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Full text of "Book stack and shelving for libraries"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




Transferred to 



MAIN LIBRARY 



Cornell University Library 
Z685 .G79 1908 
++ 
Book stack and shelving for libraries / 




3 1924 031 032 208 
olln Overs 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031032208 






/^^ 1 s^ 



Lin ^h?V. 



BOOK STACK 
AND SHELVING 
FOR LIBRARIES 

DESIGNED BY BERNARD R. GREEN, C. E. 




THE SNEAD AND COMPANY 
~ IRON WORKS 
JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



U. S. PATENTS: 

No. 436,704 
No, 466,033 
No. 516,734 
No. 520,191 

No. 11,401 Re-issue 

No. 565,189 
No. 774,984 
No. 776,233 
No. 791.153 
No. 791,154 
No. 791.155 
No. 791,156 
No. 798,430 
No. 798,431 
No. 798,432 






Copyright, 1908, by 

THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

Jersey City, N. J. 



/ 



C>9^^6 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 
D EQUISITES OF A LIBRARY BoOK StACK. Every 

active library containing any considerable number of volumes requires an 
arrangement of shelving embodying all of the following features, namely : 

1 . Accommodation for books of every variety, size and kind of binding. 

2. Shelves easily and quickly adjustable and interchangeable by any library 
attendant and readily and compactly stowed away close at hand when temporarily 
displaced. 

3. Permitting every desirable classification, arrangement and rearrangement 
of the books at will. 

4. Affording free and instant access to any volume at any time. 

5. Having not only certain main corridors, stairs and lifts for direct access to 
the books and for free communication both laterally and vertically throughout the 
stack in its several tiers, but readily yielding additional passages anywhere. 

6. Proper supports for books on partially filled shelves. 

7. Maximum capacity and capability of indefinite extension. 

8. All surfaces permanently smooth and rounded to prevent injury to books 
or papers and protected from corrosion. 

9. Fireproof throughout. 

10. Thoroughly and safely illuminated by day and by night. 

1 1 . Naturally clean and readily kept free from accumulated dust. 

12. Furnishing no lodgment or comfort to book pests. 

13. Immunity from injury from leaky roof or ceiling. 

14. Even temperature and ventilation not only throughout the stack in general 
but through the individual shelves and their supports, so that practically the only 
obstruction to free circulation of air and light is offered by the books themselves. 

15. Free, easy and direct communication at will in any direction throughout 
the stack for the convenience of attendants. 

16. Convenience for all sorts of appropriate work everywhere in the stack, 
including direct access to books by readers when desirable as in the "open shelf" 
room, and the placing at convenient points of desks, cabinets, etc. 

17. The fewest separate parts or pieces and the simplest construction consistent 
with strength and rigidity. 

18. Location in close communication with reading, cataloguing and delivery 
rooms. 

[3] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



First Complete 
Bookstack System 
Installed in the 
Library of 
Congress 



Other Systems 
Partial Copies 
and Inferior 



ORIGINAL DESIGN. Until the construction of the great building for the 
Library of Congress was taken in hand for the shelving of millions of 
volumes of books, and the then rapidly increasing variety and bulk of library collec- 
tions of all kinds, no system of shelving on a large, complete and thoroughly eco- 
nomical scale had been devised. Some small stacks had been built of combinations 
of iron and wood, but all were ill ventilated, very unequally warmed, dusty, close 
and overheated in their upper parts, inconvenient of access and poorly lighted. 

Librarians were correspondingly dissatisfied and unhappy and the theory of 
shelving on the stack principle was consequently disapproved, and other schemes of 
single or of few tiers, with alcoves, etc., were attempted but found prohibitive in 
distances between parts, extent of administration, size of building and grounds, and 
therefore of cost of construction and maintenance. 

Of the eighteen requisites of a complete and satisfactory stack system of shelving 
above enumerated, scarcely one was to be found in any existing library. 

The problem was consequently new in almost all its elements. To solve it the 
needs of library administration were carefully studied and the results finally embodied 
in the system of shelving and stack construction which the Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C, now contains and which has met the unqualified approval of all 
librarians. 

It is this system of shelving devised by Mr. Green, the engineer in charge, 
which, with modifications and improvements up to date, adapting it to all modern 
requirements of libraries, large or small, public or private, is herein described and 
illustrated, as manufactured by The Snead & Co. Iron Works. 

As stated, this system was the original design, on a comprehensive scale, of 
modern shelving for libraries. All other systems competing with it are makeshifts 
based on it but modified in minor details for the purpose of avoiding the patents and 
gaining the market. 

None of them is an improvement, and all are, on the whole, inferior, because 
to reduce cost, certain details of the complete original have been omitted. 



Harvard College 
Library Contained 
First Metallic 
Stacks 



T TISTQRY. The original of the modern metallic book stack was designed for 
A A the extension of Gore Hall, the Library of Harvard College, at Cambridge, 
Mass., in i 875. 

It consisted of cast iron open work partitions or shelf supports and deck 

[41 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

framing, with cast iron perforated decks, and wooden shelves. This stack was 
copied in an extension of the Athenaeum Library, Boston, and for that of the Army 
Medical Library, in Washington. 

It was a distinct advance in compact permanent shelving in its day, but 
contained the comparative conditions of the architectural foundry work of the 
time. No other important advance had been made in economical, permanent, book 
shelving before the construction of the Library of Congress, begun in 1889, when 
the problem of the relatively mammoth stacks was presented. It was solved by Fireproof stack 
Mr. Green, the superintendent of the construction, by the design and inventions Librlryor 
which were carried out as the stacks now stand in the building, after an exhaustive "^""sress 
consideration of the needs of libraries and the available new materials and resources 
of the foundry and architectural iron manufacture at that time. The ground was 
so completely covered that few material improvements in methods, materials, or 
cost, have since been made, although many manufacturers have undertaken it, in 
competition with the Green stack in the market, and great numbers of stacks 
have been built throughout this and other countries. The natural cause of this is 
the extreme simplicity of parts and the minimum of quantity and space occupied system simple 
by the materials of construction attained, leaving the maximum of bulk avail- 
able for the books and reducing the cost to the lowest terms. 

The original stacks in the Library of Congress, three in number, nine tiers in capacity of 
height, containing forty-three miles of shelves with capacity for 2,000,000 volumes, cLgress stacks 
have been in constant and very active use for ten years without a hitch or com- ^.,000,000 volumes 
plaint of any kind. Not a shelf or other part of the great combination has given 
trouble, nor has any repair, however trifling, been needed and the whole is as perfect 
and serviceable as at the beginning. 

These stacks have therefore naturally been the standard towards which all other systems 
designs have been aimed from the start, and they have never been outclassed in any t,"/" 
particular. This is not merely the judgment of the interested manufacturers but 
the disinterested opinion of all who have really learned and understood the 

subject. 

Since the original stacks were built, the manufacturers, The Snead & Co. Iron improvements 

. , , ^ . . . . . , Introduced 

Works, have mtroduced the several periections in iron casting, connections, and 
beautiful workmanship that have been acquired in their manufacturing arts, so that 
their stacks of the present day contain material improvements. 

[5] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



Arrangement 



High Stacks 
Must Have 
Side Light 



Materials Fireproof 

Requirements 
for Shelves 



Construction 

Uniform 

Throughout 



Tiers Seven 
Feet High 

Shelf Supports 
Compact 

Flooring Marble 
or Glass 



Deck Slits 



Curb Angle 



Electric Lighting 
Best 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES. Books are most advantageously shelved in double- 
faced parallel ranges. Radial ranges waste space. Glass or illuminating 
tile decks will serve to transmit strong sky light down through one or two tiers, 
but not more. In lofty stacks, therefore, side lights are indispensable and must be 
amply provided where daylight is to be depended on. 

All parts should be of fireproof material. 

Shelves about 9 inches wide, 3 feet long ; thin as possible for strength and stiff- 
ness ; uniform size and interchangeable ; open work and light ; quickly adjustable, 
but firm and practically immovable when in place; perfectly flat without flanges or 
projections ; perfectly smooth all over, and free from sharp points or edges ; durable 
and permanently safe from corrosion or injurious coatings. 

Stack tiers uniform with and superimposed on each other, for greatest economy 
of space, interchangeability and convenience, besides best lighting and least expensive 
construction. 

Tiers about 7 feet from deck surface to deck surface. 

Partitions or shelf supports thin as possible, in open work and perfectly straight, 
flat, and rigid. 

Decks of solid material — preferably white marble, next glass, partly for trans- 
lucency. These give quiet decks. 

Aisle decks solid from side to side. 

Range decks, — those between the shelf ranges — solid through the middle with a 
longitudinal slit or opening 5 inches wide along each side for light, ventilation, oral 
communication, safety of lower shelf books from injury by cleaning decks, moving 
trucks, etc., through between the ranges, and for saving in first cost of deck 
material. 

Slits in decks protected by half-inch curb from articles or litter on deck being 
pushed off. 

Day lighting irregular, unsatisfactory and often uneconomical. Tolerable for 
small stacks or cases of shelving. 

Night use generally required making it indispensable to provide ample artificial 
lighting system. This often needed even in shelving used only in day time because 
of days darkened by clouds and short days of winter season in our latitude. 

Electric lighting at hand, perfectly safe and of moderate expense, if turned on 
in the shelving only where and while actually needed. 

[6] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

The stack should be as nearly as possible a stack of books, with the least possible 
actual material of construction visible after the books are in place. 

Therefore, of thin material and open work for ventilating; easy reach for construction 

d." ij r^ . ... ^ ■^ A y Should be Open 

ustmg; poor lodgment tor msects; communication between attendants; least boxed and simple 

in and close, and most cheerful and airy for the attendants; fewest separate parts or 
pieces in construction; exposed surfaces white for reflection of light; shelves adjust- 
able, to accommodate all kinds and sizes of books ; ample artificial light under easy 
control. Maximum simplicity and minimum cost. 

Quick intercommunication between parts and decks of stack, and with reading, communication 
catalogue rooms, etc., by means of stairs, elevators, mechanical carriers, telephones, etc. 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE BOOK STACK. As shown in figures i, 2 Ranges piaced 
Parallel 
and 3, (pages 23-24-25) the shelving is placed in parallel double ranges, at 

right angles to the walls, which admit both the daylight and electric light directly 

into the passages between the ranges. The ranges rise, tier on tier, to any desired 

height, at intervals of seven feet from deck to deck. This is the most convenient 

average height for reading the titles and handling the books on the top shelf. 

The shelf is of uniform size throughout the stack, and adjustable to any height. 

Its length and width may be made to suit the preference of librarians, three feet shelves 3', o" by 

8" or 10" 

being the standard length, and eight or ten inches the width. 

The double book range is therefore two shelves, or sixteen to twenty inches Ranges 4', 4" to 

K 2f on centers 

wide. The passage between the ranges should be from three to three and a half 
feet, and the total center to center interval of ranges is therefore from four feet four 
inches to five feet two inches. 

All tiers may thus be precisely alike in every detail, and the shelves adjustable shelves 

Interchangeable 

and interchangeable throughout the stack. 

The construction consists simply of cast iron skeleton shelf supports or uprights, stack of skeleton 

1/- 1 • iri* 1 ^• r ii Construction 

spaced the shelf-length apart, resting on the foundation and extending from deck to 
deck to the top of the stack. These partitions are steadied by attachment at top 
and bottom to the deck bars, which are the supports of the decks. 

The deck bars are of steel bolted to the uprights at each deck level, and con- Floor Framing 
necting the rows of uprights. The latter are also connected to each other at the uprights 
deck levels by flanged bars at right angles to the deck bars. All are connected con- 
tinuously through the stack, both laterally and longitudinally, from wall to wall, into 

[7] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



Flooring Solid 
and Fireproof 



Deck Slits 
Necessary 



Diaphragms 
Necessary 



which they are anchored, thus bracing the uprights at every story and preventing 
buckUng in the lower stories from the weight of books and decks above. 

The covering of the decks may be thin slabs of any fireproof material, prefer- 
ably white marble, rubbed above and polished underneath to reflect light. This 
covering is solid — without perforations or gratings — to prevent dust and litter from 
sifting through, but an open slit about five inches wide is left along each front of 
each book range for ventilation and light, and for conversation and the handing 
through, between decks, of books, papers, or other articles. This open space is of 
great value as a protection to the books on the bottom shelf from injury by the 
cleaning of decks, while it also saves expense in construction of the decks. 

A low flange is raised on the deck bar along this slit to prevent anything lying 
on the deck from being pushed off. 

A sheet-steel diaphragm is placed in each range, at each deck level to prevent 
dust from one story sifting down to the next, to prevent fire from running up, and 
to serve as a stepping plate for persons passing through any range from side to side 
when shelves are removed, and to avoid, when desirable, going around the range. 
It is also a stiffening web to the construction and serves as the bottom book shelf. 



Large Window 
Area Needed 



LIGHTING. When the stack has side windows, each window may consist 
of a single pane of polished plate glass as wide as the passage between ranges, 
and nearly or quite the full height of the story or tier, permanently set air-tight into 
the opening at the head of each passage. Those exposed to direct sunlight may be 
provided with blinds of translucent glass or other material, such as brass wire gauze, 
operated in gangs from one or several points. The exterior surface of the window 
glass may be washed from skeleton galleries permanently provided on the walls, from 
a hanging seat which can be raised or lowered, or by a stream from a hose. 

The artificial lighting should be by electricity only, with incandescent lamps. 
These may be of the "door-knob" or other pattern, snugly placed in the deck 
ceilings out of harm's way, difllising the light throughout each range or corridor. 



Shelves Best 
Supported at 
Four Points 



SHELF SUPPORTS AND SHELVES. The shelf partition or support is 
provided with a continuous row of blunt teeth on the front edge, and a cor- 
responding row of horns or hooks on each side at the back to carry the shelves, 
which in turn are provided with lugs on their front corners and claw notches near 

[8] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

their back corners. This arrangement permits quick adjustment of shelves throughout 
the entire height of the tier, and also the placing of opposite shelves of the same 
range at any one level, making a through shelf of double width, also the placing 
of shelves close together if desired to receive a large volume or two lying 
flat. 

There are no loose or movable pins, brackets, screws or other parts whatever, shelves compact 
The standing partition and the movable shelf comprise the whole outfit. At any LooseTarr 
point, the shelves, which are perfectly flat, like thin boards, may be removed and 
piled away at the top of the range, and leave all the space between the supports free 
for passage to and fro through the stack, or for any other purpose, such as the 
introduction of cabinets, etc. 

The shelf itself is preferably an open grating of parallel bars of steel, the top sheif should 
surfaces being about one-half inch wide, spaced about one-quarter of an inch apart construction 
in the clear, and perfectly smooth. These are connected across at the ends by a bar 
containing the lugs and claw notches for support, and they are also "bridged" at one 
or two intervals between the ends by a small rod, as shown in figure 6, page 29. 
The shelf is the most complete and perfect made, or ever likely to be made. It is 
illustrated and described on pages 48 and 49. 

All parts of the shelf and partition, with which books may come in contact, sheif should have 
are perfectly smooth all over and have a hard coating that will not wear off or injure smooth Finish 
the bindings of the books. 

It is evident that a shelf may be made of sheet metal or wood, even of slate or other Materials 
glass if desired, that will take the place of the iron bar shelf here described, by 
simply providing the claw notch and the metal lugs on the front corners. The 
somewhat less expensive wooden shelf may therefore be used in this system of 
shelving as well as in any other, and may even be made with parallel longitudinal 
slits if desired, so as to possess many of the merits of the metal shelf, including the 
attachment for the same book support used on the steel bar shelf. 

BOOK SUPPORTS. Taking advantage of the longitudinal spaces between The simplest and 
the parallel bars of the shelf, a locking toggle, passing between and hooking BoTkstop"™ 
under the bars, is placed on the foot flange of a vertical metallic plate, which, while 
movable up to the last book on the end of the shelf, automatically locks itself in 
position against the books. This device is shown in figure 7, page 29. 

[9] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



Secure Label 
Holder 



Endless Chain 
Book Carrier 



It is extremely simple, durable and inexpensive, and yet the most convenient 
and reliable book support yet devised. 

It has no loose or separate parts, may be used anywhere in the shelving, and 
may be instantly removed and stowed away when not needed. It goes equally well 
on top of the shelf, or, inverted, in position, on the bottom of the shelf for the sup- 
port of books on the shelf below. This is particularly advantageous with tall books, 
by holding against their tops. 

This support is as readily appUcable to a solid shelf, either of wood or metal, 
if a slit be made three or four inches from the front edge to receive the toggle. 

LABEL HOLDERS. Also utilizing the construction of the shelf a metal label 
holder is made to clamp over the first two bars at front of shelf, being entirely 
independent of the weight of books for holding in place. See figure 22, page 49. 

ELEVATOR AND STAIRS. The stack may be provided with stairways, and 
with an elevator capable of lifting one or more persons with a truck load of 
books, and of being operated by the passenger. 

BOOK CARRIER. In a suitable location, say the side of the elevator shaft, 
may be another shaft extending down to the basement, along which may run 
a closed box containing an endless chain or other suitable automatic book carrier, 
serving all of the stack decks and the terminal or delivery station. The carrier may 
be driven by power taken from the local steam, electric, or hydraulic plant, and run- 
ning continually and quietly, transport with dispatch, books or other light matter 
both ways between the reading room and the stack without dependence on foot 
messengers. Such an apparatus, combined with the telephone, pneumatic tube, or 
other signal of any desired kind, does away with much of the fatigue and waste of 
time formerly unavoidable in the service of readers. 



H 



Best 



EATING AND VENTILATION. The stack is warmed and ventilated by 
radiators, preferably of warm water, and auxiliary fans located underneath in 
Indirect Radiation the basement. Sufficient fresh out-door air is admitted into this chamber through 
filters, whence it passes through the basement floor and circulates upward and down- 
ward in the stacks through the deck slits. Discharge outlets are provided at the 
roof, controlled by hand and by thermostats. 

[ 'o] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

AIR CLEANING OR DUSTING. If stacks are kept closed with automatic stack Dust Proof 
^ swing doors, no dust will come in from outside, and only that produced 
by use of the stack and handling the books will have to be dealt with. Occasional 
removal of dust is possible by compressed or exhaust air methods. 



G 



ENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. The peculiar compactness and simphcity stacks may be of 
of the construction and arrangement of this book stack renders it entirely 



feasible to carry it up an indefinite number of stories and thus utilize space and 
light generally unattainable on or near the ground. With proper foundation and 
supports the stack may be put on top of the building where light is plentiful, leaving 
the lower stories available for other purposes, even many of those of the library 
itself. The new stacks of the Congressional Library, which are nine stories or tiers 
in height, might as well have been nineteen if required. The quick and handy 
modern elevator, the automatic book carrier, the electric telephone, and pneumatic 
tube, etc., render the lofty book stack, as well as the lofty modern office building, 
equally useful and convenient in every part. 

It is hardly necessary to mention that the low shelving of but one or two tiers 
in height, which is sufficient for the needs of small libraries, such as those of city 
districts, towns, smaller colleges, etc., is readily constructed on the same plan as the 
lofty stack. 



H 



OW ALL THE REQUISITES OF THE PERFECT BOOK STACK 



AND SHELVING ARE EMBODIED IN THIS DESIGN, i. The system Adapted 
uniformity in size of shelves, the ready doubling of their width at will, and their Books 
close adjustment to any desired height admit the shelving of books of any size or 
mixture of sizes whatever either standing on edge or lying flat, equally accessible 
and easily handled. If any shelf prove too wide, so that the books are liable to be 
pushed back out of sight, a wire or cord stretched behind and attached to the 
openwork partitions will hold them in place. 

2. The shelves are all precisely alike, made from one and the same pattern, sfieWes Easily 
and may be removed or dropped into place almost as quickly as a book can be. ^""^ 
Any one or any number of the shelves may be removed, even while full of books, 
if the books be not too heavy, readjusted or interchanged, at any moment without 
the slightest interference with any other shelf or its contents. 

[ II ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



System Adapted to 
Any Classification 



All Books 
Accessible 



Book Support 



Maximum 

Capacity 

Secured 



Cleaning Simple 



Thoroughly 
Fireproof 



Open Construction 
Diffuses Light 



This is rendered feasible, expeditious and convenient by the absence of anything 
to be adjusted to receive the shelf or any catches, pins, or other movable supports 
for which one must search or feel. All annoyance of dropping movable pieces on 
the floor or down among the books is entirely avoided. 

No shelf can slip off or tilt on its bearings. It may even be shifted with one 
hand while the other is otherwise occupied. Moreover, no shelf can be dislodged 
by any force from below or lifted off" its bearings more than about three-eighths of 
an inch, because it is then stopped by the next tooth above on the support. 

3. The shelves, once arranged for any particular classification of books, may 
be quickly and easily rearranged and shifted for any other. 

4. Every book can be reached or its title read, without climbing or stepping 
above the floor or deck. 

5. The main corridors of the stack room, the stairways and lifts, afford access 
to the books and free communication throughout the several tiers, and additional 
passages can be secured through the ranges themselves by merely removing the shelves. 

6. The book support or brace as applied to these shelves is by far the best 
ever devised. It depends solely upon its own shelf for attachment, is entirely inde- 
pendent of the spaces between shelves or the sizes of books, and is quickly and uni- 
versally adjustable on any part of the shelf. It may face either way, and a pair of 
them may be so placed as to isolate a few books in the middle of the shelf. It may 
also be attached to bottom of a shelf and hang downward, to secure the tops of the 
books on the shelf below. It is equally applicable and useful on wooden shelves. 

7. It is evident from the illustrations that a maximum of capacity and of in- 
definite vertical extension of the stack are secured by the general system described. 
On account of the minimum of space occupied by the shelf supports a saving in 
book storage capacity of 5% or more is made compared with most other systems. 

8. The simplicity of form and surface of the shelves and shelf supports, the 
only parts of the construction with which the books come in contact, render them 
very simple to polish and keep clean. 

9. The construction entirely and economically avoids the use of any combus- 
tible material whatever, and also every connection with anything to cause fire, 
through the warming or the artificial lighting apparatus or otherwise. 

10. It is evident from the accompanying illustrations of the Congressional 
Library stacks that the location and sizes of the windows, in connection with the 

[ iM 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

spacing and arrangement of the ranges and shelving, are such as to admit ample day- 
light to all parts of the shelving, even when filled solidly with books. As it seldom 
occurs, however, that some unfilled spaces do not exist on or between the shelves, 
the open skeleton construction of this system of shelving adds materially to the pene- 
tration and diffusion of light. The same is greatly enhanced also by the deck slits 
through which a great deal of light comes obliquely down directly from the sky 
through every upper window in the same range on both sides to the top of the 
stack. White marble decks and ceilings still further increase the illumination by 
reflection, and the stacks are well lighted at night by incandescent ceiling lamps in 
the aisles. 

1 1 . Dust is excluded by sealed windows, and by filters for the air admitted Exclusion 
for ventilation. That which may be brought in with the books or otherwise, or 
which is produced by handling the books, is of small amount. The permanently 
sealed windows are an absolute security against damage from thunder showers, and 
from winds or gusts laden with dust or moisture. 

12. The open grating of the shelves prevents the deposit of dust upon them, no Enclosed 
and therefore its accumulation at the back of the shelf, whence it is pushed by the 
books, as occurs with solid shelves. Roaches and other pests find on such a shelf 

but poor lodgment and much more light and air than they enjoy, while the books 
themselves, especially those much used, are benefited by the superior ventilation 
afforded. 

13. The top tier of each shelf range is capped with a flanged sheet steel plate. Books Protected 
which will shed any water that may leak through the roof or floor above, and thus 

secure the books at all times from such a source of injury. 

14. By means of the deck slits, so evenly and liberally distributed throughout unifo™ 
the stack, the open spaces through the decks at the window recesses, the extensive secured 
surface of window glass, and proper adjustable openings in the ceiling and lower 
floor, an ample circulation of air and nearly uniform temperature are secured 
throughout the stack. In very lofty stacks, a fan here and there may be needed in 
some situations, in summer weather. 

15. By removing the shelves from any range section a free and direct passage Passage Through 
is made through from range to range, which may be extended the entire length of 

the stack. 

The deck slits or slots in front of the ranges, being about five inches wide, are 

[ '3 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



Deck Slits 
Protect Books 



System Adaptable 



Window Seats 



Book Ledges 



Construction the 
Most Economical 



All Departments 
Connected 



most convenient for attendants to talk through to each other, even through several 
stories, and to pass books or other small articles through from deck to deck either 
above or below. 

Books may be shelved as low down as the floor or deck level without danger of 
injury to the bindings from sweeping or washing of the deck or of abrasion from 
passing trucks, because effectually guarded by the raised curb and intervening slot in 
the deck. 

This convenience is wanting in the continuous deck, and the slits are unob- 
jectionable. Articles are very rarely, if ever, dropped through, and then will never 
fall more than one story, while it is impossible for a person to step through without 
special effort. It has also been proved by experience that the deck slit does not 
expose attendants on one of the upper decks to the view of those below. 

1 6. The open arrangement of the framework permits the use of any range 
section or any number of them at any time for catalogue cabinets, closets, cases of 
drawers, small desks or tables, etc. The simple removal of the shelves renders these 
spaces thus available at a moment's notice. 

Every window in the range passages may contain a spacious permanent seat, in 
the full light, suited for the accommodation of the attendants or of special students 
who may be admitted to the stack. 

A ledge of six inches or more in width may readily be hung on the front of any 
book range, as a rest, and be quickly removed at will. The front teeth of the shelf 
supports furnish convenient and adjustable attachments for this purpose (fig. 5, page 27). 

Movable tables running on casters may also be used in the corridors. 

17. It is believed to be impossible to devise a construction simpler in every 
sense of the word, or more economically manufactured and installed, than that here 
described, fulfilling the essential requisites of either a large book stack or a small 
system of shelving in one tier. 

The cost in any case cannot exceed that of any other design for a good quality 
of workmanship and materials. At the same time the design lends itself to any 
degree of ornamental and elegant treatment that may be desirable for conspicuous or 
special locations. 

18. The automatic book carrier, elevator, pneumatic tube, and telephone fur- 
nish quick and direct communication between the stack and the reading or cata- 
loguing rooms. 

[ Hi 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

SHELVING FOR SMALL LIBRARIES AND BOOK CASES. Reference to 

^---' figures 24, 25, 26 and 29 will show how the shelves and supports, used for 

the large library or book stack, are entirely suited to any desired arrangement of shelving Adapted 

shelving on a smaller scale, without loss of any of the advantages possessed by stack uLZs 

shelving. 

The framework may be bolted together so as to be knocked down for removal, 
and the several parts, being chiefly bars and flat castings, of but few shapes and sizes, 
snugly packed into the smallest compass. 

Book shelving must always be pretty much the same thing whether in the form 
of a small book case, a small one-story library, or a book stack of any extent. 
Most of the parts, therefore, will be of standard shapes and sizes. 

GENERALLY. The adaptability of a properly designed book stack is as 
universal as the possibility of storing any large quantity of books in a classified 
and accessible arrangement. This is apparent on examination of the Green system 
of shelving. It can be placed anywhere, in single or double-faced arrangement ; is 
readily carried by floors or foundations of any sort, because its weight is uniformly 
distributed over the area and there are no important concentrated load points. This stacks can carry 
incidentally renders the stack a most economical support itself of stories and roof Above 
above, if desired. 

The main reading room floor of the new great Public Library of New York 
rests directly on the book stack, seven tiers in height, just beneath it. 

This stack structure is also so inconspicuous of itself, due to its light, skeleton 
form, that, when filled with books, practically nothing is visible but solid tiers of 
books with decks between them, forming a real stack of books. 

It is, moreover, a self-sustaining structure and needs essentially but a foundation 
or floor to stand on, or even to be suspended from, if that were desirable in any case. 
The walls and roof, as for an ice house, are needed only for protection from the 
weather and practically not at all for support. 

Such a structure is a true book stack. True Book stack 

It is built within a building and is not necessarily any part of it, — merely its 
furniture or content. 

Its minimum internal dimensions and relations of parts are determined by the 
sizes of the books and the stature of the persons who use it. A newspaper or map 

[ 'S] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

stack would be different internally from a stack for the ordinary sizes of books 
because the material to be shelved is more bulky. 

With electric illumination under convenient control, daylight is no longer 
Daylight not indlspcnsable and the stack may be located anywhere and be of any dimensions. 

Indispensable -^ r i i* 1 r 

regardless oi daylight or exposure to nre. 

The location is thus no longer a serious architectural or administrative question, 
and the Green stack easily lends itself to the solution of every problem of this 
nature. 

The undersigned are fully prepared to manufacture the book stacks, shelving, 
and book supports above described, and to submit designs and estimates for adapting 
them to any situation where fireproof, or even semi-fireproof construction (iron 
framework and supports with wooden shelves) is required. 

Correspondence is solicited from architects, trustees of libraries, or librarians, 
contemplating the erection of new libraries, or the modification or enlargement of 
existing shelving or book stacks. 

THE SNEAD & CO. IRON WORKS 

(Incorporated) 

Jersey City, N. J. 



[ .6] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

PARTIAL LIST OF LIBRARIES USING THE GREEN SYSTEM 
OF BOOK STACK AND SHELVING 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

SMITHMEYER & PELZ and EDWARD P. CASEY, Architects 

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

NEW YORK CITY 

CARRERE & HASTINGS, Architects 

CONVERSE MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

MALDEN, MASS. 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, Architects 

CARNEGIE PUBLIC LIBRARY 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS, Architect 

LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

STANFORD UNIVERSITY, CAL. 

CHARLES EDWARD HODGES, Architect 

CARNEGIE PUBLIC LIBRARY 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

JAMES A. RANDALL, Architect 

PUBLIC REFERENCE LIBRARY 

TORONTO, ONTARIO 

WICKSON & GREGG and A. H. CHAPMAN, Architects 

KRAUTH MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

LUTHERAN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, MT. AIRY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

WATSON & HUCKEL, Architects 

LOUISVILLE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY 

LOUISVILLE, KY. 

PILCHER & TACHAU, Architects 

PORTLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY 

PORTLAND, ME. 

F. H. FASSETT, Architect 

Y. M. C. A. LIBRARY 

NEW YORK CITY 

PARISH & SCHROEDER, Architects 

PARLIAMENTARY LIBRARY 

WELLINGTON, N. Z. 

JOHN CAMPBELL, Gov. Architect 
[ 17] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

MASONIC LIBRARY 

BOSTON, MASS. 

LORING & PHIPPS, Architects 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

NEW YORK CITY 

C. L. W. EIDLITZ, Architect 

KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

MANHATTAN, KAN. 

SEYMOUR DAVIS, Architect 

NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE LIBRARY 
CONCORD, N. H. 

A. P. CUTTING, Architect 

BLACKSTONE MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

BRANFORD, CONN. 

S. S. BEMAN, Architect 

INDIANA STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

TERRA HAUTE, IND. 

W. L. B. JENNEY and W. H. FLOYD, Architects 

LIBRARY OF THE NEW YORK LAW ASSOCIATION, U. S. P. O. BLDG. 

NEW YORK CITY 

U. S. Supervising Architect 

FALL RIVER PUBLIC LIBRARY 

FALL RIVER, MASS. 

CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON, Architects 

VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY 

RICHMOND, VA. 

W. M. POINDEXTER, Architect 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

CANTON, MASS. 

WINSLOW & BIGELOW, Architects 

RIDGEFIELD MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

RIDGEFIELD, CONN. 

RALEIGH C. GILDERSLEEVE, Architect 

GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

NEW YORK CITY 

CHAS. C. HAIGHT, Architect 

FLOWER MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

WATERTOWN, N. Y. 

ORCHARD, LANSING & JORALEMON, Architects 
J. & R. LAMB, Interior Decorators 

[ i8 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

NEW YORK CITY 

ARNOLD W. BRUNNER, Architect 

ROCHESTER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

J. FOSTER WARNER, Architect 

EVANSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

EVANSTON, ILL. 

JAS. gamble ROGERS and CHAS. A. PHILLIPS, Architects 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS 

NEW YORK CITY 

RENWICK, ASPINWALL & OWEN, Architects 

HYDE PARK LIBRARY 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 

CLARKE & RUSSELL, Architects 

MAINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

PORTLAND, ME. 

F. H. FASSETT, Architect 

APPELLATE COURT LIBRARY 

MT. VERNON, ILL. 

SCHOOL OF MINES & METALLURGY 

ROLLA, MO. 

HOWE, HOIT, AND CUTLER, Architects 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA LIBRARY 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

FURNESS & EVANS, Architects 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

WHEELING, W. VA. 

FLETCHER LIBRARY 

WESTFORD, MASS. 

H. M. FRANCIS, Architect 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

EXETER, N. H. 

ROTCH & TILDEN, Architects 

THE V^ESTERN COLLEGE FOR WOMEN 
OXFORD, OHIO 

RENWICK, ASPINWALL & RUSSELL, Architects 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

LITTLETON, MASS. 

PERKINS & BETTON, Architects 

[ '9] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

PACIFIC BRANCH LIBRARY 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

RAYMOND F. ALMIRALL, Architect 

CARROLL PARK BRANCH LIBRARY 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

WM. B. TUBBY & BRO., Architects 

WILLIAMSBURG BRANCH LIBRARY 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

WALKER & MORRIS, Architects 

ARMY WAR COLLEGE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, Architects 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

FRANK MILES DAY & BRO., Architects 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES 

N. Y. GENEALOGICAL & BIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

NEW YORK CITY 

U. S. NAVAL HOME 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

BENEDICT COLLEGE LIBRARY 

COLUMBIA, S. C. 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

RANKIN, KELLOGG & CRANE, Architects 

UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

NEW YORK CITY 

ALLEN & COLLENS, Architects 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

WILSON, HARRIS & RICHARDS, Architects 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

COPE & STEWARDSON, Architects 



[ 2° ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

(Figures i, 2 and 3) 

THESE general drawings of the North Stack, Library of Congress, are referred 
to in the preceding pages and illustrate a typical arrangement of the bookstack 
for a large library. Additional stairways and book lifts can be introduced if found 
desirable. 

A number of typical library plans will be found in the pages following. 



[ 22 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




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[ ^3 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




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BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



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CROSS SECTION OF THE NORTH STACK, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

(Figure 3) 

[ 25 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



RANGE FRONT AND INTERMEDIATE SHELF SUPPORT 

(Figures 4 and 5) 

THESE illustrate the typical supports for lo-inch shelves, the end support being 
called a range front. Each support is of a single thickness of cast iron, per- 
forated as shown, and the range front may be ornamented to suit the taste of the 
architect; see also figures 9, 17 and 19. Cast iron is the most important and the 
most necessary of all productions in metal. Its uses are multifarious, from the heavy 
structural parts in buildings, engines and machines to the beautiful and delicate 
architectural forms that adorn the interior and exterior of our finest edifices. 

The standard tier height is 7 ft. o in. from floor to floor, this being the limit 
for easy reaching of books and reading of titles on the upper shelves. The tier can 
be made 7 ft. 6 in. high if desired. 

In figure 5 the horns for supporting the back of the shelf are shown cast on the 
shelf support ; these can as well be of steel and placed on the vertical stiffening rib 
of the support; see also figures 13 and 15. 

For half-tone illustration of a range with shelf supports shown in figures 4 and 
5, see figure 25. 



[26] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



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ELEVATION OF 

20'' RANGE FRONT FOR lo'^ SHELF 

(Figure 4) 




Rjrtdble Ledge 



ELEVATION OF 
20" SHELF SUPPORT FOR 10" SHELF 

(Figure 5) 



[^7 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



SKELETON SHELF, BOOK SUPPORT AND 
PORTABLE LEDGE 

(Figures 6 and 7) 

THE mechanical construction of the shelf and book support are shown generally. 
For complete description of the shelf see page 48, and for half-tone illustra- 
tions see figures 21 and 22. 

In figure 6 a steel column is shown in connection with the shelf support ; this 
construction may be employed when the stack is unusually high or carries heavy 
loads above it. 



[ ^8 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



Steel columns areused 

v^r e ■ "the ■ stacks • carry 

heavy- loads ■ above 



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PLAN OF BOOK SHELF, BOOK SUPPORT AND PORTABLE LEDGE 

( Figure 6 ) 




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Rear View 



Side View 



BOOK SUPPORT 

(Figure 7) 



[29 1 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



PLAN OF DECK AND RANGES 

(Figure 8) 

THE relative positions of shelf supports, shelves, corridor, aisle, deck slits and 
window seat are shown in this enlarged plan. 

The shelf supports are but Vie of an inch thick and thereby consume a mini- 
mum amount of space, resulting in a maximum book storage capacity for our stack; 
being the full depth of the shelf compartment the supports brace the end books and 
the shelves are carried at their extreme outer corners. 

The shelves are not more than ^ of an inch apart at their back edges, this pre- 
vents small books from falling between and makes a through shelf for large books 
where opposite shelves are placed at the same level. 

Deck slits are usually 4 or 5 inches wide; they afford circulation of air and 
communication between decks, effect a saving in the cost of marble or glass flooring, 
and their curb angles prevent damage to books on the lower shelves from the feet, 
book trucks or the mopping of deck floor. 

See also figures 19 and 20. 



[ 30] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



RANGE FRONTS 

(Figures 9 and 10) 

THE designs shown here can be furnished if preferred to figure 4, or architects 
can make their own design. The narrow panel near the top can be made 
movable so as to be used as a card frame. 

Where it is desired to have separate control for the electric lights in each aisle 
between the ranges the vertical conduits and switch box may be carried up concealed 
in the sheet steel duct shown in figure i o ; these ducts are removable. A more 
economical method of controlling the aisle lights is by means of hanging tassel 
switches which do not require the iron ducts. 

For half-tone illustration of a range with front as shown in figure 9, see figure 24. 



[ 3^ ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




ELEVATION OF 

ao" RANGE FRONT FOR lo''' SHELF 
(Figure 9) 



ELEVATION OF 
20" RANGE FRONT FOR 10" SHELF 

SHOWING DUCT FOR ELECTRIC WIRES 

(Figure 10) 



[ 33 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



RANGE FRONTS 

(Figures 1 1 and 12) 

THIS design is similar to figures 9 and 10, but is shown adapted to an 8-inch 
shelf and only one tier high with cornice. For stacks of two or more tiers the 
upper tier is finished as here shown. 



[34] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



~777777777777777^77777777777777P77777777777777^7777777777777^7r/'''/777777T 

ELEVATION OF 

i6^^ RANGE FRONT FOR 8'^ SHELF 

( Figure 1 1 ) 




ELEVATION OF 
i6'^ RANGE FRONT FOR %'^ SHELF 

SHOWING DUCT FOR ELECTRIC WIRES 

(Figure 12) 



35 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



INTERMEDIATE SHELF SUPPORTS 

(Figures 13 and 14) 

THE 20-inch shelf support, figure 13, is similar to that shown in figure 5 except 
that the shelf-supporting horns are made of steel and placed on the stiffening 
rib of the shelf support. See figure 15. 

The shelf support for eight-inch shelves is here shown with the cast iron horns 
(see also figure 16), but the steel construction can be used as well. 

For half-tone illustrations of intermediate shelf supports in a range see figures 24 
and 25. 



[ 36 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




ELEVATION OF 
zo" SHELF SUPPORT 



ELEVATION OF 
16" SHELF SUPPORT 

S„OW,«G SMALL STEEL SUPPORTING HORNS AT BACK OP SHELF SHOWING SMALL CAST ,RON SUPPORTING HORNS AT 

(Figures) ^ ^ (Figure .4) 

[ 37 ] 



BACK OF SHELF 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



DETAIL SHOWING CONSTRUCTION AND 
SPECIAL FEATURES 

(Key to figures 15 and 16) 

(A) Open work shelf support, permitting free circulation of air and moderate 
light throughout the stack. It is only Vie-inch thick, giving a maximum space for 
books; of solid construction with no enclosed spaces for storing dust or harboring 

vermin. 

(B) Skeleton cold rolled steel adjustable shelf, also permitting free circulation 
of air throughout the stack; of minimum weight and maximum strength for sup- 
porting its load without deflection. 

These shelves always lie level, they never get in wind or rattle on their 
bearings. 

(C) Tooth for supporting fronts of shelves — the shelves of adjoining compart- 
ments can rest on the same tooth, permitting a thin support and doing away with 
lost space. 

(D) Interlocking device or horn, securing the shelf in its place and preventing 
its dislodgment when in position. 

(E) Book support, a rigid adjustable brace for books on partially filled shelves. 

(F) Diaphragm forming bottom shelf and a continuous brace at deck floors 
throughout the stack, also a fire, dust and water stop. 

(G) Deck slit generally 4 to 5 inches wide for circulation of air from deck to 
deck and for communication between decks. 

(H) Curb angle for receiving floor of marble or glass and for preventing the 
injury of books on bottom shelves by floor mop, book truck or the feet of attendants. 
(I) Deck floor of marble or glass or any other suitable material. 
(J) Deck floor girder. 



38] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




ISOMETRIC DRAWING OF 20" STACK 

WITH STEEL HORNS 

(Figure 15) 



39 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



DETAIL SHOWING CONSTRUCTION AND 
SPECIAL FEATURES 

(Figure i6) 

FOR key see preceding page. While the steel horns are shown for the twenty-inch 
stack and cast iron horns for the sixteen-inch stack, either construction can be 
adapted to each width of stack ; each performs its functions, viz., supporting the shelf, 
interlocking it and preventing its dislodgment by a blow or pull. The horns are all 
rounded and are out of the way of books and there is no liability of injury to books 
from either one or the other. 



[40] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




ISOMETRIC DRAWING OF iS'' STACK 

WITH CAST IRON HORNS 

( Figure I 6) 



41 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

CARR^RE & HASTINGS, Architects 

RANGE FRONT, INTERMEDIATE SUPPORT 
AND DECK FLOOR 

(Figures 17 and 18) 

IN the design of range front shown in figure 1 7 provision is made for numerals 
and orientation letters in connection with the shelf classification, and immediately 
below these is a metal card frame open at the ends. 

Within the stack and forming a part of the shelf supports are steel columns (see 
figure 6) ; in the New York Public Library these columns extend up through seven 
tiers and carry the reading room floor immediately above the stack. 



[4== ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




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ELEVATION OF 



19" RANGE FRONT FOR 9" SHELF 
(Figure 17) 



ELEVATION OF 

19" SHELF SUPPORT FOR 9" SHELF 

( Figure 18) 



43 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

(Figure 19) 

HIS shows practically the Library of Congress stack. Note the shelf ledge, 
window seat and deck slit. Refer to plan of deck, figure 8. 



[4+] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




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[45 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



THE BOOK STACK 

(Figure 20) 

THE type of construction shown employs the steel column within the stack as 
described for figures 17 and 18. One great advantage of this construction is 
that it affords an opportunity of omitting the shelves and shelf supports in any tier 
or part of a tier, thereby resulting in economy of first cost, as the shelving can be 
added as required. 

In either type of stack the shelves can be removed and the compartment utilized 
to form a passage through the stack or to receive a table resting on the bottom 
diaphragm plate. 



IMPORTANT. One of the officers in a large library was taken ill in January 
1908 with smallpox. The building was promptly closed to the public and some 
parts, but especially the bookstack erected by The Snead and Co. Iron Works, was 
disinfected with formaldehyde. The process was simple, owing to the open character 
of the stack, and there was not the slightest difficulty in the gas penetrating every- 
where except between the leaves of closely packed and tightly closed books, this 
being due of course to the books themselves and not at all to the shelves which held 
them. The open slits of the decks and the open work of the structure comprising 
the range fronts, shelf supports, book supports and open bar shelves, and the entire 
absence of hollow enclosed spaces all made thorough disinfection possible. 



[46] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF STACK 

(Figure 20) 

[47] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

SKELETON STEEL SHELF, BOOK SUPPORT 
AND LABEL HOLDER 

(Figures 21 and 22) 

ONE of the most important features of this system is the skeleton steel shelf 
which is illustrated on the opposite page. The construction is of very thin 
cold rolled steel, the bars being of inverted U section and the end pieces of L section, 
so connected as to be absolutely rigid when in place and capable of rough handling 
without loosening in any part. The shelf is made with a certain flexibility and 
resilience, preventing it from getting permanently in wind and becoming jammed 
between the supports, it always lies flat and cannot rattle on its bearings. 

All surfaces, especially the top which receives the books, are as smooth as 
polished glass and the tops of the bars are broad and rounded, so that books slide or 
rest on them without the least injury. Every part is free from sharp edges or points. 
After the shelf is made it is covered with a baked enamel that protects it from rust 
or corrosion in contact with the books. 

All shelves should be of the standard length of 3 feet and are 8 or i o inches 
wide; they are thus adjustable and interchangeable throughout the stack. A stand- 
ard lo-inch by 3-foot shelf weighs but 5^ pounds and will support a uniformly dis- 
tributed load of 40 pounds per square foot without deflecting more than one-eighth of 
an inch. It is of uniform strength from front to back and does not derive its strength 
from a flange at the back and front, such as a sheet metal shelf. 

The bar spaces furnish admirable attachment for the book supports and label hold- 
ers and prevent accumulation of dust on the shelf; they add materially to the diffusion 
and penetration of light and to proper ventilation through the individual ranges. 

Each shelf is complete in itself and there are no catches, pins or other movable 
supports for which one has to search or feel, and no screw driver or spirit level to 
be carried about in moving or adjusting the shelf. 

TEST OF SKELETON STEEL SHELF, io"x3'— o" 

Center Load Deflection 

62 lbs. 1/^g'' 

105 .« 1/8- 

150 - 3/,g/' 

207 " 5/jg'' 

264 " 3/8'' 

325 " %«" 

506 " 1^^" 

When this load was removed the shelf resumed its original shape. The same 
shelf finally collapsed under a center load of 712 lbs. 

Forty pounds per superficial foot equals 100 lbs. distributed load or 50 lbs. 
center load for this shelf. 

[48 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




PLAN 
(Figure 21 ) 




PERSPECTIVE VIEW 

WITH SHELF CUT OUT TO SHOW ATTACHMENT OF BOOK SUPPORT AND LABEL HOLDER 

( Figure 22) 
THE SKELETON STEEL SHELF 



+ 9 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



ROLLER SHELF 

(Figure 23) 

FOR large volumes laid flat and where sliding shelves are not desired this roller 
shelf is the best and strongest made; the methods of supporting and adjusting 
it are the same as for the standard skeleton shelf. 

The shelf frame consists of steel angles and bars securely riveted together, the 
rollers are provided with fixed steel pins at ends that turn freely on their bearings. 



[ 50] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




ROLLER SHELF 

(Figure 23) 



[s- ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

DOUBLE FACED RANGE OF TWO COMPARTMENTS 

(Figure 24) 

THIS illustrates a standard double faced range for lo-inch by 3-foot shelves with 
two compartments, the range being about 7^ feet high. 

The cast iron shelf supports are perforated, consistent with strength, to permit 
of the free circulation of hght and air throughout the stack ; they are about Vie of an 
inch in thickness, which considered in comparison with sheet metal construction 
gives a greater book storage capacity, generally about 4 per cent. more. 

The range front can be ornamented as desired and, being perforated, lends 
itself to the ready adjustment on the outside, by hooks or brackets, of label holders, 
shelf lists, notices, drop desks, etc., all of which are conveniences in library work. 
The narrow panel at the top can be provided with a metal card frame. 

All parts of the shelf supports are rounded and there are no sharp edges to 
injure bindings. The whole construction is open. There are no hollow enclosed 
inaccessible places where dust can accumulate and where rust can form or roaches 
and vermin be harbored. 

At the bottom of each compartment is a strong sheet steel diaphragm forming 
a shelf; where a stack is several tiers high this diaphragm serves as a continuation 
of the flooring to walk through the range whenever an open passage through any 
bay may be desired and is obtained by simply removing the shelves (see figure 20). 
The diaphragm also serves as a fire and dust stop. 

There is no finish for iron or steel which is permanent. It is therefore best 
to use for the fixed parts of a stack some coating such as paint or air drying enamel 
which can be renewed in place. Baked enamel is very hard and tough at first and 
presents a good appearance, but it will gradually become abraded and worn through 
the general wear and tear of ordinary usage. After a few years the color deadens 
and the enamel loses its life so that it chips and cracks, especially where applied on 
large surfaces. It can then be renewed only by rubbing oft' what remains of the 
coating, dipping the parts again and baking them in an oven at a high temperature. 
This process is impossible for the fixed parts and can be employed for the shelves alone. 

The standard cast iron shelf supports have been tested by the Ordnance De- 
partment of the United States Government at the Watertown Arsenal, Mass., and 
found amply strong to carry their loads. 

[ 5^ ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




RANGE FOR lo" SHELVES 
(Figure 24) 

[ 53 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



DOUBLE FACED RANGE OF SIX COMPARTMENTS 

(Figure 25) 

THE general description given for figure 24 applies as well here, the construction 
of the ranges being identical and only the design of the range front changing. 
It should be noted that the diagonal braces shown in figure 25 are not required 
where the range is attached to the wall or is connected at the top to the floor framing 
of an upper tier. 



I 54] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




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[55] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



WALL RANGE 

(Figure 26) 

FOR single faced ranges placed against the walls the ends are designed to har- 
monize with the double faced ranges, as will be seen by comparing figures 26 
with figure 24. 

These cases are suitable for offices and private residences as well as for libraries. 



[ 56] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




WALL RANGE FOR lo* SHELVES 
(Figure 26) 



57 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



ACCESSORIES 

THE skeleton shelves and the openness of the construction of the Green-Snead 
Book Stack render feasible the use of many convenient accessories to meet the 
needs of library administration. 

The perforations in the range fronts can be used to attach hanging card frames 
as shown on the opposite page. The shape, size and design of these may be varied 
to suit special requirements. 

It is frequently found necessary to have some means of preventing books from 
being pushed back too far on a shelf. The steel back stop shown serves this pur- 
pose as it can be secured by the keys through any of the slits in the shelf. This 
stop causes the fronts of books of regular depth to form a straight line and present a 
good appearance ; it prevents small books from being lost to view behind larger ones. 
It is especially useful in an open shelf room as the public is liable to be careless in 
replacing books. 

The special angle book support shown is a variation from that illustrated on page 
29, it is equally convenient, more easily cleaned and cheaper. 



[ 58 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



Shelf- Label-Holder. 




5Kelf 5rusK 




Detail • of -Back-Stop'-A" 





FICTION 



Detail -of 
Special -Book- Support -B" 



DetaU-of 
HandincJ- Card-Frame'-'C ' 



59] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



CAST IRON BRACKET STACK 

(Figures 27, 28 and 29) 

THE bracket stack has been introduced to meet the wants of libraries where it 
is desired to have the shelves in each compartment of varying widths from 
bottom to top, or where the funds available for the purchase of stacks are limited. 

In designing this type of bracket stack an effort was made to carry out as far 
as possible the same principles which were followed for our standard stack. The 
result has been to make a bracket stack far superior to any other. The shelf supports 
are of solid cast iron, wasting no space and avoiding any hollow inaccessible places 
where dust can collect or rust form. Each shelf consists of a cold rolled steel plate, 
flanged at the front and back, on which side brackets are bolted. A unique design 
has been adopted for the brackets so that when secured in place they are perfectly 
rigid and will always fit the supports. The front edge of each bracket is flanged to 
prevent it from entering between the leaves of a book and causing injury. This 
obviates a serious fault common to nearly every bracket stack. 

Figure 29 shows the shelves with perforated cast iron brackets. Shelves may 
be of wood. 

STEEL BRACKET STACK 

(Figures 30 and 31) 

A more economical bracket stack than the cast iron type is the construction 
shown in Figures 30 and 31. The stack and shelves throughout are made exclu- 
sively of steel. 

There is practically no loss of book storage space between adjoining compartments 
and the shelves are more easily adjusted and not so easily dislodged as in the bracket 
stacks of other makes. Each shelf bracket is supported on the upright at five points 
simultaneously. The shelves are similar in construction to those described above for 
the cast iron bracket stack. 

ORNAMENTAL ENDS 

(Figures 32 and 23) 

Where a bracket stack is installed for reasons of economy it is frequently 
desired that it present the appearance of a standard stack from an end view. This 
is attained by the use of a "closed end" which hides the books and shelves. Figure 
33 shows a "closed end" of cast iron. The design and ornament of this may be 
varied to suit the taste of the architect or librarian. 

Plainer ends can be furnished in cold rolled sheet steel. 

Pilaster ends as shown in Figure 32 may be used for either the cast iron or 
steel bracket stacks. 

[60] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 







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ELEVATION OF RANGE FRONT 

(Figure 27) 



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ELEVATION OF SHELF SUPPORT 

(Figure 28) 



CAST IRON BRACKET STACK 
[6. ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




CAST IRON BRACKET STACK 

(Figure 29) 

[62 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



• 7rj - /A^/) 



ELEVATION OF RANGE FRONT 
(Figure 30) 



^ First Floor- 




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STEEL BRACKET STACK 



ELEVATION OF SHELF SUPPORT 

(Figure 31) 



[63 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 





PILASTER END 

FOR BRACKET STACK 

(Figure 32) 



ORNAMENTAL CLOSED END 

FOR BRACKET STACK 

(Figure 33) 



[64 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



CAPACITY OF SHELVING 

IN ascertaining the quantity of shelving required to accommodate a certain num- 
ber of books the character of the library must be duly considered. 
For a law library but five volumes per running foot of shelf can be taken, for 
a scientific library seven volumes per foot, for a reference library eight volumes per 
foot and for a circulating public library ten volumes per foot. 

In stacks 7 or 7^ -ft. high, seven shelves (six adjustable and one fixed) are usu- 
ally counted in each single-faced 3-ft. shelf compartment. 

From the above data the follow^ing table is formulated : 





Vols. 


per running ft. 


Vols. 


per single- 


■faced 


Vols. 


per double-faced 






of shelf. 


3-ft- 


compartment. 


3-ft. 


. compartment. 


Law Library, 




5 




105 






210 


Scientific Library, . 




7 




147 






294 


Reference Library, . 




8 




168 






336 


Circulating Library, 




10 




210 






420 



The question of depth of shelf to be adopted must also be determined from 
the books to be shelved. In law and circulating public libraries an 8-in. shelf is 
widely used ; for a reference library several widths should be provided and for scien- 
tific collections the shelves are best 11 or 12 inches deep. 

It is of importance when comparing prices of different types of stacks to also 
compare their relative capacities. The amount of space available for storing books 
is not determined by the total length of each range multiplied by the number of 
shelves in each compartment, but by the net length of each shelf, found by meas- 
uring the clear distance between supports, multiplied by the total number of shelves. 



[65 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS OF BOOK STACKS AND 

DECK FLOORS 



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B — Shelf Support 
C — Wall Piece 



AVERAGED WEIGHTS 
Deck Floor Framing — 6 lbs. per sq. ft. Gross Area. 
y^" Glass Flooring — lo lbs. per sq. ft. Net Area. 
i^" Marble Flooring — 20 lbs. per sq. ft. Net Area. 
Stacks and Shelves — 10 lbs. per cu. ft. of Stack. 
Books — 20 lbs. per cu. ft. of Stack. 

Live load taken at 40 lbs. per square foot net area for top floor and reduced ten per cent, 
for each floor below. 

For Tables of Loads see pages 67 and 68. 



[ 66 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



TABLE OF LOADS 



USING y^" GLASS FLOORING 



TIER 


LOADS IN LBS. 


A 


B 


C 


1 2th, 


Dead, 

Live, 


770 
660 


1,190 

320 


160 


nth, 


Total from above, 

Dead, 

Live, 


i>430 

770 

595 


1,510 

1,190 

290 


755 
595 
145 


loth, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


2,795 
770 

535 


2,990 

1,190 

260 


1,495 

595 
130 


9th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


4,100 

770 
480 


4,440 
1,190 

240 


2,220 

595 
120 


8th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


5,350 
770 

435 


5,870 

1,190 

210 


2,935 
595 
105. 


7th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


6,555 

770 

390 

7,715 
770 

350 


7,270 

1,190 

190 


3,635 

595 

95 


6th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


8,650 
1,190 

170 


4,325 

595 

85 


5th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


8,835 
770 

315 


10,010 

1,190 

150 


5,005 

595 

75 


4th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


9,920 

770 
285 


11,350 

1,190 

140 


5,675 

595 

70 


3d, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


10,975 
770 


12,680 

1,190 

130 


6,340 
595 


2d. 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


12,000 
770 
230 


14,000 

1,190 

1 10 


7,000 

595 
55 


1st, 


Total, 


13,000 


15,300 


7,650 



[67] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



TABLE OF LOADS 

USING \y^" MARBLE FLOORING 



TIER 


LOADS IN LBS. 


A 


B 


C 


1 2th, 


Dead, 

Live, 


940 
660 


1,270 
320 


63 s 
160 


nth, 


Total from above. 

Dead, 

Live, 


1,600 
940 

595 


1.590 

1,270 
290 


795 
635 
145 


loth, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


3.135 
940 

535 


3,^50 
1,270 

260 


1.575 

635 
130 


9th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


4,610 
940 
480 


4,680 

1,270 
240 


2,340 

635 
120 


8th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


6,030 
940 

435 


6,190 

1,270 
210 


3.095 

635 

105 


7th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


7.405 
940 


7,670 

1,270 

190 


3.835 

63 s 

95 


6th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


^,735 
940 

350 


9.130 

1,270 
170 


4.565 
635 

85 


5th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


10,025 
940 

315 


10,570 

1,270 

150 


5.285 

635 

75 


4th, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


11,280 
940 
285 


11,990 

1,270 
140 


5^995 
63 s 

70 


3d, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


12,505 
940 

255 


13,400 

1,270 

130 


6,700 

635 
65 


2d, 


Total, 

Dead, 

Live, 


13,700 
940 
230 


14,800 

1,270 

no 


7.400 

635 

55 


1st, 


Total, 


14,870 


16,180 


8,090 



[68] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING 

EVERY stack room, whether provided with windows or surrounded by blank 
walls, is dependent at times upon artificial illumination and this should be 
provided only by means of incandescent electric lamps placed in the ceiling of the 
stack aisles and corridors, the conduits containing the wires being supported directly 
by the deck framing. 

The distribution of light and method of control may be varied to suit the individual 
requirements, the lights, however should be not more than six feet apart in the stack 
aisles and from twelve to fourteen feet apart in the corridors. 

For separate control of the lights in each stack aisle between the ranges switches 
may be placed on the stack ends, the vertical conduits or risers being enclosed in iron 
ducts, or a hanging tassel switch can be used. The latter form answers every purpose 
and is the more economical because of not requiring the vertical conduits or ducts. 
It has the further advantage of leaving all the wiring and switches easily accessible 
for alteration or repair. For a stack room open to readers it is best to have the 
lights controlled individually by means of a key or chain pull. 

In the large libraries, notably the Library of Congress and the New York 
Public Library, each stack floor is divided into several sections and all of the wires 
brought to central points where switch boards are located to control the lighting of 
the respective sections. This greatly reduces the cost of installation and has the 
advantage of grouping the switches at convenient points where the library attendants 
pass regularly. 



[69] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



BOOK LIFTS 

FOR a small library with a stack of two or three tiers the vertical book lift is 
usually of the dumb-waiter type, the car being of wood or sheet steel two 
shelves high and operated by a hand rope. The upper shelf should be hinged at the 
back and arranged to drop down when large books are to be carried. 

In a high stack the same style of car may be used but the power should be 
electric with automatic push button control. With this arrangement the car may 
be sent to or brought from any landing by pushing the proper button and it stops 
automatically at the desired landing. The doors in the enclosure of the book lift shaft 
are equipped with automatic switches which prevent the starting of the car until all 
doors are closed. The electric lifts generally operate with a speed of from loo to 
150 feet per minute with a capacity of from 100 to 300 pounds. 

When it is necessary to convey the books horizontally from one part of the 
building to another mechanical carriers are employed and these can be designed to 
serve as both carrier and lift operating as an endless chain. 



[7°] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

SMITHMEYER & PELZ AND EDWARD P. CASEY, Architects 



[ 71 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

SMITHMEYER & PELZ AND EDWARD P. CASEY, Architects 

AN Act of Congress, passed April i 5, 1886, authorized the construction of a library 
^ building substantially according to the plan submitted by John L. Smithmeyer 
in the Italian renaissance style of architecture, with such modifications as might be 
found necessary or advantageous. 

The original designs for the building were furnished by John L. Smithmeyer and 
Paul J. Pelz and the architectural details were worked out by Paul J. Pelz and Edward 
P. Casey. The construction of the building was under the direction of a commission 
until October, 1888, when, before the foundations were laid, the commission was 
abolished by Congress and the work placed under the control of General Thomas L. 
Casey, the Chief of Engineers of the Army, with directions to submit a plan for 
approval. He placed Bernard R. Green in charge as superintendent and engineer, 
who, upon the death of General Casey, March 25, 1896, succeeded to full control 
until the building was completed February 28, 1897, ^' ^^^ "^^^^ of $6,344,585.34, 
exclusive of the land. 

The building is approximately 470 feet by 340 feet with four inner courts 150 
feet by 75 feet to 100 feet, and consists of cellar, basement, first, second and attic 
stories, with an octagonal dome rising 120 feet above the main roof. It has 32,600 
square feet, or nearly eight acres of floor space. 

The central feature is the main reading room, i 00 feet in diameter, extending 
from the first floor 125 feet to the inner dome and lighted through eight large arched 
windows in the clerestory. It has 210 desks and 36 alcove tables and can accom- 
modate 250 readers at one time. In the alcoves there are two stories of metal 
shelving holding over 120,000 volumes. The issue desk is in the center of the 
reading room ; it is connected with the three stacks by pneumatic tubes and with the 
two main stacks with mechanical book carriers. 

Each stack has nine "decks" or floors, seven feet from floor to floor. The 
dimensions and capacities of the stacks are as follows : 

North Stack, 44' 8" x no' o" x 65' o" high — capacity, 713,500 volumes 
South Stack, 44' 8" X no' o" X 65' o" " " 713,500 " 

East Stack, 44' 8" x 30' o" x 65' o" " " 173,000 

Total capacity, 1,600,000 volumes 

[ n ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

The first story also contains the senators' reading room and the representatives' 
reading room, besides rooms set apart for periodicals, maps and charts, bibliography, 
cataloguing, order division, general administration and the librarian. 

The divisions of manuscripts, documents, prints, exhibits of books, manuscripts 
and prints, and the Smithsonian division are located in the second story. The Smith- 
sonian room is I 3 1 feet long by 3 5 feet wide and has a book stack of three decks 
with capacity of about 150,000 volumes, provided with an electric elevator. 

A three tier stack has also been installed in the north curtain, second floor, for 
manuscripts and documents, the total capacity being 250,000 volumes. The westerly 
stacks in the first tier are enclosed with plate glass for greater security. 

The building already contains some 56 miles of shelving for books not inclusive 
of that for prints, music and maps and charts. 

In the attic are rooms for photography, repair of prints and manuscripts, storage, 
a public restaurant, and a room containing a book stack of 80,000 volumes capacity 
for the Slavic section. 

Outside of the three main stacks the basement story contains the reading room 
for the blind, the departments of music and copyrights, a branch of the Government 
Printing Ofiice, the offices of the superintendent, chief clerk and the watch, and 
the mail room which handles all material arriving at or dispatched from the library 
building, including all mail matter and books delivered for outside use. 

The cellar space is devoted to the machinery room, heating apparatus, work- 
shops and storage. The boilers and coal vaults are located under the parking, near 
but quite outside the building at the east front. 



[73 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




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THE MAIN READING ROOM, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

SMITHMEYER & PELZ AND EDWARD P. CASEY, Architects 



[78 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




VIEW AT STAIRWAY IN THE NORTH STACK, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
SMITHMEYER & PELZ AND EDWARD P. CASEY, Architects 

[ 79 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




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BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

NEW YORK CITY 



CARRERE & HASTINGS, Architects 



[83] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

CARRERE & HASTINGS, Architects 

THE New York Public Library was founded on the 23d of May, 1895, by the 
consolidation of the Astor Library, Lenox Library and the Tilden Trust, a 
board of twenty-one trustees being elected from the boards of these three corporations. 
Provision was made for maintaining a free public library, with such branches as 
might be considered advisable. 

The site chosen for the main building was in Bryant Park on Fifth Avenue 
between 40th and 42d streets, at the easterly end then occupied by the old 
reservoir. The Legislature passed a law in May, 1896, authorizing the removal 
of the reservoir and the lease of the land to the Library, and a year later an act was 
passed providing for the construction by the city of a library building on this 
site. 

On November i i, 1897, *^^ architects were selected in competition for the new 
building and in December the plans were approved by the city. The removal of 
the reservoir was begun in June, 1899, and the entire building was under roof at the 
end of November, 1906. Since that time the construction has progressed as rapidly 
as possible with a structure of this monumental character and it is expected that the 
building will be completed by 191 1 at a total cost of over $7,000,000.00. 

The general dimensions of the building are 390 feet front by 270 feet deep and 
the heights of the floors are as follows: — cellar, 13 feet; basement, 15 feet; first story, 
22 feet 6 inches; second story, 16 feet; third story, ceiling height 11 to 23 feet; 
main reading room, 50 feet. The area covered by the library exclusive of the open 
south court, is 1 15,000 square feet. The north court is enclosed under a glass roof. 
The total floor space, exclusive of the cellar, is nearly nine acres. 

The basement is the main floor of the building so far as the business of the 
library is concerned. It contains the lending delivery room entered directly by the 
entrance to the north. Along the front to the south and extending down the side 
to the driveway entering the south court are the book binding department and print- 
ing office. Across the corridor from the front is a lunch room for library employees. 

The principal entrance to the first floor gives direct access to the rotunda. At the 
right as one enters is the technical science reading room. Across the corridor are 
the reading room for the blind, the elevator hall and lobby. Toward the rear on this 
side are two small reading rooms, and back of them is a large room devoted to patents. 

[84] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

At the left of the rotunda in the first story is the periodical room occupying 
the entire corner. Opposite this are several small rooms, among them a reception 
room. 

The south side of this floor is given up to the administration of the library and 
there are the offices of the superintendent, the working room of the clerks, the office 
of the chief of circulation, and a receiving and checking room. 

The second story, as can be seen on the plan, contains rooms for applied science, 
economics and documents, the Hebrew room and the Russian room, the director's 
and trustee's rooms, and space for a series of small studies, the order, cataloguing and 
accessions rooms. 

On the third floor, in a large room over the rotunda in the center of the front, 
will be the Stuart collection of rare works. Other rooms on this floor are for music, 
photography, art and architecture, prints, manuscripts, maps, picture galleries and read- 
ing rooms. 

The main bookstack occupies the larger part of the rear of the building and 
extends upward through the basement, first and second stories. It is 297 feet long, 
78 feet wide, and is made up of seven tiers each 7 feet 6 inches high with marble 
floors. Each tier contains 978 double-faced compartments for 9-inch shelves and 
146 compartments for i 2-inch shelves. Along the walls are compartments 24 inches, 
26 inches and 30 inches deep, fitted with sliding shelves. In all the main stack 
contains 96,000 adjustable and 16,000 fixed shelves, which, placed end to end, would 
extend a distance of 63 miles; the capacity of this big stack is 3,200,000 volumes. 
In 53 other rooms in the basement, first, second and third stories metal bookstacks 
are provided with a combined capacity of 900,000 volumes, making the building's 
total capacity over 4,000,000 books. 

On the third floor immediately above the main stack and carried by it is the 
main reading room, 76 feet by 295 feet, capable of seating about 700 readers. 
The roof is high, rising above the main portion of the building, and the room is 
lighted by a series of windows on both sides of its entire length. In the center 
is the delivery department, the electric elevators and the pneumatic tubes con- 
necting with the stack room below. 

One of the features of this library is a vacuum sweeper system and this will be 
utilized in cleaning the books and stack room shelves, doing away with the old time 
microbe-scattering brushes and dust cloths. 

[8s ] 



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INTERMEDIATE TIER OF STACK, NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

(showing ventilating duct enclosed with cast iron plates) 

CARRERE & HASTINGS, Akchitects 



[95 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




MODEL OF STACK. FOR NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 
CARRhRK & HASTINGS, Architects 



96 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



TYPICAL PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF 

SMALLER LIBRARIES EQUIPPED WITH 

BOOK STACKS 

MANUFACTURED AND INSTALLED BY 

THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 
JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



[97] 



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LOUISVILLE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY 
LOUISVILLE, KY. 

PILCHER & TACHAU, Architects 

THE general plan of this building is T-shaped with the entrance at the center, 
the public rooms in front, the stack room and office rooms in the rear in the 
base of the T. 

On the main floor the delivery desk is immediately in front, with a large reading 
room and reference room to the right, and an open shelf room to the left where 
20,000 volumes will be accessible to the public. Immediately back of the delivery 
desk is the stack room of five floors with a capacity of over 200,000 volumes, and 
around it in the basement and first stories are offices, order, cataloguing and supply 
rooms. 

On the second floor the left wing is occupied by the children's room and a 
small annex for teachers. The right wing has class, study and art rooms. There 
is a third story over the delivery room which will be used for museum purposes. 
The two upper floors of the stack rise above the roof and are lighted directly through 
windows opposite each aisle. 

In the basement a lecture room with janitor and service rooms are located in 
the left wing, and in the right wing are rooms for newspapers and public documents. 
Immediately under the dehvery room is the fan, air-washing and other machinery. 
This building is equipped with a vacuum cleaning system and in the stack room an 
electric elevator and book lift have been installed. 

The general outline of the building is conventional but the arrangement of the 
stack and work rooms is unique. A very strong point is the compactness of the 
whole arrangement centering at the delivery desk, which makes it well adapted for 
work. 



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EVANSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, EVANSTON, ILL. 

JAS. GAMBLE ROGERS AND CHAS. A. PHILLIPS, Aechitects 

THE general dimensions of this building are 109 feet front by 90 feet in depth 
and the construction is fireproof throughout with the exception of the interior 
wood trim. The exterior is a beautiful example of simple classical design. 

On the first floor the vestibule opens directly into the delivery hall beyond 
which are the loan desk and the stack room. At either side of the hall are the 
reading room and children's room, a view of each of these rooms being easily com- 
manded from the loan desk. 

The stack room extends to four stories in height ; the basement tier is 1 1 ft. 4 
in. high, the next two tiers 7 ft. 6 in., and the fourth tier 6 ft. 6 in. high, with a 
total capacity of about 103,000 volumes. A skylight extends over nearly the entire 
area of this room. 

The three walls of the stack room are laid up in a light buff colored face brick 
with all external angles rounded. The columns at the front of this room and all of 
the principal rooms in the first story are finished and furnished in mahogany. 

Opening to the right of the stack room and connecting with the reading room 
is a large reference room 23 feet by 55 feet. At the left are the librarian's office 
and work rooms, and directly over them is the mezzanine story containing the 
directors' room, music room, the staff room and lavatory. 

An audience or lecture room designed to accommodate about one hundred and 
fifty persons is provided in the basement, also a room for the use of the Evanston 
Historical Society, a room for boys and space for the janitor's quarters, men's lavatory, 
the heating and ventilating plant and the unpacking room. 



[ .0+] 



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EVANSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, EVANSTON, ILL. 
JAS. GAMBLE ROGERS AND CHAS. A. PHILLIPS, Architects 



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KRAUTH MEMORIAL LIBRARY, LUTHERAN 

THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, MT. AIRY, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

WATSON & HUCK.EL, Architects 

THE building consists of a central tower, two wings and a rear extension for 
the stack. The reading room, the central feature of the building, is about 35 
feet square and 61 feet high, running through two stories to the roof, with an 
octagonal gallery at the second floor where are hung portraits, engravings, etc. This 
room is lighted by great upper windows and by a skylight. 

The stack room is entirely fireproof, being separated from the rest of the 
building by a solid wall of masonry and "fire doors." There are three tiers of 
bookstacks, each jY^ feet in height, with glass floors between the stories; the total 
capacity of the stack is 98,000 volumes. The two rooms for the liturgical library 
and archives contain wall stacks i 2 feet high with a capacity of 7,000 volumes. 

The wing containing the auditorium is of one story. This room is for lectures 
and other purposes, finished in a churchly style and capable of seating 150 persons. 

The other wing is of two stories above the basement, containing the periodical, 
librarian's and cataloguing rooms on the first floor, and a large seminar room and 
three research rooms on the second floor. 

In the basement are found unpacking rooms, bindery, toilets and a large 
dining hall and kitchen. 



[ 'oS ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




KRAUTH MEMORIAL LIBRARY, MT. AIRY, PA. 

WATSON & HUCKEL, AKLHITECTa 



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BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY, WILLIAMSBURG 
BRANCH, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

WALKER & MORRIS, Architects 

THE Williamsburg Branch is the largest of the Brooklyn Branches of the Carnegie 
Library System and occupies a triangular site facing Division Avenue and 
bounded by Marcey Avenue and Rodney Street, thus securing exceptional lighting 
for all rooms. 

Taking advantage of the peculiarities of the site, the building has been so 
designed that the central delivery desk is the pivotal point. Here the librarian has 
complete supervision of all this floor, including even the radial aisles in the stack 
room; at the same time the children's reading room and the main reading room are 
effectually separated from each other by the change in the direction of their axes. 

The stacks are in two tiers and the intermediate glass floor extends over the 
librarian's and staff locker rooms at a height of 7 ft. 3 in. above the main floor. 

The second story contains reading, reference, cataloguing, storage, librarian's 
and staff rooms. 

In the basement immediately under the main reading room is a lecture hall 
about 30 ft. by 50 ft. with stage, two anterooms and toilet. The other basement 
wing contains work and storage rooms, and in the space underneath the stack room 
will be found toilets, boiler and fan rooms and coal storage. 

The corner stone was laid November 28, 1903, and the completed building 
opened to the pubHc for distribution of books on the 30th of January, 1905. Its 
total capacity including the radial stacks and book shelving is 50,000 volumes. A 
young men's debating club, school boys' literary club and public lectures held once 
a week in the auditorium, are educational features carried on in this branch. 



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BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY, PACIFIC BRANCH 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

RAYMOND F. ALMIRALL, Architect 

THE Pacific Branch Library is situated at the corner of Fourth Avenue and 
I 2th Street, Brooklyn. The exterior of brick and terra cotta is in good charac- 
ter and well denotes the purpose of the building. 

Entering through the vestibule and hall access to the rooms in the first and 
second stories can be had only through the stack and reading room, thereby causing 
all visitors to pass in full view of the delivery desk. The radial stacks are grouped 
in pairs with wide aisles between the groups for the reception of reading tables in 
each of the two stack tiers. The total capacity of the stacks is 30,000 volumes. 

At either side of the hall and entered from the stack room are the reference 
room, staff and librarian's rooms. 

The front basement contains the machinery room, boiler room, work room and 
toilets. At the rear and occupying the entire area under the stack room is a well 
lighted lecture hall with anteroom and janitor's room. 

A feature of this library is the children's room which occupies the entire second 
story over the stack and reading rooms. It is fitted with tables, chairs, shelving and 
a fireplace. At the front of the building in this story two study rooms each 20 
feet 6 inches by 27 feet 3 inches are provided. 



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THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY, CARROLL PARK BRANCH 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

WM. B. TUBBY & BRO., Architects 

THE plan of this building is radically different from that of either branch library 
illustrated in the preceding pages but is admirably worked out and adapted to 
its site. The first story rooms have a ceiling about 21 feet high and are lighted 
through large windows extending nearly the full height, in addition to which ample 
skylights are placed over the reading room, children's room and the delivery desk. 
The partitions between the front rooms in this story are only four feet high, enabling 
the attendants at the desk to command the entire floor. 

At the rear is the stack room 23 ft. by 37 ft. containing two stories of metal 
stacks with capacity of 29,000 volumes. The outer faces of these stacks have been 
provided with closed box ends to accommodate the electric conduits and switch boxes 
that control the lighting of the stack room. 

The other public rooms in this building are located in the basement. At the 
left under the reading room will be found two study rooms each about i 2 ft. 6 in. 
by 16 ft. 6 in. and one study 23 ft. by 33 ft. At the right are the work room and 
staff room, each 17 ft. by 23 ft. 6 in., a room for the janitor and lavatories for the 
staff and for the public. 

In the center and rear basement directly under the stacks and delivery desk is a 
fine lecture room 36 ft. 9 in. by 45 ft. fitted with a stage, well lighted and having 
a direct entrance from the street. 

A cellar has been excavated on the right hand side below the staff" and work 
rooms and space provided here for the fan, boiler and coal rooms. The remaining 
area of the building has not been excavated below the basement floor. 



[ '^o ] 



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BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY, CARROLL PARK BRANCH 
VViVl. B TUBBY & BRO., Architects 



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BOOK STACKS IN FIKST STORY 




BOOK STACKS IN BASEMENT 

FLOWER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, WATERTOWN, N. Y. 

ORCHARD, LANSING & JORALEMON, Ahciiitects 
J. & R. LAMB, Interior Decorators 

[ >^5 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




LIBRARY OF THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, ROCHESTER, N. Y 
J. FOSTKR WARNER, Architect 

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LIBRARY JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA, NEW YORK CITY 
ARNOLD W. BRUNNER, Architect 



[ >3> ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY, JEWISH THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY OF AMERICA, NEW YORK CITY 

ARNOLD W. BRUNNER, Architect 

THE library rooms of the seminary are located in the third story. In the 
reference library the books are shelved in the standard open stacks, but the 
rare and valuable possessions of the manuscript library are placed under lock and key 
in specially constructed cases provided with glass doors. The shelves in these cases 
are of the skeleton steel type and adjustable, being 24 inches deep in the lower 
compartments and i 5 inches deep above. 

The manuscript library room is fireproof, having no windows, and is lighted 
from above. It contains more than 1 2,000 volumes, constituting the largest 
collection of rare Hebraica in the United States and the fourth largest in the world. 



[ 132 ] 



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TORONTO PUBLIC REFERENCE LIBRARY, TORONTO, ONT. 

WICKSON & GREGG AND A. H. CHAPMAN, ARCHllECTS 



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FALL RIVER PUBLIC LIBRARY, FALL RIVER, MASS. 

CRAM, GOODHUE & FKKGUSON, Architects 



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STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, TERRE HAUTE, IND. 
W. L. B, JENNEY AND W. H. FLOYD, Architects 

[ '45 ] 



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NEWSPAPER FILE 

T is merely a round stick of wood i inch in diameter with rounded ends, 34 inches 
long, smooth all over and handsomely finished and polished. 

Each newspaper is held rigidly in a longitudinal groove in the stick by a thin 
steel rod confined at the ends by thin brass rings. 

The papers are quickly released and inserted, to the number of seven, more or 
less as desired, say a week's issue. 

Papers are held firmly and evenly as in a binder, without punching, cutting or 
pinching of the paper. 

Papers are always in regular order by date and page, like a book. 

The stick has no projection or roughness and is all as smooth as a walking 
stick, whether filled with papers or empty. 

There is nothing about the file to get out of order, while it is as simple as a 
broom stick, but equally as tough and durable. 

Hundreds of them have been for years in most satisfactory use in the public 
reading rooms of the Library of Congress. 

Manufactured and For Sale by 

THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 
JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



[ '54 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




NEWSPAPER FILE 



[ 155 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

(Incorporated) 

JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

ARCHITECTURAL IRON AND BRONZE WORK FOR BUILDINGS 

AND 
BOOK STACKS FOR LIBRARIES 



FINE CASTINGS IN IRON, BRONZE, BRASS AND ALUMINUM 
HIGH-CLASS HAND FORGED WROUGHT IRON WORK 



STAIRWAYS RAILINGS 

GRILLES MARQUEES 

GATES ELEVATOR CABS 

LANTERNS ELEVATOR SCREENS 

STORE FRONTS AND WINDOWS 

This company has been In successful operation for over 50 years and almost 
every large city in the country has important examples of its manufacture. 



[ '56] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 





VESTIBULE AT RESIDENCE OF CORNELIUS 

VANDERBILT, NEW YORK CITY 

DELANO & ALDRICH, Architects 



STAIRWAY IN MARSHALL FIELD BUILDING 
CHICAGO, ILL. 







CAST IRON BALCONY RAILING, BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, Architects 

[ '57 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



ARCHITECTS : 
Allen & Collens, 

Raymond F. Almirall, 

S. S. Beman, . 

Arnold W. Brunner, 

John Campbell, 

Carrere & Hastings, 

Clarke & Russell, 

Cope & Stewardson, 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, 

A. P. Cutting, 

Seymour Davis, 

Frank Miles Day & Bro., 

C. L. W. Eidlitz, 

F. H. Fassett, 

H. M. Francis, 

Furness & Evans, 

Raleigh C. Gildersleeve, 

Chas. C. Haight, 

Chas. Edvf. Hodges, 

Howe, Hoit & Cutler, ... 

W. L. B. Jenney & W. H. Floyd, 

Loring & Phipps, . . 

McKim, Mead & White, . 

Orchard, Lansing & Joralemon, 

Parish & Schroeder, 

Perkins & Betton, 

Pilcher & Tachau, 

W. M. Poindexter, 

James A. Randall, 

Rankin, Kellogg & Crane, 

Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen, . . 

Jas. Gamble Rogers & Chas. A. Phillips, 

Albert Randolph Ross, . 

Rotch & Tilden, 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, 

Smithmeyer & Pelz and Edward P. Casey, 

Supervising Architect, Treasury Department, 

Wm. B. Tubby & Bro., 

Walker & Morris, 

J. Foster Warner, 

Watson & Huckel, 

Wickson & Gregg, and A. H. Chapman, 

Wilson, Harris & Richards, 

Winslow & Bigelow, . . 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Accessories, 

Adjustable Steel Shelf, 

Adjustable Steel Shelf, 

Air cleaning or dusting, ... 

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pa., 

American Society of Civil Engineers, New York 

American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Anir 

New York City. Interior view of library. 
Appellate Court Library, Mt. Vernon, 111., 
Architectural Iron and Bronze, . ... 
Army War College, Washington, D. C, ... 
Automatic book lift, . . 



INDEX 




Page 




Page 


20 


Back stop for books. 


58-59 


i'5 


Benedict College Library, Columbia, S. C, 


20 


152 


Blackstone Memorial Library, Branford, Conn. : 




130 


Exterior view. 


152 


147 


Interior, showing stacks. 


153 


83 


Book carrier, 


10 


19 


Book carrier. 


70 


20 


Book lift, 


• 70 


136 


Bookstack, 


46-47 


140 


Book support, 


9-12 


148 


Book support. 


28-29 


20 


Book support, , 


48-49 


18 


Book support. 


58-59 


17-149 


Bracket shelf, 60-61-63 


19 


Bracket stack, cast iron, 60-6 


1-62-64 


19 


Bracket stack, steel, . . 60-63-64 


18 


Bronze work, . . . . 


156 


18 


Brooklyn Public Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. . 




150 


Williamsburg Branch, 


. Ill 


19 


Pacific Branch, 


• 115 


144 


Carroll Park Branch, 


. 119 


142 


Brush for perforated shelf. 


• 59 


20 


Canton Public Library, Canton, Mass., 


18 


123 


Capacity of shelving. 


65 


17 


Card frame. 


42-52 


19 


Card holder, hanging, 


58-59 


99 


Carrier for books, ... . . 


10-70 


18 


Carroll Park Branch Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. : 




143 


Exterior view, . . . 


119 


20 


Description of building, 


120 


19-151 


First floor plan, . . 


. 121 


103 


Interior, showing stacks. 


122 


128 


Cast iron bracket stack, 60-61-62 


19 


Cast iron horns, .... 


26-27 


139 


Cast iron horns. 


36-37 


■ 71 


Cast iron horns, 


40-41 


18-146 


Cast iron, its uses. 


26 


119 


Cast iron shelf supports. Government tests. 


52 


III 


Circulating library. 


. 65 


126 


Closed end for bracket stack. 


60-64 


107 


College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pa., 


20 


134 


Construction of the bookstack, 


7 


20 


Converse Memorial Library, Maiden, Mass.. 




t8 


Interior of stack room. 


139 


20 


Deck plan, . . 


30-31 


58 


Deck slit, 


30-31 


6-7 


Deck slit, 


6-8-14 


9-1 1 


Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 


. 20 


II 


Depth of shelf, . . 


■ 65 


., . 20 


Diagonal braces. 


54-55 


City, 18 


Diaphragm, . 


8 


mals. 


Diaphragm, 


38-39 


151 


Diaphragm, . . 


52 


19 


Disinfecting bookstacks, 


46 


156-157 


Double-faced range, . 


52-53 


20 


Double-faced range. 


54-55 


70 


Duct for electric wires. 


32-33 



[ '58 ] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



Duct for electric wires, 

Duct for electric wires, 

Dust brush for perforated shelf, 

Dusting, 

Electric book lift, 

Electric lighting, 

Electric lighting. 

Electric lighting. 

Electric wire ducts. 

Electric wire ducts. 

Electric wire ducts, 

Elevator and stairs, 

Evanston Public Library, Evanston, 111.: 

Exterior view, . . . 

Description of building. 

First floor plan, 

Interior, showing stacks, 
Exeter Public Library, Exeter, N. H., . . 
Fall River Public Library, Fall River, Mass. : 

Exterior view, 

First floor plan. 

Interior of Delivery Hall, 
Finish of stack and shelf, 
Fletcher Library, Westford, Mass., 
Flower Memorial Library, Watertown, N. Y. : 

Exterior view. 

First floor plan, 

Interiors of stack rooms. 
General considerations, 
General considerations, . . . 

General principles of bookstacks and shelving. 
General Theological Seminary, New York City, 
Glass flooring. 
Glass flooring. 
Glass flooring,. 
Hand power book lift. 
Hanging card frame. 
Heating and ventilation. 
History of bookstacks, . . . 

Hyde Park Library, Hyde Park, Mass., 
Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind.: 

Interior view, showing wall stacks, . 

Interior view, showing two-tier stack. 
Isometric drawing of 20-inch stack. 
Isometric drawing of 16-inch stack, 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York C 

Exterior view, . . . 

Plan of library floor. 

Description of Manuscript Library, 

Interior view of Manuscript Library, . 
Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kan.. 

Interior view of library, 
Krauth Memorial Library, Mt. Airy, Pa. : 

Exterior view, .... . . • • 

Description of building, . . ... 

First floor plan, 

Interior of stack room, 

Label holder, 



INDEX — Continued 

Page 



,S5 
69 

59 



70 
6 

,32 
69 

32-33 
,35 
69 
10 

10.3 
104 

105 
106 

19 

136 

137 

138 

52 

19 

123 

124 

125 

II 

15 

6 
18 

6 

38-39 

67 

70 

59 
10 

4 
19 

144 

145 

39 

• 41 



ity: 



130 

131 
132 

U3 
148 

107 
108 
109 
no 
10 



Page 
48-49 

59 



Label holder. 
Label holder. 
Law Library, 
Ledge, 
Ledge, 

Ledge, 

Leland Stanford, Jr., University Library, Stanford Uni- 
versity, California: 

Interior of stack room. 
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. : 

Plan of the north stack. 

Longitudinal section of the north stack. 

Cross section of the north stack, 

Description of building, ... 

Exterior, . . 

First floor plan, 

Second floor plan. 

Longitudinal section. 

Main Reading Room, 

View at stairway in the North Stack, 

Exterior of the North Stack, 

Floor in the North Stack, 

Perspective between decks. 
Libraries using the Green system of bookstack and 

shelving. 
Lift for books. 
Lighting of stacks. 
Lighting of stacks. 
Lighting of stacks, 

Littleton Public Library, Littleton, Mass., 
Loads of stacks and floors, 
Louisville Free Public Library, Louisville, Ky. : 

Exterior view, . . . 

Description of building. 

First floor plan. 

Interior of stack room, . 
Lutheran Theological Seminary, Mt. Airy, Pa., 
Maine Historical Society, Portland, Me. : 

Interior view, showing stacks. 
Maiden Public Library, Maiden, Mass.: 

Interior of stack room, 
Marble flooring. 
Marble flooring, 
Marble flooring. 
Marble flooring. 
Masonic Library, Boston, Mass. : 

Interior view, . . 

New Hampshire State Library, Concord, N. H. : 

Exterior view, 

Interior view, 
Newspaper file, . . ... 154- 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, New 

York City, . . 20 

New York Law Association Library, New York City : 

Interior view, . . 146 

New York Public Library, New York City: 

Range front and shelf support, 42-43 

Description of building, 84 

Plaster model of building, .... . . 86 



65 

27 

29 
53 



50 

23 

24 

25 
72 

74 
75 
76 
77 
78 

79 
80 
81 

45 

17 

70 

8 

32-33 
69 

19 
67-68 

99 
100 

lOI 

102 

107 

149 



39 
6 



38-39 
68 

142 

140 
141 

55 



[ 159 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 



INDEX — Continued 



New York Public Library, New York City: 

Front elevation, ■ ■ • 

Rear elevation. 

First floor plan, 

Second floor plan, . 

Third floor plan. 

Stack frame in process of erection. 

Stack frame supporting Reading Room floor, . . 

First tier of stack, 

Intermediate tier of stack, . . . 

Model of stack, . . . 

Original design of bookstack, . 

Pacific Branch Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Exterior view, ... 

Description of building. 

First floor plan, ... 

Interior, showing stacks, . . . . 

Parliamentary Library, Wellington, New Zealand : 

Interior view, . . • 

Perfect bookstack. 
Perspective of stack between decks. 
Perspective view of stack, 
Pilaster end for bracket stack. 
Plan of deck and ranges, 
Portable ledge, . . 
Portable ledge, ... ... 

Portland Public Library, Portland, Me., 

Public Library, ... 

Range for lo-inch shelves, 

Range for lo-inch shelves. 

Range for lo-inch shelves, 

Range front for lo-inch shelf. 

Range front for lo-inch shelf, . 

Range front for 9-inch shelf. 

Range front for 8-inch shelf, 

Reference library, 

Requisites of a library bookstack, 

Ridgefield Memorial Library, Ridgefield, Conn., 

Rochester Theological Seminary, Rochester, N. Y. : 

First floor plan of library. 

Interior of stack room, 
Roller shelf, ... . . 

School of Mines and Metallurgy, Rolla, Mo., 
Scientific library, 
Shelf brush. 
Shelf supports, 
Shelf supports, 
Shelf supports and shelves. 
Shelf supports for lo-inch shelf. 
Shelf supports for lo-inch shelf, 
Shelf supports for lo-inch shelf. 
Shelf supports for g-inch shelf. 



Page 



87 



90 

91 

• 92 

• 9i 

• 94 

• 95 
96 

4 

115 
116 
117 
118 

• 147 

• 5 
44-45 
46-47 
60-64 

30-31 

14 

27-29 

17 
65 
52-53 
54-55 
56-57 
26-27 

32-33 
42-43 
34-35 

65 
3 

18 

126 

127 

50-51 

19 

65 

59 

8 

39-41 
8 
26-27 
36-37 
38-39 
42-43 



Page 

■ 36-37 
40-41 
60-61 
60-63 

56-57 
. 8-9 
28-29 
48-49 
• 15 

39 
41 
67-68 
66 
10 

7 

. 6-26 

60-63-64 

28-29 

42-43 

36-37 

38-39 

52 



Shelf supports for 8-inch shelf, . . 

Shelf supports for 8-inch shelf, . . 

Shelf supports for cast iron bracket stack. 

Shelf supports for steel bracket stack, 

Single faced range, 

Skeleton steel shelf. 

Skeleton steel shelf, 

Skeleton steel shelf. 

Small libraries, ... 

Stack for lo-inch shelf, 

Stack for 8-inch shelf, 

Stack loads. 

Stack weights. 

Stairs, . . 

Standard dimensions of shelves, 

Standard tier height, . 

Steel bracket stack, 

Steel columns, . . 

Steel columns, . . 

Steel horns, . . 

Steel horns, ... ... 

Strength of cast-iron shelf supports, . . 

Strength of skeleton steel shelf, .... 48 

Sydney Public Library, Sydney, N. S. W., 20 

Syracuse Public Library, Syracuse, N. Y. : 

Interior view, showing stacks, . . . 143 

Tests of cast-iron shelf supports, . 52 

Test of skeleton steel shelf, ... 48 

Toronto Public Reference Library, Toronto, Ontario: 

Exterior view, 134 

Main floor plan, . .... 135 

Union Theological Seminary, New York City, . . 20 

University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, Pa., 19 
United States Naval Home, Philadelphia, Pa., 20 

Ventilation, ..... 10 

Virginia State Library, Richmond, Va., 18 

Wall range, .... ... . . 56-57 

Washington Public Library, Washington, D. C. : 

Exterior view, . 128 

First floor plan, 129 

Weight of shelf, . 48 

Weights of stacks and floors, 66 

Western College for Women, Oxford, O., . 19 

Wheeling Public Library, Wheeling, W. Va., 19 

Williamsburg Branch Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. . 

Exterior view, . . . 

Description of building, 

First floor plan. 

Interior, showing stacks. 
Window seat, 
Window seat, . 
Y. M. C. A. Library, New York City, 



III 
112 

"3 

114 
30-31 

44-45 
17 



[ '60] 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



i SUPPLEMENT 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 

IMPORTANT CONTRACTS RECEIVED IN 1908, 1909, AND 191c 



AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

NEW YORK CITY 

CHARLES P. HUNTINGTON, Architect 

BOSTON ATHENAEUM 

BOSTON, MASS. 

J. R. WORCESTER & CO., Engineers 

BROOKLINE PUBLIC LIBRARY 

BROOKLINE, MASS. 

R. CLIPSTON STURGIS, Architect 

COAST ARTILLERY SCHOOL LIBRARY 

FORT MONROE, VA. 

FRANCIS B. WHEATON, Architect 

DENVER PUBLIC LIBRARY 

DENVER, COL. 

ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS, Architect 

GRATZ COLLEGE LIBRARY 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

PILCHER & TACHAU, Architects 

HARPER MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, Architects 

HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

NEW YORK CITY 

CHARLES P. HUNTINGTON, Architect 

KENT HALL, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

NEW YORK CITY 

McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, Architects 

McGILL UNIVERSITY MEDICAL LIBRARY 

MONTREAL, CANADA 

DAVID R. BROWN and HUGH VALLANCE, Architects 

MEDICAL AND CHIRURGICAL FACULTY OF MARYLAND 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

ELLICOTT & EMMART, Architects 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 

OTTAWA PUBLIC LIBRARY 

OTTAWA, CANADA 

EDGAR L. HORWOOD, Architect 

STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA LAW LIBRARY 

IOWA CITY, lA. 

PROUDFOOT & BIRD, Architects 

TEXAS STATE LIBRARY 

AUSTIN, TEX. 

E. E. MYERS, Architect 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

URBANA, ILL. 

JAMES M. WHITE, Architect 

MERCANTILE LIBRARY 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 

MAURAN & RUSSELL, Architects 

VICTORIA COLLEGE LIBRARY 
TORONTO, ONTARIO 

SPROATT & ROLPH, Architects 

ANDOVER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

ALLEN & COLLENS, Architects 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LAW LIBRARY 

ITHACA, N. Y. 

WILLIAM H. MILLER, Architect 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

NEW YORK CITY 

McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, Architects 

COBURN FREE LIBRARY 

OWEGO, N. Y. 

H. SUMNER GARDNER, Architect 

ST. CHARLES BORROMEO SEMINARY 
OVERBROOK, PA. 

WILSON, HARRIS & RICHARDS, Architects 

WISCONSIN STATE CAPITOL 

MADISON, WIS. 

GEORGE B. POST & SONS, Architects 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN LIBRARY 
ANN ARBOR, MICH. 

ALBERT KAHN, Architect 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




TECHNICAL SCIENCE READING ROOM, NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

CARRERE & HASTINGS, Architects 



BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 




NEWSPAPER SECTION, SO 



UTHEAST COURT BOOK STACK, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS 




BOOK STACK AND SHELVING FOR LIBRARIES 



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