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Full text of "History of the 71st regiment, N. G., N. Y., American guard"

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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

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HISTORY 



OF. THE 



Cornell University Library 
UA364 71st .F81 



History of the 71st regiment, N. G., N 



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3 1924 030 725 174 



71st REGIMENT, N.G.,N.Y. 



AMERICAN GUARD 



ILLUSTRA TED 



A^'^ui-hs rheodof^ gram's 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE VETERANS ASSOCIATION 

71ST REGIMENT, N. G. N. Y. 



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Published by Subscription: 



Copyright, 1919. 

VETERANS ASSOCIATION 

71ST RBGT., N.G.N.T. 



PEESS OF 

The Eastman Publishing Co., Inc.. 

21S West lOth Street, N. Y. C. 



DEDICATION 



The compiling of this history has been a labor of love ; it 

has been over two years of interesting research, bringing back 

to memory many very pleasant reminiscences of the past and 

recollections of old comrades, now departed, to pull the regi- 

•ment through the frequent dangers of impending disasters. 

And now in the sere and yellow leaf of life, how pleasant 
is the association with those remaining who, for so many years, 
from our youth up to old age, have stood shoulder to shoulder 
in their loyalty to the "American Guard," the sweetest labor 
of their lives, outside of their family circle. 

May their example be an incentive to their successors, to 
the most unselfish loyalty and patriotism ; may they resolve to 
■continue the same devotion to their "Alma Mater" ; may they, 
in reading this history, be enthused by its noble record to 
carry on the good work that has been done by their predeces- 
sors, ever holding themselves in readiness, and by their influ- 
ence and labors do their utmost for the advancement and wel- 
fare of the Seventy-first Regiment. 



EDITORIAL FOREWORD 

The 71st Regiment has had an existence so replete with 
action and has played so virile a part in the growth of our 
country that the recording of its history presented difficulties 
apparently insuperable. These were surmounted only by the 
tireless and devoted efforts of the compiler of the present 
volume, Brevet Brigadier General Augustus Theodore 
Francis. This work represents the result of years of most 
painstaking research and verification by the compiler, who 
was ever urged on by his sincere interest in and affection for 
the Regiment. His long and distinguished service in it, to- 
gether with an intimate knowledge of its personnel and 
affairs, well qualifies him to give intelligent and sympathetic 
treatment to many incidents, perhaps not vital in themselves, 
but necessary to a comprehensive record. 

The first effort looking toward a history of the 71st Regi- 
ment was made by Captain H. H. Evertsen, while chairman 
of the Historical Committee. The considerable amount of data 
which he gathered was, upon submission, found too fragment- 
ary for the purpose of a record. This, however, suggested to 
General Francis the idea of a history that would present, in 
chronological order, the life of the 71st Regiment. This has 
been achieved by linking up the odds and ends the compiler 
had personally collected with the aid of the files of old news- 
papers, and, as he states in the preface, by further help from 
undreamed of sources. 

The editor has studiously endeavored to retain the in- 
dividual style of the compiler, admitting of change in the 
context only for the purpose of lucidity. Especially does this 
obtain in articles reprinted from other sources, that breathe 
the spirit of the period in which they were written. The 
personal association of the author with the Regiment and his 
active participation in many of the events narrated invest his 
writing with a sterling quality not reconcilable to alteration. 

Mechanical difficulties attributable to existent conditions 
during the World War necessitated the inclusion of what 
otherwise would be considered a lengthy errata. 

George Edward Lowen. 

New York, N. Y. 



Errata 

Page 107, line 38, "6th" from Massachusetts. 

Page iss, line 19, reaching there about 8 "A."' M. 

Page 161, line 9, Col. Henry "P." Martin. 

Page 177, line 11, of the "8th," 14th and 27th N. Y. 

Page 214, line 10, A. "H." Pride, Adjutant. 

Page 251, line 31, the "drill" room. 

Page 2S5, line 33, on the "13th" Ewell had. 

Page 271, line 15, of the "124th" N. Y. V. 

Page 276, line 13, to read, "The 7th in column, soon after 

turned out of Seventh Avenue and." 
Page 2^T, line 47, as against, say, "942" in 1815. 
Page 593, line 31, on "Friday" morning, "29th" of April. 
Efforts to obtain a photograph of Colonel Smith have been 

fruitless ; a blank sheet is inserted whereon reader may 

place photograph if obtainable. 



PREFACE 

This is a history of the Seventy-first Regiment, N.G.N.Y., 
and though it is entwined in that of the Guard as a body, it is 
not to be expected that shall be touched upon in this work, ex- 
cept in so far as might be necessary to give the reader, not 
only a comparison between the time of its first decade and the 
present, but also an intelligent view of its steady progress, 
beset by many perils, from which its record alone saved it 
from annihilation wthile many other regiments were disbanded. 

It is to be regretted that so little data exists upon which 
to base a satisfactory history, to overcome this as much as pos- 
sible, the work is compiled (while the few old members are 
with us to give us the benefit of their memory) from the rec- 
ords of the past. 

A serious fire, that of the Armory, February 22d, 1902, 
destroyed documents which would have given us some infor- 
mation regarding the early history, and all the scrap books 
and papers which had been collected by the Veterans, all of 
which would have been valuable in compiling this history. 

Up to 1866 the regimental headquarters retained no of- 
ficial papers, what became of the orders and correspondence 
is not known; they were evidently considered private prop- 
erty, and either destroyed or put among the receivers' private 
papers. The lack of any headquarters, where official docu- 
ments could be filed, had much to do with this ; up to the time 
that the regiment moved into its first Armory (1868) in Thirty- 
second Street, official communication was necessarily made 
Tjy calling at the place of business of the officers; there was 
no headquarters night, and little but parading and attention at 
functions required of the staff officers. It was not until 
Colonel Parmele took command that these customs were 
-changed. 

The compiler never wrote a history before, nor expects 



PREFACE 

ever to write another; he has been impressed with the fact 
that very little can be depended upon, from the memory of the 
average man; it is wonderful how much they have forgotten, 
or in some instances, how much they remember that never 
happened, or "hardly ever." 

Not a paper was saved from the destruction of the Arm- 
ory, it has therefore been necessary to collect very much from 
fragments that have ben found here and there, to writers of 
which we apologize, and regret in many instances that the 
lack of knowledge of their identity prevents a personal recog- 
nition. It has been like the construction of a puzzle, and the 
discovery later of missing links have caused in several in- 
stances a reconstruction. 

Some valuable information at times came almost miracu- 
lously, as for example, "Whittemore" had a Captain Cope- 
land among the list of Company B, it was evidently wrong, as 
Blauvelt was captain at that time; the son of the late Captain 
See, Company H, had some old papers of his father's estate 
concerning the regiment, which he wanted to get rid of. Our 
wants were made known to him and he very kindly presented 
them ; they were found to be valuable in supplying several 
missing links, among which was the application of a member 
of Company H (1868) for the credit of two years' service, he 
having joined Company F, under Captain Copeland, March 
1862; this settled two points, first that Copeland was not in 
B, and second, gave the name of the captain of F, of which we 
had been in search. 

Perhaps there are still among descendants of some of the 
old members, papers which would supply valuable informa- 
tion, but they are not known. There were newspapers pub- 
lished in the '50's, which if files could be reached, they would 
be of great assistance. At that time daily papers were not 
printed on Sunday, and the Sunday papers Were not printed 
on week days, these papers were the Sunday "Times," "Atlas," 
"Leader," "Courier," "Dispatch" and "Mercury." They made 
a speciality of military, fire and fraternal news; no files of 
either can be found in any library, nor any knowledge of them 
be obtained; such extracts as are in this history have come 
from scrap books and have been very helpful. 

In 1886, Henry Whittemore published a history, which 
was very much abridged, two-thirds of which was devoted to- 



PREFACE 

biographical sketches of a few members; we are much in- 
debted to it for many items, as also to scrapbooks, newspapers, 
public reports and recollections, some rather faded, of older 
members of the regiment. These extracts from newspapers 
have taken much time and labor in visiting libraries and in 
copying. 

The extracts from the press, written at the time of occur- 
ence, not only give a more correct statement than could be 
made from memory, but have the advantage of being unbiased, 
which if made by the compiler, might be considered flattery 
or prejudice, or fearing this criticism, might not be given at all. 
In this way the reader also gets a knowledge of the estimation 
in which the regiment was held by the public. 

The account of the service of the regiment in the Spanish- 
American war is mainly the report made for the regiment by 
the Chaplain, George R. Van de Water, and subsequently pub- 
lished by the State of New York. 

This history is written chronologically and divided by 
administrations, that the regiment's fluctuations can be ob- 
served and the reader assisted in his judgment as to where the 
fault or credit should be laid. While in two or three instances 
an administration was complicated, to the disadvantage of the 
regiment, by the domestic troubles of the commanding officer, 
these must be passed by, although a material factor. 

The administration of Colonel Bates, (still unfinished in 
1915), is treated necessarily in a different manner from the 
others, and we are indebted to Colonel Bates for much of the 
data. 

Thanks are due for much valuable information to ex-Cap- 
tains George W. Curtis and H. H. Evertsen, and ex-Adjutant 
John R. Livermore. 

Two things are to be noted in the history of the Seventy- 
first as a National Guard Regiment of New York : In the two 
wars, 1861 and 1898, it participated in the opening battles, 
and in 1898 was the only one. And in the War of the Rebel- 
lion, was the only regiment of the New York militia whose 
flag was riddled by the enemies' bullets. There were, of 
course, regiments as the Ninth, Fourteenth, etc., that were 
formed into organizations for the war, and became volunteers. 

Altogether, during the War of the Rebellion, the regiment 
served during the years 1861-2-3, 230 days. 

The Compiler. 



ENCOMIUM 

I cannot in justice allow this book to go to press without 
due credit to our worthy comrade 

CAPTAIN WALTER I. JOYCE. 

But for his optimism and persistence it never would have 
been published. After all had given up hope, he alone, assum- 
ing all risk and in spite of the discouraging delays caused by 
the war, has achieved success. 

The Compiler, 



CONTENTS 

Ab Initio ._ i 

American Rifles 3 

Administration 

Colonel Vosburgh 10 

Colonel Martin 141 

Colonel Smith 245 

Colonel Trafford 251 

Colonel Parmele 313 

Colonel Rockafellar 345 

Colonel Vose 373 

Colonel McAlpin 446 

Colonel Kopper 468 

Colonel Greene 503 

171st Regiment 557 

71st N. Y. Volunteers 591 

Administration 

Colonel Francis 701 

Colonel Bates 723 

Memorabilia 

Regimental Trophies 757 

Annual Inspection of the Regiment..— 760 

Annual Inspection of the Companies 762 

Company History 764 

Poetic Talent 780 

Appendix 

(See Contents) 79^ 

Taps 

Evolution of the Militia 887 

The Rape of the National Guard 890 

The Phenix 897 

Roster of Officers, January 7th, 1919 899-900 



AB INITIO 



"Up to 1840 the American workman was as independent, 
manly, and well situated a citizen as there was at that time in 
any land ; he had work in plenty and he did it well, and never 
dreamed of 'striking,' for he and his employer were friends and 
neighbors. He lived comfortably, but without ostentation, 
'feared God, and spoke the truth,' was a patriotic citizen and a 
useful, manly man. 

"But during the decade of 1840-1850, his good fortune came 
to an end ; hordes of foreign immigrants, fleeing from the dis- 
tress and famine of their native country, came to this land 
of promise ; and the consequent lowering of wages, caus- 
ing strong competition for situations, as well as the entry of 
the 'foreign element' into politics, filled the native Amer- 
ican with alarm and indignation ; as well might they have 
swept back the ocean from our shores with a broom, as to 
turn from New York the flood of immigration, or prevent 
the worthy foreigner from obtaining wealth and office." 

But they made the attempt, and organized the "Order of 
the United Americans." It was at a convention of this order, 
held in the Broadway Tabernacle, 340 Broadway, in the fall 
of 1849, that William B. Ferguson, who became a member of 
Company C, and subsequently of the Veteran Association 
until his death, offered a resolution that a committee be ap- 
pointed for the purpose of raising a regiment of militia, to be 
composed of native Americans only. 

The first meeting of this committee was held June 2d, 
1850, at the Eagle Drill Rooms, corner Delancy and Christy 
Streets; those present were J. M. Parker, H. W. Fisher, Sr., 
H. W. Fisher, Jr., and William Kellock. 

From such a small beginning, the meeting of these four 
men, sprang the great organization of which we now write 
the history. 



AMERICAN RIFLES. 
1850-1851 



The nucleus of four companies, A, B, C and D (of which 
C was the first to complete its quota, October 1850, and is the 
only one that has retained an unbroken record down to date), 
having been formed, the companies began drilling at the 
Branch Hotel and Military Hall, on the Bowery, above Spring 
Street, under the name of the American Rifles. 

STATE OF NEW YORK 

THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE 

ALBANY 

October 23d, 1850. 
Orders No. 300: 

The Commander-in-Chief hereby orders and directs that the 
Companies commanded by Captains Samuel S. Parker, Henry W. 
Fisher, Winchester P. Moody and Christopher Risley respectively, 
be and the same hereby are organized as Companies of Riflemen, 
and attached as such to the First Regiment in the First Brigade in 
the First Division of the New York State Militia. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief 

Adjutant General. 
(Copy) 

The battalion was attached to the First Regiment Cavalry 
N.Y.S.M., Col. John B. Ryer. Most of the members were to- 
tally ignorant of military tactics, and Col. W. W. Tompkins, 
a veteran of the Mexican War, who had a school for the pur- 
pose of teaching aspiring militiamen, was engaged to drill 
them. 

The first parade of the battalion was on November 25th, 
1850, Evacuation Day. Major John A. Bogart, of the Second 
Regiment, was appointed by General Sanford to take command 
on that occasion. The native American feeling was that 



4 [1850-51 

strong, that Captain Parker, of Company A, was so indignant 
on learning that a foreigner had been permitted to parade m 
the ranks, that he gave up his commission. 

For the first year, with the exception of Company C, the 
companies were mere skeletons, some of them being mostly 
commissioned and non-commissioned officers. 

On June 4th, 1851, a resolution was introduced in Company 
C, at a regular meeting, requesting "Colonel Ryer to call a 
battalion drill," also that "a copy of the resolution directing 
the company to parade in white pants, be forwarded to the 
other companies." Each company acted independent of the 
others ; an excursion to Bridgeport was arranged by Company 
C for July 24th, 1851, participated in only by that company. 

On August 20th, 1851, it was proposed "that the Company 
(C) parade as an escort to the funerals of the N. Y. Volunteers 
(Mexican), provided they take place on Sunday, and that the 
expense be shared with Company D." 

On November 5th, a target excursion was proposed by 
the same company. The prizes were a "splendid silver goblet," 
a "new hat" and a "handsome trunk." It was the custom at 
that time, for many of the fire companies, in the fall — about 
Thanksgiving Day, to organize themselves into a "target" 
company, borrowing for the occasion muskets; the uniform 
generally consisted of citizen's dark clothes with frock coats, a 
belt and black felt hat, known at that time as the "Kossuth" 
hat, so called from that then quite popular Hungarian patriot. 
For effect, they marched in single ranks; at the rear walked 
a stalwart negro, conveying the target; the style of these 
varied, and much pride was taken in the adornment. With the 
target bearer went another negro with a bucket of water and a 
dipper, behind these were one or more barouches, according 
to the number of its political friends, who conveyed the prizes, 
which they(the friends) payed for. On the return the prizes 
were displayed upon the proud bosoms of the winners, when 
like the trunk, they were not too large to be displayed in thai 
manner. 

The riddled target was proudly carried by its bearer ; when 
the marksmanship had not been entirely satisfactory, it was 
easy at short range before starting for home to make it so. 

The custom of water carriers was quite common in the 
militia well up into the sixties in warm weather; he marched 



1850-51] 5 

in the line of file-closer of each company, and was in instant 
demand the moment there was a halt. 

During the fall of 1851, the celebrated Hungarian patriot 
Kossuth arrived in this country, receiving a national recep- 
tion ; it was the first occasion the American Rifles had to par- 
ade with the division and they made a fine showing, attracting, 
much attention. Kossuth, seated by the side of Daniel 
Webster, in a barouch drawn by six horses, was escorted by a- 
large procession, receiving the honors of the city government 
and the plaudits of the people. 

On December 11th, he was the recipient of a welcome by 
the First Division N.Y.S.M., at Castle Garden. The following 
was the program for the occasion : 

"The doors will be opened at 6 o'clock and will be closed at 8 
o'clock precisely, and none will be admitted after that 
time. 

"The Garden will be placed under guard by a detachment of 
the Third Regiment, Colonel Postley. 

"A band of music of fifty performers will be in attendance, 
led by Messrs. Dodsworth and Shelton. 

"The several regiments will appear in full uniform with side 
arms only. 

"No officer or member of the division will be admitted except 
with their respective commands. 

"The introductory ceremonies will take place at 8 o'clock, 
after which the address will be delivered. 

"The several regiments will be introduced to Governor Kos- 
suth by their Brigade Generals, at which time each regi- 
ment as designated will rise en masse, head covered. 

"The several regiments will be assigned their places in the 
Garden by the committee, which will be in attendance to 
conduct them. 

"In retiring from the Garden, the regiments will leave in their 
numerical order, retaining their places until the Gov- 
ernor leaves." 

Castle Garden at this period was, in many respects, quite 
difTerent from its present state ; the fort itself is the same 
as now used for the Aquarium, without the wings. It was 
built upon a mole, and connected with the Battery by a bridge,, 
about seventy feet long. It was originally erected as a for- 



6 [1850-51 

tification, and having become unnecessary for the purpose, 
was ceded by the United States to the Corporation of the City 
of New York in 1823. Within its w^lls ten thousand people 
■could be accommodated in the great amphitheatre ; it yvas used 
for public entertainments, fairs, jetc. In the early fifties, it was 
used as an opera house, the stage occupying about one-fourth 
the circle, the auditorium and galleries being provided .with 
seats. Here Jenny Lind made her first appearance, as did 
many other famous artists. 

The uniform of the battalion was a dark blue tunic, 
trimmed with black braid, shako with a black feather, dark 
blue trousers, black leather belts and carrying rifles. 

It is unfortunate that so little is known of the history of 
the American Rifles. As a battalion it was not a unit, being 
composed of four-week's units, without a common commander, 
•each with a common object, in an independent struggle to 
exist. At the present date they would have a major in com- 
mand ; and with no better success, would most likely be dis- 
banded as a failure. 

However, things were different then, and it did manage, 
in its emaciated condition, to struggle along for two years. 
From the commencement of the organization it was the inten- 
tion to secure a sufficient number of companies to form a regi- 
ment, but during the first two years of its existence as a bat- 
talion, it seemed to have been difficult to keep the four 
companies alive. 




COLONEL ABRAHAM S. VOSRURGH 



Plate i — tfp. 



18 5 2 



The birth of Company E is very uncertain; it must have 
been early in 1852, but the first captain of whom we have rec- 
ord is Enoch Stevens, elected August 25th, 1853. We learn 
that "in the summer of 1852 Companies G and H had com- 
pleted their quotas," yet we can find no record of a captain in 
G before Alexander P. Kinnan, March, 1857. We learn that 
Company F was in existence March, 1852, with captain A. M. 
Copeland. 

There being eight companies, though many mere skele- 
tons, the battalion (?) laid aside its swaddling clothes to re- 
appear as a regiment. 

STATE OP NEW YORK 

THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE 

ALBANY 

May 11th, 1852. 
Orders No. 572: 

The Commander-in-Chief hereby orders and directs that the 
five Companies of Rifles, now commanded by Captains Parker, 
Glover, Hagadorn, Moody and Wheeler, respectively, and attached 
to the First Regiment, N.Y.S.M., be detached therefrom, and with 
the three new Companies now formed, under the command of Cap- 
tains H. C. Smith, William Cole, and James C. Thomas, be and the 
same are hereby organized and constituted a Rifle Regiment, and 
attached to the First Brigade, First Division, N. Y. S. M., and to be 
denominated the Seventy-First Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

Brigadier General Charles B. Spicer is directed to strike from 
the rolls of the three companies mentioned in this order, the names 
of all persons belonging to an eicisting military organization. 

General Spicer will also forthwith order an election of Field 
Officers of said Regiment. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 

L. WARD SMITH, 

Adjutant General. 



8 [1852 

The Honorable Henry Clay died on Tuesday, June 29th, 
1852, in the City of Washington, D. C, his remains were con- 
veyed to his former home in Kentucky via New York. Suitable 
arrangements were made by the city authorities for the recep- 
tion of the body, which arrived in the city on the morning 
■of July 3d, and was escorted to the City Hall, where it was 
conveyed to the Governors' Room. 

Along the line of march ail business was suspended, the 
buildings were draped in mourning, minute guns were fired 
and bells tolled. 

The body remained lying in state until 2 A. M., Monday, 
July 5th, when, escorted by Company D, Washington Greys 
(Eighth Regiment), they were taken to the steamboat Santa 
Claus, to be conveyed to Albany. 

On the ninth the committee of the common council re- 
solved to solemnize the death of Henry Clay by military and 
•civic funeral on July 20th ; this was carried out with great satis- 
faction, being a very large and impressive procession. The 
Light Guard was the Guard of Honor. 

This parade is of interest inasmuch as this is the first men- 
tion officially of the Seventy-first Regiment as on parade, giv- 
ing the names of field, staff and captains (or commanders) of 
companies as follows: 

-Colonel A. S. Vosburgh Company A — Hagadorn 

Lieut Col. W. P. Moody Company B— Wheeler 

Major S. S. Parker Company C — Little 

Quartermaster P. J. Parrisen Company D — Smith 

Paymaster Henry W. Fisher Company E — Woodworth 

Eng. & Adj. T. B. Johnston Company F — Glover 
Chaplain George W. Warner 

This is taken from the report of the committee appointed 
by the common council, supposed to be correct, but apparently 
not; it will be noticed that there are but six companies; it is 
doubtful if any of the field and staff, as such, at that time held 
a commission for the office named, while the regiment was in 
embryo; it is most likely that Vosburgh (who had been 
assigned the command) conceived it to be a good opportunity 
to make up a regiment for the occasion, and did so without 
regard to the actual status of the American Rifles, who were 
still in existence. 



18521 9 

While in May there had been a meeting of officers, at 
which a Constitution and By-Laws had been adopted, the rec- 
ord shows that Vosburgh was not elected colonel until August 
2d; Hagadorn, who is recorded as in command of A, was at 
that time captain of C, in which company there is no record 
of any officer of the name of Little, and the records of that 
company were complete up to the destruction of the Armory 
in 1902 ; of Smith, of D, there is no record ; Woodworth may 
have been in command of E at that parade, he, however, was 
elected on September 27th captain of the newly organized* 
Company H, prior to which he was in the Continental Guard. 
Copeland was captain of F in 1852, and we have no mention of 
Glover until he was elected captain of H, in July, 1854. Yet 
he is mentioned in G. O. 572 and the Clay obsequies. 

It was in keeping with the loose manner in which the 
discipline of the military was conducted at that time, and dif- 
ficult for a member of the Guard of the present date to realize. 

It is difficult to harmonize the order 572 A. G. O., May 
11th, 1852 with conditions evident during the subsequent three 
months, because of lack of knowledge as to facts. That the 
regiment (?) on the parade of July 20th, had but six com- 
panies, would seem to suggest that the two other companies 
were not at that time organized ; we have no information as to 
G, but we have of H, while its organizers met for that purpose 
on May 24th, its first captain was not officially elected until 
September 27th. In view of these facts, it is safe to presume 
that the election of field officers was delayed until August 2d, 
at which time the eight companies were in existence. 

It must be recorded that Major Hoffman, in his address at 
the dedication of the Vosburgh monument, said Vosburgh was 
assigned to the regiment on June, 1852, to command until an 
election, and also that he was elected on July 3d. 



*It is not unlikely that the turnout was too small for eight companies 
and that a rearrangement was made without regard to company letter, 
the commandants being assigned in accordance with their rank. 

The reader Is referred to article on Company History for fur- 
ther details. 



Administration of 

Colonel ABRAHAM S. VOSBURGH 

August 1852— May 1861 



THE REGIMENT 

Abram S. Vosburgh, quartermaster on the staff of Briga- 
dier General Charles B. Spicer, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 
N.Y.S.M., was prominent as a politican, a very energetic, per- 
severing, ambitious man who inspired confidence as a leader, 
with only one real fault, and that was that he wpuld, under 
provocation, swear. He had watched the struggle of the bat- 
talion to get a regimental organization, and he did all that hs 
■could toward its attaining that object. 

On May 11th, 1852, the officers being assembled as a body, 
adopted a constitution and by-laws for their government. 

During the summer, companies G and H having been or- 
ganized, all was ready, and on August 2nd, 1852, the officers 
elected Abram S. Vosburgh the first colonel of the Seventy- 
first Regiment N.Y.S.M. 

Col. Vosburgh was born at Kinderhook, Columbia County 
N. Y., September 20th, 1825. He was therefore twenty-seven 
years of age. His family was "Holland Dutch"colonists who 
came to America in 1642 and settled subsequently in the 
counties of Columbia and Schoharie. His father, John S., was 
a private in the war of 1812, and his grandfather was actively 
engaged in the Continental army during the Revolution; he 
came to New York City in 1844 and soon after became identi- 
fied with the militia; June 11th, 1849 he was commissioned 
Engineer on the staff of General Spicer, November 19th, 1850 
he was made Quartermaster, and August 2d, 1852, colonel of 
the Seventy-first. 



1852] 11 

Vosburgh went to work with energy, devoting his time 
and influence trying to bolster up the weak companies and 
encouraging the stronger. 

No military qualification was required in those days to en- 
able one to get a commission, he was simply to be the choice 
of his associates, consequently in filling up his staff he looked 
more especially to the influence of the candidate than to quali- 
fication for the office, as in fact that made no difference as the 
staff was purely ornamental. 

It was as follows : 

Colonel A. S. Vosburgh 

Lt. Col. Winchester P. Moody 
Major Samuel S. Parker 

Adjutant James Phillips 

Qt.-master Philip J. Parrisen 
Engineer Thomas R. Johnson 
Paymaster Henry W. Fisher 
Chaplain George W. Warner 
Surgeon J. H. Watts. 

The result of these appointments as well as the enthu- 
siasm of the colonel and the pride of being a "real sure enough" 
regiment caused a feeling of dignity that gave the organiza- 
tion a new life. 

There was considerable discussion at this time in regard 
as to changing from rifles to muskets, many opposing the 
change, but resulting in nothing definite at that time. 



18 5 3 

In 1853 a vote was taken on the subject of change of arms 
it was decided to adopt the regulation musket, in lieu of the 
rifle and change the name to the: 

"American Guard" 

and about this time the motto of the regiment : 

"Pro Aris, Et Pro Focis" 

was adopted. It was much later before the muskets were pro- 
vided. 

Colonel Vosburgh being a military enthusiast, took pride 
in his command and gave frequent exhibitions of drills and 
parades on the streets of the city and at the old "Red House." 
Much rivalry began to exist between the Seventy-first Regi- 
ment and other regiments. 

A Drum Corps was organized. It was composed of boys, 
uniformed with red jackets, white belts and blue trousers, the 
cap being red with white and blue trimmings. 

The regimental band was composed of enlisted men, and 
Harvey J. Dodsworth then the foremost band leader in the 
country became its leader. The enlistment of the members of 
the band continued until the advent of the musical union, 
which stopped it about 1870. 

Company D which had a flickering existence, seems to 
have gone out of sight about this time and not heard of again 
until 1856. 



18 5 4 



The "Red House" was situated on Second Avenue near 
106th Street, the ground afforded space for the manceuvering 
of a regiment, and to this place nearly all the regiments re- 
sorted at least once a year for a field day; on such occasions 
there was usually a goodly number of brother officers from 
other regiments to witness the drill and make their comment. 

In the fall of 1854, Col. Vosburgh witnessed the superior 
drill of the Second Regiment, of which Henry P. Martin was 
the adjutant. This was the first experience of that regiment in 
the evolutions of a battalion. Col. Vosburgh saw at once thai 
the credit was due, not to the colonel but to his adjutant, who 
had already acquired a more than local reputation as a drill 
master. 

Col. Vosburgh was resolved that no regiment should excel 
his in any particular, therefore he at once made overtures to 
the young adjutant to accept the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the 
71st; the offer was at first rejected. Col. Vosburgh was not to 
be thwarted and after repeated solicitations. Adjutant Martin 
finally consented to the use of his name on condition that 
there should be no more independent street parades, but that 
the regiment should devote itself to the objects for which it 
was organized. Col. Vosburgh pleaded for five parades, Mar- 
tin's answer, as Vosburgh lowered the number, was "No! not 
one !" : However, it occurred to him that he would like to see 
the regiment parade once, and that would be his first parade as 
Lieut.-Colonel, and he would be enabled to see what the 
regiment was like. These conditions were accepted by Col. 
Vosburgh. 



18 5 5 



These interviews had extended well into the year 1855 
before accomplishing their object. An election was ordered, 
and on April 2nd, Henry P. Martin was elected Lieut.-Colonel 
of the Seventy-first Regiment. And then commenced that 
love and attachment which never ceased during his life, and 
still clings to his memory. 

To Lieut.-Colonel Henry P. Martin : 
Sir: 

At an election this day held in pursuance of the militia 
laws of this State, at the Mercer House in the City of New 
York, you were duly chosen to fill the office of Lieut.-Colonel 
of the Seventy-first Regiment of the 1st Brigade, 1st Division 
of the Militia of this State. 

As presiding officer at said election, it becomes my duty 
to notify you of your election, and request that you will sig- 
nify to me, your acceptance within ten days after the receipt 
hereof, otherwise you will be considered as declining. 
Respectfully your ob't servant, 

(Presiding officer.) 
Dated at New York, 
2d day of April, 1855. 

I hereby signify my willingness to serve in the office of 
Lieut.-Colonel to which I have been chosen, as stated in the 
above notice. 

HENRY P. MARTIN. 
Dated at New York, 
day of April, 1855. 



1855] 15 

Nothing better illustrates the character of Henry P. Mar- 
tin than the following address, delivered to the Board of 
Officers at its first meeting after the election, upon accepting 
the office. 

Gentlemen : 

Officers of the 71st Regiment : I thank you for the honor 
you have conferred upon me in electing me to fill the post of 
lieutenant-colonel of your regiment, and I can only assure 
you that with your hearty co-operation I shall ever strive to 
do my duty, and in the performance of our duty let us not for- 
get that we are part and parcel of the great militia of our 
Country, and by our gentlemanly deportment, soldierly bear- 
ing and discipline impress all who behold us with the true idea 
of their duty, for it is binding upon all male American citizens 
by the glorious Constitution under which we live, to be en- 
rolled (between the ages of 18 and 45) in the service, to pro- 
tect our homes and firesides, to defend our Constitution and 
freedom, and to preserve unsullied, the honor or our country's 
flag. And I hope very many out of the thousands who are 
eligible to duty and are not enrolled, will before another year 
shall roll over their heads, profit by your example and be en- 
listed in your ranks, and I hail the time when freemen shall 
boast of freemen's duty to themselves and to their flag. 

I would, gentlemen, that you could feel what in truth you 
are : the standing army of the State of New York ; and I would 
that I could imbue your hearts and minds with my view of the 
importance of military instruction, especially at this time when 
many of the most powerful nations of the world are engaged 
in war. 

It is true, our country has long been at peace, but who is 
wise enough to discern the signs of the times and tell us how 
soon it may come our time to bear arms against our fellows in 
that worst of all calamities, civil war and anarchy : who shall 
say that for our cupidity, the armies and navies of the world 
shall not be brought to our shores demanding restitution and 



16 [1855 

a guarantee of a check for the future? Who shall say how 
long it will be ere we will be mustered into active service? 

In view of these things let us do our whole duty, let us 
not stop short of being perfect soldiers, by constant attention 
to drills and discipline, not to say merely that ours is the best 
regiment in the state, but to say we do our duty. Let us ever 
remember that the "Price of Liberty is Eternal Vigilance." 

Who shall say our glorious Union may not be dissolved, 

and laid waste by a foreign foe ; history points to many warn- 
ings, and to it I do appeal : Tell me, thou reverend chronicler 
of the grave, can all the illusions of ambitions be realized? Can 
all the wealth of an universal commerce, can all the achieve- 
ments of successful heroism, or all the establishments of this 
world's wisdom, secure to empire the permanency of its pos- 
sessions? Alas! Troy thought so once, yet the bard Peiam 
lives only in song; Thebes thought so once, yet her hundred 
gates have crumbled, and her very tombs are but as the dust 
they vainly intended to commemorate ; so thought the coun- 
tries of Demosthenes and the Spartans, so thought Palmyra; 
where is she? So thought Persepolis, and now: 

"You — When roaring lions howl, 
You — When moans the grey eyed owl. 
Shows the proud Persians great abode 
Where sceptercd once an earthly God, 
His power-clad arm controlled each happier clime 
Where sports the warbling muse and fancy soars 
sublime." 

In his hurried march Time has but looked at their imag- 
ined immortality, and all its vanities from the palace to the 
tomb have with their ruins, erased the very impression of their 
footsteps ; the days of their glory are as if they never had been. 
Who shall say then, contemplating the past, that ours shall be 
perpetuated? All these have been and again may be, for such 
is the progress of national rise and national ruin : But, I will 



1855] 17 

add in the language of the lamented Webster, "God grant that 
in our day at least, that curtain may never rise ; God grant 
that on our vision may never be opened vi'hat lies behind. 
When our eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time the 
sun in the heavens, may we not see him shining on the broken 
and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union, on states 
discordant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or 
drenched it may be with fraternal blood ; let their last feeble 
and lingering glance rather, behold the gorgeous ensign of the 
Republic, now known and honored throughout the earth still 
full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their 
original, not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star ob- 
scured, having for its motto no such miserable interrogatory 
as 'What is this worth?' nor those other words of delusion 
and folly 'Liberty first and Union afterwards'; but every- 
where spread all over in characters of living light, blazing on 
its ample folds as they float over the sea and over the land, 
that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart. 
'Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.' " 

How prophetic was this address, when the reader recalls, 
that six years later much of it was verified, he participating in 
leading the 71st Regiment — "against our fellows in the worst 
of all calamities. Civil War." 

Three weeks after, that "one parade" was made, eight 
companies numbering one hundred and sixteen, rank and file 
including musicians, paraded; the new Lieutenant Colonel re- 
alized his contract. 

Undaunted, he resolved to do his part, and with the offi- 
cers and men doing their's there should be no failure. Imme- 
diately he started officers' drills and when these were fully in- 
structed, and by them their companies, he started battalion 
drills. The enthusiasm and energy of all being enlisted, re- 
sults were soon seen in the large increase of recruiting, and 
gradually the insignificant skeleton of a regiment brought 
forth at the inspection held eighteen months later a well de- 
veloped regiment. 



18 [1855 

The following extract from an order shows the friendly 
feeling with the 7th at that early date: 

71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 
Headquarters, New York, November 13th, 1856. 

Regimental Orders No. 9. 

The officers and members of this regiment are hereby 
ordered to assemble, in full uniform, white pantaloons, at the 
regimental armory, for parade, on Saturday afternoon the 14th 
instant for the purpose, of receiving the "Seventh Regiment 
National Guard, Colonel Duryea" on their return from their 
encampment at Kingston. ( 

The commandant in announcing the mere fact that the 
regiment parades to receive the "gallant Seventh" will be 
sufficient inducement for every member to report promptly for 
duty. * * * 

Fine for non-attendance $6.00. 



18 5 6 



Headquarters 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

February 12th, 1856. 
Regimental Orders No. 2. 

The invitation for this regiment to parade as escort to the 
"Order of the United Americans," on the 22nd instant, to cele- 
brate the anniversary of the father of our country, having been 
accepted, the officers and members of this regiment, are hereby 
ordered to assemble in uniform with overcoats, for parade on 
the 22d instant. 

The regimental line will be formed in the regimental 
armory at 9.30 A. M., precisely. 

The commandant trusts upon this interesting occasion 
every member will report for duty. 

By order of 

ABRAHAM S. VOSBURGH, 
Colonel commanding 71st Reg't N.Y.S.M. 

William H. Allen, 
Adjutant. 

On this occasion the regiment paraded about 400, escort- 
ing about 8,000 members of the "Order of the United 
Americans." We note that Daniel A. Butterfield paraded as 
Quartermaster on the staff of Colonel Vosburgh; this officer 
who subsequently attained the rank of Major General U. S. A. 
during the rebellion, was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Seventy- 
first in 1859, and left to become Colonel of the 12th, N.Y.S.M. 



20 [1856 

During the month of June, the Hon. Millard Fillmore, 
then Ambassador to England, returned home, receiving a 
grand reception by the "Native American" party, he being 
their candidate (Fillmore and Donnelson) for president of the 
United States at the coming election. 

The 71st Regiment having been invited to take part in the 
reception by special request, tendered its service as an escort 
to the organization, taking a part in the reception. 

The Ambassador was received at the Battery, and es- 
corted to the City Hall, where a reception was held in his 
honor by the city officials, after which he was escorted up 
Broadway to the St. Nicholas Hotel (between Spring and 
Prince Streets) his headquarters while in the city. 

The officers of the regiment were afforded an opportunity 
to meet the Ambassador, and a fine collation prepared by the 
committee of arrangements was partaken of by the regiment. 

On this occasion the regiment's popularity was shown by 
the ovation received on its march. 

The statue of Gen. Washington now standing in Union 
Square was inaugurated July 4th, 1856. 

"At a signal at 9 A. 'M. the "American Ivifles''* marched 
into the Square and formed on two sides of the same, followed 
by the 7th, which formed in like manner on the other two 
sides, completing the square. 

"All being ready the canvas veil coverini^- the statue was 
loosened, and as it fell, revealed the monument. 

"To attempt a description of the enthusiasm that followed 
would be vain. The first statue of Washington ever erected 
in New York was done, perfect, and presented to the city * * * 
the troops presented arms, the drummers rufiflcd, the stand- 
ards bowed down before the effigy of the Father of His Coun- 
try, from 10,000 small arms was fired a feu de joic ; from twice 
10,000 throats arose the most triumphant cheers * * * the 
air was filled with clouds of smoke and showers of cambric 
and bouquets were lavished upon the beautiful statue. * * * 

"The infantry then elevated their caps on their bayonets 
and gave three hearty cheers, rending the air with the deep 
volume of their thousands of voices." 



*Note the name. 



1856] 21 

"The procession was admired through every street as it 
passed, the members were most orderly, not a single man hav- 
ing the slightest sign of liquor upon him, or being in any other 
way disorderly." 

From the "Evening Express" September 5th, 1856: 

" 'The American Guard' 71st Regiment will make their 
fall parade on Wednesday afternoon, September 10th. 

"The regiment will proceed to Tompkins Square for drill 
and review. This will be their first parade under their new 
name, which was changed from 'American Rifles' in conse- 
quence of a change of arms, from rifle to the musket. 

"They are to be supplied with the new Minie muskets by 
the first of October, in place of the old, worn out, altered and 
repaired State arms they now use. 

"The regiment is still the American regiment ; there has 
been no change in its organization — it is all American, Field, 
Staff, Commissioned, and the rank and file." 

From this it would seem that Whittemore must have been 
in error in stating that the change of name was in 1853, or 
else the "Express" was wrong in saying that it was the first 
parade under the new name. However, there is no way to 
settle it, we give the reader all that can be learned at present. 

The annual inspection and muster took place in the fall, 
it gave evidence of the work done by Lieutenant-Colonel Mar- 
tin under the contract made eighteen months before, when he 
asumed office, the strength of the regiment at that time being 
less than 150, now showed present 600 out of 684 on the roll. 

By this inspection the regiment placed itself second, and 
close to first in the State. The harmonious relation of the offi- 
cers, and especially betv/een the Colonel and his Lieutenant 
permeated the whole regiment, and the attachment for the 
Lieutenant-Colonel made it a pleasure to work under him — to 
this and his family care, while later its War-Colonel, gave 
him the title "Father of the Regiment." 

What was left of Company F, with its captain, was trans- 
ferred on April 1st to Company H, and F ceased to exist. 

In August, Captain George W. B. Tompkins organized a 
new Company F ; for details see history of F. 

Company D came to the front again this year, when 
David A. Meschutt on March 5th was elected captain. 



22 [1856 

71st REGIMENT NEW YORK STATE MILITIA. 
American Guard. 

Regimental Order No. 10. 

Eleadquarters, New York, Novembet 13th, 1856. 

In compliance with Division and Brigade orders, the 
officers and members of this regiment are hereby ordered to 
assemble at the armory, for parade, in uniform, with overcoats, 
on Tuesday, the 25th instant. 

The Regimental line will be formed at half-past 9 o'clock 
A. M. precisely. 

The Staff will report to the Colonel at the Armory, 
(mounted), at quarter past 9 A. M. 

The Court of Appeals to hear excuses of delinquents from 
this parade will be held at the Armory, on Friday evening, 
December 5th, from 7 to 7.30 o'clock. 

It is important that all who have not provided themselves 
with overcoats, should do so by the day of parade. They can 
be procured by calling at Capt. Regur's, No. 184j4 Bowery, o. 
Paymaster Noe, corner of Catherine and Cherry Streets. 

The officers and members of the regiment are hereby or- 
dered to assemble at the Armory, in fatigue, for Battalion. 
Drill, on Wednesday, November 19th, 7:30 o'clock, P. M. The 
members of the command will remember that the fines for ab- 
sence at the Evening Drills of the Battalion are for Officers 
$3 and Non-Commisioned Officers $1. Commandants of com- 
panies will make returns of delinquents within ten days after 
each drill. The Court of Appeals for this drill will be held at 
the Armory, Friday, December 5th, from 7 to 7:30 P. M. 

The Officers' and Non-Commissioned Officers' Drills will 
be resumed, commencing on Friday, the 28th instant, and on. 
the first and third Fridays, at 7.30 P. M., of each month, until 
further orders. 

The Commissioned Officers of this Regiment are hereby 
ordered to assemble at the armory in fatigue, with overcoat 
and side arms, for Brigade Drill, on Tuesday, the 2d, and 
Thursday the 4th of December, at 5 o'clock P. M. 

The resignations of Captain E. Stephens having been ac- 
cepted by the Brigadier-General, he is hereby honorably dis- 
charged from the service. 



1856] 23 

The Colonel embraces this opportunity to express his sin- 
cere regret at the loss of his valuable services to the Regiment 
and would further say, that during the long period of Captain 
Stephens' connection with the corps, he has ever been inde- 
fatigable in his efforts to advance its interests, and promote its 
success. 

Lieutenant H. F. Metzler will forthwith assume command 
of Company E. 

Lieutenant L. S. Overton is hereby transferred, at his own 
request, to Company E,. 

By order of 

A. S. VOSBURGH, Colonel, 
Commanding 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

This order is introduced as a sample of the style of orders 
issued at this time; it will be noticed that the members were 
always kept reminded of what was going to happen in case 
they were absent. 

These penalties were established by the Military Lav/s 
of the State of New York, and ran as high as a maximum to 
an officer for non-attendance at any parade as $100 ; enlisted 
men was from $3 to $6. 

When fines were enforced they were paid into the Court 
or to the Marshal or if not paid the body was taken to Ludlow 
Street Jail, there to reside until claim was satisfied ; sometimes 
the victim was an employee of the U. S. Government, and he 
defied the Marshal to arrest him, in such a case the arrest was 
made outside the Government jurisdiction. 

This method of enforcing discipline was not a success. 
Men who had not the pride and loyalty to do their duty with- 
out such coercion were not desirable; the result was a large 
"dead-wood ;" at least 150 men were expelled during the ad- 
ministrations of Colonels Trafford and Parmele. 



18 5 7 



No qualifications were required for membership in the 
militia, if the candidate was acceptable to the company it 
mattered not if he was four or seven feet high, there was no 
physical examination; many joined for the fun of the thing 
and discovered it not so funny as they thought — they were in 
for seven years ; such discontented material was not beneficial, 
some would move out of the district and would be dropped ; 
in case he returned he was liable to be taken up again and 
commence where he left oflf. 

The following Regimental order shows the troubles oi; 
Colonel Vosburgh: 

71st REGIMENT NEW YORK STATE, MILITIA 
Regimental Order No. 2. 

Headquarters, New York Jan. 30th, 1857. 

The officers and members of this regiment are hereby 
ordered to assemble at the Armory, in fatigue, for battalion 
drill, on Friday the 5th of February, at 7.30 P. M., precisely. 
Upon this occasion, the drill will take place at the Division 
Armory, corner of Elm and White Streets. 

The Court of Appeals for the Battalion drill will be held 
at the Armory, on Friday evening, February 13th, from 7 
o'clock to 8 o'clock. 

Commandants of companies will make returns for the 
drills of January 16th and 30th, and February 6th, on or before 
the 12th instant. 

Your Commandant must again call the attention of the 
commandants of companies to the small attendance at their 



1857] 25 

several company drill rooms. And he now intimates to them 
(and for the last time) that unless they more religiously en- 
force their by-laws, and compel delinquents either to attend 
their company drill rooms, or pay the fines imposed, WE 
WILL HOLD THEM PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE. 
The Commandant would also urge upon the several com- 
panies to expel every member who does not rigidly comply 
with By-Laws of their company, and return the members so 
expelled to the head-quarters of the Regiment, to the end that 
they may be handed to the Commissioner of Jurors. 

The Colonel announces, with deep and sincere regret, the 
resignation of Lieutenant Colonel Martin, which has been 
accepted by the Brig'-General. Lieutenant Colonel Martin, 
during the period of his association with the regiment, has en- 
deared himself to every officer and member. 

The personal relations existing between Lieutenant 
Colonel Martin and myself have ever been of the most pleas- 
ant, friendly and cordial character. The loss of his valuable 
services cannot be too highly estimated. The knowledge of 
the fact, that only matters of purely a business character 
forced him to resign, must console us for his loss. 

By order of 

A. S. VOSBURGH, Colonel 
Commanding 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

The above order is interesting for two or three reasons ; 
it shows in the capital letters, the difficulty he had to maintain 
discipline, as at that time an officer's control of his men de- 
pended on his personality; on duty he was obeyed ; off duty he 
was expected to be one of the "boys"; if he did not come up 
to the mark in that respect he was not popular, and he was not 
kept in ignorance of the fact, it was in those days when every 
man was assertive as to his independence ; of course, this did 
not apply to all but unfortunately there were too many such. 
The words in heavy type show about the only punishment that 
could be dealt out at that time. 

Whittemore states, that Martin tendered his resignation 
September 26th, 1857, he must have meant 1856, as the above 
order shows it was accepted January, 1857. 

The reader must bear in mind the different conditions 
that existed then from the present, the magnificent Armories 



26 [1857 

of these days are as a palace to a hovel, there was no induce- 
ment to visit the company quarters at any other time than for 
a meeting or drill ; after a drill the men usually went in squads 
and had a supper or such other amusement as might present 
itself, parting to meet the next week. 

From the "N. Y. Express" January 7th, 1857 : 

"American Guard-Company C, Captain Regur, 71st Regi- 
ment, drilled on Monday (5th) evening at the Arsenal. The 
marching and movements were executed in a very creditable 
manner, and little or no exceptions could be taken to them. 

"One error, however, we speak of because of its frequent 
occurrence. The Orderly Sergeant invariably, when the com- 
mand was given to march by the right flank, by file left, faced 
to the right and filed to the left with the company, whereas 
he should have continued to march directly forward. This 
would be a serious error when formed in battalion." 

On the 12th of February, the 71st had a battalion drill at 
the Arsenal. The members of the "Light Guard", were pres- 
ent by invitation. After the drill, they with the regiment re- 
turned to the Regimental Armory, the visiting soldiers were 
shown through the Armory, and then taken by the officers to 
the Board room where there was a collation. 

After Colonel Vosburgh had called the assembled to 
order, he referred at length to the many courtesies received 
from the "Light Guard," which they took the opportunity, in 
a small way, to reciprocate, and offered as a toast — "The N. Y. 
Light Guard," which was drank accompanied with hearty 
cheers and a "tiger." 

Mr. McMurry responded and assured the 71st that every 
member of Light Guard should be made aware of the cordial 
and hearty reception of its members and proposed the health 
of Brig' General Hall, who after the cheers subsided, spoke in 
complimentary terms of the 71st, and of their National Ameri- 
can organization, of which he said every American should be 
proud. 

Brig' General Spicer responded to a toast in his honor; 
he reviewed the history of the 71st and alluded to its first for- 
mation as a battalion in the First Regiment. He referred to 
the difficulties it had to contend with since that time, which 
the General said were probably greater than those experienced 
by any other corps. 



1857] 27 

From the "N. Y. Express" February 24th : 

"The 71st Regiment (American Guard) Colonel Vos- 
burgh, turned out on the 22d with full ranks, in winter cos- 
tume, with a good band, and marched through a number of 
streets, making a profound impression wherever they went. 

"Colonel Vosburgh deserves to be congratulated for the 
manner in which he has educated and built up this corps. 

We are glad that the streets were in a passable enough 
state to allow the men to display their fine marching, they 
were very steady and showed vast improvement since their 
last regimental parade." 

From the "N. Y. Express" March 30th : 

"The right wing of the 71st will have a drill at the Divi- 
sion Armory on the 30th at 7.30 P. M. Companies B, F, A, G, 
and the left wing C, D, E, H, at the same place on the even- 
ing of April 3rd, at the same hour. 

"We doubt not there will be a large attendance on this 
occasion, as the 71st is rapidly rising in public favor and mili- 
tary importance. Orders for these drills announce the resigna- 
tion of Captains Regur, Dumont, A. Henderson and Adjutant 
W. H. Allen, and appointment of A. G. Demerest as Adjutant 
and A. P. Kinnan as Captain of Company G." 

From "Whittemore's History": 

EXCURSION TO NEWBURG. 

The continued improvement in the drill and efficiency of 
the regiment is best shown in newspaper reports of the visit 
of the regiment to Newburg on June 17th, 1857, that being the 
anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill. 

"Early on Wednesday morning, June 17th, the members 
of the Regiment assembled at their armory, on Centre Street, 
for the purpose of making an excursion to Newburgh where 
they were to participate in the celebration of the Battle of 
Bunker Hill, as well as to compete for a stand of colors which 
were to be awarded to the best drilled regiment in the State. 

"The rank and file of the regiment of those who accom- 
panied the regiment, Avas as follows: 



28 



[1857 



Field & Staff 






Colonel 


A. S. Vosburgh 




Major 


Daniel A. Butterfield 




Adjutant 


A. G. Demerest 




Q. Master 


Geo. A. Buckingham 




Paymaster 


Isaac C. Noe 




Engineer 


J. A. Van Brunt 




Ass't P. M 


G. W. Mayher 




S. M. 


Charles E. Smith 




Q. M. S. 


J. A. Pearsall 




Company A 


R. W. Kenyon, Captain 


24 Men 


B 


D. D. Blauvelt, Jr. 


23 " 


C 


Wm. J. Coles 


33 " 


D 


David C. Meschutt 


24 " 


E 


H. F. Metzler 


25 " 


F 


Geo. V. B. Tompkins 


30 " 


G 


Alex. P. Kinnan 


22 " 


H 


Asa F. Miller 


30 " 



Twenty-three officers and 



211 



"The regiment was accompanied by Dodsworth's band, 
and a Drum Corps consisting of sixteen drummers of ages 
ranging from 6 to 16. 

"After going through the usual ceremony of forming the 
regiment, they marched to the foot of Spring Street, where 
the steamboat Santa Claus was awaiting them. They arrived 
at Newburg about 2 P. M., and were received by the 19th 
Regiment, consisting of the Washington Guard company ; the 
Kemble Guard from Cold Spring, and the American Citizens 
Corps from Poughkeepsie. 

"They were reviewed by General Spicer and Staff, and the 
Military Association. The 71st then went through the exercises 
of the Manual for the stand of colors which was at once 
awarded them, the other regiments declining to compete with 
them. The drill was in the following order* 

Formation of the Battalion 
Manual of arms 
Loading at Will and the firings 
Break by company to the right 



1857] 29 

To ploy into close column in rear of first division 

To deploy the battalion on an interior division 

Change of direction in column at full distance 

Being in column at full distance to form division 

Column at full distance — left into line 

By inversion to the right into line 

Forward into line faced to the rear 

Deployment of column closed in mass 

To advance in line of battle 

Change of front forward and to the rear 

On the right by file into line 

Ploy of regiment into double column on centre division 

Deploy double column faced to right and left 

Form column from square, to advance and retreat 

Form square left in front 

Reduce square, etc. 

Of the appearance and drill of the regiment, the "New- 
burg News," June 18th, 1857, said : 

"We lack words to adequately express admiration of the 
splendid array made by the 71st Regiment. They were in 
fatigue dress, their new uniforms not being completed, but it 
was not to be regretted. Nothing could be neater than the 
close fitting jackets of blue, relieved by the white cross belts. 
They looked like men ready for service ; but it was the perfec- 
tion of their marching and drill, that called forth our splendid 
admiration. Nothing could be more picturesque than the ap- 
pearance of the entire line, as it wound up and down the hills ; 
nothing more soldierly than the compact and manly tread of 
the 71st as their bayonets presented a more or less of glittering 
steel. Arrived at the headquarters, the escort was detailed as 
a guard, and a square was formed on the east slope in which 
to go through the review and drill before the Military Asso- 
ciation. 

"We but repeat the universal sentiment of all who wit- 
nessed it. That nothing except the battalion drill at West 
Point has ever been seen to compare with it on the Hudson. 

"Colonel Vosburgh is a most capital field and drill officer, 
and his regiment do him the highest honor by their proficiency 
under his instructions. Every evolution was splendidly per- 
formed, and the regiment may well be proud of the commen- 



30 [1857 

dation bestowed upon them by the distinguished men who 
form the Military Association." 

"Ex-President Fillmore was upon the ground, with a 
number of gentlemen from abroad, and a brilliant array of 
ladies." 

In 1853, a few military officers, at the call of Col. Lansing, 
then on Governor Seymour's Staff, assembled at Syracuse and 
organized the New York Military Association. 

To that association many officers serving in commission 
under the laws of the state, every retired officer who had jo.ned 
the ranks as a private or non-commissioned officer, and private 
of seven years' service, might belong, should he choose to be 
enrolled as a member. Among the first names signed to the 
roll of the association was General Spicer, commanding the 
first brigade. 

For the first two or three years the members continued 
to bring together officers from every part of the state, and 
thus brought all into social and friendly intercourse. In 1854 
the Association, with the aid of Adjutant General Temple, 
came under the laws of the State and was incorporated. In 
1856 the Association offered rewards of merit to the regiment 
best drilled, best uniformed and equipped, and also the best 
encamped. 

Since 1855 Fernando Wood had been mayor of the City of 
New York; it is hard for a New Yorker of this day to realize 
what must have been the conditions existing when Wood be- 
came mayor. Men's lives were not safe. The Dead Rabbits 
and the Bowery Boys raged around the streets doing as they 
pleased with the lives of decent citizens and of the opposing 
gang. 

Says Gustavus Myers in his history of Tammany Hall: 

"In every groggery could be found a crowd of loafers 
and bruisers who could always be relied upon to pack a pri- 
mary or insure or defeat the election of certain nominees. In 
these saloons the ward politicians held their meetings, and the 
keepers were ready at all times to furnish voters to parade, 
carrying partisan banners they could not read, or to cheer 
at mass meetings at the drop of a handkerchief. 

"The saloon keepers also furnished cheap illegal voters. 



1857] 31 

ballot box stuffers, and thoroughbred "shoulder hitters" to 
intimidate peaceable citizens, or, as a last resort, to smash 
the ballot boxes. The saloon keepers were largely above the 
law. 

"A disingenuous bill passed in 1855, ordered the saloons to 
be closed on Sunday but made no provision for enforcement. 
They were accordingly kept open, likely enough through as- 
surances from Wood (who controlled the police) that the 
owners would not be molested ; their support of the mayor was 
well nigh unanimous." 

The upshot of the fight between Wood and the State Gov- 
ernment was, that the Legislature enacted a law to create a 
new police force, to be called the "Metropolitan," which should 
take the place of the existing force, known as the "Municipal." 

To be within the Constitution, it was necessary to in- 
clude more than one county, so that of Richmond and Kings 
were made part of the district. 

A Board of Commissioners was appointed to control the 
new force, the mayor refused to recognize them, maintaining 
the old force in office ; he defied the Commissioners to a point 
of resistance, so that on June 16th, 1857, it was necessary to 
halt the 7th Regiment (which was then on its way to Boston 
on a visit) at the City Hall, to uphold the Commissioners. 
Their presence soon caused a satisfactory adjustment of the 
difficulty. 

it is necessary to mention this to make subsequent events 
clear. 

From the "New York Express" June 30th: 

"The Seventy-first N.Y.S.M., received from the Arsenal 
(61st Street) last evening 400 of the new Minie muskets with 
the Maynard primer * * * It is certainly a move in the 
right direction to furnish this regiment with arms that can be 
depended upon in time of trouble. Company F, Captain 
Tompkins, was drilling when the muskets arrived, and evident 
to all was the delight and satisfaction expressed by the com- 
pany at having arms in their company with which they knew 
they could do service. It is a fact worth knowing that during 
the late 'Municipal Riot,' in less than an hour and a quarter 
from the time the order was received to turn out, over 200 



32 [1857 

men were under arms in the armory, Center Street, though the 
men were scattered all over the city." 

As if in anticipation of the above, five days after receiving 
the muskets, the 71st' was called on to assist in quelling one 
of the worst riots that had ever taken place in the city. The 
iollowing- account of which, is from the "New York E.xpress": 

THE "DEAD RABBIT" RIOT. 

"In New York, it is well known, there are a number of 
political and rowdy associations, the members of which are of 
the lowest ranks in life and of the most unscrupulous charac- 
ters, 'these associations are ready to undertake any species of 
rascality. Robbery and murder are child's play to them. The 
members are bullies and fighters by profession, and they are 
accustomed to undertake the management of ward politics by 
the job. 

"In the sixth ward there are two clubs of this description 
both made up of professional bullies belonging to the fighting 
ranks of the Democratic party. These clubs are tools of the 
two Democratic factions. One, called the "Bowery Boys," 
under the leadership of Pat Matthews, a well known custom 
house officer, having their headquarters at a drinking house at 
40 Bowery. The other rejoices in the elegant name of 'Dead 
Rabbits,' and, we understand obey the orders of one 'Tom 
Walsh' said to be the foreman of Engine Co. No. 21 (the Vol- 
unteer Fire Department existed at this time), whose house is 
corner of Chambers and Centre Streets. The 'Dead Rabbits' 
are inhabitants of Mulberry, Mott, Baxter, Bayard, and some 
parts of Elizabeth Streets, and are very bad fellows, the whole 
of them. These two clubs, the 'Bowery Boys,' representing 
the Administration or custom house section of the party, and 
the 'Dead Rabbits,' their opponents, have for years been at 
swords point. A deadly feud prevails between them, and they 
have taken every opportunity to the spite they bear each 
other. 

"Broken heads at every primary and regular election; 
riots at every recurrence of a regular holiday; frequent dis- 
turbances of the public peace on Sundays, are the results of 
these animosities. 

"For the last month or two these clubs have been particu- 



1857] 33 

larly 'ugiy' towards each other, and it has required the ut- 
most vigilance on the part of Captain Dowling, of the late 
Municipal police, to keep peace between them. 

"Since the recent proceedings at Tammany Hall to har- 
monize the party, the 'Dead Rabbits' and the 'Bowery Boys' 
have been more than ever anxious to have a muss on a large 
scale. For three or four Sundays back. Captain Dowling has 
expected an outbreak, and has carefully paraded the ward 
with his force, to put down the slightest symptoms of trouble. 
He had good reason to understand that the national anniver- 
sary would be seized upon by the belligerents to make a dem- 
onstration of some sort or other and freely communicated his 
suspicions during the early part of the week to Alderman 
Clancy and others. 

"As his force, however, was strong enough to control the 
riotei-s he felt under no apprehension for the result, and took 
his measures to nip any row in the bud, at once. 

'"Meanwhile, the preparations for the celebration of the 
Fourth were proceeding on a large scale. When the plans 
were all completed, the decision of the Court of Appeals was 
rendered, and the old police disbanded. This put a new face 
upon affairs in the sixth ward. The worst ward in the city 
was suddenly deprived of its guardians, and a clear field was 
left the rioters to have their own way in everything. 

"Alderman Clancy, Judge Brennan and other citizens of 
the ward took alarm at the prospect, and determined, if pos- 
sible, to thwart the plans of the bullies, and preserve the 
peace. Alderman Coulter, of the 17th ward, Captain Dowling, 
and some others were consulted, and it was determined that 
the Municipal Police should, after being disbanded, offer their 
services to do duty as special policemen, without pay under 
the Metropolitan Commissioners, until Tuesday morning. It 
was determined that the service of the 6th ward should be first 
oftered, and if they were accepted, the tender should be made 
of the other ward's force. 

"At this juncture it was understood that Commissioner 
Nye had left the city for the town of Courtland to deliver an 
oration ; Commissioner Cholwell had gone out of town to 
spend the Fourth, and that Commissioner Bowen had retired 
to his residence in Westchester, leaving only Messrs. Draper 



34 [1857 

and Stranahan to carry out the arrangements already made 
for the day. 

"Nevertheless, we are informed upon the best of authority 
that, having previously obtained the consent of the whole 
sixty men of the 6th ward. Alderman Clancy, at 3 o'clock Fri- 
day afternoon went persor.aily and alone to the office of the 
Police Commissioners an'' "^-"nally tendered to them the serv- 
ices of the old sixth ward pu.ice. 

"Mr. Clancy did not anticipate so violent a melee as sub- 
sequently happened but he thought that, the people of the 
ward being unacquainted with the new police and much op' 
posed to them, there would at least be a collision between tht, 
citizens and officers. 

"The Commisioners peremptorily declined to accc])! the 
offer, stating that they were not afraid, and could keep the 
peace without the help of Mayor Wood's men. 

"The Commissioners were sorry enoUj^h aflerwanl lliat 
they did not accept Mr. Clancy's offer. 

"About 9 o'clock, when fast folks began to fee! the effects 
of bad liquor, the rowdies paraded the streets in bands of ten 
to a hundred, insulting honest people, and committing all sorts 
of outrages. 

"The Metropolitan policemen, in twos and threes, fell 
away whenever one of these g^ngs was seen coming. The 
police were hooted and chased in every part of the city, and 
the rowdies, seeing that the green M. P.s were afraid of llieni, 
thenceforward left them completely out of their plans for 
amusement, and grew bolder, as the day wore on. 

"By 10 o'clock Saturday morning the Commissioners saw 
plainly that their force inspired no sort of respect in any part 
of the city. Boys and girls hooted "the Albany men" when- 
ever they appeared, while grown up bullies laughed at the 
perplexity of the poor Metropolitans. 

"Fifty men were detailed in the Park, but could do 
nothing; they were obliged to call upon a troop of horse to 
clear a space for the Governor to disipount. 

"The squads of twenty-five detailed to other parks were 
soon hooted away. Nine hundred and eighty men in all were 
on duty during the day, 300 being special deputies. 

"Mr. Tallmadge gave his personal attendance in the Park 
upon the Governor. 



1857] 35 

"Retiring to White Street, after the review, he was con- 
vinced by his reports that no dependence could be placed upon 
his men. The spirit of rowdyism was aroused, and the Metro- 
politans were powerless to suppress it. 

"The 6th warders were making great preparation ; a severe 
disturbance had already occurred there in the morning. 

"To avoid riot, which he knew could not be quelled by his 
force, Mr. Tallmadge suggested that the fire-works should be 
po.'itijoned, so as to prevent the concentration of large crowds 
of disorderly persons. At the request of the Commissioners, 
therefore, the committee of arrangements consented to post- 
pone the exhibition, and notice was given to that effect every- 
where. 

"Alderman Clancy, knowing the state of feeling in his 
ward, kept some reliable men with him, and making the Ivy 
Green his headquarters, paraded the ward during Friday night 
and Saturday morning trying to dissuade the riotously dis- 
posed from violence. Thus it will be seen everything was 
rife for the fight. 

THE FIRST RIOT 

"About 1 o'clock on Saturday morning a party of boys 
identified with the 'Dead Rabbits' were walking in the Bowery, 
in the vicinity of the Bowery Theatre, when they met Officer 
Abraham Florentine, of the 6th ward, and another officer, 
whom they assaulted, and who were obliged for refuge to run 
into the barroom of No. 40 Bowery, the headquarters of the 
'Bowery Boys' or Pat Matthew's party. 

"The 'Dead Rabbits' followed them as far as the door, 
when the foremost of them was knocked down by a man stand- 
ing in the door of No. 40, at which time the door was closed. 

"The 'Rabbits' then proceeded to throw brickbats, stones 
etc., at the windows and door of the place, breaking nearly 
every i)ane of glass in the sashes. 

"After finding that they could get no satisfaction in the 
way of attacking the two officers, they fell to abusing another 
of the Metropolitans who was passing at that time, who was 
compelled to seek rchxs^e in the coffee and cnke sn.loon m the 
basement of No. 36 Bowery. This place the 'Rabbits' also 
at<'':cd w'tl-i stones -ind b-'-'ckb^^s. brck'ncj lamps, win^o "S 
and everything within their reach, until they were finally 



36 [1857 

driven off by a party of boys who came out of the saloon with 
tumblers, glasses, etc., and chased them as far as the cornef 
of Bayard and the Bowery. They then left and returned to the 
saloon, the 'Rabbits' remained on the corner for some minutes ; 
while standing here they fired one or two stones towards 40 
Bowery. 

"In a few minutes one of their number got a very large 
stone from the street, and walked to the door of No. 40 
Bowery, followed by several of his party, and threw it into 
the bar-room. They then all immediately retired to the cor- 
ner, but hardly reached that place when several persons rushed 
out of the cellar of No. 36 Bowery, crying, 'Go at them, boys.' 

"At this, in two minutes, the street was full of people, who 
came together from all directions as if by magic. 

"In less than five minutes over 300 had collected. They 
then started off toward the corner of Bayard Street, after the 
'Rabbits,' but before they got there the 'Rabbits' had gone into 
their holes, not one could be seen. 

"After going through several of the streets without com- 
ing across one of that party, the 'Bowery Boys' returned to 
their headquarters, and remained for some minutes in hope 
that the 'Rabbits' would show themselves. 

"After waiting several minutes, to no purpose, they took 
another turn around the ward, with no better success than the 
first time. 

"They returned to No. 40 Bowery, where they remained 
until about 3 o'clock Saturday morning, when, finding that 
thero was no likelihood of any further disturbance, they 
gradually dispersed." * * * 

the; SECOND RIOT 

"The 'Bowery Boys' re-assembled in the neighborhood of 
the Bowery, at an early hour on Saturday morning, in large 
numbers, and began making active preparations for a de- 
fense, should they be attacked by the 'Dead Rabbits.' 

"They first dispatched scouting parties in all directions 
throughout the ward to watch the movements of the 'Dead 
Rabbits' and keep them all well posted should they take any 
measures for attack. 

"At the same time the 'Bowery Boys' set about arming 



1857] 37 

themselves with revolvers, pistols, ammunition, etc., a large 
supply of which was deposited in a place selected for that pur- 
pose and a squad of boys selected to run to and fro with pis- 
tols, as fast as they should be discharged, in case of a riot, in 
order that they might be reloaded by another party detailed 
at the headquarters, and then taken back to the 'Boys' en- 
gaged in the fight, and exchanged for the empty ones just fired. 
By this means the 'Boys' were kept well supplied with loaded 
pistols, without their opponents being able to ascertain the 
secret of their success. 

"Everything went on peaceably enough until about 5 
o'clock in the afternoon when word was sent to 88 White 
Street that assistance was wanted in the 7th ward to aid in 
quelling a riot which had been raging in Jackson Street. 

"Deputy-Superintendent Carpenter accordingly imme- 
diately dispatched Sergeant Bonner with 25 men, who pro- 
ceeded through White and Baxter Streets to Bayard ; the 
moment they were espied coming up Bayard Street, it was 
generally thought by the 'Rabbits' that they were coming 
to arrest them. 

"They accordingly sent word to their forces in all direc- 
tions, and assembled in the vicinity of Mott and Bayard 
Streets. As the police came up, the 'Rabbits' received them 
with an overpowering volley of stones, brick-bats, etc., 
which comnletely put them to flight. 

"The 'Bowery Boys,' hearing of the affray, hastened to the 
scene in full force. Seeing that the 'Rabbits' had assailed the 
police instead of their own numbers, they immediately took 
sides with the police, and taking their position by the side of 
a huge pile of brickbats in Bayard, near Mott Street, opposite 
a row of brick houses in course of erection, commenced a vigor- 
ous onslaught with stones, bricks, pistols, etc., vhich they 
kept up in a most eiifective manner for some minutes. 

"They were at last, however, compelled to give way, and 
retrept as fpr ns Elizabeth Street, under the heavv fire from 
the 'Dead Rabbits' in the streets and from the house tops, 
windows, etc. 

"Every place beinsr filled with men — women and children 
aiding the men by picking up brickbats in the street and 
carrying them to the men on the house tops, etc.; the men, 
in turn, threw the missiles down with good effect on the heads 



38 [1857 

of the 'Bowery Boys' and policemen, as fast as they could 
come within reach of them. 

"'J'he 'Bowery Boys' being driven to the easterly side of 
Elizabeth Street, and seeing the utter folly of trying to stand 
their ground below that position, in consequence of the army 
Oi m n Oil i.ouse tops, hastily erected several old viragons sta d- 
inj^- opposite the livery stable at that place into a barricade, 
behind which they took shelter from the stones and missiles 
01 Lhc enemy, and only fired their pistols when certain of their 
victims. 

"At this time 25 more policemen were sent down to quel! 
an auxiliary riot in Mott Street. About 200 boys and young 
women were having a fight near Minturn Place, when the 
squad a])peared on the ground. Instead of scattering the dis- 
o. (Icily, the Metropolitans took the other side of the street. 
The rioters immediately ceased their fighting and commenced 
t( hoot at the police. Little girls threw fire-crackers at them, 
boys fired pistols at them, men and women threw bricks, 
stones, mud, etc., at them. They were laughed at, jeered an3 
hooted out of the Points and walking as fast as they dared, 
made their escape back to Centre Street, with two or three 
hundred of the mob at their heels, shouting at the top of their 
voices. 

"The mob expressed the greatest contempt of the police, 
and covered them with opprobrious epithets. 

"The news soon reached the White Street station house, 
and thirty more men were dispatched to assist their comrades. 
By this time the 'Rabbits' rained down bricks, stones, etc., 
upon the police. They also fired pistols and muskets at them; 
the police, however, escaped serious injury, and captured 
about a dozen of the rioters, who were locked up. 

"At this juncture, a frightful scene of riot and bloodshed 
ensued. A large number were wounded, and some mortally. 
A portion of the rioters barricaded Mulberry Street, near Bay- 
ard, with carts, wagons, hose carriages, and timber, and built 
a similar barricade in Bayard Street, near Elizabeth. From 
be' -nd these the 'Dead Rabbits' and 'Bowery Boys' were 
continually firing at each other, two or three killed and a 
large number wounded. 

"Two of the dead rioters, who were shot from the top of 



1857] 39 

a house in Bayard Street were taken to the White Street sta- 
tion, and others to the 7th Ward station. 

"One hundred additional policemen were sent to quell 
the disturbance and they succeeded about 7 o'clock in the 
evening, in removing the barricade and restoring partial 
order. A requisition was then made by the police com- 
missioners as follows upon Major-General Sanford" : 

OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF THE METRO- 
POLITAN POLICE DISTRICT; 

88 White St., New York, July 4, 1857. ■ 
Major-General Sanford: 

Sir: There have been several assaults upon our force. 
Our men are attacked in various quarters of the city. Already 
f.ital wounds, it is feared, have been inflicted. Our force, 
though strong, are driven by combinations of men, seeming 
to be under orders of experienced policemen and others of des- 
perate character from point to point. You will therefore call 
for the requisite force to restore order, and assist the civil 
force in preventing further havoc among our citizens. 

Your obedient, 

S. DRAPER, 
President of Board of Commissiohers of Police. 

"In compliance with these orders. General Sanford or- 
dered out the Seventy-first Regiment, Colonel Vosburgh; 
Seventh, Colonel Duryea, and Eighth, Colonel Lyons, who 
were kept under arms during the night of Saturday and day 
and evening of Sunday, at their respective armories, awaiting 
the orders of Major-General Sanford." 

THE THIRD RIOT 

"All day Sunday the 6th ward was in a disgraceful state 
of excitement. 

"The battle-ground presented a woeful sight, and in al- 
most every house in the neighborhood there were dead and 
wounded. 

"Hundreds of their partisans were armed to the teeth and 
ready for any emergency. 

"A report was circulated by them that the 'Rabbits' were 



AO ■ [1857 

coming over into the Bowery to sack the stores, which gained 
the sympathy of the thinking people for the Matthews side. 

"The 'Rabbits' on the other, industriously spread it 
through the ward that the Republicans and Know Nothings 
were coming over to burn the R. C. Cathedral in Mott Street, 
and thus raised a large reinforcement for the 'Rabbits' side. 
"Superintendent Tallmadge, during the afternoon, went 
through the ward visiting the headquarters of the rival par- 
ties. He was told that neither party would be the aggressor, 
but both were thoroughly armed and prepared for attack. 

"As night drew on the crowds thickened. Thousands 
poured into the bloody sixth from all sides. The idea that it 
was Sunday seemed to be remembered by none, and of all the 
passers by the Metropolitan policemen were the only ones who 
had no curiosity to be 'au courant' with what was goiim' on. 

"While great crowds thronged the Bowery and Bayard 
Street fighting was going on among the thieves and vagabonds 
on the Points. 

"The 'Kerryonians' and the 'Pelters' two more of the 
choice communities of the neighborhood, got by the ears about 
six o'clock, and commenced a fight in which all sorts of mis- 
siles and firearms were freely used. 

"Several thousand participated in the riot, which lasted 
two hours, during which not a policemen made his appearance, 
though the station house in White Street was not three 
blocks off. 

"The party tore down the trees in front of the House of 
Industry. 

"The fight seemed between the 'Kerryonians,' denizens of 
Worth Street, near Citntre, and the 'Pelters' those of Cow 
Bay and Little Water Street. 

"The row commenced at half past six o'clock and lasted 
until half past eight * * * . About seven o'clock General 
Hall came on the ground, and arrested a fellow named Patrick 
Finley, who was wounded in the arm and had firearms 
upon him. 

"Seeing how desperate the matter looked, and having had 
ocular proof of the impending riot on the old ground. General 
Hall immediately started for the military. 

"The 71st Regiment was ordered to White Street. They 
were armed with the Minie musket and twenty-four round of 



1857] 41 

ball cartridge per man. They formed line in lilm Street at 
half-past eight. The 8th Regiment, Colonel Lyons, with 
ten round of ball per man, formed on the same ground. 

"The 7th were ordered down to the armory in Elm Street. 
General Hall then ordered out the 9th, Colonel Pitkin; the 
SSth, Colonel La Gal ; and called for the 4th Regiment of Ar- 
tillery, Colonel Hincken. 

"At half-past eight it was known that the military were 
on the march and hardly two blocks away, the riot suddenly 
ceased, and the streets were cleared almost immediately. The 
wounded were many of them dragged into the houses of their 
friends. 

"The Seventy-first was on duty from 10 o'clock on Sunday 
morning until 12 o'clock on Sunday night. At 7 o'clock Sun- 
day night General Hall ordered the regiment to march to 
White Street, the men having previously been supplied with 
Minie ball cartridges. This regiment was the first on the 
ground ready for action. 

"The regiment under command of Colonel Vosburgh 
was under arms at Centre-Market, where they had been 
awaiting orders since morning. The ranks were full and 
the men appeared anxious for duty. 

"The 71st and 8th Regiments, preceded by a posse of 
policemen, about half-past nine o'clock marched down Centre 
Street and through the Five Points, where the 8th was sta- 
tioned; the General and the 71st continuing the march through 
White Street, through Elm to Pearl, and through Mulberry, 
Mott, Baxter and other streets. 

"While marching through the Bowery toward Bayard 
Street, about 10 o'clock A. M., they met a party of men 
dragging a large lumber wagon through the street, upon which 
was mounted an eight pound howitzer of iron. The party in 
charge of the wagon, the moment they caught a glance at the 
bayonets, took to their heels, and were soon out of sight. The 
trophy thus captured by the 71st was taken to the Armory 
and locked up. 

"The regiment after dismissal proceeded to their Armory, 
by the way of the Arsenal, where the gallant 7th Regiment re- 
ceived them with a most patriotic and soldier-like enthusiasm." 

This howitzer has survived all the fires and movings 
the regiment has experienced, and is now safely located in 
the memorial room attached to the Veterans' Room. 



42 [1857 

From the "N. Y. Express" of October 7th : 

"The 71st (American Guard) Colonel Vosburgh, paraded 
Monday evening (5th) in fatigue, for street drill. The Regi- 
mental line was formed in Bond Street at 8.30 P. M., precisely. 

"The turnout was very good, although some of the com- 
panies that usually turn out large were slim. The formation 
was prompt ; the regiment went through the manual of arms, 
which was loudly applauded as it deserved. * * * The rapid- 
ity with which the volleys followed in succession, was very 
noticeable. 

"The Minie musket with Maynard primers, used by the 
71st, are loaded in eight times, each primer (these primers 
proved a failure in practice; they were sensitive to damp- 
ness, clogged the nipple and caused missfire) last 36 rounds. 
After the exercises the regiment marched up Broadway to 
18th Street, to 5th Avenue, 10th Street to Broadway to the 
Park, where after a short drill they returned to the armory. 

"The Drum Corps in charge of Mr. Conklin did well * * * 
some of the boys in the corps are most too small to drum on 
the line of march ; they cannot take the full step and are very 
liable to get into the bad habit of stepping short." 

From the "N. Y. Express" of October 9th : 

"Company C of the 71st Regiment, Captain Coles, one of 
the 'crack' companies of the regiment, made a moonlight 
parade on Wednesday evening, the 7th instant, with 45 mus- 
kets; they marched down Broadway, up Chatham to East 
Broadway, Grand Street to the Armory. 

"In the Park they went through the manual of arms, to 
the admiration of the large crowd that had followed them. 
The marching was excellent, as it always is with companies of 
the 71st." 

During the year the increase of members and advance- 
ment in drill, and discipline, the fine appearance in the full 
dress uniform upon all occasions, fully demonstrated the won- 
derful influence made by Lieutenant Colonel Martin upon the 
officers and men during the? time he had been instructor; it 
attracted the attention of military men throui?;hout the !-■>: te. 

The finest inspection of the regiment since its organi- 
zation took place on Hamilton Square (then extending from 



1857] 43 

Third Avenue to Fourth Avenue, in the 60's ; the 7th Regiment 
armory is now part of that ground) in October. 

From the "N. Y. Express" of October 20th : 

"The 71st (American Guard) looked remarkably well, al- 
though their ranks were thinner than they should have been, 
owing to the recent adoption of the new cap and shoulder 
knots, which were worn for the first time on this parade, and 
which all the men have not yet been able to procure. 

"The corps is literally an American organization and com- 
posed mostly of young citizens, the larger portion of which fol- 
low occupations, although they do not enjoy such pecuniary 
advantages as other regimental organizations, yet they favor- 
ably compare with the best in point of discipline, and in fact 
close after the famous 7th in every respect. 

"The result of the inspection is as follows : 

F. & S. N. C. S. Band ABCDEFGH 
Present 6 6 40 24 25 36 27 30 39 22 47-302 

Absent 2 10 No record of company absentees 3 

Total 8 7 40 

"Whittemore says that at the inspection of 1856, the total 
was 684. If that was correct, and no change made in the 
total, there must have been 362 absent; as however, the total 
for 1858 was 520, the total absent must have been at least one 
hundred less, even that seems large, it is unfortunate no 
better record is available. 

"After the inspection and regimental drill witnessed by 
many officers of the 1st Division and by ex-Lieut.-Col. Martin, 
the regiment marched to its armory. At 59th Street and Sth 
Avenue it was surprised to find the 7th Regiment, Col. Duryea, 
in line awaiting its arrival, for the purpose of escorting it; 
thus commenced that kind feeling existing between the two 
regiments and continuing to the present day with slight inter- 
ruption, notwithstanding the friendly rivalry that has always 
been maintained ; wherever any unpleasantness ever existed 
it was the fault of the commanding officer, and not of the 
•organizations. 

"After the usual formalities, the 7th escorted the 71st 
down to Bond Street amid the applause of the thousands of 



44 [1857 

friends of the two finest regiments in the United States; the 
grey of the 7th and the blue of the 71st, each with white cross 
belts, made a magnificent appearance. 

"At Bond Street after the usual ceremonies, the 7th 
marched to its parade ground at Lafayette Place and 8th 
Street, where it dismissed ; the 71st dismissed and by com- 
panies marched to its various quarters." 

On November 9th, in compliance with the new regula- 
tions, and orders issued from General Headquarters, an En- 
gineer Corps was organized consisting of ten privates and one 
sergeant, ranking as orderly. Sergeant Charles H. Cochrane 
of Company C (one of four brothers, members of the regi- 
ment) was appointed to the command. The uniform of this 
corps was the same as the regiment, except the equipment 
was one black patent leather cross belt, with a castle on plate 
and a body belt of same material ; it was armed with a short 
rifle and sabre bayonet. The duties of the corps were to 
assist in laying out camp sites, directing the location and 
erecting quarters, tents, etc., for the several companies under 
the direction of the staff engineer; its position in line was 
the extreme right, ahead of the band. 

On Tuesday, November the 11th, the ceremony of pre- 
senting the prize won by the regiment on June 17th, took place 
in front of the City Hall, in the presence of the Mayors of 
New York and Newark, the Common Council, and several 
military officers. 

During the day the State Military Association met in 
the City Hall where the prize was exhibited. The prize was a 
large bronze eagle, mounted on a medallion of the same metal, 
the whole on a staff, over which six plumes were suspended — 
two red, two white, two blue. On the medallion was the 
following inscription : 

Presented to the 

SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT, N.Y.S.M. 

Colonel A. S. Vosburgh 

For Good Conduct, Drill and Efficiency 

1857 



1857] 45 

On the reverse side was the monogram, N.Y.S.M. Colonel 
Smith of the 14th Regiment, one of the vice-presidents of the 
Military Association, presented the prize with a few appropri- 
ate remarks, which were responded to by Colonel Vosburgh. 
After the presentation the regiment marched to the St. 
Nicholas Hotel, where a fine collation had been prepared. A 
number of distinguished invited guests were present, among 
whom were Hon. John Cochrane, Hon. Elijah Ward, "Prince" 
John Van Buren, Secretary of State; Joel T. Headley, Hon. 
Erastus Brooks, Hon. Samuel J. Tilden and others. 

This "Roman Trophy" was so heavy that it was only car- 
ried once or twice on parade. It was destroyed in the burning 
of the armory in 1902. 

WORTH MONUMENT. 

The monument at the junction of Broadway, Fifth Ave- 
nue and Twenty-fifth Street having been erected to receive 
the remains of General William J. Worth, arrangements 
were made for the removal of the same from Greenwood 
where they had been interred some years before. 

From the "N. Y. Herald" Nov. 25th, 1857: 

"The joint and special committee of the Common Council 
appointed to oversee the erection of the Worth Monument 
met at ten o'clock yesterday morning at the City Hall. 

"After a short conversation they decided to change the 
line of march slightly by turning off Broadway at 14th Street, 
passing down that street to 5th Avenue, and up the Avenue to 
the monument, at 25th Street. Six carriages were in readiness, 
in which the committee, William J. Worth, son of Major Gen. 
Worth, the members of the press took seats, and were con- 
ducted to Greenwood Cemetery, via South Ferry. 

"On arriving at the cemetery, the remains of General 
Worth were brought out of the receiving vault and placed in 
the new coffin, which is a fac-simile of the old one. * * * 

"The coffin is of mahogany, with black velvet covering. 
On a heavy silver plate is the following inscription : 

'GENE,RAL WILLIAM J. WORTH 

Died at San Antonio, Texas, 7th of May, 1S49 

Aged 55 years.' 



■:6 [1857 

"Below this, the Square and Compass, denoting the Gen- 
eral's connection with the Masonic Order and his position of 
that of Past Grand Master. 

"At the foot of the coffin are the words : 
'United States Army.' 

"Plates on the side of the coffin are inscribed with the 
following words : 

' Florida — Niagara.' 
'Monterey Chippewa.' 

THE OFFICIAL PilOGKAMME. 

The joint special committee of the Common Council on 
the subject of the Worth Monument respectfully announce to 
the public that on the 2Sth instant, on which occasion Gen- 
eral Worth's remains will be finally re-interred, the procession 
will move from the Park at 12 M., and will proceed up Broad- 
way to 14th Street, to Sth Avenue, up 5th Avenue to 25th 
Street, the site of the erection for the monument, in the fol- 
lowing order, viz: 

1 — Military of this and other cities under command of 
Major-General Sanford. 

2 — The officiating clergymen. 

3 — The pall bearers and funeral car drawn by sixteen 
white horses, and the 71st Regiment, Colonel Vosburgh, as 
Guard of Honor. 

4 — Horse of General Worth, caparisoned and led. 
5 — The relatives and friends of the deceased. 
6 — The Mayor and Common Council and corporation 
officers generally. 

7 — The Mayor and Common Council and Corporation 
Officers of Brooklyn. 

8 — The officers of the late war with Mexico, mounted, 
and the First Regiment of New York Volunteers. 
9— Soldiers of 1812. 

10— The United States officers, both military and civil. 
11 — The Society of Free and Accepted Masotis. 
12 — The Cincinnati Society. 
13 — The Tammany Society. 
14 — The Firemen. 
15 — Civil Societies and citizens. 



1857] 47 

The solemnities to be observed at the monument will be 
as follows: 

1 — The receiving and depositing of relics in the box 
which is to be placed in the corner stone. 

2 — The oration, to be delivered by His Honor the Mayor. 

3 — The religious ceremonies and benediction by the Rev. 
Dr. Vinton, who will be assisted by the Rev. Dr. Van Rens- 
saeler of Burlington, N. J., and Rev. Dr. Stevens of Philadel- 
phia. 

4 — The dedication ceremonies by the Masonic Fraternity. 
The ceremonies will then conclude by the firing of three vol- 
leys by the 71st Regiment, Colonel Vosburgh, the Guard of 
Honor for the day. 

From the "Sunday Mercury" of Nov. 29th, 1857: 

"The Seventy-first Regiment was detailed for special duty 
as a guard of Honor, a post highly honorable, and one which 
we think the rising talents, the active energies and ambition 
of the corps entitled them to. They paraded 250 muskets, 
looking very neat and trim, paying especial attention to all 
the minute details. Although the duties were limited, yet 
the few were well done; a pride seemed to stimulate them, 
they were anxious, and every man seemed to feel that the 
occasion was the success or defeat of their command. 

"As early as one o'clock P. M., on Tuesday, Company F, 
Captain Tompkins, was on duty. This company was detailed 
to meet the body at South Ferry. They paraded forty muskets 
and marched very steady. 

"At two P. 'M., they received the body from the National 
Guard of Brooklyn, Captain Sprague, and in connection with 
them escorted the remains to the City Hall, where due honors 
were paid, and the body placed in the Governor's room. Com- 
pany F, with a detachment of volunteers from the 71st under 
Captain Kinnan, mounted guard during the night until the 
following day, when they were relieved by the removal of the 
corpse to the place of deposit. 

"The entire regiment then formed the Guard of Honor, 
seven companies preceding the catafalque, and one succeeding. 

."Dodworth's band accompanied them, discoursing some 



48 



[1857 



deep and solemn music, a striking contrast to the remaining 
bands of the Division. 

"The regiment subsequently marched to the monument, 
remaining there until the shades of evening, thus ending a 
day's duty that was, in bur minds, as arduous a one as our 
military could anticipate on a peace service. Their duty was 
well executed, entitling them to great credit, and placing them, 
the youngest command in the Division, second in the list of 
honorable competition." 

The day was extremely cold, and the regiment paraded 
without overcoats. 

The regiment as usual paraded on Evacuation Day with 
the Division. 



18 5 8 



The season opened with a regimental drill at the Arsenal 
on the 4th of January. 

The State Military Association held its annual meeting in 
Albany, on the 19th of January. They had desired that the 
"Roman Eagle" won by the 71st, should be present on the 
occasion, and the Colonel notAvilling to have it go without an 
escort, a number of members volunteered for that purpose, 
and under command of Captain Kinnan conveyed the Trophy 
to Albany. 

They were received there by Company B of the 76tii Regi- 
ment, N.Y.S.M., which gave them a handsome reception. 

On the evening of January 26th, there was a meeting of 
members of the regiment to consider a proposition for an 
excursion to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington ; a com- 
mittee composed of Captain Kinnan, Cornelius Corson of Com- 
pany C and Thomas G. Hall of the Engineers, was appointed 
to arrange for the same. 

No record is found of any future action. 

The "N. Y. Express" of the 4th of January printed a letter 
from a disgruntled correspondent, in reference to the 71st 
having the right of line on parades : 

"Colonel Vosburgh has his regiment on the right of the 
line, the truth is his hawk eye has fallen on the 471st para- 
graph of the Revised Army Regulations, and he is astute 
enough to turn this to his advantage. 

"Inexperienced officers, by a ready officer like Colonel 
Vosburgh, may he made to believe a bob-tailed cat is a rab- 
bit. By the adoption of the 471st paragraph, on the Militia 
drills and parades, the Colonel of the 71st gets his regiment 



so [1858 

on the right of the horse, on the right of the brigade and on 
the right of everything. 

"Colonel Vosburgh is an overmatch in diplomacy for all 
the officers of the whole Division. With such an astute colonel, 
backed by such a demonstration of ability as Vosburgh, the 
7lst can accomplish anything that is plausible on the face." 

The above, even though it may not have been so intendeS, 
certainly proves the strength of character possessed by 
Colonel Vosburgh, 

On the 4th of February, 1858, the Hunter Woodis Benevo- 
lent Society gave a "Charity Soiree," at the Academy of 
Music. This society was a sort of holding institution for eight 
other charity organizations. 

The affair was called "Calico Dress Soiree," the proceeds 
were to be "appropriated to the distribution of loaves of bread, 
by ticket through the agency of the society, and the Children's 
Aid Society was also to be benefitted by donations of clothing." 

The Committee was composed of a long list of the prom- 
iment citizens, both male and female, headed by the Hon. 
Daniel F. Tiemann, James W. Gerard, Fitz Greene Hallock, 
about 100 in all. 

The Programme says : 

"The entertainment will be characterized by all the most 
desirable features of a PROMENADE CONCERT & GRAND 
BALL, the superb decorations, for which the committee 
are indebted to the liberal Lessee of the Academy, Mr. 
Ullman, will be of the most splendid description, and the 
'Tout Ensemble' will present A SCENE OF MAGNIFI- 
CENCE seldom if ever before witnessed within the walls 
of the Academy of Music. 

"The management of the floor has been committed to the 
SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT who have kindly consented 
to be present, and will appear in FULL UNIFORM, at the 
request of the Executive Committee. 

"The Committee of Arrangements have fixed upon the 
followins: plan as a basis of action for the lady patrons of the 
Soiree ; ladies wearing calico dresses only will be expected to 
participate in the order of dancing, until 12 o'clock, at which 
hour those who may desire to do so can retire to the dressing 
rooms and change their apparel. 



1858] 51 

"It has been suggested that the Ladies might wear, on this 
occasion, calico dresses, made of a full pattern over other 
dresses, and throw off the outer garment at 12 o'clock. 

"Those ladies who intend to wear calico dresses during 
the entire evening, will find it convenient to wear ordinary 
attire under, for the purpose of leaving their donation 
dresses with the attendants in the attiring room.'' 

February 22d-was as usual ; the streets were in a de- 
testable condition, the sky overhead was cloudy, snow was 
on the ground, and it was just warm enough to make it 
sloppy. 

From the 'N. Y. Express February 23d : 

"The 71st Regiment 'American Guard,' Colonel Vos- 
burgh, assembled yesterday afternoon at 2 o'clock at their 
Armory, over Centre Market, and marched by companies to 
the Park, which was designated for their Parade Ground. 

"Plere the regiment was formed and the colonel assumed 
•command. The men numbered upwards of two hundred, 
looked exceedingly well, their dark blue overcoats and white 
belts giving them a very soldierly appearance, combined with 
the precision and unanimity in the execution of the move- 
ments. 

"They were accompanied by Dodworth's Band, and the 
famous Drum Corps of the regiment. 

"They were reviewed by the Mayor and the Common 
Council and then marched out of the west gate of the Park, 
'en route' for the Academy of Music. 

"Among the new features introduced into this regiment is 
the organization of an engineer corps, who made their first 
public parade on Monday, under the command of Sergeant 
Charles Cochrane. The Corps numbered nine men, and looked 
and marched well. 

The Order of United Americans were celebrating the day 
at the Academy, and the regiment was dismissed at that point 
in order that the members could join in the ceremonies." 

. From the "N. Y. Express" April 3d : 

"The American Guard, 71st Regiment, had their first 
public exhibition drill, at the Division Armory, corner Elm 
and White Streets last evening. There was an immense 



52 [1858 

crowd of ladies and gentlemen present, the numbers being 
so great as to somewhat inconvenience the movements of the 
companies. 

"The battalion turned out strong * * * . After the for- 
mation of the battalion and the exhibition of the Drum Corps, 
which excited the particular admiration of the iadies, and 
whose performance shook the building * * * . 

"The performance of the regiment, in marching, was as 
perfect an exhibition of the kind as has ever probably been 
witnessed in this city. * * * 

"After the marching there was a drill of the manual of 
arms, in v/hich the regiment gave abundant evidence of their 
strict drill during the winter * * * ." 

On Monday evening, the 5th, the same paper said: 

"There was another feature unusual for the 71st drills, 
this was the full attendance of the Staff, commissioned and 
non-commissioned, in consequence of which when the line of 
officers were formed on dismissal of parade, it extended from 
one end of the room to the other, and a fine looking set of 
men they were. 

"The Seventy-first in its exhibition drills has gained for 
itself laurels * * * ." 

In May, Colonel Vosburgh issued orders for the adoption 
of Hardee's Tactics in future drills. 

In May, General Order No. 41 A. G. O., was issued, which 
compelled each regiment to be a unit as to the uniform worn, 
thus doing away with independent companies. 

On the 18th of June the regiment participated with the 
Brigade in its field day, held in Hamilton Park; in reference 
to this the following is : 

From the New York "Express" of the 19th : 

"* * * With the exception of the Seventy-first regiment, 
it was a long time after the appointed hour before the regi- 
ments arrived. After they were formed another detention was 
caused in consequence of the non-arrival of General Spicer. 
It was 3.30 before he made his appearance, just one hour be- 
hind time — bad example for a Brigade General. 

"* * * as the brigade passed the reviewing officer, many 
officers failed to salute, others did it indifferently. In the 



1858] 53 

Seventy-first Regiment the saluting was done in true military 
style. 

"* * * The 2nd Regiment turned out about 194 men 

* * * one thing was noticeable in this regiment, that was the 
diversity of dress that was quite refreshing. In one company 
there was no less than three different styles of uniforms, from 
the fact that the company had to be equalized * * * hence 
the unharmonized appearance of the Scotchman dressed in 
the kilts and stockings, the Irishman in his faded green coat 
and a Grenadier in his blue coat, standing side by side in the 
ranks." * * * 

From the same, June 26th: 

"The salute of the officers of the 71st Regiment, the other 
day in Hamilton Square, in paying honors in the marching 
review was the most genteelly executed we have ever wit- 
nessed in 'Old Gotham.' 

"The officers passed erect, easy and saluted like gentle- 
men. The officers and men of other Regiments passed in a 
belter skelter manner. 

"There were some genteel officers in the 2nd Regiment 

* * * But the Cavalry with some four exceptions, afforded 
the highest mirth to the bystanders. It was the most disrepu- 
table exhibition we ever saw in any section of our Country, 
and yet a finer body of men were never enlisted. The off'cers 
were at fault." 

The remains of ex- President James Monroe, who died July 
4th, 1831, were removed from the vault in the old Marble Cem- 
etery on Second Street, on July 3rd, where they had been for 
twenty-seven years, to be conveyed to Richmond, Va. ; the 
escort being the 7th Regiment. The i-ervices were held at the 
Church of the Ascension, and from there the funeral proces- 
sion proceeded to the Ferry, the 71st having the right of line. 

The Fourth of July was very much celebrated in those days ; 
patriotic meetings were held by various associations, when, 
in addition to the reading of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, patriotic addresses were made ; the First Division 
made a parade, and in the evening in every Park and many 
squares, were fine displays of fire works. 

The day this year falling on Sunday, was celebrated 
on the 5th. 

From the New York "Express," July 6th : 

"The 71st Regiment marched on the right of the entire 



54 [1858 

Division, and paraded twelve front, about 192 muskets, exclu- 
sive of a Drum Corps of sixteen boys and a fine detachment 
of Dodworth's Band. 

"The men marched very steadily and firmly, and the 
officers particularly distinguished themselves by the neatness 
and propriety vs^ith vi^hich they saluted the reviewing parties." 

After the parade, General Sanford, as usual on the Fourth, 
gave a liberal collation at his residence 312 West 22d Street, 
to the officers of the Division. 

The 7th was expected home on the evening of the 10th 
(Saturday) : and the men of the regiment that did not go to 
Richmond, arranged to give the Regiment a reception on their 
arrival. The City Guard and the 71st also tendered their ser- 
vices on the occasion. 

Traveling in that time was not the same as now, there 
were two express trains then going daily to Washington, one 
at 8 A. M. the other at 3 P M., a twelve hour trip, now done 
in five, the 8 A. M. reaching Philadelphia at 1 P. M., Balti- 
more at 5 P. M. and Washington at 7:30 P. M., provided 
nothing happened. 

What happened on this occasion is explained in the fol- 
lowing: 

From the New York "Express," July 12th: 

"The escort consisting of the stay-at-homes, the City 
Guard and the 71st Regiment, formed at 5 P.M. Saturday even- 
ing. The 71st Regiment, Colonel Vosburgh, consisting of 
275 men headed by their famous Drum Corps and Dodworth's 
Band, marched out of Bond Street in platoons down Broad- 
way, past the place where the 7th Regiment battalion had 
halted, receiving their marching salute. 

"The 71st was then flanked to the right and filed to the 
left, laced lo the front and prepared for review. The right 
of thp Regiment rested on Prince Street, directly in front of 
the Metropolitan Hotel, which gave the guests of that estab- 
lishment a fine view of the troops. * * * 

"The City Guard and the 7th battalion then marched past. 
* * * The several commands proceeded down Broadway, the 
7th battalion acting as escort to the 71st. * * * 

"The appearance of the military — the National Guard 
(name of the 7th) with their gray coats, the City Guard, with 
their white, and the American Guard in blue coats — was a 



1858] 55 

striking and pleasing contrast, and the excellent firm and elas- 
tic step ot the men called forth much well deserved praise. 

"Arrivmg at the Battery, the column was marcued up 
the centre walk where it was nalted, tacecl to the front, ordered 
to btui-ic cirras wnen iney were temporarily dismissed. Colonel 
\osburgh made his headquarters at tne Vvasnington Hotel, 
Broadway and Battery ir'lace tront, where he sent a telegram 
to Bordentown, N. J., to learn if possible of the whereabouts 
of the 7th ; the reply was that they would arrive at about 11 
P. M. and at Jersey City. * * * 

"Colonel Vosburgh caused the 'Long Roll' to be sound- 
ed and at M.M tne line was tormed. ihe darkness oi ihc 
night, and the inexperience of the troops m mastering in tne 
daik, caused a great many ludicrous actions. Une cxiap poi,- 
sibiy a recruit oi the 'National Guard,' who had beeu imbib- 
ing pretty freely, seized his musket and made a sad mistake 
by mustering himself into one of the companies of the 7isr 
Regiment; nothing would convince him of his error until he 
was made aware of it — vi et armis. 

"The horses of the 71st Regiment Staff, had evidently 
been used to keeping good hours, for when the officers 
attempted to mount they went through all kinds of antics. 

"All being ready, the troops were marched olf the 
Battery, up town, and soon lined up on Courtlandt Street, 
right on the Ferry House. General Hall, Colonel VoJburgh 
and Adjutant Pond, then resolved themselves into a committee 
and crossed to Jersey City to welcome the 7th. 

"During their absence the troops in Courtlandt Stret'. 
enjoyed themselves as well as they could under the circun»- 
stances, by singing songs, glees, delivering impromptu 
speeches, and relating funny stories. All proceedinc^s, how- 
ever, were conducted decently and the jokes were within the 
strictest rule of discipline and propriety. 

"The arrival of every ferry boat was anxiously watched, 
at one time a display of fireworks and rockets from the J ersey 
side caused the New Yorkers to think that the Regiment had 
embarked, beyond a doubt. Presently another boat came into 
the slip on which was the committee, who informed the crowd 
of spectators, that a telegram had been received to the effect 
that the 7th would come by the Amboy route, and could not 
be expected until half-past one A. M. 

"The line was reformed and marched back to the Battery. 
* * * At 2:15 Sunday morning, a steamboat was observed 
approaching * * * at 2 :30 the troops disembarked * * * 
Without unnecessary ceremony, they were marched up Broad- 
way to Lafayette Hall, where the parade was dismissed." 



56 [1858 

From the "N. Y. Express" August 9th : 

"A Grand Military Tour — The American Guard, 71st 
Regiment -Light Infantry, N.Y.S. Troops, contemplate visiting 
the principal cities of Englartd next June. It is stated that 
they have already chartered the steamers Ocean Queen and 
Vanderbilt. This is a 'plucky' movement." ("News.") 

"Doubtful — very ! An encampment, a much more sol- 
dierly employment than mere pleasure visits, will probably 
engage the attention of the 'American Guard' next June — so 
we understand." 

From the same, August 16th : 

"Company F, 71st Regiment, will visit New Rochelle on 
Monday next, the 23rd instant, to celebrate the Second Anni- 
versary of the Company. They will dine at the Neptune 
House, and be accompanied by Dodworth's Band. The 
boarders of the Neptune House intend giving the Company a 
grand reception. 

"They will be accompanied by many ladies and several 
distinguished military gentlemen as guests. This is the 
youngest Company in the 71st, and of the best and strongest ; 
it is officered by G. W. B. Tompkins, Captain; Andrew H. 
Pride, 1st Lieutenant; John A. Boomer, 2nd Lieutenant. The 
71st has reason to be proud of this Company." 

The successful laying of the Atlantic Cable was celebrTtcd 
on the first day of September, 1858, by a military and civic pro- 
cession numbering over 15,000 ; Mr. Cyrus Field and officers 
of the vessels concerned in the work of laying of the cable, 
were received at the Battery and escorted by the Military to 
the Crystal Palace, then on what is now known as Bryant 
Park, where an audience of 10,000 were waiting to hear the 
addresses. 

Dui'ing the morning, services were held in Trinity Church, 
the church being packed with people, including 150 clergymen. 
Broadway was decorated profusely from the Battery up. 

In the evening there were fireworks, illumination, and a 
torch light procession of the Fire Department. 

Of the military the "Herald" said : 

"The crack infantry regiments, the Seventh and the 
Seventy-first never looked better, and received much 
applause." 



1858] 57 

"SEPOY" OR QUARANTINE WAR. 

From the New York "Herald" Friday, September 3rd, 1858: 

"On Wednesday evening last, just as the people were 
returning from the Atlantic Cable festival, a fire burst forth 
in the quarantine grounds on Staten Island, and raged fitfully 
until nearly all the hospitals, the Health Officer's dwelling- 
houpc and various outhouses were destroyed. 

"There appears to be no doubt in the way the fire origin- 
ated. As was to be expected, considering the intense hostility 
which the residents of the place feel towards the hospitals, in 
consequence of the infection they breed, and the corrupt prac- 
tices which are said to be prevalent within their precincts, the 
accident has been ascribed to incendiarism. * * * 

"For years it has been so cruel and shocking a nuisance 
to the most pleasant suburb of the city that the people of the 
locality must have been long suffering indeed to have borne 
with it so long. * * * 

"The fire at Quarantine on Wednesday night appears tti 
have been of a much more serious nature than was first sup- 
I'osed. Nearly every building within the Quarantine ground;* 
was totally destroyed, with the exception of the principal 
fei lale hospital, known as the St. Nicholas. 

"The excitement at Staten Island was most intense, hun- 
drc ^ •- of persons being congregated on and about the landing 
tallvif, g over the affair. The scene was indeed beyond descrip- 
tion, and the grass was covered with the sick, many suffering 
the most intense agony. 

"A large majority of the sick, however, was provided with 
every accommodation in the prison house, the only building 
now standing. 

"As to the cause of the fire there is no doubt but that it 
was arranged by the incendiaries to fire the buildings on Wed- 
nesday night, as the manner in which it was done shows that 
their plans had all been well arranged before the work was 
commenced. 

"The first that was known of the intention to destroy the 
buildings was the appearance of about 500 persons at the 
upper gate on the line of the west wall. Dr. Thompson was 
instantly made aware of the fact, when he ordered the steve- 
dores to be aroused. 

"He had no sooner given the above order than the old 
small-pox hospital on the upper end of the grounds were dis- 
covered to be on fire. 

"Everyone within the grounds was soon awake, but it was 
found that the mob was too strong for them to attempt to 
drive them away." "Dr. Bissell, as soon as he saw the fire, 
took his gun and ran up to the small-pox hospital, where he 



58 [1858 

found a large number of straw beds piled under the piazzas, 
and burning at a tremendous rate. He remonstrated with the 
mob, but to no purpose, as they instantly drove him from the 
place. They then proceeded to the shanties extending along 
th*" west wall — ten in number — and fired each of them, first 
however, removing the sick, among them some of the small- 
pox patients, about fifteen in number. 

"The mob appeared, while destroying the shanties, in a 
great excitement. They would run into the three shanties not 
fired and secure a straw bed, and take it to where the fire was. 
setting the beds on the fire, after which they would return 
with the burning beds and throw them into one of the shanties. 
In this manner they destroyed every one.' * * * 

_ "The mob remained in and about the Quarantine grounds 
until nearly daylight, when they all left. Among them were 
many well-known citizens of the island, none of whom were 
disguised. 

"It is said the work of firing the first building was done by 
two persons, one of whom the stevedores attempted to arrest, 
but he was afterwards liberated by one of the doctors con- 
nerted v^th the Quarantine. * * * The cause of this unfortu- 
nate conflagration may be traced to a resolution of the Board 
of Hp-^'tli of Cpstleton, which they passed on the 1st instant at 
ten o'clock A. M. 
"They vvere : 

Resolved — 'That the whole Quarantine establishment, 
located as it is in the midst of a dense population, has become 
a pest and a nuisance of the most odious character, bringing 
death and desolation to the very doors of the people of the 
towns of Castleton and Smithfield. 

Resolved — 'That it is a nuisance intolerable to be borne 
by the citizens of these towns any longer. 

Resolved — 'That this Board recommend the citizens of 
this country to protect themselves by abating this abominable 
nuisance without delay. 

'R. CHRISTOPHER, 
'N. W. Boyce, Secretary. Chairman.' " 

From the same, Sept. 4th, 1858 : 

"On Thursday night the work of destroying the Quaran- 
tine buildings was resumed, resulting successfully in the 
destruction of every building used for Quarantine purposes, 
including the large stone Marine hospital. * * * The Metro- 
politan jrolice sent down from New York cut a sorry figure 
during 1hp day. They had nothing to do but g.ize at the 
vessels in the stream, march around the walls, or imbibe lager 
or some stronger beverage at Burn's Hotel, which was the 
favorite resort. * * * 



1858 J 59 

"Collector Schell was waited upon by a committee of 
underwriters and merchants, requesting him to take measures 
for the protection of the shipping and merchandise lying at the 
Upper Quarantine anchorage. * * * 

"The excitement continued to increase from day to day 
and the police force was found to be unequal to the task of 
protecting the Quarantine property. 

"Accordingly on the 7th of September, Governor John 
A. King issued a proclamation declaring the county of Rich- 
mond in a state of insurrection, 'and in order to assist in pre- 
serving and to protect the property of the State, and the lives 
of the sick, that a military force of sufficient strength shall be 
detailed and stationed at the Quarantine, until the returning 
sense of the people of Richmond County to their duties and 
obligations as peaceful citizens shall render its presence 
unnecesary, or until the Legislature shall otherwise direct.' " 

In pursuance of the above proclamation, on the 8th 
instant, the first regiment was sent down to the Island. 

In August the famous "Light Guard" one of the oldest 
(organized as the "Tompkins Blues" March 2d, 1827) inde- 
pendent military companies in the city, because of the doing 
away with independent companies, made advances towards the 
71st. 

The "N. Y. Express" of August 25th said : 

"The famous 'Tigers' have concluded to leave the 55th 
Regmieut, and by a unanimous vote ot all the members 
prcbL-nt on Aioiiday evenmg resolved to apply for the vacant 
charter of Company A in the 71st Regiment. 

"The proposed transfer of this Company from the 55th to 
the 71st is not regarded favorably by the rank and file of the 
Iptter. We hardly think that the admission of the 'Light 
G^-tI' \"0'i1d benefit the 71st ; they have never b^en re- 
po— npH 1C- n ixTo-rk'TTT rn'^Ti''nv. T'hi'e thf ambition of the 71st 
i«! *■'-> p-^cel all others in their drill and efficiency as a military 
bodv." 

The "N. Y. Atlas" of August 29th said : 

"On Monday evening 23rd instant, as announced by ad- 
vertisement in the papers, the 'Light Guard' assembled at their 
arnory, Lafayette Hall, and during their proceedings, passed 
resolutions to retire from the 55th Regiment where they are 
po-ted as Company I, and apply for the vacant charter of 
Company A, 71st Regiment. The 'Light Guard' feel more at 



60 [1858 

home as a flank* company; and in joining some well 
established regiment, expect to retain their prestige as a dur- 
able appointed corps, and add to the previous meritorious 
name of their new associates. If they come into the 71st, of 
course it is indispensable that they should conform to the regi- 
mental uniform. 1 here is a great deal of talk upon the subject 
at present. How it will end we cannot say, but learn that 
Colonel Vosburgh and others oppose the union, fearinp: that 
the 'Tigers' are too fond of pleasure trips, balls and dinner 
parties to suit the ideas of the 'American Guard.' 

"We hope our friends of the 71st will not act hastily in the 
matter, but remember, in the first place, the 'Light Guard' is 
composed of gentlemen in every sense of that term, and when 
on parade, good soldiers." 

The following order from the Adjutant General's office 
shows the result : 

GENERAL HEADQUARTERS STATE OF NEW YORK 
Adjutant General's Office, 

Albany, September 16, 1858. 
Special Orders No. 168: 

Company I, Captain John R. Garland commanding, of the 
55th Regiment, 3d Brigade, is hereby transferred to the 71st 
Regiment, 1st Brigade, and will hereafter be distinguished in 
such 71st Regiment by the letter A. 

Captain Garland will on receipt of these orders report in 
writing to Colonel A. S. Vosburgh, commanding the 71st Regi- 
ment, for duty with his company in such regiment. 

The officers, non-com. officers and privates respectively, of 
such company are hereby required to uniform and equip within 
six months from the date of these orders, in strict conformity 
with the orders establishing the uniforms and equipments for 
the 71st Regiment; after which date the commandant of the 
regiment will report to the General Headquarters the names of 
the ofificers, and to the General of his Brigade, the names of 
the non-commisioned officers and privates deficient in; or de- 
teriorating from the requirements of such uniform orders, to 
the end that the same may be enforced by process of martial 
law. By orders of the Commander-in-Chief, 

FREDERICK TOWNfSEND, 

Adj. General. 

The tour of duty on the Island for each regiment, was two 
weeks; and early in October came the turn of the Seventy-first. 

*It was customary in the days of independent companies to strive to 
obtain the position of either the first or last company of a regiment, it 
being considered a great honor to be one of the '"flank" companies. 



1858] 61 

Regimental Orders No. 11. 

Headquarters, New York, October 2, 1858. 

In compliance with division and brigade orders, this regi- 
ment will assemble at the Armory for parade, in full uniform, 
with overcoats and knapsacks, on Wednesday, the 6th inst., at 
half-past nine o'clock A. M. precisely. The fatigue jacket, cape 
on the overcoat and shoulder knot will be placed in the knap- 
sack; fatigue cap on waist button. 

The field and staff will report to the colonel at the armory, 
dismounted, at ten o'clock a.m. The band field music, general 
guides, color bearers, and non-commissioned staff will report 
to the adjutant at the armory, at half past nine o'clock on the 
day of parade. Every member will provide himself with blan- 
kets, necessary change of underclothing, white gloves, etc. 
Only such baggage as may be absolutely necessary will be per- 
mitted, the same to be marked with the name of the owner and 
letter of his company and sent to the armory before nine 
o'clock A. M. on the day of parade. * * * 

COL. A. S. VOSBURGH. 
A. G. Demerest, Adjutant. 

On the march of the regiment to the Ferry, it marched 
into the Park and halted in front of the City Hall, where it was 
reviewed by the Mayor (Tiemann), who presented them a flag, 
with these remarks : 

"Colonel Vosburgh : I have been requested by an associa- 
tion of young men belonging to the Tenth Ward, to present 
the Seventy-first Regiment of New York, under your com- 
mand, this beautiful flag, as a tribute of respect for your corps 
and admiration of its excellent discipline and soldierly bearing. 
I am convinced that you, sir, and the officers and soldiers of 
your command will receive, with feeling of pride, this elegant 
token of friendship, and that the gift will not only be prized 
for its own intrinsic worth but guarded in the same spirit of 
patriotism which prompted its bestowal. 

"I feel great satisfaction in taking part in the ceremony 
and esteem it at once an honor and a privilege to be engaged 
in an net of courtesy which shows the good feeling that exists 
between the people and the citizen soldiery. 

"These amenities are in all respects praiseworthy, and the 
presentation reflects equal honor on the donors and your gal- 
lant regiment which is the object of their regard ; and I cannot 
forbear expressing myself of the appropriateness of the gift — 
the flag of our republic — the truest rallying point of the 
American soldier, whether on the field of battle or the peaceful 
parade ; at once the symbol of his nationality and the pledge of 



62 



[1858 



his freedom, as well as the emblem of the glory, honor and in- 
dependence of his country. 

"Keep then the purity of its stripes unsullied, and let its 
stars lead up to the path of glory. Ihe gorgeous standard of 
the Empire State with its armorial bearings and its noble 
motto 'Excelsior,' and the quaint device of our own metrop- 
olis, may well find a place in your ranks. But beyond either 
of them your loyalty and devotion, are due to the flag of the 
Lnion. I am assured that our city is entirely safe in the hands 
of o ir citizen soldiery against foreign invasion, and if ever the 
demon of civil strife be evoked, which may Heaven avert, the 
rioter and felon will know that he is a rebel and aims his parri- 
cidal arms against the flag to which he owes his obedience. 

"In conclusion, be pleased to accept. Sir, for your Regi- 
ment this splendid testimonial of the approval and friendship. 
of your fellow-citizens, and when you march beneath its folds 
may it animate you to sustain the peace of our City, the honor 
of our State and the integrity and perpetuity of the Union." 

Colonel Vosburgh in accepting the colors, replied, saying 
that in the multiplicity of the duties which had devolved upon 
him since his orders were issued, he had not had time to pre- 
pare himself in order to convey to the Mayor the feelmgs that 
animated the heart of every man in the Regiment ; he knew 
of no more appropriate testimonial to any association than the 
"Flag of the Free," and pledged his word that the hearts and 
hands of 500 men of the Seventy-first Regiment should every- 
where be ready to protect the flag. 

The Colonel concluded by referring to the cause of the 
first organization of the 71st Regiment, namely: to protect 
American citizens in their daily avocations. 

Little did he realize that three years later, the same flag 
would be carried upon a field of battle and riddled with the 
enemies' bullets ; his promise proving no hyperbole. 

From the New York "Express," October 7th : 

"The Seventy-first Regiment were received with much 
more cordiality by the residents about Quarantine than was 
extended to the other regiments, many members of the regi- 
ment bemg personally known, and several of the officers hav- 
inn- formerly resided there. There was a considerable repre- 
sentation on the grounds to receive them. 

"C)< the 350 men the 71st took down, ,-ibout 250 (the num- 
ber called for) remained over night on the grounds, and the 



1858] 63 

great insufficiency of mattresses, camp stools and every other 
necessary articles of the kind was experienced ; even tents 
■were too few, seven or eight being crowded in each. 

"The duties of the 71st lasted two weeks ; to make it as 
easy as jiossible for those virhose business required their atten- 
tion, and were unable to remain from it so long a time without 
detriment to the service, arrangements were made so that by 
takmg turns, leave of absence was granted from time to time." 

The routine of camp duties were carried out, the opportu- 
nity of drill was made the most of, as far as disturbance, there 
was no occasion for anj^ action. The tour expired on the 18th, 
and the annual inspection was ordered to be taken in camp on 
the l.'ith. I'he New York "Express" gave a long and effusive 
account of it; in part it said: 

"One of the best military displays that has occurred in the 
Slate of Ne^^■ York, for many years, was made on Friday the 
l.'itli, at Camp Washington, Staten Island, on the occasion of 
the annual inspection of the 71st Regiment, 'American Guard.' 

"M.-iny notr ble officers were present at the inspection — 
twenty-four movements were executed with promptness and 
accuracy, and almost every manoeuvre was applauded by 
frequent expression of 'Bravo' and 'Well done!'" 

Dodworth's Regimental Band gave a concert after the 
evening parade, which was largely attended by the residents of 
all parts of the Island, who were highly complimentary in their 
comments upon the conduct and appearance during the stay 
of the l^egiment. 

On the 16th preparations were made for the return to the 
city ; tliose on leave were directed to report. Offers from the 
2nd and 7th Regiments, to act as escort on the arrival of the 
Regiment in the city, had been received and accepted. 

On the 18th, everything being ready, the camp thoroughly 
put in order, the regiment was formed for departure, over 400 
being present. Upon the arrival of the relief (69th) the usual 
formalities were gone through ; the Regiment marched to the 
ferry, and was conveyed to the Battery. 

The 7th Regiment had its Inspection on that day, held in 
Hamilton Park (in what was called Yorkville at that time). 
After their Inspection they went to the Battery, where they 
were drawn up when the 71st arrived. The usual ceremonies 
•were held, and the two regiments then marched up Broadway 
to Beaver, Broad, Wall Streets into Broadway to the east en- 



64 [185a 

trance of the Park, passing in review at the City Hall the 
Mayor (Tiemann), General Hall and Staff of the 3rd Brigade; 
then up Broadway to 14th Street, to Washington Square and 
down Broadway to Broome Street, where the regiments parted. 

The 2nd Regiment did not parade, owing to the fact that 
they had recently adopted a new uniform, and had been dis^ 
ap])ointed in not receiving the same in time for the parade. 

The last regiment to do duty at Camp Washington was 
the 11th : they returned January 4th, 1859, and thus ended the 
"Sepoy War." 

The Seventy-first Regiment was drilled as a battalion for 
the first time in Hardee's Tactics, at the Arsenal * on. 
^1()lulay evening, October the 4th. Considering the short time 
that the men had drilled in Hardee, their performance was 
admirable, and highly pleasing to many distinguished military 
nn'ii who were present. 

From the "N. Y. Leader" November 20th: 

"The several regiments of the 1st Brigade assembled on. 
Friday the 18th, line formed at 2.30 P. M., with the right on 
Eighth Street; after which a review was held to the General; 
this ilosed, the battalions were broke to the right, and the 
march taken up proceeding via Fourth Street, University 
PI.icc. 14th Street, Broadway, and passing in review before 
His Honor the Mayor in front of the City Hall. 

"Tlie numbers on this occasion were rather slim, yet ap- 
pearing to good advantage. On the right was the 71st Regi- 
ment with eleven front commanded by Colonel Vosburgh 
all equipped in overcoats. The appearance of the Regi- 
ment was good, yet not as strong as the recent inspection 
should demand. Of their movements we cannot speak in as 
fair tt'rms as we should like to; their march was good, but the 
changes in column we thought seemed to be violation of the 
book- : at 10th and 5th Avenues, and in fact in all the subse- 
quent changes to the left, we observed a wheel — this we should 



*This arsenal was the State Arsenal, located on the west side of Fifth 
Avenue, opposite East 64th Street, now part of the Central Park. It wa» 
commenced in 1848, but was not completed until 1851. It was so far up 
town that it was not frequently used, and so small that only a company 
could be properly manoeuvred in it; the drill room was about 50x150. In 
the last years of its existence it was used for a Police Station and Park 
offices. It was removed in 1915. In 1858 the State commenced a new one 
at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 35th Street, which is still in use in 
191 5. for Quartermaster Department. It had. when used for drill purpose 
a drill room 82x183; it was in use in i860, the old building being conveyed 
to the City as part of the Park. 



1858] 65 

have looked upon as being Light Infantry had we seen the 
piece carried as such, or had there been a change of the guide, 
in order to designate the necessity required by Hardee's Light 
Infantry practice. The wheel should be opposite to the guide, 
and as such it should have been marked by a change of either 
the arm or the guide. It is settled as fact, that this regiment 
is 'Light Infantry.' This we believe was so created in order 
to make a distinction between the arm, and in this distinction 
rests the change of execution. 

"Viewing this as we do, we argue as a fact, that the wheel- 
ing by the left or doubling by the right, is not nor does it com- 
ply with Hardee's drill; therefore, we hope to be so placed 
hereafter as to know what is, or is not Light Infantry. * * *" 

The original organization was, as its name indicates, 
American "Rifles" ; the regimental organization as American 
Guard and "Light Infantry." The "Tactics" used then was 
"Scott's," from the author. General Winfield Scott. 

The following order was issued : 

WAR DEPARTMENT, 

March 29th, 1855. 

The system of Tactics for Light Infantry and Riflemen, 
prepared under the direction of the War Department by Lieut.- 
Colonel William J. Hardee, of the Cavalry, having been ap- 
proved by the President, is adopted for the instruction of the 
troops when acting as Light Infantry or Riflemen, and under 
the Act of May 12, 1820, for the observance of the Militia when 
so employed. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS, 

Secretary of War. 

In 1858 the 71st was using Scott's Tactics, when orders 
from State Headquarters caused the use of Hardee's Tactics, 
but the regiment continued the old manual of Scott, with the 
exception that the sergeants carried their muskets in the right 
hand, barrels to the rear, as in Hardee, instead of as in Scott's, 
barrel to the front ; this continued to the time of 1861 or later. 

The Regiment paraded with the Division on Eyacuation 
Day (Nov. 25th). On this occasion. General Paez, the late 
President of Venezuela, who was on his way home and a 
guest of the Nation, paraded with the Division; during the 
parade his horse fell, and in his endeavor to raise the horse it 
twice again fell, the General sustained a fracture of a great 



66 [1858 

toe. He was to sail on the 27th, but owing to this accident 
was detained until December 3rd. 

A rumor that the Light Guard when it came into the Regi- 
ment as Company A, brought with them several who were for- 
eign born, caused great excitement in the other companies, and 
a bitter feeling was engendered, which culminated in a mass 
meeting of the Regiment at which resolutions of protest were 
adopted. 

On the following evening at a drill. Colonel Vosburgh 
made an address to the men, expressing his disapproval of the 
mass meeting, at the same time assuring them of his determin- 
ation to maintain the nationality of the regiment. 



18 5 9 



The year opened with a battalion drill in the Division 
Armory on January 7th. Later in the month a drill of the right 
wing, and on February 7th with a drill of the left wing. In 
these drills the companies averaged about thirty-two men each. 
All the field officers attended each drill and took turns in com- 
manding. 

February 17th, the Regiment turned in the arms they were 
then using, and received "the new long range rifle of the pat- 
tern of 1858." 

The Regiment as usual celebrated February 22nd. This, 
account is: 

From the New York "Express" of the 23rd : 

"The Seventy-first Regiment, 'American Guard', formed 
line on Bond Street with right on Broadway at two p. m. After 
a short drill, the Regiment took up the line of march through 
Broadway to the Astor House, making a very handsome wheel 
around the lower end of the Park, and they then marched to 
the East Gate, on reaching which the Regiment changed to 
solid column, Hardee's Tactics, and returned to the front of 
the esplanade, where they formed for review. 

"The Seventy-first Regiment paraded 325 men all told, 
in seven companies and the Engineer Corps. The Regiment 
was preceded by the Drum Corps and Dodworth's Band. 

"They were reviewed by the Mayor, after which they were 
exercised in the manual by the Colonel, and acquitted them- 
selves creditably. The appearance of the Regiment was very 
good, and elicited much applause from the spectators." * * * 

The Mount Vernon Association, composed of patriotic 
ladies, and organized for the purpose of purchasing the home 
of Washington, had arranged for a lecture at the Academy of 



68 [1859 

Music, to be given by the Hon. Edward Everitt ; the 71st was 
invited to participate, the following is : 

From the New York "Express" of March 5th : 

"At 7.30 o'clock last evening the 71st Regiment under the 
command of Colonel Vosburgh, arrived at the Everitt House, 
where a carriage had been waiting for some time. As soon 
as the Regiment had formed in line * * * and Mr. Everitt 
was seated, he was honored with a salute, the Regiment pre- 
sented arms, and the drums giving three ruffles. * * On arriv- 
ing at the Academy the Regiment marched in, entering by 
the stage door, the band playing a grand march. 

"The admirable manner in v/hich this fine body of men 
marched across the stage elicited repeated and well merited 
bursts of applause. * * * The band then struck up Washing- 
ton's March, and Mr. Everitt entered, accompanied by Colonel 
Vosburgh, Lieut.-Col. Butterfield, Mayor Tiemann and others, 
the audience rising 'en masse' and cheering, which continued 
for some time. * * * 

"At the close of the Oration, the utmost enthusiasm pre- 
vailed for some time, the band played National airs, the audi- 
ence remaining and cheering. * * * The Regiment then escorted 
Mr. Everitt back to the hotel, where Mr. Everitt was honored 
with a serenade. Mr. Everitt was on the balcony, and in his 
speech he said : 'Should I deliver another Oration here, I hope 
I may have the gallant Seventy-first to escort me to the hall.' 
The Regiment was then marched to the St. Nicholas Hotel 
and there dismissed." 

Company B, being numerically small, was on March 5th 
consolidated with, or transferred to, Company F, Captain 
Wheeler taking command ; this made F the largest Company, 
having about 75 men. 

A battalion drill was held on March the 7th. 

On May the 2nd, Lieut. B. L. Trafford succeeded in rais- 
ing the requisite number of men for a new company B. The 
officers elected were Captain B. L. Trafford, First Lieut. S. V. 
Searing, Second Lieut. J. R. Klots. 

From the "N. Y. Leader," May 4th, 1859 : 

"The several companies of the 71st Regiment assembled 
at 7.30 A.M. on Monday last ; after being delayed, proceeded 
by the 10 o'clock boat to Staten Island. Arriving there, they 
immediately commenced operations, executing sixteen of the 
twenty-six movements that were designated to be practised. 



1859] 69 

At one P.M. the regiment was dismissed until 2 P.M., when 
they assembled and executed the following movements : 1st — 
Formation. Well done. 2nd — The advance in line of battle. 
This was fair, yet we observed openings, and rather an eschel- 
lon alignment. 3rd— The right wheel and forward into line. 
Very good. 4th Change front to rear on eight Company. 
Poor. 5th — The break to the right by companies, with the 
guide left, and change to the left by a left wheel. Wrong, 
and badly executed. 6th — The double column. Very good. 
7th — By the flank and to the front in column. Good. 8th — 
Form divisions from open column of companies. Poor. 
9th — Forming and marching by the several fronts of square. 
Poor. 10th — The loadings and firings. First, by company. 
Bad. Second, by file. Poor. Third, by wing. Right wing, 
good; left wing, poor. Repeated, good. Fourth by battalion. 
First, poor. Second, third, and fourth, very good. Fifth, poor. 
This concluded the drill. 

"The drill in general, fell short of the expectation, and 
was owing entirely to a want of care on the part of the officers 
and non-commissioned officers. It was alleged that many of 
the sergeants were not accustomed to their position, not being 
first sergeants. Can this be argued, when so much is said 
with reference to competing with the 7th Regiment? Can it 
be alleged that any non-commissioned officer should be 
wanting in ability, when the hot contest is being argued ? 
Certainly not ! The errors noted at this drill were of a mag- 
nitude reflecting but little credit on a recruit. 

"Officers and men seemed to be either on a spree or for- 
getful of their duty. With the exception of the break into 
column from the advance in line and forward into line, we saw 
none of the movement correctly executed. This movement 
was from Hardee. The next change, to the rear, was from 
Scott. Why was this ? We can only say, that in our mind 
the Colonel was fearful that his officers could not comprehend 
a change to the rear according to Hardee. Again in the 
forming of divisions from companies, the Seventh Company, 
Captain Wheeler, was flanked by the left; and in the final 
execution of the command, we did not see a left guide of the 
odd companies on the line. Where were the Lieut.-Colonel 
and Major, that this error should be committed and not cor- 
rected ? In the advance by square, scarce an officer was in 
his proper place, and hardly knew enough to face to the 
proper front when halted. 

"The parade, considering the age and practice of the 
Regiment, was an entire failure. A state of stupidity seemed 
to exist, which barred the proper execution of nearly every 
movement. Our advice to the sergeants of the companies is 
to qualify themselves to act their part, or if they do not do 



70 [1859 

that, to acquire at least skill enough to check an error on the 
part of their officers. 

"There is good material in the regiment, and the com- 
mands were given properly by the Colonel, yet the field and 
the line. Captain (Company C) Coles excepted, seemed to be 
entirely lost." 

The above criticism seems to be very severe, and perhaps 
there is no apology, but the reader of the present day, if he will 
compare the movements with those required by the present 
"Drill Regulations," will find how much more complicated the 
former were; while the regiment should have done better 
than this, yet by comparison, no other regiment except the 
7th could have done as well. At that time there were few 
officers outside of those two regiments that cared to devote 
the time to the requisite study of the "Tactics," being satisfied 
with knowing those movements that were required for 
parades. 

Then it must be recalled that the Regiment had only been 
drilling in Hardee's Tactics since the previous October, and 
was still using Scott's Manual. 

May 8th an order was issued for a Field Day to be held 
on the 12th, on the E.lysian Field; this was situated on the 
Jersey shore, at a point between Hoboken and Weehawken, 
about opposite 23rd Street. At that time the Jersey shore 
was free from docks and shipping above the Jersey City ferry 
house, and on Sundays and holidays crowds went to Hoboken 
and the Elysian fields for recreation ; the latter was noted 
in the earlier part of the nineteenth century, as the popular 
dueling ground ; here Burr killed Hamilton. 

The 12th proved a stormy day ; about two hundred men 
reported, but as the ground was unfit for service the parade 
was dismissed. 

On the 19th, Company A went to Reading, Pa., to take 
part in the opening of the East Pennsylvania R. R. Company 
F received them on their return to the city. 

On May 24th, Company G, Captain Kinnan, held their 
last drill for the season ; at the close, they had a street parade ; 
they numbered 56 muskets. Headed by the band, they went 
to the residence of Colonel Vosburgh on 30th Street, and to 
that of Lieut.-Colonel Butterfield on 21st Street, serenading 
each of them. / 

On the 30th, the Field Day, which was to have taken 
place on the 12th, was held. 



1859] 71 

About this time a new uniform for the band was adopted- 
The band was led by Harvey Dodworth — the most renowned 
band leader in the country ; there was no musical union then, 
the members of the band were enlisted men, were paid three 
dollars a parade and mustered annually at inspection with the 
regiment. 

The uniform was very handsome, a tunic of French red 
cloth, specially imported — dark blue trousers — across the 
shoulder, as on a field marshal, was worn a rich mazerine blue 
silk sash. 

A custom prevailed among the military companies in the 
19th century, that is seldom if ever indulged in this twen- 
tieth; this was visitations, or excursions. Those given an 
account of in this history, will give the reader an illustration, 
and if he is gifted with a lively imagination, he may enjoy the 
fun, feast, speeches and glory of a military excursion as did 
their fathers. 

The great event of the summer of 1859, was the visit and 
reception of the "Milwaukee Light Guard" ; like the American 
Guard, it was strictly an American company, and held a 
prominent position in its home. 

They had laid out a programme for a visit to New York, 
and on Monday, June 6th, left their home city, stopping on 
the 7th at Detroit, on the 8th at Buffalo, and at Albany on the 
10th, arriving on the steamboat "Isaac Newton" in New York 
at 6 A.M. on the 11th. 

Company C of the 71st, had been ordered out at 5 o'clock 
A. M. to meet the visitors, as they were not to land until 7 
o'clock; Company C with 60 muskets was there on time. 
After the usual ceremonies, the guests were escorted up 
Broadway to the Lafarge House (now the Broadway Central, 
near Bleecker Street), where the two companies breakfasted; 
Colonel Vosburgh and his staff joining them. 

After which, the companies formed and marched to the 
City Hall and were reviewed by the Mayor, and then were 
escorted to the Astor House (Broadway, Barclay and Vesey 
Streets) where the guests were quartered during their stay. 
In the evening Company C escorted them to the Metropolitan 
theatre ; after the second act, the two companies by invitation 
proceeded to the City Guard's Armory. The Company's ele- 
gant rooms were thrown open, a bounteous spread and many 



72 [1859 

speeches were supplied, and a joyous time, breaking up at 
midnight- 

On Monday morning, many of the guests being business 
men, availed themselves of the opportunity to visit the whole- 
sale stores, thus combining business with pleasure. Later in 
the day under the escort of Company D, they were escorted to 
the public institutions, visiting Blackwells, Randall and 
Wards Island, where at four P. M., they were entertained by 
the Warden, ate dinner, and enjoyed more speeches. 

More sightseeings on Tuesday, and in the evening an 
entertainment by Company A. This was given in their quar- 
ters at Lafayette hall ; here was a fine spread and more 
speeches, during which Captain Starkweather of the Milwau- 
kee Light Guard gave the following toast: "The two Com- 
panies A, the New York Light Guard, and the Milwaukee 
Light Guard, the 71st and the 1st Regiments, joined today 
by the Great God above ! let no man put them asunder." 

Wednesday, the visitors were given an opportunity to 
exercise their freedom in transacting business and social visits ; 
and on Thursday at 7 A. M. they boarded the Steamboat 
"Metamora" for Albany and home. Companies E, F, G, and H 
were ordered out to escort them to the boat, assembling at 
5.30 A.M. The departure was amidst the greatest enthusiasm ; 
by the time they reached their home they had not only had an 
enjoyable excursion of two weeks, but had also as individuals 
transacted their purchases for the coming season ; at that time, 
there were no great wholesale markets in the West, and mer- 
chants came to New York to make their purchases. 

Tuesday evening the 14th, there was a reunion at the 
house of Captain Alex. P Kinnan, 27 West 38th Street, on the 
occasion of a surprise; he being presented with a splendid 
gold medal, inscribed: "Presented to Captain Alexander P. 
Kinnan, by the members of Company G, American Guard 71st 
Regiment, N.Y.S.M., as a token of their regard for him as a 
soldier, and for the manner in which he has devoted himself 
to the welfare and prosperity of the Company." (See 
Appendix). 

In May of this year. Company I was organized, under 
Captain Seymour A. Bunce, (the Secretary, afterwards presi- 
dent of the Citizens Savings Bank), who was at that time 
1st Lieutenant in Company G; this company had but a short 



1859] 73 

life, lasting about one year; at the fall inspection it was like 
the proverbial Mexican army, more officers than of men ; there 
were present fifteen officers and sixteen men. 

July 13th, Company G boarded the Steamboat "Arminia," 
going on an excursion to Newburgh and Orange Lake. At 
Newburgh, they were received by the "Continentals," and 
after a short parade, proceeded in carriages to Orange Lake- 
They took sixty muskets, band and drum corps. Much was 
done in the way of fireworks, dancing, etc., but the intense 
heat, and being soaked by a heavy shower, took the edge off 
their joy. 

The next day they returned by the 12 :30 boat, and were 
received by Company C. (See Appendix.) 

September 13th, the Kingston Greys, on their way to 
visit New Haven, passed through the city, and were received 
by Companies C and G, under Captain Kinnan. The visitors 
arrived on the Steamboat "Thomas Powell" at noon, and were 
marched to the Division Arsenal, where a collation was 
sierved; after the usual speeches, the visitors were escorted 
to the City Hall where they were reviewed by the Mayor ; 
they were then marched to Peck Slip, where they embarked 
on the "Elm City" for New Haven. 

From the "N. Y. Express" of September 13th: 

"Moonlight Parade of the 71st Regiment. The Parade 
of the "American Guard," on Monday evening was a perfect 
success, and was witnessed by probably five thousand persons. 
Generals Hall and Spicer, and other officers of the Division 
and ex-Colonel Duryea were present. 

"The Regiment formed line in Great Jones, Street (owing 
to the condition of Bond Street), right on Broadway, at 8 
o'clock P. M. 

"The Regiment moved up Broadway to 4th Avenue and 
23rd Street, then around the Monument and past the Fifth 
Avenue Hotel, down 5th Avenue to 14th Street ; thence down 
Broadway to the St- Nicholas Hotel where it was dismissed. 

"The Regiment was greeted with cheers, waving of hand- 
kerchiefs, and other demonstrations of approbation. In front 
of the Fifth Avenue Hotel, the Regiment was halted, and dur- 
ing the brief rest, Dodworth's Band treated the immense 
crowd which lined the balcony and hotel windows and every 
available place on the sidewalk, to some fine airs. * * About 
400 paraded." 



74 [1859 

On the 15th, the "Kingston Greys" returned from their 
trip to New Haven ; they came by train, arriving at the station 
then located where the Madison Square Garden now is. Com- 
panies E and F were detailed to receive them. Captain Metzler 
in command; they marched up to, and formed line on the 
north end of Madison Square; at a quarter to two P. M., the 
"Greys" arrived, and were escorted to the Division Armory, 
where a bountiful collation was awaiting them ; cheers in any 
quantity were given for the "Greys" and by them for the 71st. 

At a quarter to four, the "Greys" embarked on the 
"Thomas Powell" for Kingston. 

Through Colonel Vosburgh's political influence, the 
building known as Tompkins Market (at 7th Street and 
Bowery) was erected, the upper part to be used as an Armory, 
being intended for the 71st; but the 7th being a much older 
organization, and feeling confident of his ability to secure 
another, he yielded to their prior claim, and the 7th became 
the first regiment, as a unit, to have an armory. Before any- 
thing could be done, the war broke, Vosburgh died, and the 
hope of an armory died with him. 

The following account of the annual inspection of the 
regiment is interesting as showing the status of it about one 
year before the war. 

From the "New York Atlas," October 30th : 

"The American Guard, or 71st Regiment, rather a light 
infantry corps of no mean pretension, but considered of the 
'Crack' order, to borrow a word, and superior in many ways 
to any other known and similarly constituted command on 
this continent or in Europe, was out in all its glory, but not 
available strength, on Thursday the 20th instant, for review, 
battalion drill and inspection. 

"According to general orders, the members assembled at 
their armory, over Centre Market, (which has recently been 
enlarged and 'beautified') at 9.30 A.M. on the above named 
day, in full uniform and knapsacks. 

"The old drill room looked like itself again, (filled as it 
was with American Guardsmen), notwithstanding the cold 
and blusterng weather without, and which shivered oneself 
through and through upon the exposed and bleak south- 
western slope of Hamilton Square, the designated parade 
ground of both the 7th and 71st. 

"The several companies filed out of the armory at 10:30 
A.M. each headed by their drummer boys, and then proceeded 



1859] 75 

via the Third Avenue cars, to Hamilton Square, which they 
reached in forty minutes. Adjutant Demerest formed the 
regiment in handsome style, and immediately placed the com- 
mand at the disposal of the commandant, that well schooled 
officer, Colonel Abraham S. Vosburgh. 

"Under the supervision of Brigade Major and Inspector 
Smith, Colonel Vosburgh exercised the regiment in the fol- 
lowing intricate yet beautiful battalion evolutions, viz : 

1 — Ploying battalion in close column on first division, 
in rear of first division. 

2 — Deploying column on first division. 
3 — Ploying battalion in front of fourth division. 
- 4 — Deploying column on fourth division. 
5 — Ploying battalion on third division, right in front. 
6 — Deploying column on third division. 
7 — Breaking by company to front, to right, into column. 
8 — Closing the column to half distance. 
9 — Taking wheeling distance on the rear of column. 

10 — Closing column to half distance on the rearmost 
company- 

11 — Taking wheeling distance on the head of the column. 

12 — Forming divisions, the column being at full distance. 

13 — Closing column 'en masse.' 

14 — Deploying on first division. 

15 — Changing front perpendicularly to rear, to rear upon 
right company. 

16 — Ploying battalion into column, on centre at half dis- 
tance; afterwards formed into line of battle faced to right, 
and ploying the battalion into column doubled on centre, 
closed 'en masse,' and formed in line of battle faced to right. 

17 — Forming square from line of battle by ployment into 
simple column by division at half distance, in rear of the right 
division. 

18 — Reducing square, and ploying the battalion into 
double column, and reforming square, reducing it and deploy- 
ing into column. 

"The movements were executed with promptness, and 
with one or two exceptions, were never rendered better by 
any living regiment. The Inspector could find no fault with 
the drill, however, and many eminent military men present 
spoke highly of the regiment's discipline. At 12:45 the regi- 
ment was dismissed for dinner. At 1.45 P.M. the line was 
reformed for inspection. 



76 [1859 

"The following shows the numerical strength of the 
second famous, if not first great, regiment in the United 
States : 

Total 
Field & Staff H 

Non-Com. Staff 10 

Band 40 

Engineers 11 

Companies ABC DEFGHI 

56 25 50 43 37 59 60 42 31 403 



Present 475 

Absent 19 5 11 6 8 13 8 20 8 98 



Total 75 30 61 49 45 72 68 62 39 573 

"The above gives an idea of the progress and prosperity 
of the regiment on its seventh birthday, and the style of 
manoeuvres, at that time." 

From the "N. Y. Atlas," December 18th : 

"Seventy-first Regiment — The withdrawal of Lieut. 
Colonel Butterfield from this regiment (to be Colonel of the 
12th) has caused no little commotion and speculation as to 
who would succeed him to this important post. Rumor has 
assigned it respectively to Lieut. -Col. Martin, Major Tomp- 
kins, Captains Kinnan, Miller, and Garland. How many 
more lay claim to the vacancy in question it is not for us to 
determine ; suffice it to say that ex-Lieut.-Colonel Martin, 
is at all events the most prominent, and, in fact, the most 
competent one yet named. All the other aspirants, if they do 
at all desire the post are fully competent to assume almost any 
position to which promotion can assign them. Of Lieut.- 
Colonel Martin we have only a few words to say, for he needs 
only a few. Having received an education in the first prin- 
ciples of the military science, to which he has added a 
thorough self-taught knowledge in the various arms of the 
science, and also being familiar, by practice, with all the 
workings of the militia, particularly that of the 'American 
Guard,' he stands pre-eminently the first on the list, and 
should be the unanimous choice of the Board of Officers for 
the vacant Lieut. Colonelcy. A better officer, the regiment 
cannot get. 

"Major Tompkins, we understand, has also withdrawn 
from the regiment, his resignation now being in the hands of 
the Brigade Commander. We regret this step on the part of 
Major Tompkins, as the 'American Guard' cannot afford to 
lose the services of so valuable an officer. However, we are 
gratified to learn that he has been tendered the command of 



1859] 7T 

the Second Regiment, infantry, in the place of Colonel 
Robinson, resigned. By all means. Major, either stand by 
the 71st, or else remain in the service by accepting the 
colonelcy of the Second. 

"Notice — Since writing the article on the 71st Regi- 
ment, above, we learn that Colonel Henry Robinson has 
re-considered his resignation as commandant of the Second 
Regiment; and consequently Major Tompkins, as we under- 
stand it, will be necessitated to retain his position as Major 
of the 71st. We are happy to hear it." 

During the fall the new State Armory, corner 7th Avemie 
and 35th Street was completed; owing to an accident during 
its construction, there was a rumor of it not being safe for 
drill use ; a committee of wtiich Colonel Vosburgh was a 
member, was appointed to investigate. The committee 
reported favorably; it has been in use up to present date 
without trouble. 



I860 



In the early '50s, business (wholesale) of all kinds was 
concentrated below Fulton Street, except Whitehall (mostly 
boarding houses) ; State Street and in the row facing Bowl- 
ing Green (where the Custom House is now) some of our 
wealthiest families lived. From Fulton to Canal Street west 
•of Broadway was residential; east of East Broadway (7th 
Ward), and now the greatest "East Side" was a fashionable 
:section; Maiden Lane, Catherine, Division and Canal Streets 
Twere retail districts. 

The City proper did not extend much above 23d Street; 
Madison Square was a marshy field. At 23d Street and 
Broadway (the latter extended as the Bloomingdale Road) the 
lovers of horses commenced to speed them ; many road houses 
were along it until the objective point, the Harlem River at 
King's Bridge, or McCoombs Dam, was reached. 

The Hudson River Railroad's depot was at the corner of 
College Place (now West Broadway) and Chambers Street, 
running through to Warren, about fifty feet in width. The 
Harlem Railroad was in Tryon Row (now Printing House 
.Square) ; at least, its cars stood there, but no shed. The New 
Haven Railroad's depot was on Broadway, next to the corner 
of Canal, to which it ran in "L" shape, about twenty-five feet 
wide. These cars were all drawn by horses, the former to the 
depot at 31st Street and Tenth Avenue; the other two to 26th 
Street, where trains were made up. The "round house" for 
the two last was where the 71st Regiment Armory now is. 
The engine was backed down to the train, and then passed 
through the tunnel, under what is now Park Avenue. 

In the late fifties, the City began to expand, until, in 1860, 
a very decided change had taken place; business began to 



1860] ' 79^ 

encroach on residential districts and Fifth Avenue came inta 
request for that purpose. During this decade the social con- 
dition was far different than at the present time ; there were 
no vast fortunes, and the grandparents of those now compos- 
ing our "400" lived quite sober lives, and far more modestly 
than many of our people of moderate incomes do in this day. 
Respectability, not money, counted then ; the sons of those 
more fortunate in a financial sense, and those less fortunately 
situated, found no barrier to social intercourse. This was. 
shown more clearly in the membership of the military and firej 
department. 

The law required that all males between the ages of 21 
and 45 should belong to the militia or the fire department, or 
do jury duty, and as the smallness of the city at that time 
made it difficult to evade the sheriff, men to evade jury duty, 
joined either of the two, and some did both ; business men as 
well as employes were members of the militia. 

Again, the sons at that time of what might be called the 
wealthy (they were mostly men of business), went into busi- 
ness, either with their father or otherwise, instead of living 
like "gentlemen," and as clerks, naturally associated with 
others not so well fixed. There was, therefore, owing to these 
conditions, an element drawn into the militia which is not as. 
a body reached now ; they were more democratic and pa- 
triotic, and the close friendship made recruiting more easy. 

A membership was an investment, the State furnishing 
muskets, and that, only in exceptional cases, a place called an 
armory; that is, the City paid the rent of a place to meet in 
regardless of its adaptation for the purpose. Each man had 
to equip himself, the expense of which to a private in the 71st 
was about $80; to the officers, especially the field and staff, 
very much more. There were no monies coming from the 
State, therefore all expenses, equipments for the band and 
drum corps, etc., came out of the pockets of the members in 
some way. 

An armory committee (company) had the duty of seeing 
that the arms and equipments were kept clean and in perfect 
order, and if found dirty or imperfect to report the same to the 
Captain. All admission to membership was by ballot, and if 
three votes opposed, the candidate was rejected. Twelve 
strokes of the City Hall bell notified the men of a riot, when, 
they were to report at once to the armory. 



80 [1860 

Each company had a district, apportioned by the authori- 
ties, and once each year, a sergeant repaired to a point in it 
(previous notice having been published in the newspapers) 
and met those vi^ho reported, took down their names and ad- 
dresses, and put them through such a drill as he deemed 
proper. The absentees were fined two dollars each, which 
the marshal was to collect and deposit to the credit of the 

organization; this was not a large amount, but in 1858 it 
netted $2,365.54 for the Division. 

The Districts of the 71st Regiment in the Seventh Ward 
were as follows : 

Company A — Bounded by Catherine, Munroe, Pike, East 
River. 

Company B — Bounded by Catherine, Henry, Pike Munroe. 

Company C — Bounded by Catherine, Henry, Pike, Division. 

Company D — Bounded by Pike, Munroe, Jefferson, East 
River. 

Company E — Bounded by Pike, Munroe, Jefferson, Henry. 

Company F — Bounded by Pike, Division, Jefferson, Henry. 

Company G — Bounded by Madison, Scammel, Jefferson, East 
River. 

Company H — Bounded by Madison, Scammel, Jefferson, 
Division. 

Company I — Bounded by Munroe, Scammel, Grand, East 
River. 

Company K — Bounded by Munroe, Scammel, Grand, Di- 
vision. 

The first drill of the season was that of the right wing, 
at the Division Armory, on the evening of January 6th. This 
was followed by a Regimental Drill in fatigue dress, at the 
same place, on the evening of February 6th, of which the 
following from the "N. Y. Express" of the 7th says : 

"Drill of the 71st Regiment — This fine regiment was 
drilled at the Division Armory, under Colonel Vosburgh, on 
Monday evening. 

"The regiment turned out pretty strong, the number of 
uniforms being about 300. There was a large number of 
spectators, including ladies, present. 

"Some twenty Light Infantry movements, from Vol. 2, 
Hardee's Tactics, were well performed, and the spectators 
evinced their satisfaction by bursts of applause. Companies 
C, F and G turned out very strong." 

As usual, the regiment paraded on February 22d, to cele- 
brate the birthday of Washington, and, as usual, the day was 



1860] 81 

a stormy one. There was no parade of the Division; several 
regiments making independent parades. The line was formed 
on Bond Street at 2 P. M., and they paraded as escort to the 
12th Regiment, Colonel Butterfield (ex-Lieutenant Colonel) ; 
the two regiments marched down Broadway to the City Hall, 
where they were reviewed by the Mayor and Common 
Council. 

The 71st had out 350 men and the 12th, 325. They were 
loudly cheered on their leaving the Park. 

On the evening of the 28th, some of the officers of the 
regiment met and nominated Captain A. P. Kinnan for the 
vacancy of Lieutenant Colonel. 

There was a very strong feeling regarding the filling of 
this office. Major Tompkins being the natural aspirant. The 
election was ordered for the 6th of March. 

From the "N. Y. Leader," of March 10th: 

"An election was held in the 71st Regiment on Tuesday 
evening, March 6th, to fill the vacancy in the office of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel. The vote was 15 for Major Tompkins, 14 
for Captain Kinnan, and 1 blank. The result shows a close 
contest, and evidences a party vote. The candidates in nomi- 
nation were equally suitable, but we presume the claims of 
the major were considered paramount to those of the captain. 

"Lieutenant-Colonel Tompkins joined the regiment some 
three years since, raising a new company organization therein. 
As a company officer he was very successful, having from a 
few as a basis, raised at one time the largest company in the 
regiment. About one year since, he resigned the captaincy, 
and subsequently was elected major. From this he has risen 
to the post of Lieutenant-Colonel. As an officer, he is enter- 
prising and efficient. He is, and has been, a hard worker in 
the regiment, and will ably fill his present position. 

"We regret the defeat of Captain Kinnan, believing as we 
do, that he declined a commission of major of the 12th after 
accepting the election, on some promise or hope of promotion 
in his own regiment. We hope that no ill feeling will arise 
from it, and that the captain will as of old continue to perfect 
as he has done, his own company. 

"We learn that an appeal will be taken, on the ground 
Jthat two supernumerary officers voted at said election, and 
that ex-Lieutejiant Corey was not entitled to a vote, having 



82 [I860 

left the Regiment some time since to join the 12th RegimeAt." 

(This charge was emphatically denied by others; stati^g 
that Lieutenant Corey was still a member of the regiment.) 

A very strong feeling of dissatisfaction arose from the 
result of this election, almost attaining serious consequences. 
It was even said that a challenge for a duel was made ; strong 
language was used. Colonel Vosburgh used every exertion 
to restore harmony. (See Appendix.) 

At this date and for a number of years after, stafif officers 
could vote at an election for field officers. 

The result of the election being unsatisfactory, there 
being some doubt as'to details. Colonel Vosburgh issued an 
order for another to take place on Friday eveniiig, March 23d, 
at the armory in the Centre Market, at 7.30 o'clock. 

The result of this election was for Major Tompkins, 14; 
for Captain Kinnan, 14, and 1 blank. The poles closed at 
8.30 o'clock, showing a tie vote ; it was declared that there was 
no election ; due notice to be given when a new election would 
be called. 

On May 23d, the regiment paraded for drill on Hamilton 
Square Parade Ground. The regiment went through fourteen 
numbers of Hardee's ; the day was excessively hot, and the 
men were much fatigued. 

June 16th, the 71st paraded with the 1st Division in the 
reception of the Japanese Embassy, the first to arrive in this 
country in accordance with the recent treaty. They had 
arrived at Washington some days previously, and after a 
warm reception there they visited Baltimore and Philadelphia, 
from which latter place they came to New York. 

The 1st Division, N.Y.S.M., to the number of 6,440 men, 
paraded; the unusual novelty drew an immense crowd, and 
business was practically suspended. A few evenings later 
a magnificent ball was given at Niblo's Garden, in the rear of 
the 'Metropolitan Hotel, the entrance being under the hotel. 

The following Order will be found interesting : 

HEADQUARTERS 1st DIVISION, N.Y.S.M. 

New York, June 13th, 1860. 
General Orders No. 2: 

The arrival of the Japanese Embassy will take place on 
Saturday the 16th instant, on which day the Division will 
parade upon the Battery for their reception, at 1 P. M. 



1860] 83 

To avoid interruption, the 1st Brigade will approach 
through Washington Street, and the 2d Brigade will ap- 
proach through Greenwich Street; the 3rd Brigade through 
Whitehall Street, and the 4th Brigade through Broadway. 
Each commandant of Brigade will direct an officer of his 
staff to report for orders to the Division Inspector, at the 
north end of the Battery at a quarter to 1 o'clock P. M. 

The troops of Horse of the 7th and 8th Regiments, will 
report to the Division Inspector at the Battery at 1 o'clock, 
and the 8th Regiment, immediately after the arrival of the 
3d Brigade, but not later than half-past 1 o'clock P. M. 

The line of march will be Broadway to Grand Street to 
the Bowery, up Bowery and Fourth Avenue to Union 
Square, paying the honor of a marching salute to the Am- 
bassador, who will be stationed on a platform on the west 
side of the Square. 

The march will be continued down Broadway to Canal 
Street, upon reaching which point the Division will form 
line on the west side of Broadway right on Canal Street, 
where they will remain until the Embassy has arrived at the 
Metropolitan Hotel. 

The Battery and the line of march is hereby designated 
as the Division parade ground during the parade, and the 
streets must be kept clear from curb to curb. 

The Lieutenant-Colonels will remember that when the 
Division is in column, each of them is responsible for pre- 
serving the interval between his own battalion and the one 
imnlediately preceding, and their attention is particularly 
called to the performance of this duty. 

Brigade-General Yates will direct a salute of seventeen 
guns, to be fired from the Battery upon the arrival of the 
Embassy. He will also detail a section of Artillery, to em- 
bark on board the steamer at Pier 1 at 8 :30 o'clock A. M. for 
the purpose of firing a similar salute upon the reception of 
the Embassy at Amboy. 

The Division Staff will assemble at the quarters of the 
Major-General at 11:30 A. M. 

By order of CHARLES W. SANFORD, 

Major-General Commanding. 
GEORGE W. MORELL, 

Division Engineer and Acting Division Inspector. 

The regiment paraded in blue trousers, much to their 
displeasure. In the evening the Embassy was serenaded by 
' the 71st Regimental Band. 

Colonel Martin, in withdrawing from the regiment in 
official capacity, still kept in close touch with it, ready at any 
time to give his aid or council. During the drill season of 



84 [1860 

this year he gave instruction to Company C in the bayonet 
drill. The vacancy in the office of Lieutenant-Colonel had 
not been filled. The election had been declared void, and 
Major Tompkins vi^as made Colonel of the 2d Regiment. 
Vosburgh was anxious to have Martin return ; as evidence 
the following letter needs no comment; it speaks for itself: 

HEADQUARTERS 71st REGIMENT, N.Y.S.M. 

New York, July 10th, 1860. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Martin. 
My Dear Colonel: 

In conversation with the Committee of the Board of 
Officers for the selection of a Lieutenant-Colonel, I remarked 
to them that in the event of your selection and election, to 
Lieutenant-Colonelcy, that I was prepared to give you a 
Carte Blanche so far as related to the internal discipline of 
the regiment, officers and non-commissioned officers, drills, 
etc. 

Having confidence in your ability as an officer and your 
integrity as a man, and knowing our pleasant association in 
the past, I feel it would be justly due you, to give your every 
opportunity to carry out your excellent ideas of military dis- 
cipline. 

And in event of your selection, I want you to understand 
I will most cheerfully give you every opportunity to go 
ahead, and will co-operate with you, and also want you, if 
selected, to name to me what you think and want, and that, 
which will be of advantage to the Regiment, and you will 
find me ready to say — "Colonel, go ahead !" 

Yours most truly, 

A. S. VOSBURGH, 
Colonel 71st Regiment. 

Colonel Martin, however, was forced to decline the propo- 
sition. 

The offer above made to Colonel Martin seems to give 
evidence of a desire to go outside of the regiment for a new 
Lieutenant-Colonel ; evidently Captain Kinnan so considered 
it, as on July 27th he resigned. As Tompkins had been com- 
missioned Colonel of the 2d Regiment, both candidates were 
removed from the field. 

In the fall of 1860 the Prince of Wales (subsequently 
Edward VII) visited this country, and on the Uth of October 
was received in New York upon his arrival from Philadelphia, 
after a trip from Canada, through the West, and as far south 
as Richmond. 



1860] 85 

The spectacle presented on the memorable day of the 
Japanese reception was outdone. A bright October day 
emptied New York into Broadway. From Battery to Grace 
Church was one vast throng of humanity, bent on the best of 
all possible greetings to the coming Prince. 

Platforms with tiers of seats were erected all along the 
line ; hotel parlors in the St. Nicholas and Metropolitan were 
held at fabulous prices, and hired a week or more previously. 

Some mismanagement delayed the parade, so that it was 
dark before the procession reached the better part of Broad- 
way. When the Prince reached Canal Street it would have 
required a searchlight to have told the Prince from the Mayor 
(Wood). 

The U. S. Revenue Cutter Harriet Lane, which had gone 
to Amboy to receive the Prince and suite on arrival of the 
train from Philadelphia, arrived at the Battery at about 2 P. M. 

The 1st Division had been under arms nearly all the 
morning, and in line since 1 P. M. It was nearly three w nen 
the Prince rode forth from the Castle Garden gate, v/ith Ills 
suite. He was dressed in the scarlet uniform of an English 
Colonel. 

The ranks being opened, the Prince rode down the line, 
returning by the rear to the right, where he entered a barouche 
drawn by six black horses, the Mayor seated by his side; 
two troops of cavalry, one each belonging to the 7th and 8th 
Regiments, acting as escort. 

The procession proceeded up Broadway, through Park 
Row, to the.east gate of the Park ; a platform had been erected 
in front of the City Hall on which the Prince and his suite 
stood while receiving a marching salute ; as each officer passed 
the Prince touched his hat. General Sanford, speaking to 
General Bruce of the Prince's Staff, said, "Tell the Prince only 
to salute the Colors and not every officer." General Bruce 
spoke to the Prince and then answered General Sanford, say- 
ing: "The Prince felt as if he could do no less than return 
the salute of the officers, but if General Sanford wished it, 
he would salute only the Colors." "Oh, just as he likes," 
replied General Sanford. 

The 71st marched first in the procession, under the com- 
mand of Captain Miller, Colonel Vosburgh having been 
kicked by a horse early in the day and severely injured. 



86 . [1860 

It was late before the review was over, and 6.30 P. M. 
when the Prince reached his quarters at the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel. Owing to the lateness of the hour, the intended march 
around Madison Square was omitted, and the various regi- 
ments were dismissed from the column. 

On this occasion the 69th refused to parade. 

The annual inspection took place in October in Madison 
Square Park, which at that time was almost in a primitive 
condition, surrounded by a picket fence, broken in many- 
places; no attempt was made towards its care; the number 
of trees made it a poor place for the purpose of an inspection. 
The inspecting officer was Major Charles Henry Smith, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the 71st in 1861, and Colonel in 1863. The 
number present, including the band, was 412; absent, 94; 
total, 506. 

During the whole summer the political caldron was at 
boiling point. Four nominating conventions were held for 
the nomination of president and vice-president. The nomi- 
nation of Mr. Lincoln, being followed by that of Buchanan, 
caused a split in the Democratic Party on the question of 
slavery. 

The attitude of the South was such that the conservatives 
of New York City organized a National Union Committee 
for the purpose of endeavoring to create a patriotic sentiment 
to realize the danger existing. 

Consequently politics were at fever height. Except the 
episode of the visit of the Japanese Embassy, and later that 
of the Prince of Wales, the visit of the 7th in June to Wash- 
ington for the purpose of attending the dedication of a statue 
to Washington, and inspections, things were quiet with the 
military during most of the year, the regular routine of duty 
being the only evidence of existence. 

The year 1860 is an epoch in the history of the regiment, 
which may be said to divide the old from the new. In this 
year was the greatest Presidential struggle that the country 
had ever experienced, and none but the conspirators realized 
the brink on which we stood; none seemed to believe that 
however high the excitement of the campaign -^ent, there 



1860] 87 

would be anything but an acquiescence in the result, however 
unpleasant it might be to the defeated ; consequently, save by 
the natural quietness arising from the greater interest in 
politics, military affairs went on regardless of the mutterings 
and threats boldly made by the press of the South as to what 
might be and was considered as but the usual efforts to 
bulldoze. 

Even after the result of the election was known the people 
of the North, even the most prejudiced, could not be made 
to believe that civil war was inevitable ; they had too much 
confidence in the patriotism of the people, and but little 
knowledge of the power and wickedness of the traitors. 

And in this condition of excited fear and hope the curtain 
of 1860 rolled down, placing behind it the eight years of 
infancy of the 71st, to rise again upon a condition of things 
in which it was to realize that there were stern duties in store 
for the militia. 

And now was to come a test of his worth to his State 
and Country. How well the 71st acted its part, and how it 
linked itself with the history of our Union, further pages will 
reveal. 

The day after the election Charleston, S. C, hauled down 
tlie American flag. On December 20th, the Legislature of 
South Carolina passed an ordinance of secession ; in the same 
month the rebels seized Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie in 
Charleston Harbor, the Arsenal and the Revenue Cutter 
William Aiken. 

Exactly when the present Coat of Arms was adopted, is 
uncertain; it appears on the orders issued in 1860, but on 
those prior to 1858 there was either none or the State arms 
were used, showing that its origin must have been between 
those two dates. 

The following describes the device on shield: 
"The upper right quarter, represents the Nation; upper 
left quarter, the State; lower right quarter, the City; the 
lower left quarter, the regiment; of this, the ermine ground 
tincture represents Purity; the Crescents are New Moons, 
and are used generally by younger sons; the Reeds bound 
together, stand for Strength; the Battle Axe speaks for itself, 
and all correct according to heraldry; the blade to the right 
with point to the left, the 71 in the upper corner of this quarter 
designates its reference. 



18 6 1 



The new year dawned on the continued activity of the 
rebels; in January were seized the arsenals at Augusta, Ga., 
Mount Vernon, Ala., Baton Rouge, La., Appalachicola, Fla., 
and at many other parts in the South. These seizures of 
government property had excited indignation in the loyal 
North, but so general was the feeling that the government 
would surpress it, that no one realized what was to come. 

At the shot that was fired on the flag over Fort Sumter, 
the North burst into a flame of patriotic fury. 

The 71st's commissioned and non-commissioned officers 
assembled on the 10th of January at the City Armory (corner 
of White and Elm Streets) with side arms for drill, and on 
the 22d a battalion drill of the regiment, in fatigue dress, was 
held at the State Arsenal, Seventh Avenue and 3Sth Street. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel A. Butterfield having been 
elected Colonel of the 12th Regiment, recently reorganized, 
George A. Osgood (son-in-law of Commodore Vanderbilt) 
and late Colonel of the 73d N.Y.S.M., was elected as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and Major George W. B. Tompkins, hav- 
ing been commissioned Colonel of the 2d Regiment, Quarter- 
master George A. Buckingham was elected Major, January 
3d, 1861. 

On the 19th of February a battalion drill was held at 
the State Arsenal, and on the 22d the regiment paraded with 
the division to celebrate Washington's birthday. 

At the State Arsenal on the 7th of March and again on 
the 18th the Regiment assembled for drill, to which no out- 



1861] 89 

siders were aSmitted. Thus was the regiment being prepared 
for any emergency that might arise, yet through this time of 
hopes and fears, the general feeling was that of optimism. 
This soon changed. On the 8th to the 12th of April a series 
of messages passed between Beauregard, commanding the 
rebel forces in Charleston, and Walker, the rebel Secretary of 
War at Montgomery, Ala., referring to the provisioning of 
Fort Sumter, culminated on the 12th of April, by South 
Carolina throwing down the gauntlet and declaring war by 
firing on the fort, which surrendered on the 13th. 

The fire had started; states were seceding; Washington 
was filled with traitors; Virginia had not decided; efforts 
were being made to force out 'Maryland; these two accomp- 
lished, the Capitol of our Nation would be cut off from the 
North. At the outbreak of the war, the free states were abso- 
lutely unprepared to meet the condition ; the Nation had a 
weak and vacillating President, and a traitorous cabinet, 
which had been preparing for this occasion ; every department, 
especially the War and Navy, had been weakened in their 
efforts to further the end of their rebellious scheme. 

The Federal army was small in numbers, a greater portion 
had been stationed in Texas, and was compelled to surrender 
by General David E. Twiggs, who, traitor himself, com- 
manded the rebel forces. The larger part of small arms and 
ammunition had been sent to the Southern arsenals, stripping 
as far as possible those of the North ; thus we found ourselves 
with a very small regular army and no arms or ammunition 
nor uniforms or equipment to supply volunteers. 

And now the very existence of the Nation depended 
upon the militia of the country; it had an organization, arms 
and equipment and uniforms, such as they were. 

On April 15th President Lincoln issued his proclamation 
calling into service 75,000 militia, of which the State of New 
York was required to furnish 13,280 officers and men to serve 
as infantry or riflemen for a period of three months ; as a 
matter of fact none of the so-called militia were mustered for 
three months under call of April 15th. This was accomplished 
by muster in of uniformed militia regiments of that period, 
and some of those being too late (the quota being filled) were 
later mustered in for the war. 

On the 16th day of April the first public drill of the season 
of the regiment (which had been ordered ten days before) 



90 [1861 

was held at the State Arsenal ; there was present 380 officers 
and men ; the stirring events and the prospect of some action 
being taken in reference to the President's proclamation, 
crowding the building with the friends of the regiment to 
such an extent that it was not only difficult to form the 
regiment, but impossible to have other than a drill of the 
manual of arms. 

The enthusiasm of those present was difficult to control, 
while the band played patriotic airs, and the audience wildly 
cheered. 

Finally when Colonel Vosburgh gave the command 
"Attention !" anticipating, there was perfect silence. Referring 
to the President's proclamation calling for troops, he said 
that if they were willing to offer their services, he "would 
lead them to Washington and Mount Vernon, and now if you 
should be called upon to fight for your country and the Union, 
would you be ready to go?" 

They responded without exception, "We are ready. 
Colonel!" In a few patriotic sentences he thanked them for 
their loyalty, notifying them to hold themselves in readiness 
for further orders. 

The regiment was then dismissed amid the wildest enthus- 
iasm, band playing, all cheering, even the crowds awaiting 
outside of the building. 

On the 16th of April was enacted the law known as Chap- 
ter 277 laws of 1861, authorizing "the enrollment and muster 
of 30,000 volunteers, in addition to the present military organi- 
zation, and a part of the militia thereof." 

AMERICAN GUARD 

i ' SEAL 

71st REGIMENT LIGHT INFANTRY 
NEW YORK STATE MILITIA 

General Order No. 7. 

Headquarters, April 18th, 1861. 

The members of this Regiment are hereby ordered to as- 
semble in fatigue dress, overcoats without capes, on Tuesday 
evening, April 23d, to practice the light infantry street firings. 
The place selected for this purpose, will be around "Union 
Square." 

The Regiment will be formed in front of the Everett 



1861] 91 

House, Seventeenth Street, the right on Fourth Avenue, at 
8 o'clock P. M., precisely. 

The band, field music, and non-commissioned staff will 
report to the Adjutant on the ground, at ten minutes before 
8 o'clock. 

The staff will report to the Colonel at the "Everett 
House," at 8 o'clock. All members on leave of absence or 
furlough, will report to their respective commandants forth- 
with. 

250 RECRUITS WANTED ! 
TO PLACE THE REGIMENT ON A WAR FOOTING! 

At the close of the drill the Regiment will march to the 
Armory at Centre Market, when all persons who desire to 
join or enlist will be afforded an opportunity of enrolling 
themselves. All who enlist for the term will be furnished 
with a uniform and equipments. 

Men will be recruited for the term of service required, 
if ordered upon duty by the Governmnt and discharged upon 
the expiration of their term of enlistment, which will be 
three months from the time of their being mustered into 
service by the Government. 

On and after Monday the 22d instant, an officer and non- 
commissioned officer will be stationed at the Armory, Centre 
Market, to enlist men until the required number shall be 
obtained. 

By order of 

COL. A. S. VOSBURGH, 
A. H. Pride, Adjutant. 

Of course the above drill did not take place; neither was 
there any difficulty in getting all the recruits required ; it was 
more than filled before this order was read by the men; a 
brigade might have been formed had all who offered them- 
selves been taken. 

On the 18th, Governor Morgan issued a proclamation mak- 
ing a call for seventeen regiments to serve three months ; but 
as has been stated none of these regiments organized under 
this call were mustered in for three months; the militia regi- 
ments volunteering filled the requirement. 

On this date the 6th Massachusetts passed through the 
city on its way to Washington, and on the 19th, the 7th 
started, both to go by rail. At this date trains arrived in 
Baltimore at what was known as the President Street Depot, 
the terminus of the road from Philadelphia, and it was neces- 



92 [1861 

sary to go about a mile or so to the Camden Street station of 
the B. & O. to proceed to Washington ; usually the cars were 
drawn from station to station by horses, but on this occasion 
it was better for the troops to march. 

On the 19th, the 6th Massachusetts was attacked while 
marching through Baltimore; this caused the Government 
to change their program ; the 7th was sent from Philadelphia 
down the Delaware, and up the Chesapeake to Annapolis. 
The same date the 71st received the following: 

April 19th, 1861. 
Special Orders No. 6: 

In pursuance of Special Orders G. H. Q.'s, the 71st Regi- 
ment, N.Y.S.M., Col. A. S. Vosburgh, is hereby detailed for 
immediate service at the National Capital, Washington, D. C. 

The Colonel will assemble his regiment at the regimental 
armory, tomorrow, Saturday, at 3 o'clock P. M., armed and 
equipped for embarkation ; each man supplied with provision 
for twenty-four hours. He will direct his Quartermaster to 
report at 10 o'clock tomorrow to the Major-General for orders 
for transportation, and for ammunition, twenty-four rounds 
per man. 

The Colonel upon arrival in Washington, will report for 
orders to Lieutenant-General Scott. 

Brigade General Spicer, will promulgate this order. 
By order of 

CHARLES W. SANFORD, 
Major-General Commanding. 
George W. Morell, 

Division Engineer and Acting Division Inspector. 

HEADQUARTERS 1st BRIGADE, 1st DIVISION, 

N.Y.S.M. 

New York, April 19th, 1861. 

General Orders No, 3 : 

In pursuance of Division Orders, Col. A. S. Vosburgh 
will order his regiment to assemble at their armory, on Satur- 
day,' the 20th instant, at 3 o'clock P. M., armed and equipped 
for embarkation, each man supplied with provision for 
twenty-four hours. 

By order of Brig. Gen. Charles B. Spicer. 

CHARLES HENRY SMITH, 
Brigade Major and Inspector. 



1861] 93 

Owing to the incident at Baltimore, the plans were 
changed. 

New York, April 20th, 1861. 
General Orders No. 7: 

The time for assembling the regiment designated in 
S. O. No. 6, is changed, they will assemble for embarkation 
on Sunday morning at 9 o'clock. 

By order of Major General Sanford. 

GEORGE W. MORELL, 
Division Engineer and Acting Division Inspector. 



AMERICAN GUARD 



Regimental 
Coat of Arms 



71st Regiment Light Infantry, New York State Troops. 

GENERAL ORDER NO. 8 
Headquarters, New York, April 20, 1861. 

In compliance with orders from the Commander-in-Chief 
and Division Orders, April 19th, this regiment will assemble 
at their several armories on tomorrow, Sunday, at 7 A. M., in 
full fatigue, with fatigue cap, and with overcoat and knapsack, 
to embark for Washington City. 

The regimental line will be formed in Bond Street, right 
on Broadway, at half-past eight o'clock, precisely. 

The men each take one blanket rolled on top -of knapsack, 
a sufficiency of underclothing, an extra pair of boots or shoes, 
knife, fork, spoon, tin cup and plate, body-belt, and will also 
provide themselves with cap pouches. 

The men will be careful to provide themselves with one 
day's rations. Three servants will be allowed to each company, 
who must report to the Quartermaster at the armory, Centre 
Market, at 5 P. M., Saturday. 

Each officer will be allowed one small trunk, with his name 
marked on, and sent to the armory by five o'clock. 

Every man is expected to report for duty. Now is the 
time for men to respond. 

Quartermaster Roosevelt will report to the Major-General 
at his office, Tryon Row, for orders for transportation and 
ammunition. 

The band, field music, and non-commissioned staff will report 
to the Colonel, at the armory. Centre Market, 7 A. M., Sunday. 

COLONEL A. S. VOSBURGH. 
A. H. Pride, Adjutant. 



94 [1861 

The 71st in the meantime having received orders to start 
on the 20th, were, by this condition of things, delayed by 
General Orders No. 7, H. Q. 1st Division, until the 21st, while 
new arrangements were being made for the transportation of 
it and other regiments. 

The delay served to give more time for organization and 
detail; it was necessary to take 500 more men to bring the 
regiment up to full strength ; the difficulty was not to get men, 
but to refuse ; opportunity was thus afforded to select the best. 

The 21st opened with a beautiful clear sky and mild 
temperature, an ideal day ; though it was Sunday, the churches 
were deserted ; the whole population was gathered where they 
could best see the troops that were to depart; these were the 
6th, 12th and 71st; the members of the 71st met at their 
respective quarters bright and early, the companies were 
marched to the formation ground on Bond Street, and about 
noon the line was formed. It was found that the number of 
men present was in excess of the quota required, necessitating 
detaching about 100. 

At last the order was given to wheel into column, of 
platoons ; the moment had arrived, and all realized at once the 
significance of the occasion, the parting from loved ones that 
might never be seen again, the fervid demonstration of pa- 
triotism from the populace all tended to give an air of sobbing 
solemnity, a suppressed anguish, a subduing of the pent up 
heartbreak of loving mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts. 

As the attempt was made to wheel into Broadway, it was 
found to be so packed with people that even in column of 
fours it was with difficulty that the regiment could force its 
way; from its flanks to the very top of the houses every 
vantage had been taken by one mighty mass of people whose 
cheers and sobs were mingled ; it seemed as a dream, it could 
not be real, no such experience had ever before come to any 
in that mighty throng; it was not a holiday march down 
Broadway; the loved ones looked on with the thought, shall 
we ever see him again — it was echoed back from the ranks: 

"It may be forever." Words fail to describe the scene. 

The journey to Washington is graphically told by George 
W. Wilkes, proprietor of the "Spirit of the Times," in the 
following letter form : 



1861] 95 

CAMPAIGN OF THE NEW YORK REGIMENTS. 

Trip of the 71st Regiment. 

Headquarters of the 71st N.Y.S.M. 

Washington, April 27th. 

Dear "Spirit" : No one who accompanied the military- 
expedition which sailed from New York on that bright Sunday- 
known as April 21st, will ever forget the impressiveness of the 
departure. No one who saw it can fail to recollect how the 
dense swarms, which choked the streets along the line of 
march, flowed upward, when contracted at the wharf, until 
they welled over the adjacent roofs and left a dark deposit of 
screaming and half crazy thousands settled upon every inch 
of rigging for half a mile around. None of those who bore 
those sparkling bayonets, which were the attraction of the 
scene, can ever efface from the memory of the heart those 
touching kindnesses and earnest "God be with you's" which 
poured from hundreds of quivering lips, and for the moment 
half unmanned them as they marched along. 

"The experiences of this day,'' said one handsome young 
fellow on board the "Cuyler," whose cheeks were still moist 
with a mother's parting kiss, "the experiences of this day- 
will be the bitterest trial we shall have to undergo during the 
whole of our campaign !" and he turned away with a tremulous 
and thickening voice, that betrayed a deep emotion. "Yes," 
said another; "I'd prefer fighting half a dozen battles tomor- 
row, to have to bid goodbye to my sisters and my wife 
again ! But none of them asked me to stay at home, though !" 
he added quickly, after a short pause. "No, nor mine!" 
■'Nor mine!" exclaimed three or four voices almost simul- 
t.nneousiy. "And that," said I (for I stood within the centre 
of the knot), "is one of the most remarkable features of this 
present Northern rising. In the campaign with Mexico, when 
parents found their young men volunteering, they were most 
urgent that they should desist, and in many instances made 
heavy sacrifices to procure them substitutes ; but in this move- 
ment I have not known a case in which even a wife or mother 
has sought to withhold a son or a husband from the war. 
They have suffered to see them undertake the danger, but 
they have invariably said: 'Go; for, if God wills it, there is 



96 [1861 

no better time to die !' With such a 'send off' as this, depend 
upon it, boy, there is no chance to lose!" 

"Three cheers for old New York !" said one of the party, 
at my elbow, by way of giving fresh vent to his clustering 
feelings, and the cheers were terrifically given, three times 
three, with the inexplicable "Tiger !" duly thrown between. 

I had located myself with the 71st Regiment and, by the 
kindness of Colonel Vosburgh, found myself treated with the 
consideration of a member of the staff. The night previous, 
I had found him at his headquarters amid the din of a pre- 
paration which was only twenty-four hours old; and the 
third morning saw him in marching order with a thousand 
men. Such was the energy which characterized the move- 
ments of this splendid regiment, and I may add, that it is 
out of such alacrity in times of danger that victories are 
made. 

The entire military force which was to leave New York 
for Washington on this day was about 3,500 men, and it con- 
sisted of the 71st, 6th and 12th Regiments, and a contingent 
of the Rhode Island Volunteers. The latter troops were on 
board the steamer "Coatzacoalcos," the 12th Regiment em- 
barked on board the "Baltic," and the 6th Regiment had 
possession of the "Columbia," and we of the 71st were on 
board the "R. R. Cuyler," formerly of the New York and 
Savannah line. This fleet was ordered to proceed toward 
Washington together, following the lead of the U. S. Revenue 
Cutter "Harriet Lane," which little warlike wasp was to be 
the protector of the crowded transports from batteries and on 
land. 

At the time of starting, it was not definitely known 
whether we should proceed through to our destination, by the 
way of the Potomac, along the now hostile Virginia shore, 
or pass up the Chesapeake to the right, and debark at Annap- 
olis, some forty miles distance from the Capital. Under this 
state of partial ignorance, it was, therefore, necessary that 
the troop ships should, all the while, keep each other in sight, 
or rendezvous with certainty at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay; 
and for the first of these objects, the "Cuyler," though she 
passed from her moorings at three o'clock out into the stream, 
did not receive the sailing signal until after five. The crowd, 
however, which had filled the surrounding roofs and rigging 



1861] 97 

as we lay in dock, remained for the two succeeding hours, 
faithful to their post, and suffered, apparently, no diminution 
in its mass, except from those over-eager persons who dropped 
occasionally into small boats to swarm around our vessel for 
a parting word to some friend or brother in our ranks. 

At length, at half-past five, a gun from the "Harriet Lane" 
ordered us to move, and she, as our leader, steamed away 
toward the Narrows. That was the signal also for a burst 
of voices such as, perhaps, never before awoke the echoes of 
the bay, even of our mighty city. It rolled for miles along 
either side, and, as it rolled, its manlier roar was mingled with 
the keener shouts and sobs of women — of women who were 
wives and mothers, and many of whom had contributed all 
they loved on earth to the fortunes of the flag which led that 
fleet. Even on the tops of distant dwellings, in the centre of 
the city, groups of ladies, and of children too young to know 
the meaning of the scene, waved little clouds of cambric in 
contribution to the common blessings. Amid the universal 
frenzy, a thousand bells rang a joyful peal, and the intoxicat- 
ing uproar closed with a long shower of applause from 
myriads of hands. As we passed the junction of the East 
River with the Hudson, and glanced upward between the nar- 
rowing banks, it was like looking through a vast tunnel of 
star spangled flags, and not only did these dazzling emblems 
flow from dome and staff, and cupola and shipping, but they 
streamed their solemn sanction in lordly folds from cathedral 
and church spire. Brooklyn Heights, with its dense audience 
of human life, but repeated the performance of the New York 
and New Jersey shores, while Governor's Island, with its 
measured military cheers, made the stern finish of the picture. 

The surface of the bay was not covered with so great a 
crowd of craft as on the bright afternoon when I arrived from 
England in the steamship "Great Eastern," but the enthus- 
iasm of the shores was far beyond the mere curiosity of that 
occasion, and left a deeper and more lasting lesson. He who 
looked on, with half a grain of thought, must have felt that the 
heart of a great people was being stirred to its inmost depths, 
and that in this parting with their children, they had sworn 
that our country and its constitution, so long the day star of 
the oppressed of earth, should not pass away forever from the 
hopes of man without a desperate and bloody struggle. 



98 [1861 

THE VOYAGE. 

Our progress down the bay was very slow, the object 
being, as we thought, to allow all the transports to group well 
together; but we were soon informed by Captain Crocker, of 
the "Cuyler," that our wretched rate was owing to the in- 
ability of the "Harriet Lane" to lead us faster. It was, 
therefore, nearly nine o'clock before we were fairly off the 
lights of Sandy Hook, and the "Baltic" and the "Coatzocoal- 
cos," unable longer to endure this tedious mode of travel, 
passed ahead like two swift racers, and were soon out of sight. 
The "Cuyler" and the "Columbia," with equal speed, might 
have done the same, but obedience to orders restrained them 
in their track, and they and the "Lane" kept company through- 
out the night. 

The men paid but little attention to these movements; 
under their officers, they had long been occupied in selecting 
quarters for the night, and those who had been located early 
had returned to eligible places on the deck, and were engaged 
in spinning yarns, giving cheers and singing songs. There 
was a general overhauling, too, of supplementary accoutre- 
ments by the better provided members of the regular com- 
panies, and exhibitions of compact cutlery, combining knife, 
fork and spoon, cases for meerschaum and tobacco, and well- 
worked wicker flasks, excited the envy of many an unpro- 
vided volunteer. The new recruits, of whom the 71st on 
this sudden occasion had some three hundred, were generally 
provided, however, with well-filled soda bottles, many of 
which had been handed to them spontaneously by good 
Samaritans along the street, but none of which, I verily be- 
lieved, were charged with the harmless water bespoken by 
their model. 

This portion of our force was largely drawn from the 
neighborhoods of Washington and Fulton Markets, and a 
number of fine looking fellows among them came from Staten 
Island. They were all stout, healthy, young, athletic men 
and, though as yet indulging in the hilarity which character- 
izes the outset of a frolic, they gave abundant evidence of 
being of such stuff as any captain would be proud to lead in 
battle. These novices were the most merry of the crowd, 
and having been well supplied with the large hunk of beef 
and bread, which constituted their rations for the night, and 



1S61] 99 

having also moistened it duly from their bottles, they settled 
down to a regular evening patriotic concert. All the national 
songs were sung, from the "Star Spangled Banner" down to 
"Yankee Doodle"; but that which evidently "had the call" 
was "Dixie." Everybody joined in this, and the chorus, when 
well started, would frequently ring throughout the ship, bring- 
ing all voices in as volunteers. This song is also so popular 
among the Southern volunteers that it has become almost 
national with them, and it is sung invariably as an enthusiastic 
expression of their fond determination to die upon the 
threshold of their homes. 

"On Dixie's land I'll take my stand. 
And live and die in Dixie !" 

It has for them, therefore, a peculiarly exciting meaning. 
The Northern volunteer is no less inspired by its notes, but he 
chants them with a different sentiment and reads them from a 
different point of view. With him its words are a challenge 
of invasion, and I saw many an eye blaze with a thoughtful 
resolution as its owrer burst forth, with yearning note, "I 
wish I was in Dixie!" 

The evening was soft and beautiful, with a mellow moon- 
light falling on the flickering water, and but few of the 
watchers were tempted"by reveille to give up. As the night 
waned, however, and the bottles yielded to the common law of 
exhaustion, one reveller after another would go forward, select 
his blanket from the sumptuous pile provided for the volun- 
teers, and coiling himself within it, lie down amid the rows of 
sleepers who covered all the decks, but most of whom took 
no more room than so many logs of wood. At half-past ten 
o'clock the wearied crowd had entirely subdued, and nothing 
was left awake but the sentries, who with military strictness 
were posted here and there. Like the decks, every inch of 
horizontal space below was covered with a crust of sleeping 
life, and I picked my way to my stateroom only by the most 
careful and laborious process of walking between human 
arms and legs. 

When I awoke on the following mornliig (Monday, April 
22d) I found that the tranquil evening had been succeeded by 
a blow and the sea was running white and rough. A dismal 
day, therefore, was before all our unseasoned troops, and, sure 



100 [1861 

enough, I found, when I went forth, that some of the most 
jocund revellers of thenight before were among those who 
were prostrated with seasickness. What made matters worse 
the day was wet and raw, and the entire thousand men who 
composed our force were obliged to huddle in stifling prox- 
imity below the decks. Luckily, Colonel Vosburgh and his 
officers escaped from the attack. Their sense of responsibility 
resisted its encroachments, and they went on with their duties 
as before. As for the Colonel, he was everywhere, and his 
cheerful salute to one and another, and his air of earnest 
occupation, inspired everyone with courage and good feeling. 
As the day progressed the wind increased, and before 
night half the regiment was disabled. The ship wore 
the appearance of a hospital and, if the truth must 
be told, even at this patriotic time, they cut no better 
figure while in that condition than the crowd of coolies whom 
I saw last winter penned up and awaiting purchase in the 
Cuban baracoons. Nevertheless, and despite of all this 
wretchedness, the irrepressibles from Washington apd Fulton 
Markets, who sat hooded in their blankets on the outer deck, 
were heard chanting away at "Dixie," and frequently indulg- 
ing in the luxury of a cheer. 

Tuesday, the 23d, however, relieved us of this misery, for 
we were off the mouth of the Chesapeake at six o'clock in 
the morning, and two hours later had glided into its smooth 
waters. Here we found the "Baltic" and the "Coatzacoal- 
cos" waiting for us, and then we took our places regularly 
in line; Colonel Vosburgh, as the senior New York officer, 
hoisting his regimental standard at the fore as leader of the 
fleet, the "Columbia" following in our wake with the 6th 
Regiment, the "Baltic" bringing up in the rear with the 12th. 
The "Coatzacoalcos," carrying the Rhode Island troops, took 
rather an independent part, and, confident in her great speed, 
laid off and on according to" her fancy. At ten o'clock the 
"Harriet Lane," which of course led us all, made a pause and 
sent a boat on board the "Baltic" with a view to conference 
with Lieutenant Snyder and Colonel Keycs, the former of 
Fort Sumter, and the latter of the regular army, and lately 
engaged in active service in Oregon. This stoppage brought 
all the steamers in a huddle, and the cheers which were then 
exchanged, as we came up with one another, exceeded all 



1861] 101 

previous salutations, and might have been heard for miles 
around. The effects of seasickness had entirely disappeared, 
and I have no doubt that had the roll been called and questions 
asked, not twenty-five would have acknowledged they had 
been affected with "le mal de mer." The eating done was 
consequently fearful, and the uninviting lumps of pork and 
bread, which were shoved through a hole by a greasy, bare- 
armed steward, were seized and partaken of by gentlemen who 
had never before made an unclean meal, with as much avidity 
and relish as they had probably ever displayed upon the dainty 
dishes of Delmonico or Riley. There was no grumbling, 
because there was no better to be had, and every man, when 
his appetite was satisfied, made a joke of his hard fare. At 
half-past ten all the troops were mustered in companies, and 
all the old muskets which had been brought on board were 
taken from the recruits, and new ones of the most improved 
Springfield pattern were put in their place. This duty was 
attended to in person by the Colonel, and almost every man, 
as he came forward, received his weapon from his hands. 

It was not yet known to us whether we should enter the 
Potomac from the bay, and find our way direct to Washington 
by that route, but as we had reason to believe that batteries 
would be found erected on that river's banks to harass us as 
we moved along, the common desire was to proceed that way. 
The lead in the line, therefore, became a point of honor, and 
at two o'clock, P. M., when we were nearing the mouth of the 
Virginia stream. Colonel Burnside, the watchful acting^colonel 
of the Rhode Island regiment, brought his boat so as to 
threaten to intervene between the "Lane" and us. Colonel 
Vosburgh, however, was too vigilant and treasured too highly 
his right to the first danger to lose his place, and under his 
direction Captain Crocker put on a few more inches of pres- 
sure, and laid the "Cuyler's" nose near the cutter's stern. The 
baffled "Coatzacoalcos" thereupon fell back, and the "Cuyler," 
thus relieved, likewise relaxed her pace. In her new security, 
however, we came very near falling a victim to the ambitious 
manoeuvering of the "Columbia," who had run up on the 
other side and actually had her nose pointed to cut in un4er 
the "Lane's" stern and condemn us to the second place. The 
"Lane," perceiving the movement, and who had been watching 
the whole operation, made a slight inclination in her course, 
to favor us, and then the "Cuyler," getting her full pressure 



102 [1861 

on again, roused herself to recover her advantage. The 
"Columbia," however, was loath to give her effort up, and was 
about swinging her bow slowly for a new trial, when she was 
hailed by our Captain and by Colonel Vosburgh and required 
to drop into line. Thus admonished, she subsided and fell 
back, and as we soon after passed the mouth of the_Potomac, 
and the chance of meeting danger being thus disposed of, 
the rivalry died for want of further motive.' 

We were now bound up the Chesapeake to Annapolis, 
leaving a distance of forty miles to march by land to Wash- 
ington; so we at once came to the conclusion that the banks 
of the Potomac were supposed to be fortified by the insurgents. 
Much disappointment was expressed on all sides at our pass- 
ing the Potomac by; not that the men were unwilling w 
undertake the Annapolis march, but because they wished to 
get under fire and run the batteries in their despite. Ample 
provision had been in contemplation for this emergency, and 
Captain Crocker had agreed to run his boat through the only 
portion of the river where the insurgents could do mischief, 
at a speed which would leave us exposed to their batteries 
only eight or ten minutes in all. During this period, our 
engines would have been protected by barricades of mat- 
tresses, packed edgewise, six feet deep, and the men would 
have been all ordered below the water line. When the pros- 
pect of this excitement passed away, the men relapsed into 
their ordinary mood, and the ardor, which had been concen- 
trated on a single thought, diffused itself again on general 
subjects. 

The trip had been most pleasant from the hour of our 
entering the bay; the day was placid, and the breath of sum- 
mer filled the atmosphere. The trees of either shore were 
thick with verdure, and, at noon, a large butterfly, "full 
blown," if I may use the term, came balancing himself 
about our rigging, to assure us of gentle warmth and scented 
fields before us. We met in our progress with many water 
craft, each of which, when within hailing distance, were 
hailed by a hundred of our boys at once, and ordered to show 
their colors; and when the Stars and Stripes went up, in 
answer to their clamor, they were saluted witff a cheer, which 
was generally taken up stoutly by the other vessels of the 
squadron. What salutes were given to those who did not 
obey the order, it is not necessary I should particularize. 



1861 j 103 

At six o'clock. Colonel VQsburgh, having now com- 
pletely armed his regiment, summoned the whole upon the 
main and upper decks for review and drill; and the Rhode 
Island troops, who were then nearly alongside, perceiving, 
after a few minutes observation, what we were about, entered 
upon the same performance. The "Baltic" and the "Colum- 
bia" crowded up and followed suit, and it was then, perhaps, 
that we wore the most imposing appearance we had pre- 
sented since we left New York. The afternoon was very 
still; there was scarcely a ripple on the water, and it was 
only by our motion that the gaudy banners of the fleet were 
lifted lazily upon the air. Numbers of sailing craft were 
running slowly within view, their astonished crews grouped 
close together, and wondering to see those fast black hulls 
thumping and thundering through the quiet water like so 
many monsters unknown to them before, whose sides were 
flakes of iron, and whose backs were covered all over with 
bristles of spiked steel. They could hear also, as we went 
by, the quick, sharp word of command, the ring of weapons, 
as they responded to the drill; and, as we passed away, with 
the red, setting sun mingling with our bayonets, they could 
also hear the strains of our bands delivering their martial 
airs. It was a strange pageant, and such as those bewil- 
dered lookers-on never beheld before; but one which must 
have convinced those of them who knew how to think, that 
the Northern race of this land was up, and that it had risen 
reluctantly, to prove again upon the page of history the ever- 
lasting fact that now, as in all previous time, the home of 
steady, self-sacrificing, never-ending courage has been the 
North. Let them be sure our hardy habits and universal 
love of labor will not reverse the rule on this continent. 

When the sun went down, all the colors of the fleet were 
taken in ; but our men were kept at drill till eight o'clock, the 
bright moon doing good service all the while. I looked on 
for most of the time at the new recruits and was surprised to 
see the aptitude with which they learned. I have but little 
'doubt that, in a fortnight, they will be nearly as proficient in 
the ordinary drill as the regular members of the regiment. 

Between the hours -of eight and nine we arrived off 
Annapolis, and, as there seemed to be a probability of debark- 
ing at once. Colonel Vosburgh decided upon an immediate 
march, and with the view of being properly prepared for it. 



104 [1861 

he gave orders to supply the men with rations for a day, and 
ten rounds of ball cartridge each. While this was being done, 
however, Lieutenant Snyder, of the regular army, and Colonel 
Butterfield, of the 12th Regiment, boarded us from the "Bal- 
tic," bringing with them an order informing Colonel Vosburgh 
that Colonel Keyes had been appointed to the chief direction 
of the New York regiments of the fleet. This order was signed 
with the name of Lieutenant Snyder, as Acting Adjutant 
General, a proper promotion for one of the defenders of Fort 
Sumter. These gentlemen also brought us the news that the 
7th Regiment instead of being at Washington was still in the 
town before us, and would not probably move forward toward 
the Capital till the following morning. It was also decided 
that we should not debark before that time. We, therefore, 
had nothing else to do than go to bed and get as much rest 
as possible for the exigencies of tomorrow. I have said "we," 
but I must exempt from this plural the never-resting Colonel 
Vosburgh, the accomplished and justly-esteemed Lieutenant- 
Colonel Martin, Adjutant Pride, Major Buckingham, Captain 
Quintard, of the Engineers, Commissionary Corson, Doctor 
McMillan, Surgeon-in-Chief, and his aides. Surgeons Peugnet 
and Dodge, all of whom, and indeed, as a general thing, all 
the Captains of the regiment persisted in their duties far past 
midnight hour. 

Annapolis, Md., April 24th, 1861. 
Special Orders No. SO. 

The General of Brigade in command of this Department and 
Depot of Troops, by order of the President of these United 
States, orders: 

That no officer or soldier except a body of men under the 
charge of an officer, shall be allowed to pass beyond the Academy 
walls without a written order from him. 

No_ officer or soldier shall discharge any musket or other 
piece within the depot, except after permission from the officer 
in charge, under penalty of the severest punishment. 

Each regiment, as soon as the order reaches it, will detail 
the parade of their picked and most trusty men, twenty men as 
a guard under a lieutenant, sergeant and two corporals. 

The General will detail a Staff Officer of the day. Field 
Officer of the Day and Captain of the Guard. 

By order of 

BENJ. F. BUTLER, 
W. H. CLEMENCE, Brigadier-General. 

Brigade-Major. 
To: Col. A. S. Vosburgh, 71st N.Y.S.M. 



]1861 105 

Annapolis, April 24th, 1861. 
Orders No. 3: 

Col. A. S. Vosburgh, 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M., say 800 men 
strong, will immediately take up the line of march to Washington 
City. The men will carry their provision and ammunition if 
possible for three days. 

Should Colonel Vosburgh overtake the column already on 
march, he will co-operate to the utmost of his ability in the exe- 
cution of orders No. 2 of this date, of which a copy accompanies 
this. 

By authority of the President of these United States. 

E. D. KEYES, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, U.S.A. 
To: Col. A. S. Vosburgh, 

71st N.Y.S.M. 

Annapolis, April 24th, 1861. 
Orders No. 2 : 

Colonel Bumside's regiment of Rhode Island troops — with 
consent of Governor Sprague, who is with it, will forthwith 
march to join the 7th N.Y.S.M., under Colonel Lafferts, and 
the 8th Massachusetts, under Colonel Munroe, now opening a 
communication with Washington. 

From these regiments as large a number as practicable will 
be thrown forward in the shortest time possible to the Capital. 
It is desirable to hold defensible points of the railroad, and for 
that purpose the men least able to march will be detached under 
a proper officer or officers. 

The troops will repel all attacks and respect private property 
and rights. 

By authority of the President of these United States. 

E. D. KEYES, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, U.S.A. 

THE DEBARKATION. 

Annapolis, Wednesday, April 24th. 

The early morning hours, after rations, v.'ere occupied by 
a large number of the 71st in writing home, and some notion 
may be formed of the signs of occupation which prevailed 
thjoughout the ship in this way, by the fact that the mail 
bag opened in the Colonel's cabin received over two hundred 
letters. This being done, we received, at ten A. M., the sum- 
mons to disembark, and by eleven we were safe ashore, form- 
ing on the wharf as we landed, and marching up the bank 
outside the buildings of the Naval School, and then turning 



106 I1S61 

to deploy upon the fine grounds within. Here we formed a 
grand triangle, which gave the Colonel a brief opportunity to 
inspect the regiment, after which he permitted the men to 
break ranks and repose. We were very kindly treated by the 
Commander of the Yard, and the Colonel and his staff partook 
of refreshments at his house, and received like hospitalities at 
the residence of Lieutenant Hall. Both of these gentlemen 
are faithful to the Union, and welcomed the arrival of our 
troops with unaffected pleasure, the only drawback to the 
satisfaction of the commandant being the annoyance which he 
suffered at seeing our regiments trampling down the shaven 
lawn which heretofore had been subjected only to the light 
evolutions of the boys of the academy. The commandant 
endeavored, at the outset, to protest against this desecration 
of the grounds, but General Butler, whom we found here in 
command as the chief of the Massachusetts regiments, told him 
that ordinary considerations must yield to the necessities of 
the war; so the Northern buffaloes were turned upon it, and 
the green mantle already shows clay-colored spots which are 
worn through it, and begins to evince a generally threadbare 
look. 

The students belonging to the academy are sons of 
wealthy men, North and South, but since the arrival of the 
Northern troops many of the Southern boys have left; some 
more go away today, and doubtless, before the week is out, 
there will not be one of the latter left. The school itself, now 
that Annapolis is likely to be made a base of operations for 
military communication with the Capitol, will probably be 
located at some other point, and rumor already indicates the 
town of Newport as the place. If so, it will be a neat reward 
for the patriotism of Governor Sprague and the noble Rhode 
Islanders who now follow him to battle. The Navy Yard is 
surrounded by a wall which hems us in, and sentries are sta- 
tioned at the gates — a wise precaution, as the people of the 
town are disaffected, and straggling recruits who are not yet 
curbed by discipline might get into unseemly broils. Just 
beyond the walls stands the residence of Governor Hicks, and 
he is now an inmate of it, though the times are so out of 
joint with him and all around him, that he has been glad of 
late, on two or three occasions, as I am told, to sleep within 
the Arsenal walls. 

But little or no communication goes on between the town 



1861] 107 

folks and our troops, and such of us as get permission to go 
beyond the walls are unable to establish any kind of relations 
with them. Tihey glower at us all with deep suspicion and, 
as a general thing, have nothing which they are willing to sell 
to us, even at the most liberal price. Everything of value is 
kept out of sight, and there is scarcely such a thing as a horse 
to be seen. They have been told we would seize them for 
military purposes, and all but a few miserable animals, which 
it would hardly pay to hide, have been driven off and are kept 
concealed. Four of these deplorable wretches, two of which 
seem to have apples shoved under the skin at the knees, have 
just been bought by Quartermaster Corson, for the 71st, at 
the modest price of $1,200, while another amateur in horse 
flesh has just pointed out three more equine shadows which, 
if the Quartermaster closes for, will bring our regimental in- 
vestment in the way of horse flesh up to nineteen hundred 
dollars. But better than this cannot be done, for we are to 
march this afternoon at five o'clock, there are no other brutes 
to be had, and our orders oblige us to draw three days' rations 
as well as our baggage with us. I fancy, however, that when 
the news of this bargain gets about the neighborhood, the 
surly country people will be less uncompromising, and there 
will be horses enough, and to spare, on sale in the city of 
Annapolis. 

General Butler, since his arrival here, has done all he 
could to conciliate the inhabitants and persuade them that we 
do not intend to invade any of their rights, and in strong evi- 
dence thereof he has already taken them greatly by surprise 
by handing over to the town authorities three negroes, who 
had taken advantage of the present condition of affairs to run 
away from their masters and endeavor to escape through the 
boundaries of our camp. This incident has a further signifi- 
cance than lies upon its face, for it shows that, by the impru- 
dent accusation in the South of Northern motive, the negroes 
are actually taking it for granted that the movement of our 
troops is mainly for their emancipation. 

When we first landed, we learned that the 7th Regiment 
from New York and the 8th from Massachusetts had set out 
on foot this morning for the Annapolis Junction, a distance 
of some twenty-one miles by railway, and between twenty- 
five and twenty-six by the country road. The railway had 



108 [1861 

been torn up in part by ill-disposed people who lived along 
the line; and with the view of still further retarding the 
passage of the troops, the deserting engineers had disjointed 
the engine and tumbled down its parts in a confused heap. 
General Butler, however, turned to his Massachusetts troops, 
and asking for an engineer, received an answer from thirteen 
at once ; all of them understood the art of building locomotives, 
and one of whom actually found his own personal mark which, 
as a workman, he had put upon the engine when partly under 
his construction. The result was that the engine was soon 
put together again, and when it was done, a further detach- 
ment of artisans was found, who volunteered to lay the un- 
seated rails. The members of this same handy regiment had, 
three days before, "lighted" the old frigate, "Constitution," 
from the mud, in which she had long lain embedded in front of 
the Arsenal, and towing her out, had moved her into the chan- 
nel at a safe distance from the town. The secessionists had a 
plot on hand to take her on the following night, but old 
Massachusetts "cut her out," manned her with twenty of the 
regiment who proved to be old tars, and put on board eighty 
men more to act as a body of marines. As I write, she lies 
anchored in the center of the channel, and is, to all intents and 
purposes, a serviceable harbor fort. 

This is the kind of material which accompanies our gallant 
Seventh this morning on its march, and it is our faith in their 
joint prowess that makes us disbelieve the reports which have 
already come back to us from the road, to the effect that they 
have been attacked and met with a serious disaster. In fact, 
there is a report already flying round that they have been 
encountered by 5,000 of the insurgents, and that the two regi- 
ments are falling back, disputing every inch. Many of our 
troops believe this rumor, and are clamoring to be led on at 
once, to extricate their comrades ; and the Rhode Island troops 
which are only just landing (two o'clock) finding we are 
determined to be off, are resolved to share the chances with us. 
It had been the intention of General Butler to dispatch the 
6th Massachusetts Regiment with us, but the Rhode Island 
begged so hard that he yielded to her prestige. Before, how- 
ever, the hour of our departure came, we received satisfactory 
tidings of the safety of our pioneers, and under the joint advice 
of General Butler and Colonel Keyes, Governor Sprague and 



1861] 109 

Colonel Vosburgh consented to postpone their start till six 
o'clock on the next morning. It was lucky that things took 
this turn, for near the intended time of starting there came 
up a violent and drenching storm that flooded all the roads, 
and would have soaked us to the skin. It caught the Seventh 
and the Massachusetts men at a place about seven miles out 
upon the track, and they were fain at once to stop and bivouac 
for the night. Lucky was it for them that they did not bear 
their knapsacks, but had them sheltered in a railroad car, 
which as Massachusetts laid the rails, they slowly pushed 
before them, for this kept their blankets from the rain, and 
left them tolerably comfortable beds. The Sixth and Seventh 
then were safe, and we, being tired and hungry, addressed 
ourselves to refreshment, and made preparations for an early 
rest, as the hour for rising was fixed at three o'clock. 

Having thus decided to remain at Annapolis till morning, 
word was sent to the "Baltic" and "Columbia" not to land the 
New York Sixth and Twelfth till Rhode Island and ourselves 
were out of town, the barracks of the Arsenal Yard being too 
limited for their reception at the same time. Though much 
fatigued, I did not soon retire, but enjoyed conversation with 
a variety of persons, and finished by a supper at General 
Butler's table. After that, I strolled with one of the officers 
of the 71st about the Arsenal grounds, after tesing the refusal 
of the sentries at the gates to permit us to go by without a 
pass. It would have been most imprudent had we gained our 
point, for my friend was in military cap, with sword and 
sash, and I carried in the sheath of my belt a splendid revolver 
of the largest Navy size — provocations enough to breed a 
quarrel among an irritated and unfriendly people. 

There was no inducement, however, for us to go to bed, 
for the moon shone bright, the lawns and winding walks of 
the Arsenal swarmed with lounging troops and officers, and 
the gas shone from every door and window of the inner 
square, made up a general illumination on every side. Beyond 
the centre of this square of light, however, the town lay dark, 
malcontent and sullen, and even the house of Governor Hicks, 
which stood near enough to overlook the Arsenal walls, 
showed but one dull taper in an upper window, and 
the rays even of that seemed hooded to their feeblest scope. 
The men lay all over the grounds; four hundred of the 



110 [1861 

Massachusetts troops sat sleeping with their backs against 
the fence, others lay under porches, or rolled up against the 
sides of the stone buildings, wrapped, nay enveloped, in their 
blankets from head to foot, as completely as a worm in its 
cocoon, and looking not unlike so many mummies which had 
just been rolled out of the box, but which had not yet been 
unswathed. Every loft and room and porch and hallway was 
likewise filled with sleeping soldiers, lying in cross rows, while 
even the plate glass parlors of the professors resembled so 
many boxes of sardines in which were crammed the snoring 
valor of Rhode Island. 

It was a strange sight and well worth looking on, but, 
tired at length of even this interesting observation, we turned 
to — I had almost said to go to bed, but I should rather say, 
to find a place to lie down, for no one was allowed a bed that 
night, and the carpet of the Colonel's room was the best couch 
that we could hope for. There hived the staff, and there I 
was sorry to find that the indefatigable Colonel and his Quar- 
termaster kept dictating and writing orders until after mid- 
night, to keep us all awake. The result was that, though I 
had but little rest the right before in my stifled stateroom, I 
on this occasion got but two hours' sleep, for promptly at 
half-past two. Colonel Vosburgh was again pulling on his 
boots. 

F , THE MARCH. 

Junction, April 25th. 

It was half-past five o'clock A. M. before our stores and 
baggage were packed, our horses harnessed, and our whole 
train ready for a start. TEe order was then given us to 
move, and we passed out of the yard. I was intrusted by 
Colonel Butler, aide to the General, his brother, with an im- 
portant packet for the Secretary of War, which constituted 
me a bearer of dispatches. The morning was mild and clear 
and crisp, the shower of the night before having imparted a 
delightful freshness to the air. As we passed through the 
gate, we were stopped by Colonel Burnside, of the Rhode 
Island troops, who came to request us to move at a moderate 
pace, in order that his regiment, which would not be ready 
for an hour, might unite with us on the road. 



1861] 111 

This was done, we passed on in ranks of four abreast, 
our band not playing and no sound being heard from us 
during our passage through the town but the heavy tread of 
the platoons. Nevertheless, almost every upper window con- 
tained its knot of half-dressed people, and groups of awe- 
struck negroes appeared at frequent intervals along the streets. 
Our troops meanwhile kept a complete and respectful silence 
as we passed along, and scarcely any conversation was in- 
dulged in till we were quite beyond the tovirn. Inspired by 
the bright flood of sunshine that mingled with the fresh green 
leaves, and the cheerful sound of the birds, our rear ranks, 
which consisted mainly of new recruits, burst forth into the 
inevitable "Dixie." They had barely got well through with 
the chorus, however, before Colonel Vosburgh, who was with 
the advance, ran back and ordered them to stop. "I have no 
objection, boys," said the Colonel, in explaining the object of 
his order, "to your talking and laughing away, yourselves, or 
in your taking things as easy as you please in marching along, 
but I want the regiment to go through this country like gen- 
tlemen, and not like a band of revellers !" 

Shortly after this a negro man came by, whose queer ap- 
pearance provoked some comical expressions from the ranks, 
whereupon the Colonel made a halt, and declared that the first 
man who should be found guilty of such a thing again, or of 
addressing any of the people of the country, white or black, 
in any way whatever, from the ranks, should be sent to the 
extreme rear and placed under guard. These salutary orders 
had the desired effect, and from that moment nothing could be 
more decorous than the manner in which the 71st made its 
march. In fact, so careful was the Colonel that no portion 
of our troop should cause offense to the inhabitants, that he 
gave orders to the colored boys, who carried the water for 
us on the way, not to speak to the negroes at the wells, except 
with the request to fill their pails. "If I find you depart from 
this," he added, "I shall send you after water under the sur- 
veillance of a guard, and punish you afterwards in the 
bargain." 

Having got well out of town, we went along at an easy 
strolling gait, the men carrying their muskets as best suited 
them, but maintaining, nevertheless, the general order under 
which we started, with the difference only that the Captains, 



112 [1861 

instead of leading at the heads of their companies, walked in 
the rear of them that they might see if any of the men at- 
tempted to fall out of the ranks. When we had proceeded 
about four miles, and the road narrowed and thickened with 
trees, we threw out a party of skirmishers to explore the path 
and take a preliminary look into such thickets as might give 
shelter to an ambush. The road was singularly destitute of 
travellers, and we had proceeded to nearly three miles before 
we met a single white man. At a spot, however, where the 
country road ran through a line of trees, and its sunken face 
gave harbor to a long puddle, we were met by a horseman 
coming towards Annapolis. He was a splendid looking fellow, 
over six feet high, about thirty-five years of age, well dressed 
and with appearance and complexion that indicated him to be 
a Southerner. Our regiment quite filled the road, and he 
seemed at first to have come upon us by surprise. Concealing 
this feeling, however, he advanced forward slowly, looking 
downward as if helping his horse to pick his way through 
the mud, and, except an occasional furtive glance, almost 
pretending not to see us. He passed the advance guard in 
this way, all of our men preserving a perfect silence. When 
he came up to the stafif, the Colonel, after taking a good look 
at him, addressed him in a pleasant tone, with: "It's muddy 
travelling, my friend!" 

The horseman looked at him for a moment, then dropped 
his eyes upon the path again, as if he did not deign to answer ; 
but, probably thinking better of it, as a new turning of the 
road showed him our formidable line of bayonets, he replied, 
without lifting his head: 

"It be muddy!" and rode on. 

"That fellow is a secessionist, certain," remarked the 
Colonel, in an undertone, and the Southern traveler vanished 
down our ranks. Sure am I that he was one of the rangers, 
who, on the following day, captured Secretary Halpine, of 
the 69th, on the road a few miles further on. 

We made short halts, at intervals of every two or three 
miles, to rest the men, as the sun poured hotly down upon 
them, and they needed these reliefs the more for the reason 
that, unlike the regiments which had preceded us, our troops 
were all marching with their knapsacks on their backs as 
well as carrying their arms. We had no baggage car or truck 



1861] 113 

at our disposal, for the railway was occupied with a train by 
which General Butler was transporting four companies of 
Massachusetts troops, and our wretched horses could barely 
draw the officers' baggage and the scanty regimental stores. 

At nine o'clock we reached the seven-mile station, at 
which the Seventh had halted on the previous night, but we 
made between nine and ten miles by the country road. Here 
we halted and took our breakfast, and then stretched our- 
selves out generally among the bushes for a nap, until the 
Rhode Island regiment should come up. At eleven we heard 
the shouts of their advanced guard, and as Governor Sprague 
rode up to us, our boys gave him a hearty cheer, followed with 
a universal clapping of hands. The two regiments then fra- 
ternized together for another hour, and the staff officers 
formed a friendly circle around the edges of a white India- 
rubber cloth and discussed from its surface some cold meats 
and whiskey with the highest relish. Colonel Burnside then 
proposed to Colonel Vosburgh that the 71st, having had the 
fatigue of pioneering the road all the way from Annapolis, 
should allow the Rhode Island regiment to take that duty off 
our hands for the remainer of the route. But Colonel Vos- 
burgh found pioneering adapted to the spirit of the 71st, and 
preferred to continue to lead on. After some nice diplomacy, 
however, in which both gentlemen were actuated by the most 
praiseworthy motives, it was agreed that the Rhode Island 
troops should lead for the remainder of the day, and that the 
71st should take up the march again on the following morn- 
ing. This arrangement seemed to guarantee the arrival of 
our regiment the first at Washington, and consequently all 
our members were content. 

At noon we again took up our line of march, following 
closely in the rear of our Eastern friends, but brought often 
to a halt by the action of a balky horse belonging to their 
baggage train. This occasioned the greatest annoyance to 
our men, and wearied them with the repeated interruptions 
which it occasioned in our progress. Finally, after having 
suffered in this way for some two or three hours, our Colonel 
was obliged to protest against it, and to ask Colonel Burnside 
to let us pass ahead. During one of these pauses, I walked 
down the line of our men and found them all in fine condition, 
without one laggard in the party. All showed a vigorous 



114 [1861 

step, and each platoon was joking and laughing together. I 
was hailed frequently by name as I passed along, and saluted 
with the inquiry if the "Spirit" of next week would contain a 
history of the trip, and also if I intended to report the war 
that was to follow on. We now marched past the Rhode 
Island boys with our band playing^ in the advance till about 
five o'clock, having made, as well as we could judge, a dis- 
tance from Annapolis of about eighteen miles, but at this time, 
finding an eligible spot for dinner, near a running brook, and 
the men, without disguise being very tired, we halted and 
prepared to bivouac till midnight. It was our intention then 
to rise and move on by the bright moonlight to the junction. 

THE SCENE ALONG THE ROAD 

The country through which we had marched all day was 
poor in the extreme; not a village, not a church spire, nor a 
school house (except one abandoned shell) met us in the 
whole of that weary, hot and sandy route, and we had 
marched, too, upon the country road, which should have 
grouped whatever of the civilization the region owned. At a 
distance of eleven or twelve miles out, we came to a two or 
three mile stretch of straggling roadside dwellings, and there, 
to our great satisfaction, we met the first signs of life and 
loyalty we had seen. The people came to their doors and 
cheered us on, and, in two or three instances, American flags 
were shown. Our boys responded lustily to these salutes, 
and twice the Colonel addressed himself to our entire line 
with "three cheers for the ladies of Maryland !" 

At these appeals, tired as we were, the shouts were as 
clear and vigorous as those given when we left the wharf. We 
had, except in this short reach of dwellings, seen scarcely any 
signs of population. Horses and cattle, poultry and pigs, had 
entirely disappeared. Of white people, there were none; not 
even a dog ventured in our path, and now and then only did we 
see a few negroes in the fields, pausing at their work, with 
their stupid countenances evidently contracted with mistaken 
prejudice against us. In two instances their masters were 
with them, but, though the long line of our flashing bayonets 
made a picture worthy of any observation, they did not deign 
to look. 



1861] 115 

Their negroes, as I have already indicated, seemed as 
burly as themselves, and I have but little doubt that those 
black rascals, under the direction of their master, were some 
of the very fellows to whom we are indebted for the less of 
telegraph wires and the tearing up of rails. Under this state 
of things, and with martial law virtually in existence, there 
were several of us who thought that General Butler would be 
justified in issuing a proclamation to this malcontent meridian 
to the effect that he would hold the neighborhood responsible 
for any further damage to the rails or wires, and occupy every 
one of their houses with our troops. 

THE BIVOUAC 

In five minutes after our men were called to halt, they 
had stripped off their knapsacks, spread their blankets, and 
one-half of them were asleep, even before waiting for the 
rations to be passed round, depending on their comrades to 
be notified for that interesting ceremony. It was important 
to them that it should not be overlooked for after the meal 
was made, but half a ration would remain. 

Colonel Vosburgh and two or three of his staff, including 
myself, thereupon held a conference, and it was decided we 
should march again in two hours' time, and also decided that 
we should send a courier to the junction to telegraph from 
that point to Washington for cars to be ready to receive us 
at the Junction when we should arrive. These points being 
settled, I volunteered to make the journey North and to 
return, and my offer was accepted. Just at this time we 
heard the welcome whistle of an approaching train, and 
presently six cars hove in sight coming down towards An- 
napolis. They were empty, and we looked upon them as a 
God-send; but they were under the charge of a Lieutenant 
of the Massachusetts troops, who, despite our worn-out con- 
dition, refused to turn back and, by a twenty-minute run, 
spare us the weary and circuitous march that laid before us. 
The Colonel represented that the men were not only worn 
out with the marching so many miles in the hot sun, but 
that we were threatened with starvation from being out of 
food, and a half hour's use of the idle train would spare us 
probably two days' suffering. But the man was inexorable 
in his little pride of power, pleading orders from General 



116 [1861 

Butler, gave the signal to go on, and our hopes passed away. 

The Colonel looked after the departing train as if he had 
conquered a powerful inward struggle to seize upon it, and 
then turned to me and said: "Wilkes, we will go together to 
the Junction and see if we cannot find a train there for our- 
selves !" 

"At any rate," said I, "We cannot command this when it 
comes back." A farmer named Saunders was thereupon en- 
gaged by us to harness up a team, and in a few minutes we 
set out under his guidance, the regiment being left under 
safe command of Lieutenant-Colonel Martin, with orders to 
remain till our return. "By ten o'clock," said the Colonel, 
"We will be back, and if there is a train at the Junction we 
will have it here !" 

THE EXPEDITION TO THE JUNCTION. 

Many who saw us start through an unquiet country thus 
alone, thought the Colonel, as custodian of a thousand men, 
was subjecting himself to too great a risk ; but we were in an 
emergency which justified a commander in taking an extra 
chance, for hunger would have greatly demoralized our men, 
and it required the highest authority we had amongst us to 
effect, at the Junction, the relief and transportation we needed. 

The risk, however, was considerable, for the road, as it 
turned out, was filled with secession rangers, who, in the 
course of that very night, perpetrated several fresh outrages, 
and on the very next day captured an officer of the 69th. 

Had we known this, and known, moreover, that on the 
previous night. General Stewart, of Baltimore, had endeavored 
to induce his forces to give us battle at the Junction, we 
should have felt more uneasy than we did. We were, how- 
ever, sufficiently sensible of the gravity of our trip, but being 
at the same time sensible of its necessity, we resigned our- 
selves quietly to the chances. 

It turned out that we got safely through, arriving at the 
Junction about half-past eight, after passing through one of 
the roughest kind of roads, and such, with the deep sand as 
would have been unmerciful to the footsteps of our tired men. 

Let us see what was happening with the regiment at this 
time. After the departure of Colonel Vosburgh, Lieutenant- 



1861] 117 

Colonel Martin being in command, endeavored to make the 
men as comfortable as possible ; great relief had been received 
in the bathing of feet in the brook running through the field; 
the men stretched themselves on the grass sleeping, smoking, 
or talking in low tones. As darkness crept over them, all 
conversation was in subdued voice; the barking of dogs, the 
whistle of the whip-poor-will and the occasional hooting of an 
owl, were about the only things to break the painful stillness 
of the night — every eye and ear was stretched, expecting 
something to happen — but what? The night was growing 
darker and objects growing dimmer except from an occasional 
match when some one lighted his pipe or cigar, no light was 
to be seen, and even trees and bushes were magnified into 
living objects. A horseman was seen to ride along the road 
and halt near the fence as if making a survey of our location, 
strength and condition ; mysterious calls and lights were sup- 
posed to be signals; in the midst of this suspense, the com- 
panies were quietly ordered to form and marched off into the 
darkness, until it was found that the regiment was formed into 
a hollow square ; Lieutenant-Colonel Martin was in the center, 
and calling the officers together he informed them that he 
considered it imprudent to remain at the place any longer, 
and therefore had concluded it best to proceed on the march. 

After detaching front and rear guards and flankers, the 
regiment in column of fours, filed out on to the road; silently 
the column moved on; the moon just rising cast its beams 
upon the muskets which reflected back gave to those in the 
rear a weird but beautiful sight as the sinuous column ad- 
vanced. Suddenly the stillness was broken by the notes from 
the bugle of the advance guard, a halt was made until the 
cause was discovered, every man preparing himself for 
business. 

In a short time the cause was revealed. The advance 
guard had seen what appeared to be a signal fire ; it halted for 
a reconnoitre and found that the light came from the Rhode 
Islanders who had bivouacked five miles from the Junction at 
a station on the railroad. When the regiment reached this 
spot it was halted. It was learned that a short distance 
further on, the road was in such condition that it was im- 
possible for the horses to draw the wagons through; a vote 
by companies was then taken as to whether they would rather 



;118 [1861 

remain or go on ; the result was unanimous to go on ; but it 
was necessary that one company should remain and take 
charge of the wagons, and to their disgust, Company C was 
selected, the balance of the regiment passing on its way. 

Lonely enough was it for the company, unprepared as 
they were for such an emergency, but the Rhode Islanders 
were very kind to them; Colonel Burnside personally saw 
that they were provided with potatoes and a pot to boil them 
in ; they were soon enjoying a feast. This was about mid- 
night. Logs were put on ends, placed side by side, forming 
a background in front of which a fire was built by which the 
guard could warm themselves from the chilly air; the rest 
of the men rolled themselves up in their blankets and got all 
the rest they could.> 

At daylight the Rhode Islanders left them, and soon after 
Captain Coles prepared to follow, when he was surprised by 
the arrival of Colonel Vosburgh; he was, however, in poor 
condition, having met with an accident; he rode from the 
Junction on an engine ; at a place the rails had been tampered 
with — they spread; the engine toppled over; the Colonel 
jumped down from the high side sustaining injuries that 
brought on a hemorrhage which subsequently hastened his 
death; he returned in a carriage, while the company and the 
teams proceeded to walk ; the road was ankle deep with white 
sand, trying to both eyes and feet; in about two hours they 
reached the Junction, too late to get the regiment off before 
the Rhode Islanders, as the train was there but Company C 
was not. 

One company, however, was sent forward on the train to 
be left at a bridge to guard it. The relief was to be brought 
by the train carrying the 71st; this to be a company from the 
regiment to follow. 

Friday, April 26th, was necessarily spent at the Junction 
waiting for transportation, seeking for food and taking rest; 
as to food, such as the darkies could provide, was soon made 
Way with — a drop in the bucket — some raw salt pork and 
bread had been sent by the government, and little bonfires 
could be seen, around which men were gathered broiling their 
pork, which was stuck on the end of a sharp pointed stick or 
bayonet. This was all the men had to eat until they reached 
Washington the next morning. The train arrived at about 



1861] 119 

sundown; the regiment, with cheers, were soon entrained; 
but, alas! they had but made themselves comfortable when 
orders were to "fall in." Line was soon formed, though it 
was dark; the alarm was a false one, not an enemy, but the 
arrival of a Pennsylvania regiment. Once more they were 
back again on the train but not to move, for the engine had 
been detached ; it was midnight before it returned and then, off. 

We will now return to Mr. Wilkes, whom we left on his 
trip to the Junction. 

As we approached the Junction we saw a large camp fire 
in an adjoining wood, around which sat a number of cloaked 
figures, while a sentry at a little distance walked grimly up 
and down. We could not at first determine whether these 
were friends or foes, but on approaching nearer we recognized 
the Massachusetts uniform, and on jumping from the carriage 
at the station ascertained that it was a portion of %e Massa- 
chusetts 6th. Their commander. Colonel Monroe, who was 
in charge of the post, soon made himself known to us, and we 
found our main hopes dashed by the information that there 
was no telegraphic operator in the place, and that no commu- 
nication consequently could be had with Washington. 

Colonel Monroe, however, pn hearing of the strait in 
which our regiment was placed through weariness and want 
of food, pledged himself in the kindest manner to Colonel 
Vosburgh that the instant the down train, which Lieutenant 
Lowe refused to loan us, should return from Annapolis (and 
it was then expected every moment), it should be placed at 
our command, and be run down to our men. 

Inasmuch, however, as the hour of its return was quite 
uncertain, and it might not come until midnight, I proposed 
to the Colonel that he should remain at the Junction to effect 
his purpose, while I would return to the regiment and cheer 
the men with the information that he surely would bring a 
train to their relief and spare them the remainder of the 
march. 

As we were consulting on this point. Major Hicks, of 
the station troops, cautioned us to beware how we conversed 
aloud ; that certain ill-looking men who hung about the tavern 
kitchen where we sat, were most likely spies, and it would be 
'well for us to conceal our intentions from their ears. Acting 



120 [1861 

on this hint, I said loudly to our driver, who stood whip in 
hand awaiting us, that we should not go back to camp, but 
that he might wait a few minutes, that we might settle with 
him. 

Two cups of coffee from a steaming boiler, and three or 
four warm rolls, then made for me the first meal which I had 
eaten that day. This over, the Colonel and I sauntered out as if 
to visit the camp of the Massachusetts troops, but as soon 
as we were outside in the dark, I told the driver to take me im- 
mediately back to the camp. 

We then walked with him straight to the carriage, and 
as I got in, the Colonel gave the word to start, and stood 
with his hand on his pistol, to cover my retreat. Some two 
or three minutes had been consumed before the driver could 
get his team untied, and head it round in the narrow road, 
and by this time, the suspicious loungers of the station were 
loafing near us. They walked down close behind the vehicle, 
as the horses picked in the dark their few steps, but as our 
pace increased, their voices died away. 

The big round moon then rose to light my path, and 
soothed by the softness of the evening, and by the notes 
of the whip-poor-will, which my guide told me had only 
made its appearance for the season two nights before, I 
sank to sleep. 

THE NIGHT RIDE BACK. 

It was ten o'clock when I was awakened by a sudden stop 
of the carriage, and the driver directed my attention to a great 
fire, about half a mile ahead which was sending large sparks 
and embers in the air. He feared it was some accident, or 
perhaps, some outrage of the troops at a country store and 
out-houses about two miles above his farm, and was unde- 
cided whether to go on. I ordered him, however, to advance, 
giving him an assurance that it proceeded from no aggres- 
sion of our regiment; but as I did so, I drew my pistol quietly 
and laid it in my hand, in case the conflagration should prove 
to be an act of incendiarism by the rangers who perhaps were 
now retreating north in our direction. 

As we drew towards the light, however, I perceived that 
it was the Rhode Island troops, who had thus passed two 
miles ahead of us, and who were warming themselves by 



1861] 121 

huge fires, built out of the railroad pile of wood at the 
station. 

It had been their intention to make their bivouac at the 
place where they had first halted, and which was two miles 
below the position of the 71st; but they evidently got wind 
of our intention to resume the march that night, and this 
was a shrewd movement on the part of its commander to be 
well in the advance that they might reach the Junction first. 

As I approached nearer their camp, I found they had sen- 
tinels posted, and I soon was challenged with a bayonet presented 
at the driver, and the usual : 

"Who goes there?" 
"A friend," was my reply. 

"Advance, friend, and give the countersign," said the 
rigid soldier. 

"Aide to Colonel Vosburgh, with dispatches to the 71st." 
"Pass !" 

Were the answers, and we were soon again left to the 
music of the whip-poor-will. 

"That is a strange sight for this part of the country," 
said my driver moodily, after a long pause ; "I didn't ever 
expect to see a thing like that here!" 

"And that is not the worst of it," said I ; "for the stern 
business is only just begun." 

We proceeded slowly and silently upon our way, for 
half an hour neither of us uttered a word, when suddenly we 
heard the faint rattle of accoutrements and the measured 
tread of troops. In the next moment we saw the glittering 
points of bayonets, and were summoned by another sudden 
"Halt!" 

It proved to be a body of skirmishers thrown out by the 
7lst, and as we drove on, we perceived that the whole of the 
regiment was in motion, and the moonlit road was one line 
of glancing steel. It seems that the pickets had reported 
to Lieutenant-Colonel Martin voices and signals in the woods, 
and had also mistaken for rockets the whirling streams of 
cinders which ascended from the vast log fires of the Rhode 
Island camp whenever they were stirred. 

Under such information, Colonel Martin had deemed it 
prudent to abandon his position — the wood being, in his 
judgment somewhat too near, and to move forward, gov- 



122 [1861 

erned by circumstances, whether to complete the march that 
night, or to find some new or more convenient camping 
ground. 

The men, though they rose from the ground stiff and 
reeling with fatigue, took the summons in good part, though 
many of them suggested to their officers that they would 
much prefer to go into the woods for an hour or two and clear 
them out, and then taking a nap, wait for the Colonel, than 
setting off to make a night of it on foot. When, however, 
they became fairly aroused and wide awake, they were eager 
to proceed, and all voted by companies to go on. 

Acting upon the reports which had been brought to him, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Martin was justified in the belief that 
we were moving in the face of peril, and it was a beautiful 
sight, on that bright moonlight night, to see how he con- 
ducted the advance. His scouts were out in all directions, 
his skirmishers moved carefully along at least a mile ahead, 
the rear was protected by a special squad, and thus the regi- 
ment went slowly on, like some huge animal with all his 
feelers out and ready to shrink into an attitude of compact 
strength as soon as one of them became sensible to danger. 

The only thing that marred our movements was our 
stores and baggage trains, the wretched animals which we 
had purchased for that purpose, being evidently unable to 
keep up with the men, and in fact, clearly incapable of making 
the trip through the night. 

Upon the strength, therefore, of my knowledge of the 
road, which I had now passed over twice, I ventured to sug- 
gest to Colonel Martin that he should leave those animals 
and the baggage behind in Saunder's yard, under a proper 
guard, until the morning (until we could send for them by 
rail), and that we avoid the long route and gullies of the 
country road by taking the rail track. 

I spoke earnestly in favor of the rail, on the assurance 
that there were two places on the country road where the 
men would be obliged to ford small streams, which were more 
than ankle deep, and a steep gully through which the teams 
must pass with the water to the axles, and which it was my 
opinion our jaded animals, at the late hour they must reach 
it, would not be able to pull through; a judgment which 
proved to be correct, for they broke down at that very place 



1861] 123 

OM the following day. On these representations of mine the 
Lieutenant-Colonel determined to abandon, for the time, the 
baggage train, and it having also been decided that the regi- 
ment should take the track, I was relieved of the task of acting 
as guide. 

The programme for the night being fixed, and perceiving 
that much time would necessarily be consumed to establish 
the baggage guard and get fairly under way, I decided to 
start at once and walk forward myself. It was then one 
o'clock. I was of course very much fatigued, and had be- 
come so very exceedingly nervous at the prospect of further 
delay at that hour, that I would rather run a much greater risk 
than I considered this to be than to have waited any longer. 

I, therefore, asked for a companion, to accompany me 
along the road. Two or three of the young gentlemen from 
the Naval School at first consented, but upon consultation, 
they declined, being under positive orders to march with the 
regiment, and I was about starting off alone when Major 
Will P. Thomasson, of Kentucky, formerly a member of 
Congress (and a volunteer with Company C), who had been 
looking about for me for the same purpose, joined me, and 
we proceeded. 

We walked briskly along the white-sanded face of the 
track, the challenge of the sentinels growing fainter and fainter 
upon our ears, but brought to us freshly every now and then, 
as the echo was preserved by some green, uprising walls of the 
woods. Aside from this, the stillness was profound ; the whip- 
poor-will had ceased his song, but in its place the owl, with his 
hideous note, would at intervals thump the air. I never heard 
this cry with such distinctness, and at first mistook it for the 
simulated call of some hostile guerrilla. 

As we v/alked on, with our eyes fixed upon the white- 
sanded path, it became so dazzling in the moonlight that we 
seemed to be walking over snow, and I became sensible of a 
burning of the eyeballs and a confusion of the sight, such as 
often accompanies a rush of blood to the head. I reeled 
occasionally under the effects of this illusion, and was obliged 
twice to sit down to recover a steadiness of vision. 

The same effects, I was told by one of t*he editors of the 
"World" who followed with the regiments, was experienced 
by the troops, many of the poor fellows running great risk 



124 [1861 

of falling down the banks through its effect. By dint, how- 
ever, of resolution and stout walking, we all pulled through, 
Major Thomasson and I reaching the Junction at three o'clock, 
and the regiment arriving an hour later. 

I found Colonel Vosburgh awake, and waiting for me, 
on my arrival, and the long-expected train having then ccme 
in, he took possession of it, tired as he was, with a view of 
bringing up our baggage wagons in time to get started for 
Washington on a nine o'clock morning train which he had 
ascertained it was the intention of the Government to send 
us at that hour. * * * The officers and poor fellows who com- 
posed the rank and file of the regiment, in fact all hands of 
the 71st, were glad to lie down upon the stoops and platforms 
of the depot, and without any further ceremonies, went to 
sleep. 

When they awoke in the morning, fagged as they were, 
every man answered rollcall; and through indefatigable sur- 
geons. Doctors McMillan and Peugnet, I learned that not one 
of them reported himself sick — a triumph of spirit which, 
under the circumstances of the case, cannot be too much 
admired. 

Washington, Saturday, April 27. 

The 7lst, having been relieved at the junction by the 12th, 
came in this morning, showing fine condition, and after being 
marched into the Inauguration Ballroom, as a temporary bar- 
racks. Colonel Vosburgh waited upon General Scott, and re- 
ported the regiment as having arrived, without a man sick 
or missing. 

This unexpected report, after such a trying march, as we 
had undergone, so pleased the veteran commander that he 
at once gave an order that the 71st should march to the Navy 
Yard, and take command of that most important post. 
Colonel Vosburgh, however, on this occasion, spared them 
the burden of their knapsacks, and, for the first time since 
we had left New York, they were without that load. 

Those who see troops making their holiday marches on 
Broadway, are not apt to regard the knapsack as a serious 
incumbrance, but let them confer, for a few minutes, with 
those who have carried the heavy musket, and those packs 
to boot, for a few hours in the sun, and they will get evidence 



1861] 125 

enough to convince them that in a little while the knapsack 
becomes as heavy as a hand organ or a pedler's pack. 

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON 

Washington, D. C, 

April 27th, 1861. 
Special Orders No. 32: 

I. The 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M., will take post at 3 o'clock P. M. 
this day, at the U. S. Navy Yard, to act as a guard for the protection 
of the public property at that point. On his arrival the commanding 
officer of the 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M., will report to the commandant 
of the Navy Yard from whom he will receive the necessary instruc- 
tions to carry out the purpose above indicated. 

II. The companies of District of Columbia Volunteers now on 
duty at the Navy Yard, will on being relieved by the 71st N.Y.S.M., 
immediately return to their respective rendezvous. 

III. First Lieut. H. Beckwith, 1st Artillery, A.A.Q.M., will fur- 
nish the requisite transportation to effect this movement. 

By order of 
GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT. 
*THEO. TALBOT, 
Ass't Adj't Gen'l. 
To Commanding Officer, 
71st Reg't, N.Y.S.M. 

I accompanied the march of the regiment to the Navy 
Yard, and having the day before me ascertained that the com- 
pany of Cassius M. Clay, which I had come to Washington 
to join, had only been formed for temporary purposes, I 
accepted from Colonel Vosburgh an appointment upon his 
staff as a volunteer aide, and consequently, am now to be 
regarded as a member of the 71st. G. W. 

Mr. Wilkes was in error in stating that "the town folk," 
at least the colored people of Annapolis, would not sell us 
anything, for outside the Academy gate there was a crowd 
of darkies with their baskets filled with fried oysters, chickens, 
pies, etc., and there was lively trading through the bars of 
the gate. 

The non-commissioners of the Company C formed a chain 
from the gate to the rear of the crowd; much skill was re- 
quired to get the supply between the bars of the gate without 
dropping any of it, but once through it was passed to the next, 
and so on to the last; when sufficient had been obtained the 
non-commissioners found a nice place at the foot of the wall, 



(*Theo. Talbot, A.A.G., was a first lieutenant with Major Ander- 
son, at the storming of Fort Sumter; he died early in the war.) 



126 [1861 

where they enjoyed a royal feast, for nowhere in New York 
could be found such fried oysters and chicken. And speak- 
ing of chicken reminds the compiler of the following incident 
which occurred a few hours later. 

When tattoo arrived he found the room to which his com- 
pany was assigned to be overcrowded, a room on the other 
side of the hall being apparently unoccupied, he took his knap- 
sack and went to a far corner, where he found a long bench 
with a back (the room was a classroom), placed his knapsack 
at one end for a pillow and stretched himself out for a nap. 
The only light was the rays from the lamps in the hall; just 
as he got into a doze, someone entered and came to a small 
table at the head of the bench and placed something upon it 
and then went out; this peculiar action aroused the curiosity 
of the recumbent ; he raised up and to his surprise, saw — a 
roasted chicken. It did not take any longer than a flash to 
seize the leg and with a twist off it came, bringing the second 
joint, and almost choking himself, devoured the meat, throv\?- 
ing the bone to the end of the room just as the owner re- 
turned with two chums, the recumbent being "sound asleep." 

It seems the owner was Fred Cook, the armorer, a man 
noted for his profanity; the reader may be sure the air was 
blue with it when he discovered what had happened; it was 
so strong it awoke the sleeper who, of course, being asleep, 
saw no one come in, nor did he. He sympathized with the 
armorer, received another piece of chicken, which was not 
eaten so rapidly, his appetite being satisfied, he turned over 
and went to sleep. 

From the New York "Times," May 1st: 

"The 71st Regiment made a magnificent appearance as 
it swept down the Avenue, with its full band playing. The 
men looked less fatigued than those of either other regiments, 
and were warmly commended by the citizens as they passed, 
and by the officers and men of the other regiments who were 
out to witness their entrance into the city. Next the Massa- 
chusetts men, they showed the greatest capacity to endure 
fatigue." 

From the Washington "Star," April 27th : 

"The 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M., arrived this morning at 
six o'clock ; the men are a fine looking specimen of the Ameri- 
can soldier, their deportment unexceptionable, and their 



1861] 127 

powers of endurance admirable; they marched all the way 
from Annapolis to the Junction on two biscuits each, and two 
more for their breakfast yesterday when they got there, yet 
there was not a murmer heard in the ranks, and when the halt 
was ordered, and the roll called, not a man was found missing; 
no stragglers or sick had to be waited for. This is an almost 
unprecedented exploit." 

From the New York "Express," April 28th : 

"At two o'clock yesterday afternoon the 71st Regiment 
was ordered to the Navy Yard; in one hour from that time 
they were at the point designated, some two miles distant. 
It is eminently complimentary to this body of true and tried 
Americans, that they were selected by General Scott to occupy 
a position so important." 

At last the regiment had reached its destination ; instinc- 
tively every man was anxious to know the news and to hear 
from home, for the one week they had been on their journey 
the world had been a blank in their lives as far as any infor- 
mation of what was going on outside of the space they had 
occupied in it; it was, therefore, with eagerness they looked 
for a New York newspaper, and those fortunate enough to 
get a copy from the very limited supply, did not begrudge the 
quarter asked for it, and those not so fortunate were satisfied 
to hear the more fortunate one read his copy. It was later 
before the anxiously looked for and much prized letter from 
home came ; after these it was time to inquire as to the where- 
abouts of the enemy. 

The Navy Yard was filled with workshops, rolling mills, 
shiphouses, storehouses, and the residence and headquarters of 
the Commandant and officers, and a small house which was taken 
by the field and staff and became the regimental headquarters. 
Bunks were built in the storehouse and some of the shops 
for the accommodation of the companies. Company F being 
provided with tents. 

From the gate to the wharf ran a main street about thirty 
feet wide and a thousand feet long ; this was used for evening 
parades; each company quarters had a room partitioned off 
for the officers, and another for the non-commissioned officers. 
Very soon after reaching the yard the men had fitted them- 
selves into the new order of things and were ready for even- 
ing parade — after Guard Mount. 



128 [1861 

There was a "green" or park about 200 by 500 feet ; the 
long sides were bounded on the one side by the main street 
or "parade," the other by a street on which faced the store- 
houses in which were companies A and C, and the cottage, 
which was the Regimental headquarters; on the upper end, 
a street on which faced the Commandant's residence, the 
lower end by a street running the width of the "green" on 
which at the corner of the main street stood the fire engine 
house; on the "green" the band gave its evening concerts. 
This was a favorite spot for the taking of group photographs. 
On the border of the "green" stood a hydrant and a large 
tub of water where companies A, C and F made their morning 
ablutions. 

As with many of the companies, their quarters were not 
ready, they were quartered temporarily on steamboats then 
lying at the wharf. The guard consisted of 63 privates, in 
addition to a special guard sent to the Annacosta bridge, 
just outside of the Yard and crossing into Maryland; this 
was as a rule a company; in addition a howitzer was placed 
so as to rake the bridge. These guards were continued while 
occupying the Navy Yard. 

At first the rations, especially fresh meat, were not satis- 
factory, but later the regiment drew its cattle on the hoof and 
did its own slaughtering; also drew flour and did its own 
baking, after which all was satisfactory, except every man 
could not get the tenderloin daily. 

The ration was: Beef, fresh or salt, lj4 pounds per man; 
pork or bacon, % of a pound per man; flour, 18 ounces per 
man ; hard bread, 12 ounces per man ; rice and coffee, 10 
pounds to each 100 men ; beans, in lieu of rice, 8 quarts to 
100 men; sugar, 15 pounds to 100 men; vinegar, 1 gallon to 
100 men; candles, adamantine, lj4 pounds to 100 men; soap, 
4 pounds per 100 men ; salt, 2 quarts per 100 men. 

On the 28th divine service was held, and prayer meetings 
were held in Company D's quarters; this continued every 
Sunday while quartered in the Navy Yard. During the after- 
noon President Lincoln and Secretary Seward paid the regi- 
ment a visit. Company C was quartered on the steamer 
"Baltimore," and when the President and the Secretary came 
into the cabin, the President's hat almost touching the ceiling, 



1861] 129 

a number of the boys were busy writing home. All came to 
an attention at once ; the visitors shook the hand of each, ex- 
pressing his pleasure at meeting them. 

Lieut. Maynard, who was present, said: "Mr. President, 
we only regret we were not allowed to come through Balti- 
more." 

"No ! No !" replied the President, "it is better as it is ; we 
have a very great many good friends in Baltimore." 

The hard bread (or hard-tack), was a new experience; it 
was so hard it required a hammer to break it; it was in the 
shape of a square cracker, similar to a dog biscuit; naturally 
one would think that soaking would improve it, but to the con- 
trary, the experiment showed that it toughened it, making it 
like rubber, the best way being to toast them. 

STANDING ORDERS. 

Headquarters American Guard 
71st Regiment, N.Y.S'M. 

Washington Navy Yard, Apr. 28, 1861. 

General Orders No. 1. 

All calls will be sounded by the drummer of the Guard. 

REVEILLE. 
At five o'clock A. M., when the companies will fall in for 
roll call by First Sergeants, superintended by a commis- 
sioned officer. 

ROAST BEEF. 
Will be sounded thirty minutes thereafter, when the First 
Sergeant will immediately repair to the Quartermaster's 
depot, and draw the rations for their company. 

PEAS UPON THE TRENCHER 
Will be sounded at 7 A. M., when each sergeant will 
attend to the messing of his squad. 

GUARD MOUNT. 
At eight o'clock A. M., thirty minutes before which time, 
details will fall in on their company parade for inspection. 

SURGEON'S CALL. 
At 9 A. M., when the sick will be conducted to the 
hospital. 



130 [1861 

ROAST BEEF. 
Will be sounded at 1 P. M. 

RETREAT. 
Will be sounded at 6:15 P. M-, when there will be a dress 
parade, all officers and privates present. A guard will be 
mounted for the protection of the bridge at 8 P. M. 

TATTOO. 
At 9:30 P. M., when the roll will be called, and all men 
will be in quarters ; thirty minutes thereafter, will be three 
taps of the drum, when all lights will be extinguished and 
perfect silence preserved. 

COMPANY DRILLS. 
From 6 to 7 A. M., 8:30 to 10 A. M.; 11 A. M. to 12:30 
P. M., 3 to 5 P. M. 

By order of 

COLONEL A. S. VOSBURGH. 

The following is the first Guard Mount in the Navy Yard : 
Washington, D. C, April 30th, 1861. 

Officer of the Day Capt. B. L. Trafford, Company B 

Officer of the Guard Lieut. G. W. Underwood, Company H 

Sergeant of the Guard. Sergt. John Hazen, Company B 

Corporals, E. P. SmitK, Company B ; A. S. Bodine, Company D 
Privates, 63 ; total 68. 

1ST RELIEF (9:30 to 11:30—3:30 to 5:30)— Day, Dean, 
Dickerson, Doherty, Durfee, Dillon, Chittenden, Collins, Co. 
A. Briggs, Brackett, Brown, Cook, Henry, Rowe, Hanson, Co. 
B ; Okie, Thomas, Umpleby, Ingraham, Co. C ; Eaton, Smith, 
Co. D — 21 men. 

2D RELIEF (11:30 to 1:30—5:30 to 7:30)— Farnsworth, 
James, Morgan, Sleaman, Co. C; Wallace, Co. D; Hudleback, 
Kirkland, Kelly, Ludlow, Moony, Moore, Morris, Oakley, Co. 
F; Cohen, Rankin, Hewlett, Golden, Nixon, Sproull, Terrell, 
Yeamans, Co. G — 21 men. 

3D RELIEF— (1:30 to 3:30—7:30 to 9:30)— Brainard, 
Cornell, Devoe, Miller, Jacobus, Marvin, Walters, James Mor- 
ris, Co. E; Byrnes, J. Godine, Beryman, F. Godine, Charles 
See, Scott, Kirk, Hanford, Co. H ; Mathews, Nestine, Waite, 
Wild, Van Zandt, Co. D — 21 men. 

Everything being settled, the men all reconciled to the 
situation, the novelty worn off, as was natural, they desired 
to get outside and take a view of the city. Passes were 



1861] 131 

granted in limited quantities, and each man must conform 
to the rule that his hands and face must be clean, his hair 
brushed, his shoes blackened, his buttons bright, his clothes- 
in neat condition, jacket buttoned, belts whitened and his de- 
portment without reproach; and it is well to say that these 
instructions were carried out, so that the representatives of the 
regiment established an enviable reputation for it. 

A gentleman, speaking later to Colonel Martin, told him 
this incident: He said he was visiting a lady in Washington, 
and during the conversation he asked her, if she did not feel 
timid in venturing out where so many soldiers were moving 
around. She answered, "to some extent she did," but, calling 
his attention to a couple of soldiers just passing, "I never feel 
the slightest fear when any of that regiment are around." 
The gentleman looked, and saw 71 on their caps. 

On May 1st new duties were given to the Regiment; by 
this time all companies were settled in their quarters ; orders 
came for details to man boats to be sent out to patrol the 
Potomac River, twenty men under command of Lieutenant 
Stow of Company D were sent aboard of the steamboat 
"Baltimore," all under the command of Lieutenant West of 
the U. S. Navy. 

The shores of the river were controlled by the rebels.* 
In about forty hours the "Baltimore" arrived in Hampton 
Roads ; twice the men were called to arms, once while passing 
Alexandria, and again when passing Cedar Point; while near 
enough to see their batteries, no attack was made by the 
rebels. On their arrival at the Roads, the blockade law went 
into effect. The boat had a 32-pound Dahlgren gun, capable 
of being fired ten times per minute ; the details were instructed 
in the handling of the piece, and the attack or defense de- 
pended entirely upon them. 

After being on guard for two days, during which time 
they captured two blockade runners, they were relieved and 
returned to Washington ; during the trip a squad of men were 
kept night and day by the guns ready to act in case of attack. 
These detachments were constantly patroling the river during 
the entire stay of the regiment at the Yard. 

On Friday, May 3d, the regiment was sworn into the 



*See Appendix. 



132 [1861 

service. At the time of leaving home little attention was paid 
to the term of service; Washington vs^as in danger and it 
must be saved, regardless of time or danger; but there was 
an impression with some that it was only for thirty days; 
many men of business had not arranged for a longer absence. 
This day the facts were to be faced ; it was ninety days or go 
home. This condition was discussed and acted on by the 
companies, resulting in less than ten declining to take the 
oath for more than thirty days, regretting their inability to 
remain longer. 

At 3 P M. the regimental line was formed and reviewed 
by Major McDowell (later Major General) ; all day there 
was a driving northeast storm, the companies were ordered 
to their quarters to be out of the rain and were there mus- 
tered ; having been brought to a "support" as each man's name 
was called, he came to a "carry" then to an "order," at the 
same time answering "Here!" the roll being called by Major 
McDowell, who, when it was finished, read the oath for the 
information of all. It was then read, sentence by sentence, 
by a civil magistrate, and repeated by the men with raised 
hands. And now the deed having been done, and all were 
soldiers of the United States, a new life was entered into, and 
from the Colonel down, every man resolved to do his best. 

From the New York "Tribune," May 8th : 

"Company D, 71st Regiment, has set a good example by 
holding a meeting at which the following resolutions were 
passed : 

"Resolved, That from this date we will hold meetings for 
prayer and exhortation on the evenings of Wednesday 
and Sunday of each week; and that as members of the 
71st Regiment, attached to the United States Army, we 
will do our utmost to sustain the reputation of the regi- 
ment, and as far as lies in our power, discountenance the 
slightest infraction of the Articles of War. 

"Resolved ; That we cordially invite the officers and members 
of other regiments to unite with us in this determination, and 
that we shall always be pleased to have them take part in 
our meetings. 

"After ^ a prayer by Corporal Bodine the meeting 
adjourned." 



1861] 133 

On the 8th the detachment on board of the "Baltimore'' 
drew up the following application, signed by each man : 

"To. Col. A. S. Vosburgh, Commanding 71st Regiment, 

N.Y.S.M. 
Honored Sir: 

Your petitioners, undersigned, respectfully represent that 
a secession flag is every morning unfurled to the breeze from 
a flag staff in Alexandria, as a taunt of defiance to every true 
American heart. 

We believe that twenty resolute men can take that flag 
by a sudden coup-de-main, and we therefore most humbly 
beg leave to capture it and place it in your hand to be here- 
after a trophy in the archives of the regiment. 
Yours most respectfully." 

Armed with this persuasive epistle, a delegate waited 
upon the Colonel at his quarters, while the expectant volun- 
teers had their rifles and revolvers in prime order for the 
expedition; but, alas, the Colonel received it graciously, 
but said he could not grant the request ; so important a move- 
ment could only be undertaken by order of the Commander- 
in-Chief. "But," added the Colonel, "I am glad to see such 
proof of readiness on the part of the gentlemen of the 71st." 

Thursday, May 9th, was a "red letter" day; from the 
"Baltimore Sun": 

"This afternoon. President Lincoln, accompanied by Sec- 
retary Seward and Postmaster General Blair, with several 
ladies, visited the Navy Yard. A large number of visitors 
were present upon the occasion. The President was received 
with a salute of cannon, music from the Marine band, and ap- 
propriate honors on the part of the Marine guard, followed by 
a matinee by the 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. The President 
and party, after inspecting the several offices of the Yard, 
boarded the U. S. Steamer "Pensacola," and witnessed from 
her deck experiments with 11-inch guns on a target. 

"Whilst this was progressing, the 71st Regiment assem- 
bled in its best style, and formed in line extending the entire 
length of the principal thoroughfare, to receive the distin- 
guished company on their return from the ship ; Dodworth's 
band and the full drum corps being in attendance. 

"The President, cabinet ministers and company landed ^^ 



134 [1861 

and took a position when this fine body of soldiers marched 
by and were reviewed. 

"The occasion afforded the highest gratification through- 
out, and was one of the finest military displays ever beheld in 
the National metropolis." 

The quarters of Company A had been cleared of the 
bunks and tastefully decorated for the event of the day; 
a brilliant vocal and instrumental concert, with home talent. 
All preparation having been finished and ready, at the finish 
of the review the distinguished guests arrived and were seated 
and the following programme was performed. 

1 — Quickstep, "Thou art so far away" Harrison Millard 

Dodworth's Seventy-first Regt. Band 

2 — Song, "Yes, let me like a soldier fall" Wallace 

Harrison Millard 

3 — Quartet, "Come where my love lies dreaming" Foster 

Glee Club 

A — Song, "The monks of old" Glover 

H. Camp 

S — Finale of "La Traviata" Verdi 

Dodworth's Band 

6— New National Ode, "The Flag of the Free" Millard 

Harrison Millard 

7 — Trio, "Love's young dream" Moore 

Millard, Woodruff and Camp 

8 — Fantasie, "II Ballo in Maschera" Verdi 

Dodworth's Band 

9 — Miserere, "II Trovatore" Verdi 

Millard, H. Dodworth and Chorus 

10 — Duetto, "I would that my love" Mendelssohn 

Dodworth's Band 

11 — Song, "Viva 1' America" Millard 

Harrison Millard 

12 — Full Chorus, "Star Spangled Banner" Key 

The New York "Herald" said of this : 

"A new song written by Harrison Millard and humor- 
ously describing the adventures of the 7lst on their march to 
Annapolis Junction, was also introduced during the perform- 
ance and repeatedly encored. The musical accomplishments 
of the performances, and the requisite politeness with which 
the guests were received, were the theme of universal praise ; 
Captain Hart and Sergeant Oakley especially distinguished 
themselves by their untiring attention to the attendance.'' 

From the Washington "Star," May 14th : 

"Last night gpvpra^ -^^^-^ ^f tViP Npw York 7lst arrived 



1861] 135 

by the ten o'clock train. The 71st since it has been located in 
its present quarters has seen arduous service, and given evi- 
dence of its remarkable efficiency as a military corps. Their 
sentries have done much of the guard duty at Annacosta 
bridge, and the steamers cruising up and down the Potomac 
have always on board a detachment from the regiment. 

"Although entering into service but for three months, 
every man is determined to remain until the war is ended ; 
and when the brush comes we shall look in the van for the 
71st Regiment. 

"Anyone who desires to see a regiment 'What is a regi- 
ment' should drop in at their evening parade at the Navy Yard 
about 6 P. M." 

From the New York "Express," May 17th : 

"One week ago an order from Colonel Vosburgh came 
for thirty-one more men to join Company A; this company 
took no recruits when they left for Washington, every man 
being equipped. Today forty men fully uniformed and 
equipped from the company's funds, at an expense of $2,000, 
will start by the Camden & Amboy R. R. The uniforms are 
new and with the equipments, including belts, knapsacks, etc., 
have cost $50 each. 

"They are under command of Lieut. Chamberlain of Com- 
pany F, Corporal Falconer acting as Sergeant. The esprit de 
corps of this fine company is such that they would not send 
a man from the city unless fully armed and uniformed; the 
muskets with which the recruits are furnished are the property 
of the company." 

Ever since the arrival of the regiment, the Colonel had 
not been a well man. On Friday, the 17th, he was in com- 
mand at the evening parade ; during that night he was taken 
with hemorrhage of the lungs. With that indomitable energy 
for which he was noted he was out on his horse the following 
morning attending to his various duties ; he was obliged to 
return to his quarters, where every attention was paid to him, 
and where he remained during Sunday, the 19th. 

At the evening parade Lieutenant-Colonel Martin an- 
nounced the sad news that they would probably never have 
Colonel Vosburgh to lead them again, as he would probably 
be taken home, if he recovered sufficiently to be removed. 

During Sunday night he made several efforts to get up, 
but his servant had received strict orders not to allow him to 
do so, and tried to induce him to remain quiet. In the morn- 
ing (Monday, the 20th) at 8:30 the Colonel made one more 



136 [1861 

effort to raise himself up — he fell back in a fainting fit and 
soon passed away. 

A deep gloom pervaded the Yard, a continuous rain storm 
added to it. At 2 P. M., the regiment was ordered to parade 
on the parade ground with side arms. With slow and meas- 
ured tread, the regiment wound its silent way around the 
serpentine walk leading to the staff officers' quarters, and 
passing through the northern gate, with uncovered heads, the 
men walked softly into the room where lay the remains of 
their late commander. Hardly a dry eye was to be seen, for he 
was beloved by all — new and old members. 

The rain drizzled down with a mournful cadence, and the 
wind sighing through the leafy branches, seemed to perform 
a requiem to the departed. In the old shiphouse down by 
the river, the regiment was later assembled with the band, 
and there rehearsed a hymn composed and set to music by 
Harrison Millard of Company A. 

On the 21st, one month from the time of leaving New 
York, the funeral took place. The body was encased in a 
neat walniit coffin and laid in the headquarters of the regi- 
ment, where it was visited by officers of the Army and Navy 
and many other distinguished persons ; among the flowers sent was 
a beautiful laurel wreath from the President. At noon the 
coffin was brought out and placed in the enclosure in front of 
headquarters, the regiment being drawn up in line immed- 
iately in front, the 12th N.Y.S.M. and the Rhode Island regi- 
ments taking position in their rear, whilst the 69th N.Y.S.M. 
and the two companies of U. S. Marines accompanied by the 
Marine band, took a position outside of the Yard. 

The impressive service of the Episcopal Church was then 
performed by Chaplain Pierce of the 71st Regiment, assisted 
by the Rev. Dr. 'Morrel of Christ Church, and the Rev. Dr. 
Butler of Trinity Church, at the close of which the following 
hymn was sung by the entire regiment, accompanied by the 
band: 

Hush ! Our colonel lies in slumber. 

Folded close in death's cold arms; 
Never more he'll join our numbers. 

Never more hear war's alarms. 
Frank by nature, brave and loyal — 

Dearly loved and prized was he ; 
Now his wreath is more than royal — 

In our hearts enshrined he'll be. 



1861] 137 

Never more the drums swift beating. 

Nor the clarion trumpet shrill, 
Shall arouse him from his sleeping, 

And his breast with ardor fill. 
He was loved by all his brothers 

In the camp — none more than he; 
Everything he shared with others. 

Now we claim his memory. 

'■-■'"' I 
And the Seventy-first will cherish 

All his virtues, all his aims. 
If in battle we shall perish, 

Doing what stem duties claim, 
He will gaze with satisfaction. 

Smiling as he used to smile. 
To regard our noble action. 

And be proud of us the while. 

Wrap our glorious Flag about him. 

Let the stripes and stars be seen. 
Whilst his comrades who surround him. 

Swear to keep his memory green ; 
Then will his proud soul elate him 

Higher still to camps above. 
Where the angel warriors 'wait him. 

And a sword of perfect love. 

On completion of the service, the cortege moved to the 
depot in following order, arms reversed : 

First Rhode Island, Col. Burnside 

Band 

Twelfth N.Y.S.M., Col. Butterfield 

Band 

Carriages containing clergy 

Capt. Dahlgren, U. S. N. Lieut.-Col. Heintzelman, U. S. A. 

Lieut.-Col. Berger, Sth N. Y. Col. Burns, 28th N. Y. 

Hearse 

Col. Wood, 14th N. Y. Col. Bryan, 2Sth N. Y. 

Carriages with relatives 

71st Band 

Seventy-first Regiment, Lieut.-Col. Martin 

Carriages containing President Lincoln, 

Secretaries Seward, Chase and Cameron 

69th N.Y.S.M., Col. Corcoran 

Carriages containing officers of the Army and Navy. 



138 [1861 

The cortege was over a mile long, and presented a most 
imposing appearance ; as it passed the Marine Barracks the 
Marines were drawn up in line and presented arms, while 
their band played a solemn and impressive dirge. As the 
head of the column reached the depot, it formed line and the 
hearse and carriages passed on. The various regiments then 
returned to their quarters. A detail from the regiment escorted 
the remains to New York. 

The death of Colonel Vosburgh was a shock to the citi- 
zens of New York City, and the news was received with 
profound sorrow; immediate arrangements were made for 
the reception and burial of the body, the Mayor sending the 
following communication to the Common Council: 

MAYOR'S OFFICE, 

New York City, May 20, 1861. 

To the Honorable, the Common Council. 
Gentlemen : 

It is my painful duty to announce to the Common Coun- 
cil the decease of Colonel Abraham S. Vosburgh, commanding 
the 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

He died at Washington City this morning, at the head of 
his command in the discharge of his duties as an officer and 
a soldier. The distinguished position of Colonel Vosburgh, 
his high character as a man, and his gallant and chivalric 
spirit command our sincere respect and admiration; but fall- 
ing as he does, a sacrifice to his zealous labors in the cause of 
his country, his death becomes ennobled with the laurel of a 
hero. 

In view of this melancholy event, I recommend the Com- 
mon Council to make suitable arrangements in honor of the 
deceased, and to pass resolutions expressive of the public 
sorrow, and of the sympathy of his fellow citizens -with the 
family of the deceased soldier who has passed away, in their 
bereavement. 

FERNANDO WOOD, 

Mayor. 

In accordance with the above, the Common Council met, 
and after adopting suitable resolutions, appointed a committee 
to co-operate in arrangements with others for the funeral, to 
take place on arrival of the body. Action was also taken by 
the Union Defense Committee and the dififerent military 
organizations in the city; flags were at half-stafiE throughout 
New York and Brooklyn. 

The remains arrived in the city on Wednesday, May 22d, 
at 3 P. M., and were — ~— '' ' -' 



1861] 139 

Colonel Vosburgh's father, where throngs of sorrowing 
friends called to extend their sympathy with the family. 

At noon on the 23d the remains were conveyed to the 
church, corner Fifth Avenue and 21st Street, where Dr. 
Macauly held service; long before the hour the church was 
crowded with ladies, the centre being reserved for the mili- 
tary, 400 of whom were accommodated with seats. 

An impressive service was given by Dr. Strong; at the 
close of the service the body was borne to the hearse, which 
then took its place in the procession which passed the church 
in the following order: 

First Regiment Cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel T. C. Devin 
Third Regiment Cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel Menck 
Uth German Rifles, Colonpl J. Maidhoff 
Battalion of the 9th Regiment, Major E. L.- Stone 
55th N.Y.S.M., Colonel Le Gal, as Guard of Honor 
Cavalry dismounted Cavalry dismounted 

as Hearse as 

Pall Bearers Pall Bearers 

Horse of Deceased, boots reversed 
Immediate Relatives in carriages 
Committee on National Affairs, Common Council 

Carriages with 

Mayors of New York, Brooklyn and Jersey City 

Heads of Departments and Common Council of New York 

Union Defence Committee 

Tammany Society 

Metropolitan Home Guards 

Civic Societies 

The procession moved down Fifth Avenue to 14th Street 
and thence to Broadway; along the entire route the sidewalks 
were thronged with people. Arriving at the ferry, the head 
of the cortege halted, and forming in double line awaited the ap- 
proach of the hearse; as the latter passed the military pre- 
sented arms, and when the hearse passed the ferry house, 
returned to their various armories and dismissed, the remains 
being conveyed to Greenwood Cemetery. 

"Asa Trenchard," writing from Washington to the Phila- 
delphia "Press," under date of May 23d, says, speaking of 
Colonel Vosburgh: 

"The occasion of my meeting him was his visit to the 



140 [1861 

Irish (69th) Regiment. As the Colonel of what had been an 
American anti-Catholic regiment, his presence was indicative 
of the cordiality of sentiment which pervaded the military 
quartered in this city. 'This is my first and only military 
visit,' he took pains to assure Colonel Corcoran, 'from my 
own people.' It was his last, too. I could scarcely realize 
when I was informed of his sudden death, that it could be 
true. 

"When dinner was completed. Colonel Corcoran gave 
him a full dress parade; when he reveiwed the 69th, he ex- 
pressed great delight at the appearance and bearing of the 
men, remarking that 'You Irish were born to make soldiers 
of.' The men in their turn were equally delighted at the 
opportunity of arraying themselves before Colonel Vosburgh. 

"It had been whispered about that time that he was the 
Colonel of the 71st; 'Do you mind that, me lad,' whispered 
an orderly; 'show him your decent Celtic now,' and they did. 

"It seemed queer to see Colonel Vosburgh marching down 
the line of the Irish army \vith Father Mooney, the chaplain, 
receiving the salute of those patriotic Irish Catholics; it 
showed how partisan feelings had evaporated with the prin- 
ciples which animated it. Patriotism is now the cry — foreign 
or native it makes no difference — it'^ our Country." 

No eulogistic remarks are needed from the compiler; 
those made by others and embodied in this history are suffic- 
ient to testify to his merits ; the last decade of his life was 
devoted to the establishing of the 71st, the result being the 
best evidence of what he had accomplished; he died a sol- 
dier's death— loved and mourned by all his men. 




COLONEL HENRY P. MARTIN 



Plate il — tip. 141 



Administration of 
Colonel HENRY P. MARTIN 
\t 1861—1862 



The funeral being over, Lieut.-Col. Henry P. Martin 
assumed command, the usual routine of duties going on as 
before. 

Invents were stirring, and there was much to occupy the 
time and attention of the men. For one thing, the "Herald" 
of May 22d published an article from Washington stating 
that the steamboat "Baltimore," having run ashore, was at- 
tacked by the rebels and five of our men were killed and four 
wounded ; their names were given, causing great pain and 
anxiety to their families ; telegrams were going back and for- 
ward, and the excitement only allayed by the discovery that 
it was all a cruel and wicked hoax. 

On May 23d orders were given by General Mansfield for 
an advance into Virginia, and the occupation of Alexandria 
and Arlington Heights. Owing to the recent death of Col. 
Vosburgh, the 71st was not included. 

The Navy Yard had been under a steadily increasing ex- 
citement since the funeral. Rumor had succeeded rumor; 
men slept with "one eye open," many kept their uniforms on 
and all expected the "long roll." In the morning when it 
was found that all the steamers had disappeared and had 
taken in tow immense yawls and scows which had been build- 
ing for some time, it was still more exciting. Before break- 
fast it was known that Alexandria had been captured. 

The facts were these: Col. Ellsworth of the 11th N.Y.V., 
having received orders on the 23d to take possession of Alex- 
andria with his regiment, broke camp on the heights of the 



142 [1861 

Insane Asylum, Maryland, at an early hour in the evening, 
and proceeded to the banks of the Potomac opposite Alexan- 
dria. At the same time the 1st Michigan, a detachment of 
U. S. Cavalry and a section of Sherman's Battery marched 
over the Long Bridge and thence toward Alexandria. 

About noon the steamers "Baltimore" and "Mt. Vernon," 
each manned by a detachment from the 7lst Regiment, all 
under command of Captain Morris, U. S. N., cleared for action 
and, taking in tow a number of small boats and scows, ac- 
companied by the "James Guy" as tender, proceeded down the 
river to the Zouaves camp, where they arrived about 2 A. M. 
on the 24th, and the 71st men manning the boats, immediately 
transferred the Zouaves, 900 strong, to the "Baltimore" and 
"Mt. Vernon," which moved at once to Alexandria. 

"It was a calm, beautiful moonlight night, the stillness 
unbroken except by the tramp of men, the suppressed orders 
of officers and the occasional rattle of arms, and the back- 
ground relieved by the glitter of the long line of gun barrels 
in the moonlight, as the regiment defiled through the trees 
-down to the shore. 

"At four o'clock Friday morning, the 24th, they arrived 
'ofJ Alexandria, where the U. S. S. 'Pawnee' lay with her guns 
Jrun out and everything ready for action. A little before five 
o'clock Lieutenant Lowery of the 'Pawnee,' accompanied by 
Lieut. Chaplin and Midshipman Small landed at Alexan- 
'dria with a flag of truce. Col. Ferrett of the rebel force 
■would not surrender, but expressed his willingness to evacu- 
ate, the terms for which were agreed upon. 

"The flag staff halyards on Main Street were cut away, 
two seamen from the 'Pawnee' climbed up and attached the 
Starry flag to it. About the same time the 'Mt. Vernon' and 
'Baltimore' tied up to the wharf. As they approached, the 
rebel sentinels were plainly seen. They fired at our men and 
'disappeared. 

"Lieut. Prendergast with twenty men of Company E 
■were the first to land, and started up the street, when they 
■were recalled, as the 'Mt. Vernon' had sprung a leak. They 
managed by bailing to keep the water below the guards until 
they returned to the Navy Yard, when she was run on the 
ilats." 

Soon after their arrival, the "James Guy," with flag at 
half-staff, arrived at the Navy Yard bearing the body of Col. 
Ellsworth. On the arrival in Alexandria, Colonel Ellsworth, 



1861] 143 

leaving his regiment to be formed, started for a telegraph 
station. On the way he saw a secession flag flying from the 
staff on top of the Marshall House. He immediately with 
his guard entered the house and ascended toward the roof to 
take down the flag. On a landing he met the proprietor, 
J. W. Jackson, who leveled a musket at him, firing and killing, 
him instantly. Private Brownell of the 11th at once shot andl 
killed Jackson. 

Col. Ellsworth's body was conveyed from the boat to the 
Engine House, where it was embalmed and prepared for his 
funeral. The next morning at about seven o'clock the re- 
mains, escorted by Company B, were taken to the White 
House and placed in the East Room, none being admitted 
except the mourners and guard of the 71st until the hour to 
admit the public. The funeral was a large one. At eleven 
o'clock the procession moved, the 71st being the escort. The 
remains were taken to the depot, after which the regiment 
returned to the Navy Yard. 

Simultaneous with the landing of the Zouaves, on May 
24th, the 1st Michigan surprised and captured a troop of 
Virginia cavalry under Captain "M.. D. Ball, numbering 35 
men. At three o'clock P M. on the 24th the steamer "Balti- 
more" arrived at the Yard with these prisoners. A guard 
from the regiment was detailed to take charge of them (all 
remaining on the boat) until otherwise disposed of. These 
were the Farquier Cavalry of Fairfax. They wore a gray 
uniform, with U. S. buttons, army hats with black feathers. 

About this time Headquarters was visited by Col. T. W, 
Sherman (later Lieut.-General of the U. S. A.) ; he came as 
Inspector. Col. Martin received him, and conducted him 
through the quarters showing him everything. Especially 
was the Inspector interested in the bake house and slaughter 
house, saying it was the only instance of the kind he knew of. 
He was exceedingly complimentary in his remarks, saying 
there was no room for criticism; he had never seen a finer 
regiment, nor more satisfactory department work in all his 
experience. 

Two spies were caught during the night by the picket 
guard of the 71st on the Maryland end of the bridge. They 
were armed. They were turned over to the authorities. 



144 [1861 

May 26th the day was saddened by the first death, except 
that of Col. Vosburgh. James Edward Jacoibus, private. 
Company E, was drowned. His body was recovered and sent 
home. 

Friends were constantly sending members of the regi- 
ment luxuries as well as necessities; daily the express would 
arrive, and next to letters was the pleasure of receiving these 
packages, the opening of which was as exciting as that of chil- 
dren at Christmas. 

Company C's quarters were directly over that of Com- 
pany A and the Band, the latter being under the room of the 
Commissioned officers of Company C, some friends of whom 
had sent them a barrel of whiskey, which was placed in this 
room to be used for medicinal purposes only. One day Har- 
vey Dodworth rushed upstairs exclaiming that some fluid was 
leaking through the ceiling on to his music. Investigation 
showed that a Lieutenant, after sampling the contents of the 
barrel, was so pleased with it that he forgot to turn off the 
flow whereby n'any quarts were allowed to moisten and 
perfume the bunks of the musicians. 

LFrom the New York "World," May 28th : 

"The New York 71st had a splendid dress parade this 
'(27th) evening, which attracted a large concourse of people. 
The secession prisoners were the object of no little curiosity. 
They appear sad enough, but are carefully guarded on the 
'Pocohontas' by the 71st. The newsboys tantalized them very 
much this afternoon by crying that Richmond had been taken 
and Beauregard killed. 

"The body of Private Jacobus was recovered today (27th) 
:and sent to New York. The movements of troops on the 27th 
into Virginia gave rise to a general rumor that there was to 
be a movement of an extensive character, more than heretofore, 
and Acquia Creek was one of the points named to be occupied, 
preparatory to the anticipated advance on Richmond." 

On the 28th the following order was received at head- 
-quarters : 

Washington, D. C, May 28th— 2 A. M. 

Lieut.-Col. Martin, 71st Regiment N; Y. 

Without music, or unnecessary noise, take your regiment 
•on board the steamer at the Yard, leaving only a small guard 



1861] 145 

to protect your property, and proceed to Alexandria, Va., 
and before daylight report to Col. Wilson of Michigan troops. 

MANSFIELD, 
Brig. General U. S. A. 

At evening parade, it had been rumored that such an 
order might be expected, and there was great speculation as 
to where the regiment might be sent; all were in excellent 
spirits at the prospect of a change from the dull and monot- 
onous yet arduous duties which they were subject to within 
the walls of the Yard. Taps were sounded at 10 P. M. 

At 3 A. M. (28th) the men were routed from their bunks, 
line was formed, each man was provided with forty rounds 
of ammunition and three days' rations. The regiment was 
marched on board the steamers "Philadelphia," carrying two 
thirty-two pounders, and the "James Guy," a smaller boat with 
no guns. Captain Dahlgren was on board the "Philadelphia." The 
"Baltimore," with one thirty-two pounder, and the U. S. S. 
"Pocohontas" followed. All being on board at 4 A. M., they 
were cast loose and proceeded down the river to Acquia 
Creek, as all not posted supposed, but it was soon shown 
that the destination was Alexandria. The place was reached 
in about an hour. When the boats were made fast the, men 
landed and were soon in column and marched up the main 
street and through the city, passing the Marshall House and 
to the outskirts where the regiment bivouacked near the cotton 
mills. 

The day was a most beautiful one, not a cloud in the sky ; 
the city as the regiment marched was that of a deserted city, 
at the wharf not a soul, passing the market no evidence of 
life, and so throughout the march, a native rarely seen, the 
shutters and blinds on all houses closed, as well as all stores. 
The rebel was afraid to show himself and the few union people 
were equally afraid. Tyrannical mob law had prevailed and all 
were cowed. One man stated that he was delighted to see our 
troops, that he was a Union man, but dared not express his 
sentiments. Like other Union men he had been subjected to 
the greatest indignities and insults for speaking his mind too 
freely. 

Here follows a copy of a ballot picked up in Alexandria. 
In defiance of republican institutions this was not a secret 



146 [1861 

ballot, as the voter was compelled to write his name on the 
outside of his ballot. On the back of this was the name C. L. 
Richards : 

STATE RIGHTS 

TICKET 

THE ORDINANCE OF SECESSION 

For ratification. 



Amendment to the Constitution of Virginia 
For Amendment 



For the Senate 
H. W. Thomas 



House of Delegates 
William G. Cazenove 

At 7 P. M. the regiment was marched back to the city and 
quartered in some deserted dwellings, Company C being quar- 
tered in the Marshall House, where in the alley attached to it, 
the men of all companies in turn received their breakfast. 

At 11 a. m. (29th) all were surprised at an order to return 
at once to the Navy Yard, which was accordingly done, and 
once more the boys were back in their old quarters. 

The same evening another expedition was started. The 
following letter from Private Eugene Macy Deming, Com- 
pany C, will give the interesting details of this affair (Private 
Deming was subsequently Captain of Company I, 61st N.Y.V., 
was wounded at the battle at Charles City Cross Roads, Va., 
and died in Richmond June 19th, 1862. He was the son of 
General M. R. Deming of Hancock County, 111.) : 

Co. C, 71st Regiment, Washington Navy Yard, 

On board Steamboat "Annacosta." 

"Feeling that on account of our late trip on board of the 
'Annacosta,' under command of Lieut. Thomas B. Prender- 
gast, aided by Sergeant John A. Hull, cannot but prove a 
of source of interest, I venture to give you as brief and cor- 
rect a description as possible. 

"On Wednesday evening, May 29th, our squad of twenty 
men from Company C came on board and took up their quarters 



1861] 147 

below deck, where all were made comfortable by our worthy 
captain N. Collins, U. S. N. It was not until ten o'clock A. M., 
Thursday, that we received our orders to sail, and at eleven we 
left the Navy Yard wharf amid the cheering and well wishes of 
our boys who were left behind. 

"As soon as we were fairly under way, we gathered around 
our officers, who informed us that our mission was to proceed 
to Captain Ward's fleet lying below Acquia Creek, and move 
with him to the battery erected near the mouth of said creek and 
destroy it; also to capture any prizes we might come in contact 
with, and destroy such batteries as might be in process of erec- 
tion on the shore. 

"Our lieutenant added — 'And make incursions into the ene- 
mies' country, wherever deemed expedient and necessary.' We 
were all very much gratified, and told him he would but have 
to lead the way and we would follow no matter where. It is 
needless for me to add one word of laudation to that the gallant 
lieutenant has already received, for all who know him are aware 
of his substantial worth as an officer and citizen, I can but add, 
as a slight testimonial of our squads' high approbation of his 
courage, wisdom and courteous bearing, that we had the utmost 
confidence and respect in him, and for him. 

"It was 12:10 P. M. when we arrived opposite Alexandria 
where we saw nothing of interest, as everything seemed to be 
quiet as if in deep mourning for 'Jeff' Davis and secession. The 
'Pawnee' was lying in the stream with her guns bearing on the 
city. 

"It being necessary that we should know how to handle the 
thirty-two pounder we had on board, we were called on deck 
and drilled until thoroughly familiar with its management. As 
we passed Mt. Vernon we were pained to see its sacred soil dis- 
graced by the banner of treason flying from a staff near the 
tomb of Washington. At 4:30 P. M. we passed a promontory 
where the United States had a battery in 1812, which completely 
commanded the river, preventing the passage of all vessels. We 
expected to find a battery here, but fortunately were disappointed. 
At 5 :30 P. M. we arrived at Acquia Creek, which empties into 
the Potomac fifty-five miles below Washington; just to the right 
of its mouth is the battery which we are to attack. Here is a 
little village, a depot of the Richmond R. R., several fine looking 
buildings, and a long wharf on which is a large storehouse. 

"At 8:15 P. M. we joined Captain Ward's fleet. He had 
decided to postpone the attack until the next morning. Owing 
to the 'Freeborn' having got aground we did not arrive opposite 
the battery until 9:45 A. M. (31st), and at 10 o'clock the 
'Freeborn' opened the ball by firing two shots which did not take 
effect as we had not got their range. We followed suit immedi- 
ately with a shell, when the battery began to reply to our compli- 
ments, and the action grew quite warm. 



148 [1861 

"The 'Freeborn' had two guns and fired as rapidly as possible, 
whereas, we had but one, with Samuel F. Perkins as captain, and 
'our boys' to man it although we did great execution with it, 
knocking two embrasures into one and killing and wounding large 
numbers. 

"At 11 :30 A. M. they slackened in their firing, when a five- 
pound rifled cannon opened on us from a ravine in the hills, 
which showered us with their balls, while we could not retaliate, 
our guns not being able to carry so far. We, however, demolished 
the lower battery and then sailed away without a man hurt, or a 
vessel receiving a shot, coming to anchor off Indian Point, but 
left there about 11 :30 P. M. on account of suspicious movements 
on shore. 

"June 1st, at 11 :15 A. M., we resumed the attack, in com- 
pany with the 'Pawnee,' 'Yankee' and 'Freeborn' — the latter lead- 
ing, the 'Pawnee' next and the 'Annacosta' third in line. At 1 1 :4b 
the rebels set fire to the storehouse on the pier which obstructed 
their range, and sent for a force of artillery from a battery below. 
The fight was immediately renewed, and continued without cessa- 
tion by either side until nearly five o'clock, when we withdrew. 

"Several times their pieces were dismounted, but were re- 
placed immediately ; and many of our shells entered their forti- 
fication scattering the men and sand. Not a man was injured on 
our side, the 'Freeborn' received two shots through her, and the 
'Pawnee' five. 'Our boys' did nobly, not a man faltered, but all 
stood at their posts like men and soldiers, in confirmation of 
which I refer you to Captain Collin's report to the Navy Depart- 
ment. This is merely adding one more proof that the 71st Regi- 
ment's men are ever at their post, and when there, maintain it." 

E. M. DEMING, 
Company C, 71st N. Y. S. M. 

Notwithstanding the statement that "Not a man was injured," 
Private Charles B. Hall (one of four brothers, Henry B., Alfred 
and Ernest (Judge), (all of Company C), claimed that he was 
the first man wounded in the Navy. He writes : 

* * * "I could not partake in the fight on account of a 
bad scald I got in the morning. I was going down the hatch to 
get shells on deck, when one of the boys handing down a bucket- 
ful of tea (just oflf the stove) did not see me. It struck my 
head, spilling the contents on my right shoulder and arm, scald- 
ing the skin and making some blisters from my neck down to 
my elbow. This was so sore I could not work the gun, so I 
seated myself on the bowsprit and watched the fight * * * j 
am afraid they will send me ashore when we reach the Navy 
Yard but I hope not. I have smelt gunpowder, and like the 
smell when fired at the enemies of our 'Stars and Stripes.' " 



1861] 149 

Having fired away all their ammunition, it was necessary to 
return to Washington for a supply. The following is the report 
of Captain John H. Ward, U. S. N. 

"On the 31st of May, 1861, the U. S. Steamer 'Thomas Free- 
born' supported by the 'Annacosta' and 'Resolute,' opened a can- 
nonade upon the rebel batteries at Acquia Creek, fifty-five miles 
below Washington at the terminus of the Fredericksburg and 
Potomac R. R. * * * 

"After an incessant discharge kept up for two hours, and 
the expenditure of all ammunition suitable for distant firing, and 
silencing completely the three batteries at the railroad terminus, 
the firing from shore having been rapidly kept up by them until 
so silenced, and having been recommenced from new batteries 
from the heights back, which reached us in volleys, dropped the 
shot on board and about us like hail for nearly an hour, I hauled 
the vessels off, as the heights proved wholly above the reach of 
our elevation. 

"Judging from the explosion of our ten-second shells in the 
sand batteries, two of which were thrown by the 'Annacosta,' it is 
hardly possible the enemy could have escaped loss. Several of 
the 'Annacosta's' shells dropped in the vicinity of the battery. 

"I cannot speak in too high terms of the officers and men, 
whose coolness and activity under great exposure are beyond 
praise. 

"June 1st — The bombardment of Acquia Creek was recom- 
menced today by the 'Pawnee,' 'Thomas Freeborn,' 'Annacosta,' 
'Yankee,' and 'Reliance,' commencing at 11:30 A. M., and 
terminating at 4:30 P. M., when the enemies' batteries were 
silenced and deserted by the rebels, who were seen rapidly re- 
treating along the beach. The shot at times fell thick about us, 
testing the gallantry and steadiness of my people which I consider 
of standard proof for any emergency." 

HEADQUARTERS "AMERICAN GUARD," 

71st Regiment, N. Y. S. Militia, 

Navy Yard, Washington, June 5th, 1861. 

Special : — 

The commandant having received a note from Captain John 
A. Dahlgren enclosing a copy of the report of the part per- 
formed by a detachment of the 71st Regin^ent in the engagement 
at Acquia Creek on the 31st of May and June 1st, the same is 
hereby published for the information of the troops. 

HENRY P. MARTIN, 
Lieut.-Col. commanding. 



150 [1861 

(COPY) 

Commandant's Office, Navy Yard 

Washington, June 4th, 1861. 
Lieut.-Col. Martin, 

Commanding 71st Regiment, N. Y. S. M., 
Navy Yard, Washington. 
Sir:— 

You no doubt will be gratified to receive the annexed copy 
of the statement forwarded to me by Lieut.-Commanding Collins 
of the "Annacosta," relating to the meritorious conduct of a de- 
tachment of Company C of the 71st Regiment while engaging the 
batteries at Acquia Creek on May 31st and June 1st. 

Your ob't servant, 

JOHN A. DAHLGREN, 
Com'd't. 

(COPY) 
U. S. Steamer "Annacosta," June 2, 1861. 
Sir:— 

I have great pleasure in informing you of the excellent char- 
acter and conduct of the detachment of the 71st Regiment, 
N. Y. S. Militia, Company C, serving on board this vessel under 
Lieut. T. B. Prendergast. 

They have my warmest thanks for their assistance in the 
working of our guns at Acquia Creek. 

As gentlemen, soldiers or boatmen, they do honor to their 
immediate commanding officer, and to the 71st. Enclosed is a 
muster roll of the detachment. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

N. COLLINS, 
Lieut.-Commanding. 
To John A. Dahlgren, 

Commanding, Navy Yard, Washington. 

ROLL 

Of detachment of Company C, 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M., 
commanded by Lieut. Thomas B. Prendergast of Company E, on 
board of the U. S. Steamer "Annacosta," May 31st and June 
1st, 1861 : 

Sergeant E. Platte J. W. Grittman 

John A. Hull Mulford M. Martin E. K. Mather 

Corporals W. H. Livan J. R. Delan 

Richard T. Rich A. Ferguson G. A. H. Bartlett 

W. B. Wells C. J. Mansfield Eugine M. Deming 

Privates H. K. Willoughby H. L. Barker 

Geo. B. Raynor Geo. Bacon J. Roberts 

John Locke G. A. Kasmire Charles B. Hall 

[NOTE.— During the fall of 1863 the "Florida" entered the 
port of Bahia, Brazil — a neutral port — where she anchored. At 



1861] 151 

this time the Union Gunboat "Wachusett," commanded by Cap- 
tain Napoleon ColHns, was also in port. On October 6th, when 
part of the "Florida's" crew was ashore, at midnight. Captain 
Collins made an attempt to sink the "Florida," but failing in this 
he captured the privateer and towed her out to sea. She was 
later sunk in Hampton Roads. For this breach of neutrality 
Secretary Seward later apologized to the Brazilian Government.] 

May 30th President Lincoln reviewed the regiment at dress 
parade. 

While the fight was going on at Acquia Creek, the following 
communication was received at headquarters : 

War Department, Washington, D. C. 

June 1st, 7:25 P.M. 
Lieut.-Col. Martin, 71st Regiment, N. Y. S. M., 
Navy Yard. 

If you hear the sound of battle at Alexandria, Va., proceed 
at once by the steamer at the Navy Yard, with your whole force 
to that place. 

MANSFIELD, 
Brig.-General, U. S. A. 

As the regiment did not move at that time it is evident that 
no sound of battle reached headquarters. And that evening at 
dress parade the regiment was reviewed by Vice-President 
Hamlin. 

Every Sunday morning at nine o'clock companies were in- 
spected in quarters, knapsacks, arms and equipments. Lieut.-Col. 
Martin was very strict, every man was expected to have a pride 
about keeping himself and his equipments in the best of order, 
knapsacks properly packed ; so Saturday afternoon was a general 
cleaning up time, to be prepared. 

Sunday, June 2d, the President with Secretary Seward, visit- 
ed the Yard being received with the usual salute of guns. 

June 3d Major-General Sanford, 1st Division, N. Y. S. M., 
with his staff, visited the Yard and reviewed the regiment. The 
N. Y. Tribune said : 

"The dress parade of the 71st was attended by a large num- 
ber of people this evening, a large proportion of whom were 
ladies, who seemed gladdened by the return of this noble regi- 
ment to its old quarters. Little children in the neighborhood fre- 



152 [1861 

quently bring bouquets of flowers, much to the gratification of 
receiver and giver." 

June 5th, a new Company I, was added to the regiment, by 
the arrival of the Parmenter Rifles, Company L, 19th N. Y. S. M., 
of Newburg. They were commanded by Captain Augustus Van 
Horn Ellis, brother of the captain of Company F. 

From the N. Y. Evening "Express," June 6th : 

"The 'Annacosta,' manned by twenty-one members of the 
N. Y. 71st, Company C, under command of Lieutenant Maynard, 
and the 'Mt. Vernon,' manned by twenty-one members of Com- 
pany E, same regiment, under command of Lieutenant Prender- 
gast, left the Navy Yard at seven o'clock last evening (5th), to 
report to General Butler at Fortress Munroe. 

"The 'Mt. Vernon' deck is fitted for two thirty-two pounders, 
which are on board * * * So great is the desire among the 
boys of the 71st to join this expedition, that from five to fifteen 
dollars were offered for the privilege, but there were no sellers. 
Lieutenant Maynard's crew is the same which served on the 
'Annacosta' at Acquia Creek." 

The prisoners of war at this time were still on board the 
"Powhattan." They passed away their time mostly with sleeping 
and playing cards. Everything was done for their physical com- 
fort, but they were closely guarded, and not allowed to hold 
communication with afiyone. 

HEADQUARTERS AMERICAN GUARD, 71ST REGIMENT 
LIGHT INFANTRY, NEW YORK STATE TROOPS 

Washington Navy Yard, June 8th, 1861. 
Special Orders: 

The Commandants of Companies B, E, and G are hereby directed 
to have guard mounted at 8 o'clock P. M., and to be turned off at 5 
o'clock A. M., composed of one and a half files from each of the above 
named companies. 

The duties assigned will be to preserve order and quiet during the 
night in the quarters of these companies. 

They will arrest all who create any disturbance after "Tattoo" 
and place them in the Guard House. 

Each of these companies will furnish a corporal of the Guard in 
turn. 

HENRY P. MARTIN, 
Lieut. Col. Commanding. 

The cause of the above order was this: These companies 



1861] 153 

were quartered in one large loft, two companies, one on each side, 
a narrow passage between, through which the third company had 
to pass to get to their quarters at the end of the loft ; this run- 
ning of the gauntlet by some of the late comers, frequently re- 
sulted in horse play, annoying to those who did not appreciate 
the fun, necessitated this order. 

On the 10th was issued a new G. O. (10), for the daily 
duties ; it differed from G. O. No. 1 as follows : 

At 6:45 A. M. the companies will be formed in line on the 
regimental parade ground, and then marched to headquarters for 
prayers. 

13 — Target practice superintended by an officer specially de- 
tailed for that purpose; companies H and F at 8 A. M. ; com- 
panies G and C at 9 A. M. ; companies B and E at 10 A. M. ; 
companies A and D at 11 A. M. 

14 — Each commandant of company may give passes to eight 
men from 9 A. M. 'till 1 P. M. ; and eight men from 1 P. M. 'till 
5 P. M., and no commissioned officer or private will be allowed to 
leave the yard without a pass. 

15— At all drills and target practice, all officers, non-com- 
missioned officers and privates will be present, except the sick, 
those on guard duty, and those just returned from guard duty in 
the morning. 

16 — No smoking will be allowed within the yard under any 
circumstances whatever, except in quarters within the building. 

On the 11th, President Lincoln, Secretary Seward and Chase, 
visited the Yard at time of dress parade. 

From the New York "Tribune," June 11th: 

"A company of the N. Y. 71st headed by Lieut.-Col. Martin 
and officers of the regular army, crossed from the Navy Yard 
into Maryland the other night, on a reconnoitering expedition, 
having understood that a quantity of arms and ammunition had 
been concealed in the neighborhood. Several dwelHngs were 
searched, but nothing contraband was found. The party returned 
at three o'clock next morning. 

"The regiment will remain at the Navy Yard unless there is 
an absolute necessity for their removal to some other point. 
General Mansfield was very anxious that this noble regiment 
should remain at Alexandria, but General Scott insisted upon 
their return to the Yard, saying that this position was theirs, and 
they were to defend it to the last ; Captain Dahlgren is also earnest 
in his remonstrance against their removal." 

On the 11th, every man in the regiment was vaccinated. This 



154 [1861 

later put many on the invalid list, and there were instances where 
some were months before their wound healed. 

On the ISth, a spy was arrested in the Yard. Letters on him 
indicated his being a member of the Piscataway, Maryland Rifles. 
From the N. Y. "Tribune," June 19th : 

"June. 17th two companies of the 71st Regiment, Companies 
F and I (the later 'howitzer company'), ISO in all, left the Navy 
Yard at 10 P. M., on board the 'Mt. Vernon,' Captain Wood, for 
Port Tobacco, Maryland. The Government having received in- 
formation that a company of secessionists were camped in that 
neighborhood, and that quantities of arms and ammunition were 
secreted in that vicinity, a landing was made at Chapel Point 
four miles this side of Port Tobacco at four o'clock A. M., June 
18th, when the two companies took a line of march into the in- 
terior under command of Captain Julius Ellis of Company F, 
for the purpose of searching the premises of a captain of a seces- 
sion cavalry company, some five miles distant. 

"Twenty-five men were sent ahead in two ambulances guided 
by a slave whom these explorers induced after much persuasion 
to point out the way. 

"Nothing was found justifying a seizure, all arms and am- 
munition having doubtless been removed from the premises. 

"On the way back from Chapel Point, several barns and a 
school house were searched, but with like result. 

"No trace of rebels at Port Tobacco was discovered, to the 
mortification of the boys of the 71st, who had been led to believe 
that they were at last to have an opportunity of meeting the enemy. 

"They learned while there that several hundred armed men 
had crossed over to the Virginia shore in a schooner, only the day 
before, among whom were doubtless those of whom they were in 
search. 

"The rebel guns and flags were distinctly visible at Acquia 
Creek, and from the fact that a large number of tents were dis- 
cernable, it is certain that a strong force is gathered there, which 
is being reinforced from time to time from the Maryland shore. 

"The 'Mt. Vernon' returned to the Navy Yard at 5 P. M." 

On the 18th the 1st Ohio regiment left its camp (which was 
located on the same ground that the 71st bivouacked on when in 
- Alexandria, Va., May 28th) under command of Colonel McCook 
of General Schenck's command, and entrained for the purpose of 
placing guards at the different crossings, they landed their men 
at Fall's Church and other points and one of the trains returned 
to Alexandria. 

The last train was backing up to the Vienna Station to land 
the remainder of the regiment when they were fired upon from a 
masked battery. Seven were killed and eight or ten wounded. 

Orders came for the 71st to leave for Alexandria. 



1861] 155 

War Department, Washington, D. C. 

June 19th, 1861, 9 P. M. 
Captain Dahlgren: — 

Please send the 71st Regiment in steamer at once, to Alexan- 
dria, to arrive there before daylight, but not to land except for 
the defense of that place. 

WINFIELD SCOTT. 

Accordingly at 2 A. M., June 19th, the men were routed out 
and marched on board of the steamers "Philadelphia" and "Balti- 
more," the regiment was to leave at 3 A. M., and as the line was 
cast off and the boat started. Colonel Martin looked at his watch 
and exclaimed with great satisfaction, "Three o'clock and the 
wheels turned." On arrival at Alexandria, the regiment was 
landed on the wharf and formed for the advancing to the sup- 
port of General Schenck. They soon, however, received word 
that their services were not required, as the Vienna fight was 
over. They, accordingly without seeing anything of the fight 
except the disabled engine, re-embarked and returned to the Navy 
Yard, reaching there about 8 P. M. 

On the 19th, Lieutenant-Colonel Martin was made Colonel, 
and Major Charles Henry Smith of General Spicer's staff, 
N.Y.S.M., was made Lieutenant-Colonel. 

On the evening of the 19th, President Lincoln and has wife 
visited the evening parade. The usual salute was given. 

From the New York "Tribune," of June 21st: 

"The 'Mt. Vernon' landed her detachment of men of the 
71st Regiment at White House Point yesterday, and searched the 
country for some distance, but saw no trace of the battery, 
alleged to have been erected in that neighborhood. 

"After returning to the yard, which they reached shortly 
after dark last evening, and making their report, Captain Wood 
was ordered to return down the river, and capture a schooner 
(the same referred to before) which had recently been engaged 
in carrying troops and provisions over to the rebels from the 
Maryland shore. 

"The vessel was captured after a short cruise, and brought 
to the yard, with two men that were aboard." 

On the 21st, Company A had a birthday party with a bounte- 
ous dinner set out in their quarters which were tastefully decorat- 
ed for the occasion. At the appointed hour, the company and 
their invited guests, among whom were several officers of other 
regiments, besides nearly all the field and staff and company 
officers of the regiment, sat down to the table and discussed the 
good things prepared. The affair passed off with great success. 



156 [1861 

June 22d, Brig.-Gen. Spicer, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 
N. Y. S. M., came in camp with the commission for Colonel 
Martin, swore him in remaining for dress parade and took a 
review. 

June 28th the "Pawnee" arrived at 9 A. M., bringing the 
body of Captain J. H. Ward of the U. S. Steamer "Thomas 
Freeborn," who was killed the day before in an engagement with 
the rebels at Mathias Point. His gunner was wounded in his 
thigh ; Captain Ward immediately took his place and was sight- 
ing the gun when struck by a musket ball full in the breast, which 
killed him almost instantly. 

On the arrival a company of the regiment was ordered out to 
receive the body and escort it to the engine house, where it was 
laid out draped in the American flag. The remains lay in state 
until IP. M., on the 29th, when the regiment escorted them to 
the train which took them to New York. 

From the BaUimore "CHpper," of the 29th : 

"The object of Captain Ward in throwing up the breast 
work at Mathias Point was that his boats' crew might be able 
to hold the place with the aid of a small howitzer battery and 
covered with the thirty-two pounder guns of the 'Freeborn,' until 
he should be reinforced by the N. Y. 71st Regiment, which he 
had sent for to come to his support. It was thought that the 
regiment once there could fortify themselves and hold the place 
against any force short of a vastly superior number. The 
Steamer 'Pawnee,' however, arrived at the Navy Yard with Cap- 
tain Ward's remains before the dispatch reached the 71st Regi- 
ment." 

The regiment was reviewed at dress parade on the 29th by 
secretary of the Navy, Wells. 

From the Washington "National Republican," June 30th : 

"Those who enjoy a pleasant drive, should visit the Navy 
Yard and witness the parade of the New York 71st Regiment. 
Character lends so much to a regiment — here the officers seem to 
command, and the privates exhibit those quaHties which mark 
them as a superior corps. Their three months' term of service 
expires in August. 

"Troops quartered in the Navy Yard have the advantage of 
a delightfully cool breeze from the water, while pleasant verandas 
surround the officers' quarters — where we waited the evening 
concert — such music as only Dodworth's band discourses." 



1861] 157 

On July 1st, the "Mt. Vernon," Captain Woods, left the 
Yard in the evening for Fortress Munroe with dispatches from 
the Navy Department for General Butler. She took a small de- 
tachment of Marines, and a detachment of Company H, to re- 
lieve those who went down there about ten days ago on the 
"Annacosta" as a guard to the Rip- Raps. 

Changes were rapid from one extreme to another. Hardly 
had the strains of a dead march died on the waves of the air, then 
all excitement was centered in the great ball match to be played 
between a nine of the "National" and "Potomac" Base Ball clubs 
of Washington, and a picked nine of the regiment. The follow- 
ing invitation was received for the match : 

THE NATIONAL BASE BALL CLUB 

Request the pleasure of your company on their grounds at 
the intersection of Maryland Avenue and 6th Street, East, on 
Tuesday, July 2d, at twelve o'clock, to witness a match game 
with the 71st Regiment Base Ball Club. 

ARTHUR P. GORMAN, 
Secretary N. B. B. Club. 
[NOTE. — This Secretary was a page in the Congress. He 
subsequently became a Senator from Maryland, which office he 
filled at the time of his death.] 

This match was witnessed by a large number of spectators, 
and was characterized by some very fine playing, especially on 
the part of the "American Guard" nine. The following is the 
score of the game: 

NATIONAL AMERICAN GUARD 

OR OR 

Gorman, p 2 2 Babcock, c -2 6 

Dooley, 2b 3 2 Van Cott, 3b 4 2 

French, 3b 2 3 Storer, lb 2 5 

Patton, If 3 2 Dickens, ss 5 4 

Croning, rf 3 1 Umplery, If 2 6 

Crook, c 5 Wandle, p 2 6 

Robinson, lb 2 2 Burger, 2b 5 3 

Camp, ss 4 Rowe, rf 2 5 

Bigger, cf 1 1 Van Valkenburg, cf 3 5 

INNINGS: 123456789 

Nationals 2 3 113 1 2—13 

American Guard 8 2 2 1 2 4 12 6 5—42 



158 [1861 

July 4th was celebrated with a review by Major-General 
Sanford, N. Y. S. M., of the twenty-three regiments of N. Y. 
S. M., then in Washington; from a platform in front of the 
White House, the President, General Scott and members of the 
Cabinet received a marching salute. 

After the review, the 71st escorted the President to the head 
of Pennsylvania Avenue, where the regiment formed three sides 
of a square with a flag staff in the centre upon which with the 
usual ceremony, a flag (Old Glory) was hoisted by the President, 
after which he was escorted by the regiment to the White House, 
which then returned to the Navy Yard. This flag was presented 
by the Union Defense Committee of New York. 

Monday the 8th, Captain Dahlgren turned over to the regi- 
ment two handsome brass howitzers, these were placed by 
Colonel Martin in the charge of Company I, which commenced 
practice with them, and subsequently, within two weeks, made 
excellent use of them on the battle field. Captain Dahlgren also 
presented each of the members of the Drum Corps with a rifle 
of his own invention. 

A little incident occured about this time, which is worth record- 
ing as an illustration of "red tape" or professional bigotry; 
Colonel Martin had sent to him from New York, a small case 
of Jamaica ginger; its efficacy well known now (but not so well 
at that time) for bowel complaints. The Colonel was frequently 
called upon by those troubled in this way, they receiving immedi- 
ate relief. This soon came to the notice of the medical staff, 
which promptly informed the colonel that he was committing a 
grievous mistake, and interfering with their prerogative, and that 
he must desist, which he did. 

Not long after a member of one of the companies was sent 
to the hospital, his case running into a severe one of dysentery, 
the doctors being unable to check it; his captain called on the 
colonel, requesting some of his ginger, but under the circum- 
stances as above, the colonel could not grant it. The next day the 
captain returned with the report that the doctors said there was 
no hope for the man, that he would probably not live beyond 
midnight, he therefore beseeched the colonel for the ginger, as 
it could do no harm, and it might save the man's life. The colonel 
said: "Captain, you know the position I am in, if I should give 
him this ginger and he died, the doctors might accuse me as the 



1861] 159 

cause, however, as you say they have given him up. I will give 
you the ginger, but understand, it is for yourself, and not for 
him, what you do with it, is for you to decide." 

The next morning the captain called on the colonel, with a 
radiant face and reported the man was alive and on the road to 
recovery ; he and a sergeant sat by the man's bedside during the 
night, watch in hand, at the hour of twelve, although the patient 
was unconscious he was living. They gave him a dose of the 
ginger with immediate effect. The man recovered. 

July the 6th, the regiment was paid for one month. The 
payment was in gold ; the novelty of the occasion created quite a 
sensation, as patriotism, not pay, was the cause of their presence, 
not much thought was given about pay. To very many, it was 
but a small return for what they had sacrificed by enlisting. 

July 7th, Sunday, President Lincoln arrived at dress parade. 
The President's visits to the Yard were quite frequent. He 
would lie down on the lounge in the colonel's quarters, taking ofif 
his boots and have as he said, "A rest where he could be free 
from politicians, it was the only place where there was no one 
that wanted something." And he did seem to enjoy it. 

From the Washington "National Republican," July 13th : 

"The Steamer 'James Guy,' Lieutenant Pritchard, U. S. N., 
commanding, left the Navy Yard wharf on Thursday 11th, instant 
afternoon, having on board a squad of Company H, 71st Regi- 
ment, and Captain Nathan Darling, Chief of the Capitol police, in 
search of Mr. James Taliaferro, a noted secessionist, and lately 
a clerk in the Treasury Department, who left this city early this 
morning. 

"The 'Guy' proceeded to the U. S. Steamer 'Pocohontas,' 
where she took on board twelve seamen, twelve marines and a 
boat howitzer. She proceeded down the river to Chapel Point, 
where a portion of the men were landed. 

"On reaching the shore, they found a light hung out on the 
side of a house, which was evidently used as a signal to those 
on the Virginia shore. They forthwith awoke the occupant, and 
compelled him to take it down. The march was then taken for 
Port Tobacco, which they reached about midnight, and found two 
colored men, who showed them the hotel. A guard was placed 
around the house, and the landlord summoned, but he denied 
having seen Taliaferro. 

"They immediately proceeded on their own hook, and finding 
by the register that Taliaferro was the occupant of number 6, 



160 [1861 

went to his room, and awoke him. His trunk was taken posses- 
sion of and was brought with the prisoner to this city. It con- 
tained a large number of letters written to prominent secessionests 
in Virginia, and $1,700 in gold, but whether it was the result of 
his economy or the contributions of his late fellow clerks, we 
have been unable to learn. 

"The letters seem to indicate that he has heretofore sent 
quite a lot of information to Virginia, and some of them implicate 
a prominent banker of this city in the secession scheme. He was 
to have been arrested yesterday afternoon, but had not up to the 
hour of going to press. 

"Taliaferro was on his arrival taken before General Mans- 
field, who sent him to jail. It was discovered at the Point, that 
boats are constantly crossing to the Virginia shore during the 
night, with passengers and provisions." 

For some days rumors of stirring events were in the air, and 
preparations were being made by all for departure, as it was 
either war or home in a week's time, as the term of service ex- 
pired on the 20th, at which time the regiment should be mustered 
out in New York. The morning of the 16th, however, settled the 
doubts much to the satisfaction of all. Early orders were re- 
ceived for the regiment to march at 12 :30 P. M., into Virginia. 
From an early hour all were busy packing their haversacks with 
three days' rations, and other necessities cared for. The several 
quarters presented a lively appearance, the men cheering as they 
got ready to start. All the boat detachments were called in. 
Hasty farewells were exchanged between the men and the numer- 
ous friends they had made in the Yard since their stay there. 

On board the "Philadelphia" the squad, before leaving the 
steamer, held a meeting in the lower deck saloon, in which they 
passed a preamble and resolutions expressive of their high regard 
for Captain Silas Reynolds. This was read and presented in the 
presence of the detachment to Captain Reynolds, who in receiv- 
ing them, made a feeling and befitting reply, and took leave of 
each one of them personally. The detachment also presented 
expressions of respect and esteem to the engineers and other 
officers of the boat. 

The hour for departure having arrived, headed by its band, 
the regiment marched out of the Navy Yard through to Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue, and thence to a point near 7th Street, where it 
joined the brigade now commanded by Colonel Burnside, acting 
brigadier-general. The uniform worn was, instead of the jacket, 
a gray blouse. 



1861] 161 

The brigade formed without ceremony at 3 P. M., marched 
over the Long Bridge into Virginia where for a short distance 
the band led the regiment, playing "Dixie." It then returned to 
the Navy Yard, Harvey Dodworth and his leader Downing going 
with the regiment as buglers. The brigade continued its march 
until 8 o'clock P. M., reaching a place called Annandale, about 
eleven miles from the Navy Yard, where it bivouacked for the 
night. The following is the roster of officers. 

Col. Henry B. Martin, Lieut.-Col. Charles H. Smith, Major 
George A. Buckingham, Surgeons Engine Peugnet, James B. 
Reynolds, J. P. Dodge, Acting Adjutant Wm. G. Tompkins, Com- 
missary William Borrowe, Acting Quartermaster Edgar A. 
Seelye, Non-Commission Staff Sergeant-Major H. F. Libneau, 
Q. M. S. Nicholas W. Day, Com'y Sergeant J. J. Plumsted. 

CAPTAINS 1st LIEUTENANTS 2d LIEUTENANTS 

A — David D. Hart Acting Adjutant Thomas B. Oakley 

B — Benj. L. Trafford James R. Klots John R. Livermore 

C — William J. Coles Samuel H. Maynard Charles H. Ackley 
D — Dav. C. Meschutt George H. Stowe D. H. Denyse 
E — Edward S. Wade Thos. B. Prendergast Geo. K. Fairchild 
F — Julius L. Ellis Thomas A. Murphy Eugene Thorn 
G — Wm. S. Dunham George W. Curtis Henry W. Turner 
H — Asa F. Miller Andrew H. Embler Geo. W. Underwood 
I — A. Van Horn Ellis Benj. F. Chamberlain G. W. Hawkins 

George W. Wilkes, who was an aide on Colonel Vosburgh's 
staff, accompanied the brigade and the following was written by 
him, and published in his paper, the New York "Spirit of the 
Times." It gives a vivid account of the battle of Bull Run. 

Fairfax, Va., Headquarters of the Fifth Division, U. S. A. 

July 17th, 1861. 

The Grand Army, under the command of General McDowell, 
set out in four divisions, numbering each about twelve thousand 
men, with one division of seven New Jersey regiments in reserve. 
They took three different roads toward the line of the Manassas 
Railway, diverging each a little, so it could be tapped at different 
points, in case it should be necessary to make a flank movement 
on the formidable batteries at the Junction. The only points of 
serious opposition expected on the way were, first, at Fairfax 



162 [1861 

Court House, next, at Centreville, about ten miles further on, 
and next at a place called Bull Run, where a branch of the 
Ocaquan is forded, and which is said to be of considerable stra- 
tegic strength. This latter place is about seven or eight miles 
distant from Manassas Junction, from which it consequently can 
be easily reinforced. 

On the afternoon of Tuesday, the 16th inst., the brigade of 
Colonel Burnside, consisting of the 1st and 2d Rhode Island 
troops, the New York 71st and the 2d New Hampshire Volun- 
teers, accompanied by two batteries, left Washington by the route 
of the Long Bridge and, proceeding with the central column under 
Acting-Major-General Hunter, took the direct turnpike road to 
Fairfax Court House. The division under Acting-Major-General 
Colonel Miles, which included the N. Y. 32d, of Colonel Matheson, 
better known as the 1st California regiment, took the extreme left 
along the Old Braddock road, south of the turnpike occupied 
by Hunter's Division. The 1st Division under General Tyler, 
which included, among others, the N. Y. 69th and 79th, formed 
the extreme right, and proceeded along the Leesburg road, by 
the way of Vienna. This method enabled the troops to march 
without clogging each other's movements, and at the same time to 
sweep a large breadth of country as they went. 

The general advance in this order proceeded but a distance 
of eight or nine miles on Tuesday evening, and then encamped. 
On this morning the vast machine roused itself at an early hour, 
and proceeded on again, the main and central movement upon 
Fairfax Court House being confided to the division of Colonel 
Hunter, which included the Rhode Islanders and the 71st. But 
while we were thus pressing forward on all sides, the Confeder- 
ate's troops seemed to have been to some extent apprised of our 
intentions, for Beauregard had visited them on the previous after- 
noon, and a new watchfulness in consequence had inspired their 
camp. Along the turnpike and the Old Braddock road, trees had 
been felled across the highway, and skirmishers were pushed well 
forward to harass our advance. The strength, however, which 
they expected against them did not exceed, in their vain estima- 
tion, what their three regiments of Mississippians, Alabamians 
and Carolinians could successfully resist. Accordingly, when their 
skirmishers, who had fallen in with Colonel Miles' division, 
brought them the news that we were advancing on their right, 
they manned their batteries and breastworks only in that direc- 
tion, and then went on with the duties of the camp in usual 



1861] 163 

style, slaughtering some beeves which they had just purchased, 
and building up their cooking fires. 

The turnpike road, along which Colonel Hunter led the 
centre, was equally perplexed with leafy barricades, but the 
pioneers threw them lustily aside, and the whole division, with a 
growing eagerness for battle, kept insensibly accelerating its pace, 
till, of its own accord, it almost reached a "double quick." They 
were the first, of course, to reach the Court House, and first, 
consequently, to be seen by the Confederates ; who, surprised at 
finding the enemy coming along the turnpike when they expected 
him only by the Braddock road, seized hold of their cannon in 
that quarter and ran with them to the centre. At the same mo- 
ment, reports were brought that the Federal troops were ap- 
proaching on the right, and appearing also in strong force in the 
direction of the left. The enemy did not wait, therefore, to hear 
the shout of the Rhode Islanders and the 71st as they prepared 
to charge, but, dropping whatever they were about, incontinently 
fled. With wild hurrahs, the Burnside Brigade, in a few minutes 
afterward, tore their way into the village, looking eagerly to the 
right and left for foes, and in their disappointment penetrating 
often the abandoned dwellings, in the hope of finding some secret- 
ed squad of the Confederates there. 

But, though entirely gone, they had barely escaped, and had 
the Sth Division being a little further forward, they must have 
been intercepted and cut off. As it was, they left their tents, 
camp equipage, forage, a quantity of arms and flour, and, in some 
instances, their uniforms and swords. The ground of their camp 
around the Court House, as I walked over it, presented a most 
extraordinary appearance, and amid the hurled-down tents, strewn 
boxes, and a litter of canteens and blankets, was a snow of un- 
sent letters, some of which I took as lawful prize. So precipitate 
was their flight, that the camp-kettles were seething with their 
intended meal, and it was necessary that a corporal of the Rhode 
Islanders should take down their rebel flag from the Court House, 
and put the Star Spangled banner in its place. I wish, dear 
reader, you could have heard the cheers which hailed the starry 
ensign as it went aloft. It would have done you good, also, had 
you listened to the shout with which the boys of the 71st greeted 
the discovery of four fresh quarters of beef at the Carolinian 
Commissary's tent, and fifty thousand very good cigars, which 
had been intended to regale the nostrils of the Confederate 



164 , [1861 

"staff." Need I tell you that the Havanas were instantly con- 
fiscated, or that I cheerfully enjoyed a portion of the plunder? 

The Californians, on their part, were, if anything, more 
fortunate than the 71st, for they commenced their march by the 
capture, near Alexandria, of twenty-five barrels of Potomac 
herrings and a carronade, and, when taking possession of the 
Alabama camp, secured four cattle which had been bought and 
paid for that very morning, and whose throats had been cut only 
a few minutes before. 

Centreville, Va., July 18th, 1861. 

The Grand Army has just had its first taste of the mettle 
of the enemy, but though fresh from the field, and yet filled with 
its excitements, I will turn back awhile, and reach a description 
by the regular approaches. 

Last night, at Fairfax, I went to bed beneath a broad porch 
in the soft moonshine, where the night before Confederate cap- 
tains sat and swore, but where there was then nothing to disturb 
my peaceful slumbers. The only thing to break the stillness of 
the night was the occasional challenge of the sentinels and the 
casual baying of secession dogs, started into chorus by some cur, 
indignant at the tramp of our pickets as they went by on guard. 
But these sounds were becoming usual to me, so I slept undis- 
turbed till about an hour past midnight, when I was startled 
awake by several musket shots in the direction of the Braddock 
road. I raised my head, found that the camp had taken alarm, 
and as I listened I could hear the fight rattle of steel, which pro- 
ceeds from the slightest stir of a body of armed men, and then 
the low buzz of "Stand ready, boys ! stand ready !" spread over 
the field of reposing thousands like the travel of a shower of rain. 
In the next few moments all was still, for all were listening as I 
was. In a few moments more, however, it became evident that 
the alarm had no foundation, and with a growl at being thus 
disturbed, our heavy legions sunk again to sleep. 

At an early hour in the morning the i-eveille summoned all 
the columns to an early movement, but inasmuch as I paused be- 
hind for an inviting breakfast improvised for me on the edge of 
a three-dollar piece, the 71st got well off before I was fed, and 
I took up the march for the day with the N. Y. 32d, the regiment 
of my California friends. The weather was delightful and the 
travel gaily made ; and the wish that was oftenest expressed upon 



1861] 165 

the route, was that before the day closed we might have an 
opportunity to fight. 

"Here are plenty of chances for it," said Captain Ross Fish, 
as he swept his arm over the fine rolling and well wooded country. 

"Yes," said the handsome adjutant, "and it would seem that 
men who would let us 'march thus far into the bowels of such a 
land without impedient,' would hardly interfere with us before 
we reach Manassas." 

"Don't be uneasy, boys ! don't be uneasy !" said the bluff 
voice of Major Lemon, who came up at the moment; "You'll 
have fighting enough ; and it will come soon enough ; and there is 
something in my bones that tells me we shall get a taste of it 
to-day." 

With occasional rests, made more for the relief of the 
animals which tugged at the ponderous baggage-trains than for 
the men, we reached Centreville at noon, and the 5th Division, of 
which the 32d was a part, settled itself, like so many flies, in a 
broad valley that lay at the foot of a high hill, about half a mile 
before it. On the other side of the road, to our right, but in the 
same valley, reposed a portion of the 1st Division, under General 
Tyler, and behind them, some two miles on the same central road, 
had paused General McDowell, with the Hunter column. In a 
few minutes, the 1st and 5th Divisions had improvised a sort of 
shade by stretching their blankets over their stacked muskets, 
while some of them^ who were not partaking of their rations, 
were fast asleep. 

The only party that did not at once enjoy repose, were the 
Massachusetts 1st, the Michigan 2d and the New York 12th, for 
these were ordered by General Tyler over the hill past Centre- 
ville, to the left, to make a reconnoissance of the position at Bull 
Run, where we had reason to apprehend the enemy had con- 
structed works. All the remainder of the two Divisions being 
pretty well asleep, I turned, with some officers of the 32d, back 
to a country house, about a mile down the road, and by that 
instinct for dinner which seldom fails a good traveller, managed 
to secure from the old farmer who was its proprietor, a tolerable 
meal, with hot coffee for us all. In due time, the officers who 
were my guests, left to attend to their regimental duties, but, 
solaced by the grateful shade of its rustic porch, and the faces 
of the old man's grandchildren, I preferred to take my siesta there. 

A civilian friend shared my notions, and remained with me, 
and we lay stretched upon the rude benches of the stoop, rehears- 



166 [1861 

ing the incidents of the morning march, as a preliminary to our 
nap. Suddenly, and during one of those lengthening pauses in 
our conversation which betoken the approach of sleep, the sound 
of a great gun boomed with a fearful distinctness upon the 
before dead-stillness of the air. We both started up, and I pulled 
out my watch and noticed that it was exactly one o'clock. There 
was a pause of several seconds between the first gun and the 
next, and then came several shots in quick succession, as if the 
firing were exchanged. The answering reports seemed, however, 
to be lighter than the first, and we fancied we could tell, by the 
difference of tone, the respective vigor with which the contest 
was conducted. We lost but a few minutes in this way, and then 
hurried toward the camp, under the impression that the whole 
army was moving forward. 

We found, however, on arriving at the quarters of the 32d, 
that the whole valley was still filled with the troops of the two 
divisions, and that no orders had been given them to move. None 
seemed to know what the firing meant, for at that point, we were 
all ignorant of the advance of the three regiments under Colonel 
Richardson, toward Bull Run. It was evident, however, that the 
engagement was a very hot one, and the greatest anxiety was 
manifested to leave camp and run up to the crown of the hill 
before us, in hope to get some prospect of the scene; but the 
expectation of momentary orders, and the desire to be ready to 
move instantly, ahead, kept every man in his place. My friend 
of the porch and I, however, being unrestrained by orders, went 
up the hill, and got such range of eyesight as we could, in the 
direction of the scene. A large number of officers were grouped 
together there, and getting in their midst, we had the advantage of 
their opinions as well as of their glasses. A large piece of wood, 
about a quarter of a mile distant, extended between us and the 
scene of the engagement, but beyond its leafy screen we could 
see the smoke rise, as volleys of infantry were exchanged. 

First, there came spells limited to the range of heavy guns ; 
then ensued angry volleys of firing "by platoon," followed by the 
spiteful spits of musketry "at will." The excitement was pain- 
fully intense, and as the flat roll of the infantry discharges were 
poured forth, we knew not whether to shout for the prowess of 
our friends, or to mourn at seeing them wilt before that deadly 
shower. Nevertheless, we stood hopefully by our cause upon 
that hill, and most anxiously did I try to guage the fortunes of 
the battle by watching the road on my right hand to see if any 



1861] 167 

hasty courier was coming back for reinforcements. Occasionally 
the fire would slacken, and for a few minutes, almost stop; and 
during one of these pauses, I could see by a long coil of dust in 
the distant road which lays behind the valley of the fight, that 
the enemy was being reinforced from the direction of Manassas. 
It was evident, also, that the reinforcement was a powerful one. 

When this body reached its destination, the vigor of the 
battle was resumed, and the roar of artillery was the distinctive 
feature of the contest. Then suddenly it ceased; and along the 
road which ran by our hill-side, there could be seen coming a 
single cloud of dust, which floated toward us at high speed. We 
could not for a few minutes tell what it contained, but on nearing 
the turn of our position, a puff of wind revealed within it an 
orderly, at full gallop, who we rightly guessed had come back 
for reinforcements. Another and another eager rider followed, 
and going down to the road, we learned from them, through a 
clump of mounted officers who had rode forward to interrogate 
them, that our men had suffered considerably in the engagement, 
but that the fight would be re-opened as soon as we could send 
reinforcements. We also learned that our troops at the ground 
had, in the meantime, withdrawn themselves in the screen of 
woods out of the enemy's fire. It appeared from these accounts 
of the battle, as far as it had gone, that Colonel Richardson, of 
the Michigan Volunteers, had command of the reconnoissance, 
and had entered the open ground in front of the wood which 
concealed the masked batteries of the enemy, with four companies 
of the 1st Massachusetts, under Colonel Cowdin, forming his left, 
the 2d Michigan, forming the right, and the New York 12th 
(Volunteers), under Colonel Walrath, having the centre. The 
main battery of the enemy was upon a slight eminence in the 
centre, guarding the passage, and there were two formidable 
batteries on the right and left. 

As our troops had proceeded toward this fearful line, the 
Massachusetts men were furthest in advance, and the first, of 
course, to strike the fatal fringe which was soon to be alive with 
fire. At length, when the whole column was trailed before the 
weapons of the enemy, the word on their side was given, and 
their central battery let fly a gun, followed by a fire of musketry 
which raked our entire line. Our boys, however, received it with 
fortitude, and then dashed forward into the thicket with a shout, 
to charge the enemy. But the rain was too serious to enable 
them to penetrate the wood, yet they stood their ground hand- 



168 [1861 

somely, and despite the galling disadvantage, they endured it, and 
returned fire for fire several times. 

They then fell back, whereupon a part of Sherman's battery, 
served by Captain Ayres, unlimbered, and ran forward and took 
up the battle, the retiring movement of our infantry being sup- 
ported by a company of United States Cavalry, under Captain 
Brackett. The battery was served in the most spirited manner, 
and though two of the horses were shot down in their traces, 
and one of the guns was thus placed in danger, a dash of the 
Dragoons protected the men as they cut the horses loose, and 
ran it in themselves. Finally, we succeeded in silencing their 
batteries entirely, and the pause ensued which we had noticed as 
being occupied by musketry alone, our men now firing from a 
screen of woods in the same manner as the rebels. Presently the 
reinforcements of the enemy arrived, being received on the part 
of the Confederates with shouts, and thus furnishing the hint 
that if we wished to continue the struggle with any hope what- 
ever, we must follow suit. 

By the time we had thus collected the state of affairs as it 
had gone, the bayonets of the New York 69th came sparkling in 
heavy line from the hill of Centreville, down into the hollow 
where we stood. They, with the 79th and the 2d Wisconsin, had 
been roused from their slumbers in the adjoining valley, and 
called upon to go and plunge upon those roaring guns and inter- 
cept those showering platoons, which had already laid low so 
many of their comrades. I scrutinized them closely as they 
marched, and, knowing many in their ranks, I had to wave good 
fortune to them as they passed. They swept along eagerly, and 
at "double quick." A cheerful smile lit up every face that I 
accosted, and they looked more like bridegrooms going to their 
nuptial favors, than men seeking the dark embrace of death. The 
last hand I grasped along the line was that of Thomas Francis 
Meagher, whose company brought up the rear, and never was the 
Irish orator's handsome countenance adorned with a loftier light 
than when he returned the pressure which accompanied by "God 
bless you!" 

Following the 69th came the Scotchmen from New York, 
their tall leader. Colonel Cameron, trotting briskly at the head, 
in order to give room to their over-eager step. His face was 
cheerful, but theirs were rigid and as fixed as stone. Not a word 
was spoken except by the captains, of "hurry, hurry, boys!" 
until some looker-on, unable to command himself, exclaimed, "Go 



1861] 169 

it, auld Reekie!" Then of a sudden a wild scream, or rather 
shriek, burst forth like an explosion, and rang again and again 
along their entire line : 

"And high and wild the Cameron's gathering rose 
The war note of Lochiel ! which Albyn's hills 
Have heard, and heard, too, have her Saxon foes." 

It extended its impulse to the Celtic column in advance, and 
likewise set the Wisconsonians on fire, and the three regiments 
went forward from that moment with one continuous shout, 
which had no meaning but a mere rage for battle. 

This was the first opportunity afforded me to reach the 
scene of strife, and my friend and I fell in and followed on. As 
we neared the place of the conflict, the cannonade began again, 
and we could hear the singing of rifled cannon shot, and now and 
then see the fearful missiles plunge into the earth, or smite the 
upper branches of the trees along our line. The woods near the 
edge of the battle field were already filled with wounded and 
exhausted soldiers, and occasionally we could see a wounded man 
in the arms of his comrades, who were carrying him to some 
piece of shade, or steadying him on horseback till they could bear 
him to some spring. The universal cry of these unforunates was 
for water, and even the unhurt men — nay, even those who had 
not yet been engaged, were parched with the consuming force of 
the terrible excitement. 

When we arrived, Sherman's guns were still engaged in 
playing with the batteries of the enemy, but the infantry were 
not upon the open field. The reinforcements, also, were with- 
held, and the battle left to the great guns alone. The 69th and 
79th, and Wisconsin 2d, were drawn up just at the entrance of 
the field, protected from the enemy by a narrow screen of sap- 
lings ; and I stood by a company of Brackett's cavalary, who were 
waiting for another dash, whenever the gunners should require 
their protection. I looked along the Celtic and Gaelic line, and 
they stood, amid the booming of the guns, pale and resolved, with 
their lips firmly set, impatiently expecting the signal to go in. 
One single shout, as prologue to a bound, would have been cheap 
at a guinea to the poorest man in that expectant line. As I stood 
thus, dividing my admiration between them and the gallant fel- 
lows who were working our guns, there came a shell (as I 
thought, though it turned out to be a rifled cannon-shot) singing 
toward me; and, seeing others take warning from its note, by 



170 [1861 

running behind the trees, I bent as close as possible to the ground. 
Whether that helped any portion of me from its range, I do not 
know ; but I saw it smite a rise in the path, about fifteen yards 
ahead, and had a look at the monster in my hand in two minutes 
afterward. Even in that quiescent state, I could hardly help 
respecting it with terror remarking to it most politely, that I was 
glad it had not found me in its way. 

After this incident, the guns played with a slackening vigor 
for about half an hour more, and then the firing ceased altogether, 
the battle having lasted now about three hours and a half in all. 
The troops were, however, not withdrawn, and it was debated 
between General Tyler and his staff whether the eagerness of the 
three fresh regiments then present had not better be indulged 
and a general effort made to carry the batteries by assault. Before, 
however, this was decided on. General McDowell, who had been 
eight miles off when the fight commenced, came upon the field. 
He looked calmly round, made a few inquiries, and, without an 
appearance of the least excitement or emotion, ordered a retreat. 
It struck me, from the promptitude with which he came to this 
conclusion, that he thought the reconnoissance should have taken 
this course after the first five minutes, as soon as it had tested 
the strength of the enemy's entrenchments, i have since heard 
that he did not meditate such an advance as this with any portion 
of his force beyond the valley east of Centreville, where the two 
foremost divisions lay encamped. The whole affair, therefore, 
must be looked upon as an erroneous movement and one of a 
series which has already grown too numerous on the part of 
subordinate officers who have too strong a desire for premature 
distinction. 

The troops which we had in the engagement suffered severely, 
but the loss will not prove to be so great as was at first supposed. 
I found, on visiting the wounded through the woods, that many 
had fallen from exhaustion, and that the hurts of numerous 
others, who had been put hors de combat, were very slight. I 
think thirty killed will probably cover all. It is said that Beaure- 
gard and Lee both came up from Manassas with the reinforce- 
ments during the conflict, and that the batteries were served by 
the Carolina and Alabama troops, who had retired from Fairfax. 
It is also said that the reinforcements came in time to spare them 
that necessity. What their loss is we cannot tell. Those of our 
troops who charged furthest forward reported many wounded 
lying round ; but these were most likely men overcome purely by 
exhaustion, and not s 



1861] 171 

It is charged, on the part of some, that the N. Y. 12th (Vol- 
unteers from Onondaga County) exhibited a want of courage in 
portions of the fight, and fled at last in most disgraceful panic; 
but their excuse is, that they stayed idly before the raking bat- 
teries of the enemy longer than their Colonel; and it is my 
opinion that they remained too long for any service, and conse- 
quently quite long enough for credit. There are no green troops 
in the world who would stand before a mere piece of woods that 
was spitting deadly fire, without anything in sight to encourage 
them with a hope of satisfaction. There are none, whether green 
or seasoned, who should be required to do so. 

We are now once more resting in the valley, and I have 
found again my quiet farmer's cottage. While writing, I have 
been attracted to the gate to see the gayest of the gay of all 
troops — the dashing, handsome, elastic and ever-cheerful Fire 
Zouaves. They came as the invincible head of General Heintzel- 
man's Division, and they appeared to me, as they swung by, as 
if they could have "got to" the enemy at Bull Run, and have 
butted the Bull and his guns from their position, had they taken 
part in the action of the afternoon. I said to some of them as 
they went by "Ah, boys, I wish you had been here to-day !" 

"Ay, yi, we wish we only had !" was the quick response. 

I doubt if any movement will be made to-morrow, or even 
the next day, for no temper is likely to govern General McDowell 
toward an acceleration of his movements. He is a soldier, and 
as such should be governed alone by the cold laws of science; 
and neither be induced to yield to sentiment, nor to study the 
popularity of coincidences. We may, therefore, not expect an- 
other movement for two or three days at most, and if the rumor 
which has just come be true, that General Johnston has effected 
his retreat from Winchester, and made a union of his forces with 
the main Confederate army at Manassas, we may not have a battle 
in several days, for under these circumstances we must wait for 
the support of Patterson. But the battle which then comes will 
be a great one, and it shall be faithfully set down. 

THE BATTLE 

The minor action of the 18th, though ending in a serious 
repulse, served but to stimulate the ardor of our troops; and as 
I walked, on the following morning, among the swarming bat- 
talions that rested in the valley this side of Centreville, I heard 



172 [1861 

but one wish expressed, and that wish was, that we should again 
and at once move forward, and wipe out the disgrace of that 
temporary check before the exulting rebels could take fresh heart 
by their success. It was soon plain, however, that General 
McDowell, warned by the unexpected evidence of strength which 
had been developed from the treacherous covert at Bull Run, had 
determined to remain for a time near Centreville, while he made 
the minute reconnoissance which was necessary previous to a 
general attack. The teams, therefore, were turned from the flying 
batteries and wagons, and the fine army beeves which were our 
best camp followers, were driven in and slaughtered by the 
wholesale, under an order for the preparation of three days' 
rations. 

"Grim visaged war relaxed his wrinkled front," and now, 
instead of prancing steeds and regiments drawn up in line, noth- 
ing could be seen through the entire valley but lounging swarms 
surrounding bubbling kettles, whose odor and whose fullness 
brought back the picture of the wedding of Camacho. It was in 
the midst of this vast picnic and these savory steams that the 
Secretary of War paid a visit to the scene, and imparted, by the 
mere fact of his presence, an additional assurance we would not 
move that day. When he left us in the afternoon, there were 
some who believed we were on the brink of action; but the 
majority held the opinion that the general advance would not be 
made till daybreak, Monday morning. This was the prevailing 
notion in the California camp and, I must confess, it was partly 
mine. I had, however, at the same time, an idea that we might 
perhaps wait till General Patterson could descend from Harper's 
Ferry, and co-operate upon our right. 

The night wore quietly away, with the exception of a slight 
alarm at the distant cottage where I slept, and which, though 
more than a mile from our lines, I had chosen for the convenience 
of making up my letters. At two hours past midnight, three or 
four volleys of musketry from a grove near by startled me awake, 
and, as I rose upon my arm, I could hear the squad of Germans 
who were picketed beneath the porch, cautiously cock their mus- 
kets in expectation of an attack. But the firing soon ceased, and 
daybreak revealed the fact that it had proceeded from two newly 
arrived regiments which had settled themselves hard by, whose 
men had been merely expelling stale charges from their pieces 
in anticipation of important work. 



1861] 173 

GENERAL McDOWELL'S PROGRAMME 

Meanwhile, and all the following day, the ablest engineers 
of General McDowell's staff had been reconnoitering for miles 
around, and the fruit of their labors was a report that the enemy's 
position could not be turned to the left (or southward), by reason 
of the roughness of the roads ; that it was not advisable to renew 
the attack of the 18th on the battery of Bull Run but that the 
road to the right, through Centreville, was a practicable avenue 
to another crossing, which was undefended, and to which artillery 
could easily be drawn. This was called the Warrenton road, and 
at some distance down it had the further advantage of a path 
diverging from it to the northward, by which a circuit could be 
made to the rear of certain heavy batteries, that the course of the 
main road itself would enable us to strike in front. It was, there- 
fore, decided by General McDowell to send merely one brigade 
to Bull Run to hold that battery in check, and to make his central 
attack by the Warrenton road, relying upon the column that was 
to pass off into the northward path, to turn the enemy's position 
and throw it into confusion, while assailed by us upon its face. 

This seemed to be a very proper and consistent plan. Tjn- 
doubtedly the theory of it was a good one, as a theory, and it 
might have been practically successful, had it but fitted the pro- 
portions of the enemy. Unfortunately, however. General 
McDowell had not taken the full measure of his foe, and the 
circuit which he had decided upon, instead of reaching the base 
of the rebel's principal position, merely plunged against the side 
of his triangle, where he was most fearfully in strength, and 
where the most desperate valor could but serve to feed his guns. 
The Confederates, as he might have ascertained, numbered, with- 
out Johnson and his forces, at least seventy thousand men ; and he 
now proposed to fling against this compact mass, reposing in 
jungles behind batteries of the heaviest guns, some six or seven 
brigades, to explore the labyrinth of that terrible position, and 
seek, by impetus alone, to butt a hole through it and hold on, to 
the lower end. 

'It must be stated at this time, that while General McDowell 
was forming his calculations on the basis of his engineers' report, 
he was aware that General Patterson was but fifty miles to his 
right, with a Federal army of nearly thirty thousand men, who 
were then employed in watching an equal rebel force under Gen- 
eral Johnson, with the view of preventing him from descending 
to Manassas. He knew, also, that while Johnson, from having a 



174 ' [1861 

railway track behind him, could reach Manassas with his column 
in two days, Patterson could not follow, over obstructed roads 
and broken bridges, in less than five. Under these circumstances, 
it would seem that the commonest military prudence would have 
suggested that General McDowell should have paused at least to 
know whether Johnson had abandoned the neighborhood of Win- 
chester, and whether, therefore, it was not absolutely necessary 
to the safety of the Federal forces, to say nothing of a hope of 
victory, that he should intrench himself at Centreville, and wait 
for Patterson's arrival. 

But it appears that General McDowell considered the pres- 
tige of the Federal cause and his own good luck as equal to all 
the odds which treason could accumulate, and accordingly he 
decided to stake the fortunes of the Republic against the rebels 
in general battle as he stood. A strong evidence of patriotic self- 
reliance, but not an abundant proof of judgment. The army, 
however, did not question the determination of their general, but, 
with the wholesome vanity of valor, each soldier felt the happi- 
ness of expectation, and slept the sounder for the prospects of 
the morrow. 

POSITION OF THE REBELS 

On their part, the rebels lay on that brilliant moonlight 
oevening enfolded in vast strength; their position being that of a 
triangle, with the point towards us, and branching upward to 
Manassas, with an open base of several miles. The point or 
apex of this triangle, about a mile in extent, was most heavily 
protected at Bull Run, where the direct road to Manassas crossed 
the Ocoquan. All up its branching sides, however, batteries 
faced outward in deep rows, their ponderous iron tusks concealed 
by artificial masks, wherever natural groves did not volunteer a 
screen. A stronger field position could hardly be imagined. De- 
fended as it was by seventy thousand men, to be increased to one 
hundred and ten thousand in the morning, it would scarcely suffer 
in comparison of strength with Solferino or Sebastopol; and I 
doubt if there is any French or Russian engineer who would have 
undertaken to assail it, except by regular approaches, and several 
respectful days of distant compliment with heavy shot and shell. 

Brigadier-General Irwin McDowell, however, was going at 
it with a few thirty- two pounders and ten field batteries (nearly 
all of them light), backed by some five or six brigades, whon., 
mentally, he gave the credit of believing to be equal to its cap- 



1861] ' 175 

ture. Had our poor fellows but known the depth of the compli- 
ment thus blindly lavished on their prowess, I doubt if they 
would have risen so joyful for the fray on the lovely Sunday 
morning now so near upon us. What rendered things even still 
more desperate, could we but have known their state, the enemy 
were thoroughly acquainted with our strength and our intentions, 
and awaited our coming with the greatest eagerness. Their 
anxiety, however, was deeply mixed with apprehension that out 
General might change his mind. 

With them, therefore, the eve of this battle was a night of 
true hopefulness and intelligent reliance; and well might the 
rebel chieftains, as they looked proudly over the vast host which 
an immense and desperate energy had got together, flatter them- 
selves that they now had the fortunes of the Great Republic 
which they had so long condemned and plundered, securely in 
their grasp. In this belief Davis and his legions early went to 
sleep, while our battalions, half-rested, rose a little after mid- 
night, to be wearied by several hours of hot march before enter- 
ing upon the more violent fatigues of the attack. 

The order for an early movement in the morning, was 
promulgated in our camp at 10 o'clock on Saturday night; and 
we now have ascertained that the order of our march and battle, 
then distributed among our militia Major-Generals, was put in 
possession of the Confederate leaders before our troops had risen 
for the conflict. From the hour of midnight our sentinels could 
hear the oft-repeated distant railway whistle at the Junction, 
signaling the arrival either of the last regiments of Johnson or of 
fresh troops coming up from Richmond. 

As the time of our start was fixed at half-past 2 A. M., the 
entire army was awake an hour before, and in marching order at 
the indicated moment. It was bright moonlight ; yet through the 
brilliant sheen, some of the stronger stars looked curiously down, 
as if they shared with us our wonder at the spectacle. From the 
hill of Centreville, backward toward Fairfax, the whole valley, 
so lately untrodden in its verdure, was sparkling with a frost of 
steel ; and, as the thirty-five thousand bayonets moved forward in 
the uncertain light, with that billowy motion peculiar to the step 
of troops, the stirring mass looked like a bristling monster lifting 
himself by a slow, wavy motion up the laborious ascent. To the 
left, and forward through the village in the direction of the Run, 
the grpund descended some three or four miles towards the 
Ocoquan, and then rose in a gradual ascent to Manassas. It was 



176 • [1861 

a scene of mingled grove and opening, and the moonlight slept 
as placidly upon the jungles of that rise, as if Treason, armed in 
triple strength, were not slyly watching from its lair our ignorant 
advance, ready to belch forth upon us its deadly and malignant 
fires. 

PLAN OF THE ATTACK 

The plan of General McDowell was, as I have already indi- 
cated, to advance upon the enemy in two directions, launching his 
main and central column along the Warrenton road in a direct 
line, until he reached their batteries ; while a strong column, by a 
circuit to the right, was to smite them in the rear. The road to 
Bull Run on the left, and the hostile batteries at its end, were 
to be merely watched throughout the day, so that the enemy could 
not issue from that quarter and turn our left. Colonel Richard- 
son, with the 1st Massachusetts, 2d and 3d Michigan, and New 
York Volunteer 12th, and a U. S. battery, were charged with 
this duty; while to support him, in case he should be seriously 
attacked. General Miles, with ten regiments, was posted in re- 
serve ; yet far enough backward toward Centreville to give aid or 
succor also to the main column, in case it should meet with 
.reverse. 

These ten regiments consisted of the 8th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 
29th, 31st and 32d N. Y., the Garibaldi Guard, the 27th Pennsyl- 
~vanians and the 8th N. Y. German Rifles. It was further sup- 
ported by Green's and Barry's U. S. Batteries. The left being 
thus guarded. General McDowell posted the New Jersey regi- 
ments, seven in number, in reserve at Centreville, and even still 
further back, so that the rear should also have a proper protec- 
tion on the right, and guard alike against any flank movement 
in that quarter. The rear being thus defended on all sides, the 
■general column which was to divide at the path to the right, on 
the Warrenton road, consisted of the divisions of General Tyler, 
Hunter and Heintzelman; the first being appropriated to the 
central and direct attack, and the two latter to the flank move- 
ment on the right. 

THE CENTRAL ATTACKING COLUMN 

The division of Tyler consisted of three brigades ; and those 
•of Heintzelman and Hunter contained three and two respectively. 
The 1st brigade of Tyler consisted of the 2d New York and 1st 
and 2d of Ohio, under General Schenck, accompanied by a bat- 
tery of light artillery; then followed the brigade of Sherman, 



1861] 177 

consisting of N. Y. 69th, 79th, 13th and 2d Wisconsin, accom- 
panied by Ayers' battery ; while the brigade of Keyes, comprising 
the 1st, 2d and 3d Connecticut, and 2d Maine, formed a rear 
guard for the division. This latter brigade was accompanied by 
Thompkins' U. S. Battery, and by the N. Y. Volunteer Battery 
of Varian — ^the guns, but not the men — they having basely left 
for home the day before. The division was further accompanied 
by a rifled 32-pounder, which was known as the Parrot gun. 

THE FLANKING DIVISION 

The flanking division of Hunter and Heintzelman consisted 
of the 18th, 14lh and 27th N. Y., under General Porter, accom- 
panied by companies of U. S. infantry, cavalry and marines. 
Ransom's U. S. and Griffin's West Point batteries. Then came 
Burnside's Brigade of the R. I. regiments, the N. Y. 71st and 
the 2d New Hampshire, accompanied by Reynolds' and Webb's, 
batteries, and two light howitzers, which the boys of the 71st had 
learned to work and borrowed from the Navy Yard. This 
brigade also had a battery of rifled 32-pounders, under Captain 
Seymour, of Fort Sumter. Heintzleman's division consisted, in 
its 1st brigade, of the 5th Massachusetts, 1st Minnesota and 4th 
Pennsylvania; but I regret to say that it was weakened by the 
unworthy conduct of the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment, which, be- 
cause its time had expired the day before, turned its back upon 
the battle and deliberately retired from the ground. Two bat- 
teries accompanied this brigade. 

The next brigade was under Wilcox, and consisted of the 
1st Michigan, the 38th New York and the Fire Zouaves, backed 
by a battery of U. S. Artillery. The last brigade contained the 
3d, 4th and 5th of Maine and the 2d of Vermont. The sixteen 
regiments thus enumerated in the flanking column may be set 
down at between thirteen and fourteen thousand men, while the 
eleven in the central line may be numbered at between eight and 
nine. The entire attacking force, therefore, may be summed up 
at 22,000 men, all of whom could hardly expect to be engaged. 

This was the army which passed out of the valley up over 
that hill, at three o'clock on the morning of the 21st, and which, 
with the moon still lighting them upon their journey, took the 
righthand road toward the strongholds of the enemy. It was a 
brave sight, not soon to be forgotten by those who witnessed it, 
while the thoughts which it inspired were to become henceforth 
an established portion of the mind. The regiments of the re- 
serve, as they stood looking on at the passing line, envied their 



178 [1861 

marching comrades what they regarded as a better fortune, and, 
as they went by, saluted them with various requests, ranging 
between the acquisition of some traitor's scalp, down to the pos- 
session of a palmetto button. The marching line replied with 
various conceits, but in most cases the requests were responded 
to with a large excess of promise. It was, indeed, a gallant 
sight; how sadly to be changed in a few hours, none of them for- 
tunately knew. 

By half-past three o'clock, the last bulk of bayonets had dis- 
appeared over the hill, and the entire column was on its way by 
the memorable Warrenton turnpike to seek its fortune. The 
halts were numerous, in order that the generals might insure the 
compactness of the line, and presently we all passed across a 
wooden bridge in quiet; no challenge being made that might 
prevent us from reaching the deeper entanglement where the foe 
desired to give us more bitter battle. Onward we went, the sol- 
diers cursing the rough road, wondering when they would have 
breakfast, or vowing to "get even" on the fellows who had put 
them to all this trouble. The day broke mildly as we pushed 
along, and many a soldier thought, from the dead silence of the 
woods that lined the road at intervals, we should have no battle 
after all. Presently we struck the path that branched off to the 
right, and here the column, under Hunter's lead, broke off, while 
the central column, with McDowell at its head, went directly on. 

THE MAIN ATTACK 

As the circuit of the flanking column was to be a wide one, 
and as it could not reach its destined point and come into action 
with effect, in less than two or three hours, our first attention 
must be given to the main column accompanied by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. It was broad day when we parted with the 
flanking column, and we proceeded along with an easy step, with 
our skirmishers well in advance, and watchfully on the lookout. 
No traces of the enemy appeared, however, and the extraordinary 
quiet of the scene, coupled with the fact that our entire column 
had been allowed to cross the wooden bridge unmolested, induced 
many to believe that the enemy, consulting prudence, would yield 
the defences of the Run, and give us battle only at Manassas. 

But this idea was formed in ignorance of the extent of the 
Confederate defences, for we were already in range of their bat- 
teries, and at the close of the day they landed their shell upon 
this position of our path with murderous effect. In short, their 



1861] 179 

whole strategy was a decoy, and their hasty retirement from 
Fairfax, and pretended abandonment of camp furniture, as well 
as the shallow obstruction of our advance by levelled trees, were 
merely portions of a well digested plan, to coax our army, step 
by step, into their gigantic trap. Of all places, therefore, on the 
whole Continent, Manassas, and its miles of densely serried bat- 
teries, was the last with which the Federal army had any busi- 
ness; yet, there we were, "going it blind," with the vain confi- 
dence of fools, on perfectly good terms with ourselves, and ex- 
alting, in advance, the profound military leader, who was thus 
giving us a chance to develop his keen foresight and commanding 
genius. 

After we had got about a mile and a half beyond the wooden 
bridge, the road began gradually to slope toward the Run, and to 
be more closed in with trees ; and even at that early hour the 
coolness of those leafy aisles, was felt as a relief from the already 
hot and dusty path. After we emerged from this pleasing shelter, 
the column proceeded along to the distance of, perhaps, a quarter 
of a mile, descending all the while toward a ravine which har- 
bored a sluggish stream crossed by a stone bridge. From that 
point the enemy's defences rose, spreading and thickening at easy 
intervals, and surmounted by powerful batteries where the line 
met the horizon ; and I may pause here to say — with powerful 
batteries packed, and extending behind that line for miles along. 

Suddenly, an exclamation of, "There they are !" from a mem- 
ber of General Tyler's staff, brought our column to a stand. 
Every field officer at once brought his glass to bear, and the con- 
sciousness that we were surely to have a fight, ran in an electric 
whisper along the entire column. There, indeed, they were, down 
in a meadow, still a distance off, but not boldly perceptible, be- 
cause of the dark background of the woods. It was a body of 
infantry drawn up in line of battle, its full strength concealed 
from being extended partly in the forest. It was now necessary 
that we also should take battle order so we deployed into the 
adjoining fields. General Schenck's Brigade, consisting of the 2d 
New York, and 1st and 2d Ohio regiments, being extended to the 
left, and Sherman's Brigade, composed of the New York 69th 
and 79th, 13th and 2d Wisconsin, stretching on the right. 

The large rifled thirty-two pounder was then brought forward 
through the centre, and put into position in the middle of the 
road. The enemy evidently saw this movement with their glasses, 
for they suddenly fell back, whereupon the big gun, giving out 
its thunder, flung a shell toward the spot of their retirement. 



180 [1861 

The fuse was short, however, and after ploughing its roaring 
progress just over the proper spot, it burst harmlessly in air. 
But the echoes of that solemn challenge announced to a hundred 
and fifty thousand armed men that the battle had begun. The 
silence that followed was profound; but it was broken by no 
answer from the enemy ; so, after a pause of several minutes, our 
iron monster spoke again, this time levelling itself at a battery 
higher on the hill, and dropping its compliment directly inside the 
works, to the destruction, as we were afterwards informed, of 
half a dozen men. The enemy, nevertheless, did not seem to 
think the game quite made, and though he was near enough, as 
it subsequently proved, to reach us from two or three positions 
on our right and left, persisted in a sullen silence. 

Our first shot had been fired at half-past six, and it was now 
after seven ; still the foe deigned no response, and it was plain he 
would not be satisfied unless we sought him deeper in his fast- 
nesses. The big gun, therefore, was superseded by light artillery 
for closer service, and an order was given for the bridges, thus 
strengthened, to move right and left, and explore the adjoining 
woods. This order necessarily brought up the brigade of Keyes, 
which now occupied the centre, but still acting as a reserve. The 
timber branched away on either side, in a sort of crescent, toward 
the batteries of the enemy; on the right hand, however, it pur- 
sued the straightest line. 

Both brigades, with skirmishers well out, at once proceeded 
upon their respective tasks, Schenck following a left oblique 
along the edge of the wood, with Colonel McCook and the 1st 
Ohio in the lead ; Colonel Tompkins and the New York 2d next, 
with the 3d Ohio, under Colonel Harris, in the rear. The 
brigade proceeded in this way, exhibiting the utmost caution for 
the distance of about a mile, when they struck a fine newly- 
opened road to the left, whose clean, broad path seemed to invite 
their entrance. They turned into it and followed it for some 
distance, when, to their surprise, it ended abruptly at a fence, 
with no evidence of any road beyond. Suddenly the enemy 
showed himself in two or there places to the left, and shaking his 
flags at our troops, opened a tremendous fire. It was promptly 
answered by the whole brigade, who endured the storm of balls 
with the greatest fortitude, and returned fire for fire. 

Several fell at this spot, and among others, the favorite drum- 
mer boy of the 2d. The poor little fellow was struck by a can- 
nonball which took him just below the armpits and literally cut 



1861] 181 

him in two, his childish shriek of pain minghng with the whistle 
of the rifled shot as his little life went with it down the wind. 
The storm from the batteries seemed now to increase rather than 
to slacken, and unable to endure it in such an exposed position, 
the brigade fell, in good order, back upon the wood. General 
Schenck, who exhibited throughout the whole affair the most 
reckless bravery, now ordered his men to emerge and charge 
the main battery by a flank movement, but owing to the remon- 
strances of nearly all the officers, the desperate project was 
abandoned. 

The men, though now out of musket range, were yet sub- 
jected to the constant drop of shell, which seemed to have in- 
stinctively found out their leafy covert ; so, after consultation, 
they were drawn off, and retired in good order to their position 
in the neighborhood of the Parrot gun; hearing on their way 
the thunder of battle on the right, with an occasional heavy re- 
port from Richardson, on the extreme left, to indicate that the 
enemy had been putting his feelers forward at Bull Run, to try 
whether a movement to turn our rear were practicable in that 
quarter. 

The Sherman Brigade, which had separated from the cen- 
tral column and advanced forward about the same time that 
Schenck's Brigade set out in the opposite direction, had proceeded 
but a little way upon their errand before they were saluted with 
fearful showers of shot and shell; but receiving it only as a 
provocation, they overran two or three earthworks with their 
headlong charges, the Irishmen and Highlanders screaming with 
excitement at every onslaught, and the stout Wisconsonians and 
brave New York 13th silently wading by their sides. But we 
must now leave them in the midst of this pleasant and congenial 
work, to follow the fortunes of the flanking column. 

THE BATTLE ON THE FLANK 

Having now shown the course and features of the battle on 
the centre, for three hours, we turn to the flanking column, which 
was expected to be able, in about that time, to envelope the rear 
of the Confederate position, and unite itself, through the broken 
columns of the foe, with the direct onward tide. 

This column, as I have already stated, contained the two 
divisions of Hunter and Heintzleman, and it was led by the Burn- 
side Brigade, consisting of the 1st and 2d Rhode Islanders, the 
2d New Hampshire, and the New York 71st. The next brigade 



182 [1861 

was composed of the New York 8th, 14th and 27th ; the next of 
the 1st Michigan, the Fire Zouaves and the 38th New York; the 
next, the 5th Massachusetts and 1st Minnesota; and the last, the 
3d, 4th and 5th Maine, and 2d Vermont. The colonels of these 
regiments, respectively, in the order I have placed them, were 
Pitman, Slocum, Marston, Martin, Lyons, Wood, Slocum, Corn- 
stock, Farnham, Ward, Lawrence, Gorman, Tucker, Berry, Don- 
nell and Whitney. The reader who is specially interested, will 
place them for himself. 

Immediately after leaving the central column, the Burnside 
Brigade having the lead, threw out its skirmishers, and proceeded 
along at a brisk rate, preserving, however, "common time," in 
view of the long distance to be made. The course, for the first 
four or five miles, was rather boldly to the right. It then in- 
clined more gently to the northward, and then, after some eight 
or nine miles had been accomplished, curved sharply in toward 
the left. The march was a most fatiguing one, and though shad- 
ed to a considerable extent by long stretches of close timber, much 
of it lay in the glare of the hot sun, and all of it had its share of 
stifling dust, except where we crossed the fields. 

But the men were hungry and also very much fatigued, 
most of them having got but two or three hours' sleep the night 
before. Still they trudged cheerfully along, animated by the 
task before them, and made more elastic by the sound of the 
cannonade, which had for some time been heard, and which they 
were now sensibly approaching. In the brigade — nay, in the 
whole line, none heard this with higher spirits than the 71st; 
about 10 o'clock, the head of the column came into an open 
country, and after proceeding in it for a mile. Captain Ellis, of 
the 71st, detected a masked battery about half a mile to the left; 
and bringing our glasses to bear upon it, we could also perceive 
the enemy moving to their positions through the woods, in con- 
siderable force. Soon after this. General McDowell came riding 
up, and orders were given that we should proceed at a more rapid 
pace. 

An hour more of march brought the brigade close to the 
rattle of the strife. The column then made its final curve, and 
turning sharply to the left, faced the roar of battle as it came 
from the head of the central division, which, under the lead of 
the 69th, was now pressing its way toward us. The din of 
great guns and musketry at this point was almost deafening, and 
the very earth trembled with the roar of the heavier artillery. 



1861] 183 

Burn-side, who was forward, then sent an order to the 71st, to 
take its howitzers and dash through a piece of woods on the left, 
and form its position on the right of the Rhode Islanders. Obey- 
ing the order with alacrity, the 71st passed the New Hampshire 
men in their impetuosity, and emerged into the fire, while the 
2d New Hampshire formed in good order on the extreme right. 

THE BURNSIDE BRIGADE 

The Rhode Island cannon were the first in position, and 
opened with good effect upon the battery that was peppering 
us, with a heavy cross-fire from the left. The howitzers of the 
71st were next in play, and, between their heavy roar, the 
muskets of the brigade replied with interest to the platoon salu- 
tations of the enemy. But the fire was most galling to us, from 
our exposed position, and among those of the brigade who fell 
before it was General Hunter, sufficiently hurt to require his re- 
moval from the field. Burnside lost his horse at the same time ; 
while the charger of Governor Sprague had his entire head taken 
ofif with a shell, as his gallant rider was spurring him up and 
down the field. Captains Hart and Ellis, of companies A and F 
of the 71st, were likewise wounded in this fire, while bravely 
cheering on their men. "Cornelius," the faithful servant who 
had accompanied Colonel Vosburgh from New York, and who, 
more lately, adhered to his successor, sank gently down by the 
side of Colonel Martin and died from a rifle stroke just below 
the chest. 

Many others dropped under that fearful hail, but the regi- 
ment sternly stood, its ground — such bold spirits as Captains Coles 
and Meschutt, Commissary Borrowe, and Lieutenants Oakley, 
Embler Maynard, Denyse and others, giving cheer, by their 
staunch coolness, to the entire line. While the regiment was thus 
standing under fire, it came very near being thrown into con- 
fusion by the reckless conduct of Griffin's West Point battery, 
which, without any sort of notice, tore through its line in the 
rear, at top speed, in order to take up a position in the front, and 
thus actually cutting it in two. This discourtesy, to say the least 
of it, springs doubtless, from the contempt which the regulars 
are rapidly evincing for the volunteers, and, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, would have justified the 71st in firing on them in 
retaliation. 

The fire of the enemy came doubly hot just at this moment; 



184 [1861 

the regiment wavered slightly under it, and threatened for an 
instant to fall back. At this critical moment, an American flag 
suddenly appeared- within the redoubt that had done us our great- 
est damage, and that still kept up its storm. But, seeing this 
signal, an order was given to cease firing, as we were shooting 
our friends. A further order was then made to advance our 
colors to the front, but, as it seemed to be certain death to stand 
exposed to the tornado which swept the brow of the hill, the 
color-bearer, Beardsley, naturally hesitated for a moment ; where- 
upon several of Company F sprang quickly forward, with the 
exclamation: "Give us the colors!" This, however, recalled the 
ensign to his self-possession, and the brave fellow, grasping the 
flag more firmly than before, ran with it full fifty paces to the 
front, and, after waving it deliberately to and fro, planted it, amid 
our cheers, into the earth. Its folds were hailed in the rebel 
battery with a demoniac yell, and in the next instant the bright 
banner was riddled with a shower of balls. Providentially, the 
gallant Beardsley, was untouched. 

Beholding that starry challenge, the Alabama 4th, which had 
long ago expressed, in print, their desire to meet the New York 
71st, deployed from a wood up on the right, and formed in full 
force to charge up hill upon the flag. The 71st, recognizing them, 
answered the challenge with a shout, and springing forward, de- 
livered a volley of musketry, strengthened with a dose of grape 
and canister. They then charged down the hill upon them with 
tremendous vigor, intending to take them with the bayonet. But 
the Alabamians did not like the war-whoop nor its prologue, so, 
after a volley and a short pause, they took back to cover, leaving 
sixty-two of their dead upon the field. We had a chance to count 
them, for we never afterwards lost the brow of that hill till the 
general conclusion. In turning from the Alabamians, one of 
their wounded drew his pistol, and, steadying it upon his arms, 
was levelling it upon Lieutenant Oakley, when that gallant officer, 
catching sight of the performance, sprang quickly forward, and, 
with his sword, ran the rebel through. The howitzers of the 71st 
and the Rhode Island guns all the while kept in play, and in ten 
minutes more the rebel battery was silenced. 

The enemy's lair being thus swept of its cannon and its 
forces in this quarter, and our regiments being pretty well ex- 
hausted with the strife and heat, Burnside came forward and 
ordered the 71st to fall back into the cool shadow of the wood, 



1861] 185 

with the remark that the brigade had done its full portion of the 
day's work, was now entitled to refreshment and respose. The 
71st most gladly obeyed the order, and left the field with as much 
regularity as if on dress parade. 

The cost of the strife thus far was seventeen killed and twice 
that number wounded, but the consolation of the regiment was 
the consciousness that it had done its duty, and made twice that 
number of the rebels bite the dust. Under that cool and grate- 
ful covert, congratulations were exchanged and compliments paid 
to those who had earned them most. Among them, the brave 
Chaplain and the gallant Colonel Thomasson, formerly member 
of Congress from Kentucky, who had come upon the field as a 
volunteer for the occasion, received their share and enjoyed the 
admiration of the regiment. Privates Dustan, Winthrop, Kettle- 
tass, Barney, Clarke, Storer, Pontin, Emmett, Udell, and a large 
number more who had signalized themselves, were likewise well 
rewarded. 

While the 71st thus refreshed itself, the 69th, which, with 
the Scotch Regiment, the Wisconsin men and the New York 13th 
had been wading through batteries, since their arrival on the field, 
marched past in splendid order, their banners flying as if upon 
review, and their faces sternly set on the advance. They passed 
down the hill obliquely to the right, on their road to support 
Griffin's battery, which was within two hundred yards of the 
artillery of the foe. Though silent as they passed, a shout rose 
in a few seconds afterward from the direction they had taken, 
which every listener could mark for theirs ; and the spiteful one 
which responded from the rebel battery was soon quelled by the 
volume of their musketry. Most prominent among them was 
Meagher, the Irish orator, who frequently, during the contests of 
that turbulent day, waved the green banner of his regiment up 
and down the hottest line of fire. 

The Sherman Brigade had thus worked its way deep into the 
enemy's position, no part of it doing better service than the 2d 
Wisconsin and the staunch 13th. Whenever they, or any of them, 
had met the foe on foot, they had hurled him back, and driven 
him headlong to cover, with disgrace. Indeed, this superior prow- 
ess of the Northern rank and file, was the feature of the day, and 
in no portions of the field, and under no circumstances, could the 
exposed and unsupported infantry of the enemy stand for five 
minutes against the dash and hardihood of ours. 



186 [1861 

ATTACKS OF THE OTHER BRIGADES 

I must now turn back to the general progress of the flanking 
column, from which the Burnside Brigade had been the first to 
curve in to the attack. Porter's brigade, which came immedi- 
ately in its rear upon the march, passed further on, and levelled 
itself against the triangle of the enemy, at a higher point. The 
brigade of Wilcox, composed of the New York 38th and the Fire 
Zouaves, made the widest flanking circuit of them all, and conse- 
quently struck the enemy's broadening bank of batteries to the 
extreme right. The brigades of Franklin and Howard, compris- 
ing respectively of the 5th Massachusetts and 1st Minnesota and 
the 3d, 4th, Sth Maine and 2d Vermont, acted for a time as sup- 
porting force, but soon became plunged in with the rest, selecting 
each for itself, in the general confusion and want of order, its 
series of batteries to attack, and its isolated perils to endure. 

Porter's Brigade made its flank attack immediately to the 
right of the 71st, going into the battle about eleven o'clock (half 
an hour later than the Burnside Brigade), and performing its 
first duty by driving the enemy out of a piece of woods, and pur- 
suing him, with loss, to a heavy battery which had partly raked 
the position of the 71st. The 14th particularly distinguished itself 
in this attack, and received its highest encomiums from the rebel 
prisoners, who said wherever those fellows in red breeches went 
they strewed the earth with dead. In one of their charges their 
standard bearer was shot down, and Captain Butt, of the Engi- 
neers, behaved with especial gallantry; and all the rank and 
file exhibited the utmost steadiness and valor. 

The impetuosity, however, which chased the rebels to their 
holes, was severely taxed by a scorching volley that forced it, 
like all its comrades of the day, to fall back from those terrific 
covers, for temporary shelter. They soon emerged again, how- 
ever, and with their entire brigade, in which the Sth and 27th 
struggled to emulate the 14th in its daring, charged all together on 
a new battery to the left. The attack was brilliant, but, stagger- 
ing with fatigue, the poor fellows were forced to recoil from the 
overwhelming storm, losing again a number of their men. 

It was the same story on all sides — reckless and desperate 
attacks on roaring and blazing barriers, with an inevitable recoil 
of the inadequate and unsupported columns. It was noticeable 
that in all these perfectly desperate and almost frantic charges, 
there was seldom any flanking or sustaining force, and generally 
an entire absence of all division orders when the regiments were 



1861] 187 

required to fall back. Each colonel had to hive, shelter and 
manage his own men, and to say the truth, the rank and file but 
too often, from the deplorable incompetency of their immediate 
officers were required to do the thinking, the fighting and the 
manoeuvring for themselves. 

Never was there a great battle fought more pell-mell, since 
war began ; never was valor so completely thrown away. In fact, 
instead of being conducted upon its plan, or upon any plan what- 
ever, it became, through the incompetency of its chiefs (perhaps 
caused by their despair), a mere succession of desultory fights, in 
which small brigades, isolated from all general command, were 
trying the hardness of their heads against the toughness of iron 
and deeply matted walls. The Porter Brigade made still another 
charge, but, unsupported in the effort, it was forced, after this 
further useless display of valor, to fall back in the neighborhood 
of the resting place of the 71st. 

CHARGE OF THE ZOUAVES 

We now come to the attack of the Wilcox, or Fire Brigade, 
consisting of the 1st Michigan, 38th New York, or Scott Life 
Guard, and the far-famed Zouaves. This brigade, as I have 
before stated, made the widest flank circuit of the whole, and 
consequently did not take up its line-of-battle until half an hour 
later than the brigade of Porter, making its actual arrival on the 
field about 12 o'clock ; all the worse for it, as it gave it the more 
weary march, and (under the excitement of the roll of battle) 
urged the last two miles at a most exhausting "double quick," or 
run. The brigade took up its position along a fence running east 
and west, with the 18th Michigan occupying the extreme left ; the 
Scott Life Guard, New York, under Colonel Hobart Ward, occu- 
pying the centre, supporting Griffin's battery, and the Zouaves 
holding the extreme right. 

No sooner had the brigade taken this position, than a rapid 
raking fire opened from a large battery on the left, while the 
heavy shot from the same quarter knocked over one of Griffin's 
guns and killed five or six men. Upon this success, a body of 
sixty or seventy horses, with the view of taking advantage of the 
temporary confusion thus occasioned in our ranks, issued from 
the rear of a small clump of woods in front of the Zouaves, and, 
circling to the front, made an attempt to break the ranks of the 
brigade. The movement, however, was seen by our men in suffi- 
cient time to meet it, and the entire of the three regiment* 



188 [1861 

levelled a united volley on its ranks. With the flash and the dis- 
charge, every rider of the troop, but five or six, reeled from his 
saddle to the earth, and the horses, such as were not desperately 
wounded, madly ran away. One of them, a fine fellow, black as 
a coat, who was not in the least hurt, came tearing towards the 
38th, when it was caught, and immediately mounted by Captain 
McQuade. 

At this moment. General Heintzelman, who already had been 
wounded, rode up, and looking with pride up and down the face 
of the battalion, ordered the 38th and the Zouaves to clear the 
woods before them at the point of the bayonet, while the 1st 
Michigan took a protecting position on the hill. The scene of this 
charge could be clearly observed from the rise which overlooked 
the battery that had been silenced by the Rhode Island Brigade, 
and all who looked on held their breath to see the 11th and the 
Life Guard go in. On receiving the order, they gave a ringing 
shout, and moved forward at a "double quick," but just as they 
had got fairly on their way, an infernal hail was turned loose 
upon them from the battery that had disabled Griffin's gun, and 
the entire line wavered, and threatened to fall back. 

The most tremendous efforts were, at this juncture, made by 
Colonels Ward and Farnham to steady the men, and poor 
McQuade, who rode, cheering, up and down on his new-found 
horse, was particularly prominent in thus inspiriting the 38th. 
Alas, while thus gallantly employed, his evil fortune triumphed, 
and he reeled to the earth in the midst of his task, struck mor- 
tally, it is feared, with a piece of shell. The sight of the loss of 
this favorite officer, and the auxiliary efforts of Cregier, Farns- 
worth, Brady, Potter and Hamblin, of the Life Guard, and of 
Captains Jack Wilday, Lozier, Leverich, Murphy and others, of 
the Zouaves, steadied the line again, and, with another whoop, 
the red shirts and the Life Guard rushed into the wood. They 
were not long in finding what they sought, for, in grim array, 
there stood the Alabamians and Mississippians in full force, their 
line resting on a barn and their right supported by a brace of 
cannon. 

As the 11th and 38th approached, the rebels opened a most 
severe and well-directed volley, which our people instantly re- 
turned. Two or three line exchanges were then heard within the 
cover; the smoke rose densely through the interstices of the wood, 
and, in a few minutes, the Zouaves and 38th could be seen pou^• 
ing forth, in considerable disorder, unable to withstand the fierce- 



1861] 189 

ness and compactness of the Confederate fire. They continued 
their retreat until they regained the line of fence which had been 
their original position, several red shirts dropping and dotting the 
ground on the road back. The full loss of the Zouaves, how^ever, 
turned out to be small. It being now after two o'clock, they re- 
mained in their position, and did not have an opportunity to 
charge again. 

RE-APPEARANCE OF THE SHERMAN BRIGADE 

It was at this point of time, and while the Zouaves, like the 
Rhode Islanders and 71st, lay out of the immediate tide of battle, 
that the 69th (and 79th) came sweeping along, with its green 
banner waving (the only one of theirs left) to the relief of 
Griffin. Flushed with their success within the woods, the Mis- 
sissippians watched them from within their covert, and let fly a 
heavy volley, and then charged. They were bravely met and 
checked ; but while being driven back, a sudden desperate rush of 
a company of rebels, who had a fancy of hanging up the green 
banner as a trophy for their armory at home, succeeded in tear- 
ing it from the standard bearer's hands, and bearing it away. 

The turmoil of the fight was very thick, and but few saw it 
except those who were in its midst. Luckily, however. Captain 
Jack Wilday, of the Fire Zouaves, observed the misfortune from 
a distance, and summoning a handful of his company to follow, 
came tearing forward for its rescue. With an irresistible vigor, 
he and his comrades penetrated to the centre of the retreating 
rebels, and by a number of well-delivered shots and blows, suc- 
ceeded in wresting the talisman from its possessors. In this fine 
exploit, Wilday killed two of the rebels with his own hands, and 
plucked from the side of one of the retreating captains, a sword 
for his mantel-piece at home. 

It was now nearly four o'clock, P. M., and the general bat- 
tle seemed to have subsided, nay, almost entirely to have ceased ; 
and nothing but an occasional great gun, and isolated flirt of 
musketry proclaimed its continuance in any quarter. In their 
ignorance of the extent of the field, the Federal forces imagined 
they had won a victory. They had shown greater dash and steadi- 
ness than the enemy from first to last ; and while, by far, the most 
exposed, had inflicted a much heavier slaughter than they had 
undergone themselves. The whole aspect within our lines, or 
rather within the boundaries of our brigades wore the look of 
triumph. Our enemies, wherever we had met them hand to 



190 [1861 

hand, in anything like open opportunity, had sunk before us; 
all their batteries immediately within our reach had been silenced ; 
but, what was infinitely more conclusive to our green apprecia- 
tions, General McDowell, our Commander-in-Chief, now came 
jingling on the field, waving, first his glove and then his hat, call- 
ing us "brave boys," and telling us, with the grand air of Caesar, 
that we had won the day. He passed away like a splendid dream. 
"A big thing," in glorious uniform and a branching new 
regulation hat. 

After our joyful shouts had gone down the wind after him, 
our tired legions flung themselves, by one accord, upon the ground, 
to take a brief snap at their haversacks, and to catch a few min- 
utes' repose before making their final dispositions for the day. 
Perhaps no army which had won a victory was ever more fa- 
tigued, and the men, as they lay upon their sides and rehearsed 
the horrors of the day, wondered how they had held out so long. 
Many, however had not even this repose, for they were bearing 
off their wounded comrades to the hospitals, and others were 
searching for their sworn brethren in arms among the dead. 
These lay about in the most fantastic shapes, some absolutely 
headless, some represented by a gory trunk alone; some with 
smiles, and some with rage upon their lips, as they grasped their 
bent and curiously twisted weapons, and some actually rolled up 
like a ball. Whoever would study the eccentricities of carnage, 
might here have graduated through all the degrees of horror, to 
a full experience at once. 

Nearly the whole of our army was now grouped pretty well 
together. The brigades which had made the circuit against the 
enemy's side had been joined by those which had fought straight 
on; and a glance at the field showed that the whole breadth of 
our battle had not spread over two miles. Had we been up in 
Professor Loew's balloon, we might have seen at once that, with 
all our prowess and heroic daring, we had merely cut a hole in 
the small end of the enemy's plateau of strength, and that his 
rear, which our General imagined he had turned, overhung us in 
massive wings, which still remained untouched. Our plan, there- 
fore, was, as I said before, too small for the measure of our 
customer. The coat which had been chalked in conception of a 
boy, would not enclose the proportions of a man, and we were 
destined, as is often the case with beginners, to have our work 
turned upon our hands. 

This truth came soon ; for suddenly, as we were resting, the 



1861] 191 

roar of battle broke out again in every direction, and batteries 
we had thought mute forever, now opened with redoubled fury. 
The most terrific yells from the enemy accompanied the renewal 
of the conflict, and it became evident that, instead of having 
yielded to the untoward fortunes of the day, they had only been 
refreshing themselves while pouring new regiments into their 
lower works. The Sherman Brigade, astonished by this new as- 
sault, was forced to retire from the position it had occupied ; but 
it retreated in good style, and being now entirely without orders, 
began to march off towards the rear. 

They passed, on their road, the brigade of Schenck; which, 
with the brigades of Howard and Franklin, had been since noon 
in the densest of strife ; the Maine boys and the Vermonters hav- 
ing signalized themselves especially by the enthusiasm of their 
charges; while none, during the tempestuous fortunes of that 
day, excelled the Minnesota and 5th Massachusetts in the stub- 
born fortitude with which, again and again, they pressed through, 
and withstood the fiercest fire. As the Sherman Brigade went by, 
Schenck's men stood breathing in the woods, the New York 2d 
occupying a position on the left. The 69th brought up the rear 
of the temporarily retiring column ; but its gallant colonel, watch- 
ful of its welfare, lingered behind and urged stragglers not to get 
separated from their commands. He paused for an instant to 
salute Colonel Tompkins,* of the 2d, who stood dismounted at a 
little distance from his regiment on the opposite side of the road. 
Just at this moment, a large body of the enemy's Black Horse 
were seen making a charge toward them, though its immediate 
object was to attack Carlisle's battery, which, out of ammunition, 
stood limbered up in the centre of the road. 

The two colonels watched the movement, and, transfixed with 
excitement as they saw the dragoons sabre the cannoniers, forgot 
to take measure for their own protection. It was eminently 
necessary that they should, for the quick exploit upon the battery 
had scarcely retarded the black columns in the least, and they 
came pouring upon the uniformed columns of the Schenck Bri- 
gade. Promptly, however, the quick order of McCook shaped 
the 1st Ohio, and the others, following by instinct, showed a firm 
line, with bayonets all poised, and ready for the charge. The 
Black Horse looked for a moment, but, not liking that array of 
steel, they flirted off to the right (receiving a volley as they went), 
and a squad of them made a dash to cut off the two colonels who 



*Ex.Major of the 71st. 



a92 [1861 

were isolated in the road. Tompkins, who saw the danger com- 
ing, quickly sprang to a horse near at hand, and calling on 
Corcoran to follow, spurred him at a fence. The troopers, how- 
ever, were too near for Corcoran's tired steed, and whirling 
around the Irish colonel, they took him captive, and bore him off. 
A portion of the squad followed after Tompkins, but his spirited 
charger leaped two fences in fine style, and amid the crack of the 
Dragoons' six-shooters, he got safe away. The brigade of 
Schenck, being now utterly fagged out, and being moreover en- 
tirely without orders, fell back upon the footsteps of the 69th. 
The Burnside Brigade was still upon the field, where they 
had received from General McDowell the news of victory, and, 
consequently, had heard, with the surprise that was equal among 
all of our brigades, the angry re-opening of the fight. They had 
seen, too, the other brigades file off toward the rear, but having 
no orders for such movement, and not being in the fire, the 
staunch Rhode Islanders, 2d New Hampshire and 71st doggedly 
held their feet. But the musketry on our side was getting faint, 
and the great guns of the enemy, unprovoked from our almost 
exhausted batteries, were now but sparsely fired. 

THE PAGEANT OF THE ENEMY'S RESERVES 

Everything therefore, indicated another lull, and it could not 
be made certain to our minds but that we had really won the vic- 
tory after all, and that the last cannonade was but the angry 
finish of the enemy. Suddenly a cry broke from the ranks of, 
"Look there! look there!" and, turning their eyes towards Man- 
assas, the whole of our drooping regiments, as well as those who 
were moving to the rear as those who stood, saw a sight which 
no one who gazed upon it will ever forget. 

At a long way off up the rise, and issuing from the enemy's 
extreme left, appeared slowly debouching into sight, a dense col- 
umn of infantry, marching with slow and solid step, and looking, 
at this noiseless distance, like a mirage of ourselves, or the illusion 
of a panorama. Rod by rod the massive column lengthened, not 
breaking off at the completion of a regiment, as we had hoped, 
but still pouring on, and on, and on, till one regiment had length- 
ened into ten. Even then the stern tide did not pause ; for one 
of its arms turned downward along the far side of the triangle, 
and, the source of the flood thus relieved, poured forth again, and 
commenced lining the other in like manner. Still the solemn 
picture swelled its volume, till the ten regiments had grown into 



1861] 193 

fifteen, and had taken the formation of three sides of a hollow 
square. Our awe-struck legions, though beginning to feel the 
approaches of despair, could not take their eyes from that ma- 
jestic pageant, and, though experiencing a new necessity, were 
frozen to the sight. 

The martial tide flowed on, the lengthening regiments grow- 
ing into twenty thousand men, with a mass of Black Cavalry in 
its centre, the whole moving toward us, as the sun danced upon 
its pomp bayonets, with the solemn step of fate. This was war ; 
compact well-made and reasoning war. It was war, too, in all 
its panoply and glory, as well as in its strength ; and we at once 
comprehended we were beaten. In vain did our startled faculties 
dart alertly hither and thither for some hope; in vain did our 
thoughts turn quickly upon Patterson. It would not do. Johnson 
was there before us, with his cool, fresh thousands, and our 
Waterloo was lost. That steady and untired host outnumbered 
the whole of our worn and staggering battalions, and it penetrated 
us with a conviction of resistless power. Decently, however, did 
we gather up our force, not by general order, but by one sensible 
accord, and sad and pained and wearied, yet conscious of victory 
as far as we had fought, we folded up our columns for retreat. 
The only ones whose hardihood clung spitefully to the strife were 
a few regulars at the batteries, who, with the infatuation of ex- 
perts, and begrimed with the mire of battle from all ordinary 
recognition, kept peppering at such batteries as would still provoke 
their fire. 

Among the last to turn their faces from the fight they had 
so gaily sought, were the Burnside Brigade, which, accompanied 
by Sprague and its gallant brigadier, and headed by all of its 
colonels, retired in line of battle, with orders to cover the retreat. 
Honored for its steadiness, the Rhode Islanders took off their 
battery, and the 71st departed with its guns. All, thus far, had 
gone well with the departing movement, and our battalions from 
every portion of the field were retiring with decorum ; when of a 
sudden, some of the persistent regulars who were charged with 
the protection of the retreat getting out of ammunition, sent back 
their caissons for a fresh supply. I have described how that 
branch of the service made its advance in the morning, and how 
recklessly it always sought its way to the front, through the 
formed columns of the Volunteers. In the same manner did it 
now go back upon its errand, riding down everything in its road, 
and scattering the ranks of the regiments in every direction. 



194 [1861 

The Volunteers, who had never before seen such a sight, 
and who were already penetrated with the fearful pageant of the 
descending enemy, could only understand the movement in one 
way. Those flying carriages, and those madly excited men were 
rushing to the rear, and their action was, therefore, construed 
into a wild retreat. The thought which appealed to their agitated 
minds, was, that if the regulars were in such haste to escape, it 
was necessary they should hurry for themselves, and one fearful 
panic took possession of them all. The ranks of most of the regi- 
ments were broken, the streams of flying men co-mingled; even 
officers who had behaved with courage throughout the day, felt 
justified, by the precipitation of the regulars, to urge their men, 
with a sympathizing sense of pity, to hurry for their lives. 
Thus, mistake piled upon mistake, aggravated the misfortune, 
and culminated in a calamity which will rankle in the pride of 
the Republic throughout all her history. 

It seems marvelous, that men who had borne the brunt of 
battle so bravely during the entire fight, and who left the field 
against a courageous foe with more than equal honors, could 
have so soon sunk into such puerile bewilderment ! But so it was, 
and they fled headlong from an enemy more deeply hurt than 
they, and who hardly dared pursue. The panic soon communi- 
cated itself to the teamsters of the Federal army, who improperly 
had pressed too near, and scampering civilians spread the terror 
with an electric speed fast back to our reserves. 

The enemy, perceiving this unexpected phase of our condi- 
tion, at once sent out his cavalry to harass our flight, and many a 
fugitive fell before their charges. They rode furiously at our 
retiring columns, and when defeated of their object by the sub- 
lime devotion of our regulars and their cannon, they compensated 
their bloody rage in many instances, by riding down and sabreing 
the wounded. Carrying their atrocity to the extreme, they even 
assailed a hospital and shot the dying within it, and the physicians 
who were ministering to their wounds. I must pause here, in 
the name of civilization, breeding, and Christianity, to protest my 
disbelief that these infernal crimes could have been inspired or 
warranted by the leaders of their cause ; but that they were per- 
petrated, and in repeated instances, seems beyond dispute. 

Through all the terror and confusion, however, there were 
several regiments which maintained their self-possession, and 
among these were the Bumside Brigade, the Rhode Islanders 
and the 71st bearing their cannon to the bridge, and the entire 



1861] 195 

brigade maintaining a firm line of battle to that point. But, there, 
new and unmanageable terrors rose, and the bridge being blocked 
by overturned caissons and ambulances, these precious trinkets 
of the battalions were all necessarily left behind, from the utter 
impossibility of dragging them through the stream. Moreover, 
the enemy, who had failed to interrupt us at this point in the 
morning, for fear of discouraging the big Federal fly from enter- 
ing his web, was now hitting the bridge most accurately with his 
shell. Bravery then gave up its heart. Sauve qui peut became the 
word of all, and every man took to the creek, or tried to fly the 
bridge for himself. 

Thus was the stream crossed by frantic thousands, who then 
sought the cover of the woods, while others, clogged with water 
and indifferent from sheer desperation, trudged moodily along 
the open path, as heedless of the explosives which were splutter- 
ing about their heads, as if they were so many harmless Chinese 
crackers. A few brave spirits would now and then try to in- 
spire the mass with heart, but the despair was too deep to be dis- 
ciplined by words, and all such trials were in vain. The terrible 
phantasm of Johnson's three-sided formation, and those fire- 
belching jungles now picketed by our dead, were constantly pres- 
ent to their minds, and all felt that it would be through God's 
mercy only, in holding the sight of the enemy, that any of us- 
vvould get off alive. 

THE ACTION OF THE RESERVE 

Having now, by the course of this recital, carried the Federal 
army into and through all the perils of the wood, it will be neces- 
sary to get them entirely out. This brings us to the action of the 
reserve, and to the four regiments of Richardson, at Bull Run. 
Of the latter, however, I have only to say, that he prevented, by 
his presence, the enemy from turning our flank in that direction, 
while the New Jersey regiments were a safeguard against our 
being outcircled on our right, either at Centreville or by the way 
of Falls Church. 

The regiments constituting the reserve, under Acting-Major 
General (Colonel) Miles, I have already enumerated at the out- 
set; and the battle, viewed from their position, would consist 
merely of a record of sensations. At five o'clock, P. M., however, 
the New York 16th and 31st, being well in advance towards 
Blackburn's Ford, were called upon to stem the tide of the Vir- 
ginia cavalry, who were swooping at our retreating forces. An 



196 [1861 

order from Miles, consequently, sent the 1st California Regi- 
ment, under Colonel Matheson (New York 32d), forward to 
their support; but though the cavalry was thus turned to the 
right about, it was found to be impossible to stem the mad career 
of the extraordinary mass of our men that came pouring upon 
Centreville. The best that could be done, therefore, was for the 
California regiment to stay just where it was, and in absence of 
further orders, lend what aid it could to the protection of Green's 
battery, which was busily plying its fire upon the harassing ap- 
proaches of the Virginia horse. 

While the 32d was in this position, the 16th and 31st having 
passed within its range, a youthful orderly rode up to Colonel 
Matheson to inform him that the Black Cavalry, sheltered from 
his observation by a piece of woods, were coming up on the right, 
and if he would take a cut with his regiment cross the fields, they 
would be turned back upon their errand. The evolution was per- 
formed, gave the protection that was desired and the Black 
Horse relinquished its purpose in that quarter. While the regi- 
ment, however, was adhering to this position, the same youth who 
had imparted the previous suggestion, rode up to the regiment 
again, and told Matheson he had better now fall back on Centre- 
ville, as his duty, at that spot, had been thoroughly performed. 

As this was about the first sign of orders (with one single 
exception) he had received during the entire day, Matheson felt 
some curiosity to learn who this young lieutenant was, and 
whence these orders came, he therefore turned sharply on the 
youth, who, he now perceived, could not be more than twenty-two 
or three, and said : 

"Young man, I would like to know your name ?" The youth 
replied that he was a son of Quartermaster-General Meigs. 

"By whose authority, then, do you deliver me these orders ?" 
was the Californian's next inquiry. 

The young man smiled, and remarked, "Well, sir, the truth 
is, that for the last few hours I have been giving all the orders 
for this division, and acting as general, too, for there is no gen- 
eral on the field.'' This incident is worthy of our notice among 
the lessons of the day. 

An incident which greatly enraged Sheridan, of which he 
tells at length in his Memoirs : "It was during this period, about 
dusk on the evening of October 3d, that between Harrisonburg 
and Dayton my Engineer Officer, Lieut. John R. Meigs, was 
murdered within my lines. He had gone out with two topo- 



1861] 197 

graphical assistants to plot the country, and late in the evening, 
while riding along the public road on his return to camp, he 
overtook three men dressed in our uniform. From their dress, 
and also, because the party was immediately behind our lines 
and within a mile and a half of my headquarters, Meigs and his 
assistants naturally thought that they were joining friends, and, 
wholly unsuspicious of anything to the contrary, rode on with 
the three men some little distance ; but their perfidy was abruptly 
discovered by their suddenly turning upon Meigs with a call for 
his surrender. It has been claimed that refusing to submit, he 
fired on the treacherous party, but the statement is not true, for 
one of the topographers escaped — the other was captured — and 
reported a few minutes later that at my headquarters that Meigs 
was killed without resistance of any kind whatever, and without 
even the chance to give himself up. This man was so cool, and 
related all the circumstances with such exactness as to prove the 
truthfuUness of his statement. The fact that the murder had 
been committed inside our lines was evidence that the perpetrators 
of the crimes, having their homes in the vicinity, had been await- 
ing just this opportunity." 

The California here took a new position, nearer Centreville 
and watched the terror-stricken crowd as it passed by, repelling, 
with the aid of Green's battery, several charges of the hostile 
cavalry. While thus posted, at half-past six, P. M., the enemy's 
cavalry again showed itself in superior force, and were making a 
threatening demonstration on the 32d's left, when seeing the 1st 
Massachusetts coming up from the direction of Bull Run, Mathe- 
son went to its Colonel (Cowdin), pointed out the enemy, and 
asked him if he would stand by and help hold him, if possible, 
in check. Cowdin quickly seized the Californian's hand, and, as 
he grasped it hard, replied, with much emotion, that "his regi- 
ment could be depended on — for the 1st Massachusetts had no 
home but mother earth !" The DeKalb, of New York, which had 
just then come in fresh from Alexandria, also yielded to Mathe- 
son's command, and thus, the danger being well provided for, 
passed off. The three regiments remained in this firm position 
till the disheartened trail of fugitives from the battlefield had 
all passed, and then, accompanied by Cowdin's and the DeKalb, 
it fell back with the rest. 

Leaving his regiment near Centreville in the hands of his 
lieutenant-colonel, Matheson, who was still without orders, now 
went in search of a general, not caring any longer to perform 



198 [1861 

general himself. He found Miles and Richardson disputing for 
command, but learning that the former had been superseded by 
the latter, through McDowell's order during the progress of the 
battle, he took his orders from Richardson for the remainder of 
the day. That duty, however, was simply to follow the broken 
and disheartened columns which poured so grandly forth that 
morning, back to Fairfax, and thence also to their camps near 
Washington. 

Thus ends the story of the most disastrous expedition which 
ever followed the fortunes of our flag. The only consolation 
which I find in the result, lies in the fact, that the enemy have 
proven to be as ourselves. Had they once faltered, or showed 
the least lack of courage, they would not be worthy of re-union. 
The great hope of every soldier in our rank is, that we shall be 
able to re-conquer, under one banner, the loyalty and affection of 
our entire people, as of old. And that patriotism would truly be 
a shabby and short-sighted one, which, when the task is done, 
would be content with such admiration as the world is willing to 
bestow upon a country, a portion of whose citizens are craven. 

As for the rout which we endured it was not the result of 
lack of manly fortitude on our part. With equal valor, we had 
shown superior prowess, till despair notified us to retire. The 
list of dead and wounded on both sides, will establish a balance 
of exploit and affectiveness in our favor. Ours, in fact, will 
prove to be less than 1,000 men in all, not more than 350 of 
whom were killed. The loss of the enemy in slain is said to be 
twice that number, while the wounded and the missing will prob- 
ably amount to 2,000 more. The loss of guns on our part 
amounts, I believe, to twenty-six, and some two or three thousand 
stand of arms. But these our weary fugitives had discarded in 
their path, as a pure measure of relief from fatigues with which 
their own generals had overtasked them, as the inadequate com- 
parison of those taken prisoner shows. 

But we need not reason any further on this great disaster. 
It was a glaring blunder, and though the penalties exceed the 
value of the lesson, let us hope the calamity will not be without its 
profit. I have no suggestions to put forward. The public, who 
cannot fail to understand the whole matter, will make them for 
themselves. There is but one thing I desire to add, and that is, 
had our columns but marched back to Centreville from the bat- 
teries they had so stubbornly engaged, in "common time," the 
day's work would have been called a Federal victory, and the as- 
sault by our meagre HivUinnc g "rpmn noissanrp in force." 



1861] 199 

It certainly was a most providential matter that we had no 
more troops than was barely sufficient for such a "reconnoissance" 
against such numbers; for had we gone upon the ground with 
fifty thousand soldiers more, we would merely have penetrated 
a little deeper into the Confederate trap, while the result would 
have been the same. The taking of Manassas Junction was, in 
short, a three months' job, for five hundred cannon and two 
hundred thousand men. 

The following (approved by Colonel Martin), is from Whit- 
temore's "History of the 71st," page 54: 

"The enemy being driven back, the regiment was, by orders 
held in reserve, and after several hours of quiet, except from 
cannon shot, which occasionally saluted it from a distant battery, 
apparently without chance of further molestation, it was ordered 
to take part in a field to the right, and here remained enfiladed 
by the fire of the rebel artillery, and patiently awaiting the ad- 
vance of the rebel army, now evidently concentrated for a final 
eflfort, and remained there until the mass of its line of support 
had melted away in panic. 

"General McDowell having sent word by an aide to Colonel 
Martin, that he was to 'do the best that you can in your judg- 
ment with your regiment ;' and the enemy's reinforcements being 
then about two hundred yards away. Colonel Martin sent Major 
Buckingham to find General Burnside and receive his orders. An 
aide of Burnside's rode up, informed the colonel of the situation 
and instructed him to retire from the field covering the rear of 
the brigade. 

"Calling the regiment to 'Attention,' he commanded, 'About 
face !' 'Forward Guide Centre — March !' in so cool a manner that 
every little detail was executed as on a drill room floor. 

"Not the slightest opposition was offered to this, the rebels 
it is believed, supposing that the movement was a feint to draw 
them to the more favorable ground of the morning engagement, 
and the regiment with its brigade gained the woods half a mile 
in the rear, in unbroken order. 

"Just after sunset, some three or four hours afterwards, the 
forces debouched from the wood's wagon road, through which 
they had till then been continually marching ; the Centreville road 
at this point being under fire from a battery which commanded 
it, and had broken down the wooden structure known as Sus- 
pension Bridge, the troops were compelled to wade the middle- 
deep Cub-Run stream in their front, and this they did under fire ; 
the colonel forming the regiment anew, continued the march at 
route-step. 

"As this spot was on the Centreville road and the spot about 
which the correspondent of the London 'Times' makes the scene 
of one of the most disgraceful pictures, it may be proper to say 



200 [1861 

that when the 71st reached the first house on the right of the 
road about a half a mile from Cub-Run, it was made to obhque 
to the right to give passage to the 'Garibaldi Guard,' then going 
forward to cover the retreat ; and it was then an organized body 
of men, under proper control, with its colonel mounted, and Com- 
pany B in the lead. Gaining the camp of the previous day, it 
halted and bivouacked; by order of the general commanding it 
was withdrawn from this spot about 10 o'clock P. M., and 
marched to the Potomac and into Washington, reaching the city 
the following morning (22d). The two howitzers worked by 
Company I were brought off the field, but on arriving at Cub-Run 
bridge it was found impossible to get them further, and they who 
had drawn them to the field and from it, not having any horses, 
could not get them through the stream, and left them in it. 

"The haversacks and blankets of the men were also aban- 
doned at the bivouac or i-esting place on the field of success in the 
morning, and, therefore, were lost when the men retired from it ; 
otherwise the regiment brought back its arms and equipments." 

Had Colonel Vosburgh been alive on this occasion the com- 
mand of the regiment would have been the same, as Vosburgh 
being the senior should have been in command of the brigade; 
Burnside was criticized as being selfish, not treating his brigade as 
a unit ; this may have been uncharitable, he may not have selected 
the 71st instead of one of the Rhode Island regiments to cover 
the retreat as an act of partiality, but his omission to give credit 
to the 71st that belonged to it needed explanation ; his first report 
was so unsatisfactory, that he was called for and made a second, 
both are published in the "Rebellion Record," his explanation was 
that he had not received Colonel Martin's report when he wrote 
his. 

While on this subject an incident is recalled connected with 
the regiment showing the conscientious manner in which Colonel 
Martin acted under trying conditions. The three months' service 
of the regiment expired on the 20th of July, on that date the regi- 
ment was bivouacked at Centreville; at the evening parade the 
Colonel addressed the men, in substance he said: "You are all 
aware that your term of service ends today, legally you are free 
to turn back and march to New York, no legal claim rests upon 
you to remain, nor will any restraint be put upon your action, 
every man is free to go who wants to go, I only tell you that we 
are within a few miles of the enemy, at any moment you may 
hear the cannonade which will begin a battle that may result in 
the preservation or the destruction of our Union. I will not urge 
you to any course of action, I leave the decision to each man's 
sense of duty." 



1861] 201 

After a short pause he said : "If any man is not willing to 
prolong his term of service let him step three paces to the front." 
There was a pause, every man in that long line glanced to the 
right and to the left to see if any one was ready to desert his 
regiment on the eve of battle. In all of that thousand men only 
one man stepped forward three paces to the front; he was a 
corporal, as handsome a soldier as any one would wish to see. He 
stood nearly six feet in his shoes, was young, stalwart and every 
respects a man ; he had been a favorite in his company, a fine 
singer and voted a good fellow. What induced him to stand in 
the presence of a thousand men, the only one to "flunk" in the 
face of danger, was beyond the ken of man. Whatever the 
reasons were they must have been powerful, for certainly it took 
more courage to step out in front of that line than it would have 
done to have faced the most terrific cannonade of the war. 
He showed no signs of agitation. 

The Colonel looked at him, hesitated an instant, then said 
to the adjutant: "Remove the stripes from that man's arms and 
cut off his buttons." This was done, and the man turned on his 
heels, marching by his comrades and disappeared from view. 

Two days after the regiment returned to the Navy Yard, 
application was made to the Colonel to furnish one hundred 
volunteers, to remain for ten days — the regiment was assembled, 
the request was read by the Colonel, with the order that those 
who would so volunteer step to the front. As the entire regiment 
stepped forward, the Colonel deferred selection. This, however, 
was unnecessary as Captain Dahlgren ascertained that the detail 
would not be required. 

July 25th, A. M., everything being ready, the regiment was 
formed for the last time on the old parade ground, and with 
mingled feeling of joy and sadness, with band playing and their 
battle scarred flag flying, they marched out of the Navy Yard, 
which had been virtually their home for the fourth of a year, to 
the depot where they were entrained for New York, reaching 
Havre de Grace at 5 P. M., and arriving in New York on the 26th. 

The following is from the New York "Times," of the 27th: 

"The disappointed thousands who returned home despond- 
ingly after the arrival of the 8th regiment, would have been 
overjoyed could they have known that the expected 71st would 
shortly arrive via the Camden and Amboy route. Other thousands 



202 [1861 

and tens of thousands, however, did know that welcome news, 
and flocked to Pier 1, led by one of those mysterious instincts that 
seem to guide New Yorkers under difficulties. 

"The company received telegraphic information at 4:30 
P. M., that the regiment had embarked, and posted the same at 
the head of the pier, for the information of the army of inquiries. 
Nothing daunted at the two hours'" delay, those who had already 
borne the scorching sun for half a day in anxious expectation of 
a momentary arrival, quietly set themselves down for a patient 
wait. 

"The crowds augmented in numbers, until Battery Place and 
even the Battery itself were black with the mass of moving 
humanity. 

"The friends of the 71st, of whom it may be said without 
disparagement to any one, were the better dressed portion of the 
multitude that thronged the streets throughout the day, were 
many of them admitted to the pier, while outsiders were excluded 
for their benefit. 

"Several hundred young men appeared in column, having a 
badge printed on blood red paper, 'Friends of the 71st,' the Young 
America Hook and Ladder Company also were there, as were 
thousands of fathers, brothers and relations of the coming heroes. 

"Nor were the fair sex unrepresented, for ladies comely and 
pleasant to look at, in full fashion of good dresses and capes, as 
well as humble attire, condescended to brave the fearful tide, to 
obtain the first eager glance of husband, brothers and fathers, 
and even those of prospective relationship. 

"When the 'John Potter' hove in sight, the enthusiasm rose 
to the highest pitch, and as the fleet of all sorts of crafts dipped 
their colors, or blew their whistles, the cheering ran along the 
shore and was caught up and re-echoed from the pier, ringing 
out again and again huzzahs for the noble 71st, the 'American 
Guard.' 

"As the steamer neared the dock, and the strange new uni- 
forms, the tattered flags, the wounded soldiers and the bronzed 
features of all came in full view, the enthusiasm was renewed, 
and broke forth in plaudits which only subsided with the hoarse- 
ness of ten thousand throats. 

"As soon as they got within hailing distance one of the sur- 
geons called from the upper deck: 'Is there a livery stable near?' 
'No! but there are plenty of carriages to be had.' 'All right 
then, I want to make arrangements to send our wounded home.' 

"Close by the doctor, stood a fine looking young man of 
Company A, with his foot bound up and having two crutches 
under his arms. 

"As the boat was made fast the cheering was renewed, and a 
man at the elbow of a vociferous cheerer said, 'Oh ! stand fast, 
wait till they get ashore, I have got three brothers there.' 

"At length the hawser was made fast, the gangplank was 
thrown out and what a rush takes place ; most affecting meetings 
are everywhere seen. 



1861] 203 

"The debarkation was effected with wonderful facility, the 
bagg'age packed in the express wagons, the wounded stowed in 
carriages, and in an incredibly short space of time the column 
was formed, and, amid a storm of applause started up Broadway. 

"It was only with the utmost difficulty that the police could 
clear sufficient space through the dense mass. Anxious friends 
pressed forward every step to greet some loved one; and not 
unfrequently, ladies attired in fashion's latest robes, sprang from 
the crowded curb to salute brawny men who bore their burdens 
with a lighter step thereafter. 

"The ranks were repeatedly broken, as animated friends or 
relation rushed forward to grasp the hand or impress a kiss 
upon the lips of some dear one returned again to home and 
happiness. (The compiler recalls receiving one of those 'impress,' 
and the impressor was a stranger to him, however, no resent- 
ment was felt.) 

" 'Hallo, Jim !' shouted one as he grasped a tall sergeant. 
'Look out for his wounded arm,' said a more cautious friend, and 
so they marched amid a continuous roar of cheering and con- 
gratulations such as never greeted soldiers since our brave men 
returned from Mexico. 

"The Regiment marched in eighteen sections, twenty files 
front, and certainly never trod the pavement of their native city 
with firmer or more accurate step, or carried arms with equal 
precision. 

"Although the evening was somewhat advanced, and the 
public were somewhat taken by surprise, the reception all along 
the line of march was a perfect ovation. The scene at the Armory 
was a renewal of enthusiasm, and when the men were dismissed 
and scattered to their homes, the city was kept alive with re- 
joicings." 

July 30th the regiment was mustered out of the XJ. S. service 
at 3 o'clock P. M. by Lieutenant-Colonel O. L. Shephard, U. S. A. 

The following is the official report of Colonel Martin : 

HEADQUARTERS AMERICAN GUARD, 71st REGIMENT 

Light Infantry, N. Y. State Troops 

New York, August 1st, 1861. 

Colonel A. E. Burnside, 

Acting Brigade General, 2d Brigade, U. S. Army : 

In accordance with orders, I herewith submit a report of the 
action of the 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M., in the engagement at 
Bull Run, on the 21st of July. 

We were ordered to commence the march, with the 1st and 
2d Rhode Island and the 2d New Hampshire Volunteers leading, 
and the 71st Regiment bringing up the rear of the brigade toward 
the battlefield, a little after 2 o'clock A. M., and having marched 
steadily almost without a halt for eight hours, we arrived upon 
the position assigned for our Division. 



204 [1861 

On our arrival, the two Rhode Island and New Hampshire 
regiments were drawn up in line and the 71st was ordered to 
pass in front of these regiments to a position in advance and 
to the right of the brigade, and also in front of two pieces of 
artillery, which I suppose belonged to Griffin's Battery. No 
sooner had we formed line than the right piece came dashing 
forward at full speed through our right wing, without any previ- 
ous intimation being given. The men broke away and allowed 
the piece to pass, and immediately after its passage dropped back 
into their position in line. Shortly after this, the left piece exe- 
cuted the same manoeuvre, and with the same results. 

After remaining in this position about a quarter of an hour, 
exposed to the cannonading of the enemy, which they were di- 
recting toward us, we were ordered with our brigade to an ad- 
joining field to engage a portion of the enemy that had debouched 
from their works, and fully equal in number to our own brigade, 
and after a severe contest, in which many valuable lives were 
lost, and many of our best officers wounded — amongst whom were 
Captain Ellis, Company F, Captain Hart, Company A, and Lieu- 
tenant Embler, Company H — we succeeded in repulsing them 
and compelling them to retreat. In this conflict we were greatly 
assisted by two of Captain Dahlgren's twelve-pound howitzers, in 
charge of Captain Ellis, Company I, of this regiment. 

After the retreat, General McDowell, with his staff, rode 
around the field in rear of our brigade, waving his glove in token 
of victory, and we all considered the day was ours. We were 
then ordered to retire to the edge of the wood, still in view of the 
enemy's works and in reach of their cannon, and there to rest, 
as we had done all the duty that would be required of us, and 
would not be called into action again. 

After about an hour's rest we were told that the enemy was 
getting the best of us, and were ordered to the field we had first 
occupied, and taken the most advanced position on that field. 
Here we stood in line of battle waiting the approach of the enor- 
mous column of reinforcements of the enemy from Richmond and 
Manassas. The head of this column was directed in front of the 
centre of our regiment; and when it was within five hundred 
yards of us, we received the order to retire, which we did in line 
of battle in common time, not one man running. The brigade 
remained together on the retreat, and arrived at our old bivouac, 
about one and a half miles from Centreville, all in good order. 
Here we again received orders to continue the retreat to Wash- 
ington, and marched over the Long Bridge as a brigade. 

Hereto appended is a return of our losses. In closing my 
report I cannot but say that all praise is due to you, sir, for your 
coolness and daring during the engagement, and to your brave 
Rhode Island regiments to whom we feel indebted for many 
acts of kindness, and to Governor Sprague, of your state, for his 
great courage and gallant conduct on the field. 

Your obedient servant, 

HENRY P. MARTIN, 
Colonel 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 



1861] 205 

OFFICIAL REPORT OF KILLED, WOUNDED AND MISS- 
ING OF THE 71ST, ENGAGED IN BATTLE OF 
BULL RUN, VA., JULY 21st, 1861 

FIELD AND STAFF— Surgeon E. Puegnet, prisoner at 
Richmond. 

ENGINEER CORPS— Private Gillette, James, prisoner at 
Richmond, released January 3, 1862. 

COMPANY A— Captain Hart, D. D., wounded in the hip,, 
seriously ; Privates : Cole, E., prisoner, sent to New Orleans, re- 
leased December 1, 1861 ; Doherty, Edwin P., prisoner, escaped 
and returned to New York ; Hyde, Alfred A., wounded, prisoner, 
released January 17, 1862; Hyde, John M., wounded, returned 
with the regiment; Lounsberry, Llewellyn S., wounded, left in 
Washington; Smith, Wm. Moir, wounded, left in hospital on 
field, died August 2d ; Merrill, J. B., wounded ; Wittpen, Charles, 
prisoner, sent to New Orleans, released December 1st. 

COMPANY B — Sergeant Worcester, Franklin E., wounded, 
sent to New Orleans, released December 1st; Privates: Hender- 
son, Edward, prisoner, sent to New Orleans, released December 
1st; Hanshee, Robert, wounded, returned with the regiment; 
Flynn, Cornelius, killed in action. 

COMPANY C — Privates: Cusick, John H., wounded, re- 
turned with regiment; Vorath, Cornelius F., wounded, returned 
with regiment ; Bacon, Geo. I., killed in action ; Butler, Augustus 
M., killed in action ; Tompkins, R. D., prisoner at Richmond, re- 
leased January 3, 1862. 

COMPANY D — Privates: Vaughn, Bushrod, wounded in 
face, prisoner, released January 3, 1862; Bolton, John S., killed 
in action; Brandt, Charles, killed in action. 

COMPANY E — Corporal Imlay, J. Prescot, prisoner, sent 
to New Orleans, released December 1st; Privates: Dicken, John, 
prisoner, sent to New Orleans, released December 1st; Lawrence, 
John T., wounded, returned with regiment; Marvin, H. M., 
wounded, left in Washington ; Pavie, Charles A., wounded in leg, 
prisoner in Richmond. 

COMPANY F — Captain Ellis, Julius L., wounded, died Sep- 
tember 1st; Privates : Behan, wounded; Clarke, Beverly, wound- 
ed, returned with the regiment ; Demorest, W. P., wounded, pris- 
oner at Richmond ; Eagleton, John W., wounded, returned with 
regiment ; Fickerson, Daniel, wounded, died in Richmond, August 
3d ; Noble, Gershner, prisoner at Richmond, released January 3d, 



206 [1861 

1862; Ropme, William O., wounded, returned with regiment; 
Roome, Samuel S., wounded, returned with regiment; Rockafel- 
lar, Harry, wounded, prisoner at Richmond, released December 
1st; Sands, John H. H., wounded, prisoner at Richmond, released 
February 9, 1862 ; Stambler, Jacob C, wounded, prisoner at Rich- 
mond, released 9th ; Whittaker, Daniel M., wounded, prisoner at 
Richmond, released January 3, 1862; Sayen, Geo. H., died from 
wounds received in action ; Bowers, J. W., wounded and prisoner 
at Richmond. 

COMPANY G — Privates: Abbe, Joshua G., wounded and 
returned with regiment ; Cohen, Wm. H., wounded, left in Wash- 
ington hospital; Allen, Bingham E., killed in action; Butler, 
Joseph B., killed in action; Duncan, Uselma, killed in action; 
Tompkins, Enoch, prisoner at Richmond, released ; Wade, Rollin 
H., killed in action; Deasy, Thomas G., wounded prisoner at 
Richmond, released January 3, 1862. 

COMPANY H — Lieutenant Embler, Andrew H., wounded, 
returned with regiment ; Privates : Cobb, John G., wounded, left 
in hospital at Alexandria ; Hartshorne, F. V., wounded, returned 
Tvith regiment ; Welch, Jr., Robert, wounded, returned with regi- 
.Tnent ; Green, Geo. W., wounded, prisoner at Richmond, released ; 
Morrissey, John J., wounded, died July 4th; Smith, Geo. W., 
^prisoner at Richmond, released. 

COMPANY I — Privates : Mould, John W., wounded, pris- 
(oner at Richmond, released; Taggart, James C, wounded, re- 
turned with regiment ; Bond, Samuel, killed in action ; Corby, 
Frank, died in hospital at Washington. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

HENRY P. MARTIN, 
Colonel 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

POSITION IN LINE OF COMPANIES ON THE FIELD 
OF BULL RUN 

Colors 
D, A, E, B, C— G, F, H, I howitzer 
Right wing Left wing 

TESTIMONY 

General Beauregard, C. S. A., speaking of the "Bee Brigade," 
which was opposed to the "Bumside Brigade," says : 

"The 8th Georgia had suffered heavily, being exposed as it 
took and maintained its position, to a fire from the enemy already 



1861] 207 

posted within a hundred yards of their front and right, sheltered 
by fences and undercover. It was at this time that Lieutenant- 
Colonel Gardner was severely wounded, and also several other 
valuable officers. The adjutant of the regiment. Lieutenant 
Branch, was killed and the horse of the regretted Bartow was; 
shot under him. 

"The 4th Alabama also suffered severely from thousands of 
muskets they so dauntlessly fronted, under the immediate leader- 
ship of Bee himself. Its brave Colonel, E. J. Jones, was danger- 
ously wounded, and many gallant officers were slain or hors de 
combat. 

"The enemy mantaining their fire pressed their swelling 
masses onward as our shattered battalions retired. The slaughter 
for the moment was deplorable, and his filled many a southern 
home with sorrow; under this inexorable stress the retreat was 
continued until arrested by the energy and resolution of General 
Bee."— (Vide "American Conffict," Vol. 1, page 543.) 

From the New York "Herald," July 24th : 

"The 71st behaved nobly, signalized themselves, and clearly 
demonstrated that their military training was not altogether con- 
fined to parading on Broadway in full dress uniform. These men, 
although their term of service had expired did not flinch a hair 
from the duty they owed to their country, and sprang forward 
to the charge." 

From the London (England) "Times" : 

"Some of the Union troops behaved gallantly, the 71st New 
York Regiment is described as having inflicted severe loss on 
the enemy." 

From the London "Illustrated News," August 31st, which had a 
full page picture of the regiment in action : 

"This was the only case in vi^hich I saw two regiments posi- 
tively engage each other; the Alabama regiment especially suf- 
fered, and when they retired, they left the ground covered with 
their dead and wounded. The 71st lost heavily, but they behaved 
exceedingly well, loading and firing as if on parade. On the hill 
at the back a Confederate battery was playing on the 71st. I was 
on the right of this regiment." 

A very curious semi-official map of the battlefield, with much 
detail, was published in Richmond, Va. Great prominence is given 
to the position of the 71st. There was much evidence that the 
reputation of the 71st had penetrated the rebel lines; while the 
4th Alabama and the New Orleans Tigers were dying to meet 



208 [1861 

the 71st (and many did after they met it) in combat. It was after 
all only a coincidence that the former happened to be on the left 
and the 71st on the right of their respective lines. 

From the "National Tribune," April 20, 1916 : 

THE TRUTH ABOUT BULL RUN 

It is unfortunate that the Regular Army officers and advo- 
cates of the Regular Army harp so much on Bull Run to the 
discredit of the mihtia and the volunteer soldiers. This is not a 
discussion which the advocates of volunteers have invited, and, 
therefore, the responsibility of opening up that series of colossal 
blunders must rest with the Regulars who have been making so 
much of the disaster to the discredit of the citizen soldiers. Far 
the greater discredit for Bull Run rests upon the Regular officers. 
The citizen soldiers, mostly militia, and largely from the great 
cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago 
and elsewhere, did their part magnificently. They fought bravely ; 
went willingly wherever they were led, and showed remarkable 
steadiness. It was only when the Regular Army officers, princi- 
pally Colonel Dixon S. Miles, in command of the reserves, lost 
their heads, that a panic seized the volunteers. Fully 90 per cent, 
of the higher officers at Bull Run were Regulars, and among 
them many men who later achieved high fame. 

Unfortunately, in spite of their education at West Point and 
their training in the Regular Army, they were marvelously green 
sand unskilled as to the actual lessons of great war. Most of them 
were Captains and Lieutenants, who had probably never seen so 
jnuch as their whole regiment together, and knew nothing of 
xegimental or brigade manoeuvers. The troops were only bri- 
gaded a few days before the battle, and knew nothing of their 
brigade officers ; had no sense of brigade cohesion, and went into 
the fight as regiments. For weeks before the battle the troops 
were camped on the hills around Washington without any or- 
ganization whatever beyond that of a regiment. Most of the regi- 
ments themselves were newly organized and had no idea of regi- 
mental cohesion. 

That valuable weeks were allowed to elapse in this military 
chaos is wholly the fault of the Regular Army officers in com- 
mand, and who should have been assiduous in forming their bri- 
gades and bringing about brigade solidarity. There was not even 
a Brigade Commissary and Quartermaster. The food for the 
troops was sent out from Washington in wagon trains, with the 
wagons stopping at every camp and distributing the quota of food 
for each regiment. The responsibility for this can be distributed 
by studying the roster of the Army which fought the battle of 
Bull Run. The official records give this as follows : 

First Division, Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler. 

First Brigade— Colonel E. D. Keyes: 2d Me., 1st Conn., 2d 
Conn., 3d Conn. 



1861] 209 

Second Brigade — Brigadier-General R. C. Schenck: 2d 
N. Y., 1st Ohio, 2d Ohio, E, 2d U. S. A. 

Third Brigade— Colonel W. T. Sherman : 13th N. Y., 69th 
N. Y., 79th N. Y., 2d Wis., 3d U. S. A. 

Fourth Brigade — Colonel I. B. Richardson: 1st Mass., 12th 
N. Y., 2d Mich., 3d Mich., G, 1st U. S. A., M, 2d U. S. A. 

Second Division — Colonel David Hunter, wounded; Colonel 
Andrew Porter. 

First Brigade — Colonel Andrew Porter: 8th N. Y. (MiUtia), 
14th N. Y., 27th N. Y., Battalion, U. S. Inf., Battalion, U. S. 
Marines, Battalion, U. S. Cav., D, 5th U. S. A. 

Second Brigade — Colonel A. E. Burnside: 2d N. H., 1st R. I., 
2d R. I., 71st N. Y. S. M. 

Third Division — Colonel S. P. Pleintzelman, wounded. 

First Brigade— Colonel W. B. Franklin: 5th Mass., 11th 
Mass., 1st Minn., I, 1st U. S. A. 

Second Brigade — Colonel O. B. Willcox, wounded and cap- 
tured: 11th N. Y. (Fire Zouaves), 38th N. Y., 1st Mich., 4th 
Mich., D, 2d U. S. A. 

Third Brigade — Colonel O. O. Howard: 3d Me., 4th Me., 
5th Me., 2d Vt. 

Fourth (Reserve) Division — Brigadier-General Theodore 
Runyon: 1st N. J., 2d N. J., 3d N. J., 4th N. J., three months; 
1st N. J., 2d N. J., 3d N. J., 41st N. Y., three years. 

Fifth Division — Colonel Dixon S. Miles. 

First Brigade — Colonel Louis Blenker: 8th N. Y., 29th 
N. Y., 39th N. Y., 27th Pa., A, 2d U. S. A., Bookwood's N. Y. 
Battery. 

Second Brigade — Colonel Thomas A, Davies: 16th N. Y., 
18th N. Y., 31st N. Y., 32d N. Y., G, 2d U. S. A. 

At the head of this army was Brigadier-General Irvin 
McDowell, who was regarded as one of the ablest officers in the 
Regular Army. He had graduated from West Point in 1834; 
had won brevets in Mexico, and was one of General Scott's 
favorite staff officers. His Chief of Staff and Adjutant-General 
was Colonel James B. Frye, who was graduated from West Point, 
and a Captain in the Regular Army. 

The First Division was commanded by Brigadier-General 
Daniel Tyler, a graduate of West Point, and who had served in 
the Regular Army. The First Brigade of the First Division was 
commanded by Colonel E. D. Keyes, who had graduated brilliantly 
from West Point, and who was Secretary to General Scott. 

The Second Brigade was commanded by Brigadier-General 
R. C. Schenck, an able political leader from Ohio, and he did 
some of the best fighting on the field. 

The Third Brigade was commanded by Colonel W. T. Sher- 
man, who attained great fame later in the war. 

The Fourth Brigade was commanded by Colonel I. B. Rich- 
ardson, a West Point cadet, and a Captain in the Regular Army 
when he resigned in 1855. He was a gallant soldier and after- 
wards killed at Antietam. 



210 [1861 

The Second Division was commanded by Colonel David 
Hunter, a fine soldier and a graduate of West Point, and who 
had been Paymaster in the Army. His First Brigade was com- 
manded by Andrew Porter, a West Point cadet, and a Captain in 
the Regular Army. His Second Brigade was commanded by 
Colonel A. E. Burnside, who had graduated from West Point, 
and was a First Lieutenant in the Regular Army, when he re- 
signed 10 years before to enter upon the manufacture of arms. 

The Third Division was commanded by Colonel S. P. Heintz- 
elman, a graduate of West Point, and a Major in the Regular 
Army. Heintzelman was a fine specimen of the bluff old regi- 
mental officers. Heintzelman's First Brigade was commanded by 
Colonel William B. Franklin, one of the star graduates of West 
Point, and a man of whom the greatest things were expected. The 
Second Brigade, and which fought magnificently, was command- 
ed by Colonel O. B. Willcox, a graduate of West Point, and a 
First Lieutenant in the Regular Army when he resigned 11 years 
before. The Third Brigade was commanded by Colonel O. O. 
Howard, who graduated from West Point in 1850, and was a 
First Lieutenant in the Regular Army. 

The Fourth Division was commanded by Brigadier-General 
Theodore Runyon, of New Jersey, and consisted of New Jersey 
troops. It was employed in guarding the line of communications 
back to Washington. 

The Fifth Division was commanded by Colonel Dixon S. 
Miles, a graduate of West Point, and a Colonel in the Regular 
Army. It is alleged that his part in the battle was to get thor- 
oughly drunk. He was placed in reserve on the heights of 
Centreville, and where, if he had had any real soldiership, the 
retreat would have been stayed and the troops reorganized. With 
a real soldier in command of the reserve, it would have been very 
easy to have arrested the retreat at Centreville, and brought order 
out of the broken regiments that were falling back. There were 
48 cannon on high ground at Centreville, and this under any 
efficient commander would have been sufficient to have restored 
order and saved the credit of the day. 

Miles's First Brigade was commanded by Colonel Louis 
Blenker an European adventurer, of whom little need be said. 
The Second Brigade was commanded by Colonel Thomas A. 
Davies, a graduate of West Point, and a Second Lieutenant in 
the Regular Army. 

From this it will be at once seen that the volunteers had 
astonishingly little to do with the command of the army at Bull 
Run. More than at any other battle of the war, the Army was 
in the hands of graduates of West Point and officers of the 
Regular Army. 

As has been said before, the volunteer soldiers, mainly mili- 
tia, fought with the greatest gallantry, and bravely followed 
leaders who showed a disposition to bring them into close quarters 
with the enemy. This was particularly the case with the brigade 
commanded by Colonel Willcox, which penetrated the Confeder- 



1861] 211 

ate lines and reached the farthest point of any advance during 
the day. Colonel Willcox was struck down and captured. 

The most lamentable part of the affair occurred on the 
heights of Centreville, where nearly one-half of the Army was 
gathered, with most of its artillery. There seemed to be no one 
in command, from McDowell down, that had enough soldierly 
spirit or the elements of generalship to reorganize the Army as 
it fell back upon these fresh troops and hold them there firmly to 
check any pursuit. It is amazing that among officers who later 
became so distinguished in the war there was not one of them 
that attempted to do this obvious thing. Where the commander 
of the Army and of the divisions went does not appear, but 
certainly they did not show themselves and make their influence 
felt on the heights of Centreville in the long evening hours of 
July 21st, when everything was confusion, uncertainty and dis- 
order. Then was when the real General makes himself felt. 
The men who had not been engaged stood in their places for hours 
in spite of the steady drift by them of the broken regiments 
which nobody tried to reorganize. At last the line of reserves 
began to break away, regiment after regiment until the last bri- 
gade was supposed to have left the field about midnight. * 

These are facts which ought to be brought out to curb the 
criticisms of the volunteers and place the responsibility for Bull 
Run where it rightfully belongs. 

The Adjutant-General, N.Y.S.M., Report 1862, says of the 
71st: 

"This is undoubtedly one of the best drilled regiments in 
the military service, if not the best, to which, and its excellent 
discipline, were the 4th Alabama and Georgia regiments, in- 
debted at the battle of Bull Run for their decimation ; an officer 
of the 79th Regiment, stated to the undersigned, that while wait- 
ing orders to make a forward movement, he climbed a tree on 
the edge of the woods that overlooked that part of the battlefield 
occupied by the 71st Regiment. He said he never felt such a 
glow of pride for the city of New York and his adopted country 
as when he witnessed the terrible firing of this regiment, or the 
coolness with which it advanced in line of battle and halting to 
deliver its fire. At each discharge, he said he could see numbers 
of the opposing regiment fall, never to rise again. 

"R. TAYLOR, 
"Major and Inspector, 4th Brigade, N.Y.S.M." 

A distinguished Major-General (on McDowell's staff, 1861), 
subsequently expressed his belief, "that the calm bearing of the 
71st Regiment, in the face of panic and disaster, was the true 
key to the enigma of the enemy's failure to pursue." 



212 [1861 

A Confederate field officer (General Terry), many years 
after the war, told Major Libby of the 71st, that he "had never 
forgotten the sight that presented itself to him on that morning 
of the 21st of July when he first saw the Burnside brigade 
debouched from the woods onto the field. It was a surprise, and 
a hasty change of position was necessary to meet the unexpected 
condition." 

And yet a so-called historian, editing a book, fifty years after 
entitled "Bull Run, Its Strategies, etc.," disposes of the 71st by 
saying, "It was a poor regiment." And when requested to state 
on what authority he based such a statement, answered : 

"My dear Sir: 

"I regret any statements in my book on Bull Run concern- 
ing your regiment should cause you pain. On the whole the mat- 
ter for surprise is not so much that the militia broke up, as that 
it accomplished as much as it did under bad conditions of weather 
and fatigue. 

"With a solid organization and training, I have no doubt 
whatever that the militia would have done splendily. 

"Yours very truly." 

As the Irishman said, "Sure I gave him an evasive answer." 
He was asked regarding his remark of the 71st, not of the militia. 
Having none, he did his best. It is well to be careful in making 
statements not personally known to be true. 

The campaign over, for a time conditions in the regiment 
were somewhat uncertain as to the future; the loss of war re- 
cruits and the going of many members into the volunteer service, 
reduced the numbers, recruiting was slow. Naturally those anxi- 
ous to go to the war joined the volunteers, and those not so 
anxious hesitated to join the militia, when they might possibly 
be called on. Many who had gone, were business men who had 
made greater sacrifice than many who enlisted for the war. 

On August 22d and 23d, the regiment was paid off by com- 
panies. In connection with this, the following order was issued: 

■ HEADQUARTERS AMERICAN GUARD 
71ST REGIMENT iLIGHT INFANTRY, N. Y. S. M. 

New York, August 20th, 1861. 
General Orders No. 1: 

In compliance with Division and Brigade orders, the commandants 
and first sergeants are hereby directed to be present during the pay- 
ment of the men, and obtain a list of those who wish to become mem- 
bers, and of those who already belong to their respective companies. 



1861] 213 

and make return of all property in their possession belonging to the 
State or the United States, and hand said return of property and roll 
of members to the adjutant on or before Saturday the 24th inst. 

Commandants of companies will reorganize their companies as 
speedily as possible when an election will be ordered to fill such vacan- 
cies as may exist. 

By order of 
COLONEL HENRY P. MARTIN. 
A. H. PRIDE, Adjutant. 

The uniform of the regiment now became in harmony with 
the times; nothing remained of the full dress but the coat and 
shako, and these were not considered in keeping with the service 
conditions existing; the regiment therefore wore army (light) 
blue trousers, the dark blue jacket previously worn as fatigue, 
with white belts and fatigue cap. 

Appreciating the many favors and kindness received from 
Commander Dahlgren and Lieutenant Foxhall A. Parker of the 
U. S. Navy, while the regiment was in the Navy Yard, the officers 
of the regiment procured an elegant sword and a pair of epau- 
lettes for the commander and a pair of epaulettes and shoulder 
straps for the Lieutenant, which on September 2d were pre- 
sented by Colonel Martin and Adjutant Pride acting for the offi- 
cers; they going to Washington for that purpose. 

Colonel Martin expressed to Captain Dahlgren, the hope that 
if fate decreed that the 71st should again be called to Washing- 
ton, that they be quartered in the Navy Yard. The Captain said, 
"Since your regiment left, none other has been here, nor will 
there be, you see all around valuable property necessarily lying 
loose, a great temptation; the 71st will be welcome, we know 
them, during their three months' occupation not one thing was 
missed." 

On Sunday, September 3d, died Captain Julius L. Ellis, late 
Captain of Company F, 71st Regiment; his foot was shattered 
by a shot on the field of Bull Run, he refused to have it amputat- 
ed ; mortification set in, and terminated his life. Three brothers 
participated in the same battle, one being Captain of Company I, 
71st, another, private in Company F. 

HEADQUARTERS AMERICAN GUARD 
71ST REGIMENT, N. Y. S. M. 

New York, September 4th, 1861. 
Special Orders: 

The officers and members of this Regiment are requested to as- 
semble at the regimental armory, at one o'clock P. M., to attend as 
mourners the funeral of the late Captain Julius F. Ellis, company F, 



214 [1861 

who died of wounds received in the late engagement at Bull-Run, 
while in the discharge of his duties. Company C, Captain Coles, is 
hereby detailed to act as escort to the remains; and the following 
officers will act as pall-bearers: Captains Meschutt, Dunham, Traf- 
ford, Wade; Lieut's Tompkins and Livermore. 

The officers and members of the regiment will appear in full 
fatigue, with army pants and white belts. 

By order of 

COL. HENRY P. MARTIN. 

A. J. PRIDE, Adjutant. 

October 18th was the annual inspection day, and was of much 
interest as showing what effect the war service had made upon 
the regiment as a militia regiment. The following is from the 
New York "Herald": 

"The men were mustered on Washington Parade Ground, at 
about 2:30 P. M., when Major Taylor proceeded with the in- 
spection. 

"All the companies have been considerably reduced since the 
return of the regiment from the seat of war, about one-half of 
their members are again serving their country as volunteers in the 
ranks of other regiments, a number of whom have received com- 
missions in the volunteer and regular service. 

"The arms are in good and serviceable condition, but the uni- 
forms are, to draw it mildly, rather seedy, and no wonder, after 
the rough service seen by this regiment during its three months' 
campaign." 

Altogether the result was quite satisfactory, there being pres- 
ent 447, and 162 absent, as against the year 1860, with 410 pres- 
ent and 94 absent. (The inspection of the 7th this year was 870 
present, 183 absent.) 

Monday, November 11th, the Regiment paraded to escort the 
remains of the late Colonel Edward D. Baker, who was killed at 
Ball's Bluff, Va., from the city hall to the California steamer. 
These remains had been received by Company A, on the 9th, 
during a heavy rain, and taken to the city hall, where they had 
laid in state, guarded by details of the 71st until the day of 
the funeral. 

November 2Sth, the 71st paraded with the 1st Division to 
celebrate "Evacuation Day." The estimated present of the Di- 
vision was 3,000. 

December 6th, a regimental drill was held at the City Armory 
corner of White and Elm Streets. December 20th, officers and 



1861-62] 215 

non-commission officers were drilled; and on the 27th the regi- 
ment held a drill, all at the same place. Thus ending the year 
with hard work; an eventful one, which covered the regiment 
with glory, showing the public, that the 71st could be depended 
upon in war as well as in peace. 



18 6 2 



The year opened for work on the 5th of January, by an 
escort from the regiment, to the remains of Captain Thomas 
Kerrigan, 25th New York Volunteer, killed at Hall's Hill, Va. 
They were taken to Calvary Cemetery. 

January 9th, a regimental drill was held at the City Armory. 

On Tuesday evening, January 21st, Company D went to the 
house of Bushrod Vaughn, and presented him with a medal for 
his bravery on the battlefield of Manassas, and for his loyalty to 
the Stars and Stripes during his captivity in Richmond, Va. He 
was wounded in the face during the fight and left for dead upon 
the field. He was one of the 250 released prisoners arriving 
about two weeks previous. 

February 7th a regimental drill was held at the City Armory. 

February 22d was an eventful day, and a miserable one for 
the 71st — it was cloudy and a raw atmosphere over head, and 
under foot it was hummocks of snow and ice, and ponds of slush. 

The line was formed on Bond Street at 2 P. M., and, after 
a dress parade, the line of march was taken up for the residence 
of Mrs. Colonel Thorn, in West 16th Street, where the regiment 
was to be the recipient of a magnificent American flag. 

The route of march was up Broadway to 4th Street, to 
Washington Parade ground, and from thence to Fifth Avenue 
and West 16th Street. The popularity of the regiment was never 
more apparent than upon this occasion. The windows of the 
houses were filled with ladies, who waved their handkerchiefs 
constantly, and at several points clapped their hands, and cheers 
were loudly meant for Colonel Martin and his command. 

The presentation took place in front of the elegant residence 



216 [1862 

of Mrs. Thorn, the patriotic donor of the flag; and a platform 
had been erected for the accommodation of the ladies, and the 
speakers selected for the occasion. A mammoth American flag 
was suspended from the third story of the house, while from the 
windows of the surrounding residences numerous banners were 
thrown out, or floating from the house-tops, in the utmost pro- 
fusion. 

The regiment being drawn up directly in front of the plat- 
form, Mrs. Thorn, accompanied by her daughter, Mrs. Edward 
Kirkland, and attended by G. S. Bibby, Esq., and by Lieutenant 
J. L. Morris, formerly of the Navy, came forward with the ban- 
ner. General Spicer, commanding the Brigade of which the 71st 
forms a part, and Captain Aug. V. H. Ellis who with his howitzer 
company (which was then attached to the regiment) performed 
such splendid service at the battle of Bull Run, were also on the 
platform. 

John B. Stevens, Esq., then after remarks complimentary to 
the regiment, said he was about to introduce to them the Hon. 
Charles P. Kirkland, who on behalf of Mrs. Thorn, would present 
to them a beautiful American flag. 

He knew the regiment would receive and preserve the ban- 
ner sacred ; and the presentation of it by Mrs. Colonel Thorn was 
an evidence that the spirit which actuated the ladies of 76 still 
lived in the hearts of the women of '62. He then introduced 
Mr. Kirkland, who stepped forward, and spoke as follows : 

"Colonel Martin, and Officers, and Men of the 71st: 

"I have the honor to address you in the name and on behalf 
of Mrs. Colonel Thorn. 

"Her heart, mine, the hearts of thousands of the men and 
women of this metropolis, went with you when, on the 21st of 
April, on the briefest notice, and with scarcely time to bid a 
hurried farewell to wives, mothers, sisters, you set out on tl\p 
then perilous expedition to the Capital, to save it from the des- 
perate traitors and rebels who threatened it. 

"Never will your country forget the service which you and 
your gallant companions in arms rendered her in that, her hour of 
darkness and danger. 

"The same hearts were with you when, after months of 
faithful and arduous service at the Capital, you took part, on the 
21st of July, in the bloody conflict at Manassas. On that occa- 
sion, disastrous as was the result, it is everywhere conceded that 
there was as brave and daring men on that field as was ever 
engaged in battle — men who, though they did not 'command suc- 
cess, did more — they deserved it.' While we and you would 



1862] 217 

accord all honor to others, the heroic Corcoran's 69th, the un- 
daunted Rhode Islanders, and numerous other regiments, I may 
yet say that the New York 71st was not behind the foremost. The 
flag you then bore, and which is now before me riddled and torn 
by rebel bullets, will ever be to you a sacred relic, a cherished 
memento of that eventful day! 

"You were appreciated by your countrymen, and abroad you 
received honorable mention ; for I well remember reading, in 
August, in one London Journal, that the '71st New York Regi- 
ment inflicted severe loss on the enemy ;' and in another, that 'in 
the engagement between the 71st and the Alabama Regiment, the 
latter was badly cut up; the 71st lost heavily, but behaved ex- 
ceedingly well, loading and firing as if on parade. On the hill, 
at the back, a rebel battery was playing on them.' That the same 
hearts, which went with you in your departure were with you on 
your return on the 26th of July, the triumphant welcome you 
received is an abundant testimony. 

"Our hearts are still with you, and never can we, or those 
who come after us, fail to remember the patriotism, the courage, 
the sufferings and the dangers of the 71st in a trying crisis of 
our country's history. We of this day love to speak of our 
Revolutionary ancestors ; the men of coming generations will 
dwell with the same grateful satisfaction on you and all who have 
fought or shall fight the present battles of the Republic. The 
men of that day performed the great work of building up this 
magnificent temple of liberty ; the men of this day have done and 
are doing the equally great work of defending and preserving it ! 

"You, and the men who entered the service with you, were 
the pioneers in the holy mission of defending the Union and the 
Constitution. How well that mission has been continued, Spring- 
field, Port Royal, Mill Spring, Roanoke, Fort Henry, Fort Donel- 
son, gloriously testify. What a thrill of pleasure courses through 
the loyal American heart at the mention of those names! But 
the victories are not ended. In the words of General Hallack, in 
his order of the day for the 19th of this month, 'prepare for new 
conflicts and new victories. The Union flag must be restored 
everywhere, and our soldiers and sailors are ready to do it. Vic- 
tory and glory await the brave.' 

"This occasion cannot pass without an earnest tribute to the 
memory of your brothers, who under the mutilated flag I now see, 
fell or received their death wounds. They died for their country, 
they never will be forgotten. 

"In the name of this excellent, respected, and, I add emphat- 
ically, patriotic lady, I now present you this banner — this emblem 
of your country's greatness and glory — the flag of our Union, the 
banner of our liberty, 'Liberty and Union, now and forever, one 
and inesparable !' The donor knows, and therefore she trusts, the 
hands to which she confides it ; she knows that its fair folds will 
never be sullied by dishonor. 



218 [1862 

"Our glorious banner ! the 'Star Spangled Banner,' I will not 
say of it, 'Oh long may it wave,' but I say, 'forever and ever, and 
ever will it wave, o'er the land of the free and the home of the 
brave.' " 

Colonel Martin accepted the present in the following speech : 

"In behalf of the 71st Regiment, I thank you, and through 
you the donor of this magnificent gift, the emblem of our coun- 
try's greatness and glory. The greatest glory of the patriot 
soldier is to serve his country in its hour of peril and danger, 
and his greatest pleasure to receive the approval and plaudits of 
his fellow citizens. 

"At our country's call, we buckled on our armor, and 
hastened to the defence of the Capital. How far the services we 
rendered are appreciated, the presentation of this beautiful flag 
of our country, and your eloquent and touching remarks, attest. 
We accept the gift, and will assure you that if ever again we 
shall be called into active service, our colors shall be borne in 
safety, as in the battle of Bull Run, through the thickest of the 
fight, as long as there is a hand to uphold, and an arm to defend 
them. Gratefully we thank you ; thankfully we accept the gift." 

The Colonel then proposed three cheers for the Stars and 
Stripes, and the Union it represents ; and three for the donor of 
the flag, which were cordially given by the Regiment, and en- 
thusiastically united in by the large concourse of citizens, who 
had assembled to witness the presentation. Thus closed one of 
the pleasantest of the numerous commemorations of the day in the 
Commercial Metropolis of the Union. 

THE BANNER 

"The Banner is of silk, of the most elegant workmanship, and 
is fringed with gold. It bears upon its folds the words, 'American 
Guard, 71st Regiment, N. Y. State.' It was suspended from a 
beautiful oak staff beautifully mounted in gold, and crowned 
with a spread eagle, directly under which hung gold cord and 
tassels. 

"The flag having been received, and placed side by side with 
the war-worn flag of the regiment, the command marched di- 
rect to the church of Rev. Mr. Wiley, Chaplain of the regiment, 
on Fifth Avenue. The order of exercises here were as follows : 

Music by the Band. 

Prayer by Rev. Mr. Wiley. 

Reading of Washington's Farewell Address. 

Music. 

Benediction." 



1862] 219 

The regiment again formed line, and marched down Madison 
Avenue, and from thence to the armory, where dismissed. 

The following from the Sunday "Mercury," will be of in- 
terest, as showing the difficulties the regiment met with in the 
lack of space for drill : 

"The officers and non-commission officers of the 71st 
Regiment, had a drill at the City Armory on Tuesday evening, 
March 4th. The formation represented ten companies — sticks 
being used to illustrate each company front. The details of 
forming line, saluting, receiving reports of sergeants- and 
dismissing the parade, were gone through with in good style. 

"On Friday evening, March 7th, a drill of the entire com- 
mand was had at the same place. Long before the time fixed, a 
large crowd of ladies and gentlemen had assembled many of 
whom could obtain no seats, and were forced to take up with 
limited standing room. 

"All the companies, but one, were represented in good 
strength — there being eight commands of twelve and thirteen files 
front. The formation was delayed on account of an error in 
calling off the details. 

"The 'beating off,' was done by three drums and three fifes. 
After the command had been turned over, the battalion was ex- 
ercised in the manual and in the firings. 

"The room being too small for all the companies to man- 
oeuvre the battalion was divided into wings, and practiced in such 
evolutions as wheeling into column and line, counter-marching 
by the flank, closing in mass, breaking by the rear from line into 
column, etc. 

On March 16th, the funeral of Lieutenant Harry B. Hedden, 
1st New York Volunteer Cavalry, killed near Burke Station, 
Va., took place ; at which Company F acted as escort. About this 
date, the regiment agitated the subject of an armory, and a peti- 
tion to that effect was signed by the members and presented to 
the authorities. 

On March 28th the remains of Colonel John S. Slocum, 
Major Sullivan Ballon and Captain Levi Tower, all of the 2d 
Rhode Island Volunteers, who were killed at Bull Run, April 
21, 1861, reached New York. They were met by Company A, 
71st, and escorted to the Astor House, where they laid in state 
in parlors 9 and 10, a guard of honor from the 71st being placed 
over them until the funeral, which took place on the 29th at 4 
P. M., the escort consisting of the 37th and 71st Regiments. The 
route was up Park Row, Chatham (now called Park Row) Street, 



220 [1862 

the Bowery, to and through Canal to Broadway, down Broad- 
way, thence to the Fall River boat at the foot of Murray Street. 
Tens of thousands viewed this imposing funeral pageant, in every 
thoroughfare along the line of march ; and the ceremonies were 
as impressive as they were honorable to the city. 

March 15th a regimental drill was given at the arsenal. 

On the 1st of April the officers and non-commissioned officers 
were drilled at the Division or City Armory, corner Elm and 
White Streets. 

On the 16th a regimental drill was held in the state arsenal. 

From the New York "Herald" : 

"Battalion drill of the 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. The Ar- 
senal, 37th Street and Seventh Avenue, was crowded to excess 
last evening in order to witness a battalion drill of this favorite 
corps. The large drill room was so crowded, that hundreds had 
to go away unable to gain admission. 

"Eight full companies of the regiment were in line, and made 
quite an imposing appearance. The movements of the evening 
principally consisted of exercise in the manual of arms, firing by 
companies, by file and by battalion. In consequence of the 
crowded state of the drill room it was impossible to go through any 
battalion movements of consequence." 

April 21st, the first anniversary of the departure of the regi- 
ment to Washington, was celebrated as a "Field Day," the fol- 
lowing from the Sunday "Mercury," gives a good account of it : 

"A more disagreeable, contemptibly, cold, rheumatical, rainy 
day, than last Monday, could hardly have been picked out for 
field exercises; however, nothing daunted, the 71st Regiment as- 
sembled on their usual parade ground (Bond Street), smd pro- 
ceeded to East New York via Fulton Ferry and the Long Island 
Rail Road. 

"Owing to the extensive accommodations in the shape of 
sundry horse cars the various companies arrived at various times, 
all getting upon the ground at about eleven o'clock; thus three 
hours were consumed in transportation. 

"After stacking arms inside the Union Barracks, at East 
New York, the regiment was dismissed for dinner. Instead of 
the clumsy knapsack, heretofore carried by our militia on field 
days, the men were provided with haversacks containing their ra- 
tions. During the interval allowed for refreshments, the mem- 
bers had an excellent opportunity of witnessing an exhibition 



1862] 221 

drill given by Pluvius; nearly all the movements were oblique, 
and owing to the guide being very windy, there was much irregu- 
larity in the ranks. 

"A break in the rain encouraged the regiment at one o'clock 
to fall into line — eight commands of fifteen front. A few move- 
ments were gone through, and some little practice had in the 
firings ; but as the weather still continued so chilly and rainy, the 
colonel formed the battalion into column and headed by Dod- 
worth's band which discoursed some of their unrivaled music, 
marched down Division Avenue (or Broadway of Long Island) 
to Grand Street ferry— five miles — accomplished the distance in 
fifty-five minutes. The regiment left East New York at twenty 
minutes past two, and at fifteen minutes past three were at the 
ferry. After some little delay they crossed to New York and 
marched through Grand Street to the armory at Centre Market, 
which place was reached at nineteen minutes of four. 

"In as much as the 71st Regiment is now generally regarded 
as the best in the first division, as far as battalion movements are 
concerned and their firings by squares in four rank formation 
has not been attempted by any troops in this vicinity, we under- 
stand they will probably have another field day about the middle 
of May, in order to improve themeslves, and gratify their thou- 
sands of friends." 

The Legislature at their session this spring passed a new 
militia law. All company and regimental names cease, all are to 
be known as the National Guard ; for some time the designation 
has been New York Troops, hereafter it will be New York State 
National Guard. 

To the 71st the name of "American Guard" will always be 
treasured as being indissolubly associated, but no longer official; 
that name is a fundamental, so linked to the 71st, it can never be 
anything but a part of it. 

CAMPAIGN OF 1862 

In the last days of May, 1862, on the retreat of General 
Banks before the forces of Jackson, a call was made from the 
War Department at Washington on the State of New York for 
militia for the defence of the National Capital. The call being 
responded to, and the officers of the 71st volunteering. Colonel 
Martin waited upon Colonel George Bliss, Jr., New York Com- 
mandant at the Depot of U. S. Volunteers, in New York City, to 
see after matters connected with the transportation of the regi- 
ment, and Colonel Martin was told, in answer to his question as 
the term of service required, and the nature of the same, that the 
regiment would be required for three months, and that the pur- 



222 [1862 

pose of the service was the defence of the City of Washington. 
In confirmation, and that no blame was attributed to the regiment 
by the U. S. officers in New York, this, at least negative evidence, 
is offered under the hand of Colonel Bliss : 

DEPOT OF VOLUNTEERS, 

51 Walker Street. 

New York, May 30, 1862. 
"To the Editor, Etc. : 

"In consequence of reports industriously circulated, I am 
directed to request that you will state authoritatively that the 
militia regiments recently ordered to Washington are expressly 
accepted by the Secretary of War for the period of three months, 
unless sooner discharged. 

"They cannot and will not be detained longer. 
"Your obedient servant, 

"GEO. BLISS, Jr., 

Col. Commanding Depot. 

The order issued from the Adjutant-General's office of the 
State also directs the regiment, as State troops, to proceed to 
Washington, as follows: 

(Special Orders No. 130) 

STATE OF NEW YORK, GENERAL HEADQUARTERS 

Adjutant-General's Office, May 26, 1862. 

The 8th, 11th, 22d, 27th and 7Ht regiments will proceed 
to Washington forthwith. 

The commandants of the several regiments will make requisi- 
tion upon the chiefs of the several departments of the State for 
such arms, ammunition, equipments and supplies as they may 
require for the use of their regiments. 

Upon appHcation to Colonel George Bliss, Jr., 51 Walker 
Street, they will receive orders for transportation. On their ar- 
rival in Washington the commandants of the several regiments 
will report to the Adjutant-General of the army. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 
THOS. HILLHOUSE, 

Ad j utant-General. 

Further, the 71st Regiment having been quartered in Wash- 
ington at the Navy Yard, and that place being known to be ad- 
mirably adapted for all purposes of drill, keeping the command 
orderly, and for the ready movement of the same, to any point 
desired, by both water or land, where the same was likely to be 



1862] 223 

needed ; and it being the wish of the command, apparently, to 
occupy the same spot again, as most like home to them, the 
colonel telegraphed to the War Department, requesting, for these 
reasons, that if the public service permitted, the Yard might again 
be put in the custody of the regiment. To which request came 
the following: 

(Copy) 

TELEGRAM FROM THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

Washington, May 27, 1862. 
Colonel Henry P. Martin: 

I would be glad to have your quarters in the Navy Yard, if 
the Secretary of the Navy will consent, and will make arrange- 
ments accordingly by the time you reach here. 

EDWIN M. STANTON, 

Secretary of War. 

The officers of the 71st being satisfied that they had properly 
possessed themselves of the interests of the Government in re- 
quiring their services, directly proceeded to make these purposes 
public to the men in their commands, and the recruits who flocked 
to their armories and enlisted under them, and were so enabled 
to parade for transportation on Wednesday, May 28th ; but orders 
having been issued by Lieutenant-Colonel Vinton that transporta- 
tion was not to be furnished to regiments until after their muster 
in, and there being no mustering officers present, the regiment 
was again paraded the following day ; and Colonel Vinton's orders 
being countermanded the command left for Washington on the 
29th by railroad, its force numbering 825 men. 

From the New York "Herald," May 29th: 

"After having been delayed twenty-four hours, the 71st 
Regiment received a summons yesterday forenoon to start. The 
news, of course, produced no ordinary bustle among the men who 
were as busy as bees at the armory during the entire day. The 
news that they were about to depart soon, spread like wildfire 
throughout the city, and, from three o'clock in the afternoon up 
to nine at night the vicinity of Centre Market was occupied by a 
considerable mass of persons cheering and vociferously, for the 
gallant heroes of Bull Run who left the field in good order, not a 
man having flinched from . the ranks during the retreat on that 
memorable day. It was a long wait from three until nine 
o'clock but, nevertheless, although the crowd became a little 
thinned, as the patience of some began to give out, the ex- 
citement continued. 

"As nine o'clock approached vast numbers began to congre- 



224 [1862 

gate, until the popular gathering equalled any period of the day. 
At this time the armory was fairly besieged by an army of the 
friends of the regiment, the fair sex, of course, being most 
anxious to bid their relations and sweethearts good-bye. 

"Shortly after nine, the regiment formed on Grand Street 
proceeded down Broadway to Cortlandt Street ferry. The scene 
along the route of march was of a most enthusiastic and soul- 
stirring description. It has fallen to our lot of late to describe 
such demonstrations so frequently that it would be only a work of 
supererogation to reproduce them here. It is enough to say that 
everything hopeful could be inferred from the acclamations of the 
citizens last night, as the gallant 71st passed along, and that the 
farewells they received equalled, if they did not surpass those 
accorded to the 7th. 

"They arrived in Jersey City a little before ten o'clock and 
entrained as promptly as possible. In half an hour later they 
were on their way to the National Capital to join their brothers 
in arms. The 71st numbered 825 fine looking, well seasoned 
men, every one of whom is a credit to the Empire City; there 
is one thing certain, they are not made to run away, and if they 
should happen to come bayonet to bayonet with the enemy, they 
will use the forcible argument of cold steel energetically. 

"It will be remembered that at the battle of Bull Run, they 
fought like tigers, and were the last to leave the field, and in 
good order. It is material like this that the country may safely 
depend on in the hour of peril." 

May 29th at 5 A. M., the regiment arrived in Philadelphia, 
where they had breakfast, leaving at 8 A. M., and at 2 :50 P. M., 
arrived in Baltimore, an aide of Major-General Dix (the officer 
then commanding that military district) met the regiment at the 
cars, and directed its colonel to take it immediately on to Harper's 
Ferry. The colonel replied that he had orders from the War 
Department to take the regiment to Washington; that his men 
were not mustered into the service, and that as the order con- 
flicted he had no choice but to obey the orders of the War De- 
partment. Whereupon the aide suggesting that the colonel should 
see the general, he accordingly repaired to that officer's head- 
quarters. 

After inspecting the orders, and hearing the colonel's state- 
ment of the case. General Dix issued orders for the transporta- 
tion of the regiment to Washington, where it arrived about 11 
P. M., and was marched to the barracks near the depot, where 
they had supper, coffee, bread and tongue; and were quartered 
for the night on nice straw to relieve the hardness of the floor. 
At 4:30 A. M., they were routed out, given their breakfast, and 
marched into the street, and Colonel Martin reported at the War 



1862] 225 

Department for orders. The Secretary of War having, doubt- 
lessly, been apprised from Baltimore of the conflict of orders, 
received Colonel Martin sternly; told him he was not wanted in 
Washington ; that he did not want any three months' troops at 
all, and finally threatened the Colonel that he would put him 
under arrest for disobedience of orders. 

Colonel Martin explained to the Secretary of War that he 
came in consequence of his own orders ; that his regiment were 
loyal men who had done the Government good and faithful ser- 
vice before; that they had understood that the Government de- 
sired the same service of them again, and they had come again 
to render the same, and not to embarrass the Government, as the 
Secretary had charged ; that they were willing to be mustered into 
the service for the term of three months, and then to go to the 
front or to any place that the Secretary pleased; but that the 
officers could not break the faith they had pledged to the men, 
and under which they had brought them to Washington; that, 
of course, he could put him under arrest, but as neither he nor 
his regiment were in service they were not subject to the rules of 
the army, and could not be lawfully punished for what they had 
done. 

The Secretary in reply claimed that the regiment had ac- 
cepted transportation, and that if such was the determination of 
the officers of the regiment that he would have the same over 
their hands in writing, and that he would have nothing more to 
do with the affair, but would submit the entire subject to the 
President. Whereupon Colonel Martin retired, held a council 
of his officers, and a paper was accordingly drawn up stating 
their position as viewed by them, reiterating the offer of the 
colonel ; and, moreover, pledging that at the end of their term of 
three months, if accepted, one of their number should raise a 
regiment and lead it into the field for the war, and that each and 
every one of the officers subscribing would use their influence in 
New York to enlist the men for the regiment at the earliest 
moment. 

This document, so signed and addressed to the President, 
was left with the Secretary, who declared that it should go 
before Mr. Lincoln. Colonel Martin, on his return to the com- 
mand, found the regiment in the street, they having been ordered 
out of the barracks by authority of the military governor of the 
city, and they so remained until one of the contractors of public 
buildings, taking pity on them, allowed the cplonel to quarter 



226 [1862 

the men in the unfinished Capitol, where they slept two nights on 
marble floors with knapsacks for pillows. No message arriving 
from the President the colonel waited upon President Lincoln, 
but could not see him, and it was not till the following day that 
he obtained an interview. 

The colonel stated his position, but the President seemed 
greatly surprised; he had not seen the officers' paper; he knew 
nothing of the affair ; he never meddled with these matters ; they 
were entirely in the hands of the Secretary of War. He stated 
that the position of the colonel was very embarrassing to the 
Government, for three months' troops were not wanted, and he 
must refer him to the Secretary of War, and the interview 
terminated, the colonel explaining briefly to the President that 
the regiment came there out of good-will, and loyalty, and that it 
had pledged itself to send a regiment in its stead when its term 
was out, in proof of its feeling. 

Returning towards the Capitol the colonel was suddenly en- 
countered by Hon. Preston King, at that time Senator from the 
State of New York. Senator King was very happy to meet the 
New York colonel, and, of course, the anomalous position of the 
regiment was directly the theme of conversation between the two 
gentlemen ; but the Senator could not view the affair at all from 
the standpoint of the colonel, and could advise nothing but that 
the regiment should get out of its trouble by complying with the 
wishes of the Goverment, which the colonel unhesitatingly de- 
clined to do, and stated that he expressed the resolve of the regi- 
ment in a paper then in the hands of the Government. Senator 
King thereupon drew a paper from beneath his sleeve, and asked 
Colonel Martin if that was the paper alluded to, and being an- 
swered that it was, counseled the colonel to take it back. Colonel 
Martin expressed his unbounded surprise that the Senator should 
have in his hands a paper belonging to the President, and which 
the President had declared to him he had not seen, and he de- 
clined in the most positive manner to withdraw the paper or 
recede from the resolve therein expressed. 

The Senator from New York now changed his tone and his 
terms and began to threaten, and declared to the colonel of the 
regiment that the regiment should be coerced into the service, if 
need be, under fire, and at the point of the bayonet. To this 
Colonel Martin told Mr. King that any such attempt should be 
resisted to the best of his power, and by every means, and that he 
thought it would be in every way a most unwise attempt, for that 



1862] 227 

the 71st Regiment not only represented a large amount of money 
in the City of New York, but that it had behind it a formidable 
political influence. The Senator, seeing now that his diplomacy 
was of no avail, proposed to the colonel that, as they were all 
from the same State, they should go and see Mr. Secretary 
Seward, and the proposition being acceded to they waited upon 
that gentleman ; but finding his success to be no greater than the 
Senator's attempt, it was finally proposed that all three should 
visit the Secretary of War, and accordingly in a few moments 
they were closeted with that gentleman. 

The result of this last interview was, that finding the posi- 
tion of the regiment impregnable, and that its chiefs were legally 
and equitably masters of the situation, the Secretary of War 
finally said: "Well, Colonel, if your regiment will be mustered 
in I will give you my word of honor that it shall not be detained 
beyond an hundred days, and I will give orders to have it ra- 
tioned and assigned to duty." 

To which Colonel Martin replied : "That his regiment wait- 
ed the Secretary's orders," and rising, remarked, "but, Mr. Secre- 
tary, nothing that has occurred must work to the disadvantage of 
the 71st Regiment." 

"No," said Mr. Stanton, "it shall not, colonel. In fact I 
respect the regiment all the more for what has occurred." 

Sunday was very pleasant, and the men enjoyed themselves 
as they deemed best. Early in the evening it was learned that 
Colonel Martin had been successful in having the regiment ac- 
cepted for three months and preparation was being made to 
march to a camp early in the morning. June 2d the regiment 
formed on Pennsylvania Avenue and marched to Tennallytown, . 
Md., having a full supply of camp equipage, including Sibley tents, 
cooking utensils, commissary stores, etc., loaded on wagons drawn 
by mules, about a dozen teams guarded by details. 

After a march of about seven miles, passing through George- 
town, they arrived at about 2 P. M., at the grounds, adjoining 
Fort Gaines ; the ground sloped to a small but rapid stream, which 
gave facilities for washing. All hands went to work, and by six 
o'clock, a tented city was erected on the vacant hillside of a few 
hours previous, guard was mounted and sentinels posted. Every 
thing was ready for the first supper in camp Martin, cooked by 
their own cooks. It was thoroughly enjoyed by the tired and 
himgry men after their long march and hard work of the day. 

When "taps" were sounded hardly a man was awake. Soon 
after the flaps of the tents were opened, a voice was heard asking 



228 [1862 

if all were comfortable. The answer was, "All right, colonel!" 
(for the voice was recognized). "Keep your feet warm and your 
head cool, good-night, my sons," and the flaps were closed, and so 
he passed on to each tent. Is it a wonder that he endeared him- 
self to his men? 

On Tuesday, June 3d, camp life commenced in earnest. At 
5 A. M., officers and non-commissioned officers were out for 
morning drill, most of them first repairing to the coffee and cake 
tent, where both coffee and cake, piping hot, were taken with 
satisfaction making one feel the better for the hour drill before 
breakfast. 

HEADQUARTERS, 71ST REGIMENT, N. Y. S. M. 
CAMP MARTIN, NEAR FORT GAINES, TENNALLYTOWN, 

June 3d, 1862. 
GENERAL ORDERS No. 1 

1. All calls will be sounded by the drummer of the guard. 

2. "Reveille" at S A. M., when the companies will fall in for Roll- 
Call by First Sergeants, superintended by a commissioned officer. 

3. "Peas upon the Trencher" will be sounded at 7 A. M., when 
each sergeant will attend to the messing of his squad. 

4. "Surgeon's Call" at 7:30 A. M., when the sick will be con- 
ducted by the First Sergeant to the Hospital. 

5. "Guard Mount" at 8 A. M. ; fifteen minutes before which time 
details will fall in on their company parades for inspection. 

6. "Roast Beef" will be sounded at 1 P. M. 

7. The call for "Roast Beef" will be sounded at 5:30 A. M., when 
the First Sergeants will immediately repair to the Commissary's 
Depot, and draw the rations for their companies. 

8. "Retreat" will be sounded at 6 P. M., when there will be a 
drill parade; all officers, non-commissioned officers and privates pres- 
ent. Fifteen minutes before which time companies will fall in on their 
company parade grounds for roll-call and inspection, superintended by 
a commissioned officer. 

9. "Tattoo" at 9:30 P. M., when the roll will be called, and all 
men will be in quarters; thirty minutes thereafter there will be three 
taps of the drum, when all lights will be extinguished, except at the 
guard-house and in officers quarters, and perfect silence preserved. 

10. Morning reports of companies, signed by captains and first 
sergeants, will be handed in to the Adjutant before 8 o'clock A. M. 

11. Officers' and non-commissioned officers' drill from 5:30 to 
6:45 A. M., Company drills from 5:30 to 6:45 A. M. by a sergeant or 
lieutenant, and from 8:30 to 10:30 A. M., and from 3 to 5 P. M. At all 
the drills, all officers, non-commissioned and privates, will be present, 
except the sick, those on guard duty, and those just relieved from 
guard duty in the morning. 

By order of 
F. ZISSEL, Acting Adjutant. COL. H. P. MARTIN. 



1862] 229 

By the 4th of June, the officers' drills being satisfactory, 
active work commenced in getting the companies into shape, after 
which battalion drills were held. For several days they were much 
interfered with by rain. June 11th it rained from 6 A. M. until 
9 P. M., giving the men ample time to catch up with their 
correspondence. 

The regiment had left home without any music, not even a 
Drum Corps. This was much missed, and the arrival on the 6th, 
of a Drum Corps, was hailed with delight; with it came 15 re- 
cruits. Later, this Drum and Fife Corps became the joke of the 
camp, it seemed to be of the vintage of 1776, its favorite airs were 
"Jefferson and Liberty" and others of that or older period, the 
leader was an odd sort, of the backwoods type, and received from 
the men the soubriquet of "Connecticut Pie." 

The men would have their pranks and on June 10th they 
had a funeral ; the corpse was "Old Salt Junk," he \vas no favorite 
with the men; companies D and K did the service with due 
solemnity; they carried a pole about nine feet long and a large 
piece of pork-salt, fat, and very unpleasant to the olfactories, 
which was hung on the pole ; with reversed arms and whistling a 
dead march; the procession moved through the company street, 
the spectators raising their caps as it passed. It was to be buried 
at the Conimissary Department, but the Colonel spying the pro- 
cession halted it and caused it to disperse. 

By the 12th the regiment had been heard of in Washington, 
and many visitors came to witness its evening parades, among 
them the Secretary of War, Mr. Stanton. On this date the regi- 
ment was reviewed by Major-General Thomas, who expressed 
himself as being very much pleased. 

On Sunday evenings prayer meetings were held in company 
headquarters, which were well attended, showing that the men 
had not forgotten their duty to their Maker. Every Sunday 
morning. Divine Services were held in front of Regimental Head- 
quarters, the Chaplain, Rev. Dr. Wiley, officiating. 

In this campaign the regiment was first introduced to the 
"Sutler." Like the corner saloon, he had a license to cater to the 
luxuries (very few necessities) of the men; of course, he was 



230 [1862 

not allowed to dispense any liquors unless they were of the "soft" 
kind, the principal sales were in the tobacco line, while the cigars 
(cigarettes were not popular in those days) were not of the very 
best brands, they were smokeable. The "Sutler" issued small 
tickets on which were printed : 

SUTLER 

71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

ONE CENT 

These were also for five and ten cents. A man could buy a 
dollar's worth and use them for purchases, change being scarce; 
credit could be obtained, as there was no risk, the "Sutler" being 
on hand to collect when the paymaster came ; it, however, encour- 
aged extravagance, which pleased the "Sutler." 

Many hucksters (darkies) came into the camp bringing pies, 
cakes, fried and broiled chickens and other delicacies and the 
men frequently had a lay out for a syndicate. Others came in 
with fresh vegetables as well as meats. There were messes formed, 
they had regular meals, paid for out of their pockets, but receiv- 
ing credit for what they did not draw from the Government. 

Men in camp must have something to growl about, it is as 
natural as hair on a dog, but it is not always just, that, however, 
did not carry much weight. The regimental commissary ser- 
geant was a much abusdd man, he did his duty as well as it 
could be done, it, however; was not appreciated, as he walked 
around the camp, he was saluted by the chorus, "Bread ! Bread !" 

It was the custom to send a sergeant at S :30 A. M., to the 
commissary department for the day's rations, in Company C the 
commissary sergeant (third sergeant) was designated for that 
purpose, the men growled that they did not get their allowance of 
bread (twelve ounces). The fact was that they did, but they 
traded with the hucksters for milk, besides some did not want 
but little or none and their share was wasted. 

To put an end to this growl the first sergeant detailed three 
men each morning to go to the commissary department with him, 
and to watch and see that they got the full allowance of rations, 
and also do all their growling there and then. This put an end 
to growling on that subject in the company. In addition he 
ordered that all the bread should be brought to his tent where 
any man could come and have all the bread he wanted to eat, the 
result was that the bread accumulated so that less had to be 
drawn, the company receiving credit for the same. 



1862] 23i 

There was occasional insubordination ; in one company there 
were three such men; ordinary methods proving ineffectual, the 
first sergeant placed them in the tent next to his own ; selecting 
the most serious offender he placed him in charge of the tent, 
holding him responsible for the conduct of himself as well as the 
others. There was no further trouble. 

The country around Camp Martin was beautiful; about a 
mile from it was Rock Creek, a charming and romantic stream, 
on the shores of which is now the Rock Creek Park. In squads, 
under the command of a sergeant, the men used to go and bathe 
in this stream, the favorite spot was at "Pierce's Mill," a stone 
building built by Isaac Pierce in the year 1822, at this point 
vehicles forded the creek and foot passengers crossed over a nar- 
row suspension bridge of about forty feet long, reaching the 
other side the men were soon above the dam, where they bathed. 
Now, the road has been raised, and a handsome bridge placed 
over the stream, the mill being used as a tea-room. 

Two members of Company E, having received passes, strolled 
out of camp one afternoon in this direction, enjoying their walk, 
they strolled along until meeting with blackberry bushes, they 
became so interested in picking and eating the berries that they 
failed to notice a storm arising until it was evident they could 
not make camp before it broke on them they hurried on until 
just as they came in sight of a mansion, the rain began to pour 
down. They made for the house, around which was a wide 
piazza, on which they saw walking, in deep meditation, one who 
was evidently the proprietor, when he arrived at one end they 
made a rush for the other, on his return trip the gentleman got 
his eye on them and in a brusque voice and manner demanded 
who they were and where they came from, which information 
was given, when he walked away in the same brusque manner 
without asking them to make themselves at home. 

Later, the lady of the house came out, and in a very cordial 
manner made them feel more at ease; as the storm passed, she 
told them how to leave the place, directing them to go through 
the garden, with permission to pick all the berries they wanted. 
Thanking the lady for her hospitality, they obeyed her instruc- 
tions, picking not only all the luscious berries they could eat, but 
taking a hatful back to camp, from which they gave a liberal 
and acceptable portion to the Colonel. The mansion was the 
residence of the Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War. It 
was he they met, and the lady was Mrs. Stanton. 



232 [1862 

June 17th Secretary Stanton rode up to camp at evening 
parade and had an interview with Colonel Martin. 

At the battalion drill on the 18th, the colonel was delighted 
and seemed to have gone insane with pleasure ; after giving the 
order "Rest," he said that never had he seen the movements 
done better, not only by a new regiment, but by an old one ; which 
so delighted the men that they applauded themselves; "That's 
right, men, you deserve your own applause," which was replied 
by a loud, cheer along the line. 

July 20th, the regiment when least expecting it was surprised 
by a visit from the President and with him General Sturges ; this 
was while the regiment was at drill, at the request of the Presi- 
dent the drill continued, at its conclusion he reviewed the bat- 
talion. The visitors were highly complimentary, "It being the 
first of any regiment they had recently seen around Washington." 
In leaving the President promised that he would take pleasure in 
again paying a visit. 

June 25th, a baseball match was played between a nine of 
Company K and nine from the other companies, the score was 
K 11, Regiment 33, showing that they were better soldiers than 
baseball players. 

Although they were riot as yet mustered in, the regiment was 
part of the Army of Virginia, and the long orders of Major- 
General Pope were read to them at every evening parade, they 
were in a brigade composed of the 59th New York Volunteers, 
9th and 10th Rhode Island Volunteers, one battery 2d New York 
Artillery, one battalion 63d Indiana Volunteers, one battalion 14th 
U. S. Infantry and detachments from 1st, 11th, 17th, 19th U. S. 
Infantry, all under Brigadier-General S. D. Sturges. 

HEADQUARTERS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

June 29, 1862. 
To the Commanding Officer, 71st N.Y.S.M. 
Colonel : 

The 59th New York Volunteers will be relieved by the 10th 
Rhode Island Volunteers, but as the 59th move at once, without 
waiting for the 10th you will please send a company of your com- 
mand to each of the places occupied by the 59th New York Vol- 
unteers, to take charge of the forts, property, etc., until the 10th 
Rhode Island Volunteers arrive. A smaller party than a com- 
pany will answer at the Chain Bridge and vicinity. 

Please act promptly in this matter as it is very important. 
Yours, Etc. 

S. D. STURGES, 
Brigadier-General Commanding. 



1862] 233 

Company A, Captain Tompkins was sent to Fort DeRussey, 
a battery of 7 guns ; Companies B and E, Captain Trafford was 
sent to Fort Pennsylvania, 16 guns; Company C, Captain Coles 
was sent to Fort Franklin, 6 guns ; Company D, Captain Meschutt, 
Fort Alexandria, 6 guns; Company K, Captain Fairchild, Fort 
Riply, 6 guns; Company F, Captain Dominick, Fort Gaines, 
4 guns ; Company G, Captain Curtis, Cameron Battery, 2 guns ; 
Company H, Captain Turner, Vermont Battery, 3 guns ; Company 
I, Captain Ellis, Chain Bridge. 

Orders were given to fall in at once, the boys were in high 
glee, and soon with knapsacks packed and strapped on their 
backs were ready to march. Two hours later every company had 
reached its destination, and the men were looking around for 
some place to sleep but it was fruitless, the S9th had carried away 
everything but their filth. However, it was only to be temporary, 
so the boys made the best of it. During the night there was a 
heavy storm which cleared the atmosphere, the sun rising on 
a magnificent morning. 

The following incident will be of interest as showing that 
all the natives were not disloyal, but on the contrary took many 
risks to show their loyalty. The morning after Company C ar- 
rived at Fort Franklin, there was an unsatisfactory condition 
with the commissary department, it was too far away from civil- 
ization to forage, four hungry non-commissions were discussing 
the situation when a man drove up the hill with a horse and 
wagon, to collect as had been his custom the garbage, which he 
conveyed to his pigs. On inquiry as to where they could get 
something to eat, he told the four investigators to get aboard his 
wagon and go with him, which having been granted permission, 
they did. The hill was steep and fearing that if they remained 
on the wagon they might get to the bottom before it, they got out 
and walked down; the day was a perfect one, and so quiet and 
peacrful that it was difficult to realize that war was devastating 
the country. 

When they reached the turnpike all got into the wagon and 
soon reached a lane into which they turned, going through the 
gate they arrived at a house on one side, and on the other the 
darkies' quarters, a typical southern home. They were hos- 
pitably received, with a short wait, which was employed with in- 
terest in viewing this unusual sight, they were summoned into the 
dining room where seated around a table they were soon partak- 
ing of a very liberal supply of ham, eggs, griddle cakes and coffee ; 



234 [1862 

eating until they were ashamed to ask for more, nothing ever 
seemed to have tasted so nice. 

After thanking the host and hostess, a request was made for 
the item of expense, and then came the shock, when told that it 
was only a levee (twelve and a half cents) each, it was hard to 
believe ; the hostess explained that they preferred to charge noth- 
ing, but so many came from time to time, that at the request of 
the soldiers that a price should be charged, they did so making it 
enough to cover cost, that all might come and feel at ease. There 
was no mistake but what they were good Union people. 

Wednesday, July the 2d, the 10th Rhode Island arrived and 
relieved the various details, the same evening all were back in 
the camp ; the routine duties were resumed. 

July 4th, 86th anniversary of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, was properly celebrated at Camp Martin, Fort Gaines, Ten- 
nallytown, by the 71st Regiment. 

The following program of exercises were gone through to 
the great satisfaction of all present. Captain D. C. Meschutt of 
Company D presided, and Colonel Martin and his staff sat upon 
the platform : 

1. Opening prayer by Private Wm. Jeffries of Company H. 

2. Music by Drum and Fife Corps, "Hail Columbia." 

3. Song — "Star Spangled Banner." 

4. Song — "America," by Private Wm. Jeffries, Company H. 

5. Music by the Drum and Fife Corps, "Jefferson and Liberty." 

6. Song— "Red, White and Blue," by Private Alfred B. Hall, 

of Company C. 

7. Music by the Drum and Fife Corps, Fancy Piece. 

8. Reading of the Declaration of Independence by Sergeant 

J. A. Lucas, N. C. Staff. 

9. Music by Drum and Fife Corps, "Star Spangled Banner," 

10. Song — "Viva L' America," by Lieutenant Gregory, of Com- 

pany A. 

11. Music by Drum and Fife Corps, "Hail to the Chief." 

12. Oration by Private J. K. Osborne, Company G. 

13. Song — "American Boys," by Richard Barnett, Company D. 

14. Song— "Dear Old Flag," by Richard H. Barrowe. Com- 

pany H. 

15. Music by the Drum and Fife Corps, "Yankee Doodle." 

16. All sing "Old Hundred." 



1862] 235 

As has been stated, the ground on which the camp was 
located, was sloping, and during the heavy rains the streets were 
at times cataracts. Permission had been obtained to move the 
camp to the other side of the road, which was a level field. 

On Tuesday, July 15th, at about 3 P. M., orders were re- 
ceived to remove the camp, and very soon tents were struck, and 
pitched on the new field, this had hardly been finished when they 
were surprised by a sudden attack of a violent wind and heavy 
downpour of rain ; no time having been given for digging trenches 
around the tents, all were soon afloat, knapsacks and all equip- 
ments had to be put on to save them from the water running 
through the tent ; Company H found shelter in an old out-house, 
their tents being uninhabitable; with all, the men were in good 
humor, and soon humorous signs were to be seen as, "Upper 
Reservoir," "Tyson Pond," "Hartshorn's Run," "Turner's Lake." 

The next morning all appeared at reveille much refreshed 
and ready for duty and digging the trenches. It must be under- 
stood that no furniture was provided for tents, the men in each 
making their own out of such material as they could procure, the 
bedsteads were generally made of driving forked stakes in the 
ground, then placing boughs of trees across, this being about six 
or eight inches above the ground; all this was in a semi-circle 
around the tent pole, where were stacked the muskets; on the 
boughs were placed their blankets, and by co-operation, sufficient 
blankets, overcoats, and close contact enabled the men to keep 
warm at night. It was necessary, however, when one wanted to 
turn over, to give an order and all to turn at the same time. 

The location of the new camp could not be surpassed, clean, 
neat, and healthy — upon the top of a hill which overlooked about 
eight forts on the Virginia side of the river, and four on the 
Maryland side. The Blue Ridge was plainly visible, as also Sugai 
Loaf Hill about fifty miles away, on a clear day. The camp, to 
use the expression of an old army officer: "The finest in the 
country." 

On July 26th, Maj.-Gen. John Pope, who had won consider- 
able of a reputation in the west by his capture of Island No. 10, 
was called east and given a new command designated as the Army 
of Virginia; this force numbered all told about 38,000 men, and 
also embraced the troops in and around Washington ; he was not a 
diplomat, and there was an unfortunate lack of harmony between 
himself and some of his general officers, and from the day he 
took command the troubles became more complicated than ever. 



236 [1862 

July 27th, orders were received from General Pope, that the 
regiment was part of the Reserve of the Army of Virginia. The 
prospect then was, that the regimeiit might be called into active 
service at any moment. His orders were very strict no officer or 
private to be allowed to leave camp whatever, prohibiting anyone 
from going to Washington without a pass counterSigtied by an 
officer of the staff to be designated by himself. Also requiring a 
list of men, muskets and equipments, and a list of names df men 
who have left camp without leave. Gradually, the strictness of 
martial law was being enforced; it was especially hard on the 
regiment, it actilally prevented sending to Washington or George- 
town for commissary of quartermaster stores. 

Colonel Martin consulted with Lieutenant-Colonel Stnith 
(who was well acquainted with Mrs. Stanton) and requested him 
to go to Mr. Stanton's country home, not far from camp, and 
place if possible the situation before him. When Coloftel Smith 
arrived at Mr. Stanton's he met Mrs. Stanton, finding that the 
Secretary was not at home, he explained the positioti to her; she 
was miich iilterested and asked him to wait as she expected the 
Secretary very soon. 

When the Secretary arrived he was much incehsed at Seeing 
the Lieutenant-Colonel, demanding to know why he was away 
from his camp; Mrs. Stanton said: "Now Edwin, wait awhile and 
hear what the Colonel has to say." The Lieutenant-Colonel ex- 
plained the situation to the Secretary, who burst out: "Daiiin 
Pope ; he has already allowed Jacksbfi to cut off Banks, and now 
gets within twelve miles of Washington, and the only force we 
have left to defend the city is the 71st Regiment." Then telling 
Colonel Smith to dictate what kind of an order he wanted, wrote 
it out and handed it to him. 

Colonel Smith, thanking him, departed, going at once to 
Washington and to the Provost Marshal's office; that officer 
at sight was disposed to put him under arrest, but after reading 
the order from the Secretary, gave a long and subdued whistle, 
received the Lieutenant-Colonel pleasantly and gave a standing 
pass which broke the blockade. 

On August 5th, Lieutenant-Colonel Smith and Quarter- 
master Seely acted as an escort to the President in visiting the 
forts in Virginia ; quite an honor to the regiment. 

August 7th was a great day for the boys ; no less than the 
return game of baseball with the "National Club," whom the 



1862] 237 

regiment had beaten July 12th, 1861 ; score then 13 to 42. The 
game was played on the parade ground; the result was not as 
satisfactory to the boys as the year before. There was quite a 
concourse of spectators on the occasion, including a number of 
ladies. A guard from the regiment kept the crowd from en- 
croaching on the players. At the close the players were re- 
freshed with sandwiches and lager. The score was : 

NATIONAL O. R. 71ST O. R. 

Walden, C 3 4 Hudson, P 3 2 

Kinney, 2nd B 2 3 Meschutt, 3d B 3 2 

C. Hibbs, P 3 4 Dalton, 2nd B 3 1 

Williams, SS 4 2 Coombs, C 3 1 

Gorman, 3d B 2 3 Openslaw, RF 1 3 

E. Hibbs, 1st B 6 1 McCauIey, 1st B 3 2 

Pope, RF 3 3 Madden, CF 5 

Parker, LF. 2 4 Gardner, LF 4 

Campbell, CF. 2 4 Inslee, SS 2 2 

28 13 

August 9th, the regiment was mustered into service, two- 
thirds of their term of service having already passed. 

On August 11th three companies, A, B and E, were detached 
in compliance with the following order : 

HEADQUARTERS MILITARY DEFENSE 
NORTH OF THE POTOMAC 

Washington, August 11, 1862. 

To the Commanding Officer, 71st Regiment, N. Y. S. M. 
Colonel : 

The General Commanding directs that you send three com- 
panies of your regiment, under the command of Major W. J. 
Coles, to a point near Fort Massachusetts. 

You will instruct Major W. J. Coles to send occasional pa- 
trols in the direction of Leesboro. Any information he may ob- 
tain in rebel movements will be reported direct to this office. 
I am your obedient servant, 

J. A. HASKIN, 
Lieut. Col. and A. A. Gen. Commanding 
Fortification North of the Potomac. 

This detachment left camp at 4:30 A. M., going a distance 
of about five miles, where they halted, pitched tents and formed 
Camp "Coles." Patrols were sent out each night, returning in 



238 [1862 

the morning. This was a section where there were many truck 
farmers. It was considered important to protect them from 
raids of the enemy, now near. In addition there was a troop of 
cavalry on duty all the time, scouring the surrounding country. 
Camp "Coles" was situated three or four miles from Washing- 
ton, near Brightwood, a fine place for a camp — shady, trees every- 
where. The object of sending this detachment was to guard this 
entrance to the city and act as a patrol. Being near the boundary 
of Maryland, rebels were rather more numerous than at Camp 
"Martin"; nine out of ten of the people were rebels and giving 
aid and comfort to the enemy. 

Slavery, in all its barbarity, existed in that vicinity. About 
six miles from camp lived a rebel owning a number of slaves, 
among them one or two intelligent mulattoes. One for holding a 
conversation with a soldier was put in confinement, her clothing 
removed from her back and whipped until she fainted. This was 
two weeks before Camp "Coles" was established. She was still 
kept in confinement; chain on wrist and ankle. The place was 
a hotbed of treason, where no Union man dare utter his senti- 
ments. The detachment was away ten days, breaking camp and 
returning on the 22nd. Fort Massachusetts was later called 
Fort Stevens, and as such became famous by cause of the battle 
there with the rebels under Early, July, 1864. 

In the meantime things were stirring at Camp "Martin." 
On Wednesday, the 13th, signals were seen all round them; one 
light was about half a mile away, near enough for the Colonel 
to take notice. He detailed Company H for the purpose of 
investigating. Although most of the men were asleep, in two 
minutes Captain Turner had his men in line; ammunition was 
distributed, the company was divided into three squads and sent 
in different directions. It was then 10 o'clock and very dark. 
They went through the woods, over hills and into swamps, until 
they reached a road, and following the barking of dogs they 
reached a house which they surrounded, discovering two rebels 
who were giving signals. The company returned at 4 P. M. 
Thursday with their two prisoners, who were sent to headquar- 
ters in Washington. 

The friends of the regiment at home, knowing of the de- 
ficiency of a band, under the supervision of that faithful Quarter- 
master, George W. Roosevelt, procured one, and on the 14th the 
members were delighted at its arrival in camp, being received 
with enthusiasm and cheers; this was the only thing needed to 
complete the happiness of the rerime.nt. 



1862] ! 239 

Camp life was quite a contrast with the barrack life of 1861 ; 
in many respects not so comfortable, but it was healthy. There 
was no sickness of account, an occasional bowel complaint. It 
brought the men closer to each other. On moonlight nights they 
would gather in groups, lying or sitting on the ground, sing the 
favorite war songs, and when the popular tenor, Lieut. T. B. 
Prendergast, sang some of those sweet and touching ballads, all 
else was hushed as the thoughts of all were wafted towards 
home. 

On the 21st of August the President and the Secretary of 
War paid Colonel Martin a visit, having come from the city for a 
ride. They called as a compliment to him and his officers. They 
were received with honors by the guard. The visitors were 
entertained by the Colonel and his officers for more than an 
hour in a social way and before leaving witnessed the evening 
parade. 

On Saturday, August 23d, the Colonel received orders from 
General Pope for the regiment to return home, with orders for 
transportation on Tuesday the 26th, which order he intended to 
have read at evening parade, but just before the time Secretary 
Stanton rode upon the ground and countermanded the order. 

On Monday, the 25th, Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, by direc- 
tion of the Colonel, proceeded to the War Department to make 
inquiries in regard to the regularity of the above order and as to 
the intention of the Department in the matter. 

Secretary Stanton said that the term of service expiring on 
the 25th, the regiment's rights would be respected and the regi- 
ment mustered out at that time if they so demanded, but owing 
to the present emergency their services were very much needed, 
and if the regiment would volunteer to remain a few days or 
weeks the Department would like to have them do so. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Smith reported the interview to Colonel 
Martin, who ordered the regiment formed, and in hollow square 
he stated the facts to them. A vote was taken for and against 
staying an indefinite time, a majority voting against staying. 
Then after a few remarks by the Colonel and other officers a 
vote was taken by companies on staying two weeks more, result- 
ing in all voting in favor of staying except a majority in Com- 
panies B and K. The regiment was then dismissed. 

At this time our army was fighting so near that the guns 
could be heard. It was no time to go to the rear if the country 



240 ' [1862 

needed their services. The 71st, as in 1861, again tendered their 
services until such time as they could be spared without detri- 
ment to the service. In response was received the following: 

(Special Order No. 207) 

WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE 

Washington, August 26th, 1862. 
8 (Extract). 

The 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M., a three month regiment, whose 
term of service expires on the 28th inst, having volunteered to 
remain in service a short time until their place can be supplied, 
the Department accepts with pleasure their patriotic offer; and 
the order to proceed to New York and be mustered out of 
service is hereby suspended until further instructions are given. 
The paymaster general will immediately cause one month's 
pay to be paid the regiment. 

By order of the Secretary of War. 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

About 2:30 A. M. of the 29th orders were received for the 
regiment to march. In fifteen minutes it was in line and imme- 
diately marched off in the direction of the Potomac, leaving only 
the guard in charge of the camp. 

At 3:50 A. M., on reaching the river, it was marched over 
the Chain Bridge into Virginia and thence to Fort Marcy on the 
■Leesburg turnpike, relieving the 95th N.Y.V. There its right 
rested. Colonel Martin reported to General Doubleday, who told 
him that he would be left there in sole command, as the forces in 
that vicinity would move, that the planks on the Chain Bridge 
were removed, and in case he should have to retreat he could do 
his best to reach Alexandria. He, however, said he would leave 
with him one regiment, which he did. 

Colonel Martin took charge of the fort. The officer left 
there knew nothing regarding the guns, their calibre or the ele- 
vation; the Colonel did. Detailing a squad and an officer in 
charge, he gave them the necessary instructions as to handling 
the guns. The fort was so situated that the fire from it raked 
the turnpike. After the instructions the Colonel sighted each 
piece, with orders not to alter, but wait for orders. 

At this time Colonel , of the 

Connecticut S.V., reported, it being the regiment referred to 
hy General Doubleday. Talking a few moments with Colonel 
— , Colonel Martin discovered that it was a new 



1862] 241 

regiment just arrived. Its Colonel said: "The men never have 
been drilled, even in the manual ; the men did not know how to 
handle a piece." In fact, he himself was not acquainted with 
the duties of his office. Colonel Martin found he could make no 
use of them except for a "scare crow," so placed them on the 
other side of \the turnpike in the woods. In the meantime a 
picket line was thrown out on the pike. 

While the sound of guns from the battle then going on 
could be heard, everything was quiet at the fort. The regiment 
remained there all day, guns stacked in line, the men practically 
at rest; nothing to eat except ears of com plucked and roasted 
at fires built. All the morning rumors were floating around re- 
garding the fight going on at Bull Run. It was reported that 
General Pope had been flanked and that the enemy were marching 
on Washington. All these rumors were brought by stragglers 
from the army. There was no way to confirm them. The regi- 
ment knew that if they were true that it was in a very critical 
position. It was stand and die ; there was nowhere to fly. Al- 
though fully realizing the situation there was no flinching. From 
Colonel down the resolve was to face the conditions, and if the 
worst came to maintain the proud record of the 71st. 

At this time Pope's army was fighting the second battle of 
Bull Run, and being defeated. McClellan's forces were marching 
up from the Peninsula. Their arrival made it unnecessary for 
the Seventy-first to remain any longer. At 4 P. M. orders were 
given for the regiment to return to its camp. Accordingly the 
regiment was formed and marched (after being relieved) down 
to the bridge. As it turned at the Washington end, on the shore 
of the Potomac, with members of his regiment was Captain 
E. H. Wade, of the 59th N.Y.V.. in bathing. Captain Wade 
was in command of Company E in 1861. He was given a warm 
welcome and a hearty goodbye. He died on October 5th of 
wounds received at the battle of Antietam. The regiment arrived 
in camp at 7:30 P. M. 

On reaching camp orders were received to return home and 
be mustered out. These were not received with joy, for as the 
second battle of Bull Run was not decided (as far as the men 
knew), it seemed like retiring while hearing the enemy's guns. 
But as the enemy did not move on Washington, and as McClel- 
lan's forces were now arriving, there was no further reason for 
detaining the Seventy-first. 

At 8 :30 A. M., August 30th, by the stroke of the drum every 
tent came to the ground and soon the city of tents was a quiet 



242 [1862 

field, as if no war had ever desecrated its peaceful sod. At 
10 A. M. the regimental line was formed and at 10:30 once 
more was headed for home from the field where its members 
had lived for three months in pleasant comradeship, ready for 
any duty they might be called to, and doing such as they were, 
to the full satisfaction of the authorities, and the feeling that 
while they had not suffered the losses of 1861, they had not in 
any way diminished the magnificent reputation of the "American 
Guard." 

Leaving the field as clean as when they entered it, the regi- 
ment, with band playing "Home, Sweet Home," marched to and 
through Georgetown to Washington and through Pennsylvania 
Avenue to the railroad station, arriving there at 2 P. M., where 
they entrained at 4:15 on a train of twenty-six freight and seven 
platform cars, which moved so slowly that the men were able 
frequently to get out and pick blackberries. The train reached 
Baltimore at 12:30 A. M. (31st), forty miles in eight hours. 
Here the regiment detrained, going to the "Union Refreshment 
Rooms" for supper, after which they returned to the station for 
the night. 

At 5 A. M., on the 31st, the regiment was formed and 
marched to the Northern Central depot, where they halted, 
stacked arms, and broke ranks and had their breakfast. At 
10 A. M. they entrained, leaving Baltimore at 10:20 for Harris- 
burg, Pa., which was reached at 4:50 P. M., and Elizabeth, 
N. J., at 5:10 A. M., September 1st, left the latter at 7:30 by 
boat, arriving at pier 2, N. R., at 8 :30 A. M. 

The regiment was soon formed and marched up Broadway 
without escort tb Broome Street, where it was met by a squad 
of the 71st "Home Guard," who received them with cheers. 
The regiment was dismissed and the companies marched to their 
various quarters. 

From the New York "Evening Post," September 1st: 

"The 71st Regiment, N. Y. S. M., arrived this morning about 
nine o'clock by way of the New Jersey Central to Elizabethport, 
and thence by Steamer 'Red Jacket' to Pier 2 N. R. They 
marched up Broadway to Broome Street, amid the crowds that 
had gathered to welcome the brave 71st. The regiment marched to 
the Armory at Centre Market and were dismissed. 

"The regiment has remained on duty eight days over its time 
and came near participating for a second time in the battle of 
Bull Run. It has been in camp most of the time at Tennallytown, 



1862] 243 

Maryland, doing secret service by companies, and holding itself 
in readiness to move at a moment's notice. 

"Last Friday morning the officers volunteered to march over 
the chain bridge into Virginia, expecting to proceed to the battle- 
field, but the arrival of reinforcements induced the Government 
to believe it not necessary." 

HEADQUARTERS 71ST REGIMENT, N. Y. S. M. 

New York, September 1st, 1862. 
General Orders: 

The several companies composing this regiment will assemble 
on Broome Street, armed and equipped without knapsacks, hav- 
ersacks or canteens, on Tuesday the 2d instant, at 8 o'clock A. M., 
for the purpose of mustering out of the United States service. 

The line will form at 8 :30 A. M., the right resting on Broad- 
way. The Field and Staff will report to the Colonel fifteen min- 
utes before the hour of formation, and the non-commissioned staflF 
and band will report to the Adjutant at the same time. 

By order of 

COL. HENRY P. MARTIN. 

Fred. Zissel, Acting Adjutant. 

ROSTER OF THE OFFICERS 

Col. H. P. Martin, Lieut.-Col. Charles H. Smith, Major 
William J. Coles, Act. Adjutant Fred Zissel, Surgeon James B. 
Reynolds, Quartermaster Geo. W. Roosevelt, Assistant Quarter- 
master Edgar A. Seelye, Commissary R. B. Roosevelt, Chaplain 
Rev. Fred. Wiley. 

Captains — Company A, Wm. G. Tompkins ; Company B, Jo- 
seph Forbes; Company C, Oliver Libby; Company D, David C. 
Meschutt; Company E, Benj. L. Trafford; Company F, James 
W. Dominick; Company G, George W. Curtis; Company H, 
Henry W. Turner. 

First Lieutenants — Company A, W. A. Burdett; Company 
B. Geo. W. Robertson ; Company C, John A. Hull ; Company D, 
Geo. W. Stowe ; Company E, Franklin Worcester ; Company F, 
Eugene Thorn; Company G, Abram Tallman; Company H, 
George I. Tyson. 

Second Lieutenants — Company A, Orlando P. Smith; Com- 
pany B, H. H. Evertsen; Company C, Richard Rich; Company 
D, John Wilson ; Company E, Richard E. Sterling ; Company G, 
W. H. Romaine ; Company H, Lawrence P. Hartshorn. 

After the regiment was mustered out, September 2d, the 



244 [1862 

promise to Secretary Stanton was fulfilled by the organization 
of the 124th N.Y.V. by Captain Ellis, who became the Colonel 
and was killed at the battle of Gettysburg. 

On the 23d of September, C, E, F and H, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Smith, paraded to render funeral honors to the remains 
of the late Lieut.-Col. Philip J. Parisen of the 59th N.Y.V., for- 
merly Major of the 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.M. He was killed at 
Antietam, September 17th. 

On September 23d, Colonel Martin's resignation having been 
accepted, he was honorably discharged. This resignation had 
been sent in immediately after the regiment returned. It had 
been held back in hopes that the Colonel would be influenced to 
withdraw it, but disgusted with the political trickery he had en- 
countered at Washington, he positively refused to remain where 
he was liable to meet with the same experience again. 

It is needless to say that his decision was learned with 
sorrow by the men to whom he was so endeared. The high pin- 
nacle on which Colonel Martin had placed the regiment has been 
the inspiration and pride which has carried it through all its sub- 
sequent troubles. 

He was a gentleman and a soldier, a strict discipHnarian, but 
no martinet; tender and careful of his men; kind and affable in 
his deportment; his loss was deeply felt throughout the regi- 
ment. So warm was his attachment that he never lost his love 
and interest in his old command, and kept in touch with it to 
the day of his death, then leaving it a substantial remembrance 
of his affection. 



Administration of 

Colonel CHARLES HENRY SMITH 

October,. 1862— March, 1863 



On the 27th of September the various companies assembled 
at the Centre Market Armory and were paid off. 

Orders having been issued by the State authorities during 
the absence of the regiment that all regiments must recruit to 
tea companies, Company K was organized and announced by 
G. O. No. 55, A.G.O., July 15th, with Geo. A. Fairchild, Cap- 
tain; Thomas B. Prendergast, First Lieutenant, and Joseph C. 
Leonard, Second Lieutenant. 

Company I was organized by Lieut. Geo. I. Tyson as Cap- 
tain, George W. Seabold as First Lieutenant, and A. B. Degraff 
as Second Lieutenant. 

Company B was organized by the old members of the Engi- 
neers, with Charles A. Stetson as Captain, Charles W. Cochrane 
as First Lieutenant, and Walton Carpenter as Second Lieutenant. 

October 9th the regiment paraded as escort to the remains 
of Colonel Mathieson, 32nd N.Y.V., who was killed at Antietam, 
Crampton Gap, Md., October 2d. 

October 2 1st Company D paraded as escort to the remains 
of Capt. Abram Florentine, jr., 59th N.Y.V. (a former member 
of the company), who was twice wounded at Antietam, and died 
from that cause. 

Octbber 27th the regiment was inspected at Washington 
Patade Grounds. The result was: Present, 429; absent, 269; 
the total, 698. The large number absent may surprise the 
reader, but this was not exceptional. At the same inspection 



246 [1862 

the Seventh had absent 208, the Eighth 150, the Twenty-second 
283, or nearly 50 per cent of its total. The late campaign seems 
to have been the cause, owing to the fact of lack of uniforms. 
The 5th Regiment, for instance, which did not leave the city, 
inspected 638 present ; absent, 32. 

For the first time on record the 1st Division did not parade 
on Evacuation Day, November 25th. 

From the Sunday "Mercury," December 7th : 

"Our opinion is this, and it is based on knowledge acquired 
by years of experience. The 71st Regiment is one of the best mil- 
itia regiments in the city or state. It has passed through many 
trying ordeals, and baptized its patriotism and colors in blood on 
the battlefield ; but Hke all the regiments of the First Division it 
has been sadly neglected by the state authorities. It numbers 698 
numbers; it is in excellent state of discipline, but needs a first 
class armory, differently located from where the command now 
has its headquarters, and every man ought to be reimbursed for 
his private uniform worn out and destroyed in the U. S. service. 
Will it be done?" 

December 26th the regiment paraded as guard of honor on 
the occasion of the funeral of Capt. John P. Dodge (he was As- 
sistant Surgeon of the 71st in 1861), and Col. James H. Bull; 
both were of the 86th N.Y.V. and killed at the battle of Freder- 
icksburg. They were interred in Greenwood. 

The year closed practically the end of the second adminis- 
tration of the regiment, that of Colonel Martin; though his in- 
fluence had permeated the regiment since its infancy, his official 
term commenced on the date of the death of Colonel Vosburgh, 
May 20th, 1861. At that time he had command of a regiment 
that was practically perfect, made so by himself, and in the 
service of the United States. On its return home there were 
naturally many changes. Many satisfied with their experience 
withdrew and many re-enlisted for the war, yet the inspection 
that fall showed a total strength of 609, or 103 more than at 
the previous year. 

At the inspection this fall the total was 698, or 89 over the 
previous year, but this inspection took place six weeks after the 
arrival home from its three months' service, and only a short 
time after the regiment had heard of Colonel Martin's resig- 
nation. . Accordingly there was a demoralized condition exist- 
ing, resulting in quite a large number of absentees, being 18 less 



1862-63] 247 

present than in 1861. Thus, Colonel Martin had justified by 
results all that had been claimed for him, under his administra- 
tion the regiment had attained a world-wide reputation, and the 
highest commendation from prominent army officers, as also from 
President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton. 



18 6 3 



Efforts to get Colonel Martin to reconsider his action in 
retiring from the regiment having proved futile, on January the 
14th an election was held to fill vacancies, resulting in the elec- 
tion for Colonel, Charles Henry Smith; for Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Benjamin L. Traiiord; for Major, William J. Coles; all promo- 
tions. 

On Friday evening, January 23d, a private drill of the regi- 
ment was held in the arsenal. Seventh Avenue and 36th Street. 
Colonel Smith was in command. "He had an excellent voice, 
and gave his orders with clearness and well toned emphasis. The 
regiment paraded ten commands, eighteen files front, and looked 
admirably." 

In the midst of war the social functions were not overlooked 
by the Guard, as the following quotation shows : 

"Lately, however, these determined and dashing amazons 
have manifested a disposition to try and cope their strength with 
the military. They seem to fear neither bayonets, swords nor 
anything else. 

"On Friday evening, January 30th, a party of these crino- 
lined warriors made an attack on Company C, 71st Regiment, at 
their armory. University Place and 13th Street, and took posses- 
sion of the whole place, and all who were present. The company 
was drilling at the time, and the surprise can be imagined when 
the crowd of ladies with music and well filled baskets marched 
into the drill room; the company was soon dismissed, giving the 
men a chance to find that the intruders were mothers, wives and 
sweethearts. 

"Soon the music struck up, and dancing commenced, followed 
by an investigation of the contents of the baskgts, which proved 
to contain a very interesting supper; then dancing was resumed 
and kept up until twenty numbers had been gone through." 

On February 3d, Company C gave a hop at Irving Hall 
(Irving Place). It was a large and successful affair. 



248 [1863 

February 13th, Company A gave their annual ball at the 
Academy of Music (14th Street). These balls were always 
given as the "Light Guard" ball. This individualizing itself was 
a weakness which eventually caused the downfall of Company A. 
These balls are still continued by the "Old Guard," which sprang 
from the companies known as the "Light Guard" and the old 
"City Guard," once in the 9th Regiment, N.Y.S.M. 

February 14th, the regiment gave a promenade concert at 
the Academy of Music. The Greenwood Cemetery Corporation 
having given a plot to the regiment on condition that it would 
erect a suitable monument, in furtherance of that object this 
concert was given. The "Sunday Mercury" said of this: 

"The Academy of Music was crowded in every part last 
night by a brilliant and fashionable audience, brought together by 
the two fold announcement of the entertainment being to aid in 
erecting suitable monument over the remains of Col. Vosburgh, 
and likewise that Dodworth's full 71st Regiment band would per- 
form some of their choicest gems. Accordingly the fashion and 
beauty of our leading New York circles made their appearance at 
an early hour; and by the time of the opening march there was 
not a seat to be had anywhere, while the stage and parquet floored 
over, afforded ample space for the promenaders. 

"The building was elegantly decorated, at the back of the 
stage was a small howitzer and caisson, and on either side a stack 
of muskets with knapsacks. Directly in front of this platform 
was an arch of gas jets with the words 'Seventy-first Regiment" 
flaming out in brilliants. 

"There was only one drawback, in consequence of the great 
crowd and the immense number of gas lights, the heat was trying 
to the ladies. Taking altogether it was the most immensely at- 
tended and satisfactory affair of the kind yet given in New York." 

The "New York" Times said: 

"The chirruping and twittering of a thousand canaries, the 
mellifluous strains of half a hundred of Dodworth's best musi- 
cians, led by the immortal Harvey B., the Academy of Music re- 
splendent with illumination and gorgeous decorations, and the 
five thousand attentive representation of the youth, beauty, wealth 
and fashion of the metropolis, made the promenade concert of the 
71st Regiment on Saturday evening a memorable success. Sel- 
dom indeed has the Academy presented so brilliant a spectacle, 
for as many as could gain admission thronged the building during 
the concert, crowding even the upper tiers, while at all the doors, 
the late comers were content if they could but catch a glimpse of 
the festive scene within." 

The concert netted $1,273 to the fund. 



1863] 249 

February 17th, the United States Senate passed the Con- 
scription Act, which was destined to be of such great conse- 
quence later. 

Sunday, February 22d, the city was visited by a heavy snow 
storm. On such occasions the snow was allowed to remain until 
sun or rain dissolved it. One of the present day can hardly 
realize the condition of the streets at the time these changes were 
going on, especially when the snow came at a time when the old 
snow had not disappeared and was filled with ruts and holes. 
The new snow melting' would fill these holes with slush and water 
making puddles several inches deep. 

The difficulty of marching under these conditions was not 
provided for in the text books. Every now and then a man 
would step on the ridge of one of these ponds, then slip and 
sit down in it. It was patriotic, but very bad for the clothes, 
to say nothing of the feelings of the victim. 

Orders were out for the regiment to parade on Monday, the 
23d, to celebrate Washington's birthday. It proved to be just 
such a day as has been described. Colonel Smith deemed it 
unwise to parade, and after the men had assembled at their 
various armories, countermanded it. Those companies of the 
13th Street Armory were dismissed, though in their enthusiasm 
they were anxious to parade ; those at Centre Market found Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Trafford ready to lead them, and in disobedience of 
orders he took the companies that were there and led the bat- 
talion up Broadway as far as 8th Street and back to the armory. 

Colonel Smith considered that a courtmartial under the cir- 
cumstances would result probably against the interest of the 
regiment, and feeling that he could not with self-respect retain 
the command without taking some action, resigned, which resig- 
nation was accepted by the Commander-in-Chief, March 2C)th. 
Colonel Smith was highly respected as a gentleman and a soldier. 
He was a tall, well built, handsome man, and when mounted on 
parade attracted attention. His resignation Was very much 
regretted. 

February 27th, Company G had a surprise very much like 
that of Company C. And on the evening of March 20th the 
same company had another surprise, of which the "Evening Ex- 
press" said: 

"Company G of the 71st Regiment while going through their 
usual weekly drill last evening found themselves surrounded by 
about one hundred and fifty fair damsels and their attendant 
knights, who demanded an unconditional surrender. 



250 [1863 

"The members of the company looked aghast, and though they 
had faced the bullets of the rebels without flinching, to the beam- 
ing smiles of their charming captors they were obliged to suc- 
cumb, and ground arms without further parley. The drill room 
was soon transformed into an extempore ball room, and with the 
aid of Dodworth's band dancing was inaugurated. 

"At about ten o'clock the company partook of an elegant sup- 
per, after which the festivities were resumed, continuing until 
early this morning." 

Colonel Smith had been in command of the regiment about 
six months, but owing to efforts being made to have Colonel 
Martin return, he had been in commission as Colonel only two 
months. No comparison can be made to show how the regiment 
progressed, but the fall inspection showed a gain over 1862 of 
twenty-eight in total, and a gain of 128 in number present. It 
is evident that he left the regiment in as good if not better con- 
dition than when he took command. Lieutenant-Colonel Trafford 
then assumed command. 

Soon after a committee of the Board of Officers was ap- 
pointed to wait on John Jacob Astor, who had been on General 
McClellan's staff and who it was known would be pleased under 
certain conditions to take the office. Lieutenant-Colonel Trafford 
was chairman and also an aspirant for promotion. In offering 
the position he did so in a manner that the self-respect of Mr. 
Astor would not permit him to entertain the offer. He declared 
that he would not accept the office unless every officer handed in 
his resignation that he might return those he desired to retain. 

It had been an ambition of Colonel Vosburgh to raise the 
social status of the regiment and it was along that line that he 
induced George A. Osgood (son-in-law of Commodore Vander- 
bilt) to accept the office of Lieutenant-Colonel after the promotion 
of Daniel Butterfield in 1860. A large number of the officers 
were in accord with him and it was that interest that supported 
the movement in favor of Mr. Astor and who were much dis- 
gusted at the result. 

Since the return of the regiment from service in 1861 there 
had been no full dress uniform, the regiment doing duty in 
fatigue, jacket, black belts and army blue trousers. About this 
time a change was made by the adoption of white leather belts 
with plain brass plate on the waist belt, with company letter 
engraved with brass letters A. G. thereon. Commissioned offi- 
cers and Sergeants wore scarlet sashes. 




COLONEL BENJAMIN L. TRAFFORD 
Plate iii — tfp. L'Sl 



Administration of 

Colonel BENJAMIN L. TRAFFORD 

1863—1866 



From the "Sunday Mercury," April Sth: 

"The 71st Regiment, N. Y. S. N. G. : On Tuesday and Thurs- 
day evenings last, the right and left wings of the 7ist Regiment 
of our state militia were drilled at the arsenal on Seventh Ave- 
nue, by Lieut.-Col. Trafford, who is now in command owing to 
the resignation of Colonel Smith. 

"The drills were highly creditable to the regiment in every 
particular, the men showing a proficiency in the manual seldom 
excelled. The battalion movements, 'Closing in Mass,' Deploying 
Column,' etc., and also the marching by companies, were well 
executed. Some of the men, however, probably recruits, showed 
a little uneasiness in the ranks ; a little more attention should also 
be paid to wheeling in line. 

"We noticed Col. Trafford checked a very unsoldierly prac- 
tice which has become quite frequent among our citizen soldiery ; 
we allude to the practice of some of the men spitting while in 
the ranks. 

"Col. Trafford delivers his orders in a loud and clear voice, 
easily heard, and understood; he is a good mihtary rnan and a 
strict disciplinarian, and we have no doubt that in his hands the 
regiment will remain second to none." 

This habit of spitting, resulting from tobacco chewing, 
though stopped by Colonels Trafford and Parmele, existed as 
late as 1885, when the captain of a company where the habit had 
been noticeable, tired of talking, and seeing a line of tobacco 
spittle extending the front of the company, marched it around 
the artillery room, then in company front approached the wet line 
and gave the order, "Fire lying down," just in time to bring the 
men's faces in contact with it — an object lesson. 

April 15th, Lieutenant-Colonel Trafford was elected Colonel, 
Major Coles and Captain Meschutt being promoted to fill the 



252 [1863 

vacancies. Benjamin L. Trafford was born in New York City 
in 1836. At the age of eighteen he joined the 71st Regiment as 
a private; on May 24th, 1859, he was commissioned as Captain 
of Company B; on November 18th, 1862, he was elected Major. 
He was a salesman with the firm of Harmer, Hayes & Co., 
harness and saddlery business, in Beekman Street. He was a 
good salesman, and later entered the same line on his own account, 
in which he was not successful. He was a generous and free 
spender, a competent drillmaster, lacked diplomacy although a 
politician. The latter characteristic did not fit in well with the 
duties of a commanding officer and was the cause of his future 
troubles in the regiment. He had many agreeable qualities and 
many warm friends. At the time that Colonel Trafford took 
command the regiment was at its height. The first inspection 
held showed the largest number ever made by the regiment up to 
that date. 

Orders had been issued for the celebration of April 21st, 
with a field day at East New York, for which 8,000 rounds of 
blank cartridges had been issued, when on the 20th orders from 
division headquarters were received detailing the 71st Regiment 
to act as guard of honor at the funeral of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kimball, of the Hawkins Zouaves, N.Y.V., who as reported was 
shot by Colonel Corcoran of the 69th N-Y.V. 

Details from the regiment had guarded the remains while 
it had lain in state at the City Hall, In reference to this parade 
the following extract is from the "Sunday Mercury" : 

" * * * nor is this all; the same general selects as an- 
other regiment to assist at this solemn ceremony, an organization 
that had been previously notified for many days before to turn out 
for military instruction and improvement. At the eleventh hour 
the parade fixed upon had to be countermanded ; making the sec- 
ond revocation of the kind for the same regiment within two 
months. Countermanding orders is of no benefit to any military 
organization, when the arrangements for transportation, ammu- 
nition, etc., has been been completed in connection with a field 
day on Friday last (which was an extremely fine day for the 
work), nothing should have been allowed to interfer§. When ap- 
plied to, other regiments were allowed to decline though having 
no engagements to interfere. Why did not the 71st regiment 
claim a similar privilege ?" 

Colonel Edmund C. Charles died in New York on April 23d 
from the reopening of wounds received at Fredericksburg. The 



1863] 253 

funeral, which took place from the City Hall, was quite im- 
posing. The 5th Regiment, N.Y.N. G., acted as escort, and Com- 
pany A, 71st Regiment, of which he had been a member, was 
guard of honor. There were seventeen pallbearers, composed of 
prominent military and civic citizens. 

The following unique order was issued for the occasion, 
showing that peculiar condition which existed in Company A — 
such a dualistic state would be impossible at the present time : 

ARMORY LAFAYETTE HALL 

New York, April 27th, 1863. 

Light Guard, Company A, 71st Regiment, N. Y. N. G. 
Company Order: 

The Commandant announces with pain to the members of his 
company the decease of one of its oldest members, EDMUND C. 
CHARLES, late Colonel of the 42d (Tammany) N. Y. V., from 
wounds received last summer during the Seven Days' battles. As 
a mark of respect to the deceased the company will parade as 
special escort, and as an additional honor to our late brother sol- 
dier, and also in carrying out his oft expressed wish. 

The company will parade in full light guard uniform, viz., 
white coat, blue pants, white stripe, white shoulder knots, black 
cross belts, bearskin hat, white gloves, crape upon the left arm. 

The company will, therefore, assemble at the armory on 
Wednesday next, aj: 12 o'clock in accordance with the above. 

It is earnestly hoped that every member, both active and past, 
will take sufficient interest in paying tribute of respect to a brother 
soldier as to ensure a large attendance. 

Ex-Capt. David D. Hart having signified his willingness to 
command upon this occasion will be obeyed accordingly. 

Past Sergeant James Davis, Jr., also, at the request of the 
non-commissioned officers of the company, having signified his 
willingness to act as orderly upon the occasion, will be accordingly 
obeyed. 

Sergeant Samuel Martin will detail from his squad a cor- 
poral and six men to take charge of the remains upon its arrival 
at the City Hall this day, at 3 P. M. 

Sergeant James Davis, Jr., will on Tuesday morning relieve 
Sergeant Martin with a guard of a corporal and nine men, in full 
light guard uniform with fatigue cap, and have charge of the re- 
mains until the funeral. A meeting of the company and drill will 
take place this evening at 8 o'clock. 

By order of 

WM. G. TOMPKINS, Captain. 

O. P. Smith, First Sergeant. 

May the 8th the regiment paraded to receive the 5th N.Y.V. 
upon their return from the seat of war. 



254 [1863 

The field day, which was to have been April 21st, took place 
on May 11th, the following account of which is from the "Sunday 
Mercury" : 

"In accordance with orders, the 71st Regiment paraded to 
East New York on Monday last; they took the Division avenue 
cars and reached the grounds at about 9 :30 A. M. After a brief 
rest the line officers commenced to instruct their men in the man- 
ual, loadings and firings, facings and flankings, etc. 

"It was quite an interesting and animating sight to witness 
these companies acting independently in different ways ; here was 
a company firing by file, beyond another without arms, breaking 
into platoons, while a third could be discovered going by the flank 
at double quick ; to the left is a squad going by file into line ; to 
the right another firing by rank, and so on, affording diversion to 
the spectators, among whom were a number of beautiful and ele- 
gantly dressed ladies, and several military men who came upon 
the grounds in carriages. 

"During the day, several fine pieces of music were performed 
by Dodworth's full band. At noon the 'sergeants' call was 
sounded, and details off, when the battalion formed on the 'color 
line' ; the men were then dismissed for dinner until 1 :30 P. M. 

"During the afternoon the regiment was exercised in a va- 
riety of battalion movements, and also went through the firings 
with blank cartridges ; returning to the city before dark." 

On the evening of May 13th a committee of officers of the 
regiment surprised Quartermaster Roosevelt at his residence by 
presenting him with an elegant engraved and framed set of reso- 
lution expressive of the esteem felt by the whole command for his 
many acts of kindness and his unswerving devotion to the inter- 
est of the regiment during his many years of service. 

May 20th, the regiment paraded to receive the 17th N.Y.V. 
on their return from the war. The notice for this parade was 
given the Colonel on the evening of the 18th. Orders were 
printed and served on the 19th. These frequent calls for parad- 
ing had caused sharp comments from the press. One paper 
said: 

"At a late hour Tuesday night, the 71st was detailed to re- 
ceive the 17th N. Y. V. ; by hasty orders and posting on bulletins 
of newspapers, a battalion was got out at noon. There ought to 
be a fair and square understanding upon this matter. * * * 
The idea of making one or two regiments do all the work is pre- 
posterous." 

Still the demand for the services of the regiment continued. 
It can be realized that these continued calls, interfering as they 



1863] 255 

did with the private business of members, did not serve to make 
the Guard any more popular and was the cause of many taking 
their discharge as soon as their time expired. 

Monday, June 8th, the regiment paraded at the reception 
of the 27th and 38th N.Y.V. Of this the "Sunday Mercury" 
said: 

"* * * Suffice it is to say, that after Captain Otto's troop 
which headed the column, came the Seventh with its full band and 
drum corps, and averaging twenty files front; next came the 71st, 
in happy contrast to the grey coats, with their neat and clean blue 
uniform. It is not often that these two commands get so close to- 
gether ; but the comparison was no detriment to either. 

"The 71st paraded ten commands of eighteen files front; 
they marched with great steadiness and well preserved distance, 
and equally divided the honors of the occasion with the noble but 
more numerous regiment preceding." 

During this time the war was still on. After the defeat 
of Pope came the battle of Antietam, the subsequent supersed- 
ing of McClellan by Burnside, his disastrous battle of Freder- 
icksburg, and the placing of Hooker in command of the Army of 
the Potomac. 

On May 3d, Hooker was defeated at Fredericksburg. After 
this the armies apparently rested, but on the other side the rebels 
did not see why, since they had won the victories on the Rappa- 
hannock, it might not march forward and lay Philadelphia and 
New York under tribute and dictate their terms in Washington. 

Thirty thousand of Hooker's men having served their time 
were returning home, and recruiting was so slow that as has been 
mentioned before, the Conscription Act had been enacted, which 
must now be put in force. 

On the 3d of June, Lee began his movement. On the 8th 
two of his three corps were at Culpepper, while the other still 
held the line on the Rappahannock. On the 17th Ewell had 
advanced his corps beyond the Blue Ridge. Advancing down the 
Shenandoah Valley he attacked General Milroy at Winchester, 
where were ten thousand men. 

On the 16th of June the morning papers startled the city by 
flaming headlines of Milroy's defeat on the previous day, and 
the proclamation of the President for 100,000 militia for a term 
of not exceeding six months. This was followed by orders from 
Albany for the several regiments of the State to hold themselves 



256 [1863 

in readiness to depart for the seat of war. This was followed 
by the following order : 

HEADQUARTERS 1ST DIVISION, N. Y. S. M. 

New York, June 16th, 1863. 
General Orders No. 4. 

The regiments of this Division are directed ,to proceed forthwith 
to Harrisburg, Pa., to assist in repelling the invasion of that State. 

The United States quartermaster and commissary will furnish 
transportation and subsistence upon the requisition of regimental 
quartermasters, countersigned by the commandants. 

The term of service will not exceed thirty days. Commandants 
of brigades and regiments will report to the Major General the num- 
bers ready for transportation and will receive directions as to the 
route and time of embarkation. 

Each man will provide himself with two days cooked rations. 
By order of 
MAJOR-GEN. CHARLES W. SANFORD. 
J. M. WILCOX, Division Inspector. 

And this : 

HEADQUARTERS 71ST REGIMENT, N. Y. S. M. 
New York, June 16th, 1863. 
General Orders No. 14. 

The officers and members of this regiment are hereby ordered to 
assemble in full fStigue, black belts, overcoats rolled on knapsacks 
(army style), haversacks and canteens with one day's rations, to pro- 
ceed to Pennsylvania for a term not exceeding ninety days. 

The regimental line will be formed on Broome Street, right on 
Broadway at 8 o'clock A. M., precisely, Wednesday the 17th instant. 

The field and staff will report dismounted to the colonel at a 
quarter of an hour before 8 o'clock, non-commissioned staff, band and 
companies will report to the adjutant fifteen minutes before 8 A. M. 

The members will be supplied with knapsacks and black belts at 
their company quarters. Officers will send their baggage, which will 
not exceed one small trunk to regimental armory by 8 A. M. 

The above order is peremptory, and every member will report in 
his own person; commandants of companies may receive suitable sub- 
stitution in cases of emergency. 

Captain Tompkins is hereby detailed as officer of- the day, and 
Lieutenant Hull as officer of the guard. 

By order of 
COLONEL BENJAMIN L. TRAFFORD. 

JOHN R. LIVERMORE, Adjutant. 

Previous orders had been issued and hastily delivered by 
chiefs of squads directing the members to assemble at their 
respective company quarters at 1 o'clock on the 16th, "with 



1863] 257 

fatigue, white belts, overcoats rolled on knapsacks, canteens, 
haversacks for short service to repel the rebel invasion." There 
was evident confusion and conflicting orders. General Sanford 
went to Albany to straighten things out. 

In the meantime there was excitement among all classes in 
the city, which increased with intensity. Among the military it 
was most enthusiastic and patriotic. The men were at the armo- 
ries, congregated there expecting every moment to receive orders 
to march. Hundreds of friends were present to wish them God- 
speed and a safe return. 

Final preparations so far as the men of the 71st were con- 
cerned having been completed for departure, they awaited devel- 
opments. The scene during the afternoon in the armory was one 
of confusion and jollity. Every one was disposed to await pa- 
tiently the slow movements of the authorities and without any 
hope of getting away before the next day. Although an abun- 
dance of arms and uniforms were in the city, regiments were 
detained for want of them. General Sanford had been unable 
to get from Washington permission to distribute them. 

General Sanford returned from Albany late in the after- 
noon. He had in the meantime called a meeting of the Generals 
and other commanding officers, which was held in the evening 
(16th) at the division armory (White and Elm Streets). Gen- 
eral Sanford explained the object of the consultation between 
himself and the Governor and said he had assembled them for 
the purpose of taking immediate action for transporting troops 
to the seat of war, where they were at once required. 

Besides General Sanford, Brigadier-Generals Hall, Yates and 
Spicer were present, as were also Colonels Teller, Berger, Mason, 
Lefferts, Varian, Maidhoff, Ward, Aspinwall, Roome, Bagley ' 
and Trafford. A telegram was read from the Secretary of War 
requesting that the order of the President be complied with at 
once, and stating that the call of the Government was now for 
three months, which in all probability might be limited to thirty 
days ; that they were to report at once to General Couch and that 
means for their transportation had been provided for by the 
routes via Camden and Amboy, New York Central and Delaware 
and Raritan. It transpired during the discussion that the Colonels 
present strongly expressed a desire to be placed under their own 
generals in the field. 



258 [1863 

The papers of the 17th gave the news that the advance of 
the rebels was in Maryland and in the vicinity of Carlisle, Pa. 
At early dawn of the 17th the Centre Market armory of the 71st 
was crowded with soldiers and friends awaiting the completion 
of necessary arrangements and the reception of marching orders. 
Knapsacks were packed, haversacks stuffed, etc., farewells were 
said again and again, and still the hours rolled on without seem- 
ingly bringing the hour of departure any nearer. 

The great trouble seemed to be the getting of a supply of 
muskets, the want of which had been felt by the regiment for 
the previous two years. There were 244 serviceable muskets and 
on every field day or parade they were forced to borrow from 
some other regiment or use the unserviceable 1847 Springfield 
muskets. Hours were spent in unwinding knots of "red tape." 

The streets in the vicinity of Centre Market had been 
thronged the day and night with the puzzled soldiers, hurrying 
hither and thither under orders to be in readiness to leave at any 
moment, and then there was that uncertainty about the hour for 
starting that kept wives, mothers and sisters for hours standing 
in the wet street to give the last fond adieu as the loved one 
marched away. 

It was a sad as well as a joyous sight to see the departure 
of any regiment on such a noble errand, but more particularly did 
the surroundings of our citizen soldiers call forth these conflicting 
emotions. Their ranks were always filled with men who, though 
their lives were none the more valuable than the lives of other 
soldiers, and their social ties may be none the stronger, have 
nevertheless made greater sacrifices for the cause in which they 
enlist than those who are acting with more deliberation, and can 
make every arrangement in anticipation of the worst that may 
befall them. They went, as it were, like Minute Men, at the 
signal of the gun, and the pecuniary and other sacrifices which 
they made were incalculable. 

At dark Colonel Trafford succeeded in procuring the re- 
quired articles. By half -past 9 P. M. the issues were completed 
and at 10 o'clock the line was formed for departure. Down 
Broadway they marched amid cheers of all who witnessed them 
to the Battery, where together with the 8th Regiment they took 
the steamboat Red Jacket to Elizabethport, there at 2 A. M. 
they entrained for Harrisburg in cattle cars, many of the men 
riding on top. 



1863] 259' 

They had 550 men ; nearly all were members ; few substi- 
tutes ; no recruits. The following was the roster of officers who 
went: 

Col. B. L. Trafford, Lieut.-Col. W. J. Coles, Major D. C. 
Meschutt, Adjt. J. R. Livermore, Surgeon Dr. Edgar Birdsal, 
Asst. Dr. Augustus Troop, Q. M. Edger Seelye, Chaplain Rev. 
J. P. Hovey, D.D., Sergt.-Maj. Ed. Kirkland, Sergt. Fred Walker, 
Com'y-Sergt. J. P. HiUard. 

Captains — Company A, William G. Tompkins ; Company B, 
H. H. Evertsen ; Company C, Oliver Libby ; Company D, George 
H. Stow ; Company E, Franklin Worcester ; Company F, Jas. 
W. Dominick ; Company G, George W. Curtis ; Company H, 
Henry W. Turner ; Company I, George I. Tyson ; Company K, 
George N. Fairchild. 

Lieutenants — Company A, David Gregory ; Company B, Wal- 
ton Carpenter, Eben Peek ; Company C, John A. Hull, Richard 
T. Rich ; Company D, J. J. Umpleby, D. H. Denyse ; Company F, 
John Moorehead, Henry H. Parkin ; Company G, Wm. H. Ro- 
maine, Richard R. Hunt ; Company H, Amos L. See ; Company I, 
Geo. W. Seabold, A. B. DeGrafI; Company K, Wm. E. Wilson, 
Joseph Archibald. 

The first stop was for coal and water at New Hampden, the 
next at Easton. The regiment arrived at Harrisburg on the 
evening of the 18th. Colonel Trafford reported to General Couch 
immediately through Major Burt, of his staff, and then marched 
the regiment to Camp Curtin, where the men were supplied with 
rations at 6 P. M. 

The 8th N.Y.S.M., Colonel Varian, arrived in Harrisburg in 
company with the 71st, and these were the only organized troops 
at that time in the vicinity. The same evening the two commands 
took cars and crossed the Susquehanna with the intention of 
occupying the works in course of construction at Bridgeport. 
Colonel Varian, being the senior, was ordered to take command 
of the two regiments. The command arriving late at night, and 
the weather being very stormy, the troops remained, sleeping 
on the cars until the morning. 

At daylight (19th) they were marched into Fort Washing- 
ton and rested. The Colonels reported to General Couch and 
received verbal instructions as to the duties he wished the regi- 
ments to perform. Governor Curtin also visited them and ad- 
dressed the men in eloquent terms, thanking them for their 
prompt response to his call for aid. 

The same afternoon at 7 P. M. they took cars for Shippens- 



260 [1863 

burg, forty miles south of Harrisburg, for the purpose of hold- 
ing the enemy in check should he advance, but under all cir- 
cumstances to avoid engagement, but if pressed to retire slowly 
and harrass him as much as possible, the object being to give the 
forces at Harrisburg time to finish the defences. 

They arrived at midnight and remained on cars as it was 
raining until daylight (20th), when the brigade detrained and 
marched up the road leading to Chambersburg and took position 
to defend this road, also one leading to Scotland. At this place 
orders were received to report to Brig.-Gen. Joseph F. Knipe, 
who arrived and took command at 11 P. M. At night the regi- 
ment encamped in a field. Here the 8th departed. It rained 
all night. 

General Knipe was a capable officer, but he did not spare 
the men; an object was to be accomplished, and all other things 
were secondary. The men took it in good part, but did not 
refrain from easing their minds by composing some verses to 
the tune "All drink stone blind; Johnny fill up the bowl." It 
Tan about like this: 

Oh ! General Knipe he was a beat ; 

Foot balls ! Foot balls ! 
He marched us all 'till we had sore feet ; 

Foot balls ! Foot balls ! 

Chorus : — We'll all drink stone blind, etc. 

On the 21st they marched to Green Village and by further 
orders continued to march to Scotland Bridge, about ten miles 
from Chambersburg, finding the viaduct railroad bridge de- 
stroyed by the rebels. Here they remained for the night, having 
arrived there at about 3 P. M. The day being Sunday, about 
sundown Chaplain Hovey held divine service in front of the 
Colonel's quarters, the choir being furnished by the regiment. 
Orders came from General Knipe as soon as the bridge was 
completed to proceed to Chambersburg. 

June 22d, at 8 P. M., the regiment started on the march for 
Chambersburg, reaching there at 11 A. M., and took position 
two miles beyond the town on the Waynsboro Road. The entire 
population received the troops with a welcome not to be de- 
scribed, only to be appreciated by those who saw it. Tables 
were set in the main street and filled with eatables for the men 
without charge, and wives and daughters did their utmost to 



1863] 261 

see that all were supplied. The Stars and Stripes was raised 
on the flagpole amid the greatest enthusiasm. Flowers were 
showered upon the men in profusion as they walked through the 
village, men and women gathered on the stoops would ask, "Gen- 
tlemen, have you had so and so?" or "Will you have this or 
that?" boys would offer to carry knapsacks, and little girls 
claimed the privilege of filling the canteens. They said, "You 
have come to protect us, and it is our duty to make you as com- 
fortable as we can." 

During the afternoon an order was received to send the 
right wing to re-enforce the 8th Regiment, which was stationed 
on the Greencastle Road, where a skirmish had taken place, and 
also to have the wagons loaded and to hold the regiment in 
readiness to march. The right wing, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Coles, having reported to Colonel Varian, was placed in the 
rear. The 8th had been working like beavers, having thrown up 
barricades of tree tops, fence rails, etc., and were drawn up in 
line behind them. 

About 5 P. M. General Knipe advanced the 8th and the 
right wing of the 71st about two miles, where they arrived at 
7 P. M. In the meantime Colonel Trafford, who was with the 
left wing, was in ignorance of this movement until he saw all 
but it entrained. Not having received any orders he sent one 
of his staff to General Knipe for information. The General 
said he had sent orders and then directed that the Colonel with 
his command report forthwith at the railroad depot, but to leave 
a small force as a picket guard. 

UfJbn receiving this order the Colonel sent the companies 
under command of the Major to the depot, remaining himself to 
look after the company detailed for picket duty. After the 
Colonel had made inquiries about town as to whether all the 
troops had entrained, and receiving only affirmative replies, he 
took the turnpike road in company with a few cavalry men and 
rode to Shippensburg. On his arrival there he found that the 
left wing of the regiment was not on the train, and no one knew 
of its whereabouts. He at once rode back five or six miles, 
where he met it marching. They had mistook the road to the 
depot, and when they arrived the train had gone. 

The 8th Regiment and right wing of the 71st remained in 
the position we left them until 7 P. M., when they were ordered 
by General Knipe to fall back, he having received orders from 
General Couch to move the cars to the other side of Scotland 
bridge regardless of what became of the men and stores. 



262 [186S 

The men were hurried on to the cars and started for Carlisle, 
where they arrived at 2 A. M., June 23d, remaining in cars until 
daylight. Colonel Varian, finding that the left wing of the 71st 
had been left behind, procured permission from General Knipe 
to take a train and go back for them, but under no condition to 
go farther than Shippensburg. At that place he found them, 
they having reached there after a march of twenty-two miles, 
where they had encamped on the Fair Grounds. 

Colonel Trafford when he met the left wing marched with 
them to Shippensburg, arriving there at 2 A. M. on the 23d. He 
telegraphed to General Knipe, who replied to bring his men on 
as fast as possible, as it was impossible to get cars. At daylight 
they started for Carlisle, which was twenty miles distant, but 
having marched from Scotland bridge to their position on the 
Waynesboro Road and back to Shippensburg continuously, he 
found it impracticable to make so long a march in so short a 
time. He therefore called upon the inhabitants to furnish teams 
and wagons to transport the disabled. 

While making this march he received a note from Colonel 
Varian requesting him to strike the railroad track, as he would 
have a train to meet him there. This was joyfully complied with 
and soon all were aboard, reaching Carlisle at 10 P. M., where 
they were marched to the Fair Grounds and encamped for the 
night. 

On the 24th, the enemy continuing his advance, our little 
force was placed upon the road leading into the town for the 
purpose of holding him in check. Our forces being light and, 
according to information, the enemy being strong both in num- 
bers and artillery, the Colonel set the men to work throwing up 
breastworks and also barricaded the roads to check the enemy's 
cavalry. 

The rebel cavalry halted a short distance from their position 
to mass up, and it was learned that the whole rebel force was 
ten times their number, which consisted of the 8th, 71st, about 
200 armed citizens and a section of Miller's Light Battery from 
Philadelphia. 

The men slept on their arms all night, with one company 
thrown out one mile as picket guard. 

June 25th, the enemy still advancing, slowly feeling their 
way, orders were received from General Knipe to move forward 
and take possession of a very strong position known as Rocky 



1863] 263 

Ridge. Two howitzers were placed in position to command the 
road, masked by tree tops, etc, the infantry lying behind the 
rocks. They remained in this position until about 9 P. M., when 
General Knipe ordered Colonel Trafford to withdraw from the 
front, together with the Citizen's Corps and Miller's Battery (the 
8th being at this time on the Walnut Bottom Road). The ma- 
jority of the men at this time were fast asleep, but in five minutes 
they were on the march. 

The retreat was continued towards Kingston, about twelve 
miles from Harrisburg. During the night (which was cold) a 
drenching rain fell. About 1 A. M., the 26th, the regiment 
camped in a woods near Kingston. The storm continuing, a 
country church being found, it gave shelter to all that could 
crowd into it. The large portion of the men were without 
blankets, they having been sent back with the knapsacks on the 
train. 

June 27th, the weather being pleasant, by daylight, arms and 
ammunition were put in order and the regiment marched to a 
suitable position to again check the advance of the enemy. 
Ascertaining from the cavalry scouts that our position was 
flanked, the whole force fell back to Oyster Point. Here they 
found the llth N.Y.S.M. and the 23d N.Y.S.M. They bivouacked 
here until the next morning. 

Sunday, 28th, they were formed in line of battle. The 
enemy shelled the woods in front, when the line was ordered to 
fall back. The 8th and llth were sent to Port Washington, and 
the 71st sent to the front in the most advanced position. Colonel 
Trafford was ordered to report to Colonel Brisbane, commanding 
the 4th Brigade, Army of the Susquehanna, and was called 
upon to furnish a picket guard of four companies, which were 
posted under fire. One man of Company G was wounded in the 
thighj The other six companies were moved from their positions 
on the field and placed in the rifle pits and bivouacked for the 
night. 

Monday, the 29th, the enemy shelled the picket post for over 
an hour in the morning, and in the afternoon advanced their 
skirmishers toward the 71st, at the same time the llth arriving 
to relieve them, the rebels retired. Upon being relieved the 71st 
was ordered to report to General Knipe at Fort Washington, 
which it did, and that night procured the first good rest it had 
had in ten days. 



264 . [1863 

On the 30th the regiment was mustered into the United 
States service; total number, 538. Through Colonel Varian, 
General Couch informed them that the command (the 8th and 
71st) had accomplished everything that they had been sent to do 
in a very satisfactory manner, and that it was one of the most 
successful expeditions he had ever seen accomplished according 
to the number engaged in it; namely, advancing fifty-two miles 
beyond all defenses and support in case of an attack, holding 
the enemy in check for the period of six days, from Monday, the 
22d, when they commenced to fall back, until the following Sun- 
day, 28th instant, at 2 P. M., when they arrived at their starting 
point, thereby giving our forces ample time to finish their de- 
fenses and also allowing the farmers of the Cumberland Valley 
opportunity to run off their live stock, making Lee's "raid" a 
profitless expedition. 

A new command was formed under General Knipe, consist- 
ing of the 8th, 23d, 56th, S2d, 68th and 71st N.Y.S.M. ana 
"Miller's" Battery, Pa. These troops were now part of the 
Department of the Susquehanna, under Brig.-Gen. (Baldy) W. 
F. Smith, and attached to the Army of the Potomac under Major- 
General Meade. Detachments were sent to guard the various 
passes through the mountains; that in which was the 71st being 
sent to Silver Creek, near Hampden, and there bivouacked, where 
they heard the firing and saw the burning of the barracks at 
Carlisle. 

At this point let us turn back and ascertain the movements 
of Lee's army. At the start General Hooker was in command 
of the Federal forces. On the 3d of June Lee's army commenced 
to move forward; June 11th Hooker started to move northward; 
June 14th, Milroy was defeated at Winchester and retreated 
towards Harper's Ferry; June 16th, the rebel cavalry entered 
Greencastle, Pa.,'twelve miles from Chambersburg (the 71st left 
New York on the 17th). 

On the 22d, Ewell's corps (rebel), as the advance, crossed 
the Potomac at Williamsport, Md. (on that day the 71st was at 
Chambersburg, thirty miles north). June 26th, Ewell's corps 
passed through Gettysburg. On this date the 71st was at Kings- 
ton, having fallen back since the 22d from the advance guard. 

On the. 28th, Ewell's advance guard reached the Susque- 
hanna and the burned bridge; the 71st was engaged with the 



1863] 265 

rebel skirmishers at Oyster Point. On tliis date, owing to differ- 
ences of views between General Hooker and General Halleck, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Hooker resigned and Meade 
was placed in command of the Army of the Potomac. 

June 29th, Ewell advanced to capture Harrisburg, but was 
recalled to Gettysburg, where Generals Buford and Kilpatrick 
had arrived, the advance of Meade's army. As a corps of the 
rebel army consisted of three divisions, and a division of about 
8,000 to 10,000 men, Ewell must have had with him about 25,000 
men, which was being held back by the little force of militia, all 
told probably less than 15,000. 

It is noT intended to give a history of the battle of Gettys- 
burg. This digression is only for the purpose of giving the 
reader full grasp of the situation which controlled the 71st and 
the part they took in forcing the battle to take place where it did, 
but not where it was expected to have taken pace. We will now 
follow its movements during this battle, which commenced early 
Wednesday morning: 

July 1st. — On this date the brigade was ordered to march to 
Mount Holly Gap. The regiment was marched about seven or 
eight miles, when it was ordered into a field on the banks of 
Conegogeramit Creek. It was a lovely night, and here the regi- 
ment bivouacked. Cannonading was heard and bright light seen 
towards Carlisle. The 22nd and 37th were ordered to advance 
and reconnoitre, resulting in a skirmish in which three officers 
and four men were wounded. 

This raid was by rebel cavalry under Fitzhugh Lee. They 
entered Carlisle, burned the barracks and the gas works. They 
were driven south by Federal cavalry under "Baldy" Smith. 

July 2d. — The regiment was under arms all day. They were 
marched back two miles and bivouacked there during the night. 
At this place on June 28th and 29th the rebel General Jenkins 
had his headquarters. 

July 3d. — Reveille at 5 A. M. ; no time for breakfast. The 
regiment was started on the march towards Carlisle (twenty-five 
miles from Gettysburg), marched about three miles when they 
were halted at Uniontown, where they found little to eat. Here 
they rested for half an hour and then resumed the march, arriv- 
ing at their old campaign ground near Kingston at about 10 
o'clock A. M., where they prepared something in the shape of a 
breakfast, after which they continued the march. The sun was 
very hot and the men suffered from the heat. 



266 [1863 

About 7 P. M. the regiment reached the ruins of the Car- 
lisle barracks. Here they camped in a field for the night. This 
was the second day of the battle at Gettysburg. 

July 4th. — The battle of Gettysburg was ended this day. At 
5 A. M. the brigade was under arms and marching on the Mount 
Holly road towards Gettysburg, passing through Papertown at 
10 A. M. and over the mountains to Pine Grove Forge, in a 
drenching storm. It stormed fearfully all day long. The moun- 
tain streams were so swollen that they were almost impassable. 
The road they were on was built along the side of the mountain, 
which was on their right; to the left was a stream that supplied 
the power to several paper mills. The rain soon filled this stream 
and it overflowed the road so that the men could not distinguish 
where the stream and the road parted, and to keep from falling 
into the former they had to keep as close as possible to the 
mountains. Sometimes they were in knee deep. The Adjutant's 
horse stepping into a hole stumbled into the stream. He was 
carried down it. Knapsacks and blankets also went floating 
away. The whole column was demoralized. 

All commissary trains were cut off by bridges being washed 
away, and it was forty-eight hours before the damage was re- 
paired. They arrived at Pine Grove Forge worn out, hungry 
and saturated with rain. At this place the Pennsylvania troops 
were comfortably provided for in barns and outhouses, while 
the New Yorkers bivouacked in the rain without any cover. 
Fortunately this was a section the "Johnnies" had not visited, 
consequently the foraging parties were well rewarded with sup- 
plies of chickens, bread, apple butter, eggs, coffee, etc., which 
served with the warm fires to compensate for the other depri- 
vations. 

Sunday, July Sth, was bright and clear ; the Quartermaster's 
train had arrived, the men had dried out, and all were in a more 
cheerful mood. Added to this came the news of the victory at 
Gettysburg. With this also came the reason for their move- 
ments, to keep the enemy from passing through these gaps and 
foraging upon the country. So with cheerfulness the men fell 
in and marched to Bendersville and camped there for the night. 

July 6th. — Raining, hard showers during the night. Here 
a sad disappointment was experienced. The day before the 
Division Quartermaster had purchased ten head of cattle and had 
butchered them. The meat was distributed among the companies ; 
in the morning Company B resolved not to eat any of it for 
breakfast and to have a glorious feast for dinner. They bought 



1863] 267 

vegetables of the farmers and at noon while nearly ready they 
were standing around the iron pot sniffing the odors expelled 
from it, when "Fall in!" was ordered, and the feast was lost. 
The regiment was marched to Caledonia Forge on Gettysburg 
turnpike, where they halted at 9 o'clock P. M., the men sleeping 
wherever they could find a spot, having marched sixteen miles. 

July 7th. — Wagons having arrived, the men had a good break- 
fast. About 11 A. M. the march continued, marching to Funks- 
town, Md. On the march they were drawn up to. one side of 
the road to allow two or three thousand prisoners to pass, being 
under guard. The men had been cautioned by the Colonel to 
avoid any demonstration. It was hardly necessary, for their 
hearts were full of sympathy for these hatless, coatless, shoeless 
and ragged poor fellows. There could not be found an ounce 
of tobacco in the 71st after they had passed by. 

The regiment arrived at Funktown (eleven miles) and 
camped for the night in what seemed a nice grove. It rained 
•during the night, and the morning found it transformed into a 
nice swamp. 

July 8th. — From this the men crawled and it was raining 
hard. At 7 A. M. orders were given to strike tents and prepare 
to march. No rations were issued, as there was no time to cook 
them; hot coffee was served. At eleven the column started for 
Waynesboro. When arriving at the Gettysburg turnpike they 
met the 6th Corps, General Sedgwick, who were following up 
the rebels. For some time the troops fraternized, many meeting 
old friends. Among them Capt. H. H. Evertsen of Company B 
met his father, a sergeant in the 1st New York Cavalry, whom he 
had not seen for two years. 

Waynesboro was reached at about 5 P. M. The troops 
were marched two miles beyond the town and took position on 
an eminence commanding the roads leading from Hagerstown 
and Greencastle. Sixteen miles covered. The regiment camped 
on a hillside near the road. At 7 P. M. rations were issued. A 
force of rebels were reported as being within four miles. 

July 9th.— Breakfast at 5 A. M. Inspection at 10 A. M. 
Remained in camp all day. Eight P. M. orders to draw rations 
and cook them, as the regiment would march at 8 A. M. 

July 10th. — After an early breakfast the regiment, with the 
22d, made a reconnoissance towards Hagerstown, where the 
regiment remained for the night. 



268 [1863 

4. 

July 11th. — Until 6 P. M. this day, when they marched back 
to Leitersburg, found the bridge over Antietam creek destroyed 
by fire; forded the stream; enemy's pickets reported one mile 
away. Camped for the night, having covered six miles. 

July 12th. — Counter marched through Leitersburg to Cave- 
town, Md., halting beyond the latter at 2 P. M. and went into 
camp in a terrific thunder storm. Five men in a tent of the 56th 
were struck by lightning; one killed. Covered twelve miles. 

July 13th. — Rain; struck camp at daylight and at 7 A. M. 
started on the march, taking the Boonsboro Pike ; through Smoke- 
town and Mount Pleasant, halting about two miles beyond the 
latter and went into camp at 8 P. M., as usual in the rain and 
supperless. No rations since the 11th had been served; the men 
had to forage. 

July 14th. — Reveille at 4 :30 A. M. Received orders to cook 
two days' rations (there was nothing to cook) and march at 
10:30 A. M. Received orders from General Smith to report 
date of muster in rolls, also number of men, for the purpose of 
providing of transportation to New York. The regiment marched 
toward the front, distant cannonading being heard ; the men 
forgetting their sore feet and all other trials in anticipation of 
meeting the enemy. 

Every step of the way was marked with the effects of war 
in its worst form, such as broken wagons, caissons, dead horses, 
etc., the stench from the latter being unbearable. Then marched 
to Little Beaver Creek and encamped for the night at 5 P. M., 
distance marched, six miles. At this place were rumors of draft 
riots in New York. 

July 15th. — Received orders from General Smith to start 
homeward. Started on the march at 7:30 A. M. ; marched 
through Boonsboro, Braddock's Gap, South Mountain Pass, 
Middletown and Frederick City to Monocacy Junction, distance 
of twenty-five miles, arriving at 8 P. M., the men so completely 
beat out as to fall on the ground without shelter and go to sleep. 
Not at all surprising after this long tramp without anything 
to eat. 

At this point Brigadier-General Ewen, N.Y.S.N.G., assumed 
command and they were no longer a part of the Army of the 
Potomac. Previous orders for transportation had been counter- 
manded and they awaited further orders. 

The following orders show evidence of appreciation of 
service : 



1863] 269 

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC 

July ISth, 1863. 
Special Order No. 190. 

The troops comprising- the command of Brig.-Gen. Smith are re- 
leased from further service with the Army of the Potomac, and will 
be reported back to General Couch for instruction. 

The Major General Commanding thanks Brig.-Gen. W. F. Smith, 
and his troops for the zeal and promptitude which, amid no little pri- 
vation, have marked their efforts to render this army all the assistance 
in their power; and especially commends the good conduct of the offi- 
cers and men that participated in Brig.-Gen. Killpatrick's engagement 
on the 13th instant. 

By command of 

MAJOR-GENERAL MEADE. 
S. WILLIAMS, A. A. G. 

DEPARTMENT OF THE SUSQUEHANNA, 
HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION 

July ISth, 1863. 
Special Order No. — . 

Brig-Gen. John Ewen will take command of all the New York 
troops in this division and proceed with them to Frederick, Md., at 
which point transportation will be furnished them to New York City. 
In parting with them the general commanding must express his 
admiration of the courage and fortitude with which they have stood 
the toils and privations of their late marches. 

By command of 

BRIG-GEN. W. F. SMITH, 
Commanding 1st Division, Department of the Susquehanna. 
PRESTON F. WEST, A. A. A. G. 

July 16th. — Reveille was sounded at 5 A. M. The men very- 
much excited regarding news from New York; anxiously 
awaited transportation, and the delay without knowledge of its 
termination was irritating; it was 11 P. M. before the regiment 
entrained in cattle cars that were filthy; arrived at Baltimore on 
the 17th at 7 A. M., when they were marched to the President 
Street depot ; stacked arms and were dismissed for one hour, the 
men procuring their breakfast wherever it was possible. En- 
trained at 10:30 A. M., reaching Philadelphia at 8 P. M. There 
they marched to the "Cooper Shop" Refreshment Saloon (ara 
institution sustained by the citizens for the soldiers during the 
war), where they partook of a splendid supper furnished by the 
ladies of that city. Entrained at midnight, arriving in New York 
at 7:30 A. M. on the 18th, having been absent just thirty days,, 
and with two exceptions did not sleep twice in succession in the 
same place during that time. 



270 [1863 

In the magnitude of the battle itself, the co-operation of the 
National Guard has naturally been overlooked ; historians in 
paying attention to the greater have overlooked the lesser, but 
the careful reader must conclude that in everything but the 
actual fighting they endured equal hardships and faithfully per- 
formed all that was required of them and accomplished the pur- 
pose that was intended, namely, to keep Lee's army in check 
until the Army of the Potomac had caught up to them. 

While their frequent skirmishes were comparatively blood- 
less, remember they "were under orders not to bring on any en- 
gagement. They were, however, exposed to many dangers, which 
but for good judgment on the part of the Generals in command 
might have proved very disastrous. On the evening of July 1st 
Maj.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart (C.S.A.), who having been left on 
the Potomac by Lee to hold back Hooker, and having himself 
been cut ofif, but knowing that Harrisburg was Lee's objective 
point, took a roundabout course to meet him and found himself 
with his cavalry at Carlisle, not five miles from where the 71st 
were bivouacking. Here he learned for the first time of the battle 
:at Gettysburg and at once retraced his march, while the 71st 
^slept on, entirely unconscious of their narrow escape. 

A writer forty years after says : 

"'There is one factor in the operation of the two armies in the 
Gettysburg campaign that is entirely eliminated by most historians 
and by Generals John B. Gordon and Daniel E. Sickles, and that 
is the militia troops of New York and Pennsylvania who de- 
fended Harrisburg and the line of the Susquehanna. 

"Gen. Gordon states that he was leading the advance of 
Ewell's corps and was ready to cross the river at Wrightsville and 
march on Philadelphia but was prevented by the burning of the 
iDridge ; but he omits to state, as do other writers, that it was the 
militia who burned the bridge and who were ready on the oppo- 
:site bank of the river to dispute his crossing and to defend Har- 
risburg and Philadelphia. 

"Gen. Gordon thinks that if he had not been withdrawn from 
"his attack on the Union right on the first. Confederates might 
have won the day. But what would have resulted if the militia, 
13,000 strong, had not been on hand to check his march on Har- 
risburg? It is all very well to say forty years after the battle 
that Ewell was recalled from his attack on Harrisburg by Lee, 
when the fact is that he was foiled in his attempt to cross the 
river and was checked by the determined stand taken by the mil- 
itia troops on the other side." 



1863] 271 

On the 4th of July pursuit of the enemy was started ; at the 
same time the co-operation of the Army of the Susquehanna 
took place. It was directed to take possession of the various 
"gaps" to head off the rebels. The detachments from the Army 
of the Potomac had skirmished with the enemy at Caledonia 
Forge on the 5th, Pine Grove on the 6th, Funkstown on the 
7th, Waynesboro on the 8th, Leitersburg on the 9th, Hagerstown 
and Funkstown on the 11th; also the same on the 12th. 

During the twelve days from the day of the battle to the 
15th, when the New York troops were sent home, there was a 
concert of action between the Volunteers and the militia, the one 
following up the fugitives, the other trying to head them off from 
getting through the "gaps." 

From "Campfire and Battlefield," page 126: 

"Col. AugTistus Van Horn Ellis, of the 214th N. Y. V., one 
of the most chivalrous spirits that ever breathed, had received his 
mortal wound at Gettysburg. He was riding at the head of his 
regiment waving his sword in the air, and shouting to his 'Orange 
Blossoms,' as he called them, the regiment having been raised in 
Orange County, N. Y., when a bullet struck him in the forehead. 

"He was borne to the rear, his face covered with blood and 
the froth spurting from his mouth; he died in a few moments. 
Major Cromwell, also of that regiment, was killed at the same 
time, being shot in his breast. The Adjutant was killed by a shot 
through his heart as he was moving from the field." 

Colonel Ellis was captain of the Howitzer Company (I) 71st 
Regiment, at the battle of Bull Run in 1861, and had by the 
organization of the 124th redeemed the promise made by the 
regiment to Secretary Stanton in 1862, that on its return they 
would raise a regiment for three years for the war. 

THE RIOT 

Now let us go back to July 11th, while the 71st was at 
Leitersburg, Pa. In the defeat of Lee at Gettysburg, in the 
military situation, there was nothing to justify any further hope- 
for the rebels, or any more destruction of life in the vain en- 
deavor to disrupt the Union. If there was any justification for a 
continuance of the struggle on the part of the rebels, it was to- 
be found only in a single circumstance — the attitude of the Demo- 
cratic party — who kept up the cry that the "war was a failure,"' 
that the loyal Governors were Lincoln's "satraps." The Fathers 



272 [1863 

of the Republic were named with sorrowful reverence, and it 
was declared that the Constitution they had framed was de- 
stroyed by Mr. Lincoln and his advisers. The army before 
Vicksburg was pointed at in derision as besieging a place that 
never could be captured. 

The most conspicuous opponent of the Government in the 
West was Clement L. Vallandigham, who was guilty of such 
treasonable conduct from the start that in May, 1863, he was 
arrested, tried by courtmartial and sentenced to imprisonment 
for the war. The President commuted the sentence to banish- 
ment beyond the lines, where he went. This course placed him 
in the light of a martyr, and in a few months later he was made 
the Democratic candidate for Governor of Ohio. Though not to 
the same length, ex-President Pierce in New Hampshire, and 
Horatio Seymour of New York assumed the same opposition 
and denunciation. 

Such organizations as the Knights of the Golden Circle, and 
the notorious Sons of Liberty were scattered throughout the 
:middle states ready for such action as would give aid and com- 
fort to the rebels. 

The rebel government, finding that they made little progress 
in carrying the war into the Union states, resorted to other 
measures not so honorable ; they established headquarters in 
Canada. The notorious Jacob Thompson, an emissary of Jeff 
Davis, and well supplied by him with funds, made his headquar- 
ters in the Clifton House, across the bridge from Niagara. In 
New York City his financial agent was Benjamin Wood, a brother 
of Fernando Wood, then Mayor of the City. He maintained an 
account with a Wall Street firm, through whom was bought a 
very large amount of gold. This gold was used for the purpose 
•of creating an opposition in the North, in the establishing the 
organizations before mentioned, and as they grew more desperate 
to plant the seeds of contagious diseases and acts of incendiarism 
in all the principal cities of the North. An evidence of this 
man's loyalty is the following from the New York "Daily News" 
•of June 17th (the day the 71st left for Pennsylvania). The paper 
was owned and published by Benjamin Wood: 

"Experience has proved that a single brigade of trained 
warriors can drive before him a hundred thousand military tyros 
such as President Lincoln and Governor Curtin are calling out 
for the defence of their homesteads." 



1863] 273 

And much more from that paper and the New York "World" 
•of the same and worse character. 

In the City of New York the large hotels and many public 
buildings, including Barnum's Museum, were fired. These were 
widely distributed, so as to make a general conflagration. The 
method used in the Astor House will serve as an example of the 
others : The conspirator engaged a room, to which he conveyed 
the combustibles, among which the principal was "Greek fire." 
A watchful Father saved the city. The "Greek fire" proved to 
be worthless, and in no instance did the fires reach beyond the 
rooms where they were built. 

The next step was to take advantage of the draft, which 
was unpopular and unfortunately took place during the absence 
of the militia from the city, and create a riot. An interesting 
account of this, taken from the New York "Times," will be 
found in the Appendix. 

The Draft began on Saturday, the 11th of July. There had 
been premonition of trouble. On the morning when the Draft 
was to be begun several of the most widely read Democratic 
journals contained editorials that appeared to be written for the 
very purpose of inciting a riot. 

The excited state of the public mind, especially among the 
laboring class, inflammatory handbills displayed in grogshops, the 
presence of dangerous classes, whose best opportunity for plun- 
der was in time of riot, and the absence of the militia, all favored 
an outbreak. 

When the Draft was resumed on Monday morning the 
serious work began. One Provost-Marshal's office was at the 
corner of Third Avenue and 46th Street. It was guarded by 
sixty policemen, and the wheel was set in motion at 10 o'clock. 
The building was surrounded by a dense angry crowd, who were 
freely cursing the Draft, the police, the National Government 
and the "nigger". 

The drawing had been in progress but a few minutes when 
there was a shout of "Stop the cars !" and at once the cars were 
stopped, the horses released, the conductors and passengers driven 
out, and a tumult created. 

Up to this time the mob had been without a leader. How- 
ever he made his appearance in a person by the name of 



274 [1863 

Andrews, a Virginian, who had until this moment kept in the 
background. Then a great human wave was set in motion, which 
bore down everything before it and rolled into the Marshal's 
office, driving out at the back windows the officials and the police- 
men, whose clubs, though plied rapidly and knocking down a 
rioter at every blow, could not dispose of them as fast as they 
came on. 

Everything was destroyed and the building set on fire. The 
firemen came promptly, but were not allowed to work. At this 
moment Superintendent John A. Kennedy of the police ap- 
proached unarmed. He was recognized and set upon by the mob 
with clubs and stones and then thrown face down into a puddle 
with the intention of drowning him. When rescued he was 
beyond recognition. 

Mobs were at different points of the city. At Broadway and 
20th Street the entire block was burned. A riot was at Second 
Avenue, another in 44th Street, and other places. Towards 
evening a riotous procession passed down Broadway with drums, 
banners, muskets, pistols, clubs and boards inscribed, "No Draft !" 
Inspector Carpenter, at the head of 200 policemen, marched up 
and met them at the corner of Amity (West Third) Street. The 
police charged the mob, cracking skulls. In a few minutes the 
mob scattered and fled, leaving Broadway strewn with their 
dead and wounded. 

During the next two days there was constant rioting at 
various points uptown and downtown. They set upon every negro 
that appeared, whether man, woman or child, and succeeded in 
murdering eleven of them, even hanging them on trees or lamp- 
posts. They also sacked and burned the Colored Orphan Asylum 
at Fifth Avenue and 44th Street. 

Finally, Government troops arriving, the mob was suppressed. 
It lasted three days, fifty buildings were burned, between two 
and three million dollars' worth of property was destroyed ; more 
than one thousand were killed. The Draft v/as postponed until 
August 19th. The Draft started on the 13th and was suppressed 
on the 17th. It was known that the militia was on its way home, 
and this knowledge had the influence to sober the mob. 

At 7:30 A. M. on the 18th the 71st arrived in the city and 
at short intervals all the regiments were home again. The 71st 



1863] 275 

was ordered to assemble at Centre Market armory on the 22nd. 
This was followed by the following: 

HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, N. Y. N. G. 

New York, July 23d, 1863. 
■General Orders No. 7. 

This Division will hold itself in readiness for duty on short notice. 
The commandants of the 4th, Sth, 6th, 7th, 8th, 11th, 12th, 22nd, 
.37th, 69th, 71st regiments will each detail 100 men for duty during the 
present emergency, to remain in their respective armories, subject to 
the orders of the general officer of the day; and to be relieved, from 
time to time, by other details from their own regiments, by direction 
of their commandants; but quarters of the Sth will remain at the 
State Arsenal until further orders. 

By order of 
CHARLES W. SANFORD, Major-General. 
J. H. WILCOX, Division Inspector. 

In pursuance of the above, the detail from the 71st went on 
duty. Subsequently on the 24th a change was made and three 
companies were put on guard each day. This continued until 
August 1st, when the guard was reduced to twenty men, two 
from each company, "this guard will be so composed as to be 
able to summon the companies to assemble on short notice." 

This continued until the 17th. In the meantime guards were 
maintained at High Bridge to protect the aqueduct. On Friday, 
the 14th, Companies C and D were ordered to report at 5:30 
A. M. with one day's rations. They went by boat to the bridge 
and there reported to the Colonel. They went into camp, remain- 
ing one week, marching across the bridge for each meal. 

They were relieved by Companies E and F, and they by G 
and H. This surveillance continued until the end of the Draft, 
September 1st. 

The following from the "Sunday Mercury" refers to a visit 
of Russian war vessels. It is interesting as a description of the 
way the First Division formed for a parade or review. The 
honor extended was a partial recognition of the friendly action 
of the Russian Government in preventing the recognition of the 
rebels by England and France: 

"On Thursday, October 1st, after a very short and hasty 
notice, the members of the 1st Division were turned out to do 
honor to our naval visitors from Russia. 

"The notice caused considerable surprise and comment ; many 
thought it odd to parade militiamen to receive sailors, while not 



276 [1863- 

a few wondered that the English and French officers now in our 
harbor were not also honored in like manner, especially the latter,. 
as they were here for several weeks before the Russians came. 

"But to the parade : The time fixed for the formation of the 
division line was 12 o'clock. At that hour only one regiment was 
upon the ground. This was the 71st. They stacked arms in 23d 
Street near Tenth Avenue, and dismissed until the rest of the 
troops should arrive. 

"About 12:15 the Carbineer Troop of Capt. Otto rode slowly 
down, but instead of halting where the right of line was ordered,, 
they wheeled down Tenth Avenue. Next came the First Regi- 
ment which was immediately followed by the Third (Huzzars.) 

"The 37th Infantry passed down below Ninth Avenue, and 
marched to where it was supposed their post would be. It was 
now near 1 o'clock. 

"Presently, strains of music were heard, and the Sth, 6th, 
12th, 4th and 84th Regiments were described coming out of Fifth 
Avenue, above 23d Street. At this late hour, when the whole 
column ought to have been in motion, a request was sent to the 
latter that they should countermarch down Twentieth Street and 
honor Brig.-Gen. Ewen or his house and family with a marching 
salute. 

"Of course, this occupied time, and kept the rest of the 
troops in waiting, so that it was near two o'clock before the escort 
got in motion. 

"The 2nd Brigade was taken up above Fortieth Street, to 
form in line. 

"By some misunderstanding, or non-receipt of official orders, 
the Sth Regiment did not parade at all, although several of their 
men, in uniform, made their appearance upon the street. 

"After the Russian officers, some sixteen in number, had 
passed along the line, where the troops stood at 'present arms,' 
and the various bands playing, etc., the order was given to wheel 
into column, and the Division followed the visitors in the follow- 
ing order: 

71st Regt., 420, rank and file 84th Regt., 158, rank and file 
1st Regt., 148, rank and file 7th Regt., 720, rank and file 

3d Regt., 360, rank and file 37th Regt., 280, rank and file 
Sth Regt., 630, rank and file 55th Regt., 92, rank and file 
6th Regt., 400, rank and file 11th Regt., 580, rank and file 
12th Regt., 230, rank and file 22d Regt., 360, rank and file 
4th Art'y, 240, rank and file 69th Regt., 225, rank and file 
"Counting musicians, general officers and their staffs and es- 
cort troops, the full number of uniforms on parade was about 
five thousand." 

Owing to the unusual amount of duty performed during the 
summer, drills did not commence until October instead of Sep- 
tember, as had heretofore been the custom. The following letter 



1863] 277 

will give the reader somewhat of an idea of the difficulties ex- 
perienced in keeping up the regiment and maintaining its proper 
position in the Guard: 

New York, October 9th, 1863. 
"Editor, 'N. Y. Sunday Mercury' : 

"In your last issue there is an article speaking of the action 
of the Board of Supervisors, in regard to appropriating money 
for the purpose of building armories for the various regiments 
who are in want of them, and suggesting an increase in the 
amount so appropriated. An excellent idea ; yet I was surprised 
to see that among all the regiments mentioned, not a word was 
spoken of the claims and wants of the 'Old Seventy-first.' 

"Now, the regiment numbers nearly eight hundred men as 
full inspection will prove, and how is it with their claim for an 
armory? In Centre Market, where a portion of the regiment is 
located, the accommodations are so inferior that but five com- 
panies are quartered there, while some are quartered in Broad- 
way and others in the old Ninth Regiment Armory on Univer- 
sity Place. 

"The drill room in Centre Market is only thirty feet wide 
and is so narrow that the men can scarcely be drilled by company 
front, platoon front being most frequent. The entrance is 
through a trap door in the floor, which necessarily must be closed 
while drill is going on. How can a regiment, or even a battalion, 
be drilled in a room of this description, and this, too, without con- 
sideration of the dangerous character of the building, it having 
been pronounced unsafe several times by the authorities. 

"And yet with these facts so plain the simple wants of the 
regiment are not noticed or thought of. How was it in regard to 
their arms ? Why, for nearly two years the regiment has been 
drilling, parading and doing duty with such a small number of 
muskets that when a drill or parade was ordered they had to 
borrow muskets from the 6th Regiment. 

"The new arms, however, were received last week, and the 
regiment paraded with them on the occasion of the reception of 
the Russian officers. I do not wish to detract from the claim or 
merits of any other organization, but when a regiment has done 
so much service and has always responded when called upon, as 
it always will do, I do not think it right or just to ignore their 
claim. 

"FAIR PLAY." 

It might have been added that the regiment paid the gas 
bills, and this was the case when drilling in the arsenal, a charge 
being made of eight dollars each night. 

Let the reader survey the conditions existing at that date and 
compare them with those of the present. The strength of the 
regiment at that time was 726, as against, say, 989 in 1815. At 
that date there were no attractions as at the latter date to bring 



278 [1863 

the member to the arm.ory, and seldom did he come except to 
drill or meeting. It must be seen how difficult it was to keep up 
and maintain the individual interest, and recognize the loyalty and 
attachment which made it possible to maintain a regiment such 
as it was. 

Its rival, the 7th, had what was then considered a magnifi- 
cent armory (Tompkins Market), and it was difficult to recruit 
with such superior inducement being offered. What might have 
been accomplished with an armory fit to be called one when so 
much was done without one? 

October 25th, the last baby. Company B, celebrated its first 
"birthday at their quarters, 13th Street and University Place. A 
large company of ladies and gentlemen attended the function, 
which everyone enjoyed. 

October 27th, the annual inspection took place on Washing- 
ton parade ground. A large delegation of military officers were 
present. It was the largest inspection ever made by the regiment 
■up to that time, a remarkable and healthy advance ; 557 present, 
169 absent, total 726. 

November 7th was inaugurated a new feature in the history 
of the 71st, the giving of a series of promenade concerts, given 
at Irving Hall, Irving Place and 15th Street, Dodworth's 71st 
Regiment Band providing the music. Seven of these concerts 
were given, extending into January. They were a great success 
toth as to enjoyment and finance. 

While facilities such as they were were afforded for teach- 
ing the guard the manual of arms and company movements, there 
was none for rifle practice; while men in drill pulled the trigger 
and heard the cap snap, and once a year on field day fired a real 
blank cartridge, they had no opportunity to fire a ball cartridge 
at rifle practice. 

The 9th of December is to be noted as the date on which 
the first rifle range was established : 

"Newark, N. J., November 28th, 1863. 
"Colonel: 

"I have the honor to inform you that the target range of the 
New Jersey Rifle Corps, at Newark, will be formally opened on 
Wednesday, the 9th day of December, at 10 A. M. The firing 
will commence at 11 o'clock, at ranges of 100, 300 and 500 yards. 

"On behalf of the corps I beg respectfully to invite from 
your regiment a firing party of ten men, uniformed, armed and 
equipped, under non-commissioned officers, to compete for prizes 
offered by the corps. 

"Ammunition for the only rifles allowed viz., Enfield and 



1863] 279 

Springfield, will be furnished on the grounds, and should you not 
yet be in possession of your arms, a stand of them will be held at 
your disposal for that day. 

"As this is the first occasion of this kind in this country, I 
shall be most happy to receive as guests of the corps yourself and 
the commissioned officers of your command, and shall 'feel 
obliged if you will name the probable number who will honor us 
with their presence on that day. 

"Awaiting your reply, I am Colonel, 

"Your most obedient servant, 

"WILLIAM S. ROWLAND, 

"Colonel." 
To Col. B. L. Trafford and Officers of the 71st Regiment, 
N.G.S.N.Y. 

This invitation was accepted and one man from each company 
selected to represent the regiment. 

Sunday "Mercury," December 13th: 

"The rifle range was opened on the 9th. Only five teams 
from New York and Brooklyn were present, the 5th, 7th and 
71st from New York, and the 13th and 23d from Brooklyn. 

"The morning was dark and lowering, looking very inaus- 
picious for the work contemplated up to 10 o'clock, at which hour 
the sun broke forth in warmth and splendor. When the train 
from Jersey City with the uniformed visitors arrived at Newark 
they found four companies of the New Jersey Rifle Corps in 
readiness to escort them to the grounds, a distance of a mile 
and a half from the station. 

"The guests were taken up in a large four-horse stage. The 
place was decorated with American flags and approached through 
a picket fence with ample gateways to a small lead-colored one- 
story cabin with a platform on the rear end. From this platform 
one stepped onto a bed of packed turf covered with tanbark. It 
extended a distance perhaps of forty feet and was faced by a 
ditch semi-circular in form. 

"To the left-hand side one hundred yards in front was a 
butt of turf some eight or nine feet high. It was backed with 
rough brick laid in mortar, having a recess in which the marker 
stood with his colors. On each side of this butt there was an 
ordinary target of plate iron painted white and black. 

"From this position behind the butt the marker could ob- 
serve where every shot struck. He signalized thus : A white 
flag denoted the ball had hit outside of the outer black ring; a 
blue flag, that it had struck inside the circle ; the tri-colored flag, 
that it had reached the bull's-eye; a red flag was also used, to 
intimate danger or that firing must cease. When no flag was 
seen the target had not been hit. 

"There were similar targets at 300, 500 and 900 yards, ap- 
proachable by an embankment of turf, some four feet wide, cov- 
ered with tanbark. The detail from the 71st were H. H. Evert- 



280 [1863-64 

sen, R. R. Jones, John Scheffmeyer, M. Willets, D. D. Ken- 
nedy, J. Southworth, J. A. Wise, G. Avery, J. Archibald and 
Charles N. Byrne. 

"The prizes were a challenge cup of elegant design; the 
champion cup, given by the citizens of Newark; a bronze statu- 
ette of the Guardsman; a star repeating rifle, revolvers and 
case; staff officer's sword; book of beauty, etc. 

"The firing commenced at ten minutes of 12 and continued 
until nearly dark, the wind during the afternoon interfering a 
good deal with the shooting. The 71st Regiment boys, who were 
all first rate shots, did not get any prize. They deserved one, 
however, for the excellent manner in which they conducted them- 
selves during the entire excursion." 

December 19th, the question of a monument to the memory 
of Colonel Vosburgh took shape by the issuing of a circular to the 
members and friends of the regiment, signed by the committee of 
five officers appointed by the Board of Officers. 

On the same date the members of the regiment attended 
(in citizen dress) the funeral of its late chaplain. Rev. J. Parsons 
Hovey, who had died on the 16th instant. The Chaplain had 
shared in all the trials and privations of the Pennsylvania cam- 
paign, faithfully performed his duties and had endeared himself 
to every member of the regiment. 

The year ended with a hope, not afterwards realized, of an 
armory on a piece of ground running through from 16th Street 
to 17th Street, near Seventh Avenue, measuring 100 by 200 feet. 

18 6 4 



The year opened with the patriotic duty which seemed to 
have been assigned to the 71st, that of respect to the brave 
soldiers who had answered their country's call. On January 
3d they paraded to receive the 40th N. Y. V., which had re- 
enlisted for the war, and on the 12th, similar honors were 
extended to the S9th and 66th N. Y. V. 

In the orders, the Colonel said : "In consideration of the 
services these volunteers have performed, and in view of their 
unanimous re-enlistment for the war, it is eminently proper 
that that they should receive a cordial reception from the 
National Guard of this city. We cannot confer any additional 
honor upon these brave men, but we should demonstrate if 
possible, that their services are appreciated." 

The annual ball of the "Light Guard" (Company A), 



1864] 281 

came off at the Academy of Music on January 13th ; it was as 
usual, a grand affair. The building was elegantly decorated, 
canary birds in cages were suspended from ceilings in all parts 
of the building. 

On the 16th, the last Promenade concert came off, it was 
attended by a large and fashionable audience. The series be- 
ing so successful, the regiment was requested to give one more. 

On the evening of the 20th, the regiment had a drill at 
the State arsenal. There were ten commands of thirteen files 
front, or including officers about 350 uniforms. A very large 
audience was present, for many of whom it was impossible to 
find seats. 

This sounds singular : From the N. Y. "Express," 
January 29th, 1864: 

"Some members of the 7th Regiment, called on Colonel 
Trafford of the 71st this morning and requested an escort on 
the arrival of the Ellsworth Zouaves. Colonel Trafford ordered 
Companies A, B, and C, under command of Captain Tompkins, 
to parade and escort the Zouaves to the 71st Armory, which 
they will make their headquarters during their stay in the 
city. 

The 71st have paraded twelve times within comparatively 
a short time, at the funerals of Volunteer officers, and on the 
return of New York regiments from the war, and have never 
refused an escort to our returning soldiers. This is very 
creditable, but it does not seem just to leave the 71st to do all 
this work, notwithstanding, it is cheerfully performed, and 
looked upon as a duty." 

The Zouaves came here as an escort to 700 prisoners of 
war; at Albany, the detachment (127 men) was divided, tak- 
ing one-half of the prisoners to Boston and then rejoining their 
comrades in New York. 

These 700 prisoners had taken the oath of allegiance and 
joined the U. S. Navy. Upon the arrival of the detachment of 
Zouaves from Boston, they were entertained with a collation 
at company A's Armory. The next day they visited Central 
Park, Barnum's Museum, Navy Yard, and other places of 
interest. 

In the afternoon Companies D, E, F, and G, under Major 
Libby, escorted them to the. City Hall, where they wei^ re- 
ceived by the Mayor ; the Zouaves unslinging their knapsacks. 



282 [1864 

gave a short drill, after which the 71st escorted them to their 
train. 

The 1st Division failed to parade on Washington's birth- 
day owing to the fact that the Common Council had not ap- 
propriated money for the music. The musicians refused to 
play unless their bills were guaranteed by the Colonels of the 
regiments hiring them. 

The 71st therefore made the parade with the 8th Regi- 
ment. The latter assembled at Union Square at 1.30 P. M., 
and the former on Bond Street at 2.30; the two commands 
marched down Broadway to the City Hall where they were re- 
viewed, at the special request of the city authorities, by the 
Common Council at three P. M. 

March 22d; The regiment paraded to unite with civil 
authorities, in the reception of the 62nd N. Y. V. 

Monday, April 4th: The 1st Division and U. S. Troops 
made a parade. The formation ground was on Fourteenth 
Street, at two P. M., right on Broadway ; as usual it was near 
three o'clock before the column started, and then, owing to 
numerous halts, it was ten minutes past four when it reached 
the City Hall. 

"The 71st led the division, in heavy marching order, knap- 
sacks, with overcoats rolled thereon ; Dodworth's Band turned 
out correctly, and as the several companies came up in admir- 
able shape with front of seventeen files, they were repeatedly 
applauded. Their marching was excellent." 

The Mayor in writing to the Colonel of the 5th Regiment, 
acknowledging the compliment of a marching salute, said: 

And no one will feel more proud than myself, in hearing 
it universally acknowledged that the Fifth, Seventh and 7l5t 
Regiments are the crack regiments of New York. 

"Monday, May 4th, the regiment had its field day at East 
New York; it was a beautiful day. The regiment reached the 
grounds ten minutes before ten, company drills were taken up 
first, lasting until noon, when the 'assembly' was sounded, the 
battalion was formed in line, and then dismissed for dinner. 

"Line was again formed precisely at one o'clock, ammu- 
nition was distributed, after which battalion movements were 
executed. Upwards of four hundred ladies and gentlemen 



1864] 283 

came on the grounds during the afternoon, who listened with 
delight to Dodworth's music, given during brief rests of the 
battalion. The battalion reached the armory at about 6 PM. 

The question of a parade ground within a reasonable dis- 
tance of the armories of the 1st Division regiments had been 
agitated for many years, efforts having been made to use the 
Central Park, always with a remonstrance from the commis- 
sioners. 

A meeting of a few of the Colonels was held at the 71st 
Regiment armory on the evening of June 22d to take such 
action as might be deemed advisable towards .the procurement 
of a brigade drill ground ; Colonel Varian was made chairman 
and Colonel Trafford secretary. 

After an expression of opinion by several, a committee 
consisting of Colonels Varian, Trafford, Price, Burger, Mason, 
Minton and Conkling was appointed to wait upon the Mayor 
at noon the next day, and ask his advice and influence, and to 
see other friends, such as heads of departments, members of 
Common Council ; after which they could decide when to visit 
the Park Commissioners. 

The Mayor expressed himself as perfectly willing to at 
any time sign an ordinance to give the military a proper par- 
ade ground. Street Commissioner Cornell suggested Hamilton 
Square, but was opposed to Central Park. The square, con- 
taining fifteen acres, was located between 65th and 69th 
Streets from Third to Fourth Avenues, it was neither level 
nor fenced in. 

July 4th: The first parade of the 1st Division on this date 
since the war took place. An impromptu meeting of the 
Colonels of the 1st, Sth, 6th, 8th and 71st Regiments took place 
to arrange for a parade of those regiments, the ranking 
Colonel to take command. 

Pressure having been brought to bear on General Sanford, 
on June 30th he issued orders for a parade of the Division. 
The absence of many commanding officers was notable; Col- 
onel Trafford commanded the 1st Brigade, Colonel Berger of 
the Sth commanded the 2nd Brigade and Lieut.-Colonel Price 
commanded the 3d Brigade. 



284 [1864 

Again the annual call for help from Washington came in 
the following: 

Washington, July 5th, 1864 
To His Excellency Governor Horatio Seymour. 

The President directs me to inform you that a rebel force, 
variously estimated at from 15,000 to 20,000 men has invaded 
the State of Maryland and have taken Martinsburg and Har- 
per's Ferry, and are threatening other points ; that the public 
safety requires him to call upon the State Executives for a 
Militia force to repel this invasion. 

He therefore, directs me to call on you for a militia force of 
12,000 men from your State to serve not more than one hun- 
dred days, and to request that you will with the utmost dis- 
patch forward the troops to Washington by rail or steamboat 
as may be most expeditious. 

Please favor me with an answer at your earliest con- 
venience. 

EDWARD M. STANTON, 

Secretary of War. 

STATE OF NEW YORK EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Albany. July 5th, 1864. 
Hon. E. M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War. 

Your dispatch received. I will do what I can ; orders sent 
to the commanders of the regiments of the State of New York. 

HORATIO SEYMOUR, 

Governor, etc. 

In response to which the Secretary of War wired : 

"Thanks for your telegram just received. It is not prob- 
able that your emergency troops will be required over sixty 
days, perhaps not so long." 

On the 9th of July, General Sanford received a telegram 
from the Governor, containing orders for the immediate de- 
parture of the Militia regiments to Washington ; the quota for 
the 1st Division to be 3,500 men. 

At this time the Division contained twenty-one regiments. 
General Sanford called a meeting of the officers ; the meeting 
was anything but harmonious, several of the colonels stating 
that their commands were not willing to volunteer for another 



1864] 285 

Pennsylvania campaign like the one of the last year. Others 
contended that as yet no proclamation had been issued by the 
President the Governor had no right to order New York regi- 
ments outside the limits of the state. 

Other regimental commanders seemed willing and anxious 
to go ; General Sanford stated that all must go who should 
be called upon, threatening to wipe out of existence any regi- 
ment refusing to obey orders. After deliberate consultation 
the following regiments were selected: 4th, 6th, 11th, 84th, 
93d, 95th, 96th and 99th regiments ; eight regiments to aggre- 
gate 4,000 men. The men were to serve one hundred days. 

"In the absence of any printed authority giving reasons 
for the sudden demand for so many men from the State, the 
people, but more especially our citizen soldiers, were rather in 
a quandary to know its cause. When a recent raid occurred 
there seemed to be some grounds of excuse. A few days had 
produced a great change, the raiders having finished their 
plundering excursion had retreated to Virginia with their 
spoils." 

Notwithstanding the confusion of mind owing to the ig- 
norance of the situation, all the regiments selected got away 
except the 4th, 6th and Uth, the colonels of which were placed 
under arrest. 

Colonel Maidhoff of the 11th was selected as the first to be 
tried, he was convicted by the court ; the findings of the court 
were however, set aside by the Commander-in-Chief and the 
Colonel returned to his post of duty. The others were not 
tried; thus ende'd this unpleasant episode; it was also the last 
call for assistance in the war of the rebellion. 

As an explanation of this episode, and what seemed a mys- 
tery at that time, it is well to say that about the first of July, 
Lee hoping that an attack on Washington might cause Grant 
to let up on Richmond, sent Early's Corps to make a raid; he 
marched unopposed until at Monocacy, 35 miles from Wash- 
ington, where he met General Lew Wallace with a force of re- 
cruits, followed by Rickett's division of the 6th Army Corps 
from Baltimore; while the enemy was checked, Wallace was 
forced to retreat. 

On the 12th, Early, who was now marching on Washing- 



286 [1864 

ton, and within a few miles of it, met a force under General 
Auger. 

Early's nearest approach was at Fort Stevens (formerly 
Fort Massachusetts) where the fight was witnessed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln ; his raid being unsuccessful, he withdrew, send- 
ing a detachment out which reached as far as Chambersburg,, 
which they burned. This over, there was no further use of 
troops. 4 

As has been stated, at this period the 1st Division con- 
tained twenty-one regiments, many of which were mere skele- 
tons, it was proposed to draft from the uniformed Militia to 
fill up all regiments to their full quota ; naturally a very un- 
popular suggestion to the older regiments, who demurred. Of 
this the Sunday "Mercury" said: 

"The State Draft — This much talked of affair puts us in 
mind of a company of school boys with wooden guns and 
swords parading along in front of a regiment of soldiers with 
real weapons of war. The thing is ridiculous at the present 
time, and the idea of notifying men that they have been draft- 
ed into Company A, B, C, of this or that regiment, belonging 
to the National Guard of the State of New York, so useless, 
when the remorseless conscription-wheel is about to revolve 
for the enforcement of the heaviest draft of the war, making 
not only quiet shopkeepers and artisans become soldiers 
trained to the cannon's mouth, but converting militia-men into 
something more than mere holiday heroes." (At the same time 
the same issue called attention to another peculiar act of the 
State headquarters.) 

"Notwithstanding the issuance of orders to the effect that 
all of the regiments of the National Guard are to be filled up 
to the maximum number by draft and that no new organiza- 
tion shall be created, several have been. 

"By special orders from Division headquarters, just is- 
sued, the 100th Regiment, N. G., is authorized, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Hamlin Babcock. Probably the gentleman 
named is a competent officer, some of the new regiments have 
been tried; they were found to consist principally of officers. 
The different company rolls contained names of men not vis- 
ible; whole battalions of ghost-like myths ranged themselves 
in imagination, until the recruiting officers got to work, when 
an army of small boys was produced. Our opinion is that 
there is more money than men to be made out of this so-called 
State draft. Headquarters may aim at political effect but its 
agents strike at the pockets of the people." 

The 71st N. Y. V. of Sickles' brigade arrived in the City 



1864-65] 287 

without much announcement ; it was therefore resolved to give 
them a fitting welcome. The escort appropriately chosen, was 
the 71st N. G. Unfortunately, however, the order for the pa- 
rade was issued at so late an hour that many of the members 
did not receive their notice in time. So the turnout was not 
large. They marched to the City Hall where they waited one 
hour before the volunteers made their appearance; after the 
review by the authorities the two regiments marched up to 
the Jefferson Market where they were dismissed and partook 
of refreshments. The date was July 21st, the third anniver- 
sary of the battle of Bull Run. 

"The annual inspection of the 71st took place on the 
Washington parade ground, October 27th at 2 P. M. Attired 
in heavy marching order, they made a most formidable appear- 
ance, with knapsack and overcoat rolled on top." 

There were present 511, absent 127, total 638. A loss of 
88 in total, and 46 in present, from last year. 

The Promenade concerts last year having proved so popu- 
lar they were tried again, the first being given on the evening 
of November 7th, of a series of six, at Irving Hall, as before. 

18 6 5 



Regimental orders, G. O. No. 2, dated January 18th, 
ordei-ed the adoption of the tactics of Brigadier-General 
Morris, U. S. A., in place of "Casey's" then in use; and on 
January 24th a regimental drill in these tactics was held in 
the State arsenal, Seventh Avenue and 35th Street, at which 
"were present besides the large audience. Generals Sanford and 
Spicer in full uniform, and also General Morris, the author of 
the new tactics. 

These tactics first introduced the four-rank formation. 
The 71st was selected for the purpose of exemplifying these 
to the National Guard. 

Washington's Birthday, for a change was unusually pleas- 
ant, and the regiment made its customary parade. 

During the spring session of the Legislature, the following 
bill was introduced by Senator Christie : A bill to incorporate 
the Seventy-first Regiment Association, naming as incorpor- 



288 [1865'- 

ators: Benj. L. Trafford, Phillip R. Wilkens, Wm. G. Tomp- 
kins, Andrew M. Underhill, Seymour A. Bunce, George D. 
Wolcot, Richard Sterling, Jr., Henry H. Parkin, Richard H. 
Hunt, Henry W. Turner, George I Tyson, Remsen Appleby,. 
Edward Prime, James J. Thompson, Charles P. Kirkland, 
George W. Roosevelt, Henry P. Martin, Charles P. Spicer,. 
A. A. Dow, Simeon Draper and William L. Ely. 

"The objects of said corporation are to hold such real and 
personal estate as may be advantageous for an armory, and 
for the purpose of said regiment, and to advance its efficiency, 
and promote harmony and social fellowship among its mem- 
bers. The corporation may issue and sell stock not to exceed 
$250,000." 

On the 4th of March, the regiment paraded with the 1st 
and 2d Divisions N.Y.S.N.G., in celebration of the glorious 
achievements of our Army and Navy in the capture of Fort 
McAllister, Savannah, Fort Sumter, Charleston, Fort Fisher, 
Wilmington, and Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. 

A reporter stated : "The sight was really a grand one ; as 
seen from Pearl to Bleecker Streets, there was one immense 
mass of humanity, while every roof, window, and balcony 
teemed with animated nature, curious, anxious, excited, patri- 
otic and intensely enthusiastic." 

April 12th ; the regiment paraded for the purpose of ren- 
dering funeral honors to the remains of the late Bvt.-Brig.- 
General Frederic Winthrop, who was formerly a member of 
Company F, and served with it in 1861. 

At the time of his death he was twenty-five years old, a 
captain in the 12th U. S. Infantry, Colonel of the 5th N. Y. 
Veteran Volunteers and Brevet Brigadier-General, command- 
ing 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps (Ayres Division). 

He was killed at the battle of Five Forks. He was rid- 
ing along the breastworks and in the act of saving a friend's 
life, when he was shot through the left lung. He fell at once, 
and his men, who loved him, gathered around and took Mm 
tenderly to the rear, where he died before the stretcher on 
which he lay could be deposited before the door of the mess- 
ing house. 

On the way from the field to the hospital he wandered in 



1865] 289 

his mind at times, crying out, "Captain Weaver, how is that 
line?" "Has the attack succeeded?" etc. When he had been 
resuscitated, for a pause he said : "Doctor, I am done for," his 
last words were "Straighten the line !" He died peacefully. 
He was buried in Trinity Church Yard. He was a cousin of 
Major Winthrop, the author of "Cecil Dreeme." 

The 71st, 12th and 22d Regiments, N. G., as well as the 
7th U. S. Infantry, were detailed as escort to the remains, all 
under command of Colonel H. D. Wallen, U. S. A. The pall- 
bearers were Brigadier Generals Warren, Sweeny, Morris, 
Van Vliet, Lieutenant-Colonels Clitz, King, O'Beirne and 
Captain Ellis. With the cortege was a large number of the 
officers of the army and navy and veteran soldiers of the 
Republic. 

Upon the arrival at the church, the remains were met by 
the Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix, Rev. Dr. Vinton, Rev. Dr. Ogilby 
and Rev. Dr. Seabury. The church was packed, the immense 
congregation arose while the solemn tones of the organ thrilled 
the church. The scene was an impressive one. 

After the service the casket was conveyed to the De- 
puyster family vault, where companies B and F under com- 
mand of Captain Underbill were lined on one side ; after the 
appropriate service was read by the Rev. Dr. Vinton, with 
responses by the choir, the coffin was lowered, three volleys 
were fired, and the last tribute to a brave comrade was over. 

On the 25th of April, the regiment participated in the 
obsequies of Abraham Lincoln. This was probably one of the 
most imposing displays ever seen in this country, if not in 
the world. The procession was over five hours in passing, 
being in eight divisions ; it was estimated that there were 
nearly one hundred thousand people in it. 

May 1st : Company H presented their first Lieutenant, 
Amos L. See, with a splendid sword, sash, belt and shoulder 
straps. The sword was a magnificent one, the cost altogether 
was estimated at four hundred dollars. The presentation took 
place at a regular meeting, after which, headed by the drum- 
mers, they adjourned for refreshments, subsequently escort- 
ing the Lieutenant to his home. 

10 



290 [1865 

The social characteristic of the regiment still continued; 
on June 6th, Company B had a moonlight parade, and a re- 
freshing time afterwards; and on the 9th Company D as- 
sembled at Centre Market and marched up to East 50th Street, 
the residence of their Lieutenant Benjamin, where they re- 
ceived a fine collation. 

Inspection was held this year on Washington Parade 
ground, June 19th at 4 P. M. There were present 440; absent 
169; total 609, a loss in present since 1864 of 71 present, 29 
in total and an increase of 42 absentee. After the inspection 
the regiment was manoeuvred for upwards of an hour in the 
Morris' Tactics. 

July 4th, the regiment made the usual parade with the 
1st Division. This parade is notable for the fact, that it was 
the first time the old line of march had been changed, owing 
to the upward movement of the residential section ; heretofore 
it had been down Broadway to the City Hall, line being 
formed on 14th Street, right on Broadway ; on this occasion 
the line was formed on 23d Street, right on Sth Avenue, and 
the line of march up Madison Avenue to 42d Street to Sth 
Avenue, down to 14th Street, through to Union Square, where 
the honor of a marching salute was paid to the Mayor and 
Common Council. 

July 21st, the regiment paraded to participate in the re- 
ception of the Corcoran Legion. 

At this time the question was asked as to why the 
71st always had the right of the line on parades of the ist 
Division. Paragraph 499, General Regulations of the State, 
said: 

"The order of troops at parades at camp for instruction, 
and in battle, will be as follows : 

First. The regiments in a brigade, if of the same arm, 
shall take precedent according to number, the first or lowest 
number taking the right. 

Regiments parading together, not belonging to the same 
brigade, or not on duty as part of a brigade, will observe the 
same rule. 

Second. Brigades and divisions take precedent according 
to the same numerical order. 

Third. The arrangements of regiments of different arms, 



1865] 291 

in their respective brigades, will be, first, the Light Infantry, 
etc." 

Thus, it will be seen by the above, that the 71st, ranking 
as light infantry, preceded the other regiments, which were 
infantry only. 

The 71st having been restored to a peace footing with no 
fear of further war service, it returned to its normal condi- 
tions, minus Company K, and now was a nine company 
regiment. 

Companies B and H were the first to make an advance ; a 
battalion composed of those two companies under command 
of Captain Andrew M. Underbill of Company B, numbering 
one hundred men, the regimental band and several officers of 
the regiment made an excursion to Boston. 

The battalion assembled at the University Place armory 
at 3 o'clock P. M. of August 13th, and after formation, 
marched to the foot of Murray Street, where they boarded the 
steamer "Metropolis." 

This being the first military excursion since the close of 
the war, attracted a large and enthusiastic crowd all along the 
line of march. 

On their arrival in Boston the next morning they were 
met by the Boston Fusiliers, Major Snow commanding; after 
the customary ceremonies they were escorted by the 
"Fusiliers" and marched to the City Hall, and there welcomed 
by Major (Lincoln), to enjoy the hospitalities of the city, and 
then marched to the armory of the "Fusiliers." 

The reception gave every evidence that the 71st Regiment 
was well known in Boston. After a short rest, the regiment 
was escorted to the Navy Yard, where they were received by 
the U. S. Marines under direction of Commodore Stringham, 
who welcomed the battalion as a representative of an organi- 
zation whose military record was well known throughout our 
country, and was pleased to receive the home company and 
their guest. 

They were then taken to Bunker Hill, and time given to 
such as desired, to march to the top of the monument. From 
there they went to their headquarters while in Boston, the 
American Hotel, here rooms were assigned and dinner par- 



292 [1865 

taken of, after which the men, attired in white trousers and 
Tcnapsack and musket, took a stroll about the city. 

After supper, while congregated in the reception room 
of the hotel, a delegation from the Boston "Tigers," the crack 
company of the city, waited upon the officers and demanded 
unconditional surrender of themselves and the whole battalioa 
for the evening, informing Captain Underhill that all arrange- 
ments had been made for their entertainment ; carriages 
awaited at the door to carry them first to the armory of the 
"Tigers," where a reception was held, and then to the theatres ; 
in fact, to any place of interest; a number of officers were 
taken to the homes of their hosts. Taps were sounded at 
12 midnight. 

The next morning, the battalion escorted by a delegation 
of the "Fusiliers," were taken on the steamer "Russia" for a 
sail on the harbor, landing at Fort Warren, receiving a hearty 
welcome and refreshments, "Army style" ; other places of in- 
terest were visited, after which they returned to the city and 
lieadquarters for dinner. 

After dinner, they proceeded to the armory of the 
""Fusiliers," where an unexpected present was handed, in the 
shape of a silver wine cooler, by Count Schwabe, a German 
nobleman ; it was given by him to the entire regiment, and all 
the donor asked was that in return he should receive a likeness 
of his friend, Col. Abraham S. Vosburgh. (The photograph 
was subsequently sent to him. The wine cooler disappeared 
during the administration of Colonel Vose.) 

After vigorous handshaking, cheers for the "Fusiliers," 
the "Hub," "Tigers" and Count Schwab, the march was taken 
for the train through crowded streets and amid applause of 
spectators. 

At Providence, they were received by the blazing way ot 
a salute fired by the Marine Artillery, bell ringing and the 
depot crowded with people who made the air ring with 
exclamations of applause and welcome. After a brief stay of 
twenty minutes, the battalion took the Sound steamer, arriv- 
ing in New York at 6 A. M., Friday, tired but pleased with 
their excursion. 

A few evenings later the present from Count Schwabe 



1865] 293 

was formally delivered to Colonel Trafford. The members of 
the battalion met at the University Place armory at 7 o'clock 
P. M., August 31st, in uniform and proceeded to Colonel Traf- 
ford's house, virhere Captain Underhill presented the cooler iij 
the name of Count Schwabe ; Colonel Trafford received the 
same on behalf of the regiment, and the battalion was enter- 
tained by speeches, songs and collation. 

Thursday, August 31st: The directors of the 71st Regi- 
ment Association (incorporated by the Legislature,) met at 
S^ Pine Street, and organized, by unanimous election, of 
Colonel B. L. Trafford as president. 

The directors named in the act of incorporation, consisted 
of an ofiScer from each company of the regiment, three mem- 
bers at large, and several gentlemen outside of the regiment, 
among whom were ex-Colonel Martin and ex-Quartermastei 
Roosevelt. Captains Bunce and Underhill were appointed a 
committee on by-laws and organization. 

As a Colonel, Trafiford had not been a success, much 
discontent existed throughout the regiment, culminating in 
the following request signed by a large majority of the men, 
and conveyed to the Colonel's house by a committee of nine 
sergeants ; it covers the gravamen and is remarkable in its 
uniqueness : 

"Benjamin L. Trafford, 

Colonel commanding 71st Regiment, N.G.N.Y. 

"Sir : In the exercise of the right which we claim to pos- 
sess, and fully imbued with the respect for yourself and your 
position as commandant of the 71st Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y., of 
which we are members, we respectfully submit the following: 

"It has been painfully apparent to us all, that for the last 
two years, the 71st Regiment has not been advancing in a 
manner warranted by the reputation of the organization, its 
past services and record, and the spirit of the men. 

"The rank and file of the regiment have always, even 
under the most trying circumstances, displayed their willing- 
ness to support their officers, yielded a ready and prompt 
obedience to all commands, and have faithfully performed all 
service required. 

"Notwithstanding these facts, we are compelled to wit- 
ness organizations springing up around us and after one or 
two years' growth, outstripping us in almost every respect; 



294 [1865 

,enjoying all the emoluments to which we are entitled, secur- 
ing fine equipments, comfortable armories, and all that tends 
to make a regimental organization popular and prosperous, 
whilst we remain in a condition in every respect less desirable 
than that occupied previous to, and at the time of your eleva- 
tion to the Colonelcy of the regiment. 

"We grant and fully comprehend that there are many and 
great obstacles in the way of rapid advancement; that it re- 
quires time and incessant and energetic labor to accomplish 
and secure the many desires, wants and needs of the regiment. 

"We furthermore, have been given to understand, that 
you have not received from the officers of the regiment subor- 
dinate to you the confidence and support you had a right to 
expect. But we also bear in mind, and fully comprehend that 
energetic labor has succeeded in securing for others much 
younger, and we can justly say, less deserving organizations, 
their several needs. 

"We also believe that if, after two years, you have failed 
to command the confidence and support of your officers, there 
is little prospect of such support and confidence in the future. 

"We also fully comprehend that no militia organization 
in this city or state is more deserving of, or justly entitled to 
consideration or favors, than ours, for we have earned all we 
require or may claim, by many months of efficient service, 
years of imprisonment and starvation in Southern prisons to 
several of us, as well as by the sacrifice of many precious lives. 

"The undersigned are fully and forcibly impressed with 
the above facts, and after mature, deliberate and repeated con- 
sultations, have concluded that the principal cause of the 
present condition of the regiment is the want of proper 
energy and influence at the head of the regiment. 

"We feel that the possession of influence, means time, and 
prominence in the community in which we live, are essential 
to enable the commandant of this regiment to build it up and 
place it where it belongs, second to, and surpassed by none. 

"Feeling thus, and knowing that you have found it impos- 
sible to secure or wield the influence requisite, and so neces- 
sary, we the non-commissioned officers and privates, do re- 
spectfully ask you to resign your position as commandant of 
the 71st Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y. 

"In making this request, it will not be deemed super- 
fluous, we hope, to say that personally we all entertain for you 
the kindest feelings and sentiments of the highest esteem as a 
gentleman and a soldier. You have grown up with the regi- 
ment, and you present a worthy example for each and every 
one to follow. We know, furthermore, that you have a deep 
and abiding interest in the welfare and advancement of the 
regiment, and that causes and circumstances, entirely uncon- 



1865] 295 

trolled by you, have prevented you from building up the 
regiment as we all heartily anticipated you vv^ould. 

"Convinced that you are ready and willing to do anything 
that will tend to advance the interest and promote the welfare 
of our organization, we make the above request. 

"We all join in extending to you our sincerest and most 
heartfelt wishes for your future happiness and prosperity." 

This petition was presented about the 17th of October; 
no comment is necessary, there were many matters which 
were wisely omitted, deeming that the fact of the condition of 
the regiment as contrasted with it when he took command 
was quite sufficient without personal allusions. The inspec- 
tion of 1865 showed, as compared to that of 1863, a loss of 
118 men. 

On October 22d, Company A paraded to pay the last trib- 
ute of respect to the brave comrade, William Moir Smith, 
who was the first victim of Libby Prison after the first battle 
of Bull Run. Upon the death of Private Smith, his remains 
were kindly taken care of by an old friend of the family, who 
was then in Richmond, and who kindly sent them North at 
the close of the war; they were conveyed to Greenwood 
Cemetery, where in the family plot has since been erected a 
rustic monument surrounded with his equipments all carved 
in the stone. 

November 17th, Company C celebrated their thirteenth 
anniversary by a dinner; it must have been a game one, as 
roast duck, wild pigeon, roast turkey and chicken salad were 
quite prominent on the menu; Rhine wine, claret and Ameri- 
can punch washed them down. 

November 25th, Evacuation Day, was celebrated as usual 
by a parade of the 1st Division, it was a beautiful day and 
nearly ten thousand men paraded. Of the 7lst Regiment, the 
"Herald" said: 

"The 71st Infantry (American Guard) paraded 400 men, 
wearing no overcoats. This fine regiment ought to have had 
more men out, considering the time it has been organized. 
The 7lst marched exceedingly well, but it does not make that 
superb appearance so customary to it when the lamented 
Vosburgh was at its head." 



296 [1865-66 

The regiment was ordered out, with overcoats, the day 
being so fine it is most likely that on that account they were 
dispensed with. 

The year closed with extensive preparations for a grand 
ball to be given in the Academy of Music, the proceeds of 
which was to be devoted to the completion of the Vosburgh 
monument ; and a drill in the arsenal. During the year 
Harvey Dodworth retired from the leadership of the band 
which he had lead for so many years ; he was ably succeeded 
by his assistant, David L. Downing. 

Of the drill the "World" said : 

"On Wednesday evening, December 27th, the 71st Regi- 
ment of New York Militia, participated in a battalion drill 
which amply illustrated their proficiency in the infantry 
branch of the art of war. The exercises took place in the 
State arsenal and the hundreds of jets with which it was 
illuminated lit up a scene of beauty, intellect and fashion, 
rarely seen outside the walls of the Academy. 

"The occasion was fittingly set apart to inaugurate the 
new bandmaster, Prof. Downing ; its debut was eminently suc- 
cessful. At eight o'clock line was formed, the exercises being 
in ployments and deployments according to Morris' Tactics 
— some of the exercises were marvelously perfect. That' ot 
'Charge bayonets' was a model ; and this was followed by the 
difficult one of forming column by fours, which was fault- 
lessly effected. 

"The dress parade throughout, every evolution, was ad- 
mirable ; and at one time, the grand preparation for battle, 
as presented in the order preliminary to firing, excited special 
interest from all present." 

13 6 6 



The opening event of this year, was the ball given for the 
purpose of raising funds for the Vosburgh monument, on 
January 5th at the Academy of Music. Much preparation 
had been made to insure success by the committee, which con- 
sisted of Captain George I. Tyson, Chairman; Lieut. A. T. 
Francis, secretary, and Captains O. P. Smith, R. R. Hunt 
and Lieut. C. E. Shade. 

From the New York "Herald," January 6th: 

"Last night, the long talked of ball of the gallant 71st 



1866] 297 

Regiment culminated in a blaze of youth, beauty and fashion, 
which lit up the Academy of Music ; and probably not since 
His Royal Highness, Prince of Wales so gracefully tripped 
the light fantastic, with the famed belles of the Empire City, 
has a fairer assemblage congregated within the walls of the 
Academy, or the court of terpsichore held more brilliant revels 
than was inaugurated there last night by this splendid organi- 
zation and their friends, and prolonged by them to the 
threshold of another day. 

"The decorations were beautiful ; the flags of all nations 
hung in graceful festoons from the tiers and along the walls, 
at the end of the ballroom, upon the stage was a neat camp 
scene, represented by a field tent, on either side of which was 
a howitzer, while in front stood several stacks of muskets and 
pyramids of drums. Over this was a scroll of gas jets with 
the inscription 'Seventy-first Regiment, National Guard ;' the 
effect was elegant and attracted the admiration of all present. 

"The toilets of the ladies were all that could be desired by 
the most cynical observer, while the bright uniforms of the 
many distinguished military personages present bore a pleas- 
ing contrast with the dress of the elite citizens who mingled in 
the throng. The regimental band of one hundred pieces led 
by Prof. Downing, discoursed sweet strains of music during 
the night. 

"Among the most prominent military men present we 
noticed Major-Generals Rosecrans, Pleasanton, Van Buren, 
Barlow, Devens, Slocum, Dix, Warren, Merritt, Palmer, 
Bachelor, Van Vliet and Sanford and staff; also Brig.-Generals 
Marrion, Swain, Spicer, Hall, Aspinwall, Duryea, Spear and 
Stonehouse, together with all the Colonels of the New York 
militia. 

"The several committees which were all that could be 
desired, vied with each other in the discharge of their duties 
and succeeded in making the affair a grand success in every 
sense of the word, such as will reflect credit upon themselves 
and their splendid corps." 

On the evening of January 25th, the "Light Guard," Com- 
pany A, gave a ball at the Academy of Music. As has been 
previously noted, much opposition was made to the admission 
of the Light Guard into the regiment, as it was more of a 
social organization than a working military company; and it 
would be found that it would be detrimental, or a weakness, 
rather than strength, to the regiment; to a certain extent this 
proved to be true. 

The Company was compelled by law to become a part of 
a regiment or go out of existence, and to preserve themselves, 



298 [1866 

they elected to come into the 71st, while conforming to all the 
regimental requirements, they still kept up their old organiza- 
tion, which was their first love and on which their loyalty was 
concentrated; at all functions they styled themselves the 
"Light Guard," and wore the distinctive uniform of that com- 
pany, which was similar to that now worn by the "Old 
Guard." 

This condition tended to wean the Company from their 
regiment, depriving the latter of its support on occasions 
where the two functions came so close. It was a peculfar 
state of affairs, while the officers of the two were the same, 
the membership was not, as all those who had previous to its 
coming into the 71st, been members of the Light Guard, were 
embraced in these functions, they were not members of 
the 71st. 

This ball, for instance, made no mention (as was the 
rule), of Company A, 71st Regiment, but called itself the 
"Light Guard," and in its order said, "Members of the Com- 
pany MUST appear in company uniform (white coat, com- 
pany body belt, wings and pants)." 

February 22d, this year, noted another departure from 
past custom. As has been stated, the condition of weather 
and streets, as a rule on this date, was fearful, each succeed- 
ing year, for some time, there was less disposition for a 
parade. This year the Division did not parade, and the regi- 
ment celebrated the day, by a dress parade and concert at the 
State arsenal. 

The social feeling in companies at this period, is shown 
by the following from the New York "Times," of April 8th: 

"While the members of Company E, 71st Regiment were 
busy drilling at their armory on Thursday evening, the 29th 
ulto., they were agreeably surprised by a tumultuous crowd 
of jolly maskers, who soon forced Company E to surrender 
with considerable discretion; muskets were speedily restored 
to their racks and the room cleared for dancing, which was 
kept up until a late hour. 

"The incognita of the masqueraders was well preserved 
during the entire evening and many laughable scenes were 
the result. 

"It is pleasant to record such incidents in the otherwise 
hum-drum life of a National Guardsman." 



1866] 299 

From the "Herald," of April 27th : 

"The presentation of colors to the gallant 71st Regiment, 
which was to have taken place on Monday last, but was post- 
poned on account of the weather, came ofif with much eclat 
yesterday afternoon. The regiment paraded about three 
hundred and fifty men, the line was formed on Broome Street, 
about two o'clock, marched down Broadway, up Chatham 
(now Park Row) Street, and entering the east gate of the 
Park, came to a front. Both the Aldermen and Common 
Council, who were in session at the time, adjourned, and re- 
paired to the plaza, where, with the Mayor and Colonel G. D. 
Kellogg, they reviewed and presented a beautiful stand of 
colors on behalf of the City, to the 71st. The stand of colors 
consisted of the National, State and Municipal, together with 
two beautiful guidons, all being of elegant workmanship, 
valued at eight hundred dollars. 

"The colors were presented by Mayor Hoffman, who in 
reciting the services of the Regiment he spoke of the 
'lamented Vosburgh.' 'He was my personal friend, I cannot 
allow the occasion to pass without a reference to him. He 
was a brave soldier, a true patriot, and a noble, generous- 
hearted man. This regiment was his pride, and he died as he 
would have wished to die, its commander in the service of his 
country.' The Colonel responded appropriately, after which 
the regiment executed several evolutions in accordance with 
Morris' Tactics and then returned to their armory." 

(At this date, as before, a stand of colors was presented 
by the City, instead of by the State, as now.) 

From the "Herald," May 4th : 

"In the latter part of last summer it may be remembered. 
Companies B and H of the 71st Regiment, accepting of an 
invitation from the Boston 'Fusiliers' to visit the 'Hub,' re- 
paired to that city and were received with the utmost cordi- 
ality. Desirous of testifying their appreciation of the reception 
accorded them by this crack corps of Boston, they immediate- 
ly upon returning, organized a committee to adopt some neat 
device to present to the 'Fusiliers,' and the selection is de- 
cidedly creditable to the committee, as is also the execution, 
to the artist who perfected it. 

"The testimonial consists of the portraits of the members 
of Companies B and H, which surround a finely executed piece 
of caligraphy, set in a costly frame of black walnut, which is 
studded with gilt stars surmounted by an eagle and coat of 
arms with various other military devices, all in gilt ; the frame 



300 [1866 

stands about seven feet high ; the following is the inscription : 
" 'Companies B and H, 71st Regiment N.G.S.N.Y., to the 
Independent Boston Fusiliers — Greetings : 

" 'Words being inadequate to express our grateful appre- 
ciation of the fraternal courtesies and spontaneous welcome 
with which you received us on our late visit to your city, and 
not yet having had an opportunity to welcome you here in 
return, we deem it not inappropriate to place upon record our 
acknowledgment of the great debt we owe you. If you will 
do us the favor to accept our faces, as the index of our hearts, 
you will be constantly reminded that should you visit this 
metropolis, all these here will esteem it their privilege and 
honor to welcome you. 

CAPTAIN ANDREW M. UNDERBILL 
CAPTAIN GEORGE D. WOLCOTT 
LIEUT. WALTON CARPENTER." 

May 10th : Companies D and E paid Mayor Hoffman the 
compliment of a serenade. The Companies, numbering 150 
men, under command of Captains Wolcott and Smith, marched 
from the armory at Centre Market, to the Clarendon Hotel 
(18th Street and Fourth Avenue), where they halted for near- 
ly an hour, during which time the regimental band performed 
a number of pieces. At the conclusion of the musical program. 
Mayor Hoffman, in answer to repeated calls, appeared upon 
the balcony of the hotel and returned his thanks for the com- 
pliment paid him as the chief magistrate of the city of New 
York, for he could not consider it a compliment merely to 
himself. He did not intend to make a lengthy speech, but he 
would say that he had long felt a deep interest in the 71st 
Regiment. 

"His acquaintance with the regiment began when Colonel 
Vosburgh was its commanding officer, in regard to whom he 
would have something to say, on the invitation of the regi- 
ment, at a future time. He had recently in the name of the 
City, had the honor of presenting the regiment with a stand 
of colors, a mark of honor to which it was justly entitled. 

"He had always felt proud of the past history of the regi- 
ment, and he felt confident that its future would be equally 
as brilliant and honorable. He felt assured that in all time to 
come it would, whenever called upon, defend the flag of State 
and Country. He would once more return his thanks and bid 
the soldiers good night." 



1866] 301 

After the band played "Hail Columbia," the companies 
proceeded to the residence of Lieut.-Colonel Coles, thence to 
the Fifth Avenue Hotel, where they serenaded the proprietors, 
and then later to General Spicer's residence. 

This battalion had annually celebrated the conclusion of 
the drill season, by this description of a moonlight parade. 
When they reached the armory, they found a spread, provided 
by Captain Underhill of Company B. 

The Vosburgh monument being finished and in position, 
.Wednesday, May 23d, was selected as the day to inaugurate 
it. The ceremony is fully described in the following from the 
N. Y. "Times" of May 24th : 

"The formal inauguration of the monument erected by the 
71st Regiment to the memory of Col. Abraham S. Vosburgh, 
took place yesterday afternoon at Greenwood Cemetery. The 
ceremonies attendant upon the occasion were imposing in 
their character, embracing the burial of the remains of the 
deceased and lamented Colonel, a military salute over the 
grave and an address by Mayor Hoffman, upon the life and 
services of the man whose memory the monument was in- 
tended to perpetuate. 

"Agreeably to orders issued by Colonel Trafford, the 71st 
Regiment assembled in Bond Street at 10.30 yesterday morn- 
ing. The line of parade was formed at 11 o'clock, the right 
resting on Broadway. As soon as the formation was complete 
the command broke into column by platoon, and took up the- 
line of march, wheeling into Broadway, down whiclf thorough- 
fare the regiment marched as far as Wall Street. As the 
command reached the Park, a carriage, in which sat his Honor 
Mayor Hoffman, fell in behind the regiment and accompanied 
the cortege to the cemetery. In the carriage with the Mayor 
were General Spicer, commanding the First Brigade, Colonel. 
Baldwin and General Storms. 

"Accompanying the 71st Regiment were several officers"", 
who were formerly connected with the 'American Guard.'" 
They were Colonel H. P. Martin, who was the successor of 
Colonel Vosburgh in the command of the 71st Regiment;: 
Surgeon Chas. McMillan, late Medical Director on Genera! 
Sherman's Staff, and Regimental Surgeon under Colonel Vos- 
burgh; Lieut. A. H. Pride, Adjutant in 1861; and Captains 
Stow and Thorne, who served in 1861. 

"When the head of the column reached Wall Street, the- 
command wheeled into that street and proceeded to Brooklyn! 
via the Wall Street Ferry, landing at the foot of Montague 



302 [1866 

Street. The 71st Regiment turned out in full force, having 
nearly 550 men under arms, and the appearance of the com- 
mand was exceedingly good. The Regimental Drum Corps 
and Band, under the direction of Prof. Downing, marched at 
their head. As the regiment marched up Montague Street 
they were received with the customary salute by the 23d 
(Brooklyn) Regiment, Colonel Calvin E. Pratt Commanding- 
and the courtesy was duly returned. The entire column then 
took up the line of march for Greenwood Cemetery. 

"The monument stands on Battle Hill, near the main en- 
trance to Greenwood Cemetery. It was erected by voluntary 
subscriptions from the active and ex-members of the 71st 
Regiment, at an expense of $5,000. It consists of a Corin- 
thian column broken at the summit. At the top of the shaft 
stands an eagle, with outspread wings, grasping in its talons 
the American colors, in the folds of which are wrapped a 
sword, belt and sash. On the front of the obelisk a wreath of 
laurel encircles an excellent portrait of Colonel Vosburgh, 
while on either side are the State and National coats-of-arms. 
Upon the front tablet of the base is inscribed the following: 

COL. ABRAHAM S. VOSBURGH. 
Died in the Service of his Country. 

"On the reverse side appears : 

Born at Kinderhook, September 20, 1825. 
Died in the City of Washington, D. C, May 20, 1861. 
Aged 35 years and 8 months. 

"On the right is engraved the words: 

Erected by the members of the 71st Regiment, 
National Guard, State of New York. 

"And on the left: 

Pro Patria. 

CEREMONIES AT THE CEMETERY. 

"As soon as the cortege arrived at the entrance of the 
cemetery, both regiments were halted and formed in line. A 
guard of honor was then detailed from the 71st Regiment, and 
the hearse containing the remains of Colonel Vosburgh was 
placed in position. The pall-bearers were the ex-ofificers of 
the regiment already named. The necessary preliminaries 
having been perfected, the procession was put in motion, and 



1866] 303 

all that was mortal of the lamented Vosburgh was escorted 
to its final resting place, with the usual military honors. A 
carriage containing Mrs. Vosburgh and her two children, fol- 
lowed the hearse. When the cortege arrived at the site of the 
monument, the body was removed from the hearse and lower- 
ed into the grave prepared for it at the base of the monument. 
The firing party, consisting of Company E, Captain Smith 
commanding, marched forward and fired three volleys over 
the grave. The troops were then formed in mass, and the 
large assemblage of citizens uncovered. Mayor Hoffman then 
stepped forward and delivered the address." (The address 
will be found in the Appendix). 

The monument completed, and properly dedicated, that 
which had long been contemplated by Colonel Trafiford, was 
put into effect by the following order: 

HEADQUARTERS 71ST REGIMENT, N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, May 29th, 1866. 
General Orders No. 6 : 

With this order I relinquish the command of this regiment, 
and from this date Lieutenant-Colonel Coles will assume full 
charge of its affairs. 

It is not without regret that I sever the connection which has 
existed for many years, during which we h,1^•e passed through 
many scenes of excitement and danger, and of sorrow and 
pleasure. 

In taking my leave, I wish to express my thanks to those 
(officers and men) who have given me their support in my efforts 
to promote the welfare of the organization, and to assure you all 
of my best wishes for your future prosperity and welfare. 

BEN. L. TRAFFORD, 

Col. 7ist Regt, N.G.S.N.Y. 

Charity bids us draw the curtain, but history requires 
that a few facts be noted before we pass this administration. 

As a commanding officer Trafford was a failure, not that 
he lacked the qualities of a drill master, but he did those of 
an executive; he was temperamentally not built for the posi- 
tion; as he saw it, he did what he thought best for 
the interest of the regiment; but without weighing 
the result; a politician, he ran the regiment on the same 
methods as he ran his ward politics; there were many ex- 
amples, but one or two will answer as a sample: Company 
F, in 1£63, when Trafford was made Colonel, had 66 men, 



304 [1866 

its Captain resigned December, 1864, leaving a member- 
ship of 62 the vacancy was not filled until June, 1865, this 
delay v\ras caused by a diiJerence of opinion regarding the 
promotion of its Lieutenant, the majority desiring to go 
-outside of the company; after a time, having selected the 
candidate, an effort was made to have an election ordered; 
the Colonel however, was in favor of promotion, and 
to insure it before ordering the election, discharged a suffici- 
ent (about fifteen) number to make it certain; the promotion 
was secured, the strength reduced to 45, and the company so 
■demoralized that it was years before it revived. The new Cap- 
tain remained in office eight months. 

One other illustration : Company C, by the promotion of 
its Captain to Major, January, 1864, had a vacancy which they 
•declined to fill by the promotion of their First Lieutenant, 
who, in return absented himself from the duties of his office, 
leaving the company without a commissioned officer ; a com- 
mittee was appointed to wait upon the Colonel, state the facts 
and request that the Lieutenant be compelled to attend to 
liis duties or resign ; the Colonel met the committee in a domi- 
neering manner, refusing to do either one thing or the other; 
this action being in harmony with previous acts of his, was 
not unlocked for, and when the committee suggested that this 
refusal was not likely to add to his popularity, he replied that 
he did "not care a damn what their opinions were." The Lieu- 
tenant did not return to the company, nor resign until the 
summer, a Lieutenant from H Company being detailed to 
.command the company. 

At the time Trafford was elected Colonel the regiment 
"had numerically reached its high-water mark, having a mem- 
bership of 726; each inspection showed a reduction until the 
last was 6c6, and the "esprit de corps" undermined, very many 
of its best men had gone from it, and at that time there was 
no veteran corps where they might be collected for united help 
when needed. The situation was discouraging. 

Lieut.-Colonel Coles declined promotion, on account of 
his liealth, resigning the following January. The Guardian- 
Star of the 71st, however, did not desert it, though, like the 
children of Israel, they were destined to much trial and tribu- 
lation before they should reach the hoped-for land; it did not 



1866] 305 

take forty years, but very close to it, so we may consider this 
stage of its history an epoch, as from this time new blood 
came into control, and a discipline was established that con- 
formed more to what was required of a military organization. 

May 1st, Captain Eugene S. Eunson of the 174th N.Y.V 
was elected Captain of Company F. 

On June 1st, the officers of the regiment attended the 
funeral of Lieut. -General Winfield Scott, U. S. A., at West 
Point. 

June Sth, Brvt.-Lieut. -Colonel M. S. Euen, U.S.V., once 
a private in Company C, was elected Captain of Company B, 
vice Underbill resigned. 

August 29th, the regiment paraded with the Division at 
the reception of President Johnson. 

September 3d, Brvt.-Lieut.-Colonel Harry Rockafellar, 
U. S. A., was elected Major. 

During the summer efforts were made to procure a Col- 
onel from outside ; a committee waited on General Duryea, 
offering the position to' him; he received the committee with 
cordiality, thanked them for the honor, saying that there was 
no regiment he would be more proud to command, but he 
must decline, as he should not enter the Guard again ; after a 
very pleasant interview the committee withdrew. 

Captain Eunson presented the name of Colonel Theodore 
W. Parmele, who had been Colonel of his old regiment, the 
174th N. Y. V. 

ROLL OF HONOR. 

Names of those members of the Regiment who entered 
the Regular or Volunteer service, during the War of the Re- 
bellion. 

This list cannot be guaranteed to be correct, but it is as 
near as can possibly be made. 

In 1864 the Adjutant General of the State of New 
York, requested of each command a list of the names of those 
who had entered the U. S. service ; a copy of that of the 71st 
Regiment was requested, when making this list ; that list had 
on it 137 names, all without company designation, this has 
been supplied by the compiler as far as possible, and he has 



306 [1866 

also added 60 more names known to him as correct, and he 
has also corrected many errors in the "official list." 

It is very apparent that but four (A, C, D, H) com- 
panies made returns in 1864; had the other four companies 
responded in the same proportion, there should have been at 
least 300 names instead of 197 as here published. The names 
of those who enlisted but did not a<Tpin a commission are 
not recorded except in a few instances und there must have 
been many. Nearly 30 per cent. ■.•! ivTj-aiiiembership enlisted 
as here shown : 

FIELD AND STAFF-^ttM^-^^B^^^^ZD AND 

NON-coMM rssiw v>r^ 

Borrowe, William, Captain .2d Art., U. .S. A. 

Buckingham, Geo. A., Colonel _ 53d N. Y. V. 

Buttcrfield, Daniel, Major-General _ U. S. A. 

Day, Nicholas W., N.C.S. Bvt. Brigadier-General U. S. V. 

Demorest, A. G., Colonel 22d N. J. V. 

Dodge, John P., Captain 66th N. Y. V. 

Killed at Fredericksburg. 
McMillen, Charles, Medical Director U. S. A. 

On General Sherman's Staff. 
Parisen, Philip J., Lieutenant-Colonel 57th N. Y. V. 

Killed at Antietam. 

Seelye, Edgar, Bvt.-Major U. S. V. 

Smith, Henry E., N. C. S., Bvt.-Major 12th U. S. A. 

ENGINEER CORPS 

Forbes, Joseph, Captain U. S. A. 

Gillett, James, Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. A. 

Grant, Thomas H., 1st Lieutenant 53d N. Y. V. 

COMPANY A. 

*Ayres, Conway W., Major 9th N. Y. V. Cavalry 

Barney, William C, Major, Asst. Paymaster U. S. A. 

Boies, Justin A., Captain U. S. A. Died at Vicksburg 

Classen, P. J., Colonel 132d N. Y. V. 

Charles, Edmund C, Colonel 42d N. Y. V. 

Died of wounds at Fredericksburg. 
Chittenden, Richard H., Captain Ohio V. 

*Clapp, William H-, Captain 16th Inft. U. S. A. 

*Curiiss, Frederic R., Asst. Paymaster U. S. N. 

Daly, Thomas, Jr., 1st Lieutenant 132d N. Y. V. 



*Indicates, not sure of Company. 



1866] 307 

Day, Joseph B., 2d Lieutenant 82d N. Y. V. 

Killed at Nelson Farms, Va. 

Doherty, P,, Captain 16th N. Y. V. Cavalry 

*Eldridge, James W., 2d Lieutenant U. S. C. T. 

French, William R., Lieutenant-Colonel 165th N. Y. V. 

Gordon, Ray T., 2d Lieutenant 53d N. Y. V. 

Gordon, Gilbert (Lenard), Adjutant N. Y. V. 

Goodell, A. W., Adjutant 48th N. Y. V. 

Gardner, Curtiss C, Major 27th N. Y. V. 

Henriques, Joseph, Captain 4th N. Y. V. 

Hyde, John 'M., Lieutenant-Colonel 39th N. Y. V. 

Jennings, Henry M., Major 95th N. Y. V. 

Jones, Frank, Colonel 31st N. Y. V. 

Kenyon, R. Wells, Lieutenant-Colonel 104th N. Y. V. 

Ledyard, Perry M., 1st Lieutenant 90th N. Y. V. 

Lounsberry, L. S., 1st Lieutenant N. Y. V. Westchester 

Infantry. 
*Mitchel, John G., 1st Lieutenant 101st N. Y. V. 

Male, W. H., Major U. S. V. 

Millard, Harrison, Captain 19th U. S. A. 

McMurry, John, Major _ U. S. V. 

Nevins, David J., Colonel 62d N. Y. V. 

Oakley, Thomas B., Major and Paymaster U. S. A. 

*Philips, Joseph A., Lieutenant 5th Cav., N. Y. V. 

Simpson, George H. Captain 133d N. Y. V. 

Stetson, Alex. M., Major 11th N. Y. V 

Stetson, Prince R., Captain 15th U. S. A. 

Timpson, Samuel C, Captain 95th N. Y. V. 

*Tracy, Prescott, 1st Lieutenant 5th N. Y. V. 

*Thompson, Lewis T., 1st Lieutenant— _ -..._ Kansas V. 

*Wilson, Afred K., 1st Lieutenant 

COMPANY B. 

Bell, John H., Bvt. Brigadier-General U. S. V. 

Cooper, Charles L., Bvt. Brigadier-General U. S. A. 

Frobisher, Henry M., Captain _ 95th N. Y. V. 

Hazen, John, 1st Lieutenant 90th N. Y. V. 

Died in service. 

Ferguson, Archibald H., Captain 25th N. Y. V. 

Killed at Gains Mills 

*McMasters, Z. J., 1st Lieutenant Cavalry N. Y. V. 

*Quick, J. R., Captain _ 95th N. Y. V. 

Squires, William J _ _ _ U. S. M. 

Underbill, Andrew M., 1st Lieutenant 11th N. Y. V. 

Wilkenson, James, 1st Lieutenant N. Y. V. 

COMPANY C. 

Bruen, John T., Captain 10th Independent Battery N. Y. V. 

Barker, W. L., Act. Ensign U. S. N. 



308 [1866 

Deming, E. M., Captain 61st N. Y. V. 

Killed in Charles City Cross Road. 

Delan, J. R U. S.N. 

*Evertson, D-, Lieutenant V. 

P2uen, Mathias S., Bvt. Colonel U. S. V. 

Fabre, F. A., Lieutenant _ N. Y. V. 

Farrell, James, Captain 48th N. Y. V. 

Killed at Ft. Wayne. 

Favell, James M., Bvt. Colonel U. S. V. 

Hagadorn, Moses C, Captain 11th N. Y. V. 

Hall, H. B., Captain 6th Art., N. Y. V. 

Hall, C. B., 95th N. Y. V. 

Hall, Ernest K _ U. S. N. 

Haviland, J. P., Captain...; 127th N. Y. V. 

Hutchinson, Elbridge, 1st Lieutenant 48th N. Y. V. 

Ilsey, C. J., Lieutenant-Colonel 6th Cav., U. S. A. 

Jacobson, Arthur C, 176th N. Y. V. 

Kline, Peter, 2d Lieutenant 12th N. Y. V. 

Locke, J., Bvt. Major. 107th U. S. C. T. 

Me.serole, George B., 1st Lieutenant 2d Infantry 

Purdy, J. Hart, Major 59th N. Y. V. 

Roberts, John, 1st Lieutenant 175th N. Y. V. 

Ryan, J. B. F., Captain 20th Infantry Battery 

Ruscher, Captain 
Switzer, F. D., Captain 

Sleaman, John H., Asst- Engineer U. S. N. 

Treanor, Henry H., 1st Lieutenant 1st Engineers, N. Y. V. 

Willoughby, R. H. Major 21st U. S. C. T. 

White, Larue N., Lieutenant N. Y. V. 

Woolsey, Richard D U. S. N. 

Wines, C. M., Captain 5th H. A., N. Y. V. 

Warriner, W. M., Captain Killed in service 

COMPANY D 

Blauvelt,- D., 1st Lieutenant 21st N. J. V. 

Bodine, Aug. S., 1st Lieutenant 127th N. Y. V. 

*Bemrose, Joseph, 1st Lieutenant 51st N. Y. V. 

*Bartlett, J. H., 1st Lieutenant 102d N. Y. V. 

*Benjamin, N. O., 1st Lieutenant 131st N. Y. V. 

Killed at Port Hudson. 

Coe, Joseph B., 1st Lieutenant U. S. N. 

*Clement, W. H., 1st Lieutenant 7th 111. V. L. 

Cunningham, J. F., 2d Lieutenant 164th N. Y. V. 

Cole, William M., Adjutant 164th N. Y. V. 

*DeArcy, William, C, Captain 48th N. Y. V. 

Killed at Deep Bottom, Va. 

Fitzmaurice, J. L., 1st Lieutenant 170th N. Y. V. 



1866] 309 

Florintine, Abraham, Captain 59th N. Y. V. 

Died from wounds at Antietam. 

*Green, James M., Lieutenant-Colonel 48th N. Y. V. 

*Howard, H. M., 1st Lieutenant 159th N. Y. V. 

Magraw, Sacket, Captain 

Oppenshaw, Edward, 1st Lieutenant 156th N. Y. V. 

*Rugg, H. P., Lieutenant-Colonel 59th N. Y. V. 

Smith, W. H, 2nd Lieutenant 146th N. Y. V. 

Thornton, C. B., 2d Lieutenant 146th N. Y. V. 

Wallace, Samuel R., 1st Lieutenant 48th N. Y. V. 

Wychoff, Charles B., 2nd Lieutenant 48th N. Y. V. 

Scott, James, Captain 47th N. Y. V. 

COMPANY E. 

Ammerman, Louis D., 1st Lieutenant 102d N. Y. V. 

Wade, Edward H., Captain S9th N. Y. V. 

Scott, Thomas R. J., Captain 25th N. Y. Cavalry 

Killed at Gettysburg. 

COMPANY F. 

Bromley, George H., Lieutenant - 32d N. Y. V. 

Boyd, William A., 1st Lieutenant 62d N. Y. V. 

Chamberlain, Benj. N. C, Major 9th N. Y. V. Cavalry 

Dustan, Charles W., Asst. Adjutant-General U. S. V. 

Ferris, Grafton. 1st Lieutenant 3d Cavalry, Mass. V. 

Faye, Emmet M., 1st Lieutenant _ 42d N. Y. V. 

Philip, Benjamin F., 2d Lieutenant 84th N. Y. V. 

Racy, William H., 1st Lieutenant 53d N. Y. V. 

Rockafellar, Harry, Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. A. 

Thompson, William L., Bvt.-Major N. Y. V. 

Tompkins, George W. B., Colonel 13th Cavalry, N. Y. V. 

Winslow, Cleveland, Colonel 5th N. Y. V. 

Winthrop, Frederic, Bvt.-Major-General _..U. S. V. Col. 12th 

U. S. Infantry. 

COMPANY G. 

Gay, Edward, Assistant Engineer U. S. N. 

Hagadorn, J. M., Captain 131st N. Y. V. 

Hunt, William B., Captain 131st N. Y. V. 

Hinchman, E. A., 1st Lieutenant 131st N. Y. V. 

Ince, George, Captain _ 66th N. Y. V. 

Killed at Gettysburg. 

Jacobus, John Wesley 9th N. Y. V. 

Romaine, William H-, Assistant Paymaster U. S. N. 

Sproul, James A., Captain 174th N. Y. V. 

Sutton, Andrew G 2d Battalion N. Y. V. 



310 [1866 

COMPANY H. 

Ball, W. H., 2d Lieutenant 93d N. Y. V. 

Beardsley, W. E., Major _ 6th N. Y. V. Cavalry 

Brower, Samuel S 2d N. Y. V. 

Burgess, W. H., 1st Lieutenant - 53d N. Y. V. 

Burk, Major _ 4th N. Y. V. 

Chester, George F., Colonel 101st N. Y. V. 

Copcutt, H. W., Captain 9th N. Y. V. 

Coster, Richard W U. S. N. 

Day, Samuel C, Captain 3d N. Y. V. Artillery 

Dyer, Philip 11th N. Y. V. 

Embler, Andrew H., Bvt.-Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. V. 

Medal of Honor 

Emmett, Temple, Adjutant 88th N. Y. V. 

Freed, William T N. Y. V. 

Giles, George H ., Lieutenant - 

Godfrey, George W., 2d Lieutenant 4th N. Y. V. 

Godine, Frank, Captain 32d N. Y. V. 

Godine, J. H., 2d Lieutenant 32d N. Y. V. 

Gott, William C-, 2d Lieutenant Louisiana Vol. 

Granville, E. C, 2d Lieutenant - 47th N. Y. V. 

Graham, John H ., Captain 

Green, William H., 1st Lieutenant 142d N. Y. V. 

Graham, James G., Lieutenant _ _ Cavalry 

Gregory, David E., Colonel _..144th N. Y. V. 

Hebbard, N. J., 1st Lieutenant _ 142d N. Y. V. 

Kirk, Ezra B., Colonel '.... 14th Ohio V. 

Lawrence, G. M., Lieutenant U. S. N. 

Leaycraft, W. H., Bvt. Major & Capt 87th N. Y. V. 

Linderback, Henry W 2d U. S. S. M. 

McCreary, Edwin P., Lieutenant _ 

Merklee, John S3d N. Y. V. 

Meseroie, John 

Eall, Marcelius F 16Sth N. Y. V. 

Randall, Horatio D N. Y. V. 

Ryerson, George W., 2d Lieutenant 2d N. Y. V. 

Searles, John M., Captain _ 54th N. Y. V. 

Shultes, Robert, Engineer _ U. S. N. 

Strong, Richard P., Bvt.-Major U. S. V. 

Sweet, Edward J., Lieutenant 1st Marine Artillery 

Sweet, Samuel S _ 165th N. Y. V. 

Tallman, Warren S., Captain _ _ _ 

Welch, Robert Jr - 165th N. Y. V. 

York, Louis E., Captain _ - U. S. A. 



1866] 311 

COMPANY I. 

Bayiis, James C-, 1st Lieutenant 16th N. Y. V. Heavy- 
Artillery 

Ellis, A. Van Horn, Bvt.-Brigadier-General U. S. V. 

Killed at Gettysburg. 

Gowdy, James, Captain 56th N. Y. V. 

Grier, James A., Captain 124th N. Y. V. 

Lawson, Sylvester, 1st Lieutenant _ 1st U. S. S. S. 

*Travis, Henry F.. Captain 124th N. Y. V. 

Wood, Charles R., Captain 124th N. Y. V. 

Marshall, Edward G., Assistant Surgeon 124th N. Y. V. 

COMPANY NOT KNOWN. 

Anderson, W. P., 1st Lieutenant U. S. A. 

Coppins, Geo. T _ 19th Mass. V. 

Courtoise, Charles, Captain N. Y. V. 

Eppes, James H., Assistant Engineer U. S. N. 

Hullis, Robert J., Assistant Engineer U. S. N. 

Hartshorne, W. S., 1st Lieutenant 169th N. Y. V. 

Van Allen, F. W _ _ 131st N. Y. V. 

Van Dusen, A., 1st Lieutenant Marine Artillery 




COLONEL THEODORE W. PARMKLE 
Plate i\^ — tfp. :-;i;: 



Administration of 

Colonel THEODORE W. PARMELE 

1866—1869 



September 3d. Colonel Theodore W. Parmele, late of the 
174th N. Y. v., was elected Colonel of the 71st, taking com- 
mand at once. 

The entire official documents turned over to his head- 
quarters were contained in a soap box; these consisted of all 
that had accumulated for the fourteen years that the regiment 
had existed, and were mostly the books issued to it while in 
the U. S. service. This was owing to the fact that there had 
never been in the true sense a headquarters, no clerical work 
was done, such correspondence as there was seemed to be con- 
strued as personal property, and was either preserved by the 
recipient, or destroyed; then, again, there was comparatively 
very little correspondence, any one from Captain down to 
private did not hesitate to go direct to the Colonel's place of 
business and say what he had to say ; this consumed very 
much of private time and became a nuisance. 

"Going through the channel," and communication by let- 
ter was not understood. One of the most difficult pieces of 
military education that the new administration had, was teach- 
ing the officers that their communications to headquarters 
must be directed to the Adjutant, especially was this the case 
with Captains, who considered it lowering their dignity to 
address an Adjutant who was only a First Lieutenant. 

While it is not possible, even if desired, to maintain that 
rigid discipline of the regular army, still it is an innate feeling 
of doing the right thing that maintains the discipline of any 
organization, and as long as the men have respect for their 
leader there is no difficulty, but where there is no respect, the 



314 [1866 

fear of consequences are not much considered, a weak officer 
stood very little chance, his desire for popularity led him in- 
to all sorts of trouble, and breach of discipline ; and there were 
many such in the guard. 

Large companies at formations would hold back some of 
their men until equalization and then allow them to fall in. 
Captains would allow men to fall out during the parade, and 
even the members of the band when at a halt would make ii 
break for the nearest beer saloon. So far as any of these or 
other faults were found in the 71st, they were soon put an 
end to, it came hard, but it was done, and that, too, without 
any serious friction. 

Headquarters were established (though not in an 
armory), and an entire set of books obtained, and from that 
time on all details have been conformed to. 

Colonel Parmele was the beau ideal of a soldier, knew 
what he was talking about and said it with a snap that con- 
veyed attention and confidence, he was original in his method, 
quick in his delivery, magnetic in his personality, a manner- 
ism that took the attention of the men at once and held it, he 
was quick to detect an error, and prompt to correct one, in 
fact, he captured the men ; unfortunately his career was short, 
but the impression lasted longer. 

For the first time the Adjutant became an officer of more 
importance ; previously he formed the regiment, at drills, 
posted the guides, and very little else ; now in addition to his 
military work, he became recognized as the Colonel's mouth- 
piece, having the confidence of the Colonel, he attended Lo ;i':! 
the clerical work, corrc'.i>v:..ence, etc., relieving the Co'onel of 
all kietails except that directly concerning the military features. 

The following extracts from General Orders will give 
some idea of the reforms introduced : 

"The senior officer, or non-commissioned officer present 
at a company formation will be held responsible for any delay 
in conducting their companies to the parade line. 

"Full duty will be exacted of every officer and member of 
this command during the lawful term of service, without 
respect for any tender of resignation, or alleged unpleasant- 
ness of relation ; any tardiness in the performance of duty 
rendered by officers or men who are awaiting their discharge 



1866] SI 5 

from service will be promptly rebuked, and no member shall 
receive credit for services not rendered. 

"Every officer and member of this command will be con- 
sidered under regimental government whenever wearing any 
portion of the uniform which may designate our organization, 
and drunkenness, profanity, unclean condition of person or 
dress, or any other breach of discipline when on duty, will be 
followed by such punishment as the law prescribes. 

"Company commanders will be held responsible for the 
conduct of their men, and will issue such orders as may bet- 
ter secure conformity to the foregoing. 

"No officer or member who arrives on the ground after 
the report of First sergeants, will be permitted to parade with 
the regiment, all such will be reported as absent from duty, 
and any officer or member leaving the parade without proper 
authority, will be returned to court martial. 

"Company commanders in forwarding official papers to 
these headquarters will address and receive returns from the 
Adjutant ; all communications must be carefully prepared, and 
contain the necessary explanation of the enclosure. 

"All recruits or members of the Regiment not prepared 
for instruction in the school of the Company, are hereby 
ordered to assemble in fatigue uniform at the 13th armory on 
Thursday evening of each week, at 8 o'clock, until further 
orders. The line officers from each company will alternate 
in attending these meetings to assist the Colonel in the in- 
struction of recruits and will furnish corrected list of the mem- 
bers detailed by company commandants at each meeting. 

"The many objections to the existing system by which 
officers and men are kept from development, are too apparent 
to need comment, and it is deemed for our common good, that 
an orthodox uniformity of instruction be instituted. Habi- 
tual carelessness in attention, clandestine hilarity, untidy ap- 
pearance, or any other deficiency on the part of members, 
which may be a detriment to the progress of a company will 
be considered sufficient cause for reduction to this class." 

The necessity of such orders gives an idea of the radical 
requirements to bring a regiment at that time into a homo- 
genous condition that was essential to the maintenance of a 
military organization. 

The first parade under the new Colonel, was that of the 
annual inspection, October 18th, on Tompkins Square. 

From the "Citizen," October 27th : 

"The 71st Regiment was inspected and mustered on the 
18th, doing itself great credit. The marching in review was 



316 [1866 

one of the best displays that has been seen in a long time, and 
the beneficial effects of Colonel Parmele's strict discipline are 
at once apparent to those who have been familiar with the 
condition of the regiment during the past few years. 

"Colonel Traft'ord, the late commander, was a gentleman 
in the fullest sense of the word, but his feelings were too fine, 
and his sympathies too tender to enable him to turn the screws 
on blockheads and delinquents. 

"Colonel Parmele appeared upon the ground with his 
little bugle slung jauntily over his shoulder, and his 
knowledge of its use enabled him to give several commands 
in a manner which an experienced bugler might envy." 

At this inspection there were present 469, absent about 
137; a gain of 29 in present and }>2 less absent than in 1865, 
comparatively not a bad showing. That the large number 
absent may not be thought to be exceptional, the following inspec- 
tion returns of the division will be interesting as showing the 
absentees of each regiment: 

Absent, Absent, 
Present, per cent. Present, per cent. 

1st Regiment 245 . 40 22d Regiment 123 .. . 18 

2d Regiment 342 .. . 50 37th Regiment 214 . . 35 

3d Regiment 236 .. . 32 55th Regiment 250 .. . 43 

4th Regiment 203 .. . 37 69th Regiment 175 ... 30 

5th Regiment 201 .. . 22 ^Ist Regiment 137 . . 22 

6th Regiment 180 .. . 32 JJd Regiment 60 . 

„,,„*=. . .^, .,.-, 77th Regiment 130 

7th Regiment 423 . o7 ^^^^ Re|iment 101 

8th Regiment 124 .. . 19 34^^ Regiment 333 

9th Regiment 100 ... 17 95^1, Regiment 184 

11th Regiment 144 20 96th Regiment 178 

12th Regiment 162 . . 22 99th Regiment 157 

Total of division present, 10,251; absent, 4.866, or over 
31 per cent. This carrying of "dead wood" is quite a contrast 
to the present exceptional absentees. 

An amusing incident illustrating discipline, was at the 
inspection of the 11th Regiment; after manoeuvering the regi- 
ment into line, ranks open and arms presented, the Inspector 
advanced to the front and acknowledged the salute, but where 
was the music? All was still and silent as the grave, not a 
band or a drum corps ; the Adjutant with the brigade major 
hunted up the delinquent musicians, whom they found busy at 
breakfast over sundry glasses of beer. 



23 
SO 
27 
27 



1866-67] 317 

A previous revolt of the drum corps had so thinned their 
ranks that only a portion remained. 

Monday, November 26th, the Division paraded to cele- 
brate Eyacuation Day by the British in 1783. Of the 71st, the 
"Mercury" said : 

"We could see nothing to criticise or condemn in this 
trim looking body of clean, well set up and intelligent sol- 
diers. They looked like gentlemen and marched like soldiers.'' 

After the parade, on the return to the armory, Colonel 
Parmele was thrown from his horse while on Fifth Avenue 
near 21st Street ; he was picked up and carried home in a semi- 
conscious state. 

The close of the year 1866 made another progressive 
movement in the Guard, being the resignation of Brig.- 
General Spicer of the 1st Brigade (a very nice old gentleman 
of the past, but no soldier), and the election in November of 
Colonel William G. Ward, of the 12th as his successor. 

General Ward was of the new school, a thoroughly prac- 
tical soldier, he promptly started a new order of things, order- 
ing a drill of brigade ofificers for December 11th; this was 
something unheard of in the National Guard before. 

18 6 7 



As an evidence of the work being done in the Regiment, 
division (two companies) drills were held in January on the 
night of the 7th to the 18th inclusive, Sunday and Saturday 
excepted. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," February 9th: 

"On the 4th: A drill of the 71st Regiment took place at 
the State Arsenal. Colonel Parmele was in command, he wore 
a fatigue jacket, the eagle without the rectangle, and a silver 
bugle, all of which was allowable at a drill in fatigue uniform, 
while at the same time they gave the Colonel a very natty 
appearance. 

"The line was very handsomely formed under the super- 
intendence of Adjutant Francis and the Sergeant-Major, 
who designated the positions for the guides of the various 



318 [1867 

companies in a very correct and soldierly manner. After tak- 
ing command the Colonel brought the battalion to 'parade 
rest,' and kept it in that position for some time, during which 
they stood very steady. 

"During the evening the Colonel drilled the battalion in 
a movement of his own, called 'forming circles by division.' 
This was executed by forming divisions, facing them about, 
giving command 'form circle,' which was done by bringing 
the right and left together, the men facing outward at the 
command 'halt,' and bringing their bayonets to the 'charge,' 
and giving a low growl. 

"We noticed that in wheeling. Captains Eunson and 
Tompkins, were the only officers to face their commands 
while executing the wheel ; the omission was more notice- 
able, because, as the general thing, the officers were in their 
proper positions while executing the various manoeuvers. 

"Brigadier-General Ward was present during the drill 
and towards its close exercised the battalion in the manual of 
arms. 

"The regiment made a very handsome appearance, but 
we hope the captains will give more attention to the proper 
cadence in marching, as several inaccuracies occurred from 
want of it. 

"Colonel Parmele is working very faithfully with his 
regiment, and we think is producing a good result. We can- 
not close our accounts of this drill without noticing the fact 
that there was no tobacco chewing in the ranks, and that the 
floor was consequently unsoiled by tobacco juice, which is 
not usually the case." 

The Regiment was ordered out for parade on the 23d of 
February, but owing to the inclement state of the weather, 
and the slush and snow, the customary parade on the street 
did not take place, but instead the Regiment formed line in 
the State Arsenal, (Seventh Avenue) at 1 P. M., to celebrate 
the day. 

About 450 men were present, and quite a large audience 
was in attendance; at the close of the ceremonies of dress 
parade, Brigadier-General Palmer, of the Governor's staff, 
presented the Regiment with a beautiful stand of colors, con- 
sisting of the National and Regimental flags. This was the 
first stand of colors received from the State. 

To encourage emulation in the manual of arms. Colonel 
Parmele presented a very handsome silver mounted regula- 
tion musket to the Regiment to be Annually competed for by 



1867] 319 

the enlisted men ; it caused much interest and encouragement, 
and there were many aspirants, who worked hard through the 
winter in hopes of being the winner. As the time of the con- 
test drew nigh only the more certain were left for the trial. 
In presenting this musket, the Colonel desired to create an 
interest among the men, in this he was successful, as the 
result gave proof. 

The first drill for this musket took place on the night of 
a regimental drill held in March at the Arsenal. The room 
was crowded and many prominent military men were pres- 
ent. At a pause in the drill, the contesting details were called 
to the "front and center," where the Colonel took them in 
charge, putting them through the manual, facings, loading 
and firing, from these were selected the two showing the 
most proficiency, all retiring to their company ; after a short 
rest. Sergeant Evertsen, of Company B, and Sergeant Dow 
of Company F, were called to the front, where the Colonel 
put them through a hot drill ; so well matched were the con- 
testants that it required a rapid and severe movement, that 
in the confusion one might make an error. 

The contest was watched with intense interest by the 
large audience. Sergeant Evertsen was suffering from a felon 
on his left thumb, and much pain caused by striking it while 
loading. After this hot work the contestants were ordered 
to their company; following a consultation by the judges, 
Sergeant Dow was ordered to the front and presented with 
the musket amid the applause of all present. 

Sergeant Dow well earned the prize, and Sergeant Evert- 
sen was satisfied with the decision and the applause and con- 
gratulations which he received. 

From the "Sunday Mercury," April 21st : 

'"On Friday evening Companies D and G of the 71st 
Regiment turned out for a moonlight parade, the non-com- 
missioned staff of the regiment was present, and the com- 
mand of the battalion was assumed by Captain Wolcott of 
Company D, Captain Webber and Lieutenant Benjamin were 
in command of their respective companies. 

"After an extensive route of march, the battalion halted 
in front of Col. Parmele's residence in West 33d Street, where 
the co,mpliment of a serenade was tendered to that officer. 
Colonel Parmele thanked the members of D and G Com- 



320 [1867 

panics for their courtesy, and remarked that when he took 
command of the 71st Regiment, he had marked out a course 
of discipline and drill for them, and he was happy to see that 
course had met the approval of the rank and file, for without 
their support a commandant's duty would be arduous. 

"At 10 o'clock the column was again put in motion, and 
proceeded to Thompson Hall in Bleecker Street, where the 
members were entertained by the citizens of the ninth ward 
with a collation, when several toasts were honored, and the 
command reached their armory at a late hour." 

Colonel Parmele, in May, took leave of absence, going to 
Europe, returning November 7th. 

The usual Fourth of July parade by the Division took 
place. 

The "Herald," of the 5th said : 

"There was no cleaner or cooler, or better disciplined 
organization in the whole column than the 71st; they looked 
quite handsome in their white belts, blue jackets and white 
pants." 

During this year, Company A, which for many years had 
occupied quarters in Lafayette Hall on Broadway, moved to 
the corner of Fourth Avenue and Nineteenth Street. 

October 22d: The Boston Fusiliers returned the visit 
of Companies B and H, made in 1865. 

From the "Herald" of October 23d : 

"Yesterday morning at nine o'clock over one hundred 
men and officers comprising the entire battalion of the Bos- 
ton Fusiliers landed at Pier 39, North River, from the 
steamer "City of Lawrence," on a visit to New York as 
guests of the 71st Regiment. The right wing of the 71st was 
drawn up in Vestry Street for a considerable time awaiting 
the arrival of the boat. 

"The men of this regiment, always neat and soldierly- 
like in their appearance made a fine display and manoeuvred 
with the precision of veterans ; they were under the command 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Rockafellar. 

"The regiment was marched to the dock, and drawn up 
in line the moment tTie boat appeared visible through the fog. 
When the gangplank was thrown across and the boat secured 



1867] 321 

to the wharf, the officers of the 71st poured into the saloon, 
and extended a hearty welcome to the gallant Fusiliers. 

"After landing from the steamer, the Fusilier battalion 
marched past the line of the Seventy-first with band playing, 
and halted on Vestry Street to allow their escort to go to the 
front and lead the way. The line of march was down Hudson 
Street and over to the City Hall, on the steps of which the 
Mayor was standing; the entire force passed in review, the 
Fusiliers wheeling into line to receive from the Mayor a brief 
speech of welcome. 

"Arms were then stacked, and the tired tourists hastened 
to the Claremont Hotel in Fulton Street where they indulged in 
breakfast. 

"On returning to the City Hall, where a large crowd had 
collected, the bands struck up several lively airs, to music of 
which the 71st formed, and followed by the Fusiliers pro- 
ceeded down Broadway to Fulton, to William, to Wall, to 
Pearl through Beaver to Broad, to Wall, to Broadway up to 
Fourteenth Street, and from there to Fifth Avenue to 26th to 
Fourth Avenue and the Bowery to Bond Street and there 
dismissed. 

"The visitors were then taken to the Centre Market armory. 
Beds were brought in and sleeping accommodations on the floor 
provided for the martial tourists. 

"In the evening at half-past 7 the visitors were escorted to 
Niblo's Garden,* where their delighted eyes feasted for hours 
upon the picturesque scantiness of the 'Black Crook's' wardrobe." 

From the same, October 24th : 

"The dull, disagreeable weather of Tuesday was a consider- 
able drawback to the visit of the Boston Fusiliers. It rendered 
marching anything but a pleasant exercise and acted as a depress- 
ing influence on the spirits generally, but yesterday was delight- 
ful and the battalion was up early and had breakfast disposed of 
before 9 o'clock. 

"Two companies, B and H of the 71st, were in readiness at 
the armory to escort their visitors on the proposed trip to Randall 
and Blackwell Islands. The steamer William Fletcher was char- 
tered for the occasion and at 10 o'clock A. M., left the foot of 
Canal Street with the Fusiliers and their escort on board. 

"They stopped at the foot of East 26th Street for the Com- 
missioner of Charities and Correction and then to Randall's 
Island. 

"The visitors then marched to the steamer and embarked 
for Blackwell's Island. After viewing the interior arrangements, 



* In rear of the Metropolitan Hotel, between Prince and Houston 
Street on Broadway. 



322 [1867 

a collation was partaken of at the residence of Warden Fitch.* 
A visit to the hospital was followed shortly after by the final 
•departure for New York. 

"It was intended in the programme to sail down the harbor 
as far as Fort Hamilton, but the hour was considered too late 
and both battalions marched through Grand Street to the armory 
and there broke ranks. In the evening the officers of both com- 
mands and the band of the Fusiliers met in the armory and pro- 
ceeded to serenade the Mayor and Commissioners of C. and C. 

"Today they visit Central Park and leave for home this 
afternoon." 

From the same, October 25th : 

"Yesterday afternoon at S o'clock the Boston Fusiliers, after 
a visit of three days in this city, left for home on the 'City of 
Lawrence.' In the forenoon before their departure the men of 
the battalion made a trip to the Central Park and spent some 
hours there rambling about. The officers of the Fusiliers and 
those of the 71st acting as escort, took several carriages and 
drove to High Bridge and McComb's Dam. The men having 
viewed the principal points of interest in the Park, crossed over 
to Paul Falk's brewery and passed the remainder of their stay 
in New York in discussing lager and sandwiches. 

"In the afternoon the entire battalion assembled at the armory 
and proceeded under the escort of the left wing of the 71st, com- 
manded by Major John H. Bell, to Pier 39, North River. The 
shed over the wharf was handsomely decorated and as the 
steamer with the Fusiliers on board swung out from the dock 
hearty cheers were given. 

"The Boston battalion expressed themselves highly pleased 
with their visit and with the attention paid them." 

The injury received by Colonel Parmele when thrown from 
his horse on Evacuation Day had proved quite serious, making if 
necessary on several occasions to countermand officers' and non- 
commissioned officers' drills at the last moment, much to the dis- 
appointment of all. The regiment had reached a standard never 
before attained in the service of the state, though this year's in- 
spection showed a heavy loss. That which was left were f,ull of 
enthusiasm and worked loyally for its uplift. 

For several years after the close of the Civil War the militia, 
as it was then called, did not enjoy any great popularity with the 
people of this city. They had for four years seen soldiers 
enough, peace reigned once more, "Home Guards" were not 



*The city officials were very hospitable in those days (at the tax- 
payers' expense) and spared nothing in providing for their guests. 



1867] 323 

needed, and it was almost a term of reproach to be called a 
member of even one of the "crack" regiments. Merchants and 
others objected to their employees joining the militia; duty was 
exacting, expensive, unpopular, yet the almost anomalous con- 
dition existed that whenever regiments were called on "riot" 
duty, or to their armories to be used as adjuncts to the police 
force if necessary, which was frequently the case without being 
generally known, there was always a number of men who did not 
belong to any regiment who asked permission to serve in the 
ranks as substitutes for absentees. 

At this time there were French, German, Scotch, Irish and 
mixed organizations. In this city alone there were the 1st, 2d, 
3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 11th, 12th, 22d, 37th, 55th, 69th, 
71st, 73d, 77th, 79th, 84th, 95th, 96th, 99th Regiments of Infantry, 
1st Artillery, 1st and 2d Cavalry, with a total of 15,117, 10,251 
being present at the last inspection. 

Not one of these regiments had the maximum membership, 
and many of them fell below the minimum ; yet each organization 
was complete in its roster of field, line staff and non-commissioned 
ofiScers. Only one had anything that could be called an armory 
even by the greatest stretch of imagination. The 71st was scat- 
tered all over the city. 

In spite of all its inconveniences and drawbacks the 71st 
continued to maintain a high standard of condition of member- 
ship, and its esprit de corps is shown by the fact that in certain 
of its companies it was so much the custom as to almost seem the 
rule that after the regular company drill season was over the 
members would request their captain to call extra drills, and 
when the drill room could not be secured for the desired evening 
it was not an unusual occurrence to see companies drilled on the 
street and public squares, and not at all uncommon to see the 
companies "double quick" around Washington Square. During 
the drill season these companies drilled two and three nights a 
week. 

The esprit de corps of the regiment was all that could be 
desired, but the disability of the Colonel, to whom all were so 
attached, was a sad misfortune. It cast a serious check on the 
programme laid out. However, the regiment was in such fine 
shape and so well equipped that no temporary absence would 
cause disaster. 

During this year Upton's Tactics were adopted. On Sep- 
tember 14th General Ward presented the regiment with a sufficient 



324 [1867-68 

number of copies of the Tactics so that every officer should 
have one. 

A new and magnificent opera house, called after its owner 
"Pike," had just been completed on the corner of Eighth Avenue 
and 23d Street. It had been resolved by the Board of Officers 
of the regiment to secure it and if possible open it with a concert 
and ball. A committee of arrangements was appointed to carry 
this into effect. They were unable to secure the building for the 
first night, the Purim Ball having secured it. They, however, 
eengaged it for the next night, March 10th. 

On December 10th, Company C celebrated their sixteenth 
birthday (which, however, fell on October 4th) by a dinner at 
the Sinclair House, corner Broadway and 8th Street. Covers 
were laid for one hundred who sat down to dinner. There were 
eleven courses, a very bountiful supply, which would be very 
much appreciated at any dinner given in this day. 

Speeches humorous and patriotic were made in response to 
toasts, which came in due order with wines after solids. These 
contained many sentiments of love for the 71st and evinced that 
warm pride in the "American Guard" that was characteristic of 
this company on all occasions. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Rockafellar, ex-Lieutenant-Colonel Coles, 
ex-Captain Hagadorn, Captain See, Adjutant Francis and several 
ex-members were present. 

18 6 8 



The year opened with more doing in the 71st than had been 
known for years. First was the question of a new full-dress 
uniform^ which the regiment had been without for seven years, 
and which was essential for a first-class regiment, though it might 
for a time affect the numerical strength. The subject was fully 
discussed, with the result that a committee was appointed, which 
later reported a uniform conforming very much to the old one 
except it was a swallow tail instead of a tunic. The same was 
forwarded to the General Headquarters for its approval. It 
was promptly acceded to as the following extract from Regi- 
mental Orders issued in March shows: 

"The full-dress uniform adopted by this regiment having 
been approved by Special Orders No. 23, General Headquarters, 
is hereby ordered to be the full dress uniform of this regiment. 
Every member, excepting those whose terms of service expires 



1868] 325 

previous to January 1st, 1869, will procure his uniform by the 
first day of October next." 

The question of an armory was ever upmost. It was essen- 
tial that the companies should be brought together instead of 
being scattered from Grand to Thirteenth Street. It was im- 
possible to get an armory built. The only thing was to find 
some place that was large enough that could be rented. The 
celebrated Wm. M. Tweed was the city "boss" at this time. His 
administration was always ready to entertain any proposition 
which had "business" in it. The power lay with the Board of 
Supervisors, a "non-partisan" board, which was always united 
for plunder. If one was diplomatic it was not so difficult to get 
what he wanted. As the "gang" wanted about 75 per cent in the 
abstract there was not enough to waste on the concrete, so while 
there was no chance to get an armory built there was a chance, if 
the locality could be found, to have a place leased and fitted up. 

The quarters occupied by Companies B, C and F were at 
the southeast comer of University place and Thirteenth Street, 
the building 50 by 100 feet, the third floor, over Ryerson & 
Brown's livery stable. This firm proposed to build at 118 West 
32d Street a stable for their own use on a plot 100 by 100 feet, and 
intimated that they might build with a view of providing for a 
regiment. After talking it over the Colonel placed the matter in 
charge of the Adjutant, who had a meeting with one of the super- 
visors, the result of which was the leasing of one of the two upper 
floors, the upper one being left for future consideration. The 
Adjutant then was brought in contact with "Jimmy Ingersoll," 
who represented a manufacturer of furniture on the Bowery, 
and through him was given to understand that all they had to do 
was to say what they wanted. The Adjutant then drew up a 
plan by which the floor was to be divided to give each company 
a room, a boardroom, headquarters room and also a squad drill 
room. It was wonderful how easy it was when you got at it. 
Things changed three years later and some of those gentlemen 
were in jail. 

Colonel Parmele's health became such that his physician 
advised him to resign and take a trip abroad. In consequence 
he sent in his resignation and departed for Europe early in 
March, sincerely regretted by his regiment. His association with 
it had been one of mutual good feeling and attachment and he 



326 l[1868 

left with the good wishes for his future prosperity and full 
recovery to health. 

March 10th, the concert and ball came off at the Pike Opera 
House. Great preparations had been made and great expecta- 
tions of its result. The success was, however, greater than ex- 
pected. The price of tickets was placed at one dollar. The 
demand was enormous, the building was packed, the hat room was 
overwhelmed. It was after daylight dawned before the last check 
was honored. 

The order of dancing was unique and which for appropri- 
ateness and simplicity had probably not been excelled. It 
was made of glazed paper, to represent a small knapsack, and 
stamped in gold with the number and monogram of the regiment. 
On top was a miniature overcoat made of a roll of blue paper. 
By pulling two narrow white satin ribbons this neat contrivance 
opened and the order of dancing was found printed on the inside 
in pink letters upon a white satin ground. 

The concert commenced at 8 o'clock and the dancing at 10. 
It was estimated that five thousand people were present. 

From the "Sunday Mercury" : 

"The organization did a very big thing on Tuesday last. Its 
members got up the greatest promenade and reception ever seen 
in this city or in the United States. Imagine that immense mar- 
ble structure known as 'Pike Opera House' crammed with six 
thousand people, the ladies radiant with beauty, brilliance and 
blandishment, attired in the most elegant and fascinating man- 
ner; the gentlemen sporting handsome military uniforms. To 
describe the glittering grandeur of the scene would tax the pen 
of a Jenkins. Sufficient to say it was a splendid affair, worthy 
of the good name and fame of the 'American Guard' and an 
honor to the 71st Regiment. 

"A number of officers and men wore the new uniform that 
was recently adopted by the regiment." 

All the newspapers had glowing accounts of the afifair. 

On May 6th, Governor JEnglish was inaugurated as Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut. To this function was invited the Mayor 
of the City of New York and the 71st Regiment as an escort. 
As a regiment it did not go, only those who had procured the new 
full dress uniform. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," May 9th : 

"In accordance with the announcement made in our last 



1868] S27 

issue a detachment of the officers and men of the 71st left New 
York on Wednesday morning for New Haven, where they par- 
ticipated in the ceremonies incident to the inauguration of Gov- 
ernor English. 

"The detachment, fifty muskets strong, formed at the armory 
of Company A, corner of Fourth Avenue and 19th Street, and 
proceeded to the Clarendon Hotel, where they received the 
Mayor and escorted him to the railway station. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Rockafellar, Major Wolcott and Adjutant Francis were 
present. 

"Lieutenant Burke acted as Commissary and Lieutenant Gir- 
van as Quartermaster of the party. The men were formed in a 
company under the command of Captain Wise, Lieutenant 
Sypher commanding the first and Lieutenant Wilson the second 
platoon. 

"The other officers who went to New Haven were Surgeon 
Buttles, Captain Webber, Benjamin, Evertsen, See and Eunson 
and Lieutenants Shade, Coe and Simmons. 

"The march was a long one and most of the streets which 
it passed through were unpaved. The 71st made a very handsome 
appearance and were frequently applauded on the line of march." 
(A more detailed account will be found in the Appendix.) 

The following order is inserted because of some items of 
interest as well as a comparison of the past and the present in 
the style. 

HEADQUARTERS, 71ST REGIMENT, N.G., S.N.Y. 

New York, August 14th, 1868. 
General Orders No. 7: 

L . 



n. Commandants of companies will resume the drill season 
v/ith their first regular drill night in September. Particular at- 
tention will be paid to the manual and the forms of inspection. 

III. On and after September 1st the headquarters of this 
regiment will be established at 118 West 32d Street, which will 
be thereafter the regimental armory. Tuesday evenings of each 
week are designated as Headquarters' Nights and on these nights 
the Adjutant and non-commissioned staff will be present, and all 
the official business for the previous week will be attended to. 
Answers to communications will be found at the different com- 
pany quarters on the following evening. Anything requiring im- 
mediate attention can be addressed as at present. 

IV. The commandants of companies will forward to these 
Headquarters by September 8th a copy of their company roll 
as it may be on the 1st proximo, and any alterations thereafter 
except by permission from these headquarters will be considered 
as disobedience of orders. 



328 [1868 

DISCHARGED. 

V. Isaac N. Nichols, "B" Co., removed from district ; Rob- 
ert Hanshee, "B" Co., removed from district. 

EXPULSION AND DESERTION. 

VI. Gustave Hart, "B" Co., deserted with uniform; Daniel 
M. Ambrose, "B" Co., 199 West 17th Street, expelled; Charles 
H. Todd, "B" Co., 263 West 22d Street, expelled. 

PROMOTIONS. 

VII. Second Lieut. Thos. H. B. Simmons to be First Lieu- 
tenant, to rank from June 30th, 1868, vice Carpenter, resigned; 
Peter Eagan, to be Second Lieutenant, to rank from June 30th, 
1868 ; David Sims, to be Standard Bearer, with rank from August 
1st, 1868, vice Jas. B. Scott, removed from State. 

DRILL. 

VIII. The officers and members of this regiment will as- 
semble on Thursday evening, October 1st, at 7:30 o'clock, in 
full dress, white gloves and knapsacks, without muskets, at the 
State Arsenal, Seventh Avenue and 3Sth Street, for inspection of 
uniforms ; field and staff will report to the commandant, and 
non-com., staff and 1st sergeants to the Adjutant at 8 o'clock. 
In addition to the usual fines, all members violating General 
Orders No. 4, Par. 11, will be returned to courtmartial for dis- 
obedience of orders. Commandants of companies will report 
to the Adjutant by the 8th of October the names of all those in 
their company, officers or privates, who are not uniformed pre- 
vious to that date. 

IX. Every member who presents himself to the Surgeon 
for examination for alleged disability must first procure a cer- 
tificate from the commandant of his company, showing that he 
has been a faithful soldier and is not indebted to company or 
regiment. No member need apply for a certificate of past dis- 
ability unless the Surgeon was cognizant of such disability at the 
time. 

EQUIPMENTS. 

X. BELTS : Two cross belts of whitened buiT leather, 
two inches wide, with waist belt one and five-eighths inches wide ; 
the bayonet belt to be connected on the centre with a convex 
brass plate, three and one-quarter inches long and two and one- 
quarter inches wide, corners cut off; raised ornamental German 
silver figures 71, two inches long, waist plate, letter of company 
engraved thereon. 

CARTRIDGE BELT : Of patent leather, size of body, six 
and one-half inches wide and five inches high, one and one-half 
inches thick, with inside flap ; the outer flap to be eight and one- 
half inches long and seven and one-half inches wide, scalloped 
at the bottom, with two plain leather straps and two buckles at 
the bottom to receive cross belts, and brass knob to fast flap; 



1868] 329 

brass cypher letters A. G. on centre two inches long and two and 
a half inches wide, to be placed on the flap. 

BAYONET SCABBARD : Of plain black leather, eighteen 
and one-half inches long; brass top and bottom mountings, fast- 
ened with brass knob, passing through the throg. 

CAP BOX: U. S. pattern, with a patent leather flap. 
By order of Lieut. -Col. Harry Rockafellar, 

A. T. FRANCIS, Adjutant. 

This order gives the official announcement of the regiment 
having for the first time a home, where all the companies were 
under one roof, and where office work could be carried on in a 
business-like manner; it also gives in detail the equipments 
adopted for the new uniform. 

It will be noted the time elapsing between its date and the 
date for which the inspection was called, and the reader may 
understand it was to give ample time for the men to order their 
uniforms. The last call. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," October 10th : 

"The time allowed the members of the regiment to provide 
themselves with the full dress uniform recently adopted having 
expired, an inspection of the regiment was ordered to be held in 
the State arsenal (Seventh Avenue and 35th Street) on Thursday 
evening, October 1st. 

"As this was the first appearance of the regiment as such in 
its new uniform, quite a large number of spectators were in 
attendance to witness the display. Lieutenant-Colonel Rocka- 
fellar was in command, nearly, three hundred men were in the 
line at the formation. 

"The battalion made an exceedingly fine appearance, the 
white epaulets and cross belts setting off the blue and gilt of the 
uniform to fine advantage. It will be remembered that the pres- 
ent full dress of the regiment consists of a dark blue dress coat, 
with light blue facings, three rows of buttons on the breast, and a 
slashing of gold on the sleeves and coat-tails, light blue trousers, 
low shako, with a white fountain plume, and white worsted epau- 
lettes and white cross belts. 

"There were many present, who claimed that the uniform of 
the regiment is the handsomest of those recently adopted by the 
National Guard. Although there may be a difference of opinion 
on this point, there is no disputing the taste which has been dis- 
played in getting up the present full dress of the 'American 
Guard.' * * * 

"The display and exercises of the evening were throughout 



330 [1868 

highly gratifying to the friends of the regiment, as well as cred- 
itable to its officers and members." 

From the same: 

"For some reason which doth not yet appear the General 
commanding the First Brigade ordered the regiments composing 
it to parade on Tuesday, October 13th, at 9:30 A. M., for inspec- 
tion and muster. * * ♦ 

"The 71st Regiment paraded in fatigue uniform, with knap- 
sacks, overcoats rolled, and white cross belts, under command of 
Lieut. -Col. Harry Rockafellar, and made an unusually fine ap- 
pearance. As it was the last inspected, the officers and men were 
thoroughly tired long before their time for inspection. 

"This plan of spoiling a whole day for the men was simply 
execrable and should be abandoned. The review of this regi- 
ment by Brigadier-General Liebenau was unusually good and was 
one of the finest that has yet taken place. The band made a good 
appearance and played remarkably well. 

"The marching in review was excellent and the salutes were 
good. The 71st is a good regiment and never fails to make a 
good impression whenever it appears in public. 

"The rolls of the regiment were in good order, for which 
Adjutant Francis deserves much credit, and the various com- 
panies were found to be in excellent condition. 

"Now that this regiment is regularly installed in its new 
armory and has adopted a full dress uniform, we look for a 
career of unusual prosperity. The result of the inspection was : 
Present, 346; absent, 135; total, 481; a loss of 46 since 1867." 

The vacancy created by the resignation of Colonel Parmele 
had not been filled. In August he returned from Europe, much 
improved in health. His popularity was still maintained, and 
the officers of the regiment were anxious for him to resume his 
old command. To their request he yielded and was elected once 
more as Colonel, dating November 18th. 

At the fall election Mayor John T. Hoffman was elected 
Governor of the State of New York. He had always been a 
warm friend of the regiment, which was reciprocated, and this 
occasion seemed to be one when it could show its appreciation. 
It consequently ofEered its services as an escort to Albany on the 
occasion of his going there to be inaugurated. The offer was 
accepted and preparation for the same began. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," December 9th : 

"The preliminaries of the visit of the 7lst to Albany are now 
settled upon. The regiment will leave New York by the Hudson 
River Railroad at 12 o'clock P. M., December 31st, arriving in 
Albany at 7:30 A. M. 

"The inauguration procession will start from the Delevan 



1868] 331 

House at 11 o'clock A. M., in the following order: Brigadier- 
General Woodhull and staff; the 71st Regiment as immediate 
escort to the Governor; Mr. Hoffman as the Governor-elect; the 
9th Brigade of National Guard. 

"The Regiment will dine at the Delevan House at 3 o'clock, 
and at half-past 4 will form again and visit the Governor's man- 
sion, where the officers will be received by Mr. Hoffman, after 
which the honors of a marching salute will be paid the Adjutant- 
General. 

"The battalion will leave Albany at half-past 10, arriving in 
New York at 7 :45 A. M., when they will be received by the 12th 
Regiment. The 22d Regiment will escort the 71st to the cars 
upon their departure from New York." 

The following correspondence and what follows will fully 
explain an unfortunate complication which arose: 

CLARENDON HOTEL 

December 16th, 1868. 

Colonel : 

I very reluctantly gave my assent to your offer of the services 
of your regiment as an escort on the occasion of my inaugura- 
tion at Albany. I should not have given it at all had I been 
aware of the great expense to which your men will be subjected. 

I have recently learned something in reference to this mat- 
ter, and notice that a resolution has been introduced into the 
Common Council providing an appropriation to meet such expense. 
I am sure this would not meet the approval of the regiment, nor 
would I consent to it. 

Under the circumstances I ask leave to withdraw my accept- 
ance of the escort tendered. 

Please assure the members of your distinguished regiment 
that I shall always appreciate and be grateful for their courtesy 
and kindness in tendering me the honor. I trust they will see 
that a sense of duty and a regard for their interest compel me to 
decline it. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

JOHN T. HOFFMAN. 
To Colonel Parmele: 

Seventy-first Regiment, N.G., New York City. 

To this letter Colonel Parmele replied as follows, the same 
being conveyed and delivered to the Governor in person at the 
Clarendon Hotel by the Adjutant : 

HEADQUARTERS SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT 
INFANTRY, N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, December 19th, 1868. 
Hon. John T. Hoffman. 
Dear Sir: 
I am in receipt of your esteemed favor of the 18th instant. 



332 [1868 

in which you ask leave to withdraw your acceptance of the escort 
tendered by the 71st Regiment on the occasion of your inaugura- 
tion at Albany. 

The resolution introduced into the Common Council to pay 
for the transportation of the regiment to and from Albany was 
unsolicited by us ; we expected to pay our own expenses and 
were prepared to do so. 

This action of some kind friends in the Common Council is 
gratefully appreciated by us, but has subjected us to the harsh 
and, we think, unjust animadversions of the press. 

It was as citizen soldiers that we sought to honor our Com- 
mander-in-Chief and to manifest our sincere respect and regard 
for a gentleman who was an honorary member of our regiment, 
and who having held the position of Mayor of this city in which 
most of us were born, was about to enter upon a more extended 
field of duty in the service of the State. 

We regret. exceedingly, sir, that our motives have been mis- 
understood or misconstrued by those who seem to see or think 
they see party politics in every act or demonstration of respect 
shown to public men. 

Be assured, sir, that the 71st Regiment appreciate the kind- 
ness shown them in relieving them from this embarrassing po- 
sition, and be equally assured of their profound respect for your 
character and eminent service, and their earnest wish for your 
prosperity and happiness. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

THEODORE W. PARMELE, 

Colonel Commanding. 

From the 'Army and Navy Journal," December 26th : 

"It will be recollected that a detachment of the 71st Regi- 
ment escorted Mr. Hoffman, then Mayor of New York, last 
spring to New Haven on the occasion of the inaugural cere- 
monies of Governor English of Connecticut, and took a very active 
part on that occasion. 

"The ceremonies of the inaugural were so impressive that 
Mr. Hoffman stated that he should like to see the same program 
carried out in this State, it being then fully understood that Mr. 
Hoffman would be nominated for Governor, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Rockafellar, then in command, offered the services of the regi- 
ment as an escort should he be so fortunate as to be elected. 

"Thus the matter rested until after the recent election, when 
the offer was again renewed and accepted. The officers and mem- 
bers immediately began their preparations, Mr. Hoffman giving 
them a letter to Mr. Vanderbilt to make arrangements for trans- 
portation, etc., to Albany. Unknown to the regiment, a resolu- 
tion was introduced in the Board of Aldermen appropriating 
$5,000 to defray expenses of the inaugural and including the 
expenses of the 71st. 



1868-69] 333 

"As soon as the officers and members learned the action of 
the Aldermen they felt as if they had been made a 'cat's paw' 
of. By direction of Colonel Parmele the Adjutant called on 
Mr. Hoffman and stated that the regiment did not seek any 
money from the city and had intended, and were ready and will- 
ing to pay their own expenses. 

"Mr. Hoffman stated that he felt annoyed at the action of 
the Aldermen and concluded to refuse the escort, but at the so- 
licitation of the Adjutant would not take any action in the matter 
until he had heard from Colonel Parmele and the Board of Offi- 
cers of the regiment, who held a meeting on the 18th instant and 
made full arrangements to go, and raised all the money on the 
spot to pay the expense. 

"In the meantime Mr. Hoffman, without waiting for the 
action of the Board of Officers, wrote to the Adjutant-General 
to stop all arrangements in Albany, and to Colonel Parmele, the 
letter being in the hands of the press before Colonel Parmele 
received Jt. * * * 

"It is evident from the tone of Mr. Hoffman's letter that he 
intends no disrespect to the regiment in declining the escort, in 
view of the fact that the proposed excursion had been made the 
occasion of one of those drafts upon the city treasury in which 
the city fathers feel bound to indulge upon all possible occa- 
sions." * * * 



18 6 9 



From the "Army and Navy Journal," January 9th : 

"The preparations for the Promenade and Reception of the 
71st Regiment at the Academy of Music on Monday evening, the 
22d of February, are most complete. Two thousand of the 
twenty-five hundred tickets to be issued have been sold, although 
they will not be issued until the 13th instant. Boxes are to be 
disposed of privately at fixed prices, and those not taken by the 
regiment will be on sale at the music stores. 

"Tickets can be procured only from members of the regi- 
ment, subscriptions not being taken from anyone outside the regi- 
ment. Two dollars is the price of entrance to the Academy on 
the 22d of next month and that will admit one only. 

"It remains with the regiment to decide whether they were 
fortunate or unfortunate in not going to Albany on the 1st instant, 
but we think that their non-attendance on the Governor was for- 
tunate, that is, taking into consideration the state of the weather 
on New Year day and the amount saved financially viewed, will 
only add to the brilliancy and eclat of this reception. 

"The invitations for this affair are executed in beautiful 
style, the coupon is attached to each ticket and the whole affair is 
elegant." 



334 [1869 

January 14th, the Veteran Association of the regiment met 
at the armory (32d Street) and organized by the adoption of a 
constitution and by-laws, appointing a committee to get a design 
for a pin and a committee for arranging for a dinner on the 
evening of April the 21st. 

January 16th, the gold medal, of elegant design, recently 
offered by ex-Q'tmaster George W. Roosevelt as an incentive for 
recruiting, to be annually rewarded to the company that shows 
the largest number of enlistments from inspection to inspection, 
and to be worn by that member who has recruited individually 
the largest number, was awarded to Captain Wise of Company I, 
Tie and his company having recruited thirteen men; Company G 
came next, having recruited twelve men. 

January 20th, the regiment had a drill at the State Arsenal. 
The battalion movements and the manual showed the benefit 
derived from the "class drill" that had been held during the 
winter. 

January 28th, Company E held a reception and ball at the 
Irving Hall. 

While the 7th and 71st Regiments each had armories they 
were inadequate for the proper development of a regiment. A 
scheme was suggested for utilizing the vacant space recently 
occupied by the Crystal Palace (now Bryant Park) to be used 
by both regiments. For this purpose the following bill was 
introduced in the Assembly: 

Section 1. The field officers of the Seventh Regiment of 
the National Guard of the State of New York acting for and in 
behalf of said regiment, are hereby authorized to select as a site 
for an armory the north half of the property known as Reservoir 
Square, situated between 42d and 40th Streets, Sixth Avenue and 
the Croton reservoir, in the City of New York, and the field offi- 
cers of the 71st Regiment of the National Guard of the State of 
New York, acting for and in behalf of said regiment, are hereby 
authorized to select as a site for an armory the south half of 
said Reservoir Square. 

Section 2. The Commissioners of the Sinking Fund of the 
City of New York are hereby authorized and empowered at any 
time after the passage of this act, upon application of the field 
■officers of the 7th Regiment, to set apart and appropriate to the 
use of said regiment for military purposes the north half of 
Reservoir Square, and on application of the field officers of the 



1869] 335 

71st Regiment to set apart and appropriate to the use of the said 
regiment for military purposes the south half of the said square; 
whenever the said Commissioners shall so set apart and appropri- 
ate said Reservoir Square, the field officers of the 7th Regiment, 
acting for and in behalf of the regiment, are hereby authorized 
at any time thereafter to enter upon and take any possession of 
and have the sole and exclusive use of the north half of said 
square, and the field officers of the 71st Regiment, acting for and 
in behalf of the regiment, are authorized at any time thereafter 
to enter upon, take possession of, and have the sole and exclusive 
use of the south half of said square; and the said field officers 
of said regiments are authorized to erect and maintain upon the 
portions of said square appropriated to said regiments, respec- 
tively, such buildings as may be necessary and proper for the 
use, accommodation, drill and exercise of the said regiments 
respectively, for the transaction of the regimental and com.pany 
business, and the protection and preservation of the arms, uni- 
forms, books and other regimental and company property. After 
the passage of this act said Reservoir Park shall not be sold, 
leased, or otherwise encumbered, unless such disposition thereof 
is expressly authorized by some law hereafter passed. 
This act shall take effect immediately. 

This bill was acted on by the Senate, having been introduced 
by Mr. Tweed. The result was very encouraging, the vote being 
24 out of 25. It was then to come up in the Assembly. Every 
effort was made to insure success. The joint committee was 
composed of the Colonel, Major and Adjutant of each regiment. 
This committee held its meetings in Colonel Clark's room in the. 
7th's armory. 

When the bill which authorized the use of Reservoir Square 
for the proposed armory for the two regiments was about to- 
reach action by the Assembly, after it had been passed by the-- 
Senate, a meeting was called by the Chairman, which was at- 
tended by all of its members. The Chairman stated that the biir 
was to be brought before the Assembly on the following day, 
having been favorably reported by the committee and was ready 
for final action. 

That he had been informed in some way, which he did not 
state, that if a certain amount of money in bank notes of small 
denominations was enclosed in a sealed, unaddressed envelope 
and left in a certain place that he named, the bill would pass. 
That he called the committee together for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the views of each of its members and suggested that a 
written ballot be taken without any discussion. The committee 
proceeded to vote in accordance with that suggestion, with the 
result that there were six negative ballots. 



336 [1869 

The Chairman stated that there was money at the command 
of the committee for any purpose that met its approval, but that 
if we "as conservers of the peace" — his exact words — could not 
get what was proper to have and sorely needed without corrupt 
methods, we do not want them, and he complimented each mem- 
ber of the committee for his action on the matter without con- 
sultation or discussion. 

The entire committee went to Albany and used every effort 
to push the bill, without success, however. It was defeated by 
a small majority; two votes changed would have carried it. It 
was a blow at that time, but in the light of the present it is prob- 
ably just as well that it was. 

February 3d, Captain H. H. Evertsen, commanding Com- 
pany B of the 71st, having received a furlough and been com- 
pelled to leave the city on business, was tendered a farewell 
surprise at his residence in Barrow Street by the members of his 
company, on Friday evening, January 5th. Some forty couples 
were in attendance and the affair was managed with the utmost 
secrecy, which made it a total surprise to the Captain. Excellent 
music and supper were provided and the merry time was con- 
tinued until a late hour. Many officers of the regiment were 
present and Sergeant Robert Orser was Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Arrangements. 

These little functions were quite frequent and added much 
to the sociability of the members of companies. 

On February the 22d was held the Promenade and Recep- 
tion. The following account is from the "Army and Navy Jour- 
nal" of the 27th : 

"RECEPTION OF THE SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT 

"This exceedingly fine regiment, which well deserves the 
name of the 'American Guard,' held, on Monday last, the 22d 
instant, at the Academy of Music, one of the finest promenade 
concerts and receptions that has ever been held by this or any 
regiment of the National Guard. The Academy on this evening, 
exteriorly and interiorly, presented a fine appearance. The bril- 
liant calcium lights erected on the street in the vicinity turned 
night into day. As the hour of 9 approached the Academy began 
to fill with its gay assemblage and a continual stream followed 
until past 11 o'clock, although it was not an all-night affair. 

"The decorations of the interior of the Academy were few, 
but those were very neat. The crowning feature of these deco- 
rations was a shield, flags, guidons and muskets beautifully ar- 



1869] 337 

rang-ed in innumerable gas jets over the stage. The orchestra, 
which on this occasion was wisely stationed in the rear of the 
stage instead of the top of the building, was under the leadership 
of Professor Downing, the leader of the regimental band. The 
music for the promenade was furnished by a band of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five pieces, which was subsequently divided for 
promenading and dancing. Promenading was soon disposed of 
and shortly after 10 o'clock dancing was fully under way. The 
floor at this time was almost too full for comfort. The balcony, 
dress-circle and every other circle was filled to repletion with 
the numerous guests, but the floor on this evening seemed to be 
the main attraction. 

"We would that we had the faculty of describing the 
recherche toilets of the ladies, but our reserved and modest pen 
fails when most needed to perform this pleasant but unfamiliar 
duty. The floor as viewed from the dress-circle fairly dazzled 
the eye. One of the many attractive features of this affair 
was the elegance of its reception of its invited guests — a duty, we 
are sorry to state, seldom understood or, if understood, sadly 
neglected. On this evening a separate entrance was provided, 
and as the guest entered he was immediately escorted to a cloak 
and hat room specially provided. Here, after the disposal of his 
outer apparel, under the escort of one of the reception committee 
the guest was escorted to the committee room, where he was 
treated in a truly hospitable style. This room was attended to 
in a manner which set an example of what a committee room 
should be. 

"Good arrangements did not end here. At the main entrance 
on Irving Place the same courteous attentions were extended on 
the part of active committees to all the guests as they entered 
the building, and although every portion of the Academy was 
filled to overflov/ing, everything worked so smoothly that all 
crowding of lobbies was avoided and much confusion thereby 
saved. It would seem almost invidious on our part to compliment 
individual officers or members of the regiment who assisted on 
the committees, for, led by Colonel Parmele, the Commandant of 
the regiment, all performed their duties in excellent style. The 
order of dancing was in the form of a blue miniature fatigue 
cap, made of papier-mache, which, though of elegant design, 
was not as good in material as was the knapsack order of last 
year. 

"The reception closed shortly after 2 o'clock. The Army 
and Navy were well represented during the evening, among whom 
were present Admiral Farragut and his private secretary. Major 
Montgomery; Major-General McDowell, attended by the officers 
of his staff; General Burns, Commissary-General, U.S.A., and 
nearly every regular officer then in the city ; Major-General Shaler 
and staff; General Bowman, of the Maryland N.G., and staff; 
Generals Denirson and Ross, Maryland N.G. These latter offi- 
cers were the special guests of the regiment. General Russell 
and staff, Connecticut N.G., and representatives from every regi- 
ment in this and the second division." 



338 [1869 

Up to this time the regiment used the same trousers for dress 
and fatigue as a matter of economy, being light blue. It was 
only considered temporary. It now adopted a new style, being 
dark blue with a light stripe down the side, which greatly added 
to the otherwise handsome appearance of the uniform. 

March 19th the Veteran Association met to decide on the 
adoption of a badge pin and arrange for its first annual dinner 
to be held on April 21st, the anniversary of the departure of the 
regiment to Washington, 1861. 

In April the Colonel's head continuing to trouble him, he 
took leave of absence for. three months. 

June 4th, the regiment paraded on Tompkins Square for 
battalion instruction and also for medal and flag presentation. 
The line formed at about 3 :30 o'clock P. M. on 17th Street, right 
on Fourth Avenue. Lieutenant-Colonel Rockafellar was in com- 
mand, and the regiment, in fatigue dress, with white cross belts, 
looked well. They marched, headed by drum corps, to the parade 
ground and formed square, and the Lieutenant-Colonel presented 
the gold "Roosevelt" medal to Company I, Captain Wise, this 
company having recruited the largest number of men during 
1868. This medal was oval shape, star-pointed, and surrounded 
with laurel leaves, and was elegant and elaborate in workman- 
ship. It was the gift of Quartermaster Roosevelt and was to be 
worn one year by the Captain of the company and then re-pre- 
sented to some other company in the regiment showing the best 
record in this line. 

The Lieutenant-Colonel then presented an elegant flag to 
Company G, Captain Webber, this company having shown during 
the last year the best record for attendance, proficiency in drill, 
general neatness of company books and good standing in the 
regiment. The flag was the gift of Lieutenant-Colonel Rocka- 
fellar. It was of silk and bore a handsomely embroidered eagle, 
the figures "71," the words "E Pluribus Unum," and motto, 
"Palma qui meruit, ferat," all the handiwork of Mrs. Rocka- 
fellar. The flag to be carried by the company for one year, sub- 
ject to similar conditions as the medal. A few battalion move- 
ments were executed, after which the regiment returned to its 
quarters and was dismissed. 

When the Vosburgh monument was erected there was no 



1869] 339 

railing placed around it. In the spring of this year action was 
taken to provide one. It is described in the following : 

From the "Army and Navy Journal" of June 12 : 

"Through the politeness of Lieutenant Edward V. Burk, of 
Company G of the 71st Regiment, we have received a sketch 
and description of the railing intended to surround the Vosburgh 
monument at Greenwood Cemetery. The railing is composed of 
muskets with fixed bayonets, all of malleable iron, and perfect 
in imitation of the shooting irons. The gate is a masterpiece of 
workmanship and very elaborate. The column or post on which 
the gate swings is formed somewhat in imitation of a bundle of 
fasces and is surmounted with an eagle grasping a bugle, con- 
taining the figures "71" in its claws. And underneath, across the 
top of the gate are the words 'American Guard.' At the bottom 
of the gate are the letters N.G.S.N.Y. The sides contain stars 
running in a line downward and at the centre of the gate, sup- 
ported by two swords in their scabbards, is a regulation hat, the 
whole surrounded by a wreath of laurels. The hilts and scab- 
bards of the swords and other ornaments of the gate are double 
firegilt and burnished ; the grip of the sword is of silver, and 
the workmanship is creditable to the manufacturers." 

In April of this year the upper floor of the 32d Street build- 
ing was obtained, and in December, all being completed, the 
regiment moved into it. It was a great event when for the first 
time the regiment, like a hen, gathered its chickens under its wings. 
At last all companies were under one roof. The following is a 
description of the armory: After entering and ascending the 
main staircase the visitor found himself in a large hall, the floor 
of which is laid with narrow strips of oak and black walnut. 
In the centre of this floor was a large diamond, having in its 
centre the figures of "71." On the wall on the right was the 
regimental coat-of-arms, beautifully painted, with the regi- 
mental motto, "Pro aris et pro focis," at the bottom; and on the 
wall directly opposite was an Olympian arch, from floor to ceil- 
ing, in the centre of which was suspended an elegant bulletin 
board. The main hall near the head of the stairs opened into 
another hall about eight feet wide, facing which company rooms, 
four in number, were found. A, B, C and D. These rooms were 
elegantly fitted up and floored in the same manner as the main 
hall, excepting that the strips composing the floor were narrower. 

Opposite Company A room, the first after leaving the main 
hall, was the Board of Officers' room. There were, however, 
before reaching the room, two small rooms, one on each side of 
the small passage leading to the Board room. That on the right 



340 [1869 

was the Adjutant's, the one on the left was the Colonel's ; ad- 
joining the Board room was a squad drill room, 40 by 60. At the 
end of the main hall were Companies E, F, G, H and I, facing on 
a hall parallel with the first. These company rooms were 16 by 
24 and were comfortably fitted up, having sixteen lockers on 
each side in black walnut. At the far end was a handsome desk 
on a raised platform for the presiding officer; facing the desk 
on each side of the entrance were two very handsome black wal- 
nut racks for muskets ; a chandelier in the centre completed the 
furnishings. 

On the upper floor was Company K room, the Armorer's 
room, the Quartermaster's, reading, card, class and checker rooms. 
In the latter room were two bookcases containing 200 volumes, 
the daily papers and magazines. There was also a drill room, 
75 by 75, and a stage, 25 by 75, with flies and scenery. 

On the evening of the 23d of June the annual contest for 
the Parmele musket took place. The regiment assembled in full 
dress, line being formed at 7:30 o'clock, and then in three sides 
of a square to witness the competition drill between Sergeant 
Dow of Company F and Sergeant Bascom of Company I for the 
prize musket. 

Of this the "Army and Navy Journal" said : 

"In the position of the soldier Sergeant Bascom excelled, 
Sergeant Dow leaning, in our opinion, a trifle too much forward. 
The details of the drill were closely followed by both men, and, 
with the exception of one or two trivial errors on the part of 
Sergeant Bascom, was as near perfection as could be. 

"In oblique firings, while Sergeant Dow stepped off cor- 
rectly with the right foot, Sergeant Bascom stood perfectly still. 
These, with an error caused by nervousness in handling the 
rammer in the loadings, were all the errors committed. Con- 
sidering that the latter was almost self-taught and self-drilled — 
though the musket was awarded, after some deliberation by the 
judges and referee (Captains Spear and Webber of the 71st and 
Colonel Van Wyck of the 9th), to Sergeant Dow, the former 
holder of the champion musket — yet Sergeant Bascom is entitled 
to great credit for the display made on the occasion." 

After the drill the regiment had a moonlight parade. Of 
this the "Herald" said : 

"Many beautiful and fashionably dressed ladies, together 
with a mixed company of lords of creation, assembled last eve- 
ning at the comer of 34th Street and Fifth Avenue to witness 
the moonlight parade of the 71st Regiment, N.Y.S.N.G. The 



1869] 341 

weather was very mild, a slight breeze setting in from the river 
made a delightful change in the temperature and the balconies 
and the windows of the houses lining the adjacent thoroughfares 
were filled by interested spectators. At about 8:15 o'clock the 
splendid regimental band took up its position on the corner, near 
A. T. Stewart's new palace, 34th Street and Fifth Avenue, and 
played some fine marches. Shortly after the regiment appeared 
and created quite a sensation by their beautiful uniforms, which 
were trimmed with white and gold, and in the dim moonlight 
made a very striking figure. 

"The companies came into line with great precision and 
effected the alignment with a singular rapidity. The few evolu- 
tions that were gone through by the battalion were marked by 
military unity and reflected much credit upon the regiment. The 
line of march, was taken down Madison Avenue and through 
other avenues and streets and thousands came to the front to 
see the fine display." 

During the month of May Company G had agitated the 
proposition of an excursion to Baltimore, trying to persuade 
Companies B, C and H to join in making a battalion. It, how- 
ever, did not succeed. They consequently changed their pro- 
gramme and arranged for a trip to New Port and Providence. 
The following is an account: 

From the "Army and Navy Journal" of September 4th : 

"Company G, some sixty strong, including band and drum 
corps, assembled on Monday afternoon at the 13th Street Armory 
and at shortly after 5 o'clock marched from thence to the foot 
of Murray Street, N. R., and then embarked on board the 
steamer 'Old Colony' for New Port. 

"What the company lacked in numbers it made up in spirit. 
* * * New Port was reached about 4 A. M. A committee 
of the ofificers of the New Port company were on hand to meet 
them. At 6 o'clock the company disembarked and, under the 
escort of the artillery, marched to the latter's armory to be dis- 
missed. At 8 o'clock the command breakfasted by invitation of 
their hosts at the Perry House and shortly after again assembled, 
and under the same escort made a grand parade through the 
principal streets of New Port, which were lined with spectators, 
who loudly and frequently applauded the fine marching and 
appearance of tTie visiting company. 

"The artillery company, which acts as infantry, * * * 
dates back to 1741 and claims to have participated in every war 
in which this country has been engaged. 

"At the conclusion of the parade the company was dismissed, 
reassembling at 1 o'clock and escorted as before, marching to the 
steamer for Providence amidst loud cheers and hearty responses. 

"At shortly after 2 o'clock the steamer reached Providence 



342 [1869 

vvharf, where the visiting companies were received by the Burn- 
side Zouaves, a fine body of young men, uniformed in red trousers, 
light blue Zouave-cut jackets and white fatigue caps. Under this 
escort Company G marched through the chief streets of the city, 
which as at New Port were crowded with gratified and hospitable 
spectators. 

"Arriving at the residence of General Burnside, the battalion 
halted and offered him the honor of a review, which he was 
compelled to decline on account of lack of time, he having to 
leave town on a train which was then about starting. The bat- 
tahon finally halted at the armory of the Marine Artillery, which 
was made its headquarters during its stay, mattresses having 
been procured for the accommodation of the men. 

"In the evening the company was entertained conjointly by 
the Burnside Zouaves and the Marine Artillery at the armory of 
the Light Infantry, marching there without arms under the escort 
of the Zouaves. 

"During the march the streets were again fairly alive with 
people and the route was illuminated with red lights, which gave 
the whole scene an enchanting effect. 

"Arriving at the armory of the Light Infantry the two com- 
panies formed themselves into a square after Captain Dennis 
introduced Mayor Clark, who welcomed the company in true 
Rhode Island style. The men then fell in and marched to an 
adjoining room, where an elegant spread was laid out. Here 
the companies pledged eternal friendship. Later in the evening 
the officers of all companies combined repaired to the City Hotel. 

"The following morning the company and its friends em- 
barked on the steamer 'What Cheer' for Silver Spring, one of 
the many resorts on the Narragansett Bay, and enjoyed a fine 
shore dinner, * * * after which they embarked for Provi- 
dence and at 5 P. M. left for New Port, where they arrived a 
little after 7, and again under the escort of the artillery company 
marched to the boat for New York, reaching which they were 
received by Company B and escorted to the armory." 

General Ward was very much attached to the 71st. Without 
its vote he could not have been elected to the office he held. As 
an evidence of his appreciation he presented the regiment with a 
set of drums (twenty), the finest that could be purchased, said 
to have cost three hundred dollars ($300). They were consid- 
ered by the various drum majors the regiment had subse- 
quently as superior to any others afterwards received. They were 
destroyed in the fire of 1902. 

The following is from the "Army and Navy Journal," of 
October 30th : 

"Inspection of the 71st Regiment: On the 21st instant this 



1869] 343 

fine command paraded for inspection and muster at Tompkins 
Square. The regiment formed at the regimental armory, 32d 
Street, and from thence marched to the grounds, where it arrived 
at about 3 P. M. 

"* * * The regiment paraded in full marching order and 
in fatigue uniform with white cross belts. There is something 
about this regiment that is always attractive to even a casual 
observer. The men are generally set up and steady and their 
countenances intelligent. The name of 'American Guard' it is 
certainly entitled to, if the fact of Americans having the largest 
representation in its ranks is true. It is generally conceded, 
moreover, that the exclusiveness which brought this 'American' 
characteristic and which was at one time quite strict, has since 
kept foreigners from joining the regiment and thus the ranks 
from keeping well filled. 

"The regiment on arriving on the ground was formed for 
review, passing in quick and double time, the latter eliciting 
much commendation. The review was followed, at the request 
of the inspector. Major Gilon, by the execution of a few battalion 
movements. They were executed in single rank formation. This 
formation, by the way, seems a peculiar hobby of the Lieutenant- 
Colonel and though generally the movements are well performed, 
as on this occasion, the regiment lacks the steadiness nf double 
rank formation, and this v.'as observable during the whole drill. 
The movement of column by four, break from the right to 
march to the left,' was as finely executed as ever witnessed on 
these grounds, the distances being even and not a single break 
occurring. Many of the movements were executed with like 
precision and the regiment deserves special commendation. In- 
spector-General McQuade was on the grounds, also General Ward 
and staff, and all expressed a high appreciation of the regiment's 
exhibition." 

The result of this inspection was of much interest as within 
the year it had procured an armory and a full dress uniform. 
The expense of the latter it was expected would cause the loss 
of many. It was therefore gratifying to find that though a loss 
of nine on the total since the previous year, there was a gain of 
twenty-nine in those present, with forty less absent. The return 
as follows: 

F. &S. N.C.S. Band ABCDEFGHI T'l 
Present 7 6 40 30 52 32 33 31 33 36 44 33 377 

Absent 2 18 7 1 6 14 10 11 12 14 95 

Total 9 6 40 48 59 33 29 45 43 47 56 47 472 

At the inspection of 1866, the year that Colonel Parmele 
took command, the total strength of the regiment was 469 present, 



344 [1869 

137 absent; total, 606 — not a discouraging situation considering 
the adoption of a full dress. The morale of the regiment was 
never better. While there were some indissoluble elements in it, 
there was still a fairly harmonious condition existing, and what- 
ever difJferences of opinion there may have been they did not 
detract from the loyalty of all to the regiment. The esprit de 
corps was never higher. The administration, though strict in 
discipline, was always consistent and impartial. 

Colonel Parmele latterly had frequently been absent from 
the regiment, and on October 29th sent in his resignation on 
account of removal from the State, he going to South Carolina 
to reside. 




COLONEL HARRY ROCKAFELLAR 



Plate V — tfp. 345 



Administration of 

Colonel HARRY ROCKAFELLAR 

1869—1872. 



On Monday evening, November 6th, an election was held to 
fill the vacancy, resulting in the unanimous vote for Lieutenant- 
Colonel Harry Rockafellar. The new Colonel practically made 
no change in the administration, everything going on as before. 

Colonel Rockafellar joined Company F in 1861, was with it 
at the battle of Bull Run, where he was hit by a piece of shell 
which so fractured his left arm that it was found necessary to 
amputate it above the elbow. He was left on the field of battle, 
taken prisoner and thence to Libby Prison, Richmond, from 
which he escaped after remaining about one year. During his 
stay in Richmond he received a commission as Second Lieuten- 
ant. He reported for duty in time to take part in the engage- 
ments at South Mountain and Antietam. He afterwards served 
on staff duty at the United States Arsenal in Philadelphia, re- 
joining his regiment in time to participate in the battle of 
Gettysburg. 

In September, 1863, he was sent to Morris Island, S. C, 
and went through the siege of Fort Wagner. After this he joined 
General Siegel's staff and was appointed Provost Marshal of the 
mining district in Pennsylvania, where there was disturbance 
regarding the Draft. He was in charge there of a brigade of 
troops from the Army of the Potomac and in two months ar- 
rested and sent to Fort Delaware over 180 "incorrigibles." He 
was then ordered in command of a regiment of Veteran Reserve 
Corps. He participated in the battle at Fort Stevens against 
Early, losing fifty-six of his men. 

Colonel Rockafellar then joined the Army of the Potomac at 



346 [1869-70 

City Point. He remained in front of Richmond until it fell. 
He was then sent to Philadelphia as ordnance and mustering offi- 
cer on General Cumming's staff. He remained in this position 
until a year after all the troops were mustered out, and then 
after two refusals his resignation was accepted. In January, 
1866, he returned to New York and in May was elected Major 
of the 71st and in January, 1867, was made Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

During the administration of Colonel Parmele, covering 
three years, allowing for the various absences of Colonel Par- 
mele, Lieutenant-Colonel Rockafellar had been in command for 
at least eight months. He, of course, had the same staff, and 
faithfully carried out the program as laid out by Colonel Par- 
mele. Colonel Rockafellar was continuing the same line, there 
was no change. 

By Regimental Order No. 11, 1869 (November), 34th 
Street, right on Fifth Avenue, was made the regimental parade 
ground. 

1 8 7 O 



The opening event of this year was the reception, the fol- 
lowing of which is an account : 

From the "Army and Navy Journal" of January 29th: 

"On the evening of the 21st instant, the 71st held a 'house- 
warming' at its new arrrory, which was attended by at least 
three thousand persons. The regimental band, under Professor 
Downing, discoursed some fine music. The main room and all 
company rooms were crowded during the evening and from every 
one the members of the regiment received congratulations on at 
last having a home and a roof under which they could meet to- 
gether. The companies vied with each other in entertaining theii 
friends in the company rooms, many of which were elegantly 
decorated for the occasion, and all contained well-arranged tables 
of refreshments. * * * The rooms were very handsomely 
fitted up and nicely carpeted. A special room has been arranged 
where the members may enjoy the free use of a library and of 
all the leading periodicals, which of itself is an inducement to be 
a member of the 'American Guard.' There can be little doubt 
that recruiting will hereafter be rapid in the regiment, and that 
the letter (K) now vacant will soon be taken up, and the 71st 
stand unrivalled in numbers as well as discipline. 

"The room of Company K was used by the field officers as 



1870] 347 

a reception room for their friends, who were hospitably and 
temperately entertained. The armorer's room has every neces- 
sary appliance, and the whole armory is very nicely arranged and 
finely fitted up. 

"The attendance of distinguished military guests was numer- 
ous and the management of the officers and all concerned was 
admirable. During the early part of the evening Colonel Rocka- 
fellar was presented on behalf of the non-commissioners with a 
very handsome medal studded with diamonds." 

The 71st Regiment enjoyed great popularity with the citi- 
zens, but was not so fortunate among the higher military and 
civic authorities. It was "slated" for disbandment or destruction 
by arbitrary transfers to other organizations. An officer of high 
rank in the Guard, and also in political circles, exhibited his 
enmity unmistakably, and his efforts were counteracted suc- 
cessfully only by the most determined opposition on the part of 
some of the zealous officers in the regiment, a fact that was not 
generally known at the time, who received very little assistance 
either inside or outside of the ranks. 

To illustrate this, an offer was made to one of the senior 
officers to organize what he called a "corps d'elite" battery of 
flying artillery, equipped with Catling guns, with trained horses, 
a magnificent dress uniform and service dress of all kinds, with- 
out regard to expense; he to have the selection of officers and 
150 men picked for transfer from the 71st Regiment, with the 
pledge on the part of the authorities that no expense should be 
incurred by officers or members, everything being assumed by the 
State. Such an offer would have been a most attractive one 
under ordinary circumstances. The Catling gun was new and a 
battery equipped as it was proposed for this one would have 
bounded into popularity at once. 

But when it was proposed to build up such an organization 
by destroying one that had shown itself under fire to be just what 
everybody knew it would be if it had a chance, because the 
latter had incurred the displeasure — let it go at that— of certain 
persons who were not allowed to use it as a football, removed the 
proposition from all possibility of even respectful consideration, 
and the officer to whom it was made declined it. 

The following from the "Army and Navy Journal," March 
10th, is of interest: 

"In a recent issue we announced that the howitzers at one 
time attached to the 71st Regiment and abandoned on the field 



348 [1870 

of Bull Run were at Richmond awaiting the orders of the regi- 
ment. Since that time we have been officially informed that the 
Hon. Mr. (General) Slocum, member of Congress, has offered 
his personal influence to bring about the restoration of these 
guns to the regiment if some member of the 71st will identify 
them. Brevet Lieutaiant-Colonel and Captain Henry A. Ellis, 
of the 17th U. S. Infantry (brother of the lamented Captain 
and afterwards Brevet-Brigade-General and Colonel A. V. li. 
Ellis, of the 124th U. S. Volunteers, who commanded this bat- 
tery at the time), has offered to purchase these guns and present 
them to the regiment if they cannot be otherwise obtained. 
* * H= 

"There were five Ellis brothers in that battle, one of whom 
was slain (Captain of Company F)." 

In regard to the above it may be said that ever since the 
close of the war every effort had been made to recover these 
guns. Many clues had been traced to find that they were false. 

From "The Telegram" of April 14th : 

"At the closing drill of Company C, 71st Regiment, just be- 
fore the dismissal of the company. Captain Spear called Sergeant 
McLaren to the front, and after complimenting him in the highest 
terms presented him with a most beautiful gold watch and chain. 
The Sergeant was so completely overpowered by emotion at this 
evidence of good feeling on the part of his comrades that it was 
with difficulty he could express his thanks. This being done, 
however, the company retired to don their dress uniforms, after 
which dancing was indulged in by the members and their many 
friends who had been invited to witness the presentation. At 
12 o'clock a sumptuous collation was served, gotten up in the 
well-known style of Messrs. Jones St Co., of Broadway." 

April 19th the annual contest took place. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," April 23d : 

"On Wednesday evening the 71st Regiment, Colonel Rocka- 
fellar in command, assisted by Lieutenant-Colonel Wolcott, Major 
Eunson and Adjutant Francis, assembled nine commands — ten 
files — with full band and drum corps, in full dress uniform. The 
line was formed rapidly and creditably. The drill began with 
the manual, loadings and firings. Manual good, firings more than 
good. The contestants for the Parmele musket were called to 
the front, seven in number. * * * 

"These were drilled by Major Eunson. The judges were 
Captain Allison of the 7th and Lieutenant-Colonel Dunn of the 
8th. The contestants were drilled in the school of the soldier and 
the manual. They showed careful attention to details and ex- 
hibited a proper steadiness. After a spirited contest, during 
which it was almost impossible to decide upon the best man, one 
or two of the contestants began to show signs of nervousness and 



1870] 349 

through some trifling blunder lost their chance of winning. The 
contest was then continued between (wo (the others being re- 
tired), Sergeants Stephenson and Walworth, and for some time 
it was impossible to detect any advantage of one over the other. 
Sergeant Walworth, however, after another course of drilling, 
won the musket by superior steadiness only, Sergeant Stephenson 
losing it by slight wavering of the body. 

"The contest was animated and spirited and reflected the 
greatest credit on the contestants, many of whom say they are 
'going for it' again next year. The Rockafellar 'flag' was after- 
wards awarded to Company C, that company having made the 
best averages in attendance to drills and parades for the past 
year. The Board of Officers, through the Colonel, presented to 
Sergeant Bogert, of Company C, a handsome regimental pm, 
costing $50, as a reward for long and faithful service in the 
regiment, he having served for twenty years and recently brought 
in his son as a member. A promenade concert closed the eve- 
ning's entertainment. It was attended by a very large and 
fashionable audience." 

From issue of May 14th: 

"This regiment on the 10th instant, being prevented by the 
rain from holding its drill in Tompkins Square, as originally pro- 
posed, assembled at the regimental armory and thence proceeded 
to the arsenal for that purpose. As might have been expected 
under the circumstances, it paraded with sHm ranks, its strength 
being eight commands of ten files front. 

"After the formation by Adjutant Francis the regiment pre- 
pared for review, Adjutant-General Townsend, who was present, 
being the reviewing officer. This ceremony was very handsomely 
performed, and at its conclusion the command were exercised in 
battalion movements, single and double rank formation, all of 
which were unusually well executed, drawing complimentary re- 
marks from the Adjutant-General and a number of visiting officers 
who were present.. 

"The drill was concluded with that very essential practice, 
street firing, in which the command apparently took peculiar in- 
terest, it being the first time it had attempted its execution since 
the v/ar. We would suggest that the regiment confine itself more 
closely to com.pany and platoon firing, and give less attention to 
firing by division, as the former is more likely to be called into 
use." 

The first brigade was ordered to parade on June 3d, with 
a proviso that in case of a storm it would be postponed to the 
10th instant. The postponement occurred, but the 10th was 
equally as bad. It rained in torrents. The regiments were trans- 
ported to Prospect Park parade ground by cars from the Brook- 
lyn side, reaching there about noon. After stacking arms they 
were dismissed for rations and further orders. 



350 [1870 

The rain fell gently, and without adequate shelter the 
men were wet to the skin. Orders were that the men should not 
leave the field. To enforce this there was a detachment from 
the 71st and 22d, under Lieutenant-Colonel Wolcott of the 71st 
as Field Officer of the Day. But as the rain still fell and there 
was no shelter, the General withdrew the guard and the men 
got such shelter as they could. 

At about 1 o'clock General Ward and staff invited the Field 
Officers and staff and officers generally to a bountiful collation 
in the cottage. During this the Adjutant- General arrived on 
the ground. The brigade was soon after formed in line for 
review. At the formation the rain ceased for a time, but as the 
brigade passed in review it came on again. 

The "Army and Navy Journal" of the 18th said : 

"The 71st paraded with drum corps, two hundred and fifty. 
The regiment was under command of Colonel Rockafellar and 
the turn out slim for the regiment, but this did not affect its 
discipline. 

"It made a fine appearance and few if any excelled it on 
the ground. The firings of the 71st was the most uniform in 
excellence. The 71st with its reputation, excellent quarters and 
good material, should be the close rival of the 7th." 

July 16th, the regiment paraded to receive the 7th Regiment 
on its return from a trip to Cape May. 

For at least one year or more dissensions in the 37th Regi- 
ment had been serious until in the summer of 1870 it was evi- 
dent that it would be reduced to a battalion if not disbanded. At 
this psychological moment Major Eunson (who had once been 
a member of the 37th and was well acquainted with its officers) 
suggested to the representative officers that they should consoli- 
date with the 71st. It proved acceptable and a meeting was held 
at Colonel Freeborn's house, he having those officers of the 37th 
that were to be provided for present on behalf of the 37th. 
Major Eunson and the Adjutant of the 71st representing the 
latter. All action at this conference could only be tentative as at 
this time the officers of the 71st knew nothing of this. Having 
arranged a plan which it seemed to the representatives of the 
71st possible to carry out, the meeting, after appointing a com- 
mittee to represent the 37th in conjunction with the 71st, 
adjourned. 



1870] 351 

The next step was to notify Colonel Rockafellar that there 
was something doing, of which at that stage it would be better 
for him to be able to say if asked that he knew nothing, that as 
soon as all the details were settled the committee would report 
to him. As it would be necessary to render some of the officers 
supernumerary and to place the officers of the 37th brought in 
among the different companies, it was necessary to have every- 
thing arranged before any opposition arose. The next step was 
to notify General Ward, and having procured his approval and 
through him the consent of General Headquarters, the plan was 
then officially laid before the Colonel. 

A consolidation of two such organizations presented diffi- 
culties that were only possible to surmount by exceeding great 
care on the part of the officers charged with the delicate duty of 
trying to do exact justice to all of the interests involved, mostly 
by the way of a personal nature, as only one-half of the officers 
could be provided for, and such as called for exhibitions of rare 
self-sacrifice. Fortunately the consolidation was accompHshed 
with no friction of any consequence and the new comrades were 
received with a warm welcome, enough to reconcile them to the 
substitution of the new number on their caps in place of their 
own, beside which the veteran association opened wide its doors 
and welcomed their veterans on the same conditions as the 71st. 
The consolidation was a success in every way. 

The following is from the "Army and Navy Journal" of 
September 24th : 

"The arrangements for the consolidation of the 37th with 
the 71st have been completed and orders will shortly be issued 
from General Headquarters confirming the action of all concerned. 
As we have before said, we believe this consolidation will have 
a beneficial effect. 

"By it the 71st gains at least one hundred new members — 
some say two hundred. While the 71st gains these men, the 37th 
is freed from further internal troubles and the quarrels among 
officers and men become, like the organization, a thing of the 
past, never, we trust, to be resuscitated. The history of the 
37th, were it written, and its various vicissitudes, would fill many 
a page, and only its good material has enabled it to stand constant 
dissensions for the past six years or more. All these sorrows, let 
us repeat, should die with the 37th. Never let their sour pres- 
ence appear in the ranks of the 71st 'American Guard,' whose 
record has never been tarnished by dissensions of a like 
character." 



352 [1870 

GENERAL HEADQUARTERS S.N.Y., ADJUTANT- 
GENERAL'S OFFICE 

Albany, Sept. 21, 1870. 

General Orders No. 21: 

1 

2 

3. The 37th Regiment, National Guard, is hereby consolidated 
with the 71st Regiment, National Guard, the combined force to be 
designated and known as the 71st Regiment, National Guard, State 
of New York. The several companies of these regiments will re- 
organize and officers are assigned thereto as follows: 

Company A of the reorganized regiment will be formed by con- 
solidating Company B of the 37th with Company A of the 71st, with 
Samuel W. Osgood as Captain, Samuel B. Jackson as First Lieuten- 
ant, and Thomas W. Love as Second Lieutenant. 

Company B will be formed by Company B of the 71st Regiment 
as at present constituted, with Charles N. Swift as Captain, Charles 
F. DeBorst as First Lieutenant, and Stephen F. Curtis, Jr., as Second 
Lieutenant. 

Company C will be formed by consolidating Company D of the 
37th with Company C of the 71st, with Alfred Spear as Captain, Alfred 
P. Vreedenburgh as First Lieutenant, and John R. Davenport as 
Second Lieutenant. 

Company D of the 71st, with Company H of the 37th, John W. 

Youmans as Captain, — — — as First Lieutenant, and 

George C. Freeborn as Second Lieutenant. 

Company E will be formed by consolidating Company A of the 
37th with Company E of the 71st, with James S. Turner as Captain, 
Gilbert W. Knight as First Lieutenant, and Charles E. Brown as Second 
Lieutenant. 

Company F will be formed by consolidating Company G of the 
37th with Company F of the 71st, with Charles N. Leland as Cap- 
tain, Henry K. White as First Lieutenant, and Beverly Ward as 
Second Lieutenant. 

Company G will be formed by consolidating Company K of the 
37th with Company G of the 71st, with Abram L. Webber as Captain, 
James T. Brinckerhoff as First Lieutenant, and Lewis R. Post as 
Second Lieutenant. 

Company H will be Company H of the 71st as at present consti- 
tuted, with Amos L. See as Captain, as First 

Lieutenant, and John L Riggins as Second Lieutenant. 

Company I will be Company I of the 71st Regiment as at present 
constituted, with Joseph A. Wise as Captain, William A. Elmer as 
First Lieutenant, and Theodore V. Smith as Second Lieutenant. 

Company K will be formed by consolidating Company B of the 
37th with Company K of the 71st, with William N. Cox as Captain, 



1870] 353- 

Sanford A. Taylor as First Lieutenant, and John C. Rue as Second 
Lieutenant. 

The present field officers of the 71st Regiment, viz., Harry Rocka- 
fellar, George D. Wolcott and Eugene S. Eunson, will retain their 
respective positions in the consolidated regiment, together with such 
regimental staff officers as shall be designated by the Colonel. * * * 
All other officers are hereby rendered supernumerary. * * * 
By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 

FRANKLIN TOWNSEND, 

Adjutant-General. 

At least two hundred and fifty names were added to the roll 
by this consolidation, of which about one hundred were dead 
wood. Most of these got into the roll of Company A, leaving 
possibly a gain of one hundred and fifty. 

The notorious James Fisk, being Commodore of the Fall 
River line of steamboats, seeking greater fame, by his political 
pull obtained control of the 9th Regiment, which numbered about 
five hundred men, and by forcing employees of the various cor- 
porations which he controlled into the ranks built it up to about 
nine hundred. His ambition was then to have the finest band 
that could be procured. For this purpose he made overtures ta 
Professor Downing, leader of the 71st Regiment Band since its 
organization, and as has been shown, known throughout the coun- 
try. Naturally after nearly twenty years of association neither 
the regiment nor Professor Downing desired to sever the long and 
pleasant ties, but the oflfer was so advantageous to him that the 
officers deemed it selfish to object and accepted the situation. 
The professor built the band to one hundred for the 9th. It 
lasted until shortly after Colonel Fisk was murdered. And for 
a time the 71st was without a band. 

September 30th, the obsequies of Admiral Farragut took 
place, for which purpose the division paraded. It was a terrible 
day, the rain coming down at times in sheets. The men were 
wet to their skin; the mounted officers' boots were filled with 
water. The remains were received at West Street, foot of 
Canal, and escorted to the Grand Central, from whence they 
were taken to Woodlawn. 

October 1st, David Banks, Jr., presented to the regiment a 
handsome silver cup, to be awarded to the best drilled private. 

On October 28th, the division was reviewed by the Governor 



354 [1870 

on the Prospect Park parade ground. It was a beautiful but 
windy day. Owing to the time required to reach the ground the 
formation was later than intended. Of the 71st the "Army and 
Navy Journal," November Sth, said : 

"The 71st, Colonel Rockafellar in command, paraded ten 
companies sixteen files front, in full marching order. They at- 
tracted unusual attention and its well-filled ranks and soldierly 
appearance elicited unbounded applause." 

From the same, November Sth : 

"The 71st, after many postponements, finally held its annual 
inspection on Monday evening, October 30th, in the State Arsenal. 
The 71st has for some years back gained but little in mem- 
bers and, although always sustaining a well deserving name, has 
never been able to fill its ranks thereby or parade with great- 
strength. Since the war various efforts have been made to in- 
crease its relative strength, with but partial success, and the regi- 
ment, like many others of its class, has shown little increase dur- 
ing the past few years. 

"The union of the 37th with this command was an event 
long and devoutly wished by the 71st and at last accomplished, thus 
aiding a worthy command, and ridding the State of a trouble- 
some one. The turnout at Inspection was not equal to the parade 
of the regiment on the 28th ultimo, for which we cannot account. 
We observed that several of the companies retain members on the 
rolls who perform duty semi-occasionally. 

"This is especially noticeable in Company A, which had but 
-32 present out of 115 names on its roll. 

F. &S. N.C.S. Band ABCDEFGHI KT'l 
Present 7 4 40 32 46 38 46 49 42 47 39 23 SO 463 

Absent 2 3 83 9 17 22 16 31 34 8 18 21 264 

Total 9 7 40 lis 55 55 68 65 73 81 47 41 71 727 

(The absentees can partially be accounted for on account of 
lack of uniforms by some of the new additions by consolidation.) 

"Headquarters: The roster, journal, endorsement book and 
consolidated report book are neatly and fully written up to date 
of examination ; is without any regular letter book, and uses 
letter press; is without order book, a copy on letter sheet (G. O. 
printed S. O. written) of each order issued is placed in a file 
book, orders received properly filled, and date of reception noted. 
Letters received correctly endorsed and filed. First Lieut. A. T. 
Francis is Adjutant of this regiment." 

From the same, November 12th: 

"We regret to learn of the accident to Adjutant Francis of 
the 71st. His leg was broken by a fall from his horse on the 
occasion of the parade at the review of October 25th. We learn 
that he is slowly recovering, although at one time during the week 
"his case was considered very critical. He is well known and has 



1870-71] 355 

the sympathy of the entire division, to which we add our own. 
By the way, this officer just before the accident issued a very 
useful little book of instruction for Guides, compiled from 
Upton's Tactics. * * *" 

In December David Banks, Jr., presented the regiment with 
two gold medals, to be awarded to the first and second best 
drilled men in the manual of arms. 

Company G gave a reception and dance during the month. 

The regiment had been waiting to occupy the armory of the 
37th since the consolidation, but owing to fairs being held there, 
it did not get into it until late in the month of December. While 
in some respects the rooms were larger and ceilings higher, the 
general appointments were not so nice. During the month 
division drills were held. 

During the month of December a new band was organized 
under the leadership of Felix I. Eben. 

18 7 1 



The order of arrest of delinquents for non-payment of fines 
imposed by regimental court martial was rarely used in the 71st 
and then only in aggravated cases. One such case occurred 
when a Deputy Sheriff, Benjamin H. Yard, who was a member 
of Company C of the regiment, defied the power of the court in 
a most insubordinate manner and refused to pay the fine or rec- 
ognize the orders of the court in any way. This justified extreme 
means to enforce discipHne and an order of arrest was issued. 

He began a suit against the president of the court. Major 
Eugene S. Eunson, the Brigade Commander and the Marshal 
who executed the warrant, for $25,000 damages for false im- 
prisonment and conspiracy. Justice Cardoza of the Supreme 
Court was found to issue an order of arrest for each of tne 
three defendants. These orders were placed in the hands of the 
Sheriff on the last day of the year, which was on Saturday, and 
as New Year's Day was celebrated on Monday, bail could not 
be procured until Tuesday. 

The Sheriff refused to act on them on that day for the reason 
that it was an unnecessary hardship for the gentlemen, who 
could be reached at any time, so they were held over until the 
following week, when the new sheriff arrested the President and 
the Marshal after 3 o'clock, and only missed arresting the Briga- 



356 [1871 

■dier-General because he had left his office a few minutes earlier 
than usual that day, but who surrendered himself on Monday 
morning. On this day each of the three were released on $10,000 
bail and the case left for action at convenience of the court. 

About two years afterwards the plaintiffs' attorneys asked 
permission to withdraw the suit, which was granted on condition 
that the fine imposed by the court martial should be paid, that 
a statement in writing should be made that the action of the court 
martial was right in every particular and that the plaintiff was 
wholly in the wrong, and an indemnity bond furnished that the 
case should not again be brought against either of the defendants, 
whose expenses were assumed by the State. 

The arrest of the President of the court martial caused no 
little stir in military circles. He was not locked in a cell nor 
subjected to any indignity, but an incident of that kind to a 
young man who had an engagement to take his fiancee to a 
theatre on Saturday evening but could not do so because he was 
locked up in a jail, lacked something at first sight of a whimsical 
tone. However, when the freedom of the building was placed 
at his disposal to entertain as many friends as chose to call upon 
him there, he reconciled himself to a postponement of the theatre 
trip and spent the evening and the following day in entertaining 
a host of callers, who from an outsider's point of view seemed 
to think it quite a joke to be incarcerated as a malefactor, and 
to carry out the joke in full, handcuffed and leg-ironed him to 
the warden and his assistant and threatened to throw the keys 
away unless something to smoke and something to eat and some- 
thing to wash it down with was provided. It was, and the keys 
are still there. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," April ISth, 1871: 

"Seventy-first Regiment. * * * The 11th instant was 
the occasion of the Annual Reception of this excellent organiza- 
tion and competitive drill for prizes by several members of the 
regiment. * * * The Academy of Music was never con- 
structed for such a performance as this, especially when military 
festivities and evolutions are combined. * * * The concert 
was for some reason delaj^ed almost an hour and opened with the 
drill of a squad of twelve men for the first prize or 'Parmele' 
musket. Major-General Kiddoo, U.S.A., was the referee, and 
Captain Allison of the 7th and Captain McAfee of the 12th acted 
as judges. Colonel Rockaf ellar commanded the squad, which took 
its position between the proscenium boxes. We have not space 
for the details we wish to give, but will merely state that the 



1871] 357 

drill, which was in the manual of arms, including loading and 
firings (muzzle-loaders) and the simple firings, were exceedingly 
fair throughout. 

"The judges and referee found much difficulty in deciding 
as to the relative merits of the men and were compelled finally 
to depend mainly on minor details, the men presenting so general 
a uniformity of execution. * * * The applause of the spec- 
tators affected not a few of the men, and at the request of the 
Colonel was therefrom stopped. * * * 

"After many inspections and individual trials the judges 
decided as follows: First prize, 'Parmele' musket and a gold 
medal, to Sergeant Walworth of Company F, the former holder 
of the musket and now its owner ; second prize, the 'Banks' silver 
cup, to Private F. H. McCann of Company B." 

About the 1st of July was issued to the 7th and 71st Regi- 
ments the new Remington rifles by the State, although not offi- 
cially adopted by the State. This was accomplished through the 
influence of Captain Henry K. White of the 71st, he being con- 
nected with the firm of Schuyler, Hartly & Graham, agents for the 
Remingtons. 

It was timely in view of what soon followed, the first oppor- 
tunity to use them. "It was one of those movements and issues 
which no one could have anticipated. It was in itself a little 
and old question, but the avidity with which it was seized upon by 
contending factions of the same nativity and precipitated into a 
general melee, whereby many innocent persons lost their lives and 
the metropolis was thrown into consternation, shows that under- 
neath this subject was a deep and traditional dispute of which we 
Americans are ignorant." 

TWELFTH OF JULY RIOT 

For many years previous a bitter feud existed between the 
"Orangemen" and the "Hibernians" of New York and at each 
renewing celebration of the Battle of the Boyne on the 12th of 
July the hatred of the Orangemen by their natural opponents 
was increased. 

On several occasions when on parade or on their picnic 
grounds the Orangemen were attacked by the Hibernians. On 
the 12th of July, 1870, while enjoying themselves with their 
families at Elm Park, an onslaught was made by the Hibernians, 
the Orangemen defending themselves as best they could under 
the circumstances. 

The following year (1871) the Hibernians determined to 
prevent, if possible, the parade of the Orangemen. The latter 



358 [1871 

resolved to assert their right to parade at all hazards. As the 
day drew near bad blood was stirred up on both sides. Friends 
of both parties tried to pour oil upon the troubled waters and 
prevent a conflict, but all to no purpose. 

On the 11th of July Governor Hoffman came to the city and 
held a consultation with the Mayor and the Commander of the 
1st Division, General Shaler. The police were instructed in 
their duties and orders were issued to the several regiments to 
hold themselves in readiness at their armories, and each regiment 
was provided with twenty rounds of ammunition. The following 
order was received at the headquarters of the regiment : 

HEADQUARTERS 1ST DIVISION, N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, July 12th, 1871. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George D. Wolcott, Commanding Seventy- 
first Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y. : 
Colonel : 

Upon the receipt of this you will march your command up 
the boulevard to the 31st Precinct Police Station, in 100th Street 
between Ninth and Tenth Avenues, and put yourself in commu- 
nication with Captain Helme or other police officer in charge. 
You will regulate your movements so as to support the police 
force in the discharge of their duties, and for this purpose you 
will confer with the officer in command and keep yourself 
informed as to his movements. 

The service which is required of you is, as you will appre- 
ciate, one of a delicate nature, and one in which you must be 
guided by circumstances and your judgment. 

The police will enforce the law so far as they can and if not 
able to do so will call upon you for assistance, which you will 
render, so as to uphold them in the discharge of their duties. 
You will keep your command in the ranks and see that the men 
behave quietly and orderly, and not allow any straggling, so that 
they can be used at a moment's notice. 

If compelled to send detachments to any point you will see 
that they are sufficiently large to enforce order, if possible, with- 
out resorting to compulsory measures. 

You will not use force unless it becomes absolutely neces- 
sary to put down a riot or disturbance, and then you are expected 
to act with coolness and firmness. 

No positive orders can be given to guide you in your actions, 
but you must be governed by the exigencies of the case, and your 
authority is therefore necessarily discretionary. 

The Washington Grey Troop of Cavalry has been directed 
to report to you; it will co-operate with your command, under 
your orders. 

By order of Major-General Alexander Shaler, 

WILLIAM H. CHEESBROUGH. 
Col. and A.A.G. and Chief of Staff. 



1871] 359 

In pursuance of the above order the regiment left its armory 
on Broadway and 36th Street and marched to and through the 
Central Park to Eighth Avenue at 90th Street gate. After re- 
porting to Captain Helme the regiment made its headquarters at 
the old Apthorp mansion. The grounds around it had been fittted 
up for a beer garden. The platform made an admirable place 
for the regiment, keeping them off the street and where they could 
be kept well in hand. 

On arriving there an orderly handed to Major Eunson a 
personal letter from the Governor of the State, who was at 
police headquarters taking personal charge of the situation. In 
this letter he stated that he had given orders that a detachment 
of five companies under command of the Major should proceed 
at once to Lion Park, corner of Eight Avenue and 110th Street, 
where the Orange riot took place the year previous, for the 
reason that a large number of rioters were assembling there 
and trouble was expected at that place. The letter enjoined 
on the officer not to precipitate a fight and that everything was 
left to his discretion. 

The detachment started out, accompanied by a troop of the 
Washington Grey Cavalry, which was assigned to the command. 
A short distance up the avenue the crowds began to assemble and 
act in a menacing way, and becoming still larger made some ver- 
bal assults on the soldiers that hurt their pride a bit, but did 
no other damage. The commandant thought best to flank the 
crowd and for that purpose marched the column into Central 
Park, which was a direct violation of city ordinances. A mounted 
police captain halted the column, ordered the Major to leave the 
park forthwith, under threat of immediate arrest. Whether he 
changed his mind on hearing from the ranks the remark that 
"he would better let that job out" or not is not material. The 
column peacefully proceeded until arriving at its destination, 
where nothing happened. Possibly this was because of an im- 
pression that prevailed that was heard by the officer in command 
from one of the turbulent crowd who said, "Look out, boys, it's 
the 71st ; they have breech-loaders and know how to shoot." 
This is an actual fact ; the writer heard it himself. 

Colonel Rockafellar was in Europe at this time and Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Wolcott was therefore in command. The Adjutant, 
whose leg was still too weak for marching, rode with the Quar- 
termaster stores in a carriage. It was supposed at the time that 



360 [1871 

the main point of attack and the brunt of the fight would be at 
Elm Park, the scene of the previous year's conflict. 

To this locality was sent the 71st Regiment, armed with 
Remington rifles. At this time extensive work was being done 
upon the boulevard, requiring large gangs of workmen, and 
disturbance was anticipated from them. 

The regiment remained in a state of masterly inactivity, 
while regiments of less experience were fighting the angry mob 
down town. 

The Orangemen left their headquarters about 3 o'clock 
P. M., surrounded by a cordon of mounted police, a body of police 
on foot, and the 6th, 7th, 9th, 22d and 84th Regiments. 

When the Orangemen made their appearance they were 
greeted with a storm of hisses and yells, which was soon after 
followed by an attack by the mob from all points. Bricks, cob- 
blestones and all sorts of missiles were hurled from the streets, 
from the housetops, from windows and from every available point 
of attack from which the rioters could secure. 

Several members of the police and National Guard were hit 
and badly injured. They behaved with remarkable coolness. 
When the firing began it had the desired efifect. The mob was 
driven back. 

The line of march was down Eighth Avenue to 14th Street, 
to Union Square, up to 3Sth Street and around Worth Monu- 
ment to Cooper Union, where the parade was dismissed. 

The fighting was on Eighth Avenue. Fifty were killed, 
one hundred wounded and sixty arrested, and the law was 
enforced. 

It was a source of regret to the members of the 71st that 
they were unable to take a more active part in the affair. How- 
.ever, they held the "post of honor," as they generally did — evi- 
dence of the confidence held by the authorities in its reliability. 

Extract from General Shaler's report: 

"By 9 o'clock A. M. reports received at headquarters of 
several bodies of armed men moving in various parts of the city 
became frequent. 

"The first one of any magnitude or of positive seriovtsness 
was received about 8 A. M., to the effect that a large crowd of 
evil disposed persons had made a demonstration at 143d Street 
and Seventh Avenue and obliged all the workingmen in that 
neighborhood to quit work and join their party. 

"There being no available police force in that vicinity, I dis- 
patched, at the request of the police authorities. Major Jussen of 



1871J 361 

my staff with orders to the commanding officer of the 71st Regi- 
ment, stationed at Elm Park, to at once move one wing of the 
regiment and the Washington Greys Cavalry in the direction of 
the point indicated. This movement was rapidly executed, but 
upon reaching 110th Street information was received that the 
rioters had moved down through the park. The infantry re- 
mained for a short time at 110th Street and Eighth Avenue and 
the cavalry at 110th Street and Sixth Avenue, and at 12:15 P. M. 
were returned to Elm Park by telegraphic order. * * * 

"At 5 :20 P. M. two companies of the 71st were ordered to 
occupy 'Knapp's Garden,' at 110th Street and Eighth Avenue, 
until 8 o'clock A. M. to prevent an anticipated attack on a 
picnic party. 

"The night passed without any unusual excitement and at 
8 o'clock A. M., with the consent of the police authorities, a 
gradual dismissal of all the troops, except the 22d Regiment, 
was begun. 

"The 22d was ordered to relieve the 71st Regiment and the 
Washington Grey Cavalry, who were dismissed." 

VISIT TO PROVIDENCE 

The 25th of July was an eventful day in the history of the 
71st. Ten years previous they parted company with the Rhode 
Island troops, with whom they had fought side by side on the 
field of Manassas. Now these old scarred veterans were again 
to meet and fight their battle o'er on the peaceful shores of Rhode 
Island. 

This time the 71st was led by the gallant Colonel Rockafellar, 
who lost his arm on the battlefield of Bull Run, while Colonel 
Martin, who commanded the regiment at that time, was now 
present in command of a small body of war veterans. For this 
excursion the regiment turned out 400 men, together with the 
Veteran Corps, numbering twenty-five men, under the command 
of Colonel Martin. They carried the old tattered and torn 
battle flag. 

The field and staff were Colonel Rockafellar, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Wolcott, Major Eunson, Adjutant Francis, Quartermas- 
ter Raymond, Assistant Quartermaster Wm. H. Benjamin, Sur- 
geon Higginbotham, Assistant Surgeon Louis Balch, Commis- 
sary Shade, Chaplain Eastman Benjamin. Honorary Staff : Sey- 
mour A. Bunce, DeWitt C. Arnold, Thomas Girvan and Capt. 
T. H. B. Simmons. 

Company A — First Lieutenant, Samuel B. Jackson. 
Company B — Captain, Charles N. Swift. 
Company C — Captain, Alfred Spear. 



362 [1871 

Company D — ^^Captain, J. H. Youmans. 
Company E — Captain, James S. Turner. 
Company F — Captain, Charles H. Leland. 
Company G — Captain, Abram L. Webber. 
Company H — Captain, Amos L. See. 
Company I — First Lieutenant, Theodore V. Smith. 
Company K — Captain, Wm. H. Cox. 
Bandmaster — Felix J. Eben. 

The regiment marched from the armory (Broadway and 
35th Street) late in the afternoon and took passage on the 
steamer "City of St. Lawrence," which had been chartered for 
the occasion, and after a most enjoyable trip arrived at Provi- 
dence on the following morning. 

They were received by a salute of fifty guns, fired by a 
section of the marine artillery. All Providence turned out to 
meet them. The business houses were closed and every arrange- 
ment completed to make it one of the finest celebrations ever 
witnessed in that city. 

The escort consisted of Gen. Wm. R. Walker and staff, 
Providence Horse Guards, platoon of police. United Train of 
Artillery, First Light Infantry, Major-Gen. Horace Daniels and 
staff, Second Rhode Island Veteran Association, together with a 
large number of distinguished invited guests. 

On their arrival at the parade ground they were met by his 
excellency Governor Paddleford. The morning had been cloudy 
and threatening. On arrival on the grounds the regiment had 
just time to get under cover in the large tent erected for the 
occasion when there was a heavy downpour. The Governor 
received the regiment in this tent with the following welcome: 

"It gives me great pleasure as the Executive of this State, 
in connection with his honor the Mayor, to extend to you soldiers 
of the 71st Regiment of New York and distinguished gentlemen 
who accompany you, a warm and cordial welcome to the City 
and State. 

"The name, sir, of the 71st New York is with us a house- 
hold word. Your memorable union with the First Rhode Island 
Volunteers at Annapolis and your march into Washington to 
protect the Capitol and the archives of the general government, 
your march under Burnside, accompanied by our State Execu- 
tive with the 1st and 2d Rhode Island, Reynold's Battery and 
the 2d New Hampshire to the battlefield of Bull Run, your bap- 
tism with blood, are all events which will never be forgotten. 

"Many of you fought on other battlefields, offering your 



1871] 363 

lives as a sacrifice to freedom. May we never have another occa- 
sion for a Hke fraternization, but God grant that our future may 
be blessed with peace, prosperity and happiness." 

After the welcome the company partook of a splendid col- 
lation, which did honor to their Rhode Island host. This was 
under a mammoth pavilion, 150 feet long, 65 feet wide and 45 
feet high. The tables were in the form of the letter T, the 
longest 63 by 5, and that for the officers 24 by 5. The spread 
consisted of salmon, boned turkey, lobster salad, sandwiches, ice 
cream, cake, fruit and coffee. Ten mammoth punch bowls filled 
with lemonade and the popping of corks indicated something 
more sparkling for those who wanted it. 

As the rain prevented any further outdoor ceremonies, the 
time was agreeably spent in speechmaking and toasts. Captain 
Underbill thanked their Rhode Island friends heartily for their 
kind reception and hoped that the time might come when the 
71st would have the opportunity to reciprocate. Colonel Martin 
of the Veterans was called upon, who responded in a few words, 
in which he said: "May God grant that our future may be 
blessed with peace, prosperity and happiness." Others responded 
in the same vein, after which the company broke up and were 
conveyed to their various quarters. 

Colonel Rockafellar, who had just returned from a European 
trip, did not arrive until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. He was 
warmly welcomed by the Providence military and thrice welcomed 
by his comrades. With the Colonel also came the sun, whose 
rays were equally welcome. 

The rest of the day was spent in being escorted by squads 
to the various places of interest. The hotel accommodations 
were not extensive, but three of them managed to take care of 
the men quite comfortably. 

The following day (27th) the regiment left Providence for 
"Rocky Point," a few miles down the river. Its fame still 
lingers, but competition has shorn it of much of its glorious past. 
The exercises consisted of a review, dress parade, concert and 
hop, lasting until midnight. The great feature of the day was 
the old-fashioned "clambake," such as was only there. 

Hundreds of Providence militia brought their ladies down to 
the dance in the evening, adding much to the enjoyment of the 
occasion. At a late hour the men reached the steamer and 
retired for the night. 

At an early hour in the morning (28th) the boat was cast 



364 [1871 

off and started for New York, which was reached late in the 
afternoon. Everybody was happy, having enjoyed one of the 
most delightful excursions and pleasant reunions of any partici- 
pated in since the close of the war. 

In 1861, after the battle of Manassas, Colonel Rockafellar 
was one of those who were carried off the field wounded and 
incarcerated in Libby Prison, Richrnond. Surgeon Higgin- 
botham, now attached to the staff of the regiment, was then Sur- 
geon-in-Chief of all the hospitals in Richmond, and it was during 
these professional duties that he most successfully amputated the 
arm of Colonel Rockafellar, and by his many kindly acts en- 
deared himself to all with whom he came in contact. It was 
in fact the kindly attentions bestowed on the Colonel and his 
gratitude for the same that caused the subsequent appointment 
of Surgeon Higginbotham on his staff. His kind and humane 
treatment caused his arrest by the Confederate authorities. He 
was courtmartialed for his disloyalty and would have been 
cashiered had it not have been for the fact that his services were 
too valuable. 

Eventually he filled the position of Surgeon-in-Chief of the 
medical forces of the Southern Army. 

NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION 

During this year, from time to time, encouraged by the 
"Army and Navy Journal," meetings were held in that office for 
the purpose of organizing a rifle association. The 71st was repre- 
sented on these occasions by Colonel Rockafellar and Adjutant 
Francis, both being members of the incorporation and charter 
and life members, the date of which was November 17th, 1871, 
General Burnside being the first president. 

RECEPTION OF THE "UNITED TRAIN ARTILLERY" 
From the "Army and Navy Journal" of October 7th, 1871 : 

"The fine organization of Rhode Island militia, the 'United 
Train Artillery,' left its native city on Monday, 25th ultimo, on an 
excursion to Philadelphia. After receiving for two days the 
hospitality of the military and citizens of that city it returned 
to New York en route for home, arriving in the latter city on 
the afternoon of Thursday, 28th ultimo. The friendship exist- 
ing between the military of this city and Providence is of the 
firmest and most cordial kind. 

"The memory of the attention bestowed upon the 71st on its 



1871] 365 

recent trip to Providence is still green. So when the 'United 
Train' arrived last week as the guests of the 'American Guard' 
they were sure of the hospitable welcome they received. 

"The 'United Train,' Colonel Harry Allen (an old member 
of the 71st), reached Jersey City on the afternoon of the 28th 
ultimo. They were received by the committee of the 71st, of 
which Lieutenant Wolcott was chairman, and a large number of 
ofificers of other organizations of the two divisions. It was 
expected that the guests on their arrival in Jersey City should 
go to Taylor's Hotel and there change their fatigue for full- 
dress, the 71st to meet them at 2:25 at the ferry on the New 
York side of the river, but an unfortunate delay in the reception 
of Colonel Allen's luggage necessitated the fatigue and also a 
two hours' waiting in Jersey City, which was the time allowed 
for the change of uniforms. 

"The 71st, in ten commands of twelve files front, in full 
dress, under command of Colonel Rockafellar, at about 2 o'clock 
arrived at the foot of Courtlandt Street and formally received its 
guests. 

"The two organizations then paraded down town a short 
distance to be reviewed by the 'bulls and bears,' returning via 
the Battery and Broadway, halting at the City Hall. Here the 
Mayor (Hall) formally welcomed the visitors and invited them 
to partake of the contents of a flowing bowl in his office. This 
is the first time within our recollection of the Mayor or city 
authorities of New York ever offering a courtesy of this char- 
acter to a visiting company under similar circumstances. The 
■ I'rainers' may therefore consider themselves to have been paid 
an exceptional compliment. 

"The march was then resumed to the armory of the 71st. 
Both commands here entered and, after relieving themselves of 
trappings, proceeded to the main drill room, where an elegant 
collation awaited their attendance. 

"The arrangement of the table was very artistic and the 
viands were of the choicest, all having been prepared under the 
supervision of Mr. Fowler of the Revere House. 

"Colonel Rockafellar, in a brief speech, welcomed the com- 
rades from Providence and bade them to partake without cere- 
mony of the good things before them, after which the visitors 
marched to the St. Cloud Hotel, the arranged headquarters during; 
their stay in the city. 

"In the evening the 'United Trainers' and guests were es- 
corted to the opera house amid a blaze of fireworks and muchi 
enthusiasm. 

"The night was so varied in its incidents that Friday morning- 
brought but few to hand at the appointed hour (8 A. M.). At: 
10 A. M., however, enough of the 'Trainers' had turned out to 
make a fair show. They were escorted to the foot of 26th Street 
and there embarked on a steamer for a trip to the public institu.- 
tions in the river. 

"The day was a beautiful one and the visits were very inter- 
esting and pleasant. On their return to the hotel the visitors 



366 [1871 

donned their full dress uniform, which is similar to that of the 
'Old Guard' of this city. They were then escorted to the Neptune 
Line pier for home. 

"The welcome to the visitors was of a hearty and elaborate 
character and their departure for home was witnessed by a large 
assemblage and a regretful 'American Guard.' " 

ANNUAL INSPECTION 
This inspection is important for the reason that it was prac- 
tically the end of the administration of Colonel Rockafellar, as 
he did very little active duty after this to the time of his resig- 
nation. Also the reader must recognize the fact that the admin- 
istrations of Colonels Parmele and Rockafellar were so inter- 
Tvoven that they might be called the same. With very little change 
the field and staff of each were the same and during the long 
absence of Colonel Parmele, Rockafellar was in command, we 
anay therefore recall the two as an epoch. It had in many ways 
changed the character of the regiment. It had given a discipline 
that it had not had. It had established the office work of the 
departments on a basis not known before, making the stafif offi- 
cers useful, not ornamental, as had been the previous custom. 
It had caused the regiment to be fully equipped in a full dress 
uniform. Never did it hold a higher position in the estimation 
of the public than at this period. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," October 21st, 1871 : 

"The 71st Regiment, Colonel Rockafellar, were inspected and 
tnustered at Tompkins Square on the 18th instant. The regiment 
entered the ground at about 2 :30 P. M. It presented an equal- 
ized front of twelve files and made a very handsome appearance, 
as usual, in full marching order, and neat blue uniform and white 
cross belts. 

"The 'American Guard' is an excellent representative com- 
mand and is always greeted as such wherever it goes. The 71st 
is a standard regiment and although it may not be so proficient 
in guard drill as the 7th or 22d, as was proven on this occasion, 
it has material in its ranks which is unexcelled by that in any 
of the National Guard organizations of the State. 

"The inspection of the regiment drew together a large assem- 
Wage of spectators, who manifested their appreciation of this 
favorite command by careful criticism of its material and every 
movement. * * *" 

F. & S. N.C.S. Band A B C D E F G H IK T'l 
Present 7 6 40 37 39 39 39 45 38 57 32 23 54 456 

Absent 1 24 10 10 29 12 30 16 9 19 19 179 

Total 8 6 40 61 49 49 68 57 68 73 41 42 73 635 

The numerical condition of the regiment was very little 



1871] 367 

different from that of 1866, when Colonel Parmele took command. 
There had been much cutting out of deadwood, over one hun- 
dred having been expelled. Many others took their discharge 
rather than a full dress uniform. 

Immediately after inspection Colonel Rockafellar took a 
leave of absence for four months, intending a trip to Europe, 
His health was poor and it was necessary for him to take a rest, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Wolcott assumed command. He, however, 
on November 15th, resigned, leaving Major Eunson in command. 

In November the commission appointed by the Governor to> 
select a rifle for the National Guard reported to him as favorable 
to the Remington rifle, the same as was being used by the 71st. 

RECEPTION OF THE GRAND DUKE ALEXIS 
From the "Army and Navy Journal," November 19th, 1871 : 

"The visit of the Grand Duke Alexis had been the great 
theme of discussion among the military for months and the 
preparation for his reception had to a degree interfered with the 
current military movements and been the means of deferring^ 
the annual fall brigade and division reviews. 

"The first order for the parade was issued over a month 
ago, when the Russian naval squadron was momentarily expected. 

"The occasion of the landing of the Russian Grand Duke on 
the 21st gave the Guard the opportunity, which they so 
amply improved, of displaying their mihtary enthusiasm and 
high proficiency, drill and discipline. * * * The Grand Duke 
and suite landed at Pier I, North River. As he moved along the 
line each regiment in turn paid him the compliment due a Major- 
General. * * * When the leading carriage reached the right: 
of the line the whole escort moved forward under the orders of 
the General of the 1st Brigade. The line of march was up> 
Broadway to 14th Street and Fourth avenue to the Clarendon- 
Hotel at 18th Street. 

"Upon arriving at the hotel his Imperial Highness received ai 
marching salute." 

The muddy and slippery condition of the streets made t'h'e 
marching difficult. This was before the day of Colonel Waring. 

From the same: 

"On the evening of December 28th the officers of the 7Ist 
elected by a unanimous vote Captain Richard Vose, senior Cap- 
tain in the 22d Regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel, vice Wolcott^ 
resigned. * * * 

"Major Eunson, the officer in command, by virtue of the 
leave of absence granted Colonel Rockafellar, was not a candi- 
date, business and domestic affairs making it necessary for his. 
retirement later from military duties. 



368 [1871-72 

"The regiment has made a wise selection in its new field 
officer. * * * The Lieutenant-Colonel-elect is an officer of 
long experience and has repeatedly shown his qualification as a 
good soldier and love for the service by withstanding two ap- 
parent clique defeats in the 22d for field positions. * * *" 

To celebrate this promotion the newly elected Lieutenant- 
Colonel gave a dinner to the officers of the regiment at Del- 
monico's, then at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 14th Street. 

During the evening Colonel Rockafellar in his remarks said 
that he was reminded of a dream in which the dreamer discovered 
himself in a mud hut and saw in the ceiling something bright. 
Upon getting the same into his possession he discovered it to 
be a diamond, and he (the Colonel) believed that on this occa- 
sion the 71st Regiment had likewise found a diamond. 

Colonel Porter of the 22d Regiment, who was present, said 
tliat while he agreed with Colonel Rockafellar that the 71st had 
found a diamond, he failed to see any comparison between the 
22d Regiment and a mud hut. 

18 7 2 



From the "Army and Navy Journal," January 20th, 1872 : 

"On the evening cf the 12th instant the 71st Regiment re- 
ceived its friends at the regimental armory (Broadway and 36th 
Street), the event being the first public reception of the regiment 
since occupying this building. 

"The entertainment was termed a promenade concert and 
reception, the regimental band being in attendance, and during 
the evening discoursed some very classical selections. The 
armory was crowded to its utmost capacity, the chief attraction 
being in the neighborhood of the company rooms, wherein the 
members entertained their friends with viands temperate and 
intemperate. * * * 

"The assemblage was to a degree of a mixed nature, many 
being in full dress ball costume, while the majority promenaded 
in the dress uniform of the service. 

"When we recall the reception given by that command some 
years since as one of the best managed ever held at the Academy 
of Music, we are at a loss to account for some sins of omission 
and commission that occurred on this occasion. 

"It was awkward for many of the guests that no announce- 
ment on the card, or in any other way was made that the enter- 
tainment was not to be a full dress one and that no dancing 
would take place. Attention to this duty would have saved the 
iirrleasant position of the many parties who arrived in evening 



1872] 369 

dress, who on receiving the intelligence that no dressing room 
had been provided, and observing the character of the entertain- 
ment, immediately retired from the armory. * * * 

"One very objectionable feature was the liberal display in 
company rooms and elsewhere of intoxicating liquors. The evil 
effects of this was shown later in the evening on many of the 
attendants, and the example set was injurious to the reputation 
of any first-class organization." 

From the same: 

"On the 15th instant the regiment met at the State Arsenal 
for drill and inspection, some three hundred men being present. 

"Lieutenant-Colonel Vose made his debut as a Field Officer 
and Commander on this occasion and gave general satisfaction. 

"The execution by the regiment of the different movements 
was highly creditable to that organization and Colonel Vose's 
hosts of admirers were pleased by the able manner in which he 
handled the regiment. We, however, would suggest a little more 
spirit in the enunciation of the commands. * * *" 

THIS SOUNDS BETTER 
From the "Army and Navy Journal," March 2d, 1872 : 

"The 71st is quietly resting on its laurels won at the elegant 
reception given on the 22d of February at the armory, which 
was by far one of the most successful ever undertaken by the 
regiment in the regimental armory. In fact, seldom has it been 
equaled in general appointments and richness of costumes at the 
Academy of Music. 

"The main drill rooms were pleasingly decorated and filled 
at an early hour by a large portion of New York's best society, 
in the general significance of elegant costumes. * * * 

"Many of the members furnished coffee and other refresh- 
ments to their lady friends in the company rooms, but there was 
no display .of intoxicating liquors — a reform we note to its 
credit, the American Guard has at last returned to itself." 

During the months of February and March wing drills were 
held in the State Arsenal. These drills were private, no out- 
siders being admitted, which did not bring favorable comment 
from military critics. 

OBSEQUIES OF BRIGADIER-GENERAL ANDERSON, 

U.S.A. 

New York, March 2d, 1872. 
Colonel : 

I am directed by General William G. Ward to announce that 
a communication has been received from Major-General 
McDowell accepting the escort of the 71st Regiment (infantry) 
for the funeral of General Anderson, which will take place some 



370 [1872 

time between the middle and the last of the month. General 
McDowell "thanks the regiment" for the offer and states: "1 
entirely concur with you in your judgment, and the standing and 
past record of the 71st Regiment. I had occasion in the past to 
bear witness to its high qualities, having selected it to go into 
battle, and I shall be glad to accept its services if they are still 
willing to offer them on the occasion of the transfer of General 
Anderson's remains from the Second Avenue vaults to the foot 
of 34th Street, North River." 

Very respectfully, 

JOSEPH L. ANTHONY, 
A. A. G., 1st Brig. 
To Colonel Harry Rockafellar, 

Commanding 71st Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y. 

HEADQUARTERS 71ST REGIMENT, N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, March 3d, 1872. 
To General William G. Ward, 

Commanding 1st Brigade, 1st Division, N.G.S.N.Y. 
General : 

Will you kindly convey to Major-General McDowell my 

thanks for the handsome compliment he pays my regiment and 

assure him that my command is in readiness to parade as escort 

to the remains of General Anderson at any time he may designate. 

Very respectfully yours, 

HARRY ROCKAFELLAR, 
Commanding 71st Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," April 6th : 

"Military honors to the remains of Brigade-General Robert 
Anderson, U.S.A., were paid on Wednesday last. The line was 
formed on Second Avenue. The line of march was up Second 
Avenue to 8th Street, to Fifth Avenue, 34th Street, to the North 
River, where the remains were placed upon a steamer for West 
Point. 

"The 71st paraded in heavy marching order, ten commands 
fourteen files front, and never made a handsomer appearance." 

July 4th the division made a parade. On this occasion the 
71st made a slim turnout. 

Colonel Rockafellar, who had been to Europe, returned in 
August, bringing as a sample a bearskin shako, the same as worn 
by the Coldstream Guard of London, submitting it to the regi- 
ment for their adoption, it costing but three and one-half dollars 
each. Of which much later. 

Upon the return of Colonel Rockafellar to duty he at once 
resigned, an act which in deference to his health should have 



1872] 371 

been taken a year before, and thus ending a twin administration 
of Parmele-Rockafellar. 

Colonel Rockafellar had had an exceptionally good staff, 
both in competency and loyalty. It was a good working team. 
He was not so fortunate perhaps with his line officers. It was 
a period of education and the eradication of old habits was not 
an easy matter, but what little friction there was was not of a 
serious nature, even if it was annoying. All of these were loyal 
to the regiment, with opinions which they believed to be right, 
and while they were slow to change there was no objection to 
the discipline as soon as the benefit was apparent. As one of the 
Captains many years after said to the Adjutant of that period: 
"I thought then that you were pretty severe with us, but have 
since been convinced by experience and results that you were all 
right." 

Trying to build up a military organization in the sixties was 
laying one open to the charge of arrogance, domineering or super- 
ciliou.sness, especially if a superior officer objected to a slap on 
the back and the salutation of "Hello, Cap," from a subordinate, 
which little familiarities in uniform had been the habit of previous 
years. 

Fortunate was the Colonel who took all the honors and had 
an Adjutant who could take all the kicking. 

Colonel Rockafellar had done his part well. During this 
twin administration the regiment had procured for the first time 
a home to cover the entire organization, a full dress uniform, the 
latest style of rifles and other things previously mentioned. Few 
could have done better. He was a "ferret," continually seeking 
out for something to advance the interest of the regiment, ever 
alive to its welfare, he enthused all around him. In this respect 
he was more like Vosburgh than any other Commandant that 
had preceded him. He generally got what he went after. 

The pace was too strong for him and, like Vosburgh, his 
physique was not equal to the strain. He had done his best and it 
was wise for him to withdraw at a time of popularity. 




COLONEL RICHARD VOSE 



Plate vi — Ifp. 373 



Administration of 

Colonel RICHARD VOSE 

1872—1884 



On the retirement of Colonel Rockafellar, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Vose was elected Colonel (September 11th). 

Richard Vose was born in Whitesboro, Oneida County, New 
York, September 2d, 1830. His father died when Richard was 
thirteen years old, leaving him not only dependent upon his own 
resources, but with a mother and two brothers and two sisters, 
to whose support he contributed for years. Compelled at this 
early age to work for his living he educated himself. With 
various business experiences, he established, in 1868, the firm of 
Vose, Dinsmore & Co., of which he was a member at the time 
of his election. Of ample means and not embarrassed for time he 
was in no way hampered in performing the duties required. It 
was simply a question — was he the man for the position? With 
the exception of Parmele his predecessors were well known in 
the regiment by service and promotion and were surrounded by 
those who were also. Colonel Parmele's staff was comprised of 
men who were old members. 

During this administration an entire new field and staflF came 
into office and as a rule were men who had no previous connec- 
tion with the regiment, to whom it was not their Alma Mater. 
They were proud to hold office in it and without question tried 
to uphold its past glorious record, shared in the pride of it, and 
felt as much attachment as could be expected from a good 
step-father. 

Colonel Vose took command of a regiment thoroughly or- 
ganized, of ten commands numerically about the average and 
standing high in the estimation of the public ; a splendid f ounda- 



374 [1872 

tion for the right man to build a strong regiment. Time will 
show the result. 

In September, the 2d Connecticut State Militia made a visit 
to New York and were "received by the 7th Regiment. On 
Friday, the 20th, the visitors, conjointly with the 71st, offered a 
marching salute to the Mayor at the City Hall, after which they 
went to Waverly, N. J., to help advertise a State fair, * * * 
returning to the city at 8 o'clock P. M. They marched up Broad- 
way to Union Square, where they were met by the 22d Regiment, 
who received and escorted the visitors to their armory, where 
they gave them a fine collation, the 71st retiring to their own 
quarters." 

During September, in Regimental Orders the wearing of the 
sash was abolished. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," October 12th, 1872: 

"The 71st Regiment, Colonel Vose, paraded on Tompkins 
Square on the 9th instant for inspection and muster. 

"The regiment presenting an equalization of ten commands 
of ten files, entered the west gate at 2 P. M. and took position 
on the east side of the square. 

"Lieutenant-Colonel Lockwood then assumed command and 
prepared the regiment for review by Colonel Vose. ♦ * * 

"The regiment in line looked exceedingly fine and its steadi- 
ness during the ceremony was marked. * * * 

"The 7lst always looks well and nothing would give us more 
satisfaction than to see its ranks well filled, but in this instance 
it was not the case. * * * 

"Colonel Vose, it is predicted, will make great improvement 
in the regiment, artd under the new regime we trust soon to see 
the 'American Guard' in its old and merited standard in the 
National Guard. * * * 

"The uniforms and equipments were in excellent condition, 
and the regiment as a whole, as usual in this respect, presented 
a most creditable appearance. * * *" 

The number present was 381; absent, 174; total, 555; 1871: 
number present, 456; absent, 179; total, 635. 

While he was only second in command, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Vose, owing to the absence of Colonel Rockafellar for a long 
period of the year, was practically in command. Yet the above 
loss of eighty men cannot be placed to his discredit. The losses 
were distributed, with the exception of three companies, nearly 
even, and it was evident that to a large extent they were of 
those men who came from the 37th, Company K, which was com- 



1872-73] 375 

posed of 37th men, lost twenty. It was easy to transfer these 
men, but there were many reasons why it was difficult to hold 
them. Undoubtedly the procuring of a full dress uniform was 
one very serious cause, and to those whose time of service had 
expired, especially so. The loss in Company K was owing to 
internal trouble, resulting in the court martial of its Captain the 
following year. 

On the evening of December the 19th the regiment had a 
drill. The "Army and Navy Journal" of the 28th devoted a 
whole column to criticism of it, much in detail, and numerous 
faults were found as to many of the officers : 

"Colonel Vose was in command; the manner in which he 
manoeuvered the battalion demonstrated that he is second to no 
Colonel in the National Guard for the mastery of Upton's Tac- 
tics, * * * and from the progress made during the evening 
we can safely predict that the time is not far distant when a 
member of the regiment can with pride say, T am a member of the 
"American Guard." ' * * * 

"In conclusion we would suggest a thorough 'setting up' of 
the men ; theoretical instruction of officers and non-commissioned 
officers as often as practicable in addition to the usual drills, and 
the 'American Guard' will ere long be in the van for discipline 
and general proficiency. * * *" 



18 7 3 



The year opened January 4th with a drill at the State Arsenal, 
of the right wing, and on the 20th, at the same place, of the 
left wing. 

Of the last the "Army and Navy Journal" of the 2Sth said : 

"The left wing of the 71st, Companies H, B, F, C, D, held 
a battalion drill on Monday evening, the 20th, in the State Arsenal. 
The strength was four commands of ten files. Colonel Vose 
commanding. * * * 

"The battalion movements were not above mediocrity. The 
company officers appeared to understand the movements well, but 
were a little diffident about cautioning their companies. * * * 

"Colonel Vose was, as usual, self-possessed, clear and cor- 
rect in his manner of instruction and command. We would call 
his attention to several points. 

"The first is rather orthoepic than tactical and relates to his 



376 [1873 

pronunciation of 'column' as if it was written 'col-yum' and 
rhymed with volume. * * *" 

On February the 3d an election was held for Major, at the 
close of which the officers proceeded in a body to the residence 
of ex-Colonel Harry Rockafellar and presented him with a set 
of resolutions, handsomely engrossed and elegantly bound in a 
morocco album. The usual felicitous speeches were made and 
the officers appropriately entertained. 

February 20th a full dress inspection and review was made 
by the Inspector-General, W. H. Morris. 

Washington's birthday was celebrated by a reception in the 
armory. 

Of this the "Army and Navy Journal" of March 1st said: 

"The 71st Regiment, Colonel Vose, marked the advent of 
the day 'we celebrate' by giving a full dress reception at their 
armory, which in point of numbers, general selectness * * * 
was by far one of the most successful the regiment ever gave at 
its armory. 

"The room was handsomely decorated, an extensive array 
of gas jets forming the motto and designation of the regiment, 
comprising one of the chief features. * * * Yet among all 
this, most properly and praiseworthy, no effort was made to in- 
troduce anything stronger than coffee and claret punch. The 
solids were plenty and good. * * * 

"The review at the state arsenal was held on the 20th of 
March, Colonel Vose was in command. The strength was ten 
commands of twelve files, * * * ^\iq movements which pre- 
ceded the review were simple, but smoothly performed. * * * 
The passage in review as far as we could see, for the dense 
crowd, was very good ; the regiment presented a fine appearance. 



March 3d, the 2d Connecticut passed through the city on its 
way to the inauguration at Washington; the 71st gave them a 
collation after which they escorted them to the Jersey City depot. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," of April 12th : 

"The 71st members still persist in asking to parade in the 
bearskin hats, although both brigade and division commanders 
disapprove of the so-termed outrage on military decency." 

The drill season closed April 24th. The building was 



1873] 377 

crowded so as to interfere with the movements of the troops. 
The drill was not quite up to standard. The formation was 
twelve files. 

Tuesday, June 3d, was the Governor's (Dix) review. The 
division formed on streets below 14th Street, right resting on 
Fifth Avenue. The column moved up to 14th Street to Union 
Square, to 17th Street, the reviewing stand being between Broad- 
way and Fourth Avenue; the inaugural of this reviewing stand 
arriving at this point only five minutes behind the time. 

The "Army and Navy Journal" of June 7th said: 

"The 71st, Colonel Vose, no staff (what became of them. 
Colonel?), eight commands, twelve files, made an attractive dis- 
play in white trousers and its soldierly blue coats and cross belts. 

"The fronts and marching were excellent, and the regiment 
won the applause it received. The 71st is one of New York's old 
favorites." 

On Saturday, the 21st of June, the National Rifle Associa- 
tion opened its new rifle range at Creedmoor. The inauguration 
was a great success. Over three thousand persons were present. 

During the month of June the Colonel issued a circular to 
the regiment announcing that it would make an excursion to 
New Haven on the 24th, 25th and 26th of July ; that the assess- 
ment would be $7.50 per man, each man to furnish his own 
rations. The project was before them; it was for them to 
decide at once, which they did; favorably. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," August 2d : 

"The 71st has been to New Haven, Conn., and by its excel- 
lent deportment while on and off duty in that city has made a 
most favorable impression and reflected the greatest credit on 
the State and city which it represented. * * * This, the last 
excursion, was similar in its general outline to the regiment's 
visit to Providence two years ago. At both cities it was a per- 
fect ovation of the people, who spared nothing to extend hos- 
pitalities to the New Yorkers. 

"The 71st, however, has long been active in these matters and 
whatever they have undertaken they have done well, and this, too, 
at individual members' expense. 

"The 'American Guard' are not rich, but they never refuse 
military courtesies to any regiment visiting this city and these 
attentions are well known. * * * 



378 [1873 

"The steamer 'Continental' having been chartered ifor this 
trip left the foot of 23d Street, East River at 4 P. M., and after 
a pleasant trip up the Sound reached New Haven at a little past 
8 o'clock. As the steamer entered the bay the little steamer 
'Stephen R. Smith,' with a jolly party of the 2d's boys, met the 
visitors and greeted them with fireworks, cheers and whistles, 
all of which were returned by the 71st setting off rockets and 
otherwise manifesting their acknowledgments of the welcome. 

"As the steamer approached the wharf the cheers, salutes, 
fireworks and general enthusiasm increased. On disembarkation, 
the 71st having reduced its original formation to eight commands 
of ten files, was formally welcomed by the officers of the 2d 
Connecticut and escorted by those companies located in or near 
New Haven. 

"The parade of the two battalions was one of the most 
brilliant ever witnessed in New Haven. The streets were fairly 
packed with people and it was slow work marching up Chapel 
Street, which was perfectly ablaze with fireworks, and nearly all 
the residences of this, one of the best portions of the city, were 
illuminated. 

"It v/as a glorious night and a glorious reception to the 
'American Guard.' Finally the column came to a halt at the 
armory and the troops filed in to enjoy the fine collation pre- 
pared for their disposal. 

"Col. Stephen R. Smith of the 2d Connecticut in a few 
words greeted the regiment and then introduced Mayor Lewis, 
who in terms most fitting welcomed the New Yorkers and gave 
them the freedom of the city. 

"After the collation the men in squads were escorted to the 
boat by the boys of the 2d and until a late hour a jolly social 
time. On Friday, the day following, the 71st, escorted by the 
officers of the 2d, took passage on the steamer 'S. R. Smith' for 
Savin Rock, vt^here they partook of a monster clambake. At 
about 5 P. M. they return'^d to the city, donned their full dre-^s 
and white trousers and. e='~orted by the New Haven Grays, 
marched through some of the main streets to the Green, where 
they held a dress parade. * * * In the evening the band gave 
a concert on the Green, listened to by ten thousand people. The 
square and adjacent streets were packed. 

"In the meanwhile the officers were being banqueted, at 
which was the Governor, Mayor and many other city officers, and 
the men were taken care of at the armory. 

"Saturday was devoted to the 'freedom of the city,' literally 
true. Everything was open to them. At 2 o'clock P M. the 
regiment was escorted to the Green by the 2d Connecticut, where 
a grand review was held before Governor Ingersoll, Mavor 
Lewis, Adiutant-General Trowbridge and other prominent dig- 
nitaries. The review was witnessed by an immense number of 
people, who frequently applauded the excellently executed 
movements. 

"It was 11 o'clock at night before the regiment was allowed 
to steam away, arriving in New York at 1 :30 A. M. Sunday." 



1873-74] 379 

VISIT TO WILLIAMSBURG 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," September 13th: 

"Seventy-first Infantry, Colonel Vose, on Monday evening 
(8th) visited WilHamsburg as the guest of the 47th Infantry, 
Colonel Austin. The visit was in return for courtesies offered 
the latter some months since in New York. * * * The 71st 
landed at the foot of South 7th Street at 8:30 P. M., and were 
received there by the 47th with the usual ceremony, the 71st 
parading ten commands of twelve files each. Ceremonies over, 
the regiments took up the march. * * * fhe cobblestones 
(with which the streets were- paved at that time) somewhat 
bothered the 'American Guard,' however. When they struck 
something level they looked exceedingly handsome. * * * 

"After a somewhat extended march and a general welcome 
along the line they halted at the armory, which they entered, and 
after breaking ranks partook of a bounteous repast. 

"A damper was put upon the trip on the return by the 
fall of a balcony which extended across the front of the second 
story of two houses and about twenty feet above the walk. 
Sixty or seventy persons were thrown to the sidewalk, two were 
fatally injured and many others suffered severe injuries and 
fractures." 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," October 20th : 

"A storm necessitated having the inspection indoors, which 
it was, at the State Arsenal, after a review. The regiment in 
its neat fatigue, knapsacks and cross belts, as usual looked well, 
and the ceremony of review was well performed. 

"The following returns show a slight active and aggregate 
falling off, but the weather was anything but conducive for a 
large turnout : Present, 371 ; absent, 123 ; total, 494. A loss 
in the aggregate of 61." 

Captain Theodore V. Smith was, during the month of 
October, transferred from Company I to Company F. 

For the purpose of enlarging the band a concert was given 
at the Academy of Music under the auspices of the regiment on 
Tuesday, December 18th. 

18 7 4 



The first event of importance at the opening of 1874 was 
the approval by the Adjutant-General of the bearskin hat. These 
hats seemed to have been a source of much controversy. They 
were said to have "been made of 'seal belly,' costing only a few 
shillings each, apparently a job lot bought at a bargain, because 
no one else wanted them at any price, and that though they were 



380 [1874 

a present to our men, they kicked so much at the quality that they 
were dropped after being worn only once or twice and disap- 
peared from the face of the earth." 

Wing drills commenced with February. On the 9th the 
right wing had a drill at the State Arsenal. There was a small 
turnout and the drill was in single rank. It is difficult to explain 
the cause of this condition. The thoughtful student must draw 
his own conclusions (he may or he may not be. justified in them) 
as we proceed to the end of this administration. 

As has been previously statedj at this time the rental of 
armories was controlled by politicians. There were great steal- 
ings. Buildings unsuitable for the purpose were rented at twice 
a fair rental (on this there was a divvy), and then the same 
method to fleece the taxpayer was gone through in the altera- 
tions and furnishing of the same. As a rule, no regard was 
paid to the requirements of a regiment. The first question 
appeared to be, "What is there in it for us?" (the ring). 

The 9th Regiment occupied quarters on Eighth Avenue 
near 26th Street. They were over a stable, entirely unsuited for 
the purpose, and were about to be vacated by them. At this 
time the lease of the quarters of the 71st expired. The Super- 
visors declined to renew it and directed the Colonel of the 71st 
to remove to the building vacated by the 9th, which he declined 
to do. This was early in March. The lease of the 71st armory 
expired May 1st. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," March 14th : 

"The 71st, Colonel Vose, paraded in full dress at the arsenal 
on the evening of March 5th. * * * 

"The special eflfort to parade in good strength, and by its 
appearance and movements, to show the public of what stuff the 
famous 'American Guard' is composed, was both wise and suc- 
cessful. 

"The regiment likewise made this the occasion of not only 
a military exhibition at the arsenal, but of a great gala demonstra- 
tion at the armory, and issued tasty cards of admission to both. 

"The arsenal was filled with a select assemblage, and while 
the ladies predominated to a large extent, the number of military 
gentlemen present was unusual. The doors were closed long 
before the hour of formation, to preserve space for the regiment. 

"At 8:30 the line was formed ten companies twelve 
files. * * * The review by General Morris immediately fol- 
lowed * * * ■ the men during the review were very steady, 
in fact, we have never seen the 71st do better. * * * 

"After dismissal a social concert and hop v/as given at the 



1874] .381 

armory, which was largely attended. The armory was hand- 
somely decorated, and the different companies entertained their 
friends in good style. 

"Colonel Vose and his officers entertained the reviewing 
party and a large number of the friends of the regiment in the 
Board of Officers' room, in a most sumptuous manner and every- 
thing indicated the best of spirit, despite the proposed removal 
of the regiment from its present armory." 

It is needless to say that the regiment did not move to the 
vacated building of the Ninth. A new lease was made for their 
present quarters. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," May 2d : 

"Captain Cox and Lieutenant Cardoza of the 71st Infantry, 
appealed from the decision of the State Examining Board. In 
the case of Cox we expected this would be the case. There is 
something remarkable in the tenacity with which the latter holds 
on to his rank * * * t-jJs record stands thus: tried on 

three unsuccessful court-martials, then tried before the State 
Board where he was found wanting and ordered to retire. To 
this even, he now objects." 

Unquestionably this captain was the largest thorn Colonel 
Vose had to contend with ; in three years his company of 75 men 
had come down to 28 present at the inspection of 1874. It did not 
seem that anything but death could remove him. He resigned 
in September. 

AT CREEDMOOR 
From the "Army and Navy Journal," July 8th : 

"The 71st Regiment, fourth on the list of the 1st brigade, 
visited Creedmoor on Thursday, the 25th of June. In point of 
discipline and orderly arrangements for the comfort and instruc- 
tion of the command, the 71st have done themselves and the 
brigade to which it belongs infinite credit. 

"Their shooting, however, was by no means good. * * * 
It is a real pity that so excellent an organization, and one that 
has such a proud history as this regiment, should allow itself to 
be outstripped in this matter by commands far below its stand- 
ard in other respects. 

"The 71st enjoys the proud distinction of being one of the 
very few militia regiments that met the enemy in battle during 
its three months' tour of duty in war, and came out v»fith honor, 
colors, and unbroken ranks. * * * 

"On arrival at the grounds, those standing nuisances, the 
lager-beer men, were found on time, waiting for their legitimate 
prey, the soldier. Colonel Vose checkmated them promptly. He 



382 [1874 

made a short address to the regiment telling them that he should 
allow no drinking of intoxicating liquors until practice was over. 

"Then he posted a strong guard, drove the beer wagons from 
the grounds, pitched his tent and went to work. * * * 

"We were favorably struck with two things in the 71st, 
the intelligence and positively gentlemanly appearance of the rank 
and fjle, and the very great superiority of the officers as a body 
to the usual run of militia officers. They realized the meaning of 
the phrase 'officers and gentlemen,' better than most we have 
seen. It is so usual in the National Guard to find company 
officers far below the field and staff, and hardly a step above the 
men in the ranks, that the contrast is very pleasant in a com- 
mand where familiarity on duty is not common. 

"The officers of the 71st look more like officers than those 
of most militia regiments, and we did not notice any of that 
ridiculous hand-shaking and hail-fellow-well-met kind of greet- 
ing so common elsewhere between officers and men in the 
ranks. * * * 

"Altogether the regiment did itself honor by its excursion 
to Creedmoor." 

The above article recalls the remark of the gentleman whose 
financial misfortunes, had brought him to his "uppers." "You 
never saw me forget that I am a gentleman." It has been a 
notable feature in the 71st, that as a body, during its past fifty 
years or more, be its lot "ever so humble," its pride has been 
hereditary, and decade after decade, they have retained that same 
pride of ancestry, and imbued with the same loyalty, have up- 
held the reputation that it has among regiments, "A gentleman of 
nobility." 

The regiment made the customary parade on July 4th. 
ET 

July, Lieut.-Col. H. C. Lockwood resigned, having served 

since March, 1872. 

New York, May 20th, 1874. 
To Captain : — 

Sir: — At a meeting of the Board of Officers of the 71st 
Regiment, it was unanimously resolved to present Colonel Richard 
Vose with a testimonial for his energetic services in our behalf. 

It was decided to present him with a fine saddle horse for 
parade and exercise. Will you state what we may rely on from 
your Company as a subscription to this fund, and report to me 
after the parade on the afternoon of the 27th instant at the 
Armory ? 

Four Companies have guaranteed $50 each ; by giving me 
reliable figures and stating time when you can send me your 
subscription you will oblige, 

Your obedient servant, 

THOS. L. RAYMOND, 
Major and Chairman Committee. 



1874] 383 

On the occasion of the election of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Vose, his friends presented him with an elegant set of horse 
equipments, valued at $500; and this year the Regiment 
supplemented it with a handsome horse. 

From the New York "Times": 

"On the occasion of the Division parade on the 4th instant 
Colonel Vose, commanding the 71st Regiment, was presented with 
a handsome black charger named 'George Washington,' by the 
omccrs and members of his command. 

"The horse is a Kentucky thoroughbred animal, coal black, 
fifteen hands high and valued at $1,000. Private Fink of Com- 
pany I, made the presentation speech, which was responded to 
with embarrassment by Colonel Vose, as the matter had been kept 
profoundly secret, and no intimation had reached him , of the 
intended presentation. 

"Captain Theodore V. Smith of Company I in this command, 
with a squad of forty men, v/as detailed by General Shaler as a 
guard of honor at the reviewing stand during the Division parade 
on the (July) 4th instant. The selection was made as a testi- 
monial to Captain Smith for the excellent discipline maintained 
by his command at Creedmoor, last year, on the occasion of the 
competition match between the regimental 'teams' when the Cap- 
tain was detailed to preserve order upon the grounds." 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," October 24th, 1874 : 

"The 71st Regiment paraded for inspection on Wednesday, 
21st instant, in fatigue uniform, in Tompkins Square, nominally 
at 3 P. M. The Regiment was late, the ceremony slow, and the 
inspection and muster were not half through at 5 P. M., when we 
left the ground. The regiment looked and behaved as it always 
does — unexceptionably. 

"It is an excellent specimen of the self-respecting native 
American regiment. In drill it is rusty, however. The guides 
are poorly instructed, and lose distances very noticeably. The 
band also showed carelessness and lack of instruction, by stand- 
ing in place rest during the close of the review." 
The result of the muster was as follows : 

F.&S. N.C.S. Band ABCDEFGHIKT'l 
Present 8 6 39 37 41 44 26 33 42 42 29 33 28 408 
Absent 1 0835 17 37905 26 84 



Total 9 6 39 45 44 49 43 36 49 51 29 38 54 492 

As compared with 1873, a loss of one in the aggregate, but 
a, gain of 37 in the number present, which but for Company K 
should have been larger. 

In November Dr. Joseph D. Bryant (later Surgeon-General 
of the State), was appointed Surgeon with rank of Major. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," November 21st: 

"On Wednesday evening, 18th instant, the 71st Regiment 



384 (1874 

paraded at the Arsenal for drill, in full dress uniform with bear- 
skin shako, numbering about 220 men all told. The bear-skin 
shako is a new feature in the 71st, though its adoption is in no 
wise due to Colonel Vose, being a legacy bequeathed by ex-Colonel 
Rockafellar, and voted on during his incumbency. Its assump- 
tion at the present time, when business is so dull and money so 
scarce, has been a matter of considerable difficulty, the expense 
being borne by the men themselves. The propriety and taste of 
this change has also been a matter of considerable dispute outside 
of the regiment, and many opinions have been volunteered for 
and against the change, with that refreshing frankness that 
obtains so largely among members of the National Guard, given 
to 'chaffing' each other. 

"For our own part, we confess that we feared that the intro- 
duction of the conspicuous bead dress would bring ridicule on 
the 71st. We had in mind's eye a raw regiment, in ill-fitting, 
grey uniform, that we once saw in a New England camp, whose 
huge shakos, with very long hair, only made the awkwardness 
more conspicuous. With this image in our thoughts we entered 
the Arsenal, and were at once surprised and pleased to find that 
there may be immense diflference, even in bear-skin shakos. If 
they are modeled as stated, on those of the London 'Cold- 
streams,' then the latter must look splendid. As for the 71st, the 
adoption of the new head dress has made them by far the hand- 
somest regiment in New York City. 

"Up to that time the 7th, had a little the advantage in full 
dress, but the 71st with the bear-skin shako beats any regiment 
that we have yet seen in the United States, in point of appearance. 
Another point on which we felt nervous for the 71st was whether 
the organization was capable of the severe drill and iron discipline 
characteristic of this veteran 'Guard' that alone wear the bear- 
skin shako in Europe. 

"In this also we were reassured after seeing the 71st at 
their first winter drill ; while they have faults which need correc- 
tion, they also display such a remarkable proficiency in some 
points of drill that their progress to the front rank in New York 
militia is only a question of time and inclination on their 
part. * * * 

"The company officers are good, as good as the Field and 
Staff; the faults lying chiefly with the sergeants and corporals. 
* * * The drill shows that the 71st has the qualification to 
step to the very head of the National Guard if it chooses to work. 
Its appearance is now superior to that of any other regiment; 
its drill and discipline must rise to the same standard." 

December 7th, the right wing of the regiment had a drill at 
the Arsenal. December 18th, Company A gave a reception at 
Terrace Garden. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," January 2d, 1875 : 

"The left wing of the 71st Regiment held, a battalion drill 



1874-75] 385 

at the Arsenal on Tuesday night, the 22d of December. Five 
companies were represented, but the attendance was so small 
(one company having but two and one-half files) that they were 
equalized into four companies. * * * 

"Perhaps we expected too much from the left wing of the 
71st, but as they were on Tuesday night we cannot compliment 
the members very much on their drill. It is really a pity that a 
command with such good material and such a record as this 
regiment has, should be so inaccurate in so many points. * * * 

"In former years the same pride animated the 71st, and 
made it what it was once ; for acme years it has suffered under 
a cloud of apathy and coldness, from which it has lately emerged, 
and the assumption of a conspicuous head dress is a bold step 
toward the front rank to which the 71st may attain, if the 
members choose. 

"But there is only one step from the sublime to the ridiculous. 
So sure as the regiment appears on its next parade on the street 
in bear-skin shakos, it will be the target of hostile and envious 
criticism from every regiment in the division. 

"The next parade will very likely be on Washington's birth- 
day, and only three or four drills remain before that day, on 
which to decide the question of a success that shall compel praise 
from proverbially envious critics or a failure that will make the 
officers and members of the 71st the social butt of a hundred 
mortifying jokes. 

"It remains with company officers and members alone to de- 
cide this question. Colonel Vose, from all we have seen of him 
at work, seems to be devoted, heart and soul to his regiment, and 
to be an excellent tacticia,n, the sole trouble, apparent on the 
surface, is a want of proper support from his officers, an apathy 
and laziness, rather than ill-will, which is, to the last degree, 
discouraging." 



18 7 5 



January 8th, 1875, Company C presented Serg. Wm. F. 
Bogert with a handsome gold medal in recognition of his service of 
twenty-five years. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," January 16th : 

"The right wing. Companies A, C, E, G and K, held its drill 
on Friday evening, 8th instant. This drill was in some respects 
a great improvement on that of the left wing. ♦ * * The 
attendance was much larger. * * * Time was when the 71st 
was one of the strongest regiments in the city, and there is no 
reason why it should not be so again. * * * To make it 
popular, one thing is absolutely essential, that the officers should 
work in complete harmony, and as a unit. * * * In the 71st, 



386 [1875 

while everything seems to work without much external clashing, 
there are evidences of want of interest and of apathy in some 
•quarters that have hitherto told with most disastrous efforts on 
the regiment. 

"As far as drill goes, there is plenty of intelligence in the 
rank and file, officers are all competent enough if they will only 
take the necessary trouble, but we are sorry to say that they do 
not support their commanding officers with the whole-souled vigor 
shown in some other regiments. * * * 

February 3d, Robert Orsfr was elected Captain of Com- 
pany K. 

February 22d, there was no Division parade, what was want- 
ing in parades was made up in receptions and balls. The 71st 
came out in their bear-skin shakos, in spite of the cold weather, 
drilled in the Arsenal and held a reception at their armory — as al- 
ways it was a brilliant and enjoyable affair. 

June 8th, the Regiment paraded for Inspection; there were 
421 present and 71 absent, total 492; almost identical with the 
inspection of the previous fall. 

June 22d Major Thomas Lynch Raymond resigned. 

July 4th, the division paraded. The "Army and Navy Jour- 
nal" said: "The 71st, Colonel Vose, followed with eight com- 
mands of twelve files each. This regiment presented a very hand- 
some appearance, and was with one exception the best command 
in the division." 

August 4th, Major Wm. H. Chaddock was promoted to the 
Lieutenant-Colonelcy, on the 26th of the same month Captain 
Edwin A. McAlpin was elected Major. At the same time an 
invitation to go into Camp at Oakland Beach, R. I., was received 
and accepted. The particulars of this are from the "Army and 
Navy Journal," of September 4th: 

"The 71st Regiment has enjoyed a splendid excursion to 
Rhode Island. The command left New York on Monday evening, 
August 23d, at 5 P. M. It embarked on the 'Stonington' boat, 
and found themselves almost alone in the great boat, the state- 
rooms and berths being ample for all, as there were few passen- 
gers besides. Colonel Vose made the excursion a model one, by 
maintaining the strictest discipline on board, the barroom being 
guarded and every precaution taken against disorder. The boat 
arrived at Stonington at 2:30 A. M., but the men were allowed 
to sleep till the 6:30 train. At 8 A. M., the regiment reached 
Providence, and was there received by the United Train Artillery. 

"The Providence Marine Artillery also fired a salute of 36 



1875] 387 

guns. Here the 71st disembarked and executed a short parade, 
in ten commands of twelve files front. Their reception was a 
perfect ovation, the streets being decorated and crowded with 
people. 

"At Howard Hall the men were treated to a collation tendered 
by the Providence militia organizations, and here they were 
formally welcomed by Adjutant-General LaFavour of Rhode 
Island. 

"After the collation the 71st and United Train Artillery 
marched to the steamer 'Josephine' and were taken to Oakland 
Beach, the destined camping place. Here at the Oakland Beach 
Hotel, Senator Bumside made a pleasing address referring to the 
gallant deeds of the 71st in 1861, and welcoming the regiment to 
the shores of Rhode Island. Colonel Vose replied in a very 
happy manner, thanking the General for his kindness and assur- 
ing him of the good feeling toward him by the 71st. 

"The regiment soon after went into camp, named 'Camp 
Lippitt,' in honor of the Governor. The guard for the day was 
detailed, the regiment assigned to their quarters, and the strictest 
discipline observed to the most minute detail. 

"Dinner was furnished at 3 P. M., and at 4:30 the first 
dress parade took place. Soon after their arrival, news was re- 
ceived of the death of ex-Colonel Harry Rockafellar; the flag 
was immediately placed at half-staff and the usual signs of 
mourning observed. 

"The Adjutant-General, Brigadier-General Miller, General 
Chace, General Stere, General Hazzard, General Shaw and other 
distinguished guests visited the headquarters, and were hospitably 
entertained by Colonel Vose. 

"The camp ground was remarkably pleasant and healthy, 
being a grassy field close to the sea beach. 

"Wednesday the 25th, the real work of camp began, and was 
carried on without intermission from sunrise to sunset. * * * 
The third day was intended for a grand field day, but the project 
was spoiled by an accident to Colonel Vose at the review, when 
his horse became frightened and restive, and threw him, dislocat- 
ing his shoulder. The damage, while luckily not permanently 
serious, of course, spoiled the colonel's chance for work. * * * 

"On Friday 'the regiment was visited by Governor Lippitt, 
he witnessed dress parade and review. * * * 

"On Saturday General Banks arrived and was received with 
similar honors. A friendly challenge from the rifle team of Pres- 
cott Post, G.A.R., to the rifle team of the 71st, was accepted by 
the latter, and Saturday the 30th, was set down for the friendly 
contest. Each team consisted of eight men carefully selected. 
The distance was 200 yards. The total score of the Post was 
86; that of the 71st was 123. The highest of the Post was 15, 
by O. F. GiflFord ; the highest of the 71st team was 19, made by 
Lieutenant O. C. Hoflfman of G Company. Divine service was 
observed on Sunday, and a sermon preached by Rev. Mr. Bain- 
bridge suitable to the occasion. The sermon was listened to with 



388 [1875-76 

marked attention, and at its close the audience joined in singing, 
and the band rendered some fine musical selections of sacred 
character." 

The following day the regiment broke camp and started for 
home, reaching New York on Tuesday morning. 

From the Providence "Press" : 

"The 71st Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y., which is now in camp at 
Oakland Beach, has taken all in all, the best record of any 
militia regiment in the State of New York. Though only half 
as old as the famous 7th, it has enjoyed an honor denied to the 
latter, that of campaign service in the presence of the enemy, 
and of a battle record written in the blood of its members, killed 
under the flag of their regiment. While the 7th numbers many 
more persons of wealth in its ranks, and has, consequently been 
able to attract a larger share of pubHc notice to its actions of late 
years, the 71st, in its more modest way, has been rapidly recruit- 
ing to its old standard, and promises within a few years to equal, 
if not eclipse, its more noted rival in numbers and perfection of 
drill, the strongest points of the 7th." 

This encampment was a large advertising scheme for the 
promotion of Oakland Beach, and involved the Regiment in con- 
siderable financial trouble. 



18 7 6 



The year opened with a drill of the right wing at the arsenal 
on the 4th of January ; of which the "Army and Navy Journal," 
of January 8th, 1876, says: 

"The right wing of the 71st held its first battalion drill, 
Tuesday evening, January the 4th, Lieutenant-Colonel Chaddock 
put them through at first, and Colonel Vose followed. The 
movements were all simple, and as a rule well executed, but 
there was a marked absence of the 'snap' and 'vim' that should 
characterize a first-class regiment. * * * " 

January the 12th, Company K gave a very successful enter- 
tainment in the armory. 

On the 25th the regiment gave a reception at the armory. 
It was attended by a host of friends of the command. The music 
furnished by the new band, Prof. Wannamacher, leader, was 
remarkably fine. 



1876] 389 

It was understood that a difficulty in paying the band for 
service, at Oakland Beach caused the retirement of Prof. Eben. 

During the month, Captain T. V. Smith, and Lieutenants 
C. E. Brown and Mclntyre resigned. 

On the 31st, Captain Wm. C. Clark, late of the 79th, having 
become captain of Company D mustered into it fifty men from 
his old regiment. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," February 12th : 

"The reception of the 71st Re^-iment on Monday evening, 
the 7th, at their armory, was as much of a success as it is poss'b-e 
for such an affair to be. The room was filled with beautiful 
ladies and gallant soldiers, who seemed fully to apDre^-iate the 
excellent music of the new regimental band. The lickets for the 
grand Centennial reception of this command are ready for dis- 
tribution. * * * The R'nk will undoubtedly be filled. No 
more appropriate manner of celebrating the birthday of Wash- 
ington suggests itself. * * * " 

From the same, February 26th : 

"The Centennial reception of the 71st at the Rink, on Tues- 
day evening, 22d instant, was one which the reo'ment has 
every reason to be congratulated upon. The large building was 
hardly able to accommodate with comfort the numerous guests ; 
good judges estimating the number present at from 5 to 8,000. 

"Line was formed for dress parade at about 8 o'clock. The 
ceremony and the review which followed was perfect. They 
wore the shako. 

"Presentation of marksmen badges was next in order; guard 
mount followed, after which dancing." 
From the "Army and Navy Journal." Anril 8th: 

"Captain Des Marets of the 71st Regiment, is under arrest 
for conduct unbecoming, etc. His offence was in tearing down 
from the wall of his company room certain 'armory rules' 
placed there by order of the Colonel, and this before his com- 
pany. His defence as we understand it from his friends, is that 
the rules did not specify themselves as being by order of the 
Colonel, and that he was not notified of the fact. 

"We must sav that this is quibbling of a very small kind, 
and that the act if it goes unpunished must be fatal to the dis- 
cipline of the regiment; if Captain Des Marets were wise, to say 
nothing of the question of good taste, he never would have com- 
mitted such an unpardonable breach of the merest elementary 
principles of discipline. 

"That he should have a party in the regiment to uphold him 



390 [1876 

on such a frivolous pretext is very un 'ortunate, we hope for the 
sake of a really fine regiment that Ibis party is a very small 
minority." 

May 30th, Decoration Day, Company 'K, at 8 A. M., with 
the band, proceeded to Greenwood Cemetery and there decorated 
the grave of Colonel Vosburgh. 

The 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence 
was celebrated in New York City on the evening of July 3d, 
1876, by a grand military parade and fire-works. The military 
were to assemble at Union Square at an early hour. General 
Shaler, anticipating trouble in keeping the Square clear from the 
immense crowd that would gather there, requested Colonel Vose, 
with the 71st Regiment, to assume the entire charge of that duty. 
It was a difficult undertaking, and General Shaler, in selecting the 
71st to perform that duty, paid them a high compliment. In 
addition to the members of his own regiment, 300 policemen 
were placed at the disposal of Colonel Vose. 

From the New York "Times," July 4th : 

"To the 71st Regiment of Infantry, N.G.S.N.Y., under com- 
mand of Colonel Richard Vose, was assigned the arduous task 
of preserving an open space for the passage of the procession 
through the southern portion of Union Square on the nignt 
of the 3d. 

"Upon the arrival of the regiment, which turned out about 
500 strong, at 8 :30 o'clock, it was found that a large crowd had 
already assembled. 

"Colonel Vose at once proceeded to clear the necessary space, 
and placed a line of men in position, extending from 16th Street 
on one side to the same street on the other. 

"Colonel Vose then took charge of the centre of that line, 
placing Lieutenant-Colciiel Chaddock in command of the rear. 
On the east and west sides, although the crowd was very dense, 
the troops succeeded in persuading the people to fall back with 
comparatively little trouble, but on the southern side the object 
was accomplished with great difficulty. 

"The first three lines of spectators were composed principally 
of women and children, and behind these was a dense mass of 
roughs, who took advantage of the circumstances to hold their 
ground. 

"The troops were thus placed in a position of great delicacy. 
Their orders to clear the ground were imperative, but when 
they attempted to press back the line, the roughs pushed the 
women and children from behind, and for a long time succeeded 
in rendering their efforts futile. At last Colonel Vose ordered 



1876] 391 

his men to place their muskets horizontally before them, and to 
press forward in line, thus endeavoring to press the crowd back 
by main force. From time to time squads of the women and 
children, who had become frightened and were unable to resist 
the pressure of the roughs, were taken into the open space in 
the rear of the line of troops and escorted to the east and west 
sides of the Square. 

"At last the efforts of the soldiers prevailed, and the requisite 
room was secured. During the whole time, although the roughs 
were very abusive and loud in their threats, the men of the com- 
mand kept their temper, and not a single act of violence was 
committed. Not so on the other side, however, for two of the 
soldiers were severely cut in the face by the roughs. In one in- 
stance the man was identified and taken into custody. 

"The park police stationed in the same portion of the Square 
were singularly inefficient, only bestirring themselves to keep 
order when forced to do so by the officers of the National Guard. 

"The 71st was on duty from 8:30 until 1 A. M., and at the 
close of the exercises in the Square, marched to their armory, 
many of them completely exhausted." 

VISIT TO THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION AT 
PHILADELPHIA 

The following account is from a Philadelphia newspaper : 

"The event of this week was the reception and entertain- 
ment of the 'American Guard' by the 2d Regiment. The visitors 
arrived in our city at noon on Monday, and after disembarking 
from the cars proceeded to the Atlas Hotel, the Philadelphia 
headquarters of the command. The regiment, or rather the bat- 
talion, as only five companies participated in the excursion, was 
commanded by Colonel Vose, and was accompanied by its excel- 
lent band and drum corps, aggregating in the whole about 250 
officers and men. 

"The command after arriving at the hotel, were dismissed 
till 3 o'clock, when the assembly was beaten and the battalion 
marched to the eastern terminus of the Chestnut Street bridge, 
being met there by a battalion of the 2d under command of 
Captain Donnelly. 

"The visitors paraded in fatigue coat (blue) and white pants, 
the companies presenting, a front of 16 files each. The 2d in full 
dress, paraded as three companies of 18 files each. Arriving at 
the bridge the usual courtesies were exchanged, and in the fol- 
lowing order the march through Philadelphia was taken up: 2d 
Regiment drum corps, battalion of the 2d Regiment, 71st Regi- 
ment band and drum corps, and battalion of the command. 

"The march was down Chestnut Street to 4th, to Walnut, to 
5th, to Market, to 8th, to Race, thence to armory. 

"Along the entire route the two commands were greeted with 
cheers and encores and other manifestations of gratification and 
encouragement. 



392 [1876 

"The marching of the two bodies was excellent and called 
forth many complimentary remarks. Arriving at the armory, 
arms were stacked and the visitors escorted to the main hall, 
where an excellent banquet was spread for the benefit of the 
'American Guard.' 

"The men being seated, ex-Lieutenant-Colonel Neff (the 
commandant and field of the regiment being absent) warmly 
welcomed the 71st to the armory of the 2d, and expressed the 
hope that the visitors would enjoy a pleasant sojourn in the 
Centennial city. 

"Colonel Vose after the collation, informed the men that 
they were dismissed till 8 o'clock, when the assembly would be 
beaten and the battalion marched back to the Atlas. The men 
were then individually entertained by the regiment and men of 
the 2d, many of the 71st visiting the houses of Truck B and 
Engine No. 8, P.F.D., and the headquarters of Company I, where 
entertainments were improvised for them. 

"At 9 o'clock the command emerged from the armory, pre- 
ceded by the Mutual Cornet Band and a large detachment of the 
2d, and were escorted to 8th and Market Streets, where cars 
were taken for West Philadelphia. 

"As the 2d and its guests passed over the route, cheers were 
given the guardsmen from every quarter, and the applause ex- 
ceeded anything we ever witnessed. 

"En route to the cars, Independence Hall was visited, the 
sacred edifice having been illuminated in honor of the New 
Yorkers, by Captain Donnelly of the 3d Regiment. 

"A brief halt was given the men to inspect the relics and 
curiosities, when the line of march was again taken up, reaching 
the horse cars at 10 o'clock. 

"The men being all aboard the command was given, 
'forward' and to the Atlas the men were driven. Cheers and 
rockets were, however, exchanged by the 'blue and gray,' as the 
Empire boys left 8th Street. 

"Tuesday the visitors made a tour of the Exposition, meet- 
ing on the grounds the officers and members of the 2d, who enter- 
tained their guests. * * * 

"In the evening the 71st had a dress parade and guard mount, 
and it is unnecessary to add that the ceremonies were handsomely 
performed. 

"After the parade, etc., supper was partaken of, after which 
the officers and men visited Operti's Tropical Garden, where they 
were welcomed by Mr. Hamilton Disston. From the Garden, 
cars were taken to the city, and the Chestnut and American Thea- 
tres and Washington Garden were visited. Wednesday was de- 
voted to sight-seeing in the city and Centennial grounds. 

"At 6 P. M. dress parade and guard mount was again in- 
dulged in, after which, under escort of a detachment of the 2d, 
the 71st were marched to the depot of the P.C.R.R. Co., opposite 
the Exposition, and a special was taken for home. 

"* * * -pijg American Guard, by their gentlemanly de- 



1876] 393 

portment, won golden opinions in the Quaker City, and left our 
village with many regrets and God speed!" 

The distinctive organization of the Light Guard was kept up 
with Company A, until by order of the Governor, Orders 48, 
A.G.O., consolidated it with others and rendered the officers 
supernumerary; R. O. No. 9, May 1st, promulgated this and as- 
signed the members of the company to Companies B, H and I. 
By this action was wiped out a condition which had existed for 
nigh twenty years. Efforts were taken to organize a new company. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," October 21st: 

"The 71st Regiment was inspected and mustered at Tomp- 
kins Square, October 16lh. The 71st is at present without a 
letter A in its regimental alphabet, owing to the consolidation of 
that company with others in the regiment. 

"A little break in the regularity of the proceedings at the 
muster, was the appearance upon the ground, in citizeas' dress, 
of the late captain of Company A (who was rendered super- 
numerary by the action of the State authorities) and he audibly 
protested against the muster of any of his late command except- 
ing as members of Company A. One of the latter gentlemen 
who was parading in the ranks of another company, waxed con- 
tumacious, and declined to answer to his name in that company. 

"The Mustering Officer (Lieutenant-Colonel Kine), paid no 

attention to the unofficial interruption of Captain D , 

but recognized the presence of the insubordinate private by plac- 
ing him under arrest, and the proper charges will be preferred 
in his case. 

"As will be seen below, the strength of this regiment shows 
a steady gain over the two preceding years, being 116 more than 
that of 1875. The 71st intends putting forth efforts during 
the coming winter in the matter of recruiting. * * *" 

F.&S. N.C.S. Band ABCDEFGHIKT'l 
Present 6 S 40 .. 40 55 70 45 34 47 31 48 73 494 
Absent 4 1 .. 10 3 26 4 9 12 26 9 4 108 



Totals 10 6 40 .. SO 58 96 49 43 59 57 57 11 602 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," December 2d, 1876: 

"The Music Committee of the 71st Regiment announces to 
their commander with appropriate flourish of trumpets the fact, 
that they have at last succeeded in organizing a military band, in 
every way worthy of the 71st. This band will be under the 
leadership of Prof. F. L Eben, and consists of forty members, 
most of whom are by this contract absolutely bound to the 71st 
Regiment; thus for the first time in the history of this regiment, 



394 , [187576 

having a band whose interest and existence is identical with its 
own. 

"Your committee feel assured, from the character and high 
professional reputation of the individual members of the band, 
and the concert of action they will gain by always playing 
together, that your new band will be an object of pride with you." 

In order that this fact might become self-evident, a concert 
and hop was given at the armory on the evening of 
November 29th. 

18 7 7 



From the "Army and Navy Journal," February 17th, 1877: 

"The right wing of the 71st Regiment was drilled in battalion 
movements at the State Arsenal on Monday evening, the 12th. 
* * * If officers desire their men to be prompt and soldierly 
in their movements, they must set the example. * * * This 
regiment contains good material, and the men are very intelligent. 

"The 71st was at one time considered one of the two smart- 
est regiments in the 1st division, but owing to causes of which we 
are not altogether informed, it is being overtaken in the race for 
prominence by younger rivals, and unless it makes a decided 
effort, and shows a little more enthusiasm, going in full ranks 
at drills, regular attendance of officers, to recruiting and instruc- 
tion, the old 71st will lose its prestige." 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," March 3d : 

"The 71st paraded on Washington's birthday. ♦ * * It 
was not until 2:45 P. M., that the regiment appeared at Union 
Square Plaza; a large crowd of people had assembled in and 
around the Square, the Plaza being kept clear by a large detail 
of police. * * * The regiment was commanded by Colonel 
Vose. The command consisted of nine companies of sixteen files 
each, presenting a fine appearance as the sun shown on their 
bright guns and equipments. 

"With the 71st were two companies of the 2d Pennsylvania 
N. G. as guests, numbering 62 men, commanded by Colonel Clark. 
They arrived from Philadelphia during the morning, and an 
escort of officers from the regiment received them at Jersey City, 
then marched them to the armory where a lunch was already 
awaiting them. * * * 

"The appearance and marching of the troops at this review 
was creditable. It was understood that when the review by 
General Vilmar was over the Regiment would give a marching 
salute to the Grand Duke Alexis, at his hotel, the Clarendon, but 
the Duke did not appear. 



1877] 395 

"The Reception in the evening given at the armory was 
attended by a very large number; the hall was handsomely 
decorated, an elaborate supper table was spread in the officers' 
room, Colonel Vose presiding. Two bands of music under Eben, 
provided music for dancing." 

Of the Decoration Day parade the "Army and Navy Jour- 
nal" said: 

"The old and once famous 71st Regiment came along in good 
style; alignments quite good, but sub-divisions comparatively 
weak in number of files." 

RAILROAD STRIKE 

In the summer of 1877 there was a general strike of the 
employees of the B. & O., Erie and Pennsylvania R. R. The 
Adjutant-General's annual report for that year, says : 

"The receiver of the Erie Railway, having applied to your 
Excellency for the aid of the State to protect its property, which 
was endangered by a threatened strike of its employees, in com- 
pliance with your directions, I telegraphed, in the evening of 
Thursday, June 28th, to Brig.-Gen. Wm. F. Rogers, at Buffalo, 
to have the 74th Regiment assembled immediately, and held in 
readiness to move at a moment's notice." Before the lapse of 
many weeks the necessity of ordering into active service the 
whole force of the National Guard occurred. 

"A strike of the employees of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. in 
West Virginia, and also those of the Pennsylvania Central in the 
western part of Pennsylvania on the 19th of July, emboldened 
those of the Erie Railway to renew their riotous procedings on 
Friday, July 20th. 

"On Tuesday, the 24th, owing to the threatening condition of 
things at Albany and Buffalo, the 9th Regiment was ordered to 
the former place, and the 8th Regiment and 49th Regiment to the 
latter. * * * On Friday evening, July the 27th, an order 
was issued dismissing most of the troops, their services being no 
longer required." 

During this period the 71st remained on duty at their 
Armory for about a week, to proceed at a moment's notice to any 
point. 

The men were very anxious to be ordered out of town to 
the threatened points of attack ; but New York City had a special 
claim on this regiment, and the commanding General was re- 



396 [1877 

quested by the Mayor, to retain the 7th, 12th, 22d and 71st 
Regiments. 

The following account of the duty done on this occasion by 
the regiment, is from the "Army and Navy Journal," of 
August Uth: 

"The following is a brief account of the duty done by the 
71st, last month. 

"Monday evening, July 23d, before receiving orders, the 
colonel of the regiment went to the armory at 7:45 and found 
about fifty men assembled, in anticipation of orders. Five men 
from each company were at once detailed to do guard duty at 
the armory until further orders. At 8:45 orders were on their 
way to the armory to assemble the regiment, and verbal orders 
were immediately issued to that effect, so that by midnight 217 
men were on duty. A guard was established inside and outside 
of the building. 

"Tuesday the 24th, the Morning Report showed, present 370 
men, with all the line officers except one, who was out of the 
city and all of the staff. Morning drills were ordered at once, 
particularly in loading and firing, but few passes were asked for, 
and good discipline was maintained, the men were obedient to 
the slightest wish. In the afternoon of that day, dress parade 
was held, and at 11 P. M. 'tatoo' was sounded, at 11:30 came 
'taps,' and the utmost quiet resigned. 

"Wednesday the 25th, was established a system of twenty 
minute passes, except in very urgent cases, by which means the 
command could be brought in hand within twenty minutes by 
stopping passes. On the afternoon of that day orders were 
received placing the command at the disposal of the Board of 
Police ; at 6 o'clock all passes were stopped, at 6 :20 the whole 
command was in the armory, at 8 o'clock the Regiment was 
assembled in line of battle, ammunition distributed, arms 
stacked, and the line maintained, ready to march at a moment's 
notice, until IIP. M., when notice was received that there was 
no further apprehension of trouble in the city, when the parade 
was dismissed and the men sent to quarters. 

"Thursday the 26th, drills were continued, and at 6 P. M., 
a dress parade was held on 34th Street. 

"Friday the 27th, the same routine was followed and at 
6 P. M., a dress parade was held again on 34th Street, after a 
short march down Fifth Avenue to 26th Street, and up Madison 
Avenue to 34th Street, the command returned to the armory. At 
12 P. M., after the men had been sent to quarters, orders came 
to dismiss. Immediately the command was assembled, ammuni- 
tion collected and the Regiment dismissed. It was unexpected to 
the men, and more than half remained on duty all night. 

"On the first day there was some trouble in being properly 
supplied with rations, but by Wednesday the Commissary was 



1877] 397 

able to make arrangements with the Hoffman House which 
proved perfectly satisfactory to both officers and men. 

"Too much praise cannot be given to the men of the 71st 
for their behavior during the week ; there was no complaint at 
the hardships they had to endure, and there were many. 

"The officers and men had to sleep on the floor of the large 
drill room, with backs of chairs for pillows. While their armory 
is well situated and ventilated, it nevertheless has very bad accom- 
modations for a number of men for a length of time, two or 
three toilets for 470 men, that they had on the last day, and no 
washing conveniences. Had the armory had these, the regiment 
would have needed few passes, the men leaving the armory as 
a general thing only for actual necessity." 

The National Rifle Association had purchased grounds on 
Long Island, twelve miles from Hunters Point ; it consisted of 
about eighty acres, on this they erected thirty targets, besides a 
"Running Deer,'' it was considered one of the best equipped 
and handsomest ranges in the world. 

The targets were in two lines, placed in eschelon. The main 
line of twenty targets was 150 yards in the rear of the other, 
which contained ten targets, so that firing could proceed at differ- 
ent distances at the same time. This range was called 
"Creedmoor." 

By a contract entered into between the Adjutant-General of 
the State of New York and the National Rifle Association, the 
National Guard were allowed the use of twenty targets, and 
markers on three days in each week from April to November 1st, 
for which the State paid $4,500 yearly. 

In 1876, out of 38 competing regiments, battalions and 
separate companies for the "Figure of Merit," the 71st stood 
first on the list, the score being 85.62. The 7th, stood 50.70; the 
lowest score made was 17.70. 

The 1st Division match was shot at Creedmoor, on September 
11th, 1877, by teams of twelve men from each regiment, at 20O 
and 500 yards, five shots at each distance. The following is a 
summary of the score (highest possible score 300 at each 
distance) : 

200 Yards 500 Yards Total 

71st 221 207 428, 

8th 222 173 395. 

9th 200 191 3911 

7th 224 166 390 

12th 222 165 387 

69th 195 122 317 



398 [1877 

As usual, just outside of the range borders, the Devil, 
with an eye to business, established several beer saloons, 
resulting in disgraceful behavior, many of the men in compet- 
ing regiments got so drunk as to be unable to shoot. When 
the 71st went to Creedmoor, Colonel Vose first saw that the 
beer peddlars were put out of business, and thus prevented 
trouble. 

Of the fall inspection, the "Army and Navy Journal," 
October 15th, said: 

"At 2 P. M., on Monday the 15th, General Vilmar and 
staff, arrived at Tompkins Square, and twenty minutes later, 
the 71st Regiment, ten commands of 16 files, band and drum 
corps, blankets, rolled, entered the grounds, after making a 
complete circuit of the Square the regiment was formed for 
review on the west side. 

"The review in line was excellent and the passage fine, 
alignments, distance and marching being of the best descrip- 
tion, * * * at the close of the inspection, the command 
was mustered, and then marched to its armory." 

The figures were: 

F.&S. N.C.S. Band B C D E F G 
Present 8 6 40 39 58 64 38 36 S3 

Absent 1 13 2 IS S 9 4 

Total 9 6 40 52 60 79 43 4S 57 60 58 81 S90 

November the 8th, a committee from the Board of Offi- 
cers, visited Philadelphia and presented a set of resolutions 
elegantly bound, acknowledging the courtesies extended to the 
71st while on their visit during the Centennial. 

During the fall, but little of note took place beyond the 
usual drills; the comments made by the "Army and Navy 
Journal," regarding these, were complimentary — the principal 
fault was lack of discipline. 

Captain Orser was detailed to organize a company "A". 

In December the officers were notified that, "one hour 
on each headquarter night would be devoted to tactical con- 
versation, when all the various constructions of the tactics will 
be harmonized, that drills may be uniform, and the system 
the same throughout the entire regiment." 



H 


I K T'l 


34 


SI n 504 


26 


7 4 86 



1878] 399 

18 7 8 



During the winter, division drills were held, under the 
supervision of a field officer. 

On Monday, January 7th, the right wing had a drill at 
the State Arsenal. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," March 2d: 

"The 22d of February has always been a red letter day 
for the members of the 71st Regiment, and the anniversary 
of the birthday of the immortal Washington has always been 
celebrated in a fitting manner by the 'American Guard.' 

"The late occasion was no exception to the general rule, 
and for weeks past preparations were being made to fully 
honor the event. Military ceremonies were to commence 
the entertainment while the guests of the regiment were given 
a hop to close the evening. 

"Gilmore's Garden was selected. * * * This building 
was appropriately decorated, and notwithstanding the dreari- 
ness of the day and evening, by eight o'clock the garden was 
filled. 

"At 8:45 P. M., line was formed with nine companies of 
16 files for the parade. The formation was excellent, but the 
absence of the colors, was commented on ; after receiving the 
command Colonel Vose signalled to Captain Vantine, who im- 
mediately closed ranks, and advanced in column of platoons, 
the two color bearers being in the centre of the column, to 
the right of the regiment, when the colors were taken, escorted 
back to the centre of the regiment and received with honors. 

"The escort duty was well rendered. Company C being 
fully posted in all the details, but why the color escort should 
be introduced into the ceremony of dress parade we fail to 
understand. 

"Major-General Shaler took the review. * * ♦Through- 
out the evening the men were attentive and steady. * * *"' 

March 16th, Captain Milne, Jr., of Company F, tendered;- 
his resignation. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," March 16th : 

"The exclamation of the Irishman on first witnessing a' 
parade of the Home Guard, 'Begor, these are all officers, no 
sogers,' might well be applied to Company H, 71st Regiment 
on Tuesday last, for at its company drill one captain, three 
corporals and eight men was the total present. The appear- 



400 



[1878 



ance of the company was about equal to its turnout, decidedly- 
slim. 

"The belts were not of the same pattern; several of the 
men and one Sergeant were without bayonet scabbards, merely 
inserting the bayonet in the loop of the jacket, not a single 
cartridge box was worn in the squad. 

"The company Quartermaster-Sergeant was also decorated 
with gold trimmings on his shoulder loops. The manual of 
arms by motion was poor, the men not paying the proper 
attention; and while the Captain was specially instructing one 
^man, as to the proper manner of holding his piece at support 
arms, another man constituted himself an impromptu instruc- 
tor, and was explaining the motion to his immediate neighbors. 
"The instructions in the loadings were not much better, 
the absence of the cartridge box being particularly noticed at 
this motion. 

"The Captain should always remember that the prepara- 
tory command of company or squad, should precede the com- 
mand of execution. The few movements in the school of the 
company were only fair, the men lack spirit and energy. The 
step was slow ; there was talking in the ranks. 

"At the inspection in October last this company paraded, 
34 present and 26 absent, total 60; yet in the very centre of 
the drill season, but 15 men out of 60 report for duty at 
company drill." 

The right wing had a drill at the State Arsenal on Friday 
evening, April 5th; the "Army and Navy Journal" gave a 
severe criticism of some length ; in closing it said : 

"The drill as a whole was very poor, not from any fault 
of the men, but simply from the want of knowledge or confi- 
dence of the officers. As long as the movements went straight 
all was correct, but if an order was misunderstood or incor- 
rectly performed, everything seemed to be at sixes and sevens. 
The file closers have not the slightest conception of their duty 
and not once during the drill was the least effort made to 
correct or assist the men in the execution of a movement." 

April 12th, the regiment paraded as part of the escort, at 
the funeral of Col. James R. Hitchcock, late of the 9th 
N.Y.N.G., who was in 1861 a member of Company F, 71st 
Regiment. 

On Decoration Day the regiment paraded, the "Army and 
Navy Journal" said : 

"The 'American Guard' looked and marched splendidly, 
while the salutes could not be surpassed." 



1878] 401 

June 11th, Lieut. Sanford E. Taylor was elected Captain 
of Company K. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," June 22d: 

"June 14th at 7 o'clock P. M., the 71st assembled at its 
armory in fatigue uniform for the purpose of drill and parade. 
At 7:30 regimental line was formed in 34th Street by Adju- 
tant Stevenson, and a command of nine companies of 12 files 
front was handsomely turned over to Colonel Vose. 

"The regiment was then marched up Fifth Avenue to 69th 
Street, and from there to the Pallaone grounds, owned by 
ex-Governor Morgan, where the drill was to take place. 

"The principal feature of the evening was the practice in 
skirmish drill and street firing. The old tactics were used in 
the latter movement, the right company delivering its fire, and 
then breaking by column of fours to the right and left, march- 
ing to the rear by the flank, thus allowing the succeeding 
company to advance — so on until all companies had fired. * * * 

"The drill lasted nearly three hours, it being 11 o'clock 
before the regiment returned to the armory." 

From the same of June 29th : 

"The Boston Fusiliers, Captain A. H. Snow, were the 
guests of the 71st during their passage through New York on 
the 19th and 20th. The Fusiliers, who had been attending 
the Valley Forge Centennial, were met at the Desbrosses 
Street ferry by Colonel Vose and the officers of the 71st, and 
escorted to the armory, 35th Street and Broadway. 

"Here they were formally welcomed by Colonel Vose and 
a collation was partaken of. In the evening the Fusiliers 
were shown the sights, a number accepting the invitation of 
the manager of the Standard Theatre where a hearty laugh 
was had over Emmet's 'Fritz'. 

"On Friday Central Park, Public Institutions, Aquarium 
and other places of interest were visited, while several of the 
officers of the 7th and 9th joined in. At 3 o'clock P. M., the 
assembly was sounded and the Fusiliers, two platoons of eight 
front, were escorted to the boat by a detachment .of the 71st, 
under command of Captain Webber. ♦ * * '■ 

On the evening of July 2d, the regiment again formed on 
East 34th Street, nine companies, 12 files front, and paraded 
for drill under Colonel Vose ; the movements were principally 
skirmish drill and street firing, with the new square forma- 
tion. The route was through Madison Avenue, to 58th Street 
and return. 

August 1st the regiment went to Creedmoor. 



402 [1878 

October, Captain M. L. Vantine of Company C, was court- 
martialed for misappropriation of Company and Regimental 
funds. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," November 2d : 

"On Thursday, October 24th, the 71st Regiment in fa- 
tigue uniform, heavy marching order, paraded in East 34th 
Street for annual inspection and muster ; line was formed for 
review at 2 o'clock P. M. Maj.-Gen. J. B. Woodward, In- 
spector-General, receiving the review, which was in line only, 
the passage being omitted for want of proper space. 

"During the review in line the command was remarkably 
steady, not a head or hand being moved, while the 'present' 
at the opening and close was excellently rendered. 

"At the close of the review General Woodward, on behalf 
of the State of New York, presented to the regiment a beauti- 
ful stand of colors (State and National) to replace those con- 
demned by the Inspector of Ordnance. In this presentation 
the General paid a worthy compliment to the 71st, and one 
which they richly merited. 

, "The command is a good one, attentive and faithful in per- 
formance of all duties, and one on which the authorities would 
rely in case of emergency. Colonel Vose thanked the General 
and State, and said the new flag would ever be held unsullied 
while in the care of the 'American Guard.' 

"* * * In their muster of present and absent Companies 
B and E proved themselves unworthy of a company designa- 
tion, parading but a mere handful of men. * ♦ *" 

F.&S. N.C.S. Band BCDEFGHIKT'l 
Present 9 10 37 31 45 61 23 34 42 37 46 73 448 

Absent 1 3 13 10 6 12 10 8 2S 6 IS 109 

Total 10 10 40 44 55 67 35 44 SO 62 52 88 557 

During this month the Non-Commissioned ofificers pre- 
sented the Adjutant (Stevenson) with a set of horse equip- 
ments. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," December 14th : 

"Lieutenant-Colonel Chaddock, 71st Regiment has request- 
ed that the commission of Capt. Edwin J. Murfin, Company E, 
be vacated for total neglect of duty, he not having reported to 
his command during the past six months or over. The com- 
pany is in a sad plight; Captain a total absentee; 1st Lieutenant 
rarely in uniform ; and the hard and conscientious work of the 
2d Lieutenant, E. W. Rachan, counteracted by the careless 
and bad example of the senior ofificers. * * *" 



1878-79] 403 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," December 21st: 

"Within ten minutes after the opening of the doors of 
the Arsenal on the 13th instant, almost every available space 
was filled with the friends of the 'American Guard,' who had 
assembled for the purpose of review and inspection by Brig.- 
Gen. Frederick Vilmar. 

"A proper guard was placed at the doors under the charge 
of Lieutenant Montgomery with positive orders not to allow 
the building to become overcrowded ; the Lieutenant obeyed 
his orders, and as a consequence large numbers of visitors 
were stopped. 

"At 8 o'clock the assembly was sounded ; but owing to the 
constant arrival of late men the equalization (nine companies 
of 12 files front), was not perfected until 8:30. 

"The formation was very slow and decidedly faulty, par- 
ticularly in the left wing companies. * * * As a whole 
the drill might be considered good for the first of the season. 
The men were attentive and prompt to obey orders, the only 
errors being on the part of the officers." 

Captain Sanford E. Taylor received the "Roosevelt" medal. 
18 7 9 



From the "Army and Navy Journal," January 11th, 1879: 

"The right wing of the 71st was instructed at the Arsenal 
on the evening of the 7th instant, by Colonel Vose. 

"The regiment should be in a much better shape at this 
period of the drill season, and it is indeed uphill work for 
Colonel Vose and his field officers, to place and keep the bat- 
talion in the position it is entitled to, when the company 
officers will not study the tactics and keep up with the re- 
quirements of the service. 

"The rank and file are second to none, and need only 
correct orders from Captains to execute promptly and in fine 
shape every movement of the school of the battalion. A 
Colonel should not be expected to perform the work of com- 
pany commanders at battalion drill, and the sooner officers 
make up their minds to read up or resign, the better for the 
regiment and general service." 

On the 22d the left wing had a drill at the same place; 
the criticism was of the same character. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," February 15th: 

"The 71st Regiment paraded at the State Arsenal for in- 



404 [1879 

struction in battalion movements. The assembly was prompt; 
the equalization eight companies 12 files front, rapid, and the 
battalion handsomely turned over to Colonel Vose. * * * 
As a rule the several motions of the loading and firings were 
cleanly executed ; but from the right to the left, the deficiency 
in company drill was easily observed from the clumsy and 
incomplete manner of the execution. * * * 

"When officers accept commissions they bind themselves 
to perform certain duties to their regiments as well as to the 
State. * * * The manual of the loading and firings of 
the 71st was commendable on the part of the men, the direct 
and oblique fires being excellent. * * *" 
From the same, March 1st: 

"The annual reception of the 71st Regiment, in celebration 
of Washington's Birthday, was held at their armory on Febru- 
ary 24th. The main drill rooms were most tastefully decorated 
with flags, bunting and flowers, while the several company 
rooms vied with each other in beautifying their quarters. 

"At about 9 o'clock the orchestra under the direction of 
Bandmaster John Occa, opened the festivities, which were 
continued without intermission until early morning. The recep- 
tion was well attended, the dancing floor being filled during 
the whole night, while in the quarters of the several com- 
pany rooms, music and song relieved those fatigued with 
dancing." 

March 4th Frank S. Belton was elected Captain of Com- 
pany H. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," May 17th : 

"The annual inspection and muster commenced on Mon- 
day, May the 12th, with the 71st Regiment. 

"The command paraded in fatigue, white cross belts, knap- 
sacks with overcoat rolled, but without the new haversacks 
and canteens. The parade was ordered on East 34th Street at 
2 P. M., and promptly on time the regiment — nine unequalized 
commands — were formed for review by the Inspector-General. 

"The ceremony in line was fairly rendered. * * ♦ The 
inspection was, as a rule, satisfactory. * * *" 

F.&S. N.C.S. Band BCDEFGHIKT'l 
Absent 9 10 38 34 43 58 26 32 39 31 40 65 425 

Absent 1 1 1 8 8 10 7 12 7 31 9 25 120 

Total 10 11 39 42 51 68 33 44 46 62 49 90 545 

From the same, June 7th: 

"Decoration Day parade. May 30th, the 2d Brigade was 
headed by the 71st Regiment, 'American Guard,' Colonel Vose 



1879] 405 

in command, eight commands of 16 files each, with blanks in 
the rear ranks, and not up to usual standard. The passage was 
fair, and salutes as a rule were stiff and awkward." 

From the same, June 28th : 

"More trouble in the 71st, the old sore — position in line, 
has again broken out. The 'American Guard' has not been for- 
tunate in its consolidations ; settle your troubles amicably, 
gentlemen, and one and all work for the best interest of the 
regiment ; your quarrels are petty bickerings and making you 
the laughing stock of both Divisions." 
From the same, August 2d : 

'"A detachment of the 71st was at Creedmoor for rifle prac- 
tice on July 20th, on which occasion Capt. A. W. Belknap was 
Officer of the Day. The order of the regimental commander 
was that no liquors should be sold on the grounds that day, 
and to further the wishes of the commandant a guard was 
placed at the hotel. 

"Sergt. C. T. Barlow of Company D, in defiance of orders, 
'ran the guard' and obtained a supply of stimulants in order 
that he might qualify as a marksman ; on hearing of the occur- 
rence Captain Belknap ordered the Sergeant under arrest, but 
he pleaded so piteously, and apologized so thoroughly for his 
disgraceful conduct, that the Captain released him. 

"In return for this kindness, and to show how much he 
cared for military discipline. Sergeant Barlow met the Captain 
in the armory on Monday evening, July 28th, and after mucn 
abusive language, struck the Captain with his cane ; he was 
much the worse for liquor." 

Wednesday, October 15th, the 1st Division was reviewed 
by the Governor (Robinson), line was formed on Fifth 
Avenue right on 40th Street at 4 P. M. 

The "Army and Navy Journal" said : 

"The 71st Regiment, Col. Richard Vose commanding, had 
right of brigade (2d), eight companies 16 files, in full dress, 
with knapsacks. The command looked and marched well, but 
the alignments were not up to standard of the regiment." 

From the same, November 8th: 

"The 71st has again reorganized its band, and its old 
Bandmaster Wannamacher, will again wield the baton. 

From the same, November 15th: 

"At the armory of the 71st Regiment, Companies G and I 



406 [1879-80 

were present for duty, G in one room with nine men in charge 
of a Sergeant, and I in the other, with three officers, two 
Sergeants and eighteen men, drilling in single rank. The in- 
struction in both was in company movements and the manual, 
the Sergeant of Company G contenting himself with marching 
the squad around the room in single rank, with occasional 
halts, carry arms, order arms, etc., but not a single word of 
explanation; after half an hour of this work the squad was 
marched to its room and dismissed. 

"Company I was in charge of Captain Belknap, the first 
half hour being devoted to the manual of arms, but simply on 
the old principle of giving the orders and awaiting their execu- 
tion. True, the instructor did on several occasions correct 
errors, endeavoring to show with his sword the proper posi- 
tion of the rifle ; how much, therefore, could be learned may be 
easily guessed. During the company movements, the same 
rule of orders without explanation was followed, and, although 
the men were fairly posted and promptly obeyed the com- 
mands, errors of execution were not observed nor corrected." 

From the same, November 22d : 

"On Friday evening the 14th, Company C of the 71st, 
assembled at the armory for the purpose of formally meeting 
its new Captain, George H. Thompson. The company pre- 
sented 2 officers, 4 Sergeants and 20 files, under command of 
Lieutenant McLaren, marching from their room at 8 o'clock 
prompt. 

"The company has been in considerable hot water for the 
past year or more, through the action of its late Captain. * * * 
The drill v^^as closed satisfactorily to all. Captain Thompson 
feeling that he has a good company, ready and willing to learn 
and hold their own with the best." 

Capt. A. L. Webber resigned during the fall. 
1 8 8 O 



On January 14th the Regiment gave a "Complimentary 
Promenade and Concert" at the Madison Square Garden; the 
committee was Major McAlpin, Surgeon Bryant and Captain 
Thompson. The affair was a grand success, fully five thou- 
sand were present. 

For the first time the regiment omitted to honor Wash- 
ington's Birthday; it was left for Company B, Captain Curtis, 
to supply the omission. 



1880] 407 

March 4th and 18th for want of room in their armory, the 
regiment held drills out-of-doors. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," May 15th: 

"The annual inspection and muster of the troops of the 
State of New York were commenced on Monday, May 10th, 
• • with the 71st Regiment, Colonel Vose. The hour announced 
for the commencement of the ceremonies was 2 P. M., and 
promptly on time the regiment, nine unequalized companies, 
fatigue uniform, heavy marching order, wheeled into line on 
East 34th Street. 

"As space would not permit of a full review, an equaliza- 
tion was not perfected. On arrival of the inspecting officer, 
B'vt. Brig.-General Rodenbough, A. I. G. of the State, Colonel 
Vose tendered the usual review in line, but as the full cere- 
mony could not be completed the honor was declined, the 
General deciding that the inspection of companies would en- 
able him to judge of their proficiency. * * * The general 
inspection was then commenced. Company D being the first 
to undergo the ordeal. 

"Under General Briggs the men were not required to 
throw up the rifle for inspection. * ♦ * General Roden- 
bough required that the full duty of the ceremony be executed, 
and from the manner in which the pieces were handled it was 
easily seen that Captain Clark had somewhat neglected this 
portion of the company drill. * ♦ * This feeling was in- 
creased at the 'open boxes,' for the men were not instructed 
how to wear the haversack and canteen, and as they were 
slung on opposite sides the canteen was immediately over the 
cartridge box. ♦ * * The other companies catching on, 
made strenuous eflforts to be in better shape when the in- 
spector reached them. 

"Company E showed a loss of seven men ; this company 
should be disbanded and the men transferred to B and F ; it is 
the poorest in drill and discipline in the regiment." 

F.&S. N.C.S. Band BCDEFGHIKT'l 
Present 9 9 39 39 76 56 19 37 41 45 44 93 507 

Absent 1 2 IS 14 14 9 8 10 5 9 9 96 



Total 10 11 39 54 90 70 28 45 51 50 S3 102 603 

From the same, July 24th : 

"On the Monday evening of the 19th instant, the 71st 
Regiment assembled in its armory, in full uniform, white 
trousers, the object being a street parade and serenade to its 
commandant. Col. Richard Vose. 

"Shortly after 9 o'clock the assembly was sounded, and 
Adjutant Stevenson formed the battalion in eight commands 
16 files front. Colonel Vose is at present in command of the 



408 [1880 

2d Brigade, Lieutenant-Colonel Chaddock had just met with a 
severe family affliction by the death of his youngest daughter; 
Major McAlpin was on leave of absence, so Captain Clark of 
Company D assumed command of the battalion. 

"The route of march was through Fifth Avenue to the 
'Plaza' on 17th St., the command being halted in front of the 
Everett House where Colonel Vose resides. After the band 
had discoursed the usual variety of airs, the Colonel appeared 
upon the balcony, his presence being greeted with three rous- 
ing cheers. 

"The Colonel, who is acting as brigade commander since 
the death of General Vilmar, naturally expected promotion in 
due course of time, but under the working of our most mixed 
law, his just claims were ignored and the junior commandant 
of the brigade was given the promotion by vote of the field 
officers. 

"This serenade had, therefore, two objects, one a demon- 
stration of sympathy, and the other one of congratulation, in 
that the 71st would retain its efficient Colonel. * * *" 

S. W. Blakely was elected Captain of Company G during 
August. 

From the same, October 2d, 1880.- 

"On September 23d, at Tarrytown, took place the Centen- 
nial celebration of the capture of Major Andre, and unveiling 
of the statue erected in honor of his captors. * * * Jn the 
parade were : separate troops from Mt. Vernon, Battery C, 
U.S.A., Governors Guard from Hartford, 22d N.Y.N.G., 23d, 
separate Company of Hudson, 16th Battalion from Yonkers, 
and the 71st Regiment, N.Y.N.G. * * * " 

"The 71st followed under Colonel Vose, eight commands 
16 files front, compact and solid. The staff saluted with the 
Colonel, gracefully and in unison. The marching was splendid, 
alignments of the very best, and distance nearly perfect. The 
salute as a rule, fair. We have rarely seen the 'American 
Guard' to such good advantage ; officers and men were on their 
mettle, the result being that the regiment carried off the honors 
of the parade ; it received repeated and well merited applause." 

From the same, October 9th: 

"The 71st Regiment has started in for a solid season of 
work, and Colonel Vose means that every man in the 'Ameri- 
can Guard' shall do his duty. The examining board for non- 
commissioned officers is appointed and company commanders 
are directed to send all their non-commissioner's before it. 
* * * , all who fail to pass this Board will be reduced 
to the ranks. 

"He also intends that his staff shall be useful as well as 
ornamental, and announces in orders that all company drills 



1880] 409 

shall be supervised, and to that end, the commissioned staff are 
to arrange among themselves, on what evening, at least one 
of them shall be present at company drills." 

As the result of the election of Colonel Ryder of the 9th 
to be the Brigade Commander, the 71st was transferred to the 
3d Brigade. 

October 21st the Governor's review of the 1st and 2d 
Divisions was held ; the reviewing stand was at the Southeast 
corner of Fifth Avenue and 42d Street. 

The "Army and Navy Journal" said of the 71st: 

"The new addition to the brigade (3d) the 71st Regiment, 
'American Guard,' Colonel Vose in command, with four staff 
officers passed, with eight companies of 20 files, in full dress 
and heavy marching order. 

"The marching of the companies of the right wing was of 
the very best, distances and salutes excellent ; but the left fell 
off, the last companies being positively bad." (Too near the 
rear band, possibly.) 

HEADQUARTERS OF 71ST INFANTRY, N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, October 20th, 1880. 
Circular. 
To the Members of the 71st Regiment: — 

An invitation having been extended by a number of promi- 
nent citizens of New Orleans, La., through Captains Belton 
and Hoffman, to participate in the "Mardi Gras" festivities to 
take place in that city in 1881, arrangements have been made 
by which a detachment to leave here in the latter part of 
February next, can accomplish the trip at a comparatively 
small expense. The excursion, occupying about two weeks' of 
time, will prove beyond doubt the grandest and most pleasant 
ever undertaken by any military organization. 

It is proposed that a detachment of one hundred rank and 
file, accompanied by such of the Commissioned Officers of the 
Regiment as may desire, with a band of forty pieces and ten 
drummers, aggregating from 160 to 175 officers, non-com- 
missioned officers, musicians and privates, the whole to be 
commanded by Capt. F. S. Belton, leave New York for New 
Orleans on or about February 23, 1881. 

The detachment will be conveyed by special train, via 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and "Great Jackson Route," to New 
Orleans, which will be reached in about 72 hours. Every 
preparation will be made by the railway companies to insure 
comfort, and special accommodations will be furnished both in 
going and returning. Arrangements have been made for the 



410 [1880 

subsistence of the men en route; also for quartering and sub- 
sisting in New Orleans. 

Assurances are given that during the journey of such 
detachment through the Southern States, it will be received 
with a degree of enthusiasm never equalled in the history of 
any military organization. When the detachment approaches 
New Orleans, it will be met by a special train from that city 
crowded with welcoming friends ; and it is promised that the 
reception which will be extended to the officers and members 
of the 71st comprising this detachment — both by the resident 
military organizations and by the citizens — will be one of the 
grandest ever tendered to any visiting company or regiment 
by any city. New Orleans has not been visited by any North- 
ern military organization for sixteen years, and it is the desire 
of its citizens that their proverbial hospitality should be fully 
shown to the boys of the 71st. 

The detachment will take part in the great carnival parade 
on "Mardi Gras," and in the festivities generally, for which 
New Orleans is so famous ; and during the week of their 
sojourn, there will be many enjoyable entertainments. The 
return to New York will be by the same route, -reaching this 
city after an absence of about thirteen days. 

The assessment upon each non-commissioned officer and 
private accompanying the detachment will be $20, which will 
entitle him to transportation there and back, and to subsis- 
tence and quarters during the entire trip, from the time of 
departure to the time of return. 

Application from those desiring to take part in the trip 
must be made in writing to Capt. F. S. Belton, addressed to 
his office, No. 12 Wall Street, before November 15th, 1880. 
Captain Belton will select from those applying 100 men, to 
which the detachment is limited, and notify same, at as early 
a date as possible thereafter. 

The assessment of $20 must be paid to Capt. O. C. Hoff- 
man, acting Quartermaster for the trip, No. 165 Broadway, on 
or before February 1st, 1881. Such of the members who pre- 
fer to pay by installments can make arrangements to do so by 
applying to Captain Hoflfman. 

As this is a trip which could not be made by an individual 
except at an expense at from $200 to $250, it offers an oppor- 
tunity, which may never occur again, for a tour through a large 
section of our country, to say nothing of the entertainment 
promised on this extraordinary occasion ; and it is to be hoped 
that all who can, will avail themselves of the opportunity thus 
presented. 

COL. RICHARD VOSE. 

From the same, November 27th : 

"The 71st Regiment was the last in the 3d Brigade to 
parade for inspection and review, the command assembled in 



1880] 411 

its armory, in full dress uniform, heavy marching order, on 
Friday, November 19th. 

"The main drill room in the armory of the regiment is 
barely large enough to exercise an average company, so 
Colonel Vose decided to march his command to the 'State 
inspection ground' on 34th Street. The epaulettes were, there- 
fore, removed, overcoats unrolled and put on, and the regi- 
ment equalized into nine commands 16 files. The regiment 
looked extremely handsome in their gray overcoats the white 
cross belt relieving it of its sombre look. * * *" 

In November Capt. Stephen Curtis of Company B, re- 
signed. In December Herman Siefkie, Company D, was elect- 
ed 2d Lieutenant. Company E was disbanded and men trans- 
ferred to Company F. Company A was reorganized under 
Capt. Thomas B. Kniffin. 

As has been stated, the condition of Company E, had 
reached a crisis. At the fall, inspection of 1879, 26 members 
were present, its Captain had deserted it, its 1st Lieutenant, 
rarely to be seen in uniform. 

On January 7th, the Captain's commission was declared 
vacated ; the company under its 2d Lieutenant, struggled along 
without improvement. At the fall inspection, there were nine- 
teen present and nine absent; this resulted in the following 
action : 

(Extracts from Regimental G. O. No. 21, dated December 
27th, 1880) : 

I. Lieut. E. DeKay Townsend is hereby directed to as- 
sume command of Company E. 

II. In compliance with Special Orders No. 247, A.G.O., 
the non-commissioned officers of Company E are hereby re- 
duced to the ranks (for the purpose of transfer), and the fol- 
lowing men are hereby directed to report to the Commandant 
of Company F for duty — James H. Drummond, Emil Winkler, 
Daniel E. Fogarty, Emil Triotysch, Robert H. Black, Charles 
E. Buckingham, Charles B. Christopher, Robert Dick, George 
Gurnee, James F. Hall, Robert J. Hallahan, William J. Hopkins, 
Arthur Howe, Louis J. Hunt, Wright I. Kershaw, Thomson 
Mason, Alexander J. McGregor, James Mitchell, William A. 
Persch, Henry Raby, Jessie Randel, William H. Scriven, H. 
Henry Tantpones, and Seth Wilkes. 

III. The commanding officer of Company E is hereby di- 
rected to carry into effect the above orders. 

IV. The transfer having been effected, the company letter 



412 [1880-81 

E will be dropped and the letter A substituted therefor, and it 
will thereafter be known as Company A, 71st Regiment. * * * 
IX. The Colonel commanding in granting the discharge 
of Sergeant Hagedorn, desires to state that the regiment loses 
a most efficient and gallant soldier; he enlisted in the regiment 
in 1861, in Company G, served in the three months' campaign 
of that year, enlisted in the U. S. Chasseurs in September of 
that year, was made 1st Sergeant, re-enlisted in the 71st and 
was commissioned Captain in the 131st N. Y. Vol., in 1862, 
was discharged in 1864, re-enlisted in the 71st in the same 
year, was promoted 2d Lieutenant in August, 1866, and 1st 
Lieutenant in October, 1866; resigned in 1867, rejoined as a 
private in 1868, was promoted Quartermaster Sergeant, and 
then Hospital Steward ; he has a proud record. 

By this order it is seen that the entire company was trans- 
ferred to Company F. It might be supposed that if these were 
live men the company would have had a large membership, 
but an investigation of the inspection of 1881 to 1884 will show 
how rotten that once magnificent company had become. 

18 8 1 



From the "Army and Navy Journal," January 22d, 1881 : 

"The Annual Reception and Ball of the 71st Regiment was 
held dt the Metropolitan Concert Hall on Tuesday evening, 
January 18th, it was a pronounced success from the opening 
march to 'Home Sweet Home.' * ♦ ♦ fhe hall was 
thrown open at 9 P. M., and by 10 the building was comfortably 
filled, the guests coming in until after midnight. Everything 
was the subject of praise, but the prevailing topic was the 
contemplated visit to New Orleans. Everyone was full of it, 
and many fair dancers wished that they might participate in 
the visit. * * * The regiment has received a boom, and 
this visit, which on ordinary occasions would be most luke- 
warm, has been taken hold of with spirit, and will be carried 
forward to a most successful termination. * * *" 

From Whittemore's History of the 71st Regiment: 
THE MISSION OF PEACE 

Probably no event in the history of the 71st Regiment, 
ever awakened a more widespread interest, or was fraught with 
greater results, than the visit of the regiment to New Orleans 
in 1881. 

It was an event of National importance, and did more to 



1881] 413 

bring about an era of good feeling between the North and 
South than any event which has transpired since the war. 

Nearly sixteen years had passed since Lee surrendered at 
Appomattox, and the "war of words" between the sections was 
still kept up ; the smouldering embers of bitterness and hatred 
were being constantly fanned into a flame by designing poli- 
ticians. 

Quietly, without ostentation or display, the 71st Regiment, 
which had been among the first to volunteer in the defense of 
the Union, resolved to take the Olive Branch of Peace and 
offer it to their brethren of the South. Like Abraham of old, 
they stretched out the hand of reconciliation to the South, and 
said, "Let there be no strife between me and thee, for we are 
brethren." 

The matter was discussed among the members for some 
weeks previous to its final departure and finally a mass meet- 
ing was called for members of the regiment to meet at the 
armory in citizen's dress. The proposition was then made by 
Colonel Vose that the regiment visit New Orleans in response 
to informal invitations that had been received by members from 
time to time. Colonel Vose invited all who could to partici- 
pate in the proposed excursion. Some ISO or more responded, 
including a few of the old veterans. 

Preparations were made at once, and on Thursday morn- 
ing, February 24th, the regiment assembled in its armory, at 
8 o'clock and at 9 the march down Broadway was begun in the 
face of a cold, keen wind that cut like a knife and froze the 
breath in the brass instruments of the musicians. The pro- 
gramme included a review by the Mayor at the City Hall; 
flags were flying in honor of the expected event, but the march 
downtown took longer than was expected, so the regiment 
pushed on down to the foot of Liberty Street, where a large 
crowd had assembled to witness the departure of the battalion, 
which was accompanied by the remainder of the regiment, 
including those who did not take part in the excursion. * * * 

As soon as the B. & O. train at Jersey City moved out of 
the depot, the news was flashed over the wires, and all along 
the route preparations were made to receive them. Twenty 
years previousj as they crossed the border, the South was to 
"welcome them with bloody hands to hospitable graves." Now 
again, as in ante-bellum days, the South was to welcome these 
representatives of the North to their homes and firesides with 
true Southern hospitality. 



414 [1881 

Nothing of importance occurred until the train reached 
Holly Springs, Miss. There they were met by Maj.-Gen. W. S. 
Featherstone, who, during the war, commanded a division in 
the Southern army. 

General Featherstone stood with his head uncovered, his 
long white locks flowing, erect and soldierly in appearance, a 
true representative of the Southern chivalry. He met Colonel 
Vose with a hearty grasp of the hand, and said: "I welcome 
you across our border. There was a time when your coming 
would have occasioned a feeling of fear and distrust; that was 
in the bitter past. Thank God, it has passed. The North and 
South never understood one another; never had a grand con- 
vocation until 1861, when the country was in arms from the 
Atlantic to the Rio Grande. Thank God, those days are gone. 
We welcome you here. We want you to see our people and 
our fertile soil. All we need now is capital. Your coming 
will do much to make us acquainted. 

You will find us of the South as loyal to our country's 
flag as you are. When the time comes for our great country 
to have a foreign war, and we can never have any other, we 
will march with you against our common enemy. The 71st 
New York will march side by side with the 71st Mississippi, 
under the same officers, and the same flag, for our cause and 
our country are one." 

Colonel Vose responded in a few earnest words, thanking 
the General for the sentiments uttered and assuring him that 
should they ever be called on to meet a common foe the 
soldiers of New York would march shoulder to shoulder with 
those of Mississippi to victory. 

The old "war yell" was given with a vim, amid prolonged 
cheers, while the band struck up Dixie and Yankee Doodle, 
and as the train moved out the bands of both commands played 
"Auld Lang Syne." 

The men were soon after reminded by the flashes of light- 
<amg and loud peals of thunder, that they were entering a 
warmer atmosphere, where warm hearts and bright smiles were 
awaiting them. 

At Hammond Station, two hours' ride from New Orleans, 
on February 27th, they arrived after a stormy night, dark with 
clouds and boisterous with rain and wind, the morning dawned 
fair; they were met by the Veteran company of the battalion 
of Washington Artillery and a committee from the Louisiana 



1881] 415 

Division Association, Army of Tennessee. The train arrived 
at 8 A. M. (schedule time). 

The Washington Artillery was drawn up in line to receive 
the honored guests, and the two howitzers were in battery. 

After official presentations to Colonel Vose, the regiment 
detrained and formed line, and as military courtesies were ex- 
changed tjie howitzers thundered a national salute of thirty- 
nine guns in welcome to the guests of New Orleans. 

The salute over Capt. John Augustin, accompanied by the 
committee from the Army of Tennessee, presented the 71st 
Regiment, with a few words of welcome, a banneret of white 
satin, upon which were printed the following resolutions, which 
he read aloud, and which were received with three cheers by 
the 71st: 

HEADQUARTERS, ASSOCIATION OF THE 
ARMY OF TENNESSEE, LOUISIANA DIVISION 
New Orleans, La., February, 1881. 
With Cordial Welcome and Greeting: 

Considering the auspicious circumstances under which 
such numerous and prominent portions of our military brethren 
of the Northern States of this Union, have favored New Or- 
leans with their presence, and with the view of giving formal 
expression of our appreciation of the wisdom and patriotism 
of such fraternization between the citizens of this great 
republic. 

RESOLVED, That the Veterans of the Army of Tennes- 
see of the late Confederate States do extend to you the hand of 
fellowship, individually as fellow citizens, and collectively as 
soldiers, pledged to honor and defend the flag of our country. 

RESOLVED, That this association, entertaining neither 
bitterness for the past nor animosity for the future, cherish 
only recollections of the prowess, devotion and valor of the 
American soldier wherever exhibited, and hold in high esteem 
the glorious record won by your command. 

RESOLVED, That this testimonial is intended that you 
may bear it with you to your homes as a memento of the high 
regard and good fellowship in which you are held by the 
Veterans of the Confederacy. 

J. A. CHALARON, President, 
TOHN AUGUSTIN, First Vice-President, 
H. N. JENKINS, Second Vice-President, 
A. J. LEWIS, Third Vice-President, 
JOS. D. TAYLOR, Recording Secretary, 
EUGENE MAY, Corresponding Secretary, 
ALCIDE BOISBLANC, Financial Secretary, 
S. D. STOCKMAN, Treasurer. 



416 , [1881 

To which Colonel Vose answered by a short address, in 
which the cordial feelings of his people, to our people, were 
eloquently expressed ; the committee from the Army of Ten- 
nessee invited Colonel Vose anihis officers to their quarters in 
their special coach, and there a basket of champagne was 
opened, and toasts, hand shakings and fraternization became 
the order of the day. But the committee soon thought that 
it was not sufficient to exchange toasts with the officers. The 
door was thrown open wide, and every man in the regiment,, 
with the band and drum corps, shocked glasses with the Wash- 
ington Artillery and Army of Tennessee. 

When they reached New Orleans the mercury stood 78 
degrees in the shade. They alighted in heavy marching order, 
viz. : overcoats, knapsacks and blankets. 

They were received by an escort consisting of the Bat- 
talion of Louisiana Field Artillery, Colonel LeGardeur, com- 
manding; the Veteran Company of the Washington Artillery, 
Capt. C. L. C. Dupuy ; the Battalion of Washington Artillery, 
Colonel Horton ; the Continental Guards, and the Boston Lan- 
cers. The 71st was escorted to the arsenal of the Washington 
Artillery, where a refreshing beverage had been prepared, to 
cool their parched lips. The regiment was soon after quartered 
on the steamer "Robert E. Lee," where abundant accommoda- 
tions had been provided. 

On Monday 28th, following the arrival of the 71st com- 
menced the ceremonies of receiving with distinguished honors, 
His Majesty Rex, and the carnival was fairly opened. Every- 
thing was conducted with royal splendor. 

The Mayor on bended knee, presented the golden keys of 
the city, resting on cushion of purple velvet. Amid the roar 
of cannon and the beating of drums, the King was escorted to 
the Opera House. 

The 71st -battalion line was formed at 1 o'clock, under com- 
mand of Major McAlpin. The men and officers were in full 
dress uniform, ■With white trousers. They had a long and 
fatiguing march as the escort to Rex, King of the Carnival. 
Colonel Vose, at the request of General Behan, commanded the 
1st Division. It included a battalion of U. S. Marines; the 
71st Regiment; Company B, 74th N.G.S.N.Y. ; Company A, 
Cadets, Miss.; the Continental Guards, and Company A, 2d 
Battalion, Cavalry, Mass. N. G. 

At 5 :45 o'clock the command drew up in line in the street 



1881] 417 

adjoining the Grand Opera House, and Colonel Vose dismissed 
the command and entered the Opera House at the head of his 
regiment. The front seats in the dress circle were assigned to 
the companies and Colonel Vose, Major McAlpin and the staff 
ofificers were invited to seats on *the stage. 

The regimental band which was stationed in the gallery, 
played a medley of national airs, after which Mr. Albert Bald- 
win, as Duke Albertas, of Massasoit, delivered an address of 
welcome to the King. 

The King in the court costume of the late Napoleon, re- 
clined on a throne surrounded by his subjects, and a calcium 
light threw a dazzling beam on his jewels. At the close of the 
address Mr. George H. Braughn, as the Lord High Chamber- 
lain, responded for the King. 

Lord Thomas Semmes, as the Duke of Chesapeake, next 
stepped forward, followed by an attendant who carried a hand- 
some standard. It represented the royal colors — the purple, 
yellow and green upon which was wrought a gold crown. The 
staff to which it was attached was surmounted by a silver ball, 
and the whole affair cost $600. In presenting the banner, the 
Duke of Chesapeake spoke as follows : 

"Soldiers of the 71st Regiment: In obedience to the com- 
mand of my most puissant King, I am here to declare his 
pleasure. Appreciating the fact that you have come from the 
distant northern metropolis to unite with thousands in doing 
him honor and acknowledging his sovereignty, my King has 
been pleased, as a mark of special favor and esteem, to present 
to you his royal colors — the imperial purple, the cloth of gold, 
the unfading green — emblematic of his rank, his power, and 
his everlasting reign. 

"This spectacle has no equal in the annals of America; 
indeed, no troops have been thus honored by my August 
Master. You, soldiers of the 71st Regiment, receive the stand- 
ard from a King whose illustrious descent can be traced through 
a long line of ancestors until it reaches the Tarquinian kings, 
and there fades away in the dim twilight of the Roman Satur- 
nalia. The reign of this King has not been interrupted by the 
rise or fall of nations, empires, or peoples. 

"Wars, revolutions, intestine conflicts, have unseated the 
deified Caesars, dethroned the descendants of Charlemagne, dis- 
crowned kings and emperors and overturned republics ; but the' 
sway of the King of the Carnival over his happy subjects has 
received no check, for his reign is based on the ceaseless aspira- 
tions of the human heart for human love and happiness. The 
King of the Carnival is the king of humanity. 

"This banner, therefore, is given you as a souvenir exclu- 



418 [1881 

sively devoted to pleasure; it is no battle flag; its use is to be 
confined to the promotion of the happiness of man ; it is not 
destined to the tatters of victory or glory ; it is not to be stained 
with the blood of men or the tears of women and children; it 
is emblematical of peace and good-will, therefore, it is to be 
unfurled only to receive the pure, gentle, peaceful, perfumed 
breezes like those which in paradise — 

"O'er the four rivers the first waters blew. 

"That this flag will ever be devoted to peaceful uses is 
evinced by the interchange of hospitalities between those here- 
tofore engaged in deadly conflict ; by the reverence expressed 
for the illustrious dead, and the respect paid the distinguished 
living — regardless of political opinions ; by the natural yearn- 
ing for more intimate intercourse, which the great city of New 
York is so actively engaged in satisfying; by the unexpected 
display of resources and wealth-producing energy in the South- 
ern states attested by the census reports and by the marvelous 
manifestion of the happy condition of the colored people of the 
South, which their extraordinary increase proclaims in terms 
not to be contradicted. 

"Long ago the steel rail connecting North and South, has 
ceased to be a military road for the transportation of troops, 
and the telegraphic wire to be organ for the transmission of 
hostile commands ; the rail is to us now only a ribbon of steel, 
along which flows the electric current of friendship for those 
who, we believe, we have learned to know and esteem. 

"Bear then, this banner home, and tell your people that 
it is the emblem of peace and good-will, and with it the King 
of the Carnival has sent his royal command that hereafter all 
the citizens of this great Nation shall be united and constitute 
one family, bound together by the indissoluble ties of friend- 
ship and patriotism." 

This was a trying moment to Colonel Vose, as it was 
utterly unexpected ; but he was equal to the occasion. He took 
the standard and held it for a moment, while a death-like still- 
ness reigned throughout the house. He then responded in a 
most beautiful and touching manner, referring to the fratricidal 
strife in which the North and South had been engaged. After 
a long struggle the South was conquered and the Union re- 
stored; but designing politicians sought to keep alive the 
smouldering embers of hatred and revenge. The people wanted 
peace ; they wanted a union of hearts as well as a union of 
States ; and the 71st Regiment, which had been among the first 
to take up arms against their brethren of the South, had now 
come with the olive branch of peace. 

During Colonel Vose's speech the audience was deeply 
affected; stifled sobs were heard in different parts of the house; 



1881] 419 

strong men and gentle women were affected to tears, and when 
he ceased speaking the audience arose en masse and greeted 
him with a hearty burst of applause. The scene was an im- 
pressive one, not soon to be forgotten. 

While Rex held a reception, Colonel Vose, at the request of 
Judge Braughn, the Lord High Chamberlain, stepped down 
among the audience, and choosing a lady partner, followed the 
citizens before their King to do homage to their sovereign. 

Colonel Vose was entertained at dinner in the evening by 
Rex, and the hospitalities of the City were freely extended to 
the soldiers of the 71st. Nothing was wanting to make their 
stay pleasant and agreeable. All classes of citizens united in 
doing them honor. The doors of all the theatres and clubs 
were thrown open to them and the most exclusive families of 
Louisiana entertained them at their houses. 

From the New Orleans "Democrat," March 4th, 1881 : 

"On Thursday morning following these festivities, there 
took place at Greenwood Cemetery one of those impressive and 
affecting ceremonies which, while calling up the saddest mem- 
ories of the past, arouses in the breast of all the spirit of 
charity, humanity and fraternity, and banishes all lingering 
traces of the bitterness of the fearful bygone days. 

"At 10:30 o'clock A. M., the 71st took a special train of 
the Lake R. R., kindly placed at their disposal by Superintend- 
ent Evans, and proceeded to Greenwood Cemetery, in front of 
which they disembarked. They formed in line, with a firing 
party in the lead, and, while the mournful strains of a low, sad 
march wailed out upon the morning air and stole heavenward, 
they entered the city of the resting multitude, and slowly 
marched to the monument erected to the Confederate dead. 
Once around the monument they moved, and then came to a 
halt and formed in line in front of it, and presented arms silent- 
ly and with bowed heads. 

"Rev. Carlos Martyn, D.D., chaplain of the 71st then took 
a position between the monument and the troops, and spoke 
as follows : 

"A famous German theologian once said : 'Thank God 
for sin.' Not that there is anything in sin itself to be thankful 
for, but under Providence, it is the occasion for a display of the 
divine character which would have been impossible without it, 
because unnecessary. In the same sense we may exclaim. 
Thank God for the war ! War, in itself is infernal, but out of 
it the two once hostile sections of our common country have 
brought a true brotherhood. 

"Twenty years ago the North and the South fatally mis- 
understood each other. The North pictured the South as a 
modern edition of Bombastes Furioso. The South viewed the 



420 [1B81 

North as a Connecticut pedlar. The North believed the South 
wouldn't fight; the South thought the North couldn't. Well, 
the battle flags were unfurled. The guns were loaded. The 
thunder of cannon shook the continent. The world looked on 
aghast. In the smoke of a hundred battlefields the old mis- 
conceptions disappeared forever. It was discovered that the 
Spirit of '76, the spirit of Sumter and Marion, of Schuyler and 
Greene, animated their descendants. Federal and Confederate, 
the blue and the grey, were awed into a wholesome respect of 
each for the other's heroism and self-sacrifice. 

"The old Romans grouped the gods of their various prin- 
cipalities incorporated in the empire in their Pantheon. Each 
had his niche. In the Pantheon of American patriotism and 
honor the future shall set Grant and Lee, Jackson and Sher- 
man ; while the shadowy throng, gallant as the English Sidney, 
chivalric as the French Bayard, who poured out life — on the 
one side for the Nation, on the other for the lost cause — open 
their lips of dust to sing the angelic overture, 'Glory be to God 
in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will toward men.' 

"As significant of that perfect union — nay, as a help to- 
wards its inauguration — we of the 71st Regiment of the Na- 
tional Guard of the State of New York, lay our garland of 
everlasting at the base of the monument and reverently salute 
these graves. 

"Over the chasm, filled with blood, filled with tears, filled 
with broken hearts and shattered hopes, we extend the hand 
of national fraternity, and lock loving palms with our brothers 
of the South in eternal friendship. 

"When the reverend gentleman commenced speaking, the 
troops uncovered, and thus remained until he had concluded. 

"When he had finished, three volleys were fired over the 
mound on which the monument rests, and then once more sad 
and solemn music echoed among the tombs, and died away 
beneath the weeping willows hovering over them, and the 
command, with slow and measured step, moved out of the 
cemetery. In the afternoon a reception and promenade con- 
cert took place on board the 'Robert Lee,' the spacious cabins 
were crowded with the beauties of New Orleans and other 
southern cities, and the utmost cordiality prevailed." 

On the following morning the regiment took their depart- 
ure for home, satisfied that their "mission of peace" had been 
accomplished. 

From the New York "Post," March 7th : 

"The detachment of the 71st Regiment which started for 
New Orleans on the 24th ulto., reached Jersey City on its 
return trip, via the Jersey Central road, at 9:30 o'clock this 
morning. The detachment consisted of 200 rank and file, five 
Veterans, fifteen invited guests, and the full band and drum 
corps. Colonel Vose was in command. Leaving New Orleans 
on Friday morning last; the regiment's representatives in the 



1881] 421 

Crescent City travelled without halting, taking their meals in 
a dining car attached to the train, until Vincennes, Ind., was 
reached, where they stopped for an hour to partake of a dinner 
given in their honor by the B. & O., O. & M., and Jackson 
railroads. This was late on Friday evening. Last evening 
(Sunday), the B. & O. Co. gave them a dinner at Cumberland, 
at the conclusion of which, the command attended divine 
service, conducted by Chaplain Martyn. 

"Upon disembarking from the train at Jersey City, the 
command was after a brief interval, provided with a special 
ferry boat, which brought them to this city. As the boat 
neared the dock the band played, 'Home Again' and cheers of 
welcome rang from thousands of throats, for West and Liberty 
Streets in the vicinity were crowded with a throng such as 
were seen in war times, when regiments were starting for 
Dixie's Land on a mission very different from that which took 
the 71st detachment to New Orleans. 

"A military escort was formed on the south side of Liberty 
Street extending from New Church Street to Broadway. The 
companies of the 71st that did not make the trip south marched 
on the north side of the street, from the ferry to the city's 
great artery, and, filing down that thoroughfare, counter- 
marched and halted with their right resting at the intersection 
with Liberty Street. The comrades that they were receiving 
then marched up Liberty Street and Broadway to Fulton St., 
where they formed line and presented arms, while the escort 
passed in the following order : Five companies of the 5th 
Regiment, preceded by its full band, the band and Company D 
of the Boston Fusiliers ; 8th Regiment drum corps ; the stay-at- 
homes of the 71st, the New Orleans detachment following 
their band. 

"In this order the march was continued up Broadway to 
35th Street, where the armory of the 71st is located. The 
escort then broke ranks and after congratulating the returning 
soldiers, went to their respective quarters." 

The wonderful effect of the 71st's visit upon the people of 
the South generally, was best understood there; while in New 
Orleans, Colonel Vose received daily telegrams from all points 
congratulating the command on its reception. Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Corbin, U.S.A., telegraphed that the regiment will be roy- 
ally received if it can stop at Washington on its return, and 
offered the congratulations of the War Department. The com- 
mandant of the Jeffersonville (Ind.) recruiting and Quarter- 
master's post requested that the command be halted there on 
its way home. Admiral Wyman offered the courtesies of the 
North Atlantic fleet and the Mayors of some thirteen Southern 
cities offered all sorts of inducements for a visit of the regiment. 

Some time after their return, the following copy of a 



422 [1881 

Preamble and Resolutions were received by the regiment from 
the organization under whose auspices the carnival ceremonies 
were held : 

SCHOOL OF DESIGN 

New Orleans, April 4th, 1881. 

At the annual meeting held this evening the following 
preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

WHEREAS, The visit of a detachment from the 71st Regi- 
ment, N.G.S.N.Y., on the occasion of the late Carnival Celebra- 
tion, added so much to the displays organized by this body; 
and 

WHEREAS, Our visitors pi"oved themselves clever gentle- 
men, as well as tried and gallant soldiers; and 

WHEREAS. Their coming has strengthened the ties of 
sympathy and affection between the people of New York and 
New Oi'leans; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the thanks of this body are due and 
are hereby extended to the officers and men of the 71st Regi- 
ment, N.G.S.N.Y., for the friendly visit they paid New Orleans, 
and for their gallant bearing while in our city; 

RESOLVED, That the visiting detachment was composed 
of gentlemen, whom as soldiers or as individuals any com- 
munity would delight to honor, and with whom the people of 
New Orleans, were compelled to part too soon; 

RESOLVED, Further, That it is the desire of the Rex 
organization to have the entire 71st in New Orleans at some 
future day, and we promise them, if they come, a truly royal 
reception ; 

RESOLVED, Further, That these resolutions be spread 
upon the minutes, and that a copy of same be forwarded to the 
71st Regiment. 

A. BALDWIN, 
G. H. BRAYTON, President. 

Secretary. 

In addition to this, the following personal communications, 
accompanied by interesting war souvenirs, were received by 
Colonel Vose : 

New Orleans, March 2d, 1881. 
Col. Richard Vose, 

71st Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y. 
Dear Sir: 

As an additional souvenir of our happy meeting at Ham- 
mond Station, where our Company of old veterans had the ex- 
treme pleasure and honor to be the first to welcome your gal- 
lant command on the soil of Louisiana, by the booming of 
cannons and heartfelt greetings, and your fraternal mission to 
the Queen City of the South, to extend the hand of brotherly 



1881] 423 

love, as it should be, among the reunitea people of our com- 
mon country, I take the liberty of presentino" you a copy — 
the last one I have — of "The Lone Star Flag," a relic of the 
past. The same was written upon the capture of Harriet Lane 
in Galveston Harbor, and the taking of Galveston, and was 
printed in new Orleans instead of Richmond as printed, and 
accredited to my brother, who was then in Virginia, to cover 
myself from Benjamin Butler. I send you also a ca'd with a 
pelican, and a New York button as evidence of the change there 
is in the hearts of our people; of the mutual love and unity 
now existing between those who once met on the held of 
carnage. 

I remain, dear sir. 

Yours fraternally, 

CHAS. E. CAYLAT, 
Veteran Company Washington Artillery. 

The following letter was received by Colonel Vose from 
Colonel Walton, commanding Battalion Washington Anillery, 
conveying copy of Preamble and Resolutions passed by that 
body relative to the visit of the 71st to New Orleans : 

HEADQUARTERS BATTALION, 
WASHINGTON ARTILLERY 

New Orleans, March 29th, 1881. 
Colonel : 

I have the pleasure to advise you that by direction of the 
Battalion Washington Artillery, I shall send to your address 
tomorrow a copy of the Preamble and Resolutions unanimously 
adopted by the Battalion, giving expression to their gratifica- 
tion and satisfaction resulting from the visit of the representa- 
tives of your regiment to this city during the festival season 
just passed. 

The distinct expressions of the sentiments of the Battalion 
as conveved in the resolutions, I beg to assure you, are as 
sincere as they are pronounced. I have the honor to be, 

Most respectfully, 

J. B. WALTON, 
Honorary Col. B. W. A., Chairman. 

Col. Richard Vose, 71st, N.G.S.N.Y. 
Colonel Vose responded as follows : 

HEADQUARTERS 71ST INFANTRY 

New York, April Pth,- 1881. 
Col. J. B. Walton, 

Honorary Colonel, Battalion Washington Artillery, 

Chairman, New Orleans, La. 
Your valued favor came duly to hand, but owing to my 
absence from the city the acknowledgement has been delayed. 
The resolutions came also, for which I tender, on behalf 



424 [1881 

of my command, most sincere thanks. The proper reply will 
be sent you at a later date. Meanwhile, permit me to say that 
the sentiments expressed find a true echo in the breasts of the 
men who were with me when among your noble-hearted people. 
The remembrance of that visit and the fruits it will bear, 
is the daily theme with us all; and may an Almighty Provi- 
dence look with the greatest favor upon those of us all, both 
of the North and South, who so willingly forget and forgive. 

May your future be a succession of happiness and pros- 
perity. With great respect, 

Yours most truly, 

RICHARD VOSE, 
Colonel Commanding 71st Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y. 

One circumstance of this visit, was of itself quite remark- 
able; the Washington Artillery of New Orleans (known as 
the Louisiana Tigers in the war), had met the 71st on the 
battlefield at Bull Run, where the Tigers were heavy sufferers. 

The citizens of New Orleans and especially the Veteran 
"Tigers,'' were much interested in having the 71st visit their 
city and state which resulted in the invitation, which was 
accepted. 

From the New Orleans "Democrat," February 3d, 1881 : 

"The visit of the troops from Boston and New York City 
to New Orleans, their participation in our carnival festivities, 
and the cordial and heartfelt greeting that has been extended 
to them on the part of our military and people at large is, in 
our opinion one of the most auspicious circumstances that has 
occurred since the standards of the opposing armies were 
furled in 1865, and the throbbings of the war drums were 
hushed forever. 

"These gentlemen soldiers who come from the far North, 
bearing in their hand? the olive branch, and in their hearts 
sentiments of friendship and esteem have, naturally, been re- 
ceived by the citizens of New Orleans with open arms, and it 
must be a prejudiced mind and cold heart indeed that cannot 
understand the noble spirit that actuates those on both sides 
who, now that the war is a faded memory, desire to clasp 
hands like brothers and citizens as they are, of a common coun- 
try, and who, recognizing the manhood and patriotism that in- 
spired the soldiers who wore the blue and the gray, would 
obliterate all unkind thoughts and embittered memories by 
mingling with each other on terms of mutual respect and 
admiration. 

"Our honored guests from the North will be able to return 
home and say to their people that the soldiers of Louisiana 
are as true to the Union and as patriotic as those in any part 



1881] 425 

of the entire country; that the wild stories of sectional ani- 
mosity and social ostracism which they are continually hear- 
nig of as existing at the South are the emanations of folly or 
malice, and that look as closely as they may, they can discover 
nothing but sentiments of sincerest friendship, an earnest de- 
sire to have Northern and Western men come here and live 
among our people, and assist them in developing the resources 
of a soil which is rich beyond the dreams of those who live 
in less favored portions of the United States. 

"They will, we feel assured, bear testimony that the people 
of this city and state are not the semi-barbarian and inhuman 
people they are always described as being by demagogues and 
paid partisan writers about election times, and that they are 
as earnestly desirous of peace and good-will as those of Massa- 
chusetts and New York. 

"We have been led to these remarks by the announcement 
which is made in another part of the 'Democrat' this morning, 
that the members of the 71st New York Regiment will today 
decorate the Confederate monument in Greenwood Cemetery, 
and pay the ashes of our heroic dead there the honors of war. 
The war is over, indeed, when representative soldiers of the 
North can find it in their hearts to treat the graves of their 
fallen, one-time adversaries as they would those of their own 
lost comrades, and when the soldiers of the Crescent City can 
stand side by side with the soldiers of Massachusetts on the 
historic hill where our forefathers met the invading British. 

"We believe that this is the first time since the war that 
Northern soldiers have visited the South and decorated the 
graves of the Confederate dead, and we know that the act will 
be productive of great good — proving to the Southern people 
that the men of the North are as magnanimous in peace as they 
found them brave in war. 

"The ceremonies today over the Confederate monument 
at Greenwood will doubtless be most interesting and impres- 
sive, and should be witnessed by as many of our people as 
possible. 

"The 71st has won golden opinions from our citizens al- 
ready, and this graceful act will serve to draw us to them all 
the more." 

In April Lieutenant-Colonel Chaddock resigned. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," May 28th : 

"The 3d Brigade field day was held at Prospect Park 
Parade Ground, Brooklyn, on Thursday, May 19th; the day 
opened cold and raw with every sign of rain. * * * xhe 
71st under Colonel Vose being the first to arrive on the ground, 
at 10 :30 A. M., to practice for the later work which was to be 
at 2:30 P. M. The morning drill was considered satisfactory. 

"At 2:30 P. M., the brigade was formed. * * * The 
parade rest of the 71st could hardly be excelled." 



426 ^ [1881 

Of the Decoration Day parade, the "Army and Navy Jour- 
nal," June 4th, said: 

"The 71st Regiment, nine commands, 10 files front, Colonel 
Vose in command, white trousers, passed in review in fine 
style. The marching was steady, distance well preserved and 
salutes good. The 'Old American Guard' made a splendid ap- 
pearance and covered itself with glory." 

June 6th, Major McAlpin resigned. 

July 2d, 3d, and 4th — a battalion comprising companies A, 
C and F, under command of Captain Thompson, encamped on 
Glen Island, naming it Camp Vose. They had a very pleasant 
and profitable encampment. 

August 18th, Colonel Vose's wife died. 

In August, Appleton D. Palmer was elected Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment ; he was Captain of the 4th Regiment, 
U.S.A., he graduated from the Military Academy at West Poini 
June 23d, 1865, detailed as 2d Lieutenant, to the 12th U. b. 
Infantry, and promoted to 1st Lieutenant, transferred to 4th 
Artillery January, 1871. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," September 3d : 

"The first tour (for the season) of rifle practice of the 
71st, was Thursday, August 25th, when 254 officers and men 
under Colonel Vose reported at 9:15 A. M., on the range at 
Creedmoor. 

"Many of those present were recruits, and while at 100 
yards everything was plain sailing at 300 yards kneeling there 
was another story." 

Colonel Vose took leave of absence for one month from 
September 21st, putting Captain Clark in command. 

On October 5th, a delegation of French officers arrived at 
New York on their way to Yorktown to celebrate the Cen- 
tennial of the battle at that place. A formal reception was 
given on the following day. Of this event the "Army and 
Navy Journal," of the 15th, said: 

"As early as 1 P. M., the command of the 1st Division 
began to assemble in their several armories, all in holiday 
dress. * * * At 2:30 P. M., the regiments arrived at their 
respective points, and by 3 P. M. the Division was formed. 



1881] 427 

extending in deployed line along Fifth Avenue, from 40th 
to 59th Streets. 

"Shortly after 3 P. M., the reviewing party entered car- 
riages, and the review in line was commenced, each regiment 
presented arms, etc. The first carriage was occupied by Ad- 
miral Halligon of the French Navy; with Governor Cornell and 
Adjt.-Gen. Frederick Townsend. The Admiral's staff paired 
with other members of the Governor's stafif. * * * As the 
reviewing party passed, each regiment, it was advanced to the 
opposite curb, so that the party on its return, might pass in 
the rear to the recruiting point. * * * In a brief interval 
the passage in review commenced. * * " Following the 
8th comes the 71st Regiment, eight companies of 16 files each, 
under command of Capt. W. C. Clark, who is accompanied by 
three of the staff. 

"The Captain saluted like a veteran, and is, to all appear- 
ance, the happie.-t soldier in the Division; twenty members of 
the uniformed Veteran Corps marched ahead in one rank, in 
excellent shape. * * *" 

From the same, November 5th : 

"The 71st Regiment assembled at its armory on Wednes- 
day, October 26th, at 8 P. M., for inspection and muster, the 
men being in fatigue uniform, heavy marching order. The 
ceremonies of the evening were opened with a dress parade, the 
limited space preventing completing the formation in the usual 
good shape. 

"The manual of arms of the several companies was but 
ordinary, in fact, in some of the commands it was decidedly 
ragged. * * * 

"Colonel Vose's family trouble and his absence from the 
city, had certainly caused him to forget his share in the cere- 
mony, for before the 1st Sergeant's report, he ordered the 
ranks to be closed, he quickly saw his error, and promptly 
opened them again, but forgot to order 'Front,' and left the 
men at a carry. * * * 

"The inspection was most thorough, the General making a 
personal examination of the uniform and equipment of each 
man, they were found to be in most excellent condition. * * * 

"The general appearance and steadiness of the command 
was of the very best, and a vast improvement over that of 
1880. * * * The dark day of the 'American Guard,' has 
apparently passed, and a bright future seems to await the 
regiment; it is now well up in numbers, has good officers and 
with a working field and stafif there is no reason why the 71st 
should not be at the very top rung of the ladder. * * *" 

F.&S. N.C.S. A B C D F G 
Present 8 10 45 38 61 57 39 52 

Absent 1 1 9 22. 24 10 25 19 



H 


I K T'l 


37 


44 72 463 


16 


7 28 162 



Total 9 11 54 60 85 67 64 71 53 51 100 625 



428 [1881-82 

From the same, December 17th : 

"Colonel Vose received a petition signed by 41 members 
of Company C asking him to decline accepting the resignation 
of Captain Thompson. The petition stated that the loss of the 
Captain would seriously affect the prosperity and healthy 
condition of the company, which is full of vigor; that such 
loss would cause many of the best and oldest members of the 
company who re-enlisted through their liking for Captain 
Thompson, to apply for their discharges; and that the com- 
pany will not think of severing the chord of friendship and 
feeling between the Captain and themselves, and will cheer- 
fully make any possible concession and overlook any absence 
on his personal or other account, that the Captain may judge 
proper, but the Company cannot entertain the idea of per- 
mitting Captain Thompson to resign from the Company. 

"Colonel Vose stated that the matter is out of his hands 
as he has already forwarded the resignation." 



18 8 2 



The regiment held its Annual Reception and Ball in 
January at the Lexington Avenue Opera House. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," February 11th : 

"In the 71st, battalion drills for the season opened on 
Monday the 6th instant, with companies I, G and H, under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Palmer. To facilitate instruc- 
tion and to adopt the size of the battalion to that of the small 
hall, the three companies were equalized into four commands 
of 8 files each ; the men rendered supernumerary being utilized 
for guard duty. 

"The 71st on this night, instituted an excellent rule which 
it would be well to observe strictly all through the National 
Guard; all men in uniform who reported after the hour stipu- 
lated for the commencement of the drill were turned of? and 
will be fined. * * *" 

On Monday, February the 20th, Henry Hutton Landon, 
was elected Major. Major Landon was a graduate of West 
Point, 1872, was 2d Lieutenant in the 25th Infantry; he re- 
signed from the army July 11th, 1880. 

The third attempt to elect a commander for the 2d Brigade, 
was held on the evening of March 15th, the result being about 
the same as before, three for Colonel Vose and four each for 



1881] 429 

Colonel Seward and Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzgerald. Under 
the law, a failure to elect on the third ballot, the vacancy must 
be filled by the Governor, which he subsequently did by the 
appointment of Louis Fitzgerald. 

At the annual dinner of the Veteran Association, April 
21st, Colonel Vose brought up the subject of an armory for 
the regiment; there was much enthusiasm on the proposition 
and after considerable discussion, it took concrete form by 
subscription of $10,000. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," May 6th : 

"At a meeting of the active and veteran officers on Monday, 
May 1st, the following were appointed a permanent committee 
on a 'New Armory'; Colonel Vose, chairman. Col. C. H. 
Smith, vice-chairman, Capt. E. DeKay Townsend, recording 
secretary, Capt. J F. Cowan, corresponding secretary, Lieut.- 
Col. A. D. Palmer, Lieut.-Col. H. C. Lockwood, and Charles F. 
Homer were appointed to select a treasurer. 

"It is understood that the Park Bank, which has intimated 
its willingness to serve in that capacity, will be chosen. 

"The subscriptions so far amount to $10,145, which it is 
thought can be raised to upwards of $200,000. The regiment 
is very sanguine of raising the amount necessary by various 
means from the public. 

"The 71st claim they saved Washington on the day of the 
first Bull Run in which the regiment took a very active part 
and met with heavy loss. * * *" 

The regiment paraded on Decoration Day, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Palmer in command. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," June 10th : 

"The 71st Regiment has during several drill seasons lab- 
ored under exceptional difficulties in regard to armory facili- 
ties. * * * This state of affairs has naturally tied the 
hands of Colonel Vose during the winter months. * * ♦ 

"In his dilemma he applied to General Hancock for per- 
mission to use the parade ground on Governor's Island, which 
was at once granted. * * * On Tuesday, June 6th, at 
12:45 P. M., a barge was hired to convey the command across 
the river, and on the day and time appointed the regiment in 
fatigue dress, knapsacks with overcoats rolled, headed by band 
and drum corps promptly started down 34th Street to the 
North River where the boat was waiting. * * * Some- 
what like 200 rank and file constituted the strength of the 
command. * * * Quite a number of visitors were on the 
Island, General Hancock and his staff, Ft. Columbus officers, 



430 



[1882 



and several officers from other forts were on hand to witness 
the drill. 

"On arrival the regiment with band playing marched up 
to the parade ground and past the 'Post Guard,' which was 
drawn up in line with arms presented in due style. The band 
took possession of the music stand in front of the General's 
quarters, where while the regiment was engaged in drill, it 
delighted the assembly. 

"The drill commenced with company drill for one hour, 
ttlie largest company had 16 files, and the smallest 6 files. When 
?the hour was up the command was equalized into eight com- 
:mands of 12 files each, a tedious proceeding; however, matters 
were arranged after a while, and drill commenced with what 
;seemed to be a sort of dress parade for instruction, during 
'which things did not present a very encouraging aspect. 

"Inexperience on the part of all hands was very plain. 
* * * The companies having marched of?, a line was again 
formed for battalion drill. '* * * The movements so far 
performed were anything but creditable, but from this point a 
change for the better seemed gradually to take place. * * * 
The drill towards the end was constantly improving and the 
latter part of it may be called quite a fair battalion drill. * * * 

"The benefit which the regiment derived from this short 
turnout was acknowledged by both spectators and participants, 
and Colonel Vose has our congratulations on the result 
achieved." 

From the same, July 1st: 

"The annual muster and inspection was wound up by the 
71st on Thursday afternoon on Governor's Island, when the 
regiment arrived on a barge at about 3 P. M. * * * The 
regiment turned out in somewhat larger numbers than on its 
previous visit. * * + On arrival at the drill ground the 
fours were wheeled into line and the battalion advanced a short 
distance in line of battle with a decidedly ragged front, and then 
broke into column of fours to the right. * * * ^^ ^j^jg halt, 
open ranks, right dress, in place rest; men were skylarking, 
some sticking their bayonets in the ground, some lying down 
and some riding their muskets like a witch. * * * ^he 
dress of the men was clean, neat and well-fitting, and in this 
respect the regiment made a creditable showing. * * * 

"When inspection was over, the assembly was sounded for 
'Guard Mount.' * * * The regiment was next formed for 
battalion drill under command of Major Landon. The forma- 
tion was good and prompt. * * *" 

F.&S. N.C.S. ABCDFGH IKT'l 
Present 9 9 32 35 47 28 31 34 38 31 S7 351 

Absent 1 2 11 20 32 11 19 21 13 18 22 170 



Total 10 11 43 55 !<;, 39' SO' 55 51 49 79 521 



1882] 431. 

A great mistake to have two parades in the daytime in one 
month, the smallness of each turnout can be easily accounted 
for. 

To the Citizens of New York : 

The 71st Regiment, for the first time in its history of 
nearly half a century, appeals to the people. A new armory 
is an indispensable necessity. The welfare and prosperity of 
the "American Guard" in a great degree depends upon its 
being provided with accommodations sufficiently commodious 
for drill and the safe keeping- of its srnis, uniforms and equip- 
ments. No oth^r -e^iment in the State is so badly quartered. 
All other means h-ivin? failed, we now ask assistance from the 
public, and present our claims — a publ'c who, we feel, will 
generously respond and show their appreciation for services 
rendered by our organization, many of whose members have 
shed the'r blood, and whose bones have been left upon the 
field of battle of the Republic, and whose place has always 
been at the front. Its services during and after the war are 
inscribed upon the pages of history. It was baptised in the 
Dead Rabbit riots of 1857, and confirmed in blood on the bat- 
tlefields of Virgin-a in 1861. The post of danger has always 
been its trust; faithful always to the altars of American liberty 
and the firesides of your homes. "Pro aris et pro focis." Thus 
we do not come empty handed. Our first appeal is for con- 
tributions to our Fair, to open at the armory on December 11th. 
As you are charitable, be generous. 

MAT. TO.SEPH D, BRYANT, Chairman, 
COL. RICHARD VOSE, 
GEN. CHARLES W. DUSTAN, 
LIEUT-COL. APPLETON D. PALMER, 
MA J. EUGENE S. EUNSON, 
CAPT. WILLIAM C. CLARK, 
CAPT. FRANK H. JORDAN, 
CAPT. E. DeKAY TOWNSEND, 
CAPT. AUGUSTUS T. FRANCIS, 
COURTLANDT W. STARR, 
CHARLES F. HOMER. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," November 4th : 

"On November the 1st, the 71st assembled in its armory.. 
The parade was in fatigue uniform, the men made a good' 
appearance; the announcement of a decision on the part of' 
the committee for the holding of a fair for the purpose of rais- 
ing funds for an armory, was made and most enthusiasticallyr 
received. Speeches were made by Colonel Vose, Lieutenant^ 
Colonel Palmer, Major Landon, Homer, Dustan and others, 
-and a hearty support pledged." 



432 [1882-83 

December 16th, Surgeon Joseph D. Bryant was appointed 
Surgeon-General of the State. 

From the same, December 23d : 

"The right wing companies. A, D, H, K, had a parade on 
Monday evening, the 18th, for inspection by Major Goodwin, 
Inspector of the 2d Brigade, under Major Landon. * * * 
Major Landon proved himself a good battalion commander, but 
we recommend to the Adjutant to study up the subject of 
guard mount. * * *" 



18 8 3 



Let us pause now, and do a little reviewing; the regiment 
has passed its first generation — is thirty-one years of age — its 
life has been one of a varied experience ; during its second 
decade it has had six Colonels ; these changes were not con- 
ducive to stability. 

While it may have been a precocious child it had not 
reached the age of maturity — but nine years old — when the 
war arose ; called thus suddenly into the stern realization of 
what was required of a military organization. Its standing in 
the Guard, brought to its ranks those who nobly upheld its 
standard, and on the battlefield gave it a name and reputation 
of which all are so proud, again and again it was tried, and 
each time proved itself a regiment to be depended on when its 
services were called. 

Nearly 300 of its members took commissions in the U. S. 
service. During the sixties it was exceedingly difficult to 
recruit, several regiments had been organized as "Home 
Guards," and as such were popular, making the difficulty of 
recruiting for the older regiments greater, of those regiments 
only one exists today. 

Men who had seen service had little stock in merely "play- 
ing" soldier, especially as the authorities did little to make it 
interesting, providing only a very indifferent quarter called an 
"armory." Those of the present day, having elegant and com- 
modious armories with their many features, their equipments 
and service uniform provided, cannot realize the loyalty that 
held men together at that time in the face of so many obstacles, 
resulting at last under the administration of Colonels Parmele 
and Rockafellar, in weeding out much dead wood, and getting 



1883] 433 

in new material, a new full dress uniform, and armed with the 
very latest issue of muskets. 

It had reached a high water mark when Colonel Vose took 
command. Those who have carefully read the record for the 
last eleven years must have noted the regiment's gradual down- 
ward tendency, those who have not, can make a comparison of 
its condition in 1872 with that of 1883. 

A history is a statement of facts ; it is, therefore, necessary 
in writing this one to mention such facts as regards the regi- 
ment's rise and fall, though it may reflect upon individuals ; 
their position has made them part of the history, and that part 
necessarily cannot be withheld. If a regiment has been pros- 
perous, its colonel will get, and is entitled to all the credit — 
if it has not been, he will receive, and is entitled to all the 
censure. 

It is easy to write that the regiment under Colonel Doe 
was a failure, but that is a statement without the proof of 
responsibility, and may do even him an injustice by leaving 
much to the imagination. Then to say that under Colonel 
Doe it was a great success, may be drawing it so mild as not 
to give him the credit deserved. 

What is being desired is, as far as possible, to avoid per- 
sonal allusion where it has only an indirect relation to the 
regiment, and yet give a history. 

These remarks are necessary, because we are now ap- 
proaching a period in the regiment's history which is full of 
events, a period when its life was hanging by a slender cord, 
and to decline to narrate the facts essential to enable the reader 
to take in the situation, would be pusillanimous ; as well give a 
history of Rome without mentioning the conspiracy of the 
senators, or of England, without the many bloody acts of its 
rulers. 

From the "American Queen," February 17th: 

"It has been the custom, since the time the project of the 
Fair originated, for the various companies that are to engage 
in it, to entertain the ladies interested in the work, on their 
respective drill nights, for an hour or two with music and 
dancing. For some reason the Colonel some weeks since di- 
rected that dancing would not be permitted in the armory, 
unless by his special permission. Each Captain sought the 
Colonel and secured his approval of dancing after drill, and 
every one was pleased. The work of the enterprise progressed 
favorably until last Friday evening, when the two well-known 
companies, A and C, Captains Townsend and Leo, assembled 



434 [1883 

for drill, and a host of their lady friends met for business, 
contemplating that afterwards as usual they would enjoy an 
hour's dancing. 

"After the drill dancing was begun, but it did not last long, 
as it was stopped by orders of Major Landon, upon the 
ground that the Colonel had issued a peremptory order the 
Monday previous, forbidding all amusements in the armory. 
Captains Townsend and Leo, inspired by the manifest indigna- 
tion of the ladies, became enraged and the Adjutant, who evi- 
dently has a grudge against Captain Leo, placed him under ar- 
rest, by order of the Colonel, while Captain Townsend was 
unmolested. The ladies of the committee of both companies 
immediately resigned and declared they will have nothing 
further to do with the fair, and C, has returned all goods and 
checks, of which they had a considerable number, to the donors. 

"The men of both companies, to protect themselves from 
further humiliation from Headquarters, have decided to sever 
their connection with the Fair, and many of them will make 
efforts to leave the regiment. The Colonel's stupidity and the 
Adjutant's personal dislikes have seriously injured this worthy 
enterprise involving the labor and interest of the two best 
companies. 

"Captain Leo, on Monday evening, was informed by Col- 
onel Vose that he was not under arrest, and that he would 
confirm no such order. Captain Leo, however, insisted upon 
exoneration from the Colonel in General Orders, and states 
that if he does not obtain that, he will immediately demand a 
Court of Inquiry to examine into the matter. There was a 
good deal of talk about it on Monday evening, and much in- 
dignation was expressed. 

"Captain Townsend was secretary of the general com- 
mittee of the new armory fund, a member of the Executive 
Committee, chairman of the Music Committee, secretary of the 
Committee on Legislature, and clerk of the joint committee of 
ladies ; from all these he has resigned, and, of course, his 
action has caused considerable feeling and embarrassment. 

"All the ladies connected with the Fair seem disgusted at 
the discourteous treatment received. The Executive Commit- 
tee are in a sad plight and do not seem to know what to do. 
They have endeavored to smooth the matter over but met 
with no encouragement, much less success. At present no 
one can tell what the result of the fair will be, and in fact it 
is difficult for those most interested to say confidently whether 
it will be opened on the day announced." 

The above was a most unfortunate state of affairs, while 
it may not have been of serious financial loss, it did seriously 
disturb the harmony so necessary to make, the success so much 
desired. It showed, however, the lack of tact and discipline 
that existed in the regiment. The almost indifferent manner in 



1883] 435 

which the regiment supported the affair was discouraging, and 
but for the Veteran Association it would have proved a failure. 

It is a wise man that knows when it is time to retire, to 
realize that he has done all he can, and not wait until the tide 
has turned; had Colonel Vose resigned five years before, it 
might have been better for the regiment, it certainly would 
have been for him; his temperament was such as to make it 
impossible for him to be a successful commander, instead of 
respect and loyalty from his subordinates including his staff, 
there was opposition and disloyalty, which naturally permeated 
the entire regiment. To quote one of his officers, made many 
years after: "He vacillated so that it was difficult to keep in 
step, to placate his enemies he turned down his friends, thus 
losing both ;" whatever the cause may have been his usefulness 
had passed. 

The Veteran Association looked upon this condition with 
sad heart; what could they do? The regiment was fast falling 
to pieces, and had a debt of over $7,000. It was the first occa- 
sion since its organization that it had been called upon to use 
its influence to help the regiment. They responded, however, 
recalling the success of the 7th with its Fair in 1879, they con- 
cluded a similar one would receive the support of the public 
for the benefit of a regiment having at least an equal claim. 

Having decided to hold the Fair, committees were ap- 
pointed for the arrangements, and for the solicitation of articles 
for the fair and also cash subscriptions. 

The response was noble and generous, and while the results 
were not as great as hoped for, there was just cause for con- 
gratulation, and gratitude to those who assisted in the affair. 

The merchants were liberal in their donations of articles 
suitable for the occasion — in some cases as high as $500 worth, 
as also were those who subscribed cash; Wm. H. Vanderbilt 
putting his name down for $5,000, provided the balance of the 
$100,000 was raised. (Mr. Vanderbilt died before the winding 
up of the business ; a year or so after his son gave the associa- 
tion a check for $1,000 which was the nucleus for the Relief 
Fund.) 

The Fair was for a new armory and the regimental fund ; 
it was opened on the 26th of March and continued for three 
weeks, it resulted in sufficient to pay the $7,000 of regimental 
indebtedness and leaving a balance of $10,000, which was placed 
in trust for the regiment until such time as the regiment should 



436 [1883 

have an armory, and then to be used as decided upon by its 
officers, in furnishing it. 

The trustees were merchants and bankers of which Eugene 
Kelly was chairman, and the articles of trust were iron clad to 
prevent any miscarriage of the object of the Fund; it will be 
referred to later. 

Among the distinguished lady patrons of the Fair were the 
Appletons, Belmonts, Havemeyers, Lorillards, Vanderbilts, 
and a host of leading families, while almost every prominent 
man in the city, from President Arthur down, were male 
patrons. The U. S. Army was represented by Generals U. S. 
Grant, George B. McClellan, W. S. Hancock and many others. 

This was the first opportunity for the association to come 
to the aid of the regiment and they were naturally proud of the 
result though not accomplishing all that was hoped for. The 
regiment's financial condition was restored, but its physical 
condition was no better, the internal discord still existed. It 
was evident that it would not continue much longer without 
solution, and that must be the resignation of the Colonel, which 
at that time he showed no disposition to do. 

The State Camp at Peekskill was so located, owing to the 
efforts of State Senator George W. Robinson, a war veteran 
of the 71st Regiment and at one time a Lieutenant of Company 
B. He was a member of the "committee on selection of site." 
It was on his recommendation that the camp was located 
where it is. 

The Adjutant-General, in his annual report for 1883, re- 
ferring to the Camp of Instruction, at Peekskill, says : 

"The State Camp of Instruction, established in 1882, 
proved a success, and its good results were so apparent that 
you directed its continuance for this year, and in accordance 
with your instructions the leased ground for the camp near 
Peekskill was prepared for another season, a number of im- 
provements made, and the former temporary structures made. 

"The troops ordered in camp for service during the season 
were the 71st Regiment and 5th Separate Company, from June 
16th to 23d. ♦ * *" 

Inasmuch as this was the first year that the 71st entered 
the camp at Peekskill, and the second year of it being opened, 
the official report of Colonel Vose should be of interest in 
many ways: 



1883] 437 

HEADQUARTERS OF 71ST INFANTRY, N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, June 25th, 1883. 
General : 

In compliance with Special Orders No. 47, A.G.O., dated 
May 16th, 1883, my command assembled at its armory at 36th 
Street and Broadway at 11 o'clock A. M., on June 16th, march- 
ing from thence at 12:45 P. M., and embarking on the trans- 
port steamer "Long Branch," were conveyed to the State Camp 
ground at Peekskill, where it arrived at 4:30 P. M. of that day. 

Line was formed on the parade at which the 5th Separate 
Company, Captain J. T. Chase, of Newburgh, reported to me 
for duty, and was assigned to the vacant letter E, and known 
as such during their service with the regiment. I then reported 
to you for orders, after which I assigned officers and men to 
quarters and ordered details to report to the Quartermaster's 
department and draw the necessary supplies for the use of the 
regiment during the encampment. 

The line was formed for dress parade, after which the men 
were relieved from further duty for the day, so as to enable 
them to put their quarters in order and condition. 

The 17th being Sunday, the only military duty performed 
was guard mounting and dress parade. At 11 o'clock church 
call was sounded, at which a large proportion of the officers 
and men were in attendance (the attendance not being com- 
pulsory). Services were conducted by the Chaplain of the 
regiment. Rev. Carlos Martyn. 

Herewith I submit my orders for roll-call and rules to 
govern the camp, which roll-calls were only varied from Gen- 
eral Orders No. 12, A.G.O., series 1882, as in my judgment was 
deemed necessary. 

I also submit a manual for guards and sentinels, which 
were printed and distributed to every officer and man before 
leaving this city. 

The assignment of companies to rifle practice was made 
after consulting with the general inspector and regimental in- 
spector of rifle practice, so as to interfere as little as possible 
with the regular duties of the camp, and the company and 
battalion drills — the opportunity for which the regiment was 
sadly in need, owing to our very limited space in the armory 
in New York, where the regiment can only drill by company 
and division, and, as a result, when the command arrived in 
camp its drill and guard duty were not of the best, but each 
day showed a marked improvement. 

The battalion and skirmish drills were commanded altern- 
ately by Lieutenant-Colonel Palmer, Major Landon and myself, 
and we strove to be as thorough as possible, and the week's 
duty told favorably with the regiment; indeed, when the 23d 
of June arrived the whole command would have gladly re- 
mained for another eight days, as the officers and men had 
just begun to feel the effect of the drill. They were all anxious 
to learn, and had worked with diligence to that end, the disci- 



438 [1883 

pline was excellent, breaches of it being of the most insignifi- 
cant nature. 

On the night of the 21st I determined to sound the long 
roll, having previously instructed the officers what to do in 
such an emergency, without, however, stating on what night it 
would be sounded. I was careful to see that the camp was 
quiet after taps (10:30), giving the men three hours to get to 
sleep. At 1 :30 A. M., I ordered the Drum Major to assemble 
the drum corps and then distribute them through all the streets 
and sound the roll. I then repaired to the parade ground, and 
in just three minutes from the first tap of the drum, regimental 
line was formed and the rolls called ; but few men being absent 
except such as were on duty. At 2:15 this was repeated, and 
the line was formed in just five minutes, both calls being unex- 
pected by officers or men. 

The camp of instruction has been of inestimable value to 
the regiment and could this be repeated every year we should 
not so seriously feel the want of an armory sufficient for the 
purpose of drill, the one we now occupy being the worst for 
military purposes in the whole State of New York. 

The commissariat was of the very best, and the general 
health of the men excellent. 

At noon on the 23d, the men were assembled and paid. 
Line was then formed to await the arrival of the 7th Regiment, 
N.G.S.N.Y., who were to relieve us. They arrived at 4:30 
P. M., and, after the usual formal ceremonies, my command 
embarked upon the transport steamer "Long Branch." The 
5th Separate Company being provided with a separate trans- 
port, were relieved from duty after being paid, and at once 
proceeded to Newburgh. The regiment arrived at the armory 
at 9 o'clock P. M., of that day. 

I desire to commend, in the highest terms, the 5th Separate 
Company for its drill, discipline, and general exemplary con- 
duct. It was by all means the best in camp, and its officers, 
particularly Captain Chase, possessing sterling ability, an 
honor to the service and worthy of all praise. 

I earnestly commend Lieut. -Col. A. D. Palmer and Maj. 
H. H. Landon, for their ability; their experience in the regular 
army being valuable. 

To Col. Frederick Phisterer I desire to convey my grateful 
thanks for his uniform courtesy and valuable instruction im- 
parted to my Adjutant and non-commissioned officers. 

To Colonel Gillett, department inspector of rifle practice, 
the officers and men earnestly desire to be commended. 

And, in conclusion, permit me to offer to His Excellency's 
staflf on duty during the camp, my thanks for their courtesy 
and kind consideration to myself. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

RICHARD VOSE, 
To Colonel Commanding 71st Infantry, N.G.S.N.Y. 

Maj .-Gen. J. G. Farnsworth, 

Adjutant-General, State of New York. 



1883] 439 

The State had adopted as part of the State uniform, a hel- 
met. Regimental orders were issued June 5th, directing the 
men to turn into the Quartermaster their shakos and receive 
for them a helmet in exchange. And thus the shako was done 
away with. 

Colonel Vose was very fortunate in getting into his mili- 
tary family two such splendid gentlemen (graduates of West 
Point), as were Lieutenant Colonel Palmer and Maj. Harry H. 
Landon; it was unfortunate, that the conditions were so dis- 
couraging to them. 

The Figure of Merit for rifle practice, for the year, placed 
the 71st the lowest in the 1st and 2d Divisions. 

The following is from the Inspector-General's report for 
1883: 

"Arms in poor condition, a number unserviceable, compara- 
tively few of the men having any knowledge of the proper care 
of the rifle. The entire stand need a thorough overhauling. 

"This command entered the State Camp very much off 
drill, and with considerable raw material that had but little, if 
any instruction in the school of the soldier. Company com- 
manders and non-commissioned officers as a rule, were deficient 
in knowledge pertaining to their respective duties. 

"The enlisted men (Americans), are of a good class, and 
their quiet, orderly conduct, attention to duty and eagerness 
to learn was generally remarked and commended. 

"The routine duties prescribed by the regimental com- 
mander, were carried out during the entire week, but as a rule, 
lacked that promptness for appearances in time, which is so 
necessary to be observed. 

"Little attention was paid to instruction in the 'school of 
the soldier.' The company drills were, for the most part, hur- 
ried and superficial, confined as a general thing to simple move- 
ments. * * *" 

Two very serious incidents occurred during the year, as 
they are referred to in an article from the "Army and Navy 
Journal" of August 9th, 1884. The reader is requested to read 
the account thereof on pages 441-3. 



440 [1884 

18 8 4 



During the winter of '83, the bitter feeling among the 
officers opposed to Colonel Vose had reached such heat, that 
thirteen officers sent in their resignations; this will be treated 
on later. 

About this time an incident occurred which still further 
added to the troubles of Colonel Vose. The Veteran Associa- 
tion of the 71st Regiment had for some time worn a uniform 
and adopted a regimental organization assuming titles as in 
service, the privates carrying swords instead of guns. The 
conception was innocent, without any idea of the trouble to 
come ; the same idea was carried out by the veterans of other 
regiments. 

Colonel Clark (of the 7th) and his officers at this time 
protested against this condition, asserting that it was ridiculous 
for men who had been privates in the regiment to be claiming 
titles to which they had no legal right, the incongruity of the 
situation was fully set forth, and resulted in an estrangement, 
the Veterans of the 7th organizing a club and removing from 
the armory. 

This was followed by a meeting of those Colonels of regi- 
ments that had Veteran Associations, resulting in a circular 
signed by each, among whom was Colonel Vose. This circular 
stirred up a hornet's nest, making Colonel Vose more un- 
popular than ever. 

The Veterans appointed a committee who drew up a 
letter to the Colonel expressing their feelings on his action. 
(This circular will be found in the Appendix.) 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," January 19th : 

"Companies A and C, under Capt. E. DeKay Townsend, 
were equalized into four commands 8 files each, for a dress 
parade and complimentary review to Colonel Vose on January 
11th instant. 

"We will not go into any extensive criticism, as the affair 
was an improvised one and not an occasion for work. * * * 
After the military portion of the programme was concluded, 
all adjourned to the officers' room where a handsome lunch was 
provided and where the Colonel was induced to stir up the 
audience by a neat little speech. * * *" 



1884] 441 

Early in the year (February), the regiment sustained the 
loss of its Major (Landon), who found conditions to be very 
uncongenial. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," March 1st: 

"Colonel Vose has returned the much talked of thirteen 
resignations with the following endorsement in each case. 
"Respectfully returned." 

From the same, April 19th: 

"Now that Brigadier-General Ward has been ordered to 
investigate the troubles in the 71st Regiment, we hope that the 
matter will be attended to promptly, sifted to the bottom and 
decided on military, not personal principles. 

"Reform in the 71st is one of the pressing questions of 
the day. In the way things are reported as going on lately 
the regiment cannot live much longer." 
From the same. May 31st: 

"The Court of Inquiry on the 71st Regiment matter has 
closed its business. There were four sessions. The officers 
concerned in the recent wholesale resignations were examined 
one after the other by the Judge-Advocate, but all that was 
elicited, was the fact that a week or ten days previous to the 
forwarding of the resignations in bulk, a meeting attended by 
about a dozen or so of the malcontents, took place, when it was 
resolved to resign simultaneously, in order to force Colonel 
Vose into resigning or Court-Martial, or Court of Inquiry. 

"This is the gist of all that has been accomplished. No 
inquiry into the general affairs of the regiment was made under 
the strenuous objection of Colonel Vose's counsel (Messrs. 
Harding and Miller), to anything that might tend in that 
direction, as the terms of the order convening the Court speci- 
fied nothing beyond an investigation into the conduct of the 
officers in regard to the tender of their resignation. 

"We learn, however, from reliable authority that the state 
of affairs in the regiment is utterly 'rotten,' and that if some- 
thing to mend matters and place the regiment upon an efficient 
footing is not done speedily a summary action will be taken at 
Albany. 

"Colonel Vose who has recently been bereaved by the loss 
of his wife has taken thi'ee months' leave." (This was his 
second wife.) 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," August 9th : 

"The 71st has again obtained an unenviable notoriety, and 
the state of affairs brought to light by recent developments 
calls loudly for energetic interference and determined action. 

"The ridiculous, sweeping resignation of company officers 



442 [1884 

last winter, is still fresh in the memory of all, and its history- 
need not be repeated here; it brought about an alleged investi- 
gation into the affairs of the regiment, but the Board convened 
for the purpose, under the terms of the order convening it, 
was unable to bring to light anything beyond what everybody 
in New York, capable of reading the newspapers, knew to per- 
fection — that the regiment was not in a condition to efficiently 
respond to a call for immediate service. 

"The Board under its instructions had no power to fix the 
responsibility for this state of affairs. 

"Major-General Shaler afterwards in publishing the result 
of the so-called investigation, very properly sustained Colonel 
Vose's action in regard to the resignation, and thus the matter 
ended. 

"The regiment continued in its reckless career, the Colonel 
went on leave, and the command fell to Lieutent-Colonel 
Palmer. It is not recorded that the regiment did much towards 
improving itself in the needed knowledge of military duties. 
Nevertheless the State generously put it on the same footing 
with the other organizations, and the regiment was provided 
with a State Service Uniform. 

"This was made the occasion of a fresh outbreak by a 
number of officers, and the selection of a contractor who was 
to furnish the uniforms provided the pretence. We have no 
space for detailing the circumstances of the uniform question, 
but in general it appears that during the absence of the com- 
manding officer from the city for a few days (without relin- 
quishing the command of the regiment), the Senior Captain, 
Captain Clark (the majority being vacant), assumed command 
of the regiment, and at once showed his ignorance of law, 
military custom and military courtesy by setting at naught the 
order of the permanent commander, and attempting to interfere 
with other company commanders in carrying out the orders of 
the former. 

"The matter was carried to such an extent that an open 
outbreak of hostilities on an extensive scale became imminent 
on several occasions, and this state of affairs was carried so far 
that when Captain Clark entered the room of one of the oppos- 
ing companies, he was greeted with cries of 'Go die,' 'Put him 
out,' etc., and an open riot was only prevented by the exercise 
of great forbearance on the part of the commander of the 
invaded company. 

"Of course Colonel Vose's resumption of command has 

, stopped open hostilities, but the affair just detailed, as well as 

subsequent developments, can leave no doubt that the 71st 

is not in a condition deserving of public confidence, or fit for 

active service. 

"The daily press some time ago unjustly denounced the 
Adjutant-General for not acting upon the conclusions of the 
investigation board mentioned in the beginning of this article. 
This board was not detailed from General Headquarters, and 



1884] 443 

the proceedings never reached them, and consequently could 
not be acted upon from Albany, even if this had revealed mat- 
ters elucidating the conditions of the organization. 

"In fact, so far as we know, no official report of the con- 
dition of the 71st has been forwarded to Albany, and the 
responsibility for its present inefficiency rests with its Brigade 
and Division commanders. As these officers, however, do not 
seem inclined to take vigorous and effective action, it would 
seem that the time for interference by the Albany authorities 
has arrived." 

Colonel Vose was away on his wedding tour, which was 
soon after the return from camp, in June. 

In the meantime Captain Clark had been elected Major, 
which was evidence that a majority of the officers were the 
"malcontents." 

The adoption of a State service uniform was not popular 
with those who took a pride in the regiment, it at once lowered 
the standard of it from a first-class position ; but what covild 
be done? It had been brought to its present condition, it was 
no longer a first-class regiment, and but for its past it would 
have been wiped out of the Guard. It was the last resort of 
an expiring administration, hoping that something might arise 
by which it might be saved, without relinquishing its command. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," August 23d : 

"Colonel Vose of the 71st has left for a tour of two weeks 
through the West, on Thursday the 21st. He says that the 
troubles in the regiment are gradually subsiding and that he 
begins to see a clear road ahead. Some of the malcontents 
have been got rid of, and Captain Clark will not accept the 
majority to which he was recently elected. 

"General Fitzgerald is taking personal interest in the regi- 
ment, and endeavors will be made to secure a new corps of 
officers ; the appointment of Lieut. Frederick Kopper of Com- 
pany D, 7th Regiment, as Adjutant, is an indication of the 
earnestness of the Colonel in this direction. 

"We hope he may succeed and that the disaster which 
will surely follow the course recently pursued by the regiment, 
may be averted." 

HEADQUARTERS 71ST REGIMENT INFANTRY, 

N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, October 8th, 1884. 

General Order No. 16. 

In compliance with orders from General Headquarters, 
A.G.O., all the members of this regiment are directed to as- 
semble in the State Service Uniform, helmet (without pike). 



444 [1884 

fatigue cap on right rear button, white gloves, knapsacks with 
overcoats rolled thereon, haversacks and canteen on left hip, 
canteen over haversack, outside of body belt and well to the 
rear of bayonet scabbard, at the armory, on Thursday, October 
16th, at 12:15 P. M., for review, inspection and muster, at the 
Van Cortlandt Farm. 

II. Officers in fatigue uniform, new State trousers, black 
helmet, overcoats slung. 

III. 

IV. This regiment is also directed to assemble in fatigue 
jacket and cap, black belt and dark pants (citizen's), on Wed- 
nesday evening, October ISth, for drill and instruction — 
assembly at 8 o'clock. The State Service Uniform will be dis- 
tributed on that evening, and a full attendance is required. All 
who have not turned in the old full dress coat and trousers, 
must bring them on that evening and turn them in. 

V. 

VI. 

By order of Colonel Vose. 

F. B. WHITNEY, 
2d Lieutenant and Acting Adjutant. 

HEADQUARTERS 71ST INFANTRY, N.G.S.N.Y. 

New York, October 20, 1884. 

Special Orders No. 75 : 

Commandants of companies are hereby ordered to turn in 
to the Regiment Quartermaster all fatigue jackets, black belts, 
overcoats, haversacks and canteens in excess of enlisted men 
enrolled. Also all Full Dress coats, trousers, epaulettes and 
white belts now in their possession. 

By order of 

COL. RICHARD VOSE. 

By these orders the regiment did away with their full 
dress and adopted the State Service Uniform, in hopes that it 
might stimulate recruiting, in quantity if not in quality. 

From the "Army and Navy Journal," October 25th : 

"The 71st wore the service uniform and was inspected 
under command of Colonel Vose at Van Cortlandt Park on 
Thursday, 16th instant. Though not up in numbers to the 
wanted standard of the 'Old American Guard,' its turnout was 
after all an agreeable surprise to the regiment itself, as well 
as to those who had gone out to witness the performance. 

"Strenuous efforts had been made to induce every member 
to attend, and the result gave the regiment, another lease of 
life, which was wellnigh despaired of, especially after the 
limited turnout at the preliminary inspection at the armory. 



1884] 445 

The performance was by no means a satisfactory one, but still 
it was no worse than that of other regiments recently inspected, 
and in fact it was superior to several