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Full text of "British sculpture and sculptors of today"

BRITISH SCULITllRE AND SCULPTORS 
OF TO-DAY. 



ORKS BY M. H, Spielmann 

Published by CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited. 



The History of "Punch/- "^^'i* 

nearly 170 lUustraliuns, 592 pages, royal S\'o, 
cloth gilt, 163. LaiXi' Paper Eilition, £2 2S. net. 

John Ruskin : A Sketch of his 
Life, his Work, and his Opin- 
ions. AVith I'ersonal Reminiscences. Together 
with a Paper by F^rofessor Ruskin, entitled, "' The 
lilack Arts." Illustrated. Crown S\-o, cloth, 5s, 

Henriette Ronner: The Painter 
of Cat Life and Cat Charac- 
ter. Large Paper Edition, 70s. 

The Wallace Collection at Hert- 
ford House. Being Notes on the Pictures 
and other Works of Art, with special reference 
to the history of their acquisition. Illustrated. 
Medium Svo, paper covers, is. 



BRITISH SCULPTURE 
AND SCULPTORS 
OF TO-DAY 



WRITTEN BY 



M. H. SPIELMANN 

EDITOR OF "THE MAGAZINE OF ART;" AUTHOR OF "THE 
WALLACE COLLECTION," "HENRIETTE RONNER," "MILLAIS 
AND HIS WORKS," "THE HISTORY OF PUNCH" 



CASSELL AND COMPANY, LIMITED 

LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK & MELBOURNE. MCMI 



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All Illiislrali())is in lliis II "fv/,' aiw cupvriKiil. 



NOTE. 




HE fact that there exists no book upon present or recent sculpture 

in (ireat Britain — nothin,t( beyond occasional articles in the 

]\Ia,<4'azines — has prompted the production of this \'olume. Its 

a])pearance, it is thou^i^JTt, is opportune. In its pa,t;'es mav be seen 

examples of the work of nearh" ever\- li\anf( sculptor of rejnite 

in (ireat Britain, with a hterar\' accomjianiment, ]\arth- descri]itive, 

partly critical, desis^nied to inform the jniblic Ikjw admirabK' our school of sculjiture 

has developed at the })resent dav, and how competent are its members to produce 

work at once fine and beautiful. In Mr. Alfred Gilbert, Air. Thornycroft, and 

]\lr. Brock, British sculptors are provided Avith a lead that is raisin,t;' them to a A'ery 

hit^'h place amonp; the schools of the nations. And such of the public who appreciate 

sculpture may satisfy themseh'es from these pa^^es that when work of national 

importance is to be executed and noble designs to be created, there are not lacking 

men capable of sustaining the credit of the British School. 

M. H. S. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ALLEN, CHARLES J.: 
A Diuam i.f Lovu . 
Lovt and tliL- jNKrmaid . 
Ktscucd .... 

ARMSTEAD, H. H., R.A.: 

Effigy of Lord \\'inQ-imd(ri^h 
David and the Li<in 
Lieutenant A\"ai^]njrn 
St. Mattliew .... 
Wemorial t(j an Only DaUL^Iiter 

BAYES, GILBERT: 

Tile SI lens of the Ford . 
\'anity ..... 
.I'.neas Lea\'intr i"i" 



■oy .... 

BOWCHER, FRANK : 

Science and Art Department Medal 
Huxley Memorial Medal 

BROCK, THOMAS, R.A. : 

The Genius of Poetry .... 

Rt. Hon. Henry I^hilpott, [>.ll., I'.ishop of \V 

Kve ..... 

Sir Richard Owea . 

Statue of Oueen "S'icturla at Hove 

Queen Victoria 

The Lord Leightoll i\IemorIal 

BRUCE-JOY, A., R.H.A.: 

John Bright .... 

COLTON, W. R.: 

The Girdle .... 

The Crown of Love 

The Image Finder . 

The Wavelet .... 

CRANE, WALTER: 

The ilanchester Mace . 

DAWSON, NELSON and EDITH: 
The Baden-I'*o\vell Casket 

DIXON, HARRY: 

A Wild Boar 



DRESSLER, CONRAD: 
Mary Magdalen 
Sir John d'Urberville 
John Ruskin 

DRURY, ALFRED, A.R.A. : 

The Triumph ot Silenus 

Circe 

Spandrel in Terra Cotta 

St. Agnes 

Even 

Dr. Priestley . 

Griselda .... 

March, June, and December 

The Age of Innocence 

FEHR, HENRY C. : 

Hypnos Bestov^-ing Sleep upon the Earth 
Perseus and Andromeda 
St. George and the Dragon 

FISHER, ALEXANDER: 

Silver and Enamel Centrepiece 



150 



M 
IS 
16 

n 

144 
144 

168 
16S 



^7 

28 
29 



24 

145 
146 
147 
1+7 

157 
172 

72 

86 
86 
87 

lOy 

lOlJ 

no 
III 
112 
112 
"3 
"4 



139 
140 

141 



ueen Victoria Memorial 



FORD, E. ONSLOW, R.A.: 
Sir Henry Ir\ing as " H 
AV. E. <.;iadstone . 
Peace 

The Gordon Shield 
The Gordon Alemori.il at Ch: 
A Study . 
The Singer 
Applause 

The Shelley Mcmnri.il 
Echo 

SirJ. E. Millais, P.R.A. 
'Jhe Jfjwett Memorial 
Glory to the Dead . 
Queen Victoriii 
A Detail of the M:inchcs 
Maternity 

FRAMPTON, GEORGE J., A 
The Children of the Wol 
Mysteriarch 
Guinevere 

The Keene iMemoriiil 
Dame Alice (Jwen 
Mitchell Memorial . 
St. George 
Lamia 

GILBERT, ALFRED, R.A. : 

Mother and Child . 

Perseus .... 

Icarus .... 

Studies of Heads 

The Fawcett Memorial , 

Epergne for Queen Victoria 

The Howard Memorial . 

Rear View of the Queen Victoria Monument, Winchester 

Queen Victori:i Monument (Winchester) 

GILES, MARGARET: 

Hero 

GLEICHEN, H.S.H. THE COUNTESS: 

Satan .......... 



HAMILTON, LILIAN VEREKER: 
The Maharajah ot Kapurthala 

JENKINS, F. LYNN : 

Portion of a hrieze in Ivory and Bronze 

JOHN, W. GOSCOMBE, A.R.A. : 
Parting .... 
St. John the Iliiptist 
The Glamour ol the Rose 
The Elf . 
Boy at Play . 
The Duke of Devonshire 



JONES, ADRIAN : 

Triumph 
Duncan's Horses 



LANTERI, EDOUARD: 

The Fencing Master 

The Fisherman and the McrnKiii. 

Head of a Peasant . 

Sketch for a Garden Decoration 

The Duet .... 



52 

53 
54 
55 
5& 
57 
v8 
58 
59 
60 
6t 
62 

fn 

64 
65 
65 

88 
89 
90 
90 
91 
y2 

93 
94 

77 
78 
78 
79 
80 
Si 
82 



162 



169 
158 

129 
I2q 
130 
130 
131 
132 

103 
104 

124 
124 

125 
125 
126 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LAWES, SIR C. B., BART.: 
■■ rhi.-v Hound mv mi " , 

LAWSON, G. A. : 

J -urns McniMi'i.il at Ant 

Hlm.I ofan Old A\-„ni,,n 

LEGROS, ALPHONSE : 

] anal I (.■nnysDii ..,..,,. 
Charlas Daruin 

LEVICK, RUBY: 

Kiauia, uf:, l-;,>y 

LUCCHESI, A. C: 

l)LStiiiy 

Thf I'liaht .,r Fancy 

rilL- MMunl:iin of 1-:i;ih- 

dhe Alyillc's Altar 

McGILL, DAVID: 

lone Kemovln;;; the laidyofSt, Sebastian 

MACKENNAL, BERTRAM: 

CentrLpiecc (SiU'er) ....... 

Circe 

•' l'"or She Sitteth on a Seat in t!ie High Places of the City ' 

Mrs. Herbert Hart 

( )ueen Victoria ........ 



MARKS, GILBERT: 

Silver I-;..ul 

MARYON, EDITH : 

Mav Morning .... 

MONTFORD, PAUL R.: 

Jacob AVrestling with the .-Vngel 
\'iscount Pailingbroke 

MULLINS. E. ROSCOE: 

I'.ov with :l fop .... 

PEGRAM, HENRY A.: 

Ignis Patuus ..... 
SibyHa Fatidica .... 

The F.ather 

Fdrtune ...... 

POMEROY, F. W. : 

A Chimney Piece .... 

The Xymph of Loch Awe 

Love the Conqueror 

" Pleasures are Like Poppies, " etc. 

Robert pjurns (Paisley) . 

Perseus ..,,,. 

The Spe.iniKin .... 

Dean Ho.jk 

PRINCESS LOUISE, H.R.H. DUCHESS OF ARGYLL 
tjueen \'ictori:i ...... 

REYNOLDS-STEPHENS, W.: 

A W;ill P'ount.iin ...... 

The Sleeping Peaut\' ..... 

Lancelot and the Nestling .... 

Guine\ere and the Nestling .... 

RHIND, W. BIRNIE, A.R.S.A. : 
Oueen Victoria 
Science ........ 

Iloorwav of the Scottish .\ational Porlr:dt (,:illery 

ROLLINS, J. WENLOCK: 

(.iroup ha" the New ( icner.d Plospit.d, 1 iirminghani 



ROPE, ELLEN M . : 
^^ Christ Klessing Little Children 

"Th,- W:ives Pcside Them I )anceil, 

20 SCHENCK, F. E. E. : 

JI .\gricullure ..... 

SIMONDS, GEORGE: 

I(j(i (.loddess (ieni, the Northern .Vuror.i 

'-''' STEVENSON, D. W., R.S.A : 



I4S 



m 



13(1 



152 

1^2 



4'i 

97 
(),S 

[)<) 

iiti 
lit) 
"7 
117 
118 

IK) 

120 

121 



105 
101 1 
107 

I as 

127 
127 

I2,S 



Highhind M,n-y 



STEVENSON, W. G., R.S.A. : 
Robert 1 lUrns . 
" Tarn o' Sh.inter" . 

SWAN, JOHN M., A.R.A.: 

(.Irpheus .... 
I-eopard Running . 
Leop.ard with Tortoise 
Puma and I\Lic;i\v . 
F~ata Morg.ina 

THORNYCROFT, W. HAMO, R.A 
Artemis .... 
Teucer .... 
Medea .... 
Frieze on the Institute ol Ch:i 
King Edw .trd 1. 
The Sower 
The Mower 

General Charles (jordon 
Ouecn Victoria 
The Stanley Memori.al 
The Dean Colet Memori.d 
Oliver Croniwell 

TINWORTH, GEORGE: 
The I 'istress of Herod 

TOFT, ALBERT: 

H.igar .... 
\'ictory .... 
W. E. (..l.idstone . 
The Spirit of Contemphition 

TURNER, ALFRED : 

" Charity ^' . . . 



tered 



WADE, GEORGE E. : 

Tirnvarur Mathuswamy 

WALKER, A. G.: 

The L.ist Plague 

" .\nd they were arr:dd " 

The Ihorn .... 

WATTS, G. F., R.A.: 

Clylie 

Hugh Lupus .... 

WILLIAMSON, F. J. : 

Hypati.i 

H.R.H. Prince Edu.ird ,.l ^"ork 
Lord Tennyson 

WOOD, F. DERWENT : 

Ic.nais 

Idle b.iles .... 

Mur.d load, 

Sculpture . . , 



1(13 
17(1 



138 



33 



J Account. mts 







fi8 
6-j 

71 



3'.i 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
44 
45 
40 
48 

23 



143 

100 
lOI 
102 



ii'4 

1(13 



18 
18 

19 



153 
i,<4 

154 



~^^ 



BRITISH SCULPTURl: 

AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



SINCE the year 1875 or thereal)(juts 11 radical 
clianije has come o\er British sculi)ture a 
chan,)2;e so revolutionary that it has ,t,nven a new 
direction to the aims and ambitions of tlie artist 
and raised the British school to a heiijht unhoped 
for, or at least wholly unexpected, thirty years 
aijo. Within that time works of extraordinary 
merit and beauty haye been produced, excellent 
alike in desiijn and execution. Xo one was 
more impressed by the brilliant de\'elopment than 
Sir John Millais, who exclaimed in the Magazine 
of Art :^ 

" So line is some of the work our modern 
sculptors ha\'e tjiven us, that I firmly belieye that 
were it <l\v^ up from under the oyster shells in 
Rome or out of Athenian sands, with the cachet of 
partial dismemberment about it, all Europe would 
straightway fall into ecstasy, and give forth the 
plaintive wail, ' We can do nothing like that 
now ! ' " 

Buoyantly optimistic as ever. Sir John foresaw 
that the regeneration of the art might some day 
place us on a level with the French and the 
Belgians, if not with the greatest masters of the 
past. He knew that a renascence had taken 
place in sculpture similar to that (and not less 
thorough ) which he and his friends had initiated 
with their Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Only — it 
may broadly be said — in the case of sculpture 
the complete reformation came Irom without, 
brought here nrainly by a Frenchman and by 
two Englishmen who had studied abroad. 

To Carpeaux, no doubt, the inspiration of the 
new trend was originally due ; for Carpeaux, who 
infused flesh and blood and joyous life into his 
marble, was to his classic predecessors much what 
Delacroix was to David and the cold professors of 
his formal school. But it was to Monsieur Dalou 
that we chiefly owe the great renascence in 
England. A political refugee in this country at the 



time of the Connnune, he was cordially \velc(jmed 
by the artists of hLngland, and, at the suggestion of 
Sir Edward Poynter, at that time director of the 
National Art Training School (now called "The 
Ro^'al College of Art " ) he was in\-ited to assume 
the mastership of the modelling classes. This post 
he retained for some ^'ears until the amnesty for 
political offenders enabled him to return to his 
native land ; but before he left he had improved 
the work in the schools out of all recognition. 
Not only was the (juality impr(jved ; the whole 
conception of sculpture seemed to be modified, 
and the fire of enthusiasm was set aflame 
where before it had been smouldering only, not 
far from extinction. 

When M. Dalou departed he left in his stead 
Mr. Lanteri, now a naturalised Englishman, 
who ever since his appointment has pro^•ed an 
ability for teaching fully equal to that of his 
predecessor, singular^' endowed with the capacity 
for inspiring students with a passion for their art, 
and for securing from successive generations of 
them their admiration and affectionate esteem. It 
may be believed that a very large proportion of 
the most successful British sculptors of to-daA' who 
are not more than middle-aged owe to Professor 
Lanteri much of the success they have achieved. 
Meanwhile, the Lambeth Art Schools — where ]Mr. 
Frith was conducting his modelling class under 
the directorship of Mr. Sparkes — were being main- 
tained with extraordinary success, instructing not 
a few of our leading sculptors and sending them 
up to South Kensington and the Royal Academy 
for their final training. Among these are Mr. 
Alfred Gilbert, Mr. Frampton, Mr. Goscombe 
John, i\Ir. Pomeroy, Mr. Charles Allen, as well as 
the late Mr. Harry Bates. Since then, Mr. Hamo 
Thornycroft, Mr. Brock, and others have done 
for Burlington House a good deal of what MM. 
Dalou and Lanteri did for South Kensington ; 
and latterly the brilliant lectures and the inspiring 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



genius of Mr. Alfred Gilbert have electrified the 
students of the R()^-al Academy into an enthu- 
siasm rareh' witnessed heretofore within its walls 
— rather, it must be owned, in the direction of 
ornament and metal-working than of sculpture 
pure and simple. 

Although it is true that a nation can no more 
afford to borrow its art from abroad than its 
literature, the modern growth of British sculpture, 
where it is not coloured direct from the Italian 
Renaissance, is certainly influenced from France. 
Air. Thornvcroft and Mr. Brock themselves, 
classic though they are in their main svmpathv 
— classic romantics, if such a term be permissible 
— have not entirelv withstood the wave. Air. 
Thornvcroft may represent the Greek ; Air. Brock 
ma^■ carry on something of the feeling of Alfred 
Ste\'ens ; they are both in greater measure or in 
less in the eddy of the flowing stream. But 
what is most remarkable about this return to 
romantic realism is this — that in spite of the teach- 
ing of Frenchmen and Italians, in spite of the 
spirit of colour and decoration and greater realism 
in modelling having been brought from abroad by 
Mr. Alfred Gilbert and Mr. Onslow Ford, the 
character of English sculpture, even in its most 
decorati\'e forms, is not in the main other than 
British. 

It is to Air. Gill^ert that we owe the delightful 
revi^■aI of metal-work in its finest form wedded to 
sculpture, with the introduction of marble, gems, 
and the like, exquisitely uilimc, felicitous in inven- 
tion, ]irecious in ornament, playful, elegant, gentle ; 
and so excellent in taste that it does not quarrel 
with the monumental character or detract from its 
dignit^■ when brought ui contact with it. On the 
other hand, it is of course not sculpture at all, 
strict!)' spealving, lieing neither ])lastic nor glyptic. 
It is lo\'eh', liowe\'er ; and e\"en if it must be 
reckoned more or less as bihrlol on a large scale, 
it belongs at least to the domain ol fine art. 
The subjects are commonly not modern in 
character ; jioetry and romance — either realised by 
or original with the artist — have fired liis imagina- 
tion, for metal-work', i\'oi'y, and the like suggest 
rather a leaning towards medi;cvalism, and by 
that our artists ha\'e l)een tempted, and ha^■e 
wisel)' yielded to tlie excjuisite seducti(jn. 

But there is another range of subject for which 
there is still room — a range of subject, sincere and 



touching, as yet almost unexploited in England. 
I refer to that by wluch AI. Constantin Aleunier 
has achieved a worid-wide reputation in his bronze 
statues of peasants, miners, and fisher folk — a 
Alillet or an Israels in the round. Air. Thornycroft 
tried it in his "Sower" and in his " Mower," and 
Boehm tried it afterwards with his " Bull." But 
the English peasantry with their unpoetical garb 
are thought not to lend themselves to this class 
of subject ; e^'en in his " Alower " Air. Thorny- 
croft omitted the shirt which appeared in the 
sketch-model, so that his labourer is bare to the 
waist. The " Sower " is fully clad, but the 
sculptor, not having the nude to interest him, 
makes mo^'ement rather than form the motive 
of his statue. Woolner was captivated by the 
graceful line of " The Housemaid " at her 
work ; but who will assert that this work is a 
success ? Air. Havard Thomas has executed 
statuettes of clothed peasants, but he too has felt 
cramped in his native land and his sitters are 
chiefly foreign. 

The fact is that linglish peasant!'}', the men 
and women of the fields, have little of the sculp- 
turesqueness of others, such as those of Brittany. 
Still less does tlie dress of societ^' lend itself to 
the needs of the scul]')tor : it is therefore the 
competence with whit'h it is treated which marks 
the fine artist. Again, while from another ]5oint 
ot \\e\\ the treatment of life-size man or woman 
in sculpture other than monumental is, Ave are 
told, undesirable b\' reason of the greater house- 
room needful for such a statue, the diminished 
interest with which the draj-JerA' inspires the artist 
encourages him to seek more " romantic " arrange- 
ments. Better still, it induces him to discard the 
drapery altogether and aj-jph' himself to the nude 
and the higher sculptural demands which it makes 
u]')on his imagination. 

DRAPERY AND THE NUDE. 

CHIEF among the characteristics of the 
modern school, then, is the effort towards 
such realism and picturesciueness oi treatment 
as do not detract from the dignity of the 
conceprion. The tendency towards realism in 
modelling and ]-)icturesqueness in act-essory is 
denounced by most of the purists — one might 
s;iy the puritans of art — who maintain the 
principle that Scul]-)ture must primarih- represent 



COLOUR AND FORM. 



Ideas, not Thin,t;s ; >-et tlie jiresent general 
belief apparent])- is that in picturesqueness, 
restrained and in ,o-(,od taste, lies the future 
of sculpture. 

Xaturally, the pul)lic welcome an\' ajiproach 
to what is pictorial, or what the French call 
"amusing," in sul:)ject or treatment. It is not 
that they lail to appreciate Michael Angelo's 
axiom that the nearer painting is' to sculpture 
the better it is, and that the nearer sculpture 
is to painting the worse. It is mainh' because 
they \o\e to be amused ; and the eclectic and 
the ascetic do not entertain them. But it is 
also because they recognise in realism a relief 
from the bald pseudo-classic generalities of the 
MacDowells, the Joneses, the Durhams, and the 
Nobles of the past generation, when we were 
given Venuses, Graces, Dianas, Muses, Xvmphs, 
and Goddesses, all dummy sisters from the same 
mould — at least as much alike in attempted (but 
lareh' achieved) perfection of form as the artists 
could make them, beautiful in proportion, in 
suavity of line, in grace of form and pose — sicklv- 
sweet in their empt}' charm, and carried little 
further, as works of art, than carefullv smoothed- 
out cbauchcs. It was all A'erv skilful sometimes 
in its way, but it was pseudo-art without Life. 
The present aim is to give life without actual 
realism — a suggestion of realitv shrouded in 
poetry and grace. The nude need no longer 
be so severe as Ruskin claimed ; but our artists 
understand that if the figures are to be more 
like the human form the statues must appear as 
unconscious of their absence of draperv as though 
they were mere symbols — which, indeed, they are. 

These symbols we love for their beautA' and 
their significance. They are the essence of 
sculpture — the types of humanity and the per- 
sonification of ideas and poetic conceptions. 
They are, therefore, an irresistible attraction to 
every sculptor. He is mo^'ed by the passion for 
studying the human form, and, feeling his advance 
and improvement in his art, delights in provmg his 
learning and his delicacy in the rendering of it. 
In dealing with ideal conceptions, therefore, he 
usually avoids the draped figure, and so escapes, 
in one direction, subjects of actualit}' and of the 
present day. Moreo\er, it not infrequenth' happens 
that an artist may conceive a draped figure ; but 
when he has produced it in the nude, as he must 



begin b^- doing, he abandons the idea of draping 
it alter all, ha\-ing become interested in the higher 
plane oi his work ; and in this manner he pushes 
it on to the end. This attitude of mind Lessing 
ex])lains in "The Laocoon " with the simphcity 
and lucidity- that characterise him : — 

"The ancients," he says, "felt that the highest 
aim of their art led to a total disregard of conven- 
tionalitv. That aim is beaut^'. . . Clothes are 
the outcome of necessity," he goes on ; " and what 
has art to do with necessit}' ? I admit that there 
is also a certain beauty in drapery, but what is 
this compared to the beauty of the human form ? 
And will he who can attain to the greater be 
satisfied with the less ? " 

But it is not onh' the beauty of Form that 
attracts the artist and all those who can appreciate 
sculpture : there is Movement — movement for its 
own sake and for the sake of the new beauties 
de\-eloped in the pla}' of muscle, joint, and 
bones, and of expression. All this is concealed 
by drapery, be it only drapery or be it actual 
costume. Drapery, as Lessing alhjws, has " a 
certain beauty ; " elegance and dignity are inhe- 
rent in it, properh' managed ; but it is most 
interesting when it is moving on a moving figure. 
Is it not e^"en more fascinating as it floats on 
a Nike than as it shrouds exquisitely, yet 
without concealing, the noble forms of the 
Triad of the Elgin Marbles ? In any case, 
we admire draper}' most when it is simply 
treated and severe — with any ornament it 
mav haA-e rigorously subordinated to the ele- 
vated character of the figure. If this be true, 
what can be said of the tricks of that section of 
the modern Italian school, and their frivolous 
followers abroad, who revel m "The Veiled 
Face," or the laborious imitation of Brussels lace 
on a child's frock, that draw spectators like bees 
around the sculpture stalls at the exhibitions or 
secure them as victims at the open sale rooms, 
so-called, in the City of London ? 

SCUkPTURE— COLOUR AND FORM. 

IT is not surprising that sculpture is not fully 
appreciated in England — or, indeed, by the 
general public anywhere. The eye is e\"er more 
flattered by Colour (that is, by Painting) than 
bv Form (that is. Sculpture). To produce bad 
sculpture is, as it were, easier than to execute 



BRITISH SCULPTURK ANU SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



bad painting ; and the power to discriminate 
between the bad and the good m sculpture 
appears to be a rare gift. About this lack 
of appreciation of form little appears to be 
known, or to have been tested ; but there is, I 
imagine, little doubt that just as a certain pro- 
portion of people are colour-blind, so a proportion 
— in all probabilit^' a much larger one — are form- 
blind. Again, while most children are given 
exercises or education in Colour, few are prac- 
tised in Form. 

Sculpture, again, is unquestionably more diffi- 
cult to apprehend, for while a painting is frankly 
illusive, a statue oppcai-s to the unthinking to be 
imitative. Yet it is nothing of the sort. As 
Mr. Waldo Story once put it — it is at once 
ideal and positi\'e ; it must conform to tlie 
higliest requirements, with the poorest means. 
Its beginnings are more easy tlian any other 
art, and its endings more difficult. ^Vhile almost 
anyone can mould pliant clay into a copy 
of a man, few can concei\-e and embody an 
elevated idea, not by imitation of a model, but 
by tlie fine treatnrent of form and the noble 
character of expression and design. Xot onh- 
is the form without the colour, but without the 
atmosphere and tone whicli are the delight of 
painting. Painting is illusory ; sculpture is 
severeh' restricted in its subjects, a matter of 
treatment and arrangement. ^Vhen it becomes 
genre — treating of "anecdote," as it were — it 
comes near to losing its noblest ciuality and its 
main value. Moreo^•er, nature is l)ut tlie model 
which has to be idealised, or the result is 
commonplace — a vulgar copy, uninspired m its 
imitation. And the only part of nature permis- 
sible to the sculptor is animal lile — landscape 
subjects and tlie minor materials tor pictorial 
treatment are not availaljle except as tlie merest 
access(jry. Gliilierti and his Baptister^' Gates 
are sureh- an exception : the pictorial sculptures 
sometimes seen in the Salons sulficientjy pro\e 
the f\itilit\' of the attempt except in the rarest 
instances. In medal-work it is otherwise. 

In short, as Diderot pointed out, while the 
painter can take anytliing for his picture, the 
sculptor must only select what becomes his 
chaste, grave, and se\'ere art. Moreo\'er, the 
statue is to be seen Irom all round, and should 
satisfy the spectator from e\-er)' ]ioint of ^'iew. 



Now, what is said here of a statue is increased 
in complicative force in the case of groups. But 
even m the latter case a fresh limit imposes itsell : 
figures must be relatively few and expressive of 
the highest qualities. The case being so, what 
wonder is there that so eclectic an art should 
hitherto have been understood only by the few ? 

"A statue is not like the form of a man; 
it is a man," said Ruskm, and other writers 
liave followed on the same lines. But surely it 
cannot be said to "he" a man unless colour and 
texture be introduced to make the resemblance 
absolute ; and if that view be carried to its logical 
length, the truest form of such sculpture is imita- 
tion in the iorm of an artistic waxwork. Ruskin 
himself vigorously denounced colour, rejecting 
even merely decorative colour in sculpture, " for 
colour would trench on painting and defy the 
law of technical conditions." The painting of 
a statue (presumably the merely decorative, in 
contradistinction to realistic, colouring— such as 
colouring a helmet red or blue, but not gilt or 
bronze) Ruskin held to be a survival of bar- 
barism — even though it were Greek ; agreeing 
apparently that such embellishment savoured of 
the painting, dressing-up, and wig-decking of the 
sacred doll, the XDauoii, of the remote past — 
the fountain and origin of all sculpture. 

If carried into imitation the coloured statue 
necessarily condemns itself. In the house of a well- 
known painter in Paris I have seen an experiment 
of the representation of a A'enus modelled in wax, 
varioush' coloured to imitate nature. The eyes are 
equally coloured and enamelled, while the hair 
is real. As might be imagined, the figure, ex- 
quisitely modelled, is at once lair and supremeh- 
ridiculous to look upon. E^•en though the poly- 
chromatic work on Donatello's busts, for example, 
keeps its place, we ieel it to clash with tlie idea 
of plastic or glyptic art, h)r although there is no 
absolute aj^proach to imitation, there is a very 
strong suggestion of it. On the other hand, the 
chryselephantine — the mingling of ivory and gold 
— or the use of man)' marbles and metals, or other 
materials, does not offend us in the same degree, as 
the result is purely formal and not in any degree 
realistic. But it does offend us in this sense ; 
that while we regard the draped living figure 
as consisting, practically, of two parts -the bod^• 
and its co\ering — in the work of art such a 



THE MATERIALS FOR SCULPTURE. 



figure proclaims tliat it consists of as many 
parts as tliere are variations (jf material in its 
structure. And in the final result, it becomes 
less a piece of sculpture than a bibclot—'cm 
"object of art." 

On tire other hand, a single colour through- 
out — the green or brown of bronze, the cream of 
marble, or the red (or buff) of terra- cotta- is 
no colour, sculpturally considered. There is no 
difference proclaimed between part and part, 
between the flesh and the drapery ; and the 
result is ne;.^atiA'e. In the case of monumental 
sculpture some departures have been hazarded 
of late in this country, as elsewhere, and we 
have had the gilded sword, spurs, and accoutre- 
ments of a military figure in bronze. If used 
with great reticence this system ma^' have points 
of interest ; but it can hardly be said to 
increase the unity and the dignitv of the design. 
For, after all, whether we set up a white 
gentleman, a brown gentleman, or a green 
gentleman in our public places, we think of him 
as a imity. Our intention is to do him honour. 
Such dignit}- as may be infused into the work 
must not be dissipated by little points of 
emphasis ; the work nuist suggest nobleness — 
the quality above all others which justifies the 
perpetuation in sculpture of the memory of an\' 
man. 

THE MATERIALS FOR SCULPTURE. 

IF the public were better informed as to the 
materials proper for sculpture they would be 
less likely to go astray in their encouragement 
of the art. If the^- understood that the material 
should fit the subject they would appreciate the 
folly of prostituting marble to purposes and 
subjects which are merely frivolous and amusing. 
M. Van der Straeten appreciates this fitness of 
things by executing his charming little fanlaisics 
not in marble or dark bronze, but in terra-cotta 
or in some cheerful coloured metal ; and, more- 
over, he keeps them small. A big sculptural 
joke or mountebank feat is an impertinence. 

Marble has, above all things, dignity, and 
it flatters form, while resenting the elaboration 
and embroidery of ornament and the like. In 
a quaint passage in which Ruskin insists on the 
appropriateness of marble to the rendering of 
the nude figure, he points out, apart from the 



S(jme\vhat transparent surlace (not being (jpaque 
and dull like chalk) that the evenness of its 
white tint is good for iiesh, otherwise were the 
marl)le spotted, a figure of A'enus executed in 
it, were it never so beautiful, would give -us the 
im]:)ression of "a speckled frog." Sinu'larly, a 
streaked marble Adtufis would suggest a zebra. 
Tlie stately material is ii)r stately, earnest, and 
jioetic subjects. 

Broxze is utterly unlike marble in its pecu- 
liar apjiropriateness, for its shadows are almost 
black, and its texture in the nature of cku'. As 
bronze is run into the mould in a molten con- 
dition, the textui"e is of necessity entirely 
different froiu that of marble, with its brittle 
qualitv and its surface susceptible only to the 
chisel. It follows, therefore, that the handhng 
of the two must be dissimilar ; while, on the 
other hand, if we find in a given work, whether 
bronze or marble, the treatment natural to the 
particular material of the other, we know that 
the artist has offended against the laws of his art 
and has ignored the \-irtues of his material, and 
has forced it to do work ior which it is not best 
fitted. Bronze, which niav present the char- 
acteristics of clay or wax frozen hard, as it were, 
mav be more plavfullv handled than marble. It 
allows a closer rendering of texture and infinite 
modulaticju of colour in its patina ; and the elabora- 
tion of folds in draperies appears less foreign to 
the more complaisant material. For that ^■erv 
reason, bronze requires the greater exercise of 
restraint, for without it good taste will easily be 
overstepped. 

Plaster, in spite of the dull nature of 
its whiteness, is not wholly unlike marble in 
effect. But its surface is relatively unsMU- 
pathetic. It is generally felt, however, that 
there is no finalit}- about plaster as there is 
about other materials, e\'en such as terra-cotta 
or wax. It is a sort of temporary purgatory to 
be transmuted to a paradise of marble. 

CLAy is the most natural, the most necessary, 
of all the materials to the modeller's hand — 
and the most treacherous. For its verv virtues 
may seduce away the artist hom the marble to 
which he ultimately looks, and may lead him 
to be false to his \vork and to himself. The 
proof is simple. Marble, a brittle substance. 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



must be chipped ;i\v;n' with mallet and chisel, 
and car\-ed, as Michael Angelo chipped and 
can-ed it. Clay must be built up, modelled, and 
smeared, or " dragged together," and so receive 
its "skin." The characteristics of each class 
or work are dilferent ; the ver\- planes are, or 
ought to be, different. How can dux, modelled 
with the tool and smeared with the fingers, be 
properly translatable into chipped marble with 
the aid of a pointing - machine ? The skilled 
sculptor can, and does, make allowance for the 
change, certainly ; but, as a principle, it is 
illogical to prepare in one material for work to 
be executed in another entirely foreign to it in 
character. In other words, the Plastic art, after 
centuries of fair companionship, has come to 
dominate and almost to crush out of existence the 
pureh' Gh'ptic art ; and our marble works are to 
that extent a translation out of another language. 
Such are the sculptor's materials, the character- 
istics of which, as they are successively used in the 
building up of a statue, Can(jva so achnirably 
summed up : Clay is the Life ; Plaster the Death ; 
Marble and Bronze the Resurrection. 

TASTE— AS AN ELEMENT IN DISPUTE. 

IN matters of taste we are generally met with 
the ancient rejoinder, Dc u-usliluis non est 
disputandinn. On the contrary it /.v " disputan- 
dum " between those who know the laws that 
govern art and ins]iire and control taste. On the 
other hand, it is not " disputandum " — though not 
in the sense usually meant — as between those 
who know and those who do not. How can a 
man who understands Beethoven and Wagner 
discuss their transcendency with him who "knows 
what he likes," and proclaims a jireference for 
the Judge's Song in "Trial by Jury"? 

It is thus within the right of men of acknow- 
ledged taste to applaud one statue and to 
condemn another. Still more is it their right 
— their duty, rather — to spend their best bad 
language, as Kuskin somewhere puts it, on the 
flashy and meretricious in art, wliich is more 
dangerous and more offensive than the merely 
incompetent. Bad taste is worse tlian no taste 
at all; for "no taste" may ])e educated, but 
''bad taste " is vicious alreach'. How vicious and 
how bad it is, how perversix'e of true taste in a 
large class in this countr)-, we ma}' see in the 



extraordinar)' popularity of that clever trash from 
Itah', executed fretpiently in alabaster, that 
gathers the admiring crowds and deluded pur- 
chasers aforesaid around the " sculpture stalls." 
Clever it oiten is in surtace work, and attractive to 
those who love the trivial and the ridiculous in sub- 
ject ; but though " clever " in its way, it is tricky, 
dodg^^ vulgarly imitative, trifling, distinguished by 
paltry, false, or overforced sentiment, and b}- lack 
of appreciation of the elementary pro]-)rieties. 

If it is true, as we are told, that the real 
character ol" a people may be seen in the art 
of their cemeteries — the most solemn places in 
all the land, where the stricken heart of the 
people, natural and unchssembling, goes forth to 
loved ones lost, and is content to show itself 
for what it is — then the modern cemetery in 
almost an\' Italian city is an o\-erwhelming 
denunciation of the nation's art sense. Can 
anything be more deplorable than the Campo 
Santo at Genoa, where the most grotesque 
perversions of that art-sense shock the visitor at 
every turn, almost paining him into unseemly 
laughter ? There ^'ou may see — I recollect it 
well — by the sarcophagus of an honoured parent 
the statue, not of her, but of a survi\ing son — 
life size, standing on the steps with an overcoat 
disconsolately thrown o"S'er his arm ; and the 
beaded heads of the many pins which, foreign 
fashion, secure the high hat-band are brightly 
polished ; and the tears which course down 
his sorrow-stricken face are polished too ! In 
a similar case, Mr. D. W. Stevenson tells us, 
an admiring friend asked him in ecstasy if those 
tears were not quite natural. " A^ot quite," replied 
the artist, " or they would have dropped off." If 
you would realise the artistic shallowness here chs- 
played, see the Dapassano monument, with its pil- 
lows flounced with lace ; the Oueirolo monument 
and its kneeling widow ; the \'enzano monument, 
with the late merchant's sea-compass, anchor, and 
bale, and papers strewn about — all sculptured — 
and /;/,s' widow performing devotion in realistic 
dress : all peep-show art in marble of dazzling 
whiteness. The lact is that such sculpture is low in 
conception and \'ulgar in sentiment — nt)t dignified 
or noble in. its expressive suggestion of grief, and 

betraying no art other than manipulative no 

art that brings consolation through its jioetrv 
and its elevation ; for the sensitive spectator 



THE PATRONAGE OF SCULPTURE. 



of taste is startled by tlie sculptor's itjnorance of 
the power and the limitations of his art, and is 
repelled by tliese j:,Totesque pantomimic repre- 
sentations of dead and mourners. 

Ornament may embellish beauty, or it may 
do the reverse. The mere skill of inu'tation, the 
over-laborious rendering of lace, of jewels, of hair, 
and the like, is " lor the gaping wonderment of the 
thoughtless mob." It may be the trium]ih of 
the carver ; but it is the shame of the sculptor, 
who loses in the copying of fal-lals the beaut}' 
of idea and of form which it is the virtue of 
sculpture to realise, if it mav, to the point of 
the sublime. Elaborate detail is amusing to look 
at and expensive to piw for, but it soon tires 
the eye. You may produce a thousand such 
clever carvers to one fine sculptor, and ten 
thousand such supreme artificers, but not a single 
Phidias or a Michael Angelo. No clever executant 
of surface decoration, no brilliant expert in texture- 
carving, no skilful performer in ornament, can 
make good the absence of a truly sculpturesque 
conception, any more than a mere successi(m 
of excellent jokes constitute a comedy. Yet 
all these bright little talents are wont to be 
accepted b\' our people as true art, and the Ex- 
hibition middleman of " sculpture " has thriven 
in his demoralising trade. It is the mission of 
our School of Sculpture to educate the nation to 
a more proper understanding. 

Yet the true aspect of ornamentation must not 
be misunderstood. When a fine artist is obliged to 
deal with lace, for instance, he deals with it as an 
artist should ; that is to sa}', he treats it not for 
its pretty intricacy, but as a delightful pattern for 
the display of invention and beauty of design. 
How greatly this differentiates from the Italian 
treatment may be seen in work by Mr. Gilbert 
and, in a lesser degree, in the "Mother and Child" 
of Mr. Frampton. 

THE PATRONAGE OF SCULPTURE. 

THERE is an idea abroad among the sculptors 
and among some of the public that a Minis- 
try of Fine Arts — such as exists in France — would 
secure support to the artist and good art to the 
public. "The only way for a nation to obtain 
good art," it has been truly said, "is to enjoy 
it." Assuredly, a pretty sure way to secure bad 
sculpture is to establish a Fine Arts Minister 



from among our (hstinguished ]5oliticians. Xo 
doubt he might stumble (;n a good sculptor, as 
when the G(jvernment ((jr rather a Commission 
acting independently of the Gox'ernment) selected 
Mr. Brock for the execution of the sculptural 
porti(jn of the National ^lemorial to Queen 
\^ict()ria. But we need only remember — in order 
to nurse our doubts of oilicial taste and patronage 
— how not long ago an ex-Cabinet Alinister of 
almost Premier rank poured jesting scorn, with 
the laughing approval of the House of Commons, 
on one of the finest modern works of archi- 
tectural art in England — a work which the archi- 
tects of Europe had received with applause, and 
to their admiration of which, in consequence of 
the politician's foolish ribaldry, the leading archi- 
tects of England subsequently testified by a joint 
letter ol vigorous protest to the papers. 

Official England, in spite of South Kensing- 
ton, still affects to regard Art as an exotic. It 
does not understand that a love of art should 
be inherent in the popular taste and a true 
ornament of the mind — a structural gi'ace of 
the cultivated intellect, as it were, and not 
merely " applied." Sculpture in England, as 
Mr. Palgrave once pointed out, is still an art 
reserved for the initiated, not as vet within the 
field of free-thinking and free-speaking criticism. 
(" You Englishnren," cried Canova, when he 
heard people repeating banalities about sculp- 
ture, " you Englishmen see with your ears ! " ) 
It remains, said the critic, mainly an affair not 
of publicly recognised abilit}', but of polite 
patronage ; so that it is now on the status of 
poetr}' and scholarship under Queen Anne — a 
thing not generally diffused. For one who 
appreciated Flaxman, like his staunch patron 
Lord Egremont, fifty proclaimed the superiority 
of Turnerelli and Chantrey. Who talks of 
Turnerelli nowadays? And who really admires 
more than one in twenty of Chantre^-'s works — 
the majority of them mere stereotyped art 
manufactures ? E^■en forty years ago nearh- all 
the public patronage and most of the pri\-ate 
support of sculpture went to encourage bad 
art. Think of Theed's " Hallam ; " or of the 
" Napier" in Trafalgar Square. When the gallant 
general died, and it was mooted that the e\-ent 
should form the subject of a memorial of some 
kind, I was moved to suggest that his Trafalgar 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



Square statue should be taken down in his 
honour, and the proposal was received in several 
cpiarters with serious approbation. 

If public appreciation were what it should be 
the art would be otherwise encoura^'ed. " Patron- 
age " would not be regarded as a favour done to 
art. As Professor Patrick Geddes happily put 
it, "Art is not a beggar knocking at the door." 
Patronage should not be the result of the clamour 
of artists for support, but of the desire of men who 
seek for and feel the need of art, and rejoice in the 
vision of beaut v before them. The artist, among 
a refined people, should not be the seeker, but 
the s')Ught, and his wares not bount^'-fed b^' a 
Government Ministr\-, but eagerlv competed for 
in the free-trade market. 

But a real T'ine Arts Department, composed 
of artists and men of acknowledged connoisseur- 
ship in sculpture — not mere diUtlaiili in picture 
collecting — might do much to improve popular 
taste b^' the expenditure of an annual grant 
for the purpose (jf enriching oiu' public parks 
and squares with good sculpture. London and 
our other cities might become in some re- 
spects as beautiful as Paris. We have sculptors 
capable of the work, and to them should go 
the connnissions ; for bad sculptLU'e is a public 
nuisance, whether in portrait statues or ideal work. 
Some sculptors — like Mr. Roscoe Mullins — have 
insisted that it is almost impossible to make 
portrait statues interesting it the^- stand alone in 
the open. Whether this be so or not, our streets 
certainly offer an opjiortunity of architectural 
surrtnmdings which might afford the background 
thought to l)e necessar}-. It is generally true 
that if a portrait statue be placed against a 
building or in a niche it borrows an eftecti\-e 
support ; and it is unquestionably the case that 
modern clothes — the uinn'oidable bane of the 
modern statue — lose much of their unpicturesque- 
ness when the figures appear against a building 
or are carved against a poduun. At the same time 
an ideal work should in\'ariabl_\' be able to stand 
alone. The best support for a statue is usuall\' 
the presence of other statues, as ma\' be seen 
in the Tuileries (hardens m V'atk. 

We mav congratulate ourseh-es that, partU' 
through the efforts ot the architects, the c'om- 
nrercial classes generally are beginning to ^•alue 
sculpture for itself and lor its decorati\'e A'alue, 



and that our streets are accordingly assuming 
an air of interest till latel)' absent from them. 
Ordinar\' 1)usiness houses and tradesmen's premises 
are now lieing embellished with excellent work. 
Restaurants in some number — the Holborir Res- 
taurant the first of them- and other owners of 
business places, ha\-e made their prennses beautiful 
with decorative sculpture of a high class properly 
applied ; vchile private houses and great oflices (such 
as the Institute of Chartered .Accountants, Lloyd's 
Registrv, etc.) ha\-e been carrying forward the 
same movement. Some of these works, with 
man^- others, are referred to and illustrated in 
the following pages, wherein it is pleasantly 
demonstrated how capable are our decorati\'e 
sculptors to execute scul]iture of the sort. 
There is, of course, everv grade of work, from 
the stonemason's to that of the accomplished 
sculptor ; and that not a few artists of eminence 
— including Mr. Armitage, 'Sir. Thornvcroft, 
Mr. Drnrv, and others — ha\'e not shruidv trom 
apph-ing their talent to this practical application 
of art is of the brightest promise of more general 
excellence and more frequent embellishment in 
the luture. 

LTp to quite recently, modern sculpture had 
no public home in England ; for who thinks 
of it in relation to the A'ictoria and Albert 
Museum '^ At the present dav the Tate Gallerv 
offers a fine room for the dispku" of figures 
and groups ; but it is not verv extensne. Other 
countries have a Glyptothek specialh- devoted 
to the art. In Mr. Barry's design lor the 
rebuilding of the National Galler^• in Trafalgar 
Square, he pro\-ided for two glazed liii>-gic for 
sculpture, each measuring 300 feet in length by 15 
in width, and each Hanking the main entrance 
along the iVont of the building. Yet we have no 
provision for the ultimate exhibition of sculptures 

which retain the esteem of future generations 

no National (jallery of Sculpture as we have a 
National Gallery of Painting. But, after all, the 
art of the sculptor, as has been said, looks better 
in decoratix-e surroundings — in the open, or appro- 
priately placed in fine houses— so that, for the 
present at least, tlie smib to sculpture is more 
sentimental than real. Without doubt, he who 
makes statuettes has little ground tor complaint, 
lor he has properly met the objection that in om 
modern houses we have no room tor sculpture ; 



THE BANH OF " COMMITTEHS." 



every drawiiigj-rcjoin and dining-room in the land 
is now a tit gallery for his graceful and in- 
spiring work. 

THE BANE OF " COMMITTEES." 

THERE is no doubt tliat in the case of 
many of our public monuments " Com- 
mittees " have to answer for verv much. It 
is certainly the misfortune of sculpture that it 
is so olten under the htful and lateful patron- 
age of such a " Committee." This is nothing 
new — the student of the history of art is 
aware that some of the li\-eliest as well as the 
saddest of the passages in the life ol Itahan art 
are the records of the contentions between artists 
and Conunittees. It has usualh' appeared that 
the artist is worsted by the su])erior weight 
and inl'erior knowledge of the Conumttee ; but, 
after all, it is the Connnittee (and through it the 
public) who sufftjr as much in the end, although 
too insensible to recognise it, by the baulking 
and crippling ot the artist with their irritating 
interference. This is an opp()rtunit^' for plain 
speaking on this all-important trouble, and I am 
inclined to seize it — the more readilv because for 
years past I \vd\e seen some of our ablest sculp- 
tors writhe under the tvranny of well-intentioned 
members of Comnnttees ; and I ha\'e heard 
works condemned as un worth}' of the artist, 
wdio, indeed, has had Irankly Uj own that the 
hostile criticism has under the circumstances not 
been wholly undeser^"ed. It is impossible to 
speculate how much better the work would 
have been had the sculptor been left alone ; but 
it may be reiterated with emphasis that the 
protests of the indignant artists ha\-e continual!}' 
been heard bv their friends during the progress 
of some public work which has e^'entuall}' not 
turned out to the entire satisfaction either of 
the public or of the artist himself. 

How could it ? The Committee, not recog- 
nising that in the award of the conmnssion lie 
their sole duty and whole importance, and that 
their function is limitable to that award and 
stops there, arrogate to themselves the right of 
interference in the design, and so forth, even 
during the progress of the work ! They do not 
realise how the suggestions of even the most sym- 
pathetic and the best informed, if unin\'ited, are apt 
to disturb the delicate organisation of the artist 
c 



who has carefully thought out his design, and who 
is greatly at the mere}' of that " inspirati(jn " which 
is tlie flower of his artistic emotion and the verv 
essence of his work ; and which will only respond 
to his call when he is enjoying the equanimity 
without which no finely contemplative achie\'ement 
can be produced. A sensitive artist (precisely he 
who is most likely to produce fine work) is not 
fltted to withstand interference or uninformed 
criticism — tO(^ peaceful to fight and too polite to 
wrangle. 

Xow the members of these Committees are 
commonly ill-chosen, not being selected f(jr their 
art knowledge or taste, but more or less self- 
appointed by virtue of their enthusiasm, their 
power of raising the money required, or their 
special acquaintance with the object of the pro- 
posed memorial, whether it be a living states- 
man, a deceased bishop, or a hero five hundred 
years dead. They do not realise that they are out 
of their depth in discussing the artistic merits of 
the ]iroposed work. But ha\'ing the money in 
hand wherewith to conrmission the erection of a 
monument, as a distinguished sculptor once publicly 
protested, they imagine, oddly enough, that they 
are thereby converted into judges of art, and, 
" imbued with this astounding idea, they harass the 
poor artist in all sorts of ways, and if he mildh' 
hints that he can get on better left to his own 
unfettered discretion, he is met with the stereotyped 
answer, ' Well, you know, we are responsible to the 
subscribers.' This is doubtless true, but itcertainl}' 
does not justify their interference. A Committee is 
responsible, not only to the subscribers, but to the 
country, for the selection of an artist, but this being 
done, the responsibility shifts from the Committee 
and rests solely on the shoulders of the artist." 

The matter is more important than many nvdy 
imagine. We know how irritating interference 
in the execution of their work worried Alfred 
Stevens, Barr}', Wilkins, and others, int(j their 
graves. With this knowledge Conunittees should 
abstain from any interposition alter they have 
secured their artist and approved his model. 
Their frequent practice is to choose a poor 
sculptor and bully him, or a good one and pro- 
voke him. They often select him on friends' re- 
commendations, without taking the advice of 
an expert, forgetting that even in the Law Courts 
— where art is less appreciated than elsewhere — 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



experts are always heard. It is true that when 
heard they are frequently snubbed, as we found in 
the celebrated case of " Belt v. Lawes," when the 
idea of an artist having a conviction on " artistic 
merit " was regarded as an excruciatinglv humor- 
ous pretension of the most ridiculous kind, and 
was forthwith passed into a bvword. When the 
Committee of a " Musical Festival " commissions 
a composer to write an oratorio they would hardly 
claim to require the musician to modify his work 
to suit their ideas. Sculpture is not less a matter 
of harmony and science ; and the fact that it 
appears more intelligible to the understanding 
does not warrant the paralysing of the artist by 
foolish meddhng. Although " he who pays the 
piper may call the tune," he has no right to dic- 
tate how the tune is to be played or to stop the 
performer while the piece is proceeding, either to 
change the tune or alter the kev. 

There is another argument against control 
wrongfully exercised. A Committee can never 
understand that a good model mav work out inef- 
fectively; but, having selected the most attractive 
design from a number of competitive models, they 
are apt to blame the artist, and not their own inex- 
perience, for any disappointment that may ensue. 
Tlie fact is that no outsiders, broadly speaking, 
can estimate exactl}' the etfect of a model enlarged 
to its full scale ; that is a power that comes by 
habit, backed by artistic knowledge. This implies 
no blame, for many a sculptor will tell you that 
he cannot sa)' exactl)' how his model will " come." 
K'dx, even Michael Angelo, as we are told by no 
less an authoritv than Ben\'enuto Cellini, would 
not trust himself to his own small models ; he 
found them misleading, he said, and would not be 
satisfied till the model was enlarged to its full size. 
What, then, is the remedy ? Mr. Onslow Ford 
humoroush^ pointed it out, when speakiirg at Li\er- 
pool, he hazarded the opinion that a distinguished 
man's " best course would be to empower lu's 
executor to look after the nratter, to select a good 
artist, leave him unfettered, and thus escape the 
tender mercies of a Comnu'ttee." But this, at least, 
ma^' be hoped — that in due time Connnittees will 
understand that an alteration in a pose may mean 
the remodelling of an entire group, as the modifica- 
tion of a word in a sonnet nvdy affect the entire 
structure of the poem ; and that in an^- case the 
criticisms ot the uninitiated are as nuicli to bu 



resented by the sculptor as suggestions of a pas- 
senger by a shi]i-captain, or ot a civilian by a 
general in the field. 

It UKU" be said that sculptors are not worse off 
here than in the United States, where, when the 
Government sets out to institute a competition for a 
militar^• statue, it ajipoints a Committee consisting 
of the Secretary of War, a librar\- chairman, a 
brigadier-general (of the subscription ci^mirrittee), 
with a colonel (disbursing officer), and a secretary ; 
and the choice is reserved to tlie three first named. 
In F^rance the matter is better understood ; there 
the sculptor and the architeL't respect one an- 
other's clainrs, and thither our Connnittees, if the}' 
are well advised, should turn for guidance as to 
behaviour. 



THH SCULPTOR 



THH ARCHITECT. 



K 



lNOTHER trial by which the sculptor is 
jf~\_ S(jmetimes distraught, if n(5t ]iaralvsed, 
is the struggle he has to maintain against the 
architect in any important work on which they 
mav be engageil together. One of the lead- 
ing architects of the day (the President of the 
Royal Institute of British Arcliitects) has declared 
that " Sculpture is the \-ery soul and \-oice ot 
architecture;" and another— Mr. Belcher, A. R. A. 
— that " when scul]iture stands forward to illus- 
trate a subject, b}' either monument, figure, group, 
or tountain, architecture should gi\"e it loving 
assistance and iinobtrusi\"e support, treating 
the work as a jewel whose beauty is to be en- 
hanced by an apj-iropriate setting." Architects, 
nevertheless, are apt to assume the lead, and 
dictate to the sculptor. I know of an im- 
portant case in which, although the commission 
was given primarily to the sculptor, the architect 
received the payment, and sent a cheque to the 
sculptor, allowing him as much lor his work as 
he, the architect, could spare, seeing that the 
structural portions had cost more than was 
anticipated. 

The subject of pedestals, t-anopies for statues 
in the o]ieii air, and so forth, are for the sculptor 
to devise and the architect to carry out. There 
is always a perlect understanding in such matters 
in France, where the scul]itor's name is alwa^'s 
given first. On the other hand, in the case of a 
canop)' in a churcli, the architect should obviously 
lead ; as well as where sculpture is only an 



SCULPTURE AND METAL. 



adjunct or ;in embellishment to ;i structure. In 
that case the architect must indicate the sculp- 
tural treatment to which the sculptor is to give 
expression, and the latter has no right to feel 
hampered when his art is called in to decorate 
" the more uselul of the arts." The lact is that 
there is too little s}-mpathy and inter-knowledge 
between sculptor and architect ; but that is no 
reason wh)- the art of the former should now 
and again be sacrihced to the imperious demand 
ot the latter. When sculpture is not, as it were, 
an appendage to a building, but when it is 
monumental, when its idea, independent of anj' 
other consideration, is to appeal to the intellect, 
to express a national aspiration or pronounce a 
national judgment, to be the symbol of beauty, 
or of the nobility of a man, of the greatness of 
a deed, of the history of a nation, or the glory 
of the Divinity^then, surely, the sculptor is to 
be undisturbed in his supremac_\', especially if In's 
is the commission, and the architect is appointed 
to follow him. It is a perennial struggle that is 
here touched upon ; and the sculptor must be 
strong, indeed, if he is to assert himself against the 
man who is artist, builder, and business man in 
one. 

SCULPTURE AND IVIETAL. 

THERE is, of course, no doubt that the modern 
movement, like all other movements, has 
given rise to a good deal of affectation, which, 
flashy in effect, and attractive to the lovers of the 
New for New's sake, makes but a poor show 
against the lofty dignity and true learning of 
more classic work. Those modellers who 
have acquired great cleverness of a superficial 
kind cannot impose upon those who understand 
and appreciate the high qualities displayed by 
Mr. Thornycroft, Mr. Gilbert, and their peers ; 
yet in Sculpture, as in Painting, it is dexterity 
that dazzles the crowd and is apt to lead public 
taste astray. The people have a predisposition 
towards flummery,-. 

As has been hinted, it must not be thought 
that the revival of metal-work, cut, beaten, and 
twisted, in itself helps sculpture forward very 
much. Popular as it is, it really seems to divert 
the attention from Form to Design, and from light 
and shade, with planes, to ingenuity with pleasing 
lines — a very beautiful and elevated art, but not 
sculpture. As an adjunct, it is extremely valuable; 



and its delightful pla3'fulness is irresistible in the 
hands of a fine artist, who does not mistake 
mere wriggles and doublings for harmonious line ; 
but at the best it suggests rather the man with 
the anvil, shears, and pincers, than the man with 
the clay and the chisel. No doubt, in the Par- 
thenon frieze and the JEghvd pediment horse- 
trappings and the like were additions in real 
metal ; but as time went on these accessories 
were rendered like the rest of the work, in 
marble, as may be seen in the Pergamon frieze. 

Nevertheless, in the hands of a man of 
taste, capable of restraining any tendency 
towards ostentation and redundancy, the intro- 
duction of this offshoot of the goldsmith's art, 
and the ironsmith's, cannot fail to be very 
attractive. At any rate, it ma}^ give rise to a 
new school of artistic craftsmen, a community 
to be welcomed for the educational value of 
their refinement, but not less for the economic 
importance of their work. Especially would this 
be so in the case of cast metal. The point is 
well appreciated in Paris, where a dozen years ago 
there were two finns of fine-art bronze-founders 
emploj'ing over five hundred hands, whose work 
was very highl}' paid ; while there were innu- 
merable smaller establishments, and more were 
to be found in other cities of France. Since 
that time the "new art" movement has there 
given an impetus to the art-trade such as should 
startle Birmingham into unaccustomed envy. In 
England such an industry is practically unknown, 
and it may be doubted if in the whole kingdom 
a hundred hands are employed in this production 
of bronze statuary, as distinguished from the 
ordinary metal figures and ornaments of com- 
merce. Obviously, there is here an opening for 
a ver}^ beautifiil and a veiy lucrative industry if 
only the public will understand its charm, and 
encourage the effort now being made to bring 
belbre the world good work by our best sculptors 
and designers. 

For this reason I have included in this volume 
some reference to metal-workers whose names are 
not commonly linked with those of the sculptors, 
except in so far as they may perchance be com- 
missioned to provide ornament for the greater 
work. At the same time it should be remarked 
that the beaten and twisted metal-work revived in 
England mainly by Mr. Alfred Gilbert is not exactly 



12 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



the sort at present understood and cultivated in 
France, where sculpture is regarded with some- 
what more sedate and classic eves — when, 
indeed, that sculpture is not avowedlv frivolous. 
Its popularity is less a matter of taste than of 
fashion ; and it is recognised that fashion, 
even in art, imposes some respect. During a 
discussion on the advisableness of clearing out 
from Westminster Abbev the more pretentious 
and debased statuary that encumbers it, I was 
startled to hear a distinguished sculptor energetic- 
ally resist the proposal, quaintly protesting — 
" Past generations thought it very good ; future 
generations ma}' do the same, and may condemn 
our finest works of to-day, on which we set some 
store, as utter rubbish, bad in conception, and 
false in sentinrent ! " 

WOMEN SCULPTORS. 

ONE of the phenomena of the present dav 
is the number of female artists now prac- 
tising sculpture and the allied arts, practising 
them steadily, with excellent taste and dainty 
fancy. Colour, as being more sensuous, has 
proved a more frequent attraction to feminine skill 
and devotion ; but the latt twenty years have 
witnessed the advent of a be^"3' of fair sculptresses 
where fifty years ago there was only one. Mrs. 
Thornycroft li\ed long enough to witness the 
great awakening, and to see a score of candidates 
for the position she used to fill almost without 
challenge. Between her and her daughter, and such 
a worker as the late Miss Henrietta Montalba on 
the one hand, and on the other as Miss Mercer, 
who died a short while ago in full promise of 
a distinguished career, there was a vast difference 
in style, in aim, and in attitude towards the art. 
Yet there are not wanting among the rising 
school a few ladies who seek to carry their 
practice of sculpture on to the higher plane ; 
but the majority of them appear satisfied with 
a lighter vein. This remark does not apply to 
those still included in the ranks of the students, 
who, filled with enthusiasm, and undisturbed (to 
all appearance — which is so misleading !) by para- 
lysing thoughts of marriage, are very earnestly 
following up the traditions of the art with the 
ardour of a Verrocchio, the passion ol a Michael 
Angelo, the frenzy of a Carpeaux. They are 
most of them necessarily affected by the prevailing 



wave of Latimt^' ; but as the best French sculpture 
comprises nearly all that the art can boast ot 
vitalit^', grace, and elegance, we cannot lament 
that Englishwomen should steep themselves in it, 
so long as they do not sacrifice the instinctive 
promptings of their own nationality. 

IX the following pages there have been included 
all the best-known sculptors of the day, 
without, I trust, the oversight of any of im- 
portance. Some account of the artistic achieve- 
ment of each is given, with a few words of 
criticism, expressed candidly — dogmaticalh', I iear, 
to a degree unusual in bo::)ks of the kind — but, it 
is hoped, without giving cause for offence. 

The order of presentation offered a difficulty. 
To select according to excellence would have been 
invidious, even were it possible. INIere alphabetical 
sequence would have thrown the responsibility of 
arrangement upon the tyranny of the chance of 
letters ; but it would have beeir as foolishly unin- 
structi\'e and as inconsequential as the hanging 
of an artist's life-work in a gallery (as we so 
often see) soleh' according to picturesque effect. 
The order Ibllowed, therefore, is chronological : 
not of birtli, however, which would lack signifi- 
cance, but b^' the first appearance of the artist 
in a public exhibition. 

It has been thought wise, also, to group to- 
gether the sculptors, broadlv so considered ; 
keeping the ladies to themselves, by which arrange- 
ment no inferiority is implied. The medallists are 
likewise treated as a class ; so also the painters, 
such as Mr. Watts and Mr. Sargent, who make 
only an occasional excursion into the field of 
sculpture, and whose main work is not confined 
to that section. Some sculptor-decorators and 
decorative modellers are mentioned together. 
Finally, to the metal-workers and the enamellers 
(in a sense the embellishers of metal), a separate 
category is similarly de\-oted. Jewellers, however, 
as such, are omitted. This classification seemed to 
impose itself by e\-ery consideration of reason and 
convenience. 

It need hardly be pointed out that the selection 
has been rigorously confined to sculptors and 
workers now living ; so that the nren of yester- 
da}', from Woolner and Boehni to Leighton 
and Harry Bates, do not come within the 
scope of the present volume. 




EFFIGY OF LORD Wl NMARLEIGH 
By H. H, Armstead, R.A. 



Mr. H. H. ARMSTEAD, R.A. ^Jj^ HENRY HUGH 

First Exhibited, 1851. 

Armstead, one of the 
oldest of our li\-ing sculptors, belon.sjs neverthe- 
less to the younger school by ^'irtue of his 
having been one of the few who in his student 
days recognised the claims of realism and nature, 
even in "classic" art. He has been compared 
to Leopardi, in so far as he approached the art 
of sculpture through sihersmitlierv and paint- 
ing. Born in 1828, the son of a prominent 
chaser of his day, Mr. Armstead received his 
art education in the Royal Academv schools, 
and from Bailey, Lee, and Carv ; and, ful- 
fiUing the intention of his training, he devoted 
himself to the highest development of the art of 
the silversmith. He produced manv fine racing 
cups and the like ; among them the " St. George's 
Vase " and the " Packington Shield," but his 
masterpiece in this line is the celebrated " Out- 
ram Shield/' a superb work, which, however, 
elicited such meagre appreciation irom the public 
that the artist quitted the craft in despair, and 
at the age of thirty-four devoted himself wholly 
to sculpture. 

His first work of importance was the series 
01 external stone sculptures at Eatington Hall, 
Warwickshire, illustrating the ad^■entures or the 
Shirleys among the Persians in the sixteenth 
century. These were followed by the carved 
oak panels in what was known as " The Queen's 
Robing Room" at the Palace of Westminster, 
being eighteen panels or friezes representing the 
xA.rthurian legend in special relation to Sir 



Galahad — but like Mr. Abbey's pictorial cycle 
of the subject, an original and a \-erv un- 
Tennysonian version. Then came the marble 
reredos, with many figures, in Westminster Abbey, 
a commission followed by another for the whole 
of the external sculptural decorations of the 
Colonial Office in Whitehall. This work, the 
most elaborate and, it has been claimed, the most 
noteworthy decoration of any public building in 
England (the Palace of Westminster itself being 
apparently excluded), comprises large reliefs of 
Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia, 
with allegorical compositions of "Government" 
and " Education," while in the niches above the 
panels are the statues of numerous British 
statesmen. 

Then followed a still more important work 
in decorative as distinct from architectural 
sculpture. This was the artist's contribution 
— the most remarkable and admirable — to the 
Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens. The 
scheme, as is well known, was divided among 
several artists, of whom Mr. Armstead was 
acknowledged chief and, as the result proves, 
the most worthv and most successful. To his 
share fell the four bronze statues of " Chem- 
istrv," "Astronomv," " 2^Iedicine," and "Rhetoric," 
together with the southern and eastern sides 
of the podium. These enormous panels with 
their awkwardlv-angled faces contain not fewer 
than eighty-four life-size figures in marble ; decora- 
tivelv grouped, they represent the musicians, poets, 
sculptors, and painters of the Italian, German, 



H 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCUITTORS OF TO-DAY. 



French, and English schools. On this work ^Ir. Hythe Church ; the statue of George Street, R.A., 
Armstead spent eight biis\' ^'ears, and the result the architect, in the central hall ot the Law 
is a testimony to his ^■igour, in\"enti\"eness, and Courts; the fine statue ot " Lieutenant Waghorn 
originality. It is the fashion of the day to decry (the pioneer of the Qyerland Route), set up at 
the Albert Memorial and the whole of its em- Chatham, impressiye b}' its spirit and breezy 
bellishment ; but those who do so haye not duly strength and picturesqueness ; and — a specially in- 
weighed the status of sculjiture when AL'. Armstead teresting work — the marble inner doorway of the 




DAVID AND THE LION. 

By H. H. ARMSTEAD, R.A. 



undertook the connnission, nor the real merit ol 
the sculptor's achieyement, nor gi\-en credit to the 
man who could put Goethe in a frock-coat beside 
the half-robed Homer, the jiooded Dante and 
Chaucer, and be-ruffed Raleigh, and xat saye the 
whole from being incongruous. In sustained pitch 
no work of equal size and importance in England 
had surpassed this great ]')iece of designing and 
carving by Mr. Armstead. 

In addition to these works should be mentioned 
the large fountain at King's College, Cam])ridge ; 
the reredos representing "The hjitombment " in 



Holborn Restaurant. Harmoniously designed, this 
doorway was ]irobably the first example of a work 
contributed in recent times by a sculptor of high 
re]iute to the embellishment of a place of busi- 
ness. The male and female figures which flank the 
door are modelled with care and carried to a con- 
siderable degree of finish, and tlie charnnng forms 
and lines usually arrest the attention of visitors, 
e\en of the most unobservant, the most hunc^ry, 
or the most sated. For the same buiUhng the 
artist designed the wrought iron screens for the 
fire-places. 




LIEUTENANT WAGHORN. 
By H. H. Armstead R.A. 




ST. MATTHEW, 



3y H. I-;. A-.MSTEAD, R.A. 



H. H. ARMSTEAD, R.A. 



17 



Among the memorial works, strictly so-called, 
are not a few that claim permanent recollection. 
First, at least in order of date, is the wall decora- 
tion to Frederick Walker in Cookham Churcli. 
Then comes the remarkable " David and the 
Lion," here illustrated. Fine in imagination and 
design, the artist seems to have sought to adapt 
a Ninevite character to the subject. It is in flat 
relief, accentuating the axiom that in a relievo the 
spectator should never be suffered to forget the 
flat surlace from which the design is wrought. 
It will be seen that in this work the relief is onlv 
one stage removed iVom the l^gvptian manner, 
the second stage, as Ruskin reminds us, " wlien 
portions of the surface are absolutely flat, and 
the expression depends greatly on the lines of 
its outer contour." This work was carved wholly 
by the artist's own hand, direct on the slab of 
marble, without any model sa^"e the li^■ing one ; 
and for that reason, perhaps, is one of ]\Ir. Arm- 
stead's best works. It was wrought to tlie 
memory of a son of the Earl of Wenn'ss, who 
had died on his return iVom Africa many Ti'ears 
ago, and is set up in the Guards' Chapel. It 
represents, more accurately speaking, " Coui"age," 
and is a companion to the relief of " Obedience " 
in the same building. " Joshua and the Angel " 
was put up for the brother of an old friend of 
the artist. With these should be grouped the 
effigies of "Bishop Wilberforce" at Winchester; 
"Lord John Thynne " at Westminster; "Bishop 
Ollivant" at Llandaff; and the "Memorial to an 
Only Daughter," executed in 1S90. To the same 
year belongs the remarkable figure of " St. 
Matthew," one of a series of five niche figures in 
marble for the reredos of St. Mary's Church, 
Aberayon. 

Among tlie ideal works of Mr. Armstead are 
the "Playmates" of 1897, ^ nude statue of a 
young girl looking down upon a kitten at her 
feet; the dramatic and haunting "Remorse" of 
1901 ; and the chploma work presented by the 
artist to the Royal Academy on his election, 
1879, in which " Aphrodite " is represented drawn 
by dolphins. To the year 1882 belongs a ^■ery 
original statue of " Ariel." 

This record is but a partial descri]3tion of a 

life's work that is extraordinarily full, even for 

an artist endowed with unsurpassable energy and 

power of quick execution. To it sliould be added 

D 




MEMORIAL TO AN 
ONLY DAUGHTER. 

Bv H. H, Armstfad, R.A, 



a ])lentiful crop of busts and some important 
decorati\'e work, such as that jiortion of the 
external frieze round the Albert Hall symbolical 
of "Applied Mechanics." 

The crowning merit of Mr. Armstead's work 
is its monumental character — that quality which 
is so rare among sculptors, yet the finest quality 
of all. To some it ma}' occasionally seem some- 
what cold and even unsympathetic ; yet its very 
dignity is its justification. Many of the monu- 
ments haye a nobleness about tliem that none 
can den^', and a solidity which is so frequently 
lacking in the work of younger men. These, 
perhaps, might object that it is the solidit}' of the 
" old school." As the world tra\'els so last there 
is, perhaps, some basis in such an allegation ; but 
it is impossible to forget that W(.)rk or this 
character executed hv the Greeks and the early 
Italians might, for freshness, ha\-e been done 
to-day — so young is it and so full ol the life 
that never dies. ^Ir. Armstead certainly 
avoided that old-fashioned semi-classicism which 
vitiated so much of the work of his contem- 



iS 



BlvMTlSH SCUI.PTURh; AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




HYPATIA, 

By F. J, Williamson. 

poraries at tlic time wlieii lie was building up 
lu's iiii]iosiug vcjiutatiou. In the nian\- effigies 
he lias made, as inav lie seen in his " Richard 
Walmesh" " (i.SijCi), in "Dean Close," and es- 
jiec'ialh' in "Lord Winniarleigh " (1893) in 
Warrington Cliureh, Mr. Armstead is seen to 
thiC greatest adxantage. In nian\- ot these 
there is the \er\- spirit of the subject ; now 
he is inclined to the classic, now somewhat 
(iothic in feeling, but he is always governed 
b\- a sense of st\-le and a sentiment of nature. 
Mr. .Vrmstead's work is well modelled and 
carved, verv relined in taste and sculiitures(iue 
in character. In his numerous jiortrait busts 
he has been \er\- successful. ]'de\ated in 
manner, these nsuall}' ha\'e a st)'le about them 
which, in the higher sense, flatters the sitter. 
But al)out almost ever^-thing ^Ir. Armstead has 
done there is a "bigness" of st\'le, a disregard 



for "cheapness" in effect, and for poorness in 
nature. This "bigness" is a gift which com- 
pensates for any want of blood in liis inarble or 
fire in liis chisel. It is this quality which, in all 
probabilit\', will maintain Mr. Armstead's name 
in the front rank of English sculptors. 



Mr. F. J. WILLIAMSON 
1853. 



The fact that Mr. Wil- 
liamson was the private 
sculptor to her late Majesty Queen ^'ictoria is 
known to all who take an interest in the art, and 
has ser\'ed to keep his name before the public. 
He was the pujiil of John Bell and the ap- 
prentice for seven vears of John Folev, with 
wdiom he remained as assistant for twentv ^'ears. 
Introduced to the Queen bv the Princess Louise, 
Mr. Williamson, who had settled at hasher in 
what was once " The Gra])es " inn and coach- 
ing house, was krvoured bv frequent com- 
missions, and there has modelled, it is said, all 
the members of the Royal faniilv, excepting the 
King and Queen Alexandra. In the intervals of 
these works ]Mr. \\"illiamson has turned out more 
than two hundred busts of people for the most 
part distinguished, besides a considerable number of 
public statues and memorials. Chief among these 
are the statues of Queen \'ictoria, the original 
ami re]-)licas of which are in London, Australia, 
Rangoon, India, Ireland, and elsewhere ; they 
have the reputation of being excellent likenesses. 
Perhaps the most successful of Mr. Williani- 




H.R.H. PRINCE EDWARD 
OF YORK. 

nv F. J. Williamson. 



F. 



WIIJ.IAMSON. 



iq 



son's works is the memorial to Dean Milman 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. Of his statue of " Sister 
Dora" it is said that at the time of its erection 
it was the only statue in the countr\' of a woman 
other than of a royal persona.t^'e. The l)ust of 
Lord Colerid,cre is another curiosity, inasmuch as 



he said to add greatly to tlie stren,t;th of the 
British school, he has well understood a certain 
side of what is liked in semi-official work. 



Mr. J. HUTCHISON, R.S.A. 
1856. 



Mr. John Hi:tchisox, 
tile ]nipil of Iv(jbert Scott 



it was modelled, at the sitter's request, to ran,o;e Dauder in Iidinburt;li and of Alfred Gatley in 
with busts ot i'lato and other sages and jurists I-iome, could hardly escape the ])seudo-classic 
of anticjuity in the judge's study, so that we tendency of his masters : indeed, I know ot 
have here a modern anticjue of strange effect, no cle\-er sculptor whose work is more chil- 
The statuettes of Princess Alice of Albam' as a lingly and more hea\'ily classic than that nf 
child and of the infant Prince lulward of York (}atley, who left England for Rome while still 
— the first-named having been exhibited at the a }'oung man. Mr. Hutchison first exhibited 
Royal iVcademy " l)y Command" — are examples at the I■vo^'al Acadenn' in 1862, and in the same 
of a treatment much appreciated by lier late year was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Majesty, not dissimilar in sentiment from some of Sccjttish Acadenn-. Among his earlier works are 
the work of the late Mrs. Thorn\'croft. 
Among Air. Williamson's ideal work are the 
" Hetty and Dinah," which was bought hv 
the Queen, antl tJie nude " Hypatia, ' of 
which the most effective view is here ]ire- 
sented. The latter was exlnljited at the 
Ro's-al Academy in 1891, and in its coinci- 
dence of pose and attitude reminded man^' 
of the picture which, under the same title, 
Mr. C. W. Mitchell ccjntributed to the 
Grosvenor Caller}' six years before. I'rob- 
ably the best of the sculptor's busts is the 
dignified head of Lord Tennys(Mi, executed 
in 1894. -^t is doubtless (jwing to Mr. 
Williamscjn's legitimate desire to give 
pleasure to his Royal patron that he 
carried so far his skill in working out 
texture of draperies and the details of em- 
broideries and lace, and slurred o\-er the 
hard facts of a face, as may be seen in 
his busts of the Dukes of Comiaught and 
Albany ; for the elaboration of the hrst 
and the " smoothed-outness " of the last 
are contrary to the genuine sculptor's aims 
and to his knowledge of what is needful. 

Mr. Williamson's work, even though it 
be cold, is usually well carved Irom well- 
chosen blocks, and the drapery, lace- work, 
and so forth, are \"ery dexterously worked. 
Modelling must never be lacking in de- 
cision, or design in strength, otherwise the 
whole is apt to become rmsj'mpathetic in 
character and the result tends to the side 
of feebleness. While i\Ir. Williamson eannot 




LORD TENNYSON. 

BY F. J. W.ULIAMSOJ. 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




BURNS MEMORIAL 
AT AYR. 



'' Harold Havdrade, tlie Xorse Sea-kintr ; " " Pas- 
quecia ; " " A Roman DaiHint; (jirl Resting ; " " II 
Condotliere," and otlier works siig'gesti\-e of 
tlie artist's sojourn in Ital}', as well as busts 
(jf (}ueen \'ictoria and tlie Prince Consort. 
A marble bust of lier Majest)' from the model 
e.\ecuted at Windsor Castle was at the (ilas- 
gow ]{xhil)ition of njoi. More recently, Mr. 
Hutchison has executed a colossal bronze statue 
of " John Knox, Reformer," for the quadrangle 
of Xew College, lulinburgh, statues of the 
Regent Murray and of Knox for the Scottish 
National I'ortrait Gallery, together with a marble 
statue of " The Good Shepherd," and other ideal 
work. 



Mr. Q. A. LAwsoN. ALTHOUGH Ml. George A. 
'^^^" Lawson is a native of Edin- 

burgh, and has risen so high in his profession, 
he is not a member of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. He has been more than once 
within an ace of election at the Royal Academy 
of London, but the accident of competition 
has hitherto lost him the formal distinction. 
Born in 1832, Mr. Kawson received his artistic 
education Hrst from Alexander Ritchie and from 
the Roval Scottish Academy, and then at 
Rome, where he was among the admiring yet 
critical band that surrounded the great figure of 
John Gibson. When he came to London m 1867 
he was practically unknown, although his terra- 
cotta groups had already been much appreciated 
in his own country ; but in the following year, 
when he exhibited his comic and highly skilful 
" Dominie Sampson," he at once sprang into 
notice. The work is broadly humorous, yet 
treated with due regard for the art, for material, 
size, and treatment are all in proper conformity 
with the spirit of the subject. Soon afterwards 
Mr. I>awson changed his manner ; he devoted 
himself to serious work and aimed at a lofty 
Greek severlt^' tempered by modern feeling. 

One of his chief works concei^•ed in this spirit 
is " In the Arena " ( 1878 ), representing in a masterly 
group the combat of an athlete and a panther. It 
is true that the animal is impressive rather by its 
vigour and its arrangement than b^■ its size, but the 
solidit\- and the " go " of the whole are the work 
of a thoroughh- well-equipped sculptor. In the 
following \'ear came " Callicles," which under the 
more ]iopular name of " The Bov with a Lyre '' 
is perha]is the best known of Mr. Lawson's works. 
Here, as Matthew Arnold has sung, Empedocles' 
sla\'e sits h\ Ltna laurel-crowned, and fingers the 
strings of his instrument as his master lingers 
on the crater's edge. " Daphnis " ( iSSo) is shown 
standing in meditation before the fountain, 
where he lirst met Chloe's sight. " Cleopatra ' 
was exhibited in 1881 — the dra]ied figure of the 
(l)ing (lueen has fallen back on her throne and the 
asp is at her breast. "The Danaid " ibllowed in 
iScS2, a lithe but weary maid, graceful and pathetic, 
ad\-ancing painfully in an attitude of listless 
despair. In all these works we feel the poet, the 
cultivated mind, the skilful and the dehcate 
hand. The sketch foi' the statue of Robert Burns. 



G. SIMONDS. 



21 



though not tlie kind of work which calls out "•■■ °- simonds. Xhe training of Mr. George 
the real strength of the sculptor, has character ' Simonds is wholly foreign. In 

notwithstanding; and the "Head of an C)1(l 1S58, when he was no more than fourteen years 
Woman," which was contributed to the Royal of age, he entered the schools of the Ro>a] 
Academy of 1890, is a fine study not only in Academy of Arts at Dresden, and two years 
character but in psycliology. later was transferred to the studio of Professor 

Admire Mr. Lawson's work as we ma^•, we Johannes Schilling, with \vh(jm he worlced as 
cannot help feeling that it lacks just something — pupil-assistant lur about four years. Thence he 
shall I say, the spirit of the moment ? — which, being went to Brussels, where his German [inivnuincc 
there, would make it yery fine indeed. There seems told fatally against him for a time, until he found 
to be required in it just a little more animation, ;i em]ilo\-ment with Professor Louis Jehotte for a 
trifle more yibration in the clay or marble ; bui year in working at the model of the e([uestrian 
it is work to be reckoned with 
— serious \york by a highh- 
gifted man. Many of Mr. Law- 
son's statues — such as his ad- 
mirable " Callicles," now the 
property of Lad}' I'earce — are 
e.x;tremely charming and inl'used 
with style, onh' needing to ha\e 
a little more freshness and spon- 
taneity' (more expressi\ely termed 
" youth ") Avhich the French 
sculptors ha^'e taught us to 
look for and demand. As it is, 
Ave seem to leel that o\<tx a 
good deal of his work there is 
a little sameness — not monotoiiA-, 
be it understood, for in work 
so excellent the word would not 
be fair; but not sufficient \'ariety 
or pku' of light and shade, to 
raise it to the very considerable 
height it deserves to reach. It 
has much adnhrable modelling ; 
it has much distinction ; and 
being entireh' free fr(.)m trick and 
from the introduction of trifles, 
so dear to ]iot a few of our 
modellers, it is wholly sculp- 
turesque, strong, manly, and 
artistic. It seems to proclaim 
that had Mr. Lawson in his 
earlier years enjoyed more con- 
tact with Mr. Alfred Gilbert and 
Mr. Onslow Ford he would 
ha-s'e assumed a still more com- 
manding place among British 
sculptoi's than that which at 

'^ . . HEAD OF AN OLD WOMAN. 

present he worthih' occu])ies. 

1 " ' By G. A, LAWSON. 




BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY, 




GODDESS GERD: THE 
NORTHERN AURORA. 

By G. SlMONDS. 



monument to Clui.iiem;i,niic now in Liet^e. Tl e 
cliief value of this engagement \\-as the fact tliat 
the whole casting ot^ the work was carried out in 
the Professor's studio — there being actualh' at 
that time no statue lbundr^• in all Belgium where 
the art of the bronze caster was ]iractised. Air. 
Simonds then emigrated to Rome, where lie 
remained for about tweU'c Aeais, during the last 
two of wliich he set up a studio in London. 

Tliis Roman period saw Mr. SimoniL-; \'er\- l)us\-. 
Here he executed the statue of " I)i\-inc Wis- 
dom," of whicli se\'eral rejilicas were connnissinued, 
some of them lor lingland and others foi" the 
United States — for sculptoi^s, unlike painteis, ha\e 
the legal right, without cojiyriiiht restrictions, to 
reproduce their works as olteu as the\' choose. 
He followed tin's with "The L^dcduer," the l)est 
known and on the whole the most ]iopular ol his 
works. The original is in the Central Parjv ni 
New Y(jrk, and a replica of it \\-as ordered b)- the 
Societa de Belle Arte of 'Trieste. To tins period 
also belong the group <jI "Cupid and Camj)aspe " 



— "Cupid and Campaspc plaj-ed. 

At cards for kisses: Cupid paid." — 

and the statues of " Persephone " and " Eros 
Victor." In 1877 the sculptor settled in London, 
and two vears later he iinished the marble group 
of " Dionj'sos," wdiich passed into the possession 
of Mr. Charles Mitchell, of Jesmond Towers. 
Since then apjieared " Perseus Liberator," " For- 
tune," "'The Swan Girl," and " Goddess (jerd : the 
Xorthei'n Aui'ora," wdiich, first shown in the Xew 
Galler\', is liere chosen ior illustration as an 
admirable example of ?>Ir. Simonds' nrost graceful 
and poetic worlv. Such are the princi]ial ot the 
sculptor's ideal statues. In addition should be 
mentioned, if not indi\i(lualh' enumerated, the 
smaller works ol' the same character which Air. 
Simonds has cast h\ the " waste wax " process 
{c:rc pi'i-due) — a method to which he was directed 
h\ the admirable practice of the Ca\'aliere I-'api, of 
Morence, almost bel'ore it was generalh' adopted 
here, as a re\'ival, from T'rance. 

Among Mr. Simonds' chief monumental vrorks 
are the statues of Sir William Aluir, in the 
I'niversitA' ot Allahabad ; the poet-plnlosopher. 
Rajah Kali Krishna, in Calcutta ; and Her Majesty 
Oueen A'ictoria, at Reading; as well as the Tolle- 
mache memorial at (irantham ; the Lion Alonu- 
nient to the ollicers and men of the 0()th (Berks) 
Regiment, Avho fell at Maiwand : and the me- 
morial to Sir Josepli Bazalgette, l"((r the 'Thames 
Panbanlvment. 

It is not surprising, Irom what has been said 
of his training, that there is a certain I'oreign aspect 
about a good deal of Air. Sinronds' work. The 
intellectual ipiah'ty is there, for the sculptor is a 
man of imagination and of well-ordered nn'nd ; but 

it appears as if this very qualitv liad the elfect 

to Engh'sli eyes at least — of somewhat attenuating 
his design and treatment, imparting to it an appear- 
ance (it maybe only an ap]iearance, after all) of 
a lack of s]iontanei'ty and richness. 'This would 
assuredlx- be contested b)- Air. Simoruls, whose 
work is (leli])eratel_\- designed tor what it is, as 
may be seen in the in\-ariable relinemcnt of his 
main lines and the purity of his conceptions. 



Mr. TINWORTH 
1866. 



AIr.(31';(>rc;k TTnworth, though 
in his iiractice not a sculptor 
jnoperly so c;dled, can hardly be onutted Irom 



G. TINWORTH. 



2^ 



some sort of coinpaiiionshi]^ in ^•ie\v of the 
peculiar position he h;is taken in the estimation, 
not to say the affections, of a section of the 
public. Yet lie had a sculjitor's trainin,<{ when 
attendin^t;- the Laml)et]i school in 1861, as well as 
at the Royal Academy schools in 1864, where he 
took medals both for "the Anticjue " and "the 
Lile." The late Sir Henr)- Doulton took ,f;reat 
interest in the talented lad, who, but for him, 
mi,<,dit have c(jntinued at his father's craft of 
wheelwright. Mr. Tinw(jrth entered the IJoulton 
Totter}' Works in 1866 and recei\'cd a ^-ery kindly 
encouragement, recpiitin,"; it bv the individuality 
of his work and by his success in the patJi he 
had struck out. In due course he gained awards 
lor terra-colta and stoneware at \'ienua, in 
America, and in Paris. Apart from the legitimate 
designs for potter}- and the like, drauiatic high- 
reliel panels with numerous figures on a small 
scale ha\'e absorbed the energies of Mr. Tinworth. 
The popularity of these is out of all proportion to 
their sculptural merits ; yet it caiuiot be denied 
that in the spirit that inspires them, and in the 
deep religious sentiment with which the^' overllow, 
there is ample justitication tor the public fa\'our. 
Not for their art's sake, but lor the vi\id drama 
and intense passion witli which the subjects are 
presented, thev go straight to the heart ol the 
de\-out or tlie unsophisticated spectator. They 
are often rugged in their force ; naif, almost 



primiti\-e, in their c(jnce])tion and handling ; and 
so sincere that we are restrained froiu an occa- 
sional smile at the archaism and the treatment by 
the perfect sincerit}' of the modeller. Here, in- 
deed, is the art lor which Tolsto}* sighs, so sim]ile 
and cleai' that none can fail (jf eas^' comprehension, 
so rude in execution that none can repr(jach the 
artist eitlier with \'anitv, witli a desii'e for technical 
displa^', or with that deterioration which comes from 
o\'er refinement. The works are s\'mbols ratlier 
than sculptures serioush' t<j ]:ie reckoned amongst 
the art of the day ; but the\- are the work ol a man 
whose worth, ele^'ated nn'nd, and profound senti- 
ment the\' proclaim ; and it is to these (jualities, 
as well as to a dramatic, if ap]iarenth' untutored, 
sense that we must attribute the respect he 
commands in the religious world, and support 
the homage that he has found there. Puritanical, 
didactic, \'et with something of the comedian 
about him, Mr. Tinworth has been cruelly called 
"The Spurgeon of Sculpture" — cruel alike to 
preacher and modeller, yet not without a sub- 
stratum of truth. 

Anrong Mr. Tinworth's reliefs are the series of 
twenty-eight panels in the Guards' Chapel and the 
important works of the same character in York 
Minster, Wells Cathedral, and elsewhere. Besides 
church work there are the Manchester Park group, 
the four ]ianels in St. Thomas's Hospital, and the 
Fawcett Alemorial in \'auxhall Park. In Mr. 









1,1 ^ 






f* ! 





' ^ ' ¥' •/ ^ 




THE DISTRESS OF HEROD, 

Py Georce tinworth 



-4 



BRITISH SCULPTURE ANlJ SCULPTORS OF TOTjAY. 



Tinworth's own judgment his best achievement is 
the "Preparing for the Crucifixion." The reh'ef 
here illustrated is a typical one, (lispla^•ing its 
author's merit in the rendering of \i\acions and 
pictorial drama, and his primitiveness of concep- 
tion. With all its nuiltiplicitv of ligurines and its 
display of peasant art, it recalls the sculptures of 
the early German masters of wood-car\ing or tlie 
feryent work of the archaic Italians. 



dr. A. BRUCE-JOV, R.H.A. 
1866. 



Mr. At.bkrt Brtick- 
Joy, a ]ni]iil of South 
Kensington, of the Ro^•al Academy schools, and 
of John Foley, has displayed great perse\'erante 
through his career. The list of his works is so long 
that — the expression is used in no uncompliment- 
ary sense — it is surprising that they are so good. 
Among his many statues, some of them colossal, 
are to be included the " Gladstone," erected in 
front of Bow Church, I^jndon ; " Lord Frederick 
Ca^'endish," at Barrow-in-Furness ; " John Bright," 
at Manchester, here reproduced, and another at 
Birmingliam ; and the " Harvey Tercentenar\- 
Memorial" at Folkestone, one. of the sculptor's most 
felicitous compositions. Of his numerous busts tlie 
best known are the bronze of " Mr. Fergusson, 
of IJundee," excellent in character ; " Ford Farn- 
borough " (Mr. Frskine Ma}'), in marble in the 
House of Commons ; " Miss Mary Anderson ; " and 
" Lord Salisbury," at tlie Mansion House, London. 
The memorials include the " Codrington " and the 
" Montgomery" in St. Paul's, the "Lord Cairns" at 
Lincoln's Inn, and the "Archbishop Benson" in 
Rugby School Chapel. In America Mr. Bruce- 
Joy modelled tlie Ayer Colossal Lion for Lowell, 
Boston, and left other works behind In'm. 

In spite of these nian\' important conunissioiis 
Mr. BriK-e-Jo\' has found time to execute cjuite a 
number of ideal worlds, ol wjiicli " The First 
Flight" a figure ol a little gii'l setting a ^-()ung 
bird free — must be accorded the ]n]m for its 
])retty sentiment, its charming design, and delicate 
and careful modelling. Tlien there is the " Woman 
and Child " ("Rcischen \()n Taubenliayn " ), " TIk- 
Forsaken," together with the Biblical " Moses 
and the Brazen Serpent," and the t'lassic " Thetis 
and A'.'hilles." 

It may be said that there is such a " setness " 
and a solidity about Mr. Bruce-Joy's statues 
that they ne\'er suggest the possibility of their 




JOHN BRIGHT. 

Bv A. Bruce-Jov R.H.A. 



stepping down from their ]ilinths. They are in- 
^■ariably yer\- like the jiersons the\- rej^resent — a 
cpiality of which comnuttees and subscribers 
throughout the country Inue frequently shown their 
warm appreciation. Some artists, brilliant in ideal 
work, sometimes find difficulty in securing a true 
resemblance, even the most usual — a defect never 
found in the portraiture of iMr. Bruce-Jov. The 
leatnre of his work lies in his securing the everv- 
day look ol the sitter so that all may recognise 
him instantly ; and his rejection of the occasional 
look which mail)' artists would seize upon as 
the most characteristic has won him no little 
]iopularity. It thus comes about that not a few 
of Mr. Brure-Joy's largest statues are highly 
successful without being absolutely "great" in 
the luller act'cptation of the worth 



Mr. THOMAS BROCK, R.A. 
1868. 



In the year i866 Mr. 

Brock came to London 
and was recei\-ed into h^)ley's studio as a pupil, 
conn'ug tluis under the direct inllueuce of the 
British scul])tor who at that time had most 
brilliantly rebelled against the chilly formalism 
that then ]uevailed. In the following year he 




THE GENIUS OF POETRY. 
By Thomas Broci:, R.A. 



26 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



entered the Roval Academy schools, and in 1869 
he gained the gold medal. Foley died in 1874, and 
Mr. Brock, his most able assistant, seems to have 
been regarded as his natural successor, for he was 
commissioned to complete the works which the 
master had left undone at the time of his death. 
These were the O'Connell monument in Dublin ; 
the equestrian statue of Lord Gough in Dublin ; 
and the Lord Canning statue in Calcutta : this 
task occupied him for four years. 

The amount of Mr. Brock's work is prodigious. 
From the beginning when he had his first busts to 
model— those of " Mr. Binns, F.S.A.," and " Mr. 
Ernest Hart," in 1868 and 1869 — he was regarded 
as a " safe" man, full of talent and ability. That 
reputation has gone on gi'owing ever since. Even 
when his style was formed and his career already 
honoured for what he had achie\'ed, he could 
modify it according to the newer ideas of the day, 
and his courage, perception, and his power of self- 
control, commanded increasing respect. Had he 
continued as he began he would have been a 
second Foley ; developing as he did, he has left 
his master far behind. 

It is needless to enumerate the busts which 
have proceeded from Mr. Brock's hands, but the 
chief of them must be named. "J. H. Foley, R.A.," 
appeared in the Royal Academy in 1873 ; in 1881 
" The Marchioness of Westminster " (marble), and 
in the same year a bronze bust of " Sir Frederick 
Leighton, P.R.A." " Longfellow," the marble bust 
for Westminster Abbey, was exhibited in 1884 ; 
" Sir Erasmus Wilson " in 1885 and 1S86 (in bronze, 
ibr the front of the Infirmary, Margate) ; in 1888 
" Sir Isaac Pitman" (marble); "Professor Marshall, 
F.R.S.," the anatomist, in 1892 ; in 1893 the 
celebrated bronze bust of Lord Leighton, the 
sculptor's diploma work, presented to the Royal 
Academy; "Lord Bowen " (marlile), 1896; "Sir 
Richard Ouain " (marble), in 1897; "Sir Henry 
Tate," a speaking likeness in bronze, now 
presiding in the bihlding which that benefactor 
presented to the nation — the National Gallery 
of British Art, at Milll)ank ; and in 1901, 
a marble bust of " Her Majesty Queen Victoria " 
— one of the noblest, most dignified, and 
most exquisite works of its class executed in 
England, full of delicate tenderness, of character 
lovingly rendered, with a feeling for form rightly 
realised : a most finished and beautiful render- 



ing of the Queen at her best, sweet, elegant, 
and solemn. 

The notable statues are even more numerous 
than the busts here recorded. Of these the 
following are among the most noteworthy — 
though it is not easy to select where all are so 
good. " Robert Raikes," for the Thames Embank- 
ment (bronze), r88o ; "Sir Richard Temple," for 
the Bombay Town Hall, 1884 ; " Sir Bartle Frere," 
for the Thames Embankment, 1888 ; " Lord 
Angus," the first Colonel of the Cameronians, 
erected in commemoration of the raising of the 
Regiment, a work of elevation and gravity, 
1890; "The Rev. Edward Thring," the seated 
marble statue for Uppingham School Chapel, 
1892; the finely expressive "Sir Richard 
Owen," for the National History Museum in 
South Kensington ; the seated marble of the " Rt. 
Rev. Henry Philpott, D.D., Bishop of Worcester," 
now in that Cathedral, 1896 ; the infinitely 
pathetic " Effigy of a Lady," 1897 ; "Sir W. T. 
Lewis, Bart.," a bronze statue for Merthyr Tj'dvil ; 
and the " Effigy of the late Archbishop of 
Canterbuiy," in marble, for Canterbury Cathedral. 
The colossal equestrian statue of " The Black 
Prince" in armour, for the City Square of Leeds, 
is a worthy achievement, marking the artist's year 
1 90 1. To these must be added the fine statues 
of " H.M. Queen Victoria," at Hove and Bir- 
mingham, and the noble masterpiece which forms 
the " Monument to Lord Leighton," for St. Paul's 
Cathedral. It is not easy to over praise this fine 
work. In proportion, in harmony of line, and in 
silhouette ; in conception, in detail, in decoration, 
in spirit, it is not very far from perfect. The effigy 
shows Leighton asleep, alive to all who knew him. 
The sarcophagus, fine in shape and in decoration, 
which supports him, with figures personifying 
his arts, Painting and Sculpture, at head and 
foot — surely this is a monument in which the 
great President would have himself rejoiced : for 
all is beauty, repose, and peace. 

In 1901 Mr. Brock received the commission to 
prepare the sculptural motif of the National 
Memorial to Queen Victoria. The model proves 
that the work, if carried out as the artist has 
conceived it, will be the masterpiece of his life. 
Designed as it is on a grandiose scale, it is 
harmonious, dignified, and impressi\e. An open 
space, or platform, eight feet high and 200 




RT. REV. HENRY PHILPOTT, 
BISHOP OF WORCESTER, 



D.D. 



By Thomas Brock, R.A. 



28 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




EVE. 

By Thomas Brock, R A. 



feet across, is flanked by bronze walls or 
parapets six feet in height, guarded by winged 
lions, overlooking outer basins of running water, 
while in the middle of one wall is a sculptural 
group representing the Navy and the Army, 
and of the other, Art and Science. Central 
between these is a great pedestal approached 
bv steps. From this the pyramidal column of 
the Memorial rises to a total height of 70 feet. 
Facing the spectator is the seated figure of the 
Queen, stately and dignified. On the two 
sides are her two pre-eminent qualities : Justice 
and Truth. Behind, facing Buckingham Palace, is 
the figure of Maternal Love. Above, dominating 
all, on a globe, is the great Xike, or Winged 
Victory, at whose feet are Virtue and Courage. 
The architectural design by Mr. Aston Webb will 
greatly heighten the general effect and help to 
produce a monument of Imperial significance 
and Imperial importance. 

Mr. Brock's pureh' ideal work has not been 
seen in so much profusion ; yet it is considerable. 
" Salamacis " was the first, and appeared in 1869. 
In 1870 the artist produced the school subject 
" Hercules Strangling Ant;eus " (for which, like 
Mr. Horace Montford, he gained the gold medal), 
and in 1874 " Hereward the Wake." In the follow- 
ing year appeared the marble figures "CEnone" and 
" Paris," and in 1877 and 1878 the bronze bas- 
reliefs of " Commerce," " Charit}'," and "Educa- 
tion " for the Rathbone Memorial in Sefton Park, 
Liverpool. In the former year the bronze statuette, 
" The Snake Charmer," was exhibited. Then, in 
iSSo and 18S1, "The Moment of Peril" was 
shown at the Ro}'al Academy — a large equestrian 
group of an Indian astride his horse, which has 
been flung down by the coils of a threatening cobra, 
and raising his weapon in defence. From that 
moment (so it seems to the present writer) came 
the noteworthy change of style to which allusion 
has b.jen made, and when, some years later, the 
ne.vt ideal work was shown there was seen to be a 
great ad\ance without any loss of individuality. 
This work was the graceful male nude " The 
Genius of Poetry" (1889, in marble, 1891), and 
"Song," a female nude, in 1891. These were 
conceived in a spirit of what might be called 
poetic or romantic realism ; but a lar higher point 
yet attained was reached in the " Eve," which, 
carved in marble, now stands in the Tate GaKerv 




SIR RICHARD OWEN. 
By Thomas Brock, R.A. 



30 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



at Millbank. Nothing could well be more touch- 
ing than this fair, shamed woman — not endowed 
with that perfection of beauty which is the con- 
ventional rendering of the First Mother ; nor yet 
the gross peasant which art -Anarchists have 
sought to present her ; but just one of ourselves 
in figure and nature, more exquisite in feeling 
than in person, yet that person beautiful with the 
beauty we see around us, with the consciousness 
of her wrong-doing in her heart, and head bowed 
with the weight of remorse at the sentence she 
has drawn upon her offspring. 

Mr. Brock, who probably founded himself to a 
considerable degree upon the classics, and whose 
early work was greatly influenced by his master, 
Foley (a sculptor declared, at the time of his epoch- 
making " General Outram," to be "the best man 
possible in England " ), has profited perhaps more 
than any other of his school by his close association 
with the younger men. For this reason, much that 




STATUE OF QUEEN VICTORIA 
AT HOVE. 



By Thomas Brock, R.A. 



he does to-day has qualities which are the boast, or 
at least the aim, of the present school. His work, 
indeed, has much of the young man in it, with the 
knowledge and dexterity of the old. The sculptor 
doubtless recognised that although Foley was a 
fine artist in his way, the school at that time was 
not what it became, nor was the training quite in 
the direction to which Mr. Brock has turned of his 
own accord. He therefore presents, as I have 
said, the phenomenal spectacle of a strong artist, 
highh' accomplished and finely' inspired, who has 
made his reputation in one line, deflecting in the 
full tide of a successful career into another path 
which he had the keenness of insight and the fine 
modesty to recognise as a better and a truer one. 
I do not nrean to say that he wholly or radical!}' 
changed his methods or liis views ; but that by 
the light which had been borne in upon him he 
allowed his outlook and his practice to become 
modified in accordance with the wholesome and 
revivifying influence. 

Mr. Brock is a sculptor in the most com- 
plete sense of the term, for his work is always 
sculpturesque, possessing as it does a big, 
broad marble or tone character. Wliatever he 
undertakes reaches to a high standard. It 
always takes its place agreeably with its 
surroundings ; it is always well thought-out. 
Even when he is not very original or in- 
ventive — to be which, opportunity is not 
always given— Mr. Brock bases himself upon 
something of the best. His lines are good, 
and are distinguished by a grand style ; his 
work is dignified and broad in treatment, 
architectural and monunrental in character, and 
refined as a \\-hole : even though at intervals 
it may be a little hea\y, never by anv chance 
dt)es it become conunon. His proportions 
are always graceful and right, and — to come 
to particulars— his architectural pedestals and 
his mouldings are admirably managed and 
appropriate. 

In lu's portrait work it might be said that 
tliere is more of the sitter than of the artist, 
lor in this class, whether statues or busts, he 
does not allow his fancy to dominate him as 
in his ideal figures. His work is thorough 
and workmanlike, full of feeling and felicitous 
invention. Nevertheless, it can hardly be said 
tliat Mr. Brock is often very creative in 




QUEEN VICTORIA. 
By Thomas Brock, R.A, 




X 




o 




III 




_l 




Q 


1 


LC 


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O 

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DC 

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u 




"THEY BOUND ME ON.' 
By Sir C. B. Lawes, Bart. 



36 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAV. 



ways, and lia\'ing devoted himself to a class of 
sculpture more ^vorthv of his con\'ictions — which 
works are " not to be ,i{r(_)und out lil'ie works tt)r 
exhibitions," — he has been absent lor some years 
from the art displays of the day. But his works 
as thev take their place anions; the ])roduction 
of British sculptors, are before the world, and on 
this ground they must be considered. The most 
noteworthy of these is the colossal group which 
occupied the sculptor for several years : " The}' 
bound nie on, &c." — a female-Mazeppa-like work 
of considerable complexity, exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in i88S, in which realism of a striking 
kind gives vivacity to the pyramidal group. It 
is only necessary to ci^mpare the horse with, say 
one of the Marly horses, to see how modern is 
the view taken hv the artist. After that period 
Sir Charles Lawes seems to have regarded sculp- 
ture rather as an appanage of architecture than 
as the dominating art. In Iris " United States 
of America," which was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in iSgo, we have a very high relict 
of nine or ten female hgures, somewhat dans /c 
go/U dc Biiuc/icr, or Hans iMakart, set in a 
niche-like panel of doubtful or at least decadent 
taste. 

At the same time there was a goi^l, robust 
character about what he did. It was almost in- 
variably strong and healthy ; and \igour in action 
and treatment compensated in great measure 
for the occasional hea\aness on the one hand, or 
effervescence on the other. If somewhat wanting 
in repose and refinement, it was sculpturesque 
in manner, with a liigness and boldness in 
treatment that would tell well in the open. 

Mr. THORNYCROFT, R.A. T^Jp.^ ^y ^ RAMO THr>RXy- 

1871. 

CROFT hlls a ]ilace unique 
in the art of England — as a man who, leaning 
towards the classic, was l)(;rn, as it were, into 
a community of brother artists all allame with 
the modernit^- with which ^I. Dalou, Boehm, 
and ^Ir. Lantcri, among others, had hred the 
student mind. His natural tendenc\' seems to 
have been towards Flaxman among the 
moderns, and towards the ancient Greeks ; 
but his strong in(li\"iduality ]ire\'ented him 
from following too I'loseh', and he realised 
the artistic needs and aspirations of tlie present 
day. That, ^-oung as he was, he had so broad 



an outlook upon the art of sculpture and 
its traditions was due to the fact that he, a 
thinking and in some respects a precocious 
lad, had been brought up in a studio amid 
modelling-clay, bronze, and marble ; for both his 
parents were distinguished sculptors. 

When iNIr. Thornycroft was twenty-one— 
having been born in 1850 — he made his first 
appearance in the Royal Academy with a bust 
of Dr. Sharpey, the professor of physiology in 
University College. He had been taught to model 
by his father, but he has declared that " the 
Royal Academy and the Elgin Room were my 
only masters." He had entered the Academy 
schools in 1869, and knew Foley and listened to 
the lectures of Weekes ; but all the time he was 
working with liis father until he went to Italy and 
stood in intelligent wonder before Michael Angelo 
and the art of the Greeks. In 1872 he was helping 
his father with the fountain of English Poets 
in Park Lane, London, himself modelling the 
figures of " Comedy," " Shakespeare," and the 
" Fame " that surmounts the whole. " Fame " was 
sent to the Academy of 1873. A bronze equestrian 
statuette of "Lord Mavo," a work of real and 
notewortln- ability, represented him in 1874, and in 
the following ^-ear he gained the Gold !Medal of 
the schools, in which he was working, with his 
brilliant grou]) of the subject given in competition 
— " A Warrior Bearing a Wounded Youth from the 
Field of Battle." The idea, presumabh', was to 
inspire the students to emulation of the Greek 
group of " iNIenelaus with the corpse of Patroclus " 
in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence. L^nusual 
sensation was created b}- tins ^Ir. Thornycroft s 
composition when it was exhibited at the Roval 
Academy of i87(), and it was said t(3 di\-ide public 
attention with the " Tennyson " of Woolner and 
Alfred Ste\-ens' " Duke of Wellington." The group, 
cast in bronze, was at oiu'e acquired by the Art 
Union ol London as one of its standing prizes, 
and in not a few houses may be seen this Greek 
warrior, massive in his armour, bearing the nude 
figure ol the lad — with the cunning contrast of the 
coN'ered and the naked forms, the tense muscles ot 
the one and the supine, langut)rous limbs of the 
other. The serenity, robustness, antl unaffectedness 
of this early work appealed to all, while the httle 
group proclaimed that a new sculptor had arisen 
amongst us. 




ARTEMIS. 

By W. Hamo Thornycroft. R A. 




TEUCER. 

By W. Hamo Thorn'ycroft, R.A. 



W. HAMO THORNYCROFT, R.A. 



39 



" Lot's Wife " was 'Sh. Tliornycrolt's next 
production. It was exhibited in 1S78, and more 
than repeated the sensation of two years before. 
In this Ijeautiful marble tlie woman, with more of 
Greek tlran of Eastern l)eaiitv about her massi\-e 
head and neck, shows none of the prettiness at 
that time prevaihn,^- in the renderin,;::; of the female 
form. It was the leHex result of study in 
Florence and Rome, and as we regard the type 
there float in the mind memories of Polvcletus or 
Praxiteles, and the Aphrodite of Cnidos. Tlie 
fine structure and vigorous modelling of the turned 
head, the twisted neck with its tense muscles, and 
the strong shoulder, emphasised the pure taste 
and sense of style of the sculptor. The dramatic 
moti\-e is daring enough— the woman, with her 
snatched-up jewels in her hand, has turned her 
head to look, and her lower limbs and draper^' 
have already begun to take columnar shape as 
her whole being is struck cold with the sudden 
transformation. Here, in the upper part at least, 
with its superb action and the masterlv handling, 
we have suggestion of true glvptic sculpture, of 
which so little is produced to-dav. A "^Memorial 
of Dr. Harvey" was designed in 1879, along 
with " Stepping Stones." The former was never 
carried out ; the latter, the result of a com- 
mission to execute in marble a group modelled 
some time before, was none the better for 
its more profitable fate. 

A great advance was proclaimed the following 
year by the epoch-making "Artemis." It came as 
a surprise even to those who, as they thought, 
had fairly gauged the sculptor's commanding 
power. With feet unsandalled — for a goddess need 
not fear the thorns — the great huntress pauses 
suddenly in the forest as a quarry passes near ; 
and as she snatches at an arrow in her quiver 
her body is drawn around by her dog, which has 
darted to the other side. The attitude and arrange- 
ment are altogether admirable, as well as original ; 
and the tripl}- caught-up chiton is a charming 
invention. From every point of view the group is 
beautiful ; the forms and the head are nobly con- 
ceived, and the dog is a brilliant piece of animal life 
sculpturesquely treated. Mr. Edmund Gosse re- 
counts the curious story how the original of the 
hound made its appearance from none knew where 
on the ver}' day when the sculptor wanted such a 
model ; how she stayed while the artist modelled 




MEDEA. 

By W. HamO THORNYCROFT, R.A, 



from her, and on the day the statue was completed 
straightway died, from what cause no one knew; and 
he adds prettily : " A Greek would have said, with 
the utmost confidence, that the goddess had sent 
her, and when the work was done had taken her 
away again." When this statue was exhibited it 
aroused the greatest enthusiasm ; and while many 
were comparing it with the late Greek " Artemis " 
in the Louvre, which had presumably inspired it, 
and were loudh' proclaiming the siq:)eriority of 
the modern English work, tlie Duke of West- 
minster conmiissioned a marble ot it for Eaton 
Hall, where it stands to-day. It may be added 
that, beautiful as is the figure in its ,gi"aceful, light 
diaphanous drapery, the life-size model, entirely 
nude, leaves the spectator in doubt whether it is 
not in this stage more lo\'eh' than in its final form. 
" Artemis " entirely o^-ershadowed Mr. Thorny- 
croft's other contribution of the year, " Putting 
the Stone." This is a bronze statuette, a good 
subject finely carried out, an admirable study of the 
nude, and, in its representation of a young athlete. 



43 



BRITISH SCLILPTURH AND SCULPTORS OF TODAY. 







r r - 
\ 



J ? 



• yjf 




FRIEZE ON THE OFFICES OF THE INSTITUTE 
OF CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS 

By W. Hamo THORrjYCROFT, R.A, 



a scholarly rendering" nf the ]ilav of nuiscle and 
mo-\-ement of the figure. In the same A'ear a 
delightful " Head of a Woman " appeared at the 
Dudle}^ Gallery, and a very modern stud\' (.)f 
character and intellect in old age in a portrait- 
bust of Sir Arthur Cotton. 

The year 1881 pointed the high-water mark 
of Air. Thornvcroft's career with " Teucer." The 
Homeric bowman, mortified, and eager to redeenr 
his eight-fold failure to hit his man, has let fly one 
shaft more at Hector, and, retaining his attitude, 
tense and strained, he watches his last arrow in its 
flight. Simple and se\"ere as it is, this figure struck 
the spectator with its novelt\- : it was realistic yet 
classic, instinct with life, and noble in its forms. 
Those who compared it, as some did, with John 
Bell's " T^agle Slayer," rejoiced in the advance in 
art wdiich it betokened. It was at once ac(|uired 
lor the Chantre}- Collection, ;m(l mav now be seen 
in the sculjiture gallery at Alillbank, to justify for 
all time the enthusiasm it e\"()ked wlien it was 
first produced. In the same \-ear we saw tlie 
In'gh relief of a female liead with whicli the artist 
sought to personif}- Shelle_\-'s pathetic line, "Our 
sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest 
thoughts " — a delicate piece of imaginative realism. 

Then followed, in i.S(S8, tlie superb " Medea," 
touching her l)a-e and attended b\' tlie serpent, 
which winds round the finel\- composed dra]ieries 
at her ankles, and raises its liead to the instrument 
itself; and in 1800 was exhiln'ted the delicate and 
graceful relief, " The ]Mirr(jr." Mr. Thorn \'cr(_)ft 



then de\"(jted himself to a ^'ery considerable 
\\-ork of architectural imjiortance. This was an 
elaborate frieze for Air. J. D. Sedding's building 
lor the Institute of Chartered Accountants — a series 
decorating the exterior of the building at the first 
storey. "King lulward I," the model for a statue, 
was seen the following year ; l)ut I had seen it 
in progress some years belore — in 1884, if my 
memory serves me well— for the competition for 
the proposed decoration of Blackfriars Bridge, 
which undertaking the City of London had pro- 
jected but from which it incontinently withdrew. 
In 1804 it was shown again in different form, 
slightly simplified in surface, Iiroader, and more 
sculptural in aspect. 

Three other of Mr. Thornycroft's ideal works 
are so strangely different in motive and treatment, 
although they belong more or less to the same 
period, that tliey may profitably be grouped 
together. "Tlie Sower " may be taken first. A 
realistic work, in which the sculptor has siiught 
to wrestle with the difficulty of modern dress in 
the British peasant or farm labourer, we have 
here a suggestion of the famous pitture of Jean 
iM-ancois iMillet m the hea\-y gait, the heroic 
]iose, the fine swing, an 1 the sadness of tlie soil. 
i'lie shirt could iml be treated with more distinc- 
tion ; tlie head, inclined to the classic, is never- 
tlieless not unsuited to this farm toiler. It has the 
true ung.u'nly grace of the man, it breathes the 
s]iirit of tlie fields, and has the nobility of Fred 
\\ alker's demi-gods in corduri)v without their 



W. HAMO THORiNYCROFT, K.A. 



41 




KING EDWARD I. 

By w. Hamo Thornvcroft, B.A. 



affectation. Beside this we may place " Summer," 
the nude figure of a girl, her elbow leaning on 
a short column, and her head set against a 
palm leaf. It is one of Air. Thornvcroft's 
tew female nudes ; but, with all its qualities, 
it does not please as most of his other works. 
On the other hand, " The Alower " (now at the 
Walker Art Gallery of Liverpool) imposes itself 
on every beholder. The British equivalent to M. 
Constantin iVIeunier's Flemish or Walloon pea- 
sant, sailor, and working-men types — his "June," 
for example — it is strong and natural in pose, 
incisive in character, masterh' in its modelling, 
finely inventive in what little clothing covers the 
G 



man, and as excellent in suggestion of textures 
as in composition. In the model the man wears 
a shirt, and the scythe is held blade up ; nothing 
could be finer in its way, but it was doubtless 
found that when enlarged to life size the figure 
lost by the arrangement. If so, this is a confirm- 
ation of what has pre\■ious]^• been said in these 
pages on the deceptiveness of a sketch's promise 
in relation to the ultimate work to be enlarged 
from it. From this work to "The Jov of Life" 
(1895) is a long juniji, and not altogether a 
leap upwards. Evidently modelled for the sake 
of contrast with the other works, with their 
quietness, their restraint, and in man}- cases their 



42 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




THE SOWER 

By w. Hamo Thornycroft R.A. 



absolute rest, tliis statue seems to liave lieeii 
devised bv tlie sculptor tlirou^trli the need he 
felt to represent, ■ for once at least, ^■i^<,a)rous yet 
lightsome action and nlO^•ement of limb and 
swirl of draperA' in the dancer's skirts. There 
is a curious suggestion of 'Tanai^ra in the 
figure, so lightlv and skilfully ]')oised on one 
foot, as she daintily raises lier Iroudrou skirls 
and displays her limbs in tights. It is a fresh, 
robust, healtliy work, but not on a ]-)lane, in 
conception at least, with the more serious ]iro- 
(hlctions. 

In 1898 the Stanley Memorial, now erected in 
the old church at Holyliead, was completed — 
an exquisite marlile group, showing the recumbent 
figure between two angels of great lieauty, whose 
draperies are modelled with singular lightness. 



while their wings, lineh' proportioned, and well 
attached to the shoulders — a rare merit with 
angels' wings in sculpture — spread their pleasing 
cur\-es so as to harmonise with the architecture. 
" The Bather" belongs to 1808. It is the nude 
figure oi a A'oung bo\', who dries himself with a 
towel behind his bacl^ — ari attitude which has 
attracted artists belore. Breadth and siriiplicity, 
])roportion, dignitN', and charm of pose characterise 
the work, which is better ada]ited to be reprti- 
duced as a bronze statuette than as a figure of 
moi'e important size. 

The portr.iil-statues b\- ^Mr. Thornycroft must 
be t'onsidered in two t'lasses, the ideal and the real. 
Among the fi)rmer is " (^li\^er Cromwell," the 
im]iressiN'e work set up on a somewhat infelicitous 
base outside Westnhnster Hall, anil the " Dean 




THE MOWER 



3v W. Hamo Thornycroft, R a 



44 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




It should be recorded tliat it \vas for the 
"Cromwell" tluit Mr. Thornycroft received the 
Medaille d'Hoiineiir at the Paris Exhibition of 
11)00. The " King Alfred" was erected in 1901. 

One rarely looks at the work of Mr. Thorny- 
croft without feeling that he belongs to the 
classic school more nearly than perhaps any other 
sculptor of the day, at least in his ideal subjects. 
In "Lot's Wife" — as we haA'e seen, one of his 
earlier works— and in the later statues, "Artemis" 
and " Teuier," there arc both grandeur and style, 
a big, broad, simple rendering of the human form, 
with much of the mo\-einent of the Greeks, and 
not a little of then' repose. 

It is as a sculptor in the round that Mr. 
Thorm'crolt stands pre-eminent, and is seen 
at his best. This must be accounted some- 
what strange, as scjme of his work in the 
r(jund suggests a relief treatment in the fine, 
broad iilanes aiul general construction. For this 
reason his work is never sudden in change of 
planes, (jr, so U) sa^', twisted — but is simple, easy, 



MEMORIAL TO GENERAL CHARLES GORDON 
(Trafalgar Square, London) 
By w. Hamo Thornvcroft, R A 



Colet " (with a couple of jnipils) which, cpiaintlv 
whispering, as it were, the name of Donatello or 
Verrocchio, told with such delicious accent in the 
Academy of 1901. AuKing the latter are "John 
Bright," at Rochdale ; " Sir Steuart Bayley," at 
Calcutta, in which the curious experiment was 
successfully made of polishing the spectacles so as 
to suggest the glasses without which the sitter was 
never seen — a cogent reason for the proceeding ; 
"Lord (jranville " (ICS95), in the outer Lobljv of 
the House of Connnons; " H.AI. (Jueen A'ictoria," 
set up in the Roval PAiIiange in 189Q t(_) replace 
the old statue, delaccd and disfigured, that had 
so long distressed and scandalised the merchants 
of London ; another statue of the (jueen, ten 
feet high, for Durban, opposite the Town Hall ; 
"Archbishop Thomson," for Y(jrk ; "Archbishop 
Plunket," for Dublin ; and " Bishop Goodwin," 
for Carlisle, a ^'eritable masterpiece ; the " Lord 
Beaconsfield," in diplomatic dress ; and, al)o\'e all, 
the admirable statue to Gordon which, declaring 
the masterfulness, dignit^•, cpnet self-con (idence, and 
modest}^ of the sitter, has been set up in Trafalgar 
Square, London, and a replica in I\lelbourne. 




QUEEN VICTORIA 

(In thh Royal Exchange). 

By w. Hamj Tho.^nycroft, R.A. 



J. HAVARD THOMAS. 



45 



and dignified. The relieis— " Faith and Fortitude " 
and " Cliarity and Justice " — that flank the pedes- 
tal of the Gordon statue are noble in tlieir lines ; 
but the two dramatic panels of "Gordon Teaching" 
and the " Death of Gordon," skilful and interesting 
as they are, do not reach the same level. Coming 
from another man, "The Mirror," a beautiful 
work, would certainly gain greater applause than 
trom the sculptor of "Artemis," "Teucer," and 
"The Mower." With greater force does this 
judgment apply to the "Lady on a Bicycle" — 
an attempt to render an extremely modern phase 
ol civilisation in very low relief, which, if only 
lor its courage, deseryes a greater success thair 
it achie\es. On the other hand, the relief por- 
traits of " ]\Iiss Joan Thornj-croft " and " Aliss 
Rosalind Thornycroft " are admirable. 

The portrait statues of Mr. Thornycroft are 
as full of dignity, ease, and simplicity as his more 
ideal work. The group of " Dean Colet " is a w(Jrth^' 
illustration of this assertion. It has in it much 
of the feeling of the Italian School at its best 
period, for it is quiet, quaint, and charming in its 



unostentatious arrangement, and beautiful in char- 
acter. It is a little unfortunate that a work with 
this Renaissance feeling should be covered with a 
metal canop^', Gothic in cliaracter, out of regard 
for the style of the building whic'h will be its 
background, but the need of such a linlv l^etween 
the sculptor and the architect is obvious enough. 
Again, in the " Gordon," many of the artist's best 
qualities are seen. It is more modern and more 
English in feeling, but it is no less a statue which 
might do credit to miv country at an}' period. 
Throughout, ?»Ir. Thornycroft's work is strikingly 
individual and belongs to the English order of 
mind ; and the countrv becomes richer with 
eyerything he does. By his best we nrust judge 
him, and by that he must be recognised as in 
the very forefront witl: the finest sculptors 
England has produced. 



MR. J. HAVARD THOMAS. 
1872. 



Mr. Havard Thomas, 
who has made his home 
in South Itah', is one of the most serious and 
artistic ot our sculptors, always aiming at quiet 




THE STANLEY MEMORIAL 
(Holyhead Church'. 



By W. Hamo Thornycroft, R.A. 




THE DEAN COLET WIEWIORIAL 
(St. Pauls School, Londoni. 
By w. Hamo Thornycroft R,a 




OLIVER CROMWELL 

iWestminster Hall Garden London). 

By W. Hamo Thornycroft, R.A. 



48 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



excellence, and ne\'er at l^ruvura achievement. 
A Bristol man, a pupil of the Art School there, 
and subsequenllv a National Scholar of South 
Kensinoton, he practised in London from 1875 
to 1 88 1, and then worked lor three years at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts under Cavelier. While 
there he produced a life-size marble statue of 
" A Slave Girl," for Air. D'Oyly Carte ; this 
work, remarkable for technical abilitv, which won 
him a ^Mention at the Salon, was exhibited in 
Piccadilly, and attracted UKire 1.))' its well-felt 
realism than b^• anv con\-entional presentation 
of beauty. Back in London fronr 1884, 'Sir. 
Thomas was engaged mainly on busts and public 
monuments. Of the latter, the chief are the two 
eight-foot statues of " Mr. Samuel Morley, M.P.," 
one for Bristol, and the other, executed from a 
thfferent model, for Xottingham. The bronze 
nine-foot statue of " The Rt. Hon. W. E. 
Forster," erected in Bradford, if not so striking, 
is an excellent piece of work. 

In 1889 Mr. Thomas left L{jndon for South 
Italy, where he has dev(jted himself to the study 
of what are called the higher branches of sculpture. 
Since that tinre his subjects lia\'e been drawn from 
the life around him, principalh' in Capri and 
the neighbourhood of Pompeii — peasants and 
the like, recorded in busts, bas-reliefs, and 
statuettes in marble. Of these onh' a certain 
number have been exhibited ; but one of them, 
" Pepinella," a beautiful, simple, Donatellesc]ue 
head of a little girl, exhibited at the. Ro^'al 
Academy in 1901, behjngs to the period of ten 
years before. At the International Society we 
saw " The Loom," " Dancing," and some smaller 
works. Another, "Agriculture," was shown at the 
Academy, but was placed too high to be properh- 
seen and judged. Among tlie uKjst characteristic 
are the " Marianine " and " Cjiacinta," at the Royal 
Academy and New (jaller\' res]iecti\'ely, of 1881). 
It is noteworthy that all the reliefs and mam' 
of the busts ha\e been cut in the marble by the 
sculptor direct, without the iieli^ of a plastic model. 

Since 1898 the artist has been working in 
silver, having studied the art of casting b\' the 
" waste wax process" in Xa])les ; the ouh- excejv 
tion is the statue in bronze, cast by tiie same 
method, of the philosopher " luhnund Burke, 
M.P.," which was presented to the city of Bristol 
by Sir W. H. Wills. 



Mr. Thomas's work is extremely quiet in 
colour and style, in arrangement, and in effect 
as a whole. The artist chooses to play in a 
low key altogether, loving to work out sub- 
tleties, aiming at, and certainl}' securing, refine- 
ment and charm of feeling. His carving is 
beautiful in relief, and his work very con- 
scientious and truthful, but without aiming at 
much decorative effect. In his renderings of 
the labourer or peasant it is "i^oetry he seeks 
for, and there is much movement in many ot 
his beautiful reliefs of field life. There is also 
sculpturesque repose that is so valuable, and the 
whole is distinguished by excellent taste. As to 
Mr. Thomas's portrait work, it is somewhat 
wanting in force and effect of light and shade. 
When carried too far, over-broad, simple planes, 
which prove a sculptor's power, tend to convey 
a feeling of emptiness, or a want of variety. In 
spite of this, the works are very good, belonging 
as they do to a most excellent and a refined 
school ; they are severe in character, and possess 
the quality of style. 



Mr. E. ROSCOE MULLINS. 
1873. 



The career of Mr. Roscoe 
Mullins has been one of 
remarkable diligence and acti\"ity. A pupil ot 
the schools of Lambeth and the Royal Academy, 
of Birnie Philip, and Professor Wagmuller of 
Munich, under whom he stayed from 1866 tt) 
1874, 'Sir. Mullins made his jirofessional debut 
in \'ienna and Munich in 1872, gaiifing a bronze 
medal at the former and a silver medal at the 
latter for his group of " Sympathy. " He first 
apjieared in London in 1873, when his "Child 
and Dog " was exhibited at the lvo^•al Acadenn-. 
Since then few years ha\"e passed without a 
goodly array of work. Busts, statuettes, and 
statues, numerous as the\- Iku'c been, have not 
b)' an\- means monopolised the sculptor's energies, 
although Irom 1877 onwards many distinguished 
]iersons ha\e passed through his hands. Among 
these, lor busts, are Mr. ^^^ W. Ouless, R.A., in 
1877 ; Dr. Martineau in 1878 ; Mr. Stopford Brooke 
((jros\enor (jallery) antl Professor Jeyons in 
i88j; Air. Spurgeon in 1884; Mr. Ritchie in 
1888; and Sir Evelyn Wood in i8()(i. Then there 
are the statuettes of Mr. (jladstone, Mr. Edmund 
Yates, and Mr. Val Prinsep, R.A. ; and statues 
ol (jeneral Barrow (marble, 1882, for the Senate 



H. ROSCOE MULLINS. 



4? 



House, Liicknow), of tlie Re^•. William Barnes, 
"the Dorsetshire poet" (in bronze lor Dor- 
chester), tlie bronze e(iuestrian statue oi the 
Thehore Saheb of Marir, and the marble effisv 
of Queen Victoria for Port lilizabeth. 

But Mr. Mullins' main, work has been, not 
portraiture, but ideal and decorati\'e. In 1876 
the marble ii,t;-ure of a girl, ]iersonifving 
"Innocence," appeared at the Ro^'al Acadenn-, 
and in i88[ "Rest" (acquired by Miss Hoole) 
Avas exhibited at the Gros\-enor Gallery. The 
figures, also in marble, of the heroines of (jpera, 
"Marguerite" and " Mignon," were shown 
respectively at the Ro^•al Academy and the 
Grosyenor in 1883; "Isaac and Esau" at tlie 
Academy, and " Morn Waked by the Circling 
Hours " at the Grosvenor, in the following year. 
In 1884 came " Autoh'cus," at the Academy ; 
in 1887, the small group in ■ bronze called 
"Conquerors;" in 1891, " Lo\e's Token," a 



female nude. In 181)5 the l)ronze statue ot 
" Bov with a Toji," here reproduced, was shown 
first in the Academy, and then wa.s selected 
fjr tlie Internati(jnal Ivchibition of Brusse's in 
1897. The (jther figui'e in these pages —" Cain : 
' M^' ]iunishment is greater than I can bear,' 
in the Xew CjallerA' of 1 896 -shows the sculptor's 
further progress, not oiih' in e::eL'ution, but in 
range of feeling. 

It ■\\'oif-d be iriipossible to enumerate all 
Air. ]\Iullins' work of a jiureh' decorative kind 
during the t\vent\' \'ears in which he has de- 
\'oted himself to the beautiiXang ol' buildings. 
He has hel]:)ed forward the m(j\-ement in further- 
ance of architectural embellislmient hv the skill 
with which he has seconded the efforts, and 
worked up to the directions, of the architects 
tor whom he has laboured. Statuary, jianels, 
and architectural cars'ings, in marble, stone, and 
brick, ha^■e occupied him with scarce a l)reak 




BOY WITH A TOP. 
By E. Roscoe rVlULLINS. 

H 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




ROBERT BURNS (at Chicago). 
By w. G. Stevenson, r.s.a. 

since he beyan with the C'ar\'ings for the hotel 
at the Royal All)eit Docks, and lor tl\e build- 
intj of the Fine Art Societ\' in Bond Street. 
Th.ose, too, rnav be mentioned which were 
executed lor the Commercial Bankinii; Com- 
p;nn' of Svdne\-, in Birchin Lane, London ; 
th.e pediment lor the Ort]io]i;cdic Hosjiital 
m (jreat Portland Street ; tlie car\-in,i;'s for 
the Chartered Bank of Lidia ; the decorative 
panels for the Cit^• Banks in Sloane Street 
and Oxford Street, and for tlie York L'nion 
Bank in Hull and the Town Hall at Hackney. 
There are, besides, the fi\-e panels repre- 
senting; "Health," " PLducation," "Religion," 
" Music," and " Recreation," lor the nuinici]ial 
buildings at Cr<i)'d()n : the bronze s]xindrils 
for tlie Bank ol Scotland in Bisho]isgate 
Street, and the Irieze lor the drawing rooms 
of the Crocers' Hal!, rejiresenting the entry 
of Charles H into London. 'The most I'urious 
of all the artist's work is the Cii-cus Horse 
which constitutes the memorial in tlie Brigh- 
t(»]i Cemeter\' to Mr. (jimiett, a notorious 
circus-owner one (»l the sli'angest sul)jects 



for treatment, it must be allowed, that could be 
presented to a scul]itor for solution. 

It must be said of Mr. Mullins that his work 
has strong indi\-iduality, lor it could not be mis- 
taken for that of anyone else. His ideal work 
shows at times a tendency to be yery quiet ; 
his architectural work is good in st}de, appro- 
priate to its purpose, and as effecti\-e as an 
artist-craftsman of cle\-erness and experience can 
make it. 



Mr. J. SWYNNERTON. 
1873. 



Mr. S\vyxxERT(>x is a 
sculptor whose work is 
not much seen in the galleries, and who loyes 
to labour away from the public eye and from 
public notice. There is an ap]iearance ol' strength, 
an assumption of ruggedness, in his work which 
is refreshing enougli, and such a contempt for 
conyentional or classic beaut\- as ma^• l)e found 
in a realist who would rather seek his models in 
the fields than in centres of refinement. As to 
general characteristics, his work is good without 
being brilliant. His " Queen \'ictoria " at South- 
end looks yer}- well -chgnified and sculpturesque. 
Mr. Sw}'nnerton's art is inqiro\-ing. It has the 
yirtue of simplicit}', and if it is heayy in character 
and reminds the spectator of stonemasonr^' some- 
what, it is not common_, ineffectiye, or without 
considerable abilit^'. 




TAM O' SHANTER 

'Panel on the Burns Statue 

By W. G. Stevenson, R,S,A. 



H. ONSLOW FORD, R.A. 



51 



Mr. w. G. STEVENSON, R.s.A. Whii.e AIf. William Gmiit 

1874. 

Sle\-ens(jn was still a 
student ill tlie lile-school of the Royal Seottisli 
Academy he competed for a statue of Burns for 
Kihnarnock, and liis desi,t,m was accepted from 
amon.t;- twenty-Hve sent in. Again, of the twentv 
who competed for a statue of Wallace for Alier- 
deen, it was Mr. W. G. Stexenson wlio was 
successtul. This work is in bronze, not less than 
sixteen feet in height. It is erected on a rough 
granite pedestal, and represents the hero (b_\- 
direction of Sir John Steell, who left /3,ooo for the 
monument) in the act of reph'ing to Edward's 
messenger : " Go back and tell your master that 
we came not here to treat, but to light and set 
Scotland Iree." It is l)reezv and picturesc[ue in 
manner, not unlike George Cruikshank's well- 
known design for the same com]"!etition. Mr. 
Ste\-enson's statues of Burns also decorate the 
cities of Chicago and lJen\er. 

In portraiture the sculptor has produced a 
number of busts, of whicli the luarlile lieads of 
Lord Saltoun, and of the (lothj Earl of Lindsa^- 
are perhaps the broadest and most striking in 
manner, though in the south tliey would be 
considered somewhat hea^"v. Yet ^Ir. Stevenson 
has, in his lighter mood, a li^■eIv hand and a 
pretty wit. Xo doubt liis " Closes Breaking the 
Tables of the Law" (with which he won the 
National Gold .Medal at South Kensington) is 
formal in spite of its youthful cleverness, and his 
"Andromeda," suave in its lines, presents no par- 
ticular characteristics to the e}-e of the critic. 
But his " Tarn o' Shanter," a relief for his Burns 
statue, is full of life and humour, and highly 
convincing, as well as a faithful illustration of 
the poem; and "The Vidette" is even more suc- 
cessful. In this little group a dragoon leans 
forward, fingering his trigger, as he peers anxioush' 
into the night — the dramatic motive being the 
contrast between the intense alertness of the man 
and the passive indifference of his stolid horse. 
Mavbe this sketch is not carried far enough for 
serious sculpture ; but it is free in handling, and 
full of vitality-, and indicates the direction of the 
artist's special talent. 



Mr. E. ONSLOW FORD, R.ft. 
1875. 



Like more than one dis- 
tinguished sculptor, ]Mr. 
Onslow Ford began his artistic career as a painter. 



The great h'remiet himself begiui to use the ])rush 
belore lie held the riiodelling-too! or the chisel : 
but his ground was not a can\';is — onh' the poor 
discoloured corj'.ses he had to ma!-;e ]iresentable 
before the^• were publich' exlubited in tlie Morgue 
ol Paris. Mr. Onslow Ford was a student in 
jiainting at Antwer]i in 1N70, ;ind in ]\Ium'ch from 
1871 to I>)J2, where, at the I'io\-al Academ\- in 
that cit\', Professor Wagnuiller — the instructor 
also, as we ha\'e seen, of Mr. K(;jL'(;e Mullins — 
made clear to him in what direction his special 
talent hiy. His teaching (h'd not go Ytry far, 
]:)erlia]is ; it was of nectssit\' elementar\- in 
character, s(; that Mr. Onslow Ford in the art in 
which he has excelled is practical^' sclf-tauglit ; 
taught, that is to sa^■, bv a gO(jd master, C(jrii- 
petent, and hard to please. 

Tliree ^•ears after he left the [Munich schools 
Air. F(;r(l made his hrst appearance in tlie Ro^"al 
Academ^• with a bust of his ^•oung wite : a 
modest, liut a jiromising dchiil. His chance cariie 
when the CitA' of London decided to erect a statue 
to the memorv of R(jwland Hill. A comjietition 
was organised, ;uid the voutliful sculptor won it ; 
and when it was set up at the east-end ol the 
Roval ICxchange, with its back now turned to 
M. Dalou's little masterpiece of " Maternitv," it 
brought him some reputation, and presumabh' it 
brought him luck. In due course he received the 
commission to execute the statue of Sir Charles 
Reed. This was followed, after an inter\-al, h\ 
the seated statue of " Henrv Ir\-ing as Hamlet," 
which was (Xu\\ carA"ed in marble, and has found an 
appropriate resting-]ilace in the Guildhall Art 
GallerA' of London cit\'. It is a Hnelv concei\"ed 
]iiece of realism. The actor-Prince sits watching 
the King, no doubt, with eager face, in which the 
deejilv set eves are alert, and on which suspicion, 
hatred, and wistful sadness are subth' marked. The 
statue is realistic, romantic, picturesque ; it was 
certainh' original ; and this, with the excellence ot 
the likeness and the flesh-and-blood \italitA' of the 
figure as a whole, delighted the public, and pro- 
claimed that 'Sir. Onslow Ford had achie\'ed his 
first striking success. A sketch of the same actor 
as " INIathias " in " The Bells " was less lia]ipy in 
character and ex]iression, Avell modelled thi/agh 
it was. 

The " Hamlet" was the first of ]Mr. Ford's seated 
statues. His skill in the rendering (;f this class of 



52 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



work has become recognised. The marble " Hux- 
ley," sitting in his doctor's robes, is keen and solenni 
too ; antl the determination and power of the man 
are testified b}- the clenched fist upon the chair. 
"Dr. Dale" is more conteniphiti\'e, and the 
drapery ot his robes is arranged in an entirely 
different manner. The " Duke of Xorfolk " ( igoo), 
for the City Hall of Shelfield, is less attracti\-e, 
perhaps, but the liead is an elaborate stud^' of 
character lor so hu"ge antl decorative a work. To 
these should be added tlie statue of the Maharajah 
of Durburjah. Finally, there is the colossal statue 
ot " Queen A'ictoria " for ^Manchester. There is 
nobility about both head and figure, which are 
rendered with truth and vet with that sugges- 
tion of powerful personality and an impressi\-e 




SIR HENRY IRVING AS 
" HAMLET.' 

Bf E. Onslov/ Ford, R.A. 



presence so essential in works of this nature. 
It is a striking memorial of a great Queen, and 
]iose and drapery are in harmon)- with the senti- 
ment. The figure of " j\Iatern]t\' " at the back 
of the throne is a symbol of " the INIother ot 
her People." It may be hazarded that others of 
^Ir. Ford's architectural arrangements ha^'e been 
nu)re felicitous. 

The chief of the standing portrait-statues is the 
" Gladstone," at tlie City Liberal Club. The orator 
stands as we have seen hirii man)- a time, the coat 
thrown back, tlie left arrir tightened, almost 
cramped, against the side in the characteristic 
attitude ; and the ]iowerful gaze holds the audience 
he is addressing. The statue is more sculpturesque 
than man^■ other of ^Ir. Ford's works, 'S'et it is the 
statesman himself, a striking and truthful like- 
ness—all but the forefinger of the left hand, 
which the sculptor has not ventured to omit. 

Three other statues should be named here 
which may all, h)r practical purposes, be called 
eipiestrian — a stretch of language, no doubt, 
vrhen the first of them is the camel-mounted 
" Cordon " in the Memorial at Chatham. The 
Luhmal is profusely cajiarisoned, and pleasanth' 
reminds the spectator of the " Arab Chief of 
Barye. When the group was exhibited in iSqg it 
ga\'e rise to a world of disiaission as to whether or 
not the elaborateness of detail and arrange- 
ment did not approach the bounckry of true 
scul]iture ; but no two opinions were exjiressed on 
the skill and artistic beauty of tlie work, or the 
excellence of the figure. The monument to " Lord 
Strathnaini," ere.led in Knightsiiridge, London, is 
lull of life. It is set up on an architectural base of 
singular a]i]-(ropriateness in design, and t)f unusual 
height, which raises it far, perhaps to<.) far, abo\-e 
the surrounding trallic. As it appears at this great 
cle\-ation— some _'_' feet or so— the statue doubtless 
seems, owing to its position, a little wirv ; but the 
figure is as well-set on the handsome horse as an\- 
nian in hhigland could lia\e done it, and the 
ellect ot the whole is without doubt yery spirited, 
ihis statue was cast in gun-metal presented by 
the Indian C]o\'ernment. The most imposing of 
all is the line monument of the jNIaharaiah of 
:\I_\-sore ( i8()8). The potentate in full dress on tlie 
line Arab steed is raised on a high and elaborate 
base of original form. On either side is a female 
figure lile-size, the one personif\-iug " Justice," the 




W E. GLADSTONE. 
By E. Onslow Ford R.A. 



54 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



other " Knowledge/' while around are four ex- 
quisite statuettes t^'pi^^■ing the Four Winds which 
are supposed to carry the Maharajah's lame to 
the four quarters of the earth. 

Following still further Mr. Onslow Ford's 
achievements in portraiture, we come to his busts, 
realistic and idealised. He has recorded for future 
times the Idleness and character of several of his 
colleagues in the Royal Academy, including Sir 
Lawrence Ahna-Tadenra (marble, 1S96), Mr. Or- 
chardson (bronze, 1S95), Professor von Herkomer 
(bronze), Mr. Briton Riviere (bronze, 1895), Mr. 




PEACE 

By E. OtjSLOv/ Ford, R a 



Arthur Hacker (bronze, 1894), and Sir John 
Millais (bronze) — the last named while the 
painter was within the grip of his fatal illness. 
The "Herbert Spem-er " is a bust of great skill 
and insight, although it neglects the tinner ex- 
pression whicli is at times characteristic ot the 
philosopher. The bust (jf iMr. McCulloch is, to 
the writer, less interesting, sa\'e tor the highl)' 
dexterous treatment of hair and beard. The 
marble bust of " Queen Victoria " — of which man)' 
versions exist, one of them in the [Mansion House 
— is the head lor the statue already alluded to. 
It tells admirably : it represents the Oueen 
as the statelv, thoughttul Ruler, kindly }-et 
serious, anxious for her people's good ; and 
it is a masterpiece of modelling and carving. 
It was shown at the Royal Academy in 1899. 
This bust, for which the (jueen gave sit- 
tings, was Isegun at Osborne in 1898, and 
was proceeded with and comjileted at 
Windsor Castle ; when the Queen Avas so 
]5leased with it that she gaA'e seA'eral 
replicas in marble and lirorize to members 
of the Roval famih', ami a number more 
have been made for the pro^'inces- -tor 
■civic buildings and institutions. 

To record all the names of iMr. Ford's 
sitters would be to make an almost endless 
list, Init the busts of iNIr. Ridle\- Corbet, 
Sir Walter Armstrong, and Mr. A. J. Balfour 
■(1892) sliould not be onn'tted. Xor is it 
necessary to speak at length ol the busts 
<)t ladies. A tA'pical one in its beaut\' 
and style — called "A Portrait" — was at 
the R<.)\al Acadenn- m 18117. Rehired luuI 
sensiti\-e, and highly de.-orative, it insists 
perhaps a little too much upon ornament, 
although, it must be allowed that tlie em- 
bellishment is for the most part broadly 
treated. Another jiortrait, that of "The 
Artist's Mother," is concei\-ed in the man- 
ner ol the Italian Renaissance ; it is a \'er\' 
cliarming and lo\'ing study of fast ap- 
jiroacliing age, in wdiich c\"er\- wrinkle and 
e\-er)- line are re\ci"entl\- and affectionately 
recorded. Of the more ideal portraits are 
three tliat need be named : " Ivy," a beauti- 
kil head touched witli wistful melancholy ; 
"A Study" — a likeness ]irobabh- of the 
artist's daughter — \-ery pure and delightful 



H. ONSLOW FORD, R.A. 



in taste and in its cliarming arrangement of liead, 
turned down like the Psyche of Naples. It is of the 
class of Air. Alfred fiilbert's " Stiid_v of a Head," 
yet it is one of Mr. Ford's most pleasing creations. 
Lastly, there is " A Study of a Head" (R(jyal 
Academy, 1894), niodest in character, broad in hand- 
ling, refined with the refinement of the qiialtrm-md- 
ist Italians. The downcast eyes which lend so 
much sweetness to this face are much affected by 
the artist in female heads — we see them in " Queen 
Victoria," in the lady's " Portrait " of 1897, in "A 
Study," in " The Singer," in " Echo," and others. 
It is not a trick or mannerism, but a personal 
conception of female charm and modest}'. 

We now come to a class of Mr. Fcjrd's ideal 
work, in which the female nude is the beginning 
and the end. In 1888 Mr. Ford exhibited a 
highh' interesting and beautiful statuette of 
" Folly : " jiot a cap-and-bells idea, but something 
new, something poetic, almost naturalistic. An 
adolescent girl — showing the beauty of tender, 
undeveloped forms, such as he has showji us in 
other works, and such as Leighton so gracefully 
treated in his statuette of "Needless Alarms" — 
stands on the insecure foothold of a slipping 
rock, beckons to her companions to join her there, 
and points onward with careless glee to some 
other adventure more precarious still. It is the 
thoughtless age of life which is here given us, and 
which is emphasised by a figure that has been rap- 
turously criticised for the " flower-like grace of 
the torso," and the beauty of the " stalk-like legs." 
It is enough to draw attention to the delicate j-et 
sufficient modelling, the graceful line of the figure, 
and the extreme felicit}' of expression so com- 
pletely realised. The Royal Academy showed its 
favour by acquiring the work for the Chantre}- 
collection, and electing the sculptor into its fold. 
Two years afterwards appeared " Peace " — a figure 
of great beauty with a dash of " the beauty of 
ugliness" — a natural quaintness— in the leg and 
stride; and in 1895 another figure, still 01 a slim 
young girl, represented "Echo." It is a new 
rendering of an old conception : the figure per- 
sonifying the mirrored sound is supposed to have 
but a reflected life of her own, and as she gives 
back the sound that dies she too fades and dies 
away, 3'ielding up her borrowed life. The attitude 
and expression of face and figure sustain the idea 
with much delicacy and charm ; but it may be 




THE GORDON SHIELD. 
By e. Onslow Ford, R.A. 



questioned if the naturalistic realisation is not 
carried a little too far. Yet another work of the 
same class is " Glory to the Dead." This figure 
(inspired as to subject by the Boer War) was 
exhibited in the Academy of 1901, and was re- 
warded with applause for the high finish, the 
delicate modelling carried so far yet not beyond 
the limit, for the charm of tender pathos, and 
elegance of the ornament. 

It may be objected by the pundits that the 
nude is not permissible in funerar^' art, and that 
the Greeks never resorted to the naked figure 
in such relation. The answer oi Air. Ford 
would doubtless be that he works not I'or or 
under the ancient Greeks, but for and under the 
English of to-da^' ; that if he succeeds in arousing 



5 6 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



the emotion he aims at, tliat success is sufficient 
justification ; "and, more()\'er, that sentiment and 
not archa;ol()f;"v must in tliese matters be uuv 
guide. The statuette figures of " Tlie Singer" and 
"Applause" come into tin's category, though 
treated in a difl'erent order of feeling. The former, 
which was executed in i88g, star:ds singing as 
she touches tlie strings ; the hair arour.d the liu'r 
lace decorates while it completes the expres- 
sion ; the girl, as we can almost hear, is chanting, 
rather than singing, an Egyptian song, as she 



stands, boldh', with a ner^■ous .grace. The scheme 
of c/iavip-Ici'c emuna] decoration is entirely noyel, 
and tlie pedestal, lilce a tree or trumpet, diminishes 
with an expressi\-e curye as it s]irings boldly from its 
base. "Applause" (1893), though not dissimilar 
in sentiment, is wholh' different in the treatment 
of the figure. Realism, defined and accentuated, 
is here well-nigh abandoned ; and we haye a 
lignre without suggestion of the accidents of 
nature such as the artist had at times frankh- 
accepted, a figure of singular beauty — not, 




mmuMwimi 



'W^^^^^W^^^ 



THE GORDON MEMORIAL AT 
CHATHAM. 



By E onslo.v Ford, r a. 



E. ONSLOW FORD, R.A. 



57 




A STUDY. 

By E. Onslow ford, R.A. 



however, to be called " conventional," but 
nearer to ideal treatment than that which went 
before. One may legitimately object to the title, 
I think; the subject suggests less "Applause" 
than " The Dance," for in Oriental fashion the 
girl seems to be beating time with her hands to 
the rhythmical tread of the dancer ; moreover, 
the expression or the head and body imply as 
much. There is also a statue of " Dancing," 
a semi-nude girl with a quaint parrot-winged 
headdress, who pirouettes before the spectator. 
While it succeeds in realising the artist's intention 
of showing mo^■ement and swirl of draperv, it 
is not quite so ele^'ated in taste as the rest, 
and almost suggests an enlargement from a 
figurine. Yet the work is inherently equal 
to the others m point of execution. The 
companion statue, "Music," was exhibited at 
the New Galler}- in 1900. 
1 



It has been Mr. Ford's good fortune to be 
called upon lor a numljer of memorials or 
importance, and he has proved his versatiht}- 
by adopting a different style for each. The 
Marlowe memorial was set up in Canterbury 
in 1S92. The figure is twin sister of the 
artist's " Dancing," just spoken of, and will 1)e 
thought by some in the style of Delaplanche ; 
but as it stands it is daint}- in feeling and exe- 
cution, as delicate a genius as }-ou would care 
to meet. She is mounted on a pedestal, in the 
front niche of which a charming figurine of 
" Tamburlaine the Great" is ensconced; for the 
other niches " Dr. Faustus," "The Jew of Malta," 
and " King Edward II " were designed. The 
panel "In ^Memoriam " — the monument to Lady 
Lanyon, of which a replica was made for Dresden 
— has spontaneit}-, freshness, and life ; vet not a 
few must re^'ret — although there ma\- be distin- 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 





APPLAUSE 

By e. Onslow ford, R A 



THE SINGER. 
By E. Ojislov^ Ford R,A. 



guished precedent for the circumstance — that the 
cherubims' outer wings are bent down, as if there 
were not otherwise room for them in tlie composi- 
tion. The " Jowett ^Memorial " is a verv beautiful 
composition, full of colour, with its mosaics, its 
hgures light and darlv, its armorial bearings, its 
marbles, its metals, and its lettering— decoration in 
Its widest meaning being here wedded to sculpture 
for the achievement of a pleasing result. In spite 
ol the subject, such a treatment of the memorial 
IS essentially io>-ous— symbolising happiness and 
pride in the man who has gone ; only the 
ret'unihent efligy and the cherubim on "guard 
provide the note of solenmity needful for such 
a subject. 'There seems to be about it an echo 
o( Antonio Rossellino, in the sepulchral monu- 
ment, say, of Cardinal Jacopo of Portugal, in 
S.m Miniato, at Florence, or of Desiderio da 



E. ONSLOW FORU, R.A. 



59 



Settignano, in that ot Carlo ]Marzuppini, in Santa 
Croce ; or, still more, of Donatello. 

Tile " Shelley MenKjrial " is a fine work, 
finer, perhaps, in its parts than in its entirety. 
The realism of the drowned bodv ot the jioet, 
so ob^■iously dead, and so beautiful as it lies, may 
be thought to require no wreath at its head — for 
it is even still wet with the sea \\'hich has thrown 
it up. The relatively more conventional treatment 
ot the mourning Muse — a charming idea — and 
the still more conventional winged lions, in what 
seems to the writer a somewhat different taste, 
ma}' suggest to some minds slightlv lacking in 
harmony of idea. Then we might have wished 
the girl and the lions smaller and less crowded, 
the slab enlarged downwards to a sarcophagus, 
and the metal ornaments on the base awa^' ; and 
then, ha^'ing obtained the alterations we should 
like, we might find that the artist knew better 



than we what he was aliout alter all ! Still, if 
we c(jmpare this \\'(;rk (which has l)een erected 
at University College, Oxhjrd, the gift of Lad}- 
Shellev, the poet's daughter-in-law), with the other 
\-ersi()n, with its plainer base, set up on the sea- 
shore at \'iareggio, where Shelle\''s Ixjdy was 
cast bv the sea, we shall find that the ex- 
pressive figure tells witli greater lorce, e^'en 
though the decorative qualit\' be to a great 
extent surrendered. 

A final word must be devoted to the " Gordon 
Memorial Shield," wliich Avas presented to iNIiss 
Gordon, the general's sister, hv the corj^s of tlie 
RoA'al Engineers. It is a beautiful shield ot 
silver, somewhat in tlie Ibrm adopted bv Pietro 
Perugino in the figures of St. ?\Iichael. In the 
centre is the figure of St. George ; aboA^e is hoxe, 
and below Justice, and the little children who 
were so much to Gordon pla\' merrily around. 




THE SHELLEY MEMORIAL 

AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, OXFORD. 

BY £■ Onslow Ford, RA. 



6d 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



Ford -d full measure of imaginati\-e power could 
]iot but admit that therein he displayed an 
originality as marked as his independence of 
thought and indi^'iduality. 

The work of ]\Ir. Onslow Ford al\\'aA'S charms, 
ami sometimes gives pause. For the spectator 
invariably feels the great artistic worth of the 
sculjitor, his strong sense of the picturesque and 
Reeling for beautA' ; l)ut now and again he suspects 
that IMr. Ford has allowed his delightful passion 
lor decoration to get the lead of his sculptural 
instinct, and to bring out the goldsmith to direct 
tlie sculptor. I do n(jt sav that the spectator is 
right ; but this is certainlv the feeling inspired by 
certain of ]\Ir. Ford's most admirable productions. 

Xow, the work of some decorator-sculptors 
suggests that it should have been done half the 
size, notwithstanding that it riiav be so full ot 
detail that if doubled in dimensions there would 
still be more detail than enough. At one and the 
same time it suggests a smaller thing, while crying 
out to be bigger, reminding one of the simple 
aphorism " Encjugh is sufficient ; more, too much." 
It thus happens that smallness of detail threatens 
to become mean, and want ot detail to produce 
]i<)\"erty. It is pretty sure that of the two errors 
the latter is the preferable. 

If we attempt to apply this theor\- to the 
work of Mr. Onslow Ford, we shall see that were 
it the production of a man of less brilliance and 
abilitA', of less taste and refinement, that work 
might occasionalh' be open to some reflection on 
the score oi decorati\-e detail. To set down an 
indi\idual opinion — which may be repudiated bA' 
more considerable critics — the decorative detail, 
lieautifully as it is wrought, and jileasingly as 
it is managed, suggests in some of the larger 
work that bronze rather than marble is tlie suit- 
able material, and that tassels, chains, and the 
lil-'.e tend towards ()\-er-enrichment. Whether 
this arises Irom the dexterity of the realism 
or not I leave tlie sculptors to determine ; 
it is here merely sought to record the personal 
impression of an adnnrer. Yet it must be clearly 
The work displays IMr. Ford's talent for gold- stated that there is never wanting in INIr. Ford's 
bunthery in a flattering light. work, a sustained eftort alter refinement and 

There is no need to dwell here on the scul]it<ir's beautA'. 
line models lor the coinage--the main competition His ideal figures are almost without exception 

for which was won bv Mr. Brock —but it ma)- delightful, charmingly pretty in the smaller work, 
be said of them that any who would deu}- Mr. with as ck)se an approach to poetic realism as 




ECHO. 

By E. Onslow Ford, R.A. 




SIR J. E. MILLAIS, P R.A 



By E. Onslow Ford, R.A. 




< 
tr 
O 



LU 5 



LU 
I 



H. R. HOPE PINKER. 



63 



a true artist chooses to ^-enture. In tlie lartjer 
work, as has been said, tlie sculptor has adopted a 
treatment of the ornament, the effect of wliich to 
some may appear in a measure to under-rat(^ 
the glyptic quahty ; but in all, great and small, 
there are to he found a high degree of refinement 
and great cliarm of modelling, with a sweetness 
of feeling that is "grateful as dew" to the 
beholder. 

In his portrait busts' Mr. Ford excels. They 
are speaking likenesses : in e^•er\■ instance the 
man himself (or the ladv) is before ^'ou — 
placed there witliout effort, without undue llat- 
tery, yet without e^-er showing the commoner side 
of the model, either in character or person. It 
is perhaps here that Air. Ford is seen at his 
best. To come to detail, it should be said that 
while the treatment is clever throughout — hair, 
coat, tie, and even stiffened collar — the flesh 
and bone invariably retain their true relation, both 
of handling and effect. The whole is wonder- 
fully realised, with admirable qualities of a metal 
treatment, except when unusual breadth is re- 
quired, as for example in the superb marble bust 
of Sir Frederick Bramwell. 

In design Mr. Ford's lines are always gracetiil ; 
the composition invariably interests, and while the 
work more often strikes us with its realism than 
with its creative qualit}- (b}- which "originalit}- " is 
not meant), the modelling often charms us even 
more than the conception, novel and admirable 
as it may be. In spite of his inventi\'eness Mr. 
Ford delights on occasion to reflect a past idea, 
as when in "Lord Strathnairn " there is a sort of 
modern echo of the design of the Colonna statue 
at Florence, and in the horse, of Fortuny's 
equestrian picture of "General Prim." If this 
is so, it is but a compliment returned, for we 
h?.ve but lately seen how Burne-Jones in " Adam 
and Eve " based his work on Jacopo della Querela, 
and Mr. Briton Riviere's " ^Mighty Hunter before 
the Lord" is a painted rendering of " Assur- 
Bani-Abla Pouring out a Libation on Slain Lions" 
in the Assyrian monarch's palace at Koyunjik, 
now in the British Museum. 



Mr. H. R. HOPE PINKER, 

1875. 



'Mr. HrjpE Pinker had re- 
turned from Rome, but was 
still a student at th.e Ro)-aI Academy schools when 
he modelled the bust of Dr. Benson, afterwards 




GLORY TO THE DEAD. 
By E. Onslow Ford, R,A. 




QUEEN VICTORIA. 

By E Onslow Ford R.A, 



R. HOPH PINKER. 




A DETAIL OF THE MANCHESTER 
QUEEN VICTORIA MEMORIAL. 

By e. Onslow Ford, R.A. 



Archbishop of Canterbmy, to commemorate the 
Doctor's connection with the Foundation of Wel- 
hngton College. The work, exhil)itecl in marble 
at the Ro}'al Academy in 1875 and afterwards 
deposited at the College, brought good fortune to 
the young sculptor, as it led to commissions for 
busts of the fifth Duke of Portland for Welbeck 
Abbey, of Dr. Wickham (Dean of Lincoln), and 
other portraits. In the Royal Academ}' of 1884 
Mr. Pinker exhibited a large ideal group of 
Britannia, and immediately afterwards was em- 
ployed by Queen Victoria to execute for Oxford 
the statue of John Hunter, the model of which 
was exhibited in 1886. Among the sculptor's 
sitters at that time was Mr. Henry Fawcett, 
at whose death, which occurred soon alter, Mr. 
Pinker was commissioned, after a competition, 
to produce his statue for Salisbury'. The model 
for this work, which was to be nine feet high 
in bronze, was shown at the Academy in 1887. 

Then followed the busts of Sir John Burdon- 

Sanderson, Regius Professor of Medicine at 

Oxford ; Mr. Frederick Walker, High Master of 

St. Paul's School ; and Dr. Jowett, the Master 

J 



of Balliol. Among the sculjitor's statues 
is one of Darwin for Oxford, another of 
Lord Rea}' for Bombay, a third (in 
lironze) of W. li. F(jrster (now on the 
Thames Eml)ankmentJ, and a fourth of 
Dr. James ALirtineau. The latter, exe- 
cuted in marble to commemorate the 
\'enerable di\'ine's ninetieth l^irthday, was 
seen in the Royal Academy of 1898. A 
cohjssal statue of Queen Victoria was exe- 
cuted l3y Mr. Pinker for the G(n'ernment of 
British Guiana — a work so large in size that 
the block, before the sculptor began on it, 
weighed n(_)t less than thirty-two tons. 




MATERNITY. <A Detail 
OF THE Manchester 
Queen Victoria Memorial' 

Bv E. Onslow Ford, R.A- 



66 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



It is a feature of Mr. Pinker's work that it has 
life, and that it is distinguished besides by a 
qnalitA' which, for want of a better word, I may 
term " rouglmess ; " whereby the artist avoids 
that close resemblance to actual clothing which, 
Avhether in nrarble or bronze, is so distressing 
a quality in many statues. For dignity and 
simplicity the " Henry Fawcett," in the market- 
place of Salisbm-y, is probably Mr. Pinker's most 
remarkable open-air monument. 



Mr. T. STIRLING LEE. 
1878. 



Mr. Stirling Lee, by 
natural ability as Avell as 
by cultiyation, is an artist of unusual elevation 
of mind and excellence of execution. In accord- 
ance with his particular desire no reproduction 
of any of his works appears here, as Mr. Lee is 
of opinion that even the excellent modern pro- 
cesses of photography, perfect as they are, can- 
not do them full and ample justice. There is a 
doubt in some nrinds whether the artist might 
not have become an even more distinguished 
painter than sculptor, such are the qualities of 
his work ; but it cannot be pretended that he is not 
a sculptor of a very high order. To " place " him 
we need but recall to memory the relief panels 
with which he has decorated the St. George's 
Hall in Liverpool. In these Mr. Lee has probably 
given us ydiat are the finest reliefs produced in 
this country ; indeed, there are those who doubt 
if anything has been done in modern times ' in 
an}^ country to excel them. Whether this con- 
tention be accurate or exaggerated, there is no 
doubt that by these works alone Mr. Lee's name 
must live. 

In his work, generally, a fascinating colour 
is suggested b}- his light and shade — in many 
instances a pictural effect as much as sculptural. 
There is a " losing and finding" of the drawing and 
planes that possesses a great charm for the sensitive 
eye. Moreover, the work is never "cut up;" 
on the other hand, firmness is sometimes wanting 
as a foil or contrast. ^Vs has been suggested, his 
beautiful feeling for colour sometimes runs a\va^' 
with the artist at the sacrifice of form — which 
principle (jf form, after all, is the true test. 
Compared vv'ith some sculptors of the day, Mr. 
Lee is an ascetic in choice in materials, contenting 
himself with marble and bronze ; so that his 
works generally remain beautiful studies of the 



human ibrm. These forms ma}' be draped or 
otherwise, but ornamentation or "accessories" are 
seldom introduced to any extent ; Mr. Lee's art is 
too severe and eclectic to admit of such decoration. 
In his composition he aims at arranging his figures 
beautifully in a panel rather than at enriching 
them in detail as a designer would do. Mr. 
Lee's work is an example of how, comparatively 
unknown to the general public (whose attention 
he has not drawn b}' "important" works), a 
man ma}' secure the regard and applause of his 
fellow artists and critics and win a high place in 
their estimation b}- a few small works, which 
crowds pass e-\'er}' day and scarce as much as 
glance at- or appreciate if they do. As a por- 
trait-sculptor Mr. Lee has not set himself up. 
Portraiture, after all, is an art which does not 
bring out all the faculties. But when he does 
attempt a likeness it is usually a low relief in 
which there is more of the artist than of the 
sitter, the method somewhat dominating the 
portrait. It is certainly for his power of telling 
a stoiy beautifully in marble that iMr. Lee will 
continue to be admired. 

EVlr. JOHN M. SWAN, A.R.A. ]\j[r^ J^ ^l ^ SWAN, Avho 
1878. ' 

occupies so large a place 
in the world of British Art, is one of the very few 
who have made an equal name in painting and 
sculpture. In the latter art he has specialised, so 
to say ; but specialised for the sake of his love of a 
particular class of subject and not because of any 
given sort of profit that may accrue b^' such self- 
limitation. He is in fact a j^/rc:nso, a stylist 
eclectic to a high degree, and takes his place 
beside the poet who would rather write a sonnet 
that is a highly polished gem than an epic of which 
he could not elaborate and refine its every image 
and its every word. This does not mean to con- 
vey that his work is perfect as a matter of course ; 
but it does mean that he spares no pains and 
grudges no time or stud}' that may help to 
make it so. Other artists are as particular as 
he, in a sense ; but only a few of them will 
slave and worr}- about each separate detail in- 
volved as he does, as if his whole reputation 
depended on it — and rejoice all the while in 
the anxieties and the perils of his labour. And, 
after all, he must know that when his work is 
done there are not so very many who will care 



JOHN M. SWAN, A.R.A. 



67 



about it, appreciate its full beaut}- or understand 
its importance. 

They are small lor the most part, his studies 
of animal life, and, generally speaking, ihev deal 
with the fcl:da\ although, as we shall see, Mr. 
Swan has also reproduced the human figure ; but 
it is as difficult to imagine him modelling a 
monumental statue of a popular Member of Par- 
liament as painting such a picture as " Photo- 
graphing a Wedding Party," like that of his 
friend and teacher, M. Dagnan-Bom'eret. He 
aims at giving physical character alone, and onh' 
chooses subjects " with an interest " in so iar as 
such subjects afford an opportunity of expressing 
that character in its different phases. For the 
same reason, no doubt, he has chosen the fclidw ; 
not because of any special love for the tribe, but 
because they alone dis])lay with the fascinating 
beauty and expressiveness of their sinuous bodies 
the whole gamut of the passions in the most 
highly concentrated form. There is no pictural 
quality here ; no false sentiment, no objective 
infusion, as it were, of the human emotions, such 
as we find in Landseer's canvases ; but only, 
as it has been expressed, " the nnidealised dignity, 
nature, and tragically puissant muscularity of 
these mighty cats." And that, surely, is enough. 

Mr. Swan received his artistic education succes- 
sively in Worcester, at Lambeth under ^Ir. Sparkes, 
and at the Royal Academ}'- schools, and after- 
wards in Paris. In London ^h. Swan had been 
regarded by fellow pupils as too much of a 
theorist ever to carry much energy into his work, 
as a visionary in art principles ; and when later on 
thev vaguelv heard from Paris of a student there 
who, working under M. Gerome, Bastien-Lepage, 
and M. Dagnan-Bouveret, and then under Fremiet, 
was doing remarkable things that were greedily 
acquired by collectors in France and Holland, 
they hesitated to connect the name with their 
friend of many theories. But in 1878 when he 
began to exhibit pictures at the Ro}-al Academy 
it was seen that the seeds of the principles he had 
sown had borne good fruit. He made a success in 
Paris in 1885, and in London almost a triumph in 
1889 with " The Prodigal Son." Thenceforward, 
he was in the front rank. But so far these con- 
tributions were all paintings. 

But in 1889 he exhibited at the Academy a 
small model of a "Young Himalayan Tiger" in 



the manner, or at least the S])irit, ol Bar\'e — a 
wfjrk in which truth of c(jnstrLKtion was allied 
to st\'le, and wherein, ]iaradoxical as it mn\ 
appear, an almost Iig\']itian se\'erit\- was not 
inconsistent \\'ith tlie grace and free(l(an of lite. 
"An African Panther" and "feloness Drinking" 
appeared in 1892 — the result of a long and patient 
study of the manners and excitabilitv of the 
great cats, the consequence of close observation 
and of that intelligent perce])tion which gives birth 
to artistic imagination. Imagination, and tliat 
of a loftN' character, is needlnl for the works liere 
before the reader, lor the models were animals 




ORPHEUS. 

By J. M, SwArj, A.R.A 



68 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




in tlie Zooloi^ical Gardens, confined 
in cages, some of which had never 
seen the junp;]e that is their natural 
home. Now, it can never be said 
that in Mr. Swan's pictures and his 
sculptures we ever feel the bars : 
the beasts suggest not captivity but 
liberty ; we are impressed by tlie 
form, the character, the hthesome- 
ness, the sinuosit^', the strength and 
muscularity, and all the depths of 
feline meditation and passion — we 
are impressed by all these things, 
but never li)' the Zoo. Mr. Swan, 
in short, gives us tlie brute. His 
work is convincing because it is 
sincere ; and it is instructive to 
recognise that of the studies just 
mentioned the "Lioness" is per- 
haps the finer of the two, although 
it took onh' as many da}"S as the 
"Panther" took months. 

]Mr. Swan, it is understood, di- 
vides his allegiance between Barve 
and Fremiet, and unites the qualities 
of both so far as the^• can he assimi- 
lated bv one of his independent 
mind, and reproduced hv his own 
skiliiil hands with his own personal 
talent. Xo one could ever sav that 
his models are not whollv Swan, or 
could mistake one of them for the 
worlv ot an\'bodv else. From Bar\e 
he sought grandeur of lorm and 
dignity of mo\-ement ; from Fremiet, 
selectit)n and elegance ; but he used 
these men, as a capable student 
should do, as masters and not as 
material, not as models to be fol- 
lowed but as men who could point 
the way. Thus he worked not at 
the big cats alone, but at other tribes, 
and his cupboards are full of wax 
sketches, from kittens to kangaroos. 

The figure ol' "Orpheus" was 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
i8<)5. It is a siher figure, muscular, 
and sinuous as one of the artist's 
leo]-)ards, with more of the Italian 
than of the French about it. In 1S97 



JOHN M. SWAN, A.R.A. 



69 



came the " Leopard witli a Tortoise." Naturalists 
have denied that leopards play with tortoises ; but 
assuredly, if they did, they would comport them- 
selves like this creature of Mr. Swan's, with its 
tense muscles, its prominent bones and drawn-up 
joints, its stretched and folded skin, its cruel, sup- 
pressed frenzy of enjoyment— all expressed in 
strictly sculpturesque ftishion. "A Leopard Run- 
ning" and "A Leopard Eating" were the contri- 
butions of 1899. The former is a fine, grim study 
of a great cat's crawl, every inch of it expressive, 
with as much significance in its passionate tail, 
which we almost see to mo^-e, as in its fierce and 
threatening head ; the latter still more aggressive 
as it half turns to defend its pre)'. The year 1900 
was an interesting one, as it brought forth three 
noteworthy works: The first, the "Puma and 
Macaw," a group of extraordinary vivacitv and 
vitality, perhaps Mr. Swan's masterpiece of model- 
ling ; the second, the silver statuette of " h^'ata 
Morgana," remarkable for the broad and distin- 
guished treatment of the female figure ; and the 
third, a likeness of the artist " M. Maris, Esq.," 
one of Mr. Swan's few excursions into portraiture. 
Mr. Swan certainly knows more of the action 
of the animal with which he concerns himself 
than any other of our sculptors. There is a fine 
massiveness in his treatment of detail, whetlier 



it be the texture of fur and hair, or the hang of 
the skin. These are tlie points which seem to 
interest him most, and he appears to pass from 
the accenluation of action to the co\'ering of 
skin and hair without seeking to emphasise the 
bone and flesh. Thus in his splendidly modelled, 
life-like works the difference between bone and 
fur, or flesh and fur, is not greatlv insisted on. 
The}' are masterh' studies, broad and big m 
handling. It ma}' be merely the idea of the 
writer — but tliey frequently seem to suggest the 
painter, as tlieir surface is one of tones as much 
as of simple planes, or light and shade. Perhaps 
it would be more accurate to say that thev sug- 
gest rather high relief treatment. A characteristic 
about nearly every one of these admirable works 
is that their action is of a " crawly," sinuous 
nature — the characteristic, of course, of all the 
animals Mr. Swan has treated ; but the fact 
suggests the question, hopefully expressed — will 
not Mr. Swan model us a horse? 

Passing from the lower to the higher animals 
in the range of ^Ir. Swan's achievement, it is 
easy to see that it is the form and action that 
interest the artist — the expression of the bod^', 
not that of the face. This may be seen by 
examining his statuettes (jf male and female 
figures. Thev are intenselv sculptural in a quattro- 




LEOPARD WITH TORTOISE. 
By J. M. Swan, A.R.A. 




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JOHN M. SWAN, A.R.A. 



71 



centist feeling an 1, unlike what is not infrequently 
the characteristic of tlie smaller works of smaller 
men, they never suggest the " ornamental bronze." 
The daring pose of "Orpheus" expresses the 
feelings of the music-making beast-charmer better 
than any face could do. Adapted from the 
artist's picture with the same )iii)til\ this tripping, 
careless youth steps it annd the beasts he leads 
with his song, not unconsciously but deliberately. 
Audacious as it is in arrangement, it is a \-ery 
perfect piece of modelling of its kind. Similarly, 
in the beautiful "Fata Morgana," modelled and 
cast in silver for Mr. Stuart M. Samuel, M.P., 
the unusually fine type of the girl who sat for 
it and the effect of her pose have interested the 
artist vastly more than the face and head. In 
such a case, it would appear, the sculptor comes 
forward and the painter recedes. 

The characteristic of Mr. Swan's work, then, is 
the fact that he does not force his anatomical 
knowledge upon the spectator. Indeed, he parti- 
ally conceals it and, as has been suggested alread^•, 
he passes from the movement of the annual to the 
movement of its surlace. If this be true, he is 
herein a disciple of Ruskin, who protested against 
the over-elaborate study and displav of anatomv, 
which is apt soon to degenerate into posture- 
making, and the result of it gives us science 
rather than art. The artist who knows something 
of science must forget it when he begins his work, 
or, like the dead objects of his studv, his picture 
or painting will look like death instead of hfe, and 
lose the greater virtue of expression m gaining 
the lesser virtue of construction. Strict adherence 
to scientific fact tends to bridle the artistic imagina- 
tion. "When we dissect," sa^■s Ruskin, "we sub- 
stitute in our thoughts the neatness of mechanical 
contrivance for the pleasure of the animal. The 
moment we reduce enJ03mrent to ingenuity, and 
volition to leverage, that instant all sense of 
beauty ceases." And he points out (without 
strict historical accuracy) that only Avhen Art 
began definiteh' to decline, did the study of 
anatomy begin to be adopted as a study in itself. 
In other words, what we should ask for is a 
biography of the animal, not an X-ray photograph 
of it ; for a poem, not a scientific demonstration. 
This is stating the extreme ; but it expresses 
perhaps the reason why Mr. Swan pleases so 
many connoisseurs and disappoints so few. 




FATA MORGANA. 
By J. M. Swam, A.R.A. 



HARRY DIXON. 
1881. 



Mr. H. Dixox is a man 
of -^-aried talents in art, 
and is well known for his pictorial work, his 
atlmirable water-colour of li(jns having been 
bought by the President and C<juncil of the Royal 
Academy for the Chantrey collection when exhi- 
bited in Biulington House in 1891. Mr. Dixon 
is a student of animal life not less enthusiastic 
tlian Mr. Swan himself. He was a lad when 
he began his training as a modeller, and he duly 
passed through Julian's atelier at Paris and the 
Royal Academy schools. His bronze " Wild 
Boar," here reproduced, appeared at the Royal 



BRITISH SCULPTURE ANU SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



Academy in 18S9, and this was followed in later 
years by other animal-studies in bronze, shown 
both at the Academy and at the Xew Gallery. 
Only one figure-subject, so iar as I know, has come 
from him — the group of a ]ire-historic man with a 
dead wolf, which was seen in the New Gallery. 
Mr. Dixon has also been a frequent exhibitor at 
the Salon of the Champ de iMars. His best- 
known public work are the lions at the entrance 
of the Imperial Institute, which were executed 
in 1892. There is unquestionably suggesti^"e 
modelling and breadth of treatment in the Imperial 
Institute lions ; but the heads are somewhat 
lacking in dignity and nobility. It cannot be 
said that, generally speaking, there is the massive 
power, the master}-, about i\Ir. Dixon's work that 
we see in Mr. Swan's. Yet, the reproduction 
here printed of the "Wild Boar" shows the 
strength of his modelling, with the bold broad 
planes that testify to an easy mastery of his 
material, and a perfect suggestion of movement 
which proclaims the acuteness of the artist's 
observation and the knowledge of his subject. 



Air. Dixon has done well to specialise, for his 
artistic sympathy with animals is as obvious 
as his consummate ability to render their char- 
acter and nature. 



Mr. A. C. LUCCHESI. 
1881. 



Mr. Andrea C. Lucchesi 
is a sculptor of British 
birth, whose mother was an Englishwoman, and 
whose father, well known amongst artists, was a 
moulder, a Tuscan li\ing in London. Mr. Lucchesi, 
determined to make art his work in life, met 
with obstacles almost insurmountable, and hard- 
ships and difficulties such as have beaten many 
men. He willingly laboured at the humblest 
duties in the lowest rank of his profession in the 
hope of ultimate success. In due time he was 
recei\'ed as moulder and so forth into the studios 
of Mr. Armstead, Mr. Onslow Ford, and others, 
and at last, working in an attic which served 
him as lodging and studio, he sent his first con- 
tribution to the Royal Academy of 1881 and 
fouTid it well placed. iNIaintaining himself in part 
out of commissions from the sihersmiths, Garrard 




^■AiV •i^-^j 



A WILD BOAR. 

By HARRY DixON. 



A. C. LUCCHESl. 



73 




DESTINY 

By A- C. LUCCHESI- 



and Elkington, who had recognised his ability, 
he proceeded with the modelhng of "The Waif" 
(Royal Academy, 1882), and then he obtained 
entrance to the Royal Academ)' schools. There 
he passed five years with striking success, regu- 
larl)^ contributing to the exhibitions alongside 
the masters who were training him. 

More than most men, Mr. Lucchesi has per- 
sisted in the production of ideal compositions. 
The female figure, righth' regarded by the sculptor 
as "nature's masterpiece," has always fascinated 
him with the beauty of grace. But his work which 
first attracted wide attention was "The Puritan; 
K 



'Soft Eyes looked Love'" — a charming liust, 
greatlv adnn'red for its maidenlv sweetness and 
its imiocence ol expressi(jn. In 1893 there was 
exhil)ited at the Xew Gallerv " Ob]i^"ion," a large 
nude ideal figure (jf a girl trembling, according 
t(i its signification, on the brink of futurity ; 
at the same time he showed the small " With 
jNIodest h.ves Dtnvncast." 

Two vears later " Destinv ' was seen — the 
best figure so far — delicate, carried farther in the 
modelling, and not without poetic imagination in its 
treatment and its svml^dlism. This little statue, 
not unlike that of "01lli^■ion" but showing a solid 




THE FLIGHT OF FANCY. 

BY A. C- LUCCHESt. 



74 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DaY. 




THE MOUNTAIN OF 
FAME. 

8y A, C. LUCCHESI 



advance, obtained a gold medal on its exhibition 
at Dresden. In 1897 "The Mountain of Fame " 
was completed — an energetic group, treated with 
a vigour that almost achieved a striking success ; 
and in the same year " A Valkyrie," in bronze — 
a decorative head somewhat lacking in energ}- 
of character. A far nrore ambitious work was 
"The Crash of Doom" (T898) — a figure, Avell poised 
upon one foot, of considerable force of sentiment, 
cleverly and earnestly modelled, but seeming to 
display power rather in its gesture than in its 
selL The strengtli of an argument lies not in 



the loudness or the quahty of the voice but ni 
the force of the logic. The suggestion bears, of 
course, upon the sentinrent of the work, not 
upon its execution. 

The ideal marble of "Innocence" appeared 
in the same year, with the sub-title, " For 
though encircled round by winding coils of 
sin. The soul of Innocence doth take no taint 
within." The allegory is obvious, with a great 
snake windmg around the soft flesh, as in 
Franz Stuck's picture of " Sin," or the painting 
by Lenbach ; and the girl's head reminds us 
of the t^-pe we are accustomed to from Mr. 
Toft. But this half-length is broad and ex- 
pressi\-e, and judiciously realistic, and illus- 
trative of the sculptor's motto, " Nature before 
evervthing." In addition to these works should 
be mentioned the bust of " Her Imperial Majesty 
Queen Victoria," which, unknown to the general 
public, has not gone without the encomiums of 
the Court. "A Vanishing Dream," a sad figure 
raised upon a base above the thorny briar of 
realitv, was the work of 1S94 (Royal Academy), 
"The Flight of Fancy," expressively handled, 
of 1896, and "The Myrtle's Altar," of 1899 and 
1900. In the last mentioned it must be admitted 
that this clever work would have been far better 
without the realistic sword, crown, beads, crucifix, 
money and m3'rtle that attenuate the sculptur- 
esque idea. In pose it reminds one of the Bar- 
berine Faun in the Munich Glyptothek, and the 
figure may be considered Mr. Lucchesi's best 
effort. "The Victory of Peace," of 1901, is in- 
tended to decorate the public park in Auckland, 
and is an attractive work, which would have 
been better had the lines of the dove's tail not 
been continued into the drapery. 

It is difficult to determine how far there is en- 
couragement in lingland for the purely ideal study 
of a nude figure endowed with a poetic title ; but 
the patronage of the better class of such work 
is unhappily limited. Nevertheless, Mr. Lucchesi, 
with praiseworthy courage and probable self- 
denial, is one of the group of young sculptors 
who have latterly devoted themselves to ideal 
statuary, whatever collectors may think. Some 
of these young men, doubtless, must find it 
hard to make their work pay : that is the fault 
of the public ; but Mr. Lucchesi seems to have 
given up his time so completely to this sectit)n 



A1,FRHD GILBHRT, R.A. 



of his art, and has produced his hjjures in so 
considerable a number ahead\', that it seems as 
if his enthusiasm and abih'ty must have established 
an appreciation of the higher walks of sculpture. 
Year by year he presents to the public a ^ery 
charming figure, pleasing alike in idea and execu- 
tion. His main excellence must be said to be in 
his treatment of the nude. Ornament upon these 
seems to bring with-it an element of weakness, 
and, whether drapery or accessory, to distract by 
the contrast of realism. His nude figures, then, 
very carefully and sincerely modelled, with a 
grace of their own, are not helped bv drapery 



or decoration, and they always succeed — which 
is not the invarialile good fortune of all fine 
statuar\- — in pleasing the spectator. With him, 
more than with most sculptors, beautv must be 
unadorned to be "adorned the most." 



Mr. ALFRED GILBERT, R.A, 
1882. 



THii position ot 'Sir. 

Alfred Gilbert in the art 
world of England has long since been proclaimed 
bv his brother-sculptors and accepted by the public. 
Their a(hniration, which is born of sober judg- 
ment, has set him on a pedestal so high that his 
work as a whole is almost bevond the range of 




THE MYRTLE'S ALTAR. 
By a C. Lucchesi, 



76 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



outside criticism, even as his reputation is be5'ond 
ham: and attack. The entluisiasni with which 
his name is everywhere received and his work 
welcomed amongst artists and connoisseurs is the 
result of no sudden vogue but of a deliberate 
verdict after critical examination. Rarely has a 
man, in the whole histor^' of art, burst upon 
the world with a message of hope conveyed 
in m(jre splendid achievement and so gallantly 
maintained the position at the very front of his 
profession, into which he quickly sprang. Alfred 
Gilbert's name stands alone as one who has 
preached in his work a great movement, and in 
less than a decade effected, more than any other 
man, the sah'ation of the English school, and 
influenced tor g<Kxl, quite as much as AL Dalou, 
most of the voung sculptors of the countrv. 

Mr. Gilbert is the son of a musician. Himself 
consumed with a passion for music, he makes us 
feel it in the harnionv, the song, and the rhythm 
in his woi'ks. His taste led him at first to follow 
the FLjrentine sculptors of the 15th and i6th 
centuries, but when he becanre assistant to Sir 
E. J. Boehm, from whom he derived not a little 
benefit, he seems to have found in the strong, 
robust, and skilfully - presented realism of that 
rather unimaginative and unpoetic sculptor, a 
luckv counter-current to uny tendency to dwell 
too much on the past. On leaving Boehm 
and South Kensington (under Mr. Lanteri), he 
entered the TLccjle des Beaux Arts in l^iris and 
worked under Ca\'elier ; and in the influence of 
French " modernitv," refined and restrained, he 
found that st^"le and distinctimi, the spontaneity 
and skill, which culminate in the quality of life 
in sciflpture of which he earlv learned the secret. 
Thence, in due time, he remo\'ed to Italy, where 
he had a sharji struggle to attain su'jh excellence 
in his art as would lead to triumph. 

ITis chief ])roduction at this epoch was the 
beautiful group of "Mother and Child." This 
harmonious work was seen in Rome by Sir Henry 
Doulton, A\-ho secured it for himself. It brings 
to mind, perhaps, the teaching ol the h'reiich 
school — the "Charit)-," say, <il' Dubois — but it 
I'ecalls as well the ease and digm'tTi' of arrange- 
ment, and some of the virilit)- and firriiness, 
of Michael Angelo's " Madoima and Child" 
in S. Lorenzo, in Florence, or that other group 
of the sculptor at Bruges. The work was 



younger, of course, but what it lacked in rugged 
power it gained in sweetness, in tenderness, and 
familiarit^'. The mother, it will be seen, is 
seated firmly on the symbol of man's noblest 
and most enduring work — typifying traditional 
beaut\' in art and life, while she teaches the child 
from the record-scroll of the past. The figure of 
the woman, it may be said, was modelled from 
the artist's servant, and the child fronr his second 
son. Perhaps, if Mr. Giibert had to execute the 
group again, he would replace the Corinthian 
capital with another sort of seat. 

During a sta\' in Rome of four or five years 
Mr. Gilbert formed his st}Te : that is to say, such 
a style of his own as might, and indeed ought to, 
change with the sculptor's gradual development. 
He at once began to show his artistic sympathies, 
broad and dee]"), his knowledge of every phase of 
his art, his complete command of his tools and of 
material. If he delighted in his art, he rejoiced 
not less in his craft as workman, and the artist 
in him honoured the craftsman irrore and more 
as time went on. He ga\'e testimouA' of being 
possessed of an art-intelligence of the highest 
order, with a mind brilliant and cultivated, 
which had not been robbed of its poetry and 
imagination by the se\'erity of its training. 

Mr. (jilbert's appearance in the Royal Academy 
did not esca]:)e the vigilance of the critics. " Per- 
seus," the large statuette in what has been called 
"heroic genre," was greeted at once for its 
simplicit}' and grace, its beautiful arrangement of 
line, its refinement, elegance, and life. Some 
might lia\'e compared it with Donatello's " David" 
in the iMuseo Xazionale in Florence ; others may 
ha\e talked of the Praxitelean " Dionysos " at 
Naples ; but all recognised the exquisite realism 
that stamped the work with nineteenth century 
leeling, with its beauty and variety of surface, 
the higlil\- elaborated modellim..;- modestly quiet, 
the pose so gracelifl, so natural, yet so sculptur- 
es(|ue. The imjiression made by this bronze 
(which was acipiired by Mr. J. P. Heseltine) was 
deepened the following year by yet another bronze. 
This was the " Icarus," which gave the artist so 
nuich trouble in the casting. Here, again, the 
ease and truth, the freshness, elegance, balance, 
and repose ; the fine silhouette and the subtle 
nrodelling were applauded on every hand. The 
dramatic quality, not obvious but rather suggested 




MOTHER AND CHILD. 
By Alfred Gilbert, R.A 



78 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




PERSEUS. 

Bf Alfred G[lb£rt, R-A. 



or implied, was lelt b\' e\-erTi-one ; and it Avas 
openly declared that the young st'ulptor had 
challenged the " Da\'id " of Mercie, the great 
sculptor of France. 

He was now watched for his other ideal 
work, and as it came it was recei\'ed with 
increasing applause, to which the artist took 
good care to close his ears : his judgment 
was not to be warped nor his strenuous labour 
affected by public approval of works whicli did 
not arouse his own enthusiasm and which he 
hoped soon to surpass. Two busts called " Stu(h" 
of a Head," cast b\' the waste wax ])rocess — as, 
I believe, the "Icarus" had also been cast — were 
modelled with a breadth which was at that time 
unusual. The girl's head is distinguished In- 
remarkable (lignitA- and beaut\' ; the man's bv 



its character ; while round the mouth of the latter 
is that subtle play of expression which reminds 
t)ne of the most felicitous rendering by Donatello 
in the past and of Bastianini of late years. 
Three more extremely notable works belong to 
this class : the pathetic " Kiss of Victory ; " the 
romantic " Itnchanted Chair" (T886)^a statue 
which has inlluenced directly so many others — 
and "Comedy and Tragedy: S/c Jlla" (1S92). 
In this last work a nude comedian, holding in 
his hand a laughing mask, looks down with 
expression of sudden pain and horror at an 
insect which has stung him in the leg. It is a 
matter for tliscussion whether the subject was 
worthy of such tine sculpturesque treatment ; it 




Sk^^%*^^ 





ICARUS. 

By Alfred Gilbeiit, R A 



ALFRHD GILBKKT, R.A. 



79 



"- \ 




Georiie Birdwood (1892), witli tlie 1)()1<1 arrange- 
ment of the anus showing and the hands 
fin^gerin,!: nn Indian ima^s^e with the touch of an 
expert. It is, so to saA', a short liah^-lengtli, 
but it attracts the spectator and satisfies liim at 
once with its hfe and character. So, t(jo, the 
large bust of "Baron Huddleston " — a posthu- 
mous portrait, exliiljited in the same year— aims 
at a fine effect as well as at likeness, and 
achieves it b}' boldlv putting the iudge into his 
lull-bottomed wig and robes. The head of 
Frank H(j11, R.A., in the St. Paul's memorial, is 
the nol)le tribute of one fine artist to another ; 
and " Thoby : Son of Val Prinsep, Esq.," a 
fascinating study of a handsome bov ; "Mrs. 
Henry Cust," exhibited also in iqoo, shows a 
tender appreciation of female charm. Then 
there is " Lord Reay," in Bombay, and others ; 
the seated statue of "Dr. Joule," the scientist, 
which was modelled for the Town Hall of 



STUDY OF A HEAD. 
By Alfred Gilbert, r.a 



maN' be asked whether the emotion of "tragedy" 
is really not as mucli too strong in the statue 
as m the title for such a cause — unless, indeed, 
the bite is poisonous. But there can be no 
sort of doubt of the importance and beautv 
of this master!}' work, whether from the point 
of view of expression, arrested motion, or subtle 
modelling. The figure lives, vet does not IWc 
too much. 

At the opposite pole to such ideal work is, 
in its nature, the portraiture of the bust and 
the statue. Yet Mr. Gilbert has touched his 
portraiture with the magic of his art, so that 
it becomes work of imagination. The busts of 
Mr. J. S. Clayton and of Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., 
executed in 1889, are not merely likenesses in 
the round ; they are little biogra])hies, full of 
character, with the spiritual, as well as the 
physical, side of the men displaA'ed with manly 
sympath}'. Flesh and textures are perfect]}' 
realised, yet broad, simple, and modest as can 
be. Another characteristic bust is that of Sir 




STUDY OF A HEAD. 
BY Alfred Gilbert, R.A. 



BRITISH SCULPTURtf AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




THE FAWCETT MEMORIAL, 
(Westminster AbeeyJ 

By Alfred Gilbert, R.A, 



Manchester ( 1S04) ; and the tine liynre ot " Jdhn 
Howard," set up on its hit^hly original pedestal in 
the market-place of Bedford on the centenary 
of the philanthropist's death. 

But none of these is comparable for importance 
with the great woik with which in the pul)hc 
mind Mr. Gilbert's name will e\'er be assoc:iate(l. 
This is the magnilicent statue of Queen X'ictoria, 
erected at Winchester. The Queen — Queen \'ic- 
toria, the Queen of England and the Empire, 
the head ol the State — in all her magnilicence 
of office, personifying in herself all the splen- 
dour, all the greatness of her \'ast realms, 
dignified and superb, bearing easily all the 
emblems of majesty the artist has so ha]i]iilY 
devised — yet gentle, the mother of her children, 
tinged with melancholy at her lonely state, her 



Lice lined with noble lurrows earned in the 
service of her people -such is this statue, sur- 
]xissed in excellence and ]ierfection bv no effig}', 
no monument ever wrought by artist to the 
honour of the Sovereign he loved and revered, 
(irand in its masses, graceful in its lines, the 
person of the ()ueen unaffected bv all the 
s\-inbolical figures and fanciful ornament with 
which it is enriched, it marks the highest level 
to which sculptor and metal-worker has reached 
lor manv generations, ]ierhaps for centuries past. 
The fertility of an ardent and poetic imagination 
is seen throughout — in the arrangement of the 
figure itself, in the exquisite Victor^• that sur- 
mounts tlie orb, in the stately throne, full of 
invention, originalit)', and inspiration, worked 
out in every part and e^•ery detail with infinite 



ALFRHU GILBHRT, R.A. 



8f 




EPERGNE FOR H.M. QUEEN VICTORIA. 
By Alfred Gilbert R.A. 



care, lo\ely in proportion and beautiful in leeling, 
exquisite from wliatever point it is regarded. 
Tire main conception is never lost siglit of, tliough 
it gives birtli to a score of daintv conceits ; and 
the work as it stands is a nrasterpiece among 
masterpieces. 

Yet, even in presence of tliis great achievement, 
the memorials to Henry Fawcett and the Duke of 
Clarence do not lose their force or their pene- 
trating charm. The Ibrmer, executed before the 
statue of the Queen, may be seen in Westminster 
Abbey. It presents a touching medallion-portrait 
of the blind statesman, set in a composition of 



a sort not seen in England l^efore, but recalling, 
in its row of beautiiul and expressive little 
figures — " a little garden of sculpture," it has been 
termed — the conception in the Greek and Roman 
sarcophagi : that in the Imperial [Museum of 
Constantinople, lor example, or the German or 
Italian altar-pieces of the Renaissance. But this 
memorial is entirely modern and original, and is 
the parent of a whole family of sculptures it 
has inspired in others. The figures of Brother- 
hood, Zeal, Justice, Fortitude, and Modesty are 
all separately thought out, each with its pose, 
texture, shape, gesture, but all bound t(jgether 



82 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TODAY. 




siirrountlino-s could show it to less advanta.eje 
than the position it at present occupies; it is 
well liohted only by the early morning sun ; and 
no fate for a fountain could be harder than to be 
deprived of the intended flow of water the lines ol 
which are absolutely necessary to complete the 
ensemble. Some critics ha\-e objected to the 
form of the octag'onal cistern, forgetting that such 
a Ibrm is the motive in the font of Donatello s 
Baptistery at Siena, and in half-a-dozen other mas- 
terpieces. But— apart from the question whether 
iAIr. Gilbert was well adxised after all in setting 
aside the beautiful panels he had devised for its 
]w-csent plainer sides— it may be asked it, seen 
in the open air, the cistern does not appear too 
large lor the upjier part, or if the latte;- does not 
dimin-sh too rapidly f)r the former. 



THE HOWARD MEMORIAL 
(Bedford). 

By Alfred Gilbert, R.A. 



in harmoiiA' of taste and imagination. The 
formal circle in which the head is set a]ipears 
to the writer the onU' detail which might be 
regretted. But still more wonderful in conce]ition 
is the tomb of the Duke of Clarence, with its 
wealth of exquisite ornament and the prett\" 
pathos of its inlager^•. The little guardian angel- 
cherub which h(jlds up a crown ol inlm()rtalit^■ — 
the only crown the dead \-outh might inherit — 
is itself a sob of beaut\-. It is I utile to conqiare 
the work as some wcjuld do — with its surrounding 
rail of ex(]uisite intricacv, its little figures sym- 
bolical of the (pialities, and the rest — with the 
Burgundian and Florentine tombs. It is itself 
alone. Sumptuous as it is, it mo\X's us more 
by refinement and elegance, and we cannot but 
feel that its melting jiathos must hold some sort 
of consolation f )r those for whom it was wrought. 
On the Slialtesbury h'ountain Mr. (h'lbert 
has hn'ished some of his most beautiful work, 
most atti'acti\e modelling, and most delicate 
fanc\'. It must be allowed that lew sites and 




I W 



REAR VIEW OF THE QUEEN VICTORIA 
MONUMENT (Winchester). 



By Alfrid Gilbert, R.A. 




QUEEN VICTORIA MONUMENT (Winchester) 
By Alfred Gilbert, R.A 



84 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



Love of decoration is equally apparent in 
the superb cpcrgnc presented to Queen Victoria 
on her Jubilee in 1887, which typifies Britannia's 
Realm, in endless poetic and daint\' suggestion and 
beautiful device. But when I saw it last it had 
been gilt, and all the exquisitelv marked alloys, 
all the light and shade, and with them much 
ot the beauty, had been sacrihced b^- someone's 
unfortunate passion I'or ill-judged "richness." 
A distinguished painter who saw it, too, had 
tears of disappointment and consternation in his 
eyes as he ^-iewed the change. For Mr. Gilbert 
had here risen to his full height as a goldsmith ; as, 
again, in the little Presidential Isadge executed for 
the Ro}-al Institute of Painters in Water Colours, 
he succeeded so well in fancy and colour ; in 
the Preston Mayoral Chain, with its unconven- 
tional twisted metal work and its charm of 
enamel; and in the " Rose - Water Dish and 
Ewer," which was the Guards' gift in 1897 to 
the Duke of York. The "Font" of 1900 is 
another in\'ention, full of beautv and originalit)-, 
full of suggestion to those who have eyes to see. 

Many are the olijects, necklaces and the like, 
which Mr. Gilbert has devised, all beautiful, all 
proclainn'ng the delight taken bv the artist in 
this order of ^\'ork. This artistic enthusiasm has 
pushed him more tlian once to ignore the 
commercial elements of a connnission so far as 
U) gi^■e tile purchaser more tlian is his due ; 
but the world is the gainer h\ the noble mag- 
nanilllit^•, and, egotists as we are, we should not 
complain. ^Ir. Gilbert, who was elected an 
Associate of the Ro\'a] Acadeim- in 1S87 and 
accorded lull lioiiours in 189^, is also a D.C.I^., 
and recei\'e(l, as well as the Medaille d'H(jiineur 
at tlie I'aris T^xhibition of 1889, the iNFV.O. "of 
the lourth class," b\' which his su]ireniac)' in the 
arts has been oflicially acknowledged. 

It is hardh' necessary to affirm that Mr. 
Gilliert, as an artist of the highest (jrder, pos- 
sesses all those (|uah'ties which are to be found 
in the great creati\e men in all the arts, whether 
music, painting, sculjiture, or ]ioetrA'. He is 
iier\'ous to a degree that would weaken him 
but for the immense strength of will iuid hrni- 
ness that l)ear him along. He is an artist who 
is restless l)e\'<ind description — tliough not in liis 
work — e\'er toMiig with whate\'er c(jnxes within 
his reach ; e\"er\lhiiig that is Hue and beautiful 



attracts him, and he sees latent loveliness where 
others may look and behold nothing. A fish's skull, 
for example, is to him one of the most beautiful 
things in nature, and who can tell how man}^ 
exquisite things he has given us — in his armour 
and his ornaments— which he has founded upon 
its forms and its scaly plates and curves ? Bird, 
animal, and insect life, shells and vegetable 
growth, contain possibilities infinite for such as 
he. Even the lead-foil from his tobacco packet 
will become twisted 1\v his inspired fingers into 
some interesting form — and so it is that his work 
suggests all through the mind e\'er busy to keep 
pace with inliniteh' dexterous hands. 

It is this characteristic which has suggested 
the criticism that some large, important work 
has appeared rather the building up of valuable 
and beautiful parts, not originallv conceived 
tijgether — "disjointed for a moment," as has 
been said of one of his ]uiblic works. But in 
the opinion of those most capable of judging, 
this lault, if it be a fault, is not to anv extent 
damaging to the work as a piece of fine art. 
It may be said — it savours, no doubt, of 
exaggeration, yet the truth will certainh' be 
proclaimed — that no countr)- can boast an artist 
at once sculptor and artificer of more extraordinary 
genius since the time of Cellini. And when we 
reflect that to luigland, who produced him, are 
due also Alfred Stevens and Flaxman, both more 
or less unacknowledged in their lifetime, we 
ma)- well ask ourselves if Form is reallv foreign 
to the teiiii")erament of this countrv and if 
sculpture is really exotic in the land. 

It must l)e admitted that i\Ir. (3illxTt is happiest 
when dealing with a subject which will allow 
his fancy lull ]ilay. He is, indeed, truh' lanciful 
at times ; and it is not less true that his least 
successful works ha\e resulted from his having 
been tied down to the treatment of sulijects too 
monumentall)- cold and uninteresting. That is to 
sa)', il i\lr. (lilbcrt is t'onnnissioued to execute a 
public statue, or a recumbent figure for a cathedral, 
and is li'fl In liiinsrlf with an entirelv free hand, 
he will ])roduce a great work. His dead figure 
or efligv will be ]ieacclul and agreeable to look 
upon, and not be re]iellent in its stony coldness. 
It will interest the spectator as a beautiful work 
of art ; it will belong to that rare class of scidp- 
tures ol whidi the beholder asks, no sooner does 



CONRAD DRHSSLtR. 



85 



he see it, "By Avhom is that ? "— and thus a fine 
work is proved. Similarly in public statues : if 
Mr. Gilbert — or any other of his temperament, 
which is that of the truest poets, of fjreat jov 
to us but of sweet pain to him — if he be com- 
missioned to do a work of this kind he must do 
it, and not be molested by those who ordered it, 
or irritated by sug,£(estion, conditional appro\al, 
or interference. On this vital point I ha\e dwelt 
in the Introduction, and it cannot too forciblv be 
insisted on. 

Tactless committees and clients and then" 
h'iends are the bane of a sculptor's career. This, 
at least, they nrust remenrber : an artist must first 
please himself: then his clients will be jileased ; 
but if he tries to please his clients first, no one, 
in all probabilit}-, will be satisfied. So it was 
with Mr. Gilbert's statue of " John Bright," 
for which for a time the sculptor was roundly 
reproached. But this ^'erv incident brings out 
one other truth : a failure of Alfred Gilbert 
(I know onlv of one) will probablv \vA\e more 
beauty in it, and more artistic virtue, than the 
successes of most other men. It is, in truth, one 
of the characteristics of genius occasionallv to 
fall short in the bold working out of its in-born 
originalitv. 

Mr. Gilbert's work is full of colour ; it is 
playful and broad. The smallest details are big 
in treatment, loose and subtle in form. His 
planes are numerous and varied in shape, and 
every part is carefully thought out and most in- 
genious in design. He seems perhaps to be more in 
sympathy with bronze, siher, and gold than with 
marble, unless in combination ; and his love of 
colour leads him to that introduction of enamels 
and jewels which has had so great an influence 
on modern art. His playlulness has caused 
him at times to be a little florid in manner, 
even a little rococo in treatment ; but his taste 
is so pure, his genius so exquisiteh" right, that he 
may give full rein to his fanc}' without danger 
where another man would run riot and come 
to grief. His resource is inexhaustible, his 
invention and ingenuity unfailing, his richness 
less the result of search than of spt)ntaneit}- ; 
and such is the effect of his art that, as one of 
our finest sculptors once said to me, " I never 
see a work of Gflbert's but I feel I must take oft~ 
my hat to it." 



Mr. ROBERT STARK. ^^^ anuncdicr in sculi:)ture, 

1883. 

Mr. Stark is a student of 
South Kensington, and the Academy schools of 
Florence. His work has usualh- attracted the 
notice of connoisseurs, but would probabI\- ha^■e 
remained unfamiliar to the larger public of the 
art-world had not his Hne bronze statuette of 
"An Indian Rhinoceros" been purchased for the 
Chantre}- collectioTi in 1892. 

Mr. Robert Stark, like Mr. Dixon, lacks some 
ol the qualities of Mr. Swan, as one artist alwa\'S 
must lack the qualities of another ; but he seems 
to equal the last-named in the close knowledge 
he ]iossesses of animal anatomy. We see that 
the skeleton is thoroughh' understood, and the 
existence of it is felt in most things Mr. Stark 
presents to us ; but it should be added at once 
that he commonly chooses an animal with less 
fur on it than ^dr. Swan does, and accordingly 
has greater occasion to show the details of the 
anatoni}' more clearh'. His range of models is 
considerable, and he will select, as we know, 
a rhinoceros with as much gusto as a cart-horse 
or a hunter. It should be obser\-ed how, when 
dealing with an animal in which the bon^•, lleshv, 
and furr\' parts are all more or less on the 
surface, Mr. Stark gi\-es us a distinct difference of 
surface and quality-. It is sometimes said of him 
that he is a little "tight" in his work ; but the 
ordinarv eye is at pains t(j disco\'er it, while 
its thoroughness and conscientiousness, de\'oid 
of affectation or mannerism, can alwa^"S be 
recognised. 

Mr. CONRAD DREssLER. ^^JJ,_ Dressler bcgau life 

1883. 

as a sculptor under the 
beneficent direction of iNIr. Lanteri, of the Roval 
College of Art. At that time realism in a mis- 
understood and obtrusive form was the aim in every 
branch of art : the pendulum had already swung 
too far. Imaginative designing suffered a good 
deal in consecpience ; deccjrative balance (A masses 
Avas in some circles little considered. Into this 
ardent realism i\Ir. Dressier threw himself on 
leaving the schools, taking ptjrtraiture of pro- 
minent men of striking character tor his " material." 
AlreadA' in 18S9, having been fortunate in his 
sitters, he was enabled to hold an exhibition in 
which he dispku'ed a series of thirty busts of 
leading men, including Ford ^ladox Brown, 



86 



BRITISH SCULPTURK AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




MARY MAGDALEN 

(Sketch : For IVIagdalen College, Oxford. 

By Conrad Dressler. 



the aid of friends, a process of electrotyping 
direct from highly-finished plaster models, by 
means of which he executed the large gilt copper 
panels lor St. Francis Xavier's, Liverpool, and the 
altar Irontal of the private chapel of the Duke 
of Newcastle, liesides A'arious pieces of church 
work and crucifixes. Then came a statue, in 
Portland stone, of Dean Liddell for Christ Church, 
Oxford, and the large figure, in Ancaster stone, of 
Mary IMagdalen, for Magdalen College, Oxford. 
The sketch for this statue is here reproduced. 

The \oye of decorative work, with its freedom 
of handling and with all the charm of the prac- 
tice of the crafts, led Air. Dressier to join Mr. 
Harold Rathbone and establisli at Birkenhead a 
potterv where architectural works should be 
produced in the manner of the Delia Robbias, 
thus re^-iving in England, perhap;;, this delightiul 
tbrnr of outdoor decoration. But so much worlc 
of another character was iiroduced that ]\Ir. 
Dressier withdrew and set u]i a potter}' of li:s 
own, with the aid of Mr. Hudson, of Danesheld, 



Archdeacon Farrar, Sir William hdov\-er, J. 
Anthony Froude, Lord Halslnirv, lamest Hart, 
Lord kldesleigh (Sir Stafford Xorthcote), Rev. 
H. R. Haweis, Sir John AL)wbra\', William 
Morris, Lord Roberts, John Ruskin, Sir Hcnrv 
Stanle^•, Algernon Charles Swinburne, and John 
Toole. 

^Meanwhile, the ^'oung sculjitor vras disco'S'ering 
that unrestrained realism tends to the deadening 
of the imaginati\'e faculties, and he looked to 
decorati\'e work, especialh' in relation to archi- 
tecture, to help him gi^'e those faculties Iree 
]ilav. Onlv he was dissatislicd with the s\'stem 
then in ^•ogue -liefore the inlluence of the Arts 
and Crafts Societv liad made itself felt ;ni<l to 
]")revent the loss of reputation and of practice 
resultant from his designs being taken from 
him and comnn'tted t<i othei's, lor car\'iiig in 
marble or casting in bronze, he toolc up the 
craft of bronze-casting himself. Uy Hxing u]i 
a little foundr\- in liis Chelsea studio, where 
lie cast a number of small bronzes b)- the rife- 
pcrduv ("waste wax") jirocess, he enjoyed the 
opportunities he desired. He also practised, with 




SIR JOHN D'URBERVILLE. 

By Conrad Dres^lzh. 




JOHN RUSKIN. 
By Conrad Dbessler 



88 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



where, as the result of several years' experiment, 
he has succeeded in producing with comparative 
ease pieces of decorative enamelled earthenware 
of considerable dimensions. In this ware a good 
deal of elaborate work has been modelled and 
fired, including twelve panels representing the 
months, and two great friezes each seventy-five 
feet long, divided into sixteen panels, with high 
relief statues between, representing various agricul- 
tural and domestic pursuits. 

The sculptor, however, has not been entirely 
absorbed by his pottery. He has in the mean- 
time executed the bust of Sir John Mowbra}' for 
the House of Commons ; a charmingly modelled 




" Girl Tying up Her Sandal ;" a statue of "Henry 
VI" for Eton College; and two large panels in 
marble for St. George's Hall two of the remark- 
able set, that is to say, of which Mr. Stirling 
Lee has done the greater number, as is described 
in the notice on the work of that artist. 

Those who recollect the work of Mr. Dressier, 
when he regularly contributed to the exhibitions, 
remember it chiefly for the cleverness, the daring, 
the marked style, the yigour of treatment, and 
the tendencN' towards over-emphasis. There is, 
as may be seen here in the "John Ruskin " and 
the "Sir John d'Urberville," a German flavour 
about his decorative feeling, the peeping out, 
no doubt, of his Teutonic descent. This is notice- 
able in spite of his being taught by Professor 
Lantcri how to accept with understanding the 
influence of the Greeks and the men of the 
Italian Renaissance— an influence which has had 
the effect of moderating in no slight measure 
his leaning towards the florid. There is in his 
work a good deal of breadth ; and although 
there is a tendency to shortness in his ideal 
figures, the light and shade is simi^le, the execu- 
tion iVesh, and the design full of invention and 
resource. 



Mr. GEORGE J. FRAMPTON, A.R.A. 
1884. 



THE CHILDREN OF THE 

WOLF. 

By George J. FRAf/prOM, A R A 



^Ir. Frampton is 
one of the most ver- 
satile and most original artists of the present day, 
thoroughly " in the new movement " which he has 
(lone so much to direct. Highly accomplished and 
firmly based on the true principles of his art, he is 
at home in e\ery branch of it — portraiture, deco- 
ration, ideal work, metal work, goldsmithery, 
jewellery, enamel, and lurniture ; indeed, he 
covers the whole fieltl. Born in 1800, Mr. 
h'raiii]iton studied modelling at Lambeth school 
under Mr. h'rith, and at the At'atlemy schools, 
where he gained the gold medal in 18S7. In 
Paris he worked under M. Mercie and M. 
Dagnan-Bou\eret. 

He began exhibiting at the Academy in 1884, 
and since tliat date has ne\er been absent from 
it. His chief ideal works seen there are as 
follow : " Socrates Teaching the Peojile on the 
.Vgora," in 1884 ; " The Songster," in 1887 ; 
"An Act of Mcrc\'," the bronze of his gold 
medal grou]), ill 1888; and in the h)llowing year, 
" In Silence Pra\'eth She." The statue of " The 




MYSTERIARCH. 

By George J. Frampton. A R.A. 



M 



90 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




GUINEVERE 

By G J FRAMPTON A R A 



Air. Frampton's work. The next year there 
appeared the cliarming " Mother and Child/' an 
experiment in polychromatic figure-work. The 
figures are in bronze against a bright copper plaque, 
witli a disc of white behind the head. Here was 
something new, very effective, and highly pleas- 
ing in taste, if not convincing to the orthodox 
and the purists. "Music" and "Dancing," two 
silver rebels for door-panels, were shown at the 
same time. The " Seven Heroines from ' Mort 
d'Artluu'" were the harvest of 1896. In the 
following year the quaintly beautiful statue of 
" Dame Alice Owen," in bronze and marble — 
the forerumier in feeling and metal treatment 
of the "Edward VI" of 1901 — seemed to 
recall the class of work we see in the " King 
Arthur" of Peter \'ischer in the Innsbruck 
Hofkirche, or e\-en Mina da Fiesole's " Isotta 
Malatesta " in tlie Campo Santo of Pisa ; but 
how restrained, and, with all its quaintness, how 
modern! The " St. George " came in 1899. This 
little figure, fully armed, holding a Donatellesque 



Angel of Death," which gained a medal in the Paris 
Salon of 18S9, was in the Academy in 1890, 
together with tlie low relief of " St. Christina." 
The latter, cast in bronze, was in the exhibition of 
the following ^-ear, Lnit t)ie chief contribution was 
" Caprice," a life-size female nude, poised hghtlv 
on her feet as if about to rise into the air. It is 
French in feeling, and seen in metal appears rather 
summary in tlie modelling. In 1892 the statue 
" The Cliildrcn of tlie Wolf" was produced, an aisle 
Avork, but not vet ex]^ressi^"e of the indi\iduality 
the artist was soon to show. It looked better 
in l)ronze in the lollowing year ; but the contribu- 
tion whicli attracted most attention was the bust 
called " Ah'steriarch," AerA' beaulilul in conception 
and execution, dignified and reposeful, decorati\'e 
as it is. 

Mr. Frampton was now in open rebellion 
against white sculpture, and since then has devoted 
himself to colour. The relief of " The Vision," 
belonging to the Arts and Crafts school of feeling, 
was shown in the same \cm'. In 1894 " My 
Thoughts are ni)- Children " jnizzled many with 
its strange, ]iseudo-ni\'stical title and subject. A 
beautiful panel, facile in ti-eatment, half-ideal, half- 
real, as becomes the lendering cjf a dream-subject, 
it is, perhaps, not so sculpturesque as most of 




THE CHARLES KEENE MEMORIAL. 
'Shepherd's Bush ) 

By G J Fhampion, A R.A. 




DAME ALICE OWEN. 

By George J. Frampton, A.R-P. 




BRONZE MEMORIAL TO MR. CHARLES MITCHELL. 
SHIPBUILDER, NEWCASTLE. 

By George J, Frampton. A.RA 



GEORGE J. FRAMPTON, A.R.A. 



V3 



shield and a banner, mounted on an agate globe, 
and backed by a screen of mother-of-pearl, is a 
goldsmith's work rather than a sculptor's; but it 
is \-ery charmingly imagined and admirably carried 
out. " Lamia," with an ivory head and neck, 
and with draperies and exquisitely quaint head- 
and-neck-dress of bronze, jewelled, departs still 
further from the reserve of sculjrture ; but is 
delightful in execution and feeling— the work 
of a well-inspired artist. 

Mr. Frampton's portraiture, whether in the 
form of busts or reliefs (chiefly memorial), is 
hardly less original, spontaneous, and decorative. 
The chief among these productions are as 
follow: "Mr. Bell" (bronze, 1887); "Mary and 
Agnes, daughters of Mr. L. Karslake " (plaster 
relief, 1890); the "Mother and Child," already 
mentioned, in reality a family group of Mr. 
Frampton's own; "Charles Keene," "Leigh 
Hunt," and " R. Stuart-Poole," three memorial 
rebels in bronze, shaped in the manner of 
chair-backs, with a beautiliil symbolical figure 
at each apex— two to each ; " ^h". J. Pass- 
more Edwards" (bronze bust, 1898); " iJr. Gar- 
nett " and "Mr. Rathbone " (a bust studv for 
the statue destined for Liverpool, 1899). These 
are not all ; but most important is the colossal 
statue of " Queen Victoria " in bronze, exhibited 
in Manchester in 1901 before erection in Cal- 
cutta. Lasth- should be mentioned the Chaucer 
bust, which is to be placed in the Guildhall of 
London to commemorate the quincentenar}- of 
the poet's death. 

In distinct!}' decorative work ^Ir. Frampton is 
at his happiest. His prolific fancy finds new things 
to do and to suggest at every turn. His first essa}- 
of note was the elaborate terra-cotta decoration on 
the exterior of the Constitutional Club in London. 
Then comes tlie frieze, brilliant and daring in 
colour, dextrous and bold in design, for St. 
Clement's, Bedford. It is impossible to record all 
the smaller works Mr. Frampton has executed in 
relief, metal-work, and enamel, or even the medals 
he has produced. But the "Bronze Memorial," 
exhibited at the Academy in 189S, overtops 
most of them. This monument to Mr. Charles 
Mitchell, shipbuilder, of Newcastle, felicitously 
displavs some of the most notable features of 
Mr. Frampton's design — how he escapes from 
the purely architectural forms, pediments, and 




ST. GEORGE. 
By G, J. Framptc 




LAMIA. 

By George J. Frampton, A.R.A. 



W. S. FRITH. 



93 



mouldings, introducing his own inventions of 
curved lines (which seem to have more affmity 
with cabinet-making than stone-building), and the 
frequent substitution of tree-forms lor colunms or 
pilasters — with roots for bases and branches with 
foliage for capitals. Every detail merits attention 
in this original and harmonious composition ; and 
in the imagery and symbolism the measure of the 
artist's poetic invention may be taken. 

Mr. Frampton was elected Associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1S94, '"i<^^ i" ^')oo received a 
Grand Medal of Honour at the Paris Exhibition. 
He is the director of the highlv successful Art 
Classes under the County Council. It may be 
added that his vogue and popularity are perhaps 
even greater in Germany than here. 

A man of exceptionally liigh artistic instincts, 
Mr. Frampton has great powers as a designer, and 
hardly less as a modeller, though he does not 
allow his technique to intrude upon the eye. 
The surface of his work is quiet. His big, broad, 
simple, un decorated surfaces are as ^'aluable as 
his ornamental ones ; his spacing-out is alwavs 
interesting, and the shapes are well C(jn- 
sidered. Mr. Frampton loves to contrast his 
surfaces, placing side b\' side a xerx plain band 
or space, and another richh* ornamented, in 
some works, perhaps, jewelled. His lines are 
simple and severe, and strongly opposed. He 
thus makes us feel the architectural character 
in what he does. 

His work is essentially decorative ; it is cre- 
ative, and always refined. It reminds us some- 
what in its character of the early Italian masters, 
whom he must surely have studied deeply, 
yet his own performances are strongly individual 
and original. iMore than that, he may be pro- 
nounced a tc/e d'ccolc — a leader, an inventor in 
his architectonic work, personal in the sentiment of 
his art, whether in its structural, polychromatic, 
or decorative characteristics. The structural por- 
tions are always simple and in good taste, and the 
architectural features to which he pays so nmch 
attention are not less good than the ornament 
which adorns them. 

We do not commonly associate Mr. Frampton 
with portrait sculpture, nor would we ha\'e him 
develop into a modeller of men and women in 
modern costume. For this branch of his art he 
clearly has less sympath}-, preferring, likely enough, 



to \t'd\ii it U) those of his brother artists more 
suited and more fitted — perhaps I ought to say 
more restricted — to it by temperament. He 
would rather choose the more ornamental dresses 
ot another period or design them for his purposes. 
What excellent taste he chsplays when he permits 
himself to introduce various materials was shown 
in the " Lamia," to which reference has already 
been made. 

There is a kind of sadness, of pathetic gravity, 
in Mr. Frampton's art which is fascinating. Its 
stillness and repose have their charm. It never 
startles the spectator as many cle\"er works are 
apt to do ; it rather welcomes him and soothes 
him with its silent message. 



Ir. W. S. FRITH. 
1884.. 



Although the main influence 
of Mr. W. S. Frith has 
l)een that ol a teacher — one of the most success- 
ful instructors who ever worked in England — 
liis productions in sculpture are of an important 
order. A student at the Lambeth schools in 1870, 
at tile Roval Academ\- in 1S72, lie soon made his 
mark, securing a premium in the Blackfriars 
Bridge competition in 1S84 with an equestrian 
statue ol " Boadicea," and another in the com- 
petition for the panels for St. George's Hall, 
Liverpool. In 1879 Mr. Sparkes brought forward 
his plan, tlir(iUgh the generositv of the City 
(juilds of London Technical Institute, lor giving 
the wood and stone carvers of the well-known 
Kennington centre an opportunity of impro\ing 
their knowledge. Mr. Frith was selected to carr}' 
out the scheme. M. Dalou started the life classes, 
and the result has been extraordinarily gratif^'ing, 
judged b^' the number and present distinction 
of eminent pupils who hcwe developed into sculp- 
tors of the day. The main principle of the schools 
was the essential unity of all the arts of the 
sculptor : a principle which is now universally 
accepted. 

Acting on this idea, Mr. Frith has spread 
himself over nearly the whole field with equal 
energy and success. There have been busts, in- 
cluding those of "Dr. Law, Dean of Gloucester," 
" ^Ir. Barwick Baker," and a medallion of " Miss 
Ellen Terr-s- ; " but the mass of the work has 
been decorative, as the following enumeration, and 
that but a partial one, serves to show. There 
is the sculpture for the A'ictoria Law Courts, of 



96 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




IGNIS FATUUS, 
Bv HetjRv A, Pegram 



Binnin,<iiiain ; for tlie Metrojiolitan Assurance 
Office, in IMooryate Street ; and for the United 
Service Institution, in Parliament Street. There 
are tlie f)ur statues at tlie doorway of the Post 
Office at Leeds, and tlie statue of "Astronomy" 
at the Stirling Hi.i^h School ; the remarkable 
bronze standard lamp and marble chimney piece 
at the Ast(;r Estate Office on the Thames Em- 
bankment ; the bronze face for the clock in the 
tower at Clieveden ; there are four statuettes 
and four ,[:rou]-is to the .irrand staircase, and 
the library chinme}' piece, all in the same 
house, and all carved in wood ; the ceilin,us lor 
the Victoria Courts, in Binnint^iiam, and for 
other l)uildin,t:s ; the fountain lor Clare Lawn, 
Sheen ; the reredos for St. ^lichael's, (jloucester ; 
the screeite for St. Andrew's and St. Bartholo- 
mew's, both in Kensin,<,4on ; the li.gure lectern, in 
bronze, for Burfml, and very much more with 
which it is not needful to swell the list. The 



of line and \it;'our of modelling ; the consideration 
and intelligence dispkiN'ed throughout, the spirit 
of design, richness of effect, ami the clear under- 
standing of the virtues and the limitations of his 
materials. 



Mr. HENRY A. PEGRAM 
1884. 



qualities of Mr. Enth's work are surely its freedom i 



.-Vf TER ]Mr. Pegram quitted 
the Royal Acadeuu' schools 
he spent four \ears \v\[U ^Ir. Hamo Thornvcroft 
— tour in\'aluable ^•ears, during which he recei\-ed 
from the master much of that help in advice and 
encouragement which blossoms into the equipment 
of the scuhiitnr. His first important work, that by 
which he took at once a recognised jiosition amongst 
our modellers, was " Death Liberating a Prisoner," 
which was seen at the Royal Acatlemv in 1888, 
and which, sent to the Paris Liternational 
I'^xhibition in i88a, secured a bronze medal for 
the young sculptor. 'Original in Inrin and 
arrangement, strong in light and shade, and rich 
n decorati\e effect, this earh' work gave a 



HHNRY A. PEGRAM. 



97 



promise of ability which has since l)een redeemed. 
In 1889 "Ignis Fatuiis" was contributed to tlie 
Royal Academy, and was forthwith acquired bv 
the autlionties f(jr the Cliantrey cohection. 
Stimulated by this double success— a verdict 
which was cordially endorsed b^- such of the 
public as care lor sculpture— Mr. I'egram pro- 
ceeded with his bronze ol "Eve," which was 
duly exhibited at Burhngton House in 1890. 
The next year appeared " Sib^-lla Fatidica," a 
group more important than anything the artist 
had yet produced. Pleasing in silhouette, 
impressive by its massi\'e composition and the 
clearness of its significance, it was appro\-ed not 



less for its delicacv of handling and the strength 
of its modelling. It was sent Id the Salon and 
afterwards to the Paris International Exhibition 
of 1900, where it received a sih'er medal. 

During iSyi and 1892 ^Nlr. Pegram was 
engaged upon a good deal of dec(jrati\-e work 
for the Imperial Institute, both exterior and 
interior. The best known is the relief erected 
at tlie main entrance to the building, repre- 
senting " Industrv," a female figure winding 
her thread, while the sun of Commerce rises 
above the horizon. "The Last Song," a l^ronze 
relief, which subsequently gained a g(jld medal 
at Dresden, followed in 1894. It is a design 




SIBYLLA FATIDICA. 
By Henry A. Pegram 



N 



98 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



tor a lunette, representing in the foreground the 
death of a warrior, while a maiden beyond sits at 
his feet and touches a harp as she breathes lier 
song towards sea and sk}-. The arrangement 
is happy, without too obvious ingenuity. In 
1S95 Mr. Pegram exhibited "The Bather." The 
figure of the beautiful }-outh who stands upon 
tile rock and seeks to elude, or at the least 
resist, the grasp of the siren below, is finely 
imagined as to balance, pose, and graceful line, 
and is as excellent in modelling as in stvle. 

In the following year the life-size figure ot 
" Labour " was completed, in which realism is more 
e\-ident than hitherto ; while in 1897 f^nd 1898 the 




bronze candelabrum for St. Paul's Cathedral — one 
of a pair — to be set up by the west door, was 
exhibited at the Royal Academy. The highest 
praise that can be given is that these enor- 
mous pieces are not unworthy of their noble 
destination ; they are full of symbolism carefulh^ 
thought out, and as carefully realised as befits the 
nature and purpose of the work. The figures, 
typifying the tliree races of mankind, at the 
splayed base are dignified in treatment and 
solemn in character. " Fortune," the statue 
whicli was at the Academy in 1900, is an 
important nude figure, seated on a vessel's 
prow ; it is distinctly architectural in feeling and 
suave in design, and is probably intended for 
the embellishment of a building. To the Academy 
of 1 90 1 Mr. Pegram contributed the "Monument 
to Ninon, wife of Max Michaelis, Esq.," in which 
beautv is gracefully allied to pathos. Besides 
these Mr. Pegram has sent many smaller works 
to the Academy ; but while thus engaged upon 
the ideal, and in a lesser degree upon portraiture, 
he has produced a quantity of decorative sculpture, 
a considerable proportion of which is to be seen 
in the City of London. 

Regarded Irom a critical point of view, ^Ir. 
Pegram's work has shown iVom the first a keen 
appreciation of the decorative feeling — the qualit}' 
in which he is most fully and most completely 
developed. There is alwa^-s a sense of the values 
of strong light and shade, and an architectural 
character that is good. ilr. Pegrain is veiy happ}* 
in his arrangement ; his wt)rk is big in style and 
sculjituresque, with movement and life, and his 
draperies are well modelled. He is sometimes 
perhaps a little less felicitous in his portraiture, 
which is apt tt) be somewhat injured in its truth- 
fulness of likeness by a desire to be rich in detail 
and t'olour. In justihcation of this statement it 
may lie said that the hair is occasionally treated 
as a ])iece uf decoration, as nun- be seen in the 
bust of " :Mr. K. J. Gregory, R.A., P.R.I." This 
reservation does not, of course, detract from ]\Ir. 
Pegram's artistic character, nor dues it affect 
the ^ery considerable position which he has 
alreach' secured lor himself. 



Mr. A G. WALKER. 
1884. 



THE BATHER. 

Cy Henry A Pegram. 



I'l" is perhajis charac- 
teristic of the younger 
sculptors of to-day that the}- are more versatile in 




FORTUNE. 

By Henry A. Pegram. 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




THE LAST PLAGUE 
Bv A G Walker. 



plastic, decorative, and ductile arts, so to call 
them, than those of a past generation. Mr. 
Walker is one of the numerous examples that 
might be quoted of men who can turn their 
intelligent minds and dextrous hands to many 
arts, alwa}'S within a given range. Thus, on com- 
pleting a successful career at the Royal Academv 
schools, he threw himself into work not always 
sculpture, such as the mosaic dome of the Greek 
Church in Bayswater, and many panels in the 
same method at Whitelands College Chapel, 
Chelsea — the institution which has been described 
as " Mr. Faunthorpe's Ruskinian College." 

The most important commission which Mr. 
Walker has executed so far is of a decorative and 
architectural character, comprising the sculptured 
figures of a church in Stamlbrd Hill, in the north 
of London, called the Ark of the Covenant. 
The tower has, in the place of finials, the four 
evangelistic emblems — the Eagle, Angel, Bull, and 
Lion ; these figures are in bronze, while they also 
appear in stone on the buttresses. 

In the class of pure sculpture the artist has 
produced notable work. There is the relief of 



" The Last Plague," representing a mother mourn- 
ing over her child as the Angel of Death passes 
onward ; a beautiful conception, expressive, with 
a strong touch of modern realism ( as, for example, 
in the pose of the feet), the only Egyptian flavour 
being in the decoration of the seat. "And Thev 
Were Afraid" is a large and noteworthy gi-oup, 
well expressive of the emotion to be depicted, 
and not less interesting as a composition ; but why 
has Adam — as in nearly every picture and sculpture 
ever wrought of him— had his hair and beard cut 
short ? " The Thorn," full of grace and charm, 
with as much elegance in the pose as in the 
action, is probably the most completely successful 
of Mr. Walker's ideal statues. The " Madonna " 
next followed, a very low relief in Donatellesque 
manner, very refined, but not so well drawn 
as is otherwise invariable with the artist. 
The last of Mr. Walker's important works 
IS " Sleep," a study of the nude in marble, 
which appeared in the Academy Exhibition 
ot 1 90 1. Finally, in another stjde, there 
IS the bronze frieze of race-horses for a billiard 
room mantel-piece of a new house— a palace 







^ 



ADRIAN JONKS. 



103 



of "new" art — in Stratton Street, Piccadilly, 
built b}^ Mr. Harold Cooper. The numerous 
h(<rses, in a sort of Tattersallian I'anathenaic pro- 
cession, are marshalled, without crowdin,£,r, with 
great movement, and with eepial knowledoe of 
horseflesh and of effect. 

The conscientiousness of Mr. Walker's work is 
one of its unfailing charms ; it is always well 
modelled and carved, good and serious, and 
sculpturesque besides, although the artist practises 
several crafts which might be expected to lead 
him " after other gods." His relief is excellent, 
pure, and founded on a good stvle ; the planes 
are simple and well understood— a merit not too 
common, even among those who have most 
diligently followed this form of sculpture. His 
figures in the round manifest a broad, healthv 
treatment, and are happy alike in movement 
and in idea. 



the Ab}'ssinian, Boer, and Xile wars of 1868, 1879, 
and 1884. As veterinary surgeon to the 3rd Hus- 
sars, Queen's Bays, and 2nd Life Guards he pr(jbably 
had better opportunities of stud}'ing e\'er\' class of 
liorse, from the highest downwards, than has fallen 
to the lot of almost any other man in England. 
Retiring from the armv as soon as he was able, 
IMr. Jones devoted himself to sculpture under 
the super\'ision of C. B. Birch, A.R.A., and began 
bv working on "cups" and the like, as well as 
on portraits of horses and hounds, including 
"Forager" of the l^ytchley ]iack, and the racers 
Cloister, Isinglass, Persimmon, and others. 

The first wi^rk j\lr. Jones exhibited at the 
Royal .\cademy in 1883 was a ]5ortrait of his 
own hunter, entitled " One of the Right Sort ; " 
and this was followed the next year with 
" A Huntsman and Hounds," being tlie Oakele}' 
Testimonial. It is a little group of grcEit spirit 



Mr. ADRIAN JONES. i HE carccr ol armv vetennarv 

1884. 

surgeon which was torced upon 
Mr. Adrian Jones in his ycnith was iK)t a training 
which an anunalicr need regret.- It is extremely 
likely that no modeller ot a horse has more 
intimate knowledge of his subject than the man 
^vho has served professionally in India, and through 




TRIUMPH. 

BY ADRIAN JONES 



I04 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



in all the figures — man, horse, and dogs — 
and it delighted those who commissioned it hv 
the knowledge it disiilayed of animal forms and 
action, and the general truth of the arrangement. 
An elaborate sketch for a quadriga was produced 
in 1891 — representing "Triumph." It is un- 
doubtedly an energetic grou]"i, lull of life and 
fire, and, if fussv in its first aspect, it is remarkable 
for the vigour of its movement and its decorative 
effect. There was at one time a proposal to place 
this work upon the arch at Hyde Park Corner, 
from which the colossal Wellington was deposed, 
but the suggestion, for some reason, was not carried 
further. It may certainh* be declared more suit- 



able for such a purpose than the other quadriga 
so foolishly adopted by the London County 
Council h)r the lowly base at Westminster 
Bridge. At the same time, approve though we 
may, it is difficult to endorse the enthusiasm 
of certain admirers who have not hesitated to 
compare tlie horses for sculptural excellence with 
the Phidian animals in the Parthenon frieze. 

In "Duncan's Horses" (i8g2) we have a 
group of extraordinary skill and unusual merit; 
astounding as coming from relativeh' so recent a 
recruit to the sculptural ranks. The accuracy ot 
the fighting animals is probably be}-ond criticism ; 
the composition alike ingenious and masterh' ; the 




DUNCAN'S HORSES. 

By AoiilAH JoMES. 



W. RHYNOLbS-STEPHENS. 



handling and treatment suggestive of a thoroiiglily 
practised hand ; and the spirit not easy to sur- 
pass. Macbeth's words, " 'Tis said they ate each 
other," are reahsed for us in tliis group of terrified 
and maddened brutes. In " Maternal Care " 
(1893) appeared another vivid rendering of equine 
nature. Realism is carried so far— realisnr ot 
nature as well as of form— that the sculpturesque 
quality is endangered : the animals are, if one 
may say so, too lifelike, as well in action 
as in form. Other groups in which horses offer 
the main interest have followed. " Waterloo : 
" Picton's Brigade will Advance,' " is a studv in the 
manner of Gerome's " Xapoleon Bonaparte," but 
further elaborated by the introduction of a mounted 
ch-agoon. "The Rape of the Sabines " is not 
nearly so good ; the horse is not so conxincing 
in his movement : while the single Sabine too 
much reminds us of the bound female figure in 
Sir Charles Lawes' group, or the " ^lazeppa " 
in Birch's. 

A figure of higher aim and higher order is the 
model for "Geography ;" while a graceful and 
elegant study of the female nude is curioush' 
French in character. In all this work, almost 
without exception, there is intelligence allied to 
knowledge, and a variety which proclaims not onh- 
the skill but the rare versatility of the designer. 
Except in " Duncan's Horses," it is realism rather 
than imagination which strikes the spectator -- 
observation rather than creation. The last-named 
group, perhaps, is on too large a scale for its 
subject ; but it remains the most remarkable work 
Mr. Jones has exhibited. 



Mr. GUSTAV NATORP. 
1884. 



]Mr. XaT(JRP, like M. 

]Mesdag, was past fort_\- 
when he turned to art, but then he studied 
strenuous!}', first at the Slade School and, from 
1 88 1 to 1883, under M. Rodin in Paris. In 18S4 
he exhibited a statuette of " Hercules " at the Ro}al 
Academy; in 18S8 the relief-portrait, in bronze, 
of " Robert Browning," which is so well known ; 
and in 1890 another statuette called " Biblis." 
Mr. Xatorp's most important work is "Atalanta" 
(1896), a life-size statue; an ambitious figure 
which, cast in bronze, was with great generosity 
presented b}' the artist to " The Artists' War 
Fund" of 1900. In the same vear the sculptor 
produced a silver " Regatta Cup ; " in 1S97, '^ '^"St 
o 



of ^liss Burton ; and, in the following }'ear, a life- 
size statue, " Diana, " at the moment wlien the 
luckless Actieon lets fall his gaze upon her. Mr. 
Xatorp's work has also been seen in the I'aris 
Sahjns and elsewhere. 



Mr. W. REYNOLDS 

STEPHENS. 

1885. 



PcH.VGLCjT artists, so to call 
them — men wh(j can jiaint, 
draw, m(xlel, design furni- 
ture, and do manv things besides in gold- 
smithery, enamel, and the like are not uncommon 
in these da}'S of Arts and Crafts ; but Mr. 
Reynolds-Stephens is one of the few v^-ho has 




A WALL FOUNTAIN. 
By W. Revnolds-StePk-ens. 



io6 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 







I' 
I'll 





THE SLEEPING BEAUTY 
By W Reynolds-Stephens 



made liis marl-; in move tlian one of the arts he has 
practisecL He seems, ho\ve^'el', to have jjiven him- 
self up — at least for the time — to goldsmith- 
sculpture and metal-work, and to have aband(.)ned 
thoughts of marble along" with can^"as and pigment. 
In 1881) Sir L. Alma-Tadema encouraged the 
l)rilliant }'oung student \\'ith a commission which 
- not wholh' legitimate on sculptural grounds, 
perliaps — was to produce a long frieze in copper, 
to be set i\\) in liis new studio, taking as a /no///' 
Sir Lawrence's picture of "The Women of Am- 
phissa." This irieze, eighteen feet long by as 
ma.iiy inches high, was dul\' produced, antl could 
not but be recognised as a dilfn'ult ]iroblem ha]v 
pih' so!\'e(L In iSgo ^I)'. Ste])hens jiroduced his 
charming wall-fountain, vi'ln'ch was inspired bv a 
design in the corner ol his own mural ]iicture 
of "Sunnner" in the refreshment room of the 
lvo\-ai Acadenn'. The \\-ork, liere reproduced, is 
certain^' the liner of the two \'eryions, for the 
daintA' (!ualit\- of the draperN', the grac'e ol the 
pose, and the prett\' turn of the liead imjxut a 
greater charm than is to be lound in the nude 
figure of the second work. A ])leasing leature is 
the colour o!' the metal — green and lawm' gol(L 
A bust of Sir John Macdonald was lollowedb)- a 
high relief of " Truth and Justice," in which, b}- an 



imconventional and independent invention on the 
artist's part, " Truth " was represented bv a voung 
girl with an ojien scroll, and " Justice " In' a boy, 
nude and blindfolded, who holds up the scales 
before her. In 1806 Mr. Reynolds-Stephens ex- 
hibited his greath' admired low relief, exhibited 
luider the prett^' title of " Happy in Beauty, Life, 
and LoA"e, and E\erything," charming in its refine- 
ment, and its fresh but rather languid lo\'eliness. 
"The Sleeping Beaut\' " is a design for a mantel- 
piece ot rare grace, lull of thought and invention, 
and dainty conceits : thus the dress of the prince, 
who stoops to imprint the kiss ol deli\'erance on 
the lad)-'s l)row, is embroitlered with cupids, her 
robe with hearts and sweet-pea clinging ; and the 
jiartitions ol the seats are cro^\■ned with jiojipy- 
heads. The whole is a felicitous composition ( far 
less like a work of Burne-Jones than the illustra- 
tion suggests) distinguished by a singular charm. 
"The Sleeiiing Beauty" was followed bv the 
lirst of Mr. l\eynol(ls-Ste]ihens' important full- 
lengths. This was the highl)' decin-ated statuette 
ol " Lancelot and the Xestling" (1891)), in which 
the artist began his delightful use of various 
coloured metals, i\'or)', gems, and the like, with 
pretty s)'nibolism in the base. Still more suc- 
cesslul, because more human, more tender and 




'■^'VS^i'im^i^'^X^^.^^i'^^^^^'^^ ■ \r^'-!i'">^^lX.^'-f- 



LANCELOT AND THE NESTLING, 
By W. Reynolds-Stephens. 




GUINEVERE AND THE NESTLING, 
By W. Reynolds-Stephens. 



ALFRED DRURY, A.R.A. 



109 




THE TRIUMPH OF SILENUS. 
By Alfred Dpurv A r a 



sympathetic, is the companion statuette produced 
the following }'ear — "Guinevere and the Nestling," 
charming alike in feeling, line, and composition. 
" Castles in the Air " ( 1901 ) is more elaborate still, 
and, besides imagination and distinction, it displays 
touching sympathy with child fanc}', and an ability 
to treat it decoratively yet realistically. As a 
silyersmith Mr. Reynolds-Stephens has produced 
some charming work, notably in the beautifully 
designed table bonbonniere ; and again in the 
letter-box plate, which attracted much attention 
when it was exhibited. 

When we think of Mr. Reynolds-Stephens we 
hardly know whether to consider him as a sculp- 
tor. Perhaps he is more of the goldsmith and 
metal-worker. His all-round talent as painter, 
modeller, and craftsman has had its effect upon 
his sculpture, pushing its decoratiye treatment yery 
far. His inventiveness and delightful imagination 
are responsible for the high degree of elabora- 
tion in the ornament, so that we sometimes think 
that more plain spaces would increase the effect of 
his pleasing decoration of surface. There is much 



refinement ot taste, too, in Mr. Reynolds- 
Stephens' choice of colour of metals and material. 
There is a delicate languor about the lines of his 
figures in relief, which alwa}'S displa}' a charming 
feeling. His draperies are dainty, stop well short 
of being " wir}- ;" and his work is distinguished, 
and characteristic of a man of refined taste and 
sensitive artistic temperament. 



Hr. ALFRED DRURY, A.R.A. 
1885. 



Mr. Drurv is among 
the most personal of our 
sculptors, alwa}'s in search of the graceful, the 
tender, the placid, and the harmonious, caring 
nothing for the vigour of energy, for passion, or 
for anatomical displa}' with which man}' love 




CIRCE. 

By Alfred drury. A, R a 



BRITISH SCUl^PTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




to express their enthusiasm or 
to display tlieir knowledge. As 
a lad he was a choir bov at Xew 
College, Oxford ; then, prompted 
by the sight of Chantrey's works, 
he attended the Art Schools in 
that cit^■, and afterwards the National Art Training 
School, wTiere he came imder the influence of 
M. Dalou, at that time the modelling master, as 
already explainetl. The ^-oung sculptor showed so 
much technical ability, \vhile dispk^'ing a mind at 
once imaginati\'e and elastic, that when M. Dalou 
profited by the political amnesty- \yhich permitted 
him to return to Paris he took his A'oung pupil Ayith 
him as assistant and kept him in his studio for 
four years. The master instructed him in all the 
practices and de\i'ces ot his art, and Mr. Drury 
was enabled to gain skill while helping with the 
famous relief of " ^lirabeau " and the still more 
celebi'ated group of "The Triumph of the Re- 
public," completed and set up but recently in the 
City of Paris. 

It was in 1885 that he sent his first contributi(jn 
to the Royal Academy — the group called " Tlie 
Triumph (jf Silenus." This cle\'er work, wisely 
modelled in terra-cotta — for such material the 
subject and the character inspires — giyes lar too 
close an imitation, if that be not too hard a ^yord, 
of the master's style. Returning t(^ England, he, 
like Mr. Alfred Gilbert and Mr. Lantcri, became 
assistant to Sir lulgar Boehm, whose good fortune 
in securing the seryices of able 3'oung men was 
ahvays remarkable. 

Working for himsell', he quickly threw off the 
gentle foreign 3'oke that was u]ion him and soon 
made his mark. In 1886 lie exhibited busts, of 
whicli that of" Mr. James Isliam " struck the note 



ol quiet dignit}- and simp]icit\- 
and clearness of presentati(jn 
which has de\-elo]ied since. In 
1888 he showed two ideal figures 
— " The Genius of Sculpture " and 
"II Penseroso; " in i88(j "A Gips^' 
]\Iaiden," at the Xew Gallery ; and at the Royal 
Academy busts of " ^Madame Xordica " and "^h. 
S. S. Cohen," and an ideal work called " The Thirst 
Reflexion," which, exhibited later at Dresden, 
was acqiuretl by the Queen of Saxony. " The 
Evening Pra^'er," a most charming figure Avhich 
was exhibited in 1800, was bought for the ]Man- 
chester Corporation Gallery., " Echo " appeared 
in 1891, and in 1892 "Harmony," an ideal female 
nude singing as she plays the ^-iol(.)ncello, yery 
cleyer, but not in the purely- sculptural 
sentiment as other works which jireceded and 
wdfich haye come after it. " Circe," in plaster, 
follo\ved in 1803, '"i<-l i" iS'h in bronze. This 
statue achieved a great popular success, which it 
repeated at the International Exhibitions both of 
Brussels and Paris, when it was duly " medalled." 
It was acquired by the City Art Gallery of Leeds. 
Felicitous as it is in line and arrangement, pleasing in 
its grace, and good in its modelling, this work was 
soon to be surpassed by the sculptor in that solidity 
which is so desirable a quality, and which is seen, 
for example, in the " liven," shortly to be cited. 
The bronze head of " St. Agnes," executed in the 
same year, and bought for the same g.dlery, is one 
of the first examples of Mr. Drury's newly found 
style— a head of great beauty and charm, belong- 
ing to that higher order of conception which, 
generally speaking, he has since maintained. 

"The Sacrifice of Isaac" is a panel m high 
relief, interesting mainly for its technical qualities 




ST. AGNES. 

8y Alfred Drury. A.R.A. 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




EVEN. 

(Leeds.) 



and for the glimpse it afforded of a new sitle 
to the sculptor's art. Then, in iSo6, came 
the head called "Griselda," in the spirit of the 
" St. Agnes" — an exquisite study of childhood, 
tine as sculpture, elegant and beautiful as decora- 
tion. It was bought at once lor the Chantre\' 
Collection. "The Age of Innocence," exhibited 
at the Academy in the following year, repeated 
the success of the other, and still further heightened 
the public appreciation of Mr. Drury's talent. So 
widely was it appreciated that when the bust was 
" published " in a small size a very considerable 
number were bought up at once. 



About this time a great scheme for the decora- 
tion of the City Square at Leeds was the result 
of the munificence of a private citizen. To Mr. 
Brock, as has been stated, was accorded the great 
central figure. To Mr. Drury and others, statues 
of Leeds worthies were confided ; accordingly 
the statue of Joseph Priestley was modelled— it 
was seen at the Academy in 1899. The electric 
standards around were also commissioned from; Mr. 
Drurv. For these he designed the colossal figure 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1898 under 
the title of " Even," so .that a set of standards, 




DR. PRIESTLEY. 

(Leeds.) 

By Alfred Drurv. a 




GRISELDA, 

By Alfred Drury, /'.R.A, 



114 



BRITISH SCULPTURE ANU SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 





MARCH, JUNE. AND DECEMBER 
Bf Alfred Drury, A R A 



unique in England, might light the square like 
the figures that decorate the pillars round the 
Paris Opera House. The calmly decorative, half- 
length, called " Tlie Prophetess of Fate," belongs 
to 1900, together with "The Little Duchess," 
a marble profile of the same prett}' child, or 
another closeh' resembling her, whom we saw 
in "The Age of Innocence." The treatment 
of flesh, hair, and neck could hardly be more 
admirable m this ably treated relief. 

Mr. Drury had done meanwhile a great amount 
of decorative sculpture for architectural embellish- 
ment — a purpose to which his quiet, contemplative 
art lends itself to perfection. A good deal of it is 
in terra-cotta, such as the spandrils of " Art and 
Design " and others for a coachmaker's premises in 
Hanunersmith. He has, moreover, executed far 
more important ^^■orks in scheme and elaboration. 
Among them are the twehe charming heads, 
representing the months, set up on pedestals on 
the terrace at Bari-o\v Court. It may perhajis fie 
added that, like Mr. Onslow Ford, Mr. Drury has 
also contributed oil paintings to the Royal Academy. 

As a manipulator of clay Mr. Drur\' possil)l^• 
stands first among the luiglish sculptors (.)t the da\-, 
an art he gained from his long apjirenticeship with 
M. Dalou. So great was this influence, indeed, that 
on his return to lingland Mr. Druiv did not for 
some while gratifv" his critics b}' adopting a st\'le un- 



mistakably his own. But it is wholly from himself 
that he has given us the most charming examples 
of his art. Retaining all his cleverness of technique 
at his fingers' ends, he cut adrift in due time 
from the subjects and treatment he had first 
adopted, and evolved something more English, 
abandoning the fat Rubensesque figures for his own 
less fleshy and more beautiful t^'pes of the nude. 
As has been said, his charming ideal busts, 
" The Age of Innocence " and " Griselda," are both 
performances of a very high order, possessing much 
sweetness in feeling and design. ]Mr. Drury's 
work always shows that he has well considered 
the material in which it is to be carried out ; if it 
is for stone, the treatment is stony ; if for metal, 
metallic. In portraiture he is A"er\- good, and is 
said to model a head in the shortest time in the 
most dexterous way. He is, in fact, an extremely 
clever modeller, and always refined. Occasionally, 
in unimportant work, he may be found a little simi- 
mary ; but not in his best productions. As a 
designer he is not on cpiite so high a plane, for he 
is not in the lull sense creative ; the reason being, 
perhaps, that he is not quite so much a thinker 
as an obserAer. 



1r. F. W. POMEROY. 
1885. 



Mr. Frederick William 
PoMEROY descends from a 
tamily ol' artist -craftsmen. While still a lad 



F. W. POMEROV. 



115 



he was apprenticed to a firm of architectural 
carvers, and under them acquired consideral)le 
skill in the manual side of the sculptor's art, 
occupj'ing his evenings with drawing at the 
Lambeth schools. Here, as has already bean 
explained, Mr. Sparkes had obtained the means 
to found a sculpture school on the lines 
demanded by art and common sense ; and 
to the life class, under M. Dalou's enthusiastic 
teaching, flocked so man\' of the young 
sculptors of the dav — ^Ir. Frith and ^h. 
Pomeroy amongst them — that most of the prizes 
offered in the Royal Academy sculpture school 
were for some years secured b\' the Lambeth 
pupils. This success was carried on in later lile, 
and Lambeth men appear out of all proportion in 
the Awards list of the Paris and other exhibitions. 



Entering tlie Aca(lem^' schools in 18S1, Air. 
Pomeroy during the fcjur years he passed through 
them took nearh' ever\' prize open to him, includ- 
ing the G<_)ld Medal and Tra\'el!ing Scholarship. 
In Paris he W(jrked undar M. ]\Iercie, and then 
passed on to Italy. 

A series of statuettes shown at the Academy 
were the first result of his vear's work. In 1888 
the bronze statuette of " Giotto " appeared, 
together with an ideal head in marble. In this 
year Lord Leighton had recei\ed from Mr. 
Jacobsen, of Copenhagen, a commission for a 
replica in marble of the "Athlete Struggling 
with a f^vthon " for his Glvptothek — the private 
sculpture gallerv which that connoisseur then pur- 
posed presenting to his native cit}' : an intention 
since carried out. This commission was highlv 




THE AGE OF INNOCENCE 
By Alfred Drurv, a, R A 



ii6 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




A CHIMNEY PIECE 

By F W POMcROY 



gratifying to tlie President, wliose pleasure at 
tlie flattering prop<jsal I well remember. To Mr. 
Pomeroy Leighton entrusted the responsible task 
of carving the replica in marljle, and the work was 
carried out under tlie superx'ision of the President 
with complete success. 

Since i8SS there has been scarce a vear in 
Avliich ]\Ir. Pomero\' lias not been represented in 
the exhibitions of the Rcn'al Acadenn-. In i8o') 



there was the charming "Boy Piping;" in 1900, 
" Dionvsos," a bronze statuette in the late Hellenic 
style, now lodged ni the Tate Caller}- at ^lillbank ; 
in 1 89 1, ''A X\-mph Finding tlie Head of Orpheus;" 
and in 1893, " Lo^'e the Conqueror," an extremely 
graceful figure of a girl in the finer French taste 
of the da\', bought by Li\'erpool the next }'ear ; 
"Undine" followed in 1804, together witlr 
" Peiisee " and several busts. " The Xvmph 




THE NYMPH OF LOCH AWE, 
By F W Por,iERO/ 



F. VV. POMHROY. 



1^7 




LOVE THE CONQUEROR 

By f. w, Po[,-erg/. 



of Loch Awe," which was purchased b\- the 
Trustees of the Chautrev Fund, and is now at 
Mihbank, is a charming httle marble, delight- 
fuhy felt and exquisitely car\'ed, Aery sinhlar in 
sentiment and arrangement to ]M. J)ennis I'uech ^ 
high relief of " X^•mphe de la Seine," exhibited in 
the Salon in 189^. " IMeasures are like Poppies" 
was the title of the pleasing female nude, an ideal 
work, belonging to iSq6. In iSgS came a vnvy 
important statue of " Perseus," which, although 
the pose is different, deliberateh' challenges the 
masterpiece of Benvenito Cellini in general 
attitude and accessory, very wisely, howe^'er, 
omitting the corpse of ^ledusa at his leet. 
Canova, it is true, also produced a '' Perseus " 
that was an echo of Bemenuto's, but he departed 
somewhat more ob\"iousl\' trom the original. " Ihe 
Potter" followed in 1899, an interesting nud; 
figure seated on the gr(jund ; and in i noo, a 
spirited bronze statue of " Admiral Blake ' tor 
Bridgwater, and an ideal figure of " The Spear- 
man," another hue male nude, excellent alike in 



jiose and in modirlling. In ii)Oi Mr. Pomeroy 
pr(KhK'ed the tw<i colossal statue? ol " iJean 
Hi)ok " for Leeds and " C)li\'er Cromwell " lor 
St. I\'es, in Huntingdonshire. 

^Ir. Pomer(j\' alsrj won in conijietition the 
commission for the Centenar\' Statue ol " Robert 
Burns " lor PaisleA', which he executed with such re- 
markable success that when the statue was erected 
the hjcal critics were not dissatisfied! In truth, 
this presentment is one ol the best, the most deco- 
rative, refined, and pleasing among the numerous 
effigies of the poet that have lately been erected. 
The Liberal Memorial Statue of Mr. Gladstone 




" pleasures are like poppies spread, 
you seize the flcvir, its b-oor^ 15 sped," 

By f w Pomeroy 



ii8 



BRITISH SCULPTURH AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




ROBERT BURNS 
(Paisley) 

By f. w pomerov. 



was also from the hand of ^Nlr. Ponieroy ; it 
now stands in the Outer Lobby of the Houses of 
ParHament. A recumbent effigy of the late Duke 
of Westminster, for Chester Cathedral, is the last 
of the artist's works in portrait sculpture. 

In his earlier years Mr. I'omeroy occupied 
himself greatly with decoration. One example of 
this is here shown in the mantelpiece in marble. 
He has also worked in alabaster and in the coloured 
plaster which has of late become so deservedly 
popular lor interior decoration, and has designed 
friezes and other forms of embellishment for many 
of the architects wlio have helped so sturdily 
to foster the art movement, such as the late 
Sir Arthur Blomfield and J. D. Sedding, Mr. 
A. Waterhouse, Mr. Belcher, and Mr. Mountlord. 

Mr. Pomerov's work is always strong and 



sculptures(]ue. There is much truth in both his 
ideal figures and portraiture ; he sees nature in a 
big and broad way, though sometimes he may be 
a little heavy ; but of ho\v many serious sculptors 
in the world mav not a charge of occasional heavi- 
ness be made ? He is excellent in modelling, and 
his technique not less good. His decorative work 
possesses fine qualities — it is effective and well 
designed : that done lor public buildings finds ils 
place adnfirably in architectme. In his portrait 
statues there is a great deal of strength — his figiu'es 
stand well, and are ahva^■s fine representations of 
the men. 



Mr. ALBERT TOFT. 
1885. 



Another South Kensington 
man, trained under Professor 
Lanteri after leaving the house of Wedgwoods, 




PERSEUS. 

By F. W. Fomeroy 




DEAN HOOK 

Bf F W POMEROY 



ALBERT TOFT. 




THE SPEARMAN. 

BY F, W. POMEROY. 



Mr. Toft made his wdv in the art world 
with determined perseverance. He first executed 
a number of rehefs of well-known men and studies 
of busts, but not till 1889 a statue, when " Lilith " 
was exhibited. In 1892 he made his first con- 
siderable success with a nude full-length called 
" Fate-led : She must needs go on blindly, yet 
fearing not," which was acquired for the Walker 
Art Gallery in Li^'erpool. This statue of a woman, 
gazing abstractedly into space as she advances, 
attracted by an unseen power, is so strong in sculp- 
tural idea and so well realised that it convinces 
those who might ha\'e asked lor a different 
O 



standard of beauty. In the same 3'ear the sculptor 
exhibited a striking bust, a representation of 
old age called "The Sere and Yellow Leaf" 
— a study that has been compared in aspect 
with the outlook of Monsieur Rodin, save 
that it is more n.;turalistic, perhaps, and more 
Zolaesque. For "Age and the Angel Death" 
— in which the old man implores the angel 
to " come closer " — Mr. Toft employed the same 
admirable model. .-Vt the same time he contri- 
buted the bust of " ^Ir. Cunninghame-Graham " 
to the New Gallery, a work full of vitality and 
vivacit}', which pushes so far the naturally accen- 
tuated characteristics of the sitter that it borders, 
perhaps inevitably, on exaggeration. The "Oracle," 
a bust in marble fnow in the possession of Mrs. 
Freeman), and "The Goblet of Life" belong 
to 1S94 • flis former, one of the sculptor's best 
works, with something of Greek feeling and 
Egyptian severity ; and the latter, a life - size 
seated figure, apparently intended to personifv the 
enjoyment of life's pleasures, thoughtless of the 




HAGAR, 

By Alc:f!t Toft 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




VICTORY, 

E< Albert Tofi 



present and careless (jf the future. The 
head of " Herodias," a marble relief, broadly 
treated ^•et subtle in drawing and light and 
shade, attracted considerable attention at 
the Xew ( jallerv ; it is now in the posses- 
sion of Lord Tollemache. 

After two years of abeyance, except lor 
relatively mn'niportant t'()niniissious, INIr. 
Toft pr(jduced in 1897 " Sjiring," a dainty- 
statue, which was acquired b}" the Birming- 
ham Art Gallery, and the charming "Vision." 
" Hagar/' seen in the Ivo\-al Academ}^ in 
1899, is a figure of significatiye lorce, alike 



in attitude, jiose, and expression. There is much 
sculptural drama in this kneeling woman and 
her passionate despair ; it is realised ^vith a 
broad touch and an alert mind. " ^'ictory,'.' the 
graceful figure of a nude girl, proud-of her nudity 
as of her triumph, stands erect upon^a shield. 
Pure in conception, it is surely carried too far 
in its realistic modelling, yet it bears witness 
to the accomplishment and knowledge of the 
artist. " The Spirit of Contemplation " is the 
most complete of all Mr. Toft's works. Life- 
size, it is a beautiful representation of the female 
form, original, almost daring, in its simple 
arrangement, decorative with praiseworthy self- 
restraint, dignified and refined. It would be a 
loss to English sculpture if this work were 
allowed to remain only in the plaster. 

Mr. Toft's chief busts are those of Mr. 




W. E. GLADSTONE. 
Bv Aldert Toft. 




1 j^*>^sS?^ ■*£•«», 



THE SPIRIT OF CONTEMPLATION 
By Albert Toft. 



124 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO DAY. 




THE FENCING MASTER 

By Edouard Lanteri. 



Ghtdstone (modelled from speoial sittings), of 
which two rephcas exist in tlie Cliidstone family ; 
of Mr. George Wallis, at the A'ictoria and Albert 
Museum ; of Mr. James Glaisher, the aged Presi- 
dent of the Photographic Society ; of Sir William 
Pierce ; of Major Wingh'eld (bronze), the inventor 
of lawn-tennis ; Dr. PhiHp James Baile\' ; and 'SI. 
Theodor LeschetiszkA'. His statues are those of 
Mr. Richard, M.l'. ; the Chief of Bamra (for 
India), and a dignified and graceful standing effigv, 
not yet com]:ileted, of " (Jueen Victoria" in State 
robes. There are also the memorial to Adjutant 
White, at Nottingham ; " Mr. (jladstone," for 
Penmaenmawr ; and all the sculpture on the 
Sir William Pierce memorial in Cre\'tt)n cemeter\'. 
There is a vein of real ]")oeti"v in Mr. Toft's 
ideal work, an idea which is expressed in the 
marble or bronze — or more (jlteii in the cla\' — 
with distinct individuality. An effort to be 
s^■lnmetrical is ahvavs there, a musical harmon\', 
an evenness of balance — wliat in the ex])ressi\'e 
jargon ol' the studios is sometimes called an 
" altogetherness " — and a relationship in the 



whole. The lines of his composition are usually 
rather severe, though flowing and curved in 
general, and are saved from monotony by horizon- 
tal and perpendicular ones. The ideal works are 
usually female figures of the nude, with expres- 
sion somewhat accentuated and eyes that seem 
to look through the spectator into space. At 
the same time Mr. Toft invests his figures with 
realism ; sometimes, indeed, as has been said, 
he ventures too close to naturalism, which he 
apparently seeks to compromise or soften down 
with graceful ornament or accessories. The ideas 
lie seeks to express are of a lofty kind, and are 




THE FISHERMAN AND 
THE MERMAID. 

By Edouard Lanteri. 



EDOUARD LANTERl. 




Mr. Laiiteri has ]ii'oduced ma^^• works on his 
own account. Amon.ir his busts arc tlvj ]iortraits 
of Sir Ed^^ar Boehm, ^Ir. J. C. L. Sparkes, Sir 
.luijustus Harris, 'SI. AVaddingtou, and tlie Duchess 
ol" Leinster ; l)ut with all tlie ability thev dis- 
pla_\- none has the remarkable de,;n"ee ot life and 
character shown in " The Fencin',^ blaster," a statu- 
ette of extraordiiiar_\- truth and vivacitv, which ever 
seems ready to don its mask and sprim;- "< n garde." 
A Inist also — thou'^di it deser^-es to be included 
among the ideal works— is the head which, under 
the title of " Tete de Paysan," was exhibited in the 
Royal Academy of kjoi. It is a head of remark- 
able force, one of the finest oi Mr. Lanteri's 
perl(jrmancis, liill of character and humour, 
adnn'rably modelled, the textures and A'alues well 



HEAD OF A PEASANT 

By EDOUARD Lant£ri. 



represented with technical skill, \et without 
displa}' of dexterit}-. In his ]iortraiture ]Mr. 
Tott is dexterous and quick, and his busts are life- 
like ; it is that kind of work wdiich pleases sitters, 
tor, besides resemblance, there are character, re- 
finement, and St} le. It might be said tiiat there 
is in Mr. Toft a good deal of his own " Spirit 
of Contemplation " — of that qualit\' which marks 
him out for the future. 



Mr. E. LANTERl 
1885. 



^Ir. Edouard Laxteri, a native 
ol Burgundy, now a naturalised 
Englishman, is a pupil of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, of Cavelier, ]\Iillet, and Guillaume. He 
\vas but twenty ^•ears old wdien he became 
assistant to Sir Edgar Boehm, and remained in 
the studio for nearh' twenty A'ears, until his chief's 
death. He had already succeeded ]M. Dalou as 
master of the sculpture classes in the National Art 
Training School, now the Royal College of Art, 
and he quickh' established a reputation throughout 
the world of art, securing the esteem his unusual 
talents deserved, and arousing among his pupils 
an extraordinarv enthusiasm for his teaching and 
himself that seems to increase as the years 
go on. 

In spite of the calls made by his occupation 
with Boehm and at the Royal College of Art, 




-_ ■■ m.'zrM 



SKETCH FOR A GARDEN 
DECORATION 

By E::ciiARD Lantlri. 




THE DUET 



By Edouard Lanteri 



EDOUARD LANTERI. 



127 




— es]:)eci;ilh' in the grace oi ]:)Ose and the com- 
position of the (h'aper\'. 

Tile gi"a\"er side (>[ Mr. Lantcri's art is seen in 
liis hirge funerary monument, with a liaH-^eiled 
figure, seated sideways to the s]iectator, patlietic in 
attitude, reposeful, and admirable alike in dignity, 
silliouette, and harmon^' of line. The lighter side 
could not better be displayed than in the " Sketch 
for a Garden Decoration," in which the best French 
tradition is allied to the solidity of Grinling 
Gibbons, let us sa}'. Richness, joyousness, fine 
sensuousness, and moyement are in this work, 
which ought not to be allowed to remain in this 
state, but should be carried out. 

Considered as a sculptor onh', Mr. Lanteri is a 
man of exceptional ability, endowed with a highly 
artistic temperament, and scarcely surpassed in 
this country or out of it in extreme dexterity in 
the use of the clay. This cleyerness is absolutely 
maryellous, and his Ayork is brilliant, individual, 
wonderful. Yet — as may be expected from a man 
who giyes up to others theTime and the self-absorp- 
tion lie needs for work of his own — he does not 
always sustain his full strength to the end ; for it 
tends, in the case of his ideal-nude figures, to lose 



QUEEN VICTORIA. 

By W. Ernie Rhind, A R S a. 



differentiated — and 3'et it was merel)' a " demon- 
stration bust," executed before his pupils as a 
lesson in construction, form, anatomy, and style. 
More Irankly ideal are the coquettish " Om- 
phale," the more serious "Peace" (now in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum), and the fanciful 
" Fisherman and the Mermaid," a cleverly built- 
up group, a little tree in feeling perhaps, but 
the work of a scholar wdro has given the rein to 
his gaiety. More reposeful, more serenely plastic, 
is the exquisite little marble group called 
"The Sisters." This has much of the sweetness of 
Schadow's "Princesses" in the Royal Palace of 
Berlin, but with truer artistic instinct; it is 
perhaps more suggestive of the tenderness of 
the little Tanagra group of girls chatting on 
a sarcophagus, and of the elegance of Leighton 




SCIENCE. 

By W, Eirmie Rhind. a r s a. 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



something of \-ibr;itioii, and to sacrifice some of 
that completeness which he understands so well 
and instils so successfully into others. Is it for 
this reason that he has destro}-ed so many of his 
works ? 

But as a sculptor of portraiture there need 
be no such reservations. If report is true, his 
extraordinary- skill and intelligent perception are 
to be found in nuicli of the best productions of 
Sir Edgar Buelun, one of whose principal assistants 
he was for so many )-ears, and for whom he 
worked on UKun- a statue that came from the 
studios, assuming the chief responsibility. Here 
his power is seen to lie great ; he is full of 
yigour and animation, and the arrangement and 
modelling of the draperies are excellent. It may 
certainh' be said that no man understands better 



| ^^^y^,y^^yy^^ ; it gjy)if^^P^ ^ i ^ ji^ j^ ^ ^ 




p iiii if i^'^'^^^^^S W 

liW 




than he the principles of drapery in portrait- 
statues, and few, indeed, can more adnurably put 
those principles into execution. It is this con- 
siderable gift to carry his theories into effect that 
makes Mr. Lanteri so supreme a master. As a 
teacher he has no superior, and man\' a success- 
ful sculptor of to-day owes much to his untiring 
energy, encouragement, and interest, such as he 
takes in all who ha\'e the good fortune to come 
under his care. 



Mr. W. BIRNIE RHIND 

A.R.S.A. 

1885. 



DOORWAY OF THE SCOTTISH 
NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 

.By W, BinniE Rh IJD, ARSA 



This sculptor, alter an 
academic training, began 
his art career as assistant 
to his father, John Rhind, A.R.S.A., who was 
engaged fur the most part in such decorative sculp- 
ture as the allegorical groups on the Edinburgh 
INIuseum of Science and Art, and other monu- 
mental conunissions. Work of the same character 
has been carried on by the son since his father's 
death in i8q2. The most elaborate of his deco- 
rative compositions is the doorv.-a}' ot the Scottish 
National Portrait (jailer}', together with se\-eral 
of the statues for the niches. Of these the study 
for the colossal " James A' of Scotland " was 
exhibited in the Ro^■al Academy in iSgg. The 
design is cle\'er and li\-elv, and is carried out 
with considerable spirit. Eor the Sun Insurance 
Offices in (^hisgo\\' ^Ir. Rhind pro\"ided the 
decorati\-e scul]iture. Taken in ]iarts, the broken 
pediment is ^■er^• ]ileasing, but the two halves of 
it a]ipear too far a]yirt, and the fit;'ures upon 
them — hapjiily eoncei\-ed and boldly modelled — 
are too tloseh- based on }ilicliael Angelo's 
'• Day " and " Xiglit " on the ^Medici tomb, 
while the figure between is in a more classic 
taste. Ol the general grace and beauty, how- 
e\'er, there is no doubt. The (lc'.'orati\"e panels, 
Ol' cartouches, Ireeh- armorial in conception, 
])laced over tlie entrance, are not open to 
objection. The doorwa\- to the Technical Insti- 
tute, West Ham, is another elaborate and 
ellecti\-e work ; and more decorations of the 
kind have been executed for the County Council 
Olfices of Wakelickl, and elsewhere. 

IMr. Rliind's monumental commissions include 
the Sir IVter Coats' iMeinorial statues at Paisley. 
The statue of a gentleman in Irock and overcoat 
is not usuall)' in itself an inspir'ng subject ; but 
the two pedestals devised by Mr. Rhind and 



W. BIRNIE RHINU, A.R.S.A. 



1 29 




PARTING 

By W GOSCOM3E John, A R A, 



father's craft. In 1882 he left Cardiff lor London, 
obtained employment with Farmer and Brindley's, 
and attended Mr. Frith's class at I^aml)etli. (See 
the notice on Mr. Frith.) In 1884 he entered 
the Roj'al Academy schools, but, after a successful 
career, he failed to secure the gold medal with 
his group, "An Act oi Mercv " — not because liis 
model was not excellent, but because another one 
was better still. Mr. John became assistant to 
C. B. Birch, A.R.A., then visited Italy and Greece, 
as advised b\' Lord Leighton, and, two years after 
his first failure, he tried for the gold medal 
again with a group on the subject of " Parting." 
This time he won it ; and Sir L. Alma-Tadema 
commissioned liim to complete the model. His 
return from a long "gold medal " journey abroad 
was signalised by the scholarship work " Mor- 
pheus," which was acquired by the Art Gallery of 
his native town. In 1893 '""^ contributed to the 
Royal Academy the graceful and original figure, 



embellished with statuette, relief-panel, and 
bronze-capped columns are both effective and 
beai\tiful. There are, besides, the Walker statue 
in Edinburgh and the " Thakore of Gondal" 
for India. The bust of " Lord Salisbury," shown 
in the Royal Academy in 1899, is not entirely 
happy in resemblance, yet it is a broadly and 
easily handled head. The bust of " Queen Vic- 
toria," somewhat as Mr. Brock originally saw her, 
has dignity of presentation. That of Mrs. Birnie 
Rhind, shown in 1900 in the Paris Salon, is very 
charming — the attracti\'e portrait of a pretty 
woman, dainty and cJiic, modelled with a light 
and loving hand, and recalling the feeling parti}' 
of Watteau, partly of Mignard, with a touch of 
the fanlaisic of Van der Straeten. 

We have here, indeed, a strong leaning towards 
decoration, not the search after se^'erity and 
the more serious side of art. Mr. Rhind would 
doubtless be the first to admit that he has aimed 
but little at the ideal and concentrated his 
energies on what appears to be chiefly under- 
stood and appreciated in Scotland — the decorative 
side of sculptural art. 



GOSCOMBE JOHN, A.R.A. 
1SS6. 



The son of the sculp- 
tural carver to the late 
Marquess of Bute, Mr. John early followed his 
R 




ST JOHN THE BAPTIST. 

By W. GOSCOMBE John, a,r,a. 



I30 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




THE GLAMOUR OF THE ROSE. 
Ey W Goscombf John, A.RA 



"A Girl Bindiii,^; Her Hair." In the following 
year came " St. John the Baptist," an austere 
figure of tlie accepted type of the Precursor such 
as was imagined bv Donatello, and bv Michelozzo 
Micliozzi in liis statue in SS. Annunziata at 
Florence, or b}' the German sculptors ; it was 
acquired by Lord Bute, and ]ilaced in his house 
in Regent's Park. 

" A Boy at Bla\'," a uude carekilh' modelled 
and skilfull^• poised, was contributed to the 
Academy in 1895 ; but it was perhaps ratlier 
as a realistic study than as a sculptural concep- 
tion tliat tlie statue was generally regarded. It 
was acquired by the Academy for the Chan- 



trey Collection, and is now at Millbank. In 
1896 Mr. John exhibited the panel in relief called 
"The Glamour of the Rose/' a graceful and poetic 
composition, and a statue of " Muriel," his little 
long-frocked daughter. In 1897 ^^^ executed the 
" Memorial to Canon Guy," and in 1898 a relief 
portrait of Miss Vedder and the charming statue 
of " The Elf" This weird, eerie figure, quaint in 
feature, form, and attitude, twisted yet graceful, 
is a perfect embodiment of the idea at 
which the sculptor aimed. Then followed the 
Memorial to Welsh Notabilities; the "David 
Owen" statue at Mold; an Altar-piece for St. 
John's, Cardiff; an admirable bust of Dean 
Vaughan ; a study for the monument in Llan- 
daff Cathedral, all in 1900, and "A Bo}' with 
a Bough " for a fountain in 1899. Mr. John also 
made a Drinking-horn in ivor}^ and gold lor 
the national Eistedfodd, and has modelled small 
grotesques and medals as well. Most important 
of all his works is the colossal seated statue of 
the Duke of Devonshire in his robes, now set up in 




THE ELF. 

By W. Goscombe John, A.RA 



W. GOSCOMBE JOHN, A.R.A. 



131 



Eastbourne. Fine in character, dignified, and 
impressive in arrangement, this admirable figure 
well merited the gold medal awarded to it at 
the Paris Salon of 1891 — the only occasion 
when a British sculpt(jr has been so honoured. 
Mr. John was elected an Associate of the Ro}'al 
Academy in 1899. 

The sculpture of Air. Goscombe John has been 
up to a high le^'el for years past. Its main char- 
acteristic, perhaps, is its conscientious love of the 
purity and refinement of nature ; the beautv and 
delicacy of the drawing give peculiar interest to 
all he does. Who will deny these qualities in 



marked degree to " The Elf," with its originality 
and its delicious quaintness ? It would be 
unfair, lio\ve\-er, to say that Air. John excels 
in these qualities, Ibr there are other points of 
merit not less renrarkable. He has given strong 
proof of his powers of design, though it may be 
hazarded that he has not yet developed them to 
the full extent of which they are capable. His 
relief-work may be called in evidence. As to the 
(jriginalitv to which reference has been made, there 
is more of it in the poise of a figure than in its 
treatment. His work is, perhaps, not very 
decorative — it rather tends towards realism ; it 




BOY AT PLAY, 

By W. Goscombe John, A R a 



132 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE 
(Eastbourne.) 

By w, Goscombe John, A.R A. 



is always executed with good taste, and is deli- 
cate to a degree. 

Mr. John's portraiture is laithful and charac- 
teristic. In the design of his draperies only does 
the artist sometimes appear open to criticism, occa- 
sionally, but not often, as if there were need of a 
few straight lines and plain surfaces. In such a 
case the face and hands are liable to suffer. But 
the details are all beautifully carried out. Indeed, 
more than strength, delicacy is the quality of 
Mr. John's sculpture which strikes the spectator. 



Mr. BERTRAM MACKENNAL. 
1886. 



Mr. MacKennal is 
the son of a Scottish 
sculpt(u- who settled in Australia, where he himself 
was born in 1865. He came to England in i<S83, 
studied at the British Museum and then at the 



Royal Academy schools, which, however, he soon 
quitted, as he found the discipline intolerable to his 
independence. Going to Paris, where he hovered 
among several leading studios, he picked up a good 
deal of foreign feeling. In 18S9 he won the 
competition for the decoration of the Government 
House of Victoria, and returned to his native con- 
tinent for two years to carry out the work. In 
i8g2 he exhibited at the Salon "La Tete d'une 
Sainte" and " Le Baiser d'une Mere." 

In 1803 he produced his "Circe," first shown 
at the Salon, where it was well-placed and awarded 
a iNIention. Afterwards it created something of a 
sensation at the Royal Academy. Poetic and 
bold, this statue of the sorceress, nude but severe 
in style and scornful in expression, betravs no trace 
ol the model. Her swav t)ver the swine that have 



BHKTKAM MACKHKNAI.. 



133 




CENTREPIECE (Silver). 
Ey Bertram MacKennal. 



drunk, and which are sj'mbohsed around the 
phnth, is admirably indicated. In the following 
year the success which attended " Circe " was 
repeated, though with less purely sculpturesque 
feeling perhaps, with the group " For She Sitteth 
on a Seat in the High Places of the City." This 
" Rahab," from the Book of Proverbs, realises not 
too subtly, so that all may understand, triumphant 
Vice. Conscious of her power and supremacy, 
her expression indicating amused and contemptu- 
ous cynicism, she shamelessly offers herself lor 
the golden rose. Her foot is set (like Mammon's 
in Mr. G. F. Watts's picture) on True Love, 



with his broken wing ; while the head of the 
Man, Sin, decorates the back of her throne. 

A number of portrait-busts followed, among 
them "Madame Sarah Bernhardt" and "Mrs. 
Herbert Hart : " the latter is here reproduced 
mainly for the sake of the pleasing arrange- 
ment of the plinth. In 1896 Mr. MacKennal 
produced his admirable centrepiece. Full of 
fancy, excellent in proportion, graceful in 
composition, both of the whole and the parts, it 
may remind us of Alfred Stevens, of Mr. Alfred 
Gilbert, and, in the female figures, of the elegant 
masters of France. But this is onh' inspiration ; 




CIRCE 



By Bertram IVIAcKEN^ 



;f. e. e. schenck. 



133 



the work is Mr. MacKennai's owii, and deserves 
its place among the good designs of Britisli sculp- 
tors. " Oceana," a gracelul life-size nude in marble, 
iollowed in 1897, a commission from the Union 
Club of Sydney; and in 189S the Rodinesque 
figure of "Grief." The passion here is well 
presented ; but there hardly appears sufficient 
differentiation between flesh and draper\'. Since 
that year Mr. MacKennal has been engaged on a 
large Tomb and on two statues of " Queen \'ictoria " 
— one for Lahore and the other for Australia. 
One of these represents the Queen as a girl, 
slightly Gothic in feeling, with a sweep of line that 
helps the composition and lends it interest, while 
round the base are small figures in relief symbol- 
ising the virtues of the monarch. The other 
shows the Queen in her later prune, standing 
also on a symbolical plinth, severer in feeling 
and less decorative in arrangement. 

Mr. MacKennai's work is usually marked with 
fine style, firm and telling, with a keen apprecia- 
tion of the value of form in sculpture, and the 
general effect as a whole. It gives evidence of 
a good sense of design, and has great refinement, 
with movement arid nervousness of treatment. 
Somewhat daring in conception and handling, 
it is always sculpturesque. The " Circe," for 
example, is a fine piece of modelling, and 
very well arranged, though some might object 
that the action is a little momentary — for rest 
or repose in action always helps the sense of 
dignitv. A good deal of Mr. MacKennai's elegance 
seems to have been instilled into him in Paris ; it 
is a considerable factor in his figures, with their 
pleasing treatment and their acceptable type of 
beauty. 



Mr. HERBERT HAMPTON 
1886. 



Mr. Hampton was 
educated at the Lambeth 
School under Mr. Frith, at the Slade School 
under Professor Fred Brown, and at Paris under 
M. Cormon and M. Puech. His work is consider- 
able. "The Mother of Evil " was first seen at the 
Paris Salon. Then came the "David," a statue 
sent to the Royal Academy, where also were 
e.'chibited the statues of "Apollo," "The Broken 
Vow^," and a group of a " Mother and Child." At 
the New Gallery "Narcissus" was exhibited, and 
at the Liternational Society "The Kitten." Mr. 
Hampton also executed lor Cardiff the colossal 




"for she sitteth on a seat 

in the high places of the city" 

By Bertram MacKennal. 



statue ot the late Lord Aberdare, and' for Lord 
Windsor a fountain group in marble. Among the 
numerous busts which have come from Mr. 
Hampton's hand the best, perhaps, are " Lord 
Roberts," seen in the Academy- in 1900, and "Sir 
Henry Howorth " — a striking likeness and char- 
acteristic head — in 1901. 



1r. F. E. E. SCHENCK. 
1886. 



Mr. Schen'CK is essentially 
an architect's sculptor, who 
has devoted himself to adapting his art to the 
decoration of the numerous great buildings which 
for some years past have been springing up all 
over the country. That is to say, Mr. Schenck 
has sailed gaily on the top of the art \va.\e 
that has been flowing of late, thanks mainly 
to the efforts of the present generation of archi- 
tects. Lr the case of such facile designers as ^Ir. 
Schenck, it is not a matter of slow elaboration 
and laborious production : decorative statues and 



■ 35 



BRITISH SCULPTURH AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




MRS. HERBERT HART, 
By BcRTRAM MacKennal 



the like are required ([uickl}' and, as it were, in 
the bulk, and the demand has l)een satisHed. 
For example, for the Stafford Municipal Buildings, 
he executed eight figures in bold relief, illustrat- 
ing the industries of the country. One of these, 
" Agriculture," executed ftji' the Council Hall, 
and sent to the Roval Academy in 1896, is here 
reproduced. For Mr. Hare's highly interesting 
Oxford Municipal Buiklings ten figures in bold 
relief lor tlie Town Hall were required, besides 
other decorations and two ligures in tJie Assembly 
Rooms. The figure of " Industry," between the 
spring of the arches in tlie Town Hall, is liere 



showTi. It was exhibited in 1897 '^t the Roj^al 
Academy. 

Tlien followed a commission for eight figures 
for a liouse in Harley Street, and another for 
about thirty ligures and other decorations for a 
private house in Cur/.on Street. Besides these, 
there are the exterior decorations in terra- 
cotta, including four figures, for the Public 
Library and Baths in Shoreditch ; and for a 
building in Leeds the two great figures which 
were sliown in the .\cademy of 1901. These 
represent but a portion of Mr. Schenck's ac- 
ti\ity ; there are other works such as the panel, 




QUEEN VICTORIA. 

By Bertram MacKennal- 



138 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TODAY. 



"The Morn is Up Again," publicly seen in 
1894. 

Mr. Scheiick, then, is purely a decorative 
sculptor, who lias always to consider architectural 
surroundings. The work is, generally speaking, 
very healthy in its vigorous treatment, though 
somewhat lieav\' in character, and, in former 
times, " curly " in the draperies and often enough 
in the lines. His composition is good, and the 
figures fill well the spaces thev lun^e to occupy. 
There has frequently been a certain lack of that 
stillness and repose which it seems might easily 
be obtained by a bigger simplicity in the treat- 
ment of the draperies, of outline, and detail. 
IVIr. Schenck is still young, and so clever that 
we ma}' look to an increased sense of nervous- 
ness in his work, and a greater delicacy of 
feeling and refinement — if these are not held to 
tell against the strength of effect. 



Mr. HENRY C. FIEHR. 
1887. 



After a career of much 
success in the schools of 
the Royal Academv and taking all the prizes 



that were to be taken, Mr. Fehr plunged with 
extraordinary courage into the elaborate prob- 
lems of his art. Mr. Brock took the young 
sculptor into his studio, letting him learn a great 
deal of the technique of the sculptor's craft and, 
doubtless, bringing some calm over Mr. Fehr's 
exuberant energy. While with him Mr. Fehr pro- 
duced his statuettes of " Morning," " Amphitrite," 
" Favourettes," and others. In 1893 ^^ created 
no little sensation in the Roval Academy with the 
]ilaster of " Perseus and Andromeda," which, cast 
in bronze the following year, was duly exhibited and 
was bought by the President (who took a kindly 
interest in the sculptor) and the Council for the 
Chantrey Collection. The group, in spite of cer- 
tain faults, is very clever, remarkable in so young 
a man. The unfortunate superposition of Perseus 
on the dragon, and the dragon on Andromeda, 
and the inevitable confusion of arrangement 
arising, must not blind us to the obvious merits. 
The taste is inferior to what Mr. Fehr has done 
since ; but while we regret the exuberance we 
cannot but admire the spirit that engendered it. 




AGRICULTURE. 

By F. E, E Schenck. 



HHNRY C. FEHR. 



139 



" Hypnos Bestowing Sleep upon the Kunh " 
was exhibited in 1895, and was applauded Ix^r its 
imposing and monumental decorati\-eness. 'Die 
figure, not quite justly, I think, was spoken of 
with Mr. Gilbert's " Icarus," as if Irom that it had 
received inspiration ; there was something of 
originality about it, and the figure was not witliout 
grace and strength. A Grtcco-Eg)-ptian type of a 
nude girl holding up an image tf) which she chants 
her prayer, called " An In^-ocation to the Goddess ot 
Love," appeared in the Royal Academy of 1S97, 
and in the following year a very graceful and 
pretty composition "The Spirit of the Waves," a 
large coloured frieze of " The Battle of Wakefield," 
and the group of " St. George and the Rescued 
Maiden." An extremely clever and dainty com- 
position is the last-named, but it is open to slight 
criticism. It has not the purity of, say, " Melusine 
and Raymondin," by M. Dampt, nor the restrained 
richness and originality of Mr. Alfred Gilbert, nor 
the unconsciousness of Mr. Drury ; yet it has 
something inspired by all three, in the arrange- 
ment of the figures, the knight in armour, and the 
rescued maiden. The attitude of the latter, grace- 
ful as it is, is a little inappropriate to the sentiment 
of the work ; she seems rather to be posing 
than helping the knight to support her lightly- 
held frame, and too great an effort appears to 
have been made to contrast the flesh of the 
maiden with the armour of the knight. Yet 
with a little more reticence the group would 
have been a far greater artistic success, for its 
merits are much more obvious than its faults. 
The statues of "James Watt" (1899) and 
"John Harrison" (1900) for the City Square, 
Leeds, "Dr. Cartwright " for Lord Masham, 
and the Mayor of Bradford, and the ideal 
statue of 1 901, exhaust the list of the more 
important productions. The last-named, "Ambi- 
tion's Crown Fraught with Pain," is very graceful, 
although the pose is somewhat affected. Among 
Mr. Fehr's numerous portrait - works may be 
mentioned the busts of Mr. Passmore Edwards 
and William Morris, and the clever and humorous 
marble statue of " Honor," the little daughter of 
Mr. Doll, with dachshund puppies in her arms. 

Mr. Fehr, then, is possessed of much vigour and 
a considerable amount of cleverness. He is, indeed, 
so skilful that much of the strength and character 
in his work almost appears as though it were the 



1 

{ 






tf^^^^§ 


"^^ 


•t^t^jf' '<jLr"'nz*r--^^^^H 


'-^■^ £»,i^i;^«a ,,:aaiaj»isi!«'™-'- 



HYPNOS BESTOWING SLEEP 
UPON THE EARTH. 



result of a well-achieved feat. To quiet English 
taste Mr. Fehr seems to over-emphasise ; he has 
no little power of design, and sometimes comes 
close to being very fine, but a certain lack of depth 
in sentiment and of repose seems to make us hesi- 
tate ; we admire the excellent life and vivacity he 
displaj's, but stop to ask ourselves if it is not a little 
forced. This may arise from the sculptor having 
executed so much decoration ; for we alwaA's feel 
that when Mr. Fehr has been more influenced by 
j^ears he will certainly produce work of a very 
high order, being possessed of as much talent as 




PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA 
By Henry C Fehr 







e? 





^ 







GEORGE E. WADE. 



U3 




TIRNVARUR MUTHUSWAMY. 

Bv Geohge E Wade 



to the officers of the 2nd Goorkhas killed at 
Dargai ; and a colossal statue of Queen Victoria 
for Ceylon. To these may be added the half- 
length of Canon Wade, busts of Lord Sufheld 
and Sir Morell Mackenzie, a bronze statue of 
the Duke of Connaught, and another of Sir 
John Macdonald, this one the last of four statues 
of the statesman being modelled for Montreal 
for the large memorial — ■ a great architectural 
structure crowned with symbolical figures. 
Most noteworthjr is the seated figure of 
Tirnvarur Muthuswamy, a native Indian Judge, 
for the High Court of Madras. 

Mr. Wade's ideal figures are more numerous 
than miglit ha\'e been expected \\'ith so much 
practical work proceeding in the studio. It 
includes two statuettes, "Despair" and "Aphro- 
dite ; " the equestrian group, " St. George and the 
Dragon," in the manner cultivated by the most 
modern French sculptors, M. Dampt and the rest ; 
the four life-size bronze figures for a house in 
Grafton Street (Mrs. Arthur James'), a street 
fountain for Chicago, a statuette of a man and 
horse for the late Lord Wantage ; a pair of 
bronze figures called " Torch -bearers ; " and a 
large symbolical composition of a naked female 



figure surmounting and rising above the world, 
called "Truth." 

It cannot be said that there is any striking 
style or marked individuality in the work of 
Mr. Wade, or that the modelling calls for special 
comment. But it must surely be accounted to 
the credit of the sculptor that in his portrait 
busts and statues his gentlemen look like gentle- 
men, and his ladies lady -like— a virtue which 
cannot be claimed by some sculptors who are 
cleverer modellers and greater artists. 



Mr. GILBERT BAYES. 
1888. 



Although Mr. Bayes began 
exhibiting so long ago, he did 
not then aim at serious sculpture, nor did he give 
undivided attention to modelling for some years. 
Fronr the first his clever and spirited little sketch 
compositions in low-relief, mainly of horses with 
jockeys, mythic knights, and the like, were treated 
with favour in the galleries. In 1896 he entered 
the Royal Academy schools ; two vears later an 
anatomical figure he had cast in bronze was 
purchased by the Academy ; and in 1899 he gained 
the Gold Medal. Meanwhile, a set of panels he had 




THE SIRENS OF THE 
FORD. 

BY Gilbert Bayes. 



144 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




VANITY. 
Bv Gilbert 



Mr. w. R. coLTON. ;\/[i^_ CoLTON is iuiother of 

1889. , ^ , , ,^ , , 

the Lambeth School men 
who ha\'e made their mark. He also passed 
through the Roval Academy schools under Sir 
Julgar Boehni and 'Sir. Armstead, but he had for 
some time before been a contributor to the exhibi- 
tions. Alter he had studied in Paris, Mr. Colton 
Hrst drew notice to liimself with tlie fountain 
erected in H^'de Park, executed to the order of 
H.lM.'s First Commissioner of Works during a 
lucid artistic interval of the Government. The 
influence of Mr. Alfred Gilbert seems to be in this 
charming production ; but it is open to the criticism 
that the figure is abruptl_y cut oft' at the middle. 
"The (jirdle " followed — a graceful female nude, 
in which the flesh is like flesh, and with the 
]ilastic quality more emphasised than the gh'ptic. 
The statue, first exhibited in plaster in 1898, 
was afterwards bought for the Chantre}- Collection 
when cast in bronze, and placed in the Gallery at 
Millbank. A great stride was made in 1S99 with 
" The Image Finder," a work of more originalitv', 
strength, and sculpturesque motive than of obvious 
grace. Then followed " The Crown of Love,' 



exhibited in Dresden was bought by the State, 
and he soon left for Paris and Italy to finish a 
training so well begun. 

Besides such little reliefs as "The Triumph," 
"Probable Starters" (1893), "The Ride of the 
Walkyries" (1894), "The Tilt-yard" (1S95), and 
"Banners of the Faithful" (1896), Mr. Bayes 
has also produced the bronze statuette " Vanit}^" 
(1896), "A Knight Errant" (1898), "Sirens of the 
Ford" (1899), "The Dragon Slayer" (1900), and 
" St. George " — the last three in the manner of 
M. Dampt, or Fremiet ; while the clever sketch- 
group of "vfineas Leaving Troy," in a far more 
academical spirit, done for the schools, belongs 
to 1900. 

Mr. Bayes' early work, judged criticalh', is 
dramatic, but forced in design and in effect. It is 
very clever, but necessarily neither deep nor well- 
grounded ; original, but not aiming at dignity, and 
somewhat restless ; and hitherto it has suggested 
bronze rather than stone. Tliese are defects of the 
past, which are already being remedied bv the 
young sculptor with all his career before him. His 
serious student work displays a power of search- 
ing observation not noticeable in earlier eftbrts. 




/ENEAS LEAVING TROY, 
Bv GiLOEHT Bayes. 



W. R. COLTON. 



145 



executed under the influence (.)f :\I. Rodin— a 
highly accomplished composition, a little involved, 
but charming in sentiment. In igoi Mr. Coltun 
showed " The Wa\-elet : By rippling shallows 
of the lisping lake." It is a figure well worth^' 
of his rising reputation, although failing to sus- 
tain in action all the beauty of the forms. It 
must not be forgotten that Mr. Colton, who has 
executed several important decorations in coloured 
plaster, was one of the first of the younger men to 
help reintroduce artistic enamels into England. 
Mr. Colton's work has a strong Parisian fla\-our, 



from which he has not yet wholly freed liimself. 
But the scu]])tor is ^'oung and endowed with a 
strong indi\"iduality ; and these qualities, affecting 
performance alread\' so good, will inevitablv l)ring 
him more to the front. There seems to be an occa- 
sional tendencv in the artist to introduce " an ugly 
bit " for the fun of it — as in the accentuated 
shoulder of the man in the " Crown of Love," and 
in the foot in " The Wavelet." The latter statue 
is charmingh' modelled and drawn, but the right 
f )0t is noticeubh' ugh" in tlie twist given to it in 
a strange and unusual, though quite natural action. 




THE GIRDLE. 
By W. R Colton, 




THE CROWN OF LOVE. 

By W. R Colton. 



DAVID McGILL. 



147 



A point is made of it, and by that it loses. In 
Rodin, of coiirss, we often see the tame pecuharity ; 
but then it is a manner witli him, and so frequent is 
it' that it becomes a part of In's strange force and 
spirit— to which in so great an artist, if we do not 
approve it, we at least must bow. 

Mr. Colton's work is never common. It l)e- 
longs perhaps to " tlie ileslily school," and is well 
drawn and modelled. It is realistic, and is some- 
times in danger of suggesting mainly studies of the 
nude ; but this is because so far he has not given 
much proof of the power of design that is almost 
certainly in him. His figures are well arranged ; he 





THE WAVELET. 
By w. R Colton. 



is health}' and rich in workmanship, with a keen 
appreciation of the relation of "values," and there 
is besides in all he does an excellent sense of style. 



Mr. DAVID McGILL. 
1889. 



THE IMAGE FINDER. 
BY w. R. Colton. 



^Ir. INIcGiLL, a South Ken- 
sington student, is a young 
artist who has made some reputation among 
sculptors and among a circle of art lo\'ers by 
the charming quality of his work. He had had 
experience in Paris prior to entering the Academy 
schools (before the 23-years' hmit), with skill 
already formed. His " lone RemoMng the Bod}- 
of St. Sebastian after his :Mart}-rdom " was his 
winning group at the Academy in 1894; the 
suggestion that the Saint is still miraculously living 
is cleverly shown by the lack of dead weight in 
the martyr as he is borne along. Mr. McGill 
for some while appeared to be a disciple of Harr\- 
Bates, as may be seen in his charming circular 
relief of " Hero and Leander " ( 1S92). 

Of Mr. ^McGill's figures the best is perhaps 
"The Bather," which sufficiently proclaims his 
ability. Charming in drawing, refined in feeling, 



148 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




lONE REMOVING THE 
ST. SEBASTIAN. 

By David McGill. 



and carelul in modelling, Mr. ^IcGill's 
work can onl)- be charged with an 
occasional want of force and effect, and 
perhaps with following the Donatello 
school somewhat too closely. His 
treatment of the figure is fearless ; his 
style is good, and his future perform- 
ance should justify its promise. 



Hr. CHARLES JOHN ALLEN. 
1890. 



Mr. Allen 
is vet an- 
other pupil of Lambeth School, at the 
time when it was conducted by Mr. 
Frith. In 1879, when he was se\en- 
teen years of age, he was apprenticed 
to Brindley and Farmer, and during 
the ten years he worked with them he 
learned all the kindred cralts of sculpture 
in stone and wood, executing carvings 
in marble on the reredos of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and in wood for Juiton Hall, 
St. Albans Abbe}', and the White Star 



steamships. Passing through the Royal Academy 
schools he became assistant to Mr. Thorn3'croft, 
emploved on several of his important commissions, 
especially the great external frieze for the Chartered 
Accountants' building, already mentioned. To the 
Academy exhibition of 1890 Mr. Allen sent " Love 
Flies from the Doubting Soul;" in 1892 "Jacob 
Wrestling with the Angel " — a group which, 
savouring somewhat of the schools, is also not 
without a souvenir of Mr. Gilbert's " Icarus." In 
the same year the bust of Dr. Sweatman, Bishop 
of Toronto, was exhibited. In 1893 came the 
dainty statuette, prettih' conceived, called " Love 
Repulsed," showing a Cupid with his wings clipped 
and his arrows broken. This figure was sent to the 
Chicago Exhibition. A greater success awaited the 
artist the next j'ear — not so much through his 
large statue " Perseus Victorious Returning to 
the Gods," with the head upon a charger — for this, 
fine as it is, was not 3'et wholly free of the 
school-academy ; but with a design for a door- 
knocker, " Fortunatus," which was recognised for 
V 




A DREAM OF LOVE. 
By Charles J Allen 



CHARLES J. ALLEN. 



149 



its excellence and balance, and its true appre- 
ciation of Venetian and Bolognese style, as the 
work of an able man. 

In this same year Mr. Allen was appointed 
Teacher of Sculpture at the University of Liverpool 
under the Roscoe Professorship. It was in Li\-er- 
pool accordingly that he first exhibited his " Love 
and the Mermaid," which, cast in bronze, was 
afterwards bought for the Walker Art Gallery. 
This charming group does not claim to l)e original 
in general idea ; we have seen something like it in 
Mr. Lanteri's " Fishermen and the iMermaid ; " 
something more like it in Mr. Pegram's " Bather " of 
the same year ; and man}' have been the groups 
that have preceded them all, from Burne- 
Jones's picture backwards. " A Dreanr of Love " 
followed, graceful in composition and silhouette, 
poetic, too, and full of pretty passages. It was 
exhibited at the same time as the busts of 
"Professor Rendall," "Professor iNIackay," and 
"Alderman Philip Rathbone." "Hermes" is a 
bust in which the modern face is surely some- 
what fanciful. But "Rescued" is a group ot 
very high merit indeed, pleasing from every 
point of view, excellent alike in treatment, model- 
ling, and sentiment. The artist was rewarded 
wnth a Gold Medal at the Paris Salon. 

Mr. Allen's sculpture is essentially sound and 
graceful. It is healthy, and free in its modelling, 
with a considerable amount of movement and 
richness in effect. Excellent in intention, and big in 
style, the work, e^-en when a little hea^-}-, is not 
less good in design. Critics have thought that the 
values are sometimes rather scattered. If so, this 
is only occasional ; but as the strength of light and 
shade in a detail or accessory draws attention away 
from the main point or feature it is a matter of 
importance. Mr. Allen is far too strong and able 
a man not speedily to overcome tendency to any 
weakness of the kind. 



Mr. F. M. TAUBMAN 
1890. 



If many masters can make 
a good pupil, Mr. Taubman's 
excellence and career as a sculptor should be assured. 
At the Finsbury and the Lambeth School, at Paris 
under Puech and Fremiet, at Brussels under 
Vanderstappen, and influenced by Constantin 
Meunier, Mr. Taubman has received teaching 
from all. His success in the Belgian schools 
was remarkable. Under Fremiet, at his class in 




LOVE AND THE MERMAID. 
By Charles J. Allen. 



the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, Mr. Taubman 
modelled his " Wild Ass and Panther," afterwards 
seen at the Royal Academv. 

Since his return to England in 1898 the artist has 
executed many works. The chief of them include 
the "Joan of Arc," shown at the Royal Academy ; 
" Rescued," which was at the New Gallery, and 
was acquired by Mr. J. McCulloch for his collection ; 
"Adam and Eve" at the same Gallery in 1899; 
"The Angel of Sad Flowers" and "Orpheus and 
Eurydice." Ideal works of a very different 
order are "The Old Charwoman," and "The 
Dustman," both ofthenr of life-size. In portraiture 




RESCUED 

By Charles J Allen 



J. PITTENDRIGH MACGILLIVRAY, R.S.A. 



there are the statues to Sir Sydney Waterlow, 
one of which was in the Academy of 1900 and 
is erected at Highgate ; while the other, a 
rephca, with slight alterations, has been set up in 
front of the United Westminster Schools. There 
are, besides, the stone monument to the late Lord 
Carlingford in Waldegrave Chapel at Chewton 
Mendip, and the portrait-relief of the late Uuke of 
Westminster on Chesham Buildings, Duke Street. 

Mr. Taubman's work is vigorous in treatment, 
firm, antl strong in technique, with a good deal of 
the Brussels school about it. One may at times 
detect a tendency to " lose" an arm or a part of a 
figure into another, so that the suggestion is half- 
couA'eyed that these parts had grown into one an- 
other. If oyer-done, tliis engrafting, which within 
limits is a virtue, would not produce a good 
effect. Michael Angelo often carved the feet 
right into the base, giving a fine firm stand to 
his statues. A weather-beaten figure, too, gets 
obliterated in parts, and the result is a gain ; 
but when done purposely, in clay, with any 
exaggeration, there is danger of a leathery effect. 
Mr. Taubman is not exactly to be charged 
with the fault, but the danger seems to threaten. 
The sculptor is a man of ver}' considerable 
and varied talents, his posters, etchings, litho- 
graphs, pen-and-ink drawings, even his verses, 
are known to many, and his caricatures are 
better known still. But he remains true to the 
serious art, and has withstood all temptations that 
have been devised to lure him astray. 



Mr. J. PITTENDRIGH 

MACGILLIVRAY, R.S.A. 

1891. 



Although Mr. MacgilH- 



yray staved for seyen years 
and more in the studio of 
William Brodie, R.S.A., in order to learn the 
technique of his profession, he is understood to 
be self-taught ; he was, indeed, one of the first in 
Scotland to break awa}' from the pseudo-classic. 
Mr. Macgillivray's chief works are in portraiture. 
His female busts are full of charm, whether 
in the mtime manner of " Miss Otilie M'Laren," 
or the more severe style of " Miss Florence 
Findlay." The sculptor is seen at his best in 
his monuments and colossal memorials. The 
first of these, executed in 1895, was the "Peter 
Low " memorial in the Cathedral of Glasgow. In 
the following year the statue of " Robert Burns " 
at Irvine was executed, an original conception, 



which, Scottish critics have declared, is the most 
satisfactory, and indeed the only, representation 
of the poet, for character and indiyidualit^', " from 
Aberdeen to the Thames Eiubankment." In 1898 
the " Allan Family Monument " was set up in 
Glasgow, and, in the following year, the marble 
recumbent effigy of Dean Montgomery in St. 
Mar3''s Cathedral in Edinburgh. There is an earh' 
Flemish or German severity about the draperies to 
this statue, a formalitj' and stiff symmetr}' which 
contrast curiousl}' with the realism of the hands and 
face. In 1901 ^Ir. Macgillivrav received the com- 
mission for the National Gladstone Memorial for 
Scotland, and in the same year he exhibited " Eos." 
He was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1892 and a full Member in 1901. 

Mr. Macgillivray probably turned towards 
realism through his having been for ibur years a 
painter of oil pictures, and also through the continu- 
ous companionship he enjoyed with the members 
of the Glasgow School. His work is \&\\ good, 
if it be not absolutely brilliant, and possesses 
a strong sculpture-like character. Owing to the 
conditions of his development, no doubt, he is a 
little staid in style and fashion ; but his monuments 
in Glasgow are designed carefully, and carried out 
in a thoroughly workmanlike way, so that the 
general effect is excellent and well-considered. 

Mr. PAUL R. MONTFORD. Jhe pupil of his father, 

1892> 

^Ir. Horace ^lontford, both 
in painting and sculpture, ]\Ir. Paul ]\Iontford was 
among the most brilliant of the students, first at 
Lambeth and then at the Roval Academy schools, 
where he took three painter's prizes and seven 
sculptor's prizes, including the Gold ^Nledal in 1893. 
Six of these were taken on one occasion, including 
two medals and ^380 in money — an unprecedented 
triumph : the group of " Jacob Wrestling with 
an Angel ' ' was the work with which he achie^-ed 
his final success. He then applied himself to 
architectural and figure sculpture, the chief pro- 
duction in the latter class being a group called 
"Mother and Child" (1895); "Spinning Girl," 
one of his best figures; "Viscount Bolingbroke," 
"Elf-babes," and "The Storm Waves," together 
with a few busts. ]Mr. IMontford has been 
modelling-master at the Chelsea Pol^'technic since 
1898. His work is very personal. Vigorous in 
style, excellent in drawing, and though a little 



'52 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




JACOB WRESTLING WITH 
THE ANGEL. 

By Paul r. Montford. 



academic and n(jt strikingly original, it is decora- 
tive in cliaracter and vigorous in conception 
and handling. 



1r. O. WHEATLEY. 
1892. 



Another of the younger 
sculptors emerging from South 
Kensington is Mr. Oliver Wheatlev, who 
completed his earlv training in the atelier of M. 
Aman-Jean and in the sculpture galleries of the 
Trocadero. He became an assistant to Mr. Brock, 
and under that distinguished scul]itor he finished 
his education. Mr. Wlieatle3''s work has been 
mainly decorative, and includes interior decoration 
at the Ro}'al College of Music, and the exterior 
figures on the Lombard Street Railway' Station 
representing Itlectricit^' and Speed. A statuette 
called " The Mute Player " has some originality, 
and the circular " I'rometheus," exhibited in the 
Royal Academy in 1897, 'S a \'erv cle\er studv in 
what we nvdy recognise as the I'xole des Beaux Arts 



manner, dramatic, and strong in light and shade, 
and sonrewhat pictorial in feeling. " Awakening," 
a recumbent life-size statue, was at the Academy 
in 1 90 1. 



1r. JOHN TWEED. 
1894. 



Mr. Tweed is a Glasgow 
man who has passed through 
the Royal Academy Schools and the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, under Falguiere. Among his chief 
works are the statues of Robert Burns, of 
Governor Van Riebeck at Capetown, of the 
Rt. Hon. Cecil J. Rhodes at Buluwayo, as well 
as the Memorial to Major Allan Wilson and his 




VISCOUNT BOLINGBROKE. 

BY Paul R. Montford. 



F. UhRWHNT WOOD. 




Professor Lanteri as a National SclKjlar (1889 to 
1 891) at what is now the Roval College ol Art; 
afterwards becoming assistant to Professor Legros 
at the Slade School, from 1891 to 1892. In the 
hitter year he entered tlie Ro}'al Acadenu' schools, 
and in the daytime worked for Mr. Brock. His 
career in the schools was a ver)- snccessiul one, 
and culminated in the winning of the Travelling 
Scholarship in 1895. P^vo years later, with a 
group of " Charity," Mr. Wood gained an award 
at the Salon of 1897. He then returned to Londfjn 
and Mr. Brock, but obtaining an app(jintment at 
the Glasgow Art Schools, and recei\ing commissions 
for busts and architectural sculpture, he forthwith 
set up a studio for himself, and did not want for 
encouragement and work. His chief undertaking 
was the series ot statues for Mr. Simpson's 
" Kelvingrove Art Gallery" in Glasgow, which 
Mr. Wood gained in competition. 

The first of his works seen in London was his 
fine student's model, the half life-size group of 
"Icarus," in which the influence of Mr. Alfred 



ICARUS. 

Bv F. Dekv/ent Wood- 



men. In these, especially in his big relief, 
Mr. Tweed has aimed rather at strength than 
at refinement, and adapting his method to his 
subjects apparently, and bearing in mind the 
destination of his work, he has to some extent 
sacrificed elaboration of modelling to yigour and 
emphasis. The statue of Mr. Rhodes loses some 
attractiveness through the arms being hidden. 
In a statue the extremities should always be 
seen, or at least felt, from all yiews ; otherwise 
the figure appears to be without them, and 
sacrifices charm of silhouette. In the present 
instance, no doubt, we have the characteristic 
attitude of the man ; probably, too, the sitter 
insisted on the pose being retained— and few 
perhaps would contend against the masterfulness 
of Mr. Rhodes. 



Mr. F. DERWENT WOOD. 
1895. 



What there is of foreign 
inspiration in the work of 
Mr. Derwent Wood is drawn from his training. 
A Keswick man, he was educated in Switzer- 
land and Germany, and studied modelHng under 
u 




THE FATES. 

By F. Derwent wood. 



154 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




MURAL TOMB. 

Sketch for the Large Work. 
By F. Derwent Wood. 



Gilbert — and even, unconsciously, the motive sketch oi "The Fates," inspired seemingl}' by 
itself of the statue so named by the older sculptor Alfred Ste\-ens tiirough ]Mr. Brock, yet entirely 
— are plainh' seen. Then comes the charmins; personal to the artist, and markedly in the modern 




SCULPTURE. 

By F. Derwent Wood. 



ALFRED TLIRNHR. 



iSS 



spirit. This group, which took the Gold Medal 
at the Royal Academy schools, belongs to the 
year 1895. The Glasgow statues, already alluded 
to, are architectural in character, and symbolised 
by the draped figures of Jour maidens, fine 
in type and dignified in graceful pose, repre- 
sent Painting, Sculpture, Music, and Architecture 
— the last-named the most sculpturesque and 
quiet, if not the most pleasing of all. But in 
respect of composition, design, and complexity of 
line, the highly-important mural tomb in stone, 
which is even now (1901) not entirely completed, 
far excels the previous efforts of the }'oung 
sculptor. The subject is the allegory of Love 
and Life, sacred and profane, conceived somewhat 
in the spirit of Flaxman, but full of latter-day 
warmth, and grace and life. The reproduction 
here given is from the sketch. It should be 
added that the left-hand group has already 
been seen in the Royal Academy, and that the 
whole monument, when completed, will be not 
less than twenty-five feet in length. 

The work of Mr. Derwent Wood is marked 
with a strong individuality and by sculpturesque 
character, with a firmness about it that raises 
high hopes in one so young ; it is well modelled 
and serious in thought, with a keen sense of 
grandeur and dignit}- in the choice of subject and 
execution. Heretofore one has felt that the 
artist had not quite formed a st}'le of his own, 
and that the influence of Stevens and Rodin were 
too much on the surface. At any rate, he has 
chosen well in his studies. He has the making 
of a fine artist, with a big sense of form, and all 
the essentials for decorative work ; the designing 
faculty is strongly marked, and is only waiting lor 
development. In the Glasgow series there is a 
richness of style and good arrangement of lines 
in keeping with the building. There is a breadth 
and an appreciation of simplicity of detail which 
are so valuable in decorative sculpture. Some of 
Mr. Derwent Wood's reliefs are excellent. In 
his ideal statuary there is to be found a fine 
conception, in spite of an occasional tendency 
towards the sensuous. But we always feel 
that behind the work there is a man endowed 
with a firmness and strength of will that must 
hold him up and dominate his doings. 



Mr. ALFRED TURNER. ^ HIGHLY SUCCCSSful 

1897. , r 1 T , 1 

Student 01 the Lambeth 
and Rcjval Academy schools, who has also 
studied abroad, Mr. Turner is amt^ng the most 
prom.sing of the youngest generation of sculp- 
tors now before the public. He has come 
forward with the work entitled "Charity," a 
charming school piece, showing great sensibility 
and delicacy, and with the first of the series (jf 
Fisherfolk which, commissioned b}' the Fibh- 
mongers' Companv for their hall, was seen in the 
Roval Academy in 1901. The statue will recall in 
its subject that Greek statuette of a fisherman 
in the Pelazzo Conservatori in Rome ; but the 
treatment of the tvpe is modern with the 
modernitv of Constantin Meunier. The artist is 
a little wanting in freedom, perhaps, as yet ; 
but his handling is broad and the work well 
modelled. 

Such are the chief sculptors whose work has 
come to the notice of the writer. It is not 
Mr. F. THOMAS. pretended that there are no 

Mr. A. M>F. SHANNAN. ., , 

Mr SLATER ouussions ; nor is it possible 

Mr. T. TYRRELL. to Say wherc the line should 

Mr. F. FISHER. , ', , . ^, 

,.. ^ .>.«» be drawn between those 

Mr. S. BABB. 

Mr. M. BROWN. who havc a claim to be 

Mr. A. HODGE. ,■ , i ^u 1 

.. .. „^„„„ discussed and those who 

Mr. M. ROGERS. 

Mr. J. c. MccLURE. should bc passcd over. But 
that there are many }-ounger men who are 
rapidly " coming on " may happily be affirmed. 
Among those who are doing excellently are Mr. 
Frederick Thomas, who designed and carved 
the series of great portrait medallions in the 
building of the National Portrait Gallery ; Mr. 
A. M'F. Shannan, whose refined figure of " Music 
of the Marshes," in the International Society's 
Exhibition of 1899, will be remembered ; Mr. Slater 
and Mr. Tyrrell, of whose admirable decorative 
work should be cited the figures in the facade of 
the remarkably successful house by Mr. Pite in 
Mortimer Street, London ; Mr. Frank Fisher, who 
produced "Karl the Martyr" in 1897 ; Mr. Stanlev 
Babb and Mr. Mortimer Brown, Mr. A. Hodge, Mr. 
McClure, and Mr. M. Rogers, and many more. 
Every year, e^'er}- month, brings forward new 
men and interesting work. And so the British 
School goes on prospering. 




CHARITY. 

By Alfred Turner. 



WALTHR CRANH. 



157 



THH SCULPTOR-DHCORATORS. 
npHE ijjreat inovement in the purely decorative 
J- section of tlie sculptor's art has iiot been 
confined to the artists alread}- mentioned. As has 
already been set forth, men such as Mr. Thorny- 
croft, Mr. Frampton, Mr. Drury, Mr. Frith, Mr. 
Pomeroy, Mr. Fehr, Mr. Toft, Mr. Colton, and 
many others, have often turned from their more 
ideal or more realistic work to assist the flow of the 
wave that is passing over the country and o\'er 
Europe, carrying along with it artistic decoration, 
which is, however, not always good. There are 
also others who have devoted themselves more 
particularly to embellishment ; for the reason that 
the}' have done much to initiate it or liave carried 
it very tar, they claim recognition here among the 
leaders of British sculpture. Only one or two 
need be named as representatives ; for there are 
many who are doing admirable and original work 
in this line quietl}-, without special exhibition, or 
are merely carrying on the tradition which has 
been established bv others. 



Mr. WALTER CRANE. Among the leading decora- 
tors Mr. Walter Crane must be considered as a 
pioneer. He has taken to modelling, as to most 
other things, out of his innate talent and spirit ot 
initiative ; but, in this instance, not on a very 
extensive scale. As is natural, he thinks less ot 
the sculpturesque than of the " hne}' " character 
of his design, which always reminds us ot 
his ornament and his beautiful fairy-tale illus- 
trations. For this reason we recognise rather the 
fine decorative quality of his brilliant work — for 
he is emphatically a tele d'ecole who has most 
profoundly influenced and improved the decorative 
art of England — than its sculpturesque nature. 
Graceful in its line and composition, inexhaustible 
in its invention, harmonious in its symmetry, it 
nevertheless lacks the sculptor's touch and the 
strength and firmness of the trained modeller's 
hand. But when he leaves the flat and the figure 
in low-relief he appears at his best. The Mace he 
designed for the Corporation of Manchester might 
establish the reputation of any man. This work, 
perfect in proportion and beautifully harmonious, 
is in its general design in no degree hampered by 
all the symbolism to be introduced. The imagery 
will be readily appreciated. The City crest — the 



MACE FOR MANCHESTER. 

By Walter Crane. 

{From II piwtogJTiph btj F. HoUijpi-.) 





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F. LYNN JHNKINS. 



159 



globe and bees— surmounts the figure of Man- 
chester, enclosed within an " AI." Beneath it is 
the globe of the world, the field (jf the City's trade, 
which the beaks of ships support, and their twisted 
sails enclose it within their ridges. Below it are 
the City and the National Arms, and lower again we 
have figures personifying the sources of the Cit}''s 
prosperity— the Ship Canal with its running water. 
Labour, Science, Commerce, Liberty, and Justice. 
The fish symbolise Manchester's ocean interests, 
which are further emphasised by the ships and 
the Nereids at the termination. 

Mr. ANNING BELL. ^j^. ANNING BELL'S WOrk 

is always carefully thought out, sweet in line, 
and pretty in design and feeling, but in the 
execution it hardly displays all the strength 
and variety that would be imparted by the prac- 
tised modeller. For that reason, perhaps, it 
should be regarded rather as raised design than 
as modelled relief. In looking at some of Mr. 
Bell's pleasing work one seems to see in it some 
sort of vision of the past, such, for example, as 
of Agostino Duccio's relief of "Chastity" in SS. 
Andrea and Bernadino in Perugia, or the combined 
daintiness, delicac}-, playfulness of the sculptor- 
primitives. 

Mr. F. LYNN JENKINS. Mr. Lynn Jenkins, chlefly 
in conjunction with Mr. Gerald Moira, but also 
in independent performance, has already made a 
considerable mark. One of Mr. Frith's pupils 
at Lambeth, and a student of the Royal Academy 
schools, he has developed with his friend the 
art which might have been called modelled 
painting, or painted modelling, but that the 
rehef is so carefully treated. His chief works, 
executed independently, consist of the two groups 
for St. Mathew's Church, Cockington ; the large 
sculptured reliefs on the exterior of the Penin- 
sular and Oriental Company's Pavilion in the 
Paris Exhibition of 1 900, for -which a Silver Medal 
was awarded; the sculptured figures for the 
Rotherhithe Town Hall ; and the frieze of bronze, 
ivory, and mother-of-peari, eighty feet long, for the 
marble vestibule at Lloyd's Registiy of Shipping, 
in Fenchurch Street, as well as a number of 

busts. 

In conjuncrion with Mr. Moira, xMr. Jenkins 
has produced a good deal of the best modelled 



and carved relief work seen at the present day 
— f(n- the Peninsular and Oriental Pavilion afore- 
mentioned ; for the Trocadero and Throgmorton 
restaurants , for the Passmore lulwards Free 
Lil)rary, Shoreditch ; for the Salle Bechstein ; the 
Hotel Mctropole at Folkestone ; and for many 
other buildings and purposes. 

There are few who understand so well as these 
two artists the capabilities of their method, so tliat 
from a decorative point of view their work is 
practically "right." It is undoubtedl}' of a higher 
order than anj'thing else we have in this direction ; 
it goes far towards richly embellishing the 
architect's work, parricularly for internal deco- 
ration, when coloured panels are required. It is 
well designed and generally well modelled, quaint 
and refined in style, even though it necessarily 
errs in the direction of the decorative picture ; 
it is rich in colour, simple in line, and good in 
treatment. That is to say, it has not the usual 
treatment of a drawing with a line round it and 
the background scratched away, as we see in 
similar productions by other hands ; but a thing 
complete in itself on a well-considered plan. In 
the frieze for Lloyd's Registr}- the colour is charm- 
ingly apportioned, with its various materials and 
its pretty patinas. It is a little too " curh'," in m}' 
opinion, while the framework, against which the 
charming figurines of metal and ivory are daintih- 
set, scarcely affords, perhaps, sufficient relief to 
the movement in the shipping and their sails. 
But in spite of this, the whole is very note- 
worthy, highly decorative and beautiful. The 
" St. George," which was exhibited in the Royal 
Academy in 1899, shows another pleasing phase 
of Mr. Jenkins' talent, although it is not perhaps 
quite so original as other of his work. 



THE WOMEN SCULPTORS. 

THERE are at the present moment a number of 
lady-sculptors who, now that full means of 
study are at last allowed them, are making their 
mark in England. The stud}' of the nude, till lately 
denied to women in this country', has led many 
to follow the art with that thoroughness and per- 
severance which alone can command success. It 
is safe to affirm that the lady-sculptors of to-day 
know infinitely more about their craft than Mrs. 
Damer in j'ears gone by, and even if they have 



i6o 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




manifested singular skill in the art of sculp- 
ture, as a result of diligence applied to the 
cultivation of unusual natural ability. 

It is commonly the lot of very prominent 
personages, that when they execute a really 
creditable work in the fine arts they rarely 
receive the full acknowledgment that is their 
due. The Princess, it should be understood, is 
a genuine artist and a hard worker. Those 
who ha\'e assisted her in any large under- 
taking she may have had in hand — assistants 
such as those employed b}' e\er}' Royal 
Academician and most struggling outsiders — in- 
variablv bear witness to her independence in 
character and in work, and her aversion to avail 
herself of anv but mechanical help or to adopt any 
outside ad\'ice. The Princess labours with her 
assistants with the utmost energy ; she is the 
master and enforces her ideas ; and, though dis- 
tinguished artist-visitors mav alwa^'s be ready 
with suggestions, she never accepts a hint unless 
it recommends itself to her judgment and satisfies 
her own convictions. Her sculpture is therefore 
the stronger for the impress of a vigorous indi- 



QUEEN VICTORIA. 

'in Kensington Gardens.) 

by h.r.h the princess loulse, duchess of argyll 



less pedantic acquaintance with the mythological 
heroes and heroines who looked so bra\ely 
melancholy in the works of a bygone day, they 
do not conceal ignorance of the human form and 
the rules of sculpture beneath a " grand stjie," 
a cold heaviness, a reflected classicism. 



H.R.H. THE PRINCESS LOUISE, 

Duchess of Arg^yll, 

H.R.W.S., H.R.E. 



Ti' was at a verv earlv 
age that H.R.H. the 
Duchess ol' Argyll lirst 
made her ajipearance as an exhibitor in the public 
galleries ( 1868). She is known as a cle\er sketcher 
in water colours, but she is more at home with the 
modelling-tool than with the l.irush. Her chief 
instructc^r in sculpture was the late Sir J. 1{. 
Boehm, R.A., an artist whom she righth' held in 
high esteem, and who, judged by his best works, 
deserves a more considerable position in the world 
of art than many are willing to allow. Applying 
herself under his ad\ice, the Princess Louise soon 




SATAN. 
By h S H 



HE Countess Gleichen 



H.R.H. THE PRINCHSS LOUISE. 



H.S.H. THE COUNTESS GLEICHEN. 



i6i 



viduality. .Aludi of it is excellent— sui-prisin,<rlv 
so when the relatively limited time Avhich has 
been at lier disposal for art study and practice 
is taken into consideration. Her Inists show 
sensitiveness, .threat rehnement, and appreciation 
of delicacy of form ; but her principal achieve- 
ment is the large seated figure of Queen Victoria 
in Kensington Gardens. This statue would have 
done credit to some sculptors who en)0\' con- 
siderable reputations, and who live by the practice 
of their profession. The setting up of the 
figure, the arrangement of the draperv, the 
modelling, the design of the ]-)edestal— all the 
parts, in fact— are such that the statue must be 
added to the short list of those whic'h are genuine 
embellishments and not disfigurements to the 
great citv of London. 



H.S.H. THE COUNTESS 
GLEICHEN, H.R.E. 



The Countess Gleichen 
was the pujiil of her 
father, Prince ^'ictor of Hohenlohe, and of the 
Slade School at Universitv College under Pro- 
fessor Legros, and completed her studies in 
Rome. Her chief work has been the life- 
size statue of Queen Victoria for the Jubilee 
Hospital, Montreal. It is an imaginative com- 
position, in which the So\'ereign is represented 
in royal robes, with a little child asleep at lier 
knee, while on the opposite side, on the steps 
of the throne, another cliild stands with its 
arm in a shng. Shortly before her death Queen 
^Tctoria gave sittings to Countess Gleichen 
for the bust now at the Cheltenham Ladies' 
College. 

Besides these are the memijrial to the artist's 
father in Sunningdale Church (near Windsor), 
and a bust of Queen Alexandra when Princess 
of Wales (Royal Academy, 1895), now in pos- 
session of the Constitutional Club, London. In 
the same year a statuette of Lady Henry Bentinck 
was exhibited at the Xew Galler}-, but it attracted 
less attention than the "Satan," shown at the 
Roval Academy in 1S94. This fanciful and weird 
design shows a scaly, armed, and winged knight, 
seated on a throne tortuous with snakes. The 
work reveals undoubted skill and invention, al- 
though it is somewhat overloaded. The statue of 
" Peace "( 1899J showed a much purer feeling ; and 
the beautiful hand-mirror of jade and bronze of tlie 
same period, which first appeared in the Royal 
V 



Academy and was sent to the I'aris Exhibition 
of 1900, proved a greater appreciation ol design 
and decoration, and achie\ed a success connnen- 
surate with its considerable merit. There are also 
by Countess Gleichen a half-len,gth figure of M. 
Kubelik, the \iolinist ; a stone fountain with a 
life-size nude figure of a nvmph for a garden in 
Paris ; and another in bronze and C(j]oured 
marbles with a figure of Diana, for a garden 
near Ascot. 

It is no flattery U) the Countess Gleichen 
to say that many sculptors, contributing to 
the exhibitions, have failed to produce work as 
good as hers. It is highly refined, with charnn'ng 
feeling, and if, as in " The Queen Alexandra," it 
is a little timid in treatment, we do not resent 
the weakness which sa^'0urs of delicac}' ; lor 
we like a woman's work to be effeminate. 
Countess Gleichen's earh' tendency to be too 
smoothed-down, technical!}' called " soajiy," prac- 
tically disappeared witli the ad-\"ent of a more 
modern feeling. The lady's sculptural portraits are 
excellent likenesses, with the delightful merit of 
being elegant and distinguislred. These include 
]\Iadame Cah'e, Mrs. Walter Palmer, and Sir 
Henry Ponsonby as busts ; several bas-reliefs, of 
which one is a memorial to Sir Henry Ponsonby, 
with figures in armour as supporters ; and others 
are of children, in different materials. The sih'er 
statuette of a Madonna, in an agate and mosaic 
shrine, should not be passed o^■er. 

Miss MARV GRANT. T^Jj^g GRANT, OUC of the 

busiest of lady-sculptors, studied in Paris and 
Florence, and then in London, where she worked 
under J. H. Foley, R.A. Her portrait work 
includes " Queen Mctoria, " for Incha ; the " Duke 
of Argjdl," "Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A.," " Geor- 
gina, Lad^' Dudley," and, finalh", the bronze 
bust of " ]\Ir. C Parnell, M.P., " her last contri- 
bution to the Royal Academy, to the exhibitions 
of which she had sent since 1S70. The " ^Ir. 
Gladstone," completed in the early part of iqoi, 
was not publicly shown. Chief of ^liss Grant's 
decorati^'e work are a number of figures on the 
West Front and Porch of the Cathedral of Lich- 
field, as well as lor the screen of Winchester 
Cathedral, and the marble reredos in the Cathe- 
dral of Echnburgh. The memorials comprise the 
relief of Dean Stanley for the Ro}-al private 



i6: 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



decorativt: as it is, seems to lack something ot 
her usual qualities ot" composition and balance. 
The "Memorial" in Salisbury Cathedral, and 
the "Pied Piper" lor Shelley House are prob- 
ably more worthy ol' her considerable talent. 
Miss RUBY LEVicK. Miss LiiViCK, who first exhi- 
l)ited at the Academy in 1803, seems to have 
made a special studv of youths at sport Her 
admirably arranged bronze statuette-groups of 
"Bovs Fishing," " Boys Wrestling," and "Foot- 
ball," are all clever and well modelled ; the last- 
named composition is full of life and vigour. 
Miss GILES. One of the strongest of the band is 
I\Iiss Giles {Mrs. Bernard Jenkin), whose ideal 
work is of ini]iortance. Her " Hero " won the 
open competition of the London Art Union. Her 
memorial srul]iture, such as the life-size marble 
group " In Menioriam " ( Roval Acadenn', 1900), is 
graceful and s\-mpatlietic, and her exhibit in the 
AcadeniN' of ii)oi, "After Xmeteen Hundred 
Years, and Still Thev Crucifv," is an important 
and original grou]i of ^■erv considerable power, 

chapel at Wnids(jr Castle, and the bronze relief admirable in feeling, and careful and gracious in 

of " r^Ir. Fawcett, ALP.," on the Thames 





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FIGURE OF A BOY. 
By Ruby levick 



Embankment. Miss Grant, who executed many 
comnrissions for Queen Victoria, has generally 
been identified with the school to which her 
master l'"ole\- belonged. 

Miss ELINOR HALLE. AIlSS HALI.K.wIiO firSt UKldc 

lier mark at the Gros\'enor Gallery in 1884, with a 
low-relief of " ALisic" and other works, has quitted 
that field, first lor medal-designing and afterwards 
Miss ROPE. for enamelling. But ALss Rope has 
established herself on a higher plane. Her reliefs 
exhibited at the Academy, " Hagar and Ishmael " 
and the rest, were surpassed by the bronze 
statuette " Zeph\-rus," and that again by the 
panels (each 4 teet 6 inches long) of " Faith," 
" Hope," " Chant\'," and " Hea'.'enh" Wisdom," 
commissioned (or the Women's Building at the 
Chicago I{x]iositi(jn, and now set u]i in file Ladies 
Dwelling in Chenies Sti'eet, Loudon. But it is in 
her reliefs rejiresenting grou])s ol" little children 
that her considerable talent is most charmingly 
and delightlulh' sh(n\'n, as in the marble " \jn\ on 
a Dolphin," "Christ Blessing I^ittle Children," and 
in a score of deliglitlul decorations in ])laster, 
bronze, and ]iotter\'. Her great frieze lor the 
Rotherhithe Town Hall, 20 feet long, cle\er and 



modelling. Miss Giles has also been engaged 
on decorative work, such as the terra-cotta fagade 




HERO 

By Marc^RcT Giles 



MISS WILLIAMS. 



i6^ 




A' 






CHRIST BLESSING LITTLE CHILDREN. 

By Ellen M. Rope 



for a house in Xewgatc Street. Miss Williams 
MiEs L. G. WILLIAMS. lias been practising cln'eflv 
abroad for some time, and has produced sculp- 
ture that has claimed attention for its sweet- 
ness and grace and charming leminine quality. 
Her " Geraldine," "Little Peasant," and "Out 
of Reach " may be mentioned, and the half-length 
"Pandora" ( 1901 ), intelhgent and pretty, though 
not so deeply studied as some of her \vork ; and 
the more satisfactory bust of a child, called " Doris," 
is delicately felt and realised. JNIiss Steele may be 
Miss FLORENCE STEELE, iucluded hcrc, although her 
craftsmanship is mainly in the applied arts, such as 



the Christening Cup (i8gg;. Alms Dish (looo), a 
beautilul casket with compartments for statuettes 
in reliel (1901), and other examples of industrial 
design, mainly for Elkingtons and Pilkingtons. 
But her portrait medallions ha\'e attracted notice 
for their delicac}' and decision. I\Iiss White's 
Miss MABEL WHITE. " Thouglits of Cluldhood," 

Miss EDITH MARYON. .^,^^^ '"^Jj^g MaRVOX'S 

"^lother and Child" (18991, "Religion" (iqoo), 
and "]May Morning," a relief for a fireplace ( looi ), 
show taste and elegance, and are full of promise. 

It is, of course, impossible to draw up, or to 
close, a list ol lady-workers without soriie iii- 




MAY MORNING. 

Bv EDITH MARYON. 



164 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 



justice being done ; yet enougli has been written 
to show that our sculpture schools have been 
training }-oung women to excellent purpose. 



THE PAINTLR-SCULPTORS. 

PAINTERS who practise sculpture are, perhaps, 
proportionately fewer in England than in 
many other countries. i\L Constantin ^leunier, 
M. Geronie, M. Dubois are typical examples of a 
class of whom, in England, we lune Mr. Swan, 
Mr. Reynolds Stephens, and one or two moie. 
But a giant among them all — he who should 
rightly ha\'e been at the beginning of this book 
but tor the exigency of its plan — is one who 
combines in himself the noblest characteristics 
of painter and sculptor — Mr. G. F. Watts. 



Mr. GEORGE F. WATTS, 
R.A. 



Mr. Wat'I's's early train- 
ing, if almost total neglect 
may be so called, consisted in watching the 
work going forward in Behnes' studio, and in 
talkmg o\-er art with that scul]itor's brother. 
He was then a child, but e^'en then the gift 
of anatomical knowledge, or rather of anato- 
mical leeling, seemed to have come to him 
by instinct. From that time forward his 
eye has been on the sculptural aspect of e\erv 
subject and every figure he has had to paint. 
He has found out for himself the principle 
enunciated by Michael Angelo and alread\" quoted 
here — that painting which approaches sculpture !S 
good : that sculpture which approaches painting 
IS bad. The chief and mcjst ob\'ious {pialit\' ot 
all Mr. Watts's chaiacteristic ]iainting is its 
" monuinentalit\- " and sculpturesque st^-le. 

Although Mr. ^^'atts is known for but half a 
dozen ]iieces of scul]iture, he is jilaced hv these 
works \-er\- high among the sc:ul]it(jrs of the 
centur\'. The magnificent recumbent figure (il 
"Bishop Lonsdale" in Lichfield Cathedral is not 
only a masterpiece in itself, it was an ep(«,li- 
making work in respect ol the modern treat- 
ment of the drapery, which AL'. Watts ]iracticall\' 
introduced, or re\'i\'ed. The "Lord Lothian" in 
Bickling Church is liai'dh" less fine: and the 
standing figure " Lord Tennyson " as n(jble as 
the man it represents. But the sculptor did not 
show how great was liis power initil he jircxluced 
" Hugh Lupus." In modelling foi" the Duke ol 



Westminster this colossal statue, now set up at 
Eaton Hall, Mr. Watts took lull ad\antage of 
the freedom he had gamed in so imaginative a 
conrposition. The ancestor of the Duke is 
shown \iolentl)' reining in his horse after casting 
off a falcon, his arm still upraised ; and although 
someone professes to ha\'e measured the horse's 
hind thighbones and found them of unequal 
length, we need not be disturbed in our con- 
viction that the monument is an extraordinarily 
fine and noble performance. 

Following this group is " Physical Energy," 
which has been in hand for many }'ears, and is 
not yet quite completed. It represents a mounted 
3'outh who, having already accomplished some 
powerful deeds, draws up his horse, shades his 
eyes, and looks round for uiore to do and 
overcome thus symbolising that unconquerable 
energy of ever}- rising generation which helps 
on civilisation and the world. " Clytie," now 
at Panshanger, with a replica at the National 
(jallerv of British Art, is surpassed in "bigness" 
and purity of style and feeling b\' little or 
nothing ever produced in England. Springing 
out of a lotus— -an "unnatural termination of 




CLYTIE 

Bv G F Watts, R A, 



GHORGH F. WATTS, R.A. 



165 




HUGH LUPUS, 

By G. F. Watts, R,A. 

(From a photograph by F. Hollyer.) 



flowers," for which the artist may claim authority 
in the " Clytie " in the British Museum this 
head is as noble and complete a thint!; as any 
the artist has produced in paint. 

Indeed, all the great qualities that exist in 
the pictures of Mr. Watts are to be found in 
his sculpture, so far as the material permits. 
There is no sculptor who has ever come nearer 
to obtaining the grandeur of fornr which is so 
wonderful in the Greek masterpieces ; and it is 
not an irreverence, it is not even an exaggera- 
tion, to sav that a good deal of what is found in 
the "Fates" of Phidias, in the " Ilyssus " and the 
"Theseus," is to be seen in the sculptures ot 
Mr. Watts. Grand in conception, noble in style, 
majestic in pose, masterly in execution, the 
work of this man is a marvel among the men 
of to-dav. It would be in the highest degree 



interesting to see what Mr. Watts would give 
us if he were to turn his attention to the more 
ornamental side of sculpture : that it would be 
fine there is no doubt ; but whether it would 
show the dexterity of the craltsman is not so 
sure, if the artist's attitude towards technicjue 
be taken into account. 

Mr. Watts's work, then is immense in st\'le, 
"big" and simple in line, and full and rich 
in modelling. It is broad in tr,;atment, and 
the whole is full of vigour and mo\"ement. 
Moreover, and over all. Form is especially 
considered as it was considered by the (jreeks. 



BRITON RIVIERE, R.A. 



Mr. Briton Riviere is too 
fine an artist not to ha\'e 
kept his e^'e upon sculpture. The feeling fir 
fornr is felt in many ot his pictures, and 



i66 



BRITISH SCULPTURE ANU SCULPTORS OF TO-DAY. 




LORD TENNYSON. 

Ey ALPHOrJSE LeGROS. 



strongly in not a few of his fit^'ures and in 
most of his animals. He has also been more 
indebted to scul])ture tlian most painters. 
Just as Michael Angelo was inspired in his 
" Creation of E\j " bv Jacopo della Ouercia's 
sculptured relief, and as Raphael, ^lasaccio, 
and Burne- Jones all went for their composi- 
tions to the same sculptor- — as Sir Edward 
Povnter, if I mistake not, owes something to 
the Tanagra group, " The (janre of Astragalus," 
in the Biitish Museum for his charming 
composition, "When the World was Young" — 
so Mr. Briton Riviere, as I have said, is entirelv 
indebted for his important painting, " A ?^Iight^• 
Hunter Before the Lord," to the sculptured 
relief from Ko\uiiiik in tlie British iNIuseuui ; 
" Assur - Bani - A1)la Poiu-nig out a Lil)ation on 
Slain Lions." The artist, nio\"cd b\' the same 
sentiment -perhaps remembering the "Wounded 
Lioness" from the same ])alace has produced 
an original and interesting piece of sculpture t>i a 
hunter-king shooting "The Last Ari'ow " into a 
lion at the loot of the rock below lu'm. 'This 
bronze, not large \et im])ressive, was exhil)itcd 
at the Royal Academy in 1S9O. 



in other directions has ]M-evented him from 
dealirig with the round witli the serious insight 
it re(iuires. In i88c) he produced what is his 
most ambitious work -" An Arcadian Shepherd," 
a statue of colossal size. Of later years the 
artist has handled the modelling cku' but little, 
if at all. 

Ml'. JOHN S. SARGENT, ]\| j^ J_ g^ SAKGENT, 

R.A. 

incomparabh' brilliant in 
his own st^•le of art, has shown equal originality 
in the modelled decoration he has tor some 
^•ears been designing ior the Boston Librar}' 
of the United States. The originalit\' of this 
relief is as undeniable as its beautv, with its 
gorgeousness of colour and the ordered tlisorder 
(as it appears to tlie recollection] of its strange 
and magnificent design. The most remarkable 
portion of the work is the " Crucihx " — 
" -R(7)i:ss(t sunt Pcccata Miiiidi"- -a reliel, 
finely imaginative, if not entirely satisfying to 
the Jcsthetic sense. From the outstretched 
hands of the Crucified Christ the dripping 
blood is (.:aught in chalices held by a man and 
woman bound to the Crucifix: "The Blood of 
Jesus binds them tcj the Cross." The figures, 
however, are twisted into an attitude siirelv 
unnatural, if not impossible, to the human 
trame, so that the ingenious arrangement raises 
a ]irotest in the mind of the spectator, who 
teels, nevertheless, as he contemplates it that 
he is standing before a considerable artistic 
creation, with its fine composition and suggesti^'e 
inraijei \". 



Mr. 
ALPHONSE LEGROS. 



Sir W. B. RICHMOND, 
K.C.B., R.A. 



Sir Willi, \;\i Richmond 
has also gi\"en some atten- 
tion to sculpture, though his enormous energ\' 



Mr. Lkgros' name is 
great in art — in jxiinting, 
scul])turc, etching, and teacliing. Being a natu- 
ralised iMiglishman, Mr. Legros must needs be 
included in the British school, although it must 
be allowed that the French I'haracter of his wtirk 
has not assumed the slightest tinge ol" an luiglish 
patina. His great ser\-ices as Slade Professor need 
liai"dl\- be releri-ed to ; his beautilullv poetic 
jiamtings and masterly etchings, broad and 
original, yet alwa\'s lacking something he makes 
us }'earn for, but within their strict limita- 
tions, are known to e\er\' Msitor of the 
exhibitions, and to all who are ]")erniitted to 
examine tlic t'ollections of the more eclectic and 



ALPHONSH LEGROS. 



167 




CHARLES DARWIN 
By Alphonse L£Gros 



lastidiuus 1 amoii.tj art Icn'ers. I'ortvait, land- 
scape, subject, all ha\'e been practised l)y the 
ex-Professor with extraordinar\' success. 

But in sculpture 'Sir. Legros' great merits do 
not hide the delects. In the exquisite " Torso 
of a Woman" the artist is seen at his best ; com- 
plete in its beauty it is, however, not tlie beauty 
of a complete thing, lieing, atter all, a fragment. 
" A Sailor's AVife " with her biiy, exhibited m 
the Royal Academy in 1882, is hne and austere; 
and "La Source," a relief, is lull of charm and 
distinction. Heads and masks by the Professor 
are fine in stvle, such as we see in the fountain 
for the Duke of Portland, which, I believe, is 
not vet completed ; but we cannot forget that 
thev are often not good in drawing, and that 
tliev are frequently what is called " painter's 
sculpture." His " Head of Pan " and "Capitals of 
Pilasters " were exhibited at the Xew Gallery. 
Free, broad, and vigorous, they are as the 



opposite poles asunder from the delicate, poetic, 
hopelul realism that is the prevailing note in 
the English sculpture of to-da^^ The^' are satvr- 
hke in expression ;md in feeling, ugh' with that 
kind ot ugliness which we sometimes prefer to 
beauty ; reminding us of Boileau — 

•' II n'est point de serpent ni de monstre odieux, 
Cjni par I'art imite, ne puisse plaire aux yeiix ; 
D'lm pinceau delicat, I'artifice at;reable 
Du plus aftrcux objet fait un objet aimable.'' 

And so iNIr. Legros' heads, \\hen he pushes them 
to the limit of exaggerated exjiressicm, become 
almost grotesques — }-et decorative and full of 
spirit and individualitA- ; until to those who under- 
stand them thev become " objets aimables." 

In his ]5ortraits, howe^■er, the sculptor quits 
the gTotesque, though he sometimes o\"er-empha- 
sises character in his portraiture, excn as Ford 
Madox Brown o\'er-emphasised. In his medals of 
Tenn^'son and Darwin we see him at his best, in 



1 68 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DA^. 



the rendering of the nobihty of expression ; but 
we also see his limitation. Tliere is great 
truth of character, though the expression is apt to 
be overdone ; and felicitt)us presentation, although 
the technique is archaic enough the hair, for 
example, is merely scratched in, not modelled. 
Scratching is very well in drv-point or 'sgraffito; 
but sculptiu'e must be built u]"), otherwise it 
suggests a lack of technical skill. 



THE MEDALLISTS. 

THE art of the medallist — apart from the craft 
of the token-stamper, with his frosty relief 
against a dazzlingly bright, smooth ground, or his 
cold, coarse, clumsv nchauffc of pseudo-classic 
models of a debased period — is little understood 
in England. Few realise that a fine medal is not 
an ordinary relief medallion in miniature, but a 
modification of sculpture in which the planes 
must tell more than tlie lights and shadows. 
The medal is unappreciated and its dignity 
misunderstood, and its value as a record ol 
great e^•ents practically ignored ; though it is 
ob\-ious that as a tribute to the dead it offers 
m a small and beautiful form the perpetuation 
of a memorv in imperishable material. The 
French have brought to perfection this exquisite 
art which, as Vasari so shrewdly saw, is the link 
between painting and sculpture. Alike in cast 
medals and struck, thev out-di.-tance at the 
present dav every other nation — especially our 



own, which has but two or three medallists 
devoting themselves to the art, and which has 
up to lately always had to in^•ite tlie col- 
laboration of tlie sculptors when any important 
work has to be done. Sculptors make beautiful 
medallions ; but they can hardly be expected to 
turn from a colossal statue and model a tiny work 
of a special cliaracter with all the marvellous 
delicacy and perfection of technique of a Chaplain 
or a Rotv who are engaged in nothing else. 



Mr. G. W. DE SAULLES. 
1897. 



The leader oi our official 
medallists and engravers, 
Mr. de Saulles is a Birmingham man wlio 
studied under Air. Edward R. Taylor for the pur- 
pose of becoming a painter. His intentions were 
diverted, however, and under iMr. J. Wilcox lie 
became an engraver in steel, in the hollow, and 
so cut many dies for medals for private firms. 
In 1893 lis ^'^'^s appointed engraver to the Alint. 
The full list of his works is a long one ; the 
more recent medals are the following : " Sir 
G. Buchanan, F.R.S. ; " "Mrs. J. H. Powell;" 
"Harvest;" "Air. Horace Seymour" (placjuette); 
"Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart." (one of his most suc- 
cessful works) ; the reverse of the bronze 
coinage, 1895; "Miss Langley " (plaquette) ; 
" Professor Sylvester, F.R.S. ; " " Sir W. C. 
Roberts-Austen, K.C.B. ; " the re\"erse of Queen 
Victoria's Jubilee Aledal, 1897 ; and the war- 
medals — "India" (reverse) ; "Canada" (reverse); 
"Uganda;" "Sudan;" "South Africa." He 




SCIENCE AND ART DEPARTMENT MEDAL HUXLEY MEMORIAL MEDAL. 

By FRArjK Bovjcher. 



FRANK BOWCHHR. 



169 




THE MAHARAJAH CF KAPURTHALA. 
By Lilian V Hamilton. 



has also executed tlie Great Seal, and the 
Haslar Hospital and Dublin Police ^Vledals. 

Mr. de Saulles is a master ol' liis ciaft, and 
he is an artist as well. Like My. Bowcher, he 
has been influenced by M. Chaplain, M. Rot^•, 
and other French masters ; but the pressure 
presumably exerted on him by our oOicial 
atmosphere m-AX possilsly prevent him from 
losing entirely the lormality and neatness which 
British taste demands. Left alone he certainly 
produces, and will go on producing, works of art 
finer than any official medals that have xnt 
come from him. 



Mr. 
FRANK BOWCHER. 



Mr. Bowcher, still a young 
man, is the oldest of our 
chief practitioners in the medal proper. A 
South Kensington " National Scholar " and the 
pupil of Mr. Onslow Ford, he has studied the 
French school and has produced works of real 
dignity and beauty. When we find our Muni- 
cipal Authorities of to-day confiding to the 
unnamed emplo3'es of die-sinkers medals which, 
in the old Italian da^•s, would ha\'e been 
placed with Pisanelli, Cesari, Matteo de Pasti, 
and Benvenuto Cellini, or when thev entrust 
them to " medallists " weighed down by cold 
conventionality and the bald lormality of worn- 
out tradition, we can hardh' wonder at a 
poor result. 

But Mr. Bowcher has now made himself a 
name in the new path which he is the first 
Englishman of his generation to tread. His 
w 



clnef works are : Medal for Tewfik Pasha 
(dies cut at the Royal ^lint), 18S6 ; the 
Cope and Nicol School of Painting medal ; 
the A'isit of the King and Queen of Denmark, 
for the Corporation of London ; Baron Schroder 
(presentation gold medal); the Tower Bridge 
( Corporation of London ) ; medals of Sir 
Hermann Weber and Dr. Bisset Hawkins Oor 
the Royal College of Physicians ) ; the Huxle\- 
Memorial Medal (for the Ro\'al College of 
Science); Medals of Award for the Roval 
Colleges of Art and Science (for the Science 
and Art Department) ; Sir Joseph Hooker (for 
the Limiccan Societ)') ; the Royal College of 
Music ; the Rajah Supendro Mohun Tagore's 
Wedding Medal for the Duke and Duchess of 
York ; and a medal of (Jueen \'ictoria. These 
are all struck. The cast medals and plaques 
include the School Board Attendance Medal and 
a Colonial INIedal, both with special sittings 
fr(.)m H.i\L the King ; Sir John Evans (for 
the Xumismatic Society), perhaps the most 
admirable and refined ot all 'Mr. Bowcher's work 
( Royal Academy, 1 90 1 ) ; Dr. Parkes Weber, and 
Mr. Charles Welch. 

In these there appears more of the in- 
fiuence of Roty, Chaplain, Dubois, Dupuis, and 
the other great medallists of France, than ol' 
the earh' Italians. But the character is Mr. 
Bowcher's own ; it is strong, and it has in- 
troduced to England the charm of modern 
lettering and edge, of the new treatment and 
colour. 



170 



BRITISH SCL'LPTLRE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAV. 



Mrs. L. 
VEREKER HAMILTON. 



The artists who have dabbled in medal- 
making are man^•, but 
lew are those who ha^■e 
remained entirely faithful 
to it. Among them is ]Mrs. Vereker Hamilton'. 
Influenced by her master JMr. Legros, and follow- 
ing the bold and apparently rugged and lunlp^' 
manner of the French medallist M. Charpentier 
— as opposed to the exquisitely refined modern 
classicism of 'SI. Roty — she has iiroduced an 
extremely clever series full of character, includ- 
ing " Lord Roberts," " \'iscount (jort," " Sir 
Donald Stewart," and the " [Maharajah of 
Kapurthala." The last-named was purchased 
for the Luxembouro- [Museum in Paris. 



Miss 
ELINOR HALLE. 



Sir EDWARD POYNTER 
P.R.A. 



Mr. ALFRED GILBERT. 
R.A. 



Miss Hali.i;, also a pu- 
jiil of ]Mr. Legros, has 
modelled a number of 
medals not dissimilar in manner, and also 
favoured by the Luxembourg. They include 
" Cardinal [Manning," " Cardinal Xewman," 
" Sir Charles Halle," " Su" Henry [M. Stan- 
ley," and ■■ 'Sir. G. F. Watts, R.A." Other 
artists, some of the most prominent of the 
(lav, have worl^ed in the 
same direction. Sir ¥a)- 
WARD roYX'i ER designed 
the Ashantee War [Medal. 
[Mr. Alfred (Gilbert's 
medal for tlie Art L'nion takes a high ]ilace. The 
fine design and superb execution of " Fos/ cqnitun 
sidii aini nira" made such sensation in the 
Acadenu' at the time of its exhibition that it 
is hardlv likeh' to be 
"■■• forgotten. To [NL". CjEOR(;e 

G. J. FRAMPTON, A.R.A. 

h'RAMPTrjx ;ire to be cre- 
dited, among otliers, tlie " ()uincentenar\- [Medal 
for Wincliester College" (1894), the Cjold [Medal 
for (jlasgow Lhii\-ersitA' (1895), and the Cit\' 
Imperial A'olunteer [Medal for the Corjioratiou 
of London (looi). Besides these artists, [Mr. 
(joscombe John, A.R.A., [Mr. Toft, [Mr. Albert 
I3ruce-Jo)', [Mr. C. J. Allen, and others lia\e 
produced work of a standard that seems to 
render the luture calling in of loi'eigu hel]") 
unnecessar\- and unjustifiable. At the same 
time, greatei" progress would be ninre ra]ii(l if 
foreign medallists were encouraged to exhibit 
here. 



THE SILVERSMITHS. 

IX the course of the foregoing pages the natural 
incursitjn of the sculptor into the domain 
of the gold and silversmith has several times 
been remarked upon. Indeed, no consider- 
ation of sculpture can be complete without 
some reference to those arts of design which 
are common to the silversmith. We have seen 
how Mr. Alfred Gilbert, [Mr. Framptcju, [Mr. 
Swan, [Mr. Reynolds Stephens, [Mr. Ponreroy, 
[Mr. Birnie Rhind, [Mr. IMacKennal, Mr. Walter 
Crane, to name no others, have all produced 
objects of " goldsmithery " or of jewellery. It 
becomes necessary therefore to say a lew words 
of the men who are practising these arts to the 
exclusion of the others. 



Mr. 
ALEXANDER FISHER. 



Mr. Alexander Fisher, 
t r a i n e d as a landscape 
painter and a designer and draughtsman, was 
drawn towards embroidery, and finally to the 
work bv which he is now universalh' known, 
through the establishment of the Arts and Crafts 
h.xhibition Societv. In 1887 he began experinrents 
with a Mew to re-discover the processes of the old 
enamellers and to carry their methods further. 
He succeeded ; and after working with [Mr. Starkie- 
Gardner for a while, he opened his o\\ai work- 
shop, and became lecturer on the art of the 
enameller to the Citv and Guilds of London Insti- 
tute in 181)3. ^ince that ^•ear [Mr. Fisher's exhibits 
Inn'e always attracted interest and attention, 
not so much for the ]U)rtraits executed in the 
vitreous material, as for the beaut^■ of design in 
the objects \\hich they embellished, such as nets, 
b()ok-co\"ers, chalices, crucifixions, caskets, and the 
like, always excellent in colour, and chaste and 
elegant in taste. The lew of IMr. h'isher's works 
which ha\'e not passed into pri\'ate collections 
\WA\ be seen in the A'ictoria and Albert [Museum, 
at the Brussels [MuseuuL and sinnlar institutions. 



Mr. £ind Mrs. 
NELSON DAWSON. 



[Mk. and [Mrs. Xelsox Daw- 
son are also highh- skilled 
enamellers and metal-workers ; the former, who 
was originalh' a ]iainter, is the best-known 
jnijiil (lor enamel) of [Mr. Fisher. The\- Inn'e 
together exetuted much charnung work, but 
with an occasional affectation ol^ rudeness, or 



GILBERT MARKS. 



lyi 




SILVER AND ENAMEL CENTREPIECE 

By Alexander Fisher. 



na'ivcLe. It was about the year 1890 that Mr. 
Dawson made a noteworthj' casket for the 
Phimbers' Conipan}-, and latterly caskets in silver 
and enamel for presentation to the King when 
Prince of Wales, to the Speaker of the House 
of Commons, and others. With ]\Irs. Dawson 
her husband has associated himself in the pro- 
duction of works in which the more precious 
metals have occurred — in jewellery, enamel, and 
the like. Their latest achievements include the 
presentation piece in gold and enamel for the 
Duchess of York, and the casket in bronze, siher, 
and enamel, a gift to General Baden-Powell. 



Mr. 
GILBERT MARKS 



Mr. Marks is a good type 
of the artist-sih'ersmith who 
manufactures his own work, and refuses to entrust 
the execution of it to another craftsman who ma}- 
have neither seen nor known aught of the original 
designer and his aims. He has made cups and 
bowls for the King and a box for the Queen ; but 



the cliiet work near the beginning of his career 
were the mace for the Corporation of Cro^•don and 
the steel and gold key for the dedication ceremony 
b}' the Prince of Wales. Caskets, silver services, 
bowls, memorial tablets, Freedom-of-the-Citv 
boxes and so forth, need not be specified. The 
characteristic of Mr. ^lai'ks' work is the beaut^' 
of the design (commonh' of flowers w fishes 
treated with a good deal of realism) and the in- 
telligent and indi\"idual character of the repoiissc- 
work. 

As alwa\'S happens when a vogue is created 
in fa\-our of an art or craft, the demand brings 
forward a number of clever artists to supph- the 
requirements of the moment. Among the able 
little band of silversmiths and enamellers the names 
of Mr. Carr and Mr. Marriott 

Mr. G. CARR. , • i i i i , , 

mav be included bv \'irtue ot 
Mr. MARRIOTT. ^j^j^jj. charming designs and their 

sense of colour, rich, delicate, and harmonious. 
Besides these workers and the sculptors already 



I?: 



BRITISH SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS OF TO-DAV. 




THE BAUEN-POWELL CASKET 

By Nelson and Edith Dawson. 



alluded to, there are others who have attracted 
general notice bv their perlormances. Among 
them are Mr. Colton and Professor von Herkomer, 
the latter of whom stands outpronhnenth*. To his 
work in pewter and silver reference need not be 



memory of all — the great shield with its numerous 
enamels symbolical of " The Triumph of the 
Hour," the portraits of Professor Ende, of the 
German Enrperor, and other pictures, in which he 
carries the art of " substantial " (as contrasted 



made, as he has executed it f<jr his private use and with "superficial") enamel-painting further than 
not for exhibition. But his enamels are in the it has been pushed before. 




SILVER BOWL, 
By Gilbert Mar^s. 



GENIiRAL IXDEX. 



Albert ^[umori.il. I\[r. ArmsteaLl's W'drk mi 
13, 14 

Allrudjhe Grcit. Statue at Winchester, bv 
AV. Hannj TlKjrn v^ToTt, R.A., 44 

Allen. Charles J...hii, A'rt Train inti at Lambeth, 
\V'n-k on Reredos nf St. l^auTs. at Kat-jii 
iiall, and St. Albans Abbev. at J^.A. 
Sch'jois, assistant t(,. Mr. "rhornvcroft, 
•' 1-uve tiie-s Irom the iJoubtini^r Sijul," 
"Jacob Wre.stlin;^^ with the ' An^el," 
Piust of 1 )r. SwLMiman. '■ Lo\'e KepLilseLl," 
" Perseus." •• !' laaLuuitus." 14N ; Te.ieher 
fif Sculpture at Liverpool Ijniversitv, 
••Love and the ?\Iermaid " (bought for 
the Walker .-\rt Gallerv). Busts <,f J^ruf 
Randall. Prnl. MackaV, anil Alderman 
Rathbune. ■■ liurnx-s," "■' Rescued," (idid 
iVIedal at Larks. Lstirnate <>\, i4() ; as 
Medallist. 170 

Architect in relatiun to Sculptdr, 10 

Architecture and Sculpture. ><, JO 

Armstead, H. H., R.A., Art "I^-ainin^i df, as 
Metal-worker. I-i credos in Westminster 
Abbey. Deci. ration of Colonial ( )fhce. 
Albert ^lemnrial, J^; Fountain at Kinj^^'s 
Collej^e, Cambridge, "The Liitomb- 
ment," Statue of G. Street, R.A., ■' Lieu- 
tenant Wai^horn," J^oor at Hfjlbdrn 
Restaurant, 14; Memorial Works, " David 
and the Lion," " St. Matthew," '• Play- 
mates." " Remorse," Diploma A\'drk, 
"Applied ]\[echanics " at Albert Hall, 
Estimate of Work of. 17 

Habb, Stanlev. J c,- 

Lalfour, Rt.'Hd'n. .\. J., Bust by L. Onshjw 
Ford, R. A., 54 

Bayes, Gilbert. A^t Trainin,i^^ Gold Medal at 
R.A. Schools, 14-;; "The Triumph." 
" Probable Starters," " The Ride df the 
Walkyries,'' "The Tilt Yard." "The 
Banners of the Faithful,"' "A'aniiv." "A 
Knight Frrant," "Sirens of the Fdrd." 
"The L)ragon Slayer." "St. Gcdrj^e," 
" ^Fneas leaving Troy," 144 

I-'>eaconsfield, Lord. Statue by W. Hamo 
Thoriivcroft, l\.A.. 44 

Bell. R. Anning. as Sculptor and T Jecoratcjr, 

L=;7 

Belt V. Lawes, 10 

J:lirmingham, AX'ork bv AL-. Frith at \'ietoria 
Law Cdurts, (i; ; Coh.issal Statues on 
New General Hdspital by j. WenJock 
Rollins, 142 

Jllack friars PSridge Competition, Grdu[i by 
Y). W. Stevenson. IvI.S. A., 33 ; Edward I.', 
by W. Hamo Thcjrnycroft. R.A., 40 

inack'Prince.The.StatuebyT. Brock,R.A.,2f. 

I-;lake, Admiral. Statue by F. W. Pomeroy 
at Bridgwater, ] 17 

Bowcher, Frank, AU-dallist; ^fedals Executed : 
Huxley Memorial I\[edal. :\L-dal Idr 
Queen Victoria, hifluence of ]^ i-ench 
^Medallists on. iht} 

Bright, John, Statue of, by A. Bruce-)oy. -?-| ; 
Statue of, at Rochdale, by \\'. Hamo 
Thornycroft, InI.A., 44 ; Statue by Alfred 
Gilbert, R.A., S; 

Brock, Thomas, R.A., at R.A. Schools, i; 
National Memorial to Oueen Victdria, 
26 ; Art Training of, 24 ; Successor tu 
Foley, Busts by, Diploma Work, Statues 
by, 26 ; " Salamacis," "Hercules Strang- 
ling Antaius," " Here\^'ard the A\'ake," 
" CEnone," " Paris," Rathbone IMemorial, 
"Snake Charmer," "Moment of Peril." 
" The Genius of Poetry," " ^"i\g."' 
" E\"e,"' 21) ; Estimate of, 30 



Bronze, L'se of, in Sculi)ture, 5 

J->r'j\\ n. ?kIor[imer, t::;5 

Bruce-h.y. A., R.H.A., Art Training of. 
" Gladstone," " Lord F. Cavendish." 
"John Bright," " Harvey Memorial," 
I lusts by, ?(icmorials, " The First Flight." 
"Woman and Child," " The Fdr-.aken." 
" Moses and the Irlrazen Serpent," " Thetis 
and AchiMes," Estimate of, 24 ; as 
Medallist, 17O 

Burke, Edmund, Statue at 1 Iristcd by Havard 
Thomas, 47 

Burns, Robert, Statue at .-Vyr by G. A. Law- 
son, 20 ; Statue at Leith by D. W. 
Stevenson, R.S.A., ^-.i, ; Statues at Kil- 
marnock. Chicag(j anif Denver by W. G. 
Stevenson, R.S.A.. Centenary Statue at 
Paisley by F. W. P.jmeroy, 117; Statue 
at Irvine bvj. Pittendrigh Macgillivray, 
R.S.A., i:;i; Statue by [ohn* Tweed, 
152 

Cameron hlighlanders. MenVirial to, by 
George E. Wade, 142 

Carpeaux, LiHuence of, on llritish Sculpture, i 

Carr, (',., as Silversmith, 171 

Chantrey, Sir F., Position df, to-day, 7 

Clarence, J )uke of, Memoriai by Alfred 
Gilbert. f^.A., 81. X2 

Clay. Use ol. in Sculpture, 5 

Cdlour in .Sculpture, 3, 5 ; Ruskin and, 4 

Coltoii, W. R., Art Trainin-^ at Lambeth and 
R.A. Schools, Fountain in Hyde Park. 
" The Girdle" (bemght for Cha'ntrey Col- 
lection), "The Liiage Finder." "The 
Crown of Love," 144; "The Wavelet." 
Estimate of, 145 ; as ScuIptor-lJccorator, 
J57 ; as Silversmith. 172 

Committees, Bane of, i^ ; ( )nsldw Fdrd's 
Opinion of, lO ; Alfred ( lilbert and. S^ 

Connaught, Duke of. Statue by (jeorg'-^E. 
Wade. 143 

(_'rane. AX'alter. Pioneer air.ong Sculptor- 
J Jec(jralors, " ?>LiCc ior Manchester." 137 

Cromwell, ( )liver. Statue by W. Hamo 
Th(jrnyeroft. Iv.A., 42 ; Statue ior St. 
Ives by V. \\\ Pumeroy, II7 



•Matue of, by E. Onslow For 



R.A. 



Dalou, M.. ^Ljdelling Master at South 
Kensiugt<.m, Infiuence ol. on Jaatish 
Sculpture. I ; ?>Iaternity by, at Roval hx- 
chani^e, 5!; at Lambeth Schdol, (j^ 

] Jaw son, Nelson and ]-'2(.lith, as Itnamellers 
and SiK'crsmiths, 170 

De Saulles, <j. W.. as Medallist. "Oueen 
Victoria's lubilee Med<,l," W.ir ^red<ds. 
I'lS ; Grea^t Seal. I(j() 

Dixon, Harry, as Painter. Art "!"raiiii ng. 
" Wdd I'.oar," 7t ; Lions at Imperial 
Institute. 72 

Draper\' anil Sculpture. 3 

L'ressler, Conrad, Tr;.iining, as Realist, Bust 
ol Ford Madox Brown, S:; ; J-^usts ol 
Archdeacon Farrar. Sir ^\'. Flower. ). 
Anth(jny Froude, Lord Halsburv, Ernest 
Hart. Lord Iddesleigh, Rev." H. R. 
Haweis, Sir f. ISL:iwbray. William ^L:lrris. 
Lord Roberts, John Ruskin, Sir H. 
St.mley, A. C. Swinburne, Jdhn d'ooir, 
S() ; St.itue of Dean Liddell lor Christ 
Cluirch. " iNLiry Magdalen," Connection 
with " 1 )ella Robbia" Pottery, 86 ; " Girl 
T\dng up her Sandal," " Statue ot Henry 
Vi," Panels at St. George's Hall, Liver- 
pool. "Sir John DT.'rberville." Estimate 
of, NN 



Drur\, Alfred, A.R.A., Art I'ralning, " The 
Triuinjih of Silenus," Assist, ml to Sir E. 
B<iehm. Bust of ^fr. J. Ishani, ■■ The 
Genius of Sculpture." " II Penseroso," 
" A Gipsy ,\Liiden," Busts of Mme. 
Xdrdica and Mr. S. S. Cohen, "The 
First Rellexion," " The Evening l-'rayer " 
(bought for Manchester Gallery), "Echo," 
" Harmony," " Circe," Medals at l-irussels 
antl Paris, " Even," " St. Agnes," " Sacri- 
hce o( Isaac," i lO ; " Griselda " (bought 
for the Chantrey Collection), " The Age 
d| Inm^cence." Statues U>y Leeds, " The 
Prophetess of Fate," " The Little 
Duchess," Decorative ^^'ork, J-Lstlmate 
ol, IT4 ; as Sculptor-I tecorator, J ^7 

Julwards, |. J-'assmore, J-'>usts of, by G. ]. h ramp- 
ton, A. R.A,. .,3 ; by H. C. Kehr, J3<) 

Fawcett, Henry, ^^emorial of, bv Tinw'jrth, 
23 ; Statue'r.f, at Salisbury, by FI. R. Hope 
Pinker, d; ; Memorial in Westminster 
Abbey by Alfred Gilbert, R.A., Ni ; 
Rebel on Thames Embankment, b)' Mary 
Grant, 1(12 

Fehr, Henrv C., Art Training, in Mr. Brock's 
Studio, '' Morning, " " Amphitrite," 
" Favi.mreUes," " Perseus and Andro- 
meda " (bought lor Chantrey Collection), 
13^ ; " Hypnos bestowing Sleep upon 
the Eai'th," " An [nvocatlon to the f jod- 
dess (-)i Love," " The Spirit of the AX'ayes," 
"The ]-lattle ufWakeheld," "St. George," 
Statues of James Watt and John Harrison 
lor J^eeds, Dr. Cai'twright Inr I-ord 
^Lisham, " Ambition's Crown Iraught 
with Pain," Busts of J, Passmore Ed\\'ards 
and William Morris, Estimate 'jf, 130 ; 
as Sculptor-I )ecorator, 157 

Fisher, Alexander, as Painter. Designer, and 
Enamellist, Lecturer on Art to City and 
Guilds df London Institute, 17O 

Fisher, Frank, " Karl the Martyr," 155 

hiaxman, Pdsitlon of. to-day, 7 

Foley, ]. FL, R.A., Pupils oT. F.J. Williamson, 
is'; A. J-;ruc..-J.iy, 24; T. ]-irdck, R.A., 
24; ]\Iiss Mary Grant, loi 

Ford, E. Onslow, H.X., as a Student of Paint- 
ing, I^upil o| Wagmuller, hrst appearance 
at R.A., Statues of Rowland Hill, Sir 
Charles Reeil, Sir Henry Ir\"ing as 
"Hamlet " and " Mathias," U '; of 
Huxley, Dr. Dale, Duke of Norfolk, 
^Lihara|ah 1 lurburjah, and (Jueen Vic- 
toria (?\lanchester), 52 ; " jSLtternity," s,2 ; 
Statue ol Gladstone at the City Liberal 
Club, (.Turdon Memorial at Chatham, 
Statue ot Lord Strathnairn at Knights- 
bridge, Maharajah of Mysore, "Justice." 
-.2 ; " Knowledge," Busts of Artists, 
Herbert Spencer, Bust of pueen Victoria, 
:\Ir. Balfour, Busts of Ladfes, " p-y," 54 ; 
"Folly," "Peace," "Echo," "(ilory'to 
the Dead." 55 ; "The Singer," " Ap- 
plause." " The I'ance," " Dancing." 
" ^lusic," ^NLirlowc Memorial at Canter- 
burv, ■■ In ^R'moriani," 57 ; jowett Me- 
morial, 5S ; Shelley jSR-monals at T'ni- 
\ersitv College anil X^iareggio, Gordon 
Memeirial Shield, 51); Designs lor Coin- 
age, Estimate of, 00 
Foiaii, P^eauty ol, 3, 4 

Forster, Rt. Hon. W. E.. Statue at Bradford 
by Ha\'ard Thom.is, 47 ; Statue on 
X'ictoria Embankment bv H. R. Hope 
Pinker, <i; 



174 



GKNHRAl. INDEX. 



Frampton, (Icor^L- |., A.I\.A., Art Trainiin;, 
Gold MeJai -.a R.\. ScIimmIs, 1SS7, m 
Paris. ■■SocratL-s Teaching- the I'coplu nii 
the A^cira," "The; .Snn^sttT," "An Act 
.if Mercy." "In Silence Praveth She." 
XN ; "The An.i;el ..[ Heath."' Awarileil 
Medal .tt I'aris, "St. Christina." 
" Caprice." " The Children c.f the 
WoH," " Mysteriarch." "The ^'i^illll." 
"My 'I'hi.uehts are mv (."hiidreii." 
"Mother and Child," " Music," "] lanc- 
ing," "Seven Heronies from the ■ Mort 
d'Arlhur.'" " I >aine Alice (.)wen," 
"Edward \'l," "St. (.'.eoree." i|0 ; 
"Lamia," Busts of Wr. Bell and " Marv 
and Ai,'nes, d.iut^hters of Mr. L. Kars- 
lake," Charles Keene Memorial. Leij.(h 
Hunt and K. Stuart Poole Memorials. 
Busts of Mr. I. Passniore Kdwards, Dr. 
Garnett ami Mr. kathhimc. Statue of 
Oueen \"ictnri,i for C.dcutta, Chaucer 
JBust, Decor.ilive A\'ork, Terra Cotta 
Work on Constituti.inal Club, Frieze .it 
St. Clement's. Bedloiai. llronze Memori.d. 
t)3 ; Elected A.K.A. 1S04, Grand Medal 
of Honour at l^aris IipO, Director of 
County Council Classes, Estimate of, i); : 
as Sculptor-Decorator, 1=^7; as Medallist, 
170 
French Influence on liritish Sculpture. 2 
Frith. W. S . Success of, at Lamheth Scho.il 
of Art. I ; Art '["rainini^ at Lambeth and 
K. A. Schools. " B.iadicea." Busts of Dr. 
Law and Mr. Barwick Baker, Medallion 
of Ellen Terry, Decortitive Work at 
Victoria Law C<iurts, Birmin<iham, <)5 ; at 
Metrop.ilitan Assurancet )fhcc .anil United 
Service lnstitulion.Statues.it Post OHice. 
Leeds, Work at Astor Estate ( (flice. 
Clare Laun, St. Michael's. Gloucester. 
St. Aiuirew's and St. Bartholomew's. 
KensinL;ton. o'l ; as Sculptor- 1 )ecorator. 



Gilbert, Alfred, K'.A., Inlluence of. at K.,\. 
Schools. 2; Revival ol Metal-work due 
to, II : Position in Entjlish Art. 75 : 
Assistant to Sir E. J. Boehm. at South 
KcnsinLiton, at Ecole des Beau.x-Arts, 
"Mother and Child," St.iv in Ivomc. 
"Perseus"' at K.A.. " Ic.irus." 7'); 
"Study cjf a Head," "Kiss of \'ictor\'." 
"The Enchanted Chttir." " Comedv and 
Trayedv," 7S ; Isusts of ]. S. Clavton. 
(;. E. Watts, R.A.. Sir\,cor;;e lliid- 
wood. Baron Huddlcston, l-'rank Hull 
Memorial in St. Paul's. " Thohv. son ol 
\'al Prinsep, k,.\.." " Mrs. Henfv Cust." 
" Lord keav," " Dr. Joule," 71) ; ■H.n\ard 
Alemorial at lledford. Ho ; Statue of 
Oueen X'ictori.i at Winchester, So; 
Memorials to Henrv hawcelt .ind Duke 
of Clarence, 81. »2 ; Shaftesbury Foun- 
tain. Nj ; I'^peri^ne in silver, Presielentl.il 
Badye h.r Royal Institute of Painters in 
Water Colours, I'reston Mavor.il Ch.iin. 
" Rosew.iter Dish and Ewer." " Eoiit." 
(.oldsmilhs' Work. Elected Associate of 
R.A. 1S.S7. K.\. IH.,2. Medal of Honiiur 
,at Pans bsXi,. M.V.O.. Jistiinale ol. N4 ; 
Statue of John Bri,;,dit, .S5 ; as Me.l.iHist. 
170 ^ 

Giles. Margaret, "Hero'' awarded Art I'niun 
Prize. " In Memoriam." " Aber Nineteen 
Hundred ^'ears and still thev Cruelly." 
1(12 

Gladslone. W. E., Sl.itues oh by A. Bruce-Joy. 
24; Statuette id. by E. Roscoe Muliiiis. 
47; Si. due ol. ,it ("ilv Liber.d Club, bv 
E, Onslow hold. R..\.. sJ ; Liber.d Me- 
morial Statue .It Wcstu'iinsler bv P. W. 
Pornerov. 117; Bust ol, by Albert Toll. 
i22 ; Sl.itue at Penmaenmawr by Albert 
Toft. 124; SlaUie bv Geori^'c E. Wade. 
142 ; National Memorial for Scntland bv 
J. Pilleiidrii;h Al.icsillivrav. K'.>..\,. 151"; 
Statue by Mary tjrant. llil 

Cdeichen, HiS. H. 'Idle Countess. Art 'I'r.iin- 
ing. Statue oftlueen ■Victori.i ,it .Monlre.il. 
Bust ol ( tueeii \"icloii,i at l.'heltenh.im 
L.adies' College. Meinori.il to Count 
( lleichen in Sunnim^ilale Cluirch. P.usl, 
,,i ( lueeii Ale.v.ilnlr.i .ilid Lady Henry 



Bentinck. " Satan." " Peace." Hand- 
nnrror in Jaele ,ind llron/e. Stone Foun- 
tains in Paris and Ascot. Busts of INIme, 
Calve. Mrs. Palmer, ami Sir Henry 
Ponsiinbv, a Madonna, lOI 

tnirdon, ( reneral. Statue in I'ratalgar Square 
by W. Haino Thornycroft. K.A.. 44 ; 
.Memorial of. at Chatham, by E. Onslow- 
Eord, K.,\ . ;2; Memorial Shield bv 
E. < Inslow Ford. R..-\.. 5.1 

Grant. Marv. A\t Traiuint;. "( lueeil ^'ictoria " 
for India. "Duke 'of Art;vll," Sir P. 
Gr.int. I'.iN:..\.. ( .eorJin.i Lady Dudley. 
Mr. C. P.irnell, M.P.. Mr. Gladston'e. 
Work at Lichlield. \\'lnchester and 
Edinhur,i;-h Cathedr.ils. Memorial of 
De.an Stanley. 1(11 ; ^Ir. h.nvcett. M.l'., 
1(12 

Granville. Lord. St.itue of. bv A\'. Hanni 
Thornycroft. R..\.. 44 

(iriftfn at Temple Bar. H. ilontlord's Work 
on. 34 



Halle. Elinor. ".iMusic." I(i2 ; as Medallist. 
170 

Hamilti.n. Lilian A'creker. as Medallist. 
" Lord Koherts." " X'iscount Gort." " Sir 
I lonald Stewart," " Maharajah of Kapur- 
thal.i " (bought bir Luxcmbnurg'), 170 

Hampton. Herbert. Trainint^ at 1-ambeth and 
Slade Schools, .ind Paris. "The Mother 
of Evil." "D.iviil," "Apollo," "The 
llroken \"ow-." " Mother and Child." 
"Narcissus." "The Kitten.'' St.itue of 
Lord Aberilare. f^duntabi (iroups. Busts 
of !-ord Roberts .uulSir Henry Howorth. 

I ^s 

Harrison. John. Statue of at Leeds, bv H C. 
hehi-. 130 

Herkenner. Prof \-on. ,is En.imeller, 172 

Hill. Sir Kowl.ind. Statue ob .it Roy.il E.\- 
chaime, bv E. Cliislow h.ird. Ii;..-V.. ;i 

Hodoe. A.. 135 

Hook. De.in. St.itue bv E. W. Pomeroy. 
117 

Hutchison. |.. K.S.A.. Art Trainim,', Elec- 
tion as'A.R.S.A.. lu; Earlier ' Works, 
St. dues ol John Kno.x. " The (.lOod 
Shepherd." 20 

Hu.vlev. Prob. Statue of. by E. ( inslow- Foiyl. 
R'.A.. ;2 ; Memori.d' Medal bv Frank 
Biiwche-r. i(«| 



Institute of Chartered Accountants. Sculpture 

.Hi ( Iffiees ol, X 
Irein:;, Sir Henry, St.itues ob as " H. unlet " 

and "^lathias." by E. Dnslow F.ird. 

K'.A, 31 
It.ilian Sculpture. Trickery of Modern. 3; 

Meretrici.iusin.'ss nf. 0; Absurdities dI 

M onumenl.il. ti 



jcnkin. Mrs. Bernard {s,r ^I.iri;a ret Giles) 
"lenkiiis. F. I.vnn. Sculptor-Decorator. Art 
"Ir.iiuiii!;. Work .11 St. Matthew's Church. 
Cockin^lon. on P. and O. Comp.inv's 
P.ivilion at Paris, b'ioures hir Rolher- 
hilhe d'.oMi Hall. Eric/e at l.levd's 
Registry. Work in coiijunctiiai with 
( .erald 'Moir.i. Fstiin.ite ol. l,i| 

jnhn. W. Goscombe. .\. R.A., .-Vrt I'l .dnin^, 
Gol.l Medal at R.A, Schools. ]2i|; 
" Morpheus " (b.,U"ht lor C.irdill). 1211 ; 
" ,\ (,irl Binding; her Hair." "St |.ihn 
the ll.iplist." " P,.,y .It n..e" (boin;h'i lor 
1 h.inti-ev Colleclion;. " Ihe Cd.onour .il 
the i^ose." " Muriel," Aleinorl.il to C.inon 
Guv. Relief .il Miss N'ed.ler. " The 
Ivll." Meinori.il 1.. W.lsli Nol.ibilities. 
" D.oid ( l\een .it M.ild." 1 '.usl .,1 De.in 
\'.iii"han. Sl.itu.- ..I 1 luke ..I 1 >e\-.inshire. 
i;.i; (,iild M..I.1I .11 P. iris. Elccled 
.\,R..\.. i'.stiin.ile ..I. 131 ; .IS Med.dllsl. 
I7..1 

limes. .Adri.in, as Wleiinarv Surgeon. "()ne 
1,1 the Ki^ht S.Hl." "".\ 1 luiUsmau ,ind 
Hiiuiuls." 111^; " rrium|ih." "Duncan's 
Horses." 11)4 ; " MaLernal Cue." 
" Waterlo.i." " I'hcR.ipeol the S.lbines." 
" ( .eonr.inhy," Jo; 



]ov\ett. Dr. Bust of, by H. K. Hope Pinker, 
(.; ; Memori.d by F. (Jiishov Ford. 
R.A.. 3.S 

Lambeth School u< \vt. Success ob I : Noted 
Pupils .lb I; t reoioe Tinwiirth at. 2;; 
F. Roscoe MuUins'at. 47; I- M S-.^■,ln. 
.\.1\..A.. at. I17 ; A\'. S Frith. Pupil and 
Teacher at. .i; ; E. \\'. Pomeroy at, Ii; ; 
AV. Goscomlie John. A.R..\.'at, 120; 
Herbert Hampton at, 1;; ; \\'. R. Colton 
at. 144; Charles J.dnV Allen at, 14X: 
F. Al Taubnuin at, 14.1 ; P.iul R M. ait- 
lord at, 151 ; .Alfred Turner .it, 133 ; F. 
Lynn |eiikiiis .it. i;.) 

Lanlerl. Edouard. as'Modellino Master at 
South Kensinejton. Influence ol, I ; -Assist- 
ant to Sir E'. Boehm. Master at South 
Kensington. Busts of Sir E. T'.oehm. Mr. 
|. C. Sparkes. Sir Aui^ustus H.irris. M. 
W.nkliiiot.m and Duchess id" Leinster. 
■ The Fencint; Master,"" " Tete de 



Paysan,"" 12;: "Or 



Pea, 



" Fisherman and the Alermaid,"" " 1 he 
Sisters."" Sketch for Garden Decoration, 
Estimate ob 127 

Lawes. Sir (.'. T"... Ibirt . "They T'aiund me 
on. etc.." " Fniled Suites .If .America," 
Vi 

Laws. in, (1. -A. .Art Trainino. "Dominie 
Sampson,'' " In the .Arena," " Callicles," 
" D.iphnis,"" " ("leopatr.i,"' " The Danaid."" 
20; " Head. if. in (.)ld AVoman."" Estim.itc 
ob 21 

Lee. T. Stirling,!. P.incL in St. (jeori;e"s H.ill. 
Liverpo.il.'hy. (Ill : Estimate of,' till 

Leeds, Statues by Mr Frith at Post Office, .|0 ; 
Statue .il 1 >V. Priestley and Electric Lieht 
Standards at. Iw Alfred Drury, A.RA.. 
112; St.itues of lames AA'.itt and lohn 
Harris.in by H. C: Fehr. 131) 

LeLjros, .Mphoiise. ,is P.iinter-Sculptor. tis 
Slade Proless.ir. IbO ; " 'T.irso .if a 
AA'oman." ".A S.iilor's A\ife." "La 
Source." Fount. lin hir Duke of Portl.ind. 
" Head of P.m."" " C.ipitals of Pilasters." 
Medals of Teuiiysiin and D.irwin. II17: 
Estimate ob los" 
jiohton, Lord. PR. .A.. Busts .d', by T.Pa-.ick. 
' R.A. .20; Memorial to. by'T. Br. ick. R ..A .. 
20 
onnfelliiev. H A\'.. Bust .if. bv "T. Brock. 

k.A.. 20 
onsd.de. Bishop. St.itue in Lichlield C.ithe- 

.Iral bv G F. W.itts. R..A.. II 4 
otliian. L.a.l, St.itue in I'icklln" t.'hurch. b\- 

G. F. AV.itls. R. A., in; 
ucchesi. .A. C. Work .;s Mi.ulder. First 
Exhibit at k.A.. 72 ; " The AV.iib" 
Studies at R.. A Sch. 11 .Is. " The Puritan." 
" Ohiiviinl." " With Mildest Eves Down- 
c.ist." "Destiny." 7;; " Ihe' Alount.iin 
of b.inie." ".A A'.dkvrie." "The Cr.lsh 

ol D n." " Iniioceiiee." Bust of Oueen 

\"ict.iri,i. ".A A'anishini; Dream." "The 
Fli;;ht of F.inev." " "The Alyrtlc's .Alt.ir." 
" "The A'ictory of Peace." 74; Tre.itment 
of the Xui.lc. 73 

McClurc. Air.. 1;; 

Alac.l.inald. Sir"|.. Statues hir St. Paubs 
(.'athe.b-.d .in.'l M..,itre.il by (.ei.r-e b 
AV.ide. .42. 143 

A1l( ,111. 1 l.ivid, .Art "Tr.iiiiino. ■■ l,,nc Re- 
moviiiLt the Ti.idv .il St Seb.isti.in "" 
.Aw.irdcl G.Ll Aled.il .,t R.,\. Schools 
" Hero , ind I.e. Older."" "The P., tiler."" 14- 

Al.1c4illi1r.1y. J. I'lltelldri^h, R,S..A.. Selb 
t.iu^ht Sculpl.ir. Busts ,if Miss (ililie 
M'T.iren. Miss Florence Findl.iv. Peter 
Low Al cm, iri.il.Glasi^ow. Statue of Burns 
,it lr\inc. .All, in F.imilv Mmuimeiit. lyfli^v 
.if 1 le.in Monti;. .mere.' X.ition.d I d.idsto'ne 
Aicmorl.d h,r Scotkm.l. " F.is."" Flections 
to R.S..\.. lystim.ite ol. I^i 

Al.icKeiin.d. P.etlr.i.n. .Art I'r.iinini;-. DeciM.i- 
lioii 1,1 (bneriiment House o'f A'ictori.i. 
" La "I'ete d'une S.iinte." " Le 1 biiser d'line 
Alerc."" "Circe."" 1 ;2 : " bor She sittctb 
on .1 Se.it," etc.. Busts nf ATiic. S.ir.ih 
Beinh.ir.lt .ind Airs. Herbert H.irt. 
Centr.piccc. 133: "Oceana." "Grieb"' 
.St.itues ol ( Uleell A'ictori.i. blstiin.itc 
ob t;; 



GENERAL IMjEX. 



175 



Al.inninj;-, ("•,,! din;, 1, ^Kilal uf. hv l':iin,i|- 

II.iIIl', 170 
^Lii-hif, in Sciilplui-c, ;; l-iuskiii 1,11 Ihe I \c 

^Jarks, ("lilhurt. as SiK Lrsniilh. 171 

Marlowe :SIem.ii-ial at Can(urhui-v, hy K 
( )nsl,m- FunI, R.A , ;7 ■ ■ 

Manicilt, ^^r., as SilvLTsmilh, 17: 

Mai-vt.n, Etlitll, ■■ Mother and Child." - l?e- 
lii^ion." " May Aloriiim,','' iti; 

Materials for Sculpture, , 

^Medallists, The, II.N 

Metal Work ami .Sculpture, Revival ol" -> II 

Michael Ani^elo, I 'se ol' Models hy, irj 

:\Iillais, Sir J. K,, ,in Jlodern llritish Sculp- 
ture, I ; Must of, by I-;. ( )nslow K,,rd 
K.A„ 54 

Ministry of Mne Arts, I lis,idv.intat;-es of, 7 

Moira, '(lerald. Decorative Work 7n conjunc- 
tion with 1^'. i_\-nn jenknis, !■;() 

Alonthird, H,;race; asH'.u-ver and Cahinet- 
maker. Art Tr.rinint;, ( iold Ntedal at R A. 
Schools, ■' Hercules StraULjIint; ,-\nt;eus," 
City "Griffin," Ideal Work of, -,4 

^lontlVird, Paul K . f-'upil of his K.ither, as 
I'.iinter anrl Sculptor, at I.,amheth and 
R.A. Schools, (jold Medal at K.A. 
for "Jacob wrestlins; with the .-Kni^el." 
"Mother and Child," "Spinnini; Ciirl." 
"Viscount ]-!olins;broke." " Elf liahes," 
■•The Storm W.ayes," Afodellinf; Maste 
at Chelsea Polvtechnic, 151 



at Chelsea Polvtechnic, 151 
^tonumentalSculptUl-e, Absurdities of Italian, (I 
Morlev, Samuel, ^r.P., St.atues by f-lav.nd 

Thomas at Xcittinyham and Bristol, 47 
Morris, Willkim, I'.ust'of, by 11. C. Kehr, I -5.) 
Afullins, E. Ivoscoe. on ( lutdoor Portrait 
Statues. ,^ : .\rt Training, " Svmpath\-,' 
" Child and I lot;." ] Uists by. Statuettes of 
Cdadstone, Mr, Edmund Vates, Mr. \'. 
C. Prinsep. K.A..47 ; Statues of Cicncral 
Parrow. 47 : Rev. ^^'. l-Sarnes. Idieln.ire 
S.dlcb, 40 ; Effii,'y of(_>ueeil ^'ictoria. 411 ; 
■■Innocence." "Rest." " .M.iri^uerite." 
" Mi.i^uon," "Isaac ami Esau," ",\|orn 
waked by the Circlint^ Hours." " .Vu- 
tolvcus,'' "Cciiiquerors,'' "Love's Token," 
" 1 '.oy with a Top." " Cain." 4(1 ; Estim.ite 



' 1 '.oy with a Top." " Cain." 4(1 ; Estim. 

d. 4<i: I'ecor.itions ior Public Puildini 
^Ci ; "The Circus pj,,.-.: " - r'.l.^.i. 
Nieniorial at I '.ri^^dlton. ;( 
Mysore. M.di.irai.dl 'of. Mm 
{ )nslow Ford, R.A.. ;j 



( 'jinnett 
E. 



Xapier. St.atue of. in d'ralal^ar Square, 7 

X.ition.d (Tallery<if Sculpture. .X 

>s'atopp. tiust,i\. .\rt Tr. lining at Slade 
School ,nid ill Paris, " Hercules," Relief 
Portrait of I '.rownini:^, " P/iblio," " .Vta- 
kuil.i." Kei;-,itt.l Cup, Pust of Miss 
I'lurton. ■■ I ii.in.i," 105 

Newman. Cardinal, Med.al ol. by F-linor 
Halle, 170 

Norfolk, Duke of, Statue ol, at Sheffield, by 
K. < Inslow Ford, R. A.. ;_' 

Nude. d'he. in Sculpture, ; 



Ornament in Sculpture, Aspect of, ; ; Treat- 
ment of, by A. Gilbert, R,A., ,uid 
(j. Franipton, .\.R..\.. 7 

(hven, Sir Richard, statue by T. Brock, R..\., 



Paderewski, Bust of. by (ieori^e E. A\",idc. T42 

Painter-Sculptors, 1(14 

Parthenon Frie/e. I'se of .Afetal in, II 

Patronai^e of Art, Is it desir.ible ? S 

Pet^ram, Henry A., Art Training; at R.A. 
Schools, " ] »eath liberatiu!.;" a Prisoner." 
Fironze Medal at Paris. iNNi). ()(( ; " Igiiis 
F.ituus" (bout^ht for Charitre3^Collection), 
■■ Eve." "Sibylla Fatidica," Silyer Medal 
at Paris, itioo. Work at Imperial Institute, 
" Industry," " The Last Song," Gold 
Medal at Dresden, q7 ; " The T-'.athcr," 
" Ltibour." Bronze Candelabrum for St. 
Paul's, "FDrlunc, " Monument to Ninon. 
\\-\ic of Max Michttelis, Esq., F'.ust of Rii 

E, I. t jregory, Esq. . R. .\. . Estimate of. riS 

Pinker.'H. R? Hope. Bust of Dr. Benson. I13 ; 

F'a\^■cett Memorial .at Salisbur\-, 05 ; Ri' 

ihists of Sir [ohn l^Uirdon-Samlcrson, 



1 Ir. Jouett. (14 ; Statues of Dar\vin. W. E. 
I'orsli.r, 1 )ueen \'ictoria. '1^ 

Plaster. I'se .,T. in Sculpture. ;' 

Pomeroy. F. W, Art Tr.dinna, "i;iollii," 
115: .-\ssistanl lo Ford I.eighton, " 1 '.ov 
Piping," " Dionysus," ■' .\ Nymph finding 
the Head of C)rpheus." " Love the Con- 
queror," bout.dit fiii^ Lixcrpool (lallery. 
" T 'ndine." " Pen see," IK) ; "The Nvmpli 
of Loch Awe" (bought fiir Chantrcv 
Collection), •■ Pleasures arc like Poppies," 
"Perseus," "The Potter," St. due of 
Blake for Bridgwater. " The .Spe.irman," 
St;itues of Dean Hook .and Cromwell, 
Centenary Statue of P.urns at Paisley, 
Liberal Memorial Statue of Gladstone, 
Recumbent St.itue of I luke of West- 
minster, Estim.ite of, i;S; ,iN Sculplor- 
Decoriitor, i ^7 

T'oynter, Sir E. j'.'. l'.R'.A..,as Medallist, I 70 

I'rince Consort, Pust rd", by J, K. Hutchison, 
R.S..\.. JO; Scottish National Afemorial 
to. by D. W. Stevenson, R.S.A., 33 

Princess Louise. H.R.IT.. as Painter .oiil 
Sculptor, KiO ; Statue of Oueen Victori.i 
in Kensington (jardens, T'lf 



llueen .Alexandra, Bust of, by Countess 
(Ileichen, iril 

(jueen A'ictoria, Statue of, by ]-. |. AVilli.im- 
son, i-S: J-;u..t ,,f. by |. R. 'Hutchison. 
R'.S..\.. :o: St.rtue by 'G Simonds, 22: 
Bust bv T. Brock, R.A., 2(. ; Statues 
by -I'." Kr,.ck. R,.\.. at Hove and 
F'.irmingh.im. JO : N.itiomil Alemori.d to, 
bv T. Brock. R.A.. Jli : St.Ltues in 
Royal Exchange ami :d Durham by 
AV." H.imo Thornvcrofi. R.A. ; Eftigy of. 
.at Port Elizabeth." hv E. Roscoe Alullins. 
4<): .St.itue at Southend hy f. S\\"vnnerton. 
;o : St.itue at Al.mchester'by F. Gnslow 
Ford, k..\.;j: Busts of. hy F. Gnslo^^■ 
Ford. R..A.' 54 : Colossal" Statue for 
British (.uiaila hv H. R. Hope Pinker, 
li;: Bust by .A. C. Lucchesi. 74: St.itue 
.It \\"inchester hv .Alfred (iilbert. R..A.. 
.sij : St.itue oL bv". Albert Toft. 124 ; Bust 
by A\'. Blrnie" Rhind. A.R.S.,A.. I2ii; 
-Statues of. hir Lahore and Australia, by 
Bertram AfacKcnnal. 1;;; Coloss.ll 
St.itue , It BelList hv 1. We'nlock Rollins. 
142: (.'oloss.d Sl.it'ue hir Ceylon by 
George E. AN'.ule. 143; Statue "in Ken- 
sington ( "i.irdens h\- Princess Louise. !lil ; 
St.itue ,it lubilee Hospit.d. Montreal, by 
H.S.H. C'ountess (ileichen. JOI : J'.Ust 
hy Countess (ileichen at the Cheltenham 
Ladies' College. Hit : St.itue bv Alarv 
Gr.int for India. 101 ; lubilee Aled.il by 
G. \V. De S.iulles, 11,1); Aleikil bv Fr.ink 
P.ONSchrr for. V«i 

Re.ilism in .Sculpture, 2 

Renascence in British Sculpture. I 

Revnolds-.Stephens. W.. as PoK'glot .Artist. 
Frieze fir Sir L, .Alma Tadem.i. A\\ill 
Fouiit.iin. Bust of Sir John Macdonald. 
" Truth ami justice." " Happy in Pteautx". 
Life, and Love, .ind Everything." ■■ d'he 
.Sleeping Beauty." •■Lancelot and the 
Nestling." TCili: •■(juinevere anil the 
Nestling." ■• Caslles in the , Air." .is Silver- 
smith. Goldsmith. P.iinter and Sculptor. 
lOi.) 

Rhind. AV. P.irnie. .A.R.S.A.. .Assistant to 
John Rhind. .A.R.S.-A.. Doorw.iy of 
Scottish N.itional Portrait G.illery, 
•• l.imes A' of .Scotland," Sculpture on 
Sun Insurance I Mfice, fjlasgow. Doorw.iv 
to Technical Institute. AA'est Ham. work 
at County Council Oftices. AA'akeheld. 
Sir P. (."'oats Memorial, P.iislcv, IJS : 
AA'alker Statue, k^dinhurgh. •• Thakore of 
Gond.il.'' h'usts of Lord Salisbury. (.Uieeil 
A'ictoria. .ind Airs. Birnie Rhind. IJi| 

Rhodes. Rt. Hon. Cecil J., St.itue by John 
Tweed .It F'.ulaw.iyo. I:;2. I :; 1; 

Richmond. Sir AW B.. K.C.i-i.. R.A.. as 
Painter-Sculptor. '•.An .\rc.idian Shep- 



R'oberts. Lord. Bust of, bv C ad Dressier, 

SO: I-'.usl liy Herbert H.impton, 13; : 
Aledal bv Airs. A-ereker Hamilton, 176"' 

K'ouirs. Al., 1;:; 

Rollins. |. Weiilock. .\rl I" raining. Marble 
M.iii'telpii ce fin- Hewell (iran-e. '■ |acob 
and the .Angel. "Sculpture for .New "rown 
Hall, Crovdon. Colossal Statues lor 
New (ieni.r.il Hosjiital. Birmingham, 
Pmsts ol Sir Clemenls Alarkham. Lord 
Justice K'igbv. the Duchess of Bresali, 
etc.. I'.ronze Fountain lor the Horniman 
Aluseum. Statue ol ( )ueen A'ictoria .it 
Belfast. ■■ N'ydia." l-NliVnate ofi 14J 

Rope. E. Al., "Hag.ir ,ind Ishinael." " Ze- 
phyrus," ■Faith." ■■Hope." ■■( harity." 
" Heavenly A\-isdoin," ■• I'.ov on D"ol- 
phin." •■ Christ blessing Little" Children." 
Frieze for Rotherlilihe Toxin Hall. 
■' Memorial " Sallshiirv (.'athedral. " Pied 
Piper." KiJ 

Roy.il .Academy Schools. InHuence of Brock, 
1 hornycrolt. and Ciilbert at. I ; George 
d'inworth at, J3 ; Horace Aloiitford as 
Pupil and Curator. 34; A\', Hamo 
Thornvcrolt. R.A.. Pupil of. ;(i ; K. 
Roscoe Mullins. Pupil of. 47: " H. R. 
Hope Pinker. Pupil of, Ir, : |, \f. Swan, 
-\-R..A.. Pupil ofifi7 ; Harry I'li-ion. Pupil 
ofi 71; A. C. Lucchesi. "Pupil ofi 73; 
(icorge |. Franipton, .\.R..\., Pupil of. 88; 
AV. .S. "Frith. Pupil ol. 1,;; Henry A. 
Pegram. Pupil ol. 00 : .x! i,. Walker, 
Pupil of. ir«i; ly AA'. Pomerov. Pupil of, 
lis; AA\ (Fjscombe John. .A.h'..A.. Pupil 
of, Ijq ; P>ertram Maciyenn.il, Pupil of, 
t-,r; Henry C. Fehr. Pupil of. 138; 
J. AA'enlock J.;ollins. Pupil ofi J4J ; Gilbert 
L'.ayes. I'upil ofi 141;; A\'. R. Colton. 
Pupil ofi 144; Jlavid McGill. Pupil ofi 
147; Charles J. .Allen. Pupil ofi 148; 
Paul R. Montford. Pupil ofi i;i; John 
Tweed. Pupil ofi JJJ : F. DeriieiitAA'ood, 
Pupil at. 153; .Al'lred Turner, Pupil of, 
153 ; F". l.vnn Jenkins. Pupil ofi I =0 
Ruskiii". |ohn. Bust ofi h\- (.'onrad Dressier. 



isbury. Afiiri|uess ofi 
|ov. 24 ; 1 lust bv 
■".A.'R.S..\.. lji| 

-gent, lohn S.. R.A. 
A\-oi-"k for Boston Li 



Bust by A. Bruce 
A\'. Isirnie Rhind 



nti:r-,Sculptor. 
■ (.'rucihxion." 



Ilriton. R.A.. as r\iinter-Sculpto 
; ■■ The L.ist .Arrow." Kill 



Schenck. F. E, F.. AA'ork for Stafford 
iVIunicip.d fi'>ui filings. ••.Agriculture.'' 
(lxfiirdAlunicip.il 1 'aiildings. 1311 ; "The 
Alorn is up .Ag.iin." Ifistim.ite of. 138 

Sculptor-r)ecorators. I ^7 

Sculptors as Painters. ;i 

Shaftesbury fi'ount.dn. "bv .Alfred Gilbert. R..A.. 

.■sj 

Sh.inn.in. .A. M'F.. ■' Alusic of the Al.irshes," 

Sheik V Afemorials at Tnlversity College and 
A'lareggio, by K. (Juslow Ford. k..\., 50 

SiK'ersmiths. ddle. I 70 

Simonds, G., .Art Training ofi Jl : '■ 1 )i\-ine 
Wisdom," '• The Falconer," •• Cupid 
and Campaspe," '* Persephone." "Eros 
A'ietor." •' I)ion\-sus," " FV-rsetis T-ibera- 
tor." •'d'he Sw.in (;irl." ••(fiiddcss 
(jerd." fi se of e//-,' perdue process. 
Alonument.il AA'orks. klstimale ofi jj 

SI. Iter. Air., 155 

South Kensington Schools, InHuence of Dalou 
and Lanti'ri .it. I ; .A. fi'.rucejoy. Pupil 
at, 22, ; J. Hav.ird 'fihomas. a National 
Scholar at. 47 : Alfred (iilhert. K,.A..at. 
7(1 ; Robert Stark at. ,•■;; ; Conrad 
llressler at. .^5 ; .Alfred 1 Irury. AR.A.. 
.It. IIO; .Albert d'ofi at. I "1 S ; D.ivid 
AIcGill ;it. 147: ( ). Wheatlev at. 1--.2 : 
F. Derwcnt AA'ood. N.itional "Scholar' at. 
133; Fr.ink Bowcher. .Xational Schol.ir 
.It." Kill 

Sp.irkes.J. C .IS riirector of Lambeth School 

of .Art. I ; Bust ofi by F. Lanteri. 123 
Spencer. Herbert, F;ust"ofi hy fi;. (Inslow 

Ford. R..A.. 34 
St.inley. De.iii, Alemorial in Priv.ite Ch.ipel 

.It" AA'indsor. by Al.irv Gr.int. Ku 
S;,irk. Robert. .Art d'r.dning. •• .An Indian 

Rhinoceros," Estim.ite of, S3 



176 



GENERAL INuHX. 



I )i^ll, \\ nrk lor Elkiin,'t.jn ami I'ilkin^tuii. 
1 1 13 

Stcvrns, A., I )ukL- (]f\\'clliii^-t(in M.uniment, V 

Stuvensi.n, II, A\'.. K.S.A., Art "Ir.iininy, 
.Scottish Xatiullal ^Irmni-ial tn Prince 
Ci.nsiirt, PL-itt Aremorial. ■■ ni,t,'lilainl 
Mary," Meal AX'nrks of, 33 

Stevenson, W. ( r., R.S.A., Art Training, 
Statues of P<urns at Kilmarnock, (_'l^ica^fCJ, 
and 1 )cnver, W'allace IMeiiiorial at Aller- 
deeii, Plusts of Lorcf Saltoun and f-^arl of 
f.indsay, 50 : Awarded ( lojd Medal for 
'' Moses Ih'eaking tlie I ahles of the 
La\\'," " Andromeda,'' "' 1 am o' 
Shanter," " The Vedette," 51 

Straeten, \'an der. E., Tcrra-cu'tt.i Statuettes 

by. .s 

Strathcona, Lord, PJust by *_j. K. A\ .ide, 14J 

Strathnairn, Lord, Statue of, at l\niL;htshriciee, 
bv K. ( )nslo\v Fortl, K.A., s2 

Swan; John At., .\.K.A., as ' Painter and 
Sculptor, lih ; .\rl Tr.iinm^, '■ d"he 
l^rodi^al Sun,'' " Yountt Hini.ahiv.ni 
Tiger," ".An ,\lrican Panther," " Lioness 
Drinking," (j7 ; as .\nim.ii Sculptor, '17, 
()8; "Orpheus," li.S ; "Leopard with a 
Tortoise," " l^eop.ird fvunning," ''Leo- 
pard Elating," " Puma and Macaw," 
"Fata Morgana," "At. Maris, Es(|.," 
(19 : E^stimate of, jr 

Swvnnerton, J., Statue of Ijueen N'ictori.i at 
Southend. ;o 



d .iste in Sculpture, ii 

Tate, Sir Henrv. Lust of, hvT. Lrock. L. A. . 20 

Taubman, ¥. AL. Art Tialning. ■■ Wild .\ss 
and Panther," " )oan oi .\rc." " Weseucd," 
"Adam and KVe." "The .\ngcl of S.ul 
Flowers." "Orpheus and Enrvdice." 
" The Old Charwom.m." ■' I 'tistman," 
149; Statues of Sir S. Waterlow. Alonu- 
ment of Lord Carlingford, Iveliei ol 1 )td^e 
of Westminster, Estimate ol. T5r 

'Lennvson, Lord. Bust of. hv P\ ]. Williamson, 
ji) : by T. Woolner. K..\., 30 ; bc-(l. h. 
Watts, R.A., 164 

ddiomas, Frederick, .Medallions on Nation,,! 
Portrait Gallery. 155 

Thomas, Ffavard, Statuettes of I^easants hv. 
J ; ,\rt Training. "A Sl.i^c (iiil." .Statues 
of Samuel Morlev, MT'., Ft. Hon. 
W. E. Forster, " ■■ Pepinell.i," " 'Idle 
Loom," " Dancing," " M.irianine," '■ Oi.i- 
einta." '■ Fdiuund P.urke," 4.^ 

Thornvcroft, Hamo.S R.A,, at R.A. School,. 
I ; "The Sower." ■■ The Mower." J ; 
Position in English Art. First .\ppe. trance 



at Ixoval .Acadcmv. .\rt Training. 
.Assistant to his PAither. " F.ime," ■• I^oixl 
Mavo," •■ A AWirrior hcomig a AVounded 
^^iUth from the Field of ' I kdtle," Vi ; 
■■ Lot's AVile." •■ Alcmori.d to I ir. Harvev." 
" .Stepping Stones," •■ .\rteiuis," ■■ l-'utting 
the Stone." 31): " Head of a AA'irman." 
■■ Teucer." ■' Alede.l," " The Afirror,'' 
AVork hn- Institute of Ch.artered Acctmnt- 
ants, ■■ Iving Itdward 1." " The Sower," 
40; '-The Stanley Memorial." "The 
f-'.ather," " ( Jliver Cronuyell." 42 ; " 1 lean 
Lolet," " |ohn Fright" Statue, "Sir 
Stuart Favley." "Lord Oranyille." 
" Oueen A'ictoria," Statues of " .\rch. 
bishop Thfjmson," " Archbishop Pluid%et." 
" f-ushop GooLlwin," "General (iordon," 
" .Alfred the Gre.it," Metlal of Honour at 
P,iris, i()00. listim.tte of, 44 : .as .Sculptor- 
f leeorator. r;; 

Tinworth. (jeorge, .Art Training of, Afcd.ils 
.It K..A. Schools, .Association with Sir H. 
I 'oulton, .Awards at A^ienna ami Paris, 
AVork in Terra-Cott.i, Religions Work, 2; 

T.,lt, Albert, Art Traiiung, iiS; " Lilith," 
" Fate-Led " (bought l..r Liyerpool 
Gallery), " The Sere and A'ellow f.eaf," 
".Age and the .Angel Death," Lust of 
IVfr Cuninghame-^Ti'.iham, "I he ( )raclc, ' 
" 'Idle Golilet of Life," I 2u ; " Herodias," 
"Spring" (bought lor Lirmingham 
Gallery), " A'ision," " Hagir," " A'ictory," 
" ddieSpirit of Contemplation," Lusts" of 
Mr. Gladsbme, T22 ; Air. Gcnge AVallis. 
Mr. James Gl.tisher, Sir AV, Pierce, f)r. 
Philip I. FJailey, 124 : Statues (d the Chief 
of Bamra, Air. Kich.ird, UA\. Gueen 
Adctoria, Memorial to .Adjut.int AVhite. 
Gl.idstone, lor Penm.ienmawr, PIstiiuatc 
of, 124; as Sculptor-Decor, itor, i;;; as 
Aledallist. 170 

d'urner, .Alfred, .Art d'raining, " Charity." 
T ;; 

d\\'eetl, ]ohn, .Art Training, Statues of Furns, 
Governor A'tin Kicheck, and Rt. Hon, 
Cecil F I^ihodes, MenuaFLl to Major 
.Allan AVilson. i;2 

d'vrrell, AV., I,;^ 



ide. George F.. Fust of I luke of Cl.trence. 
Statues of Mr. Gl.idstc.ne, Sir C. Fiaser, 
\'.C , Sir |ohn Macdonaid, for St, Paul's, 
Sir .Arthur Havelock, Mr, .Acworth, F.-M. 
Sir Patrick Grant. Linxl Str.ithcmi.i. Fust 
(d Padcrewski. Afeuund.il to Cameron 
Highlanders. 142; Coh.ssal St.ttue of 
( )ueen A"ictoria lor (.'evion. Fusts ol 
Canon AA'ade, Fcnal Suflield ,ind Sir 
Moiell Mackenzie, I hoii/e St.itue of Duke 



of Conn.iught. Statues of Sir J. Mac- 
donaid for Montrcil and ddrnv.irur 
Mathus\\,imy, " I tespair," " Aphrodite," 
" St. George". Old the I )ragon," " Truth," 
Estimate of. 74^ 

AA'alker. A. G., Pupil id R..A. Schools. Alosaic 
AA'ork in Greek Church. Fiayswater, and 
AA^hitelands College Chapel, Sculptured 
AVork at Church of Ark of the Covenant, 
Stamford Hill, " The Last Plague," ".And 
the\- were Afraid," "The Thiual,'' " Afa- 
donna," " Sleep," Bronze Frieze of ls;,ice. 
horses, TOO; Estim.ite of, 10^ 

AX'all.icc Memorial at .Xhcrdeem by A\". fi. 
.Ste\-enson. R S,A.. s^ 

AV.iterhnv, Sir Sydney, Sdatues of, at Highgate 
and United Westminster Schools, by 
F. Af. Taubman. 151 

AV.att. lames. St.ituc of. ,it Feeds, bv H. C. 
Fe'hr. 1311 

AVatts. G. F.. I\..A.. " Bishop Lonsdale " in 
Lichheld Cathedr.il, "Lord Lothian" 
in F'dckling Church, " Lord Tennyson." 
" Hugh Lupus," at Eaton Hall, "Physical 
Energy," " Ch'tie," tfi4 ; Estimate ol, 
i(J5 ; Medal t,{, by p:iinor Halle, 17O 

AVellington Meiluirial, In' A, Ste\'ens, V) 

AA'estminster, Duke ol. Recumbent .st.'itue in 
Chester Cathedral, by F. A\'. Pomeroy, 
ilX; l>;elief by F. M. Taubman, 151 

AA'heatlev, ()., .Art Training. .Assistant to Mr. 
BroOk, AVork at Koyai College of Music 
and Lomb.ird Street Railwa^' Station. 
" The pdute Player," ' Prometheus," 
" .Vwakening," 1 :;2 

AVhite, Mabel,' " 'I lioughts of Childhood," 
iii; 

AVilliams, L. G.. "Geraldine." " Little 
Peas,int," " ( )ut of Re.ieh," "Pandora," 
" Doris," 1(13 

AA'illiamson, V. ]., I'riv,ite Sculptoi- to tjueen 
A'ictoria, iS ; .Art draining, iS ; De.in 
AFllman Memori.il. "Sister flora." Rov.d 
Commissions, " Idettv and Ffinah," 
" Hypatia," Estimate ol, ni 

AA'ilson,' Major Allan, Memorial by John 
Tweed, t^2 

AA'omen Sculptors, I^isition of, 12, 1^0 

AVood, F. Derwent, .Art Training In Switzer- 
land and Germany, National Scholar- 
ship at ,S. 1*^., .Assistant to Legros, at 
R,.A, Schools. Tra\'elling Scholarship, 
"Charity," Aledalled at Salon, Statues 
for Kel\"ingro\e .Art (lallery, "Icarus," 
153; " d"he b,ites." 154 :' Gold Ated.il 
at 1\..A. Schools, Ahn-.il fiuiib, p^stimate 
of, 1;; 

AVoolner,"d\, R..\,, "Idle Housemaid," 2 ; 
1 ennyson lli 



i.J'-'rK c" ■'■/./ AvETs-Bc-Kior ."n-icW. .'nANf fitj- But ■ 1 i-irv ■ nuroin -the.' ■ "/ij/vpK l i ng .wavf:;, ■ iN.oLfcj*j| 




FROM THE RELIEF BY 
ELLEN M, ROPE 



'KI.SIEI' r.\ ( ASSEM. iV COMI'AX^", I.IMI 



I \ I '.I 111., S.W'X'.M.E. LOMHIN', l';,C 



p 



ERMANENT PHOTOGRAPHS 




WHILST PSYCHE WEPT 
UPON THE ROCK. 



OF THE WORKS OF 



HHRRY BATES. A.R.a. 



THE STORY OF PSYCHE. 




:J^»9 




FORSAKEN, ALONE, DESPAIRING, DREADING, GRADUALLY BY ZEPHYRUS 
SHE WAS ENWRAPT AND TAKEN, STILL TREMBLING LIKE THE LILIES 
PLANTED HIGH, THROUGH ALL HER FAIR WHITE LIMBS. 



YET LOVE WAS NOT 
FAR OFF. 




HOUNDS IN LEASH. 




By FREDK HOLLYER 



[P. T. 0. 



Face end matter.] 



REMBRANDT PHOTOGRAPHS 

OF THE WORKS OF 



SIR EDWARD BURNE-JONES, Bart. 

G. F. WATTS, R.A. 

DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI. 



HARRY BATES, A.R.A. Homer and others. 



DUBLIN AND HAGUE GALLERY, A iielection from, by 

F. HOLI.YF.R, |un. 



HOLBEIN. Drawings at Windsor Castle, by kind permission 
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The Studios are Open to Visitors Daily, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., and on Mondays from 
10 a.m. to 10 p.m. Portraits frotn Life taken on Mondays only. Appointment advisable. 



Can be obtained of 

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Ballads and Songs. 

By WiLLEVM Marli'eace Thackeray. With Original Illustrations b)' H. M. Brock. 6s. 
CAS.SELL & COMP\NY, Li.mited, Loiuhni ; Paris, New York c^ Melbourne. 













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