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Full text of "The armies of Asia and Europe: embracing official reports on the armies of Japan, China, India, Persia, Italy, Russia, Austria, Germany, France, and England. Accompanied by letters descriptive of a journey from Japan to the Caucasus"

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Cornell University Library 
UA15 .U71 



The armies of Asia and Europe: 




olin 



3 1924 030 740 769 



THE 



ARMIES OF ASIA AND EUROPE: 



OFFICIAL EEPOETS 



ARMIES OF japan; CHINA, INDIA, PERSIA, 

ITALY, RUSSIA, AUSTRIA, GERMANY, 

FRANCE, AND ENGLAND. 



ACCOMPANIED BY 



LETTERS DESCMPHYE OF A JOURNEY FROM JAPAN TO THE CAUCASUS. 



EMOEY TIPTON, 

BEEVET MAJOE-GENEEAL UNITED STATES AEMY. 



NEW YORK: \>,,'' 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,' 

549 AND 551 BEOADWAT. 

18 7 8, * - 



LETTEE OF TEAS'SMITTAL. 



FoKT MoKBOE, ViBonoA, DecemheT 15, 18T7. 

To the Adjutant-General If. 8. A., Washmgton, D. C. 

SiE : I have the honor to submit, herewith, my report on 
the armies of Japan, China, India, Persia, Italy, Russia, Aus- 
tria, Germany, France, and England. 

The authority for making the military tour around the 
world, which enabled me to make this report, is contained in 
the following letter of instructions from the Hon. Secretary of 
War, viz. : 

Wae Depaktment, Washingto* City, Jvme 23, 1876. 

Genbeal : On or about June 30th next you will be relieved 
from the Military Academy. 

Upon being so relieved, it is desired that you proceed to San 
Francisco, Cal., visiting, on the route to that city, Salt Lake Gity, 
the mines of Nevada, and the Yosemite Valley ; that on or about 
August 1st you sail from San Francisco for Japan and China. 
On reaching Canton, in China, you will proceed, via Singapore, to 
Calcutta ; thence up the valley of the Ganges to Peshawar, and 
thence to the Russian possessions at Tashkend, by the most prac- 
ticable route. 

Should it, however, be found impracticable to proceed to the 
Russian possessions from Peshawar, you will select the most feasi- 



iv LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

ble route that will enable you to reach Europe. Having arrived in 
Europe, you are required to visit the camps of instruction and mili- 
tary schools of Italy, Germany, Austria, Russia, France, and Eng- 
land, and thence return to the United States. 

The professional object of this order is to enable you to exam- 
ine and report upon the organization, tactics, discipline, and the 
manoeuvres of the armies along the route mentioned, and in Ger- 
many the special examination of the schools for the instruction of 
officers in strategy, grand tactics, applied tactics, and the higher 
duties in the art of war, and the collection and compilation of such 
other information as might naturally be expected to be of utility to 
this Government. 

During your absence upon this duty, which shall not exceed 
eighteen months, you will report, as nearly monthly as practicable, 
your address to the Adjutant-General ; and on your return will 
make a full, detailed, written report to the Secretary of War upon 
all the subjects mentioned in this communication. 

You wiU report to General Sherman for further instructions, if 
he desires to give you any ; and you will be accompanied by Major 
George A. Forsyth, Ninth Cavalry, and by Captain J. P. Sanger, 
First Artillery, who have been detailed for that purpose. 
Yours, very respectfully, 

Wm. W. Belknap, 
Secretary of War. 
General Emoet Upton, West Point, N. T. 

In pursuance of the orders of the Hon. Secretary of "War, 
I reported on the 12th of July to the General of the Army at 
St. Louis, who gave me the following letter of instructions : 



Headquarters Akmt op the United States, 
St. Louis, Mo., July 12, 1875. 



1 

General Emoet Upton, United States Army, present. 

Deae General : I have read with pleasure the letter of in- 
structions to you by the Secretary of War, and congratulate you 
and your associates on having an opportunity, such as has never in 
my recollection been enjoyed by any officers of the army at any 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. v 

former period of our history. I know that you will profit by it, and 
only to suggest a few thoughts will I venture to use that part of 
the letter of the Secretary which requires you to report to me. 

You and I have already had much correspondence — mostly pri- 
vate — on this very contemplated tour of the world, so that I think 
we mutually understand each other. You know that, about foiur 
years ago, I traveled up the Mediterranean and Black Seas to 
Tiflis, the capital of the Russian Caucasus. Naturally I would like 
to have you approach Europe by that gateway. The objects of 
interest in Japan and China seem to me to have been well exam- 
ined and reported on by modem travelers. In like manner, the 
armies, forts, garrisons, and camps of Europe seem to me to have 
been studied by American officers and authors, untU we know all 
that seems applicable to our system of government and people ; 
but Asia, especially India, Afghanistan, Persia, Khokand, Bokhara, 
Toorkistan, etc. — the lands whence came our civilization, whence 
came the armies of Xerxes, Genghis Khan, etc. — remain to us, 
in America, almost a sealed book, though we know that the re- 
flux tide of civilization is setting back from Europe to those very 
lands. England and Russia are the two great powers that are now 
engaged in the work, and you cannot devote too much time and 
study to the systems of military government, by which these 
nations utilize the people and resources of interior Asia. I there- 
fore advise you to spend as much time as possible in Calcutta and 
India j cultivate the acquaintance of the officers, civil and military ; 
ascertain how a small force of British troops, aided by the native 
troops, govern 300,000,000 people ; notice how they quarter, feed, 
and maintain their men, and transport them in peace and war ; 
then make up your mind how to reach the Caspian Sea preferably 
all the way by land. 

There are several routes : the one I would prefer is from Pesha- 
war through the famed Khyber Pass to Cabul ; thence to Herat, to 
Teheran, around the lower end of the Caspian Sea to Tabriz and 
Mount Ararat. From Tabriz, I know, you will have no trouble to 
reach Tiflis, where you meet a highly-civilized and refined people, 
with railroad to the Black Sea, where you will have choice of routes 
by steamer to Odessa or Constantinople. 

Another route of equal interest would be from Peshawar across 
the Hindoo Koosh, to Bokhara, Khiva, and the Caspian. 



vi LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

Any or either of these routes will enable you to see the nomadic 
nations of Central Asia, who are far from being barbarous, but hold 
themselves as the most cultivated people on earth. Their customs, 
habits, laws, and rules of morality, date far behind the history of 
Christianity; and, I doubt not, a sojourn among them will give you 
much knowledge that will be useful to us, as we come to people the 
interior of America. 

Should, however, neither of these routes be practicable, you can 
go by rail to Bombay, and take steamer to the Persian Gulf, and 
thence cross over to the Mediterranean at Smyrna, or to the Black 
Sea at Trebizond, whence steamers will convey you to the more 
agreeable and more familiar routes of Europe. 

I will watch your progress with intense interest, and will be 
pleased to hear from you at any time at your own convenience ; 
and, when you return, I shall welcome you back, and do all that is 
in my power to enable you to record your observations and pub- 
lish them for our common instruction and entertainment. 
With great respect, your friend, 

W. T. Sheemait, General. 

Having been joined by Major Sanger at St. Louis, and by- 
General Forsyth at San Francisco, we sailed on tbe 2d of 
August for Japan, where we arrived on the 26th. 

Nearly all of the month of September we devoted to Japan, 
and thence sailed for China, where we remained till Novem- 
ber, visiting, in the mean time, Peking, and the objects of mili- 
tary interest at the capital, Tientsin, Shanghai, Chekiang, and 
Canton. 

From Hong-Kong we sailed for Ceylon and Bombay, where 
we arrived the 29 th of November. 

The interval from this time till the 11th of February in 
pursuance of the instructions of the General of the Army we 
spent in India, visiting nearly all of the great military stations 
in the valley of the Ganges, from Calcutta to Peshawar. 

The study of army organization was greatly facilitated by 
being twice permitted to visit the camp of instruction at Delhi 



LETTER OF TKAySMITTAL. vii 

which, being organized specially in honor of the visit of the 
Prince of Wales, was the largest ever held in India. 

On arriving at Calcutta, I inunediately called npon his ex- 
ceUencj the viceroy, Lord If orthbrook, to whom I had a letter 
of introdnction from the General of the Army, which stated 
the object of onr torn-, and the routes he preferred we should 
take. As we were required to defer to the views of the vice- 
roy, he informed ns that, in order to cross the Himalayas, the 
passes of which were between 16,000 and 17,000 feet high, we 
would have to wait till the following summer, and that, while 
we might reach Xashgar, it would be altogether uncertain as to 
whether we would be permitted to proceed ferther toward Tash- 
kend and the Kussian possessions. In consideration of the 
shortness of our time, which was limited to eighteen months, 
this route was therefore abandoned. 

As to the route through the Khyber Pass to Cabul, and 
thence to Herat and Teheran, the viceroy informed us that the 
orders of the Indian Government positively prohibited British 
officers from attempting it, on account of the complications that 
might arise in case they should be killed or maltreated by any 
of the savage or semi-independent tribes who dwell in Af- 
ghanistan. He stated that it might be possible for ns to get 
through ; but, as the danger would be great, and particularly 
as the Indian Government would be censurable in permitting us 
to cross the frontier should any harm befaU us, he preferred 
that we should relinquish the project. 

The third route therefore only remained open. According- 
ly, we left Bombay on the 11th of February, disembarked at 
Bushire, and taking horses proceeded, via Shiraz, Ispahan, 
Teheran, and Tabriz, to Tiflis ; thence, crossing the Caucasus, 
we proceeded, via Eostoff, to Sevastopol and Constantinople. 

As representatives of the Army of the United States, we 



viii LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

were received with great courtesy by the Governments of all 
of the countries we were ordered to visit, and every facility 
was cheerfully extended to us for the prosecution of oflScial in- 
vestigations. 

From our ministers, and consuls, in Japan, China, India, 
Italy, Kussia, Austria, France, and England, we received great 
kindness and every. assistance necessary to complete our mis- 
sion. 

I have already reported that through the action of our legar 
tion at Berlin my comrades and myself were excluded from the 
German manoeuvres, and that, as a consequence, we were pre- 
vented from witnessing the practical application of modern 
tactics in the army in which they have found their widest 
development. 

In preparing my reports on the different armies, I have 
given in brief their organization, and then have enlarged on 
those features which, in my judgment, we ought to imitate. 
These features are : 

1. The three or four battalion system for infantry regi- 
ments. 

2. A system of detail, whereby our oflBcers may serve alter- { 
nately in the staff and the line. 

3. A system of personal reports, by means of which the 
Government may be informed of the character, capacity, and 
qualifications, of all of its officers. 

4. Examinations previous to promotion. 

5. Schools for enlisted men. 

6. Schools and qualifications for officers preparatory to re- 
ceiving commissions. 

Y. Schools for officers in the art of war, and the higher 
branches of their profession, subsequent to receiving commis- 1 
sions. ' 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. ix 

Until we change our present inexpansive organization, 
which, with few modifications, comes down to us from the 
Revolution, and devote more attention to military education, 
the details of arms and equipments in foreign armies merit lit- 
tle, if any, of our attention. I have therefore excluded them 
from the report, in order that the more prominent objects 
should not be obscured. 

Finding that I would not be able to collect, in the short 
time allowed, all of the information that might be desirable, I 
devolved upon General Forsyth the investigations in reference 
to cavalry, and upon Major Sanger the same in reference to 
the artillery. 

Both of these officers are preparing their reports, which 
have been delayed in consequence of the performance of other 
duties. 

In the hope that our united labors may prove acceptable to 
the Hon. Secretary of War, 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. TJPTON, 

Liewtenant- Colonel J/th Artillery, 

Brevet Major-General, U. S. A. 



AEMT OF JAPAK 



The introduction of modern ideas into the Army of Japan 
dates from 1867, when the Emperor ISTapoleon III., at the soli- 
citation of the Tycoon, sent out a military commission, consist- 
ing of — 

1 Captain of the staff, commandant, 

1 Captain of engineers, 

1 Captain of artillery, 

2 Lieutenants of infantry, 

1 Lieutenant of cavalry ; and 

15 Non-commissioned officers. 

The commission, whose object was to instruct the Japanese 
troops in the tactics and regulations of the different arms of 
service, had scarcely begun its work, when, in consequence of 
the Revolution of 1868, it was recalled to France. 

The primary object of the revolution was to restore to the 
Mikado the temporal power, which for centuries had been 
usurped by the Tycoons. The secondary object, scarcely less 
prominent, was the expulsion of foreigners, whose arrogance 
had become intolerable, and whose influence was regarded as 
subversive of the ancient principles of government. 

'No sooner, however, did the government of the Mikado 

come in contact with the foreigners than, like that of the 

Tycoon, it perceived the value of military organization and 

training. Formidable men-of-war, within cannon-range of the 

1 



2 AEMY OF JAPAN. 

capital, told of the naval strength of foreign nations, while 
foreign troops at Yedo and Yokohama attested the superior 
skill and discipline of modern armies. 

Anxious to establish his throne in the capital of the deposed 
Tycoon, the Mikado, with the consent of the clans, which had 
supported his cause, issued in 1871 the decree which called 
into existence the imperial army. 

By the terms of the decree the clan of Satsuma was to raise 
and transfer to the Mikado 4 battalions of infantry, and 2 
battalions of artillery ; the clan of Chosiu 3 battalions of in- 
fantry ; the clan of Tosa 2 battalions of infantry, 2 battalions 
of artillery, and 2 squadrons of cavalry. 

These troops, to which other clans agreed to add their con- 
tingents, were ordered to Yedo, where they were to constitute 
the nucleus of a national army. 

To organize and discipline the army, foreign aid was again 
invoked. 

On application of the Mikado the Emperor of France ap- 
pointed a second commission, which arrived in Japan in 1872. 

This commission was composed as follows : 

1 Lieutenant-colonel, commandant, 

2 Captains of engineers, 
2 Captains of artillery, 

2 Captains of infantry, 
1 Lieutenant of artillery, 
1 Lieutenant of infantry, 
1 Lieutenant of cavalry, 
1 Quartermaster Sergeant of engineers, 
1 Controleur d'Armes, to superintend the manufacture of 
arms; and 
15 Non-commissioned officers of all arms. 
The object of the commission was to reorganize and instruct 
the army, and to found such military institutions as were neces- 
sary to place the army on a firm modem basis. 

Adopting the French army as a model, the commission 
began its labors in July, 1872. 

The first work was to cause the French regulations and tac- 



MILITAEY ACADEMY. 3 

tics to be translated. In the mean time, by means of interpre- 
ters, theoretical and practical instruction was given at Yedo to 
2 Regiments of the Guard, 

1 Squadron of the Guard, 

2 Batteries of the Guard, and 
1 Battalion of engineers. 

In addition, several battalions of infantry, batteries of artil- 
lery, and squadrons of cavalry, of the line of the army, were sent 
annually to Tedo to receive the same instruction as the guard. 

The officers and non-commissioned officers were frequently 
assembled, and instructed in the principles of tactics and mili- 
tary discipline. Camps of instruction were established annually 
for the purpose of illustrating service in campaign, and teaching 
the movements of large bodies of troops. Target-practice was 
also taught to the infantry and artillery. 

As the mission of the French officers was not to command, 
but to instruct, Japanese officers retained command of their 
battalions, batteries, and squadrons, and on the driU-ground 
learned through interpreters the movements they were required 
to execute. 

MILIIAEY INSTITUTIONS. 

The French commission has already established at Yedo 
the following institutions, viz. : 

A Military Academy for Officers, 

A School for Non-commissioned Officers, 

A School for Musketry and Gymnastics, 

A Yeterinary School, and 

A School for Practical Engineering. 

It has also established an arsenal at Yedo, and a foundery at 
Oji ; and near Yedo a depot for remounts, and a polygon or 
school of practice for artillery. 

MILITAEY ACADEMT. 

The object of the Military Academy of Japan, like our own 
at West Point, which was adopted as a model, is to educate 
officers for the engineers and all arms of service. 



4 ARMY OF JAPAN. 

The admissions, which are by competitive examination, 
number about one hundred and fifty per year, and of this num- 
ber about one hundred and forty graduate. 

The course of study for the engineers, artillery, and cavalry, 
which are regarded as special arms, is three years ; for the in- 
fantry two years. 

The practical instruction for the first two years is mostly 
limited to infantry, at the end of which time the students des- 
ignated for officers of infantry go to their regiments, while 
the students for engineers, artillery, and cavalry, remain an- 
other year to perfect themselves in the specialties of their 
arms. 

The course of study embraces — 



Drawing, 
French, 




Physics, 
Tactics, 


Mathematics, 

Fortification. 


Artillery, 



The system of instruction is by lecture, and subsequent in- 
terrogation, the same as pursued in all of the Continental mili- 
tary schools of Europe. The professors are Japanese, who have 
received their instruction either from French officers or pro- 
fessors. 

The pay of the cadets, in addition to clothing and rations, 
is about $3.00 per month. 

The buildings for the Military Academy, constructed be- 
tween 18T3 and 1875, consist of offices, barracks, mess-hall, 
riding-hall, and laboratory, inclosing a large court which is 
used as a drill ground. The energy of the Government and its 
appreciation of the value of the academy are shown by the mag- 
nitude of the buildings, and the great rapidity with which they 
were erected. 

As an instance of the latter, a building, nearly 300 feet 
long, which was burned in the spring of 1875, was reconstructed 
and nearly ready for use by the following July. 



SCHOOL OF MUSKETEY AND GYMNASTICS. 



SCHOOL FOE NOIT-COMMISSIOKED OFFICEES. 

The object of this school is to educate non-commissioned 
officers for all arms of service. The course is eighteen months 
for infantry, and two years for artillery, cavalry, and engiaeers. 

From 300 to 500 non-commissioned officers graduate an- 
nually. On graduation they are required to serve seven years, 
and receive the grade of corporal, or sergeant, according to their 
proficiency. Those who specially excel are sent as cadets to 
the Military Academy to study for commissioned officers. 

The course of instruction is both theoretical and practical. 
The theoretical embraces the common branches, and the tactics 
and regulations for each arm of service. For practical instruc- 
tion the non-commissioned officers are organized into 2 battal- 
ions of infantry, 2 batteries of artillery, 1 squadron of cavalry, 
and 2 companies of engineers. 

Instruction is also given to musicians, and these are trained 
to become instructors of buglers and trumpeters. 

At reviews and manoeuvres the battalions, batteries, and the 
squadron of non-commissioned officers exercise with the troops 
of the guard and line, and show by the precision of their move- 
ments the value of the training they receive. 

The pay of the non-commissioned officers, in addition to 
clothing and rations, is about $1.50 per month. 

THE SCHOOL OF MUSKETET AXD GT^QTASTICS. 

The object of this school is to teach precision in musketry- 
firing, and to increase physical training in the army. To this 
end one or more officers and non-commissioned officers are sent 
annually to the school from every regiment and corps in the 
service. On completing the course, they return to their corps, 
where they serve as instructors. The number of officers and 
men undergoing instmction, in 1876, was as follows : 

21 Captains, 

24 First-lieutenants, 

26 Second-lieutenants, 
8 Sergeant-majors, 



6 AEMY OF JAPAN. 

30 Sergeants, 
32 Corporals, 
40 Trumpeters. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE AEMY OF JAPAN, 1875. 

WAR DEPAETMENT. 

The "War Department consists of — 

1 Minister of War, and 

2 Viee-Ministers of War. 

For tlie rapid dispatch of business the department is divided 
into bureaus and sections, as follows : 

1st Bureau. — Six Sections. 
1st Section. — Letters and correspondence. 
2d " Eecruiting. 

3d " General and staff officers, and military schools. ■ 

4th " Military Justice. 

5th " Returns and reports. 

6th " Translations. 

^d Bureau. — Five Sections. 
1st Section. — Personnel of the infantry. 
2d " Personnel of the cavalry. 

3d " Breeding of horses. 

4th " Trains and transportation of supplies. 

5th " Provost-Marshal. 

3d Bureau. — Two Sections. 

1st Section. — Personnel of the artillery. 

2d " Expenses of artillery in the purchase and manu- 

facture of guns, carriages, ammunition, and 
other materiel. 

Jfth Bureau. — Two Sections. 
1st Section. — ^Personnel of the engineers. 
2d " Expenses of materiel. 



1st Section, 


2d 


(( 


3d 


(( 


4th 


a 


5th 


li 


6th 


C( 


7th 


(( 


8th 


(( 



GENERAL OFFICERS. 



6th Bv/reau. — Nine Sections. 

-Subsistence and fuel. 

Clothing, camp, and garrison equipage. 

Hospitals and ambulances. 

Payment of officers and men. 

Regulations of the 5th bureau. 

Correcting and auditing the expenses of the 5th 
bureau. 

Auditing disbursements for materiel. 

Estimating expenses for coming year, and pay- 
ment of pensions. 
9th " Total expenses of the entire War Department. 

6th Bureau. 

This bureau, which in 1875 was not yet organized, is in- 
tended to supervise the military aflfeirs of the island of Yesso. 
Until organized, the duties will be performed by officers of the 
1st bureau. 

There is also a small bureau having charge of the corre- 
spondence of the Minister of War, consisting of two majors and 
three captains, who are detailed from both the staff and the 
line. 

The Minister of War is a general officer ; the chief of the 
1st bureau may be a major or brigadier-general the chiefs of 
the 2d, 3d, and 4th bureaux are brigadier-generals ; the chief of 
the 5th bureau is the Intendant-General. 

The assistant chiefs of bureaux are colonels or lieutenant- 
colonels ; the chiefs of sections are majors. 

GENBEAL OFFIOEKS. 

There are — 

1 General, 

3 Major-generals, 
12 Brigadier-generals. 



8 AEMY OF JAPAN. 

Of the brigadier-generals three are members of Parliament, 
and one is Yice-Minister of Justice. 

adjtttant-geneeal's department. 

This department, in 1876, was not fully organized. 

For the transaction of business, it is divided into seven sec- 
tions. 

1st Section. — Is charged with correspondence. 
2d " Collects military, statistical, and geographical in- 

formation concerning Asia. 
3d " Same, concerning America, and Europe. 

4th " Study and writing of military history. 

5th " Geography. 

6th " Topography. 

7th " Printing, preservation, and translation of rec- 

ords. 



OEGANIZATION OF THE AEMT. 

In 1875 the army, on a footing of peace and war, was organ- 
ized as presented in the following tables : 



Standing Army. 





NUUBBB DF ObGANI- 
ZATIONS. 


NUUBBB OP MXN 


AEM OF SERVICE. 


footing. 


War- 
footing. 


Total Peace- 
footing. 


Totol War- 
footing. 




14 EeglmentB, or 
42 BattaUons. 


640 


960 


26,880 


40,820 




Cavalry 


2 Battalions. 


120 


150 


240 


800 




Artillery 


9 BattalioDB, or 
18 BatterieB. 


120 


Monntain-Ar- 

tillery. 

160 

Fieia-Artillcry. 

180 


2,160 


2,700 








9 Companies. 
6 Companies. 


120 
60 


IBO 
80 


1,080 
860 


1,850 




480 


Heavy coast -artillery 


9 Companies. 


80 


100 


720 


900 




Total 


81,440 


46,050 





INFANTRY. 



Irwp&rial Ouard. 



ARM OF SERVICE. 


NUMBBB OF OsGAmZATIONS, 


Always maintained on a 
War-footing, 


Infantry 


2 Ee^ments— 4 Battalions. 


6T2 


2,688 






1 EattaUon. 


150 


150 






ArtiUery 


1 Battalion— 2 Batteriea. 


130 


260 






Sngineers 


1 Company. 
1 Company. 


150 

80 


150 






Total 


8,828 



Total Nvmber of Soldiers. 






NUMBBB OF ObQAKIZATIONS. 


NUMBBB 


OF Men. 




Feace-tootlng. 


War-footing. 




16 Begiments, or 
46 Battalions. 


29,668 


48,003 








8 Battalions. 


890 


460 






Artillery 


10 Battalions, or 
20 Batteries. 


2,420 


2,960 








10 CompanieB. 
1 Companies. 


1,230 
440 


1,500 








9 Companies. 


720 


900 






Total 


84,768 


49,878 







The population of Japan, in 1874, was 33,008,4:30, giving a 
ratio of the army on a peace-footing to the total population, of 
1,000 to 1,000,000. 

INFANTET. 

How completely the army has been Europeanized may be 
inferred from the organization of the infantry. 

A regiment consists of three battalions, of four companies 
each. 

The field and staff is composed of — 

1 Colonel, commandant. 

3 Majors, commandants of battalions. 

1 Captain, regimental adjutant. 



10 AEMY OF JAPAN. 

3 First-lieutenants, battalion-adjutants. 

1 First-lieutenant, regimental paymaster. 

3 Second-lieutenants, battalion paymasters. 

1 Major, regimental surgeon. 

3 Captains, battalion surgeons. 

In war each battalion has an additional surgeon. 

The company consists of — 

1 Captain, 

2 First-lieutenants, 

2 Second-lieutenants, 

1 Sergeant-major, 

1 Quartermaster-sergeant, 

8 Sergeants, 
16 Corporals, 

1 Commissary-corporal, and 
160 Privates. 

In war the number of privates is increased to 240. 

The artillery, cavalry, engineers, adjutant-general's depart- 
ment, departments of supply, medical corps, and military train, 
bear equally with the infantry the stamp of European or French 
organization. 

Kecognizing the duty of every citizen to bear arms in the 
defense of his country, military service is made obligatory. 

Eecruits are obtained by drafting, and, after the expiration 
of the term of enlistment, which is three years, pass into the 
reserve. 

The height of the Japanese soldier is from five feet one to 
five feet three inches. 

The ration consists principally of rice and fish, but meat is 
issued twice a week. Bread is also to form part of the ration ; 
but, for want of skill in making it, the men have thus far pre- 
ferred rice. 

The uniform of the army is thoroughly European, and is 
made of white duck for summer, and of dark-blue cloth for 
winter. 

The infantry is armed with the Snyder and Enfield rifles, 
sabre-bayonet. 



INPANTEY. 11 

At tlie arsenal at Yedo, muzzle-loading muskets were 
rapidly being converted into breech-loaders of the Albani pat- 
tern. 

The barracks of the army are of the most substantial and 
imposing construction. Those of the guard at Yedo inclose a 
square court of many acres, all smoothly graveled. Each build- 
ing accommodates an entire regiment. The companies are 
quartered in the upper story ; the lower story is devoted to 
offices, mess-rooms, reading-rooms, and store-rooms. The na- 
tional habit of cleanliness is encouraged by ample provision for 
both hot and cold baths. 

The hospital, like the barracks, is modern in all of its ar- 
rangements. The guard-house is light and airy, and gives evi- 
dence that punishment is administered according to modern 
military law. On a visit from officers of rank all prisoners, 
whose offenses are not capital, are released. This privilege 
was extended to the sole prisoner who was in confinement on 
the occasion of our inspection. 

The sudden transition of Japan from ancient to modern 
civilization, which will ever be the marvel of history, is no- 
where more conspicuous than in the army. Appreciating the 
necessity of substituting a national force in the place of the 
undisciplined hordes, voluntarily furnished by the clans under 
the old regime, the Government applied for assistance to a 
nation renowned for the success of its arms. 

In response to its appeal, officers of distinguished reputa- 
tion, responsible to their Secretary of "War, and not advent- 
urers, were designated for the mission. 

The zeal, the intelligence, the enterprise, and the success of 
the French officers were no less surprising than the wisdom of 
the Government in supporting them, without jealousy, in all 
measures for reform. "Wherever we went we saw the evidence 
of their skill. At the review at Yedo, kindly tendered by the 
Minister of -War, we saw four battalions of the guard, two bat- 
talions of non-commissioned officers, and two squadrons of 
cavalry, manoeuvre with commendable precision. 

At Lake Biva, and Osaka, hundreds of miles from the capi- 



12 ARMY OF JAPAN. 

tal, we saw the French tactics successfully applied by Japanese 
oflScers to skirmishing, and to the schools of the battalion and 
regiment. In the barracks and foundery at Osaka the same 
neatness, order, and system, prevailed as at Yedo. 

If the army bears unmistakable evidence of French organi- 
zation, it bears equally the impress of French ideas in its drill 
and discipline. The men were badly set up, and on review 
and at exercises appeared to have fallen into the swinging of 
arms and slovenliness of marching, once so admired in the 
French army, but so utterly in contrast with the precision and 
steadiness of the English and German soldiers. 

The recent modifications in tactics require increased indi- 
viduality among the men, and this individuality, it has been 
shown by experience, can only be developed by rigid discipline 
and steadiness when in ranks. As Japan has military observers 
in America and Europe, it is to be hoped that they will call 
the attention of their Government to so vicious a practice, be- 
fore it takes root in her military system. 

In every other respect the progress of reorganization is to 
be admired. The fact that all of the military institutions have 
been established, and many buildings erected, within the space 
of three years, and that the same period has sufficed to inaugu- 
rate a uniform system of instruction in all corps and arms of 
the service, is sufficient proof of the enlightened policy which 
Japan, in spite of financial embarrassment, is pursuing in refer- 
ence to her army. 

Already she has reaped the reward of her foresight. The 
foundations of her government, which, in 1868, were built 
upon the sand, are settling down to the rock; insurrections, 
before ripening into rebellion, have been promptly stamped 
out; while her success in Formosa and Corea give evidence 
that Japan, no longer contented with progress at home, is des- 
tined to play an important part in the history of the world. 



AEMY OF OHII^A. 



The Board of War, or Ping Pu, like the "War Depart- 
ment in other countries, is charged with the general manage- 
ment of the army, and in addition has the control of the 
navy. 

Its duty, as expressed by the Chinese, is " to aid the 
sovereign in protecting the people by the direction of all mili- 
tary afiEairs in the metropolis and the provinces, and to regulate 
the hinge of the state upon the reports received from the vari- 
ous departments regarding deprivation of, or appointment to, 
office ; succession to, or creation of, hereditary military rank ; 
postal, or courier arrangements ; examinations and selections of 
the deserving, and accuracy of returns." 

The Board of War is a civil court composed of a superin- 
tendent, who is generally one of the cabinet ministers, two 
presidents, and four vice-presidents. Ordinarily all of the 
members are civilians, the majority of them being Manchus. 

The board receives reports from all officers in command of 
land and marine forces ; from those responsible for the trans- 
port of grain, and the security of river-embankments ; from 
those who administer the aifairs of nomads and half-subdued 
savages; and from persons in charge of the horse and camel 
pastures. 



14 ARMY OF OHINA. 

To enable the board to discharge its duties, it is divided 
into four bureaux, or sze, which are further divided into sub- 
divisions, or sections : 

1. The Wu-siuen, or first bureau, regulates promotion ac- 
cording to service, in order of succession, or in right of descent, 
and has 13 secretaries. 

2. The Ghih-fang, or second bureau, corresponding to the 
Adjutant-General's Department, regulates the distribution of 
rewards and punishments, the camp and field inspection of 
troops, and the issue of general orders, and has 17 secre- 
taries. 

3. The Chay-7na, or third bureau, provides for the supply 
and disti'ibution of horses for the cavalry, and has 9 secre- 
taries. 

4. The Wvrhu, or fourth bureau, which, in addition to other 
duties, seems to unite the Ordnance and Quartermaster's De- 
partments, attends to the rosters, prepares the army estimates, 
provides equipments and ammunition, attends to the examina- 
tion of military candidates, and has 7 secretaries. 

Attached to the Board of War are several other sections 
of great importance. One of these sections keeps the rosters 
for duty, promotion, and employment of the bannermen ; a 
second has the management of the couriers and posts, and 
sees to the reception and transmission of dispatches and me- 
morials; a third attends to the delivery of commissions and 
orders from all the governmental bureaux ; another delivers 
all memorials addressed to the emperor, and seals and sends 
off the replies to these, and the letters from the Council of 
State. 

The total force employed in the board at Peking, including 
under-secretaries and clerks of all grades, whose names are in- 
scribed in the Red-Book as receiving pay, is 197, of whom 
about one-third are Chinese. 

The board has no control over the bannermen, and other 
troops stationed in Peking and Tuen-ming Yuen ; and, as the 
oversight of the troops in each province is intrusted in a great 
degree to the local authorities, its duties, in comparison with 



OAVALEY. 15 

those of Ministers of War in Western countries, are much cir- 
cumscribed. 

As the guards in European countries are considered as 
models for other troops, so in China the condition of the army 
may be inferred from the organization, equipment, and disci- 
pline, of the troops at Peking. 

The infantry consists as follows : 

4 Battalions, of 875 officers and men each, armed with 
muzzle-loading rifles of Russian manufacture. These battal- 
ions are partially instructed in European tactics, 400 of their 
number having gone to Tientsin several years since for the 
purpose of receiving foreign instruction with the view of 
transmitting it to their comrades. 

1 Battalion, or Cadet Corps, under the authority of the 
NwirWVr-Fu or Court of the Household, composed of 500 young 
men armed with bows, arrows, spears, and several other varie- 
ties of Chinese weapons. ■ 

1 Battalion, composed of 500 men, armed with the small 
matchlock. 

2 Battalions, composed of 500 men each, armed with large 
matchlocks, called gmgals, one to every two men. The bar- 
rel of the large matchlock is six feet long, and when fired 
rests near the muzzle on the shoulder of one of the men, who 
assumes a stooping position, supporting his hands upon his 
knees. 

1 Corps of 1,200 men, armed with swords and shields. 

1 Battalion, composed of 200 men, armed with various Chi- 
nese weapons, who constitute the body-guard of Prince Chun, 
or the Seventh Prince. 

CAVALET. 

The cavalry consists of — 

2 Divisions of IjOOO men each, armed with carbines and 
Chassepots, and 

3 Battalions of 500 men each, armed with matchlocks. 



16 AEMY OF CHINA. 

AETILLEET. 

The artillery consists of 24 field-guns, 2 horses and 6 
men being attached to each gun. The guns are of Eussian 
manufacture, and all are small brass smooth-bores, except 
two, which are rifled. The artillery brigade is attached to 
the four battalions of infantry, armed with muzzle-loading 
rifles. 

In addition to the above there is a force of 1,000 artillery, 
armed with the swivel, a small iron gun, flred from a bench, 
wall, or tripod, with a calibre varying from four ounces to a 
pound. 

All guns are still discharged by means of the port-fire, blank 
cartridges being used for practice. 

TEOOPS OUTSroE OF PEEING. 

Outside of Peking, and mostly at Hai-tien, in the vicinity 
of the summer palace of Yuen-ming Yuen, there are two bat- 
talions of infantry, 876 men each, armed with muzzle-loading 
rifles of Eussian manufacture. 

1,600 Infantry, armed with the large matchlock. 

2,000 Cavalry, armed with matchlocks and short swords. 

1 Battery of field artillery, 4 guns, 125 men, foreign drilled, 
and 

1 Howitzer battery of 4 guns, with 125 men. 

The force in and around Peking, in 1874, was — 

Infantry 10,250 

Cavalry 5,500 

Artillery 1,750, with 32 field-guns ; 

making a total of 17,500 

This force may be said to constitute the regular army sta- 
tioned in and around the capital. 



BAIfXERMEN". 17 



BANNEEMEN. 



In addition to tlie regular troops at Peking, there is an 
hereditary or privileged soldiery, composed of Manchus, Mon- 
gols, and enrolled Chinese, the latter being the descendants of 
the Chinese troops who, in 1643, joined the force of invading 
Manchus. All of these troops, according to their nationality, 
are organized into " j?aA-Ae," or " eight banners." The ban- 
ners are fm-ther arranged in two wiags, or divisions, the first, 
third, fifth, and seventh banners constituting the left wing, the 
remaining banners the right wing. 

Each banner is distinguished by a triangular fiag of plain 
yellow, white, red, and blue, for troops in the left wing, and 
the same colors bordered with a narrow stripe of different color 
for troops in the right wing. 

Out of the Manchu and Mongol banners, two special forces 
are selected and enrolled, one of which is named the " Tsiem,- 
fung" or Yanguard Division, the other '■^ Hu-Tciun ying" or 
Flank Division. 

These selected corps guard the emperor's palace within the 
Forbidden City, and serve as his escort whenever he goes out. 

The Vanguard Division, including officers, numbers about 
1,500 men ; the Flank Division is much larger, and has been 
estimated as high as 15,000. 

Besides these two corps, the " Pu-Mun ying^'' or Infantry 
Division, corresponding to gendarmery, is detailed for the 
preservation of order within the capital and suburbs; the 
strength of this division is sometimes reckoned as high as 
20,000 men. 

The number of bannermen of all arms in and around the 
capital under pay, exclusive of the Yanguard and Flank Divis- 
ions, is estimated at 60,000. 

As the city of Peking is wholly set apart from the provin- 
cial government of Chihli, and governed by military rule, with 
troops specially selected for its defense, the capital of the em- 
pire, with its series of double and triple walls, assumes the 
forms and proportions of a vast intrenched camp. 



18 ARMY OF CHINA. 

In the province of Chihli there are, exclusive of Peking, 
twenty-five other banner garrisons, composed mostly of infantry, 
numbering approximately 40,000 men. 

The bannermen are seldom required to drill, and, when 
called out, muster with rusty swords, bows, spears, and weapons 
of various descriptions. Keceiving but small pay, they are per- 
mitted to engage in various kinds of business and traffic. 

In twelve of the provincial capitals, where bannermen are 
stationed, as at Wuchang, Canton, Fuchau, etc., they are assigned 
with their families to a special and usually fortified quarter, 
with a view as much as possible to isolate them from the in- 
habitants. But, notwithstanding the original precautions to 
secure purity of descent, and attachment to the dynasty, they 
have in the course of years associated with the people to such a 
degree as to adopt Chinese language, manners, and customs, and 
to obliterate the harsh traits of character that distinguished their 
warlike ancestors. As soldiers they have long since ceased to 
be useful, and, until reorganized and disciplined, they must re- 
main but profitless pensioners of the Government. 

The organization of the troops about Peking gives a good 
idea of the military system in other parts of the empire. In 
many of the larger cities, in addition to the hereditary banner- 
men, there is the Luh ying, or Green-Banner Division, con- 
sisting altogether of Chinese. These troops ordinarily render 
merely nominal service, having purchased from their officers, in 
consideration of their pay, the privilege of engaging in all kinds 
of commerce. Those who remain in service, instead of being 
employed as a garrison force, are used rather as a vast land and 
naval constabulary ; couriers ; grain, mint, or revenue guards ; 
and escorts for criminals. 

The troops for the defense of the distant frontiers, and for 
the preservation of peace in the provinces, are armed, like those 
at Peking, with matchlocks, bows, cutlasses, and spears. 

In case brigandage or insurrection becomes too formidable 
to be put down by the regular troops, volunteers, called Chwcmg- 
Yung, or Braves, are summoned into service, and disbanded 
when no longer required. 



STRENGTH OF THE CHINESE ARMY. 19 



STEENGTH OF THE CHINESE AEMY. 

The strengtli of the Chinese army can never be definitely 
stated, a fact due to the long-estahlished military policy of the 
Grovernment, which obliges every province, if possible, to sup- 
port all of the military and naval forces needed, not only for its 
own defense, but for the defense of the empire. 

The result of this policy is that, as a measure of economy, 
each province, in time of peace, seeks to reduce its military 
forces to a minimum, relying in time of war on both regulars 
and volunteers to supply its deficiency. 

In this manner the number of troops in service constantly 
varies. In 1823, however, a careful analysis of native records 
gave a total force of 1,263,000 men who were on the pay-rolls 
of the army, but of whom fully one-third, being only liable to 
duty, received no pay. 

A subsequent investigation, deemed more reliable, fixed the 
cavalry force of the empire at 8Y,000 ; infantry in the field, 
195,000 ; infantry in garrison, 320,000 : giving a total in these 
two arms of 603,000. It may, therefore, be assumed that the 
total number of troops varies f I'om 500,000 to 1,000,000, accord- 
ing to the internal condition of the provinces, the governor- 
generals being allowed to regulate the size of their armies as 
they may see fit. 

Even ignoring these causes of fluctuation, had the army a 
careful and definite organization on paper, as it pretends to 
have, the corruption which permits officers to give soldiers 
indefinite leave, and pocket their pay, would hopelessly re- 
duce the army below the legal standard. As a consequence, 
when troops are ordered to move, the ranks have to be filled. 
Men are then called from the field and the workshop, arms 
are thrust into their hands, and, without knowledge or train- 
ing, they are exposed to the danger and fatigues of cam- 
paigns. 

The troops embarked at Shanghai for the recent Formosan 
expedition were largely of this class. Inveigled on board the 
vessels through false pretense, many of them, on learning of 



20 ARMY OF CHINA. 

their destination, and tlie perils tliat awaited them, sprang over 
board and were drowned. 

TACTICS. 

The Chinese army is as backward in its tactics as in its 
armament. At the large seaport towns a portion of the troops, 
since 1860, have from time to time been drilled by Europeans, 
and this knowledge has been partially extended toward the 
interior. But, as yet, the Chinese officers have not the slight- 
est appreciation of the amount of instruction required for troops 
in modern war, nor do they possess any knowledge of the meth- 
od of arranging and conducting troops in battle. Having pre- 
pared their works, and posted their men so as to slaughter an 
enemy in an attack from the front, they regard an attack in 
flank as low-minded, if not cowardly. 

The instruction witnessed at Peking was a mere burlesque 
of infantry-drill. There were about 1,200 men on the 
ground, outside the walls, armed with the large and small 
matchlock. The superior officers were comfortably seated un- 
der tents arranged along the line of battle. The troops were 
formed in a dense mass, or column, and at a given signal formed 
right and left front into line. There was no order, nor step ; 
the men marched in twos, threes, and fours, toward the line, 
laughing, talking and firing their pieces in the air. On arriv- 
ing in line the fire was continued to the front, in the direction 
of the tents occupied by the officers. 

The band, with gongs, drums, cymbals, and other instru- 
ments, was posted behind the centre, and swelled the noise of 
arms by a continuous clangor. 

On a certain signal the line faced to the rear; the band 
passed through the centre, when the men bearing the large 
matchlocks, hitherto silent, advanced, like a skirmish-line,' a 
few yards to the front and opened fire. In front of the match- 
locks was squatted a line of flagmen who, during the firing, 
waved their fiags horizontally above the ground. 

All the signals were made either by flags or by music, a feat 
that was not difficult, as the formation of line, and the alternate 



DISCIPLINE. 21 

firing to the front and the rear with the small and the large 
matchlock, were the only movements executed. 

At the conclusion of the driU ranks were broken, and 
the men, individually and in squads, wandered back to the 
city. 

The artillery at the capital is drilled with as little intelli- 
gence as the infantry, its firing, through ill-judged economy, 
being mostly limited to blank cartridges. 

The cavalry, such as was seen at the funeral of the late em- 
peror, was mounted on pony-built horses, and was mostly armed 
with the bow and spear. Drill adapted to such weapons can 
have no relation to the instruction required for modern cavalry, 
and need not be described. 

BISCIPLINE. 

China is the only country in which the profession of arms is 
not honored. For ages a proverb, to the effect that, " as you 
would not use good iron to make a nail, so you would not use 
a good man to make a soldier," has hung like a millstone 
about the necks of the oflBcers and soldiers of the Chinese 
army. 

Branded as the refuse of society, the policy of the Govern- 
ment has been such as to condemn both officers and men to 
hopeless ignorance, and to drown every sentiment of magna- 
nimity and honor. Preserving traditions antedating the intro- 
duction of fire-arms, the officers have been looked upon as 
trained athletes, needing only physical development to fit them 
for their profession. So completely does this idea dominate 
the Government and the army, that the sole qualifications 
required of officers at the competitive examinations are expert- 
ness in archery on foot and on horseback, sword-practice, and 
ability to lift and to swing heavy weights. 

At Peking, in 1874, 135 officers, who had graduated at the 
triennial military competition, were subjected to a second 
examination by two vice-presidents before being admitted to 
the palace competition of the same year. Each graduate was 
required to exhibit his skill in horse and foot archery, sword- 



22 AEMY OF CHINA. 

practice, and stone-lifting. After careful tests, 11 were de- 
clared deficient, and were debarred from entering the palace 
competition. Among the officers were 22 who had been turned 
back three years, and one six years before. 

In accordance with the rule, the record of graduation of the 
latter, who failed on his third trial, was canceled. The result 
of the examination was so unsatisfactory that penalties were 
recommended to be inflicted upon the ministers who presided 
at the graduating competition. 

When the successful candidates at the second examination 
were brought before the emperor at the palace competition, four 
were honored with military degrees ; seven who failed in either 
archery, sword-practice, or stone-lifting, were turned back for 
three years ; while one candidate, who failed in both sword- 
practice and stone-lifting, was turned back six years. Penal- 
ties were also pronounced against the ministers who presided at 
the preliminary examinations. 

At the competition in archery at Canton, which we wit- 
nessed in November, 1875, the governor-general presided. The 
targets for archery were sixty yards off, and were six feet high 
by two feet wide. Each candidate was permitted to shoot 
six arrows, and at the beginning and end of his trial saluted 
the governor-general by kneeling. The tally was kept by 
sticks, deposited before the governor-general after each hit. 
Some of the candidates missed every shot, while others, more 
successful, entered the list for stone-lifting. Those who 
passed all tests successfully were commissioned lieutenants in 
the army. 

The system of competitive examinations for the army was 
introduced by the present dynasty, in imitation of the time- 
honored system prevailing in the civil service, and the nature 
of competition clearly shows the relative esteem in which the 
military and civil services are held. 

Eeversing the practice of Europe, where a higher scientific 
and general education is required to enter the military than the 
civil service, the latter frequently requiring no special test the 
Chinese Government simply demands an aspirant for a commis- 



PUNISHMENTS. 23 

sion to give evidence of physical expertness and brute strength ; 
whereas the candidate for civil honors, after spending the best 
years of his life in study, must show an exact knowledge of the 
national literature and classics. The quality of officers furnished 
by such a system can readily be inferred. No encouragement 
being given to study the art of war, tactics, artillery, engineer- 
ing, fortification, or any of the sciences so intimately connected 
with modem war, the Chinese officer is sunk in ignorance as 
deep as the men, and frequently shows as little respect for 
law and military discipline. This ignorance, and enforced 
idleness, its concomitant, encourage vice, particularly the use 
of opium, which destroys the endurance of the soldier, and 
disqualifies him for the fatigues and hardships of campaign. 
The use of opium, which has already become formidable, bids 
fair, if not checked, to entirely destroy the efficiency of the 
army. 

PUNISHMENTS. 

Whenever a serious offense is committed, the governor of 
the province recommends to the Board of War the summary 
dismissal of the offender, who, if the recommendation be ap- 
proved, ceases to be an officer. This power of summary dis- 
missal, or cashiering, is applied to officers of all ranks from 
general to second-lieutenant, and is usually administered for 
such offenses as arbitrary conduct, embezzlement, indolence, in- 
capacity, and carelessness. 

In 1874, on the application of the Governor of Honan, a 
captain was cashiered for " undertaking litigious proceedings 
with an eye to promotion." A subaltern officer, belonging to 
the nobility, on hearing that a householder was carrying on 
illicit distillation, ordered the offender into his presence, and, 
when the accused told him that he was simply making his 
own spirits for the celebration of the New Year, he refused 
to believe him, punished him with forty blows, and let him 
go. For this arbitrary and illegal conduct the officer was 
cashiered, and stripped of his hereditary title. 



24 ARMY OF CHINA. 



HONORS. 



To encourage officers to a faitliM performance of their duty, 
various marks of imperial favor are bestowed upon them, such 
as brevet rank, donations of money, presentation to the em- 
peror, and permission to officers of rank to ride on horseback 
within the Forbidden City. 

Special acts of bravery are rewarded by permission to wear 
the yellow jacket. 

SUPPLIES. 

The supplies for the army in money, fuel, forage, arms, and 
clothing, are usually procured by requisitions made by the com- 
manding officers upon the provincial treasury, the requisitions 
being submitted for approval to the commander of the forces 
and the governor, who are responsible for disbursements and 
expenditures. The money which is paid into the military chest 
passes through the hands of the commandant of the forces, and 
is disbursed pursuant to his orders. 

In an expedition made outside the Great "Wall against the 
Mohammedan rebels in 18Y4, the troops were organized into 
three divisions, numbering 17,000 men. Servants, coolies, and 
camp-followers, swelled the number to 20,000. The supplies 
for the expedition were collected in the provinces of Kansuh 
and Hunan, and thence forwarded, the cost of transportation 
exceeding many times the original price of the provisions. The 
long continuance of hostilities, the inevitable consequence of a 
feeble military policy, so impoverishes some provinces, that ap- 
plication has to be made to the Board of Kevenue at Peking for 
the necessary funds to carry on the war. Other provinces are 
then called upon to contribute. The Governor of Kweichow, 
in 1874, acknowledged the services rendered by the different 
provincial governments in supplying funds for the military 
operations of the last twenty yea/rs, which finally terminated in 
the complete pacification of the province. > 



TRANSPORTATION. 25 



TEANSPOETATION. 



In the northern part of the empire, and particularly out- 
side the Great WaU, the two-humped Baetrian camel is princi- 
pally used in transportation. One driver is assigned to a 
Tcafila of five or six camels, which move in single file. To 
conduct, the camels a wooden pin, with a broad head, is passed 
through the nasal cartilage of each animal, and then attached 
to a cord about six yards long, which is tied to the tail of the 
camel in front. A large bell is tied to the neck of the hind- 
most camel, to give notice of any break in the column. 

The average load of a camel is 400 catties, or 533 pounds, 
and his rate of travel two miles and a half per hour. 

The length of a string of five camels, carrying but 2,666 
pounds, allowing six yards for each camel with his cord, is 30 
yards, whereas our six-mule government wagon, frequently 
carrying 6,000 pounds, occupies when hitched but 14 yards. 
To carry the load of five such wagons, extending 78 yards, 
woxdd require a caravan of camels 360 yards long. 

The above figures show the enormous length of Chinese 
trains, when operating in mountainous regions, as compared 
with the compact trains employed by us in our campaigns 
against the Indians. 

"With the length of trains the difficulties and dangers of 
transportation directly increase. As a rule, even when the 
width of the road will permit, the camels will only march in 
single file, and when the road becomes slippery they frequently 
fall, never to rise. 

When carefully nursed and driven, they make good beasts 
of burden, but when subjected to cold and wind, or to terrific 
heat, as in the English campaign against Afghanistan, they 
perish by thousands. 

In the populous portions of the empire, carts drawn by 
mules and bullocks, the latter frequently serving as pack-ani- 
mals, are used for transportation, while along the course of the 
great rivers, and in the seaboard provinces, innumerable junks 
and small boats serve the same purpose. 



26 AEMY OF CHINA. 

One of the great impediments to successful military opera- 
tions in China is the want of good highways. Every river, 
every stream, every canal, for want of bridges, constitutes a 
barrier to the speedy march and concentration of troops. 

Unlike the colossal power overshadowing her on the north, 
which found the construction of broad roads the svirest means 
of subduing the warlike Circassians, China has thus far opposed 
their construction, perhaps lest they might facilitate the march 
of rebels upon the capital. The fact that there are no pave- 
ments or sidewalks in Peking, and that as late as October, 1875, 
a mule might be seen hopelessly floundering in a mud-hole with- 
in a stone's-throw of the gates of the city, is suflBcient evidence 
of the little importance attached by the Government to a proper 
system of communication. 

GOVEENOE-GENEEALS OE VIOEEOTS. 

The efiiciency of the Chinese army largely depends upon 
the governor-genera], governor, or highest civil authority in 
each province; when a governor-general and governor reside 
at the same capital, they cooperate in providing for all military 
operations within their respective jurisdictions, leaving the de- 
tails of military movements to the Tsung-ping and Tituh, or 
general officers who serve as their subordinates. 

The governor-generals and governors recommend officers 
for promotion and degradation, and possess the initiative in 
matters of reform. 

All memorials, reports, and petitions, before being for- 
warded to the Board of "War, pass through their hands. These 
memorials are sometimes signed openly by officers ; at other 
times, when fearful of the result, they resort to the round 
robin. 

As an instance of the former, officers of all grades, from 
general down, if disabled by wounds, may petition to be ex- 
empted from displaying proficiency in archery on horseback. 

In Yunnan, where the Ly-h ying, or Chinese infantry forces, 
had become inefficient and demoralized by prolonged hostilities 
against the Panthays, and the incorporation into their midst of 



GOVERNOR-GENERALS. 27 

the Chwcmg-yv/ng or irregulars, the whole body of officers, on 
being compelled to be more active in drill, and attentive to 
duty, sent a round robin to the governor, requesting that, in 
consequence of the increased demands made upon them, certain 
stoppages might be removed, and that they might no longer be 
compelled to receive their pay in paper. The petition, sup- 
ported by the governor-general, was approved. 

In each province the standard of discipline is maintained by 
a system of triennial inspections. The governors receive orders 
from the Board of "Wg,r when to make the inspections, charging 
them to "examine with sedulous care and denounce to the 
throne any instances of laxity among the officers in command." 
Frequently the orders are accompanied with the injunction that 
they are not to be regarded as "an idle form of words." 
Whenever these functionaries make their military inspections, 
they inquire into the general affairs of their provinces. The 
Governor of Cheh-kiang, in making his report of 1874, ex- 
pressed himself " well satisfied with the skill in musketry-fir- 
ing, shield-exercise, use of the spear, and scaling-ladder ; also 
with the exhibition of horse and foot archery, matchlock and 
gingal practice." When it is considered that this province lies 
on the seaboard, and that its capital is less than 150 miles from 
Shanghai, the above report is conclusive as to the little progress 
modem ideas have made in the Chinese army. 

While the governor-generals are practically the heads of the 
regular army in their respective' provinces, having power to 
arm and equip, to increase and reduce, both the regular and 
irregular forces, they cannot be held responsible for the in- 
efficiency, lack of discipline, and disorder, that everywhere pre- 
vail. There are some among them who, through contact with 
foreign officers, appreciate fully the value of modern arms and 
organization, but their plans have been opposed or disapproved 
at the capital, where conservatism, like a barrier, resists all 
progress. 

Nevertheless, within the field of discretion left to them, 
some have sought to improve the arms and to increase the 
instruction of their commands. 



28 AEMY OF CHINA. 

At Tientsin, in 1875, an arsenal was nearly completed, in 
whicli Eemington cartridges, and powder and shells for cannon 
of all calibres, were then manufactured. The best English 
machinery for the manufacture of Eemington breech-loaders 
was also shortly expected. The arsenal with its different 
buildings, occupying an inclosure a mile square, was planned 
and constructed by an Englishman, and the superintendents of 
instruction in the different departments were likewise for- 
eigners. 

Eemington rifles are also made at the arsenals at Shanghai 
and Nanking. At Shanghai a short musketoon for cavalry is 
manufactured side by side with one of the best breech-loaders 
in the world — a proof that the best weapon for all arms of ser- 
vice is not yet appreciated. 

At Canton, where American arms are also manufactured, 
the Eemington and Spencer have been enlarged to a calibre of 
one inch, with a barrel six feet long. On being told that the 
barrels were too long, the intelligent Chinese superintendent 
replied that he " knew it, but that the length was added to 
give them a formidable appearance." These enlarged breech- 
loaders, like the matchlock, are to be carried by two men. 

The breech-loaders made at the different arsenals gradually 
disappear toward the centre of the empire, where they may be 
produced when least expected. 

The troops near the seaboard still carry antiquated weap- 
ons, and, to judge by the soldiers seen at Chinkiang, are unfit 
to be intrusted with arms of delicate mechanism. Quartered in 
low, dark, dirty mud huts, liable to be washed down in the first 
rain, it is impossible for them to keep their arms clean. Fur- 
thermore, as little attention is paid to the care of arms as to 
other features of discipline and drill. The Chinese soldier, 
naturally brave, and in the northern part of the empire hardy 
and muscular, is little more than a man with a musket. No 
care has been taken to train him, or to give him pride in his 
profession ; neither can such a spirit be inculcated while the 
oflacers are suffered to remain ignorant and indolent. The uni- 
form, too, is a great obstacle to military pride. It consists of a 



GENERAL REMARKS. 29 

cotton jacket, usually blue, with trousers so loose and flowing 
as to completely conceal the figure. 

The wide discretion given to the governors inevitably tends 
to destroy imiformity in the army. In no two provinces are 
the troops armed and equipped alike, and, according to the 
greater or less conservatism of the governors, the troops stand 
still or advance. 

This condition of afiaii's with its multitude of attendant 
evils cannot be improved till the Board of War becomes awak- 
ened, and the Government at Peking assumes full control of the 
organization, discipline, and support of the army. 

GENEEAl EEMAEKS. 

The Study of the military policy of China is equally interest- 
ing to the soldier and statesman. 

The corruption that stands at the receipt of customs and 
the doors of justice, that bars the approach to officers of state, 
and pervades all branches of civU administration, has pene- 
trated the army, and makes it as often an instrument of op- 
pression as the beneficent means of preserving the peace. In 
China, as in other countries, corrupt officials have recognized a 
state of war as affording the best field for the gratification of 
avarice, and it is not a violent assumption that the army has 
been kept small and inefficient in order that prolonged hostili- 
ties might afford them the opportunity of accumulating riches. 

With a civilization extending back to the remotest antiquity, 
the policy of China has been essentially pacific. Continually 
lulled into a state of false security by the absence of formidable 
neighbors on her borders, her army has never borne any rela- 
tion to her population, or the vast extent of her territory. Sunk 
into a state of political and military decadence, twice she has 
been subjugated, and to-day she still bears the yoke of a foreign 
dynasty whose ancestors were despised as barbarians. Within 
our own time repeated rebellions have imperiled the existence 
of the Government, and have only been suppressed after years 
of devastation, cruelty, and carnage. 

Insurrections, which might have been put down by a com- 



30 ARMY OF CHINA. 

pany of trained soldiers, have been permitted to spread until 
towns, cities, and provinces, have been overrun and desolated. 
In the great Taiping rebellion the Government forces, regular 
and irregular, were repeatedly put to flight by the unorganized 
hordes, who sought to throw off the imperial yoke. Ill-fed, ill- 
paid, ill-clothed, with neither confidence in themselves nor 
their officers, the Government troops struggled in vain to sup- 
press the revolt, while many, lured by the prospect of plunder, 
joined the army of insurgents. Unable to cope with its adver- 
saries, the Government, in its distress and feebleness, sought 
external aid, and presented the humiliating spectacle of con- 
tracting with foreign adventurers to recapture its cities. The 
little of military skill these strangers imported into the army 
soon produced its effect. One city after another was taken, 
until the tide of revolution began to recede, when the Govern- 
ment forces, with fire and sword, suppressed the revolt. 

The bloody wars which for centuries have ravaged the 
empire have been prolonged for want of a well-organized and 
disciplined army. The soldiers, composed of the lowest class 
of society, have been held in contempt, and, when called upon 
to quiet disorders, have frequently met the disaffected on equal 
terms, and if overcome have spread fear and demoralization in 
their own ranks. Encouraged by first successes, civil wars 
have alternately revived and languished until the Government 
by a supreme efEort has brought them to a close, only to be 
followed by wholesale executions and slaughter. 

So harsh is the Government toward its rebellious subjects 
that its aim appears to be the prevention of rebellion more by 
the practice of cruelty than by the more sensible policy of 
maintaining a sufficient force to preserve peace. 

In 1874 twenty-eight prisoners belonging to a body of ban- 
ditti were put to death, in cold blood, because a rescue was 
feared ; and during the Taiping rebellion repeated acts of 
cruelty and perfidy shocked the foreigners, and made them re- 
pent the assistance they had given. 

But it is not only in the destruction of life and of property, 
and in the sufferings and ill-treatment of her own subjects that 



GENERAL EEMAEKS. 31 

the wickedness and folly of the military policy of China is 
revealed. 

Conquered by Mongols and Manchus, the present dynasty, 
ruling nearly 400,000,000 people, and boasting of an army of 
more than 500,000 men, has suffered within a few years a Euro- 
pean army of less than 20,000 to march to its capital, and 
dictate the terms of peace. What England and France have 
done Russia, and possibly Japan, may repeat. 

A glance at the map shows that the destiny of Asia is in 
the hands of England, Russia, Japan, and China. Two of these 
nations, by means of their armies and navies, are ranked among 
the great powers of the world. The third, abandoning an 
effete civilization, is rapidly founding civil and military institu- 
tions, which will enable her to play her part in modem develop- 
ment. 

China, servile in her admiration of the wisdom of past ages, 
attaining the highest stage of pagan civilization centuries before 
her competitors sprang into existence, remains motionless, a 
prey to corruption and discord. "Without well-organized forces, 
without good roads or other means of speedy concentration, her 
seaboard provinces, and even her capital, lie at the mercy of 
her enemies. 

If, reversing the picture, she were to adopt the Christian 
civilization ; were to encourage purity, justice, truth, and in- 
tegrity, by recognizing as the basis of human action respon- 
sibility to divine power ; if, imitating the example of Japan, 
she were to establish schools and academies for the educa- 
tion of the officers and men of her army and navy, and were 
to make them feel that they were honored agents for the pres- 
ervation of peace at home, and to insure respect abroad — who 
could compute the vast resources and military strength of her 
people ? 

With reform in her civil service; with the sentiment of 
new national life ; with liberty, a word as yet unknown in her 
language, beating in the hearts of her citizens ; with railroads 
and telegraphs leading to her frontiers ; with troops armed with 
breech-loaders, organized on modem principles, and commanded 



32 ARMY OF CHINA. 

by generals skilled in the art of war — to what seas might she 
not carry her standards ? 

The realization of visions of peace and of conquest is within 
her grasp, but, delivered over to weakness, cruelty, ignorance, 
and superstition, history has yet to record whether she shall, 
continue to be an independent nation or, like India, become 
the vassal of a nobler people. 



AEMT OF INDIA. 



The established etrengtli of the military forces of India, in 
1876, was as follows : 

European army — officers, 2,986 ; men, 60,224 : total, 63,210. 

Native army — ^European officers and staff-corps, 3,398; 
natives, officers and men, 123,479 : total, 126,877. 

Total military strength, 190,087.. 

These forces were distributed in the three presidencies as 
follows : 



ArtBIeiy 

Cavalry 

EDgjneers and sappers . 

Infantry 

InvalidB and veterans. . . 



MlBOELIjUIEOnS Officzbs. 



Staff 

General 'list, cavalry. J jnclnding cadres } . 

General list, in&ntry \ of old corps J . 

Unattached oflScers 

General officers nnemployed 



Total. 



IfnUBEBB (fSK EBTABLiaHHSm), 



European Army. 



288 

1,056 

19 



1,125 

64 

226 

11 



8,348 



6,557 
2,730 



87,669 



Native Army, 



Officers and 
Men. 



619 
12,913 
1,955 



63,151 



7,544 
16,816 
1,493 

77,779 
87 



1,126 

64 

226 

11 

73 

104,168 



34 



ARMY OF INDIA. 



Artillery 

Cavalry 

EogineerB and Bappera. . 
Infantry 

Invalids and veterans . . 



MlBOELLAHEOUS OfFIOEES. 



staff corps 

General list, cavalry ( including cadres ( . 

General list, infantry "I of old corps f . 

Unattached officers 

General officers unemployed 



Total., 



NUMBBfiS (PIB ESTABLISBHXHT). 



European Aiioy. 



Officen. Men. 



14T 
66 
6T 

29T 
•H 



«58 
54 
128 



1,4T8 



2,670 
910 



7,9T4 
144 



11,698 



Native Army. 



Officers and 
Men. 



1,T28 

1,439 

80,801 



2,817 

2,689 

1,606 

89,072 

168 



653 
64 

128 
3 
44 



47,139 



NUMBBBS (PBB EfiTABLISHHENT). 



Enropean Anny. 



Native Army. 



Officers and 
Men. 



Artillery 

Cavalry 

Engineers and sappers . 

Infantry 

Invalids and veterans... 



MlSOELLANlSOUB OfFICEBS. 

Staff corps 

General list, cavalry j including cadres 1 . 

General list, infantry "j of old corps j . 

TJnattached officers 

General officers unemployed 



189 

28 

67 

297 

15 



504 
24 
66 
3 
27 



2,428 
465 

7,974 



177 
3,965 

625 
2,086 



Total. 



10,867 



26,753 



2,744 

4,448 

692 

80,867 

15 



604 
24 
66 



27 



38,780 



OFFICERS OF THE INDIAJST AEMY. 

The transfer of the government of India from the East 
India Company to the crown was followed by a complete reor- 
ganization of the army. 

Previous to that time the officers of artillery, cavalry, in- 
fantry, and engineers, belonged permanently to their respective 
arms, or corps, and received their promotion in the same man- 
ner as in the British army. 

It is not necessary to state aU of the reasons that led to the 
reorganization, but prominent among them was one developed 
by the mutiny, which seems to have exerted a controlling in- 
fluence. 



OFFICEES OF THE INDIAN ARMY. 35 

It was observed that irregular regiments, hastily equipped, 
and led by brave and skillful English officers, fought with a 
zeal and steadiness approaching, if not equaling, that of the 
native regiments in the regular establishment. 

In all of the wars of India, the latter had gone into battle 
under great disadvantages. 

The cadre of each infantry regiment, for example, num- 
bered twenty-five European officers, yet, so many were detached, 
in consequence of the increasing demaiid for officers to serve in 
the staff, and also in civil and political positions, that companies 
in time of peace were frequently left in the hands of boys fresh 
fi'om England, who were without the slightest military ex- 
perience. Even when this did not occur, those who had staid 
with their regiments during the intervals of peace, and were 
ambitious of distinction, found themselves superseded at 
the opening of each campaign by officers hastily ordered 
back, whom years of detached service had unfitted for com- 
mand. 

It was impossible that such a system should not produce 
bad results. In India, as in every other country, where de- 
tached service is indefinite, officers sought exemption from the 
hardships and restraints of military discipline. 

Furthermore, the history of India proved that the surest 
road to distinction lay in the civil service, in which officers were 
frequently appointed governors of millions of people. 

Having grown old in such service, having enjoyed its pleas- 
ures and its honors, having forgotten their tactics and regula- 
tions, it was not unnatural that their return to military duty 
should have produced jealousy and confusion, and been followed 
by the most dangerous, if not the most criminal, of all experi- 
ments, the sending of men into action under incompetent 
leaders. The conduct of the irregular regiments in the mutiny, 
it was thought, suggested a remedy for the abuse. 

If they could fight so well under tliree or four English 
officers, why should not the regular regiments do the same? 
Why should not each regular regiment be given seven or eight 
officers, instead of twenty-five, thereby leaving a surplus of 



36 ARMY OF INDIA. 

seventeen or eighteen available for staff duty, and other de- 
tached service ? 

This idea appears to have been the germ which, in its devel- 
opment, led to the organization of a staff corps in each presi- 
dency, embracing not only the non-combatant, but all of the 
combatant officers of the old Indian army. 

STAIT COKPS. 

It was resolved that all the officers then in the staff, the 
artillery, and cavalry, should be ultimately merged into one 
body, to be known, in Bengal, as the " Bengal Staff Corps ; " in 
Bombay, as the " Bombay Staff Corps ; " and in Madras, as the 
"Madras Staff Corps." 

There was to be no permanent quartermaster, commissary, 
or ordnance department. All of these positions in each Presi- 
dency were to be filled for a term of years by officers detached 
from the " staff corps," or from the British troops serving in 
India. The same great corps was to furnish by detail the 
seven combatant officers of native infantry, and eight com- 
batant officers of native cavalry. 

In organizing the staff corps, special arrangements were 
made, whereby, under certain conditions, officers of the Indian 
artillery and engineers, could enter the same corps in the 
Eoyal army. 

Provision also had to be made for the young officers, who 
were gazetted to the Indian army after November 1, 1858, the 
date of transfer of the government to the crown, up to the year 
1862. As these officers had never served with the native army, 
their names were placed on a 

GENEEAL LIST, 

which was gradually to disappear by the process of absorption 
and death. 

They were guaranteed promotion to the grades of major 
and lieutenant-colonel after a service, respectively, of twenty 
and twenty-six years, the same as in the staff. 

Promotion to the grade of captain was secured by assign- 



BENGAL STAFF CORPS. 37 

ment to vacancies as they occurred in the cadres of the old 
native regiments. 

OLD CADEE LIST. 

This list embraces those officers of the old Indian army 
who, on the general reorganization, declined the offer to enter 
the stafE corps. 

Their names were continued on their regimental lists, the 
same as if the regiments had not been disbanded or reorganized, 
their promotion being secured as vacancies occurred in these 
lists the same as before the mutiny. The old cadre list will 
disappear only on the death of the last officer. 

UNEMPLOYED LIST. 

This list consists of officers of the staff corps, general list, 
and old cadre list, who exceed the number of appointments or 
places at the disposal of the Government. They draw the 
Indian pay of their rank, and are available for special duty, 
such as courts and boards. 

BENGAL STAFF COEPS. 

This corps, organized in 1861, may be accepted as the model 
of the staff corps of the other two presidencies. 

To induce officers to enter it, the Bengal Army Regulations 
prescribe that no staff appointments, except those tenable for 
five years, and personal staff appointments, shall be held by an 
officer of the British army, unless he enter the staff corps. 
This prohibition does not apply to officers of Royal Engineers 
serving in the sappers and miners ; in the public works, survey 
and telegraph departments ; nor to officers of the Royal Artil- 
lery serving in the native batteries, and in the ordnance depart- 
ment. 

Any officer desiring to enter the staff corps must be above 
the grade of sub-lieutenant, and must serve a year on probation 
with native troops, either as a wing or squadron subaltern. 
The application for transfer must be accompanied by the cer- 
tificate of the commander of the regiment, stating that he has 



38 AEMY OF INDIA. 

passed the examination in the native languages according to 
the higher standard ; that he has acquired such knowledge of 
his drill and duty as to qualify him to command a company of 
troops in aU situations ; that he possesses a fair knowledge of 
the articles of war, army regulations, and the Bengal Army 
Eegulations ; that he has a general acquaintance with the or- 
ganization and duties of all branches of the army serving in 
Bengal, and that during his service with his regiment he has 
been attentive to his duty, and unexceptionable in his conduct. 
The application must also be accompanied by the certificate of 
the medical officer of the regiment. 

The object of probation is to test the " tact, temper, and 
judgment," and other qualifications of the officer, for employ- 
ment with native troops. 

If successful in his probation, the officer, before his final 
transfer, is required to pass an examination divided into two 
parts, as follows : 

HEST PART. 

TACTICS. 

Embracing the evolutions of a regiment of cavalry, or bat- 
talion of infantry, including skirmishing, duties of outposts, 
patrols, escorts, advanced and rear guards. 

INTEEIOB ECONOMY. 

Of a troop, company, or detachment, embracing a knowl- 
edge of correspondence, regulations, and returns ; also musketry 
instruction. 

EEGULATIONS. 

Embracing the native articles of war, and the military regu- 
lations of the presidency, particularly those that apply to native 
corps. 

EEGIMENTAL ECONOMY OF NATIVE CAVAIEY AND INFANTEY. 

Embracing the system of keeping accounts and rosters ; the 
mode of dealing with the offenses, complaints, and petitions of 



NAVIVE KEGIMENTAL ECONOMY. 39 

the men ; a knowledge of the articles of equipment kept by the 
men, with the cost and mode of carrying them ; the system of 
purchasing horses ; knowledge of their defects and good quali- 
ties ; also a general knowledge of shoeing, and of the diseases 
and injuries to which horses are subject, with the method of 
treatment. 

SECOND PAET. 

This part embraces : 

Military law. 

Elements of tactics, 

Field-fortification, and elements of permanent fortifica- 
tion. 

Military topography and reconnaissance, and riding. 

The examinations of probationers for the staff corps are held 
at division and district headquarters. The examining board 
consists of a general officer and two commandants of native regi- 
ments, or one commandant and one second in command of 
native regiments. 

Since the 1st of January, 1875, every captain of the staff 
who aspires to the position of commandant, second in command, 
or wing-officer of a native regiment, or who, being in a native 
regiment, desires an appointment outside of his regiment, has 
been required to pass an examination in two parts. 

FIRST PAET. 

For cavalry: 

Command of a regiment singly on parade ; as part of a 
brigade ; as advance or rear guard ; as outpost covering a brigade 
or division, and manceuvring on varied ground, adapting the 
movements to the accomplishment of specified purposes. 

For infantry : 

Eiding, and the command of a regiment singly on parade ; 
as part of a brigade ; as advance or rear guard ; as outposts, 
covering a brigade or division, and skirmishing, adapting the 
movements to the ground and a specified purpose. 



40 ARMY OF INDIA. 

SECOND PART. 

This part embraces : 

Military law, 

Elements of tactics, 

Field-fortification, 

Elements of permanent fortification, 

Military topography and reconnaissance. 

Principles of combining the movements of infantry, artillery, 
and cavalry, for mutual support. 

Eepresenting on a map of a piece of ground, previously 
seen by the officer, the map being tiirnished the officer under 
examination, the disposition of a combined force of the three 
arms: 

1. As advance and rear guard. 

2. As outposts. 

3. For attack and defense of a given position such as a 
hedge, wall, or defile. 

The examination for captains, as given above, is required to 
qualify any officer of the staff corps to hold the positions of : 
Military secretary of the viceroy, and to the commander-in- 
chief. 
Assistant adjutant-general. 
Assistant quartermaster-general, 
Deputy assistant adjutant-general. 
Deputy assistant quartermaster-general, 
Brigade-major. 

GAEEISON mSTETJCTION. 

To enable officers to pass the examinations specified, a sys- 
tem of garrison instruction has been established at different 
posts in the Bengal Presidency. 

The course of study embraces two terms, the first of which 
extends from the 1st of October to the 1st of February ; the 
second from the 1st of February to the 31st of May. 

The garrison instructors are officers who have specially quali- 
fied for this position, many of them being graduates of the 
Staff College at Sandhurst. 



NATIVE LANGUAGES. 41 

The classes, usually not exceeding ten to twelve members, 
are composed of officers from the native and British troops at 
the rate of — 

2 officers from each regiment British infantry. 

1 officer " " " " cavalry. 

1 " " " " native infantry. 

1 " " " " " cavalry. 

The subjects to which special attention is given, are : 
Military law, 
Field-fortification, 
Eield-sketching, surveying, and reconnaissances. 

NATIVE LANGUAGES. 

The only officers serving on staff duty in India, who are not 
required to show proficiency in the native languages, are : 

One-half of the personal staff of the viceroy, commander-in- 
chief, a governor or lieutenant-governor ; the staff of a station 
occupied exclusively by British troops ; inspectors of gymnasia, 
and garrison instructors. 

The "lower standard of examination" is required to be 
passed by : 

One-half of the personal staff of the viceroy, commander- 
in-chief, governor or lieutenant-governor ; assistant and deputy 
assistant adjutant-general for musketry and station staff. 

All other staff appointments can only be held by officers 
who have passed the interpreter's test, or higher standard Hin- 
dostani, or an equivalent examination in other native languages. 

The "lower standard" in Hindostani consists in reading 
fairly and translating with accuracy a given portion of two 
standard text-books ; also ability to converse with examiners, or 
natives of India, on such subjects as relate to every-day life, and 
the performance of regimental or professional duty. 

Examinations for the " lower standard " are held every two 
months at every large station such as Agra, Allahabad, Cawn- 
poor, and Lucknow. The station committee appointed for this 
purpose is composed of three officers who have passed the 
"higher standard." 



42 ARMY OF INDIA. 

The " higher standard " examination consists in reading 
fluently, and translating into English with readiness and ac- 
curacy, an octavo page of a standard text-book ; reading fairly 
and translating readily and correctly Hindostani manuscripts, 
written in both Persian and Hindi characters ; conversing with 
examiners or natives with fluency and sufficient correctness to 
be clearly intelligible. 

These examinations are held annually at Simla, Landour, 
Murree, and ISTynee Tal, and half-yearly at the headquarter 
stations of divisions, districts, and brigades. The committees 
consist of one civil, and two military officers, who have passed 
the higher standard. 

Examinations are also held in sixteen other languages, as 
follows : 

Arabic, Assamese, Bengali, Burmese, Canarese, Guzerathi, 
Mahrati, Malayalam, Ooriya, Persian, Punjabi, Pushtoo, San- 
skrit, Sindhi, Tamil, and Telego. 

The importance attached to a knowledge of the native and 
other languages is shown by the pecuniary rewards offered to 
the successful competitors. 

To every officer who passes the " lower standard " of Hin- 
dostani an allowance of 180 rupees is given, nearly equal to 
$90. On passing the " higher standard " an additional allow- 
ance of 180 rupees is also given. If both standards are passed 
at the same time, the whole allowance of 360 rupees is paid at 
once. 

A donation of 800 rupees ($400) is made to every candi- 
date who passes an examination in Arabic, Pushtoo, or San- 
skrit, and 500 rupees to candidates who pass an examination in 
any other of the sixteen languages before mentioned. 

" High proficiency " examinations, a grade next above the 
"higher standard," are provided for eleven of the most impor- 
tant languages. Any officer or soldier who passes the " high 
proficiency " examination in Arabic or Sanskrit receives a do- 
nation of 2,000 rupees ($1,000) ; in the other languages 1,500 
rupees. 

"Degrees of Honor " are accorded for attaining the highest 



PROBATION FOR STAFF EMPLOYMENT. 43 

proficiency in Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit. Candidates who 
obtain this honor in Arabic and Sanskrit receive a donation of 
5,000 rupees ($2,500), and in Persian 4,000 rupees. They are 
also presented with a gold medal by the presidency in which 
they are serving. 

Abbreviations like L. S., " Lower Standard," " H. S. P., 
"Higher Standard Persian," are placed on the army list 
opposite to the names of all officers who have passed examina- 
tions. 

The encouragement to learn native languages, a knowledge 
of which is indispensable to enter the staff corps, or to hold 
certain staff positions, together with the incentive offered by 
means of donations, degrees of honor, and medals, has resulted 
in the acquisition of a greater variety of languages by the In- 
dian officers than in all probability is possessed by the officers 
of any other army. 

TENUEE OF APPOINTMENTS. 

Appointments in the adjutant-general's department, includ- 
ing musketry branch ; qxiartermaster-general's department ; ap- 
pointment as brigade-majors (corresponding to assistant adju- 
tant-general of brigade) ; fort adjutants ; adjutants of volunteer 
corps ; personal staff ; station staff", and garrison instructors, is 
open alike to officers of the Indian army and British army 
serving in India. 

The tenure of appointment in each of the foregoing posi- 
tions is five years, except on the personal staff of a governor, 
where it is extended to six years. 

PKOBATION FOE STAFF EMPLOTMENT. 

Service in the judge advocate-general's department, mili- 
tary account department, commissariat department, stud, sur- 
vey, civil and foreign departments, is open to all officers of the 
staff corps and Indian army. 

Previous to appointment in the judge advocate-general's 
department, an officer must pass an examination in ncdlitary 



44 ARMY OF INDIA. 

law, Mutiny Act, Articles of "War, Queen's Regulations, Ben- 
gal Army Eegulations, and Indian Penal Code. He must also 
show a capacity to review the proceedings of minor courts- 
martial, and to conduct the proceedings of general courts-martial. 

The examination is conducted by the deputy judge advocate 
attached to the division or district, and two selected field-officers. 
After passing the examination the officer must serve a year on 
probation in the department. If at the expiration of this period 
the deputy judge advocate-general, and the general command- 
ing the division, or district, to which he is attached, make a 
satisfactory report of the practical qualifications of the proba- 
tioner, he becomes eligible for a permanent appointment. 

An applicant for the Military Account Department must be 
examined by a paymaster to ascertain that he has a good gen- 
eral knowledge of accounts and book-keeping. He must then 
serve a year on probation under the controller of military ac- 
counts, who assigns him to duty in the various branches of the 
department. If the controller at the conclusion of the year 
reports that the conduct of the probationer has been satisfac- 
tory, and that he gives promise of usefulness in the department, 
he is examined by a committee composed of the controller, 
military accountant, and a pay-examiner. In case the examina- 
tion is satisfactory, the appointment is confirmed. 

In the Commissariat Department an officer must serve a 
year on probation, preceded and followed by an examination. 
The same rule applies to the Stud Department, except that no 
preliminary examination is required. 

In the Survey Department the same period of probation is 
required. The preliminary examination embraces arithmetic, 
algebra, geometry, trigonometry, topographical and mechanical 
drawing. In certain cases such as artillery officers holding 
certificates of qualification from the Academy at Woolwich, the 
preliminary examination is dispensed with. The final examina- 
tion, at the close of the probation, embraces a fair knowledge of 
the rules of the department ; the computation and mapping of 
a small area of territory ; a knowledge of the use of all the in- 
struments employed in the department, with the manner of 



PAY. 45 

adjusting them, and sufficient knowledge of astronomy to ascer- 
tain time, azimuth, and latitude. 

The final application for transfer to any department of the 
stafE corps must be accompanied by the certificate of the chief 
as to the conduct of the officer while on probation. 



PAT. 

Officers of the staff corps receive the following monthly pay : 
Lieutenant-colonel, 827 rupees 14 annas, $413 . 92 

Major, 640 " 14 " 320.42 

Captain, 374 " 1 anna 6 pice, 187.04 

Lieutenant, 5 " 12 annas, 112 . 86 

The above is the pay proper of officers employed and un- 
employed. 

In addition, nearly every aj^pointment in Lidia carries "with 
it staff pay and allowances, equal and frequently exceeding 
the officers' pay proper. 

The pay, per annum, of the following officers, is : 



Commander-in-chief, 


100,000 rupees = 


$50,000.00 


IVTilitary secretary. 


18,000 




9,000.00 


Adjutant-general, . 


36,000 




18,000.00 


Deputy adjutant-general, . 


22,560 




11,280.00 


Assistant adjutant-general. 


15,725 




7,862.50 


Quartermaster-general, 


30,000 




15,000.00 


Inspector-general of artillery, . 


28,024 




14,012.00 


General commanding division, 


38,564 




19,284.00 



A colonel commanding a brigade of horse-artillery receives 
1,358 rupees per month, and command allowance of 400, mak- 
ing $879 per month. 

A lieutenant-colonel commanding a regiment of British 
cavalry receives 1,037 rupees per month, with a command al- 
lowance of 400 rupees = $718.50. 

A lieutenant-colonel commanding a regiment of British 
infantry receives 1,002 rupees per month, and a command 
allowance of 400 rupees = $701. 

The commandant of a regiment of native cavalry receives 



46 ARMY OF IKDIA. 

640 rupees 14 annas per montli, and a command allowance of 
700 rupees = $670. 

The monthly pay of a commandant of a native infantry 
regiment is $620. 

In the Indian service great distinction is made between the 
pay of officers in command, and at the head of departments, 
and tlie pay of the grades next below, but the fact that a sub- 
lieutenant, on probation in a native regiment, receives $165 
per month, is sufficient to show that the officers, if serving in 
the worst of climates, are, as a compensation, better paid than 
those of any other army in the world. 

PEOMOTION. 

Officers of the staff corps are entitled to promotion to the 
grade of captain after 12 years' service, to major after 20 years, 
and lieutenant-colonel after 26 years. 

EETIEEMENT. 

Officers of the staff corps who have served half of the re- 
quired periods in the corps, are permitted to retire according 
to the following scale : 

After 20 years' service in India, on £191 12«. per annum. 
" 24 " " 292 " 

" 28 ■' " 365 " 

" 32 " " 466 " 

After 38 years' service officers are allowed to retire with 
" off reckonings," which increases their pay to £1,100 per 
annum. 

Under the old rule colonels were granted an allowance for 
clothing their regiments, and the difference between the allow- 
ance and the actual cost of the clothing, usually amounting to 
£650 per annum, was regarded as an emolument, and was 
termed "off reckonings." Officers entitled to "off reckon- 
ings" usually retire as soon as they become available, after 
which their promotion goes on to the highest grades in the ser- 
vice, but their pay cannot exceed £1,100. 



FURLOUGHS. 47 

Officers who are not entitled to " off reckonings," when 
retiring on full pay, are given a step in brevet rank, after which 
their promotion ceases, but their names are retained in the 
Army List in italics. 

Officers who contract disability in the service, or become 
unfit for duty before being entitled to retire on full pay, are 
allowed to retire on half pay, or their names may be placed on 
the half-pay list. Those who subsequently recover their health 
may be restored to the active list at the option of the Govern- 
ment. 

FUELOUGHS. 

For the purpose of enabling officers of the Indian army to 
preserve their health and vigor, and to support the prolonged 
heat of the climate, the Government has established liberal 
rules for leave of absence and furlough. 

Every officer in military employ in India is entitled to 60 
days' " privilege-leave " each year, without loss of pay or emolu- 
ments, and at particularly unhealthy stations the period is 
extended to 90 days. The officers are encouraged to take this 
leave, as experience has proved that change of climate, of 
thoughts, and of scenes, gives to them an increased zeal and 
cheerfulness in the discharge of their duty during the remaining 
months of the year, more than sufficient to compensate the 
Government for the loss of pay during their absence. 

In case of urgent private affairs, officers are allowed a 
" general leave " not exceeding gix months, with full pay, but 
a loss of one-half of their staff emoluments. If this leave be 
taken three years in succession, certain officers may lose their 
staff appointments. 

In addition to the privilege and general leaves, every offi- 
cer of the Indian army is entitled, if the public interests permit, 
to two years' furlough on the completion of eight years' service 
in India, and an additional year for every subsequent six years' 
service. 

During his furlough the officer retains any staff appoint- 
ment he may hold at the time, and receives half pay and allow- 



48 ARMY OF INDIA. 

anceSj provided the sum does not exceed £1,000, nor fall below 
£250. 

To secure the full advantage of his furlough an oflScer is 
granted 30 days' leave to enable him to reach the port of em- 
barkation, and the same length of time to get back to his station 
on his return. 

In all he is granted eight years' furlough during his service 
in India, and of this amount he is allowed to count as service 
toward retirement or pension — 

2 years in 20, 

3 " " 25, 

4 " " 30, 

5 " " 34, 

6 " " 38. 

Besides the usual leaves of absence and furloughs, provision 
is made for furlough without pay, and for leave on certificate 
of disability. Special provisions are also made for officers of 
the British army, and for officers of the Indian army serving 
in civil departments. These rules vary but slightly from those 
established for the staff corps. 

VAEIETY OF SEEVICE IN INDIA. 

As all of the European officers of the Indian army will 
ultimately belong to the staff corps, the principle of detail for 
staff employment, and for service with native troops, will find 
its widest application in India. The extent of its present ap- 
plication to the staff corps, general list of infantry and cavalry, 
old cadre list, and to officers of British troops serving in India, 
may be inferred in the Bengal Presidency by reference to the 
Bengal Army List. 

The personal staff of the viceroy consists of 12 officers ; T 
detailed from British troops, and 5 from the Indian army, em- 
bracing representatives from all of the lists above mentioned. 

The personal staff of the commander-in-chief consists of 6 
officers ; 4 detailed from British troops, and 2 from the Indian 
army. 

The secretariat of the Government of India, Military De- 



VAKIETY OF SERVICE IN INDIA. 49 

partment, is composed of 5 officers ; all detailed from tlie staff- 
corps. 

The Adjutant-General's Department is composed of 8 offi- 
cers ; 3 detailed from the British troops, and 5 from the staff 
corps. 

The Quartermaster-General's Department is composed of 24 
officers ; 12 detailed from the British troops, and 12 from the 
Indian army. 

The Judge-Advocate-General's Department is composed of 
8 officers ; all detailed from the staff corps, and old Bengal in- 
fantry. 

Of the 8 assistant adjutant-generals of division 4 are from 
the British troops, and 4 from the staff corps. 

Of the assistant adjutant-generals of musketry, 1 assistant 
and 7 deputy assistants, 6 are detailed from the British troops, 
and 2 from the Indian army. 

The garrison instruction staff in India is composed of 27 
officers, 24 of whom are detailed from officers of British troops, 
and 3 from the Indian army. 

The brigade-majors, station-staff, and fort-adjutants, are de- 
tailed about equally from officers of 'British troops and the 
Indian army. 

The ordnance and ordnance manufacturing establishments 
are composed of 20 officers ; all detailed from the Eoyal Ar- 
tillery. 

The Accounts Branch, Military Department, is composed 
of civilians and 22 officers ; all detailed from the Indian 
.army. 

The Army Commissariat Department is composed of 53 
officers ; 44 detailed from the staff corps, the remainder from 
other officers of the Indian army. 

In addition to details in the Military Department, the civU 
service opens to officers in India a vast field for ambition and 
usefulness. 

The officers of the Survey Department, embracing the Great 
Trigonometrical and Topographical Survey of India, are nearly 
all detailed from the Koyal Engineers.. 
i 



50 



AEMT OF INDIA. 



The oflScers in the Revenue Survey are nearly all from the 
staff corps. 

The Great Public "Works Department, which builds the forts, 
barracks, irrigation canals, roads, and railroads, is largely com- 
posed of officers of the Eoyal Engineers, Artillery, and staff corps. 

The telegraph is likewise under military control. 

Without specifying further the civil and military occupations 
to which officers may aspire, the variety of service required of 
them will best appear by quoting the remarks opposite ten con- 
secutive names, taken at random in the grades of lieutenant- 
colonel, major, captain, and lieutenant, of the Bengal staff 
corps: 

Lieutenant- Colonels. 



Names. 



BemarkB. 

Chief Commissioner of Mysore and Coorg. 

Judge- Advocate-General. 

Civil employ, Assam. 

Civil employ, Nqrtliwestern Provinces. 

In Europe. 

Army Commissariat Department. 

In Europe. 

Civil employ, Beflgal. 

First Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Civil employ, Punjab. 

Majors. 
Third Squadron Officer 6th Bengal Cavalry. 
Civil employ, Punjab. 
Topographical Survey Department. 
Quartermaster-General's Department. 
Second Commander Malwah Bheel Corps. 
Civil employ, Punjab. 
Civil employ. Central India. 
2d Squadron Officer 14th Bengal Lancers. 
Commandant 16th Bengal Cavalry. 
Second in command and Wing-Officer Corps of Guides. 

Captains. 
Civil employ, Hyderabad. 
Army Commissariat Department. 
Second in command and Squadron Officer 18th Bengal Cavalry. 



MILITARY OFFICERS AND CIVIL AUTHORITIES. 51 



- Names. 



Bemarks. 

Second In command and Squadron Officer 8th Bengal Cavalry. 

Officiating Brigade-Major. 

2d Squadron Officer 5tli Punjab Cavalry. 

Quartermaster-General's Department. 

Commandant of Cavalry and Squadron -Officer Corps of GuideB. 

Wing-Officer 39th Native Infantry. 

Quartermaster-General's Department. 



Lieutenants. 

Quartermaster 34th Native Infantry. 
1st Wing Subaltern 29th " " 
" " 81st " " 

Adjutant 46th " " 

Civil employ, Rajpootana Agency. 
2d Squadron Subaltern 6th Punjab Cavalry. 
Adjutant 1st Punjab Cavalry. 
1st Wing Subaltern 29th Native Infantry. 
Deputy Controller Public Works Department, 
Adjutant Erinpoora Irregulars. 



EELATION OF MIKCTAET OFFtCEKS TO THE CTVTL AUTHOEmES. 

In no free country is the subordination of the military to 
the civil authority more clearly defined than in the politico- 
military despotism of India. The Army Eegulations prescribe 
that — 

" The civil officer is vested with authority to call upon the military 
commander for the services of the troops under his command, whenever, in 
the judgment of such civil officer, the public interests of the Government 
may require such a measure ; and it is the absolute duty of the military 
officer to whom such requisition is addressed, whoever and whatever 
he may be, forthwith to comply with the same. It is not competent 
for him to enter into any discussion upon the merits of the measure pro- 
posed, or to take any cognizance whatever of its policy, justice, or neces- 
sity. 

"It is for the civil officer,-and him alone, to judge of the policy, the 
justice, or the necessity, of the measure. For these he alone is responsible 
to the government he serves ; and he is not called upon in duty either to 
justify his conclusions or to communicate his reasons to the military officer 
to whom he may address the requisition for troops. Although such mani- 



52 ARMY OF INDIA. 

festations of confidence and cordiality are always to be desired, he is only 
required by his strict duty to state distinctly (in writing) the service he de- 
sires to see performed and the necessity of troops for the purpose, and to 
afi'ord such further information as may be necessary to enable the officer 
in command efficiently to perform the service he is called upon to exe- 
cute. 

" The civil or political officer is not authorized to interfere in any -way 
with the formation or details of the force, the military officer being held 
responsible for the success of the operations to be undertaken ; and it is 
for the latter, and for him alone, to judge in what manner the troops shall 
effect the object which the civil officer has indicated, and to direct the 
force in the execution of the service in which it is engaged. 

" If however, the military officer should consider his force inadequate 
for the performance of the service required, or the service itself impracti- 
cable on purely military grounds, it would be competent for him to decline 
to accede to the requisition. But in so doing he must be prepared to jus- 
tify his refusal to the satisfaction of the government he serves, and whose 
interests are affected by his acts." 

"WMle the Eegulations place the military officers under, the 
civil in all political affairs, and relieve them from all responsi- 
bility when acting imder the orders of the civil authorities, they 
also, in the interest of the Government, subordinate the civil 
officer to the military whenever, as in military constructions, 
economy can be promoted. 

In relation to the Department of Public "Works, which builds 
forts, barracks, and arsenals, and which, while strictly civil, is 
largely composed of military officers, the Eegulations pre- 
scribe : 

" Commanding officers are directly responsible to their immediate supe- 
riors, and to the Government, that the public works, buildings, etc., within 
the limits of their commands are properly maintained, and that these works 
and buildings properly provide for the wants of the troops under their or- 
ders ; and it will be their duty to bring, to the notice of superior authority 
all deficiencies that may exist in these respects from whatever cause they 
arise. 

" Although, commanding officers should avoid interfering in the details 
of the duties of the functionaries of the Public Works Department, they are 
fully competent to point out any apparent defect of arrangement, want of 
diligence in the prosecution of works, or the like, and to report any short- 
coming, if the case shall appear to demand such a step.. 



MILITARY OFFICERS AND CIVIL AUTHORITIES. 53 

" Executive engineers will comply with the requisitions and act in con- 
formity with the wishes of commanding officers whenever they can do so 
without infringing departmental rules ; and they are at all times to treat 
commanding officers with becoming respect. 

" It will be the duty of an executive engineer, and of his assistant or 
subordinate in charge of any station or outpost, to afford the commanding 
officer every assistance in forming his judgment and issuing his orders on 
any subject relating to military works or buildings, and to lay before him, 
when necessary, any general or departmental orders which may bear upon 
such subjects. 

" Before submitting to the engineer authorities any proposals, estimates, 
drawings, etc., connected with military works, executive engineers shall 
invariably submit them to the regimental or departmental officers con- 
cerned, as well as to the commanding officer of the station, and obtain 
their counter-signatures and opinions for transmission with the papers un- 
der dispatch. 

" General officers in local command should refer all matters appertain- 
ing to the Public "Works Department, in which executive engineers may 
differ from them, to the superintending engineer before making any refer- 
ence to the commander-in-chief, the local government or administration, or 
the Government of India." 

Could our " Eegulations " prescribe with equal clearness 
the relations of our officers to the civil authorities, and re- 
lieve them from responsibility for the use of troops in civil 
affairs, it would place this duty before the country in a 
proper light, and would tend to disarm personal and partisan 
criticism. 

If at the same time in purely army matters they were to re- 
quire commanding officers to exercise a limited control over all 
disbursements for military purposes vrithin, or in connection 
with, their commands, the Government might be saved millions 
of dollars. 

As matters are now conducted, we may have, as at Fort 
Monroe, three separate jurisdictions at the same post, where staff 
officers have disbursed, and may continue to disburse, large sums 
of public money — and yet the commanding officer cannot offer a 
suggestion ; nor can he apprise the G-ovemment of a useless ex- 
penditure without placing himself in the light of an informer. 

All of this arises from breaking away from the established 



54 AEMY OF INDIA. 

usages of other armies, simply to gratify our natural love of 
personal independence, -which is as strong in the army as in 
civil Hfe. 

UATrVE INFAUTET. 

A regiment of native infantry consists of eight companieSj 
with an established strength as follows : 

Europecms. 
1 Commandant. 
1 Second in command and wing-oflScer. 

1 Wing-officer. 

2 Wing-subalterns. 
1 Adjutant. 

1 Quartermaster. 

1 Medical officer. 

If^atives. 

2 Subadars (captains) 1st class. 
2 " « 2d " 

4 " " 3d " 

4 Jemandars (lieutenants) 1st class. 

4 " " 2d « 

1 Havildar (sergeant-major). 
40 Havildars (sergeants). 
40 Naicks (corporals). 
16 Drummers. 
600 Sepoys (privates). 

The native infantry force in the three presidencies consists 
as follows : 



tlD 



45 Regiments Bengal Infantry 

5 " Goorkha " 

6 " Punjab " 
4 " Sikh 

6 " Guide, Deolee, and 
other Infantry. 



Numbering in native 
oflScers and men. . . 48,293 
■ European officers, 8 

per regiment 528 

Total i8;821 



NATIVE INFANTRY. 55 

t Numbering in native ofBcers and men . . 30,761 

Madras : 40 Regiments < European oflBcers 320 

( Total 31,081 

C Numbering in native officers and men . . 22,056 

Bombay : 30 Regiments } European officers 240 

( Total 22,296 

Total, three presidencies 102,197 

The European officers attached to the native regiments are 
detailed from the staff corps of each presidency ; the general 
list of officers of infantry and cavalry, and from officers of the 
British army serving in India, who desire to enter the staff 
corps. 

The duties of the commandant of a native regiment are in 
general similar to those of the commandant of a European 
regiment. Three times a week he holds a " durbar," which 
the wing-officers, wing-subalterns, adjutant, quartermaster, 
and all native . officers, are required to attend. At the dur- 
bar he hears reports and complaints, awards punishments, 
issues orders, and transacts the general business of the regi- 
ment. 

Wing-officers act in the capacity of majors, and command 
wings or half-battalions. They are responsible to the com- 
mandant for the appearance, drill, and discipline of their 
wings, and at the durbars wait on him with such men as are 
brought up for punishment, or whose complaints and petitions 
are of such a nature as to be beyond the limits of their author- 
ity. 

The men are paid by the native officers in their presence ; 
they also have charge of, and are responsible for, the arms, ac- 
coutrements, ammunition, clothing, and all warlike stores, be- 
longing to their haK-battalions, for which they receive increased 

pay. 

They are likewise required to keep themselves informed of 
the names, services, and characters, of the men, and to exercise 
all of their authority through the native officers. 

Wing-subaltems assist their wing-officers generally in their 



56 ARMY OF INDIA. 

duties, superintend target-practice, and such drills as they may 
be required to attend. 

The adjutant issues all orders from the commanding officer, 
keeps the records, and is largely responsible for the drill and 
instruction of the native officers, non-commissioned officers, and 
men. 

The quartermaster is charged with the care and preservation 
of stores, ammunition, equipments, and clothing, of the men. 
The barracks, bazaar, and camp-equipage, are also under his 
care, and he is responsible for their order and cleanliness. 

NATIVE OFFICERS. 

The native officers are commissioned by the Government of 
India. As a rule they are promoted from the rank of non-com- 
missioned officers, and are of the same caste as the privates. 
Latterly a few educated Hindoos, and owners of land, have been 
appointed, with a view to elevating the standard. 

As a special recognition of the native officers, one is ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp on the stafi of the viceroy, and another 
on that of the commander-in-chief. In each regiment also the 
senior native officer, called the subadar-major, receives an in- 
creased allowance of twenty-five rupees per month. 

The native officers are required to command their compa- 
nies, and are supposed to receive sufficient instruction to enable 
them to do so in all situations. 

For the purpose of interior economy each company is divided 
into two half-companies, each under the command of a native 
officer, and each half-company is further divided into two 
squads. 

The Bengal Army Eegulations prescribe that — 

" It is tlie imperative duty of the native oiBcers to keep their wing and 
commanding officers acquainted with everything that takes place in their 
companies, to report all infractions of orders and discipline, and to hring 
to light at once all causes of discontent or misconduct ; as it is impossible 
for a grievance to exist without their knowledge, if they know their duty, 
and are willing to act up to it." 



PAY. 57 

When on detached service a native officer is allowed to com- 
mand his company, but " no battalion parades should take place 
without the presence of a British officer." 

NATIVE KON-COMMISSIONED OFFICEES, 

In each regiment there is a drill-sergeant (drill-havildar) 
and drill-corporal (or naick), selected from their respective grades 
with special reference to their efficiency and qualifications, who 
receive a special monthly allowance of five rupees. The same 
allowance is granted to the pay-havildar, drum-major, and fife- 
major. 

In each company the color-havildar, or first-sergeant, re- 
ceives an extra allowance of two rupees. 

Corporals are promoted from the sepoys (privates), who know 
how to read and write in at least one character, exception only 
being made in the case of sepoys who have displayed conspicu- 
ous courage. 

Drill-instructors are appointed in each company from the 
sepoys, and, to encourage emulation among them, one is pro- 
moted annually to the grade of corporal (or naick). 

The havildars and naieks are arranged in the regimental list 
in each grade, and, without regard to companies, are promoted 
to vacancies according to seniority. 

If the regiment is composed of " class troops," that is of 
companies of different religions or castes, the lists are arranged 
according to caste, and vacancies are filled by seniority in each 
class. 

To enable sepoys to qualify for promotion, a' school is main- 
tained in every regiment, attendance being voluntary. For the 
privilege each sepoy is required to pay his teacher two annas 
(six cents) monthly; naieks and havildars pay four annas. 

PAT. 

The following table shows, in rupees, annas, and pice— the 
currency of India — the monthly pay and allowances of a native 
regiment of infantry : 



58 



AEMY OF INDIA. 



RANK. 


PAT 


PBOPEE. 


COMMAND AND 

BTAFP 
AL10WAKCE8. 


TOTAL. 


EqnlvaleDt 
in DoUni 
per MoDlh. 


European Offioeeb. 


Bi. 


A.. 


Pe. 


Bi. 


A.. 


P.. 


Bs. 


Ai. 


Pe. 


640 
874 
874 
225 
225 
225 
600 

100 
100 
80 
67 
85 
80 

14 

14 
14 

14 
12 
12 

7 
7 
7 


u 

1 
1 

12 
12 
12 


'6 
6 


600 
270 
280 
260 
160 
100 

26 
B 

e 

2 

'2 
■5 

6 


'8 




1240 
644 
604 
475 
876 
825 

125 
100 
80 
67 
85 
80 

19 
19 
16 
14 
14 
12 
12 
12 
7 


14 
1 
1 
12 
12 
12 

8 


6 


620.42 ^ 


Second in command and wing-officer. 


822.04 
802.04 




237.86 




187.86 




162.86 




800.00 


Natitb Officebs. 


62. SO 




60.00 




40.00 


" third class 


88.50 




17.60 


" second class 


16.00 


NoK-CoM. Offiobrs, Sepotb, etc. 
Drill-havildar 


9.50 




9.60 


Color-havildar 


8.00 


Havildar 


7.00 


Drill-naick 


7.24 


Naick 


6.00 




6.00 




6.00 




8.50 







The non-combatants of each regiment, consisting of hospital 
assistants, attendants, bheesties (or water-carriers), cooks, sweep- 
ers, schoolmasters, tindal (or head native, quartermaster's de- 
partment), lascars (or tent-pitchers and laborers), bildars (or 
scavengers), chowdry (or headman of the bazaar), mulsooty (or 
clerk), and weighmen, numbering in all 45, receive on the 
average from 4 to 5 rupees per month. In addition to the 
staff allowance already stated, each wing-oflBcer receives 85 
rupees per month for the repair of arms, and for superintending 
the payment of the men. The quartermaster likewise receives 
for the repair of tents, targets, and school-sheds, and for pur- 
chase of school-books, an allowance of 49 rupees per month. 

The annual pay-roll of a native regiment, according to the 
fixed establishment, numbering Y20 combatants and 45 non- 
combatants, amounts to 1 lac and 38,228 rupees, or about 
$69,114. 

In consideration of the pay stated for all of the native 
ranks, each man is required to provide his own rations and 
clothing, except one coat and one pair of trousers issued by the 



REWARDS. 59 

Government every two years. If the cost of rations exceeds 
one-half of the soldier's pay per month, the Government gives 
him a compensation equal to the difference between one-half of 
his pay and the actual cost of the ration. 

Arms, ammunition, camp-equipage, and medical attendance, 
are provided by the Government. 

BAZAAB. 

In consequence of requiring the native soldiers to provide 
their own rations and clothing, each regiment is accompanied 
by a native village, called a bazaar, in which are to be found 
tailors, shoemakers, grocers, grain-dealers, dry-goods merchants, 
and tradesmen of nearly every description. 

The bazaar is under strict military discipline, and is man- 
aged by the quartermaster under the orders of the commanding 
officer. 

Each inhabitant of the bazaar is required to register, shovring 
his occupation, after which he becomes amenable to the articles 
of war, and to trial by court-martial. No man, having regis- 
tered, can withdraw without a regular discharge. The chowdry, 
or headman, has to give security to the commanding officer to 
keep on hand transportation for five days' supply of all articles 
of consumption required by the troops. The prices of supplies 
sold in the bazaar are regulated by the commanding officer, and 
such reports and inspections are made as are necessary to keep 
him informed of its actual condition. 

When the regiment moves, the bazaar follows it with all 
kinds of transportation, and on the arrival of the men in camp 
immediately provides the food and other articles required. 

In case the bazaar cannot accompany the troops, the Gov- 
ernment provides rations, which consist of wheat, flour, rice, 
dhall (or pulse), ghee, resembling butter, and salt. 

EEWAJBDS. 

The "Order of British India" is conferred on native com- 
missioned officers for long, faithful, and meritorious services. 
The first class is composed exclusively of fifty captains (su- 



60 AKMY OF INDIA. 

badars or ressaldars), to whom are given tlie title of " Sirdar 
Bahadoor," and an annuity of 730 rupees. The second class, 
composed of fifty members, is open to all grades, and carries 
with it the title of " Bahadoor," and an annuity of 366 rupees. 

The insignia of the order consists of a gold star, inscribed 
with the words, " The Order of British India." Commanding 
officers of native regiments are required to forward annually to 
the adjutant-general the names of two native officers for the 
bestowal of the order of the second class, if they deem them 
deserving of the honor. They are also authorized to recom- 
mend deserving officers for promotion from the second to the 
first class. 

The " Order of Merit " is conferred for " personal bravery," 
irrespective of rank or grade. The order is divided into three 
classes, and carries with it an annuity. Admission to the first 
and second classes is restricted to members of the class next 
below. Admission to each class is granted by the Government 
of India, on application, specifying the special act of gallantry 
for which the reward is solicited. 

Whenever an officer or soldier is recommended for the 
order, the commander of the division or district in which he is 
serving, convenes a mixed court, composed of a major, two 
captains, and two subadars, before which the claimant is re- 
quired to appear, as also witnesses who are examined under 
oath, the proceedings being conducted, when practicable, by a 
deputy judge-advocate. 

If the testimony establishes an act of conspicuous and un- 
doubted gallantry, the court records its opinion to that effect, 
which is forwarded with the application to the commander-in- 
chief, to be laid before the Government. 

The insignia of the order consists of a gold badge, in the 
shape of a military laureled star for the first class, and a silver 
badge for the second and third classes. In the centre of each 
star is inscribed " The Eeward of Yalor." 

Campaign medals are likewise granted to both officers and 
men. 

Good-conduct pay, pension for life after forty years, or in 



PUNISHMENTS. 61 

case of disability, after fifteen years' service, and discharges 
with gratuity, are among the other inducements offered to the 
ofiBcers and soldiers of the native army to faithfully perform 
their duty. 

PtTNISHMENTS. 

The Indian articles of war provide trial by court-martial for 
all serious offenses, and in minor offenses confer ample author- 
ity upon European officers for the enforcement of discipline in 
all native regiments and corps. 

The extraordinary power is given to the commandant, in 
case of incapacity and neglect, to disrate a native officer, or to 
reduce him from a higher to a lower class ; he can also, in pro- 
motions, advance a junior over the head of an incompetent 
senior. In each case, a full record, presenting the reasons for 
his action, has to be forwarded to the adjutant-general. 

In minor offenses, not deserving courts-martial, the com- 
mandant can inflict — 

1. Irwprisonment in the guard-house, or solitary cell, for 
seven days, carrying with it deprivation of pay and allowances. 

2. Confinement to the lines for any period not exceeding 
thirty days. The limits of confinement are within a space oc- 
cupied by the barracks or huts of the regiment. 

In addition to all regular duty, confinement to the lines 
carries with it punishTnent-drill to the extent of fifteen days, 
and extra fatigue. Punishment-drill also accompanies all con- 
finements to the lines for any period not exceeding fifteen days. 
It is carried out by a non-commissioned officer detailed for the 
purpose, and is not to exceed two hours per day, or an hour at 
a time. 

Confinement to the lines, carrying with it punishment-drill, 
can also be inflicted by wing-officers and the adjutant for ten 
days ; by wing-subalterns and the quartermaster for seven days, 
and by native officers for three days. 

Subject to such restrictions as the commandants may im- 
pose, every commander of a detachment can inflict the same 
punishments for minor offenses as the commander of a regiment. 



62 AEMT OF INDIA. 

The effect of these regulations is to establish a uniform sys- 
tem of discipline throughout the Indian army, and to subject 
the soldier only to such punishments as are strictly legal. 

TEANSPOETATION. 

All arrangements for the march and transport of troops are 
made by the quartermaster's department. 

Whenever troops move, the officer in command is required 
to notify the commissariat officer of the station to which the 
troops are destined. He is also required to inform the civil 
officers, along the line of march, of the probable date of his 
arrival in their several districts. 

The necessary carriage or transportation is usually hired by 
the commissariat officers, but, when it is difficult to be procured, 
requisition is made upon civil officers. The local governments 
make the necessary regulations governing the supply of trans- 
portation, and fix the rates to be paid for carts or camels, and 
the load each is to carry. On application to the civil officer, 
arrangements are usually made with chowdries, or contractors. 
One-half of the cost of transportation is paid before the march 
is begun, and the other half on its conclusion, or while in prog- 
ress. 

The Government only transports a given allowance of bag- 
gage. If officers and soldiers exceed this amount, they have to 
hire their own transportation, and are authorized to call upon 
civil officers for such assistance as is necessary. 

The bazaars always provide their own means of transport. 

The variety of transportation accompanying the march of 
troops in India has to be seen to be appreciated. At the 
manoeuvres at Delhi in 1876, it consisted of the elephant, the 
camel, the buffalo, the ox, the horse, the mule, and the donkey, 
each with its pack; together with litters, carts, wagons, and 
wheeled vehicles of many descriptions. On the backs of the 
elephants and camels were carried chairs, tables, bedsteads, 
bath-tubs, trunks, chests, tents, and many other articles which 
impede the march of an army. 

Accompanying the baggage were swarms of natives belong- 



MOYABLE COLUMNS. 63 

ing to the bazaars, wlio gave to the column the appearance of a 
vast caravan. In no other country except India, where the 
enemy is unenterprising, could an army be so encumbered with 
camp-followers and baggage. In the expedition of 1778 sent 
across from the valley of the Ganges to the Bombay Presidency, 
to cooperate in the Mahratta War, the detachment composed of 
6,600 native troops, under 103 European officers, was accom- 
panied by 31,000 camp-followers. 

The above figures cannot be accepted as showing the average 
proportion of troops to non-combatants, but so long as the reg- 
ulations permit officers and soldiers to carry an unlimited supply 
of baggage, and especially so long as the Government adheres 
to the economical system of allowing the native troops to pro- 
vide for themselves, the army in India, as has been observed, 
must continue to resemble " a nation emigrating, guarded by 
its troops." 

MOVABLE COLTIMNS. 

To facilitate the rapid movement of troops with a view to 
quiet disorders and suppress insurrections, transportation for 
seven days' supplies of all kinds for British troops, two days' 
rations for native troops, forage for horses, sixty rounds of spare 
ammunition for infantry, and twenty for cavalry, is constantly 
kept on hand for movable columns, which aggregate in the 
Bengal Presidency 54 guns, 6 squadrons of British cavalry, 9 
regiments of British infantry, 9 regiments of native cavalry, 
and 12 regiments of native infantry. 

The stations occupied by movable columns are designated 
by the commander-in-chief, and also the number of troops com- 
posing them. The list of troops to compose the column at 
each station is published monthly and furnished to the com- 
missariat officer, who is responsible that the transportation is on 
hand or within call, and that it is in a thoroughly efEective con- 
dition. The columns are also frequently ordered out for exer- 
cise, in order to accustom them to move with promptness when 
an emergency arises. 



64 AEMY OF INDIA. 

SUPPLIES. 

For the purpose of transporting troops with rapidity for 
long distances, railroads are now available to nearly every prov- 
ince in India. Experiments have also been made in shipping 
troops with their transportation from point to point, in order to 
accustom them to loading and unloading promptly and without 
confusion. The arrangement of cars preferred for this purpose 
is with end-doors, so that the cars may be loaded successively 
from one end of the train to the other. 

As the whole railroad system, already embracing from 8,000 
to 10,000 miles, will ultimately fall into the hands of the Gov-, 
emment, there is no doubt that every recommendation of the 
military authorities will be adopted with a view to hasten and 
simplify military operations. 

"Whenever troops are ordered to march in India, the com- 
manding officer notifies the civil officers of the time he will 
arrive at the various stages along the route within their several 
districts, and forwards to them requisitions for stich supplies as 
will be required at each point. The civil authorities send a 
native functionary to join the troops the day before they enter 
the district, whose duty is to receive the instructions of the 
commanding officer, and to precede the corps daily, so as to 
insure that the supplies will be on hand and be of good quality. 

The " Eoute-Book of India " describes the lines of march, 
and locates the camping-places between all of the principal 
cities and villages. The supplies are delivered and paid for at 
each camping-place. Those for the native troops are turned 
over by the contractors, or persons furnishing them, to the 
chowdry of the bazaar, through whom they are sold to the offi- 
cers and men. The supplies remaining on hand at the end of 
the day are returned at the price fixed for them in the morning. 

The native officer appointed to accompany the troops is re- 
sponsible for the adjustment of the accounts, which he submits 
to the quartermaster at 4 p. m. daily. On the settlement of the 
account he is required to give to the commanding officer an 
acknowledgment to that effect. 



INFAi;rTEY (EUEOPEAN). 



65 



The cost of supplies procured through civil officers is reg- 
ulated by price-currents of all articles of fixed value. In case 
of imposition in reference to articles of fluctuating value the 
civil authorities are at once notified, who have the necessary- 
power to redress the grievance. 



BEiriSH AEMT EST INDIA. 



The total number of British troops in India, as has already 
been stated, is 66,220 men, distributed as follows : 



Bengal. 



Madras. 



Bombay. 



32 Eegiments of infantry. 

6 Eegiments of cavalry. 

11 Batteries horse-artillery. 

22 Light batteries field-artillery. 

2 Batteries mountain-artillery. 

2 Batteries heavy fleld-artillery. 

11 Batteries garrison-artillery. 

9 Eegiments of infantry. 

2 Eegiments of cavalry. 

2 Batteries horse-artillery. 

11 Light batteries field-artillery. 

1 Heavy battery fleld-artillery. 

6 Batteries garrison-artillery. 

9 Eegiments of infantry. 

1 Eegiment of cavalry. 

2 Batteries horse-artUlery. 

10 Light batteries field-artillery. 

1 Heavy battery fleld-artUlery. 

5 Batteries garrison-artillery. 



INTAJSTTRT (eUEOPEAIt). 

The established strength of a regiment of British infantry 
in India is as follows : 

1 Lieutenant-colonel. 

2 Majors. 

8 Captains. 
16 Lieutenants and sub-lieutenants. 
1 Paymaster. 



ee ARMY OF INDIA. 

1 Adjutant. 

1 Quartermaster. 

1 Surgeon-major. 

2 Surgeons. 

Total commissioned, 33. 
1 Sergeant-major. 
1 Bandmaster-sergeant. 
1 Quartermaster-sergeant. 
1 Paymaster-sergeant. 
1 Armorer-sergeant. 
1 Hospital-sergeant. 
1 Sergeant-pioneer. 
8 Color, or first sergeants. 
32 Sergeants. 
1 Sergeant instructor of musketry. 
1 Orderly-room sergeant. 
1 Drum-major. 
16 Drummers. 
40 Corporals. 
780 Privates. 

Total enlisted, 886. 
Aggregate, 919. 
The regiment is composed of eight companies, each consist- 
ing of — 

1 Captain. 

2 Lieutenants or sub-lieutenants. 

1 Color, or first sergeant. 

4 Sergeants. 

2 Drummers. 

5 Corporals. 
97 Privates. 

The term of service of British infantiy is ten years, and dur- 
ing this period two years are passed at one of the Hill-Stations. 

In the Bengal Presidency the troops change station periodi- 
cally from south to north, and the reverse, the troops to go 
home being gradually moved toward the port of embarkation. 
For the purpose of transporting the troops to and from India, 



EECEEATIO^f. 67 

troop-ihips, capable of carrying a whole raiment, have been 
built, and are commanded by officers of the navy. 

EECEEATIOX. 

The cost of transporting, invaliding, and replacing invalid 
soldiers, is so great that, with a view to economy, every dispo- 
sition is made by the Government to preserve and promote the 
health of the British troops. To this end occupation of mind 
and body is encouraged, and every amusement provided that 
can tend to turn or divert the thoughts of the soldier from the 
disco nrforts of the climate. 

Each regiment has its canteen, libraries, reading, recreation, 
and refreshment rooms. 

The object of the canteen is to supply the soldiers with mm, 
wine, and beer, which are provided by the Government, with- 
out charge for transportation, and are sold in limited quantities 
to the soldiers at the rate of three cents a dram for rum, and 
nine cents a quart for beer. 

The profits from the sale, arising from the difference between 
the cost and the retail price, constitute the basis of the regi- 
mental canteen-fund, which is applied to the support of regi- 
mental schools, reading and refr^hment rooms; to the pur- 
chase of necessaries for the soldiers' messes ; to donations to 
widows and orphans belonging to the corps ; to invalid soldiers 
going home ; and to other purposes having the welfare of the 
men in view. 

Each raiment of infantry has two libraries, one belonging 
to the regiment, the other to the state ; the two numbering 
1,200 volumes. The libraries and reading-rooms, in which are 
kept writing-materials and games for the men, are managed by 
a committee of non-commissioned officers and men, under the 
supervision of an officer. Adjoining the reading and recreation 
rooms is a refreshment-room, in which are sold tea, coffee, soda- 
water, lemonade, and other refreshments. The reading-rooms, 
in which are to be found, in addition to books, the newspapers 
and periodicals of the day, constitute, in connection with the re- 
freshment-rooms, a club where all of the men can pass an agree- 



68 ARMY OF INDIA. 

able evening, or divert themselves during the idle hours of 
the day. 

For physical exercise, regimental workshops, racket-courts, 
swimming-baths, and gymnasiums, are provided. The work- 
shop is specially fostered by the Government to enable soldiers 
and their children to learn profitable trades. To this end prizes 
are offered for first and second class workmen, and when an ap- 
prentice acquires a thorough knowledge of a trade the soldier 
who instructed him receives a donation of 25 rupees. The 
charges for work done in the regimental shops are fixed by a 
tariff or by the hour. The tools, in the first instance, are pur- 
chased by the canteen-fund, and afterward paid for and kept in 
repair by the profits of the shop. The soldiers who work in 
the shop are encouraged to deposit their earnings in the savings- 
bank of the regiment. 

The object of all of the regimental institutions is to deliver 
the soldiers from idleness, and to give them profitable employ- 
ment and recreation, and it is safe to say that in no country in 
the world is more done for their comfort than in India. 

SUOT)ATS. 

The only duty required of soldiers in India on Sunday is 
attendance at divine service. There are no Sunday-morning in- 
spections nor drills. Since the mutiny, the men march to church 
under arms. After their return from service the remainder of 
the day is at their own disposal. 

In addition to the rest given to the soldiers on the Sabbath, a 
holiday every Thursday has recently been given to them for 
the purpose of encouraging shooting and other out-door sports. 

Notwithstanding the loss of time, it is maintained that dis- 
cipline is not impaired, but on the contrary is improved, through 
the increased cheerfulness of the men. 

BAEEACKS. 

The barracks, hospitals, and other biiildings for the accom- 
modation of the European troops in India, are constructed by 
the Public Works Department. 



BAERACKS. 69 

The principles governing the construction of barracks were 
drawn up by Colonel Crommelin in 1863, and by direction of 
the Home Government were submitted to the Sanitary Com- 
mission for Bengal. The governor-general in council also 
directed that they should be submitted for remarks to the Gov- 
ernments of Bombay, Madras, Bengal, Northwest Provinces, the 
Punjab, and British Burmah. In addition, opinions were ex- 
pressed by the viceroy and governor-general, the commander- 
in-chief in India, other members of the governor-general's coun- 
cil, and by the commander-in-chief in Bombay, and the Sani- 
tary Commission for Bombay. 

After weighing the opinions of the officers above cited, who 
were familiar with the climate of nearly every locality in India, 
the governor-general in council decided that, in the future con- 
struction of barracks, the following principles should be ob- 
served, viz. : 

1. That specimen plans suitable for different locahties be 
provided, together with a statement of the general rules and 
principles to be observed. These being furnished for guidance, 
the preparation of designs for particular barracks is to be left 
to the local officers who construct them. 

2. That for a regiment of infantry, half-company barracks 
are to be provided, except in forts, where, for want of space, 
barracks for a whole company may be substituted. 

For a regiment of cavalry a separate barrack should be 
provided for each troop. For a light battery of artillery 
there should be a separate barrack provided for each pla- 
toon. For a garrison-battery of artillery one or two barracks 
should be provided according as local circumstances may re- 
quire. 

The object of the arrangement is that in infantry and artil- 
lery not more than forty-four men, and in cavalry sixty-six men, 
shall sleep under one roof. 

3. That four rooms be provided for a company of infantry, 
three for a troop of cavalry and battery of light artillery, and 
three for a battery of garrison-artillery, except when two bar- 
racks are allowed, in which case each is divided into two rooms. 



70 ARMY OF INDIA. 

By this arrangement not more than twenty-four nor less than 
sixteen men occupy the same room. 

4. That double-storied barracks, in which only the upper 
floors are to be used as dormitories, and the lower for day-rooms 
and for auxiliary purposes, should be adopted as a rule in all 
parts of India. 

That in places where ground is restricted three-story build- 
ings may be adopted, the two upper floors being used as dormi- 
tories ; that in forts or other places where the efficient ventila- 
tion of the lower floor is obstructed by the proximity of a ram- 
part or hill-side, this floor should not be occupied by dwelling- 
rooms; that at Hill-Stations it is not obligatory to build 
two-story barracks, but, when it is more convenient to have 
them, there is no objection to using both floors as dormi- 
tories. 

Without adopting any definite arrangement for the lower 
story, it was decided in general terms that one-half of the space 
should be assigned to day-rooms for the men, one-fourth as an 
open arcade, and one-fourth for auxiliary purposes such as 
store-rooms, sergeants' mess, regimental library and recreation- 
rooms; but offices, privies, cook-rooms, etc., etc., fall under the 
head of subsidiary aaoommodation. 

5. That the space in barrack dormitories be arranged as 
follows : 

On the Plains — 

7i I'unning feet of wall-space per man. 

90 superficial feet per man. 

24 feet width of ward. 

20 feet height of ceiling above floor in both stories. 

1,800 cubic feet per man. 

At Hill-Stations — 

7 running feet of wall-space per man. 

77 superficial feet per man. 

22 feet width of ward. 

16 to 18 feet height of ceiling on both floors. 

1,232 to 1,408 cubic feet per man. 

Beds are to be arranged in two rows in each ward ; no bed 



BARRACKS. 71 

to be placed within nine inches of a door, nor more than two 
within the wall-space between two contiguous doors. In all 
Indian barracks, doors with large transoms take the place of 
windows. 

6. Each barrack to be kept free from anything likely to 
affect the purity of the air ; the barrack-room unit to consist 
of— 

1. The dormitory. 

2. Mess-room. 

3. The quarters of a sergeant. 

4. Water-room. 

6. Any other day-rooms that may be allowed. 

Lavatories to be in detached buildings. Closet containing 
two close stools and two urinals permitted for each upper story 
dormitory for night purposes, but to be kept locked in day- 
time. 

The sergeant's quarters are the same as authorized for mar- 
ried men, viz. : two rooms, one 18' x 12', and one 12' x 12'. 
A small bath-room is provided for the sergeant's wife, who can 
have no suitable out-building in the vicinity of the single men's 
barracks to resort to. 

The width of the verandas of barracks on the plains is 
twelve feet, in the hills ten feet. 

The principles together with the plans of barracks approved 
by the Indian Government in 1864, have since been modified in 
some unimportant particulars, such as diminishing the height 
of ceiling in upper story from twenty to sixteen feet, reducing 
wards from twenty to eighteen beds, superficial area from sev- 
enty-seven to seventy-one feet per man at Hill Stations. "Where 
good barracks existed before the new plans were adopted, they 
have been simply remodelled to conform to the general princi- 
ples of the new system. 

OTJT-BUILDrNGlS. 

The kitchen, lavatory, privy, bath-house, and laundry, are 
special buildings. At most of the stations swimming-baths 
from four to five feet deep are also provided. 



72 AEMY OF INDIA. 

BAItKACKS FOE MAEEIED MEN. 

Each married man is allowed two rooms, one 16' x 14', the 
other 14' x 10'. Barracks, one story high, surrounded hy ve- 
randas, are preferred, hut two-story barracks are permitted. 
Each barrack contains from eight to ten sets of quarters. To 
insure privacy, all of the partition-walls between quarters are 
carried to the roof; and privies for women and children are not 
under the same roof as those of the men. Bath-rooms are pro- 
vided in detached buildings. 

HOSPITALS. 

As the Government does not consider general hospitals de- 
sirable in time of peace, a separate hospital, as a general rule, is 
provided for every regiment or detachment. 

The hospitals are required to accommodate 10 per cent, of 
the regulation strength of regiments, and detachments exceed- 
ing 400, and 12 per cent, for detachments under 400. In un- 
healthy climates such as Agra, Delhi, Peshawar, the accommo- 
dation is increased to 12 per cent, for detachments above 400, 
and 15 per cent, for detachments below 400. 

In accordance with the above proportion, a hospital must 
furnish beds as follows : 

Unhealthy Stations. Healthy Stations. 
Kegiment of infantry, .... 110 92 

Eegiment of cavalry, .... 62 50 

Battery of artillery, .... 20 18 

Company of garrison-artillery, . . 10 10 

The hospitals, like the barracks, are two-storied, and for a 
regiment of infantry consist of two buildings, 400 feet long. 

The out-buildings consist of a privy, dead-house, guard- 
house, wash-house, and shed for ambulance. 

Separate hospitals are provided for the women belonging 
to the married establishment. 

The importance attached by the Government of India to a 
proper system of barrack and hospital accommodation of the 
European troops, is shown by the fact that £10,000,000, or 
$50,000,000, would be required for their construction. 




|i 



r 



09 



"e = 



S 3 



BAEEAOKS. 73 

The magnitude of the barracks and their imposing structure 
may be inferred from the accompanying plans — section and 
elevation of a double-storied half-company barrack for British 
infantry at Saugur. 

The interesting features of the barracks when considered 
with reference to our hot climates in the South — such as Texas 
and Arizona — are, that they are two-storied ; that each is sur- 
rounded with a broad two-story veranda ; that by means of blinds 
the sun never strikes upon the walls of the rooms in which the 
men sleep ; that the ventilation by flues within the walls, and 
by clear-story windows is perfect, and that most ample provision 
is made for the recreation of the men, and also for their clean- 
liness by providing both lavatories and swimming-baths. 

To enable the men to sleep, "punkas," or large fans, are 
worked all night by coolies, whose labor costs a mere pit- 
tance. 

As a general rule the Government does not provide barracks 
for the native troops, but instead gives them an allowance called 
" hutting-money." "With this fund the troops construct their 
own huts, the walls of which are made of mud or adobes. 
The contrast between the lofty barracks of the white troops, 
and the huts, or " lines," of the natives is very marked ; never- 
theless, the latter, never having had better accommodation, do 
not fret under the distinction that is made. 

No quarters are provided as a rule for officers in India. 
They have an allowance instead, and occupy " bungalows," or 
one-story cottages, built in the cantonment not far from the 
troops. 

In campaign they supply their own tents. These are well 
adapted to the hot climate, and always consist of one tent 
pitched wholly within a second or larger one. The space be- 
tween the two tents is from two to four feet wide, and this 
permits the air to circulate freely. To give additional coolness, 
and to soften the glare, both the inner and outer tents are 
lined with yellow cotton. 

It is not uncommon for officers to have a double supply of 
tents, in which case the set not in use is sent ahead and pitched 



u 



AEMY OF INDIA. 



at the next camping-place, where it is ready for occupation on 
the arrival of the troops. 

In hot weather, matting, kept wet by bheesties, or water- 
carriers, is hung before the doors of the tents. The circulation 
of the air through the interstices of the matting produces such 
rapid evaporation as to keep the temperature between 80° and 
90°. 



PAT. 



The expense of the British troops serving in India is de- 
frayed by the Indian Government. 

The following table shows the monthly pay and allowances of 
each grade in a regiment of British infantry serving in India : 



Lieutenant-colonel 

Major 

Captain. .' 

Lieutenant and sub-lieutenant. 

Paymaster. 

Adjutant 

Quartermaster 

Surgeon-major 

Burgeon 

Total 

Sergeant-major 

Bandmaster-sergeant 

Quartei-master-sergeant 

Paymaster-sergeant 

Armorer-sergeant 

Hospital-sergeant 

Sergeant-pioneer 

Color-sergeant 

Sergeant 

Sergeant instruct, of musketry 

Orderly room-sergeant 

Drum-major 

Drummer 

Corporal 

Private 

Total 

Grand total 



PAY PEOPEB. 



E. 



1002 
759 
415 
202 
445 
266 
274 
789 
817 



COMMAND, 
BTAFP, AND 
HORSE ALLOW- 
ANCE. 



480 
80 
80 



78 
257 

85 



TOTAL PEE 
MONTH. 



E. 



1482 
789 
445 
202 
524 
513 
869 
189 
817 



$716.12 
894.59 
222.68 
101.87 
262.22 
256.80 
184.93 



25,87 
23.98 
19.98 
14.62 
88.62 
16.65 
14.62 
18.62 
14.62 
22.62 
14.62 
14.62 
7.98 
9.87 
7.28 



The total annual cost of a British regiment of 919 men is 
$173,670. The cost of a native regiment of 720 men is $69,228. 
If increased to 919 men, its cost would only amount to half 

The total cost of the fifty regi- 



that of a British regiment. 



GENERAL KEMAEKS. 75 

meiits of Britisli infantry in India is $9,212,458. The total 
cost of the sixty regiments of Bengal infantry is $4,537,343. 

The gross expenditure on account of the army of India, 
numbering 190,000 men, for 1875-'76, was £11,930,400 = $59,- 
652,000. 

GENERAL EEMAEKS. 

The military institutions of India present more features for 
our imitation than those of any army or country in Europe. 
From the battle of Plassy, when the vision of conquest first 
dawned upon the East India Company, until the final subjuga- 
tion of the empire, every war was prosecuted with mixed troops. 
The British regulars formed a nucleus around which the native 
troops coidd rally, and furnished to them the standard of drill, 
discipline, and valor. The value and economy of native troops 
were early discovered, and nowhere in history has the wisdom of 
a government been so signally rewarded as in the organization 
of the native army. It would have been surprising if, with the 
material for soldiers everywhere at hand, the project of form- 
ing native corps, under European officers, had not suggested 
itself. 

The first use of sepoys was at Bombay. Later, in 1746, 
they took part in the siege of Madras. Those first employed 
in the Madras Presidency were organized into companies, com- 
manded by native captains and subalterns, and were organized 
into battalions of ten companies, commanded by British cap- 
tains, with one British subaltern to each company. With this 
leaven of European officers, several campaigns were successfully 
prosecuted by the sepoys, which greatly increased their esprit 
de carps and attachment to the company's service. 

In the campaigns of 1790-91 European troops were inter- 
mixed with the natives, and with this composition, in 1757, the 
great Clive, with a force numbering 3,000 men, of whom less 
than 1,000 were English, defeated an army of 60,000 at the 
battle of Plassy, and changed the fate of an empire. The stu- 
pendous results of the battle, in which Clive lost but Y2 killed 
and wounded, can only be attributed to the wisdom of distrib- 



76 ARMY OF INDIA. 

uting military talent among the native troops, and to their sub- 
sequent perfection in drill and discipline. 

In 1Y66 the native army in Madras consisted of 10 battalions 
of 1,000 men each, with three European officers to each battal- 
ion ; in 1770 it had expanded to 18 battalions, and 1784 it had 
increased to 2,000 cavalry, and 28,000 infantry. In 1796 the na- 
tive troops were formed into regiments of two battalions each, 
with a complement of European officers nearly the same as in a 
British regiment. In 1876 the established strength was 1,700 
cavalry and 30,000 infantry. 

In Bombay the sepoys were iirst organized in companies 
under their native officers, and afterward formed into battalions 
under Europeans. In 1796 the force was organized into four 
regiments of two battalions each. In 1876 the established 
strength was 3,900 cavalry and 22,000 infantry. 

In Bengal, the first battalions raised were composed of ten 
companies of 100 men each. The Europeans attached con- 
sisted of 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, and 1 or 2 ser- 
geants. This force has been expanded and contracted until it 
reached its present established strength of 12,800 cavalry and 
48,000 infantry. 

The average height of the infantry sepoys in Bombay and 
Madras is five feet five inches, and the minimum five feet three 
inches ; the maximum height is five feet six inches. The Sikhs 
from JSTorthern India, in the Punjab, are the tallest and finest- 
looking soldiers in Bengal, many of them being six feet in 
height. The Goorkhas, short, thick-set, muscular men from 
the mountains, dispute with tlie Sikhs the reputation of being 
the best fighters in Bengal, if not in India. 

The religion of the native troops is mostly Hindoo and Mo- 
hammedan, but in Bombay there are also many Jews and some 
Christians. When Mohammedans and Hindoos serve in the 
same regiments the companies are arranged in classes according 
to their religion. 

This variety of religion, and particularly of caste, is the 
source of much annoyance and difficulty. The men of different 
castes will not only not associate with each other, but will not 



DISCIPLINE. 77 

partake of tlie same food unless it is prepared by one of their 
own order. The result is, that a company may be divided into 
as many messes as it has men, each of whom sweeps and washes 
a plot of ground about a yard or two square on which he builds 
his fii-e and cooks his food. If this ground is touched by his 
European officer, or a sepoy of different caste, it becomes un- 
clean, and has to be washed and swept again. 

DISCIPLINE. 

The drill, discipline, movements, and appearance, of the 
native troops at the camp of exercise at Delhi in 1876 would 
compare favorably with those of many of the troops in Europe. 

At the review before the Prince of "Wales they marched with 
a precision approaching that of the English regiments, and at the 
subsequent mancsuvres applied the German tactics with as much 
intelligence as the troops seen in Italy, Austria, and Russia. 

The movements of the thirteen regiments of cavali-y, three 
of which were British, were particularly dashing and brilliant. 
All of the evolutions, whether at the walk, trot, or gallop, were 
executed with a strictness and precision that would have reflected 
credit npon any army. 

As in Europe, so in India, the value of the carbine is but lit- 
tle appreciated. Apparently indifferent to the brilliant achieve- 
ments of the American horse, a majority of the officers still 
hold to the sabre as the only weapon worthy of a cavalry-man. 

Whatever may be the external appearance of the native 
troops, whether infantry or cavalry, their value almost wholly 
depends on the European officers who lead them. If these faU, 
the natives are liable to confusion, and to wander about without 
direction or guidance. The value of skilled officers in conduct- 
ing troops was never more conspicuously illustrated than during 
the mutiny. No sooner were the revolted troops left to the 
management of their own officers, than the utmost disorder and 
confusion prevailed. 

These officers had all risen from the ranks, and knew noth- 
ing of the art of war except the movements of a battalion or 
regiment. They had been trained to be the mere medium of 



78 ARMY OF INDIA. 

communication between the European officers and the men, and 
to assist in their drill and discipline. Above them, the sepoy 
knew, was the stern, inflexible British officer, and to him he 
looked alike for reward and punishment. When this motor 
and governor was removed, the native officers found themselves 
powerless ; no system or order was maintained, the troops 
rushed into battle blindly, fought bravely, and when repulsed 
fell back disheartened and demoralized. It seems strange that, 
after a century's service with British troops, there could not be 
found a single native officer capable of planning a campaign 
against their oppressors. They allowed a small British and na- 
tive army, composed mostly of Sikhs, to plant itself on a rocky 
ridge overlooking the city of Delhi, and, with the exception of 
one or two forays, never sought to interrupt the long line of 
communications from the Punjab, which was always open to 
their attacks. While the infantry mutineers fought with des- 
peration, the revolted artillery gave the besieging army the most 
trouble and inflicted the greatest loss. So admirably was it 
served that since the mutiny all of the native artillery, except 
three or four batteries, has been disbanded. 

The conduct of the native troops during the siege of Delhi 
was such as to gain the admiration of their British comrades : 
they fought side by side with them ; endured all the exposure 
from May 30th, the beginning, to September 20th, the end of 
the siege, and in their lists of casualties gave unmistakable proof 
of their valor and fidelity. 

The frequent mutinies that have broken out among the na- 
tive troops cannot with justice be imputed to bad discipline, or 
to the inefficiency of the European officers. In most armies 
the causes leading to them, such as withholding pay, bad food 
and clothing, can by proper foresight be removed ; but, when 
this is not the ease, the vigilance of the officers and patriotism 
of the men are sufficient to reduce the insubordination within 
narrow limits, and to secure a speedy return to duty. But in 
India the causes are widely different, having their source in 
the deep religious animosities and prejudices of the races. 
However fair a regiment may be to look upon, it is but a 



DISCIPLINE. 79 

smothered volcano whose flames may break forth at any mo- 
ment and destroy every European within reach. 

Nevertheless, if the total number of regiments in the native 
army be considered, it is doubtful if mutiny is more frequent in 
India than in other countries, and particularly in those which 
rely upon raw and untrained troops. 

If treated with kindness, the native soldier, in battle and 
elsewhere, shows a devotion to his officers which cannot be ex- 
celled, and it is only when his sense of military duty is overcome 
by an appeal to his fanaticism that he becomes ferocious and 
ungovernable. 

The greatest struggle England has yet had in India was with 
the mutiny of 1857, and this struggle was with the officers and 
men she had trained for her own service. No combination of 
races or tribes, without military organization, could for a mo- 
ment have resisted her arms; and it was only through the 
prearranged defection of her troops that the efEorfr to regain 
independence assumed form and proportion: even then the 
same weapons with which she had conquered the empire were 
suceessfally used in suppressing the rebellion. The little army 
that captured the King of Delhi and his capital, and settled for 
an indefinite time the foundations of the Indian Empire, was 
composed of but 12,000 effective men, of whom only 3,000 were 
British, 

Like the American Indians, the different races in India have 
always shown more eagerness to fight each other than to fight 
the English, and it was by taking advantage of this disposition, 
and, like the ancient Romans, mingling in their quarrels, that 
they successively subdued them all. The same causes that led 
to the fall of India still exist to keep her in subjection. The 
troops of Madras would clamor to be led against the troops of 
Bengal; if the Mohammedans revolt, the Hindoos would be 
true, and so long as; in the order of Providence, the races keep 
separate in religion and feeling, so long will it be possible for 
England to rule. 

Like all great commotions, the mutiny precipitated a reor- 
ganization of the whole native army. The authorities did not 



80 ARMY OF INDIA. 

stop to discover the real causes, but attributed many of them to 
the army, and to the " absenteeism " of officers that had up to 
that time prevailed. It viras therefore resolved that all of the 
officers in India, excepting those belonging to British regiments, 
should be merged into one great staff corps, and that thereafter 
the officers detailed with native regiments should remain with 
them. 

The result of this change was to reduce the number of Eu- 
ropeans serving with each regiment of infantry from twenty- 
eight to eight, of which number nearly one-half are usually 
absent on leave, or detached service. This reduction is still the 
subject of much discussion, and, considering the inefficiency of 
the native officers when left to themselves, it may well be 
doubted if the Government has acted wisely. 

In no department of an army is skill so much needed as ia 
leading troops to battle, especially when they have not confi- 
dence in themselves and their company officers. 

It is in this respect that England has set us an example of 
distributing military talent, which, had it been followed in our 
late war, would have saved thousands of lives and millions of 
treasure. But it is not in this respect alone that the Indian 
army is worthy of our imitation. It presents the spectacle of 
nearly 200,000 men conquering and keeping an empire in sub- 
jection, without a single permanent staff corps. In our army 
all of these corps are closed ; the appointments are permanent, 
and no means are provided to weed out the inefficient or to en- 
courage the aspiring. In India all the officers in the adjutant- 
general's department and quartermaster-general's department 
are changed every five years ; and in the other staff departments, 
such as the commissariat and ordnance, in which the appoint- 
ments are held more or less permanently, officers can at any 
time be relieved and sent to other duty. Another marked feat- 
ure of all of these departments is that, after officers are detailed 
in them from the general staff corps, no regard is paid to sen- 
iority in selecting officers for heads of bureaux, or for any 
other position. In this manner, while favoritism is not abso- 
lutely excluded, a sure encouragement is given to all officers 



DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS. 81 

who perform their duty with zeal and efficiency. The military 
policy of the Government has unquestionably produced a bene- 
ficial effect in India upon the corps of officers, and has imparted 
to them a variety of military knowledge and experience not 
possessed by any other army. 

At Calcutta we met a colonel who was a civil and military 
governor of four millions of people ; at Muscat and Bushire 
military officers were intrusted with the diplomatic relations of 
India with Arabia and Persia ; at the camp at Delhi the adju- 
tant-general had previously been quartermaster-general, and 
was anticipating the expiration of his five years' service, which 
would give him the command of a brigade or a division. 

All of the officers we met at Delhi and elsewhere in India 
gave evidence that, whether in a military or civil capacity, they 
had been acting in spheres of responsibility far greater than 
those occupied by officers of other armies, and as a consequence 
showed a capacity and self-confidence far above their rank. 
The results attained in India are worthy of our. closest study, 
and suggest the question whether, in the impending reorganiza- 
tion of our army, we should not, as the first step, establish a 
vital and interchangeable relation between the line and the staff. 

DISTEIBITTION OF TEOOPS. 

Unlike the armies of Europe, which are maintained in a 
state of ceaseless preparation to wage war and to resist con- 
quest, the army of India rests from its labors. 

The Himalayas and the deserts of Afghanistan and Beloo- 
chistan have fixed the bounds of conquest, and henceforth the 
army, like a huge police force, must be maintained only to pre- 
serve the peace. 

The disposition maps of the three presidencies for 1874^'75 
show that, instead of concentrating large bodies of troops at the 
great strategic points, like Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Allahabad, 
Lahore, and Peshawar, the army is distributed in small garri- 
sons, not only with a view to exhibit the military power of the 
Government at as many points as possible, but also to be within 
such distance as to crush insurrections in their beginning. 



82 ARMY OF INDIA. 

In the Bengal Presidency, extending up the valleys of the 
Ganges and the Jumna, the principal points occupied are Cal- 
cutta, Dinapore, Benares, Allahabad, Cawnpore, Lucknow, 
Agra, Bareily, Delhi, Meerut, Umbala, Meean-Meer, Lahore, 
Sealkote, Eawul, Pindee, and Peshawar. The garrisons at all 
of these points are composed of mixed troops. 

At Calcutta and vicinity there are 3 regiments of British 
infantry, 3 of native infantry, and 3 batteries of artillery ; at 
Allahabad there are 2 regiments of British infantry, 1 of native 
infantry, 2 squadrons of native cavalry, and 2 batteries of artil- 
lery ; at Cawnpore, 1 regiment of British infantry, 1 of native 
infantry, and 1 of native cavalry ; at Lucknow, 2 regiments of 
British infantry, 2 of native infantry, 1 of British cavalry, and 
2 batteries of artillery. Four batteries of artillery are stationed 
at Meerut, 2 at Umbala, and 3 at Meean-Meer. 

The largest garrison in India is at Peshawar, which general- 
ly consists of 2 regiments of British infantry, i of native in- 
fantry, 2 of native cavalry, and 3 batteries of artillery ; num- 
bering in all from 6,000 to 7,000 men. 

The largest concentration of troops in any one district 
in India is in the Punjab, where there are from 30,000 
to 35,000 men, or nearly one-half the force of the Bengal 
Presidency. It was through this door that Alexander, Gen- 
ghis Khan, and Tamerlane, entered India, and it is the door 
through which many Indian officers confidently expect the 
Russians. 

The troops in Madras are principally stationed at Trichi- 
nopoly, Bangalore, Bellary, Hyderabad, and Nagpoor, all being 
points within railroad communication, and lying on a line near- 
ly bisecting the peninsula from Cape Comorin to Jubbulpore 
and Allahabad. 

In the Bombay Presidency the principal garrisons are at 
Bombay and Kurrachee on the coast ; Belgaum, Poonah, Ahme- 
dabad, Eajkote, Deesa, and Hyderabad, all on a line about fifty 
miles from the sea ; and Mhow-Neemuch, and Nusseerabad, in 
Kajpootana in the northeast. 

Small garrisons, consisting of half -battalions, companies, and 



DISTRIBUTION OP TEOOPS. 83 

small detachments, are likewise dotted over the country wher- 
ever turbulence may be apprehended. 

To prevent the wild, irresponsible tribes of Beloochistan 
and Afghanistan from raiding across the Indus and escaping 
with their plunder, a strip of territory about fifty miles wide 
has been acquired to the west of the river from Kurrachee to 
Peshawar. This territory from the mouth of the Indus to 
Peshawar is occupied by about 12,000 men, composing a special 
frontier force, under the exclusive control of the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Punjab. The success that has attended this 
acquisition of territory suggests the similarity of our frontier on 
the Kio Grande. 

The continued occupation of India by England must afford 
a subject of deep speculation to statesmen, and all the causes 
that may contribute to prolong her rule deserve attentive con- 
sideration. 

The one great result of the mutiny was, to teach the natives 
how powerless they were to throw off the yoke, even when 
aided by the soldiers England had trained, who took with them 
all of their arms and munitions of war. The mutiny broke out 
when the Government was least prepared for it, and when the 
subjugation of the warlike tribes of the Punjab had scarcely 
been completed. 

Eealizing that a crisis had arrived, the aid of the men who 
had so recently fought to preserve their independence was in- 
voked, and had they not responded, or had the Punjab failed 
as a base of supply, no one could have fixed the bounds of a 
movement that bade fair to expel the invaders. 

Since the mutiny was crushed, the whole face of India has 
changed. The Suez Canal enables English troops to be landed 
at Bombay in fewer weeks than before it took months, while 
the great lines of railway permit them to be sent directly to 
every important part of the empire. 

But, without aid from England, the railway system by 
itself is sufficient to enable the 60,000 British troops to 
hold India almost indefinitely, even against the defection of 
the entire native army. Starting from Bombay, one trunk- 



84 ARMY OF INDIA. 

line goes to Madras, and by its branches opens up all of the 
southern peninsula ; another stretches across to AUahabad, and 
connects with the great line of the Ganges, already completed 
from Calcutta to within two hundred miles of Peshawar; a 
second cross-line is in process of construction from Agra in the 
direction of Ahmedabad, and is completed to JSTusseerabad ; 
while a third cross-line from Lahore is completed to Mooltan, 
and will soon be extended down the Indus to Kurrachee. As 
the link between Madras and Calcutta may be supplied by 
sea, four great lines of communication will shortly be opened 
from the shores of the Indian Ocean to the lines of the 
Ganges. 

INTASION OF INDIA. 

As the time has passed when the fate of India can be de- 
cided by a single battle, the lines of railway will be equally im- 
portant in resisting invasion and in preserving the peace. 

If an army enter by the north, the five rivers of the Pun- 
jab form as many lines of defense. If deemed preferable to 
lure an enemy to the southward, and allow the climate to do its 
fatal work, the strategic points of Lahore, Agra, and Allaha- 
bad, can be successively abandoned, and communication stiU be 
maintained with Bombay by way of Madras ; while from Kur- 
rachee an army moving via Mooltan could cut ofE retreat. 
Should an army descend the Indus, a pursuing army from 
the Ganges might drive it into the sea, or into the deserts of 
Beloochistan. 

Thoroughly prepared to suppress insurrection and rebellion, 
it is only when England beholds the encroachments of Kussia 
that she becomes alarmed for her Eastern possessions. Like a 
wild beast gloating over its prey, she is conscious that the actual 
or supposed discontent of her subjects invites foreign nations 
to their rescue. Napoleon thought of emancipating them, and 
to Eussia is ascribed the inheritance of his designs. Jealous of 
her great Northern rival, and not considering the barren wastes 
which extend hundreds of miles to the north and west of her 
frontiers, a future invasion, like a hideous nightmare, disturbs 



INVASION OF INDIA. 85 

<3ie dreams of the Indian rulers. The recent successes of Rus- 
sia in Central Asia, by means of which the frontiers of the two 
powers have been brought nearly into contact, have increased 
the alarm ; while the present war between Russia and the Turks 
is regarded as the sure forerunner of the great conflict. 

With vast possessions stretching across two continents, and 
with only one natural outlet to the Atlantic, Russia feels that 
geographically she has a right to Constantinople, and, by the 
force of tradition, no less than by the ii-resistible weight of her 
70,000,000 people, she demands and ultimately will conquer a 
free passage to the sea. 

The expulsion of the Turks from Em-ope, whenever it may 
occur, will increase the dangers of England. Availing them- 
selves of the sympathy of their co-religionists, who revere the 
sultan as the successor of the Prophet, it is not impossible that 
the Turks should seek to indemnify themselves in Asia for 
their losses in Europe. 

Largely outnumbering the Persians, and in every respect 
superior to them, the weakness of that kingdom invites subju- 
gation; pressing onward in the footsteps of Alexander and 
Tamerlane, 40,000,000 Mohammedans stretch forth their hands 
for deliverance, and long for the restoration of the emph-e of 
the Moguls. 

This may not be accomplished in one or a dozen campaigns ; 
but, supported and encouraged by Russia, repeated invasions 
may involve the Indian Government in such expenditures as 
to induce it, in deference to an opinion already existing in 
England, to abandon India to her fate. But, without dwelling 
on the probabilities of Turkish aggrandizement, it is possible 
that the fate of India may be settled nearer home. 

Constantly increasing, by her Eastern policy, the deadly 
feeling of hostility which already exists in Russia against her, 
the moment the former occupies Constantinople, England must 
seize upon Egypt. Once secure in Constantinople, the fleets 
of England can no longer oppose the designs of Russia. Con- 
verting the Black Sea into an inland lake, thus insuring her 
communications, a railroad from Trebizond across to the valley 



86 AEMY OF INDIA. 

of the Euphrates, and thence on to Damascus, will place Kussia 
on the flank of England's line of communication. Thus brought 
face to face, it is not impossible that these two great powers 
may change the face of Asia on the famous plain of Esdrselon. 

While such are the dangers which confront England from 
the west, another danger, thus far concealed, lies nearer than 
Russia or Turkey. To the north and east, on the very con- 
fines of her empire, a nation of 400,000,000 is sleeping, uncon- 
scious of its strength. To awaken it, to vitalize, consolidate, 
and give it power, to imbue it with schemes of conquest, is 
but the work of a single man, like any of the great kings 
who have sat upon its throne. Its richest provinces lie close 
to British Burmah, and only railroads are needed to enable 
it to pour its armies like successive waves down the valley 
of the Brahmapootra and through the passes of the Himalayas. 
Lofty as are these mountains, Chinese troops have traversed 
them, have invaded Nepaul, and looked down upon the valley 
of the Ganges. "What Napoleon did for the passes of the Alps, 
what Russia has done more recently for the communications 
across the Caucasus, China can do for the Himalayas. She 
may sacrifice army after army, but, like the barbarians who sub- 
dued Rome, or like the Tartars who knocked for a thousand 
years at the gates of her own empire, success eventually must 
crown her efforts. 

The possibility of such a conflict suggests the contrast of the 
present condition of the two empires : China has 400,000,000 
people ; India has 200,000,000. China is governed by a for- 
eign dynasty which adopted the manners and customs of its 
people ; India is ruled by a foreign people whose mission, if 
not object, is to extend the blessing of Christian civilization. 
In China an army, nominally 1,000,000 strong, is incapable of 
suppressing brigandage, insurrection, and rebellion ; in India 
peace has followed the British ensign, and an army of 200,000 
men, wisely distributed, preserves absolute tranquillity. 

In the language of the one, the word " liberty" is unknown ; 
in the other, the rights of the people are protected by a " flrm 
and impartial despotism." In the one, rulers may seize the 



INVASION OF INDIA. 87 

property and sever tlie necks of their subjects with impunity ; 
in the other, sacredness of person is secure. 

In China, men without trial languish in prisons, cruel and 
unusual punishments, injustice, bribery, and corruption, pre- 
vail ; in India, English law secures speedy trial, and protects 
life and property. In China, servile admiration of the wisdom 
of past ages resists progress ; in India, schools, churches, rail- 
roads, steamboats, telegraphs, and just laws, are giving new life 
and energy to the people. 

With such mighty contrasts between Asiatic and European 
civilization, no stranger, free from national prejudices, can 
visit China and India without rejoicing that England controls 
the destinies of 200,000,000 people ; neither can he observe the 
great institutions which she has founded for their moral and 
physical amelioration without hoping that, in the interest of 
humanity, she may continue her sway until she has made them 
worthy to become a free and enlightened nation. 



AEMT OF PEESIA. 



The decline in military organization from India to Persia is 
scarcely less marked than from Japan to China. 

Sandwiched between the great powers, England and Eussia, 
and brought more intimately in contact with Europe than Chiaa, 
Persia has been made to feel the want of military institutions, 
and has made in the course of her history several efforts to 
adopt European models and tactics. 

As early as the time of Queen Elizabeth, the artillery was 
organized by an Englishman. Nearly two centuries later, when 
the flames of war, kindled at the birth of freedom and republi- 
canism in France, had swept over Africa and had reached the 
shores of Asia, Napoleon, in 1801, in the hope sooner or later 
of invading India, sent to the Shah a commission of seventy 
officers and non-commissioned officers. This commission short- 
ly afterward was replaced by English rivals, who carried on 
military instruction till 1840. 

Since that period the work has been successively undertaken 
by Austrian, Italian, and French commissions, and is still car- 
ried on by a corps of five or six instructors from Italy, France, 
and Denmark. 

tNTANTET. 

The Persian infantry consists of 76 regiments or battalions, 
of which — 



OFFICERS. 89 

20 contain 1,000 men each. 

1 contains 900 " each. 
53 contain 800 " each. 

1 contains 400 " each. 

1 " 250 " each. 

A company of infantry consists of 1 captain, 2 subaltemSj 
and 100 men. 

The kingdom of Persia is divided into provinces, which are 
subdivided into districts, each one of which is supposed to fur- 
nish a regiment orfowg. 

Nominally, the army consists of ten divisions of two bri- 
gades each, but in reality no brigades exist. A general of 
division is styled " Emeer Tooman," or chief of ten thousand ; 
a general of brigade is called " Emeer Panj," or chief of five 
thousand. 

Each regiment is usually composed of men of the same tribe, 
the chief of which is colonel. If a tribe occupies several dis- 
tricts, it furnishes as many regiments. Districts may be ex- 
empted from raising corps on condition of paying increased 
taxes ; in like manner, when a district furnishes a regiment, its 
taxes are reduced. 

In consequence of this policy, the northern and western 
provinces, settled by tribes of Turkish origin, furnish nearly all 
of the regiments ; a few only are composed of mixed tribes, 
while, of the seventy-six regiments, only four are purely Per- 
sian. 

Eegiments are raised by conscription, the details being left 
in the hands of their colonels. The draft always begins with 
the rich, who purchase exemption, and then proceeds down the 
list until poverty forces its victim into the ranks. 

OFFICEES. 

General and field officers are appointed by the Minister of 
War, and their commissions bear the seal of the Shah. Com- 
pany officers are appointed nominally by the Minister of War, 
but in reality by the colonels, particularly when they possess 



90 ARMY OF PERSIA. 

political influence. The officers of each regiment are required 
to belong to the same tribe as the men, who are usually their 
vassals or tenants. 

Company officers are wholly ignorant of military affairs, and 
most of them can neither read nor write ; the field-officers gen- 
erally belong to wealthy families, and are better educated. 

It is not lawful to purchase promotion; yet, in practice, 
advancement can only be secured by purchase, or by favor. 

Company officers buy their promotion from the colonel, 
who, if sufficiently powerful, retains the bonus; if not, he 
divides with the Minister of War. General and field officers 
purchase directly from the minister. If a general officer com- 
mands several regiments, he shares in the profits from the sale 
of commissions to all of his field and company officers. 

The price paid by general and field officers for promotion is 
two years', and for company officers, one year's pay. 

"With such a system only the greatest incompetency can 
prevail, and it is well understood that, without regard to quali- 
fications, money will buy any rank in the army, together with 
its honors and emoluments. A practice so destructive of honor 
and efficiency might surprise us, did we not reflect that it once 
prevailed in the English army, and that even Marlborough was 
accused of fighting a battle in order that, through the death of 
his officers, he might profit by the sale of their commissions. 
Afterward, so regulated as to redeem the system from fraud 
and corruption, it continued in the English army till 1871, when 
it was finally abolished. 

CAVALEY. 

All of the Persian cavalry is irregular and unorganized. 
In case of a popular war, it is supposed that the tribes could 
furnish from 60,000 to 70,000. In the contrary case it is doubt- 
ful if it would muster 20,000. 

Its arms consist of swords, guns, and horse-pistols, fre- 
quently ornamented with fanciful designs. 

The Persians, like the Cossacks, are fine horsemen, and ride 
with short stirrups and high saddles. Firing in various atti- 



AEMS AND MATERIAL. 91 

tudes, leaping barriers and ditches, simidating the rescue of a 
wounded comrade, standing on their saddle, and on their heads 
while at full speed, were some of the feats of horsemanship per- 
formed by the villagers who came out to meet us. The typical 
horse is short, compactly yet gracefully built, and well adapted 
to cavalry service. The saddle is high and long, inflexible, and 
equally cruel to man and beast. 

AETILLEET. 

This arm of service consists of 20 battalions of 250 men 
each, but there are no organized batteries nor trains. 

AEMS AND MATEEIAL. 

In the arsenals at Teheran and Tabriz a supply of muskets 
is kept on hand, consisting of 10,000 Chassepots, 40,000 taba- 
tieres, and from 20,000 to 30,000 arms of other descriptions. 

The tabatiere is a worthless, transformed muzzle-loader, 
captured by the Germans in 1870, and sold to the Shah when 
in Europe at 21 francs each. The ammunition for it is likewise 
worthless. 

The artillery material consists of about 500 smooth-bore 
and 60 rifled guns, all of brass. The latter were rifled in Per- 
sia, on the Belgian system. 

Ammunition is kept on hand for the smooth-bores, but none 
has yet been provided for the rifles. 

Powder is manufactured at a mill near Teheran. 

At a special audience, given without solicitation, to General 
Forsyth, Major Sanger, and myself, the Shah manifested great 
interest in American fire-arms. As a specimen, I presented to 
him a Smith & Wesson revolver, with which he was much 
pleased. 

He knew of our difiierent kinds of breech-loaders, and re- 
quested me to write to Smith & Wesson, and to the Reming- 
tons, to send him their price-lists ; and also to General Franklin, 
for the cost of a battery of Gatlings. 

In compliance with his request, while at Teheran, I wrote 
to Smith & Wesson, and to General Franklin, while General 



92 ABMY OF PERSIA, 

Forsyth wrote to the Eemingtons, of wliicli action I informed 
the War Department at the time. 

At the same audience the Shah expressed his regrets that 
our Government was not represented at his capital, and re- 
quested me to commimicate to it his desire to estabhsh diplo- 
matic and commercial relations with us. 

CLOTHING AND CAMP-EQUIPAGE. 

A supply of about 20,000 uniforms, of the zouave style, is 
generally kept on hand. That required for immediate use, as 
for the garrison at Teheran, is kept in depots with the arms, 
and is issued to the soldiers on occasions of ceremony, after 
which it is again turned in. 

On service, the soldiers are supplied with tents. Barracks 
specially constructed are scarcely ever provided. 

PAT. 

The annual pay of officers is nominally as follows : 

General, 1st class (Emeer Tooman) 2,000 tomans, or $4,500 

" 2d '' (Emeer Panj) 1,600 " 3,450 

3d " 1,000 " 2,250 

Colonel 500 " 1,125 

Major (no lieutenant-colonel) 150 to 200 " 640 

Captain 80 " 181 

Lieutenant 50 " 113 

The maximum pay an officer is to receive is stated in- his 
commission, but it is merely nominal. Each year a paper is 
made out, either by the Minister of War, or the governor of the 
province in which the regiment is serving, stating the sum each 
officer is to receive, of which amount 20 per cent, is retained. 

The annual pay of non-commissioned officers and soldiers is 
7 tomans, or $15.89. In addition, non-commissioned officers 
receive a monthly pay of 6 krans ($1.00) ; soldiers receive 4 
krans, or 80 cents. 

Each soldier is paid in hand, and, as a receipt, he attaches to 
the pay-roll his seal, on which his name is engraved. 

In the interest of economy, regiments are usually in service 



GENERAL EEMAEKS. 93 

one year, and on leave the next. "While on leave their pay is 
reduced one-half, and must be provided by the district in which 
they were raised. 

Few of the generals receive full pay, but gifts to the minis- 
ter may secure an increase. 

When a regiment is ordered on service, which is always 
outside of its district, the Government provides the soldiers with 
a uniform valued at 15 krans, or $3.00. Sometimes a money 
allowance is paid to the colonel, who then supplies the clothes. 

GENEEAL EEMAUKS. 

The effect of Asiatic civilization is conspicuously illustrated 
in the army of Persia. As in China, corruption pervades every 
branch of military administration. The soldier who is too poor 
to escape the draft buys his time from his officers, and fre- 
quently remains at home, when he is supposed to be in ranks 
on the distant frontier. Even when following the colors of his 
regiment, by relinquishing his pay he may ply his trade, or 
freely engage in commercial pursuits. 

Ordinarily, the soldiers are small money-lenders, and, club- 
bing together, establish their banks in the bazaars near the cen- 
tres of business. Loaning only in small sums, and for short 
periods, they accept only exorbitant rates, varying from 120 to 
500 per cent, per annum. Cavalry-soldiers, with equal aptitude 
for gain, frequently hire out their horses or donkeys, and be- 
come the carriers of the country. 

So prevalent is the employment of soldiers in all trades and 
professions that, when, at Teheran, reviews or manoeuvres are 
ordered, it is not uncommon to see workmen, not suspected of 
being soldiers, drop their tools, don their uniforms, and take 
their places in the ranks. The duty completed, they return 
their clothing and muskets to the depot, and again resume work. 

All of these irregularities are well known, and are en- 
couraged by the officers, who, in consequence of low salaries, 
seek, through corrupt practices, to eke out the means of sup- 
port. 

In no service in the world is it difficult for officers without 



94 AKMY OF PERSIA. 

principle to rob tlieir government and at the same time keep 
their accounts with apparent exactness. To avoid the danger 
of false muster, the soldier who is permanently absent is 
replaced by a substitute, who serves at a lower price ; to enable 
the officers to draw his pay, the soldier simply leaves in their 
possession his seal with his name, which the substitute attaches 
to the rolls. 

"With such relations between officers and soldiers it is im- 
possible for discipline to survive. The substitutes only receive 
the instruction necessary to personate the soldiers who are 
absent, and so ignorant are they of arms and their use that 
only those that are worthless are placed in their hands. 

The cost and extravagance of raw soldiers are well illus- 
trated by the fact that, on issuing tabatieres to regiments for 
trial, they were turned in, nearly ruined, at the end of a month. 

Drill to the Persian soldier, like our old " general train- 
ings," signifies naught but noise and display. 

The tactics employed resemble the French of 1831. At 
the manoeuvres before the Shah, the only movements executed 
were to advance and retire. 

One movement consisted of a line of battle in double rank, 
from which skirmishers appeared to advance, as in our deploy- 
ment by numbers. Behind the line of battle, in imitation of 
the German system, companies were posted at intervals in 
double rank. At a signal, the skirmishers fell back, the com- 
panies advanced, and, joining at the line of battle, all opened 
fire, the line of battle kneeling. On the left, irregular cavalry 
made irregular charges, scattering over the ground, raising a 
great dust, and firing and flourishing their pieces in the air; 
on the right, the artillery joined its deep tones in the combat. 

At the review, the infantry walked rather than marched 
past. The cavalry, marching in squads of five or six, ducked 
their heads as a salam to the Shah. 

The army of Persia has its lessons for the military observer. 
In India we saw an army of 190,000 men, ably commanded and 
well supplied, without even a permanent staff corps. In Persia 
there is no staff at all. 



GENEEAL EEMAKKS. 95 

Each infantry-man provides his own food, and each cavalry- 
man his rations and forage. As each soldier knows he must 
eat, he iorages at every opportunity, and transports his supplies 
on a horse or donkey. 

Wheeled vehicles being practically unknown, and there 
being no wagon-routes, provisions and munitions of war have 
to be transported on mules, donkeys, horses, and camels. The 
number of animals thus accompanying an army often exceeds 
the number of men. 

Having no commissariat, the necessity to forage carries with 
it cruelty and distress, and inspires so great a dread of troops, 
even of the shah's escort, that when he proposes a journey to 
a distant province, it is not uncommon for the people of the 
towns and villages along the route, in the hope of escaping 
plunder, to present him with money as an inducement to relin- 
quish his design. 

The one great distinction between ancient and modem ar- 
mies is the organization of the departments of supply, which, 
in providing for the daily wants of the soldier, have done more 
to mitigate the horrors of war than all other causes combined. 
"Without them, discipline is impossible, and an army losing its 
cohesion, like a swarm of locusts sweeps over a country, leaving 
despair and starvation behind. 

Concentrating for battle, the troops may make a few wild 
rushes, and, if successful, continue their work of devastation and 
carnage ; but, if repulsed and pursued, their flight must end in 
dispersion. 

"With the arms, organization, and discipline described, and 
with no commissariat, the iafliience of the army of Persia in 
Eastern affairs can easily be computed. 

Bordered by Russia on the north, open to attack from 
Turkey on the west, accessible to England on the south, future 
events may soon prove that the capital of Persia, like that of 
all countries where military institutions are neglected, lies at 
the mercy of a few disciplined battalions. 



MILITAEY OEGAI^flZATIOl^ OF EUEOPE. 



The study of military organization, to be profitable, must 
not only embrace the objects for which armies are raised, but 
the means adopted to enable them to accomplish these objects. 

A glance at the armies of Asia shows that the Government 
of Japan, adopting a new civilization, has preserved its author- 
ity and consolidated its power by the maintenance of a military 
force of 35,000 men, bearing the ratio of 1,000 men to every 
1,000,000 inhabitants. 

In China, an army varying from 500,000 to 1,000,000 men, 
bearing a ratio of 1,000 or 2,000 to every 1,000,000 population, 
through corruption and faulty organization, is unable to pre- 
serve the peace. As a consequence, insurrection and rebellion 
frequently deluge the country with blood. 

In India, as in Japan, a well-organized army of 200,000 
men, bearing the ratio of 1,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants, pre- 
serves tranquillity throughout the empire. 

The chief object of all these armies is the maintenance of 
order and peace within their borders. 

Turning from Asia to Europe, a remarkable contrast is pre- 
sented. Claiming a higher civilization, we find from 6,000,000 
to 8,000,000 of young men taken from the family, the field, and 
the workshops, to compose armies whose object is less the 
preservation of internal peace and the present status of their 
governments, than to contend for new territory and increased 



MILITARY OEGANIZATION OF EUROPE. 97 

power, in the ceaseless struggle for ascendency whicli has char- 
acterized the history of Europe for the past thousand years. 

To enable these vast armies to accomplish their mission, not 
only are national resources exhausted, but human ingenuity is 
taxed to its utmost. 

It is when fighting against foreign enemies that military 
policy and organization are put to the severest test. If they 
are based upon wisdom, a single victory or series of victories 
may secure territorial aggrandizement, and crown the nation 
with glory ; if ignorance or fatal indifference have caused mili- 
tary organization to be neglected, national independence may 
perish in the first onset. 

"With the object for which they are maintained clearly in 
view, it is to the armies of Europe that we ought to look for 
the best miKtary models ; and if through remoteness from formi- 
dable neighbors, or through the difference of our institutions, 
we are permitted to deviate from these models, either in details 
or numbers, it shoidd be only for such reasons as commend 
■ themselves to common-sense, and can be vindicated by the wis- 
dom and experience of other nations no less than ourselves. 

In treating of the principal armies of Europe I shall only 
give their organization in brief, and then enlarge on the means 
of promoting their efficiency, which must be employed by all 
nations, regardless of the nature of their institutions, if they 
hope to secure similar results. 



AEMT OF ITALY. 



The military forces of Italy are composed of the regular 
army, the militia mobile (Landwehr), and the militia territoriale 
(Landsturm). 

The effective strength of the regular army, in July, 1875, 
was as follows : 



ORGANIZATION. 

General staff and administrative officers 

Infantry of the line 

Bersagiieri (rifles) 

Cavalry 

Artillery 

Engineers 

Sanitary corps 

Local service 

Gendarmerie 

Military districts , 

Institutions, educational establishments, etc. . 

Total regular army 

Ersatz reserve 

Militia mobile 

Reserve officers 

Total .' 



780 
898 
946 



127 

606 

1,488 

2,070 



13,694 
1,016 
2,610 
1,516 



18,386 



With the 
Colors. 



97,458 

16,266 

18,669 

20,786 

4,702 

1,152 

1,614 

20,970 

15,898 

7,261 



204.265 
14.786 



219,041 



On Furlongh or 



128,841 

21,147 

15,487 

27,462 

4,916 

2,065 



10,567 
236 



205,171 
166,409 
277,265 



648,845 



1,480 

220,799 

87,402 

84,106 

48,248 

9,618 

8,217 

1,614 

20,970 

26,965 

7,487 



410,856 
181,196 
277,265 



869,316 



GENERAL OFFICERS. 

This list consists of — 

5 Generals, 
42 Lieutenant-generals, 
83 Major-generals, 



Total, 130. 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. 99 



{Mat-Major). 

The officers of this corps are composed of — 

1. Officers actually belonging to the corps, termed " real." 

2. Officers attached, termed " aggregate." These officers 
belong either to infantry or cavalry, and are in excess of the 
complement required to fill the grades of their regiments. 
Their number is not fixed. While on staff duty they wear the 
uniform of their arm with certain modifications, denoting staff 
employment. 

3. Captains of the line temporarily employed as auxiliaries, 
who wear regimental uniform, with special modifications. 

4. Lieutenants who are borne on the strength of their regi- 
ments. 

The corps proper is composed of the first and second classes, 
with an organization, in 1876, as follows ; 
7 Colonels,' 
30 Lieutenant-colonels and majors, 
70 Captains, 
20 Lieutenants. 

The third class consisted of — 
60 Captains. 

The fourth class consisted of — 
18 First and second lieutenants. 

A general officer acts as chief of staff". A committee of four 
or five staff officers constitutes an advisory organ to the Minis- 
ter of "War in all important questions relating to organization, 
instruction, and military operations. 

The duties of the staff at the War Department are arranged 
in bureaux, or sections, as follows : 

1. Statistical section ; charged with collecting statistical infor- 
mation relative to all foreign armies. 

' Since increased to 11 colonels, 38 lieutenant-colonels and majors, 81 cap- 
tains, and 25 lieutenants. The number of auxiliary officers has also been in- 
creased to 66. 



100 AKMY OF ITALY. 

2. Historical section ; charged with writing military history, and 

collecting information relative to past military opera^ 
tions. 

3. Eailway section ; charged with studying the railway systems 

of Europe, and their use in the movement and concen- 
tration of troops. 

4. Information section ; charged with collecting information 

in reference to foreign armies, embracing changes in 
arms, instruction, tactics, construction of fortifications, 
etc. 

5. Topographical section ; charged with studying the topogra- 

phy and maps of all of the theatres of war in which the 
army of Italy may be called to operate. 

6. Topographical Institute ; charged with the construction and 

completion of the map of Italy, and with the construc- 
tion of maps of other countries. 
There is also a bureau in the War Department charged 
with the direction of military education, details for camps of 
instruction, and compilation of regulations for the army. 

At the division and territorial corps headquarters the staff 
officers are specially charged with orders relating to the disci- 
phne and instruction of the troops. 

ADMINISTEATIVE OOEPS. 

In general terms, the administration is divided into two 
separate corps, one called the " Commissariafo Militaire," the 
other " Contabile Mihtaire." 

The Commissariat Corps consists of — 
8 Colonels, 

12 Lieutenant-colonels, 

24 Majors, 

98 Captains, 

98 First-lieutenants, and 

50 Second-lieutenants. 



Total, 290. 



' Since increased to SOI. 



IKFANTRY. 101 

The officers of this corps, in time of peace, audit the accounts 
of the contabile, or accountant corps. In time of war they 
make the great contracts for provisions and forage, are respon- 
sible for the provision-trains, and for the delivery of supplies to 
the accountant officers. 

The Corps Contabile (Accountant) consists of — 
7 Lieutenant-colonels, 
52 Majors, 
424 Captains, 
690 First-lieutenants, and 
295 Second-lieutenants. 
Total, 1,368. 
This corps pays the officers and soldiers, provides the cloth- 
ing, aiTQS, and accoutrements ; and in time of war receives and 
distributes rations and forage. Four officers of the corps are 
assigned to duty with each regiment, and are under the orders 
of the colonel. 

In time of peace all of the ration except bread, which is 
made in government bakeries under charge of accountant of- 
ficers, is supplied by contractors, who are paid by the regimen- 
tal accountant officers every ten days. In time of war field- 
bakeries accompany the troops. 

INFiLNTEY. 

A company of infantry consists as follows : 

Peace-footing. War-footing. 

1 Captain, 1 Captain, 

3 Lieutenants, 4 Lieutenants, 

1 First-sergeant, 1 First-sergeant, 

4 Sergeants, 8 Sergeants, 

2 Lance-sergeants, or Corpo- 4 Lance-sergeants, 

rals (Maggiore), 
-1 Corporal (clerk), 1 Corporal (clerk), 

6 Corporals, 16 Corporals, 

6 Lance-corporals, 16 Lance-corporals, 
2 Trumpeters, 4 Trumpeters, 

2 Trumpeters (apprentices), 



102 



ARMY OF ITALY. 



Peace-footing. War-footing. 

2 Pioneers, 5 Pioneers, 
1 Pioneer (apprentice), 

73 Privates. liS Privates. 

Total, 104. Total, 205. 

A battalion consists of four companies, with a staff and 
non-commissioned staff, as follows : 



Peace-footing. 
1 Lieutenant-colonel or major, 

commandant, 
1 Lieutenant, adjutant, 

1 Sergeant-major, 
1 Corporal (clerk), 
1 Corporal (trumpeter), 
1 Corporal (pioneer), 
1 Wagoner. 

Total, 7. 
Total 4 companies, 416. 
Total battalion, 423. 
A regiment consists of three battalions and a depot. The 
staff and non-commissioned staff of a regiment is composed as 
follows : 



War-footing. 
1 Lieutenant-colonel or major, 
commandant, 

1 Lieutenant, adjutant, 

2 Surgeons (lieutenants), 
1 Sergeant-major, 

1 Corporal (clerk), 

1 Corporal (trumpeter), 

2 Corporals (pioneers), 

3 "Wagoners, 

4 soldiers (officers' servants). 

Total, 16. 
Total 4 companies, 820. 
Total battalion, 836. 



Peace-footing. 
1 Colonel, 
1 Captain (adjutant), 

1 Surgepn (captain), 

2 Surgeons (lieutenants), 

3 Sergeant-majors, 
1 Chief musician, 

1 Sergeant of pioneers, 
1 Chief armorer, 
1 Sergeant (band), 
1 Sergeant-trumpeter. 



War-footing. 

1 Colonel, 

1 Captain (adjutant), 
1 Surgeon (captain), 
1 Accountant officer (lieuten- 
ant), 
3 Sergeant-majors, 
1 Chief musician, 
1 Sergeant of pioneers, 
1 Chief armorer, 
1 Sergeant (band), 
1 Sergeant-trumpeter, 



IKFANTEY. 



103 



Peace-footing. 

2 Corporals (clerks), 

1 Corporal (band), 

16 Musicians, 

10 Musicians (pupils), 

2 Armorers (apprentices), 



2 Yivandieres. 
Total, 46. 



The depot consists as follows : 



War-footing. 

2 Corporals (clerks), 
1 Corporal (band), 

1 Corporal (commissary clerk), 
26 Musicians, 

2 Armorers (apprentices), 

4 Wagoners, 

5 soldiers (officers' servants), 
2 Yivan'dieres. ' 

Total, 55. 



War-footing. 
The depot in time of war 
is not fixed, but varies accord- 
ing to the necessities of the 
service. 



Peaee-footing. 

1 Major, 

1 Accountant director (cap- 
tain), 

1 Paymaster (subaltern), 

1 Registrar (subaltern), 

1 Accountant officer (subal- 
tern), 

6 Accountant (commissari- 
at) sergeants, 

5 Accountant corporals, 
1 Captain, 

1 First-sergeant, 

4 Sergeants, 

1 Corporal (clerk), 

6 Corporals, 
1 Trumpeter, 

1 Trumpeter (pupil), 
30 Privates. 

Total, 60. 
In war the men unfit for field-service are transferred to the 
depot-companies, which guard the barracks, and have charge of 
the books, records, and papers, of their regiments. 

In case of mobilization they usually go to district headquar- 



104 AEMY OF ITALY. 

ters, where they receive and train men belonging to their regi- 
ments, and also aid in the general instruction of the men called 
to arms. 

The total strength of a regiment is as follows : 

Peace-footing. 

Regimental staff and non-commissioned staff 46 

3 Battalions 1,269 

Depot 60 

Total 1,375 

War-footing. 
Regimental staff and non-commissioned staff 55 

3 Battalions 2,508 



Total 2,563 

BEESAGLIEEI. 

The bersaglieri, or riflemen, consist of ten regiments, of 
four battalions each, organized the same as infantry. The 
strength of a regiment on the peace-footing is 1,Y98 officers and 
men ; the war-footing is 3,399. In peace each regiment is 
united for instruction and administrative service, but in war it 
is intended to attach a battalion to each division or brigade, to 
act specially as skirmishers and sharp-shooters. 

The infantry of the standing army consists in time of 
peace and war of 80 regiments (240 battalions), with 10 addi- 
tional regiments of bersaglieri (40 battalions). 

The strength of the infantry regiments is as follows : 

Peacefooting. 

80 regiments 110,000 

Bersaglieri 17,980 

Total peace-footing . . . 127,980 

Warfooting. 

80 regiments 205,040 

Bersaglieri 33,990 

Total war-footing .... 239,030 



TEEEITOEIAL COMMANDS. IQS 



BKIGADE. 

A brigade of infantry consists of— 
2 regiments (6 battalions). 

DIVISION. 

A division consists of — 

The division staff, 

2 Infantry brigades (12 battalions), 

1 Artillery brigade (3 batteries), 

2 Squadrons of cavalry, 

1 Division artillery park, 
1 Sanitary section, 

1 Subsistence section. 

COEPS. 

An army corps consists of^ 
Tbe corps staff, 

2 Divisions of infantry (24 battalions), 
1 Eegiment bersaglieri (4 battalions), 

1 Brigade of cavalry (2 regiments or 8 squadrons), 

1 Artillery brigade, 

1 Brigade of engineers (2 companies), 

1 Engineer park and brigade train, and 
The supply-trains. 

AEMT. 

An army consists of — 
The army staff, 

2 or 3 corps. 

The army intendance, or supply department, 

TEEEITOEIAl COMMANDS. 

For purposes of command and military administration, Italy 
is divided into Y ' general or corps, 16 divisional, and 63 district, 
commands. 

' By the law of March 22, 1877, the territorial commands have been increased 
to 10 ; divisional commands to 20 ; and military districts to 88. In addition, 20 



106 ARMY OF ITALY. 

The corps commands and the divisional commands, embrac- 
ing one or more provinces, are held by general officers. The 
districts which generally coincide with provinces are commanded 
by colonels or field officers. 

MILITAEY DISTEICTS. 

All of the details of recruiting and mobilizing the regular 
army, of organizing, mobilizing, and training the militia mo- 
bile, are carried out in the eighty-eight military districts. 

To this end the personnel of each district consists of a staff 
and non-commissioned staff, and from four to five permanent 
companies, which are concentrated at the district headquarters. 
There is also at the headquarters a depot of arms (provided 
there is no artillery-depot in the same city) and also a depot of 
equipment and clothing, where the clothing is made for all of 
the soldiers furnished by the district. 

The organization of the district of Eome may be taken as a 
representative of the others. It consists of five permanent 
companies, with staff, company, and non-commissioned officers 
as follows : 
1 Colonel, 

1 Lieutenant-colonel, 
1 Major, 
9 Captains, 

19 Lieutenants, and 

15 Clerks. 

All of the above officers are detailed from the regular army, 
and are in excess of the regimental complements. 

One hundi-ed and seventy-six permanent companies are dis- 
tributed among the eighty-eight military districts. The privates 
composing them are mostly such men of the regular army as 
have been found unable to endure the hardships of campaign. 

The names of all the men of the regular army on leave and 
in the different categories are on the books, or rolls, of these 
companies. On reporting at the district headquarters when 

superior commands of military districts liave been newly created, 8 of which are to 
be commanded by major-generals, and 12 py colonela. 



MILITARY DISTRICTS. 



107 



mobilization is ordered, each man receives from the captain of 
the company to which his name is attached his arms and equip- 
ments, and, while waiting to be forwarded, he is drilled and 
instructed by the officers and non-commissioned officers of the 
company. 

According to the law of March 22, 1877, the eighty-eight 
military districts are to be divided into three classes, with the 
following staff and non-commissioned staff : 



GRADE AND EMPLOYMENT. 



CommandaDts (colonels or lientenant-colonels) 

Lieutenant-colonels or majors 

Senior a(y utant (captain) 

Junior adjutants (ilrst-lieutenants) 

Surgeon (captain) 

Chief administrative officer (major) 

Director of accounts (captain) 

Clothing-officer (lieutenant) 

Begistrar (lieutenant) 

Commissariat or administrative officers disposable In addition to 
above 

Total commissioned 

Sergeant-majors 

Commissary and quartermaster sergeants 

Chief armorer 

Lance-sergeants 

Commissary corporals 

Corporals (clerks) 

Corporal trumpeter 

Soldiers (first class) 

Armorers (apprentices) 

Total non-commissioned 

Total commissioned and non-commissioned 



16 



29 



2T 



The cadre of each permanent company consists of : 
1 Captain, 
1 Lieutenant, 
1 First-sergeant, 

3 Sergeants, 

1 Lance-sergeant, 

4 Corporals, 

1 Corporal (clerk), 
1 Trumpeter, 
24 Privates. 

Total, 37. 



108 ARMY OF ITALY. 

From these figures it appears that a district of the first class, 
with five permanent companies, has a personnel of 26 oflScers 
and 178 men ; but this is not all, for, in excess of the cadres, 
there are distributed among the 88 districts for special duty — 
such as clerks and bakers — another force of 134 non-commis- 
sioned ofiicers and 2,585 men, making a total of more than 
11,000 officers and men, who simply constitute the machinery 
for recruiting and mobilizing the Italian army. 

EECEUITMENT. 

The recruitment of all the great armies of Europe is con- 
ducted on the same principles. 

All men who are physically qualified are held to owe the 
state military service between certain ages, and must perform 
the service unless for special reasons they are exempted by 
law. 

In Italy the period of military service is nineteen years, and 
extends from the beginning of the twenty-first to the end of 
the thirty-ninth year. 

About 140,000 men annually become liable to mihtary duty, 
and are divided into three categories : 

FIEST CATEGOEY. 

This category, which is regulated by Parliament, is com- 
posed of about 65,000 men, who are drafted into the regular 
army, where they serve in the infantry, artillery, and engineers, 
for three, and in the cavalry for five, years. Those in the in- 
fantry, artillery, and engineers, after serving three years are 
sent on furlough, and for the next five years are liable at any 
time to be recalled to the colors. These men, in connection 
with troops of the second category, enable the army when mo- 
bilized to pass from the peace to the war footing. Taking 
127,000 as the peace-footing of the infantry, one-third of that 
number, 42,333, will represent the number of men annually 
drafted into that arm of the service ; and the same number, 
diminished by deaths and discharges, wiU represent the number 
of trained soldiers who, on leave of absence, annually return 



EESATZ RESERVE. 109 

to their homes to be called back to the ranks iu time of war. 
As there are five classes on leave, the maximum number avail- 
able to fin up the ranks cannot exceed 211,000. 

In case of general or partial mobilization, the classes are 
recalled, beginning with the last one sent on leave. 

After a service of eight years in the regular army — three 
with the colors, and five on leave — ^the men pass into the sec- 
ond category, and their names are transferred at district head- 
quarters to the companies of militia mobile, in which they serve 
another five years. They then pass into the third category for 
seven years, and, on the completion of nineteen years' service, 
are exempt from further military duty. 

The men of the first category are those who in the draft 
draw numbers from one up to the number denoting the quotas 
to be furnished by their municipalities, and also such men of 
the second category as having drawn numbers immediately 
above the latter are required to replace the men in the first 
category entitled to exemption. 

SECOND OATEGOET. 

The number of men in this category is annually fixed by 
Parliament, and varies from 20,000 to 35,000. In the draft it 
is composed of the men who draw consecutive numbers next 
above those who enter the first category. 

EESATZ EESEEVE. 

The men of the second category belong to the regular anny 
for five years, and constitute what is called the Ersatz reserve, 
or " troops of complement." 

The object of this reserve, in connection with the men of 
the first category on leave, is to raise the army to a war-footing, 
and in addition provide a reserve to fill the vacancies that may 
occur after the opening of the campaign. 

The men of the second category are arranged in classes, and 
on entering the service repair to district headquarters, where 
for forty days they are drilled and instructed by the officers and 
non-commissioned officers of the permanent companies. They 



110 ARMY OF ITALY. 

draw caps, shoes, linen coats, trousers, arms, and equipments, 
from the district depot, which are turned in at the completion of 
the course of instruction. Before being dismissed on leave, they 
are assigned to the various regiments and corps of the regular 
army, and their names are also attached to the rolls of the per- 
manent companies. The Ersatz reserve in 1876 consisted of 
171,Y58 men, of whom 164,412 belonged to the infantry. 

In case of mobilization the men at once repair to district 
headquarters, report to the permanent companies to which their 
names are attached, draw arms and equipments, and receive drill 
and instruction until they can be forwarded to their regiments. 

After serving five years in the Ersatz reserve, the men of 
the second category are transferred for four years to the militia 
mobile. They are then transferred for ten years to the third 
category, which completes their military service. 

THIED CATEGOET. 

After deducting 65,000 men for the first category, and 20,- 
000 to 30,000 for the second category, the remainder of the 
contingent of 140,000 men, amounting to from 45,000 to 55,- 
000 men, are assigned to the third category, as are also aU of 
the men of the first and second categories, who, for reasons 
other than physical, are exempted from service in the army and 
Ersatz reserve. 

To ascertain the number of men who annually enter the 
third category, there must be added to the above numbers from 
50,000 to 60,000, representing the men of the first and second 
categories who have completed their fourth year in the militia 
mobile. 

The men of this category are neither organized, uniformed, 
nor instructed. 

DETAILS OF EECEUITMENT. 

The mayor of every municipality submits annually to the 
prefect of the province a list embracing the names of all the 
young men who have completed their twentieth year, and have 
become liable to military duty. On the receipt of these lists 



DETAILS OF KEOKUITMENT. HI 

the total number liable to military duty in the province i8 for- 
warded by the prefect to the Minister of "War, who publishes 
tables showing the number of men each province will have to 
furnish for the different categories. 

"When the prefect receives from the Minister of "War the 
number of men required for the first category he convenes the 
provincial council, and in its presence assigns the quota to be 
furnished by each municipality. On a day appointed by the 
prefect, the draft takes place in each municipality in the pres- 
ence of the mayor and municipal council. 

As many numbers are placed in a wheel as there are men 
liable to military duty. The men having drawn numbers with- 
in the quota required for the first category, repair, between cer- 
tain days named by the Minister of "War, to the capital of the 
province, where they present themselves to the recruiting com- 
mission for examination. 

The commission, nominated annually for each province, is 
composed of the prefect or sub-prefect, two provincial council- 
ors (delegates in the provincial government from the munici- 
palities), two army officers, one government commissary, one 
officer of gendarmes, and one army surgeon. 

The men of each municipality are examined separately in 
the presence of the mayor, who is required to answer questions 
in the interest of both the individual and the state. 

The commission usually meets in October, or November, 
for the examination of the first category, and remains in session 
about five or six days. 

The men who are found to be physically disqualified are 
forever free from military service. Those who are exempted 
for family reasons, such as only son of a father over sixty years 
of age, mother a widow, etc., are placed in the third category. 

The commission, having examined and assigned the men 
required for the first category, assembles a second time, and 
having received notification from the prefect of the quota 
required from each municipality for the second category, it 
resumes the examination, beginning with the lowest number 
that escaped the first category. As before, the physically dis- 



112 AEMY OF ITALY. 

qualified are relieved from further military duty, while those 
exempted for family reasons are placed in the third category. 

All of the men not examined for the first and second cate- 
gories are assigned to the third. 

The men of the first category having been notified of their 
acceptance, are allowed to return to their homes for a month or 
two, until called under arms, when they repair to district head- 
quarters, where, after a physical examination, they are assigned 
to infantry, cavalry, artillery, or engineers, according to tables 
furnished by the Minister of "War. 

The men are not allowed to choose their arm of service, but 
are assigned according to physical and other qualifications. 

If any fail to pass the examination, the prefects are notified 
and the recruitment commission selects from their municipalities 
men from the second category to replace them. 

MILITIA MOBILE. 

The militia mobile constitutes an army in the second line, 
and is intended to reenforce and support the regular army in 
time of war. 

It is still in process of organization, but in 1876 there could 
have been mobilized 108 battalions of infantry and 15 battalions 
of bersaglieri. 

The future cadre, exclusive of the island of Sardinia, is to 
consist of — 
120 Battalions (480 companies) of infantry. 
20 " (80 « ) of bersaglieri. 

10 Brigades ( 30 batteries) of artillery. 
10 Companies artillery-train. 
20 " foot artillery. 

10 " engineers and sappers. 

The cadre for the island of Sardinia embraces— 
9 Battalions (36 companies) of infantry. 
1 Battalion (2 " ) of bersaglieri. 
1 Squadron of cavalry. 

1 Brigade (2 batteries) of artillery. 

2 Platoons of engineers. 



MILITIA MOBILE. 113 

In addition to tlie troops of tlie militia mobile, stafi and ad- 
ministrative departments are to be organized on the same prin- 
ciples as in the army. 

In consequence of the difference of population in the mili- 
tary districts, the battalions in time of peace cannot be organized 
uniformly, some haviug two and three, while others have five 
and six companies each, but in war they will be equalized by 
transfers within the same superior district and divisional com- 
mands, so that in each of the latter there may be formed two 
regiments of infantry of three battalions of four companies 
each. 

The cadre of the field and staff of the two regiments organ- 
ized within each superior district, which in its geographical 
Umits coincides with the divisional command, is organized at 
the headquarters of the superior district. It also devolves upon 
the superior district commandants to keep themselves informed 
of the number and strength of the companies in each military 
district, and to notify the district commandants which compa- 
nies will be transferred to equalize battalions. 

The cadres of the companies and battalions are organized by 
the district commandants as rapidly as officers and non-com- 
missioned officers become available for assignment. 

The company and battalion organization is the same as in 
the regular army. From what has already been said under the 
head of recruitment, the militia mobile is composed of men of 
the first category who have served eight years in the regular 
army, and of men of the second category who have served five 
years in the Ersatz reserve. 

The number of men who enter the infantry and bersaglieri 
annually from the class first mentioned may be estimated at 
42,000 ; those from the Ersatz reserve at 20,000. As service in 
the militia mobile is for four years, the force of infantry and 
bersaglieri may be estimated at 248,000 men. Of this number 
more than two-thirds have served three years in the ranks of 
the regular army, while the other third has had at least forty 
days' training in the Ersatz reserve. 

The preponderance of trained over the- untrained soldiers is 



114 AEMY OF ITALY. 

SO great that only a few skillful officers are required to convert 
the militia mobile into an active, efficient force. 

OFFI0EE8 OF THE MILITIA MOBILE. 

The officers of the militia mobile consist of former officers 
of the regular army not over fifty years of age ; of sergeants 
promoted, who have served twelve years in the regular army, 
and of one year's volunteers, who have passed a qualifying ex- 
amination as officers of complement. The total number now 
available is between 2,000 and 3,000. The captains and subal- 
terns are assigned to companies by the district commandants. 
Battalion and regimental commanders are specially selected by 
the Minister of War, and usually from the field-officers of the 
regular army. 

In case of a mobilization of the militia mobile, the district 
of Eome is expected to furnish arms and equipments for 28 
companies of infantry and 2 of bersaglieri. 

The number of officers available for these companies in 1876, 
and whose names were borne on the Army Kegister, below 
those of the regular officers serving in the district, was 1 cap- 
tain, 2 first-lieutenants, and 6 second-lieutenants. 

This deficiency of officers, amounting in the entire militia 
mobile to more than 500 captains and 400 lieutenants, is en- 
gaging the serious attention of the Minister of War, who hopes 
to remedy the evil by designating as captains, officers of com- 
plement in the regular army, and also officers in reserve, cor- 
responding to our retired list. 

MILITIA TEEEITOEIALE. 

This militia is composed of the men assigned to the third 
category in each annual contingent, and of all the men of the 
first and second categories from the completion of their service 
in the miUtia mobile till the end of their thirty-ninth year. 

It has no organization, but can be called out by classes the 
same as the Ersatz reserve. Practically, the men receive no 
instruction, nor are they uniformed. In case of war they would 
be distinguished by a band around the arm. 



VOLUNTEERS FOE ONE YEAE. 115 

VOLUNTEEKINQ. 

Volunteering is encouraged for the purpose of mitigating 
the hardships of military service, and of permitting it to inter- 
fere as little as possible with trades, professions, and business 
pursuits. Its general principles are the same in nearly all Con- 
tinental armies. 

In Italy any boy who can read and write can present him- 
self at the age of seventeen, serve till twenty, then go on leave 
five years, afterward serve four years in the militia mobile, seven 
years in the third category (militia territoriale), and thus com- 
plete his military service at the age of thirty-six. Volunteers 
of this class are allowed to choose their regiments, and may in 
consequence sometimes serve the three years with the colors in 
their own towns. 

A second class of volunteers consists of those men of the 
annual contingent who aspire to be sergeants, and who, after 
egreeing to serve eight years with the colors, are sent to the 
battalions, batteries, and squadrons of instruction, where they 
pursue a course of study for two years. 

VOLUNTEEES FOE ONE YEAE. 

The third, and by far the most important class, consists of 
the volunteers for one year. 

The conditions for admission to this class are, that they must 
volunteer before becoming liable to military duty ; pass a pre- 
scribed examination in reading, writing, composition, Italian lan- 
guage, grammar, arithmetic, and geography ; and furthermore 
pay to the Government the sum of 1,200 francs in the infantry 
and artillery and 1,600 francs in the cavalry. 

Those who comply with the requirements are given a cer- 
tificate, and are permitted to choose for their service any year 
between seventeen and twenty-six. On becoming twenty years 
old they attend the draft and are assigned to a category, but 
are exempted from service therein on showing their certificates. 

After completing their service of one year they are for seven 
years liable to service in the regular army, but on the payment 



116 ARMY OF ITALY. 

of 600 ' francs they may at once pass into the second category, 
and thence into the third, where they complete their service 
at thirty-nine years of age. 

The volunteers for one year are, as a rule, young men who 
wish to pursue a university course, learn a difificult trade, or 
who may wish to assume the management of great business and 
commercial enterprises. 

Those who prefer the engineers, artillery, and cavalry, are 
permitted to choose their regiments, where they receive special 
instruction. Those who choose the infantry repair to district 
headquarters, where they are organized into a volunteer com- 
pany, commanded by officers of the regular army, who are spe- 
cially selected by the Minister of War. These officers, who are 
usually graduates of the "War Academy, are detailed for a period 
extending from two to six years. 

The volunteers are enrolled the 1st of October of each year, 
and, in connection with their military training they pursue a 
course of study embracing grammar, arithmetic, geography, 
regulations, tactics, admiaistration, and elementary fortification. 

At the end of the year all are examined by a commission 
appointed by the general commanding the division, pursuant to 
a programme prescribed by the Minister of "War. Those who 
fail to pass the examination are sent to their regiments, provided 
that at the draft they came within the first category ; those who 
pass the qualifying examiaation for corporal and sergeant, and 
pay the sum exempting them from the first category, enter the 
militia mobile as non-commissioned officers.^ 

OITIOEES OF COMPLEMENT. 

The volunteers who pass the qualifying examination for 
officers are denominated " officers of complement," and are as- 
signed to companies in regular regiments, where they serve for 
three months. During this period they are allowed five francs 

' This exemption from service in the first category is to be discontinued after 
18'7'7. _ 

" After 1S11 the volunteers for one year in infantry are to be instructed in their 
regiments the same as the volunteers in the cavalry and artillery. 



SCHOOLS FOE THE MEN. 117 

a day, and transportation to and from their regiments. At its 
expiration tliey go home on leave, where they remain out of the 
line of promotion until the Government recalls them to the 
colors. 

They may, however, be called back temporarily to their regi- 
ments, or they may be required at district headquarters, to aid 
in the instruction of the second category, and the militia mobile. 

SCHOOLS. 

Every army in Europe, in all of its grades, is a training- 
school for war, and intelligence and education are insisted upon 
as essential alike to officers and men. 

Having explained the method of procuring the personnel 
of the Italian army, the next thing in importance is to describe 
the institutions and training establishments, considered indis- 
pensable in the transformation of the recruit into the soldier, to 
whom in the hour of battle must be confided the happiness and 
destiny of his people. The benefit of these institutions is not 
confined to the army. The education they impart, the princi- 
ples of obedience and respect for law which they encourage, 
are carried back to the people by the soldier, who has become 
the better qualified to enjoy the liberty and rights of a citizen. 

SCHOOLS FOK THE MEN. 

The first school for the enlisted men is, in its largest sense, 
the school of the soldier, in which, during the three years' ser- 
vice with the colors, they learn every duty that may devolve 
upon a soldier. Joining their regiments as recruits about the 
1st of January, the course of military instruction progresses 
regularly through the school of the soldier, the school of the 
company, skirmishing, school of the battalion, and the evolu- 
tions of a regiment, brigade, division, and corps. 

A stated period in each year is given to the schools of the 
company, battalion, and regiment, during which the new recruits 
learn new principles, while the old soldiers review the instruc- 
tion of the year previous. 

In addition to the tactics, the men receive the most thorough 



118 AEMY OF ITALY. 

practical instruction in reconnaissance, outpost and scouting 
duty ; musketry-practice at different ranges, with both fixed and 
movable targets ; marches ; skirmishing, and manoeuvres, spe- 
cially adapted to the ground ; as also the manner of intrenching 
and taking advantage of cover under fire. 

The evolutions of brigades, divisions, and corps, take place 
at camps of instruction, ordered by the Minister of War, where 
both officers and men become accustomed to the movements of 
large bodies of troops. 

They likewise become accustomed to the sound of battle, 
and learn to adapt themselves to every movement in the pres- 
ence of the enemy except actual firing. 

After three years' instruction in these schools, the once raw 
recruit goes back to his home a trained and disciplined soldier, 
ready at the first signal of danger to return to the ranks. 

THEOEETICAL SCHOOLS. 

The advance in military science has eradicated from every 
army in Europe the idea formerly held that the best soldier was 
a mere machine, with no aim but to execute blindly the orders 
of his superior officer. To-day the modifications in tactics re- 
quire every soldier to be endowed with intelligence, in order 
that he may assume responsibility, and act with judgment, in 
cases where no officer or non-commissioned officer may be pres- 
ent to guide him. 

To this end theoretical schools are established in each regi- 
ment, battalion, and company. 

The lieutenant-colonel, or second in command, of every regi- 
ment superintends and visits all of the schools, and reports the 
progi-ess made to the colonel. 

Battalion and company commanders are responsible for the 
schools within their commands, all of which are maintained 
from the funds of the regiment. 

ALPHABETICAL SCHOOLS. 

In the Italian army as many as sixty per cent, of the re- 
cruits from some districts are unable to read or write. All sol- 



SCHOOL FOR NON-COMMISSIONED OFFIOEES. 119 

diers are therefore compelled to attend tlie alphabetical schools, 
in which are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. This 
school in each company is superintended by a lieutenant, with 
non-commissioned officers for instructors. 

SCHOOLS. 

Candidates for the grade of corporal must attend the cor- 
porals' school in each battalion, where they are taught grammar, 
arithmetic, army regulations, code of punishments, patrol and 
guard duty. 

The course of study begins October 15th, and ends March 
15th, and is superintended by a captain, with other officers and 
non-commissioned officers as assistants. 

SBEGEANTS' SCHOOL. 

This school is regimental, and must be attended by all cor- 
porals who aspire to the grade of sergeant. The course of 
study is five months, the same as for corporals, and embraces 
grammar, geography, arithmetic, army regulations, and the use 
of maps. The school is superintended by an officer, with non- 
commissioned officers as assistants. 

ADMINlSTEATrVE SCHOOL. 

This school is superintended by an accountant officer, and is 
attended by all non-commissioned officers and soldiers who seek 
employment in the " Corps of Comptabilit^." 

HIGHER SCHOOL FOE NON-COMMISSIONED OFPICEES. 

The object of this school is to prepare intelligent and de- 
serving sergeants, who aspire to the grade of officer, for admis- 
sion to the military schools at Modena and Parma. 

The school in each regiment is usually superintended by a 
graduate of the Academy of "War. The course of study lasts 
from eight to nine months, and embraces grammar, geography, 
arithmetic, elements of geometry, and the use of maps. 



120 AEMY OF ITALY. 

EEWAEDS OF INTELLIGENCE. 

Soldiers who learn to read and write well, who are good 
marksmen, and perform satisfactorily all of their military du- 
ties, are sometimes sent home six months before the expiration 
of their three years' service. On the contrary, those who neg- 
lect to learn to read and write are detained with the colors after 
the discharge of the class to which they belong. They are ex- 
amined every two months, and are discharged as soon as they 
pass a satisfactory examination. At the end of six months all 
are discharged. The number detained is about six per cent. 
Those who are discharged as hopelessly ignorant number about 
three per cent. 

The effect of the encouragement of education on one hand,- 
and the punishment for the neglect of it on the other, has 
given an impetus to the schools in every village of the king- 
dom. In this respect the army confers a great benefit on the 
country, not only by educating the 65,000 recruits who annu- 
ally join it, but in a far greater degree by inspiring every father 
with the desire to educate his sons, in order to diminish the 
length of their military service, and at the same time enable 
them to serve with better hopes of promotion. 

BATTALIONS OF INSTRUCTION". 

The battalions of instruction are specially designed to edu- 
cate and train sergeants for the army. They constitute, in fact, 
military schools for non-commissioned officers. 

The first was established in 18T1, at Maddaloni ; the second 
at Asti in 1872 ; the third at Senigallia in 1873. 

They all owe their vitality to the recent inducements held 
out by the Government to attain the grade of non-commissioned 
officer, and to the guarantee of employment, after honorable 
discharge, either in the administration of the War Department, 
or on the lines of state railroads. 

The conditions of admission are to be able to read and write, 
and an engagement to serve eight years with the colors. 

The candidates consist — 1. Of volunteers between the ages 



BATTALIONS OF INSTRUCTION". 121 

of seventeen and twenty-six; 2. Of such soldiers of the first 
category wlio, being required to serve three years, possess the 
necessary qualifications, and express a -willingness to serve eight 
years as non-commissioned ofiicers ; 3. Of soldiers who at any 
time during their term of service desire to become non-com- 
missioned officers. 

The enrollment for each battalion begins the first of January, 
and terminates the last of February each year, the number of 
candidates being limited to 400. 

The course of theoretical and practical instruction embraces 
two years, and is divided into four quarters, of six months 
each. 

During the first quarter the pupils receive the same practical 
instruction as a soldier in a regiment ; during the second they 
apply this instruction practically to the ground ; during the 
third they become the instructors of the new class, and thus 
learn to command and instruct as well as to obey ; during the 
fourth they make a general review, and thus complete the in- 
struction deemed necessary to qualify them for the grade of 
sergeant. 

The military subjects taught the first year of the course are : 
School of the soldier, with and without arms ; elementary gym- 
nastics ; gymnastics with arms ; school of the company ; con- 
struction, mounting and dismounting of arms ; estimating dis- 
tances ; aiming drill ; target-practice ; reconnaissance ; garrison 
duty ; theory of regulations and penal code. 

Those taught in the second year are : School of the guides ; 
sabre-exercise ; practical performance of all of the duties of cor- 
poral and sergeant in garrison and camp ; reading and applica- 
tion of maps ; transportation of wounded, and construction of 
field-intrenchments. 

The studies pursued are Italian language, embracing letters, 
reports on military subjects, compositions on modem military 
history, reports descriptive of ground and positions ; arithmetic, 
through the rule of three ; first principles of geometry ; geog- 
raphy, embracing all of the continents, particularly Europe and 
the kingdom of Italy ; reading of maps, embracing the conven- 



122 AEMY OF ITALT. 

tional signs ; reconnaissance of ground with the aid of maps, 
and military organization. 

The students, according to their proficiency, are arranged in 
three classes, viz., inferior, middle, and superior. 

The superior class, in addition to the prescribed programme, 
receives instruction in company accounts, and also in hy- 
giene. 

Each battalion is organized into four companies, with the 
usual complement of commissioned officers, who serve as in- 
structors and superintendents of instruction. 

At the end of every six months the students are classified 
according to merit. 

Two grades of corporal, corresponding to lance-corporal and 
corporal, exist in each battalion. The number in the first grade 
is unlimited, that of the second grade is fixed at 80. 

At the end of the first six months all of the students who 
have shown the required proficiency, and whose conduct has 
been good, are promoted lance-corporals. Those who fail to 
obtain the grade at this examination are promoted according to 
their progress during the second six months. Those who fail 
at the end of their first year to become lance-corporals are sent 
to the regiments as private soldiers. 

At the end of the first year the most deserving lance-cor- 
porals are promoted to corporal, and at the end of eighteen 
months all of both grades who are qualified are promoted to 
sergeants. 

At the end of the course the names of the students who 
have merited the grade of sergeant are reported to the Minister 
of "War, who assigns them to their regiments. The corporals 
who fail to qualify as sergeants are assigned to regiments as 
corporals. 

The three battalions of instruction for the infantry supply 
sergeants to the infantry and bersaglieri. 

The engineers, artillery, and cavalry, have companies, bat- 
teries, and squadrons of instruction, corresponding to battalions 
of instruction for the infantry. 



NON-OOMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 123 

NON-CX)MMISSIONED OFFIOEES. 

It is not alone in the system of schools provided for their 
special education and training that the Italian Government 
manifests its care in forming an efficient body of non-commis- 
sioned officers. 

Accepting the theory, now nniversally adopted in Em-ope, 
that a good non-commissioned officer can no more be improvised 
than an officer, it imposes as the first condition of becoming a 
sergeant that the candidate shall subscribe to an agreement 
{ferma permcmenti) to serve eight years with the colors. It 
furthermore imposes another condition that the candidate can- 
not be promoted to this grade till he shall have served in the 
ranks from two to three years, which, however, are included in 
the eight years' engagement. 

So tenacious is the Government in adhering to these con- 
ditions that it prefers to keep open hundreds of vacancies rather 
than permit imworthy occupants to fill them ; and, as an evidence 
that this policy has been adopted after mature reflection, it only 
needs to be stated that, in order not to cripple the companies 
by the temporary want of sergeants, a new grade has been cre- 
ated called " corporal-major," corresponding in our army to the 
grade of lance-sergeant. 

These corporals receive increased pay, and many of them 
possess all of the qualifications for the grade of sergeant except 
a willingness to sign an engagement for eight years. 

The difficulty of securing competent men for the grade of 
sergeant has led the Government to offer special inducements as 
an encouragement both to aspire to the grade and to continue 
in it so long as the incumbent is qualified for duty. 

To appreciate these inducements it is necessary to state that, 
according to the military budget, the pay of a sergeant-major 
of infantry is 2 francs per day, a first-sergeant 1 franc 45 cen- 
times, and a sergeant 1 franc 15 centimes. To this pay the 
sum of 150 francs per annum is added the moment a sergeant 
receives his promotion. 

Having educated the sergeants at great expense, and still 



124: ARMY OF ITALY. 

further increased their efficiency by a long system of practical 
training, the next inducement is offered as a means of encourag- 
ing reenlistment, and to this end they are allowed in the infan- 
try to reengage three times, with an increase of 150 francs per 
annum for each reenlistment. The advantage of increased pay 
for the first reenlistment, by way of anticipation, is granted to' 
the sergeant at the commencement of his seventh year of ser- 
vice. 

It thus appears that an aspirant to the rank of sergeant, in 
addition to the pay proper of the grade, is assured an increase 
of 150 francs from the moment of his promotion ; 300 francs 
from the beginning of his seventh to the end of his eleventh 
year of service ; 450 francs from the beginning of the twelfth 
to the end of his fourteenth year of service; and 600 francs 
from this time to the end of his seventeenth year of service. 
After the seventeenth year of service a sergeant is permitted 
to reenlist up to forty-five years of age, but with no further in- 
crease of pay. 

Substantial as the foregoing inducements may appear, still 
others are added. The sergeant who is discharged after sev- 
enteen years' faithful service is granted an annuity of 360 
francs, which is equal to four-fifths of the premium allowed for 
three reenlistments, and this annuity, at the option of the ser- 
geant, can be capitalized, and received in hand on quitting the 
army. 

The sergeants who remain in service up to the age of forty- 
five on their discharge receive a pension varying from 415 to 
725 francs per annum, which includes the amounts to which 
they were entitled on completing their third reenlistment. 

The expenses for increased pay, premiums for reenlistment, 
annuities, and pensions for non-commissioned officers, are not 
charged in the military budget, but are defrayed out of the 
mihtary chest, into which between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 
francs are paid annually by the volunteers of one year, who 
average between 3,000 and 4,000. 

But the care of the Italian Government for its faithful non- 
commissioned officers does not end with their discharge from 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 125 

the service. Those who have served twelve years with the 
colors are, as a rule, furnished with employment either on lines 
of state railways or in the various offices and bureaux apper- 
taining to the "War Department, which, in 1874, gave positions 
to more than 1,000. 

The total number of sergeants required by the law of or- 
ganization for the different arms of service is as follows : 

Infantry 6,480 

Bersaglieri (rifles) . . . .1,000 

Alpine battalions .... 120 

Cavalry 1,000 

Artillery 1,431 

Engineers 292 

Total 10,323 

This number is recruited by the annual graduation of about 
1,200 sergeants from the various battalions, batteries, and 
squadrons of instruction ; by the promotion within tlie regi- 
ments on an average of about 400 sergeants per year after 
completing the prescribed course of instruction ; and by the an- 
nual reenlistment of nearly 300 — amounting in all to 1,900 per 
annum. This number multiplied by six gives 11,400 as the 
total number of sergeants available to fill the 10,323 vacancies, 
giving a surplus of 1,177 available to fill vacancies created by 
death and discharge. 

After receiving their promotion the sergeants are given spe- 
cial privileges, and as far as possible are encouraged to separate 
themselves from the men, in order not to destroy their authori- 
ty by constant intercourse and familiarity. They sleep in sep- 
arate rooms ; are not required to return to quarters till taps ; 
are confined by themselves when punished ; have a special 
mess, and also a reading-room properly lighted and heated, and 
provided with books, papers, and periodicals. 

To pass from the peace to the war footing, nearly 4,000 ser- 
geants are reqtured in addition to 10,323 already in the army. 
This deficiency, it is expected, will be made up by the one-year 



126 AEMT OF ITALY. 

volunteers, who already supply annually for the reserve 400 
non-commissioned officers, making available in the eight classes 
3,200. The remaining 800 will probably be supplied from the 
same source, as the recent modifications in army laws, it is be- 
lieved, will produce increased volunteering. 

The foregoing description of sergeants in the Italian army 
applies with very few modifications to all of the armies on the 
Continent, and should impress us with the conviction that, if in 
future wars we would increase the chances of victory, and di- 
minish the waste of human life, we should devote our attention 
to the education of our non-commissioned no less than the com- 
missioned officers of our army. 

SCHOOLS FOE OFFICEES IN EITEOPE. 

The systems of education for military officers, adopted by 
all the great powers, are substantially the same, and are based 
upon the principle that different degrees of instruction are re- 
quired for the different arms of service. 

In pursuance of this principle, officers of artillery and engi- 
neers are educated at one academy, whUe officers of infantry and 
cavalry are educated at another. 

Inferior schools, more or less military in their organization, 
prepare cadets for admission to the academies or schools from 
which they pass as commissioned officers into the army. On 
the Continent instruction is imparted by lecture, more or less in 
connection with text-books. The lectures on all subjects in the 
course of study are generally delivered to the entire class, the 
members of which take notes. If not provided with text- 
books, these notes supply the student with all the information 
he can get on the subject, and with these he must show himself 
familiar at subsequent recitations called " interrogations." 

The interrogations take place usually the day after or second 
day after the lecture, and are conducted by the professor, or 
assistant professors, according to the size of the class, which is 
divided for the purpose into sections. 

Frequently the classes are so large that interrogations can- 
not take place more than once a week, and often once in two 



SCHOOLS FOR OFFIOEES IN EUROPE. 127 

weets. Under sucli circumstances the cadets are notified when 
they will be interrogated, and are also informed on what por- 
tions of the subject they must be prepared. 

When complete text-books are provided, the subjects in each 
lesson are also explained by the professor. The students as be- 
fore take notes, and afterward are interrogated both upon the 
notes and the lesson as given in the text. 

This system of instruction involves great loss of time, and 
in thoroughness cannot be compared with the American system 
of recitations from text-books, especially when confined to small 
sections as at the Military Academy. 

The instructors at all foreign military schools are both mili- 
tary and civil. The former usually teach mathematics and the 
sciences, the latter languages and history. 

The lecture-rooms are prepared for entire classes, but some- 
times, when these exceed a hundred members, they are divided 
into two sections. 

The students sleep in large dormitories, which they are not 
permitted to visit between reveille and tattoo. 

The studying is done in large halls, arranged for each class, 
which is under the supervision of an oflicer, who is always pres- 
ent to preserve order and give assistance. 

The military schools of each country are under the super- 
vision of the Minister of War, but the general control is as- 
signed to an officer styled the Superintendent or Director of 
Military Education. 

This officer presides over a bureau of the War Department, 
to which are referred all matters pertaining to military schools 
and military education. 

Cadets who seek admission to the academies and schools, 
whence they graduate as officers of the army, are usually pre- 
pared at inferior schools termed military colleges, military gym- 
nasia, or, as in Germany, the cadet corps. 

From these schools the cadets pass according to their ability 
to the academies for artillery and engineers, or to the schools 
for infantry and cavalry. 

On graduating from these higher schools the officers of in- 



128 AEMY OF ITALY. 

f antry go directly to their regiments ; the officers of cavalry go 
to a special school of application for cavalry, where they usually 
remain a year, while the officers of artillery and engineers go 
for two years to a school of application for artillery and engi- 
neers. 

The highest military schools are the "War Academies, spe- 
cially designed to qualify officers who have been in the army 
not less than three or four years for high command, and the per- 
formance of duty on the staff. 

All of the foregoing schools are supplemented by the great 
manoeuvres, where officers and soldiers of all grades learn prac- 
tically the duties required in the presence of the enemy. 

MILrrAEY SCHOOLS OF TIALY. 

As a general rule, the expenses of military educartion are de- 
frayed by the parents, and usually amount to 900 lire or $180 
per year, which is paid in quarterly installments. If unable to 
meet the payments, the cadet must quit the school and return to 
civil life. 

In the case of sons of deserving public men and officers, and 
also as a reward for success in study, the state sometimes as- 
sumes one-half of the expense, while in the case of officers killed 
in battle it pays the entire expense of education. 

MILITAET COLLEGES. 

The lowest military schools are termed Military Colleges, 
and are three in number : one at Naples, one at Florence, and 
one at Milan. 

The field and staff of each college consists of one field-officer 
as commandant, one field-officer as second-commandant, one 
adjutant, and two accountant-officers. 

The cadets are organized into three companies, to each of 
which are assigned one captain and three lieutenants from the 
army, who serve as instructors in both the military and aca- 
demical departments. Each company is composed of men of 
the same class, except the sergeants and corporals, who are 
chosen from the two higher classes. 



MILITARY COLLEGES. 129 

Cadets are admitted from thirteen to sixteen years of age, 
and for admission are examined in arithmetic, grammar, and 
writing. These examinations are held at Milan, Florence, and 
Naples, before commissions composed of professors and instruct- 
ors of the colleges, and also at Palermo and Turin before local 
commissions appointed for the same purpose. The total num- 
ber of cadets received at each college approximates 230. 

The course of study is three years, as follows : 

Fi/rst Year. — Arithmetic, plane geometry, Greek and Ro- 
man history, geography, Italian and French languages, drawing, 
and writing. 

Second Year. — Algebra, plane and solid geometry, history 
of the middle ages, geography, Italian and French languages. 

Third Year. — ^Algebra, geometry, plane trigonometry, mod- 
em history, geography, Italian and French languages, natural 
history, geometrical and landscape drawing. 

The maximum mark for a recitation is 20, the minimum 0. 

The examinations are conducted by sub-committees, with a 
common president, who is a general officer appointed by the 
general of division within whose territory the college is lo- 
cated. 

The sub-committees for the first and second classes are com- 
posed of three members chosen from the instructors, one of 
whom is the instructor of the subject upon which the cadets 
are to be examined. 

The sub-committee of the third or graduating class is com- 
posed of a field-officer, one officer named by the general of di- 
vision, and the professor of the subject upon which the cadets 
are to be examined. 

AU cadets of the first and second classes who receive 10 out 
of 20 marks in each subject at the examination are advanced to 
the class n ext above. Cadets of the third class who receive 14 out 
of 20 marks in mathematics, and 10 in every other subject, are 
permitted to pursue a special course in mathematics with a view 
to admission to the military academy for engineers and artillery 
at Turin. At the end of the year they are examined by a spe- 
cial commission appointed by the Minister of War, composed 

9 



130 AEMY OF ITALY. 

of a general and two professors of the academy who visit the 
military school at Modena in addition to the three military col- 
leges. The students who at this examination receive 10 out of 
20 marks in the special course, and in all of the other subjects, 
are eligible for appointment to the military academy. 

The other members of the third class who do not compete 
for appointments to the academy at Turin, and who receive 10 
out of 20 marks in all subjects, are eligible for appointment to the 
military school at Modena for cavalry and infantry, where they 
enter the second year's course. Such cadets as do not desire to 
pursue a military career are allowed at the completion of the 
course to return to civil life. Cadets who fail to pass the ex- 
amination are allowed to repeat the course once. 

The militaiy instruction at the colleges is entirely practical, 
and limited to the schools of the soldier, company, and bat- 
talion. Gymnastics, dancing, and swimming, complete all of 
the practical exercises. 

Each year, in the month of September, the cadets make ex- 
cursions under their officers to different parts of the country, 
where they attend to military exercises, and study ground and 
fortifications. 

The discipline at aU these colleges is paternal in its nature. 
The officers are constantly in contact with the cadets. They 
superintend them at recitations, recreations, at meals and gym- 
nastics, and an officer of service is always present with them in 
the hall of study and in the dormitory. 

Coming to the college at a tender age, they learn obedience 
and subordination without compulsion ; but, if refractory, disci- 
pline is enforced by the commandant, according to a known 
scale of punishment. Confinement in light prison and dismis- 
sal are the severest punishments inflicted. 

The generals of division where the colleges are located can 
examine into the discipline, but cannot interfere with the course 
of study, for which the commandant is responsible to the Min- 
ister of War. 

At the conclusion of the examinations the general who pre- 
sides over the committees makes his report as to the condition 



MILITARY SCHOOL OF MODENA. 131 

of the college to the Ministei' of "War. This report is shown 
to the commandant, who is authorized to make explanations. 

MTT.rrABY SCHOOL OF MODENA. 

The object of this school is to prepare cadets to receive com- 
missions in the infantry and cavalry. 

The examinations for admission are competitive, and are 
held, as in the case of military colleges, before commissions 
appointed by the Minister of "War, which convene at Turin, 
Milan, Modena, Florence, ISfaples, and Palermo. 

It is intended that the number of admissions annually shall 
approach 300, but in 1875 the total number of cadets did not 
exceed 566. Competition is open to the cadets at the military 
colleges, to civil students, and to soldiers, several of whom were 
in the school in 1876. 

Candidates must be between the ages of fifteen and twenty- 
two, and on entering the second year of the course are re- 
quired to engage for eight years' service with the colors. 

Cadets who complete the third year's course at the military 
colleges, which coincides with the first year's course at Modena, 
enter at once on the second year's course. All others pursue 
the full course of three years. 

The officers of the school consist of a general, as comman- 
dant; one field-officer, second in command; one field-officer, 
director of studies ; two adjutants ; three accountant-officers ; 
five captains, commandants of cadet companies ; 15 lieutenants, 
assigned to the cadet companies ; 12 captains and 5 lieutenants, 
instructors ; 14 civil professors ; in addition, there are instruct- 
ors of riding, fencing, and gymnastics — ^making the total per- 
sonnel, military and civil, 77. 

The course of instruction is three years, as follows : 

First Yea/r. — Algebra, geometry, plane trigonometry, geog- 
raphy, modem history, Italian and French languages, natural 
history, line and landscape drawing. 

Second Year. — Military art, topography, elements of phys- 
ics, chemistry and mineralogy, study of arms, French and Ital- 
ian literature, geometrical and topographical drawing. 



132 AKMT OF ITALY. 

Third Tear. — Military history, military geography, fortifi- 
cation, Italian and French literature, military law and adminis- 
tration, topographical drawing, also drawing of fortifications. 

The annual examination takes place in July. Cadets who 
fail are allowed a reexamination in September, when, if they 
fail, they are turned back. If they fail a second time, they are 
sent to a regiment of the line to complete their eight years' 
service. 

In consequence of the great demand for officers, 400 being 
required annually, from 96 to 97 per cent, of the cadets are al- 
lowed to graduate. 

The military organization is in five companies, with one cap- 
tain and three lieutenants from the army as officers. The du- 
ties of these officers have heretofore been exclusively military, 
but it is contemplated to make them instructors in other branch- 
es of study. 

The military exercises are limited to infantry tactics, riding 
in the third yenr (school of the trooper), and gymnastics. 

The cadets encamp from 20 to 30 days each year, during 
which period they devote their time to military exercises, study 
of ground, and reconnaissances. 

If there be vacancies, the cadets on graduation are commis- 
sioned as officers, otherwise, until vacancies occur, they rank as 
sergeants. The officers assigned to the cavalry go to the cav- 
alry school at Pinerolo, those assigned to the infantry join their 
regiments. 

Attached to the military school at Modena is a special school 
for 250 non-commissioned officers, selected from the best ser- 
geants of the army, who, on completing a course of instruction 
for two years, are commissioned as officers in all arms of ser- 
vice. These sergeants are qualified for admission either in the 
school, for non-commissioned officers in their regiments, or else 
at the battalions of instruction already described. 

The course of study is two years, as follows : 

Fwst Year. — Italian language, history of Italy, arithmetic, 
geography, linear drawing, physics, natural history, materiel of 
artillery. 



MILITAET ACADEMY AT TUKIN. 133 

Second Year. — Italian language, topograpliy, fortification, 
military art, military law and administration, study and treat- 
ment of the horse (for earalry and artillery), use of artillery, 
and construction of batteries (for the artillery). 

The military and gymnastic exercises correspond to those 
for the cadets in the higher school. 

MrLITAEY ACADEMY AT TUEKT. 

The object of this academy is to educate officers for the ar- 
tillery and engineers. 

The examinations are competitive, and are conducted, as 
already stated, by a commission appointed by the Minister of 
War, which visits the military school at Modena and the mili- 
tary colleges at Naples, Florence, and Milan. 

Competition is open to all, but preference is given to 
cadets who have completed the third year's course at the mili- 
tary colleges, or the first year's course at the military school at 
Modena, which are identical. 

The nimaber of admissions annually is 90. Age at date of 
admission must be below twenty-three. 

The officers of the academy consist of a general as comman- 
dant ; 1 colonel, as second commandant and director of studies ; 
1 lieutenant-colonel, as director of interior economy and mili- 
tary instruction ; 1 secretary ; 1 adjiitant ; 2 accountant-officers ; 
9 officers for practical instruction ; 23 military and civil pro- 
fessors and assistant professors ; 1 riding-master, besides the ne- 
cessary instructors for fencing and gymnastics. 

The course of study is three years : 

First Year. — Higher algebra, analytical geometry and ele- 
ments of calculus, mechanics, surveying, Italian and French 
languages, geometrical and topographical drawing. 

Second Year. — Analytical geometry, difierential calculus, 
descriptive geometry, fortification, chemistry, Italian and French 
literature, military drawing (fortification), and topographical 
drawing. 

Thvrd Year. — Mechanics, descriptive geometry, organic 



134 ARMY OF ITALY. 

chemistry, military art, military history, military law and ad- 
ministration, elements of architecture. 

The total number of cadets varies, rarely ever exceeding 
250. On graduating the cadets receive commissions as second- 
lieutenants in the artillery and engineers, which commissions 
are antedated one year, in order to place the graduates on the 
same footing as regards promotion as the cadets of the school 
at Modena, who graduate a year before them. 

SCHOOL OF APPLICATION FOB AETILLEET AITO ENGINEEES. 

As soon as the cadets graduate at the Military Academy 
they go as second-lieutenants to the school of application. 

The course of instruction is two years, as follows : 

First Year. — Applied mechanics, materiel of artillery, per- 
manent fortification, attack and defense of fortified places, mili- 
tary geography, military bridges, architecture, and art of con- 
struction. 

Second Year. — Ballistics, materiel of artillery, permanent 
fortification, art of construction, military history, employment 
of artillery iu war, manufacture of artillery materiel, drawing, 
architecture, and geodesy. 

The officers of the school consist of a general as comman- 
dant ; 1 lieutenant-colonel, as second commandant ; 1 captain, 
as adjutant ; 1 first-lieutenant, as assistant adjutant ; 2 lieuten- 
ants, at the disposition of the commandant ; 6 captains, military 
professors ; 4 lieutenants, assistant professors ; 2 civil profess- 
ors ; 5 captains, directors of practical instruction, 1 captain, 
riding-master, and 1 fencing-master. The school is also fur- 
nished with 44 men and 60 horses by the Normal School for 
Cavalry at Pinerolo. 

On graduating from the school of application the ofiScers 
are appointed first-lieutenants ; those who fail are sent to the 
cavalry and infantry. 

NORMAL SCHOOL OF INFANTET AT PAEMA. 

There are several distinct courses of instruction pursued at 
the Normal School. 



NORMAL SCHOOL OF INFANTRY AT TURIN. 135 

The first is for such lieutenants of infantry and cavalry as 
wish to compete at the examination for admission to the War 
School at Turin. The course is four months, and embraces 
arithmetic, geography, algebra, plane and solid geometry ; 
trigonometry, mediaeval and modern history ; Italian and 
French literature. 

The examinations in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and 
trigonometry, are oral, and are conducted by a commission com- 
posed of two superior officers and one professor of the Normal 
School. 

The examinations in the other subjects are written, and the 
papers are sent to the "War School at Turin, where they are ex- 
amined by a commission composed of the commandant, second 
commandant, and a professor of the War School. 

To be eligible for admission, the competitor must obtain the 
medium mark of 10 out of 20. 

The second course lasts three months, and is repeated twice 
a year for the benefit of the first and second lieutenants of in- 
fantry who wish to prepare for examination previous to their 
promotion. 

Each course is pursued by about one hundred officers at a 
time, and embraces the theoretical and ballistical principles of 
portable fire-arms ; construction and repair of fire-arms ; recharg- 
ing metallic cartridges ; field fortification, and target-practice, 
with both fixed and movable targets. 

The third course lasts forty days, and embraces the same sub- 
jects as the second course. It is pursued by the officers of in- 
fantry and cavalry of the lowest class at the War School, at 
the end of their first year, one-half of the class attending at a 
time. 

The fourth course is for the education of non-commissioned 
officers who aspire to be officers in the Accountant Department 
or Department of Comptabilitl. The course lasts two years, as 
follows : 

First Year. — Arithmetic, Italian language, military law, 
theoretical and practical book-keeping, theory of the construc- 
tion of fire-arms, and practical repair of fire-arms. 



136 ARMY OF ITALY. 

Second Year. — Continuation of the first year's course, to- 
gether with the method of provisioning troops. 

The examination for admission of non-commissioned officers 
to the schools at Modena and Parma is competitive, two or three 
sergeants being permitted to compete from each regiment. Be- 
fore being permitted to present themselves before the commis- 
sion named by the Minister of War, the sergeants from each 
regiment must compete with the other sergeants of the regi- 
ment who seek the same privilege. 

The number of competitors for both schools is approxi- 
mately 300, of whom about 200 succeed. Of this number 
about 120 to 125 go to the school at Modena, the remainder 
to Parma. 

The Government establishes no arbitrary rule fixing the 
proportion of officers to be promoted from the ranks, but by 
means of these schools encourages every good soldier in the 
army to aspire to a commission. 

The officers of the school consist of a colonel as commandant, 
1 lieutenant-colonel or major as second commandant, 1 adjutant, 
1 surgeon, 1 major of comptabilite director of the course of 
comptabilite, 3 lieutenants of comptabilite, 9 officers (captains 
and lieutenants) practical instructors, and 16 military and civil 
professors. 

NOEMAL SCHOOL FOE CAVALET AT PESTEEOLO. 

The principal object of this school is to carry on the educa- 
tion of second-lieutenants of cavalry who join it immediately 
after graduating at Modena. 

The course of instruction is ten months, being mostly de- 
voted to riding and practical duties required of cavalry. 

A second course of instruction is provided for officers who 
desire to become first-class instructors in riding, and a third 
course of two months for the preparation of senior lieutenants 
to pass their examination for promotion. 

SCHOOL OF WAR AT TUEKT. 

The object of this school is to train officers for that branch 



SCHOOL OF WAR AT TUEIK 137 

of tlie staff corresponding in our army to the Adjutant-General's 
Department. 

The officers of the "War School consist of a general as com- 
mandant ; 1 colonel or lieutenant-colonel as second commandant ; 
3 staff officers, and 23 military instructors and professors. The 
military instructors are mostly officers of the General Staff. 

Admission to the school is by competitive examination for 
officers of infantry and cavalry ; and without examination for 
officers of artillery and engineers, who have graduated at the 
military academy and school of application for the artillery and 
engineers. 

The conditions of admission for officers of infantry and 
cavalry are two years' service with troops, and ability to pass an 
examination in the subjects mentioned in the first course at the 
Normal School at Parma, which is specially designed to prepare 
them for admission to the War School. The number of com- 
petitors is usually about 100, of whom 50 to 60 are admitted. 

The course of study for these officers is three years. At 
the end of their first year they are joined by about six officers of 
artillery, and two of engineers, taken in the order of class-rank, 
after graduating at the school of application. 

Failure to pass the annual examinations reduces the gradu- 
ating class to about fifty, of whom eight or ten, after returning 
to their regiments or corps, are summoned to Eome for duty 
with the General Staff. 

The course of study embraces : 

First Year. — Topographical drawing, field fortification, 
study of fire-arms, elementary mathematics (arithmetic and al- 
gebra), descriptive geometry, Italian and French languages, 
and, at the option of the student, one of the four following sub- 
jects : English and German languages, political economy, and 
physics. 

Second Year. — Field topography, permanent fortification, 
military art, military history, mathematics, Italian and French 
literature, and, at the student's option, one of the four following 
subjects : English and German languages, law, and chemistry. 

Third Year. — Practical geodesy, military art, military ad- 



138 AEMY OF ITALY. 

ministration, military geography, military history, French, Eng- 
lish, and German languages, general history, geology, and min- 
eralogy. 

The practical course of study merits special attention. 

At the end of the first year one-half of the students are sent 
into the country to make maps for forty days, the other half go 
to the normal school of infantry at Parma, where they take a 
course of target-practice, study ballistics as applicable to small- 
arms, also the construction of small-arms. They also receive 
practical instruction in repairing arms, and in constructing and 
refilling cartridges. At the end of the forty days each half ex- 
changes duty with the other for the same length of time, which 
completes the practical course for the first year. 

At the end of the second year the entire class goes into the 
country for a period of fifteen days, and plays the game of 
Kriegsspiel. To accomplish this, two corps d'arm^e are supposed 
to be operating against each other. A professor takes command 
of each corps, and the students are placed in command of the 
supposed divisions, brigades, regiments, battalions, and batter- 
ies. 

Before the operations begin a reconnaissance is made on each 
side, and in all the subsequent movements the students are re- 
quii'ed to show on the ground where they would post their com- 
mands, and explain in detail all the dispositions they would 
make in the various attacks and counter-attacks. 

After the game is over, the ground is visited with a view to 
ascertain the correctness or f aultiness of the various movements. 

After the expiration of the fifteen days the same period is 
employed in studying military positions on the frontier, and 
their occupation by troops. In posting the troops they are re- 
quired to designate the exact positions they would give to bat- 
talions, regiments, brigades, divisions, or corps, according to the 
command they might hold. They also make maps showing the 
position of the troops, and the offensive and defensive disposi- 
tions they would make in consequence of supposed movements 
made by the enemy. 

After the expiration of the thirty days they return to Turin, 



SCHOOL OF WAS. AT TUEIN. 139 

and are specially examined in the practical duties they have 
performed. 

After the examination the class -visits some of the principal 
fortresses of Italy, to study practically the art of fortification. 
After inspecting and criticising the fortress, the officers study 
the ground, and are required to trace on maps the positions 
they would assign to batteries, approaches, and parallels, in case 
they were directing a siege. Fifteen days are allotted to the 
above duty, followed by an examination in regard to aU of the 
fortresses visited. 

At the conclusion of this examination, the infantry and cav- 
alry officers of the class go for a month to Casale, for a course 
in practical engineering, where they learn the construction of 
trenches, parallels, epaulements, temporary bridges, as also the 
method of destroying and repairing railroads. The officers of 
artillery and engineers of the class during this time are em- 
ployed with the next higher class in making maps in the 
country. 

At the end of the third year, the officers in the vicinity of 
Turin study logistics as applicable to ground ; the marching 
and camping of corps and other large bodies of troops; em- 
barkation and disembarkation of troops ; routes for marching, 
and also the means employed to make them practicable. This 
duty occupies two months, and is followed by graduation when 
the officers, before returning to duty with their regiments, are 
sent to the grand manoeuvres to serve on the staff of the corps, 
division, and brigade commanders. 

To encourage officers to pursue the course of studj' at the 
School of "War, all of the lieutenants of infantry and cavalry who 
complete the course successfully, and are not called to the stafE, 
are entitled to promotion as soon as they arrive in the upper 
third of the grade to which they belong at the date of grad- 
uation. For example, there being 2,717 first-lieutenants of 
infantry, each graduate of the "War School, on reaching the 
number 905 on the general list, would be entitled to the first 
vacancy of captain, and would pass over the heads of 904 offi- 
cers. 



140 ARMY OF ITALY. 

The object of this advancement is to enable trained men to 
arrive early at the higher commands of the army. 

PEINCIPLE OF DETAIL FOR STAFF DTJTT IN THE ABMY OF ITALY. 

The utility of diffusing staff knowledge and experience in 
the army, and the advantage to be gained by encouraging offi- 
cers of the line to fit themselves for staff employment, as well 
as high command, are fully recognized in the constitution of the 
Italian Staff. Three of the four classes of which it is composed 
are exclusively detailed from the line, and all above the grade 
of lieutenant are in excess of the regimental complements. 

All of the adjutant-generals of brigade or brigade-adjutants 
are captains detailed from the line, in excess of the regimental 
complement. To be eligible for appointment they must be 
graduates of the School of War. 

Aides-de-camp must be graduates of the School of "War, and 
are borne on the strength of their regiments. Only aides-de- 
camp attached to the royal household. Minister of "War, and to 
generals commanding armies and corps, perform personal ser- 
vice. The others assist the brigade-adjutants in their duties, 
and, in case of necessity, replace them. 

All subaltern officers return to regimental duty after two 
years' detached service, and cannot again be detailed till the 
expiration of another two years. 

The principle of encouraging line officers to excel in pro- 
fessional knowledge is strikingly acknowledged in the laws reg- 
ulating promotion in the staff proper. 

The lieutenants of the staff", twenty (20) in number, must be 
graduates of the highest proficiency from the "War School ; 
must subsequently have served a year with troops ; and have 
passed the test of probation for staff duty at Eome. 

Of the captains, seventy (70) in number, two-thirds are ap- 
pointed from the lieutenants of the staff, and one-third from the 
captains of the army at large, who are graduates of the War 
School and possess the required qualifications. 

An officer, therefore, who fails to receive the appointment 



PRINCIPLE OF DETAIL FOR STAFF DUTY. 141 

of Keutenant has still the hope, if he distinguishes himself with 
troops, of obtaining a captaincy in the staff at a later day. 

The majors of the stafE are selected from captains of the staff 
who are previously promoted majors in the line, where they 
serve with infantry or cavalry for two years ; from majors of 
the line who, having graduated at the War School, are proposed 
for admission to the staff, and from the most distinguished ma- 
jors of artillery and engineers, who need not of necessity have 
graduated at the War School. 

The colonels and lieutenant-colonels are appointed from the 
grade next below, but they may be transferred to the line, and 
be required to command battalions and regiments. 

The promotion to major shows that an officer who has been 
both lieutenant and captain in the staff has no certainty that 
he wUl receive the next higher grade. He must first go into 
the line as major, and there he must remain unless summoned 
back to the staff. The same rule applies to lieutenant-colonels 
and colonels. 

The staff officers know that on going to the line their con- 
nection with the staff is severed, and that the Government is 
left free to call them back or keep them, with the troops. 

The officers of the line, to the grade of major included, 
know that staff preferment is open to them. 

This constant interchange from the staff to the line, and 
from the line to the staff, draws to the staff the highest talent 
and skill in the army ; prevents the staff officers from becom- 
ing slaves to routine ; enlightens them as to the wants of the 
troops ; gives them a thorough knowledge of the instruction, 
drill, and discipline of the troops ; and, by holding the com- 
mand of companies, battalions, and regiments, qualifies them 
for all the higher grades of the army. The army, too, in its 
turn profits by all the talent of the staff, whose officers, return- 
ing periodically to the command of the troops, become instruct- 
ors in the grades where their influence will most surely be felt. 

In addition to the variety of experience secured to officers 
by transfers from the staff to the line and the reverse, there 
are many other positions open to officers of the line — such as 



14:2 AEMT OF ITALY. 

commandants of military districts, commandants, professors, 
and instructors, at military academies, schools, and colleges — all 
of which are filled by detail. 

The number of these different positions, and the care taken 
by the Government to avoid crippling the regiments by de- 
priving them of their complement of officers, are shown by the 
following table, in which the first column represents the num- 
ber of officers required to fill each grade in the 80 regiments of 
infantry and 10 regiments of bersaglieri, and the second col- 
umn the number of officers actually in service according to the 
most recent legislation : 



GRADES. 


Officers for 
90 Regi- 
ments. 


OSceis 

actnally In 

Service. 


Colonels 


90 

460 

1,260 

2,620 

1,120 


140 


Lieutenant-colonels and majors (one to command each battalion and depot) 


498 
1,144 
2,760 
1,3TT 








Total 


5,460 


6,604 





Of the number 493, 136 are lieutenant-colonels and 357 are 
majors. 

The difference between 6,504 and 6,450, which is 1,054, 
gives the number of supernumerary officers of infantry avail- 
able for the different varieties of detached service. 

These supernumeraries are distributed among the several 
regiments, to which they return on the completion of their tour 
of duty, while the ratio which they bear to the total number of 
officers in the regiments shows conclusively that every efficient 
officer in the course of his career may hope to increase his ex- 
perience by military employment outside of his own arm of 
service. 

PEOMOTION. 

With the exception of graduates of universities or institu- 
tions of technology, who must pass a special qualifying examinar 
tion, and also one-year volunteers, no officer is commissioned in 



PROMOTION. 143 

the Italian army without graduating at one or more of the es- 
tablished military schools. 

Promotion in infantry, cavalry, artillery, and engineers, is 
lineal in each arm or corps. As appears from the preceding 
table, the list of officers in each arm embraces, in addition to the 
number necessary to fill the regiments to their complement, the 
number of officers required for detached service on the stafi", at 
military schools, military districts, etc. 

No officer can be promoted to the grade next above without 
passing a prescribed examination. 

The examining committees are appointed by the Minister of 
"War, and for the grade of colonel are composed of general of- 
ficers ; for the grades of captain to lieutenant-colonel inclusive, 
they are presided over by a general officer ; for the grade of 
sub-lieutenant by a field-officer. 

The examination for promotion to the grade of captain in 
infantry takes place at Parma, where the officers pursue a spe- 
cial course of study. The examination for the grade of major 
takes place in the territorial divisions, and is oral, written, and 
practical. The written examination embraces tactical and mili- 
tary themes, while the practical applies to the drill and move- 
ments of a battalion, or a higher body of troops. The test for 
lieutenant-colonel consists in commanding satisfactorily a bat- 
talion and regiment. 

About 200 lieutenants and 60 captains are ordered at the 
same time for examination. If a lieutenant fails to pass three 
successive examinations he must remain in the same grade for 
twenty-five years, when, if he be forty-eight years of age, the 
Government can retire him on full pension. If he becomes 
forty-eight years of age before having served twenty-five years, 
he can ask to be retired with as many twenty-fifths of the full 
pension as he has served years. 

For example, if allowed to retire after twenty years' ser- 
vice, he would receive four-fifths of the full pension. 

A lieutenant may waive an examination the first and second 
year after failure, but he must submit to three examinations in 
six years. 



144 ARMY OF ITALY. 

The same rules apply to the examinations of captains for 
promotion to major, the limit being fifty-two years of age and 
thirty years' service. For example, if a captain fails in his ex- 
amination, and after twenty-five years' service reaches the age 
of fifty-two, the Government can retire him on five-sixths of 
the full pension. The examination of captains is most severe, 
and in 1876 about five per cent, failed. 

The limits for promotion from major to lieutenant-colonel 
are fifty-six years of age and thirty years' service ; lieutenant- 
colonel, sixty years of age and thirty years' service. 

Generals can be retired without regard to age or length of 
service, and the Government can prolong at pleasure the ser- 
vice of any oflBcer beyond the prescribed age. 

In all regiments and corps about one-third of the vacancies 
is reserved for the sergeants who have been trained at the mili- 
tary schools for the grade of officers. 

In time of peace four-fifths of the promotions in infantry 
and cavalry to grade of first-lieutenants are by seniority, and 
one-fifth by selection ; in time of war, two-thirds are promoted 
by seniority, the other third by selection. 

Graduation from the "War School entitles a lieutenant to 
promotion as soon as he arrives in the upper third of his grade. 

To the grade of captain two-thirds are promoted in time of 
peace by seniority, the other third by selection ; in time of war, 
one-half are promoted by seniority, the other half by selection. 

Promotion to major in time of peace is half by seniority and 
half by selection ; in time of war it is all by selection. 

All promotions above the grade of major are by selection, 
the candidates being required to pass practical examinations. 

Promotion by selection is based upon the fact that it is im- 
possible for the Government to give all officers the same educa- 
tion. In the interest of the state, therefore, the intelligent and 
efficient are promoted over the heads of the ignorant and indo- 
lent ; while, by the provision that all promotions above the 
grade of major shall be by selection, worthless officers are whol- 
ly debarred from attaining high commands. 

In the consolidation and organization of the present army 



PROMOTION. 145 

the Government from time to time Ixas found it necessary to 
discharge officers who were known to be ignorant and worth- 
less. 

The first purification took place in 1861, after the army of 
Piedmont was consolidated with the armies of Lombardy, Far- 
ma, Modena, Emilia, and Naples. In the latter army, which 
contained more than 100,000 men, there were a large number 
of the Garibaldi volunteers with little or no education. On 
failing to pass a prescribed examination, many officers were dis- 
charged with six months' pay. 

In 18T0 the army was again purified. Colonels of regi- 
ments and generals were required to report to the Minister of 
"War the names of all officers disqualified for service either 
through ill health or inefficiency. These officers were invited 
to retire from the service with a pension proportioned to their 
length of service. A lieutenant, for instance, of fifteen years' 
service, was offered fifteen twenty-fifths of the full pension ; a 
captain of twenty years' service was offered twenty thirtieths of 
the full pension. Such officers as refused to apply for retire- 
ment were ordered before a commission for examination. 

The action of the Government in giving proportional pen- 
sions was based upon the consideration that officers who had 
given to the Government the years from twenty to forty, in 
which civilians lay the foundations of their fortunes, could not 
with justice be turned adrift to begin, with advancing years, 
occupations for which their previous life had unfitted them. 

10 



AEMY OF EUSSIA. 



Since the adoption of the principle of obligatory military 
service in 1870, the Russian army has been in a state of transi- 
tion. 

When the organization is completed, the military forces 
will be divided into the regular and irregular army, the 
former of which embraces the field, reserve, depot, and local 
troops. 

The following table represents approximately the proposed 
strength of the field-army on a peace and war footing : 



EEGTJLAE AEMY 










iNPANTay, PBACE-rOOTING. 


No. of 
Battalions. 


Officers. 


Combatants. 


Non-Com- 
batants. 


528 

116 

4 


10,771 

1,918 

90 


813,925 
55,437 
1,908 


24,291 
5,862 


Caucasus 


Asiatic Eussia 


293 






Total 


648 


12,779 


871,820 


80,486 




iNFAirrRT, Wae-pootiitg. 


528 
116 


18,565 

2,389 

106 


537,421 

118,055 

8,316 


80,824 

7,127 

826 




Asiatic Russia 






Total 


648 


16,060 


658,792 


88277 







EEGULAB ARMY. 



147 



EEGULAB AEMY. 



Catalet, Peaok-footing. 
European Bussia 


No. of 
Squadr'&B. 


Officers. 


Com1]ataDtB. 


Non-Co in- 
batantB. 


888 
16 


2,529 
140 


65,171 
2,916 


8 924 




'eii 






Total 


349 


2,669 


5S,08T 


9,686 




Cavaikt, 'WAn-FOOTiHa. 


841 

16 


2,888 
140 


65,228 
2,862 


8,949 








Total 


86T 


2,523 


68,080 


9,688 





FtELB-AKTILLEEV, PeACE-FOOTING. 


Batteries. 


No. of 
Guns. 


Officers. 


CombatantB. 


Non-Com- 
batants. 




246 
42 
11 


984 
168 
60 


1,602 

278 

75 


40,849 
7,008 
1,716 


7,995 

1,893 

440 




Asiatic Kussia 






Total 


299 


1,202 


1,950 


49,678 


9,828 






Field-Aetilleet, Wae-footing. 


246 
42 
11 


1,968 
886 

88 


1,602 
278 
75 


59,966 

10,527 

2,644 


10,163 

2,118 

669 




Asiatic itasBia 






Total 


299 


2,892 


1,960 


78,026 


12,955 




HOKSE-AE-nr.LEBT, All. IN EuTlOPE. 


34 
84 


202 
204 


221 

204 


6,067 
7,466 


1,093 




1,272 







ENGntEERS. 



No. of 
BattalioiiB. 



Peace- footing. 
War-footing. . . 



18?^ 



Total. 



Peace-footing 
"War-footiiig. . 



11,482 
18,160 



Non-Com- 
l>a.taiitB. 



1,780 
2,203 



18.102 
21,220 



496,469 
816,644 



62,672 
64,245 



The reserve troops are composed of trained soldiers, and, 
like the landwehr of Germany, are intended to reenforce the 
active army, and to form an army in the second line. 

Scarcely any cadres exist for the reserve in time of peace, 
hut ultimately, in time of war, it is intended to form 164 bat- 
talions of infantry, vidth an approximate strength of 3,500 of- 
ficers, 170,000 combatants, and 13,000 non-combatants. 

The depot troops in time of war are intended to fill vacan- 
cies in the field-army, and to train recruits. Except in the artil- 



148 AEMY OF RUSSIA. 

lery and cavaby, no cadres exist in time of peace. In time of 
war it is intended to form 199 battalions of infantry, with an 
approximate strength, in infantry, cavalry, and artillery, of 
6,650 ofifieers, 270,000 combatants, and 40,000 non-combatants. 

Local troops are intended for garrison and local defense, but 
can be utilized for field-service. The proposed organization of 
these troops consists of 132 battalions in time of peace, capable 
in time of war of an expansion to 245 battalions, with an ap- 
proximate strength of 11,900 oflBcers and 360,000 men. 

The total war-strength of the regular army of European 
Kussia, embracing reserve, depot, and local troops, is estimated 
at 38,000 ofiScers, 1,350,000 combatants, and 140,000 non-com- 
batants; in the Caucasus, 4,900 officers, 216,000 combatants, 
and 19,000 non-combatants ; in Asia, 1,050 officers, 35,000 com- 
batants, and 4,000 non-combatants — making the total war- 
strength of the empire 43,950 officers, 1,601,000 combatants, 
and 163,000 non-combatants. 

The above figures cannot be attained until the plan of reor- 
ganization is completed. 

The present strength available for war purposes can only be 
deduced from the war-footing of the troops composing the active 
army, together with the troops that have passed from the active 
army into the reserve. This number depends upon the annual 
contingent called to perform military duty, which varies from 
150,000 to 180,000. The period of military service being six 
years in the active army and nine years in the reserve, if it 
be assumed that of the annual contingent 100,000 should com- 
plete the six years' service, the nine classes of the reserve would 
amount to 900,000 men. Of this number, 300,000 would be re- 
quired to raise the active army from the peace to the war foot- 
ing, leaving 600,000 men available for organization as reserve, 
depot, and local troops. In consequence of the great difficulty 
of procuring officers, and want of time to organize the troops 
of the second line, it is probable that for the immediate future 
the reserve will only be available by calling out the men by 
classes to fill the vacancies in the active army. 



INTANTEY. 



149 



lEEEGULAE AEMT. 

This consists of the Cossacks, all of whom owe military ser- 
vice, and who constitute the irregular-cavalry force, with an 
approximate peace-footing of 35,000 men, and a war-footing of 
140,000 men. 

INFANTRY. 

The infantry of the line is maintained on four different foot- 
ings, viz. : 

"War, increased peace, peace, and cadre. 

The organization of a company, according to the four foot- 
ings, is as follows : 



Captain 

Lieutenants 

Sergeants 

Junior sergeants 

Corporals 

Privates 

Buglers 

Drummers 

Non-combatants. 

Total 



War. 
footing. 


Increased 
Pea(». 
fooling. 


Peace- 
tooting. 


1 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 


6 


6 


C 


12 


8 


4 


20 


18 


16 


100 


118 


84 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


7 


6 


6 


215 


163 


123 



1 

2 
4 
4 
14 
60 
2 
2 
6 



85 



The footing of increased peace and cadre are not usually 
adopted. The regiments of the three divisions of the guard, 
and the six divisions of the Army of the Caucasus, have four 
battalions, of four companies eacL. All other regiments have 
three battalions of five companies each, but ultimately they 
will be organized like those of the guard. 

The field and staff of a regiment consists of — 

1 Commandant, 

1 Field-officer, superintendent of interior economy, 

3 or 4 Field-officers, one for each battalion, 

1 Regimental adjutant, 

1 Regimental quartermaster, 

1 Regimental paymaster, 

1 Instructor of arms, 

1 Surgeon, 



150 ARMY OF ETJSSIA. 

1 Officer in charge of non-combatants, 

3 or 4 Battalion surgeons, 

3 or 4 Battalion adjutants, 

1 Chaplain. 
In the guards the commandants of regiments have the rank 
of major-generals, and commandants of battalions the grade of 
colonel. In all other regiments they have respectively the 
grades of colonel and major. 

The strength of a regiment of four battalions is as fol- 
lows: 



REGIMENT. 


OfficBTS. 


Combatants. 


Non-Combatants. 




64 
80 


1,897 
4,05T 


192 


War-footing 


283 







The non-combatant class embraces the administrative of- 
ficers, surgeons, chaplains, clerks, artificers, drivers, and officers' 
servants, one being allowed to each. 

BKIGADE. 

An infantry brigade consists of two regiments with six or 
eight battalions, according to the organization of the regiments. 

DIVISION. 

An infantry division consists of two brigades (12 or 16 bat- 
talions), and a brigade of artillery of four to six batteries. 

The chief of stafE of the division is a colonel or lieutenant- 
colonel of the general stafE, and is assisted by two captains of 
the staff, who attend to all the administrative and routine 
work. 

COEPS. 

A corps d'armee consists of two divisions of infantry, one 
division of cavalry, with the proper complement of artillery 
and engineers. 

The cavaby division consists of two brigades of two regi- 
ments of four squadrons each, also two batteries of horse-artil- 
lery. 



SCHOOL FOR OFFICERS. 151 

The Kussian army is divided into fourteen territorial com- 
mands, corresponding to the same number of provincial gov- 
ernments. 

The recruitment of the army is carried out by the various 
local governments, and the recruits are trained and equipped by 
the reserve, or local troops, in the same manner as in the mili- 
tary districts in Italy. 

The term of service is fifteen years, beginning with the 
twenty-second year. Of this period six years are spent with 
the colors, and nine years in the reserve. The annual contin- 
gent varies from 150,000 to 180,000 men, and constitutes about 
twenty-five per cent, of the number of young men who annu- 
ally become liable to military service. 

As an encouragement to intelligence, the battalion and regi- 
mental schools are established the same as in other armies, and 
a further inducement is offered in a reduction of the term of 
active service. 

To secure a body of reliable non-commissioned officers the 
Government has recently ofiered special advantages to all ser- 
geants who will reenlist. Not only are they guaranteed em- 
ployment in the civil and military departments of the Govern- 
ment after their discharge, but pensions are likewise granted. 
A sergeant of ten years' service on going into reserve receives 
250 rubles, or $200. Those who have served three reenlist- 
ments, or twenty years, receive in hand 1,000 rubles ($800), or, 
if they prefer, an annual pension of 96 rubles ($76). 

SCHOOLS FOB OFFICEES. 

The means of providing an efficient body of officers for 
the immense army has long since engaged the attention of 
the Government, and has led to the establishment of a greater 
number of military schools than exists in any other country of 
Europe. 

By far the largest portion of officers is composed of non- 
commissioned officers promoted after pursuing a special course 
of military instruction. For this purpose there are 14 schools 
for non-commissioned officers of infantry, one in each provin- 



152 AEMY OF KUSSIA. 

cial government; one for the Cossacks of the Don at Novo 
Tcherkask; one for the Cossacks of the Caucasus at Stavro- 
pol ; one for the Cossacks of Orenburg at Orenburg ; one for 
the cavalry at Twer, and another at Elizabethgrad. 

The course of instruction at the infantry schools is two 
years, and embraces — 
First year: 

Eeligion, 

Eussian language, 

Mathematics, 

Principles of physics and chemistry, 

Military drawing, 

Geography, 

History. 
Second year : 

Infantry tactics, 

Applied tactics. 

Military topography, 

Fortification, 

Theory of fire-arms, 

Military administration, 

Military law. 

Military hygiene, 

Method of teaching soldiers to read and write. 
The practical course embraces drill, gymnastics, and fencing. 
The students are also required to pursue a practical course with 
their regiments, to which they return during the summer vaca- 
tion of three months. 

The number of scholars at the different infantry schools va- 
ries from 200 to 400 ; the total number is 3,800, of whom about 
1,800 graduate annually, and return to the army as commis- 
sioned officers. 

MILITAET GYMNASIA. 

These schools, numbering thirteen, correspond to the mili- 
tary colleges of Italy, and are intended to prepare cadets for the 
higher schools for infantry, cavalry, artillery, and engineers. 



INPANTEY SCHOOLS. I53 

The course of study is seven years, and is open to boys from 
the age of ten to serenteen. 

Cadets named by the Minister of "War, mostly sons of civil 
and military officers, receive a free education, while the sons of 
civilians are educated at the expense of their parents. 
The course of instruction embraces — 

Religion, 

Grammar, 

Geography, 

Arithmetic, 

Algebra, 

Geometry, 

Trigonometry, 

History, 

Physics, 

Chemistry, 

Drawing, 

Russian, 

French and German languages. 

Singing, 

Dancing, 

Gymnastics, 

Fencing, 

Swimming. 

Only the senior class is instructed in the use of arms. 
The military instruction of the other classes is limited to 
marching and gymnastics. All the cadets wear uniform, and 
are subject to mild military discipline. On graduation, those 
who pass the examination can enter the higher military schools ; 
those who dislike a military career are free to return to civil 
life. 

INFANTET SCHOOLS. 

For the special education of officers of infantry there are 
three schools, known as the Paul and Constantine Schools of 
War, at St. Petersburg, and the Alexander School of War at 
Moscow. 



154 ARMY OF KUSSIA. 

Admission to these schools is open to such civil students as 
can pass a qualifying examination, and to the cadets who pass 
the final examination at the military gymnasia. The expenses 
of education are paid by the state, and also by parents. The 
number of cadets in each school is 300. 

The course of instruction lasts two years, and embraces— 

Eeligion, 

Kussian, 

German and French languages, 

History, 

Natural philosophy, 

Chemistry, 

Tactics, 

Theory of arms. 

Military geography, 

Topographical and mechanical drawing, 

Military law and administration, 

Dancing, 

Gymnastics, 

Fencing, 

Swimming. 
Music and singing are also taught, but are not obligatory. 
Eiding is taught only the second year. 

The cadets are organized into a battalion of four companies, 
and annually take part in all the great manoeuvres near St. Pe- 
tersburg and Moscow. 

From 400 to 450 officers enter the army annually from these 
three schools with the grade of second-lieutenant. Those who 
are best qualified are assigned to the guard, others to the field- 
artillery, but the great majority enter the regiments of the line. 

CAVALRY SCHOOL. 

The Mcholas "War School for cavalry at St. Petersburg 
corresponds to those just explained for infantry. All of the 
expenses of education are borne by the parents. The number 
of cadets is 150. The course of instruction is two years, the 



ARTILLERY SCHOOL. 155 

subjects being tbe same as in the infantry schools, with addition 
of hippology. 

The cadets are organized into a squadron, and take part in 
the manoeuvres. 

About 75 cadets graduate annually and enter the cavalry of 
the guard, and the line as second-lieutenants, or cornets. The 
graduating ceremonies of the two infantry schools, and the cav- 
alry school at St. Petersburg, take place in the field on the last 
day of the manoeuvres, when the Emperor in person welcomes 
the young graduates into the army. 

FmLAHD CADET COEPS. 

The school for this corps is a combination of the military 
gymnasium and the infantry schools already described. The 
course is seven years, the last two years being devoted to mili- 
tary subjects. The number of cadets is 100, all of whom are 
natives of Finland. The graduates, about 12 each year, are as- 
signed to the infantry. 

COEPS OF PAGES. 

This school has the same organization as the Finland Cadet 
Corps. The cadets are sons of the nobility, and officers of the 
court. The number of cadets is 150, of whom about 20 gradu- 
ate annually, and are assigned to the infantry, cavalry, and ar- 
tillery of the guard. 

AETILLEET SCHOOL. 

This school is denominated the Michael Artillery War 
School, and is located at St. Petersburg. 

Candidates for admission must be above sixteen years of 
age, and must pass a qualifying examination, or else have grad- 
uated at a military gymnasium. 

The number of cadets is from 125 to 150. The course of 
instruction at the artillery school is three years, and embraces — 
Eeligion, 
History, 
Analytical geometry, 



156 AEMY OF RUSSIA. 

Calculus, 

Elementary mechanics, 
Natural philosophy. 
Chemistry, 
Tactics, 

Science of artillery. 
Artillery administration. 
Fortification, 
Military geography. 
Military law, 

Landscape and artillery drawing, 
Russian, French, and German languages. 
The practical instruction embraces — 
Hiding, 
Fencing, 
Gymnastics, 
Swimming. 

MICHAEL AETILLEET ACADEMY AT ST. PETEESBUEG. 

This is a school of application for oflBcers of artillery who 
must have served two years with their regiments, and must pass 
a qualifying examination for admission. 

The course of instruction is two years, and embraces — 

Ballistics, 

Technology, 

History of artillery, 

Artillery administration. 

Higher mathematics. 

Analytical and applied mechanics, 

Natural philosophy. 

Chemistry, 

Geometrical drawing. 

SCHOOLS FOE ENGINEEES. 

The Nicholas "War School for engineers, and Nicholas War 
Academy, or school of application for engineers, are both lo- 
cated at St. Petersburg. The course of instruction in each is 



NICHOLAS STAFF ACADEMY. 157 

almost identical with the corresponding school for the artillery, 
except that in the academy more attention is paid to fortifica- 
tion, architecture, and military constructions. 

NICHOLAS STAFF AOADEMT. 

The object of this academy, which is located at St. Peters- 
burg, is to train officers for the general staff. 

The conditions of admission are to be below the rank of 
major, to have had four years' service with troops, and to be 
able to pass a competitive examination in mathematics, including 
plane trigonometry, tactics of the three arms, theory of arms in 
use in the service, history, geography, fortification, Russian, 
and German or French languages. 

The course of study is two years, and embraces the follow- 
ing subjects, classified as principal and secondary, according to 
their importance : 

The principal subjects are — 
Tactics, 
Strategy, 
Military history. 
Military administration. 
Military statistics, 
Geodesy, 
Cartography, 
Topographical drawing. 
The secondary subjects are — 

Kussian, French, and German languages, 
History, 

International law. 
Artillery, 
Fortification, 
Eiding. 
All of the principal subjects, except tactics, extend through 
the course. 

The students are classified according to merit, and those 
most distinguished are admitted to the staff corps. 

Attached to the academy is a geodetical division for the 



158 ARMY OF RUSSIA. 

education of officers for the topographical corps. The princi- 
pal subjects of this course are astronomy, physical geography, 
geodesy, and cartography. 

Special inducements in way of medals, employment, and 
promotion, are offered to officers who graduate at the artillery, 
engineer, and staff academies; and, as a mark of distinction, 
they are permitted to wear on their breasts a badge to denote 
that they have completed the course of instruction. 

OTHEE SCHOOLS. 

In addition to the schools already described, there is a medi- 
cal academy for the education of military surgeons ; a veterina- 
ry academy for the education of veterinary surgeons ; a mili- 
tary law-school to train officers for the department of military 
law ; a riding-school for the training of riding-masters ; also a 
school for the education of hospital-stewards and apprentices. 

PROMOTION. • 

Promotion in the infantry and cavalry to the rank of cap- 
tain is by seniority. Instead of having a general list for the 
entire infantry or cavalry of the army, a general list is pre- 
pai'ed in each infantry and cavalry division, and promotions are 
made as vacancies occur in the divisional lists. 

Promotion to the grades of major, lieutenant-colonel, and 
colonel, is entirely by selection based on reports from the gen- 
erals of brigade and division. This promotion by selection 
enables the Government at all times to have at its disposal va- 
cancies in the line to be filled by officers of the staff, guard, 
engineers, and other corps, who desire to serve with the troops 
of the line. 

In the artillery and engineers, promotion is by seniority to 
the grade of lieutenant-colonel. Above that grade, promotion 
is by selection. 

In the artilleiy, separate lists for promotion by seniority are 
made out for the field-artillery of the guard and the field-artil- 
lery of the line, also for the horse-artillery of the guard and 
the horse-artillery of the line. 



DISCIPLINE. 159 

In the eBgineers, separate lists are made for the sappers, 
pontoniers, park-detachments, etc. 

In the general staff (adjutant-general's department), up to 
the grade of captain, officers receive a grade every two years. 
A captain after three years' service in his rank, and who has 
commanded a battalion of the line with success, is promoted to 
the grade of lieutenant-colonel. 

The object of rapid promotion in the staff is to enable 
•highly-educated officers to arrive at the grade of general while 
still in the possession of mental and bodily vigor. 

The officers of the guard, who are better educated than 
officers of the line, are also given advantages for promotion 
with the same object. To this end they rank with the next 
grade above them in the line, and can at any time be trans- 
ferred with increased rank. 

DISCIPLINE. 

For the purpose of enforcing discipline, all officers and non- 
commissioned officers are permitted to inflict punishment for 
all minor offenses. Serious offenses are punished by the sen- 
tence of regimental and district courts-martial. 

The power confided to the several grades for the punish- 
ment of minor offenses is as follows : 

Corporal. — Reprimand, twenty-four hours' confinement to 
barracks, and one extra tour of police or fatigue duty. 

SergecMfht. — Reprimand, forty-eight hours' confinement to 
barracks, two extra tours of police or fatigue duty, twenty-four 
hours' confinement in guard-house. 

Company Officer. — Reprimand, eight days' confinement to 
barracks, three extra tours of police or fatigue duty, four days' 
confinement to guard-house, two days' solitary confinement. 

Officer commanding a Company, Squadron, or Half-'battery. 
— Reprimand, two months' confinement to barracks, four extra 
tours of police or fatigue duty, eight days' confinement to 
guard-house, five days' solitary confinement on bread-and-wa- 
ter, fifteen lashes to men on punishment-list. 

Officer commanding a Battalion or Battery. — Reprimand, 



160 AEMY OF EUSSIA. 

three months' confinement to barracks, six extra tours of police 
or fatigue duty, fourteen days' confinement to guard-room, eight 
days' solitary confinement on bread-and-water, twenty-five lashes 
to men on punishment-list. 

Officers commanding a Regiment. — Reprimand, three 
months' confinement to barracks, eight tours of police or fa- 
tigue duty, one month's confinement to guard-room, two weeks' 
solitary confinement on bread-and-water, temporary reduction 
to the ranks, name placed on punishment-list, fifty lashes. 

Punishments inflicted by non-commissioned ofiicers must at 
once be reported to the company commanders. 

Non-commissioned officers can be permanently or tempora- 
rily reduced to the ranks, and can be punished to the same ex- 
tent as men not on the punishment-list. 

Company, battalion, regimental, and higher commanders, 
can inflict punishment upon officers for minor off'enses. These 
punishments are reprimands, extra tours of duty, confinement 
to quarters or within main guard, suspension from command of 
a company or battalion. An officer can likewise be reported as 
unworthy of promotion. 

The care which the Russian Government has taken to edu- 
cate its officers, and to form a reliable body of non-commissioned 
officers, in connection with the long term of service and stolid 
temperament of its soldiers, has enabled the army, despite the 
introduction of breech-loaders, to preserve the steadiness in bat- 
tle which made it so famous in the days of Napoleon. 

The success, too, with which military operations have been 
planned and executed during the present conflict, and the great 
saving of life as compared with the previous wars against Tur- 
key, offered indisputable proof of the wisdom and humanity of 
maintaining a proper military organization in time of peace. 



AEMT OF ATJSTEIA. 



The following tables present the armed strength of Austria 
on the peace and war footings.' 

Peac&-footing. 



REGULAR ARMY. 



Batt&l- 
ions. 



Compn 
□ies. 



Sqaad' 

TODI. 



Depot of 
Battaliona, 
Companies, 



Staff 4nd administratire corps 

Goanls ■ 

80 Eegiments of infantry 

1 Eegiment of rifles 

88 Battalions of rifles 

41 Begiments of cavalry 

13 Eegiments of field-mrtillenr 

12 Battalions of fortress-artillery 

2 Regiments of engineers 

1 Begiment of pioneers 

Trains 

Sanitary troops 

Military establishments, schools, etc. . 



400 
7 
83 



246 



169 
5 



SO 
1 
83 
41 
89 
12 
10 



Total., 



liiNDWEHE. 



81 Battalions of infantiy and rifles.. 

Tyrolese riflemen 

Cavalry 



81 
11 



Total. 



EUHaABIAlT LA2n>WEHB. 

Guard of the crown 

Infentry 

Cavalry 

Total 

Gendarmerie 



92 

20 



112 



Total peace-footing. . 



462 



1,622 
116 

6,8S0 
151 
698 

1,728 

1,027 
856 
244 
129 
206 
69 

1,451 



1,787 

540 

141,440 

3,612 

16,995 

42,371 

19,890 

7,422 

5,484 

2,922 

2,805 

2,494 

9,929 



14,666 



257,091 



609 
62 
1 



1,629 
870 



1,999 



2 
879 

80 



53 
8,740 
1,520 



461 
148 



7,318 
13,903 



15,847 



280,311 



' By the law of the 5th of December, 1868, the strength of the regular army, 

navy, and reserve, for the next ten years, was fixed on the war-footing at 800,000 

men, of which number Austria proper was to furnish 457,012, and Hungary 

342,988. 

11 



162 



AEMY OF AUSTRIA. 
War-footing. 



REGULAR ARMY. 


BatM- 
iona. 


Compa- 
nies. 


Squad- 
rons. 


Batter- 
ies. 


Depot of 

Battalions, 

Companies, 

etc. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Staflf and administrative corps 






'ii 


287' 
'72' 


195' 
10 


"so" 

1 
38 
41 
13 

"io" 

5 
42 


8,003 

116 

10,640 

218 

990 

2.214 

1,884 
526 
8B6 
202 
991 
262 

2,618 


10,460 
640 




4SU 
Si 


475,040 
10,087 
47,223 
56,457 
50,842 
18,888 
16,248 
7,856 
80,047 
18,783 
17,616 




41iBattalions of rifles ' 


18 Keglments of fleld-artiUery. 

12 Regiments of fortress-artillery 








25 


Train 








Military establishments, schools, etc 




Total 


530 


153 


369 


205 


225 


28,504 


753,992 






81 
20 




"2' 

26 




81 
11 
25 


2,266 
600 
150 


92,206 
22,100 
4,320 










Total 


101 




27 
'46' 




117 

"92" 
20 


2,916 

2 

2,626 

400 


118,626 

58 

118,856 

8,820 


HUNGARIAN LANDWBHB. 




92 


Cavalry 






Total 


92 




40 




112 


8,028 
148 


127,284 
18 903 


Gendarmerie .... 








Grand total 


723 


153 


426 


205 


454 


29,696 


1,018,755 



INFANTKY. 

The Austrian infantry is organized into regiments com- 
posed of five field battalions of four companies each, and one 
depot battalion of five companies. 

In case of war, the six battalions are organized into two regi- 
ments of three battalions each, the fifth company of the depot 
battalion remaining as a common depot for both regiments. 

The first, second, and third battalions constitute the field 
regiment ; the fourth, fifth, and depot or complementary bat- 
talion form the reserve regiment. 

The field regiment is commanded by the colonel, the reserve 
regiment by the lieutenant-colonel. 

In time of peace the cadre of the depot battalion consists 

only of 6 officers and 15 men, but the names of all of the 

officers who, in the event of war, would be assigned to each 

of the companies of the reserve regiment, including the depot 

' Can be increased to 60 battalions if necessary. 



INFANTET. 



163 



battalion, are kept on a list at the War Department, where the 
lists are revised twice a year. 

The organization of a company is as follows : 





PEAOB-FOOTING. 


WAH-FOOTING. 




1st, 2d, and 
adBattaUoiu 


4tli and Biti 
Bsttalionn. 


Eacli of 6 
Battalions. 


Depot 
Company. 


Captain 


1 

2 
1 

1 
4 
5 
5 
70 
1 
1 
1 

S 


1 

2 

'i 

4 
5 
5 

60 
1 
1 
1 

'8 


1 

3 

1 

1 

4 

12 

18 

180 

1 

2 

2 

4 

8 

4 




Lieutenants 




Cadet or officers' substitute 




First-sergeant. 




Sergeants 




Corporals 




Lance-corporals 




Privates 




Pay-sergeant 




Drummer. 




Bugler. 




Pioneers 


2 


Hospital attendants 




Officers' servants 


•• 






Total 


95 


74 


286 









The cadet is a non-commissioned officer, specially educated, 
who is eligible for appointment as lieutenant. 

The strength of each of the first, second, and third battalions, 
on the peace and war footing, is as follows : 



BATTALION. 



PEACE-FOOTING. 


WAE-FOOTING. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 


1 




1 




1 




1 






1 




1 






1 






1 
1 
1 






2 






2 


4 




4 




8 




12 






4 




4 






4 






4 






16 






16 






20 






48 






20 






72 






280 






720 






4 






4 






4 






8 






4 






8 
16 
12 






12 






16 


14 1 


8T2 


J8 


984 



FIELD AND STAFF. 

Battalion commander 

Battalion-adjutant 

Dnunmer 

Bugler 

Armorer 

StafiF-aerffeant 

OflBcers' servants 

FOUE COMP-iJriBS. 

Captains 

Lieutenants 

Cadets 

First-sersreants 

Berpreants 

Corporals 

Lance-corporals 

Privates 

Pay-sergeantfl 

Drummers 

Buglers 

Pioneers 

Hospital attendants 

Officers' servants 

Total , 

Total officers and men . . .4 , 



164 



ARMY OF AUSTRIA. 



The field, staff, and non-commissioBed staff, appropriate to 
the three battalions which constitute the field-regiment, are as 
follows : 



FIELD REGIMENT. 



FEACB-FOOTING. WAfi-FOOTING. 


Officers. 


Mea. Ofl 


leers. 


Men. 


1 




1 




1 




1 








1 




1 








1 




1 








2 




2 








2 




P. 












] 






















1 




1 




1 




1 




1 




1 




4 




4 




5 




5 




86 




86 




2 




S 




2 




"82 
6 




9 




10 


10 


61 1 





99 


42 


1,116 t 


A 


2,802 


52 


i,m ( 


A 


2,901 





Colonel 

Keglmental adjutant 

Commissary 

KegimeDtal surgeon 

Senior Burgeons 

Assistant-surgeons 

Paymaster (captain) 

Paymaster (lieutenant) 

Clerk 

Sergeant-major 

Drum-major ] . 

Corporals ! ■§ 

Lance-corporals [3 

Privates J 

Armorers 

Staff-sergeants 

Drivers (waggoners) 

Hospital-attendants 

OtHcers' servants 

Total 

Total of three battalions 

Total of field regiment 



The strength of each of the fourth, fifth, and depot battal- 
ions on the peace and war footing, is as follows : 





FOURTH AND FIFTH BATTALIONS. 


DEPOT BATTALION. 


EESEEVE REGIMENT. 


PEACE-rOOTTNG. 


WAR-rOOTINO. 


OADEB, 
PEACE-FOOTING. 


FIVE COMPANIES, 
WAE-rOOTING. 




Officers. 


MeD. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 

' "s 
"i 

"3 


Olflcera. 


Mea. 


Battalion commander. . . . 

" adjutant 

District recruiting officer. 


1 




"i 

■■'2 




1 




"i 

1 
1 
1 

2 


.... 

1 
1 




Surgeon 

Clerks 


J 


"■3 




Buglers 






1 
1 
5 




Otficers' servants 









INFANTRY. 
















165 




FOURTH AND FIFTH BATTALIONS. 


DEPOT BATTALION. 


RESERVE REGIMENT. 


PEAOE-FOOTING. 


■WAE-FOOiraO. 


PEACE-FOOTING. 


■WAa-FOOTIN&. 




Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 


FOTTE COMPANIES. 


4 
8 


■"4 

16 
20 
20 
200 
i 
4 
4 

"12 


4 
12 


"4 

4 

16 

48 

72 

720 

4 

8 

8 

16 

12 

16 


1 

2 


" 8 


5 
15 








Cadets 




First-sergeants , . . . . 
























5 
20 




60 




90 


Privates 


900' 
5 


DmmmerB 


10 
10 


Pioneers 




Hospital attendants 

Officers' servants 


■'26 


Total 


14 


287 


18 


934 


6 


15 


25 


1,180 



































The field, staff, and non-commissioned staff appropriate to 
the foui'th, fifth, and sixth (or depot) battalions, which consti- 
tute the reserve regiment, are as follows : 



RESERVE REGIMENT. 



Gommandant, colonel, or lieutenant-colonel, 

Begimental adjutant 

Oommissaiy 

Surgeon 

Assistant-Burgeons 

Paymaster (lieutenant) 

Clerks 

staff-sergeants 

Drivers (wagoners) 

Hospital attendants 

Officers' servants 

Total of 4tli and 5th battalions 

Total depot 

Total reserve regiment 

Total infantry regiment (5 battalions and depot). 
Same (6 battalions and depot) 



PBAGB-FOOTING. 



28 

6 

87 



574 
15 



TVAE-FOOTrSTG. 



25 



188 



21 

4 



1,868 
1,130 
8,034 



5,935 



In the reserve regiment, in time of peace, the battalion-adju- 
tant, and commissariat officer, are detailed from the subalterns 
of the regiment. 

The total number of non-combatant enlisted men in each 

' Number of privates in the depot company can be increased from 180 to 300, 
giving a total of 1,230 enlisted men in the five companies. 



166 ARMY OF AUSTEIA. 

battalion, on a war-footing, is 70. The total number in the 
entire regiment, including both field and reserve regiments, and 
depot, is 540, nearly equal to one-twelfth of the entire strength. 

The number of colonels and lieutenant-colonels in the Aus- 
trian infantry exceeds 120 in each grade, enabling not only each 
of the 80 regiments to be commanded by a colonel, but also one- 
haK of the reserve regiments. The lieutenant-colonels command 
either reserve regiments or battalions ; the remaining battalions 
are commanded by majors. The commander of the depot cadre 
is a captain. 

The organization of the rifle battalions and companies varies 
but slightly from the infantry. 

BEIGADE OF INFANTET. 

The brigade of infantry in the field consists of the brigade 
staff, and two regiments of three battalions each, numbering 
approximately 6,100 officers and men. 

DIVISION OF INFANTET. 

This is the highest tactical unit maintained in time of peace, 
and consists of the division staff, 2 brigades of infantry (12 bat- 
talions), 2 battalions of rifles, 2 to 4 squadrons of cavalry, 3 bat- 
teries of artillery, 1 company of engineers, 1 squadron of the 
military train, 1 division of ammunition-train, and 1 division 
of sanitary troops (ambulance corps), numbering in all between 
15,000 and 16,000 men. 

ARMY COEPS. 

The army corps consists of the corps staff, 3 divisions of in- 
fantry, 1 cavalry brigade or division, 3 to 6 batteries of reserve 
artillery, 1 company of pioneers, 2 sections of bridge-train, sup- 
ply and sanitary departments, numbering approximately 50,000 
officers and men. 

jy EEOEUITMENT OF THE AEMT. 

All men are liable to military duty between the ages of 
twenty and thirty-six. 



EESATZ EESEEVE. 167 

The period of military service is fixed at twelve years ; three 
with the colors, seven in the reserve, and two in the Land- 
wehr. 

The country is divided into 31 divisional, 73 brigade, and 81 
district commands, one regiment of infantry being located in 
each district. The commander of each reserve regiment is the 
commander of the recruiting district. The depot cadre remains 
always at the headquarters of the district, and is responsible for 
all of the records relating to men in reserve and on furlough. 

Efficient non-commissioned officers, on the expiration of their 
service with the colors, are usually assigned to the depot cadre, 
which, in war, is responsible for the equipment and training of 
the reserve. 

In time of war, four of the five companies comprising the 
depot cadre may be organized into a sixth battalion, which con- 
stitutes the third battalion of the reserve regiment. 

The annual contingent drafted into the active army is 
approximately 95,000 men. The strength of the active army 
on the peace-footing being 257,000, if it be assumed that one- 
third of that number, 85,000, go annually into reserve, the seven 
classes in reserve would number 595,000 or 100,000 more than 
would be required to raise the army to the war standard of 
753,000. 

The men of the annual contingent assigned to each regiment 
are distributed among the five battalidns, where they receive 
aU of their training. In order that the men in reserve shall not 
forget their instruction, they are called out for drill three times 
during the seven years, for a period usually not exceeding four 
weeks. If practicable, they join the company and battalion to 
which they would return in time of war, otherwise they are 
drilled in the battalions of the reserve regiments. 

EESATZ EESEEVE. 

The ersatz reserve, in time of war, is intended to fill such 
vacancies in the regular army as cannot be filled by the general 
reserve. Its strength is limited to 95,000, or the equivalent of 
one annual contingent. It is composed of men between the 



168 AEMY OF AUSTEIA. 

ages of twenty and thirty, arranged in ten classes. The men 
of each class, usually numbering 9,500, are the men of the an- 
nual contingent in excess of the actual number required to raise 
the army to the peace-footing. 

LAHDWEHE. 

This force consists mostly of men who have completed ten 
years' service in the active army and in reserve ; ten years' ser- 
vice in the ersatz reserve ; and such men as, escaping the an- 
nual contingent, are at once assigned to it for the twelve years 
during which they are liable to military service. The organi- 
zation is by battalions, which in peace exist, only in cadre. 
Each battalion is assigned to a special district, which is subdi- 
vided into company districts. 

The battalion cadre, which is maintained on full pay in 
Austria proper, consists of — 

1 Major or Captain, commandant, 

1 Kegimental officer who keeps the rolls, returns, etc., 

3 Officers as instructors, 
1 Cadet, 

1 First-sergeant, 

2 Sergeants, 

4 Corporals, 

4 Lance-corporals, 
12 Privates (drill-instructors), 
2 Armorers, 
2 Musicians. 
The cadre in Hungary consists of — 
1 Field-officer as commandant, 
1 Administrative officer, 
1 Surgeon, 
1 Armorer, 

4 First-sergeants, one to each company, 
11 Non-commissioned officers and men. 
All rolls and records relative to the Landwehr in each bat- 
talion district are kept at the battalion or depot headquarters. 
The first-sergeants reside within their respective company 



REGIMENTAL SCHOOLS. 169 

districts, and constitute the medium of communication between 
the battalion commander and the men. 

The non-commissioned officers of the Landwehr are men 
promoted from the ranks of the Landw6hr, or non-commissioned 
officers transferred from the regular army at the expiration of 
their service. 

The officers of the Landwehr are composed of officers trans- 
ferred from the regular army ; of officers in reserve who have 
completed their service in the army ; and of officers promoted 
within the Landwehr after passing a qualifying examination. 

The list of the officers of each Landwehr battalion is revised 
twice a year at the war-office at Vienna. 

The men of the Landwehr are required to attend one muster 
a year. The recruits who annually join receive eight weeks' 
training at the battalion headquarters, before being sent on fur- 
lough. 

There is also a company drill of a fortnight each year after 
the harvest, and every two years there is battalion instruction 
for three weeks, during which time the battalions must take 
part in the army manoeuvres. Several of these battalions were 
present at the manceuvres of 1876, and gave evidence of the 
practical instruction they had received. In time of war, the 
Landwehr, exclusive of the cadres left in depot, would number 
193 battalions of 4 companies each, organized as in the active 
army. 

EEGIMENTAl SCHOOLS. 

Captains of companies, batteries, and squadrons, are respon- 
sible for the theoretical and practical instruction of their men. 
The instruction begins with the school of the soldier, to which 
the months of October and Ifovember are devoted. The al- 
phabetical and theoretical schools begin the 1st of December, 
and terminate the 30th of June. Within the same period is 
carried on practical military instruction in all of the duties of a 
soldier, embracing garrison duty, and drill in skirmishing, and 
school of the company. The months of July, August, and Sep- 
tember, are devoted to the schools of the battalion and evolu- 
tions of the regiment and larger bodies of troops. 



170 ARMY OF AUSTRIA. 

The alphabetical school for the men who cannot read and 
write, and the schools for non-commissioned officers, are sub- 
stantially the same as in the army of Italy. 

SCHOOLS FOK ONE-TEAE VOLITNTEEKS. 

The one-year volunteers are composed of young men of 
education who desire to engage in professional and business 
pursuits, who, in consideration of volunteering, are permitted 
to serve but one year with the colors, and are then sent into re- 
serve. They perform during this year all of the duties of a 
soldier, and in each regiment attend a special school where they 
pursue a course of study, embracing — 

Military correspondence and reports, 

Military topography and surveying, 

Pioneer service. 

Fortification, 

Study of arms. 

Tactics and field-service, 

Military administration. 

Army organization. 

Army regulations. 
According to the examination they pass in the theoretical 
course and the practical duties of the year, they are appointed 
lieutenants or non-commissioned officers of reserve. 

Of the former there are now nearly three thousand avail- 
able as officers in the regular army, or Landwehr, according to 
the necessities of the Government. 

DIVISIONAL PEEPAEATOET SCHOOLS. 

The object of these schools is to enable meritorious non-com- 
missioned officers and privates to prepare for admission to the 
cadet schools. Boys above fourteen years of age who can pass a 
prescribed examination are also admitted with the same object. 

One of these schools is established in each of the 31 divi- 
sions, and is superintended by a field-officer, who is assisted by 
two or three subalterns as instructors. 

The admissions to the school are at the rate of 8 candidates 



CADET SCHOOLS. 171 

from each field regiment, 4 from each reserve regiment, 4 from 
every rifle battalion, and 6 from each cavalry regiment. Candi- 
dates from each regiment are selected on the principle of com- 
petition. 

The course of study is two years, and embraces — 

Writing, 

German language, 

Some other language or dialect of the empire. 

Military correspondence. 

Mathematics, 

Geography, 

History, 

Theory of ground and military plan drawing. 

Penmanship, 

Pioneer-service, 

Theory of arms, 

Field-service, 

Tactics, 

Army regulations. 
The practical exercises consist of drill, target-practice, fenc- 
ing, gymnastics, and surveying. 

CADET SCHOOLS. 

The object of these schools is to prepare meritorious non- 
commissioned ofiieers and soldiers for the rank of cadet, from 
which grade they are eligible for appointment as lieutenants. 

There are 13 schools of infantiy, 6 of which are open to 
candidates from the cavalry. The artillery, engineers, and pio- 
neers, have each a separate school. 

Admission is open to such non-commissioned officers, sol- 
diers, and students, as have passed through the divisional 
schools, or who can pass a prescribed entrance examination. 

Each school is superintended by a field-officer, who is as- 
sisted by two subalterns as instructors. 

The course of study is two years, and embraces — 
Algebra, 
Geometry, 



172 ARMY OF AUSTRIA. 

Trigonometry, 

Geography, 

History, 

Natural and experimental philosophy, 

Military topography and surveying, 

Theory of groimd, 

Military organization and administration, 

Military correspondence and reports, 

Tactics of all arms, ■ 

Military history, 

Field and permanent fortification, 

Theory of arms, 

Kegulations for field-service and outpost-duty, 

Army regulations. 
The practical exercises consist of drill, riding (in the schools 
to which cavalry candidates are admitted), distance-drills, target- 
practice, fencing, gymnastics, and swimming. 

OFFICEES' SCHOOLS. 

As in Italy and Russia, the system of education for officers 
embraces preparatory schools, academies from which cadets 
graduate as oificers, and post-graduate schools to which officers 
are admitted after a service of two or three years in the army. 

MILrrAET COLLEGE, ST. POLTEN. 

The object of this school is to prepare candidates to enter 
the Military Academy at "Wiener-ITeustadt. 

The commandant of the school is a field-officer, who is assisted 
by a corps of professors and instructors, composed mostly of regi- 
mental officers ; a total personnel, commissioned and non-commis- 
sioned, numbering 8i. The number of students is limited to 200. 

The course of study, which is two years, corresponds to the 
course pursued by the fifth and sixth classes in the upper gym- 
nasia or classical schools, and the real gymnasia or mixed classi- 
cal and technical schools. 

The subjects taught are : 



MILITAKY TEOHlSriOAT, SCHOOL. 173 


Eeligion, 
Arithmetic, 


History, 
German, 


Geography, 
Grammar, 


French, 
Latin, 


"Writing, Natural history, 
Algebra, Drawing. 
Geometry, 
The practical instruction consists of drill, gymnastics, fenc- 
ing, dancing, and swimming. 



MILITAET TECHNICAL SCHOOL. 

The object of this school, which is located at "Weiszkirchen, 
is to prepare candidates to enter the Military Technical Acad- 
emy, also the artillery cadet school. 

The entrance examination corresponds to the last year's 
course in a lower gymnasium or middle classical school. 

The commandant of the school is a field-officer of artillery, 
who is assisted by a corps of military and civil professors, the 
total personnel numbering 172. 

The course of study is three years, and embraces — 

Keligion, 

Geography, 

Algebra, 

Geometry, 

Trigonometry, 

Surveying, 

Analytical geometry, 

Philosophy, 

Chemistry, 

History, 

Natural history, 

German, 

French, 

Bohemian or Hungarian languages, 

Army regulations, 

Military correspondence. 

Artillery tactics. 



174 AEMY OF AUSTRIA. 

Science of artillery, 
Writing and stenography, 
Drawing, 

Veterinary instruction. 
The practical subjects are fencing, gymnastics, and swimming. 
On graduation, the students are classified according to merit 
as " excellent," " good," and " satisfactory." As many of the 
first class as there are vacancies for are transferred according to 
rank to the Military Technical Academy. The remainder of 
the class and all those marked " good " are transferred as non- 
commissioned officers of artillery, and, after a year's service, 
are eligible for appointment to the artillery cadet school. Those 
classified " satisfactory " are appointed gunners. 

MILITAJBT ACADEMY. 

The object of this academy, which is located at "Wiener- 
Neustadt, is to educate officers for the infantry, rifles, cavalry, 
and pioneers. 

Admission to the college is open to graduates from the mili- 
tary college at St. Polten, and such candidates as can pass an 
examination corresponding to the course of study of the sixth 
class at an upper gymnasium, with the addition of mathematics, 
to include progression and equations of the second degree. 

The number of students is limited to 400, but only 300 were 
present in 1876. 

The expenses of education are partly borne by the state and 
partly by the student, who pays $100 (500 francs) for each of 
the first -three years, and $120 for the fourth. A certain num- 
ber of students, usually sons of officers, are educated free, others 
are charged half tuition. 

The commandant of the academy is a major-general. The 
corps of military professors and instructors consists of 6 field- 
officers, 34 captains and Keutenants, the total personnel, com- 
missioned and non-commissioned, numbering 273. The profess- 
ors of languages, political economy, chemistry, and the instruc- 
tors of religion, are civilians. 

The students are organized into four companies, each of 



MILITARY ACADEMY. 175 

whicli is commanded by a captain of the army, who is respon- 
sible for the administration, while another officer is assigned as 
the military instructor. Students are given no military rank 
in the companies, but at drill officiate temporarily as officers 
and non-commissioned officers. Each class is divided iato two 
sections, of about forty students each, which have their separate 
class-rooms and, dormitories. Each two classes have a separate 
dining-room. 

The course of study is four years, and embraces — 

Religion, 

German poetry and literature, 

Latin, 

French, 

Bohemian (or Hungarian) languages, 

Political and physical geography, 

General history. 

Philosophy, 

Higher mathematics, 

Practical geometry. 

Analytical geometry. 

Spherical astronomy and geodesy, 

Physics and chemistry. 

Mechanics, 

Military and topographical drawing, 

Eeconnaissance and study of ground. 

Political economy, 

Austrian Constitution, 

Military and international law. 

Organization of European armies, 

Military administration of Austrian army, 

Military correspondence and reports. 

History of the art of war, 

Tactics and elements of strategy. 

Infantry tactics. 

Cavalry tactics. 

Theory and construction of arms, 

Pioneer service. 



176 AEMY OF AUSTRIA. 

Field and permanent fortification, including attack and 

defense of fortresses, 
Free-hand drawing, 
Hippology. 
The practical exercises embrace riding, fencing, gymnastics, 
dancing, and swimming. 



This academy educates ofiicers for the artillery and engi- 
neers. Admission is open to graduates from the military tech- 
nical school, and to candidates who can pass an examination 
corresponding to the highest class in the real or upper techni- 
cal school. The number of students is limited to 280. 

The commandant is a major-general. The corps of military 
professors embraces 5 field-officers and 36 captains and lieuten- 
ants ; the total personnel numbering 237. Civil professors are 
also employed in various departments. 

The course of study is four years. The subjects for the first 
two years, which are common both to the artillery and engi- 

are — 

German, rhetoric, and poetry, 

French, 

Geography, 

History, 

Higher mathematics, 

Practical geometry. 

Analytical geometry, 

Chemistry, 

Natural and experimental philosophy, 

Technical and analytical mechanics, 

Engineering, 

International law, 

Military law. 

Military correspondence and reports, 

Army organization, 

Pioneer-service, 

Field-service and tactics, 



SCHOOLS OF APPLICATION. 177 

Army regulations, 

Topographical drawing and study of ground. 
The special course for artillery in the third and fourth 
years is — 

Mechanical technology, 

General architecture, 

Science of artillery. 

Fortification, 

Attack of fortresses, 

Hippology. 
The course for engineering is — 

Spherical astronomy and geodesy, 

Civil engineering, 

Architectural and ornamental drawing, 

History of architecture, 

Science of arms, 

Fortification and mining. 
The practical exercises embrace riding, fencing, gymnastics, 
swimming, dancing, infantry and artillery drill, target-practice, 
surveying with the plane table, mapping, sketching, and the 
construction of batteries and field-works. 

SCHOOLS OF APPLICATION. 

The artillery and engineers have each an advanced course 
corresponding to the schools of applications in other countries. 

Candidates must be below the rank of captain, and must 
have served two years in the army. 

Admission to these courses, which is not limited to ofScers 
of artillery and engineers, is by competitive examination in the 
following subjects : 
French, 

Higher mathematics. 
Geometry, 
Mechanics, 

Military correspondence, 
Topographical drawing and study of ground, 

12 



178 AKMT OF AUSTRIA, 

Science of arms, 
Fortification, 
General architecture. 
The last subject is only required for admission to the engi- 
neer course. 

The subjects taught in the advanced artillery course are- 
Technical mechanics and machinery, 
Science of artillery. 

Equipment of field, garrison, and siege artillery, 
Technology with reference to the science of artillery. 
Attack and defense of fortresses, 
Artillery tactics, 
Keconnaissance and sketching. 
Strategy, 
As voluntary subjects officers are permitted to study — 
French, 
English, 

Political economy. 
Statistics. 
The advanced engineer course consists of — 
Fortification, combined with attack and defense of fortified 
places. 

Science of artillery in reference to fortification, 
Technical mechanics and machinery. 
Ornamental architecture. 

Technology in reference to science of engineering. 
Principles of building, railway-engineering, and road-mak- 
ing. 

As a reward for a successful prosecution of this course, lieu- 
tenants of artillery and engineers who receive the certificate 
" excellent" are at once promoted to first-lieutenant. Officers 
of other arms who receive the same certificate, or the certificate 
of "good," are qualified for promotion out of turn. 

The advantages of the advanced course in both artillery and 
engineering are given to extra students who are willing to pay 
their own expenses. 



WAR SCHOOL. 179 



WAE SCHOOL. 

The object of this school is to qualify officers for high com- 
mand, and also for employment in the staff. 

The chief of the general staff is the president of the school, 
and is assisted by a general officer or colonel as commandant. 

The professors are part military and part civil, the former 
being officers of the general staff. 

The number of students admitted annually is approximate- 
ly 40. Candidates for admission must be lieutenants or cap- 
tains who have served three years in the army, and have been 
favorably reported upon as regards character, zeal, and ability, 
by the commanding officers of their regiments. 

Admission is by competition in the following subjects : 

Mathematics, to include spherical trigonometry and conic 
sections. 

Practical geometry, 

Mechanics, physics, and chemistry, 

Geography, 

History, 

German literature, 

French, 

Field-service, 

Tactics of all arms, 

Pioneer-service, 

Theory of arms, 

Fortification, 

Army organization. 

Theory of ground and topographical drawing. 

Without passing the competitive examination, permission is 
granted to officers to attend the lectures as extra students. 
They are classified at the final examination, but cannot claim 
admission to the staff corps. 

The course of study is two years, and embraces the follow- 
ing subjects : 

Army organization, 
Tactics of the three arms. 



180 ARMY OF AUSTRIA. 

Strategy as illustrated by campaigns, 

Military geography, 

Theory of ground, topography, and military surveying. 

Military reconnaissances and reports. 

Duties of general staff in the field. 

Study of arms. 

Fortification, 

International law, 

Natural sciences. 

Political economy, 

German literature. 

History of civilization (voluntary), 

French, 

Riding. 
Instruction has heretofore been imparted by lecture, but in 
1876 it was intended to experiment with text-books and recita- 
tions. 

The studies are pursued between October 15th and June 
30th. The months of July, August, and September, are de- 
voted to surveying, sketching, reconnaissances, and military 
tours to different parts of the empire. 

The final examination is open to not only the regular and 
extra students, but to any ofiicer not above the rank of captain 
who thinks he can pass successfully. 

All who pass are classified as " excellent," " very good," 
" good," and " unsatisfactory." 

Only those who are classified as " excellent " or " very good," 
and who have shown aptitude for staff duty, are eligible for 
staff employment. 

Officers who can pass the examination direct are required to 
take a course of reconnaissance with the class of the following 
year before being detailed for staff duty. 

CENTRAL INFANTET SCHOOL. 

This school, located at Yienna, is intended to prepare cap- 
tains for promotion to the grade of field-officer. There is no 
entrance examination. The number of students is fixed by the 



DISCIPLINE. ISl^ 

Minister of War. The course is eleven months, beginning No- 
vember 1st, and embraces — 

Army organization. 

Tactics of the three arms. 

Principles of strategy illustrated by campaigns. 

Study of arms, 

Theory of ground and reports of positions, 

Military surveying and sketching. 

Pioneer-service, 

Fortification, 

Field telegraphy, 

Hippology, 

Eiding, 

Natural sciences (voluntary), 

Fencing (voluntary). 
The final examination in these subjects must be passed, either 
direct or after completing the course, by all captains who aspire 
to promotion to the rank of major, unless they have previously 
passed the final examination at the War School or at the ad- 
vanced artillery and engineer courses. 

The officers after examination are classified as " excellent," 
" very good," " good," and " unsatisfactory." 

As a reward for diligence, officers who can pass the theoreti- 
cal and also a practical test with the certificate of " excellent " 
are eligible for promotion out of turn. They are also permitted 
to enter the second year's course at the War School as extra 
students. 

The certificate " good " entitles an officer to promotion by 
seniority if favorably reported upon by his commanding officer. 
Officers who fail to pass the examination are overslaughed on 
arriving at the head of the list. 

A corresponding central school is established for the cavalry. 

DISCIPLmE. 

In the case of offenses beneath the cognizance of courts- 
martial, summary punishments can be inflicted upon all grades 
of officers and men. 



182 AEMY OF AUSTRIA. 

The pimishment for the different grades is as follows : 

Officers. — Eeprimands, and arrest with confinement to rooms 
or station for thirty days. 

Cadets and Sergeant-Majors. — ^Eeprimands ; arrest with con- 
finement to rooms or barracks, up to thirty days ; withdrawal of 
permission to be absent after retreat for thirty days ; obligation 
to return to quarters or camp at a fixed hour before retreat, up 
to thirty days ; reduction to ranks for sergeant-majors in accord- 
ance with previous "warning." 

Other Non-commissioned Officers and Privates. — Repri- 
mands ; obligations to return to barracks or camp at a fixed 
hour before retreat ; withdrawal from sergeants of permission 
to be absent after retreat, up to thirty days ; withdrawal of con- 
trol of pay, with enforced daily payment for thirty days ; daily 
attendance, up to eight times, in full dress at the " morning 
report" (with horse in mounted corps), applied only to cor- 
porals and privates ; extra fatigue duty, up to thirty days ; put- 
ting in irons for six hours ; tying up for two hours, so that the 
delinquent can neither sit nor lie down, applicable to privates 
in case of degrading oflenses ; arrest with confinement to bar- 
racks, quarters, or camp ; strict arrest, up to thirty days ; soli- 
tary confinement, up to twenty-one days ; confinement in dark 
cell, up to fifteen days; reduction after a prescribed "warn- 
ing." 

" Warning " is only given by a regimental or correspond- 
ing commander, and only in cases of repeated offenses, such 
as drunkenness, neglect of duty, etc. Power to punish is lim- 
ited to commanders of units like regiments, battalions, com- 
panies. 

Strict arrest implies confinement in the guard-room, under 
lock and key ; it also involves bread and water three days in a 
week, and confinement six hours daily in irons, with an inter- 
val every three days of one day. 

A regimental commander can inflict all of the punishments 
enumerated up to the full extent ; a battalion commander can 
reprimand officers and men of all grades, and inflict the same 
punishments as a company commander ; a company commander 



PROMOTION. 183 

can inflict upon non-commissioned officers and men all of the 
pnniskments enumerated up to their full extent, except reduc- 
tion, also strict arrest and solitary confinement, which he can 
only administer to two-thirds of the legal extent ; a subaltern in 
command of a detachment has the same power as a captain, hut 
is required to report all cases of pimishment to his company 
commander ; a non-commissioned officer in command of a de- 
tachment can inflict confinement to barracks, or camp, and 
strict arrest for two days, reporting all punishments immedi- 
ately on the completion of the detached duty to his command- 
ing officer. 

General officers, besides the power to inflict punishment on 
officers of all grades below them, have the same power as colo- 
nels to inflict minor punishments on enlisted men. 

PEOMOTION. 

The Austrian law of promotion is based upon the difference 
in professional attainments and efficiency known to exist be- 
tween officers in all grades of the army. This difference is due 
in part to the manner in which officers originally qualify for 
the army, but more largely to the system of post-graduate edu- 
cation, which enables every intelligent, zealous, and efficient 
officer to prosecute a course of professional study with a special 
view to flt himself for promotion and high command. 

Promotion in the infantry, cavalry, and artillery, is by arm, 
the names of all of the fleld and company officers in each arm 
being on a general list. 

Promotion is both by seniority or " in turn," and by selec- 
tion "out of turn." 

To the grade of captain, inclusive, five-sixths are promoted 
by seniority, the other sixth by selection ; to all of the grades 
of field-officers three-fourths are promoted by seniority, the 
other fourth by selection. 

The first condition of promotion both by seniority and 
selection is the possession by the officer of a " certificate of 
qualification," embracing his entire history since his entrance 
to the army. The qualification list of each officer is drawn up 



184 



ARMY OP AUSTEIA. 



at regimental headquarters, and is made out in duplicate — one 
copy being retained, the other forwarded to the Minister of 
War. 

The qualifications of each ofiicer are determined by a board 
of officers of the grade next above, the board being presided 
over by a superior officer. Subalterns are reported upon by 
captains and field-officers ; captains by field-officers ; field-offi- 
cers by generals of brigades and divisions. The qualification- 
list of each officer is drawn up on six different pages, and is 
subdivided into headings, each of which is supported by re- 
marks. 

The qualification-list is prepared as follows : 

Fwst Page. 



1. Regiment. 

2. Name. 

3. Hank and seniority. 
4r. Date of birth. 

5. Religion. 

6. Condition and education 
prior to admission to service. 



7. Date of entrance to the 
army, and mode of entrance. 

8. Civil or military educa- 
tional establishments, from 
which the officer may have 
graduated since entering the 
army. 

9. Private circumstances. 



10. Decorations. 



The employment previous 
to entering the service is here 
stated, with mention of certifi- 
cate obtained at any civil or 
military school the officer may 
have attended. 



Remarks show the result — 
i. e., the certificate — he may 
have procured as " excellent," 
"very good," or "unsatisfac- 
tory." 

Whether married or sin- 
gle ; also financial condition. 

Naming all orders, medals, 
etc., received. 



PKOMOTIOK 185 

Second Page. 

HEADINGS. EEUAKKS. 

1. Dates of promotion and If promoted for distin- 
transfer. guished conduct in battle, the 

fact is to be specially stated. 

2. Total period of service. 

Third Page. 

1. Official employment. The remarks show every 

position the officer has ever 
held, and the duties he has 
performed. 

Fourth Page. 

1. Campaigns and service Remarks state all of the 

in the field. campaigns, actions, and bat- 

tles participated in, wounds 
received, and rewards be- 
stowed. 

Fifth Page. 

1. Other special services. Showing service not con- 

nected with war, rewards re- 
ceived, etc. 

Sixth Page. 

1. Date. Tear to which report re- 

fers. 

2. Rank. Held at date of report. 

3. Linguistic acquirements. State all of the languages 

and dialects in the empire 
spoken or written by the offi- 
cer with fluency. 



186 



ARMY OF AUSTRIA. 



4. General adaptation and 
fitness for position he holds. 



5. Qualification for, duties 
outside of the sphere of pres- 
ent employment. 

6. Zeal. 



7. Conduct : 

Before the enemy. 

On duty. 



iRemarks enter into detail 
as to fitness or unfitness, man- 
ner in which he performs 
duties, points in which he 
excels or in which he is defi- 
cient, positions he is special- 
ly qualified to hold, as " adju- 
tant," " quartermaster," " in- 
structor," "duty at depots," 
etc. 

Remarks show officer's tal- 
ents and inclinations ; also 
whether he has performed the 
duties referred to. 

Showing whether officer is 
devoted to his profession, and 
whether zeal is attributable to 
love of profession, or other mo- 
tives. 

Showing personal qualities, 
moral tone. 

Personal bravery, presence 
of mind, endurance, determina- 
tion, quickness to perceive ad- 
vantages, etc. 

Toward superior officers, 
toward subordinates ; manner, 
whether severe, kind, or engag- 
ing ; ideas of discipline ; readi- 
ness to assume responsibility; 
ability to maintain discipline ; 
influence over officers and 
men, and whether or not he 
possesses confidence of officers 
and men. 



PROMOTIOK 



187 



HEADINGS. 

Socially. 

8. Health and 
service. 



fitness for 



9. General remarks. 



10. Qualifications for pro- 
motion. 



11. General observations of 
tlie reporting-officers. 



Character and standing 
among his comrades ; compa- 
ny he keeps. 

Physique, ability to per- 
form various duties, eyesight, 
sick-leaves, etc. 

Such as may be necessary 
to be stated, but have not been 
referred to under previous 
headings. 

The remarks state whether 
the officer is " qualified," " not 
qualified," or " not as yet qual- 
ified." 

Each member of the board, 
beginning with the junior, here 
records his remarks or opinions. 



"When the report is received by the Minister of War, any re- 
mark reflecting on conduct or zeal is communicated to the officer, 
but remarks as to want of ability are not transmitted. 

A special recommendation in favor of these reports is that 
while they enable the Government to know who are the effi- 
cient officers, every officer has the right, upon application, to 
look at his record, and thus, if reported against, be able to re- 
deem himself by future good conduct. 

As a condition precedent to the promotion of a cadet, the 
consent of the officers of the regiment must be procured as to 
his social worth and character. His military qualifications are 
determined by a period of probation as a cadet. 

Promotion by seniority to the grades of first-lieutenant and 
captain depends upon the certificate of qualification, and upon 
a theoretical qualification which is satisfied by the possession of 
a certificate of the academy, college, or cadet school, through 
which the officer has passed. Promotion by seniority to the 



188 ARMY OF AUSTEIA. 

grade of major in the infantry and cavalry depends upon the 
certificate of qualification, and a certificate that the officer has 
passed the final examination at the central course of instruction 
with the classification of " good." If he fails to pass this ex- 
amination, either direct or after pursuing the regular course at 
the school, he is passed over in promotion on arriving at the 
head of the list. 

The certificate " good " obtained at the War School, or at 
the advanced course of artillery and engineers, exempts cap- 
tains of all arms from further theoretical examination. 

Promotion by seniority to the grades of lieutenant-colonel, 
colonel, and major-general, is based upon the qualification-list 
and practical qualifications as attested by the officer's suc- 
cess in command. The practical test for promotion to major- 
general is ability to handle a brigade composed of the three 
arms. 

Promotion by selection is based entirely upon efficiency, and 
a superior degree of military education. 

The certificate of " excellent " at a cadet school entitles a 
cadet to promotion out of turn, provided his military qualifica- 
tions are satisfactory. 

Lieutenants and sub-lieutenants are entitled to promotion 
out of turn provided they have obtained the certificate " very 
good " at either the War School, or at the advanced artillery and 
engineer course, and the certificate of qualification be satisfac- 
tory. The certificate "excellent" entitles a lieutenant to im- 
mediate promotion. 

For promotion to the grades of major and lieutenant-colonel, 
the one-fourth of the vacancies given to selection is divided into 
two categories — one-third being assigned to the first category, 
the remaining two-thirds to the second category. 

To entitle an officer to promotion in the first category, his 
certificate of qualification must be satisfactory ; he must possess 
the certificate "excellent" at the central cavalry or infantry 
school, or the certificate " very good " at the War School, or ad- 
vanced course of artillery and engineers ; he must also receive 
the certificate " excellent " at a practical test, consisting of ban- 



DETAIL IN" THE AUSTRIAN ARMY. 189 

dling a mixed force of all arms, such as might be assigned to a 
field-ofiScer holding a detached command. 

To be entitled to promotion in the second category, an offi- 
cer — ^in addition to the qualifications required in the first cate- 
gory — must pass, before a board of officers appointed by the 
Minister of War, a searching and extended examination in 
strategy, technical duties of the general staff in war, tactics, 
fortification, artillery, army organization, and military adminis- 
tration. A further practical test, before a board of officers, is 
required, consisting of handling a brigade composed of three 
battalions of infantry, three squadrons of cavalry, and a half- 
battery of artillery. 

Promotion to the grade of colonel is by both seniority and 
selection ; to major-general by seniority, and to all grades 
above by selection. 

In all cases of promotion by selection, the officers of the 
same grade who possess the required qualifications for promo- 
tion to the grade next above are arranged on a special list ac- 
cording to seniority, and not according to their classification in 
the examination-lists at the schools from which they may have 
graduated. 

In war any officer may be promoted by selection for distin- 
guished conduct, and he may be further rewarded by the presen- 
tation of a medal. 

DETAIL IN THE AUSTEIAN AEMT. 

The entire general staff of the Austrian army, numbering 
2 generals, 16 colonels, 21 lieutenant-colonels, 43 majors, 121 
captains, 118 first-lieutenants, and 26 auxiliary officers, instead 
of constituting a corps by itself, is composed of officers of all 
arms of service, who are in excess of the regimental comple- 
ments. The officers are promoted in their respective arms, and 
in the staff take rank according to seniority. The conditions 
for admission to the different grades of the staff are as follows : 

A first-lieutenant must be above twenty-five years of age ; 
must have served three years with his regiment ; and must also 
have graduated at the War School, or taken the advanced course 



190 ARMY OF AUSTRIA. 

of artillery and engineers with the certificate of " excellent ; " 
or else have passed the examination for promotion by selection. 
Previous to appointment their fitness is tested by the perform- 
ance of staff duty at brigade and division headquarters, and they 
may also be required to serve a year on probation in the mili- 
tary geographical institute. 

Captains as a rule are selected from those who have pre- 
viously served as lieutenants on the staff, or from those who 
have qualified for promotion by selection in the second cate- 
gory. If there still be vacancies, captains may be selected who 
have qualified for promotion in the first category. 

Majors are selected from those who have previously served 
as captains on the staff, or who have qualified for promotion by 
selection in the second category. 

Lieutenant-colonels, and colonels are selected from the best- 
qualified field-officers who have previously served on the staff. 

In order that officers of, the staff sliall not forget the habit 
of command, captains are required while holding that grade to 
command for two years a company, battery, or squadron ; and 
colonels are similarly required to command a regiment for at 
least three years. 

The constitution of the Austrian general staff shows that, 
while composed of officers of all arms, there is a constant inter- 
change between the staff and line. The lieutenant who, by the 
nature of his appointment, is qualified for promotion by selec- 
tion, as soon as promoted returns to his arm, where he must re- 
main unless summoned back as a captain. 

In the same manner captains, majors, and lieutenant-colo- 
nels, leave the staff by promotion, and cannot return to it unless 
appointed anew. 

In this manner indifferent officers can be removed without 
loss of pride, and good officers can be selected to fill their 
places. 

The effect of the staff arrangement, and promotion by selec- 
tion, is to enable intelligent and efficient officers to obtain while 
young the highest grades in the army, in which, at any moment, 
they may be called upon to influence the destiny of the nation. 



AEMY OF GEEMAI^T. 



The troops of the German Empire are divided into three 
classes, as follows : 

1. Field-troops intended to form the armies in the field. 

2. Depot-troops composed of recruits from the reserve, and 
Landwehr, destined to fill vacancies in the field-troops. 

3. Garrison-troops embracing the Landwehr, foot-artillery 
regiments, reserve cavalry regiments, reserve pioneers, and rifle- 
companies, intended to garrison the populous cities, and, in 
case of necessity, to reenf orce the army in the field. 

The following tables represent the armed strength of the 
empire. 

Peace-footiTig. 



TROOPS. 


Begl- 


E»ttal- 
lons. 


Squad- 
rons. 


Batter- 
ici. 


Gone. 


Officer!. 


Men. 














2,189 


2 










148 


443 

26 

293 








ill 


255.411 


Kifflemen 


14,646 






4,760 










143 


T62 








9,490 


274,716 








98 




466 






2,357 


64,668 






Field-artillery 


86 


"'29 




800 


1,216 


1,629 
682 


80,720 




16,160 












29 




800 


1,216 


2,811 


45,876 












20 








400 


10,8-24 








Train 




IS 








218 


6,060 




















51 


1,023 














.... 
.... 






1,631 

748 














621 






626 


Saddlers 




93 










27T 


859 


465 


800 


1,216 


19,890 


402,999 







192 



ARMY OF GERMANY. 



Of the enlisted men, 48,280, exclusive of lance-corporals, 
are non-commissioned officers ; 12,493 are musicians ; 3,187 are 
hospital attendants ; and 9,446 are tradesmen employed to make 
shoes, clothing, etc. 

War-footrng. 



FIELD- ARMY. 


Regi- 
ments. 


Battal- 
ions. 


Compa- 
nies. 


Squad- 
rons. 


Batteries. 


Gonfl. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Staff officers 


'iia 

"98 
36 


'448 
26 


"64 


'372 


'soo 


I'soo 


868 

10,190 

572 

2,144 

2,286 

666 

785 

216 


B,170 
465,620 
26,676 
59 814 








Artillery 


78^120 


Trains 


88,451 
2,826 


Administrative depart- 






Totalfleld-army... 


27T 


469 


64 


872 


800 


1,800 


17,621 


687,694 


DEPOT-TEOOPS. 




'iis 


"26 

"26 
87 


"93 


"ii 


■425 


875 
2,812 
104 
465 
840 
90 
240 


1,886 
179,524 

8,008 
28,994 
13,261 

4,950 
11,522 


Infantry 






Eifles 




Artillery 


Pioneers .'..... 


Train 






Total 




148 


88 


98 


71 


426 


4,426 


243,095 




GARRISON-TBOOPS. 

Various brigade and di- 
vision headquarters. . 
Infantry 




'293 

Foot- 
arllllery. 

68 


"26 

"48 


'144 


FWd- 
artiller;. 

64 


824 


850 

6,424 

104 

828 

1,870 
581 


10,000 

250,244 

6,500 

22,968 

64,852 
8,588 


Eifles 




Artillery 






Total 




851 


T4 


144 


64 


824 


10,107 


858,102 




Surg^eons 




.... 










4,658 
1,672 








Veterinary surgeons. . . 
Armorers 


883 

1,057 

711 


Saddlers 




16,032 




27 






Grand total 


7 


968 


211 i 609 


425 


2,550 


88,479 


1,802,429 



INFAIJTEY. 



The infantry of the German Empire consists, in time of 
peace, of 148 regiments of three battalions each, except one, 
which has but two battalions. 



INFANTRY. 



193 



The organization of a company on the peace and war foot- 



ing is as follows 



PBAOE-FOOTING. T7AB-F00TIMG. 
RANK. 





(BcerE. 


Men. Officers. 


Men. 


Captain 


1 
1 
2 


13 

2 

2 

106 


1 

1 
3 




First-lieutenant 




Second-lieutenant 




Sergeant-major 


1 

1 

1 

4 

13 

24 

2 

2 

201 


FShnrich 








Sergeants 


GorporalB 


Lance-corporals ; 


Drammers 


Buglers 


Privates 








Total combatants 


4 


187 


b 








Hospital-attendants 




1 
8 






Tradesmen 




Train-aoldiers 


2 








4 












14 


5 




257 



The strength of a battalion is as follows : 



RANX. 


PEACE-FOOTING. 


WAH-FOOTING. 




OfficerE. 


Men. 


Officen. 


Men. 




1 
1 

"i 

1 

4 
4 

8 


"i 

1 

■"i 

4 
12 

"i 
i 

4 
16 

28 
62 

8 

8 
428' 


1 
1 

"i 
1 
1 

1 

4 
4 
12 




Actjntant 












nt^ff-t^nrg^eoTi 












Paymaster-assistant. ... 




Anrn^rW 


1 


Hospital attendants 


4 








20 


FOUB G0UFANIE8. 




Firat-lientenants 










4 


Fahmiche .. 










4 




4 




16 


Goiporals 


52 


Iiance-corpotals 


96 




l'2 




12 


PriTates ; 


796 










Total 


20 


567 


26 


1,023 















' One company has 105 privates. 



13 



194 



ARMY OF GERMANY. 



The field, staff, and non-commissioned stafE of tlie regiment 
are as follows : 



PEACE-FOOTING, 



Officers. Men. 



WAE-FOOTING. 



Officers. Men. 



Colonel 

Lieutenant-colonel . . 

Adjutant 

Sergeant-major 

Musicians 

Senior staff-surgeon . 

Staff-surgeons 

Assistant-surgeons. . 
Train-soldiers 

Total 

Three battalions 

Total regiment.. 



9 
60 



1 
10 



11 

1,701 

1,712~ 



4 
78 



1 
ID 



J,087 



EEIGADE OF INFANTEY. 

The brigade of infantry in time of peace consists of the 
staff, 2 regiments of infantry (6 battalions), and 2 regiments of 
Landwehr. In war it consists of the staff and 2 regiments, 
or 6 battalions, numbering 6,366. 

In addition to the field staff, the brigade in time of war 
leaves behind a brigade district staff, consisting of a major-gen- 
eral, or colonel, and two officers as assistants. This staff assumes 
control of all depot and garrison troops of infantry, and is re- 
sponsible for calling out, training, equipping, and forwarding 
men to the brigade in the field. The brigade staff communi- 
cates with the men to be called out through the headquarters 
of the Landwehr battalions, and the sergeant-majors of the 
Landwehr company districts. 



DIVIBION OF INFANTEY. 

A division in time of peace consists of 2 brigades of infan- 
try and 1 brigade of cavalry. 

In war it consists of the staff, 2 brigades of infantry, 1 regi- 
ment of cavalry (4 squadrons), and 1 division of artillery (4 bat- 
teries). There is also attached to the division either 1 battalion 
of rifles, or 1 company of pioneers. 

The staff consists of 1 general, 1 field-officer or captain of 



AEMY CORPS. 195 

the general stafE, 2 captains or lieutenants as adjutants, 2 judge- 
advocates, and 2 chaplains. Total division 14,500. 

AEMT CORPS. 

An army corps in the field consists of — 
I. — The staff, emhracing — 

1 General, or lieutenant-general as commander, 

2 Field-oflBcers of the general staff, one of v^hom is chief 

of staff, 

2 Captains of the general staff, 

4 Adjutants, captains, or lieutenants, 

3 Engineer oflicers, 

1 Major-general, or colonel of artillery, 

2 Lieutenants, or adjutants, who constitute the artillery 

brigade staff, 

1 Field-officer, and 1 lieutenant as adjutant, who consti- 

tute the train staff. 

II. — Two divisions of infantry — 

In all, 25 battalions, 8 squadrons, 48 guns, and 1 com- 
pany of pioneers ; numbering 29,000. 

III. — One division of cavalry (16 squadrons), composed of — 

2 Brigades of 2 regiments each, and 

1 to 2 batteries of artillery ; 
ITumbering in all, 3,000 men. 

TV. — ^Eeserve artillery (42 to 48 guns), composed of — 

2 Divisions of field, and 

1 Division of horse artillery ; numbering 1,300 men. 

V. — Intendance, commissariat-trains, bridge-trains (1 to each 
division and 1 for the corps), 3 columns sanitary troops ; num- 
bering in all, 2,571 men. 

The total of an army corps approximates 41,600 men. 

The field-troops of Germany, consisting of 18 corps, in 
time of war are organized into armies of from 2 to 4 corps 
each. 

MILnAEY TEEEITOEIAL DIVISIONS. 

Corresponding to the military organization, the territory of 
Germany is divided into lY corps districts, each of which is di- 



196 ARMY OF GERMANY. 

Tided into 2 division and 4 brigade districts. Each brigade 
district is divided into Landwehr battalion districts, which are 
further subdivided into Landwehr company districts. 

The guard-corps selects its recruits from the entire empire. 

Each of the other corps is permanently assigned to a district 
from which it is exclusively recruited both in time of peace and 
war. 

EEOEUrrMENT. 

The work of recruitment is conducted by two commissions, 
called the Ersatz-Commission and the Ober-Ersatz-Comm.ission. 

An Ersatz-Commission is appointed for each of the 275 
Landwehr districts, and is composed of both military and civil 
officers, the commander of the Landwehr district being one of 
the members. 

This commission meets in the early part of the year, and be- 
fore it must appear every man of the district who is liable to 
military duty. After examining all the men physically, hear- 
ing all petitions, and deciding such cases as come up for post- 
ponement, the commission prepares a list of all who are quali- 
fied for service. Such cases as the Ersatz-Commission cannot 
dispose of, it refers to the Ober-Ersatz-Commission. 

This latter commission is appointed for each brigade district, 
and is composed of the brigade commander, an administrative 
officer of high rank, and also a civil officer. The Ober-Ersatz- 
Commission meets in each Landwehr district, usually in the 
summer, and before it must appear all the men not put back by 
the Ersatz-Commission. After another examination and fur- 
ther revision of the cases submitted by the Ersatz-Commission 
for postponement, a final list is made out by the commission, 
which then proceeds to drafting, causing each man on the 
list to cast lots. Those who draw the lowest figures are as- 
signed to the annual contingent, and are turned over by the 
president of the commission to the Landwehr commanders for 
distribution to the various arms of service. 

The persons exempted from drawing lots are volunteers for 
one, or three years ; volunteers for non-commissioned officers' 



RESERVE. 197 

schools ; foresters' apprentices, provided witli required certifi- 
cates ; those physically disqualified, and also those morally un- 
worthy, or disqualified through crime. 

Postponement of entry to service for one or two years is 
granted to men who are the sole support of indigent families, or 
of parents or grandparents unabJe to work; to only sons of 
landed proprietors, lessees, and tradesmen, where the son is their 
indispensable assistant ; proprietors or tenants of land upon the 
cultivation of which their livelihood depends, and in the super- 
intendence of which they cannot be replaced ; proprietors of 
large factories who cannot be replaced in the management of 
business by others ; persons intending to pursue a professional 
career or learn a trade ; those who reside permanently abroad. 

In addition to the cases of postponement stated above, the 
chief Ersatz authorities of any state can postpone, or exempt, 
from service any person who can present a valid reason, though 
such reason be not mentioned in the recruiting regulations. 

Persons whose entry to service has been postponed, if not 
called up at the end of the second year, are passed into the 
Ersatz reserve, whence, in case of war, they are liable to be 
summoned to fill vacancies in the active army. 

The annual contingent for the entire army approximates 
140,000 men, and is distributed at the rate of 190 recruits to 
each regiment of infantry ; 36 to each squadron of cavalry ; 30 
to each battery of artillery ; 165 to each battalion of foot or 
•fortress artillery ; 160 to each battalion of pioneers ; and 175 
to each battalion of the train. 

The term of service is twelve years, of which three are with 
the colors, four in the reserve, and five in the Landwehr. 

The men of the reserve and Landwehr are arranged in reg- 
isters, according to annual classes. 

EESEEVE. 

The reserve is composed of four classes of men, who have 
completed their service of three years with the colors. The 
total number depends upon the proportion of each annual con- 
tingent of 140,000, who complete the three years' service, and 



198 ARMY OF GERMANY. 

may be estimated at above 500,000, of whicli number about 
300,000 would be required to raise the field-army to a war- 
footing. Such men as are not required to complete the war- 
footing are available for the organization of garrison-troops. 

During the four years a man is in the reserve, he may be 
summoned back to the ranks twice for the purpose of attending 
the annual manoeuvres for a period not exceeding eight weeks 
each time. He must also attend muster twice a year — once in 
the spring and once in the autumn. 

In time of war the reserves are called back to the colors by 
classes, beginning with the youngest. 

OFFICEES OF EESEEVE. 

These officers are provided to fill to the complement the 
number of officers required to raise each regiment and field 
organization to the war-footing. They consist of such officers 
as have left the regular army before the completion of seven 
years' service ; men of the furlough-list who have distinguished 
themselves before the enemy ; fahnrichs who have been dis- 
charged with a certificate of qualification as officers of re- 
serve ; one-year volunteers with the same certificate ; also men 
of the furlough-list, who, after their discharge, procure a like 
certificate. 

All men of the reserve, who hold the certificate of qualifi- 
cation for officers of reserve, are- required to serve eight weeks 
with a regiment of the line in order to learn their new duties. 
They must also, before being appointed, be accepted by the 
officers of the regiment to which they are assigned. On com- 
pleting the total of seven years with the colors and in reserve, 
the officers are transferred to the Xandwehr to complete the 
remainder of their twelve years' service. This arrangement 
enables the Government to confide all of its troops, who may 
be called to meet the enemy, to the leadership of officers who 
have been specially educated, and who are familiar with the 
duties of field-service. 



DEPOT TROOPS. 199 



EESATZ EESEEVE. 



The Ersatz reserve is intended to supplement the reserve 
already described, and, in connection with it, to replace casual- 
ties in the field-troops. It is composed of two classes, in the 
first of which a man serves five years, when he is transferred to 
the second class, where he continues to serve till the end of his 
thirty-first year. 

The number of men in the first class is supposed to be equal 
to the number required to raise the army from the peace to the 
war footing. The class is composed of the men who have drawn 
high numbers at the conscription, also such as have had their 
entry to service postponed, or whose physical defects do not 
entitle them to complete exemption from service. The second 
class is composed of men transferred annually from the first 
class, and also of those who have not been assigned to the first 
class in consequence of physical defects, or who were in excess 
of its requirements. 

In case of war, the men of the first class are first summoned 
to fill vacancies and to compose depot-troops, after which the 
second class can be called upon for the same service. 

rHELOUGH-LIST. 

To encourage faithful and intelligent performance of duty, 
and also in the interest of economy, about 30,000 men, after 
having served two years with the colors, are sent on furlough, 
subject to recall, to complete their term of service. If not re- 
called, they pass into reserve, the same as men who have com- 
pleted the regular three years. 

DEPOT-TEOOPS. 

In time of war each regiment of infantry, artillery, and 
cavalry, each rifle, pioneer, and train battalion, organizes a 
depot for the purpose of clothing, training, arming, equipping, 
and forwarding recruits to the troops in the field. The depots 



200 



ARMY OF GERMANY. 



also supply the troops with the equipments and clothing needed 
during the campaign. 

The depot of each regiment of infantry constitutes a bat- 
talion designated the " Depot Battalion (such) Eegiment of In- 
fantry." 

The battalion is organized as follows : 



STAIT. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 




1 
1 

2 

1 

16 

1 


1 

1 

■'so 

9S 
16 
804 

"io 

200 






Adjutant 












Sergeant-major 




Drum-major 




romi OOMPAHIKS. 


EACH COMPANY. 


Officers 


i 






20 

24 

4 

201 


Lance-corporals 


Buglers 


Privates 


TBADESMEaf^B DIVIBION. 

Officers 




.... 


Tradesmen 








Total 


22 


1,208 


4 


249 





The officers for the depot battalion are taken partly from 
officers of the regiment, and partly from officers on the half- 
pay and the retired lists. A portion of the non-commissioned 
officers are also detailed from the regiment. 

When mobilization is ordered, 400 recruits are imme- 
diately called to the depot, where their training is begun 
under the experienced officers and non-commissioned officers 
appointed to receive them. The recruits consist of men from 
the reserves. Ersatz reserve, and later the youngest classes of 
the Landwehr. 

As soon as the regiment in the field is reduced one-tenth of 
its strength by casualties, requisition is made upon the depot 
for the number of men necessary to fill the vacancies. These 
men completely armed and equipped are at once forwarded 
under officers and non-commissioned officers from the depot, 



LAKDWEHE. 201 

who immediately return to it unless required to remain with 
the regiment. 

The depot battalions (numbering 148) never take the field ; 
they may, however, be required to replace garrison or Landwehr 
troops, ordered into the field or on active service. 

"When all the depots of the different anus of service are 
raised to their complement, they number 4,426 oflicers and 
243,095 men. 

LAUDWEHE. 

As already stated, the Landwehr is composed of men who 
have finished their term of service with the colors and in re- 
serve. 

In time of peace it is organized into Landwehr battalion dis- 
tricts, with a cadre usually consisting of a field-officer, an ad- 
jutant, and three non-commissioned officers and men. 

The rolls of all men in reserve, Ersatz reserve, as also in the 
Landwehr, are kept at the district headquarters. 

A sergeant-major, corresponding to a first-sergeant, resides 
in each Landwehr company district, and serves as a medium of 
communication with the men at their homes. 

During the five years a man is in the Landwehr, he may be 
called out twice for company or battalion drill, for a period not 
exceeding eight to fourteen days at a time. 

In time of war each regiment of infantry, in addition to its 
three field battalions, forms two battalions of Landwehr, to which 
it assigns a certain quota of officers and non-commissioned offi- 
cers. The total number of Landwehr battalions is 293. These 
battalions can at once be raised to the complement of 22 officers 
and 1,002 men, or if the emergency does not demand the war 
strength each battalion may be increased to 14 officers and 402 
men, called the first augmentation, or to 18 officers and 602 
men, called the second augmentation. The battalions being 
raised to the war strength, may be organized into regiments, 
brigades, divisions, and corps, and sent to reenforce the army 
in the field. 



202 ARMY OF GEEMANY. 

OITICEES OF LAMDWEHE. 

The officers of the Landwehr consist of officers who have 
completed their period of service in the regular army and are 
still able to perform duty ; officers transferred from the reserve ; 
men of the Landwehr who have been distinguished in the field ; 
men who have received certificates qualifying them as officers 
of reserve, but who have never been promoted ; also sergeant- 
majors and non-commissioned officers discharged from the reg- 
ular army with a recommendation for promotion in the Land- 
wehr. 

In all cases, before an officer can be appointed in the Land- 
wehr, he must be accepted by the other officers of the battalion. 

In case the casualties in the regular army require it, officers 
of the Landwehr can be transferred to fill the vacancies. 

OBLIGATIONS OF EESEEVE SOLDIEES. 

All men of the reserve, Landwehr, Ersatz reserve, and fur- 
lough-list, on returning to their homes must report in person 
to the sergeant-major of the company Landwehr district in which 
they reside. 

Men of the reserve, and Landwehr, are permitted to settle in 
any part of the empire, but in case of a transfer of residence 
they must report to the sergeant-majors of the districts they 
leave, and also of the districts to which they remove. These 
changes must be reported within fourteen days of their occur- 
rence, also any change of residence within the company district 
must be reported within the same period. Failure to report, 
which may be done in person, or in writing, is punishable with 
a fine of $1.50 to fi.OO, or imprisonment from three to eight 
days. 

Intention to remove for short periods to distant parts of the 
empire must be reported to the sergeant-major, and in time 
of the manoeuvres his permission must first be procured. In all 
cases the address must be left so that orders may be promptly 
transmitted. 

Soldiers who desire to reside abroad, and to enter upon 



SCHOOLS FOR ENLISTED MEN. 203 

business pursuits in foreign countries, must first procure a fur- 
lough, of two years, whicli may afterward be prolonged by the 
corps commander till liability to service expires. 

Whetber in foreign countries, or in different parts of the 
empire, it is the duty of all members of tbe reserve, or Land- 
webr, wben mobilization is ordered, to immediately return to 
their homes and report to the Landwehr authorities. 

LANDSTUEM. 

This force practically embraces all able-bodied men capable 
of bearing arms not already in service. It is divided into two 
classes : the first of which is composed of aU men between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-two who are not in the army, the 
reserve, or the Landwehr ; the second class embraces all above 
the age of forty-two. 

The first class may be organized into 293 battalions on the 
same basis as the Landwehr, making an aggregate force of 
1Y5,000 men. The second class has no organi^iation. 

SCHOOLS FOE ENLISTED MEN. 

T he perfection of the German military jystgm„]i£aJfi8S_in_ 
the mili tar y organiza ti.Q.aJiJianrin-th&-exaetneaSu.witL.which men 
of every^gra^ejLnj3yery„JbiaftCk,-0f service, are trained for the 
efficient performance of tUsiCMdniies^-™.'.. ..-- . i -"- ' 

^To'thiFend^ the same as in all of the other great Continental 
armies, the chief school for the private soldier is practical service 
with the colors for a period of three years. It is the graduates 
of this school who constitute the reserve proper, and who in time i 
of war return to the ranks with the experience of trained sol- 
diers. They also constitute by far the largest proportion of the 
Landwehr, which can be called out as a second army to reenf orce 
the army in the field. The Government does not satisfy itself 
with training them simply to obey orders, to be good marks- 
men, to drill with precision, and adapt themselves with intelli- 
gence to a variety of service in the presence of the enemy, but 
requires of them a general educational training, such as is re- 



204 ARMY OF GERMANY. 

quired in every other walk of life, as the only sure basis of suc- 
cess. 

For this purpose there are schools in each battalion, in which 
are taught reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic. Candi- 
dates for promotion to non-commissioned oflScers are, in addi- 
tion, taught to make such reports and returns as may be re- 
quired of non-commissioned officers. In reference to the train- 
ing of this grade the Government shows special solicitude. The 
largest proportion of non-commissioned officers is composed 
of men who have completed three years' sei^vice with the colors 
and reengage for another term. 

PEEPAEATOET SCHOOLS. 

Preparatory schools are established for the sons of non- 
commissioned officers and privates of the army, navy, Land- 
wehr, and invalid list, at Annaberg, Erfurt, Spandau, Stralsund, 
and Struppen. 

Boys are admitted to these schools between the_3gfis-of,j£n. 
and twelve, and are discharged at the age of fourteen. The 
subjects "taught are principally the common branches. 



These schools are specially established for the training of 
non-commissioned officers of the infantry. The four schools at 
Potsdam, Jiilich, Bieberich, and Weissenfels, have each 496 
pupils, with a staff and non-commissioned staff composed of 19 
officers and 63 men. 

The pupils are organized into a battalion of four companies. 
The fifth school, at Ettingen, has 248 pupils organized in two 
companies, with a staff and non-commissioned staff composed 
of 11 officers and 34 non-commissioned officers. A sixth school 
is to be established at Marienwerder. 

Admission to these schools is open to boys who have passed 
through the preparatory schools, and to volunteers between the 
ages of sixteen and twenty. Candidates must be of good moral 
character, and be able to read, write, and perform the four 
ground-rules of arithmetic. 



ONE -YEAR VOLUNTEEES. 205 

They must also engage to serve four years in the army after 
completing the course of study, which lasts three years. 

The course embraces the common branches, tactics, regula- 
tions, reports and returns, and such other subjects as are neces- 
sary to qualify the pupils for the position of clerk, sergeant- 
major, first-sergeant, and the other grades of non-commissioned 
officers. 

The military duties embrace all of the practical instruction 
in the different schools of the soldier, company, and battalion, 
required to qualify non-commissioned officers to command and 
to act as military instructors. 

Schools like the above are also established in Saxony and 
Wiirtemberg for their respective contingents. 

The artillery has its own special non-commissioned officers' 
schools, in the higher of which are taught mathematics, physics, 
German, science of artillery, fortification, plan and fortificatioa 
drawing. 

ONE-TEAK VOLUNTEERS. 

The one-year volunteers are composed of young men of edu- 
cation whose liability to military service in time of peace is lim- 
ited to one year, with a view to interfere as little as possible 
with their professional and business pursuits. 

To be eligible as volunteers they must be able to provide 
their food, lodging, and uniform, at their own expense. They 
must also present to an examining committee either a certificate 
from a German gymnasium that the candidate is qualified for 
admission to the university ; that he is in one of the two senior 
classes of a gymnasium or real school {Eealschule) ; the upper 
class of pro-gymnasium or first-class grammar-school ; that he 
has passed the final examination at a real school of the second 
class ; or that he has been one year at the cadet school at 
Berlin or Dresden. 

If the candidate cannot present one of the above certificates 
he must pass an equivalent examination before the committee, 
which is composed of two field-officers, the civil president of 
the Ober-Ersatz-Commission in the district to which the candi- 



206 ARMY OF GERMANY. 

date belongs, a civil member, and a director and instructor, or 
two instructors of a gymnasium, real school, or higher school. 

The certificate from either of the schools mentioned in- 
volves a previous course of study of six to seven years, embrac- 
ing mathematics, physics, languages, and the classics. 

Candidates are permitted to vohmteer between the ages of 
seventeen and twenty, and in time of peace select any year to 
serve between seventeen and twenty-three. In case of war 
they must present themselves immediately to the Ersatz-Com- 
missions of their districts for service with the army. If ac- 
cepted, volunteers are permitted to choose their arm of ser- 
vice, not more than four being assigned to any one company. 
They pursue a special course of instruction, and are not re- 
quired to sleep in barracks, nor to mess with the men. At the 
end of the year they undergo an examination, when those who 
possess the necessary qualifications are discharged with officers' 
certificates, and thus become available as officers of reserve. If 
not appointed officers of reserve, they become available, in case 
of war, as non-commissioned officers. 

The number of volunteers averages from 4,000 to 4,200 an- 
nually, of which number about 45 per cent, receive officers' 
certificates. Of those who served in the Austro-Prussian "War 
as high as 56 per cent, received the officers' certificate. 

The value of this system was proved at the beginning of 
the Franco-German "War in 1870, when the number of volun- 
teers, at the disposition of the Government, who had qualified 
as officers of reserve, was, for the — 

Infantry 5,143 

Eifles 65 

Cavalry 740 

Artillery 597 

Engineers 121 

Train 76 



Total 6,742 

This number embraced only those volunteers whose term of 



OFFICERS. 207 

service (six years) in the reserve had not yet expired. Those 
whose service had expired were still available for the subsequent 
five years as officers of Landwehr. 



OFFICEES. 

With the exception of a very few of the most meritorious 
cadets, called " Selecta," who are commissioned as officers on 
graduating from the cadet school at Berlin, all others, previous 
to being commissioned, must serve for a period of at least five 
or six months in the ranks. 

In this respect, the German system differs from that of aU 
other Continental countries, in which officers of all arms of ser- 
vice are for the most part commissioned directly upon graduat- 
ing from the various military schools and academies. 

Persons who aspire to the position of officers in the German 
service are termed "Avantageurs," and must be nominated 
either by the colonel of a regiment, or else have completed sat- 
isfactorily the second year's course at the cadet school at Berlin. 

Those nominated by the colonels constitute about 60 per 
cent, of all the officers of the army ; the remaining 40 per cent, 
come from the cadet school. 

The first requirement of a candidate is a good general edu- 
cation, as to which the Government may be satisfied, either by 
the production of a certificate from a gymnasium, or a real 
school, showing that the candidate is qualified for admission to 
a university, or by passing what is called the " Fahnrich's Ex- 
amination" before the Supreme Military Examination Com- 
mittee. 

In the case of those nominated by the colonels, applications 
to pass the examination must be made to the examination com- 
mittee through the colonel of the regiment in which the candi- 
date desires to serve, and the examination may be passed either 
before or after entering the service. The application to pass 
the examination must be accompanied by a certificate from a 
gymnasium or real school that the candidate is qualified to enter 
the senior class at one of these institutions. 



208 AEMY OF GEEMANT. 

The fahnricli's examination embraces tlie following sub- 
jects : 

German language and literature, 

Latin, 

French, 

Arithmetic, 

Geography, physical and political. 

Algebra, 

Geometry, 

Plane trigonometry. 

Ancient and modem history, 

Tree-hand and geometrical drawing, 
And any other subjects which the candidates may have studied. 

POETEPEE-FAHNEICH. 

Candidates who have passed the fahnrich's examination, 
have served at least five months in the ranks, and possess a ser- 
vice certificate from the colonel, showing that the candidate 
possesses the necessary niental and physical qualifications, that 
his conduct has been good, and that he is proficient in the duties 
of a private soldier and non-commissioned ofBcer, are eligible 
for promotion to the grade of " portep^e-fahnrich " or " ensign 
designate." After serving five months in this grade, they are 
sent to a war school to pursue a course of professional study. 

WAE SCHOOLS. 

There are ten of these schools, eight of which are in Prus- 
sia, one in Bavaria, and one in "Wiirtemberg. 

The staff of each generally consists of a field-officer, as 
commandant, an adjutant, a paymaster, 8 to 12 captains as in- 
structors in studies, and 6 to 8 officers charged with discipline 
and instruction in riding, gymnastics, and other exercises. The 
average number of scholars at each school is about 30. 

The course of study, which is purely professional, is from 
nine to ten months, and embraces — 



CADET SCHOOLS. 209 

Tactics, 

Science of arms, 

Munitions of war, 

Fortification, 

Topography, 

Surveying, 

Military regulations, 

Military correspondence. 
The practical exercises consist principally of — 

Drill, 

Eiding, 

Fencing, 

Gymnastics. 
At the conclusion of the course, an examination is held, 
when those who pass it successfully are recommended for pro- 
motion to the grade of officer. Those who fail are allowed a 
second examination after a period of three, six, or twelve 
months. While waiting for promotion, the candidate still holds 
the grade of fahnrich. 

The only persons exempted from pursuing the course at a 
war school, in addition to the " Selecta," are the members of the 
" Ober-Prima " class at the cadet school, and students who have 
completed one year's study at the North-German University. 
The latter, after a service of six months, are authorized to be 
appointed fahnrichs, and may present themselves at the officers' 
examination. If successful, they are placed on the same foot- 
ing as the fahnrichs who have studied at the war schools. 

CADET SCHOOLS. 

It has already been stated that about 60 per cent, of the 
German officers enter the service through the nomination of 
regimental commanders. The object of the cadet schools is to 
prepare the remaining 40 per cent, for the grade of fahnrich, 
preliminary to further service in the regiments and at the war 
schools. 

These schools consist of six preparatory schools at Potsdam, 

14 



210 ARMY OF GERMANY. 

Culm, "WaLlstadt, Bensberg, Ploen, and Oranienstein, and a 
central or finishing school at Berlin. 

The pupils at all of these schools constitute the cadet corps. 
The cadets are divided into two classes, paying cadets and king's 
cadets. The former pay $195 per annum, except the sons ot 
poor officers, who pay $112. The king's cadets pay from $22 
to $60 per annum. The king's cadets are usually the sons of 
officers, and distinguished non-commissioned officers, who have 
died in service, also sons of civilians who have performed meri- 
torious service to the state, involving personal danger. 

The number of paying cadets varies with the number of 
king's cadets to whom preference is given. Pensioners are ad- 
mitted according to priority of application. The total number 
of cadets is between 1,900 and 2,000. 

The cadet corps is commanded by a major-general. The 
preparatory schools are commanded by field-officers, who are 
assisted by a proper number of captains and subalterns as in- 
structors. Boys are admitted to the preparatory schools between 
the ages of ten and fifteen. 

The course of study is four years, and embraces — 

Latin, 

German, 

French, 

"Writing, 

Arithmetic, 

Elementary algebra and geometry. 

Ancient and modern history, 

Bible history, 

Natural philosophy, 

Drawing. 
The military instruction is exclusively practical, and consists 
of drill, gymnastics, and bayonet-exercise. 

The cadets at each school are organized into two compa- 
nies. The discipline is mild and paternal, being adapted to the 
tender age of the cadets, who rarely show signs of insubordi- 
nation. 



CENTRAL SCHOOL AT BERLIK. 211 



CENTEAL SCHOOL AT BEELIN. 

On completing the course at the preparatory schools cadets 
are transferred to the Central Cadet School (house), Berlin, 
where they remain two years. 

The course of study embraces — 

Algebra, 

Geometry, 

Trigonometry, 

Surveying, 

Science of arms, 

Tactics, 

Fortification, 

Drawing. 
The final examination takes place in March, when those of 
the first class who are qualified, and desire to go to their regi- 
ments, are given a certificate qualifying them for the position 
of fahnrieh. They must then serve in their regiments at least 
five months before going to a war school, where they are placed 
in all respects on the same footing as the " Avantageurs " or 
" fahnrichs " nominated by the colonels. 

Those of the first class who possess special merit, and have 
distinguished themselves in the studies, are termed " Selecta," 
and are permitted to remain a third year to pursue a profes- 
sional course almost identical with that described for the war 
schools. If, at the end of the course, they pass the prescribed 
officers' examination, they are recommended at once for com- 
missions. Those who fail must enter the regiments as fahn- 
richs, and subsequently go through the war schools. 

Those members of the first class who have not yet attained 
the age of seventeen, or are not sufficiently developed in 
physique to become fahnrichs, are permitted to continue their 
studies, and constitute a class called " Ober-Prima," or higher 
first. If, at the end of the course, they pass the prescribed offi- 
cers' examination, they are sent to regiment as fahnrichs, and, 
after six months' service in that grade, can be recommended for 
promotion as officers. 



212 AEMY OF GERMANY. 

In addition to all of tlie military qualifications before de- 
scribed, all candidates for commissioned oflScers, except the few- 
cadets termed " Selecta," must possess tbe social qualifications 
deemed essential for every officer, and these qualifications are 
determined by a vote of tbe officers of the regiment in which 
the candidate desires to serve. If the vote be adverse the 
candidate cannot be commissioned. Colonels generally satisfy 
themselves as to the sentiment of the officers before giving the 
Avantageurs their nomination. The right to veto a nomination 
is also given to officers of Landwehr battalions. , 

As to the relative advantage of the two methods pursued in 
preparing candidates for the grade of Fahnrich opinion in Ger- 
many seems divided, but the balance appears to be in favor of 
the nomination by colonels. 

It is certain that the six to seven years' course pursued at 
the cadet schools is so elementary in its nature that it cannot be 
deemed superior, if equal, to the course of the same length pur- 
sued at the gymnasia or real schools. Furthermore, the mili- 
tary discipline in these schools, which begins with boys from 
ten years of age upward, is so mild as to give the cadets but lit- 
tle idea of the stern duties required of a soldier. 

On the other hand, the Avantageurs, who are nominated by 
the colonels, must beat_leaat-sevent©en— years-of-age^at which 
period tka.^indj _s peculiar ly receptive. "Well prepared at the 
gymnasia, they readily acquire, in th"e"~teQ months' service in 
ranks, and as fahnrichs, the military proficiency of the cadets, 
and, as a rule, pursue with greater zeal the course at the war 
schools. The last fact is partly due to the natural feeling of 
cadets that they have become old soldiers, and that further in- 
struction is superfluous. 

It cannot be denied that the military and theoretical quali- 
fications required of candidates for appointment as officers are 
not so high as in some other European countries, yet this ine- 
quality is soon made to disappear by the subsequent course of 
training and discipline they receive. In a military sense they 
only begin to go to school when they receive their commis- 
sions. Annually they see nearly 150,000 ignorant recruits 



WAR ACADEMY, BERLIN. 213 

received into the army whojwithin three years, are to be con- 
vertedjato trainedjoldiers a na sent home in re^rve. 
■ ■""" Every year they must go progressively through the schools 
of the soldier, the company, battalion, and regiment, and review 
not only their own duties, but they must teach the soldier how 
to act intelligently, in every situation in the presence of the 
enemy. 

In the evolutions of brigades and divisions they see all the 
methods that may be adopted to attack or repel an attack of the 
enemy, and in the great manoeuvres they are permitted to study 
the principles of strategy and grand tactics, and to witness their 
practical application. 

The German officer is proud, not that he belongs to a par- 
ticular arm of service, but because he is a member of the " Offi- 
cers' Corps," in which he knows that advancement is sure if he 
proves himself worthy and efficient. 

The effect of giving officers the right of veto in the case of 
aspirants who are deficient in honor and social qualities, has 
made the corps of officers the most exclusive in the world, and, 
in the general acceptation of the term, has proved an insur- 
mountable barrier to promotion from the ranks. In theory, 
such promotion for distinguished gallantry exists, but in prac- 
tice the non-commissioned officers promoted are as a rule in- 
duced to quit the service by ofEers of civil employment. 

Eepressive of military enthusiasm as this policy must ap- 
pear, the Germans claim that their recent triumphs in three 
wars show that, so far as they are concerned, all they have lost 
by exclusiveness has been more than counterbalanced by the 
high general attainments of their officers, a ad the feeling of 
professional pride which makes them prefer death to dishonor. 

WAB ACADEMY, BEELnj. 

The object of the "War Academy is to educate officers for the 
stafE and to hold high commands. 

Admission to it is by competitive examination, held annual- 
ly in each army corps before a committee composed of the chief 
of staff as president, and several other field-officers or captains. 



214 AEMY OF GERMANY. 

The examination is written, and embraces — 
Geography, 
Algebra, 
Geometry, 
Trigonometry, 
History, 

Military administration, 
French. 

A series of themes is also proposed, from which one may 
be selected by each candidate. The object of these themes, or 
compositions, is to enable the candidate to show his literary and 
scientific acquirements. These compositions are prepared at 
leisure, and submitted to the committee on the day appointed 
for examination. 

The general knowledge of the military art is tested by writ- 
ing a theme treating of the movements and dispositions to be 
adopted by detachments of mixed troops in conducting certain 
offensive or defensive operations with a given object in view. 

The conditions stated in the theme of 1876 were as fol- 
lows: 

The evening of July 1st a colonel, with a detachment of 
two battalions of infantry, two squadrons of cavalry, and a bat- 
tery of artillery, arrives to the north of Mariendorf. His object 
is to give the feeble garrison of Berlin, consisting of one bri- 
gade, time to prepare for defense by disputing as long as pos- 
sible the enemy who is advancing by Gross-Machnow and 
Konigs-Wusterhausen, his advanced guards being established 
along the line of the Marienfeld-Buckow road. Another de- 
tachment guards the road from Britz. 

The candidate is required in his theme to state the orders 
the colonel would give for the 2d of July, his intentions and 
ulterior views, and also indicate on a map the various positions 
that would be occupied by the troops. 

The time allowed in the preparation of the theme is three 
hours. 

Applications to compete must receive the approval of the 
colonels of regiments, and are addressed to the general com- 



WAR ACADEMY, BERLIN. 215 

manding the corps to which the regiment of the candidate be- 
longs, or within whose territory the officer may be serving. 

The application must be accompanied by a copy of the report 
of the officer's character and services, from which it must appear 
that he has had practical service and has shown himself pos- 
sessed of aptitude for it ; that he has a genuine desire to in- 
crease his professional knowledge ; and that he is in sufficiently 
good health to denote long service ; and that he possesses suffi- 
cient character and firmness to indicate that the freedom he 
will enjoy at Berlin will not be injurious to him. The other 
conditions relate to the officer's financial affairs, which must be 
above reproach. 

On a day designated the candidates assemble at corps head- 
quarters, when each submits to the examining committee a 
sketch of his personal history, written in French and German, 
stating in what manner he qualified for the examination of 
Fahnrich ; he also submits a sketch certified to have been exe- 
cuted by himself, which is intended to show his knowledge of 
drawing. 

The time to be given to each subject is fixed by the committee 
of studies at the War Academy at Berlin, and the examination 
is conducted in the presence of one or more members of the 
examining committee. No books are allowed to be consulted 
during the examination except a table of logarithms in mathe- 
matics, and a dictionary in French. 

As soon as each candidate finishes a subject he submits his 
paper to the officer in charge, who indorses upon it the time 
occupied in writing it. On the conclusion of the examination, 
the committee makes a report showing the names of all the 
competitors, the time required by each in his examination in the 
different subjects, the names of the competitors who have sub- 
mitted the compositions already referred to, as also those who 
have failed to do so, and adds such further remarks as it may 
deem advisable. This report, accompanied by all of the papers 
submitted by each candidate to the committee, together with 
his written examination in each subject, is forwarded to the 
War Academy at Berlin, where an examination by the commit- 



216 



ARMY OF GERMANY. 



tee of studies determines who are the successful candidates. The 
course of study is three years, beginning each year the 1st of 
October and ending the 1st of July. During the months of 
July, August, and September, the students return to their regi- 
ments. 

The total number of officers present in 1876 was 300. 

The supervision of the Academy is vested in the chief of 
the general staflf. The commandant is a general officer. The 
corps of professors is composed of officers and civilians. The 
officers are nearly all members of the general staff, who teach 
mostly professional subjects. The civil professors teach the 
languages, higher mathematics, and the sciences. 

The method of instruction is wholly by lecture, and subse- 
quently by interrogation. 

In subjects like military history or applied tactics, a student, 
when interrogated, is subject to correction by either his in- 
structor or any of the students. If he makes any mistake or 
commits an error in posting troops, his fellow-students are quick 
to point it out and to apply the remedy. 

The object of the instruction is less to acquire positive 
knowledge than to develop the habit of thinking, so as to 
insure action from foresight rather than impulse. 

The following table shows the subjects taught, and the 
number of lessons per week : 

Obligatory Studies. 



SDBJECTS. 

Tactics 

Applied tactics 

History of wars (military history) . . . 

Artillery 

Field-fortiflcation 

Permanent fortification 

Attacic and defense of fortresses 

Topography 

Duties of the general staff 

Military geography 

Military administration 

Military hvgiene 

Mathematics 



Tear. 


1st year. 


2d " 


1st " 


2d " 


8d " 


Ist " 


1st " 


2d " 


8d " 


2d " 


8d " 


2d " 


2d " 


ad " 


1st " 



No, of Lessons 
per "Waek. 



WAR ACADEMY, BERLIN. 



217 



Optional Studi 

SUBJECTS. 

Higher mathematicB 

(I u 

Geodesy 

Ancient history and lilstoty of the middle ages 

History of literature 

Modern and contemporary history 

Geography (general) 

Physical geography 

Chemistry 

Experimental philosophy 

French 

Russian 



No.ofLei«OEB 
per Week, 



2d year. 

8d " 

8d " 

Ist " 

8d " 

2d " 

1st " 

1st " 

3d " 

2d " 

1st " 

2d " 

3d " 

1st " 

2d " 

8d " 



Of the optional studies students are required to select one 
or more, wMcli then become obligatory. 

The number of lessons per week is not invariable, and may 
be changed slightly when necessary. 

An examination of the obligatory studies shows the impor- 
tance attached to the study of professional subjects after officers 
enter the service. 

Ever mindful of the national reputation, and anxious to 
achieve success with the least loss of life, the German Govern- 
ment specially provides that all officers who may hold high 
command, or who as stafE officers may be responsible for the 
guidance and movements of troops in battle, shall learn the 
principles of war in time of peace. To this end, during the 
first year, four hours per week are given to theoretical tac- 
tics or the movements of troops as laid down in drill-books for 
the different arms of service. The second year four hours 
per week are given to applied tactics, or the art of posting 
and manoeuvring troops according to the configuration of the 
ground. 

To the history of wars, which embraces all of the details and 
strategical principles of the great campaigns of history, together 
with the tactical principles applied to battles, more than twice 
as much time is devoted as to any other subject. 

In addition, the third year, three hours per week are devoted 



218 AEMY OF GERMANY. 

to learning the duties of tlie general staff in reference to plans 
of campaigns, the movements of troops, and the orders to be 
given from day to day as the vrar progresses. 

Military geography is also carefully studied with a view to 
knowing all of the lines of communications, strategic points, 
and lines of defense, of various countries. At small expense 
the German Government educates annually a hundred officers 
in the duties pertaining to high command, and every nation in 
Europe has vindicated her wisdom by adopting as far as practi- 
cable the methods she has pursued. 

At the end of the three years' course the officers return to 
their regiments without examination, but the record of each is 
forwarded to the chief of staff, with a view to calling the most 
proficient officers of the class to the general staff, 

GENEEAL STAFF. 

The first condition for admission to the general staff is that 
an officer shall be a graduate of the "War Academy. After re- 
turning to their regiments, ten or twelve of the most proficient 
of each class are transferred for a period of six months to an- 
other arm of service. If they acquit themselves well, they are 
at the expiration of this term summoned to Berlin, where, on 
probation, they are assigned to general staff duty. At the end 
of this term they are again sent back to their regiments, short- 
ly after which those who are regarded as qualified are named 
captains of the staff, and are sent into the army to serve three 
years as staff officers. They are then sent back to the line and 
required to command a company, battery, or squadron, before 
being promoted to the grade of major. Only the grades of 
field-officer and above are permanent, the promotions in these 
grades being by seniority. 

In order, however, to preserve the habit of command, and 
to keep them in sympathy with the troops, staff officers before 
each promotion are required to return to the line, and to hold 
for a year a command corresponding to their rank. 

The system of staff selection and promotion is specially de- 



GENERAL STAFF. 219 

signed to increase professional knowledge and to enable the 
Government to call the most highly-educated officers to the 
highest posts in the army. 

The most rapid step in promotion is to the grade of major, 
to attain which an officer, from what has been said, must have 
served three years in the line, three at the War Academy, six 
months in an arm differing from his own, two years on proba- 
tion at Berlin, and three years on the staff in the army ; mak- 
ing a total of at least eleven and a half years. 

Once in the general staff, the promotion goes on by seniority 
to the grade of colonel, and afterward by selection to the grades 
of general. 

While the selection of generals is not limited to the staff, 
one of the best tests of the system of German military educa- 
tion lies in the fact that, at the outbreak of the Franco-German 
War, every general in the Prussian army was a graduate of the 
War Academy. 

The staff system does not necessarily exclude favoritism, 
which may be shown in the first instance in the admission of a 
candidate to the War Academy, and again in selecting the ten or 
twelve of each class who are called on probation to Berlin ; but 
it reduces the evils of favoritism, if they exist, to the minimum, 
by requiring of the officers so advanced a thorough professional 
training. ^ 

The operations of the general staff are entirely independent 
of the Minister of War, and are directed by the chief of staff. 

The general staff is divided into the " Haupt-Iltat," or main 
branch, and " Neben-Etat," or accessory branch. 

The main branch is again divided into the " great general 
staff in Berlin " and the " general staff with the troops." 

The general duties of the great general staff are to collect 
information regarding the organization, tactics, and armament 
of foreign armies, the present and projected lines of railway, 
and other lines of communication in foreign countries ; to pre- 
pare plans of campaign, and to arrange aU of the details for the 
mobilization, movements, and concentration of troops in differ- 
ent theatres of war, either within or exterior to the empire. 



220 ARMY OF GERMANY. 

The duties are transacted in bureaux and sections, as fol- 
lows: 

1. The Central Bureau is charged with all matters relating 
to the personnel of the staff — the survey, War Academy, and 
the Eailway Regiment. It is presided over by the first adju- 
tant of the chief of staff, who has the rank of colonel, and is 
assisted by a captain and eight other officers. 

2. The three sections and the Intelligence Bureau : 

The First Section collects all information in reference to 
the organization, tactics, armament, and mobilization, of the 
armies of Norway and Sweden, Russia, Turkey, Austria, Den- 
mark, Greece, and Asia. It likewise collects geographical in- 
formation, and notes any changes in the fortifications and lines 
of communication of any of the above countries. 

The Second Section collects the same information in refer- 
ence to Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. 

The Third Section does the same in reference to France, 
England, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Portugal, and America. 

The information collected by these sections is mostly pro- 
cured by the military attaches at foreign courts. It is system- 
atically arranged, and, in order that it may be of benefit to 
the army, summaries of the armed strength of the different na- 
tions are from time to time distributed by the sections to all 
officers of the general staff. 

Each section is presided over by a field-officer as chief, who 
is assisted by ten or eleven other officers, and a registrar. 

The " Intelligence Bureau " keeps always in readiness the 
most recent information relative to foreign armies, and proba- 
ble theatres of war, which is prepared by the three sections. 
It is presided over by a field-officer, who is assisted by a regis' 
trar. 

3. The Railway Section is charged with everything pertain- 
ing to the transport of troops and military stores by rail. The 
officers of this section work out all the details of moving troops 
by rail, the time required to transport them, and the lines to be 
used in concentrating armies for war. To this end they are re- 
quired to know the capacity of the different lines of railway 



GENERAL STAFF. 221 

botli at home and abroad, and to keep themselves posted as to 
all new lines of railway, and also their strategic value. 

The duties of this section are considered so important, in 
view of their influence in effecting the speedy concentration of 
armies, that all officers of the general staff are required to serve 
in it. The chief of the section is a field-officer, who is assisted 
by twenty-six officers and a registrar. 

The accessory branch, or Neben-Jitat, is charged mostly 
with scientific duties, and is entirely separate, as regards pro- 
motion, from the general staff. The officers composing it are 
borne either as supernumeraries of the general staff, or, if de- 
tailed from the line, they are borne as supernumeraries in their 
regiments. Officers of this branch are not necessarily graduates 
of the "War Academy. 

The accessory branch is divided into five sections, with du- 
ties as follows : 

1. The Section of Milita/ry History collects and arranges all 
information bearing on military history, and prepares descrip- 
tions of present and past campaigns. It is presided over by a 
chief, who is assisted by fourteen officers. 

2. The Geographical Statistical Section collects all geo- 
graphical and statistical knowledge relating to foreign countries 
and theatres of war, prepares reports showing their resources, 
circulates among the officers of the general staff all statistical 
and geographical information, and corrects to date military 
maps of Germany and foreign countries. 

A field-officer presides over the section, who is assisted by 
two captains of the accessory branch and three attached officers. 

3. The Trigonometrical Section is charged with the triangu- 
lation of Prussia. 

4. The Topographical Section is charged with the topo- 
graphical survey of Prussia. 

5. The Cartographical Section is charged with the prepara- 
tion and correction of maps to date, and supplies maps to the 
army. 

The total number of officers of both branches doing duty at 
Berlin is seventy-four. 



222 ARMY OF GERMANY. 

The duties of the general staff with the troops are to attend 
to the distribution and quartering of troops ; to study the lines 
of march at home and abroad ; to regulate the marches ; to as- 
sist in drawing up plans for manoeuvres; the examination of 
lines of communication ; collection of political intelligence and 
all information procurable relating to neighboring armies ; mat- 
ters not technical, relating to artillery and engineers ; arma- 
ment and provisioning of fortresses ; collection of geographical 
and topographical information ; preparation of plans of cam- 
paign, and generally collection and arrangement of such infor- 
mation as may be of value to their commanders in conducting 
the operations of their troops. 

To enable officers of the general staff to concentrate their 
attention upon the higher duties of their position, and to re- 
lieve them from the drudgery of mere routine and office work, 
officers called adjutants are specially detailed from the line 
for a period of from three to four years. If these officers are 
captains, they are replaced in their regiments, and become su- 
pernumerary ; if first-lieutenants, the number of second-lieuten- 
ants is increased to fill the vacancies. 

The general duties of the adjutants are to issue the daily 
orders ; to regulate details for guards ; issue paroles and coun- 
tersigns ; to prepare morning returns and reports ; to attend to 
promotions, applications for leave, transfers, rewards and pun- 
ishments, recruiting, and requisitions for men from the re- 
serve ; to transact business connected with the Landwehr and 
the organization of new levies ; and also such other details as 
pertain to keeping the command supplied with all of the mate- 
riel and munitions of war. 

It wiU be observed that all of the foregoing duties are of a 
mere routine character, demanding no special professional train- 
ing in the officers who perform them ; yet it is only within the 
last few years that in foreign armies they have been carefully 
separated from duties of the general staff officer, who gives all 
of his attention to the direction and movements of troops. 

The organization of the main branch of the general staff is 
as follows : 



PROMOTION". 223 

1 Chief of staff — field-marslial, 

19 Chiefs of section, and chiefs of staff of army corps, usual- 
ly of the grade of colonel, 

59 Field-officers, 

32 Captains. 

The accessory branch is composed of — 
1 Chief of survey, ranking as a brigade commander, 
5 Chiefs of sections, usually colonels, 
8 Field-officers, 

22 Captains. 

As a means of providing officers for staff duty in time of 
war there are annually attached to the great general staff from 
forty to fifty officers from the line who have either passed 
through the War Academy, or are otherwise qualified for the 
detail. 

At the end of the year's probation they pass an examina- 
tion, and if qualified are recommended for staff employment on 
the occurrence of vacancies. 

In time of war the officers of the great general staff repair 
to the field, where they are assigned to the staffs of the several 
armies. 

The officers of the accessory branch remain at Berlin. 

PROMOTION. 

Promotions are made both by selection and by seniority, no 
precise limit being fixed. The Emperor is free to advance or 
retard the promotion of an officer according to his pleasure. 

Promotions are based upon the personal reports of all offi- 
cers, which are forwarded every two years for the grades be- 
low field-officer, and annually for the grades of field-officers 
and above. Colonels make the reports in regard to the officers 
of their regiments, and when they are adverse they are supposed 
to notify the officers concerned. General officers make reports 
upon the field-officers. 

The reports state in detail the character, capacity, and quali- 
fications of the officers, and are transmitted to a chief of bureau 
at Berlin, where, after being arranged, an abstract is made out 



224 AKMY OF GEKMANT. 

for the Emperor, showing what oflBcers merit special promotion, 
officers who are not qualified for advancement, and also the 
officers who are qualified for stafE duty, adjutant, aide-de-camp, 
and other detached service. 

Promotion to the grade of captain is by regiment in the in- 
fantry, artillery, and cavalry ; by battalion in the rifles ; and 
by corps in the engineers. 

Promotion to major in the infantry is regimental, but sub- 
ject to many exceptions ; in the rifles, artillery, cavalry, engi- 
neers, and train, it takes place by arm. 

The promotion to the grades of lieutenant-colonel, and colo- 
nel, is mostly by seniority and by arm. 

The object of promotion by selection is to hasten the ad- 
vancement of all capable and deserving officers to the respon- 
sible grades of the army. Officers passed over once or twice 
usually retire from the service. 

PUNISHMENTS. 

As in all other foreign armies, discipline is largely main- 
tained by confiding to officers in command of regiments, bat- 
talions, companies, and detachments, the power to administer 
summary punishment for minor offenses. These punishments 
consist usually of arrests, confinements, extra duty, and depri- 
vation of control of pay. 

Serious offenses are punished by sentence of court-martial. 



AEMT OF FEAI^OE. 



The Freneli army was established on its present basis by 
the laws of March 13, and December 15, 1875. 

The term " cadre," as used in the law, and as applied to a 
regiment, signifies all of the officers, hospital stewards, musi- 
cians, clerks, armorers, tailors, shoemakers, etc., belonging to 
the regiment. It constitutes, in fact, the framework of the regi- 
ment, which, to be completed, requires only the addition of the 
private soldiers who fill up the ranks. 

The following table represents the strength of the army on 
the peace-footing : 



ABM. 

Infantry 

ChaBBeurs &pied 

Zouaves 

Algerian rifles 

Foreign Legion 

Light infantry (African) 

Fire companieB of discipline . 

Total 

CAVALRY. 

CniraBBiers 

Dragoons 

Light cavalry. 

ChaSBenrs d^Afrique 

SaphiB 

Volunteer Bconts 

Remount cavalry 

Total 

16 



Regiments, 



144 



ISl 



6T6 
30 
16 
12 
4 



641 



Depot 
CompaDlen. 



80 
4 



Officers and MeD. 



286,304 
18,240 
10,820 
8,505 
2,529 
4,143 
1,560 



281,601 



Regiments. 



12 
26 
32 



Field 
Squadrona. 



48 
104 
128 
16 
12 



Depot 
Squadroni. 



12 

26 



!• 58,100 

4,148 
8,47T 

One to each corps raised only in time of war. 
~ companies 2,892 



OfScen and Men. 



84 I 



68,617 



226 



ARMY OF FRANCE. 



ARTILLEEY. 


E«si- 
ments. 


Foot 
Batteriea. 


Mounted 
Eatteries. 


Hone 
Batteries. 


Compa- 
nies, 


Depot 
Batteries. 


Officers and Men. 


Special staff of artillery 


"19 
19 
2 


"57 


'152 
152 


"ST 


.*. .. 

28 
10 
8 
5T 


"as 

88 


1,895 
2T,989 


Corps artillery 


27,808 

8,012 

1,860 

815 


Artillery pontoniers 

"Workmen (mechanics) 




5,142 
760 








Total 


40 


5T 


S04 


57 


93 


W 


67,726 





ENOINEERS. 


Keglments, 


Battalions. 


Companies, 


Depot 


OtScers and Men. 


Special staff of engineers 


'"4 


"26 


"24 


"4 


1,354 
10,960 


Sappers and miners 




Total 


4 


20 


24 


4. 


12,814 






TRAINS. 


Squadrons. 


Companies. 


Officers end Men. 


Military train . . . 


20 


60 
12 


6,748 
8 649 












Total 




TO 












•- 





STAEF, ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, ETC. 



Officers and Men. 



General officers ; staff and administrative departments corresponding to our adju- 
tant-general's, quartermaster's, commissary, and medical departments ; military 
schools ; recruiting service, remount depots, etc 



28,657 



Gendarmerie 

Grand total. 



27,014 



490,821 



INTANTET. 



The influence of the Franco-German War in producing 
modifications in military organization is nowhere more percep- 
tible than in the French infantry. 

Previous to the war it was divided into infantry of the guard, 
and infantry of the line. 

The infantry of the guard was composed of — 

Y Kegiments of 3 battalions of 6 companies each, with 3 
companies as regimental depot. 

1 Battalion of chasseurs a pied (rifles) of 10 companies. 

1 Regiment of zouaves of 2 battalions of 6 companies each, 
with a depot of 2 companies — ^numbering in all 24 battalions and 
171 companies. 

The infantry of the line was composed of — 



INFANTEY. 227 

100 Eegiments of 3 field and 1 depot battalion of 6 compa- 
nies each (2,400 companies). 

20 Battalions of chasseurs of 8 companies each (160 com- 
panies). 

3 Eegiments of zouaves of 3 field and 1 depot battalion, with 
27 companies to each regiment (81 companies). 

3 Battalions of light infantry (African) of 5 companies each 
(15 companies). 

3 Eegiments of tirailleurs (rifles) of 4 battalions of 7 compa- 
nies each (84 companies). 

1 Eegiment of " sapeurs pompier " of 2 battalions of 6 com- 
companies each (12 companies). 

1 Foreign Legion of 4 battalions of 8 companies each (32 
companies). 

7 Companies of discipline. 

Grand total, 477 battalions, 2,962 companies. 

Subsequent to the war the guard was suppressed, and, by 
the laws of March 13, and December 15, 1875, the infantry was 
made to consist of — 

144 Eegiments of the line of 4 battalions of 4 companies 
each, with 2 companies as regimental depot. 

30 Battalions of chasseurs k pied of 4 companies each, with 1 
company as battalion depot. 

4 Eegiments of zouaves of 4 battalions of 4 companies each, 
with 2 companies as regimental depot. 

3 Eegiments of tirailleurs (Algerian) of 4 battalions of 4 com- 
panies each, with 1 company as regimental depot. 

1 Foreign Legion of 4 battalions of 4 companies. 

3 Battalions of African light infantry, the number of com- 
panies in each being fixed by the Minister of "War. 

6 Companies of discipline. 

The principal change effected by the recent laws was the 
conversion of the depot battalions of the line and other regi- 
ments into a fourth field battalion, and the substitution of four 
companies for six in the composition of a battalion. 

The total number of battalions under the present organiza- 



228 



ARMY OF FRANCE. 



tion is 641, total number of companies 2,904, being an increase 
of 164 battalions, and a decrease of 68 companies. 

The cadre of a company and depot company is as follows : 



CADRB OF COMPANY, AND DEPOT COMPANY. 

Captain 

First-lieatenant 

Seoond-lieutenont 

Total officers 

Firflt-sergeant 

Commissary-sergeant 

Sergeants 

Corporals 

Drummers and trnmpeterB 

Total men 

Total cadre 

Privates 

Total depot company 



Compnoy. 



Depot 
Company. 



16 



85 



66 



In the strength of each company are included 1 shoemaker, 
1 tailor, and 2 pioneers. 

In time of war the cadre of the active companies is increased 
by 1 lieutenant (officer of complement), 4 sergeants, 1 commis- 
sary-corporal, 8 corporals, and 2 musicians. 

The cadre of a battalion, exclusive of field, staff, and non- 
commissioned staff, is as follows : 

Officers 12 

Non-commissioned officers and musicians 64 

Total cadre 76 

Privates 264 

Total battalion 340 

The cadre of a regiment is as follows :- 

Colonel I 

Lieutenant-colonel 1 

Majors, battalion commanders 4 

Major, chief of administration 1 



INFANTRY, 



229 



Surgeon, first class 

Captains, adjutants 

Captain, paymaster 

Clothing-officer 

Lieutenant, assistant paymaster. 

Ensign 

Surgeon, second class 

Assistant surgeon 

Chief musician 



1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Total. 



19 



Non-commissioned staff, and non-combatants — 

Sergeant-majors 

Drum-major 

Corporals, drummers, or trumpeters 

Sapper-corporal 

Sappers 

Assistant chief musician 

Musicians 

Quartermaster-sergeant 

Chief armorer 

Fencing-master (sergeant). 

' 1 Paymaster's clerk, 
1 Assistant paymaster's clerk, 
1 Storekeeper (clothing), 
1 Commissary-sergeant, 

1 Paymaster's clerk, 

2 Clerks to clothing and ord- 
nance officer, 

1 Assistant fencing-master, 

1 Hospital steward, 

1 Train-conductor, 

1 Master-armorer, 

1 Master-tailor, 

1 Master-shoemaker, 



Sergeants, 



Corporals, 



i 
1 
4 
1 

12 
1 

38 
1 
1 
1 



230 



AEMY OF FEANOE. 



Privates, 



1 Colonel's clerk, 

1 Administrative officer's 

clerk, 
1 Paymaster's clerk, 
1 Assistant paymaster's clerk, 
1 Clerk to clothing-officer, 
4 Armorers, 
3 Tailors, 
3 Shoemakers, 
1 Conductor of led horses, 
1 Driver to each one-horse carriage, or pack-mule. 
Total 

Total field, staff, non-commissioned staff, etc. 

FOUE BATTALIONS. 

Officers 

Sergeants, corporals, and musicians 

Total cadre 

Privates 

Total of four battalions 



16 



93 
~U2 



48 
256 

"304 
1,056 



1,360 



DEPOT, TWO COMPANIES. 



Officers . . . 

Sergeants, corporals, and musicians 



Total cadre. 
Privates 



Total depot 

TOTAL EEGIMENTAL CADEE. 



Officers 

Non-commissioned officers, etc. 



Total 

Privates 

Total regiment . 



6 

32 

38 
132 



73 
381 

454 

1,188 

1,642 



BRIGADE.— DIVISION.— AEMY CORPS. 231 

The organization of the battalions of chasseurs, as also that 
of the regiments of zouaves, tirailleurs, the Foreign Legion, and 
the battalions of African light infantry, which compose the 
nineteenth corps serving in Algeria, varies so slightly from the 
organization of the infantry of the line, that it need not be 
stated. 

The laws establish only the cadres in peace and war, and 
the number of privates below which the army in time of peace 
shall not be reduced. 

The number of privates in time of war is not prescribed, 
but each infantry company may be increased in its effective to 
4 officers, and 250 or more men. 

The active army in time of war may be raised as high as 
880,000 men. 

BRIGADE. 

The brigade of infantry is composed of the staff, and 2 
regiments of infantry, numbering 8 battalions. 

DIVISION. 

A division of infantry consists of the staff, and 2 brigades 
of infantry (16 battalions). 

AEMT COEPS. 

An army corps consists of — 

1. Staff, and administrative services. 

2. 2 Divisions of infantry (32 battalions), and a battalion of 
chasseurs, which is attached to one of the brigades. 

3. 1 Brigade of cavalry (2 regiments of 4 field-squadrons 
each). 

4. 1 Brigade of artillery, composed of 2 regiments, the first 
of which consists of 3 foot, 8 mounted, and 2 depot batteries ; 
the second of 8 mounted, 3 horse, and 2 depot batteries. In 
addition, 3 companies of artillery-train. 

5. 1 Battalion of engineers. 



233 AKMT OF PEANCE. 

6. 1 Company of volunteer scouts (raised only in time of 
war). 

7. 1 Squadron (3 companies) military train. 

TEKErrOEIAL COMMAITOS. 

The territory of France, for the purpose of recruiting and 
mobilization, is divided into 18 regions, corresponding to the 
18 army corps. 

Algeria constitutes a region by itself, corresponding to the 
nineteenth corps. 

The regions are again divided into eight or more " sub- 
divisions." 

Each region, in case of mobilization, is required to provide 
the men necessary to raise the army corps within its limits 
to the war-footing, and to supply all needfid transportation, 
equipments, and munitions of war. 

Each subdivision is required to supply the men needed to 
raise a regiment of infantry to the war-footing, and also to raise 
one regiment of three battalions of the army territoriale. It 
also supplies its proportion of the personnel of the artillery, and 
other special arms, maintained within the region. 

EECEUrrMENT. 

The law of obligatory service obtains in France the same 
as in other Continental countries. 

The period of service is — 

Five years in the regular army ; four years in the reserve of 
the regular army ; five years in the army territoriale ; six years 
in the reserve of the army territoriale — making a total of 
twenty years. 

The details of recruitment are much the same as in Italy and 
Austria. 

In each subdivision there is a permanent bureau of recruit- 
ment, usually superintended by a retired officer of the army, 
who, during the time so employed, receives full pay. 

The bureau is composed of : 

1 Field-officer, or captain, as commandant. 



EEORUITMENT. 233 

1 Captain, "| 

1 Lieutenant, i 

3 Sergeants i I^^partment of recruiting and mobilization. 

1 Corporal, J 

1 Captain, ) . t • . . ■, ^ ,. i 

^ J . , ( Administrative personnel oi troops of the 

-, a J. \ army territoriale. 

1 oergeant, ) ■' 

The bureaux of subdivisions are under the control of the 
generals of brigade and division within their several regions. 

The annual contingent, approximating 140,000 to 150,000 
men, is divided into the "first" and "second portions," which 
vary with the financial condition of the country. The " first 
portion " consists of about 85,000 men, who are required to 
serve five years with the colors ; but, in practice, are sent 
into reserve after the expiration of four years, giving them 
five years iu reserve instead of four. The " second portion," 
which consists of the remainder of the contingent after the de- 
duction of the first portion, is required to serve in the ranks 
only the time necessary to acquire instruction iu the practical 
duties of the soldier, and this period has been fixed from six to 
twelve months. After its expiration, the men go into reserve 
for the remainder of nine years. 

The relative strength of the " first " and " second portions " 
is fixed by the Minister of War, according to the state of 
finances. In 1868, when the annual contingent was habitually 
100,000 men, 68,500 were assigned to the infantry. Of this 
number, 44,000 constituted the first portion, and 24,500 the 
second portion. 

In 1872 the annual contingent was 146,000. Of this num- 
ber, 101,519 were assigned to the infantry, 52,272 constituting 
the first portion, and the remainder 49,247 the second. 

In 1874 the contingent was 142,168, of which number 68 
per cent, constituted the first, and 32 per cent, the second por- 
tion. 

Deducting 9,000 non-combatants, the " first portion " in 
1874 numbered 85,500 men, and was distributed to the various 
arms as follows : infantry, 52,700 ; cavalry, 14,360 ; artillery, 



234 ARMY OF FRANCE. 

12,550 ; engineers, 900 ; military train, 2,240 ; administrative 
corps, 2,850. 

The " second portion," numbering 48,278, was distributed 
to the infantry, 37,498 ; artillery, 6,556 ; trains of artillery, 
2,023 ; military train, ^,207. 

In addition to the annual contingent, composed of men 
drafted into the army, from 10,000 to 11,000 young men, on 
the German principle, are allowed to volunteer for one year, 
and the contingent is further increased by from 12,000 to 
15,000 men, who voluntarily enlist for five years. 

Assuming the average annual strength of the " first portion " 
to be 85,200, and the " second portion " 48,000, the average 
strength of the army in time of peace may be estimated as fol- 
lows : 

First portion (four classes) . . . 340,000 
Second portion (one class) .... 48,000 
Yolunteers for one year .... 10,000 

Volunteers for five years (four classes) . 48,000 

Foreign and Algerian troops . . . 13,600 

Officers, employes, etc. .... 28,000 



487,600 

Deducting 10 per cent, for losses by death and disability, 

the reserve will be composed approximately as follows : 

First portion, five classes, of 74,250 each . 371,250 

Second portion, eight classes, of 43,200 each 345,600 

Yolunteers of one year, eight classes . 90,000 



806,850 
Of this number, nearly one-half are soldiers who have been 
trained four years, while the remainder have been drilled from 
six to twelve months. 

The infantry on the peace-footing numbers, as has been 
stated, 281,000, with the companies increased to 250 men each ; 
the war-footing numbers 643,750. 

The armed strength on a war-footing is estimated as fol- 
lows: 



AEMY TEEBITOEIALE. 235 

Eegular army in the field . . . 880,000 
Battalions, batteries, etc., of the regular 

army remaining in France . . 50,000 
Depot troops (companies estimated at 500 

each) 220,000 

Army territoriale .... 560,000 

Depot troops, army territoriale . . 20,000 

1,730,000 

AEMY TEEBITOEIALE. 

As soon as the men complete nine years' service in the army, 
and reserve, they are transferred for five years to the army ter- 
ritoriale, and after its expiration are transferred for six years to 
the reserve of the army territoriale, when their liability to mili- 
tary duty ceases. 

The army territoriale embraces troops of all arms, and is 
organized substantially on the same basis as the regular army. 

Each subdivision of the 18 regions furnishes 1 regiment of 
infantry, composed of 3 battalions of 4 companies each, with 1 
company as depot. 

The subdivision of Aix furnishes two regiments of infantry 
instead of one. 

The cadre of the staff, and non-commissioned staff of the 
regiments, also the cadres of the battalions and companies, are 
identical with the corresponding cadres in the regular army, 
except that each regiment is commanded by a lieutenant-colonel. 

The troops of the other arms are furnished by region. 

When the organization is completed, the troops of the army 
territoriale wiU consist of — 
145 Eegiments of infantry. 

18 Eegiments of artillery (one to each region). 

18 Battalions of engineers (one to each region, the number 
of companies not being fixed). 

18 Squadrons of military train. 

72 Squadrons of cavalry. 

The number of cavalry to be raised in each region depends 
upon the number of horses within its limits. The figure 72 is 



236 AEMT OF FKANOE. 

based upon the supposition that, on the average, each region will 
furnish four squadrons. 

The law also authorizes squadrons of volunteer cavalry to be 
raised, to be composed partly of volunteers, and partly of sol- 
diers of the army territoriale, provided the men mount and 
equip themselves at their own expense. 

The rolls of the army territoriale are kept at the bureaux of 
the various subdivisions, and all of the business connected with 
its recruitment and mobilization is transacted by the officers 
and men composing the bureaux. 

OFFIOEES OF EESEEVE. 

The officers of reserve are mostly nominated from — 

1. General officers, retired, who request employment. 

2. Officers of the army, and marines, retired after twenty-five 
years' service, up to the time they would have completed thirty 
years' service ; also such officers retired after thirty years' ser- 
vice as request employment. 

3. Officers of marines, unemployed, who desire to serve in 
the reserve. 

4. Such officers of the army, and marines, as having resigned, 
are within the age when men are liable to nine j^ears' service 
in the army and reserve ; also such as having passed this age 
request to be employed. 

5. Former pupils of the Polytechnic School. 

6. Yolunteers of one year, and officers of the late garde na- 
tionale. 

7. Former non-commissioned officers of the army who have 
not yet completed their period in reserve, and have been recom- 
mended by their chiefs of corps as capable of becoming officers 
had they remained in the army. 

8. Former non-commissioned officers of the national guard, 
still subject to duty in the reserve, who possess the required 
qualifications. 

Officers of reserve are assigned to regiments by the Minister 
of "War, and receive pay only when called to attend manoeuvres, 
and when otherwise actively employed. 



OFFICERS OF THE ARMY TERRITORIALE. 237 

On completing the period within which they are liable to 
service in the reserve, they may be continued in the reserve on 
their application, approved by the Minister of War. If they 
possess the desired qualifications, they may also continue in re- 
serve on their own application after the expiration of twenty 
years' service. 

OFFIOEES OF THE AEMT TEEEnOEIAXE. 

Like the reserve, the officers of the army territoriale are se- 
lected partly from the officers of the army and marines who 
have retired or have resigned, also from the officers of reserve, 
all of whom pass into the army territoriale after completing the 
nine years' service to which they are liable, unless still retained 
in reserve. 

Other officers are appointed from former non-commissioned 
officers of the army, who have completed their nine years' ser- 
vice, and can pass a prescribed examination. 

The army register shows the names and rank of all officers 
thus far appointed. 

The grades of commandants of regiments and battalions, by 
far the most important, have been filled, but a large proportion 
of the captaincies, most of the first-lieutenancies, and nearly all 
of the second-lieutenancies, are stiU vacant. 

Field-officers, after completing the twenty years' service, if 
possessing the necessary qualifications, may be retained on their 
own application till they reach the age of sixty-five ; other offi- 
cers may be retained till they reach the age of sixty. 

GENEEAL OFFIOEES. 

The number on the active list consists of — 

Major-generals 100 

Brigadier-generals 200 

The number of marshals is not fixed. 

STAFF. 

The present organization of the " etat-major," or adjutant- 
general's department, is as follows : 



238 AEMY OF FRANCE. 

Colonels 40 

Lieutenant-colonels 40 . 

Majors 120 

Captains 200 

Captains (archivistes) 24 

The French staff presents a striking contrast with that 
of the other great Continental powers. Originally, it was the 
model on which all of them were based, but, having stood still 
while others have advanced, it remains the only one in which 
the principles of detail, and service with troops, are not recog- 
nized. 

In 1833 an effort was made to distribute the staff between 
the infantry and cavalry, in which arms the officers were to re- 
ceive their promotion, but the opposition was so great that the 
project was abandoned. 

Again, in 1862, the Minister of War appointed a commission 
with a view to dissolving the staff, and distributing two-thirds 
of its officers to the infantry and one-third to the cavalry, but 
his purpose was never accomplished. 

As a consequence, with the exception of the four years' 
service prior to nomination as captain, an officer of the French 
staff never sees service with the troops of the line, and thus, con- 
fined to the atmosphere of his own corps, his principal concep- 
tion of efficiency is the rapid transaction of official business, to 
the exclusion of the higher duties of his profession. 

In Germany, Italy, Austria, and Eussia, officers continually 
transfer from the line to the staff and the reverse, and, except 
in Germany, when once sent back to the line may never be re- 
called. 

The staff is thus composed of the ablest officers of the army, 
who ultimately arrive at the grade of general with an experience 
rounded by service in every grade of the line and the staff from 
lieutenant to colonel. 

MILrrAItT SCHOOLS. 

According to the law of March, 1875, the military schools 
maintained at the expense of the state consist of the — 



THE PRYTANEE MILITAIEE. 239 

Prytan^e Militaire, at La Fleche, 

Polytechnic School, at Paris, 

Special Military School, at St.-Cyr, 

School of Application for Artillery and Engineers, at 

Fontainebleau, 
School of Application for the Staff, at Paris, 
School of Application for Cavalry, at Saumur, 
School of Medicine and Pharmacy, at Paris, 
Administrative School, at Vincennes, 
MUitary gymnasia and musketry schools, 
Kegimental schools in different arms of the service. 
Schools for non-commissioned officers, 
Schools for children of soldiers, and 
Academy of "War, in the process of organization. 

THE PETTAiraE MILITAnJE. 

This is a mere preparatory school, conducted on the same 
principles as the military gymnasia in other countries. 

Admission is open to boys between the ages of ten and eigh- 
teen, preference being given to sons of officers, and to sons of 
non-commissioned officers whose service to the country merits 
recognition. 

The expenses of education are borne in some cases wholly 
by the parents ; in other cases, such as orphans, or having had 
a father killed in battle, tuition is either free, or reduced one- 
half. 

In consideration of the education received, no obligation is 
incurred to continue a military career, but special encouragment 
is given to the pupils to prepare themselves to pass the compet- 
itive examination for admission to the Polytechnic School, and 
to the school at St.-Cyr. 

The course of instruction embraces — 
Arithmetic, 
Algebra, 
Geometry, 

Descriptive geometry. 
Trigonometry, 



240 AKMY OF FRANCE. 

Geography, 

Physics and chemistry, 

French grammar and literature, 

Latin, 

German, 

History, 

Drawing. 

SPECIAL MILITAEY SCHOOL, AT ST.-CTE. 

•The object of this school is to educate cadets for commis- 
sions in the infantry, cavalry, marines, and the staff. 

Admission is exclusively by competitive examination, open 
to all candidates between the ages of seventeen and twenty. 
In the cases of non-commissioned officers and soldiers, the age 
may be extended to twenty-five. 

The examinations for admission, which are held annually in 
the different departments, are both oral and written, and em- 
brace the following subjects : 

Arithmetic, 

Algebra, 

Geometry, 

Descriptive geometry, 

Plane trigonometry. 

Mechanics and physics (simply descriptive), 

Chemistry, 

Political and physical geography, 

History, 

German. 
To be admitted to the examination, a candidate must pro- 
duce his diploma as a Bachelor of Science ' or Letters, or an 
equivalent certificate, and he must also undergo a preliminary 
examination, embracing a French and Latin composition ; solu- 
tion of mathematical problems, involving the use of logarithms ; 
solution of a problem in descriptive geometry ; drawing from a 
model, and also rectilinear drawing. 

The expense of education is paid by the cadets, at the rate 

' Equivalent to a diploma from the public schools, or li/cees. 



SPECIAL MILITAEY SCHOOL, AT ST.-OYR. 241 

of 1,500 francs per annum. In addition, the uniform and out- 
fit cost from 600 to 700 francs. 

Cadets whose parents are in indigent circumstances, and 
who can establish the fact, are educated free, while others are 
granted a reduction of one-half the usual charges. 
The numher of cadets present in 1876 was 750. 
The organization of the cadets is in 2 battalions of 4 com- 
panies each. 

The course of study is two years, and embraces — 
Topography, 
Fortification, 
Artillery, 

Military administration. 
Military art and history, 
Military geography, 
French literature, 
German, 
Hygiene, and 
Drawing. 
Theoretical instruction is also given in musketry-practice, 
regulations for infantry and cavalry, and equitation. 

At the end of the first year the cadets make their choice of 
arms of service, after which the candidates for the cavalry are 
quartered by themselves. 

The practical instruction during the course is limited mostly 
to infantry-drill, to include the school of the battalion and regi- 
ment, and to cavalry-drill, school of the trooper. The first 
year riding is taught twice a week ; the second year the cavalry 
rides daily, and the infantry three times per week. 

Artillery instruction is limited to twenty-six lessons or lect- 
ures, and to the manual of field and siege guns. 

The stafE of the school in 1876 consisted as follows : 

Commandant. 
1 General of brigade. 

Second Commandant. 
1 Colonel of infantry. 

16 



242 AEMY OF FRANCE. 

Instructors of Infantry. 
1 Major, 
8 Captains. 

Instructor of Musketry. 
1 Captain. 

Instructors of Cavalry. 

1 Major, 

2 Captains, 

6 Lieutenants. 

Director of Studies, 

1 Major. 

Sub-directors of Studies. 

2 Captains. 

Examiners for Admission, 
2 Colonels, 
2 Civilians. 

Mathematics. 
1 Professor (civilian). 

Artillery. 

1 Professor (major), 

2 Assistant professors (captains). 

Topography. 

1 Professor (captain), 

2 Assistant professors (1 captain and 1 lieutenant). 

Military History. 

1 Professor (captain), 

2 Assistant professors (lieutenants). 

Military Law and Administration. 

1 Professor (captain), 

2 Assistant professors (lieutenants). 



POLYTEOHNIO SCHOOL. 243 

Fortification. 
1 Professor (major), 
4 Assistant professors (2 captains and 2 lieutenants). 

Military Geography and Statisiics. 
1 Professor, 
4 Assistant professors (1 captain and 3 lieutenants). 

Military Literature. 
1 Professor (civilian), 

1 Assistant professor (civilian). 

German. 

2 Professors (1 civilian and 1 captain), 

2 Assistant professors (civilians). 

Drawing. 

3 Professors (civilians). 

In addition to the above there is a chief administrative offi- 
cer, a paymaster, an assistant paymaster, a commissary, three 
adjutants, a librarian, a chaplain, three surgeons, and a veteri- 
nary surgeon. 

The method of instruction, by means of lectures and inter- 
rogations, is the same as described for the Polytechnic. 

POLTTECHNIO SCHOOL. 

The fame of this school is due entirely to its scientific na- 
ture, the military instruction and discipline being of so element- 
ary a character as scarcely to deserve notice. 

The object of the school is to train pupils for the following 
branches of the public service, viz. : 
Artillery, military and naval. 
Engineers, military and naval. 
Navy, and Corps of Hydrographical Engineers. 
Navy commissariat. 



244 ARMY OF FEANCE. 

Ciyil engineers for bridges, roads, and mines. 
Staff of the army. 

Manufacture of powder and saltpetre. 
Telegraphs. 
Other departments requiring a high scientific training are 
also open to the graduates of the school. 

The organization of the school is military, and, while pur- 
suing the course, the students are considered as belonging to 
the active army. 

The military staff of the school consists of — 
1 Commandant, 

1 Second commandant, 
6 Captains. 

The commandant and second commandant are chosen alter- 
nately froip the artillery and engineers. If the former is from 
the artillery, the latter must belong to the engineers, and the 
reverse. 

The Educational Staff, consisting of examiners for admis- 
sion, examiners of pupils, professors, and assistant professors, 
is largely composed of eminent civilians, many of whom are 
members of the Academy of Sciences. 

The Council of Improvement is composed of the — 
Commandant, 
Second commandant. 
Director of studies, 
3 Professors of the school, 

2 Examiners of pupils. 

The other members in 18Y6 consisted of — 

1 Delegate from the Academy of Sciences, 

3 Delegates from the War Department, 

2 " " JSTavy " 

1 Delegate " Department of Mines, 
1 " " " Eoads and Bridges, 

1 " " Astronomical section of the Institute, 

1 " " Tobacco Department. 

The Council of Improvement is charged with the initiative 
in all matters of improvement, and regulates the course of study. 



POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL. 245 

subject to the approval of the Minister of War, in such a man- 
ner as to promote the efficiency of all branches of the public 
service, whose officers are supplied by the graduates of the 
school. 

Admission is exclusively by competitive examination, open 
to all candidates between the ages of sixteen and twenty. The 
age may be extended in the case of non-commissioned officers 
and soldiers to twenty-five ; but such as avail themselves of this 
extension on graduation can only be assigned to the military 
service. 

The annual expense of each pupil is 1,000 francs ; the cost 
of the uniform and outfit is 600 francs. 

Pupils who are in indigent circumstances are educated free ; 
while for others, in reduced circumstances, the cost of education 
is reduced one-half. 

The examination for admission is both written and oral, and 
is conducted annually in the different departments on the same 
principles as for the school at St.-Cyr. 

To be admitted to the preliminary examination, each candi- 
date must be either a Bachelor of Science, or Letters, or possess 
an equivalent certificate. 

The subjects of examination are — 

Arithmetic, 

Algebra, 

Geometry, 

Trigonometry, 

Descriptive geometry, 

Analytical geometry. 

Physics, 

Chemistry, 

French, 

German, 

Drawing. 
The course of study is two years, and embraces — 

Descriptive geometry, 

Stereotomy, 

Differential and integral calculus. 



246 ARMY OF FRANCE. 

Mechanics (solids and fluids), ; 

Physics, 

Optics, 

Acoustics, 

Chemistry, 

Astronomy, 

Geodesy, 

Architecture, 

Topography, 

Military art and fortification (19 lessons), 

History, 

French literature, 

German, 

Drawing — ^landscape, rectilinear, and mechanical. 
The practical military instruction the first year is continued 
six days in the week, an hour and a half being allowed for each 
exercise, until the pupils know the School of the Soldier, and 
the principal movements in the School of the Company. 

The second year there is at least one drill a week in the 
School of the Company. 

The two classes are also united from time to time for exer- 
cise in the School of the Battalion. They are also conducted 
once or twice a year outside of Paris for target-practice, and to 
execute the firings. 

While the pupils wear a uniform, attend roll-calls, and are 
under a military regime, it is manifest, from the little time de- 
voted to military subjects, both practical and theoretical, that 
the institution cannot be regarded as a military school. It is 
rather a mathematical or scientific school, whose fame has been 
acquired through the extraordinary inducements offered by the 
Government to its graduates. 

Thoroughness of education has been secured by the severe 
nature of the competitive examinations for admission, and after- 
ward by competition among the graduates for choice of corps 
on leaving the school. 

The method of instruction pursued at the Polytechnic has 
been imitated in nearly all of the schools of Europe. Instruc- 



SCHOOL OF APPLICATION. 247 

tion is imparted by lecture, and the regulations prescribe that 
eacb lesson or lecture shall be followed by questioning one or 
more of the pupils from a quarter to half an hour — the lecture 
and questioning not to exceed an hour and a half. The pupils 
are required to take notes, and after the lecture return to halls 
of study, where, during the day, they pass all of their time, ex- 
cept when at lecture, recreation, or meals. These halls accom- 
modate from eight to ten pupils, and are provided with a ta- 
ble, blackboard, and other articles necessary to prosecute one's 
studies. On returning to the halls, the pupils study the subject 
of the lecture, which is usually delivered by the professor to 
the entire class, and if necessary are assisted by additional ex- 
planations from the assistant professors, who are called repeti- 
tewrs. 

These officers, in addition to giving the pupils assistance, 
question them from time to time on the various subjects, giving 
them a mark denoting their proficiency. 

The pupils are also required to submit compositions, or 
written exercises on each subject, and at the conclusion of the 
series of lessons they are given a general questioning on the 
entire course. 

The marks given after each questioning, as also for each 
written exercise, drawing, and examination, are used to deter- 
mine the relative proficiency of the class. 

SCHOOL OF APPLICATION FOE ARTILLERY AND ENGINEERS. 

At the conclusion of the course at the Polytechnic School 
the graduates who are assigned to the artillery and engineers 
are commissioned second-lieutenants, and sent to the School 
of Application, at Fontainebleau, where they remain two 
years. 

The course of study is pursued in the same manner as at 
the Polytechnic, and embraces — 

Topography, 

Geodesy, 

Field-fortification, 



248 ARMY OF FEANCE. 

Permanent fortification, 

Military art and administration, 

Artillery, 

Architecture and theory of construction. 

The professors and instructors, with the exception of a few 
civilians, are oflBcers of artillery and engineers. 

On completing the course of instruction, the officers are as- 
signed to their corps according to the order of merit determined 
at the final examination. 

As the course of study at the School of Application is pur- 
sued subsequent to receiving commissions as lieutenants, it 
will be observed that, however high may be the intellectual 
qualifications of officers of artillery and engineers, they can 
have but a vague idea of the value and importance of mili- 
tary discipHne, and this fact is due to the little attention 
paid to discipline and military instruction at the Polytechnic 
School. 

The same defect exists at St.-Cyr, where the course of two 
years is too short to train a cadet in the principles of exact obe- 
dience and discipline, and to this defect in the two great mili- 
tary schools of France must be largely attributed the want of 
respect, obedience, and discipline, which was charged against 
the army during the Franco-German War. 

STAFF SCHOOL, PAEIS. 

The object of this school is to train officers for the staff, 
which is exclusively recruited from its graduates. 

The number of officers admitted varies from 25 to 50. Of 
this number 3 are reserved for graduates of the Polytechnic ; 
the remainder are selected by competitive examination, open to 
the graduates of St.-Cyr, and to lieutenants of the line. 
The course of study is two years, and embraces — 
Topography, 
Geodesy, 
Astronomy, 
Geography and statistics. 



ACADEMY OF WAR. 249 

Descriptive geometry, 

Artillery, 

Military art and history, 

Military administration, 

Fortification, 

Tactics, cavalry and infantry, 

Drawing, 

Hippology, and 

Kiding. 
At tlie conclusion of the course, the graduates are assigned 
two years to infantry, and two years to the cavalry, after which 
they are appointed permanently in the staff, with the rank of 
captain, and return no more to the line. 

Those of each class, generally ten to twelve, who are in 
excess of the number of vacancies, remain in the line, but are 
eligible for transfer with officers of the staff when a transfer can 
be arranged. 

ACADEMY OF WAE. 

This academy, in 1876, was in the process of organization, its 
object being the same as that of the celebrated "War Academy 
of Berlin. 

Admission to it is by competitive examination. 

The effect of the academy will probably be an entire aban- 
donment of the present staff system, and a rearrangement of it, 
whereby officers may continually pass from the line to the staff, 
and the reverse. 

By means of remaining a closed corps, the staff of France 
has fallen behind that of other armies, as was shown in the late 
war, when many of the officers, who were familiar only with 
office labor and routine, were found incapable of rendering 
valuable assistance in manoeuvring and directing armies. 

With the exception of conservatism in reference to the staff, 
the army, since its late reverses, has made immense strides in 
organization, instruction, and discipline, and already gives evi- 
dence that in a future struggle it may regain its former pres- 
tige. 



ARMY OF EInTGLAI^D. 



The Englisli army, from which we inherit our military 
organization, laws, and customs, is so nearly like our own that 
only its main features need be stated. 

Its strength is as follows : 



Infantry 

Cavalry 

Artillery 

Engineers 

Oolonisl troops 

Staff corps, and departments 
Eeaerve, officers and men . , . 

Total 



5,124 


128,500 


128,624 


878 


16,402 


17,275 


1,450 


88,474 


84,924 


824 


4,886 


5,710 


124 


2,357 


2,481 


1,614 


6,196 


6,810 
82,800 






228,624 



The infantry is composed of the guard, the line, and the 
rifles. 

The guard is composed of 3 regiments, named the Grena- 
dier Guards, of 3 battalions ; the Coldstream Guards, of 2 bat- 
talions, and Scots Fusilier Guards, of 2 battalions. Total, 7 
battalions. 

The infantry of the line consists of 109 regiments, of which 
the first twenty-five contain 2 battalions each; the Sixtieth 
Eegiment, called rifles, contains 4 battalions ; the other regi- 
ments contain but one battalion each. Total battalions, 137. 

The rifie-brigade is composed of 4 battalions. 

The colonial or "West India troops (colored) consist of two 
regiments of one battalion each. 



BRIGADE OF INFANTEY. 



251 



Total number of battalions, 150. 

All of the battalions have eight companies, except the two 
battalions of West India troops, which have nine. 

The minimum strength of the battalions on home service is 
60i officers and men ; the average strength in 1876 was 886 ; 
the established strength in India is 919; in the other colonies 
it varies from 689 to 917. 

The war-strength of a battalion of eight companies is as 
f oUows : 



RANK. 

Colonel (honorary) 

Lieutenant-colone] 

Majors 

Captains 

Lieutenants and sub-lieatenants 

Paymaster 

Ai^atant 

Quartermaster 

Bnigeon 

Sergeant-major 

Band-seigeant 

Qnartermaster-setgeant 

Drum-major 

Paymaster-sergeant 

Annorer-sergeant 

Begimental transport-sergeant 

Sergeant-cook 

Pioneer-sergeant 

First-sergeants 

Sergeants 

Orderly-room clerk 

Drummers 

Corporals 

Pioneers and artificers 

Band 

Privates 

Drivers 

Total 

Total officers and men 



18 
1 
1 
1 
1 



1 
16 
40 
IS 
20 
902 
25 



1,09T 



BEIGADE OF INFAJNTET. 

The brigade of infantry in time of war consists of the 



BBIGADE. 


Officei^. 


Non-commii- 

Bioned Offlcen 

and Men. 


Total. 


Staff. 


3 

93 
1 

1 


1 

8,198 

26 

1 


4 


8 Kegiments (3 battalions) 


8,291 




'27 




2 






Total 


98 


8,226 


3,824 







252 



ARMY OF ENGLAND. 



DIVISION OF 'mFANTRY. 

A division of infantry consists of tlie 



Non-comnda- 

Bloned Officers 

and Men. 



Staff 

2 Brigades of infantry (6 battalions) 

1 Battalion of rifles 

1 itegiment of cavalry 

3 Batteries of field-artillery. 

1 Company of engineers 

1 Troop of military police (provost-guard) 

INPAKTET AND AKTHLBET (bESEBTE). 

Ammunition-column 

Control department (quartermaster and cormnissary departments) 

Veterinary department 

Chaplains 

Total 



10 
196 
81 
2T 

21 



6 

10 
2 
2 



6,482 
1,066 
628 
647 
186 
73 



206 

118 

21 

2 



16 
6,648 
1,097 
650 
663 
192 
7S 



212 
128 



9,295 



9,608 



AEMT CORPS. 

An army corps consists as follows : 



Non-conunift- 

Bioned Officers 

and Men. 



Staff 

S Divisions of infantry 

1 Brigade of cavalry (8 regiments) 

AETILLEEY (EESEBYe). 

Begimental staff 

8 Batteries of horse-artillery 

2 Batteries of field-artillery 

S Divisions of reserve ammunition-train 

ENGINEEBS. 

Eegimental staff 

1 Company and field-park 

1 Fontoon-troop 

^ Telegraph-troop 

1 Troop of military police 

Co;itrol department 

Medical department 

Veterinary department 

Chaplains 

Bakery-train I 

Butchery-train f 

Total 



4 
21 
14 

18 



2 

27 



45 
8 



12 

27,885 
2,072 



616 
882 
816 



1 

209 
818 
143 
78 
277 



V'i\ 



81 

28,824 
2,168 



687 
896 
684 



8 

216 
822 
149 
75 
804 



272 



1,214 



88,067 



84,281 



EEOEDTIMENT. 

The basis of the English system rests on voluntary enlist- 
ment, carrying with it in time of war the payment of large 
bounties. 



RESERVE— MILITIA— VOLUNTEERS. 253 

The term of service is twelve years, with reenlistment to / 
twenty-one years, which entitles the soldier to life-pension. 

EESEEVE. 

"With a view to supply a body of trained soldiers from which 
to fill up the army in time of war, soldiers, after serving three o 
years in the ranks, are permitted to go into reserve, where, in 
consideration of being liable to military duty, they receive six- 
pence a day ; in case they are called back to the colors, they 
also acquire a right to pension. The ultimate strength of the 
reserve is estimated at 80,000 men. 

MILITIA. _ 

The militia is intended for local defense, but it can be or- 
dered anywhere within the limits of the United Kingdom, and 
is also available as garrison-troops for the fortresses of the Medi- 
terranean. It consists of about 120,000 men, voted annually by 
Parliament, and is organized into artillery and infantry. En-"""" 
listment is voluntary, and for the period of six years. The 
officers are commissioned by the Queen, and all of the details of « 
recruitment and instruction are confided to the generals com- 
manding military districts. 

For the purpose of instruction the militia can be called out 
from three to four weeks annually, and the period can be ex- 
tended to eight weeks. Eegular officers can also be assigned 
to the miKtia as instructors, and the soldiers in reserve may be 
attached to it whenever called out for manoeuvre. — 

MILrriA EE6EEVE. ^ 

This force, which is liable to army service in case of emer- 
gency, numbers about 30,000 men, or one-fourth of the militia, 
and is voted annually by Parliament. The term of enlistment 
is for six years, for which a bounty is granted of £1 per an- 
num. 

VOLinSTEEES. 

'Next to the regular army the volunteers constitute the prin- 
cipal bulwark in case of invasion. 



254 AEMY OF ENGLAND. 

They consist of approximately 180,000 men, organized as 
infantry, and garrison artillery. The officers of volunteers are 
commissioned by the lieutenants of counties, suhject to the ap- 
proval of the Queen. The men receive their arms from the 
Grovemment, and are recruited and instructed under the direc- 
tion of the commanders of military districts. 

Unless granted leave, the members must be present at each 
annual inspection. Recruits, on joining, attend thirty drills, 
and afterward, as a minimum, they must attend nine drills an- 
nually. 

In ease of invasion, the volunteers are mobilized, and held 
for permanent service. 

TEOMAN CAVALEY. 

This force consists approximately of 13,000 men, each one 
of whom furnishes his own horse. 

The force is equipped as light cavalry, drills eight days per 
year, and is subject to be called out in cases of riot and insur- 
rection. "When called out, the pay for each man, with his horse, 
is sevenpence a day, 

TEEEITOEIAL DIVISIONS. 

Following the example of Continental nations, the army 
has recently been organized into eight army corps, which are 
assigned to as many territorial districts. These districts are 
divided into 70 sub-districts, of which there are 54 in England 
and Wales, 8 in Scotland, and 8 in Ireland. 

Each sub-district is the recruiting-ground of a brigade, com- 
posed of 2 battalions of infantry of the line, 2 battalions of 
militia, and such volunteers as belong within the district. The 
two battalions, or regiments, when the latter contain but one 
battalion each, alternate in foreign service, and are said to be 
"linked." 

The regiment which is abroad has its depot at the headquar- 
ters of the home district, where the recruits are received, and 
thoroughly trained before being forwarded. 



STAFF. 255 

The depot is commanded by a captain, who is under the 
orders of the colonel of the regiment. All oflBcers serving at 
the depot are detailed for a period of two years. 

The division into sub-districts ; the linking of regiments ; 
the establishment of regimental depots ; and the association of 
militia and volunteers in the same brigade with the troops of 
the line, is an approach to both the German and Austrian regi- 
mental systems, in which the field regiment, the depot, and the 
Landwehr battalions, are practically united under one com- 
mander. 

STAFF. 

All duty in the Adjutant-G-eneral's and Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral's Departments of the English army is performed by officers 
detailed from the line. 

To equalize the details, no regiment of cavalry is required 
to furnish at the same time more than one captain and one lieu- 
tenant, and no infantry regiment more than two captains and 
two lieutenants. 

As a general rule, the tenure of stafi" appointments is limited 
to five years ; and, in case of appointment on the staff of general 
officers and governors of colonies, an officer, after having served 
the prescribed period, must serve two years with his regiment 
before being eligible to a second appointment. 

All officers on the staff, when their regiments are ordered to 
India, or on active service, are required to vacate their appoint- 
ments. 

With the exception of officers of engineers, whose service 
prior to 1870 exceeds seven years, and of all officers who have 
proved their ability on the staff in the field, no officer can be 
appointed on the staff as deputy assistant adjutant-general, 
deputy quartermaster-general, or brigade-major (assistant adju- 
tant-general of brigade), without having passed the final exami- 
nation at the Staff College at Sandhurst. 

The names of all such graduates are borne on a special list 
in the army register. 

The principles of staff duty in the English army, which find 



256 ARMY OF ENGLAND. 

their widest application in India, have already been stated, in 
the description of the Indian army. 

CONFIDENTIAI, EBPOETS. 

General officers are required to make annual inspections of 
the troops under their command, and to report upon the char- 
acter and qualifications of all their subordinate officers. 

These reports are termed " confidential," but they are re- 
lieved from the dangers of secrecy by the requirement of the 
regulation that, when a report is adverse to an officer, he shall 
be informed as to its nature. 

The reports are signed by both the commander of the regi- 
ment to which the officer belongs, and by the inspecting officer, 
and are then forwarded through the intermediate commanders 
to the military secretary of the Commander-in-Chief. 

The object of the reports is to guide the Commander-in- 
Chief in the selection of officers for promotion to higher grades 
in the service, and for employment on the general staff. 

EOTAL MILITARY COLLEGE, SANDHUEST. 

The object of this college is to affijrd a " special military 
education " to candidates for commissions in the cavalry and in- 
fantry. 

In future, the course of study prescribed at this college must 
be pursued by aU candidates for commissions in the infantry 
and cavalry, except lieutenants of militia, and non-commissioned 
officers recommended for promotion. 

The number of cadets admitted to the college varies accord- 
ing to the requirements of the service. 

Cadets are admitted on the 10th of February, and the 1st of 
September of each year. 

Admission is granted to these classes of candidates as follows : 

1. To successful candidates at a competitive examination on 
general subjects, held before the Civil-Service Commissioners. 

2. University candidates, and to graduates in arts at Oxford, 
Cambridge, Dublin, and other universities, who must pass a 
competitive examination. 



EOYAL MILITARY COLLEGE, SANDHURST. 257 

3. To "Qaeen's Cadets," "Honorary Queen's Cadets," 
" Indian Cadets," and " Pages of Honor." 

Candidates admitted by competition are given a preliminary 
examination before the Civil-Service Commissioners in — 

1. Mathematics, including arithmetic through interest and 
proportion, and geometry through the first book of Euclid. 

2. French, German, or some other modem language. 

3. "Writing English correctly and legibly from dictation. 

4. Elements of geometrical drawing. 

5. Geography. 

Candidates who pass this examination successfully are im- 
mediately admitted to the " further examination " in — 

1. Mathematics, embracing algebra through quadratic equa- 
tions and logarithms, geometry, plane trigonometry, and men- 
suration. 

2. English composition, tested by writing an essay, letter, 
ov precis ; English literature, limited to specified authors ; and 
English history, within fixed periods. 

3. Latin. 

4. Greek. 

5. French, examination partly colloquial. 

6. German, examination partly colloquial. 

7. Experimental sciences, viz., chemistry and heat, or elec- 
tricity and magnetism, examination allowed by choice in one to 
the exclusion of the other. 

8. General and physical geography, and geology. 

9. Free-hand drawing. 

Exclusive of drawing, candidates cannot be examined in 
more than four, nor in less than two, of the above subjects. 

The proficiency of each candidate is denoted by marks, given 
in all of the subjects of the " further examination " in which he 
is examined, to which are added the marks procured in draw- 
ing at the preliminary examination. The candidates are then 
classified according to these marks, when tliose nearest the head 
of the list, corresponding to the number of vacancies, are de- 
clared successful. The age of candidates at date of competition 
must be between seventeen and twenty-one. 
17 



258 AEMY OF ENGLAND. 

University candidates, at the preliminary examination, are 
examined only in geometrical drawing. The " further exami- 
nation" is the same as for other candidates by competition, 
already described. The age of university candidates must be 
between seventeen and twenty-two. The number of cadetships 
given to this class is fixed for each examination, and is filled by 
the competitors who receive the highest marks. 

The Queen's Cadets are sons of officers of the army, navy, 
and marines, who have fallen in battle, died of wounds, or of 
disease contracted in the service abroad, and whose families 
have been left in reduced circumstances. The cadets are ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of State, on the recommendation of the 
commander-in-chief, or First Lord of the Admiralty. 

Honorary Queen's Cadets are sons of officers of the army, 
navy, and marines, killed in action ; or who have died of wounds 
within six months of the time they were received ; or who have 
died of disease contracted through privation or exposure in the 
field, in the presence of the enemy, within six months from the 
time the illness was contracted. 

Indian Cadets are sons of officers of the Indian military and 
civil service, or of the East India Company, who are nominated 
by the Secretary of State for India in council. 

These three classes of cadets are the only ones admitted to 
Sandhurst withoiit competition, but they must pass the prelimi- 
nary examination already described, and in the " further exami- 
nation " must obtain such an aggregate of marks as to satisfy 
the Civil-Service Commissioners of their general proficiency. 

This examination is dispensed with in case a candidate can 
produce a " University Certificate." 

Sons of officers admitted to Sandhurst pay annually from 
£20 to £80, except Queen's Cadets, whose tuition is free. 

Sons of private citizens pay £125 per year. 

COTIESE OF INSTETICTION. 

The following subjects are taught in the course of instruc- 
tion, viz. : 



COTJESE OF INSTRUCTION. 259 

1. Queen's regulations, orders for the army, regimental in- 
terior economy, accounts, and correspondence. 

2. Military law. 

3. Elements of tactics. 

4. Field fortification, and elements of permanent fortifica- 
tion. 

5. Military topography and reconnaissance. 

6. Infantry and field-artillery drill, riding, and gymnastics. 
The course of .instruction lasts but one year, and is divided 

into two terms, one of which extends from the 10th of February 
to the 15th of July ; the other from the 1st of September to the 
20th of December. 

The periods between the terms, and a fortnight at Easter, 
are allowed as vacations. 

For the purpose of discipline and instruction, cadets are 
arranged in divisions of twenty-five each. 

The method of instruction is principally by lecture, supple- 
mented by text-books. 

The practical instruction consists of riding. School of the 
Trooper, with sword-exercise ; infantry drill, and field-batterj' 
drill with drag-ropes. 

An examination is held at the end of each term. 

The first examination is probationary, and cadets who fail 
lose a term. Cadets who pass the second examination are 
arranged according to merit, and are entitled to commissions as 
second-lieutenants in the cavalry, or infantry. 

The Commander-in-Chief is the president of the college. 
The management of the college is vested in a governor, usually 
general officer, who is responsible to the Secretary of "War, 
through the Commander-in-Chief. 

The college is inspected each year by a board of visitors, 
appointed by the Secretary of State for "War. The members of 
the board do not hold permanent appointments, but all of the 
members are never changed at the same time. The report of 
the board is submitted to Parliament. 

The professors and instructors are all officers detailed from 
the army. 



260 ARMY OF ENGLAND. 

The English system of education for officers of infantry and 
cavalry resembles the German, in requiring, first, a good gen- 
eral education ; and, second, a course of purely military instruc- 
tion. It differs from the German in not requiring from six 
months to a year's service in the ranks previous to pursuing the 
military course. 

From 1873 to 1876 the Government tried the experiment of 
appointing the second-lieutenants of cavalry and infantry pre- 
vious to pursuing the course of instruction at Sandhurst; but 
the fact that the students already held their commissions, proved 
so detrimental to study and discipline, that the scheme was aban- 
doned, and, since 1876, the same system has been pursued, ex- 
cept as to the nature and duration of the course, as was pursued 
prior to 1870. 

EOTAl MILITAET ACADEMY, WOOLWICH. 

The object of this academy is to prepare candidates for com- 
missions in the artillery, and engineers. 

Admission is by competitive examinations, held semi-annu- 
ally, by the Civil-Service Commissioners. 

Candidates must be between the ages of sixteen and eighteen. 

The examination, like that for Sandhurst, is divided into the 
"preliminary" and "further examination." 

The preliminary examination consists of — 

1. Mathematics, embracing arithmetic, and the use of com- 
mon logarithms ; algebra, including the binomial theorem ; ge- 
ometry, to the sixth book of Euclid ; plane trigonometry, in- 
cluding the solution of triangles. 

2. French, German, or some other modern language. 

3. "Writing English correctly from dictation. 

4. Elements of geometrical drawing. 

5. Geography. 

The candidates who pass in the foregoing subjects are admit- 
ted to the further examination, which consists of — 

1. Mathematics, embracing theory of equations; analytical 
geometry, conic sections, solid geometry, diiferential and inte- 
gral calculus, statics, and dynamics. 



COURSE OF INSTKUCTIOK. 261 

2. English literature and history. 

3. Classics, embracing both Latin and Greek, or one sepa- 
rately. 

4. French (examination partly colloquial). 

5. German (examination partly colloquial). 

6. Any one of the following languages, viz. : Italian, Rus- 
sian, Spanish, or Hindostani. 

7. Experimental sciences, viz. : Chemistry and heat, elec- 
tricity and magnetism. 

8. General and physical geography, and geology. 

9. Free-hand drawing. 

Exclusive of drawing, candidates cannot be examiaed in 
more than four, nor less than two, of the above subjects ; but 
optional examination is further permitted, embracing nearly all 
of analytical geometry, differential and integral calculus, and 
also statics and dynamics. 

The number of admissions depends upon the number of va- 
cancies. 

Sons of officers pay tuition at rates varying from £20 to 
£80 per annum. 

Sons of private citizens pay £125, or $625. 

COTTRSE OF INSTEUCTION. 

The course of instruction lasts two years and a half, and 
embraces the following subjects : 

1. Mathematics, including a thorough knowledge of plane 
trigonometry ; practical mechanics, with the application of ma- 
thematics to machinery. 

2. Field and permanent fortification, so far as suitable for 
officers qualifying for the artillery. 

3. Artillery, so far as sixitable for cadets qualifying for the 
engineers. 

4. Military drawing, with field sketching and reconnais- 
sance. 

5. Military history and geography. 

6. French and German, at the student's choice. 



262 ARMY OF ENGLAND. 

7. Elementary chemistry and physics. 

8. Drill and exercises. 

In addition to the foregoing subjects, which are obligatory, 
cadets are permitted to study any of the following subjects, 
viz. : 

1. Higher mathematics. 

2. Higher portions of fortification. 

3. German, French, Italian, Eussian, Spanish, or Hindos- 
tani. 

4. Free-hand figure and landscape drawing. 
6. Higher chemistry. 

6. Latin. 

7. Greek. 

The practical instruction consists of gymnastics, riding 
(School of the Trooper), infantry (School of the Soldier, Com- 
pany, and Battalion), artillery, field, siege, and mortar drill ; 
also mechanical manoeuvres. 

The cadets constitute one company under the command of a 
captain, and are arranged in five classes, according to the date 
of their admissions. 

The examinations are conducted by examiners independent 
of the academy. 

Cadets who fail at any two of the five examinations are dis- 
missed. 

To be entitled to a commission a cadet must receive one- 
half of the maximum marks allotted in the obligatory course to 
mathematics, mechanics, fortification, and artillery ; and one- 
half of the aggregate marks allotted to all of the subjects of 
the obligatory course. 

The Commander-in-Chief is president of the Military Acad- 
emy, but the immediate management is confided to a military 
officer styled the governor, who is responsible to the Secretary 
of "War through the Commander-in-Chief. 

The academy is annually inspected by a board of visitors, 
the same as the college at Sandhurst. 

Appointment as professors and inspectors is open to officers 
of all ranks. The tenure of appointment, which carries with it 



STAFF COLLEGE, SANDHUEST. 263 

increased pay, is limited to six years, with power of reappoint- 
ment. Professors may also be selected from civil life, but in no 
case can tbe tenure of office continue after the incumbent is 
fifty-five years of age unless recommended by the governor of 
the academy, approved by the Secretary of State. 

STATF COLLEGE (AT SAITOHUESt). 

The special object of this college is to educate officers for 
employment on the staff. 

The total number of students is 40, the admission being de- 
termined by competitive examination. 

The number of vacancies each year is 20, of which number 
3 are allowed to officers of artillery, and 2 to engineers, pro- 
vided they are among the 20 candidates highest on the list. 

On admission, unmarried officers pay an entrance-fee of £3, 
and married officers £1 10s. as a contribution to the mess-funds, 
in excess of their regular quarterly subscription ; they also pay 
£3 as entrance-subscription to the college library, after which 
no further payments are required while at the college. 

To be eligible for admission, an officer must possess the fol- 
lowing qualifications : 

1. Service of not less than five years previous to examina- 
tion, exclusive of leaves of absence in excess of the annual privi- 
lege-leaves, which are granted to all officers. 

2. A certificate from his commanding officer that the candi- 
date is in every respect a thoroughly good regimental officer. 

3. A confidential report, in answer to specific questions re- 
garding the character, habits, and disposition of the candidate, 
and his general qualifications for employment on the staff, to 
be made by a board of officers consisting of the commanding 
officer and the two next senior officers of the candidate's regi- 
ment. 

4. A certificate that the candidate, if not a captain, has quali- 
fied for promotion to that rank. 

5. A medical certificate of good health, and fitness for active 
duties on the staff. 



264 ARMY OF ENGLAND. 

If practicable, the candidate must also serve a month on the 
staff of a general officer, who is required to make a confidential 
report as to his general fitness for the staff. 

The following are the subjects at the competitive examina- 
tion, with the relative value of each indicated by marks, viz. : 



1. Mathematics, embracing arithmetic, algebra, 

geometry, trigonometry, and elementary 

mechanics 900 

2. Military history and geography . . . 900 

3. French 300 

4. German 300 

5. Hindostani 300 

6. Fortification 600 

7. Military drawing 300 

8. Geology 300 

9. Chemistry (heat, electricity, and magnetism) . 300 

Of the above subjects, arithmetic, algebra (to include equa- 
tions of the first degree), geometry (to include the fourth book 
of Euclid), one of the three languages, and elementary field 
fortifications, are obligatory. The remaining subjects are op- 
tional. 

The minimum qualifying mark is 250 out of 400 allotted 
to obligatory mathematics ; 150 out of 300 in French ; 100 out 
of 300 in German and Hindostani ; and 50 out of 150 allotted 
to a simple paper on field-fortification. 

Examinations for the United Kingdom take place under the 
direction of the Director-General of Military Education, in the 
month of June. In the colonies the same printed questions as 
are used in London are answered, in writing, before a board 
of officers, who certify that the candidate has received no as- 
sistance from books or otherwise. These papers are then for- 
warded to London, wher§ the officer's merits are determined. 

The course of study lasts two years, and embraces the fol- 
lowing subjects, viz. : 



STAFF COLLEGE, SANDHURST. 265 

OhUgatory. 

Mathematics, including mensuration ; mode of determining 
heights and distances by ground problems, and trigonometrical 
calculations ; use of sextant, and elementary mechanics. 

Fortification and field-engineering. 

Artillery. 

Topographical drawing, military surveying, sketching, and 
road-making. 

Eeconnaissance. 

Military art, history, and geography. 

Military administration and law. 

French, German, or Hindostani. 

Eiding. 

Yoluntary. 

The two languages not selected as obligatory. 

Geology, exclusive of mineralogy. 

Experimental sciences. 

Photography. 

Military telegraphy. 

Each year's course is divided into two terms, vi^., from the 
1st of February to the 15th of July, and from the 1st of Sep- 
tember to the 15th of December. The remaining periods con- 
stitute vacations. 

Examinations are held at the end of every term. The sum- 
mer examinations are held by the professors of the college ; the 
winter examinations are held by examiners independent of the 
college. 

Confidential reports are also made to the Commander-in- 
Chief, after each of the examinations, as to the qualifications of 
each officer for stafE employment. 

The examination at the end of the second term is proba- 
tionary. Officers who fail to receive 55 per cent, of the marks 
allotted to the subjects, and also those who are reported upon 
as unlikely to make efficient staff officers, are required to with- 
draw. 



266 AKMY OF ENGLAND. 

At tlie final examination the obligatory subjects count as 
follows : 

1. Fortification, field-engineering, and artillery 6 

2. Military drawing and surveying . . 2J 

3. Eeconnaissance 4^ 

4. Military art, history, and geography . . 6 
K ( Military administration 4 

' 1 Military law 2 

6. French, German, or Hindostani . . .4 

7. Mathematics 3 

At the final examination, the officers who have passed are 
arranged on a list, according to the order of seniority of their 
regiments, special mention being made of those who have won 
honors. 

Officers may be permitted to pass the final examination, and 
thus qualify for staff duty, without pui'suing the course at the 
college. They must, however, pass a portion of the months of 
October and IS'ovember at the college, in order to be examined 
in reconnaissance, and to be tested in the practical subjects of 
instruction at the college. 

After having passed the final examination, officers are ei- 
ther — 

1. Attached for three months during the following summer 
to the staff of a general officer, at a camp of instruction at 
which the three arms of the service are present. At the end 
of this period the general makes a confidential report as to the 
character and abilities of the officers, and also states the depart- 
ments of the staff for which they appear to be best qualified ; or — 

2. Attached during the following summer drill-season to 
another arm of service than their own, with a view to acquire a 
knowledge of their organization, economy, and tactics. At the 
end of the season the commanding officers make a special report 
as to their efficiency. 

Officers of infantry and cavalry attend artillery instruction at 
"Woolwich, or some other station, for a period of two months. 
Officers of cavalry are attached to the infantry two months. 



EXAMINATIONS FOE PROMOTION. 267 

Officers of engineers and infantry are attached to cavalry two 
months. Officers of artillery (horse-artillery excepted) are at- 
tached one month. 

After completing the practical instruction, the officers return 
to their regiments, and are then eligible for appointment as — 

Deputy assistant adjutant-generals. 

Deputy assistant quartermaster-generals, 

Brigade-majors (adjutant-generals). 

Garrison instructors. 

Assistant military secretaries, and 

Aides-de-camp to general officers. 

EXAMINATIOKS FOB PEOMOTION. 

Examinations for promotion to the grades of captain and 
major are required in all arms of service. 

The examination in infantry for promotion to captain em- 
braces the following subjects, viz. : 

1. Evolutions of a regiment, including skirmishing, out- 
posts, patrols, escorts, advance and rear guards. 

2. Charge of a company or detachment in every position in 
which it may be placed, musketry instruction, orderly-room 
work, requisitions, returns, accounts, and correspondence. 

3. Queen's regulations and orders for the army. 

4. Military law. 

5. Elements of tactics. 

6. Field fortification, and elements of permanent fortifica- 
tion. 

7. Military topography. 

Graduates of Sandhurst are exempted from examination in 
the last four subjects. 

Examination for promotion to the rank of major in infantry 
embraces, in the field — 

1. Eiding. 

2. Command of a regiment — 

Singly on parade. 
As part of a brigade. 
As advance or rear guard. 



268 ARMY OF ENGLAND. 

As outposts covering a brigade or division, 
Skirmisliing, with movements adapted to a specified 
purpose. 
The theoretical examination, on paper and vi/va voce, em- 
braces — 

1. Eepresenting on a sketch, or map, of a piece of ground pre- 
viously seen by the officer (the map being furnished to the offi- 
cer), the disposition of a combined force of the three arms, as — 

Advance or rear guard. 
On outpost, 

For attack and defense of a given position, such as a 
defile, a wood, or bridge. 

2. Principles of combining the movements of infantry, artil- 
lery, and cavalry, for mutual support. 

3. The forms for demanding, and sources of supply of, am- 
munition, fuel, and forage. 

4. System of regimental orderly-room work, and correspond- 
ence. 

Graduates of the staff college are exempted from the theo- 
retical examination. 

The practical examination is conducted by the general com- 
manding, or by an officer whom he may select. 

The theoretical examination is conducted by a board of three 
officers, one of whom is of the same arm of service as the can- 
didate for promotion. 

AGGEEBSrVE POWER OF ENGLAOT). 

The adherence of England to a military system, inherited 
from the last century, can only be explained by her insular posi- 
tion, and the security from invasion afforded by a powerful 
navy. 

The salient defect of her system is the non-expansive organi- 
zation of the regular ai-my ; and this defect, in view of European 
complications, becomes the more apparent when it is considered 
that nearly one-half of the regiments, batteries, and squadrons, 
exceeding 90,000 men, are employed in India and the colonies. 

Of the 150 battalions of infantry only 17 are serving in the 



AGGEESSIVE POWER OF ENGLAND. 269 

United Kingdom, and, were these raised to the war-footing, 
their total strength would but little exceed 80,000. 

Adding to this number 20,000, drawn from the Mediter- 
ranean and India, the force of British infantry, available for 
aggressive purposes, would approximate 100,000 men, and in 
this number would be included the greater part of the reserve 
recently created. 

In contrast with this force, the infantry of the great Conti- 
nental powers, organized on the expansive principle, can be 
raised, in round numbers, to the following war-footing, viz. : 

Austria 545,000 

France 700,000 

Germany 495,000 

Kussia 674,000 

Furthermore, as the result of obligatory military service, be- 
hind this immense force of infantry, which is supported by artil- 
lery and cavalry in the highest state of drill and discipline, there 
stand in readiness trained reserves, and armies of the second 
line, largely outnumbering the total military force which Eng- 
land can bring into the field. 

With such disparity of strength, should England assail any 
of her formidable neighbors, we may safely anticipate that the 
war will be followed either by the speedy reorganization of her 
army, or by the total abandonment of the policy of armed in- 
tervention in foreign affairs. 



INFAl^TET TACTICS. 



The successiye improvements that have been made in fire- 
arms during the last hundred years have been followed by a 
gradual diminution of the depth of tactical formations, until 
to-day the " open order," or the formation as sldrmishers, is 
the only one adopted under the fire of the enemy. 

The advantages of this order were first brought to light in 
the War of the Eevoliition, and since that time its use has 
steadily increased in all of our wars. 

Transplanted to Europe by the French officers who served 
in our armies, it became prominent in the wars of the French 
Kevolution, and has since been adopted in all European armies. 

In the most recent development of the " open order " the 
company, composed of 250 men, is recognized as the " fighting 
unit ; " while the battalion, composed of four companies, is re- 
garded as the " tactical unit " — that is, the smallest body of men 
that can be safely employed independently. 

By combining in each battalion the movements of four 
" fighting units," each one of which is divided into three or 
more smaller subdivisions, the modern system of fighting has 
devolved upon the battalion and company commanders the tac- 
tical skill heretofore required of brigade and regimental com- 
manders, and has further devolved increased responsibility on 
every subordinate rank to the private soldier. 

The adoption of breech-loaders has not changed the prin- 
ciples of strategy and grand tactics, nor has it diminished the 



GERMAN OOMPANT COLUMN". 271 

number of lines in which armies are drawn up to give and re- 
ceive battle. It has simply demonstrated the impossibility of 
attacking positions in battalion columns, and, as a consequence, 
has necessitated a division of the troops into smaller fractions, 
which under fire can be moved with the greatest rapidity and 
least exposure, thereby insuring the least loss of life. 

The open or skirmish order has, therefore, been adopted, 
and is employed by the first line whenever troops approach the 
zone covered by the enemy's fire. 

The battalion being the tactical unit, the general principles 
of the open order are, that the skirmishers shall only occupy a 
front equal to the front of the battalion in line, and that the 
battalion shall be divided into two parts, one of which consti- 
tutes the " fighting line," the other the " reserve." 

The fighting line is generally composed of two companies, 
each of which is posted in two or three lines, the first being the 
skirmishers, the second and third lines the supports. 

The reserve is composed of the remaining two companies 
formed as a half-battalion column, or as two company columns, 
and is posted in rear of the siipports. 

The arrangement of the " fighting line " and the " reserve " 
will be best understood by describing the formation and use of 
the German and French company columns. 

GEEMAlf OOMPANT COLTJMN. 

The company is formed in three ranks ; the tallest men are 
in the front rank ; " the most adroit and best shots are selected 
for the third rank, because the special duties of this rank re- 
quire these qualities ; " the distance between ranks is two feet. 

The company is divided into divisions (or platoons). If the 
divisions consist of twenty or more files, they are divided into 
subdivisions (or half-platoons) ; the subdivisions are again di- 
vided into sections of not less than four, nor more than six 
files. 

If the company be of full strength, it will have a front of 
72 files ; each division will contain 36 files ; each subdivision 
18 files ; and each section 6 files. 



272 , INFANTRY TACTICS. 

The battalion consists of four companies, wldcli are num- 
bered from right to left. The eight subdivisions into which the 
battalion is divided are also numbered from right to left, and pre- 
serve their numerical designations throughout manoeuvres. 

FOEMATION OF THE COMPACT COLUmST. 

(Plate 1.) The company column is formed in the following 



manner: 



s. 



Plate 1. 



8. 



The battalion being in line, at the commands 1. "Form com- 
pany column" — 2. "March," the third rank of each even divi- 
sion of the right wing faces about, marches twelve paces to the 
rear, halts, and faces to the front ; the first and second ranks of 
the uneven divisions face to the left, and place themselves six 
paces in rear of the first and second ranks of the even division ; 
the third rank of the uneven subdivisions faces to the left, and, 
filing in front of the third rank of the even division, forms 
with it a third division in double rank. The movement is 
executed in the uncadenced step. The column when formed 
consists practically of three platoons in double rank. 

In the left wing the movement is similarly executed ; the 
even subdivisions ploying in rear of the uneven subdivisions. 

Each division of the column is commanded by a lieutenant, 
who stands on the right of the front rank, and is provided with 
its proper quota of file-closers. The third division of each col- 
umn is called the " shooting subdivision." 

(Plate 2.) The battalion being ployed into company colimnns 
consists of two company columns side by side at the centre, 
called a half-battalion column, and of two detached company 
columns ; the interval between the flanks of the half-battalion 
column and the flank-company columns is twenty-four yards, or 
equal to the front of a division. 



GEEMAN COMPANY COLUMN. 



273 



Plate 2. 



a 4 * 



6 B5 



Q i 6 "i i .^ 

di 5 te "S o 5 





_j 


li lb 


-S 


d. 5 


■^ 





di i ^sjS 



s 

O Battalion-commander. 

O Adjutant. 

® Captain. 

• First-lieutenant. 

O First second-lieutenant. 

• Second second-lieutenant 
O Third second-lieutenant. 
S Sergeant-major. 



Plate S. 



1*^ 



^ Port^p^e-fahnrich. 

i5 Right guide. 

& Left guide. 

th File-closer. 

i± Color. 

Ejs Musicians. 

.^ Bugler. 

e» Skirmishers. 



<£ 



.^=j5. 



6c 
die 
6t 






.=j5 



18 



274: 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



(Plate 3.) The tactics provide for reducing the front of each 
company column to half subdivisions, giving each column six 
half subdivisions, and also for breaking into columns of sec- 
tions — a formation which resembles our column of fours. 

The company column is formed in line to the front by 
means inverse to those used in the ployment ; the third rank 
resuming its proper place. 

DEPLOYMENT OF THE COMPANY OOLtMN AS SKIEMISHEES. 

(Plate 4.) The German method of deployment as skirmish- 
ers is a successive movement usually beginning with a section, 



Plate i. 



ooooo ooooo 
O o o □ A ooooo 



ooooo ooooo 

OOOOOaOOOOO 



§1 



or a half subdivision of the shooting subdivision. At the sig- 
nal "Skirmish," the section or half subdivision designated 
moves by the flank until disengaged from the column, and then 



GEEMAN COMPANY COLUMN. 275 

moves to tlie front, the files obliquing to the right and left till 
they gain an interval, usually not exceeding six paces ; the rear- 
rank man of each file, at his option, remains in rear of his file- 
leader, or places himself on his right or left. The remaining 
part of the shooting division follows the skirmish-line at a dis- 
tance of 100 to 150 yards, and acts as a support ; the first and 
second divisions of the company column follow in rear of the 
support at a suitable distance, usually 100 yards. 

If necessary to reenforce the skirmish-line, the portion of 
the shooting subdivision acting as a support is sent forward, 
either by sections or all at once, the men taking the open order 
or retaining the close order according to circumstances. 

K the entire shooting division be deployed at once, the re- 
maining two divisions in column, or in line, act as a support, 
and, in case of need, send forward successive sections to 
strengthen the line, until the entire company becomes absorbed. 

The difficulty of mancBuvring skirmishers with a prescribed 
interval is so great that it is not even attempted ; the skirmish- 
ers, on the contrary, are encouraged whenever practicable to 
assemble in sections, or " swarms," so as to avail themselves of 
every opportunity for cover, only, however, to relinquish it, and 
again extend, on moving to the front. The greatest latitude is 
given to officers in command of supports, and to non-commis- 
sioned officers in charge of sections, in ordering men to and 
from cover. 

The usual method of attack is by a series of " rushes " from 
cover to cover, until the enemy exhausts his ammunition, or be- 
comes demoralized, when a final rush with a shout is supposed 
to gain the victory. 

DEPLOYMENT OF A BATTALION. 

(Plate 6.) When a battalion is to be deployed as skirmishers, 
it is usually broken into four company columns, as previously 
explained. The shooting divisions of the first and fourth com- 
panies are deployed as skirmishers, covering the front of the 
battalion. The remaining portions of the first and fourth com- 
panies, called front lody, or " YortrefEen," are posted as sup- 



276 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



ports to their shooting subdiyisions. The second and third 
companies are held in reserve as a half -battalion column, or 



Plate 5. 



coooooo OOOOOO 



OOOOOOO OQO oo 






Yortr^ffen. 




Sxainffreffen 



they may be posted with an interval of 80 or 100 yards be- 
tween them. These companies constitute the main body, or 
" HaupttrefEen." The distance from the skirmishers to the near- 
est supports is about 150 yards ; from the supports to the " Yor- 
treffen," or the subdivisions of the first and fourth company col- 
umns, 100 yards ; from the " Yortreffen " to the " Haupttreffen," 
1 50 yards ; making a total distance of 400 yards. These dis- 
tances, however, are entirely dependent upon circumstances, 
and are usually regulated by the battalion and company com- 
manders. 



GERMAN COMPANY COLUMN. 277 



FOEMATION OF THE BEIGADE. 



The brigade consists of two regiments of three battalions 
each, and for battle is preferably formed in three lines; the 
battalions of each regiment being one in rear of the other. The 
first battalion is deployed as already explained. The second 
battalion is generally divided into two half-battalion columns, 
with an interval between them of about 250 yards, and is post- 
ed at the same distance from the main body of the first battal- 
ion. The third battalion is formed in "column of attack," 
double column on the centre, and is posted about 250 yards 
from the second line, opposite its centre. 

Another formation of the brigade is in two lines : in this 
case the battalions of the first line are deployed as before, while 
those of the second line are either held in line, or in line of com- 
pany columns. 

The method of attack by means of the company column, 
when considered in its relations to the battalion and brigade, is 
as follows : 

The shooting subdivisions of the first and fourth companies 
of the first battalion press forward from cover to cover, lying 
down when necessary, and by means of their fire drawing that 
of the enemy. Their fire is continually increased by sending 
additional sections to their support. If the enemy show signs 
of giving way, the supports move forward, give their fire, and 
then all make a rush. 

If, however, the enemy resist, and continue a strong fire, 
the first and fourth companies will ordinarily become wholly 
engaged before approaching within 300 or 400 yards of the 
enemy. The second and third companies in the mean time will 
continue to approach, and, when near the line, will deploy in 
close order and join in the action, firing if necessary over the 
skirmishers, who lie down in front. The first battalion has 
now become entirely engaged. If sufficiently strong to con- 
tinue the action, it gains ground by fits and starts until it ar- 
rives within 150 or 200 yards of the enemy, when the whole 
line breaks into loud cheers, and rushes forward with the bayo- 



278 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



net. If the charge be repulsed, the second battalion, in half- 
battalion columns, sometimes in four-company columns, moves 
forward ; the first line falls back, the officers making every 
effort to rally their men in the intervals and on the flanks of the 



Plate 6. 



3".' COMPANY 



o o o o o 



O O o o 



oooooooooo 



S^J" COMPANY 

OOOOO OOOtC 

^k f^ ^ f\ ^ rtrtrt/^ 



2".° SEC. 



tjlS. \ 



■Li 



I?- SEC. 




1?&21'SEC. 



^. 



3?&4'™SEC. 




second line ; both lines then move forward so as to give the 
enemy as little time as possible to profit by his advantage. If 
the first line cannot be rallied in the intervals of the second, it 
re-forms in rear of the third. 

If the first line, when wholly engaged, be not able to take 
the enemy's position, the second line is moved to its support, 
the company columns, if possible, being directed toward the 



GERMAN BATTALION FOEMATIONS. 



279 



flanks of the skirmish-line, from which position they open a 
flank or an oblique fire. 

In reenforeing the skirmish-line, the German tactics pre- 



Plate 1. 

ooooo ooooo ooooo OOOoO 
Ooooo ooooo^ooooo Ooooo 



scribe that, when practicable, it shall be done by extending the 
flank ; when this cannot be done the reenforcement arrives from 
the rear, and mingles with the line. If, therefore, the company 



Plate 8. 



2iib± & i i Eithi a i, i 

d S t <!> S 



t i S t $ 8 






columns of the second line cannot form on the flanks of the 
first line, they move forward, the skirmishers of the first line 
forming in the intervals ; the two lines united then make a rush 
upon the enemy, and open fire as soon as his position is carried. 



280 INFANTRY TACTICS. 

The first line, if repulsed before the second arrives at its sup- 
port, forms in the intervals as before. 

The combinations which may be made with the company 
columns are almost infinite, notwithstanding the German tactics 
favor but few movements, and these as simple as possible. 

The formation of the third rank into shooting divisions ne- 
cessitates many tactical movements in the School of the Bat- 
talion with a view to separating the shooting divisions from the 
remaining divisions of the battalion. 

The following plates represent the principal formations of a 
company and battalion, both in the close and open order. The 
shooting divisions are denominated by Koman letters, the other 
divisions are denominated by figures. 

Plate 6 represents the second and third companies deployed 
as skirmishers from column of subdivisions, or half-platoons. 

Plate 7 represents all of the shooting division of a company 
deployed from column of subdivisions. The " Vortreffen " in 
this ease is 150 yards from the skirmishers. 

Plate 8 represents a battalion in line. 

Plate 9 represents a battalion in line with the shooting di- 
vision of each company formed in rear of the right division of 
the company in the right wing, and left division of the left 
wing. The two shooting divisions of each wing may likewise 
be formed in rear of its outer flank. 

Plate 9. 




3. 


_g. 


z. 


_£_ 


r. •■ 






£>» 




jr. 


_4 


I. 









Plate 10 represents a " column of attack," which is formed 
like our " double column " by ploying the right wing in column 
of divisions (platoons) in rear of its left division ; the left wing 



GERMAN BATTALION" FORMATIONS. 281 

is similarly ployed in rear of its right division. The distance 
from the front rank of one division to the file-closers of the 
division in front is two paces. The column of attack has 



\ 





^- A 


!_i_ 




\= ... ,- 


^-'- 


e. 


&. 


/ 






% 


£. 








■A| , 


8. 


/. 







ceased to he of special significance, as it is never used under 
fire. 

Plate 11 represents the column of attack formed with 



Plate 11. 




each company in company column. The two shooting divisions 
of each wing may likewise he formed at the rear of the col- 
umn ; thev may also be formed at the head of the column, 
or one division of each wing may he formed at the head, and 
the other at the rear. 

The other column formations are : 

1. Column of divisions, subdivisions, and sections, at full dis- 
tance, formed by wheeling by divisions, subdivisions, and sec- 
tions, to the right or left. Column of subdivisions, and sections, 
may also be formed by breaking from column of divisions, and 
subdivisions. 



282 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



2. Close column of divisions, which may be formed by 
wheeling by divisions and closing to the distance of six paces, 
or directly by ployment, as indicated in Plate 12. 



Plate 12. 



i .rP- M <? 



• m £. ' )*0 1^ 




Plate 13. 



Plate 13 represents the formation of column of attack from 

close column of divis- 
ions, right in front. The 
movement is executed 
on the fourth division, 
which stands fast; the 
three divisions in front 
face to the right, move 
forward a short distance, 
change direction twice 
to the right, and, when 
the head of each arrives 
opposite its place in rear 
of the fourth, it executes 
on the right into line ; 

the four divisions in rear 

face to the left, march by 

the left flank till the rear 

of each arrives four. paces beyond the left flank of the fourth 




GERMAN BATTALION FORMATIONS. 283 

division, then marcli by the right flank, and halt when the fifth 

division arrives abreast 

of the fourth. ^^^ »■ 

If the left be in front, ' S<"" 

the movement is execut- 
ed on the fifth division 
by inverse means. 

Plate 14 represents 
the formation of close 
column of divisions, 
right in front, from col- 
umn of attack. The 
fourth division stands 
fast ; all of the other 
divisions face to the 
right; the first, second, ^^ 

and third divisions move 

forward a short distance, change direction twice to the left, and, 
when the right of each arrives in front of the fourth, it exe- 

Plate 15. 



g — '— 

* 8 

g — 




' ^^^^^^ ^^zz^:^ z^^^z '"' ^~ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ' 

-1- A. — A — 

-A 

NyA Ai 



K 



5 

'^ '^ — — 



t 



4. 






A A ^ ^ ---^H: ^=* 



L^ 



=2='^ 



"--^ 



antes on the right into line; the fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
eighth divisions, incline to the right, move to their position 



284: mrANTRY TACTICS. 

in rear of the fourth, when they halt and face to the front. 



Plate 16. 



oooQO o^ociD Q o o a o 90000 

OOOQO 00000 OOOOO OODOO 



QOOQo oo'o '6~t> c o o o o 
ooofio 0000. o&aoo 







S 


h .„ - 


1 


\, 








— 




6~ 










JIL^ 


— 


..» 







%r 



OOOOOOOODOO 
p O O OOOOOOQ^ 



Plate 17. 



Vr. 



'K 



\ 



^/ 



-X 



\ 



\^i. 



8. 7. 



K 



EIFLE C'jiGEE") BATTALIONS. 



285 



Plate 18. 



IK 



I. 



OOOOO ooooo ooooo oooo loooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 
ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo. ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 



8. 



4. 



2. 



3. \ i 



M. 



x. 



Plate 19. 



The movement is executed on the fifth division left in front 
by inverse means. 

Plate 15 shows the deployment of 
a close column of divisions. 

Plate 16 represents skirmishers de- 
ployed from the column of attack 
formed of company columns. 

Plate 17 represents a battalion in 
line, covered by deploying the shooting 
divisions of the first and fourth com- 
panies as skirmishers. 

Plate 18 represents the deployment 
of skirmishers from line of battle. 



dcr 



EBFLE ("jAGEe") BATTAilOlfS. 

All of the foregoing plates illus- 
trate the movements of a company, 
and battalion, formed in three ranks, 
which is the normal formation of the 



be 



.a 



« 



65 



286 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 

Plate 20. 



8 





ft -^ -s 


^ ■t ■=,. 











—6m 




_$ 




hm 


A 


^i 






bm 


,^ 


^b 




=i 




<^: 




— i 

■5 . 






Plate 21. 

OOOOO DOOOO 

o o o o' oA o o^o o o 



infantry of the line. The formation of the rifle battalions is 
in two ranks. 

Each company, if it contains less than 
sixty-four files, is divided into two divis- 
ions and four subdivisions. The sub- 
divisions are further divided into sections 
of not less than four nor more than six 
files. If the company consist of sixty- 
four, or more files, it is divided into four 
divisions, which are further divided into 
subdivisions and sections as before. 

The company column is habitually 
formed of four divisions, or four sub- 
divisions, according as the company 
contains more or less than sixty-four 
files. 

In the rifles the company column, 
whether formed in divisions, or sub- 
divisions, is always formed right in 
front. 

Plate 19 represents a rifle-company 
of two divisions formed in company col- 
umn of subdivisions. 

Plate 20 represents a rifle-battalion 
formed in line of company columns of 
subdivisions. 



SSiii 



)f^ 



A 






V 



FRENCH COMPANY COLUMN. 



287 



Plate 21 sliows the deployment of a company column of sub- 
divisions as skirmishers. 



FBENOH COMPAirr COLUMN. 

The French battalions, like the German, are composed of 
four companies. 

Each company is formed in two ranks, and is normally 
divided into four sections — the first two of which constitute the 
first platoon, the last two the second platoon. 

Each section is divided into two squads in time of peace, 
and four squads in time of war, giving the company eight or 
sixteen squads according as it is on the peace or war footing. 

The company column is always formed on the second section 

Plate 22. 




6 4. 



O Battalion-commander. 

^ Adjutant. 

8 Sergeant-major, 

© Captain. 

i First-lieutenant. 

O Second-lieutenant. 

i Reserve lieutenant. 



a First sergeant. 

tS Eight guide. 

Cj Left guide. 

cb File-closer. 

6 Color. 

=: Musicians. 

,,. Skirmishers. 



288 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



from the right, which stands fast ; the distance between sections 
is six paces. 

Plate 22 represents the formation of the company column 
from line. 

Plate 23 represents its deployment. 







Plate 24 represents the ployment of a company into a pla- 
toon column ; the distance between guides is six paces. 



I 

2i Platoon} \ 



i i 



6 di 



Plate 24. 



PJMatnon,. 



Plate 25 represents the formation of the company column 
from the platoon column. 

Plate 26 represents the formation of the platoon column 
from the company column. 

Plate 27 represents a battalion in line. 

Plate 28 represents the battalion in line of company col- 
umns, with an interval of twenty-four paces between the flanks 
of companies. 



FKENCH COMPANY COLUMN. 



289 



Plate 25. 



£ 



i 



cb i .A- 



,fi g 




SVPJ'ZATOQIV . 




l?TPZATOOJ<r 



Plate 27. 




19 



290 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



Plate 28. 




8 it" ji^asrs 



Plate 29. 




Plate 29 shows the " battalion column " {colomie de hatail- 
lon), composed of the four companies in 
company columns, with the distance be- 
tween companies equal to the front of a 
section increased by six paces. 

Plate 30 represents the battalion in 
double column, formed by placing the 
two wings in column side by side ; the 
two companies of each wing are in 
company columns, one in rear of the 
other. 

Plate 31 represents the formation of 
the battalion column from line of com- 
pany columns by ployment. 
g Plate 32 shows the same formation 

by the simultaneous change of direction 
of the company columns by the right 
flank. 

It will be observed that the battalion 
movements involving the company col- 
umn are almost identical with the move- 
ments of the column of masses, and line 
of masses, in our evolutions of brigade. 

Plate 33 represents the formation of 
the double column from line of company 
columns. 




FRENCH COMPANY COLUMN. 

Plate 80. 



291 




Plate 81. A 



<-- 



1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




i 

J/ 













— J 




1 — 




..., 



C- 



— >> 



zn: 



__, 



292 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 




Plate 82. 



>«) ?«3 i*® ^*® 

4IMIJiJ| 

^t^y '^^J -^^J ^^y 





Plate 34 shows the same formation from the battalion col- 
umn. 

SKIEMISHING. 

The habitual formation of the company preparatory to 
skirmishing is in company column ; but skirmishers may be 
deployed from line, from the platoon column, or from any other 
formation. 

The " formation de combat " or " fighting order " is in three 
echelons, or lines, as follows : 



1. Skirmishers. 
3. Support. 



2. Eeenforcements. 



One section, composed of 2 squads (4 on the war-footing), 
constitutes the skirmish-line {ohaini) ; another section, the reen- 



DEPLOYMENT OF A COMPANY AS SEIEMISHERS. 293 

f orcement {renforf) ; and the remaining two sections, the sup- 
ports (soutien). The two sec- 
tions composing the skirmish- '^^ 
line and the reenforcement be- ^ 
long to the same platoon, both 
of which remain under the com- 
mand of the chief of platoon. 
The supports are composed of 
the two sections of the remain- 
ing platoon, and are commanded 
by its chief. 



DEPLOYMENT OF THE COMPAITT AS 
SKIEMISHEES. 

The distance from the skir- 
mishers to the reenforcement is 
150 yards, and from the reen- 
forcement to the supports a 
maximum not exceeding 350 
yards (metres). 

DEPLOYMENT AS SKERMISHEES. 

The squad is always the unit 
in the skirmish-line. 

To deploy a section, its chief 
commands : 



'^ 



11 ...c 



■<- 



r 


-: 1 












! 1 



I 



On such squad deploy. 



Plate 35. — The squad designated, conducted by its coi-poral 
as chief, marches in the direction indicated, or upon the posi- 
tion that is to be occupied ; the other, squads, conducted by 
their corporals, move obliquely, or by the flank, till opposite 
their intervals, when they march forward. 

Each squad detaches two videttes, who precede it to recon- 
noitre the ground over which it is to move. The distance taken 
between squads is such that when they are deployed there may 



294 



INFANTRY TAOTIOS. 



be a distance of 6 paces between files, and 3 between skir- 
mishers. 



Plate 35. 
o o o o 



- o o 

Vedettes 



k 



i 



Squads I at 
Dejdoyin^ Intervals 



\ 



Seetj 



To deploy the squads, the chief of section commands : 
As skirmishers. 

Each squad deploys on the centre file which moves forward ; 
the other files gain the interval of six paces by obliquing to the 
right and left ; the rear-rank man of each file places himself 
on the left of the front-rank man as soon as his interval is 
gained. 

A single squad habitually deploys on its centre file, but may 
be deployed on the file on either flank. It may also be deployed 
by the flank. 

If, instead of deploying the section into squads with inter- 
vals, the chief desires to deploy it at once as skirmishers, he 
commands : 

On such squad, as skirmishers. 



DEPLOYMENT OF A COMPANY AS SKIRMISHERS. 295 

Each squad then deploys as soon as it moves opposite the 
left or riglit of the squad which precedes it. 

Whenever a company is to be deployed the captain instructs 
the chiefs of platoon, and section, as to the object to be at- 
tained, and details as far as practicable the movements to be 
executed ; he then gives to the chiefs of platoon the order to 
begin the movement. 

Being in company column the chief of the leading platoon 
causes the leading section to deploy in squads with intervals ; 



Plate 36. 
A 



30 



150 



Yds 



Yds 



300 to 



Vedc'tt'es 



Skirmishers 
(One Sectim) 



3 Reinforeement 
(One Section) 



350Tds. 



-i Swjiport 

\ One Platoon, 



(Two Sections) 



296 INFANTEY TAOTIOS. 

the rear section follows the leading one at a distance of 150 
yards ; the chief of the rear platoon posts his two sections not 
exceeding 350 yards to the rear of the reenforcement of the 
skirmishers. 

Plate 36 represents the company in the normal order of 
combat. 

Great stress is laid in the tactics on keeping the squads and 
sections as distinct from each other as possible, in order that 
the men may be under the command of their proper chiefs. 

The commands are general, and are given either by voice, or 
are transmitted by men specially selected for the purpose. 

These commands are such as : 

" Such section as skirmishers, reenforcement, or support." 

" Such a squad or such section prolong the skirmish-line to 
the right." 

" Such section reenforce the right of the line." 

" Such section form an offensive or defensive crotchet on 
the right or the left." 

METHOD OF ATTACK. 

The company being in the order of combat, with videttes in 
front of each squad, advances till the fire of the enemy begins 
to impede the march, when the squads deploy ; the videttes, 
chosen from the best shots of the company, open fire, and the 
advance is continued without further change till the opposition 
of the enemy becomes too strong, when the skirmishers move 
forward to the line of videttes and commence a slow and de- 
liberate fire. The skirmishers now gain ground by rushing 
forward from one cover to another, either all at once or by 
successive squads, the fire of those in rear protecting those in 
front. In each position the fire is resumed, and is discontin- 
ued only to run forward to another position still nearer to the 
enemy. 

In the mean time the reenforcement and the supports follow 
the movements of the skirmishers, concealing themselves as far 
as possible, and profiting by every opportunity to get cover. 
In advancing, they are permitted to move squad by squad, file 



DEPLOYMENT OF A BATTALION AS SKIEMISHEES. 297 

by file, or even man by man. They thus approach the skir- 
mishers, who are strengthened by squads sent forward from the 
reenforcement whenever it is necessary to increase the fire. 
Should the enemy attempt to turn the flank of the skirmish- 
line, the supports are employed to repel the attack. 

If the fire of the enemy continue too strong for the skir- 
mishers to advance, they are gradually strengthened by the re- 
maining squads of the reenforcement, and even by squads from 
the supports, which have now arrived at the position formerly 
occupied by the reenforcement. The fire is now increased, but, 
should the enemy still resist, the remainder of the supports ad- 
vance in closed ranks, the skirmishers fix bayonets, the drums 
beat the charge, and all make a rush for the enemy's position. 
If unable to reach it at a single bound, the line continues to 
approach by successive rushes made by the whole line, or by 
fractions, until, overcome by its fire, the enemy retires before a 
final charge with the bayonet. 

METHOD OF DEFENSE. 

On the defensive, the "order of combat" is substantially the 
same as on the offensive, except that the distances from the skir- 
mishers to the reenforcement and the supports are diminished. 

Tn proportion as the enemy approaches and increases his 
fire, the skirmish-line is strengthened by squads from the reen- 
forcement. If the enemy threaten a flank, a portion of the sup- 
ports is deployed to repel the attack. The supports can also be 
employed, if the opportunity offers, to attack the enemy in 
flank. 

If the enemy continue to advance, the instant he moves to 
the assault, after having opened a severe flre on the line, the sup- 
ports move forward, join the skirmishers, and assist in repelling 
the attack. 

DEPLOYMENT OF A BATTALION AS SKIEMISHEES. 

Plate 37. — A battalion of the first line, when fighting in 
connection with battalions on its right and left, is required to 
cover only its own front and one-half of the intervals between 



298 INFANTEY TACTICS. 

it and tlie adjoining battalions. This space for a battalion of 
800 men is estimated at from 300 to 350 metres. 

When approaching an enemy outside of his field of fire, a 
battalion may march in any column, or formation, prescribed in 
the tactics ; but, when it arrives at 2,000 yards from his artillery, 
it immediately forms in the " order of combat." The battalion 

Plate ST. 
Yidettes, 

OOOO.ODOOD 

'Ddo o%laooaoo'^oooxoco o oooooooo ood 

Skirmiahe-TS, 

I 
\ 

I 

o 
n . 

J^-iTiforpe7nent3. 



Supjtarts, 





Beserye., 



commander carefully instructs the captains as to the object to be 
attacked, and the method of attack, and then detaches two com- 
panies, which immediately take the order of combat prescribed 
for a company. 

The skirmishers deployed by these companies form the 



METHOD OF ATTACK "WITH A BATTALION. 299 

skirmishers of the battalion ; their reenforcements form the line 
of reenforcements of the battalion, and their supports the line of 
supports. 

The reserve is composed of the remaining two companies, 
or one-half of the battalion, and is kept united as long as possi- 
ble at a distance of about 500 yards from the supports. In its 
movements it takes any formation that may best enable it to 
cover itself from the enemy's fire. 

Plate 31 represents a battalion in the normal order of com- 
bat. The distances given are the maximum. When the ground 
is broken the distances may be diminished, but, in order that 
the different fractions may not engage too precipitately in the 
action, the minimum depth of the battahon should not be less 
than 500 yards. 

In the normal order of combat for the defensive, the dis- 
tance from the skirmishers to the reenforcements is about 100 
yards ; from reenforcements to the supports 100 yards, and 
from the supports to the reserve 300 yards. 

METHOD OF ATTACK WIIH A BATTALION. 

The object to be kept steadily in view with the breech-load- 
ing tactics is to shake the morale of the enemy by securing in 
every stage of the advance a preponderating fire, at the same 
time advancing in such small fractions, up to the moment of the 
final rush or assault, as to reduce the casualties to the lowest 
limit. 

To accomplish this object the battalion forms in the order 
of combat at 2,000 yards from the enemy's artillery. In this 
order, with videttes in front of the undeployed squads, the bat- 
talion moves forward to within 800 yards of the enemy's skir- 
mishers, when their fire becoming dangerous, the squads deploy 
as skirmishers in rear of the videttes. 

During the advance up to this moment the videttes, accom- 
panied if necessary by an officer, designate the positions that 
may be successively occupied to advantage ; the points from 
which fire can be opened with success, and with least exposure ; 
also the spaces over which the troops should move either with 



300 INFANTRY TACTICS. 

caution, or with rapidity. They approach under cover as near 
as possible to the enemy's position, and at all times keep the 
battalion commander informed of everything transpiring within 
their view. 

At 800 yards the videttes open fire, and at 600 yards are 
reenforced by the skirmishers, when the whole line joins in the 
action. At this stage only one section, or one-fourth of each 
of the two leading companies, has become engaged. 

The line now darts forward from cover to cover, the cap- 
tains causing the sections as reenforcements to move forward 
in squads or all at once, according to the necessity of the case. 
If the entire section of either company move forward, the sup- 
ports close to 150 yards, or one section may close to that dis- 
tance while the remaining section holds itself farther to the 
rear. 

As the opposition of the enemy grows stronger, and the 
necessity of increasing the fire before each succeeding rush be- 
comes more apparent, the supports approach the line, availing 
themselves of every cover. The supports are never sent for- 
ward to the line, except either in squads or sections, in order 
that each unit may be kept together as long as possible. The 
units move up to the line either in open or close order, the lat- 
ter order being preferable when intensity of fire is desired. 

The two reserve companies conform to the movements of 
the supports, gradually diminishing their distance, and finally 
taking the positions of the supports, when the latter move for- 
ward to replace the reenforcements. , 

Up to the time that the supports replace the reenforcements 
only one-half of the line of combat of the leading companies 
has become engaged, and not till it becomes impossible to make 
any further advance is the remaining half of the line of com- 
bat, composed of the two sections in support, ordered into 
action. 

All of the movements thus far described, by means of which 
the battalion has advanced from 2,000 yards to within from 200 
to 300 yards of the enemy, are simply considered as the " prep- 
aration for the attack^ 



■METHOD OF ATTACK WITH A BATTALION. 301 

The impulse necessary to induce the skirmishers to advance 
from one position to another has been given by reenforcing 
them successively by squads and sections, until all of the two 
leading companies have become engaged. But the most diffi- 
cult part of the work still remains ; the skirmishers have been 
reenforced until they have attained nearly the strength of a line 
in single rank, and yet the enemy resists, and covers every inch 
of the intervening space with a deadly fire. 

To overcome this resistance is the object of the attack, which 
is preceded for a few moments by a rapid fire from the entire 
liae of combat. One company of the reserve then moves for- 
ward in line (closed ranks), when, as it joins the skirmishers, 
they fix bayonets, the drums beat the charge, the officers cheer 
the men, and all, shouting " Forward ! " make a rush for the 
enemy's works. 

If the distance be too great to carry the position at a single 
bound, the line of combat, reenforced by a company from the 
reserve, gains ground by short rushes, keeping up a rapid fire, 
until the line arrives within 50 or 100 paces of the enemy. 

The second company of reserve, the last of the battalion, is 
now ordered into the line, and the charge is executed as before. 

The second company of the reserve is kept as long as possi- 
ble in rear so as to be ready to repulse any counter-attack of the 
enemy, also to form a support for the skirmishers should they 
be driven back. In any event it is only ordered into action at 
the last instant, when it is replaced by a company sent forward 
from a battalion of the second line, which then assumes all of 
the duties of a reserve company. 

If the attack succeed, dispositions are at once made against 
a counter-attack. To this end tlie line of combat pursues the 
enemy to a favorable position from which it can open fire, 
while the reserve companies are rallied, and in close order move 
forward so as to again support the skirmishers. The cavalry 
also at this juncture may be employed to pursue the enemy, or 
by its presence prevent him from taking the offensive. 

If the attack fail, or if the position be lost by a counter-at- 
tack, the battalion of the second line already prepared deploys, 



302 INFANTRY TACTICS. 

and by its resistance gives the skirmishers time to rally and take 
position in rear. The second battalion, now in front, may re- 
sume the attack or remain on the defensive, according to the 
state of the enemy. 

DEFENSIVE. 

The normal order of combat on the defensive is the same as 
for the offensive, except that the distances between the skir- 
mishers, reinforcements, and other portions, are diminished. 

The defense is begun by the videttes, who resist as long as 
possible without interfering with the fire of the skirmishers, 
who, as the enemy approaches, are successively strengthened by 
squads and sections from the reenforcements and the supports. 

As on the offensive, the reserve replaces the supports, and 
supports the reenforcements. The squads and sections are con- 
ducted to the line at the points most threatened, and fire by 
volley or by file at the subdivisions of the enemy in line or in 
mass. 

The movements are so combined as to resist each successive 
advance of the enemy by an increasing fire. The reserve must 
therefore join the skirmishers before the final assault ; and in 
close order fires by volley or file, according to the enemy's 
movements. 

A passive defense is forbidden as being fatal to the morale 
of the troops ; battalion commanders are therefore directed, 
whenever practicable, to take the offensive, and the most favor- 
able moment is that just preceding the final attack. 

The counter-attack is generally made by directing a subdi- 
vision against an exposed flank of the enemy, while the line of 
defense in his front rapidly increases its fire. If the counter- 
attack succeed, the whole line of defense charges with the 
bayonet, and seeks to drive the enemy as far as possible. 

If compelled to abandon the line of defense, the battalion 
of the second line deploys, and, when the skirmishers of the 
leading battalion have passed to the rear, endeavors to take the 
offensive and regain the position that has been lost. 

"Whenever a battalion fights separately the general disposi- 



COMPANY COLUMN" IN ITALY, AUSTRIA, ETC. 303 

tions are the same as when operating in connection with other 
battalions, the principal difference being an increased front, and 
the consequent necessity of so posting the fractions as to give 
prompt assistance to the part of the skirmish-line most threat- 
ened. 

DISPOSmoNS AGAINST CAVALET. 

Any formation, with breech-loaders, against cavalry, is re- 
garded as good, provided the men can bring their fire to bear at 
good range. 

The " column against cavah-y " executed by each company 
column is the most usual formation. 

To form the column, the front section halts; the fourth 
closes up to the third, halts, and faces to the rear ; the inter- 
vals between the first and second, and second and third sections 
are filled by files designated from the second and third sections, 
which wheel to the right and left. 

If the battalion be in battalion column, or line of company 
columns, the companies, if there be time, are first posted in 
echelon, and then form columns against cavalry. 

A battalion in line, if surprised, breaks a crotchet to the 
rear, and receives the charge in line. 

COMPANY COLUMN IN ITALY, ATTSTEIA, AND EUSSIA. 

The company column in Italy, Austria, and Eussia, as in 
France, varies so slightly from the German, from which it was 
derived, that its formation and use need not be described. 

Plate 38 represents a regiment of the Russian Guard in the 
order of combat at the manoeuvres near Krasnoe Selo in Au- 
gust, 1876. 

The distances between the first battalion and the other bat- 
talions, at first well regulated, gradually diminished until the 
company columns, and even the battalion in mass, without de- 
ploying, were found immediately in rear of the skirmish-line. 

At the manoeuvres near Peterhoff, at one stage of the attack, 
a portion of the offensive party was formed in four lines of bat- 
tle; the leading line fired into the company columns, and col- 



304 INFANTRY TACTICS. 

umns in mass, of the retreating enemy at a distance of 50 
yards. 

Plate 88. 

o oooooooooo oooo o o o ooooo oo p oo oeoo oo O OOOOOOO 
QOO ooooooooooooo ooooo oooo oo oooo OOO OOO^OO. Dft 



-.l^TWTXAEIOWJISSKaiMlSnERS I 
VamaCOMElNSESERKE , 



SPmCTTALIOir 

vr 
U COMP.COLVMNa 



3fSATTALI0y 

IK 

t COMB COLUMNS 



« '^BATTAaOlTIN 

CLOSE COLinm OF COMEMmS 



Plate 89. 



Plate 39 represents tlie formation of a regiment of the line 



RUSSIAN SKIRMISHING FORMATIONS. 305 

of three battalions, of five companies each, as seen at the Camp 
of Instruction at Moscow in 1876. The three battalions are in 
line, each covered by its fifth company as skirmishers. 

Plate 40. 



Plate 40 shows the regiment in readiness to fire, the skir- 
mishers having fallen back to the intervals between battalions. 



Plate 41. 



t'^.BATT? SPSATTe ^SJTTS' 



Plate 41 shows the fifth company of each battalion as skir- 

Plate 42. 






□"o^ooVt^ooTJ o ^^^i D o o a 



J^MOTT^IiaN 2^.S4TrALrOJir J^'MATTALiaS" 



mishers ; the first and fourth in support, in line ; the second 
and third in company column of two platoons each. 

20 



306 INFANTRY TACTICS. 

Plate 42 represents the skirmishers reenforced by the ad- 
vance of the first and fourth companies. 

Plate 43. 



Plate 43 represents the skirmishers further reenforced by 
the second and third companies in company column, which on 
arriving on the line close up in four ranks ; the first and sec- 
ond ranks fire kneeling, the third and fourth standing. 

ENGLISH SKIEMISHraG. 

By the English tactics, skirmishers, in the School of the 
Battalion, may be deployed either from column, or from 
line. 

The columns principally used are : 

The " quarter column," or column of companies formed by 
ployment, or by wheeling and closing in mass. 

The " half-battalion column," formed by ploying the com- 
panies of each wing in mass in rear of either flank com- 
pany. 

The " double column," formed by ploying the companies in 
rear of the two centre companies. 

The principles of the deployment are illustrated in the fol- 
lowing plates : 

Plate 44 represents the deployment of a battalion of ten 
companies from " quarter column." The first company deploys 
from its centre ; the second prolongs the line to the right ; the 
third to the left; the fourth, fifth, and sixth companies are 
posted as supports ; the remaining four companies, in column, 
are held in reserve. 

Plate 45 represents the deployment of a battalion of six com- 
panies from " quarter column." The first company deploys to 
the right ; the second prolongs the line to the right ; the third 
and fourth act as supports ; while the fifth and sixth, in column, 
act as reserve. 



ENGLISH SKIRMISHING. 



307 



Plate 44. 



"oooooo 




Plate 45. 
^ 2. 

,0000° """""""Oo OOOOOOOPfloOooOeoOOOOOoo oOOOOoooO?? 
'a. A .^ Jl.'XJ_JL A .-^ 

e 



16 ^ ^ '^ * .•■' A * * "^ ^ y 



/ 
/ 



./' 



A 






/ ..■■ 



/// 



/J-' 



\ i // / ■'■■ 



Jfi 



tf^ij'' 



308 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



Plate 46 represents the deployment of a battalion of eight 
companies from line. The second company deploys to the 



Plate 46. 
S li § A i ,/ i ik ^ 6i & / 

n // 



/4 



/ / 

j 

^/ / / 



/ 



yy 



■■■"/■■■'" 



y ' ■' yy 

/ i' jy.-Z-im^ ^° 

'JM/ 



Flate 47. 



\ 



W. '•■ 






/ 



! / /•■/ 






right ; the first prolongs the line to the right ; the third and 
fourth are posted in support ; the remaining companies ploy 



ENGLISH SKIRMISHING. 



309 



into a half-battalion column, in rear of the fifth, and are eon- 
ducted in column to their place in reserve. 

Plate 47 represents the deployment of a battalion of six com- 
panies from line. The first company deploys to the right ; the 
second prolongs the line to the left ; the third and fourth move 



Plate 48. 
A 



ABtfVT 

"~ " "400FASES "* 

Q o Q q_o aooooo ooo o o o o o ooo 0000000000000000000000 
o o D o ojO 0000000 o 00 000 o'o'o'o'o o 0.0 00000000009 O'O A 00 O Q 



fil 



m^< 



n;2- 



III \ 



■mracozoss. ' I ' = 



vs 



to their positions in support ; the fifth and sixth, in column, act 

as reserve. 

Plate 48 represents a battalion of eight companies in fight- 
ing formation. 

Plates 49, 50, and 51, represent the successive changes of 
formation while advancing to a position within 150 or 200 
yards of the enemy. The final attack is made by the advance 
of the entire battalion in one general line. 

Plate 62 represents the order of combat of a division of in- 
fantry, composed of two brigades of three battalions each, at the 
Camp of Instruction at Delhi, India, in 1876. 



310 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



In tlie formation, the leading battalion of each brigade, 
which constitutes the line of combat, is arranged in three lines. 



Plate 49. 






ABOVT 



■was. feij* 









""OOOOOOOOoootlOO' 



ocooooooo" 



is^ 



•s°a . — 










MAINSOXfT. 



The first and second lines are each formed by two companies. 



ENGLISH SKIRMISHING. 



311 



deployed as skirmishers, witli a distance between them of 200 
yards. The third line, which constitutes the supports, is formed 



Plate 51. 




ZfJERTOAD^. 



irrmiT&ADE. 



OPPPOOOOQQ'OQOOPOOOOaOQOOOOOOOO^OOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOOoaOO 

2 coMRAirjES s caMPJirms. 



lOOODOOQOOODOOOIJOOOOOOaOOOOOOOOOOOOOOfloDOOOOOOOOOIlOOOf 

2COJUB4IIZES. acotMBAiairs. 



iCOMPONieS. 



itcoiUPAivnis, 



-zmATTiiLKm. 



zz?s£FiiiLiair'. 



'S9JBA.T3}iZI02r. 



za-^oTMmx 



by the four remaiomg companies of the battalion, which are 
posted in line with intervals, at a distance of about 200 yards 
from the second line. 



312 INFANTEY TACTICS. 

The second and third battalions are formed in column of 
double companies, the distances between them and the line of 
combat varying with the nature of the ground. 

Plate 53 represents the formation of a brigade for an attack 
on the villages of Badlee Serai and Azadpore during the ma- 
noeuvres near Delhi in 1876. 

The formation consisted of two heavy lines of skirmishers, 
supported by two battalions in line of battle. 

In the English system, as in the German, ground is gained 



Plate 53. 



OOOOO (I OO 
oooooo OO a 



od ooO'Ooo Oud.oos 0Ooooooo''oo-o^ooooo 

oooooooo 



by a series of rushes, usually preceded by reenforcing the skir- 
mish-line and increasing the fire. 

The disposition of the supports shows that quarter, half, or 
full companies can be sent to a flank, or to any part of the line, 
while the arrangement of the rear battalions in line, and double 
column of companies ready for deployment, shows that the de- 
ployed line is still adhered to as the best and safest formation 
to stem retreat when the skirmishers are forced back. 

Our own system of skirmishing, like the English, is adapted 
to a battalion of ten companies. The skirmishers may be de- 
ployed both from line and from column, and are posted in one 
or two lines, with supports in one or in two lines in the rear. 

The unit of " four " corresponds with the " section " of the 
German, and " squad " of the French tactics. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON SKIRMISHING. 



313 



The system also provides a single rank, which can be used 
offensively or defensively, and also a deployment by numbers, 
whereby, if necessary, eight successive lines of skirmishers may 
be advanced from a battalion in line, thus enabling the entire 
battalion to advance in skirmishing order. 

Three of these lines of skirmishers, and even four, may ad- 
vance, leaving the battalion still in line ready to support the 
skirmishers if successful, or to receive them if repulsed. 

Plate 54: illustrates this method of deployment : 



i 



auiiaiiuu'avAamtl'A: 









GENEEAL EEMAEKS ON THE OPEN OEDEE OP FIGHTING. 

If the method of fighting in open order be cursorily exam- 
ined, it will be observed that the real attack is only made after 
the skirmishers have been reenforced to such a degree as to 
form a line of battle. 

It will be further observed that, as the company column is 
generally disintegrated on arriving within 600 yards of the ene- 
my, it is in reality less an essential feature of the open order, 
than a necessity resulting from the organization of large com- 
panies, the subdivision of which for manoeuvres is indispensa- 



314 INFANTRY TACTICS. 

ble. Once divided into two, or four divisions or sections, the 
company column follows naturally, the same as the battalion in 
mass in the evolutions of a brigade. 

With a battalion of eight or ten companies, subdivisions may 
be dispensed with, and, so long as this organization is retained 



in England and America, the company column will not there- 
fore become a necessity ; but, should we adopt the regimental 
system of three battalions, of four companies each, all of the 
advantages claimed for the company column can be secured by 
adopting the double column of fours for each company. 

This formation, already employed in our " Cavalry Tactics," 
par. 839, is equally applicable to large and small companies ; is 



OO 60 oo oo oo 0> 



000 000 oo 0000 DO 






-';^, 




better adapted to our topography than the company column, and 
is also susceptible of more simple and varied application. 

Plate 55 represents a battalion of four companies formed in 
line of double columns. 

Plate 56 represents a battalion with two lines of skirmishers 
deployed by numbers ; the lines A^ £, and C, show the posi- 



GENERAL REMARKS ON SKIRMISHING. 315 

tions that may be occupied by a company, according to its 
deployment from the double column to the front, to and on the 
right or to and on the left. 

The theoretical use of the company column has been suffi- 
ciently described ; but how far it will be modified by future 
wars has yet to be determined. It is possible that for battalions 
of the first line on the offensive it may supersede the line of 
battle, but on the defensive, particularly in a country like ours, 
where rifle-pits can be constructed in a few minutes, its use in 
preference to a deployed line would invite disaster. 

In all the later campaigns of the war the history of our tac- 
tical movements could be frequently traced by the lines of aban- 
doned trenches, which were often provided with abatis and head- 
logs, underneath which were horizontal loop-holes for musketry. 
A line, even a single rank, unshaken by fire while moving into 
position, could calmly await behind them the approach of the 
enemy's skirmishers, and bid defiance to the successive fractions 
sent to their support. 

In such cases, the general system adopted was to press up 
the skirmishers toward the enemy's works, seek a position for 
fresh troops so near that an attack would give promise of suc- 
cess, and then charge in one or more lines. 

By the German system the charge is practically made in 
Hne ; only, however, after the courage of the men has been grad- 
ually exhausted by repeated rushes, and exposure to the ene- 
my's fire. 

The feature of the open order of fighting which should 
engage our most serious attention is the subdivision of the bat- 
talions and companies into constituent parts, or fractions, each 
one of which must have its appropriate commander. 

In the new system the ma,ior assumes the functions of a 
brigade commander ; a captain requires the knowledge and skill 
of a colonel ; a lieutenant performs the duty of a captain ; a 
sergeant takes the place of a lieutenant, and a corporal, no lon- 
ger required to simply fire his musket, takes command of a 
squad or section. 
' To all of these grades latitude is given in the management 



316 INTANTEY TAOTIOS. 

of their commands under fire, and hence an error of judgment 
in any one may initiate a movement that may lose a battle. 

In Europe the success of the company column is acknowl- 
edged to depend on good captains, and, that they may be sup- 
ported throughout, the Governments not only thoroughly train 
the commanders of each squad, but, having trained them, they 
offer to their non-commissioned officers special inducements to 
remain in the service. 

The fact that the Continental powers find it necessary to 
train each officer, and non-commissioned officer, for his special 
duty, should impress us with the importance of providing in 
time of war at least one trained officer to command every com- 
pany and battalion. 



CONOLUSIOlfl'S. 



The true object to be kept in view in studying European 
militajcy ^irgajization is to present tbose features which are 
common to all armies, and to indicate those which we should 
adopt as indispensable to the vigorous, successful, and himiane 
prosecution of our future wars. 

These features, or general principles, may be briefly stated 
en resume as follows : 

1. To enable a nation to put forth, in the hour of danger, 
its greatest military strength, every citizen, in consideration of 
the protection extended to his life and property, is held to owe 
military service to his government. 

2. Every nation maintains a regular army, which constitutes 
the chief bulwark in case of invasion, and almost the sole in- 
strument for waging wars of aggression. 

3. For the purpose of equalizing the burdens of military 
service, and of facilitating the rapid equipment and mobiliza- 
tion of troops, each country is divided into military districts, to 
which are permanently assigned army corps, divisions, brigades, 
regiments, and battalions, which draw from the districts all of 
their recruits, both in peace and in war. 

i. The army is maintained on two distinct footings — one of 
peace, the other of war. 

5. The relative size of the army, on the peace and war foot- 
ings, is determined by political considerations, and the financial 



318 CONCLUSIONS. 

resources of the country. As a rule, the army on the peace- 
footing is about one-half as large as on the war-footing. 

6. The army on the peace-footing is but a school of training 
to prepare officers and men for efficient service in time of war. 

Y. The term of military service is so divided that those men 
who happen to be drafted shall serve from three to four years 
with the colors ; then pass into reserve from four to five years 
— subject at any moment to be recalled to the colors ; then into 
an army of the second line, called " Landwehr," " militia mo- 
bile," or " army territoriale ; " and, lastly, into a body as yet 
unorganized, termed "Landsturm," " militia 'territoriale," or 
" reserve of the army territoriale." The total length of mili- 
tary service varies in different countries from twelve to twenty 
years, and usually begins with the twenty-first year of age. 

8. By requiring men, after serving from three to four years 
with the colors, to remain from four to five years subject to re- 
call to the ranks, the Government forms a reserve of trained 
soldiers, by means of which it can raise the army immediately 
to the war-footing, and still have a supply of disciplined men 
to fill the vacancies occasioned by battle and disease. 

9. In addition to the reserve of trained soldiers, who may 
not be able to fill all the vacancies occasioned by a prolonged 
war, there is maintained, as in Germany, and Italy, a second 
body of men, termed the " ersatz reserve," whose training has 
been limited to two or more months. 

10. Officers of reserve, or complement, are provided in time 
of peace, who, in time of war, join the army, and serve to raise 
the number of officers to the war standard. 

11. To support the regular army, and, when necessary, to 
reenforce it, the Landwehr, composed of troops of aU arms, is 
organized into an army of the second line. This army is largely 
made up of soldiers who have previously been trained with the 
colors, and is officered by former officers of the army, or by 
officers specially educated for their position. 

12. Every regiment of infantry, artillery, cavalry, and en- 
gineers, has a depot, which, in time of war, receives, drills, and 
forwards to the regiment, the men called in from the reserve. 



CONCLUSIONS. 319 

13. The time required to make an efficient cavalry-man is so 
great that the cavalry is maintained continually on the war- 
footing. 

14. No officers are commissioned in the army without either 
graduating at a military school, or by promotion from the 
ranks, after pursuing a professional course of study, followed by 
a qualifying examination. 

15. A War Academy is specially created to educate officers 
in the art of war, and to prepare them for the staff, and to hold 
high command. 

16. The gefieral staff, corresponding to our Adjutant- 
Greneral's Department, which demands the highest profes- 
sional training, and the widest experience, of any staff depart- 
ment in the army, is organized in such a manner that the 
officers constantly pass from the line to the staff, and the 
reverse. They thus keep in sympathy with the troops, know 
their wants and fighting qualities, and, furthermore, know 
how to manoeuvre them in nearly every emergency that may 
arise. 

17. To enable the Government to profit by the best talent in 
the army, rapid promotion, either by entering the staff corps or 
by selection, is provided for all officers who manifest decided 
zeal and professional ability. 

18. To enable the Government to know the qualifications of 
its officers, either annual or biennial reports are required from 
commanding officers, showing the zeal, aptitude, special qualifi- 
cations, and personal character, of every subordinate under their 
command. These reports are not secret or confidential. On the 
contrary, when a commanding officer reports adversely upon an 
officer, the latter is notified, in order that he may amend his 
conduct. In Austria the officer has a right, and in eveiy other 
country should have the right, to know what his record is at 
the War Department. 

19. Officers are maintained for the sole benefit of the Gov- 
ernment,. If, therefore, an officer is ignorant or incompetent, 
the Government, by means of personal reports, and special ex- 
aminations, can stop his promotion, and thus prevent injury to 



320 CONCLUSIONS. 

the service, which directly increases with the size of his com- 
mand. 

20. To keep regiments, batteries, and squadrons, up to their 
fighting strength, detached service is avoided by setting aside in 
each organization the number of non-combatants known to be 
necessary, such as artificers, teamsters, etc., who are never count- 
ed in the fighting strength. The evil of detached service is 
further avoided by the complete organization, on an indepen- 
dent footing, of the different staflT departments, and administra- 
tive services, and especially by separate organization of artillery 
and general military trains. 

21. The inorale of troops in the field is maintained by con- 
stantly filling the vacancies occasioned by death and disease, 
partly by men who have formerly served with the colors, and 
partly by recruits who have had more or less military instruc- 
tion at depots, and camps of instruction. 

22. The Government increases its chances of success, and 
promotes economy, by keeping the battalions in the field up to 
their war strength. The old soldiers teach the new, while offi- 
cers already accustomed to battle know how to lead their troops 
into action with the least loss of life, and the best assurance of 
victory. 

23. Only when the troops of the regular army become de- 
pleted, or outnumbered, does the Government call out the 
army of the second line, which, with special foresight, has been 
organized, and is led to battle by officers, many of whom have 
had service in the regular army, in both peace and war. 

24. Discipline is principally maintained by granting to com- 
manding officers of every grade, and even to non-commissioned 
officers, the power to inflict, within certain limits, summary 
punishment for all minor offenses. 

As the reward of the application of these principles, Prus- 
sia, in 1866, was enabled to dictate terms of peace to Austria, 
after a short campaign of six weeks ; while, in 1870, between the 
15th of July and the 1st of September, Germany mobilized her 
forces, crossed the frontier, overwhelmed a great army, forced it 
to seek the shelter of its fortresses, securely invested it, captured 



CONCLUSIONS. 321 

an Emperor, at the head of a relieving army, and destroyed 
what was supposed to be the strongest military empire on the 
globe. 

In the Austro-Prussian "War, the Prussian loss in killed, and 
died of wounds and of disease, was 10,877 ; in the Franco-Ger- 
man "War, the total German losses were 40,881. ^-^^-^ 

If we now compare our military policy during the first cen- 
tury of the Eepublic with the present military policy of Euro- 
pean nations, we shall find that the difference lies principally in 
this — ^that, while they prosecute their wars exclusively with 
trained armies, completely organized in all of their parts, and 
led by officers specially educated, we have begun, and have 
prosecuted, most of our wars with raw troops, whose officers 
have had to be educated in the expensive school of war. As 
the result of this policy, the duration of our wars has been as 
follows : 



War of the Revolution . 


7 years. 


"War of 1812 . 


. 2i " 


War with Mexico . 


2 " 


War of the Eebellion 


. 4 " 



The total number of men called out In these diEEerent wars 
was as follows : 

Wa/r of the Revolution. 

Continentals 231,771 

Militia 164,087 



Total .... 395,858 

War of 18 m. 

Kegulars 38,186 

Militia 458,463 

Volunteers . • • • 10,110 

Hangers 3,049 

Total .... 509,808 

21 



322 



CONCLUSIONS. 




War with Mexico. 

Kegulars 

Yolunteers 


26,922 
. 73,532 


Total . . . . 


100,454 


War of the Rebellion. 

Eegulars 

Yolunteers and militia 


46,679 
. 2,637,080 



Total .... 2,683,759 

The figures for the Kevolution are taken from the report of 
the Secretary of War, made to Congress in 1790, in which, for 
want of accurate returns, the estimate for the militia is con- 
jectural. 

The figures for the "War of 1812 are taken from the records 
of the Third Auditor's office, which show that the total number 
of militia, volunteers, and rangers, who were regularly discliarged 
amounted to 471,622. The strength of the regular army is taken 
from the return for September, 1814, wlien it numbered 38,186, 
and, therefore, falls below the total number called out. 

The figures for the war with Mexico were furnished by the 
adjutant-general to Congress. 

Those for the Eebellion are taken from the report of the 
provost-marshal-general for 1865. According to the figures 
of the adjutant-general, the number of volunteers of all classes 
who enlisted between April 12, 1861, and April 19, 1865, and 
were regularly discharged, was 2,234,421, their average service 
being twenty-eight and seven-tenths months. 

In the War of the Eebellion, our losses in killed, and died 
of wounds and disease, according to the report of the surgeon- 
general, were 304,369. The losses of the Confederates, as 
nearly as can be determined, were between 200,000 and 250,000 
men, making the total number of citizens who perished in the 
war exceed half a million. 

In order to diminish the disparity in the loss of life, due to 



CONCLUSIONS. 323 

the difference between our military policy and the military policy 
of Europe, two plans suggest themselves, either of which, if mar 
tured in time of peace, and adhered to in time of war, will enable 
us to prosecute our future campaigns with economy and dispatch. 

The first plan is to so organize, localize, and nationalize the 
regular army that, by the mere process of filling its cadres, it 
may be expanded to such proportions as to enable it, without 
other aid, to bring our wars to a speedy conclusion. 

The second plan is to prosecute our future wars with vol- 
unteer infantry, supported by the regular artillery and cavalry, 
apportioning the officers of the regular army among the volim- 
teers in such a manner that all of the staff departments, and, if 
possible, all of the companies, battalions, brigades, and higher 
organizations, shall be trained and commanded by officers of 
military education and experience. 

Both of these plans, to be efficacious, must rest on the same 
foundation, viz. : 

1. The declaration, that every able-bodied male citizen, be- 
tween certain ages, owes his country military service — a prin- 
ciple thoroughly republican in its nature, as it classifies in the 
same category, and exposes to the same hardships, the rich and 
the poor, the professional and non-professional, the skilled and 
unskilled, the educated and uneducated. 

2. The division of the country into military districts and 
sub-districts, apportioning to them certain military organiza- 
tions, whose cadres shall be recruited withia the limits assigned. 

3. The abandonment by the Government of all payment of 
bounties, relying upon its right to draft men into the service 
whenever a district fails to furnish its quota. 

4. The assumption by the Government of the recruitment 
of its armies through the medium of the Provost-Marshal-Gen- 
eral's Department, as was done by both Governments toward 
the close of the late war. 

5. The inauguration of all of the machinery for enrolling 
and drafting, the moment war is declared. 

6. The organization of regiments in all arms of service, as 
in Europe, with depots representing them in the districts to 



324 00N0LU8I0NS. 

which they belong, upon which depots requisitions shall be 
made by regimental commanders whenever vacancies are to be 
filled. It should be the duty of each depot to receive, arm, 
equip, and train all the recruits who volunteer, or are drafted, 
and to forward them to their regiments ; also, whenever recruits 
are wanted, or men desert, to notify the provost-marshal of the 
district that the quota is deficient, in order that the number 
may be immediately supplied by volunteering, or drafting. 

7. All commissions to be issued by the President, appor- 
tioning the extra appointments among the States, or military 
districts, according to the number of troops furnished. 

8. All commissions in the expanded organization to be pro- 
visional for the war ; one- third of the promotions to be reserved 
for distinguished skill and gallantry in battle, and to be made 
only on the recommendation of military commanders in the 
field, or upon the report of boards specially appointed to inves- 
tigate the act of skill, or gallantry. 

9. Promotion of all oflBcers, after expansion, to be made on 
two lists — one being that of the regular arm of service, or staff 
department, to which the officer belongs ; the second being the 
provisional list in the arm of service to which he is apportioned. 
Each officer, on the contraction of the army, to return to duty 
with the rank attained in the regular list. One-third of the 
promotions in the regular list to be regarded as original vacan- 
cies, to be filled by selection from the provisional list, no officer 
on the regular list being advanced more than one grade at a 
time ; all promotions to the grade of second-lieutenant in the 
regidar list to be made from cadets graduating from the Mili- 
tary Academy, and from lieutenants on the provisional list. 

Neither of the above plans can be successfully executed, nor 
can any other plan be devised for prosecuting our wars with 
economy of life and treasure, without special legislation looking 
to the increased efficiency, and radical reorganization of the 
army. 

THE STAFF. 

The chief object to be kept in view in the proposed reor- 
ganization is that the army in time of peace shall be simply a 



THE STAFF. 325 

training-school to prepare officers for staff duty, and to hold 
high command ; and to this end it is indispensable that an in- 
terchangeable relation be established between the staff and the 
line. 

The permanent officers of the different staff departments 
should be limited to the grades of major and above, all of the 
captains and lieutenants being so many supernumerary officers 
of the line, detailed from two to four years, with a legal pro- 
vision that, after each detail, the officer serve with the troops, 
either in his own or another arm of service, for a period at 
least equal to one-half of the time he was detached. 

To insure the success of the principle of detail, the first con- 
dition must be that the officers needed for staff duty shall he 
sujp&mumerary, or in excess of the number required to fill all 
the regiments of the line to their complement. It was in con- 
sequence of the effort to economize in the staff at the expense 
of the line, that the otherwise excellent law of 1821 proved a 
failure. 

It will be remembered that by this law the Ordnance De- 
partment was merged with the Artillery, and made to consist 
of four supernumerary captains, and such other officers as might 
be necessary, who were to be detached from the artillery. 

In the Quartermaster's Department, the ten assistant quar- 
termasters were to be detailed from the line, with an extra com- 
pensation of twenty dollars per month. In the Commissary 
Department, the chief was the only permanent officer ; the 
assistant commissaries, limited to fifty, were all officers of the 
line, who were given an extra compensation, varying from ten 
to twenty dollars per month. The officers detailed in the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary Departments were required 
to do duty, when necessary, in both departments. 

The number of vacancies made in the line by the execution 
of the law (as many as thirty officers of artillery being required 
in the Ordnance Department) was alone sufficient to insure a 
fatal result. All of the reports from the chiefs of staff de- 
partments, in addition to urging a permanent organization, 
dwelt upon the evils of detached service. The absence, too. 



326 CONCLUSIONS. 

of so many officers from their regiments, caused dissatisfaction 
in the liae, and as companies were sometimes entirely stripped 
of their officers, repeated applications had to be made for their 
return to duty. This produced a reaction in favor of perma- 
nent staff corps, and accordingly the Ordnance Department was 
reestablished in 1832, and the Quartermaster's Department in 
1838. The change in the two departments was coincident with 
the Black-Hawk and Florida Wars, the latter of which was so 
destructive of life as to require that every officer on staS duty, 
who could be spared, be returned to his regiment. In the 
Commissary Department the principle of detail was continued 
till 1866. 

The failure of the law of 1821, it will be perceived, was 
partly due to the want of a certain number of permanent 
officers in each staff corps, but more especially to that pro- 
vision by which the staff could only be made efficient at the 
expense of the line. 

Should we decide to reorganize our staff departments so 
that each shall be composed partly of permanent officers, and 
partly of supernumerary officers of the line, detailed for a 
term of years, we may assure ourselves that we are making no 
rash experiment by recalling the facts previously stated, viz. : 
That in India all of the officers in the Adjutant-General's De- 
partment, Quartermaster-General's Department, Ordnance De- 
partment, all brigade majors, fort adjutants, personal staff 
officers, and garrison instructors, are detailed for a period 
usually limited to five years ; that in England all officers in 
the Adjutant-General's Department and Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral's Department are detailed for the same period ; that in 
Austria all of the officers of the Adjutant-General's Depart- 
ment belong to the line of the army in which they receive 
their promotion ; and that in Italy, Germany, and Eussia, no 
officer, even after receiving a permanent appointment in the 
staff, is exempt from service with the troops. 

To the War Academy, and to the principle of requiring 
every officer of the staff to serve with troops in the line, before 
each following promotion, is ascribed the brilliant success 



ADJUTANT-GENEEAL'8 DEPARTMENT. 327 

acliieved by the German staff in the Austro-Prussian, and 
Franco-German "Wars. 

PEESONAI, EEPOETS. 

To secure the success of the principle of staff detail, the 
selection of officers for staff duty, like the promotions by selec- 
tion in foreign services, should be based upon a system of 
personal reports. 

These reports should be made annually by post commanders, 
and should set forth in full the military and moral character of 
their officers, stating their zeal and aptitude for the profession, 
attention to duty, and qualifications for any special employment. 

In the navy, the system of personal reports is applied with 
admirable success. This enables the department to know the 
character and qualifications of its officers, and furnishes a basis 
for the selection of officers for all of the varied and important 
duties that can be committed to their charge. 

But in the army no such system exists, and, as a consequence, 
officers who evade the performance of duty, and are alike igno- 
rant of tactics and regulations, are too frequently detailed on 
detached service, while the officer who faithfully performs his 
duty may be left to perpetual banishment on the frontier. 

These personal reports should be forwarded through regi- 
mental and department commanders for indorsement, and 
transmitted to a bureau in the office of the General of the 
Army, where, being systematized and arranged, the Govern- 
ment could ascertain the qualifications of every 'officer in the 
service. 

By making a rule that no officer shall be detailed from 
the troops whose conduct has been unsatisfactory to his com- 
manders, the principle of detail would effect a revolution in the 
army, and would offer a career which every officer of merit 
could pursue with zeal and ambition. , 



. The chief object of the Adjutant-General's Department, as 
administered in Europe, is to aid in the control and direction 



328 CONCLUSIONS. 

of armies ; and so important is this mission, as we have already 
seen, that every great nation has established a War Academy 
for the education of its generals, and the instruction of the staff 
officers, who are to advise and assist them. 

The corner-stone of the European staff system is the "War 
Academy, and next in importance is the constant interchange 
between the staff and the line. 

This interchange enlarges the experience of staff officers, 
keeps them in sympathy with the troops, enables them to know 
their wants, to be familiar with their discipline, to know the 
reliance that can be placed upon them for attack and defense, 
and finally enables them, by occupying successive grades in the 
line, to prepare themselves for the high commands, which are 
the certain rewards of superior skill and ability. 

The War Academy, and the staff and the line, thus consti- 
tute the school of instruction for all of the great commanders 
of Europe, no less than for the staff officers whose province it 
is to assist them. 

To qualify staff officers for this trust, their employment, in 
time of peace, is made to conform as nearly as possible to their 
occupation in war. The adjutant-general of a division, instead 
of engrossing himself with the routine of papers, devotes his 
time to studying strategy, grand tactics, military history, and 
the movements of armies. 

The chief of staff of a corps necessarily devotes some of his 
time during peace to the papers and business he must submit 
to his general ; but, in time of war, all work in the office is 
devolved upon adjutants, and aides-de-camp, who are detailed 
from the line, while the chief of staff occupies himself in the 
management and direction of the troops, in the study of maps, 
and in the collection of such military, geographical, and sta- 
tistical information as may be useful to his commander. In 
battle, he sends a staff officer to each division commander, ac- 
companied by orderlies, who bring back reports of the progress 
of the fighting. 

The aim of the staff officer, in peace and in war, is to qualify 
himself for the discharge of his duty in battle. And, with this 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. 329 

idea paramount in his mind, he looks upon the drudgery of 
ofiScial routine with little less than contempt. 

The strength of this feeling in the German army is forcibly 
illustrated by the remark of an officer, greatly distinguished as 
the chief of staff of a corps in the battles around Metz, who, on 
being asked by me if, during the war, he attended to the paper- 
work of his office, made the reply, " No ! I preferred to sleep." 
In explanation, he added that he would not suffer himself to 
become entangled in work which inferior officers could perform 
equally well, lest he might neglect the higher mission of assist- 
ing and directing the movements of troops. 

This theory of the true employment of a staff officer finds 
its origin at Berlin, where the chief of staff of the army, as- 
sisted by able subordinates, elaborates the orders for mobiliza- 
tion and concentration, and prepares plans of campaign, which, 
carried speedily into execution, have won for his Government 
imperishable renown. 

That these plans of campaign were based on no guess-work 
we have ample proof in the fact that the able officer in charge 
of the section for collecting military statistics in reference to 
France, reported 250,000 men as the largest force she could 
assemble on her frontier within two weeks after a declaration 
of war. 

The exactness of this estimate, confirmed by subsequent 
events, enabled the famous chief of staff. General von Moltke, 
to make all of his preparations ; and, when war was declared, 
having no further duties at Berlin, he distributed the officers 
of the general staff to the various armies, when all locked up 
their desks, and repaired to the field, to take part in the mili- 
tary achievements which astonished the world. 

To make possible such results we must abandon our system, 
and consolidating the Adjutant-General's and Inspector-Gen- 
eral's Departments, we should adopt an organization like the 
following : 

The Adjutant-General's Department, in time of peace, to 
consist of — 



330 CONCLUSIONS. 

1 Genera], 
6 Colonels, 
6 Lieutenant-colonels, 
12 Majors, 
12 Captains. 

The grades above captain to be permanent, each major being 
required to serve a term of three years in the line before being 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel, his place during the interval 
to be filled by a major from the line. The grade of captain to 
be filled by the detail of captains from the line for the period of 
two years, during which time they should learn to perform the 
oflSce-work at the headquarters of our different military divis- 
ions, and departments. 

Promotions to major to be limited to those officers who 
have served two years on detail in the department ; to be 
selected by competitive examination, or by the simpler method 
of selection, from the number of siich officers as have received 
the special certificate of the adjutant-general, approved by the 
General of the Army, setting forth that these officers while serv- 
ing in the department have merited the special approbation of 
their superiors. 

The above organization is based on the consideration that, 
as in all modern armies, the Adjutant-General's Department 
should be divided into several sections or bureaux : 

The first section should conduct general correspondence, 
and be the common medium for the Secretary of War, and the 
General-in-Chief, to communicate their orders and instructions 
to the army. 

The second and third sections, as now practically organized, 
should be under the Secretary of War, for the purpose of exam- 
ining and correcting the rolls and returns of the army, and to 
assist him in the discharge of the ministerial duties of his office. 

In addition to these sections there should be three others, 
under the General of the Army : 

The first of these sections should be charged with the col- 
lection of information and statistics relating to all foreign ar- 
mies, but especially in reference to Mexico, Canada, and Cuba. 



ADJUTANT-GEKEKAL'S DEPARTMENT. 331 

The duties of the second section should be to write the 
military history of our wars, both Indian and ciyilized, thereby 
enabling our future officers to become familiar with the peculi- 
arities of American fighting. 

The third section should be charged with the arrangement 
of the individual history of the officers of the army, based upon 
the personal reports, and the part they have taken in campaigns 
and battles. 

The establishment of a statistical section would enable the 
General of the Army to have statements in readiness show- 
ing the exact military resources of our neighbors, upon which 
calculations could be based as to the number of troops required 
for any given campaign. 

The number of officers given in the proposed organization 
is based upon the present division of the country into the three 
geographical divisions, and ten departments, each of which re- 
quires a permanent officer as chief of staff ; and, farther, upon 
the assumption that from one to two permanent officers will be 
required to superintend each section, and the sub-sections, into 
which they may be divided. 

In time of peace the chiefs of staff of military departments 
(mostly majors) should be encouraged to study the art of war ; 
to instruct the captains on detail in both the practical and theo- 
retical duties of a staff officer ; and, when not engaged in this 
labor, they should be sent to inspect the troops of the depart- 
ment, or division, thereby keeping themselves and their gen- 
erals informed as to the discipline, instruction, and condition, 
of their commands. 

By thus emancipating themselves from the routine of paper- 
work, this system, and this only, will enable us in future wars 
to provide competent chiefs of staff, who have been so sadly 
needed in all of our past wars. 

The distribution above contemplated requires — 
1 Adjutant-general, 
6 Colonels, chiefs of section, 
3 Lieutenant-colonels, assistant chiefs of section, 

3 Lieutenant-colonels, chiefs of staff, military divisions. 



332 CONCLUSIONS. 

2 Majors, assistant chiefs of section, 

10 Majors, chiefs of stafE, military departments, 

12 Captains, assistant adjutant-generals, under instruction at 
division and department headquarters. 

Comparing this organization with the number of officers 
now in the Adjutant-General's and Inspector- General's Depart- 
ments, which is as follows — 1 general, 6 colonels, 5 lieutenant- 
colonels, and 12 majors — we need for the inauguration of the 
new system the addition of but 1 lieutenant-colonel, and 12 
captains. 

In time of war, the Adjutant-General's Department should 
consist provisionally of the necessary number of officers for bu- 
reau-work at "Washington, and an additional number for the 
field, at the rate of — 

1 Major, chief of staff, and 1 captain for each brigade, 

1 Lieutenant-colonel, chief of staff', and 2 captains for each 
division, 

1 Colonel, chief of staff, 1 lieutenant-colonel, and 3 captains 
for each corps, 

1 General, chief of staff, with the necessary number of field- 
officers and captains for each army. 

The chief of staff of every command should be an officer 
who has been trained in the Adjutant-General's Department ; 
and the same, in an army of small numbers, should apply to 
the other staff officers ; but, in case of a great war, the cap- 
tains might be appointed from among officers whose general 
education specially qualifies them for the duties of such a posi- 
tion. 

Under this organization, the chiefs of staff of corps, and 
armies, would be enabled to devote themselves to the study of 
maps, and to the collection of such geographical and statistical 
information as would enable them to assist in directing the 
movements of troops ; while their assistants would perform the 
work of adjutant-generals, inspector-generals, and mustering 
officers, done heretofore by officers of separate departments. 

The value of this unity of action the first war could not fail 
to demonstrate. 



QUAKTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT. 333 

QtTAETEEMASTEE's DEPAETMENT. 

This department, as at present organized by law, consists 
of— 

1 Brigadier-general, 
6 Colonels, 
10 Lieutenant-colonels, 
12 Majors, 
80 Captains. 
To reorganize tte department on tlie principle of detail, the 
law need only prescribe tbat the 30 captains shall be distributed 
as so many supernumeraries to the infantry, artillery, and cav- 
alry; the 30 captaincies in future to be filled by captains, or first- 
lieutenants, detailed from the line for the period of four years. 
The promotions to the grade of major should be made on 
the same principles as in the Adjutant-General's Department. 

In time of war, the department should be provisionally in- 
creased by the addition of the necessary number of officers : 
the chief quartermasters of corps and armies, and those in com- 
mand of all of the great depots to be officers who have been 
trained in the department ; all captains in great wars to be ap- 
pointed from civil life. 

SUBSISTENCE DEPAETMENT. 

This department to consist of the same number of officers as 
at present, viz. : 

1 Brigadier-general, 

2 Colonels, 

3 Lieutenant-colonels, 
8 Majors, and 

12 Captains. 
The grades of major and above to be permanent ; the cap- 
tains to be distributed as supernumeraries in the line, the cap- 
taincies afterward to be filled by detail from the line for the 
period of four years. Promotion to major to be by selection 
from the officers who have been on detail, or trained in the de- 
partment. 



334 CONCLUSIONS. 

In time of war, a Bufficient number of officers to be provi- 
sionally appointed to perform bureau, depot, and field duty. All 
chief commissaries to be appointed from officers of experience, 
in the department ; division and brigade commissaries to be ap- 
pointed from civil life. 

PAT DEPAETMENT. 

As reorganized on the principle of detail, this department 
should consist of — 

1 Brigadier-general, 
6 Colonels, 
6 Lieutenant-colonels, 
12 Majors, 
30 Captains. 
The grades of major and above to be permanent ; no pro- 
motions to be made to the grade of major till the number is re- 
duced below twelve; the captains to be supernumeraries, de- 
tailed from the captains and first-lieutenants of the line for the 
period of four years. 

Promotions to the grade of major to be made by selection 
from the captains who have been detailed in the department. 

The war organization to consist provisionally of the neces- 
sary number of officers ; all chief paymasters to be selected 
from officers trained in the department ; all field paymasters to 
be appointed from civil life. 

SIGNAL COEPS. 

This corps should consist of — 
1 Colonel as chief, and 
20 Lieutenants. 
The lieutenants should be detailed from the line for a period 
not exceeding four years. In time of war, the department 
should consist provisionally of the necessary number of officers 
of all grades, those in the grade of major and above to be se- 
lected from officers who have been trained in the corps. 



ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE. 335 



AETILLEET ANB OEDNAHCE. 



These coi-ps to be merged, with a chief having the grade of 
brigadier-general. 

The artiQery to consist of the same nmnber of officers and 
men as at present, organized into a corps ; or retaining the 
present regimental formation, with lineal promotion. 

The Ordnance Department to consist, imder the chief of 
artillery and ordnance, of — 
5 Colonels, 

5 Lieutenant-colonels, 
10 Majors, 

15 Captains, and 
15 First-lieutenants. 

The grades of major and above to be permanent ; the 
captains, and lieutenants, to be supernumerary officers of artil- 
lery, detailed for the period of four years. 

Promotions to the grade of major to be made by selection 
from the captains who have been detailed in the department. 

In time of war, the necessary number of officers to be pro- 
visionally added for service at arsenals, the duties of ordnance- 
officers in the field being performed under the direction of the 
chiefs of artillery of armies, corps, and divisions. 

ENGKTEEES. 

This corps should consist, as at present, of — 

1 Chief of engineers, with rank of brigadier-general, 

6 Colonels, 

12 Lieutenant-colonels, 

24 Majors, 

30 Captains, 

26 First-lieutenants, and 

10 Second-lieutenants. 
The grades of captain and above to be permanent. First 
and second lieutenants to be supernumeraries of the line, de- 
tailed for a period of four years. 

Promotions to the grade of captain to be made by competi- 
tive examination prescribed by the chief of engineers, the ex- 



336 COKOLUSIONS. 

aminations to be held every four years, and to be open to all 
first-lieutenants who have been detailed in the department. 

EESULTS or A SYSTEM OF STAFF DETAIL. 

If Congress, in its wisdom, should see fit to inaugurate this 
system, giving it a trial for eight years, we would have, at the 
end of that period — 

48 Captains, trained as assistant adjutant-generals, 
60 Captains, trained as assistant quartermasters, 
24 Captains, trained as commissaries of subsistence, 
60 Captains, trained as paymasters, 
40 First-lieutenants, trained as signal-officers, 
30 Captains, trained as ordnance-officers, 
30 First-lieutenants, trained as ordnance-officers, 
52 First-lieutenants, trained as engineers, 
20 Second-lieutenants, trained as engineers. 
Making a total, in eight years, of 364 officers in the line 
who would have received an education in the staff. 

DETACHED SEEVICB. 

But still greater results can be attained if Congress, in ad- 
dition, will limit the period for which captains, and lieutenants, 
can be absent from company duty. 

For want of such a system a second staff, nearly permanent, 
has sprung up in our army, composed of officers on signal-duty, 
aides-de-camp, and other officers on various kinds of detached 
service, some of whom have never joined their companies. 

Besides these positions, there are others in the service which 
afford to the occupants rare opportunities for acquiring pro- 
fessional information, such as the command of a light battery, 
regimental adjutant, and regimental quartermaster, in which 
the tenure of appointment is indefinite, and often extends from 
ten to fifteen years. 

Were the law to limit the appointment of the 29 aides-de- 
camp, 5 light-battery commanders, 40 regimental adjutants, and 
40 regimental quartermasters, to four years, we would have at the 
end of the next eight years, including the present incumbents — 



INFANTRY. 337 

87 Officers, trained as aides-de-camp, 

15 Captains, trained as. light-battery commanders, 

120 Lieutenants, trained as regimental adjutants, and 

120 Lieutenants, trained as regimental quartermasters. 

Applying the same limit, we would hare, in addition to the 
above, nearly as many officers who would have had experience 
as instructors at the Military Academy, and professors of science 
and tactics at various colleges. 

If to these officers we add the number trained under the 
proposed system of staff detail, we could soon boast, India not 
excepted, that our officers possess the most varied experience of 
any army in the world. 

Such a system, based upon personal reports, would soon 
break up any tendency to idleness and dissipation, and would 
give to every officer of zeal and ability the opportunity to per- 
fect himself in nearly every branch of his profession. 

In war, officers of such varied experience would adapt them- 
selves either to regulars, or volunteers, and if placed in high 
commands would give us results that must forever be impos- 
sible so long as we adhere to a military system which has been 
abandoned by every nation in Europe. 



INFANTET. 

In determining the organization of the line of the army, 
wisdom forbids that we should ignore the strength and mili- 
tary resources of our neighbors. Keeping in remembrance that 
under the system of mixed troops we employed more than 
100,000 men in the Mexican War, and a half-million of men in 
the War of 1812 ; that Spain has already sent out more than 
160,000 men to suppress the Cuban insurrection, prudence sug- 
gests that, independent of reserves, our peace establishment 
should be capable of expansion to at least 150,000 men. 

To obtain this result, the peace organization of the infantry 
should consist of the present 25 regiments, formed in 2 battal- 
ions of i companies each, with the 2 remaining companies as 
a regimental depot. 

22 



338 



CONOLUSrONS. 



The field, staff, and non-commissioned staff of a regiment, on 
the peace-footing, should be as follows : 



RANK. 


Officers. 




DEPOT. 




OfScera. 


Men. 




1 
1 

1 

'i 

1 

2 
2 




















Junior major 




Eegimental adjutant (captain) 












Battalion quartermasters (iirst-lieutenants) 




RfifHrnpntjil Hprg^pnnt-nnajrtr 


1 
1 
2 
2 








Battalion serj^eant-majors 












Total , 


9 


6 


1 








Aggregate 


10 


R 

















Oomjicmy on 


a Peace-footing. 








RANK. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 




1 
1 
1 


i 

4 
4 
2 
2 
1 
40 


1 




1 


Second-lieutenant 


1 


First-sergeant 


I 








4 




4 


Musicians 


2 


Artificers 


2 




1 




40 












Aggregate 


,q 


64 


57 











Battalion on 


the Peace-footing. 






RANK. 


Officers, 


Men. 


Total. 


Field-officer (commandant) 


1 

1 
1 

'4 

4 
4 


'i 

1 

■4 

16 

16 

8 

8 

4 

160 


1 




1 


Quartermaster 


1 




1 


Quartermaster-sergeant 


1 


Captains 


4 


First-lieutenants 


4 


Second-lieutenants 


4 




4 


Sergeants 


16 


Corporals 


16 




8 




8 


Wagoners 


4 


Privates 


160 










15 


218 


233 







IKFANTRT. 



339 





DepotrComjpcmy on 


Peace-footing. 






RANK. 


Offlc«TE. 


Men. 


Total. 




•• 


i 

4 
4 
2 
















B*trC^«''*s 




OnrpnrftlR ... 




Muaiciana 


2 












8 


11 


14 







Depot on the Peace-footing. 



RANK. 


Officer!. 


Men. 


Total. 




1 

2 
2 
2 


'2 
8 
8 
4 


1 




2 


Firet-lieutenants 


2 




2 




2 




8 




8 




4 








T 


22 


29 







The following table shows the organization of a regiment of 
two hattaKons, with its depot-cadre, on a peace-footing : 



FIELD, STAFF, AND 
TWO BATTALIONS. 



AGGRE- 
GATE. 



Colonel 

Identenant-colonel 

Majors 

Bogimental adjntant 

Begimental quartermaster 

Battalion-adjutants , 

Battalion-quartermasters 

Begimental sergeant-major 

Begimental quartermaster-serg't. . 

Battalion sergeant-majors 

Battalion quartermaster-sergeants. 

Captains 

Fi^t-lieutenants 

Becond-Uen tenants 

First-sergeants 

Sergeants 

Corporals 

Musicians 

Artificers 

Wagoners. 

Privates '. 

Total 



16 
16 



10 
10 
10 



10 
40 
40 
20 
16 
8 
820 



10 
10 
10 
10 
40 
40 
20 
16 



4S8 



22 



40 



Aggregate, 25 regiments on peace-footing, 12,500. 



340 



CONCLUSIONS. 



The number of privates in each depot-company -would aver- 
age a little less than 40, and would depend upon the number of 
men required to keep each of the battalions of the regiments up 
to their authorized strength of 218 enlisted men. 

WAU ORGANIZATION OF INFANTEY. 

As the infantry is more easily improvised, and made efficient, 
than artillery and cavalry, it is in this arm of the service that 
the principle of expansion should find its widest application. 

On the war-footing, each regiment of infantry should, there- 
fore, consist of two, three, or four battalions, and a depot, ac- 
cording as the army is to be raised to 50,000, Y5,000, or 100,000 
men. 

The following table shows the field, staff, and non-commis- 
sioned staff, required for a regiment on a war-footing of two 
battalions. 

By adding 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 1 adjutant, 1 quar- 
termaster, 1 sergeant-major, and 1 quartermaster-sergeant for 
each additional battalion, it will likewise represent the field 
staff and non-commissioned staff for a regiment of three and 
four battalions : 





2 BATTALIONS. 


DEPOT. 


TOTAL. 


Aggn- 




OfBcera. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Officers. 


Men. 


g«te. 




1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 


'i 

1 

2 
2 






1 

2 
8 
1 
1 
8 
8 




1 






i 

1 






2 


Majors 


3 


Ee^mental adjutant (captain) 

Regimental quartermaster (capt.). 


1 

1 
3 


Battalion quartermasters 


8 


Kegimental sergeant-major 

Eegimental quartermaster-ser^'t. . 

Battalion sergeant-majors 

Battalion quartermaster-sergeants. 


i 

1 

8 
8 


1 
1 
8 
3 




11 


6 


3 


2 


14 


8 ' 22 




8 Battalions. 














15 8 


8 


2 


18 


10 


28 




4 Battalions. 














19 10 


8 


2 


22 


12 


84 



INFANTEY. 



341 



Compamy on a War-footing. 



RAHK. 


officers. 


Men. 


Total. 




1 
2 
2 


'i 

12 

24 

2 

2 

1 

200 


1 




2 




2 


First-sergeant 


1 


Sergeants 


12 




24 




2 




2 


Clerk 


1 


Priyates 


200 








5 


242 


247 







The sergeants and corporals are arranged on the basis of one 
corporal to each set of fours, and one sergeant to every two sets 
of fours, or one to every eight and sixteen men respectively. 



Battalion on a War-footing. 



RANK. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 




1 
1 
1 
1 

"i 

8 

8 


"i 

1 

4 

i 

48 
96 
8 
8 
4 
600 


1 


Major 


1 


Adjutant . 


1 




1 




1 




1 


Clerks 


4 


Captains 


4 




8 




8 




4 




48 


Corporals . 


96 


MnsiciaQB 


8 


Artificers 


8 


Clerks 


4 


Privates 


800 




24, 


9T4 


998 







The allowance of two field-officers to each battalion is based 
upon the known moral superiority which rank carries with it ; 
upon the great loss of life in these grades, as established in our 
late and more recent wars ; and also the demands for detached 
service, which constantly occur in campaign. 



342 



CONCLUSIONS. 





Depot Company on 


Wa/r-footing. 






RANK. 


Officers. 


M.11. 


Total. 




1 

2 
2 


i 

13 

12 

2 


1 




2 




2 




1 




12 




12 
















6 


27 


82 







The number of ofHcers and men is based upon the demand 
for instructors for the raw recruits. The recruits, or privktes, 
who would be attached to each company until sent to the field, 
would probably vary from 100 to 300. 

Depot on a War-footing. 



Hen. Total. 



rield-offlcer 

Adjutant 

Quartermaster 

Sergeant-major 

Quartermaster-Bergeant. 

Captains 

Pirst-lieutenantB 

Second-lieutenants 

First-sergeants 

Sergeants 

Corporals 

Musicians 

Aggregate 



21 
24 
4 



4 

4 
2 

24 
24 
4 



66 



The following table shows the strength of a regiment with 
its depot, on a war-footing of two, three, and four battalions : 





2 BATTAXIONB. 


8 BATTALIONS. 


4 BATTALIONS. 




officers. 


Men. 


Tot.ll. 


Offieera, 


Men. 


Total. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Eeglmental and battalion iield, 
staff, and non - commissioned 
staff, Including 6 clerks for regi- 
mental headquarters and 4 for 
each battalion headquarters 

Eight companies 


11 

40 


20 
1,986 


81 
1,9T6 


15 

60 


26 

2,964 


41 
2,964 


19 

"so 


82 

8^872 


61 


Twelve companies 

Sixteen companies 


8,962 


DEPOT. 

Field, staff, and non-commis'd staff. 


Bl 

8 
10 


1,966 

2 

64 


2,007 

6 
64 


75 

8 

10 


2,980 

2 
64 


8,005 

6 
64 


99 

8 
10 


8,904 

S 

54 


4,003 

5 
64 








64 


2,012 


2,076 


88 


2,986 


3,074 


112 


8,960 


4,072 





COMPLEMENTARY OFFI0EB8. 343 

The aggregate field strength of the present twenty-five regi- 
ments, raised to the war-footing, would therefore be for — 

Two battalions 50,175 

Three battalions 75,075 

Four battalions 100,075 

OFFICERS FOE THE WAE-FOOTING. 

Deducting the number of officers the infantry would lose 
by promotion in the expanded war organization of the staff, we 
could send every company into action, on the basis of 50,000, 
with at least two officers of military experience to train and 
command it. Expanded to 75,000, and to 100,000 if necessary, 
we could still furnish an experienced captain to each company, 
and by a system of lineal promotion, and by promotion by selec- 
tion, the command of companies could be confided to trained 
officers till the lieutenants appointed from civil life would be 
able to replace them. 

COMPLEMENTAET OFFICEES. 

The extra lieutenants required to raise the infantry com- 
panies to the war standard, should, as far as practicable, be 
selected in time of peace, and, as in other countries, their names 
should be borne on the Army Register below the grade of second- 
lieutenant. 

There are several classes from which we can draw such 
supply : 

The first class embraces all non-commissioned officers of the 
army, who, on quitting the service, can pass a special examina- 
tion to be prescribed for officers of complement ; their appoint- 
ments to be distributed at large. 

The second class embraces such graduates as have pursued 
the course of military instruction at colleges where officers of 
the army are detailed as professors of tactics, at an expense to 
the Government on account of their salaries of about $20,000 to 
$30,000 per annum. 

The utilization of this expense by the Government, it is more 
than probable, would supply us with a class of officers such as 



344 CONCLUSIONS. 

we have never seen in our anny during any past war; and 
being assigned to the regiments whose depots are within their 
several States, their appointment would tend to nationalize the 
army in the same manner as the present system of appointing 
cadets to the Military Academy. 

The third class embraces the graduates of Military Acade- 
mies, like those of Pennsylvania, Yirginia, and Vermont, as- 
signed as above. 

The fourth class embraces such officers of the national guard, 
or militia, as can pass the prescribed examination ; their ap- 
pointments being assigned as already explained for the gradu- 
ates of colleges, and Military Academies. 

Not till such a system is adopted will an American army 
ever be able to show its prowess, nor will we be able to avert 
the extravagance, and bloodshed, which inhere in our system. 

CAVALRY. 

Keeping in mind the fact that the 60,000 to 80,000 cavalry 
maintained from the beginning to the end of the rebellion, did 
not become really efficient till the battle of Beverly Ford, in 
1863, after it had been trained for neai'ly two years; that the 
expense of supporting it is doubly if not trebly as expensive as 
infantry — we ought from our own experience to follow the ex- 
ample of European nations, and as far as practicable maintain 
our future cavalry either on a war-footing, or else on a basis 
capable of such expansion as to meet quickly the demands of 
war. 

PEACE-FOOTING OF CAVALRY. 

Adopting the model presented for the infantry, each of the 
ten regiments of cavalry should be organized into three bat- 
talions, and a depot ; one battalion to consist of four companies, 
the other battalions of three companies each ; the remaining 
two companies forming the depot, to be stationed in the State 
whence the regiment is to draw its men and horses. 

Already having five field-officers available for the command 
of each battalion and depot, as also a regimental adjutant and 
quartermaster, the only extra officers required for the peace- 



CAVALRY. 



345 



footing are three battalion adjutants, and three battalion quar- 
termasters. 

If we ultimately fix the enlisted strength of the ten com- 
panies which constitute the battalions at sixty-two men, the 
same as allowed by Congress after the reduction in 1842, the 
strength of each regiment would be as follows : 



RANK. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Field and staff 


18 

80 
6 


"8 
620 
22 


13 




8 




650 


Depot (2 companies) 


28 






Aggregate 


49 


650 


699 







Aggregate ten regiments, 6,990. 

WAB OEGANIZATION OP THE CA VALET. 

In this organization, the enlisted men should be increased 
to 100 per company, including 1 first-sergeant, 6 sergeants, and 
8 corporals ; the ofiicers should consist of 1 captain, 2 first-lieu- 
tenants, and 1 second-lieutenant. 

By adding an extra company to the two battalions of three 
companies each, the strength of a regiment, on the war-footing, 
would be according to the following table : 



RANK, 

rield and staff 

Non-commissioned staff 

Eegimental and battalion clerks 

Three battalions (12 companies) 

'Depot (2 companies) 

Aggregate 



18 

1,200 

SO 



18 
1,248 



1,325 



Total ten regiments, 13,250. 

This force of 13,250 we could send into the field with two 
trained officers to lead every company. Further, by adding two 
more companies to each battalion, an organization permitted by 
the tactics, we could increase our cavalry to 19,490, and still 
have a regular officer at the head of every company. 

This force would exceed by more than 3,500 the number of 



346 



CONCLUSIONS. 



cavalry led by Sheridan at Five Eorks, and by more than 7,000 
the number led by "Wilson from the Tennessee to the Ocmulgee, 
although at that time we had more than 85,000 cavalry on our 
rolls. 

The officers of this force, both regular and complementary, 
should be provided as explained for the infantry, the provi- 
sional list being kept at the "War Department in a state of con- 
stant readiness for a battalion organization of either four, or six 
companies. 

PEACE OEGANIZATTON OF THE AETILLEET. 

The immense expense of the materiel of artillery, and the 
professional training necessary to make artillery formidable, re- 
quire that this arm of the service, even more than the cavalry, 
should be maintained on a basis capable of immediate expansion. 

It should therefore consist of the present number of bat- 
teries, organized into a corps, or of the five existing regiments, 
organized into three battalions of three batteries each, with two 
batteries as a depot ; the light battery being assigned to one 
of the three battalions. 

If to the present number of officers we add three battalion 
adjutants, and quartermasters ; fix the enlisted strength of each 
battery at 1 first-sergeant, 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 artificers, 
2 musicians, and 42 privates, which is but one greater than al- 
lowed by the law of 1842; and allow each light battery an 
enlisted strength of 1 first-sergeant, 6 sergeants, 4 corporals, 
2 musicians, 2 artificers, 1 wagoner, and 64 privates, the same 
as was allowed before the last order for reduction, the peace 
organization of a regiment would be as follows : 



REGIMENT. 


Officen. 


Men. 


Total. 




13 

'86 
5 
8 


"a 

495 
80 
22 


18 




3 




&31 




85 




80 






Total 


62 


605 


66T 








810 


8,025 


8,385 





ARTILLEET. 347 

On tlie assumption that tlie Artillery and Ordnance should 
be consolidated under a common chief, the Ordnance Depart- 
ment being composed of a sufficient number of permanent 
officers, to insure the uniform operation of the department, the 
depots of the several regiments of artillery should be located 
at the great arsenals where they would not only be able to 
protect the Government property, but would also find at hand 
the faculties and means for instructing recruits in the use and 
manoeuvres of all the guns employed in the service. 

A still better organization of the artillery would be to make 
one battalion in each regiment to consist of two light batteries ; 
the remaining two battalions to consist of four batteries each. 
This would increase the aggregate enlisted strength of the five 
regiments only 125 men. 

With this organization, limiting the service of a light bat- 
tery to two years, every battery in each regiment could serve 
as light artillery every ten years. 

WAE OEGANIZATION OF THE AETELLEET. 

While it is the function of the artillery in every country 
to provide batteries for the field, and for the attack and de- 
fense of fortified places, our attention in time of war should be 
concentrated almost e^xclusively on the light artillery, which, 
by its precision and steadiness, should be able to inspire con- 
fidence in the other arms of service; and particularly should 
this be our purpose so long as it is om- policy to rely at first 
on raw troops. 

AUowrng as a liberal calculation four guns to a thousand 
men, if we add 13,000, the proposed war strength of our cav- 
alry, to 50,000, 75,000, and 100,000, representing the war 
strength of the infantry on the three diiferent footings, the 
three armies of 63,000, 88,000, and 113,000 would require 42, 
68, and 75 batteries respectively. 

The batteries for the first army could be instantly furnished 
by mounting forty-two batteries, while by increasing the en- 
listed strength of each of the remaining eight batteries to 250 
men, there would be a battalion of 1,000 men available as 



348 OONOLUSIONS. 

heavy artillery for each of the two corps, into which the army 
would be divided. 

To provide for the second and third armies, organized into 
two and three corps, the artillery should be increased by divid- 
ing, and converting, as many of the existing batteries as neces- 
sary into two batteries each. This would give nearly two 
trained officers to each battery, besides a nucleus of experienced 
non-commissioned officers and privates, whose example would 
soon convert new recruits into veteran soldiers. 

By this method thirty batteries would form the fifty-eight 
light batteries required for the second army; the remaining 
twenty batteries, increased to 250 men each, would form five 
battalions of 1,000 men, available as heavy artillery, either for 
service in the field, or for the defense of our sea-coast fortifica- 
tions. 

For the third army thirty-eight batteries would form the 
seventy-five light batteries, while by converting the remaining 
twelve batteries into two batteries of 250 men each, we would 
have six battalions of 1,000 men each, available as before for 
service in the field, or for fortress-defense. 

Without stopping to enumerate the organizations of trains, 
but simply allowing to each army 1 brigadier-general, as chief 
of artillery, with 6 staff officers ; two or three extra colonels 
specially selected as chiefs of artillery of corps; one half as 
many lieutenant-colonels as there are battalions, the remaining 
battalions to be commanded by majors; further, allowing to 
each chief of artillery of a corps a staff consisting of 1 adjutant, 
1 aide-de-camp, 1 quartermaster, and 1 ordnance-officer — an adju- 
tant and quartermaster likewise being allowed to each battalion 
— the approximate strength of the artillery on the three differ- 
ent war-footings would be as follows : 



Artillery for an Army of 63fi00 Men 






RANK. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total, 




"h 


"is 


1 


Staff 


6 


Clerks 




Colonels of rcf^mcnts 


5 


Colonels, corps chiefs of artillery 




2 


2 













ARTILLERY. 



349 



COMMANDANTB OP BATTALIONS AND DEPOTS, 

Lieutenant-colonels 



Majors . 



Kegimental 

Corps 

Battalion and depot. 



KON-COilMISSIONED STAFF. 



Begimental 

Corps 

Battalion and depot.. 



Begimental. 
Battalion 



FIELD-AKTILLBRT. 

13 Battalions, 42 batteries (light and horse) . . 



HEATT AKTILLEET. 



2 Battalions (8 companies). . 
Depots (10 companies) 



Aggregate. 



Officen. 


Man. 


10 
10 




10 

8 

40 






10 

4 

40 




80 
60 


210 


6,342 


40 

50 


2,000 
210 


892 


6,108 



Artillery for an Army of 88fi00 Men. 



Chief of artillery (brigadier-general) . 
Staff 

Plerks., 



Colonels of regiments 

Colonels, corps chiefs of artillery . 



COMMANDANTS OF BATTALIONS AND DEPOTS. 

Lieutenant-colonels 

Majors .., 



STAFF. 



Begimental . 
Corps . , 



Battalion and depot. 



NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 



Begimental 

Corps 

Battalion and depot . 



Begimental. 
Battalion . . . 



FIELD-ARTILLEET. 

15 Battalions, 60 batteries (Ught and horse) . . . 

HEAVY ABTILLEET. 

5 BattalionB (20 companies) 



300 



1 




6 






12 


5 




'i 




1R 




15 


.... 


10 




s 




60 






10 




4 




60 




SO 




80 



9,600 

5,000 
14,796 



350 



CONCLUSIONS. 



Artillery for an Army of 113,000 Men. 



Chief of artillery (brigadier-general) . 
Staff.. 



Clerks 

Colonels of regiments 

Colonels, corps chiefs of artillery. , 



COMMANDAIfTS OF BATTALIONS AKD DEPOTS. 

Lieutenant-colonels 

Majors 



STAFF. 



Eegimental., 
Corps . 



Battalion and depot. . 



NON-COMMISaiONED STAFF. 



Regimental 

Corps 

Battalion, and depot. 



Eegimental. 
Battalion 



FIELD-ARTILLEKY. 

19 Battalions (76 batteries, light and horse) . . 



HEATTT ARTILLERY. 



6 Battalions (2^ companies).. 



10 
12 
70 



880 
120 



12 



10 
6 

70 



30 
100 



11,470 
6,000 



17,698 



Agpre- 
gale. 



12 

s 

3 



18 
17 



10 
12 
70 



10 
6 

70 



SO 
100 



11,830 
6,120 



18,840 



To officer efficiently this force of artillery, all regular 
officers should be advanced on the provisional list, the vacancies 
at the bottom being filled by graduates of the Military Academy ; 
by promotion of deserving non-commissioned officers of the 
army ; and as far as practicable by graduates of military uni- 
versities and colleges. 



EECAPITULATION OF THE INFANTET, CAVALRY, AND AETILLEET, 
ON THE FOOTING OF PEACE AND OF WAE. 

Peace footing. 



ARM OF SEEVICE. 


RegimeDts. 


Baltollom. 


Depots. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Aggregate. 


Infantry 


25 
10 
6 


60 
SO 
15 


25 
10 
5 


1,000 
490 
810 


11,500 
6,500 
8,025 


■ 12,500 
6,990 
8,835 




Artillery 






40 


95 


40 


1,800 


21,025 


22,825 



EEOAPITULATION. 
War-footmg — Fi/rst Basis. 



351 



ARM OF SERVICE. 


Regbneiits, 


Bsltalloiu. 


Depot.. 


Offlcen. 


Men. 


Ageregate. 




25 
10 
5 


50 
80 
15 


25 

10 

6 


1,600 
690 
892 


60,300 
12,560 
8,708 


61,900 




13,260 
9,100 


Artillery 








40 


95 


40 


2,682 


71,668 


74,250 



Wa/r-footmg — Second Basis. 



ARM OF SERVICE. 


RegimesU. 


Batlaliona. 


Depots. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Aggregste. 


Infentry 


25 

10 

5 


75 
80 
20 


25 
10 
6 


2,200 
690 
622 


74,660 
12,660 
14,796 


76,860 


Cavalry. 


13,260 




16,818 








40 


126 


40 


8,412 


102,006 


106,418 





Wa/r-footing — Third Basis. 






ARM OF SERVICE. 


Regiments. 


EsttaUons. 


Depots. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Aggrcgnte. 




25 

10 

5 


100 
48^ 
26 


25 
10 
5 


2,800 
930 
642 


99,000 
18,660 
17,698 


101,800 




19,490 


Artille^ 


18,840 




40 


178 


40 


4,872 


135,268 


139,680 



If to tlie number 139,630 be added the staff departments, 
militaiy trains, signal corps, ambxdance corps, etc., each of 
which should have its special organization, the total strength of 
the army woiild considerably exceed 150,000. 

In addition, by increasing the number of privates in the 80 
depot companies to 300 each, there would be 20,000 men re- 
ceiving instruction, who would be available to fill vacancies. ^ 

A comparison of our present inexpansive organization with 
the proposed peace establishment shows that we can effect the 
transformation by the addition of 210 officers to the 1,589 
already existing, while the number of enlisted men as compared 
with the number 23,135, now allowed to the three arms of ser- 
vice, can be reduced by 2,110. 

But dispensing with the battalion adjutants and quarter- 

I Six companies to eacb battalion. 



352 OONOLUSIONS. 

masters — a measure that would be unwise considering the value 
of trained officers in war — the number of additional officers can 
be reduced to the twenty-five majors required to place the field- 
officers of infantry on the same footing as the artillery and 
cavalry. The additional cost, however, of the 210 officers, 
would be more than compensated by saving the pay of 2,110 
enlisted men, and would thus make the reorganization a meas- 
ure of economy. 

If the expansive system be adopted, and the President be 
authorized within certain limits to increase the enlisted strength 
of the army, we can vary the war-footing anywhere from the 
peace establishment of 22,825 to 139,630, by simply increasing 
the privates of the companies, or any part of them, between the 
limits fixed for peace and for war. 

The exact strength of the companies, and the number of 
troops required in any international emergency, should be left 
to the calculation of the officers in the Bureau of Military Statis- 
tics, under the General of the Army, who thus, at any moment, 
would be prepared to report to the Secretary of War the num- 
ber of the enemy's troops to be overcome, and the organization 
best adapted to accomplish that object. 

However great may be the advantages of the proposed or- 
ganization, we must not overlook the fact that the success of 
the three and four battalion systems wholly depends upon its 
connection with a depot, territorial recruitment, and, in case of 
necessity, obligatory military service. 

The two-battalion system was adopted in all arms of service 
in 1811, but the first law after the declaration of war in 1812, 
reduced the regiments of infantry from two battalions to one. 
For want of recruits, too, the new regular regiments of three 
battalions each, authorized at the beginning of the late war, 
could not be raised, while in 1864 nearly all of the three-battalion 
regiments of heavy artillery were consolidated as soon as the 
vacancies occasioned by field-service could no longer be filled. 

From this experience we may, therefore, conclude that, if we 
adopt the three-battalion organization in peace, we shall have to 
abandon it in time of war, unless in connection with it we estab- 



LINEAL PBOMOTION. 353 

lish a depot, and a system of recruitment which shall insure a 
steady supply of reserve troops. 

LINEAI, PEOMOTION. 

An important feature of an expansive peace orgauizatipn 
should be lineal promotion in each arm of the service. 

The opposition to such promotion is based upon the sup- 
posed destruction of regimental esjprit de corps ; but the devel- 
opment of this feeling requires that the companies of a regi- 
ment shall serve together, and, what is more important still, 
that the regiment shall be excited to emulation by serving with 
others in the same brigade, or division. These conditions, which 
always exist in war, cannot exist with us in time of peace, be- 
cause of the small size of our army, and the vast extent of our 
territory. Furthermore, desirable as it may be to cultivate this 
regimental feeling, it may be entirely absorbed in the pride and 
satisfaction of belonging, as in the German army, to the " corps 
of officers." 

But whatever advantage may be claimed on the side of esprit 
de corps, it is more than counterbalanced by confining an officer 
from twenty to thirty years to the same regiment, whereby, if 
he remain continually with it, his knowledge of the army may 
be limited to the few associates he met on joining the service. 

The present system likewise produces great inequality, if 
not injustice, as in some regiments officers are well up in the list 
of first-lientenants, who received their appointments within the 
last two or three years, while other officers, entering the army 
eight or nine years before them, are still second-lieutenants. 

Aside from the personal aspects of the case, lineal promotion 
is to be desired as the means of enlarging an officer's experience, 
and of keeping up his interest in his profession — a result which 
may be procured by adopting a system that may require him to 
serve as second-lieutenant of one regiment in Texas ; as first- 
lieutenant of another in Oregon ; as captain of another in Ari- 
zona; as major of another in New York ; as lieutenant-colonel 
of another in Kansas ; as colonel of another in Georgia. 

This variety of service, extended knowledge of the geography 

23 



354 CONCLUSIONS. 

of the country, enlarged acquaintance with the oflScers of the 
army, and association with the people of different States and 
sections, could not fail to inure to the advantage of the Govern- 
ment. 

Again, lineal promotion is to be desired as a stepping-stone 
to examination for promotion, as thereby an officer who fails to 
pass his examination can be held at the head of the list, while 
others, more meritorious, can be advanced above him. Already 
colonels, lieutenant-colonels, majors, and captains, are on the 
same general list for promotion ; and, as it belongs to these offi- 
cers to maintain the tone and dignity of the service, all that is 
needed is to add to the list the first and second lieutenants. 

If this be accomplished, all officers in future wars, whether 
they receive provisional commissions in the expanded organiza- 
tion, or remain in the regiments not raised to the war-footing, 
will receive a due share of promotion. It will also enable us to 
discard the brevet, and, by reserving not to exceed one-third of 
the promotions for selection for distinguished skill and gal- 
lantry in battle, we can secure to brave and skillful officers the 
same substantial reward as is now giiaranteed to officers of our 
navy, and to officers of nearly all foreign armies. 

EXAMINATION FOE PROMOTION. 

This principle already exists in the medical corps, the corps 
of engineers, and ordnance. 

By the laws applicable to the engineers and ordinance, no 
officer below the rank of field-officer can be promoted to, a higher 
grade without being " examined and approved " by a board of 
three officers senior to him in rank. If the officer fail at the 
examination, his promotion is suspended for a year, when he is 
again reexamined. In case of failure on reexamination, the law 
prescribes that the officer " shall be dismissed from the service." 

In the navy the law is still more explicit, and better adapted 
to protect both the interest of the Government, and the officers 
concerned. 

Its first and second provisions prescribe that, except in case 
of wounds received in the line of his duty, no officer shall be 



EXAMINATION FOE PEOMOTION. 355 

promoted in the active list of the uavy " until he has been ex- 
amined by a board of naval surgeons, and pronounced physically 
qualified to perform all his duties at sea." 

Another section prescribes that " no line officer below the 
grade of commodore, and no officer not of the line, shaU be pro- 
moted to a higher grade in the active list of the navy until his 
mental, moral, amd professional fitness to perform all of his du- 
ties at sea have been established to the satisfaction of a board 
of examining officers appointed by the President." 

By another section of the law the examining board must con- 
sist of three members senior in rank to the officer to be exam- 
ined. The board is also authorized to take testimony, the wit- 
nesses being examined under oath, and " to examine all matter 
on the files and records of the Navy Department relating to any 
officer whose case may be considered by them." 

The officer who is to be examined is also authorized to be 
present before the board, and to submit a sworn statement of 
his case. 

At the conclusion of the examination, the report of the 
board; all of the testimony; and the information relative to 
the officer on file at the Navy Department, which is based on 
an excellent system of personal reports, are forwarded to the 
President for his approval, or disapproval. 

If qualified for promotion, the board reports as follows : 

""We hereby certify that has the mental, moral, 

and professional qualifications to perform efficiently all the 
duties, both at sea and on shore, of the grade to which he is to 
be promoted, and recommend him for promotion." 

If the officer fail, he is suspended for a year vrith correspond- 
ing loss of date, when, in case of failure on reexamination, he is 
dropped from the service. 

Another excellent section prescribes that — 

"Any officer of the navy may, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate, be advanced, not exceeding thirty num- 
bers in rank, for eminent amd conspicuous conduct im, battle, or 
extraordina/ry heroism." 

The law of the navy which has done so much to elevate and 



356 CONCLUSIONS. 

improve tHs brancli of the public service, deserves all the more 
consideration from the fact that it was passed in 1864, after 
three years of war had demonstrated to the satisfaction of the 
people and Congress that ignorant, incompetent, and dissipated 
officers, should no longer jeopardize the interests of the Govern- 
ment by obstructing the promotion of others better qualified to 
command. 

In the application of such a law to the line of the army, the 
following recommendations are submitted : 

1. That every second-lieutenant be examined at the expira- 
tion of five years from the date of his appointment ; that his 
examination be conducted by a general board appointed by the 
President ; or, if the expense of mileage, and loss of time, be 
deemed objectionable, then the boards to be appointed in each 
department either by, or on the recommendation of, the depart- 
ment commander. 

2. That all records, or personal reports, relative to the officer 
be submitted to tjie board, with a further personal report signed 
by a board of one field-officer and two captains of the regiment 
to which the officer belongs, certifying as to the " mental, moral, 
and professional qualifications " of the officer as evinced during 
his five years' probation. 

3. That the examination of the officer in the tactics of his 
arm, in regulations, interior economy of a company, and military 
law, the proceedings and practice of courts-martial, be in writ- 
ing ; and that the officer be required to demonstrate before the 
board his ability to drill a squad, a platoon, and company, in 
all the movements prescribed for his arm of the service. 

4. That all first-lieutenants before promotion shall be exam- 
ined, so far as personal reports and reports from a board of the 
officers of their regiments are concerned, in the same manner as 
second-lieutenants ; and that, in addition, all first-lieutenants of 
artillery be required to pass, in writing, an examination in the 
course of study pursued at the Artillery School ; or, in lieu 
thereof, show a certificate from the staff of the school that 
they have satisfactorily passed such examination at the conclu- 
sion of their course of study when students at the school. 



EXAMINATION FOE PROMOTION. 357 

The practical examination should consist in manoeuvring all 
of the guns in service ; ability to drill a light battery ; and, in 
infantry, to drill a battalion, both in close order and as skir- 
mishers. 

For first-lieutenants of cavalry and infantry the theoretical 
examination, so long as they are not provided with a com-se of 
instruction like that pursued at the Artillery School, should be 
modified according to the few advantages for professional im- 
provement which they now possess. Their practical examina- 
tion should embrace all of the movements of a company and 
battalion prescribed in the tactics of their arms. 

5. That captains be subjected in regard to mental and moral 
qualifications to the same scrutiny as lieutenants, and that their 
further examination be mostly of a practical character, extend- 
ing to the manoBuvres of a battalion and regiment, and also to 
outpost duty, and combinations of the three arms of service. 

6. That all of the proceedings of the examining board, with 
copies of personal reports, be forwarded to the President for 
his approval. 

7. That in case a second-lieutenant fails in the examination, 
his name be dropped from the roUs of the army. 

8. That if a first-lieutenant faU in moral qualifications, his 
name be dropped from the rolls of the army ; but, if he fail on 
the theoretical or practical examination, that his promotion be 
stopped for a year, with loss in date of commission, when, if he 
fail on reexamination, he be dropped from the service. 

9. That if a captain fail in moral qualifications, he be dropped 
from the service ; while, if he fail on the theoretical or practical 
examination, his promotion be stopped for a year with loss in 
date of commission ; if he fail on reexamination, that he be held 
at the head of the list of captains, till, on serving twenty or 
twenty-five years, he can be retired on half or three-quarters pay. 

The first of the foregoing recommendations is based on the 
fact that the military and moral character of young officers gen- 
erally develops within the period of five years. If, during this 
period of probation, a second-lieutenant shows inattention or 
indifference to duty, and particularly if he shows an inclina- 



358 COKCLUSIONS. 

tion to drunkenness, or gambling, he should, in the interest of 
the Government, be dismissed from the service. 

The second recommendation, in giving a first-lieutenant a 
another chance for promotion, except in case of moral disquali- 
fications, recognizes the justice of not turning an officer adrift 
in the world to begin a civil career after the years of greatest 
hope and ambition have been spent in Government service. 

The third recommendation would enable boards to stop the 
promotion of officers whose moral quahfications are unobjection- 
able, but who, for lack of practical talent, frequently obstruct, 
if they do not stop, the instruction of their commands. 

DISCIPLINE. 

In no country should the military code be prepared with 
greater care than in our own ; yet, adhering to articles of war 
passed in 1806, nearly three-quarters of a century ago, the 
officers of our army are constantly compelled to resort to arbi- 
trary punishments, while those of other countries can administer 
military justice in exact conformity with law. 

In India, Italy, Eussia, Austria, and other countries, the 
minor punishments, which, in our army, can only be inflicted 
by regimental, garrison, and field-officers' courts, can be imposed 
by all regimental and battalion commanders ; while others, still 
smaller in degree, can be administered by captains, lieutenants, 
and even non-commissioned officers. 

The objection to our system is that it is practicable only at 
regimental headquarters, and at large posts, where either a field- 
officer is available ; or the presence of a surgeon, a quartermaster, 
or a hospital-steward, is sufficient to convert the garrison into a 
"mixed" command. 

If a captain with his company be on detached service, and ab- 
sent from all superior authority for months, the only legal pun- 
ishment he can inflict is confinement. As this cripples the 
command, and enables the culprit to escape military duty, be- 
sides being no adequate punishment for the many minor of- 
fenses that are continually committed, the captain finds that 
either his authority and the discipline of his company must be 



DISCIPLINE. ■ 359 

relaxed, or else that he must take punishment into his own 
hands. Confronted on one side by a law giving him no author- 
ity, and on the other by the law of necessity, which frequently 
will brook no delay, he is compelled to choose the lesser evil, 
and therefore administers summary punishment. 

The defect of the law was so conspicuous during the Eevo- 
lution that Washington, on the 3d of February, 1781, wrote to 
the President of Congress : 

" There is one evil, however, which I shall particularize, resulting 
from the imperfection of our regulations in this respect. It is the 
increase of arbitrary punishments. Officers, finding discipline can- 
not be maintained by a regular course of proceeding, are tempted 
to use their own discretion, which sometimes occasions excesses, to 
correct which the interests of discipline will not permit much rigor. 
Prompt and arbitrary punishments are not to be avoided in an 
army ; but the necessity for them will be more or less in propor- 
tion as the military laws have more or less vigor." 

Notwithstanding the evils of arbitrary punishments, they 
have, for want of a modification of the law, been continued as 
a necessity up to the present moment, and in war have been 
more often the rule than the exception. 

During the rebellion there was scarcely a regiment in which 
corporal punishment, in some form, was not daily administered. 
And this arose from no desire to violate the law, but from a ne- 
cessity, to which many of our representatives in Congress can 
testify. 

Even the expedient of the field-officer's court failed of its 
object ; for, when troops were on marches, there was no time 
to take evidence, and make out proceedings. When, therefore, 
stragglers and marauders returned to their regiments, the colo- 
nels adopted the sure and expeditious process of pronouncing 
a punishment, which, being brief in its character, allowed the 
offender to be restored speedily to duty. 

But, in addition to the impracticability of the present sys- 
tem, it operates with no uniformity. At the same post one 
garrison court-martial may sentence a man for drunkenness to a 



360 CONCLUSIONS. 

fine of two dollars ; another court, the day after, and for the 
same offense, may inflict imprisonment on bread-and-water, and 
loss of a month's pay. 

All of these irregularities can be corrected by a law fixing 
the limits within which minor punishments can be inflicted by 
all commanders of regiments, battalions, companies, and de- 
tachments. 

By this method the commanding officer, like a police-judge, 
can hold his court every morning, hear the evidence, and pro- 
nounce sentence, which, as in the English and other armies, on 
being entered upon a defaulters' book, becomes a part of the 
history of each ofEender. 

The cheerfulness with which our officers and men within 
the past year have endured hunger and cold, have performed 
marches unprecedented in length, and have fought a weU-armed 
foe often ten times their number, affords conclusive proof that 
the discipline of our troops is not surpassed by that of any 
other army. But this only furnishes an additional reason for 
enabling our officers in future to regulate their authority in 
strict conformity with law. 

MILITAET EDUCATION. 

If we consider the sole object of our Military Academy to 
be the qualification of officers to receive commissions in the 
army, we may justly claim that our system of preparatory train- 
ing is superior to that in any other country ; and the reason for 
this superiority may be made to appear by a very brief com- 
parison. 

In Germany, a member of the Cadet Corps, after six to 
seven years of study, pursues the mathematical studies taught 
to the cadet at our Academy in his first year. 

In France, the course of study at St.-Cyr for officers of in- 
fantry and cavalry is but two years ; in Kussia, three years ; in 
Austria, four years ; in England, one year ; at "West Point, it 
is four years. 

At the Ecole Polytechnique, the most celebrated in Europe, 
where there is scarcely any military training and discipline, the 



MILITARY EDUCATION. 361 

cadets pursue only the same scientific subjects as are taught at 
West Point. 

As to thorougliness of instruction, the general practice on 
the Continent is for the professor to deliver lectures to entire 
classes, numbering often a hundred or more ; after which the 
cadets are qaestioned by interrogators once or twice a week, 
perhaps not oftener than once in two weeks. In such cases 
the cadet is frequently told when he will be questioned, and 
also the particular subject on which he will be questioned. 

At West Point, on the contrary, in the important subjects 
like mathematics, analytical mechanics, astronomy, and engineer- 
ing, the classes are divided into sections of ten to twelve cadets, 
and these sections, under the supervision of the professor, are 
each in charge of an instructor, who devotes an hour and a half 
to its recitations daily, Sundays only excepted. By this division 
into sections, which is the sole secret of the thorough mental 
training at West Point, the cadet recites from four to six times 
per week, while the foreign cadet may escape weeks at a 
time. 

At West Point the standard of examination is so high that 
from thirty to fifty per cent, of the difEerent classes fail to grad- 
uate ; abroad, the demand for officers is so great that rarely 
more than three or four per cent. faO. 

But it is not alone for its scholastic thoroughness that our 
Academy is renowned throughout the world. The secret of its 
success is found in the law of 1812, which prescribed that the 
cadets shall " be trained and taught all the duties of a private, 
non-commissioned officer, and officer." 

Combining this practical with the theoretical course, we 
have been able, at our Academy, to train officers equally for 
engineers, for ordnance, for infantry, for artillery and cavalry, 
and have given the cadets such a competent knowledge of all 
the arms of service that in the late war they were transferred 
from one arm to another, frequently serving in all three, with a 
success and distinction that challenged foreign admiration. 

In all of the academies abroad for educating officers of in- 
fantry and cavalry, little or no effort is made to teach them any- 



362 CONCLUSIONS. 

thing pertaining to the science of artillery, or engineering ; much 
less are they taught the tactics and evolutions of other arms. 

At West Point the practical education of a cadet begins as 
an infantry-soldier, and he is successively carried through every 
school to that of the brigade, serving progressively as private, 
non-commissioned officer, and officer. In cavalry he begins 
with the School of the Trooper, and in the course of three years 
is carried through the Schools of the Platoon, and Company, 
until he learns all of the duties from private to lieutenant, both 
mounted and dismounted. In artillery he begins as a cannoneer, 
and successively learns all of the duties from private to chief of 
platoon in both light and horse artillery ; not only that, but, on 
going into heavy artillery, he is made familiar with the loading, 
firing, and manoeuvres of all kinds of heavy ordnance, from an 
8-inch mortar to a 15-inch gun. 

The cadets, who each year are inspected by their congres- 
sional patrons, perform before them a variety of military manoeu- 
vres in engineering, and all arms of the service, which is no- 
where approached, or even attempted, in Europe. 

This peculiarity of the Academy has been studied by all 
foreign officers visiting West Point, who have frequently re- 
ported to their governments the admirable advantages of com- 
bined instruction for all arms. 

So well are these advantages understood that we can point 
with pride to our Academy as the model adopted by the French 
commission for the education of officers of the modem army of 
Japan. 

But, notwithstanding the superior preparatory education we 
have secured to a portion of our officers, we have not as yet, 
except in the artillery, provided for them the means for acquir- 
ing a theoretical and practical knowledge of the higher duties 
of their profession. 

Abroad, it is the universal theory that the art of war should 
be studied only after an officer has arrived at full manhood, and 
therefore most governments have established post-graduate in- 
stitutions for nearly all arms of service, where meritorious offi- 
cers, from whatever sphere they may enter the army, may study 



MILITARY EDUCATION. 363 

strategy, grand tactics, and all the sciences connected with mod- 
ern war. 

These institutions for the training ot the staff are known as 
war academies, war schools, and staff colleges ; for the artillery 
and engineers and cavalry they are known generally as schools 
of application, or as advanced artillery and engineer courses. 

Our first approach to this system of post-graduate education 
was made in 1867 by the General of the Army, when hy Gen- 
eral Order No. 99, of November 13th, he established at Fort 
Monroe a school designated as the 



The school was organized with a staff consisting of 1 colo- 
nel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, and 1 major, 5 instructors, who are 
captains of the five companies which constitute the permanent 
garrison. The two first and two second lieutenants of these 
companies, which are selected from the five regiments of artil- 
lery, compose the class of officers under instruction. 

Up to November 10, 1875, the course of theoretical and prac- 
tical instruction was for one year ; but by General Orders No. 
92, from the War Department, of that date, the course was en- 
larged and extended to two years, to take effect in May, 1876. 

The advantage of this institution to the artillery may be in- 
ferred from the nature of the course of instruction. 

The theoretical course embraces, according to the programme, 
the study of — 

Light Artillery. — Manual of the piece; service of mitraiUeur; 
mechanical manoeuvres ; school of the battery dismounted ; forma- 
tion of battery mounted, including " to unpark " and " to park." 

Meavy Artillery. — Service and mechanical manoeuvres of guns, 
howitzers, and mortars ; methods of constructing and laying plat- 
forms; construction and use of hydraulic and other jacks, gun-Hfts, 
sling-carts, trucks, cradles, gins, and all implements used therewith ; 
use of puUeys, and methods of knotting, splicing, and lashing ropes. 

Science of Artillery. — Gunpowder and other military explosives ; 
projectiles, cannon, small-arms ; gunnery; loading, pointing, dis- 
charging ; kinds of fire ; effects of fire and projectiles ; manner of 



364 CONCLUSIONS. 

determining time of flight and range of projectiles; description of 
velocimeters and densimeters ; method of inspecting cannon ; em- 
ployment of artillery in war; war-rockets ; electricity; telegraphy, 
as far as artillery necessities require ; signaling, and defensive tor- 
pedoes. 

Infantry. — School of the company; school of the battalion, and 
ceremonies. 

Mathematics. — Algebra to discussion of quadratics involving 
but one unknown quantity; geometry (plane), to embrace regular 
polygons, and measurement of the circle ; trigonometry (plane). 

Engineering. — Menstu-ation; permanent fortification ; surveying 
and leveling ; military bridges ; military reconnaissance ; descrip- 
tion of surveying, plotting, and drawing instruments ; castramen- 
tation. 

Law. — Military law and courts-martial ; international law ; con- 
stitutional law, and Constitution of the United States. 

History and Strategy. — Universal history; operations of war ; 
military logistics. 

The course of practical exercises comprises — 

Artillery. — Drill; target-practice; mechanical manoeuvres; lay- 
ing platforms ; inspection of cannon, projectiles, and powder ; deter- 
mination of ranges, velocities, and pressures; duty of the labora- 
tory; use of electric telegraphy (as far as it relates to artillery), 
and signal-apparatus ; preparation of written essays. 

Infantry. — Drill. 

Engineering. — Tracing and profiling field-work; construction of 
siege-batteries, and cover for field-guns ; survej'ing and leveling; 
use of sextant and telemeters; military reconnaissance and map- 
ping; preparation of written essays. 

History and Strategy. — Preparation of written essays. 

Official Papers. 

The details of the practical exercises are as follows, viz. : 

Artillery. — Drill of the field-battery, dismounted ; " service of 
the piece " of each kind in use in the land-service of the United 
States ; target-practice with the same ; use of mortar-wagon, sling- 
carts, trucks, cradle, skids, blocks, railway-trucks, and movable 
track for transporting artillery ; use of gins, and gin as shears ; of 



MILITAET EDUCATION. 365 

Laidley's gun-lift ; of hydraulic and other jacks ; and generally of 
all machines and appliances employed for artillery purposes, and of 
the various methods of combining and applying them in any opera- 
tion required in placing or removing the armament of permanent or 
field works ; use of pulleys and of knottings, splicings, and lashings 
of ropes, applicable to artillery operations ; use of instruments for 
determining velocity, pressure, time of flight, and range of pro- 
jectiles ; analysis of gunpowder ; use of densimeter ; inspection 
of cannon and projectiles ; fabrication of rockets, time-fuses, quick 
and slow match; determination of muzzle velocities of cannon; ap- 
plication of formula to gunnery; methods of discharging cannon 
by means of electricity, under various conditions; use of chrono- 
scope and chronograph; charging, planting, and exploding defensive 
torpedoes ; discharging cannon by electricity; signal and electric 
telegraphing ; linear drawings of such artillery machines and imple- 
ments as do not appear in the artillery course of studies (these 
drawings to be executed rapidly and freely, but still with accu- 
racy to scale) ; and preparation and public reading of written 
essays. 

Infantry. — Drill in bayonet-exercise ; school of the company 
and battalion, and practice of ceremonies. 

Engineering. — Method of laying out camps ; tracing and profil- 
ing field-works ; construction of siege-batteries and cover for field- 
guns ; construction of earthen magazines, bomb-proofs, and traverses ; 
surveying and leveling ; use of sextant and telemeters ; military re- 
connaissance and mapping ; and preparation and public reading of 
written essays. 

■Sistory and Strategy. — The preparation and public reading of 
written essays. 

Official Papers. — Making-out of muster-rolls ; inventory and 
inspection reports ; monthly company returns ; return of ordnance 
. and ordnance-stores ; clothing receipt-roU, and records of target- 
practice. 

The system of instraction when perfected so as to employ 
to the best advantage the increased time now allowed, will 
give onr officers of artillery facilities for procuring a theoreti- 
cal and practical knowledge of their arm not equaled in any 
army of Europe. 



366 OOSTCLUSIONS. 

The time, too, devoted to history, strategy, law, and the art 
of "war, will obviate, so far as the artillery is concerned, any 
necessity for a war academy. 

INFANTET AND OAVALET SCHOOLS. 

The success which has already attended the Artillery 
School suggests that we should establish schools, with similar 
constitution, for the infantry and cavalry — one to be located at 
Atlanta, and the other at Fort Leavenworth. 

In order still further to increase the usefulness of the schools, 
at least two officers from each regiment should be permitted to 
attend the course of instruction ; and to stimulate their zeal, 
those who distinguish themselves should be rewarded, after 
graduation, by detail in some of the staff departments. By 
establishing these schools, which will require no special appro- 
priation, our system of military education will be made to com- 
ply with the most recent demands of military science. 

MILrrAET PEOFESBOESHIPS. 

Allusion has already been made to military colleges, as one 
means of providing officers of complement for an expansive 
organization ; but as yet the country, except in a general way, 
has derived no benefit from the excellent law which permits the 
President to detail an officer of the army to act as president, 
superintendent, or professor, at any college " having capacity to 
educate, at the same time, not less than one hundred and fifty 
male students." 

As these colleges are supposed to be located according to 
population throughout the TJnited States, they can be made 
to provide officers of complement far superior in general attain- 
ments to those afforded by the system of volunteers for one 
year adopted in foreign countries. To this end, as the Govern- 
ment expends from twenty to thirty thousand dollars a year in 
providing the colleges with military professors, it ought to pre- 
scribe a uniform programme of theoretical and practical instruc- 
tion, and to decline to furnish a professor unless the programme 
be accepted. 



NATIONAL VOLUNTEERS. 367 

Having pursued this course of military instruction, such of 
the graduates as may volunteer, should have their names 
inscribed in the Army Register, to be borne there as officers of 
complement until they resign, or attain the age of thirty-five. 

SUPEEINTENDENT OF MILITAEY EDUCATION. 

In all foreign war departments there is a Bureau of Military 
Education, presided over by an officer styled the Superintend- 
ent, or Director of Military Education. 

Through this bureau all of the business connected with the 
various military academies and schools is transacted. 

Should such a bureau be established in our War Depart- 
ment, one of the duties of the chief, in addition to inspecting 
our army schools, should be to inspect the colleges, to which 
military professors are attached. 

NATIONAL VOLUNTEEES. 

It has been the theory of our Government, from its foun- 
dation, to dispense, as far as possible, with a regular army, and 
to substitute in its place a well-organized militia, thus convert- 
ing ourselves into an " armed nation." 

The fact, however, that the active militia numbers but 
90,000, and that the States, collectively, appropriate scarcely 
a million dollars for its support, while many make no appro- 
priation whatever, affords conclusive evidence that the expec- 
tations based upon the militia cannot be realized, and that, if 
we would prosecute our national wars with dispatch, we must 
adopt an expansive organization. 

But were such an organization actually adopted, the prepos- 
session in favor of the use of volunteers is so strong in the 
popular mind as to endanger its being set aside at the first 
outbreak. In connection, therefore, with the adoption of any 
definite peace establishment, based on the expansive principle, 
the people must be led, as in all foreign countries, to regard the 
army as the only true field for the exercise of courage and 
patriotism. 



368 CONCLUSIONS. 

And this can possibly be done by organizing, in connec- 
tion with each of the twenty-five regimental depots for in- 
fantry, one or two battahons of National Volunteers, which 
in time of war we could imite with the two battalions of the 
regular regiment, giving us twenty-five regiments of four bat- 
talions each. 

The battalions of national volunteers should be organized 
into four companies each, with three lieutenants to each com- 
pany ; all of the officers being appointed by the President. 
The captains, in view of the experience required to command 
a company of two hundred and fifty men, should be officers of 
the regular army, who would join their companies when war ia 
declared. 

In order to insure these battalions proper training and in- 
struction, the commandants, and adjutants, should be selected 
from the regular officers serving at the depot. 

In connection with the depot there should be provided 
armories for depositing arms, and drill-rooms for drilling both 
the volunteers, and regulars. 

These battalions, in addition to the title of National Volun- 
teers, should be designated in the Army Kegister as Third or 
Fourth Eeserve Battalion (such) United States Infantry. 

The adoption of this system would at once tend to nation- 
alize and popularize our army. In case of war, the impulse of 
such men as could not find places in the two battalions of 
national volunteers, would be to enlist in the two battalions of 
the regular regiment. The whole regiment would thus be- 
come volunteers, would go forth with the sympathy of the 
entire community, and differ only from the volunteer regiments 
of the late war in having at the beginning trained officers to 
lead every company. 

The first cost of establishing forty regimental depots, 
twenty-five of which to be adapted to the use of the national 
volunteers, would not exceed from ten to fifteen million dol- 



The maintenance of the two hundred companies, with a 
maximum of one hundred men to each, exclusive of arms and 



NATIONAL VOLUNTEEES. 369 

clothing, would be about six hundred thousand dollars per 
annum. 

This estimate is based upon extra pay being allowed to the 
commandant and adjutant of each battalion ; upon the require- 
ment that there shall be an encampment of ten days each year, 
and also thirty drills in the armories ; that in camp the officers 
shall receive four dollars, and the enlisted men two dollars, per 
day ; and that for each drill in the armory each officer shall 
receive one dollar, and each enlisted man twenty-five cents. 

By increasing this appropriation to one million dollars an- 
nually, additional companies could be formed in towns not 
occupied by the regimental depots, sufficient to raise this force 
on the peace-footing to 40,000 men. 

The impossibility of forming a trained reserve as in Europe, 
and the certainty that the States cannot be relied upon to sup- 
port a numerous and well-organized militia, even with the aid 
of the two hundred thousand dollars appropriated annually by 
the Government, should impress us with the importance of de- 
vising some method whereby both in peace and in war we may 
have a national force ready to increase, and support, our troops 
in the field. 

During the late riots, had there been available from twenty- 
five to fifty battalions of national vohmteers, commanded by 
regular officers, it is possible, and probable, that much of the 
bloodshed and loss of property might have been avoided. 

In drawing my conclusions, I have not been infiuenced by 
convictions as to what plans may, or may not, be adopted ; but 
recognizing, in the fullest degree, that our present geographical 
isolation happily relieves us from the necessity of maintaining a 
large standing army, I have sought to present the best system 
to meet the demands of judicious economy in peace, and to 
avert linnecessary extravagance, disaster, and bloodshed, in time 
of war. 

Should we recoil before the small expenditures required to 
give us most of the advantages of an expansive peace estab- 
lishment, we ought to bear in mind that in interest alone on 
our national debt, mostly accumulated as the fruit of an expen- 

24 



370 CONCLUSIONS. 

sive military policy, we have paid in the last ten years more 
than eleven hundred and fifty millions of dollars. 

The organization of national volunteers would give us in 
time of peace a regular army, a reserve, and the militia, and 
would enable us in time of war to prosecute our campaigns 
with vigor and economy, and with that regard for human life 
which becomes a free people. 

Emoet Upton, 
Brevet Major- General TJ. 8. Army. 



LETTERS FR03I ASIA. 



In September, 1874, the General of the Army visited the 
Military Academy at "West Point, and, while conversing upon 
his recent trip to Europe, and the Caucasus, suggested to me 
the advantage to the service of a military tour through Asia, 
which had been offered to him and another officer immediately 
after the Mexican "War. 

The object of the tour was to make military observations, 
which were to be submitted to the Government in an official 
report. 

While traveling in Asia I kept a journal, or diary, in the 
form of letters to members of my family. 

The letters were written with no idea of publication, and 
make no pretension to novelty, or to a graphic description of 
the many objects and scenes in the Eastern world which might 
interest the general reader. They simply convey a few im- 
pressions of the things which most interested me at the time, 
and are only given to the public in response to the requests of 
friends who have read them. 



LETTEES FEOM JAPAl!^. 



Yokohama, August 27, 1875. 

We left San Francisco on the 2d of August, 1875, on the 
steamer Great Republic, cominanded by Captain Cobb. On the 
36th, having scarcely encountered a ripple in our passage, we ar- 
rived off the shores of Japan. 

You can imagine that the sight of land, after twenty-three 
days at sea, was a feast to the eyes. 

As we approached the coast, mountains about three thousand 
feet high were on our right, while on our left expanded the never- 
ending Pacific. 

The day was beautiful ; Japanese junks, with their white sails, 
dotted the mouth of the bay, and, scudding before the wind in dif- 
ferent directions, imparted an air of busy traiSo to the scene. 
Some of them were propelled by oars, manned by strong, hearty 
fellows who, as we approached, gave us a lesson in economy, for 
the only clothing they wore was a breech-cloth at the loins. 

In front of us as we steamed toward the entrance of the bay 
of Yedo was Fusi Yama, the sacred mountain of Japan. Its base 
was hidden by a bank of fog, while its summit, towering amid the 
clouds, stood out lofty and grand two miles and a half above the 
sea. As we proceeded up the bay the clouds disappeared, unfolding 
to us the graceful proportions of the mountain, which loomed up like 
an immense cone fourteen thousand feet high. The affection with 
which the volcano is cherished is shown by the fans, boxes, etc., 



374 LETTERS EROM JAPAN. 

which generally have " Fusi Yama " as the feature of their decora- 
tions. 

To us was given the opportunity of witnessing one of the 
gorgeous sunsets of the East. To the right of Fusi Yama was a 
low range of mountains, capped by clouds tipped with gold. Be- 
tween these and Fusi Yama the rays of the sun played upon a 
gauzy mist, making the entire mountain at one instant look like a 
mass of molten iron, at another like a beautiful amethyst, at an- 
other like an opal, after which it passed through the shades of 
light and dark blue, and finally blended with the darkness. 

Our progress up the bay showed us we were among a busy peo- 
ple. The mountains were terraced from the bottom to the top, 
making every inch available for cultivation. All along the bay, 
villages, as at Naples, dotted the shore, twelve or more being visi- 
ble at one time. At 7.30 we dropped anchor. In an instant the 
water was covered with small craft of all descriptions. Men-of- 
war sent their launches for the mail, while runners for the hotels 
thrust their cards thick and fast upon the travelers. 

We were taken ashore in one of the small boats belonging to 
the agent of the Pacific Mail, and when we reached the wharf a 
new sensation awaited us. There were no noisy hackmen about, 
making the night hideous by their cries and cracking whips, but 
arranged in front of us was a line of large baby-carriages, with 
wheels about three feet high. Into these vehicles we stepped. 
A horse without harness grasped the thills, and, with a Chinese 
lantern dangling as a headlight, we started furiously up the street, 
the tawny legs of the swift Japanese giving us a speed that would 
have shamed an American hackman. 

When we arrived at the International Hotel the modest sum 
of six cents was claimed by the man who had drawn us and our 
hand-bags a distance of fully half a mile. The Jin-riclc-shah is 
the modern conveyance of Japan. It is generally drawn by one 
man, but, when distances of forty to sixty miles are to be trav- 
ersed in a day, a second man, throwing a cord over his shoulder, 
pulls tandem, or else pushes in rear. The seat is very comfortable, 
and, were it not for the fact that one's ease is purchased at the ex- 
pense of a fellow-creature, no conveyance for short distances could 
be more desirable. The tariff is twelve cents per hour, which leaves 
no excuse for walking. 



LETTERS FROM JAPAN. 375 

The weather is excessively hot. White is the prevailing color 
worn by the gentlemen, and is used even as full dress. It would 
be idle to describe a Japanese town ; one must be seen to be ap- 
preciated. The people seem to be gay and light-hearted, the men 
all muscular and fleet of foot, while the women are small, grace- 
ful, and not without beauty. 

Yedo, August 31, 1875. 

We left Yokohama yesterday at 8.15 A. m., and arrived here at 
9.15. After depositing our baggage, we went at once to call on Mr. 
Bingham, our minister, who is to procure us facilities for visiting 
objects of military interest. In the evening he came and drove us 
to the " Sheba," the burial-place of the Tycoons. The gateway 
is a lofty edifice, with a double roof, one above the other, after 
the manner of the pagoda. It is of wood, painted red, and is 
nearly two hundred years old. The tombs, six in number, are 
marvels in architecture ; each consists of a series of buildings, one 
in rear of the other, crowned by the peculiar concave roofs of East- 
ern temples. Each edifice in the sunlight appears like a glittering 
mass of bronze and gold. 

The ceilings are frescoed with gold, and the altars are literally 
covered with platings of the precious metal. Birds, dragons, and 
animals of all kinds, are delicately carved, and give an effect at 
once gracefijl and of surpassing beauty. In a room of one of the 
series of temples dedicated to the sixth Tycoon, one hundred 
varieties of flowers are carved in the panels of the ceiling, while one 
hundred kinds of birds nestle among the flowers ; but, what is more 
remarkable, each panel is carved from a single piece of wood, 
through which the light plays as through a filigree of gold. 

Photographs which I have purchased show the perfection of 
the art employed to do honor to the ashes of departed greatness. 

It may be interesting to know how we pass our time, so I will 
give you a slight idea in the form of a journal. 

To-day, Dr. Murray, Commissioner of Education, called and in- 
vited General Forsyth, Major Sanger, and myself, to spend a couple 
of days with him, which invitation we accepted. In going to his 
residence he drove us to the great temple of Asakusa. Passing 
through a gateway, a vast edifice in itself, we proceeded up a broad 
pavement, ascended the steps and entered the temple, which pre- 



376 LETTEES FEOM JAPAN. 

sented a vivid picture of the temple of Jerusalem when cleansed by 
the Saviour. There were the doves, the booths, the tables of the 
money-changers, and there was the treasury into which the people 
cast their gifts. The devotees having made their offerings, ad- 
vanced to the altar, rang a bell to summon the god, prostrated 
themselves before the image of Buddha, uttered their prayers, loi- 
tered within the courts, and then departed. Near by was a wooden 
image of the God of Pain. Any one who was sick would go up to 
it, prostrate himself, say his prayers, touch the image on the spot 
corresioonding to the seat of his malady, and then, rubbing the dis- 
eased parts, would rise, supposing the god would grant relief. The 
poor image, sans eyes, sans teeth, and sans nose, showed some of 
the prevailing diseases of the country. 

After visiting the many side-shows which surrounded the tem- 
ple, we drove through a magnificent park to Dr. Murray's, where 
Mrs. Murray received us with Eastern hospitality. 

Septemher 1st. — To-day Mr. Bingham drove us through the 
Hamogoten, or garden surrounding one of the Mikado's palaces. 
These grounds, which have been much extolled, consist of lakes 
and groves, but are not particularly beautiful. In the evening 
Mrs. Murray gave us a dinner, at which were present General 
Legendre, Mr. House, Mr. Mori, late Japanese minister at Wash- 
ington, and General Yamada, who came to West Point at the time 
the Japanese embassy visited America. 

September 2d. — Dr. Murray drove us to the agricultural farm 
established by General Capron, to show the Japanese modern agri- 
culture. As they have fields which have yielded annual crops for 
the last fifteen hundred years, it is evident that they lack little in 
the art of agriculture, and that all that can be done is to intro- 
duce labor-saving machines. In the evening Mr. Bingham enter- 
tained us at dinner, and at 11.15 p. m. we left for Yokohama. 

September Sd. — At 6.30 a. m. we took jin-rick-shah for Kama- 
kura and Daibutzu. The landscapes were picturesque and beauti- 
ful, and the journey across the country gave us a good opportunity 
of seeing Japanese farming. Rice is the principal crop, and, in 
terraces, arranged for flooding, is cultivated to the very hill-tops. 

The Daibutzu is a mammoth image of Buddha in the state of 
" Nirvina," or serene happiness and contemplation. The statue is 
in bronze, and represents Buddha in a sitting posture, on a lotus- 



LETTERS FROM JAPAN. 377 

flower. It is forty-four feet high, eighty-seven and a half feet in 
circumference, face eight feet, eyes three feet, ears six feet long, 
thumbs three and a half feet in circumference, diameter through 
the knees thirty-four feet. The expression, true to its intention, 
represents the god in self-satisfied repose. Near by a polite priest 
receives gifts from the visitors. 

On our way to and from the image, we walked up a few hills, 
and, with this exception, the two men, going at a dog-trot, drew each 
of us in our jin-rick-shahs not less than twenty-five miles. On fin- 
ishing my toilet, after returning to the hotel, the first man who pre- 
sented himself to draw me to the station for Yedo was one of the 
men who had been to Daibutzu. Seating myself in his jin-rick- 
shah, he started off at a brisk run, and did not slacken his pace till 
he reached the depot, a mile distant. For this service he would 
have been glad to receive ten cents, but on doubling the amount 
his expression surpassed even that of the great image. 

September J^th. — In the afternoon, Mr. Stevens, Secretary of 
Legation, gave us a dinner at a Japanese tea-house. On our ar- 
rival we were asked to take off our shoes, which are never permitted 
to be worn in a Japanese house. In our stocking-feet we mounted 
to the second story, where mats being provided, we sat down d la 
Turque. Four beautiful singing and dancing girls welcomed us 
with a sweetness and grace peculiar to Japan. The " chow " then 
commenced with fish-soup, followed by fish boiled ; fish raw (some- 
times cut from the fish while alive) ; fish boiled, smothered in sweet- 
meats ; then fish with sauce and chestnuts, with still other prepara- 
tions of fish to the end of the dinner. Between, and during the 
courses, we had saki, the great beverage of Japan, distilled from 
rice. During the service the four girls played on an instrument 
like a banjo, and sang, making a squeaking noise through the 
nose and teeth. Two of them also danced very gracefully, the 
dance consisting simply of pantomime, graceful motions and posi- 
tions. After the dinner, which lasted about three hours, jugglers 
entertained us with tricks of various kinds. 

Yedo, September 8, 1875. 

We are having a delightful time, never better. Socially, we 
are dined and tiffined (breakfasted) a little too much — a sure indica- 
tion, however, of a large-hearted, generous hospitality. The coun- 



378 LETTERS FROM JAPAN". 

try is beautiful, and every landscape is a solace to the eyes. The 
people are amiable, and so polite as to make us wish we could imi- 
tate their manners. The servants are the best. Houses are never 
locked, trunks are left open, jewelry and " curios " exposed, and 
yet nothing is stolen. It is rather startling to a foreigner in a 
hot day to see so many bare heads, bare arms, bare bodies, and 
bare legs, and, as one ordinarily judges of the density of a 
crowd by the upturned faces, this sans-souci exposure of the per- 
son gives to a street the appearance of being alive with human 
beings. You must not imagine that all the Japanese go about in 
this manner ; many, and by far the greater majority, wear dresses 
and robes very becoming. The children especially seem to enjoy 
the liberty of dress ; up to four and five years of age they run about 
without regard to appearance. On our way to the great image, 
they stood naked in rows on the sides of the streets, and continually 
saluted us with the welcome " Ohio, ohio ! " 

Indifference to the exposure of the person is most clearly shown 
in the national habit of bathing. At Yokohama we visited a pub- 
lic bath-house, and, by mistake or intention of the guide, were 
taken into a large compartment where women and children con- 
tinued to bathe as if unconscious of our presence. 

We would have been shocked at our intrusion had we not in- 
stantly observed men and boys bathing in an adjoining apartment, 
with only a railing for a partition. 



Steaube Costa Eioa, between Nagasaki and Shanghai, 

September 23, 1875. 



On the 8th we were given a review of the troops at Yedo. It 
rained nearly all night, rendering it necessary to defer the ceremony 
till 9 A. M. On arriving at the Champ de Mars, we found four bat- 
talions of infantry belonging to the Imperial Guard, two battalions 
of non-commissioned officers belonging to the military school for 
non-commissioned officers, and two squadrons of cavalry. All these 
troops marched and manoeuvred creditably. 

The Minister of War received us at the review, and after it was 
over invited us to meet him at breakfast (tiffin) in the grounds be- 
longing to the late Prince Meto. 

From the review we went to the castle, where we found a school 
of instruction in practical engineering, for both officers and non- 



LETTEES FEOM JAPAN. 379 

commissioned oflSoers. Batteries, rifle-pits, redoubts, trous-de-loup, 
and everything pertaining to field-intrenchments, were constructed 
and explained in theory to the apt scholars who are to direct the 
modem sieges of Japan. 

The castle consists of three or more walled inclosures, one rising 
within the other, the massive masonry of each commanding every- 
thing exterior to it. Each wall is surrounded by a wide moat filled 
with water, on which floats the lotus, now in blossom. The lotus 
is a magnificent flower, almost sacred to the Japanese, as you will 
see from its association with the colossal images of Buddha, which 
usually sit upon it. 

The grounds of the inner castle, where formerly was the resi- 
dence of the Tycoon, are superior to any I have yet seen ; artificial 
cascades, ponds, and lakes ; avenues of trees, hundreds of years old ; 
groves of bamboo ; a suspension-bridge spanning a moat eighty feet 
deep ; picturesque edifices crowning the angles of the lofty walls, 
make up a variety of scenery of which no modern park can boast. 

It is hoped that the Mikado will build his palace in these ancient 
grounds ; if not, a fpw years will insure the demolition of the 
walls, and the destruction of the trees. In fact, much of their 
former grandeur has already disappeared, so great is the mania for 
tearing down everything reminding the people of the former gov- 
ernment of the Tycoons. 

From the castle we went to the artillery-grounds, to witness a 
review of three batteries ; thence went to the arsenal, where we saw 
Japanese apprentices learning all the varieties of work in wood and 
iron necessary to make arms and munitions of war. 

The buildings are in process of construction, but some are fin- 
ished, and supplied with machinery. Already the wood-work of 
small-arms is manufactured at the arsenal, and Enfield muzzle- 
loaders are converted into Albioi breech-loaders. 

From the arsenal we went into the grounds of Prince Meto, 
which will be surrounded by the arsenal, and, through the good 
taste of the French officers, will be preserved in all their beauty. 

Here, on the border of an artificial lake, we again met the Min- 
ister of War. 

In a Japanese house, one hundred and eighty years old, a deli- 
cious French breakfast was served. The grounds, although very 
small, are so laid out as to give an idea of great extent. "Winding 



380 LETTERS FROM JAPAN. 

walks, mounds, miniature lakes, brooks, falls, and temples, present a 
picture of beauty, and testify to the perfection attained in land- 
scape-gardening. 

On our return toward the hotel, we visited the barracks of the 
Imperial Guard. They are lofty brick buildings, inclosing a square 
court as large as the grass plain at West Point. The Japanese 
tidiness was again proved by the soldiers who luxuriate in warm 
baths. 

On the 10th of September we visited the Military Academy, 
accompanied by the French officers. Two years have sufficed to 
construct the buildings and place the academy, modeled after West 
Point, in running order. We heard recitations in geometry and 
trigonometry, saw riding in the riding-hall, and were given a review 
of the corps of cadets, which was but six months old. 

From the academy we went to the gymnasium and school of 
musketry, where were assembled officers and non-comaiissioned offi- 
cers from every regiment in the empire, who, as soon as they learn 
the practical course, return to their regiments as instructors. 

We saw them perform many gymnastics, and were well pleased 
with our observations. Japan, beyond doubt, will be the first power 
in the East. She has gone too far forward to recede. The railroad, 
telegraph, and steamboat, are uniting her people, while on every 
hand there is a manifestation of increasing knowledge and power, 
which gives an earnest of what she will do in the immediate 
future. 

We left Yedo on the 10th, and at 4 p. m. sailed on the Golden 
Age for Hi6go, or Kobe, where we arrived at 12 p.m. on the 
13th. 

We went ashore at 9 A. m. on the 13th, and without delay took 
the 11.30 train for Osaka, twenty-two miles distant. At 6 p. m. we 
took a boat for Kiyoto. The boat was poled by six men, three on a 
side, who, as they ran from front to rear on all-fours, pushing 
against their poles, looked like so many monkeys. 

The twilight ride up the Yodogawa, through the heart of 
Osaka, gave us new views and many interesting scenes. Lights 
lined the shore, bridges at short intervals crossed the river, over 
which darted, like will-o-the-wisps, the fleet-footed jin-rick-shah 
men with their lanterns, while boats of every size and description 
moved up and down in unending succession. No sooner had we 



LETTERS FROM JAPAN". 381 

left the city than our boat approached the shore, when, splashing 
into the water, one after another, our boatmen forsook their poles, 
seized a rope, clambered up the steep bank, and, appearing on a 
tow-path, began to drag us up the stream. 

We spent an almost sleepless night combating fleas and mos- 
quitoes, and watching the movements of our boatmen. 

At times, as they appeared and disappeared in the bushes, 
they looked like Indians seeking our scalps, but lively talk, and 
merry laughs, told plainly who were having the best of the night 
vigils. All night long they toiled, alternately poling and towing, 
until daylight, when we arrived at Fujimi, where we took jin-rick- 
shahs, and, after a ride of seven miles through a continuous street, 
arrived at Kiyoto. 

Until 1868, Kiyoto, for more than eleven hundred years, had 
been the capital of the Mikado, the spiritual Emperor of Japan. 
He represented a dynasty of twenty-five hundred years, and was 
regarded by his people with a reverence due to a god. At Yedo, 
for seven hundred years, the Tycoons, under the Mikado, had 
wielded the temporal power of the empire. The revolution of 1868 
overthrew the Tycoons, and made the Mikado actual emperor of his 
country. He then moved his capital to Yedo. 

Kiyoto is at the head of the Yodogawa Valley. Skirted on 
three sides by mountains, it basks in .the sunshine of eternal spring. 
Grand old temples lift their venerable heads far above the trees, 
and in solemn stillness look down upon a city given to idolatry. 
Like all cities, its houses are mostly one and two stories high. 
Here and there is a " Godown," built fire-proof, into which people 
carry their treasures, when large conflagrations sweep over the city. 
It is expected in Japan that a city will be destroyed by fire about 
every fifteen years. 

This would be discouraging in America, but here the houses are 
cheap and combustible, and are rebuilt almost as quickly as they 
burn down. 

We visited several temples at Kiyoto. At one we saw wor- 
shipers kneeling, while in front of the altar two priests intoned the 
prayers, lighted the candles, and performed other ministrations. 
In another were one thousand images of Buddha, while in a third 
the bust of this deity was sixty feet high. 

On the 15th we took horses and went to Lake Biva, eight miles 



382 LETTERS FROM JAPAN. 

off. Our route was along tte Tokiado, or great road, which en- 
circles the island of Nippon. We last saw it three hundred miles 
off near Yokohama. At Kiyoto, as near Yedo, it was a scene of 
busy life. "We met carts, horses, and bulls, laden with heavy bur- 
dens, and vast numbers of men and women walking under large 
umbrellas. The women are particularly graceful and attractive. 
Their costume is a single garment, a loose, flowing robe, open in 
front, yet so secured by a broad sash as to conceal the person. The 
sash is tied behind the back, in a large bow six or eight inches 
wide. Sometimes they wear an underskirt of bright scarlet, the 
overskirt being looped up so as to reveal a brilliant combination of 
colors. 

But to return to Lake Biva. It is a picturesque sheet of water, 
surrounded by mountains sloping gently to its shores, which are 
studded with villages and small cities. The country is amazingly 
fertile. Tea and rice are cultivated in terraces from the bottom to 
the tops of the hills and mountains, which look upon its placid 
waters. The lake was dotted over with small fishing-boats, while 
here and there a line of dark smoke pointed out the small steamers 
which ply as ferries from shore to shore. 

As we stood in the court of a temple overlooking the scene, the 
familiar notes of the bugle fell upon our ears, and, turning to the 
left, we saw the handsome barracks of a regiment. Here, as on 
the banks of the Hudson, preparations for grim-visaged war resound 
from hill to hill. 

"We breakfasted in a tea-house on the shore of the lake, and, 
as elsewhere, had to remove our shoes, lest we should soil the 
spotless mats. 

During our ride to and from the lake, bettos ran at full speed 
ahead of us, and cleared the way. There seemed to be no limit 
to their endurance, and when we returned they appeared as fresh as 
when we started. 

We returned from Kiyoto to Osaka in a steamer, about as large 
as a teapot. The three first-class passengers occupied the front of 
the cabin, and were separated from the second-class by a string 
stretched from side to side. As the width of the partition did not 
materially affect our vision, we could see behind us a tangled mass 
of arms and legs, the bodies of our fellow travelers being twisted 
and contorted into all kinds of positions. One incident only marked 



LETTERS FROM JAPAN. 383 

our descent of the Yodogawa. The steamer in trying to land ran 
violently against the bank, crushing a small boat. Women, naked 
to the waist, forsook their work, and instantly lined the shore, won- 
dering at the havoc we had made. 

The steamer bounded off Kke a rubber ball, and finally, having 
transferred to another boat the one passenger who had caused the 
trouble, proceeded majestically down the river. The women, polite 
tiQ the last, remained on the shore till we were lost to sight. 

Friday and Saturday, the 17th and 18th, we spent at Osaka, 
visiting the castle, and inspecting the troops. 

The castle is a vast mass of masonry, nearly one hundred feet 
high, the three inclosures, as at Yedo, rising one above the other. 
From the top of the inner castle a magnificent view of the Yodo- 
gawa Valley is obtained, extending nearly to Kioto toward the 
north, and to the sea toward the south. 

Osaka is the headquarters of the fourth military district, in 
which three regiments, of two battalions each, are stationed, one 
regiment being at Lake Biva. The troops were drilled before us 
in the French tactics, and did very creditably. 

Tuesday morning, at three o'clock, we started on the steamer 
Costa Rica for Shanghai. 

The sail to Nagasaki through the Inland Sea was the most 
beautiful I have ever seen. The sea is two hundred and eighty 
mUes long, and from four to twelve miles broad. Its shores are 
bounded by mountains from one thousand to seven thousand feet 
high, while the sea is studded with rocks and islands, sometimes 
two thousand to three thousand feet above its level. The conical 
shape prevails among the islands, many of them resembling in grace 
of outline the sacred Fusi Yama. Some of the peaks are covered 
with a fringe of trees, others with a crown of verdure, while the 
slope descends in cultivated terraces to the base, where nestle the 
thatched roofs of villages and hamlets. 

In the distance we could see castles perched on rocks, looking 
down menacingly upon the cities at their feet. But the sea cannot 
be described. Overspread by an Italian sky, it combines and sur- 
passes the Hudson with its Highlands, the St. Lawrence with its 
thousand isles, and Lake George with its mountain-peaks. As the 
steamer glided through the tortuous channels, each turn of the 
wheel gave fresh delight, yet shadowed with regret that the fleet- 



384 LETTERS FEOM JAPAN. 

ing scenes of beauty were every moment becoming themes of recol- 
lection. Anticipation, enjoyment, remembrance of ever-varying, 
ever-changing views — such was our voyage on the Inland Sea. 

Nagasaki was the first place we made after leaving Hiogo. 
Picturesque, encircled by mountains two thousand feet high, it 
appeared a fitting haven after the beauties of our voyage. As we 
approached its entrance, we passed Papenburg Rook, from the 
summit of which, about two hundred years ago, four thousand Chris- 
tians were thrown into the sea. A few miles from Nagasaki is a 
boiling spring, in which it is said thousands were put to death. 

At Nagasaki, September 33d, we left the Land of the Rising 
Sun. 

To-day we are on the Yellow Sea, and to-morrow morning shall 
be at Shanghai. From San Francisco to the present moment, a 
glass placed on the edge of a table would not have been disturbed 
by the gentle billows, which have borne us up, and cai-essed the 
bows of our floaUug palaces. 



LETTERS FROM CHU^A. 



Steamee Shiug-King, Gulf of Pee-chf-lee, | 
October 1, 1875. i 

Mt last letter closed with our arrival at Shanghai. The coast 
of China, off the mouth of the Yang-tse River, is like that of the Mis- 
sissippi, low, flat, and monotonous, with a vegetation verging on the 
semi-tropical. Shanghai is on the Hwang-pu, about twelve miles 
from the Yang-tse. It is one of the treaty ports to which foreign- 
ers are admitted, hence its importance. From the deck of the 
steamer, as we ascended the Hwang-pu, we coiild overlook the ad- 
joining fields covered with rich crops. 

On the left bank of the river the Chinese are throwing up long 
lines of batteries, as if to intimidate the foreigners by threatening 
their communications. The approach to Shanghai is impressive. 
Tall massive buildings lift their heads far above the trees, and look 
out upon the river teeming with life. Here are English, French, 
German, American, and Japanese steamers and sailing-vessels, dis- 
charging and receiving their cargoes, giving occupation to innumera- 
ble sampans and lighters, which ply between the vessels and wharves. 
Each sampan has two large eyes painted on the bows, and these are 
held responsible that no collisions occur. The Chinese junk is a 
great, clumsy structure, with square bows and stem, both pointing 
heavenward. As in the small sculls, eyes are painted on the bows 
two or more feet in diameter. Above the town these junks are 
anchored in lines parallel to each other, presenting to the eye a 
sea of masts. The European part of Shanghai is beautiful. The 
25 



386 LETTEES FROM CHINA. 

architecture is that of the Italian villa, modified and combined 
with porticoes and piazzas. The great business-houses are on the 
Bund, a broad street with buildings only on the inland side, over- 
looking the harbor. Here the merchant princes have established 
themselves in Oriental splendor. 

The dwellings of these merchants are generally by the side of 
their places of business, and are palatial in their appointments, due 
in part, perhaps, to the fact that, in former times, when there were 
no hotels, they had to entertain all travelers. The night of my 
arrival, having letters to Russell & Co., I was invited to dine. As in 
Japan, the real breakfast is at twelve, the dinner is served at eight, 
and consists generally of seven or eight courses. 

The Chinese part of Shanghai is densely crowded. The streets 
are packed with human beings all clad in blue. In Japan, the jin- 
rick-shah amused us ; here it competes with the wheelbarrow. 
This vehicle is impelled by a man who supports most of its weight 
by means of a strap passing over the shoulders. If wheeling one 
Chinaman, who always sits on one side instead of in the rear of the 
wheel, he cants the barrow till the centre of gravity of the human 
freight is above the track of the wheel, and, distorting his lips and 
shoulders to preserve the equilibrium, pushes his load laboriously 
along. The lazy Chinaman who rides at the expense of his fellow- 
man, spreads his fan, protects his face from the sun, and looks like 
a contented monkej-. I have seen as many as three on the wheel- 
barrow, giving the poor man all he could do to stand under his load. 
The Chinese women are taller and stouter than the pretty Japanese. 
They dress their hair much in the same style, and are fond of gaudy 
head-ornaments. I saw but one woman with tiny feet, who hob- 
bled along the street, a victim of the inexorable laws of fashion. 

We left Shanghai at 3 A. m. on the 37th for Peking, and yes- 
terday stopped two hours at Che-fu, where Dr. Nevius resides. 
I went ashore, but found, to my regret, that he was on a missionary 
tour in the interior. The town is a desolate one, streets narrow, 
gutters filthy, and reeking with blue mud ; the men dirty, ill- 
dressed, and squalid. In buj'ing a curio, I dropped my purse; 
the gold and silver coins jingled on the pavement, but no one 
in the crowded street sought to molest me, or take what was 
not his own. I gathered up the pieces, hurried from the scene, 
and, thankful for a breath of pure air, returned to the ship. 



LETTERS FROM CHINA. 387 

PEsrao, October 5, 1875. 

My last letter was written on the gulf of Pee-ohe-lee, en route 
to Tien-tsin, where we arrived on Saturday morning, October 2d. 

Tien-tsin is a city of about four hundred thousand inhabitants, 
one-half of whom reside outside of the walls. The houses are most- 
ly of mud ; the streets are unpaved, narrow, filthy, and redolent of 
bad odors. To one who has seen the worst streets of New York, a 
comparison therewith would convey but a slight idea of Tien-tsin. 
Squalid men and women, half -famished dogs gnawing offal from 
the butcher-shops and the kitchen, hogs wallowing in the gutters, 
and rooting up their malarious contents, carts, wheelbarrows, mules 
and donkeys — voild Tien-tsin ! The city, in 1870, acquired an un- 
enviable reputation through the massacre of the French mission- 
aries. 

We left Tien-tsin on the morning of the 3d on ponies for Peking, 
distant eighty miles. The country throughout is a level plain, inter- 
spersed here and there with groves of trees. The Peiho frequently 
overflows its banks, and then for miles the country becomes a vast 
lake. The same thing happens along the Hoang-ho and Yang-tse. 
The deposit of these three rivers has compelled the sea to recede 
until forty-five thousand square miles have been added to the terri- 
tory of China, an area almost equal to the State of New York. The 
waters of the Yellow Sea hold clay and alluvium in suspension, the 
deposit of which annually increases the shoal water, and gradually 
advances the low, thread-like line of the encroaching coast. 

In many respects, the country which we traversed resembles 
the prairies of Illinois, even to its cornfields ; but here the poverty 
is apparent, from the fact that the corn-stalks are dug up for 
fuel. The villages are all composed of mud-huts, roof and wall 
alike, which in floods and heavy rains often wash down and disap- 
pear. In going through, one of the villages, a member of our party 
sought to change a silver dollar. He was told it was too large a 
coin to circulate in that town, and retired with his ideas of Chinese 
wealth essentially modified. 

The roads, with time, have become sunken below the surface of 
the fields, and frequently look like canals. The covered cart is the 
principal vehicle. It is drawn by one or two mules, in the latter 
case driven tandem. With cushions, and good roads, it is quite 



388 LETTERS FROM CHINA. 

comfortable, but witb bad roads it becomes an engine of torture. 
Our hotel at night was a curiosity. We rode into a square court, 
inclosed by low, one-story buildings. In the centre the mules were 
hitched, and around them the carts were parked. When we were 
shown into our room we found it had a clay floor. At one end was 
a stone platform, about two feet high, on which to place our beds. 
This platform is usually heated at night, giving one the novel sen- 
sation of sleeping on an oven. 

On the 4th we resumed our march at 5 A. M., sending the carts 
off at 3.30. All day the country was like that akeady described. 
At 5 P. M. we came to the walls of the famous city of Kublai Khan. 
They are between fifty and sixty feet broad at the top, with square 
bastions like buttresses projecting as flank defenses on the exterior 
side. On the top is a crenelated parapet-wall, behind which archers 
discharged their arrows in olden times, but which would now serve 
as a defense for riflemen. There is also an inner parapet-wall 
adapted to use against the city. Over the gate which we ap- 
proached there was a lofty, imposing structure, crowned by a 
double roof. The effect of these massive Tartar walls, so like 
the defenses of Babylon and Nineveh, was somewhat diminished 
by the sight of a poor mule, struggling and floundering in a great 
mud-hole in the middle of the main highway leading to one of the 
gates of the city. Through the gate, by which we entered as 
through a funnel, lines of carts, mules, donkeys, camels, coolies, and 
lastly dusty travelers, eagerly pressed into the city. Within the 
walls no marble palaces greeted our vision. We were only in 
the' Chinese city, which is separated from the Tartar city by an- 
other great wall, with gates more formidable than those we had 
already passed. Finally, we entered the Tartar city, and, tired out 
with our two days' ride of eighty miles, were glad to find rest at 
a forlorn hotel, where we soon received an invitation from our 
minister, Mr. Avery, tendering us the hospitality of the legation. 

The city is not much of an improvement on Tien-tsin. There 
are no pavements nor sidewalks. The dust is insufferable, and the 
water, coming from the wells sunk in the ruins of centuries, is so 
hardened with lime as to be intolerable either for drinking or 
washing. This deprivation of itself is sufEcient to make it a sacri- 
fice to live in Peking. The city is well laid out on a square plan 
with broad avenues, but the buildings consort badly with the grand 



LETTERS FROM CHINA. 389 

plans of the founder. They are mostly one story high, and built of 
a grayish brick. The fronts of many of the stores are covered with 
gilded filigree-work, which soon tarnishes and turns black. The 
people are badly clad, some with cotton, others with silk, others 
with sheep-skins. Many of them appear half naked, and all are 
very dirty. 

October 5th. — We went to see the white elephants, presented 
to the emperor as tribute from the King of Burmah. On our 
return a walk on the wall gave us a good view of the palaces of the 
Forbidden City, and also of the mountains to the north and west 
of Peking. 

October 6th. — "We called with Mr. Avery upon the English, 
Grerman, Russian, French, and Spanish ministers. In the afternoon 
we went to the Hall of the Astronomers, and the Temple of Con- 
fucius ; also the Lama Temple, containing a standing image of 
Buddha seventy feet high. 

October 7th. — We visited the Temple of Heaven, where the 
emperor worships once a year, and also the Altar of Heaven, where 
he offers an annual sacrifice. 

October 8th. — Breakfasted with Mr. Holcombe, a missionary, 
now interpreter and Acting Secretary of Legation, and attended 
prayers in a Chinese chapel. The Chinese sang " Am I a soldier 
of the Cross ? " to the tune of " Arlington." 

At 3 P. M. we were received by Prince Kung, and the Tsungli 
Yamen, or cabinet, composed of all the ministers of the different 
departments. On arriving at the Foreign Department we rode 
through a large door, into a small court, where we dismounted. 
We then pasSfed into another court, where four of the ministers 
welcomed us by folding and shaking their own hands. They led 
us into a third court, where Prince Kung, the regent, received 
us, shaking his own bands, like the others. This ceremony over, 
we entered a room in which there was a round table, covered 
with fruits and confectionery. Plain, square, cushioned stools 
were provided for seats. Prince Kung, the son and brother of 
an emperor, and uncle of two emperors, took the head of the 
table, having four ministers on his right. Mr. Avery sat at the 
left of the prince, then came myself, Forsyth, Sanger, and Mr. Hol- 
combe, Acting Secretary of Legation. The interview began by Mr. 
Avery, who told the prince in the usual form that he hoped he was 



390 LETTEES FEOM CHINA. 

well, etc. The prince immediately asked where we had come from, 
and what we thought of China. The conversation took a wide 
range, military, among other matters, being discussed. He was 
particularly anxious that we should see Li Hung Chang, the vice- 
roy, or governor-general, of the province of Chihli, and generalis- 
simo of the forces. The Secretary of War was the jolly member 
of the board, and continually proposed healths which were drunk 
with saki. During the interview the fruits and confections grad- 
ually disappeared. The prince was in good-humor, and laughed 
repeatedly. His health being offered by one of the party broke 
up the stance, when, accompanying us into the court where he had 
welcomed us, he shook his hands and retired. The ministers saw us 
to our horses, and, after we had mounted, bowed and returned to 
their offices. We were all much pleased by the manifest cordiality 
of the reception, which Mr. Avery said he had never seen equaled. 

October 10th. — Mr. Avery received notice that Li Hung Chang 
would call upon him, and our commission, at 10 o'clock. At 10.30 
he came in a chair borne by coolies, preceded and followed by foot- 
men. He is a man of fine stature and personal appearance, and 
strode into the legation like a king. In China all official visits 
are accompanied by refreshments, so Mr. Avery had a large table 
covered with fruits and sweetmeats. The viceroy was in excellent 
humor, and prolonged his call an hour and a half. As generalissimo 
of the forces of the empire he was inquisitive about military aflfairs ; 
admitted the feeble condition of China, the necessity of a military 
academy, and the organization of a large army. With him, there- 
fore, as with Prince Kung, we enlarged upon the fine military or- 
ganization of Japan as the surest way to stimulate them to action. 

October 11th. — Mounted on ponies, and accompanied by Mr. 
and Mrs. Avery, who rode in mule-litters, we started for the Great 
Wall ; and, carrying all our provisions and bedding with us, spent 
the night at Nankow. The next morning we started on mules 
and donkeys at 7, and arrived at the Great Wall at 11 A. m. 

The wall is from fifteen to thirty feet high, fifteen feet wide at 
the top, with towers here and there as places of refuge. The facing 
of the wall is of hewed granite ; the coping, covering, exterior cren- 
elated parapet, interior parapet, and the towers, are of brick. We 
climbed two towers perched on the tops of rugged peaks, and from 
these could see the wall stretching away across hills and valleys 



LETTERS FROM CHINA. 39I 

along sharp rugged crests, appearing and disappearing over the 
highest mountains, as if nothing in Nature could daunt the intre- 
pidity of its founders. 

It is only when one asks how without gunpowder the hewed 
granite could be procured, and considers the cost of transportation, 
that an idea can be formed of the immense expense an empire 
was wiUmg to incur to raise an inanimate barrier against the bar- 
banans who finally subdued it. Had the same amount of money 
been spent m building a few fortresses, and in perfecting military 
, organization, it is more than probable that to-day the Tartars would 
not govern a nation superior to them in all of the elements of civ- 
ilization. 

After inspecting the waU,we picked our way back through the 
rugged pass, which was obstructed by hundreds of camels going 
and returning from Mongolia; spent the night at Nankow, and the 
next day went to the Ming Tombs. These monuments, eleven 
in number, commemorate the reigns of the ablest monarchs China 
has ever had. They are too grand to be described in few words, so 
I will pass over them. On leaving the tombs we passed along the 
avenue famed for the double row of statues, life-size, of elephants, 
cairiels, horses, lions, etc. 

On approaching them the mules became frightened and upset 
the litters, but fortunately Mr. and Mrs. Avery had got out to walk 
and thus escaped injury. 

The next day, October 13th, we returned to Peking, visiting en 
route the grounds and ruins of Wan Shushan, the summer-palace, 
of the emperors, which was burned in revenge by the allies after 
the capture of Peking. 

On the 16th of October, the date of our departure from Peking, 
we witnessed the funeral of the late emperor. His remains were 
carried in a catafalque covered with rich yellow silk, borne on the 
shoulders of one hundred and twenty-eight men. Behind was an- 
other catafalque, containing the remains of the empress who, from 
grief it was supposed, had committed suicide. 

The procession, with the usual accompaniment of banners, was 
composed of all the oflBcers of state, civil and military ; of cavalry 
armed with the bow and arrow ; and of many thousand coolies fol- 
lowing and flanking the column with provisions and camp-equipage 
for their august masters. AU along the route from the capital to 



392 LETTERS FROM CHINA. 

the tomb dense crowds of people looked upon the ceremony, and 
were repeatedly driven back by the guards, who flanked the column. 
At Tung-Chow, where we saw the procession, we dined with Mr. 
Sheffield, an American missionary, and then took boats for Tien- 
tsin. 

I am sure, could any one visit the modest household of this 
preacher of the gospel, he would not join in the accusation against 
the missionaries that they make themselves comfortable ; nor would 
he begrudge these worthy people the possession of a single spot 
reminding them of the land they have forsaken. 

On the 18th we arrived at Tien-tsin, and at once went on board 
the steamer Shing-King, where Captain Hawes gave us a warm 
welcome. 

Shanghai, Sunday, October 24, 18T5. 

My last finished with our arrival at Tien-tsin on the 18th. This 
brick and mud city is the capital of the province of Chihli, of 
which Li Hung Chang, one of the ablest men in the empire, is 
viceroy or governor-general. The only object of military inter- 
est is the arsenal, built by an Englishman named Meddows. It is 
inclosed by an earthen wall or parapet for defense, and occupies 
a mile square. At present only Remington cartridges, powder, and 
shells, for cannon of different calibre, are manufactured, but ma- 
chinery for Remington rifles is being erected. In visiting any 
official in China, you are invited into a room simply furnished with 
round and square tables, stools, or mats, and are then invited to 
take tea, which is always clear and of rare flavor. This ceremony 
completed, you can proceed to business. After our inspection of 
the arsenal, we were invited to dine with the quartermaster-gen- 
eral of the viceroy. Putting ourselves in full dress, and accom- 
panied by Mr. Pethick, vice-consul, as interpreter, we entered the 
walled city, and arrived at his yamen about 4 p. m. The furniture 
of the dining-room was the same as I have already described, all the 
dishes being served on a round table, without a table-cloth. We 
were provided both with chopsticks and knives and forks, but the 
dinner was exclusively Chinese. The courses were so many, and the 
dishes so numerous, that I cannot do better than give you the bill- 
of-fare of a dinner we ordered at a Chinese restaurant at Peking, 
as the most faithful approach I can make to a description : 



LETTERS FROM CHINA. 393 

1st Course. — Tea. 

2d Course. — Fruits and sweetmeats, viz. : lotus-seed fried ; 
water-melon seed ; green dates ; prunes ; apples dried in honey ; 
English walnuts ; fresh apples ; pears and grapes. — This course re- 
mained on the table throughout the dinner. 

Sd Course. — Shrimps ; Mongolia ham, boiled and served in thin 
slices ; chicken ; wine made of rice. The wine is served hot, in 
small glasses. Each time the servant passes it, if any remains in 
the glasses, it is poured back into the common reservoir, and again 
poured back into the glasses. This is another instance of Chinese 
economy. 

Jith Course. — Pickled eggs ; pickled lotus-root. Skin of ducks' 
feet boiled ; pickled sea-weed. The eggs are buried for years in 
clay and salt, and undergo a species of decomposition, making 
them, when exhumed, resemble a dark, gelatinous substance. In 
Chinese cookery articles are always pickled in salt, never in vinegar. 

6th Course. — This course was preceded by changing our paper 
napkins, and consisted of plovers' eggs, stewed with sharks' fins, 
and curdled milk (delicious) ; duck ; kidneys ; sea-weed jelly, and 
bamboo-shoots. 

6th Course. — Fish-sinew soup; mushroom and water-chestnut 
stew ; stewed fish ; tripe ; stewed prawns ; chicken stewed in jelly. 

7th Course. — Duck smothered in jelly (delicious) ; jelly pdte ; 
fluid fat-meat hash. 

8th Course. — Skin of ducks' feet stew ; stewed mushrooms ; 
stewed snails. (We bound ourselves to taste of every dish.) 

9th Course. — Fish smothered in vinegar and jelly (good). 

10th Course. — Meat dumplings ; onion omelette. 

11th Course. — Vermicelli-soup. 

12th Course. — Stewed chicken ; vegetable soup with hashed 
meat balls; pork smothered in flour. 

ISth Course. — Rice-soup ; boiled rice ; bullocks' blood thick- 
ened; salt pickles. 

llith Course. — "We go to another table, and are served with tea 
and cigars. 

The dishes are generally brought on in small bowls, one or more 
at a time. Each guest dips his chopsticks into the common dish, 
and eats directly from it, or transfers what he wants to a small 
saucer, provided for the purpose. 



394 LETTERS FEOM CHINA. 

The dinner with the quartermaster-general was interspersed with 
conversation on guns, cannon, tactics, army organization, etc. 

The saki, as harmless as boiled milk, flowed freely. Our ami- 
able host proposed healths often, and after each one showed us 
the bottom of his glass. "When we arose from dinner it was quite 
dark. " Four soldiers with lanterns lighted us home, running swiftly 
before our horses. As we came into the street an enterprising re- 
porter of a Chinese paper sought to interview us, and, I have no 
doubt, gave an amusing description of the foreign visitors. 

This dinner was only preliminary to another. At 8 o'clock we 
dined with Captain FyfEe, and the officers of the United States 
steamer Monocacy. These naval heroes were rather forlorn over 
the prospect of being frozen up for three months in the Peiho. 
Since the Tien-tsin massacres foreign gunboats stay at Tien-tsin 
summer and winter. 

October SOth. — We left Tien-tsin at 8 a. m., and arrived at the 
Taku forts at the mouth of the river at 3 p. m. Here we went 
ashore to inspect the fortifications. Word had preceded us, so 
when we arrived everything was in readiness. Flags floated upon 
the parapets of all the forts, while at the wharf, and along the route 
to the quarters of the commanding general, no less than a hundred 
banners floated from the staffs, supported by faithful soldiers of the 
empire. 

" Terrible as an army with banners," was our first impression — 
nevertheless, without palpitation, we landed, rolled ourselves into 
carts, and proceeded along the line of troops. 

A battalion of ten companies was paraded, the companies pre- 
senting arms successively as we passed. On approaching the sally- 
port, a salute of three guns, the highest in the empire, was fired. 
Troops without arms were arrayed in line in front of the general's 
quarters, who came out, shook his own hands, then shook ours, and 
invited us to enter his quarters. Having been served with tea, we 
went to see the fort, which is of mud, or clay, made hard by pound- 
ing. Three or four Krupp guns, mounted on cavaliers, overlook all 
the other guns of the fort. A German, Mr. Le Myer, instructs the 
Chinese in the use of these monsters. It was in front of these forts, 
clumsy as they appear, that three or four English gunboats were 
sunk years ago. An attack from the sea-front was also bloodily 
repulsed. On another occasion these forts were taken from the 



LETTERS FROM CHINA. 395 

rear, which the Chinese regard as a very cowardly proceeding. 
After looking at the fort we had taken our seats for another Chi- 
nese dinner, but the whistle of the steamer brought our visit to a 
close. We went back amid the display of banners, the roar of can- 
non, and the clangor of trumpets. 

Throughout our visit we have been treated courteously by all of 
the authorities. Prince Kung and the foreign ministers received 
us three days after our arrival. The viceroy, Li Hung Chang, 
called on us at the American legation, and sent his secretary, who 
goes as associate minister to England, to receive us at the arsenal 
and the forts. From this you can see that our official experience 
has been delightful. 

Stbajiee Kashqae, Sovember 13, 1875. 

To-day finds us en route from Hong-Kong to Singapore ; and, 
as at sea we have plenty of time, I must take up the thread of our 
travels, which was interrupted at Shanghai. On October 26th I 
went up the Yang-tse River as far as Chinkiang, one himdred and 
fifty miles from the mouth. At this point the Grand Canal crosses 
the river, making Chinkiang a great commercial centre. The river 
is muddy like the Mississippi, and at some points is ten miles wide. 
At Chinkiang there is little of interest, except an iron pagoda, claimed 
to be seventeen hundred years old. I saw a few troops, dirty and 
ragged, armed with the old smooth-bore musket. The hills around 
the city are covered with the graves of the soldiers killed in the 
Taiping rebellion. A conical mound about three feet high marks 
each resting-spot. On the side of a sunken road, one of the coffins 
projected. Upon it the surviving friends sometimes place rice for 
the deceased. After his spirit is refreshed, beggars, and even dogs, 
cat what is left. I returned to Shanghai on the 28th, and on the 
29th took the beautiful steamer Ava, of the French Messagerie, for 
Hong-Kong, where we arrived Monday, the 1st, at 6 a. m. The 
voyage was pleasant, though somewhat rough. For the first time, 
since leaving San Francisco, we were compelled to use racks at 
the table. On November 1st we visited our consul, Mr. Bailey, 
and arranged to call upon the governor, and General Colborne, 
commanding the forces. The governor was too ill to receive us, 
but we had a pleasant interview with the general, who invited us 
to tiffin the next day — a pleasant occasion, at which we met several 



396 LETTERS FROM CHINA. 

officers of the Eightieth Regiment. Wednesday, November 3d, we 
took the steamer for Canton, arriving there at 3 P, m. Mr. Geary 
gave me a letter to his house at Canton, vrhere all three of us were 
entertained by Mr. Talbot. 

November Jfth. — We visited in the morning several curio-shops, 
where no end of beautiful objects were presented for purchase. 
The china-shops were particularly fascinating. In the afternoon 
we visited the arsenal, and saw them making guns of varied de- 
scriptions, among them breech-loading Spencer and Remington 
rifles, six or more feet long, with a calibre of one inch. On visiting 
the house of the superintendent, we saw for an instant his three 
wives, who were gaudily painted. He offered us wine, and seemed 
pleased that we had come to admire his works. 

On our return we visited the Honan Temple, where, among 
other things, they keep sacred pigs, so fat that they can scarce- 
ly walk. In one of the priest's rooms was a sewing-machine, 
an evidence that foreign improvements are gradually being intro- 
duced. 

November 6th. — We visited the house of a wealthy Chinese 
merchant. It was very large, and had many reception-rooms, most 
of them being furnished with black-wood, marble-top tables, and 
chairs. The partitions were frequently of carved wood and stained 
glass. The ladies' apartment we were not permitted to see. From 
the house we went to the military examinations, which consisted of 
tests in archery. 

The Temple of Horrors is another place of interest. It is open 
to the people, who are permitted to see the different forms of pun- 
ishment administered in the empire. The figures are life-size. 

One represented a man being sawed in two from head to foot. 
He stands bound between planks, one in front, another in rear ; 
two men with a cross-cut saw then begin at the top of the skull, 
and probably kill their victim at the first or second stroke. 

Another represents a man on his face receiving the bamboo. 
Three hundred blows usually paralyze the lower limbs, and gen- 
erally prove fatal. 

A third figure represents beheading, quick and painless. 

A fourth represents a man sitting under a red-hot bell, which is 
lowered over him, thus roasting him alive. 

A fifth is a figure boiling in a caldron of hot water or oil. 



LETTERS FROM CHINA. 39Y 

A sixth is the figure of a man whose bones are being broken by 
a weight repeatedly falling upon him. 

Another punishment, not represented, is cutting a man to pieces 
by inches, and consists of cutting out small pieces of flesh from 
time to time, from different parts of the body, until the man dies. 

Such are some of the cruelties still practised under Confucian 
civilization. 

From the temple we went to a prison, where we saw poor, half- 
starved creatures, covered with sores and vermin, who may languish 
for years before being tried ; and thence went to a court and wit- 
nessed a trial. The prisoner, bound with chains, kneeled before 
three judges, and, with face bowed to the ground, not daring to 
look at his accusers, answered the questions put to him. He 
was accused of stabbing, which he admitted ; had he not done so, 
it is probable that he would have been whipped till he confessed. 
The knife he used was produced, and looked at by his judges, who 
made a report to the prefect, by whom sentence was pronounced. 

These were some of the things we saw at Canton, which we 
left on the 6th, arriving at Hong-Kong at 3 P. M. 



LETTEES FROM II^DIA. 



Point de Galle, Cetion, Mverriber 25, 1875. 

Wb left Hong-Kong November 11th, on the steamer Kash- 
gar, and arrived at Singapore on the 16th. The situation of the 
city near the extreme southern point of Asia, within two degrees of 
the equator, makes it a great distributing point from which steam- 
ers proceed to Hong-Kong, the Philippine Islands, Java, Australia, 
Calcutta, and Ceylon. Being a focal point for business, it is no 
less so for races. There you have the ubiquitous Chinese, the 
ruddy-faced Englishman, the copper-colored Malay, the swarthy 
Hindoo, the olive-colored Portuguese, and many other nationali- 
ties. The government is English, the architecture European, modi- 
fied to suit the tropics. The weather is not so hot as it is many 
degrees to the north. Longer nights and frequent showers cool 
the air, and make the climate habitable for men of all nations. 

You need only glance at the map to see the far-reaching — you 
might say overreaching — foresight of the English Government. 
Recognizing the vast wealth of the East, and the importance of 
opening up all of Asia for her manufactures, she has seized every 
strategic point commanding the channel of commerce from West- 
ern Europe to Eastern Asia. Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Perim, com- 
manding the only channel at the mouth of the Red Sea ; Ceylon, 
Penang, Singapore, and Hong-Kong — are all in her possession. 

Wherever there is a strait, she lays her iron grasp upon it. Her 
acquisition of Perim was interesting. A French naval commander, 
it is said, was sent to seize it in the name of his government. Be- 



LETTEES FEOM INDIA. 399 

ing invited to dine on board a vessel in an English squadron, he 
indiscreetly revealed his mission, when an officer at the table recol- 
lected to have forgotten something, excused himself, and, while the 
Frenchman was regaled with wine, dispatched a ship to capture 
the barren rock, the importance of which had not before occurred 
to them. When the Frenchman arrived he found the cross of St. 
George floating over the coveted prize, and with it the command 
of the Red Sea, and the Suez Canal, had passed into the hands of his 
hereditary enemies. 

With all their diplomacy, one cannot fail to admire English 
pluck and enterprise. In the East her foundations are of granite. 
At every seaport her government or consular buildings loom up as 
emblems of her mighty power. The heathen look upon them and 
tremble ; while Europeans and Americans are made to feel that, 
however great may be their countries, in Asia they must take 
a subordinate position. 

We left Singapore at 4 p. sr. on the 17th, sailed through the 
straits of Malacca, and arrived at Penang at 10 A. m. on the 19th. 
It is a city of about 60,000, mostly natives and Chinese. We drove 
through tropical scenery to a waterfall about 400 feet high, the 
only object of interest in the place. The celebrated Banca tin- 
mines are near Penang. The Hindoos at Penang are the hand- 
somest men in figure we have yet seen. Tall, erect, lithe, clean- 
climbed, they are models of sj'mmetry and action. 

We sailed from Penang on the 20th, about 9 p. m., and on 
the 21st, in the bay of Bengal, crossed the antipodes of Willow- 
brook and Batavia. The bay was as placid as a lake, but the 
weather was hot, compelling us to sleep on deck. We arrived here 
yesterday, the 24th, and in a drive to Waka Walla, the only point 
of interest, passed the banana, the cocoanut, the nutmeg, the cin- 
namon, the clove, and other fragrant trees, which reminded us that 
we were in the land of spices. 

Delhi, December 10, 18T5. 
From Ceylon we sailed to Bombay, where the only special ob- 
ject of interest I visited was the Hospital for Lepers. But the 
form of leprosy was not that as " white as snow " described in the 
Scriptures ; it appeared rather to be a decomposition of animal 
tissue, resulting in loss of the fingers and toes, and even of the hands 



400 LETTERS FROM INDIA. 

and feet. Nothing but the desire to see so ancient a disease 
tempted me to look upon these hopeless unfortunates. 

December 2d. — We lunched with Sir Philip Woodhouse, Gov- 
ernor of the Bombay Presidency, and at 6.30 p. m. left for Delhi. 

Providing ourselves with wraps and pillows, we passed a com- 
fortable night in the compartment-cars, which are so arranged as 
to give each passenger a lounge to himself. The morning of the 
3d we found ourselves on the great plains of India, over which we 
have already traveled two thousand miles. 

The country is entirely different from what I had anticipated. 
Far from being tropical in its vegetation, over the route we have 
traveled {via Allahabad), it resembles the plains of Illinois. Here 
and there groups of trees, looking like the live-oak of the South, 
diversify the landscape, and give to the country the appearance of 
a vast park. A small portion of the soU is cultivated, and, but for 
the censuses carefully taken by the English Government, we could 
not believe that India possesses a population of more than two 
hundred millions. Even the valley of the Ganges is sparsely set- 
tled, its mud-viUages appearing at great distances from each other. 
After two days' ride in the cars we arrived on the evening of the 
4th at Lucknow, famous for its siege during the mutiny of 1857. 
We spent Sunday the 5th at Lucknow, and on the 6th visited the 
Memorial Garden, and Church, at Cawnpore. In the garden is a 
statue of the Angel of Mercy placed over the well, into which were 
cast the remains of about two hundred and fifty women and chil- 
dren who were massacred by the mutineers. 

Leaving Cawnpore at 2.30 p. m., we arrived at Agra at 11.30 
p. M. On the morning of the 7th we visited the fort, which is by 
far the grandest mass of masonry I have ever seen. Its walls, built 
of red sandstone, are seventy feet high, and are flanked with circu- 
lar bastions, giving it a contour of grace, strength, and grandeur. 
Within its inclosure are the palaces of the Mogul emperors, also the 
celebrated Pearl Mosque. From the fort we drove to the Taj-Mahal, 
a tomb of white marble built by the Emperor Shah Jehan in mem- 
ory of his wife. It stands on the banks of the Jumna, so beautiful 
in design and proportion as to excite the admiration of the world. 
In traveling in the East, no less than in Europe, one sees that all 
of the noblest works of art have been inspired by religion and love. 

In the afternoon of the 7th we drove over to Futtehpore 



LETTEES FROM INDIA. 401 

Sikree, a distance of twenty-one miles, where we spent the night 
amid the ruins of the city founded by the great Akbar. On the 
8th we returned to Agra, visiting en route the tomb of Akbar,, 
saw again the Taj by moonlight, and left at 10 p. m, for Delhi. 

On arriving at AUygur I left Forsyth and Sanger, who con- 
tinued on to Delhi, while I went to Moradabad to see Miss , 

and deliver to her the presents sent to her by her mother and friends. 
She is doing a noble work as a medical missionary, has her dispen- 
sary in the city, and visits all the sick women who send for her. 
On my way back I stopped an hour at Chundowsee, where the 
Methodist Mission was holding its annual conference. Mr. Parker 
met me at the depot, and drove me to the camp where services were 
just closing. In a large tent were gathered about seventy con- 
verted Hindoos and Mohammedans, of whom thirty-five were minis- 
ters. After service I went to Mr. Parker's tent, and was warmly 
welcomed by all the members of the mission, ladies and gentlemen. 
Their zeal and devotion, and the success which is attending them 
in establishing schools, circulating the Scriptures, and especially in 
forming a native ministry, afford encouraging evidence that Chris- 
tianity is steadily advancing in India. 

Leaving Chundowsee at 9.30 I arrived here this morning at 
7.30. 

Delhi, December 17, 1875. 

Upon arriving at Delhi on the morning of the 7th, Major Sanger 
was dispatched to Lord Napier's headquarters with the letter of 
General Sherman, to ascertain at what hour we could call and pay 
our respects. The message was answered by Captain Kennedy, who 
came to our hotel, and invited us to dine with Lord Napier in the 
evening. We found him in camp, most comfortably established, 
bright fires crackling on the hearths, the tents being furnished with 
sofas and easy-chairs. Ladies lent their graceful presence, making 
us feel that we were in a palace rather than a camp. Lord Napier 
is a splendid soldier, and a man of most easy and affable manners. 
The dinner was served as nicely as in permanent quarters. 

The next day we were invited to accompany the " Chief," as the 
staff officers designate their commander, to a review of a division of 
infantry. The appearance of the men was excellent. British and 
native infantry stood side by side, the latter emulating the pre- 
cision and steadiness of their white comrades. The marching, both 



402 LETTERS FROM INDIA. 

in quick and double time, was exceedingly good ; while the alter- 
nation of the helmet and turban imparted peculiar interest to the 
scene. This review, short as it was, showed us the perfection of 
English discipline, which I have always admired. The men in 
ranks stood firm, and would no more have raised a hand than a cadet 
at inspection. After the review we witnessed a supposed attack 
of a village, according to the Prussian system. The skirmishers 
went forward in successive lines, rushing from position to posi- 
tion, as if thus, under the fire of an enemy, they could be made 
to obey every impulse of their leaders. 

Sunday, l%th. — I attended morning and evening service at St. 
James's church. The observance of the Sabbath is a noticeable 
feature in the English army. There is no Sunday-morning inspec- 
tion, neither morning nor evening parade. Instead of these military 
exercises, there is a church parade, attended by all of the men. 
The members of difEerent denominations are then marched to their 
several churches ; after which, the only duty of the day is attend- 
ance at roll-call. 

Notwithstanding this absence of display, discipline of the high- 
est type prevails — so high, in fact, that a second holiday per week 
(Thursday) does not seem to impair it. 

Monday, December IZth. — Attended a review of the division 
of artillery at Bussunt. The distance from Delhi to Bussunt is ten 
miles, which we drove in a carriage, with the understanding that 
horses would be supplied us on our arrival. But here one of those 
contre-temps occurred which often lose battles. Both our own horses, 
and those of Lord Napier, had gone astray, having gone to Bussai 
instead of Bussunt. We, however, pushed forward, and on arriving 
at the grounds were supplied with another mount. The artillery 
consisted of eleven batteries, both horse and mounted ; and, what 
was more novel still, there was an elephant-battery. These huge 
beasts dragged along the forty-pounder siege-guns like so many toys. 
But the objection to them is, that no persuasion can make them 
stand fire ; so, behind each gun follow nine or ten yoke of oxen, 
which replace the two elephants on approaching the field of battle. 
This of course doubles the expense, and should suggest the dis- 
continuance of so needless a luxury. After the review, a mimic 
artillery-duel took place, half of the batteries being assigned to a 
defensive position, while the other half attacked. 



LETTERS FROM INDIA. 403 

Tuesday, December 14,th. — We left Delhi at 4.20 p. m. on an 
expedition to the Himalayas. At 11 p. m. we arrived at Saharun- 
poor, where our party of five took carriages for Rajpore. These 
garries, as they are called, are arranged so that the traveler can 
extend himself to his full length, enabling him, as the roads are 
smooth, to get a good sleep. After much vociferation, and a firm 
refusal on our part to pay in advance the expenses of a round-trip 
to Rajpore and return, our procession consisting of an omnibus 
containing General Forsyth and Major Sanger, and three garries, 
in which Mr. Gillette, of England, Mr. Cryder, of New York, and 
myself were esconced, began to move. 

As we had but two days to go to the mountains and back, 
it was important to reach Rajpore by 7 A. m. Our first difficulty 
was, that each relay of ponies was balky. After much coaxing, 
whipping, pushing, and shouting, the obstinate creatures, from 
standing stock-still, would break into a full gallop. With each 
burst of enthusiasm from the ponies, we cherished the hope of 
arriving at Rajpore at daylight, but were doomed to disappoint- 
ment. Toward morning I heard confusion of tongues, and, look- 
ing out of my garry, perceived that the ponies had disappeared, 
and that I was being drawn up the mountain by coolies. In 
some of the other garries, oxen had been substituted. This was 
not so bad, for, by means of twisting their tails and tickling their 
backs, these little bullocks can be made to trot four or five miles 
an hour. Daylight found us out of temper and fifteen miles from 
Rajpore, but in front of us was the beautiful valley of the Doon, 
with its groves of bamboo, orchards of banana, and fields of 
tea. Beyond was a range of hills, 7,000 feet high, covered with 
patches of white, which we took to be snow, but afterward found 
to be the villages of Mussoorie and Landour. In the presence 
of so much beauty our better feelings prevailed, and we traveled 
joyfully onward to Rajpore, arriving there at noon. Here we 
breakfasted, and, taking ponies, immediately set out for Landour. 
The road, which was well made but very steep, zigzagged up the 
mountain along the edge of precipices and around bold headlands, 
offering us a succession of enchanting views. With each elevation 
the scene changed. Behind us was the valley of the Doon, with 
its streams looking like threads of silver winding across the plain ; 
still farther was the range of hills a thousand feet high, separat- 



404: LETTERS FEOM INDIA. 

ing the valley from the great plains beyond ; above were the 
lofty peaks we must crown before the grand view would burst 
upon us. Our ponies pushed on bravely. In seven miles they 
were to climb six thousand feet, equal to the height of Mount 
Washington. 

At 4 p. M. we arrived at Mussoorie and Landour. Here, after 
taking refreshments, the proprietor of the hotel kindly oflFered to 
be our guide. Following him, we threaded the tortuous streets of 
the villages, until he brought us to a crest, whence, without prepa- 
ration, the whole range burst into view. We were chained to the 
spot. At our feet was a valley, almost a chasm, thousands of feet 
deep ; and twenty miles away rose the peaks of the Himalayas nes- 
tling in the clouds. Clad in white, reposing in solitude and grand- 
eur, they stood before us the mighty witnesses of Him whose 
power is infinite and whose ways are past finding out. Reverently, 
I could not but feel " the heavens declare the glory of God, and 
the firmament showeth his handiwork." 

After the startling emotions of the first view had subsided, we 
proceeded to the highest peak in Landour (7,300 feet) to witness 
the sunset. Behind us, toward the setting sun, were the great 
plains, enveloped in purple mist, in which the waters of the Jumna 
sparkled like the fire of an opal. Below us were the white bunga- 
lows of English residents, who seek health in the hills, perched on 
the peaks, and half concealed by the spreading trees, which added 
their verdure to the charm. To the eastward, extending sixty or 
eighty miles, stood the mighty monarchs, bathed in pinkish light, 
up whose flanks the lengthening shadows crept, until the peaks and 
fleecy clouds alone caught the last rays of departing day. 

The next afternoon, on our departure from Saharunpoor, sixty 
miles from the range, we had our last view. From that distance 
the mountains loomed up among the clouds, enabling us to realize 
their great height of five miles above the sea. 

Friday, 17th. — We witnessed a grand cavalry review of thirteen 
regiments. They marched past first at a walk, in column of squad- 
rons, then countermarched and passed at a trot. After which, they 
deployed into line and swept by at a gallop. The turban and the 
helmet ; the elephants, with purple caparison, bearing spectators ; the 
camels grazing in the distance ; the ruins of Delhi — gave us a com- 
bination of Oriental and Occidental scenes to be found only in India. 



LETTEES FROM INDIA. 405 

Saturday, ISth.—We left Delhi at 11 a. m., and arrived at Cal- 
cutta on Monday, the 20th. 

General Litchfield, United States consul-general, met us at the 
depot, and we are now enjoying his generous hospitality. 

CAicuTTA, Deceimha- 23, 1875. 

Everything here is in excitement in anticipation of the visit 
of the Prince of iWales. The evening of our arrival we attended a 
Hindoo reception given by two nawabs. It did not differ from 
a European reception, except that there were some native singers, 
who, sitting on the floor, entertained us with a succession of plain- 
tive nasal sounds not at all agreeable to the ear. 

On the 32d we lunched at Government House. After lunch we 
were presented to his Excellency the viceroy, Lord Northbrook. 
He is an exceedingly affable man, a ready talker, and, belonging to 
a business famUy — the Barings, of London — showed himself au 
courant with affairs, whether civil, military, or commercial. 

He soon decided our future plans. The unsettled condition of 
Afghanistan bars that route, while, were we able to go to Kash- 
gar, the passes would not be open before May or June. The only 
route now open is that through Persia. The viceroy told us we 
should have invitations to all the ceremonies in honor of the Prince 
of Wales, and that if any failed to reach us it would be purely 
accidental. The interview lasted about half an hour, and I need 
not say we retired well pleased with the ruler of nearly two hun- 
dred and fifty millions of people. 

From Government House we drove to the residence of the 
lieutenant - governor of Bengal, Sir Richard Temple, who rules 
sixty-three millions of people. Even colonels of the army, as civil 
commissioners, rule as many as five millions, equal in number to 
the population of the State of New York. Such are the capa- 
cities of the civil and military service in India. 

December 22c?. — We visited Fort William, and inspected the 
armory and barracks. The latter are the best in India, and show 
what care the Government takes of its soldiers. The men per- 
form military duty only. The policing is done by coolies, the cook- 
ing is done by coolies, and, when the tired soldier seeks his rest at 
the end of the day, a coolie works his punka, and fans him to sleep. 
In hot weather, screens are hung before the doors of the quarters, 



406 LETTERS FROM INDIA. 

and these are kept wet by coolies. The rapid evaporation of the 
water cools the temperature within sufl&ciently to make life endur- 
able. 

While on the subject of coolies, I may as well speak of servants 
generally. At one house where we dined, twenty-four were em- 
ployed. Of these, six found occupation in and about the kitchen, 
and a large number about the stables, one to each horse. 

At another house thirty-nine servants, all men, constituted the 
domestic household. This horde was not fed by the employer. 
Each received about three dollars per month, and provided for 
himself. 

The evening of the 33d we dined at Government House. The 
viceroy gave me the seat on his right, and throughout the dinner 
entertained me with conversation on every variety of subject. Af- 
ter dinner the company ascended to the drawing-rooms, and there 
we saw the viceroy receive several of the maharajas. These chiefs 
came into the room in gorgeous robes, their turbans glittering with 
diamonds. It was Europe and Asia again face to face. The native 
princes displayed their plumage like peacocks ; the ruler of India, 
attired in a plain black suit, moved among them as modestly as his 
humblest guest. 

December 23d. — In the afternoon we went to the landing to 
witness the reception of the Prince of Wales. As on the evening 
before, the native chiefs were the special objects of attention. At- 
tired in their richest apparel, they stood resplendent, glittering in 
the sun. Patiala wore a turban which alone was valued at half a 
miUion dollars. About his head were festooned strings of dia- 
monds; among them, those formerly belonging to the Empress 
Eugenie. Any one of the precious ornaments he so lavishly dis- 
played would have been a modest fortune. Pearls and emeralds 
also decked his clothes, enabling him to stand from head to foot a 
monument of Oriental splendor. 

Other chiefs emulated, but did not surpass Patiala. Some had 
their robes embroidered in gold, others in pearl and turquoise. 
Above their heads glistened sprays of diamonds, while here and 
there huge solitaires twinkled like the stars. Among the chiefs 
stood one of commanding stature, gorgeous in his robes, but, Naa- 
man-like, a leper. 

At 4.30 P. M. the prince left his ship under a royal salute from 



LETTERS FEOM INDIA. 407 

the fleet. On reaching the wharf an address was presented, to 
which he replied. He was then conducted to the platform, where 
the native princes and other dignitaries were presented, after which 
he immediately left for Government House. Thousands of people 
turned out to welcome him. After he had gone, Patiala and his 
friends staid upon the platform, and with evident satisfaction per- 
mitted the people, as many as liked, to gaze upon a sight that will 
never be repeated. On retiring from the landing, at his request, I 
was presented to the Maharajah of Cashmere, who invited us to 
visit him at his capital. 

In connection with this display, another scene deeply impressed 
me. A native woman fainted, and, as the throng passed by, I saw 
a frail girl bending over her, administering restoratives, whom I 
recognized as Miss W , a young missionary from Brooklyn. 

December 2iih. — The city was illuminated in honor of the Prince 
of Wales. From the Maidan, a great park, the public buildings 
and private residences were revealed in outline, making Calcutta, 
indeed, appear the City of Palaces. For miles the streets were a 
blaze of light. On each side wire was stretched like telegraph- 
lines, from which, at intervals of six or eight inches, were hung 
small white and colored glasses, filled with oil and floating wicks. 
Other wires, similarly prepared, hung in festoons from those already 
described. The carriages thus moved through an avenue of light. 
Here and there triumphal arches spanned the streets ; while illumi- 
nated trees, gateways, and other devices, increased the effect. All 
along the line, the streets were packed with people clad in white. 
Some of them stood on distant house-steps, and looked like spectres 
unmoved by the display. Mohammedan and Hindoo gazed calmly 
upon the small procession of Europeans who, like conquerors, en- 
joyed the scene. No mark of enthusiasm was shown. We passed 
quietly through the flickering light, and, after a drive of five miles, 
returned to the home of our consul. 

Delhi, January 9, 1816. 

On Monday, the 27th of December, we were invited to a 
garden-party at Sir Richard Temple's, to meet the Prince of 
Wales. There were about a thousand people present, who walked 
up and down the grounds, the scene reminding me of the Saturday 
afternoon promenades on the plain of West Point. There was a 



408 LETTERS FROM INDIA. 

band in attendance, and a dance by native men and women. The 
grounds were beautifully illuminated. During the afternoon Sir 
Richard Temple presented me to the prince, who charmed us all by 
his afiable manners. 

In the evening there was a ball at Government House, attended 
by at least fifteen hundred people. The prince opened the ball 
with Miss Baring, daughter of the viceroy, and in their set, and 
the sets adjoining, were all the dignitaries of the Government, from 
the viceroy down. The dancing could not be complimented — ^too 
much hopping, even in the waltz, to be graceful. 

At 3 p. M. on the 38th we attended the levee of the Prince of 
Wales. The crush was about the same as at Washington at the 
President's reception, and differed from it only in this — that the 
prince, standing on a slightly-raised dais, bowed to each visitor, 
instead of offering his hand. In the evening the natives gave a 
fite at Belgatchie, consisting of singing, dancing, and Breworks. 
All of the distance from Government House to the/8fe, four miles, 
was illuminated as on the 24:th. 

December 29*A. — We were invited to dine at Government 
House. The guests were received by an aide-de-camp in waiting, 
in full dress. After all had assembled, the viceroy and his daugh- 
ter came in at one door, and were presented to the guests. 

A few minutes after, the prince came in by another entrance, 
preceded by the lords of his suite. As he passed, he bowed 
to some, and gave his hand to others, among them myself. He 
then gave his arm to Miss Baring, and at once went to the table. 
The dinner was served on silver throughout ; sixty -two servants, one 
to each plate, stood motionless behind the guests, while as many 
more served the courses. After dinner the company ascended to 
the drawing-rooms, where the prince received the maharajas. 

On the 1st of January, the finest ceremony of the series occurred. 
It was the investiture of the Grand Star of India. The Prince of 
Wales opened the chapter, and conferred the order G. S. I. on 
several native chiefs. The assemblage was exceedingly brilliant. 
By the prince's special direction we were given seats aniong the 
members of his suite. Luncheon at Government House on the 1st 
finished the series of entertainments. 

We left Calcutta on the evening of the 2d, and arrived at Be- 
nares on the evening of the 3d. The sacred city of the Hindoos is 



LETTERS FROM INDIA. 409 

wholly given to idolatry. Their gods, however, seem to be more 
spiritual than those of the Chinese, inasmuch as the offering is 
more frequently flower's than food. 

The view of the city from the Ganges is imposing, but within 
all is dilapidation and squalor. Every morning the Hindoos are 
expected to bathe in the Ganges, and in vast crowds throng the 
river-bank. The women walk in without undressing, and, on com- 
ing out, change the wet for dry clothing in so dexterous a manner 
as to avoid the slightest exposure. 

At one point of the river our boat put in shore, where we be- 
held a peculiar sight. Two large fires were burning, each made of 
wood nicely corded. At a slight distance several natives were 
squatted in a semicircle, evidently enjoying the heat on so crisp a 
morning. Immediately in front others were bathing with careless 
indifference. 

The guide pointed to the fires, and told us each was a funeral- 
pyre. We were witnessing unconsciously the cremation of two 
Hindoos, whose dearest object in life is to have their ashes mingled 
with the sacred waters of the Ganges. We left Benares on 
the evening of the 4th, and reached Delhi on the evening of 
the 5th. 

On the 8th we witnessed a review of all the troops at Delhi : 
cavalry, infantry, and artillery, native and European, presented a 
superb appearance. The infantry passed in quick time ; the cavalry 
and artillery passed at a walk, trot, and gallop. There was not the 
slightest check in the marching, nor apparently a single fault in 
manoeuvre. In riding around the lines, the chargers of Lord 
Napier and a maharajah collided while leaping a ditch, causing 
Lord Napier to fall, and break his collar-bone, but, concealing his 
injury, he remained on the field till the review was over. 

Rawiti, Pindee, January 20, 1876. 

January Wth. — In the morning, the prince made his entry into 
Delhi. From the railway-station to his camp, a distance of four 
miles, the road was lined with troops on both sides, but the Orien- 
tal feature of his entry was reserved near his camp, where he 
passed through an avenue of twenty-two elephants brilliantly 
caparisoned. The embroidery on the housings of these immense 
beasts was of heaviest gold, and nearly two feet wide. 



410 LETTEES FROM INDIA. 

In the afternoon we attended a reception given by the prince, 
at his camp, to the otBcers of the army at Delhi, and in the evening 
were invited to a reception in his honor, given by Lord Napier at 
army headquarters. On both occasions the array of uniforms was 
exceedingly brilliant. 

Wednesday, 12th. — The great review, for which the troops 
had been preparing a long time, took place. It was a superb spec- 
tacle, resembling the reviews we saw before going to Calcutta. 
We rode around the lines in the suite, and, as before, had a fine 
opportunity to witness the steadiness of the troops, both native 
and European. 

The prince was mounted on a black stallion, which stood like a 
statue while the cavalry, in helmets and turbans, swept furiously 
past ; but unmoved as was the horse, when the elephant-battery 
came shuffling along, and the huge beasts threw up their trunks, 
as a royal salute, the rider could not suppress a broad smile at their 
act of civility. 

After the review, colors were presented to two regiments, which, 
during the mutiny, signalized their loyalty to the Government. 

In the evening a ball was given in the Dewan Khass, at the fort. 
This was the Hall of Audience,- built by the Mogul emperors, where 
used to be the " Peacock Throne," so famous for its costliness and 
elegance. The edifice is of white marble, and consists simply of 
a massive roof, supported by parallel rows of square and rectangu- 
lar columns, heavily gilded, and inlaid with precious stones. The 
effect is one of great richness, and so enchanted was the emperor 
that, in the central arcade, he had placed the inscription mentioned 
in " Lalla Rookh," " If there is a paradise upon earth it is this, 
it is this ! " Could he have looked through the mists of centuries, 
and seen the future King of England dancing in his marble halls, 
no doubt, like Belshazzar, his face would have blanched and his 
knees smote together. 

Thursday, 13th. — The troops to act on the offensive in the ma- 
noeuvres moved out eighteen miles on the Kurnaul Road. Having 
been invited, I went out with them provided for a two days' cam- 
paign, and was the guest of Colonel Watson, commanding the 
cavalry. The manoeuvres were limited to six hours on each of 
the two following days. 

Friday, lith. — The troops moved promptly forward. Making a 



LETTERS FROM INDIA. 411 

mountain of a mole-hill, a canal about twelve feet wide was re- 
garded as formidable an obstacle as a great river. So the cavalry 
started off at a trot, and gallop, for six or eight miles, to seize 
bridges which the enemy did not care to destroy. The infantry, 
without much opposition, moved straight down the road to within 
seven miles of Delhi. 

An exploit which was regarded as particularly brilliant on the 
part of the offensive, was to mount eighty infantry on the caissons of 
the artillery, and to send them at a fast trot to the bridge over the 
canal eight miles in advance of the camp of the army. In the same 
situation we would have sent a company of cavalry, which, in the 
event of opposition, would have dismounted and fought on foot, 
and would have thought no more of it. In India, however, few 
oEBcers appreciate the true use of cavalry, so infantry had to be 
mounted on artillery-carriages for an exploit which legitimately 
belonged to cavalry. 

Saturday, Ihth. — The battle raged along the whole line. The 
cavalry of the right wing crossed over to the left, joined that 
of the left wing, and, without scouts or skirmishers, advanced 
in mass to within fifteen hundred yards of two of the enemy's 
batteries, when, the latter opening fire, an umpire rode up and 
declared fifty per cent, of the cavalry killed or wounded. This un- 
expected decision finished the cavalry for the day. 

The infantry advance was no less unfortunate. The leading 
brigade, in order of battle, moved straight down the road toward 
a small village, held as an outpost by the e;iemy. The commander 
marched his brigade mostly in double time, neglected several op- 
portunities to turn the enemy's flank, but finally took the village 
in consequence of a flanking force sent in farther to his right. 
The enemy then fell back a few hundred yards to Azadpore, which 
was his main position. Without reconnoitring, the pursuing force 
fell upon this position with all its might and main, and, as the ene- 
my was so posted as to bring two lines of fire upon him, one being 
above the other, his attack was soon badly repulsed ; and again an 
inexorable umpire declared nearly half of the troops hors de combat. 

A force trying to turn the enemy's right centre, moved so as to 
be enfiladed by the enemy's artillery on the heights near Delhi, 
and, when it got into position, was met in the same stern man- 
ner by two lines of fire. 



412 LETTERS EEOM INDIA. 

Farther to the right another division found itself in a flat, open 
field, with walled inclosures, strongly held, staring it in the face. 
These the commander wisely refrained from attacking. The ene- 
my's left, facing the canal, could easily have been turned ; but 
moving in straight lines is so much simpler that the generals, as 
has frequently occurred in all wars, took not only the easiest but 
the shortest route to inevitable defeat. 

Between the infantry at Azadpore and the cavalry there was an 
interval of nearly two miles. The infantry being repulsed, had the 
enemy advanced nothing could have saved the offensive army from 
destruction, as the cavalry was beyond reach, and could not have 
come to the support of his hard-pressed infantry. 

At the conclusion of the manoeuvres, I rode back to the city, 
where I found General Forsyth and Major Sanger. On Friday, the 
first day of the manoeuvres, we were invited to dine with the Prince 
of Wales at his camp ; but, as I was with the offensive, they went 
alone. During the manoeuvres, they rode in his suite, and also 
lunched with him. But this was not all. In order to show his 
consideration for us as American officers, he gave an extra dinner, 
to which we were invited, on which occasion he gave me the seat 
on his right. 

As we entered his tent he came forward with a smile, and re- 
marked, " Caught you at last." During the evening he was very 
affable ; spoke with gratification of his visit to America, and of the 
friendly relations between the two countries ; and, when we took 
our leave, gave each of us a print of himself and the princess, 

Monday, the 18th, we paid our parting calls ; and in the even- 
ing started for Peshawar. Tuesday at three we arrived at Lahore, 
and at six arrived at Wizirabad, where we took carriages for Gooj- 
rat. Wednesday we skirted the Himalayas, and this morning at 3 
A. M. (January 20th) arrived here, where we are compelled to lie 
over a day for want of conveyance. We are now in the Punjab 
(Five Rivers — Sutlej, Ravee, Chenab, Jhelum, and Indus). It is a 
beautiful country, well watered, but in summer terrifically hot. 

Rawul Pindee, January 27, IS'ze. 
We left Rawul Pindee, by a government conveyance, at 8 A. m., 
on the 31st, and arrived at 4.30 p. m. at Attock, which is at the 
junction of the Indus and Cabul Rivers. The two streams unite in 



LETTERS FEOM INDIA. 413 

a large plain, apparently -with the view of forcing their way 
through a range of hills which crosses the Indus immediately be- 
low the junction. A Mussulman fort, built by Akbar, dominates 
the rivers, and in its day was a formidable obstacle to barbarian 
invasions. 

Continuing our journey, we arrived at Peshawar at 3 a. m. on 
the 22d. After breakfast we called upon Colonel Yorke, who re- 
ceived us very kindly. In the afternoon he turned out the Twen- 
tieth Punjab Infantry, and the Fourteenth Native Infantry, for our 
inspection and review. These men are mostly recruited in the 
vicinity, and many of them are wild Afghans, who, in their love for 
fighting, make no distinction between their own people and other 
hostile tribes. 

Sunday we attended the garrison church, and walked through 
the old native city. The latter resembled many of the cities we 
saw in China, except that the inhabitants were more squalid in 
appearance. If you could see the mud-houses of the Hindoos, 
without windows or furniture, filled with smoke and filth, you 
would realize that poverty is unknown in America. In these 
wretched huts many men live who are quite wealthy, not having 
learned that it is unnecessary to conceal their wealth from their 
English masters, as they were wont to do under their native rulers. 

Monday, 24iA. — Major Omaney organized for us an expedition 
to the Khyber Pass. Accompanied by him and several English 
officers, we proceeded to Jumrood, the frontier post of the English, 
thirteen miles from Peshawar, where we were met by one hundred 
and fifty armed Afghans from across the border. 

Half-clad in sheep-skins, wearing the turban, and armed with 
matchlocks, swords, pistols, and knives, a worse-looking set of cut- 
throats it is difficult to imagine. A general discharge of fire-arms 
from the parapet of the old fort of Jumrood signalized our approach. 
Here we took horses, and with our murderous-looking escort started 
for the pass, two miles off. We all thought how easy it would be 
for these fellows to close the pass and turn upon us ; and our con- 
fidence was not increased by the sight of a murdered Afghan, whose 
grave was being dug by the road-side, and whose murderer, in re- 
taliation, had bitten the dust before our return. 

Such is their life. Claiming to be descendants of the " lost 
tribes of Israel," they mercilessly enforce the law, "Eye for an 



414 LETTEBS FROM IKDIA. 

eye, and tooth for a tooth." If a man is shot or stabbed, his friends 
hunt down the murderer like a wild beast. 

These are the characteristics of the many tribes to whose tender 
mercies we would have committed ourselves, had we endeavored 
to cross Afghanistan against the counsel of the viceroy. They 
acknowledge no law, and are as independent of the Emir of Cabul 
as they are of the English. The latter they have been taught to 
fear, hence they rarely make forays upon the villages under Eng- 
lish protection ; but between each other, village against village, 
and family against family, are often arrayed in deadly hostility. 
In their faces there is no gleam of compassion, and they look as 
if to fire at a man from ambush, or to stab him in the dark, would 
be the greatest of secret pleasures. As we rode in the midst of 
the rabble we could see old men, and even boys of twelve and 
thirteen, bearing the deadliest weapons. From the cradle to the 
grave, war and bloodshed appear to be their occupation ; and even 
in cultivating the soil they never quit their weapons, lest every 
bush conceal an enemy. 

The entrance to the pass was like a gateway between two cliffs, 
about one thousand feet high. Inside we ascended the gravelly 
bed of a dry stream, and then, taking a fine road, constructed by 
the English in 1841, we penetrated about three miles and a half, 
when the civil commissioner thought he had gone as far as was 
prudent. The mountains were treeless and verdureless, resembling 
those about Salt Lake. 

On our return to Jumrood an excellent lunch awaited us, after 
which our Afghan friends amused us with feats of marksmanship. 
They proved that, with the old flint-lock musket, a bottle could 
readily be hit at one hundred and fifty yards. The day was a most 
pleasant one, and in interest was worthy of being classed with the 
day we visited the Nankow Pass, and the Great Wall of China. 

Tuesday, 25iA. — The whole garrison, consisting of two British 
and four native regiments of infantry, two native cavalry regi- 
ments, and three batteries of artillery, was turned out for re- 
view. The blending of uniforms and colors I have already de- 
scribed at Delhi; but here the picturesqueness was increased by 
the proximity of the mountains which, like a horseshoe, almost en- 
circled us. 

Above and beyond the troops were the Hindoo Koosh, fifteen 



LETTERS FROM INDIA. 415 

thousand feet high, completely covered with snow ; while, in the 
gardens at our backs, could be culled the sweet lemon, and roses, 
almost in full bloom. 

Peshawar lies almost in the centre of a plain, fifty by sixty miles 
square ; and, being nearly surrounded by mountains, is one of the 
hottest and most unhealthy places in India. British regiments 
are required to remain in it but one year. The Seventeenth Regi- 
ment, seven hundred strong, have all had chills and fever except 
eight men, and over three hundred were sick at one time. 

Alexander wintered in the valley of Peshawar, then covered 
with forests, and the home of the rhinoceros. It was also in the 
devastating path of Tamerlane, To-day, under the English, it 
knows more peace and prosperity than in all the ages since Alex- 
ander. 

We left Peshawar on "Wednesday, the 26th, at 9 A. m. ; stopped 
at Attock, where we " tifEned " with ofiBcers of the artillery, and 
resuming our journey arrived here, where for want of horses we are 
again detained. We shall, however, get ofE to-morrow, and then 
shall make our way almost directly to Bombay. 

Bombay, February 6, 1876. 

We left Rawul Pindee at 13 p. m. on the 37th of January, and 
arrived at Wizirabad at 6 p. m. on the 28th. From there it was 
our intention to go to Jumoo, to visit the Maharajah of Cashmere, 
who invited us at Calcutta ; but a telegram apprised us that we 
could not go beyond Sealkote, in consequence of the cholera which 
had broken out at the capital. We therefore reluctantly set our 
faces toward Bombay, stopping over a few hours at Lahore and 
Allahabad. 

The latter city is at the junction of the Ganges and Jumna, both 
sacred rivers among the Hindoos. On the day of our visit there 
was a religious festival, when, according to custom, everybody is 
expected to bathe at the junction of the rivers. Immense crowds 
of men, women, and children, lined the shores ; while going to 
and from the city were streams of people, some believing they 
had washed away their sins, others hurrying to secure absolution. 
Those who had bathed had to walk back in a blazing sun amid 
clouds of dust, yet to their ignorant minds they were free from 
pollution, and returned on their way rejoicing. 



416 LETTERS EEOM INDIA. 

From Allahabad to Bombay we had a pleasant ride. The 
Begum of Bhopal, whom we saw at Calcutta with a large number 
of retainers, traveled in our train. At Jubbulpcor she was received 
with military honors, and in a palanquin disappeared from our view. 

The stations on the line of railroad from Bombay to Jubbulpoor 
are models of beauty. They are literally embowered in vines and 
flowers ; and so pleasing is the efEect upon the parched and dusty 
travelers that the company gives a prize to the station-master who 
presents the finest display. 

We arrived at Bombay at 11.45 on the 29th, two months to a 
day from the time we left it, and are delighted with a tour that 
has been but a succession of pleasures. Everywhere we have been 
treated with special consideration as Americans, and every avenue 
of information has been freely thrown open. We have been per- 
mitted to see the great work England is doing in educating and 
fitting a people for freedom. Railroads, telegraphs, churches, and 
schools, are sure pledges of a bright future for India, and we cannot 
leave without hoping that England may preserve her sway till, in 
the order of Providence, she shall have accomplished the mission 
she was called to perform. 



LETTEES FEOM PEESIA. 



BuNDEK Abbas, Persia, February 20, 1876. 

We left Bombay, Friday, February 11th, at 6 P. m., on the 
Steamer Umbala, for Bushire. 

Monday, the 14th, we arrived at Kurrachee. The city contains 
about seventy thousand people, and lies in a low, flat plain, about 
twenty miles from the mouth of the Indus. The country back of 
the city is almost barren ; yet, within, irrigation produces fine crops, 
and shows that only water is required to make the desert beautiful 
as a garden. Behind the city there is a range of verdureless hills, 
rising to eight hundred or a thousand feet. The harbor contained 
no less than eight steamers the morning we arrived, and we were 
naturally puzzled as to the reason for such a commercial appear- 
ance. It lies, however, in the fact that the port is the outlet for 
the valley of the Indus, which is navigable as far up as Moultan. 

Tuesday, at 11 a. m., we sailed for Muscat, where we arrived on 
the morning of the 18tb. The harbor is a small bay, protected on 
each side by precipitous rocks from three to five hundred feet high, 
which are crowned with castles bristling with cannon. 

The city lies at the head of the bay, as in the neck of a funnel, 
and looks more like a place in Europe, in the middle ages, than 
the capital of an Oriental despot. The front of the city, and also the 
castles, were built by the Portuguese, when it was in their posses- 
sion, who lost the city in a general massacre resulting, it is said, 
from the effort of the ruler to marry a native woman in defiance of 
the precepts of her religion. 
27 



418 LETTEES FROM PERSIA. 

Squeezed between barren, broiling rocks, on which the eye 
seeks in vain for verdure, the city claims geographically the benefit 
of both a tropical and temperate climate. It lies on the tropic of 
Cancer — an imaginary line which assumes a painful reality when, in 
summer, the torrid winds, sweeping across it, keep the thermometer 
at 108° night and day. 

The only place of interest, as in most Asiatic towns, is the 
bazaar in which the tradesmen expose for sale the few wares and 
curiosities of the country. 

We brought letters to Colonel Miles, the political agent of 
Great Britain, who received us kindly and invited us to lunch. But 
the great object of interest was our visit to the Sultan, or Imaum. 
On expressing a desire to pay our respects, the colonel sent a note 
to the palace, receiving in reply an appointment for 2 p. m. At that 
hour we proceeded through a narrow alley to the palace, which we 
approached from the rear. As the door was thrown open, an Ara- 
bian lion glared at us from his cage on the left. A couple of 
horses stood on our right, while in front about a dozen ragamuffins, 
with knives, and arms of the oddest pattern, awaited to do us mili- 
tary honor. 

On entering the court, his majesty sent his regrets that, in 
consequence of lameness, he was not able to receive us at the foot 
of the stairs. This flattering explanation having been interpreted, 
we mounted the rickety stairway, and at the top were met by the 
Sultan, who shook us cordially by the hand, and motioned us 
into an adjoining room. The furniture of the room was very 
simple, consisting of a green covered table in the centre, a sofa, and 
some chairs, arranged with military precision against the walls. 

The Sultan wore a turban, a gray gown extending from his 
head to his feet, a white under-garment richly embroidered, and 
sandals which exposed his well-shaped bare feet. 

His face is said to be the handsomest in Asia, but this, I think 
an exaggeration, or at least a compliment to kingly vanity. He 
was, however, fine-looking, with a high forehead, arched eye- 
brows, aquiline nose, firm mouth, and patriarchal beard. A feel- 
ing of sadness seemed to overspread his countenance, which could 
be accounted for by his meditation on the lives of his predecessors, 
most of whom have died by violence ; or by reflecting on his own 
experience, which has not been devoid of danger. 



LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 419 

Only a few weeks since he was compelled to flee to Persia ; was 
reinstated through the kind offices of England, and again finds 
himself tottering on his throne, not knowing what moment some 
bloodthirsty wretch may dispatch him. 

The conversation was not very edifying. We told him we had 
come from America, and, having learned accidentally that morning 
that we had a treaty with the Imaum of Muscat, we expressed 
the hope that the relations of the two countries might remain 
cordial. He then began to inquire about India, the Franco-Ger- 
man War, and particularly the war between the Khedive of Egypt 
and his brother the Sultan of Zanzibar. We told him that the 
armies of the Khedive had been repulsed. He said, for a great 
man with a great many soldiers, to attack a small man with a few 
soldiers, was mean and cowardly, and, as this accorded with our 
ideas as soldiers, we gave a formal assent. 

During the course of the interview refreshments were served. 
The first consisted of a confection looking like cocoanut-candy, then 
followed coffee, after which the servant brought in four very large 
glasses filled with a transparent sweet fluid like sherbet. Polite- 
ness only requires one to take a sip ; but some persons, thinking this 
would not be a suitable appreciation of hospitality, have been known 
to drink the entire glass, and have been very sick for their pains. 

After removing the sherbet, the servant returned with a large 
server on which was a very small vial. For an instant I was puz- 
zled, but recollecting that we were in the land of cassia, myrrh, 
and frankincense, a fortunate intuition suggested an Arabian per- 
fume, so, placing the end of my finger in the neck of the vial, I wet 
it, and immediately stroked my mustache. The delicious odor of 
attar of roses soon filled the room, and, enveloped in perfume, we 
thanked his majesty for his kind reception, and took our departure. 

We left Muscat Friday, at 7 p. m., and arrived here at 9 A. m. 
this morning (30th). At this port Alexander was met by his fleet 
about 325 b. c. The country has the same sterile aspect as at 
Muscat. The mountains a few miles in the interior rise to ten 
thousand feet, and are now capped with snow. 

Shieaz, Peesia, March 6, 1876. 

From Bunder Abbas we went to Linjah, where we arrived at 
1 P. M. on the 31st of February. The town is a squalid-looking 



420 LETTEES FROM PERSIA. 

place, scarcely distinguishable from the gray coast-line, and from 
the clay-colored mountains rising in the rear. We called on the 
sheik, and afterward visited the wells, and saw where he had walled 
in, and left to die, a thief, who had stolen one of his horses. This 
is not an uncommon punishment in Persia. They frequently com- 
pel the culprit to bmld his own tomb, which is just large enough 
for him to stand inside, and then placing him in it, head downward, 
pour it full of liquid lime. Death in this manner is almost instan- 
taneous. The feet are allowed to project, where they remain as a 
terror to evil-doers, until they drop off from decay. 

Another punishment, inflicted for minor offenses, is beating the 
bottom of the feet with sticks. This is done so mercilessly in some 
instances as to beat off the toes, and leave the offender a cripple 
for months. 

The only European at Linjah was the agent of the British 
India Steamship Company, whom we took on board, a wretched 
sufferer from rheumatic fever. From Linjah we went to Bahrein in 
Arabia, where we arrived at 1 P. m on the 33d. The town is on an 
island, and is celebrated for its pearl-fisheries. We endeavored to 
buy a few pearls, but found that during the fishing-season experts 
from the jewelers at Bombay had purchased the valuable ones, and 
sent them to India and Europe. 

We left Bahrein on the morning of the 24th, and, sailing almost 
due north, reached Bushire at 10 A. ir. on the 25th. Captain Camp- 
bell, commander of the British gunboat, came on board to call 
on us, and sent us ashore in his boat. We thence proceeded on 
horseback to the British residency, where we were delightfully 
received and entertained by Colonel and Mrs. Ross. This brave 
little woman has followed her husband to all his stations on the 
Persian Gulf, and wherever he has been has made him a home that 
has been admired by all who have had the good fortune to visit 
them. 

The city lies on a flat peninsula of sand, and from the sea pre- 
sents an imposing appearance ; but a nearer approach, like that of 
Muscat, dispels the illusion, for it is built of rubble-stone and mud, 
with streets so narrow as to be easily roofed over, thus excluding 
the sun. We remained at Bushire Saturday and Sunday, complet- 
ing our outfit for the long journey of more than a thousand miles 
on horseback. All superfluous baggage had to be sent off to Naples. 



LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 421 

My kit, when made up, consisted of an undress uniform, a dark 
winter suit, half a dozen collars, half a dozen handkerchiefs, one 
change of under-clothing, half a dozen stockings, and a folding 
dressing-case. These articles are wrapped in several parcels, and 
are carried in saddle-bags made of Persian carpet, which are slung 
over the horse's back in rear of the saddle. The bedding consists 
of one comforter, a pillow, and a tick, which is filled with chopped 
straw at each station. 

Our riding-suit is made of dust-colored corduroy. The coat is 
a short plaited frock, full of pockets ; trousers cut tight like riding- 
breeches; leggings to the knee, and shoes, are made of brown 
leather. This suit, which we all wear, has been admired as the 
best traveling-dress that has been seen in Persia. All of the above 
outfit, after leaving Shiraz, is to be carried on the horses we ride. 

For the trip to Shiraz we took three horses and six mules. The 
Persian saddle which we rejected, having English saddles of our 
own, covers the horse from his shoulders to his hips ; the skirts 
are four inches thick, and the hideous, unsightly thing weighs not 
less than sixty pounds. To carry these three saddles, used as pack- 
saddles, required an extra mule. Our entire train consisted of 
three horses and six mules. The route at times not having been 
free from robbers, we each carried a carbine and revolver. 

All of our arrangements having been completed, we took leave 
of Colonel and Mrs. Ross, and at 11.30 A. m on the 28th of February 
commenced our march. Several gentlemen escorted us a short dis- 
tance out of the city, and Dr. Andreas, of the German scientific 
expedition, at our invitation, accompanied us to our first halting- 
place. 

The road from Bushire, for about fifteen miles, is through 
sand, overflowed by the sea at high tide. The next few miles the 
land is flat, with here and there a patch of barley. With this 
exception, the only vegetation is a low sage-bush, which half covers 
the soil, and gives the ground a gray, mottled appearance. The 
date-palm appears here and there, wherever water is found. It 
being' quite hot, the air rose tremblingly from the plain, giving rise 
to mirage, not so dazzling as to people the waste with villages and 
groves ; yet, apparently, we saw lakes where no water existed, while 
the black tops of the date-palms seemed to stand trunkless, sus- 
pended above the horizon. 



422 LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 

The first night we spent at Ahmadi in a handsome caravansary. 
These structures take the place of hotels throughout Asia, and in 
Persia are built by rich extortioners, who thus hope to smooth their 
way heavenward. They are built in the form of a square, usually 
one story high, and are entered through a pointed arched gateway. 
In the centre of the court is a raised platform, about three feet high, 
upon which saddles and packs are deposited. Facing the court on 
all four sides are a number of arched recesses, with an aperture 
at the back of each leading into a dark room. These rooms, to 
which the arched recesses serve as parlors, are the only accom- 
modation the traveler can hope for. In the centre of each is a 
hole in the floor, about the size and depth of a hat. This serves 
for a fireplace, and, as there is no chimney, the smoke rises to the 
blackened ceiling, and thence descends to plague the eyes and noses 
of the occupants. If no felt has been provided by the traveler to 
cover the aperture for the door, he must sleep in communication 
with the open air, no matter how cold. 

In the angles stabling is provided for the animals. The best 
caravansaries usually have a room over the arched gateway, and 
also above the centres of the other sides. Even with this advan- 
tage there is no approach to luxury ; yet the Persian who, doubt- 
less, has never seen anything better, looks upon them as the per- 
fection of rest for the traveler. 

We were most fortunate in securing a servant who speaks a 
little English. He had just made the trip from Teheran with Mr. 
and Mrs. Arnold, of London, whom we met at Bunder Abbas. 
Without him we would have been in a sorry plight, as not another 
servant was to be found in BusHre. His mess-kit is so small as to 
be earned m a pair of saddle-bags, and yet, with the small fire be- 
fore described, he manages in a few minutes to gives us an ome- 
lette, or a stew, to which no reasonable man can object. The night 
of the 39th we stopped at D41iki, near the foot of the mountains. 
A short distance from the village we passed several sulphur and 
naphtha springs. 

March 1st.— We clambered up the mountain-paths to the plain 
Konartakteh, eighteen hundred feet above the sea, thence still 
higher to the plain of Kamaraj, twenty-nine hundred feet above 
the sea. The mountains consisted simply of the upturned edges 
of stratified rock, the inclination of the strata being 45°, while the 



LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 423 

broken faces were frequently almost vertical. Near the summit of 
the pass, or hotal, leading to Kamaraj, we saw vast quantities of 
gypsum. The mountains were all treeless, but small patches of 
grass were here and there visible. 

March 3cf. — We left Kamaraj at 6 a. m., and spent the night 
at Kazeroon. When about three miles from the city we were met 
by the governor and a large body of horsemen, who escorted us to 
the governor's house. As we approached his gate a man struck off 
the head of a lamb, and, holding it up, exclaimed, " Welcome in 
the name of the Prophet ! " 

On oiu: way in we were entertained with feats of horsemanship. 
Two men caracoled backward and forward across the road, leaping 
ditches and hedges, and firing their guns and pistols at each other. 
All this time the calaon, or pipe, about two and a half feet high, 
was kept circulating. Being in a complimentary frame of mind, I 
admired the governor's horse. He immediately gave him to me, 
and insisted on my taking him, but that was impossible, which, 
I half suspected, he knew before making the generous offer. On 
entering his house breakfast was served in a room overlooking the 
court. It consisted first of sweetmeats, which were delicious ; then 
melons and fruits ; and, lastly, chickens, game, and meats. The 
cooking was good, and far superior to that of China and Japan. 

At the breakfast there was present Sayed Mahomet, a descend- 
ant of the Prophet. Like the descendants of Confucius, those of 
the Prophet are highly honored, and are insured a comfortable liv- 
ing. The one before us must have stood six feet four in his stock- 
ings. When sitting his beard reached to his girdle. On his head 
he wore a green turban, the sign of his lineage. With a high iore- 
head, arched eyebrows, aquiline nose, and flowing beard, he lacked 
only the frost of age to make him the perfect type of the patriarch. 

When breakfast was finished, the governor escorted us to a 
house in a large orange-grove, where we were allowed to refresh 
ourselves, after which tea was served in the garden. Toward even- 
ing we returned to the governor's house, where we dined. After 
dinner, which did not differ much from the breakfast, we went back 
to our quarters in the grove, and at daylight were off for Shiraz. 

Two steep Jcotals brought us to the plain of Dashtiarjan, nearly 
six thousand six hundred feet above the sea. The night we spent at 
the telegraph-ofi5ce. As I have already written you, the Anglo-In- 



424 LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 

dian telegraph runs along the entire route from Bushire to Teheran, 
It is splendidly constructed, with cast-iron poles. Every forty or fifty 
miles there is a telegraph-office, and an operator who speaks Eng- 
lish. At these offices we were kindly received and hospitably en- 
tertained. All along our line of march we had only to look at the 
telegraph-line, to remind us of the civilization to which we were 
hastening. In mountain-passes, where the poles were perched ou 
dizzy heights, and the wires spanned gracefully the intervening 
chasms; or on the plains, where for miles the poles could be seen 
growing shorter and shorter, till lost in a point of the horizon, we 
felt that we were not alone, and that our mute companion, though 
silent to us, was transmitting messages to hundreds of people in 
Europe, Asia, and even distant America. 

"We left Dashtiarjan at 6.55 a. m. on the 4th, and arrived at Shiraz 
at 6 P. M. Mr. Walker, the superintendent of the telegraph, came 
out to meet us, and made us very comfortable at his house. The 
pleasure of our visit was increased on account of his having a 
brother. Captain Fergus Walker, in the First Infantry. 

Shiraz lies in a valley about forty miles long and twelve broad. 
Around the city the soil is well cultivated, but nearly nine-tenths 
of the land is suffered to lie idle. We called on the governor, who 
is a brother-in-law of the Shah, and had a particularly pleasant 
interview, as he spoke French fluently, enabling us to dispense 
with an interpreter. 

The only objects of curiosity at Shiraz are the tombs of the 
great poets Saadi and Hafiz. We were also shown a stream, about 
two feet wide, which the former has made immortal. These three 
objects, and a walk through the bazaar, constituted all of our sight- 
seeing at Shiraz. 

Teheeas-, March 19, 1876. 

We left Shiraz on Monday the 6th at 3 p. m., on chapar-horses 
for Ispahan, and passed the night in a chapar-khanah at Zirgan. 
Mr. Walker and several friends accompanied us a few mUes on our 
road, and then left us to our new experience in Persian travel. 
There are no railroads, as you well know, in Persia ; nor have vpe 
seen a wheeled vehicle of any description from Bushire to Teheran. 
As a substitute, there, are lines of post-horses established on all the 
main routes centring at the capital. 



LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 425 

The distance between stations is from sixteen to twenty-eight 
miles. At each station there are from three to five chapar-horses, 
and such horses as are only to be met in Persia. Foundered, ring- 
boned, and spavined, they often start off on three legs ; but, on 
warming to their work, they gradually get the use of the fourth, 
and then, breaking into an ambling gait, canter almost without a 
stop from one station to another. It hardly does to speak of their 
backs. The hard, inflexible Persian saddle, which looks like the 
roof of a small house, has made them so sore that it is far pref- 
erable to ride them in winter than summer. To the above defects 
must be added another which involves some peril to the rider, 
and that is, that _ they are knee-sprung and frequently stumble. 
Each one of us got a fall — horse and rider tumbling into a heap — 
yet we all escaped without a bruise or a scratch. 

The stations are called chapar-khanahs, and are built exclusively 
of mud. In form they are like the caravansaries, with the excep- 
tion that they have small, round towers at the angles, and that there 
is a single room over the arched gateway for the accommodation of 
travelers. 

As you enter this room, through an aperture for a door, which 
has to be stopped with a felt or a blanket, the view of its mud floor, 
mud walls, and mud ceiling, is nowise cheering or encouraging. 
Presently the servant appears with a light, spreads your bedding, 
and then brings in a soup, and some kind of a stew, which he calls 
your dinner. After you have eaten it — sitting cross-legged like 
a Turk — the only resource left is sleep. 

Our cook was remarkable for the variety of uses to which he 
could apply the few articles composing our kit, a quality we had 
overlooked until one day we discovered that the soup had been 
served in our wash-basins ! Fortunately our appetites had been ap- 
peased, but from that time we requested him to exert his ingenuity 
in other directions. 

From Zirgan we went to the ruins of Persepolis, the ancient 
capital of the empire. The city was situated at the junction of 
five fertUe valleys, and was surrounded with snow-capped mountains. 

The ruins consist of the lower stories of the palaces of Darius 
and Xerxes, the Hall of Xerxes, and the propylsea of Xerxes. They 
stand on three terraces of different elevations, the walls support- 
ing the terraces being about fifty feet high. The outside walls. 



426 LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 

which face the plain, are composed of large blocks of limestone, 
which required no little engineering skill to place one above the 
other. From the top of the walls the terraces extend back three 
or four hundred yards to the mountains, which rise precipitously in 
the rear. A broad, double staircase, up which our horses clambered, 
leads from the plain to the terraces. On the inner walls of the 
staircases, processions of men and beasts are sculptured in bass- 
relief ; also in the gateway and on the sides of the doors of the pal- 
aces combats between men and beasts are represented in the same 
manner. 

In the propylffla of Xerxes, beneath one of the huge winged 
lions, carved in large letters, was the name " Stanley — New York 
Herald." The names of British embassadors, and many other 
visitors, are also written or carved conspicuously on the colimms 
of the different edifices. The grandest building must have been 
the Hall of Xerxes, which consisted of a massive roof supported 
by seventy-two columns, each seventy feet high and six feet in 
diameter. 

Alexander visited Persepolis, and it is supposed burned its pal- 
aces. Behind the ruins, excavated in solid rock, are several tombs. 
The tomb of Darius is said to be at Nakh-i-Rustam. It consists 
of a Greek cross, sculptured in the face of a vertical cliff about two 
hundred feet high. In the centre of the cross a door leads into 
a gallery excavated parallel to the horizontal arm. From the inner 
face of the gallery, if like the one we entered at Persepolis, three 
arched recesses are excavated, each of which contains two graves 
sunk beneath the floor. Above the door, on the horizontal arm, 
there are two tiers of human figures in bass-relief. At the top of 
the vertical arm there is a figure of the sun, and below it an altar 
of fire. Standing in front of the altar, a bow in his hand, the king 
adores the source of light and heat. To-day in Teheran the fire- 
worshipers render the sun the same homage as in the days of 
Cyrus. Neither Christianity, nor astronomy, nor the persecuting 
power of Mohammedanism, has sufficed to turn them from their 
ignorant worship. They move among the Persians probably the 
only true descendants of the people who lived twenty-four cen- 
turies ago when the empire was at the zenith of its power. 

Leaving Persepolis and Nakh-i-Rustam we passed on to Saidan, 
where we spent the night. 



LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 427 

Wednesday, %th. — ^We proceeded to Dehbid. On our way we 
passed the tomb of Cyrus. It stands in a large plain about six 
thousand feet above the sea, surrounded by low mountains. The 
tomb, which looks like a small, one-story rectangular house, with 
massive roof and eaves, rests on a pyramidal pedestal, the steps of 
which are composed of blocks of marble nine feet long and three 
feet high. Around the base of the pyramid are fragments of col- 
umns which probably supported a stone roof above the tomb. Not- 
withstanding this edifice has disappeared, the elements for centuries 
have beaten in vain against the mausoleum of the great king. His 
sarcophagus is gone, his ashes are scattered to the winds, but his 
sepulchre stiU stands, almost the only monument of the greatness 
of his reign. 

Near by is a solitary column about fifty feet high, and a high 
wall, the end of a hall, the only remains of the city of Passargar- 
dae. Among the many visitors to the tomb of Cyrus was Alexan- 
der. Unlike visitors at Persepolis, he did not inscribe his name 
thereon, but wrote it in blood from the gulf of Issus to the valley 
of the Indus. 

Leaving Dehbid at 6 A. m., we spent the night of the 9th at 
Abadeh, the night of the 10th at Kumesheh, and arrived at Ispa- 
han at 3.30 P. M. on the 11th, where we were the guests of Mr. 
Bruce, an English missionary. This brave man has had a hard 
time among the Armenians and Mussulmans. Four times he has 
been shot at, but still continues to work in the hope of suc- 
cess. 

Ispahan lies in a large plain, with mountains rising in every di- 
rection. The soil is cultivated exclusively by irrigation, not only 
by artificial streams brought along the surface of the ground, but 
by subterranean streams brought from the mountains miles away. 

To dig one of these streams, they sink a well near the base of 
the mountains till they find a spring of living water large enough 
to supply a stream three or four feet wide and a foot in depth. The 
first well is sometimes as many as three hundred feet deep. Having 
found water, they sink other wells, about every hundred feet, along 
the line of the proposed stream, the bottoms of which are on the 
same level as the first. A channel is then dug from the bottom of 
one well to another until, as the wells gradually decrease m depth, 
the water is brought to the surface miles from the source. On leav- 



4:28 LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 

ing Ispahan we followed one of these connauts, as they are called, 
for forty miles; 

As soon as the water is brought to the surface it is conducted 
in ditches to the small fields, varying in size from one hundred to 
one thousand or two thousand square feet. For the purpose of 
being flooded, the fields are separated from each other by a raised 
furrow about a foot high. It is only after seeing the immense 
labor the poor people of Persia have to perform before receiving a 
grain from the soil, that one can appreciate the blessing of living 
in a country of rains and fruitful seasons. 

At Ispahan we called upon the governor, who, although the eldest 
son of the Shah, is not the heir to the throne, as he was not born of 
a princess. The heir is Governor of Tabriz, but is now in Teheran, 
where he has come to pay his respects to the Shah, on the open- 
ing of the New Year. 

From Ispahan we came through to Teheran in four days, stop- 
ping the first night (13th) at Soh. The 14th we crossed the pass 
of Kohrud, eight thousand eight hundred feet above the sea. Not- 
withstanding the elevation and snow, we suffered more from the 
heat, and reflection of the sun, than on any day since leaving Bu- 
shire. The night of the lith we spent at Kashan. The night of 
the 15th at Pul-i-dilak ; and on the 16th, at 5.30, arrived at the Brit- 
ish legation in Teheran. 

The last two days from Ispahan we rode one hundred and sixty 
miles ; on the other days we averaged from fifty to seventy. 

The country from Bushire to Teheran is the most arid I have 
ever seen, and the poverty of the people passes description. Dur- 
ing the famine of 1871-'73 one-fifth of the population — more than 
a million souls, perished from starvation. In some villages and 
districts every man and beast perished. The people were so hun- 
gry that, when dogs were shot in the streets, they tore them to 
pieces and devoured their flesh raw. Even in Teheran the dead 
were allowed to decay in the streets. In some places children fell 
victims to the hunger of their parents. 

On our way to Shiraz I visited a village. It consisted of a low 
stone shed, inclosing a court about one hundred feet square. In 
the centre of the court was a huge pile of manure, and several stag- 
nant pools of discolored water. The rooms which faced the court 
were not more than ten feet square, and were without beds, win- 



LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 429 

dows, or floors. The people sleep on felts and skins, spread on the 
ground, and, to make up as much as possible for the want of fire, 
they bring their sheep and calves into their rooms to avail them- 
selves of their animal heat. In the stalls I have described, which we 
would not use for the meanest of domestic animals, were crowded 
together one hundred and fifty men, women, and children, the pict- 
ure of misery, filth, and despair. 

This village was but one of many we passed along our route. 
We saw several which had been completely depopulated by the 
famine. Ruin everywhere prevailed. Even a large portion of Ispa- 
han, which two hundred years ago was a city of several hundred 
thousand people, was a heap of rubbish and deserted walls. Most 
of the houses, including the roofs, are built of mud mixed with 
straw. 

In cities like Shiraz and Ispahan the bazaars are built of brick, 
the streets being completely arched over, so that when one ap- 
proaches the city he enters a tunnel, and emerges at a point sev- 
eral hundred yards away. On each side of the street, within the 
arcade, every article of merchandise is exposed to the best advan- 
tage. The salesmen sit cross-legged awaiting customers. If so 
fortunate as to be driving a bargain, a fierce discussion at once 
ensues, in which everybody is free to participate. Between the 
booths, an incessant crowd of people, horses, mules, camels, and 
donkeys, move up and down, but never in a hurry. The measured 
sound of bells, swinging slowly from one side to the other beneath 
the necks of camels, tells of the arrival of caravans from distant 
parts of the empire. 

No heavy stages or express-wagons are seen lumbering through 
the streets. As you crowd your way along, with perhaps the Mo- 
hammedans cursing you, and the camels gazing at you with their 
meaningless brown eyes, you feel that you are in a strange land in 
the far East. 

In the days of Ahasuerus, Haman asked for the extermination 
of the Jews, and the king granted his request. Queen Esther, at 
the peril of her life, begged for her people ; and, when Haman 
had met his fate, the king sent orders to the Jews to defend them- 
selves. He could not revoke his first law, but the second gave 
courage to the Jews, and when assailed they slew five hundred peo- 
ple within the palace. To-day, the Shah could sport in the same 



430 LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 

manner with the lives of his people. Here, as in China, monarchy 
and absolutism culminate, and corruption is the order of the day. 
Even the Shah takes bribes, and when he wishes to extort money he 
announces a visit to some distant province, in order that the gov- 
ernors and officials may buy him off, rather than incur the expense 
of entertaining him. When he travels, his soldiers, like a swarm 
of locusts, devour the sustenance of the people. 

Governorships are bought and sold ; and, when the revenue is 
not forthcoming, the people are squeezed till they yield the last 
farthing. 

Teheean, March 25, 1876. 

It was our intention, when we arrived on the 16th, to leave on 
the 30th. Mr. Thompson, who desired that we might have the 
pleasure of meeting the society of Teheran, has given two dinners, 
to which were invited many of the Europeans in the city. Nearly 
every European in Teheran holds some official position, either at 
one of the legations, or in connection with the Anglo-Indian tele- 
graph, which belongs to the Government. At the first dinner were 
present the charg'es d'affaires of Russia and France, and some of the 
instructors of the Shah's army. At the second dinner the Austrian 
and Turkish ministers were present, and we also had the pleasure 
of meeting Mr. and Mrs. Bassett, and Mr. Potter, of the American 
mission, who are highly esteemed by all of the European residents. 

The 21st of March is the New-Year's-day of the Persians, and, 
like the custom in Europe and America, the Shah celebrates the 
occasion by giving a public reception. Being under the protection 
of the English minister, we were invited to accompany the diplo- 
matic corps. 

At twelve o'clock the various legations assembled in an upper 
room of the palace, where they were received by the prime-minis- 
ter, who wore a scarlet uniform, heavily embroidered with gold. 
The uniforms of the various members of the legations were scarcely 
less brilliant, their breasts being covered with sparkling crosses and 
decorations, arranged in double and triple rows. In this room tea 
and coffee were served, and the tall calaon, or Persian pipe, made 
several revolutions, as many as desired smoking it one after the 
other. 

By an article in all of the treaties, at every interview with the 
Shah, the foreign representatives have to wear galoches, or over- 



LETTERS FEOM PERSIA. 431 

shoes, which are removed just before entering his presence. It is 
a partial concession to Persian custom, which requires everybody 
to remove his shoes before stepping on a carpet. 

The Shah having signified his readiness to receive the diplo- 
matic corps, galoches were resumed, when, descending from the 
room before described, the procession moved through two courts 
into a large garden, overlooked by the haU of audience. If the 
Shah had presented himself at the window, he would have been 
saluted, but, as he did not show himself, galoches were removed, 
and everybody began to ascend the high steps of the Persian 
stairs. At the top was a door immediately leading into the Shah's 
presence. On entering it, all saluted ; advanced half-way, saluted 
again ; and, finally, a third time on arriving near his majesty's per- 
son. The ministers then arranged themselves in first line. 

Count Dubsky, the Austrian minister, who is the dean of the 
corps, made a short address in French, in the translation of which 
his Oriental secretary completely broke down. The Shah reheved 
the awkwardness by immediately entering into conversation with 
the ministers, asking them how they were, if their sovereigns were 
well, and several other commonplace questions. 

During this exchange of civilities I had ample opportunity to 
examine the Shah's dress. He wore a dark, almost black coat and 
trousers, and black cap. On his coat were six horizontal and two 
vertical rows of diamonds, each row containing not less than nine 
or ten solitaires as large as the ball of one's thumb. There were 
also two vertical rows of rubies, each ruby being not less than 
an inch and a haK long. His epaulets, including the pendent part, 
ordinarily made of gold bullion, and the scabbard of his sword, 
were completely studded with diamonds, and presented a mass of 
white light. Over his shoulders he wore a blue sash, on which, 
near the centre of his breast, a star of diamonds, three inches in 
diameter, sparkled like an immense cluster. A spray of diamonds 
on his plain black cap completed his apparel. Behind him was the 
seat of the celebrated Peacock Throne of Delhi, which was cap- 
tured by Nadir Shah, and sent to Teheran, about one hundred and 
fifty years ago. It was thickly studded with precious stones, but 
was at such a distance that I could not distinguish them. 

From the survey of so much magnificence my attention was 
attracted by the voice of Mr. Thompson, who, addressing his 



432 LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 

majesty in Persian, said he had the honor to present three Amer- 
ican officers, and then introduced us severally by name. The Shah, 
who held a pair of gold spectacles in his hand, leveled them upon 
us. He asked us when we arrived ; if the soldiers of Japan wore 
the European uniform ; if China had an army ; and if General 
Grant were our President. His conversation, which the diplo- 
matic corps regarded as very gracious, did not long interrupt my 
survey of the surroundings. 

The room was Eurasian in appearance. The floor was inlaid, 
and European paintings decorated the walls and columns. The 
ceiling was highly painted, after the manner so common in Asia. 

When the Shah signified that the audience was at an end, every 
one saluted, and then, with more or less dexterity, retreated back- 
ward, stopping and saluting twice as at the beginning. 

We had deferred our departure from Teheran one day in order 
to witness this ceremony ; and, well out of the Shah's presence, 
were happy in the thought that the morrow would see us on our 
way to Constantinople. But, as we were about to descend the 
stairs, the prime-minister came to me, and, addressing me in French, 
told me that his majesty desired us to stay and witness the manoeu- 
vres that would take place the following week. As it would have 
been a breach of etiquette not to comply, I promptly accepted the 
invitation ; and so, contrary to our wishes, we found ourselves de- 
tained for another week. But we cannot complain. Everybody 
in Teheran has contributed to the pleasure of our visit, and spared 
no pains to give us agreeable entertainments. 

After the reception was over for the diplomatic corps, we were 
conducted to a room where we could see the grand salam, or pub- 
lic reception. As the Shah took his seat on a throne facing a large 
court, the bands struck up, and the guns thundered a salute. The 
oldest prince then read an address, to which the Shah replied, and 
then followed a poem. Afterward there was a distribution of 
money to the people, who crowded the court — a silver piece of the 
value of a penny being given to each person as a souvenir of the 
occasion. The Shah, having smoked the calaon, came down from 
the throne, walked off in state, and disappeared amid the clangor 
of trumpets, and the strains of martial music. The salam being 
over, we returned to the legation. 

On the 33d of March, M. de Belloy, the French charg'e, di'af- 



LETTEES FROM PERSIA. 433 

f aires, gave a breakfast in one of the Shah's gardens near Reh, after 
which we had some coursing. We caught only four of the seven 
hares that were started. Mounted on a good horse, I enjoyed the 
chase, but my sympathies were always with the hare, and I secretly 
rejoiced whenever he escaped. 

On the 23d, while we were at dirmer, Mr. Thompson received 
notice, through an aide-de-camp, that the Shah desired to give us 
a private audience the next day at twelve o'clock. We according- 
ly went, and found his majesty promenading in the large garden 
in front of the haU of audience. Dr. Tholozan, his French physi- 
cian, accompanied us as interpreter. 

Having made the usual salutations, the Shah began an ejacula- 
tory and inquisitive conversation, lasting at least an hour. He 
asked us where we were from ; the population of New York and 
Washington; when our presidential election would take place ; the 
extent of our railroads ; the size of our army ; and the time it took 
us to go to Japan. All this, however, was preliminary to the real 
object of the interview, which was to acquire information about 
American fire-arms. In regard to them he showed great interest, 
and well he might ; for, when in Europe, more than forty thou- 
sand breech-loaders were palmed off on him which were perfectly 
worthless. 

He brought out a Henry-Martini, and showed us its action. 
We regretted not having our arms with us, but I told him we had 
a revolver at the legation, and that I would be happy to present it 
to him, which he accepted. During the conversation he strolled 
through the garden, charging us with a great number of commis- 
sions — among them, the expression of his regrets that our Govern- 
ment was not in diplomatic relations with him ; to write Roach & 
Co., of Chester, Pennsylvania, asking the cost of a vessel that 
would serve for peace and for war ; also to write the Colts, of 
Hartford, Smith & Wesson, of Springfield, and the Remingtons, to 
ascertain their prices for Gatling guns, revolvers, and carbines. 

All this may amount to nothing, but I have been told that the 
revolver, which has been tried in the presence of the Shah, pleased 
him so highly that he has resolved to order several thousand for his 
officers and non-commissioned officers. The interview was very 
pleasant. The Shah laid aside all reserve, and laughed and chatted 
freely. He wore a plain, dark uniform, with no other omamenta- 

28 



434: LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 

tion than a sword and sword-belt, covered with diamonds. The 
contrast between the public and private reception was so marked 
that we all returned charmed with our visit. 

TiFLis, April 15, 18Y6. 

On the 28th of March we attended the manoeuvres and reviews 
of the garrison at Teheran. The troops were formed on the race- 
course, about two mUes west of the city, the infantry in front, the 
:artillery distributed along the line, and the irregular cavalry in the 
rear. As we had delayed our departure a week to witness the 
review, a,nd had been specially invited by the Shah, we were told 
that no pains would be spared to impress us with the efficiency and 
appearance of the Persian army. 

The Persian troops owe all of their knowledge of the military 
art to the presence of five or six European instructors. The senior 
of these. General Andrini, an Italian, presided at the manoeuvres. 
The infantry was formed in four ranks, of which the first and sec- 
ond fired kneeling, the third and fourth standing. 

The principal manoeuvre consisted in advancing a line of 
skirmishers, supported by a line of battle in double rank, behind 
which, at intervals of forty or fifty yards, were posted a number of 
companies, also formed in double rank. When the fire became too 
severe for the skirmishers, they fell back to the line of battle, which 
fired kneeling ; the companies in rear advanced to the line, and, 
pouring their fire over the heads of the men in front, gave the 
finishing stroke to an already staggering enemy. On the left, the 
irregular cavalry, which knew nothing of line or column, charged in 
swarms, firing at full speed, and raising a great cloud of dust. 

We witnessed the review from the grand stand, where, previous 
to his arrival, the Shah kept everybody waiting for two or three 
hours. Several of the ladies of the harem, closely veiled, and 
attended by eunuchs, were present to witness the display. After 
the Shah had ridden along the lines, he came up in front, and 
asked if the American ofiicers were present, and, being assured 
that they were, the troops began to march past. 

The irregular cavalry marched in squads of five and six, and, 
when in front of the Shah, nodded, as a salute. After passing the 
stand, the troops broke ranks, and straggled back to the city, min- 
gling with the throngs that were returning from the sight. 



LETTERS FROM PERSIA. 435 

At the conclusion of the review, we took leave of the Shah, 
whose ruling thought was the fire-arms, of which he spoke at the 
private audience. He asked if we had written to the parties, and, 
when we told him we had, he seemed much pleased. 

On the 29th we took leave of Mr. Thompson, and the good peo- 
ple at the legation, and, accompanied for some miles by several 
gentlemen of the city, we started for Tabriz, distant three hundred 
and fifty miles, which we rode in five days. The first half of the 
distance the horses were the worst we had had in Persia. But, 
being forced to ride them, we had this consolation — that, with the 
English saddle, the poor beasts suffered less than they had for 
weeks with the Persian engines of torture. The last half of the 
distance the horses were excellent, and we made the stages with 
comfort. In crossing the Kaflan Pass, about eighty miles from 
Tabriz, we saw, for the first time, crops raised by the rains instead 
of irrigation. 

Tabriz is in a fertile valley, and contains about one hundred 
thousand inhabitants. It is like all other Persian cities — built of 
mud and brick, without a single edifice to attract attention. We 
stopped with Mr. Baston, an American missionary, who came on 
with us to Tiflis. The mission consists of himself and wife, and a 
Miss Jewett, but he has come on to Tiflis to meet other friends, 
who are on their way to join them. "We staid at Tabriz but one 
day ; called on the governor, and were invited to breakfast and 
shown great kindness by the French consul. 

On the 5th, at 5.30 p. m., we started for Tiflis, and on the 6th, 
at about the same hour, arrived at Julfa, the frontier of Persia. 
Our last day's ride was eighty miles, or a distance greater than from 
Syracuse to Rochester, while the average during our eleven hun- 
dred miles ride was between fifty and sixty per day. 

Our food consisted principally of boiled eggs, tea, milk, honey, 
boiled chicken, and Persian bread. The latter is unleavened, and 
is baked in the shape of long, thin slabs. The Persians do not 
know the use of the knife and fork, and instead eat with the thumb 
and first two fingers. 

At Julfa we crossed the Araxes, the boundary between Persia 
and Russia. On the one side stood the cheerless chapar-khanah, 
with its mud walls and floors; on the other stood the Russian 
post-station, the first modern stone building we had seen since 



436 LETTEES FEOM PERSIA. 

leaving Bombay. We had enjoyed our ride through Persia, we 
had seen its misery and decay, and were glad enough to be once 
more under the protection of a progressive nation. 

At Julfa a four-seated, covered carriage awaited us, which had 
been sent from Tiflis. Bidding adieu to chapar-horses, we en- 
tered our carriage, and on the morning of the 7th continued our 
way to Tiflis. 

The first village of interest on our route was Nakh-i-chewan, 
where, according to tradition, Noah descended from Ararat. Tra- 
dition likewise points to his tomb. It is situated in an Armenian 
cemetery, is built of brick, and octagonal in shape. A flight of 
stairs leads down to a vault, supported by a pillar in the centre, at 
the base of which there is a small fireplace. Here Armenians come 
on picnics, cook their food, and, after the feast, as a matter of de- 
votion, break their plates, and destroy everything that remains. 

All the next day we traveled in the direction of Mount Ararat, 
and toward evening crossed the Araxes, and spent the night at a 
Cossack post near its base. This station looked as lonely and forlorn 
as a post in Arizona. On presenting ourselves, we at once expe- 
rienced all of the inconveniences of being among a people with whom 
we could not speak, or communicate. I tried French in vain. We 
were first taken to the adjutant, who was seated at a table in the 
open air, drinking a cup of tea. This sphinx-like individual, although 
told by our conductor that we were American officers, kept his seat, 
gave us no salutation, and, when he found we could not communi- 
cate with him in his native tongue, sent us on to the doctor, but 
with no better success. Sanger now came to the front, and, by a 
happy accident, discovered that the armorer was a German, whom he 
made to understand that we wished to stay all night, and the next 
morning make a partial ascent of the mountain. This sub-officer 
at once conducted us to the 'sutler's store, where, as at all posts, 
we found a crowd of soldiers, some of whom were playing billiards. 
They immediately laid down their cues, and retired, when, being 
sorry to interrupt their amusement, we spread our comforters and 
pillows, and installed ourselves in the billiard-room for the night. 

The next morning we mounted Cossack horses, and began the 
ascent ; but the rain almost immediately obscured the greater part 
of the mountain, so, on approaching within a few hundred feet 
of the snow-line, we relinquished the attempt. Ararat, like Vesu- 



LETTEK FROM THE CAUCASUS. 437 

vius and Fusi Yama, is a volcanic mountain, rising like a graceful 
cone from the midst of a large plain. Its height is seventeen 
thousand feet. On its southeastern slope stands Little Ararat, 
also a perfect cone, eleven thousand feet high. A graceful curve 
connects the bases of the cones, which were wrapped in their snowy 
mantle. Little Ararat frequently stood out in all its beauty ; but 
far above its head Great Ararat veiled itself in the mystery of the 
clouds. Only once, by moonlight, did we see the summit. For 
a hundred mUes we skirted its base, hoping the sun would dis- 
pel the storms that enveloped its form, but in vain. On looking 
back from the last point whence it was visible, we coidd only see 
black, surging clouds. 

Descending the slope in the rain, we returned to the Cossack 
post, and, recrossing the Araxes, arrived at Erivan on the evening 
of the 9th. The next day we began to climb the mountains, 
passed a picturesque lake five thousand feet above the sea, traveled 
all night, and arrived at Tiflis at 5.30 p. m. on the 11th, exactly 
two months from Bombay. 

Tiflis contains about one hundred and twenty thousand inhabit- 
ants, and lies in a fertile valley, the* waters of which flow into the 
Caspian. It is the capital of the Caucasus, of which the Grand-duke 
Michael is governor. It was here that General Sherman terminated 
his travels to the eastward, which suggested the tour we have just 
completed. 

Black Sea, April 30, 1876. 

On Saturday, the 15th of April, while at Tiflis, we were present- 
ed to the grand-duke. He received us very cordially, spoke English 
well, and kindly showed us over his palace. 

After the presentation we visited the military school for oflBcers, 
the model company of infantry, composed of soldiers from every 
regiment in the Caucasus, and also the Military Club. In the even- 
ing we were invited to attend the services at the cathedral, which 
consisted mostly of processions, chants, and incense. In recogni- 
tion of the resurrection, the occasion is made one of joy, and is at- 
tended by all of the officers in full dress. The priests never shave 
or cut their hair, which hangs some distance down the back, giving 
them when old a patriarchal appearance. 

Conspicuous above all of the congregation was the Grand-duke 



438 LETTER FEOM THE OAUOASUS. 

Michael — a tall, handsome man, beside -whom stood his son, seven- 
teen years old, still taller than his father. At the conclusion of the 
services the archbishop held in his arms a cross, which the members 
of the congregation successively kissed. They then kissed the arch- 
bishop three times, twice on the left cheek and once on the right. 
The three kisses were typical of the Trinity. The grand-duke 
was the first to perform this ceremony ; after which he took his 
stand near one of the large pilasters of the church; when, after 
kissing the cross and the archbishop, his generals successively ap- 
proached, kissed him, and were kissed in return. This custom, 
strange as it may seem, is the usual one in Russia. At the railway- 
stations it is common to see men kiss as aiiectionately as husband 
and wife. 

On Easter-Sunday we were invited to a reception and lunch at 
the palace, at which were present most of the dignitaries of church 
and state. 

Easter-Monday we dined at the palace. The dinner was charm- 
ing, due, in a large degree, to the presence of six children who, 
with the exception of an infant, constituted the whole family. 
The grand-duchess, a lovely woman, looked with aifeotion and pride 
upon her family, and especially upon a beautiful daughter of six- 
teen, who will soon grace the courts of Europe. 

Prom Tiflis there are two ways of reaching Constantinople; one 
via Poti and the Black Sea ; the other via Vladi-Kavkas, the Crimea, 
and thence by the Black Sea. As the latter route would permit us 
to pass through the country of the Cossacks, and at the same time 
cross the Caucasus, we chose it, and left Tiflis on the morning of 
the 18th. 

The road from Tiflis to Vladi-Kavkas, in construction and for 
scenery, is one of the grandest in the world. It is macadamized 
throughout ; and, as it zigzags, up the mountains along the edges 
of steep precipices, it gives a succession of magnificent views. It 
crowns the summit at an elevation of eight thousand feet. Here 
we found the snow on each side of the road from fifteen to twenty 
feet deep. The road had been dug out through huge drifts that 
stood up like perpendicular walls on each side. 

The night of the 18th we spent at Kasbeck, at the foot of Mount 
Kasbeck, sixteen thousand feet high. The next morning for a mo- 
ment we saw its lofty peak, which was quickly enveloped by surging 



LETTER FROM THE OAUOASUS. 439 

clouds. The descent was through a pass unequaled in Europe. The 
walls on each side rose almost perpendicularly to a height of two or 
three thousand feet, reminding us of the great chasm of the Yose- 
mite. The road in many places was hewed out of the solid rock, 
and was full of picturesque turns and surprises. 

At the end of the pass we came out of a magnificent gateway, 
and before us lay the great steppes of Russia as smooth and as fer- 
tile as the prairies of Illinois. I had never before fully understood 
the meaning of steppes. I had supposed them to be rather ele- 
vated, desolate tracts, across which the wind howled piteously, and 
where the cold in winter was of arctic fierceness. But here all was 
explained in a moment. 

From Vladi-Kavkas, where we took the railroad, on the 20th, 
to Rostofi", thence to Losovai and Simferopol in the Crimea, a dis- 
tance of six hundred miles, the country was exactly like the plains 
of Illinois, Kansas, and Iowa. Sparsely populated, hundreds and 
thousands of square miles, which have never been cultivated, invite 
the immigrant as in our own great West. It only needs their 
labor to make Southern Russia one of the most fertile and popu- 
lous countries in the world. * 

At Vladi-Kavkas we visited the military school, and also wit- 
nessed feats of horsemanship by the Cossacks. They are certainly 
wonderful riders, far excelling anything we saw in India and Persia. 
A skirmish-line made their horses lie down, fired from behind them, 
and, when the enemy charged, they rose, mounted, and disappeared 
like the wind. They also threw themselves out of their saddles, 
simulated the rescue of wounded comrades, and, hanging by one 
leg over the horse's back, scraped the ground for a hundred yards, 
the horses moving at full speed. 

After the riding, the governor, with whom we dined, invited us 
back to his palace, where the Cossagks entertained us with dancing 
and music. 

After a short stay at Vladi-Kavkas we again took the cars. The 
road, built by government subsidy for military purposes, has already 
developed the country, and villages are springing up along the line, 
, the same as in America. We reached Rostoff on the 31st, at 9 A. m., 
and left at 4 p. m. Mr. Martin, an Englishman who is our consu- 
lar agent, gave us a cordial reception. His warehouses and yards 
were filled with steam-thrashers, ploughs, American horse-rakes, and 



440 LETTER FROM THE CAUCASUS. 

other agricultural implements, showing that the spirit of improve- 
ment has already taken hold of the people. 

The city is at the mouth of the Don, and has grown so rapidly 
as to gain for it the nickname Chicago. With a great fertile coun- 
try at its back, it certainly has a fine future. The Don, where we 
crossed it, was five miles wide. Below the railroad it expands and 
forms the head of the Sea of Azof. 

At one point the Don and the Volga are but a few miles apart. 
A canal across the isthmus would enable Rostoff to become a port 
of the Caspian Sea. 

Leaving Rostoff on the 21st, we arrived at Sevastopol on the 
33d. Here we reached the traveled routes of Europe, and, as the 
rest of our journey will be through countries too well known to 
need description, here must end this series of letters. 



I 1^ D E X. 



PAGE 

Aggkessite power of England 268 

Armies : 

Austria 161 

Cliina 13 

England 250 

France 225 

Germany 191 

India 33 

Italy 98 

Japan 1 

Persia 88 

Russia 146 

Armies (strength of): 

Austria 161-2 

China 19 

England 250 

France 225-6 

Germany 191-2 

India 33-4 

Italy 98 

Japan 8 

Russia 147 

Army territoriale (Finance) 235 

Arms (Persia) 91 

Artillery (strength of) : 

Austria 161-2 

China 16 

England 250 

France 226 



PAGE 

Germany 191-2 

India 3-34 

Italy 98 

Japan 8, 10 

Persia 91 

Russia 147 

United States (proposed). . . 346-50 
Administrative corps (Italy) 100 

Baniiermen (China) 17 

Battalion (organization of) : 

Austria 163 

England 251 

France 228 

Germany 193 

Italy 102 

Japan 9, 10 

United States (proposed peace- 
footing) 338 

United States (proposed war- 
footing) 341 

Battalion formations (German). . . 280^ 
Battalions of instruction (Italy). ... 120 
Barracks : 

India 68 

Japan 11 

Bazaar (India) 59 

British army (India) 65 

Bersaglieri (Italy) 104 



442 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Brigade : 

Austria 166 

England 251 

France 231 

Germany 194: 

Italy 105 

Eussia 150 

Cavalry (strength of) ; 

Austria 161-2 

China 16 

France 226 

England 260 

Germany 191-2 

India 33-4 

Italy 98 

Japan 8,10 

Persia 90 

Eussia 14Y 

United States (proposed) 344-6 

Civil and military authorities (In- 
dia) 61 

Company (organization of): 

Austria 163 

France 228 

Germany 193 

Italy 101 

Japan 10 

Eussia 149 

United States (proposed peace- 
footing) 338 

United States (proposed war- 
footing) 341 

Conclusions 317-70 

Corps : 

Austria 166 

England 262 

France 231 

Germany 195 

Italy 105 

Eussia 160 

Company column : 

French 287-91 

German 271-76 



PAGI! 

Austria 303 

Italy 303 

Eussia 303 

Deployment of a battalion as skir- 
mishers : 

English 306-12 

French 297 

German 276 

Eussian 304-6 

Deployment of company column as 
skirmishers : 

French 293 

German 274 

Deployment by numbers (United 
States) 313 

Detached service (United States). . . 336 

Detail (staff): 

Austria 189 

England 256 

Germany 218-19 

Italy 140 

India 43 

United States (results of). . . 336-7 

Depot : 

Austria 161-6 

England 254 

France 228, 230 

Germany 199-201 

Italy 103 

United States (peace-footing) . . 339 
" " (war-footing) 342 

Discipline : 

Austria 181 

China 21 

Germany 224 

India 61, 77 

Eussia 159 

United States 358 

Distribution of troops (India) 81 

Division : 

Austria 166 

England 252 

France 231 



INDEX. 



443 



PAGE 

Germany 194 

Italy ;.. 106 

Russia 160 

Examinations for : 

Bengal staff corps 38 

Natire languages (India) 41 

Examination for promotion : 

Austria 183-9 

England 267 

United States 354 

"Ersatz" reserve: 

Austria 167 

Germany 199 

Italy 109 

French company column 287-91 

Furlough-list : 

Germany 199 

India 47 

Garrison instruction (India) 40 

General list (India) 36 

General oCBcers (France) 226 

General remarks : 

China 29 

India 75 

Persia 93 

Tactics 313 

German company column 271-8 

GoTemor-generals (China) 26 

Honors (China) 24 

Hospitals : 

India 72 

Japan 11 

Infantry : 

Austria 162 

China 15 

England 260 

France 226-31 

Germany 192 



PAGE 

India (native) 64 

" (British) 65 

Italy 101 

Japan 9 

Persia 88 

Russia 149 

United States 337-43 

Infantry tactics 270 

Invasion of India 84 

Jager battalions, German 286 

Landwehr : 

Austria 168 

Germany 201 

Landsturm (Germany) 203 

Languages (native) ' 41 

Lineal promotion (United States), .353-4 

Military districts (Italy) 106 

Military education (United States) 360-66 
MiUtary professorships (United 

States) 366 

Militia (England) 254 

Militia reserve (England) 264 

Militia mobile (Italy) 112 

Militia territoriale (Italy) 114 

Movable columns (India) 63 

National volunteers ; . . . 367 

Non-commissioned officers : 

Germany 204 

Italy 123 

India (native) 67 

Russia 151 

Officers : 

Army territoriale (France) 237 

India (European) 34 

" (native) 56 

Persia 89 

Reserve (complement) United 

States 343 



4:44 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Officers : 

Reserve (France) 236 

" (Germany) 198 

(Italy) 116 

Landwehr (Germany) 202 

Militia mobile (Italy) 114 

Old cadre-list (India) 31 

Pay: 

India (staff) 45 

" (native regiment) 51 

" (British regiment) 74 

Persia 92 

Personal reports : 

Austria 1S3-1 

England 256 

United States 327 

Promotion : 

Austria 183-9 

England 267 

Germany 223 

India 46 

Italy 142 

Russia 158 

Probation staff (India) 43 

Punishments : 

Austria 181 

China 23 

Germany 224 

India 61 

Russia 159 

United States 358-60 

—^^^ Recruitment : 

•* Austria 166 

i/England 252 

I/' Prance 232 

•^Germany 196 

i^ fc^ u^Italy 108-12 

Regiments (organization of) : 

Austria 164-5 

England 250 

France 228-30 

Germany . . . . ; 194 



PAGE 

( British 65 

I Native 54 

Italy 102 

Japan 9 

Persia 89 

Russia 150 

United States : 

^ ^ ( Peace-footing 339 

^°^^"*^n War.footing 342 

(Peace-footing 345 

^^^^'''H War-footing 345 

Artillery 346 

Recreation (India) 67 

Reserve : 

England 253 

Germany 197 

Reserve (obligations of) : 

Germany 202 

Retirement (India) 46 

Rewards (India) 59 

Schools (men) : 

Austria 169-70 

Germany 203^ 

Italy 117-18 

School of Musketry and Gymnas- 
tics: 

Japan 5 

Schools (non-commissioned offi- 
cers) : 

Austria 170-2 

Germany 204-5 

Italy 119-22 

Japan 5 

Schools (officers) : 

Application (artillery and engi- 
neers, Austria) 177-8 
" (artillery and engi- 
neers, France). . 247 
" (artillery and engi- 
neers, Italy) 134 

" (artillery, United 

States) 363-65 

Cadet Corps (Germany). . . 209-211 



INDEX. 



445 



PAGE 

Central infantry and cavalry 
(Austria) 180-1 

Infantry and cavalry (United 
States) 366 

Military Academy (infantry and 
cavalry, Austria) I'Ji 

Military Academy (artillery and 
engineers, England) 260-3 

Military Academy (artillery and 
engineers, Italy) 133 

Military Academy (infantry, cav- 
alry, artillery, and engineers, 
Japan) 3 

Military Academy (infantry, cav- 
alry, artillery, and engineers, 
United States) 360 

Military Technical Academy 
(artillery and engineers), 
Austria 176 

Military College (preparatory), 
Austria 172 

Military Colleges (preparatory), 
Italy 128 

Military College (infantry and 
cavalry), England 256-60 

Military Schools (infantry and 
cavalry), Italy 131 

Military Schools (infantry and 
cavalry), France 240 

Military Schools (artillery and 
engineers), Eussia 155-6 

Military Schools (infantry and 
cavalry), Russia 151-4 

Military Technical School (pre- 
paratory), Austria 173 

Normal School (infantry), Italy. 134 
" (cavalry), " 136 

Prytanee Militaire (preparatory), 
France 238 

Polytechnic (artillery and engi- 
neers), France 243 

Staff College (England) 263-6 

Staff (application), France 248 

War Academy (staff), Austria . 179 



PAGE 

War Academy (staff), France . . 248 
" " " Germany 

213-18 

" Italy.... 136 

" " " Russia.. 157 

War Schools, Germany 208 

Skirmishing : 

French 292-303 

German 274-80 

English 306-12 

Russian 303-6 

United States 312-15 

Staff: 

Austria 189-90 

England 255 

France 237-8 

Germany 218 

Italy 99 

Japan 8 

United States ; 

Adjutant - General's Depart- 
ment 327-32 

Engineers 335 

Ordnance 335 

Pay Department 334 

Quartermaster's Department. 333 
Subsistence Department.. . . 333 

Signal Corps 334 

Staff Corps : 

Bengal 37 

India 36 

Staff probation (India) 43 

Sundays (India) 68 

Superintendent of Military Educa- 
tion 367 

Supplies : 

China 24 

India 64 

Tactics : 

China 20 

Infantry 270 

Japan 12 

Tenure of staff appointments (India) 43 



446 



INDEX. 



Territorial commands : 

England 254 

France 232 

Germany 196 

Italy 105 

Russia 161 

Transportation : 

China 26 

India 62 

Unemployed list (India) 37 



Variety of service (India) 48 Yeoman cavalry (England) 



Volunteers : 

England 253 

Italy 116 

Volunteers for one year : 

Germany 205 

Italy 116 

United States (national) 367 

War Department : 

China 13 

Japan 6 



254 



THE END« 



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UNITED STATES ARMY TACTICS. 



Headqttahteks of the Armt, i 
Washington, July IT, 1878. j 

General Oedees No, 6.— The following order, received from the War Depai-tment, Is pub- 
Hflhed for the information and guidance of the Army: 

Wae Department, ( 
Washington City, July 17, 1878. J 

The revision of Upton s Infantry Tactics by the author, and the Tactics for Ai-tillery and Cav- 
alry [iucludmg the proceedings of the board — Major-Goneral Schofleld, President — institiited by 
General Orders No. (JO, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, series of 1869], assimi- 
lated to the Tactics for Infantry, pursuant to instructions from the General of the Army, by^— 

Lieutenant-Colonel Emory Upton, 1st Artillery, Instmctor of Tiictics, U. S. Military Academy; 

Captain Henry-A. Du Pont, 5th ArtiUery, commanding Battery " F," 5th Artilleiy; 

Captain John E. Tourtellotte, 7th Cavah-y, Colonel and Aide-de-camp to the General; 

Captain Alfred E. Bates, 2d Cavalry, Assistant Instructor of Cavahy Tactics, U. S. Military 
Academy— 

—having been approved by the President, are adopted for the instruction of the Army and 
Militia of the United States. 

To insm'e uniformity, all exercises, evolutions, and ceremonies not embraced in these Tactics 
are prohibited, and those therein prescribed will be strictly observed. 

WM. "W". BELKNAP, Secretary of "War. 

By coihmand of General Shermah. 

"WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

INFANTRY TACTICS, Double and Single Eant. Adapted to American To- 
pography and Improved Fire-arms. By Brevet Major-General Emokt Upton, V. 8. Army, 
Kevised edition, l vol., bound in leather, with clasp. Price, $2.00. 

CAVALRY TACTICS, United States Army, assimilated to the Tactics of Infantry 

and Artillery. 1 vol., bound in leather, with clasp. Price, $2.00. 
ARTILLERY TACTICS, 

1 vol., bound in leather, with clasp. Price, $2.00. 



A COLLECTION OF TACTICAL STUDIES, 

TEAN8LATED AND PUT TOGETHEB BY 

WYLLYS LYMAN, Brevet Major U. S. A. 

1 vol,, 18mo. Cloth. JPrice, $1.25, 



I. INTRODUCTION. 

II. INFANTRY TACTICS OF DETAIL. From the French of Captain tm\\Q 
Poirot. 

III. GERMAN COMPANY COLUMN AND AUTUMN MANCEUVRES, 1873. 

IV. ENGLISH FORMATIONS FOR ATTACK. 

"NapoIeon''s maxim was that, to hold superiority, a people must change its tactics every ten 
years. The following pages illustrate the force of this maxim in the tentative and progressive char- 
acter of the formations and movemenis most employed abroad to-day. In the words of the distin- 
guished French staff-officer, Colonel Lewal, 'Progress is Ufe, the statu quo is the death of armies, 
and, what is worse, of nations. Tactics must change in form from age to age, and at epochs rela- 
tively very near. It is an incessant childbirth. AVe may deplore these pei-petual mutations, but 
we cannot escape them ; it is the modern law. "We must follow the moven^ent which draws us on. 
It would bn better to place ourselves at its head and direct it. In tactics it will not suffice to imitate, 
to keep abreast of others, servilely to copy institutions or methods ; new appUcations must be sought 
without ceasing, and we must guard well against clinging to transient and variable forms.' The 
recent revision and assimilation of our own system for all arms, lends new and immediate intere? ' 
and Importance to this comparative analysis."'— ^a^ify^aci/rw?! Preface. 

Jfew York: D. AFPLETOK ^ CO., Fuhlishers, 

349 <&: BBl BROAD-WAY. 



t