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Full text of "Place-names of Gloucestershire; a handbook"

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Cornell University Library 
DA670.G5 B13 



Place-names of Gloucestershire 




olin 



3 1924 030 976 504 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE 
PLACE-NAMES 



PRINTED BY 

JOHN BELLOWS, GLOUCESTER 

277423 



\ 



PLACE-NAMES 

OF 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE 



A HANDBOOK 



BY 



W. St. CLAIR BADDELEY 



JOHN BELLOWS, GLOUCESTER 



1913 

EV. 



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l\--iO^^O 



M 



a 



%- 



ZfySL, l^Vt "»-■ V .''- 1 '- vl - W t 



TO 
FRANCIS ADAMS HYETT 

IN 
GRATEFUL FRIENDSHIP 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924030976504 



INTRODUCTION 

Place-Names record faithfully enough to us, not 
only the settlements formed by our forerunners 
belonging to ancient races (the possessors and the 
places possessed), in the land we live in, but they tell 
us not a little as to what were their actual demands 
upon these ; what were their labours, their homely 
callings, where were fought their battles, where were 
heaped their dikes and defences, and, finally, their 
impressive burial-mounds. Of some few, however, 
such as certain river-names, it may be said that 
these only glimmer to us in an uncertain, often tanta- 
lizing, way, through the deep night of pre-history, like 
light from some of the remoter stars, the spectra ot 
which are too faint to give any certain results. 

Place-names often reveal to us the personal names 
of the originators of hamlets, and the owners of manors, 
as well as the identity of the once-important tribal- 
centre, market, or hundred ; so many of which have 
now dwindled to almost insignificant farms, if, indeed, 
they have not actually disappeared. Furthermore, by 
subjecting their early variant-forms to the comparative 
process, they not infrequently discover to us the 
secrets of certain sound-changes, which have been 
due either to dialectal influences, or, more often, to 
those peculiar modifications which took place in 
initial and other groups of consonants in order to suit 
Norman articulation. All this, then, that they give 
us, is historical material. It is part of that precious 



Viii. INTRODUCTION 

national subject-matter, a singular intimacy with which 
made my kind neighbour, the late Prof. F. W. Maitland, 
declare that ' ' the Map of England is the most wonderful 
of palimpsests, could we but decipher it " : and which 
caused Mr J. H. Round to add that "much of our 
history that is still dark is written in the names that 
our remote forefathers gave to their English homes." 

The meaning of the name by which each village 
in Gloucestershire is known to-day, therefore, is part 
of that history ; and, as such, it is, or it ought to be, 
of some interest to every intelligent inhabitant therein. 
It has, in fact, a pedigree, as surely as has every 
oolite fossil that he turns up in his garden ; and that 
pedigree can only be satisfactorily traced in the evi- 
dence yielded by early forms. 

The following collection, formed in the course of 
country-walks, by wick and ridge and wold, it is hoped, 
may help to stimulate that interest in every district of 
Gloucestershire, a county that, — including within its 
area the Cotteswold Hills, the right and left banks of 
the lower Severn, even a portion of the Thames, one 
bank, at least, of the lower Wye (as far as its mouth), 
and bordered, as are its limits, by no less than eight 
other counties, in addition to it being traversed by two 
of the most magnificent of Romano-British highways, 
— may be regarded as having been enriched in inter- 
est by every period of recorded Ancient and Mediaeval 
History. 

If, however, in consequence of owning such a full 
record, a reader, pursuing some pre-conceived idea 
relative to Brython and Goidel, should expect to find 
in the following pages evidence of an abundant sur- 
vival of what are vaguely called ancient Celtic place- 
names, and are often supposed to lie conveniently on 
the surface of modern Welsh Dictionaries, he will be 



INTRODUCTION IX. 

disappointed. The West Saxon Huiccans, together 
with their Mercian successors and overlords, have 
worked out in this district the results of their respective 
conquests to the utmost; and, apart from the more 
rarely-changing river-terms, there are few localities 
on either side of the Severn, that do not bear in 
their names unequivocal witness to Saxon expropri- 
ation. The common term hale (daf) = corner-mead, 
deriving from the W.S. heale {daf) ; is responsible 
for the -suffix in Rudhall, Symondshall, Ludgershall, 
Hownhall, Broomals, Starveall, Abinghall, (q.v.) Cf. 
N.E.D. hale sb. (2). For in these examples Hall is 
only a misleading modern spelling. Moreover, the 
same forceful movement that so effectually effaced 
pre-Saxon names of settlements, has in turn proved 
almost too strong for the successful ingrafting of 
Scandinavian ones. It is easier to leave blood 
behind than to leave a name. Although the Danes 
raided the Severn, and occupied both Gloucester and 
Cirencester, with, doubtless, many smaller centres, 
they left us but a single 'by,' 1 and no traceable 
example of ' thwaite,' or ' scoe ' (skog). The writer is 
aware that it has been usual to place unquestioned to 
their entire credit the existence of the many Hhorpes ' 
and the few instances of ' ness ' that survive to us. 
That, probably, is going too far. For, without re- 
sorting to the poems of Beowulf, it can be readily 
shewn that both these terms (albeit the former may 
have originally been borrowed), take their positions 
as genuine old English words. Although, in his 
Staffordshire Place-names (p. 152), Mr Duignan has 
stated that " in the N and E, where Scandinavian influ- 
ence prevailed, Thorpes are.numerous. In the S.W. the 

x Hangerby in the Bailiwick of Bicknor (Forest of Dene). A.D. 
1281. Peramb: Forest of Dene, a. 10 Edward I. (Vol. XIV. 
Trans. Br. and Gl. Arch. Soc.) By- Dwelling (Dan). 



X. INTRODUCTION 

word is unknown," — we have found seventeen ex- 
amples in Gloucestershire, six in Wiltshire, and ten 
in Oxfordshire. Of those in Gloucestershire, more 
than one half are situated within the lines formed by 
Gloucester, Stroud, and Frampton-on-Severn. Of the 
remainder most lie East of the Foss-way : one, Inch- 
thorp, adjoined Cirencester ; another, Upthorp, is near 
South Cerney : the rest including Adlestrop, are situ- 
ated beyond the Coin, towards Oxfordshire. None lie 
West of Severn, and but two (Puckrup and the Winch- 
combe Thrup), North of Gloucester ; while Worcester- 
shire is said to contain only two examples. But if we 
leave the question of Thorpe open on the linguistic side, 
I think we must admit that the fact of these thorps 
grouping between the Cotteswold escarpment and the 
Severn in such a number does point rather directly to 
an abnormal influence. Nevertheless, of the seventeen 
examples in the County, only five have personal 
names for prefix ; and of these, four have dis- 
tinctively A.S. names. Boutherop (Eastleach Martin), 
refers not to a Northman Bold, but to A.S. burJi. 
It is remarkable that, with the exception of Brook- 
thorp and Colthorp, none of them has preserved this 
pure form of the suffix. Cf. Westrip, Williamstrip, 
Wo\strop, Puckrup, Cockrup, Vpthrup, Hatherop, 
Pindrup, Adlestrop, Thrupp : lncht/iorp, at Cirences- 
ter, and \J\Mchethrop, near Gloucester, having dis- 
appeared. The independent form Thrupp occurs also 
in Berkshire and Oxfordshire : so it is not peculiar to 
this County. On the other hand, the form trip 
seems to be found in Somerset (Eastrip), Wilts, and 
Gloucester. Yet the early examples of these (F.A.'j 
give Willa.mesthorp,Westrop. Hence, I take the T-form 
to be dialectal. The A.S. forms are Thorp and Threp. 
If the Danes have left other local pledges of their 
former short-lived presence, we should look for them, 



INTRODUCTION XI. 

perhaps, in field-names and personal ones (such as 
Seagrim, and Steingrim), rather than in hamlets or 
manors at important points of the landscape. The 
Scarhill, near Minchinhampton, may be possibly of 
Scandinavian origin. 

From this it may be deduced that, were it possible 
to distinguish by means of place-names layer over 
layer of the successive races or tribes of people, that 
have displaced or absorbed one another over even so 
small an area as a modern county, — that would be an 
ideal achievement. Unfortunately, to this end, it would 
be needful that a far greater number of early variants 
of the names (as well as more names than there 
are), should have survived. Secondly, it would be 
requisite that they should exhibit more marked con- 
trasts, — one layer to another, — than does, say, Mercian 
to West Saxon, or than both do to Anglian; and, 
finally, that one hundred times the quantity of the 
earliest Charters containing these names should have 
come down to us. But it is of no use to cry for the 
moon. 

The following pages bear sufficient witness to 
students of Gloucestershire History, of the disappear- 
ance of numbers of place-names since Norman days. 
The writer has ventured to take the view that, for his 
purpose, those vanished names are of almost equal 
importance with those which have remained in use. 
Hence, they are included in his by no means perfect 
collection. 

As to the river-names, the most interesting sur- 
vival is perhaps that represented by the familiar and 
innocent-looking Coin. It should be mentioned, per- 
haps, that out of, say, twenty-seven streams, (including 
the Thames and Severn), about one-third have ex- 
changed their names for Saxon ones, and those that 
have done so are all of them minor tributaries. 



xii. INTRODUCTION 

The mysterious pedigree of the name Coin is tes- 
tified to by the survival of four Anglo-Saxon Charters. 
The earliest of these, C.S. 166, takes us back to c. 
A.D. 740, and belongs to Worcester. In it the name 
is given as Cunuglce. In the second Charter, C.S. 487, 
dated A.D. 855, itisCunelgan; (Metathesis is responsible 
for the transposition of T and 'g'); the latter probably 
representing Cumiglan, genitive of Cunugla. In 
still another Charter, this time a Gloucester example 
(No. 535 C.S. and dated to A.D. 872), a small place 
beside the river is referred to (now, Coin St. Aldwyn), 
as Enneglan. The mis-spelling of this for Cunuglan, 
as above, seems extremely probable ; for the names 
in this Gloucester Charter have been taken from 
several earlier land-certificates. Enneglan is there- 
in referred to as a portion of the heritage of Aldred, 
sub-king, or viceroy, of the Huiccans, who lived some 
ninety years before the date of the Charter. This con- 
jecture is not weakened by the fact that another land- 
charter — (this time ninety years after), C.S. 1091, A.D. 
962 — gives the name as dingle, (for neighbouring 
Bibury), which re-appears later on as Culum * Citlne, 
and finally as Colne. G has a tendency to disappear 
before I : Cf. Finngl, finuglce : later, finul, finule : 
(Lat : feniculum) : fennel. The name was of Celtic 
origin, but the Saxon has given to it oblique cases. 

Another survival of- an ancient river-name seems 
present in the Turca that flows near Northleach, at 
Turkdene, Turcan-dene A.D. 949 (Cott. viii. 6,) (1) 
Turghedene, D.S. ; (2) Turchedene, D.S., or vale of 
the Turca. The early forms of this name closely 
agree, dating respectively from A.D. 743, 779, and 



2 Another Western stream, the Devon Coin, has a similar 
ancestral Culum among its variants : ' anlang streames oth 
Culum.' A.D. 670 (Exeter Cf. Earle, Land-Charters, p. 327.) 



INTRODUCTION Xiii. 

949 ; and they suggest kinship with the Welsh Twrch 
bearing the same meaning with the name applied 
to the various rivers in other counties known as The 
Mole : or the burrower. 

Avon (as the Charters shew) appears in four 
separate districts : namely, at Tewkesbury, Aven ; 
at Bristol, Afene, Aben ; at Ave?iing, Mfening, (near 
Nailsworth), and the little Avon : the actual river-name 
which this generic term probably preceded having 
been lost. The Blcedene (Cott. Ch. 882, AD. 949) 
has become the Evenlode, sometimes thought to be 
another Avon ; 3 but it has left its more ancient name 
Bladen, in the parish of Bledington, a name thus wear- 
ing the disguise of the pseudo-patronymic medial 
'ing,' — a malady specially incident to the weak geni- 
tives of personal A.S. names, though by no means 
confined to them. In like manner, what is now known 
as Stroud-water-river, was once a Frome, as is shewn 
by the occurrence of Frampton (Mansell) in its upper 
course, Frocester, a Romano-British outpost, near its 
lower course, and by Framilode near its fall into the 
Severn. Another Frome, flowing southward toward 
Bristol from Winterbourne, gave its name to Froom- 
shaw, now Frenchay ; while proof that From or Fratn 
was once the name of the Washboitrne will be found 
by turning in the following pages to Fraunton. From 
these and other West-Saxon examples of the distribu- 
tion of this river-name, A.S. From, early Celtic 
Frama, (Welsh, Frauv, as Dr Henry Bradley first 
recognised), apparently referring to the gushing 



a The early forms scarcely bear this interpretation, although 
the real name may have been related to Afen. They are Eune- 
lade, Eoivnzla.de, Eouuengela.d, Eozv/angelade. If we subtract 
the terminal (A.S.) ge-ldd, a track or river-course, the earliest 
forms indicate a pre- English origin. Cf. Place-names of Oxford- 
shire, p. 101. H. Alexander. 



XiV. INTRODUCTION 

character of the stream, we obtain certain evidence of 
pre-Saxon occupiers of this interesting region at no 
very remote date. 4 Yet another instance of the ancient 
name of a stream being preserved in a 'field-name,' is 
afforded by the occurrence of Ledenecomb in an early 
1 2th cent, deed relating to Cranham ; which shews that 
the Wickwater that flows past Painswick toward Stroud 
was once also a Leden. 

An example, perplexing for various reasons, is 
afforded by the place called Andoversford, situated 
near an ancient road, on the upper water of the river 
Coin. In 1509 the name had attained its present 
form, with its apparently possessive (but, really, 
inorganic) ' s,' which, if relied upon, might seem 
to settle any difficulty. In an extent of Littleton, 
(A.D. 1266), however (H. et C. St. P. Glouc. III., 
38), the place is referred to as Andevere. 5 In 
Dugdale's Monasticon we find (vol. VII. 823, Ed. 
1817-30) that William de Dodeswelle endowed the 
Knights Templars with certain land ' apud Aneford ' 
in the parish of Dowdeswell. Fosbroke (H. of Glouc.) 
rightly implies that this is the demesne of Andiford 
now Andoversford. It is the Temp\e-A?meford, part 
of the demesne of William de Clynton, Earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, who died in 1354. (Cf. IPM. Chanc. Ser. 1, 
Edw. III., No. 59). Foxcote and Pegglesworth, its 
neighbours, are mentioned with it. An A.S. Charter 
of A.D. 800 (C.S. 299) carries the name back far 
behind Domesday, and we find it called Annanford. 

"Cf. Life of Asser. By W. H. Stevenson, p. 248-9. 

"Probably, but not certainly, Walter and Randolph of 
Andevre, citizens of Gloucester in 1284, took their name from this 
place rather than from Andover in Hants ; as well as did William 
of Anneford. See Corp. Records of Glos. 178, 698, 700. The 
Pleas of the Crown give the Latinized form ' Andebir-ia' (1221), 
where h has taken the place of v, forming a confusion of the 
suffix with A.S. byrig. 



INTRODUCTION XV. 

It is there mentioned in a grant to Withyngton (Wud- 
iandun). Ten years earlier (A.D. 790) in another 
Charter, dealing this time with the neighbouring hamlet 
of Dowdeswell, the name is given as Onnandune; 
while in the (original) Charter of A.D. 759, Eanberht 
and his brothers give 10 cassates of land at Onnanford, 
near Withington, to Abbot Headda, a relative ot 
Heathored, Bishop of Worcester. 

It may thus be inferred that we have to do, firstly, 
not with any man's name, in Andoversford, but that the 
consonant ' s ' is inorganic, as in Downamney(s)wick. 
Secondly that the central element Dover, Dever = 
water : (earlier Dubr and Dofr) had clerically dropped 
out of use in Saxon days, and nevertheless returned to 
the name in Norman ones ; and, finally, that the prefix 
Annan or Onnan of the A.S. Charters, although it 
looks like the A.S. (gen.) p-n Anna, was possibly a 
British equivalent for the Welsh Onen meaning Ash- 
tree, incorporated as a prefix, as this tree has been in 
so many of the English river-names, — .AsAbourne, 
Ashbrodk, and Ash-ford ; the meaning being Ash- 
bourne-ford, though this origin for Onnan is by no 
means a certainty. (Cf. Duignan. Pl.-N. Stafford. 
Onn : where he cites the r. Onny, Co. Hereford). 

That the Coin should have been known by very 
different names in separate sections of its course is not 
surprising. Among Celtic peoples, the practice of so 
naming portions of streams and mountains is common 
to this day. 6 Moreover, in addition to the above name 
Onn, evidence is to hand that some section of the 
river was known in the eighth century by a different 
name : Tillath (c. 736 A.D.) or Tillnoth (c. 774 A.D.) 
For the Coin is the only river by its topographical 

6 Benvoirlich has perhaps a dozen other names among High- 
landers. 



XVi. INTRODUCTION 

position that will suit the boundaries given in the 
Charters of Withington. This name may be Anglo- 
Saxon in each of its elements, both of these being 
themes, or deuterothemes in A.S. personal names ; Cf. 
Ethelnoth, Theodnoth, Tilbeorht, and possibly Tilnoth. 
(Cf. Wolnath for Wolnoth). 

Wenn, or Won may be another ancient river- 
term. It forms the first element in W<?;zrisc, now (r.) 
Windrush ; and, it may have been responsible (by late 
transformation) for the last element in (Childs) Wick- 
ham and the ' am ' in neighbouring Wicktfra-(ford) : 
both of these places being situated on one streamlet. 
Let us for a moment look at their evolutionary forms. 
By the Domesday Scribe they were respectively 
written as Wicuene and Wiquene. The former became 
Wickeieane (A.D. 1308) and later Wychan ; while the 
latter became Wikewaneford (1275). If we now turn 
back to the A.S. Charters (C.S. 117, 118), in A.D. 70S 
and 709, we find the pair of places are called Wicwona 
and Wicw/on ; the last becoming Wiguenn in A.D. 
972 ; so that the nth cent. Norman was here more 
justified in his spellings than were his descendants of 
the 13th in theirs. The probabilities seem to point to 
a river-name, Wen, or Weon, in this obscure terminal. 
(Cf. Weon-brxigge, in Cors. IPM. 1350; and Won-broc, 
C.S. III., 227, Co. Devon). 

Among the more curious transformations of place- 
names which have occurred is the county, may be 
instanced the attractive name of a certain hamlet 
near Minchinhampton, to-day known as St. Chloe, 7 
where the monks of Malmesbury once owned a 
' grange.' A century or more ago, it was written 
as Seintley. In 1606-7 (F- F- J as - I-) it bore the 
name of Senckley, as it had done, (omitting the medial 
'k') in 1524 (Cf. Corp. Records of Glouc. N r - 1202-3). 

7 Often also called St. Loe. 



INTRODUCTION xvii. 

In A.D. 1292 the name was Sent/eye, and Seintle. 
From that date we can leap backward historically to 
A.D. 896 (K.C.D. V. 140) when we find it to be Sen- 
getlege; "on Sengetlege, thanon on Heardanlege." 8 
Yet an earlier Charter (that of ^Ethelbald, King of the 
Mercians) refers to it (A.D. 716-743) as Sengedleag ■ 
which may either mean ' to Sandgate-field,' or singed 
(burned) field. Presently, perhaps, a Chapel will be 
erected upon the spot, and dedicated to this somewhat 
transparent Huiccan Saint Chloe. 9 Locally, even the 
sex of the Saint is disputed with St. Loe. 

\yi There is another remarkable place-name belonging 
to a locality also situated not far from Minchinhampton, 
and lying within two miles of an ancient way that is 
known as ' Daneway ,' and by which the savage north- 
ern raiders are rather unreasonably supposed to have 
advanced from Gloucester to Cirencester. They are 
sometimes said to have been slain in great numbers at 
Battlescombe, hard by the latter road. The Minchin- 
hampton spot goes by the tragical name of " Woeful- 
Dane-bottom." (A.S. botm). It is surprising that the 
track there has not become ' Dane (s) way' so as to 
render the apparent connective tissue more tough. 
But it must be affirmed that ' Dane ' in both cases is 
quite innocent of the historic association. The term 
is probably a popular transformation of M.E. 'Dene,' 
meaning ' a valley.' 

8 Charter of /Ethelred, Duke of Mercia. Heardanlege = 
Harley, to-day. 

9 Another Sencley, in the Forest of Dene, had also passed into 
Seyntlege as early as A.D. 1281. The change of ' 1' for 'c' is nearly 
as frequent in M.E. as'^'for '/.' The original form was probably 
Send : for Sand : as in Sandbridge : formerly SeudebiMge, near 
Gloucester; but now .SVra'K/j-bridge and Saintbri&ge ; (q.v.) The 
' d ' passed into ' t. ' The ' i ' and the ' s ' are intrusive, and merely 
serve the purpose of popular etymology. 

B 



XV111. INTRODUCTION 

The Dane-way is therefore merely the road 
through the valley. ' Woeful ' is thus left beating the 
air with somewhat ineffectual wings. But although in 
this case we cannot have, as before, the assistance of 
invaluable Charters, or even that from early Manorial 
Rolls, we may venture upon a guess that forms at 
least a practical suggestion, namely, that a Saxon pro- 
prietress named ' Widfflced' has bequeathed her some- 
what mangled name to the locality ; and that the com- 
pleted name was probably ' Wuljflade-dene,' or else 
Wulfhold(es)-dene. There was actually a Wolflede- 
worthy on the Clifford property at Frampton, within a 
few miles. With rather more conclusive reasoning 
we may suggest that a Battle cannot possess an es- 
tate. Hence Battles in Battlescombe should represent 
the genitive of another A. S. personal name : e.g. 
Bethild. 

In addition to all the usual terminals, including 
perhaps the three distinct suffixes A. S. (i) Ham : home ; 
and (2) Hamm, Homm, enclosure, or (3) bend; the 
two mere's (1) a boundary (ge-meere), and (2) a pool 
or lake (mere) ; and the various ' bury's' ' barrows,' and 
' boroughs,' — there occur two or three that are rare in 
some other counties. 10 The first of these is Horn, A.S. 
Hyrne, a corner : otherwise hern, and him ; of which 
there are about a dozen instances : such as Cox/zom," 
(also Coxheme) two ~Li\leyhorns, Bouncehorn, Lop- 
horn, etc., nearly all occurring in the hill, or Cottes- 
wold, region. The next is em, or am, as in Bruerne, 
Mixern, Hyerne, Newarne, Cowarne, meaning A.S. 
Mm ; house, place. That the latter suffix may like- 
wise become transformed occasionally into Horn, is 

10 They occur likewise in Northumberland. 
1 ] Possibly, once, Cotteshorn. 



INTRODUCTION xix. 

illustrated by White-horn* in Galloway, known as 
'Candida Casa : (A.S. Hwitcern). Unfortunately, early 
forms are only too often lacking— especially with regard 
to hamlets and field-names : largely, however, owing to 
the careless ignorance of those once (or still) possessing 
manor-rolls, extents, and court-leet-rolls, wherein are 
occasionally to be found real treasure-stores of these 
interesting local land terms. Consequently, the pedi- 
gree of many a curious name must remain beyond the 
research of the most willing etymologist. 

There is further to be noted as a suffix, — enese, 
which Mr W. H. Stevenson kindly tells me should be 
read evese = eaves. M.E. evese, pi. eovesen. The ex- 
amples of this, like those of meand, be it noted, only 
occur in the Forest of Dene section, or beyond Severn. 
Cf. ' Morwode-e«ese ' : 'Cnappestys-ewuse': Bevs-enese. 

Of Meand there are said to be as many as twenty 
examples, and a great deal of uncertainty prevails both 
as to its origin and significance. By some it has been 
taken for a version of W. Myned : Mynde : a ridge or 
mountain ; by others, for a corrupt form of Mesne, — 
another term which occurs in the Forest (Cf. Clifford's 
Mesne"). It is quite certain, from its application alone, 
that it has nought to do with either of these. It is 
used in the Forest, of areas of common land among 
woodlands : Cf. The Upper and Lower Meand, below 
St. Briavels Castle ; the holly - meand : the meands. 
If we turn to the Hist. Cart, of St. Peter's, Glos., 
vol. 2, 243 (A.D. 1263-84), we find there reference 
to a gift of land situated at Gloucester, beside a place 
called Mihindelone. In 1260 (c.) a grant in the Cor- 
poration Records (No. 539) mentions ' the miindelone.' 
A little later (No. 619), it is called Myinde-lone ; and 

* A striking parallel is Hardhorn ; 1298, Hordern. Cf. The 
Pl.-N. of Lanes : H. C. Wyld & T. 0. Hirst. 191 1. 

B2 



XX. INTRODUCTION 

Myendelone ; a lane which leads to the Severn (No. 655). 
i.e. from St. Mary de Lode to the wean-mead (myen, 
in Speed's map 1610). If this be the same term as 
meand* it has not survived on this side the Severn, 
unless it is partly preserved in this mean-mead, or 
ifeanham(m), by Gloucester to-day. The A.-Saxon 
and Dialect Dictionaries make no allusion to the word. 
It seems possible, nevertheless, that myend may be 
another form of myen and mean = gemcene, mane: 
common (cf. Bos worth -Toller) : as in meanelands : Co. 
Kent (cf. Dom : SP. 1541, p. 425) ; and Dean-meen-Hill 
in Little Dean. 1641. (Cf. Rudder : Hist. Glos.. p. 29). 
If that prove to be the case, then it will follow that 
we have the significance of all the 'meands' in the 
Forest of Dene. With regard to the possible connec- 
tion of the term munede, (as used by the scribe in a 
Forest of Dene 'Perambulation' of A.D. 1281), with 
meend, see Appendix III. Yat: yatt; (Gate) is fre- 
quent (in two senses) as (1) Symondsyat : and Wye- 
gate (Wyett) : Lypiatt : Hyett (2), while there seem 
to be at least two sources accountable for the 
numerous examples of Age as in Chavenage, Bussage, 
Avenage, Ninnage : the one being M.E. Hacche (A.S. 
Hsecc) mod. hatch, a wicket-gate, or a sluice-gate (i.e. 
Waterhatch) : while the other is due to M.E. esche : 
asch, an ash-tree. From the latter we get Avenage,' 2 
originally Abbanas/z, and Abbenesse ; (Abba's Ash) : 
Prinkenage, now Prinkenash, and in A.D. 1 121 Prinke- 
nesche (q.v.) but not VLovege, (now Orridge) in the 
district of Cors. Hale, from Mercian Halh : W. Sax. 
Healh (dat. sing, heale), literally a corner, but usually 

* Dr G. Krttger, of Berlin, most aptly adduces "die Allmende 
= Allgemeinde, belonging to the adj. gemein(e)=gemeinschaftlich 
(common)," shewing that Germany has the same term, denot- 
ing the same thing. "In Bavaria, the pasture held in common 
die gemeinweide is called die gemain, which exactly corresponds to 
A.S. gevitene" 

13 Now called Avon-Edge (Ord. S.) 



INTRODUCTION XXi. 

meaning a grass-meadow, either flat or sloping, occurs 
in Gloucestershire quite as often on high ground away 
from a river, as on low ground near one ;' 3 alone, as 
in Hale-Lane; 'a hala of land'; in the plural, as in 
Hailes : and as a terminal, in Abbenhale : now Abing- 
hall (q.v.) Whatsoever special application the term 
may once have had seems to have been lost for good. 
It is found in all parts of the County ; as also is the 
term Wyke, Wick, Wych : A.S. Wlc, probably from 
Latin Vicus) ; both alone, as a terminal, and as a pre- 
fix ; and even as both of these together in Wykwick ; '* 
a tithing in Frampton Cottell. It bears in turn the 
sense of almost every human settlement, — farm, vil- 
lage, dwelling, fortification, or, a set of shops or 
sheds. The M.E. Wic has for dative Wike ; and, as 
most place-names in Charters and Surveys occur pre- 
ceded by a preposition governing that case, Wyke, 
or Wike, is very commonly to be met with. 

On the surface, the terminals of place-names 
appear for the most part to be well-defined ; and, 
therefore, as compared with their central particles, 
without complexities ; but the moment their history is 
scrutinised that simplicity disappears. None of them, 
perhaps, more frequently occur than ' ley,' and none 
would seem less likely to give rise to question. First of 
all, however, it represents the dative case of M.E. Lei ; 
or leie (M.E. leye); which is the equivalent of lecige ; 
d. of A.S. leah ; (g = y) meaning, according to N.E.D., 
' a tract of cultivated land ' ; and that before the ninth 

1 ' It is to be noted that Hale does not take the place of Hatnm 
or homm ; a meadow, or brook-bound meadow-land. Both are 
common in the County. 

1 4 It is possible that here, did we possess pure and very early 
readings, we should be able to show that only the terminal 
represents A.S. wic, or vice-versa. The M.E. forms Wike and 
Wyke in composition become wych and wich, so that confusion 
very especially waits upon this term. The prefix may represent 
Wychior~Wycb.-e\m. A.S. Wic'e. 



XXii. INTRODUCTION 

century. Its earlier meaning, nevertheless, had been 
' wood.' So that in Neglesleag of ^Ethelbald's Charter 
(A.D. 716-743) and Heardanleag (Harley) and Sen- 
gedleag, of the same, the uniform suffix does not 
necessarily refer to tracts of cultivated land, but, more 
probably, to woods, or perhaps, clearings in woods, on 
the flanks of Minchinhampton-ridge. Further, to com- 
plicate matters, the word ' leak,' (mod. lea) has been 
confounded with ' lea ' a pasture, perhaps arising from 
lease : a pasture ; and also with the adjectival lea, 
meaning fallow. " 5 (Cf. The Place-names of Hertford- 
shire : W. W. Skeat.) Fortunately, however, the un- 
enclosed parts of a manor, or portions of its untilled 
land, — whether bushy or grass-bearing, may be re- 
garded as field or pasture, which is the rendering of 
the term to-day usually adopted. 

Sometimes the terminal of an early name suffers 
complete dropping-out, and another terminal takes its 
place. The above Naegles/^e of the Charter (K.C.D. 89, 
Vol.1., 107) is a noted instance of this. The chief point, 
or unit, of the locality, by Norman days, had become 
Naylesworth, as it is to-day ; that is, the worth, or farm- 
stead, of one Ncegel, — a personal name of rare occur- 
rence.' 6 

But that is one of the less common vicissitudes 
incident to place-names. Nevertheless, their natural 
instability — (quite apart from their displacement by 
foreign substitution,— such as Saxon for British ones), 
is obvious. Places that once owned royal palaces, 
have been diminished to mere hamlets : Manors (and 
'hundreds'), have dwindled, sometimes to obscure 
farms. Certain villages that were inhabited for 



1 6 The modern ' Lay ' has probably originated in ' Laia' — the 
Latinized form of Lea. 

16 There is aNailsbridge in the Forest of Dene. 



INTRODUCTION XXlii. 

centuries exist no longer, such as Piseley, near Winch- 
combe, and Hullasey, near Kemble : while, vice-versa, 
forts and farms have grown into villages and small 
towns, and some mere Chapelries have developed into 
flourishing industrial centres. In the course of all 
these changes their names have likewise suffered 
various transformations. 

The terminal more usually undergoes a change 
phonetically but slight, often due to some similarity 
of sound, or some peculiarity of pronunciation, and 
amounting in certain cases to a simple confusion, — 
as in '-ton ' for '-don' ; and vice-versa '-don ' for '-ton' : 
(Cf. Shenington, and Rissington, early forms of which 
ended, (as the locality clearly determined), in don, 
originally dun ; and Staundon, for Staunton) ; Grove, 
— (graf), for grave, (graef ), — as in Bangrove : Hall 
for Hale (W.S. Healh. d. heale) as in Abinghall ; and 
'loe' (low) for 'ley,' as in Putloe, — the earlier forms 
of which all shew that the terminal was ' ley.' 

Of the many changes incident to the medial section 
of trisyllable and quadrisyllable place-names, especially 
to the unstressed elements, none is more frequently 
marked than the tendency to assume the patronymic 
form ' ing.' Nor does this always depend upon the 
weak genitive so susceptible for conversion. The 
change occurs almost as readily with the dative, or 
locative, case, of adjectives, in 'en' and 'an' : e.g. 
Niwewton = Newington : Sennington, for Severahamp- 
ton : still more so with the ' wine ' of such names as 
A.S. Tadwine: Bealdwine : Guthwine, and Wealh- 
wine : the ' wen ' in Uwen. As the Norman scribe 
strongly, though not constantly, objected, among other 
points, to writing 'ng,' which he could not pronounce, 
— he sometimes reduces the true patronymic ' ing ' for 
A.S. inga (gen. pi.) M.E. inge to ' in ' or ' yn.' Conse- 
quently, it is not always possible to determine whether 



XXiv. INTRODUCTION 

a particular manorial ' ham' or 'ton' recorded by him, 
as Baldington, belonged originally to the Bealdinga, 
or to Bealdaryw. 17 The force of the ' ing ' thus remains 
uncertain. 

The terminal ceaster, (c = ch) which, (after suffering 
Anglo-Norman modification,) appears in Gloucester, 
Frocester and Cirencester, was applied by the Saxons 
to (i) the Romano-British towns (2) likewise to the 
castles and camps. Ceaster (as Mr Alfred Anscombe' 8 
has shewn) is the Wessex version of the Low-Latin 
Castrce, not of Castrum. The M.E. form of this is 
Chester (c = ch), as in Woodchester and Chesterton. 
In A.D. 740 the former name was spelled Uuduceastre : 
the latter, = Ceaster-tun. The unstressed positions 

1 7 Cf. H. Alexander's Essay on ' Ing ' in Essays and Studies by 
Members of the English Association. Vol.2, 158. 

18 In N. and Q. 11 Ser. V. p. 103-4, Mr Anscombe, dealing 
scientifically with the behaviour of the L. word Castra in English, 
shews successfully that castra in the Anglican and Kentish 
dialects postulates the ccestra which occurs in Bseda (H.E. 1 1. III., 
15). " In Mercian and Kentish dialects we get cester, and as one 
of the uses of e is denoting i-umlaut of ee, this postulates Ciestir. . 
This form, which he spells Caestir, is actually used by Bede in 
every case except those quoted above." He then asks, whence 
comesi"? "Now Latin e, <c, in early loan-words became fin 
O.E. For instance : (1) Monosyllabic stems — seta, 'side,' (silk); 
cepa, ' clpe,' onion; puna, 'pin,' torture. (2) Polysyllables — 
Lecocetum (MSS. leclo-c, eto-c), ' Liccidfeld,' Lichfield; Cunelio, 

' Cynet' ( = *Cytut, *Cunit), Kint-bury ; monetn, ' mynet ' (= mynit, 
*munit), money, mint Hence caestir, '''caestir, postulate Latin 
caster, caslcer. No such forms are known, and it would not seem 
easy to proceed. It struck me, however, some time ago, that 
perhaps the Latin castra was treated in the fifth century as a 
feminine singular with a new plural in e, ,e. In my difficulty I 
applied to Prof. W. M. Lindsay, a great authority on Latin 
flections, and he immediately gave substance to my conjecture, 
and informed me that numerous examples of late Latin castra 
(fem. sing.) occur. Now, the form castne, castre, would normally 
become *caestrim O.E., and, after correption of i and metathesis 
of r, caestir would result. Hence, the uninflected West-Saxon 
form ceaster, as well as the Anglian and Kentish umlauted form 
cester, and the Northumbrian uninflected one caestir, are all 
derived from the Low Latin castrse, through *caestri and * 'caestir:' 



INTRODUCTION XXV. 

which the Normanized term occupies in the two first- 
named towns seems to have superinduced a tendency 
to shorten it to ' stey,' and to 'titer,' 'seter,' ' setr.' 
Frocester, follows Gloucester, and becomes in usage 
' Fro'ster.' In the stressed position, as in ' Chesterton,' 
there has occurred no tendency to undermine its 
integrity : while, in the case of Woodchester, the stress 
is sufficiently strong (or the proper articulation so 
difficult), as to put only the medial ' d ' in peril of ex- 
istence. The name is usually pronounced Woo'chester, 
or (Glos.) U(d)chester. In Por(t)chester, from the same 
phonetic cause the ' t ' has actually vanished. But 
spelling often survives or out-manceuvres pronunci- 
ation, and does victorious battle with it : so that we 
read daily Cirencester vindicating its syllabic beauty 
against the spoken Cisseter and Ziseter : though it has 
lost beyond recovery its original ch in the terminal, 
Chester. 

Of unusual prefixes, or first elements, rare else- 
where, we have Spon ; as in Spoonley, Spoongreen, 
Spoonbed : and Sponeway, (Forest of Dene). The 
A.S. Spon {O.N. Sponn, Spann) dat. Spone: means a 
chip, or splinter : a shaving ; later, a spoon. It may, 
in these combinations, refer to localities where timber 
was considerably worked. The early forms are Spone- 
ley (1320): Sponnegrene (1281): Sponnebedde(i429) ; 
and Spannewey (1281); to which must be added 
Sponnerede(i28i). But there is room for the suspicion 
that a stream-name may be concerned in at least two 
of these examples. Snead : Sneath : and Snit : as in 
Snit-end: Snedham : refer to A.S. Snced: apiece (of 
ground) cut off: snithan (O.N. sneitha) to cut. A per- 
sonal, or family, name 'Snede' arose from it (1298). 
'Cat ' occurs in field and quarry -names with frequency, 
and in most cases may be referred to the former 
presence of the wild-cat : though by the 13th century 



XXVi. INTRODUCTION 

the personal name had appeared. Cattemarsh : Cat- 
quarr : Catwood : Catbrain ; occur in many places up 
and down the county. The first of these is probably 
due to a personal-name, Catta. The next two refer 
to the former prevalence of the animal. (Cf. Anc. 
Charters, No. 68, A.D. 1198.) Of the fourth curious 
and very frequent name in quarry-districts, I think, 
from what I can gather, that the suffix may possibly 
refer to certain forms of oolite fossils which the 
quarrymen grimly liken to brains. This is used in 
Kent by workmen in reference to certain waterworn 
fossils in the chalk. (Cf. N. andQ. Series 5, VII., 253). 
In a county which probably contained about half 
a hundred Romano-British villas, with their extensive 
sheep-walks, wheatlands and woodlands, it is natural 
that the word street (A.S. Str&t: Mercian Stret) 
should be common, even independently of the greater 
highways, such as Ermin-Street, and the Fosse-way. 
Way and Street are found interchangeable. It was easier 
to pronounce Fossway than Foss-street : hence, the 
A. -Saxon weg, (not attributable to Latin via) a track- 
road, came to be used instead of the A.S. (loan-word 
from Latin strata via.) Street =paven way. We find 
Green-Streets and Green-ways, Silver-Street, Bush- 
Street, Wick-Street, Oakle-Street, and Bread-Street. 
Some of these without doubt have been Romano-British 
bye-ways, or otherwise portions of vicinal-roads in 
Imperial days : others, on the contrary, are tracks of 
indeterminable origin, as to time, or they are portions 
of Mediaeval Port- ways, the age, rather than the name, 
of which it is not possible to fix. While the route taken 
by some depended upon the market-centres, that taken 
by others points to such and such a ferry (lode) of the 
Severn. The term Street more especially applied to 
Roman highways, but whenever used outside towns, 
may be taken for a sure mark of antiquity. It attached 



INTRODUCTION XXVii. 

itself in one instance to a pre-Roman highway now 
known as Buckle-Street, that leaving the Foss-way 
(which had crossed it) at Salmansbury, near Bourton- 
on-the-Water, passes by Summerhill and Benborough, 
to Snowshill and Broadway, and so past Honeybourne, 
making Northward to Bidford, in Warwickshire. This 
is, of course, the Buggildes-Stret of (C.S. 125) A.D. 
709 : Buggan-Stret of A.D. 860, and it is mentioned in 
yet another Charter (C.S. i2oi)of A.D. 997, as Bucgan- 
Strcet. All these prefixes are regarded as erratic 
equivalents of Burghild. That there was an ancient 
track or highway, also known by this name, but situated 
in quite another section of the county, is not proven 
(as has sometimes been stated it is) by an agreement 
of A.D. 1315, made between Thomas de Berkeley and 
St. Peter's Abbey at Gloucester. In this deed it is 
mentioned as 'haut chemin que est appele Borghidles- 
weye.' The bounds of common-land agreed upon are 
stated to commence at Lappeleyebrugge, i.e. (Lapley, 
to-day) along the said highway to the south. Steven- 
bridge (Steanbridge) and Ig-lea-oaks" were places also 
mentioned in it ; the former possibly having been the 
stone bridge over the Cam (Cambridge) ; but I think 
more probably it was one situated at Iron Mill. This 
Borghulleswey would seem to be part of the ancient 
road running between Frocester and Frampton toward 
the Severn; and it was possibly named (like the " De 
Borghulls") from a Buryhill. (Cf. H.C. Gl., vol. 1., 
290, 147-8). In the latter case, the 's' medial is in- 
organic. 

It may be well to recall that the greater portion 
of these names became attached to the places to which 

1 9 ' ileokes.' It is perhaps fortunate that this Igleah or Illeigh, 
and its neighbouring Silver Street, and Sedlcwode (Settlewood) in 
Hawkesbury, escaped the topographical attentions of certain 
of those who have been concerned with the identification of the 
Selwood and Iglea, where Alfred encamped for the night. 



XXViii. INTRODUCTION 

they belong— both to those lying in the arable lands, 
those situated on the upland waste, and those amid un- 
drained forest or moorland — in an age when estates lay 
widely apart from one another, and which, if already 
made and abandoned by the Romanised Briton, had 
borne names that conveyed no meaning to the West 
Saxon ear. The latter Colonist, however, had his own 
terms for the holly, the beech, the yew, the ash, oak, 
and thorn that he found there ; his own name for the 
maple, boar, the deer and the wolf, the fox, hare, 
badger and wild-cat ; and for the hern, the swallow, 
and the eagle ; and, finally, his own terms for the 
sunken stone circles, and the now denuded burial- 
tumps that arose before his eyes to their full mounded 
height beside the ancient warpaths ; and his were the 
terms destined usually to survive. 

In offering this collection the writer desires to 
record his indebtedness to the late Professor W. W. 
Skeat, and in a more limited degree of directness, 
to Mr W. H. Stevenson and Dr. Henry Bradley, to 
Mr W. H. Duignan, and to Mr R. E. Zachrisson, and 
especially to Mr Henry Alexander, who has kindly 
read the proofs, and generously given valuable sug- 
gestions ; to praise whose varied and invaluable 
achievements would seem too plainly to be a super- 
fluity, as far as the Reader is concerned, and to the 
writer, howsoever worded, far too inadequate a 
measure of his admiration. 

He would also thank Mr Arthur Playne, of Long- 
fords, the Rev. F. De Freville, of Oakridge, and Mr 
Hockaday, of Lidney, for kindly sending him some 
local names ; and, lastly, the Rev. A. L. Mayhew and 
Dr G. Kriiger, of Berlin, for their valued replies to his 
inquiries concerning the origin of Meand, in Notes 
and Queries. 

St. CLAIR BADDELEY. 
Painswick, 1913. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



<C) 


= 


Camp (H) = Hamlet 


(Hd.) 


= 


Hundred (m) = Manor 


(P) 


= 


parish (r) = river 


(v) 


= 


village A.N. = Anglo-Norman 


C 


= 


Celtic Da. = Danish 


E 


= 


English M.E. = Middle English 


O.F. 


= 


Old French O.M. = Old Mercian 


W 


= 


Welsh W.S. = West Saxon 


O.N. 


= 


Old Norse 


A.S. p.n 




Anglo-Saxon personal name 


Abb. PI. 


= 


Placitorum Abbreviatio (1189-1327) 


Anc. Ch. 


= 


(Pipe Roll Series) Ancient Charters. (J. H. Round) 


D 


= 


Domesday Survey 


N.V. 


= 


Nomina Villarum. (Harl : MS. 6281-6289) 


L.B.W. 


= 


Landboc of Winchcombe. 


L.N. 


= 


Liber Niger Scaccarii 


T.N. 


= 


Testa de Nevill (12 16-1307) 


R.B. 


= 


Red Book of the Exchequer 


R.H. & H.R. 


= Hundred Rolls. (Rotuli Hundredorum) 


I.P.M. 


= 


Inquisitiones Post Mortem 


Cl.R. 


= 


Close Rolls 


H.C.G1. 


= 


Historia et Cartularium (S. Petri) Gloucestrise 


P.R. 


= 


Pipe Rolls 


Pat. R. 


= 


Patent Rolls 


R.Ch. 


= 


Rotuli Chartarum (1226- 1300) 


F.A. 


= 


Feudal Aids 


C.F. 


= 


Cartulary of Flaxley Abbey 


C.R. 


= 


Corporation Records (Glos.) Edit: W.H.Stevenson 


K.Q. 


= 


Kirby's Quest 


F.F. 


= 


Feet of Fines (Pedes Finium) 



XXX. ABBREVIATIONS 

L.Ch. = Land Charters (John Earle). 

C.C. = Crawford Charters (A.S. Napier, and W. H. 

Stevenson) 739-1150 

ON. A.S. = Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. W. G. Searle 

M.R. = Manor Roll 

Pap : Reg : = Papal Registers 

PL Q.W. = Placita de Quo Warranto 1272-1377. 

A.S. Chr. = Two Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, parallel. 2. vols. 

1899. 

B.M. = Berkeley Muniments, Desc : Cat : of. Edit : I. H. 

Jeayes. 1S92. 

B. MSS. = Berkeley MSS. 3. vols. 

Tax. P.N. = Taxatio of Pope Nicholas ( 1 29 1 ) 

K.C.D. = (J. M. Kemble.) Codex Diplomaticus 

B.C.S. = (W. de G. Birch.) Cartularium Saxonicum 

T.D. = Thorpe. Diplomatarium Anglicum 

EDD. = English Dialect Dictionary. (Wright). 

PI. C. = Placita Coronas. (1221) Edit: F. W. Maitland. 

F. D. = Forest of Dene. 

N.E.D. = The New English Dictionary. 

dat. = Dative. 

gen. — Genitive. 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE 

PLACE-NAMES 



Abbeywell (in Hinton) derives its name from the 
Abbey of Evesham, to which a well here once be- 
longed. 

Abing hall,, A parish 5 m. N.W. of Newnham, 

1 — .. :.. „ as a 

2. In 
i. p.n. 
nitive 
le the 
nse is 
\g: of 
healh 
word 
i-hale. 
>st its 
adow. 
I low 



ERRATA 

p. xxviii line 10, Maple belongs to line 9. 

p. 58, line 13, for ' tun ' read ' tune '. 

p. 83, delete ' De,' line 5. 

p. 93, line 12, for ' Eserig,' read 'Esesig.' 

p. 95, for Cnapa read Cynepa (unrecorded). 

p. 144, under S. Briavels : line 2, for ' probably ' read 

'possibly,' and line 9, for 'became' read 'may 

have become.' 
p. 175, 2nd column, bottom, for ' walls' read 'wells,' 



A.D. 

Ablyngton, Ablyntone. IPM. Abelyntone. (1349). 
Literally the (tun) ton, or farm, of the Eadbaldings, or 
descendants of Eadbeald. 

Abload (m.) Abbelode, Abbilade, Abylode ; Abbe- 
lada; (P.R. 1189-90; Abilade (Rot. H.) A manor 



XXX. ABBREVIATIONS 

L.Ch. = Land Charters (John Earle). 

C.C. = Crawford Charters (A.S. Napier, and W. H. 

Stevenson) 739-1150 

ON. A.S. = Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. W. G. Searle 

M.R. = Manor Roll 

Pap : Reg : = Papal Registers 

PI. Q.W. = Placita de Quo Warranto 1272-1377. 

A.S. Chr. = Two Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, parallel. 2. vols. 

1899. 
B.M. = Berkeley Muniments, Desc : Cat : of. Edit : I. H. 

Jeayes. 1S92. 
B. MSS. = Berkeley MSS. 3. vols. 

Tax. P.N. = Taxatio of Pope Nicholas (1291) 

K.C.D. = (J. M. Kemble.) Codex Diplomaticus 

B.C.S. = (W. de G. Birch.) Cartularium Saxonicum 

T.D. = Thorpe. Diplomatarium Anglicum 

EDD. = Fntrli'sh TKaWf- nWinnarv. (Wright). 

PI. C. 

F.D. 

N.E.D. = 

dat. = 

gen. = ■ 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE 

PLACE-NAMES 



Abbeywell (in Hinton) derives its name from the 
Abbey of Evesham, to which a well here once be- 
longed. 

Abinghall. A parish 5 m. N.W. of Newnham, 
Forest of Dean. Not in D.S., but it appears as a 
manor in Testa de Nevill. P.F. 1254, Abbehale. In 
F. A. we get Abenhale, Abbenhall , Abbehale. A.S. p.n. 
Abba, gen: Abban; but here the weakened genitive 
'en' has further, following a tendency to assume the 
form of a patronymic, passed into 'ing.' The sense is 
Abba's hale. Hall = hal, for hale, the dat: sing: of 
hSlh. This is the Mercian form of West Saxon healh 
= corner ; dat : sing : heale. The original word 
signified "at Abba's corner," i.e. ast Abban-hale. 
But the term hale, perhaps at an early date, lost its 
specific significance, and is betterrendered by meadow. 
It occurs equally in this county on high and low 
ground : near water, and away from it. 

Ablington. (m.) near Bibury. C.S. 487, c. A.D. 
855. Eadbaldingtune. P.C. 1221, Ablintone. F.A. 
Ablyngton, Ablyntone. IPM. Abelyntone. (1349). 
Literally the (tun) ton, or farm, of the Eadbaldings, or 
descendants of Eadbeald. 

Abload (m.) Abbelode, Abbilade, Abylode ; Abbe- 
lada; (P.R. 1189-90; Abilade (Rot. H.) A manor 



2 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

given by Henry I. to the monastery of S. Peter, Glou- 
cester. (H.C.G1.) A.S. Lad = a passage, or way, 
became M.E. Lode & Lade. The first element is Abba. 
It usually signifies a ferry, along the Severn-lands. 

Abone. A Roman Station, given in the Antonine 
Itinerary, and to be identified with the neighbour- 
hood of Avonmouth. The word is a Latinised form 
(locative) of Avon, or (Mod. W.) Afon = a river. (Cf. 
Latin Sa&rina for (?) Sa/ren— Severn). Asser (52. 1. 6 
Ed : W. H. Stevenson, Life of Alfred) gives Abort for 
the river-name. But see Lect : Welsh Philology : p. 
196-7. Sir J. Rhys. 

Abson. (p. & v.) 8 m. E. of Bristol. P.R. 1 175-6. 
Abbodeston. (F.F.) Abbotstone (1588). Abston. Abstone. 
Abbots —tun : i.e. farm- enclosure. It belonged to Bath 
and Glastonbury Abbeys. A.S. Abbod : an Abbot. 

Acholt. (m.) A hamlet of Upton, in Barton Manor, 
Bristol. Acholte (temp. Hen. I.), Ocholte, i3thc.(H.C. 
Gl.) A.S. Ac. M.E. oak. A.N. och. A.S. Holt, a 
copse. The meaning is Oakwood. 

Acton. (Turville) (m.p. & v.) 8 m. E. of Yate. D. 
Achetune. T.N. Aketone. The prefix is A.S. Ac : 
oak; the suffix tun = a farm-enclosure ' aet actune.' 
Turvill's Acton. It was held by Robert de Turville in 
the 12th c, and by R. de Turberville 1287, IPM. The 
Domesday place-names are usually found to be in the 
dative case. 

Adlestrop. (m.p. & v.) 3 m. E.N.E. of Stow-on- 
the-Wold. D. Tedestrop, Thatlestrope. 1198 (C.Evesh.) 
Tadelesthorp. (F.A.) Tatlestrop. (R.H.) Thecellestroppe. 
The prefix probably represented once the A.S. p.n. 
Tedwald for Theodweald. A.S. Thorp, is a village. 
Here, it is modified by A.N. influence into trop, dat. 
trope. The meaning is obvious. The prefix, Tedwald, 
seems to have therefore suffered an early loss of ' w ' 



ABONE— AILSMORE 3 

in its unstressed syllable, and likewise its penultimate 
' d ' before esth : Ted(w)al(d)esthorp. The D. form 
merely exemplifies the double substitution of ' t ' for 
'th.' In the 16th c. confusion as to the name became 
more emphatic. Initial ' t ' became ' c,' whence 
Catelsthrop, and even Castlethorpe were evolved. 
(F.F.) Ultimately both the ' t ' and ' c ' were dropped, 
and Atelstorpe remained to settle down into the present 
name. It is of interest to note the rather determined 
reappearances of the ' th,' both of prefix and suffix, in 
the 13th c. forms, as against the earlier A.N. ' t.' The 
later Norman scribes had learned the real value of 
' th.' This name may therefore be likened to a 
mutilated torso. 

Admington. A tithing of Quinton. (m.) D. 
Edelmintone. L.B.W. 1175 Ethelminton. Ch. R. 
Adilmington. (K.Q.) Adeleminton^ C.R. Adelmynton. 
F.A. Adelmint07i, B.M. Adminton, Ailmington, 
The meaning is (A.S. p.n.) iEthelhelm's-tun, or farm. 
The /;?£"- forms here resulted from a plur : genitival 
form. l 

Adsett. (nr. Westbury-on-Severn). PI. C. (1221) 
Addesete. Addecete (1282). Per"- For. Dene. Adcette 
(1537). Adsette IPM. 1640. Set and S£t occur in 
northern place-names bearing the meaning of 'grazing 
land.' Cf. A.S. S£ed: sowing: pasture, which is also 
spelled Sett. This suffix more probably denotes a 
settlement belonging to Adda, i.e. A.S. Sset. (Cf. 
The Pl-names of Lanes. : Wyld and Hirst, p. 280). 

Agtnead. (Hd.) Aggemede, (R. H.) Hagemede, 
(C.R.) Aggemede. P.C. 1221. The meadow belonging 
to .'Ecga. A.S. p.n. The gen: 'an' having become 
weakened to ' en,' lost the liquid (n) before ' m.' 

Ailsmore. (St. Briavels). A.S. p.n. JEgel, perhaps 
formed from JUthel. A.S. mor ; a moor. Ail and El = 
(Abbrev.) ^Ethel. 

c 



4 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Alcamsode. (in Cranham). (H.C. Gl. v. i., p. 63.) 
c. wiy. — Alchamsede. Alcamsed (11 21). The terminal 
here looks like the result of Uud = wood ; but the 
earlier forms give ' ede ' and ' ed '; and Alcham 
possibly here represents Ealh-helm, an A.S. personal 
name. The 's' is genitival. The suffix, perhaps, 
signifies A.S. hSth : heath, moor. In the same 
declaration of boundaries occurs Wydecomsede, e.g. 
cet isoidan cumbe (the wide combe). 

Alderley. (m.p. & v.) 4 m. S.E. of Charfield Station. 
A.S. Air, Aire, M.E. Aler, the Alder-tree. D. Alrelie. 
F.A. Alreleye. (Cf. Oakley, Ashley). Leage : dat : of 
Leah (g = y) grass-land. The 'd' is excrescent, as 
in El(d)er. 

Alderton. (m.p. & v.) 2 m. S.E. of Beckford. D. 
Aldritone. Aldryntone, Aldrintone, (1175). Audryn- 
ton {1228). The prefix represents A.S. p.n. Ealdhere 
in the genitive or patronymic form. The meaning 
is the ' tun,' or farm, of the sons of Ealdhere. 

Aldrichesmore. The first element is the A.S. p.n. 
Ealdric {gen.) A.S. mor. M.E. more {dat.) ; later, 
moor. (Landboc. Winchc : Vol. 2, p. 483). 

Aldsworth. (m.p. & v.) 4 m. S.E. of Northleach. 
D. Aldeswrde. PI. C. Aldeswurthe. Aldesorde, Aldes- 
worthe (1271). (1) A.S. p.n. Eald. (2) A.S. Weorth — 
a farm. Otherwise, Eald's homestead, or farm-stead. 
Eald is a short form for Ealdred, -wine, -helm, etc. 

Aldwyn (St.)— see Coin St. Aldwyn(^Ethelwine). 
( Alinvecroft. (Flaxley Abbey. Charter A.D. 1227). 
(. Alinveplot. Forest of Dene. 

Probably the first element, though scribally cor- 
rupted, stands for M.E. p.n. Alwine. But it is 
uncertain; n, u, and v are frequently miswritten by 
the scribes. 

1. The Croft, or arable piece of land belonging to 
^Elfwine (?) 



ALCAMSODE— ALMONDSBURY 5 

2. The Plot, or patch of land, likewise of ^Elfwine. 

Alkerton. (m.) near Eastington on Frome. D. 
Alcrintone. Aucrintone, H.C. Gl. (c. 1263). Alcrintone 
(PI : deQ.W.). Algriniton. Algerinton (1303). A.S. p.n. 
Ealhherr-inga-tun. The enclosure, or farm, belong- 
ing to the sons of Ealhhere, or Ealchere. Metathesis 
is responsible for the transposition of the ' r.' See 
Mr H. Alexander's Oxfordshire Pl-names, pp. 37-8. 

Alkington. (m.) in Berkeley. D. Almintune. 
(F. A.) Alkington. (1243 B. M. ) Alquinton. The 
Domesday scribe usually avoids Lk and sometimes 
drops one letter or the other. Here he dropped the 
'k' but substituted ' m.' The original A.S. p.n. 
represented here was probably Ealhwine, to whom 
belonged a ' tun ' or farm-enclosure. The possessive 
' s ' was lost early. ' Alquinton ' exemplifies the 
sound-equivalence of A.S. Cw to qu — as in queen 
from Cwen. 

Allesgate. Ailesyate, Allesgate, Eylesgat, Atilisgate. 
Allesyathe.— -(1323), Aylesyate. The A.S. p.n. Ailwi 
(gen.) es survives here ; and this is a short form of 
^Ethelwig. This gate was the East Gate of ancient 
Gloucester. 

Alliston (inLydney)(m.) D. Aluredestone. Alestune, 
Ailestone, 1267. Allastone. The prefix is the A.N. 
Alured for A.S. /Elfred. The meaning is Alfred's-ton. 

Almondsbury. (m.p. & v.) i,yi m. S. of Thornbury. 
D. Almodesberie. B.M. 1233. Alemundebere.—BM. 
1154 Almodesbure. PI. C. (1221). Allewodesbiria. 
The prefix is the A.S. p.n. Ealhmund; the terminal 
—A.S. burh (dat.) byrig (modern-English) borough, 
but meaning in early days, ' an enclosed place.' To 
the custom of placing the preposition ' set' ( = at) before 
most place-names is due the dative form their terminals 
so often represent:— 'At Almondsbury.' A.N. 'ie' in 
berie occurs frequently for A.S. ' ig.' 

C2 



6 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Alney. Mt Ola-nig. (A.S. Chr.) (1017) A.S. p.n. 
011a. (K.C.D. 621) Ollan-eg, i.e. A.S. leg = an island 
(g = y) the isle of 011a. 

Alstone. (hamlet 6 m. E. of Tewkesbury.) This 
place was in Worcestershire in A.D. 10S6. (CD. 805) 
Alfsigestun, A.D. 1050. Subs. Rolls. (1275) give us 
Alsostone. Later, Alstone. Hence the meaning is 
the farm-enclosure belonging to yElfsige. 

Alveston. (m. p. v.) 2 m. S. of Thornbury Station, 
(c. A.D. 955). D. Alwestan. P.R. Aloestan. (T.N.) 
Haleweston. (K.Q.) , Halweston. The meaning is 
^Elfweald's stone. ' Stan' = stone, has been replaced 
by tun = ton. Here there was a recorded Wolf-pit. 
(C.S. in, 113. A.D. 955-9). 

Alvington. (m.p. &v.) 6^ m. N.E. of Chepstow. 
PI. C. Alwintone. R.H. Alvinton. PI. Q.W. Alv intone 
(Cartul. Llanth : f. 31) Elvynton. K.Q. Alington. The 
ton or farm of ^Elfwynn, gen : ^Elfwynne. Ing is in 
many place-names only the possessive equivalent of a 
weakened gen. or dat. sing, of personal names in a. 
Consequently it is not always easy to differentiate it 
from 'ing(a);' gen. plur. and true patronymic. But 
the A.S. suffix 'wine,' 'win,' or 'wen' also sometimes 
results in ' ing' as in this instance. 

Alwinebache. (in Forest of Dean) 1281. Aluine- 
bathe 1300. Alvenehbach- (c.) 1340. The prefix is the 
A.S. p.n. ^Elfwynn, as before ; which explains the 
absence of the ' s ' possessive. The second element 
(see N.E.D.) M.E. beeche, {dat.) meaning a valley 
with a brook running through it, represents the A.S. 
bsece = beck. (Cf. Alvenegate : (i.e. North-Gate) of 
Gloucester (H.C. Gl.) 

Alwyneshomme. (Landboc Winch. 1, 284.) To 
the p.n. Alwyne is added the possession of one of the 
many ' Homines ' beside which the Isburne winds. 
A.S. ' Hamm' (q.v.) signifies a meadow-enclosure often 



ALNEY— ANDOVERSFORD 7 

by the river, or land stretching out between brooks. 
These 'Homines' are frequent throughout Gloucester- 
shire. Alwine is a shortened form of ./Ethelwine. 

Amberley. (near Woodchester) L.N. Umberley. 
R. B. (A. D. 1 1 66) Umberleia. The prefix may 
represent, as Mr. Alexander reasons, Hunburh, an 
A.S. p.n. But, if so, the possessive genitive has been 
lost. On the other hand, while this might account for 
a single instance, it will scarcely do duty for the 
various 'Amber-meads ' that occur in this county as 
field -names. The terminal ley (A.S. Leah) dat : 
leage : (g = y) an unfilled field. (Cf. Ombersley, Co. 
Wore. D. Ambreslege, in Mr Duignan's Wore. Place- 
names). But there was once an Amber-a.cre, at Brad- 
stone, near Berkeley ; and there may be room for 
doubt as to the origin lying in a personal name, 
at all, in our example. A.S. sb : Amber = a bucket; 
amphora ; a measure of 4 bushels [Cf. Offa's Charter, 
conveying land at Westbury ; (pp. 3 1 1 - 1 2 Earle's Land- 
Charters)], is of no help to us, here. 

Am(p)ney. (r) There are four places compounding 
their names with this river-name : Ampney Crucis, 
Down Ampney, Ampney S. Mary, Ampney S. Peter. 
D. Omenie, Omenel ; other sources give Ameneye, 
Omenai, Amanell, Amney, Ammeneye. (Cf. B.C.S. 
1 1 10 Amman- broc). The first element, like that of so 
many river-names, is not Anglo-Saxon, and may be 
British. The 'p' is intrusive. The second,— 'ey' 
represents ' ea ' = a stream. 

Andover(s)ford. (h.) 1% m. E. of Dowdeswell. 
This name easily falls under four types : 
Type I. 

C.S. 187. Onnanford (A.D. 759). 

C.S. 299. Annanford (c. A.D. 800). 
Aneford (temp. Henry I.) 
Anneford (c.) 1270. 



= ' the ford of 
Anna,' A.S. 
Annan ford. 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 



Type II. (a). 
Andovere (c.) 1 270. 

00 

Andevere. 1266. 



The second element here is dofr 
or defr (Celtic). Cf. Candever. 
The first element is uncertain, 
and may be the result of Annan. 
Type III. 
Andoversford. 1509. = a combination of Types I. and 
II., with ' inorganic ' s, as in 
Downamney(s)wick. 
Type IV. 

Andebiria. Probably a latinized form of 

Andever with confusion of the 

suffix — biry = A.S. byrig. 

Defr and Dever (earlier Dubr, Dofr, from Dubron 

was a Celtic term for ' river.' Here it seems to 

intrude (as though an after-thought) upon the specific 

prefix. We have not, in the earliest forms, to do 

with a Norman scribe puzzled by a Saxon name ; 

but it seems probable that we have a Saxon curtailing 

a British one. ' On' ' onyn ' ; plur : ' onn' = Welsh for 

Ash-trees : and, in the same charter, by onnandune 

may have been meant ' at the Down of the Ash-trees.' 

Onnan-dofran-forde might therefore have signified ' at 

the ford of the Ash-tree-water.' 

Apperley. (h.)nr. Deerhurst. PL C. (1221) Happe- 
ley. R.H. Appurleie. Alpeleye. Apeleye. Aperleye. 
Appurley, 1413. Two manors. (1) Apperley-Colver- 
ton. (2) Apperley-Drynley. Usually said to be for 
Upper -Ley ; but the forms possibly indicate A.S. 
iEppel, an apple-tree ; ley = lea, a cultivated field. 

Arle. (h.) nr. Cheltenham. Air a. Arle-Court. 
Once a manor. A.S. Aler. Air. Alder-tree. The' 
' r ' has yielded to its known tendency to transposition. 
Arlingham (m. p. and v.), i]4 m. E. of Newnham. 
D. Erlingham. Herlingham, Arlynham. The home 
of Eorl's sons, i.e. Eorlingaham. 

Arlington (near Bibury). D. Aluredintune. PLC. 
{\2 2\)Alurintone. Aldrynton. Aluryntone IPM. 1358. 



APPERLEY— AUST 9 

The prefix, it is evident, represents the A.S. p.n. 
Alfred, and the meaning is the farm, or ton, of the 
sons of iElfred. 

Ashchurch. (v. & p.) 2 m. E. of Tewkesbury. It 
does not occur in either D.S. or H.C.G1. Assche- 
churche. 1605. M.E. Asch, esche, an Ash-tree. The 
meaning is the Church at, or near, the Ash-tree 

Ashelworth. (m.p. & v.) 5 m. N.N.W. of Gloucester. 
D. Esceleuuorde. Asseleswurlhe, Eschelwrthe , Esselles- 
worthe 1190-1. Hesseleswurde. 1200. Asselworth. (c.) 
1260. The sense may be the worth, =the farm, of one 
iEsc-elf, or ^Esc-cytel. (Cf. Searle Onomasticon Anglo- 
Saxonicum, p. 31). 

Ashton, Cold. (m. p. & v.) 10 m. E. of Bristol. 
A.D. (c) 955. /Esctune. D. Escetone. F. A. Aysshton. 
sEscheton. Literally, Ash-town ; ton, or farm - en- 
closure, named from an Ash-tree. 

Ashton-on-Carant. (r.) D. Estone. East-town. 
A.S. East-tun. Carent (Smith's Baeda, 767). 

Ashton-under-Hill D. Essetone. T.N. Eston. 
A.N. Esse represents A.S. Msc : an Ash-tree. 

Aston, Cold. (m. p. &v.) Aston Blank 2 ^m. S.W. 
of Bourton-on-the- Water. C.S. 165, A.D. 743 Eastum. 
A.D. 904 East-tune. (C.S. 609). D. Estone. (c. 1224-30). 
Colde Astone. M.E. East : (O. Frisian, Ast :) = East-ton. 

Aston-Somerville. D. Eston. F.A. Austan. 
Eston, East-town. It was held formerly by the 
Somervilles. 

Aust. (m. & v.) in Henbury Parish. C.S. 75 A.D. 
691-2— set Austin. C.S. 269 A.D. 794 ast Austan. D. 
Austreclive. F.A. Awste It is evident that by A.D. 
1086 the locality had come to be known to many even 
as we now call it,—' Austcliff.' (M.E. clive :'cleeve). 
But this place was also known more fully as Augusta 
in Documentary Latin : for its Church was presently 



10 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

given by Winebaud de Ballon to the Abbey of St. Vin- 
cent at Le Mans (c) noo (for this I am indebted to 
Mr. J. H. Round), under that name. (Cf. Cal. Docts. of 
France, No. 1047.) F.A. (1285) give us Hawst and 
Awste. (N.V.) Auste. But, again, in IPM. 1368, it is 
Angst, the short unmistakeable form of Augusta. The 
name has long stimulated speculation as to the locality 
of St. Augustine's Oak, and the natural desire to 
identify Aust with that important personage and his 
historic conference with the British prelates. The 
earliest form, therefore, confronts these post-Conquest 
versions, and, furthermore, presents us with an un- 
corrupted, though weakened, dative case. The same 
applies to the ' Austan ' (C.S. 269) of Offa's confirma- 
tion in 793-4 to the See of Worcester, as to the weaker 
Austin (set Austin) of A.D. 691-2, except that here 
the dative is weak. In fact, there is no question as 
to the identity of the two examples ; and it is proven 
that these have to do with the Aust under considera- 
tion. Again, in 929 ^Ethelstan (K.C.D. CCCXLVII. 
C. S. 665) granted a certain parcel of ground ' get 
Austan ' to Worcester Cathedral. 

The name of this place, in its dative case, was some- 
times an, and, occasionally, it was in. The accepted 
nominative therefore must have been 'Austa,' at a 
date but ninety years after S. Augustine had been to 
the confines of Hwiccia; and that is an abbreviated 
form, not of Augustinus, but of Augusta. 

An important point now arises ; for the Rev. Charles 
Taylor identifies these grants with our Aust owing to 
the mention in iEthelred of Mercia's Charter (A.D. 
691-2) of Heanburg (i.e. Henbury) in connection with 
' aet Austin. ' In this he is fully corroborated by 
Hadden-and Stubbs, who, further, discuss the identity 
of ' Augustinaes ac ' of Baeda. ii. 2. with Aust. The 
author of "Worcestershire Place-names," Mr W. H. 



AUST 1 1 

Duignan, however, considers Henbury to be the Han- 
bury 4 m. E. of Droitwich, while the Austin and 
Austan of the Charters, he thinks, lay on, or near, the 
Severn, and north of Worcester. Yet, to Aston Fields, 
close to Bromsgrove, we find him referring the 
Austan of our A.D. 794 Charter. Clearly, this place 
lies nowhere near the Severn. He is careful in add- 
ing* — "This place is not mentioned in any existing 
subsequent record or map." That being so, the claims 
of Aust and its neighbour Henbury in South Glouces- 
tershire to be referred to in that Charter, seem to be 
far more solid than those of any possible Worcester- 
shire rivals. If, in addition, we recall that the ' robur 
Augustini ' stood ' in Confinio Huicciorum et Occiden- 
talium Saxonum ' (on the frontier-line of the Huiccians 
and West -Saxons) it will be also clear that the 
Southern, or Bristol Avon, rather than its Northern 
namesake, must have been near the place. For the 
territory of the West-Saxon is usually thought to have 
included no part of the modern Gloucestershire, while 
Bath, Tetbury, Kempsford, and Cirencester, as well as 
Worcester, were all certainly situated within Huiccia.f 
That point might be more strictly determinable could 
it be proven that the said frontier was the same in 
A.D. 603 as it was in A.D. 741. 

But we are not dealing here with the question of 
Augustine's Oak, but with that of iEthelred's 'Austin ' 
and 'Austan' in relation, to 'Aust.' And it may be 
noted that at least one of the Gloucestershire Astons, 
Aston-Somerville (East-town) was in Feudal Aids 
written down 'Austan' as well as ' Easton.' The 



* See under Austen. 

f Rev E. McClure, however, thinks (p. 167 British Pl.-N.) that 
Gloucester itself was once a Wessex Centre, and would place the 
Oak near Cricklade, as a great many have done. But then he be- 
lieves in that long-departed fiction, Mr Plummer's well-intended 
guess, — the "Irajectus [Augustze legionis] I (loc : cit.) 



12 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

reason why ' AitsV and ' Austan' did not at any time 
become conversely written ' Estone' and ' Aston' lies 
in the fact that they were shortened forms of Augusta, 
— an: a name which assures us of its direct Roman 
origin, after the manner of Aosta in Piedmont, and 
which must have been adopted nearly as it stood by 
the Saxon, and then have been given the A.S. oblique 
cases. That the spot had any sort of connection with 
the Trajectus of the Roman Itinerary is unlikely ; 
nevertheless, the original name of it having been 
Augusta, this imperial qualification must have been 
either preceded, or followed, by some other now- 
vanished name ; and the actual reason why this very 
rare mark of Imperial favour was granted is just as 
little likely to be forthcoming as that other name. In 
the Itinerary of Ravennas, Isca (Caerleon) appears as 
Augusta, being dignified with the name of the per- 
manent Legio Secunda, there quartered ; and with the 
evidences before us of the many military depots (at 
Woodchester, Frocester, Haresfield, and Sodbury), 
dependent upon it, on this side the Severn, it would be 
rash to deny that at such a vantage-point on its bank 
as Aust must have been, the Legion may there have 
owned a Signal-station, Baths, or a Sanatorium. 

Austinespulle, or Pill. (H.R. p. 168). The first 
element here is the name of an owner of the fishery, 
or pool (A.S. Pol). Possibly it belonged to the 
Augustinians of Llanthony, near Gloucester. The 
lower Severn abounds with ' Pills.' (Cf. Welsh Pwll.) 
Sometimes the term means also a creek. 

Avenage. A tithing in Bisley Hundred. (Fosbroke, 
Hist. Glouc. I. 347.) Also spelled Abanash.. Abbe- 
nesse 1337 (IPM.) If the latter is correct, the meaning 
was probably ' at Abba's Ash-tree.' One of the forms 
ofPrinknash was Princenage (q.v.) To-day the place 
is called Avon- Edge. 



AUSTINESPULLE— BACCHUS 13 

Avening. (m.p. & v.) 2% m. E. of Nailsworth. 
"to Mfeningum," dat: pi: A.D. 896 (K. 1073). 
"Some to Avening." Afon — Avon, is a generic river- 
term of Celtic origin and frequent survival. D. 
Aveninge. Havelinges 1189. Avelingues 1240 (see 
Docts. of France, J. H. Round.) C.R. (anno. 5, 
Henry III.), Evening. 1294, Avenyng. Avelinges 
1304. The interchange of the liquids 'n' and ' V is 
not uncommon. The terminal inges : here denotes a 
stream, also. [See Guiting.] 

Avon, (r.) A Celtic generic term for river (W) 
Awon. Old Celtic, Abon(d). Cf. Irish Abhain : (bh = 
v.) C.S. 241, A.D. 781 Eafen. A.D. (c.) 794 Aben. Afene 

Awckley. (nr. Tockington.) Alkeleye, IPM. 1257 
Alcleye, IPM. 1345. The A.S. p.n. here was probably 
Ealchere, shortened to Ealch. (Cf. Ealcheres die 
B.C.S. 477). The possessive 's' has dropped out 
The ' w ' is due to A.N. influence. 

Awre. (m.p. &v.) on W. bank of Severn. D. Avre 
(P.R. 1189-90) Aura. F.A. Awre. A name of un 
known origin. Penaure would be Welsh for ' golden- 
headland.' 

Aylburton. (in Lydney). T.N. Albricton. H.R. 
Albrichton. C.R. Ailberton, Ailbrighton. — A.D. 1224. 
Ch. R. Aylbricton, Aylbriston. 1300. Aywerton. — 
A.D. 1316 Aiberrton, N.V. Eyberton. The meaning 
is (A.S. p.n.) ^Ethelbeorht's-tun, or farm-enclosure. 

Aylworth. (m.) In Naunton. D. Eleurde. CI. R. 
1234. Eileworth.—Ailwrde. c. 1245. LBW. Eyleworthe. 
141 2. The first element points to one iEthel as 
the owner. The suffix is A.S.Worth, a farm. The 
original form was probably JEthels-wyrth. 

Bacchus. (A Farm) near Brookthorpe. Bakhns. 
Bakehus. ' atte Bakkehuse' (1304); i.e. the Back- 
house. Later a family name derived from it. 



14 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Bad-brook, (in Stroud). There was also a 
Bad-style in Stroud. (1557, Manor Account of , 
Haresfield and Painswick). The prefix may, as in 
Baddan-byrig , to-day Badbury, stand for the A.S. 
p.n. Badda, i.e. Baddanbroc ; the sense being — the 
brook of one Badda. 

Badderidge. (in Ozleworth). Baderugg B.M. (c. 
1250) p. 125. The ridge (M.E. rigge) of Badda (p.n.) 
gen., — 'an.' Lit. A.S. Baddanhrycg. Of the weak- 
ened gen. ' en,' the ' e ' alone survives. 

Badgeworth. (m.p. &v.)4m. S.W. of Cheltenham. 
C.S. 535. Beganwurthan (A.D. 872). D. Beiwrde. 
(c. 1150) Begeword. Bageworde. (P.R. 1189-90) 
Beggeward. C. P.R. (1234) Begeworth. Beggeworthe 
The meaning is (p.n.) Beecga's worth, or, farm. A.S. 
Worth : farm ; enclosure next a House ; allied to 
Worthign, worthine : which is hardened sometimes 
into wardine. The ' d ' in the prefix is resultant, as 
in modern Hedge for A.S. Hecge. M.E. gg = mod: 
dg (J). 

Badminton, (m.p. & v.) 15 m. N.E. of Bath. A.D. 
97 2 (K. 570. B. iii. 30) Badimyncgtun. D.S. Madmintune . 
Badmintun (1203). C.P.R. Badmintone (1254). FA. 
Badmynton. This name signified the farm-enclosure 
of the sons of Beadu-helm: i.e. Beadtihelmin(g)tun. 
It is noteworthy that the A.S. scribe in writing fully 
the patronymic ' ing ' inserts c before g. The Norman 
inserts c only (as a substitute) in order to avoid ' ng.' 
Cf. Breninctun (mod. Brington). The later scribe, 
further, like a modern ' elephant-child ' (Kipling) 
easily confused initial ' B ' and ' M.' The first 
element, the p.n. Beaduhelm, has shortened to Badn- 
helm : then to Badim, with loss of hel and change 
of u to i: finally, the i has dropped out. (Cf. 
Admington.) 



BAD-BROOK — BARRINGTON 



15 



Bafford. Nr. Charlton Kings. Possibly the original 
prefix was ' Bath ' : but no early forms are to hand. 

Bagendon. (m.p. & v.) y/ 2 m. N. of Cirencester. 
D. Benwedene. T.N. Bagindon, K. Q. Bathinden. 
F.A. Badgington. The spellings are bad. The pre- 
fix probably stands for the p.n. Bsecga, gen. ' an,' 
weakened to"' en,' and tending to become patronymic 
'ing.' Don = dun = down. The forms illustrate the 
frequent confusion between 'Den' and 'Don.' and 
' ton.' The sense is Bsecga's down. 

Bagpath (Newington). Baggepath (1 174). Bagga- 
path. B. M. c. 1250. Bagge represents Bacggen — 
weakg-eH. of Bacga, an A.S. p.n. — i.e. Bagga's path. 

Balks, The. Baidks ; Bawks. Strips of unfilled 
ground dividing various properties. M.E. Balke : a 
ridge in a field. 

Bangrove. Near Beckford. There are several 
examples of this local name in the County, but early 
forms are wanting. The suffix represents the A.S. 
Graf : a grove. Ban = A.S. beam = tree. The meaning 
may be a grove of trees. (Cf. Bampton and Hempton, 
Co. Oxf.) 

Bardsley, otherwise Barnsley. (m.) C.S. 304. 
Bearmodeslea (c. A.D. 802).— C.S. 487. Beorondeslea, 
A.D. 855. D. Berneleis. Baradeslegh. Bardesley. 
Berdesleye. (13th c.) Bardesle, otherwise Barnsley, 
and Brandesleye. The A.S. p.n. indicated here, there- 
fore, is Beornmod ; {gen.) es ; the terminals display 
variant M.E. forms of A.S. Leah, dat : leage (g = y) 
pasture-land, or unfilled land. 

Barnwood. (m. p. & v.) nr. Gloucester. D. Ber- 
neunde. (1235) Bernwude. N.V. Berenwode. The 
possessive prefix here is the p.n. Beorna; a well- 
known A.S. theme. 

Barrington. (m. p. & v.) Great and Little ; on the 
r. Windrush. D. Semitone. Bevnintone. c. 1245, Bern- 
ington. The ton, or farm, of Beornwine. A.S. Tun. 



1 6 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Barrow, (m.) nr. Boddington. CD. (716-43) 
Bearwe, (1. 109). IPiVI. (1273) Barwe. Barrowe. 
A.S. bearu = wood: dat bearwe. 

Barton, (m.) at Gloucester (Kings & Abbots). D. 
Bertune. La Berton 1220. The Barton, or grain- 
enclosure : from A.S. bere : barley ; tun = ton, farm- 
enclosure, or garner. Tune — dat : of Tun ; i.e. ' at ' 
is understood. 

Batche (The). La Bache. A bottom, or valley. 
A.S. Bece. M.E. Bceche. The Great Batch. Little 
Batch. Mr Duignan observes : "The H.E.D. is the 
first authority to recognise the word ; and translates 
it ' the vale of a stream or rivulet.' " It occurs at 
Cranham as a field-name, and also in the Forest of 
Dene. Cf. N.E.D. s.v. bache. The ' t' is excrescent. 

Batcomb. (m.) Batecomb (in Stow-on-Wold) and 
elsewhere in Co. Glos. Batancumb occurs as a local 
name (B.C.S. 1174. K.C.D. 593). A.S. p.n. Bata ; 
gen : an: A.S. Cumb, comb; a loan-word from Welsh 
cwm— a valley. Batan having weakened to Baten, 
the 'n' became lost. Finally, the 'e' followed. 

Bathford. (Hund. of Bath). The reference is to 
the ford (North) on Avon, which King Edwy granted, 
with ten houses, ' set Forda,' in A.D. 957. 

Batsford. (m.p. &v.) 1*4 m. N.W. of Moreton-in- 
the-Marsh. C.S. 163 Bceccesore (c A.D. 740) D. Bece- 
sore. PI. C. (1221) Bechesoure. F.A. Bacheshore — 
Bacheser. A.S. p.n. Bcecc. (B.C.S. 917 K.C.D. 436) 
gen. 'es'; Ofer ; bank, or shore. Literally at 
Baecc's shore. Ford is a late substitution. 

Battledown Knoll. Nr. Charlton Kings. (Camp). 
The first element, battle, is probably a metamorphosis 
of an A.S. p.n. such as Bethild ; but early forms are 
lacking. 

Battlescombe. Nr. Bisley. Apparently the Combe 
belonging to Bethild, or Beaduhild. 



BARROW— BEGGY HILL 17 

Baunton. (m.p. & v.) i% m. N, of Cirencester. 
D. Bandintone. PLC. Bandy mton. K.Q. Baudunton. 
F.A. Bawdynton. Probably the meaning is (A.S. 
p.n.) Bealdwine's-ton, or farm- enclosure. The A.N. 
influence has triumphed in retaining the ' u,' or 
vocalized /. 

Beachley. (v. & p.) 6 m. N. of Tewkesbury. 
Bettesleigh. Betesle. Bettesley. (See also, Betchley). 
An A.S. p.n. Betti, is pointed to here as representing 
an owner of pasture-land : — Leigh = Legh = ley. 

Bearse Coppe. It was a pasture in the p. of New- 
land, Forest of Dene. Bevse. Bears- Coppe (1548). A 
copp (A.S.) = a summit. For the first element see Berse. 

Beckbury. (Camp) on the slope above Hailes. 
The prefix may represent the A.S. p.n. Becca ; (g)an. 
The terminal ' bury,' from byrig, the dative case of A.S. 
Burn, here bears the meaning of a fortified place, or 
rampart of earth. The sense is — at Becca's bury. 

Beckford. (m.p. & v.) nr. Ashchurch. C.S. 309. 
A.D. 803 Beccanforda. D. Beceford. R.B. Bekeford, 
Becford, Bekeford, Beckeford (1235 Pat. R.) Bekke- 
ford (MS. Rawl. B. 252. 32. 36). The prefix represents 
the gen. of A.S. p.n. Becca. Forda (dat.) bears its 
ordinary meaning. The sense is ' at the Ford of Becca.' 

Bedwins. (The) A sand in Severn. Perhaps this 
represents the personal A.S. name Beaduwine (Cf. 
The Goodwins, said to derive from Godwin, the Earl). 

Beeks. (h.)2 m. S. ofMarshfield. This place-name 
may represent an A.S. p.n. Bech, unrecorded save in a 
genitival form of Beches (Cf. Appendix I. Searle, 
Onomasticon.) But land reclaimed by the use of a 
curven mattock is sometimes so-called : Cf. E.D.D. 

Beggy Hill, also Becky- Hill and Buggy-Hill. (See 
under Buggilde-Street.) A.S. p.n. Burghild, and 
Bucga, are both women's names. 



I 8 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Belas Knapp. (In p. of Charlton Abbots) M.E. 
Knap (A.S. Cnaep) = A small hill or head of ground. 
Bealas, Bellas. Cf. also, Bealknap, (L.B.W.) as a 
p.n. , and Bealknappe. The origin must remain doubt- 
ful. The Welsh Bela = wolf, has been suggested as 
the origin ; and, needless to say, Baal ! The proba- 
bilities seem to point to an unrecorded p.n. such as 
Beall,-es. In the pedigree of Henry III. (given p. 3, 
Vol. I., Red-book of the Exchequer), occurs a royal 
ancestor called ' Bealdaes,' father of 'Brand.' But 
this can scarcely be the correct reading of the nomina- 
tive of any Saxon name (? B&ldceg). Bealda is a 
known one, and a stronger form of it is Beald, (g) 
Bealdes. The latter occurs locally (K.C.D. 1149) in 
Bealdes sol.) The tendency of the consonant d to drop 
out before the awkward en of Cnap, is an obvious one. 

Beley. (m.) nr. Stinchcomb. A.D, 972. Beoleahe. 
Belegh. Beeley. Beleye. A.S. Beo : the Bee. — A ley, 
or pasture, appropriated to the raising of honey: as 
we should say, a ' bee-farm.' There are many other 
Beleys in England. A Worcestershire example 
figures in D.S. as Beolege. 

Belrepeir. (inHaresneld^eio/w. (See H.C. Gl. I., 
209). (c. 1220.) Beaurepaire, IPM. Hen. VI., No. 37. 
(Cf. Bewley, for ' Beaulieu'). 

Bentham. (m.)nr. Badgeworth. Benetham. From 
Prov. E. Bennet. ' Bent ' was a term applied to coarse 
ground which produced a wiry grass, later called, 
from this fact, Bent-grass. The A.S. term was Beonet. 
Here the Hamra, or homme, was situated on coarse 
ground. There are numerous Benthams and Bentleys. 

(La) Berge. Bergha. La Bevwe. IPM. (c) 1304. 
Situated in the manor of Erlingham. M.E. Bergha : 
berough — a barrow, from Mercian Berh, A.S. Beorh, 
a hill, or grave. 



BELAS KNAPP — BERNINTONE 19 

Berkeley, (m. p. & t.) C.S. 379 Beorclea, and 
Berclea. A.D. 824 — Berchalei. Birecleia.' Birchleya. 
The prefix represents the A.S. Beorc, or byre, a 
birch-tree. The suffix is obvious. Numbers of places 
have been named from oak, beech, maple, willow, 
thorn, alder, ash, and yeAV-tree, sometimes as local 
peculiarities, more frequently as boundary-marks. 

Berkeley-Herness. (m.) D. Berchelai-hernesse. 
Berkeleis-hurnes. 1286. Hernesse. Harness. Hurnys. 
(B.M. 142). The later forms might seem to suggest 
that there may have occurred some clerical confusion 
between M.E. Hernis, hirnes, huirnes, and Ness : a dis- 
tinct Manor at Berkeley. But such has not been the case. 
These occur as nom : sing: variants of A.S. Hyrne, 
M.E. Htirne, corner, or district. I take nesse, therefore, 
to be only a late West-Saxon form of nis and nes, 
in Hernis, or Hirnes. A Broaifield-hernesse occurs in 
Co. Hereford. (Cf. Vol. 2, H. et G. St. Petri, Glouc. 
p. 214). The Domesday form is borne out by the 
Charters of Henry II., A.D. 1153, 1160, 1189; and 
Richard I., 1 198. Cf. B.M., 3, 8, 9, 18, 23. Mr. I. H. 
Jeayes translates the term — 'District,' (B.M. 2.), which 
is the real meaning here. Cf. ' Each was geboren at 
Berkeley hums' : Robertson, Glossary of Gloucester- 
shire Words. Eng : Dial : Soc, p. 196. 

Bernestre. (Hd.) A.D. 1247. D, Bernintrev; PLC. 
1221 Bernetre, reduced to Brentry. (q.v). Now, 
Henbury Hundred. .The terminal stands for A.S. 
Treow (v for u, in D.S.) ; the prefix seems to represent 
A.S. p.n. Beorn, The sense was originally ' Beorn's 
tree.' Nevertheless, there is contradiction between 
the two early forms. The D. form is patronymic, 
while the later one, Bernestre, should refer to Beorn. 

Bernintone. (D. Hund.) now Slaughter Hundred. 
(See above and under Barrington.) Bernintone, 1.267. 

D 



20 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Berrington. (Hamlet of Chipping - Campden). 
IPM. (1273) Byrton. Burington. Buryton. The 
forms assure us that the first element in this name 
"was Byrig, dat. of A.S. Burh : the walled place, or 
village. It has gradually simulated a patronymic form. 

Berrow. La Berewe. M.E. (for A.S. (d) beorge) 
= a mound, or barrow. 

Berry-Hill. Near Coleford, F. D. A.S. byrig 
= a fortified place : dat of A.S. Burh. 

Berse(le). A vill giving name to a bailiwick in the 
Forest of Dean. 2 m. N.W. of S. Briavels. (Cf. 
Bearse ; ante). There is no doubt that a Berse was 
some specific kind of Forest-enclosure, or fenced-off 
place; "Chaceas et bersas nostras" — R.L. Claus i. 
290. (12 1 6); but the exact nature of it is not yet defined. 

Bersenese. Mr W. H. Stevenson kindly tells me 
that the terminal ' enese' in these Forest of Dene names 
{Cf. Sir John Maclean's Papers on the Perambulations of 
the Forest of Dean. Vol. XIV. Trans. Br. & Glos. Arch. 
Soc y .) should be read evese = eaves. (Cf. Stratmann's 
M.E. Diet., Ed. H. Bradley.) 

Bersewelle. (at Brookthorp). A spring in a field 
(H. et C.G.) (1225) 

Bespwyke. (A fishery belonging to Flaxley Abbey). 
Possibly Bishops-wick. The name of William Bisp 
occurs (c. 1225), as a tenant at Brookthorpe manor, 
(H.C. Gl. 1, 176), and bisp is an abbreviation of Bishop. 
Wyke = a dwelling, or a village, or a farm. A.S. Wic. 
M.E. Wike (q.v.) 

Betchley. Nr. Tiddenham. Bettisley. Beachley, 
(q.v.) where the Danes were starved out A.D. 894. 

Beverstone. (m.p. & v.) 2 m. W. of Tetbury Sta- 
tion. A.S. Chr. Byferesstane, A.D. 1050. D. Beure- 
stone. (B.M.) Beuerstan, 1154. Beverstan, 1287. The 
prefix represents the p.n. Beofor : (Beaver). The 
terminal is A.S. Stane, d. of Stan = stone = rock. 



BERRINGTON— BIFORD 21 

Bevington. (in Berkeley). (B.M.) Bevintune, c. 
1200. Bevinton, 1233. The prefix probably represents 
the known A.S. p.n. Beffa. The sense is the farm of 
the Beffings. 

Bibury. (m.p. & v.) 7 m. N.E. of Cirencester. C.S. 
166. (c. 740). Beagan-byrig. D. Becheberie. PI. C. 
Behebiria. F. A. Beyeburi and Beybury. N.V.Bybury. 
Beaga, daughter of Comes Leppa (c. 735), gave her 
name to it. The prefix occurs in the same genitival 
form in Beagan-wyl. B.C. S. 882. K.C.D. 426. Byrig, 
dative of A.S. burh ; an enclosed, or walled, place. 
The sense is 'at Beaga's stronghold.' 

Bickmarsh. (near Honeybourne). (C.S. 1201.) 
Bicanmersce.—A.D. 967.— D. Bichemerse. 1608 Bicke- 
mershe. The prefix stands for the A.S. p.n. Bica 
(gen.) Mersce (d.) for A.S. mersc (sc = sh). The 
sense is ' Bica's marsh.' 

Bicknor. (m.v. & p.) on the E. bank of the Wye. 
D. Bicanofre. Byghenore. Bikenovere. Byknore. 
Bekenore. The p.n. present here is Bica. The ter- 
minal 'overe' = A.S. ofre, dat. of ofer, a river-bank; 
lit. Bica's-bank. M.E. ovre, oure, ore. 

Bidfield. (1) in Miserden, (2) in Forest of Dean. 
Budefield. Budifield. Bydfield. . The first element 
is the p.n. Byda. The older forms retain remains of a 
weakened genitive. The sense is obvious. 

Biford. B.M. Bigford (c.) 1250. This name, which 
Bushford in Wotton-under-Edge represents, took its 
origin in a bridge, called (temp. Hen. III.) Bigfordes- 
bridge. It is questionable, however, whether Bigford 
represented a personal name, or merely A.S. Blg = 
by, — the local ford. There is another Biford, in Co. 
Hereford. A pseudo-possessive 's' tends to intrude 
in place-names when a secondary terminal has been 
accreted. For example : ' Down-Ampney(s)wyke ; ' 
' Andover(s)ford.' It may be safely assumed that the 

D2 



22 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

case under consideration belongs to the same category. 
See below Blackwellesende. 

Bigsweir (in the Wye). Bikiswere (1322). Bicka- 
wear. Biggesware. Bicca and Big, are personal 
names ; and probably refer to an early owner of 
the weir. 

Billow. (A brook at Slimbridge). A.D. 1210. 
Boeleye-broc. Buley (c.) 1230. B.M. In 1340 we have 
Bolleyes Long, on the Severn ; and Bollewere — a 
fishery. 

The place-name Bulley was not rare in those 
days. Bulley, near Westbury, was ' Buleleye' at 
Domesday, apparently deriving from A.S. Bula, (m) 
a bull. The suffixes 'ley' and ' loe,' 'low,' are 
occasionally interchanged, as here: Putley (Potteley) 
has become Pntloe. 

Bilson Green, (h.) Forest of Dean. (Cinderford.) 
Bilsame. The prefix represents the known A.S. p.n. 
Bill = Bill's-ham. (Cf. Billesley). 

Bilsum. Nr. Olveston. (C.S. 936). Billesham 
(c. 955). This is not the only example of ham (i.e. 
hornni) becoming transformed to um, in Gloucester- 
shire. For Hanham , we have variant forms : Hanmcm, 
Hanz«tz. Huntsham also gives variants : Hunsum, 
Hondstim. 

Birdlip. (On the road from Gloucester to Ciren- 
cester). PLC. 1 22 1. Bridelepe. Brydlep. Brudelep; 
(1262). Bridlep. By metathesis the position of the 
'r' in the prefix has become changed. The lepe 
has weakened to lip. Bryd may stand for Bird. 
The A.S. Hllepe (f.) — signified a mounting-block: 
while HHep (str : fern.) meant a leap, or jump. (Cf. 
Clif-hliep). May it not mean, perhaps, a style ? on 
the other hand the suffix may represent A.S. Hlyp, 



BIGSWEIR— BISHTON 23 

Hlype, of uncertain significance, as in CD. iii. 320, 
iElfwines hlipgeat 'get hindehlypan ' (C.S. 1, 342). 
For these, and other examples, however, see the 
elaborate note in "Crawford Charters" (Ed. A. S. 
Napier & W. H. Stevenson, pp. 54-5). Cf. ' Lyppiat,' 
and Postlip, i.e. Potteslep. 

Birts -Morton, (m.) A. S. mor-tun = moor-ton, or 
farm on the moor. The prefix in 1407 (and perhaps 
long before that date) was Bruttes, or Bruttis, (g) of 
Brut. But in the earlier half of the 14th c. Worcester- 
shire Registers give it as Morton-Brut. Another, 
but a later, form is Morton- Br itte. 

The family of Le Bret was represented in both 
Worcestershire and Gloucestershire throughout the 
13th century; and, as Mr Duignan has stated, Walter 
Le Bret was living at Morton in 1275. The ' LeBrets' 
were likewise at Painswick and Pitchcombe, where 
the name is still familiar in the form of Birt. The 
origin is Le Breton, the Breton. 

Bishop's Cleeve; or Cleeve Episcopi. (m.p. & Hd.) 
C S. 246. Clife (c. 780). D. Clive. It belonged at 
Domesday to the Cathedral of Worcester. It was 
later on called Bishops Cleeve to distinguish it from 
Priors Cleeve. The manor had paid a rent of ^36 
in the reign of the Confessor. The terminal is obvi- 
ously A.S. Clif = a cliff, or slope ; to which, however, 
it merely faces, somewhat at a distance. M.E. Clive 
and Cleve, dat. of Clif. 

Bishton. Nr. Tidenham. A.D. 956, (C.S. 928). 
Bispestime. Bisten. Although the name of Bisp (i.e. 
Bisceop) as that of a person, does not occur in Saxon 
Charters, in the 12th c. we find a William Bisp, a 
tenant at Brookthorp of Wm. de Pontelarch. (H.C. 
Gl. 1, 176.) The name probably had existed (albeit 
unrecorded) before that date. (See ' Bespwyke.') 



24 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

We have also the place-name ' Bispham,' for Bisceop- 
ham, in a Charter of A.D. 1008-12. Here the reference 
is to the Bishop of Llandaffs's farm. 

Bisley. (m.p. &Hd.) (C.S. 574) A.D. 896 Bislege. 
D. Biselege. Bisleia, Biselai (Papal Letters R.S. 1, 
350) 1257. Bisele. Byseleigh. Byssheley. There was 
no sb. corresponding to L. buscus, or F. bois, in A.S. 
(See N.E.D.): hence, this name cannot derive from 
such a source, in spite of the last of the above forms; 
but an A.S. p.n. Bisa is pointed to. The earliest 
form only derives from a paper M.S. c. 1560 by 
Lambarde. 

Bitton. (m. & p.) D. Betune. A.D. 1151, Betthone. 
Bettione. Betone & Bethone (c. 1150-65) C. P. R. 1234 
Betton. (T.N.) Button. (F.A.) Bukton (1303) By tton. 
Buttone. The prefix may stand for A.S. p.n. Betti : 
tun, = farm-enclosure ; but we may suspect the tt of 
concealing ct as in Ditton = Dlc-tun, by assimilation. 
If so, then Bece and Boc, equally, the Beech-tree 
— have been factors, and the later forms are not as 
erratic as they seem. The camp of this name is 
situated on the road leading from Bath to the Severn, 
at five miles distance from the former. 

Bittum. (Great and Little) Lydney. Another 
instance of local pronunciation of ' ton.' (Cf Eastum, 
for Aston. C.S. 165). Early forms are wanting ; but the 
root may have been the same with that of the 
preceding name. 

Blacelaw. (Hd.) D. The terminal is for A.S. 
HlaEw, a low, or mound, usually a burial-tump, or bar- 
row. There was a Black-low (or dark-mound) above 
Woodchester which probably gave its name to this 
Hundred. The Domesday Survey also presents the 
name with a terminal 's' — Blacelaws. 

Blackness. At Brimscombe. A.S. Nags ; promon- 
tory : headland. 



BISLEY— BLAKEWYKE 25. 

Blackwell. In Tredington. A.D. 978. (CD. 620) 
Blacewellan. The prefix represents Bkec,— black, 
dark. The terminal = well. 

Blackwellesende. (Green). Blacewelle. A.S. 
Ende usually bears its obvious meaning, of termina- 
tion. The possessive 's' does not make Blakewell a 
personal name. It was more probably the name of a 
field having an old well-spring in it. 

Blaisdon. (m.p. & v.) In Westbury Hundred. 1200. 
Blechedun. Blechendon,Bleysdon,Blasdon. Blecches- 
don. (Peramb: For: 1300). N.V. and F.A. Blechesdon. 
Blecheden. The prefix represents the A.S. p.n. Blaecc 
or Blsecca : as the owner of a Down. The change from 
Bleches to Blais is analogical. Cf. Blaise Bailey (4 m. 
S.W.), which should be Bleyth's Bailey. 
Blaise. (Hamlet and Camp). 

Blaize -Castle. In Henbury. Early forms are 
lacking ; said to have been named from a chapel of St. 
Blaize, the patron of Wool Carders ; but of which no 
trace survives. 

Blakehall. The suffix is probably for Hale = corner, 
(q.v.) The prefix here denotes dark colour. 

Blakemere. Blackmore. Literally, the black moor. 
Blakemonescroft. Croft = a small farm. The A.S. 
p.n. Blaecman (later Blackman), is borne in common 
by this and the following name as a prefix. 

Blakemonesway. Way, wey = a track, or road. 
See the previous name. 

Blakeney. (p.) (A Bailiwick of the Forest of 
Dean). Blaken. (Latinized) Blacheneia, c. 1280. 
The suffix ' ey ' is for ' ea ' = stream. Here, perhaps, 
it means that the local river was a Black-water. The 
prefix represents the dative of Blaec, Black. 

Blakewyke. A.S. Wlc related by adoption to Lat. 
Vicus = a village, hamlet, or dairy-farm. 



26 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Blaklaines. Forest of Dean. A laine is a division 
of arable land made for a specific agricultural pur- 
pose. Cf. E.D.D. 

Blakmonale. F. of Dene. Hale = a corner : dat. 
sing, of Halh, the Mercian form of the W. S. Healh 
[Blackman and Brownman were common names, and 
possibly bear a racial record, of some interest.] 

Blakpulleforde. (1281). Ford by the black pool. 

Bledington. (m.p. & v.) 1 m. W. of Chipping 
Norton Junction. D. Bladintun. PLC. (1221). 
Bladyntone. Apparently this place took its name 
from the river Bladaen, Bladene, Blcedene, or 
Evenlode. The meaning, therefore, is a farm- 
enclosure by the (r) Bladaen. Here there would 
seem to have been confusion between the last syllable 
(aen) of the river-name and ' en ' a weak genitive of 
the A.S. p.n. Blaedda, yielding to the patronymic 
tendency to become ing. The river, however, re- 
corded in vEthelbald's Charter, A.D. 718, as Bladaen, 
in another (Cott. viii.) as Blcedene, as Blade (D.S.) 
and T.N. Bladene : probably hands down a pre-English 
name. There was a Bladenlode on Severn : but I 
cannot identify to which of the ancient Ferries this 
name was attached : but possibly it was Wainlode. 

Bledisloe or Blideslow, also Blidsloe. (In Awre). 
D. Bliteslau. Later forms are Blydeslawe, Blidesloe, 
Brideslowe, Blydeslowe. Bliddesloe. Bletsloe. The 
Domesday is also the modern Hundred. The prefix 
answers to the A.S. p.n. Bllth, M.E. lawe, lowe : a 
burial mound ; Th has here developed into ' t ' and 
' dd' under A.N. influence, leading to a shortening of 
the first vowel. Blitheswick occurs as the Hundred- 
name of Blidislow (q.v.) in a 13th cent. Jury list. (Cf. 
Vol. X. B. & Gl. Trans., p. 300). 

Bley. Bleyth, a bailiwick in the Forest of Dene, 
named from a 13th cent. William Bleyth. 



BLAKLAINES— 1BOSELEY 



27 



Blockley. (m.) near Moreton-in-the-Marsh. C.S. 
489 Bloccanlea, AD. 855. (K.C.D. 278.) D. Blockelei. 
Blockeleye. 1348 (L.B.: Wi). The prefix stands here 
for a recorded personal name : Blocca, the stronger 
form of which is Bloc, Blocces. 

(The) Blomaries. In the Forest of Dene. Blo- 
maries are forges for iron-smelting; ironworks. A.S. 
Bloma = moss of iron. Latinized ' In Blomariis.' 

Boddington. (m. & p.) On the r. Chek. D. 
Botintone. A.D. 1200 Botindun. Bodington. (F.A.) 
Bodynton. Botinton. The prefix represents the gen : 
pi. of A.S. p.n. Boda, or Botta, Bottan (g), but it might 
represent possibly ' Botwine(s)-ton ' — the farm of 
Botwine. The Norman objected to ' ng ' and fre- 
quently drops the ' g.' The later scribe often replaces 
' witte' by ' ing.' 

Bolde (The), often called" The Bowl," near Nether 
Swell. (Cf. Elias de la Bolde. L.B. of Winchbe. 
Vol. 2, 179). A.S. Bold. (n). a house. 

Bollesdon, or Bowlesdon. (m.) 2 m. S.W. of 
Newent. Bullesdone. Bolesdone. (IPM.) 130 1. A.S. 
p.n. Bull. Dim : a down. (Gt. Boulsdon). The 
lengthening of the vowel- sound into ou, as in 
Poulton, is not uncommon. 

Bollewere (? Bullo Pill). (A fishery belonging to 
Flaxley). M.E. Bolle = a bowl, or cup. Were = a 
staked enclosure, weir, or dam. The sense may be a 
cup-shaped weir; but perhaps we should take the 
prefix to represent Bol-ley, or Bol-low, (q.v). 

Bollow. (v.)i^m. E. of Westbury-on-Severn. (Cf. 
Bullo-pyll, 2 m. South, on the Severn). PI. C. Bollee 
(1221). IPM. 1293. Bolleye. The first element may 
be the A.S. p.n. Bulla. Low = a burial mound, from 
HliEw. The sense is the tomb of Bulla : ' Bollanlow.' 

Boseley. (m.) 1 m. N.W. of Westbury-on-Severn. 
The A.S. p.n. Bosa stands here (g. Bosan) for the owner 
of a pasture: the weak gen: Bosen having lost the ' n.' 



28 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Botloe. (Hd.) in Dymock. D. Botelav. Bottelawe. 
(K.Q.) Botloes-End (to-day). The prefix is the A.S. 
p.n. Botta. A.S. hlSw = M.E. low, lawe = a burial- 
mound. 

Bouncehorn. 3 m. E. of Bisley. Also, and better, 
spelled Bownshorn. The prefix possibly conceals some 
p.n. such as Botwine ; but Bouhan and Bowan, H.C. 
Gl : 3. 182 (1266) were not rare names in the 13th c. 
in Gloucestershire. Horn (M.E. Hilrne) in place-names 
usually signifies a corner, or angle of ground. There are 
several instances in the county. Cf. Lilley-Horn (q.v.) 

Bourton-in-the-Water. (m. p. & v.) C.S. 8S2. 
Burgtune. A.D. 949. D. Bortune. PI. C (1221) 
Borchtone. F.A. BoruJiton. Burton. A.S. Burn, dat. 
b} r rig. ME. Burgh, Borugh ; an enclosed or ramparted 
place : tun = farm. The sense here is 'the Fort-farm.' 

Boutherop. (m.) otherwise Eastleach - Martin. 
1547. Burthrop. Early forms are lacking. But Cf. 
Burdrop, Co. Oxford; where the prefix points to Burh 
a fort. A.S. throp : thorp : a village, or farm. 

Bowbridge. At Stroud. The term means a one- 
arch bridge. 

Bownace(Wood). Nr. Stinchcomb Hill. The suffix 
may represent M.E. Hache = a wicket. The lack of 
forms renders it impossible to determine. The first 
element may even have been the p.n. Bolla. (g) 
Bowcot close by in c. 1250 was Bollecote. (B.M. p. 108). 
Cf. Pl.-N. of Herts : p. 65. Stevenage. W. W. Skeat. 

Bownham. Near Brimscombe. See below. 

Bownhill. Near Woodchester. See Bouncehorn. 
I cannot see Badon-hill in it, as does Mr McClure, (p. 
123 British Place-names). The AS. p.n. Bolla seems to 
be the more probable origin. On the other hand, it may 
lie in some pre-Saxon term, of unknown signi- 
ficance. 



BOTLOE— BREAM-MEEND 29 

Box(e) (La), (m. & h.) in Blitheslow Hundred. 
Boxa. A.S. Box : (m) = a box-tree ; also, a lodge, 
or shed. Cf. ' The Salt-box,' near Cranham. 

Boxwell. (m. & p.) ^y 2 m. E. by N. of Charfield. 
In Grimboldsash Hd. D. Boxewelle. Anc. Ch. N°- 50. 
A.D. 11&5 Boxwelha. — Corp. Rec. (c.)i2io. Bocswelle. 
Bockeswelle (1316). Here the prefix in spite of the 
genitival form was also Box, a box-tree. (Cf. Box- 
worth? in Skeats PI. of Camb.) otherwise not recorded. 

(The) Boyce -Court. Nr. Dymock. From A.N. 
Bois, a wood. (Cf. Hidcote Boyce). Note the old 
pronunciation ! 

Braceland. A field name meaning land at the 
mouth of a shaft, or claim, 

Brackeridge. Common. A ridge overgrown with 
ferns. The first element here seems to derive from E. 
Bracken, — the fern. We have similarly, Brackenbury. 

Brademede. Broadmead. 

Bradley. (Hd.) C.S. 153. (c. A.D. ji^)Bradanlea. 
D. Bradelege. Bradelega. Bradeleia. The sense is 
the broad pasture field. 

Bratches (The). Near Withington. It is a common 
field-name, signifying newly broken up ground. M.E. 
Breche : a fallow-field. 

Bread-Street. Near Randwick = Broad-Street. 

Bream (The). In Forest of Dean. A village. Le 
Breme. In the Bailiwick of Staunton. Of uncertain 
derivation. The E.D.D. gives the meaning as " an 
elevated place exposed to wind." 

Breams-Eaves. In p. of Newland. Eaves is the 
edges or skirts of enclosed grounds. E.D.D. — Cf. 
Colverts-eaves ; also in Forest of Dean. Ruerdens- 
eaves. Harwood-eves. A.S. Efese : M.E. evese. 

Edge. 

Bream -Meend. The suffix seems to be related to 
mean, from A. S. gemcene = common [pasture], Myende 



30 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Lane in Gloucester led from St. Mary de Lode to the 
mean-ha mm beside the Severn in 1260. {Corp. Rec. 
Gl- 539, 620, 655, 687, 693.) But see under Meand. 

Breccheaker. (in Newington). (1233 B.M.) Cf. 
A.S. Brecan. M.E. brache, brich. Breach. The sense 
(dial.) is 'broken-up acre,' or newly-cleared ground. 
See Bratches. 

Bremerende. In Forest of Dene. (?) Bremer, for 
M.E. BremeZ; =a bramble. M.E. Ende = limit, or 
district (d.) 

Brentlands. (Forest of Dean). Lands cleared by 
burning. M.E. Brent, connected with brennan, to burn. 

Brentry. (In Henbury). The suffix = A.S. Treo 
= tree. This may mean ' burnt tree.' 

Brewerne. (In Sandhurst). c. 1200. Bruerne. 
(C.R.) The prefix stands for A.S. Breow. A.S. aern, 
a house. The sense is a ' brew-house.' 

Briavelstowe. A hamlet in St. Briavels (q.v.) A.S. 
Stow : a place ; site. 

Brickhampton. Near Gloucester. Brihtamtunne, 
(c) 1220. — Brithelmetun, Brighglenton. Brythamp- 
tone 1230. Britlamton 1240. Brihthamtone 1296. 
Brichampton 1303. The prefix is the A.S. p.n. Beorht- 
helm transformed ; i.e. A.S. Brihthelmes-tun. Briht 
and Brict are early forms of Beorht ; ct for ht is a 
known peculiarity of M.E. spelling. The genitival 's' 
dropped out before A.D. 1200, and does not reappear. 
The tendency then set in to sound ' helm ' as ' ham ' ; 
'/' before ' m' in an unstressed syllable being liable 
to fall out See Forthampton. To this became added 
the excrescent '/>': forming a false terminal Hampton. 

Bridgemare. (A manor, formerly in Bentham). 
Bryddesmere, (C.R. 1225). Bridsmere. Bryddismer. 
1391. The prefix appears to be the genitival form of 
a personal name, such as Brydd, from Brid = Bird. 
The terminal = A.S. mere, a lake. (Cf. Bryddesete.) 



BRECCHEAKER— BROCK WORTH 31 

BrightwelPs Barrow. Formerly gave name to 
a Hundred. D. Brictvvoldesberg ; that was Beorht- 
weald's-Barrow. 

Brimpsfield. (m.) D. Brimesfelde. C.R. Brimes- 
feld. Bruneffeld. K.Q. Bremesfeld. Bronmesfelde 
(1316). Brummesfeld (1284). Brinnesfeld. The first 
element answers to the A.S. p.n. Bruman (which is 
a short form of Brunman), here in the genitive case 
— Brunmanes. The ' p ' is obviously intrusive. The 
sense is Brown-man's-field. These Brown-men and 
Black-men probably record people of the dark-skinned 
race in Britain. 

Brimscombe. (v. & p.) This place does not 
occur in D.S. Indentures mention it as Brimmescombe. 
In one, 1543-4, it bears a distorted form, Brynkes- 
tombe. Probably the prefix is identical with that in 
Brimpsfield (q.v.), but the last form may be genuine 
and point to a p.n. Brynec (dim). Cf. Brynco (Searle), 
Brynca. 

Broadway. Anc. Ch. N°- 50. 1183. Bradeweia = 
Broad-way. 

Brockhampton. (1) (m). nr. Bishop's Cleeve. 
Brochamtone. Brechampton. (K.Q.) Brokehampton 
(F.A.) Brokhamton (1383). The prefix represents 
A.S. Broc = abrook (Home-town). 

Brockhampton. (2) (m.) near Sevenhampton 
(K.Q.) Brok-hampton-Charleton. The 'p' is naturally 
excrescent in both examples. 

Brockley. Broclegh. A.S. Br6c = Brook. Leage : 
dat. of Leah; (g = y) ' The pasture beside the brook.' 

Brockworth. (m. & v.) 4 m. S.E. of Gloucester. 
D. Brocowardinge, Brockwordin{\\~,o),Broc Wardine, 
Pipe Roll (1189-90)., Wrocwardin. Brochworthe. 
Brocworthe. A.S. Broc = brook: Worthyn-ign-ine : 
hardened to 'wardine,' i.e. a homestead, by the 
brook. (Cf. Bredwardine, Co. Hereford.) 



32 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Brokenborough. (m.) In Almondsbury. Broken- 
borowe. Brokenbergh. Brokeneberwe (1324). Broken- 
burrow. The prefix suggests broken (pple) from 
breken to break. Borowe, Berwe, Borugh, are all 
M.E. forms deriving from A.S. Beorh : a hill. The 
sense is ' at broken hill.' 

Bromalls. In Staunton (F. of D.) The first element 
stands for A.S. Brom : M.E. Broom, the plant. The 
suffix probably represents 'hales' for W.S. healas : 
meadows, as in ' Fearnhealas' : ferny-meads. The 
sense is Broom-meads. Early forms are wanting. 

Bromesberrow. (inBotlow Hd.) (m. &p.) 4 m. 
N.E. of Dymoke. D. Brunmeberge. Bromesburgh. 
PI. C. 1221. Bremesberghe. Brommesberewe. H.C. 
Gl. 1284. Bromesberwe. F.A. 1316. A.S. Chr. A.D. 
910, 'set Bremes-byrig,' has been identified with 
Bromesberrow: but A.S. (d) Byrig does not yield 
M.E. berghe : mod: Berrow: but it does yield M.E. 
berie, mod : bury, which we have not got. There may, 
then, have been a confusion. The prefix should have 
been in full, Brunmannes, M.E. berghe, berwe, (dat. 
forms) =Mod. Eng. Barrow. The sense is probably, 
therefore, Brunman's-barrow. The Norman, in order 
to avoid the ' nsb ' medial, (which he could not pro- 
nounce), dropped the first two consonants, and reduced 
' mans' to ' me.' 

Brookthorpe. (m.p. & v.) 2 1 /, m. N.E. of Hares- 
field. D. Brostorp. Brocthorpe. (c) 11 50 Broctrop. 
(Taxo. Eccles".) Brotehrop. A.S. Broc: brook; and 
throp, thorp : a farm-enclosure, or thorpe. The A.N. 
influence substituted ' t' for ' th' as well as ' d' In 
the last form ' t ' has replaced ' c' 

Brumesham. (In Weston St. Lawrence; Hd. of 
Henbury). This belonged to the Saltmarsh manor of 
Hinton, and it may have been the same with Brunes- 
wellesham (See Berkeley Mts. p. 62, No. 179, and Tr. 



BROKENBOROUGH— BULLEY 



33 



Br. & Gl. Arch. Soc, X. p. 289). In both cases the 
personal name is Brun or Brown. In the latter form 
occurs a pseudo-possessive, superfluously added to the 
penultimate element 'Well,' otherwise, the inorganic 's.' 

Bryddessete. In the Forest of Dene Bailiwick ol 
Abenhall. The suffix 'sete,' if dat. of A.S. Sat, may 
mean a seat, a pasturage, or a fishery. (E.D.D.) The 
first element is probably the A.S. p.n. Brydd, (other- 
wise Brid, or Bird. (Cf. Briddesmser, nowBridgemare). 

Buckholt. Bocholt. Bocholthe. Bokeholte. The 
prefix is A.S. B6c = a beech-tree. A holt is a copse, 
or small wood. 

Buckland. (m.p. & v.) near Broadway (Wore.) 
D. Bocheland (ch = k). Boclond. Boclaunde. A.S. 
Boc-land, i.e. land granted by Book or Charter, and 
so held, by a private owner. The name is said to pre- 
vail exclusively in the Southern Counties. The D. 
form, as usual, represents the dat. Boce. 

Buckle, or Buggilde Street. C.S. 125 A.D. 709 
Buggildestret. C.S. A.D. 860 Buggan Stret. A.D. 
967, C.S. 1 20 1. Bucgan Street. Buggle- Street. Bucge 
(f) is an abbreviated form of Burghild ; so that the 
original personal name here was Burghild (feminine). 
See Introduction, p. xxvii. 

Bulewick. (in Bulley). Near Cam. Bidlewyke. 
Bulla's farm. (A.S.) wlc. M.E. Wyke : a village ; 
also sometimes but a dairy-farm. 

Bulley. (m.) in Cam. 

(1) (1125) Bulleye. Buleye (c) 1220, and Bulley- 
brook, nr. Mangotsfield. 

(2) Near Oakle Street, (m. & p.) D. Buleleye, 
Bullega,Bulleya (1231), Bolley (1412), Bullie, Bulleigh. 
The prefix is probably identical in both names. Bula 
is an A.S. p.n. said to be derived from the animal— a 
Bull. The sense is Bula's pasture-field. The spelling 



34 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

o = u ; and it occurs in most examples of this and 
similar names. 

Bull's Cross. P-n. Bull. 1572, Bulcross. M.R. 

Bunnage. Bownage. Bownace (q.v.) At the N. 
end of Slad Valley. The terminal M.E. Hache, acche 
= Mod. Hatch = a wicket ; or a flood-gate, as perhaps, 
here. The prefix may derive from Bolla. 

Buregrene. Near the Rudge: (La Rugge). H. et 
C. Gl. 2, 99. The prefix is for bury, from A.S. Burh, 
a fort, or enclosed place. 

Burghill. (m.) in Westbury. (1300) Borghulle. 
F.A. (1402) Burghidl. Burehid. Burhulle. Buren- 
hulle. Burhul. The prefix denotes M.E. burgh, 
borough; a fort, or merely an enclosed place. Hul=hill. 

Bury Hill. (C.) A.S. byrig ; dative case of A.S. 
burh ; literally ' set byrig.' The sense is Castle-hill. 

Burleigh. A Hamlet, near Brimscombe. The pre- 
fix suggests Bur : a rabbit burrow ; though, equally 
well, it may refer to the Bur-thistle, or the Bur-dock, 
but better than either to A.S. Burg. 

Bussage. (p.) 1 m. N. of Brimscombe. Early 
forms are lacking. The suffix probably stands for 
M.E. Hache : acche ; the modern hatch : a wicket, 
half-door. Sometimes it signifies the flood-gate of a 
water-meadow. Waterhatch. In Hampshire, = a gate 
dividing manors, or parishes. (Cf. Etym. Diet. E. 
Lang : W. W. Skeat). The prefix may represent 
Bush, M.E. Busse, the sense having been Bush-gate, 
or hatch. The old monolithic stone-stiles in Glou- 
cestershire hedges are practically stone-hatches. (Cf. 
Bunnage. Chavenage). 

Butter send. A hamlet of Hartpury. Possibly 
Bothere was the p.n. here. End = limit of a district. 

Buttington. (Tump) near Chepstow. Botyndone 
(1326). The A.S. p.n. Butta. The meaning is 
Butta's dun, or tun : or, if patronymic, then, the 



BULL'S CROSS— CALLOWELLL 35 

enclosure of the sons of Butta; but 'ing' may here result 
from a weak gen. en : yn. The suffixes above are 
liable to replace one another. 
Button. (See Bitton). 

Butts (The). (1) The abutments of the land-strips 
in open fields. The term has been widely used from 
very early days, and is to be found in all parts of the 
County. 

(2) Small pieces of land disjoined from adjacent 
lands, demesne, or other. 

(3) Sometimes used to describe ' selions,' or plough- 
ridges. 

Bydfield. Bidfield. (1225). Budifelde (1227). In 
the Hundred of Bisley. The prefix points to the 
ownership of one Byda: the latter is a known A.S. p.n. 

Cadbury Heath, (nr. Oldland & Bitton). The pre- 
fix stands for the known A.S. p.n. Cada. The D.S. 
Cadebirie is in Worcestershire. The meaning is the 
fort of Cada, or ' at Cada's-fort ; ' Bury being the 
dative (A.S.) ' byrig,' of burh (a borough, or a fort- 
enclosure). 

Cainscross. (v. & p.) 1 m. W. of Stroud. 

Calf -Way (The). An ancient high- way near Bis- 
ley. We have Calf -hay, Calf -hill, Calves-croft, Calf- 
lade (Ce//-lade Hd. D.S.), Calf-lea. (Cealfa-leaye, Co. 
Dorset), all apparently deriving from A.S. Cealf = a 
calf. It also occurs as a personal name in the County 
as far back as 127 1 A.D. (Cf. Skeat, Cambr. PL N. 
under Cheveley ; Caeafle). 

Callowell. Nr. Whiteshill, Stroud. Behind some 
examples of the occurrence of this prefix may stand 
evidence for its origin in the A.S. Calu ; bald. " The 
Callow" is a field- name in Ketford ; hence the meaning 

E 



36 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

in the present example may be— the well in a field 
called at one time 'The Callow' i.e., Cal + low, A.S. 
hleew : a barrow. . The prefix may represent a per- 
sonal name. 

Calmsden. (Tithing & hamlet) 2 m. E. of North 
Cerney. C.S. 466. Kalemundesdene A.D. 852. Cal- 
mundsdun A.D. 966. Calemdesdene. The prefix is 
the A.S. p.n. Calmund (Cf. Ceolmund) Dene, a valley, 
i.e. Calmundes-dene. 

Cam. (r. m. p. v.) or Camme 1177. PI. C. Kaumne 
1221. Kamme. B.M. 1252. Carna. IPM. 1286. The 
name has either been taken from the river, or that of 
the river from the place ; but it is not possible to 
determine which of these has been the case. Probably 
the former ; otherwise we should perhaps have found 
a Cambourne among the early forms. As the word 
belongs to pre-Saxon date, the meaning is likely to 
remain unknown. There is a Welsh adjective Cam, 
signifying ' crooked,' but that is not a sufficient reason 
for declaring this name to be Old British ; though, it is 
true, Cam-dwr occurs in Wales. In the Mon. Hist. 
Britann : Cant-bricge is identified with Cam-bridge 
{Cambrigga. B.M. (c) 1200) East of the Severn ; but the 
evidence for this will not bear very close examination. 

Camp (The). (Nr. Bisley). A 17th cent, village 
at the crossing of the roads. Commonly said to have 
been a Danish Camp, but of this there are no evidences. 
The name is borrowed from Latin ' campus,' mean- 
ing open field. Evidences of its existence before 1643 
are wanting, though it has grown up at a cross- ways, 
on at least one pre-Roman trackway. 

Campden (Chipping), (m. p. & v.) to Campsetena 
gemcera Eynsh: Cart. 1-23 (cited by F. M. Stenton 
Pl-N. of Berks, p. 15). D. Campdene. K.Q. Canm- 
peden. FA. Camuppeden. Cheping-Caumpeden. N.V. 
Campeden. Camp is a loan-word from the Latin. 



CALMSDEN— CATTY-BROOK 37 

In A.S. it signified (i) war ; (2) the place of battle ; (3) 
open field. A.S. denn, valley. Chipping, as in Chip- 
ping-Sodbury, -Norton, is derived from A.S. Ceaping 
(f) marketing. The vowel u is due to A.N. influence. 

Cannop. Forest of Dene. 1281. Konhop. The 
prefix may be Celtic : the suffix = A.S. Hop, valley. 

Carant. (r.) (Add: Ch. 19794). A.D. 780. Ccerent. 
Karente. F.A. Car aunt. Karent. Mr Duignan aptly 
instances the Charente, a river in the Department of 
that name, in France. Origin unknown. 

Carswell. (m.) (in Newent.) D. Crasowel. F.A. 
Kar swell, (F.A.) Cassewalle — Carswall. Carlswell. 
This is another form of Cresswell, which occurs in 
various counties. A.S. Cserswille. A.S. Cresse : 
cerse ; in Gower & Chaucer, Kers. Wel-cresse = 
water-cress. 

Gastlett. (m.) in Guiting Power. D. Cateslat. 
A.D. 1 177. P.R. (a. 22, Hen. II.) Catteslada. PI. C. 
Kadeslade. Catteslade. The prefix represents the 
p.n. Catt, (g.) -es. The suffix is probably from A.S. 
(ge)lad : a track, as in Framilade, Calflade, Lechlade, 
and Abload. Otherwise, it may derive from the weak 
form, Catta (g.) an, and A.S. slasd = valley. 

Catbrain-Quarr. Cat(s)brain occurs as a local 
quarry-name, at Lydney, Painswick, and many other 
places ; but the meaning is obscure. According to 
popular idea the term is due to the queer appearance 
of the large rounded fossil-shells in the quarry. 

Catte-Marsh. InBevington. (See preceding note.) 
Cattemersh. 1465. B.M. Mersch ; (dat.) Mershe = M.E. 
form of A.S. Mersc. The sense is Catta's marsh, (g.) 
Cattan — weakened to Catten: the 'n'has been dropped 

Catty-Brook. (In Almondsbury.) Katebroc. Cate 
broc. Cadebrooke. Catta is an A.S. p.n. also an O.N 
one. The sense is Catta's brook, or the Cat's brook 

E2 



38 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Caudle Green. A hamlet y 2 m. S. of Brimpsfield. 
Possibly for Caldwell, i.e. cold-well. There was a 
Cawdwell in Haresfield, 1623. IPM. 

Celflede. (D. Hd.) See Calf-way. M. E. Lad. 
Lade, = way. The meaning is Calf -way. 

Cernel— Cerney. (r.) C.S. 299. (c.) 800 A.D. 
Cyrnea. Chr. Abingd : Cirnea. The Romano-British 
Corin, of Corinium, derived, probably, from the same 
root. D. Cemei. Cerne, 1189. T.N. Cern. Cernay. 
The Churn, or Ciren. The suffix stands for ' ea,' a 
stream. The spellings are due to A.N. influence. 
(Cf. Zachrisson, pp. 19, 20.) 

Cerney-Wick. Cerney-Wyke. 1398. Cerney- 
(s)wike. B.M. (1417). Cf. Cerne-Abbas (Co. Dorset) 
on another Cerne. 

Chalford. A township formed from Bisley. IPM. 
(c. 1250). Chalford. 1297. Chalkforde. (1337) Chalk- 
ford. Chalkeford. (1349) L.B. Wi : Chaleforde. 1460. 
Chaff or d (Harl : 60 (104) ). The prefix stands for 
cealc, which made the original name Cealc-ford. The 
k has naturally disappeared, owing to its difficult 
position between e and/". The sense is 'at Chalk-ford.' 

Chalkwells. Nr. Turkdene. K.C.D. 90. Cealc- 
weallas. A.D. 743. This name occurs in the Mercian 
8th century Charter of ^Ethelbald. A.S. cealc : loan- 
word from Lat : Calx. 

Charfield. (m. & p.) 2^ m. S.W. of Wotton-under- 
Edge. D. Cirvelde. (c. 1250), Charfelde. Char-feud 
(1292). Charefeild (1303). Chartefelde N.V. Chares- 
field. Ceort p.n. (as in Chertsey) cannot be responsible 
for this prefix. As the spot was ground redeemed 
from the forest of Horwood, the name may well be con- 
sidered with the Kentish and Surrey ' Charts' = A.S. 
ceart,rough, fern-growing ground. (Cf. Brasted Chart.) 
Char feud : is an example of the A.N. influence by 
which '/' after 'e' became vocalised as 'u.' 



CAUDLE GREEN— CHAVENAGE 39 

Charingworth. (m. & h.) Nr. Ebrington. D. 
Chevringaurde. c. 1320. Chavelingworth. Chering- 
worth. Chanelinworth. 1284. — Charyngworth. 1300. 
Chaveringworth. 1421. A.S. Weorth. The prefix is 
patronymic, i.e. the sons of Ceafhere (?). The sense is 
the ' worth,' or farmstead, of the Ceaferings. The com- 
mon interchange of r and / is seen in some of the forms. 

Charlton. Nr. Tetbury. Cherleton. Cherlethone. 
H.C. Gl. 1267. Mercian c was sounded as ch. Ceorl 
became a surname, and it remains so still in the 
familiar form of Charle(s). The following various 
manorial affixes belong to the feudal age. 

Charlton Abbots, (p. & v.) 2 m. N. of Andovers- 
ford. 

Charlton Kings, (p. & v.) nr. Cheltenham. 
Originally Ceorlatun (gen. pi.): Churls-town. Churl 
bore no derogatory significance, originally. 

Charteshull. (Taxo. P.N. 1291). Cherteshulle, 
1241. Chertishull, 1289. Nr. Kingswood. The A.S. 
p.n. Ceort, as in Chertsey, and Chartley, answers to 
the first element. M.E. Hul = Hill. The meaning is 
Cherts Hill. 

Chaxhill. (h.) 2 m. E. of Westbury-on-Severn. 
Chakeshulle (c. 1250). Cheakeshulle. Chaxhull (1339 
C.R ) The p.n. here is probably the A.S. Caec ; Cheke 
is still a known family-name; M.E. Hiil = Hyll, 
modern — Hill. 

Chavenage. (m. & Chapelry) 3 m. S.E. of Hors- 
ley. Not in B.S. — Chavenedge. IPM. 1626. — The 
suffix may represent the A.S. ecg : modern edge. 
For the prefix we should expect an A.S. p.n., such 
as the Ceawwa in Ceawwan-leah (of B.C. S. 476 K.C.D. 
1052). Rev. E. McClure (Br. Place-names, p. 158, n.) 
suggests W. Cefn + Edge, a combination certainly 
without parallel in this district, saving where the 



40 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE NAMES 

Ordnance Map gives Avon-Edge for Avenage, i.e. 
Abbenesse. (.q.v.) Nevertheless, the sense may be 
Ceawa's-hatch. See 'Stevenage,' in "Place-names of 
Hertfordshire," where Prof. Skeat lays stress upon 
M.E. Hache, acche, and A.S. Hascce, gen., dat., and 
ace. of (f ) Haec = a wicket, a small gate = modern 
'Hatch.' Or, again, Cf. Avenage and Princenage 
(now Prinknash), where the Ash-tree has been respon- 
sible for this terminal. Cf. also Ninnage in this county ; 
also Bunnage and Bussage. 

Chedworth. (m. p. & v.) C.S. 535. A.D. 872 
Ceddatvwyrde. D. Cedeorde. Chedeleswurde, 1190- 
Chedelesworth. Shedeworth. 1284. Cheddeworth. F.A- 
1303. The A.S. p.n. Cedda, or Ceadel, is represented 
here, as that of the original owner of a farm, or 
'Worth.' The early Norman avoids writing the A.S. 'w.' 

Cheftesihat. Near Hidcote Boyce. D. {Kiftsgate 
Hd.) i-h = y (yate = gate) PC. 1221 Kyftesiate. Kyftes- 
gate (1271). The p.n. pointed to here is an unrecorded 
one ; Cyfet). The form of this prefix, however, appears 
to be simple. 

Cheltenham, (m. p. & t.) on the r. Chelt. C.S. 
309. A.D. 803, Celtanhom. D. Chintineham. Chintene- 
ham. Chitteham. P.R. 1 158. Schilteham. Chylteham. 
Chiltenham. The earliest form of the suffix appearing as 
' hom ' shews that the ' ham ' here was the A.S. haram ; 
homm, a mead, or enclosure, at the side of the river 
Cilt, or Cilta ; now Chelt. Celtan is made by the Saxon 
to appear to be the gen. form of an A.S. p.n. Celta. 
The Sch form was due to A.N. influence in the xiii. c. 

Cherington. (m. p. & v.) 4 m. N.E. of Tetbury. 
D. Cerintone. (c.) 11 20 Cherintone. Chederintone . 
Chyrintone. Chyrynton. Chelinton. F.A. 1285. — Chiryn- 
ton, 1303. Chiviton. Chirton F.A. 1346. (Cf. Ched- 
ringewurda for Charringworth. P. Roll.) The prefix 
seems to point to a p.n. of which the genitival (sing:) 
form 'Ceadres' (? Ceadhere) alone survives. (Cf. 



CHEDWORTH— CHILDS-WICKHAM 41 

Searle, p. 588. From this would result the gen : plur: 
Chedringa, or Chederinga ; which would go far to ex- 
plain this personal, and perhaps, patronymic prefix. 
The sense is the farm-enclosure of the Ceadrings. 

Cheselhanger. A wood near the Severn, at 
Berkeley. Chisulhanger, IPM. 1368. Chislaunder 
(1514) Chesilhunger (1522). A.S. ceosel; clsil = a 
pebble, shingle. The terminal is 'hanger,' a wooded 
slope. A.S. Hangra. Aunder, above : resulted from 
A.N. influence : like Saund for Sand. 

(The) Ghessels. A field-name near Bourton-on-the- 
Water. Gloucestershire folk apply the word to Roman 
coins, i.e. Chessells : also spelled Chestles ; as though 
reflecting Chester; but possibly A.S. ceosel: pebble. 

Chestal. At Dursley. IPM. 1374, Chystelay. 
The prefix points to A.S. test, M.E. chiste: mod: 
chest; or to A.S. ceastel, which Mr. Alexander 
considers may well mean a cairn. Cf. PI. N. Oxf. 
under Chastleton. Cf. also, Chesthunte (now Ches- 
hunt) for Chesterhunt : D.S. Cestrehunt. The terminal 
may represent A.S. leah, meadow. 

Chesterton. (Nr. Cirencester). A.N.-forms : — 
(c. 1 1 00) Cestretone : Cestretitn, from A.S. Ceaster- 
tun = the Camp-enclosure. 

Cheyney-Upton. Nr. Bitton. Cheyeny. Cheynny. 
Cheynew. Chaune. The feudal owner (temp. Edw. II.) 
was Henry le Chaun. 

Childs-Wickham. (m. v. & p.) 5 m. S.E. of Eve- 
sham. A.D. 706 (C.S. 117), Childes-wicwon. In 1206, 
and 1275. Wike- Waneford (Subs. Rolls) Wykewone- 
forde : appear as the forms of Wickhamford, near-by ; 
which, in D.S. appears as Wiquene, and long before 
that, in A.D. 709, (C.S. 125) as Wicwona. MrDuignan 
(Wore. Place-names) writes: "the earlier forms are 
insoluble. The names appear to have a common origin." 
The element 'ham' in both names has supplanted won, 



42 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE NAMES 

or wane. In A.D. 972, our name occurred as Wig- 
wennan. The meaning is certainty hidden in the twilight 
of the Huiccian forest, unless we assume that wone and 
wane and wene represent an unidentified river-term, 
such as that appearing in the name Wenrisc, now 
Windrush : and probably in " Weonbrugge in Cors. 
Cf. IPM. 1350. Child, A.S. cild is a title, as well as 
meaning a non-adult : (Cf. Child Roland). 

Chipping (Campden, Sodbury, etc.) Chepyng. 
Cheping (1403). From A.S. Ceaping, f. marketing, 
ceapian, to buy. The sense is Market-Campden. 

Chippenham. Nr. Bishop's Cleeve. To Cippan- 
hamme. C.S. I., 342 (c. 812). The suffix is Hamm, 
homme ; an enclosed pasture ; and, as the Editors of 
the Crawford Charters (p. 73, Note 64) point out, the 
form of the prefix "proves that the long-prevalent 
derivation of this name from cyping, ' market ' is un- 
founded." Cippa was probably a personal name. 

Churchdown. (m. p. & v.) (pronounced 'Chosen.') 
D. Circesdune. (P.R.) Chirchusdon. L.B.Wi. : 1181. 
Chercheden. Chirchesdone. Schitrchesdon. 1303. 
Churchesdone. N.V. Chircheslon. Not from A.S. cyrice 
= Church. Both Domesday and the later forms sug- 
gest that a personal name such as A.S. Sjerlc, rather 
than the Norman Church of S. Bartholomew has given 
name to this isolated hill, — M.E. Dun : don : for Down. 
The personal name of Church does not occur at so 
early a date. But it seems certain that, whatever the 
prefix was, its spelling has been influenced by the A.S. 
cyrice. Cf. Pl-N. Oxf: under Sarsden. The initial 
's' is excrescent, and is due to a 13th cent. A.N. 
change in pronunciation. 

Churne. (r.) C.S. 299. A.D. c. 800. Cyrnea. Cirn. 
Ciren : Romano-British Covin. M.E. Cern. See Cernel. 

Cinderford. A small town in the Forest of Dene. 
(C. Flax :) 1281. Sinderford. Perhaps A.S. syndor : 
apart, or asunder. (Cf. Sunderland.) 



CHIPPING (CAMPDEN, SODBURY, ETC).— CLAPTON 43 

Cirencester. (Hd. m. p. & town). A. S. Chr: 
Cyrenceaster. D. Cirecestre. Circestria, 1149. Cir- 
custre. Cherinchestre. (Lay: Brut.) 13th c. Chiren- 
chestre. (Lay : Brut.) 13th c. Chirchestre. (Lay : 
Brut.) 13th c. Ziaeter. Cisiter. The fortress on the 
Cyrne, or Ciren. A. S. Ceaster, (see Chesterton), 
Asser's Life of Alfred (Ed. W. H. Stevenson) 57, 6, 
' Cirvenceastre adiit, quce Britannice Cair-ceri nomi- 
natur' (A.D. 879). We thus have the British, the 
Saxon, and the M.E. forms (almost uniformly influenced 
by the A.N. pronunciation and spelling), of the name. 
The Roman Itinerary gives us Corinium Dobunorum 
(of the Dobuni). As Mr Anscombe shews, — "Corin- 
ium was reduced through Curins, Cyrini, and Cyrene, 
to Cyrn— (Ceaster). (Cf. N. & Q. II. Ser. V. p. 314). 
For tester = ceaster from ceaster, see under Glouces- 
ter ; also N. & Q. II. Ser. V. pp. 103-4. A. Anscombe. 
From the examples taken from Layamon may be seen 
that the ' Chester '- form made an unavailing struggle 
for survival against the A.N. pronunciation. 

Clackmill. This place has been identified with 
the Mylepul of an A.S. Ch. (Worcester) A.D. 883. 
The "Clakke of a mill" Prompt: Parvul., i.e. the 
clapper of the old-fashioned flour-mills. 

Clackshill. Clac is a known A.S. p.n. It also 
locally occurs in the example, Clacces-Wadlond, of 
B.C.S. 216 K.C.D. 123. 

Glanna. (Forest of Dene). Unknown origin. 

Clapton. Nr. Bourton-on-the-Water. (B.M. 1189- 
1216). Cloptune. Clopton (1301). Prof. Skeat has 
written of this name in his Place-names of Berkshire : 
" The sense is not quite certain, but it seems to be the 
same word as the Middle Danish Klop, a stub, or 
stump. If so, it means a town, or enclosure, of stubby 
ground." (See Clopton). 



44 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Clearwell. (m. v. & tithing). In Newland, Forest 
of Dene. Clowerwall. Clowrewalle. Clewer-well. 
The forms were comparatively late ones. The word 
Clower, Clewer, occurs in the sense of a sluice-gate, 
or ' clow ' of a river, or of a mill-dam. 

Cleeve. (m.) Clive. Smith's Baeda gives Clife, i.e. 
Bishops Cleeve. An early Charter, C.S. 246. c. 780, 
gives the same form. Variant forms are Clece and 
Clyve : both from A.S. Clif, a cliff, or steep incline, 
through Mercian Cleof. It is noteworthy that no such 
steep incline occurs on the actual spot, which lies 
more than a mile from Cleeve Hill. Cloud = A.S. Clud 
rock. Cf. Clouds, Co. Wilts. 

(The) Cleyslades-Reode. (dat.) Forest of Dene 
— Clay-slade(s), hreod = reed-bed. The penultimate 
' s,' as in Andoversford, is inorganic, and does not 
signify a personal name. Slade ; Slad ; = (1) slope (2) 
valley. A.S. Sleed. 

Clifford Chambers, (m. v. <fc p.) on the R. Stour. 
(C.S. 636.) A.D. 922. Clifforda(d) A.D. 966. Cliforda. 
D. Clif or t. Clyfford. The Cliff- ford ; or, steep-ford. 
The p.n. here is a reduction of Camerarius : a Cham- 
berlain ; a family bearing that official name having 
long owned property here. 

Climperwell. Nr. Foston's Ash and Shepscombe. 
Clymperwell (1227) C. F. The Eng. D.D. gives 
' Clumpers ' as ' clods ' on the newly-ploughed land ; 
quoting Co. Wilts N. & Q. No. 4, 151. The sense here 
may be ' the well among the Clumpers.' C. was a 
manor belonging to the Abbey of Flaxley. 

dinger, (m.) in Cam. D. Clcenhangare. — 1102, 
Cleyngre. — 1138, Cleangra. — 1263 Clehungra. Clin- 
gre. The prefix represents A. S. Claeg (m) Clay : 
the last element A.S. hangra, or hanger, = a wooded 
slope. An A.S. variant Hongra, has given lionger to 
some examples of this element, as was first pointed out 
by Mr W. H. Stevenson. In Herefordshire there is 



CLEARWELL— COATES 45 

another instance where this name has undergone similar 
permutations. Clehinger, Clehungre, Clunger. (Cf. 
Feudal Aids. pp. 381, 387, 397). There are many other 
examples of the name in Somersetshire and Devon. The 
meaning refers obviously to the situation of the wood. 
Clopton. (Nr. Mickleton). D. Cloptime. Cloptone. 
(See Clapton). There are no forms that would sug- 
gest a p.n. such as Cloppa. 

(La) Cnappe. (C.P.R. Hen. III.) Knap. Knapp. 
A.S. Cngep. M.E. Knap, a knoll, or small eminence, 
or mounded field. It is of frequent occurrence through- 
out the county ; but it is now-a-days generally spelled 
' Knap.' 

Cnappestysenese. (1) Cnappestyesforde. (2) 

These names both occur in the Bailiwick of Ruarden, 
Forest of Dene, in the 13th c. (a. 10, Edw. I.) ' Per- 
ambulation' of the Forest. (Vol. XIV. Trans. Br. & 
Glos. Arch. Soc.) The first element might be a family 
name — Cnappesty, (Cf. Anesty) ; itself compounded 
of A.S. p.n. Cnap (or else of Cnaep, Knap, a knoll), and 
stlg, stiga, sty : a path — that is to say, ' the Knap- 
path.' But here it is not so, and the s is inorganic. 
The suffix (1) ' enese ' should be read ' evese,' i.e. 
eaves; edge; border. (2) A.S. Ford=a ford. (Cf. 
La Bers-enese=See Berse). 

Coaley. (m. p. & v.) 2 m. S.W. of Frocester. D. 
Coeleye. Coveley. Couleye. Couleis. Choideia, Cidey, 
Cowley. Coide. The prefix represents an A.S. p.n. 
Cufa or Cofa. The original form was A.S. Cofan-leah, 
' the lea of Cofa' — Cofa's pasture. As in Coates, the 
' oa ' is due to the regular method which indicated o 
in M.E. Some of the forms have been influenced by 
cow : A.S. cu. 

Coates. (m. p. & v.) 3J4 m. W. of Cirencester. 
Not in D.S. Chotes, la Cote, H.C. Gl. M.R. Cotes : 
(pi.) of M.E. Cot, Cote=huts, or cots. See above. The 
same name occurs in the same scribal form in Co. Wilts. 



4b GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Cobberley. (m. p. & v.) iy 2 m. S. of Charlton 
Kings. D. Coberleie. Coburleye. H.C. Gl. 1179. Cub- 
berle. Cuthbrightley. The personal name here ab- 
breviated was A. S. Cuthburh, or Cuthbeorht ; Cuth- 
bricht, with the suffix of ' ley ; ' pasture = (d.) leage 
(g = y) of A.S. Leah. 

Cockbury. Nr. Bishop's Cleeve. C.S.I. 342. (A.D. 
785), Coccanburh. (c.) 1195, Cockebiria. L.B.Wi. — (c.) 
1340, Cockebiery. The A.S. p.n. Cocca was the prefix 
here. 

Cockrup. Cocthrop. Coc or Cok : M.E. for Cock ; 
probably representing A.S. p.n. Cocca. The suffix was 
A.S. throp, farm, estate ; hence the original form must 
have been Coccanthrope, — i.e, at Cocca's-thorpe. 

Cockshoot. Cockshutt. Cocshute. Many examples 
of this name occur in the County as a field — or farm- 
name. 

Mr. Duignan points out (Cf. Wore. PL N., p. 39) that 
the name has two widely diverse applications. The 
first signifies a broad way in a wood (i.e. Cockroad), 
in which were stretched nets in order to catch wood- 
cocks. Local knowledge points to this in certain 
places, for this bird happens to be remarkably conser- 
vative. There are places (as near Shepscombeinthis 
County) where the Cockshoot has long ceased to be 
used, though mentioned in 15th cent: manor-rolls; 
but whither the bird still annually returns. 

The second meaning (and Mr. Duignan regards this 
as applying to the majority of cases), is a spring or 
rivulet on a bank or hillside, to which a spout, or 
trough, was fixed so as to convey water to carts, or 
vessels, for domestic uses. 

Codeswellan. Codeswelle. (c.) A.D. 730 (C.S. 236) 
in Cutsdean. (q.v.) 

Codrington. (In Wapley). (m. & h.) (c) 1170 
Cuderintone. Cudelintona. (1189.) FA. 1303 & 1346. 



COBBERLEY — COLNE 47 

Goderynton. Godrynton. Index to Chr. Rolls. Coderin- 
ton. Coderyngton (1402). The prefix (if patronymic) 
denotes the sons of Cuthhere ; an A.S. p.n., and not a 
rare one. (Cf. Gotherington, near Winchcombe). This 
Codrington does not occur in D.S. Mr Zachrisson has 
fused both this and Gotherington, near Winchcombe, 
(p. 138), in his valued volume. 

Coigne, The. At Minchinhampton. Also ' quine.' 
The meaning is a street-corner, or turning. Fr : from. 
Lat : Cuneus, a wedge. 

Cold Ashton. (See Ashton). 

Cold Harbour. This formerly much-discussed 
local name occurs more than once in the county, as 
well as a Cold Comfort (? Colcombe-ford). Prof. Skeat 
states that the term signifies a wayside refuge, or 
shelter, without a fire. He quotes aptly the Ordinances 
of the Pr. C. (1) p. 330 (Edit. Sir H. Nicolas). 

Colecombe. (In Sevenhampton). Colecumb. 1462. 
The prefix corresponds to the A.S. p.n. Cola ; but the 
r. Coin runs there. Cumb = a deep valley. (W. Cwm.) 

Coleford. (v. & p.) (Forest of Dene). 

Colesborne and Colesbourn. (v. & p.) -] l / 2 m. 
S.E. of Cheltenham. C.S. 299 (c) A.D. 800 Colesburnan- 
forda (c) A.D. 802 Collesbuman. C.S. 1320 (c) A.D. 
1000, Colesbiiman. D. Colesborne. Collesburne. 1183. 
Anc. Charter. (45). Coll occurs locally and is here 
a personal name which became attached to the local 
streamlet (A.S. biirnd) in place of some unknown pre- 
decessor. (Cf. Collesburne hyll. (B.C. S. 304, 295.) Cf. 
Esigburn, now Isburne). 

Colne. (r.) C.S. 166 (c.) A.D. 740, Cunuglce. 487. 
A.D. 855, Cunelgan. 1091. A.D. 962, Ciingle. Culna. 
Culne. Columb. Colum. Coin. As with the river 
Churn, this river-name is pre-Saxon and possibly pre- 
Roman. There are other instances (if they are to be 
so identified) in Bucks and Suffolk, of its occurrence, 



4« GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

as well as the river Culn in Devon ; formerly Culum. 
(See Introduction.) 

Coin Rogers . (m. v. & p. ) 2 m. S.E. of Chedworth. 
It belonged to Roger de Pistres, Constable of Glou- 
cester, A.D. 1 105, and afterwards to the Gloucester 
Abbey of S. Peter. 

Coin S. Aldwyn's. (St.Ealdwine){m.v.&-p.) 3 m. 
N.N.W. of Fairford. This place is referred to as Enne- 
glan in the Foundation Charter (called King Ethelred's) 
of Gloucester Abbey, A.D. 681 (Vol. I., p. LXXII-III. 
Hist, et Cart : S. Petri, Glouc.) Unfortunately both the 
Charter and the place-names in it are obviously corrupt ; 
but it probably stands for Cunelgan. (St. Ealdwine 
was a hermit.) 

Coin S. Denis, (or Coles Deans) 2 m. E. from 
Chedworth, on the Colne. It belonged to Deerhurst : 
a cell of S. Denis. 

Colpage. (In St. Briavels). M.E. Cole: A.S. Cawel: 
Page is dialectal for ' Patch ; ' a small field of grass, 
or plot of vegetables. 

Colthrop. (Nr. Standish) Colthorpe, Calthrupp. 
Coldrup. Colethorp, i.e. the Cold thorp (near the 
Severn). A.S. Thorp, (d) Thorpe. O.N. Thorp. O.Fris. 
Thorp. The thrupp-form is the result of a phonetic 
development not peculiar to this County. (See Intro- 
duction, p. ix., re Thorp). 

Colverdene. (m.) nr. Gloucester. Colverdon (IPM. 
1268). Culverdene. The 'Culver' (A.S. Culfre) was 
the pigeon, or dove. A.S. Dene a vale, or dene. The 
meaning is, a Vale frequented by pigeons. 

Compton. C.S. 1089. A.D. 962. Cumtune (d. D). 
Cuntune. This refers to C. — Greenfield. D. Cuntune, 
to C— Abdale. D. Contone, to Little — C. This name, 
therefore, occurs in several parts of the county : 
Compton Abdale, Compton Cassey, Compton Green- 
field, (GrenevilleXIII-XIV.Cent.) and Little Compton. 



COLN ROGERS — COSCOMBE 49 

The letter ' p ' replaces b. The Saxon name is - 
Cumbtun: i.e. the Combe-farm, probably from the 
Celtic ancestor of (W) Cwm. 

Gondicote. (m. p. & v.) 4 m. N.W. of Stowe. D. 
Condicote and Connicote ; Later forms,— Carta of 
Marg : de Bohun : (1169), Cumdicote. Cundycote 
1346. F.A., Condycote 1402. F.A., Cicndecote. The 
prefix represents the A.S. p.n. Cunda. 

Coneygar. There are several places so-called in 
the county. Conygre, Coneygre, Conyger, Congre, 
Cunger. The meaning is a Rabbit-warren. O.F. Con- 
niniere. (E.D.D.) 

Coppeleye. (Hundred of Bradeley). The prefix 
stands for A.S. Copp : summit. The sense is ' at the 
pasture on the hill-top.' 

Coppishill. (m.) nr. Tewkesbury. (Gopse-hill, 
to-day). Gopshulle IPM. 1272. Gapshill. (1307, 
L.B.W. ). Gopushulle. Goitpishill. Guppeshill. (a. 34, 
Eliz. F.F.) Coppo was a known A.S. p.n., but it has 
not to do with this name, I think. (See Gupshill). 

Gorndean. Nr. Winchcombe. Corndene A.D. 
1189 (L.B.W.) Cornedene. (c.) 1295. A.S. Corn. Den: 
vale. Leland mis-spells it Corwedene. I do not feel 
satisfied that the apparent sense is the right sense. 
The name Come occurs as that of a water-way both 
at Wyke, near Berkeley ( Combrook), and in the Forest 
of Dene ; and probably it may have done the same here, 
as in Abercom. 

Corse, (m. & p.) 5 m. E.N.E. of Newent. (H.C. 
Gl.) 1 179, Cors. R.B. 12 10, Cors.— Corse. 1221 (Corp : 
Rec.) This name does not occur in D.S., and the spot 
lay in waste until long after 1086. It seems to have 
been the name of a large district including Corse Lawn. 
(Cf. Corsa in Corston A.D. 972. Corsantun ; Co. 
Som. :) It may be British. 

Goscombe. Near Didbrook. Goscombe (1539)' 
Coxcombe (1539). Coset-combe. The forms are late, 



50 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

and are found in Letters and Dom. S. Papers, temp : 
Henry VIII. Possibly the prefix represented the 
A.S. Gos : goose : i.e. — the goose-valley. G and C 
were subject to a tendency to interchange : as appears 
from Codrington (q.v.) 

Cotteswold. Cotswold. A.D. 1231 is the first 
date at which this name for the ' Montes Hwicciorum,' 
or hills of the Hwiccii, is recorded; but in 12 13 a 
William de la Wolde occurs on a slip of parchment 
among tenants of Winchcombe Abbey. (Cf. L.B.W. 
1. p. 45.) Mr. Duignan points out that the ' Cod ' who 
gave his name to Cutsdean,— in 974 Codestune (C.S. 
1299), and which, prior to that date, had been known 
as Cod's-spring''^ Codeswellan ' (C.S. 236) — probably 
affords the key to the problem involved. ' Cod may 
have been a hermit or holy man who settled by a spring 
in the wolds, (the grant (in A.D. 730) to the monastery 
of Bredon by Offa rather favours the idea) or, he may 
have been an early settler of sufficient importance to 
impress his name not only on Codestune (now Cottsdean) 
(Cod's town, or ton), (q.v.), but also on the wolds, — 
Cod's wolds. Code is given, in Domesday Survey, as 
the name of the Saxon possessor. Weald, wald, wold; 
signifies more than a forest or plain. Prof. Skeat thinks 
the original sense may have been ' hunting-ground.' 
Cutsdean, in 1185, was known to the Monks of Winch- 
combe as ' Cottesdene.' (Cf. L.B.W. 1. 176, 178.) 

Perhaps ' Cod ' or ' Cott ' was a widely-distributed 
personal-name, for it occurs in frequent and various 
combinations in place-names =Cf. Cottesmore, Cottes- 
bach, Cottisloe, Cotesbury, &c, and the burial-mound 
or low, usually bears the name of a person. In addition, 
it may be noted that the only other surviving example 
in the County of a place-name having wold for terminal 
is Wygwold, near Cirencester, in which the first 
element is also a p.n. But Cf. Pl-N. Oxf. ' Cottisford.' 



COTTESWOLD— CROATS (THE) 51 

In 13 1 5 Peruzzi's list of English places that supplied 
the Florentine Woolmarket ' the Cotteswolds ' figure 
as 'Condisgualdo.' In the Reg : of Llanthony, (A. ix. 2. 
No. 87,) 1318, Coteswolde. IPM. 1360, Cotteswolde. 

The 15th c. variants are Cottasowlde, Cottyswold T 
Coteswolde, Cotswold: all equally pointing to a 'Cod' 
or ' Codd' as the original name-giver, of which ' Cott' 
was probably the strongest form, dd and tt are con- 
stantly liable to interchange. 

Cover Staunton. (For: of Dene.) IPM. 1268. Coure. 
Coverna. Covere, 1316. (Cf. Cowarne. Cowerne. Couren, 
Co. Hereford, now Great Cover.) A.S. JErn (n.) house, or 
place : asinhord-ern=treasure-store ; bere-aern=barn ; 
but lacking more forms this name remains uncertain. 

Cowley, (m. p. & v.) 2% m. S. of Charlton Kings. 
D. Kidege. Counelege : A.S. Cu, M.E. Cu. The Cow- 
pasture, or Lea. Cf. Mr Alexander's pl.-ns. of Oxford 
(p. 86). 

Cowslait (Grove). Nr. Withington. Slait = (i> 
a cattle-track amid standing crops ; ( 2 ) a level pasture 
(Cf. E.D.D.) 

Cranham. Hamlet, near Painswick. P.R. 11 90. 
Cronham. M.E. Cron = A.S. Cran : a crane. The 
first element = Crane, the bird, though probably it 
represents the heron under that name. It is doubt- 
ful if the real crane was ever common in Britain, or 
even in the eastern counties. Pairs of herons are not 
infrequently seen here to this day. 

Crickley Hill. 1 m. E. of Birdlip. Cruklea. 
Crykkeleye (1406-7) Gl. C.R. We have in this prefix 
probably the Crick, of Crick-Howel : i.e. O.W. Cruc 
and later Crug=a barrow, or tump. The sense is 
Barrow-field. Cricklade (ad Criccaladam (c.) A.D. 
1 1 10. Ann : St. Neoti) had a different origin. 

Croats (The). (Lydney). M.E. Crote=asmall piece, 
a clod. Ex:acroteofturf. Pr: Parvul, 105. O.F. Crote. 

F 



52 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Cromhall. (m. v. & p.) 2 m. S.W. of Charfield 
Station. D. Cromhal. Cromale, Cromhall (1170). 
Cromhale (c.) 1200. B.M. (42). Groomhall (1234), 
Cremhall (C.R.) M.E. Crom and Crum : means bent, 
or crooked ; as also does Welsh Crwm. Croome has 
become a frequent personal name ; though it is not 
recorded as one in Saxon days. The suffix probably 
Tefers to the Hale, corner or meadow, — Mercian halh 
— dat : sing: hale ; — and not to Hall from A.S. Heall. 
Crowthorne. (A modern Hundred). The prefix 
stands for M.E. Crowe, the bird ; though it may be a 
personal-name ; so that the sense is obvious. The 
name is common. 

Crundel. Near Kemble. 1280. 1292. Crondles. 
Cronnes. (Reg. Abb. Cirenc. A. 40. a. b.) The term 
occurs frequently in the sense of Quarry. See under 
Querns. 

Cugley. Cuggeley. Cuggleye. Nr. Newent. Cugga 
is an A.S. p.n. This place was probably Cugganleah. 
(A Cuggan-hyl is referred to in B.C.S. 1298). 

Culkerton. (m. & h.) nr. Rodmarton. D. Culcor- 
tortie. Culcortone. (XIII. c. ) Culcretuna. Kulkertone, 
IPM. 1354- Modern Cuckerton-Grove. Some unre- 
corded personal name is possibly hidden in the prefix. 
Culls (The). Nr. Stroud. Culls are inferior sheep 
put apart from the Sheephouse of the manor, for re- 
jection. (See E.D.D.) But it is doubtful if this is 
the sense here. 

Custom- Scrubs. Nr. Painswick. Scrub here 
means dwarf-trees. Nottingham Scrub occurs near to 
it in Slad. The origin of the first element is obscure. 
There was a ' custom-me&e' in Standish ; 17th c. 

Cutsdean. (m.) (See Cotteswold). (C.S. 1299) 
Codestune, A.D. 974andD.S. Cottesdene. L.B. W : Cotes- 
dene, 1270. Codestone, 1275. A.D. 1275, Cottesden. 
B.M. 16 c. Cuddesdon. The forms remarkably ex- 
emplify the common interchange between tun, dun, 



CROMHALL— DEPENEYE 53 

and den; with survival of the later form; also, tha 
interchange of U and dd. 

Daglingworth. (p. & r.) 3 m. N.W. of Cirences- 
ter. This place is not recorded is D.S. F.A. gives 
the forms Dagelingworte, Dagelingworth. K.Q. Dall- 
ingworth. The prefix points to a p.n. Dsegel. The 
sense is — ■' The farm of the sons of Daegel,' or Daegel- 
ings. In 1240 a Dagelingstrete was known at Coaley. 
(Cf. Corp. Rec : 382). 

Daneway (The). The prefix here probably is due 
to A.S. Dene = valley, and not from any tradition of 
the Scandinavian invaders of Gloucestershire. Cf. 
Daneford D.S: Deneiord (Rot. Ch.) n 99. Co. Berks. 
Also A.S. Daen, meaning a swine-pasture, is a variant 
of daenn, a cave, or woodland pasture. But see 
Asser's ' Life of Alfred,' p. 275 (Edit. W. H. Stevenson) 
also Prof. Skeat's P. N. of Berkshire; p. 45. 

Darmore. (Staunton). Possibly for Deor-moor : 
Deer-moor. Forms are lacking. 

Deerhurst. (m. v. & p.) 2 m. S.W. of Tewkes- 
bury. C.S. 313. A.D. 804. Deorhyrst. Dorhurst. D.S. 
Derehest. P.C. 1221 Dierherst. Cal. Pat. R. Hen. III. 
— Derhirst. F.A. Derehnrste, i.e. Deer-wood. A.S. 
hyrst : a wood, or copse. The prefix stands for the 
A.S. Deor : a deer. 

Delves. Co\e-delves, in Forest of Dene. Delves 
(A.S. ge delf) are holes digged ; otherwise, quarries. 

Dene, Forest of (or Dene). Le Dene. M.E. 
Dene. A.S. Dene: a valley. The British name for 
this Forest is said to have been ' Cantref-coch,' or 
Red-district : (Canton). 

Depemore. Depeforde. The suffix stands for 
mere = pool. M.E. Deope : deep. A.S. Deopford = 
deep-ford. 

Depeneye. (A field-name at Morcote, F. of Dene). 
The terminal represents ' ea ' : a stream. The prefix 

F2 



54 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

stands for Deopan, d. of Deop, = deep. "We have 
Deopancumb, A.D. 942, near Maugersbury. 

Derridge. In Kingswood. Deveridge. Later 
Deanridge (1653). A stream-name may be suspected 
in the prefix. 

Didbrook. (v. &p.) 2j4 m. N. of Winchcombe. 
(1257) Didebroc. F.A. Dyddebroke. N.V. Diddebrok. 
Dydda is a known A.S. p.n. though it is not certain 
that the prefix here represents it, rather than a 
river-name. 

Didcote. (m. & h.) nr. Beckford. P.R. 1177. Dudi- 
cota. Dudcote. A.S. p.n. Dydda. The sense is Dydda's 
cote. 

Didmarton. (m. v. & p.) 6 m. S.W. of Tetbury. 
A.D. 972 Dydimeretune. D. Dedmertone. F.A. Dud- 
merton. A.S. p.n. Dydemaeres-tun. (Cf. K.C.D. 796). 
It may be the mere-tun of Dyddi, or Dydda : which 
would explain the lack of a genitive s. 

Dixton. (m. & h.) 2 m. S.S.W. of Alderton. D 
Drieledone. (?) P.R. (a. 24, Hen. II.) Yclesden. 1 175 : 
Dichelesdona. R.B. Dichestone. Diclestane. Diclies- 
done. F.A. Diclesdon. Dicklesdon. The suffix perhaps 
represents A.S. Dun = down. The suffixes Den, ton, 
stan, and don : all struggle for mastery in the forms. 
The medial ' le ' in so many of the forms seems to 
demand a p.n. Diccle, as that of the owner of the down. 

Dodington. (m. v. & p.) 4 m. E.S.E. of Yate. D. 
Dodintone. Duddinton, 1170. Dodyntone. L.R. Dod- 
dintune. Dodingtone. The farm of Dudda, or of his 
sons. The Norman usually drops the ' g' in 'ing.' 

Donnington. (h.) Near Stow, (m.) P.R. 1176, 
Dunnington. Donyntown. Donyntone. Dunnyntone. 
The meaning is ' the tun, or farm, of Dunna.' 

Dorsington. (m. v. & p.) 2 m. N.W. of Long- 
Marston. D. Dorsintune. R. B. Dorsintone. F. A. 
Dersingtone. F.A. Dorsynton. The farm of Deorsig (?). 



DERRIDGE — DRIFFIELD 55 

Doughton. (m.) in Tetbury Upton. Wore. ch. 
(c. ) A.D. 775 Ductun. C. 1175 Ductune. Doghton. 
B. M. 1286. K. Q. Doneton. 1305 IPM. Dughton. 
1462 Doughton. 147 1 Ducton. The meaning is the 
' Duck-farm.' A.S. Duce : duck The A.S. c trans- 
forms into ' gh ' before ' V 

Doverle. (r.) running from Nibley toward Berke- 
ley. Dubr, and earlier Dofr — Dover, and Dever, are 
variant forms of a known Celtic term for river, — 
Dubron ; (W) Dwfr. The significance of the suffix is 
uncertain. 

Dover's-Hill. Nr. Weston-sub-Edge. Named in 
honour of Capt. Dover (temp. James I.), the reviver 
of the Cotswold Games. 

Dowdeswell. (m. p. & v.) ij^ m. W. of Andovers- 
ford. C.S. 283. (c.) A.D. 790 Dogodeswyllan. D. 
Dodesuuelle. P.C. 1221 Doudeswelle. (1316) Dowdes- 
well. F.A. Douteswell. Literally, ' at Dogod's- well.' 
Dogod is a p.n. that is said to occur only in this instance. 
However, I have found that a family of that name, in 
1500 (a), was living at Abinghall. 

Down Ampney. Down Hatherley. Here the 
prefix ' Down ' is used in contradistinction to ' Up,' as 
in ' Up '-Hatherley. Up-hill. See Ampney. 

Doynton. (v.) 9 m. E. of Bristol, on the Boyd. 
Dongthon, 1308 IPM. Doynton, 1346 F.A. Deynton, 
Doynthon. Held by the Earl of Stafford ' de rege ' 
1303. The prefix does not answer to a recorded A.S. 
p.n., and may derive from a river-name. 

Drakestone. (Camp) nr. Stinchcombe Hill. M.E. 
Drake = a dragon, whence the p.n. Drake ; and ton 
= farm-enclosure. The early forms are wanting ; it 
may mean the ' Dragon-stone.' 

Driffield, (m. v. & p.) 5 m. N.E. of Cricklade. D. 
Drifelle. F.A. Dryfielde. The meaning is plain. 



56 GLOUCESTERSHIRE 'PLACE-NAMES 

Field is Feld usually, until Chaucer's period, but the 
Normans frequently wrote it ' felle' (d), as here, though 
more often ' feud ; ' the I after e being vocalised as u. 

Droyscourt. (m.) Droiscort 1541. This manor 
took its name from members of the Le Droys family, 
who held land in Gloucestershire in the 13th century. 

Dryganleah. C.S. 574. A.D. 896. (c.) Nr. Rod- 
borough. It represents the dat. of A. S. Dryge. (B.C.S. 
574) (K.C.D. 1073) and may be rendered ' dry pasture.' 

Dryslade. (In Bicknor). Slad, Slade ; from A.S. 
Slsed, a valley. 

Dudbridge. (v.) nr. Cainscross, 1 m. W. of Stroud. 
1302, Dodebrygge. IPM. 1334. Dudebrugge. The 
bridge belonged to one, Dudda. 

Dudstone. D. Dudestane (Rd.) Dudestene. (1155). 
Deddestane. F.A. Dodestone. The prefix represents 
the very frequent A.S. p.n. Duda. A.S. Stan = stone. 

Dumbleton. (m. v. & p.) 2 l / z m. E. of Beckford. 
C.S. 667. A.D. 930. Dumolan. Diunollan. Domelton. 
A.D. 995. Dumbletain. D. Dunbentone. F.A. Dombel- 
ton. Dumbelthone. N.V. Dombledun. The forms at all 
periods seem to suggest some obscure difficulty. Prof. 
Skeat has suggested Domwulfes-tun ; which tries to 
meet some of the various problems involved, but is 
scarcely satisfying. It may be that there is here dis- 
guised, owing to the mangling done to it by Saxon 
scribes, some British name. 

Dunny. c. 1150 Dunye. (Cartul, Flaxley). A 
fishery. Dunye. (1154) Dunie. Duney. Dunn. 
Dwnin. Dunyn. Denny. A.S. Dun : a hill. ' The isle 
belonging to Dunn.' 

Dnntisbourne. D. Tantesbourne. A.D. 1102. 
Dontesborne. P.C. 1221 Duntesborne. F.A. Dontes- 
born. Duntesburne. The vills bearing this name all 
lie N.N.W. of Cirencester. Initial/) and T were some- 
times interchanged by the Norman as well as medial 



DROYSCOURT— DYDDANHAME 



57 



d and t. The prefix here yields to no onomastic pres- 
sure ; but it occurs elsewhere, as in Duntesfolde, in 
Surrey ; now, Dunsfold. The later known name 
Daunt was not represented here. 

Duntisbourne Abbots, (m. p. & v.) Belonged 
to the Abbey of Gloucester. 

Duntisbourne Lire, (m.) The Abbey of Lire 
in Normandy held it. 

Duntisbourne Rous. (m. p. & v.) This took its 
name from Sir Roger le Rous, d. 1294. (Rufus.) The 
R.B. (A.D. 1 166) p. 265 gives us also a Duntesworth. 

Durdham Down. Nr. Bath. The known A.S. 
p.n. Thured may be represented here, as that of the 
owner of a ham, or home. 

Durhams (The). Nr. Cutsdean. Possibly the 
A.S. Deor = deer (Cf Dyrham) is represented in the 
prefix. Ham, probably for hamm : homm. 

Dursley. (m. & market town). (1166) Durellis. 
L.R. Derselega. (c) 1 i53,(B.Mts. 5) Duresle. Dursele* 
Durslegh. Durseleye. The' prefix possibly points to 
some unrecorded A.S. p.n. as that of the owner of the 
'leah,' or pasture; ley = A.S. Leage dat. of Leah = a 
field. (M.E. lei : dat. leie). 

(The) Dychesende. (Forest of Dene). M.E. 
Dices ; gen : of Die. (dyke. Dycke). Ende, i.e. 
district, limit, (qv.) 

Dyckler, The. (r) or Dikler; a tributary of the 
Wenrisc, or Windrush. The late Rev. D. Royce, with- 
out giving his reference, gives the interesting early 
form Theokyloure. (Vol. vii., p. 72. Tr. Br. and Gl. 
Arch. Soc.) The name, like so many river-names, 
may be pre-English. 

Dyddanhame. C. S. 927. A.D. 956. C.S. 929 
Dyddanhamme. Tidenham to-day; (qv.) Dydda's 
homm, or riverside meadow. 



5§ GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Dymock. (m. v. & p.) 2 m. N. of Newent. 
D.S. Dimoch. Dimmoch. P.R. 1 175-6. Dimoc, 
Dymoc (Cart. Flaxley) ; F.A. Dymmok ; Dimok. 
Dunmock. A pre-English origin may be suspected 
here; not the dim, or dark, oak. M.E. Dim. Dimme. 

Dyrham. (m. v. & p.) 5^ m. E. of Mangotsfield 
Station. C.S. 887. A.D. 950 Deorham. Deorhamme. 
Derharn. The prefix represents A. S. Deor ; deer : while 
the suffix represents A.S. hamm ; a riverside meadow. 

Eastington. (m. & p. ) One E. lies S.E. of North- 
leach ; the other, (2)— 2 m. W. of Stonehouse. H.C. 
Gl. Estinthone (1 1 1 9). — Easington. (2) T.N. Estynton. 
Estenstead (1275). Possibly (at) eastern tun; which 
resulted in Estinton. 

East-Leach, (m. ) Estleche. Astlech. Estlecche. 
F.A. (1346). 

East-Leach (St.) Martin, (m.) 4 m. N. of 
Lechlade. D. Lecce (otherwise Boutherop). 

East-Leach Turville. (m.) D. Lece. K.Q. 1284. 
Estlethi. The terminal is a river-name, t is constantly 
written for c in this ' Return. A.S. laece ; a stream, 
water. (See North-leach and Lechlade). Galiena de 
Turville held 1 fee of Walter de Laci, here. T.N. 

Ebb worth. Ebsworde. In Painswick manor. 
The worth, or farm, of one JEbbi. 

Ebley. C.R. Gl. 1317 Ebbaleye. (Cf Sloane MS. 
xxxiii. 40, A.D. 1359). Ebbeley. The lea, or pasture- 
field of Ebba. (A.S. p.n.) 

Ebrington. (m. v. & p.) 1 m. E. of Ch. Campden. 
D.Bristentune. T.N. Ebricton. N.V. Ebreston. P.Q.W. 
Ebriton. F.A. Ebriston. A.S. Eadbeorht's-tun. But 
the transformation was far advanced even in A.D. 1086, 
and gave trouble to the foreign scribes for more than 
two centuries. 

The Edge. (t. v. & p.) 1 m. W. of Painswick. In 
the Manor Rolls anterior to Q. Elizabeth, it is always 
Egge. A.S. Ecg. (Lat. acies.) 



DYMOCK— ELKSTON 59 

Edgworth. (m. & p.) 7 m. N.W. of Cirencester. 
D. Egesvvorde and Egeiswurde. Anc. Ch : No. 21, 
1 1 38, — Egesworde. — Eggesworthe. Egeworde. Egge- 
worthe. (1263-84). The prefix represents the p. n. Ecg 
who owned the worth, or farm. It is still a submanor 
to Painswick, to the Lord of which it pays annually 2s. 
It gave name to a well-known family, who, however, 
were at no time its owners. 

Edredstane. (Hd.) Many of the Domesday Hun- 
dreds of Gloucestershire were named from places with 
landowners' (boundary) stones. The p.n. is Eadred. 
A.S. stan = stone. 

Edrichsmere. (In Chedworth). The lake, pool 
(A.S. mere) of (A.S. p.n.) Eadric, a Saxon owner. 

Eililde-Hope. (m.) nr. Tibberton. (D.S.) The 
suffix is the M.E. Hop (A.S. Hop = valley), while the 
first element possibly points to A.S. p.n. Ethelhild. 

Eisey. (m.) nr. Cirencester. C.S. 226 (c)A.D. 775-8 
Esig. Esege. (g = y) A.D. 855. Eisey. D. Aise. This is 
nowadays in Wilts. The suffix is possibly leg = island. 

Elberton. (m. v. & p.) 3 m. S. of Thornbury. D. 
Eldberton. Ayleberton. Alberton, P.R. 1 175-6. — Ail- 
berton (1389. Ind : Loc.) F.A. 1346, Aylberton.— The 
prefix is not Eald = old : but Ayl, for iEthel-beorht ; to 
whom belonged an enclosure, or farm. The D.S. 
reading is at fault here. 

Elcombe. (InBisley). The prefix (as in Elworthy) 
probably represents the p.n. Elle. 

Eldersfield. (m.) A.D. 972 Yldres-felde. D. 
Edresfelle. (1156) Eldrefeld. Eddrefeld. Eldesfeud 
B.M. Heldesfeld B.M. Eldresfeud (1210). A.S. p.n. 
Ealdhere's field. The Norman disliked the combined 
' Id.' Hence, J 'elle and feud. 

Elkston. (m. v. & p.) 8 m. N.W. of Cirencester. 
D. Elchestane. P.R. 1177 (a- 22 Hen. II.) Elkestan, 
Elkeston— F.A. Hilkeston, Heldeston (1285). Hulkes- 
ton (K.Q.) The prefix represents the A.S. p.n. Ealch, 



60 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

a form of Ealh = Alch. The sense is the (boundary?) 
stone of Ealch. A large upright and perforated slab is 
still standing in a field near the place. 

Ellenacre. Allenacre. The prefix is A.S. Ellen : 
the Elder-tree. 

Ellerncroft. A.S. Ellen-ern. M.E. Ellarne : the 
Elder-tree. 

Ellern-Hill. Nr. Painswick. = Elder-tree Hill. As 
in ' Alder,' so in ' Elder,' the ' d ' is excrescent. 

Ellesworth. The A.S. p.n. ./Ethel, as owner of the 
worth, or farm. A.S. weorth. 

Elmbridge. Nr. Barnwood. Elbrugge. c. 1210. 
(H.C. Gl. 1. 70). — Telbmgge. c. 1200. (Corp. Rec. 92) 
Thelbruge. (do. 182) Elebrigg (226). Helbmg (228). 
Eibriche (231). Mr W. H. Stevenson, in a note to his 
splendidly-edited Corp: Records of Glouc. : "This form 
(Thelbruge) proves that the name is derived from the 
O.E. Thelbrycg ' plank-bridge,' which occurs in C.S. 1. 
82, 31 : iii. 15, 7. Thelbrycg was apparently under- 
stood as 'the elbrycg ' in (c) 1200. This form was 
' etymologized ' to Elmbridge." 

Elmore, (m. p. & v.) by the Severn, 5 m. S. of 
Gloucester. A.D. 1 177. P.R. (a. 22, Hen. II.) Elmour. 
P.C. 1221, Elneovere. Elmovere, 1240. Elmor, 1250. 
F.A. Elemore. The spelling Elmour declares the suffix 
to stand for A.S. Ofer = river-bank ; which has ' oure ' 
and 'over' for variant -forms. The prefix points to 
A.S. Elm = the Elm-tree. The sense is Elm- (tree) bank. 

Elmstone-Hardwicke. (m. p. & v.) 2}4m. S.W. 
of Cleeve Station. A.D. 889 Alchmundingtun. Ahl- 
mundingtune (Smith's Bseda). D. Almondeston. Al- 
mundeston. P.C. 1221, Elmundestone. Aylmundeston, 
1240 (c). The first name stands for the sons of Ealch- 
mund, as the owners of a 'tun,' or enclosed farm. 
Hardwicke was a neighbouring manor. 

Elmstree in Tetbury. Ernlundstre, A.D. 1200. 
Elmundestruo. Ailniundestre , 1212. Edmundstree. 



ELLENACRE— ERMINE STREET (THE) 6 1 

(Ind : Locorum). A.S. p.n. ^Ethelmund. The suffix, 
A.S. treow = tree. 

End. Ende. A frequent suffix, meaning (i) the 
limit of a tithing, or district. Cf. West-end. (2) The 
end of a ' level ' in mining. As such it occurs in the 
Forest of Dene. 

English-Bicknor. (v. &p.) on the Wye. This 
prenomen has arisen in contradistinction to Welsh 
Bicknor. (See Bicknor). 

Enoch's Hill. (C.) Perhaps, from an owner 
named Egenoc. (Cf. Hist, et Cart. Glouc. III. 185. In 
Vol. I., 161 occur Henry and John Eynoc of Aids- 
worth). In P.C. 1221, occurs the name of Ralph 
Eynolk. Eynoc may have been itself a place-name. 

Epney. (Near Framilode). IPM. (a. 36, Hen. III.) 
EpperC. Eppa is a known A.-Saxon name ; the suffix 
' ey ' = A.S. ' leg,' an islet : the sense is Eppa's isle : i.e. 
Eppan-ig. 

Erdcote. Erdecote The prefix may stand for M.E. 
Earde (dat.) plough-land ; the sense being the cote in 
the earth. 

Erleyeforde. (Forest of Dene.) (1281). Near 
Blakeney. Erley may represent Earnlegh, as in the 
example given by Mr Duignan in his Staffordshire 
Place-names, under ' Arley ' : (D. Ernlege) ; not 
necessarily meaning A.S. Earn : Eagle, the bird, but a 
personal name. There was another Ereley, in Sand- 
hurst. (H.C. Gl.) A.D. 1 102. This may have been the 
short, or pet form of a p.n. Earnbeald. 

Ermine Street (The). It runs direct between 
Gloucester and Cirencester. Variants are Irmin. 
Iurmin. Irmen. Ermyn. This Romanhighway derives 
its name from no A.S. name. It is probably pre- 
English. The second element, M.E. Straete, stands 
for A.S. Street from Latin (Via) Strata. 



62 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Ernesrudynge. The Anglo-Saxon form would 
have been Earnes-hryding. The personal name Earn 
(Arn) is a known one. The suffix signifies a clearing. 
It varies in spelling in different counties ; in Co. Wore : 
it is ' redding ' ; and, in Cotteswold, it is ' ridding.' 

Eteloe (in Awre). D. Etesian. Etteiawe. Ecteloye 
(IPM. 1283). Etlowe. Ettelowe, 1437 (Corp. Records.) 
The suffix has successively been modified from 
A.S. hlaew = a burial-mound; the sense being — the 
grave of iEtta, or Etti. 

Evenlode. (r.) (Also a p. & v.) 3 m. S.E. of More- 
ton-in-the-Marsh. (C.S. 1238) Eowlangelade, A.D. 969. 
Eowniglcide. (Harl. 86. A. 2). c. 1050. Eweneload 
(1330). This river, A.D. 718 (K.C.D. 69), until the 10th 
cent., was still called Bladaen, C.S. 882 (A.D. 949) and 
Blaedene. Bledington and Bladon are situated upon 
its banks, (q.v.) Cf. Introduction. Note 3. 

The name-transfer appears to have been effected 
from the place 3 m. N.E. of Stow-on-the-Wold, which 
in D.S. is mentioned as Eunilade, and much earlier 
(772) as Eidangelade, (C.S. 210) ; wherein the full ter- 
minal gelade (dat:) stands for the A.S. gelad; a track, or 
passage. Mr Duignan writes : — " The change of the 
river-name to Evenlode commenced in the 10th century, 
the manor of that name being in its head -waters. 
Small rivers frequently change their names, great ones 
never." The last observation will scarcely apply to 
the Volga, the Tiber, or the Danube. The variety in 
the first element indicates a pre-English origin. Cf. 
Oxf. Pl-N., p. 101 H. Alexander. 

Evesbury Hill. (In Haresfield). The burn (dat. 
byrig) at the eaves = A.S. Efese : border. 

Evington. (m.) (In Deerhurst Hundred) nr. Bod- 
dington. /D. Givingtune. It belonged T.R.E. to Elvvi. 
F.A. Yivington. L.S. Yevington. 1303 Yivynton. 



ERNESRUDYNGE— FARLEY. 63 

Eventon. The personal name here represented may 
have been A.S. Gefwine ; i.e. the ton of Gefwine. 
The Norman usually rendered 'Y' (initial) by ' G.' 
The IPM. gave similar changes for Evington, Co. 
Sussex. 

Ewell. (Nr. Kemble). Ewelle. Ewen. From 
A.S. Wella = a well. Cf. Ewelme —well-spring. 
Another spring so - called, but sometimes spelled 
' Hewelme,' is at Berkeley, and a stream, at Dursley. 
From A.S. ae-wylm, a water-spring, or source ; pi., 
Welmes. 

Eycote. (m.) (In Colesbourne). D. Aicote. 
There are two manors. The prefix is the M.E. Eye, 
ey, land between, or along, watercourses : deriving 
from A.S. leg: eg: (g = y). 

Eyeford. (m. p. & v.) nr. Swell. D. Aiforde. 
Ey/ord. Hayford. T.N. Heyford. A.S. gehmg: hedge. 
M.E. Hey. The sense is ' at the ford by the Hedge.' 

Eyleston. (1266). Ailestone. (d) The ton, or 
farm, of Ailwy— more fully, iEthelwig. 

Fairford. (m. & market town) 9 m. E. of Ciren- 
cester. C.S. 535. (A.D. 872) Fagranforda. D. Fare- 
forde. (1221) Feireford. Fayreforde. (1284) Feirford. 
(F.A.) The prefix is from A.S. Fceger. M.E. fager, 
fayr : modern ' fair.' The form Fagran is a variant 
oifcegran (dat.) forda, = ' at the fair ford.' 

Falfield. (p.) A tithing in the manor of Thorn- 
bury. Falefeld. IPM. 1347.— Ffaveld. (1590) Faule- 
field. Flaveld.- (IPM.) Fawfield. 1638. Probably the 
meaning is A.S. fealu: fallow-field. In combination 
this prefix frequently betrays a strong tendency to 
metathesis. The u is due to A.N. influence. 

Farley. (Nr. Elmore). P.C. 1221 Farnlee. Faren- 
leye. Fareleye. Farneleye. The sense is 'at the 
Fernlea,' M.E. fearn. 



64 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Farmcote. (m.) nr. Hailes. D. Ferncote. P.R. 
1189-90 Ferniescota (w). c. 1220 Firnecote. 1323 
Farncote. Farnecote, 1362. The meaning is 'the Cot 
in the Fern.' M.E. feme. A.S. fearn. 

Farmington. (m. p. & v.) 4^ m. S. of Bourton-on- 
the-Water. In Domesday Survey this manor appears 
under the name of Tormentone. In 1 182 it is Tormer- 
ton. Torniton. P.R. (2 Hen. II.) But in 1226 it is 
Thormerton, suggesting its origin in the p.n. ot 
Thurmeer ; for the Normans wrote ' t ' for ' th.' Thor- 
manton. 1284. Thormerton. 1432. The evolution 
of its initial letter to F is striking and unusual, though 
scarcely so violent to the ear as to the eye. Farmynton 
(onCamden'sMap, i7thc.) Farmington or Thormerton, 
1601. (F. F. a. 43. Eliz.) Thus, the forms tend to two 
types: (1) Thurmund-ton ; (2) ThurmiEr-ton. But as 
the ' ing ' in Farmington, (the latest form of all), des- 
cends from l yn,' and this in turn has resulted from 
' en ' ; it must be admitted that the first type has proved 
itself the stronger. The fact probably was that (1) the 
' 11 ' was exchanged for ' r,' instead of the more usual 
' r ' for ' n ' in the 1 2th century ; (2) that the later 
Gloucestershire -folk pronounced ' Thor ' as 'Thar,' 
which made 'Far' possible, and even easy. 

Fiddington. (m.) nr. Ashchurch. D. Fitentune. 
XIII. c. Fidinton. Fytinton.—Fedyntone. IPM. 1347. 
Fodynton. IPM. 1314. Fidda is not a recorded name, 
nevertheless such a name is pointed to here for the 
owner of the tun, or farm-enclosure. Fitting (Cf. Searle. 
O.S., p. 589) occurs, which points to Fitta, t — t for 
d — t is not unusual with A.N. scribes. 

Filton. (m. p. & v.) 4^ m. N. of Bristol. It is not 
in D.S. 1340 Fylton. Leland calls it Felton. Fylton 
B.M. 1 6th c. Fytton 16 10 F.F. Another Filton in Co. 
Hereford, belonged to Gloucester Abbey of S. Peter. 
Feltone, H.C. Gl. 1337 (c.) The sense is ' the farm in 



FARMCOTE— FORTHAMPTON 65 

the field.' (Fild, feld). The ' d ' has dropped out 
before 't.' 

Fineeth & Fineethway. (1281). In the Forest 
of Dene. (Also Fineetherede.) The origin of the 
prefix may be possibly found in the p.n. Fieelnith : 
that of a moneyer, temp: Ethelred II. But forms 
are lacking. 

Five-Acre. (Nr. Hatherley.) Vifacre. Fyfacre. 

Five-Hide. Fifhide. Fivehed. A name of fre- 
quent occurrence and sometimes representing a royal 
unit of assessment : i.e., the five-hide unit. (Cf. Round's 
Feudal England, p. 68-9). 

Flaxley. (m. p. & v.) 3 m. N. of Newnham. P.R. 
Flaxlea, 1163. Flexelega, 1176. Flexleya. (g = y). P.C. 
1 22 1, Floxle. The Flax-field. A.S. Fleax. There is 
no evidence tending to show the prefix as a personal 
name. The forms vary but little. 

Ford. (m. p. & v.) nr. Temple-Guiting. Forda. 
Forde. A.S. ford, a way, or passage, through a 
stream, or bog. This village and manor are situated 
high up, on the North Cotswold, and the nearest 
streamlet is a tributary of the Windrush, or Wenric, 
which is crossed just at entering it on the southern 
side. 

Forstal. Forstalle. C.R. Gl. (c. 1220.) In the Forest 
of Dene. (Cf. Cartul : Flaxley, p. 169). Possibly for 
Forest-hale. Cf. Forster, for Forester. 

Forthampton. (m. p. & v.) 3 m. W. of Tewkes- 
bury. Formerly a chapelry. D. Fortemeltone. F.A. 
Forthampton. Forthelmentone. I can only suggest 
the p.n. Forthelm, for Freothelm, (i.e. Frithelm), for 
that of the owner of the ' tun,' or enclosed farm. 
Leland gives Fordehampton. The A.S. helm, by a line 
of least resistance to scribes, often became 'ham' and 
' hamp,' before ton. See Brickhampton. 



66 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Foss-Way. Latin, Fossa. (C.S. 882) A.D. 949 
(Cotton Ch.) : Foss. It is so-called in many other, and 
later, Charters, genuine and not genuine. M.E. Wey, 
from A.S. Weg. 

Foxcote. (m.) nr. Withington. D. Fuscote. Foscott. 
The meaning is Fox-cover. The personal name of 
Fox did not originate until the 13th c. 

Framilode. (p.) 8 m. S.W. of Gloucester. P.R. 
1 175-6. Fremelada. Framilade. Framelode. Frome- 
lode. Fremelod. Framilod. Freomelode. The terminal 
is M.E. for A.S. (ge)-lad, a ferry ; as in Lechlade. 
Fram, Freame, and Frome, is one of the more fre- 
quently recurring river -names, surviving from the 
remote past. Dr H. Bradley has identified W. Frauv 
as the Welsh (9th c.) equivalent of early Celtic Frama. 
" In Welsh, Celtic a developed into an, mod: Welsh 
aw, and in such a position m became eventually v, so 
that by reading the form in the Life (of Alfred) as 
Frauv, we obtain a W. representative of Frama, O.E. 
From." Cf. W. H. Stevenson : Asser's Life of Alfred, 
pp. 248-9. 

Frampton. (1) Cotterell. (2)Mansel. (3)Framp- 
ton-on-Severn. D. Frantone. 1221 P.C., Fremtone. 
N.V. Frompton. Framptone-Cotel. The tun, or farm- 
enclosure, on the river Frame, or Frome. The ' p ' is 
an intrusive-emphatic. The Cotel family possessed a 
fief, temp: Hen. III., which transferred their name to 
Frampton, near Hanham. CF. IPM. 29 H. III. 37. It 
has come to be called Cotterell in error. (16th c). 
Frampton-Mansell is in Sapperton, and owes its suffix 
to another feudal family. Temp : Hen. III. Alard le 
Fleming married Joan, sister of John Mansel, Prior of 
Beverley. 

France-Lynch. (In Chalford). The prefix is 
perhaps the proper name Franca ; Lit : a Frank ; 
but that maybe doubted, seeing that the stream, beside 



FOSS-WAY— FRETHERNE 67 

which it lies, was once a Fram ; which name has else- 
where begotten Fransham and Francomb. We may 
suggest that the original name may have been Frams- 
eye (island, or else ea ; stream), whence Francey ; and 
so, France. Lynch, or Lench, is a cultivation-terrace 
made by ploughing a slope, or hill-side, horizontally. 
The A.S. form of the word is Hlinc. 

Fraunton. (Nr. Winchcombe). (m.) Freulinton 
L.N. (1166). Froulinton. L.B.W. 1182. Frolintone 
Froulintone. Frenlynton (1233). F.F. Frawnton. 
Frou-neton. I suspect that yet another Frome, not the 
A.S. p.n. Freawine, lies at the root of the prefix. 
This involves that the (r) Washbourne was once a 
Frome ; and that the medial lin represents lin = flax ; 
a flax-enclosure, or tun, by the Frame, or Frome. It 
was the Fromtone of Charter No. 50 Anc. Charters. 
A.D. 1 1 83. There is now a Frampton Court here. 

Freezing- Hill. (Nr. Bath). Frisen. Furzen. 
A.S. fyrs. M.E. firse = furze. 

Fremlinton. (c. 1270) Frenlinton. (Tax . P. Nichs.) 
Frenlynton. Frenlington. These all represent Fraun- 
ton. (q.v.) In some examples u occurs in place of n. 

Frenchay. (Nr. Bristol). IPM. 1257, Fromscawe. 
Formerly Froomshaw. The prefix represents the river 
' Frome ' ; Shaw is a wood ; A.S. Sceaga. 

Fretherne. (m. v. & p.) 5 N.W. of Frocester 
Station. D. Fridome. A.D. 1166 Frohorn. T.N. 
Frethorne. 1372 Freethome. The suffix stands for 
A.S. Thyrne, the thorn-bush; and the A.S. frith = a 
wood. The meaning is ' the thorn-bush by the wood.' 
There are numerous Thorn-tons, Thornburys, &c, 
owing to the frequent use of this tree as a lasting 
boundary. In an IPM. a. 11, Edw. III. (File 52), the 
spot is called Frythingthorne. Here, the force of the 
medial syllable is probably incg=& stream. If that 

G 



68 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

is the case, the meaning is—' the thorn beside the 
wood-stream.' There was a Frythingdene in Kent 
in XIV. cent., held by Robert de Stangrave. 

The manor was held by a family to which it gave 
name in the late 12th cent. 

Friday-Street. The prefix occurs in the same 
combination in many places beyond this county ; as 
well as in Fridaythorpe, in Yorkshire. And, in B.C.D. 
1047, we have Frigedseges-treow : Friday's tree. It 
probably stands for a market-day name. In Painswick 
the street was so-called already in the early XV th cent, 
when a cross stood in it. 

Frith (Le). Freathe. Freeth. Vrith. Firth. Thrift, 
by metathesis. (The) Faith is also a variant. A game- 
preserve and forest-land ; or, simply, a wood ; some- 
times underwood. 

Frocester. (m. p. & v.) 5 m. W. of Stroud. D. 
Frowecester. Frouecestre. 1234. B. M. Froucester. 
Frowcester. The prefix probably represents a pre- 
English term of unknown significance. M.E. cester 
for A.S. ceaster. A small fortified out-post of Romano- 
British days here situated, as the ground two fields 
south of the present Church would prove. 

Fuddle-Brook. (Nr. Marshfield). Fuddle is a 
term equivalent to ' liming ' the water, a well-known 
device of the river-poacher. 

Fulbrook. P.C. 1221, Fulbroc. Foulbroke (1347). 
Ful may mean either foul, or full. A.S. ful — foul. 

Futterill. 2 m. S.E. of Coleford. A Footrill is a 
horizontal shaft of a mine. 

Fyfield. In Eastleach Martin. Five-field and Five- 
hide became interchangeable terms for the same place, 
or rather, the latter sometimes passes into the former. 
CLFiffede. Fiffide. 



FRIDAY-STREET— GERSDON 69 

Gastons (The). Nr. Tewkesbury ; (i.e. the Lan- 
castrian position, 147 1). Gerstone. (H.C. Gl. 3. 360). 
Leland calls it Gastum. Sidegarst, or Syddgast. Hug- 
gast occurs at Bitton. A 'garst' (dial.) is an enclosed 
yard for the rearing of cattle. (Etm. E.D.) A.S. Geers- 
tun. (Laws of Ina, c. 42). A grass-enclosure. (See 
Wall-Garston). 

Gatcomb (2) wick. (There is a Gatcomb near 

Awre, and another near Brimscombe). The prefix 
in both these may be for A.S. Gat = goat. Usually, 
in S.W. England, initial as well as terminal M.E. 
Gat = gate takes the form of Yat, as in Yate, Yatton, 
Hyatt, Lypiatt, &c. Early forms are wanting. 

Gaulet. In the Forest of Dene, S. of Abinghall. 
Gawlet. The Gawle (1510). Gale. Gauly. The Bog- 
myrtle (myrica) A.S. Gagel (E. Gale) appears as 
'•Gaul' and ' gawil' in Prompt : Parv : 189. (Strat- 
mann- Bradley). I have, however, heard a similar 
term used of a piece of sour ground, which at least, 
suggests O.F. Galle, i.e. gall-nut, and A.S. Gealla : 
gall (bitter). It may be that the ground so-called was 
held with his office by the Gawler of the Forest : i.e. 
Gaveller. 

Gavildune. Gaveldone, a pasture. (Cf. Gafol-masd : 
i.e. tribute-field.) Perhaps from M.E. Gavel: A.S. 
Gafol : gafel. D. Gafele. 

Gerne. 1176 P.R. Gem. Gerna. (Nr. Westbury). 
Corp : Records, Glos. , 442. Unknown origin. 

Gersdon. (Hundred). It comprised land east of 
Cirencester, and was one of the Seven Hundreds, of 
which the Abbot of Cirencester become overlord 
after 1189. D. Gersdone. The prefix was A.S. 
Gsers (grass) M.E. Grass = grass, the ' r ' being 
liable to shift position. The sense is ' Grass- 
down.' 

G2 



70 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Gersehill. (Lydney). F.A. (1303) Yerdeshill. 
(1346) Zerdeshulle. (1402) Yevdushulle. A.S. Geard 
is a prototheme of several personal names, such as 
Geardwulf, Geardwine, &c. The Z-form is due to mis- 
writing the spirant g as a s. The Y-form is due to the 
A.S. pronunciation of g before e as y. Gerse may be 
due to A.S. gaers = grass. 

Gerwone. Nr. Leighterton in the XII.-XIII. cent. 
Variants are lacking, but the terminal is of special 
interest as recalling that of the mysterious ' Wicwone,' 
of Child's Wickham. (q.v.) (Cf. Hist, et Cart. St. P. 
Glos. I. 359). 

Giant-Stone-Tining. (A barrow, East of Bisley). 
A 'Tining' is a fenced in, protected plot, (q.v.) 

Ginnethleah. A.D. 896 Ginnethleage (nr. Rod- 
borough) (M.S. Cott: Vespas: A.V. f. 169). The 
prefix is not a Saxon personal name, and may well be 
a pre-English word ; leah: ley: pasture. 

Gloucester. (C.S. 60.) A.D. 681 Gleaweceasdre. 
(C.S. 313) A.D. 804 Gleawecestre. A.S. Chr. (1) Glea- 
wanceaster. (2) Gleawceastev. (3) Gleawcestre. (4) 
Glaweicastre. (5) Gleaweceastre. (6) Glean — Glowe- 
ceastrescir. While a sepulchral inscription (CIL. VII. 
54) of the early second century gives Glev, (for ' Gle- 
vensis'), another (CIL. VI., 336), gives Glevi, and 
the inscribed third cent, tiles give ' G ' in R.P.G. (for 
'Respublica Glevensium.') and the Antonine itinerary 
gives Glevo (abl.). Ravennas (7th cent.), gives Glebon 
(Colonia). According to Nennius, (8th cent.) the place 
was known to the Britons in his day as Caer Gloui, 
' ' quae vocatur, Brittanico sermone, Cair Gloui, Saxonice 
autem, Gloecester," ( (a) Gleucester, 49. p. 40. Hist. 
Brit.) from its having been built by one, Glovi, for 
his sons, whose names he gives as Paul, Bonus, 
Guotolin, and Mauron. The origin of ' Glevum' has 
been at various times (but only since A.D. 1050) 



GERSEHILL— GLOUCESTER 7 1 

attributed to the name of the Emperor Claudius. 
In Lanfranc's Latin History, under A.D. 1071, he 
writes Cloecistra: under 1080 Claudia Civitas; but 
not Claudiana; and under 1085, Cleucestra. Con- 
temporaneously, one of the laws of "William I. is de- 
scribed as having been enacted in Civitate Claudia 
(Select Charters, 80 : Stubbs). It is termed ' Claudi- 
cestria' in a 14th cent. Doct. (p. 145, Vol. I. Landboc 
of Winchcombe), by a writer who knew the fictitious 
account of Richard (so-called) of Cirencester, as well as 
the earlier Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester ; all three 
of whom may have copied the accomplished Lanfranc. 
But the attempt to assimilate GlevQam) to Claud(ia) 
would involve a harder task than to Glovi and Glou. 
Unfortunately for both, the Latin forms all agree in 
giving a full broad E - sound ; thus, it is one closely- 
handed on by the West-Saxon ' ea.' And it is well- 
known that the Roman versions of British names have 
been proved to be remarkable for their accuracy. 
Glevuin cannot be included among perverted names. 
The especial importance of Roman Glevum had been 
signified by its receiving, not its third-century walls, 
but the status of a Roman 'Colonia.' This happened, 
however, not under Claudius, but under Nerva, (cf. 
Vol. vi. CIL. 336), or more than half a century later 
than the coming of Claudius to Britain. In the 4th and 
7th cent, itineraries it appeared not as Claudii-castrum, 
but as Glevo (abl.) and Glebon ; and the Saxons would 
appear to have faithfully retained this initial vowel- 
sound as Gleawan-ceaster , until A.D. 1080. The state- 
ment of Nennius as to ' Caer Gloui,' attempts (more sno) 
to explain the origin of the name ; but it merely tells us 
that in the eighth century the Britons called it thus. It 
is safer, therefore, toleavethese conjectural attributions 
to Claudia (or Claudius) severely aside. They may 
easily have arisen through the not uncommon inter- 
change of CI and Gl initially, under Norman influence ; 



72 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

G/anfeld for C/anfield T.N. G/istun and C/istton. An 
adroit monkish scholar like Lanfranc may have wel- 
comed a chance of ingeniously flattering the Royally- 
favoured Benedictines of Gloucester. At any rate, 
the derivation implied seems to savour of foreign 
culture, rather than of native tradition. Whether, 
therefore, the said British name of the spot arose from 
Gloyw = clear, or bright, with reference to the ancient, 
(certainly not to the modern), character of the river 
Severn at this point of its course, cannot be decided. 
The claim has little perhaps to commend it ; and the 
root may be even/>re-Celtic. The form Glovernia may 
have been evolved by the monks from the Welsh form 
Glovi, or Glowi. Florence of Worcester has Gla- 
worna. 

The following forms shew the influence of the Anglo- 
Norman pronunciation upon this place-name :— 

Gloiiuecestre — D.B. Gloecestre — On the Abbey Can- 
dlestick ; before A.D. 1122. Gloucetre, Claucetre, 
Claucestre — Robert of Glos. Glocetre (Layamoni. 
Glonsetre. Glouceter — Capgrave. Glowcetter — 1484, 
Paston Letters. All exhibit loss of the ch sound ; 
almost all lose the ' s.' 

In Layamon, however, the English and Norman 
forms engage in typical combat ; as Mr Zachrisson 
has pointed out. The ch struggles for self-preserva- 
tion. Gloichestre — A. v. 9629. Gleochcestre — A. v. 
10429. Nevertheless, the Norman again prevailed, as 
he did at Cirencester and Frocester, and our daily pro- 
nunciations of these three names is the result. 

Cesler = ceaster from ceaster (Caestir : Baeda, for 
caestri, from the Low Latin ' Castras.' (Cf. N. & Q. 
II. Ser. p. 103-4. A. Anscombe). See Note 18. Intro- 
duction. 

Gosehomme. The terminal here is hamm or 
homm, not A.S. Ham = home. These hamms are 



GOSEHOMME— GREET 73 

often found either beside a river, or else marked 
out by the courses of one or more small streams. 
The prefix represents the A.S. Gos : goose. The field 
was situated on the Isbourn, near Hailes, in a group of 
Homines. (Cf. L.B. Winch: i. p. 284). 

Gospel Oak. A name originating in the former 
perambulations of parishes during Rogation Week. 
Hence, probably likewise, the spot still known as S. 
Paul's Epistle was named from similar uses of a tree, 
or large stone, or a well, there, by a preacher. 

Gossington. (m.) \ m. S. of Slimbridge. B.M. (A.D. 
1 1 89) Gosintone. C.R. 1230 Gosintun. Gosynton. The 
meaning is ' the tun of Gosa ' : the ' in ' probably stands 
for the already-weakened genitive 'en' — of (Gosa, — 
an), yielding to the formal patronymic tendency. 

Gotherington. (m. & p.) Nr. Bishops Cleeve. D. 
Godrinton. 1220 Goderinton. — Goderyntone, F.A. 1402. 
The farm of one Godhere, with change of d to th. 

Grafton. (A member of Beckford manor). A.S. 
Graf = Grove. The sense being the farm, or tun, by 
(or, in) the grove. 

Grangebrook. (In Staunton). A grange (granged) 
was a grain-store, or small farm, usually pertaining 
to a confraternity, or to a manor-lord. The sense is 
' the brook that runs by the Grange.' Perhaps there 
was also a mill upon it. 
Gransham. (m.) nr. Newent. 
Gransmore. (In Painswick manor, Stroud-end). 
Both these appear to be due to an unrecorded per- 
sonal name. (Cf. CD. 939. Graenesburgh. A.D. 1043. 
Co. Warwick). Earlier than XV. c. forms are wanting. 
Green Street. There are several ancient lanes, 
or ' streets; so-named, probably, from having become 
overgrown through abandonment. 

Greet, (m. & p.) L.B.Wi. 1195 Greta. K.Q. Grete. 
Greete. Mr Duignan, in reference to another Greet, 



74 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

in Worcestershire, thinks that this name derives from 
the local stream, and is a Celtic river-name. In the 
present instance, the hamlet of Greet also has a small 
stream. We meet with Greet-grove, in a XIV. c. 
Chron : of Hayles, and there was a Chapel of S. Laur- 
ence. The stream is, in fact, an upper water of the 
Isburne. It is possible that Greete was an earlier 
Celtic name for the river. Lancashire and Scotland 
have streams bearing the same name ; but a Scandin- 
avian origin has been attributed to it by some writers. 

Grentistan. (Hundred.) Now Kiftsgate Hundred. 
D. Gretestanes. T.N. Gretestan. — K.Q. Greehidon. 
and Grectiston. The Domesday scribe has in this case 
given a clear reading, — i.e. Great-stones. Winch- 
combe, Hayles, Postlip, and Dumbleton, lay within it. 
It is a question, however, whether Greet and Gretton 
have not to do with the name ! 

Gretton. (Nr. Winchcombe). Gretstona. 1175(c). 
Grettone. Grecton. K.Q. and T.N. — Greston, 1346. F.A. 
Near Greet, which does not, however, necessarily 
point to any etymological connection. There was, 
within the Hundred, also a ' Litentone,' i.e. Littleton, 
which belonged to William ' Froisselew' (Froisselupu) 
at D.S. Hence, we may take the present name to mean 
' great-farm ' in contradistinction to ' little-farm.' Tun : 
the ton, or farm. The earliest form, however, gives 
'stone': not 'ton.' (L.B.W. 1. 183). 

Grimbaldesash. (Hd.) Grimboldesesse. (P.R. 
1189-90). P.C. 1221, Grunbodeshe. Esse. M.E. for A.S. 
sesc = ash-tree. Grimbald is a well-known A.S. p.n. 

Grimsbury. (In Bitton) A village. Grim is a p.n. 
both O. Norse and Anglo-Saxon. A.S. Grlma signifies 
' the evil one,' or ' a goblin.' (Cf. Duignan P.-N. of 
Staffordshire, p. 69). The want of early forms makes 
it sometimes difficult to determine whether the suffix 



GRENTISTAN— HAGMEDE 75 

represents ' beorg,' a tumulus, or ' burg,' (A.S. Byrig, 
dat.) ; i.e. Borough, or fortified place. 

Guyting-Power. (j). 3 m. N. of Notgrove Station. 
In Cutsdean. 

Guyting-Temple. (2). (m.p. & v.) 6 m. N.W. of 
Notgrove Station. (C.S. 351). A.D. 814 Gythinge. D. 
Getinge. Guytinge. P.C. 1221 Guttings. Guthynge 
( I2 75" 6 )- Le Gouting (1294). Getynges. Gittinges. 

(1) This is a stream-name for the head water of the 
Wind-rush. The root was probably British, and was 
not related to A.S. Gyte : flood. Geotan: to flow: to 
pour. M.E. gtite. 

(2) Became appropriated to the Order of the Temple 
in the 1 2th cent. The terminal inge, pi : inges, ( for 
incg) was an ending for stream-names, as in Pilning ; 
Twyning. Cf. E.H.R. Oct. 191 1, p. 826, by H. 
Bradley, LL.D. 

Gupshill. (Nr. Tewkesbury). GopeshuU. c. 1220 
Gopshull : B.M. IPM. 1273 Gobhidle. IPM. 1299 Gepes- 
hall. IPM. 131 4 Gopushulle. F.F. 1591 Guppishill, alias 
Coppishill, as though from O.F. Copeiz : wood newly- 
cut, a small wood for cutting ; but the forms assure 
us that a p.n. is represented here, though an unrecorded 
one, perhaps, Gupp. 

Haglow. (m. & tithing) in Awre. Hagloe. Hag- 
gelow 1437. The Burial 'tump,' or Low, usually 
carries with it a personal name. Mr A. Ellis, in his 
Domesday Tenants of Gloucestershire identifies it in 
parentheses with ' Etelau ' (Etloe) ; for manorial pur- 
poses. The two places lie about one mile apart, actually. 

Hagmede. (A 13th c. Hundred). Hagemede. 
Aggemede. Aggmead. The prefix probably repre- 
sents a p.n. Agga— gen. ' an,' weakened to ' en.' The 
' n ' has dropped out before ' m.' As in some other 



76 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

counties, the tendency to the false aspirate is strongly 
marked : as Hupleden, Hocsenhale, Hupton ; for Oxen- 
hale, Up-leden, Upton. 

Hailes. (m.) 2 m. N. of Winchcombe. D. Heile. 
13th cent. Hayles. Heyles. Hales; from W. S. 
Healh, pi. Healas ; meaning a pasture. Here the 
form is plural. It does not necessarily mean a river- 
side pasture. A hale, in Gloucestershire, may occur 
on high ground, away from any stream. W.S. heale is 
dat. of Healh : while the Mercian form is Halh, dat. 
hale, pi. Halas. For its connection with modern 
English haugh, a nook, or corner, see Prof. Skeat's 
'Place-names of Berkshire.' It occurs as a terminal 
more frequently than as a prefix, i.e. Hales-owen. 
Sheriff-Hales, Norton-in-Hales. 

Hale. (See Hailes). This term is of constant re- 
currence and in many varieties throughout the county 
(La Hale, Hales, Hailes, etc.), and represents the 
Mercian Halh, (dat.) hale: pi. hTdas; meaning corner, 
or strip of grass or pasture-land. 

Hallen. (Near Henbury). Helen. Hellen. Early 
forms are lacking ; but it may have had its origin in 
a Celtic term. (W) Crwth Halen = & salt-box; Sarn 
Helen = Salt-way. The Salt-Marshes are there. 

Ham. (i) A.S.Ham: Home; abode. O. Saxon 
Hem. 

Ham. (2) Hamme. Homme, from A.S. Hamm. 
(m.) As Gosehomme. The Hamme, The Hams. The 
meaning is generally an enclosed pasture. Whole 
groups of these ' hommes ' occur (Cf. the Landboc of 
Winchcombe) along the course of the Isburne ; and 
Milham-Post (once Middle-homme) is one of these. 
This Homme may be suspected in the terminals of 
Bilscw, Bils»;/z, Yixxntsham (ttondsum) and Hanham 
(Hanum). 



HAILES— (W.) HANHAM ABBOTS 77 

Hamm (f.) (3) The ham, or inner part of the 
knee. Said by Prof. Wyld to be used to denote the 
bend of a river. 

Hambrook. (m.) A Hamlet in Winterbourne 
(Bitton). D. Hanbroc. IPM. 1350 Hembroke. Domes- 
day Survey often writes Han, for 'Hean' (d.) = high; 
but here the sense needs Ham— ( ? ) for A.S. Hamm— 
(q.v. No. 2) homme. 

Hampen. (m.) in Shipton Oliffe. D. Hagenpene, 
and Hagepine. L.B.W. Hagnepenne. (1217)0. R. Ha- 
genepenne. (1231-4) Havenpen. (1297) IPM. Hunypin. 
Hawnepenne. Havenepenn ; Penn (m.) means an 
enclosure, or fold ; while the prefix represents the 
personal name Hagena, B.C.S. 102 (Cf. Earle Onom"). 
The sense is 'the fold belonging to Hagena.' In an 
Exeter Charter, K. 373, occurs (A.D. 670) Hacapenn. 

Hampnett. (m.) 5^ m. S.W. of Bourton-on-the- 
Water. Little Hampton. D. Hantone. K.Q. Hamp- 
toneth. F.A. Hamptonet. The 'p' is excrescent. 
The terminal may stand for A.S. h£eth = heath: but 
it is uncertain. The sense would be ' the Home- 
farm-heath.' The ton is at present, therefore, repre- 
sented by ' n ' only. Hamptonette occurs in Sussex. 
[Was Shakespere's child named from this place ?] 

Hangerbury Hill. A.S. Hangra means a wooded 
slope : and ' byrig ' dot. of Burh, M.E. burgh : burwe : 
an enclosed, or fortified, place. The sense is ' hill of 
the burh on the wooded slope.' 

(W.) Hanham Abbots, (m.) near Winterbourne 
and Bitton. It belonged to the Priory of Monkton 
Farley. D. Hamm, and Hanon, Hanam. B.M.(c. 1170) 
Hainan. Hannam. (c. 1350) Haneham. C.S. A.D, 
947. Hanecanham. (K.C.D. 416. B.C.S. 821-822). 
This last seems to represent a personal name, — 
Haneca, (gen.)— an,— as in IPM. 1282 John de Haneke- 
ton (witness); (i.e. Hankerton, Co. Wilts.) The sense 



78 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

of this is therefore ' the home of Haneca.' This name 
in turn is a form of A.S. Hana : a Cock. But some 
doubt exists as to the identification in Eadgar's Charter. 

Hannotswell. The personal name points to an 
A.S. Heahnoth (K.C.D. 234). 

Harbour (The). A farm-name near Dursley. 
The meaning is 'the shelter.' But I find it was 
originally a Cold Harbour, (q.v.) 

Hardland. Ardland. Erdlond. (Cart. Flaxl.) 
A.S. Eard = home ; = dwelling — land. 

Hardwicke (Elmstone). (m. p. and v.) N. of 

Tewkesbury. D. Herdeuuic. Hardewyk. Herdene- 
wike (13th c.) Herdewyk. (N.V.) Heorde ; gen. pi. of 
Heord : a herdman. Wlc— a dwelling-place. Another 
Hardwicke lies N.W. of Haresfield. 

Harescombe. (p. & m.) D. Harsecome. Heres- 
come. Hersecumbe. H.C. Gl. A.D. 1179. The Rev. 
M. Hall, its historian, thought that it derived from 
A.S. Here (pi. Her(g)as) : the war-host, or spoiler, 
as in Here-lane, Gloucester ; but the persistent medial 
s resists such a solution of the problem. An un- 
recorded Hersa, -an seems clearly pointed to. 

Haresfield . (m. p. & v.) D. Hersefeld and Hersefel. — 
Hers/eld and Harsefelde, 1 179. (P.C. 1221), Hers- 
felde.—H.C. Gl. Hersfeud. Harsfeld.—(N.V.) Hares- 
filde. The locality close to the last-named place, 
points to the same name-origin with it. The Anglo- 
Norman vocalized the I in ' feld ' as u : hence the 
form in feud. The meaning is the field belonging to 
one Hersa, literally Hersan-feld. 

Haresford. Roman Villa. (Glos. & Br. Arch. 
Tr. viii. 78). 

Harford, (m.) in Naunton, 4 m. N. of Northleach. 
C.S. 165. A.D. 743, Heort-ford. A.D. 802, Hereforda. 



HANNOTSWELL— HASFIELD 



79 



A.D. 963, Heortford. D. Hurford. P.C. 1221. Harford. 
But in A.D. 779 (C.S. 230), we find Iorotlaforda. 
Mr Duignan regards this as an unrecorded p.n. 
Heortla. Others would regard the entire prefix as a 
pre-English word; and the erratic diversity of the 
forms here seems to point to this conclusion. 

Harness, (nr. Berkeley). Hernesse. Hirnes. Hur- 
ness. (See Berkeley). 

Harnhill. (m.) 3^ m. E.S.E. of Cirencester. D 
Harehille. — 1284. Harhull. — Herneshidl. Harnhulle 
Harenhull (c) 1300. I think this prefix answers to 
A.S. har, (d.)-an : hoary. The grey hill. 

Harridge. Now Oridge Street, (m.) in Cors. D. 
Tereige. P.C. 1221. Horege. The Norman scribe 
found difficulty in dealing with names commencing 
with vowels, or with the aspirate. Mr. Duignan, 
{Wore. P.-N) adducing Horerugge 1275 (S.R.) with 
probability derives it from M.E. Har or Hore, A.S. 
Har (pr : hoar): boundary; and Hrycg : M.E. rugge, 
= ridge. The word originally meant 'grey,' ' hoary' : 
but in application to marked places, such as ridges, 
stones, &c, it came to signify 'boundary.'* 

Hartpury. 2 m. N. of Tibberton. Anciently, 
Merewent. (m.) P.C. 1221, Hardpirie. {Corp. Rec. 
Glos.) Hardeperye. Hardepirie. Herdeperer. Harde- 
pyre. The terminal is from A.S. pirige : (f) a pear- 
tree. The first element should point to some un- 
recorded personal-name. 

Hasfield. (m. p. & v.) on W. bank of the Severn, 
8 m. above Gloucester. D. Hasfelde. Hesfeld. A.D. 
1200 Esfold, Heffold. P.C. 1221, Hasfield. Harefielde. 
F.A. has Hersfelde. Corp. Rec. Gl. 107, 200). The 
forms manifest considerable uncertainty, if not con- 
fusion. But, possibly, the first element was A.S. 
Hasu(adj.) : grey. The confusion with Haresfield is 
noteworthy. 

* Hence, Jlore-end, near Wotton-under-Edge. 



80 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Hasilden or Hazelton. (i.) (Nr. Hawling). 
(m.) D. Hasedene. Hasilton 1274. 1294 Hasseldes. 
Hasylton. Hassulton 1354. 

Hasleton. (2.) (m.) nr Kemble. D. Hasedene. 
Haseldon. The Hazel-tree is of frequent occurrence 
in place-names ; occasionaly, also, it is a personal 
name. A.S. Haesel. M.E. Dune = down: or tun = a 
farm-enclosure. 

Hatherley. (m. p. & v.) 2 m. N. of Churchdown. 
(1.) Up ; and (2.) Down-Hatherley. (H.C. Glos. 1. 8.) 
A.D. 1022, Hegbevle(y). D. Athelai. 11 50, Haiderleia. 
P.R. (a. 2, Hen. II.) 1177, Hedrelega. P.C. 
1 22 1, Hathirlege. Hethevlege. Hetherlegh. Hadderley. 
Hatherley e. The pasture, or lea, by, or on, the Heather: 
But the earliest form points to a p.n. Heahburg. 

Hatherop. (m. p. & v.) 3 m. N. of Fairford. D. 
Etherope. i2thc. Hadrop. Heythrop. 1148, Haethrop. 
Hatrope, 1275. Hertroph. Hetherope. Haythorp 
(1294). Thorp and thrup— village. The prefix re- 
presents M.E. Heie, d. of Hei, from A.S. Hege (g = y), 
signifying an enclosed, or hedged, place. The mean- 
ing is ' a hedged village.' The earlier Norman avoids 
the aspirate. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that the 
Domesda}! - Survey distinguishes in spelling Etherope 
and the adjoining Hetrope (to-day Williamstrip) . 

Hawkesbury. (m. p. & v.) 4 m. E.S.E. from 
Wickwar. D. Havochesberie. Anc. Ch : 50. A.D. 
1 183 Havochesburia. Hakesbyri. P.C. 1221. Haukes- 
biri. Hauekesbur, 1261. Hakenbury. Havekesbury. 
M. E. Havek, from A. S. Hafoc = hawk. Here it 
represents a person's name. (Cf. Hafocs — hlaew. 
CD. IV. 93). Bury : an enclosed, or fortified place. 

Hawling. 2% m. N.W. of Notgrove Station. D. 
Hallinga. P.C. 1221. Hallinges. F.A. 1285 Hallingg. 
(LB. Winchc:) Hallyngg (1294). The terminal 'inga,' 
here without a suffix, probably stands for a known 



HASILDEN— HEMPSTEAD 8 1 

ending for stream-names. See Twining. The ' w ' is 
due to A.N. influence ; as in Awckley, for Alkeley. 

Hayden. (h.) Near Boddington and Staverton. 
Heyden. Heidun, C.R. 1220. Heydunn. C.R. 1222. 
Heydone. IPM. 1314. The forms point to the original 
suffix ' dun = down; which has been replaced by den 
= valley. The first element is A.S. Hege as in the 
above Hatherop. 

Heardanleag. (M.S. Cott : Vesp: A.V. f. 169. Char- 
ter of Aetheldred. D. of Mercia, A.D. 896). The mean- 
ing is at the hard lea. As usual, the dative case is 
employed ; ' set ' being understood. The name is now 
Harley, sometimes called Earley. It lies near Nails- 
worth. 

Heavens (The). At Thrupp. Perhaps for Heaves 
= hillocks. 

Heilithe. (Cart: Flaxley). A.S. Hlith— a slope, 
or hill-side. The prefix Hei, from M.E. Hege = hedge 
Literally, Hedge-down. 

Hempstead, (m. p. &v.) 1 m. S.W. of Gloucester. 
D. Hechanestede. (c. 1120-30) Heccamstede, (15th c 
copy of Cartul : Llanthoniae. Fol. 31. Gifts of Hugh 
de Laci and Pain Fitz-John). Heyghamsteede, Hei 
hampstede, Heyhampstede. C.R. (1230) Ehamsted 
F. A. (1316) Heyhamstede-. A.S. Stede ; a site, a place 
The meaning is ' the high homested.' The D. form 
looks like a pers.-name Hecca, and shews a different 
type. The other forms of the prefix point to A.S. 
Hege = hedge.* The Norman often writes 'han' for 
ham; the 1120-30 spelling partly restores ' (h)am,' 
but converts ' ch ' into ' cc' These tended to become 
M.E. ' gg' ; but from this, instead of turning into ' dg,' 
(i.e. hedge) they took a more correct way, as from A.S. 

* Note. — There are three A.S. terms to be differenced 
in mind : (i) A.S. Haga—E. Haw. (2) A.S. Hege. M.E. Hey ; E. 
hay. (3) A.S. Hecg. M.E. Hegge. E. Hedge, — certain forms 
of which may easily be confused with M. E. Hey : hei : mod : high. 



82 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

and became ' Hey ' : (g = y). The ' p ' is of course ex- 
crescent, as in all the Hamptons, 

Henacre. (Nr. Frampton-on-Severn). Heanacre. 
Heneacre, c. 1196. The prefix is A.S. Hean, adj.= 
d of Heah = high. 

Henbarrow. (In Haresfield). Hetibarewe. The 
prefix may represent A.S. Hean = high ; M.E. berewe 
from A.S. beorg, beorh, meant (1) hillock; (2) a 
tumulus, or tump. 

Henbury. (m. p. & v.) on the Severn, 4 m. N.W. of 
Bristol. D.Henberie. (C.S.75). Heanburg. A.D. 691. — 
Heanbyri (c. 794). — Heanbyrig c. 794. P.C. 1221 Han- 
biria. A.S. dative byrig, from Burh : modern borough. 
The prefix Hean is here not a personal name, but 
A.S. Hean, (d) high, from Heah. 

Hengaston. (In Berkeley). This is not neces- 
sarily to be fathered upon the universal Hengist. (Cf. 
Wallgaston, also near Berkeley : called formerly 
Walmegerston, Walhamgarston). A. S. Gaerstun : 
variant of grestun and gerstun, i.e. grass enclosure, 
or ton. The sense, perhaps, is ' high '—(Hean) grass- 
ton. 

Henmarsh. IPM (1236) Hennemerse. Henna, 
g, pi : of A.S. Henn. The sense is ' a marsh,' the 
haunt of wild fowl : i.e. moorhen, etc. (Cf. Moreton 
Henmarsli). 

Hewelsfield. (m. p. & v.) on the Wye 5 m. W. of 
Lydney. D. Hiwoldestone. F.A. Hueldesfeld. — Hyn- 
waldesfeld. Hnwaldrefeld. IPM. 1270. The personal 
name pointed at is Hygeweald (Searle), ' the field of 
Hewald.' 

Heyford or Eyford. (m. & p.) 3 m. S.W. of Stow- 
on-the-wold. D. Aiforde. T.N. Heyford. To-day ; 
Eyeford (q.v.) The prefix probably stands for A.S. 
Hege (g = y): an enclosed place. 



HENACRE— HILL 83 

Hidcote Bertram, i y 2 m. S.E. of Mickleton. D. 
Hidicote and Hedecote. — Hudicota. P. R. 1189-90. 
Undid tot, 1278. — Hudecote. Hudicote. Hudcote.— 
Hydecote. 1302 IPM. The prefix pointed to is probably 
an A.S. p.n. rather than Higid = a hyde. The De 
Bertram family held lands in the county, Xlllth cent. 

Hidcote Boyce. 1% m. N. W. of Ebrington. A.D- 
7 1 6 (Evesham Charter) Hudicota. Boyce— A.F. Bois, 
shewing that the ' s ' was originally articulated. Cf. 
The Boyce— Court, near Dymock. 

High-Leadon. (m. and h. of Rudford) 5 m. W. of 
Gloucester. Leadon is an ancient river-name ; from 
which Upleadon, and (perhaps), Ledbury, derive their 
names. (K. 570) A.D. 972 Ledene, D. Ledene. Later 
forms are Hyneledene, Hineledene, Hynledene, High- 
leaden. The Flaxley Cartulary gives a Hineweir. 
The sense is ' at Highleden.' 

Highnam. (m. & p.) 2 m. W. of Gloucester. 
Hynehamme, Hynehomme, Hineham. The suffix, 
therefore, represents A.S. Homm, Hamm, an enclosed 
pasture ; as in Homme-Lacy ; (not Ham, a home). 
The prefix Hyne is probably for ME. Hlna (g. pi) of 
A.S. Hlna : mod : hind. The sense is ' at hamm of the 
servants.' 

Hilcote. (Hamlet & m.) in Withington. D. Willi- 
cote. Holdecote, K.Q. Hyldecote. Hyldekote. (H.C. 
Gl. 3. 210). (Cf. Hildan-hlsew). The Norman scribe 
has written the name identically with Willicote, near 
Long-Marston. The place is now Hilcote. But the 
intermediate forms seem to shew that he was cer- 
tainly dealing with a p.n. other than Hill ; and not 
with A.S. Wilig : willow. That name was Hilda (f) : 
weak gen. ' an,' and the original place name was 
Hilde(n)cote. 

Hill, (m.) in Berkeley Hundred, 4 m. N. of Thorn- 
bury. D. Hilla. FA. Hull. M.E. Hulle from A.S. 
Hyll = Hill. 

H 



$4 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Hillesley. (m.) 3% m. N.E. of Wickwar Station. 
(Earle, L.Ch. p. 441). A.D. 972 Hilleahe. D. Bildeslei. 
L.N. Hildesley. — Hyldesleye, IPM. 1293 ; i.e. the ley, or 
pasture of one, Hild (a masc. p.n.) (Cf. Hildesdun in 
Bucks : to-day, Hillersdon). 

Hinchwick. (m. & hamlet) iX m. N. of Condicote. 
Not in D.S. Late forms are Bynchweke and Henche- 
■weke : Henewyk (1294). Hinswicke. Hynewyke. IPM. 
1307; possibly, for Hengewic = steep village [hangian]. 

Hineton or Hinton. Nr, Slimbridge, a manor 
held from Berkeley. Henton (1303). Heenton, IPM. 
1374. The prefix Hen stands for A.S. Hean = high. 
The sense is ' at High-town.' 

Hinhethinge . ( 1 ) . (c. 1 2 20 and 1 2 64) a field-name in 
Minsterworth. (2). Inhechinge. (B.Mts.) near Berkeley, 
1263-4. Inechins 1628. This is a strange name pre- 
sented in a curious form. Mr H. Alexander suggests to 
me that we have here the patronymic of a diminutive 
pers.-name Ineca, formed from Ine, or Inna. (Cf. 
Searle. Onom") There is also a p.n. Inca, which 
may stand for In(e)ca. The ch represents an A.N. — 
spelling. The t in the leading form is merely scribal. 
See under Filkins : Fileching : in Oxf. Place-names, 
p. 106. To the above two distinct places bearing the 
name may possibly be added the name Yniche-beche, 
in the Forest of Dene, (A.D. 1281). But see Inch- 
brook. 

Hinton-on-the-Green. (m. v. & p.) W. of Tewkes- 
bury. Hiiietun, c. 11 90, Hynetone, Hynetlione, Hyn- 
ton. The farm of the servants, Hlna = hinds. 

Hoarstone. Near Upper Slaughter. Horestone. 
The primary meaning of A.S. Har is grey, hoary : its 
later and fixed meaning, in this prefix, is a boundary, 
or terminal-stone. See N.E.D. 

Hocberry. According to Professor Skeat (Cf. 
Influence of Anglo-French pronunciation upon Modern 



HILLESLEY— HOLEWEY 85 

English, 10). Hoc, of which How and Hoe are variants, 
is a M.E. form of A.S. Hoh. It means a spur, 
or projecting piece of land. The suffix stands for 
A.S. byrig, dat. of burn, Mod. Eng. borough, an en- 
closed, or fortified place. Hence, we find persons 
called William of the Hok, or Hooc. 

Hodenake(s)putte. Ch. R. H. 3. Hodenach. Had- 
nock. Forest of Dene. The suffix is an old form 
of pit and pytte : and the sense is the pit at Hodenake, 
or Hoda's — (o)ak. Hodenoc ; itself (a wood) was 
given by the monks at Monmouth to Baderon de Mon- 
mouth (Lib. Niger I., p. 153) in exchange for 3 forges 
in Monmouth. 

Hodenales Wood. A demesne wood belonging 
to the King, in the Forest of Dene (A.D. 1282). Hud- 
nalls is the modern form of the name : and it is formed 
from the A. S. p.n. Huda — an, and, Healh (d) heale 
(Mercian, hale) = Huda's hale: (corner). Here the 
term only seems to be a personal name, made after 
the manner of ' Cnappestyes forde ' (q.v.) 

Holbrook. (Nr. Winchcombe). Holebroc c. 1170. 
(L.B.W.) CD. III., p. 52. (Adj.) 'Hoi,' from A.S. 
Holh— hollow, i.e. the brook in the hollow. 

Holcombe. (In Pains wick Manor). Holecumbe. 
R.B. 1166 Hollecumbe. (W.) A.S. Holen holly. Here; 
the prefix is probably 'Holen.' The sense is 'at Holly- 
combe.' The term is common and is usually inter- 
preted Hollow-Combe ; but as all Combes are hollow, 
and our forebears were much given to naming places 
after trees, the probabilities are occasionally in favour 
of the Hollen, or Holly, often used by them in place 
of the Olive in their religious solemnities. 

Holewey. Forest of Dene. There are numbers 
of places in various parts of England known as ' Hollo- 
way,' from the presence of some deep and ancient 

H2 



86 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

trackway. A.S. Holh ; M.E., Hol(e)we = hollow. 
Weg = way! 

Holford. A Domesday hundred. Near Winch- 
combe. D. Holeforde. Later forms, Holdford ; Ole- 
forde. The meaning is ' at the hollow ford.' Holbrook 
(Holebroc), was there. (CD. III. 52). 

Holke (The Great) (The Little). Field-names. 
Otherwise, Hollock, Hollok. Hulk means a shepherd's 
shelter (Cf. E.E.D. Skeat). 

Holloway. See Holewey. 

Holmes, The. (f.-n. in Lydney), from A.S. Holm = 
isle. These are low pastures near water. Holm, as 
in the Holms at the mouth of the Bristol Chahnel, 
bears the Scandinavian significance of island, or rock. 
Here, however, it may bear the same value as in 
King's Holm, at Gloucester, where there seems to 
have occurred confusion of forms. The bridge beyond 
Westgate was called Hombridge, north of which lay 
several homms, including Little Mean-homne and Great 
Mean-homme. (Ha mm.) Cf. Pl-N. Lanes,, p. 353, 
by H. C. Wyld. 

Holnhyrst. A.D. 940 Holenhyrst (CD. II. p. 228). 
A.S. Holegn: M.E. Hollin : holh'. Hirst: a small wood. 

Holt (The). A.S. Holt, a wood, or copse. It is 
also a common suffix, as in Ocholt ; Buckholt, etc. 

Holywell. A well dedicated to some saint, or else 
possessing miraculous properties. A.S. Halig — holy. 

Homme. A.S. Homm — hamm & ham, q.v. (2) 
Prof. W. W. Skeat, in his Notes in Eng. Etymology 
(p. 149, 1903-6) shews that its counterpart is the late- 
Latin ' Camba ' — bend of the leg. (Cf. Ham). Pro- 
fessor H. C. Wyld, in his Pl.-N. of Lanes., quoting Jel- 
linghaus (Westfalisch : Orts-namen, p. 40, 1902) says 
that the Low German horn means the bend of the 
knee, thence the bend in a river, &c. 



HOLFORD— HORSLEY 87 

Hope-Mansel. In Forest of Dean (Co. Hereford). 
Hope- Maloy sell (1263) — Maleyshall (1338) Maloisel 
{^1~)—Meleishulle. 1428 Maliselee. M.E. Hope from 
A. S. Hop : a valley. The suffix is the O. F. p.n. 
Maloisel. It belonged, as woodland, to the Abbey of 
Gloucester. Cf. Cames-Oysell, Co. Hants. 

Horage. In the Forest of Dene. D.C. (1221). 
Horege. M.E. Egge : edge. 

Hordington. Hordynton. In Cromhall. The 
sense is Harding's farm-enclosure. 

Horfield. 2 m. N. of Bristol. D. Horefelle. K.Q. 
Borefield (1284). Horefeld (1475). M -E. Hore = 
mire. (A.S. Horh). 

Hormead. Hormede. Literally, mud-meadow. 
A.S. Horh — u, filth, mire. 

Horn, Great (The). (Ex : Whithorne, Coxhorne, 
Bouncehorne, Touchhorne). A.S. Hyrne = Nook, or 
Corner. 

Hornhill-Bank. Nr. Stanway. 

In O.N. Horn and Hyrna mean a corner, or angle, 
of land. The A.S. equivalent is Hyrne : M.E. Hilrne : 
E. Hern, or hirn. Hirne-stan = corner-stone. (Strat- 
mann-Bradley). Cf. the mutation of A.S. Thorn : thorn, 
to Thyrne : thorn-bush. 

Horsepools* (The). Great and Little (1) near 
Edge: (2) near St Briavels. Herspoles (1) (1429), 
at Harescombe {Herscomb). (2) P.R. 1175-6. Piscaria 
de Hersepol. If we accept Hersa, a p.n. for Hersfel 
and Herscomb, perhaps, we must also admit this term, 
which indicates a locality within Harescombe (q.v.) 
It has not to do with Herepath ; meaning a military 
road, or war-path. There is a Hare -Lane (called 
Here-lone 1240) without the N. gate of Gloucester. 
A.S. Here : army. 

Horsley. (m.) 1 m. S.W. of Nailsworth. D. 
Horselei. Horselega. P.R. 11 76. The leah, or pasture 

* Near Brockworth occurs a stream called Horsbere ; 
in 1260, Horsbeor (C.R. ) 



88 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

of the horse. In Surrey occurs a Horsa-leh (A.D. 
871-889) in Land-Charters (Earle). 

Horwood. Disafforested by Henry III. Horwode 
(1236). M.E. Hore = mire, or else har = hoary. 

Howe (The). Hough, How, nr. Winchcombe. 
M.E. Hough : a hill. (See Hoc : Hoke). A small 
semi-detached hill. 

Hownhall. In Taynton. Howenhale. The prefix 
may point to ' Holan,' from A.S. Hoi. a hollow : M E. 
Hoi : representing the character of a pasture, corner, 
or Hale. W.S. Healh. Mercian Halh : dat. Hale. 

Hucclecote. (m. & p.) nr. Gloucester, belonging 
at D.S. to Archbishop Stigand. D. Hochilicote. Later 
forms : P.C. 1221. Hukelingcote. C.R. Hoclicote, 1260. 
Huckelicote, — 1220. Hokelincote: Hokelcote. Although 
there occurs in Co. Leicester, Hukels-cote and Huclis- 
cot (Cl.R. 1231-4), there is no recorded A.S. p.n. 
answering to these forms, unless it be Hykeling ; now 
Hickling. But this has origin in Hykelinggs, Co. 
Norfolk, where the suffix refers not to a patronymic 
inga, but to incg a stream-term. 

Huddiknoll. Near Edge and Harescombe. Hoden- 
knole. The p.n. Hudda is not uncommon. Knoll — 
M.E. Knowl, for A.S. Cnoll, a round-topped hill. 
Huddi is a shortened form of Hudden, from a weak- 
ened (g) Huddan, from Hudda. 

Hulks (The). A field name. A.S. hide ; a shep- 
herd's shelter during lambing-time. 

Hullasey. (m.) Near Kemble. D. Hunlafsed. P.R. 
1155 Hunlanseta. 1169 Hunlaweshyde. P.C. 1221. 
Hundlaneside. Unlaveshed (c. 1292). 1349, Hunlan- 
syde. Hallaside. Hunlacy. The meaning seems to be 
Hunlaf's hyde. This manor was assessed as one 
Hide (M.E. Hyde). There - occurred some clerical 



HORWOOD — HWICCIA 89 

confusion with regard to the terminal ; namely, as to 
whether it should be 'Hyde,' or 'HEethe = hethe,' = 
heath ; —or sete : seat ; or head : head. This name thus 
offers an interesting example of terminal variability. 

Hungerfield. Hanger—, Honger—, A.S. Hangra ; 
a sloping wood. We have also Wishanger, Clayhanger, 
Hazelhanger, Hungerfurlong. 

Huntingford. Near Wotton-under-Edge. Hun- 
teneford (Berkeley M" ts - c. 1201) Buntenforde. For 
A.S. Himtena-ford, the ford of the hunters, or, of one 
' Hunta.' The genitive ' an ' yielded to the patronymic 
tendency, and became 'ing.' 

Huntley, (m.) D. Huntalei. Later Hunteleye. 
Hunta is a recorded p. n., as also is 'Hunting' (c. io6o|. 
It means ' a Hunter.' The sense is — ' at the field of 
Hunta.' 

Huntsham. A.R. vill. within the Forest of Dene, 
c. 1 145. Honsum. Hunstone.— c. 1200. Hondsum. H.C. 
Gl. 1298. Hornsum. — Hunsam. 1281-2. Perhaps the 
personal name intended here, was not Hunt, but Hund, 
The medial ' d ' had a tendency to fall out before ' s ' ; 
but it has actually been supplanted by t. Um for 
ham occurs in the forms of Hanutn, Bilsz«« (q-v.) 
(i.e. hamm : homm). 

Hwiccia. Hwicce. "An old kingdom correspond- 
ing to Gloucestershire and Worcestershire, and 
apparently a part of Oxfordshire, and of the Magesaetan 
(older form Magorsaetan), in Herefordshire" (W. H. 
Stevenson: p. 228, Life of Alfred). After the middle 
of the ninth century the Hwiccans appear to have lost 
independence, and to have become actually absorbed 
into the Kingdom of Mercia, though their rulers seem 
already a century earlier to have regarded the Mer- 
cian monarch as their Suzerain. In A.D. 681, Osric, 
Alderman of the Hwiccii, is regarded as having founded 
the Abbey of S. Peter at Gloucester. In A.D. 693, his 



90 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

brother, Oshere, is styled ' Rex Huicciorum (C.S. 85) 
and his son ^Ethelweard (C.S. 116) styles himself 
Sub-Regulus. Mr W.H. Duignan (P.N. of Worcester- 
shire) writes: "In 757 Eanberht subscribes himself 
' Regulus propriee gentis Hwicciorum,' and his brothers, 
Uhtred and Aldred, are confirming parties (C.S. 183). 
In 769, the three brothers each subscribe as ' regulus,' 
by the Licence and permission of Offa, K. of the 
Mercians (C.S. 187). In 767, Uhtred subscribes as 
' regulus,' Aldred, ' sub-regulus,' and Milred, ' Epis- 
copus Hwicciorum,' Offa again consenting (C.S. 202)." 
They will thus have come into federation with Mercia 
at the period when Ethelbert invaded Wales, in A.D. 
728, an operation followed up by Offa, who cleared 
Brecknock of the Welsh. 

Although the Hwiccan Kingdom of the Vllth century 
occupied much of the area of territory to-day correspond- 
ing to Worcestershire, Gloucestershire and Western 
Oxfordshire, it did not contain land West of the Severn. 
We do not know what changes may have gone on 
during the earliest half-century of its history ; nor, pre- 
cisely, what were its boundaries with the kindred 
Magesaetans of Herefordshire. Its establishment as 
a kingdom (independent of the kindred West-Saxon 
one), may have followed soon after the captures of 
Glevum, and of Bath (Aquae Sulis), by the West 
Saxons under Ceawlin, in A.D. 577. Apparently the 
Welsh Britons befriended the Hwiccans against the 
unfriendly West-Saxons. But the origin of the name, 
whether Hwic, or Wlc, remains obscure. 

Hyde. Various places are so-called. One is a 
hamlet of Brimscombe, and one is near Pinnock ; 
another was at Gloucester. La Hyde. M.E. Hyde. 
A.S. Hfgid, Hid. Originally an unfixed quantity of 
farm-land forming an estate. At D.S. it had become 
in many places reckoned at 120 acres. 



HYDE— IFOLD 9 1 

Hyett. A vill in Henbury. P.C. 1221. Hyate = Hiatt. 
i.e. High -gate ; or from A.S. Hege : M.E. Hey = hedge. 

Icombe. 2 m. S.E. ofStow-on-the-Wold. A.D. 781 
(C.S. 240) Icancumb. D. Iacumbe, Iccumbe, Ycomb, 
(F.A. 1303); Ickcombe, lckoumb, Icombe. (Cf. Ick- 
worth, Iccanwurd, Co. Suffolk ; and Iccanora : B.C.S. 
64. Kemble CD. 992.) The personal name Icca, gen. 
Iccan ; gave the prefix to the early forms of this 
name. A. S. Cumb : (borrowed from W. Cwm), a 
valley. The sense is the Combe belonging to Icca.. 

Icten— tree— hill. In the Forest of Dene. Lacking 
variants, it is not possible to arrive at any satisfactory 
conclusion as the description of tree here implied, so 
interestingly. An Ictenhill, Ightenhille, occurs in 
Lancashire (Cf. Lane. PI. -Names by Wyld and Hirst). 
The change from ' let ' to ' Ight ' is not irregular in M.E. 
Cf. the various r-tiames Itchen, of uncertain meaning. 

Idbury. (m.) D. Ideberie. Iddebur, c. 1300 (Lb. 
Win., vol. II., 180). A.S. p.n. Idda. Byrig = dat. of 
A.S. Burh, an enclosed, or fortified, place, or home- 
stead, belonging to Idda -an ; weakened to -en. 
[Actually in Co. Oxon.] 

Idelsbury. Idelberge (c. 11 25) near Prinknash, 
toward Painswick. (H. C. Gl : 1. 63. 205). The 
aforetime tumulus (beorg), possibly of one Edel : 
(^Ethel) ; or ^Edulf ; but Idel occurs as a p.n. in F.F. a. 
10. Ric. I. 225 (1199), and it rather more precisely con- 
notes the W. name Ithel, which Sir John Rhys tells 
us, represents Idd-hel, a shortened form of Juddliael, 
written in O.W. Judhael; and on one of the Llantwit 
stones, Juthahels (Lect : W. Phil. p. 437). 

Hold, a tithing in Painswick. There are two Ifolds 
in Sussex and one in Kent. If eld, Yfolde, Ifield, 
Efelde. Ifeud. A.S. Feld = field, plain, open land. 
A Roman villa lies within it, and the soil is rich and 



92 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

well-watered. The O. Survey calls it ' Highfold.' 
The prefix 'y' usually = M.E. Ey; an island, or land 
bounded by brooks, a peninsula ; but this description 
will not suit the locality in question. I venture to 
suggest, as the most obvious source, that the origin 
was the common descriptive formula, ' In the field,' 
that is to say, Ithefeld, or Ithefold : abbreviated by 
custom to Ifeld and Yfold. This seems to be sup- 
ported by the occurence of the personal name, for 
example, of Adam Itheffeld. IPM. 1342. John, In- 
the-feld. (Cal: Corp : Rec. Gl.) 1318. Cf. Idenn and 
Ihamni : also Sussex Manors. 

Ilburweslade. Illeburweslade. This name occurs 
in a XIII. c. deed relating to Eastleach. The sense is 
' the track, or ferry of one Ilburh, g. Ilburge.' The s 
is analogical. The suffix = A. S. (ge)lad. 

Inchbrook, near Nailsworth. Early forms are 
not forthcoming. There was likewise an Inchthrop 
(Ingthorp) near Cirencester. The prefix (properly 
incg-), was a river-term. (Cf. Ingceburne. CD. IV. 
157, A.D. 1062.) Also compare ' Ynichebeche ' in the 
Bailiwick of Bleyth, Forest of Dene (vol. XIV., Trans. 
Br. & Gl. Arch. Soc, p. 362). 

Inglestone. (m.) nr. Hawkesbury (now a farm). 
Ingustoit, F.F. 1 6 10. Ingleston and Ingateston. Ton 
= an inclosure-farm. Combe-English, in Co. Somerset, 
is also Ingles-comb, which means Comb of the Angle, 
or Englishman ; but I think the first element here 
must have been Ingwulf; an A.S. p.n. 

Ingst or Inst. A hamlet of Olveston. Early forms 
are lacking to support any suitable conjecture as to the 
significance. But the name may have lost some portion 
of its last element. (Cf. Insty : a path in Forest of 
Dene, vol. XV., Trans. Br. & Glos. Arch. Soc, p. 306). 
Ings(e)t(?) 



ILBURWESLADE— JACKAMENTS-BOTTOM 93 

Iron-Acton, (m. & v.) on the Laden. See Lat- 
teridge. D. Actum, (i) Irene-Acton, 131 2. Iron 
Acton 1316. Near it was Acton-Ilgar (p.n. Ilgar). 
IPM. 1368, Ylgar. A.S. Iren = iron; ac-tun = oak-tree 
farm. This had belonged to Brictric Algarson. (2) 
Acton-Turville (i.e. Turberville) is on the Wiltshire 
border, (q.v.) 

Isbourne or Esseburn. (r.) a tributary to the 
Worcestershire Avon. CD. 1368. A.D. 709. Esig- 
burn. 777, Esegburn, (CD. 131). Esingbuman, 
Isesingeburnan. CD. 1295. A.D. 1002 Esingburn. 
The element Eserig forms the prefix to burn (A.S. 
burna) or stream. Although resembling one, the 
prefix cannot be an A-Saxon p.n. The unstressed 
element ' ig,' noticeable in the later forms, changes to 
' inge,' as though importing the additional stream- 
term : incg. 

Itchington. (m.) in Thornbury. CS. (1206). A.D. 
967. Icenantune. D. Icetune. FA. 1284. Ichynton. 
Itchenton. There is another Itchington, in Suffolk 
(CD. III., 316), deriving from the river Icenan; a 
name of unknown meaning ; and another is in War- 
wickshire. The river Itchen, in Hants, was also once 
Icene. The meaning should be the inclosure on the 
Itchen. It is possible that the small tributary to the 
local Laden bore this name in Saxon times. The medial 
element an has become ing— as in Bladflen : Uledington 

Ivory-mead, in Staunton. Perhaps an altered 
form of Ebury, or Ewbury ; but a John Ivore is men- 
tioned in the Pleas of the Crown, A.D. 1221, N°- 426. 
(Maitland). 

Jackaments -Bottom. Jackments. Jakemans. 
Jacumans-bottom, (by Cuckerton Grove). E. McClure 
(see p. 158 n. British PL-names) would connect the 
suffix with (W) mynydd, mynde (a mountain). Others 
have tried to connect the prefix with Akeman, owing 



94 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

to the name of the well-known Roman street, as though 
the initial J were excrescent. The entire name, on the 
other hand, is that of a comparatively modern person, 
Jackman. (Cf. Walter Jakemans, IPM. 1355. File 318, 
No. 7.) In ' Jacumans,' consequently, the truth is 
nearer to the surface than in those forms having the 
excrescent ' t. ' Near Minety the name Dorman has 
similarly become 'Dorments.' Jackments-Barn lies 
near the last-named place. 

Jack-Barrow, near Duntesbourne. (Cf. Jackfield 
in Salop). Possibly deriving from some pre-Saxon 
name. There can be no initial J from A.S. except 
through mispelling. 

Joyford. Forest of Dene. Early forms are want- 
ing ; but Joie, Joye, was a p.n. in the XII. c. 

Karswell, in Dursley. (c.) 1 160 A.D. (now Caswell.) 
Cf. Cartswall in Newent, which in 1221 (P.C.) was 
Kerswelle, and in A.D. 1303 (F.A.) was written Casse- 
walle, and (1346), Cavlsvoall, is now Karswell. Also 
Casswelle and Crassewelle, in Devon, are now Kers- 
well. (Lib. Rub. pp. 558, 678, 791). In Gower and 
Chaucer, (water)-cress is usually spelt ' kers.' M.E. 
Welle = spring. Metathesis is responsible for the 
positions of the ' r ' in all these examples. The mean- 
ing is Cress-well. A.S. Cerse : water-cress. 

Kemble. (m. & town). Not in D.S. In the Liber 
Niger it is Kenebelle ; thus resembling the D. Cliene- 
bella for Great Kimble in Bucks ; and it is identical with 
Kenebelle. (Taxo. P.N. 1291). The Saxon Cynebeald, 
brother of Ceawlin and Ceadda, occurs in D.C.B. j. 738 ; 
but his connection with this place-name is not made out. 

Kemerton. (m. v. p.) near Bredon. D. Chenemer- 
ton, Cliinemertune, Caneberton. F.A. Kenemerton. 
(1346). The tun, or farm-enclosure of Cynemasr. 



JACK-BARROW— KILTHORNE 95 

Kempley. (m. p. & v.) D. Chenepelei. ii95(F.F. 
Ric. I., a. 7) Kempelee. P.C. 1221. Kenepelege. 1239 
Kenepelega. F.A. Kempeleye. 1346. The prefix points 
to the A.S. v p.n. Cnapa. The sense, therefore, is the 
pasture, or ley, of Cnapa. 

Kempsford. (n.) A.S. Ch. A.D. 800 Kynemere- 
_fforde. D. Chenemeresforde. Kenmenford. F.A. 
Kynemersforde. (1346). The ford of Cynemser. 

Kenesley, in Abenhall. Kenesleye. The prefix 
represents the A.S. p.n. Ken, i.e. Keen's-lea. 

Ketford. (m.) in Dymock. D. Chitiford. (Corp : 
Rec : Gl.) A.D. 1200 Keddeford. IPM. 1306, Ketifort. 
Kettford, Ketiforde, Ketifort, Ketteford. The prefix 
answers to Cyta A.S. p.n. gen. Cytan, weakened to 
' en.' The ' n ' has later on been dropped before ' f,' 
leaving Ketteford. Finally, the ' e ' has followed. The 
sense is Cyta's ford. A.S. v often developes M.E. e. 

Kiftsgate. (Hundred). D. Cheftesihat. P.C. 1221. 
Kyftesgate. Knfteseyte, 1255. L.B.W. 1391. Kippis- 
gate. The forms have suffered little transformation as 
to the prefix; and Kippisgate is as late as the 1 6th 
century. There is no recorded A.S. p.n. answering 
to Kyft. M.E. geat, yate. 

(1) Kilcot (Cassey) in Newent. D. Chilecot. P.C. 
1 22 1 Killicote. IPM. 1283. Kyllicote. F.A. Kylcote. 
1281 Killecote, Kylcot. Kulkotte, 1307 

(2) Killcote in Hillesley (Hawkesbury). Killa or 
Cylla occurs in a Mercian Charter as a p.n., and such 
it is here. ' On Cyllincgcotan,' which occurs in Ead- 
gar's Charter to the monks of Pershore in A.D. 972, 
may safely be identified with this instance; i.e. 'the 
cotes belonging to the sons of Cylla.' 

Kil-(Kyl-)thorne. (c. 1280). (B. Mts. 676, 677). 
There was a Kylthornescroft in Brookthorp. 



96 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Kimsbury. (m.) in Upton - St. - Leonards and 
Painswick. (H.C. Gl. i. 63). A.D. 11 21 Kenemesburia. 
Corp: Rec : Gl. Kinemeresbur. c. 1230. Kynemeres- 
bury, Kenemaresbicry , Kynemarsbury. The bury, or 
fortified homestead, of Cynemser. (See Kempsford). 

Kingscote. D. Chingescote. (c. 1206) Kingescote. 
It comprised land belonging to the Crown. King, 
i.e. A.S. Cyning, became a family name : (c.) 1250. 

Kingsholm. Now a hamlet in Barton (Gloucester). 
D. Chirtgeshame. Kingehame. IPM. (1345) La 
Kyngeshome. Kyngeshomme. Near Kings Hall. 
(Aula Regis) (c.) 1210. (Corp: Rec : Gl.) The hamm 
of the Mercian Kings, — next Gloucester (Sandhurst 
Lane). The Hamm or homme was the demesne 
pasture around it. In the many variants of this name 
we see the A.S. Ham, a dwelling-place, confused by 
assimilation with Hamm, Homme, a riverside meadow. 
The suffix Holm,' like the O.N. Holm, but not, how- 
ever, identical with it, is a substitution. 

Kingswood. Wotton-under-Edge (not mentioned 
in D.S.) Kyngeswodd: once, a royal possession, i.e. 
the King's wood. 

Knappestysenese (Forest of Dene). See Cnappes- 
tysenese. 

Knappestys-forde (Forest of Dene). See Cnappes- 
tyse-forde. 

Kynsyescroft. In Newington-Bagpath. The pre- 
fix represents the known A.S. p.n. Cynesige. The 
suffix means a small field, sometimes a little farm. 



Ladewent. Formerly in Westbury Hundred : but 
not identified to-day. M. E. Went = a path (v. Wenden). 
Cf. Newent, The significance of the prefix Lade here 
must remain doubtful. 



KIMSBURY— LASSINGTON 97 

Ladycroft. 1312, Levedycroft. M.E. Levedi, from 
A.S. Hlcefdige. A croft is a small farm,— here, perhaps, 
a Queen's. It lay without the N. Gate of Gloucester.' 
Lagger. A portion of Stroud and of Minchinhamp- 
ton (1628) was so-called. Perhaps the term is Anglo- 
Saxon. Dialectal usage makes it mean a strip of land. 

Lancaut. (p.) 2 m. N.E. from Chepstow. (C.S. 
928). A.D. 956, Landcawet (K. vol. III., p. 45 o). 
(P.C.) 1 22 1 Langcant. This may have originated in 
(W.) Llaned: a clearing: Cauad: enclosed. 

Langbridge. (Hundred.) D. Langebrige = Long- 
bridge. 

Langet. Langett. Langette. Langate. (A long 
narrow wood). (1) a narrow strip of wood. (2) a neck 
of land. Often regarded as deriving from F. Languette ; 
but the spellings point to A.S. Lang ; geat, =gate. 

Langstow. A.S. Stow, a place, or (sometimes) an 
encampment 

Langtree. (m & hundred). D. Langetvev. Long- 
tree, Langtre. A.S. Ch. Langatreo = tall tree. A.S. 
Treow: a tree. 

Lansdown. Launtesdon. Lantesdon. Lantsdon. 
The prefix looks like a p.n. of doubtful origin. A.S. 
Dun : a down. 

Lapley. Lappeleye 1315. H.C. Gl. It is situated be- 
side the Highway between Coaley and Frocester. A.S. 
p.n. Hlappa. The sense is Hlappa's ley: or clearing. 

Lasborough. (m.) part of Weston Birt. (Corp. Rec. 
Glos. c. 1220). Lasseberewe. Lasseberg. (c. 1250). 
Lesseberwe. K.Q. 1284. The original terminal was M.E. 
for A.S. beorg = a mound, or barrow. The prefix is 
M.E. Lasse, i.e. Less, from A.S. Laessa = less(er). 

Lassington. (parish adjoining Highnam, and m.) 
c. 1220. Lassedune. Lassyndon (1348). Lassenden. 
Another type, however, presents Laxintone. Lexin- 
dene. Lexintun. (1241). This may point to a prefix 



98 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

of pre-English origin. A.S. Lsessan (dat.) has become 
Lassyn : by weakening. 

Latteridge. (A hamlet) in Iron Acton parish. 
P.R. (a. 22 Hen. II.) 1177 Laderugge. Ladrug. — P.C. 
1 22 1. Ladderuge. — Ladenridge on the (r.) Laden, or 
Ledene (q.v.) It was apparently known also as 
Labrug (K.Q. 1285). There are several streams bear- 
ing (or which once bore) the name of Leadon ; but 
the origin is obscure. The suffix A.S. hrycg, M.E. 
rtigge, (dat.) = ridge. 

Laverton. (p.) near Buckland. G de Lawertune 
(1220-43) occurs as a witness. B.M. Early forms are 
unforthcoming. (Cf. High Laver ; alta Lanfare, Essex). 
Perhaps from A.S. Lasfer : rush, and Tun = a farm- 
enclosure. 

Lawe. This suffix occurs in the Forest of Dene; 
as Rushey--L«we, Horse-Lawe, Beche-Lawe, etc. It 
signifies a mound, or tumulus here. M.E. (h)lawe. 
A.S. Hlaw, hlsew ; and is not, as sometimes stated, 
akin to Lawn : a glade in a wood. 

Lea Bailley. (m.) a Bailiwick in the Forest ol 
Dene. P.R. 6 Ric. I. A.D. 1195, La lega. The manor 
held by Nicholas de Lacu, temp. Edw. I., was known 
as " the Lea" O.F. Baillie : Lordship, Jurisdiction. 
Lea, A.S. leah : pasture ; but the Bailiwick was also 
called Laca, and Lacu, and Lay. (IPM. of John de 
la Lee—'' Forest of Lay " 1275 (No. 90) ). There 
has apparently occurred confusion, which has easily 
arisen owing to a similarity of terms bearing totally 
different meanings. The root-word here was A.S. 
Lacu ; M.E. Lac (d. lake) : meaning a pool ; but in 
Gloucestershire and Somerset, — a stream. 

Leach, (r.) River-name. The Leach joins the 
Thames at Lechlade, giving name also toNorthleachand 
Eastleach. Perhaps related to A.S. Leccan : to water.* 



* See Wyld Appendix, s.v. lace'. Pl.-N. Lanes. 



LATTERIDGE— LEIGHTERTON 99 

Leadon. (r.) An important western tributary of 
the Severn. A.D. 972 Ledene. Laden. Ledden. (P-C.) 
Ledene, 1221. Leden, 1235. Probably, a pre-Saxon 
river-name. It has been borne by more small streams 
in the country than bear it even at present. (Cf. 
Latteridge). 

Leasowes (The). Meadow-land. A.S. Leeswe, 
dat. of Lais : pasture. A word of uncertain origin ; 
but not confined to any particular county. 

Leaze (The). Pasture. 

Lechlade. Lecche. (C.S. 535). A.D. 872. D. Lece- 
lade. P.C. 1221. Lichelade. Later forms are Lecche- 
lade. Lechelade, i.e. the way, or ferry-way, over the 
river Leach. M.E. Lade : path. A.S. (ge)lad. 

Leckhampton. ( 2 m. p. & v.) D. Lechantone. 
Leiluunptone (1 218). T.'N. Leckanton and Lechametone . 
P.C. 1 22 1. Lechtintone. Leckington. Lekinton. Perhaps 
from the A.S. Leac : a leek, the plant. The sense is 
the Leek-homestead : unless the plant-name stood, as 
it may have done, for a personal name. Curiously, it 
was held by the Royal Cook, early in 13th cent. 

Ledencomb. (Once) Nr. Cranham. A.D. 1121. 
(H.C. Gl. 1. 63. 205). Ledecome. Ledenecome. The 
sense seems to be the comb, or vale, of the ' Leden.' 
The latter is a river-name of pre-Saxon origin, and 
it occurs in various localities. Hence it would appear 
to have been the name of the Wick-water, atPainswick. 

Ledgemore. In Avening. (See Losemore). 

Leigh (The). In Deerhurst Hundred, 5 m. N. of 
Gloucester. D. La Lege. A.S. Leah {dat. leage) 
M.E. Leye. Pasture, or untilled land. 

Leighterton. (m.) now annexed to Boxwell. H.C. 
Gl. vol. 1. 96-7- (c.) 1 140. Letthrinton. Lettrinthone. 
IPM. 1273. Leittrinton. Lecchetr intone. IPM. 1287. 
Leytrintone. The personal name involved here may 
possibly have been Leothere, the sense being 'the 

1 



100 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

farm-inclosure ' of the Leotherings. But the forms 
are exceptionally strained. 

Lemhill. (In p. of Lechlade). 

Lemington. Near Moreton in the Marsh D. (i) 
Leminingtune. D. (2) Limentone, Leminton. Lymyn- 
ton. Lympincton. Tax - P.N. 129 1. The first Domes- 
day form suggests a fuller early Leofmaninga-tQn ; 
that is to say, the ' ton,' or farm, of the sons of Leof- 
man. (Lemman, for Leofman). But Limininge, now 
Lymage(Co. Hunts) in Select Pleas of the Forest (p. 22) 
was also spelled Limining. (See H. M. Chadwick, 
Studies of Old English ; Camb : Ph : Tr. Vol. IV. pt. 2), 
147). But that example is derived from a river-name, 
' Limin,' and (probably) from incg : a stream-terminal. 
I think the present name likewise owes its ing to the 
same source, and not to a patronymic one. Whether 
the so-called Knee-brook ever bore the name of Limin 
no Charter as yet has revealed. 

Lesemere. (m.) See Losemore. 

Lidcomb. (c.) above Stanton. No early forms occur. 

Lillescroft. Lullescroft. The small farm, or 
croft, of one Lull. (A.S. p.n.) 

Lilley-Horn. Nr. Oakridge. . The suffix repre- 
sents M.E. Htirne (A.S. Hyrne) ; an angle, corner, or 
nook, or tongue of land, Horn — while Lilly possibly 
stands for Linleye — nl assimilated to //. There was 
another Lylley in Brockworth. A.S. Lin = Flax. The 
meaning, therefore, may be Flax-ley = a ground set 
apart for the cultivation of Flax. Nevertheless, it is 
not to be forgotten that Lilla appears often as a p.n. 
(Cf. Crawford Charters, p. 51, W. H. Stevenson). 
See Bouncehorn. 

Lillington . This possession of Gloucester Abbey of 
S. Peter was in Warwickshire. Lillinthone, Lillin- 
tone, Lylytone, Lylton, Lilentttne, Liletun. Lilla is 
a known A.S. p.n. The owner of the tun, or enclosed 



LEMHILL— LODEBROKESREODE 101 

farm was Lilla. The g. Lilian having first weakened 
to Lillen, this in turn has passed into ' ing ' as though 
the plural genitive were the more natural form in a 
compound word. 

Lincombe. i% m. N. of Painswick. The Flax- 
valley — A.S. lin : flax. 

Listercombe. Xr. Chedworth. The prefix can- 
not be identified with any A.S. p.n. One turns, there- 
fore, to Chaucer's 'Former Age' (17) recalling the 
'litestere,' otherwise ' Litster,' or dyer. The sense 
would be Dyer's-combe. But early forms are wanting 
to confirm the conjecture. 

Littleton, (m.) on Severn. D. Liteltone (d.) 
The sense is ' the small farm,' or ton. See Gretton. 

Littleworth. A hamlet of Gloucester. A.S. 
Worth : a farm. 

Llanthony, at Gloucester. Lantonia, Lontonia, 
Lantone. (P.C.) 1221, Launtoney. — Llanthony. The 
Priory was named from the mother Priory, Llanthony, 
near Abergavenny. Llan (W) (1) an enclosure, (2) 
a church-plot. Hondu, or Hodeni is the name of the 
stream upon which it is situated. Giraldus tells us 
" the English corruptly call it Lanthoni ; whereas it 
should either be called Nanthodeni, that is the brook 
Hodeni, or else Lanhodeni, the Church upon the 
Hodeni." But this change has been common : i.e. 
initial N to L. As Zachrisson notes, Nantyan (Co. 
Corn : ) is now Lantyan. 

Lodebrokesreode . (d.) Forest of Dene. M.E. 
Hreod, a reed-bed. The actual stream in the Forest 
of Dean, which gave the name here, was the Lyd- 
brook. In this case the ' s ' is inorganic and intrusive. 
(See Lydbrook). In the Perambulation of the Forest 
A.D. 1 28 1, where the name appears, it is also written 
Ludebrok. 

12 



:02 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Longborough. (m.) Nr. Moreton-in-the-Marsh, 
3 m. S.W. of it. D. Langeberge. K.Q. Langeberga 
(latinised). A.S. beorg, beorh. M.E. beoruh, berge ; a 
hill, or a burial-mound. The sense here is Long- 
barrow. " Being little used, it was easily confused with 
the Modern E. borough."— Skeat. (PI. N. of Berks.) 

Longbridge. Nr. Berkeley. There was one also 
at Gloucester which gave name to a D. hundred. 

Longdon. Langedon. Langhedon — Long-Down. 

Longford, (m.) Lang ford, i m. N. of Gloucester. 

Longhope. (p. & v.) 9 m. W. of Gloucester. M.E. 
Hop(e) = a valley. 

Longney. (m. p. &v.) 7 m. S.W. of Gloucester. 
(Earle, L.Ch : p. 442). A.D. 972 Longanege. D. Lan- 
genei. Longeneye. A.S. leg, Ig, an island, or water- 
environed place 'in-Langan-ege.' Long-island (g = y). 

Longridge. Nr. Painswick. Longer ugge, Long- 
ereche, Langerech, Langridge : A.S. Hrycg, a ridge. 
M.E. Rug : dat. rtlgge. 

Lorwinch. (m.) nr. Slimbridge and Berkeley 
Heath. A.D. 1124 Lorlynge. (H.C. Gl. 1. 114). T.N. 
Lorlinges. Lorewink, 1236. Loreweng, Lorwenge. 
(c.) 1270, Lorwyn, Lorewynge, Lorwyne, Lorrenge, 
Lorenge, Lorlinch. Lanrewyge 1340. Lawrenge (a. 
32 Hen. VI. B. Mts.) Lorridge. The earliest forms 
present the medial ' /,' the later ones usually— w. As 
the N.E.D. does not record lanrer : /or, = the laurel- 
tree (L. Laureolci) until A.D. 1300, we cannot claim 
that origin for this prefix : nor will the W. llawrwydd 
help us. But we have to be reminded (1) that the 
spellings are those of the Norman first period ; (2) 
that the Norman writer was dealing with some 
place-name, the prefix of which probably represented 
some pre-English term, the meaning of which was 
unknown to him ; and which may have been a 



LONGBOROUGH— LYDBROOK 1 03 

river-name of Celtic origin. Owing to the spot which 
bears the name becoming an early possession of the 
Berkeleys, who gave it to the Priory of Leonard 
Stanley, it has been handed down in an exceptionally 
rich diversity of forms. This throws us directly upon 
the meaning of the particular ' ing' concerned ;— i.e., 
probably, inge from incg : a stream-term. 

Losemore. in Avening, Lowesmare (1294), Lese- 
mere (1543)5 Loysemore, Loosemore. Perhaps for 
Leofwinesmor, from A.S. p.n. Leof: mor: (d.) a moor 
or swamp. 

Ludgarshall. In the vale of Uley at Newington- 
Bagpath (c.) 1220. (Corp: Rec : Gl. No. 167). Lute- 
gareshale.— 1310, Lotegaveshale. 1280, Letegareshale. 
Largeshall. The prefix answers to the known A.S. 
p.n. Ludegar (K.C.D. 654). Hale (dat.) Mercian Halh 
(A.S. Healh). The sense is the hale, or corner- 
meadow belonging to Lutegar or Ludegar. 

Lullingwell. In Painswick. 

Lullingworth. The spring, and worth, or farm- 
stead, of the Lullings, or descendants of Lulla. The 
latter is a well-known A.S. p.n. 

Lutheredge. (f.) nr. Horsley. Also Luttridge. 
Answers to M.E. Ltit = Little (Cf. Luthebxxry for 
Littlebury F.A.) The sense is 'at small ridge.' 

Lydbrook. (v.) on the Wye. IPM. Luddebrok. 
This XIII. century form looks as if the personal name 
' Lydda ' might be involved. But this prefix is of so 
frequent an occurrence in river-names, that one is 
tempted to suspect that some pre-Saxon river-name 
has become assimilated in Saxon days to a pers.-name 
of a later date. (Cf. Litdelawe and Lodelawe for 
Ludlow). D.S. also contains a Ltcdebroc : and there 
is Ludepol juxta Severne, CD. 654. Moreover, 



104 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

the Peramb : Forestae, 1281, mentions this stream 
as Lodebrok. 

Lydney. (m. p. & town) 9 m. N.E. of Chepstow. 
C.S. 1282. A.D. 972 Lidanege. D. Lindenee. (P.C.) 
1 22 1 Lideneie. Later forms are Ledenei, Ledeney, 
Lyddeney. The river-name 'Leden,' therefore, forms 
the first element: while the terminal, 'eg' = A.S. leg 
(g = y) means an island. The sense is 'the island in 
the Leden, or Lydden. 

Lye. (m. ) Lyegli, Zyghe, Lege, Leigh all deriving 
from A.S. Leah : M.E. Lei : a pasture, grass-land. 

Lypiatt. (m.) Lippeliiette, Lypgate, Lupeyate, 
Lyppyate. There are several places so-named in the 
county, besides the example near Stroud. This last is 
usually given its origin in A.S. Hleapan* : to leap. 
Geat : gate = (g = y) Yate. There is no local, or docu- 
mentary, evidence of there having been an especial 
deer-leap at Lypiatt. Hence, it seems safer to refer the 
first element in this name to the ' Hlype,' a word of 
yet undefined meaning, (as Mr W. H. Stevenson shews : 
Cf. Crawford Charters 2, p. 54-5), which is of fairly 
frequent occurrence, both as prefix and suffix ; and 
which bears both a strong and a weak fem. (1) Hlyp 
(2) Hlype. As the Editors of the above Charters have 
been careful to point out "it occurs alone, and also 
preceded by names of persons, and is not uncommon 
in compounds of which the first element is the name 
of an animal or bird (Swealewan-hlype = swallow- 
lip, hinde-hlype, wulf-hlype.) It is also found as the 
first part of compounds, where it is followed by a 
noun denoting some common boundary -mark, like 
Cumb, burna, geat. It is not impossible that we have 
here more than one word. The meaning ' leap ' which 
is sometimes given to it certainly does not suit in all 
cases. . . . The prepositions into, cet, which we 

* Late W.S. hlyp(e) stands for Early W.S. hliep(e), a mutated 
form of hleap. 



LYDNEY— MAREFORD 105 

find used with hindehlype, point rather to an enclosed 
space than to a mere line." So that Lyppiatt, or Hlyp- 
yeat, was probably an entrance to some form of en- 
closure, or district. The meaning of the term, in the 
Forest of Dene, seems to have been simply ' a style.' 

Maiden-Hill. At Randwick. A.S. Maegden : 
maiden. The sense is perhaps ' easy-hill' : a hill suited 
to maidens (Cf. Maid's Causeway, in Cambridge, and 
also see Prof. Skeat's ' Place-names of Berkshire,' p. 

63-4). 

Maisemore. 2 m. N.W. of Gloucester. D. Mer- 
men. P.C. 1 22 1. Meismore. Meyesmora, Mayesmore, 
Maysemore, Maysmor. MSg (g = y) is a known 
A.S. p.n. The suffix is M5r = a moor, waste-land. 
The meaning, I think, is Mseg's-moor. The first 
Norman scribe here appears to have taken down an 
inexplicable Maerewen. 

Maisey Hampton, (m.) 2 m. W. ofFairford. D. 
Hantune. Meisi-Hatntone. The prefix here is due to 
the De Meysi family, 13th century, who became lords of 
the manor. The ' p ' in Hampton is always intrusive. 

Malswick. Nr. Newent. Maulswick. Malsewicke. 
The prefix suggests the A.S. p.n. Mai, or Maethel. 
Cf. Jffl/shanger, Mais- worth, (perhaps) Malvf ood. ; A.S. 
Wic— a village ; probably adapted from the Latin, 
Vicus. But the forms are late. 

Mangotsfield. 5 m. N.E. of Bristol. D. Mane- 
godes-felle. 1231 Manegodesfield. Maggerysfeld. 
A.S. p.n. Mangod: Manegot (B.C.S. 1309, and K.C.D. 
1275). The field of one, Mangod. The Anglo-Saxons 
used as p.ns. both this one and Godeman. 

Marchfield. (See Marshfield). 

Mareford. Forest of Dene. O.E. mere-ford would 
become Marford, as Meretun becomes Marton. The 
sense is ' at the mere-ford.' 



106 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Maresden. Near Rapsgate Farm. M.E. Mareis, 
Mares, = Morass. Peter de Mareys : John de Mareis 
were local tenants. M.E. Dene = a valley. The place, 
therefore, probably gave its name to the owners, — De 
Mareys. (O.F. Marois). Cf. M.E. Diet. : Stratmann- 
Bradley. 

Marlebrugge. Forest of Dene and Marlewey. 
O.F. Marie (marne) a stiff clay. The A.S. is marma ; 
borrowed from Lat. mar mor. (Cf. Marie Cliff: A.S. 
Marnan'-clive, near Cleeve Prior., Co. Wor : Chaucer 
has 'Marie-pit,' C.T.A. 3460, Ed. Skeat. The term marie 
is also applied to Forest-marble. A.S. bry eg = bridge. 

Marlewood in Thornbury (The Park). P.C. (1221) 
Morlewude. Morlewode (1347). Morlewodde (Leland) . 
M.E. Marl = clay, or sometimes, sand and stone mixed. 
(Cf. Red-Marley; Marie-pit, &c.) But the forms do 
not agree with this origin. 

Mars. (m. ) nr. Thornbury: now a tithing only. 
Marse, Mers, M.E. Mersche(rf) : Marsh. 

Marshfield. (m.) 5 m. N. of Box Station, G.W.R. 
It belonged to Queen Edith. D. Meresfelde. (1221), 
Maresfelde. Maresfield, Marsfield, Marchfield. A.S. 
maeres, g. of Mger, possibly a short form of Maerwine, 
etc. : More. Marsh is due to popular etymology. 

Marston. There are both Broad and Long Mars- 
ton. The latter was once Dry-Marston (Merston 
Sicca). Domesday gives Merestune and Merestone. 
The later form is Merston. The prefix represents 
A.S. (ge)msere-stan = boundary stone. 

Marwent. Nr. Gloucester. P.C. 1221, Maruent. 
Morrewent. Marewent (1244). Morwent (H.C., Gl., 
hi. p. 68. note). The prefix is probably related to 
some non-English word. The suffix ' went,' M.E. 
a path, derives from v. Wenden. The sense is 
not obvious.* On the other hand, if it derives from 

* The terminal may represent (W) G-went. Cf. Over- Went 
= Upper Gwent. Round, Peerage Studies, p. 211. 



MARESDEN— MEEND 1 07 

(ge)ni£ere, the prefix = boundary. Cf. Ladewent, 
Netherwent, 

Matford. In the manor of Berkeley, (c. 1270) Math- 
ford. Possibly an A.S. p.n. like Maethel, — Mathel, was 
represented here : but intermediate forms are wanting. 

Matson. (m.p.v.) At the foot of Robin's-wood Hill, 
2 m. E. of Gloucester. It does not occur in D.S., but 
abundant early variants nevertheless are extant : 
Matesdona H.C. Gl. (c.) 1121. Metier esd{i tit) Corp. 
Rec. 1 199. Matteresdune, Mattesdune, Matredone, 
Malysdone, Mattersdone, Madson. The A.S. personal 
name involved is Maeth-here (Cf. Searle, Onomasticon). 
An early name for Robin's-wood. Hill was Mattesknoll. 
The suffix represents Down, shortened to Don, and 
representing M.E. Dune : a down, The ' d ' has now 
sacrificed itself to the 't' sound and has been absorbed 
by the ' s,' leaving simply, Matson 

Maugersbury. (m.)nr. Stow-on-the-Wold. A.D. 
949 (B.C.S. 882). Mcethelgeresbyrig, Malgaresbnrge. 
The known A.S. stem Maethel likewise occurs in 
Msethel-helm, Masthel-wine, etc. The suffix had its 
root in the dat. of A.S. Burn = an enclosed place, fort, 
village, or homestead, belonging to Masthelgar. 

Maylescoyt. A.D. 1281. A large district in the 
Forest of Dene. Malyscott 1630, to-day, Mallscott. 
Mails-croft. The prefix was probably the A.S. p.n. 
Msethel. The terminal, however, seems to represent 
the A.S. Cot(t). Coyt is possibly a scribal eccentricity.* 

Meend, Myende. Meand. Frequent in the Forest 
of Dene. Dr. E. McClure (p. 158 Br. Place-names: 
note) connects it with the Cornish Menedh and mene ; 
or with Welsh, Mynydd, =mountain or ridge. (Cf. 
Long Mynde ; La Munede : Co. Salop. Now, it is true 
that the scribe who indited the Perambulation of the 
Forest of Dene in 1281, bailiwick by bailiwick, has 



* But Cf Wennescoil = Gwent Iscoed; and Maiscoit, nr. Ewyas- 
Harold. 



108 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

used this identical term Munede over and over again : 
so much so that, did it here signify what it meant 
in Shropshire, the said forest would be a region of 
markedly mountainous character, which it cannot be 
said to be. But, it is noteworthy that the same scribe, 
when he does meet with an exceptional hill, does not 
call it Munede, but Mons ; and when he has occasion 
to write down the conspicuous spot known to-day as 
Serridge, he calls it not Mynydd, Minde, or Mons, but 
Segrugge. What, then, can be the interpretation of 
his word Munede, which thus occurs over and over 
again ? and why was it that — whereas there are over 
twenty ' Meends ' in these Bailwicks of the Forest, — 
this ' careful clerk' has not once referred to them? I 
think it possible that, contrary to anything we might 
etymologically expect, he used the term Munede for 
Meand. But I must here refer this matter (until such 
time as it shall be settled) to Appendix, iii. (q.v.) 

Meon. (m.) nr. Longborough. (P.R. a. io, Hen. II.) 
Muna, Meon, Meen (P.C.) 1221. Meene ; Meone. Mune 
(K.Q.) Meone. It was a dependency of Quenton. Meon 
Hill Camp was probably part of it. The name is 
familiar in Hampshire. It is not known to what 
language that belongs. 

Merescombe. (c.)n82. Merescumbe. The prefix 
is probably for Mseres, gen. of Maer, a pers.-n. 

Meresty. In Forest of Dene. The prefix is for M.E. 
Meer (for A.S. (ge)maere) a boundary. The suffix 
represents A.S. StTg: stlga (g = y) apath. (Cf. Cnappe- 
sty). The meaning is the path at the boundary. 

Mereway.* M.E. (ge)mJere : a boundary. The 
sense is the track near, or at, the boundary, or mere, 
' the lake.' 

Mesne. Cliffords,— Priors, — from OF. Mesnee, or 
maisnie, — a household. 

* See Winchcombe Ct. Rolls (MSS.) for Stanton Maer. 



MEON— MISERDEN 109 

Michelbourne. M.E. Muchel : great, large. The 
root is in AS Mycel ; bourne, ' a stream.' 

Micheldean. Forest of Dene. Mucheldene. Mit- 
cheldene. 

Michelmead. At High Leadon, Muchelemede, 
Muclemede, Muchelesmede. 

Michelwood. (Chase.) Mickelwood (miscalled 
Michaelswood), at Berkeley. 

In all these the prefix is the M.E. Muchel, Muckel : 
adj. great, large. A.S. Mycel. 

Mickleton. A village, 3 m. N. of Campden. D. 
Muceltude. F.A. (1285) Moketon, Mekelton, Mukletone. 
M.E. Muchel = great. Ton: or farm-enclosure (A.S. 
tun). 

Minchinhampton. (m.) D. Hantone. (Cal. Doc. 
Fr.) 1 187. Hantone. 1 m. S. of Brimscombe. The 
13th c. forms are Munnechen-hampton, Monneken- 
hampton, Mynchynhampton, and Munchun-hampton. 
The prefix ' Minchin ' represents the M.E. rendering of 
A.S. Mynece, Mtinechene ; (Cf. Italian, Monache) (pi). 
The nuns' Hampton, (Cf. Trevisa, VI. 53). 

Minsterworth. (m.) $y 2 m. W. of Gloucester. 
(P.C.) 1221. MunstrewurtJie. (13th Cent.) Meenstre- 
worth, Munsterworthin, Ministrevorsin. The prefix is 
M.E. Minister from A.S. Mynster, n. a monastery, or 
church : the suffix, Worthine = homestead, or farm ; 
now ' worth.' Minsterworth belonged to the Abbey of 
St. Peter, at Gloucester. At D.S. the locality was 
known as Hamme ; = enclosed meadow-land. 

Miserden. (m.) D. Grenhamstede. Later Mus- 
ardir, Musardere, La Musadere, and also Le Musarder, 
Miserdine. The place has taken its name from a foreign 
family named Musard ; but has undergone exceptional 
transformation. 



110 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Mixerne. XIII. c. A village belonging to Winch- 
combe Abbey. Also Blakemixerne (1300). The prefix 
is possibly A.S. mixen : dung. A.S. eern = house. M.E. 
Ern. (Cf. Brewern). The forms are old. 

Modesgate. (m.) in Westbury Hundred. D.Modiete. 
Modiett, Maiott. Madgett. The prefix is possibly the 
Welsh word Mod = enclosure. The terminal is, how- 
ever, obscure : but may be referred to A.S. gent. 

Morchard and Norchard. In Forest of Dene 
region. Perhaps, (by transference of 11 or m), for Ait 
tlicein ortgearde; and Atten orce(ci)rde. Cf. R. E. Zach- 
risson. Anglo-Norman Influence on English PI. -names, 
p. 81-2. A.S. Ortceard= wort-yard. Mod. orchard. 

Morcote. (m.) in Langebridge (D. ) Hundred. 
(Minsterworth parish). D. Morcote. Later Morkote. 
Morcott. Murcott. A.S. Mor; M.E. Mor— a moor. 

Moreton-in-the-Marsh. (v.) D. Mortune (d.) 
Later Morthone. A.S. Mor, a moor : tun. an enclosure, 
or farm. The suffix prior to the 13th cent: was 
Henmersche, Hennemers, Henmerse, Enmerse. In 
early Chan. Proc : (1. 376) A.D. 1482: Morton-in- 
Henmerssh occurs. See Henmarsh. 

Moreton-Valence. In Witestan Hundred (D.S.) 
Held by Durand, the Sheriff, 1086. D. Mortune (d.) 
(vide preceding). William de Valence, half-brother 
of Henry III., became lord of the manor and was 
succeeded there by Aymar de Valence, his son, who 
gave it to the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester. M.E. 
Mdr dat. More. In this case the town is under the 
hills : and the ' moor ' was probably swampy ground. 

Morwode-enese. Forest of Dene. Literally 
Morewood : A.S. mor : a marsh, or moor. The 
suffix represents a scribal error in writing, ' evese ' : 
mod. ' eaves : border, or edge.' (Cf. Cnappesty s-enese, 
also in the Bailiwick of Ruardin ; and ' La Berses- 



MIXERNE— NAILSWORTH 1 1 1 

enese,' in that of Berse.) The mediaeval clerk fre- 
quently confounded small v, u, and n. 

Moseley. Forest of Dene, Bailiwick of Blakeney. 
The not infrequent Anglo-Saxon form of this name is 
Mosleage : literally, a marshy lea, or moss-lea. M.E. 
Mos : a bog. 

Mudgedown. Nr. Iron Acton. Early forms are 
lacking. A.S. Mycg = a midge. (Cf. Germ : Mucke 
= a gnat). Lit. = The down haunted by gnats. Cf. 
Midgham in Berks. (Cf. Prof. Skeat's Berkshire 
Place-names). M.E. Miigge. 

Mulebache. Forest of Dene. Mulebeche. M E. 
Miilne from A.S. Myln : a mill ; M.E. Bsech, a hollow, 
having a stream in it : dat. Bseche. 

Mune. (m.) A former dependency of Quenton 
manor. See Mene ; Meon. 

Munmede, in Berkeley. A field-name. Mun looks 
like a Celtic survival. Irish Moin, pronounced mone. Cf. 
Welsh Mawn = bog. A.S. Mted = meadow. M.E.Mede. 

Munnow. (r. ) Mon-moicth, Mune-moiith. Mune 
here appears as a river-name (see preceding). 

Murcott. x% m. N.W. Childs Wickham. Perhaps 
from M.E. Mure : mud. 

Myne. Cf. Newton Myne, Palewell Myne. M.E. 
Mine : a mine. F.-Lat. 

M'ythe, The. Tewkesbury. A.S. Gemyth : a 
confluence. Here it signifies the meeting of the Avon 
and the Severn. It occurs in C.S. I. 308 denoting, the 
confluence of the Severn and Teme at Powick. The 
prefix ' ge ' has been dropped, as in mere for gemsere. 

Nailslea. C.S. 164. A.D. 740(c) Neglesleah. C.S. 574. 
A.D. 896 Ncegleslege. SeeStenton: Pl.N. oiBerks: p. 6. 

Nailsworth. Nayllesworth, 1308. The prefix repre- 
sents a p.n. Naegel. Of the two suffixes, A.S. leah, dat. 
leage (g = y) = pasture-field : and A.S. Worth = a home- 
stead, or farm. 



112 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Nash (i) as in Prinknash (q.v.} Nash here probably 
represents A.S. Essche, M.E. Asch, esche : an ash-tree. 
M.E. Atten-ash; Atte Nash = at the Ash. At Prink- 
nash there is a field called The Great Nash. Ten = 
A.S. tham, dat. neuter of the def. article. 

Nash (2). Sometimes so written for Nass (q.v.) 
A.S. Necss, O.N. Nes, a promontory (Cf. Sharpness). 
Cf. Nash on the Glamorganshire coast. 

Nass in Lydney Hundred, on the Severn. D. Nest. 
Masse. Nesse. Ness. AS. Ngess. O.N. nes=a promon- 
tory, headland. The word is not a proof of the 
Scandinavian occupation any more than is ' Thorp.' 
Beowulf sings of " windige ncessas " ; 1. 1358, 

Nastend. Near Eastington. Nast = weeds in fallow 
land. (E.D.D.) The meaning seems to be the weedy 
or neglected end, or limit. 

Natton. (m.) in Ashchurch. D. Natone, and Atone : 
the 'n' being sometimes dropped before a vowel in 
Gloucestershire. Nacton (Tax. P.N.) 1291. The prefix 
seems to represent the rarely-recorded p.n. Nata, 
as in Nategrave ; now Notgrove, (q.v.) 

Naunton (i) at the head of the Windrush. D. 
Niwetone. Later Newenton, Nawenton, Neweton, 
Newnton : until the XIV. century. A,S. Niwe ; dative, 
niwan = new: tune = ton: town, or farm-inclosure. The 
A.S. form was Niwanton. The sense is ' at Newtown. ' 

Naunton (2) near Winchcombe. Newinton, New- 
enton. M.E. Newen: dative of Newe. The sense is 
at New-town. 

Nelms, The. At Owlpen. (A spring). The initial 
n is a survival of the definite article, as in TVbke and 
Aash. Another example occurs near Sandwich, Co. 
Kent. 

Nesley. InBeverston. The prefix may be from A.S. 
Naess : a promontory. Ness is often found far inland, 



NASH— NIBLEY 113 

as in the well-known examples Great and Little Ness, 
Co. Salop. But it is more probable that the early 
form of the present name was ' Nashley ' signifying 
the field at the Ash-tree. See Nash (i). 

Nesse. In Berkeley Hundred. A.S. Nasss. O.N. 
Nes: promontory. This was probably Schobbeness. 
(See Sharpness). 

Nether strode. In Maisemore. (See Notherstrode.) 

Netherwent. Comprised the district and deanery 
of Chepstow. Netrewent (M.S. Cott. Vespas. A. vi.) 
The suffix went— (W.) Gwent. (Cf. Over-wejtt, Lade- 
went.) Nether = lower. 

Newbold. In Tredington. Nioweboldan, A.D. 991. 
It means simply ' at the new-house.' (A.S. Bold = 
house), M.E. bold. 

Newent. (m. and p.) D. Noent. (IPM.) A.D. 1299 
Nouwente. Nuwents. M.E. Went = way, from v. 
Wenden. A.S. Neowe, Nlowe : new. 

Newerne. Nr. Lydney. D. Niware. The ter- 
minal represents A.S. iErn = a house, as in Bere-aern 
= barn. The sense is New-House. 

Newington. (1) Cold, (2) Bagpath. D. Neweton. 
Later Nowinton. Newen-tone. Niwen-ton. Niwintun. 
JVywenton. The modern E. ' ing ' has resulted from 
M.E. ' en ' ; A.S. ' an ' : dative of Neowe. 

Newland. (m. v. & p.) in Forest of Dene. The 
meaning is newly-enclosed land. 

Newnham. (m. p. & borough) on the W. bank of 
the Severn. D. Nuneham. Newenham. Neuheham. 
Nenham. A.S. Neowanham : the form is in the 
dative case, i.e. at the new-homestead, or village. 

Nibley. There are several examples of this name 
in the county. North Nibley is situated 3 m. N. of 
Charfield Station, M. R. The earliest forms are Nu- 
belei. Nubbeleigh — B.M. Nubbeleia (Lat.) c. 1200. 



114 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

P.C. 1 221 Nibbelege. — Nubelegh. Earle (Onomn.) gives 
Nybba as occurring locally: Nybban-beorh B.C.S. 
764, K.C.D. 1 137. It may, therefore, represent a 
personal name, otherwise unrecorded. The original 
will have thus been Nybbanleage. 

Ninnage. Nr. Chaxhill. Nunnage. The prefix 
may stand for Nynna, an A.S. p.n. The early forms 
are unfortunately lacking : but the terminal, as in 
Chavenage, probably represents M.E. hache, acche; 
in Mod. Eng. Hatch = a small gate, or wicket. (Cf. 
Prof. W. W. Skeat, Place-names of Hertfordshire, 
under 'Stevenage.') But see Prinkenash. 

Node, The. An occasional field-name. TheN.E.D. 
gives 1572 as the earliest quotation' of this term. 

Noke, The. A field-name. Noake. Atte Noke— 
from M.E. ' atten-oke — at the oak-tree. Nok is also 
M.E. for Nook, (pi. Nokes). 

Noose, The, or Nouze. In the Severn (opposite 
Frampton). This can scarcely represent the term 
noust, or noast : (Scandinavian) — meaning a landing- 
place where boats are drawn up. Origin unknown. 

Norbury. (c.) Nr. Farmington. North-bury, i.e. 
deriving from A.S. byrig, dot. of Burh ; an enclosed 
place, castle, or homestead. 

Norcott. (2 m.) D. (1) Nortcote, and (2) Norcote 
= Norlhcott (Preston). 

Northleach. (m. p. & town). D. Lecce, on the 
river Leach (q.v.) 

Northwick. Near Aust. Northwican (C.S. 936). 
(c) A.D. 955. A.S. Wic : a village. 

Norton. 5 m. N.N.E. of Gloucester. D. Nortune 
= North-ton, or town, or farm-enclosure. 

Notgrove. 6 m. S.W. of Stow-on- the-Wold. (C.S. 
165). A.D. 743, Natangraf. D. Nategrave. The prefix 
derives apparently from Nata (p.n.) B.C.S. 165, K.C.D. 
90. The terminal A.S. graef ; dative graefe = a trench. 



NINNAGE— NYMPHSFIELD 



"5 



The form ' grove ' can have come about only by con- 
fusion with A.S. greefa (m) a grove. 

Notherstrode. In Maisemore. M.E. Neother = 
Nether (See Stroud). The sense is lower. 

Nottingham, (i) Camp. Near Cleeve. 

Nottingham. (2) Scrub. In Painswick-Slad. 

Mr W. H. Stevenson, on p. 231 of his Edition of 
Asser's Life of Alfred, wrote,—" The name is pat- 
ronymic, or possessive, originating in a personal name 
' Snot,' probably connected with the adj. ' snotor,' 
' wise.' " The meaning is the home of the descendants 
of Snot : Snotinga-ham. 

Nup-end. The Nup, i.e. Knop (Cf. Knap). The 
meaning is, the top, or a rounded end, of a field. 

Nymphsfield. 2}4 m. S.E. of Frocester Station 
(M.R.) A.D. 872 Nymdesfelda (C.S. ii, 151). D. 
Nimdesfelde.— (1262) Nyndesfeld. Nemenesfeld . The 
prefix, with all the appearance of being a p.n. in 
the genitive, is, according to Mr W. H. Stevenson 
(Early Charters and Documents, Crawford Coll : pp. 
58-59), ' Nymed,' a term associated intimately with 
flowing rivers in certain Charters relating to Devon 
and Somerset. "The name is preserved in the various 
' Nymets ' dotted about the country by the sides of the 
(western) river Yeo and the river Troney. On the 
6-inch O.M. we find Nymet wood, in Hittesleigh, 
abutting upon the Troney, Nymet Cross in the same 
parish, Broad Nymet, Nymet Barton, Nymet Wood, 
Nymet Chapel at Bow, or Nymet Tracy. The hamlet 
or farm by Nymet Wood, Hittesleigh, called ' Easter- 
brook ' on the New Ord. Map, is called Nymph on the 
old one-inch. This seems, therefore, to be a corrup- 
tion of Nymet (Cf. the Gloucestershire Nyjnphs-field 
from Nymdes- feld). This form occurs in Nymph and 
West Nymph at South Tawton, Nickels Nymph at N. 

J 



Il6 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Tawton, etc." " It would be easier to account for 
this diffusion of the name in a limited district on the 
theory that Nymed was the name of a forest : it can 
hardly have been a common noun. But we see from 
line 3 1 of our boundaries that the Nymed was a stream 
' On nymed mid streame ' (A.D. 739, Grant of Land 
for the foundation of Crediton Monastery.)" 

At our Gloucestershire ' Nymed,' which stands on 
exceedingly high ground of the Cotswold escarpment, 
is the source of the water which flows down Wood- 
chester Park and the deep glen therein. "As regards 
the form of the word, the spelling Nymed is probably 
the correct one." (W.H.S.). 

Oakhanger. Near Berkeley. (C.) 1250 B.M. 
Ochungre. M.E. Oke — oak. Hungre is a scribal 
alteration of Hanger : A.S. Hangra — a sloping wood. 

Oakle (Street). Near Minsterworth. Ode, Okkele, 
Occley, A.S. Occan-leah; from the A.S. p.n. Occa; gen. 
Ocean. The sense is, therefore, at Occa's pasture. 

Oakley. Near Cirencester. It belonged to the 
Royal manor there. Coates was within it. D. Achelie, 
a Norman rendering of (A.S. ac-leah) = Oak-lea. 

Oakridge. Nr. Chalford. Ockerige. Oakeridge. 
Ocke represents a M.E. form for Oak; the terminal = 
M.E. rugge : a ridge. 

Ocholte. Hacholte. Hocholte. M.E. Ok, Oc, — 
oak. A.S. Holt = a copse. 

Oddington. (m.)D. Olintune. Later, Odyntone, 
Otindon. Odynton. Othynton. The ton, or farm, of 
Otta or Odda ; or his descendants. As the Norman 
disliked and avoided ' ng ' ; he clips the patronymic 
gen : pi. of the ' g.' 

(1) Oldbury-on-Hill. AtDidmarton. (C.S. 1282). 
A.D. 972. Ealdanbyri. D.Aldeberie. The suffix = byrig 
d. of A.S. Burh = fort. 



OAKHANGER— OVERWENT 1 17 

(2) Oldbury-on-Severn. Near Thornbury. c. 
1200, Oldebiri. 1301. Aitdebyve. The latter shews 
A.N. influence. 

Oldewortheynesasshe. In the Forest of Dene 
(1338). This name signified the ash-tree at Oldworthyn, 
rather than a personal name applied to a tree. It seems 
to have been not unusual to insert an inorganic 's' 
when qualifying a mere locality by the addition to its 
name of a tree, or a brook, or a path. Cf. Berse(s)- 
enese : we have also Down-ampney(s)-wick. These 
were place-names in process of augmentation. The 
second element is A.S. Weorthegn as in Shrawardine. 

Oldland. (m.) 2 m. N. of Bitton. D. Aldelande. 

Olney. Nr. Deerhurst. A.D. 1016 Olan-tge.— 12th 
c. (R.B.). Oleneye, Olaneye, Alney,Ainey. The r-name 
Alne has no bearing on this name. M.E. eie, ey, eye ; 
A.S. Teg, an island. (g = y). It is probable that the A.S. 
p.n. Olla, -an is the source of the prefix. 

Olveston. 3 m. S.W. of Thornbury. (c.) A.D. 
955 s-Elvestune and Alvestona, (C.S. 936). Olveston 
1303. Olston 15 15. The prefix represents the A.S. p.n. 
vElf,-es. The meaning is, therefore, iElfes ton, or farm- 
enclosure. 

Ore or Oure. (See Over 2). A.S. ora, ofer = bank, 
or margin. M.E. over: dat. ovre. 

Osleworth. (See Ozleworth). 

Over. (1) Ofer, Overe, prep: A.S. Ofer = over = 
above. 

(2) M.E. Over, dat. Ovre. Sb. (m.) Edge, bank, 
shore (Cf. Germ. Ufer). " Ofre ad Gleawecestre " 
(C.S. 313) A.D. 804. 

Overbury. (m. v. & p.) A.D. 875. Uferebiri. D. 
Oureberie. A.S. Ufera. M.E. Uvere : adj: upper. The 
meaning is ' the upper bury.' 

Over-went, (m.) The suffix went may = (W) 
Gwent. Cf. Netherwent. The meaning is ' the upper 
Gwent.' See Marwent. 

J2 



Il8 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Owlpen. (m.) 3^ m. S. of Frocester. Not in 
D.S. Ollepenne. (c.i2io),Olepenne. Olepenny. — 1322. 
(IPM.) Owlepenne. Ouldpen. TJlepenne. Holepen, 
IVolpen. The prefix probably represents A.S. p.n. 
Olla. Pen (A.S. Penn) = a fold. It must be confessed 
that the combination does not work very satisfactory ; 
though with the forms given it is difficult to arrive at 
any other conclusion. Owl = a. late change. 

Oxenhall. (m.) nr. Dymock. D. Horsenehal* 
Hocsenhale. — T.N. Oxhale. — 1230 (c.) Oxonhale. The 
pasture of the Ox. A.S. Oxa : gen. pi. -ena. M.E. 
dat. Oxene. W.S. Healh = meadow : dat. Hale. 

Oxenhay. Nr. Berkeley. Oxehaye. Oxehey. 
Oxhaye (1243). M.E. hey, haye : an enclosed place : 
i.e. for oxen. 

Oxenton. 4 m. E. of Tewkesbury. D. Oxendone. 
1 177 P. R. (a. 22, Hen. II.) Oxsendone. Later, Oxin- 
don. Mr Duignan (Wore. P.N.) cites CD. 617 
(A.D. 977). Oxna-dunes cnol — the knoll of the down 
of oxen. Oxene gen. of M.E. Oxe. 

Oxlynch. Hoxlynche. Hoxlinge. Hoglinge. M.E. 
Lench. Lynch. Link from A S. Hlinc. It means a 
cultivation-terrace on a hill-side. The prefix here 
probably stands for a p.n. Hoke, or Hog. 

Ozleworth. (m.) 4r l / 2 m. E. of Charfield Station, 
M.R. D. Olleworde. Later forms: Hoheleswordi (early 
13th c.) Olesworthe, Oselwurthe, Osilworthe, Wosel- 
wurth, Owselworth. The Domesday scribe failed to 
interpret the strange sounds to which he must have 
listened when this manor was mentioned to him. The 
p.n. Osla is recorded in Searle (Onomast : p. 375) : 
moreover, a local instance is there given of Oslan- 
-wyrth : i.e. Osla's worth, or farm-stead (B.C.S. 764: 
K.C.D. 1137). But here the prefix more probably 
represents a metathesis of Olles, g. of Oil : A.S. p.n. 

* The D.S. form represents a scribal error. 



OWLPEN— PARSETE-WAY 



119 



Paganhill. Near Stroud. The earliest forms are 
F.A. 1346. Paganhulle, PagenhiM, Pakenhill. Liter- 
ally the Hill of Paega : gen. an ; but the present form 
is probably due to influence of the word Pagan. 

Painswick. (m. p. v.) 3^ m. N. of Stroud. D. 
Wyke. Later Wykeham, Wyke Pagani, Payneswyke, 
Payneswicke, Painswick. Pain Fitzjohn, the Justiciar- 
Sheriff, became lord there in right of Sybil, his wife, 
niece of Hugh de Laci. He probably fortified his 
castellum not far from the Church during the Civil 
Wars of Stephen. 

Pamington. Nr. Ashchurch. D. Pamintone. — Pam- 
yngton. Pamynton. Panynton. Panyngton, IPM. 1372. 
An unrecorded A.S. p.n. seems to be involved here in 
the patronymic form : unless that missing name was 
PadrncBv : i.e. forming Padmcerington, abbreviated 
to Pamington. 

Paradise. Several places (fields and hamlets), 
bear this remarkable name ; the actual origin of which 
still remains obscure. It is far from being confined to 
this county. It is possible that it originated in the 
crops grown from 'Paradise '-seed imported from 
Morocco or Tripoli, and sown early in the XV. century 
{see Thorold-Rogers). In the same century (1401) 
we meet with individuals so-named. 

Parham. Near Berkeley. Perham (1264). The 
prefix probably represents M.E. pere, Pear. 

(Le) Parrok. In Painswick, and occurring else- 
where, formerly (1552). The meaning is a little croft, 
or enclosure, near a house ; a paddock. E.D.D. — A.S. 
pearroc : a small enclosure ; whence Park. Cf. O.F. 
Pare. 

Parsete-way. In the Forest of Dene. (1281.) A by- 
way. Origin unknown. The second element may re- 
present A.S. H§eth = heath (see Hullasey : and Widcome- 
sede), or Saete, a dwelling-place. 



120 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Patchway, The. Part of an ancient main-track- 
way so-called, running between the Severn and the 
Cotswold Hills, leading north from Bristol. Origin of 
name not certainly known. Patch is commonly applied, 
however, to plots of grass-land and wheat-land, in this 
county. See under Colpage. 

Pauntley. 2 m. N. of Newent. D. Pantelie. P.C. 
1 22 1. Pantelege. Later, Pannteneye. IPM. Panteleg 
(c. 1260). (F.A.) Panteleye. There is no recorded 
personal-name corresponding to the form of this 
prefix, and the origin may perhaps be a r-n, or W. 
Pantau («. masc.) pentydd : a hollow place. The 
excrescent ' u ' faithfully tells the story of the late 
Norman form ' aun ' for ' an.' (Cf. Pauncefoot). 

Pebworth. (m. & v.) 5^ m. N.W. of Chipping 
Campden. C.S. 453 c. 848 Pebeworthe. D. Pebevorde. 
Pebewrda (c. 1140). Peppevvorthe (Chr. of Evesham). 
Pebewortliam. Pebbeworthe. Theprefixpoints to ap.n. 
Pebba. A.S. wurth, weorth, worth; farm, or homestead. 

Peddington. (h.) near Berkeley, (otherwise 
Kendalls Court). C. 1250. Pedynton (W.) IPM. 1628. 
This may, or may not be, patronymic: i.e. the farm, 
or ton, of the sons of Pedda, or of Pedd. 

Pedemarisfelde. Nr. Gloucester. Pedmershfeld. 
Pademceresfeld. Padmser is a known A.S. p.n. 

Pegglesworth. (m.) nr. Dowdeswell. D. Pecle- 
surde. P.C. 1221, PechewurtJie. Pekelesworth. — 1316 
Pecclesworth. IPM. 1354, Pettelesworth. A.S. Wurth : 
farm. The prefix may represent the p.n. Pectgils, or 
Peohtgils (Searle). The meaning is the farmstead of 
Peohtgils. 

Penbury. (Camp). Pen (W.) a head or headland. 
A.S. burh : dat. byrig : an enclosed, or fortified, 
place. The meaning is obvious. 

Penpole Point. (C.S. 551). A.D. 883 Penpau. 
This prefix is the Welsh pen = the head. W. pau. (nf) 
= an inhabited region. 



PATCHWAY, THE— PINFARTHING. 121 

Periton, or Pirton. In Awre. D. Peritone, for 
A.S. pyrig-tun = pear-town. M.E. Pere, a pear. 
Pirie, pear-tree. (Cf. Appleton). 

Picklenash, for Pucklenash : i.e. Pucelen-cesc 
—the fairies' ash-tree. (Cf. Pucklechurch). A.S. 
Pucel : a goblin, (K.C.D. 408, A.D. 946 has Pucanwyl 
— Puccas-well). A.S. Puca, M.E. Pouke (Welsh Pwca). 
See under Pucklechurch. 

Pill, The. This probably represents a Celtic river- 
term. (Cf. Pilling: Co. Lanes); It is a frequent 
prefix to river-names, or to portions of a stream, 
especially in the Severn region, and in Cornwall ; 
often signifying (1) a landing-place for boats or 
barges : (2) a running stream. 

Pilning. 10 m. N.N.W. of Bristol. The water 
called ChesseX- pill joins the Severn here. There are 
no variant forms. There is no evidence forthcoming as 
to the second element here. We may guess, perhaps, 
that the ing signifies a stream, an equivalent of ea. 

Pinbury. In Duntesbourne-Rous. D. Penneberie. 
P.C. 1 22 1. Pendebivia. Pendebur (1294). Pennebury 
(1304). Pimbury. The prefix probably was the p.n. 
Penda. Byrig : dat. of A.S. Burh : an enclosed place. 

Pindrup. (Farm) Coin S. Denis. Pinthrup. Were 
earlier forms available, the origin of the prefix might 
prove to be Penn = a fold for sheep. The suffix drup 
for Thrup, = thorp : a village. 

Pinfarthing. (h.) Nr. Amberley. Old forms 
are wanting ; but the name appears to be simple. 
The suffix farthing represents the 'ferding,' or 
quarter, so often occurring in the D. Survey, of a 
Hide of land. It may mean that here ; or, it may 
denote a quarter of a virgate,— otherwise a farndel 
(ferendellus). Cf. Winfarthing, Co. Norfolk. {Wynne- 



122 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

ferthing). The prefix probably stands for Penn=a. 
fold for sheep ; which gave name to the ferthing-. 

Pinnock. Nr. Hailes. D. Pignocsire. P.C. Pinnoc. 
T.N. Pinnocscire. R.H. Pinnucsyre. F.k.Pynnnkshire. 
The terminal is the A.S. Sclr, M.E. Schlre : a district, 
diocese, or a boundary. The latter sense was pro- 
bably intended here. The prefix resembles Pinnuc : 
Pinnok = aname for the chaffinch, (W. Pink), which 
occurs (c.) A.D. 1225 in the O.E. poem ' The Owl and 
the Nightingale' (1. 1 130). Both oc and uc are, however, 
diminutive forms. (Cf.Searle, Onom A.S.xxiii); hence 
the prefix here may really be a pers.-n. 

Pinswell, or Little Cobberley. (m.) A.D. 681 
Pindepillan. (H. et C. St. P. Glos. vol. 1, LXXII.) 
A.D. 872 Pindewyllam. Pyndeswell. (13th c.) The 
prefix may derive from the A.S. word pyndan : mean- 
ing either to dam-up water, or to enclose a spring. 
M.E. piinden : whence our words Pound and Pond, 
for a certain village-inclosure. The suffix = A.S. Wiell 
= well, is given an unusual dat. plural in ' am,' where 
we should expect ' um.' The medial s, however, seems 
to point to a pers.-n. 

Piseley. Nr. Winchcombe. Peseleye. It has long 
been an extinct vill. A.S. Piose = Pea. M.E. Pese. A 
loan-word from Latin : Pisum. The sense is the pea- 
field. 

Pitchcombe. (m.) 2 m. N. of Stroud. (1253) H.C. 
Gl.: Pychencombe,Pychenecomb. IPM. 1261. Puchene- 
combe. This name bears no relationship to Puckcombe 
at Sevenhampton, and Puckpitt, or Puckshole, near 
Paganhill,— all deriving from A.S. Puca, a fairy, — but 
seems to point for its prefix to an unrecorded p.n. 
Pycca, which alone would suit the forms : the original 
vowel having been y, spelled u or y in M.E. The 
meaning is Pycca's combe. The t is intrusive, and 



PINNOCK— POSTLIP 1 23 

never appears in the early forms. Popular etymology 
is responsible for it, and attributes the name to the 
steep grade of the road. 

Plain, The. At Whiteshill. A level place among 
slopes. 

Pleck, The. (Dial.) A haymead. Plocke (1220) 
Corp. Rec. Gl. Plokke. IPM. 1300. A.S. Plcecca : 
M.E. Plecke : a piece of ground ; perhaps, a, flat piece. 

Plusterwine. Forest of Dene. Origin unknown. 

Pontlarge (Stanley), (m.) Near Winchcombe. 
D. Stanlege. Later, the manor was held by the family 
of Pont de Varche. (Pons Archas), whence Punde- 
large. 

Poole Keynes, (r.) 2 m. S.E. of Kemble. A.S. 
Pol. M.E. pulle = pool. The second element is the 
well-known Dorsetshire family- name (De Keynes) 
which, in the XII. c, became likewise affixed to the 
neighbouring Somerford— and to Ashton (Keynes). 

Portway. Portweg (g = y). Many ancient tracks, 
or parts of these, in various districts of the county are 
so named as having led to a borough-town, or port ; 
i.e. market. They are not necessarily of Roman 
origin. Port, an A.S. loan-word from the Latin, is 
often conjoined in early Charters with another, 
namely, street: e.g. Portstrcet. CD. 617. 

Postlip. (m.) D. Poteslepe. 1175. (Reg: de 
Winchcombe). Postlepa. Potteslepe. P.C. 1221. 
Poteslepe. Poteslep. Poteslip, Podeslep. Porteslope 
(Bracton's Note Book, III., 1439). The prefix is the 
weakened gen. of an A.S. p.n. Potta : the suffix 
possibly represents A.S. sleep : a slippery miry district. 
(B.T.) The same cannot hold good for the suffix in 
'Birdlip,' also situated along the same escarpment of 
the Cotswold ; for which perhaps a better case is 
made out by ' Hlyp,' as in Hindlip, Co. Worcester, 
by A. S. Napier and W. H. Stevenson : Cf. Crawford 



124 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Charters, p. 54-55 ; where numerous A.S. examples are 
given. The meaning is, however, left undefined, though 
an enclosed space is pointed to. (See Lypiatt). Meta- 
thesis has affected the prefix : st for ts. 

Poulton. (v.) (1) 5 m. E. of Cirencester. C.S. 487. 
(c. 855) Pultune. Poltone. 1319. IPM. Note the 
lengthening of the original vowel. 

Poulton. (m.) (2)inAwre. (1303) Polton. Pulton. 
A.S. Pol : a pool, i.e. the town by the pool. 

Prestbury. (m. & p.) 2 m. N.E. of Cheltenham. 
Preosdabyrig (Smith's Bseda). D. Presteberie, 12 10. 
Prestebyri, Presteburie. A.S. Preost ; gen. pi. pre- 
osta : byrig, dat. of A.S. Burh, enclosed homestead, or 
walled village. Literally, the homestead of the Priests. 

Preston, (m.) There are three or more places 
in the county. M.E. Prest, priest. Priests-farm. (1) 
upon Stour (D. Sture) ; (2) Near Cirencester ; (3) 
Near Ledbury. 

Prinknash. (p.) nr. Painswick, and 4^ m. S.E. of 
Gloucester. It belonged to the Abbey of St. Peter. 
(H.C. Glos.) A.D. 1 1 21. Prinkenesche. Prikenhassce 
(c.) 1230. (Corp. Rec. Glos. 236), Pvinkenesse. 
Prinkenaix. Prinkenage. The suffix is, I think, plainly 
A.S. ^Esc : an ash-tree : a field in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood still bears the name of Great Nash. (M.E. 
Atten-ash, at the ash - (tree) : atte nash ; ultimately, 
losing all the def. article except the M.E. addition, n ; 
Nash : Cf. Abenash, or Avenage, Abbenesse ( IPM. 
1337, in Bisley for Abanash i.e. Aba's Ash-tree) was 
evolved.) The prefix is probably the genitive of a 
p.n. as yet unrecorded. 

Pucele-Croft, at Elmore, (H. et C. St. P. Glos. 1. 
289) c. 1200. (See Puckle-Church). 

Puckle -Church, (p. & v.) 3 m. E. of Mangots- 
field Station, M.R. (C.S. 887). A.D. 950, cet Puclan- 
Cyrcan. D. Pulcrecerce. P.C. 1221 Pukeleschierche. 



POULTON— QUEDGELEY 1 25 

Pokulchurch. A.S. Pucel = a fairy, or goblin. A.S. 
Cirice, cyrce = church. Possibly the spot had, previ- 
ous to its consecration, been called Pucelan-croft, or 
Pucelan-pytte. Pukel occurs as a personal name in 
mediaeval documents. But in both instances it is mas- 
culine, and its gen. would probably be in ' es.' We 
have both strong and weak forms. The loss of the 
possessive ' s ' in the same prefix is shewn in the 
preceding name, (q.v.) The p.n. has to-day become 
Pickle. When folk are deceived in Gloucestershire 
(which, of course, is very seldom), they are said to be 
'Puck-ledden.' 

Puckshole, nr. Randwick. M.E. Puke, pouke (g.) 
poukes. Puck, a goblin. (W.) Pwca. Pook is still a 
personal name in English. Cf. Puckrup = Puckthorp, 
near Tewkesbury. 

Puesdown. Nr. Hazleton. The prefix may derive 
from the A.S. p.n. Pusa: but variants are not forth- 
coming. The p.n. Pues occurs in the county in XIV. c. 

Purlieu, The, at Lydney. Woods in the vicinity 
of Forest were so-called. See E.D.D. The word is a 
corruption of O.F. pur (Lat. per, pro) — O.F. alee : a 
going. Prof. Skeat declares the word to be a transla- 
tion of Lat. perambulationem. Cf., 'As you Like It' : 
IV. 3. 77). 

Putloe, at Standish. Also Putley. Puthteleye. 
(Cal : Corp: Rec. Glos. 257). Putteleye. A.D. 1274. 
Potteley. The prefix may represent a p.n. Puta, or 
Putta. The suffixes are respectively M.E. lo(w)e a 
burial-mound ; A.S. Hlaw ; and M.E. ley : for A.S. 
leage, d. of Leah. The forms give only the latter. 
The loe-fovm of Hlaw is far commoner on the West 
side of Severn than on the East side. 

Quedgeley. ( m. r. & p.) 3 m. S. of Gloucester, 
(c. 1 142) Quedesley. Quedesleg (c. 11 55). Quedesleia. 
c. 1210 (Cal. Corp : Rec, p. 92). Queddesleye (1308). 



126 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Milo of Gloucester gave the chapel of ' Quadresse' to 
Llanthony, at Gloucester, A.D. 1136. The genitival 
prefix suggests a personal name (m) not recorded, as 
that of the proprietor of a pasture ; i.e. Cwedd, or 
Cwad. But the earliest form Quadresse would point 
to the same origin, perhaps, as the Devon Quitlier : 
in 1286 F.A. Quedre. 

Quennington. ( m . r . & p .) n the Colne, 2% m. 
N. of Fairford. D. Quenintone. P.C. 1221 Cunintone. 
Quenynton. 1278 B.M. This represents Cwettan tune : 
woman's-ton, or farm. 

Quinton. ( m . r . & p.) 2 m. E. of Long Marston. 
(c) A.D. 848 Cwentone C.S. 453. D. Quenintune. 
P.C. i22(, Quenton. Queinton. A.S. Cwene: woman; 
tun : farm. 

(See preceding). The Domesday scribe scarcely 
differentiates his rendering of the two place-names. 
The meaning, indeed, is the same. Here the ' ing ' 
seems to result from the weakening of the A.S. (gen) : 
an, yielding to the patronymic tendency. 

Querns, The. Nr. Cirencester. A.S. Cweorn, 
cwyrn. M.E. Cwerne : quern ; pi. quernes, signifies 
a hand-mill ; and this is, I believe, the usual interpre- 
tation given. Nevertheless, this place-name certainly 
does not derive from quern, which appears no earlier 
than the XVI. c. ; and then only as a variant of 
' Cornedes, otherwise called Comes' (1543/4). In 
1286 the Abbot of Cirencester was quit-claimed of all 
right which either himself or his tenants might have 
in the close called Crundles, by reason of ' common.' 
In a complaint made at Westminster in 1343, by 
twenty townsfolk against the Abbey (and for which 
the Abbot compounded with the Crown regarding its 
franchises), the unlawful enclosure of the pasture at the 
Crondles, or Cronnes, formed one of their accusations. 



Q.UENNINGTON— RADHAM 1 27 

The Abbot, however, produced proof of King Edward 
II. having pardoned in 1315, his predecessor, Abbot 
Brokenbury, for having enclosed the wood of Crun- 
deles. The real name for the place was evidently 
' The Crundles ' : the actual character of the spot 
shews the presence of ancient, probably Romano- 
British quarries; "which quarries are called Crundles" 
(Reg r . Abbey of CirenC. B. 552). The general evi- 
dence brought together regarding the term ' Crundel ' 
can, I think, be held to substantiate the interpretation 
of it as ' quarry ' more completely than any other : 
whether as a deep pit, on a hill-side ; as a rough 
stone-heap, or as a hollow occupied by water, (see 
Earle's Land-Charters, pp. 471-3), or as a hiding-place 
for a wolf. There were, from the testimony of the 
said Abbey's registers, many ' crundles ' all about and 
around Cirencester ; and that is what might be ex- 
pected of a large stone-built town in a stone-country. 
The combination ' stancrundle ' actually occurs. The 
Abbot's pasture does not create fresh difficulty : for 
pastures abound with old quarries : cf. Painswick-Hill. 

It is, moreover, evident that whatever may have 
been the origin of the word ' Crundle,' it became 
transformed, or worn-down (at Cirencester at least), 
to Cronnes, Cornedes, Cornes, and perhaps, by pho- 
netic assimilation, to scribal Querns. If we take into 
account the fact that the common Gloucestershire 
word for quarry is quarr, it is not difficult to perceive 
how and why Cornes may have become confused with 
quarrs, and that the Mendelian result was Querns, as 
though identical with quernes, =handmills. 

Radbrook (i) or Redbrook, in Newland, Forest of 
Dene. A. S. read = red, broc = brook. 1204, Redebroc. 
1280, Rodbroc. (2) (m.) in Quinton. 

Radham. C.S. 936. (c. A.D. 955) Hreodham. 
Radenham. Radehamme. (c. 1 200) Radeham. A.S. 



128 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Hreod, reed ; and A.S. Hamm, often a riverside 
meadow. The meaning is fei-homme. 

Radwick. C.S. 936. (c. A.D. 955) Hreodwican, in 
Northwick. (F.A.) Radewik. A.S. Hreod, reed. A.S. 
Wfc = L. vicus : wick : village, or dairy-farm. 

Ranbury. (Ring) (C.) near Ampney-St. Peter. 
Early forms are wanting. Rand is an A.S. name- 
theme, as well as a sb : meaning edge, or border. It 
may here have dropped the ' d ' before ' b ' ; but, if 
so, it has also dropped the genitival 's.' The sense 
may be Border-bury, but I think it doubtful. 

Randwick. (v. & p.) lyi m. N.W. of Stroud, near 
the escarpment. (H.C. Glos. 1. 101.) 1 1 20 Rendwyke. 
Rennewyk. Ryndewyk. 1280, Rindewyke. Rende- 
wicke. The prefix seems to refer to no A.S. name. 
See under Rendcombe. The terminal is from A.S. 
Wic : a village. 

Rangeworthy. (m.) 3 m. N. of Yate. Renche- 
wortlie. (F.A.) 1303 Ryngeworth. 1346, Rungewortlie. 
Rengewovth, (B. M. 1513). Rendgwortliy (1598). 
Reiigwortlw (1598 F.F.) Worthig : Worthyn: a farm. 
(A.S. Weorth). There may be a connection with 
Range- and Ringe-, meaning, as applied to timber, — 
felled wood. See under 'Ringe,' E.D.D. 22. 

Rapsgate. (H.) Now a farm in the parish of 
Colesborne. D. Respigate. 1221. P. C. Respegate. 
Respigete. Respe was a p.n. See P.C. 1221, 190. 
Gilbertus Respe. (Maitland). 

Reddings, or Riddings, The. This term occurs 
in various parts of the county. Rhyddings (1) field- 
name, (2) places taken in from the Lord's waste, or 
common-land. (Dial.) Rudding. A.S. Hryding (f) = a 
clearing. (Hreddan, to rid). 

Redland (Bristol). F.A. 1284, Iredlond. K.Q., 
Yriddelond. 1303, Trynddelond. 1346, Theriddelonde. 
Thirdelond. IPiM. 1628, Ridland. Thridland^Rndlnnd* 



* Durdai/idown was also known as Thiidlandoune. F.F. 1597. 



RAD WICK— ROBINS- WOOD-HILL 1 29 

These forms are best explained from the former 
presence of at the Redland, in spite of the frequent 
vowel i instead of e (read) in the penultimate syllable. 

Regard. Damsels Regarde (1487) ; a place then 
in Painswick manor, near the Old Park. ' Regardum 
Forestae de Dene.' (1282). A ' Regarder ' is an official 
of the Forest, whose duty it is to inquire into tres- 
passes. O.F. Reguard. The Damsels were stewards 
of the 14th and 15th c. Lords of Painswick Manor. 

Rendcombe. A parish and village on the Churn, 5 m. 
N. of Cirencester. ~D.Rindcu.mbe. Anc. Ch. 45. Rinde- 
cumb, 1 171-83. H.C. Gl. (1263-84). Ryndecumbe. IPM. 
1347. Ryndecombe. The prefix is probably a river- 
name. It is, perhaps, mentioned as the ' Hrindan-broc' 
in the Chr. of Abingdon : otherwise Rendbrook. 

Reod. La Rede. (See F.A. Rhode). A.S. Hreod. 
M.E. Reod = a reed-bed, (dat.) Reode. La Longe- 
reode: F.D. 

Ridge and Ridgeway. Various portions of Cottes- 
wold escarpment-roads are so-called. The Rudge. 
La Rugge. M.E. Rugge. (A.S. Hrycg) : back, ridge. 
(C.S. 887) A.D. 950 Hricweg. 

Rissington. (3 manors) nr. Bourton-on-the-Water. 
Great, Little and Wyke, or Wick - R. D. Risendune. 
1267. H.C. Gl. Rysindone. Resinden. Later Risendune. 
Rusyndon. Literally rushen-down, from M.E. Rusche. 
A.S. Risce : a rush : g. pi. riscen. The ' ing ' here is 
that frequent pseudo-patronymic possessive, to the in- 
vasion of which unstressed medial syllables in 'an,' ' en,' 
'am,' 'em,' in English place-names, have proven so 
liable. The terminal ton has replaced the original Don. 

Robins-wood-Hill, or Mattesknoll, 2 m. S.E. fo 
Gloucester. It has long been miscalled Robinhoodes- 
Hill (1623-4) so that the Norman scribe has not been 
alone in sometimes writing ' h ' for ' w ' : Upe/rade, for 
Upwude. 



130 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Rockhampton. (m.) 3 m. N.E. of Thornbury. D. 
Rocliemtune. Rokampton. Rocampton (P. de Q.W.) 
Rochamton.—IPM. 1347. Rokhampton. The prefix 
answers to roc : A.S. Hrok, for rook. The sense is 
' at the farm-enclosure (ton), at Rookham.' We have 
in an Exeter Charter, A.D. 670, mention of land at 
Hrocastoc : Rookstoke (Stoke Canon). The A.N. ch 
(pronounced k) has attempted to replace c (= k). 

Rodborough. Nr. Stroud. C.S. 164. (c. A.D. 740.) 
Roddanbeorgh. Rodberwe. Rodeberge. Rodeburghe. 
A.S. p.n. Rod(d)a, (g.) ; beorg, i.e. the hill of Rodda. 

Rodley (1). (m. & h.) a tithing now of Westbury-on- 
Severn, 2 m. S.E. D. Rodele. 11 63-4 Radelea. Rad- 
legh. (F. F. 1235-6). c. 1250. Redleyg. Rodlegh. 
Rudelai. Rodlee. Rudele. Radell. The types are 
embarrassing in number. The meaning may be simply 
Red-mead : relidelelih. If the prefix intended Rada 
(p . n.) the original form was Radanleage, (gen. ) meaning 
the pasture belonging to one Rada. The E-type is 
probably analogical; and u is often written o in M.E. 
Henry I. gave this Manor to St. Peter's, Glos. 

Rodley (2). (m.) Near Newnham. Ralph Bluett 
gave it (c.) 1095 to St. Peter's, at Gloucester. (Cf. H.C. 
Glos. 2, 103, 187). Ruddille. Ruddle. Rudele. Rodele. 
The meaning may be the same with Rodley (1), q.v. : 
but with rather more probability the prefix may be 
referred to an A.S. p.n. Rudda. 

Rodmarton. (m. p. & r.) 4 m. N.E. of Tetbury. 
D. Redmertone. (c. 1250) Rodmertun. Rodmerton, 
A.S. p.n. Rasdmasr's : tun, or farm-inclosure.* 

Roel, or Rowell. (m. v. & p.) 3 m. N.W. of Not- 
grove Station. D. Rawelle. ' Rawella, id est capreae 
fons ' (Goatswell). Later Rwwell. Rouell. A.S. 
Rah: M.E. Ra = roe-(deer). Literally, — the roe-well. 
(Cf. L.B. Winch :) 

* This may, however, derive from 'Red-mere-town.' 



ROCKHAMPTON— SAINTBRIDGE 131 

Rownham. Near Bristol. A. S. ruhan, weak dative 
of ruh: rough. M.E.Ruwen. Literally, 'at rough hamm.' 

Ruardean. On the Wye. (H.C. Glos. n. 185). 
c. 1281. Rowardin. Ruworthyn. Rywardin. Ruwar- 
thin. Rewarden. Rydene. Ruerdean. A.S. ruh: 
rough. A.S. Worthine = farm. 

Ruavengreen Lane. Between Staunton and Cole- 
ford, Forest of Dene. Origin unknown ; but possibly 
the prefix = ruwen : rough. 

Rudeford. (m. v. & p.) 4^ m. N.W. of Gloucester. 
D. Rudeford. A.D. 1087. (H.C. Glos. 2. 186.) Rode- 
forde. P.C. 1221, Ritdeforde. Redeford. The ford 
ofoneRudda; it is often written in M.E. (Cf.Rodley). 

Rudge. The Rugge. M.E. hrug = E. Ridge. (H.C. 
Glos. 1. in. A.D. 1 179). (Cf. Ridgway). 

Rudhall. Reodhale. Roedhale. (H)reod: reed-bed; 
hale = meadow, or corner. M.E. Hal, dat: hale. 

Ruscombe. Near Cainscross. A.S. Rise; M.E. 
Rusche = reed: combe, valley. The meaning (prob- 
ably) is reedy-combe. 

Ruspidge. Nr. Cinderford, Forest of Dene. No 
early forms of this name are to hand. There is a 
Rospeygh in Co. Cornwall, from which a Cornish miner 
might have named the spot. 

Ryton. Nr. Dymock. Literally, Rye- ton. A.S. Ryge. 

Ryne. (1) Rean, Rene, reen, an artificial runnel, 
or ditch. (2) A balk, or strip of uncultivated ground. 
A.S. ryne. M.E. rime. 

Sages. Nr. Slimbridge. A. manor named after its 
owner, John Sage, who sold it to the Berkeleys in the 
XIV" 1 century. 

Saintbridge (also Saintsbridge). 1 m. S. of Glouces- 
ter. (H.C. Glos. 2. 206). 1245. Sondebrngge. Send- 
bridge. Sandbridge. Senbridge. In 12 10 the district 
here was called The Sende (Cf. Cal. Rec. Corp. Glos. 

K 



132 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

129), probably on account oi sandy soil. Hence Send- 
bridge. M.E. Sande, seande, sonde. The transform- 
ation of Send into Saint is a common example of 
popular etymology : Cf. Sencley. The final step to 
be taken is to add the possessive medial ' s.' But the 
word is rich in transformations. Before ' f,' as in 
Sandford, it is liable to become Sam-ford. 

Saintbury. (m. v. & p.) 3 m. S. of Honeybourne. 
D. Svineberie. R.H. Seynburie. K.Q. Senebur. IPM. 
Seymtebury(i3o&). Seynesbury. F. A. 1345. The forms 
are much at variance. An unrecorded p.n. Scegen 
seems in correspondence with the prefix. Berry = 
byrig, dat. of A.S. Burh, an enclosed place, or earth- 
work. The D.S. form suggests A.S. swin = pig. 

Salcombe. Nr. Cranham. (H.C. Glos. 1. 205). 
c. 1 i2i. Salcumbe. Salcome. Saleatmbe (H.C. Glos. 
1. 219). 1284 (nr. Cranham). This may represent 
either Sealt- combe, i.e. Salt-combe, or S«//ow-combe : 
A.S. Sealh. Salwe : willow (Cf. Salix). The example 
in Devon refers to the former. However, there 
occurs hard-by the Gloucestershire locality, a Salt- 
ridge and a Salt-box. 

Sallowvalletts. In the Forest of Dene. Salley- 
vallett. The salleys. Sallow = willow-tree. This 
suffix corresponds to ' Wallet' = brushwood (Cf. 
E.D.D. Wright (2) ). The meaning is the place of 
willow-faggots. 

Salmonsbury. Nr. Bourton-on-the- Water. C.S. 
230. (c.) A.D.779. Sidmonnesburg (B.M. Ch.) D. Sal- 
manesberie and Salemanesbevie. Literally — ' Plough- 
man's-homestead ' : from Sulhmon : Sulman (K.C.D. 
137) A.S. Sulh: Sul: plough. A.S. Burh: M.E. Burgh. 

Salperton. (m. p. & v.) 1 m. N. of Notgrove Station. 
D. Salpretune ; butin(C.S. 1239) A.D. 969, Sapertitne : 
Saperetun. (F.A.) Salpertone. (H et C. Gl.) Salprin- 
tone. IPM. 1302, Salpertone. Salportona. L.B.W. (1321). 



SAINTBURY— SALT-WAY, THE 1 33 

Although the two earliest forms omit the Z., it may 
merely have dropped out. The position of the place 
is on the Salt-way. The omission, therefore, made the 
name coincide with that of Sapperton, nr. Cirencester. 
But the earliest form of the latter is the Domesday 
Sapletome ; though all the later forms, but one, agree 
in Saperton. Cf. Malperetune, now Mapperton, Co. 
Som. On the whole the I is suspiciously constant. 

The terminal cannot here represent the Norman 
version of A.S. Pyrig-tun : peartree-ton : but it can 
represent the A.S. Pere, a pear, from which A.S. 
Pyrige came ; which in turn derived from Lat. pirum. 
The prefix, which occurs also in Sapperton (Sapurtoit), 
Co. Line, might possibly, but for the /, stand for A.S. 
Sap : sap, 'juice.' In dialectal use it is applied to the 
apple, the mountain-ash, and to the sycamore-tree. 
The meaning, if this were correct, would be a farm 
named from the quality of its pear-trees. We have 
PI. Coron : (1221) PFiYepirie. 

Salt-Box, The. A locality on the upland track- 
way above Ebbworth, where possibly the Abbey of 
Gloucester may have kept a small store of salt for its 
farms at Ebbworth, Buckholt, and Slad : or, there may 
have been a salt-refinery. Great quantities of fuel 
being necessary for salt-refining, Painswick was a 
befitting locality. The adjoining ridge is known as 
Salt -ridge. Nevertheless, the Hist, and Cart: of 
St. Peter's contains no allusion to it. 

Saltf ord . (m. ) A manor on the borders of Oxford- 
shire and Gloucestershire near the Saltway, which 
came to the Berkeleys through marriage with the d. & 
h. of Robert de Turberville (c. 1190). 

Saltridge. Nr. Ebbworth and Shepscombe. (See 
' Salt-Box.') Salterley is at Leckhampton. 

Salt -Way, The. (L.B. Wi: Abbey i 285, A.D. 
1256). The main Salt-way in this county leading from 

K2 



134 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Droitwich,* or Wich (Wyke), by Broadway Tower to 
Lechlade, is not attributable to an earlier date than 
that of the Hwiccan Kingdom of the VII. century. 
A.S. Sealt-weg (g = y). A.S. Sealt (Welsh, Halan and 
Halen). Cf. (Sarn) Helen : Erse. Salann). It passed 
through Stanway, near Stanton, and via Didbrook, 
touched Hailes and Farmcote. There occurs a 
mysterious item (A.D. 1355) in a MS. Rental of Winch- 
combe Abbey, from its Manor of Stanton : ' Et toto 
hoinagio pro Wikewerkselver, ab manifestatione Si 
Michaelif usque gulam Augusti,% per annum XIs. 
IXd.' I think that it may be a fine connected with the 
Salt-traffic from Wyke, Wicha, — otherwise, Droitwich ; 
as it cannot be identical with ' Saltselver,' a fine which 
servile tenants paid to their lord at Martinmas, in com- 
mutation for the service of carrying salt to the Lord's 
larder from the market. 

Salt-Well. Salt-welle, nr. Iccomb (C.S. 240) A.D. 
784. A brine-spring. 

Sandhurst, (m. v. & p.) 3 m. N. of Gloucester. 
D. Sanlier. Saundherst, 1265. Sondhurste (d.) A.S. 
Sand : M.E. Sond = sand. M.E. Hurst, a wood. The 
A.N. influence shewn in the above forms has dis- 
appeared to-day. 

Sanford. On the road from Gloucester to Wor- 
cester. (1230) Samforde. Saunforde. Sawnforde — 
Sandyford. A.S. Sand. Sond. The ' nd ' tended to 
turn in to ' m ' before the ' f ' to the extinction of ' n.' 
The excrescent ' u ' is due to French influence, as in 
Sta(u)nton. 



* 'de XVichin' A.D. 1 175 in Dugdale 11.303, from a Bull of Con- 
firm : Alex. III., to Winchcombe Abbey, which latter owned two 
Saltpits (Salina) there. 

f May 8. 

% The Gule of August. 



SALT- WELL— SEA-MILLS 



135 



Saniger Sand. Opposite Lydney, in the Severn. 
(See Swanhunger). 

Sapperton. (m. p. & v.) 5 m. W. of Cirencester. 
D. Sapletome. 1221 (P.C.) Sapertone. 1285 Seperton. 
(F. A.) Salperton, 1303. The first element would 
appear to originate in A.S. Scepp, sap, Pere, pear. 
The sense may, perhaps, be 'the enclosure of sapling 
pear-trees.' The name also occurs in Co. Lincoln. 
But on the whole the probability is in favour of A.S. 
s ealt = salt. In Vol. 1 1 . -of Feudal Aids, this name and 
Salperton (q.v.), are indexed together. 

Sarnfield. At Witcombe, whither an ancient 
' sam-way ' led ; now Green-street. The Romano- 
British pavement is still visible in the ditch on the 
north side, far down the hill, (19 13). 

Sarn-Hill. Nr. Tewkesbury. Two ancient 'streets,' 
(or Green-Streets) run beside and around it. 

Sarn-way. At Brockworth. O. Welsh. Sarn = 
causeway : paven-road. (Cf. Sam-Helen). 

Saul. (m. r. & p.) 5 m. N.W. of Stonehouse. (c.) 
1 120, Salle. 1221 (P.C.) Salege. (1316), Salle. Possibly 
this name was Sal-ley, A.S. Sealh-salig — M.E. Salhe, 
willow ; le = ley ; meadow. The A.N. 11 has intruded. 
But the meaning may have been ' at the Willow.' 

Scherenton. See Shirehampton. 

Sea-Mills. In Bishop's-Stoke. Cee-mulle, c. 1482. 
(Early Chan •: Proc). In the Church Register of West- 
bury-on-Trym is recorded— 1587, the burial of one, 
Goodman Hytchins, of Sea-Mylls, and in 1657,— ' a 
young boy, murthered in the Corne going to the Sea- 
Mills (May 2). Nevertheless, Atkins, (followed by 
Rudder), calls the spot Saye-Mills ; as though the 
origin of the name had been due to the manufacture 
of Saye : a kind of Serge-cloth, well-known at Bristol 
and Norwich. The tide-waters entitle the locality to 
be called Sea. I have to thank Rev. Charles Taylor 
for the references to Westbury Registers. 



136 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Sedbury. Nr. Chepstow. This locality has been 
identified with the Cingestune in a Bath Abbey Char- 
ter of A.D. 956. The first element has not been 
identified. Byrig = (bury) dat. of burh : an enclosed 
or fortified place. Early forms are lacking. 

Segrims (Field-name). In Painswick manor (14th 
century, and still there). A personal name in the 
possessive. Possibly it was originally that of a Norse- 
man, — Seagrim. A.S. See-grim. Grim also meant the 
Devil ; so that Sea-grim signified Sea-devil. Stein- 
grim, as a personal-name, also occurs early in County 
history. A Seagrim was a moneyer at Gloucester, 
temp : William I. 

Selsley. Nr. Dudbridge. The prefix may represent 
the not-infrequent A.S. p.n. Sele, short for Selwig or 
Selewine. Ley, for leage, dat. of A.S. Leah : a field, 
or pasture. 

Serridge. Forest of Dene, 13th century Seyrruge. 
Origin unknown. 

Sencley. In Minchinhampton. A.D. 743. Sen- 
gedleag (K.C.D. 1. 107-8). A.D. 896. Sengettege. 
(K.C.D. V. 140). 1292. Seintle. Senckley. F.F. (1606.) 
Seintlien. St C/iloe, to-day. The Abbey of Malmes- 
bury held a grange here. The suffix, is the dative 
' Leage ' of A.S. ' leah ' = a meadow. Senged may be 
identical with the form Scenget, of Ssenget-hryc, Cott. 
viii. 32, A.D. 862 ; near modern Sundridge, in Kent. 
The meaning, in that case, is Sandgate-ley. A.S. 
Geat = a way ; but see Introduction, p. xvi. 

Sevenhampton. (m. v. & p.) 2 m N. by E. of An- 
doversford. D. Sevenhamtone. Sevahanton (c. 1 200) 
(B.M. 44) ' Old Sennington,' a hamlet, occurs half a 
mile N.W. of Sevenhampton (locally, Sennyngton). 
Early readings of the name in this county are scarce. 
Sevenhampton in Co. Wilts has Suverhamtone and 
Sevenhamtone. In Somersetshire occurs Seavington 



SEDBURY— SHAPRIDGE 



137 



(and even Seovenamentone), owning a common source 
of derivation. As in other instances, the syllable ' en ' 
yielded to the tendency to assume the patronymic form 
'ing'; but in this one both 'en' and 'ham' have 
dissolved under it, and thus have at least begotten the 
forms Seavington and Sennington. 

Seven-Springs. Nr. Cubberley, source of the 
Churn. 

Seven-Wells. Nr. Turkdene. C.S. 165. A.D. 743 
Seofenwyllas. 

Severn (R*.) Early Welsh Safren (Latin Sabrina). 
Later Welsh (IXth. century) Hafren. (A.D. 956. 
Saeverne. Saeferne. Saefern. P.C. 1221. Sauerne) 
Origin unknown. 

Sezincote. (m. and p.) 2 m. S.W. of Moreton-in- 
the-Marsh. D. (1) Cheisnecote, (2) Chesnecote, (3) 
Chiesnecote. (P.R. a. 22. H. 11.) Senescote. C. 1195. 
Chenecote, (B.M. 60). — P.C. 1221. Senecote. — R.H. 
Scesnecote. — IPM. 13 16 Schesuecote. FA. Shenescote, 
Shesnecote. A p.n. is probably responsible for the first 
element.. We have (H.C. Gl. in. 140) (c.) 1300, a 
Richard Schesne, at Harescomb. Sh. and Sch. for Ch, 
were due to a change in O.F. phonetic in the 13th. c. 
Then Chedworth became spelled Sc/zedworth ; and 
Ghurchdown, Sc/mrchesdon. The persons who wrote 
the place-name thus were people acquainted with 
Norman-French. As to the original name here 
involved, itis difficult to decide between Chene,Chaisne, 
or Chesney. 

Shagborough. (c.) f^ m. S. of Bibury. Schagh- 
borough. A.S. Sceaga— shaw, a small wood. M.E. 
borugh : (from burg, burn, A.S. Burh); an enclosed 
fort, town, or homestead. 

Shapridge. Nr. Abenhall, Forest of Dene. Sheep- 
ridge (P.F. A.D. 1 28 1 -2). A.S. Sceap : ME. Schep. 



138 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Sharpness, (v.) 2^ m. N.W. of Berkeley and on 
the Severn. Sharpenesse. 1PM. 1349. A.S. Scearp = 
sharp. A.S. Naesse (O.N. Nes) nose, promontory. 
In face of this reading it is somewhat of a surprise to 
find that Smyth does not mention the place at all. In 
his Berkeley MSS. (3. 229) he gives a totally different 
type of name (if indeed he is referring to the same 
spot). His forms are the following : Shopenash, Shep- 
nash, Shobenasse, Shobenesse, Shepnasse and Shap- 
nesse ; as though deriving either from A.S. p.n. 
Sceobba, or Sceap = sheep. He tells us that a park 
was there made by Thomas 1st. Lord, at least as far 
back as the reign of Richard I. ; though the Thomas in 
question did not reign at Berkeley until twenty years 
later, c. 1220. His statement, however, is borne out by 
IPM. 1368: where the park Schobbenasse is described 
as being in the Manor of Hinton (near Sharpness). 
But it is evident that the name most familiar to him 
was not Sharpness : and that the second name Shep- 
nasse cannot have arisen to replace the other.* 

Shenborough. (c.) Early forms are wanting. 
A.S. Scene = fair, M.E. Schene, often occurs as a 
prefix to place-names. Prof. W. W. Skeat says that 
' scene ' is allied to A. S. Sceawian : to show. M. E. 
Borugh, fort or enclosed place. It is marked by a 
fine ancient camp, above Stanton. 

Shenington. (m.) in Tewkesbury Hundred. D. 
Senendone, — IPM. Schenedon, 1263. Schenydon. Chen- 
yndon. Sheningedene, IPM. 1347. A.S. Scene (sc = sh) 

* The only other local point on the Severn fitting the term 
ness, is obviously 'J tie's Point. I am inclined to think that Scho- 
benesse may be identified with the Nesse of D.S. ; which will not 
fit Sharpness. [See Rev, C. Taylor's excellent volume. Glos. : 
D.S.) Consequently Skafiuss and Sharpness, though close to one 
another, were different places ; and their names had totally 
different origins. 



SHARPNESS— SHIPTON SOLLARS 139 

fair : ' set scienan dune ' may have been the A.S. form. 
(H. Alexander). M.E. Schene, beautiful. The element 
' ing' is pseudo-patronymic, replacing the dative '««,' 
as in Newington for (est) Newantune. 

Shepherdine Sand, on Severn. Shipwardende 
B.M. (XIV"' c.) The terminal represents ' wardine,' or 
'worthyn,' (A.S. Worth: a farm). It has been trans- 
formed into 'herd' as though from shepherd: i.e. 
Sheepwarden, instead of ' sheep-worthyne.' 

Shepscombe. Nr. Painswick, 5 m. from Stroud. 
(IPM. 1263) Sebbescombe. The prefix here is probably 
an unrecorded A.S. p.n. Sceapp, but it has been not 
unnaturally confounded with the quadruped, sheep. 
The sense is not Sheepscombe (of the sign-posts). The 
old Manor Rolls (XV.-XVII. c.) give Sheppescombe, 
Shepescombe ■ never Sheepcombe. The meaning is,— 
the Combe belonging to Sceapp. 

Sherborne, (m. &p.)nearBourton-on-the-Water. 
Scirabuman. (dat.) D. Sareburne. Schyreburne. 
Sheireborne. A.S. Scir. bright, clear. Burna : brook. 
The Clear-brook. 

Shipton Moyne.* (m. v. &p.) 1% m. E. of Bath 
(?) Skipton, Schipton, Shypton. A.S. Sceap and Scyp : 
sheep. 

Shipton Oliff. (p.) 2 m. East of Andoversford. 
D. S. Sciptone and Scipetone. Shepton. Skipton. 
Schipton. A.S. Scyp : for Sclep : variant of Sceap. 
Olive was the name of a local family. 

Shipton Sollars. 2 m. E. of Andoversford. Once a 
fee of the De Solers family. Literally, cattle-enclosure 
or sheep-farm. A.S. Sceap-tun. M.E. Schep ; g. pi. 
Scepe. 

* Originally O.F. for Monachus, a monk, or a sparrow. Ralph 
le Moigne, held his land of Eystonby serjeanty (Gr. Easton: Essex) 
for being King's Larderer : which his ancestor, William le Moigne, 
had held A.D. 1130. P.R. Hen. I., p. 59. (See J. H. Round. 
The King's Sergeants, a., pp. 234-41.) 



140 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Shirehampton. (m.) on the Bristol Avon. (In 
C.S. 551. A.D. 883, the locality is called Hrycgleage = 
Ridgley). A.S. Sclr : a district, shire: diocese; pro- 
vince. PI. Schlren. M.E. Schlre. Prof. W. W. Skeat 
lately shewed (in N. & Q.) that ' shire' and (L.) Cur a 
are identical ; the latter representing an old Latin Coira, 
probably shortened from Scoira. K.Q. Hampton 1285. 
Shirynton, 1352 (S.V. Reg. Wore). 

Shurdington. (m. v. & p.) 2 m. S.W. of Leck- 
hampton. H. C. Glos. 1. 19. (1148) Schurdentone. 
H.C. Glos. 1. 105. (1157) Scherdyntone. (1294) Schurd- 
inton. (1337 IPM.) Shrudyntone. (1511) Shirdyn- 
ton. Shoryndon. Surdinton. Perhaps, Scirierd A.S. 
p.n. Scirherd — inga.-tun : the farm of the sons of Scir- 
heard. (Cf. the modern p.n. Sherard). 

Siddington. (m. v. & p.) 1% m. S.E. of Cirences- 
ter. D. Sudintone and Suditone. Sotington. Sodyn- 
ton, IPM. (1274). Suthinton. Sodingdone. F. A. 1396. 
Probably Syda's ton. The original vowel in the prefix 
was probably '_y,' written u. The o-forms are scribal 
only. The dd is, however, difficult to account for. 

Side, or Syde. (m.) Brimsfield. D. Side. 1250 
(T.N.) Sidn. (K.Q.) Syde. Cide. Sade : i.e. the side 
or slope, from A.S. Side. 

Silver -Street. Nr. Cam. Part of an ancient road. 
There are several fragments of roads so-named. But 
how A.S. Seolfor = silver, came to be concerned in 
the name, is not at all clear. It has been suggested by 
some writers that the Latin Sylva = \NOoA, or forest, is 
the origin both of it, and of Sel — in Selwood. (Cf. 
McClure ; Brh. PI. -names, p. 254 n ) Another sugges- 
tion, still, is that of Wyld & Hirst (Pl.-N. of Lanes, 
p. 231-2), that all forms of the name Stlverdsde, that 
begin with silver, &c, are due to popular etymology, 
or confusion with a genitive form — Selver, of O.N. 
Solvi. But the term is also applied to land. We have 



SHIREHAMPTON— SLAUGHTER (UPPER & LOWER) 141 

Silver-lands in St. Briavells. Cf. IPM. 1628. (a. 4. 
Ch. I.) At any rate, lacking early forms, as far as 
this county is concerned, light is not forthcoming. The 
term may simply refer to the colour. 

Sinwell. (H.) % m. E. of Wotton-under-Edge. 
A tything. Synwell. Sienewell, (c. 1220). Seinewell. 
Senevil (B.Mts.) Origin unknown. 

Siston. (m. p. & v.) 6 m. N.E. of Bristol. D. 
Sistone. Sixtune, (1240). Seisdone. (13 17) Seysden. 
Seysdone. Cistone. (1301). Cystone. — (1346). Ceslon 
Siso is an A.S. p.n., but it can scarcely be that repre- 
sented by the prefix. The second and third variant 
forms assimilate the name to Seisdon, Co. Stafford. 

As Mr Duignan points out in ' Staffordshire Place- 
names,' 'Seis' and ' Sals' are Welsh for 'Saxon.' 
This, however, does not (Mr Stevenson states) explain 
the prefix reasonably, for ' ' It means that the retiring 
English adopted the name from their enemies." SoSeis- 
downmustremain obscure for the present. The Lincoln- 
shire SystonhdiS among its forms Syeston and Sycheston, 
pointing in another direction. Perhaps we ought to look 
for a p.n. : such as Sige, short for Sige-frith : or Sigot, 
this would give mod. Siseton : and g=y. 

Slad, The. ij/ 2 m. N.E. of Stroud. Slade. (d.) 
A.S. Slsed (d.) Slsede : a valley. The ' a ' is some 
times pronounced short in Gloucestershire, as in ' lad.' 

Slatterslade. In Newington Bagpath. B.M. (c. 
1270) Sclattresslade. The prefix gives a p.n. Sclatter, 
derived from the trade of splitting slates. M.E. Sclat. 
(O.F. Esclat: a lath or splinter). O.F. Eslater : to 
split. Slade, dat. of M.E. Slad, a valley. A.S. Shed. 
Slaughter (Upper and Lower), (m. p. &v.)aj4 m. 
S.W. of Stow-on-the-Wold. D. Sclostre. Anc. Ch. No. 
45. (1183.) Sloctre. P.R. 1 175-6 Scloctre and Schlocli- 
tres. P.C. 1 22 1. Slohtres.—Sloughte>'.—R.K. Sloustre. 
C.R.G1. 1298 Slouhtre. A.S. Slohtre(o) or Slach-treo(o), 



142 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

from A. S. Slah f. Sloe, and treo : tree. The modern 
spelling is due to the tendency to popular etymology. 
The Blackthorn-tree, or sloe. 

Slaughterford. (2). (C.S. 230.) A.D. 779 Slohtran- 
ford. (C.S. 882.) A.D. 949. Slohterword. A. S. Slah: sloe. 
At the ford of the sloe-tree. The modern spellings are due 
to confusion of an obvious kind, i.e. between sloe-tree 
and slaughter (from Ice-landic slatr : M.E. Slagter). 

Sleight, The, or Slate. Nr. Tetbury. The term 
is used for a sheep-walk in this county. 

Slimbridge. (m. v. & p.) 1 m. N. of Coaley Station. 
R.B. Slimbergge (1166), Slymbrugge (1224), Slim- 
brigge. Slimbrigga. — Slymbrigg. — Slinbrugge. IPM. 
1281. The Domesday form, however, gives ' Heslin- 
bruge.' Initial SI in names was a combination difficult 
to the earlier Norman clerk. We must regard it as 
probable that he was merely aspirating before the 
' si ' (Cf. Estanton for Stanton.) Origin unknown. The 
(dat.) A.S. Brycge, M.E. Brigge = mod. bridge. The 
medial 'm' is possibly for ' n.' (Cf. brimstone for M.E. 
brenstoon). Early forms are not only numerous, but 
remarkably constant. 

Slinget, The. Nr. Stanway. Slinket. A long, 
narrow strip of wood. 

Slowwe. A hamlet of Arlingham. Scloe. IPM. 130 1. 
Slowe : slou : slough. Sloo, apparently named from 
M.E. Sloh, d. Sloghe = mire, bog. Slo became Sloo : 
dat. Sloe. The sense is, ' at Slough.' (Cf. Cart. 
Flaxley, 43. n.) 

Snedham. Sneadham. Sneedham. (c. 1220). 
B.M. 65. Senedhame. Sneadham. Snedham. A.S. 
SniEd : cut-off or intrusive portion of land. M. E. 
Sneyd. Snaith. Le Snaed. (M.E. v. snithen). Cf. 
Ger. Schnitt. 

Snowshill. (m. v. & p.) 2 m. E. of Stanton. D. 
Snawesille. Snawell. Snaweshull. Later Snowhulle. 



SLAUGHTERFORD— SPOONLEY 1 43 

The prefix points to an A.S. p.n. Snaw. The D. scribe 
has here dropped the aspirate. M.E.Hulle dat. of Hull = 
hill. A.S. Hyll. The name is pronounced locally 'snosel.' 
Sodbury. (m. v. & p.) 4 m. E. of Yate. D. Sope- 
berie. Pap : Reg: Vol. 1. p. 81. Soppebiri. A.D. 1221. 
CI. R. Sobbiri. (1224). Sobbure. (1279) H.C. Glos. in. 
274. A.S. Chr : c. 900 Soppanbyrig (K.C.D. 327) Soppa 
was an A.S. p.n. Byrig, dat. ofburh; modern borough. 
Soilwell. (A farm) nr. Lydney ; otherwise Sully. 
(Cart: Flax. 31-32). A.D. 1281) Solewalle (i.e. M.E. 
Walle, a well). Soilewell = Soylewell. The prefix 
seems to declare that the spring is a muddy one. M.E. 
v. Sulien ; A.S. Sylian : to soil, or sully. (Cf. Sulan-broc. 
Ch. of A.D. 992.) See Soil (1) (2). Ety. Diet. E. Lang. 
W.W. Skeat. In A.S. Charters, Sole usually signifies a 
slough, or mire, — or wallowing-place : Syla ; as in 
Sulhamstead. 

Soleway. Nr.Winchcombe. Salewi. Solewy-furlong 
(1323). Perhaps connected with A.S. sealh = willow. 
Southrop. (m. v & p.) 3^ m. N.E. of Lechlade. 
P.C. 1221, Suthrop. F.A. 1346 Southr ope. South-thrope. 
Literally, South-thorp. A.S. Throp = thorp : village. 
Speech House, The. In the Forest of Dene. 
M.E. Spaec-hus. Dat. Spsec-huse. An official place 
of assembly in the crown-jurisdiction of the Forest. 

Sponnegrene. A.D. 1281. In the Bailiwick of 
Bers., Forest of Dene. " Apud sponnegrene." 

Sponnerede. Rede is perhaps for Hreod = reed. 
The prefix refers to A.S. Spon : O.N. Sponn : a chip : 
a twig : finally, a spoon ; but it may have been applied 
perhaps to a water-plant. (Cf. Tr. Br. & Gl. Arch. 
Soc. XIV. 363). 

Spoonbed. In Painswick Manor, a tithing. M.R. 
Sponebedde (dat.) Bed, as in grass-bed. 

Spoonley. Nr. Sudeley. (1320) Sponley. Ley, 
Ifor leage, d. of Leah (g = y). See Sponnerede. 



144 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Sprakeway. (In Ozleworth). Sprake is probably 
a word of pre-English origin: wey = way, a path, or 
road. 

Springfield. In Westbury- on-Trim. C.S. 551. 
(A.D. 883 Worcester Ch.) or Haeslwell (Hazel- 
well). 

St. Briavels. (P.R. A.D. 1131, S. Briavellus. (IPM.) 
1 3 17, St. Breavell. The origin of this name is prob- 
ably (but not certainly) to be found in that of St. 
Ebrulphus. The full form of the Saint's name is 
Eberulphus. Fr : St. Evroult (A.D. 596). This was 
reduced by natural process to Evroul ; and by the 
common process of metathesis, Berulf, Breulf, and 
finally Brevul, — may (?) have resulted. The last of 
these became confounded with a more familiar name 
from the same part of Normandy ; namely, Briavel 
and Breval. In P.R. a. 9 Hen. II. (1164) occurs a 
Kentish person bearing the name of Briavel (p. 70); 
and a Breval occurs as a witness to a Charter of Henry 
de Brockhampton, c. 1190-1200, at Winchcombe. Alice 
Breval appears to be his widow. I think these indi- 
viduals derived their name from Breval, nr. Mantes.* 
The connection of the Convent of S. Evroult, in 
Normandy, with Gloucestershire was an intimate one. 
Hugh de Grentmaisnil (Grentmenil, nr. Lisieux) the 
rebuilder (1050) of S. Evroult, gave Wilcote (q.v.) 

* Moreover, among the earliest benefactors of Margam 
Abbey (C. 1150) we find Richeret, son of Hreavel. But, what is 
more germane to the matter, Roger D'lvri, once Sheriff of 
Gloucestershire, was Lord of Breval, and brother to Robert de 
Breval, who was a patron of St. Evroult and died a Monk. The 
son, Ascelin-Goel, of Robert de Breval, inherited the Manors of 
Tetbury, Hampnet, and Culkerton ; and as Mr A. S. Ellis has 
shewn (Vol. IV. 143. Trans. B. & Gl. Arch. Soc.) was described 
as Ascelin de Tateburi. So that the Lords of Breval were of 
great importance to Gloucestershire. (See also p. 342. Vol VIII. 
1883-4). See Willicote. 



SPRAKEWAY— STANDISH I45 

which was held by his clerk, Hugh de Sap, to it, 
before 1081. Ralph deToeni(Thosny) orde Conches, 
who owned Bromsberrow and Clifford Castle (Here- 
fordshire), burned the town of St. Evroult, but besought 
pardon of the Abbot and Convent, and made them a 
recompense. King William (II.) himself gave Rowell 
(q.v.) to S. Evroul ; so that the Saint and his Convent 
was specially honoured. Hence, it is possible that 
he may have transferred a favourite Saint's name to 
Little Lidney when his castle there was founded. In 
Norman days an interest in Lidney Parva (not yet 
known as St. Briavel), was granted by Wihanoc de 
Monmouth (Uncle to William Fitz Baderon, and a 
Breton (c.) 1086, its then possessor and the probable 
founder of its Church) to the Abbey of St. Florent in 
Saumur, to which belonged the Priory of Monmouth, 
as a cell. 

St. Chloe. (h.) Nr. Minchinhampton. (SeeSencley). 

Stank, The. Nr. Upton-on-Severn— (1) a muddy 
pool (2) a weir, or a floodgate. Stank-hen = a moor- 
hen, (3) a ditch-drain. Fr. Estanc, pool or tank. M.E. 
Stanc. 

Stanbarrow. (c.) Stanbarewe. Stainbarrow. A.S. 
Stan, = stone, rock. M.E. berwe, from A.S. Beorgh, 
mod : barrow, a hillock, or burial-mound. 

Stancombe. (m.) A.S. Stan, stone. The stony 
combe. 

Standish. (m. p. & v.) nr. Haresfield. (C.S. 535) 
A.D. 872. Stanedis. D. Stanedis. Later (1154-89). 
Stanedisse. (H.C. Glos. 1. 101.) 1121. Standische. 
Stanedix. Stanedye. The terminal is A.S. ' disc, dish, 
cup, hollow, concave place in a field.' (Beds. PL- 
names, pp. 12-13, Skeat.) (Cf. also Wyld and Hirst 
PI. -names of Lancashire for another ' Standish.') We 



146 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

have, however, Gosedicsh c. 12 10. Gosedissh 1230, 
for Gosedic, where M.E. Die and dich are the equiva- 
lents of mod. Ditch as well as of Dyke : a wall. 

Stanley (Kings; Leonard; Pontlarge). q.v. 
Stanlegh. A. S. Stan = stone. 

Stanton. Staunton, (m. p. v.) (1) Nr. Broadway. 
(2) Forest of Dene. A.S. Stan, stone, Tun = enclosed 
place. Estanton. (1230). Stantone. (1350) M.R. 
The A.N. influence was responsible for the cut sound. 

Stanway. (m. v. & p.) Nr. Toddington. Stane- 
wey. Staneway. An ancient paved road. A.S. Stan 
= stone. Weg (g = y). 

Stapleton. A.S.Stapul. M.E.Stapel: a standing-post : 
a pillar : boundary-post ; i.e. the farm by the ' Staple.' 
This name occurs frequently and in many counties. 

Stardens. (Newent). IPM. 1301, Styrtesden. — 
1356, Stardene. The prefix = A.S. steort = a tongue of 
land: lit. a tail. A.S. Dene = valley. 

Starve -all. Starveacre. Field-names. The 
latter signifies poor, unproductive land : the former 
represents Starve-Hale, but the meaning is the same. 

Stath (Le) Stethe. 1304 (IPM. a. 32, Ed. I.) 
StaWi. Staithe. A landing-place. A.S. Stasth, bank 
or shore. ' Upper Sevarne Stathe.' Brut. Layamon. 7. 

Staunton. Nr. Coleford. (m. p. & v.) (Stanton). 
A.S. Stan, stone. The excrescent ' u,' betraying 
A.N. influence comes into this name, and occasion- 
ally survives. The stone farm, or town. 

Staverton. (m. p. & v.) 5 m. N.E. of Gloucester. D. 
Starventon. 1230. Stauerton. 1295. Corp: Rec : 
Glos: Staverthon. 1340 Stauerton. (Late) Starton. 
{Staverton in Warwickshire was Stauerton in 11 63. 
Staverton in Devon was Stofordtune in the nth cen- 
tury Charter of Leofric). I am inclined to distrust the 
medial ' 11 ' in the Domesday form, and to regard the 
name as a Staverton. It probably took its name from a 



STANLEY (KINGS; LEONARD; PONTLARGE)— STOKE 1 47 

stone ford across Hatherley stream, and an earlier form, 
of the name may have been Stafordton. 

Stawell. A portion of Leach, called Stanewell at 
D.S. A. S. Stan = stone : wealle, well. The same as 
Stowell (q.v.) 

Stears . (m.) nr. Newnham, in the manor of Rodley- 
Minsterworth. D. Staure, Staura. P.C. 1221. 
Stanre. Later Staurys. Stares. Staur. If this 
represents a personal name, it is an unrecorded one. 

Stert. Sterts. Le Sterte. Steurte. Slurte. 
Starts. Start, Storte. The Stirts. A.S. Steort. 
M.E. Steort, a tail (Cf. Red-start), or tongue of land, 
the plough-tail. (Cf. Eng. Dial. Diet. vol. VI., p. 735, 
also, Mr Duignan's Wore. Place-names, p. 154). 

Stinchcombe. (m. p. & v.) 2^ m. N.W. of 
Dursley. (Cf. Stinsford. Co. Dorset. F.A. Styntesford. 
Stinchefford). Stintescombe B.M. 1150-60. Stinctes- 
cmnb. 1 220-1 289. — (IPM.) Styntiscombe. Stintescumbe. 
Stynchescombe. The prefix appears to be an unrecorded 
and doubtless unpopular A.S. p.n. formed from A.S. 
Styntan = to stunt. 

Stocking. A hamlet of Haresfield, Stockem-putte 
C. 1205. (H.C. Glos.) Stockinge, 1633. Probably, for 
' Stoccen' from M.E. Stoc. dat. pi. Stocken,— meaning 
' at the Stocks,' or tree-trunks. The second syllable 
has weakened into ' ing.' 

Stoke. A.S. Stoc, i.e. a staked place, or palisade. 

(1) Archer, (m.)in Bishops Cleeve parish. D. Stoches. 
Stoche. (ch = k). Archerestoke (1337, IPM.) This 
manor was held from the King by Nicholas (le) Archer, 
by presentation of a bow and arrows. 

(2) Giffard. (m.) nr. Bristol. D. Stoche. Estoch. (m. 
p. & v.) 1 m. N.E. of Bitton Station. Held by the 
Giffard family. 

(3) Bishop, (m.) (2 m. N,W. of Bristol). C.S. 313 and 
1202. A.D. 804 and 967 Stoce; C.S. 1320 A.D. 1000, Stoc. 

L 



148 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Stokenhill. Nr. Whiteshill, M.E. Stoken, dat. 
pi. of Stock: stoc = tree-trunk. 

Stonehouse. (m. p. & township) 3 m. W. of Stroud. 
Stanhus. 1229. (Corp: Rec : Glos. No. 215). IPM. 
1281. Stanhuse. (R.H.) Stonhus, i.e. Stone-house. 

Stour. (r.) (C.S. 636.) A.D. 922. Sture. 972. Stare. 
' A river-name of unknown origin.' Mr Duignan, in his 
Staffordshire Pl-names, (quoting Mr W. H. Stevenson), 
mentions the Stor, a northern affluent of the Elbe, an 
old form of which is recorded as Sturia. 

Stourden. Nr. Bristol. 13th cent. Storden. On 
the river Stour. Den, a dene, or valley. 

Stow. (m. p. & town) on the Wold. Stou. A.S. 
Stow, a site, an inhabited place. 

Stowell. (m. & p.) 2}4 m. E. of Chedworth. D. 
Stanuelle. (1235) Stowell. (1242) Stowell. (1303) Stok- 
well, i.e. the well of the fenced place : (1324) Stowell. 
F.A. (1346) Stokwell. Stawelle. Stouell. A.S. Stoc. 
M.E. Stoke, pi. Stokes. But this form is late. The 
D.S. form is stan — (stone) well ; which agrees better 
withStawell. Stowell = A.S. Stow: an inhabited place. 

Stowick. In Henbury, 13th century. F.A. 1316. 
Stokewyke. Stowewicke. A.S. Wic (n) a village, or 
collection of houses. Here, again, Stoke has occasion- 
ally intruded in place of ' Stow ; ' as though to prevent 
the infusion of the w-w of our second example. See 
above. The sense seems to need M.E. ston. 

Stratford. Nr. Stroud. The ancient Wick street, 
leading to Wyke (Painswick), here crosses the Wick- 
stream, or Wick-water. A.S. Strset = paven road. 
Loan-word from Latin (via) strata. It is not, however, 
necessarily evidence of a Roman road : but merely of 
the antiquity of the road so designated. 

Stratton. (m. p. & v.) 1 m. N.W. of Cirencester. 
Strattone. A.S. Strset-tun. The enclosed farm by 
the paved road. 



STOKENHILL— STROUD 1 49 

Stroat. (v.) nr. Tidenham. (C.S. 927) A.D. 956 
Street. Stroate. 1637. IPM. The ' o ' is analogical and 
perhaps of unique occurrence, in this example of a 
far-distributed local name. Mercian, Strdt. Lat. Strata 
(via). There was probably a Strotford at Stroud, in 
early days. It is noteworthy that assimilative con- 
fusion between Strodford and Stratford, both adjoining 
Stroud (Strode), caused a witness to an IPM. 1324 
(No. 51) to be called Henry de Stretford, and in No. 
75 of the same year, Henry de Strodford. In a similar, 
but easy, confusion, Bulstrode is in Chancery Docu- 
ments called ' Bulstreet,' and ' Boulstred.' But in 
spite of the Gloucestershire ' Stroat ' above, — Strod, 
Strode and Stroud have no real relationship with Strat 
and Street. 

Stroud, (m. p. & town). A chapelry in early 
XIV. cent. Strode. La Strode. Strowde. A.D. 
1200 Rot. Chartarum, 516, mentions " the wood of La 
Strode." (P.C ) 1221. (348) La Strode. ' Henry atte 
Strode ' (Witness to a local IPM. 1358). The river 
(really the Frome) is called Strod-water in 7475-80. 
Early Chancery Proc. p. 210. B. 54. , Mr W. H. 
Stevenson has written, — "It appears in three forms: 
(a) Strode, (b) Strood, (c) Stroud. . . The third 
form appears to be the commonest. . . . These 
Stroud-iorms suggest an O.E. Strud as their origin ; 
but in the case of Stroud in Gloucestershire, and 
possibly in the other cases, the form is a mispro- 
nunciation of M.E. Stroud = strod. The variation of 
pronunciation is represented in the two modern 
spellings Den Strood and Denstroud, Co. Kent. In 
O.H.G. the word Struot corresponding to an O.E. 
Strod, glosses ' palus,' a marsh, three times in the 
Paris Virgil Glosses (Birlinger, in Kiihn's Zeitschrift, 
XIX., 314) and the word occurs in German Local- 
names (Op. cit. XX. 152). . In a communication 

L2 



150 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

printed by Birlinger, it is stated that in German names 
it is sometimes applied to marshy woods, copses, and 
thickets, and to brooks ; and it seems to have been 
used in England in reference to the first three. 
The view that Strod means ' swamp ' is supported by 
the evidence of a derivative, or perhaps a second form 
of the word (neuter ES/OS stem)." (Journal of Philo- 
logical Society, 1898). g. Strod-es. There is a Stroud- 
Green, near Standish. 

Sty. Stey. Ex. Bicknorsty. Cnappesty. Mersty. 
A.S. Stlg = a path. Common in the Forest of Dene. 

Sudeley. (i)nr. Winchcombe. D.Sudlege. Later, 
Sudle, Sudley and Sulley. Possibly South-ley ; but 
doubtful. 

(2) in Forest of Dene. SutJUege (1250) Suthleie, i.e. 
South-ley, 

Sulley. Nr. Lydney. Known as Soilwell (q.v.) 

13th century. Soilewell (Cart. Flax. pp. 31-32). Cf. 
IPM. 7, Hen. V., No. 52. Sollewalle. (1281) (Fosbroke.) 

Sutton. = Sudtone = (South-ton) Suthtuna. 

Swailey. (h.) near Forthampton. Perhaps for 
Swai(n)ley ; but origin unknown. 

Swanhanger. (h)B.M. 1255. Swonhimger. B.MSS. 
1220, Swanhanger. Swonigre. Saniger. Nr. Berke- 
ley. Hanger = a hillside wood. Swan, or Swon, is here 
probably the wild swan, seldom seen there to-day. 

Swell (Upper and Nether) . (Two manors & par- 
ishes) N. and N.W. of Stow-on-the-Wold, on the river 
Dikler. A.S. Chr.— Swelle. D. Svelle. K.Q. SuelL— 
Ann. Tewk. 1236, Suwelle. Suella. Chr. of Evesham, 
p. 72 (1058). 

Swilgate. (r.) nr. Tewkesbury. Suliet. (Leland). 

Swindon, (m. p. & v.) 2 m. N.N.W. of Cheltenham. 
D. Svindone. (P.R). A.D. 1177 (a. 22, Hen. II.) 



STY. STEY.— TADDINGTON 151 

Suintone. 1221. P.C. Swendone. Swyndone. A.S. 
Swln, dun, i.e. swine-down. 

Syche. Sytche. The Siches. ' Le Syches,' a term 
of not rare occurrence. M.E., Syche = (1) a boggy 
spring in a field, (2) a drain (E.D.Dict. — Wright). 

Symondshall. (m. & h.) nr. Wotton-under-Edge. 
D. Simondeshale, from A.S. p.n. Sigemund. (1238) 
Symundeshale. IPM. 1304. Cymudeshal. Hale d. sing, 
of halh ; the Mercian form of W. S. healh, a corner, 
but applied usually to a meadow only. 

Symondsyat. Symundesate. A.S. p.n. Sigemund. 
Geatt, gate (Cf. Yate). The ancient way between 
Coleford and Ross passed close to this spot. Cf. the 
use of ' Gate ' for road or gang-way, in ' Stangate ' 
opposite Westminster, on the Watling-Street. 

Syreford. (L.) nr. Andoversford. Sierford. Origin 
unknown. 

Taddington. (hamlet) near Stanway. Tadynton 
IPM. 1307. Tada is an A.S. p.n. Early forms are 
infrequent. The full form would be Tadingatun, the 
farm of the sons of Tada ; unless we regard the 
earlier forms yielding to ' ing,' as the weakened gen : 

NOTE. — Many of the recorded written forms of names under 
this letter illustrate the difficulties encountered by Norman 
clerks in dealing with Place-names beginning with Th : not that 
the French lacked place-names of their own possessing initial 
Th: but because they sounded it as simple t. Gradually they 
learned to distinguish the two in English : but the process was 
so confusing to them that many of them seem to have felt it was 
safer to write most initial t's as th than to continue, as they had 
begun, writing the th's as t's. This led them even to attack 
medial, and even penultimate t's ; such as / in ton, and to write 
Hon. To increase their difficulties, moreover, occurred dialectal 
pronunciation, here and there, such for example as Druffum for 
Througham : (r) Dikler, for Theokylourr, Dreten, for Threaten, Dree, 
for Three, so that, since the real initial th had often dialectally 
become t and d, they had no small justification for their pecu- 
liarities. 



152 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

singular Taden ; of Tada : in which case, the meaning 
is Tada's farm. Tada is known otherwise from 
Tadanleah (K.C.D. 603). The medial consonant has 
doubled. 
Tarleton (Little), (m.) D. Torentune. 

Tarleton. (m. & h.) iy 2 m. N.E. of Rodmarton. 
D. Tornentune. Later Torleton. Thorleton. Therleton. 
Perhaps the farm, or tun, of Thorold, or possibly 
Thurhild. 

Taynton. (m. p. & v.) 3 m. S.E. of Newent. D. 
Tetinton and Tatinton. (1135)- Thetintone. Tynton 
(1236). Teynton. (c. 12 10) Theinton. Tainton. 
Teyntun. Teihingtone. Toyntone. There were three 
manors here at D.S., and soon after a Chapel in the 
wood was dedicated to S. Laurence. The intervocalic 
t seems to point to a p.n. such as Tetta, with a weak- 
ened genitive leading to ing. 

Teddington. (m.) nr. Washbourne, 5 m. E. of Tew- 
kesbury. A.D. 780 (C.S. 236) Teottingtune. A.D. 977 
Tidingctun. (CD. 617) Teotintun (C.S. 1135). D. 
Teotintune. Teotta is an unrecorded A.S. p.n. : never- 
theless Teottingatun must have meant the town, or 
farm, of the sons of Teotta. 

Temple -Guiting. (m. p. & v.) (See Guiting). 

Tengle-stone. (At Minchinhampton). A large, 
upright, perforated slab. Origin of name unknown. 
A similar slab stands in a field near Elkstone (19 12). 
There is, I am told, a Welsh word Tengl, meaning 
' girth.' 

Tetboldstone . (D. hundred). D. Tedboldestane. 
H.R. Tibaldstone. Tedbaldston. Tetbald is a known 
A.S. p.n. deriving from Theodbeald. The sense is the 
(Boundary) Stone of Tetbald. A Tetbald was tenant 
of the Manor of Cliftone (in Stoke Gifford parish) 
T.R.E. 



TARLETON (LITTLE)— THORNBURY 1 53 

Tetbury. (m. p. & town) situated on the Wiltshire 
border. C.S. 59. A.D. 680 ' Tettan Monasterium.' C.S. 
1320. (c.) A.D. 1000 Tettanbyrig. D. Teteberie. Later 
(IPM. 33. Edw. I.) Tetubiri. Tottebury — Tettebury. 
Tetta is a known A.S. p.n. ; Byrig dat. of Burh : 
' aet ' (at) being understood. The sense is, at Tetta's 
farm-enclosure, or borough. 

Tewkesbury, (m. & ancient borough-town). D. 
Teodechesberie. Theokesbiri. Theukesbury. Theike- 
byry. Thoikesbury. Teokesbury. Teukesburye. Toike- 
buri. The p.n. Teodec occurs in C.S. m (K.C.D. 
506) Teodecesleah. But this is probably only a form 
of Theodec. Byrig = d. of Burh. M.E. burgh. E. 
borough. 

Theescombe. Nr. Amberley, pronounced ' Tees- 
comb.' (?) p.n. It has been supposed identical with 
'Smececumb' of ^Ethelbald's Charter, K.C.D. 1073. 
A.D. 896 : Intermediate forms are not forthcoming. 

Thormarton. Now Farmington, nr. Sherborne. 
D. Tormentone. (c) 1182. Tormerton, L.B.Wi. — 1220. 
Thormerton. L.B.Wi.— P.F. Glos. (1209), T.N. Tor- 
menton. K.Q. Thormanton, Tormenton. Thormerton, 
F.A. 1303. 1316. As with the other example, e.g. 
Tormarton (q.v.) the prefix represents the A.S. p.n. 
Thurmcer. In both there is a tendency to exchange 
' r ' for ' n ' at the end of the prefix. Here the 'JY' 
forms have a majority of one, so that possibly the 
origin may be given to the p.n. Thurmund. The 
Norman scribes have here persisted, but in vain, in 
converting th into t* 

Thornbury. (m. p. & market-town). C.S. 574. 
A.D. 896, Thornbyrig. D. Turneberie. — Tombiri 



* In Chanc. Proc. B. 201. A.D. 1558-79- It is called alias 
Formington . 



154 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

1221. — Pap. Reg: p. 81. — Tor neb' L T.N. — Torbyri. 1284 
F.A.— A.S. Thorn (The tree) : Byrig, d. of A.S. Burh. 
M.E. burgh, borugh : an enclosed place, town, 
village, or fort. 

Througham — pronounced ' Druffum. ' Near 
Lypiatt-cum-Bisley. D. Troharn. P.C. 124. Truham. 
Trougham. The prefix points to the A.S. troh : a 
trough ; or conduit. 

Thrupp, The. Once a portion of Stroud, and 1 m. 
S. of it. So Brocthrup for Brookthorp. A.S. throp, 
thorp ; village. This form is known in other counties, 
also. Another Thrupp, (Thorp, Threp) adjoined 
Winchcombe, L.B.W. 1. 14. Irop, Yrap, FA. 1284. 

Tibberton. (m. p. & v.) 1 m. W. of Barbers 
Bridge (Duchy of Lancaster hundred). D. Tebriston. 
Tyberton. Typertone. Tiberthone. Tiber town. Tib ur ton, 
i.e. the ton, or farm, of Tidbeorht (A.S. p.n.) 'D' 
medial naturally yields before ' b,' as in Theobald, for 
Theod-bald ; and Tibbald for both. 

Tibboldestone Hundred. (D.) It included Beck- 
ford. D. Tetboldestane. Tedboldstane. Tibaldestone. 
The A.S. p.n. Tetbald = Theodbeald. A.S. Stan, stone 
(i.e. boundary-stone). Tibaldstone and Cleeve form 
the modern Hundred. (See Tetboldstone, above). 

Tibby-well. A prominent spring in Painswick. 
15th and 1 6th century M.R. Toby. Towey. Tobye(s) 
well. Towey(s)well. Tybbyewell (1607.) Tibba is an 
A.S. p.n. : that also of a Saint (A.S. Chr. E. a. 963). 
It occurs locally in 'Tibbanhol.' (B.C.S. 144. K.C.D. 
1000). Nevertheless, probabilities seem to favour a 
river-term of obscure origin. 

Tidenham. (m. p. & v.) nr. the Wye. (C.S. 928) 
A.D. 956 Dyddanhamme. D. Tideham. Tedeham. 
Tndeham (c) 1200. Tudenham. 1253. H.C. Glos. 
2. 142 (c. 1274) Tudenham. Dydda was a common 



THROUGHAM— TOLANGEBRIGE, OR LANGEBRIDGE 155 

p.n. among the W. Saxons. Here ' hamme ' (d) means 
the riverside meadow, or pasture, belonging to one, 
Dydda. (g.) 

Tillath. (r.) C.S. 156. A.D.736. TiUnoth, C.S. 217. 
(A.D. 774). Tilnoth. C.S. 299 (c. A.D. 800). Another 
name for a portion of the Coin near Andoversford. In 
the Charters it occurs with Wudiandun (Wythington). 

Tining, or Tyning (The). A fenced enclosure ; 
a verbal subs : from v. Tine : to shut. Cf. Tunen (A.S. 
Tynan) to enclose : from tun, (mod.) ton, town. 

Tirley. Formerly known as ' Trinley.' (p.) 5 m. 
S.W. of Tewkesbury Station. D. Trinleie. (Corp : 
Rec. Glos. No. 150) Trinlega c. 1220. — P.C. 1221. 
Trinlee. F.A. Trynley. Trineley. Trimley. Trinley. 
Tyrley. The first element is doubtful : while the ley 
= lean = clearing. 

Tockington. (m. & hamlet) nr. Olveston. D. 
Tochintune. F.A. Tokynton. Tokyngtone. Toki is 
an A.S. p.n. : hence the meaning is ' the farm, or ton, 
of the sons of Toki.' The Norman frequently substi- 
tutes ' ch ' for ' c ' and ' k.' 

Toddington. (m. v. & p.) 4 m. N. of Winchcombe. 
D.Todintun. Tudinton. Todington, that is — Todinga- 
tun, farm of the sons of Toda. The early Norman dis- 
liked ' ing ' and most frequently writes ' in ' for it ; 
the later Norman and his successors thrust in the ' g ' 
ad libitum. 

Todenham. (m. v. & p.) 4 m. N.E. from Moreton- 
in-the-Marsh. (C.S. 313) c. A.D. 804, Todanhom. D. 
Teodeham. Teoda is a variety of A.S. p.n. Toda. 
Hence, the water-meadow or homme, (A.S. Hamm) 
of Teoda, or Toda. 

Tolangebrige, or Langebridge. Name of a 
Domesday hundred : the modern Dudstone and King's- 
Barton, adjoining Gloucester. It contained the densest 
population in the shire at Domesday. The meaning is 



156 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

'7b the long-bridge' ; which connected Gloucester 
with the Forest of Dene. 

Tormerton. (m. p. & v.) 4 m. S.E. of Chipping- 
Sodbury. D. Tormentone. Tormerton P.R. 1 175-6. 
Tormertun. B.M. 1 185-91. F.A. Thormerton. Thor- 
marto7t.—(Pa.p. Pet. 1. 118) A.D. 1436. Tormarton. 
Thurmser = Thurmer is an A.S. p.n. The name means 
the ton, or farm, of Thurmer. The Normans naturally 
wrote 't' as well as 'd' for initial 'Th.' That the D. 
scribe here also wrote n for r, seems proved by the 
1 185 and subsequent forms. 

Tort, The. At Oakridge. Unknown origin. 

Tortworth. (m. v. & p.) i)A m. W. of Charfleld 
Station. D. Torteuord. (Cal : Doc : France, No. 1047). 
(J. H. Round) c. 1100. Torteoda. — IPM. 1343. Torte- 
worth. 1337, IPM. — Totteworth. — Tortheworth. 1364. 
(Pap. Petitions 1. 489). The prefix might be for Torht as in 
the p.n. Torhtwo/d, or Torthwine : torht being a known 
A.S.prototheme: (thoreth: Tored); and these protothemes 
became frequently used as pet-names for the longer 
forms ; but here we have a constant e (Torfe), which 
seems to demand a weak nominative in a, — Torta.* 

Towbury Hill. Nr. Twyning. No variants. Towi 
is an A.S. p.n. Hence, the hill may be named from 
Towi's-burh, or borough, or enclosed place. But if so, 
the possessive particle has dropped out. 

Tredington. (m. p. & v.) 2^ m. S.S.E. of Tewkes- 
bury. D. Trotintune. P.C. 1221 Tredigtone. Tredintone. 
— 1252 (A""- Tewk:) Tredrintone. Treddington. Mr 
Duignan points out (Worc.P.-n.) in reference to the not- 
distant namesake, T. on Stour, (C.S. 183.) A.D. 757, 
Tredingctun. A.D. 964(0.8. 1135) Tyrdintune. A.D. 
978 Tredinctune (K.C.D. 620) : " The prefix represents 
the A.S. p.n. Tyrdda. This is supported by the Charter 
of 964. That of 757 mentions Comes Tyrdda (Earl 

* i.e., the worth, or farmstead of Torta. 



TORMERTON— TURKDENE 1 57 

Tyrdda) as the former owner." Hence, the meaning 
is — the town, or farm, of the descendants of Tyrdda. 
In the Gloucestershire example, however, the less 
ancient evidence of the forms points rather to the p.n. 
' Treda,' as that of a Saxon owner, whose descendants 
possessed it after him. 

Tredworth. Nr. Gloucester. Truddeworth. 1284. 
H.C. Glos. 2. 203. Trudworth. (c. 1457). The prefix 
probably stands for the A.S. p.n. Tyrdda (g.) The 
sense is Tyrdda' s-f arm. Metathesis is responsible for 
the ever-movable ' r.' 

Tresham. 5 m. N.E. of Hawkesbury. (K. 570). 
A.D. 972 Tresham. Variant forms entirely lacking. 

Trewsbury. (C.) nr. Cirencester. D. Tursberie. 
F.A. Trussebyry. Trouesbury. Trosebury. Thronves- 
bury. 1349. (C.R. : Glos. No. 950). The prefix may 
possibly represent the A.S. p.n. Turri. But more likely 
it is connected with A.S. Tries (m. and n.) brush-wood. 
(Cf. Jour. Philol. Soc. Ap. 1, 1898, p. 15, W. H. Steven- 
son). The meaning in the latter case is ' the bury in 
the brush-wood.' 

Trill -gate. A gate that turns. Cf. Dan. trille, twirl. 

Trillies, The. In Oakridge. (Doubtful). Trill- 
pools are gently twirling pools. (See Ombersley, 
Ch. D. Evesham, R.S. p. 304). 

Trunch, The. In Oakridge. The Trench : an old 
lane : or a hollow -way. 

Tuffley. (m. p. & v.) South of Gloucester, (c) 1190 
Tuffele. 1342 Tuffleleye. Tuffa is an A.S. p.n. The 
sense is Tuffa's pasture. The original form was 
probably Tuffanleage. 

Tump, The. A mound : a barrow : a tumulus. 
(W.) Twmp. In general use. 

Tunly. Nr. Oakridge. F.A. Tonley. The enclosure- 
field. 

Turkdene. (m. p. <fe v.) 3^ m. S. of Notgrove. CS 
165. (A.D. 743-5) Turcanden. D. Turchedene. P.C. 



158 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

1 22 1. (170) Thurkedene. Tuvghedene. — 1267. (EC. Gl. 
iii. 177) Tuvkedene. Torkedene: a river-name, here, 
i.e. the dene through which flows the river Turca = 
Turcadene. Possibly Turca = Twrch, (W) the boar, 
mole, or burro wer. 

Twigworth. (m. p. & v.) 2 m. N. of Gloucester. 
IPM. 1242. Twyggenurthe. (Cal. Rec. Glos. Corp. 327.) 
A.D. 1 230. Twygworthe. The weorth, or farm, per- 
haps, of one, Twicga (A.S. p.n.) 

Twining or Twyning. (m. p. & v.) 2 m. N. of 
Tewkesbury. C.S. 320. A.D. 814 Bituinceum. D. 
Tveninge and Tuninge. P.C. 1221. Tweninges. 
Twennynge. Thewenge. Betwynaneas (between the 
rivers Severn and Avon). Here inge has established 
itself, apparently as the equivalent of ea = stream : (pi. : 
inges). See Guiting. 

Twiver. (r.) The Weaver. Tweaver. Wever (1455). 
The ' t ' is the remainder from the definite article. 

Twyford. (Hundred) on Severn. Tviferde. Twy- 
fyrd. C.S. 927. (A.D. 956) A.S. Twlford = double-ford. 

Tytherington. (m.p.&v.)3m.S.E.ofThornbury. D. 
Tidrentune. B.M. (c.) 1170 Tidrington. F.A. Tederyng- 
ton. Literally Tidher-inga-tun : farm of the sons of 
Tidhere. (A.S. p.n.) Here the A.S. ' Dh' softens to ' th.' 

Uckington. (m.) in Deerhurst Hundred. D.Hoch- 
inton. \2zi. P.C. Uchintone. — Okindon. Okinton. Huck- 
ington. The sense is — the farm-enclosure of Ucca. There 
is a second Uckington, in Elmstone-Hardwick. 1320. 
Okynton. Possibly, neither are really patronymic 
forms. (Slo. XXXIII. 19). 

Uley. (m. p. v.) 4 m. S. of Frocester. D. Evvlege. 
Later (C.R.G1.) Huelege. Yulea. Yweley. Bweley. The 
Welsh Yw, and Ywen = yewtree, more nearly approxi- 
mates some of the forms than does A.S. Iw, eow. 

Ullingwick. 12th c. Ollinggewike ; H.C. Gl. Wyl- 
lynwyck. = R.B. (A.D. 12 12). Ulingwyke. Ollingewyke. 



TWIGWORTH— WADFIELD 159 

Literally, Willingcvwick : the vill of the sons of Willa : 
i.e. the Willings. Note here the two tvpes: (1) Willa- 
(ing). (2) Ulla(ing). 

Ullington. Nr. Pebworth. D. Wenitone.— Villing- 
ton. Ollingtone. Olynton. Ollanton. 1313. (Sede Vac. 
Reg. Wore.) Literally, Ullinga-tun : the farm of the 
Ullings. Here again appear the two above types. 

Upleadon. (m. p. v.) 3 m. E. of Newent. D. 
Ledene. — Upledene. Uppeledene. Leadon. The river 
Leden bounds it N. and E. 

Upperup. Near South Cerney. Upthrup: Vp- 
thovp. M.E. Thorp : village : town. Uppe. M.E. 
above, up. 

Upton. There are several examples in the county. 
D. Optune. Uptone. Huptone. The sense is obvious : 
(1) Upton St Leonards (13th century) : (2) Upton-on- 
Severn ; the A.S. Up in combination meaning ' upper.' 
In the D-form the short u is replaced by 0. 

Vache, The, or Vatch. It occurs on both sides of 
the Severn. Chaucer. (Edit. Skeat, vol. I., p. 391), 
Truth, line 22. ' Therefore, thou.' — Les Vactes. c. 
1245. L.B.W. Le Vaches, Painswick (1552). Vache 
(i.e. cow). It is borrowed from the French; and the 
Vatcher was the cowman. Cf. Hugh le Vacher (Vacca- 
rius). As a land-term, it was used for cow-pasture. 
A Vaccary was (vaccaria) a house, or pasture for 
cows. In some places, as in Ashdown Forest, it seems 
to have denoted a measure of ground. The t as in 
ditch is due to M.E. ch. 

Wacrescumbe. (D. Hundred). C.S. 299. (c.) A.D. 
800. The C.S. gives the form Waclescumb. The 
A.S. p.n. Wacol may have been meant here.* 

Wadfield. (Farm and Roman Villa) nr. Sudeley. 
A.S. Wad = woad : feld = a field. 

* r is a common change for /. 



160 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Wainlode. Near Norton; on Severn. C.R. Gl. 
1087. (A. D. 1424.) "The Waynelodus Brugge." The 
prefix is probably for M.E. Wain, A.S. Wgegn : Mod : 
wagon, or wain. The meaning is the Wain-ferry. 

Walbridge. In Stroud. Walbrigg. The sense may 
have been ' the bridge of the Welsh.' But far more 
probably the prefix derives from A.S. Weall = wall. 

Walham. Nr. Berkeley. Waleham. Walehamme. 
Walam. The meaning may be ' meadow,' (Hamm) 
of the (1) Briton, or (2) foreigner, or (3) slave; but 
the name possibly stands for (cet) Weallum = (at the) 
walls. 

Walle. (m.) in Aldesworth. Walle (1294). Probably 
for ' atte Walle ' ; from M.E. Walle, a wall. 

Wallgarston. Nr. Berkeley. Walhamgarston. 
(1243-5) Walmegarston. (B.M.) Walgarstone. A.S. 
Gaerstun : variant, by metathesis, of graestun — i.e. 
grass-ton. The earlier forms point to ' Walham ' as 
the full prefix, possibly meaning weal(h)a ham, the 
home of the Briton. The second form shews the said 
' ham ' in the process of absorption as an unstressed 
syllable between two strong ones. But see under 
Walham. 

Walsworth. In Sandhurst. T.N. Waleworth. 
Wallesworthe. Walesworth. The ' weorth,' or farm, 
of the M.E. Wal, or Welshman, or stranger. A.S. 
Wealh,— es (g. sing.) 

Walton (Cardiff), (m. v. & p.) In Tewkesbury 
Hundred. {Kerdef. Kaerdiff. Cardiff The 12th 
c. family of Cardiff owned a manor here. D. Waltone. 
This may represent Wale for A.S. Weala (gen : pi) of 
Wealh, the Welshman, or Briton ; tun : an enclosed- 
place, or farm ; or, the first element may be a form of 
A.S. Weall : wall. The name is common, and takes 
different forms. Walton, in Northumberland, seems 
to stand for the station ' Ad Murum.' Another Walton 
is a hamlet of Deerhurst. 



WAINLODE— WELGARESBRIDGE 161 

Wanswell. (m.) A hamlet, nr. Berkeley. Wenes- 
wella 1170-90. (B.M 13). Weneswell, 1243. Wanes- 
welle, (c, 1 2 10). Wayneswelle, 1304. Waneswell. 
Wanuswell. The well of Wene or Wen, or Wan, 
possibly a reduced form of Wanbeorht. 

Wapley. (m. p. & v.) 3 m. S.E. of Yate Station (in 
Pucklechurch Hundred). D. Wapelei and Wapelie. 
Wappelai (P.R. 1 163-4). Wappeley 1165. There was 
a Wapeley-ditch in Maisemore. Wappenham and 
Wapeham occur in other counties. The forms seem 
to point to an unrecorded Wappa (A.S. p.n.) 

Warmley. 4^ m. E. of Bristol. (1309) Wurmelegh. 
Wevmley. The prefix here is probably a p.n., con- 
nected with A.S, wyrm = a serpent. 

Washbourne. (m. p. & v.) Great and Little W., 1 
m. S. of Beckford Station. D. Waseborne. Wassebone. 
The prefix was probably A.S. Waesc : flood ; in refer- 
ence to the character of the stream. Sh is commonly 
represented in A.N. spelling by s, or ss. 

Washwell. A tithing of Painswick. XV. c. M.R. 
Wasshewelle. The first element is probably A.S. waesc 
(f) washing : gewsesc, flood, overflow. According to 
E.D.D., — "Any shore or piece of land covered at 
times by water : a mere." Hence the term includes 
the well-known Wash between Lincolnshire and Nor- 
folk. The same origin will fit Washbrook, which 
occurs in various parts of the County. 

Welford. (m. v. & p.) 4 m. S.W. of Stratford-on- 
Avon, and on that river. D. Wellefovd. (Early Xllth c.) 
Welfort. Walleford. Wellefford. P.C. 1221 Welnefovde. 
Welforde. Welneford (F.A). Probably representing 
A.S. Weala : g. plur. At the ford of the Welshmen. 

Welgaresbridge. In Hardwick. Wolgaresbrugge. 
Walgarsbruge, (1378). (A.S. p.n.) Wulfgar. Wulfgar's- 
bridge. 



1 62 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Wencote or Wincote. (m. & h.) in Quinton. D. 
Wenecote. P.R. 1 175-6. Winecota. IPM. 1266-7 
Winnecote. IPM. 1280. Wyncote. Wincott. A.S. p.n. 
Wenna. Possibly for A.S. Wynnan, p.n. ; cota (cot). 
The Cot of Wynna. 

Wenrich. (m. & r.) Wenrisc (C.S. 230) A.D. 779. 
Wenris (C.S. 882) A.D. 949. Wcenric. Wenrych. Wyn- 
ryc/i. Hence, has been formed Windrush, (q-v.) the 
present name of the river, as if the terminal ' rise ' 
were the English 'rush' from A.S. risce = reed. The 
probabilities lie in favour of the entire name belonging 
to another language. 

Westbury. (m. p. & v.) on Avon, and on Severn. 
C.S. 273. (c) A.D. 794. Westbyri (on Trym). C.S. 379. 
A.D. 824 Westburgh. (A.D. 796 Uuestburg on Avon) 
Ch. Br. Mus. A.S. Chr. Westbyrig. Westbury. Byrig 
dat. of burh : a fortified place. 

Weston. There are several West- tons in the 
county. They are usually distinguished by additional 
characteristics, such as ' Birt,' ' Sub-Edge,' ' on Avon.' 

Westrip. 1 m. N.W. of Cainscross. Literally, 
West-throp. The suffix observes the same form as in 
Williamstrip. M.E. thorp, throp, threp : a village. 

Whaddon. (m. p. & v.) 3 m. S. of Gloucester. D. 
WadTtne. Later, Waddun. — P.C. 1221. Waddone. 
Waddon. Watdone. The prefix is wad = ' woad.' Dun 
= down. The Anglo-Saxon ' Hw ' became 'Wh' in 
M.E. 

Wheatenhurst. (p. r.) (or Whitminster). D. 
Witenherte. Wytenhurste (1288). Whytenhurste (1358). 
Whichurst. If the p.n. Hwita is responsible for the 
prefix, the meaning is Wita's wood. i.e. Hwitanhurste. 
Otherwise, the prefix = adj. hwit = white. 

White Walls. This term occurs in various local- 
ities, and usually it is found in immediate neighbour- 
hood of ancient fortifications. Occasionally, it has 



WENCOTE OR WINCOTE— WICKWICK 1 63 

become transformed in latter days into White-hall, as 
in the Painswick example. It is met with in Wiltshire 
near Sherston, and at Oakridge, in Gloucestershire. 

Whitstone. (Hundred). D. Witestane. A.S. Hwit : 
white. Stan, stone, rock. 

Whittington. (m.) near Sevenhampton. D. Wite- 
tune. Whyttyngtone. Wydinton. Witendon (1291). 
Literally, Hwitantiin, i.e. ton, or farm, of Hwita. 'Hw' 
regularly transposes to 'Wh.' But possibly the adj : 
hwit = white alone was responsible for the prefix. 

Wibden. A hamlet of Tidenham. Widden. Wyb- 
don. Early forms are lacking : but there is a known 
A.S. p.n. Wibba. Dun = down. The sense is Wibba's 
dene or down. 

Wick. D. Wiche. Wyche. Wyke. Wyk. Wike. 
Wich. Wis. Wic. A.S. Wic. dat Wice. (c = ch before 
the e). The word is believed to have been borrowed 
from the Latin VTcus, a village. If that is the case, it 
is, like Street, a loan-word. Both occur together in 
' Wykstrete' in Painswick Manor (1550) : the Wickstreet, 
to-day. It often meant a mere row of cottages, or 
shops, or farm-buildings. Difficulty arises, however, 
when we find a name like Wickwyk (q.v.) 

Wickwar. (m. v. & p.) 4 m. N. of Chipping-Sodbury. 
D. Wichen. Wyke-Warre. Wikkeware. King John gave 
it to John La Warre. The prefix is A.S. wic, a village. 

Wickwick. 2 m. S.W. of Frampton Cotell, or 
Cotterell. IPM. 1284. Wykewyk. — 1290, Wyckewyk. 
1298, Wykewyk. The force of the first element may 
be taken in the usual sense of A.S. Wic a village. 
The question arises whether the suffix is the same 
word, but bearing the subordinate meaning of a dairy- 
farm, or a tithing, or some totally different word. 
Unfortunately, the forms are few, and of one date, and 
of too great a similarity to justify any decisive opinion. 

M 



164 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Wideles. (Hundred) now part of Kiftsgate (Chef- 
tesihat). A.S. lies = pasture. The prefix is due to 
A.S. Wid : wide. 

Widford. (m.) D. Widiforde. C.R. (A.D. 123 1-4) 
Wythiford. Wvdford. An island of Gloucestershire 
in Oxfordshire, on the R. Windrush. The origin is 
probably A.S. Withig-ford : the ford by the willow. 

Wightfield. v. &p.inDeerhurst. (c.) 1260 Wyffeld. 
(K.Q.) Whycfeld. (F.A.) Wyghtfelde. With/eld. Wythe- 
feld. Wiffeld. In the shortened form Wiffeld, the ' gh ' 
has been transformed to an 'f sound, as in 'cough.' 
The long ' i ' becomes short before ' tf.' Probably 
(and in spite of the conflicting variant forms), the 
place was A.S. Withig : willowfield. 

Wigwold. (m.) nr. Cirencester. (K.Q.) Wygewold. 
Wyggewold (1358 IPM.). Wiggold. The first element 
is the A.S. p.n. Wicga : so that the original form was 
probably Wicganwold. Wold means a tract of high 
wild land : V. Cotswold. M.E. : Wald, wold,-es. 

Willersey. (m. v. & p.) 3^ m. S. of Honeybourne 
Station. C.S. 482. E. (c.) A.D. 850. Wyllereseie. 
Wyllereseye. Willerseia. (Latinised form) D. Willer- 
sei. Willurdeseye. Later Wylardeseye. Willarseye. 
Willeresheye. ia, eie, ey, represent A.S. ea : a 
stream. The prefix is the p.n. Wilheard (gen.) Cf. 
Wylheardes-treow, K.C.D. 262. 

Williamstrip. Represented in A.D. 1084 by the D. 
Hetrope (Hatherop) : F.A. Willamesthorp. Willas- 
thorp. Willomessrop. IPM. 1258. The village belong- 
ing to Willame, i.e. Willelm. 

Willicote. (m.) \y 2 m. N. of Long Marston (Great 
and Little W.) D. Wilcote. (c. 1250) Wilicote. Willicote. 
Wylcot. Probably the A.S. Welig = willow is 
represented here by the prefix in the sense of wattle 
= Wilige. It was given by Hugh de Grentmaisnil, 
before io8i,to S. Evroult's Abbey at Ouche, Normandy 



WIDELES— WISSETER 1 65 

(S. Ebrulphus), where his brother Robert had been 
Abbot, and whither his own body, salted and sewn 
up in an ox-hide, was taken from England, for inter- 
ment (1093). The Abbot of St. Evroult (c. 1240) held 
8 virgates here. 

Winchcombe. (m. v. & p.) an ancient Mercian 
town, 7 m. N. of Cheltenham. (C.S. 309) A.D. 803 
Wincelcumba. (C.S. 1105). A.D. 963. Wincescumbe. 
Wichilicumbe, 1207 (Pap. Reg: p. 27, vol. 1) Wynch- 
combe. Winchecumb. Guicchicumba. 13th c. (Peruzzi). 
A.S. Wincel = a corner. Cumb = a valley. 

Wincote. In Quinton. See Wencote. 

Windrush. (r. p. & v.) on the river so-called. A.D. 
779. (C.S. 230.) Wenrisc. A.D. 949 (C.S. 882). Wenris, 
and Wcenric. — Wenrich. IVanriche. Windridge. It is 
doubtful whether either element here is of A.S. origin ; 
though the terminal resembles A.S. Rise = Reed, rush ; 
and has been so rendered in later days. The spelling 
' Wind ' is due to popular etymology. 

Winson. (m.) A chapelry, on the Coin, 2 m. N. 
of Bibury. D. IVinestune. F.A. Wyneston. Wine is 
an A.S. p.n. ; tun = a farm. 

Winstone. (m. p. & v.) 4^ m. S.E. of Birdlip. D. 
IVinestune. (K.Q.) Wyneston. Winestone. Wine = 
is an A.S. p.n. ; tun : farm. 

Winterbourne. 4 m. S.W. of Yate Station. Wyn- 
terbornfi. Winterburne : i.e. a burn that only flows 
in winter. 

Wishanger. Nr. Shepscombe. P.C. 1221 Wis- 
hangre. Wyshunger. Wysslemonger. Wishonger. 
Wychangre. A.S. hangra, a wood, growing high on 
a hill-side. Hunger and honger are dialectal forms. 
The prefix probably represents the Wych-elm : A.S. 
Wice. We have Oakhanger, Aspenhanger and 
Birchanger. 

Wisseter. In Painswick Manor (1607). 



1 66 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Witcombe or Whitcombe. Below Birdlip. Great 
and Little, (m. & p.) (Early M. Rolls) A.D. 1330, 
Wydyconmbe, (IPM.) Wydecombe. A.S. Widan=broad : 
coomb. 

Withington. (m. p. & v.) 8 m. S.E. of Cheltenham. 
C.S. 158. A.D. 736-7 Wudiandnn. D. Widendune. 
Withindon, 1191. L.B.W. Wytington. Wythyndon. 
Wychendon. Probably the sense is willow-down : 
from A.S. Withig(en) = willows. The growth of the 
Pseudo-patronymic 'ing' out of medial 'an,' 'en,' 'yn' 
is well-exemplified. 

Withybridge. (m.) Nr. Boddington. A.S. Withig, 
willow ; and Brycg : bridge. 

Wlpitta. Nr. Cobberley. ('id est fossa luporum') 
A.D. 1 148. A wolf-pit. (H.C. Gl. 1. 235). 

Woeful-Dane-bottom. Nr. Bisley. Dane is a 
not-uncommon transformation of Den : A.S. Dene: a 
valley. The prefix probably stands for the p.n. Wulf- 
fleed. The complete form would thus be ' Wulfflced- 
dene-bottom.' 

Wolstrop. Nr. Quedgeley. Wulvesthrop. Wul- 
nuchestorp. Wollesthorp. Perhaps the sense is ' the 
Thorp belonging to Wulfnoth.' 

Woodchester. (m. v. &p.) C.S. 164. (c.) A.D. 740 
Wuduceastre. D. Udecestre, and Wtdecestre. — 1221. 
Wudecestria (P. C. 224). Wodecestre (ce = che). Wode- 
chestre. Literally, the Fortress in the woofl. A.S. 
ceaster is the Wessex form of the Low-Latin Castree 
(Cf. Gleawan-ceaster). The earliest form was probably 
Widuceastre , from Widu : wood. 

Woodmancote. (m.) (1) nr. Bishop's Cleeve (2) 
nr. N. Cerney, (3) in Dursley. Wdemenecote. (1230). 
Wodemonecote. Wodemannecote. Wudeman is an 
A.S. p.n. as in Wudemannes-tun. K.C.D. 685. Cote = 
cot. The second is the strong : the first, the weak 
form of this term : modern, Cott. 



WITCOMBE OR WHITCOMBE— WYDECOMSEDE 1 67 

Woolaston -on -Severn. (West bank), (m. p. & v.) 
D. Odelaweston. 1253. (Pap. Reg: vol. 1. 288). 
Wolsiston. 1 218. (Pap. Reg. vol. 1. p. 54.) Wolavestone. 
P.C. 1 22 1 Wllanestone. — Wulsiston (IPM.) c. 1250. 
To the prefix, A.S. p.n. Wudelaf, is added M.E. ton = 
farm-enclosure. The 1 2 2 1 -form exemplifies the scribal 
tendency to confuse n and v : as in ewese for ewese. 

Woolston. (m. p. & v.) 2 m. N. of Bishop's Cleeve. 
D. Olsendone. Wolsiston (13 16) IVolston. Woolston. 
A.S. p.n. Wulfsie, (for Wulfsige) ; tun = farm. 

Wormington. (m.) nr. Toddington. D. Wermetun. 
(H.C. Glos.) A.D. 1234 Wermetone. Wormyntone. 
The patronymic tendency has achieved great things 
here. But instead of being the ton, or enclosure-farm, of 
the Wormings, the name means simply Wyrma's farm. 

Wortley. (h.) In Wotton-under-Edge. Wurthelye. 
Worteley. Possibly A.S. Weorth = a farm: leah. d. 
leage ( = M.E. ley) meadow, pasture. 

Wotton. (1) St. Mary, (2) Under Edge, (3) near 
Gloucester. D. Utone. C.S. 452. Wudotune (c. 848) 
Wood-ton. The farm-enclosure near, or in, the wood. 

Wulfrichethrop. Nr. Gloucester. (1267) Wlfriches- 
thrope. IPM. (1252) Ulvrichesthrop. A.S. p.n. Wulfric. 
The thrup, or thorp, belonging to Wulfric. 

Wulfridge. In Olveston. Wulferugge. That is, 
a ridge haunted by wolves. 

Wychwood. Really in Co. Oxford. A.S. C. Huicce- 
wudu. D. Huchewode. T.N. Wykewud. R.H. Wiche- 
wode. The wood of the Huiccas, or (Lat.) Hwiccii. 
A.S. Widu and Wudu : wood. 

Wydecomsede. c. 1121. Widcomsede. Either the 
's' is inorganic, and the terminal represents A.S. 
hseth : heath ; or, the terminal is for M.E. Sete, a 
dwelling. The b fell out between m and s. The sense 
is ' at wide-coomb-heath ' : i.e., Witcombe, to-day. 



1 68 GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Wye, The. (r.) A.S. Wcege (Wsegemutha = Wye- 
mouth). Latinized, Waia, Waya. (H.C. Glos. 2. 187;. 

Wyeford. A.D. 956 (C.S. 927) Twyfyrd, for A.S. 
twi-ford = double ford. The mod: form is due to the 
river's name. 

Wyegate. (m.) (In St. Briavels Hundred). D. 
Wigheiete. IPM. 1337. Wyget. The sense is as in 
Symondsyat : (yate = gate). Gate = road or way. 

Wysshallismead. (In Painswick Manor). Wyc- 
ceshallesfeld. XV. c. M r Roll. I think that the penulti- 
mate ' s ' is excrescent in both positions. The name 
may have denoted ' the meadow of the Wick-hall.' 
The readings are no earlier than 1430. But in that 
year a manor-roll makes mention of the Nova Aula 
(of the Clothiers) to which the New Street led. This 
was the Wick-Hall ; and the above mead probably 
pertained to it. London-House has embodied part of it. 

Wysshes, The. A close in Siddington. The term 
probably represents JVisce = a piece of meadow. Mr 
W. H. Stevenson cites Low- German ' Wische,= 
meadows, and instances ' Borderswyssh' and ' Hodis- 
daliswyssh' (i.e. a wish in Hodisdale) ; and Cf. C.S. 
it, 219, 220, A.D. 898. Menewyssh = common wish. 
(A.S. gemsene). 

Yanworth. (m. h. & chapelry) 4 m. S. of Hazleton 
D. Teneurde. Yaneworthe. (H.C. Glos. 1. 90, 11. 179). 
Janeworthe. Janeworre. Jeanworth (1221). Zene- 
worthe. (1251) Zaneward. The D. clerk avoided 
the open vowel sound_here. The prefix seems to 
stand for an A.S. p.n. Ean,— short for Eanbeorht, or 
some such name, — by change of stress =yan. Weorth 
= farm-stead. The Z-forms are due to mis-writing 
the Spirant G as Z. The same applies to the following 
name-forms. For the J-forms, the initial J was un- 
known to the Norman; hence he was compelled to 



WYE, THE— ZOONS, THE 1 69 

find a way out of this difficulty. The Y- forms are 
the native ones. 

Yartledon Hill. (Otherwise May Hill) in parish of 
Longhope. Yarcledon. Yacledon, and Yarkleywall- 
way. Zarkley. Yark is (in dialect), the common 
' ragwort' Nevertheless, for Yark-hill (Co. Hereford) 
Cott : MS. Aug. ii. 47. A.D. 811 gives us (at) 
Geardcylle. 

Yardishill. (See Gersehill.) 

Yate. (m. p. & v.) on the r. Frome, 10 m. N.E. of 
■Bristol. (C.S. 231) A.D. 778 Gete. (A.S.) Geate (dat.), 
E. Gate. D. Giate. Yade. Zate. For ' at Geate.'' 

Yfold. (See Ifold). 

Zirencester, Ziszeter. (See Cirencester). This 
is Cotteswold phonetic : on the principal of Z for 5- 
sounds. Glos : Zow = Sow. 

Zoons, The. Field-name at Church-down. Un- 
determined origin. The Zonaries was a mediaeval name 
for the Mercers' quarter in Gloucester ; i.e. so-called 
from Zonarius = a girdler. 



APPENDIX I. 

Some Personal and Family Names occurring in 
Gloucestershire Place-Names. 



Abba, Abinghall, Avenage 
Adda, Adsett 
JEbba., Ebley, Ebbworth 
^cga, Agmead 
jElf, Olveston 
jElfred, Alliston, Arlington 
, ^ilfsige, Alstone 
^Elfwynn, Alvington 
.Slle, Ellesworth, Elcombe 
jEsc-elf, Ashelworth 
iEthelbeorht, Aylberton 
.flithelhelm, Admington 
.flithelwig, Eyleston 

Bacga, Bagendon, Bagpath 
Badda, Badderidge 
Baecc, Batsford 
Bsecga, Badgworth 
Bata, Batcomb 
Beaduhelm, Badminton 
Beaduwine, Bedwins 
Beaga, Bibury 
Bealdwine, Baunton 
Becca, Beckbury, Beckford 
Beffa, Bevington 
Beorhthelm, Brickhampton 
Beorhtweald, Brightwells- 

Barrow 
Beornmod, Barnsley 



Bethild, Battlescomb 
Bica, Bicknor, Bickmarsh 
Blscc, Blaisdon 
Blith, Blidsloe 
Blocca, Blockley 
Boll, Boulsdon 
Bosa, Boseley 
Bothere, (?) Buttersend 
Botta, Boddington, Botloe, 

Buttington 
Botwine (?), Bouncehorn 
Bret (Le), Birts Morton 
Brunmann, Brimpsfield 
Brydd, Birdlip, Bridgemare 
Bucga, or Burghild, Buckle-Street 
Bulla, Bulewick, Bulley 
Butta, Buttington 
Byda, Bidfield, Bydfield 

Cada, Cadbury Heath 
Caec (Cheke) Chaxhill 
Calmund, Calmsden 
Ceafhere, Chavringworth 
Ceawa, Chavenage 
Cedda, Chedworth 
Cen, Kenesley 
Ceort, Charteshull 
Chaisne, Sezincotc 
Chaun (Le), Cheyney 



N 



172 



APPENDIX 



Cippa, Chippenham 
Clac, Clackshill 
Cnapa, Kempley 
Cocca, Cockbury 
Cod, Cott, Cutsdean, Cotteswold 
Cofa, Coaley 
Coll, Colesbourn 
Coppa, Coppeley 
Cradock (W), Cradockstone 
Cufa, Coaley 
Cugga, Cugley 
Cunda, Condecote 
Cuthbeorht, Cobberley 
Cuth-here, Codrington, 
Cylla, Kilcote 
Cynebeald, Kemble 
Cynemaer, Kemerton, Kemps- 
ford, Kimsbury 
Cynsige, Kynsyescroft 
Cytta, Ketford 



Daegel, Daglingworth 
Deorsig, Dorsington, 
Dogod, Dowdeswell 
Dover, Dovershill 
Droys (Le), Droyscourt 
Dryga, Dryganleah 
Dudda, Dodington 
Dunna, Donington 
Dydda, Didbrook, Tidenham 
Dydmser, Didmarton 



Eadbeorht, Ebrington 
Eadred, Edredstane 
Eadric, Edricsmere 
Ealhmund, Elmstone 
Ealhwine, Elkington 
Ealhsige, Elkstone 
Eald, Aldsworth 



Ealdhere, EJdersfield 
Ealdric, Aldrichsmore 
Ealdweald, Halweldesham 
Ealdwine, St. Aldwyns 
Ealh-helm, Alcamsede 
Ealh-here, Alkerton 
Ealhmund, Elmstree 
Earn, Ernesruding 
Ebba, Ebley 
Ecg, Edgeworth 
Efe, Evesbury 
Eorl, Arlingham 
Eppa, Epney 
Erding, Erdington 
Etti, Eteloe 

Fidda, Fiddington 
Freawine (?), Fraunton 
Freothelm, Forthampton 

Gefwine, Evington 
Godhere, Gotherington 
Gosa, Gossington 
Grim, Grimsbury 
j Grimbeald, Grimboldstow, 
Grimbaldesassch 

J 

! Hafoc, Hawkesbury 

' Hagena, Hampen 

Hagga, Hagmead 

Heahnoth, Hannots-well 
I Higeweald, Hewelsfield 
i Hild, Hillesley 

Hilda, Hilcote 

Hlappa, Lapley 
I Hudda, Huddiknoll 
I Hund, Huntsham 

Hunlaf, Hullasey 
I Hunta, Huntley 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 



173 



Hwicca, Wychwood 
Hwita, (?) Whittington 

Icca, Icombe 
Idda, Idbury 
Idel, Idelsbury 
Ilburh, Ilburweslade 
Ingwulf, Inglestone 

Jackman, Jackments 
Joye, Joyford 

Ken, Kenesley 

Leof , Losemore 
Leofwine, Lowsmore 
Leother, Leighterton 
Lilla, Lillington 
Ludegar, Ludgershall 
Lull, Lillescroft 
Lulla, Lullingworth 

Maeg, Maisemore 
Mangod, Mangotsfield 
Maethel, Malswick, Matford 
Mffithelgar, Maugersbury 
Maeth-here, Matson 
Meysi (de), Meysey-Hampton 
Musarder, Miserden 

Nata, Natton, Notgrove 
Naegel, Nailsbridge, Nailsworth 
Nybba, Nibley 
Nynna, Ninnage 

Occa, Uckington 
Olla, Owlpen 
Osla (?), Ozleworth 
Otta, Oddington 

PadmsEr (?), Pamington 
Pa^ga, Paganhill 
N2 



Pain (Fitz John), Painswick 
Pebba, Pebworth 
Peohtgils, Pegglesworth 
Pedda, Peddington 
Penda, Pinbury 
Pont de l'arche, Pontlarge 
Potta, Postlip 
Putta, Putloe 
Pycca, Pitchcombe 

Raedmaer, (?) Rodmarton 
Respe, Rapsgate 
Rudda, Rodley 

Sa^gen, (?) Saintbury 
Ssegrim, Segrims 
Sage, Sages 
Sceapp, Shepscomb 
Sceobba, Shobbenasse 
Scirheard, Shurdington 
Sclatter, Slatterslade 
Sigemund, Symondshall, 

Symondsyatt 
Snaw, Snowshill 
Snot, Nottingham Hill 
Sollars (de), (Shipton) Sollers 
Soppa, Sodbury 
Stunt, Stinchcombe 
Stut, Stout's Hill 
Sucga, Sugworthy 
Sulmonn, Salmonsbury 
Syda, Siddington 

Tadda, Taddington 
Teodec, Tewkesbury 
Teotta, Teddington 
Tetta, Tetbury 
Theodbeald, Tetboldstone 
Thorald (?), Tarleton 
Thurmar, Tormarton 
Thurmund, Farmington 



174 



APPENDIX 



Tidhere, Tytherington 
Teoda, Todenham 
Toda, Toddington 
Toki, Tockington 
Treda, Tredington 
Tuffa, Tuffley 
Twicga, Twigworth 
Tyrdda, Tredworth 

Ucca, Uckington 

Wachere, or Wacol, Wacres- 
combe 



Warre (La), Wickwar 
Wibba, Wibden 
Wilheard, Willersey 
Wilhelm, Williamstrip 
Willa, Ullingwick 
Wine, Winson, Winston 
Wudelaf, Woolaston 
Wulfgar, Wolgaresbridge 
Wulflaed, Woeful-Dane 
Wulfnoth, (?) Wolstrop 
Wulfric, Ulfricsthorp 
Wulfsige, Woolston 
Wynna, Wincote 



APPENDIX II. 

PART I. 

Words as First Elements, or Prefixes. 



Abbey, Abbeywell, Abload 
Abbod, Abson 
Ac, {Oak) Acholt, Acton 
iEppel, (Apple) Apperley 
JEsc, (Ash) Ashchurch, Ashel- 

worth, Ashton 
.lEwylm, ^welm (Spring) Ewelm 

(Nr. Kemble) 
Air, (Alder) Alderley, Arle 
Amber, Amberley, Ambermead 
(uncertain significance, possi- 
bly r-ri) 
Amman, (r-n) Ampney 
Ann, Onn (r-n) Andoversford 
(Annanford) ; but possibly 
Anna (p.n.) 
Avon (>), Avening 

Bac (M.E), (Back), Bacchus 
Baech, (Valley) Bachestane 
Beam, (Tree) Bangrove 
Bean, (Bean) Benleighemore 
Beo, (Bee) Beley 
Bent, (Grass) Bentham 
Beofor, (Beaver) Beverston 
Beorg, Beorh (Mound, Hill) 
Bere, (Barley), Barton 
Beorc, (Birch-Tree) Berkeley 

barron 
Bers, (Enclosure) Berse 
Betweon,-twyn, (Between) 

Twining 



Bishop. Bishops Cleeve. Besp- 
wyke. Bishton. (But possi- 
bly here a family-name) 

Bolla, (Bowl) (?) Boll weir 

Blaedene, (r-n) Bledington 

Blaec, (Black) Blacelaw 
(Blacklow) 

Boc, (Book) Buckland 

Box, (L. Buxus) Box 

Bow, (Arch) Bowbridge 

Brad, (Broad) Broadstone, 
Bread Street 

Breaw, (Brew) Bruern 

Bremer, (Bramble) Bremerende. 
F.D. 

Brent, (Burnt) Brentlands 

Broc, (Brook) Brockhampton, 
Brockworth, Brookthorpe 

Brom, (Plant) Bromalls 

Bui, (? Animal) Bulcross, now 
Bulls Cross 

Burg, Burgh, Burh (Enclosed or 
Fortified Place), Burghill, 
Buryhill 

Bush, Bussage 

Cald, (Cold) Caudle Green 
Campus (L) Campden, The 

Camp 
Catt, (Cat) Catquarr, Catbrain 
Cealc, (Chalk) Chalford, Chalk- 
walls 



176 



APPENDIX 



Cealf, [Calf) Calfway, Calflade 
Ceald, [Cold) Calcot, Calthrop 
Ceaping, [market) Chipping Sod- 
bury, Campden 
Ceaster, [Town or Fort) Chester- 
ton 
Ceorl, [Servant, Churl) Charlton 
Ceosel, [Sand, Gravel) Chisel- 

hampton 
Chart, [Rough Land) Charfield 
Churn, [r.n.) Cerny, Cirencester 
Cilta, [r.n.) Chelt, Cheltenham 
Clack, [Clapper) Clackmill 
Clap, Clop, [Stub) Clapton, Clop- 
ton 
Claeg, [Clay) Cleyway, Clinger 
Cline, [Clean, Open, Field) — (?) 

Clanna. F.D. 
Clif, [Cliff) Clifford, Cleeve 
Clower, (Sluice-gate) Clearwell 
Clumper, (Clod) Climperwell 
Cnaepp, (Top of Hill) Cnappe- 

stysford, Knapp 
Cnoll, (Hill, Crest) The Knole 
Cocc, (Cock) Cockshoot 
Corn, (r.n.) Corndene 
Col, (Cool) Colthrop 
Coin, (r.n.) Coin St. Aldwyn, 

-Rogers 
Cran, (Crane : Heron) Cranham 
Crawe, (Crow) Crowthorne 
Crug, (W. Moiind) Crickley Hill 
Crumb, (Bent, Crooked) Cromhall 
Cu, (Cow) Cowley 
Culver, (Dove) Culverdene 
Cumb, (Coomb) Compton 
Custom, Custom-Scrubs 
Cwene, (Woman) Quenton, 

Quennington 
Cyning, (King) Kingscote 



Den, Denn ( Valley) Daneway 
Deop, (Deep) Depeford, Depeney 
Deor, (Deer) Dyrham, Deerhurst 
Dever, Dover, Duber (Water) 

Doverle (r.n.) 
Die, (Wall of Earth) Dychesende 
Dile, (Dill-plant) Dillay 
Draca, (Dragon) (?) Drakestone 
Dryge, (Dry) Driffield 
Duce, (Duck) Doughton 
Dun, (Hill: Down) Down Hather- 

ley 

Eald, (Old) Oldworthy 
Ealdor, (Elder) Eldersfield 
East, (East) Aston, Eastleach 
Eard, (Earth Dwelling) Erdecote 
Ecg, The Edge 
Ellern, (Elder-tree) Ellernhill 

Fallow, (Fold) Falfield 

Faeger, (Fair) Fairford 

Fearn, (Fern) Farmcote 

Fif, (Five) Fiveacre, Fivehide 

Fild, Feld (Field), Fitton" 

Fleax, (Flax) Flaxley 

Forst, (Forest) Forstal. 

Fossa, (L) Fosse-way 

Fox, Foxcote 

Fram, (r.n.) Framilode, Framp- 

ton, Frenchay, Fraunton (?) 
Frith, (Wood) The Frith 
Ful, (Foul or, Full) Fulbrook 
Fyrs, (Furze) Freezing-hill 

Gsers, Graes (Grass) Garston 
Geat, (Gate or Opening) 
Gos, (Goose) Gosehomme 
Graf, (Grove) Grafton 
Grangea, (L) Grangebrook 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 



177 



Great, {Great) Gretton, Grete- 

stane 
Green, Green Street 

Halh, Healh (Comer : Meadow) 

Hailes 
Haesel, (Hazel) Haselton 
Hafoc, (Hawk) Hawkesbury 

(?) P.N. 
Haga, (Haw) 
Halig, (Holy) Holiwell 
Hangra, (Sloping Wood) Hunger- 
field 
Ham, (Home) Hampnet 
Hamm, (Enclosed Mead) Ham- 
brook 
Har, (Hoar, White) Harridge, 

Hoarstone 
Heah, (High), Hinton 
Heard, (Hard) Hardwick, Hard- 
land, Hartpury 
Hege, (Hedge) Hatherop 
Henn, (Bird) Henmarsh 
Henge (Steep) Hinchwick 
Heort, (Stag) Harford 
Higid, (Hyde) Hidcote (?) 
Hina (g. pi) (servants) , Highnam 
Hlith, (Slope) (?) Lidcomb 
Hlyp, Hlype (a land term, some- 
times meaning leap) (?)Lipyatt 
Hoc, (Hook) The Hoke 
Hon, How (Hill) The Howe 
Holh, (Hollow) Holbrook, Hollo- 
way, Holford 
Holegn, (Holly) Holenhurst, Hol- 

combe 
Holt, (Copse) 

Hop, (Valley) Hope Mansel 
Horu, (Mire) Horfield, Hormead 
Hreod, (Reed) Radwick 
Hrinda, (r-n) Rendcombe 



Hroc, (Rook) Rockhampton 
Hrycg, (Ridge) The Rudge 
Hwiet, (Wheat) Whaddon 
Hwit, (White) Whiteston 

Icenan, (r.n.) Itchington 

Incg, Ing (a Stream) Inchthorpe, 

Inchbrook 
Iren, (Iron), Iron-Acton 

King, Kingsholm, Kingshamm 

Lacu, (Stream) Lea Bailly, F.D. 

Lad, (Way, Course) Ladewent (?) 

LSs, (Less) Lasborough, Lass- 
ington 

Lang, (Long) Langtree, Long- 
borough, Longridge 

Leac, (leek) Leckhampton 

Leden, (r-n) 

Lin, (Flax) (?) Lincombe, Lilley- 
Horn 

Litster, (Fuller) Listercombe 

Llaned (W.) (a Clearing) Lancaut 

Lyd, (r-n) Lydney 

Lytel (Little) Littleton, Little- 
worth 

Maegden, (Maiden) Maidenhill 
Mier, (Mere) Mareford. F.D. 
(ge)Miere, (Boundary) Mereway 
Mareis, (Morass) Maresden 
Mean, (Common-land) Mean- 

mede 
Mersc, (Marsh) Marshfield 
Micge, (Midge) Mudgedown 
Mix, (Dung) Mixern 
Mor, (Moor, Mere) Morwood 
Mos, (Marsh) Moseley 
Muchel, (Great) Micheldean, 

Mickleton 



i 7 8 



APPENDIX 



Mune, (r) Munnow 

Mylen, (Mill) Mulebache. F.D. 

Mynecen, (Nuns) Minchinhamp- 
ton 

Mynster, (Monastery) Minster- 
worth 

(ge) Mythe, (Confluence) The 
Mythe 

Naess, (Ness) Nass, Ness, Nesley 

Nast, (Dirt) Nastend 

Neother, (Lower) Netherstrode 

Netherwent 
Niwe, Neowe (New) Newbold, 

Newent, Naunton, Newnham 
North, Norbury, Northwick 
Nup, (Knap) Nupend 
Nymet, (r-term) Nymphsfield 

Oc, (Oak) Oakhanger, Oakley 
Oxa, (Ox) Oxenhall, Oxhay 

Patch, (Plot) Patchway 

Pen, (W) (Headland) Penpole 

Penn, (Fold) Pindrup 

Pere, (Pear) Parham 

Pirige, (Pear Tree) Purton 

Piose, pise (Pea) Piseley 

Port, (L) (Market-town) Portway 

Pol, (Pool) Pool- Keynes, Pulton 

Preost (Priest) Prestbury, 

Preston 
Pucel, (Puck, Goblin) Picklenash 
Pwca, (W) Pouke (M.E.), Goblin 

(O.N., Pokk) 
Pyndan, (To Shut Up, Confine) 

(?) Pinswell 

(ge) Rad, (road) Radbrook 



Rah, (Roe) Rowell 

Rise, (Reed) Ruscombe, Rissing- 

ton 
Ruh, (Rough) Rownham, Ruar- 

den 

Ryge, (Rye) Ryton 
Ryne, (Runnel) 

Sallow, (Willow) Salleyvalletts 
Sand, Sandhurst, Saintbridge 
Satn,(W ) (Paven) Sarnway, Sam- 
hill, Sarndell 
Sceaga, (Shaw : Wood) Shag- 
borough 
Sceap, scip (Sheep) Shapridge, 

Shipton 
Scearp, (Sharp) Sharpness 
Scene,(Fair) Shenborough, Shen- 

ington 
Scir, (Clear) Sherborne 
Scir, (District) Shirehampton 
Sclatter, (a Slater) Slatterslade 
Sealh, (Willow) Salcombe 
Sealt, ( Salt) Saltway , Salperton ( ? ) 
Seofen, (Seven) Sevenhampton, 

Seven-Springs 
Seolfor, (Silver) Silver- Street 
Side, (Side) Syde (?) 
Sloh-tre, (Sloe-Tree) Slaughter 
Snsed, (Cut-off) Snedham 
Sol, (Mud) Soilwell 
SpSc, (Speech) Speech-house 
Spon, (Chip, Shaving) Sponway, 

Spoonley, Spoonbed 
Spring, (Source) Springfield 
Stan, (Stone) Stan way, Staunton, 

Standish 
Stapul, (Post) Stapleton 
Steort, (Start, Tail) Stardens 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 



179 



Stoccen, {Logs, Stumps) Stockley- 

way, Stocking 
Stow, (Place, Site) Stow-on-the- 

Wold 
Strait, (Street) Stratford 
Suth, (South) Southam 
Swan, (Bird) Swanhanger, 

Saniger 
Swill, (r-n) Swillgate 
Swin, (Swine) Swindon 
Synder, (sunder) Cinderford 

Temple, (belonging to the Tem- 
plars) Temple-Guiting 
Thorn, (Tree) Thornbury 
Throh, (Trough) Througham 
Trus, (Brushwood) Trewsbury 
Tun, (Farm) Tonley 
Twi, (Two) Twyford 



Ufera, (Over, Upper) Overbury 
Up, Upp (Upper) Upton, Up- 
thrup 

Wad, (Woad) Wadfield 
Waegen, (Wain) Wainlode 
(ge) Waesc, (flood), Washbrook, 

Washbourne 
Wealh, (The Stranger, or the 

Welshman) Walsworth 
Weall, (Wall) Walham 
Wic, (Wick, Village) Wykwar 
Wilig, (Willow) (?) Willicote 
Wincel, (Corner) Winchcomb 
Winter, (Winter) Winterbourne 
Withig, (Willow) Withybridge 
Worth, (Farm, Stead) Wortley 
Wudu, Widu (Wood) Wood- 

chester, Wotton 
Wyrm, (Wurm) Warmley 



PART II. 

Words occurring as Second Elements, or Suffixes 



Acre, Brechacre, Ellenacre, Hen- 
acre, Starveacre 

iErn, (House) Brewern, Mixern, 
Newern 

./Esc, (Ash-Tree) Avenage, Prin- 
kenash, Picklenash 

Bach, (M.E.) (Valley) Alwine- 

bache, Mulebache 
Bedd, (Bed) Sponbed 
Beorgh, Beorh (Hillock, Barrow) 

Brightwells Barrow 
Bois, (O.F.) (Wood) Hidcote- 

Boyce 



Broc, (Brook) Badbrook, Catty- 
brook 

Brycg, (Bridge) Bowbridge, Slim- 
bridge, Walbridge, Cambridge, 
Dudbridge 

Burh, Byrig (d.) Burg, Borough 
(Enclosure, Homestead, Vill, or 
Fort) Beckbury, Overbury, 
&c, &c. 

Burne, (Stream) Washbourne, 
Winterbourne, Isburne, Coles- 
bourne 

Butts, (A hutments of Land-strips) 
Hambutts 



i8o 



APPENDIX 



Caut, Cawed (W) [Clearing) Lan- 
caut 

Ceaster, (c-ch) (Town or Fort) 
Froucester, Gloucester, Ciren- 
cester 

Church, Ashchurch, Puckle- 
church 

Clif, (Cliff) Cleeve 

Clud, (Cloud : Rock) Cleeve-Cloud 

Cnoll, (Hill-top) Huddiknol, 
Knole 

Copp, (Summit) Berse-coppe. 
F.D. 

Cot, Cote (Cott, Hut) numerous. 
Coates, Sezincote 

Court, Boyce - Court, Droys- 
Court, Badamscourt 

Croft, (Small Farm) Ellerncroft 

Crois, (O.F.) (Cross) Bulscross, 
Cainscross, Damsels-cross (L. 
Crux) 

Cumb, (W.Cwm) (Valley) Bat- 
comb, Brimscomb, Pitch- 
combe, &c. 

Den, Dene (Valley) Calmsden, 
Culverdene, Cutsdean, Turk- 
dene 

Dene, mod; Dean. The Forest 
of Dene, comprising an ancient 
wooded tractcontaining many 
vales and streams, seems to 
point to the general signifi- 
cance of Forest, rather than 
that of a single valley 

Die, (Wall of Earth) Offa's Dyke 

Disc, (Dish) Standish 

Dun, Don (Down, Hill) Church- 
down, Mudgedown, Banner- 
down 



Ea,ey (stream) Ampney, Depeney 
Eaves, (Edge, Skirt of Wood- 
land) Bremeseaves. F.D. 
Ecg, (Edge) Weston-sub-Edge, 

Wotton-under-Edge 
Eg, ieg (g — y) (Island) Dunny, 

Olney, Blakeney, Epney 
Ende, (Bound, Limit) Blackwells- 

ende, Bremerende. F.D. Nup- 

end. 
Enese, or Evese, (Eaves) Bersen- 

ese, Morwodenese, Cnappesty- 

senese 

Fald, (Fold) Hold 

Feld, (Field) Bidfield, Brimsfield, 

Charfield 
Ford, (r-Crossing) Batsford, Baf- 

ford, Andoversford, Fairford, 

Cinderford 

Geat, yatt (Gate) Allesgate, 
Kiftsgate, Lypiatt 

Graf, (Grove) Bangrove, Highgrove 

Green, Buregrene, Caudle-green, 
Stroud Green 

Gwent, (W) Netherwent, Over- 
went (?) 

Hsec, (Hatch, Sluice-gate) Bown- 
ace, Bussage, Ninnage, (?) 
Chavenage 

Hieth, (Heath) (?) Wydcomesede 

Ham, (Home) Arlingham, Bown- 
ham, Cranham, Nottingham, 
(camp), about ten examples 

Hamm, (Enclosure, Mead) Al- 
wyneshomme, Gosehomme, 
Highnam, and fifteen more. 

Hangra, Hanger (Sloping Wood) 
Chiselhanger, Clinger, Saniger, 
Wishanger 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 



ISI 



Harbour (Refuge) Cold Harbour 

(3) 
Hegge, Hay (Fence, Hedge) 
Hid, Hide (Measure of Land) 

Fivehide, Hyde, Hunlanshide 

(Hullasey) 
Hliew, Hlaw, Low (Burial- 
mound) Bledisloe, Putloe, 

Botloe, Haglow, Eteloe* 
Hlinc, Lynch (a Cultivation- 
terrace) France Lynch, Ox- 

linch 
Hlith, (Slope) Heilithe 
Holt, (Wood, Copse) Acholt, 

Buckholt 
Hop, Hope (Valley) Cannop 
Holm, (ME) (a Meadow beside 

water) Kingsholm 
Hus, Bacchus, Stonehouse, 

Greenhouse 
Hreod, (Rush) Cleysladesreode. 

F.D. 
Hrycg, (Ridge) Brackridge, Der- 

ridge, Harridge 
Hull, Hyll (Hill) Paganhull, 

Aylerdeshull, Berry Hill, 

Bourghull 
Hyrne, Home (Angle, Corner) 

Lilley-horn 
Hyrst, Hurst (Wood) Deerhurst, 

Sandhurst, Holynhurst 

leg, eg (ey) (Island) Olney 
Incg, (Stream) Pilning, Guyting 

Knapp, (Head of Ground) Beallas 
Knap, Giddiknap, Dryknaps 



Lad, (gelad) (Way) Abload, 
Evenlode, Lechlade, Frami- 
lode, &c. 

Land, Buckland, Braceland, 
Newland, Brentlands 

Lane, Lain (Path) Blacklaines. 
F.D. 

Leah, ( Pasture, or Cultivated 
Land ; originally Wood, Clear- 
ing) Bulley, Ebley, &c. 

Meed, (Meadow) Agmead, Ivory- 
mead, Munmead 

Meand, (open Common landin the 
F. of Dean) Bream-meand, 
Lower Meand, The Meands. 
F.D. (App: iii). 

Mere, More (Mere or Pool) Black- 
mere, Bridgemare 

Mersc, (Marsh) Bickmarsh, Cat- 
marsh, Henmarsh 

Mor, (Moor) Ailsmore, Aldriches- 
more 

Naes,. (Ness) Sharpness, Nass, 
Blackness 

Ofer, (Bank of River) Elmore 

Patch (A Plot of Ground) Colpage 

Paeth, (Path) Bagpath 

Penn, (Fold) Hampen, Owlpen 

Plot, Alwinplot 

Pol, (Pool) Horspools 

Pyrige, (Peartree) Hartpury 

Quar, (Quarry) Catbrain Quarr, 
Monks Quarr 



* This form ' loe ' is chiefly found in the North of England and South of Scotland, 
and in Gloucestershire on tbe Forest of Dene side of Severn. 



Io2 



APPENDIX 



Ridding, Ruding (a Clearing) 
Ernesruding. F.D. 

SSte, (dwelling) Adsett 
Sceaga, Shaw (Wood, Copse) 

Fromshaw or Frenchay 
Scir, (a District) Pynnockshire 
Sceot, (Shoot) Cockshoot 
Scrybb, Scrub (Underwood) Not- 
tingham Scrub, Custom Scrubs 
Slaed, Slade (Valley) Castlett, 

Slatterslade, The Slad 
Slsep, (a Slippery Place), Postlip 
Slait, (a Cattle-Track) Cow Slait 
Stan, (Stone) Abson, Alveston, 

Drakestone, &c. 
Stede, Stead (a Place or Site) 

Hempstead 
Stow, (Place, Site) Briavelstow, 

Grimbaldstow 
Stig, (a Path) Cnappesty. F.D. 

Bicknorsty, Insty. F.D. 
Street, Street (Road, Way) Bread- 
street, Buckle-street, Green- 
street, Oakle-street, Silver- 
street, Wick-street. 

Thorn, (Tree) Fretherne 
Thorp, Throp, Thrupp (Village) 
Adlestrop, Boutherop, Brook- 



thorpe, Cockrup, Colthrop, 
Inchthorpe, Hatherop, Puck- 
rup, Pindrup, Southrop, 
Westrip, Williamstrip. 

Treow, (Tree) Bernintre 

Tun, (Enclosure, Farm) c. 120 
examples. 

Weg, (Way, Track) Blakmonnes- 
way, Holloway, Calfway, 
Daneway, Bourghullesway, 
Foss-way, Patchway 

Well, Wielle (Source, Spring) 
Lullingwell, Callowell, Box- 
well, Clearwell, Carswell 

Went, (Way, Road) Newent. Cf. 
Chaucer, Tro. ii., 815 

Wer, (Weir, Dam) Bigs weir, 
Bollewere 

Wic, Wyke (Village, Dairy-Farm, 
Hamlet) Cerney-wick, Hard- 
wick, Painswick, Wickwyk 

Wold, (Wood, Wild) Cotteswold, 
Wigwold 

Worth, (Farm, Dwelling) Alds- 
, worth, Chedworth, Badg- 
worth, Charingworth, &c. 

Worthyn, (same) Shepherdine, 
Ruardean 

Wudu, Widu (Wood) Barn wood, 
Morewode 



APPENDIX III. 



Meend. Myende, Meand. Frequent in the Forest of Dene ; 
as Clearwell Meand; Allaston Meand ; Lower Meand, &c. Dr. E. 
McClure (p. 158. Brit : Pl-N : note.) , connects it directly with 
the Cornish Menedh: Welsh Mynydd: i.e. The Long Minde 
(La Munede) Co. Salop ; signifying mountain, or ridge. I venture 
to think that this view rests upon insufficient basis. First of 
all, such ridges as are in the Forest have always been called so : 
i.e. Serridge. (13th c. Seyrrudge) ; and, when the 13th c. 
Forest-Scribe referred to an exceptional hill, he frankly terms it 
" Mons." Not a Single instance of Mynydd has survived in 
that peculiarly conservative region ; whereas there are over 
twenty Meands. Secondly, wherever this term occurs it carries 
the sense of open unfilled, or common, land, throughout the 
Bailiwicks ; in fact, it is identical with the Meanelands of Co. 
Kent : lands held in common (A.S. GemSne). That being so, it 
is of some interest to note that between the Church of St. Mary 
de Lode (i.e. ferry) and the Severn, at Gloucester, there is still a 
riverside hamm (homme) called Meanham(m). In Speed's Map. 
1610 it is duly marked Myen-ham. It was also known as the 
Mene-Mede. I find that there was a Great, and a little, Mene- 
Mead, and they adjoined. Over them the Mayor & Burgesses, 
as well as the Convent of St. Peter, possessed Common-pasture- 
rights. 

It is, therefore, of interest to find that the name of the short 
way which leads to the mead directly from the above-mentioned 
Church was known for centuries as "The Myende Lane," 
"Myinde Lone," " The Miindelone " also (pi) " Myinges Lane." 
(cf. c. Corp. Records. Ed.: W. H. Stevenson, 1893.) "lying 
between the land of the Abbot of Gloucester in the East and 
the land belonging to the Service of St. Mary in the Church of 
St. Mary before the gate (ante Portam) of the Abbey, on the 
West " 1423-4. (No. 1085). 



l8/j APPENDIX 

The other mentions, of the position and name of lane and 
meadow all agree. Thus, in 1303 (No. 773) it is called " The- 
miindelone." {sic.) ; while, in the Hist : etCart : S. Petri. (11.243.) 
the name is spelled " Mihindelone." (A.D. 1263), We find a 
Gloucestershiie parson, of Bagendon in 1330 called John of 
Mundlone (Cal : Pat : R : m. 136 b.). There can, then, be no 
question about the identity of the significance of Myen, or 
myende with regard to this lane and the meadows to which it 
gave direct access. The " d" would, therefore, seem to have 
accreted itself after the manner of the same letter in the term 
hind (hine O.E. hina a servant). 

[Since contributing the above to N. & Q. (May, 1913), P- 3 6 3. 
the interesting and satisfying reply of Dr, G. Krueger, of Berlin, 
reached me (1. c. p. 432). — "We have the same word denoting 
the same thing, viz. : die Allmende = Allgemeinde, belonging to 
the adj. gemein(e) = gemein-schaftlich (common). In Bavaria, 
the pasture held in common, die gemeinweide is called die 
Gemain, which corresponds exactly to O.E. gemaene."] 

But a more obscure point of interest arises if we turn to 
the Perambulatio Forestae de Dene of A.D. 1281. In this 
minute and valuable description of the bounds of the various 
Bailiwicks of that Forest, there is no mention whatever of a 
Meand; but several times there occurs the term " La Munede : 
which is precisely the same term used by the land-scribe in 
mediaeval Shropshire to describe the long Minde (La Munede). 
In the Perambulation, " Apud la holyene munede : ' is mentioned 
as a spot where an area for wood-cutting (Trenchea) begins, i.e. 
" at the Holly Munede." But as this cannot refer to a mountain 
or ridge in the Bailiwick of Berse, — what else can it refer to but 
the local meend, otherwise, Berse Common (to-day) ? " Et sic 
ultra le Muneden usque ad album lapidem " occurs among the 
boundaries of Lea Bailly ; " et una trenchea vocata de Pirihale 
.... duret usque "la Muned-way : " i.e. the path or road to 
the Meend, or Common-land (Cf. Myende-lone, above I) 

If my conjecture (for I will not venture to call it more,) 
should prove to be correct, it would shew that the error, (if 
such there be) in the term " Munede" as applied to "Meend " 
was probably due to the spelling of an A.N. Scribe who had 
been made familiar with its employment as a land-term in other 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 1 85 

and more Western Districts, and who had forgotten its precise 
meaning. 

The Rev. A. L. Mayhew aptly suggests, N. & Q. 11. s vii., 
p. 432, that " Munede is an A.N, form of a Med. Lat. Munila, 
for immunitas, a privileged district, — one immune from Seign- 
orial rights. The form munita would regularly become mynde 
in O.E. In the Glos. dialect this mynde would be represented 
quite regularly by the spelling and modern pronunciation, — 
meend." 



I