 
lege students assumed to be theologians; and it has been 
said that it was almost impossible to keep the Freshmen 
from preaching. Dr. Mayer, in 1839, finally withdrew 
from his professorship, and for a time the seminary and 
college were both conducted by Dr. Rauch.^ 

Not only on account of the prevailing theological in- 
fluence, but because the building was actually overcrowded, 
the Board, in 1838, resolved to erect a suitable edifice for 
the accommodation of the college. A tract of land, in- 
cluding some six or seven acres at the southern end of the 
village, was accordingly purchased from Mrs. Brownson 
for one thousand dollars, and no one doubted that the 
College would soon be built. 

At this point the Preparatory Department presented its 
claims with renewed vigor. It had hitherto occupied a 
miserable, frame structure in the western part of the vil- 
lage, and the students had been compelled to take lodgings 
wherever they could find them. It was justly urged that 
the college could not hope to prosper without a good acad- 

'■ The number of students in the College rapidly increased. Many 
of these were prepared for admission at local academies, which were 
then numerous. One of the most successful preceptors in early 
days was the Rev. Bayard R. Hall, of Bedford, Pa., who prepared 
many students for Marshall. Among these were such well known 
men as David H. Hofius, W. P. Sehell, John Cessna, Francis 
Jordan, Jacob Sehell, Oliver C. Hartley and Rufus K. Hartley. 
The Hartleys came from Bloody Run, and while at College the boys 
accordingly nick-named them " Old Bloody " and " Young Bloody." 
They subsequently removed to Texas, where they became eminent. 
Oliver C. Hartley published first the " Digest of the Laws of Texas," 
and, assisted by his brother, prepared many volumes of Supreme 
Court Reports. Hartley County, Texas, has been named in his honor. 


emy, and that the necessities of the latter institution were 
more immediate and pressing. As the means at hand were 
not sufficient for the erection of both buildings there was 
some disagreement as to the institution which deserved 
preference, and so the matter dragged on for several years. 
At last, on the 8th of January, 1841, the building occu- 
pied by the Preparatory Department was destroyed by 
fire. How this happened will probably forever remain a 
secret. It occurred exactly at the hour for morning 
prayers, and the boys, of course, hurried away to see the 
blaze. There was, however, one exceedingly devout stu- 
dent who had already taken his seat and seemed unaffected 
by the prevailing confusion. As the crowd rushed past the 
door some one called to him : " Won't you go to the fire ?" 
" Why !" he replied in innocent surprise, " Won't we have 
prayers first ?" 

It costs a great deal of money to found a literary insti- 
tution, and the work at Mercersburg could hardly have 
been accomplished without the beneficence of the State. In 
1836, as already remarked, the Legislature of Pennsylva- 
nia had granted to Marshall College an appropriation of 
$10,000, which was afterwards increased to $12,000. In 
consideration of this gift the college was required to in- 
struct twenty poor students free of charge. The amount 
secured by Henry L. Eice and Bernard C. Wolff was re- 
ported in 1840 to have nearly reached $21,000, and includ- 
ing the appropriations of the State and the contributions 
secured by Jacob Mayer, Daniel Bossier and other agents 
we may estimate at the utmost the sum received by the 
college in the first five years of its existence at about $50,- 
000. A large portion of this amount was secured by the 
sale of perpetual scholarships which entitled the holder to 


designate a student to receive free tuition. The sale of 
scholarships afforded immediate financial aid, but it nat- 
urally decreased the number of students who paid tuition, 
and its ultimate advantage may be regarded as ques- 

From our present point of view the resources of the col- 
lege at this early day appear insignificant; but when we 
remember that — apart from the State appropriation — ^the 
individual contributions were small, the amount was at 
least creditable. It was the gift of a rustic community 
that had been trained to habits of the strictest economy. 
In those days a pastor who received an annual salary of 
four hundred dollars was regarded as " passing rich " ; and 
the writer can vouch for an instance in which a minister 
in such circumstances for several years contributed one 
fourth of his annual salary to the support of the college. 
With all that could be done, there often was financial trou- 
ble in Mercersburg; and there is a tradition that once, at 
a time of unusual depression, a worthy minister was so 
greatly impressed by the gravity of the occasion, that he 
rose in his seat at synod and seriously offered to divide 
with Dr. Kauch his slender stock of meal and potatoes. 

As has already been stated the general tone of the col- 
lege was serious, if not theological. That there were, how- 
ever, occasional cases that demanded serious discipline, is 
evident from the records of the Faculty. In 1838 two 
students were with difficulty restrained from fighting a 
duel ; and in the following year a boy — who is said to have 
been very young and to have been under the special care of 
the president — ^was found guilty of dissipation ; and it was 
ordered that he should be " confined for one week, without 
dinner, and deprived of pocket-money to the end of the 


The following miscellaneous extracts from the records 
may possibly prove interesting : 

On the 15th of August, 1837, the Hon. B. Champneys, 
of Lancaster, delivered an address before the Literary So- 
cieties. This was the first of a long series, known as 
" biennial addresses " because the orators are alternately 
elected by the literary societies. 

In 1838 it was ordered that a German oration should be 
delivered at every subsequent Commencement. In the 
same years circulars were ordered to be sent to parents, 
reporting the grade of students in scholarship and con- 
duct. The Faculty adopted the system of marks and de- 
merits which was in use at Yale College, and it was ordered 
by the Board that the Laws of Princeton College, in so far 
as they were applicable, should be adopted for the govern- 
ment of the institution. 

The Rev. Dr. John Williamson E^evin arrived in Mer- 
cersburg, with his family, in the spring of 1840. He had 
previously been elected Professor of Didactic Theology in 
the seminary as the successor of Dr. Mayer. To Dr. 
Ranch his coming brought relief from a part of his labor 
in the seminary, and at the same time secured him the 
blessing of congenial companionship. The two men were as 
different as possible in disposition and early training ; but 
they soon learned to appreciate each other's talents and 
personal excellence, and became intimate friends. In a 
letter to the Rev. Charles F. McCauley Dr. Rauch said: 
" Our seminary possesses a man in Professor Nevin whose 
talents and learning and scientific spirit are not equaled 
by any one in this country. I say this with deliberateness 
and coolness. He is an excellent teacher, constantly active, 
and much experienced in ecclesiastical affairs." Long 


afterwards Dr. Nevin said of Dr. Eauch in a public ad- 
dress : " I perceived soon that his learning and intellectual 
power were of a higher order altogether than I had before 
felt authorized to expect. ... I could not but look upon 
it as a strange and interesting fact that the infant college 
of the German Reformed Church should have placed at its 
head, there in Mercersburg — without care or calculation or 
consciousness even on the part of its friends generally — 
one of the very first minds of Germany, which under other 
circumstances might well have been counted an ornament 
and honor to the oldest institution in the land." 

These intimate relations continued for less than a year, 
but their permanent influence on the thinking of Dr. Nevin 
has never been doubted. The latter had indeed given some 
attention to German philosophy before he came to Mer- 
cersburg, but it was Dr. Ranch who showed him a path 
through its tangled mazes. 

It had for some time been observed that the health of 
Dr. Ranch was not robust, but no evil consequences were 
anticipated. He himself ascribed his condition to the fact 
that he had neglected to take sufficient exercise. Dr. Appel 
says that when Dr. Rauch was thirty-three years old he 
looked like a man of fifty. Constant mental labor, without 
relaxation, was no doubt the principal cause of his early 
decline. As he grew weaker he sometimes instructed his 
classes in his private room, reclining upon a couch ; but as 
yet no one dreamed that he was suffering from more than 
a passing indisposition. 

Suddenly, on the morning of March 2, 1841, it was an- 
nounced that Dr. Rauch had died. That this was a heavy 
blow to the institution may easily be imagined. Old men, 
who were students then, declare that in all their lives they 


have never felt another shock that viras so dreadful and 
depressing. Everything had depended on Dr. Eauch, and 
it was feared that unless immediate action were taken 
there was danger that his work might go to pieces. The 
Faculty accordingly held an immediate meeting and re- 
quested Dr. John W. Nevin, of the Theological Seminary 
to assume the presidency imtil other arrangements could 
he made. He accepted the invitation and from that 
moment another administration may be said to have begun. 

Dr. Kauch was buried on the college grounds in a place 
which had been set apart for a college cemetery. A monu- 
ment which was then erected now stands in front of the 
Eeformed church of Mercersburg. In 1859 his remains 
were removed to Lancaster, where his grave is marked by 
an appropriate memorial. 

Of course, at the time of Dr. Kauch's burial there were 
eulogies and addresses, several of which were published, 
and the records contain many expressions of sorrow. We 
doubt, however, whether even the best friends of Marshall 
College fully recognized the greatness of its first president. 



President John Williamson Nevin — Peofessob William M. 
Nbvin — Db. Tbmt.t, Geeen — Pbofessobs Poetee, Baied anp 
Appel — De. Philip Schafp — A Bbilliant Recep- 

— Receeations. 

Thougli Dr. Nevin assumed the duties of the presidency 
in March, 1841, immediately after the death of Dr. Ranch, 
his relation to Marshall College was not immediately re- 
garded as permanent. He was a professor in the theologi- 
cal seminary, and to that institution he owed his first 
allegiance. If the synod that placed him there should 
grant permission he was willing to assume the direction 
of the College; but this was to be regarded as voluntary 
labor for which he would accept no salary. 

The Board of Trustees appears to have found some diffi- 
culty in defining this somewhat peculiar relation. On the 
6th of April, 1841, he was unanimously elected " Presi- 
dent of Marshall College until a successor shall be ap- 
pointed." Subsequently the permission of the authorities 
of the Seminary, for this extra service on the part of a 
member of its Faculty, was asked and granted ; and finally 
the Synod, to which the whole matter had been referred, 
declared itself satisfied with the appointment of Dr. 
iN^evin; but at the same time expressed a hope that the 
finances of the College would soon be in such a condition 
as to render it possible to relieve him by electing another 

'Dr. Nevin received no compensation in money for his services 
in the College for nine years, at least. The Board frequently passed 



As it was during the presidency of Dr. Nevin that Mar- 
shall College attained its highest celebrity and usefulness, 
it is proper to say something concerning his earlier history. 
John Williamson Nevin was bom February 20, 1803, in 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania. He was of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry, and several of his forefathers were eminent in 
church and state. His paternal grandmother was a sister 
of Hugh Williamson, LL.D., a signer of the Constitution 
of the United States. The family were strict Presby- 
terians, and most of them have remained closely attached 
to their ancestral form of faith. His father was a farmer, 
but had been graduated at Dickinson College in the days of 
Dr. ISTesbit, and was a good classical scholar. He put the 
Latin grammar into his son's hands at an early age, in- 
forming him in unmistakable language that it was a thing 
that itmist be studied. The boy was but fourteen years old 
when he was matriculated as a student of Union College at 
Schenectady, l^ew York — ^then under the presidency of 
Dr. Nott. Though he graduated with honor in 1821, his 
health appeared to be utterly broken, and for several years 
it was feared that his scholastic career was ended. His 
health, however, improved, and in 1823 he entered the 
Theological Seminary at Princeton. Here his ability and 
scholarship were at once recognized; and when he had 
completed his course he was, in 1826, invited to supply 
temporarily the place of Dr. Hodge who spent two years in 

resolutions expressive of its appreciation of his " magnanimity " 
and occasionally offered him a modest testimonial. In 1843 they 
made him a present of three scholarships — supposed to be worth 
$1,500 — ^which we may be sure he never sold. They also declined 
to accept payment of his subscription of $500 to the endowment 
of the College. After 1847 he was granted the free use of a house 
which had been built on the College grounds; and in 1851, when he 
resigned his position in the Seminary, the college board agreed to 
make itself responsible for a salary of one thousand dollars. 


Europe. During this time he wrote his " Biblical Antiqui- 
ties," a book which was subsequently published in number- 
less editions. 

Before leaving Princeton, in 1828, Dr. Nevin had been 
selected to fill the chair of Biblical Literature in the 
Western Theological Seminary in Allegheny, where he 
labored for twelve years. Having been ordained to the 
ministry he supplied neighboring congregations, and also 
edited a paper, called The Friend. Many of his sermons 
were published, and he became widely known for strength 
and courage. Having become interested in German litera- 
ture he persevered until he was able to read the language 
with remarkable fluency. He was, indeed, among the first 
in this country to plead for the more general study of 
German philosophy and theology. 

In 1835 Dr. Nevin was married to Martha, second 
daughter of the Hon. Eobert Jenkins, of Windsor Place, 
Lancaster county. She proved a worthy consort to her 
distinguished husband, whom she survived; and for her 
talents, her culture, and her genial hospitality she is still 
respectfully remembered. 

The circumstances attendant upon Dr. !N^evin's call to 
Mercersburg are so well known that we need not consider 
them in detail. He was elected to his professorship by the 
Synod of the Kef ormed Church convened in Chambersburg 
in January, 1840. That the Synod should have chosen a 
minister of another denomination to occupy its most im- 


portant professorship has always appeared inexplicable. 
The Kev. S. E. Fisher was the only member of the body 
who had ever heard him preach, and beyond a vague re- 
port that he was studying German theology, he appears to 
have been almost unknown. His nomination was a sur- 
prise, but as one of the members of the Synod afterwards 
said, " it came like a divine inspiration." The names of 
other candidates were withdrawn, and Dr. Nevin was 
unanimously elected. 

Kev. Samuel E. Fisher and Rev. Benjamin S. Schneck 
were appointed a committee to present the call. In the 
depth of winter they crossed the mountains in a sleigh, 
though most of their friends believed that their efforts 
would be fruitless. The result proved that Mr. Fisher was 
right when he said at Synod : "If we can satisfy Dr. Nevin 
that it is his duty to take charge of the professorship at 
Mercersburg, the whole Presbyterian Church combined 
cannot prevent him from doing so." He accepted the call 
as a matter of duty, believing that the Lord was sending 
him on a mission to a special work. In taking this step he 
had the full approval of Dr. Archibald Alexander and 
other leading Presbyterians, who regarded him as simply 
passing from one branch of the Reformed Confession to 
another which offered a more promising field of usefulness. 
He did not, however, accept the call in any half-hearted 
way. In his letter of acceptance he said : " I give myself 
wholly to the German Reformed Church, and find no 
difficulty in making her interests my own." From the first 
he so completely identified himself with German thought 
and life that the Reformed Church accepted him with 
unreserved confidence. 

Dr. Nevin was at this time thirty-seven years of age. 


An idea of his appearance in these early days may be 
gained by studying the portrait painted by Eichholtz in 
1841, and afterwards engraved by Sartain. He was tall 
and slender, and was always faultlessly dressed in black. 
His features were strong but regular and his forehead was 
unusually high. In manner he was somewhat stern, and 
students were at first inclined to be afraid of him ; but they 
soon learned to reciprocate the affection with which he 
regarded them. Though his courtesy never descended to 
familiarity he was ready to perform the humblest service 
in behalf of those who actually suffered. The Rev. H. A. 
Winter, of Madison, Wisconsin, relates that when he came 
to Mercersburg — a poor German immigrant — ^Dr. Nevin 
received him into his house and personally bathed his 
frozen feet.^ 

As a teacher Dr. Nevin was unequalled, especially in 
the department of Mental and Moral Philosophy. He pos- 
sessed the rare power of reproducing the profoundest 
thoughts of the great German philosophers in such a way 
as to render them fascinating to thinking minds. Some- 
times he impressed his lessons on the minds of his stu- 
dents in a manner that might almost be called dramatic. 
Once, it is said, he concluded a lecture in the following 
words : " We have now come to the greatest of all ques- 
tions : ' How did evil come into the world V Here all 
philosophy ceases — ^the class is dismissed." 

When students read essays in his presence he was quick 
to detect and reprove any approach to the " spread-eagle " 
style which was then so common. A rather dull freshman 
inserted a pompous and inflated sentence into his weari- 
some platitudes. " Where did you get that ?" inquired the 

' " Die Vorhut der Lippischen Auswanderer, 1846," p. 4. 


Doctor. " From a novel called Stanley," was the reply. 
" I thought so," was the response, " it is worthless stuff — 
Go on, sir." The hoys were astonished at their teacher's 
acuteness, failing to realize that he could discover the 
plagiarism as readily as they could have detected a crimson 
patch on a dingy garment. 

On another occasion a youthful essayist spoke of 
" climhing the ladder of transcendentalism to regions of 
unexplored fancy." " Come down !" said the Doctor. 
" Your ladder will fall." 

Professor William M. Nevin who, as we have seen, be- 
came the successor of Professor Smith in the department 
of Ancient Languages, was a younger brother of President 
John W. Nevin. He was a graduate of Dickinson Col- 
lege and had been admitted to the bar. He was a fine 
classical scholar and a lifelong student of English Litera- 


ture. That he was highly esteemed is indicated by the fact 
that he held a professorship in our institution for more 
than fifty years — serving as professor of Ancient Lan- 
guage in Marshall and Franklin and Marshall College 
until 18Y2 when he was elected Alumni professor of Eng- 
lish Literature and Belles Lettres, which position he held 
until death terminated his labors. In 1886 he was made 
Professor Emeritus, but it was his pleasure to continue to 
lecture until within a few weeks of his death, which oc- 
curred February 11, 1892, when he had reached the ma- 
ture age of eighty-six years and four months. 

No teacher was ever more loved than Professor IN'evin. 
In manner he was gentle and somewhat reserved, but he 


Was at the same time gifted with a rich vein of hmnor that 
rendered his conversation exceedingly pleasant. He wrote 
many beautiful lyric poems, which deserve to be collected, 
and his metrical translations of some of the Odes of Horace 
are among the best that we have seen. In the days when 
the anniversary exercises of the literary societies were in- 
troduced by metrical prologues, he was kept busy in pre- 
paring such compositions. Occasionally he could not re- 
frain from poking a little fun at the theologians who then 
seemed to be in absolute control. In a letter accepting an 
invitation to write a prologue, he says : " I hope you will 
expect nothing broadly humorous. In these churchly times 
its presentation would hardly be tolerated by the church." 

Mild as he was, the students were in those days thor- 
oughly convinced that Professor Nevin was equal to every 
occasion, and that, in fact, he was not to be trifled with. 
He had a curious way of asking what appeared to be lead- 
ing questions in Greek or Latin, inquiring " Is it not so ?" 
and when the student had responded in the affirmative, 
blandly replying, " No, sir, it is not so." 

Once, it is said, he declined to excuse a class that was 
determined to enjoy an excursion, as the sleighing was 
good. The boys met in the recitation-room before the arri- 
val of the professor, and some of them undertook to play 
the old trick of stuffing the stove-pipe, so that the room 
might be filled with smoke, and a recitation rendered im- 
possible. Anticipating something of the kind the professor 
waited until the trick was complete, and then entered the 
room, apparently without taking notice of its condition. 
Calling in the boys, who were gathered outside in a laugh- 
ing group, he directed them to their seats ; then taking his 
stand in the entry, where there was plenty of fresh air, he 


lectured to them through the open door for a full hour, 
while they were choking in the smoke. It was a lesson 
which they never forgot. 

In the earlier years of Dr. Kevin's presidency there were 
several changes in the Faculty. Dr. Traill Green^ was 
elected Professor of Natural Sciences, April 21, 1841, and 
held this position until September, 1848. His ability was 
fully recognized and he was always treated with great re- 
spect. Though he did not at this time regularly practice 
medicine he was the medical counsellor of the students, 
and his advice was often solicited in important cases. 
Though chemistry was his favorite study he was an excel- 
lent botanist, and his students accompanied him on many 
long walks among the mountains. As has been well said 
of him : 

"In the broadest and best sense he was ever a teacher — a 
teacher of the people, young and old, in all matters pertain- 
ing to their best interests; a teacher of teachers who lived 
and taught as they had been inspired by him."' 

When Dr. Green resigned there was some difficulty in 
securing an acceptable successor. In !tfovember, 1849, an 
invitation was extended to Dr. William Mayburry, of 
Philadelphia; and when he declined Dr. J. B. Rodgers, of 
the University of Pennsylvania, was requested to deliver 

^Traill Green was born, Easton, Pa., May 25, 1813, and died 
there, April 29, 1897. He was educated under the special care of 
Dr. John Van Derveer, and graduated in medicine, in 1835, at the 
University of Pennsylvania. Professor in Lafayette College, 
1837-41; Marshall College, 1841-48; Lafayette College, the second 
time, 1848-97. During his later years he successively occupied sev- 
eral professorships in Lafayette College and also practiced medi- 
cine. In 1890-91 he was the Acting President of the latter instit 
tion. He was a member of many learned societies, and was th 
author of numerous treatises on scientific subjects. 

! " In Memoriam," p. 64. 


an annual course of lectures on chemistry. It was not until 
the spring of 1849 that the Keverend Thomas C. Porter, * 
of Reading, Pa., became professor of Natural Sciences. 
He was a brilliant man and holds a prominent place in the 
history of the institution. 

On the 23d of September, 1846, Professor Samuel W. 
Budd, Jr., died after a short illness. He had been coh- 
nected with the institution since its beginning and his loss 
was greatly deplored. The Resolutions adopted by the 
Board express profound sympathy for his young wife, and 
for his father who was then still living. 

An effort was made to secure the services of the Rev. 
George W. Schenk, of Princeton, to be Mr. Budd's suc- 
cessor as Professor of Mathematics, and when he declined 
a call was extended to Thomas D. Baird, principal of a 
school in Baltimore. The latter entered upon the duties 
of his professorship in January, 1847. As a teacher he 
was successful, but in 1849 he resigned and in March, 
1850, returned to Baltimore. He was subsequently ac- 
tively engaged in philanthropic work. ^ 

1 Thomas Conrad Porter, D.D., LL.D., was born January 22, 1822, 
at Alexandria, Pa.; died at Easton, Pa., April 27, 1901. Graduated 
at Lafayette College and studied theology at Princeton. Pastor 
Monticello, Ga., 1847; Second Reformed Church, Reading, 1848-49; 
First Reformed Church, Easton, Pa., 1877-84. Professor Marshall 
College, 1849-53; F. and M. College, 1853-66; Lafayette College, 
1866-1901. A distinguished botanist and voluminous author. 

2 In 1857 Professor Baird became president of the Boys' Central 
High School which through his influence, became the Baltimore 
City College. He died at Baltimore, July 9, 1873. Funeral ser- 
vices were conducted by the Rev. Dr. Backus, at the Central Presby- 
terian Church, corner of Liberty and Saratoga Streets. The scholars 
of the Baltimore City College, one hundred and seventy-five in num- 
ber, attended the funeral. Professor Baird was an active member 
of the Maryland Bible Society, Prisoner's Aid Society and other 
benevolent asociations. See Baltimore Netes, July 11, 1873. Also 
History of Education in Maryland, published by the U. S. Bureau of 
Education, p. 207. 


After the resignation of Professor Baird the depart- 
ment of mathematics was for two years supplied by tutors. 
In 1851 the Eev. Theodore Appel — ^who was at that time 
pastor of the Keformed Church of Mercersburg — accepted 
the position and for some time united in one person the 
offices of pastor and professor. It need hardly be said that 
his united salaries would at present hardly be regarded as 
sufficient to support a student comfortably at college. Dr. 
Appel labored faithfully and with great self-denial, as a 
professor both in Mercersburg and Lancaster, until 1877, 
since which time he has lived in retirement. 

The arrival in Mercersburg of the Kev. Dr. Philip 
Schaff was to the student an event of the greatest possible 
interest. It is true, of course, that Dr. Schaff was called 
to be a professor in the Theological Seminary; but on 
April 11, 1844, he was elected Professor of German in 
the college, and after this date he held both positions. In 
fact, his relations with the college were in many ways so 
intimate that he deserves a prominent place in the history 
of the institution. To make this plain it is necessary to 
go back a little for the purpose of considering the circum- 
stances under which he was called to America. 

Immediately after the death of Dr. Kauch there had 
been a general desire that an eminent German theologian 
should be called to take his place in the seminary. It was 
not, however, until January, 1843, that the synod agreed 
to extend a call to the Kev. Dr. F. W. Krummacher, of 
Elberfeld, Prussia. As Krummacher was at that time 
the most celebrated preacher in Europe, it is somewhat sur- 
prising that the synod should have ventured to invite him 
to come to Mercersburg, but there had been previous cor- 
respondence, and it was known that he was not disinclined 

Traill Green. 

Joseph R. Berg. 

Philip Schaff. 
Thomas C. Porter. 

William M. Nevin. 

Alexander Thomson. 



to make the change. In order that the call might be pre- 
sented in the most impressive manner the Kev. Dr. 
Benjamin S. Schneck and Theodore L. Hoffeditz were ap- 
pointed commissioners to go to Germany and by all proper 
representations to urge Dr. Krummacher to accept the invi- 

This mission naturally attracted much attention; but 
it was soon found that the German church would not agree 
to the removal of its greatest pastor. Though Dr. Krum- 
macher himself was not unwilling to accompany the dele- 
gates, the King of Prussia actually forbade it.^ Unwilling 
to have made their journey in vain the commissioners then 
appealed to the leading theologians of Germany to sug- 

gest a proper candidate for the vacant professorship at 
Mercersburg, and after long deliberation they agreed to 
recommend Dr. Philip Schaff,^ who was at that time a 
private docent in the University of Berlin. 

' The kings of Prussia were generous benefactors of the Theolog- 
ical Seminary. Frederick William III. had given money and books 
to the institution, while it was at Carlisle; and on this occasion his 
successor, Frederick William IV. — though he was unwilling to part 
with his favorite preacher — handed the Commissioners an unsolicited 
donation of fifteen hundred Prussian thalers — equal at the prevail- 
ing rates of exchange to $975 in American currency. In accordance 
with the suggestion of the donor this sum was applied to the pay- 
ment of the expenses of the Commissioners, and a small balance was 
expended in the purchase of books for the Library. 

2 Philip Schaflf was born at Chur, Switzerland, January 1, 1819; 
died in New York, October 20, 1893. Professor at Mercersburg, 
1844-63. Secretary of Sabbath Committee, 1863-69; and after 1870 
Professor of Sacred Literature in Union Theological Seminary. He 
was the author and editor of more than fifty volumes. 


The candidate was only twenty-four years of age, but he 
had already distinguished himself as a historian and 
author. The American synod elected him professor of 
theology on the 19th of October and in the following year 
he came to America. 

That the calling of a theological professor should have 
caused so much excitement as almost to render it a "na- 
tional affair " is now hardly credible ; but this was actually 
the case. No immigrant was ever — for better or worse — 
more thoroughly advertised. Perhaps Dr. Schaff himself 
may have been somewhat imprudent. He preached a ser- 
mon in Germany in which he spoke rather freely of the 
moral character of recent emigration to America; and as 
garbled extracts from this discourse soon found their way 
to this country the foreign element was greatly excited, and 
in the West indignation meetings were actually held. 

Such opposition naturally failed to accomplish its pur- 
pose. It actually incited the friends of the institutions to 
greet the new professor with expressions of joy that to 
strangers might have seemed extravagant. When he ar- 
rived at Mercersburg, August 12, 1844, the whole village 
was prepared to bid him welcome. A committee had been 
sent to meet him in Greencastle ; but in the meantime the 
students and their friends had placed emblems of rejoicing 
in every available place. A triumphal arch was placed 
over the entrance to the campus, and long festoons of ever- 
green were twined around the massive pillars that sup- 
ported the porch of the Seminary. The students met the 
professor a short distance from the village and stood with 
uncovered heads while he passed between their double line. 
It was twilight, and almost immediately all the windows 
in the buildings connected with the institutions, and many 


others, were brightly illuminated. It has been described 
as a brilliant sight, and we do not doubt it. When the 
procession arrived at the Seminary there was an English 
address by a member of the Senior class, Mr. P. S. Neg- 
ley, and one in German by Max Stern, who afterwards 
became a successful missionary in the West. A German 
song of welcome, composed by a student of the Seminary, 
was sung with great enthusiasm. It was really an ex- 
cellent composition, but the new professor was not aware 
that many of those who sang most lustily did not under- 
stand the words which they were singing. It is not sur- 
prising that he expressed his surprise that so many of the 
students were familiar with the German language. Of 
course, the professor replied to the addresses in appropriate 
terms, and after several hours the exercises of this gala 
day were concluded with a serenade. 

There is always " a fly in the apothecary's ointment," 
and a document in our possession renders it evident that 
there was one department that regarded itself as slighted, 
and felt no hesitation in expressing its emotions. This 
document is so fierce and caustic that it becomes amusing, 
and it therefore deserves to be preserved : 

"Peepaeatokt Department, August 10, 1844. 

"At a meeting of the Preparatory students held this day 
the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously 
adopted ; 

"Whereas the Theologians and College students have 
held a meeting relative to the defraying of the expenses 
incurred in the reception of Dr. SchaS, without giving notice 
to the Preparatory students, and have passed a motion that 
they would illuminate the Preparatory in order to get the 
Preparatorians to bear part of all expenses. This we con- 
sider as an act of the meanest kind, and void of all generous 
feeling toward them; therefore. 


"Resolved, 1st, that we view with contempt and merited 
indignation the attempt of the College students to dictate 
to us and pass resolutions for us, as if we were not able to 
do so ourselves. 

"Resolved, 2d, that the conduct of some Theologians and 
some College students has been highly insulting to us, in 
regarding us as mere tools whom they might use as they 
thought fit. 

"Resolved, 3d, that we spurn with contempt the propo- 
sition to illuminate the Preparatory Department on condi- 
tion that we assist in defraying all the expenses. 

"Resolved, 4th, that we declare ourselves entirely free 
from all measures adopted at the College, and that we will 
not assist them in any manner whatsoever. 

"Resolved, 5th, that we illuminate the Preparatory De- 
partment ourselves, and will defray the expenses thereof, 
without asking the assistance of the College students. 

"Resolved, 6th, that the College students be requested to 
make laws for their own government, and not trouble them- 
selves about us, for we are perfectly able to take care of our- 

"Resolved, ^th, that we pay $2.50, as half of the sum to 
be incurred in bringing Dr. Schaff from Greencastle. 

"Resolved, 8th, that copies of these resolutions be distrib- 
uted in the CoUege Building and also in the Preparatory 
Department. ' ' 

Though Dr. Schaff was impressed with the fluency of 
the students in singing German, it was not long before he 
was undeceived with regard to their linguistic attainments ; 
and he expressed himself in unusually strong terms con- 
cerning " the abominable necessity of acquiring the Eng- 
lish language." As far as the substance of the language 
was concerned he found no difficulty. He was soon able 
to write it idiomatically ; but the pronunciation presented 
difEculties which he was never entirely able to overcome. 


The literary labors of Drs. !Nevin and SchafE gave the 
institutions at Mercersburg their chief celebrity. There 
was a long series of theological controversies which under 
other circumstances it would be interesting to describe. 
As the students were profoundly interested in these con- 
troversies, and made them the subject of their daily con- 
versation, it may be desirable to say something about them, 
though we shall not attempt to furnish a description of each 
particular storm. 

The first important controversy occurred before Dr. 
Schaff's arrival. It was induced by the fact that the Re- 
formed Church of Mercersburg was, in 1843, about to call 
a pastor who was an extreme representative of what was 
called the new-measure system. Dr. Nevin protested 
against the extravagances of this system in a little book, 
entitled " The Anxious Bench." It created much excite- 
ment and received several replies ; but it has been greatly 
misrepresented by later writers, who have evidently not 
taken the trouble to read it. The book was not an attack 
on revivals of religion, but was rather intended to show 
that genuine revivals must grow out of the real life of the 
church, and need not be promoted by artificial excitement. 
It has been said that this book changed the current of 
thought and life in the German churches of Pennsylvania. 

The second conflict occurred immediately after the ar- 
rival of Dr. Schaflf. The latter's inaugural address, de- 
livered at Eeading, October 25, 1844, was entitled " The 
Principle of Protestantism." It was intended to furnish 
a new argument in defence of Protestantism on the ground 
that it is the result of historical development, and does not 
necessarily antagonize the earlier forms of faith and 


This address was actually an extensive treatise, and but 
a small part of it was read at the inauguration. It was 
immediately printed in German; but, as its author once 
said to the present writer, " it might have been suffered 
to remain in the obscurity of a foreign language if Dr. 
Nevin had not translated and supplied it with a vigorous 
introduction." As for the address itself the author said: 
" I put into it everything that my professors had told me, 
and had no idea that my audience was not prepared to 
receive it." 

Here, we think we have the chief occasion of subsequent 
troubles. !Reither the audience, nor — ^we may add — ^the 
church in America was prepared to receive the doctrine 
which he taught. If the teaching of Dr. Eauch had 
awakened antagonism, it is not surprising that old ortho- 
doxy became suspicious when another stream of German 
theology came flowing into Mercersburg. 

It was perhaps unfortunate that the acknowledged 
leader of the Anti-Eoman party in this country was a 
minister of the Eef ormed church. To Dr. Berg the doc- 
trine of historical development was very offensive, and 
it was mainly through his influence that the Synod, in 
1845, devoted four days to the investigation of the ortho- 
doxy of the professors. The result was an almost unani- 
mous expression of confidence by which the professors were 
greatly encouraged. " If the result had been otherwise," 
said Dr. Schaff, " I should have gone right back to Berlin." 

The succeeding years were marked by intense theological 
and literary activity. The two theological professors, Drs. 
Nevin and Schaff, labored together in perfect harmony, 
and their influence was felt far beyond the limits of the 
Reformed Church. In 1846 Dr. ISTevin published " The 


Mystical Presence, a Vindication of the Keformed or 
Calvinistic Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist," a book which 
has been held to mark an epoch in the history of American 
theology. This was followed, in 1847 by " The History 
and Genius of the Heidelberg Catechism," and in the fol- 
lowing year appeared the following tract, entitled, "Anti- 
christ, or the Spirit of Sect and Schism." In the mean- 
time Dr. Schaff was laboring with all his might to influence 
the German churches through the medium of their own 
language. In 1848 he began the publication of Der 
Kirchenfreund, a monthly magazine devoted to the inter- 
ests of the German churches of America. Among the con- 
tributors were learned men of different denominations. In 
1851 he published in German his " History of the Apos- 
tolic Church," the first of the long series of historical 
works that flowed from his prolific pen. Finding it impos- 
sible to have good printing done in German in the neigh- 
borhood of his residence, it is related that he actually pur- 
chased a font of German type and brought a compositor 
from a distance, so that the work might be done under his 
personal supervision. 

In 1848 the alumni of Marshall College began to issue 
the Mercersburg Review, a quarterly publication which 
under different titles has been continued to the present 
day.-' For some years Dr. Nevin was its editor, and some- 
times almost its only contributor; and on its pages great 
theological battles were fought. 

The united labor of the professors resulted in a form 
of thinking and teaching which was widely known as 
" Mercersburg Theology," but it is known that Dr. Nevin 

' The Reformed Church Review, edited by William Rupp, D.D., 
and G. W. Richards, D.D. 


was the most important factor in its development. Though 
it may be beyond onr province to treat of such themes, the 
following extract from an article in the " American Ency- 
clopaedia " (1863) — with which we know Dr. Nevin was 
not displeased — ^may be interesting to some of our readers : 

"The cardinal principle of the Mercersburg system, is 
the fact of the incarnation. This, viewed not as a doctrine 
or speculation, but as a real transaction of God in the world, 
is regarded as being necessarily itself the sphere of Christi- 
anity, the sum and substance of the whole Christian redemp- 
tion. Christ saves the world, not ultimately by what He 
teaches but by what He is in the constitution of His person. 
His person, in its relation to the world, carries in it the 
power of victory over sin, death, and hell, the force of a real 
atonement or reconciliation between God and man, the tri- 
umph of a glorious resurrection from the dead, and all the 
consequences for faith which are attributed to this in the 
Apostles' Creed. In the most literal sense, accordingly, 
Christ is held to be 'the way, the truth, and the life,' 'the 
resurrection and the life,' the principle of 'life and immor- 
tality,' the 'light' of the world, its 'righteousness' and its 
'peace.' The 'grace which bringeth salvation,' in this view, 
is of course always a real effluence from the new order of 
existence, which has thus been called into being by the exalta- 
tion of the Word made flesh at the right hand of God. It 
must be supernatural as well as natural, and the agency and 
organs by which it works, must, in the nature of the case, 
carry with them objectively something of the same character 
and force. In this way the church is an object of faith ; the 
presence of the new creation in the old world of nature; the 
body of Christ through which as a medium and organ He 
reveals himself and works until the end of time. It medi- 
ates with supernatural office, instrumentally, between Christ 
and His people. Its ministers hold a divine power from 
him by apostolic succession. Its sacraments are not signs 


merely but the seals of the grace they represent. Baptism 
is for the remission of sins. The eucharist includes the real 
presence of Christ's whole glorified life, in a mystery, by 
the power of the Holy Ghost. The idea of the Church, when 
it is thus held as an object of faith, involves necessarily the 
attributes which are always ascribed to it in the beginning, 
unity, sanctity, catholicity, and apostolicity. The spirit of 
sect, as it cleaves to Protestantism at the present time, is 
a very great evil, which is of itself sufficient to show that 
if Protestantism had any historical justification in the be- 
ginning, its mission thus far has been only half fulfilled, 
and that it can be rationally approved only as it can be taken 
to be an intermediate preparation for some higher and better 
form of Christianity hereafter. The distinguishing char- 
acter of the Mercersburg theology, in one word, is its Chris- 
tological interest, its way of looking at all things through 
the person of the crucified and risen Saviour. This, as the 
world now stands, embraces necessarily all that enters into 
the conception of the church question, which this system 
holds to be the great problem for the Christianity of the 
present time." 

The long controversies concerning the " church ques- 
tion " may best be studied in the successive volumes of the 
Mercersburg Review. They attracted much attention, but 
their purpose was often misunderstood. When Dr. Nevin 
vtrrote his articles on " Early Christianity " it was not for 
the purpose of posing as the champion of Rome; but he 
rather desired to show that the position of the Puseyites — 
who desired to restore the constitution and ceremonial of 
the church as it existed about the fourth century — could 
not be maintained by Protestants, because many of the 
present peculiarities of the Roman church had even at that 
time become matters of general observance. With respect 
to the controversies themselves it may be said that they 


were in the air. In Germany and England the same 
themes were violently discussed, and it is hardly surprising 
that the sound of such battles should have been heard in 

As has already been intimated the students were in- 
tensely interested in these discussions. Sermons were in- 
teresting in the degree in which they were profoundly 
theological. Once, it is said Dr. Nevin preached in the 
college chapel on a summer evening, immediately after 
supper, and it was expected that the service would be con- 
cluded long before it grew dark. On this occasion the text 
was : " When the Son of Man cometh shall he find faith 
on the earth ?" John 18, 8. The discourse was intensely 
solemn; and it was much longer than usual, but no one 
seemed to notice the fact. At last — ^before the discourse 
was ended — it grew dark, and the janitor entered the hall, 
bearing lighted candles. At the sight the preacher started 
— as if awakened from a trance — and, breaking off sud- 
denly, exclaimed : " Oh ! Receive the benediction !" 

It is curious to recall what peculiar persons came to 
Mercersburg in these early days. A few of them were for 
a short time teachers in the college or academy ; but others 
hung around the institutions, either as nominal students or 
as humble dependents. There was Henry C. Bernstein 
who taught Hebrew and German in 1841-2. He was gen- 
erally called " the Rabbi," because it was believed that he 
had once held that office. The boys suspected him of 
rationalism, but, in his own way, he was very cautious; 
and when they worried him for his opinion as to the 
genuineness of the claims of the witch of Endor they only 
succeeded in exciting him to such a degree that he roundly 
cursed the unfortunate woman. 


A big German once applied for a position as instructor. 
" What can you teach ?" he was asked. " 0," was his reply 
in unusually vigorous German, " I can teach Latin and 
Greek, Hebrew and Chaldee, Ethiopic and Sanscrit, and 
any amount of such accursed stuff." It is hardly necessary 
to add that he did not receive an appointment. 

The Kev. Gardiner Jones was Tutor in Ancient Lan- 
guages, 1841—43, and also Hector of the Preparatory De- 
partment. He was a convert from the Roman Catholic 
church and was constantly declaiming against its " corrup- 
tions." That he was a good scholar was not denied, but 
as Dr. Appel says,^ " he was not well balanced." Some- 
times he " put on airs " and would not speak to anybody ; 
at other times he cast aside all restraint and acted like a 
little boy. He was not popular and found it necessary to 
retire. It is said that he returned to the Catholic church 
and spent his later years as a member of an ascetic order. 

Another convert to Protestantism was Edward Leahey, 
the monk of La Trappe, France, who was, in 1844, a 
nominal student in the Seminary. Though these men 
were always ready to denounce " Romanizing tendencies " 
it is conceded that their presence in the institutions did 
more harm than good. 

Students of Marshall College remember " Broatsic " — 
he was known by no other name — ^who regarded himself 
as a poor dependent of the institution. He was at best a 
learned tramp and was probably insane. Though gen- 
erally taciturn he could speak Latin fluently ; and when the 
students occasionally addressed him in well prepared Latin 
sentences he responded with such alacrity that they were 
glad to seek cover. For his dinners he depended on the 

^ " Recollections of College Life," p. 183. 


people of Mercersburg; and in the morning and evening 
he regularly appeared at the door of the refectory and 
silently accepted whatever was given him. At night he 
made his way to one of the recitation-rooms and slept on a 
bench. The students at last, at a general meeting, formally 
declared "Broatsic" a nuisance, and requested the Fac- 
ulty to have him removed from the building. How this 
was accomplished we have not been informed. 

The social life of Marshall College was more intimate 
and pleasant than would be possible in a larger institution 
or in a larger town. Entertainments in the present sense 
were hardly thought of, but students of good character were 
welcome everywhere. 

Dr. Schaff was married to Miss Mary Schley, of Fred- 
erick, Maryland, and thus another family was added to 
the hospitable college circle. The surviving students of 
" old Marshall " have no more pleasant recollections than 
those which concern the evenings quietly spent in the 
families of the professors. 

On Saturday afternoon it was the proper thing to take 
a long walk. " Stony Batter " — ^the birthplace of Presi- 
dent Buchanan — ^was frequently visited; and occasionally 
a journey might be made to " the Cove " or " the Comer." 
When there happened to be a sufficient intermission in 
the college exercises to render possible a trip by stage to 
Greencastle or Hagerstown, or possibly to Chambersburg, 
it was an occasion long to be remembered. Camp-meetings 
and circuses gave the professors much trouble and often led 
in different ways to disobedience and discipline. 

The mountains near Mercersburg were covered with 
chestnut trees, and the crop was sometimes abundant. 
Every autumn the students claimed a holiday, and actually 


gathered chestnuts in large quantities. " Chestnut Day " 
became a recognized " institution " ; and it is a curious 
fact that it survived for several years after the removal 
to Lancaster, though in the neighborhood of the latter city 
chestnuts are scarce. The students, however, claimed their 
holiday on the ground of long-established precedent ; and it 
required much persuasion to induce them to renounce it 
peaceably, even after it had become an evident absurdity. 

On the mountain-side, several miles from Mercersburg, 
there was a village appropriately called " Africa," as it 
was entirely occupied by negroes. Here dwelt " Aunt 
Milly," a celebrated " sermon-taster," who was very proud 
of her accomplishments. Seated in front of her cabin she 
was fond of intercepting students, who passed through the 
village on their mountain walks, by inquiring : " What 
was your minister's text last Sunday?" If the student 
confessed that he had forgotten, he received such a lecture 
as made his ears tingle ; but if he attempted to deceive her 
by quoting a text that happened to occur to him, his fate 
was apt to be even worse. " Yaas," she said, "dat was de 
text, but what were de p'ints ? A sermon is no good widout 
de p'ints." Having gone so far the student probably at- 
tempted to outline a sermon, to which " Aunt Milly " 
listened attentively, but finally uttered the merciless judg- 
ment : " Dat may all be true, but eider you or dat minister 
can't preach." 

In many respects the social life of Mercersburg was very 
pleasant, though professors and students often complained 
of the isolation of the place. The college was regarded as 
prosperous, and it had the support of the entire community. 

When Dr. Nevin entered upon his presidency the Col- 
lege had trouble in consequence of financial embarrass- 


ments, and to save themselves from loss the Trustees were 
actually compelled to purchase a hotel. Of course, they 
sold it as soon as possible, but in the meantime the affair 
gave rise to much amusement. 

In 184:1 the Keformed Church held a Centenary cele- 
bration in commemoration of its establishment in this 
country, though no particular event was selected as worthy 
of special honor. The benevolent contributions of the 
churches were of great advantage to the institutions, and 
in 1841 the synod declared that, as compared with the 
seminary, the college had received more than its proper 
share. Greatly encouraged, the Board once more resolved 
to erect a College Building, and the Rev. Samuel Miller 
was appointed agent to gather contributions for this special 
purpose. A building committee was appointed, and its 
members, somewhat prematurely, purchased a great quan- 
tity of brick, which was duly unloaded on the campus. 
It is said that there was brick enough for a building twice 
as large as the one which had been contemplated. To the 
best friends of the college it was evident that the erection 
of a building of such size must lead to financial disaster. 
A good man declared in his own simple way that " the 
weight of the brick rested heavily on his heart and kept 
him from sleeping at night." Dr. Nevin insisted that the 
finances of the institution would not at that time warrant 
the undertaking ; and as soon as he " put down his foot " 
the case was practically settled. The minutes of the Board 
have nothing to say about this affair, except that a mild 
resolution was passed, directing a roof to be placed over the 
brick, so as to protect them from the weather. There they 
long remained, but — as will be seen in the following 
chapter — they incidentally led to the erection of several 
beautiful buildings. 



Plan and Puepose — Eivaley of the Literaby Societies — En- 
thusiasm OF THE Students — Cabinets and Museums — 
" Em:ctioneebinq " — German Litebabt Societies — 
Deserted Halls. 

The Literary Societies had by this time become impor- 
tant organizations. They were keen rivals and sometimes 
got into violent collision. Hitherto both had met in the 
" prayer-hall " on different evenings, but the room was not 
pleasant, and its location was fatal to the secrecy which 

society hall. 

was in those days regarded as a necessity. The Goethean 
Society once sent the Faculty a gift of twenty-five dollars, 
to be used in the purchase of better seats for the chapel. 
No doubt the Faculty appreciated the satire which the 
gift involved; for though they courteously accepted the 
contribution they immediately sent the society an equal 
sum, to be applied to the enlargement of its library. 



In 1843 the Board of Trustees, at the suggestion of Dr. 
Nevin proposed that the societies should erect halls on the 
college campv^, for their exclusive use, offering to each 
society a contribution of $500, which was afterwards in- 
creased to $1,000, provided that the whole amount should 
be paid in brick. The general idea was no doubt derived 
from Princeton College, whose literary societies had 
erected similar halls. The fact that materials for building 
were at hand may also have influenced the action of the 

The buildings as thus suggested were to be forty feet in 
front by fifty-five in depth, to be externally exactly alike, 
and so situated that the proposed College Building could 
be erected between them. It was estimated that the cost of 
each building would be $2,500, but the actual sum, in 
each case, turned out to be about six thousand dollars. 

That the students undertook to erect these buildings was 
greatly to their credit. They were few in number, and 
most of them were poor, but their enthusiasm was bound- 
less. They not only submitted to many personal sacrifices, 
but — especially during vacation — almost literally scoured 
the coxmtry in search of contributions. It is said that their 
enthusiasm was contagious, so that in the neighborhood of 
Mercersburg there were many people, not connected with 
the college, who publicly ranged themselves on the side 
of one or the other society. 

Before the building was actually begun it was deemed 
desirable that the societies should be legally incorporated, 
so that they might " sue and be sued, plead and be im- 
pleaded." Charters were accordingly granted by the Court 
of Franklin County, and the societies flattered themselves 
that they could conduct their affairs without the inter- 


ference of the Board, so that they actually ventured to 
make changes in the external appearance of the halls. The 
Goetheans put a window where a door ought to have been, 
and the Diagnothians, whose building was not quite so 
far advanced as that of their rivals, immediately retorted 
by extending their hall five feet to the rear. As a natural 
consequence the Board was compelled to interfere, and the 
societies were ordered to adhere rigidly to the original plan. 
The Board, however, eased the situation by agreeing that 
the expense of the alterations which had now become neces- 
sary should be paid by the treasurer of the College. 

The Corner-stone of the Goethean Hall was laid on 
Goethe's Birthday, August 28, 1844. Dr. SchafE read a 
poem and David Paul Brown, Esq., of Philadelphia, de- 
livered the address. The Diagnothians deferred the laying 
of their corner-stone until the 4th of July, 1845, on the 
evening of which day they, as usual, celebrated their Anni- 
versary. The orator of the occasion was Dr. Lewis W. 
Green, professor in the Western Theological Seminary 
at Allegheny, Pa. 

In such an enterprise financial trouble was to be ex- 
pected, and the experiences of the two societies were simi- 
lar. At the end the Board of Trustees granted to each 
society several scholarships, but it is doubtful whether all 
of them were sold. It is certain that by far the greater 
part of the cost of the buildings was defrayed by the liber- 
ality or the personal exertions of the members of the socie- 
ties. It took a long time to settle all the accounts, and at 
least in the case of one of the societies, it was not until 
1848 that the building committee was finally discharged. 
A small sum was loaned by the College to each society for 
the payment of a remaining debt. 


The Halls when completed were certainly handsome; 
and it is not too much to say that similar buildings could 
not now be erected for twice their cost. They were de- 
signed by Professor Samuel W. Budd and became a monu- 
ment to his taste and skill. A Catalogue issued by the 
Goethean Society in 1844 contains a picture which will do 
equally well for either Hall. It represents a building of 
classic style, with a portico supported by five Ionic columns. 
The interior arrangement was similar to that of the Halls 
at present in Lancaster. The first story was divided into 
two rooms for the use of the library and museimi, and the 
second was occupied by a large room for the meetings of 
the society. Over the chair of the President of the 
Goethean Society there was a picture representing a ray of 
light falling upon a globe that was almost covered with 
darkness. It was, of course, symbolical of the motto of the 
society: Ftviabat <paz — "Let there be light!" The Diag- 
nothians followed suit with a representation of their seal 
which bore as its device a goddess crowning a young man 
with laurel — equally suggestive of their motto: 2zsfu 
zcixmvraz doz^v dperij — " Virtue crovsms her followers." 

That the societies were proud of their halls goes without 
saying. They were regarded as sanctuaries in a sense 
which we can hardly appreciate, and the admittance of a 
stranger to their sacred precincts was a favor which could 
not be too highly esteemed. Members were actually re- 
quired to remove their shoes before entering the place of 
meeting, and to put on a pair of slippers. The assumption 
of secrecy was, in the case of both societies, possibly carried 
to extremes. Nothing that happened at a meeting could 
be revealed under the severest penalties ; and the names of 
the speakers at anniversaries and exhibitions were gen- 


erally kept secret from the rival society until the evening 
of the performance. 

In their libraries and cabinets the societies took great 
pride. The former were begun immediately after the or- 
ganization of the societies, and in 1844 each library num- 
bered about 2,000 volumes. The cabinets, or museums, 
were begun later, and naturally consisted chiefly of objects 
which the students had gathered, and which they regarded 
as curiosities. There were, however, some rare specimens 
— among others the gar-fishes, presented by Mr. Wells, 
which were subsequently borrowed by a great scientist, but 
never returned. The Diagnothian cabinet was smaller 
than the other; but in 1848 this society purchased in Ger- 
many a geological collection which enabled them to make 
up for previous deficiencies. 

At the opening of the fall term each society made stren- 
uous efforts to secure the larger number of new students. 
They were received with all possible kindness, and might 
easily have been persuaded that they were persons of great 
distinction. An upper-classman might have been seen 
engaged in assisting a Freshman to carry his trunk ; and to 
be permitted to assist him in arranging his room was a de- 
cided honor. In fact, however, the new student was care- 
fully guarded by those who had first made his acquaint- 
ance, and to introduce him to a member of the rival society 
was a misdemeanor. Such extraordinary courtesy — which 
was known as " electioneering " — ^was continued until the 
stranger had joined a literary society, after which event he 
was expected to do his part in attracting others, and nat- 
urally took his proper place in the social life of the 

On retiring from the office of Speaker of the Diagnothian 


Society, July 26, 1842, Mr. John Cessna — then a member 
of the Senior class — delivered a playful address in which 
he treated at some length of the subject of " Electioneer- 
ing." That it was delivered to but one of the societies is a 
matter of no account, as the methods of both societies were 
practically alike. 
Mr. Cessna said : 

"Electioneering is a subject which is more difiScult to be 
described than the act is to be performed. It is a duty which 
we owe to Society — one, too, of no small importance. In 
the performance of this duty the first thing that is necessary 
is to know yourself — ^to be in the right spirit. If there is 
a single member here who is not satisfied with Society — 
who is not out and out a thorough-going, whole-souled 
Diagnothian — let that member never attempt to electioneer. 
For as you cannot convince unless you are convinced, so you 
will accomplish little in influencing new students if you are 
lukewarm or dissatisfied yourself. 

' ' The next thing necessary is to know the individual whom 
you wish to influence. Never begin to argue with a new 
student on the merits of Society before you have conversed 
with him long enough to read him and to understand his 
character and disposition. If you wish to make a deep 
thrust into any material you will surely seek the softest spot. 
So it is in this case. If you find a student in whom you 
discover, after reading him, a soft spot, direct all your blows 
to that quarter and success is certain. If you meet with 
one who is really desirous of studying — who is studious and 
diligent — by being frank and open you may soon make your- 
self his friend and give him some advice as to the manner 
in which he may rid himself of bores and interlopers. 
Whenever you get so "thick" with him that he comes to 
you voluntarily and asks your advice, he is pretty safe. He 
then considers you his confidential friend and you can gen- 
erally get him without saying a word about Society. If you 


meet a lad that is very vain, praise him a little, if you don't 
have to stretch your conscience, and perhaps even that 
would be allowed in such a case, if not in any other. Tell 
him all about the Fourth of July, and give him an indirect 
hint that a man of his genius would stand a pretty fair 
chance to be elected to represent society on the Fourth. 
After you get such members as these, don't forget to harden 
their soft spots. Try to suit yourself to every grade of 
character and kind of disposition. Mould yourself to suit 
his circumstances and you will soon be fast to him, some- 
thing like two boards — ploughed, grooved and well joined. 
Such conduct might not suit in the common transactions of 
life, but certainly all is fair in our politics that is not dis- 
honorable. Never run down the Goetheans before a man 
of sense. If you yourself are a little softer than the new 
student whom you wish to influence, you had better stay at 
home. When you visit a room and find the occupant engaged, 
beg his pardon for intruding. Tell him you know he is very 
much troubled, and start off. If he insists very much on 
your staying, you can judge from his manner whether you 
are welcome or not. If you think you are welcome you may 
know that he considers you a friend. A little advice would 
then be well received as to the manner in which he might 
act in order to receive fewer visits. Tell him that you will 
speak to other Diagnothians and request them to call less 
frequently, taking all the responsibility on yourself. Tell 
him too that this will give the Goetheans a great advantage 
over you, but that he must not make up his mind until he 
has seen all the Diagnothians. If he promises this he may 
be considered pretty safe. 

"There is yet another problem in relation to this subject 
which is difficult to be solved. It is, whether the members 
should go in companies or alone, when on the business of 
electioneering. This should be determined by the nature 
of the individual visited. If he is fond of company he 
should be visited by large companies. If he is fond of 
study one can do more with him than a large number. It 


may be well to visit an individual once with as many mem- 
bers as can be got together, in order to create an impression; 
but such visits ought not to be repeated. If a new student 
be of a serious-sober turn send the most serious members to 
meet him; if he be somewhat wild, send the wild ones, if 
you have any of that description. If you have none let some 
of your members get wild for a few days, until they get 
him, and then return to their former habits. 

"The iinal visit — or any visit which is made with the 
expectation of getting the letter — should be made with by 
one member alone. Let him be one of those with whom the 
new-comer is most intimate. Individuals would always 
rather divulge their secrets to one alone, upon whom they 
look as a private and confidential friend. The telling of 
the secret works pretty hard on an individual, as he does 
not like to come out and take his stand, for he knows that 
by so doing he will dissatisfy one half of the students and 
render himself somewhat unpopular with them. This is a 
matter which he will not disclose to every one, and an ad- 
vantage is consequently gained by having him alone with 
some one who is able to work himself into his good graces. 

"These, I believe, are about all the rules which can be 
laid down on this subject, as the business is one which must 
be attended to as circumstances require. That rules for all 
cases may be invented, and the D. L. S. come off victorious, 
is the ardent wish of him who wishes for, but can not par- 
ticipate in the conflicts of the coming campaign for new 

Of course, in an institution in which the rivalry of the 
societies was developed to this degree, the " hazing " of 
Freshmen was never even suggested. 

The anniversaries and exhibitions were occasions in 
which the societies took a profound interest. On the 28th 
of August the Goethean Society celebrated the birthday 
of Goethe with a procession and address; but their exhi- 


bition — which attracted greater interest — ^was at first 
held at New Year and afterwards on the twenty-second of 
February. The Diagnothians selected the Fourth of July 
as their anniversary, and many of their orations were nat- 
urally of a patriotic character. The exhibitions were, of 
course, important occasions, and everything possible was 
done to render them attractive. To be successful as an 
orator was in those days the highest distinction to which 
a student could aspire. 

It is not generally remembered that in those early days 
each of the literary societies had a German annex. At 
least as early as 1837 there was a German literary society, 
composed of members of both English literary societies. 
Its members met regularly for practice in German oratory 
and composition, and once, at least, they gave a public en- 
tertainment in the language of the fatherland. In 1841 
they divided into two societies which respectively assumed 
the names of Schiller and Kauch. The Schiller society 
was composed of Goetheans and the Eauch of Diagnoth- 
ians. Henry Harbaugh joined the Eauch society, but as he 
was not very familiar with pure German he horrified the 
society by insisting on speaking in Pennsylvania-German, 
which he afterwards used to such excellent effect in his 
well-known dialect poems. The absorbing interest of erect- 
ing the halls may have been the chief occasion for neglect- 
ing the German societies, for about 1848 they ceased to 

The Reformed congregation of Mercersburg had hitherto 
worshiped in the old Union church, which was in many 
respects uncomfortable. It was, therefore, an acceptable 
proposition when the Board of Trustees of Marshall Col- 
lege, in 1844, offered to contribute brick to the amount of 


one thousand dollars for the erection of a new Keformed 
Church. The church was built and is still standing. In 
it the college had the guaranteed right of holding its com- 

When the institution was finally removed from Mercers- 
burg no grief was so great as that of the literary societies, 
which were compelled to give up their beautiful halls, l^o 
use could be assigned to them and their position on the de- 
serted campus was peculiarly desolate. Professor N"evin 
wrote some touching verses concerning them, but we have 
room only for a single stanza : 

" Ah, now they're standing all forlorn, 

Or turned to other use; 
While we their sad condition mourn. 

Their ruinous abuse — 
Their ruinous abuse, my boys; 

Yet still they wake to view 
The times lamented that were ours. 

When these two Halls were new; 
When these two Halls were new, my boys. 

When these two Halls were new! " 












Eaelt Confucts — The Abolition Riot — " The Big Fight " 
— MitD Discipline. 

Thougli tlie relations of the town and college were gen- 
erally friendly, there were occasional collisions whicli some- 
times degenerated into actual " fights." In these conflicts 
the substantial citizens took no part, except to aid the 
Faculty in preserving order ; but there were some " fellows 
of the baser sort " who delighted in testing their strength 
with the students of the college. As is well known there 
was hardly a literary institution in the country which was 
entirely exempt from similar troubles. 

To relate all the traditions, concerning such conflicts, 
which have come down to us, would be to extend this 
chapter beyond its intended length; but we have pretty 
full accounts of two collisions which may be regarded as 

The earliest of these conflicts was known as the Abolition 
Eiot. It occurred in July, 1837, and created great excite- 
ment. It was, of course, one of many that occurred all over 
the country ; but in some respects it was not uninteresting. 

Mercersburg, it will be remembered, was very near the 
line of Maryland and almost under the shadow of the 
South Mountains. Fugitive slaves from the South had but 
to follow the line of the mountains to find their way to 
liberty. Many of them remained in Mercersburg, and the 
negro population of the village and its vicinity became con- 



siderable. As a rule the negroes^ were respectful and gave 
no trouble, but there was a general sentiment that the sub- 
ject of slavery must not be publicly mentioned. The 
negroes might remain unmolested as long as they behaved 
themselves properly, but to reflect on " the peculiar insti- 
tution " of the South was not only unwarranted interfer- 
ence, but might prove dangerous to the whole community. 
" Abolitionists " were by the majority regarded as political 
incendiaries, who must at all hazards be prevented from 
spreading their pernicious doctrines. 

One day the Eev. G. Blanchard came to Mercersburg. 
He was a Congregationalist minister, and was subsequently 
president of Knox College, Illinois.* As a gentleman of 
culture he was courteously received by the Faculty and 
students. At the hotel where he was staying he, however, 
rather incautiously informed the landlord that he proposed 
to deliver a lecture on " Slavery," and was immediately 
ordered to leave the house. He secured lodging at the resi- 
dence of Daniel Kroh — a married student who kept a 

Mr. Kroh had previously been regarded with some sus- 
picion. At a debate in the Diagnothian Society he had 

* Several negroes were in an especial sense the humble frienda 
of the students. Arnold Brooks, the coachman of the " Mansion 
House " was admired for his strength and bravery. He regarded 
himself as the special champion of Dr. Nevin, and threatened a 
terrible fate to his enemies, of whom he had heard though he had 
never seen them. Davie Johnson, who was long the janitor of the 
college, was regarded as a model of unaffected piety. The writer 
well remembers how earnestly he pleaded for the gift of a skull 
which an early student had somehow obtained and had left in his 
room. "Give it to me!" he said, with tears in his eyes, "I knew 
the man it belonged to, and I want to bury it." The skull was given 
him, and he actually buried it in the graveyard, after which he 
offered a solemn prayer. 

"Dr. Appel's "Recollections of College Life," p. 108. 


spoken against slavery, and was consec[uently called an 
abolitionist, though his views were by no means radical. 
That he had received a notorious abolitionist into his 
house was a sin which a certain part of the community 
could not easily forgive. It was proposed to attack his 
house, but a prominent citizen of the town had secretly 
given him a gun, and with it he walked up and down the 
street, to show that he was prepared to defend himself. 

On Sunday evening Mr. Blanchard started out to at- 
tend worship in the Methodist church. Mr. Kroh desired 
to accompany him, but at Mr. Blanchard's request he fol- 
lowed at some distance, hoping thus to attract less atten- 
tion. Before Mr. Blanchard could enter the church he 
was assailed with a shower of eggs and stones, so that he 
was compelled to seek refuge in a boarding-house kept by 
Mr. Wolfensberger. Here the students rallied to his de- 
fence, and one of them, Jacob Ziegler, is said to have suc- 
cessfully defied the crowd. Mr. Blanchard was escorted 
to the house of Mr. Kroh, and — after he had been made 
presentable — ^there delivered a lecture on his favorite sub- 
ject. Next morning he was sent to Greencastle in a private 
carriage, accompanied by an athletic student — John 
Hiester — ^who would have made a good showing, if they 
had been attacked on the way. 

The " abolition riot " gave the Faculty a good deal of 
trouble. It was brought up in various forms, and there 
was one citizen of Mercersburg who seemed never to grow 
weary of presenting charges against Mr. Kroh. The chief 
preliminary question was to determine whether Mr. 
Blanchard's discourse had been a lecture to which students 
had been invited, or a mere social conversation. As it was 
proved that it was opened and closed with prayer it was 


finally declared to have been a political lecture — ^which 
students were forbidden to attend — and Mr. Kroh received 
a reprimand. 

The " big fight " — as it was generally called — occurred 
ten years later. Trouble had for some time been brewing 
between the students and some of the mechanics of the 
town, and the conflict was not unexpected. 

On Saturday evening, September 4, 1847, AKred Dubbs 
was walking alone along the main street when he was met 
by several " town fellows," one of whom came up to him 
and deliberately blew tobacco smoke into his face. The 
student immediately knocked him down, and defended him- 
seK as well as possible from a general attack. Several stu- 
dents were near at hand and came to the rescue. The news 
was carried to the college and in a few minutes the students 
came down the hill " like a swarm of bees." The " me- 
chanics " also received reinforcements and the parties were 
soon engaged in a pitched battle. Tutors appeared upon 
the scene, and ordered individual students to return to 
their rooms. They obeyed at once, but most of them 
merely took time to change their hats and coats, and thus 
partially disguised they were soon again in the midst of the 
fray. Some of the boys were perhaps not thoroughly in 
earnest. One of them — afterwards an eminent judge — 
ran into McKinstry's store, and seizing a big butcher-knife 
that lay on the counter, carried it out to the comer of the 
house and began rubbing it up and down the bricks. " Just 
wait," he said, " till I get my knife sharp." He continued 
rubbing until the fight was done. 

For some time the conflict was serious and each side had 
its victims, but we have not learned that any one was per- 
manently injured. 


The natural consequence of these events was a summons 
to appear before the Faculty. The minutes say that some 
of the " mechanics " were also invited to be present at the 
meeting; but it does not appear that the invitation was 
accepted. Mr. Dubbs was the first to be heard, and his 
prospects were certainly not promising. The President 
sternly addressed him in the words : " It must be perfectly 
evident that you have grievously broken the laws of the 
college " ; but Professor Baird — ^who had been a lawyer — 
immediately added : " But he had provocation." Pro- 
fessor Baird thus became the voluntary counsel of the ac- 
cused, and made an excellent speech. How the matter was 
settled appears in the following extract from the Minutes 
of the Eaculty : 

"After a careful examination of the circumstances it was 
resolved by the Faculty that Messrs. Gray and Dubbs, be 
both slightly censured for being on the street as spectators 
in study hours, especially as they had been remanded to 
their rooms by Mr. Eeinecke earlier in the evening. In the 
case of Mr. Dubbs too the Faculty thought it wrong in him 
that earlier in the evening, he had taken the least notice 
whatever of an insult, the blowing of tobacco smoke on his 
face, as he passed him on the street, by a low fellow of the 
town; the notice taken in all such cases being more gratify- 
ing to such low fellows than an overlooking of them alto- 

This action appears to have been sufficiently gentle ; but 
it may be added that in the case of several other students, 
who had been " more intimately connected with the fray, 
even unto fighting," the discipline was more severe. 

Other stories, similar to those related in the present 
chapter, might easily be gathered. To tell them now may 
seem to be useless ; but, after all, these conflicts constitute 


a part of the history of the institution, and without them it 
would hardly be possible to form a correct idea of its pecu- 
liar life. Nearly every American institution has passed 
through similar experiences; but they may generally be 
congratulated on the fact that such evils no longer exist. 
In Lancaster, at any rate, there appears to be not a single 
trace of the ancient rivalry of Town and Gown. 



Peculiab Laws — Eaelt Poets — " Youth's Phantasies " 


The earliest printed copy of the College Laws contains 
the following regulation: 

"No student shall keep for his use or pleasure any horse, 
dog, gun, or fire-arms and ammunition of any description, 
or any dirk, sword, or any other deadly weapon." 

This rule led to much amusement, and may not have 
been very highly regarded ; hut in one instance, at least, it 
was somewhat ostentatiously observed. 

A certain student owned a dog whom he named " Jake." 
The dog was ordinarily well-behaved, but had the bad 
habit of following his master, and sometimes disturbed a 
class by appearing at recitation. The owner was accord- 
ingly reminded of the law, and promised that the offending 
animal should be removed. Returning to his room he sum- 
moned a company of his cronies, whom he called the 
" Amphictyonic Council," and it was agreed that " Jake " 
must be legally tried and convicted. The dog was placed 
on a table and compelled to listen to the reading of the 
College Laws. When his misdemeanors had been made 
suiSciently evident the law was applied ; and " Jake " was 
found guilty and sentenced to be shot. 

The sentence was actually carried out and the dog was 
buried with a great deal of serio-comic ceremony. A pro- 
gram had been prepared, in which the owner appeared as 



chief mourner. Verses, which are supposed to have heen 
sung at the funeral, were written in English, and in a kind 
of mongrel German which was amusing on account of the 
pure atrocity of its composition. The first stanza of the 
so-called " German ode " read something like the follow- 

"Und bist du todt, Du armes Thier? 

In de kalt Grund you must verfrier; 
Und muss ich sagen, Du bist todt? 

Kannst nicht mebr essen Fleisch und Brod, 
Und bist du todt, I>u armer Hund? 
And must we stick you in de Grund?" 

Of the English verses two lines only are remembered : 

"Jake never stole an ounce of meat, 
But took it by the pound." 

All the rest is forgotten. Indeed, the account of the 
incident, as handed down by tradition, has become indis- 
tinct, and it is possible that we have not done full justice 
to all its particulars. 

The students of Marshall College, as we have seen, were 
generally solemn and inclined to philosophy, but there 
were always a few who preferred poetry. Fortunately 
for these the poet's art was everywhere highly esteemed, 
and the successful composition of verses — ^whether in Latin 
or English — ^was the highest accomplishment which a stu- 
dent could possibly acquire. It was cultivated in the 
literary societies, and was justly regarded as an important 
part of the training of a scholar.^ 

In 1842, Henry 0. Beeler, of Pittsburg, acquired con- 
siderable reputation in the college — and possibly else- 

^In 1841 Professor N. C. Brooks, of Baltimore, delivered before 
the Diagnothian Society, in lieu of an address, a long poem on " The 
History of the Church." It was a composition of a superior order, 
and was very highly esteemed. 


where — for a number of successful poetical pieces. He 
died young, and we are not aware that any of his work has 
been preserved. 

Henry Harbaugh wrote many verses while he was a stu- 
dent, and some of them were published in the Messenger; 
but his compositions were all religious, and it was not sup- 
posed that he would " achieve a volume." 

The publication of a volume of verses by a student, in 
1847, created a decided sensation. The book was entitled 
" Youth's Phantasies," and its author was Charles H. 
Albert, who was at that time a member of the Junior class. 
Many of the separate pieces were no doubt composed while 
the author was a Sophomore. They are generally ex- 
tremely sentimental, and their character may perhaps be 
best expressed in the opening lines of a lyric, entitled 
"The Wish": 

" I wish I were in love with some fair creature — 
That some fair creature were in love with me." 

There is a full assortment of stanzas with such titles as 

" Lines to ," " Mght Hours," " Life's Despondences " 

and " Love's Woes," and we are even granted the privilege 
of reading a fragment from an unpublished drama. 

The latter part of the volume is occupied by a mock- 
heroic poem in four books, named " Cupid Abroad." It 
is " respectfully inscribed to the Ladies of Mercersburg," 
and some of them probably found it interesting. Many 
proper names are indicated by blanks which it is now im- 
possible to supply. It may be briefly said that " the argu- 
ment" is purely classical. Jupiter determines to estab- 
lish a seminary of learning, and Apollo is directed to attend 
to the matter. Juno, however, is displeased at something 


— as she usually is on such occasions — and determines to 
be avenged. She accordingly sends Venus and Cupid to 
destroy Apollo's work by smiting the students with the 
tender passion. A great number of charming maidens are 
brought to Mercersburg : 

" From Shimpstown, Loudon, Middleton, 
And Chambersburg tne fair ones come"; 

and their influence is, of course, irresistible. At last 
Apollo and Venus meet and agree, in lines that are too 
numerous to quote, on the number of days in each week 
which the students are to be permitted to spend in the 
company of the ladies. Purgatorians (that is, Prepara- 
torians) are not to visit them at all, spending all their time 
in the service of Apollo. Freshmen are granted a single 
evening, but the number increases with each year of the 
college course until the seniors are allowed to spend four 
evenings of every week in such pleasant society. In a burst 
of generosity Apollo finally exclaims: 

" The Theologians I deliver 

To Venus' tender hands forever; 
Nor ask one moment of their time 
To offer at high Learning's shrine." 

" Cupid Abroad " attracted considerable attention, and 
a student at Gettysburg wrote a reply, which he called 
" Cupid Abroad Arrested." It is a witty composition, and 
has been reprinted. 

Sometimes the students of Marshall College indulged in 
literary amusements which have been termed " feline 
amenities," because they are apt to scratch. Almost every 
year, at Commencement a rhymed satire appeared, which 
was supposed to be devoted to the " dissection " of the 

"THE SLUBS." 233 

graduating class. It was called " SlubberdeguUious," or 
more briefly, " Slub." The name was probably derived 
from " slubberdeguUion " — an old English word which, 
according to Webster, signifies " a mean, dirty, sorry 
wretch." How it came to be applied in this case we do not 
know, but it was certainly not entirely inappropriate. 
Students rarely realize the evil which is done by such pub- 
lications, and for the sake of a little amusement express 
themselves in terms which, though not intended to be 
serious, cannot fail to be painful and often leave a rank- 
ling wound. 

Without attempting to excuse them, it may be confessed 
that the " Slubs " were not as scurrilous as their name 
would seem to indicate. They were, of course, anonymous, 
and it is hardly likely that at this late day any one will lay 
claim to their authorship. It may, therefore, be said that 
they do not evince any extraordinary literary ability. Of 
course, the wit has evaporated and the local allusions are 
rarely comprehensible. " The lights are fled — the garlands 
dead." Here and there, however, we may still discern the 
flash of wit or feel the genial glow of humor. 

The earliest "Slub" that has come to our notice is dated, 
" Ten days before Miller's Millennium." This, of course, 
fixes the year as 1843, for it was then that " Father 
Miller " announced the consummation of all things. The 
document is entitled : " Programme of Perambulation," 
and is, in fact, in great part a mock programme. It begins 
with the following " explanatory stanza " : 

" Senior ClasB took a boat to go to Texas ; 

Windus arose, stormus erat, thunderque revolvit, 
Boatum upset, omnes drownderunt. 
Qui Swim away non potuere." 


Throughout the Order of Procession there is a good deal 
of this peculiar kind of Latin, some of which may as well 
remain untranslated. There are many local allusions and 
high honors are ascribed to the great poet " Horatius 
Smartus."^ The Mormons must have been troublesome; 
for a prominent place in the procession is given to the 
Mayor and Council of I^auvoo and the editor of the Mor- 
mon " Times and Seasons." Why a similar position is 
given to James Gordon Bennett, LL.D., editor of the I^ew 
York Herald, we are unable to determine. The Seminary 
is not suffered to escape without some sly thrusts ; for the 
Roman Citizen — ^whoever he may have been — is in the 
line. Krummacher and the German Mission are also 
there; and there is an announcement of an elaborate dis- 
sertation on " Pussey-ism."^ 

The whole affair is supposed to conclude with a 
"Dirge," which is, in fact, a parody on " Scots wha hae wi ' 
Wallace bled." There are suggestions of a cremation ; for 
the concluding stanzas — ^which contain some bad advice — 
are as follows : 

" Here we burn great, glokious themes, 
Of which each line with wisdom teems. 
Filled up with bright and burning dreams 

Of immortality ; 
All of which now ends in smoke. 
And gives our hopes a deathlike stroke. 
And it is in fact no joke, 

Though 'tis sport to ye. 
And as we now this victim burn 
May you to our example turn, 
And make this service your concern 

For evermore and aye. 
Ne'er let this custom be forgot. 
And as you go, why, pay your scot, 
And peace and plenty be your lot, 

Is what we ask and pray." 

' Smart's Translation of Horace. 

'The writings of Dr. Pusey were generally read. 


The first " slubberdeguUious " was, we think the least 
objectionable. The poetry certainly did not improve in 
subsequent years ; and their individual peculiarities might 
be — as old Pompey (who announced auctions in Mercers- 
burg) used to say — " too re-tedious to mention." Once 
in a while, even among the personalities, a couplet appears 
that strikes us as amusing. A student had been accused 
— quite innocently, as we happen to know — of having kept 
a popular novel, called " Stanley," out of the library for a 
longer time than the law permitted. This was enough for 
the poet, who exclaimed, with reminiscences of " Mar- 
mion " : 

" On, Stanley, on ! and tear yourself loose 
From the thraldom of Richard — the Middletown goose." 

In the " Order " for 1846 there is a reminder of the 
fact that the proposed College Building had not been 
erected. The procession is directed " to proceed to the 
new College Building, where one of the trio (sic) will 
mount the slab and discourse of ' The Sublimity of Vege- 
tation.' " Further on we have an allusion to the doctrine 
of historical development in a song which is to be sung at 
" the Initiation of the next Tutor " : 

" Development is now the rage, 
Obedience comes next, sirs; 
The Senior Class, I'm glad to say. 
Has taken both as text, sirs. 

Choklts by the Class : 
" Right, dear Doctor, right and true. 
Your praise our hearts doth swell up; 
If we have but enough to eat. 
We'll certainly develop." 

There was little amusement in Mercersburg, in the 
modern sense of the word ; but youth has everywhere pecu- 


liar ways of finding pleasure. There are, of course, tra- 
ditions of " tricks " and practical jokes ; but so far as we 
have been able to learn they manifested no extraordinary 
originality. Music was cultivated with some success, and 
the serenades of the " club " were highly appreciated. 
Athletics, as a separate department of work, were hardly 
thought of ; but the students took plenty of exercise. Mar- 
shall College — it has never been doubted — ^produced good 
scholars and stalwart men. 



Gradual Increase — Prepasatobt Depaetmbnt — ^Tutoes — Financial 
Trouble — Scholarships — Statement of Funds and Prop- 
erty — Invitation from Lancaster — The Removal. 

The College gradually increased in numbers and in- 
fluence. The literary labors of the professors attracted gen- 
eral attention, and students began to come from distant 
regions. Several whose home was in New England were 
subsequently ranked among the most decided adrocates of 
the peculiar philosophy of the institution. Governor Van 
Eomondt, of St. Martin's — a West India Island — sent 
three of his sons. The isolation of Mercersburg and diffi- 
culties of travel prevented large accessions from a distance ; 
but it seemed as if the College might aspire to higher 

Until 1847 the Preparatory Department was closely 
connected with the College and its Hectors had a seat in 
the Faculty. The prosperity of the school depended 
greatly on the popularity of the Rectors. During the 
presidency of Dr. Ranch, the Reverend William A. Good 
had acceptably held this position. Then followed in rapid 
succession Andrew S. Young, Jeremiah H. Good, A. J. M. 
Hudson,^ Joseph S. Loose, David Snively, Clement Z. 
Weiser and Samuel G. Wagner — all of them, either then 

'Mr. Hudson, who had previously been teaching at the Trappe, 
in Montgomery County, Pa., was successful in bringing a number 
of excellent students to the institution. Among these — to use their 
later titles — ^may be mentioned: Governor John F. Hartranft, the 
Rev. Dr. Jacob Fry, and Judge A. B. Longaker. 



or subsequently, ministers of the Gospel. Among the 
assistants in the Academy were a number of recent grad- 
uates who subsequently became tutors in the College. 

The Tutors were in those days very important persons. 
The fact that they were young brought them into close 
touch with the students, and in this way many permanent 
friendships were formed. The names of the tutors in the 
days of Dr. Ranch we have already mentioned. Follow- 
ing the line to its end we find such men as Christian R. 
Kessler, Theodore Appel, John Cessna, George D. Wolff, 
Max Stern, E. W; Reinecke, David A. Wilson, Franklin 
D, Stem, John S. Ermentrout, C. Beecher Wolff, George 
B. Russell and Clement Z. Weiser. 

To the students, no doubt, the College appeared suffi- 
ciently prosperous; but the Faculty might have told a 
different story. A college is at best an expensive affair; 
and we often wonder that Marshall College could be main- 
tained on the slender means which it actually possessed. 
After the State appropriations had ceased the necessities of 
the institutions became urgent ; and at one time the arrears 
of salary due to professors amounted to several thousand 
dollars. The financial condition of the Seminary, it 
should be remembered, was no better than that of the Col- 
lege, and all the professors were made to suffer. If it had 
not been for the fact that the President possessed some 
private means, which he was willing to use in the service 
of the institution, it would probably have been necessary 
to close its doors. 

In 1846 Dr. Nevin formally proposed to lay down his 
offices in both institutions, to serve as an agent to gather 
benevolent contributions in their behalf. In this way, he 
said, the amount of his salary as a professor in the Semi- 


nary miglit be applied to other needs. The Synod, of 
course, declined to accede to this proposition; but re- 
newed its efforts to stimulate the benevolence of the 
Church. Eev. Bernard C. Wolff, and other leading min- 
isters, undertook to gather the gifts of the people and ac- 
cording to the standard of the times their labors were 
successful. The contributions, though numerous, were not 
large, and it could not well be otherwise. Money was 
scarce, and from most men even a small contribution in- 
volved an actual sacrifice. Some of the churches were 
partly alienated from the institutions, on account of pre- 
vailing theological discussions. A few friends in the Re- 
formed Dutch church of New York kindly remembered 
Mercersburg ;^ but, of course, the sum of the gifts received 
was hardly more than enough to relieve immediate distress. 

Scholarships were still occasionally purchased, but they 
were no longer very favorably regarded. On payment of 
five hundred dollars, it will be remembered, the pur- 
chaser, his heirs or assigns, received the perpetual privi- 
lege of having a student at college, free of charge for tui- 
tion. In many instances scholarships of early date had 
passed out of the hands of the original owners, and had 
literally become the subjects of barter and sale. Students 
secured their use at the lowest possible price, and often 
passed them from hand to hand. The college, of course, 
received little or nothing from tuition, though to keep 
proper records of the scholarships required considerable 
clerical labor. In this way what was at first a blessing at 
last became a burden. 

In 1849 the Chairman of the Financial Committee pre- 

' Mrs. Cornelia Van. Renssellaer, annually forwarded a contribu- 
tion of fifty dollars. 


sented to the Board the following statement of the funds 
and property of Marshall College : 

Scholarship notes and parts of scholarships bear- 
ing interest, $9,508.97 

Amount of invested funds, including Seminary 

debt, 9,289.98 

Notes due College and bearing interest, 979.83 

Cash in the hands of the treasurer, 300.00 

Amount of scholarships, no bond but interest paid, 1,500.00 
Amount of suits instituted and subscriptions se- 
cured, considered good, 3,089.98 

Amount of tuition due by students, 509.30 

Philosophical apparatus, 1,000.00 

Due upon scholarships, 9,530.66 

Estimated balance of subscriptions, uncollected,.. 7,000.00 

Estimated Real Property. 

Society Halls, 11,000.00 

Preparatory Building, 6,000.00 

Professor's House and Appendages 5,000.00 

Cost of Ground, 3,000.00 

Libraries and Cabinets, 3,000.00 


Though the above inventory was possibly as nearly cor- 
rect as it was possible to make it, it must be remembered 
that the real estate had been secured for a literary institu- 
tion that had been projected on a considerable scale, and 
that it was practically useless for any other purpose. 
There were also several thousand dollars of floating debt 
which ought to be subtracted from the above total. 

It was evident that great changes were impending. The 
synod declared that the time had come to determine 


whether the educational interests of the church could be 
successfully maintained. A proposition was made to 
transfer the publication interests to Mercersburg, in the 
hope that the institutions might thus be financially 
strengthened, but this plan proved impracticable. It is 
not true that the Faculty were tired of Mercersburg, and 
therefore sought a pretext for removal. On the contrary 
they had become warmly attached to the town and the com- 
munity, and could not think of leaving them without real 
sorrow. Dr. Nevin is said to have declared that if but five 
thousand dollars could be provided in cash to meet the 
emergency he would oppose all propositions for removal. 
Indeed, we can hardly see how any person could live 
for any time in Mercersburg without growing fond of 
the place. Isot only the magnificence of the surround- 
ing scenery, but the intelligence and courtesy of the 
people, furnished attractions that constantly grew 
stronger. We, therefore, do not hesitate to say that it was 
stem necessity alone which prompted the removal of Mar- 
shall College. 

For some time there had been private correspondence 
concerning the union of the institutions at Mercersburg 
and Lancaster. It has been said — ^we do not know on what 
authority — ^that the correspondence was simultaneously be- 
gun at both places, and that the first two letters crossed 
each other on the way. At the Reformed Synod of Norris- 
town, in October, 1849, the Rev. John Casper Bucher 
made a stirring speech on the importance of protecting the 
interest of the Church in Franklin College ; and the synod 
ordered those of its members who were also members of 
the Lancaster Board of Trustees to be regular in their 
attendance at all meetings; or, if this was impossible, to 


vacate their seats, so as to make room for the appointment 
of others who would not fail to attend to their duty.^ 

The earliest official communication from the authorities 
of Franklin College was dated December 6, 1849, and was 
presented to a meeting of the Board of Trustees of Mar- 
shall College, held at Chambersburg on the 27th of the 
same month. It gave an account of recent proceedings of 
that Board, and formally presented terms of union.* In 
order to test the sense of the meeting the following resolu- 
tion was offered : 

"Resolved, That Marshall College is not so bound by any 
engagements springing out of its location at Mercersburg, 
as to prevent the Trustees from freely considering the ex- 
pediency of its removal." 

After a long debate this resolution was adopted by a 
vote of sixteen to ten. There was, of course, a protest from 
the minority on the ground that the Board had " no moral 
nor legal right to remove Marshall College from its present 
location." The Board, however, took no further action at 
this time, preferring to leave the matter to the final judg- 
ment of Synod. 

The people of Mercersburg were naturally displeased, 
and held a kind of " indignation meeting " in the Metho- 
dist church, at which they protested against the " violation 
of plighted faith " involved in the proposed removal. 
They anticipated that if the college were removed to Lan- 
caster it would become " completely sectarian in its char- 

'At the same meeting the Synod directed that the amiual bonus 
of $300, paid by the firm of M. Kieffer and Co., for the privilege of 
issuing certain publications, should henceforth be paid into the 
treasury of Marshall College. 

' See " The Union Movement," Chapter XI. of this volume. 


acter." They even agreed to avail themselves of the laws 
of the land, if necessary, to prevent the occurrence of this 

We can well understand the feelings of the people of 
Mercersburg. Apart from the fact that the prosperity of 
their toAvn was supposed to depend upon the institutions, 
these people had been warm friends in times of trouble 
and had contributed in various ways to their support. The 
advocates of the proposed removal were, however, con- 
vinced that the charge of " violation of plighted faith " 
could not be established.- 

A special meeting of the Reformed synod was held 
at Harrisburg, January 30, 1850. At this meeting the 
subject of the removal of the College was fully discussed 
and the following resolution unanimously adopted: 

"Resolved, that in the opinion of the synod there is no 
legal or moral difficulty in the way of the removal of Mar- 
shall College to some other place." 

The accusation of violation of plighted faith " was dis- 
posed of in subsequent action, by explaining that the 
Theological Seminary had been located in Mercersburg, 
in 1835, in consideration of " stipulations and agreements 
that had not been fully complied with."* 

At the same meeting the Synod formally approved of 
the proposed union of colleges, and requested the Board of 
Trustees of Marshall College " to take through its com- 
mittee, the necessary steps to complete the plan of union, 

' In 1838 the agent of the institutions reported that of the 
$10,000 originally subscribed in Mercersburg it had been possible 
to collect no more than $3,934.37. Though bonds had been given, it 
was found that to enforce them would cause great distress, and at 
last the securities were exonerated. 


and to make the division of the funds of Franklin College, 
as proposed by the Lutheran and other Trustees of said 
college." In the history of Franklin College we have re- 
lated the succession of events with some particularity. 
The act for the consolidation of the two institutions, as we 
have seen, was passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania 
on the 19th of April, 1850; but some time elapsed before 
its provisions could be carried into effect. Obstacles ap- 
peared at every step, and it required time and patience to 
overcome them. The original act had required that the 
Literary Societies should transfer their real estate to 
Franklin and Marshall College ; but it was found that they 
had no authority capable in law of making the convey- 
ance, and a supplemental act of the Legislature therefore 
became necessary. The property as a whole was offered 
to the citizens of Mercersburg at a stipulated price, but 
they declined to accept it, and for some years it remained 

These are a few of the knots which had to be untied 
before the separation from Mercersburg could be effected. 
It was, however, even more difficult to meet the financial 
requirements of the Act of Union. It will be remembered 
that before the union could be consummated more than 
$42,000 had to be collected and paid in cash into the 
treasury of Franklin College. The sum of $17,169.61, 
which was paid for the Lutheran interest, was secured 
with comparative ease, for, according to the report made 
to Synod in 1852, " Every Classis cordially responded 
to the call." The sum of $25,000 raised in Lancaster City 
and County to pay for the grounds and buildings of the 
new college, required great labor and perseverance. That 
it was finally secured was due in great measure to the 


unremitting toil of the Reverend J. Casper Bucher. He 
was undoubtedly " the prince of collectors," and the col- 
lection of this fund was certainly not the least of his 
achievements. In the meantime the College in Mercers- 
burg was visibly declining. It might have been better if 
the institution could have been removed sooner, but three 
years of restlessness were not without unfavorable effects. 
The students could not understand the causes of the pro- 
longed delay and became dissatisfied. After Dr. Nevin 
had resigned his professorship in the Theological Semi- 
nary, and it became known that he did not propose to 
accompany the College to Lancaster the state of affairs 
became even more tmsatisfactory. That grade in scholar- 
ship rapidly declined is not surprising. One of the stu- 
dents declared that he felt like Abraham when he was 
called to go into a strange country, not knowing whither 
he went. 

When it was announced that the College was to be re- 
moved during the spring recess of 1853, and that the 
summer term would open in Lancaster, the news brought 
actual relief to professors and students. The general 
superintendence of the removal was committed to Mr. 
Jacob G. Peters, then a member of the Senior class, and 
the work was satisfactorily accomplished. The last official 
meeting of the Faculty was held in Mercersburg on the 
21st of March, 1853. 

That the Theological Seminary and the Preparatory 
Department were to remain some time longer in Mercers- 
burg was a ground for general regret, though it was felt 
to be unavoidable. Apart from the fact that there were 
no adequate accommodations in Lancaster, the authorities 
were no doubt convinced that the removal of one of the 


institutions was all that could at that time be safely under- 

Here the separate history of Marshall College properly 
ends; but a few words concerning the subsequent educa- 
tional history of Merqersburg may not be unacceptable. 
Dr. Nevin had retired from the Theological Seminary in 
1851, but Dr. Schaff continued to occupy his professorship 
until 1865. Dr. Bernard C. Wolff was elected Dr. ISTevin's 
successor in 1852, but did not enter upon his duties until 
1854. In consequence of Dr. Schaff's prolonged absence 
in Europe the Theological Seminary was closed for one 
year. When Dr. Wolff retired in 1864 he was succeeded 
by Dr. Henry Harbaugh, who occupied the position until 
his death which occurred in 186Y. On the resignation of 
Dr. Schaff, Dr. E. E. Higbee was chosen to take his place, 
and was Professor of Church History and Exegesis until 
18Y1. In 1868 Dr. E. V. Gerhart was called to fill the 
vacancy occasioned by the death of Dr. Harbaugh. He 
was the only member of the Faculty who accompanied the 
institution on its removal to Lancaster, in 1871. 

In 1857 a Theological Tutorship was established, partly 
on the basis of a fund invested in Germany, the gift of 
Baron von Bethmann-Holweg, the Prussian minister of 
cultus. The successive incumbents, while the Seminary 
was in Mercersburg, were William M. Eeily and Jacob B. 
Kerschner. This tutorship has since been raised to a full 

For two years after the removal of the College a Pre- 
paratory Department was maintained in Mercersburg, 
under the care of Kev. Samuel G. Wagner and Eev. 
Clement Z. Weiser. The school then passed into private 
hands and was successively conducted by the Eev. John 


E. Kooken, and the Kev. Charles G. Fisher. In 1865 the 
Synod granted authority to its Trustees to lease its prop- 
erty in Mercersburg to the Classis of Mercersburg for edu- 
cational purposes. Mercersburg College was organized at 
this time and was for some years a vigorous institution. 
Eev. Dr. Thomas G. Apple, was President until 1871, 
when he accepted a call to a professorship in the Theolog- 
ical Seminary which had just been removed to Lancaster. 
Rev. Dr. E. E. Higbee remained in Mercersburg and was 
for several years President of Mercersburg College. The 
college was well attended and was recognized as an excellent 
institution, but financial difficulties proved insurmountable, 
and it was finally closed. It was subsequently conducted 
as an Academy or Collegiate Institute by the E,ev. Dr. 
George W. Aughinbaugh. In 1893 the Rev. Dr. William 
Mann Irvine, previously a professor in Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, took charge of this interest, and under his 
presidency and with the fostering care of the Synod of 
the Potomac, Mercersburg Academy has grown to be an 
institution of great importance. The old Seminary Build- 
ing has been greatly enlarged and beautified; and the 
school is in all respects thoroughly equipped for successful 
educational work. 

Marshall College had a separate existence of only seven- 
teen years ; but its brief career was certainly not inglorious. 
Though financially weak it was intellectually strong ; and 
the achievements of its leaders show what may be accom- 
plished by men of exceptional ability under the most ad- 
verse conditions. Marshall College is the main source of 
the life of the present institution ; and its history presents 
ideals which in their simple dignity are worthy of our 
constant imitation. 








Lajtoasteb Fifty Ybabs Ago — James Buchanan — Pbominent 

Citizens — Coixege Faculty — Foemal Opening of the 

College — First Alumni Dinneb — College Life 

— Pbesidbntial Campaign — Early 


Fifty years ago Lancaster was a compact little city with 
not more than fifteen thousand inhabitants. It had been 
laid out by Governor James Hamilton as early as 1730, 
and was an important place during the colonial period. 
Many important Indian treaties were made here, and it 
became the center of the lucrative Indian trade. It was 
the shire-town of Lancaster County, which was regarded 
as the most fertile region in America; and Philadelphia 
itself was greatly dependent on supplies conveyed by Con- 
estoga teams. In September, 1778, the Continental Con- 
gress held a meeting here; but it hurried away to York 
which was supposed to be less exposed to the danger of a 
British raid. From 1799 to 1812 the borough of Lancas- 
ter was the capital of the State; and in 1818 it was incor- 
porated as a city. Though the statement may now seem 
hardly credible, it is a fact that for many years it was the 
largest inland city in the United States. 

In 1853 the center of the city was fairly well built of 
brick, and there were some fine old residences, of which 
several are still standing. In the back streets were long 
rows of one-story houses which were not imposing in ap- 
pearance, but occupied much ground and were very com- 
fortable. Many old customs still prevailed, and at night 




the ■watchman called the hour on his round. Gas had 
recently been introduced, but was not generally used in 
private houses. Fire companies were important organiza- 
tions, and several of them had erected handsome houses. 
Their members were, of course, greatly attached to " the 
machine," which they were only too ready to defend against 
every threatening danger. There were a few manufac- 



tories, of which the cotton mills were the most important. 
At the time of which we speak the new Court House and 
the First Keformed Church were in course of erection. 
These fine buildings were greatly admired, and seemed to 
indicate the beginning of a period of great prosperity. 

James Buchanan — subsequently President of the 
United States — ^was regarded as the foremost citizen of 
Lancaster. He lived at " Wheatland," a mile from the 
city — ^but there were few persons who failed to recognize 


him when he appeared upon the streets. In 1853 he was 
sixty-two years old, but actually looked older. His portly 
form, his head inclined to one side and the peculiar top- 
knot of white hair — ^these were characteristics that could 
not well be mistaken. Courtesy had become his second 
nature, and it was remarked that he spoke to boys on the 
street " as if they had been princes of the blood." Though 
often absent from Lancaster he was naturally given the 
foremost place in every public enterprise. 

Thaddeus Stevens was a distinguished lawyer; but, of 
course, no one dreamed that he would ever become the 
" Great Commoner." Other eminent members of the bar 
were Emanuel C. Eeigart, B. Champneys, Thomas E. 
Franklin, John R. Montgomery, Reah Frazer, A. L. 
Hayes, Nathaniel EUmaker, Oliver J. Dickey and D. W. 
Patterson. Thomas H. Burrows was also an eminent 
lawyer, but is best known as the father of the Free School 
System of Pennsylvania. 

The pastors of the city churches were almost without 
exception men of unusual ability and force of character. 
The Kev. Dr. Samuel Bowman — afterwards Bishop of 
Pennsylvania — ^was rector of St. James. Dr. Henry Har- 
baugh and N. A. Keyes were pastors of the Reformed 
churches. Dr. J. C. Baker resigned the pastorate of 
Trinity Lutheran church in the spring of 1853, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. G. F. Krotel. Rev. John Baldwin 
was pastor of the Presbyterian church and Bishop Henry 
A. Schultz held the same position in the Moravian. The 
Rev. Pennell Coombe preached in the Duke Street Metho- 
dist church, and a little later Dr. D. W. Bartine attracted 
general attention by his extraordinary eloquence. Father 
Bernard Keenan was rector of St. Mary's, and commanded 


the respect of the whole community. There were younger 
pastors of great ability ; but those we have mentioned en- 
joyed more than local reputation, and their names are still 
honorably remembered. 

The physicians of Lancaster were distinguished in their 
profession. In this connection we need but mention the 
names of Drs. John L. Atlee, F. A. Muhlenberg and Henry 

To enimierate the eminent citizens of Lancaster is be- 
yond our purpose. All of them, we believe, were friends 
of the new college. The Board of Trustees of Franklin 
and Marshall College — ^which included a number of the 
most prominent citizens of Lancaster — ^held its first meet- 
ing on the 25th of January, 1853. The officers elected at 
this meeting were : President, James Buchanan, LL.D. ; 
Vice Presidents, Rev. Drs. John F. Mesick and Samuel 
Bowman; and Kecording Secretary, Kev. N. A. Keyes. 
Mr. Jacob M. Long was the first permanent Treasurer. 

The Faculty of Marshall College — consisting of Dr. J. 
W. Nevin and Professors Wm. M. Nevin, Thomas C. 
Porter, and Theodore Appel — ^were elected to the same 
professorships in Franklin and Marshall. Adolph L. 
Koeppen was chosen Professor of History and German 
Literature, and Dr. John L. Atlee became Professor of 
Anatomy and Physiology. James Merrill Linn was ap- 
pointed Tutor in Ancient Languages. It was resolved 
that the institution should be opened in old Franklin Col- 
lege; but committees were immediately appointed to sug- 
gest a site and to make arrangements for the erection of 
a new building. 

The College began its work at the appointed time under 
circumstances which were by no means encouraging. 


There was no President, for Dr. Nevin had declined to 
accept the call. Only fifty-three students appeared, and 
most of these had previously been connected with Mar- 
shall. Some trifling alterations had been made for the 
p^irpose of accommodating the libraries, but the old 
college was very uncomfortable. Indeed, it must be 
confessed that there was considerable disappointment. 
Lancaster was dissatisfied because the college had not 
brought more money; and the college was disappointed 
because Lancaster had not contributed a larger number 
of students. 

The Formal Opening of Franklin and Marshall College 
was held in Fulton Hall on the 7th of June, 1853. Ad- 
dresses were delivered by the Hon. A. L. Hayes, the Eev. 
Dr. J. W. l^evin, and the Right Reverend Alonzo Potter. 
For vigor and spirit these addresses were of a superior 
order. In his discourse Dr. IsTevin compared Pennsylva- 
nia to a Sleeping Giant who needs to be roused from his 
ignoble slumbers. With intense earnestness he urged his 
hearers to elevate the college to a position worthy of its 
grand ideal. " Lancaster should see to it," he said, " that 
Franklin and Marshall College be not permitted to perpe- 
trate the bathos^ of surmounting for all time to come the 
most magnificent site in her neighborhood with a mere 
twenty-five-thousand dollar scheme of public improve- 

On Tuesday, July 24, 1855, the College held its first 
Alumni Dinner. Dr. F. J. F. Schantz who, as a member 
of the graduating class, was privileged to attend, has con- 
tributed to the " Oriflamme " for the present year (1903) 
an extract from his diary including the following account 
of this interesting occasion : 


"At 8.45 P. M. about one hundred persons attended the 
Alumni Banquet at Michael's Hotel on North Queen street. 
President Gerhart sat at the head of the table; to his right 
the Eev. John W. Nevin, D.D., LL.D. ; to his left the Eev. 
Philip Sehaff, D.D. After prayer had been offered the 
bounties of the table were enjoyed. To the first toast — 
'The Memory of Dr. Eauch, the first President of Marshall 
College' — the Eev. Dr. Bomberger replied. To the second 
toast, 'The Eeverend Dr. ISTevin,' the venerable Doctor re- 
sponded. Other toasts were offered to which the following 
responded: Eev. Drs. "Wolff and Fisher, President Dr. Ger- 
hart, John Cessna, Esq., John W. Killinger, Dr. Steiner 
(M.D.), Eev. Mr. Gans, Eev. Mr. Kremer, Professor Dr. 
Atlee, Mr. Penn, Mr. William Miller, Eev. Mr. Bucher and 
others. The writer made an entry in his journal with 
reference to the harmony that characterized this delightful 
banquet. ' ' 

In the meantime the College pursued the even tenor of 
its way, pretty much as it had done in Mercersburg. Com- 
mencements and Society Exhibitions were held at the 
appointed times and were highly appreciated. Young 
ladies were interested in the literary societies, and aided 
them in decorating the stage for their anniversaries. 
Tickets of admission were distributed among the friends 
of the students and the hall was always crowded. 

The Societies held their regular meeting on Saturday 
morning, the Goetheans meeting in the College and the 
Diagnothians in the Odd Fellows' Hall, on South Queen 
street. It was but rarely that a member failed to deliver 
an oration or to read an essay at the appointed time, and 
the weekly debates were well studied and interesting. At 
the opening of the term the societies were recruited after 


the ancient fashion and new students were treated to un- 
limited ice-cream. 

Students boarded wherever they pleased, though the 
Faculty, of course, exercised general supervision.^ As 
they were few in number they attracted little attention, and 
some of them conceived the idea of wearing caps bearing 
the letters, " F. M. C." The characters were rather bril- 
liant and could not fail to be noticed. The hoodlums of 
the town, however, insisted on translating them to mean, 
" Fools Must Come," and the students were unmercifully 
twitted. It is needless to say that the letters were soon re- 

On five mornings of each week the students met for 
prayers in Franklin College, on North Lime street. The 
room which served as a chapel was on the first floor, on the 
south side of the building, and was also occupied as a reci- 
tation room by Professor W. M. ITevin. In the center of 
the room stood a great barrel-stove which, in winter, was 
generally kept at a red heat. There was a desk, and around 
three sides of the room extended benches on which the stu- 
dents sat, with their backs to the wall. This was all the 
furniture, except a row of shelves bearing a remnant of 
the library of Franklin College. At prayers the roll was 
called, and on a certain day in each week students were 
expected to state whether they had been at church on the 
previous Sunday. It was usual, after prayers to hear an 

' A number of students rented a house and boarded themselves. 
This organization was called, The Club. Harry Stiff — the town 
idiot — ^knew every student by sight but remembered no names. He 
had heard of the Club, and must have supposed that the term was 
to be applied to all the students. He seemed omnipresent, and 
whenever he saw a student he was sure to shout : " How are you 


oration by a Senior, or a declamation from one of the 
lower classmen who were expected to declaim in regular 

After prayers professors and students repaired to the 
several recitation rooms, where they were occupied until 
noon. In the afternoon there were no recitations. Dr. 
Theodore Appel taught mathematics in the room in the 
second story, at the southern end of the building. In the 
northern room on the first floor — of which a part was sepa- 
rated by a rude partition and by courtesy called the labor- 
atory — Dr. Thomas C. Porter taught the natural sciences ; 
and above his head, on the second story. Professor Koeppen 
discoursed in his peculiar way on history and German 
literature. Dr. Porter's lectures on geology were highly 
appreciated. Occasionally Dr. Atlee lectured on anatomy 
and physiology; but his professorship was hardly more 
than honorary, and his extensive medical practice occupied 
nearly all his time. It was a privilege to hear his lectures, 
and his eminence in his profession was fully recognized. 

Tutor J. M. Linn was very popular. He was a 
brother-in-law of Dr. Harbaugh, and had but recently 
graduated at Lewisburg. In later life he became a lawyer,^ 

To complete the personnel of the College it is necessary 
to mention the name of William Marshall. For fourteen 
years he was the Janitor of Franklin and Marshall College, 
and no one in this position was ever more highly esteemed. 
To students he was always kind, and they were well aware 
that they had no better friend in Lancaster. 

The teaching of the College was practically the same as 

'James Merrill Linn was a brother of John Blair Linn^ a grad- 
uate of Marshall College of the Class of 1848. The latter was 
Secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under Governor 
Hartranft, and was also an industrious historical author. 


in Mercersburg, except that Professor Koeppen enlivened 
his department in his peculiar fashion. Dr. Nevin's manu- 
scripts were carefully transcribed by the students, and 
closely followed in the study of mental and moral philos- 
ophy. As in all institutions of that day the study of Greek 
and Latin was deemed worthy of double honor ; and to be 
regarded as a good classical scholar was the highest object 
of ambition. 

It is often said that at first the students and the boys 
of the town did not agree, so that there were frequent 
repetitions of the troubles of Town and Gown. The tradi- 
tion, we believe, rests upon a very slender foundation. In- 
dividual students may have got into trouble, especially 
when curiosity led them into company which it would have 
been better to avoid ; but there was no conflict of any im- 
portance. In fact, the students were so few in number that 
they could not afford to cultivate a belligerent disposition. 
The trouble, such as it was, was derived from the rivalry 
of the Fire Companies. Whenever there was a fire the 
students " ran with the Union," a company which included 
among its members many intelligent young men. Mem- 
bers of other companies were consequently displeased, and 
sometimes attempted to provoke a fight. There was, how- 
ever, no violent outbreak, and in course of time all became 

In these early days the students were greatly interested 
in politics. It was, indeed, a momentous period in the 
history of the country, and there was a general feeling that 
important events were near at hand. The slavery question 
was fiercely debated, and in the literary society which 
had the larger number of Southern members the feeling 
became intense. The prominence of Mr. Buchanan in 


national affairs was not without its effect in making Lan- 
caster a center of the gathering political storm. Even 
while he was minister to Great Britain Mr. Buchanan was 
regarded as the leading Democratic candidate for the 
presidency, and most of the students were naturally en- 
thusiastic for his nomination. 

Mr. Buchanan had been a faithful friend of the college. 
While it was in Mercersburg he had bought a scholarship 
for five hundred dollars, and at its removal to Lancaster 
he had contributed one thousand dollars to the fund which 
was then raised for the erection of buildings. As presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees he was supposed to direct the 
policy of the institution ; and when he was in Lancaster he 
was always present at its public exercises. 

When Mr. Buchanan returned to Lancaster in the spring 
of 1856, there was little doubt of his nomination to the 
presidency of the United States. From this time he kept 
" open house," and the number of his visitors was very 
great. During the succeeding summer Lancaster was full 
of politicians, many of whom afterwards became famous 
on the field of battle. Of course, many of the students 
visited Wheatland almost every day, for the place was a 
center of never failing interest. 

When Mr. Buchanan was nominated for the presidency 
by the Cincinnati Convention, in June, 1856, the college 
boys became intensely excited. A company of them were 
among the first to hear the news, and they all immediately 
started on a run to inform Mr. Buchanan of his nomina- 
tion. In this race William A. Duncan — afterwards a 
member of Congress — is said to have won the prize. Very 
soon, however, a considerable company gathered on the 
lawn at Wheatland, and Mr. Buchanan made a pertinent 


speech. In conclusion he said : " Yesterday I should have 
made a longer speech; but I must now remember that I 
am the representative of the Cincinnati Platform, and to 
that document I must refer you for a declaration of my 
principles." This utterance was used against him during 
the subsequent campaign. 

At the society anniversaries Mr. Buchanan's courtesy 
was especially apparent. For each of the youthful speak- 
ers he had a kind word which was borne away as a precious 
remembrance. It was usual in those days to present 
bouquets to the orators, and some of them received a large 
number. Meeting a student after an exhibition carrying 
a nvmiber of bouquets, Mr. Buchanan said pleasantly: 
" You are over-burdened with flowers." The student 
begged him to relieve him of part of the burden by accept- 
ing one of the bouquets. " O, no," he replied, " I will not 
rob you of your well-earned laurels." 

At the Commencement held on July 23, 1856, Mr. W. 
W. Davis delivered the Marshall Oration on " The Dc 
cline of Political Integrity." In the course of his speech 
Mr. Davis denounced the conduct of Mr. Brooks who had 
recently committed a violent assault on Senator Sumner. 
Mr. Buchanan afterwards told him that he looked on the 
dark side of the picture, and that though Mr. Brooks had 
been inconsiderate, his act had not been without serious 
provocation. The incident was, of course, reported to the 
New York Tribune, and became the subject of a violent 
political article. 

It was in an address to the students of Franklin and 
Marshall College, in ITovember, 1856, that Mr. Buchanan 
for the first time outlined his policy of conciliation, declar- 
ing that the object of his administration would be " to de- 


stroy any sectional party, whether in the north or in the 
south, and to restore national and fraternal feeling between 
the different sections."^ Alas ! that such brilliant antici- 
pations were doomed to disappointment, and that the later 
years of the president were clouded with sorrow. 

Though the college enjoyed a certain prominence in 
consequence of the intimate relations with Mr. Buchanan, 
there were conditions that interfered greatly with its pros- 
perity. For several years the institution was without a 
president, and there was no immediate prospect that the 
vacancy would be fiUed. The ability of the professors was 
recognized, but there was not one of them who could 
claim precedence, except in age, and the college was 
actually without a head. Professor W. M. Nevin presided 
at the meetings of the Faculty but was not otherwise promi- 
nent in the government of the institution. 

Under such circumstances effectual discipline was 
almost impossible. Thus, at the very time when enthu- 
siasm and vigorous action should have carried the institu- 
tion a long distance on its way to prosperity, there was no 
one to serve as leader and representative before the Church 
and the community. In the following chapter we hope to 
show how this difficulty was finally and fortunately over- 

'"The American Cyclopaedia," edition of 1879, page 381. 



De. John W. Nevin's Election — Letter op Decunation — Call to 

De. Philip Schaff — His Reply — ^Dr. Schaff's Visit to 

Germany — Election of Dk. E. V. Geehaet — 


The fact that Dr. John W. Nevin, the former president 
of Marshall College, declined to accompany that institu- 
tion to Lancaster, presented a serious difficulty. Every 
possible means was employed to induce him to reconsider 
his decision. His former students united in an appeal 
which he must have found it hard to resist. The majority 
of the new Board of Trustees appeared convinced that he 
was the only man who could make the College what it ought 
to he, and for a long time they hoped against hope that he 
might finally be induced to accept their call. That Dr. 
Nevin remained unmoved by successive appeals appeared 
to them an indication of the strength of will and firmness 
of character which were essential to the man who was to 
be the successful leader of a new educational movement. 

There was, indeed, a minority who were ready to sub- 
mit to conditions which they regarded as inevitable, and 
who consequently urged the immediate election of a presi- 
dent who would be willing to accept their call. Though 
they declared their willingness to unite with the majority 
in the election of Dr. Nevin, if there were the slightest 
indication of his willingness to accept their invitation, they 
urged that no time was to be lost and that a president 
should be chosen who would be willing to enter upon the 



duties of his office without delay. Some of the minority 
even insisted that the president of the College ought not to 
have been prominently connected with recent theological 
controversies. They accordingly proposed the name of the 
Kev. Dr. John F. Mesick, pastor of the Eeformed church 
of Harrisburg.* 

Dr. Mesick was greatly interested in the new College 
and served for several years as the Vice-President of its 
Board of Trustees. That his theological views did not 
harmonize with those of Dr. Nevin is evident. 

On the 2d of March, 1853, Dr. Mesick was nominated 
for the presidency of Franklin and Marshall College. 
Immediately it was moved that the name of Dr. Nevin 
be substituted for that of Dr. Mesick, and the former was 
elected by a vote of nineteen to thirteen, with one fion 
liquet. It was ordered that Dr. Nevin be immediately in- 
formed of the action of the Board, and that he be urged to 
accept the call. In response the following letter was re- 
ceived : 

" Merceksbukq, March 30, 1853. 
"To THE Hon. James Buchanan, the Rev. N. A. Keybs, 


"Gentlemen, Your communication of the 19th inet., 
informing me of my having been elected President of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College has been received. 

' John F. Mesick was born at Guilderland, Albany County, New 
York, June 28, 1813. Graduated at Rutgers College, 1834. Pastor, 
Reformed (Dutch) Church, Rochester, N. Y., 1837-40; German Re- 
formed Church, Harrisburg, 1840-5. Returned to Dutch Church. 
Pastor, Raritan, N. Y., 1855-82. Subsequently without charge. 
He contributed frequently to "The Guardian" and to the "Protestant 
Quarterly." Among his publications are " The Papacy the Anti- 
Christ of Scripture," " Evils of Dancing," " Temperance and Patriot- 
ism," etc. He is still living in York, Pa., at the age of ninety-one. 


"For the honor thus done me by the Board of the Insti- 
tution I beg leave to return through you my very respectful 
and sincere thanks. It is hardly necessary to add that, 
notwithstanding my previously announced views and feel- 
ings on the subject, the peculiar circumstances of the call, 
backed as it has been by urgent private appeals from all 
sides, have engaged me to treat it with the most anxious 
and serious consideration. The question of duty in the 
case has been conscientiously reexamined in the fear of 
God, with proper time and pains taken to avoid the reproach 
of a rash decision. 

"The result of this new deliberation is, that I find myself 
constrained to decline respectfully the call which you have 
placed in my hands in behalf of the Board of Trustees of 
Franklin and Marshall College; and you will please to re- 
ceive and make known this letter accordingly, as my refusal 
in form to accept the honorable and responsible post to 
which I have been appointed. 

"It is not necessary, I presume, that I should enter 
minutely into the reasons by which my mind has been in- 
fluenced in coming to this decision. Had the measure of 
removing Marshall CoUege to Lancaster been carried through 
at once when it was first proposed, it was my purpose, in 
case it had been desired, to unite myself with the new insti- 
tution for a few years; but always with the expectation of 
being able to fulfil my previous wish by retiring from a 
position into which I had been forced at first without my 
own will, and which I found to be in many respects not a 
Mttle irksome and severe. By the delay of the removal the 
time to which I looked forward for this liberty of retiring 
has been already reached; and I cannot feel that I am now 
required to take a step which to be of any account must 
bind me again for some years, if not indefinitely in time to 
come. To no such prospective engagement can my mind 
at present be reconciled. It would be impossible for me to 


throw myself into it with that sort of confidence and ani- 
mation, that buoyancy of spirit and determination of zeal, 
which the success of the enterprise demands. Other claims 
and interests, partly of health, partly of taste and comfort, 
but most of all, I may say, in the form now of theological 
inquiry and religious conscience, stand powerfully in the 
way of my assuming responsibilities in this form, which 
reach with such uncertain distance into the future, and the 
bearing of which it is so impossible beforehand to calculate 
or foresee. With these views, I feel that it would be wrong 
for me to commit myself for life, or any considerable period 
of time, to the engagement which is proposed to me in this 
call; and that it is best to decline the invitation in full and 
at once. No merely temporary or provisional service in the 
case could be expected to be of any material account. The 
present juncture seems to offer the most favorable oppor- 
tunity I can expect for canying out my ultimate purpose, 
and it would appear to be but right and proper that it should 
be now firmly embraced for this end. Having come to such 
conclusion then, after full and sufficient deliberation, I lose 
no time in reporting to you the fact; so as to have it under- 
stood that the important post in question is still vacant; and 
in order that the way may be open for a new election to fill 
it, if it be thought proper, at the next meeting of the Board. 
"With the best wishes for the prosperity of Franklin and 
Marshall College, and praying that God may be pleased to 
preside over the conduct of its affairs, and to make them 
all subservient to his praise, 

"I remain. Gentlemen, 

"Very respectfully yours, 

"John W. Nevin." 

There was great disappointment when the letter of Dr. 
Nevin was read, but it was now acknowledged that there 
must be no further delay. On the next day, April 19, an 


election was held for president of the College and Dr. 
Philip Schaff was chosen. Twenty-five votes were cast for 
Dr. SchafiF and eleven for Dr. Mesick, with two non liquet. 
It was supposed that the call would be immediately accept- 
ed, for it was known that Dr. Schaff and his family would 
have been well pleased to remove to Lancaster ; but here an 
unexpected obstacle intervened. In a letter of acknowledg- 
ment Dr. Schaff informed the Board that his engagements 
with the Theological Seminary at Mercersburg were of 
such a nature that it would be " both unconstitutional and 
disrespectful " to accept or decline the call without con- 
sulting the Synod. He, therefore, asked permission to hold 
the call under consideration until after the meeting of that 
body, to be held in the following October. The desired 
permission was granted, though at the time delay seemed 
dangerous. In the following letter the result of the 
application to Synod is fully related: 

"Lancaster, Pa., Kov. 1, 1853. 
"Eev. H. Haebaugh, Cor. Secretary oe the Board of 
Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College, 
"Reverend and dear Sir: Agreeably to my last letter ad- 
dressed to you as the Corresponding Secretary of the Board 
of Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College, I tendered 
my resignation as Professor in the Theological Seminary at 
Mercersburg to the Eastern Synod of the German Eeformed 
Church, lately convened in the city of Philadelphia, with the 
view to accept the call to the Presidency of the College, at 
least for some time, until a more permanent arrangement 
could be made which would be satisfactory to both parties. 
I had hoped that such a disposition could be made of my 
request, which would meet the expressed wish of the Trustees 
of Franklin and Marshall College without interfering at all 


with the interests of the Theological Seminary now located 
at Mereersburg. 

"I have now to give you the information that the Synod, 
although deeply sympathizing with the present urgent wants 
of the College, felt itself constrained nevertheless to refuse 
my resignation by the following resolution: 

" 'Resolved, that Synod cannot consent to relinquish the 
services of the Kev. Dr. Schaff, or to his retirement from the 
chair which he has so ably and faithfully filled in our Sem- 
inary. ' 

"Although the result is somewhat contrary to my expecta- 
tions, I have, of course, no idea of disobeying the voice of 
my Church, especially since I am convinced that the above 
action proceeded from the kindest feelings to myself and 
from sincere regard to the interests of the Seminary at 

' ' I consider it, therefore, my painful duty, to decline with- 
out delay the office of the Presidency of Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, which you did me the honor to ofEer in the 
name of the Board in April last, and thus to open the way 
for another election, or for such interimistic arrangement 
as may seem best to the wisdom of the Board. 

"Thanking the Board once more for the confidence placed 
in my humble abilities, and assuring you of the deep interest 
which I shall continue to cherish in all that may concern 
the promising literary institution under its care — an insti- 
tution which I am fully convinced has a great mission to 
perform to this country and perhaps to the world — I sub- 
scribe myself, with the highest regard, 

"Your obedient servant, 

"Philip Schaff." 

That Dr. Schaff was deeply disappointed by the action 
of the Synod we have heard from his own lips. Not to 


mention other grounds, it may be taken for granted that 
after the removal of the college his position in Mercersburg 
was lonely and depressing. His health began to fail and 
in the winter of 1853-54 he visited Europe. In Leipsic, 
on the 6th of March, 1854, he issued a circular, addressed 
to the publishers of Germany, earnestly soliciting the con- 
tribution of new and valuable books to the library of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College. In presenting the claims of the 
institution the author may have been rather too enthu- 
siastic, for he boldly anticipated the time when the little 
college should have grown to be a great university. " Its 
prevailing character," he said, " is Anglo-Germanic ; that 
is, it seeks to bring about an organic union of the best ele- 
ments of English and German culture. Most of its pro- 
fessors are familiar with both languages; why should it 
not in time grow to be an institution with four faculties, 
after the German type, such as does not now exist in Amer- 
ica?" All this, he is careful to say, depends on public 
liberality, and especially on the interest taken by the gov- 
ernment of the state, whose good offices may in due time be 

As a result of this appeal the College received four hun- 
dred and fifty valuable works which together presented an 
excellent resume of the current literature of Germany. An 
acknowledgment of the receipt of these volumes was sent 
by the Board to the leading papers of Berlin. 

After Dr. Schaff had declined the presidency the Board 
appeared to be for a time at their wit's end. Dissensions 
began to appear and every little coterie had its favorite 
candidate. A year passed and still the college remained 
without a president. An effort was made, in 1854, to 
gather funds for the endowment of a professorship of Eng- 
lish literature, but the attempt proved unsuccessful and 
contributions were returned to the donors. 


It was on the 25tli of July, 1854, that Dr. William 
Mayburry, of Philadelphia, secured the adoption of a reso- 
lution referring the election of a president to a committee 
of seven, directing them, if possible, to nominate a candi- 
date on whom all could cordially unite. It is not often 
that such a result is achieved in this way ; but on this occa- 
sion the plan actually proved successful. Next day Dr. 
Mayburry, as chairman of the committee, nominated the 
Eev. E. V. Gerhart,! of Tiffin, Ohio. Dr. Gerhart had 
not the most remote idea that he would even be nominated, 
and the notice of his election came to him as a great sur- 
prise. He had, however, been very successful in building 
up the institutions at Tiffin, and it was this fact that sug- 
gested his call to Lancaster. He was at this time thirty- 
seven years old, and in the full possession of health and 
strength. In physical as well as mental vigor he was gifted 
beyond most of his contemporaries, and all his powers 
were needed in the great work to which he had been called. 
The following is a copy of his letter of acceptance : 

"Tiffin, 0., Sept. 30, 1854. 

"To Eev. S. Bowman, D.D., and Rev. N". A. Keyes, Reg. 

Sec. op the Board of Trustees of Franklin and 

Marshall College: 

"Dear Sirs: Perhaps I have kept the Board of Trustees 

in suspense somewhat longer than it anticipated. This has 

not been done designedly. My only apology for the delay 

' Emanuel Vogel Gerhart, D.D., LL.D., was born at Freeburg, Pa., 
June 13, 1817. Graduated at Marshall College, 1838. Ordained 
1842. Pastor at Gettysburg, Pa., 1843-49. Missionary in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. President of Heidelberg College, Tiffin, O., and Professor in 
Theological Seminary, 1851-55; president of P. and M. College, 
1855-66; subsequently Professor of Systematic and Practical Theol- 
ogy at Mercersburg and Lancaster. Author of " Philosophy and 
Logic," " Institutes of the Christian Religion," etc. 


of my final reply is, that my appointment to the Presi- 
dency of the Faculty and the Professorship of Moral and 
Intellectual Philosophy which you have communicated to 
me under date of July 27'th, involved some difficult ques- 
tions of duty that I could not solve to my satisfaction in 
the course of a few weeks. I have taken time for careful 
investigation and inquiry into all the facts that should in- 
fluence my mind, and for serious and prayerful consideration 
of the subject in all its bearings upon that branch of the 
Protestant church of which I am a member and a minister, 
in order that my decision may have the full approval of my 
judgment and conscience. 

"I now accept the appointment which you have tendered 
me in behalf of the Board of Trustees of Franklin and 
Marshall College. 

"As I am at present holding the office of Professor of 
Theology in the Theological Seminary at Tiffin, 0., I must 
comply with an article of the Constitution of the German 
Reformed Church which requires, that 'when a Professor 
wishes to resign his office he shall give notice thereof to the 
President of the Board of Trustees six months previous to 
his resignation.' Under date of the 27th inst., I sent my 
resignation to the President of the Synod of Ohio, to take 
effect on the first day of April, 1855, when, God willing, 
I intend to remove to Lancaster and enter upon the duties 
of my office. 

"The trust which, in accordance with the unanimous voice 
of your Board, I have consented to assume, I feel to be 
solemn and difficult. In view of the direct relation of the 
College to Education, Science, and Religion in the Keystone 
State, especially among the Germans and their descendants 
who constitute a very large and influential proportion of 
the population; and in view of its intimate connection with 
the Church that will give to the Institution its exclusive 
patronage, in order to provide its candidates for the ministry 


with the requisite preparatory training and instruction; I 
can not but be impressed with the fact that its mission is 
broad and momentous, involving vital interests of both 
Church and State. To preside in your Institution, under 
these circumstances, imposes a responsibility that I do not 
undertake without hesitation. All I can do is to unite my 
energies with those of the members of the Faculty already 
on the ground, in a vigorous and persevering effort to have 
it fulfil its mission. Whatever ability I may possess will 
be steadily and untiringly devoted to this end. Having 
decided to labor in the service of Franklin and Marshall 
College, I shall do it with all my heart. 

"The chief reliance of the Faculty for efficient aid must 
be upon the sympathy, wisdom and activity of the B9ard 
of Trustees. My knowledge of its members, not residing 
in the city and county of Lancaster, as well as the favorable 
personal acquaintance I formed, during my recent visit, with 
those who are citizens and will always be in close contact 
with the College, affords me a guarantee that the necessary 
assistance and support will always be extended. The belief 
of this fact has had no little influence on my mind in com- 
ing to a final decision. In the confidence that the Faculty 
will receive all the aid and co-operation from the Board that 
an enterprising spirit and comprehensive views of education 
dictate; and looking at the present and prospective re- 
sources as well as at all the relations of the Institution; I 
indulge in the hope that, honorable as its past history is, it 
will become more eminent still for thorough training and 
Christian science, and that, therefore, my time and strength 
will not only advance sound learning, but contribute also 
directly to the promotion of true religion. Without these 
hopes I could not give up the sphere of a pastor nor resign 
the office I hold in a Theological Seminary. 


"Hoping that a bright future awaits the College with 
which in the Providence of God I am to be identified, 
"I remain, with much respect, 

"Your ob't serv't, 

"E. V. Gekhabt." 

It was a favorable circmnstance that during the long 
interregnum the members of the Faculty were without 
exception men of ability and character. Though students 
were occasionally disobedient, then as now, it never oc- 
curred to them to doubt the learning of their preceptors. 
The personal relations of professors and students were 
intimate and cordial. It thus became possible to bridge 
a threatening chasm, and to prepare the way that led to 
solid ground. 




Grounds and Buildings — Peepabatoet Departments — Choosing a 

Site — Plan of College Building — ^Haden Patrick Smith — 

Laying of Corner-stone and Dedication — Society 

Halls — ^Additional Buildings. 

The archives of Franklin and Marshall College during 
its earliest years are in great part composed of legal docu- 
ments, which though important in their day are not now 
particularly interesting. For our present purpose it may 
be enough to say that the real estate of Marshall College, 
situated in Mercersburg, was transferred to Franklin and 
Marshall on the 15th of June, 1853. The deed by which 
the property of Franklin College was similarly transferred 
is dated on the 28th day of the same month. The former 
deed was signed by John W. Nevin and the latter by Jamea 
Buchanan. The Mercersburg property was offered by the 
Board to citizens of Mercersburg at a nominal price, to be 
used for educational purposes; but as they refused to 
accept the offer, it was finally sold to certain individuals of 
the same place for $6,000. The Board was not unwilling 
to sell, and it is pleasant to know that the purchasers suf- 
fered no loss. 

Franklin College was occupied until the new building 
of Franklin and Marshall was almost completed, and was 
then sold at public auction in December, 1855. The build- 
ing is still standing, but has been divided into four resi- 
dences. Several houses have since been built on ground 
which was then unoccupied. 




A remnant of the college lands in Bradford county was 
sold soon afterwards, and the records contain no further 
references to these ancient " benefactions of the state." 

An academy was founded in Lancaster in 1853, under 
the direction of the Board of Trustees, by the Reverend 
Joshua H. Derr. A building was rented on East King 
street, but the number of students was small. In two years 
the school passed into the hands of Messrs. J. J. Naille and 
C. Beecher Wolff. In the meantime, however, a Prepar- 
atory Department was successfully maintained in Mercers- 
burg by Clement Z. Weiser and Samuel Gr. Wagner. 

That a new College Building was to be erected was fully 
understood at the time of the union of the colleges. It was, 
we remember, for this purpose that the sum of $25,000 
had been contributed by the citizens of Lancaster. There 
was, however, considerable difficulty in determining upon 
a site, for there were many persons in and near Lancaster 
who had land to sell. A tract at the western end of Orange 
street was strongly urged, and there were some who favored 
a location at the eastern end of the city.-' One day the 
members of the Board took carriages, and visited all the 
sites that had been proposed. On their return it was 
found that they had become imanimous. There was, in- 
deed, no location in Lancaster or its vicinity that could 
well be compared with the one which was finally chosen. 
It is the highest ground in Lancaster or its vicinity, but 
rises so gradually that the ascent is barely perceptible. 
" Thank God !" said Dr. Harbaugh, at the laying of the 
corner-stone, " the college stands higher than the jail. Edu- 

'When this site was proposed President Buchanan said: "I do 
not think the best location for a literary institution is between the 
court-house and the jail." 


cation must be lifted up and let crime sink to the lowest 

There were, of course, people who objected to the choice 
of the Board. What is now the campus, it must be remem- 
bered, was then composed of fields which were but slightly 
cultivated. The place had a peculiarly desolate appear- 
ance, and it was boldly asserted that trees would never grow 
upon that barren hill. It was not imtil 1855 that College 
Avenue was opened from the Harrisburg turnpike to Bach- 
man's Lane. 

The campus of the college includes about twenty-two 
acres. Ten acres, on which the main building stands, were 
bought of Jacob Griel for $2,500. The rest was purchased 
in several tracts of Hartman Kuhn and Henry Becket, of 

The plan for the new building which was finally adopted 
was prepared by Dixon, Balbimie and Dixon, architects, 
of Baltimore. The Building Committee, appointed by the 
Board, was composed as follows: Professor Thomas C. 
Porter, Christopher Hager, Joseph Konigmacher, the Hon- 
orable Heiiry G. Long, Robert McClure, and Jacob M. 

On the 31st of August, 1853, the Building Committee 
was authorized to enter into a contract for the erection of 
the College. At this point appears the contractor, Haden 
Patrick Smith, who was for several years an important per- 
sonage, and who certainly made things exceedingly lively. 

We regret our inability to furnish a biographical sketch 
of Mr. Smith, but he was indisputably an Irishman. He 
aimed to be regarded as " a gentleman of the old school," 
and was probably the last person in Lancaster to appear 
habitually in what is generally known as Continental cos- 


tume. He was always carefully dressed, but his antiquated 
garments, and especially the " silver buckles on his knee," 
gave him an appearance which to the students, at least, was 
somewhat amusing. 

According to the contract the College Building was to 
have been erected at a cost of eighteen thousand and 
twenty dollars; but it soon became evident that, on ac- 
count of the rapid increase in the price of materials, it 
would actually cost considerably more. Mr. Smith claimed 
that the increase in the cost of materials amounted to be- 
tween three and four thousand dollars, and insisted that, as 
a matter of equity, this sum should immediately be as- 
sumed by the Board. As the Building Committee mani- 
fested no disposition to display such extraordinary gener- 
osity, there was disagreement from the beginning. The 
contractor was of a fiery disposition and his conflicts with 
the chairman of the Building Committee were fierce and 

The plan was changed in some respects, and this led to 
some confusion and to ultimate payments for extra work. 
The wings of the building were each extended ten feet; 
but, on the other hand, it was determined not to place a 
clock in the tower, as had originally been intended. It 
had been proposed to have a basement which was to be, in 
part at least, devoted to a laboratory, but this part of the 
plan was given up. The chapel, as then erected, had not 
more than one-half of its present length, an addition having 
been made at a subsequent period. 

On the 24th of July, 1854 — ^the day preceding Com- 
mencement — ^the comer-stone of the College Building was 
formally laid. A procession was formed at Franklin Col- 
lege, on Lime street, and proceeded to the grounds where 


the building was to be erected. Hon. D. W. Patterson was 
chief marshal and many prominent citizens of Lancaster 
were in the line. The Eev. Dr. B. 0. Wolff laid the cor- 
ner-stone and the principal address was delivered by Dr. 

To relate the whole story of the building of the college 
would demand more space than we could possibly afford. 
It was a tangled affair, and several years passed before a 
settlement was finally effected. The whole cost of the 
Building, as then reported, was $25,136,521/^. 

The new College was formally dedicated on the 16th 
of May, 1856. On this occasion addresses were delivered 
by the Kev. Dr. E. V. Gerhart and Emlen Franklin, Esq. 

The literary societies were peculiarly unfortunate with 
regard to the time and circumstances of the erection of 
their new halls. In equity they ought to have been com- 
pensated for their losses by the removal from Mercersburg, 
but unfortunately the Board was not in a position to aid 
them to the extent which might have been desired. In 
response to their urgent appeals, the Board on August 31, 
1853, resolved to renounce all claims for money advanced 
in Mercersburg ; to give each society the sum of one thou- 
sand dollars, and to lend to each the sum of one thousand 
dollars for three years without interest. Now it was true 
that the Board had, in Mercersburg, advanced to each 
society about sixteen hundred dollars, which had never 
been repaid, but the fact had almost been forgotten, and 
the revival of the claim — even in this form — *ame to the 
societies as a great surprise. It was estimated by the 
Board that the actual loss to each society by the removal 
would in this way be reduced to about three thousand 


It speaks well for the energy and enthusiasm of the 
literary societies that they were willing, under the circum- 
stances, to undertake what was to them the gigantic task of 
erecting new halls. They were few in number, and many 
of the members were as poor as can well be imagined ; but 
there was no hesitation. The corner-stones of the proposed 
halls were laid July 20, 1856. The students were willing 
to make all possible sacrifices, and there were not a few 
who actually suffered in order to be able to pay their sub- 
scriptions. One said, " I will stop smoking " ; another de- 
clared his willingness to do without a new overcoat; but 
of them all, we believe, there was not one who refused to 
do his part. During vacation the students " begged " for 
the new halls, and succeeded in collecting a good deal of 
money. But the object was not one which readily com- 
mended itself to the sympathies of those whom they ad- 
dressed. If they had collected for the college itself the 
responses might have been more liberal; but the people 
could not understand the purpose of the societies, and 
their contributions were, therefore, reluctant and small. 

After the societies had each collected about $5,000 they 
were compelled to confess that they had reached the limit 
of their ability. The expense of building was found to 
be much greater than it had been in Mercersburg ; and be- 
fore the buildings were completed a debt had accumulated 
which it seemed impossible to pay. The contractors were 
clamoring for their money, and even threatened legal proc- 
ess. It was a dark and dreary time ; and the societies and 
their friends could discover no means of relief. Even the 
Board of Trustees could not help them, without decreasing 
the endowment, and with this they were bound by solemn 
agreement not to interfere. It was then that Dr. Gerhart 


came to the relief of the distressed societies. Though in 
no way required to undertake the task, he voluntarily 
assumed the burden of collecting the money necessary to 
pay the debt that rested upon the Halls. That he actually 
secured between four and five thousand dollars was not the 
least of the achievements of his active energetic life. 
During his absence his place in the College was supplied 
by Dr. J. W. Nevin, who had in the meantime taken up 
his residence in the neighborhood of Lancaster. In 1859 
both of these gentlemen were formally thanked by the 
Board of Trustees for their services in behalf of the liter- 
ary societies. 

The Goethean Society dedicated its hall on the 28th of 
July, 1857, and the address was delivered by Dr. Lewis H. 
Steiner, Professor of Chemistry in the Maryland College 
of Pharmacy. On the following day, July 29, similar 
exercises were held by the Diagnothian Society, and the 
address was delivered by the Kev. George B. Kussell.^ The 
latter orator based his discourse on the motto of the society, 
and announced his theme as " The Principle of Virtue and 
the Virtue of Principle." 

In 1855 Dr. Harbaugh proposed the erection of a large 
boarding-house, to the known as " Marshall Hall." Its 
main purpose, as originally suggested, was to accommodate 
students for the ministry. Plans were secured and a 
lithograph of the proposed building was published; but 
financial difficulties prevented its immediate erection. The 
project was subsequently revived, as we shall see hereafter, 
and was named " Harbaugh Hall." Though the latter 
structure no longer stands, it holds a place in the memory 
of many alumni. 

"These dates are taken from the title-pages of the addresses, 
as published by the societies in pamphlet form. 


The buildings enumerated in this chapter — including 
the Janitor's house, the erection of which was ordered in 
1856 — constitute the original group, to which others were 
added as circumstances demanded. Though some of the 
latter are more beautiful and convenient, the old College, 
with its lofty tower, still overlooks them all. 



MOVAL TO Ameeica — ^An Impressive Lectubeb — Personal 
Eccentricities — ^Liteeaey Work — ^Leaves Lancaster 
— Returns to Greece — Tutor to the Crown 
Prince — Last Days. 

As has already been stated, Professor Koeppen was, in 
1853, elected professor of History and Modem Languages. 
Through trials and troubles innumerable he held this posi- 
tion for eight years — constantly worried by students who 
loved him in their own peculiar way — and finally leaving 
Lancaster amid an unexpected chorus of regret. That he 
was a remarkable man is indicated by the quaint sayings 
and amusing anecdotes which gather about his name. 
Many of the stories which are now related are probably 

apocryphal; but those which are undoubtedly authentic 
represent him as one of the most peculiar persons that ever 
occupied the chair of a professor in an American college. 
The learning of Professor Koeppen has never been 
doubted; but it may not be generally known that in his 
special department he ranked among the foremost men 
of his time. While he was connected with Franklin and 
Marshall College he published a work in two volumes, 



entitled " The World in the Middle Ages," which is still 
valuable. It is not properly a history ; but rather an his- 
torical geography, giving a full account of the political 
changes which occurred during the mediseval period. Con- 
cerning this work Dr. Charles Kendall Adams says:^ 
" The author has made ample use of the best geographical 
authorities, and has brought together a vast amount of 
minute information on subjects that are often very obscure. 
. . . The book will be found too dry for the general 
reader; but for a student in want of geographical details 
it has great value." That a man who could perform such 
honorable work deserves to be remembered in an institution 
for which he labored will be readily acknowledged, and we 
shall, therefore, give at some length the biographical facts 
which have come to our knowledge. 

Adolphus Louis Koeppen was bom in the city of Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, February 14, 1804. His father was a 
merchant, but several of his ancestors had been engaged in 
literary pursuits. He had an only sister to whom he was 
sincerely attached, and who, like himself, remained un- 

The schools of Copenhagen have always been celebrated, 
and the university is an institution of the highest rank. At 
the time when Koeppen was a student the latter insti- 
tution was however in a somewhat depressed condition. 
The buildings had been destroyed during the British bom- 
bardment, and the university occupied temporary quarters 
which the professor described as very uncomfortable. 
" Lectures," he said, " were delivered all over town." In 
the meantime, however, the funds were increasing, and 
the university was finally enabled to erect a suitable build- 

'"Manual of Historical Literature," p. 155. 


Professor Koeppen's father had destined him for a mili- 
tary career, but he did not take kindly to mathematics, 
which were considered essential to success. As a classical 
scholar he took high rank, and acquired modern languages 
without apparent effort. From the first he studied history 
with intense delight, and according to the manner of the 
times he exercised his marvellous memory in committing 
its minute details. 

It was in the days of the Greek revolution and every 
student was full of enthusiasm for awakened Hellas. 
Prince Otho, of Bavaria, was made King of Greece ; and 
two years after his accession Koeppen followed him. 
Travelling by easy stages — generally on foot and studying 
antiquities by the way — ^he finally reached Athens. At 
first he was greatly disappointed, because he could not 
make the people understand his ancient Greek. It took 
him six nionths to acquire the modern forms of speech, but 
then, as he said, it all came at once. 

In 1834 King Otho invited Koeppen to occupy the pro- 
fessorship of history, archa3ology and modem languages in 
the Royal College of the Euelpides, which was then situ- 
ated on the Island of ^gina.* It was a position that ex- 
actly suited him. Near at hand were the remains of the 
temple of Zeus Panhellenicus, where, a few years earlier, 
had been discovered the magnificent antique statues which 
were repaired by Thorwaldsen and are now in Munich. 
Hardly a day passed without the discovery of some interest- 
ing relic of antiquity, and the professor was very happy. 
When the college was removed to Athens, and called a 
university, he continued to fill his chair with great accept- 

' See Koeppen's article on " The Island of .^gina," in the Mer- 
cersburg Review. 


ance. In vacation he took long pedestrian journeys and 
made many archaeological discoveries. He is said to have 
been the first among modem geographers to trace the third 
of the long walls of Athens, known as the Phaleric walL 
It is also asserted that he was the first to direct attention 
to the " imperceptible curves " which are peculiarly char- 
acteristic of Greek architecture. When he started on his 
long pedestrian journeys he carried with him a bag of 
dried biscuit and onions which were sometimes for weeks 
his only food, except the figs which he gathered on the 
way. At night he could find a resting-place under any 
tree, for he was never affected by malaria. The country 
was full of brigands, but he did not fear them. Like 
Schliemann, at a later date, he disarmed them by reciting 
passages from Homer, or by eloquently addressing them on 
the ancient glories of Greece. 

After nine years there was a revolt against the German 
system of government in Greece, and all foreigners were 
required to leave the country. Koeppen parted from his 
Greek friends with sincere regret, but as he was a foreigner 
he had to go with the rest 

He then took a long journey through oriental countries, 
where, he said, every moment was a delight. How long he 
remained in the Orient we do not certainly know; but it 
was long enough to become somewhat familiar with the 
languages and social life of the people. 

Eeturning to Denmark he spent three years in his native 
country. In the autumn of 1846 he came to America and 
spent the succeeding years in delivering lectures on his- 
tory to literary institutions and learned societies. In this 
way he addressed the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
the Lowell Institute in Boston, the Smithsonian Institu- 


tion, the University of Virginia, and other similar bodies. 
Though he was grammatically familiar with the English 
language and spoke it fluently, his pronunciation was de- 
fective, and this fact must have interfered with his success 
as a lecturer. In 1852 he addressed a lyceum in Lancaster, 
and made the acquaintance of Dr. Bowman, who subse- 
quently secured his election to a professorship in Franklin 
and Marshall College. Weary of wandering he accepted 
the call, though the circumstances of the institution were 
far from encouraging. 

In foreign universities Koeppen was no doubt a success- 
ful lecturer, but he was utterly unable to adapt himself 
to new conditions. His learning was, of course, more than 
adequate, but like many other eminent men he could not 
bear to spend his time in teaching rudiments. " Is this a 
college," he would exclaim, " two colleges in one — or is it 
only a grammar school ?" As a lecturer he was impressive 
and at times eloquent, but his eccentricities prevented him 
from receiving the appreciation which he deserved. His 
descriptions of scenery must be characterized as magnifi- 
cent, and his early military training enabled him to depict 
battles with great accuracy. He seemed to imagine him- 
self in the thick of the battle, and sometimes he jumped 
on a chair and hurrahed when the field was won. 

Though the professor's historical memory was mar- 
vellous he often failed to remember the most ordinary 
affairs of daily life. He was frequently unable to recall 
the names of the several classes — such as Freshman and 
Sophomore — and sometimes prefaced a lecture by inquir- 
ing: "Is this the Freshamore class?" This naturally 
caused amusement, and as the professor could not compre- 
hend its occasion, he became excited, and burst forth in a 


long string of expletives -which were fortunately expressed 
in foreign tongues. He could never be induced to keep a 
roll, and rarely called a student by his proper name. In 
his efforts to remember surnames he seems to have tried 
some system of association, which failed him at the critical 
moment. If a student's name had been " Lamb," he would 
probably have called him " Mr. Sheep " ; or if it had been 
" Hare," he might have insisted on naming him " Mr. 
Eabbit." That he called Mr. Orr, " Mr. Gold," was prob- 
ably due to the fact that in his mind Orr, which he pro- 
nounced " Ore," was suggestive of " gold ore " ; but why 
he always insisted on calling Mr. Balsbaugh, " Mr. Good- 
rich " we have never been able to determine. 

In stature Professor Koeppen was rather short, but mus- 
cular and vigorous. He had a small head, partly bald, and 
wore a large moustache, which was then a very unusual 
ornament. His general bearing was military, and in con- 
versation he was genial and courteous. Nothing afforded 
him so much pleasure as to be visited by students, and it 
was certainly a rich treat to spend an hour in his society. 
His dress was scrupulously neat, though its fashion seemed 
strange and foreign. It was said that he not only dressed 
for dinner, but for lunch too. His wardrobe must have 
been very extensive, for with every day he seemed to pre- 
sent surprises, especially in the matter of waistcoats and 
cravats. In the evening he was fond of wearing an 
Arabian costume, and occasionally he took a walk arrayed 
in this peculiar manner. Of course, on such occasions he 
was followed by a crowd of little boys, and once he is said 
to have been arrested as a suspicious character. 

Professor Koeppen was an early riser, and took long 
walks in all kinds of weather. Once, when he came to col- 


lege at eleven o'clock, some one inquired : " Professor, have 
you been taking a walk this morning ?" " O, a little walk," 
he replied, " to Ephrata and return." Ephrata is at least 
thirteen miles from Lancaster. Sometimes his jaunts were 
much longer. In company with a student he took a walk 
from Lancaster to the Catskill Mountains. On their way 
they visited the present writer, who accompanied them for 
a few miles. The professor had a peculiar swinging gait, 
and it was difficult to keep up with him. He seemed per- 
fectly happy, singing college songs and shouting for joy. 
Walking he regarded as a panacea for all kinds of ills. 
" When I feel unwell," he often said, " I take a long walk, 
and that drives out the evil one." In a letter written from 
Germany in 1862, he says: " I have been hors du combat, 
at least for active war, all summer, on account of that 
thrice-horrible vertigo, which made me stagger and reel on 
the street, brought me into danger on the staircase, and 
made me flee even the very innocent sun of cold and rainy 
Saxony. At last, in my despair, I resolved to run it away ; 
and since you, dear pedestrian companion, were beyond the 
Atlantic, I chose for my chum a fine young Greek gentle- 
man, Prince Michael Sturtza, a boarder at. the pension 
where I dwell. We made a quick march to the valley of 
Tarandt, fifteen English miles from Dresden, and back 
the same evening, without dinner or refreshment. I re- 
tired almost sinking (having kept the strictest diet for a 
month), and instead of sweet sleep in the arms of 
Morpheus, I had violent fever all night long. Very angry 
at this I next day accepted an invitation to the American 
Kev. Dr. Lowman, an excellent preacher who was just leav- 
ing for Denmark. Mr. Magraw and myself found there a 
very charming company of young ladies from New York 


and Boston and some German barons and heroes who were 
whipt in Denmark in 1848. I spoke there some five or six 
languages, all was excitement, my fever helped me won- 
derfully and I again helped my fever by drinking some 
glasses of strong punch; this proved a most excellent 
remedy — it forced Mephistopheles to show his cloven foot. 
Think of my astonishment when next day, fever, vertigo — 
all gone, but my neck, shoulders and left arm covered with 
erysipelas. I kept in my room, then took a hot bath, and all 
was gone like a dream. So I am myself again; my 
paroxysm lasted from Jime 5, on the Acropolis, to middle 
of August, Dresden. Now I would challenge you to a trip 
into Bohemia and the Ertzgebirge (Brass mountains), if 
you are not mustering for the James river or Shenandoah." 

That the students in Lancaster were personally attached 
to Professor Koeppen has already been intimated; but 
there were times when the temptation to worry him proved 
irresistible. Of discipline he had not the remotest idea. 
Sometimes he got along pretty well for a good while with- 
out it, but suddenly there was an outbreak of disorder 
which disturbed the whole institution. 

Professor Koeppen's religious views appear to have been 
somewhat vague, and were indicated rather by shrugging 
his shoulders than by actual speech. He said : " I am a 
Lutheran, but I believe what I please." In Lancaster he 
generally attended St. James' Episcopal church, where he 
attracted attention by holding his hat before his face for a 
few moments before taking his seat This is a European 
mode of offering silent prayer and he never laid it aside. 
One Sunday he did not go to church, but spent the morn- 
ing in completing the manuscript of his history. As soon 
as the work was finished he ran to the church and, entering 


the vestry room, immediately after the congregation had 
been dismissed, exclaimed : " Rejoice with me, Dr. Bow- 
man ! My book is done ! My book is done ! See, the ink is 
on my fingers yet. Eejoice ! Eejoice !" It never occurred 
to the old historian that there was any impropriety in 
rejoicing at such a time and place. 

For people who pretend to be more pious than others he 
professed great contempt, and for some now forgotten 
reason called them " camels and dromedaries." It was his 
constant grievance that in America " camels and drome- 
daries " are more likely to be respected than men of 
science. That he took pleasure in ridiculing " white 
chokers " was not calculated to render him popular with 
those who wore them. Once the Board of Trustees warned 
him to put religion into his teaching. Por some time 
afterwards he occasionally stopped in a lecture and said: 
" The Board of Trustees wants religion in my lectures. 
Here is a good place to put in a little. Consider it put !" 

Koeppen was a historian of a school that laid stress on 
particulars, without taking sufficient account of underlying 
principles. Of the true meaning of history as the develop- 
ment of the life of G«d in the world he evidently had not 
the slightest conception. When he received a warning on 
the subject he inquired in utter astonishment : " What 
has God to do with history V In its own way his teaching 
was, however, not without effect. His enthusiasm was con- 
tagious, and his magnificent descriptions of historic scenes 
stimulated the imagination. He had a proper conception 
of oije of the purposes of history when he said : " I want 
you to be able to see absent things as if they were present." 
Many of his pupils acquired a fondness for historic reading 
which they retained during all subsequent years. 


Professor Koeppen's recitations became more and more 
disorderly. For their conduct the students were no doubt 
greatly to be blamed ; but the eccentricities of the professor 
furnished innumerable provocations. It was said that he 
had " spells," during which he was believed to be irrespon- 
sible. To tell the story of his peculiar " capers " would 
more than fill a volume. 

It was evident that such a state of affairs could not be 
permanent. The Board was, however, unwilling to take 
radical measures, and it was hoped that he could be in- 
duced to resign. In 1858 a resolution was actually 
adopted which directed the secretary to inform the pro- 
fessor that " on account of its financial embarrassments " 
it would be necessary to dispense with his services ; but on 
the following day this action was reconsidered, and it was 
resolved to reduce his salary to five hundred dollars. The 
professor was not, however, disposed to take such hints. 
If the board was embarrassed, he said, he was willing to 
make all possible sacrifices. He was not teaching for 
money, and he thought five hundred dollars would support 
him comfortably. Affairs grew worse, and in 1861 the 
Board resolved to dispense with his services. Then the 
sympathy of the students was excited, and there was much 
dissatisfaction. At the Commencement, on the following 
day, the Valedictorian ventured to reflect on the Board 
for removing a favorite professor. The President of the 
College immediately directed him to take his seat; and as 
he declined to do so the band was directed to play. Some 
members of the graduating class became greatly excited 
and there was much confusion. The valedictory was sub- 
sequently delivered from the balcony of an adjoining build- 
ing, but the exercises of Commencement were brought to a 


violent conclusion. The valedictorian and another mem- 
ber of the class were refused their diplomas ; but they sub- 
sequently confessed their errors and a reconciliation was 
finally effected. 

Professor Koeppen left Lancaster almost immediately 
after these events, and sailed for Europe in the following 
September. He traveled extensively, spending some time 
in Greece, Italy and Spain. In the letter from which we 
have already quoted he declares himself perfectly happy. 
" In the morning," he says, " I take a long run, and in the 
evening I study my beloved Greek worthies. Since I left 
New York last September I have read the entire Iliad and 
Odyssee (for the third time) with commentary, most of 
the comedies of Aristophanes both in ancient and modem 
Greek, Thucydides, Aeschylus entirely, and parts of 
Sophocles and Euripides. O, how far more interesting are 
they when read in Greece, under the deep, blue sky, and 
on the phosphoric waves of the Mediterranean!" 

Before completing his wanderings the professor revisited 
America, and paid a prolonged visit to his friends in Lan- 
caster. Then he returned to Greece and the King made 
him tutor to the Crown Prince. He became very popular, 
and though few of the people remembered his name, he 
was known throughout the country as " Ho Didaskalos." 
As his royal pupil was very young his duties as tutor were 
not very onerous, and he spent much time in examining 
the newspapers of other countries and translating such 
articles as he thought the King would find interesting. As 
a member of the royal suite, he was required to attend the 
King on his morning rides ; and on one of these occasions 
occurred the accident which ultimately caused his death. 
Etiquette demanded that the King should mount first, and 


that the members of his court should follow immediately. 
Failing to leap to the saddle at the proper moment, 
Koeppen's foot caught in the stirrup and he was dragged 
some distance. On his partial recovery he solicited an 
audience with the King and said: " Your Majesty, I am 
an old man and cannot mount my horse as quickly as the 
younger officers of your court." Then he received the 
privilege of mounting before the rest of the suite, so that 
he might be ready when the King appeared. He was not 
able to make much use of this privilege, as it was found 
that his injuries were more serious than was at first sup- 
posed. In the hope of recovering his health he once more 
started on his travels; but growing weaker returned to 
Athens, where he died April 14, 1873. 

With all his peculiarities Professor Koeppen was a man 
of sterling integrity, and as such was universally respected. 
He was a delightful companion and a faithful friend. In 
many houses he was a welcome guest, and his old-fashioned 
courtesy was highly appreciated. His failure in the class- 
room was chiefly due to the peculiarities of his tempera- 
ment ; but he was personally so agreeable — so generous and 
kind — ^that he has been long and affectionately remem- 



An Eminent Professob — Cleegyman, Botanist and Litekaet 

Cbitic — ^An Amebican Epic — Inteeesting Lectubes — 

Tbanslations — Latee Yeaes. 

Dr. Thomas C. Porter, who had accompanied the College 
on its removal from Mercershurg, continued to occupy the 
chair of Natural Sciences until 1866. That he was a dis- 
tinguished botanist is well known; but it is possible that 
his literary ability may not be so generally appreciated. 
His skill as a translator of prose and poetry was, however. 


remarkable, and his familiarity with the niceties of lan- 
guage quite unusual. In several languages his reading was 
extensive, and there can be no doubt that he was a man 
of the highest culture. 

As has already been mentioned^ Dr. Porter was born at 
Alexandria, in Huntington county, and was, as he him- 
self said, " a German Scotch-Irishman." His father was 
a Presbyterian elder, and his mother was a granddaughter 
of John Conrad Bucher,* an early German Reformed 

» " History of Marshall College," p. 197. 

'John Conrad Bucher was born at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 
June 10, 1730 and died at Lebanon, Pa., August 13, 1780. He was 
educated for the ministry; but for some now forgotten reason en- 
listed in the army of Holland, and was subsequently transferred to 
the British service. Having come to America he rose to the rank of 
captain and distinguished himself in several battles with the Indians. 



minister. Though he was proud of his paternal descent 
he was always most closely attached to his mother's people. 
After graduating at Lafayette, he served for some time as 
pastor of a Presbyterian church in Georgia, hut returned 
to Pennsylvania to take charge of a new Reformed church 
in Reading. Even at this time his fondness for natural 
history was well known, and on the resigaation of Dr. 
Traill Green he was called to a professorship in Mercers- 
burg. He was a fine preacher, but was more familiar with 
science than any other minister of the Reformed church, 
and it was recognized as his duty to accept the call. 

In Lancaster Dr. Porter served the college in many 
ways. He was the chairman of the building committee 
and, it has been said, " fought the battles of the college." 
As a teacher of science — and particularly botany — ^he was 
always interesting; and when he started out on long 
botanical excursions the students followed him gladly. It 
was said that no one since the days of Muhlenberg had 
made himself so thoroughly familiar with the flora of Lan- 
caster county. An annual excursion to Safe Harbor with 
the Sophomore class, at the season when Nymphcea and 
Pontederia were in bloom, was an occasion long to be re- 
membered. At such times the professor laid aside the 
dignity of the class-room and there was plenty of fun. 

Even in those days Dr. Porter was hard at work on his 
Flora of Pennsylvania, and many more or less apocryphal 
stories were related concerning his enthusiasm in the col- 
lection of specimens. Once late in autumn, it was said, he 
swam across a stream to secure a rare plant while his corn- 
Deeply impressed by the religious necessities of the German people 
he resigned from the army and was ordained a minister. He 
founded the Reformed church at Carlisle, and was pastor at Lebanon 
and other places, serving also as a chaplain in the Revolution. 


panions stood shivering on the bank. On another occasion, 
somewhere in the West, he lost his way in the woods and 
subsisted for some days on roots and fungi. Such stories 
may have been mere inventions, but it is certain that Dr. 
Porter was a hard worker, and that besides collecting a 
large herbarium he performed a great deal of excellent 
literary work. He published a prose version of GJoethe'a 
"Hermann und Dorothea," a translation of Schaff's 
" Life of St. Augustine," and a " Life of Zwingli," after 
the German of Hottinger. 

It has been said that Dr. Porter and Professor Koeppen 
could not agree ; but this we think is an exaggeration. It 
is true that Koeppen could at times be sufficiently pro- 
voking ; as, for instance, when he reproved a class in Dr. 
Porter's presence for " wasting their time in the childish 
pursuit of collecting flowers, when they might be occupied 
in studying the affairs of nations." Dr. Porter, however, 
was not vindictive, and the professors were generally very 
good friends. 

As a literary critic Dr. Porter was keen and sometimes 
cutting. He could be exceedingly sarcastic, and his criti- 
cisms were not always gratefully received. In a poetic 
composition no one was more capable of supplying the 
missing word. The author has elsewhere related^ an inci- 
dent which may serve as an illustration of his peculiar 
methods. Dr. Harbaugh had, in 1857, published in The 
Guardian a poem entitled " The Mystic Weaver," in 
which the processes of history are profoundly represented 
by the beautiful analogy of the weaver's work. In its 
earliest issue the poem begins : 

' " Eulogy on Thomas Conrad Porter," Proceedings of Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society, 1901. 


" Weaver at hia loom is sitting, 
Throws the shuttle to and fro." 

When Dr. Porter read these lines in Dr. Harbaugh's 
study, he assumed stupidity and inquired: "Weaver at 
his loom is sitting — ^is that Jim Weaver or Bill Weaver ?" 
Of course, Dr. Harbaugh was indignant, and under pro- 
test explained the purpose of his lines. " O," said Dr. 
Porter, " if that is your meaning, would it not be better, 

instead of 

' Weaver at his loom is sitting,' 
to write 

At his loom the weaver, sitting, 

Throws his shuttle to and fro!" 

Dr. Harbaugh took the hint, and it is thus that the poem 
appears in his published volume. 

In 1855 Longfellow published his " Hiawatha." The 
poem was everywhere received with the most extravagant 
praise. It was supposed to be original in substance, form 
and meter, and was declared to be " the long expected 
American epic." Hiawatha became a " craze " and many 
imitations were published. 

One day Dr. Porter was examining Professor Koeppen's 
library, and there he found a recent German version of the 
" Kalevala," the national epic of Finland. He became 
interested, and was greatly surprised to find that not only 
the meter but many of the incidents of " Hiawatha " were 
unquestionably derived from the ancient Finnish poem. 
The poem of Hiawatha was splendid, but it lacked the 
originality which is essential to the highest order of liter- 
ary composition. It was not a plagiarism, but in many 
important respects it was unquestionably an imitation. 
In meter, form, and the use of similar incidents the resem- 
blance was too close to be accidental. 


Dr. Porter imported the original poem from Finland 
and devoted much time to its study. In the work of trans- 
lation he was assisted by Professor Koeppen and by Pro- 
fessor Castren, a native of Finland who was then visiting 
Lancaster. The latter was, we believe, a near relative of 
the gentleman who first translated " Kalevala " into the 
Swedish language. 

The English versions of passages from the " Kalevala," 
published by Dr. Porter in the Mercersburg Review 
for October, 1856, are excellent — fully equal to those con- 
tained in the translation of the whole poem which has 
since been published.^ 

To enable the reader to observe the resemblance of the 
two compositions, especially in style and manner of con- 
struction, we quote a few lines from each — premising that 
hundreds of similar resemblances may be found elsewhere. 

The following is an extract from the prelude to 
" Kalevala" : 

" These the words we have received. 
These the songs we do inherit, 
Are from Wainamoinen's girdle. 
From the forge of Ilmarinen, 
Of the sword of Kaukomieli, 
Of the bow of Joukahainen, 
Of the borders of the North-field, 
Of the plains of Kalewala." 

" Hiawatha " is thus introduced : 

" Should you ask me whence these stories. 
Whence these legends and traditions. 
With the odors of the forests. 
With the dew and damp of wigwams. 
With the rushing of great rivers. 
With their frequent repetitions, 

' " The Kalevala," by John Martin Crawford, two volumes. New 
York, 1888. 


And their wild reverberations 
As of thunder in the mountains? 
I should answer, I should tell you, 
From the forests and the prairies. 
From the great lakes of the Northland, 
From the land of the jib ways. 
From the land of the Dacotahs, 
From the mountains, moors and fenlands. 
Where the heron, the Shuh-shuh-gah, 
Feeds among the reeds and rushes: 
I repeat them, as I heard them. 
From the lips of Nawadaha, 
The musician, the sweet singer." 

In his articles on this subject^ Dr. Porter did not de- 
preciate the talents of our great American poet. Speak- 
ing of " Hiawatha " he said : " Its descriptions of nature 
are wonderfully accurate, even when subjected to the 
severest scrutiny. The language and rhythm are fault- 
less — raised to the highest pitch of elegance." But in the 
production of his " American edda " the poet had followed 
a model and his work was not " the long-expected epic." 
Of course, Dr. Porter's articles led to a controversy in the 
Boston newspapers, though the poet himself said nothing. 
The facts could not, however, successfully be assailed, and 
it was generally acknowledged that the critic had " made 
his point." To the last Dr. Porter was an enthusiastic 
admirer of " Hiawatha," though it was greatly due to his 
articles that the poem assumed its proper place in Ameri- 
can literature. 

Boys are boys all the world over; and though the stu- 
dents admired Dr. Porter he could not entirely escape 
annoyance. One of them, who was a great mimic, took 
down one of the professor's geological lectures in short- 

^ National Intelligencer, November 26, 1855, and subsequently in 
other periodicals. 


hand, committed it to memory, and delivered it wherever 
he could find an opportunity. In it occurred a passage 
descriptive of fossil animals which was declaimed with 
great unction. Though we cannot vouch for its authen- 
ticity, we can at least recall the striking sentence : 

"There were the gigantic pterodactyls, flying through the 
air, opening their tremendous mouths, and swallowing every- 
thing they came across; and the little bits of ferns, which 
are now a foot or eighteen inches in height, were then fifty 
or sixty feet high, as high as the tallest oak." 

A certain class objected greatly to the professor's habit 
of extending his recitations beyond the appointed hour; 
and when the clock struck twelve they became exceedingly 
restless. At such a time the professor reproved them, 
and said in his peculiar way : " You seem to be extremely 
hungry. Would it not be well to bring your lunch to 
college, so that you might lose no time ?" This was enough 
for the boys; and next day when they were similarly re- 
proved, each one took a lunch-box from his pocket and 
began to eat. The professor looked at them for a moment 
in mingled wrath and sadness, and then walked out of the 
room without saying a word. 

When Dr. Porter accepted a call to Lafayette College 
there was general regret.^ It may be said, however, that 
he continued to cherish the warmest affection for the insti- 
tution with which he had been so long and intimately con- 
nected and that he was pleased to be its guest on every im- 
portant occasion. He continued his literary work, and it 

' Dr. Porter preached a farewell sermon to the students of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College on the 23d of July, 1866, in the First Re- 
formed Church of Lancaster. It was very tender and afifecting 
and was highly appreciated by his audience. 


is said that his published work on the subject of botany 
alone includes more than fifty titles. In recognition of his 
services to botanic science the genera Porterella, in the 
Lobeliacese, and Porteranthus in the Eosacese bear his 
name, and no less than thirteen species or subspecies have 
been named in his honor. He also continued his purely 
literary work, taking special pleasure in metrical transla- 
tions from the Latin or German. To him translation was 
a fine art, and he spared neither time nor toil in repro- 
ducing the minutest shades of meaning. His versions of 
the Dies Irw and of Luther's "Ein feste Burg" have been 
greatly admired. Several of his hymns appear in Schaff's 
" Christ in Song," and a considerable number are enumer- 
ated in Julian's " Dictionary of Hymnology." His last 
published article, so far as we know, appeared in the Re- 
formed Church Review for January, 1901. It was an 
essay on the English versions of the Dies Irw, and was 
marked by all the excellencies which rendered his work 

Dr. Porter was present at the laying of the corner-stone 
of our new Science Building, but even then he was growing 
feeble. On the 27th of April, 1901, while he was engaged 
in writing a letter to a friend, there came a stroke by 
which his long and useful life was ended. 

Dr. Porter was a man of brilliant talents, and he used 
them for the benefit of young men. By the colleges which 
he served he should be remembered with sincere respect 
and affection- 



Political Excitement — ^The Civil Wab — Buildings Occupied as 
Hospitals — ^Mb. Buchanan's Betibement from the Pbesi- 


POBAET Scholabships — ^Tbbcentenabt Yeab 

The Fisheeman — Changes in the 

The College was, we think, unfortunate in coming to 
Lancaster at a time of great political excitement. As has 
already been intimated the prominence of Mr. Buchanan 
in the affairs of the institution naturally excited the preju- 
dice of his opponents. In 1853 he secured the election to 
membership in the Board of the Kev. B. Keenan, a worthy 
Koman Catholic clergyman, believing that the College 
should represent all classes of the community. For this 
election there was a precedent in the fact that as early as 
1787 the Beverend Mr. Cousie, pastor of St. Mary's, had 
been an active member of the Board of Franklin College. 
The later choice may, however, have been less prudent, 
for it occurred at the time of the so-called " Know Noth- 
ing " movement, which swept over the country like wild- 
fire and was characterized by intense opposition to foreign- 
ers and Roman Catholics. As soon as the gentleman who 
had been elected learned that the affair was likely to cause 
trouble he resigned his position ; but this made little dif- 
ference. The matter was taken up by political extremists 
and there were a number of virulent articles in the papers 
of the day. 

The Civil War appears not to have affected the College 


as greatly as might have been expected. Again and again 
the President reported that the number of students had not 
decreased. There were alumni of the College on both sides 
of the conflict; and among those who distinguished them- 
selves we may mention General B. Frank Fisher, chief 
signal officer of the army of the Potomac, and General H. 
Kyd Douglas, the intimate friend and secretary of Stone- 
wall Jackson. The students, however, for a long time 
continued to attend to their duties, unmoved by the excite- 
ment of the times. Curious as it may appear, the number 
of students gradually increased, and in 1862 twenty-eight 
students were graduated. This was a fine showing, con- 
sidering the fact that many other institutions were actually 
closed. It is an interesting fact that several students from 
Virginia made their way across the line, in order that they 
might not lose their place in College. 

It was not until the government ordered a draft that the 
college began to break up. Students preferred to volun- 
teer, rather than to wait until an unlucky number should 
compel them to take their place in the ranks with strangers. 
It is related of a student, who has since become distin- 
guished, that he preferred to enter the navy, and was ap- 
pointed an ensign. He was ordered to report for service 
on a gunboat on the Mississippi. It so happened that on 
the day when he reported all the superior officers were 
either disabled or temporarily called away, and he was 
compelled to take command of the vessel. He was, how- 
ever, unwilling to confess his incapacity, and studied the 
manual of arms by sections. Having drilled the men for 
some time he retired behind a pile of cotton bales and 
studied a section, leaving the non-commissioned officers 
to examine arms and accoutrements. In this way he got 


through his work, without any one discovering that he was 
a " tender-foot." Next day the superior officers were in 
their places, and he was relieved from his responsibility. 

For two years, in 1863 and 1864, the college was closed 
several weeks before the end of the term ; but Commence- 
ment was always held at the appointed time. In 1863 — 
just before the battle of Gettysburg — ^there was great ex- 
citement, and the dismissal of the students became a neces- 
sity. Detachments of the Southern army had reached the 
Susquehanna and no one could teU how soon they might 
enter Lancaster. Long lines of refugees passed through 
the city, leading horses which they sought to save from the 
invaders. Of course, under such circumstances, study was 
impossible, and the students had actually returned to their 
homes before the battle of Gettysburg was fought. 

After the battle the government seized the buildings of 
the College, and the halls of the societies were occupied as 
hospitals for the wounded. For several months the halls 
were thus occupied, and the buildings were considerably 
damaged; but the societies never received any compensa- 
tion for their losses. The occupation was, however, chiefly 
during the summer vacation; and in the autumn the Col- 
lege opened pretty much as usual, though with a reduced 
number of students. 

After the conclusion of his presidential term Mr. 
Buchajian lived at Wheatland in strict retirement. He 
continued to take an interest in the affairs of the College ; 
and we have seen a letter, written in 1864, in which he 
recommended the institution in the warmest terms. In a 
community which had been overwhelmingly opposed to his 
presidential policy his position was unpleasant; and there 
were friends of the College who did not hesitate to suggest 



that, on account of his personal unpopularity, he ought 
to retire from the presidency of the Board. The fact came 
to Mr. Buchanan's knowledge, and at several successive 
annual meetings he tendered his resignation; hut at the 
request of the Board it was regularly withdraAvn. The 
agitation, however, continued, and when, in 1865, he again 
asked to he relieved his resignation was, perhaps unex- 
pectedly, accepted. The following resolution was then 
adopted : 

"Resolved, That we receive with regret the renewed re- 
quest of the venerable President of this Board to be released 
from the position he has so long and acceptably filled since 
the foundation of our Institution in its consolidated form; 
but as this request has been reiterated for a number of suc- 
cessive years, and as advancing age has a claim to release 
from such more public duties, we hereby respectfully accept 
the resignation of the Hon. James Buchanan with thanks 
for his past services, and the hope that he may be long spared 
to favor this Board, as one of its members, with his presence, 
counsels and sympathy." 

On the following day, July 25, 1865, the Board elected 
as its president the Honorable John Cessna, of Bedford. 

We have no record of Mr. Buchanan's attendance at any 
subsequent meetings of the Board. His health rapidly 
declined, and he died at Wheatland, June 1, 1868. 

That the College was slow in gaining friends is suffi- 
ciently evident. Its chief trouble was, however, financial, 
and there are probably few persons now living who fully 
appreciate the straits to which it was reduced. The en- 
dowment was at best utterly insufficient ; but there had also 
been unfortunate investments, and some money was lost by 
the failure of a local bank. In 1861 the treasurer re- 


ported that he was unable to collect funds on account of 
the state of the country. In that year the College owed 
between three and four thousand dollars to five professors, 
and the Board agreed to allow interest on unpaid salaries. 
In a recent article Dr. Gerhart says :^ 

"That was an epoch of suspense and doubt. The college 
was a stranger in the city and county. It had no standing, 
because it had been known chiefly through the men who did 
not come. For the same reason it had no hopeful outlook. 
For some eight or ten years the faculty had to work against 
the tide. Only by the slow process of persevering toil did 
Franklin and Marshall gain recognition and win confidence. 
No one conversant only with the institutions as they now 
crown the West End can form any just conception of the 
dark clouds that hung over the faithful men that toiled here 
on small salaries fifty years ago." 

The responsibility which rested upon Dr. Gerhart was 
very great; and we can well believe him when he tells us 
in the same connection, that when he accepted the office of 
president he did not fully appreciate the consequences of 
the step which he was taking. He proved a very successful 
teacher; but during most of his time he was occupied in 
providing for the financial needs of the institution. From 
one congregation to another he traveled, enduring priva- 
tions of which at the present time we can hardly form a 
proper conception ; for in those days there were few rail- 
roads, and in winter the roads were often almost impass- 
able. He preached many sermons, and delivered innumer- 
able addresses; but though the people heard him gladly 
they had not been trained to liberal giving, and the amount 
of their gifts sometimes seemed hardly to warrant the labor 

'^ Reformed Church Messenger, January 15, 1903. 


and expense that were required for their collection. That 
Dr. Gerhart succeeded, under such circumstances, in rais- 
ing considerable sums of money is a sufficient proof of his 
energy and perseverance. In 1858 five thousand dollars 
were collected among the close friends of the college for the 
relief of pressing necessities.^ At the same time the Board 
ordered the sale of temporary scholarships, by which on 
the payment of fifty dollars the holder was entitled to 
designate a student for free tuition during the four years 
of his college course. More than five hundred temporary 
scholarships were sold. A part of this work was per- 
sonally performed by Dr. Gerhart; though it was con- 
tinued by Mr. John Heilman and other. Mr. Heilman 
was peculiarly successful, for he thoroughly knew the 
people among whom he labored and found no difficulty in 
gaining their confidence. He was for many years one of 
the most energetic and active members of the Board of 

As has already been intimated Dr. Gerhart collected be- 
tween four and five thousand dollars for the relief of the 
literary societies. This was, perhaps the most difficult 
part of his financial work. 

In 1863 — ^which is known as the Tercentenary Year — 
there were " streaks of daylight." Mainly at the sug- 
gestion and through the influence of the Keverend Dr. 
Henry Harbaugh the Keformed Church resolved to cele- 
brate the three-hundredth anniversary of the publication 

' In 1859 the Faculty proposed to publish a catalogue in the Ger- 
man language for circulation in the German counties of Pennsyl- 
vania. The manuscript was prepared and one sheet of the proposed 
publication was actually printed; but the printer had failed to 
present a, proof for correction, and his work was found to be so 
miserable that it was finally rejected. 


of the Heidelberg Catechism, its chief doctrinal symbol 
The celebration was undertaken with great energy and 
enthusiasm, and continued throughout the year. It in- 
volved the holding of a Convention in Philadelphia on the 
19th of January, 1863 ; the enrollment of all the members 
of the Church, and the reception of memorial free-will 
offerings from those who desired to present them ; and the 
preparation and publication of several important volumes 
having special reference to the celebration.^ 

At the Convention in Philadelphia Dr. Gerhart met 
Henry Leonard, an elder of the Reformed church at Basil, 
Ohio, who had previously served as financial agent of the 
institutions at Tifiin. After a prolonged conference con- 
cerning the affairs of the college at Lancaster, Mr. Leonard 
agreed to collect the funds necessary for its relief, provided 
that Dr. G«rhart would properly introduce him in a field 
to which he was a stranger. It was to this introduction, 
and to the superintendence of the work by Dr. Gerhart, 
that his subsequent success was chiefly due. 

Mr. Leonard was in some respects a remarkable man. 
He was of Swiss descent, and not only spoke English and 
German fluently but was thoroughly familiar with several 
Swiss dialects which he occasionally used to excellent pur- 
pose. In manner he was entirely impretentious, and it 
took him but a few minutes to win the confidence of those 

' The celebration was practically confined to what are now Icnown 
as the three eastern synods. The enrollment, which was written on 
specially prepared blanks, was to have been bound in many volumes, 
as a memorial of the festival. It was deposited in the Publication 
House at Chambersburg. but was destroyed on the 30th of July, 
1864, when the town was burned by a detachment of the Southern 
army. The loss of these documents is greatly to be regretted, as 
they would even now be of great historic importance, and their 
value would increase with each succeeding year. 


•whom he addressed. He was very devout, and there was 
in his nature an element of mysticism which led him to be- 
lieve that he had been specially called to the work of saving 
the institutions of his Church from pressing financial 
embarrassment. He was generally known as " The Fisher- 
man," because he was constantly engaged in " fishing " 
for benevolent contributions; and there was no title that 
could have pleased him better. On his portrait, which was 
widely circulated, he was represented carrying a valise, 
and this may have been intended to call attention to the 
fact that he was almost constantly traveling. It may be 
added that he was not destitute of literary ability, as his 
published " allegories " sufficiently indicate. 

The success of Mr. Leonard in his agency was certainly 
phenomenal. In less than four months he had collected 
about $25,000 in cash, mostly in small gifts, besides secur- 
ing promises which were subsequently realized. Though 
he was prevented by circumstances from continuing in the 
work as long as he had originally intended, the aid which 
he brought to the college was most opportune. He always 
regarded the West as his peculiar field ; but his brief ser- 
vice in the East deserves to be gratefully remembered. 

The Tercentenary Year brought the College other gifts, 
mostly in the form of free-will offerings from members of 
the Keformed Church. At the end of the year the Treas- 
urer reported that he had received additions to the endow- 
ment amounting to $36,596.10. In the following year 
he was able to announce that the college was at last free 
from debt. 

It was a time of intense activity and many interests of 
the Church were greatly advanced. In the literary work 
of the year the Faculty were actively engaged. A General 


Catalogue of the College was published in 1863, and must 
have demanded considerable labor. Drs. E. V. Gerhart, 
J. W. Nevin, Theodore Appel, and Thomas C. Porter 
wrote or translated monographs for the " Tercentenary 
Monument " — a large volume composed of contributions 
from eminent men in Europe and America ; and Dr. Ger- 
hart was chairman of the committee which published the 
" Triglot " edition of the Heidelberg Catechism. 

The financial situation having been somewhat relieved, 
the Board in 1864 proceeded to elect a professor of Ger- 
man. The position had been vacant since the removal of 
Professor Koeppen, though instruction had been given by 
Drs. Porter and Gerhart, and subsequently by Tutor John 
A. Van Haagen. There was, however, a general senti- 
ment in favor of the election of a regtilar professor of Ger- 
man, and this led to the choice of Dr. E. W. Alexander 
Ealk, a gentleman who was in every way worthy of the 
station. For the substance of the following biographical 
sketch we are indebted to his son-in-law, the Rev. J. W. 
Gilman, of Racine, Wisconsin : 

Frederick William Alexander Falk was born in Landes- 
hut, Silesia, November 10, 1805. His father was Super- 
intendent in the Lutheran church at Landeshut. The 
celebrated Prussian minister of cultus of the same name 
was his nephew. 

Dr. Falk was graduated at the University of Breslau; 
then went to Lauban as instructor in the Gymnasium 
there ; afterwards he went to Ottolangendorf , a large estate 
which he had purchased, situated near Wartemberg, 
Silesia; and there carried on the business of the estate 
until he entered political life. In 1848 he was elected a 
member of the parliament at Frankfort on the Main, as 


a representative of the liberals who were in favor of a 
united Grermany. In 1849 he was again elected a mem- 
ber of the parliament at Berlin, representing the same 
party. During his prolonged absence his private affairs 
were mismanaged and he lost a great part of his estate. 
Dr. Falk and his wife and adopted daughter sailed for 
America in 1852. After staying a while in Washington, 
D. C, he purchased a small farm at Rockville, Mont- 
gomery county, Maryland. Here his first wife, Matilda 
Grueschki, died, and shortly afterwards he was called to 
the chair of Latin and Greek in St. James College, near 
Hagerstown, Maryland. He was ordered deacon in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church by Bishop Whittingham in 
1858, and ordained priest in 1859. St. James College 
suffered so much during the Civil War that it was closed. 
Dr. Falk then went to Lancaster, Pa., where he was 
chosen professor of German Literature, also giving 
instruction in Political Economy. Here he was married 
to Mrs. Martha R. Charles. In 1867 he was called to 
Racine College, where for twenty years he held the position 
of Professor of Modem Languages. In the last year of 
his life he was made professor emeritus by the trustees of 
that institution. His published works are mainly a trans- 
lation into German of the orations of Lysias and a few 
sermons. He died in Racine, ^November 15, 1887. 

Besides the instances we have mentioned there were, 
during Dr. Gerhart's presidency, but few changes in the 
Faculty. In 1862 Dr. John W. Nevin was chosen pro- 
fessor of History, and his son, Robert J. iN^evin, became 
tutor in Greek. Professor Porter, in 1866, accepted a 
call to a professorship in Lafayette College ; but Professor 
William M. Nevin and the Rev. Theodore Appel con- 
tinued to labor in their several departments. 


After the tercentenary celebration there were several 
years of profound depression. As often happens after a 
special effort, there were few gifts, and the friends of the 
institution were discouraged. It seemed impossible to 
recover from the depression induced by the war, and the 
number of students actually decreased, so that in 1866 
there were but six graduates. The latter fact especially 
attracted much attention, and the Alumni Association re- 
quested the Board to consider the state of the institution. 
In 1866 there were four meetings of the Board, and all 
kinds of suggestions were made, but most of them proved 
impracticable. There was, for instance, a project to erect 
a large building, so that the Faculty and students might 
live under one roof. It was held that in this way there 
might be a revival of the sociability which had been so 
marked a characteristic of Marshall College. The plan 
failed on account of the expense involved ; and it is doubt- 
ful whether under any circumstances it could have been 
made a success. 

All were apparently agreed that something must be 
done ; but what it was to be no one seemed to know. It is 
surprising that the college was not broken up by the 
troubles of this eventful year. 

We do not propose to describe this peculiar movement 
in all its varying phases. It may be said that it finally 
assumed a form very different from the one which its pro- 
moters had originally anticipated. It was resolved that 
the Faculty should be reorganized, and for this purpose 
all the professorships were declared vacant. Then the 
Board proceeded to hold an election to fill these vacancies. 

Ever since the College came to Lancaster there were 
people who ascribed its misfortunes to the fact that on its 

A NEW PLAN. 313 

removal it had not been accompanied by the president of 
Marshall. Now that Dr. Nevin had made his home in the 
vicinity of Lancaster the number of these people had 
greatly increased. They believed that, if he could be per- 
suaded to become even formally the head of the institu- 
tion, its troubles would cease, and that his friends and 
admirers would immediately supply the deficiencies in 
its endowment. In such a case, it was said, a movement 
to raise two hundred thousand dollars would immediately 
be inaugurated with every prospect of success. 

There was no personal opposition to President Gerhart. 
On the contrary his learning and ability were fully 
acknowledged, and it was hoped that he would continue 
his work in the College. It was, however, believed that he 
would cheerfully accept a subordinate position — for a time 
at least — ^to make room for the accomplishment of the pro- 
posed plan. 

When the election for a new Faculty was held the 
Keverend John W. Nevin, D.D., was made President, 
Professor of the Philosophy of History and Esthetics, and 
President of the Faculty. The Kev. E. V. Gerhart, D.D., 
was elected Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy and 
Vice-President of the Faculty. The other members of the 
former Faculty were reelected without opposition. It is 
proper to state that Dr. Nevin had declined to allow his 
name to be used in connection with the presidency, and the 
election was held without his consent. With reference to 
Dr. Gerhart the following resolution was adopted : 

"Resolved, That in the selection now made for the first 
chair in the Faculty of the College, we most explicitly dis- 
claim the slightest refiection upon the administrative ca- 
pacity, the literary ability, or fidl qualifications in every 


respect, of the Reverend Dr. Gerhart, the present incumbent 
of the chair. On the contrary, we esteem it a privilege to 
bear testimony to the wisdom, fidelity and eflSciency with 
which he has always discharged the governmental functions 
of his office; as well as to the learning and rare skill in 
imparting knowledge and educating young men which he has 
displayed with such entire satisfaction in his professorate, 
during his twelve years of service as President of the Col- 
lege, and as incumbent of the important chair of Mental 
and Moral Science." 

For two years Dr. Gerhart served as Vice-President and 
Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. He was then 
elected by synod to the professorship of Systematic and 
Practical Theology in the Theological Seminary at Mer- 
cersburg. In the autumn of 1868 he removed to that 
place, remaining there until the Seminary was removed 
to Lancaster. 



Db. Nevin's Second Presidency — Conteoversies — New Institu- 
tions — Removai, of the Theological Seminary to Lancasteb 
— Enlabgement of the Faculty — Haebauqh Hall — ^Thb 
AuDENEiED Bequest — ^Db. Nevin's Educational 
Theoby — Retibement — The End of a Well- 
Spent Life. 

After earnest consideration Dr. Nevin accepted the 
call to the presidency of the College. He was no longer 
young, and it may well be supposed that the hopefulness 
of youth had passed away. He knew the difficulties of the 
work, and we believe that nothing but a stem sense of duty 
could have induced him to take up the burden which in 
former years had proved too heavy. His friends were, 
however, convinced that the prestige of his name would be 
of immense importance to the institution, and that the 
brightest hopes for its endowment could speedily be real- 
ized ; and he felt that he dare not refuse his aid to the cause 
which he loved so well. In the following formal accept- 
ance his views and anticipations are fully expressed : 

"I acknowledge thankfully the honor which the Board has 
been pleased to confer upon me, in calling me a second time 
to the Presidency of Franklin and Marshall College; and 
as the reasons I had for declining the office some years ago 
no longer exist in the same force, while the circumstances 
in which the call is renewed are such as to give it new weight, 
I do not feel myself at liberty, however much I may still 
shrink from its responsible cares, to turn aside in. the same ab- 
solute way. It is placed before me as a part of a general move- 



ment, by which it is proposed to enlarge the operations of the 
Institution on a scale answerable to the wants of the present 
time ; a movement which contemplates an addition of at least 
$200,000 to its endowment as it now stands. It is said that 
the success of this movement depends on my being placed at 
the head of the College, and that without my name in such 
position it cannot be carried forward with effect. Too much 
account is made, I am afraid, in this view; but where, in a 
case like this, so much importance is attached to it by others, 
a sort of necessity is laid upon me not to withhold it from so 
worthy an enterprise. I therefore consent to cooperate with 
the friends of the Institution in carrying out the plan pro- 
posed for its enlargement, by accepting provisionally and 
conditionally the office of President to which I am now 
called. I say provisionally and conditionally; for I am not 
willing to be bound in the case, beyond what may be found 
to be the readiness of others also, to do what is needed for 
the accomplishment of the work in hand. I am willing to 
join with others in trying to give the College new life and 
force; but others must also join with me in the large and 
arduous task. Without this, my name and service will not 
avail to rescue the Institution from comparative insignifi- 
cance. There must be strong and full cooperation from all 
sides in its favor, diiring the coming year; and on this, I 
wish it to be well understood, must hang in the end the 
question of my full, formal acceptance of the honorable 
situation now offered to me by the Board. 

"J. W. Nevin. 
"Lancaster, July 23, 1866." 

In response the Board expressed its great satisfaction 
and its cordial sympathy with Dr. Nevin in the sentiments' 
expressed, pledging itself " in dependence upon Divine 
grace, to give him its earnest support in carrying out these 


The Board now proceeded to take further action by 
which it was hoped that its purposes would be accom- 
plished. Its representatives were directed to present the 
cause of the College to the citizens of Lancaster city and 
coujity and to the Synod of the Eeformed Church, at the 
same time making it plain that, in the judgment of the 
Board, not less than $200,000 should be secured, not more 
than $50,000 of which sum should be appropriated to the 
erection of additional buildings. The seats of all the 
members of the Board were declared vacant, and the Synod 
was requested to elect thirty persons to serve as a new 
Board in which the former denominational ratio should 
be preserved, upon condition that the necessary changes 
in the charter could be secured. The Synod accepted the 
proposal and declared it to be " its duty to raise at least 
$100,000 towards the fuller endowment of the institu- 
tion." It was further resolved that " in assuming this 
trust and providing for its present necessities, this Synod 
declares their purpose to hold it under such condition as 
will enable them to combine, if deemed advisable, with the 
present college organization, other educational interests 
of the German Reformed Church in a more comprehensive 
way. The consolidation contemplated in this resolution 
shall go into effect, so far as the removal of the Theological 
Seminary to Lancaster is concerned, as soon as $50,000 
shall be raised by the citizens of Lancaster city and county 
and the Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College, for 
the general interests of the imited institutions." It was 
on the authority conveyed by this resolution that the 
Theological Seminary was finally removed to Lancaster. 

Efforts were immediately made to secure the contem- 
plated increase in the endowment. Dr. B. C. Wolff, 


though advanced in years, immediately started out and 
obtained $16,000 by subscription; but at this point he be- 
came seriously ill, and the work was consequently delayed. 
Aided by Dr. Theodore Appel he subsequently secured 
several thousand dollars, but the great work which he had 
contemplated remained unfinished. After his death, in 
1870, the Rev. 0. U. Heilman became the agent of the 
College, and was especially successful in inducing the 
alumni to subscribe to the endowment of a professorship 
of English Literature of which Dr. William M. Nevin 
became the first incumbent. Mr. Heilman obtained sub- 
scriptions amounting to about twenty-six thousand dol- 
lars ; but truth compels us to say that, in consequence of 
prevailing controversies in the church, a considerable 
number of these subscriptions remained unpaid. 

During the first year of Dr. Nevin's presidency the con- 
tributions received were much smaller than had been ex- 
pected, and there was considerable discouragement. Dr. 
Nevin did not hesitate to say that he had been misled ; and 
on this ground he refused to be formally inaugurated. 

Looking back from our present standpoint we may easily 
comprehend the conditions that prevented immediate suc- 
cess. It was in the period of the Liturgical Controversy, 
and the Eeformed Church was disturbed and divided as 
it had never been before. Indeed, there were plenty of 
people who did not hesitate to say that the Church was 
utterly ruined. Dr. Nevin was prominent in the con- 
troversy, and though he was sustained by the majority of 
his synod, he was strongly opposed by an influential 
minority. Capital is proverbially sensitive, and it is not 
surprising that large benefactions failed to be secured in 
the midst of such a storm. 


Partly as a result of the prevailing controversy institu- 
tions were established which could not fail to be regarded 
as rivals of the parent college. Mercersburg College had 
been founded in 1865, mainly for the purpose of utilizing 
the buildings at Mercersburg; and under the presidency 
of Drs. Thomas G. Apple and E. E. Higbee it manifested 
extraordinary vigor. Between Mercersburg and Lancas- 
ter there was harmony of doctrine and sentiment ; but as 
both to some extent occupied the same field the number- 
of students at Lancaster was necessarily decreased. 
Ursinus College was founded in 1869, under the Presi- 
dency of the Eev. J. H. A. Bomberger, D.D., the first 
graduate of Marshall College, and naturally secured the 
patronage of those who stood with him in the liturgical 

The most cheering event of this period was the removal 
of the Theological Seminary from Mercersburg to Lan- 
caster. The Board of Trustees of the College donated to 
the Theological Seminary three and one-half acres at the 
southern end of the campus, of an estimated value of 
$5,000, for the erection of necessary buildings. It was, 
however, chiefly due to the perseverance of the Rev. J. W. 
Steinmetz, D.D., now of Reading, that the financial condi- 
tions of the removal were met. He canvassed the Re- 
formed churches and secured $36,000 for this special pur- 
pose. In this way the means were provided for the erec- 
tion of professors' houses, and considerable additions were 
made to the endowment of the institution. 

Dr. E. V. Gerhart was the only professor who accom- 
panied the Seminary on its removal to Lancaster, in Sep- 
tember, 1871. Dr. Thomas G. Apple had, however, been 
elected Professor of Church History and Exegesis, and 


took his place in the Faculty in November of the same 
year. The Theological Tutorship was vacant, but the posi- 
tion was filled by the appointment of the Kev. F. A. Gast 
who had previously taught in the college. Two years later, 
in 1873, this tutorship was changed to a professorship of 
Hebrew and Old Testament Theology, and Dr. Gast was 
chosen to fill the position. 

The accommodations provided for the Seminary were 
at first entirely inadequate. Two rooms — one on the sec- 
ond story of the college building and the other on the 
third — ^were set aside for Seminary lectures; and in the 
room on the third story shelves were put up for the library. 
As there was not enough room for the books they were in 
many instances arranged in several rows on the same shelf, 
the most important being supposed to be placed in front. 
Of course, it was all very inconvenient; but in some re- 
spects the close relations of the two institutions were not 
unattractive. Professors and students were brought into 
close intimacy, and in some respects the early conditions 
at Mercersburg were revived. The " college community " 
was enlarged and the moral and religious tone of the Col- 
lege became more pronounced. A congregation — ^now 
known as St. Stephen's — ^had been organized on Palm Sun- 
day, 1865, but it was not until after the arrival of the 
Seminary that it became vigorous and prosperous. During 
the term of Dr. Nevin's presidency the church was in his 
pastoral care; but since his retirement Dr. Gerhart has 
been the presiding pastor. At an expense of about $5,000 
the congregation, in 1873-74, enlarged the college chapel 
to its present dimensions. 

During the presidency of Dr. Nevin there were a nmn- 
ber of changes in the College Faculty. Dr. L. H. Steiner 


had, in 1866, declined a call to the professorship of Nat- 
ural Sciences; and in 1867 Dr. Budd was chosen. 

Charles Henry Budd was bom in Pemberton, N. J., 
December 8, 1822 ; and died in Philadelphia, October 22, 
1880. He was a younger brother of Professor Samuel 
W. Budd, and studied at Marshall College, but did not 
graduate. He was graduated in medicine at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, and subsequently practiced his pro- 
fession in Darby, Pennsylvania. During the Civil War he 
held important positions in connection with the hospitals 
of Philadelphia. From 1867 to 1871 he was a professor 
in Franklin and Marshall College, and from the latter date 
to his death he held a similar position in Girard College. 
Appleton's Cyclopasdia of American Biography says con- 
cerning him : " He was an early member of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, and an active participant in its work. 
Possessed of considerable mechanical skill he constructed 
scientific instruments, and also devised several processes 
that have since become of coromercial value." 

Early in Dr. Nevin's presidency a group of young pro- 
fessors appeared upon the scene. As recent graduates of 
the institution they were peculiarly familiar with its 
wants, and by their energy and enthusiasm added greatly 
to its effective force. In 1867, the year of his graduation, 
the Rev. John S. Stahr became Tutor in German and 
history, and in the following year was elected adjunct pro- 
fessor. In 1871 he became Professor of Natural Sciences 
and Chemistry — a position which he held until he was 
called to the presidency of the College. In 1868 the Rev. 
Daniel M. Wolf became an adjunct professor; and in 1871, 
when Dr. W. M. Nevin was transferred to the department 
of English Literature, he succeeded him as Professor of 


Ancient Languages. In 1872 the Eev. Walter E. Krebs 
succeeded Dr. Theodore Appel in the department of Mathe- 
matics, and Dr. Appel was transferred to the chair of 
Physics and Astronomy. 

The year 1869 was especially fruitful in plans for the 
enlargement of the college. A so-called " Dollar Plan " 
was proposed by which a contribution of one dollar was 
to be solicited from every member of the Eeformed Church 
within the scope, or purview, of the institution ; but it was 
soon found that this was not feasible. About five thousand 
dollars were contributed in this way and then the move- 
ment came to an end. Though there might have been a 
general response if an appeal could have been properly 
presented, the labor and expense was too great to render 


it successful. It was, however, felt that something must 
be done to provide accommodations for students, for since 
two rooms had been assigned to the Theological Seminary 
the College Building was greatly crowded; and for some 
reason which we do not comprehend students found it diffi- 
cult to secure lodging in the city. At first it was proposed 
to erect two dormitories; then it was resolved to build a 
chapel somewhere on the campus, and to divide the chapel 
connected with the College Building into rooms for stu- 
dents. Finally the Board determined to erect a large 
boarding-house on the college grounds and this plan was 
actually accomplished. At the Commencement of 1871 
the comer-stone was laid, and the building was named 
" Harbaugh Hall " in honor of Dr. Henry Harbaugh, who 


had first proposed its erection. It was a structure of 
considerable size, and cost about $15,000. Its external 
appearance was, however, more satisfactory than its in- 
ternal arrangements. Many of the rooms were uncom- 
fortable, and the means of heating them in winter, though 
costing a great deal of money, were from the beginning 
deficient. The College imdertook to furnish the building, 
and to engage a steward who was to conduct the refectory. 
The treasurer of the Faculty was directed to receive the 
money paid by students for board and room rent, and to 
pay the expenses of conducting the concern. A tutor was 
directed to take charge of the building and to preserve 

Many earlier students retain pleasant recollections of 
Harbaugh HalL Happy hours were spent within its walls, 
and friendships were formed which continued through life. 
There was plenty of fun, and nothing can now be more 
delightful than to recall recollections of innocent enjoy- 
ment. It will, however, be remembered that many stu- 
dents decidedly objected to the rule which required them 
to room there, and that, as soon as it was permitted, they 
hurried away to find another dwelling. To the Faculty 
the hall was a source of constant trouble, especially on 
account of the difficulty of securing and retaining efficient 
stewards ; and as a financial investment it proved an utter 
failure. It was finally removed to furnish an acceptable 
site for the present Science Building. 

When an institution or an individual begins to build, 
the end of the work can rarely be foretold. New wants 
appear, and what was intended to be a single house may 
become a cluster of buildings. It now became evident that 
the erection of an Academy Building could no longer be 


deferred without serious loss to the College, and in 18Y2 
the Board directed that the work should immediately be 
undertaken. A building was erected during the following 
year at a cost of about $20,000, and the school was placed 
under the sole direction of Cyrus "V. Mays, a graduate 
of the College of the class of '56. Professor Mays was 
successful in building up a prosperous school, but on ac- 
count of failing health was compelled to withdraw at the 
close of its second year. 

The erection of these buildings was no doubt necessary ; 
but it became a serious drain on the resources of the insti- 
tution. As no special fund had been provided for this 
purpose it became necessary to pay for them out of the 
treasury, and the endowment was correspondingly de- 
creased. This was, of course, regarded as a temporary 
loan, but years passed before the amount which had been 
withdrawn could be formally replaced. 

The earlier years of Dr. Kevin's presidency were not 
particularly eventful. Thoughtful students appreciated 
the privilege of receiving his instruction, and he is re- 
membered with profound affection. Theological con- 
troversies, however, still continued, and it would be wrong 
to say that they did not, in certain directions, limit his in- 
fluence. He was a powerful controversialist, and never 
suffered personal considerations to prevent him from 
taking the field in defence of what he conceived to be the 

Gradually the financial condition of the college im- 
proved, and a more comfortable feeling began to prevail. 
Gifts were received from friends who did not desire their 
names to be publicly announced, and we must even now 
respect their wishes. Mr. Jacob Bausman was, in 1867, 


elected Treasurer of the Board, and the financial interests 
of the institution were conducted with care and fidelity. 
Since his death the same office has been worthily occupied 
by his son, J. W. B. Bausman, Esq. 

The Audenried bequest, received in 1875, was the 
largest which had hitherto been obtained by the College 
from a single source. The testator consequently deserves 
a prominent place in the history of the institution, and it 
may be interesting to relate a few of the incidents of his 
somewhat remarkable career. 

Lewis Audenried was born at Maiden Creek, Berks 
county, Pennsylvania, October 19, 1799. His father, 
George Audenried, was a native of Switzerland, and was 
a man of intelligence and influence. Lewis was his third 
son, and seems to have shown signs of talent at an early 
age, as it is evident that he enjoyed the advantages of a 
better education than was usual in those days. In 1819 
he taught school in northern New York, thereby becoming 
familiar with the school-system which had been introduced 
into that state; and it was at his suggestion that his 
brother, WiUiam, then a member of the Legislature, intro- 
duced a bill from which the present school system of Penn- 
sylvania is claimed to be derived. Having entered into 
business he began to deal extensively in coal and lumber. 
In 1829 he built a forge, but this enterprise proved unsuc- 
cessful and he became financially involved. Having sub- 
sequently recovered himself, he surprised his creditors by 
paying all his old indebtedness with interest in full. 

It was not until he was forty-three years old that Mr. 
Audenried removed to Philadelphia, and embarked regu- 
larly in the coal trade. Here his operations gradually 
attained to great magnitude. He was among the first to 


ship coal from Port Eichmond, and his cars are said to 
have been the first to pass over the Central Railroad of 
New Jersey. At various times he was a partner in many 
firms, but the most important of these was the house of 
Lewis Audenried & Co., which had branches in many 
cities. In 1854 he became largely interested in the Honey- 
brook coal-lands, on which stands the town of Audenried 
which has been named in his honor. He was often in 
Europe and was as well known there in business circles as 
in his native land. He was never married. 

In early youth Mr. Audenried had been admitted by 
confirmation to membership to the Eef ormed Church ; but 
like many others he had suffered the cares of business to 
monopolize his attention to such a degree that he ceased 
to be a communicant member. For many years he was not 
connected with any congregation ; but held pews in several 
churches, to whose support he also otherwise contributed. 

In the concluding years of Mr. Audenried's life the im- 
pressions of early days began to revive, and he became 
peculiarly susceptible to religious instruction. Having 
made the acquaintance of the Eev. J. H. Dubbs, pastor of 
Christ Eeformed Church, there grew up between them a 
friendship that was intimate and sincere. On the first day 
of October, 1872, he was admitted to membership in Christ 
church by renewed profession. On this occasion he said 
with tears : " It is an unspeakable comfort to me that I 
have taken this step — I wish I had taken it long ago." 

After this event Mr. Audenried became more decidedly 
interested in the church and its institutions. His later 
days were earnest and devout. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 17, 1873. 

The fact that Mr. Audenried had been in his youth re- 


ceived into the Eeformed Church was well known, and it 
had long been hoped that he would leave a portion of hia 
great wealth to support its institutions. As early as 1867 
the Kev. Dr. B. C. Wolflf and Dr. William Mayburry — 
the latter his nephew by marriage — had ventured to pre- 
sent the claims of the college, and a suggestion that he 
should endow a professorship had been favorably received. 
It was, however, feared that in subsequent years the mind 
of Mr. Audenried had been unfavorably influenced by 
prevailing theological discussions, and that the hope of the 
friends of the college would fail to be realized. As he was 
regarded as peculiarly unapproachable, no one inquired 
concerning his purpose; and it was, therefore, somewhat 
of a surprise when, after his death, it appeared that he had 
bequeathed the sum of thirty-five thousand dollars for the 
endowment of a professorship in Franklin and Marshall 
College. As a codicil to the will the following paragraph 
also appeared : 

"As I have provided in my said will for the endowment 
of the Audenried Professorship of History and Archaeology 
in Franklin and Marshall College at Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, I desire and request that the Eeverend Joseph Henry 
Dubbs, now Pastor of Christ Eeformed Church on Green 
street (near 16th) Philadelphia, shall if he be living when 
said endowment is paid over, be appointed to said Professor- 
ship, that he shall occupy the chair thereof so long as he 
may desire and be able to fulfill its duties."^ 

In this connection it may be enough to add that Mr. 

Dubbs was elected Audenried Professor on February 16, 

"Mr. Audenried also bequeathed five thousand dollars to Christ 
Reformed Church, Philadelphia, and an equal amount to Bethany 
Orphans' Home, at Womelsdorf, besides leaving considerable legacies 
to other churches and benevolent institutions. 


1875. Under the circumstances lie felt it to be his duty 
to accept the call, and entered upon his duties on the first 
of July of the same year. 

The Eeverend Nathan C. Schaeffer was, on the 25th 
of July, 1875, elected Professor of Ancient Languages. 
He succeeded Professor D. M. Wolf, whose health had led 
him to retire. Dr. Schaeffer remained connected with the 
college for two years, and then accepted the presidency 
of the Keystone State Normal School. He has been for 
ten years Superintendent of Public Instruction in the 
State of Pennsylvania. 

During the period of Dr. Nevin's presidency the number 
of students did not greatly increase. This fact may have 
been partly due to the educational policy which then pre- 
vailed. The college was proud of its curriculum^ and 
there was a general dread of " letting down the bars." 
In 1868 Dr. Nevin wrote a prospectus which appeared in 
successive catalogues for ten years, at least, containing a 
defense of what he regarded as the best form of liberal 
culture. Times have changed, and the scope of all literary 
institutions has been greatly extended; but it may be 
interesting to reproduce the argument, if only to show 
what can be said in favor of a system to which for a long 
time the college held with exceptional tenacity. The fol- 
lowing is the most important section in the annual pros- 
pectus; and, whatever we may think of the contents, its 
vigor and candor are unmistakable : 

" Character and Design. — The College was created 
originally in the service of classical and liberal learning; 
and it aims to be true still to this object. A wide popular 
demand, it is known, prevails at this time for education in 
more practical forms ; and it has become the fashion largely, 


William Mann Irvine. 

John L. Atlee. 

Walter E. Krebs. 

Theodore Appel. 
F. W. Alexander Falk. 

Nathan C. Schaeffer. 

Martin L. Herb. 
Daniel M. Wolf. 



of late, to shape collegiate training in conformity with it, 
by combining, in various ways, what are termed scientific, 
professional or technic studies with liberal studies properly 
so called. Such business discipline is, of course, highly 
important in its place; and it is well, perhaps, that different 
Colleges, which have it in their power to do so, are testing 
the question how far it can be successfully joined with cul- 
ture in the other view. But no experiment of this sort is 
felt to be the mission of Franklin and Marshall College; 
and in no such character, therefore, does it bespeak public 
attention or favor. 

"The ambition of the institution is to be a College, in 
the old American sense of the term. What that means is 
shown by its course of studies. This is one and uniform; 
and it has for its ruling object throughout mental culture 
for its own sake. 

"There are therefore no optional courses in Franklin and 
Marshall College, in which the learner is allowed to choose 
for himself what he shall learn. It receives no irregular 
students, as they are called, and has no provisional or mixed 

"This may be with one class of persons an objection to 
the institution. But there is a difEerent class with whom 
it cannot fail to be a recommendation. If there be a call 
for mere business education on the part of many, there is 
still a demand, also, for true liberal education on the part 
of others; and for these, at least, there must be felt to be 
always a special advantage in a collegiate system devoted 
expressly and exclusively to this object. 

"A liberal education, in its very nature, regards not 
primarily any ends of business or professional work. It is 
not without reference to these, indeed, as an ulterior object, 
since all true human culture must show itself to be at last 
practical in some way ; but what it aims at immediately, and 
for the time being exclusively, is the cultivation of the mind 
for its own sake. All may easily see that this is something 


very different from forming the mind to be a fit instrument 
simply for securing other interests, which lie outside of 
itself, and are not at once, therefore, of its own constitution. 
Training for such outward utilitarian purposes (whether in 
lower or higher forms) involves, of course, mental culture — 
a discipline, as far as it goes, of the student's capacities and 
powers. But it is not, as such, liberal or free training; be- 
cause the mind is held bound in it always as means to an 
outward end. Only where education has its end in itself 
can it be truly of this high character. That is just what 
the term liberal properly here means. 

"Such education in the end is eminently practical. It 
is not at once, in and of itself, a fund of professional knowl- 
edge, or an apparatus of technic skill for the use of industry 
and trade. But what is far better, it is the culture of human 
personality itself, on the perfection of which, in its own 
wholeness, first of all, must ever depend at last the success- 
fur application of its powers instrumentally to all purposes 
beyond itself. There is no work or walk in life for which 
such free human culture is not of the very highest practical 

"Where this sort of education is to be secured it is easy 
to see that it must go before other forms of training in the 
order of time, and not follow after them, nor yet be mixed 
up with them in the same course. Hence the old idea of 
the American College, according to which a discipline of 
four years (beyond the academy or high-school) was con- 
sidered not too much to devote to the object of general per- 
sonal culture, as a preparation simply for entering on pro- 
fessional or business studies, strictly so called. We hear 
much now of a self-styled 'E"ew Education,' which is sup- 
posed to be in the way of changing all that. But so far 
as its main principle is concerned the old theory here was 
unquestionably right; and no change can be made for the 
better that pretends to set it wholly aside. 


"It will be generally felt too by those who understand 
and value the object of the old college education, that it 
cannot well be joined successfully with other schemes of 
study in the same institution. Where different courses are 
thus combined — one classical and humane in the old college 
form, and another, or perhaps two or three others, of the 
new polytechnic scientific sort — ^it is hardly possible that the 
classical course should be carried forward with proper spirit 
and effect. The department devoted to it will be found, 
in the midst of such uncongenial surroundings, working 
against wind and tide. Students themselves will have but 
small faith, and therefore no animation, in their studies. 
And so, as the result of all, it is likely to be only an apology 
for a liberal education at best that is reached in this way — 
even if this itself should not break down ingloriously in the 
middle of the college course. 

"A liberal education, it is plain, can be prosecuted with 
fidl advantage only where it is the sole reigning object and 
care of the institution in which it is carried forward. 

"Such is the one single purpose of Franklin and Marshall 
College. The institution asks no patronage in any other 
character. It does not invite students promiscuously to its 
halls; but only students who desire a full classical education 
for its own sake. This may make its classes smaller than 
they might be otherwise. But for the end here in view the 
importance of the institution does not depend on the size 
of its classes. It depends altogether on the fidelity with 
which this end is itself regarded and pursued." 

Tor many years Dr. Nevin cherished the purpose of 
securing a sufficient endowment to justify the College in 
giving free tuition to all its students. Of course, it was 
never proposed to abolish the minor fees which are neces- 
sarily collected for contingent purposes. At first free 


tuition was offered to students residing in Lancaster, on 
condition that a certain sum was contributed by the city 
and county. It was in pursuance of this plan that Mr. 
Diodorus Diffenbacher — then a student in the Theological 
Seminary — collected about $8,000 from citizens of Lan- 
caster. Subsequently it was proposed, on similar condi- 
tions, to extend the same privileges to counties and school 
districts ; but it was not until a later period that the Col- 
lege could be declared free. 

During the later years of his presidency Dr. Nevin was 
cheered by the prospect of securing for the College an 
important addition to its resources. The Wilhelm family, 
of Somerset county, had declared its intention of leaving 
to the institutions at Lancaster a very considerable estate. 
The gift was slow in coming; but the heart of the aged 
president was encouraged by anticipation. It was not, 
however, until after he had retired that this matter be- 
came generally known, and we, therefore, defer its con- 
sideration to a subsequent chapter. 

Feeling the burden of advancing years President Nevin, 
in 1876, tendered his resignation, and after due considera- 
tion it was reluctantly accepted. In subsequent years 
he continued to reside at Caenarvon Place, near Lancaster, 
devoting much of his time to the contemplation of the 
mysteries of the world to come. He continued to write 
for the press, and it was evident that his pen had not lost 
its vigor. At times he preached in the College Chapel; 
and, to those who knew and loved him, his discourses 
seemed like messages from another world. When he grew 
feeble friends gathered more frequently at his home ; and 
to them he addressed words which, if they could have been 
preserved, might have exerted a powerful influence on sub- 


sequent generations. It was a grand and glorious privi- 
lege to receive instruction from his venerable lips. 

President John Williamson Nevin died June 6, 1886, 
and was buried at Woodward Hill Cemetery. In the Col- 
lege Chapel there is a window which is dedicated to his 
memory. It represents the apostle John with an eagle at 
his side. Close at hand is a beautiful lectern that bears 
the name of his faithful wife. 

We feel unable to do justice to the person and work 
of Dr. Nevin. In the Church and the institutions which 
he served his memory is green. " Of his name and fame 
future ages will not be ignorant." 



Pbesident Thomas G. Apple — ^The Wilhelm Estate — Chables 
Santee — The Centennial — De. Apple's Retjbbment. 

On the resignation of Dr. John W. Nevin the College 
was left for some time without a president. For many 
years it had received the service of a distinguished man 
at a salary that was hardly more than nominal; and the 
Board was now confronted by a two-fold difficulty. It 
was, of course, not easy to find a man who was in all re- 
spects suited to the position; but even if they had suc- 
ceeded in finding him, there were no means at hand to pay 
a respectable salary. The Board, therefore, resolved to 
defer the election of a president for one year, in the mean- 
time requesting Professor William M. Nevin to occupy 
ad interim the position which had so long' and ably been 
filled by his brother. That he performed this duty credit- 
ably is well known. It was a quiet year and the College 
was prosperous. 

On the 27th of June, 1877, the Board elected the 
Eeverend Thomas Gilmore Apple, D.D., President of 
Franklin and Marshall College, " it being understood that 
he be permitted to retain his position in the Theological 

In taking this action the Board followed the precedent 
which had been established in Mercersburg in the election 
of Drs. Kauch and Nevin, both of whom had been pro- 
fessors in the Theological Seminary. The authorities of 

the Seminary interposed no objections, and Dr. Apple en- 



tered upon the duties of his presidency in the autumn of 
the year of his election. 

Thomas Gihnore Apple was born in Easton, Pa., No- 
vember 14, 1829. " He came from German, Irish and 
English ancestry, and possessed some of the best elements 
of these three different nationalities."^ When he was 
eleven years old he removed with his parents to Saeger- 
towu, Crawford county, Pennsylvania; but returned to 
Easton in 1845 to attend the classical school of the Rev. Dr. 
John Vanderveer, who prepared him for college. Entering 
the Sophomore class in Marshall College in the spring of 
1848 he was graduated with honor in 1850. In the next 
year he was married to Miss Emma M. Miller, of Easton, 
and in 1852 took charge of the school of Dr. Vanderveer 
who withdrew to place it in his care. He studied theology 
privately and was in the same year ordained a minister 
of the Reformed Church. Having successively served as 
pastor at Riegelsville, Greensburg and Irwin, Mechanics- 
burg and Greencastle, he was in 1865 appointed president 
of Mercersburg College. As has already been stated he 
was in 1871 called to the professorship of Church History 
and Exegesis in the Theological Seminary at Lancaster. 
When he was invited to the presidency of the College the 
arrangement was supposed to be merely temporary, but it 
was actually continued for twelve years. That he was 
able, for so long a time, acceptably to hold two positions 
demanding extraordinary ability, is a sufficient indication 
of his physical and mental strength. 

Dr. Apple was in his favorite departments of study an 
excellent teacher. The peculiar philosophy of the institu- 
tions he expounded with ability and enthusiasm. As a 

""Obituary Record," Vol. I., p. 281. 


disciplinarian he possessed the unusual gift of governing 
most when least he seemed to govern. When dissensions 
occurred between individual students he manifested mar- 
vellous power in leading them by a few questions to mutual 
confessions and apologies. In manner he was dignified 
and courteous, and from the students he commanded uni- 
versal respect. 

In the affairs of the religious denomination with which 
he was connected Dr. Apple was profoundly interested. 
He was president of the Eastern Synod in 1868 and of the 
Greneral Synod of the Reformed Church in 1893. He was 
a member of the committee that framed the Order of Wor- 
ship, and was also a member of the so-called Peace Com- 
mission. Twice he visited Europe as a delegate to meet- 
ings of the Alliance of Reformed churches, held in Belfast 
and London, and in the meeting of the same body in 
Toronto, Canada, he took a prominent part. There have 
been few men who were better qualified to preside over a 
deliberative body. 

For some years Dr. Apple was the editor of the Be- 
formed Church Review, and he also wrote extensively for 
other religious periodicals. From 1879 until his death he 
was the president of the Oliosophic Society — generally 
called " The Clio " — a literary and social organization 
which has exerted an important influence in bringing the 
city and the College into more intimate relations. 

From all this it may be concluded that Dr. Apple was a 
man of unusual power. Though his college presidency 
necessarily occupied but half of his time, he enjoyed the 
unique distinction of accomplishing more than his friends 
had anticipated. He will always hold a prominent place 
in the history of Franklin and Marshall College. During 

^^^ ^ ^c^t 


Dr. Apple's presidency there were several changes in the 
Faculty. In 1877 the Reverend Dr. Theodore Appel and 
the Reverend Walter E. Krebs withdrew, and in the same 
year Dr. John B. Kieffer succeeded Dr. Schaeffer as Pro- 
fessor of Ancient Languages, and Frederick K. Smyth 
became Professor of Mathematics. Professor Smyth, who 
was a graduate of Bowdoin College, held his professorship 
until 1880, when he resigned, subsequently removing to 
California. In the same year he was succeeded by Dr. 
Jefferson E. Kershner, who had previously been a Tutor 
in Mathematics. The Reverend George F. Mull, who had 
been Rector of the Academy from 1883 to '85, became in 
1886 Adjunct Professor of English Literature and assist- 
ant in Latin; and in 1888 the Reverend Richard 0. 
Schiedt was appointed Adjunct Professor in Natural 
Sciences and the German Language. In 1892 Professors 
Mull and Schiedt were both promoted to full professor- 

In 1877 the death of Mr. Peter Wilhelm, of Somerset 
county, directed renewed attention to a subject to which 
we have referred in a previous chapter. For many years 
the matter of the " Wilhelm Estate " has occupied so 
prominent a place in the proceedings of the Board of Trus- 
tees that it seems necessary to give some account of the 
manner in which it came into the possession of the College. 
To relate all its particulars is, however, by no means an 
easy undertaking; and we must crave indulgence if we 
fail to do full justice to all the elements that enter into 
this somewhat remarkable story.* 

' For our facts we are chiefly indebted to " The Life and Work of 
John Williamson Nevin," by Theodore Appel, CD. ; " History of 
the Wilhelm Legacy," by A. B. Koplin, D.D., an article in The Col- 
lege Student for March, 1901; and to the Proceedings of the Board 
of Trustees. 


When Dr. Koplin was called, in 1858, to a pastorate in 
Somerset county there lived, in the vicinity of Elk Lick, 
a family named Wilhelm. At that time its surviving 
members were three brothers and a sister, all of whom 
were advanced in years and had remained unmarried. 
Two deceased sisters had been married and had left de- 
scendants. According to the standards of the time and 
place they were accounted wealthy, though they lived in 
the most unpretentious manner. Their integrity was un- 
doubted, and to their tenants and servants they were kind 
and liberal. Though they understood English they pre- 
ferred to speak Pennsylvania-German, and to address 
them in this dialect was the most certain way of gaining 
their confidence. 

The Wilhehns were of Eeformed and Lutheran descent, 
but were not church members. Soon after Dr. Koplin'a 
arrival in the neighborhood the eldest brother, Abraham, 
was taken with fatal illness, and expressed an earnest 
desire to be admitted to church membership, and having 
professed his faith he received the Lord's Supper. Im- 
pressed by this edifying example the surviving members 
of the family joined the pastor's catechetical class and 
were in due time received into the church. 

When truly honest men take such a step they do not 
shrink from the responsibilities which it involves. In this 
instance there was complete consecration, and from the 
beginning they manifested an inclination to make all pos- 
sible sacrifices. At their request a church was organized 
in the immediate vicinity of their home, and Benjamin 
and Peter Wilhelm became the first elder and deacon. In 
the performance of their duties these aged men explored 
the surrounding region, and urged the people to attend 


religious instruction and service. In 1863 it was resolved 
to erect a new church — ^to be known as St. Paul's — ^but in 
that year the pastor was called to another field of useful- 
ness and the building was postponed. Pastor Koplin was, 
however, in 1867 persuaded to return to his former field 
and now there was no more delay. A church was built 
which cost $14,000 and of this amount the Wilhelm's con- 
tributed more than $11,000. They also presented to the 
congregation a fine organ which, with their churchly feel- 
ings, they regarded as a matter of the highest importance. 
To subjects of general benevolence they showed themselves 
Unusually liberal. When " The Fisherman " (Mr. 
Leonard) presented the cause of Heidelberg College, at 
Tiffin, Ohio, the Wilhelms presented him a contribution 
of three hundred dollars in gold. It was at one time pro- 
posed to establish an important literary institution in the 
special interest of the Reformed Church in western Penn- 
sylvania, and Westmoreland College, at Mount Pleasant, 
was founded with this purpose. On this occasion the 
Wilhelms promised to leave a bequest of $25,000 for the 
endowment of the presidency ; but as the school was closed 
in about five years for want of sufficient support this 
promise was necessarily withdravm. 

When Abraham Wilhelm died he left his undivided in- 
terest in the estate to his brothers, Benjamin and Peter. 
Even at this early day there seems to have been an under- 
standing that the property should be kept intact as long 
as either of the brothers survived and then transferred 
to some promising charitable interest. 

As this purpose became evident many efforts were made 
to induce the brothers to leave their property to local in- 
terests, but they were firm in their purpose to limit their 


benefactions to the institutions of their church. The Hon- 
orable W. J. Baer was their legal adviser and intimate 
friend; and they also had the fullest confidence in their 
pastor, the Eeverend A. B. Koplin ; but they were slow to 
speak, and in many respects kept their own counsel. Pres- 
ident Nevin wrote to Messrs. Baer and Koplin, soliciting 
their influence in behalf of the institutions at Lancaster, 
and it was fully and cheerfully granted. At the laying 
of the comer-stone of St. Paul's church Dr. Theodore 
Appel preached, and he received from the Wllhelm brothers 
encouraging assurances. When the church was conse- 
crated Dr. ilfevin preached, and when he left they told 
him that they would leave the greater part of their estate 
for the endowment of the institutions at Lancaster. 

On August 11, 1873, Benjamin Wilhehn conveyed his 
undivided interest in the estate to his brother Peter, and 
died on the 17th of September following. Three months 
later Dr. Koplin, whose health had begun to fail, removed 
to a charge which required less exposure, and the Eeverend 
C. TI. Heilman became his successor. Mr. Heibnan, it 
will be remembered, had previously been an agent of the 
College, and his influence was altogether favorable. To 
him the Wilhelms immediately gave their confidence and 
he was subsequently nominated one of the executors of the 

Arrangements were now made to carry out the original 
purpose of the family. On May 16, 1876, the surviving 
sister, Anna Maria (generally known as " Polly ") con- 
veyed her undivided share of the property to her brother 
Peter. In consequence of, certain local affairs in which 
Mr. Wilhehn was interested the making of a will was, how- 
ever, delayed until February 20, 1878, when he simul- 


taneously signed his will and executed a deed of trust by 
which the greater part of his estate was left to Franklin 
and Marshall College and to the Theological Seminary of 
the Keformed Church at Lancaster " in the proportion of 
two-thirds part thereof to the former and one-third to the 
latter." He provided for the comfortable maintenance of 
his sister, and left considerable bequests to some of his 
heirs at law, though some of these were intentionally ex- 
cluded. He also left minor bequests to a number of re- 
ligious and charitable institutions. 

When Mr. Wilhelm executed his will no one supposed 
that the end of his life was near at hand; but he died 
March 13, 1878, less than one calendar month after the 
document was signed. According to the law of Pennsyl- 
vania this fact invalidated the bequest, and on the last day 
of his life Mr. Wilhelm was much disquieted by this 
anticipation. He said : " Gott weiss wohl ich habe es gut 

For some time after Mr. Wilhelm's death it was feared 
that the bequests were lost. The intentions of the Wilhelm 
family were, however, so well known and had been so fre- 
quently expressed that the best friends of the college were 
not without hope. On the advice of Mr. George F. Baer 
a bill in equity was filed in the court of Somerset county, 
in the names of Charles Santee, Jeremiah J. Folk, Her- 
man L. Baer, C. U. Heilman and John A. Kimmel, Trus- 
tees, in behalf of Franklin and Marshall College and the 
Theological Seminary. The successive stages in the suc^ 
ceeding negotiations we have not space to describe; but 
a compromise with the heirs at law was finally effected. 
There were upwards of thirty heirs and with these in- 
dividual settlements were made. In this work the Hon- 


orable John Cessna performed excellent service, and many 
other friends of the College labored with untiring energy. 

The value of the estate which passed into the possession 
of the institutions at Lancaster it is not easy to deter- 
mine. In a report made to the Board of Trustees in 1880 
Mr. Cessna says : " No one places the estimate of its value 
at less than sixty thousand dollars; others fix it at 
seventy-five thousand; and some make it one hundred 
thousand dollars." A mining engineer who examined the 
land at the request of the Board presented a much higher 
estimate; but his figures were derived from supposed 
mineral deposits from which nothing has hitherto been 

The Wilhelm estate consisted of more than two thou- 
sand acres of land, which was probably at that time more 
valuable for agricultural purposes than it would prove 
at present. As secured by the institutions it was subject 
to the payment of several special legacies, besides the 
amount paid by way of compromise to the heirs at law. 
Dr. Stahr informs us that the amount paid out until 1889, 
including accumulated interest, was $40,793.92. All this 
had been repaid to the institutions from the proceeds of 
land sold; and in addition the College had received $16,- 
469 and the Theological Seminary $9,234.32. Since that 
time more land has been sold, and the estate has been 
a source of income. The Board, however, has been careful 
to sell only surface rights, in each instance retaining the 
mineral rights for the benefit of the institutions. That 
there is much coal on the land has never been doubted, and 
there is little doubt that it will finally provide a consider- 
able source of income. The surface rights of one of the 
farms and of part of another still remain unsold, so that, in 


the judgment of the president, we may still at least expect 
a sum sufficiently large to endow a professorship. 

Though the Wilhelm estate did not enrich the institution 
to the extent which its friends expected, it was at the time 
peculiarly valuable. To the general interests of the Col- 
lege it gave an impetus which was greatly felt in succeed- 
ing years. In the institutions which it benefited the gen- 
erosity of the Wilhelm family should always be gratefully 

The Daniel SchoU Observatory was founded by Mrs. J. 
M. Hood, of Frederick, Maryland, by a special contribu- 
tion of ten thousand dollars. The structure was named 
in memory of the deceased father of the generous donor. 
Mrs. Hood also provided an endowment of the Observa- 
tory, and a number of friends of the College contributed 
to its equipment. The clock is a memorial to Nevin A. 
Swander, a deceased member of the class of 1884, and is 
the gift of his parents. The eleven-inch Clark-Repsold 
Equatorial is a superior instrument, and under the care of 
Dr. J. E. Kershner every facility is at hand for first-class 
astronomical work. The Observatory was dedicated, June 
16, 1886, on which occasion an appropriate address was 
delivered by Professor C. A. Young, of Princeton. For 
the success which attended this enterprise the institution 
owes much to the cooperation of the Rev. E. E. Eschbach, 
D.D., of Frederick, Md. 

There were at this time many indications of progress. 
The G-arber Herbarium was secured for the College, and 
the Fahnestock, Fries and Heisler cabinet of minerals was 
also added to its collections. J. W. Wetzel, Esq., of Car- 
lisle, and Dr. R. K. Buehrle, of Lancaster, endowed prizes 
which have done much to stimulate the energy of students. 


Under the care of John Heilman, John C. Hager and 
others the campus became beautiful. There were few 
large gifts, but on several occasions the members of the 
Board of Trustees quietly furnished needed relief. 
Though we cannot venture to enter into particulars it is 
no more than simple justice to refer to the benevolence of 
Mr. Charles Santee, of Philadelphia. In 1886 he con- 
tributed ten thousand dollars to the endowment of the 
institution, but this by no means indicates the extent of 
his benefactions. Year after year he brought his gifts, and 
these were so silently presented that their extent was 
hardly known. Knowing the purity of his benevolence 
and the modesty of his disposition we feel even now a cer- 
tain hesitation in referring to his numerous gifts. 

Charles Santee was a native of Northampton county, 
and became in early life a member of the Reformed 
Church to which he always remained sincerely attached. 
When in his youth he removed to Philadelphia he brought 
with him the principles of probity and rectitude which he 
had acquired at home, and in his long and active career he 
never departed from them. Having entered into business 
he studied the subject with all the powers of an acute 
mind, and it was to his skill in finance that the successful 
establishment of the great wholesale house of James, Kent, 
Santee & Co. was generally ascribed. At a later period 
many other important interests were confided to his care ; 
and it need not be said that those who trusted in his 
judgment were not disappointed. His charities were 
numerous and liberal; and there are many churches and 
benevolent institutions which owe much of their present 
prosperity to his beneficence. " Santee Hall " — ^the beauti- 
ful chapel of the Theological Seminary — ^was one of his 
latest gifts. 


Mr. Santee was more than a liberal giver; he was a 
prudent counsellor. For more than forty years he was a 
member of the Board of Trustees ; and as a member of the 
Committee on Finance his advice was of great value. 
When he went to his reward in April, 1898, his departure 
left a vacancy which it has been found difficult to fill. 

For more than twenty years Mr. George Gelbach, also 
of Philadelphia, was Mr. Santee's companion in attend- 
ing the meetings of the Board. He was also a generous 
benefactor of the institution; and after his death, which 
occurred in 1886, a memorial window was very appro- 
priately placed in the college chapel. 

As the year 188Y approached there was a general desire 
that the Centennial anniversary of the founding of Frank- 
lin College should be appropriately observed. It was also 
suggested that the Semi-centennial of Marshall College 
might be celebrated at the same time, though absolute his- 
torical accuracy would have demanded a somewhat earlier 
celebration. For the celebration itself the Alumni Associa- 
tion deserves the chief credit, though it was cheerfully 
aided by the Board of Trustees and all the friends of the 

The Centennial was in every respect successful. It was 
celebrated in connection with the Conmiencement of 1887, 
and began with the Baccalaureate Sermon on Sunday, 
Jime 12. Dr. Thomas G. Apple preached an excellent 
discourse on the words : " Without me ye can do nothing." 
John 15, 5. On Monday and Tuesday there were the 
usual college exercises; but on Tuesday evening a mass 
meeting was held in the Court House. At this meeting 
the Honorable John W. Killinger presided, and an address 


was delivered by Dr. William Pepper, LL.D.,* Provost of 
the University of Pennsylvania, on " Benjamin Frank- 
lin " ; and another by the Honorable K. W. Hughes, of 
Virginia, on the " Life and Character of John Marshall." 
After these addresses Governor Beaver made an impromptu 
speech which was highly appreciated. 

Next day there was a great assembly on the College 
Campus. A large tent had been put up, and it was said by 
the papers of the day that fifteen hundred people partook 
of the alumni dinner, though this may have been an ex- 
aggeration. There were official representatives from the 
University of Pennsylvania, Princeton, Kutgers, Lafay- 
ette, Dickinson, Muhlenberg, and other colleges. Among 
those who responded to toasts were Hon. John Cessna, Hon. 
George F. Baer, Dr. F. A. Muhlenberg, Dr. Traill Green, 
Dr. Stanhope Orris of Princeton, and possibly others. 
At 3 o'clock the Eev. Dr. J. Spangler Kieffer delivered an 
address on the " Relations of the College to the Church." 

On the evening of the same day a second meeting was 
held in the Court House. Addresses were delivered by Dr. 
Lewis H. Steiner and the Honorable W. U. Hensel, and 
a Centennial Ode was read by the Eeverend C. E. Siegel. 
The audience was very large, and the meeting was one of 
the most successful of the series. We well remember how 
at a late hour Mr. Hensel roused the audience to enthu- 
siasm by an address on " The Eelations of the City to the 

The Commencement was held on Thursday in ancient 

form, and the " Centennial Class " was duly graduated. 

' It was a pleasant but rather unusual incident that when Dr. 
Pepper met the treasurer he not only declined compensation for his 
services but insisted on his acceptance of a check for one thousand 
dollars as a contribution to the endowment of the College. 


A public reception was held in the evening in the College 
building, and the attendance exceeded all anticipation. 
The crowd was actually so great that the waiters experi- 
enced much difficulty in distributing refreshments; but 
every one was in a good humor and the reception was de- 
clared an abundant success. An unforeseen event was the 
simultaneous explosion of a number of fireworks which 
it had been proposed to set off from the roof of Harbaugh 
Hall. The sight was magnificent while it lasted, but was 
too brief to be entirely satisfactory. Fortunately no harm 
was done to persons or property. 

The Centennial was certainly a great occasion in the 
history of the College and it seemed as if everything had 
been done to render it interesting. Even the invitations 
and programs had been printed in antique style on hand- 
made paper, and were greatly admired. A complete 
series is now a desideratum. 

The success of the centennial celebration encouraged the 
friends of the College to renewed efforts. It was deemed 
of the highest importance that the presidency should be 
fully endowed, and there was also a demand for increased 
facilities in scientific research. Dr. J. S. Stahr undertook 
the task of making a personal canvass, and for this pur- 
pose was temporarily relieved from teaching. For nearly 
two years he was engaged in this work, assisted for some 
time by the Kev. J. F. De Long, D.D. The results of this 
agency were very gratifying, amounting in all to upwards 
of forty thousand dollars. In the same year Drs. Kieffer 
and Schiedt secured contributions for the Library and 
Biological Department, amounting in all to about four 
thousand dollars and the " Greometrical Progression" 
plan, inaugurated by the ladies, brought nearly thirteen 


The prospects of the College were now brighter than 
they had been for years. The number of students was 
gradually increasing, and there was general anticipation 
of brighter days. The endowment of the presidency hav- 
ing been nearly completed President Apple felt that 
the time had now come when he might honorably retire 
from his work in the College to devote himself entirely to 
his professorship in the Theological Seminary. In 1888 
he offered his resignation, but was persuaded to remain 
another year. He loved the College and the separation 
was naturally painful ; but he began to feel the weight of 
advancing years, and in 1889 his resignation was finally 
accepted. For nine years longer he labored in the Theolog- 
ical Seminary, continuing his studies and literary labors 
almost to the end. He died September 17, 1898. His 
faithful and disinterested service to the institutions of his 
Church will always be gratefully remembered. 



President John S. Stahb — Death op Hon. John Cessna — Elec- 
tion OF Dr. Geo. F. Baeb — Free Tuition — Biennial Tests 
— Athletics — MilitabY Science — New Theological 
Seminary — Present College Faculty — Death 
OF Dr. W. M. Nbvin — Watts-dbPeysteb 
Library — Science Building — Academy. 

The incidents which we have still to relate may be 
supposed to be well remembered. They are, indeed, so 
near at hand that they can hardly be presented in proper 
proportions. All that we can hope to do is to give a brief 
summary of recent events, thus enabling the reader to 
form some idea of the present condition of the institution. 

When Dr. Thomas G. Apple retired from the presi- 
dency of Franklin and Marshall College, in 1889, Dr. 
John S. Stahr, Professor of Natural Sciences, was ap- 
pointed president pro tern. In the succeeding year, 1890, 
Dr. Stahr was elected President; and duly inaugurated 
at the opening of the fall term. On the latter occasion 
the exercises were under the general supervision of a com- 
mittee of which the Reverend Dr. J. O. Miller was chair- 

President John Summers Stahr was bom in Bucks 
county, Pennsylvania, December 2, 1841. He was grad- 
uated at Franklin and Marshall College, in 1867, and 
subsequently received the degrees of A.M., 1870, Ph.D., 
1883, and D.D., 1891, the latter degree having been con- 
ferred by Lafayette College. Before he entered college 



he had been a successful teacher, and his appointment as an 
instructor immediately after graduation was in recogni- 
tion of his talents in this field. He was ordained to the 
ministry in 1872, and is extensively known as a preacher 
and as a contributor to the religious and educational press. 
Having been for many years engaged in the service of the 
institution, his elevation to the presidency gave assurance 
of faithfulness to the past and of earnest and unremit- 
ting labor in days to come. 

The Honorable John Cessna was president of the Board 
of Trustees until his death, December 13, 1893. He 
had held this office since 1865 when he was chosen to 
succeed President James Buchanan. That he was earn- 
estly devoted to the interest of the College has never been 
doubted. In caring for its financial investments no labor 
seemed too great, and at the meetings of the Board he was 
rarely if ever absent from his place. Though in later 
years he was overtaken by misfortune his affection 
for the College never wavered. Less than a year before 
his death he delivered at Commencement an address which 
was full of hope and enthusiasm. 

John Cessna, LL.D., was born in Colerain township, 
Bedford county, Pennsylvania, June 29, 1821. His 
father was a farmer and he was the eldest of twelve chil- 
dren. Having been prepared by the Kev. B. K. Hall he 
entered Marshall College where he was graduated in 
1842. Among his fellow students he was a natural 
leader, and he was noted for his sturdy independence of 
character. It is said that as long as he was a student he 
regularly made journeys on foot between the College and 
his home in Bedford county, a distance of forty miles. 


After his graduation Mr. Cessna was for a year a tutor 
in Marshall College and then studied law. That he be- 
came a distinguished lawyer need hardly he said; and 
during the period of his public life there were few im- 
portant political movements in which he was not pro- 
foundly interested. He was twice elected Speaker of the 
House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, and was also 
an eminent member of the National Congress. In 1892 
he was again elected to the Legislature, after an absence 
of thirty years, and of this body he was a member at the 
time of his death. 

When the Board of Trustees of Franklin and Marshall 
College proceeded to choose a successor to Mr. Cessna 
there was no difference of opinion. On the 19 th of June, 
1894, George F. Baer, LL.D., of Reading, was elected 
President, and this important position he still occupies. 

Dr. Baer has been since 1872 a member of the Board 
of Trustees. Indeed, he has been identified with the in- 
stitution for a much longer period, for in earlier years 
he was a student. He has always been an earnest sup- 
porter of the College; but since he has become its official 
head his wisdom and liberality have been important ele- 
ments in its development. That in connection with his 
important duties as President of the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railroad, he should find time to attend to the 
affairs of Franklin and Marshall College is a source of 
constant surprise and gratitude. 

The closing decade of the nineteenth century brought 
many changes in the external and internal conditions of 
the institution. There was an earnest desire to accom- 
modate the College to recent conditions, especially in the 
advancement of the Scientific Department. Liberal con- 


tributions received during the centennial year from the 
Black and Eyennan families, members of the Third 
Street Reformed Church of Easton, Pa., through their 
pastor, the Eev. Henry M. Kieffer, D.D., and from Mrs. 
Hood, of Frederick, Md., rendered it possible to provide 
a chemical laboratory. Though small it served an excel- 
lent purpose, and its erection has been held to mark an era 
in the history of the College. 

There were, indeed, evident signs of progress. The 
course of study was rearranged and a number of addi- 
tional studies were included in the curriculum. In 1891 
tuition was made free, so that since that date no student 
has had to pay for the instruction which he receives. This 
was an end to which the friends of the College had looked 
forward for many years, and there was great rejoicing. 
College fees are still collected, as has always been done; 
but they are smaller in amount than in most literary 
institutions. It is partly due to the abolition of fees for 
tuition that the necessary expenses of students may be kept 
within unusually narrow limits. 

It was also in 1891 that the Biennial Test examinations 
were abolished. To the present generation of students it 
may be necessary to explain that these examinations were 
held at the end of the Sophomore and Senior years, and 
were in their day regarded as the chief "bugbear" of the 
course. In each instance the student was examined on all 
the branches studied during the previous two years, and 
on his success in this examination his promotion depended. 
This method had been employed since 1857, and it hardly 
seemed possible that it could ever be abrogated. The 
Sophomore Test was peculiarly trying, and many students 
failed to be promoted. Efforts were frequently made to 

C 9f^. 


escape the ordeal, but generally without success. Once, 
however, it is said, a "smart" Sophomore, who felt the 
Test approaching, applied for a regular dismissal to an 
institution in which no such examination existed. The 
application could not well be refused and the transition 
was duly made; but at the opening of the next term he 
was, at his own request, dismissed back to Eranklin and 
Marshall and was admitted ad eundem to the Junior class, 
thus escaping the Sophomore Test. If this story is au- 
thentic it was a peculiarly sharp trick. 

The Tests were, of course, intended to promote study, 
as well as to preserve the unity of the course; but it 
was claimed that they induced inordinate "cramming" 
and in some instances wrought positive injustice. How- 
ever this may have been, it is certain that the institution 
did not suffer from their discontinuance. 

Franklin and Marshall College has always declared 
that education concerns the whole man, involving the de- 
velopment of the body, mind and soul. That physical 
health is essential to mental and spiritual culture has never 
been doubted; but it must be confessed that in the early 
history of the institution no one seems to have given to 
athletics the attention which the subject manifestly de- 
serves. The sports in which students engaged were those 
of their earlier years, and for want of proper direction 
were frequently rough, not to say improper. In 1862 
Dr. Gerhart proposed to the Board of Trustees the erec- 
tion of a Gymnasium, "or partial substitute," to supply 
students with the means of securing vigorous and exhil- 
erating exercises. It was accordingly ordered that there 
should be erected on the college grounds "leaping-bars, 
exercising ladders and a swinging pole or poles" and that a 


"hand-ball-alley and a cricket-ground" should also be pro- 
vided. To what extent this resolution was carried out 
we have no means of knowing ; but as it was passed in the 
days of the Civil War and many of the students were 
soon afterward invited to engage in a very different sort of 
exercise, it is not probable that much was accomplished. 
Many efforts were subsequently made to advance the cause 
of athletics, especially by Professor Smyth who was an 
accomplished athlete ; but it was not until 1890 that any- 
thing important was actually accomplished. In that year 
a meeting was held on the campus on the day before Com- 
mencement, and a number of subscriptions were secured 
for the erection and furnishing of a Gymnasium. That 
this movement proved successful was chiefly due to the 
efforts of the Honorable W. U. Hensel. The building 
was completed in 1891, and was fully provided with all 
the requirements for athletic work. The bowling alley 
was supplied by the liberality of Mr. H. S. Williamson, 
who has taken great interest in athletics and from whom 
Williamson Field derives its name. The cost of the 
building was $7,000, of which about $4,000 were sup- 
plied by voluntary subscription. 

In 1891 Dr. William Mann Irvine became Physical 
Instructor and Director of the Gymnasium, at the same 
time serving as Assistant Professor in Political Economy 
and English. He had been known as an athlete at Prince- 
ton, and was an enthusiastic advocate of gymnastic exer- 
cises and athletic sports as an important element in college 
discipline. In organizing the department of athletics, 
and under his direction the foot-ball team became formid- 
able. Among the students there was great enthusiasm; 
and there was some surprise among the older people when 


it was found that devotion to college sports did not make 
students rough and boisterous, but on the contrary rend- 
ered them more orderly and amenable to discipline. 

There is nothing in the world more admirable than the 
development of manhood, but unless such development is 
harmonious it will be stunted or distorted. Youthful 
vigor is a precious possession; but if it is not properly 
guarded it may easily lead to excess. Athletics have not 
only taught with renewed force the ancient lesson that 
"he who striveth for the mastery is temperate in all 
things"; they have long since ceased to be regarded as 
mere recreations, and are fuUy recognized as a necessary 
preliminary to healthy and vigorous manhood. Since 
the resignation of Dr. Irvine, in 1893, the position of 
Physical Director has been successively held by Greorge 
W. Hartman, Frederick Benner, Dr. H. S. Wingert, Dr. 
John H. Outland, Dr. John Hedges and John G. Chal- 
mers. The department is highly esteemed, and has been 
the source of many struggles and triimiphs whose story 
enthusiastic athletes are best fitted to relate. 

In 1894 Military Science and Tactics became a depart- 
ment of instruction. An officer of the army of the 
United States was specially detailed by the government 
for service in the College, giving military instruction and 
drill. This position was held until 1900 by Captain 
Edgar Wellington Howe, who was succeeded by Major 
Eobert F. Bates. Kegular drill was no doubt beneficial 
in many ways, and military exercises were, of course, a 
pleasant sight; but the arrangement did not prove in all 
respects satisfactory, and in 1901 the detail was at the 
request of the College withdrawn, and the arms which had 
been furnished by the government were duly returned. 


The Theological Seminary, as we have seen, had for 
many years occupied rooms in the College Building. 
Though the intimate relation of the institutions was in 
many respects pleasant, it is evident that both were greatly 
crowded. As the Faculties increased the pressure be- 
came greater, and it was felt the best interests of both in- 
stitutions required a local separation. 

Dr. E. V. Gerhart had earnestly appealed to the 
Church for aid which the Theological Seminary urgently 
needed. It was necessary, he insisted, that the number 
of professors should be increased, and that a suitable build- 
ing should be erected. At the meeting of the Eastern 
Synod, held in 1884 at Pottstown, Pa., the work was taken 
up with great enthusiasm, and the synods of Pittsburg 
and the Potomac immediately cooperated. Each of the 
latter synods succeeded in completing the endowment of a 
professorship, and in each instance a member of the body 
was chosen to be the first incumbent. The Eev. Dr. 
John C. Bowman was, in October, 1890, elected Professor 
of New Testament Exegesis, as representing the Synod of 
the Potomac; and the Eev. Dr. William Eupp, of the 
Synod of Pittsburg, was in October, 1893, installed Pro- 
fessor of Practical Theology. The Eastern Synod tem- 
porarily limited its efforts to completing the endowment 
of the professorship of Old Testament Theology, held by 
Dr. E. A. Gast, and to gathering the nucleus of a fund for 
the erection of a suitable building. 

If we were writing a history of the Theological Semin- 
ary we should have to devote a long chapter to the latter 
work. Never before in the history of the Keformed 
Church had there been such an outpouring of general bene- 
volence, and there are many individuals who for their 


liberality hold a prominent place in the financial records 
of the institution. In gathering contributions for the new 
building the Rev. Dr. J. 0. Bowman was especially active, 
but he had efficient coadjutors whose names are mentioned 
in the Proceedings of their respective synods. The 
Library, which is connected by a corridor with the main 
building, was erected by a separate subscription, and the 
names of contributors appear on a tablet at the entrance. 
Alcoves in the library were endowed by individuals; and 
in brief everything was done to render the building attrac- 
tive and complete. The stream of benevolence, which had 
at times been almost imperceptible, now swelled into a 
flood, and the friends of the institution were correspond- 
ingly delighted. 

The new Theological Seminary was dedicated on the 
10th of May, 1894. The services were conducted by the 
Rev. Drs. E. V. Gerhart and T. G. Apple, and the dedi- 
catory sermon was preached by the Rev. J. H. Dubbs, 
on Psalms 48, 12-14. 

The Seminary Building is universally admired. At 
the time of the dedication the sum reported as actually 
expended for grounds and buildings was $77,965.74 ; but 
by the subsequent purchase of grounds and the erection 
of additional buildings this amount was considerably in- 
creased. That no debt was suffered to accumulate is 
highly creditable to the friends of the institution. The 
Faculty of the Theological Seminary, as constituted in 
1903, is as follows: Rev. Emanuel V. Gerhart, D.D., 
LL.D., President of the Faculty, Professor of Systematic 
Theology; Rev. George W. Richards, D.D., Professor of 
Church History; Rev. Frederick A. Gast, Professor of 
Hebrew and Old Testament Theology ; Rev. John C. Bow- 


man, D.D., Professor of New Testament Exegesis; Rev. 
William Rupp, D.D., Secretary of the Faculty, Professor 
of Practical Theology; John Q. Adams, B.L., Professor 
of Oratory ; Rev. John L. Swander, D.D., Lecturer on the 
Foundation of the Swander Memorial Lectureship. 

The removal of the Theological Seminary to its new 
home left more room for the expansion of the College. 
The numher of students increased and it soon became 
necessary to divide the classes into sections. In this way 
the labor of individual professors was greatly increased; 
but there was no one who failed to perform the duties 
assigned him. It was felt that new conditions impera- 
tively demanded a new arrangement of studies. In the 
higher classes elective studies were introduced, and efforts 
were made to arrange the schedule in accordance with 
modem requirements. Several distinct courses of under- 
graduate study were recognized, and plans for advanced 
reading were prepared for graduates who desired to con- 
tinue their studies. It was, however, in the department 
of Science — as we shall see hereafter — ^that the greatest 
advances were made. 

In the constitution of the College Faculty but few 
changes were made. In 1893 the Reverend C. Ernest 
Wagner became Professor of the English Language and 
Literature. Professor Anselm V. Hiester began to teach 
in 1892, became Assistant Professor in 1894, and was in 
1898 promoted to his present professorship of Political and 
Social Science. During his temporary absence, from 
1896 to 1898, his place was supplied by Professor Samuel 
W. Kerr. Professor Clarence ITevin Heller has since 
1895 continuously served as Assistant Professor of 
Ancient Languages, except that during his absence in 


1897-98 his place was supplied by Professor Ambrose 
Cort. John Michael Groye was from 1895 to 1901, As- 
sistant in Natural Science, and in the latter year Herbert 
Huebener Beck became Assistant Professor of Chemistry. 
The department of Oratory which was formally estab- 
lished in 1885 has been in charge of Mr. Silas J. Neff 
(1885-1892), Miss Minnie L. Morgan (1893-1896), Pro- 
fessor Claude B. Davis (1897-1902), and Professor John 
Quincy Adams. Dr. William Kurrelmeyer was, in 1899- 
1900, Professor of Modem Languages and in the latter 
year he was succeeded by the Kev. Elmer Ellsworth 
Powell, Ph.D. The department of Anatomy, Physiology 
and Hygiene was revived in 1894 by Martin L. Herr, 
M.D., who labored faithfully and with great self-sacrifice 
until his death, which occurred in 1902. Since the death 
of Dr. Herr this post has been held by Dr. Charles Patter- 
son Stahr. The Faculty of the College as at present con- 
stituted is as follows : 

Eev. John Summers Stahr, Ph.D., D.D., President, 
Professor of Mental and Moral Science, -(Esthetics, and 
the Philosophy of History; Eev. Joseph Henry Dubbs, 
D.D., LL.D., Audenried Professor of History and Arch- 
eology; John Brainerd Kieffer, Ph.D., Librarian, Pro- 
fessor of the Greek Language and Literature; Jefferson 
E. Kershner, Ph.D., Professor of Mathematics and Phys- 
ics ; Rev. George Eulmer Mull, A.M., Secretary, Professor 
of the Latin Language and Literature; Eev. Eichard 
Conrad Schiedt, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Natural Sci- 
ence and Chemistry; Eev. C. Ernest Wagner, A.M., Pro- 
fessor of the English Language and Literature; Anselm 
Vinet Hiester, A.M., Professor of Political and Social 
Science, and Assistant Professor of Mathematics; Clar- 


ence Nevin Heller, A.M., Treasurer, Assistant Professor 
of Ancient Languages; Eev. Elmer Ellsworth Powell, 
Ph.D., Professor of Modern Languages; Herbert 
Huebener Beck, A.C., Assistant Professor of Chemistry; 
Charles Patterson Stahr, A.M., M.D., Lecturer on Anat- 
omy and Assistant Professor of Bacteriology; John 
Quincy Adams, B.L., LL.B., Professor of Oratory;. John 
G. Chalmers, Physical Instructor and Director of the 

There are at present no Tutors officially connected with 
the institution. Since the union of the colleges that posi- 
tion has at various times been occupied by the following 
gentlemen : J. Merrill Linn, William Leaman, Wilberf orce 
Nevin, Robert J. Nevin, John Van Haagen, John S. 
Stahr, Albert E. Truxal, Thomas S. Land, J. E. Kershner, 
Cyrus J. Musser, A. P. Horn, P. M. Trexler, Lewis Robb, 
A. M. Schmidt, Lewis T. Lampe and William E. Bushong. 

The only death of a member of the Faculty which has 
occurred during the present presidency — ^besides that of 
Dr. M. L. Herr — ^has been that of Dr. William M. Nevin. 
It was an occasion of profound sorrow, for there have 
been few men more generally beloved; and his departure 
appeared to involve the breaking of the last link that 
bound the College to its early history in Mercersburg. It 
may be interesting to read the memorial action taken by 
the Faculty at the time of his death: 


"Peof. William M. Nevin, LL.D. 


"Prof. William M. Nevin, LL.D., late Emeritus Alumni 


















Professor of English Literature and Belles-Lettres in Frank- 
lin and Marshall College, died on Thursday evening, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1892, having reached the mature age of 86 years 
and 4 days. 

"For more than fifty years Professor Nevin was engaged 
■without interruption in the service of Marshall College and 
Franklin and Marshall College, having begun his career in 
the former as Professor of Ancient Languages in 1840. 
When Franklin and Marshall College was organized at Lan- 
caster in 1853, he continued under the new organization as 
incumbent of the same chair, acting also as President until 
the Kev. Dr. E. V. Gerhart was elected to the Presidency. 
In 1872 he was elected Alumni Professor of English Litera- 
ture and Belles-Lettres, which position he held until death 
terminated his labors. In 1886 he was made Professor 
Emeritus, but it was his pleasure to continue to lecture until 
within a few weeks of his death, and his interest in the Col- 
lege was unabated until he passed quietly and triumphantly 
into the presence of the great Teacher. 

"When a career so long, so useful and so honorable is 
brought to a close, it is fitting that the event should receive 
more than a passing notice, and therefore the members of 
the Faculty of the College with a view both to express their 
sense of the great loss which the College has suffered, and 
to put upon record their high appreciation of the life and 
character of their distinguished colleague, unanimously 
adopted the following: 

"Resolved, 1st. That we deem it a privilege to bear wit- 
ness to the high culture and eminent abilities of the late 
Dr. William M. Nevin, whose thorough acquaintance with 
the ancient languages, supplemented by loving familiarity 
with English Literature, rendered him peculiarly qualified 
for the position which for many years he so worthily occu- 

"Resolved, 2d. That the purity of his life, the faithful- 


ness of his service, and the gentle courtesy of his manner 
endeared him to his associates and secured the lasting affec- 
tion of those who enjoyed the privilege of receiving his in- 

"Resolved, 3d. That we record our appreciation of the 
distinguished merits of our departed colleague in the full as- 
surance that the name of Dr. William M. Nevin, which has 
been so long and so honorably connected with this institu- 
tion, will in all its future history be held in reverent and 
loving remembrance." 

Dr. W. M. JiTevin's "Lectures on the History of English 
Literature," edited by Dr. Theodore Appel, were pub- 
lished by the Alumni Association in 1895 as a memorial 
volume. The fine pipe organ which through the efforts 
of Mrs. J. B. Kieffer and other ladies of the congregation 
has been placed in the college chapel is also dedicated to 
the memory of Dr. W. M. Nevin. 

It is sad to reflect on the numerous changes which have 
occurred in the Board of Trustees. Since 1890 no less 
than twenty-one prominent members have died. Though 
we have no room to speak at length of their labors in be- 
half of the institution they have left an honorable record, 
and their names will be gratefully remembered.^ The 
work of their associates and successors is no less highly 
appreciated, and it is, of course, to them that we mainly 
look for future advancement. 

Two important buildings have recently been added to 

' The following members of the Board have died since June, 1890 : 
Thomas G. Apple, Jacob Bausman, John Cessna, Joseph Coblentz, 
Jacob y. Dietz, D. W. Gross, John C. Hager, George W. Hensel, C. 
U. Heilman, Harrison P. Laird, J. W. Killinger, J. O. Miller, Charles 
Santee, Benjamin F. Shenk, Francis Shroder, A. Herr Smith, J. P. 
Wickersham, C. Z. Weiser, Henry Wirt, B. Wolflf, Jr., Calvin M. 


the group that is clustered around the College towers, and 
some account of their origin and history may reasonably 
be expected. The events we have still to relate are, how- 
ever, so recent and well known that it is hardly necessary 
to consider them at length. 

The Watts-dePeyster Library is the gift of General 
John Watts de Peyster, LL.D., of Tivoli, Dutchess county, 
New York. It was erected in 1897-98 ; and it may be 
said that it came to the friends of the institution as a 
delightful surprise. 

For many years the necessity for the erection of a 
Library Building had been fully recognized. When Dr. 
J. B. KiefPer became Librarian in 1888 the condition 
of the College Library was very discouraging. The books 
were few in number and mostly antiquated, and had been 
placed in an unsuitable room, rather for safe-keeping than 
for actual use. The libraries of the literary societies, it 
must be said, were well selected, and kept the students 
familiar with the current literature ; but the materials for 
actual research were lamentably insufficient. Dr. Kieffer 
made the most of the library as he found it, and the num- 
ber of volumes slowly increased; but many years would 
probably have passed before the literary wants of the Col- 
lege were fully met if it had not been for the unexpected 
and generous gift of the gentleman who may properly be 
regarded as the Founder of the Library. 

John Watts de Peyster was born in New York, March 
9, 1821. On both sides he is descended from families 
which have held a distinguished place in the history of 
New York from the time of its earliest settlement. En- 
thusiastically devoted to historic studies he has published 
hundreds of valuable monographs. He is also distin- 


guished as a soldier, and was made Major General by 
special act of the legislature "for meritorious service." 
In military matters he is regarded as an authority of the 
highest rank, and it is probable that no one has ever more 
minutely studied the campaigns of !N'apoleon. Among his 
published writings are " Life of Leonard Torstenson, Field 
Marshal Generalissimo of Sweden," " The Dutch at the 
North Pole and the Dutch in Maine," " Carausius, the 
Dutch Augustus," " Personal and Military History of 
Major General Philip Kearney" and many other valuable 
works. Possessed of great wealth he has been very liberal 
in the foundation and endowment of literary and charit- 

able institutions, and it was the good f ortime of Franklin 
and Marshall College to become a partaker in his bounty. 
Many years ago General de Peyster was elected an hon- 
orary member of the Diagnothian Literary Society. 
Though he had often been similarly honored he did not 
forget the compliment, and about 1885 wrote to inquire 
whether the society was still in existence. Having been 
informed that it was still alive and prosperous he sent 
a large number of books for the library. At this time 
Mr. Abraham H. Kothermel of the class of 1887 was corre- 
sponding secretary of the society, and a correspondence 
ensued which proved mutually pleasant. Having sub- 


sequently been honored with General de Peyster's friend- 
ship it became his privilege to present the cause of his 
Alma Mater. At Mr. Rothermel's suggestion General de 
Peyster most generously erected at his own expense the 
beautiful building which now adorns the college campus. 
Dr. J. B. KiefFer was unwearied in superintending the 
building and in otherwise advancing the interests of the 
Library, and it is to his constant labor that the present ex- 
cellent condition of the Library is mainly due. 

On account of the state of his health General de Peyster 
has not felt able to visit Lancaster where his presence 
would be so warmly welcomed. At the laying of the 
comer-stone and at the dedication he was represented by 
Mr. Kothermel who at the former occasion delivered the 
principal address, and at the latter formally presented the 
Library to the College in the name of the donor. The 
building was named the Watts-dePeyster Library, in 
honor of the General's father, Frederick de Peyster, and 
his maternal grandfather, the Honorable John Watts. 

That the building is beautiful and commodious need 
hardly be said. It is intended to accommodate a library of 
about seventy thousand volumes. The cost of the building 
was about $30,000, but the General subsequently added 
shelves and furnishings at an additional expense of about 
$6,000. He also placed in front of the library a valuable 
bronze statue of a distinguished ancestor. His recent 
gifts have been numerous, consisting of several thousand 
books and many works of art. The College has every rea- 
son to be proud of its beautiful library, and the name of 
its founder must always be held in grateful remembrance. 

At the entrance to the library is a tablet bearing the 
following appropriate inscription: 


This Library is 

erected as a 



John Watts 

"vir sequanimitatis" 

and of 

Frederick de Petster, 

vir auctoritatis. 

By a 

Grandson and Son, 

who, bearing both names, seeks 

to continue in their honor, the 

good they did and taught him. 

Since the erection of the Library many valuable con- 
tributions have been received from different sources. The 
Honorable W. U. Hensel, Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, Paul 
Heine, Charles F. Eengier and Walter C. Hager have 
founded alcoves for advanced literary study; and consid- 
erable collections of books have been received by gift or 
bequest from the private libraries of the late Reverend 
Clement Z. Weiser, D.D., and Frank Geise, Esq., late 
Mayor of York, Pennsylvania. 

The Science Building is the most recent of the structures 
erected by Franklin and Marshall College. It occupies 
the site of Harbaugh Hall, but is of course larger and more 
imposing. Its appearance is greatly admired, and there 
are few similar buildings which provide more satisfac- 
torily for advanced scientific research. Though we lack 
space for particulars it may be interesting to say a few 
words concerning the movement which led to a more im- 
portant result than its early promoters had ever anticipated. 


The steady increase in the number of students suggested 
the necessity for further development. Long ago essays 
and reports were presented to the Board by Dr. J. S. Stahr, 
fully explaining the wants of the College, especially the 
teaching of the Natural Sciences ; and it is but just to say 
that he has constantly given life and inspiration to the 
movement which led to the enlargement of the scientific 
departments. He was succeeded as Professor of Natural 
Sciences by Dr. R. C. Schiedt, whose enthusiasm and 
vigorous action were of great value in advancing the cause. 

In 1895 the Board of Trustees adopted a plan, known 
as the " Building and Loan Association," by which it was 
hoped the endowment of the College would be largely in- 
creased. In its organization and methods it greatly re- 
sembled the building associations with which all are 
familiar. Members subscribed for a certain number of 
shares, on each of which they were to pay a monthly assess- 
ment. When the shares matured the accumulated amount 
was to be paid into the treasury of the College in payment 
of an equal subscription. By thus distributing payments 
through a term of years it was supposed that they would 
become less burdensome. 

The " Building Association " was founded with a great 
deal of enthusiasm, and at a meeting of the Board shares 
amounting to $25,250 were taken. The Reverend Am- 
brose M. Schmidt was chosen Financial Secretary, and 
besides laboring for the general interests of the College he 
was directed to take charge of the affairs of the proposed 
association. His work proved of great advantage to the 
College, but it must be confessed that the " Building and 
Loan Association " did not prove successful. The whole 
amount secured in this way was $31,774.75. 


Though the expectations of the founders of the associa- 
tion were not realized it was found that there were many 
persons who were willing to assist in the erection of a 
Science Building. A fund was created for this purpose, 
and Mr. Schmidt secured pledges to the amount of eleven 
thousand dollars, but the Board declined to proceed with 
the building until at least twenty thousand dollars were 
secured. Then President George F. Baer came to the 
rescue with a pledge that the needed $9,000 should be 
ready in due time. The work was begun and at the 
laying of the comer-stone, June 13, 1900, the Honorable 
Geo. F. Baer and Dr. T. C. Porter delivered the addresses. 
Dr. Stahr says: 

"Mr. Schmidt continued his labors until June, 1901, by 
which time the whole amount pledged was $31,307.91. At 
the annual Commencement of 1901 additional pledges were 
made by members of the Board of Trustees and others, and 
it was resolved to proceed with the work until the building 
was finished. The building with heating apparatus, furni- 
ture, grading of grounds, etc., cost in round numbers $65,- 
000. The Chemical Laboratories were equipped by Mr. 
Milton S. Hershey, of Lancaster, at a cost of $5,000; the 
Biological Laboratories by the family of the late B. Wolff, 
Jr., of Pittsburgh, at a cost of $5,500 ; the Geological Equip- 
ment was given by Mr. Charles F. Eengier, costing $1,000. 
The whole outlay is, therefore, about $76,000."^ 

Other contributions for special purposes have been made 
by the firm of Watt and Shand, Mr. Paul Heine and others. 

For the erection of the Science Building great credit 
is due to Drs. Stahr, Schiedt and Kershner. The work 

' Reformed Church Review, April, 1903. 

Watts-dePeyster Library. 

Main Building and Halls. 
Science Building. 


Theological Seminary. 


of the Building Committee, of which Mr. W. H. Hager 
was chairman, is also highly appreciated. The Science 
Building is at present occupied by the several departments 
of Philosophy, Natural Science and Chemistry, Mathe- 
matics and Physics. The Museum has recently received 
many valuable additions, among which are the cabinets 
gathered by the Literary Societies. A specimen of the 
extinct Dinornis giganteus has recently been added by 
Mr. J. Milton Mays, of Philadelphia. The Herbarium, 
whose beginnings go back to the days of Muhlenberg, has 
been greatly enlarged by the acquisition of the collection 
made by the late A. P. Garber, M.D. The library and 
extensive collection of coleoptera made by the late Dr. S. 
S. Eathvon has been purchased and presented by Henry 
Bobb, M.D., of East Greenville, Pa., as a memorial of his 
son, the late Eugene H. Bobb, of the class of 1895. With 
regard to such contributions we have no room for partic- 
ulars and omissions are unavoidable. It must, however, 
be added that the Linnsean Society — a local scientific asso- 
ciation founded many years ago by Dr. Thomas 0. Porter 
— has by special agreement deposited its valuable collec- 
tion in the Science Building, thus providing additional 
material for study in the natural sciences. 

The completion of the Science Building was an occasion 
of great rejoicing. At the formal opening an excellent 
address was delivered by Dr. E. F. Smith, Vice-Provost 
of the University of Pennsylvania. That an important 
step had been taken could not be doubted and the way 
seemed opened to enlarged future usefulness. The Science 
Building will not only prove a monument of Dr. Stahr's 
successful presidency, but will, we believe, be followed 
by important advances in other departments of study. 


The condition of the College may be described as promis- 
ing. The invested endowment is at present $206,896.96. 
It is very small and calls for immediate enlargement. The 
institution has, however, certain minor sources of income 
to which we have already referred, and at a low estimate 
the property and investment may be valued at $500,000. 
This, of course, does not include the Theological Seminary 
or the Academy. 

The College has received a number of legacies, of which 
the latest is one of ten thousand dollars from the estate of 
the late Jacob Y. Dietz, of Philadelphia. There are also 
occasional memorials and souvenirs which are peculiarly 
interesting. In 1896 the bell which now hangs in the 
tower was presented by Mrs. George N. Forney, of Han- 
over, Pa., in memory of her son, the late J. Wirt Forney, 
of the class of 1881. 

In 1897 Messrs. Thaddeus G. Hehn and Edwin M. 
Hartman — ^both graduates of the College — succeeded Mr. 
W. W. Moore as rectors of Franklin and Marshall Acad- 
emy. Under their care this institution has been remark- 
ably prosperous, and has annually presented a considerable 
number of students for admission to college. 

The institutions at Lancaster have never been so fortu- 
nate as to receive large endowments, either from the State 
or from individuals. They have labored under many 
difficulties, but it caimot be denied that they have accom- 
plished an important work. Under all the circumstances 
they have every reason to thank God and take courage. 



The Chttbch — Coixeqe Y. M. C. A. — Literaky Sociexies — Fba- 

TEBNiTiES — Clubs — Pubmcations — Entbbtainments — 

Student Life. 

Dr. Harbaugh preached one of his best sermons on the 
text: " Gather up the fragments that remain that nothing 
be lost." As we approach the end of our work there are 
certain facts concerning social conditions which deserve to 
be mentioned ; and this passage of Scripture may therefore 
be regarded as the motto of the present chapter. 

In the College the Church continues to be the center of 
social as well as of religious life. St. Stephen's church 
continues to occupy the College chapel, which was in 
1873-74 enlarged at its expense. The congregation is 
composed of the professors and their families and of a 
few families not otherwise connected with the institution, 
together with students who have at their own request been 
admitted to membership. The pastors, who successively 
occupy the pulpit, are ministers belonging to the several 
Faculties ; and these pastors elect the presiding pastor who 
has general charge of the church. Elders and Deacons are 
elected by the congregation. Students are expected to at- 
tend the regular services on Sunday, unless at the request 
of their parents they have received permission to worship 

St. Stephen's church is connected with the Classis of 
Lancaster of the Eeformed Church in the United States, 
and seeks to perform its fuU duty as a Christian congre- 



gation. As there are no salaries to be paid it is in a favor- 
able position to engage in enterprises of general benevo- 
lence. It aims to be a Christian church in the broadest 
and most generous sense, and gladly cooperates with Ohrisr 
tians of every name and profession. 

The Keformed Church in the United States (formerly 
known as the German Keformed Church) we venture to 
say to those who are not familiar with its history — is de- 
rived in an unbroken line from the Protestant Keforma- 
tion of the sixteenth century. In early days the main cen- 
ters of its life in Europe were Zurich, Geneva and Heidel- 
berg. Though it never recognized a human director, its 
most eminent leaders were Zwingli, Calvin and Frederick 
III., elector of the Palatinate. Its confession of faith is 
the Heidelberg Catechism. Dating from a period ante- 
cedent to the great controversies which resulted in the 
establishment of many denominations, the Keformed 
Church has few decided peculiarities in faith or practice, 
but has held with unswerving tenacity to Christ as the 
source and center of the Christian life. 

The relations of Franklin and Marshall College with a 
Christian denomination are not unusual. In earlier days 
such relations were indeed, almost universal; and it may 
be truly said that without the activity of the churches 
Harvard, Yale and Princeton could not have been founded. 
Franklin College was, we believe, the only instance of an 
institution that was proposed to be representative of two 
denominations and of "the outside community"; but, as 
we have seen, divided control became the chief obstacle to 
success. Until very recently it was believed that denom- 
inational patronage was essential to success ; and even now 
it may be regarded as doubtful whether a "small college" 


could be successfully established -without such aid. These 
relations do not necessarily involve " sectarian " teaching, 
and it may be confidently asserted that from this evil 
Franklin and Marshall College has always been free. 
The Board of Trustees has been careful to observe the 
spirit of the requirements of its earliest charter, so that 
at no time have all its members been connected with the 
same religious denomination. 

The College Young Men's Christian Association has 
been prosperous and useful. For some years it has pub- 
lished a Student's Handbook, containing much informa- 
tion for new students, and has furnished a room in the 
College Building. Its work has proved valuable and is 
highly appreciated. 

Turning now from religious interests to those which are 
distinctively literary, we need but remind the reader that 
the Goethean and Diagnothian societies are still flourish- 
ing. They occupy the halls which their predecessors 
erected almost fifty years ago. At one time there was a 
period of depression and it seemed as if they could not 
escape the fate which has come upon the literary societies 
of many similar institutions. New students hesitated long 
before connecting themselves with either society, so that 
it was seriously proposed to make membership in one of 
the societies obligatory on every student. This would 
have destroyed the freedom and spontaneity which con- 
stitute the greatest charm of such associations, and the pro- 
posed action was not generally approved. Eecently there 
has been a favorable reaction and the literary societies 
are now more prosperous than they have been for years. 
This is plainly indicated by the fact that both halls have 
been thoroughly repaired and beautified at the expense 
of students and alumni. Mr. S. H. Eanck has said : 


' ' With their handsomely frescoed halls, their libraries, and 
the furniture and fittings, each society is the owner of prop- 
erty worth about $20,000. The two libraries alone contain 
over 16,000 well-selected books. Excepting the literary so- 
cieties of Princeton alone, I believe they are the most valuable 
college literary society properties in the world. "^ 

In the judgment of the beat friends of the institution 
the literary societies hold high rank in the work of educa- 
tional training. They teach their members in the best pos- 
sible way how to put what they have learned to practical 
use. The most eminent alumni are ready to acknowledge 
that their success has been largely due to the training 
which they received in the literary societies. 

There are at present three " Greek Letter fraternities " 
which have chapters in Franklin and Marshall College. 
The oldest is " Phi Kappa Sigma " which received its 
charter from the parent chapter in the University of 
Pennsylvania, in 1854. " Chi Phi " was founded a few 
months later in the same year, and derived its origin from 
Princeton. " Phi Kappi Psi " was established in 1860 on 
the basis of an older local fraternity which was known as 
" Phi Beta Tau." It is a branch of an order which was 
founded at Jefferson College. There have been several 
other fraternities which we remember chiefly by the golden 
badges which they occasionally displayed; but as these 
have not been seen for many years they may be presumed 
to have quietly passed out of existence. 

The organization of fraternities in the earliest years of 
Franklin and Marshall may perhaps have been induced by 
the feeling of loneliness to which we have referred. After 

• The Reformed Church Review, April, 1903. 


the removal from Mercersburg the students felt themselves 
strangers in the community, and we can testify to the fact 
that many of them suffered from aggravated attacks of 
" home-sickness." Under such circumstances it is not sur- 
prising that certain little companies were drawn together 
for mutual sympathy and support. After subsisting for 
some time in this way a chance visit from a member of a 
fraternity, or a letter from a friend in another college, may 
have suggested complete organization. 

The veil of secrecy which veils fraternities is of course 
profound. They sometimes claim fabulous antiquity, and 
their initiations are said to be cabalistic and very mys- 
terious. Further we cannot hope to go, though we may 
wonder what is the nature of the wonderful secrets which 
they decline to reveal. 

Fraternities have been greatly opposed, and there can 
be no doubt that some fraternities have deserved all that 
could be said against them. The fact seems to be that they 
are exactly what their members make them. When they 
are properly conducted they claim to advance the culture 
and protect the morals of their members; when they 
happen to be controlled by evil influences the result may 
easily be foreseen. At present the fraternities dwell in 
beautiful houses, and are careful to preserve their good 
reputation. As they may soon celebrate their semi-cen- 
tennial it may perhaps be taken for granted that they have 
come to stay. 

The fact that the College has at present no dormitory 
has probably been favorable to the organization of clubs, 
some of which are fraternities in all but name. These 
clubs are mostly of recent origin, but give evidence of be- 
coming permanent institutions. They rent houses and 


practice housekeeping in a way which is both liberal and 
economical, so that they often succeed in greatly reducing 
the expenses of their members while affording them all 
the comforts of a pleasant home. In the Oriflamme for 
1902 appear the names of the following clubs: "Para- 
dise," " Nevonia," "• College Ealstons," " Franklin Club " 
and " Harbaugh Club." The " Nevonia," we have been 
informed, has recently been reorganized as a chapter of a 
Greek letter fraternity which is known as " Phi Sigma 

As has already been intimated the department of 
Athletics is well organized, and the interest which is taken 
in base-ball and foot-ball has never been known to flag. 
For those who incline to music there are the " Glee Club " 
and " Mandolin Club," which have given many delightful 
concerts at home and abroad. 

There are several periodicals which are conducted ex- 
clusively by students. The College Student, a monthly 
magazine, is published by the literary societies. It is now 
in its twenty-third volume, and circulates chiefly in the 
college and among the alimini. The F. & M. Weekly is 
twelve years old. It is a bright paper devoted exclusively 
to college news, and as such furnishes an excellent repre- 
sentation of the social life of the institution. The " per- 
sonals " concerning the alumni are especially interesting, 
and by their means the present generation is kept en rap- 
port with those who have gone before. The Oriflamme has 
been published since 1882 by each successive Junior class. 
It contains many valuable historical articles, besides some 
material which is intended chiefly for students and which 
sometimes fails to be fully appreciated by older people. 
For the excellence of its typography and the beauty of its 


illustrations this splendid volume deserves a place in the 
foremost rank of college annuals. The Nevonian, which 
first appeared in 1892, is issued at Commencement and 
gives a full account of its various exercises. 

The Ohituary Record can hardly be called a periodical, 
but is recognized as a publication of great value. It is 
edited and published by a committee of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation, of which Mr. S. H. Ranck is chairman; and in 
its successive numbers the life-story of departed alumni 
is sympathetically related. The Alumni Association, 
which has had an organized existence for more than sixty 
years, has recently been an important factor in the history 
of the College. Besides the important publications which 
it has issued, it has in many ways labored to promote the 
best interests of the institution. It is to the alumni that 
the College must look for intelligent assistance. 

During the winter months the representations of the 
dramatic clubs have given much pleasure. The " Green 
Room Club " has presented several excellent plays, and the 
" Schiller Verein " of the Junior class has acted pleasant 
comedies in the German language. In producing these 
plays the students spare no pains and they are always 
highly appreciated. 

There is, in fact, no lack of literary entertainment. For 
several years the students have been favored with a course 
of lectures by eminent men who have discussed some of 
the vital questions of the day. There are also debates and 
inter-collegiate contests, anniversaries and exhibitions, 
with other occasions that aim to unite the agreeable with 
the useful. 

To describe at length the social conditions of Lancaster 
students is equally beyond our power and purpose. If 


there are social prejudices we are not aware of them. In 
many homes students are welcome guests, and they are 
unanimous in grateful acknowledgment of the courtesies 
which they receive. The social recognition of a student, 
it is well known, depends upon his conduct and culture. 

Student-life is proverbially joyous; but when physical 
and mental strength is crowned by moral excellence it be- 
comes rounded and complete. This is the ideal which the 
institution is constantly striving to realize. 

The accomplishment of the highest purposes of the Col- 
lege demands united and persevering labor. " The desti- 
nies of the world are in the hands of those that work." 
That the institution has accomplished much good in the 
days of its poverty will not be denied; and though its 
trials may not yet be ended it can never be deprived of the 
reward that comes from honest toil. 


A COMHON PUBPOSB — A Peculiab LiFE — An Unfaltbbino Tbust. 

At the end of our journey it may be well to look back 
to the course over which we have travelled. Though the 
way was at times rough there were also pleasant places 
and prospects which it is delightful to recall. As we ap- 
proached the end the journey became less difficult, and 
there was constant occasion to bless the memory of the 
men who by their labor prepared the way for our feet. 

It is evident at a glance that the institutions whose his- 
tory we have endeavored to relate were founded for a com- 
mon purpose. The two older colleges which were brought 
together in 1853 were both established in the special inter- 
est of early Grerman settlers, though they were never in- 
tended for their exclusive benefit. In the life and lan- 
guage of the people of Pennsylvania a century has wrought 
great changes; and no one now cherishes the plans of the 
founders with regard to the extension of purely German 
culture in America. There are many of us who love the 
language and literature of Germany; but the hopes of the 
fathers for their permanent establishment in this country 
were at best but beautiful dreams. We do not even desire 
the preservation of racial distinctions, and look forward 
to the full development of a common American life. 

There is, however, a higher sense in which Franklin 
and Marshall College may justly claim to have been 
faithful to the purposes of its founders. Indeed, we may 



boldly assert that there has never been a time when it has 
failed to guard the trust which was committed to its care. 
It is this fact which is its chief honor and which renders it 
in the fullest sense an historical institution. In the course 
of years it has developed a peculiar life which has been 
termed " Anglo-German " ; and it is not too much to say 
that on more than a single occasion it has served — as Dr. 
Rush so hopefully anticipated — as a channel through 
which the learning of the fatherland was conveyed to our 
country. In Franklin College there were conditions 
which prevented the profound consideration of theological 
and philosophical questions; but no one can doubt that 
Muhlenberg and Melsheimer were pioneers in the study of 
the Natural Sciences, or that Eoss and Schipper gained 
distinction in philological research. That Marshall Col- 
lege during its brief history decidedly influenced the think- 
ing of America is now generally acknowledged. It evolved 
a system of philosophy which was, indeed, violently op- 
posed, but at the same time gathered adherents all over the 
land. It now seems strange that declarations of " the 
Mercersburg school " which were once fiercely contested 
have more recently been quietly accepted by all the 
churches. Men like Eauch, Nevin and Schaff exerted an 
influence which has not ceased vsdth their death and will 
continue to be felt by future generations. 

Franklin and Marshall College has been faithful to its 
antecedents. There has been no break in its history — ^no 
shattering of its high ideals. We have told the story of its 
work; its best results, we feel assured, are yet to be re- 

That the so-called " small college " is threatened by 
dangers we are fully aware. New conditions must bring 


new problems. All that we can say is tliat Franklin and 
Marshall College presents conditions for faithful and suc- 
cessful labor. It has a beautiful home and many require- 
ments for advanced study in literature and science. These 
have chiefly been gained by earnest toil and are conse- 
quently highly appreciated. When poverty leads to effort 
it is not always a misfortune. The number of alunrni is 
more than twelve hundred, and their attachment to the 
institution is earnest and sincere. There are precious 
traditions which we hope to transmit to future generations 
as constant sources of inspiration and advancement. There 
are communities in whose affections the College could 
not easily be supplanted. We believe in the old Mercers- 
burg doctrine of historical development, and do not doubt 
the revelations of the future. Thankful for the blessings 
of the era that is ended we gird up our loins to enter upon 
the one which is at hand, trusting that we shall be led to 
further manifestations of the love and mercy of the Lord ; 
" for He is able to do it, being Almighty God, and willing, 
being a faithful Father." 



In the preparation of this bibliography we have not aimed at 
completeness. At first it was proposed to include the publications 
of professors and alumni in so far as they had come to our knowl- 
edge; but it Boon became evident that in this way the work would 
be extended beyond our limits. As it now stands it includes speci- 
mens of the work of members of the Faculty, addresses delivered 
on public occasions, and a few books and pamphlets containing 
historical information. Except in a few instances, articles in period- 
icals nave necessarily been omitted. 

Synodical Archives in Holland. Mss. 
Record of Proceedings of the Board of Trustees of Franklin College. 

1 vol., fol., ms. 
Minutes of the Coetus of the Reformed Church. Philadelphia, 1903 

(in press). 
Proceedings of the Synod of the German Reformed Church. Cir. 


Hector St. J. de Crevecoeur. Voyage dans la haute Pennsylvanifi 
et dans I'Etat de New York. 2 vols. Paris, 1801. 

Freiheitsbrief der Deutschen Hohen Schule (College) in der Stadt 
Lancaster in dem Staate Pennsylvanien — nebst einer Anrede an 
die Deutschen dieses Staates, von den Trustees der besagten 
Hohen Schule. Philadelphia, Melchior Steiner, 1787. 

Charter of Franklin College, published by resolution of the Board, 
passed 19th October, 1837. Lancaster, Bryson and Forney, 
Printers, 1837. 

The Charter, By-Laws and Regulations of the Lancaster County 
Academy. Lancaster, 1827. 

Order of Procession and Public Worship to be observed at the dedi- 
cation of Franklin College in the Borough and County of Lan- 
caster. Philadelphia, Printed by Melchior Steiner in Race Street 
between Second and Third Streets, 1787. 

Ordnung welche in Absicht der Procession und Qffentlichen Gottes- 
dienstes bei der Enweihung der Franklinischen Deutschen Hohe 
Schule in der Stadt una Graffschaft Lancaster zu beobachten. 



Philadelphia. Gedrukt bei Melchior Steiner in red Rees-strasse, 
zwischen der Zweyten und Dritten Strasse, 1787. 

Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Franklin College. Lan- 
caster, 1848. 

Pamphlet Laws of Pennsylvania, 1835-36, 290; 1836-37, 96; 1850, 

Bioren's Laws of Pennsylvania, II., 398; VII., 176, 362. 

G. H. E. Miihlenberg. Eine Rede gehalten den 5ten Juny, 1787, bei 
der Einweihung von der Deutschen Hohen Schule oder Franklin 
Collegium in Lancaster. Auf Verlangen der Trustees zum Druck 
befSrdert. Lancaster, Albrecht und Lahn, 1788. 

Catalogus Plantarum Americae Septemtrionali, hue usque 

cognitarum et cicurum; or, A Catalogue of the hitherto known 
native and naturalized plants of North America. Lancaster, 
William Hamilton, 1813. Second edition, revised and also en- 
larged, Philadelphia, Solomon W. Conrad, 1817. 

Descriptio Uberior Graminum et Plantarum Calaminarum 

Americse Septentrionalia indigenarum et cicurum. Philadelphia, 
Solomon W. Conrad, 1817. 

Reduction of all the Genera of Plants contained in the 

Catalogus Plantarum Americas Septemtrionalis of the late Dr. 
Muhlenberg to the natural families of De Jussieu's system. 
Philadelphia, Solomon W. Conrad, 1815. 

Joseph Hutchins. A Sermon preached in the Lutheran church on 
the Opening of Franklin College in the borough of Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, July 17, 1787. Philadelphia, Daniel Humphreys, 

Miihlenberg and Scbipper. English German and German English 
Dictionary with a German Grammar and Principles of Pronun- 
ciation for Both Languages. Printed under the immediate in- 
spection of the Rev. Dr. Henry Muhlenberg, Pastor of the Ger- 
man Lutheran Church at Lancaster, and Mr. B. J. Schipper, 
Professor of Languages in Franklin Academy. Two volumes. 
Lancaster, Printed by William Hamilton, 1812. There is also 
a German title. 

J. H. Christian Helmuth. Kurze Nachricht von dem sogenannten 
Grelben Fieber in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Steiner and Kim- 
merer, 1793. 

Ausdrucke der Wehmuth fiber den Tod Dr. C. D. Weybergs. 

Philadelphia, Carl Cist, 1790. 

Die Bruderliebe in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Steiner and 

Kammerer, 1794. 


Betrachtung der Evangelischen Lehre von der Heiligen 

Schrift und Taufe. Germantown, 1793. 

Frederick Valentine Melsheimer. A Catalogue of Insects of Penn- 
sylvania. Part I. Hanover, York County, Pa., 1806. 

Wahrheit der Christlichen Religion fUr unstudierte. Frie- 

derichstadt, C. T. Melsheimer, 1810. Lancaster, William Ham- 
ilton & Co., 1813. 

Tagebuch von der Reise der Braunschweigischen Auxiliar 

Truppen von Wolfenbttttel nach Quebec. Minden, Justus Hein- 
rich K6rber, 1776. 

J. C. William Reichenbach. Agathon on Divine Worship. Lancaster, 
Joseph Ehrenfried, 1812. 

Agathon uber Wahren Gottesdienst. Ursprfinglich Deutsch 

in Pennsylvanien geschrieben. Lancaster, Joseph Ehrenfried, 
1813. Second edition, 1818. 

Die Zerstorung Jerusalems. Ubersetzt aus dem Englischen. 

Lancaster, J. Ehrenfried, 1810. 

Benjamin Rush, M.D. An Account of the Manners of the German 
Inhabitants of Pennsylvania. Written 1789. Notes added by 
Professor I. Daniel Rupp. Philadelphia, Samuel P. Town, 1875. 

James Ross, A.M. A Short, Plain, Comprehensive Practical Latin 
Grammar. Chambersburg, 1796; Lancaster, 1802; Philadelphia, 
1808; and many subsequent editions. 

In obitum viri clarissimi Caroli Nisbet, DJ)., Coll. Dickin- 
son PrsBsidis, qui octodecimo Januarii A. D. 1804, vita decessit. 
Coll. Franklin, Lancastrise, Kal. Mart. 1804. (Broadside.) 

Onomasiator: or, Philadelphia Vocabulary, a sketch of 

mythology. Philadelphia, 1822. 

— Colloquies of Erasmus. 

— jEsop's Fables. 

— Selectee Profanis Historia. 

— Ciceronis Epistolse. 

Christian Endress. Gedanken ttber Regierungsform in Beziehung 
aufs Christenthum. Philadelphia, Steiner and Kammerer, 1795. 

I. Daniel Rupp. History of Lancaster County. Lancaster, 1844. 

Philip Schaff. " Das Franklin Collegium." Article in Der Deutsche 
Kirchenfreund, III., p. 197. 

F. A. Muhlenberg. "Educational Efforts of the Pennsylvania Synod." 
Article in Evangelical Review, X., p. 289. 


Jacob Chapman. Edward Chapman, of Ipswich, Mass., 1642-1678, 
and his descendants. Concord, N. H., 1893. 

Joseph Henry Dubbs. "Old Franklin College." Article in The 
Guardian, XXXV., p. 172. 

The Founding of Franklin College, 1787. Reprinted from 

Reformed Quarterly Review. Philadelphia, 1887. 

Henry Eyster Jacobs. History of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. 
American Church History Series, Vol. IV. 'New York, 1893. 



Minutes of the Board of Trustees of Marshall College. Manuscript, 

Proceedings of the Faculty of Marshall College. 1836-1853. 
Proceedings of the Synod of the German Reformed Church. Cir. 

Theodore Appel. Recollections of College Life at Marshall College. 
Reading, Pa., 1896. 

The Beginnings of the Theological Seminary. Philadelphia, 


Albert Barnes. Progress and Tendencies of Science. Address before 

the Literary Societies. Philadelphia, 1840. 
Joseph F. Berg. The Ancient Landmark. Philadelphia, 1840. 

An Open Bible, the People's Safeguard. Philadelphia, 1844. 

Synopsis of the Moral Philosophy of Peter Dens. Philadel- 
phia, 1841. 

The Old Paths. Philadelphia, 1845. 

Lectures on Romanism. Philadelphia, 1840. 

Auricular Confession. Philadelphia, 1841. 

Jehovah-Nissi. Farewell Words to the First German Re- 
formed Church. Philadelphia, 1852. 

The Faithful Physician. Philadelphia, W. S. Young, 1849. 

. The Scripture History of Idolatry. Philadelphia, 1838. 

J. H. A. Bomberger. Spiritual Libertinism. Alvmini Address. Cham- 

bersburg, 1846. 
Our Position.' Sermon before the Alumni of the Theological 

Seminary. Philadelphia, 1856. 
N. C. Brooks. The History of the Church. A poem read before the 

Diagnothian Literary Society, July 5, 1841. Baltimore, 1841. r 


Samuel W. Budd, Jr. Address before the Goethean Society, August 
28, 1843. Chambersburg, 1844. 

George W. Burnap. The Professions: an oration delivered before the 
Literary Societies of Marshall College. Baltimore, 1842. 

Catalogue of the Goethean Literary Society, 1844. 

Catalogues of Marshall College, 1838-1853. No catalogue published 
in 1843 and 1850. 

Catalogues of Diagnothian Literary Society, 1841 and 1843. 

B. Champneys. Address before the Goethean and Diagnothian Lit- 
erary Societies. Lancaster, 1837. 

Joseph R. Chandler. Address delivered before the Goethean and 
Diagnothian Societies. Philadelphia, 1839. 

Circular issued by the Executive Committee of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Theological Seminary. 1833. 

Joseph Clark. Young Americanism. Address before the Goethean 
Society. Chambersburg, 1852. 

J. F. Denny. Studies and Obligations of the College Students. Ad- 
dress before the Literary Societies. Mercersburg, 1847. 

John Frost. The Duty of the American Scholar to the Literature 
of his Country. Address before the Literary Societies. Phila- 
delphia, 1841. 

E. V. Gerhart. The Proper Vocation of a Scholar. Address at the 
Opening of the Diagnothian Hall. Mercersburg, 1847. 

Inauguration as Professor of Theology at TiflSn. Tiffin 

City, Ohio, 1851. 

The Historical Element in Theology. Inaugural Address as 

Pi'ofessor of Theology at Mercersburg. Philadelphia, 1869. 

Geschichte des Theologischen Seminars der deutschen Reformirten 
Kirche. Hanover, 1831. 

Goethean Hall; or the Anniversary of Goethe's Birthday. Contains 
an Address on Dante by Philip Schaff, translated by Jeremiah 
H. Good. Chambersburg, 1846. 

Henry Harbaugh. Christological Philosophy. Inaugural Address 
as Professor of Theology at Mercersburg. Philadelphia, 1865. 

Heaven or the Sainted Dead. Philadelphia, 1849. 

The Heavenly Recognition. 1851. 
The Heavenly Home. 1853. 

Published in numerous editions ae "Harbaugh on the Future 


The Fathers of the German Reformed Church in Europe 

and America. 3 vols., Lancaster, 1857-1872. Three additional 
vols, by Rev. D. Heisler. 

Linn Harbaugh. The Life of Dr. H. Harbaugh. Philadelphia, 1900. 

0. C. Hartley. An address before the Alumni Association of Mar- 
shall College. Chambersburg, 1843. 

Higbee, E. E., Tributes of Loving Memory to. Lancaster, 1890. 

Amos H. Kremer. Sermon before the Alumni of the Theological 
Seminary. Chambersburg, 1853. 

R. Parker Little. Duties of Educated Men. Alumni Address. Cham- 
bersburg, 1844. 

Washington McCartney. The Practical Man. Address before the 
Societies. Philadelphia, 1852. 

Magazine of the German Reformed Church, 1830-1831. Continued 
as the Reformed Church Messenger, 1832. Contains many im- 
portant articles. 

Lewis Mayer. Eintrittsrede. Carlisle, 1852. 

Inaugural Address. Carlisle, 1825. 

The Sin against the Holy Ghost. Baltimore, 1838; Phila- 
delphia, 1867. 

Expository Lectures. Harrisburg, 1845. 

Aufruf an alle unsere Briider in England, Holland in der 

Schweiz und im Deutsche Reich. 

A History of the German Reformed Church. With a Biog- 

raphy of the author by Elias Heiner. Vol. I., Philadelphia, 1851. 

Mercersburg Review, founded by the Alumni Association, 1849. 

Samuel Miller. Mercersburg and Modern Theology Compared. 
Philadelphia, 1866. 

Alfred Nevin. Address before the Literary Societies. Chambers^ 
burg, 1848. 

John Williamson Nevin. The Chiu'ch. A Sermon preached at the 
opening of the Synod at Carlisle, October 15, 1846. Chambers- 
burg, 1847. 

Summary of Biblical Antiquities. Philadelphia, 1849 (late 

edition) . 

Party Spirit. Address before the Literary Societies of 

Washington College. Chambersburg, 1840. 

The German Language. Address before the Goethean So- 
ciety. Chambersburg, 1842. 


Addresses delivered at his Inauguration as Professor of 

Theology. Chambersburg, 1840. 

Anreden gehalten bei der Einsetzung als Professor in dem 

Theologischen Seminar, Mai 20, 1840. Chambersburg, 1840. 

The Ambassador of God. Sermon preached at the Ordina- 
tion and Installation of the Rev. W. Wilson Bonnell. Chambers- 
burg, 1842. 

The Anxious Bench. Chambersburg, 1843; second edition, 

1844; new edition, 1893. Also in German, Chambersburg, 1844. 

A Funeral Sermon with reference to the Death of James 

Edgar Moore. Mercersburg, 1844. 

Baccalaureate Address. Chambersburg, 1845. 

Baccalaureate Address. Chambersburg, 1846. 

Mystical Presence. Philadelphia, 1847; later edition, 1867. 

Faith, Reverence and Freedom. Baccalaureate Address. 

Chambersburg, 1849. 

Human Freedom and a Plea for Philosophy. Republished 

from the American Review. Mercersburg, 1850. 

History and Genius of the Heidelberg Catechism. Cham- 
bersburg, 1847. 

Some Notice of Dr. Berg's " Farewell Words." Mercersburg, 


Address before the Goethean Literary Society. Chambers- 
burg, 1844. 

William M. Nevin. Address before the Goethean Literary Society. 

Chambersburg, 1840. 
James Madison Porter. Address before the Literary Societies of 

Marshall College. Philadelphia, 1838. 

John N. Pomeroy. The Connection between Government and Science 
and Literature. Address before the Societies. Harrisburg, 1846. 

Frederick A. Rauch. Inaugural Address, York, October 18, 1832. 
Chambersburg, 1832. 

Inaugurations Rede, sammt der Emleitungsrede des Ehrw. 

Albert HelfiFenstein, Sr. Lancaster, Samuel Wagner, 1832. 

Psychology, or a View of the Human Soul. New York, 

1840, and later editions. 

The Inner Life. Select Sermons edited by E. V. Gerhart. 

Philadelphia, 1856. 
Henry L. Rice. Ministerial Qualifications. Sermon at the Close of 
the Session of the Classical Institution. Chambersburg, 1836. 


David H. Riddle. Genuine Radicalism. Address before the Literary 
Societies. Pittsburg, 1843. 

Philip Schafi. Das Princip des Protestantismus. Chambersburg, 

- The Principle of Protestantism. Translated by J. W. Nerin. 
Chambersburg, 1845. 

What is Church History? Philadelphia, 1846. 

Anglo-Germanism, or the Significance of the German Na- 
tionality in the United States. Translated by J. S. Ermentrout. 
Chambersburg, 1846. 

Der Anglogermanismus, eine Rede vor der Schiller Gessel- 

schaft des Marshall Collegiums. Chambersburg, 1846. 

Geschichte der Apostolischen Kirche. Mercersburg, 1851. 

Systematic Benevolence. Mercersburg, 1852. 

History of the Apostolic Church. Translated by Edward 

D. Yeomans. New York, Charles Scribner, 1853. 

The Moral Character of Jesus Christ. Chambersburg, n. d. 

Slavery and the Bible. A Tract for the Times. Chambers- 
burg, 1861. 

Albert Smith. Inaugural Address at Mercersburg, September 26, 
1838. Chambersburg, 1838; second edition, Gettysburg, 1839. 

Lewis H. Steiner. Physical Science. Goethean Address. Boonsboro, 

G. William Welker. Eulogy on the Life and Character of Frederick 
A. Eauch, D.P. Address before the Goethean Society. Chambers- 
burg, 1841. 

Bernard C. Wolff. Inauguration as Professor of Theology. Intro- 
ductory Address, J. W. Nevin; Charge to the Professor, Henry 
Harbaugh; Inaugural Address by Dr. B. C. Wolff. Chambers- 
burg, 1855. 

E. E. Higbee. The Christian Conception of History. Inaugural 
Address as Professor at Mercersburg. Philadelphia, 1868. 

Hemorial Reunion. In commemoration of the work begun at Mer- 
cersburg. Chambersburg, 1856. 


Theodore Appel. First Principles or Science of Things. 1883. 

The Life and Work of John Williamson Nevin, D.D., LL.D. 

Philadelphia, 1889. Introduction by F. A. Gast. 

Franklin and Marshall College. Circular of Bureau of Edu- 

cation, No. 4, 1902, pp. 66-82. Contained in the volume on 

Higher Education in Pennsylvania. 
Thomas 6. Apple. Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation. Sermon in 

Salem Reformed Church, Harrisburg. Harrisbm-g, 1884. 
George F. Baer. Address at the laying of the Comer-stone of the 

new Science Building. Lancaster, 1900. 
J. H. A. Bomberger. Reformed, not Ritualistic. Philadelphia, 1867. 

The Revised Liturgy. Philadelphia, 1867. 

John C. Bowman. The Needs of the Theological Seminary. Lan- 
caster, 1892. 

Samuel Bowman. The Choice of a Calling in Life. Address before 

the Literary Societies. Lancaster, 1853. 
George W. Brewer. The Poems and Romances of Walter Scott. 

Alumni Address. Chambersbiu-g, 1855. 
S. N. Callender. The Spirit of the Age. Goethean Address, August 

20, 1853. Chambersburg, 1853. Delivered at Lancaster. 
Charter and By-Laws of Franklin and Marshall College. Lancaster, 

Pa., 1867. 
Conference on Union. Philadelphia, 1888. Addresses by Thomas G. 

Apple, J. H. Dubbs, and others. 

Dedication of Franklin and Marshall CoUege, May 16, 1856. Intro- 
duction by E. V. Gerhart and Address by Emlen Franklin, Esq. 
Chambersburg, 1856. 

Daniel Dougherty. The Peril of the Republic the Fault of the People. 
Address before the Literary Societies. Philadelphia, 1863. 

Joseph Henry Dubbs. Conditions of Success in Life. Alumni Ad- 
dress. Philadelphia, 1870. 

Woman's Culture. Address to Allentown Female College, 

June 27, 1872. Philadelphia, 1873. 

Historic Manual of the Reformed Chirrch in the United 

States, Lancaster, Pa. Lancaster, Pa., 1885. 

Why am I Reformed? Philadelphia, 1889. 

The Way of the Lord in the Discovery of America. Lan- 
caster, 1892. 


The Founding of the German Churches of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, 1893. 

History of the Reformed Church in the United States. Vol. 

VIII., American Church History Series. New York, 1895. 

Leaders of the Reformation. Philadelphia, 1898. 

The Reformed Church in Pennsylvania. Lancaster, 1902. 

Eulogy on Rev. Thomas Conrad Porter, D.D., LL.D. Reprint 

from Proceedings of Pennsylvania German Society. Lancaster, 

Eschbach, E. R. The Significance of the Ideal in Life. Alumni Ad- 
dress. Philadelphia, 1890. 

Fonnal Opening of Franklin and Marshall College, June 7, 1853. 
Addresses by Hon. A. L. Hayes, Rev. J. W. Nevin, D.D., and 
Rt. Rev. Alonzo Potter, D.D., Lancaster, Pa., 1853. 

Emanuel V. Gerhart. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Two 
volumes, 1891 and 1894. 

The German Reformed Church. A Monograph. Andover, 


Christ the Source of Salvation. Discourse on the Fiftieth 

Anniversary of the Founding of the Theological Seminary. Lan- 
caster, 1875. 

Franklin and Marshall College and the new Endowment 

Scheme. Chambersburg, 1856. 

The Education of Woman. Lancaster, Pa., 1864. 

The Destruction of Man. Discourse on the Death of Daniel 

F. Wommer. Lancaster, 1856. 

The Blessedness of those who pass through Great Tribula- 
tion. Discoiurse occasioned by the Death of Aaron B. Dundore, 
a member of the Senior Class. Lancaster, 1858. 

An Introduction to the Study of Philosophy, with an Out- 
line Treatise on Logic. Philadelphia, 1858. 

- Addresses at his Inauguration as President of Franklin and 

Marshall College, July 24, 1855. ■ Chambersburg, 1855. 

D. W. Gerhard. Silver Anniversary of the Class of '62. New Hol- 

land, Pa., 1887. 
Samuel H. Giesy. Normal Humanity. Alumni Address. Philadel- 
phia, 1867. 

E. E. Higbee. English Literature and the Reformation. Address 

before the Literary Societies. Philadelphia, 1867. 


History of Lancaster County, by Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans, 
Philadelphia, 1883. Article on the College and Seminary by J. 
H. Dubbs. 

Henry Harbaugh. Youth in Earnest, as illustrated in the Life of 
Theodore David Fisher, A.M. Philadelphia, 1867. 

Account of the Reception of Dr. Gerhart, with abstract of 

the address of Mr. E. J. Bonbreak. The Chia/rdian, May, 1855. 

S. P. Heilman, M.D. The Science Building. Acts and Proceedings of 
the Board of Trustees and its Committees. Lancaster, 1900. 

J. S. Hess. A Politico-Economic Problem. Alumni Address. Phila- 
delphia, 1883. 

Adolphus L. Koeppen. The World in the Middle Ages. 2 vols., 
12mo. New York, 1856. 
Maps to accompany Koeppen's History, 4to. 1856. 

A. R. Eremer. Biographical Sketch of John W. Nevin. Reading, 

F. W. Kremer. Education and its Relation to Morality. Address 

before the Goethean Society. Lancaster, 1856. 

Acts and Proceedings of the Eastern Synod of the Reformed Church 

in the United States. Cir. 1850-1903. 
Henry Leonard. The Fisherman's Allegories. Dayton, 1887. 

List of Graduates, with their degrees and post office addresses or 
the date of death with the reference to the Obituary Record, 
compiled for the Alumni Association by Samuel H. Ranck and 
others. Lancaster, Pa., 1900. 

G. W. Williard. The Life and Character of Henry Leonard, the 

xisherman. Dayton, O., 1890. 
John Williamson Nevin. Man's True Destiny. Baccalaureate Ad- 
dress to the First Graduating Class in Franklin and Marshall 
College. Chambersburg, 1853. 

Life and Character of Frederick Augustus Rauch. Eulogy 

delivered on occasion of the Re-interment of his remains in Lan- 
caster, March 7, 1859. Chambersburg, 1859. 

Christ and Him Crucified. 1863. 

The Liturgical Question. Philadelphia, 1862. 

Vindication of the Revised Liturgy. Philadelphia, 1867. 

College Chapel Sermons. Compiled from notes by Henry 

M. Kieffer. Philadelphia, 1891. 

The Liturgical Conflict. Answer to Professor Dorner. 

Philadelphia, 1868. 


Once for All. 1869. 
Revelation and Redemption. 1870. 
Revelation of God in Christ. 1871. 
Christ and His Spirit. 1872. 

William Marvel Nevin, LL.D. Lectures on the History of English 
Literature. Edited by Rev. Theodore Appel, D.D. Lancaster, 

Obituary Record Franklin and Marshall College. [Edited by S. H. 
Ranck and others for the Alumni Association.] Lancaster, 1897, 
and subsequently. 

John H. Oliver. The State as an Element of Civilization. Alumni 
Address. Philadelphia, 1868. 

Thomas C. Porter. The Relation of Man to Nature. Address to the 
Literary Societies of Jefferson College. Lancaster, 1855. 

G. W. Richards. Inaugural Service held by the Eastern Synod. 
Philadelphia, 1900. 

Reformed Quarterly Review. Centennial Number, October, 1887. 
Entirely devoted to the Centennial of Franklin and the Semi- 
centennial of Marshall College. See also Jubilee number, April, 

William Rupp. Inaugural Service. Philadelphia, 1894. 

Church Question. Philadelphia, 1892. 

George B. Russell. The Principle of Virtue and the Virtue of Prin- 
ciple. Address at the Dedication of the New Hall of the Diag- 
nothian Literary Society, July 29, 1857. Chambersburg, 1857. 

Creed and Customs. Philadelphia, 1869. 

Philip Schafi. Life and Labors of St. Augustine. Translated by 

Rev. T. C. Porter. New York, 1854. 
Richard Conrad Schiedt. Principles of Zoology. Lancaster, 1892. 

Laboratory Notes on Zoology. Lancaster, 1897. 

On the Threshold of a New Century. Philadelphia, 1900. 

Plant Morphology. Lancaster, 1901. 

N. C. Schaeffer. Thinking and Learning to Think. Philadelphia, 

A. M. Schmidt. Sealed unto Christ. Lancaster, 1893. 
John S. Stahr. Translated Grob's Life of Zwingli. Reading, 1885. 

Theories of Evolution; The Philosophy Taught at Franklin 

and Marshall College; A Two-Edged Sword, etc., etc. Published 
in Mercersburg Review and Reformed Quarterly Review. 


Franklin and Marshall College. In Eeport of Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction in Pennsylvania, 1900. Vol. II., 
p. 614. 

Character of the Pennsylvania Germans and their Dialect. 

Proceedings of Pennsylvania German Society. 

The Life-Giving Touch. Proceedings Pennsylvania State 

Educational Association, 1901. 

Lewis H. Steiner. Address at the Dedication of the Second Hall of 
the Goethean Literary Society, July 28, 1857. Chambersburg, 

William A. Stokes. Thomas Paine. Address before the Literary 
Societies. Lancaster, 1859. 

Tercentenary Monument. In Commemoration of the Three Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Heidelberg Catechism. Chambers- 
burg, Pa., 1863. 

Wilhelm Estate. Bill in Eqmty, 1878. 

Answer of John C. GriflSth, et al., of the Defendants. 

Whitmer, A. C. History of the Class of '59. A Paper read at the 
Fifth Reunion of the Class, Jirne 17, 1879. 

College Days. Lancaster, 1873-1879. Continued as The College 

J. I. Mombeit. An Authentic History of Lancaster County. Lan- 
caster, 1869. Article on the German Reformed Church by P. A. 
Gast; Franklin and Marshall College by J. W. Nevin. 

Alumni Association Annual Reports, 1897-1903. 

Reformed Church Messenger. Vols. I.-LXXII. (1903). Important 
articles have also appeared in the Reformed Church Record, 
Der Hausfreund, Christian World and other publications of the 
Reformed Church. 

College Publications. The College Btudent, The F. and M. Weekly, 
The Oriflam,me, The Nevoman, and others. All these contain 
much valuable material. 

College Catalogues, 1853-1903. 


Abolition Eiot, 223-226 
Aeademy Building, 323 
Actus Oratorius, 10, 11 
Adams, J. Q., 359 
Africans, 165, 211, 223, 224 
Agnew, J. H., 158 
Albert, Charles H., 231 
Alexander, Archibald, 192 
Alexander, J. W., 103 

Beard, John, 21 
Beck, H. H., 359 
Becker, C. L., 101 
Becker, J. C, 101, 157 
Beeler, Henry C, 230 
Benjamin Franklin Society, 135 
Berg, Joseph F., 180, 204 
Berlin, 199, 204 
Bernstein, Henry C, 208 

Alumni Association, 312, 345, 377 Besore, George, 168 
Alumni Banquet, 256 Bethmann-Holweg, 246 

Anxious Bench, 203 Biddle, Charles, 21 

Appel, Theodore, 198, 238, 254, 258, Biennial Test, 352 

311, 318, 340 Bingham, Wm., 18, 26, 27, 91 

Apple, Thomas G., 247, 319, 334, Birch, Robert, 120 

348, 362 Black, 352 

Appropriations, 29, 116, 170, 184 Blanchard, G., 224, 225 
Armstrong, Professor, 109 
Arndt, John, 21 
Ashmead, William, 117 
Athletics, 376. See Gymnasium. 
Atlee, John L., 109, 254 
Atlee, W. A., 39 
Audenried, Lewis, 325-328 
Aughinbaugh, G. W., 247 

Blech, Ernst, 158 

Blumer, Abraham, 26 

Bobb, Eugene H., 368 

Bobb, Henry, 368 

Bomberger, J. H. A., 161, 182, 

Bossier, David, 145, 184 
Bourne, Edward, 180 
Bower, Calvin M., 362 
Baer, George F., 341, 346, 351, 367 Bowman, J. C, 356, 357 
Baer, H. L., 341 Bowman, Samuel, 128, 146, 253, 

Baer, W. J., 340 254, 286 

Bahnson, G. F., 128 Boyer, S., 155 

Baird, Sam., 93 Bradford Coimty, 91 

Baird, Thomas D., 197, 227 Braun's Mittheilungen, 12 

Baker, John C, 111, 124, 125, 253 Brew House, 30, 61 

Baldwin, John, 253 
Barr, Joseph, 119 
Bartine, D. W., 253 
Barton, Matthias, 106 
Barton, William, 106 
Bausman, Jacob, 324, 362 

"Broatsic," 209 
Brooks, N. C, 230 
Brown, David Paul, 215 
Brownlee, W. C, 109 
Buchanan, James, 117, 146, 210, 
252, 254, 259-262, 275, 304-305 




Bucher, J. Casper, 141, 144, 241, 

Bucher, J. Conrad, 294 
Budd, C. H., 321 
Budd, S. W., 159, 169, 172, 197, 

Buehrle, R. K., 343 
Building and Loan Association, 

366, 367 
Building Committee, 276 
Billow, H. von, 64 
Burrowes, Tliomas H., 253 

Carlisle, 7, 111, 113, 153 

Carpenter, Henry, 254 

Carson, James O., 178 

Cassidy, Professor, 110 

Centenary, 212 

Centennial, 345-347 

Cessna, John, 183, 218, 238, 305, 

342, 346, 350, 362 
Chambers, George, 168 
Chambers, Stephen, 26 
Chambersburg, 165-167, 182, 191, 

Champneys, B., 186, 253 
Chapman, Jacob, 131-134, 154 
Charity Schools, 5, 19, 28, 137 
Charter of Franklin College, 24 
Chestnut Day, 211 
Cheres, Langdon, 117 
Circular, 33 

Civil War, 302-304, 354 
Clarkson, Joseph, 109, 117 
Classical Institution, 158 
Clubs, 375, 376 
Clymer, George, 26 
Coblentz, Joseph, 362 
Ccetus, 7, 33, 42 
Coleman, E., 117 
Coleman, Thomas B., 117 
Coleman, W., 117 
College Building, 277 
CoUiflower, W. F., 161 
Confederation, 3 

Congregational Schools, 3 
Coombe, Pennell, 253 
C'ort, Ambrose, 359 
Cousie, J. B. (Kauss), 26, 302 
Cox, John B., 160 
Coxe, Tench, 67 
Crawford, Christopher, 26 
Crevecoeur, H. St. J., 54-56 

Dale, S., 90, 91, 117, 124 

Daniel SchoU Observatory, 343 

Daub, Charles, 173 

Davis, Claude B., 359 

Davis, W. W., 261 

Day, Gad, 130 

Dean, Samuel, 21 

Degrees, 27, 75 

Delliker, Frederick, 26, 70 

De Long, J. F., 347 

De Peyster, J. Watts, 362-365 

Derr, Joshua H., 275 

Diagnothian Society, 160, 161, 169, 

215, 217, 221, 224, 256, 280 
Dick, Wm., 168 
Dickey, O. J., 253 
Dickinson College, 93, 101, 103, 

119, 154, 190 
Dictionary, German and English, 

Dietz, Jacob Y., 362, 369 
Diffenbacher, D., 332 
Dober, C, 158 
Douglas, H. K., 303 
Doyle, Mr., 107 
Dramatic Clubs, 377 
Drude, F. L. H., 106 
Dubbs, Alfred, 226 
Dubbs, Jos. H., 327 
Duffield, George, 106 
Duncan, W. A., 260 

Ehrlich, Hans, 80 
Electioneering, 218-220 
Ellicott, Andrew, 106 
EUmaker, Amos, 117 



Ellmaker, Nathaniel, 253 
Endress, Christian, 111, 112, 117 
English Department, 72-75 
Ermentrout, John S., 238 
Erwin, J., 120 
Eschbach, E. R., 343 
Evans, Eobert, 117 
Eyerman, 352 
Eyster, Michael, 161 

Faber, John T., 75 

Faculty, 359 

Falk, F. W. A., 310-311 

Farmer, Lewis, 18, 26 

Fire Companies, 259 

Fisher, B. Frank, 303 

Fisher, Charles G., 247 

Fisher, Samuel E., 159, 160, 192 

Folk, J. J., 341 

Formal Opening, 33-53, 59 

Forney, J. Wirt, 370 

Fox, George, 21 

Franklin Academy, 103-106 

Franklin, B., 19-21, 25, 45, 54^60 

Franklin College, 3-147, 155, 166, 

242, 244, 274, 277, 380 
Franklin, Emlen, 278 
Franklin Row, 31 
Franklin, Thomas E., 253 
Fraternities, 374, 375 
Frazer, Reah, 253 
Frederick, Md., 152, 156 
Free Tuition, 331, 352 
Fry, Jacob, 237 

Garber Herbarium, 343, 368 

Gast, F. A., 320, 356, 357 

Geise, Frank, 366 

Gelbach, George, 345 

Geometrical Progression, 347 

Gerhart, E. V., 161, 182, 246, 270- 
279, 306-314, 319, 353, 356, 357 

Gerhart, Isaac, 157 

German Department, Franklin Col- 
lege, 71, 89 

German Department University, 

German Literary Societies, 221 
Germans, 4, 6, 8, 20, 22, 32-34, 49 
Gettysburg, 304 
Glee Club, 376 
Goethean Society, 161, 169, 213, 

215, 220, 256, 280 
Good, Jeremiah H., 237 
Good, William A., 156, 167, 237 
Green, Lewis W., 215 
Green, Traill, 196, 346 
Greenoastle, 210 
Greenwald, Philip, 26 
Gros, J. D., 7 
Gross, D. W., 362 
Grove, John M., 359 
Gundaker, M., 118, 125 
Gymnasium, 353 

Hager, Christopher, 276 
Hager, John C, 344, 362 
Hager, Walter C, 366 
Hager, William H., 368 
Hagerstown, 113, 210 
Hahn, Michael, 26, 40 
Hall, Bayard R., 183, 350 
Hall, Charles, 17 
Halls, Society, 213-222, 279 
Hamilton, James, 251 
Harbaugh Hall, 280, 322, 323 
Harbaugh, Henry, 61, 221, 231, 
246, 253, 275, 278, 280, 296, 307 
Harrisburg, 166, 243 
Hartley, Oliver C, 183 
Hartley, Rufus K., 183 
Hartman, Edwin M., 370 
Hartranft, Gov. J. F., 237 
Hay, Charles A., 161 
Hayes, A. L., 253, 255 
Heidelberg Catechism, 205, 308 
Heilman, C. U., 318, 340, 341, 362 
Heilman, John, 307, 344 
Heine, Paul, 366 
Helffenstein, Albertus, 26 



HeMenstein, S., Ill, 153 

Helm, T. 6., 370 

Helmuth, J. H. C, 9-12, 15, 

26, 35-38, 45, 69 
Hendel, William, 13, 15, 26, 35- 

46, 48, 67-70 
Hendel, William, Jr., 7, 111 
Henderson, Thos. G., 117 
Hendricks, Thomas A., 182 
Hensel, Geo. W., 362 
Hensel, W. U., 346, 354, 366 
Herbst, John, 26, 47, 78 
Bering, Archbishop, 5 
Herman, F. L., Ill 
Herr, Martin L., 359, 360 
Hershey, Milton S., 368 
Heyser, Wm., 167 
Hiawatha, 297-299 
Hiester, A. V., 358 
Hiester, Daniel, 26, 38, 111 
Hiester, Joseph, 26, 27, 38 
Higbee, E. E., 246, 247, 319 
High School, 159, 164 
Hill, Henry, 21 
Hinkle, D. Y., 161 
Hofius, D. H., 183 
HofFeditz, T. L., 157, 199 
Hoffman, John E., 168 
Hoffmeier, J. H., 106, 111 
Hood, Mrs. J. M., 343, 352 
Hoofnagle, Peter, 26 
Holland, 6, 7-8, 88 
Hopkins, James, 106 
Houser, I. E., 161 
Hubley, Adam, 26 
Hubley, John, 17, 26, 81, 82, 

93-95, 109, 111 
Hudson, A. J. M., 237 
Hughes, K. W., 346 
Humes, Samuel, 109 
Hutchins, Joseph, 26, 46-48, 
53, 65-66 

Irvine, W. M., 247, 354 

18, Jacobs, Cyrus, 117 

Jefferson College, 103, 160 
■37, Jefferson, Thomas, 114 

Jenkins, W., 117 

Joint Theological Seminary, 111 

Jones, Gardiner, 209 

Jordan, Francis, 183 

Kalevala, 297-299 
Keenan, Bernard, 253, 302 
Keenan, John, 121 
Kerr, S. W., 358 
Kerschner, J. B., 246 
Kershner, J. E., 337, 343, 368 
Kessler, C. K., 238 
Keyes, N. A., 253, 254 
Kieffer, H. M., 352 
Kieffer, John B., 337, 347, 363, 364 
Kieffer, J. Spangler, 346 
Kieffer, Moses, 160, 182 
Killinger, J. W., 345, 362 
Kimmel, 341 
Kirchenfreund, 205 
Kirkpatrick, Wm., 117 
Knox, Gen. Henry, 31 
Koeppen, A. L., 254, 258, 282-293 
Konigmacher, Joseph, 276 
Kooken, J. R., 161, 247 
Koplin, A. B., 337-340 
Krause, David, 168 
Krebs, W. E., 322 
Kremer, A. H., 161 
Kroh, Daniel, 224, 225 
91, Krotel, G. F., 253 
Krug, Geo. H., 117 
Krummacher, F. W., 198, 234 
Kucher, Christopher, 26 
Kuhl, Frederick, 21 
50- Kunze, J. C, 8-9 
Kurtz, Nicholas, 26 

Infant School, 124, 137 
Ingold, William, 26 

Lafayette College, 157, 174, 300 
Laird, H. P., 362 



Lancaster County Academy, 115 

Lancasterian Schools, 122 
Law School, 182 
Learned, M. D., 11 
Leahey, Edward, 209 
Lebanon, Classis of, 113, 114 
Leonard, Henry, 308, 339 
Lewis, Ellis, 135 
Leydt, John, 7 

Liberal Education, 328-331 

Linn, J. M., 254, 258 

Linnsean Society, 369 

Literary Societies, 160-162, 213- 
222, 244, 256, 278-280, 373, 374 

Little, P. W., 168 

Liturgical Controversy, 318 

Long, Henry G., 276 

Long, Jacob M., 254, 276 

Longaker, A. B., 237 

Loose, Joseph, S., 237 

Lutheran Church, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13, 15, 
19, 27, 37, 111, 113, 143, 163, 165 

Lycoming County, 91 

MacFarquhar, Colin, 106 
MacKean, Thomas, 18, 26, 27, 38, 

MacMaster, John Bach, 58 
Mandolin Club, 376 
Marcelus, A., 121 
Marshall College, 137, 139-147, 151, 

179, 184, 221, 240-247, 274, 312, 

Marshall Hall, 280 
Marshall, John, 171 
Marshall, William, 258 
Martin, George H., 182 
Martin, G. H., 161 
Mayburry, Wm., 196, 270 
Mayer, Geo. L., 117 
Mayer, Jacob, 164, 167, 184 
Mayer, Lewis, 153-156, 168, 183 
Mays, C. V., 324 
Mays, J. Milton, 368 

McCauley, C. F., 161, 186 

McCauley, I. H., 160 

MoClure, Robert, 276 

McKinstry, Wm., 168, 178 

Mecom, Mrs., 58 

Melsheimer, F. V., 26, 46, 62-63, 

71, 85, 86 
Mercersburg, 137, 139, 165, 167, 168, 
191, 198, 200, 204, 210, 221, 223, 
235, 241, 381 
Mercersburg Academy, 247 
Mercersburg Review, 205, 207 
Mercersburg Theology, 205 
Mesick, John F., 254, 264, 267 
Metcalf, Wm., 168 
Methodists, 154, 165 
Middlekauff, David, 168 
Mifflin, Thomas, 24, 25, 27 
Military Science, 358 
Milledoler, P., 7, 113, 152 
Miller, Daniel, 161 
Miller, H., 158 
Miller, Jacob, 75 
Miller, J. O., 349, 362 
Miller, Samuel, 212 
MoUer, H., 9 

Montgomery, J. R., 128, 253 
Montgomery, Wm., 106 
Moore, W. W., 370 
Moravians, 17, 27, 39, 47 
Morellet, Abb6, 58 
Morris, Robert, 21, 26 
Muhlenberg, F. A., 56, 57, 61, 83, 

117, 129, 139-147, 346 
Muhlenberg, F. W., 117, 254 
Muhlenberg, G. Henry E., 16, 26, 

30, 33, 35, 36, 46-49, 67, 69, 87, 

96-99, 106 
Muhlenberg, H. M., 4 
Muhlenberg, Peter, 18, 21, 22, 26, 

27, 38 
Mull, George F., 337 
Musser, George, 117 
Musser, John, 26 
Mystical Presence, 205 



Naille, J. J., 275 

Negley, P. S., 201 

Neuman, John, 76, 78 

Nevin, John W., 186, 187, 188, 189- 
212, 214, 238, 241, 246, 254, 255, 
262, 263-266, 280, 313, 315-333 

Nevin, E. J., 211 

Nevin, W. M., 181 

Nevin, William M., 181, 194^196, 
222, 254, 257, 318, 360-362 

Nisbet, Charles, 101-103, 190 

Norr, Thor T., 110 

Norristown, 241 

Obituary Record, 377 
Observatory, 343 
Orris, Stanhope, 346 
Otho, of Bavaria, 284 

Patterson, D. W., 253, 278 
Patterson, J. B., 121 
Pearce, Nicholas, 178 
Pennsylvania College, 137, 138, 

140, 163 
Pepper, Dr. Wm., 346 
Periodicals, 376 
Peters, Jacob G., 245 
Philadelphia College, 8 
Physical Directors, 355 
Pittsburg, 165 
Pomp, Thomas, 111, 157 
Poole, Thomas, 103 
Porter, Geo. B., 117 
Porter, Thomas C, 197, 254, 258, 

276, 294-301, 367 
Potter, Alonzo, 255 
Powell, E. E., 359 
Power, James, 121 
Preparatory Department, 183, 184, 

201-202, 237, 245 
Presbyterians, 7, 165, 192 
Princeton, 69, 186, 191, 214, 346 
Principle of Protestantism, 203 
Prussia, Kings of, 199 
Psychology, Eauch's, 17B 

Puseyites, 207 

Rathvon, S. S., 368 

Eauch, Frederick A., 156, 158, 166, 

169, 172, 173-188, 204 
Eauch Society, 221 
Eawle, Wm., 18, 21, 26, 27 
Eeading, 203 
Eebough, John, 167 
Eeddick, David, 21 
Eeformed Church, 3, 6, 13, 15, 19, 

27, 192, 212, 372 
Eeformed Church Eeview, 205, 336 
Eeformed Synods, 4, 111, 113, 136, 

165, 191 
Eegan, James, 129 
Eeichenbach, W., 46, 63-65, 72, 74 
Eeigart, Adam, 26, 111, 117 
Eeigart, E. C, 117, 253 
Eeily, W. M., 246 
Eeinecke, E. W., 238 
Eengier, Charles F., 366, 368 
Eeynolds, Jno., 117 
Ehoads, Peter, 75 
Eice, Henry L., 167, 172, 179, 184 
Eichards, Geo. W., 357 
Eitner, Gov. J., 151 
Eodgers, J. B., 196 
Eogers, Molten C, 117 
Eoman Catholics, 27 
Eosengarten, J. G., 14 
Eoss, George, 17 
Ross, George, Jr., 106 
Eoss, James, 100-103 
Eothermel, A. H., 364, 365 
Eupp, I. D., 17, 23 
Rupp, William, 356 
Rush, Benjamin, 13, 18, 21-22, 23, 

26, 30, 38, 46, 59, 67, 81, 83-85 
Russell, George B., 238, 280 
Eutgers College, 152, 346 
Eutgers, Col. H., 152 

Santee, Charles, 341, 344, 345, 362 
St. Stephen's Church, 320, 371 



Schaeflfer, N. C, 328, 366 

Schaff, Philip, 198-205, 210, 215, 

246, 267-268 
Schaff ner, Casper, 17, 26 
Schantz, F. J. F., 255 
Schell, Jacob, 183 
Sohell, Peter, 168 
Schell, W. P., 183 
Sehenk, Geo. W., 197 
Schiedt, R. C, 337, 347, 366-368 
Schiller Society, 221 
Schipper, B. F., 107-109, 115 
Schlatter, Michael, 4, 5 
Schmidt, Ambrose M., 367 
Schmidt, Dr., 12, 35 
Schmucker, J. G., 112 
Schnebly, David, 179 
Sohnebly, Henry, 168 
Schneck, B. S., 166, 192, 199 
Scholarships, 184 
Schultz, C. E., 26 
Schultz, Henry A., 353 
Science Building, 323, 366 
Scott, John, 182 
Sehner, John, 128 
Shafer, Daniel, 168, 178 
Shaffer, John, 172 
Sheaff, Wm., 18, 26, 38 
Shenk, B. F., 362 
Shroder, Francis, 362 
Shulze, John Andrew, 24 
Siegel, C. E., 346 
Slaymaker, Jasper, 117 
"Slubs," 233 
Smilie, John, 21 
Smith, Albert, 181 
Smith, A. Herr, 362 
Smith, Charles, 106 
Smith, E. F., 369 
Smith, Frederick, 168 
Smith, Haden Patrick, 276 
Smith, John, 168 
Smyth, Frederick K., 337, 354 
Snively, David, 237 
Snowden, N. R., 106, 107 

Snyder, Peter, 168 

Stahr, John S., 321, 349-378 

Stake, George, Sr., 26, 40 

Steiner, Jesse, 161 

Steinmetz, J. W., 319 

Steiner, Lewis H., 280, 320, 346 

Stem, F. D., 238 

Stern, Max, 201, 238 

Stevens, Thaddeus, 135, 253 

Stewart, William, 66, 67 

Stoddard, David, 181 

Stone, F. D., 58 

Stone House, ii9, 30, 31, 61 

Students, 71-75 

Swander, John L., 358 

Swander, Nevin A., 343 

Tercentenary Year, 307-309 
Theological Seminary, 111, 152- 

155, 198, 245-246, 267, 314, 341, 

Theological Tutorship, 246 
Thomson, Alexander, 168, 172, 182 
Thomson, David, 5 
Thomson, T. M., 106 
Tioga County, 91 
Traill, Robert, 21 
Troldenier, George, 26 
Tutors, 181, 238, 360 

Union College, 190 
University of Pennsylvania, 8, 12, 
29, 346 

Van Antwerp, J. J., 121 
Van Buskirk, Jacob, 26 
Van Haagen, J. A., 310 
Van Renssellaer, Mrs. C, 239 
Van Romondt, Gov., 237 
Van Vranken, S. A., 173 
Varian, Alexr., 121 
Venango County, 91 

Wager, Philip, 18, 26, 38 
Wagner, C. E., 358 



Wagner, Samuel G., 237, 246, 275 
Watt and Shand, 368 
Watts-dePeyster Library, 362-365 
Watt's Paraphrase, 43-44 
Weiberg, C. D., 8, 12, 15, 16, 18, 26, 

35, 38, 47, 69 
Weinland, Frederick, 26 
Weiser, Clement Z., 237, 238, 246, 

275, 362, 366 
Western Theological Seminary, 

191, 215 
Wetzel, J. W., 343 
Wickersham, J. P., 362 
Williamson, Hugh, 190 
Williard, Geo. W., 160 
Williard, Henry, 160 
Wilhelm Family, 332, 337-343 
Wilson, D. A., 238 
Wilson, J. P., 119, 120 
Winter, H. A., 193 
Wirt, Henry, 362 

Wolff, Barnard, 168, 171 

Wolff, B., Jr., 362, 368 

Wolff, Bernard C, 171, 184, 239, 

246, 278, 317 
Wolff, C. B., 238, 275 
Wolff, Daniel M., 321 
Wolff, Geo. D., 238 

Yale College, 186 

Yeates, Jasper, 17, 26, 27, 100 

Yeates, Mrs., 117 

York, 136, 168 

Young, Andrew, S., 161, 182, 237 

Young, C. A., 343 

Young, Daniel, 154, 157 

Y. M. C. A., College, 373 

Zantzinger, Paul, 26 
Ziegler, Jacob, 161, 225 
Zion, Classis of, 113, 114 

The Franklin and Marshall College 
Alumni Association Publications 

Publishing Committee. 

Samuel H. Ranck, Chairman. 

Rev. Adam S. Weber, D.D. 

Rev. Charles W. Levan. 

President John S. Stahr, Ex-ofUdo. 

The Publishing Committee of the Franklin and Marshall 
College Alumni Association has charge of the publishing work 
of the Association. The publications are the following: 

OBITUARY RECORD. (Issued annually since 1897.) Sent 
to subscribers for life, on payment of $2.00 in advance. 
Seven numbers of this Record have been published, containing 
sketches of more than 300 deceased graduates. No. i (245 
pages) sold separately, $1.00; subsequent numbers 10 cents 

ANNUAL REPORTS, 1 897-1902. 

Sent free to all graduates and other members of the Associa- 
tion, in June, after Commencement. 

LIST OF GRADUATES, with their addresses, etc. 

Published in 1900. Sent free on receipt of 4 cents in stamps. 

1903. Paper covers, $1.00; bound in cloth, $1.50. 
This Catalogue contains about 200 pages (Obituary Record 
size). The addresses of living men are given, the dates of 
death, honors on graduation, etc. 

LEGE. By Joseph Henry Dubbs, D.D., LL.D. 
Large paper edition (50 copies), out of print, $5.00; 
regular edition, $2.50. 
This history contains a little over 400 pages (Obituary Record 
size). It is handsomely printed on good paper, bound in 
cloth, gilt top, and is illustrated by 12 photogravures and a 
large number of half-tone and line engravings. It is the 
handsomest piece of work ever published in connection with 
Franklin and Marshall College. 

Communications and subscriptions may be sent to the 
Chairman of the Publishing Committee, Samuel H. Ranck, 
The Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, Md., or 

Publishing Committee 

The Franklin and Marshall College Alumni Association 


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