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Full text of "A soldier's story of the war; including the marches and battles of the Washington artillery, and of other Louisiana troops .."

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




The Gift of 

NEWTON C. FARR 

Class of 1909 



DATE DUE 



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CorneH University Library 
E605 .B285 



A soldier's story of the war; 




Clin 



3 1924 030 906 147 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924030906147 



Soldier's Story of the War: 



INCLUDING THE MARCHES AND BATTLES 



WASHINGTON ARTILLERY 



OTHER LOUISIANA TROOPS. 



"Chosen men for occasious of difficulty. There are no troops in the world that can be taken 
indiscriminately for brilliant services, and undoubtedly none more so than for storming works. " 
— Oabnot. 

"Have I not heard great ordnance in the field, 
Have I not in the pitched battle heard. 
Loud 'larums, neighing steeds and trumpets clang ?" — Shakespeare. 



Clark & Hofeline, Book Printers, 9 Banlt I>lace, 



A LAST CHAPTER PLACED FIRST. 



REORGANIZATION 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ARTILLERY, 



SIKCE 1 HE WAR. 



Ill tlie years immediately following tlio termination of the war the Washington Artillery 
still retained its old autonomy as a benevolent society or association. Partly owing to 
military rule, partly to a disinclination to bear arms under State governments whose policy 
was foreign to thiiir sympathies, the reorganization into Batteries and Companies was not 
attempted until ten jears after the close of the struggle. 

lu the month of July, 1875, the general aspiration for a better feeling at the various celebra- 
tions of the anniversary of American Independence, and the honorable part assigned Confed- 
erate soldiers at the centennial celebration of the battle of liuoker Hill in Boston awoke a 
responsive throb. 

On the 93d of July a meeting of the surviving members of the companies of Washington 
Artillery who served in the Virginia and Western Armies, was called, and a formal organ- 
ization at this and subsequent meetings acted upon. The object set forth in the meetings 
was to take part as a Battalion in the National Centennial of the following year. The Bat- 
talion was divided into three batteries and these, after according the commanding oflicer who 
might be elected, the privilege of appointing his Staff, elected their Field and Company 
Oflicers. The names given below represent the present organization of the Battalion : 



FIELD OFFICERS (elected). 

J. B. WALTON CoioneL 

W. J. BEHAN Major. 

STAFF (Ari'OiKTED). 

1st Lieut. W. M. Owen Adjt. and Chief of Staff. 

1st Lieut. John N. Payne i Quarter-Master. 

1st Lient. John Holmes Commia.sary. 

ist Lient. W. B. Krumbhaar Ordnance Officer. 

Tho.s. T, Aby Surgeon. 

XOS-COM MISSIONED STAFF (ai'POIXTEW. 

E. I. Kursbecdt Serieant-Major, 

W. H. Ellis Q.-M. Sergt. 

M. W. Cloney Commissary Serg't. 

O. F. Peek Ordnance Serg't. 

Frank P. Tillasana ChiefBugler. 

J. W. Dempsey Artificer and Armorer. 

COLOlt COKPOUALS.— H. F. Wilpon, W. C. Giffcn, GUs. J. Freret. 

CoLOil GUAlll).— A. H. I'lale, J. W. l-'arsons, C. C. Lewis, Geo. W. Dupre. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Finance.— Major W. J. Behan, Chairman; J. M. Sei.ias, P. O. Fazende, C. L. C. Dupuy, 
W. G. Coj le. 

Umi'Oum axi) Equipment —W. M. Owen, Chairman; J. D. Edwards, W. B. Krumbhaar, 
Jno. B. Kichardson, B. T. Walshe. 

Ahraxgements.— H. Dudley Coleman, Chairman; F. N. Thayer, C. H. C. Brown, O. S. 
Babcock, Frank McElroy- 

Orgaxization.— A. Hero, Jr., Chairman; T. L. Bayno, D. M. Kilpatrick, Wm. Palfrey, 
Jno. W. Emmet. 

INVESTIOATIOX.- Jos II. DcGrauge, Chairman .■ Geo. W. Dupre, John 11. Porter, "Wm. A. 
llandul[di, P. F. Case. 



Oompany A. 

OrFICBRS. 



Captain 

Sr. iBt Lieut 

Jr. Ist Lient 

2d Lieut 

Orderly Sergeant. . 

2d Sergeant 

3d Sergeant 



M. BuckMiUer. 

... .Andrew Hero, Jr. 

Frank McElioy. 

Geo. E. App8. 

• H. Dudley Coleman. 

"W. A. ColJina. 

••■ P. W. Pettia. 



4th Sergeant. , 
5th Sergeant. . 
1 st Corporal- . 
9d Corporal... 
3d Corporal... 
4th Corporal. . 



.0 S. Babcock. 
!'. John R. Porter. 

E. L. Mahen. 

E. O. Cook. 

W. W. Charlton. 
.' G. Leefe. 



Adam, L. A. 
Andrea, F. M. 
Aime, Gus. 
Andress, S. S. 
Bartlett, iSfapier 
Brewer, Wm. P. 
Benton, J. P. 
Brod6, F. A. 
Ballauf, R. 
Charlton, Geo. W. 
Clark, E. A. 
Carey, Thos. 



PRIVATES. 



Cantzan, W. H. 
Cowand, A. S 
Clonev M, "W. 
Carter, T. 
Derapaey, J. W. 
EUia, W. H. 
Forahee, J. M. 
Gnillotte, Hy. 
Gerard, L. M. 
Holmes, W. H. 
Harrison. S. 
Jagot, Jas. 



Langdon, Tom 
Labarre, L. V. 
Leverich, C. E. 
Lui'ia, A. 
Leefe. Gus. 
Michel, Jr.. P. 
Miller, Louis 
Madden, J. J. 
McDouoiigh. B. A 
O'Neal, W. T. 
Peck, O. 
Rousseau, J. A. A, 



Stocker, C H. 
Smith, J. H. 
Seichanaydre, L. 
Seicshnay^lre, A, 
Selph. V. R. McRae, 
Shaw, F. 
Shecker, J. 
Treme. J . 
Tew, W. A. 
Uliick. F. 
Whittini;ton, J. B. 



Oompany B, 

OFFICERS. 

Sr. Ist Lient. (Com'd'g) Eugene May. 3d Sergeaut... 

Jr. 1 at Lieut \Vm. Palfrey. 4th Sergeant. 

2d Lieut W. T. Haidio. 1st Coi-poral. . , 

Of derly Sergeant F. L. Richardson. 2d Corporal... 

Ist Sergeant John R. Kent. 3d Corporal. .. 

2d Sergeant C. C. Cottiog. 



Gus. Micou. 

. . .Ant, Sam beta. 
Robt. McMillan- 

Robt. Strong. 

..C. W. Withaoj. 



Abbott, Jub. 
Bryan, J. A. 
Bayne, T. L. 
Belsom, Drauain 
Belaom, Felix 
Brewerton, E. W. 
Bridge, B. 
Blaffer, J. A. 
Beebe, M. J. 
Bartley, J no. 
Bloomneld. Jaa. 
Bruce, Robt. 



PRIVATES- 



Byrne, Chas. M. 
Carpenter, J". D. 
Crawford, Geo. 
Cowan Chaa. 
Cowan, E. A. 
Davidson, Jno. 
DeGrange. J. H. 
Dugan, Jos. H. 
Esckelman, B F. 
Freret, Gus. J. 
Fox, C. W. 
Gififen, W. C. 



Henderson, W. D. 
Hews, £. L. 
Holmes, Jno. 
Jonea, G. R. P. 
Kenner, Minor 
Lathugton, A. M. 
Lamare J. M. 
Legare, J. U. 
Levy, L L. 
Marsh, J. B. 
Miller, Jno. 
Millei", Henry 



iVieux, Jno. 
Oliver, Wm. 
Peale, A. H. 
Seisas, J M. 
Steven, Wm. 
Thaypr, F. N. 
Tynau, Wni. 
Turpiu, E. S. 
VUleeana, F. de P. 
Walkt.r, G, 
Wbbre, Jules 



Company C 

OFFICERS. 



Captain 

Sr. Ist Lieut. 

Jr. Ist Lient 

2d Lieut 

Orderly Sergeant. 

2d Sergeant 

3d Sergeant 



■ ■Johu B. Richardson. 

C. H. C. Brown. 

. ...Geo. B. De Ruhsv. 

D. M. Kilpatiick. 

H. M. Isaacson. 

.John R. McGAuehey. 
Cbas. Pail'rey. 



4th Sergeant. 
5th Sergfant. , 
1st Corporal. . 
2d Corporal... 
3d Corporal. .. 
4th Corporal. - 



...-T. O. Fuqua. 

F. A. Bfhan. 

. .. .J"ohn Bozant. 
. . . . .Ell. Ciplliua. 
...H H. Marks. 
. . .Ed. Pevcbaud. 



PRIVATES. 



Augustus, E. D. 
Brinsmade. A. A. 
Baker, H. H. 
Bradley, J". S. 
Bartlett. F. A. 
Coyle, W. G. 
Crouan, D. 
Carter, Thos. 
Case, F. F. 
Dapny, C. L. C. 
Dupre, Geo. "W. 
Drew, E. S. 



Emmett, Jno. W. 
Edwards, J. D. 
Egan, Pat 
Fagan, J. 
Flprance, H. 
Fazf nde, P. 0. 
Falconer, W. R. 
Geasiier, Geo. 
Guillotte, L. E. 
Hufft. Beru'd 
Hairia, Obaa. 
Jones, A. C. 



Kelly. D. M. 
Lobrano, F. 
Lobdell, A. G. 
Lund, J. R. 
Lewia, C. C. 
Lehman, C. L. 
Leahy, P. 
McCormiok, J. 
McCarthy, 
Metzler, J. 
Payne, E. C. 
Pierson, J. G. 



Pinokard, \V. F. 
Randolph. W. A. 
Kodd, J DO. R. 
Roebuck, J J. 
Roach, Louis 
Vru Colin. P. 
Walahe, B T. 
While, D. Prieur 
Wilson, H. F. 
Zt-bal, H. T,. 
Zebal, L. E 



The writer of the following pages asks the indulgence of subscribers 
for not having prepared a more costly work — an omission due to the 
present disturbed financial and political condition of the city. This nar- 
rative was not written with any hope of profit ; but should the reception 
given indicate an interest on the part of the public in the State troops 
during the war, or justify the expense, this will be followed by a more 
complete work, giving incidents of the return home of the disbanded army, 
and- containing the muster rolls, personal narratives, and other information 
relating to Louisiana companies and regiments who were out in service. 



A SOLDIER'S STORY OF THE WAR, 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Like many better soldiers, when I came back from the 
war, I determined at once to adapt myself to the changed 
condition of things in the South and not to waste any 
time or weary the patience of friends with fighting over 
old battles. I kept my resolution for more than thirteen 
years after my first battle. Still one cannot always be 
discreet — some experiences, like the secrets told of the 
ears of Midas by the whispering reed, will have ex- 
pression. 

What I have now to say is what is being said by the 
fifty thousand soldiers from this State who wore Confed- 
erate uniforms during the war — by the fifty thousand 
refugees who went from this city after its capture — in 
fact, is the same story that will be talked over by forty 
millions of people North and South, or so long as the present 
generation shall remain alive. ' Secessia, amid her deso- 
lation, looks to the old battlefields, as the Sphynx does 
towards the ruined cities of Egypt ; and whether we will 
or not, in our dreams or daily ideas we are constantly 
hearing the command to "March;" to pack up our slender 
baggage and go vagabondizing from one miserable town 
to another searching food, shelter and rest for your tender 
ones, if you are a woman ; or, if a man, to take your place 
in line of battle, and receive the bullet that has already 
been moulded for your breast. The old ideas cannot be 



6 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

rubbed out — will come back ; some unseen influence 'will 
march you over the well-tramped, fenceless, grassless and 
herbless fields — through the forests whose trees have been 
cut down or completely killed by the volleys of musketry. 

Do not these fancies come to all of us ? Do not some of 
our old men who dry up and drop off, and tearful-eyed 
women who still pray for shelter and protection from 
beggary — do not the surviving soldiers who find it hard 
to cope in skill or robust health with younger rivals brood 
over these memories ? 

My excuse for writing this narrative is that I never at 
first intended it ; I thought only to pass a wearisome hour 
in a letter to an old friend. Once commenced, I could not 
end ; at the same time many old comrades, the subject 
once suggested, begged me if I proposed writing about the 
war at all, toitake for my theme the soldiers who went 
from Louisiana. 

I have tried to do this, though at the same time 
attempting only a rough military narrative. I want 
only to try and show how large bodies of our young men 
went through the transformation of the citizen into the 
soldier. How we learned and became reconciled to the 
rough life of camp; consented to new ways of think- 
ing and living, and suffered, as it were, a general breaking 
up and wreck of our previous identity and existence. 

A story of such great changes in worldly circumstances, 
of any class, ought to have its charm, if properly brought 
out ; the charm that we find in Crusoe, in the Blythedale 
visionaries who renounced the luxuries of civilization 
and became farmers, in the nun who buries herself in the 
cloister, or in a St. Francis who renounces his riches and 
weds himself to poverty. You will perhaps not care for 
the dull details of a soldier's life in itself ; but when it is 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



added that it embodies the experience of many men of 
well known names who have since made themselves dis- 
tinguished in industrial enterprises, in positions of trust 
and responsibility, and as worthy and virtuous citizens 
every way, their marches will not be without interest. 
Some of us too, have seen the world outstrip us in the strug- 
gle for existence ; our rough life in the army has made us 
duller than rival applicants or contracted for us bad 
habits, and we will have to limp along and get on the 
best we can ; but this crude narrative will not have been 
written in vain, if it succeeds in awakening any sympa- 
thy with the young men who are coming on,!and whom 
we will leave behind us, or if it awakens with those who 
give employment any increased tolerance or respect for 
soldiers whose convictions meant, for one out of every 
three — Death ! 

This narrative will be rather of the chfeerful or careless 
sort — one not intended to awaken foolish feeling about 
our struggle, or which had better be forgotten. It will pick 
away. Old Mortality-like, a little of the mildew and moss 
from the graves of martyrs of conviction ; but it will be 
tempered with the reflection that the surviving Comrades, 
who marched barefooted and without food, have since had 
better days ; and that their adventures in hard straights 
will be read with something of the same interest as that of 
those princes of romance, whose lives are no longer cared 
for the moment they become happy and comfortable. But 
enough : when we came back from the wars our friends 
treated us with so much sympathy, that we preferred enter- 
ing by quiet streets to witnessing their generosity or tears; 
and the monument recently erected in Greenwood, tells us 
that our heroes have not been forgotten. I believe that the 
services of our troops deserve to be recorded not only in 



8 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

monumental marble, but in the page of history ; in such 
works as those of '■' the grand old masters," as well as of 
the humblest scribes. Not as belonging to any regiment 
or batallion, but as illustrating what our beloved State 
did when we wei-e all placed in the balance — as showing 
what the Louisiana Soldier did in times that tried men's 
souls. My belief is that it is a great misfortune for a 
State not to recall the names of her great dead — not to 
hold them up as models for the old and young, and to 
keep them from falling into obscurity. "We are made good 
and useful more by example than by the pulpit or school- 
house ; and if Louisiana had preserved the legacy of 
great names which she has produced, she would have 
escaped much of the misery into which she is now 
plimged; her men of ability would prefer glory to the 
thrift which follows fawning ; and she would probably, as 
is the case with Georgia or Virginia, be again on the road 
to prosperity. 

The man who gives his life doing what he believes to 
be his duty, makes a bequest which has an actual value 
to a State not exceeded by that of lands and money. 
The day of her ruin is when we regard the time serving 
and corrupt with equal favor with the good man and 
hero. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE KOLL CALL 

I went out to the war with a large number of young 
men in the Batallion of Washington Artillery, and as 
the reader is henceforth to be familiar with the name, a 
word will here be said as to its early history. 

In 1839, Gen. Persifer F. Smith gave the first decided 



A Soldier's Story of the War. ■ 9 

impetus to the volunteer companies of the city, and con- 
tributed greatly to their organization. He was really the 
founder of nearly all above Canal street. It was by his 
efforts that the Washington Regiment was organized, and 
it remained under his command until the breaking out of 
the Mexican war, a,t which time he was appointed Gene- 
ral of the brigade composed of it and three other regiments. 
Eleven days after the call for volunteers, the Washington 
Regiment was descending the river in transports on its 
way to Mexico. 

Previous to its departure the regiment partook of the 
nature of a legion in its organization : that is was com- 
posed of horse, foot and artillery. 

General Smith distinguished himself at Monterey — rose 
to be Brevet Major General, and by his talents caused 
himself to be retained in the U. S. Army in spite of the 
absence of a military education. He died in command 
of the Department of the Pacific shortly before the war. 

The company of the Washington Regiment which more 
than any other bequeathed its organization to the Wash- 
ington Artillery Batallion, first appeared as an organized 
company in 1840; but this organization dwindled down 
to seventeen men in 1852. In those days the company, 
then known as the " Native American Artillery," after- 
wards as the Marion, w^as drilled by Capt. R. 0. Smith, 
and subsequently by Brig. Gen. E. L. Tracey. James 
Beggs, Capt. H. M. Isaacson, Gunnegle,* Bannister and 

* Lieut. N. G. Gunnegle is the oldest member of the organization known to 
be alive. He joined in 1840, when the Artillery went by the name of the Ist 
Company Native American Artillery. The well known Armory on Girod street 
•was then a blacksmith shop, but was gradually adapted to military purposes. 
In 1845 $30 a month was appropriated by the State to maintaining an armorer. 
Capt. Forno, who was a few years since killed by a railroad accident on the 
Jackson Railroad, had, up to the date of the Mexican War been its captain ; 
but at that time he resigned or perhaps was promoted to be Lieut. Colonel. 
Forno was succeeded by Capt. Isaac Stockton, much to the surprise of Gnnne- 
gle's friends, who had wasted their time and money in advancing his claims. 



10 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

some others are names that are still associated with the 
old organization. 

Then Soria became its Captain and the honor cost him 
his life. That is, the Artillery on the occasion of some 
rejoicing had carried out to the Levee at the foot 
of Canal street, four guns which were fired to the four 
points of the compass in honor of the event. It was 
while ramming a cartridge home that the piece he was 
loading prematurely exploded. His arms were torn from 
his body, and he sustained such other injury as to occa- 
sion his death shortly after. Until the Batallion went to 
Virginia, the coat and equipments of Captain Soria hung 
as a memento of his services in its Arsenal or drill-room. 

The company still numbered not over fifteen members, 
with H. J. Hunting, 1st Lieutenant, and Dan. Harrison, 
2d. The Captaincy was now offered to Leeds, who 
declined, and afterwards to Col. J. B. Walton, then 
Secretary to Mayor Waterman, and who had served in the 
war with Mexico, as the Colonel of the Washington 
regiment. This was two or three years prior to the war. 

A growing interest in military matters now became 
prevalent as sectional passions increased in intensity, and 
the feeling was increased and encouraged by leading men* 

The latter went as 3d Sergt. and ultimately was courtmartialed for refusing to 
fill a position to which he had never been elected, but was ultimately acquitted. 
Stockton, whose company in the Mexican War was the first of the Washington 
Regiment, enlisted 64 men, and died after his return. At the time he went out 
the old privates in the company furnished officers for four or five regiments. 
Add was then Adjutant and Breedlove Major of the Washington Regiment, Jas. 
Strawbridge, 1st Lieut, and Greene 2nd. The regiment advanced as far as 
Barita in Mexico, and has still some twenty-five members alive, several of whom 
went out with the Batallion to Virginia. 

Gunneglo served as Treasurer, Secretary, keeper of the Arsenal, and 2nd 
Lieut, till 1857. He applied for leave to serve in Virginia, but was refused on 
account of age. 

*" With the commencement of the year '61 a stranger visiting our city would 
have deemed its streets the parade ground of one vast encampment. At every 
step a soldier is met, and martial music fills the air. The tramp of armed men 
is heard by day and night, and the reverberation of the drill room assails the 
tar upon every side." — True Delta. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 11 



who foresaw the approach of war. Partly from this 
cause, partly because the men began to work with a will, 
and through the talents of Coll Walton as an officer, the 
Artillery steadily increased in number and reputation. 

A fine armory had been given it by the city, situated 
on Girod between St. Charles and Carondelet, and from 
this the Batallion armed as infantry, marched to assist in 
the capture of Baton Rouge from the U. S. authorities, 
previous to the commencement of hostilities.* 

In the month of Mayf the Batallion was accepted " for 
the war" by President Davis, an arrangement which 
caused us to be classed as Confederate instead of State 
troops contributed by Louisiana. This arrangement, had 
afterwards the effect of giving us some advantages over 
other troops, oi* disadvantages (for both were contended 

*Oii Jan. 10th, 1861, the first active steps towards separation were taljen, 
and the steamer National started for Baton Eouge after midnight for the capture 
of that place with a strong force of citizen soldiers. They were " young men 
mostly ot hot blood, and determined to do the State some service." An expe- 
dition down the river got off at 10 o'clock the day after. At Baton Rouge, Jan. 
11, P. M., Major Haskins commanding at the arsenal capitulated 50,000 stand of 
arms and other munitions. The companies from New Orleans now held the 
barracks. Some of the Baton Rouge companies deemed themselves slighted by 
not being sent to take charge of the place, and intimated that they would dis- 
band. Great excitement in consequence. 

Three companies afterwards disbanded, retiring in high dudgeon. The vol- 
unteer troopsof Baton Rouge finally took charge of the Barracks. Capt. Voories 
during the expedition commanded the Washington Artillery, Captain Charles D. 
Dreux, the New Orleans Cadets, and the Orleans Guards were under Captain 
S. M. Todd and Lieut. Girardey. The whole expedition was under the com- 
mand of Col. Walton. 

■j-As early as the month of December, 1860, a requisition was sent to Governor 
Moore for guns, stores, battery, horses, forges, etc., in order to put the Batallion 
in a condition for service in the field. On the 27th of March the petition was 
renewed, and subsequently made to the Secretary of War at Montgomery. The 
following extract quoted from the application of the commanding officer will 
show what was then its condition : 

" The Batallion Washington Artillery, under my command, numbering upon 
the rolls over three hundred men, two hundred and fifty for service, and divided 
into four companies, with a battery complete in all respects, of six bronze six 
pounder guns, two twelve pounder howitzers, and one eight pounder rifled can- 
non, is.ready and desirous to take the field. The Batallion can take the field 
within a very few days after being notified, and provided with horses, camp and 
garrison equipage, etc., which of course I will be obliged to make requisition 
for upon the Confederate States." 



12 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



for) among which was the appointment instead of the 
election by the men of their officers. 

"We were mustered into service on the 26th,* and then 
marched in a body to Christ's Church, and preached 
to by Rev. Mr. Leacock, who recommended us to remem- 
ber that we had been educated to be gentlemen, and to 
bring back our chariicters with our arms. This advice of 
the worthy Doctor caused us afterwards some mental dis- 
cussion in settling in our own minds whether a soldier 
could or ought to be any thing of the sort, and whether it 
was not better to leave his society manners, pride, preju- 
dices about birth, education and modes of living, and nearly 
every thing that makes up the word, behind. However it 
may have been, and this is what we suppose the Doctor 
intended to advise. They, most of them, retained their 
cheerfulness and a disposition to do their duty in camp or 
society, and probably gained more in manly feeling than 
they could have ever acquired any where else. 

To complete its outfit the citizens of New Orleans con- 
tributed $7,000 — the Ladies' Association alone giving 



* The Washington Artillery were out in full dress uniform yesterday with 
fine band. After delighting the spectators who lined the streets, with a display 
of their accurate maneuvering, they were drawn up at Mr. T. C. Twichell's, St. 
Charles street, and presented with a beautiful Camp flag of the Confederate 
States. " You take with you," said the speaker for the ladies who pre- 
sented it, " their blessings and the Godspeed of every loyal heart in the entire 
community." This morning at 8 o'clock, the Battalion — every man — will be 
mustered into service by Lieut. Phifer. On Monday at 6 o'clock they will take 
their departure for Virginia. The reserve corps of the Gatallion will be left 
here until further notice. Lieut. W. Irving Hodgson has been detailed on 
special duty as an agent and resident quartermaster of the Batallion ; also in 
command of those detailed from the corps for home dnty. The honorary mem- 
bers will escort the Batallion to the Railroad depot on Monday evening. In the 
course of a little while from now the reserve will probably be on the way to 
some other point of action than Virginia. — N. O. Crescent, May 26, 1861. 

This prediction came true. Under the call of Gen. Beauregard for ninety 
days men for the army of the West, Capt. Slocomb, or rather Capt. W. 1. 
Hodgson, at that time taking out the 5th Company of Washington Artillery, 
250 strong, and with them gaining full as many laurels as were obtained by the 
first four companies in Virginia. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 13 



$500, and the large houses and corporations aiding with 
equal liberality. 

The following were the names of the officers and of 
those who on Sunday morning May 26th, 1861, answered 
to Lieut. Phifer's roll-call — a very solemn moment — and 
who thus became mustered into the Confederate service:* 

s T A. r" r - 

Major J. B. Walton, Adjutant Lieot. W. M. Owen, 

Surgeon Dr. E. S. Drew, Quarter Master Lieut. C.H. Slooomb. 

Sergt. Major C. L. C. Dupur, Quarter Master Sergt. Stringer Kennedt, 

Color Sergeant t Lonis M. Montgomery. 

COIjOIS. GXTA-KD. 

Corporal George W. Wood, Corporal E. L. Jewell, 

" A. H. Pbale, " J. h! Dearie. 

JBTJOLEKS. 

F. P. Villavasana, Jo, Kingslow. 



ROLL OF FIRST COMPANY. 



Captain H. M. Isaacson, ./r. JVrs^ iieuJenani,.... J. B. Richardson, 

First Lieutenant C. W. Squires, Second lieutenant H. (i. Geiger. 

Mrst Sergeant Edward Owen, Mrst Corporal P. D. RnggleSj 

Second Sergeant. J. M. Galbraith, Second Corporal E. C. Payne) 

Third Sergeant C.H. O.Brown, Third Corporal W. FelloWs, 

Fourth Corporal P. P. Case. 

Thomas S. Turner, C. Chambers, W. T. Hardie, 

G. M. Judd, G. W. Muse, H. Chambers, 

E. J. Kursheedt, L. Labarre, E. V. Wiltz, 

J. W. Kearney, M. Mount, J. P. Manico, 

C. Rossiter, P. A. J. Michel, L. E. Zebal, 

W. Chambers, J. M. Payne, H. L. Zebal, 

W. P. Perry, R. McK. Spearing, W. R. Falconer, 

J. B. Rodd, A. F. Coste, G. B. DeRussy, 

M. E. Jarrean, J. R. McGanghy, P. Lobrano, 

J. A. Tarlton, E. A. Cowen, C. A. Everett. 

T. Y.,Aby, P. A. St. Amand, 

* The Batallion, when in Virginia, was several times recruited to fill the 
places of the killed, wounded and disabled, who averaged about one hundred 
to each company. 



14 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



a. G. Stewart, 



Geo. Bernard, Sergt, 
Michael Hock, 
Charles Sash, 
Jno. E. Scheman, 
Jdo. O'Neil, 
W. K. Dirke, 



A.It,TiriC3E:iC.S. 

W. D. Holmes, 

Pat. Mooney, 
H. Meyer, 
Jno. Jacobs, 
Thos. Kerwin, 
David Nolan, 
'Win. Forrest, 



Israel Scott, 



Fred. Lester, 
R. Nicholas, 
Jno. Charlesworth, 
Jno. Anderson, 
Mathew Burns, 
Jas. Heflogh. 



ROLL OP SECOND' COMPANY. 



Tint Limienan C. C. Lewis Com'dg, 

Mrit Lieutenant Sam'l J. McPherson, 

Second Lieutenant C. H. Slocomb, 

Mrit Sergeant J. H. DeGrange, 

Second Sergeant Gustave Aime, 



Third Sergeant H. C. Wood, 

Fourth Sergeant C. Sucbez, 

Mrst Corporal J. D. Edwards, 

Second Corporal C. E. Leverich, 

Third Corporal Jules Preret, 



Fourth Corporal 'B. V. L. Hutton. 



H. N. Payne, 
J. S. Meyers, 
Tracey Twichell, 
1. J. Land, 
J. W. Emmett, 
J. A. Hall, 
O. Humphrej', 
W. C. Giffen, 
3. C. Woodville, 
A, A. Brinsmade, 
E. L. Hall, 



John Montgomery, 



John Weber, 
Toney Hnlby, 
John Fagan, 
George Barr, 
Wffl. Carey, 
E. B. F. McKesson, 



R. Axson, 
Wm. Roth, 
B. D. Patton, 
A. G. Knight, 
J. D. Britton, 
W. A.Randolph, 
W. F. Florence, 
J. W. Parsons, 
J. Howard Goodin, 
Thomas H. Suter, 



DRIVERS, 



William Little, 
James Crilly, 
John Cannon, 
Jas. Leyden, 
Ed. Loftus, 
Ewin Lake, 



F. Alewelt, 

F. P. Buckner, 

G. E. Strawbridgc, 
A. R. Blakely, 

R. Bannister, Jr. 
R. C. Lewis, 
H. B. Berthelot, 
W. J. Hare, 
J. H. Randolph, 
W. H. Wilkins. 
Sam'l Hawes. 



Leonard Craig. 



James Brown, 
W. F. Lynch, 
Louis Roaph, 
William Oliver, 
Corn'l McGregor, 
Alex. Bucher. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



15 



ROLL OF THIRD COMPANY. 



Captain M. B. Miller, 

Firtt Lieutenant J. B. Whittiagton, 

Second Lieutenant L. A. Adam, 

Mrst Sergeant Frank McElroy, 

Second Sergeant A.. Hero, Jr. 



Third Sergeant L. Prados, 

Fourth Sergeant J. T. Handy, 

first Corporal E. L. Jewell, 

Second Corporal A. H. Peafe, 

Third Corporal W. H. Ellis, 



Fourth Corporal W. A Collins. 



Napier Bartlett, 
H. D. Summers, 
J. H. Moore, 
W. Mills, 
Robert Bruce, 
J. H. Holmes, Jr. 
T. H. Fuqua, 
0. N. DeBlanc, 
E. W. Morgan, 
P. W. Pettis, 
E. Riviere, 
P. Kreriielberg, 
Chas. Hart, 
Sam'l-C. Boush, 
Geo. McNeil, 
J. H. CoUes, 
Frank Shaw, Jr. , 
E. Toledano, 
W. S. Toledano, 



Jos. Blancbard, 



P. 0. Fazende, 
Fred. L. Hubbard, 
Jos. H. DeMeza, 
L. E. Guyot, 
J. P. Randolph, 
S. Chalaron, 
J. T. Brenford, 
C. W. Deacon, 
Stringer Kennedy, 
Howard Tully, 
Wm. Leefe, 
I. W. Brewer, 
C. H. Stocker, 
J. R. Portej, 
S. G. Sanders, 
B. L. Braselman, 
R. P. Many, 
F. A. Carl. 



A-RTIFICEKS. 



C. E. Fortier, 
R. Maxwell, 
E. Avril, 
E. Charpiauz, 
T. M. McPall, 
M. W. Cloney, 
Ed. Duncan, 
C. A. Falconer, 
H. J. PUelps, 
T. Ballantine, 
E. W. Noyes, 
M. W. Chapman, 
W. P. Noble, 
W. G. Coyle, 
L. P. Forshee, 
George H. Meek, 
J. C. Bloomfield. 
A. B. Martin, 
R. Turnell. 



Jas. Keating, 



ROLL OF FOURTH OOMPANT. 



Captain B. F.Eshleman, Third Sergeant '. G. E. Apps, 

First Lieutenant Jos. Norcom, Fourth Sergeant J. D. Reynolds, 

Second Lieutenant Harry A. Battles, First Corporal Geo. Wood, 

Second Sergeant. W. J. Behan Second Corporal J. W. Dearie 



A. D. Augustus, 

B. P. W idler, 
J. R. McGowan, 
J. M. Rohbock, 
H. P. Wilson, 
0. C. Bier, 



G. L. Crutch er, 
J. F. Lilly, 
T. J. Stewart, 
Sam'l A. Knox, 
Wm. Palfrey, 
L. C. Lewis, 



H. N. White, 

Jno. B. Chastant, 

W. Snead, 

H. D. Seaman, 

F. H. Bee, 

C. W. Marston, 



m 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



J. C. Wood, 
Jno. S. Fish, 

F. A. Brodie, 
E. Laiier, 

G. Beck, 

R. F. F. Moore, 
H. H. Baker, 
J. W. Burke, 
Jno. Meux, 
J. B. Valentine, 
Phil. Von Coin, 
T. B. White, 
Bernard Hufift, 



Levy Callahan, 



J. V. Gesaner, Leader, 
T. Gutzler, 
Ch. W. Struve, 
J. Arnold, 



J. H. Smith, 
G. Montgomery, 
Isaac Jessup, 
A. F. Vass. 
W. W. Jones, 
P. C Lane, 
T. Carey, 
W. P. S. Crecy, 
W. C. Morrell, 
W. T. O'Neill, 
A. Banksmith, 
Frank Williams, 



a5A.]vi>. 



Jno. Deutsch, 
Jno. Geches, 
Peter Trum, 
Jno. Lorbs, 



C. A. Deval, 
E. A. Mellard, 
J. W. Wilcox, 
V. D. Terrebonne. 
E. F. Reichart, 
Thos. H. Cummings, 
R. H. Gray, 
S. T. Hale, 
J. W. Lesene, 
Chas. Hardenburg, 
J. C. Pardy, 
E. Jaubert. 



Jno. McDonnell. 



Thos. Kostmel, 
J. H. Sporer, 
Charles Meir, 



C H AFTER II. 

DEPABTUKE FOR VIKGINIA. 



There will never be a time of such intense public feeling 
in the history of New Orleans, or perhaps in that of the 
country generally, as that which attended the departure 
of the first troops at the commencement of the late civil 
war. Writing at this day, one is almost inclined to doubt 
the impressions which still remain in his memory, not to 
speak of those half effaced, which are occasionally brought 
to mind by the conversation of old comrades or friends, 
or by glancing over old letters or files of papers. Can it 
be possible, you' say to yourself, that business men, though 
always in our city known for generosity, would give away 
clothing, arms or horses, without scarcely thinking of the 
matter: or that salaries were continued, by liberal 
houses, even after the employees had enlisted for the war ; 




Rev. Dr. PALMER, Page 17. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 17 



that the stores were closed on the day of our departure, 
the streets were crowded to suiFocation, the balconies lined 
with smiling and crying women, and that those were 
esteemed most happy who had departing friends upon 
whom to lavish their gifts, or bestow their flowers 1* That 
certainly is the only time we can remember when citizens 
walked along the lines offering their pocket books to men 
whom they did not know ; that fair women bestowed their 
floral offerings and kisses ungrudgingly and with equal 
favor among all classes of friends and suitors ; when the 
distinctions of society, wealth and station were forgotten, 
and each departing soldier was equally honored as a hero. 
On the day of our departure we certainly had a little 
touch of the millenium of good feeling, and it was nearer 
like Utopia than one generation can ever live to see a 
second time.f 

* The Washington Artillery embraces as large a representation of car old and 
permanent population, the sons of our old citizens, as any military organization 
in the city. Every member of it is a gentleman ; many occupy high positions 
in social and commercial circles, and the parting scenes were most affecting — 
Delta, May 28. 

•|- Rev. Dr. Palmer delivered from the steps of the City Hall an address from 
which we quote the final passage : 

"The alternative now before us is subjugation and absolute anarchy — a 
despotism which will put its iron heel upon all that the human heart holds 
most dear. The mighty issue is to be submitted to the ordeal of battle, with 
the nations of the earth as spectators, and with the God of Heaven as umpire. 

" With such an issue we have no doubt of the part that will be assigned 
you to pl^, and when we hear the thunders of your cannon echoing from the 
mountain passes of Virginia will understand that you mean in the language of 
Cromwell ' to cut this war to the heart.' It is little to say that you will be 
remembered.. And should the frequent fate of the soldier befal you in a soldier's 
death, vqu shall find your graves in thousands of hearts, and the pen of history 
shall write your martyrdom. Soldiers farewell ! And may the Lord of Hosts 
be round about you as a wall of fire, and shield your heads in the day of 
battle." We make room for an equally touching farewell from the sermon of 
Eev. Dr. Leacock of the Sunday previous : 

" Remember that the first convert to Christ from the Gentiles was a soldier. 
Inscribe the cross upon your banners, for you are fighting for liberty. In but 
a few hours more you will dare the toils of the battle field, and may God 
protect you in your absence. Our hearts will follow you — our ears will be open 
for tidings of your condition, and our prayers ascend for your safety, success 
and return. Let us, as the last thing that we can do, commend you to the care 
of Him who alone can assist." 



18 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



But though the route to the depot was scattered with 
flowers, the thought also began to enter our minds that 
we had assumed the hard and unprosaic duties of soldiers, 
and that individual freedom and happiness were now to 
be left behind. The day too, in spite of our glory and the 
enthusiasm of our friends, was suffocatingly hot — so much 
so as to cause the death of two of our men,* as it were, 
in the ranks, from sunstroke ; and although every other 
military organization turned out in honor of those whom 
they envied the priority of departure, and allowed us to 
go to the cars through their divided ranks, it would have 
added greatly to our bodily comfort to have had more air, 
even at the sacrifice of some of the music of the brass 
bands, proffers of gifts, sympathy and excitement. We 
suffered the torture of unaccustomed heavy clothing, 
knapsacks, and the dusty march of three hours duration, 
but meanwhile were being equally suffocated with roses ; 
but what young man or soldier who has just enlisted ever 
cares for fatigue, when compared with such glory; or 
would exchange the happiness of seeing his whole past 
life brought out, as it were in tableau, at the moment of 
leaving it probably for ever, for ten times as much fatigue? 

Our Batallion, at starting, consisted of three hundred 
men, who, most of them, had parents or other friends to bid 
them good-bye. Had they known that an interval of four 
years would separate them — that thirty battle fields were 
to be strewn with their bones, and that every other man 
of their number would be crippled or killed, the scene 
would not have been more affecting than it really was.f 

* One of them P. A. Carl, singularly enough was an old soldier who besides 
speaking five languages, had served three years in the Russian Koyal Artillery 
and fought in the Hungarian struggle. 

f Israel Gibbons, himself an excellent soldier, and at that time writing on the 
Q-escent, thus describes the scene : 

" The departure yesterday was a perfect ovation. No previous military 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 19 



A great many fathers, in shaking hands with the men, 
would ask us to look after and keep an eye on their sons. 
It generally turned out that the parties recommended 
would be the first to be killed, or that difference of tem- 
perament prevented an opportunity of acquaintance,' much 
less doing the solicited service. 

departure has been honored with so tumultuous a demonstration. The Batal- 
lion moved in four columns, with the drivers as a fifth or auxiliary, and 
with a 'large turn out of honorary members. Their escort were the Orleans 
Light Horse, Capt. Leeds, the Orleans Guard, 500 strong, Capt. Theard, and the 
Louisiana Cadets. All along this route the scene was one of the most unexam- 
pled enthusiasm. The men made noise with cheers and huzzas, and the ladies 
silently expressed their feelings with their flowers and handkerchiefs. The 
scene at the Depot was indescribable. All the carriages of the town were 
here filled with loads of beauty, and the balconies, windows and house-tops 
were filled with people. 

" We never before saw ladies of fashion, respectability and wealth do as much 
as they did last evening for a final view, leaving their carriages, dodging under 
mules heads, and wading ancle-deep in dust. The crowd extended a half a mile 
beyond the Depot — to the edge of the swamp. They gave all sorts of evidence 
of the very highest heart-feeling, and everybody had wet eyes. As the twilight 
faded into dark, the train rumbled off, groups of people were seen sitting about 
on the piles of lumber, waiting for the ladies to have their cry out, before start- 
ing for home. ' 

The Honorary Members who turned out upon this occasion, were : 

Brig. Gen'l E. L. Tracey, Col. A. H^ Gladden, Hon. Gerard Stith, W. A. Freret, 
Ebc[., John D. Foster, M. D., E. T. Parker, Adam Gifi'en, Norbert Trepagnier, 
Hon. P. H. Morgan, M. A. Poute, Jules Tuyes, Hon. Wm. G. Austin, M. D., D. 
Maupay, Alfred Munroe, E. B. Smedes, John Holmes, . Col. C. A. Taylor, A. S. 
Withers, Hon. C. M. Bradford, T. S. McOay, Hon. John T. Monroe, E. C. Hancock, 
A. P. Harrison, Mark P. Bigney, E. F. Schmidt, H. G. Stetson, John Calhoun, 
Hon. John B.Leefe, Wra. G. Hewes, Maj. Thomas P. Walker, John Pemberton. 
R. L. Pugh, Jacob J. Herr, Hon. J. 0. Nixon, J. C. Ferriday, A. P. Avegno, 
t)an'l E. Colton, Charles T. Nash, T. L. Leeds, H. W. Reynolds, B. F. Voorhieg, 
R. L. Outlaw, G. H. Chaplain, W. B. Bowles, W. L. Allen, Col. S. H. Peck, T. L. 
Bayne, P. N. Wood, H. Doane, Geo. W, Hynson, Col. Geo. W. Race, Wm. H. 
ftlint, W. C. Lipscomb, Col. Daniel Edwards, R. Esterbrook, J. M. Davidson, 
C. P. White, P. Wing, Howard Smith, M. D., W. M. Pinckard, Wm. Ellis, A. W. 
Bosworth, George. Connelly. J. D. Dameron, G. S. Hawkins. 

The names of the members of the Batallion who went as j)fBcers in various 
regiments or who continued the existence of the organization in the city, were 
Capt. 0. Voorhies, Jr. First Lieutenant, T. A. James, Second Lieutenant, M. S. 
Squires, First Sergeant, 0. P. Peck, Third Sergeant, A. Luria, Color Sergeant, 
J. Thomas Wheat, Quarter Master Sergeant, B. L. Hews, -First Corporal, Cbarlea 
Thompson, First Artificers, C. H. Waldo, D. Kelly, Treasurer (afterwards Capt. 
W. Irving Hogdson.' 

Privatbs. — Anderson J. B., Bruce N. M., Baker Marion A., Blair J. C, BloM^ 
R. A., Butts E. S., Brand P. A., Bisland J. J., Bloomfield Benj., Barton R. G., 
Culbertson C. W., Caldwell A. P., Correjolles G., Churchill W. B., Carey F. S., 
Calmes W. N., Dudley L., DeMerritt J. W., Delamore Jas., Evans Geo. P., 
i)stella M., Baston T. B., Finley L. A., Jr. Fisk John S., Ferriday W. M., Gray- 
son Ji B., Jr. Graham L., Grandpre P., Gordon W. E., Goldsmith P., Halsey 
W, S., Huttoa B. V.| Heuuing Wm. H., Hftnloa Joe., Harriugtoa 8., Hawthorn 



20 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



The leave-taking of the young men, generally with their 
relatives, it must be admitted was much more hurried than 
with their wives, or more often with tiieir sweet^hearts, (for 
we were nearly all at that age when it is difficult to keep 
from having at least one.) Some of us were compelled to 
remain in ranks and be witness to these tender leave-tak- 
ings — to watch the lustrous eyes, suffusing cheeks, the heav- 
ing breasts, the last fond smile, and the concluding kiss — 
all taking place in less time than it takes to relate it; and 
tobecome, as it were, each of us, by sympathy, an actor and 
particeps criminis in the love-making or love.ending tableau 
that was going on. It did not take a great many minutes 
to complete this part of the drama — though it was curi- 
ous in one respect — that of bringing together so many 
couples of education and refinement and making them act 
out the drama of their loves, or at least a specimen chap- 
ter. All these little incidents were remembered long 
after and frequently talked over in camp, and very often 
when we had all become growlers, not much to the credit 
of the dramatis personce. The fact is, there was some 
little forgetfulness about these vo«7S after the arrival of 
the Batallion in Virginia, while the fond and trusting 
hearts that were left behind, subsequently found them- 
selves so situated, after the capture of the city, as to ren- 
der any such remembrance inconvenient. 

These little love episodes, too, as we soldiered further 

A. T., Harvey C. M., Hedges J. H. H., Hemines D. P., Johnson F. A., Johnston 
T. G., Johnston D. 0., Jones 0. G., Kennedy John, Lipscomb, A. A., Leverich 
Ghas, E., Lonsdale H. H., Lowe B. M. Jr., Lange F. G., Morell W. C., McLearn 
John G., McNair H. M., Miller J. H., Norris J. B. O'Brien R. M., Pierson, Ji G. 
Prados J. B., Phelps W. V., Perkins J. A., Quirk Wm. C., Rodgers, J. C. Roc- 

qnet A., Robira A., Raid W. A., Smith Alex. Jr., St. Amant , Spedden B., 

Speoring C. F., Sambola A., Steven W., Stewart , Stroud George. Sanford 

C. H., Savage A., Seymour J. W., Simpson G. W., Summers H. D., Tisdale B. 
v., Tisdale E. K., Tracy M., Vaught W. C. D., West Geo., Wingato W. W., 
Wingate B. H., Walshe B. T., Willard E. 0., Webb J. V., Wolf 0. B., Wycho J. 
F., Wordall F., Ximines W. A. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 21 

on, were destined to have their influence, in a remote and 
indirect way on all of the B.itaUion, even those most 
indifferent to the sentiment, and so far from the fond 
absent being remembered with sympathy, was the cause 
not unfrequently of loud swearing. For instance, the first 
detail made of a member to return home (naturally 
enough) was the man who had just married a bran new 
wife. Then there were faithful spouses who found oppor- 
tunities to overtake the Batallion in its various marches, 
who were either obtaining or entreating to obtain, their 
husband excused from some camp service, and which, if 
obtained, would throw the wearisome duty on some less 
fortunate batchelor comrade. While on the other hand, 
the latter class would either be absent from camp at every 
turn, when the presence of the fair was to be obtained, or 
writing love-letters home, or seeking for furloughs, mostly, 
of course, with reference to attractions left behind. 

At length we were marched into the cars by companies 
and assigned our places for the journey. The knapsacks, 
belts and other useless plunder of one sort and another 
with which we were all more or less burdened, was quickly 
disposed of upon the hooks over head, or under the seats, 
(Damocles swords were suspended above,) and every man 
made himself as comfortable as could be done in a car 
crowded to its utmost capacity, and on the hottest night of 
the year. 

It need hardly be stated that there was too much 
excitement for the first half of the night to allow of much 
sleep. The men laughed, and danced and sung as if pos- 
sessed by hysteria. The sardine boxes which we had 
brought along to be eaten when rations run short, were 
opened before we reached the first station, and the various 
flasks much sooner. 



22 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

CHAPTER HI. 

ALL ABOABD— A CAB WHEEL ANABASIS. 

In spite of all of the heat and dust, and the drawback 
of having no place or opportunity for comfortable sleep, 
we Avere most of us in excellent spirits, and our upward 
journey to Richmond was one all the way through of wild 
excitement. 

But gradually the older and more serious members 
began to settle down to pipes and tobacco — to staring out 
at the trees which seemed to rush homewards like an 
army of giant phantoms, and to realizing that their past 
habits were cut off from their future. The loud talkers, 
who had indefatigably told heavy stories which the noise 
of the train prevented any one but themselves from 
hearing, began to show signs of exhaustion ; and as the 
night wore on there would sometimes be a brief lull, un- 
disturbed by anything except the heavy breathing of the 
sleepers. Then the train would stop at a station — one 
man would be heard complaining of the oppi'essive boots 
of his vis-a-vis neighbor against the pit of his stomach, 
while another would expostulate at the length of legs 
from behind which projected over the top of the seats and 
inconvenienced the complainant's head. 

We were now made to realize that those with whom we 
would be most thrown together were the comrades who 
resembled each other in the single matter of height, and 
were in character and tastes the most widely different, 
and that our first study would be to learn to adapt our- 
selves to each other's ways. And a very difficult lesson 
to learn that subsequently proved. 

For instance, the next morning about day light when 
the train stopped for water, a clear branch was discovered 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 23 



running near the railroad embankment, and the men began 
to tumble out, considerably worn and pulled down, to profit 
by the best opportunity we would have of wa.shing. The 
provident soldiers now would produce towels, soaps, combs, 
etc., and save for the trouble of bending on their knees and 
bathing like Diana with the brook for a mirror, would 
manage to make their toilet about as well as if they were 
at home, or in a fashionable barber's saloon. The only 
trouble would be that the man who came after would be 
unprovided, or was too lazy to go down into his own 
knapsack, and consequently would have to borrow. 
Before the first borrower had concluded, a second applica- 
tion to borrow would be filled, with similar requests fol- 
lowing in rapid order from others, until the owner becoming 
wearied with waiting would timidly request that the 
articles be returned when all were through. An hour or 
so afterwards when the matter was under investigation, it 
would be made to appear that the soap was regarded as 
Batallion soap, and that there was nothing more to be 
heard of it ; that the tin wash basin which its fastidious 
owner had fondly fancied would accompany him in all of 
his campaigns, had been left behind at the halting station; 
that the towel had been hung out to dry ; and as for the 
comb somebody had brought it along, but precisely who, 
nobody could tell ! 

Of course it need not be said that the owner of the 
wash basin felt ruined and discontented for the balance of 
the day, and the day after ; for when the time for ablu- 
tions came again, he found no friend that was willing to 
lend him any of the articles before mentioned, and so his 
satisfaction and happiness at leading the life of a soldier 
would receive its first check and begin to wane. 

" It's not that I care about a d— -d little cake of soap," he 



24 A' Soldier's Story of the War. 



would feelingly growl, as his Alnashar visions of soldiering 
began to disappear like the bubbles that were made from 
the missing cube; "it's not that I can't make a raise of 
another towel and comb; but it's the principle of the 
thing. I begin to believe that about one half of the 
Batallion are beats that intend to live off the other half, 
and I want it understood that they won't work that game 
any more with me. I've got at any rate a bag of good 
perique tobacco left," (says the speaker filling his pipe and 
anticipating a movement among the crowd) and if you 
hear of any body inquiring for any, send them to me, and 
they will find out where they can't get it. 

And so far from receiving the sympathy which his mis- 
fortunes merited, the victim was affectedly condoled with 
and taken aside by some one of every group in which he 
happened to enter, for the purpose of drawing from him 
a further recital of his wrongs. 

"We dozed on through the following day, pulled out a 
novel now and then, or talked in a somewhat more quiet 
strain than on the night before. Some of the men had 
still enough enthusiasm left to occupy their time in scour- 
ing their sabres; others who had not left civilization 
entirely behind, produced cards and an ear of corn, which, 
such is the wickedness of the times, need not be ex- 
plained to any body, meant a mild game of poker. This 
included for several days quite a large circle, but this 
gradually contracted witli the pocket books of the players. 
The game always remained popular, particularly after pay 
day, though owing to certain difficulties about chips, the 
number who kept constantly occupied at it was limited. 
There was a small devoted circle who applied themselves 
faithfully to it on the cars and off, at night at the guard 
tent — around the bivouac fire, and sometimes before and 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 25 



after the bloody carnage of battle. The counters were of 
gold not unfrequently, at starting — the cards gilt-edged. 
But the last time I saw the game in camp, the players 
looked unwashed and ragged, and the papers taken from 
a bloody knapsack were dealt on an old red cotton hand- 
kerchiefs The prize that was contended for was a chicken 
which had been pressed into service, and the loser was to 
have the privilege of cooking and eating this, and sucking 
the bones. There is nothing like having a passion or 
mission in life ; and except for the difficulty of paying for 
the chips, card playing seemed to be as popular a way of 
killing time as any. 

As we journeyed on, we passed through several towns 
where we were welcomed with great eclat by the popula- 
tion, and indeed the same might be said about every vil- 
lage and isolated house. There was always a sign, as 
was the case with all the troops who first went out, that 
the sight of the soldier touched some profound and sym- 
pathetic cord. At every depot there would be gathered 
the most beautiful ladies of the place, who would enthu- 
siastically stream out and welcome us as Calypso and her 
nymphs did Telemachus, giving us ht leaving, flowers, 
cold chicken, gloves, aprons and knic-nacs of every sort. 
Sometimes the reception would be at a regularlylaid table, 
as it was at Huntsville — sometimes in a ball room, as at 
luka Springs, and then after fifteen minutes of waltzing 
of fast city youth and bashful girls (who thought much to 
the astonishment of the former, that it looked nicer to be 
held- by the arms instead of being encircled around the 
waist,) the cars would again move on. 

Knoxville and Chattanooga each furnished impressions, 
but our pride had been humbled along that portion of our 
route by having to ride all night in box cars. Our 



26 A* Soldier's Story of the War. 



special glory was reserved for Lynchburg, and in after 
years we never grew weary of gloating over the honors 
there bestowed upon us. It was on Sunday about noon 
that we first stood drawn up in line in the principal 
street, and there were many carriages filled with ladies who 
lent the charm of their presence to the occasion. One 
of them was a gorgeous looking beauty who seemed from 
the glances she bestowed, to have fallen in love with some 
one of us at first sight. We each of us flattered ourselves 
with having wrought the charm, and doubtless thenceforth 
would have recounted around camp fires a good many 
Arabian night romances, or stories of ourselves, simi- 
lar to that of Queen Christiana and Ronzares, promoted 
from a coming soldier, to be a Spanish grandee. But a 
civilian who was standing by her carriage, dashed these 
hopes by bringing a message of invitation to one of the 
color corporals, and this was followed up by an introduc- 
tion, exchange of rings, corresppndence, and all that. 
Possibly the romantic meeting would have ended in some- 
thing else, had not death swept away both before the 
second year of the war. 

We passed the remainder of the day and night in Lynch- 
burg, the citizens entertaining us at their houses — that is, 
all with the exception of the Zenophon of this narrative 
and a dozen other unfortunate wretches. These were de- 
tailed on a very dark, chilly night, to stand guard over the 
cars on the railroad — none of us well knew which. The 
first guard mounting, proved as dangerous as it was irk- 
some. Having been placed on the embankment, the sen- 
tinel was ordered to march forward on the side of the cars 
fifty feet and return, keeping meanwhile a bright look out 
for the enemy. He started to march, as directed, on the 
track by the side of the train, but had not proceeded fifty 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 27 



feet before his path (owing to the narrowness of the em- 
bankment suddenly ended.) As it was very dark, he was 
not made aware of this state of things, until he found 
himself about twenty feet below, with his sabre sticking 
in the ground, and very much wondering how he so sud- 
denly reached there. 

We stood our guard watch of two hours and were then 
allowed to crawl among some sacks of corn in one of the 
freight cars, and sleep there until again wanted. By the 
time we had got through our second dose of guard 
mounting, there were a dozen of their country's defenders 
who began to have a low opinion about soldiering. 

The only other incident I shall now stop to relate, pre- 
vious to the arrival at Richmond, was that performed by 
a young private of that day, and a well known merchant 
of this. While the train was in motion, proceeding to 
the last point of our week's journey, a very pretty and 
patriotic young girl appeared near the track with a bouquet 
of flowers in her hands, of which to her evident regret, 
she had no opportunity of disposing. The rear of our 
long train was composed of platform cars, laden with the 
guns which were afterwards to accompany us into the 
field, and Underneath whose rattling chains at night the 
men would crawl and sleep. Upon the last of these plat- 
form cars a sentinel was standing, who thought it a pity 
that such a pretty bouquet should be left behind. The 
train was going slowly around a curve. Acting up to his 
idea, he jumped down without accident, took the bouquet, 
and the moment after succeeded in regaining the train. 
In fact, he did more — he not only gallantly took the 
bouquet, but a kiss besides, from the lips of the astonished 
donor. The same sort of thing happened at a way station 
where a young lady locked in a room on the second story, 



28 A Soldier's- Story of the War. 



offered a bouquet, then a ring, and finally a kiss to anybody 
that would climb after them. The work had to be done; 
on a shutter and the outside of a window sash, neverthe- 
less, we had such a variety of talent, that the work was 
accomplished. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE CONFEDERATE CAPITOL. 

We were very much disgusted on arrival at Richmond, 
for arrive there we at last did, to find that instead of being 
allowed to take a run around and see the place we 
were shut up in a tobacco warehouse and a sentinel placed 
at the gate. While some of us were meditating an imita- 
tion of the too lively Zouaves who had been shut up tem- 
porarily in an upper hall, and who made a very practical 
use of their new sashes to let themselves down to the 
ground, the welcome order came to march to a hotel break- 
fast. This was our breakfast of adieu, the last we were 
ever to eat altogether, and when finished, we moved toward 
camp. 

We were now marched in a comfortable frame of mind 
through the streets of Richmond, led on by the exhilerating 
notes of Gessner's brass band, which accompanied us from 
New Orleans, and we spread to the breeze the most costly 
and beautiful standard borne by any of the Confederate or 
holiday troops.* 

*This standard made of very costly silk, yelloiv upon one side and red upon 
the other, represented the coat of arms of Louisiana and of the Batallion. It 
was said to have been made in Paris at a cost of $750, was heavily mounted in 
silver and was presented by the ladies of New Orleans, in a speech delivered by 
Senator Benjamin in which he predicted the war. 

It was replied to by the gallant Capt. Wheat, then the color bearer of the 
Batallion. Towards the close of the war when its preservation became difficult 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 29 



The uniforming of the members which was done by 
first class city tailors, had been an item of something like 
$20,000 and with brass scales, white belts and gloves and 
flashing sabres, no organization in the world, as was after- 
wards told lis by President Davis and Lee (to which latter 
we reported,) ever presented a braver appearance. 

Still, in spite of our ardor, there appeared a cer- 
tain coolness on the part of spectators, which had been 
previously lacking in our reviews. We did not under- 
stand it then, but did afterwards. The fact was, the town 
was overrun with soldiers, till, as the phrase then was, you 
could not rest. This was the meditative view taken by the 
business population, who were occupied rather in thinking 
of the additional amount of money that would be spent 
in the city than our showy appearance, and in the few 
words that we were permitted to exchange in ranks, the 
people of Richmond, began to descend to a low figure. 
But we soon had cause to change this opinion in every 
respect ; and certainly the ladies of the city, when in the 
afternoon our camp had been pitched, and who came to see 
us by thousands, magnificently atoned for any lack of en- 
thusiam during the day. 

It need not be added that there was no city of the Con- 
federacy with which we became so familiar, or to which 
we became so much attached, as Richmond. It was in 

amidst incessant marching, it was sent to grace the Louisiana table of Mrs. 
Slocomb, at a fair given at Columbia, S. C. The colors were howeTer stolen, 
before its arrival from the valise of the soldier who had been entrusted with it, 
together with the valise itself; and though rewards have been offered nothing 
has ever been, heard of It from that day to this. Several of the battle flags that 
went with the diflferftnt batteries were brought back. The silver socket was all 
that was ever brought back of the standard. 

It was displayed for the last time on the works in front of Petersburg, on the 
morning of July 4th, 1864, as a sort of defiance suggested by the day. The pro- 
duction of this flag was speedily responded to, by the hoisting of apparently all 
of the regimental colors along both Federal and Confederate Jines. It was of 
course subject to a heavy cannonade during the day, though without once being 
struck. 

4 



30 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



reality for the next four years our second home, and be- 
came the permanent one for a good many of the members-j 
who there contracted ties of marriage and of business, and 
never returned to the Crescent City. There were none of 
us but what formed a large circle of friends of every class 
among the inhabitants, and as time wore on, we found a 
very large population from our own city gathered there, 
and in the surrounding camps. To take a Virginia sol- 
dier's impressions of Richmond from his pleasant recollec- 
tions, would be the play of Hamlet with the part of the 
young lord of Denmark omitted. They were our gleams 
of sunshine. 

But to return to camp. After the work of putting up 
tents, which we found to be a tremendous bore, the hour 
for evening drill had arrived, and a very large crowd had 
gathered to witness our manoeuvres, including President 
Davis himself. We were overwhelmed with invitations 
to houses, and received them just as readily without 
any introductions, and inside of camp lines, .as we did in 
private salons. I used to wonder how Romulus and his 
fellow-robbers, when they seized on the Sabine women — 
how they managed in the shortjtime they had for acquaint- 
ance, to adapt their booty to individual taste — ^whether, 
for instance, the white whiskered robber, who had been 
compelled to take a sentimental prize, did not afterwards 
have to swap her off to some young comrade, in exchange 
for another that was domestic and who had no nonsense 
about her. But as far as making acquaintances went in 
our experience, it was astonishmg how the different cliques 
and classes seemed almost instinctively or naturally to 
find out and adapt themselves to their own kind, whether 
they believed in blood, money, talent or education, Avhether 
carefully brought up or fond of a wild life, of a religious 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 37 

or business turn, or fond of intrigue and adventure. One 
of the latter sort, I remember who was on guard at the 
time of the parade, made a lady acquaintance which made 
him leave his post to accompany her home ; which kept 
him in all sorts of scrapes for the balance of the war, and 
which years after led to the singular fainting away of 
"a star," (for she finally went on the stage,) in a way 
that the audience could not understand. By a singu- 
lar sort of coincidence a second lady of the same party 
became attached and afterwards married to a soldier who 
was never once absent without leave, and is now well 
known in our city for his business capacity. 

Discipline was very rigidly enforced, and the guard tent 
was the centre of intelligence, partly because of the 
details for duty from the various companies, partly because 
it was generally filled with offenders who had gone off to 
town without leave, and the narrative of whose adven- 
tures about every class of city society was fully as lively 
as the average newspaper chronicles. Though the guards 
were very strict (rendered doubly so because they them- 
selves had probably already been caught and made to do 
extra duty) there never was any means found out for 
keeping the men in camp when there was no prospect of 
battle. They would cross the lines, apparently to go after 
water to bathe, or wash their clothes, (for we were already 
commencing to do this) and would show no alacrity about 
coming back. As the sight of a soldier dressed to go to 
the city would have been enough to have led to his arrest, 
the plan would be to start badly dressed with a bundle as 
if for washing, but which in reality contained the best 
suit. The washing in reality was mostly done by colored 
hlanchisseitses who were constantly about camp. When 
this plan could not be worked at night, some such ruse as 



32 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



turning a horse loose and rushing after it would be re- 
sorted to. 

Meanwhile in the matter of sleeping accommodations, we 
fared rather roughly, for a time. Our blankets were of the 
thinnest sort, and hardly large enough to envelope a cat. 
When you covered your feet, your breast would be uncov- 
ered, or a gentle zephyr would be playing about your ears 
or back. Besides, for the first night there was nothing 
between us and the ground, and we could not well get to 
sleep without undressing. If ever there was a thoroughly 
disgusted crowd when the bugle summoned us at day 
break to roll call, ours was that one. The complaints 
went to the officers, and the one especially in com- 
mand could be heard harshly swearing about everybody 
and everything all through camp. That was the worst 
day we ever had for growling and rough talk. Then too 
we had nothing to eat but very tough fried beef, cut in 
small rhomboids, instead of the magnificent flaps of por- 
ter-house steak to which many of us had been accustomed. 
One of the companies had an excellent cook, J. H. Ingra- 
ham, who has since become conspicuous among the colored 
members of the Legislature;* but Joe, the one we had, 
was such a travesty upon the noble chefs of the Crescent 
City, dressed in paper caps and white aprons, that it 
made us furious to hear him lying, chattering and frying, 
as if in defiance of our misery. Joe subsequently grati- 
fied us by deserting to the enemy, and figuring very 
largely as an intelligent and well informed contraband. In 
some of McClellan's reports the northern papers spoke 
about giving him an important command. 

*Diok Kenner, one of our eooks, has also since been a member of the Legis- 
lature. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 33 



CHAPTER V. 

SURE-ENOUGH SOLDIEEING. 

We reni<ained about Richmond, awaiting orders, several 
weeks,* undergoing daily a good deal of hard drilling, 

* The following is a letter written by Fishback to the N. 0. Crescent, dated 
July 7, 1861 : 

"The third and fourth companies of the Washington Batallion artillery leave 
to-day for Manassas Gap, whither the first two companies hare already preceded 
tbem. 

A delay in obtaining the cannon, harness and drivers, the latter still wanting, 
lias thus far detained them from what is known as " the scene of action.'' We 
leave Camp Beauregard with few regrets. Heat, cold, dust, rains, flies — each 
tent looked as if a swarm of bees had been hived in it — altogether, contributed 
to make us the most wretched band of patriots upon whose beads ever descended 
a hot sun or drenching rain. It was a soldier's life with all its hardships, with 
none of its pleasures or excitements. Our only amusement was cleaning sabres, 
mounting guard, going through the motion of loading cannon, and lastly, sleep- 
ing under the shade of two stunted trees — the only chance for shade there was 
in the camp. And then, too, to be so near town, and not be able to get there 
oftener on an average than once a week I The old steeples and roof-tops, as 
looked down from our camp upon the southern metropolis, was for us an en- 
chanted city — something about which we might sigh, dream about, and form 
strange fancies, but could not often see. Any one who obtained two " permits" 
during the week was viewed with considerable envy and jealousy, and when he 
returned with his pockets filled with candy, sweetmeats and whisky, and told 
big stories of having dined with Jeff. Davis, and advised his Cabinet officers, we 
regarded him in the light of a distinguished traveler just returned from some 
remote land. 

I do not know what we should have done, if we had not at length grown 
weary of so much camp life, and learned to pass the sentinels' lines without 
always remembering to give the countersign. We began to make acquaintances, 
to accept invitations to houses, and there were vague rumors which hinted at 
successes among the fair sex of a more enduring kind. 

For m/self, my modesty led me to be satisfied with the friendship of a pretty 
widow, the relict, I think, of some deceased butcher; and I can't boast that I 
ever succeeded in obtaining from her partiality more than an occasional beefsteak 
or mutton chop 

Returning late one night, I concluded to sleep till tattoo upon a long bench 
which occupied the side of our stable, stealing from a horse his bundle of hay 
for a pillow. I suffered considerably from nightmare, and on awakening was 
not a little astonished to find pillow, straw hat, and the best part even of my 
flannel shirt, all gone. 

The streets of Richmond are crowded with almost as many soldiers in uni- 
forms as were those of Paris in the Allied Occupations of 1815. I walked all 
over the city without counting more than ten young men who were not dressed 
a la militaire. Bar rooms and hotels are coining money — your plain drinks, 
(whiskeys, for instance, which cost, perhaps, twenty-five cents per gallon) sell 
for fifteen cents a glass, and mint juleps and sherry cobblers at twenty-five cents, 
so that a campaign of six months would be in what the soldier gets for pay 
worth exactly three hundred and sixty-five drinks I 

We are limbering up our cannon ("Key up that sponge-staff there") for the last 
time here, and the men are filing off ("Never make th« turn until the word, march") 



34 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and becoming accustomed to our new duties, (which at 
first we found extremely irksome, and which took up 
most of our time) as best we could. The men when not 
on guard duty, drilling, policeing camp, loading the am- 
munition chests, would hunt the shade of small trees, and 
only move with the shadow, or would be seen stretched 
out in the tents, like so many sullen, discontented animals, 
in the depths of a cave, glaring out angrily and selfishly 
from their limited quarters at every intruder.* 

By this time, having in our leisure nothing to do but 
sleep, notice and comment on individual character, we 
had come to be pretty well acquainted with each other's 
failings and strong points. Like every other organization, 
the Batallion had its aristocracy and popular favorites, 
and coming, as we did, from a large business centre, those 
who had been previously engaged in commercial pursuits 
gave the tone to the balance of the organization — the 
book-keepers and attaches of the large cotton, commission 
and grocery houses assuming, or having accorded to them- 
selves the first rank. Those whose opportunities as clerks 
had thrown them much with the every day world, had 
sufficient powers of self-assertion to claim probably the 
next grade, while, as likely as not, the men with the most 
learning, the deepest experience, rarest talent, and eccen- 
tricities, generally were regarded rather shyly in the mess 

for the last drill; and now having packed our knapsacks, pitched our tents, and 
kissed the sweethearts we leave behind, you will see us for the future more 
actively employed, with the scowl of battle upon our face, and hanging upon 
the flying ranks of the foe." 

*Some such speech as the following, was very commonly heard : " Now don't 
all of you come piling in here, unless you want to knock the tent down ; there's 
some cussed galoot that makes it a point to stumble over the tent ropes and 
pins every time he passes, who has nearly done it already." 

" Come, Tom, take a rest, and dry up. You've managed to smuggle in the 
best canteen of whiskey brought into camp, and you can't throw off on old 
friends that way. Out with it." 

And after one more growl about bringing around the whole Batallion, the 
coveted canteen would be reluctantly handed over. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 35 



and social relations of camp. For instance, a French 
Colonel who had accompanied us as a volunteer, hardly 
became known by name, and would never have been pro- 
moted to the rank of a Corporal. The same was true of 
one or two Prussian ofl&cers. Of the half dozen lawyers, 
and the same number of writers, none of them were much 
thought of — that is in the first year of soldiering. But 
the truth was, that the men of most ability had no oppor- 
tunity of showing their special talent, and had but little 
of any other kind — generally becoming disgusted with 
camp life among the first, and too contemptuous or despair- 
ing of the scanty honors within their reach, to take the 
trouble to obtain them. "The world is full of the suc- 
cesses of common place men," says the proverb, and 
undoubtedly the working characters of every day life 
made the best soldiers with us. 

The real aristocracy, however, in the harsh life of a 
camp — as well as everywhere else — which outranks all 
others, is that which can always command money, and 
which knows how to spend it. On a long march in after 
years, it is astonishing, when provisions are scarce, how 
much respect we can have for a comrade who has money 
enough to buy a loaf of bread for himself as well as his poorer 
mess-mate. Such a man would be forthwith invited to 
join the best messes, and be allowed to shirk, if not the 
entire mess work, at least its roughest parts; and his 
influence in obtaining leave of absence, a horse to ride, or 
some body to stand his extra guards, would extend through- 
out the camp. 

The best men would frequently fail of commanding 
much influence, through modesty and the absence of a 
stirring, bustling disposition. There for instance, was 
Professor Gessner, well known now in our city as an accom- 



36 A. Soldier's Story of the War. 



plished teacher, who was scarcely known in camp, except 
as a faithful, brave soldier; and the same remark would 
apply to Ernest Byer, the present Prussian Consul at 
Mobile, and who has since made a fortune in buying cot- 
ton. Corporal Coyle has since found it easier to control 
the coal or towboat business than he did in four years 
service, to get made Sergeant; while our well known 
Notary of the present day, A. J. Hero, though the small- 
est man in the company, through his vigilance, energy and 
unremitting attention to his duties, became Captain of the 
Third Company. 

In what has been said in our social distinctions, reference 
is' had rather to the make up and material of the Batal- 
lion as we started out, than to its character, as we soldiered 
on. The young snob who believed implicitly in blood, 
in his father's wealth, family position, or felt elevated 
above ordinary mortality from having obtained a fat situa- 
tion in a banking house or insurance company, got bravely 
over these ideas as he soldiered further on — forgot to part 
his hair in the middle, and learned to regard men rather 
by their worth than their artificial position. On the 
other hand, those who were not known at all at starting, 
in many instances continued to obtain influential places in 
the Quartermaster's or Commissary department, and make 
their influence felt in the distribution of rations. The 
tendency of this class, who were generally thought to be 
partial, and were therefore unpopular, was to assume style 
and airs in proportion to their power; however small and 
insignificant our honors, we liked to have them recognized 
for what they were worth. 

In the last year of the war, when the provisions given 
out for three days could have been easily consumed at one 
meal, I received with several others, an invitation to take 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 37 



dinner with the Commissary of our company. Although 
we had nothing but fried middling and baker's bread for 
our repast, no reader at this day can reahze how much 
awe the hospitality of our Amphytrion inspired, even in 
the breasts of some of the higher oflScers who happened 
to be present. As each guest present felt in honor bound 
to eat only a fair share of the delicacies spread before us, 
one can judge how much of the company's rations had 
been actually stolen ; the effect however of these gorgeous 
spreads, was to create the impression that the detailed 
commissaries were reveling in the luxury of Lucullus ; or 
something like the celebrated banquet given years ago in 
this city, where a politician on the verge of ruin, spent in 
one night $40,000 in entertaining his friends. 

There were a good many other classes that might be 
named, such as the class who continued to obtain soft 
places, and to shirk duty by flattery and playing in a very 
modest role as courtiers — such too as the musical choirs — a 
class much envied, who through their talents were always 
welcomed, not unfrequently to 'the exclusion of less for- 
tunate rivals. 

Having stated thus much of the critisisms which sol- 
diers, for absence of other employment, passed upon each 
other, it is but just to add, that with no hope of glory or 
of doing more than what every man ought to do for his 
country, they bore their trials, the meanest of them, with 
excellent spirit. Their miseries which were indeed great, 
were met with no discontent. There was no crime — 
there were no murmurs — and there waa a patient acquies- 
cence in orders, except when men were detailed to be away 
from the battle field, and these were hardly ever obeyed. 



38 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER VI. 



OUE FIKST BATTLE. 



Having bade adieu to civilization and comfort at Eich- 
mond, a dusty day and night of travel brought us to 
Manassas. I remember nothing of this, except that there 
were two or three ill-natured disputes among the men who 
were out of humor about seats, and that the farther we 
traveled, the less impressed seemed the world, at the sight 
of a soldier's uniform. It was evident that the farmers, 
so far from regarding us as patriots, were concerned only 
about the best means of preserving their fences and crops ; 
our predecessors in soldiering had taught them this much 
already. Instead of fair women to welcome us with 
flowers, we saw if we got out of the cars, only cynical 
landlords who regarded with an evil eye any attempt at 
a free use of his water or towels, or who would indulge in 
sneering remarks in reference to a lavish extravagance in 
the matter of soap. 

Arrived at the depot, which was afterwards to become 
so identified with our recollections of Virginia, we were 
set to work in the hot sun at getting off our guns, horses, 
and ammunition chests. We had then to take the road to 
" Camp Louisiana," whither two of our companies, 1st and 
2nd, had already preceded us. We found them pleasantly 
entrenched on the south bank of Bull Kun, in rows of 
tents connected by an arbor shade, and which latter was 
as great a luxury to us as Jonah's Gourd was to the much 
complaining prophet. Our comrades who preceded us 
consoled us for our fatigue and travel, by welcoming us 
to a dinner on beans — equivalent on the field to covers at 
Fritz's or John's at this day. Still it was not without some 
agony and depression of soul, that we came down to sheet- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 39 



iron crackers, or hard-tack, or reconciled ourselves to the 
afterwards familiar smell of fried bacon, with which, to 
tell the truth, I have, ever since the war, associated mili- 
tary glory. Now commenced those longings for sweet- 
meats and vegetables with which our soldiers for four 
years were consumed, and so hardly, indeed, did it fare 
with us in diet, that the most intellectual men in the Ba- 
tallion probably spent more time in painful or envious 
thought as to the best means of obtaining pies, chickens 
and eggs than we did on any other subject — ^patriotism, 
danger, home and sweethearts, all included. 

Those were the days when alarms were of very frequent 
occurrence — when the imagination was excited by talk of 
masked batteries, black horse cavalry, " Tigers, " Zouave 
slaughters, and the like — when cautious sentinels would 
watch the ears of horses to discern the first tread of the 
foe, (thirty miles distant) or when the return of the bat- 
tery-horses from watering, would lead to a rush of the 
guard to arms, or to the prancing around of the ofiicer of 
the day with a drawn sabre, and a tremendous shout to the 
off-duty men to "Fall in." I remember one fine looking 
oflBcer, dark, bushy whiskered, and covered with a red-lined 
cloak, who went through the pantomime of rushing to meet 
tJie whole of McDowell's array, so dramatically — ^in the 
style of Forrest, say-^— that we all voted him, in camp talk, 
promotion at once. 

But at last the alarm which we had felt in our bones 
for days previous did come — a rocket had been seen — as 
well as a pillar of smoke, and these marked the approach 
of the enemy. The most prudent betook ourselves to 
packing and looking after rations — bathers came in from 
the Run; idlers quit lazing in the shade, and even the cooks 
who were dancing or singing around the camp fires, became 



40 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



silent and watchful. We did not wait long — soon came 
the bugle sound to "Hitch up," and of "Boots and saddle," 
and in a moment all was confusion. In less than an hour 
afterwards the white tents had disappeared and we were 
galloping off to positions assigned us at the various fords.* 

I was lying on a caisson the next day, reading an old 
farmhouse novel, when we saw the enemy appear on the 
opposite heights. I did not believe then it was worth 
while turning down a leaf, even when we could see the 
gleam of the sun on their brass pieces or arms. A light 
curl of smoke, followed by a shot, which we could see 
coming towards us, and which looked like an India rubbei 
ball thrown through the air, convinced us that the first shot 
had been actually fired. We shifted our position — as 
their guns were of longer range — and soon saw our line 
of infantry moving towards the Run. The regiments that 
then moved forward were mostly composed of sanguine 
impetuous young men, the pick of the fighting material 
of the South, who moved forward with loud shouts and 
an exultant swing at the prospective combat, and who 
were so impulsive and imprudent, that they threw away 
their knapsacks and blankets in order to have more free- 
dom of movement. They felt the need of them badly before 
we were through with our fighting. 

As the day advanced (the 18th of June) the enemy 
made an attempt to cross the Run — our batteries were 
shoved forward, the infantry opened fire, which rattled 

♦General Evana of Soir.h CHioiim. was ihe first to 'ead his Brigade into action 
at Stone Bridge. It consisted of tlie Fonrih South Carolina Regiment and 
Wheat's Louisiana Batallion. Su-tnining ihem, was Gene al Cocke's Brigade, 
consisting of the 17th, I9t.h and 28th Virginia Heuiments, commanded respectively 
by Cols. Cocke, Withers, and Roliert T. Preston. These Brigades were the first 
to bear the brunt of ihe action, as they were exposed to a concentric fire, the 
object of the enemy being to turn our left flank while we were endeavoring to 
turn his right. These regiments of infantry were sustaining the iiimous Wash- 
ington Artillery, of New Orleans, who had two of their guns at this pqint, which 
made terrible havoc in the ranks of the enemy. — Richmond Diipatch, July 6th. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 41 



along the line in murderous volleys, and the skirmish or 
battle of Bull Run was brought on. 

It was just as much of a battle, so far as our artillery 
was concerned, as any we afterwards were in, as we were 
under heavy fire and continued in action until the fight 
was decided. It had been commenced, according to Swin- 
ton, through the "silly ambition" of Gen. Tyler, "who got 
it into his head that the enemy would run whenever seri- 
ously menaced." In pursuance of a belief that the man 
that got Manassas would be the great man of the war, 
and of an intention, as he expressed it, "to go through 
that night," he drew up his forces on Bull Run parallel to 
the Confederate troops, and opened an unmeaning fusil- 
lade. The result did not correspond to his expectations. 
The Confederates did not scare worth a cent; on the 
contrary, they suddenly charged across with a loud yell, 
and astonished Tyler by completely disrupting his left 
fiank. Meanwhile the guns of the Washington Artillery, 
which had been distributed about, at the various fords, 
kept up an active fire until the foe had disappeared. 

The following memoranda of the affair of the 18th, 
was made by Adjutant (afterwards Lieut Colonel) Owen, 
to whose journal frequent reference will be made in these 



" Camp was broken up on the 17th, owing to the driving 
in of our pickets and the advance of the enemy. Troops 
withdrawn from north side of Bull Run. Baggage was 
ordered to Manassas ; bivouacked in a pine thicket, near 
McLean's. Guns placed at McLean's and Blackburn's 
Fords ; we were roused on the 18th, before day, the bat- 
teries getting closer to the fords, and one detachment 
being sent to Union Mills. Zouaves seen moving about 
itt the woods on opposite heights." 



42 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



A portion of the second and third companies were or- 
dered to Blackburn's ford. Geo. "W". Muse, a young man 
of much promise and amiability was the first victim of the 
war in the Batallion. Gen. Beauregard, after the engage- 
ment, sent us word that we had behaved "like veterans." 

The troops kept about their same positions during the 
following day, though subject to frequent movements 
and alarms. At a consultation of our Generals, held at 
McLean's house, afterwards used as a hospital, Beauregard 
said on the 20th, " Let to-morrow be our Waterloo." If 
his prediction had been carried out, for which the Con- 
federate Army had every facility in the route of Manassas, 
it is not too much to suppose that the history of the Con- 
federate war would have been somewhat different from 
what it is. 

The following was the report of Gen. Beauregard, of 
the action of the Washington Artillery upon the 18th of 
July : 

''It was at this stage of the affair that a remarkable artil- 
lery duel was commenced and maintained on our side 
with a long trained professional opponent, superior in char- 
acter as well as in the number of his weapons, provided 
with improved munitions and every artillery appliance, 
and at the same time occupying the commanding position. 
The results were marvelous and fitting precursors to the 
artillery achievements of the 21st of July. In the out- 
set, our fire was directed against the enemy's Infantry, 
whose bayonets, gleaming above the tree-tops, alone indi- 
cated their presence and force. This drew the attention 
of a battery placed on a high, commanding ridge, and the 
duel began in earnest. For a time, the aim of the adver- 
sary was inaccurate, but this was quickly corrected, and 
shot fell and shells burst thick and fast in the very midst 




OUR FIRST COMMANDER, Page 42 



A Soldier's Story of the War. '43 



of our battery, wounding in the course of the combat, 
Capt. Eshleman, five privates, and the horse of Lieut. 
Richardson. From the position of our pieces, and the 
nature of the ground,- their aim could only be directed at 
the smoke of the enemy's artillery ; how skilfully and 
with what execution this was done, can only be realized 
by an eye witness. For a few moments their guns were 
silenced, but soon reopened. By direction of Gen. Long- 
street, his battery was then advanced by hand, out of the 
range now ascertained by the enemy, and a shower of 
spherical case, shell and round shot flew over the heads 
of our gunners ; but one of our pieces had become hors de 
combat from an enlarged vent. From the new position our 
guns fired as before, with no other aim than the smoke 
and flash of their adversaries' pieces, renewed and urged 
the conflict with such signal vigor and effect, that gradu- 
ally the fire of the enemy slackened, the interval between 
their discharges grew longer and longer, finally to cease, 
and we fired a last gun at a baffled, flying foe, whose heavy 
masses in the distance were plainly seen to break and 
scatter in wild confusion and utter rout, strewing the 
ground with cast away guns, hats, blankets and knapsacks 
as our parting shells were thrown among them. In their 
retreat one of their pieces was abandoned, but, from the 
nature of the ground, it was not sent for that night, and 
under cover of darkness the enemy recovered it." 

The guns engaged in this singular conflict on our side, 
were three 6-pounder rifle pieces, and four ordinary 6- 
pounders, all of Walton's battery — the Washington Artil- 
lery of New Orleans. The officers immediately attached, 
were Capt. Eshleman, Lieuts. C. W. Squires, Richardson, 
Garnet and Whittington. At the same time our infantry 
held the ba,nk of the stream, in advance of our guns, as the 



44 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



missiles of the combatants flew to and fro above them ; as 
cool and veteran-like, for more than an hour, they steadily 
awaited the moment and signal for the advance. 



CHAPTER VII. 

BATTLE OP MANASSAS. 

The battle of Manassas was, in many respects, the most 
curious, and at the same time, the least eventful of the war. 
If the Federals had given battle on Saturday instead of 
■Sunday, (the 21st of July,) they would have encountered 
the Confederate army without Johnston's command, whose 
men, as it was, only arrived at the most critical moment. 
If the Federals had delayed their attack a few hours 
longer, Beauregard, dreading Patterson's arrival, would 
have attacked them, with all the advantages of position 
on their side. In no battle of the war was there so much 
of the heroic element developed; the leading generals 
fought like private soldiers. Gen. Johnston threw him- 
self into the thickest of the fight, and led the gallant 8th 
Georgia Regiment on with their gloryaus colors in his 
hand ; Beauregard charged at the head of Hampton's Le- 
gion. He was riding up and down the lines between the 
enemy and our men, thoroughly combative, shouting them 
on with desperate ardor. Still the battle was going against 
us. Bee, Bartow, Fisher, Branch and all the field ofiicers 
of some regiments were killed while struggling to main- 
tain the Confederate line. This was being slowly driven 
back a mile and a half But now the quick eye of 
Jackson discovers a weakly guarded battery and swoops 
down upon it; Beauregard at the same time pushed for- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 45 



ward to regain his line, and so the chances went balancing 
from one side to the other — the Confederates at one moment 
driving, at the next being driven. Finally, while John- 
ston, like Wellington about Blucher, was sighing for his 
additional regiments to appear in sight, Kirby Smith, who 
had come fifteen miles since the battle commenced, now 
rushes forward, and though he falls wounded, cheer after 
cheer from the Confederates tells that the battle is won.* 
The rest was but the stampede of a panic-stricken army 
towards Washington.f 

We make the following further extracts from Adjutant 
Owen's report : 

"Gen. Kirby Smith coming up on the left, the enemy are 
routed; we firing the last gun. At 4 p. M. I rode over the 
field and saw the effects of battle for the first time. Men 
lay killed and wounded on every side — broken muskets, 
pieces of clothing and dead horses and disabled cannon 
were scattered about. 

"We had been fighting Sherman's, Griffin's and Sprague's 
Rhode Island Batteries. In the panic they left all their 
guns where they had been fighting, near Mrs. Henry's 

*Hi3 coming up, I heard one soldier remark, was like the throwing of four 
aces upon a poker table. There was nothing more to be done but to sweep in 
the stakes. 

■j-JuLY 21. — Enemy shelling different portions of our line from the high ground 
on the other side of Bull Run ; it is evident we will have another battle to-day. 

? A. M. — Five guns under Capt. Squires ordered to Lewis House, near the 
Stone Bridge. Enemy moving towards our left; Evans and Wheat fighting there 
and falling back. Two rifle guns ordered forward. Enemy still pushing us, and 
it now becomes evident, from the clouds of dust which rise over their line of 
march, that the enemy's main attack will be directed here. Gens. Beauregard 
and Johnston ride by us ; fresh troops ordered up ; our guns ordered in. We go 
into position under heavy iire, and fight the enemy's batteries around Henry 
House. Jos. Reynolds falls mortally wounded. In the thickest of the battle 
Gen. Beauregard, Capts. Chisholm and Hayward ride up. Gen. B. said to Col. 
Walton, in passing," 

"Hold this position there, and the day is ours. Three cheers for Louisiana." 

The cheer was taken up on our right and left. and ran the whole length of the 
battle line. At this instant the General's horse had his head shot off, and hi^ 
Aid took Sergt. Owen's mare, much to the latter's disgust. — 'BatalUon Journal. 

6 



46 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



house. She, poor old lady, was between two fires, and 
was killed in bed. We buried her in her garden. 

"Lieut. Dearing and I brought in the colors of the 2d 
Michigan Eegiment, and gave them to Gen. Beauregard. 
5 P. M. President Davis arrives from Richmond — is received 
with great cheering. The pursuit has been checked; why 
we cannot tell. It is reported the enemy are going at 
"double" for Washington. Bivouac on the field." 

The fact that the last gun of the day was fired by our 
battery will be confirmed by the following from the Peters- 
burg Daily Express, July 26th, 1861 : 

"The Washington "Artillery, who had drawn their guns np the hill and in 
front of the house known as Mr. Lewis' — Gen. Cocke's and Gen. Johnston's 
headquarters, and which was riddled with shot — commanded by Major J. B. 
Walton in person, gave the enemy about this time a parting salute. * * 

" Before the ball had well reached the point aimed at, a whole regiment of the 
enemy appeared in sight, going at the "double quick" down the Centreville 
road. Major Walton immediately ordered another shot "to help them along," 
as he said, and two were sent without delay right at them. There was no 
obstruction, and the whole front of the regiment was exposed. One-half were 
seen £o fall, and if Gen. Johnston had not at that moment sent an aid to Major 
Walton, with an order to cease firing, nearly the whole regiment would have 
been killed." 

Draper, in his history of the war, says that the panic 
was produced by the jam over one of the bridges, and 
the unexpected explosion of a shell in the midst of the 
fugitives. 

Considering that the route of the Federal army was 
complete, the most astonishing thing in the world was 
that none of the desperate ardor that had characterized 
the generals and troops came to the surface now. The 
promptness of Evans, on our left flank, in forming a 
new line of battle with a handful of men, different from 
what he had anticipated, together with the resistance of 
Wheat's(La.) Battalion, the 4th Alabama, and 8th Geor- 
gia, had stemmed the tide until the other Confederate 
troops, who were totally unprepared for the situation, 
could come up; in other words, about all the generalship. 



A Soldier's Stor-y of the War. 47 



that was displayed or much needed, was to animate the 
troops on the ground, and to shove in the balance as fast 
as they arrived on the field. But when the battle was 
over, the leading actors were either killed, worn out, or 
ignorant of their victory, or incapable of profiting by it. 
I remember seeing some officers stop, before charging, to 
read the news of the glorious victory to a brigade who 
had not been in the fight at all, and the slowness with 
which the brigade moved off in pursuit, contrasted strongly 
with the impetuous rushes which the men learned at a 
later day to make. It is hardly credible to think of our 
attacking afterwards impregnable positions like Gettys- 
burg and Malvern Hill, and showing lack of the requisite 
fire iu the moment of victory. A little of the daring of' 
Cortes or Pizarro was what we needed. Jackson, who 
had been pointed out as standing like a stonewall, and 
whose cry of, "We must give them the bayonet," had 
largely decided , the battle, earlier in the day — Jackson 
had too little influence to control, and neither he nor 
Longstreet (the men on whom Lee afterwards principally 
relied,) had fairly come to the surface. We had three 
commanders-in-chief during the day, and it was to the 
weakness of some one of them that our cavalry charged 
only for a mile or two. As Greeley truly states, " there 
were hours of daylight when our troops rushed madly 
from the field like frightened sheep, yet their pursuit 
amounted to nothing." The truth was that the Federal 
army was in a great deal worse condition than Lee in 
his final retreat, (who took two hundred prisoners a few 
moments before surrendering at Appomatox Court-House,) 
and if the cavalry of Manassas had corresponded to that 
of our enemy's in the last fight, there is no reason why 
the whole of the Federal army should not have been 
bagged. 



A' Soldier's Story of the War. 



As for what followed after the battle,* all of the military 
rules were observed, and by ordinary prudential lights the 
war was prolonged as well this way as perhaps by any 
other means that could have been adopted. But this 
policy did not correspond to the wishes and dreams of the 
men, who were, from impatience of camp life and disci- 

^Exiract from the Adjutant's Journal. 

JcLY 22d — Raining' this tiiorning ; rode down the turnpike towards Centrevillei 
the route of the fleeing column ; we pass large numbers of prisoners coming in! 
the road is strewn with guns, clothing and dead men ; abiudoned ambulances 
and wagons — some filled with wine and luxuries of every kind. Many citizens, 
members of Congress and others, came with the Federal Army to "see the fan;" 
ladies came as far as Centreville — we have seen several carriages coming in. 

At Cub Run suspension bridge, everything is jammed and smashed up. Cnp- 
u red here a good supply of red blankets and overcoats, which were distribnted 
the men on returning to camp. 

24 — The enemy has fallen back to Washington, and everything is supposed to 
be in a great confusion. la fact, persons coming from there say, all organization 
is gone ; why we don't move on and enter Washington, Pres. Davis and Gen. 
Beauregard best know. 

AnocsT 1st — Still encamped at our old camp-ground, going through the dull 
routine of camp life. We see many visitors daily who have come onto visit the 
battlefield; we are kept busy riding about and pointing out objects of interest; 
enough of the exploded caissons belonging to Sherman's Buttery, has been 
carried away to build a house; we live splendidly : Chickens, eggs, vegetables, 
milk, ice, and claret, pate de foi gras, sardines, etc. Mr. Slidell of New Orleans, 
visits our camp ; we are now according to the papers, the famous Washington 
Artillery. 

Sept. — Change our camp to Centreville, call it Camp Orleans — it is laid out 
beautifully, and the Third Company has its streets covered by an arbor of 
branches and leaves. 

Oct. — Move camp to Fairfa.x C. H., (Camp Benjamin.) 

Nov. — The Army falls backto Centreville; fortification thrown up on the height; 
our camp is near Gen. Beauregard ; a new supply of tents have been sent us from 
New Orleans ; our camp looks very pretty. 

Deo. 25 — Begin building winter quarters on Bull Run, on the old battle field of 
the 18th July. 

30 — The winter quarter camp is laid out, regularly, with a street for each Com- 
pany; the houses are of logs, apd are rooled with planks, and all have glass 
■windows ; the officers have double houses, two rooms on a line and at right 
angles with the Company Street, the staff on a line in rear of the Company's 
Officers, the long stable for the horses are in front of the camp, as is also the 
t>ark of Guns. 

Jan. — Gen. Beauregard and Staff have left us; have been ordered to the West; 
much regret is felt at his being removed. Gen. Joe Johnston is in command; 
■we have but 30,000 men here, and learn that McClellan ia massing a large force 
at Alexandria; we anticipate a retreat from our present position ; we have some 
sport J one day it was fighting a snow ball battle with St. Paul's Chasseurs 
Batallion. 

MAsictH 6 — Attached to Gen. Longstreet's Division by order of Gen. Johnston. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 49 



pline, compelled to die a thousand deaths, and rot away 
in idleness. In the same way that in times of revolution, 
the public prefers the bloodiest tragedies on the stage, or 
that the soldier selects the wildest and most bizarre novel 
for camp reading — in the same way ought our generals to 
have found work for an army, upon whose ranks, inaction 
was more fatal than the bullets of the enemy. For a 
cause that from the first could not hope for success, if con- 
tinued on until one side or the other was exhausted, 
appeals to extraordinary motives should have been made, 
daring chances should have been encountered, tlie feelings 
and passions which make a frenzied people superior to all 
military force, should have been stirred up. To do some- 
thing was the true policy of the Confederacy. Our troops 
were then the flower of the South, men capable of extra- 
ordinary things. They could have been made to dis- 
perse and re-assemble, in and out of the enemy's coun- 
try — as was once done by a Roman conspirator who, 
finding his six hundred men surrounded, ordered each 
man to shift for himself and report at Rome, hundreds of 
miles distant. Any plan as wild for instance, as that of 
Mahomet and his few followers who broke down the East- 
ern Rom^n Empire, would have been better than slow 
strategy, where our enemy had every advantage in 
military resources, in the facility of filling up their regi- 
ments with foreigners, and in the more patient temper of 
the troops. The fact that the South sent so many men of 
education and accomplishments into the ranks, lying about 
camps idle for months, was an evidence of the devotion 
of her people, and at the same time of the heavy strain 
there was upon her. A man ignorant of fencing, and who 
fights without rules, will frequently disconcert his expe- 
rienced antagonist ; on the same principle having to meet 



50 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



a foe who would always be better prepared than himself 
for standing a long war, the South ought to have adopted 
a policy which savored rather of madness and desperation 
than one of retreats. 

Possibly the war in this way would have been ended in 
a few months. If so the means suggested were the best. 
If otherwise, it ought to have been the best reason for 
preventing the total destruction of property in the South.* 

*Col. J. B. Walton, states that the Batallion carried into various portions of 
the line on the 21st, thirteen guns under the commands of Miller, Lewis, Richard- 
son, Squires, Rosser, Slocomb, Battles, Norcom, Garnett, and Whittington, three- 
rifled six pounders, and the balance 4 twelve pound howitzers and smooth six 
pounders. The battery under Lieut. Squires, received the first fire from the 
enemy's guns. Fire was shortly after opened by Lieut. Richardson ; Sergeant 
Owen dismounted one of the enemy's guns. About 10 a. »i., the artillery was 
upon the crest struggled for during the day, subject to a terrific fire, the men 
working as silently and composedly as when on ordinary drill, until the fire of 
the enemy was silenced. About 1 p. m., Lieut. Squires took position on the 
Stone Bridge Road, and opened fire upon the retreating columns of the enemy 
until ordered (momentarily) by Gen. Johnston to save our ammunition ; soon 
after, having obtained their range, our shots fell like target practice upon an 
enemy retreating by thousands. " The last gun of the 21st was fired from one 
of the rifles of my battery." Sergeant. J. D. Reynolds, killed — wounded, Cor- 
poral E. 0. Payne, 1st Company; G. L. Crutcher, 4th Company. 

Gen. Beauregard in his report says, that two pieces of the Washington Artil- 
lery under Richardson, four under Imboden, confronted Hentzleman's Division, 
and another at about il a. m. The Confederates then had only Evans, (Wheat's 
gallant Batallion,) Bee and Bartow, and two Companies of the 11th Miss. Against 
this odds, scarcely credible, our advanced position was for a while maintained, 
and the enemy's ranks constantly broken and shattered under the scorching fire 
of our men. Col. Early, with the 7th Va., and Hay's Tth La., came on the ground 
immediately after Elzy, and took position near the Chinn House, under a severe 
fire, outflanking the enemy's right. At this moment, under a comkined attack 
all along the line, and by the aid of the fresh troops, we finally carried the con- 
tested plateau, and "Early's Brigade pursued the now panic-stricken enemy." — 
Jieaurcgard's report, battle of Manassas. 

Telegram sent of the Battle of Manauas. 

Richmond, July 24 — {Orescent 25th.) Out of the four hundred of Wheat's 
Command engaged, less than a hundred escaped being either killed or wounded. 
The Catahoula Guerillas, Capt. Bahoup, belonging to the Batallion, fought with 
desperation. 

Letter from a member of Wheat^s Batallion. 

{Crescent, August 1st 1861.) On Sunday 21st, at sunrise, the enemy commenced 
throwing shot and shell among us; the enemy fired as if all hell had been 
set loose. Flat upon our faces we received their showers of balls ; a moment's 
pause, and we rose, closed upon them with fierce yells, clubbing our rifles and 
using our long knives. This hand to hand fight lasted until fresh reinforcements 
drove ua back— We carrying our wounded with us. Major Wheat was here 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 51 



CHAPTER VIII. 

CAMP LIFE. 

After the battle, we had for some months* no other inci- 

shot from his horse ; Capt. White's horse was shot under him; our 1st. Lieut. 
Dick Hawliins, was wounded, shot through the breast and wrist, and any number 
of killed and wounded were strewn all about. , 

The Isew York Fire Zouaves, seeing our momentary confusion, gave three 
cheers and started for us, but it was the last -shout that most of them ever gave. 
We covered the ground with their dead and dying, and had driven them beyond 
their first position, when Just then we heard, three cheers for the Tigers, and 
Louisiana. The struggle was decided. The gallant Seventh had "double-quicked" 
it for nine miles, and came rushing into the' fight. They fired as they came 
within point blank range, and charged with fixed bayonets. 

When the fight and pursuit yvere over, we were drawn up in line and received 
the thanks of Gen. Johnston, for what he termed our extraordinary and desperate 
stand ; Gen. Beauregard sent word to Major Wheat, "you, and your Batallion,' 
for this day's work, shall never be forgotten, whether you live or die." 

CAMP AND GEKEEAL EBOOED. 

*Our Batallion sustained, during its first year, a severe loss in the resignation 
of some of its best officers, among whom were Capt. Isaacson and Lieutenants 
Lewis, Slocorab, Whittington and Adams, whose talents had greatly contributed 
to the successful organization of the Batallion in its infancy, and most of whom 
afterwards did good service in other companies. The truth was, that an officers' 
duties involved so much constant care and trouble, that the position was scarcely 
to be envied, and we had a good many instances of officers from other corps who 
honored us by entering our ranks, and like D'Artagnon and his friends of the 
"Three Guardsmen," were contented to do the duty of a private soldier in 
preference to holding command. 

Aug. 7. — The Louisiana troops now concentrated at Brenville, near Centreyille. 
The 6th and 7th Regiments and Wheat's Batallion near by. Col. Seymour com- 
manding. The time is now arrived for concentrating them all in one brigade. 
Hon. John Slidell and Warren Stone among the visitors. 

Atra. 24th.- — The -Washington Artillery in New Orleans, turn over $1280 as the 
result of a concert given to assist destitute families. 

Aug. 16. — Prince Napoleon (PlonrPlon) a guest of Beauregard for two days. 
The news wa8 soon transmitted by some waggish skirmisher that " Old Puss and 
Feathers'' had been bagged at last, and the Prince enjoyed the joke largely, until 
a Georgia regiment was met, which manifested a disposition to anticipate the 
action of a court martial. 

Oct. 20th, 1861. — The first and second company stationed on Munson's Hill. 
The first had been sent to different points on secret expeditions, one of which 
was going thirteen miles in the enemy's lines, surprising a camp, etc. 

Nov. 26. — Amount expended and due for equipping State soldiers up to date, 
beside private contributions, $2,300,000. Gov. Moore states that "the Secretary 
of the Confederate States made his first requisition on me lor three thousand 
volunteers in April. Before this was filled, the Secretary made a second requi- 
sition for five thousand men. In July a third was made for three thousand 
more. Eight of these regiments and two batallions are now in Virginia, one in 
Mississippi, three in Kentucky, and five within our own State. There have been 
besides fourteen companies of infantry mustered in for the special defence of 
this State, and four companies of artillery. Thirteen othe^ companies are at 
Camp Lewis— making an aggregate of 20,202, raised by the State, besides, as ■ 
I believe, -3891 men of independent organizations, or 24,003 in all." — Governor 
Moore's Message, Nov. 26, 1861. 



52 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



dents in our life than the changing from one camp to 
another — the distribution of uniforms, drill, guard-mount- 
ing and an occasional detail to go with the wagons to 
Manassas Station to get corn and provisions. This latter 
duty or privilege, of riding in a six-mule wagon, driven 
at full speed, which almost jolted the teeth out of you, 
was regarded in somewhat the same light at that day as 
a drive over the shell road would be now. It was a hap- 
piness to get a half a dozen miles from camp, and besides 
that we had a chance of meeting up with friends from 
other organizations; and, if we had any money, of spend- 
ing it. These meetings were not, however, generally very 
satisfactory, and resulted only in showing how men let 
down as they soldiered on. If the writer of the "Guide 
to Politeness" had had his rations of water limited' to 
what he could carry in his canteen, it is doubtful whether 
he would have insisted so strongly that no man could be 
a gentleman who did not wash his face at least once every 
day. Possibly, too, in time he would have had his views 
modified as to the amount of mud upon a man's back or 
straw in his hair admissible in strictest drawing room 
etiquette. Count D'Orsay and Beau Brummel would in 
the end have become disgusted at having to substitute a 
tin plate, a la Jack Strop, for a Venitian mirror — to trying 
to imagine that his frying pan at dinner represented costly 
plate or Sevres china, or to using clothes brushes to which 
the backs of the battery horses might have advanced 
superior claims. We were so overwhelmed with absurd 
changes and variations upon all ordinary modes of living, 
that things became, after a while, as was said by the 
Texan (when he saw every thing he owned burned down 
or destroyed) " perfectly ridiculous." 

The worst of it was, too, that though somebody was 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 53. 



always falling a victim to these contre temps or innovations, 
the jokes gotten off about them would not always be of 
the most original or outrageously funny sort. They sel- 
dom, for many of us, amounted to much beyond awaken- 
ing a sad smile, the first time they were toldj and they 
did not pan out any better as they grew in age. But 
with the majority they wore well, like army clothing; 
and they were a well-spring of joy to a good many old 
buffers, whose hearty haw-haws would at the same time 
reward the narrators, each time they were told, and 
threaten the stability of our rather rickety tents. 

One of these standing camp jokes I may as well mention 
here, as an illustration of what tent-life is in summer, 
rather than from any fondness for inflicting old stories. 
It was about some man who went dead in some particu- 
larly hot camp, and whose ghost, some nights after, 
haunted his old comrades ; not because of any remorse, 
or for the reasons that ghosts usually come. The ghost's 
real reason, he stated in answer to a cross-examination 
upon the subject was, that hell was so cold compared 
with the heat of camp, that the place seemed to have 
burned down and frozen over, and he had consequently 
got a leave of absence to come back for his blanket. This 
joke had a big run in both armies; in fact there was only 
one other that was oftener quoted ; that of the sutler who 
found he had to compete in selling whisky with a chap who 
had gone behind his tent, and who, with aid of a gimlet, 
was underselling him from the sutler's own barrel. One 
of the yarns said to have secured the passage of the 
conscript law, was told of an officer who had leave of 
absence to go home and raise a volunteer regiment, six 
months after we learned what soldiering was. When the 
Secretary of State inquired how he was getting on, the 
7 



54 A" Soldier's Story of the War. 



officer reported that he had not yet made any enlistments, 
but that he had had his eye on a d — d fine looking recruit. 

In the days when it began to be said that one had to 
take a good wallow in the mud to make himself respecta- 
ble, the visitor who had the hardihood to appear in camp 
in citizen's clothes had a terrible gauntlet to run in the 
way of advice, suggestions and comments. How many 
kind voices would extend him invitations to " Come out 
of that hat," with such corroborative hints thrown out to 
convince him that he ought to act promptly, as that his 
legs were "sticking out." It would be pointed out that 
his Parrot shell hat might explode; and if a timid turn, 
he would be agonizingly warned for "God sake to lie down, 
we are going to explode a cap." The joke was not always 
confined to the civilian; it was just as exasperating if you 
were a grand officer and prancing around in gold lace, to 
create no other effect than the shout of, "Here's your 
mule." 

But as has already been said, a soldier's life is too hard, 
too much like that of a frontiersman or gambler's, to 
admit of much sentiment or generosity. The instinct of 
self preservation prevails ; "everything for me — nothing 
for you" was the rule generally carried out. Men in 
those days who had been accustomed at home to jovial 
dissipation in midnight suppers, with a crowd of similar 
spirits, bent on amusement or excitement, would some- 
times go off alone to the station, from the various regi- 
ments and make a small investment in fire water. Now, 
happiness ! This would consist in stealing off to the shade 
of a fence corner, or of getting under the wagon, if its pro- 
tection had not already been previously pre-empted, and 
the happy proprietor would then think that happiness con- 
sisted in having a full canteen, and being untroubled by 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 55 



flies. Soldiering, which is founded on rough military rule 
inculcates the principle of looking very carefully after 
self, and it is not easy to remember many names who very 
often lost sight of this rule — possibly because they had 
nothing to give, but there were times when, in spite of the 
hard life by which we were surrounded, their better 
nature would crop out. We could give our lives for our 
country, but found it hard frequently to divide some 
trifling comfort. 

But once in a while the old spirit would flash up, and 
the generous disposition shine forth. For instance, it was 
the fortune of one of us at the battle of Manassas to get 
run over by a caisson full of ammunition, and with eight 
or ten men on it besides. The battle was not over, and 
any one who had a flask of liquor, was likely enough to 
need it himself This fact, however,. did not keep Jack 

C from generously extending the last drink in his 

flask. To know the value of this act, one must have sol- 
diered or traveled across the plains. 

On the other hand a wounded man of an adjoining 
regiment was carried off" by a comrade from where he was, 
bleeding to death, and sent to a hospital,' where he recov- 
ered. The two men came together again in Pizini's Ees- 
taurant — the wounded man eating ice-cream, his brother 
soldier without a cent of money, and as hungry as a thirty 
miles march could make him. The man who had been 
wounded did take the trouble to lay down his spoon long 
enough to shake hands, but that was all. His omission 
to offer his comrade a crnst of bread proba.bly arose from 
forgetfulness or lack of more money, as he at any rate 
gave his life to his country. 

Once a man who had one of his legs shot off", begged so 
hard for his life that some of us picked him up and carried 



56 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



him away, although it was rather a neglect of duty, as the 
firing might at any moment have recommenced. This 
poor fellow had a pocket book containing $2.50 which he 
gave to one of us to carry, and which was handed back to 
him when he was put down. The man counted over the 
Confederate money attentively, in spite of the pain he 
must have suffered from his wound, and rather intimated 
that twenty-five cents were missing. But he got over this 
feeling presently, and then offered us about fifteen cents a 
piece for having saved his life. It was a noble offer on 
his part, as he proceeded to tell us that he was wounded 
and helpless, and would need the money more than we did. 
Some of us helped off" a Federal soldier who was similarly 
wounded ; he afterwards met one of our command as a 
prisoner, and gave him a piece of tobacco, and an old 
knife, both of which he begged from somebody else, by 
way of showing that he wished to do what was right. 
Some such gossiping comments as those above made, 
would occur as likely as not, while we were marching side 
by side on the road, when some comrade had been suffi- 
ciently rich and generous to buy a flask of liquor and 
divide its contents with his friends, or where a detail 
had purchased the article by forming a joint stock associa- 
tion. I shall tell, and then proceed, one more incident 
which I heard in a similar crowd, by way of showing that 
we sometimes become hard-feeling and brutal, but after- 
wards saw our selfishness in its truest light : Tom C 

was a gallant Louisiana Sefgea,nt, who had been wounded 
in every fight he went into, and whose position near the 
colors made it certain in his own mind that he always 
would have the same luck. Passing through Atlanta 
towards the] close of the war, on his way to Chattanooga, 
he mentioned his presentment to a relative, who told him 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 57 



to telegraph back any casualty he might meet with, if he 

had a chance. C went into battle, his color-sergeant 

was wounded and the colors fell on C . He had 

not proceeded far with them, before he was shot through 
both hips. A friend gave him a plug of tobacco and a 
canteen of water, promised to send his telegram, and the 
regiment moved on. The doctor came around and refused 
to move him or dress his wound, as it appeared beyond 
cure, and thousands of others were sufiering. Tom lay 
there for two days, was carried from the field by his rela- 
tive, and ultimately recovered enough to hobble about on 
crutches. 

About the time he had recovered enough for him to 
take the cars and go home, a comrade came to the same 
house whom Tom had once helped when in great danger, 
and which comrade, if he had been so disposed, could now 
have rendered Tom a good many little services. But his 
friend did nothing of the sort. Tom, who was not only 
very polite and respectful, but almost reverent towards 
every woman, had found warm friends in the household 
among the lady inmates, who rightly regarded him as a 
hero, and had it not been for the coming of his handsome 
and showy comrade, probably Tom, in spite of his crip- 
pled condition, would have carried away the heart of one 
of the party. But after his fellow soldier's arrival a cloud 
came over Tom's fortunes ; his simple stories, and honest, 
artless comments upon life lost their freshness and charm ; 
his sweetheart took or seemed to take a fancy for his com- 
rade, and he began to suspect that his friends were getting 
weary of rendering service to a cripple. He left one 
morning with a heavy heart. He had to start at day- 
light on a cliilly, tempestuous morning, and as it was with 
the utmost difficulty Tom could drag one foot along after 



58 A Mdier's Story of the War. 



the other, he had hoped that his comrade would take inter, 
est enough in him to help him into the carriage, and assist 
him at the cars. But this comrade who had been talking to 
the ladies late the night before, and who was very sleepy 
at the moment of departure, did nothing of the sort. He 
simply rubbed off enough sleep from his eyes to be able to 
yawn a "Good bye, old fellow — if I wasn't so d — d sleepy 
I'd go and help you off.' This was the last that the two 
men saw of each other. 

But if Tom had seen the ladies at the breakfast table, 
and seen especially the flashing eyes of the young lady he 
loved, he would not have been unavenged. His comrade 
was told plainly that she could not see how one soldier 
could be so profoundly selfish and indifferent to a wounded 
fellow soldier; and there were no more smiles henceforth 
for him in that house. 

The man that told the story said it was himself that 
had treated Tom C. so badly ; and he thought his conduct 
was as shabby as the ladies had represented, when he had 
been a little while longer out of camp, and began to look 
at things unbiassed by the selfishness which soldiering 
naturally makes. 

I speak about such little incidents, because every man 
worth speaking of, had to do or see some practical sol- 
diering, and in all probability held an obscure position and 
has a hundred little remembrances in his own history 
similar to the above. Nearly every reader knows how it 
was himself, because in all likelihood he as a good citizen, 
"just went along," without bothering much about the 
matter, whether he was a soldier, or held high position. 
There are other and better narratives, which tell of our 
brilliant officers who were every moment galloping by 
with jingling spurs, gold lace and scarlet sashes ; and who 



A Soldier's Story of the War. S9 



for all mention made of the soldier in their pages — did 
pretty much all the service and hard fighting by them- 
selves. It deserves however to be stated, while confining 
myself mainly to an outline of a soldier's life, that nearly 
all of our Southern officers, were too proud to fare any 
better than their men; and practically in their lives, 
carried out the example of Alexander, when he threw 
away a cup of water in presence of his thirsty troops. 

It deserves to be said that they went in with all of their 
combativeness to the surface — bracing themselves in the 
stirrup, with a lusty wave of their sword, and using a mus- 
ket like a soldier ; or later in the war, sitting still on horse- 
back meditatively, as if each man in a regiment had 
learned what to do, and as if it was better not to bother 
it with any i«terference in action, or interruption. The 
latter was really the style of fighting that, prevailed 
with the veteran regiments. The men kept on as long 
as they felt that they were doing any good, and then if 
not satisfied, as if putting it to a vote, would stalk dis- 
gustedly off". The tone of the officers in the few cases, 
when no general command had been given to fall back, 
would be that of obstinate jurors, or that of a man in a 
stage-coach who has been detained, and asks his fellow- 
passengers to wait with him a little while longer, till he 
gets through with his dinner. An officer's troops would 
always stay with him, when there seemed to them any 
sense in the men keeping on, and sometimes would refuse 
to retire, when ordered to fall back. The best evidence 
of this, is the fact in such battles as Malvern Hill and 
Gettysburg, the storming brigades of the Confederate 
troops lost forty-four per ct. more than Napoleon ever lost 
or than was lost in the Franco-German war. The ofl&cial 
reports of Gen. Gordon showed that the losses amounted 



60 A SUdier's Story of the War. 



to one man in every three wounded — one man in every 
ten, killed in one battle, not to speak of absentees or 
prisoners. There were brigades where the killed and 
wounded were over one half. 



CHAPTER IX. 

A WAKLIKE HOTEL. 

I OUGHT not to have left so far behind all mention of 
Manassas station, which point every soldier had more or 
less occasion to visit during the first year of the war, and 
about which every one who then did duty has probably a 
thousand recollections to relate. Apart from its military 
value, it was the most uninteresting place in existence. In 
rainy weather, when the wagon trains of the whole army 
came to it every day, the mud was at least two feet deep — 
so deep that a horse would sink up to his belly, or in walk- 
ing a square on foot, one would have his boots pulled off 
his feet, at least a half dozen times. Beside the cake and 
pie stands, the most conspicuous feature about the station 
was Belcher's Hotel — a building almost as large as the City 
Hotel, though the prices for meals and lodging were 
rather higher. The walls were rushed up very much 
like a barn or stable, where the wind on cold nights would 
Avhistle through the cracks or intervals of the planks, 
which were at least a half inch apart. The building was 
too stories high, and was heated when cold weather came 
on by an immense stove whose smoke all settled inside. 

There was always a large crowd surrounding the stove, 
though they never remained in their seats more than ten 
minutes at a time, on account of the smoke. Most of the 
men who surrounded it appeared like the Blind Calendars 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 61 



mentioned in the Arabian Nights story, and sat with their 
eyes firmly closed. Candles about the building were con- 
sequently of no use. The last thing you did at night was 
to wash your eyes in cold water, if you could find any, 
and the first thing in the morning — to get out of the 
building as quick as you could, strike for camp, and swear 
you would never enter it again. It was destroyed, with 
everything about Manasses, when Gen. Johnston made 
the first of his everlasting retreats, together with a very 
large amount of Commissary stores, and every other build- 
ing there was about the place. 

We had occasion to do some hard fighting in a few miles 
of this famous depot, when Lee was chasing Pope out of 
his "Head-quarters (or hind-quarters as the joke was) in 
the saddle;" but we never got to see it again until after 
the war. At that time the innumerable wagon roads that 
seemed to lead everywhere, had disappeared, though the 
fences were still absent. But the town of Manassas has 
sprung up more prosperously than it had ever been known 
to be before. A new quarry of red sandstone had been 
discovered — new stores had been erected from this, as well 
as a printing office, and a comfortable hotel. Faint traces of 
the old breast>works could just be discovered, overgrown 
with grass, and that was all. 

One of the pleasantest of our resting places I can 
remember, was one known as Camp Orleans. This was, 
perhaps, on account of the shade-^r-perhaps because we 
had some distance to go for water, and thus had a better 
opportunity of getting out of camp limits. The spring 
was the great centre of attraction for our own batallion, 
two or three Louisiana regiments, and the Tigers, Guer- 
rillas and other companies, who composed the gallant 
Colonel Wheat's Batallion, A little distance off was a 



62 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



little village, known as Centreville, pretty much aban- 
doned by its ancient inhabitants to sutlers, ready made 
forts, quaker guns and all the paraphernalia of war. I 
remember nothing in the way of incident connected with 
the place, except the pleasure we all experienced at the 
commencement of the Indian Summer, at sometimes hav- 
ing to stand guard over the Commissary tent, where there 
were sometimes a few perquisites of office, and at once 
having an opportunity of rescuing a couple of ladies from 
a runaway team of horses. That is, the horses actually 
ran away, and by rescuing them, I mean that one of us 
had the honor of helping them from the carriage after 
the horses had stopped and the danger was over. 

Then the whole army went to Fairfax and did nothing 
particularly worthy of mention, except to execute a beau- 
tiful retreat, which was much gloated over at the time, 
and which simply amounted to striking our tents and 
burning everything we did not want to carry back with 
us, immediately after firing oflF a sky-rocket. It took us 
all night and part of the next day to get back to camp 
from about the same place where we started. 

Our next camp was called Camp HoUins, and here we 
were again getting into all sorts of scrapes. We kept our 
quarters in excellent condition, cutting broom-straw, which 
grew plentifully, for pallets, and generally having a rather 
pleasant time around camp fires, dodging smoke, telling 
stories, and borrowing from our comrade's tobacco pouch, 
where there was an opening. We had some drills and 
fancy parades, but these were almost the last we were to 
have. Once in a while some improvidential youth would 
be detected in furtively making use of a government 
horse to visit friends at a distance, and sometimes there 
would be a court-martial or two, resulting from this grave 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 63 



violation of discipline. The same party of ladies who 
had been rescued from the runaway chariot, were the 
cause of the exercise of one of these exhibitions of camp 
discipline ; and if the reader will picture to himself the 
difficulty of obtaining a horse under patrol of two or 
three guardsmen — riding a dozen miles during a snow 
storm, where your horse would fall down three and four 
times in descending long and slippery hills, he will have an 
idea of the restless feeling produced when you are kept 
a long time inactive in camp. Then we were ordered all 
of a sudden to go to cutting down trees, chopping them oif 
in prescribed lengths, and then hauling them to a new 
camping ground, preparatory to building winter quarters. 
We soon acquired suflScient experience to lay those notched 
logs one upon the other, and cover them over with shingles 
prepared for the purpose; and when this was done, with 
the addition of a rough puncheon floor, window sash, 
brought in by parties on horseback from some remote 
abandoned house, and a door, the habitation of a dozen 
men was in short measure completed. 



LETTER WBITTEN IN TKNT. 



Centreville, Dec. 6th, 1861. — This will be my last 
letter from this place, so at least our officers encourage us so 
to believe,.and feeling that we are thus encouraged for some 
wise purpose, we give fancy free rein in laying out plans for 
the future, quartering ourselves for instance in Richmond, 
and dancing and reveling through the winter solstice with 
the natives. Meanwhile, time drags wearily enough. Our 
only amusement is to build air castles (I wish it was winter 
quarters) around a big fire and dodge the smoke, and should 
we remain here, I think more of us will die from too 
much Centreville on the brain, than from all other causes 



64 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



whatever. I don't say that the town is any more dull 
and sensationless than many others that we both have 
probably passed through ; but it seems so to us. I dcmbt 
if an incident or adventure ever took place within its 
dreary limits, unless the necessity of passing through or 
of staying all night, of some benighted traveler in such a 
God-forsaken collection of boards, might be regarded in 
that light. Society of the softer sex, there is none, coffee- 
houses, there are none. A blacksmith shop, a few stores 
kept by men who swindle the careless soldier at extremely 
cheap rates, and the ghost of a hotel so unredeemably 
dismal, that a night spent in a snow bank would be prefer- 
able to entering its portals ; these and a few other houses, 
built upon an almost perpendicular street, constitute the 
town. 

r 

From this atmosphere, a few friends of different regi- 
ments, together with myself, resolved for one day to escape. 
Freedom, though only for a few hours, was a sufficient 
motive for me, but with my friends, a determination to 
obtain a lost dog, was an additional inducement. Our con- 
versation naturally turned upon the qualities of this faith- 
ful follower of man, and from my friends I learned that 
his complexion was a billions, soap colored yellow, that 
his body was bereft of its tail, and that his legs were dis- 
proportionately long for his body, had it not been curtailed 
of its narrative already. What the use of this sorry cur 
was, I was unable to ascertain, as the mere asking of such 
a question might have been construed by a soldier's mind, 
into an affront. But, I learned that the mere permission 
to hunt for him required the signatures of half the officers 
in the regiment, besides one or two Brigadier-Generals, in 
order to pass the pickets. 

Gradually the conversation subsided into subjects of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 65 



less interest, (excepting of course, inquiries of every way- 
farer, in reference to the lost animal,) and one of the 
party, who seemed familiar with localities, and anxious to 
talk, pointed out surrounding objects of interest. Among 
others he described the occupant of a small house — two 
rooms and a small garret, which was, he said, familiar to 
soldiers as the "Widow's," and where those who were 
fortunate enough to have fifty cents were wont to repair 
for their meals. 

The doorway, continued my informant, is always 
thronged with a hungry crowd, under the eye of a senti- 
nel, of officers and privates, who restrain their impatience 
until the board is spread, by wallowing on the beds, or 
smoking pipes, with their legs above the kitchen mantle- 
pieces, ejecting saliva at the hissing stove. Whether the 
guests visit the widow from admiration of the sex, or the 
culinary art, my friend thought impossible to say, her pre- 
tensions to beauty and skill being about evenly balanced. 
But bating or love making, no one seems able to boast of 
much preference, her smiles being distributed with the 
same impartiality as the tit-bits, gizzards and livers of 
her table. 

Conspicuous at one time among the widow's admirers, 
was a sandy-haired youth with a "coming stomach," whom 
you may know as Charles. Charles's parti-colored ties, 
moccasin vests, bear greased locks, and glittering appear- 
ance generally, had constituted him at one time the cyno- 
sure of the bar-rooms and banquettes of your city ; but the 
sun of his glory has long since set, and nought remained 
of his former splendor, but a dirty shirt. His face bore 
but little evidence of a familiarity with water, while the 
tangled jungles of his head were equally i^ntroubled with 
the inroads of brush or comb. His hands dangled at his 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



side, coarse and dirty, like a couple of smoked hams, and in 
short, as mouldy and wilted a looking bird was Charles, 
as was to be found in the Confederate camp. It was about 
this time that chance led him to the widow's door. The 
visit awakened old memories, and was attended with pur- 
chase of a comb. The second interview involved the 
washing of his face and hands, and each succeeding visit 
was succeeded by a similar change and transformation. 
Whether this brilliant metamorphosis was wholly due to the 
humanizing influence of woman, or partly to his month's 
pay, and the holding of strong hands a.t poker, my 
informant did not take it upon him to say ; but at any rate, 
the moments of Charles, which are not absorbed in painting 
a pair of tremendous boots — tops, soles and all, are gener- 
ally whiled away in the widow's salons. 

Thus discoursing and listening to the statistics of another 
soldier, whose mind appeared to have been much occupied 
with the study of mules, wagons, and other means of con- 
veyancing not mentioned in law writers, not forgetting 
meanwhile, to make constant inquiries in reference to the 
missing dog, we passed through a country war-scathed, 
exhausted of almost every supply, and almost depopulated 
of its native inhabitants. No traces of anything like an 
inclosure were to be seen. 

The zig-zag worm fences had disappeared at the first 
appearance of winter, and a rail is now almost as much 
an object of curiosity as would be the presence of the great 
rail-splitter himself Much was said at the time by the 
few farmers, who remained, about the destruction of their 
property, and stringent orders were issued from camp. 
But the soldiers, whose blood was freezing, were not in a 
condition to wpigh calmly the difference between meum 
and te^lm. It was doubtless good that farmers should 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 67 



have fences, thought the soldiers; but it was also good that 
patriots should keep warm, and so the last sign of one 
has long since disappeared. 

Our roads led us over the black waters of Bull Run, by 
the famous stone bridge and stone house, (the Hougomont 
Chateau of our Waterloo,) and through the memorable 
battle-field itself. The fallen trunks of the trees which 
were cut down to intercept the enemy's path near the 
bridge, are still remaining, and the broken, splintered tops 
of others attest where the whirlwind of battle has passed; 
otherwise, a few shreds and patches of cotton which mark 
the position of the batteries, a house almost destroyed by 
the balls and, lastly the graves of the dead, are the sole 
remaining indications of the greatest battle ever fought 
upon this continent. 

We had not proceeded many miles farther before we 
came to a house, which appeared to be still inhabited by 
its owners, and whose external appearance, and the savory 
smell from the kitchen, gave us some encouragement to 
hope for dinner. It is not generally thought necessary by 
the soldier to waste much time in knocking or pulling at 
the bell, and so we entered the parlor without further cer- 
emony. By way of announcing our arrival, one of the 
party, in a large, broad-brimmed hat, and with blanket 
thrown around him, in Indian style, seated himself at the 
piano, and favored us with some music, with a touch 
about as light as would have been produced by a horse 
galloping across the keys. We had sung or rather shouted 
the Marseillaise and other airs, and one or two couple were 
waltzing in bonnets and other articles of female para- 
phernalia which we found in the room, when just at that 
moment the door opened, and through the dust which had 
been kicked out of the carpet, we saw the angry face of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



the lady of the house. There was evidently no use of 
apologizing or attempting to mitigate her wrath. So put- 
ting on a courageous face, we told her we wanted dinner 
— we were ready to pay for it, and were obliged to have 
it — that we were not particular, and that anything in the 
way of chickens, eggs, butter, and other light dishes of 
that sort, would easily satisfy us. This we finally per- 
suaded her to give us, and before we had finished the 
meal, she admitted we were not as hard-looking cases as 
she at first thought us to be, and that we might, if we 
chose, return. Meanwhile, one of the party who had been 
out on the back porch, discovered the lost dog Tige, 
lying sleeping in the sun, and was beckoning, whistling, 
and employing all the endearing names which are gener- 
ally found most successful in attracting a dog's attention, 
but without avail. Tige seemed to be afflicted with the 
aristocratic affectation of deafness; but at the first move- 
ment that was made by the soldier in his direction, he 
uttered an indignant yelp, and sought refuge under the 
kitchen floor. His retreat was, however, useless. The 
lady of the house abandoned him to his fate, and the 
remainder of the party coming to the rescue, a part of the 
flooring was removed, and Tige was ignominiously dragged 
from his hiding place. His captor now took his prize 
under his arm, and bidding adieu to our hostess, we all 
started for camp. 

Our return was not attended with many incidents. The 
soldier who was so well informed on the subject of mules 
had rashly exhausted his stock of ideas in the morning, 
and so we trudged on through the mud in silence, by the 
side of the heavily laden wagon. Once, upon the way, 
one of us ventured to enter at the back of one of those 
wains, and had appropriated a seat beside what appeared 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 69 



to be a closely muffled soldier, but was not a little aston- 
ished to find, as he crowded into one-half of the seat, that 
it was in reality a lady. He was about to vacate the 
premises, with a profusion of apologies, when she laugh- 
ingly told him he might stay — that she wanted some one 
to talk to and would be glad of his company. She was 
the wife of an officer, who, she proceeded to inform me, (I 
might as well admit it was myself,) had come on a flying 
visit to look after her truant husband. 

But the road soon forked. I had besides to get down 
and show my pass to the sentinel, who examined it very 
carefully up side down. Here, too, our faithless cur availed 
himself of a moment's freedom, and took to his heels, and 
although we made the air vocal with Tige's name, we 
soon found, as one of my disappointed comrades gravely 
observed, " all hell couldn't whistle him back." 

We gained our camp without further adventure, and I 
soon fell asleep, dreaming that I led the hostess of the 
day to the altar in the dress of a Vivandier, and that 
your Fat Contributor acted as grooms-man, in a flannel 
shirt and red-topped boots. Fishback. 



CHAPTER X 

IN WnfTEB QTJABTERS. 



Theee is nothing about which soldiers more pride them- 
selves, or about which they show more jealousy, than in 
retaining the few fair acquaintances it was their fortune, 
during their marches, to make. Whether it was the pas- 
try cook and her little girls who sold pies at Centreville, 
the village teacher, elderly, motherly old ladies, or dashing, 



70 A„ Soldier's Story of the War. 



showy belles, who would move around on horseback, or 
travel in the ambulance wagon, most of the young men 
were keenly sensitive to their good opinion, and however 
awkward, backward or indifferent to ladies' society at 
home, would always put the best foot forward, where the 
presence of the fair was to be met with about camp. For 
them the immaculate collar, which had only been worn on 
a half dozen state occasions, Avould be carefully extracted 
and adjusted — your neighbor's high-top boots would be 
borrowed, and a contribution generally levied on the 
slender stock of effects admitted by camp wardrobes. 

The most amusing part of the matter was the way 
in which the old soldier would continue to adapt their 
appearance, manners, or past history to the ideas of their 
new friends, and it need hardly be said that the traveler's 
privilege of relating wonderful and marvelous stories was 
not forgotten. Old sporting characters soon learned how 
to dandle babies in their arms, or rock cradles in the most 
domestic manner in the world, or to sanctimoniously join 
in hymns with as much fervor as they had in times past 
trolled out bacchanal songs. Some of these old soldiers 
acquired extraordinary proficiency in the use of the long 
bow, however it might be with the artillery practice. 
We had a saturnine, red-faced company commissary, who 
was with the Washington Eegiment in the Mexican war? 
a thorough martinet in all military matters, and who never 
wearied of relating wild and hair-breadth narratives of 
personal adventure — all with the most gloomy composure. 
As showing what this gallant soldier had achieved, it may 
be stated that he was present at one massacre, and was 
the only man who escaped. It ought to be recorded, too, 
as a part of history, that he once had a conducta of Mex* 
can wagons and mule trains, laden with gold, to bring 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 71 



through a mountain pass, and was almost certain his con- 
voy would be attacked and captured by robbers. "What 
was he to do? Why, to make up a party at Monte at the first 
pueblo with a Mexican proprierZor of the richest mine in the 
world, and who happened very conveniently to be on hand 
at the time. The game was made — the unhappy old sol- 
dier soon found to his chagrin that somehow he could not 
lose — that he won as many wagon loads as he already 
held, and that he was now burthened with a dozen more 
impedimenta. His apprehensions proved well founded — 
just as he had finished acquiring this emharas de richesee, the 
guerrillas "struck the train, as he all along expected, 
and had captured every thing. And worse than that," 
would the old soldier conclude with great energy, " d — n 
my Confederate soul if they did not take every rag from 
our backs — even from a party of young ladies who were 
along with the conducta, on their way to a convent. We 
made a pretty figure, let me tell you, when at the end of 
our journey we were all carried into aposada, wrapped up 
in sheets and horse blankets." 

There were plenty others, like Henry Phelps, who had 
a good deal to say about Mexico, or like the Hon. Ned 
Riviere (of the last legislature,) and Sam Rousseau, (the 
brother of the Federal General,) who had soldiered in 
Central America, under Walker, and who were accorded 
the privilege of distinguished travelers in telling of a 
hundred mile march made in one day, or of having rations 
of monkey meat distributed out, as our armies did bacon. 
But they were overawed when Commissary Hart w:as 
about, and never put forth their full strength or quite did 
themselves justice in his presence. 

Then there would be another heavy conversationalist 
who had had some experience at sea, and who finding the 



72 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



land well occupied, was compelled to take to salt water, 
and told as exciting sea-stories about Confederate rams, 
blockade runners and submarine boats, as Sinbad and 
Maryatt could have done. We had several of that sort, 
who used to practice and polish up their yarns at night, 
around camp fires, preparatory to the next "pirout;" and 
these artless raconteurs would have a queer group of 
eccentricities gathered around in long blanket coats, with 
cowls, one here and there in a Mexican jacket or red 
flannel drawers, while a third would be tink-a-tinking at 
the guitar. There was a mess of queer fish, who from 
having some defects of temper, were forced to occupy the 
same winter quarters — an eccentric poet in one case, in 
another a cynical prodigal, who had spent a pretty fortune 
in a few months, on friends Avho had politely laughed in 
his face when his money was gone; another, singular to 
state, was the nice man at home, who played on the piano 
and parted his hair in the middle. But defects are devel- 
oped in other ways in camp than with a comb, and the 
musician, though engaged to marry a beautiful and wealthy 
girl at home, (perhaps on account of it,) finally left us 
with a never-ending furlough. 

One night there came a singular report in camp. It was 
whispered that a move the next morning was to be the 
word, and there was an immense amount of bustle and 
packing in consequence. When we went to bed we were 
only permitted to sleep till three the next morning, and 
werejthen aroused without bugle call. And after cooking, 
as .was done by the Grand Army at Moscow, over the 
flames of our burning quarters, and eating (in part) our 
rations and good many baker's dozen of biscuit, and 
drinking a tin cup of coffee each man, we took our places 
rather silently at the pieces and moved off. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 73 



We are now upon the first of our retreats — the retreat 
from Manassas to Richmond. A frosty morning shows us 
the whole Confederate army drawn up in the road, the 
men facing towards Richmond. There is a sUght tremor 
or depression at first, indicative of a fear that something 
has gone wrong, or else we would not have to fall back ; 
this soon wears away ; and the infantry meanwhile march 
with arms at will, and the air of men who carry heavy 
burthens, and with that movement which indicates that 
long marching is before them At the head, or in front 
of their divisions and regiments, ride the men whose 
names occupy the page — sometimes the lying page — of 
history, flanked by cavalry outriders and a cloud of skir- 
mishers. Then come the slow moving trains of ammuni- 
tion, supplies, and ambulances containing the sick and 
wounded. 

As the dav advances, and we discern that the retreat 
is not the result of any anticipated misfortune, the men, 
who are glad of any break in camp monotony, regain their 
spirits. 

To understand the first comment frequently made about 
this and other long retreats, the resident of New Orleans 
should take a look at the large, life-sized picture, which 
represents Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. The dead 
horse, and attendant scavengers — the broken down wagon 
or forge — abandoned equipments, the sick and wounded by 
the wayside, make up some of the details at which many 
of us looked very hard before enlisting, and of which 
we thought very frequently afterwards. This picture 
was brought to mind by one of the dreary sights about 
camp, especially during the winter season and on a long 
march, that is by the number of dead horses who perish 
from hunger, cold, bad treatment, or exhaustion. 



74 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



In this and other marches it was sometinaes said that 
we could have walked all day upon the prostrate bodies 
of the horses which fell by the wayside. The mule was 
a much more hardy animal — his carcass was very rarely 
seen. He endured so well that in time he took the place 
of the battery horse, (as at Drury's bluff) and we all 
laughed at the manner in which a mule would shake 
himself when struck by a bullet, as if divesting himself 
of some superfluous hornet or gadfly. But a horse once 
down was like Lucifer — he fell to rise no more. A 
smooth place would be worn in the mud by the moving 
to and fro of his head and neck, or where he had thrown 
out convulsively his legs ; and then a lingering death, a 
swollen and bloated carcass, or bones covered with col- 
lapsed hide, with the crows holding a coroner's inquest 
upon the neighboring tree tops. 

To see these serviceable frien(Js of man, and almost 
indispensable adjuncts of a good army, lying by the way- 
side, was very depressing, for the reason well known to a 
soldier, that dull, sluggish horses can never be trained to 
the point requisite for efficient cavalry horses. Almost as 
much depends, in a successful charge of cavalry, on the 
horse as on the man. Raw recruits mounted on well- 
drilled horses, are more serviceable than veteran troops 
mounted on clumsy, low-spirited animals. At the battle 
of the Pyramids, the horses of Muzod Bey's cavalry 
charged repeatedly in squadrons after their riders were 
killed. So did the French horses at Waterloo on the 
English under the same circumstances. 

And after the Marquis Romana was compelled to leave 
his horses on the shore of Denmark, at the embarkation 
of the troops for Spain, they formed themselves into two 
hostile armies, as the ships of their late masters faded in 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 75 



the distance, and charged upon each other with such fury 
that the earth shook for miles around, and the terrified 
inhabitants of the country tied panic stricken to their 
houses. So terrible was the slaughter of these fine Anda- 
lusian horses, that out of a body of 10,000 but a few 
hundred remained alive. 

I have always thought in reading this in history, that 
this was the way in which the inhabitants accounted to 
the government for some of the missing chargers. This 
supposition is supported by a remark I once heard dropped 
by a quarter-master, that the mortality was always heavier 
with horses when near the cities, and that the deaths 
reported would sometimes be excessive when in close 
proximity to a faro bank. There was a great deal of 
mortality among the horses too, at the close of the war, 

especially among the cavalry. Capt. G , upon being 

questioned by the Federal Commander as to what in the 
deuce had become of all his stock, reported that " Ze buf- 
falo gnat — he eats them all." 

By the time that McClellan had discovered the uses of 
Quaker guns in forts, we were far away on our retreat 
towards Richmond. I leave it for abler judges to decide 
as to the policy of keeping an army inactive for months 
at a time — composed as that one was, of the flower of the 
South — of retreating to the peninsula, and then retreating 
from there. What Jackson did in the valley, ought, it 
seemed to us, to have been done with the army about 
Manassas; and it seemed to us that if a General has enough 
inventive genius, he could always find opportunities, like 
Napoleon, for striking blows with his force whether large 
or small. But General Johnston probably knew best — he 
was a cautious, prudent, and thoroughly able commander, 
who never was caught unawares, but a little long in 
finding his opportunity. 



16 A Sbldier's Story of the War. 



We had some terrible weather in getting down to 
Orange Court-House, and the most perfect picture ever 
made on my mind of blissful sleep occurred on this march. 
Next to the cooks, who as the men of genius of a mess, 
gave themselves more airs and made themselves more 
disagreeable than anybody else, were those who superin- 
tended the erection of quarters, purchased supplies, etc. 
On the occasion referred to, after long and tedious 
marches and counter marches, making feints upon one 
place and then on the other, the army was overtaken about 
dusk by a tremendous storm. The leader of the mess, who 
exercised great tyranny about having all mess-work done 
exactly right, was absent when our tent was put up, and 
some of the lazy ones had contented themselves with a 
hasty structure, made of rails propped against a fence, 
that ran at the bottom of the hill. The consequence was, 
besides what fell over us, the water ran under our blankets 
from the hill above. Sleep was impossible for many — we 
were drowned literally out. 

"A quarter less twain — six feet scant," and similar 
soundings out was the cr}^, and there was nothing to do 
but to get up, build large fires of the rails, and keep as 
warm and dry as we best could. 

While standing thus before the fire, miserable and dis- 
contented, we were compelled to regard, and this with 
great envy, a comrade notorious for his indolence, who had 
laid a rail foundation for his bed, and who, covered with 
his gum cloth, and undisturbed by the underground 
streams which Avorked such misery to the balance of us, 
contrived to sleep like an infant during the whole of the 
terrible storm. If he had once turned over, or he had 
discovered the uproar among the elements, he would have 
been drowned out too ; and it certainly showed a great deal 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 77 

of forbearance to let him sleep on, and merely step in be- 
tween him and his share of the fire, without molesting 
him. 

This storm brought about another accident. The mu- 
sical characters had rigged themselves up with extraordi- 
nary splendor, to make a serenade outside of a hospitable 
mansion, or rather to lay the foundation to giving a little 
musical soiree inside. Nothing favored them, not even 
the weather — the crowd were wet and disagreeable, when 
they arrived, and what was still more exasperating, the 
comrade who had floated around the world was inside — had 
got possession of the .field, was telling all of the yarns 
he had rehearsed in camp, and was singing with perfect in- 
„diiFerence to the arrival of the chorus. It was in vain the 
latter tried to snub him, and give him the cold shoulder, 
and intimate that he did not belong to the select few. The 
first comer held his ground ; and whenever any music was 
called for, would, while the chorus was affecting bash- 
fulness, plant himself absent-mindedly and dreamily at 
the piano, and nothing but a torpedo or bomb-shell would 
ever have moved him until he got through. The part of 
the joke however, which made the chorus most swear was, 
the young lady of the house hung on his lips as if he 
had been a god, and the submissive subject of the admira- 
tion, so far from having shown any repentance for having 
crowded out those tip-top feUows, the musical chorus, got 
desperately wounded in the next battle, and then married 
the lady. 



78 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ON THE BOAD. 

We camped a week at Orange Court House, and this 
left no other impression upon us than that our three day's 
rations of bread at starting, were heavier than the balance 
of our baggage. Most of the rest of the journey to Eich- 
mond was made . by cars. Previous to entering one of 
these, one of the messes had bargained for a small supply 
of fluids, which the treacherous Boniface, after receiving 
our money, and finding the men on board of the cars, 
neglected to produce. He failed, however, to carry his 
point. An impromptu detachment was immediately started 
back to his hotel, the humorous George Meek, was placed 
in command, and made for the next half hour, as fierce a 
looking non-commissioned officer as one would wish to see. 
The order to "arrest that man, seize on him," was given 
to the great terror of the treacherous Boniface ; (who 
would probably at that moment, have given a thousand 
dollars to be out of the scrape,) to the accompaniment of 
drawn sabres. However, before carrying him before the 
Commanding General, whom our host supposed had sent us, 
we consented to listen to his prayers. Any quantity of can- 
teens would be given us, or the money returned. The 
sound of the locomotive whistle, made us contented to 
take the latter.* 

*Bxtract from the Adjutant's Journal. 

Makoh 8. — Began our retreat from Bull Run, at 8 p. m. Marched to Suspension 
Bridge; distance tliree miles, and reported to Gen. Longstreet. 

0. — Marched to Gainsville. 

10. — Marched to Warrenton. 

11. — Marched to camp in Jones' Wood. 

12. — March to, and camp near Woodville. 

13. — We are near Hazle River. 

14 and 15. — Still near Hazle River. 

16. — Three miles from Culpepper Court House. 

17.— Marched ten miles past Culpepper. 

18. — Crossed the Rapidan at Barnett's lord, and camped one mile from Orange 
Court House. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 79 

But arriving at the next station, our good genius came 
to the rescue. A South Carolina Lieutenant who had 
been to a still and came back laden with twenty canteens, 
wished to travel on our train. The orders were positive to 
allow no one but the companies to come aboard; This was 
however deemed an exceptional case, and although the offi- 
cer of the day was shouting and gesturing to "put him off," 
some of the men contrived to keep the order from being: 
obeyed, the officer of the day meanwhile making wrath- 
ful imprecations and signs which hinted at court-mar- 
tial. The storm however was foreseen and anticipated. 
The principal offender, as soon as the train stopped, has- 
tened forward to his Captain with one of the canteens in 
his hand, and affiicted to believe that no officer of the day 
in the world could have wanted to put off a man laden 
down with whiskey. The Captain kept the canteen, and 
admitted that his command had perhaps been misunder- 
stood, owing to the noise of the train. No other incident 
until our arrival at Richmond. 

Our Batallion camped nominally the first night at the 
Depot, but the understanding seemed to be that we could 
sleep where we chose, and there were not many who did 
not avail themselves of the extraordinary opportunity of 
sleeping in a civilized bed. There were too, some precious, 
moments of freedom vouchsafed to us after we had gone 
formally in camp, in which we were permitted to renew 

22. — Marched through Orange Court House, and camped-on Terrell Farm, five 
miles from Orange Court House. We halt here for the present. 

April. — We have enjojed our camp near Orange Court House very much ; the 
ladies are pretty — we have formed a dancing club which meets twice a week 
at the Hotel, Orange Court House. The band of the 1st Regiment furnishes fine 
music. Among the members, are Gen. Longstreet, A. P. Hill, and the officers of 
the Washington Artillery. 

Received orders in Church, to prepare to march. Began 8 p. M.; marched down 
plank-road to Fredericksburg. Very wearisome marching. 

12. — Shipped seven Guns by rail to Richmond; horses and wagons go by 
Turnpike. 



80 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



old friendships, and witness a very curious and motley 
gathering from every part of the world. As nearly every 
one was only temporarily absent from home or camp, in 
search of a commission, or enjoyment of a short furlough, 
the city was naturally in the gayest of spirits, and every 
one lived extravagantly, while his money lasted ; and 
when gone, did not have much difficulty about hunting up 
a friend who would divide his table, purse, or medical sup- 
plies with him. So that each stratum of visitors became 
thoroughly impecunious about the time its furlough expired, 
and would be succeeded by another, whom military acci- 
dents or necessities brought within the radius of the city. 

The population of the town at that time was extraor- 
dinarily large, for the amount of accommodations, and no 
one under the rank of a Colonel, could hope ever to obtain 
a room at a hotel, or portion of one ; and very frequently 
at late hours, a dozen distinguished officers were seen 
stretched out by envious callers about the entries. These 
latter would be denied the luxury of even a seat in chairs, 
from scarcity of room, and sometimes unceremoniously be 
invited to skip off by the diamonded clerks, or previous 
claimants of the space. During ray night in the city — at a 
very late hour — happening to think about going to bed, I 
was put in possession for the first time, of this information. 
There was nothing to do but sally into the streets and medi- 
tate over my homeless condition, for which I had abundant 
Jeisure, or to endeavor to meet with some adventures that 
would kill time until day break. 

I had not proceeded far, before I discovered that the 
population was far from having all gone to bed, and upon 
inquiry of a soldier, I found that he was as badly situated 
in the matter of sleeping quarters as myself The pre- 
vious night he had managed to find some sort of couch 



80 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



old friendships, and witness a very curious and motley 
gathering from every part of the world. As nearly every 
one was only temporarily absent from home or camp, in 
search of a commission, or enjoyment of a short furlough, 
the city was naturally in the gayest of spirits, and every 
one lived extravagantly, while his money lasted ; and 
when gone, did not have much difficulty about hunting up 
a friend who would divide his table, purse, or medical sup- 
plies with him. So that each stratum of visitors became 
thoroughly impecunious about the time its furlough expired, 
and would be succeeded by another, whom military acci- 
dents or necessities brought within the radius of the city. 

The population of the town at that time was extraor- 
dinarily large, for the amount of accommodations, and no 
one under the rank of a Colonel, could hope ever to obtain 
a room at a hotel, or portion of one ; and very frequently 
at late hours, a dozen distinguished officers were seen 
stretched out by envious callers about the entries. These 
latter would be denied the luxury of even a seat in chairs, 
from scarcity of room, and sometimes unceremoniously be 
invited to skip off by the diamonded clerks, or previous 
claimants of the space. During my night in the city — at a 
very late hour — happening to think about going to bed, I 
was put in possession for the first time, of this information. 
There was nothing to do but sally into the streets and medi- 
tate over my homeless condition, for which I had abundant 
Jeisure, or to endeavor to meet with some adventures that 
would kill time until day break. 

I had not proceeded far, before I discovered that the 
population was far from having all gone to bed, and upon 
inquiry of a soldier, I found that he was as badly situated 
in the matter of sleeping quarters as myself The pre- 
vious night he had managed to find some sort of couch 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 81 

about a livery stable; but upon returning, he found anotlier 
occupant ahead of him. The night was chilly, and what 
made the matter worse, we had many of us in marching 
worn overcoats and double suits of uniform, on account of 
the smallness of our knapsacks. This extra clothing, 
through vanity or comfort was soon disposed of, once we 
had arrived at Richmond, but at night, with no lodging, 
was much regretted. 

Happening to pass the theatre, I entered. It was at 

that time owned by M'me. , who was an old actress 

herself, and who, from scarcity of talent or infatuation, 
placed in leading parts a half crazy actor named Dorsey 
Ogden. One of Otway's old plays (Venice Preserved) was 
at that time on the boards, and one of the incidents of this 
was the dragging of the heroine around the stage by her 
back hair. The poetry of the play was so antiquated or 
inverted that the soldier audience did not even stop eat- 
ing ground peas to try to catch it. But the back-hair 
dragging magnificently atoned for Ogden's absurd acting 
and absence of everything, except a very fine wardrobe; 
so much so, that the poor heroine was encored and had to 
be dragged a second time. 

A very beautiful theatre was built during the war, and 
furnished extravagantly. It was always largely crowded 
— so much so on the first night, that I lost both hat and 
overcoat in making my entrance. 

What had suggested the idea of my entering the theatre 
at that time, was the hope of meeting up with some friend 
who would get me shelter. I did not get this, but did 
manage to join a pretty large crowd of soldiers who were 
moving towards obscure lodgings, and in keeping in com- 
pany with these I proceeded to an attic room containing 



82 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



eight unattractive beds, and succeeded, without opposi- 
tion, in getting the whole of one of these. 

Feeling out of danger in the morning, I ventured to 
inquire of one of my new acquaintances how it happened 
that I alone had occupied a whole bed. The soldier told 
me that for his part he would not have occupied any such 
couch at all, if he never got any sleep; and in answer to 
further inquiries explained that a man had been killed in 
it a night or two previous, growing out of a quarrel as to 
who had the right of ownership for the occasion. I saw 
something of the case afterwards in the papers, but the 
tribunals could obtain no evidence, either through the 
ignorance, or disinclination to speak, of the witnesses. 

Going down to breakfast, I met up with an old Louisiana 
friend, who, different from every one else, was dressed in 
an elegant civil costume — a thing at that day regarded 
with great envy, and ,the certain index of a soft situation 
and a plethoric purse. My friend was Jim Morris, (who 
used to be well known on St. Charles street, and in the 
army in Violet Guard circles,) and on scanning his costume 
I discovered that it all probably belonged to its wearer; 
that is, it was not a mosaic g<ala, composed of the tempo- 
rary loans of a half dozen messmates, which we, like the 
hrst Napeleon in his days of poverty, were compelled to 
wear. 

I need not state that I felt exceedingly flattered at 
finding a friend thus dressed, who seemed glad to see me, 
and in the fervor of. my delight I shook him by the hand 
until the breakfast began to get cold. 

Jim had once been a young doctor of much promise, but 
became seduced by fast company. At some sort of sup- 
per or entertainment one night he had won $1500 at 
gaming; and this success or misfortune gave him a ruling 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 83 



]iassion, to which he devoted his time henceforth — neg- 
lected medicine, and for some years his old friends lost 
sight of him. When I next saw him, he hunted up all of 
his old friends. At first glance, from certain hard lines 
about his face, it was easy to see that Jim had not fared 
well with the world. His object in coming to see us was 
to borrow $10 a-piece, which he was confident he could 
raise the next day. We succeeded with some work in 
raising the money, and took the opportunity of trying to 
persuade him to settle down to his profession. He listened 
attentively, went away with the money, and beyond the 
raillery of friends, who smiled at our innocence in wasting 
both money and breath, we heard nothing more of Jim 
or his promise until the meeting referred to. 

As soon as we had shaken hands, instead of sitting down 
to the table, he made me put on my hat and carried me 
off to a restaurant near the Spotswood, picking up more 
comrades on the way, among whom were Kingslow, Handy 
and Ballantirie; we obtained the best breakfast the market 
afforded. He told me it was worth his money in the way 
of getting up an appetite, to see an army friend eat, and 
upon this calculation, he probably ought to have been well 
repaid and stimulated by our example. After returning 
the borrowed money, and showing a good deal of curiosity 
as to whether I had ever entertained any doubts about 
repayment (which I was forced to confess I had,) he 
invited us to make his room our headquarters, and to 
always come there when we were in town from camp. Dr. 
Jim now held the rank of surgeon, but I don't think my 
excellent advice about reform had had much of a beneficial 
effect ; but he showed that he had been immensely pleased 
at having a friend that took that much interest in him, 
and never afterwards tired of doing me little services. 



A Soldier's' Story of the War. 



I left my friends in the doctor's company, after dropping 
a hint of caution. When I saw them again their features 
were overcast with what was then known as a flour-barrel 
expression of countenance, and their manner was very sad. 
The explanation was soon made. The doctor's company 
had been found so pleasant, that they had not had the 
heart to tear themselves away, until our accomplished 
bugler had lost $150, and the others more than twice 
enough to pa}' for the breakfast. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE PENINSULA. 

At the end of April, we proceeded down the James 
River to the Peninsula, and encamped near the York- 
town lines of fortification of the Revolutionary War. 
We did not see the cave in which George (according to the 
authentic old darkey's story) slipped up on Cornwallis and 
took him in out of the cold, while asleep; but the old 
lines of fortification, as evidence that the event really 
occurred, are still easily to be discerned. 

Williamsport, we found to be a queer old place, and at 
that time singularly blended the cobwebs of antiquity and 
scholastic lore with the bare and stripped appearance of a 
beleaguered town. There were some college buildings 
still in good condition, and a statue of Botetourt, who 
seemed to have had things* pretty much his own way in 
his day, (he was Governor or something). And there too 
was an Insane Asylum, where was to be seen a beautiful 
young lady, who after getting twenty beaux, went crazy 
from disappointed love for the twenty-first — a soldier in 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 85 



a Gulf Regiment who did not know enough English to 
learn what was the matter, or who was prevented by the 
movement of his regiment from saying so, if he did. But 
at any rate, there was the poor woman incessantly wringing 
her hands, or occupied in restlessly rolling up and twisting 
around a red scarf or mantle, which seemed in some way 
associated with her misfortune. The town had long since 
been stripped as bare of everything as a barbecue table 
is, fifteen minutes after a political speech is finished. 

A few days after our arrival, on going to a hospital to 
see a friend, I found the chaplain growling at having to 
perform an unusual number of burial services, just at the 
time when it was the most inconvenient. This statement 
led to the further explanation that the hospital had been 
ordered to the rear, and supported the inference that there 
would be another retreat. We had arrived on the penin- 
sula on a damp, raw evening, but we had beautiful Aveather 
most of the time returning, and it naturally put us all in 
excellent spirits to get once more near Richmond. We 
had a beautiful country to go through as we approached 
the city, but the fact was w^e enjoyed nearly all scenery, 
when we were kept in motion, particularly the mountainous 
regions of Virginia and Pennsylvania, and we never heard 
the order given to go into camp without a sigh. 

Extract frcyin the Adjutant's Journal. 

April 20. — Left Richmond for the Peninsula, with bat- 
teries on transport. 

21. — Arrived this afternoon at King's Wharf. Before 
we had our camp arranged, we had an awful storm, wetting 
everything and every body. 

22. — Camped at Blow's Mill, seven miles from King's 
Wkarf. 
11 



86 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



25. — Marched to Williamsburg — bivouacked two miles 
beyond. 

May 2. — Ordnance wagons pass, which means orders 
for us. March at 3:30 ; bivouac at Burnt Ordinary Tavern, 
50 miles from Richmond. 

4. — Move on the Diascund Road and camp. Report to 
Gen. Magruder, who commands rear guard. 

5. — March through a heavy rain all day, and with axles 
deep in mud. Met the gallant color-bearer of a La. Regi- 
ment, with no clothing except his shirt, and everlastingly 
splashing mud. Camped near Windsor Shades, at 1:80 p. ji. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE BIVOUAC. 

The word which heads the chapter is one which occurs 
frequently in this narrative, and is one which will awaken 
a host of recollections from old soldiers, mostly of a 
pleasant character — that is of the comfort which follows 
from rest and food after a long march, and the enjoy- 
]nent of pleasant gossip after the supper has been cooked 
and eaten. 

To bring up freshly such a picture again, let us suppose 
about twilight that the bugle has sounded the halt — 
that the pieces have been parked, and the horses watered 
and fed. All is animation and work now, and those who 
fail in the duties assigned them in the mess, will soon 
have to sleep by themselves or make new arrangements. 
One man provides the wood, another the water, while a 
third makes ready with the cooking utensils. Meanwhile 
those whose duty it is to construct the temporary habita- 
tions — for the reader must remember that tents have 
become partially obsolete — are preparing a couple of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 87 



notched posts to be stuck up in the ground. Across these 
extends a pole 12 feet long, to the top of which smaller 
ones are laid, with one end resting upon the ground ; over 
this is thrown a piece of canvass, where we have one, 
or a la,rge number of twigs and boughs, or even the rotten 
bark of trees. This answers as a covering for the head ; 
the next thing to be done is to scrape away the mud, hail 
or snow, cut away damp grass, and to cover the interior 
with boughs, where straw or planks are impossible to be 
obtained. The fireman has by this time cut some heavy 
logs, the fire is kindled against a huge spreading tree at 
the immediate front of the tent, the cold and darkness 
disappear, and the sparks shoot merrily upward through 
the shadows. The rays extend out through the trees of 
the forest, lighting up leaf and bough with ghostly lights 
and shadows, and throwing the melodramatic lurid tints 
over gnarled trunks, or sleet-fringed stems which are found 
so attractive in the Christmas theatrical performances. 
As the aroma from simmering cauldrons or coffee-pots 
mounts into the air, the men who have extended their 
blankets inside of the tent and stretched themselves 
thereon, begin to recover' from their languor; their spirits 
adapt themselves to the fantastic shadows — to the innu- 
merable lights which glimmer in every direction through 
the trees, and reflecting that the entertainment is to last 
at this spot for " Positively one night only," begin to 
enter into the zest of the thing. It need hardly be added, 
that the truant comrade who comes back with additions 
to our slender larder, in the shape of chickens or eggs, or 
better than all, a drop of something to drink, soon has all 
his sins forgiven, and by the time we have consumed our 
hot biscuits, a delicious ration of bacon, coffee, and other 
et ceteras, and smoked a pipe of old Virginny, the soldier 



88 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



finds himself in about as comfortable a frame of mind as 
any other living mortal. 

The most beautiful bivouac I have ever seen, was where 
the whole army encamped in a valley and at the sides of 
a mountain with the bivouac fires close together, as had 
happened already in our retreat from Manassas. There 
is no need to dwell upon the magnificent panorama of the 
improvised city that was spread out around us, or the 
dancing lights, the thousand different calls and cries. 
But such was not always the life of a bivouac, especially 
during a storm. Then the tents, says one camp writer, 
swelling inward beneath the blast, left no slant sufficient 
to repel the water, which was caught in the hollows and 
filtered through. Then the wind would increase to a 
hurricane, in which the canvass would flap and flutter, 
and the tent pole quiver like a vibrating harpstring. 

Finally the pole and the canvass would fall with a 
crash across your whole bed, your effects dispersed on the 
wings of the wind ; and all around you, would be seen half 
clad men, grasping their fluttering blankets, and sitting 
amid the ruins of their beds. 

But in good weather, the men were all in splendid 
humor, and the laugh and shout over some of the ridicu- 
lous incidents and mishaps of the day were long and 
uproarious, and the patriotic songs were rung out with 
the sound of '• clashing steel and clanging trumpet." 
Then the men would come forward who had yarns or 
curious histories to relate — of sudden fortunes made or 
lost in commerce — of the vicissitudes of trade, bringing 
some men forward and ruining others, or of some of the 
darker tragedies which make up city histories. We would 
give the travelers an opportunity of again crossing the 
plains, shooting buffaloes while on horseback at full speed, 



A Soldier's Story of the War. S9 



with arrows which would go throut/h, or sometimes with 
guns — the slowest way where a man would use his mouth 
as a bullet-pouch, and ram down the ball without wadding, 
by striking the butt end of the gun on the pummel of 
the saddle. There would be some little badgering about 
some of these statements, and the " Old Soldier " (before 
referred to) resented these narratives as a special intru- 
sion, by reciting his own adventures, say, among Mexican 
Indians, where every body was as virtuous as Hebe and as 
naked as Venus. Then there were singular gosriping 
stories which the men had picked up about some of the 
old houses or villages through which we had passed, 
which began to have a tendency to ghost spectres and 
apparitions, as the hours advanced. 

One of the unflagging talkers of the occasion was a 
certain sergeant with a noble air and beautiful side whis- 
kers, whose faults were not those which arise frcm over- 
shrinking modesty. He came by some of his sins honestly ; 
he had been an old newspaper reporter, and it was not 
expected that he should come down to plain truth-telling 
the moment that printer's ink was beyond his reach. But 
there was another stirring young man present, of an 

imaginative turn (Joe L ) who was mixed up with 

half of the deviltry of the Batallion, and who (merely to 
show his style,) once sent half the population of Clinton to 
the woods, by riding through the town while on a furlough, 
and shouting out that the enemy were coming or just 
behind. Old Judge Semple, managing editor of the 
Crescent for many years, and at that time refugeeing, was 
one of his victims, and every one who remembers the 
Judge's girth, and knows the distance that had to be run, 
will admit that the Judge was quite right for abusing Joe 
for the balance of his days. 



90 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



These two untiring talkers had been having a good deal 
to say, and the audience was looking for an avenger. This 
was found in the person of one of the smallest and most 

quiet of the group, George M , who, with the wicked, 

cynical smile, which every one who knew him will remem- 
ber, proceeded to relate an incident of the night before. 
George went on to state that after eating a very square 
meal, he had laid down to pleasant dreams until he should 
be called to go on guard. He had, however, not more than 
comfortably coiled himself in his blanket, before he was 
wanted. He got up, a little mad at the interruption, and 
found sitting on a log by the fire, what seemed some 
new non-commissioned officer — somebody that he had 
never seen before about the batallion. George started to 
let into the officer, with a good deal of bitterness, for 
calling him too soon, but there was something about the 
looks of the stranger that took him aback and repressed 
familiarity. Instead of so doing, he began staring very 
hard at the visitor, and wondering at what seemed a differ- 
ence in his uniform. 

Meanwhile the stranger lit his pipe very deliberately, 
taking the end of a burning fence rail to do so, and occa^ 
sionally glancing at George in a way that made the latter 
feel uncomfortable And impatient. 

" Well, what are you waiting for — what do you want?" 
said George, who began to feel nervous, his tone becoming 
coaxing instead of irritable, as he ended his inquiry. 

The stranger went on puffing, with the immense coal 
near his cheek, which gave, as George expressed it, "a 
demoniacal look" to his face; he only, however, glanced 
furtively out of his eye as much as to say, "It's strange 
you don't know who I am." 

George answered his look rather than his words, and 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 91 



inquired if he really knew him, or if he was down for 
any particular detail. 

'■' Detail — I should think you were." Here he took from 
his side pocket a queer looking roster, or muster roll, and 
commenced reading out the names of a good many men 
that had enlisted in Louisiana companies. This reading 
was listened to with great interest by George; for he 
began to remark as something singular, that after reading 
out the statements of age, nativity and other details placed 
upon muster rolls, the "Remarks" would invariably end 
with "died," or "killed at Blackburn's Ford, Manassas," 
or other battle field. In other words, only those were 
read out who had died or been killed in some previous 
engagement. George began to think this sort of reading 
had an ugly look, and he waited and sat thinking that he 
had had a very strange visitor indeed. 

However, the stranger at last came to his name, and 
began to run his forefinger slowly out to the end of the roll. 

"Well, how does it all end? — you've got nothing to say 
about my name, have you?" said George, with a quaver- 
ing voice. 

The stranger passed his forefinger over his line twice, 
as if he had possibly made a mistake, and then added: 

"No; you are right. The name is not fully run out. 
But now that I am here, I may as well tell you I'm 
around, and there is no telling when I'll want you. All 
I care is to know where to find you, in case you should be 
called. And this reminds me that there are some others 
in this camp that I shall want to report right away, and 
whom I had perhaps better take in my rounds." 

The stranger inquired where some others were sleeping, 
made a sort of military salute, and stopped a moment to 
glance at the remaining names by the light of the fire. 



92 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Meanwhile George had dropped off, glad to find that he 
was not wanted, and more determined than ever to get a 
good night's rest. 

He was again mistaken. Before George had fairly 
closed his eyes, the stranger was back to his tent, and 
again disturbing him. 

" I beg your pardon for again bothering you, but the 
fact is your name is down on my detail, after all. I am 
afraid you will have to come along." 

George's heart misgave him. He, however, concluded 
to crawl out of his blanket and fall in. 

" Have you got many down on your list ?" he inquired 
as they proceeded. 

" Not so many as we have had — though there were a 
good many after the last battle, whom I carried off armed 
and equipped as the law directs." 

" That must mean that a good many went to heaven 
with their boots on," as we say now, thought George, but 
he only inquired if any body else had been detailed from 
the batallion. 

"Oh, yes! There's the Sergeant and Joe L , 

and notoriously hard cases they are too. They were 
detailed to go along too, and have already passed on. 
But here we are — we've got two doors by which we can 
now enter, and I hardly know which is the proper one for 
you." 

" Do you know which one Joe and the Sergeant went 
in at?" anxiously inquired George, endeavoring himself to 
guess which would be the best one for him. 

" Which gate? Why, the directions were iplain enough 
in their case. They went in here — at the left. They 
are in there now, and likely to stay some time." 

" In that case say no more. If men who never tell the 



A Soldier's Story of the War. S3 



truth went in that way, I know I can't fare any worse, 
and probably will a great deal better, by taking the road 
that leads in the other direction." 

And so the result would have turned out, if I had not 
at that moment been shaken up out of a sound sleep and 
told in good earnest to go on guard. 

The point of the narrative, in spite of the clumsy way 
in which I have told it, would, now appear so obviously 
to be at the expense of the two preceding truthful speak- 
ers, that the narrative ended in the indignant growls of 
the victims, and the laugh of the rest of the listeners. It 
was then too late to tell any more stories: besides 
half of the men had fallen asleep before it was concluded; 
and soon the whole camp was buried in profound slumber. 



CHAPTER XIV- 

THE BBLEAGUEKED CITY. 

We were suddenly marched off, late one night* down to 
Drury's Bluff, and in anticipation of the coming up of 
the Federal monitors, placed in position upon the bank. 

*Tbe following were the orders of our movements : 

May 6. — Ordered to move at once to the forks of the road, near Forge Bridge. 
Camped in a beautiful pine grove at 5 p. m. 

Enemy pursuing — infantry ordered back. We remain on account of the bad- 
ness ot the road. 

7. — Ordered to cross the Chickahominy, at Long Bridge. March ten miles and 
bivouac. 

8. — Marched at a little before 6 a. m. Camp at Blakey'a Mill Pond at 12 M.; 
having made 23 miles in 6 hours — the quickest marching, with perhaps one excep- 
tion, done during the war. 

13. — Capt. Miller's 3d Company ordered to meet gun boats coming up the 
river at Drury's Bluff. 

14. — The rest of the batallion march at 6 A. M. to Bottom's Bridge to report to 
Gen. Johnston. At llj a. m., ordered in camp. At 5 ordered by Gen. Johnston 
to go two miles back. Bivouac at Savage Station and rejoined by the 3d Co. 

16. — Camp six miles from Richmond, at Sew Bridge. 

17. — Back to Blakey's Mill Pond. Whole army in position and invested by 
McClellan. 

12 



94 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



I was placed on guard, on a high bluif overlooking the 
river, though it really was not necessary, as every one 
was awake and expecting every moment to open fire. The 
monitors were indeed so near, that we could hear their 
subdued puffing, and even see the gleam of lights or fur- 
naces on board of the black hulls. Those were the days 
when the imagination of soldiers were greatly affected by 
the novelty of the danger we were called upon to meet, 
and it seemed more terrible, the idea of being killed by 
a shot as big as a water cooler, than by ordinary musketry 
fire. It is not a particularly pleasant business any way 
to be worn out with marching, and then to be forced to 
meditate upon your chances for the morrow's battle, espe- 
cially as I can remember was the case at Gettysburg, when 
the dead and dying of the two days preceding fights are 
lying on every side of you ; when you are compelled to 
witness every stage of the death saturnalia from the un- 
happy victim trembling with the last shiver of dissolution 
to that of the corpse who sits upright with staring eyes, 
or whose stiffened arm seems to point you yourself the 
road to perdition on the morrow. A corpse of the latter 
description passed by us in a wagon while we were at the 
Bluff, whose hand could not be forced down, and which 
the soldiers declared was protesting to heaven against the 
rations we were compelled to eat. 

After waiting, or rather changing position twenty times 
during the following day and digging fortifications in the 
rain, the batteries were hurried off at midnight, fifteen 
miles back to Richmond, then down to Chickahominy 
Swamp, then back to the city again. 

Thus we continued to move around the city* with Gen. 

*May 31. — Battle of Seven Pines. Longstreet routes Gen. Casey; Capt. Miller 
brings off a battery of fOur Kapoleons wliioh we are allowed to keep. Capt. 
Bearing loses nearly all bis horses and men. 



Soldier's Story of the War. 95 



Johnston's army, having sometimes to be under heavy 
fire as at Malvern Hill, but at the same time having to 
hold ourselves in readiness as reserve, to gallop off at the 
top of our horse's speed, as the tide of battle ebbed and 
flowed. I walked over nearly all of the battle-fields 
about Richmond, and found them as well, as those after- 
wards of North Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania — 
pretty much the same — bloated corpses and carcasses of 
horses — scattered commissary stores. The hotness with 

June 26. — Ordered to the Mechanicsville Road, and held in reserve while A. 
P. Hill drives the enemy. Standing in the road all day, ready at a moment's 
notice, and the men all impatient. 

27. — Still in reserve. 

28. — Move lo Mechanicsville Bridge, on Chickahominy. Ist and 3d Company 
report to Longstreet, on the field. 2nd and 4th, bivouac at bridge. Desperate 
fighting day before. 

29. — At Battery No. 3, Williamsburg Road. At 5 p. M. we (with the whole 
army) move down the Darbytown Road after McClellan. Bivouacked at night 
in rain. 

30. — Marched at daylight — went into park in advance of Longstreet, who 
promises to put us in to-day. 

Jdlt 1. — Hear the terrible guns pounding away at Malvern Hill. Order comes 
from Longstreet to come at once. Batteries galloped over four miles in less than 
half an hour afterwards. Parked in a field where shells whistle over our heads, 
and some fall about us ; but not ordered to open fire, and otherwise doomed to 
disappointment. As we dashed down the road at full speed in the afternoon, we 
were cheered by the troops, as if they had been betting on us in a race ; and in 
truth there are few finer things than to see 32 completely equipped guns and 
caissons, racing with the men on the seats to the battle ground, and stimulated 
by the smell of powder from the field. » 

2. — Move across the battle-field of yesterday; dead and wounded lying thickly 
around. One man was seen dead in a sitting posture, who had been skulking 
behind a great oak tree, and who was killed by a cannon ball penetrating through 
it. The enemy had a splendid position, and covered it with guns ; but our troops 
instead of being hurled forward, were put in by Regiments, and cut to pieces 
in detail. Still in spite of the terrific fire, many of the Gporgia and Alabama 
troops fell among the enemy's guns. The 8th Ga. and 3d Ala. from Mobile, were 
terribly mangled. 

Bivouac in the rain, near Poindexter's House, which is used as headquarters 
by Lee. President Davis covered with a Mexican scrape, which he perhaps cap- 
tured in the war of '45, passed by amid great cheering. 

3. — Move in pursuit, and bivouac on Waterloo Farm. 

4. — 1st and 3d Companies take position nearer the enemy. 2nd and 4th with 
Anderson. Capt. Squires, with 1st goes below McCIellan's position, with S. D. 
Lee's Cavalry, and fire into the gunboats and transports. First instance of 
attack on gunboats by light batteries. 

8. — Back to Richmond. 

12..— Artillery of the right wing on Almond Creek. We call our camp, " Camp 
Longstreet." We rest and refit. 



96 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



which the battle was contested, was of course to be judged 
by the number of dead and wounded, and their proximity 
to each other. About thirty feet apart meant heavy 
work, though where the breastworks had to be stormed, 
as was the case in some of Grant's battles, the dead would 
lie in piles. The most effective artillery firing done 
during the war, was in an artillery duel between our first 
company and an opposing battery of the enemy. In this, 
beside exploding the caissons and almost annihilating 
their enemy, they killed every horse on a piece. The 
unhappy animals were all tangled up by their harness, in 
one inextricable pile. One of the men came across a 
beautiful spaniel at Malvern Hill, whom it was difficult 
to persuade to quit his dead master's side. The offer of 
rations, however, finally triumphed over his virtue. The 
dog was alive at Richmond, and apparently infected with 
strong Confederate prejudices when last seen; though he 
made a narrow escape for having indulged in a vitiated 
taste for gnawing off all the buttons off a $500 coat. This 
was the property of one of those fierce Majors, whose 
marches extended only through the streets of Richmond. 
The feelings of this gallant soldier may be imagined, when 
upon awakening the morning after a debauch, he dis- 
covered the extent of his misfortunes. His fury and 
agony of mind conld only find relief by asking such ques- 
tions, and failing to understand, "as what in the deuce 
anybody wanted to keep any such a d — d flop-eared hound 
around for anyhow." 

There was another homely looking yellow dog on the 
same battle field (who might have been a relation of 
Tige's,) who could not understand how the battle had 
gone, or who had had no offers of bacon to corrupt his 
principles. In an evil moment he attempted to bite a 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 97 



Soldier, detailed to bury the dead, and the attempt cost 
him a bayonet thrust and his life. The soldier was 
too much exasperated, and out of humor at the heavy 
iSlaughter of our men, to waste any time " fooling around 
an old dawg." 

We were given a number of new guns which had been 
captured in the fights around Richmond, and had to eat 
so much of dried vegetables, that the smell of soup Julienne 
to this day brings to mind the sight of swollen and 
blackened corpses scattered about for miles oyer a Virgi- 
nia battlefield. 

It was after McClellan had incautiously placed his 
army astraddle of Chicahominy swamp (where as Lincoln 
expressed it, he was like a bull caught on a fence who 
could neither kick nor gore,) and where the Federal army 
was bogged up like Captain John Smith, by a sudden rise 
in the stream — that the cautious General Johnston found 
his true chance. Here he hastened to deal his enemy a 
blow, which would have been much more staggering to 
the Federal general than it was, but for Johnston's having 
been severely wounded eariy in the action. The wound 
might have won promotion and honor for a soldier born 
under a more fortunate star ; but it virtually ended his 
Virginia career, -before he had a fair opportunity of devel- 
oping his talents. Gen. Lee now came upon the scene 
with the startling and joyous intelligence that old Stone- 
wall had outwitted his enemies in the Valley, and was on 
McClellan's flank. 

I write the hero's name with pride, and am happy to 
remember our Batallion ever took orders from him. His- 
tory will probably give Stonewall the reputation for more 
genius and achievement, than any general the civil war 
brought forthj and had he been at the head of affairs and 



98 A SMier's Story of the War. 



remained alive, the war would have ended differently. Our 
batteries reported to him at the battle of Manassas, and a 
crowd of us once sat upon the pieces watching him talk ; 
once afterwards, for a half an hour, in consultation with Lee 
and Longstreet. Jackson was then dressed in a sort of 
grey homespun suit, with a broken-brimmed cap, and 
looked like a good driving overseer or manager, with 
plenty of hard, horse sense, but no accomplishments or 
other talent — nothing but plain, direct sense. It was 
because his manners had so little of the air of a man of the 
world, or because he repressed all expression, that he 
had the appearance of being a man of not above average 
ability. The remark was then made by one of us, after 
staring at him a long time, that there must be some mis- 
take about him — if he was an able man, he showed it less 
than any man any of us had ever seen. 

Gen. Lee first appeared before us in citizen's dress — 
that is in white duck, with a bob-tailed coat; jogging 
along without our suspecting who he was. We thought at 
first, he was a jolly, easy-going miller or distiller, on a visit 
as a civilian, to the front, and perhaps carrying out a can- 
teen of whiskey for the boys. He showed himself always 
a good natured, kind-hearted man, as well as a great 
general — stopping once to reprove though -very gently, the 
drivers for unmercifully beating their horses when they 
had stalled ; and another day walking about and laughing 
over one of Artemus Ward's stories, and kept in a good 
humor about it, the rest of the day. He got put out one 
day, however, with one of our men who took possession of 
a shady spot, that had been previously occupied by the 
General; but which had been temporarily abandoned by 
him to hurry across the James. The young man was 
asked what made him appropriate his headquarters, and 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 99 



what annoyed the General was, the idea that he had aban- 
doned the place for good. As the result turned out, we 
fought more battles in that neighborhood, and stayed there 
longer than we had done about any other place in Vir- 
ginia. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE DRUMHEAD. 



Sometimes in the course of our marches our enterprising 
explorers would come across an odd volume, and for read- 
ing this in camp there would be abundant opportunity.' 
For instance, if you were of an indolent turn, you could 
smoke and read by the tent fire-place, criticising the cook, 
who was working up to his elbows in dough, or watching 
the boiling and baking, between the interesting passages. 
The volume would pass from one mess or dirty hand to 
another, and the most unreading men in camp, as soon as 
they found that books were in demand and that they had 
it in their power to read a coveted volume, would violently 
claim the right, and set to work in good earnest to cry at 
or laugh, as the fashion was, over its sentiment or jokes ; 
just the same as men did who never cared for the society 
of woman previously, or who never cared to drink liquor 
before entering the army. As soon as it was understood 
that a canteen, a book or a woman had its value, every body 
wanted them all; and would study up the art of acquiring 
them, the same as we did at making brier-root pipes 
afterwards. 

On one of the battle fields about Richmond we came 
across a volume which had probably gone the rounds of 
the Federal camp as it did ours, and from one of its chap- 



100 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



ters, with a view to escaping statistics, and with an object 
which will be explained further on, I propose to quote in 
substance, as remembered. 

This chapter touched upon a very sensitive chord for a 
soldier — the fate of a regiment that had disgraced itself 
in battle, and by ghameful cowardice and lack of discip- 
line communicated their panic and exposed the other 
troops, thus converting a half won victory into a dis- 
astrous defeat. The time was in the Thirty Years War 
of Germany, and the name of the regiment was " Made- 
Ion's Cuirassiers." When the remnant of the beaten 
army had rallied under the walls of Prague, sometime 
after, the regiment which had lost the battle was seen to 
approach that city; but its ranks are thinned less by the 
sword than by desertion. It is understood among them 
that the matter will be inquired into, and as they come 
in view, deep shame sits upon the bearded faces of the 
men; the soldiers declaring that reform should commence 
at the top of the stairs; the officers conversing in low 
w^hispers as to how best to excuse their own conduct. 

Arrived at the gates a message is received, ordering the 
men to dismount, lead their horses, and enter with lower- 
ed colors and without sound of trumpet. This ominous 
reception made the remainder of the regiment regret that 
they had not followed the example of desertion which 
had been abundantly set them at the close of the battle; 
nevertheless, with downcast eyes and with wide inter- 
vals between the files, they marched on through the 
narrow streets. 

Suddenly, dismounted dragoons, with mousqueton, 
appeared behind them — the windows and balconies are 
seen to be lined with carabineers, who carry their weap- 
ons at the recover. In the public square they are ordered 



A Soldier's Story of the War, 101 



to "Halt;" "Draw swords." Then follows the command, 
"Ground arms." The hearts of the now disarmed men, 
who are formed up as prisoners, misgive them. The 
arms and colors are carried off, and every thing appeared 
ready for an approaching execution. For there in 
the centre of the square stands the solemn headsman, 
with his red cloak and black. feather, with an iron vice 
upon one side and a pile of fagots upon the other. A 
glittering circle of bayonets appears all around, while on 
one side sit on horseback the military ofl&cers who are to 
try the offenders, if trial there be for men manifestly 
already condemned. There is but one question — ^whether 
the cowardice is the fault of the officers or men ; and, 
after the question has been debated violently for two 
hours, by officers and men, and the prisoners are coming 
to blows, the clamor of voices ceases, at the blast of the 
trumpet. The judges consult — the prisoners draw back, 
and an abrupt, uneasy movement commences among, 
them — behind and in front. In a moment more the 
cause becomes evident to the spectators — the hands of the 
officers are being bound behind their backs — they are sep- 
arating the soldiers by tens. While these latter are made 
to throw dice on drumheads for their lives, the execu- 
tioner is burning at the stake the regimental flags and 
decorations, or snapping the sword blades in his iron vice. 
With mournful eyes and sad hearts they see their flags 
consumed and weapons brpken at the hands of the heads- 
man — they witness it with an agony to which death 
would have been sweet. 

Meanwhile the soldier of the ten who has thrown the 
lowest die is being seized and bound and placed with the 
group of already handcuffed officers. And now comes 
the closing and most terrible act of all. The gallows 



*t3 

13 



102 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



appears on the scene, and the unhappy tenth man and all 
the oflRcers are strung up by their necks, on a scaifold 
made ready for the purpose, the balance being condemned 
to labor on fortifications ; and the town-crier solemnly 
proclaims the whole regiment, from colonel down to the 
last dragoon, to be " Infamous Poltroons."* 

I have brought to mind this picture of a regiment which 
has disgraced its colors, by way of making those who have 
never thought of the subject, realize how great a misfor- 
tune a soldier considers it to be, to be disgraced in battle, 
and what dejection and downcast looks settle upon his 
face where the reputation of his regiment has in any 
degree been tarnished. 

Some such picture, in many of its details as the one 
above given, was constantly coming before every soldier's 
imagination. He was hearing the words " miserable pol- 
troons" pronounced in the' shambling and straggling march 
of certain regiments who had been disgraced, in the 



*A similar scene is given in a number of the New York Tribune of 1861 of the 
mutiny of the 79th New York Regiment which will be suggested by the above. 
In this 400 men flatly refused to move from camp. The non-commissioned 
officers took from the men their arms. One hundred men alone stood firm, and 
kept the mutineers confined until surrounded by cavalry, infantry and artillery. 
The leaders were handcuffed, an act was read reciting their many instances of 
insubordination, and the leaders, some seventy in number, who were disarmed 
and marched to the guard house, declared amenable to the articles of war. The 
regimental colors were then taken away, and every man ordered to be shot 
down who refused to obey. 

Another misunderstanding between officers and men is thus given in a letter 
of I. G., from Columbus, Kentucky, to the Crescent, in the same year: 

"Serious difficulties have arisen in the — • Artillery from your State. Owing to 
treatment, which is explained — they tore the initial of their Captain from their 
caps, "Whom they repudiated, and since this a difficulty has occurred with their 
new commander. The men complained oi rough, unfeeling treatment; open 
expressions of dissatisfaction led to an altercation between the captain and one 
of the non-commissioned officers, which resulted in the latter drawing a dagger 
and the former using a sword. The non-commissioned officer had his hand 
badly injured in clutching the officer's sword, and is now under arrest. One 
hundred men made affidavit of grievance, which Polk refused to receive, but 
ofiered instead a transfer. This was declined, and a big trouble the consequence ; 
though ultimately settled by a transfer ot forty of the members to another 
artillery." 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 103 



depressed looks of the men themselves, and in the free 
criticism of onlooking soldiers. He could see the words 
of disgrace betrayed in ambiguous reports of battles, 
■where no amount of explanation could conceal what had 
been bad and cowardly conduct; and at night by camp 
fires he would hear discussed the reputation of those 
regiments who had first broken — at Gettysburg or else- 
where, and thus caused the loss of victory and death to 
the overwhelmed brigades who remained behind. 

A company or regiment that once showed signs of weak- 
ness, makes its own soldiers ten times more distrustful of 
each other's Valor in the next engagement, and unless the 
demoralization has been cured, and confidence restored, is 
a source of danger rather than of strength to an army, 
and will inevitably damn the reputation of any good men 
who happen to be connected with it.* As I write this 
now, there rises before me the picture of a brave old 
friend from the 8th Georgia Regiment, who was half 
lamenting, half crying, over the repulse his command and 
the Confederate troops had met with at Malvern Hill, 
under the 150 guns with which McClellan on that day 
swept the Confederate line. "We had nothing but our 
reputation," said he, "and now we'll never want to go 
home, as we've lost that." In this latter statement he was 
mistaken. As for tears, a great many soldiers shed them 
at Gettysburg, though there had been no lack of courage, 

*In so speaking, I am far from recommending the frequent enforcement of the 
death penalty, as a remedy. Anthony Sambola, Esq., who was detailed from the 
Fifth Company of Washington Artillery, as clerk to a court-martial, tells me 
there were 150 men shot between Chickamauga and Atlanta. Desertions on a 
large scale showed the discontent or hopelessness of the troops from certain 
States, and wholesale shootings (as for instance, 22 at a time) only made the 
men more disaffected. My information is that Gen. Lee never signed the death 
penalty but once, and only then with the greatest reluctance. The penalty might 
have been just to the men who deserted, or to the officers who did not do their 
full duty ; but |at the same time it destroyed the espril of the regiments from 
whom the men were taken. 



i04 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and there were no dry eyes at all. though not from a sense 
of shame, on the day at Appomatox Court House, when 
General Lee, for the first time, dressed himself in full 
uniform, and told his few followers, good bye. 

The trials which took place in the Confederate army, 
were mostly regimental, that is were trivial and for which 
no court-martials should have been ordered at all, and were 
much more merciful in their awards than the one above 
recorded — seldom amounting to more than extra guard 
duty or loss of pay for a month, and for offences, which 
were really crimes, to confinement at Castle Thunder, 
with the ball and chain. The only case I can now 
remember where the death penalty was inflicted, was in 
the time following the first battle of Manassas, when two 
of the " Tigers " were tried for insubordination, and for 
striking their officers. The finding of the Court was — 
Death. 

And so death it was, the spot for the tragedy being but 
a little distance from our camp. At the appointed hour, a 
very large crowd of officers and men were there assembled. 
A hollow square had been previously formed of troops 
from the same brigade. At about 10, the prisoners who 
had been sustained in the previous interval by the con- 
solations of liquor and champagne, contributed by generous 
comrades, were brought upon the field. They were dressed 
in striped blouse and white Zouave breeches, and in the 
full eccentric uniform of the Company — the whole com- 
mand being similarly dressed. The arms of the con- 
demned men were pinioned behind their backs ; but their 
steps were elastic and showed no sign of dejection. Now 
the officer in command orders the finding of the court- 
martial to be read, and then the dramatic interest in the 
scene is increased, when the doomed prisoners are con- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. lO'S 



fronted with their own coffins. The remaining details are 
very simple — bandaging their eyes, and causing them to 
get upon their knees, before the twelve motionless statues 
(or friends representing duty,) who stand with loaded guns. 
The command is given, " make ready, aim, fire," and the 
strong men of the moment before roll back corpses. 

I saw afterwards, several prisoners taken out and shot 

at Richmond, for various offenses. They were generally 

carefully dressed in black, and did not greatly differ in 

appearance from that of a man who is going to appear in 

public on a formal occasion- — who is going to get married 

in his best suit, or who has some public duty to perform. 

We had too in our camp, a driver who had been at West 

Point, enlisted for his knowledge about driving battery 

horses ; but who fell into disgrace. He however, had no 

greater misfortune than to be driven from camp, by order 

of court-martial, after having had his head shaved ; or in 

other words, to be drummed out of the army. The man 

shortly after was elected or appointed major of a Batallion, 

and did good service. There were a great many more 

victims of war all through the South, than those who 

were killed in battles; for instance, those who gave 

all their time to drilling and equipping their men, who 

spent all their own fortunes in the work, and that of their 

friends, and who after all, were ruthlessly shoved aside for 

some new favorite, kept behind or constantly placed in 

obscurity. The South would have fared none the worse, 

if the men of education, who volunteered from duty, had 

beep permitted to go home, and give their talents and 

experience as officers to new regiments. The fighting of 

the regiments raised towards the close of the war would 

'have been much better, if such a rule had been adopted. 

A tragic incident which awakened much less feeling, as 



106 A Soldier's Story of- the War. 



the guilty party was not one of our own men, occurred on 
our march after Pope in 1862. 

During the march of the army, September 21, 1862, 
a spy dressed in Confederate uniform, or rather an imita- 
tion of it, rode up to Gen. D. E. Jones, commanding divi- 
sion, and told him he had been sent by Gen. Jackson, to 
tell him to halt his division where it then was. Suspicion 
was aroused, from the fact that Jones was under Longstreet, 
and cypher alphabets and memoranda were found upon 
his person. It was now remembered that one of Long- 
street's couriers had been shot on the night previous, 
while carrying a dispatch, by a man answering the pre- 
tended messenger's description. It was now found too, on 
. examination, that one of the barrels of his revolver was 
empty. A drum head court-martial was immediately 
called — papers examined, and his guilt clearly proved by 
his own confession. The unhappy wretch was taken into 
the woods — his hands tied behind him, and placed astride 
of a mule ; a rope was then tied around his neck — the end 
thrown over a limb of a tree. Then the mule was struck 
with a stick by one of Longstreet's couriers ; away went 
the mule, and with it went the soul of Charles Mason, spy, 
of Terry ville, Pa. The column was detained by this inter- 
ruption three hours. The body of the dangling corpse 
presented a ghastly spectacle, as we marched by ; his boots 
had disappeared, and it was then said that these were the 
perquisites of the officiating Jack Ketch. The man died 
defiantly, claiming to have given his life for his country. 

All further that need be said upon this head, is that the 
talents, or one talent of a great general, consists in 
knowing profoundly the character of his men — their 
prejudices and sympathies, and where discipline should be 
sternly enforced, or wisely relaxed. For instance, one of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 107 



our Generals in a Western Army, was at one time im- 
mensely unpopular by allowing, as was reported in the army, 
soldiers to be shot for chicken and hog-stealing; though 
Cromwell, Napoleon, and other great and popular Gene- 
rals had in the enforcement of discipline, inflicted equally 
great penalties. But the idea of shooting a soldier in North 
Georgia, or Tennessee, for hog-stealing, a crime to which 
the people of those States have the same sort of temptation 
that a Texan has to get away with a horse or cattle! Such 
a sentence, though there doubtless was great need of 
making private property respected, was absurdly unjust, in 
view of the fact that the army was nearly always half-fed 
and frequently starving. To shoot a man born on Ameri- 
can soil, who has a natural tendency to steal, as a quarter- 
master or oflBce-holder, but to die like a man when he is 
fed, was felt to be an outrage on every brave man who 
had given his life to the issue. 

Of a similar character was much of the discipline 
enforced during the first year of the war. Until officers 
and men had come to understand each other, and were 
forced to accord esteem and respect to great qualities 
shown in battle, we were like animals badly broken or 
harnessed, galled jades wincing under needless restriction. 
The gentleman of the salon or parlor retains in the every 
day life of a camp, but little trace of breeding or civility, 
but his sensibilities and pride were very easily touched ; 
and- probably a stricter and more cheerful discipline 
would have been kept up, if careful attention had been 
paid to these facts. Probably, too, there would have been 
less of the weariness and heart sickness which made so 
many spirited men sink off, from a feeling that they had 
not elected rigid and just officers, but selfish and insolent 
oppressors. But this feeling died out as the war advanced 



108 A SbUier's Story of the War. 



— the oflScers who were reserved, more because of their 
unfamiliarity with their new duties, than from being 
inflated with vanity, gradually learned their true duty to 
their men, and to retain at the same time their respect, 
while the soldiers were not slow in appreciating the 
deserving ones at their true worth. 

It's human nature to abuse more or less, your privileges 
and advantages of fortune — by keeping the tit-bits for 
yourself, the soft places for your friends, and by putting 
on rough duty those whom you do not like ; for instance, 
in putting one soldier to assist in making fortifications 
under heavy fire, with a spade (as I once saw one officer 
of the day do) in place of a lazier or more cowardly com- 
rade. But on the other hand, selfishness would crop out 
just as often in the soldier, as already previously explained. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

BATTLE OF THE KAPPAHANNOCK. 

We laid around Richmond from the thirteenth to the 
twenty-fifth of July. The life would have been slow 
suicide a year previous ; but after witnessing the despe- 
rate fighting at Mechanicsville and Malvern Hill, and 
seeing thirty thousand men killed, wounded and taken 
prisoners in the two armies in the Seven Day's Fight 
alone, we were contented to bide our time — to accept a 
sort of happiness similar to that of our battery horses, 
fully assured that we would not have long to wait for hot 
work. 

On the 25th the 3d Company were ordered off with 
Gen. Anderson to New Market Heights ; on the 5th of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 109 



August an attack having been made by the enemy on 
Malvern Hill we got ready to meet him. The First and 
Fourth Companies were at Laurel Hill Church. 

Evans now commenced pressing McClellan and taking 
prisoners at Malvern Hill, which soon led to its abandon- 
ment, and our being sent back to camp (Longstreet.) 

General Lee thinking that McClellan's army was no 
longer worth watching, commenced moving North, and 
our batteries received marching orders on the 10th. 
When we passed through Richmond, as an evidence of 
the change that had commenced, the people looked 
on Lee's army silently and a little sadly, dimly compre- 
hending that in spite of recent victories many more heca- 
tombs of bodies would be made before the end was yet to 
come, and that victory for us meant but little more than 
the showy uniforms in which the volunteer troops had 
first come on. Here were all the regiments marching 
through, except those already dead and crippled; and 
those still alive and now marching on would still have to 
furnish 100,000 skeletons, as if for a corduroy road, from 
Gettysburg to Petersburg. There were at any rate 500,000 
corpses to be furnished to order as if on requisition from 
the two armies ; and the number taken from those who 
died or were killed in Virginia would have exceeded 
Tamerlane's pyramid of 300,000 skulls. 

We camped the first night out on the Chickahominy, 12 
miles beyond Eichmond, while the infantry were shoved 
forward to Gordonsville by rail. Jackson had been up to 
his usual thimble-rigging tricks upon Gen. Pope, (who 
was now trying to see what he could make out of the 
oflBce of Federal Commander) holding before his blindly- 
groping enemy at one moment a Jack-o'-lantern light, and 
the next presenting him with a St. Anthony number of 
14 



no A Soldier's Story of the War. 



temptations. The first of the military blunders into which 
Pope was invited, was to attempt attacking our railroad 
line of communication with Eichmond. To do this he 
pushed Gen. Banks forward to Cedar Mountain, with the 
caution given many times, through Pope's Chief of Staff, 
according to Greeley, " that there must he no backing out 
this day." And so there was not to be, he found, when he 
started onward; for Lee's troops meanwhile arriving, 
Jackson stealthily pushed forward Ewell's Division, scat- 
tering the Federal cavalrj^, and creeping through the 
woods along the western base of Cedar Mountain. Having 
taken up a strong position, fixed his batteries, and gene- 
rally made himself comfortable, there was nothing more 
to be done but wait until Banks should come along and 
carry out his intention of not backing out. 

Banks' attack Avas, however, very heavy upon Early's 
brigade of Ewell's Division, who held the road, and Talia- 
ferro was assailed at one time in flank and rear. " But 
the best Union blood," says Greeley, " poured like water; 
Gen. Geary was Abounded, Price taken prisoner, Crawford's 
brigade was a mere skeleton, and the others lost half their 
number in killed and wounded — more than two thousand 
in all." After several day's maneuvering. Pope captured 
a letter which showed that Lee's whole army was upon 
him, and immediately struck the back track across the 
Rappahannock. 

Meanwhile our batteries had marched to Montpelier — 
traveling early in the morning and late in the evening, on 
account of the heat, and bivouacking at Hope's Tavern. 
The next day carried us to Louisa Court^House, and the 
day after to Gordonsville. 

We were ordered forward again when Pope fell back to 
Orange Court^House, (Aug. 16,) and found the enemy 



A Soldier's Story of the War. Ill 



directly in our front. On the following day at noon, we 
moved cautiously forward, and camped near midnight on 
the Rapidan. The companies were assigned, Eshelman's 
to Pickett's brigade, Richardson's to Toombs'. 

On the night of the 2d it was understood that we 
were to prepare for hot work the next day, and at day- 
light the following morning, Col. Walton pcsted the guns 
on the South side of tlie Rappahannock, at the Railroad 
bridge, and at Beverly's Ford — the design being to threaten 
a crossing at these points, while the army meanwhile 
should move up the Rappahannock and get behind Pope's 
right. At 6.30, Capt. Miller of the 3d company, who had 
the strain of the firing upon him, discharged the signal 
gun, and before a ^third could be fired, obtained a reply 
from the enemy's batteries upon the opposite side. And 
a dreadfully hot reply it was. The enemy had as much 
the advantage in position and guns as Jackson had had 
at Cedar Mountain. Every shot they fired tore through 
our ranks, killing and wounding the men, and smashing 
the pieces. The fire became so hot that a battery who 
had been assigned position to the left of the Washington 
Artillery forgot to imitate the boy who stood on the burn- 
ing deck, and moved off without awaiting orders. In the 
progress of the battle twenty-three of our horses were 
killed, and nine men killed and twelve wounded. Lieut. 
Brewer's horse went galloping back, with an empty saddle, 
(leaving his rider dying on the field) to the very officer 
to whom it had been promised that day, in case its owner 
should be killed; which arrival happened just as a shell 
exploded at the side of Col. Walton, killing the horse of 
bugler Frank Villasano, and wounding that of Adjutant 
Owen. Lieut. Brewer sent word to his friends at home 
that he had tried to live like a Christian and die like a 



112 A" Soldier's Story of the War. 



soldier. He was buried at night in St. James Church 
yard, with the bodies of other of our own men, who died 
on the same battle field. 

Private R. T. Marshall was the brother of Gen. Lee's 
private secretary — the latter assisting at the funeral with 
a clergyman. The grave of the latter is now marked at 
Warren ton, with a piece of the Richmond-made gun which 
caused his death. The further details of this battle will 
be found in the following reports of the battle of the 
Rappahannock : 

KEPOKT OF GEN. LEE. 

On the 23d of August, Gen. Longstreet directed Col. Walton, with part of the 
Washington Artillery and other batteries of his command, to drive back a force 
of the enemy that had crossed to the South bank of the Rappahannock, near 
the railroad bridge, upon the withdrawal of Gen. Jackson on the previous day. 
Fire was opened about sunrise, and continued with great vigor for several hours, 
the enemy being compelled to withdraw with loss. Some of the batteries of 
Col. S. D. Lee's batallion were ordered to aid those of Col. Walton, and under 
their united fire, the enemy was forced to abandon his position on the north 
side of the river, burning in his retreat the railroad bridge and the neighboring 
dwellings. 



KEPOKT OF GEN. LONGSTREET. 

I had ordered Col. Walton to place his batteries in position at Rappahannock 
station, and to drive the enemy fiom his positions on both sides of the river. 

The batteries were opened at sunrise on the 23d, and a severe cannonade con- 
tinued for several hours. In about two hours, however, the enemy was driven 
across the river, abandoning his tete-de-pont. The brigades of Brigadier Gen. 
Evans and D. R. Jones, the latter under Col. G. F. Anderson, moved forward to 
occupy this position. It was found untenable, however, being exposed to a 
cross-fire of aftillery from the other bank. The troops were therefore partially 
withdrawn, and Col. S. D. Lee was ordered to select position for his batteries, 
and joined in the combat. The enemy's position was soon rendered too warm 
for him, and he took advantage of a severe rain storm to retreat in haste, after 
firing the bridge and the private dwellings in its vicinity. Col. Walton deserves 
much credit for skill in the management of his batteries ; and Col. Lee got into 
position in time for some good practice. 



KEPOKT OF COL. WALTON. 

Headquarters Artillery Corps, Right Winr, 1 
Dept. Northern Virginia, Aug. 25, 1862. / 
I have the honor to report that, in obedience to an order received from Major 
General Longstreet, on the evening of the 22d instant, accompanied by Major 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 113 



J. J. Garnett, Chief of Artillery on the Staff of Brig. Gen. D. R. Jones, and 
Capt. C. W. Squires, commanding the first Company of AVasliington Artillery, 
I made a rec.onnoissance of the position of the enemy in the vicinity of Bever- 
ly's Ford and Rappahannocli station, on the Rappahannoclc river, with the view, 
as instructed, to place the long-range guns under my command, in position to 
open upon the enemy's batteries early on the following morning. Having, 
during the night, made all necessary preparation, at daybreak, on the morning 
of the 23d, I placed in position on the left, at Beverly's Ford, Capt. Miller's bat- 
tery Washington Artillery, four light twelve-pounder Napoleon guus; a section 
of two ten-pounder Parrott guns under Capt. Rogers, and one ten-pounder 
Parrott gun under Capt. Anderson; and on the right, Capt. Squires' Battery, 
Washington Artillery, four three-inch rifles ; Capt. Striblinjj's Battery, one three 
inch rifle and three light twelve-pounder Napoleon guns ; a section of Capt. 
Chapman's Battery, one three-inch rifle and one light twelve-pounder Napoleon 
gun under Lieut. Chapman, and two Blakely guns of Capt. Maurin's Battery 
under Lieut. Landry. 

J The heavy fog prevailing obscured the opposite bank of the river, and the 
enemy's positions entirely from view, until about six o'clock, a. m., at which 
honr, the sun having partially dispelled the fog, I opened fire from Capt. Miller's 
Battery upon a battery of long-range guns of the enemy, directly in front, at a 
range of about one thousand yards. By previous arrangements, the batteries 
on the right and left of Capt. Miller's position immediately opened, and the fire 
became general along the line. We had not long to wait for the response of 
the enemy, he immediately opening upon all our positions a rapid and vigorous 
fire from all his batteries, some in position, until then undiscovered by us. 
The battery of the eucmy engaged by Capt. .Miller, was silenced in about fony 
minutes. Notwithstanding the long range guns under Capt. Rodgers and Ander- 
son, on the left, had, shortly after the commencement of the engagement been 
withdrawn from action and placed under shelter of the hill on which they had 
been posted . thus leaving the battery of the enemy, which it was intended these, 
guns should engage, free to direct against Miller, and the batteries on the hill 
ou the right, a most destructive fire. At this time Capt. Miller changed position 
and directed his fire against the opposing battery, when one on the right of that 
which had been silenced, opened upon him. Subjecting him to a cross fire, and 
causing him to lose heavily in men and horses. The fire was continued by 
Miller's Battery alone on the left until seven o'clock, when after consultation 
with Gen. Jones, and the fire of the enemy having greatly slackened, I ordered 
him to retire by half battery, which was handsomely done, in good order. 

At this time Lieut. Brewer fell, mortally wounded. The combat on the right 
was gallantly fought by the batteries there placed in position. 

Capt. Squires assumed command of that part of the field, and won for him- 
self renewed honors by the handsome manner in which he handled his batteries, 
and for the good judgment and coolness he displayed under the heavy fire of the 
enemy, to which he was subjected during four hours without intermission. 

The object sought to be obtained by this engagement, I am happy to say was 
fully accomplished by driving the enemy from all his positions before nightfall, 
and causing him to withdraw from our front entirely during the night. 

I have to lament the loss, in this engagement of a zealous, brave and most 
eflScient officer in Lieut. Brewer, Third Company Washington Artillery, who fell 
at the head of his section at the moment it was being withdrawn from the field, 
and of many non-commissioned officers and privates. The officers and men in 
all the batteries engaged, are deserving the highest praise for their gallantry 
upon the field. The attention of the General commanding is respectfully directed 
to those named particularly in the reports of Capts. Miller and Squires. Too 
much praise cannot be awarded to Capt. Miller and his brave Company for the 
stubborn and unflinching manner in which they fought the enemy's battery in 
such superior force and position on the left, and to Capt. Squires and Stribling, 
and Lieuts, Landry and Chapman on the right. I am indebted to Capt. Middle- 



'I'I4 A SMier's Story of the War. 



ton, of Brig. Gen. Drayton's Staff, to Lieut. AVilliams, of Gen. D. R. Jones 
Staff, and to Lieut. William Owen, Adjutant, Washington Artillery, all of wliona 
were constantly witli me under fire during the engagement, for their valuable 
assistance and zealous conduct on the field — there are none more brave or more 
deserving consideration than these gentlemen. I annex a list of casualties, and 
have the honor to be, J. B. WALTON, 

Col. and Chief of Art., Right Wing. 



REPOET OF CAPT. MILLER. 

I proceeded with my battery of four smooth-bore 12-pound Napoleons to 
Beverly's Ford on the Rappahannock, 1000 yards from the river. My position, on 
a hill sloping towards the river, was not such a one as I would have desired, 
though doubtless the best the locality atl'orded. At sunrise I discovered a bat- 
tery of the enemy in position, immediately in front of us, on a hill on the north 
side of the river, and I opened on it with spherical case. The enemy replied 
briskly, and for half an hour the firing was very spirited. Daring this time I 
was considerably annoyed by an enfilading fire of a long-ranged battery, posted 
to our riglit, and entirely beyond our range. After nearly an hour's engage- 
ment I was gratified to notice that the fire in our front had perceptibly slack- 
ened, indeed had almost entirely ceased. Up to this time but one of my men 
had been wounded, and two horses killed. The batteries supporting me at this 
time retired from the field, subjecting me to a galling cross-fire from the enemy's 
rifle battery in their front. I immediately changed Iront on the left and replied. 
The enemy having our exact range, replied with terrible precision and effect. 
For sometime we maintained this unequal conflict, when having nearly exhausted 
my ammunition, and agreeably to your orders, I retired by half battery from 
the field. 

My casualties were : Killed — First Lieutenant Brewer, privates Thompson, 
McDonald, Joubert (mortally wounded) and Dolan. 

Wounded — Corpl. P. W. Pettiss; privates James TuUy, Levy, Fourshee, Max- 
well, CriUy, Kerwin, Lynch — eight. 

Twenty-one horses killed — 356 rounds of ammunition expended. 

I would be pleased to pay a tribute to the coolness and intrepidity of my 
command ; but where all acted so well, it would be invidious to particularize. 
I slionld be wanting in my duty, however, were I not to mention Lieuts. Hero 
and McElroy. and my non-commissioned officers, Sergeants McNeil, Handy, Col- 
liuF, Ellis and Stocker, and Corporals Coyle, Kremmelburg, Pettiss and DeBlanc, 
who by their coolness and close attention to duty, contributed not a little to the 
efficiency of my battery. Respectfully, 

M. B. MILLER, 
Cupi. CfymTnanding 3d Co. B, W. A. 



REPORT OF CAPT. SQUIRES. 

Early on the morning of the 23d of August, the artillery, composed of the 
first company of Washington Artillery, {four three-inch rifles) and Captain 
Stribling's battery, (three Napoleon guns and one three-inch rifle) marched in 
the direction of the hill opposite to Rappahannock station. • • • xhe bat- 
teries were formed in line from right to left in the following order ; First Com- 
pany Washington Artillery, four three-inch rifle guns: Dixie Artillery, one 
Napoleon gun and one three-inch rifle ; Stribling's battery, three Napoleon guns 
and one three-inch rifle ; this had scarcely been accomplished when the signal 
was given from your position to " commence firing," which was quickly res- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. i-f5 



ponded to by the enemy. The combat was briskly carried on by the artillery 
directly in our front for halt an hour, when the enemy placed a battery on the 
extreme left, and had partly succeeded in enfilading onr batteries, when I with- 
drew the section of Lieut. Galbraith, and directed him to engage the enemy on 
the left. Lieut. G. accomplished this under a heavy lire, and was partly forced 
from hia first position when Lieut. Landry, with a section of Capt. Maurin's 
Battery reported, and was sent to assist Lieut. G., the four guns being placed 
under Lieut. G., who managed to keep a heavy enfilading fire from the main 
b.atteries, by the coolness and bravery with which he manoeuvred this battery. 
The fire on both sides now became general and rapid. The enemy placed more 
artillery in position, and for some time I thought I should have to retire; but 
the enemy soon alter slackened his fire, and it was evident he was worsted by 
the projectiles with which our artillerists assailed him. An officer now came 
from the right and informed me that the infantry were preparing to charge, and 
to cease firing as soon as they appeared. I kept up the fire, returning shot for 
shot with the enemy, who appeared willing to give up the combat. 

Seeing this, and being informed that Gen. Evans (commanding the infantry,) 
was advancing to attack the enemy, I ordered the four (reserve^ guns of Lieut. 
Galbrailh in position to engage the enemy's artillery, and draw his attention 
while our troops were advancing. The enemy finally gave up his position, 
retired across the Kappahannock, and only replied occasionally to our fire, and 
in an hour after ceased firing altogether. 

It is with pleasure I am enabled to speak of the gallantry with which Capt. 
Stribling, officers and -meu, behaved on this occasion. Lieut. Chapman, with 
his section of Dixie Artillery, behaved with great coolness, and handled his 
guns with effect. To Lieut. E. Owen, J. M. (Jalbraith, and those under their 
command, I would especially call your attention. Both officers commanded 
full batteries, and handled tliera |with coolness, bravery and good judgment, 
which has so often on previous occasions won the confidence of their men. 
Sergeants T. Y. Abby, C. L. C. Dnpuy and L. M. Montgomery rendered me effi- 
cient service: the latter, on previous occasions, has placed me under many 
obligations for his voluntary services. 

First Company, Battery Washington Artillery, killed : Privates, W. Chambers, 
K. T. Marshall, J. Reddington and H. Koss. Wounded, Coporal W. H. West, 
Privates, John R. Fell, T. S. Turner, M. Mouut and W. R. Falconer. 

Dixie Artillery, wounded: Privates, JohnEddins, Westley Pence, John Knight 
and Daniel Martin. 

Stribling's Battery, wounded : Lieut. Archer, and one Private. 
First Company Battery Washington Artillery, horses killed, 1, wounded, 1. 
Stribling's Battery, horses killed, 4, wounded, 0. 

Dixie Battery, horses killed, 1, wounded, 0. — Total, 6 killed, 1 wounded. 
One three inch rifle gun exploded during action. The batteries were engaged 
from about seven o'clock, A. .\I., to eleven o'clock, A. M., and expended the 
following amunition : 

First Company Washington Artillery, 400 ; Section of Dixie Artillery, 209 ; 
Section ot Maurin's Artillery, 119; Stribling's Artillery, 354 ; Leake's Artillery, 
one gun. — Total, 1,182. 

Captain Leake reported after the enemy had retired with one rifle and three 
smooth-bore guns. He sustained no loss. About two o'clock, p. m.. Major 
Garnett rode up and requested me to sendjfour rifle guns to Col. S. D. Lee, who 
was on the right, near Central railroad. For this purpose I detached Lieutenant 
Owen with one section of the Washington Artillery, and one section of Mann's 
Battery. In obedience to your orders, at half past five P. M. I ordered all the 
guns back to their respective commands. 

Very respectfully, Colonel, your obedient servant, 

C. W. SQUIRES, 
Capt. Gommanding First Oo. Sat. W. A 



116 A. Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

SECOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS. 

While Pope's attention was thus occupied with Long- 
street, Jackson was pushing on up the Rappahannock to 
make a crossing at one of the upper fords, (Hinson's 
Mills,) move around Pope's army in the rear, and strike 
the railroad to Alexandria. The first day of his rapid 
march he reached Selma, and as McClellan was coming 
on from the Peninsula with more troops, and no time was 
to be lost, Jackson pushed on to Bristow Station, striking 
the railroad about dark — Hay's Brigade in the front, and 
Foruo in command — capturing two trains of cars. He 
had thus forced himself between Pope and Washington 
without meeting any resistance, or without any suspicion 
upon Pope's part that so daring and dangerous a move 
would ever have been attempted. His position is now 
indeed critical — foot^sore and weary as his men are, he 
must divide off two regiments (21st Georgia and 21st 
North Carolina) and send them with Stuart's cavalry, 
seven miles further on to Manassas. This expedition 
crept cautiously through the dark and struck the place 
from behind. It might have been warned by the dash- 
ing by of an engine from Bristow, which soon after ran 
into a train of cars, but was not. 

At this point he captured immense supplies of provis- 
ions, guns, engines, and other munitions of war, for which 
latter Pope's army will soon have sore need. But the 
alarm has been given now, and the enemy are closing 
around Jackson on every side. First, the little force at 
Manassas must beat off Scammon across Bull Run, and 
take his bridge away from him; then Stuart's cavalry must 
raid up and down and destroy everything about Fairfax 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 117 



and Burke's station. Then (for the moments grow more 
and more precious) Jackson must push up his own and 
Hill's divisions from Bristow, and rout the Federal Taylor 
who goes one leg on the encounter, and has much diffi- 
culty in hobbling off on the other. But Pope's whole 
army is being spread out now, and they hold the gap by 
which Jackson came in. As the afternoon of this event- 
ful day (the 27th) wears away, Hooker comes up on 
Ewell, (left behind at Bristow,) and after hard fighting 
Gen. Ewell* burns everything behind — the Louisiana 
regiments being "hotly engaged" — and destroys the 
bridges. He must now rejoin Jackson, whose only chance 
is to move westward, towards Longstreet. There was not 
much sleeping that night for the weary soldier ; and at 3 
o'clock the next morning, (28th) Jackson makes a detour 
by way of Centreville and Sudley Springs, followed behind 
by great masses of the enemy, whom he imp.eded by de- 

*The following is extracted from the report of Gen. Early: 
Hays' Louisiana brigade was on the right of the railroad, and my own brigade 
to the right of Hays' m a pine wood. 

Col. Forno, witli four regiments of Hays' brigade and one of Lawton's, and 
one piece of d'Aquin's battery, was then ordered to the front to reconnoitre and 
destroy the biidge over Kettle run, and tear up the track of the railroad. He 
found the enemy had brought up on a train of cars a body of infantry sufficient 
to fill nine cars; but having doubtless discovered our force to be larger than was 
thought, was re-embarking it. A few shots from the piece of artillery were 
fired at the train and it made its way back again, after receiving some damage. 
The 6th Louisiana, under Col. Strong, was left on picket two miles in front, on 
the railroad, and the 8th Louisiana was put to work destroying the railroad 
bridge and tearing up the track, and Ool Forno returned with the rest of the 

forces. J . i. 

The enemy was seen approaching on the right of the railroad and in front of 
Hays' brigade, the 6th and 8th Louisiana regiments falling back and taking 
position in a wood three or four hundred yards in front of the brigade. The 
enemy's force consisted of heavy columns of infantry, with artillery. As soon 
as the enemy came in range our artillery, from its several positions, opened on 
him, as did the 6th and 8th Louisiana. By this combined lire, two columns of 
the enemy, of not less than a brigade each, were driven back, and the 5th Lou- 
isiana regiment was sent forward to reinforce the sixth and eighth. At this time 
the Louisiana regiments were actively engaged, and a large body of the enemy 
was moving up, and the experiment had to be tried whether our troops could 
be withdrawn in good order. Gen. Ewell directed me to cover the retiring of 



118 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



stroying the bridges and moving on back towards Sudley 
Mills Ford, where he must encounter in a sanguinary 
fight a fresh division, (King's) only to be terminated by 
darkness — Ewell and Taliaferro both being wounded. 

It certainly looks as if the game for Jackson is ended 
now : so General Pope believes, for on the 29th Jackson 
will be assailed by 25,000 troops, and from every quarter, 
at the same time. But meanwhile Lee and Longstreet 
had been following Pope closely behind — so closely that 
at Jefferson, where we bivouacked about sundown on the 
24th, the two hostile camps came in sight of each other, 
and the enemy commenced shelling our position. In 
crossing at Waterloo bridge, (26th) Longstreet had felt 
our need, and made our batteries follow immediately 
after him. 

Moving through woods and fields to keep out of sight 
of the signal corps, through Annanville and over the 
Warrenton Turnpike, we crossed the Rappahannock and 
camped near Orleans. On the 27th, during a halt for 
rest near Salem, the town was suddenly dashed into by 
Federal Cavalry, and a number of stragglers absent for 
water or food barely escaped, came rushing back and gave 
the alarm, though it did not prevent Gen. Lee from great 
risk of capture. Our trouble was we had no cavalry at 
hand to give any news ; and I remember seeing Gen. Lee 
enquire of us, so difficult was it to see or obtain informa- 
tion, whether some horsemen in front we're the enemy or 
our own men. At any rate, the infantry with us were 
ordered into line — Gen. Anderson getting them stirred up 
with the cry of " Put on your shirts, men, there's no time 
to lose now." 

The same night we marched to Thoroughfare Gap, a 
very narrow pass, with precipitous sides, and through 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 119 



Bull Run Mountains. We were here delayed by the 
enemy in force, (McDowell) who, it seemed* to us might 
liave, with a hundred men, achieved among the gloomy 
precipices as much as Leonidas. The Persian king, how- 
ever, did not have Hood's Texas Brigade to do his flanking 
over the mountains ; and so Jackson, whose destiny now 
hangs on a thread, and the booming of whose guns our 
vanguard can hear, will soon be reinforced. At about 
mid-day, (29th) Longstreet, who had been pressing hotly 
forwardj came in on the right of Jackson, and the crisis 
for him had passed. Pope's efforts to overwhelm Jackson 
had been a failure. There remained now nothing to do 
but to turn upon Pope, twine around his army although 
still the largest, and to leisurely beat him back in two 
days fighting, across Bull Run, to the heights of Cen- 
treville. The reports of our Commanders, given be- 
low, tells the rest of the story : 

REPOE.TOF COL. WALTON, 

of second battle of manassas. 

Headquabters Batallion Washington Artillery, 1 
November 30th, 1862. / 
To Major G. W. Sorrell, 

AfisislmU AdjutaiU General^ Bight^Wing^ A. N. V. 

I have the honor to transmit the foUowiBg report of the operations of the 
Batallion Washington Artillery of New Orleans, under my command, on the 
29th, 30th, and 31st August last, at and after the second battle of Manassas. On 
the 29th August, 1862, the four batteries composing the batallion were assigned 
and served as follows : The fourth company, consisting of two six-pounder 
bronze guns, and two twelve-pounder howitzers, under Capt. B. F. Eshleman, 
Lieuts. Norcomb, Battles and Apps, with Pickett's brigade ; the second com- 
pany with two six-pound bronze guns, and two twelve-pound howitzers, under 
Capt. Richardson, Lieuts. Hawes, DeRussey and Brittou, with Toombs' brigade ; 
the iirst company, with three three-inch rifle guns, under Capt. C. W. Squires, 
Lieuts. E. Owens, Galbraith and Brown, and the third company, with four light 
twelve-pound guns, (Napoleons) under Capt. M. B. Miller, Lieuts. MoBlroy and 
Hero in reserve. 

About noon on the 29th, the two batteries in reserve having halted near the 
village of Gainesville on the Warrenton and CentreviUe turnpike, were ordered 
fnvmorrl hv Gen. Longstreet, to enease the enemy then in our front, and near 



120 A' Soldier's Story of the War. 



position indicated by tlie General, and opened fire upon the enemy's batteries. 
Immediately in Captain Miller's fronthe discovered a battery of the enemy, dis- 
tant about twelve»hundrcd yards. Beyond tbis battery, and on a more elevated 
position, were posted the enemy's nfle batteries. Ho opened upon the battery 
nearest him, and after a spirited engagement of three quarters of an hour, 
completely silenced it and compelled it to leave the field. He then turned his 
attention to the enemy's rifle batteries, and engaged them until having exhausted 
his ammunition he retired from the field. 

Capt. Squires, on reaching his position on the left of Capt. Miller's battery, 
at once opened with his usual accuracy upon the enemy's batteries. Unfortu- 
nately, after the first fire, one of his guns having become disabled by the blow- 
ing out of the bushing of the vent, was sent from the field. 

Captain Squires then placed the remaining section of his battery under com- 
mand of Lieut. Owen, and rode to the left, to place additional guns (that had 
been sent forward to his assistance) in position. At this time the enemy's infan- 
try were engaged by the forces on the left of the position occupied by our bat- 
teries, and, while the enemy retreated in confusion before the charge of our 
veterans, the section under Lieut. Owen poured a destructive fire into tlieir 
affrighted ranks. 

Scores were seen to fall, until finally the once beautiful line melted confusedly 
iyto the woods. 

The enemy's artillery having withdrawn beyond our range, the section was 
ordered from the field. Both batteries, the first and third, in this action, fully 
maintained ^their well-earned reputation for skilful practice and gallant beha- 
vior. With this duel ended the operations on the lelt of our line tor the day. 

The next morning, 30th August, the second company of Captain J. B. Rich- 
ardson was ordered forward from its position on the Manassas Gap railroad, to 
join its bii^ade (Toombs') then moving forward towards the enemy. Captain 
Richardson pushed forward until, arriving near the Chinn House, he was in- 
formed that our infantry had charged and taken a battery near that position, 
but, owing to heavy reinforcements thrown forward by the enemy, were unable 
to hold it without the assistance of artillery. He immediately took position on 
the left of the Chinn House and opened on the enemy, who were advancing 
rapidly, in large numbers. After firing a short time, he moved his battery for- 
ward about four hundred yards, and succeeded in holding the captured battery 
of four Napoleons, forcing the enemy back, and compelling a battery immedi- 
ately in his front, and which was annoying our infantry greatly, to retire. He 
then turned the captured guns upon their late owners, and at night brought 
them from the field with their horses and harness. 

Captain Richardson, in his report, makes special mention for gallantry of 
privates J. B. Cleveland and W. W. Davis, who were the first to reach the cap- 
tured battery, and with the assistance of some infantry, fired nearly twenty-five 
rounds before being relieved by their comrades. Lieutenant Hawcs had his 
horse shot under him during this battle. While Richardson, with the second, 
was doing such gallant services near Chinn House, Eshleman, with the fourth, 
with Ins short range guns, was doing good work in the same neighborhood. 
Following his brigade, (Pickett's) he shelled the woods in their front, while 
they advanced in line of battle against the enemy, whose skirmishers were seen 
ou the edge of the wood. Finding it would be impracticable to follow the 
brigade, owing to the broken nature of the ground, be passed rapidly to the 
right and front, going into battery and firing from every eleTated position from 
which he could enfilade the enemy, until he had passed entirely to the right of 
General Jones' position, (overlooking nearly the whole space in front of Chinn 
House) from which his shells fell into the ranks of the enemy with great execu- 
tion. A persistent attack on the front and flank drove the enemy back into the 
woods, and now the immense clouds of dust rising from Centreville road indi- 
cated that he was in full retreat. He was directed by Gemy-al X>. K. Jones to 



A Soldier's Story of , the War. 121 



move forward and shell the wood and road, which he continued to do until 
directed by Gen. J. E. B. Stuart to send a section of his battery to the hills in 
front of the Conrad House, and to fire into a column of cavalry advancing in 
his rear. The section under Lieut. Norcom was detached, took position on the 
left of the Conrad House, and fired into the enemy until directed to cease by 
GSn. Stuart, his object having beeu accomplished. 

The remaining section of tiie battery, uuder Lieut. Battles, was then ordered 
by Captain Eshleman across the 8udley road, fir ng as it advanced, into the 
retreating enemy. At this time, Captain Eshleman's only support was one com- 
pany of sixty men of Gen. Jackson's sharpsliooters, under Capt. Lee. 

After a short interval, the enemy again appeared in force near the edge of the 
wood. Capt. E. immediately changed his front to the left, and poured into the 
enemy's rauks two rounds of canister, with deadly effect. Those not killed or 
wounded ran in disorder. After throwing a few shells into the woods. Captain 
E. retired about two hundred yards to the rear, being unwilling to risk his sec- 
tion with such meagre support. In a few minutes an order was brought from 
Gen. Stuart directing the section to be brought again to tlie vicinity of the 
Courad House. 

It was now dark, and Capt. E. kept up from this last position, a moderate fire 
until nine o'clock, in the direction of the Centreville road, when he was directed 
to retire, with Lieut. Norcom's section, that had joined him on the fieid, and 
rest his men. Capt. E., in his report, applauds highly the conduct of his 
officers, non-commissioned officers and men, to whose coolness and judgment he 
was indebted for the rapid evolutions of his battery and precision of his fire. 

The next day, August 31, 1862, Lieut. Owen, with two guns of the first Com- 
pany, accompanied Gen. Stuart, commanding Cavalry in pursuit of the enemy 
to and beyond Germantown. They came up with the enemy at several points, 
driving him ahead of them and capturing five hundred prisoners. 

Capt. Squires on the same day, with one gun accompanied Col. Rosser, to 
Manassas, going in rear of the enemy, capturing a large amount of stores, 
(Quartermasters and Surgical) ambulances, horses, etc. 

My casualties in this battle were one killed, jPrivate, H. N. White, of second 
Company, and nine wounded. 

Thus ended the operations of this batallion in this great second battle of 
Manassas, fought almost on the same ground and in sight of the field where our 
guns first pealed forth a little more than a year before. 

I have the satisfaction in conclusion, to say that all the officers and men gave 
in this important .battle renewed evidence of their devotion, judgment and cool 
bravery, in most trying positions. No eulogy of mine can add to the reputation 
they so worthily enjoy, earned upon bloody battle fields. 

I am under obligations to Lieut. W. M. Owen, my always devoted and brave 
Adjutant, for distinguished services under fire. I have the honor to be your 
obedient servant, 

J. B. WALTON, 

Col. Commanding. 

Gen. Longstreet, in his official report, describes the 
excitement of battle as giving new life to the men — says 
that the Washington Artillery was placed midway between 
Jackson and his line, "and engaged the enemy for several 
hours in a severe, and successful artillery duel." 



122 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE MARYLAND CAMPAtlJX. 

To go a little more into detail, the turning point, on 
the 29th of August, of the battle on Jackson's flank was 
brought about by a heavy attack of Kearney upon that 
portion of the line, about 6 o'clock in the afternoon. For 
a while it was successful enough to double up Jackson's left 
upon his centre. Though the troops had been exhausted 
by many days previous fighting, by one attack after 
another during seven hours of struggle, and had hardly 
a round of ammunition, "Yet," says General Early in 
his report, "My brigade and the Eighth Louisiana 
advanced upon the enemy through a field, and drove him 
from the woods and out of the railroad cut, crossing the 
latter and following in pursuit several hundred yards 
beyond." 

The lines of the two armies, however, were but little 
affected on the 30th by the battle of the 29th, but the 
fight of the last day was renewed by Pope under the 
absurd error that Lee was seeking to escape. McDowell 
was ordered to " press the enemy vigorously the whole 
day." But once the pressing process was commenced, it 
was very quickly shown what the supposed retreat 
amounted to. 

"Line after line," says Swinton, "was swept away by 
the enemy's artillery and infantry fire ; and so destruc- 
tive was its effect that Portei-'s troops finally were com- 
pelled to withdraw. Porter's attack had been directed 
against Jackson; but Longstreet, on Jackson's right, 
found a commanding point of ground, whence he could 
rake the assaulting columns with an enfilading fire of 
Artillery." "From an eminence near by," says Gen. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 12'i 



Longstreet, "one portion of the enemy's masses, attacking 
Gen. Jackson, were in easy range of batteries in that 
position. It gave me an advantage I had not expected to 
have, and I made haste to use it. Two batteries were 
ordered for the purpose, and one placed in position imme- 
diately and opened. 

"Just as this fire began, I received a message from the 
Commanding General informing me of Gen. Jackson's 
condition and his wants. As it was evident that the 
attack against Gen. Jackson could not be continued ten 
minutes under the fire of these batteries, I made no move- 
ments with my troops. Before the second battery could 
be placed in position, the enemy began to retire, and in 
less than ten minutes the ranks were broken, and that 
portion of his army put to flight." — Longstreet' s Report. 

Batallion Journal : We silenced the enemy's guns at 
3:30 p. M., and broke up a line of advancing infantry. The 
practice was splendid — our batteries in time occupying 
the ground held previously during the day by the enemy. 
Gen. Jackson who served in the Mexican war with great 
distinction as an artillery officer, remarked while standing 
near Longstreet: "General, your artillery is superior to 
mine." 

"The head of Longstreet's column having come upon 
thfe field, in the rear of the enemy's left, found the battle 
already opened with artillery on Jackson's right. Long- 
street immediately placed some of his batteries in position ; 
but before he could complete his dispositions to attack, the 
enemy withdrew ; not however without loss from our 
artillery. The enemy now changed his position — Col. 
Walton placed a part of his artillery upon a commanding 
position between Jackson and Longstreet, by order of the 



-134 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



latter, and engaged the enemy vigorously for several 
hours." — Gen. Lee's Report. 

Gen. Warren, one of the best of Pope's Generals, "held 
on stoutly against fearful loss, till the enemy had advanced 
so close as to fire in the very faces of his men." 

The rest of the day's work consisted of an advance and 
pursuit by Lee — the remainder of Pope's array being 
saved by the resistance of a body of Regulars who held 
the Henry House Hill till Pope could cross his men in 
the darkness to the further side of Bull Run. The dis- 
ordered masses of the Federal army presented the same 
scene that they did at the same river the year before ; 
and the victory was just as complete — Lee capturing 9000 
prisoners, 30 pieces of artillery, and 20,000 stand of arms, 
besides putting 40,000 of Pope's army hors du combat. 
This victory however was like the first in a still more 
important respect — it was no more decisive than any 
that preceded it, and the fighting and marching had to be 
commenced on the morrow the same as if nothing had 
yet been done.* 

* Report of Colonel Stafford commanding Second Louisiana Brigade, of the Battles of the 

Second Manassas. 
"The Brigade, consisting of the first, second, ninth, tenth, fifteenth, and Cop- 
pens' bataillon Louisiana Volunteers, reported near Gordonsville, on or about 
the 12th August, 1862, and was assigned to duty in the division of Major General 
T. J. Jackson. Being the senior Colonel in the Brigade, the command dev.olved 
upon me. I had command but one wcelt, when Brigadier General W. E. Star'xe, 
reported for duty and took command. Shortly after Gen. Starke's arriva', we 
took up the line of march and continued it until vve reached the ford on the 
Rappahannock, near Brandy Station, on or about the 21st August, at which 
period we found the enemy strongly posted on the opposite bank. On the morn- 
ng of the 22d we resumed the march, and crossed the Rappahannock at Major's 
Mill, on Hazel fork on the 25th; passed through Thoroughfare Gap on the morning 
of th^ 27th, and reached Manassas the same day. That night we fell back, and 
took position near the little farm called Groveton. On the afternoon of the 28th, 
the enemy appearing in sight, we formed our line of battle on the crest of the 
hill overlooking Groveton, and awaited his attack. The battle commenced at 
five o'clock, p, M. and lasted until nine o'clock, i'. m. resulting in the repulse of 
the enemy, we holding the battle ground. In the engagement, the Brigadier 
General commanding the division, receiving a severe wound, the command 
devolved upon Brig. Gen. Starke, and the command of the brigade fell upon me. 
On the morning ot the 29th being in reserve, we were not thrown forward until 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 125 



The marches of Jackson and Longstreet afforded during 
this week a good idea of what soldiering was. It was 
hard work with all, but with the Louisiana troops under 
Jackson, it was 35 miles forced marching, for two days, 
from the Rappahannock to Manassas, rounded off with a 
fight and railroad burning, two or three fights the day 
after, and the same work continued for ten days — all of 
the time with almost certain destruction awaiting the 
corps. 

It deserves also to be stated- — with many members 
of the Washington Artillery, as soon as it was discovered 
that there was no immediate demand for their guns — from 
having exhausted their ammunition or other cause, that 
they went into the action with other batteries, and 
that their services were gladly received. At the second 
Manassas, some of the men were in action at three diflferent 
points, and with three different batteries during the same 
day. 

. One of the horrors of such a system of ten days fighting, 
may be cited in what the troops suffered in the battles just 
alluded to. 

They were all day exposed to a broiling sun, and to 



about twelve o'clock, at which time we received an "rder to charge. Driving 
the enemy before us, we again fell back to our position, remaining in it during 
the night. On the morning of the 30th, Brig. Gen. Starke ordered me to send 
half ol one of my regiments forward, and occupy the Rail Road ut cas a point 
of observation, to be held at all hazards. About eight o'clock in the morning, 
the enemy commenced throwing forward large bodies of skirmishers, into the 
woods on our left, who quickly formed themselves into regiments, and moved 
forward by brigade to the attack, and massing a large body of troops at this 
point, with the evident design of forcing us from our -position. They made 
arepeated charges on us while in this position; but but were compelled to retire 
in contusion, sustaining heavy lo^s and gaining nothing. It was at this point 
that the ammunition gave out, the men procured some from the dead bodies of 
their comrades, but the supply was not sufEcient, and in the absence of ammunition, 
the men fought with rocks and held their position. The enemy retreated, and we 
pressed forward to the turnpike road; then halted and camped for the night. On 
the 31st, we took up the line of march, and on the 1st of September at Chantilly, 
■we again met the enemy and repulsed them. 

16 



-126 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



great suffering from scarcity of water. Added to this, 
was the ghastly sight of the men slain in the previous 
day's fights, and, what was worse to a soldier, the intoler- 
able stink emanating from 1.0,000 bloated and festering 
corpses. 

On our march to the rescue of Jackson from Thorough- 
fare Gap, the men drank from stagnant pools, and their 
sufferings were so great, that Gen. Lee was heard to inquire 
of some of his officers, if there were no roads by which to 
save his poor soldiers in their forced marches, from so 
much dust and heat. 

As showing what the slaughter of such a battle field is, 
I may mention that being detailed as a driver, when our 
artillery moved across the field, it was found impossible 
for the drivers to prevent their wheels from passing over 
more than one prostrate corpse, particularly over those 
of the red legged Zouaves, nearly annihilated on this 
field, by the Texas Brigade. It was just such a scene 
as the old pictures in republican Geographies used to 
represent of the carriage of the Emperors of Austria or 
of Russia, passing over the cripples and beggars who stood 
in the way. 

Among other singularities of the First Manassas, was 
the fact that both armies Avere preparing to attack on 
their right at the same time. As the storm burst first 
upon the Confederate left flank, the consequence was that 
the battle was gained by the 7000 Confederate troops who 
could be brought to that wing — by their almost incredible 
stand against five times their superior force. In the 
Second Manassas, a year after, the two armies as if by 
mutual agreement had changed to opposite sides, as if to 
decide whether the first had been won owing to some 
advantage in the facings or the ground. In the first, the 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 127 



hottest portion of the jfight had been around the house of 
Mrs. McHenry, who was there killed and buried. In the 
following year, two soldiers were found stretched over her 
grave — as if to show that they had fought over some Belle 
Helene, or rather over an old woman's quarrel, and by 
some sort of retribution, after marching always in oppo- 
sition over and around Virginia, had finally come back by 
a poetic coincidence, to die face to face over the grave of 
the first innocent victim of the war. 

Practically stated, the Second Manassas may be defined 
as the culminating effort of Pope to caj)ture Jackson, who 
in the moment his prey was completely in the toils, 
removed himself, his men from the entrance to the trap, 
and allowed Lee to come through Thoroughfare Gap* to 
his assistance. The blunder here made, of which every 
battle affords instances on one side or the other, culmiriated 
in Pope trying to flank the right wing of Jackson, and 
never being able to find the end of it, for the reason that 
Lee and Longstreet had in the very nick of time been added 
on to it. Failing in capturing Jackson, his last blunder was 
his attempted pursuit of Lee. 

*The following is from the BatalUon Journal, Aug. 29th : A little after the 
Texas and Georgia Brigades had taken possession of the cow paths of Bull Run 
Mountains, and driven the enemy therefroUi, a squadron of horse emerged as we 
advanced, from the woods on our left, and caused a halt, and a momentary doubt 
was entertained as to whether it was friend or foe ; but soon the red banner with 
the blue cross was discerned through a glass, and a horseman with flowing beard, 
(who turned out to be Gen. Beverly Robinson) advanced rapidly. "What of Jack- 
son, " said Lee. " He has fallpn back and is holding the enemy at Sudley's Mills." 
" Let us press on to his assistance, " said Lee ; and the booming of Jackson's guns 
told us that we would be none too soon : we went on the battlefield of the 29th 
on the right flank of Jackson, at 11:30 — six hours before Pope or Porter knew 
that Lee's army was present ; the 3d Company being the first to be ordered in. 

If Pope who had the superiority of men had held the gap, and kept his troops 
on the road therefrom, everything else being equal, he ought to have succeeded 
in crushing Jackson. 



128 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



OFFICIAL EBPOKT OF THE KILLED AND -WOUNDED AT THE BATTLES OF THE 
SECOND MANASSAS, 29th akd 30tii of AUGUST, 1862. 

Wounded :~'ih\TA Company, Sergeant W. A. Collins. Private, E. Chapiaux, 
Driver, James Bloom. ^ 

SECOND COMPANY. 

Killed: — Private, Henry N. White. Wounded: — Privates, A. R. Blakely, 
Douglas Ware, H. D. Summers. 

FODETH COMPANY, (Groveton). 

Wounded: — Privates, Jos. W. Lescene, B. S. Burke, Driver, Davis Nolan. 
Batallion horses killed in the three battles — 41. 

Meanwhile, the head of the column was again to the 
front — Jackson once more creeping around and behind 
Pope with a drawn sword, or rather fixed bayonet, and 
appearing, for many a Federal regiment and division pre- 
destined to Hades, as the executioner of the Fates — little 
occupied as to what particular body of men to smite first. 
Marching north by Germantown, he struck the enemy at 
Chantilly, during a tremendous thunder storm, and the 
roar of the elements and the fall of the rain on that 
chilly afternoon was so great that the men could scarcely 
handle their guns, nor could the armies, three miles dis- 
tant, distinguish the booming of the cannon. The number 
of killed and wounded was considerable upon both sides 
(among other dead was Gen. Kearney,* of the United 
States Army, whose body was brought into our lines;) 
but the move otherwise bore no fruit, Pope retiring with- 
out further struggle within the lines about Washington. 

Shortly after our army moved towards the Potomac, 
for which event we had been dreaming ever since the 
first Manassas. 

On the 3d of September we marched with three days 
rations and bivouacked at Dranesville, with the whole 

*Gen. Kearney wasonce asked by the colonel of a re-enforcing regiment in 
one of the battles of '62 where to go in? "Oh anywhere I" was the answer, 
" anywhere ! It's all the same. Lovely fighting along the whole line." 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 129 



army. The order was given on the following day for 
Jackson to cross the Potomac, and. the word was, " On to 
Maryland!" 

On the 5th we marched through Leesburg and bivouacked 
in a half a mile of the Potomac, which stream was next 
morning crossed. 

As full of hope as the soldiers of Hannibal going over 
the Alps — many of whose battles, by the way, those of 
Lee and Jackson resembled — the men splashed through 
the water, too happy to be moving forward to trouble 
themselves about wet clothing. The careful artillerists 
who were by the side of their pieces, mounted the cais- 
sons — the laggards behind shouted frantically for a little 
delay, and in vain attempted to obviate a wet skin by 
extra speed. 

It was with a deep heaving of the chest and expansion 
of the lungs with us all that we stood at last upon the 
Maryland shore, and thought of the battle fields behind 
and before. At all of the farm houses near the river the 
people appeared hospitable and reb down to their boots, 
and crazy to see Lee. Adjutant Owen brought back a 
string of ladies, who overwhelmed the old man with 
kisses and welcomes. 

On the following day we crossed the Monocosy and 
camped near Frederick City. Jackson's troops had pretty 
much swept the town; but the troops were paid in Mary- 
land, and grocers were found with sufficient sympathy to 
take Confederate money in return for a variety of eata- 
bles and drinkables. Our supplies were replenished and 
that night there was a Sardanapalan feast, on a limited 
scale, which effectually banished the memory of hard 
marches (however it might have been with headache) 
from every couch that night. 



m A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our marches led us through Frederick City, Hagerstown, 
and Boonsboro. But little opportunity was afforded us 
for seeing the country, as hard fighting was evidently 
before us in the not remote perspective, and it was neces- 
sary that the men should stand close to their guns; besides 
we were in Maryland only two weeks. An advance after 
the First Manassas, (which there can be no question would 
have been made, if Gen. Lee had been in command) would 
have carried Maryland to the cause of the Confederacy, 
but it was now too late. Her refined population could 
only see as the result of long soldiering, rags and filth, 
and barefooted soldiers (totally indifferent or indisposed 
to the bright muskets,) and so the sentiment of " My 
Maryland" evaporated in poetry and paper. The number 
of recruits (300) did not begin to compensate for the heavy 
drain upon Lee's Regiments from forced marching ; which 
cut the number of his men down one-half, and so there 
was to be no interest of any practical value felt in us — 
and but little enthusiasm ; that is with a few very noble 
exceptions. One of these I now remember, was that of a 
kind-hearted woman who offered one of our weary soldiers 
some fruit. Before she had ended in making this good 
natured evidence of friendship, a mob of her own sex 
invaded her house and overwhelmed her with every 
reproach. The intelligent soldier whom she tried to bene- 
fit, seeing how the land lay, pretended to have taken the 
fruit without asking, and hastened to relieve his well- 
Avisher of what must have been at the time embarrassing 
company. 

To a soldier, whose pleasures like that of the clergy, 
are almost limited to eating and drinking, a rare oppor- 
tunity of this sort was viewed by our Generals with an 
indulgent eye, and the men were allowed to forget, for at 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 131 



least one day, wearisome marches, watches and privations, 
and the bloody tragedies which were looming up in the 
future. 

During tlie short time that we were camped about the 
towns of Maryland, the streets were full of soldiers, not 
to say the drinking saloons, which from time to time would 
mysteriously open and shut, though contrary to orders, 
and the jingling of spurs, sabres and glasses, and the faint 
aroma of tempting drinks, would be borne to the senses of 
the envious lookers on, compelled to remain upon the out- 
side. A hotel of limited accommodations was the great 
point of attraction. The guests, however, had only Con- 
federate money, and the unpatriotic landlord (though he 
affected the very reverse) was unwilling to accept this 
currency in payment. Besides, he was completely over- 
slaughed by the number of his guests, whose appetites 
more than corresponded to the contents of his larder. A 
party of our men went there one day, fully determined to 
eat a square meal before going into another fight ; but it 
soon became evident that if they did so, it would be with- 
out any assistance from our host, who affected the greatest 
pleasure in our company, but frankly told us that two 
hundred other guests stood a much better chance. 

He however, did not hesitate to sell us our dinner 
tickets, while good naturedly laughing and telling us at 
the same time that there was no chance. 

Once provided with these documents, there was only 
need for watchfulness and attention — the entrance of the 
select crowd beforehand, meaning of course no dinner for 
the balance of us. The danger was guarded against by 
dividing ourselves up into corps of observation, and keep- 
ing a bright look out, especially in the neighborhood of 
the kitchen. 



132 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our vigilance met with its reward. We found out the 
precise moment for action — through the friendship of a 
French c/te/ or waiter we discovered the secret entrance 
reserved for the favored few, and better than all the 
watchword that would permit us to pass the closely 
guarded door. To the infinite astonishment of our land- 
lord, the soldiers of the Louisiana regiments went in with 
the first move, and some of their acquaintances among 
the officers and generals were indebted to our [timely 
discovery to getting anything to eat at all. 

I have always thought that the two hundred guests 
assembled that day, did the heaviest knife and fork work 
ever performed in that hotel, or indeed in the whole State. 

In the careless meetings vrhich took place between the 
higher officers on such occasions, and the soldiers whom 
they had previously known, the conduct of the former was 
always manly and good-natured, and an evident disposition 
was shown to forget their rank ; whether it was at a way 
side dinner, or when a train of provisions or army clothing 
was struck, and every one with great glee, would rig him- 
self out to his fancy, or according to the length of his 
arms or legs would cast the unsuitable clothing to his next 
friend, or some of his men. Some of us in the midst of 
one such toilette, were with Gen. Gordon, the most 
gallant and dauntless officer in the Confederate Army, and 
almost as popular with the Louisiana Brigades as Jackson; 
and a sudden alarm came very near causing him to lead 
his men into action, minus both his old costume and his 
new. 

On one such occasion. Gen. Jackson had succeeded in 
getting hold of a rasher of bacon. One of his men who 
had bread, offered to divide with him, and the offer was 
accepted, on condition that ,he received half of the Gene- 
ral's slice of. meat. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 133 



It must be confessed that the fields of fruit and grain 
in our marches Northward, were of invaluable assistance 
to our army, as may be judged by a remark which I 
heard a soldier make when we afterwards invaded Penn- 
sylvania, that he could not understand how the move- 
ment at that time could succeed, as it was too late in the 
year for green apples or roasting ears, to live upon during 
the march. But in the Rappahannock and Maryland Cam- 
paign, the man who owned a frying pan, was possessed 
of no little influence, and various sorts of flattery were 
frequently resorted to, to gain temporary possession of it. 
With this, in a half an hour, and with the aid of a few 
sticks or splinters from rails, and a small cut of bacon, 
an impromptu meal could be hatched up whenever the 
line halted. The owner of so useful an article was 
allowed to assume a certain dignity and style, somewhat 
comparable to that of the chief officer of a regiment, 
so long as the corn remained tender ; but as all human 
honors are fleeting, he was afterwards forced to yield to 
the messmate who discovered a way of manufacturing a 
grater out of a canteen, and of thus making out of an 
otherwise indigestible food, a dish of first-class hominy. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

SHAKPSBUKG. 

From that time until we had passed Boonsboro, we 
journeyed on quietly enough through a delightful moun- 
tain country, but finally halted about midday, as it seemed 
to us, in order'to rest our horses. While ^e were quietly 
dozing by the side of these, the faint sound of cannon was 
17 



134 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



heard, which gradually increased in loudness, and it now 
became evident that an attack by the enemy was being 
made upon our rear column — upon the men who were 
holding the passes; now, as it seemed, with much less 
success than we had at Thoroughfare Gap. We formed 
the impression without being able to learn much about 
the matter, that fortune had suddenly given the enemy 
the trump card ; and that so far from advancing, that we 
would have to turn back. 

We subsequently learned that our success had been 
decided by an accident of the most trivial nature — by a 
scrap of paper, which falling in the mud and being left 
behind, had been picked up, after the Confederate army 
left Frederick city. The scrap contained the marching 
orders of Gen. Lee, and McClellan now knew the dis- 
position of all his corps. The most important information 
he in this way gained, was that Jackson had branched oft" 
to swoop down on a depot of supplies, and 12,000 Federal 
troops who had been left behind, in spite of all the rules 
of war, at Harper's Ferry, and that Lee's forces were 
divided in the enemy's country. 

By this time almost every soldier had acquired suffi- 
cient experience to know what the heavy prolonged firing 
to the rear meant. We did not hear of the captured letter, 
or the precise cause of our check, until years afterwards, 
but our faculties were sufficiently keen to couple the 
booining of the guns with the absence of Jackson, and to 
know what it meant. 

If at that juncture McClellan had done what Jackson 
was doing, without any chance assistance from fortune — 
had pressed forward his troops through the passes or over 
the mountains, Gen. Lee's army would have been in a bad 
way. But instead, Lee held the Thermopylae — time 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 135 



was lost in making a wrong flanking movement by his 
enemies, and the few hours thus gained (at the cost of 
some desperate fighting by the small divisions left behind,) 
enabled Lee to regain the mastery of the situation. While 
the rear was holding its ground, Jackson, who conquered 
as much by the legs of his troops as by their arms, was 
returning. 

Meanwhile, our retreat towards the Potomac had com- 
menced a little after midnight — (on the 15th,) and part of 
our duties was to guard the rear of the army, by taking 
positions upon every commanding eminence, and prepar- 
ing for an attack until the remainder of the troops had 
filed by. This operation was kept up till mid-day, at 
which time we took position definitely at Sharpsburg. 

A little while after, while the men were cooking or 
sleeping, as we happened to be suffering most with hunger 
or lack of sleep, we were called to our guns and ordered 
to reply to some of the guns of position,* in which we were 
always excelled by the enemy. It is needless to say that 
our firing was for the same object with which Lee had 
made an ostentatious display of his infantry — with a view 
of deterring the enemy, and gaining tinfie until the arrival 
of Jackson. The firing did not amount to much, or rather 
was a sheer farce as Gen. Hill called it, and we were soon 
permitted to go back and prepare for the serious work 
before us. McClellan meanwhile lost his opportunity by 
postponing his attack until the 17th, though his fire 
continued during the 15th, and the following day. 

*Giins of position — viz . those of large calibre and long range. The enemy's 
plan of operations, as it was with the Russians in the Crimean War, who had 
confessedly the same superiority over the English and French, was to plant a num* 
ber of guns upon some commanding forts or hills, and then open a converging 
fire, to which from lack of sufficient range and calibre, the Confederate Army 
could make no adequate reply. As to what our Artillery could do in a pitched 
battle, at Sharpsburg or elsewhere, even with badly made guns and ammunition) 
all of the reports are sufficient evidence. 



36 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our line was about a mile from Sharpsburg, then under- 
going shelling, and though a battle was obviously to be 
fought on the 17th, we were willing to visit the town 
in order to add to the scanty rations of camp. Soldiers 
being naturally of an indolent turn, it was easier to find 
volunteers who would encounter the danger, than those 
who were ready about bringing water, cooking, borrowing 
and washing our limited number of cooking utensils. 
Those who went into Sharpsburg, found much difficulty 
in coming across a store-keeper, sufficiently daring to do 
business under the circumstances, and only threats of 
helping ourselves, induced traders to return and receive 
our greenbacks. 

Most of us wanted sugar, coffee, and similar supplies ; 
but there was more than the average number, who hang 
around corner-groceries, ready to stand an unlimited 
quantity of shelling, provided they could thereby gratify 
what most soldiers acquire, a craving for liquor. But by 
this time we had all of us became so indifferent to balls, 
that the men of the two armies when picketed in sight of 
each other, and exposed to fire, would not only pay but 
little attention to the shots, but frequently be kind enough 
to point out to the enemy where their balls had gone to, 
and tell them to fire more to the right or left. 

The duty of having the coffee now purchased ground at 
an adjacent house, brought me in company with an elderly 
Maryland lady, whose nature seemed to have become as 
much absorbed in the war, us that of Flora Mclvor in the 
hopes of the Scottish Pretender. She sat softly singing 
before the fire as I entered, rocking herself to and fro in 
her chair, and apparently heedless of the shells which were 
passing over her house. When she ceased, it would be to 
launch out in fond praises of her son, whom she thought 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 13 7 



the bravest man in Stonewall's army, and whose death 
she apparently regarded as certain — something to which 
she had long since made up her mind. While having a 
look 'of fixed despair and resignation at his probable fate, 
she never seemed to admit to herself that this only son 
and relative could be any where but in a soldier's place. 
No entreaties could induce her to accept any of the coffee, 
though she was evidently much affected by the smell, and 
if she had possessed any would have probably sent it off 
to her son. 

The intensity of the devotion of this poor woman, was 
painfully brought to mind the next day, by the fate of a 
soldier who was killed before the battle had fairly com- 
menced, and who from her description, might have been 
her son. This man was shot down right by the side of a 
surgeon, who was behind the crest of the hill to avoid the 
enemy's fire, and in the presence of a number of soldiers, 
this medical officer refused to dress the man's wounds, or 
give him a chance for his life because he did not belong to 
his regiment. The old woman and the Doctor were pretty 
good types of the noble class upon one side, and those 
whose cowardly or selfish instincts were always coming to 
the surfaj3e. 

The principal battle of Sharpsburg, next to Gettysburg 
the hardest fought battle of the war, occurred the next 
day, Sept. 17th. 

The following taken from Gen. Early's, report of the 
Battle of Sharpsburg, will show how it fared with the 
Louisiana Infantry : 

"About sunrise, the enemy advanced in line, driving in our skirmishers, and 
advancing to the edge of the woods. About this time, batteries opened in front 
from the woods with shell and canister, and these brigades were exposed to a 
terrible carnage. After a short time, Gen. Hays advanced with his brigade, to the 
support of Col. Douglas, under a terrific fire and passed to the front. About this 
time Gen. Lawton, who had been superintending the operation, received a very 



138 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



severe wound and was borne from the field. Col. Walker by moving two of liis re- 
giments, 21st Georgia and 21st North Carolina, and concentrating their fire and 
that of the 12th Georgia upon a part of the enemy's line in front of the latter, suc- 
ceeded in breaking it and as a brigade of fresh troops came up to the support of 
Lawton's and Hays' brigades just in time, Walker ordered an advance ; but the 
brigade which came up having fallen back, he was compelled to halt, and finally to 
fall back to his first position. His brigade. (Trimble's,) had suffered terribly, his 
own horse was killed under him, and lie had himself been struck by apiece of shell. 
Col. Douglas, whose brigade had been hotly engaged during the whole time, was 
killed, and about half the men had been killed and wounded. Hays' brigade, 
which had advanced to Col. Douglas' support, had also suffered terribly, having 
more than half killed and wounded, (both Gen. Hays and Staff being disabled); 
and Gen. Hood having come up to their relief, these three brigades which were 
reduced to mere fragments, their ammunition being exhausted, retired to the 
rear. The terrible natiirb of the conflict in which these three brigades had been 
engaged, and the steadiness with which they maintained their position, is shown 
by the losses they sustained. They did not retire from the field, until General 
Lawton had been wounded and borne from the field ; Col. Douglas, commanding 
Lawton's brigade had been killed, and the brigade had sustained a loss of five 
hundred and fifty-four killed and wounded out of eleven-hundred and fifty, 
losing five Regimental Commanders out of six. Hays' brigade had sustained a 
loss of three hundred and twenty-three out of five hundred and fifty, including 
every Regimental Commander, and all of his Staff; and Col. Walker and one of 
his Staff had been disabled, and the brigade he was commanding had sustained 
a loss of two-hundred and twenty-eight, out of less than seven hundred pre- 
sent, including three out of four Regimental Commanders. I am sorry that I 
am not able to do justice to the individual cases of gallantry displayed in this 
terrible conflict. 

" I deem it proper to state that all the killed and wounded of my own brigade 
were inside of my lines, as I established them after the fight, and that the killed 
and wounded of the enemy on this part of the field, were also within the same 
lines. All my killed were buried, and all my wounded were carried to the hos- 
pital in the rear." 

One line of the enemy's infantry came so near us, that 
we could see their Colonel on horseback waiving his men 
on, and then even the stripes on the Corporal's a;:ms. 
How it made our blood dance and nerves quiVer as we 
saw their colors tioating steadily forward, and how he- 
roically and madly we toiled at and double-shotted our 
guns. Our men worked that day desperately, almost 
despairingly, because it looked for a time as if we could not 
stop the blue wave from coming forward, although we 
were tearing it to pieces with canister and shell. Long- 
street was- on' horseback at our side, sitting side-saddle 
fashion, and occasionally making some practical remark 
about the situation. He talked earnestly and gesticulated 
to encourage us, as the men of the detachments began to fall 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 139 



around our guns, and told us he would have given us a 
lift if he had not that day crippled his hand. But crip- 
pled or not, we noticed that he had strength enough left 
to carry his flask to his mouth, as probably everybody else 
did on that' terribly hot day, who had any supplies at 
command, to bring to a carry.* 

Finally the blue line disappeared from our front, and 
we managed to- hobble off with our pieces, though with 
the loss of a good many men, horses, and some wheels to 
our gun carriages. Then we loaded our chests with 



*Gen. Longstreet says in his report, that the enemy on the IVth, renewed an 
attack commenced the night before on Hood's brigade — a handful compared 
with those before him. Hood fought desperately until Jackson and Walker 
came to his relief — -the former soon moving off to flank the enemy's right. The 
enemy " now threw forward his masses against my Irft ; met by Walker, two pieces 
of Captain Miller's battery of the Washington Artillery, and two of Birce's 
battery. The enemy was driven back io some confusion; an effort was made to 
pursue, but our line was too weak. From this moment our centre was extremely 
weak. The enemy's masses again moved forward, and Cook's regiment stood 
with empty guns, moving his colors to show his regiment was in position. The 
artillery played upon the enemy with canister — their lines hesitated and after 
an hour and a half retired. 

" Another attack was quickly made a little to the right of the last, Capt. Miller 
turning his pieces upon these lines, and playing upon them with round shot 
(over the heads of R. H. Anderson's men) checked the advance, and Anderson's 
division, with the artillery, held the enemy in check until night. This attack 
was followed by the final assault, about four o'clock p. M., when the enemy 
crossed the bridge in front of Sharpsburg, and made his desperate attack upon 
my right. He drove back our right several times, and w.as himself made to 
retire several times — badly crippled ; but his strong reinforcements finally 
enabled him" to drive in my right, and occupy this part of my ground. 

" Thus advanced, the enemy's line was placed in such position as to enable Gen. 
Toombs to move his brigade directly against their flank. Gen. Jones seized the 
opportunity and threw Toombs against the enemy's flank, drove him back and 
recovered our lost ground. Two of the brigades of Major Gen. A. P. Hill's 
division advanced against the enemy's front as Gen. Toombs made his flank 
attack. The enemy took shelter behind a stone wall, and another line was, 
advanced to the crest of a hill in support of his first line. Capt. Richardson's, 
Brown's, and Moody's batteries, were placed in position to play upon the second 
line, and both lines were eventually driven back by their batteries. 

" Before it was entirely dark, the hundred thousand men that had been threat- 
ening our destruction for twelve hours, had melted away into a few stragglers. 

'• In one month, these troops had marched over two hundred miles upon little 
more than half rations, and fought nine battles and skirmishes, killed, wounded 
and captured nearly as many men as we had in our ranks, besides taking arms 
and other ammunition of War ih large quantities. " 

' Gen. Toombs in his report, gives a very laudatory account of Richardson's 
battery of the Washington Artillery at Sharpsburg. 



140 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



ammunition, and reappeared at two or three different points 
of the fray during the day. At one time about dusk, the 
hostile lines became so blended that no one could tell 
friend from foe, and we were afraid of firing for fear of 
doing harm to our friends. 

The following is from Gen. Lee's report of the battle 
of Sharpsburg : 

"The advance of the enemy [on the 15th,] was delayed by the brave opposi- 
tion he encountered from Fftz Lee's cavalry. During the afternoon the batteries 
were slightly engaged. 

" [On the iTth,] the firm front presented by the 2'7th N. C. standing boldly in 
line without a cartridge, and the well directed fire of the artillery under Capt. 
Miller of the Washington Artillery, and Capt. Bryce's S. C. Battery, checked the 
progress of the enemy. Another attack was made soon afterwards, a little fur- 
ther to the right, but was repulsed by Miller's guns of the Washington Artillery. 

"Our artillery though much inferior to that of the enemy in the number of guns 
and weight of metal, rendered efficient and most gallant service throughout the 
day, and contributed greatly to the repulse of the attacks upon every part of 
the line." 

We held our ground until darkness put an end to the 
fight ; but the army had been hardly pressed, and we 
were not sorry when the night after, the order came for 
the army to recross the Potomac. 

Now followed some of the most tiresome and fatiguing 
work it was ever the lot of an army to do — the getting 
across the immense train of commissary wagons, needlessly 
and perilously large, as was shown in the fact that it 
ultimately led to the capture of Lee's army itself, in the 
retreat to Appomattox Courthouse. Some overloaded 
wagon or leatherheaded mule driver (the M. D.'s as they 
were called,) was everlastingly blocking the road, until 
these conveyances would be compelled by impatient 
cursing from behind, to vomit up their contents. To see 
the road strewed with heavy old trunks and useless 
plunder belonging to a favored few, was very exasper- 
ating, and at the same time much enjoyed by every one, 
except the owners, especially when every one knew that 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 143 



the critical position of the army was embarrassed by an 
already too long wagon train. 

The scene on the Maryland side on the night of the 
crossing rivaled Bedlam. The wagon train had to go 
down a very high and almost perpendicular bank, and 
except for the still greater danger from behind, was such 
a descent as no prudent wagoner would ever have 
attempted to make. Although it was as precipitous as 
the road to perdition, the teamsters had to make an elbow 
halfway down, at the imminent risk of an overturn — some 
of the wagons actually meeting with such a calamity. 
These were set fire to, partly for warmth, partly for the 
purpose of seeing ; and these and the flaring torches held 
about by different hands, gave a weird Rembrandt touch to 
the scene. Then there was a large number of officers and 
men who had come forward from behind, and who had to 
stand around all night — the ground being too muddy to 
admit of seats. 

Some who were mounted went to sleep in their saddles 
All of this time there would be a confused shouting 
among the. wagoners, and the cry of " Pull around to the 
right and then swing to the left," was to be heard with 
each descent. 

One of the men who was holding a torch, who shouted out 
this explanation, was almost ridden down by an angry Gen- 
eral who wanted to know who commanded that fegiment 
— himself or some one else. The General was afterwards 
just enough to ride back and thank the soldier for saving his 
baggage. Then there were two batteries that approached 
the bank at the same moment, and who actually kept the 
army, worn down and in danger, as it was for some time, 
delayed, because neither would yield the precedence to 
the other. One rash headstrong General took possession 
18 



U4, A Soldier's Story of the War. 



of the only wagon road, for his infantry men, who could 
have got down to the water's edge, any where else, and 
when the instructions were that they should cross at a 
ford a little below. 

The strangfest feature of the whole affair, was the gro- 
tesque appearance of our army who had stripped off most 
of their clothes, and who went shuddering and shivering 
in the cold water. Altogether, it was a torch-light pro- 
cession of the most fantastic sort. Some hints were 
thrown out to the brass band to strike up a lively air as 
they marched through ; but the musicians were very 
little in the humor for joking that night. Indeed, this was 
the case with most of us. 

By daylight the next morning, we were all pretty well 
stove up and fagged out, and most of us felt that we had 
our belly-full of fighting for some time to come. That 
campaign certainly added pretty largely to the army of 
stragglers, (one-half of Lee's army in Maryland, though 
there the men had been simply marched to death,) who 
never cared about getting nearer than the baggage wagons 
to the front. 

We marched through Bunkerhill to Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, where w^ stayed forty days (to Oct. 30th, 1862.) 
The place must have been a delightful town, full of fine 
shade trees, tasteful gardens, old stone buildings, and with 
a very hospitable, easy going population. It came though, 
in course of time, with Jackson and Milroy always 
changing ownership, or with Lee marching through it, to 
have the hard, tarnished and jaded look which military 
quarters generally have. Fair faces were more meditative 
in the second year, than sympathetic — and thought rather 
of the probability of losing their spoons, or the price of a 
square meal, than over the pleasure inspired by soldiers' 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 145 



compliments. There was one noble exception however, 
(though exception is not the word, as the residents were 
after all right) ; this was a lady who came near to being 
a heroine in her way: nearer than any other whose name 
has yet been in print. I allude to Miss Josephine Carson, 
a lady of fine social position and many attractions, who 
merits mention on account of her devotion to the sick 
and wounded, who had been sent back from Sharpsburg, 
and who deserved the reputation of having won the admi- 
ration and good-will of our soldiers as much as any lady 
whom we met in Virginia ; a reputation to which she was 
entitled, from her dignity of demeanor, and from a good 
nature and natural largeness of heart which interested 
her in every soldier who passed by her. 

The truth is, the same might be said of a very large 
number of Virginia women, who almost every one of them 
did an incredible number of kindnesses to soldiers. The 
soldiers from Louisiana were ready to dispute the palm 
on the battle-field, with the troops from Virginia or any 
• other State ; but we all of us became infatuated with the 
patience and devotion of the ladies of that State — as well 
as of those who claimed no pretensions to that title; and I 
never heard a soldier worthy of that name, speak in other 
than tones of the highest commendation of the mothers 
and daughters of that State. None of us ever met with 
any other reception from the women of the South, who 
were always our best friends, and who would always realize 
and pity a soldier's misery a long time before it would occur 
to their male relatives or friends, and who when they did 
a kindness, did so in such a way as to mollify many proud 
spirits, who were unwilling to accept any evidences ol 
good- will for doing only what they considered their daty. 
Let us now return, while the soldiers and battery horses 



146 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



of Gen. Lee's army are resting, after the fatigues of their 
past battles and long marches, to New Orleans, and relate 
what has meanwhile transpired at the old Washington 
Artillery Armory. For the chapter which follows, this 
work is indebted to the pen of one of the officers high 
in command of the Fifth Company. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

BATALMON WASHINGTON AKTILLERY— FIFTH COMPANY. 

On the departure for the seat of war in Virginia, of the 
first four companies of the Batallion, on the 27th of April, 
1861, the following order was promulgated by the Major 
Commanding, the last issued by him previous to mustering 
into the service of the Confederate States. 

Headquarters Batallion Washington Artillery, 
New Orleans, April, 1861. 
********* 

VII — 1st Lieut. W. I. Hodgson, of the 4th Company, is hereby specially detailed 
to remain in New Orleans on recruiting service, and will forward from time to 
time, to the seat of war, such recruits as may be required, and hold himself 
subject to any further orders from these headquarters. • 



1} 



By order, J. B. WALTON, 

Wm. M. Owen, Adjutant. Major Commanding. 

A reserve force of about twenty men was all left behind 
of the original command, and Lieut. Hodgson, with their 
assistance, rapidly organized a Fifth Company ; and in one 
month from the day of the departure of the Batallion, held 
an election for officers, casting over 150 votes, with the fol- 
lowing result : 

Captain — W. Irving Hodgson ; 

Senior First Lieutenaiit — Theo. A. James; 

Junior First Lieutenant — Rinaldo Banister; 

Senior Second Lieutenant — Jerry G. Pierson ; 

Junior Second Lieutenant — E. L. Hews. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 147 



When the batallion left for Virginia, they left the arsenal 
on Girod Street, in an unfinished condition, the roof not 
yet put on, the floors torn up, and everything in the way 
of camp and garrison equipage, artillery and ordinance 
stores taken with them. Yet in order to supply their 
place, the reserves went to work with a will. They sent 
special committees to Baton Rouge to the Legislature, to 
the City Council of New Orleans, and the merchants and 
capitalists of the City and State. Through handsome 
donations from the former, a generous appropriation from 
the Council, and the unbounded liberality of the latter, (in- 
cluding the present of a piece of artillery and caisson 
complete from Governor Thos. Overton Moore, and a simi- 
lar gift from John I. Adams, a prominent merchant of 
New Orleans,) they were able within ninety days to com- 
plete the arsenal, and pay for it. 

They besides perfected the organization of six handsome 
brass field pieces, with limbers, caissons and harness all 
complete, with a serviceable and complete stock of camp 
and garrison equipage for 160 men; all this without owing 
a dollar. 

From time to time during the first year of the war, they 
sent to their comrades in Virginia, reinforcements* of men 
and drivers, artificers, etc., always forwarding under the 
command of an officer of the Fifth Company, and always 
sending them off" fully clothed and equipped, free of expense 
to the batallion. 

A semi-weekly mail was regularly sent also to the com- 
mand in the field, the cases being packed not only with 
mail matter, but with clothing, edibles and everything 
intended for any meniber of the command, sent him by 

*Lieut. J. G. Pierson, came on in charge of two detachments consisting of 
about fifteen men each during the first year of the war. 



148 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



his family or friends, and with no expense to the soldier 
of transportation. 

Early in the year 1862, the members of the 5th Company 
exhibited much military ardor, and felt unwilling to 
remain longer at home, while their comrades, friends and 
brothers were sharing the dangers and toils of camp life. 

In February of that year, Captain Hodgson addressed 
a communication to Brig. Gen. E. L. Tracy, commanding 
the 1st brigade, 1st division Louisiana State Militia, to 
which his battery was attached, asking for a new election 
of officers, intended for active service in field; in con- 
formity to which. Gen. Tracy ordered an election on the 
24th day of that month ; and under the supervision and 
direction of Majors Ignatius Caulfield, and John B. Prados, 
of his staff, the election took place as directed. There 
were 185 votes cast, with the following result : 

Captain — W. Irving Hodgson; 

Senior First Lieutenant — Cuthbert H. Slocomb ; 

Junior lirst Lieutenant — Wm. C. D. Vaught ; 

Senior Second Lieutenant — Edson L. Hews ; 

Junior Second Lieutenant — J. A. Chalaron. 

On the 1st day of March 1862, the following dispatch 
from Gen. G. T. Beauregard, was published in all of the 
New Orleans daily papers : 

DISPATCH FROM GUN. BEAnREGAED. 

Jackson, Tenn., February 28, 1862. 
To Got. Thos. 0. Moore : 

Will accept all good equipped troops under the act of 21st August that will 
offer, and for ninety days. 

Letthe people of Louisiana understand that here is the proper place to de- 
fend Louisiana. 

G. T. BEAUREGARD. 

Captain Hodgson immediately called a meeting of his 
command, which was held on the 2nd day of the month, 
when it was shown that there was one unanimous voice 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 149 



to at once offer their services for ninety days, or the war. 

All necessary arrangements having been made for ■ 
their immediate departure for the field, the following 
order was issued and published in the daily papers :* 

Headquarters 5th Co., Bat. Washington Artillery, ^ 
New Orleans, March 5th, '62. j 
[Order No. 44.] 

I — The officers and members of this corps are hereby ordered to appear at 
their Arsenal on Thursday morning, the 6th inst, at 10 o'clock, punctually, 
fully equipped, with knapsacks packed, for the purpose of being mustered into 
the Confederate States service. 

II — Every member of the command is expected to be present. Those failing 
to appear will not be allowed to leave with the command. 
By order of 

W. IRVING HODGSON, Captain. 
A. Gordon Bakewell, 0. S. 

On Thursday morning, March 6th, 1862, at 11 o'clock, 
the Fifth Company were regularly mustered into the ser- 
vice by the enrolling officer of Gen. Mansfield Lovell's 
staff, in Lafayette Square, with 166 men, rank and file; 
they left New Orleans for the seat of war in Mississippi 
and Tennessee via the N. 0. J. & G. N. R. E. on Saturday 
March 8th, 1862, carrying with them their six guns, with 
everything perfect and complete, including their camp 

* Among the many flattering comments of the press, was the following, taken 
from the Picayune of March 3rd, 1862. 

The Washington Artillery — The 5th Company of this fine battalion, Capt. 
I W. Irving. Hodgson, have with extreme unanimity determined on responding 
forthwith to the call of Gen. Beauregard, whom they go to join on Thursday 
next. The company is in perfect order for immediate and efficient service, and 
will take the field with their battery of six guns, with lull ranks, and with every 
thing necessary in the way of equipment. 

The Battalion of Washington Artillery, Major J. B. Walton, consisting of four 
companies, have been in the Confederate service from the commencement of the 
war, and have done good service in Virginia where they are still encamped, 
ready to do more, when called upon. The 5th Company, which, when the 
battalion left, was composed of some thirty members, now numbers in its ranks 
over a hundred young, vigorous and enthusiastic men, who have been sedulous- 
ly fitting themselves for active duty. Emulating the zeal and promptitude of 
the four first companies, in responding to the call made upon them for their 
services, Company No. 5 have also entered the Confederate army, for ninety 
days, to "fight the battle of New Orleans," in the place where Beauregard tells 
us it is to be fought. 

We doubt not they will prove worthy of their membership of a battalion 
which has been mentioned an Beauregard's general orders in terms of the 
highest elilogium. 



150 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and garrison equipage, and without the cost of one dollar 
to the general government.* 

The following is the "Roster" of the Fifth Company, as 
mustered, into service : 

Officers — Capt. W. Irving Hodgson; Senior Ist Lieut., 0. H". Slocomb; Junior 
1st Lieut., W. C. D. Vaugtit; Senior 2d Lieut. Edson L. Hews; Junior 2d Lieut., J. 
A. Clialaroa; Assistant Surgeon J. Cecil LeGare. 

Non- Commissioned Staff — Orderly Sergeant, A. Gordon Balsewel! ; Ordnance 
Sergeant, J. H. H. Hedges; Quartermaster's Sergeant, J. B. Wolfe; Commissary 
Sergeant, W. A. Barstow. 

1st Sergeant J. W. De Merritt, 2d Sergeant B. H. Green Jr., 3d Sergeant A. J. 
Leverioh, 4th Sergeant W. B. Giffen, 5th Sergeant John Bartley, 6th Sergeant 
Thos. M. Blair. 

1st Corporal John J. Jamison, 2d Corporal S. Biggins, 3d Coporal W. N. 
Calmes, 4th Corporal R. W. Frazer, 5th Corporal Emmet Putnam, 6th Corporal 
N. L. Bruce. 

1st Caisson Corporal D. W. Smith, 2d Caisson Corporal B. J. O'Brien, 3d 
Caisson Corporal A. S. Winston, 4th Caisson Corporal L. Macready, 5th Caisson 
Corporal Alt'. Ballanger, 6th Caisson Corporal E. Charles. 

Sergeant Drivers J. H. Smith, Corporal Drivers F. N. Thayer. 

1st Artificer W. A. Freret, 2d Artificer J. F. Spearing, 3d Artificer W. A. 
Jourdan, 4th Artificer John Beggs, 5th Artificer John Davidson, 6th Artificer 
Fred. Holmes. 

Privates — Alex. AUain, V. F. Allain, T. C. Allenn, C. A. Adams, ^f. Buckner, 
Jos. Banfil, Ben Bridge, A. T. Bennett, Jr.. B. Boyden, A. J. Blaffer, John 
Boardman, Marcus J, Beebe, C. B. Broadwell, T. L. Bayne, Jas. Clarke, J. T. 
Crawford, W.' W. Clayton, Joseph Denegre, J. H. Duggan, J. M. Davidson, A. M. 
Fahenstock, E. C. Feinour, E. Fehrenbach, John Fraser, Charles W. Fox, Robert 
Gibson, James F. Giffen, C. J. Hartnett, C. M. Harvey, W. D. Henderson, H. L. 
Henderson, Curtis Holmes, John B. Humphreys, Charles G. Johnson, C. B. 
Jones, Gabriel Kaiser, W. B. Krumbharr, Minor Kenner, Jr., H. H. Lonsdale, H. 
Leckie, L. L. Levy, Martin Mathis, Lewis Mathis, H. G. .Mather, E. Mussina, 
Eugene May, E. S. Mcllhenny, Milton McKnight, H. D. McCown, J. C. Miller, 
W. R. Murphy, F. Maillieu, G. W. Palfrey, Robert Pugh. Richard L. Pugh, E. F. 
Reichert, S. F. Russell, E. Rickett, J. M. Seixas, W. W. Sewell, G. W. Skidmore, 
L. Seicbrecht, George H. Shotwell, R. P. Salter, W. B. Stuart, Robert Strong, 
W. Steven, J. H. Scott, J. T. Skillman, John Slaymaker, Warren Stone, Jr., J. 
H. Simmons, R. W. Simmons, A. Sambola, B. K. Tisdale, Hiram Tomlin, C. 
Weingart, T. B. Winston, James White, John W. Watson, C. S. Wing, J. A. 
Walsh, Charles B. Watt, Charles Withan, Willis P. Williams. 

Drivers — Byrnes Joseph, Bale James, Clayton John, Fairell Richard, Dooly 
William, Lynch Thomas, Long Patrick, Leary John, Moore Daniel, Jordan 
James, Davis Sam. J., Kelly Pat., Norris Robert, Turner Geo. A., White William, 
Williams Thomas, Young John, Farrel Michel, Abbott John, Leary Thomas. 

Bugler — Carl Valanconi. 

* The following is from the Picayune of March Tth, 1862. 

The Washinotos Artii.i,bry, Company 5. — This fine company, under Capt. 
W. Irving Hodgson, was mustered into the service of -the Confederate States, 
yesterday, for ninety days. There were 160 men all told. They made, as usual, 
a most admirable appearance. 

On Saturday next, (to-morrow) they leave for Jackson, Tenn., and will attend 
divine service to-day, at 11 o'clock, A. m., at the First Presbyterian Oluirch, Dr. 
Palmer's, where they will be addressed by the eloquent pastor. 

We have heard it suggested that on their arrival at the seat of war they will 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 151 

The following was the organization of the other troops 
who left New Orleans under the same call : 

Qresomt Regiment. — Colonel, M. J. Smith; Lieut. Col., 6. P. McPheeters; Major, 
A. W. Bosworthj Adjutant, Richard S. Venables; Surgeon, B. Stille; Assistant 
Surgeon, S. R. Chambers; Quartermaster, R. D. Gribble. 

Crescent City Guards, Company B. — Captain, George Soul6; 1st Lieut., H. B. 
Stevens; 2d Lieut., B. B. Handy; Junior 2d Lieut., L. N. LeGay. Crescent Rifles^ 
Company D. — Captain, A.P. Haynea; let Lieut., W. C. C. Claiborne, Jr.; 2d Lieut., 
C. G. Southmayd; Junior 2d Lieut., W. F. Howell. Company C, Louisiana 
Guards.— Captain, G. H. Graham; 1st Lieut., Wm. Bullit; 2d Lieut. Alex. Trolford; 
Junior 2d Lieut., C. A. Wood. Beauregard Rangers. — Captain, Jules Vienne; 

Ist Lieut., E. G. Meslier; 2d Lieut., ; Junior 2d Lieut., N. C. Forstall. 

Twiggs' Guards.^Captain, M. A. Tarleton; 1st Lieut, Thos.L. Airey; 2d Lieut., 
E. P. L'Hoste; Junior 2d Lieut., Eugene Holmes. Crescent City Guards, Com- 
pany C. — Captain, W. S. Austin; lat Lieut., Chas. Guillet; 2d Lieut., R. Green, 
Jr.; Junior 2d Lieut., A. H. P. Smith. Ruggles Guards. — Captain, Geo. W. 
Helme; 1st Lieut., G. H. Braughn; 2d Lieut., J. J. Mellon; Junior 2d Lieut., W. 
C Shepperd. Orleans Cadets, Company E. — Captain, S. P. Parmele; 1st Lieut., 
H. Perry, Jr.; 2d Lieut., S. Fisher, Jr.; Junior 2d Lieut., T. A. Enderle. Crescent 

Blues. — Captain, John Knight; 1st Lieut., ; 2d Lieut., W. H. Maoliay; 

Junior 2d Lieut., W. H. Seaman. Surapler Rifles. — Captain, C. C. Campbell; Ist 
Lieut., M. McDougale; 2d Lieut., J. E. Garretson; Junior 2d Lieut., David Collie. 
Alexandria Rifles. — Captain, J. P. Davidson; 1st Lieut., A. D. Lewis; 2d Lieut., 
R. Legras ; Junior 2d. Lieut., Jos Fellows. — Total, 945. 

Batallion Orleans Guards. — Major, Leon Querouse. Company A. — Captain, 
Charles Roman; 1st Lieut., J. B. Sorapuru; 2d Lieut., Francis Moreno; Junior 
2d Lieut. F. 0. Trepagnier. Company B. — Captain, Eugene Staes; 1st Lieut., 
Emile DeBuys; 2d Lieut., 0. Carriere; Junior 2d Lieut., P. 0. Labatut. Com- 
pany C. — Captain, August Roche; 1st Lieut., Fred. Thomas; 2d Lieut., Eug. 

be divided into two companies, while, as we understand, there is material here 
almost sufficient for the formation of a third. 

Also the following remarks from the same paper; 

The Fifth Company of the Batallion of Washington Artillery attended 
divine service yesterday, at 11 o'clocls, A. M., in the First Presbyterian Church, 
on Lafayette Square, where a very impressive and eloquent address was deliv- 
ered to them by Rev. Dr. Palmer, the pastor of that church. 

He vindicated, in the most able and convincing manner, the justness and 
righteousness of the cause in which this Confederacy in arms is now engaged. 
It is a war purely defensive, in resistance to an invasion by a foe that would 
subjugate us to his despotic will, and deprive us of all our dearest rights. 
Should the war, on our part, be hereafter aggressive, it would be equally a just 
and righteous one, as a means of depriving our enemy of the means of carrying 
into effect his hostile purposes. In this confidence of the rectitude of the cause 
in whose defence they are engaged, the reverend spealier bade the members of 
the Artillery to go forth in the trust of God. He bade them rely, too, on the 
fidelity with which the people of this city would care for their Interests, as well 
as pray for their success, and contribute Jto their suppori. and comfort while 
absent. He told them that they were going forth to discharge for Louisiana 
and this city the debt that, for nearly fifty years, has been due to Tennessee, for 
tlie prompt and efiicient aid she rendered to both, on the plains of Chalmette. 
He concluded his eloquent address with an invitation to the corps and the 
congregatibn to unite with him in prayer, which being concluded, he dismissed 
them with a solemn benediction. 

The services were exceedingly interesting, and were participated in by a large 
assemblage. 

19 



152 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Tourn^l Junior 23 Lieut., L. Charvet. Company D. — Captain, Charles Tertrou; 
iBt Lieut., Paul Declouet; 2d Lieut., Alfred Voorhies; Junior 2d Lieut., B. St. 
Clair, (from Parish of St. Martin.) — Total, 411. 

Batallion Confederate Guards. — Major, F. H. Clack; Captains, D. H. Fowler; G. 
P. McMurdo; 1st Lieuts., W. R. Macbeth, A. W. H. Hyatt; 2d Lieuts. H. H. 
Price, J. W. IJouner ; Junior 2d Lieuts., R. H. Browne, J. W Hardie. — Total, 201. 

Cavalry — Jefferson Mounted Guards. — Captain, Guy. Dreux; Lieuts., B. Toledano, 
H. P. Janvier; Cornet, J. Chambers. Orleans Light Horse. — Captain, T. L. Leeds; 
Lieuts. W. A. Gordon and Geo. Foster; Cornet, Greenleaf. — Total, 150. 

Orleans Guards Battery — Captain, H. Ducatel; 1st Lieut., F. Livaudais; Jr. 1st 
Lieut., M. A. Calogne; 2d Lieut., G. Legardeur, Jr.; Jr. 2d Lieut., F. Lang&. 

Total number of soldiers who left New Orleans, under the 90 days' call, 1948. 

The following notice of the departure of the command, 
appeared in the Picayune of Sunday, March 9th, 1862 : 

" Off for the Seat of War. — The vicinity of the Jackson Railroad Depot 
was yesterday afternoon the scene of Intense interest. The 5th Company of 
the Washington Artillery, Capt. Hodgson, and feur companies, forming the left 
wing of the Crescent Regiment, Col. Smith, left in a special train, and thousands 
of men, women and children literally thronged the streets on their march to the 
depot, and swarmed"around the cars at the station to take leave of their friends 
and relatives and acquaintances. The scene was interesting beyond description. 
The brave fellows went off with buoyant spirits, though occasionally could be 
seen the starting tear in their eyes, as they took a farewell of some loved one, 
or some dearly attached friend. They looked in fine order, and will doubtless 
make a good report of themselves within a short time. Good luck, health, 
prosperity, victory and a safe and glorious return to them, one and all ! " 

Arriving at Grand Junction, Tennessee, on Monday 
evening, March 10th, 1862, the battery immediately 
went into camp, under the instructions of Gen. John K. 
Jackson, Commander of the Post. They were here sup- 
plied with their battery horses, and began drilling, and 
otherwise actively preparing for service. On the 27th 
day of March, the tents were struck, and the command 
started over land for Corinth, Mississippi, arriving there 
on the 1st day of April, 1862, and were immediately 
assigned to the Brigade of Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, 
of Ruggles' Division, Bragg's (2d) Army Corps, and went 
into camp the same day. 

On Thursday, the 3d day of Api-il, the battery filed out 
through the fortifications with its brigade, and the army, 
destined for the battle field of Shiloh. 

For the full details of this battle, reference can be 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 15B 



made to the " Confederate Reports of Battles," ofl&cially 
published by order of Congress, a few extracts from 
which are herewith appended, having special reference 
to the part taken by the Fifth Company Washington 
Artillery, and to the official report of Captain Hodgson, 
with reference to the same subject matter : 

OFFICIAL EEPORT OF CAPTAIN HODGSON. 

[Page 323 to 327.] 

Headquarters 5th Co., Bat. Washington Ahtillebt, 1 
Camp Moobe, Corinth, Miss., April 9th, '62. / 
To Brio. Gen. Patton Anderson, 

Commamding Second Biigade, Ruggles^ Division, Army Mise. 

General; — In accordance with usage, I hereby report to you the "action" 
of my battery, in Ihe battles of the 6th and 7th iustant. 

My battery, consisting of two 6-pounder smooth bore guns, two 6-pounder 
rifled guns, and two 12-pounder howitzers, — total 6 pieces, fully equipped with 
ammunition, horses, and men, entered the field, just in the rear of the 20th Loui- 
siana regiment, (the right regiment of your brigade,) on Sunday morning, the 
6th inst., on the hill, overlooking from the Southwest, the encampments of the 
enemy immediately to the front of it, and to the Northeast, being the first camp 
attacked, and taken by our army. 

At 7 o'clock, A. M., we opened fire on their camp, with our full battery of six 
guns, firing shell and spherical case shot, soon silencing one of their batteries, 
and filling the enemy with consternation. After firing some forty (40) rounds 
thus, we were directed by General Ruggles, to shell a camp immediately upon 
the left of the one mentioned, and in which there was a battery, from which the 
shot and shell were thrown on all sides of us. 

With two howitzers and two rifled guns, under Lieuts. Slocomb and Vaught, 
assisted by two pieces from Oapt. Sharp's battery, we soon silenced their guns, 
and had the gratification of seeing our brave and gallant troops charge through 
these two camps, running the enemy before them at the point of the bayonet. 

At this point I lost your command, and on the order of General Ruggles to 
'•go where I heard most firing" I passed over the first camp captured, through 
a third, and on to a fourth, in which your troops were doing sad havoc to the 
enemy. 

I formed in battery, on your extreme left, in the avenue of the camp, and com- 
menced firing with canister from four (4) guns, into the tents of the enemy, only 
fifty (50) yards off. It was at this point, I suffered most. The skirmishers of 
the enemy lying in their tents, only a stone's throw from us, cut holes through! 
their tents near the ground, and with "white powder" or some preparation 
which discharged their arms without report, played a deadly fire in among my 
cannoniers, killing three men, wounding seven or eight, besides killing some of 
our most valuable horses, mine among the rest. As soon as we were well formed 
in battery, and got well to work, we. saw them creeping from their tents, and 
making for the woods, and immediately afterwards saw your column charge the 
whole of them in ambush, and put them to flight. 

A visit through that portion of their camp, at a subsequent hour, satisfied 
me from the number of the dead, and the nature of their wounds, that my battfei'y 
had done its duty. 



154 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Losing you again at tliis point, on account of the heavy brushwood through 
which you charged, I was requested by Gen. Trudean, to plant two guns further 
down the avenue, say two hundred yards off, to shell a fifth camp farther on, 
which I did, and after firing a dozen or more shells, had the satisfaction of seeing 
the cavalry charge the camp, putting the enemy to flight — killing many, and 
capturing many wounded prisoners. 

Being again without a commanding General, and not knowing your exact 
position, I received and executed orders from General Hardee and his aid. Col. 
Kearney, also from Col. Chisholm of Gen. Beauregard's Staff, and in fact from 
other aids, whose names I do not know, going to points threatened and exposed, 
and where firing was continual, rendering cheerfully all the assistance I could 
with my battery, now reduced in men and horses — all fatigued and hungry. 

At about 2 o'clock, r. m., at the instance of Gen. Hardee, I opened from the 
fifth camp we had entered, firing upon a sixth camp, due north. Silencing the 
battery and driving the enemy from their tents — said portion of the army of the 
enemy, were charged and their battery captured — afterwards lost again — by the 
Guard Orleans and other troops on our left, under Col. Preston Pond, Jr. 

This was about the last firing of my battery on the 6th instant. Taking the 
main road to Pittsburg Landing, we followed, on the heels of our men, after a 
retreating and badly whipped array, until within three fourths of a mile of the 
Tennessee River, when the enemy began to shell the woods from their Gunboats. 
General Ruggles ordered us to the enemy's camp, where we bivouacked for the 
night. 

I received orders on the morning of the 7th, at about half-past five o'clock to 
follow your command with my battery, and at six o'clock being ready to mov^, 
could not ascertain your position — so took position on the extreme right of our 
army, supported by the Crescent Regiment, of Col. Pond's Brigade, in our rear, 
and an Arkansas Regiment on my front, and I think the 21st Tennessee Regi- 
ment on my left flank ; all under Gen. Hardee, for in fact, he seemed to be the 
master spirit, giving all orders and seeing that they were properly executed. 

At about 9 o'clock, Gen. Breckenridge's command, on our extreme front had 
pushed the enemy up and on, to within several hundred yards of our front, when 
we opened fire with shell and shot with our full battery ; after firing some (70) 
seventy rounds, we took position further on, just on the edge of the open space 
ahead, and witii our full battery, assisted by two pieces from McClung's battery, 
we poured some sixty (60) rounds into the enemy, who continued to advance 
upon us, until within some (20) twenty yards of us, when Col. Marshall J. 
Smith, of the Crescent Regiment, gallantly came to our rescue, charging the 
enemy at the point of the bayonet, putting them to flight, and saving our three 
extreme right pieces, which would have been captured but for them. 

It was at this point, I again met with some losses. Lieut. Slocomb, Sergt. 
Green, several privates, and many horses fell at this point, either killed or badly 
wounded. 

After the enemy had retreated well in the woods, I had my guns limbered and 
taken from the field. My men broken down, my horses nearly all slain, ammuni- 
tion out, and sponges all broken and gone, I was in the act of making repairs, 
and preparing for another attack, when I was ordered by Gen. Beauregard to 
retire in order, to Monterey, which I did that evening — and afterwards to 
this point, arriving last evening, with my battery all complete, with the excep- 
tion of three (3) caissons, a battery wagon, and forge, which I had to abandon 
on the road, for want of fresh horses to draw them in. 

At the request of Gen. Beauregard, I detailed from my command, twelve men, 
under a non-commissioned officer, to remain and act with Capt. Byrne's (or 
Burns') battery, on a prominent hill on the Pea Ridge road, overlooking the 
battle field, to cover the retirement of our army. They all came in to-day, safe 
and sound. 

We captured two stands of United States colors, which were handed over to 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 155 



Gen. Beauregard ; we also captured several U. S. horses and mules, some of 
which we have now, others we have lost. 

I cannot close this report, without again calling to your favorable notice, 
the names of my Lieuts. Slocomb, Vaught and Cbalaron, for their coolness and 
bravery on the field. Their conduct was daring and gallant, and worthy of your 
consideration. 

I have the honor to be, 

Yours, very truly, 

W. IliVING HODGSON, Captain. 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF CAPTAIN HODGSON. 

[Page 326 and 327.] 

Headquartbks 5th Co., Bat. Washington Artillery, l 
Camp Moore, Corm(A Jfiss., April 11th, '62. J 
To Capt. Wm. G. Berth, 

Acting Aast. Adjutant General : 

Captain : — I herewith tender to you a supplemental report, in regard to mat- 
ters connected with the battles of the 6th and 7th inet. 

My battery fired during said actions, from the six guns, seven hundred and 
twenty-three (723) rounds, mostly from the smooth bore guns and the howitzers, 
a large proportion of which was canister. Some of our ammunition chests, 
being repacked from a captured caisson, and other canister borrowed from 
Captain Robertson's battery, which he kindly loaned. 

The badly torn wheels and carriages of my battery from minie balls, will 
convince any one of the close proximity to the enemy in which we were. I had 
twenty-eight (28) horses slain in the battery, exclusive of officers' horses. 

1 cannot refrain from applauding to you, the gallant actions of the rank and 
file of my command, all of whom behaved so gallantly on these occasions, that 
it would be invidious to mention names, suffice it, they all remained at their 
posts during the action, and behaved most gallantly, many of them, for the first 
time under fire, conducted themselves as veterans. 

I have the honor to be. 

Yours, very truly, 

W, IRVING HODGSON, Capt. 

In connection with the battle of Shiloh. the following 
extracts are taken from the same work : 

Extract from official report of Col. Marshall J. SntUh, Commandinff Orescent Begijnetit of La, — ^age 344, 
***** 

As the army advanced, the forces in front of us retired, and the Washington 
Artillery, Captain Hodgson, forming his battery in front of us, we supported 
him. This battery gallantly maintained their position, dealing destruction upon 
the foe, until the artillery on their left retired, leaving them alone. 

At this moment, the enemy advanced in heavy force, and the artillery properly 
fearing such odds, limbered up and filed off to our left. We then advanced, 
covering the movement of the artillery, saving several of their pieces, and 
driving the enemy before us. 

* * * « ■» 

Extract from official report of Col. W. A. Stanley, Commanding 9th Texas Infantry — page 312. 

* * * * * 

On the morning of the 6th, we advanced in line of battle, under a heavy fire 



156 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



of artillery and musketry, from the enemy's first encampment. Being ordered 
to charge the enemy with our bayonets, we made two successive attempts, but 
finding as well as our comrades in arms on our right and left, it almost impossible 
to withstand the heavy fire directed at our ranks, we were compelled to with- 
draw for a short time, with considerable loss. Being then ordered, we proceeded 
immediately to the support of the Washington Artillery which, from their 
battery's well directed fire, soon silenced the battery of the enemy. 

***** 

Extrnclfr&m qfficidl report of Col. Damd W. AiUvms^ Gommandmg l8( Regiment La, Infaittry — pa^fe 243. 

* * * * * 
During this time, the enemy opened upon us again with their artillery, when 

I directed Captain Robertson to return their fire, which he did with great effect. 
Capt. Hodgson's battery of artillery also came up a-nd rendered valuable services 
and assistance. 

***** 

Extract from cifflcial report of Brig. Gen. Potion Anderson, Commanding 2nd Brigade, BttggleB' Dieidon, 2nd 
Corps, Army of the Miemsippi — ^age 300. 

***** 
The 5th Company Washington Artillery, 155 men, commanded by Captain W. 
Irving Hodgson, following the centre, as neaily as the nature of the ground 
would permit, ready to occupy an interval, either between the Florida Battalion 
and the 9th Texas, or between the 9th Texas and 20th Louisiana, as necessity or 
convenience might require; the whole composing a force of 1634 men. 

***** 

The most favorable position attainable by our field pieces, was selected, and 
Capt. Hodgson was directed to open fire -upon the enemy's battery, (now playing 
vigorously upon us) with solid shot and shrapnel, and when occasion offered 
without danger to our own troops, to use canister upon his infantry.' This order 
was obeyed with alacrity. Taking advantage of this diversion jin our favor, the 
infantry was directed to pass through the swamp and drive the enemy before it, 
until Capt. Hodgson could either silence his battery, or an opportunity be pre- 
sented of taking it with the bayonet. 

The movement was made with spirit and vigor. 

***** 

Page 302. The perceptibly diminishing fire from the enemy's battery, was 
soon, by Capt. Hodgson's superior practice, entirely silenced. 

* * * * * 

Page 304. Gen. Ruggles had now placed our battery in position. Col. Smith, 
of the Crescent Pegiment, had driven the enemy's sharpshooters from the cover 
of a log cabin, and a few cotton bales on the extreme left and near the -road, and 
the enemy was being sorely pressed upon the extreme right by onr columns upon 
that flank, and I felt the importance of pressing forward at this point. The 
troops too seemed to be inspired with the same feeling. Our battery opened 
rapidly, but every shot told. To the command " Forward, " the infantry res- 
ponded with a shout, and in less than five minutes after our artillery commenced 
playing, and before the infantry had adyanced within shot range of the enemy's 
lines, we had the satisfaction of seeing his proud banner lowered, and a white 
one hoisted in its stead. 

***** 

Page 309. Captain W. Irving Hodgson, commanding the Fifth Company 
Washington Artillery, added fresh lustre to the fame of this already renowned 
corps. It was his fine practice from the brow of the hill overlooking the 
enemy's first camp, that enabled our infantry to rout them in the outset, thus 
giving confidence to oar troops, which was never afterwards once shaken. 

Although the nature of the ground, over which my infantry fought, was such 
as frequently to preclude the use of artillery, yet Captain Hodgson was not idle. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 157 



I could hear of his battery whenever artillery was needed. On several occasions 
I witnessed the effect which his canister and round shot produced upon the 
enemy's masses, and once saw his cannoniers stand to their pieces under a 
deadly fire, when there was no support at hand, and when to have retired, 
would have left that part of the field to the enemy. 

When a full history of the battles of Shiloh shall have been written, the heroic 
deeds of the Washiugton Artillery will illustrate one of its brightest pages, and 
the names of Hodgson and Slocomb, will be held in grateful remembrance 
by a free people, long after the sod has grown green, lipon the bloody hills of 
Shiloh. . 

***** 

Extract fiwn official report of Brig Gen. Daniel Ruggles, Commanding Hu^gW Dimsion, 2nd Gorpe. 
***** 

Page 281. The Washington Artillery, under Captain Hodgson, was then 
brought forward, and two howitzers and two rifled guns commanded by Lieut. 
Slocomb, and two guns under Major Hoop were put in position on the crest of a 
ridge near an almost impenetrable boggy thicket, ranging along our front, and 
opened a destructive fire in response to the enemy's batteries then sweeping our 
lines at long range. I also sent orders to Brig Gen. Anderson to advance 
rapidly with his 2nd brigade, and as soon afe he came up, I directed a charge 
against the enemy, in which some of the 6th Mississippi and 2nd Tennessee 
joined ; at the same time I directed other troops to move rapidly by the right to 
turn the enemy's position beyond the swamp, and that the field artillery follow, 
as soon as masked by the movement of the infantry. 

Under these movements, vigorously executed, after a spirited contest, the 
enemy's whole line gave way, and our advance took possession of the camp 
and batteries against which the charge was made. 

* * * * * 

Page 282. The enemy's camps on our left, being apparently cleared, I 
endeavored to concentrate forces on his right flank in this new position, and 
directed Captain Hodgson's Battery into action there ; the fire of his battery and 
a charge from the 2nd brigade, put the enemy to flight. Even after having been 
driven back from this position, the enemy rallied and disputed the ground with 
remarkable tenacity for some two or three hours, against our forces in front 
and his right flank, where cavalry, infantry and artillery mingled in the conflict. 

ir » * * * 

Extract from ojjicial report of Ma^or General BraaiUm Bragg, Commanding 2nd Corps, Army of tlie Missis- 
sippi—page 232. 
***** 

Brig. Gen. D. Ruggles, commanding second division, was conspicuous through- 
out both days, for the gallantry with which he led his troops. Brig. Gen. Patton 
Anderson, commanding a brigade of this division, was also among the foremost 
where the fighting was hardest, and never failed to overcome whatever resistance 
was opposed to him. 

With a brigade composed almost entirely of raw troops, his personal gallantry 
and soldierly bearing, supplied the place of instruction and discipline. 

* V * * * 

Extract from official rerport of Gen. G. T. Beauregard, Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 

k * * * * . 

Page 215. For the services of their gallant subordinate commanders, and their 
officers under them, as well as for the details of the battle-field, I must refer 
to the reports of corps, divisions and brigade commanders, which shall be for- 
warded as soon as received. 

* » # * * 

List of killed and wounded at the battles of Shiloh, fought on the 6th and 1th days of 
April, 1862, in the Fifth Gonypany Washington Artillery. 
Killed — 1st Sergeant, John W. Demerith ; 2nd Sergeant, Benj, H. Green, Jr. > 



158 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



4th Sergeant, 'Wm. B. Gififen; wounded in leg, sufiFered amputation and died; 
Private, C. J. Hartnett; Drivers, John Leary, Patricls Long, John O'Donnell — 
total, 7 killed. 

Wounded — 1st Lieutenant, C. H. Slocomb, shot in breast; 2nd Corporal, S. 
Higgins, spent ball in neck ; 6th Corporal, W. L. Bruce, spent ball in aide ; 
4th 0. Corporal, L. Macready, shot in the leg ; 5th C. Corporal, Alfred Bellanger, 
lost left hand ; Corporal Drivers, F. N. Thayer, injured in hand ; Privates, Thos. 
L. Bayne, shot in right arm ; J. M. Davidson, shot in thigh ; Octave Hopkins, 
Curtis Holmes, Milton McKoight, wounded; Robert Strong, William Steven, 
John W. Watson, John A. Walsh, wounded in leg; Drivers, Jas. Byrnes, Wm. 
Dooley, Samuel J. Davis, M. Campbell, John Clayton — total, 20. Killed, 7, 
wounded, 20 — total casualties, 27. 

After the battle of Shiloh, the following men were 
honorably discharged from the service : 

Second Lieutenant, Bdson L. Hews, resigned ; 6th Corporal, W. L. Bruce, 
doctor's certificate; 5th C. Corporal, Alfred Bellanger, wounds received; 5th C. 
Corporal, F. N. Thayer, doctor's certificate; Privates, T. L. Bayne, wounds 
received ; W. W. Clayton, doctor's certificate ; J. M. Davidson, wounds received ; 
J. M. Seixas, by order Gen. Bragg; Robert Strong, wounds received ; Middleton 
Eastman, by order Gen. Bragg; John A. Walsh, wounds recpived ; C. S. Wing, 
H. H. Lonsdale, doctor's certificate. 

The resignation of Lieut, Ed. L. Hews, having been 
accepted, Gen. Bragg attached to the battery Mr. J. M. 
Seixas, and appointed him Lieut, in the 5th Company, to 
fill vacancy. 

The following names were added to the roll of the bat- 
tery, after it left the City of New Orleans, and previous 
to the battle of Shiloh, and were regularly mustered into 
service : 

Privates: Middleton Eastman, Octave Hopkins, Wallace Ogden, Henry V. 
Ogden, Dr. John Pugh, George Pugh, William Pugh. 
Drivers : M. Campbell, and John O'Donnell. 

EVACUATION OF CORINTH, MISS. 

On the 30th day of May, 1862, the army of the Mis- 
sissippi evacuated Corinth, the 5th Company Washington 
Artillery, with its brigade, covering the retreat of the 
army. 

The retrograde movement began at about 8 o'clock. P. 
M., continuing during that night, and by 3 o'clock, A. M. 
the last of the troops had passed through the town, on 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 159 



their way to Tupelo, Miss., via Clear Creek, a point about 
40 miles south of Corinth, which latter place they reached 
on the morning of June the 1st, and immediately went 
into temporary camp. 

The enemy did not pursue the retreating Confederate 
army more than 10 or 15 miles south of Corinth, and 
finding the Confederate forces ready to give battle, they 
returned to Corinth and went into camp. 

On the 5th day of June, ascertaining the Federal army 
would not pursue or risk a further engagement in this 
vicinity, the Confederate army, now under the command 
of Gen. Braxton Bragg, determined to change their base 
to Chattanooga, Tennessee, for a resumption of hostilities, 
resulting in the famous Kentucky campaign — with a view 
to a long overland march. The army fell back to Tupelo, 
where there was an abundance of good water and forage, 
and went into regular camp, preparatory to said grand 
movement. 

On the eve of the departure from Clear Creek, an order 
was issued from the Headquarters of the Army, that all 
officers and men, who were unable to march 20 miles a 
day, would go to Okalona, Miss., on surgeon's certificate, 
into the general hospital at that point by a special train, 
at 5 o'clock the following morning. 

It was at this point, that Captain Hodgson, who had 
been sick and confined to his bed for some days, turned 
over the command to Lieut. Vaught, as Senior Lieut., 
(1st Lieut. Slocomb, being absent on sick leave, from 
wounds received at the battle of Shiloh,) and went to 
Okalona. 

It was while the battery was in camp at Tupelo, (June 
6th, 1862,) Capt. Hodgson, then in hospital at Okalona, 
forwarded his resignation to Gen. Bragg, commanding the 
20 



160 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



army, which was accepted, and Lieut. C. H. Slocomb, was 
appointed Captain in his stead. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE BATTLE OP FKEDEKICKSBUKG. 

We spent a pleasant month and over at Winchester, 
during the period of the Indian summer, living on bacon 
and autumn corn, getting new clothing — reading books 
aloud, or telling camp-fire stories, and generally enjoying 
the superb climate of Virginia, as much as if there were 
no bloody battle-fields to dream of in the future. But the 
boots-and-saddle call came at last ; and having welcomed 
the bugle blast with a shout, and packed up, there was 
nothing to be done but stretch out, Oct. 30th, in the 
direction of the Kichmond Capitol. The most singular 
event that happened at this camp, was the killing of two 
of the 3rd Company, who had escaped all of the perils 
of battle, by the falling of a tree. 

The move southward ended at Culpepper C. H., and 
was intended to meet a feint made in that direction by the 
Federal army ; but their real intention having soon after 
been discovered, we continued our march, (Nov. 19th,) 
down the plank road to Fredericksburg, and appeared upon 
the south bank simultaneously with their arrival upon the 
right. 

Adjutant's Journal. — Nov. 20. Cold rain all day. Forded Eapidan, at Racoon 
Ford. Camped on Mine Run, at Bartely's Mill. Dreadful night and impossible 
for the men to sleep dry. 

21. Rained in torrents all night. Camp at Chancellorsville. 

22. Reached Fredericksburg. 

As we moved down the dreary plank road — past the 
old Chancellor Hotel or Mansion-house, around which 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 161 



only wounded guests linger — past the gloomy wilderness 
in whose depths the Federal army will soon be entangled 
and leave behind half its number for corpses or spectres, 
we met the inhabitants of Fredericksburg pouring out, 
and each one bearing in his or her arms, what was con- 
sidered most valuable. The advances of the two armies 
already confronted the doomed city, and the inhabitants 
tied from it as if stricken with the plague. Delicate 
women who had been frightened from their homes, half 
clothed and badly shod, were trudging along, wondering 
where they would find shelter for themselves and little 
ones for the coming winter. The men gazed at them 
with great pity, and doubtless the same feeling was enter- 
tained by them for us ; seeing that many times their num- 
ber of soldiers would take their places in the town — that 
is in the cemeteries. 

On our arrival there, I mean at Fredericksburg, many 
stores and houses were found abandoned — one of them 
containing fruit, fish, and barrels of oysters, which some 
of us felt ourselves after a long march, and under the cir- 
cumstances justified in consuming. An occasional shell 
from the enemy which came crashing in, gave some little 
interest to the scene; but otherwise the sight of the 
crowded resorts of business abandoned and unoccupied, 
awoke a very melancholy feeling. The place seemed 
enchanted or cursed by a spell, and reminded us of Hood's 
Haunted House. We conversed in low tones while we 
remained inside of the town, and curious sight-seers did 
not think it worth risking their lives to prolong the visit. 

Our appearance, it is now proper to state, in this neigh- 
borhood, was accounted for by the fact that McClellau had 
been removed as too slow a coach, and Burnside assigned 
the duty of trying to wriggle into Richmond, by some hew 



162 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and unguarded route. With great secrecy, he had trans- 
ported his army to Fredericksburg, to cross at that point 
before Lee could discover his profound strategy. His 
feelings may be imagined, when after many days hard 
marching, he found his old enemy quietly on hand, on the 
opposite heights, with the air of having come there by 
appointment. This air of quiet expectation was suffi- 
ciently exasperating, to cause Burnside to open on us a 
few shots, very much as if inquiring through the cannon's 
mouth — " Who in the deuce would have ever thought you 
were there ?" 

Still as Lee would not go away, and something was 
expected to be done, Burnside finally resolved to cross the 
river, and either persuade Lee to change his mind, or go 
to Richmond without his consent. It was an unfortunate 
conclusion, as the result turned out, for the Federal General, 
and still more for some 20,000 of his troops, who in con- 
sequence of this decision were soon after left behind, dead 
or wounded, on the battle plain. 

Blundering along with this idea, Burnside spent a day 
and a half, (the 11th,) in trying to get down his pontoon 
boats, and when the Confederate sharpshooters picked ofi' 
his engineer corps, he bombarded Fredericksburg with one 
hundred guns, and set it on fire, though without incom- 
moding the skirmishers on the river banks, or efiecting 
much else than give warning and concentration to the 
Confederate army. A subordinate Federal General at night- 
fall, finally suggested the happy idea of crossing a regi- 
ment in boats, and thus capturing or driving in the picket 
line. This plan was carried out a little before day-break, 
on the 12th, after his design in crossing had become known, 
and there was no earthly chance of executing it. 
Both armies bivouacked on the cold ground — preparatory 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 163 



to the final and eternal rest on the morrow. At 3 o'clock, 
p. M., Stafford's heights were seen to be covered with troops, 
who moved to the pontoons under our heavy fire. Our 
batteries dispersed a mass of troops near the gas works.* 

On the 13th Burnside had thrown over Franklin still 
lower down, who with one half of the Federal army 
attacked Lee's right, under Jackson, and at the time resting 
on Massaponax Creek. 

Here the enemy had at first borne back a part of our 
lines ; but he was met further back by a withering fire from 
Gregg's S. C. Brigade, and by a double quick charge from 
Early with the La. troops, which according to Northern 
historians "instantly turned the tide." "Early pursued 
with great slaughter," says the Federal General Birney, 
"to within 50 yards of my guns." The Federal army 
lost 40 per cent, of its men in this portion of the battle. 

But meanwhile through a dense fog their advance also 
is on the 13th made — 12:30 p. m. — upon Longstreet, up 
the steep plain upon whose top rested the Confederate batr 
teries. The advance was made in fine style, the walls 
and fences falling before it like paper or frostwork. 

"The Washington Artillery," says Gen. Lee "under 
Col. Walton, occupied the redoubts on the crest of Marye's 
Hill — the heights to the right and left being held by the 
reserve. The Washington Artillery here sustained the 
heavy fire of artillery and infantry with unshaken steadi- 
ness." About 11 A. M. says Gen. Longstreet, "I sent 
orders for the Washington Artillery to play upon the 
streets and bridges beyond the city, by way of a 
diversion to our right. The batteries had hardly opened 
when the enemy began to move out towards my line. 
Our pickets, in front of the Marye house were soon driven 

*Sergeaiit Woods was wounded by this fire. 



1S4 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



in, and the enemy began to deploy his forces in front of 
that point. Our artillery opened fire upon them as soon 
as the masses became dense enough to warrant it. This 
fire was very destructive and demoralizing in its effects, 
and frequently made gaps in the enemy's ranks that could 
be seen at the distance of a mile. The attack was again 
renewed and again repulsed. Col. Walton was particu- 
larly distinguished." Conspicuous among the enemy 
were the green flag of Meagher's Irish Brigade and the 
red bag breeches of the Zouaves. We hammered away at 
them as fast as we could load and fire, but on they came. 
They became confused as they advanced and when in 
range of the Georgians and Mississippians under Gen. 
Cobb, wheeled about and fled in confusion to the 
town. The attack lasted an hour. At 2 p. m. another 
line came on with deafening firing; line after line was 
pushed forward only to be mown down. We remained 
firing at our guns until 5 P. M. A note from Longstreet 
declared the firing of the batallion to be splendid. 

Loss during the day, three killed and twenty-four 
wounded. The position was a very hot one, the minies 
flying around like hail. A brick house which was white 
at the commencement of the fight was red at its end; 
Ruggles received his mortal wound while ramming his 
piece. He exposed his body at the embrasure in spite of 
caution, and soon fell. Out of eight men at that embra- 
sure, six were killed or wounded: infantry volunteers 
then assisted in manning the guns. 

Maj. Gen. Ransom, says in his report, that "the gal- 
lantry and efficacy of the famous Washington Artillery* 

*The report of Col. Cftbell and several other Confederate officers, not to men- 
tion those published at the time in leading journals, assign equal importance to 
the work done by the Washington Artillery, or as Col. Cabell expressed it "the 
gallant corps who occupied the crest of Marye's Hill." 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 165 



who drove back the enemy in triple lines, fighting hero- 
ically and under a heavy fire, is worthy of all praise."* 
The force of the enemy at Marye's Hill was 30,000. 
There were only two brigades of 1500 men, who can be 
said to have taken part in this battle — on the Confederate 
side — that of R. R. Cobb, (the brother of Howell and a noble 
representative of Georgia in every way, who here lost his 
life) and Ransom's. These, placed behind a stone wall 
on the Telegraph road, Constituted the advanced line. 
The honor of the fight on Marye's Heights, or what was 
the principal part of the battle of Fredericksburg, were 
yielded without any dissent to the artillery. The first 
who came under their fire, was French's Federal Division, 
who went down under a frightful fire, and close behind 
came Hancock, who left two men behind of every three ; 
and then three other divisions. Lastly, about nightfall. 
Hooker led his men up the same avenue of death — only 
suspending his attack when he " had lost as many men 
as he was required to lose." 

The Federal loss (by actual count there were 1500 
bodies immediately around our pieces,) was more than 
12,000 ; on the part of the Confederates on both wings, it 
was a little more than a third of that number. 

In this battle Lieut. W. J. Behan, who had won his spurs 
at Sharpsburg, and who had since commanded one of the 
fine volunteer regiments of the city, first assisted in the 
command of the fourth company. Besides being a good 
ofiicer, he enjoyed the honor of never having missed a 
roll call, or battle during the war. 

*Lieat. Landry, of Capt. Mauriu's battery, (the Donelson (La.) Artillery) took 
his piece from behind the epaulment to dislodge a body ot the enemy. Most 
effectually he performed this service ; but in doing so, lost several of his men, 
and had his piece disabled. His conduct was admirable, for during the time he 
was exposed to a direct fire of six and an enfilade fire of four guns. Hansom's 
Meport. 



166 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Adjutant's Journal — December 16. Enemy abandoned the town, leaving their 
dead in our hands. Prisoners estimate their entire loss as 20,000. An Irishman 
of iMeagher's Brigade fell nearest to our line. 

17th. To-day a detailed Federal regiment came over from the enemy to bury 
the dead. The 1500 bodies were all thrown into a long trench with no more 
ceremonies than to so many brutes. The ice house on the edge of town was 
full of dead. These were temporarily laid in rows and covered with earth. 

19th. Big jollification over captured supplies ; all hands jolly; war dance, and 
songs. 

31st. Batallion goes to Pole Cat Creole. Ordered with Col. Walton, to go to 
Mobile to recruit. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

WINTER-QUARTER AMUSEMENTS— INCIDENTS OP A VISIT TO RICHMOND. 

We went into winter-quarters — always a terrible drag 
to the men, a short distance from Chesterfield Station, in 
Caroline County, most of us having no other shelter 
than canvass or tarpaulin tents (with fire places at one 
end) affording the best of ventilation, and a rather too 
free an entrance for rain and snow. There was a charm 
about living under canvass which made them preferable 
with many to occupying a badly lighted log house, with 
a dozen others, which in reality were but little superior 
to negro quarters on a plantation. 

We would have been happier if the talents of the men 
had been employed, as was the case with the Roman, and 
is to-day with the Spanish armies, in some sort of way 
where skill would have increased our scanty rations. 
Failing however in this, the men who did not contrive, 
under some excuse or leave of absence to get to Richmond, 
a not very difficult affair, were mostly occupied in building 
a theatre. The walls of this were composed of pine tree 
branches, and in representing on the stage some of the 
popular farces and dramas, every one was suited to his 
bent, and was detailed to some appropriate duty. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 167 



Dempsy, one of our Artificers, who had previously had 
some experience as a stage carpenter, and Nugent, who 
is now regarded as the best blacksmith in the city, made 
what was under the circumstances an admirable stage, 
and the accessories of light, scenery and artificial thunder, 
were all ingeniously provided for. The audiences from 
surrounding corps, including in many cases distinguished 
Generals and their staff", were as large as those gathered' 
together in a city theatre on a benefit night, and probably 
more delighted.* 

*We hadin^is camp but little to do or talk of except of the eccentricities 
which soldiering had begun to develop, peculiarities to which every one was 
keenly alive, except their possessor. The musical genius for instance, was Otto 
Prank — the traditional German professor in every respect — gold spectacles, a 
touch of sentiment and bad English, a fondness for ladies' society, and a general 
impatience (though a good soldier,) of the harsh outlines of camp life. Otto 
was constantly falling into the hands of the tormentors, who would beguile him 
into an artless recital of his impressions of war by the show of a grave and 
melancholy interest which awoke no suspicion of treachery in his manly bosom. 
Another victim was a navei soldier who became vain of his talents for shav- 
ing. His vanity was still further stimulated one day by bets as to the number 
of chins he could scrape in a given time. The consequence was that he had 
the batallion on his hands. It was not a little amusing to hear him bawling out 
the name of every one to " Come and get shaved — viens done." A young lawyer 
was one day overheard relating some curious facts about the only client he had 
ever probably had — Joins, or (as he called him) lines. The boys betrayed great 
interest in the history of this wonderful suitor, and the point or pint would be 
to make him pronounce Jine^ name and words with similar dipthongs, as often 
as possible. A young soldier was detected later along, writing verses — which 
were highly complimented by some of our generals, but at the same time would 
perhaps have been improved by fuller rations and the burning sky of Louisiana. 
The poetic spirit had long since died out in camp. What increased the enormity 
of the offence of a poetical description was, that the author read some of his 
lines — he, a young recruit — to old veterans, about patriotism and glory. The 
thing could not be passed by. A court-martial was convened with John Porter, 
presiding judge, Sam Bland, as prosecutor, (representing an old farmer, whose 
chickens had been stolen,) and severe jurors, sheriff's officers and clerks, in pro- 
portion. 

The poet in vain endeavored to prove that he was meditating about and 
gazing at the stars, and not chickens, and it was not until he had consented to 
buy up the jury with a promise to pay for the "incidental expenses" that a 
verdict was found of " not guilty." Previous to Fredericksburg, the fancy 
seized us to make all the talking men step forward on a given night and say what 
they had got to say before a formal audience. Noble (afterwards of the Legis- 
lature,) was in this way embarked in a metaphysical lecture on the Diaphanous 
Properties of Mud, or something similar, and no one at its conclusion could 
tell whether the joke was on the speaker or the audience. They gave him a 
historic cane with a flourish. Cleveland, (one of the men who captured the 
battery and worked it on their own hook, but who had the least conception of 

21 



168 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



I succeeded in escaping most of the monotony which 
attended the long months in winter and the opening 
of spring, by a short detail from the medical board to 
Richmond. The order from the Department came at 
night, just as we had concluded a march of thirty miles, 
and while the men were lying in front of their bivouac 
fires, awaiting supper. But as no soldier cares to lie rot- 
ting around camp, where dysentery and weariness carried 
off more men than battle, or when he knew the dangers 
to which such furloughs were liable, I lost no time the 
night the order from the Secretary was handed to me, in 
immediately rolling up my blankets and limping over the 
same wearisome thirty miles at night, in the direction of 
the Gordonsville R. R. that I had just passed over. I might 
have taken the cars at Fredericksburg, the next morning ; 
but the travel on a terribly cold frosty night was nothing 
to the happiness of feeling a little sooner, that you were 
your own master, and of knowing that a military order 
could scarcely reach you. As showing how such instruc- 
tions were respected in Bragg's army, an order from the 
Secretary was repeated three times, and the messenger wais 
then recommended to keep out of the way if he did not 
wish to be shot. 

My journey back, therefore, though I would frequently 
fall down with fatigue, hunger and weakness, and I might 
too have perhaps frozen, but for the way side bivouac 
camp fires, was under the actual circumstances, the hap- 

a joke of any man in the batalliou) was suddenly confronted with a long series 
of adventures, which could not have happened inside of a hundred years, and 
was offered a discharge, as too old for military service. The bores, after the 
musicians and humorous talkers had been disposed of, were summoned forward 
for judgment, and not allowed to go unpunished. 

The success of this impromptu gathering, led to the organization of a theat- 
rical corps, which first performed a little before the battle of Fredericksburg 
— one of the leading characters (Spearing,) losing his life in the battle which 
followed shortly after. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 169 



piest march I ever made. No ceremony would be used 
in stepping in between the sleepers and the burnt down 
fires of glowing coals. The only objections in such cases 
raised by the courtesy of camps, was when the sleeper 
turning over uneasily, and becoming indignant at the cold- 
ness of his feet, would complain that you were outstaying 
your welcome. It would then be necessary to trudge on 
to the next glowing log fire, and so on through the night 
and following morning. There were several similar adven- 
tures — one that of traveling, Mazeppa-like, on one of a 
body of horse, (without bridle or saddle,) which was being 
carried back to the rear at a slapping pace. When I reached 
ihe train, I had to rely more upon my skill in elbowing 
past sentinels, than upon the order of the Secretary of War; 
and before entering Richmond, preferred, with other sol- 
diers, to be shot at rather than be marched off to some rough 
camp or hospital, where you would be placed with bounty 
jumpers, or small-pox patients, and be pulled and jerked 
around by any idle officer who had nothing else to do. 

Once in the city, I proceeded with a very serious fear 
about quarters to the room of a friend from the army, 
already mentioned, but had scarcely entered and com- 
menced undressing, which I did very quickly, before a 
feminine scream warned me of my error. My next attempt 
was something more successful. After getting confused in 
marching about in a blinding snow storm, and mistaking 
a statue of Washington, for an evil-disposed sentinel, I at 
length entered my friend's room. But this was full of 
beds, in each of which there was a couple of immense 
soldiers from Hood's Brigade, I believe, with arms, legs, . 
and mouths spread open to their widest extent, and with 
bowie knives and revolvers half concealed by the pillows. 

I struck a match, but the light went out — the prospect 



170 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



did not look encouraging. I determined to grope my 
way out as silently as I came in. Unfortunately a chair 
was knocked over. 

"Who's there?" shouted a voice. "What in the h — ^1 
are you doing with them clothes?" Before I could ex- 
plain a pistol w.as discharged. 

"Kill 'em as you catch 'em!" cried another voice, and 
off went another barrel. 

Supposing that these might be followed by others, I 
took the prudential step of crawling under a bed and 
awaiting till the barrels were all emptied. 

Another startled inmate, thinking the Federals had 
reached the city, jumped out of a window — I believe into 
a cistern. When the firing had at length ceased I made an 
explanation which was accepted without gainsaying. 

Half of the inmates were now sitting up in bed; a 
light was again struck. There were the remains of a fire 
still burning in the fire place, and two or three getting 
out of bed in their night blouses, stirred up the chunks, 
and resting their tremendous limbs upon the mantle-piece, 
began to meditatively squirt tobacco juice at the flames. 
It struck me at the time as being a queer crowd alto- 
gether, although I had become so accustomed to new sights, 
and ways of thinking and acting, that I was prepared for 
almost anything. 

"I wish you "d — d fellers would quit your foolishness 
and go to bed," here sung out a petulant voice ; "I always 
save one or two barrels in case of accident, and if you 
don't dry up and go to bed, hang me, if I don't blaze 
away right in the crowd." 

But the complaint was unheeded. One of the watchers 
gave me permission, or rather ordered me off to his bed, 
perhaps as occupying too much of the fire. A pack of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 171 



cards was produced, a bottle of liquor and a plug of 
tobacco, the table was covered with corns for counters — 
and I dozed off into an uneasy slumber. The game, how- 
ever, I imagined, was fiercely contested; and each player, 
as/he led a strong card, would bring his fist down with a 
blow which would make the glasses jingle. When the 
hands were particularly good, they fell thick and fast. I 
could not help regarding the table in the morning, and 
was not surprised to see its leg looking rickety. 

About day-break I woke up with a sudden start caused 
by a tremendous thump. The tobacco had almost dis- 
appeared, the bottle was empty, and one of the players 
was sweeping up a pile of Confederate bills into his hand- 
kerchief. The rest of the inmates now commenced dress- 
ing, or gazed from beneath the bed clothes with a half 
sleepy, half sullen expression, preparatory to doing the 
same. They were all soldiers on furlough, and I need not 
say we had a pretty wild, rattling set in that room ; every 
body was on the hurrah-style, and lived as recklessly as if 
pay day in greenbacks came every day, and there was to 
be no to-morrow. Especially was this the case with a 
brave captain from North Louisiana, who had just bought 
a $500 coat, as gorgeous as gold lace could make it. He 
played on a guitar, and affected a pensive style of singing, 
which was somewhat interfered with by the loudness of 
his voice and the prominence of his jaw, and he told all 
manner of impossible and fearful stories. At breakfast 
he made love to the landlady's daughter, and would have 
been helped doubtless to the best dishes, if there had been 
anything to eat but fried bacon and corn coffee. 

At the same table, was another lady who came from 
New Orleans, and after getting sent out of the city by 
Butler, was equally unfortunate in being taken for a 



172 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Federal spy. However, she had been allowed to go to 
Richmond on parole, and had become not a little soured 
at the number of visits necessary to be made before 
obtaining her release. She gave the Captain who condoled 
with her, a beautiful lace handkerchief to bathe in some- 
body's blood, on the battle-field. The Captain, however, 
never got much closer to the enemy, than the nearest 
faro-bank, and in that classic quarter, boasted of the gift 
in a manner which would hardly have pleased its fair 
donor had she heard it. 

My first day in town brought me in contact with the 
Provost Marshal, who treated me with American civility, 
but allowed his eyes to droop when speaking of the 
necessity of reporting for detail duty, and the sentinels 
too, began to find fault with my pass. 

Under such pressure, I soon found myself making out 
pay rolls, or following rather humbly behind a paymaster 
with bundles of Confederate shinplasters, and assisting 
him in paying off the various hospitals about Richmond. 

This brought me acquainted with the matrons, who at- 
that day represented as much address, experience of the 
world, knowledge of human nature, personal attraction, 
and kind-heartedness, as any other class of southern 
women who came to the surface. They were by no means 
the ideal of the domestic woman, and sometimes were pos- 
sessed of much more wit and liveliness of manner than 
refinement ; but they were better adapted to taking care 
of soldiers, than ladies with less restlessness, vanity, 
jealousy, and love of power ; a class with which every 
soldier during his time of sickness or wounds became 
familiar. As an illustration of this, I may mention what 
happened at my boarding house, to the brave Captain. 
He had been going about a good deal, boasting of his 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 17 



handkerchief, and generally carried things with rather 
a high hand in the parlor. 

One day as I passed by the door, I found him talking 
in his. usual loud, hectoring, pleasant manner to two ladies. 
By way of giving animation to the scene, he would walk 
up and down the floor, singing "I'm the boy that's gay 
and happy." One of the ladies had once traveled in our 
ambulance wagon, and as the principal part of my costume 
was an old blanket with a hole cut in the middle, (except 
about dinner time when it was a dressing gown,) it was 
with much distress, that I saw that I could not escape 
bowing and speaking. I arrived just in time to see that 
the Captain was not received with much favor — that he 
had encountered a Tartar in the second of the two ladies. 
She had become weary with his freedom of manners, and 
was now turning on him a very handsome, satirical face, 
vicious black eyes, and the keenest tongue that any camp 
absentee had ever heard wagged at his expense. She 
snubbed him sti-ll further, after a dubious glance at my 
costume, by inviting me, instead of the Captain, to escort 
her/home ; and to add still more to his discomfiture during 
a momentary absence, I contrived to become possessed 
of one of his beautiful blue and gold coats -which he 
had rashly left in our room unguarded. My new acquaint- 
ance after a rather liberal abuse of the Captain, whom 
she thought not worthy to look a lady of education in 
the face, allowed me to assist her in an ambulance 
which was in waiting. Entering after her she proceeded 
to inform me that there was but one thing that ladies 
in the South could do who were not of a domestic turn 
— become officers of the government — devote them- 
selves to wounded soldiers, learning how to command 
in their departments and to defend themselves from 



174 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



imposition. She thought there was especial danger from 
the Doctors, whom she maintained could boast of but 
little more knowledge than that of knowing how to 
potter at simple pills, and whose services were counter- 
balanced by drinking up most of the medical supplies when 
so permitted. She had lived very gaily in New Orleans 
society, she told me; but a hospital and soldiers was 
now the thing for a lady who had always been accustomed to 
a stirring and exciting life — books, society, dancing being 
out of the question. However the denial on her part did 
not prevent her from showing by her gestures that her 
arms were still finely shaped, that her back hair, which 
she moved, grew on her head as in the antique models, 
and that her shoe, which she took off (probably from 
pride at that day in having a new pair) was of the 
smallest pattern. She now took a philosophical tack, 
and told me her character grew out of the war 
like everything else — that the soldiers she met were fre- 
quently the first gentlemen in the land, and having no 
competition they admired her as much, if not more, than 
she had been in ten years previous. She couldn't be a 
rlvandiere as they had in French armies, or ride about 
from one line in male attire like Bell Boyd, or fight with 
a musket in a soldier's uniform, as some heroines were 
doing — so long as they behaved themselves ; or do as 
Gen. Gordo.n's wife did, rally his brigade when her hus- 
band was absent ; but she had traveled hundreds of miles 
as a refugee through the lines, without money and friends; 
sometimes in a soldier train where she would be concealed 
in the mail car and surrounded with mail matter for days 
and so on. The ambulance stopped at the house of one 
of the secretaries with whom she was staying, and as the 
ground was covered with snow, I had the courage, instead 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 175 



of putting her on the ground, to carry her to the door- 
steps. The result was that it fared worse with me in the 
way of epithets and abuse, than it had with the Captain. 
However, when I went with the paymaster, she gave me 
a laughing invitation to take dinner with her, to the great 
indignation of the local doctors, whom she wanted to 
feel miserable — ^in the very room that contained the envied 
stores. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

CHANCELLORVILLK 



The spring of '63 has meanwhile passed, and the roads 
have commenced to harden. The men absent from camp 
have grown weary of cities, and the old soldiers about 
wintej-quarters, shout lustily when a popular general passes 
by — a sure sign that they have regained their old com- 
bative feeling, and a sign, too, that they will soon be 
called upon, to make use of it. The battery forges are 
kept constantly busy, and the ringing of Callahan's black- 
smith's hammer in his labors, for the benefit of the bat> 
tery horses, and the flying sparks which gayly shoot 
upward, begin to intoxicate the blood of men. 

During the close of April, the rumbling of the artillery 
wheels, and the weary tramp of the infantry are once 
more heard. Hooker has daringly thrown his army 
across the Rappahffeinock, and waded them through the 
Eapidan, a deep tributary, and has made a move which 
causes Lee rather to open his eyes. However, the advan- 
tage lasts but a moment. The Confederate troops are 
promptly gathered up, and boldly moved forward-Jack- 
son being thrust out in the same way, on the enemy's 
22 



176 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



flank, as the one-armed Captain Cuttle would his hook — 
to drag the enemy in. Hooker, meanwhile, has occupied 
the ground, which, if he only knew it, and would hold on to 
it, would gain him the battle ; but he becomes timid, with 
a greatly superior force, as Lee becomes daring, and 
meanwhile, his army is like one of those read of in the 
classic page, which gets bogged up in a swamp, or trem- 
bling prairie, or overwhelmed by the Lybian or Arabian 
sands ; or as in the "Shipwreck," where the whole of the 
Duke's Court are wandering about on an unknown land, 
encountering enemies, and coming across friends — in all 
manner of fantastic ways. At one end of the line — 
Hooker's left, which faces towards Richmond, is the old 
Chancellor House. It will soon be dripping wiih more 
blood than ever was put in a sensational tragedy or novel. 
Against one of its pillars Hooker is leaning in the 
battle, when stunned by the concussion against it of a 
shell. 

On Friday morning, (May 1st,) the opposing columns 
began to jostle each other, and Hooker now can emerge 
from the tangled thicket in which he has been so far grop- 
ing ; but it is his last chance. It is one thing to mark 
out a campaign brilliantly, and to execute it unflinchingly, 
with new difficulties to be provided for on the battle field, 
at every step. As the Irish duelist explained it, to hit 
the stem of a wine glass with a bullet, is not difficult — 
provided the wine glass has no pistol. 

Hooker once had emerged from hisrdangerous position, 
where his army could not manoeuvre, but was either 
driven back, or took up from choice, according to Northern 
accounts, a line with rising ground in front, and with 
impenetrable thickets behind, from which the Confederate 
attacks could readily be formed. The night which fol- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 177 



lowed, passed silently in both armies — silently, so far as 
the guns were concerned; but faint noises told of the 
shoveling up of rifle pits; thousands of midnight wood- 
cutters, as if suddenly possessed with a superstitious fancy 
for making a clearing, were causing the Wilderness, on 
both sides, to resound with their blows, or bringing to the 
ground some of the huge trunks, with a noise equal to 
cannon. 

The falling of these trees meant for Hooker, that he 
would await an attack ; for Lee that he knew Hooker's 
plan, and would go off and make an attack some- 
where else. He will act upon Jackson's last and most 
brilliant idea, and send the latter around by an obscure 
. farm road on Hooker's right, between him and his river 
communications. This move of Jackson, thought to be 
a retreat to Richmond — strikes the Federal right at 5 
o'clock on the afternoon of May 2nd, and by dark it 
has put a whole corps to utter route. Jackson has got on 
the reverse side of the enemy, to within half a mile of 
headquarters. He is now about to deal his finishing blow, 
and while anxiously seeking the precise situation of 
the enemy, gets his death wound in the dark, at the hands 
of some of his own pickets. His loss left the battle incom- 
plete, in spite of its stunning blow, and the melancholy 
news affected the Confederates in the same way that the 
fulfillment of the various omens predicted, before Troy 
could be captured, affected that city's defenders. On the 
other hand, if Jackson had not been wounded, as he said 
on his dying bed, "the enemy would have been obliged to 
surrender or cut his way out. " 

On the next day, Stuart, in Jackson's place, bore down 
and pressed back the Federal right wing, while Lee on the 
opposite side, hammered away at Hooker's centre and 



178 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



left — forcing back two corps ; or as a Northern* historian 
expresses it, "the line melted away, and the front appeared 
to pass out. " Hancock, who alone held out, began to 
waver at 10 A. M., when "the Confederates sprang forward, 
and seized Chancellorville." 

Fredericksburg during this time had been left with a 
small force of five brigades, including the 1st and 2d La., 
and three companies of the Washington Artillery, who 
had been ordered from Chesterfield three days before, to 
the crest of Marye's Hill — their old battle ground. Barks- 
dale was still with us. The latter, Sunday morning, in 
view of a movement by Sedgwick's corps, on this part of 
the line, were reinforced by Hays' Brigade. After three 
failures in other directions, a powerful assaulting column 
was formed to carry the hill by storm, which feat was 
finally achieved, though "under a very severe fire that 
cost Sedgwick a thousand men. The Confederates made 
a savage hand-to-hand fight on the crest, and over the 8 
guns." As there was only in reality two regiments, (less 
than 2000 men) assigned to the support of our artillery, 
and the attack was made by twenty-two thousand of the 
enemy, (according to Sedgwick's report,) it will not appear 
surprising that the works were finally captured. The 
guns were worked desperately to the last, and were faith- 
fully manned by their cannoniers, when six pieces 
were surrounded, and the guns and cannoniers made pris- 
oners — most of them under the command of Capt. Squires 
and Lieut. E. Owen. A large proportion of the gallant 
18th and a part of the 21st Miss., were taken prisoners at 
the same time. 

Sedgvirick now commenced moving on the slender bri- 
gades who had been retained here by Lee to make up a show 

*Swinton's History of the Army of the Potomac. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 179 



before the enemy, and retain his line of communications 
with Kichmond — Early meanwhile retreating slowly 
towards. Lee. He did not do so long — before the day was 
over, a sufficient force, McLaw's and Anderson, were 
promptly sent back to Early's support. The shock occurred 
at Salem Chapel, and all that need be said about it, was 
that Sedgwick was checked that day, "with a total loss of 
5000 men."* Marye's Hill was re-occupied the next^day 
without any difficulty by its former possessors. 

On Monday night, May 4th, Sedgwick being surrounded 
on three sides, and hard pressed as to his communications 
with the river, took advantage of the darkness, and was' 
fortunate enough to safely withdraw his troops. 

Lee having cleared, as it were, the brushwood from his 
path, was now (May 6th) with the troops whom he had 
recalled, prepared to attend to the case of Hooker; but 
that General was found to have lost all stomach for a fight, 
and had put the Rappahannock between himself and the 
enemy. 

The result of the matter, and this was about the whole 
result, except that new material for powder had to be 
provided — was that the Union loss was 17,197, and 
the Confederate, 10,281. All of the spoils in the way of 
artillery, prisoners, and 20,000 stand of arms, fell to the 
Confederate army. The victory in short, was a glorious 
one, but really amounted to nothing, as Jackson disap- 
peared from the scene, at the moment when most needed, 
and the result was incomplete. 

*Swinton, page 299. 



180 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE STOBMING Or WINCHESTER BT GEN. HAYS' BRIGADE. 

There being no other work before him, the army of 
Gen. Lee began to stretch out and lengthen towards the 
Potomac. Longstreet came up from the James. 

A dim suspicion of some move on foot led to an attack 
on Stuart's cavalry, which was in the advance, at Brandy 
Station, and led to one of the few regular cavalry engage- 
ments which took place during the Confederate war — the 
loss being something between five and eight hundred on a 
side. This engagement, where the men remained on horse- 
back, and used their sabres, instead of dismounting and 
"grabbing hold of roots," as the infantry would sometimes 
derisively speak of what they called the "Butter-milk 
Kangers," did much to raise the popularity of the cavalry, 
though it waned afterwards in spite of hard and arduous 
service, with the wearing out of horseflesh and the 
increase of Company Q. 

Our line having meanwhile lengthened until it reached 
from Fredericksburg to the Valley, Ewell suddenly 
pounced down on Winchester and stormed its heights, 
taking 4000 prisoners, and a large amount of war 
material. 

The way in which this was accomplished, according to 
Gen. Early's report, was by an assault made on a hill to 
the Northwest of the enemy's works. A position having 
been selected — that is, the side from which the attack 
should be made. Early led his guns and infantry by 
obscure paths to within a short distance of the hill to be 
stormed. His movements thus far had been concealed by 
the woods, and he had been fortunate enough to miss 
meeting any of the enemy's scouts. Meanwhile Gordon 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 181 



had been making an advance from the opposite side of 
the town. 

Jones' Artillery (twenty guns) were now put in 
readiness to support the charge on the storming side, 
and Gen. Hays' Louisiana Brigade, which had many times 
before enjoyed the honor of being selected for similar 
work, was put under cover, and allowed to gaze at the 
hill in front, covered with recently felled timber, at 
the bastion works with which the fort was crowned, and 
at the two lines of breast work further beyond. 

It was now an hour by sun, and the men were burning 
with impatience. Twice Gen. Hays made ready to move, 
and was detained by Early's orders; a third time the 
detaining order was sent to him by Early, who could 
not believe but what the enemy were keeping a better 
look out than they did. But finally the twenty guns 
opened simultaneously, which was the laisser faire for 
action, and the next moment, before the enemy had 
recovered from his astonishment at seeing troops in this 
direction, and in spite of orders. Hays and his men were 
crawling through the brushwood, and up the steep slope. 
" He drove, says Gen. Early, the enemy from his fortifi- 
cations in fine style," and with some of his infantry who 
had been purposely for such occasions, trained as cannon- 
iers, he opened with the enemy's own rifled pieces, thus 
preventing all efibrts at recapture. The enemy aban- 
doned the whole town the next morning — Gordon's Ga. 
brigade being the first to reach the main fort, and pull 
down the flag flying over it. The infamous Milroy fled 
towards the Potomac, but too late to save his infantry, 
who now found themselves intercepted by Johnson's divi- 
sion. Twenty-five guns were captured, and only a few 
horsemen, who were with Milroy, succeeded in reaching 



182 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



the opposite side of the Potomac. Gen. Early justly 
speaks of it, as " a most brilliant exploit." 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE GETTTSBDBG CAMPAIGN. 



Meanwhile, our batteries remained a few days at Stan- 
nard's Farm, grazing the horses. We then marched (5th,) 
past the old Wilderness Tavern, and crossed the Rapidan 
at Racoon Ford, with Gen. Longstreet's corps. Our road 
led us on towards Woodville and Winchester, and through 
Sperryville and Little Washington. After then crossing 
the Blue Ridge at Chester Gap, we passed through Front 
Royal, to the banks of the Shenandoah. Meanwhile, 
rumors of another invasion campaign were daily increas- 
ing in probability, which the victory at Winchester 
tended to confirm. After crossing at Morgan's Ford, 
we remained at Millwood, which was with the sur- 
rounding scenery the paradise of all camps, and soon after 
took up the line of march through Bunker Hill, and 
again into Maryland. The move north of the Potomac, 
was regarded with much questioning by the army, though 
its danger gave it a risk that soldiering on a worn out soil, 
did not possess. At any rate, we crossed the river in sans 
culotte style, like so many King Dagoberts, and then 
marched through Hagerstown, to Greencastle, Penn. 

It was difficult to say which was the most surprised, 
the farmers who scarcely knew of the war, or the Southern 
army, at the worldly thrift, agricultural comfort, and at 
the same time thoroughly Boeotian spirit of these (as we 
then called them,) "Pennsylvania Dutchmen." There 
was nothing of course to correspond with the magnifi- 



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A Soldier's Story of the War. 183 



cent cotton and sugar plantations of the South, which 
sometimes were tilled by a thousand hands before the 
war ; nor, with those old plantation chateaux, which the 
traveler on the Mississippi sees nestling among orange 
groves and tropical foliage. But the farmers we now saw, 
though not possessed of great means, had excellent habi- 
tations. Their ignorance of anything but tilling the soil, 
to a soldier appeared astonishing; it was however exceeded 
by their prejudice and bitterness. 

Lee's orders, much to the disgust of the army, were not 
to plunder or in any way destroy private property, and 
passes when we reached the neighborhood of Chambers- 
burg, which we did the next day, were now not easy to 
obtain. It need not however be stated that all of the 
cheese, whiskey, and other articles with which the country 
abounded, were not entirely left behind. For several days 
indeed, our commissaries tolerably well supplied us with 
food. 

It was raining torrents all day, on the 30th, as we 
marched over splendid roads, and through fine moun- 
tain scenery ; but on the first of July, we followed Hill 
and Ewell towards Gettysburg, who were then driving the 
enemy through the town, and while awaiting orders, our 
men watched with great anxiety the battle, which we 
could partially see, in front of us.* 

*Extract from the note book of one of our men : " Part of the time during 
our halt, I was talking to a scowling farmer. He asked me in response to some 
remark about climate or health, if I knew anything of medicine, and when 
I.shook my. head, he attributed my denial to unwillingness to do him any service. 
I then, observing his disappointment, told him what was the truth, that I had 
read medicine to some extent, but was no practitioner, and asked him what he 
wanted done. He led the way silently to a room where a young lady was reclin- 
ing, and asked me to assist her, if I knew how. Both the young girl and the old 
man himself were obviously only half dead with terror, and I thought it most 
good-natured to assume all the dignity of an experienced M. D., and in this way 
endeavor to alleviate her terror. I accordingly examined her tongue with great 
importance, felt of her pulse, and talked learnedly about valerian and digitalis, 

23 



184 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



chapt£:r XXVII. 

THE DBOIBIVE STEUGGLB. 

The battle of Gettysburg was brought on without being 
anticipated by either of the contending Generals. It was 
like an accidental fight which starts at a street corner, and 
which becomes "free" all around.. It was decided oppor- 
tunely, though with but little in the way of result, by the 
lucky arrival of Hays' and Gordon's Brigades, under 
Ewell, from Yorktown, when affairs were in a very critical 
condition. By their desperate charge, and by the pene- 
tration of a weak point in the Federal line, they with 
Rhodes' Division captured or totally routed all the Federal 
troops on hand. Those who escaped, were driven back 
and huddled together on the heights, north of Gettys- 
burg.* This was the first feature of the fight. The most 
important consequences, the fruits of most value, which 
should have been gathered, were lost by a neglect to seize 
the Cemetery Ridge, which commanded the situation, and 
which was the turning point of the battle. 

neither of which I knew was in the house ; and as a last resource I suggested, 
like David Copperfield's housekeeper, to restore her forces, with a little 
weak brandy and water. The old man hunted up the brandy with alacrity, 
while I meanwhile showed the young lady that she was in no danger, either 
from the balls or the rebels themselves. I think I proved to both that I was an 
excellent physician, and to show that I had confidence in my remedy, I very 
readily consented to drinking myself what remained. 

*The following is from Gen. Ewell . 

The enemy were moving large bodies of troops from the town, and affairs 
were in a very critical condition, when Maj. Gen. Early coming up, ordered 
forward Gordon, who broke Barlow's Division, captured Gen. Barlow, and drove 
the whole back in a second line, when it was halted. Gen. Early now ordered 
up Hays' and Hokes' Brigades, on Gordon's left, and then drove the enemy 
precipitately towards and through the town, just as Ransom broke those in his 
front. Three hundred dead were left on the ground, passed over by Gordon's 
Brigade. Early and Rhodes together, captured 4000 prisoners ; two pieces of 
artillery fell in the hands of Early's Division. No other troops than those of this 
corps entered the town at all. [See Gen. Ewell's report of the second army corps, 
Gettysburg Campaign.] His statement about Cemetery Hill, and the reason 
why the attack was delayed, is substantially the same as is here given further on, 
excepting in not mentioning the earnest appeal made by Hays, for a prompt 
attack. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 185 



This halt and neglect to take the afterwards so famous 
crescent-shaped ridge, after Hays had marched straight 
into the town, when fifteen minutes further of advance 
would have finished the business at . a blow, is thus 
explained : 

Hays had received orders through Early from Ewell 
(though Lee's general instructions subsequently were the 
reverse,) to halt at Gettysburg and advance no further 
than that point, in case he should be successful in captur- 
ing the place. But Hays now saw that the enemy were 
coming around by what was known as the Baltimore 
road, and were obviously making for the strong Cemetery 
ridge, immediately north of Gettysburg. The ridge in 
question meant life or death, and for the mastery of it, the 
battles of the 2nd and 3rd of July, the days following, 
will have to be fought. The Baltimore road referred 
to ran at the foot of the hill for several miles. Conse- 
quently, owing to the long detour which the enemy were 
compelled to make, it was obvious that they would 
not be able to get their artillery in position on Cemetery 
Hill for one or two hours. The immediate occupation 
^ of the hill by the Confederate army, who were in a posi- 
tion to get there at the time referred to, without much 
opposition, was a matter of vital importance. Hays 
recognized it as such, and promptly sent word to Early. 
The latter thought as Hays, but declined to disobey 
orders. At the urgent solicitation of Gen. Hays, how- 
ever, he sent for Gen. Ewell : when the latter arrived, 
many precious moments had been lost. But the enemy 
who did not see its value until the arrival of Hancock on 
the scene, had not yet appeared in force. 

If Gen. Ewell will now act, the Confederates will have 
the frowning hills, against which brave men may throw 



186 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



away their lives by the thousands without success, for 
their own fortifications, and the two days of bloody fight- 
ing, will either take place at Philadelphia or Harris- 
burg, the Capital pf Pennsylvania ; or the result will be 
on the Gettysburg ground a certain victory. If Ewell 
makes the right decision, there will be an overwhelming 
feeling in favor of allowing the Southern States separa- 
tion, without further war. 

Unfortunately, Gen. Ewell, while sharing Hays' con- 
victions, thought it better to wait a little, until Johnson 
came up, and meantime the precious moments, whose 
A'alue Jackson knew better than any man, are tiying. 

Johnson gets up finally, and Lee is pressing for an 
attack. But now, there is a new delay : the enemy appear 
to be making a demonstration, to one side or the other. 
At last, this is discovered to amount to nothing. Still 
the evening has come, and so the attack must be post- 
poned until to-morrow. 

Ewell laughed at Hays, when he appeared so anxious 
to make the attack, and wanted to know if his men 
would never have their bellyful of fighting — if they 
could not wait a day. Hays' answer was, that it was 
with a view to prevent the slaughter of his men, that he 
wanted to make the attack at once — and was unwilling 
to throw away their lives if the heights were allowed 
to be defended by guns and breastworks. But so it was 
to be. That very night, the Louisiana Brigade, as the 
men threw themselves despondingly on the ground, (for 
soldiers know now as well as their generals, when a point 
is lost or made,) were startled by a rumbling noise, 
faint at first, but which comes nearer. The heavy guns 
are being dragged up to the crest of the hill, and will tell 
their own tale on the morrow. The sound of the pick- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 187 



axe and spade are heard — the enemy are shoveling up 
breastworks and trenches, which will protect those who 
are to live. Still useful, when the battle is over, these 
trenches will answer equally well for the graves of those" 
who are to be left behind. 

The following day, (July 2d,) dragged on: it was the 
last for many thousands, and they waited impatiently to 
know their fate. An unbroken stillness prevailed until 
late in the afternoon. But the loss of opportunity' 
yesterday, must now be replaced, and great masses of 
men are to be put in motion. 

The result of this day's struggle, (the 2d,) was an 
attempt to repair the mistakes made the day before, bj" a 
desperate charge of the whole of Longstreet's line. The 
Texas brigade, sweeping back from Peach Orchard to 
Round Top, succeeded by a quick movement, in wedging 
itself in between the Federal left and the latter mountain 
— thus cutting off the Federal line of retreat, and enfilad- 
ing the enemy's line, if the brigade could have been 
sustained. The position was however saved to the 
Federal army, by a bayonet struggle, led on by Warren. 
Hood who did not see that Round Top itself was unoccu- 
pied, was forced to give back. Longstreet wedged into 
every crack and crevice of the enemy's ranks, and gained 
ground ; but the result was unsatisfactory. Meanwhile, 
at the opposite end of the line, the same attack and 
repulse were being repeated by Hays' brigade, as will now 
be shown in detail : 

The attack on this wing commenced about dusk. Hays' 
and Hokes' Brigades being assigned to the work in hand, 
and moving directly forward against Cemetery Hill in 
their front. 

Hays thereupon charged over a hill, into a ravine. 



188 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



where they broke a line of the enemy's infantry, posted 
behind a stone wall — up the steep face of another hill, and 
over two lines of breastworks, capturing several batteries of 
artillery. These works were held until finding that no 
attack was made on the right, and heavy masses of the 
enemy advancing, they reluctantly fell back, bringing 
away with them, 75 to 100 prisoners, and four stands of 
captured colors. 

Gen. Lane, commanding Pender's Division on the right, 
was asked by Ewell, at this juncture, to co-operate, but 
made no reply. Maj. Gen. Khodes "did not advance 
for reasons given in his report." Had it been other- 
wise, from the eminent success attending the assault 
of Hays and Avery, (though that latter gallant com- 
mander of Hokes' Brigade, was the only one of his 
command, according to his own statement, who went into 
the enemy's works,) the enemy's lines would have been 
carried. The above statements are from Ewell's report. 

The truth about the charge on Cemetery Hill, on this 
part of the line, was that Hokes' Brigade advanced only a 
few hundred yards, breaking on the first hill under an 
almost infernal fire, in spite of the gallant efforts of Col. 
Avery to lead them on. Avery himself went into the 
enemy's lines and said to Gen. Hays : "I am here without 
my command. I wish you to remember that I at least 
have reported in person." 

This position was finally yielded to superior numbers. 

About the hour this attack was made, a little after dusk, 
the batteries of the Washington Artillery were sent for 
in hot haste, and as soon as the order was received, we 
went tearing to the front, over trees and stumps, and with 
imminent risk to the cannoniers, mounted on the seats, 
of being crushed. We were not, however, ordered 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 189 



to open fire. Although the enemy had been taught 
his weak points, and had shown unusual readiness in get- 
ting to the point assailed, which was in reality easy 
to be done with a line of only two miles in length to six 
on the part of the assailant, yet as the Confederates had 
driven back the enemy and all the trophies of victory 
were with them, it was resolved to make one more final 
throw of the die, and to renew the fearful assaults of the 
two preceding days. The point aimed at now — the 
attack on the wings having failed of decided results — 
was to pierce the enemy's centre. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the eventful day, 
(July 3d) our batteries were ordered to take what 
proved to be our final position for the great battle. The 
ground was covered with the slain of the preceding days' 
fights, who had been left behind in the forcing back of 
the Federal army, and their groans would have been 
enough to have disturbed the consciences of even those 
who had no risks themselves on the morrow to encounter. 

One of the statements made to me afterwards, by Lieu- 
tenant H — , of the way in which he passed the night, was 
that having no blanket, he had concluded to crawl, as 
was frequently done, under the covering of another sol- 
dier. He remarked during the night, that the man seemed 
very cold blooded, and the next morning when he woke 
up and looked around, he thought so more than ever. He 
understood the situation at a glance. He had been sleeping 
all night with a corpse. 

The fight commenced in the morning, at an early hour, 
with the roar of artillery from the enemy's guns, and was 
as hot as any we had ever previously encountered — the 
more so because our own guns meanwhile remained silent. 

In a few moments, two of the Third company's finest 



190 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



horses, and Smith, their driver, were killed.* Joe Norcomb 
of the Fourth, was wounded. The fence behind us was 
finally torn down, and the internals of the caissons and 
pieces widened. At a given signal, it was arranged 
about 1 o'clock p. M., that all the guns of Longstreet's 
corps, (135) should open, and that Pickett's Virginia Divi- 
sion, supported by Heath Wilcox, and Pettigrew en echelon, 
were to storm the enemy's work, while the latter, mean- 
while, would be demoralized by our artillery fire. 

At 1:30 Longstreet ordered Col. Walton (now chief of 
his artillery,) "to open fire with all the guns from right 
to left." The signal guns previously agreed upon — " two 
fired in rapid succession by the Washington Artillery," 
were now discharged, and were promptly answered by 
the roar of 220 others — one of the greatest cannonades 
ever made in the world's history, and the greatest on this 
continent. The enemy's fire slackened after thirty minutes 
from the number, as officially reported, of caissons and 
ammunition wagons we exploded; but shells still ploughed 
through our ranks with terrible eflfect, one of them set- 
ting fire to a hospital and burning up in the flames a 
great many wounded. Many of their guns were disabled, 
and soon the blinding battle-smoke gave place to the 
stillness of death. Now had come the decisive moment 
\\'hen the gloomy presentiments which had been pressing 
upon Gen. Lee's men were to become facts, or be dissipated 
like the sulphurous wreaths above us. 

I speak of presentiments, because the night before, when 
we had taken our place for bivouac on the corpse-covered 
battle field, there rose before us, what we at first thought 
was a cloud, black and threatening, but which we soon 

*Later in the day Adolphe Dupre was carried back wounded, and the two 
cannoniers, who givve hiin their places, were Isilled simultaueously by the same 
shell. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 191 



discovered were the mountains behind, or on which the 
Federal left was posted ; protected, we discovered, too, on 
the morrow, by breastworks. In regarding this we star.ed 
at each other in amazement. Still the men believed so 
much in themselves, that when the storming divisions 
moved oflf, we did not fear the treachery of fortune. 

As Pickett's Division pressed on by us, or rather along 
si'de of us part of the way, the men realizing the certain 
death that awaited them, and too proud to falter in doing 
what they considered their duty, were heard some of them, 
saying "good-bye" and the fixed look in their face, showed 
that they had steeled themselves to certain death. Then 
the flag station signaled, and the whole lined moved. 
McDonald at Wagram, was eclipsed. There was a mile 
of ground to get over, and the storm of lead from their 
enemies in the breastworks, laid them down by scores. 
Meanwhile what was the most extraordinary feat of the 
war, the third company battery charged as far as the 
ground admitted, with Pickett, finally maintaining a posi- 
tion far in advance of any other Confederate guns.* 

Heath's Division emerged from the woods, en echelon, as 
was ordered, just as we heard a yell which told that our 
colors had been successfully planted over the enemy's 
fortifications, and eleven captured cannons. At that 
monaent, Pettigrew's men, who were raw troops, and soon 
after. Heath's Division, broke under a flank fire, and 
retreated in confusion. Pickett's position, which is now 
being charged by a fresh division of the enemy becoming 
critical, and his men being unable to hold their ground 
fell back by order. 

This settled the day, and the hopes of many of the 

*A battery from another State moved with us, but sooa left both the Third 
company, and their own guns. 

24 



192 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Confederate army. The crest of the hill soon became 
almost deserted — there being present only four pieces of 
cannon from the Washington Artillery which still retained 
their original position. These about dusk fired a shower 
of shots at what appeared to be an advance movement of 
the enemy — the last shots that were fired upon that fatal 
day. 



* 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

THE BETBEAT. 

During the whole of this memorable day, and part of 
the preceding, the men had nothing to eat, and were 
very often without water. I succeeded at one time, in 
satisfying the pangs of hungerj by eating the fruit from 
a cherry tree, which either hung close to the ground, 

*At 6 p. M., we heard a long and continuous Yankee cheer, which we at first 
imagined was an indication of an advance ; but it turned out to be their recep- 
tion of a general officer, whom we saw riding down the line, followed by about 
thirty horsemen. Soon afterwards I rode to the extreme front, where there 
were four pieces of rifled cannon, almost without any infantry support. To the 
non-withdrawal of these guns is to be attributed the otherwise surprising 
inactivity of the enemy. I was immediately surrounded by a sergeant, and about 
half-a-dozen gunners, who seemed in excellent spirits, and full of confidence, in 
spite of their exposed situation. The sergeant, [Corporal Coyle] expressed his 
ardent hope that the Yankees might have spirit enough to advance and receive 
the dose he had in readiness for them. 

Whilst we were talking, the enemy's skirmishers began to advance slowly, and 
several ominous sounds in quick succession told us that we were attracting their 
attention, and that it was necessary to break up the conclave. I therefore turned 
round and took leave of these cheery and plucky gunners. 

» * * * * 

It was difficult to exaggerate the critical state of affairs as they appeared 
about this time. If the enemy or their general had shown any enterprise, there 
is no saying what might have happened. Gen. Lee and his officers were evi- 
dently fully impressed with a sense of the situation. 

***** 

Gen. Longstreet said the mistake they had made, was in not concentrating the 
army more, and making the attaeic on the 2d, with 30,000 men instead of 15,000. 
The advance had been in three lines, and the troops of Hill's corps, who gave 
way, were young soldiers who had never been uuder fire before. The enemy 
would have attacked, had the guns been withdrawn. Had they done so at that 
particular moment, immediately after the repulse, it would have been awkward. 
— Freetiuuitle . 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 193 



or whose boughs had been struck off by the bullets and 
shell. The last bread we tasted was obtained by some of 
us who, to preserve the strength of the men, were de- 
tailed by Capt. Hero to gather food from the dead Federal 
infantry, whose haversacks were furnished with three 
day's ration. It was not the kind of food that fastidious 
stomachs could endure. But a soldier's first motto is to 
take care of his material wants, and the men who reso- 
lutely satisfied the cravings of nature, probably did the 
best service in marching and fighting, and preserved 
longest their health. 

The day altogether, was productive of different emo- 
tions, from any ever experienced on any other battle 
field. The sight of the dying and wounded, who were 
lying by the thousand between the two lines, and com- 
pelled amid their sufferings, to witness and be exposed to 
the cannonade of over 200 guns, and later in the day, 
the reckless charges, and the subsequent destruction or 
demoralization of Lee's best corps — the fury, tears or savage 
irony of the commanders — ^the patient waiting, which 
would occasionally break out into sardonic laughter at 
the ruin of our hopes seen everywhere around us, and 
finally, the decisive moment, when the enemy seemed to 
be launching his cavalry to sweep the remaining handful 
of men from the face of the earth : These were all 
incidents which settled, and will forever remain in the 
memory. We all remember Gettysburg, though we do 
not remember and do not care to remember many other 
of the remaining incidents of the war. Of this latter 
kind, were for instance, our marches a short time after- 
wards from the Potomac, the campaign on Mine Run, the 
battle of Bristow Station, (or the third Manassas, as it 
might be more properly called.) 



194 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



But to return to the battle field, from which at a little 
distance we bivouacked that night. It is true that many 
of us shed tears at the way in which our dreams of liberty 
had ended, and then and there gave them a much more 
careful burial than most of the dead received; yet when 
we were permitted at length to lie down under the cais- 
sons, or in the fence corners, and realized that we had 
escaped the death that had snatched away so many others, 
we felt too well satisfied at our good fortune — ^in spite of 
the enemy still near us, not to sleep the soundest sleep it 
is permitted on earth for mortals to enjoy. 

On the following day during a heavy and continuous 
rain, the army commenced its retreat to the Potomac* 

Gen. Imboden was put in the van, in charge of the 
immense amount of captured plunder, and the many 
thousand prisoners who had been taken, and our batteries 
were temporarily assigned to his command. His duty it 
need not be said, was a very arduous one, as it exposed us 
constantly to a sudden swooping down of the cavalry. 
Once they actually dashed down on us, and compelled us 

* July 4th. The army commence moving this evening from want of ammunition. 
It was hoped that the enemy might attack during the day, especially as this is 
the 4th of July, and it was calculated that there was still ammunition for one 
day's fighting. The ordnance train had already commenced moving back 
towards Cashtown, and Bwell's immense train of plunder had been proceeding 
towards Hagerstown by the Fairfield road ever since an early hour this morning. 

July 5th, Sunday. — The night was very bad — thunder and lightning, torrents 
of rain — the road knee deep in mud and water, and often blocked up with 
wagons " come to grief." I pitied the wretched plight of the unfortunate 
soldiers who were to follow us. Our progress was naturally very slow indeed, 
and we took eight hours to go as many miles. 

At 8 A. M. we halted a little beyond the village of Fairfield, near the entrance 
to a mountain pass. No sooner had we done so and lit a fire, than an alarm 
was spread that Yankee cavalry were upon us. Several shots flew over our 
heads, but we never could discover from whence they came. News also arrived 
of the capture of the whole of Ewell's beautiful wagons. At 6 o'clock we 
traveled on again (by the Hagerstown road). The road was full of soldiers 
marching in a particularly lively manner — the wet and mud seemed to have 
produced no effect whatever on their spirits, which were as boisterous as ever. 
The same old chaff was going on of "Come out of that hat — I know you're in 
it — I sees your legs a-dangling down," &c. When we halted for the night, 
skirmishing was going on in front and rear — Stuart in front and Swell in rear. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 195 



to get our pieces unlimbered. Never had the men and 
horses been so jaded, and stove up. One of our men 
who dropped at the foot of a tree in a sort of hollow, 
went to sleep, and continued sleeping until the water rose 
to his waist. It was only then that he could be 
awakened with the greatest difficulty. Battery horses 
would drop down dead. So important was our movement 
that no halt for bivouac, though we marched scarcely 
two miles an hour, was made during the route from 
Gettysburg to Williamsport — a march of over 40 miles. 
The men and officers on horseback would go to sleep 
without knowing it, and at one time there was a halt 
occasioned by all of the drivers — or at least those whose 
business was to attend to it, being asleep in their saddles. 
In fact the whole of the army was dozing while marching 
and moved as if under enchantment or a spell — were 
asleep and at the same time walking. 

Over the rocky turnpike road some of us had to march 
barefooted, our shoes having been destroyed by the rough 
Macadamized road, or the heavy mud; and those were 
especially sufferers whose feet, my own among the number, 
were inconveniently larger than those of the pdssing 
Dutchmen whom we would meet on the road. 

Scarcely had we arrived at Williamsport, before we 
were attacked by Kirkpatrick with a body of Federal 
cavalry who had already harrassed us at Hagerstown, on 
our retreat, and captured some of our wagons. At Wil- 
liamsport, the morning alter our arrival, there was a sudden 
dash and hotly contested fight. These assailants were 
however, ultimately driven off, with the assistance of the 
wagoners, who now shouldered the muskets they had been 
hauling, and fought like Trojans. In this teamsters' fight, 
the enemy were driven away without doing any serious 
damage. 



196 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Lee's army a few days after reached the Potomac 
without opposition, and although his pontoons were de- 
stroyed, and the Potomac unfordable, a bridge was con- 
structed, and the army on the 13th of July, passed over 
very quietly — the bridges having been covered with bushes 
to prevent the rumbling of the wheels. Ewell's corps by 
this time had managed to ford the river. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

CAPUA. 

The events that now need only be glanced at in this 
narrative, are, that large detachments were taken from the 
Federal army of the Potomac, to reinforce those of the 
West, and to assist in the North, in making the draft. 
On the other hand, the climate of Virginia, not allowing 
a very active campaign, induced Lee, following this exam- 
ple, to send Longstreet South. This general took part in 
the battle of Chickamauga, with our 5th Company of 
Washington Artillery, and his troops greatly contributed 
to the victory at that time gained. The strategical move- 
ment that followed in Virginia, resulted only in showing 
either that none of Jackson's brilliant flank movements 
could now be aimed at, or that the times and the hopes 
of the Southern people had changed, and that Lee's army 
never replenished, and always decreasing, could, hence- 
forth, hope for but little, in the way of an aggressive 
movement. Lee's subsequent defense of Richmond, 
formed the brightest part of his military reputation, but 
it differed essentially in its character, from that of the 
preceding campaigns. 

With the coming of Grant into power, it became 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 197 



obvious that some new movement to Richmond would be 
attempted, and the defence of that city and of Peters- 
burg, from attack by way of the James, became a matter 
of increasing importance. It was with a view to this, 
and to the preservation of our horses that our Batallion 
was ordered to Richmond, and subsequently to Petersburg. 
Our campaigning, henceforth, until the following June, 
alternated from one side of the James to the other — 
from Richmond to Petersburg, and finally to the various 
forts or breastworks of that closely guarded town. Pre- 
vious to going to the Cockade City, we were detailed 
around Richmond a few days, not for the purpose of 
refreshing the men, but of resting the battery horses, 
which became appreciated with their scarcity, and whose 
good condition was a matter of much more consideration 
than that of a private. In spite of this depreciation, the 
old soldiers improved what little opportunity was afforded 
them to renew their friendships, and to affect as much style 
in eating, living and dressing, as their somewhat limited 
opportunities admitted. To show how times changed 
men's conduct, I may mention an incident which hap- 
pened to an old soldier, whose courage was only exceeded 
by his vanity. He cared as little for being complimented 
for the former quality, as Richelieu, or Frederick the Gi'eat 
did, for being flattered as statesmen. When it came 
however, to his dress, he was vulnerable as Achilles. 
What pleased him best of all, was to be promenading 
the streets with a neat walking cane, and to be reproached 
as a hanger-on about Richmond, who had not sufficient 
manhood to do his duty. The more he was cursed hy 
sentinels or mud-covered soldiers, who did not know him, 
the more he was delighted.* 

*A — , one of the recruits who had recently joined us and who came to the surface 



198 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our camp life at Petersburg was a new revelation to 
nearly all of us. The place had not yet seen soldiering, 
and we were so many Telemaques welcomed by Calypsos. 
One of the latter, a tall fine-looking young lady of Peters- 
burg, was enthusiastic enough to take the baggage from 
the weary back of a poor soldier, and to insist upon 
carrying it upon her own ivory shoulders. It was thought 
among us for a little while that this romantic acquaintance 
would terminate in marriage ; but perhaps it was just as 
well that she married instead one of the first Federal offi- 
cers who came into the city, after its capture. 

We were very advantageously placed, upon our arrival, 
in a camp a mile east of town, and which commanded a 
very large extent of turnip producing country. The 
influence this fertile region and short rations exerted on 
the principles of some of the younger and less scrupulous 
members may be guessed at from the fact that one of them 
declined joining the church, during a religious revival, on 
account of the too great temptation exerted upon his 
morality by a neighboring vegetable garden. 

The citizens all received us with great hospitality, not 
only at this camp but when we Avere moved four miles 

during this short stay, put in an equally magnificent appearance, and developed 
a different sort of talent. He dressed in what was considered gorgeous raiment 
at the time, and secured a table at the best restaurant in the town. At one time 
he was upon the point of marrying a beautiful girl who heard with rapture of his 
plantation, where the flavor of pork was improved by feeding a hog on oranges; 
so much so that she was ready to agree to live forever, upon such remarkable 
breakfast bacon. But the order for the batallion came to move to Peter^sburg 
— and the marriage was postponed, the fascinating recruit lingering so long in 
the lap of beauty that he scarcely had time to return his borrowed suit, much 
less pay his restaurant bill. He however lingered long enough for both parties to 
discover there was some mistake not only about the orange-fed hogs, and the 
plantation, but about the character of the lady. During the march to Peters- 
burg, he consumed his time in swearing he would get even with the wags 
of the batallion who had introduced him and let him so badly in, if it was the 
last military act of his life ; and his excitement and the condition of the roads 
may be judged of when it is stated that, by actual count of time, he and two or 
three similar characters, shook the Richmond dust off their feet at the rate of 
20 miles, for four hours marching. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 199 



further away — that is received those who had horses and 
could come frequently to town. Ultimately we were 
encamped at "Model Farm," though it might have been 
the model of almost anything else, at the time we occu- 
pied it. 

Our life here in these winter quarters, barring short 
commons, was the pleasantest experience we had yet had 
of soldiering. Petersburg was large enough to admit of 
every variety of society, embracing, as Pierre Soul6 once 
declared, some of the most beautiful ladies he had ever 
seen anywhere. Richmond too was but a little ways oflF, 
and there was an excellent public library. Lastly, the ama- 
teur performers gave an entertainment — "Pocahontas" 
and "Toodles" in the theatre of the town, which drew a 
packed house, ladies not only from Petersburg, but Rich- 
mond ; and such was the preternatural splendor of the 
occasion, that one of the ushers refulged through the 
evening in a pair of |150 white kid gloves. 

What great places of resort were the two hotels and one 
or two coffee houses, the bridge and river bank; and 
towards the last, some of the noble residences richly fur- 
nished, which a few of us from time to time were permitted 
to roam through and enjoy — not in any wise to molest or 
disturb ; simply by staring very hard at the carved oak, 
carpet and curtains, to bring to our minds that we had 
once led some other life, than the one under canvass or in 
bunks. 

The winter months passed away, with some disagreeable 
work in the shape of guard mounting and wood cutting, 
and in the labor of getting the latter to the camp habita- 
tions. The men did not much like the idea of carrying 
great logs over steep or. rugged ground on their shoulders, 
and besides were thinking of the pleasant times they might 
25 



200 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



have had in elegant society in Petersburg. Disagreeable 
contrasts were naturally enough instituted between the 
bruised muscles and blistered hands of one existence, and 
the refined drawing rooms, abounding with gay company, 
music and dancing on the other. We had become such 
sybarites before the winter passed, not only with our own 
batallion, but with Pickett's Division, and a few other old 
veterans who were thus afforded a month or so of rest, 
that what with church going, visiting or reading by the 
pleasant fires of winter-quarters, we began to imagine, 
(after one or two little interruptions towards North Caro- 
lina and Lynchburg) that our Capua would last forever. 
It was true that the rations from week to week became 
scarcer, and that anything like hospitality became from 
day to day of more difficult occurrence. 

One day there was what might be called, for the times, 
a grand carousal, a sort of one-horse Belshazzar's display, 
made up mostly of brilliant officers from the army, and 
at which the display of demijohns was as great as in 
the Irish hospitality described by Lever. A distinguished 
hospital surgeon from Georgia, was the worst victim ; so 
much so, that he was stretched upon the table, the cloth 
thrown over his motionless body, and the burial service 
read and chanted over him with great emphasis and cere- 
mony. We had not seen enough of that sort of thing in 
reality, and had to do some of it as a joke, by way of 
refreshing our recollection. Besides, we were half inclined, 
on general principles, to send the doctor to keep company 
with a good many of his patients. However, nothing in 
the way of reminders was needed long. Couriers, as the 
spring advanced, began to arrive in camp, and the men 
were put through, though not without loud growling and 
swearing, a regular course of inspection and drill. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 201 



Suddenly, at all sorts of hours, we began to be called 
upon to " hitch up" to cross the Appomattox or the James. 
We could hear, too, the faint booming of the guns of Lee's 
and Grant's armies, who were now starting up from their 
winter-quarters north of Richmond, and swinging around 
towards Petersburg — smiting and rending each other as 
they marched, and making ready for the final death grap- 
ple which was to be completed during the following year. 

With the first guns that were fired about Petersburg, 
the brilliant society which had hitherto remained about 
that city commenced to melt away. But it was not until 
the small trenches had become great mounds and had 
been lengthened into miles of fortifications — and until the 
shot from the enemy's guns began not only to deafen the 
population by their roar but to penetrate their houses, 
that the streets became altogether deserted by their former 
gay frequenters. The spurs of brilliant horsemen ceased 
to echo so frequently through fashionable church aisles; 
and about the only resort for which soldiers showed much 
predilection, was one of the old finely furnished saloons. 
The traditional cofiee-house pictures, with their voluptuous 
and impossible beauties still hung on the walls; the glasses 
and bottles still glittered; and it is pleasant to reflect that 
during all of those long months of bombardment one man 
still remained behind the counter with neat cufis and hair 
parted in the middle, ready to administer to the wants of 
his thirsty fellow-man. 

Nevertheless, the supply of stimulants was at a low 
ebb ; and it was only in the days when there did not seem 
to be a hundred people in the streets, or under circum- 
stances of the most mysterious secrecy, that one could 
penetrate into the spirituous twilight of the inner side, 
and only one or two at a time. It was like waiting at 



202 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



the pool for the troubling of the waters ; and once the 
visitor had paid his two or three dollars, and swallowed the 
moderate amount of Nepenthe allowed him, a door in the 
rear opened and he was expected to foot it back or gallop 
back to camp forthwith. It might perhaps be thought that 
the necessity of passing over a field a mile wide, in which 
shells and bombs were constantly exploding, would have 
some influence in keeping the men from having such 
longings. Such however was not the case. 

One of the most singular features about Petersburg, as 
month after month passed on, and the anaconda-folds of 
Gi'ant's army hugged closer and closer the doomed city, 
was the way in which the hill-side embankments would 
be honeycombed into human dens and places of shelter 
and refuge. In one place it was like a glimpse of Petrea, 
with the houses excavated in rock ; in another the ground 
would be cut up with such a maze of alleys and streets of 
trench work, that as you went through them, crouching 
down and with bent shoulders, you could never tell at 
what end you would come out of this Daedalus labyrinth. 
What made the matter more diificult, was that a regiment 
of soldiers, with fireplaces and cooking utensils, would be 
sometimes encamped inside of these narrow avenues, 
whose heads, if they ever stood erect, were certain marks 
for the Federal sharpshooters. Stumbling or falling over 
men who were wasting away under a siege that was kept 
up more than a year, all of the finer and nobler traits of 
the old soldiers seemed to disappear, and their thoughts 
to be only occupied by their ever present misery and 
wretchedness. But the roll of the drum, or the order 
" Fall in men," would waken them, and as General Long- 
street recently told me in conversation, he believed they 
steadily improved in soldiering to the end of the war. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 208 



CHAPTER XXX. 

THE LAST TEAK. 

But notwithstanding the spirit of the men, it would 
have seemed, at first blush, after the decisive battle of 
Gettysburg, the loss of Vicksburg, with the South doomed 
to certain starvation, in a fixed time, and opposed by a 
pertinacious general having absolute power over 1,200,000 
troops, that the leaders of the South would have sought 
to hedge in or compromise, and preserve to the land some 
little vestige of property. Considering that the loss of the 
game was now absolutely certain in a given number of 
moves, the question was whether it was worth while to play 
it out and submit to the brutality of a checkmate; or to get 
at once the best terms the situation admitted. It is very 
probable that the latter was what Gen. Lee thought about 
the matter, and it is certain from his statements to Gen. 
Gordon, that he had ceased to see any hope, some time 
before retreating from Petersburg. 

But another year of hard fighting was to be gone 
through with, and Lee will now have to keep Grant's 
main army from Richmond by the overland route, and at 
the same time defend that city on the South from an 
approach of Butler in that direction with 30,000 men. 

The struggle between Lee and Grant opened with the 
battle of the Wilderness, which was fought on nearly the 
same ground as that of Chancellorville. In this, Lee 
attempted to shut up the Federal army, consisting of 
100,000 men, in the forest well described by its name, 
where movement was as difficult as in a cane brake. Lee 
succeeded to the extent of putting 30,000 of the enemy 
Jioj's du combat. . 

It was here, where the enemy, by the suddenness of his 



204 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



attack, had broken the line of Hill, that Gen. Lee tempo- 
rarily closed up the breach by leading on the Texas 
Brigade in persouj riding himself in front of the lines. It 
was not until the men (Jragged his horse back by the 
bridle, and until the brigaae shouted that they would do 
the fighting if he would stay in the rear, that Lee con- 
sented to remain behind. The brigade was cut to pieces, 
but Longstreet now had time to get up, and the line was 
saved. The movements of both armies were thoroughly 
aggressive, and as the ground admitted of no manoeuvering, 
Grant's orders were substantially to fight it out as if in a 
promiscuous row, to strike at everything going. The log 
breastworks in front of Hancock caught fire, and the fight 
had to be continued through smoke and flame, the crippled 
and wounded being many of them burnt to death or suffo- 
cated before they could escape. The fight lasted two days 
and Lee's loss was 8,000. 

Grant's second encounter (May 12th, Spottsylvania) was 
still less fortunate for the Federal Commander. Its gen- 
eral character was the same, in the nature of the ground, 
as that of the Wilderness. Here too the woods caught 
fire, and the direction of advance through the forest 
could only be told by compass. One line of Lee's works 
having been taken, was in turn: re-assaulted by him in 
five terrific charges. Confederate bodies bayoneted in 
these assaults, lay piled upon each other, so Federal 
accounts say, and the woods were black with corpses. 
The fight at Spottsylvania was of twelve days' duration, 
at the end of which time. Grant who had now lost 40,000 
men, gave it up in despair, of here making an impression on 
Lee, and commenced flanking towards Richmond. 

After thirty days' marching, flanking, racing and fightr 
ing. Grant's army attempted to drive Lee back, June 3d, 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 205 



from the Chickahominy. His plan was simply an attack 
along the whole line. His troops having lost 15,000 men 
in a short time at this battle, and his men remembering 
that they had now lost 60,000 by this free-fight system 
of tactics, stood still in ranks when ordered to advance. 
Grant's loss in this campaign was greater than what the 
whole force of Lee amounted to. Still Lee lost 18,000 
men, and there was no way of filling up his ranks. 

Our victories, brilliant as they were, did not deceive 
old soldiers. They were sometimes compared to the 
winnings of a poker player, who, in those days, was heard 
growling at his luck, because, after winning $3,000 in 
Confederate money, he lost twenty-five cents in silver. 

On the night of the 12th of June, the movement to 
the Southern side of the James was begun. 

Having said this much by way of general explanation, 
I shall here introduce the concise record of Lieut. Col. 
Miller Owen, (whose former place was supplied by Adju- 
tant E. J. Kursheedt,) of the military movements made by 
the Washington Artillery, for the following year : 

Batallion Journal: April 15. The commaud has had no service since August 
last, and things' have gotten a little loose and rusty. Winter quarters near such 
a pleasant place as Petersburg, has demoralized the boys a little. They are now., 
well clad in gray jackets and pants, and every one has at least one sweet-heart 
among the pretty girls of the city. Trust a W. A. for that. 

Horses and harness in miserable order ; drills and inspections have been 
neglected all winter. Too much leisure in camp will spoil the discipline of the 
.best soldiers. The men are not disposed to have what they consider needlessly, 
their liberty restricted, but are all anxious to join Gen. Lee at Gordonsville — 
Lieut. Ool. Bshleman in command, in place of Col. J. B. Walton, resigned. 

April 16. In camp at Model Farm, drilling commenced, bugle and roll call 
resumed. Tall swearing among the men who regard all this as an outrage. 

21. In Richmond. Hotel board $50 a day. A month's pay can be eaten up 
in three days. 

23. Mr. Davis will not let us go to Gordonsville, but suggests that we be 
placed in the works around Richmond. 

25. Drilling and putting everything in order. 

May 4. Looking for the Yankees to begin operations every day. 

5. Action at last. Ordered by Gen. Pickett to move our guns to City Point 
road. All the horses in the city are pressed and sent to us to be converted into 



206 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



battery horses ; buggy Horses, express horses, in fact trotters and all are made to 
do service.* 

30. Transport full of Federals and five Monitors are reported at Bermudas 
Hundreds. Butler in command ; we can look for hot work now. After much 
trouble with our new horses, we go into position north of the Appomattox, as 
follows : 

3rd Company, in Battery No. 2, City Point Road. 

2nd Company, in Battery No. 5, City Point Road. 

Ist Company, in Battery No. 8, City Point Road. 

The Fourth Company under Norcom and Behan were placed with the 2nd. 

May 6. Enemy reported coming up the City Point Road. 1st Company ordered 
back to Petersburg with his four guns. 

5 p. M. Firing heard North of the Appomattox river. Enemy have landed on 
the south bank of the James, pushed out to Walthal Junction on the Richmond 
Railroad, and have been attacked and repulsed. Six guns placed opposite them 
in position on the Prince George road and Lieut. McElroy in command. 

The enemy is in great force, and we have nothing to support our guns except 
the militia from the town of Petersburg, and a portion of the 31st Regiment, 
North Carolina troops. 

The militia are jolly cases and have plenty to eat and drink ; they seem to 
look upon the whole thing as a good joke. 

May 1. All quiet along the lines this morning. Grant is reported fighting 
Gen. Lee somewhere near the Rappahannock. We are going to have it now 
"hot and heavy." Placed at 12 m. two guns under Lieut.Britton, on the Baxter 
road ; two under Richardson on Jerusalem road. 1 p. m. two Companies Militia 
sent to Batteries 9, 10, 11. N. C. troops to Baxter and Jerusalem roads. 

May 8, 2 a. m. Two guns in battery 16, under Lieut. Britton, removed to bat- 
tery 40. 5 p. M. Go on reconnoissance towards Broadway. No signs of the 
enemy. 

Monday, May 9, 2 a. m. One section under Captain Hero of the 3rd Com- 
pany, is ordered to report to Capt. Sturtevant, to attack gunboats on the 
Appomattox River. 1 e. m. heavy firing in the direction of Fort Clifton. 

Col. Jones placed in command of the Washington Artillery and Reid's Ba- 
tallion, by order Gen. Beauregard. 

May 10. Gen. Beauregard arrives at Petersburg from battle Drury's BluSF. 

May 14, 2 a. m. Our whole force falls back to second line of works. 

Gen. Beauregard, with Colquitt's Brigade and Macon Battery, arrives from 
Petersburg. Heavy skirmishing all day along the lines, 4 cannoniers killed, 4 
wounded. 

May 14. President Davis rides down from Richmond this afternoon and visits 
Beauregard. 

May 15. Skirmishing all day along the lines. The enemy have occupied our 
outer abandoned works, and keep our lines completely swept with sharp- 
shooting. Assault made on 4th Company's position repulsed. 

May 16, 5 a. m. Artillery opens all along our lines. At 5:45 a, m. our 
infantry advance over our works and fall upon the enemy all along the line. 

May 16. The 1st Company, Capt. E. Owen, sent down the turnpike in rear 
of B. Johnson's Brigade, and engage the enemy's batteries in the road. Enemy 
badly whipped.f 

1 p. M. With horses belonging to Ist Company Washington Artillery, I 
brought in the battery captured by Haygood's S. C. Brigade in the Turnpike, and 
prpsented by Gen. Haygood to Capt. Owen, three 20-pounder Parrotts, two 

*An ingenious lady of Peterabiu-g who could not make up her mind to part with a fine pair of 
carriage horses had them hid in her dining room or parlor until the danger had p issed. It was the 
first time probably since Nero — if then, that horses have been accommo£tted with Brussels carpets. 

tThe fight here referred to was one of the hottest engagements of the war — the gnns being sepa- 
rated by a" very small interval, and the battery horees of the enemy killed in heaps. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 207 



12-pounder Napoleons. General Beauregard commanded in person. 1600 pris- 
oners taken. 

Enemy retreat to Bermuda Hundreds, leaving their dead and wounded on the 
field, baggage wagons and arms. President Davis visits the field. 

[Losses at Drury's Blaff, on the ISth, 14th and 15th of May : 1st Company, 
Killed — H. Peychaud, Geo. Chambers, T. G. Simmons. Wounded — Capt. E 
Owen, slightly ; Lieut. J. M. Galbraith, mortally; Coiporal S. Turner, Ed. Pey- 
chaud, J. J. Norment, C. Eossiter, T. J. Wilson, Jos. Myers, Captured— Sergt. 
P. 0. Fazende.* 2d Company, Wounded — M. J. Lapham, Geo. Gessner, J. N. 
Greenman. 3d Company, Killed — H. Madden. Wounded — G. Guillotte, A. Guil- 
lotte, A. Leefe, Jas. Crilly. 4th Company, Killed — R. G. McDonald, John 
Faulkes, E. A. Mallard, Ed. Condon. Wounded, Sergt. John B. Valentine, J. S. 
Hood, A. Norcomb, Wm. Martin. — Total loss, 30. The above is the official 
report of Adjt. C. J. Kursheedt.] 

May 17, 8:30 a.m. Pursuit begins. We march towards Petersburg. Counted 
twenty-five dead horses in front of position occupied yesterday by the 1st 
Company Washington Artillery. Bivouacked eight miles from Petersburg; 
Wise and Martin's Brigades join us to-day, commanded by D. H. HilL 

May 18. Heavy skirmishing in front. 

May 19. Ordered to construct works, put guns in position, and shell out 
enemy's skirmish line. 

May 20. Assault made on enemy's line to-day. First line of fortification 
carried. 

May 21. The 2d, 3d and 4th Companies relieved from duty on the lines, and 
sent back to the rear. 

May 22, 10:30 A. M. Monitors shelling again. 

May 22, 5 p. M. Flag of truce to bring in the dead lying between the lines. 

28. Return to Petersburg. 

June 2. Reported that Grant was repulsed yesterday by Gen. Lee. 

1:15 p. M. Whole command ordered to Richmond by Secretary of War to 
report to Gen. Ransom. 

3. Ordered to Bottom's Bridge, Chickahominy. 

4. Third anniversary of our arrival in Virginia. All quiet on the lines. 

15. We apply to Mr. Davis to go over to Petersburg. 

16. Firing in the direction of Petersburg. Reported that the enemy carried 
the outer line of works last night. 

*Tfaie latter made his escape from a nortliorn train, while in rapid motion. 

At that time in June, Gen. Wise was in command at 
Petersburg — 2200 troops. Bushrod Johnson was guarding 
Bermuda Hundreds' line from Howletts' on the James to 
the distance of four miles. The Petersburg line was then 
seven miles long. 

On the 15th of June, Gen. Baldy Smith attacked 
Petersburg from the south, and meeting but slight resist- 
ance would certainly have taken it, but for his lack of 
enterprise and loss of time. The attack was renewed the 
next day — 40,000 troops against 11,000, the latter com- 
manded by Gen. Beauregard. Petersburg could still have 
26 



208 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



been taken, if Smith had divided his troops and attacked 
on the unguarded Confederate right. The Federals now 
brought up a third corps and broke Hke an avalanche 
through Johnson's lines, which had been placed on the 
Confederate left. He was here met by Gen. Grade's Bri- 
gade who, by Beauregard's order, had left the Bermuda 
Hundreds line abandoned. It was while Grade's Brigade 
was forming about sundown, that they found the Federals 
sweeping down upon them, and Beauregard "now thought" 
according to his own statement "that the last hour of the 
Confederacy had arrived." But the orders of Gracie "for- 
ward " and " charge," were never given to a braver set of 
men. They routed everything before them, and captured 
twice their own number of prisoners, which was 2300. The 
battle raged furiously until 12 o'clock at night, and mean- 
Avhile the road to Richmond at Bermuda Hundreds was 
left unguarded. At that hour the three Federal corps, 
according to captured dispatches, were hors du combat. 
Beauregard had previously seized the opportunity to mark 
out a new line, 500 yards to the rear, with white stakes so 
that the brigades could find it, and this became the cele- 
brated line of fortifications which were defended to the 
end of the war. " The enemy in this days' fight," says 
Gen. Beauregard, "lost 13,000 men, or more than I had 
in my whole force." 

A fourth corps under Warren had arrived, when Gen. 
Lee started his whole army forward. Kershaw's Division 
coming up first, such a warm reception was given to the 
Federals, that they commence forthwith the siege of 
Petersburg. 

Beauregard then wanted to push Grant into a corner 
of the Appomattox and James; but Lee after almost con- 
senting to this plan, decided to let Grant wear himself out 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 209 



by a costly series of attacks. Grant's previous experience 
however prevented him from doing anything of the sort. 
His quickest method would have been to have continued 
his wheel around Richmond, destroying the railroads, by 
which, with the utmost difficulty, Lee's army obtained its 
supplies. But Grant who had not forgotten Lee's strategy, 
decided on the wearing out and attrition process, 
involving the construction of regular breastworks and 
forts, and a steady firing and bombardment which lasted 
a year.* 

A chance, which was lost at this time to the-~ Con- 
federate arms, was the neglect of Early, who made a 
diversion into Maryland, to capture Washington. "Early 
had then," says Swinton " an opportunity to dash into the 
city, the , works being very slightfy defended. The hope 
at headquarters, that the capital could be saved from 
capture, were very slender. But his conduct was feeble. 
Lee founded his hopes on the menace he supposed this 
move to Washington would have." In spite of the 
opportune arrival of the 19 th Corps at Washington, it 
required all of Grant's moral firmness to withstand the 
severe pressure brought upon him to remove his army to 
Washington. 

June 17. Nine Federals came into camp this morning — all German, French 
and Irish. 

18. Ordered to South side of the James. Reach Petersburg on 19th, and 
put in position in the works at batteries, 34 to 38, on the 20th. 

25, 10 p. M. Enemy shelling the city; several women reported killed. Matiy 
buildings struck. No notice was given of the shelling of the city. 

27. Rain. Enemy continues shelling the city. 

June 28, to July 3. Sharp-shooting and shelling has been going on. Wothen 
and children nearly all left. Hospitals have been removed. Our horses have 
not had a feed of corn this week. 

July 4. Enemy in our front display all their flags along the lines, Shelling the 
city at intervals. 

July 9. Morgan Harris, 1st Company, mortally wounded. 

* Letter of Gen. Beauregard to Gen. C. M. Wilcox. 



210 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



24. Kremelburg, 3d Company, killed last night while sleeping in the works* 

30, 5 A. M. Mine sprung on the line, blowing up Pegram Battery, four guns, 
twenty men and eighteen of the S. C. Regiment. Enemy makes an assault and 
occupies our line. We took ten stands of colors and many prisoners, black and 
white. Whitcomb and Maines, 1st Company, and 0. J. Toledano, 3d Company, 
killed.f 

[The casualties along the line to the close of 1864, were: 1st Company, 
Killed — M. B. Harris, H. Whitcomb and W. Maines. 2nd Company — Wm Almin- 
dinger. 3d Company — Sergt. Kremelburg, 0. Toledano. Wounaed — Corporal 
Grimmer, D. Kobleur 4th Company — Died, P. Mooney. 

Murville, the twin-brother of Lecestiere Labarre, (both of the 3rd,) died 
about this time. He was a good soldier, and his mental attainments made bim 
charming company in spite of a slight impediment in his speech. Another 
young soldier greatly regretted, and of more than ordinary promise, was Henry 
Peychaud.] 

August 1st. Gen. Lee allows Gen. Grant an armistice of three hours to bury 
his dead, lying between the two armies. 

Estimated loss of the enemy 4000 ; walked over to the Crater, and met the flag 
of truce. The Federal officers bring out plenty of good wineand brandy, luxu- 
ries unknown to us poor Confederates in the trench. Negro prisoners bury the 
dead in the trench between the lines. 

Flag withdrawn and all retire to respective posts, and bang away again. 

August 3. W. M. Owen, was shot in the face by sharpshooters, while directing 
the charging of a gun. 

Oct. 12. One-half our artillery drivers are armed with muskets, to put on duty 
at Fort Gregg. Our supernumefaries will help in the same way, defend the lines 
if attacked. 

Oct. 27. Fighting on our right ; heavy fighting all day. At dark, a regiment 
of Federals, that our men on the lines took for our relief picket, entered — a 
bold move — the line at our left gun, nearest the Crater, and for a time created 
some little excitement. They were soon driven out. 

Oct. 28. The attack yesterday by the enemy was evidently intended as a 
coup de main to gain the Southside railroad and the Appomattox river. Northern 
newspaper correspondents say the troops carried six days' rations and plenty 
of ammunition. It proved a failure ; so Grant of course calls it a " Reconnois- 
sance" ; dead and wounded Federals left on the field. 

March 29, 1865, 10 p. m. Heavy firing in front of Petersburg. Our lines are 
very weak, having a front of forty miles to cover ; our men in the trenches. 

^Kremelburg was one of the moat honorable men and beat soldiers we had. A short time beforo 
lying down for the last time, he had borrowed a spade from an infantryman. ' Without knowing of 
this circumstance, the same spade was taken to dig K.'s grave, and never afterwards came to band. 
When the tbick-headed owner came to inquire lor it, we never could, after two hours explanation, 
get it into bis head that our dead comrade could have borrowed a spade for shoveling out his own 
grave, or why he or bis ghost, after showing so much foresight in borrowing, could not have been 
equally thoughtful about returning. 

fOswald Toledano, was a mere stripling when be with his tiithor, old Ben Toledano, joined the 
batailion — very amiable and faithful to his duties, as a messmate and soldier. On the morning of 
the crater explosion, the heat had been so great in the trenches, that some of the men though 
exposed to an enJilading Are, went back to get under shade. I was sitting down under atent shelter 
when a shell tore through it, killing T. who was standing, almost instantaneously. He had but time 
to make the sign of the cross and utter a half finished wul*d of a prayer, before falling lifeless into 
my arms. He was much attached to a lady of this city, of whom he was never tired of speaking, 
and whose ring be wore upon his fitrger. After bis death, faithful to his memory, she entered a 
religious order and died a few months after, in the performance of her now duties. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 211 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

THE GAME ENDED. 

The buoyant, hopeful tone of the army has now dis- 
appeared. Short rations and the conscript law have done 
their worst; most of the old leaders are dead, and no 
one could discover in Lee's old veterans, more than the 
smouldering embers of their former fire.* 

The 2nd of April, 1865, virtually ended the Confederate 
war, though the surrender of Lee was not made until 
eight days after. 

The concluding battle had been brought on near Peters- 
burg, by a desperate and last effort on the part of Gen. 
Lee to assume the offensive. The movement was en- 
trusted at the time to Gen. Gordon, and was spoken of by 
both leaders as almost hopeless, and the last that could in 
any case be made without extraordinary success. It was 
probably a reconnoissance, or intended to open the road 
to North Carolina for a retreat, by causing Grant to with- 
draw from Lee's right flank.f 

*Geii. Longstreet says, the men improved in fighting qualities to the end of 
the war. My own observation was, that they were pretty well starved and 
fought out. The high strung young men who went out with picked companies, 
went into the fight with just as much determination to acquit themselves with 
credit, and do themselves justice, as in their maiden fight. 

f The account of Lee's last attack at Petersburg has been given so variously, 
that I cannot do better here than to record what Gen. Gordon once told me of 
an interview which passed between himself and Gen. Lee, some time pre- 
ceding the attack. 

Gordon having been sent for, was asked, when he reached Lee's quarters, what 
he thought of the chances for the Confederate cause. He told Gen. Lee frankly, 
that he could see no chance at all. Lee admitted that he was equally hopeless. 
Gordon then inquired why, if he held these convictions, he did not urge them 
upon Mr. Davis. Gen. Lee replied that he was then about to visit Richmond, 
and left the impression that Mr. Davis would be made to understand what were 
the convictions of the army. When Gen. Lee returned, Gen. Gordon in his next 
interview, inquired if he bad told Mr. Davis, of the true condition of affairs. 
Gen. Lee said no, and in further conversation, gave as an excuse — " You know 
what sort of man Mr. Davis is " — referring doubtless to the well known impossi- 
bility of shaking Mr. Davis in any of his convictions. Gen. Lee then inquired 
if he could see no loop-hole where an advantage could be gained, or a blow 



212 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



The move was attempted by a midnight attack with 
two divisions, who succeeded in capturing the abattis of 
the enemy, for the distance of a quarter of a mile with- 
out loss. This opportunity was not improved, either on 
account of the darkness and the difficulty, from the disap- 
pearance of scouts, the Confederates had of discovering 
their way, or from natural weakness. While the latter 
were hugging the captured picket line in disorder, the 
artillery in the forts to the right and left opened on them, 
fresh troops were brought up, and the storming party 
were compelled to take refuge under the breastworks they 
had captured. 

The decisive battle which followed two days after, was 
preluded with firing of cannon on the extreme right and 
left, and by the buzz and hum of arriving reinforcements, 
and a great addition to their drum corps and trumpeters. 
Every available man from the Confederate left and centre 
was hurried to the right, leaving only artillerymen in the 
trenches and pickets in front. The firing grew hotter — 
the water batteries on the left boomed incessantly, and 
the earth shook under the jar of the sound. This 
booming signified that Grant had opened his formal 
attack, March 27th, on our lines, and it caused Lee to 
send large bodies of troops to the aid of Gens. Pickett 
and Johnston. The old spirit of the men flamed up, and 
Lee now dealt Grant's Brigades, in their advanced positions 
on his left, a staggering blow, and at one moment there 
was " a great fear of another Chancellorville disaster in 
the Federal lines." * 

dealt. Gordon was more than ever convinced that any advantage gained would 
be only momentary, but at last entered into the spirit of leading the assault on 
the enemy's net work of entrenchments on the 29th. 

The object of this was doubtless, if it had succeeded, to cause Gratit to 
leave a road open for fiee to concentrate with Johnson, in North Carolina. 

*Ureeley. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 213 



In the next, Lee was repulsed, and Sheridan* who had 
coveted Five Forks, and several times been repelled in try- 
ing to seize it, made the most of his opportunity. Pickett 
and Johnston were now overwhelmed by double their 
force, losing heavily in killed, wounded and prisoners, 
when their flank was turned. 

The night which followed was made lurid with death- 
dealing missiles, and the earth shook rnider the jar. The 
next day (April 2d) decided the fate of Richmond and 
the Confederacy. At 3:30 o'clock in the morning, the 
firing commenced from one end of the line to the other. 
Then ensued desperate charges from Grant's line. The 
attacking force here, Parkes' 9 th Corps, succeeded in 
taking a portion of the breast-works to the right of the 
Crater ; a capture which was really of no advantage as 
our men could retreat into a line of breastworks a few 
yards beyond, and an individual warfare was kept up 
until dark.-j- 

* Sheridan's presence at the time on Lee's right flanlc was one of the curious 
accidents of the war. In a fight in the Valley the Federal troops had been dis- 
persed by Early with a greatly inferior force with the exception of one corps ; 
just as Early began to lose ground and in turn be hard pressed, Sheridan arrived 
on the field by making the famous ride of which so much has been heard, and 
was just in time to receive the credit of Early's defeat. He continued a riding 
expedition towards Lynchburg which did not succeed, and having nothing else 
that he could well do, he came in by the only route open to him which was on 
Grant's left; the second time arriving just at the lucky moment which makes 
reputations. 

fThe following is the narrative of the occurrences of April 2nd by a member 
of the Batallion : I was in bed about 9 o'clock when I heard the order given to 
the infantry to sleep on their arms, as there might be a fight at any moment. 
I became so much impressed by this, that I immediately folded up my blanket, 
and made preparations for what I regarded as certain, the evacuation of Peters- 
burg. I had scarcely done so, when a shot burst through my house, and the 
cry of "To arms — get to your pieces" was he.ird. The firing lasted from about 
midnight until next morning, our cannoniers replying. 

About day-break we began to see the enemy and their flag, the latter on our 
front and flanks waving unsteadily, as if the color sergeant found difficulty in 
advancing or getting into lines of breastworks. All the time the firing continued. 
By this time we had two pieces disabled in the third company, Lieut. Stocker 
was knocked senseless, and shortly after Capt. Hero had been shot from the top 
of the breastworks by a ball in his leg. A piece was now taken from the 
embrasure and fired at the enemy who had already penetrated our line, or were 



214 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



The Federal Army in advancing upon Petersburg found 
our artillery corps in the various places that had been 
assigned them, doing their duty probably a little more 
steadily, from the force of habit, in their last field fight, 
than ever before, repelling charges — arming their spare 
men with muskets, and each man working with the same 
pride and conviction as when first mustered in. But the 
time had now come for us to abandon the underground 
bomb-proofs that had been built ; or the tents and huts 
which would every night be filled with a new supply of 
bullets. 

The Federal right, as already stated, had struck the 
Confederate line on the western side of Petersburg. 
Meanwhile, the next corps ("Wright's 6th,) swept, after a 
hard struggle, the scanty brigades before them, turning to 
the right, and then with Ord's Corps, who had also pene- 
trated, swung to the left nearly up to Fort Gregg, a half 
a mile in front of the main line of Petersburg entrench- 
ments. The small force towards Hatch's Run had been 
driven back and into the Appomattox. Besides the 
Federal Corps already mentioned, Humphrey entered 
still further to the Confederate right. There is some 
severe fighting in front until 2 o'clock p. m., at which time 

coming over tlie breastworks. We had now become redviced to only two rounds 
of ammunition, and as the enemy were within fifty yards of us, our case seemed 
hopeless. Just then a fresh supply of ammunition arrived, which lasted until 
dark, at which time, the firing gradually ceased. About that time, the order 
was given to leave the breastworks with as much secrecy as possible — which 
was done. The bodies of our dead, Coyle, and some others whose names are 
not now remembered, were placed upon the caissons, and as we passed through 
Petersburg interred in the Cemetery. The last rations I ever drew were cooked 
while the firing was going on, the latter being so long and continuous that the 
men would take turns, except when hotly pushed, and relieve each other at the 
guns. If anything else was given to us to eat until the surrender, I do not 
now remember it. A handful of corn, or a scrap of almost anything to eat that 
we found by the way was all I saw. The sheet-iron crackers that we found on 
the Yankee dead at Gettysburg, and which some of us then disdained to eat, I 
thought of with envy now, the more so, as, during the time when we were in the 
trenches, rations were so scarce that many of the men made themselves sick by 
swallowing tobacco, in order to experience nausea or indifference to food. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 215 



the enemy are seen to be advancing upon Fort Gregg and 
Whitworth. There will now be no further opposition to 
their forward move than can be made by a very small 
body of men in these two fortifications. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

WHAT TWO HUNDKBD MEN CAN BO. 

A dramatic interest attached to the defence of the forts, 
aside from the fact that here was to be the last stand for 
Petersburg. This was because of the necessity of here 
detaining the enemy, who were advancing, wave after wave 
around the works, until Longstreet could get across the 
James ; secondly, the attack on Gregg was followed by a 
lull along other portions of the line, and the men rested 
upon their weapons to witness, as at a spectacle of great 
national interest, the struggle of Secessia, and the last angry 
glare of her guns on a formal field of battle. The number 
of men on the two sides, 214 in Fort Gregg, about the same 
in Whitworth, and 5000 advancing against them, illustra- 
ted the comparative strength of the combatants. Fort 
Gregg was the Confederate LaTourgue. When it falls all 
of the old traditions and usages of the South fall with it; 
when the Federal standards wave over it, there is then to 
be centralization, negro government, and four times the 
ruin inflicted on the South, as was put by Germany on 
France .- 

The two forts stand 250 yards in the rear of the 
captured line, and were built for precisely such an 
<jccasion as is suggested by the cheers of the advancing 
enemy, namely, for use as an inner defence when disaster 
should overtake the Confederate line. Fronting Gregg, is 
27 



216 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



a little fort, the last built by Lee, and called by the men 
Fort "Owen," after the Lieut. Col. of that name from the 
Washington Artillery, who was assigned to the command 
of Fort Gregg, and the surrotmding works. Lieut. Battles 
of the W. A. is in "Owen" with two guns, and Lieut. 
McElroy of the same batallion has charge of a company 
of 62 artillerymen who have been doing duty here most of 
the winter. 

The night had been strangely quiet upon this portion 
of the lines, but towards daybreak the silence gave place 
to a little touch of skirmishing to the right of Gregg — 
suiBcient to cause the ordering of the infantry and artil- 
lerymen into Fort Owen, although it was then so dark, 
that scarcely anything could be seen. Our infantry there 
could be barely detected moving in the trenches, towards 
what seemed to be the picket firing. As the men peered 
into the darkness in the direction of the flashes, solid shots 
commenced to plough up the earth — the infantry began 
quitting the trenches and taking to the fields, leaving the 
cannoniers under the impression that the troops were 
chasing small game of some sort. 

Lieut. Col. Owen, in his report says he gave orders to 
withdraw to Fort Gregg, and hurried off to rally fugitives 
— a no easy matter — who had already been dispersed by 
the Federal attack. McElroy reached the latter with his 
men, but Battles not receiving his horses in time, found 
himself suddenly surrounded, and his command captured 
by the enemy. McElroy immediately opened fire from 
Fort Gregg with his artillery-infantry, drove them away, 
and then turning his infantry once more back to artillery, 
ran down into Fort Owen and opened fire with the 
recaptured pieces on the enemy, two hundred yards to his 
right. Horses having been procured, the pieces by order 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 217 



were moved forward a mile, where the guns fired thirty- 
five rounds each, and were then retired to Fort Gregg. 
Lieut. McEh-oy says, in his report, there were two hun- 
dred men in the Fort, who were, with the exception of 
his command, of Harris' Miss. Brigade, and that his loss 
was six killed, two wounded and thirty-twp prisoners. 
Col. Owen proceeds to say : 

At the time McElroy was put in position in " Gregg" some guns were placed in 
Fort Whitworth, a detached work like "Gregg" and to its right and rear. 

Major Gen. Wilcox, who was then in Gregg, seeing Harris' Brigade in what 
he thought a dangerous position in front, sent his Aid to the General to recall 
his men to the two forts, Harris himself going into Whitworth, and Lieut. Col. 
.fas. H. Duncan, of the 19th Mississippi, into Gregg. 

As the enemy advanced, McElroy was cautioned to have his ammunition as 
handy as possible upon the platform for quick work. Under orders, Capt. Walker 
hurriedly withdrew the guns from Fort Whitworth. 

The enemy, a full corps of at least 5000 men, advanced in three lines of battle. 
Three times the little garrison repulsed them. The Fort seemed fringed with 
fire from the rifles of the Mississippians. 

The cannoniers bravely and skilfully used their guns. The enemy fell on 
the clear field around the Fort by scores. 

The capiure of the work \fas but a question of time. The blue coats finally 
jumped into the ditch surrounding the Fort, and presently climbed over eaoh 
others backs to gain the summit of the Parapets. There was a weak point on 
the side of Gregg, where the ditch was incomplete, and over this a body of the 
enemy rushed. Presently six regimental standards were distinctly seen waving 
on the Parapet. 

The part taken in the defence of Gregg, by the Mississippians, is thus described 
in the "Vicksburg Times": 

"Fort Gregg was held by the 12th and 16th Jlississippi Regiments, Harris' 
Brigade, numbering about 150 muskets, under command of Lieut. Col. Jas. E. 
Duncan,' of the 19th Mississippi, who had been assigned by Gen. Harris, to the 
immediate command of I hat work. The artillery in the Fort was a section of 
3d Co. Washington Artillery, commanded by Lieut. Frank- .McElroy. General 
Harris, with his two other regiments, 19th and 48th Mississippi, occupied 'Fori 
Whitworth,' distant about 100 yards, and between that work and the South - 
side Railroad." 

Gen. Harris, in a letter designed to be an official report, says, " Gen. Wilcox 
ordered me to take position in front of the enemy, and detain them as long as 
possible. With this object in view I advanced about 400 yards, and formed at 
right angles with the Boydton Plank Road. The ground being undulating, I 
threw both flanks behind the crest on which I formed, and exposed my center, 
in order that I might induce the enemy to believe that there was a continuous 
line of battle behind the ridge. I then advanced a line of skirmishers well to 
the front. The enemy being misled by this device, made the most careful dis- 
positions, two lines of battle, and advancing with the utmost caution, my position 
was held until the enemy was in close range, when a heavy iire was opened 
upon both sides. , r i 

•'The enemy pressing me heavily and out-reaching me on my hanks, 1 leil 
back upon Fort Gregg and Whitworth, the 12th and 16th under Col. Duncan, 
being ordered to Fort Gregg, and to hold it at all hazards. 



218 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



" The 19th and 48th were placed in Whitworth. In Gregg there was a' section 
of the 3d Company Washington Artillery, commanded by Lieut. Frank McElroy. 
Preparations were now made by the enemy for the assault, and this time Capt. 
Walker, A. and I. G. of Gen. Walker, Chief of Artillery, came with orders to 
withdraw the artillery, and against this I most earnestly protested. 

"The four guns were withdrawn from Whitworth under protest; but the enemy 
were too close to permit the withdrawal of the guns from Gregg. Perceiring 
the guns of Whitworth leaving, the enemy mored forward to assault us in both 
works. He assaulted in columns of brigades, completely enveloping Gregg, and 
approaching Whitworth only in front. Gregg repulsed assault after assault; 
the two remnants of regiments, which had won glorious honor on so many fields, 
fighting this, their last battle, with most terrible enthusiasm, as if feeling this to 
be the last act in the drama for them ; and the ofiicers and men of the Washington 
Artillery fighting their guns to the last, preserved untarnished the brilliancy of 
reputation acquired by their Corps. Gregg raged like the crater of a volcano, 
emitting its flashes of deadly fires, enveloped in fiame and cloud, wreathing our 
Flag as well in honor as in the smoke of death. It was a glorious struggle. 
Louisiana represented by these noble artillerists, and Mississippi by her shattered 
bands, stood there side by side, together, holding the last regularly fortified lines 
around Petersburg." 

While Gregg and Whitworth were holding out, Ldugstreet was hastening with 
Fields' Division, from the north side of the James, to form an inner line for the 
purpose of covering Gen. Lee's withdrawal that night. As soon as Harris heard 
of the formation of that line, he withdrew with his little band, cutting his way 
through. 

At 12 o'clock that night the last man and the last gun of the brave army that 
had defended the lines of Petersburg for one year, passed over the Pontoon 
Bridges, and the march commenced, that ended at Appomattox Court House. I 
have been induced to write the foregoing, of which I was an eye witness, in the 
hope of correcting History. Many accounts have been published of the defence 
of Fort "Gregg," but all that I have seen have been generally far from the 
truth. Pollard, who showed but little disposition to waste compliments on the 
troops from the Gulf States, says, Capt. Chew of the fourth Maryland Battery 
of Artillery was in command of the work, and his account is reiterated by many 
others. If he was, it is strange we did not know it. A battery of Marylanders 
had in reality been disbanded a short time before the fight, their time having 
expired, and they were awaiting their discbarge papers to enable them to go to 
their homes. If Capt. Chew was in the fort at all, he was simply there as a 
volunteer or a spectator. 

We should give the honov to those who earned it in this fierce fight of three 
hours against such fearful odds. Swinton, in his " Army of the Potomac," in his 
description of the breaking through the lines on this historic Sunday, says; 

" On reaching the lines immediately around Petersburg, a part of Ord's com- 
mand under Gibbon, began an assault directed against Fort Gregg and Whit- 
worth, two strong enclosed works, the most salient and commanding south of 
Petersburg. The former of these redoubts was manned by Harris' Mississippi 
Brigade, numbering two hundred and fifty men, and this handful of skilled marks- 
men conducted the defence with such intrepidity, that Gibbons' force surging 
repeatedly against it, was each time thrown back; at length a renewed charge 
carried the work, but not till its two hundred and fifty defenders had been 
reduced to thirty. * * Gibbons' loss was four hundred men " 

Swinton does not mention the Washington Artillery in the fort: he also errs 
in putting the number of Mississippians at 250. Gen. Harris says there were 150, 
these with the 64 artillerists make a total of 214 men, and these men put hors 
tlu. rmiihat 500 of the enemy, or an average of more than two men each. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 219 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

FIRING THE LAST GUN. __-2 

The close of the day (April 2nd,)' the most anxious 
that most of the men had ever passed, found Grant's 
lines touching on both sides of the Appomattox, and Lee 
completely hemmed in.* A retreat from Petersburg 
north of the Appomattox, which all feel is a foregone 
conclusion, is now necessary, and Longstreet's troops can 
only be useful in covering Lee's flank, while he withdraws 
from his breastworks. The firing meanwhile continues 
during the night from the Federal batteries. At 9 p. m. 
all of the guns were ordered to be moved across the 
Appomattox, f and this was done without any delay, and 
as quietly as if the skeleton army had been one of spectres 
and phantoms. The whole of the night was spent in 
getting out wagons, artillery and infantry, and a large 

*As soon as Gregg was captured, the Federal signal corps were at work, and the 
cannonading and sharp-shooting, were renewed on the other part of the line. In 
a moment heavy bodies of caTalrJc were seen emerging from the Federal's former 
lines, moving rapidly over the captured works and galloping in squadrons 
towards the Appomattox, which was some four or five miles off. Their track 
could be traced by the heavy columns of black smoke that rose from the various 
farmhouses on their route, which had been set on fire. The infantry who had 
succeeded in capturing the fort formed line frdnting the Confederates' right 
flank, and looked as if they intended marching by the rear into Petersburg. 
New dispositions were also made along the Confederate front. Regiments were 
detached from their positions along the line (whose place had to be filled by 
deployment of those remaining) and sent to the right flank and rear, confronting 
the new line of. the Federals. Anillery galloped into position, and soon Fields' 
Division, with the Texans in the lead, joined the right flank and formed a 
defensive line in the rear towards the river. A narrow creek only divided the 
opposing forces, but the Federals seemed satisfied with their success now and 
did not advance. Lee's Last Campaign, Capt. J. C. Goiinan. 

f Lieut. JolinR. McGaughey, of the first company, was captured while working 
away at his gun when our lines were broken.- John was a strongly made, manly 
looking soldier, never absent from battle, and always popular with the men. 
Among some of our worthiest and most kindhearted officers, and whose con- 
sideration for their men deserve mention, before this narrative is concluded, 
were Lieut. Stocker, DeRussy, Apps, Britton, Battles, and Brown. During all of 
our long four years of fighting and hard marching, I do not remember ihe time 
when they did not show themselve.^ more thoughtful for their men, than their 
own comfort. Britton was wounded at Sharpsburg, DeRussy at Chancellorville. 
and all received honorable mention in various battles. 



220 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



mass of army plunder, which as the result showed would 
have been much better left behind. 

The Washington Artillery crossed at midnight, Gordon 
bringing up the rear. The crossing of the bridge occupied 
three hours — quick time, and no delay was given to 
stragglers, before applying the torch. Petersburg had 
been previously almost abandoned ; but a few sad faces 
appeared at the windows, and sent out sorrowful adieus 
— to the men who had so long remained about the 
city, that seemed almost their home. To the despond- 
ent reflections which the midnight retreat suggested, the 
flame and smoke which hung over the depots and ware- 
houses, and the glare from the exploding magazine, gave 
an additional sombre tint. Still the men experienced a 
sense of relief — that of getting rid of some hideous dream, 
in leaving behind the trenches, and once more moving in 
column on the road. 

The most singular feature of the retreat, was the noise- 
less manner in which Lee's army moved from the 
works, and the fact that the withdrawal was not known 
until revealed, as it were, to the world, by the blowing 
up of the siege guns and batteries, which had protected 
Richmond, and which by innumerable explosions pro- 
claim, as with an Apocalyptic emphasis, that the Con- 
federate Capital was and is, but shall be no more.* 

* According to Pollard, Gorman, and "An Officer of the Rear-guard," a simi- 
lar scene was meanwhile transpiring at Richmond, which, so tranquil when Mr. 
Davis receives the fatal dispatch, and walks composedly out of Church, will 
in a few moments be perturbed from top to bottom, and a few hours later be 
wrapped in flames. Late in the afternoon, wagon loads of Confederate boxes 
and trunlis reach the Danville depot — hangers on imitating the example set them; 
$100 for a wagon, in gold. All over the city, hurrying fugitives. Confederate 
money is destroyed— gold removed, the liquor is poured out as on board of a 
sinking ship — the gutters running with it. Still retreating stragglers, and roving 
pillagers get, hold of it — op.en stores, and cover the side-walk with glass. 
Ewell is firing the four principal quarters, or as might be said the four 
tobacco warehouses — and the rams and shipping are blown up or scuttled; the 
Ijridges are burnt. Rioters are plundering, and despairing women shrieking, 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 221 

The army, now pushed through the darkness in the 
direction of Amelia C. H-— the different army corps 
making good progress by different roads, though the wagon 
loads of plunder when united on one road almost destroyed 
all movement. One ominous feature was, that there was 
nothing to eat for man or beast, and occasionally pieces of 
artillery showed that the horses were giving out. Another 
thing to be noted was, that upcm our arrival at Amelia 
C. H., the enemy's cavalry commenced dashing upon our 
wagon trains, whose canvass covers they readily ignited. 
Their plan of operation, was to strike the train, several 
miles long, fire a number of wagons, and then making a 
circuit, strike it again. Three hundred cavalrymen sup- 
ported by large bodies moving parallel, thus destroyed or 
confused the whole train. The burning caissons which 
had been sent on in advance of the artillery, were any- 
thing but pleasant neighbors.* 

while at the government stores such a breat is made upon the provisions, as 
causes the building to totter to its foundations. 

Then the Federal General Weitzel, who in addition to the other horrors of 
the situation, had been playing "Yankee Doodle" and similar airs, was startled 
at last by the tremendous explosions of powder magazines ; and like Blue Beard 
and some other historical characters, made his sentinel ascend fiis seventy feet 
watch tower, to see what it was all about. A great light in the direction of 
Richmond, Is the answer. A rebel picket was now captured who could tell 
nothing about his commander— dien a contraband, and finally, after daybreak 
with asbarp lookout for torpedoes, and amid exploding shells, Weitzel, on the 3rd 
rode into Richmond, just as the last rebel soldiers were going, and Butler's 
flag, which he had planted over the St. Charles Hotel of New Orleans, was now 
placed over the Confederate Capitol. President Davis had left with the Con- 
federate Congress at 10 A. m., though why he thought it worth while to carry 
them off has never been ascertained ; and meanwhile, as if to mark the com- 
mencement of a new regime, the fire is burning out the city, that is one-third 
of old Richmond. 

It was Babylon the Great fallen, for the North, when the telegraph flashed the 
news. "No unmanly exultation was indulged in over those who had so nearly 
destroyed the Republic. " Greeley here paid a tribute to a noble touch of feeling 
on the part of the North — one that he had not always previously been careful 
to observe. 

*The Palling Flag. " By the road-side was a lady from Mississippi, who had 
been in our ambulahce -vi^agon, and whose horses had been carried off. She was 
more mad than scared as she stood there in the mud— young, pretty, and 
gesticulating, and she made a picture striking and peculiar. As the advance 



222 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

Reaching Amelia, it was discovered that the provisions 
which should have been in readiness for the army, were 
missing. They had, by some accident, been carried on to 
Richmond, and the army was now without food. Besides, 
the great wagon train sent by a different road was des- 
troyed. Our doom was now staring us in the face. 
Instead of halting to give battle to Grant, there was 
nothing that could be done, but push on and try to reach 
Danville. 

Demoralization, which the accursed slow wagons were 
enough to have effected alone, had now begun ; the men 
straggled off to get something to eat at the farmhouses, 
and the commands had dwindled to hundreds ; * while at 
night as if to increase the desperation of the situation, 
the strains of triumphant music would float over from the 
enemy's brass bands. As we proceeded into the hilly 
country, it began to be hoped that the many fine military 
positions on either side, would afford us some chance of 
escape; and so (April 6th,) we marched all day and all 
night. It was a race for life, for men who were hungry, 
and for gaunt-looking horses who were dropping by the 
road side; but we had to push on. Still the enemy was 
all the time close behind. The rear guard commanded 
by Gen. Lee in person is attacked, while cavalry are 
formed in front and a few shots are fired. Gen. Rosser 



guard rounded the bend of the road, it was swept by the enemy who wheeled as 
soon as he delivered fire. Four out of five were hit — one of them, an approved 
scout, in the spine ; throwing his arms over his head, with ayell of agony wrung 
from him by intense pain, he pitched backwards off his horse which was gding 
at full speed. When I saw him again, years afterwards, he was a preacher." 
* At one of the burnt down bivouac fires, two men attracted by its warmth 
were discovered sitting, cold and weary. One was a colonel of Piclcett's Division 
and another a lieutenant, and the destruction of this famous fighting command 
may be guessed at when a regimental officer did not know where to look for his 
standard. » * * When the troops passed on. a number of tender girls stood 
gathered in a piazza, and greeted us with waving handkerchiefs and moist eyes, 
while cheer after cheer arose from the men. — The Falling Flay. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 223 



(one of our W. A. captains of the tirst year,) who mean- 
while was ahead guarding Longbridge, at Farmville, here 
succeeded in capturing 800 men. 

The column had now to keep up a retreating fight to 
Farmville, impeded by wagons which hurried forward 
regardless of contents. Ewell was cut off. The roads 
were axle-deep with mud. A triste noche for Lee's army 
was the night which followed. We reached Farmville 
early on the 7th, and bivouacked, after crossing the bridge 
with some show of 'provisions. But by some misfortune, 
the bridge over the Appomattox was not destroyed after 
us, and the enemy's cavalry followed closely. We were 
soon ordered to get under way, and the Federal cavalry, 
who were now becoming rampant, were taught a lesson 
which they were in no haste to forget. The cavalry 
charged them at a double-quick and captured 200 prisoners. 
Gen. Lee took off his hat, at the spirit shown by the men 
as he passed, and was in turn welcomed with one of the 
rousing cheers of old. 

The wagons were then devoted to destruction, and the 
Chief Q. M. had the heart to apply the torch himself 
The whole army were now marching by an out-of-the- 
way path, and fooling any longer with wagons was out of 
the question. If Gen. Lee had never sent his last dispatch 
to Richmond and given them timely notice, he would 
have succeeded in gaining the mountains. We made 
rapid progress ; but matters were very blue indeed. 

Late in the afternoon, horsemen from the front an- 
nounced the rapid approach of the enemy. We quickly 
threw the guns in position, and gave the enemy such a 
reception as induced him to wheel and not stand on the 
order of his going. Our cavalry gave chase, and Gen. 
Gregg, of the U. S. A., was brought in prisoner And 
28 



224 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



now comes the hour when our artillery fires the last gun, 
and ends its military record. The account which follows 
is substantially taken from the excellent narrative of a 
S. C. officer of the Rear Guard, entitled the " Falling 
Flag:" 

The army lay down to rest, and to watch — a very interesting process to a hun- 
gry man — a little modest cooliing. Sleep was the great thing in view. We 
wolie in a half hour, to eat what there was, and were about tumbling over 
again, when an officer camf; around, in a quiet way, and ordered us to be ready 
to move. Now for a weary march that ends only at Appomattox I 

The line of retreat had been changed — a push was being made for the moun- 
tains at Lynchburg. On before us was a long line' of wagons and artillery, 
splashing through ruts and mudholes. Pickets were posted under the imme- 
diate direction of Gen. R. E. Lee. When we moved again, time was lost in 
watering the horses — the wagons moved in double lines. The order now was, 
to get on past Appomattox, a little villiageof threeor four houses, a mile from the 
Lynchburg railroad. The regiments were closing up, when suddenly the scream 
of a shell developed artillery practice in the neighborhood of the depot. 

It was hammer and tongs down tliere — shell at short range. Custar was 
after the artillery train in advance, sixty pieces, and the three batteries left to 
hold it were the La. Washington Artillery; the Donaldsonville cnnnoniers, 
Creoles, exclusively of La., and a Virginia battery attached to our brigade. 

The roar of the batteries was incessant. They were holding the dismounted 
cavalry in checli. By the light of the moon there seemed to be » lull in the 
attack : but before our men could get to the guns, the enemy charged among 
them suddenly, but were driven back by the fire and rush, though takingsomeof 
our men prisoners — among others, Capt. Hankius of the Va Battery, who got 
away. Our men fell in between the guns, and then begun one of the closest 
artillery fights for the number engaged and the time it lasted, that occurred 
during the war. The guns were lought literally to the muzzles. It was dark 
by this time, and every cannon was ablaze from touch hole to mouth, as well as 
the small arms of some three or four hundred men packed in among the guns, 
in a very confined space. It seemed like the very jaws of the lower regions. 
They made thrte distinct charges, preluding always with the bugle on the right, 
left and centre, and thus confusing the point of attack ; then a cheer and up 
they came. It was too dark to see anything under the shadows of the trees, 
but the long dark lines. They would get within thirty or forty yards from the 
gun and then roll back, under the deadly fire that was poured upon them from 
the artillery and small arms. In addition to the other extraordinary and infer- 
nal noises of the occasion, the scream of an engine was heard as a train rushed 
up almost among ns, and sounded on the night air as if the devil himself had 
come up, and was about to join in what was going on. Then came a lull; our 
friends in front seemed to have had the wire edge taken off. 

Tlie great object that remained for us, was to draw off the guns, if possible, 
uow night hiid set in, from tlie depot, and get them back with the rest of the 
l.rain, in the line of retreat. 

The guns were limbered up and moved ofiF at once, it being but a few hundred 
yards to the main road. The silence of the guns soon told the enemy what was 
going on, and they were not long in following after ; our men facing to the rear, 
delivered their fire steadily, effectually keeping off a rush ; they pressed us, but 
cautiously. The darkness concealed onr numbers. 

We were going through an open field, and came now to a road through a nar- 
row piece of wootJs, where we broke from line into column, and double quicked 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 22$ 



it through the woods, so as to get to the road beyond. Before we got to the 
turnpike, we heard the bugles of the enemy down it, and as the head of our 
column came into the road, their cavalry charged the train, some two or three 
hundred yards below us. 

Sixty pieces of cannon (the remainder of Lee's guns,) were at the point when( 
we came into the road. The drivers were attempting to turn back towards the 
Court House — had got entangled with one another, and presented a scene of 
utter confusion. 

In passing from the old field, where the guns had been at work, into the 
woods that separated it from the turnpike, two men were walking just in front 
of me, following their guns, which were on before. I heard one say, "Tout perdu." 
I asked at once "What battery do you belong to?" " Donaldsonville." It was the 
Creole Company : and they might well have added the other words of the great 
Francis, after the battle of Pavia, " Tout perdu fore I'honneur," all lost but honor ; 
for well had they done their work from sixty-one, when they came to Virginia 
until now, when all was lost, " Tout perdu." It was the motto of the occasion. 

The stag was in the toils, but the end was not yet: we would hear the rush, 
the shouts and pistol shots, when the enemy mounted and in force had attacked 
the train ; the artillerymen having no arms could make no fight, as they could 
not use their pieces. We could do nothing (being closely pressed by a superior 
force of their dismounted men,) but fall back upon the town toward our main 
body, making the best front we could, leaving the road and marching under 
cover of the timber on the side. Being on foot, gave us a better position to 
resist any attack that might be made upon us by the ca.alry. 

The following, is from Lt. Col. W. M. Owen's Journal 
from which much of the preceding details of the retreat, 
has already been drawn : 

On the 8th, we halted just before day, to rest an hour or two, near New 
Store — in road to Lynchburg. We resumed march at day light, and camped 
at night on Rocky Run, one mile from Appomattox. C. H. 

At Amelia Court House, most of the .Army was sent off by another road, under 
charge of Gen. Walker, Chief of Artillery, to try to reach Danville to recruit 
horses. 

This afternoon, heavy firing heard in the direction of Appomattox Station. 
After bivouacking— Lieut. Norcomb, 4ih Co. Washington Artillery, and otlier 
ofBcers of same Battalion, rode up and reported the whole artillery reserve 
under Walker, cut off and destroyed near Appomattox Station. The Washington 
Artillery have buried and destroyed their guns, and gone to the mountains. No 
formal surrender of the men n-ith Gen. Lee took place. Some of them succeeded 
in reaching President Davis, and acting as his body guard.* 

The names of the Louisiana Artillery, who acted as Presidential body- 
guard, were; C. H. C. Brown, Lieut. Commanding ; Sergeant, W. G. Coyle, 
3rd Company; Corporals, J. F. Lilly, 4th Company; W. A. McRay. 1st Company; 
L. D. Porter, La. Guards Artillery; W. R. Payne, C. A. Longue, La. Guard 
Artillery; G. A. Weber. 2nd Company; T. J. Lazzare, 4lh Company; T. J 
Domerty. La. Gnard Artillery; R. Wilkerson, J. B. McMnllun, 1st Company; 
McDonald, Webster, Davis, 4th Company. 

"Washisoton, Ga., May 3rd, 1805. 
IjlEtJT. Brown, Waaliington Artillery. 
My Beab Sir, 

The President direct^, me to return to you his heartfelt thanks for the valnahle services rendered 
him, hy yourself and the gallant men under your commm I, as part of Ins es rort. 

Very Truly Yours. 

Wm. PBK3T0N JOHNSTON, 

Col. and A. D. O. 



226 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



We fired our last shot to day, after three years nine months service, since 
the first shot was fired at Bull-Run. 

Gen. Gordon is fighting the enemy in front. We are massed in a sort of 
natural basin. High land encircles us. 
% Gordon captures two Napaleon Guns from the Federals. 

Gordon can't hold out any longer, and Lee orders the token of surrender, the 
■ ' white flag, " to be raised. 

The Army of Northern Virginia is no more.* 

Lee had but 8000 men with arms in their hands this morning. We are sur- 
rounded by more *han 100,000 of the enemy. 

♦The LouiBiana troops at thn surrender, were extremely reduced in number, aairnJeed was the case 
with every tithcr brigade. This was owing partly to the many desperate charges wh'Cli they had 
made, partly to having once ne;ilected while oti picki^t duty on tlie Kapidan, the eti<iuette of 
retiring when confronted by tlie enemy in overwhelming force. The picket line was overrun, held 
by tliem and N, C. troops after they hjid been cut off from ihe pontoon bridge, and the men were 
all gobbled up \vho conld n^t swim baik. Hays who liad been presiding at a court-martial, gal oped 
over the i ontoon, under a heavy fire, just at the light momi-nt t > be regular y in for it. His horse 
had become meanwhile so frantic, irom the bubets, or f rem the sworJ in H lys' liand, that he 
con d not liavo s-urrendered if he would. There was nothing left bim but to pop spnrs to the beast 
and ride through the enemy's line and ovr the bridge, which was now in the enemy's hand-4. His 
escape from the volleys fired at him was almost miraculous. Col. Eugene Waggaman, who marched 
straight up to the enemy's batteries at Malvprn Hill, Wiie in command on the day of Lee's surrender, 
and the addresses of Gwn. Gordon and Evans, made to the command through him were extremely 
touching. 

To show what service these troops did, it mny be stat'-d, that about 16,000 men all told, followed 
the brigade colors. Of those who can now be found in the city, it is thought that 800 would 1 e a 
largu estimate. Lt. Col. L. Power of that command, h;is kindly furnished the subjoined ailditicn l1 
list of names — all he could remember, ten yeara after the Brigade's disbandment, of those wlio 
followed its marches : Col. Monaghan, killed ; Col. Jos. Hanlon, since dead ; Col. D. B. Penn, Col. 
James Ni-Iigan, since dead; Col. Kuland, killed ; Col. T. G. Hunt; Col. Henry Forno, since dead; 
Col, Peck ; Col. Alcibiade DeBlanc; Cft|-it. Louis Prados, commanding much of the time from loss of 
life of regimental and brigade officers of 2nd Brigado; John M. Leggett, killed; Lt. L'ol. H. B, 
Monier; Adjutant Mills, luth ; Adjutant A. Marks, now pastor of Tr.uity Church ; Capt. Wm. P. 
Harper, Adjutant Gciicnil; Capt. Bave jMerrick, Adjutant General; Mnj'irNew; Cji|it. Jus Witherup, 
since dead; Capt. Levi T. Jennings, since dead; Capt. McClellan, killed in battle; Major Andrew 
Brady ; Lieut. Cnl. 11. A. Wilkinson, killed in battle ; Brig. Gen. Nioho s ; Brig. Gen. Stafford, killed 
in battle; Col. Williams of 2nd Regiment, killed in buttle; Capt. Ashbridge ; Capt. Bowman; Lieuts., 
Condon, Lockwood, Cady; Capt. McChesney ; Capt. W. T. Scovell; Lieut. Crain ; Capt. Brigham; 
Lieut. Davenport ; Capt. Jonte, killed in battle ; dil. Zebulon Yorki-, aft rwarda Brig. Geneml ; Col 
V. Zulakowski ; Capts. Thomaa G. Morgan, and George Morgan ; Major Toler; Capts. John Leach, 
ISgan, and Murphy. 



MUSTEK ROLL 



OP THE 



WASHINGTON ARTILLERY 

OF THE AEMY OF VIRGIMA. 
From May 27th, 1861, to April 8th, 1865. 



STAFF. 

J. B. Walton, Major; promoted to Colonel; made Chief of Artillery Army of 
the Potomac ; Nov. '61, Chief of Artillery Longstreet's Corps; appointed 
by Secretary of War Inspector-General of Field Artillery ; recommended 
twice by Generals Beauregard and Longstreet for promotion to Brig. Gen. 
of Artillery; resigned July, 1864. 

B. F. Eshleman, Captain Fourth Company; May, 1861, wounded at Bull Run; 

promoted Major of Artillery, 1863 ; promoted Lieut. Colonel of Artillery, 
vice Colonel Walton, April, 1864. 

W. M. Owen, Adjutant First Lieut. ; promoted Major of Artillery, August, '63 ; 
assigned Chief of Artillery Preston's Division, Army of Tennessee ; reas- 
signed to Washington Artillery, April '64, as second field officer; wounded 
at Petersburg, August, 1864; promoted to Lieut. Colonel, '65. 

M. B. Miller, Captain Third Coifipany ; May '61, promoted to Major of Artillery; 
assigned to Va. Batallion ; re-assigned to B. W. A. January, 1864. 

E. J. Kureheedt, promoted Adjutant B. W. A. 

E. S. Drew, Surgeon, present with the command in all its marches and battles 
to the close of the war 

Thos. Y. Aby, promoted Assistant Surgeon, Feb., '63. 

C. H. Slocomb, Q. M. May, '61; resigned Nov., '61 ; Captain commanding Fifth 

Company W. A. of Western Army. 

H. G. Geiger, A. Q. M. May, '61. 

C. L. C. Dupuy, Sergt. Major ; May, '61, promoted to Lieut, of Artillery at 

Vicksburg. 
W. A. Randolph, promoted Sergt. Major. 
B. L. Braselman, Ordnance Officer, May, '61. 



228 MUSTER BOLL OP THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



ROLL OF FIRST COMPANY. 



Captain Harry M. Isaacson, resigned August, 'Bl. First Lieutenant, 0. W. 
Squires, promoted to Captain, September, '61 ; to Major, January, '64. First 
Lieutenant, John B. Richardson, promoted to Captain; assigned to Second Com- 
pany, June, '62. Second Lieutenant Geiger, detailed in Q. M. Dept. First Ser- 
geant, Ed. Owen, promoted to First Lieut. September, '61 ; promoted to Captain. 
January, '64. Sergeant John M. Galbraith, promoted to Second Lieut. Not. 
'61 ; promoted First Lieut. December, '61 ; died of wound received at battle of 
Drury's Bluff, May, '61. Sergeant C. H. C. Brown, promoted to First Sergeant, 
October, '61 ; to Second Lieut., May, '61. Sergeant C. L. C. Dupuy, promoted 
Sergeant-Major, May, '61. Corporal Franli D. Ruggles, killed at Fredericlis- 
burg, Dec. '62. Corporal E. C. Payne, Jr., promoted Second Sergeant, Oct. '61 ; 
discharged Feb. '62. Corporal Wm. Fellowes, Jr., returned to his ranks at his 
own request, Aug. '61. F. F. Case, returned to his ranks at his own request, 
Oct. '61 ; promoted to Corporal, April,' 63 ; to Sergeant, October, '64. Private 
Thos. Y. Aby, promoted to Corporal, Oct. '61 ; to Sergeant, Oct. '61 ; to First 
Sergeant, July, '62 ; to Assistant Surgeon, Feb. '63. Richard Aby. Saml. Aby. 
B. H. Alsobrook, blown up on a caisson in Maryland, Sept. '62, severely 
wounded. Jos. H. Berthelot, discharged Feb. '64. B. J. Ball, transferred to 
McGregor's Hose Artillery, Nov. '64. S. A. Baillio. H. P. Bayley. W. H. 
Blount, promoted to Corporal, Oct. '64. Jno. Bozant. L.L.Brown. Jno. Bare, 
W. Chambers, killed at Rappahannock Station, Aug. '62. H. Chambers, died 
at Camp Hollins, Va., Dec. '61. C. Chambers, wounded at Sharpsburg, Sept. '62; 
lost portion of his hand. Geo. Chambers, killed at Drury's Bluff, May, '64. 
A. F. Costs, wounded at Fredericksburg; died Dec. '62. E. A. Cowen, promoted 
Capt. Q. M:, B. W. A. Nov. '61; resigned, June, '62. J. B. Cleveland, transferred 
to Second Company, Dec. '61. S. M. D. Clark'. W.L.Clark. W. T. Cummings, 
detailed in Richmond. E. Collins. Thos. Carter, captured at Petersburg, Sept. 
'64. C. E. Caylat. Geo. B. DeBussy, promoted to Sergeant, Oct. '61; to Second 
Lieut. July, '62 ; transferred to Second Company. B. N. Davis, Jr., transferred 
to Fourth Company. Geo. Duprc. C. W. Deacon, transferred from Third Com- 
pany, April, '62 ; promoted to Q. M. Sergeant, and captured June, '64, at Peters- 
burg. C. A. Every, wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec. '62 ; at Fredericksburg, 
May, 1863; at Drury's Bluff, May, 1864. L. G. Elfer, transferred to Third 
Company. W. R. Falconer, promoted to Corporal, April, '62 ; transferred to 
Second Louisiana Cavalry, February, '64. 0. A. Falconer, transferred from 
Third Company, June, '61 ; killed December, '62, at Fredericksburg. P. 0. 
Fazende, transferred from Third Company, June, '61 ; promoted to Corporal, 
April, '63; to Sergeant, July, '63; captured at Drury's Bluff, May, 1864; 
returned having escaped, November, '64. John E. Fell, wounded at Bappa- 
hannock, Aug., '62 ; discharged. H. C. Florence. J B. Florence, killed at 
Fredericksburg, May, '63. F. H. Fowler, wounded at Sharpsburg, Sept., '62; 
detailed, Q. M. Dept. M. Fisher. J. Frolick,jr. Paul Grima, G. B. Genin, pro- 
moted to Corporal, April, '64. D. H. Garland. Wm. H. Hardie, promoted to 
Corporal, Oct., '61 ; to Sergt., July, '62; to First Sergt., Sept., '64. S. Harrison, 
promoted to Corporal, Oct., '64. J. B. Harby. T. P. Hall. E. Morgan Harris, 
killed at Petersburg, July, '64. J. Horrock. G. M. Judd, promoted to Sergt., 
Oct. '61 ; killed at Sharpsburg, Sept., '62 J. E. Jarreau, discharged, Feb., '62; 
J. U. Jarreau. H. 0. Janiu, wounded at Fredericksburg. G. D. P." Jones. 
Thus. P. Jones. E. T. Kursheedt, promoted to Corporal, Oct., '61 ; to Sergeaiu- 
Major, April, '63 ; to Adjutant, with rank of Lieutenant. J. W. Kearny, 
discharged, April, '62. Herman Ross, killed at Rappahannock, August, '62. 



MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 229 



E. P. Keplinger. D. Kilpatrick. L. Labarre, transferred to Third Company. 
Prank Lobrano. T. J. Lutman, promoted to Corporal, April, '63; killed at 
Fredericksburg, May, '63. A. M. Lappington, detailed in Montgomery, Alabama. 
E. Levy. P. Leahy. John R. MoGaughy, promoted to Sergeant, March, 
'62 ; to First Sergeant, April, '63 ; to Second Lieutenant, September, '64. S. M. 
G. Mount, caisson ran over his leg, August, '63 ; retired by Medical Executive 
Board, October, '64. J. P. Manioc, discharged, January, '62. J. Muntinger, 
wounded at Sharpsburg, September, '62 ; died October at Winchester. A. 
M. Meore. R. F. Marshall, killed at Rappahannock, Aug. '63, by explosion of 
bis gun. Geo. Maxent. Geo. W. Muse, killed at Bull Run, July, '61. W. Mo- 
ran. P. A. J. Michel, wounded at Sharpsburg. T. M. McRobert, discharged 
Aug. '62. W. Mains, killed, July, '64. A Micou, promoted to First Lieut, on 
Gen. Fry's Staff, May, '64. H. H. Marks. J. L. Mathews, detailed to Med. Dep. 
B. W, A. N. Milhardo, discharged July, '62. Jos. Meyers, detailed to Med. 
Dep. B. W. A. J. McCormick. W. J. McLean. J. B. McCutcheon, wounded at 
Sharpsburg, lost his arm. W. P. McGehee. J. B. McMillan. H. C. McClellan, 
died at Petersburg, Nov. '64. A. G. McCorkle. W. A. McRae, promoted to Cor- 
poral, Oct. '64. C. M. Mclutire. W. T. Norment, promoted to Sergeant, April, 
'63. E. S. Ogden, promoted Second Lieutenant First La. Artillery, April, '64 
J. W. Outlaw, captured at Gettysburg, July, '64. W. F. Perry, discharged by 
Medical Board, April, '64. J. N. Payne, promoted to Sergeant, July, '62; trans- 
ferred to Major Byren's Batallion Artillery, March, 1864. L. Parson. N. B. 
Phelps, detailed Nov. '64. D. Pendegrass. R. Pollard, detailed Nov, '64. E. 
Peychaud, wounded at Drury's Bluff, det. in Richmond. H. Peychaud, killel 
at Drury's Bluff. 0. Peychaud, detailed by Med. Board. C. Rossiter, wounded 
at Drury's Bluff, retired by Medical Board, Oct. '64. J. E. Rodd, wounded at 
Fredericksburg, detailed. M. Ranch. E. Niviere, captured at Gettysburg. John 
Richardson, det. Q. M. D. Jas. Reddingtou, killed at Rappahannock, Aug. '62. 
R. McK. Spearing, promoted to Corporal, '62: killed at Fredericksburg, Dec, 
'62. F. A. St. Amant, discharged, July, '61 ; disability. W. T. Saul. C. N. B. 
Street, 'transferred to Moody's Battery, July, '62. Ph. Seibrecht. P. D. Simmons, 
killed at Drury's Bluff, '64. W. W. Spencer. Frank Sagee. T. S. Turner, 
promoted Corporal, '63. S. Turner, promoted Corporal, April, '64; wounded at 
Drewry's Bluff. John A. Tarleton, discharged, July, '62, special order Secretary 
war. J. M. Turpin. W. E. Fowlcs, killed, Railroad accident, March, '63. F. 
Villasana. Van Vinson, promoted to Corporal, July, '63 ; to Sergt., April, '64. 
H. Whitcomb, killed, July, '64. B. V. Wiltz, discharged. C. R. Walden, killed 
at Drury's Bluff, May, '64. W. H. West, promoted to Corporal, May, '62 ; to 
Sergt., April, '63; killed at Fredericksburg, May, '03. John A. Wayne. J. V. 
Webb, discharged. May, '62. T. J. Wilson. B. Woodward. J. C. Woodward. 
H. S. Wilkinson. J. N. White, detailed. H. L. Zebal, discharged by Med. 
Board, May, '64. L. E. Zebal, discharged, furnished a substitute. S. G. Stewart, 
J. Scott. J. A. O'Neal, discharged, April, '64. John Charlesworth. H. Collins. 
John Eshman. John Earls, died in hospital. John Farrell. W. Farrell. E. 
Gallagher. J. L. Hock, promoted to Quarter Master Sergeant, September, '64. 
M. Hock, detailed in Ord. Department. J. Hammel, discharged, June, '62 ; 
Surgeon's certificate. J. Jacobs, detailed Medical Department. Jas. Kinney, 
died from wound received at Fredericksburg, December, 62. John Krafts, 
detailed to Ordnance Department. F. Lester. J. S. Lehman, transferred to 
Second Company. J. Lenon, transferred to Second Company. B. D. F. McKes- 
son. J A McCormick. Wm. Oliver. Chas. Rush, transferred to Second 
Company. E. W. Smith. Jas. Smith. A. Szar. F. Schmarbeck. H. L. Allain. 
John Bachr. J. J. Norment, promoted to Corporal, October, '64 ; wounded at 
Drury's Bluff. 

Names of Wounded omitted in above Soil. 

Captain E. Owen, at Sharpsburg and Drury's Bluff Lieutenant C. H. C. 



230 MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERT. 



Brown, severely wounded, left on the field, and captured at Gettysburg. W. R. 
Falkner, at Rappahannock and Fredericksburg. W. R. Fell, at Sharpsburg and 
Fredericksburg. W. H. Hardie, at Fredericksburg. J. R. Harby, at Fredericks- 
burg. C. J. Kursheedt, Sharpsburg, '62. A. Micou, Fredericksburg, '62. Jos. 
Myers, Drury,s Blufif. N. B. Phelps, at Drury's Bluff. C. Rossiter, Fredericks- 
burg and at Drury's Bluff. P. S. Turner at Rappahannock Station. Van Tin- 
son, at Gettysburg. T. J. Wilson, at Drury's Bluff. H. £. Wilkinson, Drury's 
Bluff. A. L. Zebal, at Bull Run and at Williamsport, Md. John Charlesworth, 
at Fredericksburg, '62. 0. Rush, Fredericksburg, '62. 

The above statement has been taken from the Historical Record furnished to 
the War Department C. S., January 1st, 1865, and is correct and as full as can 
possibly be made from that Record. 

Lt. 0. H. C. BROWN, 



New Orleans, Oct. 2d, 18'?4. 



Ranldng Officer \st Co. B. W. A. 



EOLL or SECOND COMPANY. 



Lieutenant C. 0. Lewis, commanding Company, May, '61 ; resigned, Aug. '61. 
Capt. Thos. L. Rosser, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of Artillery; wounded 
at Mechanicsville. Captain J. B. Richardson, assigned to Company, June, '62. 
First Lieutenant Sam. J. McPherson, resigned August, 1861. Cuthbert H. 
Slocomb, promoted to First Lieutenant; resigned November,- 1861. Second 
Lieutenant Samuel Hawes, promoted to First Lieutenant, December 1861. 
Second Lieutenant J. D. Britton, wounded at Sharpsburg, September; 1862. 
Second Lieut. Geo. B. DeRussy, promoted from Sergeant First Company, and 
assigned by Col. Walton, July, '62 ; wounded at Chancellorville, May, 1863. 
(Cadet) F. H. Wigfall, relieved from duty with company, June, 1862, by order 
No. 13'7. First Sergeant Jos. H. DeGrange. First Sergeant A. A. Brinsmade, 
promoted to Second Lieut, of Artillery. Fftst Sergeant A. G. Knight. Serg. 
Gustave Aime. Sergeant H. C. Wood, discharged October, 1861, by order of 
Secretary of War. Sergeant C. Huchez. Sergeant Charles E. Leverich, ap- 
pointed First Lieutenant P.A. C. S. July, 1863, by order of Secretary of 
War. Sergeant Jules Freret. J. W. Emmett, appointed First Lieut. P. A. C. 
S., July, '63, by Sec'y of War. A. G. Knight, promoted to Orderly, Nov. 1863. 
Geo. E. Strawbridge, appointed Second Lieutenant P. A. G. S., March, '68, by 
Sec'y of War. Sergeant W. A. Randolph, promoted to Sergeant Major, Sept. 
'63. Sergeant Walter J. Hare, wounded at Sharpsburg. Sergeant Ed. L. Hall. 
Sergeant Thos. H. Fuqua. Sergeant John W. Parsons. Corporal James D. 
Edwards, discharged December, 1861. B. N. L. Hutton, discharged July, 1861, 
by order of Gen. Beauregard, Samuel Hawes, ])romoted Second Lieut. Nov. '61. 
Corporal T. B. White, discharged Nov'r '62. A. G. Knight, promoted to Sergt. 
Feb., '62. W. A. Randolph, promoted to Sergt., April, '63. Ed. L. Hall, promoted 
to Sergt., August, '63 ; wounded at Williamsport, July, '63. Thos. H. Fuqua, 
promoted to Sergt., Nov., '63. Jno. W. Parsons, captured at Gettysburg, July, 
5th, exchanged ; promoted to Sergt., Nov. '63. S. Isaac Meyers, killed at Peters- 
burg, August, '64. E. J. Jewell, wounded at Williamsport, July, 6th, '63 ; died 
at Williamsport, July, 19th, '63. Stephen Chalaron, wounded at Gettysburg, 
July, '63 ; captured, exchanged ; promoted to First Lieut, in Nit. & Min. Bureau. 
May, '64. L. C. Woodville, wounded at Petersburg, June, '64. Jno. Howard 
Goodin, wounded at Drury's Bluff, May, 1864; promoted to Ordnance Sergt.. 
June, '64. C. C, Twichell. Thos. H. Suter. J. F. Randolph. E. D. Patton'. 



MUSTER EOLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 231 



Pbil. A. Clagett. John 0. Woodville. G. W. Humphries. Q. M. Sergeant Josh 
DeMeza. J. S. Bradley. Artificers — Leonard Craig. James Keating. Jno. W. 
Dempaey, , transferred to Third Company, June, '63. Privates — Fred. Alewelt, 
wounded at Sharpsburg, died at Shepardstown, Sept., '62. Eandolph Axon, 
detailed in Richmond, Oct., '62. E.D.Augustus. Geo. Alpin. — Almundinger, 
killed at Petersburg. F. P. Buckner, transferred to Fifth Regiment, April, '62. 
A. R. Blakely, wounded Second Manassas, August, 30th, '63 : captured August, 
'63 ; exchanged and detailed in Treasury Department. R. J. Banister, wounded 
at Williamsport, July, '63 ; captured, exchanged ; drowned while on furlough in 
Mississippi River, February 8th, '64. J. T. Brentford. B. M. Bee, discharged, 
Oct. '62. James Brown. James Byrnes. Joe Barr. Patrick Brooks, wounded 
at Sharpsburg, July, '63. Frank Baker. John S. Bradly, promoted Q. M. Sergt. 
April, '61. John A. Bloom. H^nry Brooks. Stephen W. Britten. J.B.Cleve- 
land, transferred from First Company, appointed Second Lieutenant, P. A. C. S. 
March, 1863, by Secretary War. W. P. Curtis, discharged. H. D. Coleman, 
captured at Chancellorville, May, '63 ; exchanged. Phil. A. Clagett, promoted 
to Corporal, Oct. '63. H. S. Carey, detailed in Ordnance Department. John A. 
Coakley, wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. J. W. Cross, wounded at 
Williamsport, July, 1863 ; died August, i«63. W. H. Cantzon, detailed clerk, 
Gen. Lee's Headquarters, Nov. '64. N. J. Clark. C. A. Duvall, transferred from 
Fourth Company, July, '61 ; appointed Second Lieutenant P. A. C. S., March, 
1863. A. DeValcourt. Wm. Davis, honorable mention at Second Manassas, 
August, 1862; wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. Theo. 0. Dyer. Charles 
Dougherty. Dan J. DriscoU. Thos. W. Dyer. W. E. Florance. Wm. Forest, 
wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. Thos. H. Fuqua, transferred from Third 
Company, July, '61 ; promoted to Corporal, Nov. '62. L. C. Fallon, wounded. 
Geo. A. Frierson, wounded at Williamsport, July, '63. Armand Freret, wounded 
at Sharpsburg, September, 1862; died at Winchester, September, 1862. Jules 
Freret, wounded at Gettysburg, July '63; died same place. John H. Forshee. 
Wm. M Francis, transferred from Watson's Battery, July, '64. Wm. C. Giffen, 
captured at Chancellorville, May, '63 ; exchanged. John H. Goodin, promoted 
to Corporal. August, '63. John M. Greenman, wounded at Bermuda Hundreds, 
May, 1864. John F. Giffen, wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. D. Gleason. 
Geo. Gessner, wounded at Drury's Bluff, May, '64. F. M. Gillespie. Hugh S. 
Gookin. E. E. Gookin. Jas. A Hall. Geo. Humphrey, wounded at Williams- 
port, July, '63 ; captured, exchanged May, '64. S. C. Hartman, discharged, Oct., 
'62. J. Hefleigh. Chas. Harris. Chas. Hurley. Alex. Anderson. C.M.Harvey. 
I. Ichstien. 0. Jewell, died, February, 1863. J Jackson, detailed, May, 1864. 
D. E. Giggetts, discharged by order. May. 1864. B. C. Jacques. T. R. James. 
M. Kelly, discharged. May, 1862. B. F. Kirk, wounded at Chancellorville, 
May 1863. Wm. Kirk, transferred, June,' 1864. R.H.Knox, appointed cadet, 
P. A. C. S. November, 1864. T. F. Land, discharged. Wm. Little. B. Lynch, 
discharged, December, 1861. W. Layman, wounded at Gettysburg, aied. L. S. 
Lfehman. James Lennon, transferred Feb. '64, A. G. Lobdell, retired December, 
1864 M P Lapham, wounded, and died at Drury's Bluff. May, 64. P. B. 
Lvnch J S Meyers. J. R. McGowen. W. Mills, detailed Oct. 1863. Jo^in 
Meux, transferred from Fourth Company, July, '61. WMaroney. J- McCor- 
mack. D. T. Moore, died Aug. '64. J. Madden, detailed Feb '65 L Miller. 
B. A. McDonald. W. 0. Mallory. W. E. Maynard. H. McGill H. M. Payne, 
retired Aug '64. A. il. Peale, discharged Nov. '61, by order of Gen. Beaure- 
gard William Palfrey, promoted Second Lieut. First Louisiana Artillery. J. C. 
Purdy, appointed Second Lieut. P. A. C. S., March, '63. W^ A. Perrin J^PL 
Peebles. L H. Randolph, killed at Williamsport, July, '63 W. Roth dis- 
charged August, '61. Wm. Rockwell, discharged Dec 61 J^ \V . RidgilL A. 
G RidgiU. W. G. Raoul, appointed Capt. A. Q. M., March, 1864. J. L. Rich- 
ardson H. D. Summers, captured at Chancellorville detailed with wounded 
captured at Williamsport; exchanged May, 1864 W D. Sayre A. D. R. 
Sutton D. Self. W. H. Simpson. H. C. Twicbell, discharged October, '61. 



232 MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



C. C. Twichell, wounded at Williamsport, promoted Corporal, August, 1863. 
C. A. D. Theineman, discharged, Aug. '62. G. J. Thomas. R. Urquhart, wounded 
at Petersburg, June, 1864. P. Von Colin, wounded at ChancellorTille. L. C. 
WoodTille, promoted to Corporal, April, 1863. W. H. Wilkins. J. Weber. F. 
Wilson. H. N. White, killed at Second Manassas. T. B. White, promoted to 
Corporal, December, 1861. F. M. Williams, appointed Second Lieutenant, P. A. 
C. S. April, 1863. I?. Ward, wounded Second Manassas, captured; erchanged. 
G. Watterston, wounded at Williamsport, captured and died, August, 1863. T. 
E. Williams, wounded at Gettysburg. G. A. Webre. Chas. Waterson. D. P. 

White, wounded at Williamsport. Winter. F. H. H. Walker, H. Berthe- 

lot. F. H. Sawyer. 

The above statement has been taken from the Historical Record furnished to 
the War Department C. S., January 1st, 1865, and is correct and as full as can 
possibly be made from that Record. ' 

JOHN B. RICHARDSON, 

Captain Commanding at surrender. 
New Orleans, Oct. 5, 1874. . 



ROLL OF THIRD COMPANY. 



Merritt B. Miller, Captain, May, '61 ; promoted to Major of Artillery, Feb. '64. 
Andrew Hero, jr.. Second Serg. May '61; First Serg. Nov. '61; Second Lieut. 
May '62 ; First Lieut. Aug. '62 ; Capt. Feb. '64; wounded at Sharpsburg, Sept. 
'32; at Petersburg, April, '65. Jos B. W hittington. First Lieutenant, resigned 
Louis A Adam, Second Lieut, resigned Aug. '61 ; re-enlisted as private. Aug. 
'61. James Dearing, Second Lieut,, promoted to Captain Art'y, April 8, '62. 
J. J. Garnet, First Lieutenant, assigned to Company July, '61 ; transferred to 
Signal Corps, June, '63. Isaac W. Brewer, First Lieutenant, killed nt Rappa- 
hannock Station. Frank McElroy, First Lieutenant; Geo. McNeill, Second 
Lieutenant; Charles H. Stocker, Second Lieutenant, wounded at Petersburg, 
April, '65. First Sergeant John T. Handy. Sergeant Louis Prados, promoted 
to Lieut. La. Brigade. Sergeant. W. A. Collins. Sergeant R. Maxwell, dis- 
charged from command. Sergeant W. H. Ellis. Sergeant 0. N. DeBlanc. Ser- 
geant W. G. Coyle. Sergeant F. Kremelberg, killed at Petersburg. Sergeant 
P. W. Pettis. Corporal Ed. J. Jewell. Corporal A. H. Peale. Corporal C. E. 
Fortier. discharged. Corporal E. W. Morgan. Corporal R. P. Many, died 
of wounds. Corporal W. Leefe, died in Louisiana Hospital. Corporal A. 
E, Grimmer. Corporal N. Bartlett. Corporal T. Ballantine. Corporal Samuel 
Bland. Corporal R. Ballauf. Corporal M. B. Cantrelle. Corporal I. C. 
Dick. Corporal John R. Porter. Corporal H. J. Phelps. William A. Col- 
lins, wounded at Second Manassas, August, 1863. E. Avril, wounded at 
.Sharpsburg, Sept. 61 ; discharged Dec. '62. John Anderson, translerred from 
First Company, July, '61. Henry J. Atkins, killed at Sharpsburg, Sept. 1862. 
Frank M. Andress. J. A. Adde. S. S. Andress. B L. Braselman, promoted to 
(Jrdnance Sergeant Battaljon. Robert Bruce, discharged April, '64. Samuel 
0. Boush, on duty in Quarter Master's Department. J. D. Blanchard, died 
March, 1 864. James 0. Bloomfield, promoted to Lieut in Magruder's army. 
.Michel A. Becnel, discharged December 1861, by order of Secretary of War. 
Geo. Bernard, detailed with ambulance. M.Burke. J. P. Benton, captured by 
enemy, June, '64. Samuel Bland, wounded at Rappahannock, Aug.' 62. James 



MUSTER ROLL OP THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 233 



S. Behan, died at Mobile, Ala. Wm. Barton. Jos. Bloom. Rudolph Ballauf, pro- 
moted to Corporal, April, '64. Geo. Brady. Geo. B. Behan, died at Oulpeper, 
Sept. '62. C. Bush, injured by falling of a tree, Oct. '62 ; detailed in Richmond. 
Ernest Beyer. Charles Brady. Henry G. Brooks. John H. Benton, wounded at 
Petersburg, Sept, '64 ; died Sept. '64. Geo. H. Bryens, killed at Gettysburg, July 
'63. Lawrence Berry. Richard Bryens. Wm. P. Brewer, promoted to Assist- 
ant Surgeon. B. P. Bryan. Robert J. Ball, transferred to First Company. 
Steve Burke. P. A. Carl, died May 27, 1861. M. W. Cloney, wounded at 
Sharpsburg, Sept. '62 ; captured at Gettysburg, July, '63. John H. Colles, dis- 
charged Nov. '61, by order Secretary of War. Ernest Charpieux, wounded at 
Manassas, August 1862 ; detailed Q. M-. Dept., April, '64. W. G. Coyle, pro- 
moted to Corporal, Nov. 1861 ; to Sergt., Oct. 1863. Stephen Ohalaron, trans- 
ferred to Second Company, July, 1861. Wm. Casey, transferred from Second 
Company, July, 1861. James Crilly, transferred from Second Company, wound- 
ed at Rappahannock Station, August, 1862. Prank E. Coyle, wounded at 
Gettysburg, July, 1863; killed at Petersburg, April, '65. W. Campbell. Geo. 
W. Charlton. L. W. Oressy, killed by falling of a tree at Winchester. C. W. 
Deacon, transferred to First Company. Edward A. Clark. W. W. Charlton. 
T.\S. Collins. J. P. Clark, killed at Gettysburg, July, '63. Jos H. DeMeza, 
transferred to Second Company, July, '61. Edward Duncan, captured at Peters- 
burg and exchanged. Fred. Douber, killed at Sharpsburg. J. P. Davis. A. 
Dumas. James Dolan, died from wound at Rappahannock. August DeBlauc, 
Isaac 0. Dick, promoted to Corporal, October, '64. H. Dietz. Benj. E. Dick, 
captured at Fredericksburg and exchanged. Armand DeBlanc, discharged May, 
'63. W. Dennison. Wm. DeLacy. Honore Doussan. Adolphe Dupre, Jr., 
wounded and captured at Gettysburg. Louis G. Elfer. Edgar D. Evans. P.O. 
Pazende. Charles E. Fortier, promoted to Corporal, July, '61; discharged, Sept. 
1861. P. P. Pourshee, wounded at Rappahannock. T. H. Fuqua, transferred 
to Second Company. Otto Prank, wpunded at Fredericksburg. Rene Paisans. 
AugustePaisans. Louis E. Guyot. A. E. Grimmer, "wounded at Fredericksburg; 
promoted to Corporal November, '63, Fred. W Gras. Jno. W. Gore. J. B. 
Gretter. C. A. Gough, wounded at Gettysburg, and died. S. R. Givens, 
discharged January, '63. Leon M. Gerard. Philibert Gerard. G. A. Grimes. 
Henry Guillote. P. L. Hubbard, right arm injured, and discharged October, 
'61. C. Hart, discharged February, '62. John Holmes, jr., wounded at Sharps- 
burg, and discharged May, '64. John Huisson. John G. Hottinger. Ed. D. 
Hubbell. Wm. Jones. Wm. N. Johnson. Eugene Joubert, wounded at Rap- 
pahannock, and died. Jos. H. Jagot. P. Jourdan. John Jones, captured and 
escaped July, '64. Joseph Kinslow. S. Kennedy, transferred to Twenty-eighth 
Louisiana Regiment ; resigned, '64. Thos. Kerwin. Damas Kobleur, wounded 
at Petersburg, October, '64. W. H. Kitchen. R. H. Kitchen. M. Kent. Wm. 
Leefe, promoted Corporal April, '63; died October, 1864. Ed. Loftus. died 
February, '63. M. P. Lynch. James Little, died June, '62. G. Leytze, miss- 
ing after battle of Gettysburg. S. Levy, wounded at Rappahannock ; dis- 
charged September, '62. J. T. Luddy. John Land. Geo. Land. Gustave 
Leclere. Eugene Leclere. Charles Lombard, transferred to Fourth Company 
June, '63. T. Lazarre, died at Petersburg, December, 64. Murville Labarre, 
died at Petersburg, December 31, '64; B. Labarre, discharged October, '63. 
Lacestiere Labarre, transferred from First Company September, '63. P. E. 
Laresche. A. Leefe, wounded at Drury's Bluff. N. Lighthouse. T. M. McPall. 
promoted to Q. M. Sergeant April, '63. 0. McDonald, killed at Rappahannock. 
J. H. McCartney, wounded at Sharpsburg. J. H. Moore, transferred to 7th 
Brigade. W.Mills, tranferred to Second Company. E. W. Morgan, discharged 
July, 1861. Robert Maxwell, promoted to Sergeant November, '61 ; wounded 
at Rappahannock and discharged '63. A. B. Martin. G. H. Meek, promoted to 
drd Serg. Nov., '63. R. P. Many, Corporal, April, '63 ; wounded, captured and 
died at Fredericksburg, May, '63. 0. B. Marmillon, discharged '62, by Secretary 
of War. G. W. Massy, wounded at Sharpsburg ; died September, '62. John C. 



234 MUSTEE ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



Murphy. Henry A. Madden, killed at Drury's Blufif, May, '64. B. L. Mahen. 
S. W. Noyes. Albert Norcom, transferred to Fourth Company. J. S. Nesbitt. 
discharged May, '62. L. T. Noyes. W. P. Noble. T. Nulty. F. Ozanne, cap- 
tured and escaped at Hagerstown, '63. Peyton W. Pettis, promoted Corporal 
July, '62 ; wounded at Rappahannock and Sharpsbnrg ; promoted Sergeant, '64. 
.Jno. R. Porter, promoted Corporal August, '64 ; wounded at Petersburg, Oct. 
'64. H.J. Phelps, Corporal, April 1863; wounded at Fredericksburg, 1862. 
Abraham B. Philips. Geo. A Peirce. Paul T. Patin. Jas. W. Price. Wm. 
J". Pinckard, wounded at Petersburg. Wm. M. Pinckard. C. P. Russell. Sam'l 
Rousseau, wounded at Petersburg. J. F. Randolph, transferred to Second 
Company. Charles Raymond. H. Rideau, killed at Gettysburg. F. Ruleau, 
wounded and died at Gettysburg. E. Riviere. Jules A. A. Rousseau. G. D. 
Robinson, severely wounded by capsizing of a cannon, fourth of July, 1863. 
Frank Shaw, jr., discharged by Secretary of War. Chas. H. Stocker, promoted 
Corporal. June, 1862 ; Sergeant, July, 1862 ; captured at Gettysburg, July, '63; 
elected Second Lieutenant, March, '63. S. G. Saunders, wounded at Sharps- 
burg. Charles Smith, captured at Petersburg, June, 1864. A. Seicshnaydre, 
Leon Seicshnaydre. S. B. Slade. C. G. Smelser. T. W. Smith. R. Smith. 
H. D. Summers, transferred to Second Company. Wm. S. Toledano, discharged 
September, 1861. E. Toledano, discharged September, 1861. Howard TuUy, 
wounded at Bull Run and Fredericksburg. Ralph Turnell, discharged Novem- 
ber, 1862. Hugh Thompson, killed at Rappahannock. James Tally, wounded 
at Rappahannock. G. J. Thomas. Walter A. Tew. Victor R. Tisdale. John 
Treme. Oswald J. Toledano, killed at Petersburg. Ernest Vidal. J. W. White. 
Thos. E. Williamson. W. Williamson. W. J. B. Watson, transferred to Fourth 
Company. J. N. White, transferred to Fourth Company. J. W. Dempsey, trans- 
ferred to Second Company. Geo. Pielert. W. D. Holmes, transferred to Second 
Company. Tom Nugent. James Keating, transferred to Second Company. 

The above roll is copied correctly from the historical records of the Third 
Company of the Washington Artillery, and contains all details as to members 
of the Company. 

A. HERO, Jr., 

late Capt. Conid'g Zd Co. B. ^Y. A. 



ROLL 0¥ FOURTH COMPANY. 



Captain Jos. Norcom ; First Lieut. H. A. Battles ; Second Lieuts., G. E. Apps, 
W.J. Behan; Sergeants— 1st, J. S. Fish; 2d, J. C. Wood; 3d, J.W.Wilcox; 
ith, B. F. Weidler ; 5th, J. B. Valentine. Quartermaster — S. T. Haile. Corpo- 
rals— F. A. Brode, 0, S. Babcock, B. Hufft, J. F. Lilly, Geo. Montgomery. R. S. 
Burke, F. W. Ames, Geo. E. W. Wilkinson. Privates — Geo. Anderson, J. S. 
Allen, Jos. Adams, 0. W. Adams, P. M. Baker, Lewis Baker, H. H. Baker, A. 
Banksmith, Jas. Bateman, F. A. Behan, Jas. Borland, Chas. M. Byrne, A. Bou- 
cher, J. W. Burke, L. W Clayton, W. P. Creecy, 0. B. Cook, Thos. Carey, 
Wm. Cary, Wm. Curley, J. M. Cox, Denis J. Cronan, E. Condon, A. S. Cowand, 
CIms. Cowand, B. Chapman, R. N. Davis, W. Deninson, W. R. Dirke, R. David- 
son, Jas. D. Edwards, Jno. Fowlkes, Jno. Fagan, W. S. Fell, J. J. Farrell, R. 
H. Gray, G. C. Gregory, E. F. Gubernator, J. G. Hood, Thos. Herbert, Sam'l 
E. Holt, W. JtcC. Holmes, W. W. Jones, A. C. Jones, 1. Jessup, F. Jordan, 
.M. J. Kinney, M Keegan, F. Langdon, Chas. Lake, J. R. Land, Theo. Laz.arre, 
Dupre Lazarre, P. J. Lavery, C. W. Marston, E. A. Mellard, Wm. Martin' R. F. 



MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 235 



F. Moore, R. McDonald, Jno. McManus, B. Marisoli, H. Slayer, C. McGregor, 
A. Norcom, D. Nolan, Thos. Norris, A. L. Plattsmier, Chas. Palfrey, D. W. 
Pipes, H. T. Peak,' Jno. Pheiffer, J. M. Rohbock, M. J. Eyan, G. Reynolds, W. 
Redmond, L. Reney, Louis Roosch, J. H. Smith, J. H. Stone, Jno. Schekler, 
A. Soniat, Chas. Smelzer, A. Shew, W. N. Stuart, B. Terrebonne, A. F. Vass, 
H. F. Wilson, Geo. Walker, G. W. Wood, P. N. Wood, J. J. Wall, Jno. Wilson, 
W. J. B. Watson. Artificers — Levi Callahan, J. McDonald. 

The above roll has been taken by me from the records of the Washington 
Artillery, and I certify that the same is as full and correct as it can be made. 

WM. J. BEHAN, 
Ranking Officer of ith Co. B. W. A. 



For the muster roll of the Fifth Company, see p. 150. Of the remnants of the 
four companies in Virginia, forty-five escaped under Major Miller, (the horses 
having been cut from their harness,) by way of Lynchburg and the mountains, 
to Johnston's army in North Carolina, Capt. Chas. A. Green, of the Louisiana 
Guard Artillery, and some of the Donaldsonville Artillery, under Lieutenant 
Prospere Landry, among the number. Major Moses says, in reference to the 
Confederate gold which was placed in his hands, and which had followed Presi- 
dent Davis to Washington, Ga.: " I employed four young men of the Washington 
Artillery, to guard the gold and accompany me to Augusta. There were a 
great many cavalry and straggling soldiers prowling about, and on the train 
they made what was then called several 'charges' upon the gold, which, with 
the assistance of Col. Sanford, of Montgomery, and Private Shepherd, of Texas, 
were successfully resisted." Whatever became of the gold, after it was honorably 
placed by Major-Moses in Federal hands for the relief of wounded soldiers, has 
never yet been ascertained. 

The very last battle fought, or regular engagement during the war, took place 
on the night of the 16tb of April, at Columbus, Ga., at which time that town 
was captured and 1,200 Confederate soldiers made prisoners. Three of the 
Washington Artillery, * Adams, Cummings and Bartlett, the first and last of 
whom had fired the first guns at Bull Run, were present at the night attack, and 
made prisoners, the last named three times during the night. 

* The following is one of the ordei-s still in existence ; 

Headquarters Camp Kendezvous, Battehv Division,) 

Columbus, Ga., April, 16th, 1865. / 

Corporal N. Bartlett, having reported to me for duty, will hold himself subject to my orders, 

•""™""*- V. H. TALIAFERRO. 

Colonel Commandmg. 



REPORT TO THE LOUISIANA LEGISLATURE 



I ) F 



ADJUTANT G-ENERAL M. GRl VOT, 

UPON STATE TR00P8, 

FOR THE YEARS I860, '61 AND 62. 



iseo. 

Abstract Statement of the Officers in Commission precedinf/ 

the War, 

FIRST DIVISION. 

Major General John L. Lewis, Commanding; Col. L. E. Porstall, Divisign 
Inspector ; Lieut. Colonel Ohas. A. Labuzan, Division Quartermaster ; Lieut. 
Colonel Thomas Crippa, Division Paymaster ; Major W. P. Williams, Division 
Surgeon; Major E. L. Forstall, Aid; Major U. Lavillebeuvre, Aid; Major A. 
Trudeau, Aid ; Major N. Gunari, Aid ; Major L. Stein, Aid ; Major L. Lay, Aid : 
Major Jos. M. Kennedy, .Ir., Aid. 

LOUISIANA LEGION BRIGADE. 

Brigadier General H. W. Palfrey, Commanding ; Major J. F. Ohalry, Brigade 
Inspector; Captain R. Beltran, Aid; Captain P. O'Rorke, Aid; Captain W. B. 
Cook, Aid ; Captain Chas. A. Janvier, Aid. 

ORLEANS BATALLION OF ARTILLERY. 

First Company — ^Captain, F. Gomez ; Senior First Lieutenant, A. D. Garcia ; 
Junior First Lieutenant, P. A. Gomez ; Second Lieutenant, P. Marrero. 

Third Company — Captain, F. Stromeyer; Senior First Lieutenant, G. Berlu- 
chaux ; Junior First Lieutenant, A. A. Canon ; Second Lieutenant, Alexander 
Diogenes. 

Sixth Company — Senior First Lieutenant, Theo. Morano, Commanding; Junior 
First Lieutenant, N. Rivera ; Second Lieutenant, Jean Schweitzer. 

Fourth Company, attached to Legion — Captain, J. L. Lamothe ; Senior First 
Lieutenant, A. Abadie ; Junior First Lieutenant, G. Raymond ; Second Lieut. 
I. Erard. 

REGIMENT OF LIGHT INFANTRY. 

Colonel Chas. F. Sturcken, Commanding; Lieutenant' Colonel, C. L. Mathes ; 
Major, H. Blaize ; Lieutenant E. H. Boelitz, Adjutant; Lieutenant Herdsfelder , 
Quartermaster ; Lieutenant G. Lugenbuhl, Paymaster ; Lieutenant Loisenger, 
Surgeon. 

CHASSEURS, 1814-15. 

First Lieutenant, F. Ecrot, Commanding ; Second Lieutenant, L. Honidobre. 



238 ABSl'RACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



CaptaiD, F. Peters; First Lieutenant, Henry Fassbinder; Second Lieutenant. 
Jacob Huth. 

SHARPSHOOTER. — Captain F. Christen. 

FUSILIERS NO. 1. — Captain, F. Sievers; First Lieutenant, H. Gerdes. 
FUSILIERS NO. 2. — Seoond Lieut., Henry Wallbrecli. 

LAFAYETTE GUARDS. 

Capt. F. Kcenig ; First Lieutenant. G. Hollenbach , Second Lieutenant, A. 
Frideback. 

JEFFERSON GUARDS. — Captain, F. Wollrath ; Second Lieut., G. Lehman, 

BATALLION CHASSEURS A PIED DE LA LOUISIANA. MajOF 

First Company.— CaptaiD, Henry St. Paul ; First Lieutenant, Oscar Aleix ; 
Second Lieutenant, Nemours Lanve. 

Second Company. — Captain, Simeon Meilleur ; First Lieut., Isidore Esclapon ; 
Second Lieutenant, Raphael Painpare. 

FIRST BRIGADE. 

Brigadier General, E. L. Tracy, Commanding ; Major Thomas F. Walker; 
■ Brigade Inspector ; Captain R. Hooper, Aid ; Captain I. J. Daniels, Aid ; Captain 
.1. G. McLearn, Aid ; Captain J. F. Caldwell, Aid. 

WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 

■ Capt. J. B. Walton ; Senior First Lieutenant, 0. Voorhies ; Junior First 
Lieutenant, Theo. A. James, Second Lieutenant, R. Bannister. 

WASHiNciTON REGIMENT. — Major Joho CaTanaugh. 

LOUISIANA GREYS. — Capt., Edmuud Kennedy; First Lieut., A. D. Caulfield. 

REGIMENT NATIONAL GUARDS. — Colouel, H. Forno ; Major, G. Stith. 

COMPANY 0., NATIONAL GUARDS. 

Captain, Charles D. Drew; First Lieutenant, J. P. Nesbit. 

CITY GUARDS. — -Captain, W. T. Dean; First Lieutenant, C. R. Fagot. 

ORLEANS RIFLE GUARDS. 

Captain, John A. Jacques ; First Lieutenant, Erastus Stevens. 
CONTINENTAL GUARDS. — Capt. George Clark ; Second Lieut., A. W. Merriam. 

MISSISSIPPI RIFLKS NO. 2. 

Captain, F. Camerden ; First Lieutenant, Chas. C. Campbell; Second Lieut., 
Lea F. Bakewell. 

FIRST BEOIMENT. 

First Brigade. — Colonel Louis Lay. 

SECOND REGIMENT. — CoIoncl J. J. Dauiels. 
rouTH REGIMENT. — Colouel John Price. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Chas. De Choiseul; Lieutenant Colonel, James De Baum. 

NINTH REGIMENT. — Colouel, R. Hooper ; Lieut. Colonel, C. C. Miller- 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 239 



SECOND BRIGADE. 
Brigadier General, D. Cronan ; Major, Joliu Stroud, Brigade Inspector. 

FOUETH KEaiMBNT. 

Colonel, Daniel'Bdwards; Lieut. Colonel, Samuel McBurney ; Major, Chas. J. 
Murphy. 



SECOND DIVISION. 

Major General, R. C. Camp. 

^ FIRST BRIGADE. — Brigadier General, R. C. Martin. 

PAEISH ST. CHARLES RESIMKNT. 

Colonel, Ezra Davis ; Lieut. Colonel, Ad. Rost, Jr. 

PARISH ST. JAMES REOIMENT. 

Company Chasseurs de St. Jacques. — Captain, Alfred Roman ; First Lieutenant. 
Camille Mire ; Second Lieut. K. Gaudet; Cornet, Florent Fortier. 

Company Chasseurs St. Michel. — Captain, Narcisse Landry, Jr. ; First Lieutenant, 
Francis L. Haydel ; Second Lieutenant, Bmile Jacobs ; Cornet. NichoUe Tecle^ 

ASCENSION REGIMENT. — Colonel, Johu S. Minor. 

DONALDSONVILLE ARTILLERT. 

Captain, V. Maurin ; Senior First Lieutenant, J. C. Dannequin ; Junior First 
Lieutenant, Villeor Dugas ; Senior Second Lieutenant, L. D. Nicholls ; Junior 
Second Lieutenant, Lestapg Fortier. 

LAFOURCHE REOIMBNT. 

Company Lafourche Dragoons — Captain, R. G. Darden ; First Lieutenant, Ed. 
Cross ; Second Lieutenant, John A. Collins ; Cornet, M. King. 

SECOND ERiOADE. — Brigadier General, C. N. Rowley. 

TERREBONNE REHIMENT. 

Colonel, Albert G. Cage; Lieutenant Colonel, F. S. Goode ; Major, James 
Daspit. 

' HOUMA RIFLES. 

Captain, Joseph Aycock; First Lieutenant, V. A. Righter; Second Lieutenant, 
Sulakoski. 

ST. MAEY REHIMENT. 

Colonel, A. L. Tucker; Lieutenant-Colonel, H. C. Wilson; Major, R. N, 
McMillan. 

TEOHE GUARDS. 

Captain, W. F. Haifiegh ; First Lieutenant, Louis P. Smith ; Second Lieut., 
Newman Trowbridge. 



THIRD DIVISION . 

Major General, George W. Munday. 

FIRST BRIGADE.— Brigadier General, W. E. Walker. 
SECOND UEIGADE.— Brigadier General, R. Barrow. 



240 ABSTEACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



PARISH EAST FELICIANA REGIMENT. ColODel, PreStOn Pond. 

EAST BATON BOUSE REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Louis Hebert ; Lieuteniint Colonel, F. M. Kent. 

EAST BATON ROUGE DRAGOONS. 

Captain, H. M. Pierce ; First Lieutenant, Cbas. Ghenette ; Second Lieutenant, 
Thomas Gilbert. 

PELICAN RIFLES. 

Captain, W. F. Tunuard ; First Lieutenant, H. B. Monteith ; Second Lieut., 
Krnest Gourier. 

COMPANY 0. — Captain L. J. Freemaux. 



FOURTH DIVISION. 

Major General, L. G. De Russey ; Lieut. Colonel, Oscar Ohaler, Paymaster ; 
Wajor F. Johnson, Surgeon ; Major W. H. Levy, Aid. 

FIRST BRIGADE. 

Brigadier General, P. Keary ; Captain D. C. Goodman, Aid. 

PARISH ST. LANDRY REGIMENT. 

Colonel, A. M. Perrault; Lieut. Colonel, Andrfe Meynier ; Major, Lewis Stagg. 

OPBLOUSAB RIFLES. 

Captain, J. D. Israel ; Second Iiieutenant, J. J. Beauchamp. 

SECOND BRIGADE. — Brigadier General, Alfred Mouton. 

PARISH RAPIDES REGIMENT. 

Colonel, B. F. Fulton ; Lieutenant Colonel, A. N. Ogden ; Major, Louis 
Stafiford. 

PARISH NATCHITOCHES REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Thomas Herzog; Lieutenant Colonel, Thomas C. Hunt; Major, Felix 
Metoyer. 



FIFTH DIVISION 
-Major General, Jacob Humble ; Major Newton Guice, Aid. 

FIRST BRIGADE. 
Brigadier General, F. A. F. Harper ; Major G. W. Hendrick, Brigade Inspector. 
TENSAS REGIMENT. — Colonel, L. V. Recvcs. 

PARISH FRANKLIN REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Asa Hawthorn ; Lieutenant Colonel, Isaac Doyal. 

SECOND BRIGADE. — Brigadier General, Felix Lewis. 

PARISH CLAIBORNE REGIMENT. 

Colonel, James W. Berry ; Lieutenant Colonel, John W. Hays ; Major, 
James Duke. 

PARISH BOSSIER REGIMENT. 

Colonel, E. W. Herring; Lieutenant Colonel. Austin Miller; Major, David 
J. Elder. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 241 



ANNUAL REPORT MADE NOVEMBER 22, 1861, 

CONDENSED MEMORANDA. 

Feb. 5, 1861. Two regiments of regulars of the State army organized. 

March 13. Transfer made of these to Provisional Army of the Confederate 
States. Artillery stationed in the State forts ; infantry at Peusacola. The 
Colonel of the latter, A. H. Gladden, made Brigadier General, and succeeded by 
Col. Daniel W. Adams. The regiment was suddenly called to Pensacola. 

Dec. 14, 1861. Volunteer companies ordered to organize into regiments. 

To complete the companies, it became necessary to call upon volunteers. 
Five companies tendered their services and were accepted : The Orleans Cadets. 
of New Orleans, Captain C. D. Dreux. The Louisiana Guards, of New Orleans, 
Captain S. M. Todd. The Crescent Rifles, of New Orleans, Captain S. H. Fisk. 
The Grivot Guards, of Lafourche, Captain V. G. Rightor. The Shreveport 
Greys, of Caddo, Captain J. H. Beard. They were with the regiment stationed 
at Warrington, up to June last, when the regiment, having received its comple- 
ment of regular companies, these companies were relieved from duty at War- 
rington. They formed themselves into a special battalion, under the command 
of Lieut. Colonel Charles D. Dreux, and Major V. H. Rightor, and were ordered 
to Torktown, Virginia. Lieutenant Colonel Dreux was killed whilst in the 
performance of his duties, and the battalion is now under the command of 
Lieut. Colonel V. H. Rightor. 

18th of April, 1861 requisition from the Secretary of War, for three thousand 
infantry for twelve months service, received. 

As soon as this made its appearance, in all parts of the State companies were 
organizing and tendering their services in less than five days, the number of 
troops offering exceeded five thousand. 

This requisition did not state whether they were to be received by companies, 
battalions or regiments ; a subsequent requisition for 5000 additional troops, 
received on the 21st April, 1861, gave the authority to organize them into bat- 
talions and regiments. 

The troops were arriving rapidly ; it was found expedient to establish a camp 
in the neighborhood of the City, and by order No. 188, issued on the 29th April, 
1861, Camp Walker was established on the Metaire Course, under the command 
of Brigadier General E. L. Tracy, first Division Louisiana Militia, detailed for 
that purpose. The number of troops increasing, the fear of disease in camps, 
and owing to the scarcity of water, it was deemed advisable to transfer the 
camp to Tangipahoa, on the Jackson Railroad. This camp was called camp 
Moore. 

The 1st Regiment Louisiana Volunteers was organized on the 25th of April 
by the election of Albert G. Blanchard as Colonel, Wm. ft. Vincent Lieutenant- 
Colonel and Wm. R. Shiver as Major, and transferred to the Confederate States 
on the 29th April and ordered to Virginia. Col. Blanchard has since been 
appointed Brigadier General in the Confederate Army, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Vincent elected Colonel of the Regiment. 

The 2d Regiment was organized with Lewis G. DeRussy as Colonel, John W. 
Young as Lieutenant-Colonel, and J. T. Norwood as Major, mustered into the 
service on the 11th May, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. Colonel DeRussy having- 
resigned. Captain Wm. M. Levy was elected to fill the vacancy. 

The 3d Regiment organized with Lewis Hebert as Colonel, S. M. Hyams as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. F. Tunnard as Major ; was mustered into service on 
llth May, ordered to Arkansas, and from thence to Missouri. It participated 
in the battle of Oak Hill, performing deeds of valor. ' 

The 4tb Regiment organized with R. J. Barrow as Colonel, H. W. Allen as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and S. E. Hunter as Major. 

The 5th Regiment organized with Theo. G. Hunt Colonel, Henry Forno as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. T. Dean Major. 



242 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



At this period, whilst, other regiments were in process of organization, the 
companies having mustered into .the State service, to be transferred to the Con- 
federate States, for the period of twelve months, under the Proclamations, after 
the transfer of the 3d Regiment, a communication from the War Department 
was received, declining to accept any more regiments unless for the term of the 
war. To this communication the governor earnestly protested, and urged upon 
the Secretary vOf War the necessity of accepting the regiments already organized 
for twelve months service, but with no success. 

This act of the Secretary of War created considerable excitement both at 
the camp and in the country. The men who had volunteered, sacrificing their 
all, believed they were being trifled with, and had the effect of disorganizing 
the whole system for awhile. 

After some difficulty, the 4th Regiment was accepted for the twelve months 
service, and was transferred on the 25th May,. 1861. All the influence that could 
be brought to bear upon the War Department was exercised by your Excellency 
to obtain the acceptance of the 5th Regiment, and all the corps at Camp Moore, 
for the twelve months service, but with no success. Still entertaining hopes 
that the Secretary of War would reflect ujion the injury about to be inflicted 
upon the troops, by not accepting their services except for the war term, would 
reverse and order them to be received, a^ originally mustered in, for twelve 
months, granted a delay in which the companies were to decide whether they 
would volunteer for the war or be disbanded. This delay was extended to the 
25th May. This delay having expired, and the companies still refusing to muster 
in for the term of the war, were disbanded. On the 26th May, the governor 
received a dispatch from the War Department announcing the fact that the 
regiments and companies would be accepted for the twelve months term. It 
was received at a late hour — the morning train of the Jaclison Railroad had 
left. Upon application to Capt. J. S. Williams, Superintendent of the road, he 
kindly offered his services to convey, by an express train, to Camp Moore, the 
orders countermanding the disbanding of the troops, but it was too late, the 
mischief had been done. A large number of companies had been disbanded, 
and were on their way home. 

Shortly after it was ascertained that twelve months troops would be received, 
both in the country and city, the organization recommenced with redoubled 
vigor. The 5th Regiment, which had received a check, completed its organiza- 
tion, and was mustered into service on the 25th May, 1861, and was immediately 
ordered to Virginia. 

The 6th Regiment, organized with I. G. Seymour as Colonel, Louis Lay as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and S. S. James as Major, was mustered into service on the 
4th June, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The 7th Regiment, organized with Harry T. Hays as Colonel, Charles De 
Choiseul as Lieutenant-Colonel, aud D. H. Penn, Major, was mustered into 
.service on the Sth June, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The Sth Regiment, organized with Henry B. Kelly as Colonel, F. T. Nicholls 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and J. B. Prados as Major, was mustered into service on 
tlie 15th June. 

The i;th, 7th and Sth Regiments were engaged in the memorable battles of 
Bull Run on the 18th, and of .Manassas on the 21st July, 1861, and rendered 
important service. 

The 9th Regiment, organized with Richard Taylor as Colonel, E. G. Randolph 
a.^ Lieutenant-Colonel, and N. J. Walker, Major, was mustered into service on the 
nth July, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The 10th Regiment, organized with Mandeville Marigny as Colonel, J. C. Denis 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Felix Du Monteil as Major, was mustered into service 
on the 22d July, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The nth Regiment, organized with S. F. Marks as Colonel, Robert H. Barrow 
.IS Lieutenant-Colonel, and E. G. W. Butler .as Major, was mustered into service 
on the 18th August, 1S61, and ordered to Columbus, Kentucky. This regiment 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 243 



was in the battle of Belmont, and was mainly instrumental in gaining the 
victory. Major Butler fell while gallantly leading his men. 

The 12th Regiment, organized with Thomas M. Scott as Colonel, Wade Hough 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and John C. Nott as Major, was mustered into service on 
the 13th August, 1861, and ordered to Columbus, Kentucky. 

The 13th Regiment, organized with E. L. Gibson as Colonel, Aristide Gerard 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and A. P. Avegno as Major— transferred to the Con- 
federate service on the 9th September, 1861, stationed for a long time at the 
fortifications below the city — and on the 22d November was ordered to 
Columbus. 

The 14th and 15th Regiments, were so designated by the War Departmentj 

and are composed of the troops known as the Polish Brigade. They were not 

mustered into service of the State and transferred to the Confederate States 

"and consequently I have no record of the names of the companies or officers or 

number of men composing it. ' 

The 16th Regiment was organized with Preston Pond, Jr., as Colonel, Enoch 
Mason as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Daniel Gober as Major ; was mustered into 
Confederate service on the 29th September, 1861. 

The IVth Regiment, organized with S. S. Heard as Colonel, Charles Jones as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and R. B. Jones as Major, mustered into the Confederate 
service on the 29th September, 1861, and is now at Camp Moore. 

The 18th Regiment, organized with Alfred Mouton as Colonel, Alfred Roman 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Louis Bush as Major, was mustered into Confederate 
service on the 5th October, 1861, and is stationed above Carrollton. 

The 19th Regiment, organized with B. L. Hodge as Colonel, D. M. HoUings- 

worth as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Major, and is stationed at Camp 

Moore. 

Five companies in May last organized as a special battalion with C. R. Wheat 
as Major, was accepted and mustered into service on 6th June, 1861, and ordered 
to Virginia. This battalion was in the battle of Manassas, and is reported as 
having performed deeds of valor. 

The foregoing regiments and battalions have been fully armed and equipped. 

The regiments and battalions mustered into the State service and transferred 
to the Confederacy, with the names of the companies, the parishes from which 
they come, the names of the officers and number of men of each company, 
amounted t& a total of 19,152 men. 

The President having the appointment of Surgeons and Quartermasters, the 
names, of these do not figure thfrein. The names of some officers of companies 
do not appear on the list owing to the fact that changes being made by promo- 
tions or otherwise, the officers to fill the vacancies were elected after the 
transfer to the Confederate States. 

On the 19th April, 1861, the Secretary of War made a requisition for the 1st 
Company Louisiana Foot Rifles, under command of Capt. Henry St. Paul. 

The parishes bordering on the Gulf coast were unprotected, and the enemy's 
fleet had been committing depredations, and threatening attack. Maj. Gen, 
Twiggs, commanding the Department, deemed it necessary to call for troops, to 
be stationed at the forts and at various points, so as to^guard and protect the 
coast. Eighteen Companies transferred for that purpose. 

Companies have been mustered for service within the State. Camp of In- 
struction near Carrollton, on the Carrollton Railroad, under the command of 
Brigadier General C. A. Labuzan. 

A recapitulation of the forces as above stated shows : 

Regiment of Artillery (Regulars.) '740 

do. " Infantry " 1,033 

1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 1th, 8th, 9tn, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 
16th, ITth, 18th and 19th, Regiments of Louisiana Vol- 
unteers 14,949 

Wheat's Battalion 415 



244 ABSTRACT EEPORT OE THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



Dreux's Battalion 480 

14 Companies transferred to the Confederate seryioe, for State 

service 1,231 

4 Companies of Orleans Artillery.. 304 

Number of troops in service of the Confederate States.. 19,152 

13 Companies for service within the State, at Camp Lewis 1,050 

Total number of troops thus far organized by the State 20,202 

1 Company Orleans Chasseurs 95 

Soulakouski's Regiment, (14th Regiment.) 850 

Lieut. Col. Bradford's Regiment, (15th Regiment.) 450 

Point Coupee Light Artillery 90 

Washington Artillery 320 

Crescent Blues .' 80 

Donaldsonville Artillery 85 

Marion Infantry 129 

Watson's Artillery 100 

Carroll Guards - 16 

Jackson Regiment 450 

Zouaves 650 3,375 

Force in the field from Louisiana, Nov. 22d, 1861 23,577 

To prevent trafficking between the enemies fleet and a large number of small 
boats and luggers trading in the various bays, bayons, lakes, etc., in the parishes 
bordering on the sea-shore, order issued to arrest all offenders 12th June. 
Captain A. 0. Murphy appointed and placed in charge of the schooner Antonio 
with full authority to arrest all persons dealing with the enemy, or persons of a 
suspicious character found within the limits of Barrell Keys and Texas, and who 
could not prove themselves loyal to the government 

Similar authority given to Captain B. G. Darden, of Thibodanx, and Captain 
Murphy, who made some important arrests. 

14th of January, 1861, an order issued for the organization of the militia 
throughout the State; considerable opposition made thereto, — officers met with 
serious difficulties ill compelling attendance to drills and obedience to their 
orders, and organization turned into a farce. In many parishes no objections 
raised, and militia organized. 

September 28th, 1861 — stringent order issued from Gov. Moore, regulating, 
organizing and drilling militia. Black List ordered for shirkers and permanent 
Court Martial for trial of military offences. Drills ordered after 3 o'clock twice 
a week. 

First Division returns 30,499 

Confederate Guards , 752 

Total 31,251 

The following parishes have made their returns, to-wit : 

Parish of Iberville 634 

" Natchitoches 1,031 

" Livingston 754 

" St. Tammany 442 

" St. Charles 210 

" Washington 441 

" Carroll 691 

" Bast Baton Rouge 1,200 

" Bast Feliciana 495 — 5,898 

l7th November, 1861, order issued for a review of all the volunteer and regu- 

'lar militia of the 1st Division, under command of Major General John L. Lewis. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 245 



The troops assembled on Canal street, on Saturday the 23d November, 1861, 
were passed in review by Gov. Moore, accompanied by Major General M. Lovell, 
commanding Department No. 1 C. S. A., Brigadier General Ruggles, 0. S. A., 
and staffs. This assemblage was the largest and most imposing that had as yet 
taken place. The force out on that occasion numbered 24,551 ; absent 6402. 

R.EGIMENT OF ARTILLERY. 

ColoneU-V. O.Hebert, (appointed Brigadier General C. S. A., 14 August, 1861.) 

lAeut. ColoneU-C. A. Fuller, (promoted to Colonel, vice P. 0. Hebert, 14th 
August, 1861.) 

Major — D. Beltzhoover, (promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, vice Puller, 14th 
August, 1861.) 

Captains — H. A. Clinch, (promoted to Major, vice Beltzhoover, 14th August, 
1861 ;) F. B. Brand ; J. B. Anderson ; Ed. Higgins ; W. C. Capers ; R. L. Gibson, 
(elected Colonel of 13th Regiment Louisiana Volunteers ;) E. W. Rawle ; M. T. 
Squires ; R. C. Bond ; W. B. Robertson ; J. B. Grayson, Jr., (promotion from 1st 
Lieutenant; J. B. Lamon, (promoted from 1 st Lieutenant, 6th September, 1861.) 

First Lieutenants — J. B. Grayson, Jr., (promoted to Captain, vice Church, 
Major ;) J. H. Lamon, (promoted to Captain, vice Gibson, elected Colonel ) R. 
J. Bruce; E. G. Butler; L. P. Haynes ; E. W. Baylor; A. V. Ogden; J. H. 
Stith ; W. H. Holmes, resigned 24th June, 1861 ; Carlton Hunt ; Wm. C. 
Pinckney; Claude Gibson; H. "W. Fowler; W. C. Ellis; L. V. Taylor; J. M. 
Johnson, resigned ; G. R. "Wilson ; R. Agar ; C. A. Conrad ; J. F. Fuller ; Jno. 
G. Eustis, rank 13th July, 1861 ; Bev. C. Kennedy ; J. W. Gaines, rank 14th 
August, 1861 ; Jno. G. Devereuz, rank 6th September, 1861. 

Second Lieutenants — John G. Eustis, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 13th July, 
1861; Bev. C. Kennedy, promoted to 1st Lieutenant; R. M. Hewitt, resigned, 
June 9th, 1861 ; J. W. Gaines, promoted to 1st Lieutenant; C. H. Sanford; J. G. 
Devereux, promoted to 1st Lieutenant ; G. M. Tureaud, resigned ; W. M. Bridges ; 

B. M. Harrod ; C. N. Morse ; George Crane, appointed 5th July, 1861 ; A. J. 
Quigley, appointed 5th July, 1861 ; Francis McManus, appointed 5th July, 1861 ; 
Richard Charles Cammack, appointed 13th July, 1861 ; Wm. Bullitt Jones, 
appointed 2'7th Aug., 1861 ; Wm. Taylor Mumford, appointed 2Yth August, 1861. 

REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 

Colonel — A. H. Gladden, appointed Brigadier General C. S. A. 

Lieut. Colonel — D. Adams, promoted to Colonel, vice Gladden. 

Major — C. M. Bradford, resigned, 23d July, 1861. 

Captains — J. A. Jacques ; promoted to Major, vice Bradford, resigned, thence 
to Lieut. Colonel, vice Adams ; P. H. Farrar, promoted to Major, vice J. A. 
Jacques ; Wm. H. Scott ; F. M. Kent ; James Strawbridge ; J. T. Wheat ; Thos. 
Overton, resigned, 27th May, 1861, S. S. Batphelor; Douglas West; C. A. 
Taylor; P. H. Thompson; J. H. Trevezant, appointed 23d July, 1861; Taylor 
Beatty, appointed 30th September, 1861. 

First Lieutenants — P. H Thompson, promoted to Captain, 1st June, 1861 ; J. S. 
Hyams, resigned ; J. H. Trevezant, promoted to Captain, 23d July, 1861 ; Taylor 
Beatty, promoted to Captain, 30th September, 1861 ; James Cooper ; E, Preston ; 
W. H. Sparks ; J. W. Stringfellow ; W. N. Starke , B. C. Cenas ; Thomas Butler, 
promoted from 2d Lieutenant, 21st May, 1861 ; C. H. Tew, promoted from 2d 
Lieutenant, 1st June, 1861; Louis Guion, promoted from 2d Lieutenant, 23d 
.July, 1861 ; W. A. Reid, promoted from 2d Lieutenant, 30th September, 1861. 

Second Lieutenants — Thos Butler, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 21st May, 1861 ; 

C. H. Tew, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 1st June, 1861 ; L. Guion, promoted to 
1st Lieutenant, 23d August, 1861 ; W. A. Reid, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 30th 



246 ABSTRACT REPORT OP THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



September, 1861 ; C. R. Benton ; L. N. Olivier ; R. 0. Kennedy ; Wm. Quirk ; 
G. W. Simpson ; G. W. Mf der ; R. Marston ; James Goode ; J. 0. Stafford ; A. 
Kent; E. Eastman, elected Captain in Louisiana Yolunteers ; S. S. Semmes i 
James Nelson; Jolin E. Austin, resigned, July 25th, 1861 ; T. W. Behan; G. L. 
Bond ; Louis West, appointed 2l3t May, 1861 ; M. Caruthers Gladden, appointed 
1st June, 1861|J'aul Wm. Barbarin, appointed 30th June, 1861 ; Wm Paul 
Grivot; appointed 23d August 1861; Alfred Joshua Lewis, appointed 2l8t 
October, 1861 ; John C. Golden, appointed 21st October, 1861. 

FIRST REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

A. G. Blanchard, Colonel ; W. G. Vincent, Lieut.-Colonel ; W. R. Shivers, 
Major. 

Montgomery Guards. — Michael Nolan, Captain ; M. B. Gilmore, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Hart, Second Lieut.; Sam. McLelland, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Guards Co. B. — C. E. Girardey, Captain ; Edgar Daquin, First Lieut.; 
S. McC. Montgomery, Second Lieut.; V. Murphy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Davis Guards. — Ben. W. Anderson, Captain; Robt. L. Vanortern, First Lieut.; 
J. B. Burthe, Second Lieut.; A. G. Duncan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Guards, Co. C. — Frank Rawle, Captain ; H. W. Montgomery, First 
Lieut.; R. H. Eenna, Second Lieut.; P. W. Semmes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo Rifles. — C. Dailee, Captain ; C. W. Lewis, First Lieut.; J. Kashmore, 
Second Lieut.; A. Brannon, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. A. — Chas. E. Cormien, Captain ; B. Cucullu, First 
Lieut.; H. 0. Parker, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. B. — T. M. Dean, Captain ; E. D. Willet, First Lieut.; 
A. Blaffer, Second Lieut.; E. A. Chadwick, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. C. — Chas. N. Frost, Captain ; Sam. R. Harrison, 
First Lieut.; W. C. Tavener, Second Jjieut.; A. A. Cnmmings, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. D. — P. O'Rourke, Captain ; W. L. Randall, First 
Lieut.; Hortaire Audry, Second Lieut.; J. T. Molaire, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Emmet Guards. — James Nelligan, Captain ; Geo. M. Morgan, First Lieut.; 
A. A. Wilkins, Second Lieut.; P. Bedell, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SECOND REGI.MENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Louis G. De Russy, Colonel ; John Young, Lieut.-Colonel ; J. T. Norwood, 
Major. 

Pelican Greys — A. H. Martin, Captain ; E. B. Stubbs, First Lieut.; S. D. Mc 
Enory, Second Lieut.; H. B. Holmes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Vienna Rifles — H. W. Perrin, Captain; J. J. Neilson, First Lieut.; J. Henry, 
Second Lieut., A. G. Cobb, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Moore Guards — Jno. Kelso, Captain ; W. A. Croghan, First Lieut.; W. L. 
Ridge, Second Lieut.; J. Delahauty, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Vernon Guards — -Oscar M. Watkins, Captain ; Nat. Rives, First Lieut.; E. Davis, 
Second Lieut.; H. H. Stevens, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Claiborne Guards — Jno. W. Andrews, Captain ; J. B. Parham, First Lieut ; 
Isaac L. Leonard, Second Lieut.; Jno. L. Young, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Floyd Guards — Jno. W. Dunn, Captain ; G. W. Dougherty, First Lieut.; D. 
W. Kelly, Second Lieut.: W. A. Draughton, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Greenwood Guards — Wm. Flournoy, Captain ; Alfred Flournoy, Jr., First 
Lieut.; S. D. Waddell, Second Lieut.; Lucien Flournoy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lecompte Guards — Wm. M. Levy, Captain ; Ross B. Burke, First Lieut.; J. F. 
Scarborough, Second Lieut.; S. B. Robertson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Atchafalaya Guards — R. M. Boone, Captain ; John J. McRae, First Lieut., J. 
T. Norwood, Second Lieut.; T. P. Harmanson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pelican Rifles— Jno. M. Williams, Captain; R. W. Ashton, First Lieut.; L. C. 
Furmau, Second Lieut.; J. S. Ashton, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 247 



THIRD EEGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Louis Hebert, Colonel; Sam'l M. Hyams, Lleut.-Oolonel Wm. P. Tunuard, 
Major. 

Pelican Rifles— J. B. Vlglini, Captain; John B. Irving, Pirst Lieut.; P. D. 
Tnnnard, Second Lieut.; Felix Brunot, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pelican Rangers No. 1 — Winter W. Breazeale, Captain ; W. Overton Breazeale, 
First Lieut.; Geo. Halloway, Second Lieut.; L. Oaspri, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pelican Rangers No. 2 — J. D. Blair, Captain ; S. D. Russell, Pirst Lieut.; Wm. 

B. Russell, Second Lieut.; J. M. Hyams, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caldwell Guards — W. L. Gunnell, Captain; J. T. Evans, First Lieut.; L. B. 
Fluitt, Second Lieut.; Thos. J. Humble, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Iberville Greys — C. A. Brusle, Captain; Thos C. Brown, First Lieut.; Thos. 
G. Stringer, Second Lieut.; T. R. Verbois, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Winn Rifles — D. Pierson, Captain ; Asa Emanuel, First Lieut.; Wm. Strother, 
Second Lieut.; W. C. Luny, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Morehouse Fencibles — J. P. Harris, Captain ; P. C. Bringham, First Lieut.; P. 
Broolis, Second Lieut.; W. D. Bringham, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Morehouse Guards — R. M. Hinson, Captain ; W. S. Hall, First Lieut.; D. C. 
Morgan, Second Lieut.; J. H. Bringham, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Shreveport Rangers — J. B. Gilmer, Captain; W. A. Lacy, Pirst Lieut.; Oscar 
J., Wells, Second Lieut.; A. Wall Jewell, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Monticello Rifles — John S. Richards, Captain ; W. D. Hardeman, First Lieut.; 
W. C. Corbin, Second Lieut.; C. A. Hearick, Jr. Second Lieut. 

FOURTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Robert I. Barrow, Colonel ; H. W. Allen, Lieut.-Colonel ; S. E. Hunter, Major 

C. Becher, Adjutant. 

Beaver Creek Rifles — J. H. Wingfield, Captain ; R. M. Amaker, First Lieut.; 
R. H. TurnbuU, Second Lieut.; R. Y. Burton, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Helena Rifles — J. B. Taylor, Captain ; H. M. Carter, Pirst Lieut.; J. B 
Corkern, Second Lieut.; Thos. Spiller, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hunter Rifles, Co. A — B J. PuUen, Captain; (Geo. A. Neafus, Pirst Lieut.; N 
B. Barfield, Second Lieut.; Henry Marston, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hunter Rifles, Co. B — John T. Hilliard, Captain; J. P. Adams, First Lieut.; 
E. C. Holmes, Second Lieut.; P. F. Huston, Jr. Second Lieut. 

West Feliciana Rifles — Chas. E. Toorean, Captain; J. S. Wooster, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Hearsy, Second Lieut.; James Read, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lafourche Guards— Thos. E. Vick, Captain ; C. Belcher, First Lieut,; H. Dan- 
serean, Second Lieut.; John S. Billieu, Jr. Second Lieut. 

W. B'n Ro'e Tirailleurs— P. A. Williams, Captain ; J. A. Levesque, Pirst 
Lieut., A. J. Bird, Second Lieut.; B. Landry, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Delta Rifles— H. M. Pavrot, Captain ; 0. M. Leblanc, First Lieut.; L. S. Here- 
ford, Second Lieut.; N. W. Pope, Jr. Second Lieut. 

National Guards— H. A. Richman, Captain ; J. S. Woolf, First Lieut.; A. Blum. 
Second Lieut.; Ed. Riedel, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lake Providence Cadets— F. V. Whicher, Captain ; W. P. Pennington, First 
Lieut.; D. C. Jenkins, Second Lieut.; C. R. Purdy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

FIFTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 
Theodore G. Hunt, Colonel ; Henry Forno, Lieut.-Colonel ; W. T. Dean, Major ; 

J. B. Norris, Adjutant. , „ „ „. t ■ ,. m, 

Bienville Guards— Mark L. Moore, Captain ; Jas. M. Coffee, First Lieut.; Thos. 

J. Williams, Second Lieut.; James C. Wilson, Jr. Second Lieut. ^ ^ „ ^ 
Orleans Cadets— Chas. Hobday, Captain; Alex. Hart, First Lieut.; J. T. Beach 

Second Lieut.; J. B. Norris, Jr. Second Lieut. 



248 ABSTRACT REPORT OP THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



La. Swamp Rangers — E. J. Jones, Captain ; C. H. Allen, First Lieut.; A. A. 
Bredow. Second Lieut.; F. Wary, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Southrons — 0. F. Peck, Captain ; Fred. Eiohardson, First Lieut.; N. 
A. Caulfield, Second Lieut.; D. M. Sory, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Crescent City Guards— John A. Hall, Captain ; E. G. Wingate, First Lieut.; 
W. W. Marsh, Second Lieut.; L. Sawyer, Jr. Second Lient. 

Perret Guards — Arthur Connor, Captain ; Rufus A. Hunt, First Lieut.; Thos. 
F. Evans, Second Lieut.; A. J. Laughlin, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Chalmette Guards — A. B. Shaw, Captain ; Alex. Riouffe, First Lieut.; John 
McGurli, Second Lieut.; W. H. Pendall, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Carondelet Invincibles — Bruce Menger, Captain ; J. S. Charles, First Lieut.; 
Geo. F. White, Second Lieut.; J. H. Haworth, Jr. Second Lieut. 

DeSoto Rifles— W. B. Koontz, Captain ; Geo. Seymour, First Lieut.; W. S. E. 
Sevey, Second Lieut.; A. H. Jones, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Monroe Guards — Thos. Dolan, Captain ; T. H. Biacoe, First Lieut.; Geo. H. 
Hinchey, Second Lieut.; R. B. Watkins, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SIXTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

I. G. Seymour, Colonel ; Louis Lay, Lieut.-Colonel ; S. L. James, Major. 

Irish Brigade, Co. A — James Hanlon, Captain ; B. Walsh, First Lieut.; J. B. 
Bressman, Second Lieut^; W. C. Quirk, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Irish Brigade, Co. B — Wm. Monahan, Captain; Michael O'Connor, First Lieut.; 
James 0. Martin, Second Lieut.; John Orr, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Mercer Guards — Thos. F. Walker, Captain; Robert Lynne, First Lieut.; Geo. 
M. Brisbin, Second Lieut.; John G. Rivera, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Violet Guards — W. H. Manning, Captain ; Geo. P. King, First Lieut.; Sam. 0. 
Kirk, Second Lieut.; Edward Flood, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Landry Light Guards — -Nat. Offut, Captain ; H. Hickman, First Lieut.; H. 
B. Ritchie, Second Lieut.; J, D. McCawley, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Rifles — Thos. F. Fisher, Captain ; W. H. Butrick, First Lieut ; Lewis 
(iraham. Second Lieut.; C. M. Pilcher, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Tensas Rifles — Chas. B. Tenney, Captain ; David F. Buckner, First Lieut.; T. 
P. Farrar, Jr., Second Lieut.; Isaac A. Reed, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pemberton Rangers — Isaac A. Smith, Captain ; Geo. W. Christy, First Lieut.; 
Frank Clarke, Second Lieut. ; W. P. Brewer, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Union and Sabine Rifles — Arthur McArthur, Captain ; D. M. Oalliway, First 
•Lieut.; J. F. Phillips, Second Lieut.; J. F. Smith-, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caliioun Guards — Henry Strong, Captain; Thos. O'Neil, First Lieut.; J. Hogan, 
Second Lieut.; G. J. Summers, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SEVENTH REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Harry T. Hays, Colonel; Chas. De Choisenl, Lieut.-Colonel; D. B. Penn, 
.Major. 

American Rifles — W. D. Rickarby, Captain; Sam. Flower, First Lieut.; 
Samuel Brewer, Second Lieut.; Jno. Rowan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Livingston Rifles — T. M. Terry, Captain ; A. G. Tucker, First Lieut.; Wm. 
Patterson, Second Lieut.; W, F. Ogden, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Virginia Guards — Robert Scott, Captain ; H. Doussan, First Lieut.; P. 
Grandpre, Second Lieut.; L. H. Malarshe, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Virginia Blues — D. A Wilson, Jr., Captain ; C. E. Bellinger, First Lieut.; 
H. 0. Thompson, Second Lieut.; E. A. Brown, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sarsfield Rangers — J. Marc Wilson, Captain ; West Steever ; First Lieut.; 
Henry Carthy, Second Lieut.; T. G. Morgan, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. 

Crescent Rifles, Co. B- — G. T. Jett, Captain; W. P. Harper, First Lieut.; 
Andrew E. Knox, Second Lieut.; Henry Grimshaw, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOtS. 249 



Crescent Rifles, Co. C — S. H. Oilman, Captain | W. C. Driver, First Lieut. ; 
J. H. Dawson, Second Lieut.; Conrad Green, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Continental Guards — George Clark, Captain ; A. W. Merriam, First Lieut.; 
E. McFarlane, Second Lieut.; Aaron Davis, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Baton Rouge Penoibles— Andrew S. Herron, Captain , J. Duncan Stuart, First 
Lieut.; Oscar H. Foreman, Second Lieut.; Jno. H. New, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Irish Volunteers — W. R. Ratliff, Captain ; L. N. Hewit, First Lieut.; S. Rey- 
naud, Second Lieut.; Thos. Kenegan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

H. B. Kelly, Colonel ; F. T. NichoUs, Lieut.-Colonel ; J. B. Prados, Major. 

Rapides Invincibles — Lee Craidell, Captain ; Henry Hine, First Lieut.; A. W. 
Davis, Second Lieut.; W. K. Johnson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Phoenix Company — L. D. Nicholls, Captain; Vr. St. Martin, First Lieut.; W. 
W. Martin, Second Lieut.; Wm. Simms, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Bienville Rifles — Aug, Larose, Captain ; Wm. Crayon, First Lieut.; P. L. 
Mailloux, Second Lieut.; F. Borges, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Creole Guards — J. L. Fremanx, Captain; A. L. Gusman, First Lieut.; T. D. 
Lewis, Second Lieut.; G. W. McGimsey, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Franklin Sharp Shooters — G. A. Lester, Captain ; Newton Z. Guice, First 
Lieut.; Robt. Montgomery, Second Lieut.: Jos. Bryan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sumter Guards— F. Newman, Captain; F. M. Harvey, First Lieut,; Wm. 
DeBolla, Second Lieut.; F. F. Wilder, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Attakapas Guards— Alex. DeBlanc, Captain; B. LeBlanc, First Lieut.; Geo. N. 
Stubinger, Second Lieut.; Chas. Duchamp, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Cheneyville Rifles— P. F. Keary, Captain ; J. M. Burgess, First Lieut.; W. H. 
Oliver, Second Lieut.; Jno. M. Murphy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Opelousas Guards— James C. Pratt, Captain ; John Taylor, First Lieut.; G. W. 
Hudspeth, Second Lieut.; Albert Dejean, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Minden Blues— Jno. L. Lewis, Captain; B. F. Simms, First Lieut.; J. B. 
Tompkins, Second Lieut.; W. C. Rockwell, Jr. Second'Lieut. 

NINTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Richard Taylor, Colonel; E. G. Randolph, Lieut.-Colonel; W. J. Walker, 

Bossier Volunteers- John H. Hodges, Captain ; P. Y. Hughes, First Lieut,; B. 
T ' Crawford, Second Lieut.; B. J. Hancock, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Bienville Blues— W. B. Pearce, Captain ; J. Cronan Eagan, First Lieut.; 0. W. 
Ardis, Second Lieut.; J. C.Theus, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Brush Valley Guards— W. F. Gray, Captain ; Grove Cook, First Lieut.; J. ^\ . 
Milton, Second Lieut.; John Potts, Jr. Second Lieut. ,. ,,. , . i ,t p r.^ 

• DeSito Blues— H. L. Williams, Captain ; W. F. T. Bennett, First Lieut.; E. !■ . 
Jackson, Second Lieut.; N. A. Sutherlan, Jr. Second Lieut. ^_ ^ . . 

Colyeil Guards— J. S. Gardner, Captain; J. B. Dunn, First Lieut.; A. A. 
Schneltory, Second Lieut.; P. S. Gardner, Jr. Second Lieut. „. ^ ^ . ^ „ 

Jackson Greys-J. R. Cavanaugh, Captain; G. W. McCranie, First Lieut.; M. 
B Kidd, Second Lieut.; G. S. McBride, Jr. Second Lieut ^ „■ ,t , 

Washington Rifles-Hardy Richardson, Captain; Jno. J. Slocorab, First Lient,; 
Flut Magee, Second Lieut.; John Wadsworth, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Moore Fencibles-B. L. Capers, Captain; Alfred Blackman First Lieut.; R. 
Grigsby, Second Lieut.; Wilber F. Blackman, Jr. Second Lieut 

Stafford Guards-L. A. Stafford, Captain; Smith Gordon, First Lieut.; C. D. 
Waters Second Lieut.; W. T. Cummings, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. „. _ . ^ 

MUUken Bend Guards-W. R. Peck, Captain ; Geo. D. Shadburne, First Lieut.,; 
R. G. Reading, Second Lieut.; Z. C. Williams, Jr. Second Lieut. 



250 ABSTEACT REPORT OP THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



TENTH REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Mandeville Marignj, Colonel ; J. C. Denis, Lieut.-Oolonel ; Felix DnMonteil' 
Major. 

Shepherd Guards — Alex. Phillips, Captain, Jacob A. Cohen, First Lient.; 
Morris Greenwall, Second Lieut.; Isaac L. Lyons, Jr, Secood Lient. 

Hewitt Guards — R. M. Hewitt, Captain ; L. L. Conrad, First Lieut.; Patrick 
Woods, Second Lieut.; Thos. N. Powell, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Confederate States Rangers — W. H. Spencer, Captain ; M. J. Prudhomme, 
First Lieut.; L. Prudhomme, Second Lieut.; E. A. Seatoii, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Rebels — John M. Leggett, Captain ; J. E. Cuculu, First Lieut.; E. 
Miltenberger, Second Lieut.; Albert Pagnier, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Blues — W. B. Barnett, Captain ; Chas. Boussell, First Lieut.; E. A. 
Bozonier, Second Lieut.; B. Clague, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Derbigny Guards — L. T. Bakewell, Captain ; E. W. Huntington, First Lieut.; 

E. Fellows, Second Lieut.; H. C. Marks, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Swamp Rifles — D. W. Dickey, Captain ; Albert Fabre, First Lieut.; 
P. K. Merrill, Second Lieut.; S. CucuUu, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Tirailleurs d'Orleans — Eugene Waggaman, Captain ; Alph. Canonge, First 
Lieut.; H. Monier, Second Lieut.; Paul Forstall, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Rangers — Edward Crevon, Captain ; G. A. Renand, First Lieut.; J. P. 
Montamat, Second Lieut.; L. A. ReToUe, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hawkins Guards — Chas. F. White, Captain ; J. H. Williams, First Lieut.; 
Ernest Webre, Second Lieut ; W. L. Hawkins, Jr. Second Lieut. 

ELEVENTH REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Samuel Marks, Colonel ; Robert H. Barrow, Lieut.-Colonel ; E. G. W. Butler, 
Major. 

Cannon Guards — J. E. Austin, Captain; R. J. Alexander, First Lieutenant; 
James Lingan, Second Lieut.; Robert L. Hughes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Dillon Guards — M. W. Murphy, Captain; J. P. Fallon, First Lieut.; A. P. 
Martin, Second Lieut.; R. K. Broderick, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Holmes Light Guards — J. H. McCann, Captain ; J. G. White, First Lieut.; M. 
(Cunningham, Second Lieut.; John Cunningham, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Rosale Guards — John J. Barrow, Captain ; G. M. Miller, First Lieut.; C. J. 
Johnson. Second Lieut.; 0. B. Haynes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Point Coupee Volunteers — Willie Barrow, Captain ; T. J. Bird, First Lieut.; 
C. D. Favrot, Second Lieut.; A. LeBlanc, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Westbrook Guards — W. Westbrook, Captain ; A. Cazebat, First Lieut.; Ben 
Turner, Second Lieut.; Rob. R. Dennison, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Labauve Guards — J. A. Ventress, Jr. Captain; J. R. Mims, First Lieut.; John 
,\Iarcot, Second Lieut.; Jos. Warro, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Shreveport Rebels — A. Scbafner, Captain ; L. L. Butler, First Lie\it.; J. R. 
Hyams, Second Lieut.; Jos. Strauss, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Continental Guar^ Company C — J. G. Fleming, Captain ; T. W. Peyton, First 
Lieut.; F. H. Babin, Second Lieut.; L. M. Sones, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Catahoula Greys — Alex. Mason, Captain ; Richard H. Harris, First Lieut.; S. 

F. Routh, Second Lieut.; A. N. Spencer, Jr. Second Lieut. 

TWELFTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Thos. Moore Scott, Colonel; W. H. Hough, Lieut.-Colonel; J. C. Knott, 
.Major. 

Claiborne Guards — Isaiah Lennard, Captain; NoelL. Wilson, First Lieut.; R. 
Evans, Second Lieut.; R. A. Crow, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Independent Rangers — D. L. Hicks, Captain ; J. W. Dutz, First Lieut.; T. 0. 
ilohnson, Second Lieut.; E. McN. Graham, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 251 



Jackson Sharpshooters — J. H. Seale, Captain ; J. S. Reno, First Lieut.; J. W. 
Jackson, Second Lieut.; W. P. Garr, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Farmer Guards— C. W. Hodge, Captain ; J. E. Woodward, First Lieut.; E. T. 
Sellers, Second Lieut.; W. L. Amonett, Jr. Second Lieut. 

North Lpuisiana Cadets — J. T. Jourdan, Captain; H.J. Chapman, First Lieut.; 
J. W. Sandeford, Second Lieut.; J. N. Atkins, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Arcadia Invincibles — C. T. Standifer, Captain; B. W. Glover, First Lieut.; D. 
S. Butler, Second Lieut.; J. D. Givens, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caldwell Invincibles — James A. Boyd, Captain ; P. A. Blanks, First Lieut.; T. 
C. Hill, Second Lieut.: Jno. Myers, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Southern Sentinels— John A. Dixon, Captain; J. R. Bevell, First Lieut.; Thos. 
J. Tiddlie, Second Lieut.; Wm. Miles, Jr. Second Lieut.. . 

Beauregard Fencibles — Henry McCain, Captain; B. H. Meam, First Lieut.; Jno. 
F. Brantley, Second Lieut.; Isaiah H. Lacey, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Parmer Rangers — B. D. Owen, Captain; W. M. Fuller, First Lieut.; W. A. 
Ponder, Second Lieut.; G. T. Johnston, Jr. Second Lieut. 

THIRTEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Randall Gibson, Colonel; Aristide Gerard, Lieut-Colonel; AnatoleP. Avegno, 
Major. 

First Company Governor Guards — Auguste Cassard, Captain ; Chas. Richard 
First Lieut.; Victor Mossy, Second Lieut.; Victor Olivier Jr. Second Lieut. 

Second Company Governor Guards — J. Fremaui, Captain ; B. Bennett, First 
Lieut.; C. H. Luzenburg, Second Lieut.; Chas. Hepburn, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Third Company Governor Guards — Bernard Avegno, Captain ; St. LeonDeetez, 
First Lieut.; Henry Castillo, Second Lieut.; Eugene Lagarique, Jr. Second Lieut., 

Fourth Company Governor Guards — M. O. Tracy, Captain ; Hugh H. Bein, 
First Lieut.; Eugene Blasco, Second Lieut.; Geo. W. Boylon, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Fifth Company Governor Guards — P. Lee Campbell, Captain ; John M. King, 
First^ieut.; J. B. Sallaude, Second Lieut.; Norman Story, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sixth Company Governor Guards — E. W. Dubroca, Captain ; John McGrath, 
First Lieut.; A. M. Dubroca, Second Lieut.; Robert Cade, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Mary Volunteers — Thos. G. Wilson, Captain; James Murphy, First Lieut.; 
H. H. Strawbridge, Second Lieut., Adolph Dumartrait, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Gladden Rifles — Wm. A. Metcalfe, Captain ; John W. Labuisse, First Lieut.; 
Walter V. Crouch, Second Lieut.; E. B. Musgrove, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Southern Celts— Stephen O'Leary, Captain ; John Daly, First Lieut.; E. J. 
Connolly, Second Lieut.; John Dooley, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Norton Guards— Geo. W. Norton, Captain ; M. Hunly, First Lieut.; A. S. Stuart, 
Second Lieut.; Geo. Cammack, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SIXTEENTH REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Preston Pond, Jr., Colonel ; Enoch Mason, Lieut.-Colonel ; Daniel Gober, 
Major. 

Caddo Fencibles— R. H. Lindsey, Captain ; C. Ford, First Lieut.; T. G. Pegues, 
Second Lieut.; P. H. Kyes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

East Feliciana Guards— James 0. Fuqua, Captain ; L. G. Chapman, First Lieut.; 
Oliver 0. Cobb, Second Lieut.; Thos. J. Fuqua, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Edward Guards— M. S. Edwards, Captain; S. A. Haden, First Lieut.; A. A. 
Harvey, Second Lieut.; Isaac Roberts, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pine Wood Sharp Shooters — Calvin E. Hosea, Captain ; L. J. Seawell, First 
Lieut.; Neal 0. "Regan, Second Lieut., Adam 6. Johnson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Helena Rebels— D. W. Thompson, Captain ; E. J. Ellis, First Lieut.; J. P. 
Kent, Second Lieut.; W. G. Williams, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Walker Roughs— W. E. Walker, Captain ; J. W. Addison, First Lient.; Horner 
E. Cozzens, Second Lieut.^ Hiram Tumage, Jr. Second Lieut. 



252 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



KapidOB Tigera — P. L. Ragsdale, Captain ; J. M. MoFeeley, First Lieut.; Stephen 
Lynck, Second Lieut.; J. McArthnr, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Castor Guards — W. T. Mabry, Captain; K. B. Cockerham, First Lieut.; J. A. 
Kooner, Second Lieut.; J. W. Noling, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Big Cane Biflea — Wm. 6. Bllerbe, Captain ; Louis Stagg, First Lieut.; John 
P. Davis, Second Lieut.; Paulin Stagg, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Erergreen Invincibles — Fred. White, Captain ; R. P. Oliver, First Lieut.; W. 
T. Fuqua, Second Lieut.; Cephus Thompson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

S. S. Heard, Colonel; Charles Jonea, Lieut. -Colonel ; B. B. Jones, Major. 

Sabine Rifles — D. W. Self, Captain ; L. J. Nash, First Lieut.; M. A. Thompson, 
Second Lieut.; S. T. Sibley, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Catahoula Guards — W. A. Reddett, Captain ; T. 0. Hynes, First Lieut.; J. S. 
Jones, Second Lieut.; Wm Scott, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Phoenix Rifles — J. G. Taylor, Captain ; S. Sawyer, First Lieut.; S. W. Taylor, 
Second Lieut.; R. W. Futch, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Morehouse Southrons — W. M. Otterson, Captain ; F. II. Grant, First Lieut. 
R. J. Stevens, Second Lieut.; M. S. Huuter, Jr Second Lieut. 

Catahoula Rebels — R. H. Cuny, Captain; J. Q. A. Talliaferro, First Lieut.; 
Carter Beaman, Second Lieut.; A. Whitehead, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Simmons Stars — T. P. Richardson, Captain ; W. A. Simmons, First Lieut.; W. 
Raymond, Second Lieut.; G. W. Webb, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Ouachita Southrbns — M. Rogers, Captain ; B. W. Burrough, First Lient.; D. 
M. Garliugton, Second Lieut.; S. G. McGuire, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo Lake Boys — J. A. Jeter, Captain ; F. G. Sperman, First Lieut.; P. G. 
Bickam, Second Lieut.; J. C. Allen, Jr. Second Lient. 

Landrnm Guards — Thos. A. Sharp, Captain ; T. H. Triplet, First Lient., J. C. 
Kenney, Second Lieut ; H. E. Allen, Jr. Second Lieut. ' 

Claiborne Invincibles — W. A. Maddox, Captain ; Jno. G. Heard, First Lieut.; 
G. M. Eillgone, Second Lieut.; J. A. Simmons, Jr. Second Lieut. 

EIGHTEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Alfred Mouton, Colonel ; Alfred Roman, Lieut. -Colonel ; Louis Bush, Major. 

Chasseurs St. Jacques — B. Camille Mire, Captain ; L. L. Armand, First Lieut.; 
S. Alex Poche, Second Lieut.; Ben S. Webre, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. James Rifles — Jules A. Drnilhet, Captain ; Emile Jacob, First Lieut.; C. M. 
Shepperd, Second Lieut.; Oct. Jacob, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Arcadian Guards — Wm. Mouton, Captain ; A. P. Bailey, First Lieut.; F. T. 
Comeau, Second Lieut.; 0. Broussard, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Landry Volunteers — H. L. Garland, Capt.; Chas. D. Ballajd, First Lieut.; 
Jacob Anselm, Second Lieut.; Ad. Debaillon, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Natchitoches Rebels — J. D. Wood, Captain ; W. P. Owens, First Lieut.; Theo. 
Lettier, Second Lieut.; Emile Cloutier, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lafourche Creoles — J. K. Gourdain, Captain ; John A. Collins, First Lieut.; 
J. B. Tucker, Second Lieut.; C. Gautreau, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hays Champions — J. D. Hayes, Captain; R. M. Sanders, First Lieut.; J. D. 
Elie, Second Lieut.; Dudley Avery, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Confederate Guards — Henry Huntingtion, Captain ; Paul B. Leeds, First 
Lieut.; B. S. Story, Second Lieut.; A. J. Wall, Jr. Second Lieut. 

NINETEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

B. L. Hodge, Colonel ; J. M. Hollingsworth, Lieut.-Colonel. 
Vance Guards — Richard W. Turner, Captain; E. C. Anderson, First Lieut.; 
A. B. Broughton, Second Lieut.; M. C. Cavett, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 253 



Henry Marshall Guards— H. J. Fortaon, Capt; H. H. Handley, First Lieut.; 
J. H. Eastham, Second Lieut.; W. H. Turill, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Keachi Warriors — D; S. Wells, Captain ; George Headrick, First Lieut.; E. M, 
Woodruff, Second Lieut.; J. W. Jones, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Robins Greys — Loudon Butler, Captain ; E. E. Robins, First Lieut.; J. L. 
Mapples, Second Lieut.; A. B. Skaunal, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Claiborne Volunteers — H. A, Kennedy, Captain; Jno. P. Spears, First Lieut.; 
S. A. Hightower, Second Lieut.; J. W. Obanivore, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Stars of Equality — H. H. Ham, Captain ; J. B. Sanders, First Lieut.; Toddy 
Robinson, Second Lieut.; W. R. Robert, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo 10th — W. P. Winaus, Captain; Camp Flournoy, First Lieut.; J. P. 
Bridges, Second Lieut.; Silas Flournoy. Jr. Second Lieut. 

Claiborne Greys— W. B. Scott Captain; R. P. Webb, First Lieut.; C. L. 
Weldin, Second Lieut.; J. N. Leverett, Jr. Second Lieut. 

WHEAT'S SPECIAL BATTALION LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 
-C. R. Wheat 



Walker Guards — Robt. A. Harris, Captain ; E. B. Sloane, First Lieut.; W. H. 
Kernarf, Second Lieut.; Jno. Coyle, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Old Dominion Gihirds — 0. P. Miller, Captain; W. D. Tobin, First Lieut.; A. 
C. Dickinson, Second Lieut.; A. E. Read, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Tiger Rifles — Alex White, Captain; T. W. Adrian, First Lieut.; Edward 
Hewitt, Second Lieut.; Sam P. Duchene, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Delta Rangers — H. C. Gardner, Captain ; T. A. Ripley, First Lieut.; M. Eastman, 
Second Lieut.; C. A. Petman, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Catahoula Guerrillas — J W. Buhoup, Captain; J. W. Spencer, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Guss, Second Lieut.; M. J. Liddell, Jr. Second Lieut. 

FIRST SPECIAL BATTALION LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Orleans Cadets — Charles D. Dreux, Captain ; H. F. Bond, First Lieut.; W. R. 
Collins, Second Lieut.; Theo. Zacharie, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Shreveport Greys— J. H. Beard, Captain; George Williamson, First Lieut.; 
Leon D. Marks, Second Lieut.; B. L. Hodge, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Grivot Guards— V. H. Rightor, Captain ; F. S. Goode, First Lieut.; D. B. Dunn, 
Second Lieut ; Jos. A. Gagne, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Crescent Rifles, Co. A— S. F. Pisk, Captain ;^TH'addeus Smith, First Lieut.; 
W. T. N. Robertson, Second Lieut.; Thos. A. Farris, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Guards— S. M. Todd, Captain ; Cbs. E. Fenner, First Lieut.; Henry 
Pierson, Second Lieut.; V. J. B. Girardey, Jr. Second Lieut. 

BATTALION OF INFANTRY, 
Commanded by Major A. Rkiohard, /or 12 Months Service {at Camp Lewis.) 

Turner Guards — Fred. Bahucke, Captain ; Thos Von Arnulinsen, First Lieut.; 
Th. Eicholz, Second Lieut.; Th. Schneider, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Steuben Guards— F. Burger, Captain ; G. Kehrwald, First Lieut.; S. Rosen- 
baum. Second Lieut.; Jno. Hausner, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Reichard Rifles— F. Reitmeyer, Captain; Otto Weise, First Lieut.; Charles 
DePetz, Second Lieut.; F. H. Miiller, Jr. Second Lieut. . r ■ 

Louisiana Volunteers— Chas. Assenheimer, Captain; P. Ruhl, First Lieut.; L. 
VonZinken, Second Lieut.; Julius Durrel, Jr. Second Lieut. 

BATTALION OF ARTILLERY, 
For 12 Months State Service. 
First Co. Orleans Artillery— F. Gomez, Captain ; P. A. Gomez, First Lieut.; 
E. R. Lehman, Second Lieut.; P. Marrero, Jr. Second Lieut. 



254 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



Second Co. Orleans Artillery — Jas. P. Merlot, Captain ; Fred. Latil, First 
Lieut.; Geo. F. Burthe, Second Lieut. 

Third Co. Orleans Artillery — G. Stromeyer, Captain ; A. A. Canon, First 
Lieut.; C. R. Fagot, Second Lieut.; A. Selle, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Fourth Co. Orleans Artillery — J. T. Theard, Captain ; E. Volaire, First Lieut.; 
L. B. Lemarie, Second Lieut. 

COMPANIES FOE ACTIVE STATE SERVICE. 

Perseverance Guards — John Bareshide, Captain ; Henry L. Blow, First Lieut.; 
Henry Rareshide, Second Lieut.; E. P. Rareshide, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Black Yagers — C. Rabenhorst, Captain ; J. HuUet, First Lieut.; H. Miller, 
Second Lieut.; H. B. Chandler, Jr. Second Lieut, 

Co. A. Sappers and Miners — John Ryan, Captain; Geo. Nungesser, First 
Lieut.; Geo. H. Moran, Second Lieut.; Thos. J. Royster, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Washington Light Infantry — James T. Plattsmier, Captain; A. A. Plattsmier, 
First Lieut.; James L. Lambert, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Co. C. Orleans Cadets — Joseph Collins, Captain; John T. Savery, First Lieut.; 
Jno. G. Wire, Jr. Second Lieut. » 

Co. A. Screwmen Guards — Sam. G. Bisk, Captain ; James Gibney, First Lieut.; 
Wm. McGregor, Second Lieut.; Nicholas Phelan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Marion Guards — R. L. Robertson, Jr. Captain ; W. H. Wells, First Lieut.; Ben. 
Oppenheim, Second Lieut.; C. Fitzenreter, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Yager Company — F. Peters, Captain ; D. Simon, First Lieut.; Chas. Wermes, 
Second Lieut.; C. Yacobs, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Scotch Rifle Guards — George Purvis, Captain ; J. L. Henderson, First Lieut.; 
J. R. Dickson, Second Lieut ; Thos. Eraser, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Co. B. Screwmen Guards — J. C. Batchelor, Captain ; B. W. Stanley, First 
Lieut.; D. O'Sullivan Second Lieut.; A. R. Sellars, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Allen Guards — S. Jones, Captain ; Thos. K. Pearson, First Lieut.; W. S. 
Jones, Second Lieut.; Robert Manser, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Twiggs Rifles — D. H. Marks, Captain; Henry T. Hepp, First Lieut; W. C. 
Morrell, Second Lieut.; Lewis L. Ellis, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Mary Cannoniers — ^F. 0. Cornay, Captain; Jules G. Olivier, First Lieut.; 
Geo. 0. Foote, Second Lieut.; M. T. Gordy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Co. A. Orleans Blues — Richard Herrick, Captain ; E. F. Stevens, First Lieut.; 
S. L. Bishop, Second Lieut.; A, Bobet, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Florence Guards — H. Brummerstadt, Captain ; E. Lachenmeyer, First Lieut.; 
B. Wasserogel, Second Lieut.; Ed. Warburg, Jr. Second Lieut. 

McCall Guards — Chas. H. Herrick, Captain ; Emile Bloom, First Lieut.; J. D. 
Scott, Second Lieut.; Leon LeGardeur, Jr. Second Lieut, 

Co. B. Orleans Blues — Sam. Boyd, Captain ; Bobt. E. Breeden, First Lieut.; 
Jno. Baker, Second Lieut.; Patrick Clarke, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Tirailleurs d'Orleans — A. Tissot, Captain ; P. Canonge, Jr. First Lieut.; Louis 
Barron, Second Lieut.; J. L. Bargae, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Co. B. Twiggs Bifles — Washington Marks, Captain ; Oliver Locke, First Lieut.; 
M. H. Marks, Second Lieut.; Sam. Barnes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Ventress Life Guards — -Jos. Goldman, Captain , Ed. Thomas, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Sylvester, Second Lieut.; Chas. Calhoun, Jr. Second Lieut. 



ANNUAL REPORT MADE DECEMBER 10, 1862. 

January 2'7tb, 1862. — Gov. Moore issues an order for the celebration of the 
anniversary of the day the State seceded (27th Jan., '61), by military and civil 
authorities. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 255 



February IHh.-First and Second Brigade, Toluuteer troops, ordered to be 
ready for marching on twenty-four hours notice 

February 23d.-First Brigade, Tolunteer troops, and Second La. Militia, ordered 
to report to Geo. Lovell. 

March 4th.-0aptain W. G. Mullen, stationed near the forts to harrass the 
enemy and furnished with pirogues for penetrating lakes and bayous 

The resident foreigners formed into the European and French Brigades— num- 
bering altogether 5138 and 3804 men, who did duty when the city fell, and for 
several days afterwards maintained peace and order. 

Sanitary corps of 800 men organized under Dr. W. E. Stone. 

March 24th, 1862.— A regiment of free colored natives, tender their services 
to the State, and are accepted. Gen. Butler, subsequently, after the fall of the 
city, attempted to revive it, but prior to Dec. '62, only fifty of the old organi- 
zation responded to the call. A call made for shot guns and other fire arms, 
which was responded to. Chains, cables and anchors seized from extortioners' 
for making rafts near the forts, under order by L. E. Forstall and Thos. E. 
Adams, and Geo. H. Bier, of C. S. Navy. A large number exempted by the 
State from military duty for government work— the contractors for these works 
using freely the right of exempting all persons in public employ, especially 
those building the Louisiana and Mississippi. 

February 24th. — Gen. Lovell has the Galveston and Cuarles Morgan which 
have been seized, fitted out as gunboats, and named respectively the Gen. Quit- 
man and Gov. Moore, Beverly Kennon, Commander of the latter, James Duke, 
and Fred. Frame, officers. Engineers : G. Wetter, R. P. Fortune, A. Gleasop, B. 
0. Brien, of the Gen. Quitman ; A. Grant, jr. Commander, S. Marcey, First Offi- 
cer ; W. J. Irvine, Second Engineer ; H. Behrens, A. Smith, P. Thompson, J. 
Smith ; these participated in the naval battle and behaved gallantly. 

Judge J. "W. Andrews, Major John Stroud, jr., Maj. E. C. Hancock, and Ph. B. 
Boisfontaine, put in charge of the Passport Bureau. Lieutenants U. Lewis, W. 
E. Gordon, R. L. Butler, R. E. McKreevy, A. Chalaire, jr., J. H. Bernos and F. 
Toca, were appointed to examine passports on the different roads. 

March 15th. — Martial law proclaimed in Orleans, Jefferson and St. Bernard. 
Crescent Artillery, Company A, placed on the Louisiana. 

April 11th. — The enemy with a large fleet have crossed the bar off the Balize 
and are operating with gunboats and mortar fleet. Bombardment continued 
without cessation, until April 25th, and subsequently thereto. The troops in 
the fort act J|eroically. The Ram Mississippi — a mystery thus far, was not 
finished. 

April 24th. — Three gunboats have passed the forts and are on their way up. 
The people have not anticipated the event, and the excitement is great. Militia 
placed under arms^the city filled with startling rumors, as, to whether the 
advance would be made by water or land. Gov. Moore left with the archives. 
Militia, in the midst of great consternation and excitement, detached to perform 
polifee duty. 

April 25th. — Twenty Federal gunboats at Packwood's Plantation, 20 miles 
below the city. Gen. Lovell calls at 9 o'clock, and invites Gens. Lewis and 
Grivot, to proceed to the fortifications. Before reaching there the enemy make 
the attack, and the State troops forced to abandon the guns. An order was now 
given to evacuate the city, and State troops were making their way out. The 
Federal gun boats reach the city ; the rain meanwhile pouring down in torrents. 
All of the drays and carts impressed to ship off to stores to Camp Moore and 
Monroe. All cotton ordered to be destroyed and feW bales escaped. 

April 30th. — State government fixed at Opelousas, which place Gov. Moore 
and Gen. Grivot, reached on the 18th of May. 

May 19th. — Gen. John G. Pratt, in command at New Iberia. Enemy in pos- 
session of the road from Algiers to Berwick's Bay. 

Sixty-four of the 21st Indiana, take a schooner in the Grande Caillou with 
arms. The Colonel of the Terrebonne Regiment called a meeting, and proposed 



256 ABSTEACT REPORT OE THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



an attack, which was not made. Seven or eight young men captured a wagon 
with federal soldiers, two of the latter killed, and two wounded. The following 
day four-hundred of the 21st Indiana, commanded by Ool. Keith, seized fourteen 
citizens, and in front of their prison a rope was suspended. J. B. Bond, 60 years 
of age, and an invalid, together with his family was driven from his. house, 
which was then burned. The jail was burned, and the property of Dr. Jenning. 

May 25th — Oapt. E. W. Fuller, of the St. Martin Rangers, to get rid of them, 
captured a train at Brashear, and immediately put his men on board, and moved 
towards New Orleans. He captured an uptrain at Raoeville, and another at Des 
Allemands. There still remained one locomotive in Algiers, opposite New 
Orleans. To prevent this from leaving, Capt. Fuller double-quicked ten miles to 
Jefferson, and cut a 100 foot crevasse, took up the rails of the track and carried 
them off. He also burned the bridges, doing much of his work in sight of an 
armed vessel. The enemy again appearing at Thibodeauz. 

June 3d — Lieut. Colonel V. A.Fournet with the Yellow-Jacket Batallion, laid 
in wait for their train and killed 60, causing them to retreat. Large numbers 
of river boats, which in ordinary times ran up and down the Mississippi and 
its innumerable tributaries, took refuge by way of Red River and Aehafalaya, 
in the innumerable net work of lagunes and bayous, whose names and course 
were hardly well-known, even by hunters and fishermen. Among other boats 
was the Tow Boat, J. L. Webb, fitted out as a sea-goiug Steamer, at that time 
hidden back, and stealthily taking on board 300 bales of cotton. She was 
seized, and afterwards kept the bayous back to Red River, clear of any Federal 
Boal^, drawing only 7J feet of water. Capt. Jas. McCloskey, and subsequently 
Major A. W. MoKee, were her commanders. 

June 4th — Lieut. Woods, the only person who could be found who had any 
practical knowledge of the matter employed at the Franklin Foundry to make 
shot and cannister. Agents sent out to hunt rifle powder. An impromptu 
battery rigged out from a few old howitzers damaged about the rims, which have 
been picked up from various points, and which only want harness and carriages 
to be made useful in the field. They can also be made serviceable by dis- 
mounting them as occasion may demand for the boats. The greatest trouble 
was to find an officer who could organize and drill a company. Major Octave 
Voohries, formerly of the Washington Artillery, and Buisson's Brigade, and 
Lieut. Ed. Crow, of De Clout's Regiment were recommended by Gen. Pratt to 
this work. 

.May loth — The Conscript Act of April 10th, ordered to be- put in force. 
Foreigners and Partisan Rangers exempted. Camps of instruction at Monroe 
and Opelousas. 

Thirty-eight parishes have reported a force of 8,690 Conscripts. The parishes 
of Plaquemine, St. Bernard, Orleans, Jefferson, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, 
West Baton Rouge, Madison, Carroll and Caldwell not reporting — say ten 
parishes. 



Rciunis of 

'Adj. 



Conscripts between the ages of 18 and 35 years, made to the Office of the 
ijjutant and Inspector General of the State to Ist December, 1862. 



EASTERN LOUISIANA. 



Camp of Instruction, Camp Moore, Parish of St. Helena. — East Baton Rouge, 
79; East Feliciana, 37; West Feliciana, 92; Livingston, 102; St. Helena, 26; 
Washington, 11 ; St. Tammany, 54. Total, 401. 

WESTERN LOUISIANA— SOUTH RED RIVER. 

Camp of Instruction, Camp Pratt, Parish St. Martin. — Assumption, 636 ', 
Ascension, 170; Avoyelles, 476; Calcasieu, 340 ; Iberville, 252 ; Lafayette, 343 j 
Lafourche, 559 ; Natchitoches, 446 ; Pointe Coupee, 376 ; Rapides, 536 ; St. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 257 



Mary, 202; St. Martin, 196; St. James, 262; St. Landry, 1,148; Sabine, 125; 
Vermillion, 36t; Winn 141; Terrebonne, 501. Total, 6,876. 

WESTERN LOUISIANA— NORTH RED RIVER. 

Camp of Instruction, Monroe, Ouachita Parish.— Bossier, 179; BienTille, 32 ; 
Caddo, 191; Claiborne 150; Catahoula, 235; Concordia; 46; DeSoto, 9; 
Franlclin, 87 ; Jacltson, 00 ; Morehouse, 59 ; Ouachita, 212 ; Tensas, 89 ; Union, 
124; Total, 1,413. 

REOAPlTtriATION : 

Eastern Louisiana — 7 parishes, 401. Western Louisiana — S. Red River, 18 
parishes, 6,876. Western Louisiana — N. Red River, 13 parishes, 1.413. Total 
38 parishes, 8,690. 

No returns from Plaquemine, St. Barnard, Orleans, Jefferson, St. Charles, St. 
John the Baptist, West Baton Rouge, Madison, Carroll and Caldwell — 1 parishes. 

June 20th, 1862. — Trafic with the enemy or any attempt to get out cotton or 
sugar furtively, or travel to or from New Orleans, made amenable to Court-Mar- 
tial. River steamboats ordered to be burned when in danger of capture. Mail 
facilities extremely difficult from the Trans-Mississippi to Richmond. 

Applications made for the formation of Partisan Rangers. A few companies 
formed under command of Simeon Belden, A. L. Hayes and others. 

A large amount of specie belonging to the Bank of America, $700,000 or 
upwards had been transferred from the vaults and brought out from New 
Orleans upon the approach of the Federal fleet. After some adventures, it was 
determined by those having it in charge to carry it back to New Orleans. As 
soon as this determination was ascertained orders were issued to Lieut. Col., 
Cheney, of Avoyelles, Ralph Smith, Esq.,-Chiarman of the Committee of Public 
Safety of Alexandria, and a company under command of Gapt. S. M. Todd, 
[not the officer of the same name from New Orleans] who were sent to seize the 
parties ostensibly conducting it to New Orleans. The order however was not 
delivered to Mr. Smith before the specie had reached Alexandria, and had been 
carried off on the Steamer Moro. [Whatever became of it afterwards is still 
Involved in mystery]. 

The Steamer J. A. Cotten seized, and with the Anna Perret mounted with 
two guns assisted in protecting the movement, and after driving the enemy 
captured a large number of prisoners. 

October 22. — Seven deserters executed. Sundry goods and a lot of beeves 
brought towards New Orleans, seized and confiscated. The enemy make an 
incursion up to Lake Charles and are opposed by Col. W. W. Johnson. 
40,000 troops up to date, sent from the State all armed, with no assistance 
whatever from the Richmond government. 

TWENTY-SIXTH BBGIMENT LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Alexander DeClouet, Colonel ; D. S. Cage, Lieut. -Colonel ; Winchester Hall, 
Major. 

Allen Rifles— Caleb J. Tucker, Captain; L. A. Webre, First Lieut.; Clay 
Knoblock, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Assumption Creoles— W. Whitnel Martin, Captain; L. Himel, First Lieut.; 
Numa Arrieux, Second Lieut.; Leon Achee, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Bragg Cadets — Cleaphas Lagarde, Captain; Lewis Guion, First Lieut.; Sylvere 
Navarre, Second Lieut.; M. Aug. Legendre, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Grivot Guards, Co. B— W. A. Bislaud, Captain; Joseph^Aycock, First Lieut.; 
Homer Lirette, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Grivot Guards, Co. C— J. J. Shaffer, Captain ; J. A. Leonard, First Lieut.: 
Thos. J. Shaffer, Second Lieut.; K. L. Aycock, Jr. Second Lieut. 



258 ABSTRACT EEPOET OP THE ADJUTANT GENEEAL 



Lovell Rifles — W. W. Bateman Captain ; A. S. Lawes, First Lieut.; D. C. 
Daniels, Second Lieut.; J. Y. Sanders, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Grivot Fancy Guards — W. C. Crow, Captain; E. B. Crow, First Lieut.; James 
0. Bice, Second Lieut.; Jos. Louviere, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Prudhomme Guards — Octave Metoyer, Captain ; G. W. Cobb, First Lieut.; S. 
Pace, Second Lieut.; S. W. Bossier, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lafayette Prairie Boys — Eraste Mouton, Captain ; Hazard Basten, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Campbell, Second Lieut.; F. Martin, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pickett Guards — C. 0. Delahoussaye, Captain; Aubin Bourg, First Lieut.; 
Thos. J. Hargis, Second Lieut.; B. Cooper, Jr. Second Lieut. < 

TWENTY-SEVENTH EEGLMENT LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Leon D. Marks, Colonel ; L. L. McLaurin, Lieut.-Oolonel ; Geo. Tucker, Major. 

Skipwith Guards — A, S. Norwood, Captain; Thos. L. East, First Lieut.; L. P. 
Talbert, Second Lieut.; J. A. Norwood, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Iberville Guards — E. W. Robertson, Captain ; B. D. Vfoods, First Lieut.; F. 
Arbour, Jr., Second Lieut.; Victor Blanchard, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo Pioneers — C. D. G. Williams, Captain ; J. M. Christen, First Lieut. 

Spencer Guards — John T. Spencer, Captain ; T. 0. S. Robertson, First Lieut.; 
W. K. Strickland, Second Lieut.; Abner Womack, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Rapides Terribles — Jos. T. Hatch, Captain ; W. M. McCormick, First Lieut.; 
A. J. llcCranie, Second Lieut.; A. G. Baillio, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sparta Guards— R. W. Campbell, Captain; J. P. Webb, First Lieut.; T. E. 
Paxton, Second Lieut ; R. S. Allums, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Winn Rebels — J. R. Cooper, Captain; W. B. Stovall, First Lieut; J. W. 
Oockerham, Second Lieut.; F. L. Gregg, Jr. Second Lieut. 

McLaurin Invincibles — J. H. Garret, First Lieut.; J. B. Davenport, Second 
Lieut.; A. J. Gibson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Dixie Rebels — 0. L. Durham, Captain; C. J. Foster, First Lieut.; J. H. Tucker, 
Second Lieut.; G. W. Graves, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo Confederates — T. C. Lewis, First Lieut.; J. B. Smith, Second Lieut.; 
Saml. Beckwith, Jr. Second Lieut. 

BATTALION LOUISIANA DEFENDERS— LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Juan Miangolara, Major ; E. Basseli, Adjutant. 

First Company — T. Viade, First Lieut.; Jose Ferry, Second Lieut.; T. Alberti, 
Jr. Second Lieut. 

Second Company — Arthur Picolet, Captain ; E. N. Ganucheau, Second Lieut.; 
J. D. Sourdes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Third Company — Jose Domingo, Captain ; Leon Prats, First Lieut.; Jose JVfora, 
Second Lieut.; J. Roses, Jr. Second Lieut. 

BATTALION YELLOW JACKETS— LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

V. A. Fournet, Lieut.-Oolonel; G. A. Fournet, Major; B. DeBlanc, Surgeon; 
L. A. Laloire, Quartermaster; L. P. Briant, Adjutant. 

Company A — Ale.x. Thibodeaux, Captain; Valery Thlbodaux, First Lieut.; 
Leon Gillard, Second Lieut.; Omer Martin, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company B — Desire Beraud, Captain ; Arthur Simon, First Lieut.; Alcee 
Castille, Second Lieut.; Alf. Gradenigo, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company C — C. DeBlanc, Captain; Nicolas Cormier, First Lieut.; Pierre 
Lasalle, Second Lieut.; L. T. Smith, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company D — B. D. Dauterive, Captain; Louis Fournet, First Lieut.; J. Z. 
Boutte, Second Lieut.; V. Dauterive, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company E — A. Berard Captain; Mozart Bernard, First Lieut,; Jos. Nunez, 
Second Lieut.; V. Lemoine, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS 259 



Forces Volunteer Stale Troops transferred to Major Gen. M. Lovell. Commanding 
Department No 1, C. S. A. 

FIRST BRIGADE VOLUNTEER TROOPS. 
Brigadier General — Benjamin BnissoN. 

Orleans Guards— Numa Augustin, Colonel ; Charles Massieu, Lieut.-Colonel 
Chasseurs-a-Pied— J. Simon Meilleur, Colonel; *Chas. A. Janvier, Lieut.- 
Colonel ; *H. J. Rivet, Major. 

Chalinette— *Szymanski, Colonel ; *Geo. W. Logan, Lieut.-Colonel : *Eugene 
Soniat, Major. is 

Cazadores Espagnoles— Nelvil Soule, Lieut.-Colonel ; 6. Marzoni, Major. 

SECOND BRIGADE VOLUNTEER TROOPS. 
Brigadier General — E. L. Tracy. 

Beauregard— *F. A. Bartlett, Colonel ; Geo. S. Lacey, Lieut.-Colonel ; *Geo 
McKnight, Major. 

Jeff Davis— Alex. Smith, Colonel ; *W. P. Preret Lieut.-Colonel ; *Jno. B 
Cotton, Major. 

Continental— 'Geo. Clark, Colonel; *A. W. Merriam, Lieut.-Colonel; *Geo. W 
Hynson, Major. 

Sumpter— *G. A. Breaux, Colonel ; *T. H. Shields, Lieut.-Colonel ; — Bell, 
Major. 

Battalions — Johnson Special. — W. W. Johnson, Lieut.-Colonel ; *W. H. Winn. 
Major. 

Battalions — King's Special — *J. E. King, Lieut.-Colonel. 

THIRD BRIGADE VOLUNTEER TROOPS. 
Brigadier General — S. M. Westmoee. 

Confederate Guards — *J. F. Girault, Colonel ; C. R. Railey, Lieut.-Colonel ; 
J. J. Noble, Major. 

Louisiana Irish — P. B. O'Brien, Colonel ; W. J. Castell, Lieut.-Colonel. 

Leeds Guards — Chas. J. Leeds, Colonel ; E. Grinnell, Lieut.-Colonel.; A. G. 
Brice, Major. 

RECAPITULATION OP FORCES. 

Pisrt Brigade, 2815; Second Brigade, 3818; Third Brigade, 2480. Total 9113. 

These regiments were mustered into Confederate States Service, and when 
the gunboats passed the forts and Lovell xiarried off all transportation, were 
disbanded by Gen. Tracy. When Butler arrived, the ofiScers and men were 
arrested as prisoners of war, paroled, and those who did not take the oath, were 
exchanged on the 8th of October following, being delivered at Vicksburg. 
Those marked thus* are known to have bsen exchanged, and did good service 
afterwards. 



COMPLETE KOLL 



Jenpr's Louisiai^a Battery, 

From the time of its Organization, May 16th, 1862, 

UNTIL THE SUBRENDER OF GENERAL TAYLOR, AT MERIDIAN, 
MISSISSIPPI, MAT 10, 1865. 



Charles E. Fenner,* Captain ; Thos. J. Duggan,* 1st Lieut. ; W. T. CluveriuB,* 
Jr. 1st Lieut. ; E. Montgomery,* 2d Lieut. ; 6. P. Harris, Jr. 2d Lieut., dis- 
charged for disability; C. J. Howell,* Jr. 2d Lieut; Frederic Ernest,* Ist 
Sergeant; S. R. Garrett, 2d Bergt., commissioned as Lieut, in Paries Louisiana 
Battery; J. F. Early,* 3d Sergeant; S. H. Copeland, 4th Sergt., discharged 
Aug., 1864; A. P. Beers, 5th Sergt., commissioned Lieut, in Gibson's Louisiana 
Brigade ; B. W. Finney, 6th Sergt., transferred to Richmon^d Howitzers ; R. 
Woest,* Tth Sergt. Promoted to Sergeants— L. John Gill,* J. Carley,* C. 
Young,* R. Howe.* -Quarteriflaster Sergeants — L. Steadman, discharged for dis- 
ability, H. C. Walker,* G. Sumerall ; W. Woelper,* 1st Corporal ; J. K. Renaud,* 
2d Corporal ; J. H. Kennard, 3d Corporal ; P. T. Minor, 4th Corporal, com- 
missioned Lieut, in Gibson's Brigade ; H. W. Palfrey, 5th Corporal ; W. M. 
Brunet, 6th Corporal, killed at New Hope, May 25th, 1864. Promoted to Corpo- 
rals as vacancies occurred — P. J. McGrath, wounded New Hope, May 25th, 1864; 
J. H. McDaniel, Commanding Lieut, in Gibson's Brigade. Corporals, J. H. 
• Holmes,* D. B. Rindle;* F. M. Hall,* B. Cosby, discharged on disability; R. W. 
Benbury, wounded at Atlanta, (disabled); J. T. Davis, transferred to the Navy ; 
B. N. McCarty,* J. F. Muse,* J. McGregor, W. J. Salter, wounded July 2d, 1864, 
disabled; A. David, A. H. Clark,* T. Murphy, killed, February, 1865. Privates, 
H. S. Addison,* C. Ahem,* J. Augustin,* T. J. Beck,* Baggett, discharged 
on disability ; J. S. Beers,* C. Buhler,* C. A. Bessac, on detached duty time of 
parole; T. B. Bodley,* A. Bowman,* E. A. Brandao,* R. A. Bridgins, killed at 
New Hope, May 25th, 1864; Jos. Bridgins,* John Bridgins,* A. Britton, dis- 
charged for disability ; B. T. Brunei,* R. H. Brunet,* T. W. Buddecke,* W. W. 
BuflFord, C. C. Burns, L. Burnel,* B. H. Burton, detached; F. W. Bartels, 
detached; T. W. Brammes, supposed to have been killed; J. Beylle,* P. Calla- 
han,* W. Campbell, detached Ord. Sergeant and Artillery ; W. S. Campbell," 
F, Carroll,* J. P. Casey,* F. S. Carey, ;G. P. Childress,* M. B. Childress,- A. B. 
Clark,* R. R. Conningworth,* J. D. Conway,* W. Conrad,* W. H. Cook,* W. B. 
Cooper,* J. B. Cooper,* J. J. Corprew, detached, wounded May 25th, 1864; W. 
Corprew, detached to Ordnance Department at Resacca; S. W. Cotton, dis- 
charged lor disability ; J. Crawford, discharged over age on expiration of term; 
R. H. Crawford, detached ; W. S. Crawford,* T. Cusack,* J. S. Clark, sick in 
hospital ; P. C. Clark,* E. David, discharged for disability ; L. Desforges, 
detached ; G. W. Dicks,* J. Dirker,* G. Douglass,* J. Duggan, commissioned as 

* Paroled at the general surrender. 



252 EOLL OP tenner's LOUISIANA BATTERY. 



Quartermaster ; W. Chap. Duncan,* G. T. Dunbar, detached ; K. 0. Eaton, 
wounded May 25th, 1864, New Hope, paroled at Selma ; J. T. Bggleston, com- 
missioned Lieut, of Marine; F. Bnders, detached; E. Brichs'on," H. W. Tair- 
child,* G. M. Fisher,* Chas. V. Fisher,* wounded at Resacda ; C. N. A. Fitzen- 
riter,* T. Flanagan, detached; F. G. Folger, detached; G. L. Folger,* N. C. 
Folger, on furlough time of parole; R. B. Ford,* R. P. Ford, missing, (supposed 
to have been Isilled) ; G. W. Fry,* J. J. Gidiere, detached ; H. E. GiflFney, H. 
Guider, detached and after commissioned ; J. J. Goode, P. Graham, killed May 
12th, 1864; A. Grivot,* S. B. Gill,* S. Green, commissioned Lieut, in Forrest's 
Cavalry ; T. F. Gwathmey, detached ; G. B. Haller,* A. E. Hammond,* J. B. 
Hayes, detached ; G. H. Helm, transferred ; A. D. Henriquez,' H. H. Hester,* J. 
Henley,* J. Hibben,* J. H. Hollingsworth,* G. Horton,* W. F. Hosmer,* Jos. P. 
Hornor, J. S. Hudnal,* D. Hughes, sick in hospital ; A. H. M. Hunter,* L. C. 
Ivy,* B. F. Jbnas,* F. P. Jones, A. P. Joyner, B. Judice, killed at Mt. Pleasant; 
J. F. Kay, died in hospital; W. H. 0. Laade,* C. A. Lagroue,* W. H. Layton, 
killed at Jackson ; L. C. Levy, on sick furlough ; W. Lindsay, J. J. Link,* R. 
Little, discharged over age ; J. 0. Locke, died at Marietta ; J. L. N. Logan,* L. 
P. Long,* C. Lauber, wounded at Resacca; W. Lockett, A. Magnon, B. Maguer, 
died at Marietta; G. Mather,* H. C.Martin,* E. T. Manning, discharged for 
disability ; H. L. Manning, transferred to navy ; A D. Macaulay, discharged for 
disability; A. McCartney, A. McLean, paroled Richmond March 2d, 1865, 
drowned attempting to cross Lake Pontchartrain in an open boat ; P. J. McGuire, 
wounded at Atlanta and detailed ; R. McNair, sick in hospital ; G. Miller, John 
Miller, died at Jackson, Louisiana; J. B. B. Miller, transferred to the navy; H. 
G. Morgan,* T. C. Morrison.* C. Mount, discharged under age ; F. Mullen, killed 
at Resacca; L. P. Murphy, detailed on secret service; John Murphy, killed at 
Port Hudson ; D. M. Murphy,* Jos. Murphy, wounded at New Hope, disabled ; 
J. Hyes Myers, W. R. Norcom, commissioned Lieut, on Barton's Staff; T. C. 
Newcomer, detached ; J. W. Noyes," S. J. Pecot,* J. T. Pecot,* wounded; G. S. 
Petit,* C. M. Perrin,* H. Pearson,* J. L. Pierson,* T. Porteous,* J. W. Person, 
commissioned Lieut, of Privateer; I. T. Preston, killed at Murfreesboro ; L. 
Prophet,* J. W. Ramsey, transferred to the navy ; T. C. Raby,* T. Reid, W. B. 
Rees,* J. G. Reeve, J. E, Redmond, absent, sick ; J. L. Risk, absent, sick ; W. N. 
Rogers, detached ; B. D. Ross, commissioned Lieut, in Gibson's Louisiana Bri- 
gade ; Ross, discharged for disability; T. Seaton," H. Seibert,* J. L. Simmons,* 
W. H. Shaw, J. F. Shaw,* J Lewis Sharkey, J. J. Sharkey,* W. Sharkey,* T. L. 
Shute, transferred to Bradford's Scouts; W. R. Skelton,* E. Smith,* M. Smith,* 
A. B. Sparks, killed at Jackson; H. C. Stannard, sick in hospital; H. St. 
Germain, prisoner of war; G. M. Steirer,* T. J. Stewart, detached; F. M. C. 
Swain,* L. Skeels, commissioned Lieut, in Gibson's Louisiana Brigade, killed ; 
H. S. Smith, transferred to the navy; W. W. Thompson, M. L. Thompson,* Mac. 
Thompson, H. J. Thomas, N. N. Trotter,* W. T. Vaudry,* 6. Voorhies,* P. J. 
Vigo, prisoner ; H. D. Wall,* L. H. Walker, Q. Waterman, transferred to the 
navy ; S. Waters, detached ; 0. Weise, E. G. Wells, sick in hospital ; Wilson, 
discharged for disability ; S. Wilkins,* A. L. White,* T. J. Wells,* T. McK. 
Whiteman,* P. Work, discharged for disability; Artificers — J. Weingartner, sick 
in hospital ; H. C. Kennedy, detached ; W. T. J. Kerwish, transferred to the 
navy; H.Nathan, sick in hospital; Private — W. H. Renaud,* Artificers — J. W. 
Steele,* C. A. Smith.* 

List of mm temporarily assigned to duty in Fenner'a Battery, paroled at Meridian, 
Mississippi, May \Oth, 1865. 

C. Bevans, N. Burns, J. Curran, J. Cowan, H. Folwell, A. V. Gusman, J. 
Moran. 

* Paroled at the general surrender. 



H. DUDLEY COLEMAN, 




MANUFACTTTRER OF 



s ml ^IfMt 




SAW MILLS AND COTTOI^PI[ESSES, 



12 - - UNION STREET, - - 12 



A full stock of Portable Engines, Cotton Gins and Plantation 
Machinery constantly on hand ; for sale for cash or approved paper, at 
lowest possible prices. 

Get my estimates toefore totiylng elseTFhere. 



AUGUSTE CARROUCHEE, 

(SuoceBSor to V. P. BUCONei,) 
Tmportei' and Deater in JFrench and American 



NEW ORLEANS. 



OFDPIC E 





OF NEW ORLEANS, 

:n^o. 125 oo]M]Sd:oM street. 



INCORPORATED APRIL, 1851. 

■««» - ■ 

CASH CAPITAL PAID UP. 



$250,000. 



HEHRY PEYCHATJD, President, 
LOUIS B/.RNETT, Secretary. JNO. I. ADAMS, Vice President. 



yOHN I ADAMS, 
% C. DENIS, 
P. MALOCHEB, 



M. L. NAVRA, 
HENRY ABRAHAM, 
W. ALEX. GORDON, 



F. LABORDE, 

A. CIRAUD, 

HENR Y PE YCHA UD. 



A. BALDWIN 
C. EUSTIS 



e:sta.bx.iske:x> 1822. 

'^^' \ General Partners. 



0. A. SLOrOMB, 
A. D. SLOCOMI 



J > In Commendam. 
(Successors to SZOCOMB, JBALDWIJf Jt CO.) 

74 CaiiMl Street, and 91, 93 & 95 Common St, 

A.<ljoining City Hotel, 

IMPOBTEHS AND DEALERS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC 

HARD^A^ARE, 

Guns, Locks, Cutlery, Nails, 

STEEL, IRON, CASTINGS, SPADES, SHOVELS, 

TiriAvai-e, Paints, Oils, 

Bhi(-ksniilhs' and (larpenlers' Tools, AsriculUiral Implements, 

R/LZI.Ft.OAI3 SXJFPLiIES, ETC. 

. -4m>- • 

Airc^ts—7. E. CARVER'S G/NS, COATES BOILER IRON, VALENTINE <y BUT- 
LER'S SAFES, E. &' G. BROOKE'S CUT NAILS AND SPIKES. 

A. BALDWIN & CO., 

SX.OCOMB BUILDINa, 
Cnntrl and Conntl'ni Sts.f Nt'tv Orleattiu 



A. B. GRISWOLD & CO., 

DIRECT IMPORTATION 



WliiC 




rTi 



,i: 



mm, 



Bronzes, Clocks, Cutlery. 



AGENTS FOR GORHAM MANUFACTURING CO., 

Largest Manufacturers in the World of 
SILVER AND FINE PLATED WARE, 

Cor, CawMil and Mmjjal Streets, 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 



JAMES MoCKACKEN. 



GEO. E. BREWSTER. 



McCRACKEN & BREWSTER, 



I>Ej%.1L,EK8 in 



FURNITURE, 

33 AND 35 I|OYAL STREET, 

Manufactory, Cor. Derbigny and Customhouse, 



NEW ORLEANS. 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Clothing, 

SatSf BootSy ShoeSj, Furnishing GoodSy JEtc. 

Comer Dauphine and Bienville Sts., New Orleans. 

Orders for Country MercLiants promptly executed on most reasonable terms. 



A. EMILE SCHEIDECKER, 

MACHINIST, 

75 Orleans Street, bet. Dauphine and Burgundy, 

BUILDER OF STEAM ENGINES," WATER AND HORSE POWER, 

Fitting np Sugar Houses, Breireries, Printing Offices, £tc., £tc. 

fl®=- Repairing of Pumps, Preaaes and Machinery of eveiy I>eacription."=®ft 



LEON QUETROUZE. OSCAE BOIS. 



X) e a 1 e r s i n 

Wines and Liquors, ^™k1ndsof Western Produce, 

AT THE I33L,TJ]i: STORES, 

(or. Old Levee and Bienville Sts., NEW OMLEANS. 



No. 53 Old Levee St., Corner of Bienville, 



STEAM MANUFACTORY OF 



SMOKING TOBACCO AND SNUFF, 



AND IMPORTEB OF ALl KJUDS OF 



Havana Cigars, Chew^ing Tobacco and Pipes, 

NEW ORLEANS. 



Importex" and. -Oealei* in. 

CHINA, GLASS, EARTHENWARE 

vVntl House r'lirnishing- Groods. 



French, English, (Jerman and American Wares, for City and Country Trade. 



IS CALLED TO THE BEAUTIFUL ESTABLISHMENT OF 

I. C. LEVI, 

N"©. 108 C^Isr^L STREET, 

Of tUe Rlcli Selected Stools: of 



1^ 




-a/^ 



jEWEamw Aw» mEwwmm^WMmmc,. 



CLOCKS AND STATUARY. 



N. B. Special Attention to' Watch Repairing and Diamond Setting. 



T^ U O T E: Ac CO., 

#1(1 Bm©l« lM^li#p WmwMp 

AND 

SASH, BLIND AND DOOR FACTORY. 

Flooring, Ceiling, Shelving, Weatherboarding, Walnut, Mahogany, 

A]<ri> FOrZAJl AIiWAYS ON BAND. 



luriiin^. Planing, Orimnieiital and Plain Sawing to order All orders promptly attenteil to 
Office, COR. TOULOUSE and FMANKLIN STS. 







ST. CBAJtIjES STSJEET, NMAK POTDItAS. 
BEN. DcBAE, Proprietor. HENET H. SIITCHEIL, Stage Manager. P. GLEASON, Trcas. 



This Magnificent Theatre, the Resort of the Culture and Intelligence of Southern Society, THE 
OLD DBUET OP NEW OBLEANS, is now open for the Season of 1874^*75, with a Company com, 
prising some of the Sest Halent in the Vnited States. 

Tte Foremost Stars of ENGLAUr AITD AMEKIOA, will appear in rapid snooession. 

'^* Performanoes Every Evening During the Week, and Family *@l> 
Matinee Saturday Noon. 

IHor B^iarther Particulars See Day Bills. 

THE NEW ORLEANS OPERA. 

:E:s«al3liBljLed in 3.83.X. 

• ^» • 

TH£; ONLY CITY ON TSE CONTINENT WSICS HAS 8VSTJiINET> FOR 
SALF A CFNTUItY A MEGULAR OFERA TMi^UPF. 

■ 49^ ■ 

I>L^CIDE OA-NONGISI, - M:anager. 

Opinion of the Press, 
Mr. Flacide Oanonge, who has succeeded by apostoUc succeBsion to the seats occupied in the lyri- 
cal world by John and Pierre Davin, Yarney, Frevost, BoudouBqiii6 and others, is a distinguished 
journalist and playwright, to the manor born, well adapted to the work of organizing the Lyrical 
drama, and certain of the support of every friend to the institutions of the Crescent City. The 
troupe he has brought over are the worthy successors to Patti, Vestralli, Esler and Frezzolini, who 
in the Trench Opera, delighted our citizens in ante-bellum days, and neither resident or stranger 
should deny themselves the plefuare of frequent visits to the splendid edifice on Bourbon Street. 



A©afl©^] 



#1 jiim»l 

Z3.A.VZXI BIDIATEr.r.. PROPRIETOR. 



A constant succession of LEADING COMEDIANS and TRAGEDIANS, and the 
most Celebrated Theatrical Novelties constantly engaged for its Boards. 



THE COSIEST, BEST VENTILATED AND WARMED, AND THE MOST 

ELEGANT THEATRE IN THE CITY. 

M -A. 1" I M" U 3E3 S X3 "V XS 39. "S" S .A. T XTH. 33 .A. -JT . 

4^ Tasteful Beceptlon and Dressing room for Ladies and Children. *=^ 

^M' m WM ffiP't 1^ ^^ iSIC Jllli 1^ (<o^^ ill ilf 1^1 (St: 
" . ^ ^' ^# ^ s-^ ^^ ^^ ^^^; W ^ w 8 

Cor. Perdido and Saronne Streets. 



.J. ItlTTREDGE, 



Hiessee and Mlana-Ker. 



Entirely new furnished, re-arranged and adapted to the most modern acquire- 
ments of the stage. The most handsomely furnished and easiest of access of 
any Theatre of the city. 

During the lease of the present manager, no expense or outlay •will be spared 
iu the engagement of Leading Stars, Brilliant and Dazzling Troupes, footlight 
novelties, to add to the amusement of pleasure seekers in the Crescent City. 



ra^b®p ^mtti 



BW>W t 






Incorporated August 17th, 1868, 



TO BE DRAWN IN PUBLIC AT NEW ORLEANS, ON SATURDAY, DECESl- 
BER 26th, 1874, AND EVERY THIRD SUCCESSIVE SATURDAY. 

S C H E M: E : 

IO,OiO flekiti, - - - Bikels m\j liOJO< 

HALVES, QUARTERS AKD EIGHTHS IN PBOPOETION. 

1 prize of. $20,000 is $20,000 

1 prize of. 10,000 is 10,000 

1 prize of. 5,000 is 5,000 

40 prizes of 500 are 20,000 

200 prizes of 100 are 20,000 

APPROXIMATIOX PRIZES: 

9 ApproxiMatioo, of |300 rU?a%*t3ZTo%X*\£e $20,000 ^.'jf $2,700 

9Approxin,a«onBof 200 ?^*i^VlVi?rSo"°J?LSSnh1 10,000 ^^ 1,800 
9 Approximations of 100 glfarto^X'So^ltiZfthl 5,000 ^^ 900 

270 Prizes amounting to $80,400 



Whole Tickets $10 : Halves $5 : 
Eighths $1.25. 



Quarters $2.50: 



PRIZES PAYABLE IN FULL WITHOUT DEDUCTION. 



OEDEBS TO BE ADDRESSED TO 

^ouhum ghtq iatters go., %o^h~hoxe92, §.§.—S- 0> 

Send P. 0. Money Order, or Register your Letter.