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Full text of "Library planning, bookstacks and shelving, with contributions from the architects' and librarians' points of view. Illustrated"

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Cornell University Library 
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Library planning, bookstacks and shelvin 




3 1924 031 032 216 
olln Overs 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031032216 



LIBRARY PLANNING 

BOOKSTACKS and 

SHELVING 




BERNARD RICHARDSON GREEN, the inventor of the Library of Con- 
gress bookstack, was born December 28, 1843 at Maiden, Massachusetts 
and died October 22, 1914 at Washington, D. C. He was graduated from 
the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, in 1863, with the degree of 
S.B. in Civil Engineering. The subsequent thirteen years were spent with 
United States Engineer officers, constructing permanent fortifications in Maine, 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts. From that time until his death Mr. Green 
was in charge of the erection of large public buildings, among which are the 
State, War and Navy Building, Army Medical Museum and Library, United 
States Soldiers' Home Buildings, Washington Monument, Library of Congress, 
Washington Public Library and the National Museum. During the last sixteen 
years of his life, in connection with his other work, Mr. Green was in charge of 
the Library of Congress as Superintendent of Building anj Grounds. J* ^ 



LIBRARY PLANNING 

BOOKSTACKS and 

SHELVING 



V^ITU CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE 

ARCHITECTS' AND LIBRARIANS' 

POINTS OF VIEW 




Illustrated 



The Snead & Company Iron Works, Inc. 
jersey city, new jersey, u. s. a. 



The construction and designs illustrated 

and described in this hook are protected 

by Letters of Patent, oivned or controlled by 

The Snead ^ Co. Iron Works, Inc. 



Copyright, 1915, by 
The Snead & Company Iron Works, Inc. 



" Architecture Press " 
The Gillespie Bros., Inc., Stamford, Conn. 



FOREWORD 



THIS BOOK is published for distribution among Architects, Librarians and Trustees, 
to give general information regarding the planning of Ubrary buildings, specific facts 
in connection with the problems of book storage, and details of the construction of 
Snead Bookstacks, Shelving and other products. 

The Snead & Company Iron Works began the manufacture of metal bookstacks when 
they first came into use and have built the largest stacks in America, including those of the 
Library of Congress, Ontario Legislative Library, New York Public Library and Widener 
Memorial Library of Harvard University. We have also equipped many libraries in foreign 
countries. As this is a highly specialized work, the experience gained in both large and small 
installations is one of the Company's most valuable assets. 

The manufacture of metal bookstacks is a development of the architectural and orna- 
mental iron and bronze business established in 1849 at Louisville, Kentucky, by Charles S. 
Snead, one of the pioneer iron founders of the United States. The Louisville plant was 
destroyed by fire in 1898 and was subsequently re-established in Jersey City, N. J., where 
the main office and works are now located. The business is owned entirely by the officers 
actively engaged in its management. 

Architects, trustees and librarians planning to install bookstacks, either in new buildings 
or old, may call upon Snead & Company for layouts, estimates and advice, which will be 
given either by correspondence or by the personal call of an expert. All that is asked in 
return is an opportunity to submit a proposal and to demonstrate that it is to the owners, 
best interest to use the Snead product. 

It has been found more economical and satisfactory to have all domestic business con- 
ducted directly from the main office rather than through branches or agencies. Business in 
foreign countries is handled direct or through agencies, as may seem advisable. Correspond- 
ence is therefore solicited. 

THE SNEAD & CO. IRON WORKS, INC. 

Cable address: "Snead, Jersey City.' 
Western Union & A.B.C. 5th edit. Codes JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



CONTENTS 

PART 1— THE MODERN BOOKSTACK 

Pagb 

PRINCIPLES AND DEVELOPMENT 11 

Prototype, Gore Hall stack — Advance in construction — Library of Congress stack com- 
petition — Requisites for proper book storage — Sheet metal stacks — Features of Snead 
Stack: Form of shelf supports, Construction of shelves, Method of finishing the metal. 

SHELF SUPPORTS 18 

End shelf supports or range fronts — Intermediate shelf supports or partitions — Simplicity 
and compactness — Purposes served — Adjustment teeth — Horn locks — Architectural 
design — Gray iron castings — Economical production — Advantages of cast iron over steel: 
fire and rust resistance, finish retention — Snead Standard Stack details — Open construction 

— No dust pockets — Combination cast iron and steel shelf supports — Inspection and testing. 

SHELVES 27 

Wood shelves unsatisfactory — Snead Open Bar shelf: convenience, lightness, strength, per- 
fect adjustment, thorough ventilation, convenient accessories, flexibility, cleanliness — 
Baked enamel finish, special colors — Extensive use of Snead Open Bar shelves — Sup- 
porting pins — Solid plate shelf — Sohd fixed shelf, as fire and dust stop — Snead "Over- 
Size" shelf — Snead Open Bar shelf with deep bars — Tests on Open Bar shelves, shelf 
pins and horn locks — Tables and curves of strength and deflections for Open Bar shelves. 

FINISH ON METAL WORK 31 

Finish on movable parts — Finish on fixed parts — Air drying enamel, preferable to baked 
enamel for fixed parts, wearing qualities, elasticity, renewal in place — Baked enamel on 
fixed parts not renewable — Colors limited — Imitation wood effect not recommended. 

SHELVING FOR SMALL LIBRARIES 33 

Relative cost of metal and wood shelving — One-tier Snead Standard stacks, finish — 
Provision for expansion: removable cornice, attachment of future deck framing — Fitting 
stack around base boards and chair rails — Unit system base and cornice — Ledge ranges. 

SPECIAL SHELVING 39 

Rich effects possible with cast iron — Special finishes — Bronze powders — SHding shelves 

— Periodical case with level and sloping shelves — Snead standing desk — Glass door 
cases — Sliding wire door cases — Snead steel library shelving. 

TOP FINISH 44 

Conditions governing top finish — Flanged steel cover plate — Removable steel cornice — 
Unit system cornice cover plate — Top angles — Cast iron cornice — Top clearance. 

DECK FLOORS 46 

Deck framing: strength, provision for electrical work — Deck flooring: perforated cast iron, 
marble, glass and slate slabs. Bottom floors: concrete, terrazzo, marble, tile. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

STAIRS AND RAILINGS 48 

Straight stairs — Spiral stairs — Stair treads — Continuous newels — Window guards — 
Stairs between ranges — Standard designs of plain and ornamental railings and fascias. 

THE SNEAD NEWSPAPER STACK. 52 

Similar to Snead Standard Stack — For large flat books — Sizes of newspaper volumes 

— Shelf sizes — Ventilation — Compact construction — Minimum of dust collecting surfaces 

— Open bar shelves: simple, easily adjusted, easy to clean, strong, books easily handled, 
no injury to bindings — Disadvantages of roller shelves — Preservation of newspaper files 
— Snead Unit System newspaper stack — Shelf lengths easily varied — Accommodation for 
a few newspaper volumes — Double-faced book ranges used for newspapers — Finish. 

BOOKSTACK FITTINGS 56 

Book supports — Card frames for end shelf supports — Shelf label holders — Range indi- 
cators — Back cHps — Portable book ledges — Back stops. 

BRACKET STACKS 61 

Snead Tubular Steel Bracket Stack — Snead Star Column Bracket Stack — Snead Cast 
Iron Bracket Stack — Purpose of the designs — Construction, finish and relative cost. 

STANDARD VS. BRACKET STACKS 66 

Relative merits — Characteristic point of difference: form of shelves and shelf supports — 
Use of the word "Standard" — Comparative costs — Appearance — Adjustment and security 
of shelves — Bracket Stacks: fire, dust and water stops and cover plates lacking, projecting 
members, wasted space, unsuitable for important buildings. 

LAYING OUT A STACK ROOM .... 67 

Governing conditions — Aisles — Location of uprights — Shelf lengths — Range sizes — 
Ledge ranges — Stairs — Booklifts — Vertical (protected) deck slit — Wide bottom shelf, 
its advantages — "Over-Size" sheKes — Regular and "Over-Size" shelves interchangeable. 

WIDTH AND CAPACITY OF SHELVES 71 

No definite rules — Compactness — Table of shelf widths and lineal foot capacities. 

STANDARD DIMENSIONS 72 

Tiers — Aisles — Stairs — Ranges — Cornices — Shelf supports — Adjustable shelves — 
Fixed bottom shelves — Electrical arrangements — Deck floors. 

PRICES OF STACKS 73 

Form of inquiries — Price limits — Information required — Follow established standards. 

TIER HEIGHTS 74 

Basic principle — Galleries — Advantages of standard sizes — Relation to building floors. 

STACK ENGINEERING 75 

Stack a self supporting structure — Stack bracing walls — Diagonal bracing — Stack carrying 
superimposed loads, floors and roofs — Strength of shelf supports — Reusing old stack — 
Steel column construction — Distributed loads — Concentrated loads — Suspended stack — 
Rooms and study alcoves in stack — Early consideration of engineering problems advisable. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

FOUNDATIONS 81 

Solid concrete mat — Separate footings — Continuous footings — Damp-proofing — Uniform 
settlement — Air space under stack — Basement under stack — Firepi'oofing cellar columns. 

STACK WEIGHTS 83 

Dead loads — Live loads — Negligible difference in weight of standard and bracket stacks 

— Books the principal weight factor — Typical plans and units weights for light, medium 
and heav>' stack construction — Table of bookstack weights from one to twenty tiers. 

STACK ROOM WALLS 86 

Irregularities — Mouldings and trim — Backing on ranges — Attachment of stack to walls 

— Curb angles — Wall brackets — Furring and insulating of walls. 

NATURAL LIGHTING 87 

Dark storage stacks — Smtill libraries — Window openings — Slit windows — Location of 
ranges — Position of window heads — Prism glass — Aids to natural lighting. 

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING 91 

Electricity and gas — Tungsten lamps — Carbon lamps — Lock socket bulbs — Special 
reflectors — Marble and glass deck floors — Light control : chain pull switches, push button 
switches, tassel switches, gang switches, "time-limit" switches, hinged bar switches — Spacing 
of lights — Conduits and ducts — Responsibility for electrical work. 

HEATING AND VENTILATING 94 

Library of Congress system : bottom inlets, air filtration, fans, heating chambers, deck 
slits, exhaust fans, hermetically sealed windows — System for small Hbraries — General 
i-ules for atmospheric conditions — Insects destructive to books — Feasibility of fumigating 
Snead Standard Stacks — Disinfecting individual volumes — Beebe carbo-gasoline method. 

BOOKLIFTS, ELEVATORS AND OTHER STACK ACCESSORIES 96 

Hand power and electric booklifts — Guide tubes used as speaking tubes — Location of 
electrical machinery — Machinery enclosure — Systems of control: "One Point Control 
with Signals," "Full Automatic Control," "Call Button Only" — Cars, removable shelves — 
Location of booklifts — Electric elevators : sizes, safety devices — Book conveyors : con- 
veyors in Library of Congress stack — Booklift and elevator enclosures: steel plates, wire 
mesh, wire glass — Means of communication : pneumatic tubes, telautographs, intercom- 
municating and automatic telephones — Pneumatic cleaning : stationary plants, portable 
machines, "Plenum-vacuum" system. 

UNDERGROUND BOOKSTACKS 100 

Necessity — Expense — Preventing dampness — Regulating temperature — Avoiding con- 
densation. 

PARTIAL EQUIPMENT 101 

Provision for growth — Three methods: installing lower tiers, instalHng portion of full height 
stack, instaUing intermediate tiers — Electrical work — Temporary struts — Initial cost — 
Cast iron and steel construction. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

PART 2 — LIBRARY PLANNING 

SOME ESSENTIALS OF LIBRARY DESIGN, by A. D. F. Hamlin, A. M., L. H. D 103 

Three fundamental elements — Reference and circulating libraries — College, institute, 
society libraries, etc. — Accommodations for books: alcove system, open shelf system, stack 
system — Accommodations for readers, three features — Reading rooms : various kinds, 
lighting, location — Provision for the staff — Trustees' and committee rooms — Heating, 
ventilating, etc. — Preliminaries to building — Employment of experts — Competitions — 
Estimates — Type of construction — Capacity — Elementary principles. 

PLANNING A LIBRARY BUILDING, by Theodore W. Koch, M. A., 109 

With Special Reference to Bookstacks 
Growth of American libraries — Alcove type — Stack type — Architect and librarian — 
Design — Considerations in planning: nature of building, type, size, class of books — Radial 
stacks — Bound newspapers — Annual growth — Vacant shelf room — Build too large 
rather than too small — Location of building — Extension — Summary. 

SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY PLANNING, by Edward L. Tilton, Architect 113 

Rules — Principles involved — Method of procedure, practical example — Division of 
appropriation — Stacks below main floor level — Various rooms — Lighting — Width of 
bays — Heating — Ventilating — Furniture — Metal shelving — Summary. Extracts from 
an address by Mr. Tilton: Cost per cubic foot — Cost in relation to seating capacity — 
Location of branch buildings — Interest and maintenance — Upkeep charges. 

A LIBRARY BOOKSTACK IN THE DARK, by Bernard R. Green, C. E 118 

Disadvantages of stacks with windows — Books in the dark — Possibilities and feasibility 
of dark storage — Southeast court stack. Library of Congress — Economical administration 
— Architectural advantages — Stack for 100 million volumes — Fire not a serious danger. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 120 

PARTIAL LIST OF LIBRARIES HAVING SNEAD STACK INSTALLATIONS 121 

Architect — Librarian — Year completed — Cost — Cubic foot contents — Cubic foot cost. 

PART 3 — LIBRARY BUILDINGS, PLANS AND INTERIORS 

Monumental Libraries 129 

College, School and Seminary Libraries 159 

Public Libraries 197 

Parliamentary and State Libraries 241 

Society and Institute Libraries ... 249 

PART 4 — OTHER SNEAD PRODUCTS 

Metal and glass museum cases — Steel storage shelving — Architectural and ornamental 
iron work — Iron castings — Macdonald Roller Ramming and Pattern Drawing Molding 
Machines — Foundry equipment 257 

General Index . . . . 263 Buildings Illustrated ... 267 Architects Represented . . 270 




SNEAD STANDARD STACK, TECHNOLOGY ROOM, NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Photograph taken before the installation of the adjustable shelves. 



THE MODERN BOOKSTACK 



PRINCIPLES AND DEVELOPMENT 



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HE prototype of the modern bookstack was designed in 1876 by 
Professor William R. Ware, of Ware & Van Brunt, and Mr. 
Justin Winsor, acting together as architect and librarian for the 
extension of Gore Hall, the Library of Harvard College. A shell 
was built of masonry walls pierced by rows of small windows and 
carrying a roof supported by trusses. Into this were packed book 
ranges, row on row, tier on tier, with only enough vacant space 
to give access to the books. The aisles between the ranges were 
28 inches wide and the tiers 7 feet high, allowing the topmost 
of the seven rows of shelves to be easily reached. The stack was 
six tiers high, self supporting throughout and depended on the building for protection only. 
The vertical shelf supports were of cast iron open work, the deck framing of rolled wrought 
iron, the deck flooring of perforated cast iron slabs and the shelves of wood, supported at the 
ends by light zinc Z bars fitting into notches in the uprights. This Gore Hall stack was a dis- 
tinct advance in compact permanent shelving and in it were laid the basic principles of stack 
construction ; it was copied for a number of libraries, including the Boston Atheneeum, the 
Surgeon General's at Washington, Amherst College and the University of Michigan. 

No further advance of any importance was made in stack construction until the build- 
ing for the Library of Congress at Washington was taken in hand in 1889 and the necessity 
arose of providing shelving for millions of volumes. A system of storage on a large, com- 
plete, thoroughly economical scale had not as yet been devised. The wood, or wood and iron 
combinations which had hitherto been constructed were crude, bulky and inflammable, dusty, 
close, overheated at the top, inconvenient of access, poorly lighted and unadaptable. 
Librarians were dissatisfied and the theory of shelving on the stack principle had gradually 
fallen into disrepute. Tall single tiers reached by ladders, or a few tiers arranged in alcoves 
were attempted, but found inadvisable because of the extended area of administration, the 
greater size required for buildings and gi'ounds and the resultant increase in cost of con- 
struction and maintenance. Consequently the problem presented by the Library of Congress 
was new in almost all its elements. The United States War Department assigned the con- 
struction of the Library to a prominent civil engineer, Mr. Bernard R. Green. After an 
exhaustive consideration of the needs of libraries and of new materials and manufacturing 
resources available, Mr. Green prepared a full sized working model of a bookstack, accom- 



[ 11 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 

panied by drawings and specifications. He 
then advertised for bids for the construction of 
three nine-tier stacks containing 43 miles of 
shelving with a capacity of 2,000,000 volumes. 
The leading architectural iron manufacturers 
of the country entered the competition and 
the contract was awarded to the lowest bid- 
der, The Snead & Co. Iron Works, then of 
Louisville, Ky. Mr. Green's invention was a 
success and has served as a model for all sub- 
sequent stacks. This is due to its extreme sim- 
pHcity and convenience, the attainment of a 
minimum of space occupied by the materials 
used and a maximum of space available for 
books at a cost reduced to the lowest terms. 
The Library of Congress stacks have been in 
use for about twenty years; no part of the 
great combination has given trouble or need- 
ed repair and the whole is as perfect and ser- 
viceable as when installed. 




F.g. 1. 



ORIGINAL GORE HALL BOOKSTACK 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



REQUISITES FOR PROPER BOOK 
STORAGE 



The prototype of the modern bookstack 
The stack illustrated was not supplied by The Siiead 4' Co. Iron Works 



A thorough study of the fundamental 
requirements which govern the successful 
storage of books in a large, growing library has resulted in the establishment of the following 
rules. There should be : 

Accommodation for books of every variety, shape and binding. 

Direct and immediate access to every volume with a minimum distance to travel. 

Location in close communication with cataloging, reading and delivery rooms. 

Thorough illumination, either natural or artificial, by day and night. 

A constant supply of fresh air and an evenly regulated temperature, in order to 

prevent the deterioration of both paper and bindings. 
The greatest possible freedom from dust. 

Facilities for proper classification, arrangement and rearrangement. 
Maximum development of book space and provision for indefinite expansion. 

BOOKSTACK PRINCIPLES 

The modern bookstack, as designed first by Mr. Green for the Library of Congress, 
grew out of the scientific application of these requirements, and has proved itself to be the 
most convenient, compact and economical method of storing books. Through its success 
certain general principles of bookstack construction have come to be advocated: 

1. Books are most advantageously shelved in tiers of double-faced parallel ranges, with 



[ 12 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 2. Section through bookstack 

and deck flooring showing vertical, 

protected deck slit. 



single-faced ranges along end walls ; radial ranges waste space and are costly. A row of shelf 
compartments end to end constitute a range. A number of ranges side by side form a tier. 
A series of superimposed tiers or an isolated tier forms a bookstack. 

2. The height of each tier should be 7 feet or 7 feet 6 inches, preferably the former, 
as every shelf is then accessible to a person of average height. 

3. Between each two tiers there should be a thin deck floor 
made of solid material, preferably white marble or, as a second 
choice, glass. Along the face of each range and around the walls 
should be an open space or deck sHt 2 or 3 inches wide for ventila- 
tion, light and the safety of the lower rows of books from injury by 
moving trucks or feet. Deck slits are protected by cui'bs about 1 
inch high to prevent litter or articles being pushed off. By extend- 
ing the bottom fixed shelf over the deck slit the opening is further 
protected and accommodation is provided for extra large books. 
See Fig. 2, also Fig. 106, page 69. 

4. The stack tiers should be uniform in size and superimposed on each other in order 
to secure convenience, interchangeability, greatest economy of space, best lighting and the 
least expensive construction. 

5. Main corridors should connect the aisles between the ranges of each tier and the 
tiers should be connected vertically by means of stairs and lifts. Speaking tubes, telephones, 
telautographs, pneumatic tubes and automatic book conveyors may also be used for commu- 
nication and transportation. 

6. The materials of 
stack construction should 
be non-combustible through- 
out. The vertical shelf sup- 
ports should be strong 
enough to carry not only the 
load of books, but also the 
superimposed tiers, deck 
floors and any overhead 
loads, in order to eliminate 
the use of large structural 
columns within the stack 
room. 

7. All parts should be 
simple and solid, with no in- 
accessible pockets to harbor 
dust or book pests. The con- 
struction should be as open 
as possible for lighting, ven- 
tilation, cheerfulness and 
supervision. 




Fig. 3. 



READING AND STACK ROOM, CINCINNATI, C PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Illustrating alcove arrangement. 

The stacks illustrated were not supplied by The Snead (§■ Co. Iron Works 



[ 13 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 4. LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF NORTH STACK, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 




Fig. 5. PLAN OF NORTH STACK, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. WASHINGTON, D. C. 



[ 14 ] 



i 



Fig. 6. Section througl- 
range front. 



Fig. 7. Section through 
partition. 




Fig. 9. Plan and section of Open Bar shelf. 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

8. Fixed stack members that become a permanent part of the building require a pro- 
tective covering that can be renewed. They should be finished after erection with aluminum 
bronze, or some light reflecting enamel, preferably white or light grey. Adjustable shelves 
are most economically and satisfactorily finished with baked enamel. 

9. Shelf supports should be of open work design, thin, 
flat and rigid, with stiffening ribs extending between the 
shelves in order not to occupy valuable book space and 
to make the stack as nearly as possible a stack of books. 

10. Shelves should be easily adjusted, but 
firm and immovable when in place, interchange- 
able, thin for compactness, easily stowed away 
when not in use, and of open bar construction 
for cleanliness, strength, lightness and ventila- 
tion. They should 
neither require tools 
for adjustment nor 
have end brackets 
or loose parts. A 

smooth surface, permanently protected from cor- 
rosion and free from sharp points or raw edges, 
is required. Shelves are usually 8 inches or 10 
inches wide and about 3 feet long. 

11. Hermetically sealed windows in large 
stacks are effective in making mechanical venti- 
lation thorough and excluding dust. With such 
windows, automatically closing doors and a fil- 
tered air supply, the only dust which need be 
contended with is that which comes from the 
handling of the books. 

12. Skylights will only illuminate one or 
two top tiers. In high stacks there must be am- 
ple side light if daylight is to be depended upon. 
Windows should be as tall as possible and placed 
opposite the range aisles. However, daylight is 
irregular and its use often uneconomical and un- 
necessary with proper electric light equipment. 

13. The parts of the stack construction should be few, simple and proof against wear 
and tear. There should be effective fire stops formed of solid steel plates between the shelves 
of each two tiers to prevent the spread of fire in the books. Flanged cover plates over the 
top ranges are advisable for keeping off dirt and preventing damage from a leaky roof or 
ceihng. 

14. Tables and ledges for work within the stack are often required, also book supports, 
number plates, back stops, card frames and shelf label holders. 




Fig 



TRANSVERSE SECTION OF NORTH STACK. 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



[ 15 ] 



THE SNEAD AND 




COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 
OTHER STACK DESIGNS 
The system of shelving designed for the 
Library of Congress embodies all these gen- 
eral principles. Designs have been made by 
others based on the Library of Congress con- 
struction, but in order to cheapen the product 
and gain the market,certain essential features 
have been altered and the results have not 
proved successful. Thin sheet steel bent in a 
hollow form has been substituted for the solid 
cast iron shelf supports of the Green-Snead 
stack, but at the expense of 
compactness, strength, san- 
itary design and openness 
of construction. Adjustable 
shelves have been made of 
plain sheets of steel as a 
substitute for Open Bar 
shelves, but their hindrance 
to ventilation, inconven- 
ience in handling and use of accessories 
and dust collecting tendencies have prevented 
their meeting with approval in spite of reduced 
cost. Also the baked enamel finish, permissible 
for the shelves, has been applied to the fixed 
parts of the construction, entailing the loss of 
adaptability for renewal and repair, so neces- 
sary in a permanent structure. For some 
time the bracket type of stack with narrow post uprights and projecting shelves was popular 
because of its novelty and cheapness. Continual use, however, emphasized its inconvenience, 
ugliness, instability and lack of true economy, so that it is now rarely considered in competi- 
tion with the Library of Congress standard type. 

After twenty years of use the Snead Standard Stack still holds its own, unique in three 
vital features which will be taken up in detail in the following pages : 

Form of shelf supports. 
Construction of the shelves. 
Method of finishing the metal. 




Fig. 11. Section tiirough 
sheet steel intermedi- 
ate shelf support. 



Fig. 10. BRACKET STACK CONSTKli Tli i.\ 

Slack illustrated was nut supplied by The Snead tS' Co. Iron Works 



[ 16 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 12. 



BIBLIOTHEQUE ST-SULPICE, MONTREAL, QUEBEC 
Unfinished stack skeleton without marble deck flooring or adjustable shelves. 



SHELF SUPPORTS 



THERE are two kinds of shelf supports: those at the ends, called Range Fronts and the 
intermediate ones, called Partitions. Each of these is divided into two classes: double- 
faced, for ranges accessible from both sides, and single-faced, for ranges accessible 
from one side only. That side of a range front which serves to hold the shelves is similar to 
a partition; the other side is designed to give a finished appearance. 

Simplicity and compactness are gained by making the vertical shelf supports serve several 
purposes: to support the adjustable shelves, to hold the books upright, to carry the deck floor 
of the tier above and to carry the shelf supports of the superimposed tiers. 

The shelf supports have rows of rounded blunt teeth on their front edges and horn locks, 
formed from No. 16 strip steel, riveted to their central stiffening ribs to automatically lock 
the shelves in place and allow of their easy adjustment at intervals of about 1 inch. 

There are stock patterns for making four regular designs of range fronts, each of several 
widths and heights, all illustrated in figures on pages 22 and 23. Special designs to conform 
to any architectural requirements will be made if warranted by the size of the order. 

Cast iron was the shelf support material selected by Prof. Ware for the first stack in Gore 
Hall, Harvard University, and it was later used in an improved form for the Library of Con- 
gress, the New York Public Library and the Widener Library of Harvard, besides many 
of the other most important libraries in the country. Cast iron has several unique advantages 
for bookstack shelf supports. From one pattern, by mechanically operated moulding machines, 
an almost limitless number of identical shelf supports can be made, each having the same 
adjustment teeth, stiffening ribs, rounded edges and corners, perforations for the distribution 
of light and air, and the same mouldings and panels for architectural design. This wholesale 
duplication cannot be done except by casting. 

Cast iron is more resistant to fire or rust than wrought iron or steeV" and has an excel- 
lent surface for holding an enamel finish. The shelf supports are simple. Each one extends 
the width of a range and the height of a tier, and as a rule consists of a single casting. 
They are solid with no inaccessible dirt pockets, and are compact in form, fitting between the 



*Exlraet from Kidder's Architects and Builders Pocket Book. 

(The most widely used work of reference 
in the Architectural offices of the country.) 

Page 729. "Cast Iron: As the result of tests and actual 
experience in conflagrations it may he stated that unprotected 
cast iron can stand practically unharmed up to a temperature 
of 1300 or 1500 degrees F. while carrying very heavy loads, 
even with the frequent applications of cold water while the 
metal is at red heat." (Freitag). 

"No building can be considered fireproof in which unpro- 
tected iron or steel columns are used; but in many classes of 
buildings unprotected cast iron columns might safely with- 
stand any heat to which they would probably be exposed. 



From a fire resisting point of view cast iron columns are un- 
questionably preferable to steel columns when unprotected." 
Extract from Skeleton Construction in Buildings. 

By William H. Birkmire. 
(A leading architectural engineering authority.) 
Page 18. "Mild steel rusts faster than wrought iron at 
first, then slower. Cast iron on the contrary slowly oxidizes 
in damp situations; rust does not scale from it and oxidation 
when formed is of much less dangerous kind, extending only 
a httle way into the metal to about the thickness of a knife 
bladr, then stops for good. Cast iron of goodly thickness 
<jffers a far better resistance to fire or to fire and water com- 
bined than wrought iron or steel." 



[ 18 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 13. SECTION THROUGH SNEAD STANDARD STACK SHOWING DECK FLOOR AND PLAN 

OF TYPICAL 16'' RANGES 



[ 19 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




5cnLt I — -" ? - 



P LOOK. LINE 



KNU SHELF SUPPORT OR RAN(;E FROM 



INIERMEDLAI F SHELF SUPPORT OR PARTITION 



Hn. 11. SECTION THROUGH DECK FLOOR AND TYPICAL 16" RANGES 

OF SNEAD STANDARD STACK 



[ 20 



LIBRARY PLANNING- BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



JTCEL CORfllCE COVER PLftTt 



ADJUSTABLE 3HtLVE5 , 




l\ 



? 



'^ STOOL 

^ 



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Cfi3T 1R.0fl I/4TE R.MEDI ATE 3«tLF' 

Support or partition 



\A\~7 FIXED BOTTOM MI^ PART!TIO/( 

^^ 5T EEL SriCLT^^V 11/^ STOOL 



5Cfl L E l= « ^r. J mm ^—- ^ IhCHEJ 



P- LOOK. L !/1 t 



Fig 15. SECTION THROUGH DECK FLOOR, SHOWING SIDE ELEVATION OF 

TYPICAL RANGES OF SNEAD STANDARD STACK 



[ 21 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




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COLONIAL DESIGN 



20" 



24" 




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Fig. 17. COLONIAL DESIGN Fig. 18. COLUMBIA 

STOCK PATTERNS AND STANDARD SIZES OF SNEAD STANDARD STACK RANGE FRONTS 
The various types of top finish, electrical arrangements and card frames shown are applicable to each of the different range 
fronts. The standard heights are 7'-0'' and 7'- 6". The widths of ranges are designated by the widths of the adjustable 
shelves contained therein; if single-faced, by the width of one shelf; if double-faced, by the width of two shelves. The actual 
range widths are I" to J" greater than these dimensions, as shown on page 20. 



[ 22 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




H0Lt3 fOK. ATTACtDAtHT Of 
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Fig. 19. 



10" 



12" 16" 20" 

SOLID PANELED DESIGN 
Similar design with Gothic detail also furnished. 




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Fig. 20. CLASSICDESIGN 

STOCK PATTERNS AND STANDARD SIZES OF SNEAD STANDARD STACK RANGE FRONTS 

The various types of top finish, electrical arrangements and card frames shown are applicable to each of the different range 

fronts. The standard heights are 7'-0" and 7'- 6". The widths of ranges are designated by the nominal widths of the adjustable 

shelves contained therein : if single-faced, by the width of one shelf; if double-faced, by the width of two shelves. The actual 

range widths are Y' to I* greater than these dimensions, as shown on page 20. 



[ 23 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fis. 21. 



COLONIAL DESIGN RANGE FRONTS 
Top tier of stack room, Delaware State Capitol, Dover, Del. 




Fig. 22. COLUMBIA DESIGN RANGE FRONTS 

View in top tier of stack room, Library of Hawaii, Honolulu, sliowin^ stack supporting floor of open air reading 

room above. 



[ 2-1 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 23. 



SOLID PANELED DESIGN RANGE FRONTS 
Seminar room, Lincoln Hall, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 




Fig. 24. 



CLASSIC DESIGN RANGE FRONTS 
Stack room of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pa. 



[ 25 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 






STtEL COLUMN 



STEEL 
nORH LOCK 




Fig. 25. 



RANGE FRONT Fig. 26. PARTITION 

Isometric views showing the construction of range front and partition with structural steel columns. 



ends and backs of the shelves, with a loss of but :^ inch of book space in each shelf length. 

The iron used for shelf supports is mixed by chemical analysis to obtain the maximum 
strength and toughness. Each casting is carefully inspected and tested before it leaves the 
factory and typical samples of the various patterns are sent, from time to time, to the Arsenal 
at Watertown, Mass., to have their ultimate strength determined on the 800,000 lb. U. S. 
Government testing machine. By these precautions the stability of every stack is absolutely 
assured. 

Occasionally manufacturing and engineering conditions arise which make it advisable to 
use a combination of cast iron and structural steel for the shelf supports. See Figs. 25 and 26. 
In such cases the shape and appearance are the same as when cast iron is used exclusively 
and no feature is affected which concerns either the architect or hbrarian. 



[ 26 ] 



SHELVES 



Up to about twenty years ago book shelves were commonly made of flat wooden boards, 
but these met with disapproval on account of inadequate ventilation and the quantity 
of dust that collected upon them and ground the bottom edges of the books. Attempts 
were made toward an improved shelf of open work construction and some of the simpler of 
these showed a distinct advance towards scientific book storage. It became evident that the 
solution of the problem lay in that direction. 

This is how matters stood when the contract was taken up for the adjustable shelves in 
the bookstacks erected by Snead & Co. in the Library of Congress. Specifications were 
drawn calling for bids on open work shelves to fit in the shelf supports already provided. 
Bids were submitted by manufacturers from all parts of the United States and about sixty 
samples were shown. The contract was awarded to Snead & Co. who submitted a shelf con- 
sisting of light n shaped parallel bars. This shelf was pronounced the best, even by the other 
competitors, none of whom have ever since attempted to manufacture their own inventions. 
The Snead Open Bar shelf is designed for convenience, lightness, strength, perfect ad- 
justability and to give the books thorough ventilation. The bars are gently curved on top so 
that they wall leave no impression on the books. They are made of bright polished strip steel 

with a surface as smooth as glass. Their form 
allows the use of several convenient stack ac- 
cessories: rigid book supports and back stops, 
which lock between any two bars, also label 
holders which lock around the shelf bars 
and cannot be dragged off by books. The 
Open Bar shelf permits the circulation of air 
and has a certain flexibility which allows it to 
bear on the four points of support without 
rattling, no matter how heavily loaded, just 
as the springs of an automobile allow the load 
to rest partly on each of the four wheels. 
Dust cannot grind the bottoms of the books 
as it falls between the bars as soon as a book 
is moved. Dust is easily cleaned from the tops 
of books but cannot be cleaned from a solid 
shelf without first removing the books. Each 
shelf is complete in itself and there are no 
bolts, pins or other movable parts for which 
Fig. 27. SNEAD OPEN BAR SHELVES IN PLACE One has to search or feel. 




[ 27 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




PERSPECTIVE DETAIL 
or THE 

SNEAD STANDARD STACK 



Fig. 28. VIEW SHOWING SECTION THROUGH DECK FLOORING, FIXED BOTTOM SHELF AND 

ADJUSTABLE SHELVES 

The supporting pins riveted into the front corners of the adjustable shelves are stag- 
gered so that two shelves in adjoining compartments can rest on the same shelf support tooth. 

The shelves are usually finished with baked black rubber japan, having an eggshell gloss 
surface. This gives a hard, handsome and durable protective covering. The dull black shelves 
harmonize well with any color scheme, but if desired, arrangements can be made for supply- 
ing shelves of special colors. 

The Snead Open Bar shelves have been used for over 95 per cent, of the Snead stack 
contracts. For the balance solid plate shelves have been supplied. These are made from 
pickeled, cold rolled and patent leveled steel plates having a smooth even surface. They are 
flanged on all four edges to obtain the requisite stiffness and adjust in the same manner as 
the Open Bar shelf. It is customary to finish these also in black rubber japan. 

Metal shelves have supplanted wooden shelves in the modern hbrary, as suitable wood 
is now more expensive and is not so strong, durable or safe. 

At the bottom of each shelf compartment a solid fixed shelf extends from one side of 
the range to the other and forms a structural feature of the bookstack, being secured to the 
shelf supports to hold them at the proper spacing. The fixed shelf serves as a fire and dust 



[ 



LIBRARY PLANNING-, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



stop between tiers and is necessary for the protection of the books on the shelves below. 
This purpose of the fixed shelves cannot be properly fulfilled by adjustable shelves, as is evi- 
dent from an inspection of the multiple tier bracket stack shown in Fig. 104, page 64. As a 
rule, when horizontal deck slits are used the top of the fixed shelf is 2 inches above the 
deck floor level, and with vertical deck slits 4 inches. 

SNEAD "OVER-SIZE" SHELF 

When classification makes it necessary to store both large and small books in the same 
range, extension shelves are provided for the over-size volumes as shown in Fig. 29. These 
shelves are like the regular shelves, except that the corner pins are set further back on the 
ends in order that they will engage in the teeth of the shelf supports. They are supplied in 
various standard widths as required. To keep a shelf from tilting forward, when the pro- 
jection is extreme, back clips may be used to hold down the back edge. See Fig. 96, page 59. 

SNEAD OPEN BAR SHELF WITH DEEP BARS 

Several times within the past few years there has been a call for an Open Bar shelf 
which would carry excessive weights much greater than those to which the ordinary library 
shelf is subjected. To meet this requirement an Open Bar shelf has been constructed in 
which the bars are of greater depth than those generally employed. The increase in strength 
and stiffness is shown in both the table and the chart on page 30. 

TESTS ON SNEAD OPEN BAR 

SHELVES, SHELF PINS 

AND HORN LOCKS 

The following tests, conducted by the 
Engineering Department of Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York City, will serve to illustrate 
the strength of Snead Open Bar shelves. A 
comparison of curves "C" and "A" in Fig. 
30 shows a marked advantage of the deep bar 
shelf over the shallow bar shelf of the same 
length. Curves "B" and "A" show a shelf 
3 feet 6 inches long with deep bars to be 
stronger than a shallow bar shelf only 3 feet 
in length. Note, in the following table, that 
the Elastic Limits of these shelves are several 
times in excess of the loads which they would 
ever have to carry in a library. 

That shelf pins and horn locks are of suf- 
ficient strength to carry the shelf when loaded 
to its Ultimate Strength was proved by these 
SNEAD " OVER-SIZE " SHELF parts remaining in good order after the shelves 

Showing 8" and 12" books in the same range. had failed uudcr thc Maxlmum Load. 




Fig. 29. 



[ 29 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND DEFLECTIONS FOR SNEAD OPEN BAR SHELVES 





1 " " 

10" 
! 9 Bars, five-ei 

1 ( 






SIZE OF SHELF 










< 3'-0 
ghths 
A) 


inch deep 


10" X 3' -6" 

9 Bars, three-quarters inch deep 

(B) 

Concentrated Distributed load 
center load, over entire shelf, 
in pounds in pounds 


10" X 3'-0" 
9 Bars, three-quarters 
(C) 


inch deep 


DEFLECTION 


' Concentrated 
center load, 
in pounds 


Distributed load i 
over entire shelf, 
in pounds 


Concentrated 

center load, 

in pounds 


Distributed load 

over entire shelf, 

in pounds 


,^.- inch 


20 




40 


30 


60 


40 




80 


1 


40 




80 


60 


120 


80 




160 




M) 




160 


90 


180 


130 




260 


1 


110 




220 


120 


240 


180 




360 


5 (t 


130 




260 


160 


320 


230 




460 


s 


170 




340 


190 


380 


280 




560 


1 tl 


210 




420 


220 


440 


320 




640 


1 


240 




480 


250 


500 


370 




740 


Elastic Limit 


380 




760 


450 


900 


490 




980 


Ultimate Strength 


510 

il 




1020 


500 


1000 


540 




1080 



Note: When shelves are to be extra heavily loaded, they are given a slight upward camber. This bend takes care of the 
deflection and causes the shelf to become level when loaded. 

'WEIGHT 



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A = 10" JHELF WITH 3-%"DEEP 

DAR5 J-0"LONG 
5 -lO'^JHELF WITH S-^z-t'DELP 

DAR.5 3-6' LONG 
C = 10" 3HELF WITH 9- VDEEP 

5ARi 3-0- LONG 










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Fig. 31. 



DIAGRAM OF TEST ON SHELF PIN 



In four separate tests conducted as shown 
in Fig. 31, shelf pins showed an average Ulti- 
mate Strength of 375 pounds each. 




-ifiiin 



Fig. 32. DIAGRAM OF TEST ON HORN LOCK 

In four separate tests conducted as shown 
in Fig. 32, horn locks showed an average Ulti- 
mate Strength of 330 pounds each. 
These tests show that each horn lock and shelf pin is capable of sustaining more than 
share of the total distributed load carried by any of the above mentioned shelves 



Fig. .30. DEFLECTION OF SNEAD OPEN BAR SHELVES 



its 



[ 30 ] 



FINISH ON METAL WORK 



LIBRARY bookstacks, being built of iron and steel, have to be given some kind of 
pi'otective covering to prevent rusting. When properly applied, the protective covering 
can be made to give a handsome effect and also increase the serviceableness of the 

shelving by forming smooth, light reflecting surfaces. 

A unique feature of the Snead Standard Stack is the method of finishing the metal. 

The adjustable shelves are dipped in dull black japan and baked in ovens at the shop, but all 

fixed parts are painted by hand after erection and finished with air drying enamel or bronze. 

The method of dipping and baking is economical and permissible for such movable parts as 

shelves, which are little exposed and which can be shipped away for refinishing if necessaiy. 

Pigment colored enamel may be used for the shelves if desired but black japan is better as 

it has an asphaltum base which can be baked 
extremely hard under a high temperature and 
the rubber colored finish does not readily show 
scratches. 

Only an air drying finish should be used 
on the fixed parts of a stack in monumental 
and permanent buildings. It is better than 
baked enamel because it is equally hard when 
thoroughly dry, is more elastic and can be re- 
paired or renewed in place. Aluminum bronze 
is particularly recommended on account of its 
durability, velvet -like texture and excellent 
light reflecting qualities. No finish that can 
be applied to metal will last as long as a sub- 
stantial building. Exposed parts are bound to 
show the wear of use and the scars of accidents. 
A stack with fixed parts finished in baked en- 
amel is liable to injury in shipment and erec- 
tion, grows more shabby from year to year and 
the enamel chipped off leaves unprotected 
metal. The baking process cannot be repeated 
after the members are erected and attempts at 
repairing by other methods are entirely un- 
satisfactory. Only a few darker colored baked 
enamels are durable or practicable. Air drying 

Fig. 33. CAST IRON RANGE FRONT GRAINED TO fiulshes, however, may be had in any color 

HARMONIZE WITH OAK _ ' . . . 

As a rule, metal finished in imitation of wood is not recommended. required but white Or light gray IS the bcSt. 




[ 31 ] 




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SHELVING FOR SMALL LIBRARIES 



M' 



ETAL shelving has entirely supplanted wood for stacks more than one tier high and 
is now rapidly taking its place for small installations of wall shelving or a few double- 
faced ranges. Good lumber is expensive, while the price of iron products has been 
dropping with improvements in methods of production. As a consequence the best metal 
shelving may now be purchased for no more than first class wood work, provided special con- 
struction and unusual sizes are not required. Aside from all considerations of cost, metal 
shelving is preferable on account of its fireproof qualities, durability, compactness and conven- 
ient adjustment. The warping and cracking of wood and the liability of its being scarred in 
use cause constant expenditure for the upkeep of wooden shelving. 

Shelving but one tier high can be made to receive a future second tier, if desired. In 
this case the cornice is removable and may be used again on the completed stack; and the 
necessary holes in the uprights, for the attachment of the future deck floor construction, 
are also provided. See Fig. 37. 

The shelf supports of wall shelving may be cast with notches to fit over the base board 
and chair rail and close against the wall so that the use of steel backing plates, which form 
inaccessible dirt pockets back of the case, is unnecessary. In this way the wall forms a 

backing for the books, ex- 
pense is saved, and ranges 
can be made more compact 
than if backing plates are 
used. 

The stacks for one tier 
installations may be finished 
either at the shop or after 
erection. The latter saves 
some expense in packing 
and avoids the liability of in- 
juring the enamel by hand- 
ling. The work of finishing 
after erection can be done 
by any first class painter fol- 
lowing directions furnished 
and with this method it is 
easy to have the stacks con- 
Fig. 35. CHILDREN'S ROOM. NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY form to any color scheme 

Low 9" shelving around walls. Special design ends and ia.st iron cornice. Similar low shelving, usually _. . , 

about 4'- 6" high, can be furnished of the designs shown on pages 22 and 23. OeSireQ. 




[ 33 ] 








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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 42. 



AMERICAN CIRCULATING LIBRARY, MANILA, P. I. 



mmB 






i,;3asss=W« 



Double-faced ranges, with removable steel cornice, prepared to receive additional tiers if the library is moved into 

a new building. 




Fig. 43. 



RHODE ISLAND MEDICAL SOCIETY, PROVIDENCE, R. 
Wall ranges, with Unit System base and cornice. 



[ 37 ] 



SPECIAL SHELVING 



SOMETIMES it is desired to make a bookstack of a special design to meet particular 
architectural requirements or conditions of use. The system of using cast iron for the 
uprights gives unsurpassed opportunities for producing rich effects, without excessive 
cost, on account of the ease with which a pattern is duplicated. In this way the architects' 
personality can be worked into the design of an exposed stack, thus enhancing the artistic 
character of a building. Once the pattern is made, range fronts of special design (see Frontis- 
piece opposite page 11 and Figs. 44 and 47 on pages 38 and 40) cost no more per pound than 
those from regular stock patterns. With cast iron, all ornamentation is actually part of the 
structure and is not merely applied as in the case of sheet metal; furthermore, the uprights 
have a solid, substantial appearance rather than the "tinny" look of sheet metal construction. 
With stacks of special design, it is usually necessary to employ finishes which will har- 
monize well with the interior treatment of the rooms in which the work is located. This is 
not always practicable with sheet steel construction which is necessarily finished with 
baked enamel; with cast iron construction, however, the air-drying finishes applied after 

the stack is erected make it possible to obtain 
any tone of color or any combination of colors 
which may be desired. Bronze powders of 
various kinds are available which, when used 
on well finished cast iron, produce particularly 
attractive effects, preserving the interesting 
texture and metallic quality of the surface cov- 
ered. A bronze finish of particular merit is 
obtained by using a gold bronze stippled with 
dark brown and a touch of green. This finish, 
while in no way an imitation, gives an effect 
which resembles old bronze. 

When shelving or equipment of a special 
size is required and the quantity does not 
justify making new patterns to produce the 
work in cast iron, it may be made of cold 
rolled steel plates. With standard dies and 
mechanical equipment, it is possible to form 
sheet steel members in a wide variety of sizes 
at a moderate expense. For the sake of econ- 
Fig. 45. SLIDING SHELVES. NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY omy and in Order to coat the interior surfaces 

Ends of main stack room are equipped for storage of maps and prints, of holloW memberS, all sheet Steel WOrk IS 

either loose or in boxes. Shelves slide in grooves with rollers to prevent £ • 1 J . j.1 I -j.! U 1 1 1 

jamming. In a simpler form, rollers are omitted and shelf spacing fixed. finished at the ShOp With baked eUamel. 




[ 39 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




JHCTION THMUGH BOTTOW 
ShtlT. 



Fig. 46. PERIODICAL CASE, HARTFORD, CONN., MEDICAL SOCIETY 

Cold rolled steel finished in baked enamel. Level shelves, just below sloping shelves, permit 

back numbers to be compactly stored close to current numbers. As seen in the above sketch, all 

shelves are so constructed as to allow their being set either level or sloping. 




Fig. 47. PATENTS ROOM, NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Range fronts, cornices, stairway and railings are of special design, made expressly for the Now 
York Public Library. Reading tables have been placed in the open space directly in front of 
the stack ranges, affording convenient working space in close proximity to the open shelves 



[ 40 J 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 48. SUPREME COURT LIBRARY, WISCONSIN STATE CAPITOL 

Unit system of construction. Cast iron cornice and steel base designed so that length of ranges 

may be altered by changing the number of shelf compartments. This special design is more costly 

than unit system with steel cornice shown on page 35. 




Fig. 49. SNEAD STANDING DESK, ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE LIBRARY. 
View in office of the Assistant Librarian. Snead Standing Desks, either single-faced or 
double-faced, are equipped with open bar or solid plate shelves as desired. These are adjust- 
able at intervals of l'' and lock in place in the same manner as in the regular bookstack 
construction. The sloping counter is fitted with a grooved ridge along the top for pencils, 
pens, etc. In the background is shown a Unit System wall range with ledge. A better view 
of this type of range is shown in Fig. 41 on page 36. 



[ 41 ] 





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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




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END ELEVATION 



FRONT ELEVATION 



SECTION 




PLAN 

Fig. 52. DETAILS OF SNEAD STEEL LIBRARY SHELVING 

This shelving is made of fine cold rolled steel plates, in any size required, and is finished with baked 
enamel. It is used throughout the miscellaneous rooms of the Widener Library at Harvard. 




Fig. 53. PHIPPS PSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

This illustration shows free-standing, double-faced ranges made of cold rolled steel plates, the construc- 
tion being similar to that described above, in Fig. 52. Usually, this construction is considerably cheaper 
than the regular Snead Standard Stack with cast uprights. 



[ 43 ] 



TOP FINISH 



THE tops of ranges, over which there is no present deck floor, may be finished in any 
of five different methods. Each finish has been designed to fulfill the requirements 
of a definite condition: for a stack supporting superimposed loads, for a stack planned 
with an idea of future expansion or for a finished stack over which there is to be no future 
construction. They are as follows: 




FLANGED STEEL COVER PLATE 

The ranges of a tier intended to re- 
ceive one or more superimposed tiers are 
provided at the top with flanged steel cover 
plates to tie together the shelf supports 
and to serve as the bottom fixed shelves of 
the future tier above. These flanged plates 
make a neat utilitarian finish and serve to 
protect the books from large accumula- 
tions of dust and other injury. They per- 
mit the next tier being added with no 
disturbance to work in place. 



F.R. 54. 



FLAXGKI) STEEL COXEI! PI ATE 




REMOVABLE STEEL CORNICE 

If it is desired that an incomplete 
stack have a more finished appearance, 
until the future tiers are added, a tempo- 
rary cold drawn steel cornice can be at- 
tached to the flanged steel cover plates 
described in the preceding paragraph. 
This cornice is made with mitred and 
welded corners so that it will stand moving 
and may be used again on the completed 
stack. 



Fig. 55. 



RF.MOVABLK STEEL CORNICE 



[ 44 ] 



Library planning, bookstacks and shelving 



UNIT SYSTEM CORNICE 
COVER PLATE 

A completed stack is usually finished 
with steel cover plates pressed along the 
sides into a cornice form, corresponding to 
the cast cornices on top of the shelf supports. 
This is less costly than the removable steel 
cornice construction. 




Fig. 56. 



UNIT SYSTEM CORNICE COVER PLATE 




Fig. 57. 



TOP ANGLES 




Fig. 58. 



CAST IRON CORNICE 



TOP ANGLES 

A stack carrying a floor above is usu- 
ally left open on top to facilitate the con- 
nection of the floor beams with the stack 
uprights. 1^ inch steel angles are bolted to 
the upper corners of the shelf supports and 
hold them in proper spacing. 



CAST IRON CORNICE 

Where architectural considerations re- 
quire decoration on a cornice or fine sharp 
mouldings, cast iron is used. A cast cornice 
may be designed as desired and it makes a 
more substantial, solid appearance than steel, 
but at a greater cost. The cornice can be 
built in unit sections to permit alteration in 
the length of the ranges as shown in Figs. 48 
and 322 on pages 41 and 247. Soffit plates 
forming a ceiling to the compartments are 
frequently used with cast iron cornices and 
may be used with the steel cornice also. 



TOP CLEARANCE 



A space of one or two inches is usually left between the top finish of the ranges and the 
ceifing of the stack room so as to permit the connection of the cover plates or cornice to the 
shelf supports. 



[ 45 ] 



STACK FLOORS 

DECK FRAMING 

DECK floors are one of the characteristic features of a bookstack. They consist of 
thin slabs of marble or glass supported on all four edges by light framework. The 
upper sides of the slabs form the deck floor surface and the under sides the ceiling 
of the tier below. Those edges of the slabs which are adjacent to deck slits or other open- 
ings are bordered by curb angles projecting about 1 inch above the slabs to prevent dust 
and litter on the floor from falling through the openings. The framing consists of rolled 
steel angles, T's and bars. Channels and I beams are avoided as much as possible, as their 
lower flanges catch dust. The main girders of the floor framing are bolted to the vertical 
shelf supports, and supported by them. Girders adjacent to masonry walls are usually 
anchored at intervals of about 8 feet so as to tie walls and stack together. 

The weights and sections of the floor framing members are varied to suit different spans 
and floor loads, the framing being designed to make the decks as compact as possible and 
to give the maximum head room below. The strength must be sufficient to prevent any 
noticeable deflection or vibration, which tends to open the joints between the floor slabs and 
derange the construction of the stack. The framing is usually made strong enough to carry 
a live load of from 40 to 75 lbs. per square foot over and above any dead load. When f 
inch glass slabs are used for flooring the usual thickness from the top of the glass to the 
bottom of the framing is 3^ inches. When l^ inch marble slabs are used the thickness is 
4 inches. These figures allow 5 inch for the cement bedding. Holes for the passage of hori- 
zontal conduits carrying electric wires may be drilled through the floor bars at the shop so 
that electric light fixtures can be placed close against the soffit of the floor slabs, leaving ample 
head room beneath. See Fig. 24 page 25. This method makes the neatest construction. 

DECK FLOORING 

Flooring for bookstack decks should be non-combustible, solid, noiseless and easy to keep 
clean. It should either transmit or reflect light, and be strong enough to sustain stack room 
loads unsupported except along the four edges of each slab. Wood should never be used as 
it is highly inflammable, noisy, a veritable dirt collector, and absorbs light. The first stack 
flooring in general use was made of perforated cast iron slabs for the sake of ventilation and 
light transmission. This type was soon abandoned however, because of its costHness, its 
propensity for sifting dust onto the aisles beneath and because the invention of deck slits 
made perforated slabs unnecessary for ventilation. 

White marble and rough plate glass are the only materials that have given satisfaction. 
Of the two, marble is preferable. It is stronger, handsomer, feels better under foot and is 
a better reflector of light than glass. Pure white marble is expensive and difficult to keep 
clean. That most commonly used for stack decks is blue-white in color, does not readily 

[ 46 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

show foot marks and gives sufficient reflection. For strength, compactness and reasonable 
cost, I5 inch is the best thickness. The slabs are thoroughly bedded in especially prepared 
cement, with even, neatly pointed joints, and are given a fine sand-rubbed finish on both 
sides. See Figs. 107 and 152, on pages 70 and 146, showing marble floors. 

In skylighted stacks, glass has one advantage over marble: it will allow light rays to pass 
down through one or two stack decks. Glass slabs are as a rule 5 inch thick, never less. 
They should be cast on a heavily sanded table to obtain a surface that obscures vision and 
makes a fair footing. The sand-blasted glass sometimes used is not so good as it collects 
more dust and becomes nearly black with use. Properly bedded in special cement on a firm 
steel framework f inch glass gives sufficient strength for stack room use though it may 
crack if a heavy object is dropped upon it. Where conditions require special strength and 
prohibit the use of marble, 1 inch glass slabs or f inch wire glass slabs may be used. 

Formerly, glass was sometimes laid smooth side up to show straight cut edges and 
expose a surface easily kept clean. This practice was abandoned later because - owing to 
the waviness of the top surface - it was impossible to lay adjacent slabs with flush tops, and 
because persons walking over the smooth surface became so charged with static electricity 
that results on touching metal were discomforting. See Fig. 125 page 90 showing glass floors. 

Slate has all the advantages of marble, except handsomeness and power to reflect light. 
This latter deficiency may be partly obviated by painting the under surface white. Slate 
slabs 1 J inches thick are cheaper than either marble or glass and are sometimes used on this 
account. 

BOTTOM FLOORS 

The bottom floor of a stack room is not usually included in the stack contract, as it can 
be more economically built by the masonry contractor. It is important to have this floor 
absolutely level as a bookstack cannot practically be made to conform to irregularities except 
by "shimming up" underneath the shelf supports and leaving openings below the flanges of 
the fixed bottom shelves. 

The bottom floor is usually made of concrete with a cement top finish. This does 
fairly well, though it is somewhat too dark in color and creates dust when worn. The use of 
cement paint will prevent the floor wearing, but is apt to give a slippery surface. Terrazzo 
makes a good bottom floor and to save expense it may be laid only in the aisles, after the 
stacks are erected, leaving the rough floor under the ranges. Marble tile, similar to the slabs 
used in the decks, makes the best floor. With tile, the stack is erected on the rough floor, 
using high stools and deep flanges on the bottom fixed shelves. The flooring is then laid so 
that it covers up the lower part of the flanges and makes a tight joint between the shelf and 
the outer edge of the tile. 



[ 47 ] 



STAIRS AND RAILINGS 



STRAIGHT run stairs are recommended for bookstacks and sometimes also the type 
shown in the stack room of the Ohio State University Library, page 173, where this 
arrangement fits in with the stack plan. Spiral stairs are costly and unsatisfactory. 
Winders considerably inci'ease expense and are rarely necessary with stories as low as stack 
tiers. Economy in space is secured by placing stairs between two double-faced ranges. See 
Fig. 61, page 49, and plans on page 209. This inconveniences access to shelves adjoining 
the stairs, but most of the space can be used by substituting for a regular stair railing a simple 
hand rail supported on brackets, or the ranges may be used from the opposite side as double 
width shelving for the storage of bound newspapers or large folio volumes. It rarely occurs 
that the stair requirements for two different stacks are identical; so stairs cannot be made up 
for stock. There are, however, regular methods of construction which are economical. 

Plain stack stairs are commonly made of steel. Better architectural effects can be secured 
with cast iron, but its use increases the cost. Marble treads are used with marble decks and 
slate treads with glass decks, or treads may be made of steel and concrete, or of steel plates 
with linoleum, rubber matting, or "safety tread" covering. Continuous newels, Fig. 60, sup- 
port the stack deck floors around stair openings and obviate the necessity of deep floor framing 
for the wide spans which otherwise would occur. The simplest railings are made of pipe, with 

cast fittings; double lines are 
used in exposed locations 
and single lines for window 
guards or wall hand rails. 
Railings of plain square 
bars with pipe handrails 
give a better effect. Fig. 60. 
Ornamental railings are 
not generally recommended 
for stack room use, as they 
collect dust, but they are re- 
quired where a stack is in an 
exposed location. Figs. 217 
and 246 on pages 191 and 
208 show stock designs of 
simply ornamented railings. 
See also pages 50 and 51. 
The frontispiece, page 10, 
and Fig. 34, page 32, show 
specially designed railings. 




l-'iK 59 



SCIEXCK KOOM, NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 
Special design stringers, risers, newels and railing. 



[ 48 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING^ BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 60. Stack stairway in the Delaware State Capitol. Moulded steel stringers, plate steel 
risers, marble treads, brass pipe hand rail, and continuous tubular steel newels supporting deck floor. 




61. Denver Public Library stack room, showing space saved by placing stairway between 
center ranges. These ranges are used from outside face as double width shelving. 



[ 49 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig, 62 



DOUBLE PIPE 



Fig. 63. 



FLORENTINE 



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F'K- 69. RENAISSANCE 

SNEAD STANDARD DESIGNS OF PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL RAILINGS AND FASCIAS 



[ 50 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig, 70. 



G E O R G I A X 



Fig. 71. ORNAMENTAL BAR 




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Fig. 73. 



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Fig. 74. 



LOUIS .\VI 



Fig. 75. 



ROMAN 




Fig, 76. EMPIRE Fig. 77. L O U I S X V 

SNEAD STANDARD DESIGNS OF PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL RAILINGS AND FASCIAS 



[ 51 ] 



THE SNEAD NEWSPAPER STACK 



THE Snead Newspaper Stack is an adaptation of the Snead Standard Stack to meet 
the special requirements of large flat books. It is used for newspapers, art books, 
public, bank and commercial records, large foHos, or any volume which is better 
stored lying flat. As these books require no side support the shelf supports may consist sim- 
ply of front and back vertical bars carrying the corners of the shelves, the entire central 
portion being left open for ventilation. Bound newspaper volumes average from 18 inches 
to 20 inches in width and 24 inches to 26 inches in length. As a rule the shelves are made 
18 or 22 inches deep and about 28 inches long. As the shelves are closely spaced, from 4 
inches to 6 inches apart, the load per square foot of shelf is small and only a few shelf bars are 
required. This greatly facilitates ventflation.* The great depth of the shelf compartments, 
the close spacing of the shelves and shelf supports, the skeleton form of the latter and the 
wide spacing of the shelf bars form the distinguishing characteristics of the newspaper stack. 
In other respects it is similar to the standard bookstack. This system of shelving was de- 
signed for the nine-tier South East Court Newspaper Stack (the dark stack) of the Library 
of Congress. See Fig. 81. The central columns are so shaped that they can be made to 
carry any required floor load, or extended to any height. The construction of the newspaper 

stack is most compact and dust-col- 
lecting surfaces are reduced to a mini- 
mum. 

The shelves have no loose parts, 
are easily adjusted without tools and 
every inch of space can be utilized for 
books. These last two advantages do 
not always hold for roller shelves, for 
the latter are frequently difficult to 
adjust and wasteful of space. The 
Snead newspaper shelf is thinner than 
the roller type and its long continu- 
ous bars afford a better support for 
the books than the short rollers. 
Moreover the open bar shelf holding 
two or more volumes does not allow 



^M^^g— i— ^-aBSBBaSBg^^ 



Fig. 



SNEAD OPEN BAR NEWSPAPER SHELF 

Wicilh, 18" or 22"; length as required, usually about 28" 



*Mr. John Norris, Chairman of the Committee on Paper 
of the American Newspaper Publishers' Association, in his re- 
marks before the Committee appointed by the American Library 
Association to study methods of preserving newspaper files 
(Brooklyn Public Library Nov. 26, 1912) particularly advocated 
that newspaper volumes be kept in the dark, thoroughly venti- 



lated and free from dampness, excessive dryness, artificial heat 
and the products of gas combustion. He commented favorably 
on the Library of Congress storage arrangements with air 
spaces around the books, ribbed shelves, filtered air supply and 
the perfect cleanliness as an insurance against animal organ- 



[ 52 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

the bottom book to come out unexpectedly when the top one is being withdrawn, as often hap- 
pens with roller shelves. The simplicity of the bar shelf construction and adjustment furnishes 
nothing to get out of order, and makes every portion easy to clean. The newspaper shelves do 
not lack in strength, — a man may safely walk over them. The smooth rounding of the sur- 
faces not only allows the books to be handled with ease, but also without injury to the bindings. 

Roller shelves can be supplied instead of open bar shelves if required. They are designed 
to fit on the same shelf supports and to take advantage of the easy gravity lock adjustment. 
The rollers are made of enameled steel or brass. Steel is recommended because it does not 
tarnish. The shelf frame of the roller shelves is strongly riveted together so that it will re- 
main "square" and always allow a free turning of the rollers. 

The Snead Unit System Newspaper Stack is suitable for single-tier installations when a 
neat attractive appearance is required. There are only five parts to the stack: the end shelf 
supports, the intermediate shelf supports, the base plates, the cornice cover plates, and the 
shelves. Under certain conditions diagonal braces are also required. Similar parts are inter- 
changeable, rendering alterations of range length easy. The stack is so simple that any good 
mechanic can erect it by following the directions furnished. If desired, the solid base plate 
may be omitted and the uprights fastened to the floor or to light bottom bars. This con- 
struction is perhaps more sanitary than with the base. For special architectural effect, the 
end shelf supports can be made solid with panels and the cornice of cast iron with ornamental 
mouldings. For simple storage purposes end shelf supports can be made like intermediates 
with some saving in cost. Shelf lengths can easily be varied to meet particular conditions, 
such as accommodating the ancient blanket sheets which bind up 31 or 32 inches long. 

Accommodation for a small 
number of newspaper volumes is 
frequently provided in ordinary 
shelving by letting the books extend 
clear through from one side of a 
double-faced book range to the 
other, thus making the ranges in 
effect single-faced. This allows 
the location of the newspapers to 
be changed at will. It is objection- 
able, however, in that regular book 
shelves are usually too long for 
newspapers, thus wasting space, 
and also because half the number 
of aisles could be omitted had dou- 
ble-faced newspaper ranges been 
installed at the outset. 

The finish customarily used for newspaper stacks is the same as that used for the book 
stacks, air drying enamel for the fixed parts and baked enamel for the adjustable shelves. 

Metal construction is no more expensive than first class wooden construction and has 
the advantages of being entirely fireproof and far more convenient, durable and sanitary. 



m 



H 



Fig. 79. 



SNEAD ROLLER NEWSPAPER SHELF 
Width 18" or 22"; length as required, usually about 28". 



[ 53 ] 




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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 82. 



ALBERTA PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, EDMONTON, ALBERTA 



Single-faced newspaper range with unit system base and cornice designed for the future expansion of the 
storage system. Range can later be made double-faced. 




Fig. 83. NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, CONCORD, N. H. 

Structural columns of building enclosed by double-faced newspaper ranges, with cast iron cornice and base. 



[ 55 ] 



BOOKSTACK FITTINGS 




Fig. M. PLATE STEEL BOOK SUPPORT FOR 
OPEN BAR SHELF 

A doxvnvvard projecting J_ shaped key, fit- 
ting between any two shelf bars, forms a 
lock when books press against the top of 
support. The support is easily adjusted with 
one hand when grasped at the base. Heights 
6" and 12''. 




Fig. 85. PLATE STEEL BOOK SUPPORT FOR 
SOLID PLATE SHELF 

The support is held in position by the weight 
of the end books which rest on a flat tongue 
extending horizontally along the shelf. The 
flanged vertical edges prevent books "strad- 
dling" the support and having their leaves 
damaged. 




Fig. KB. UPRIGHT WIRE BOOK SUPPORT 

The ends of the wire project between the 
bars and hook underneath, forming a lock 
when books press against the top of support. 




VVTKE BOOK SUPPORT 



This support, engaging the side flanges of shelf 
above, extends down and supports the books 
below. For use with solid plate shelves only. 



[ 56 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 





Fig. 



SINGLE FRAME 



Fig. 



DOUBLE FRAMES 



Illustrations of solid cast card frames with label opening 23^ x 4,% inches. Made of enameled iron, polished 
brass or bronze and held in place by tap screws. Each frame has one end slotted to allow cards to be 

readily inserted. 





Fig. 90. ORNAMENTAL CARD FRAME 

Made of finely molded cast bronze, finished 

as desired. One end slotted to receive card. 

Label opening 2% x 4% inches. 



Fig. 9L HANGING CARD FRAMES 

Hooks at top allow these frames to be 
readily attached anywhere on open design 
range fronts. Card opening 3 x 3]4 inches. 



Any card frames which may be required should be ordered before the stack is manufactured so that tap 
holes for securing them in place may be provided at the shop and not have to be drilled after the work 

is erected. 



[ 57 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 





Fig. 92 



OPEN BAR SHELF LABEL HOLDER "A" 



Fig. 92-b. OPEN BAR SHELF LABEL HOLDER "B" 





Fig. 93. 



SOLID PL.ATE SHELF LABEL HOLDER 



Fig. 94. LABEL HOLDER FOR SLOPING MAGAZINE SHELF 



Shelf label holders are made of cold rolled steel finished in baked enamel to harmonize with the shelves; or, if specially ordered, 
are made of sheet bronze or brass. They are readily adjusted by clamping them in place anywhere along the edges of the shelves 
and are not dislodged when books are handled. The label openings are ,",.''' wide by 4" long and labels are inserted at the ends. 




95-a. RANGE l-'KONt WITH PLATE 
STEEL INDICATOR 



TIER, SECTION AND 
RANGE INDICATORS 

Those as shown in Fig. 95-a 
are made of enameled plate 
steel and are numbered and 
lettered to order as desired. 
The double wedge shape per- 
mits the designations being 
read from any position in the 
aisle. The indicators are se- 
cured near the tops of the end 
shelf supports by means of 

tap screws. 
Fig. 9.5-b shows bronze num- 
ber p] ates riveted in to recesses 
and section designating letters 
cast on the end shelf support. 
This method of indication, 
while giving a handsome ef- 
fect, is not so clearly read as 
that shown in Fig. 95-a and is 
more expensive. 




Fig. 95-b. RANGE FRONTS WITH APPLIED 
AND CAST INDICATORS 



[ 58 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTAXKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 96. 



BACK CLIPS 



When "over-size" adjustable shelves are used, 
a heavy weight on the front edge of the shelf 
may tilt up the back edge until it strikes the 
horn lock about I" above. This tilting is pre- 
vented by the use of back clips which wedge 
between the back edge of the shelf and the 
bottom of the horn lock immediately above and 
hold the shelf firmly in place. Back clips may 
also be used in connection with portable 
ledges though not required if the ledges are at- 
tached to loaded shelves. 



Fig. 97. PORTABLE BOOK LEDGE 

Can be attached to any one of the 
adjustable shelves to provide a con- 
venient place for consulting books. 
For convenience of handling, the 
ledge is usually made of light weight 
mahogany with steel ends and is 
finished to match the adjustable 
shelves. 




Fig. 



BACK STOP 



This angle back stop is provided with 
keys locking between any two shelf 
bars. It is used to prevent books 
from being pushed too far back on 
a shelf and becoming lost, as often 
happens with small volumes; it also 
facilitates the even arrangement of 
books of uniform size, such as law 
reports. The back stop is^ particu- 
larly useful in open shelf rooms as 
the public is apt to be careless 
about replacing books. 




[ 59 ] 




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BRACKET STACKS 

SNEAD TUBULAR STEEL BRACKET STACK 

THIS stack has been designed with the purpose of combining simplicity, Ughtness, rigidity 
and strength in a construction less costly than the Snead Standard Stack. It is made 
entirely of pickled, cold rolled, annealed and patent leveled steel plates, except for the 
feet of the uprights and the cornice on the full width ends; these parts are made of cast iron. 




Fig. 100. 



SNEAD TUBULAR STEEL BRACKET STACK, EXETER, N. H., PUBLIC LIBRARY 



The steel section of the uprights is formed so as to develop the fullest possible strength 
of the material, the hollow-tube shape giving great rigidity. The feet of the uprights are 
secured to the floor to prevent displacement, while the tops are braced longitudinally by tie 
channels, of such stiffness, that transverse bracing between ranges is only necessary at inter- 
vals of about three compartment lengths. Full width end shelf-supports act as a cover to 
hide the brackets of the adjustable shelves. They are frequently used on the ends of those 
ranges which are particularly exposed to view. The cornice on full width ends is made of 
cast iron in order to secure the proper fineness of line and beauty of design. Where a number 
of full width ends are required little is saved by the use of a bracket instead of a standard stack. 

The bracket shelves consist of: First; the shelf proper, upon which the books rest. 
Second; the brackets which carry the shelf in cantilever fashion and hold the end books 



[ 61 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



upright. Shelves are triple flanged along the front and back edges into a rigid box form, and 
single flanged on the ends. The brackets are bolted to the end flanges of the shelf. The 
adjustment of the shelves is accomplished by means of three hooks on the upper back cor- 
ner and a lug on the lower back corner of the shelf bracket, as shown in the details in Figs. 
99 and 101-a. These hooks and lugs engage slots in the uprights; the hooks forming a sup- 
port and the lug serving to prevent an upward blow from dislodging the shelf. Rounded 

flanges are pressed on the tops and fronts of 
the brackets to prevent any raw edges of the 
material coming in contact with and injuring 
the books. 

Baked enamel, dark green or semi-gloss 
black, is the finish generally employed. Spe- 




Fig. 101-a. Detail of shelf constiuction and adjustment. Snead Tubular 
Steel Bracket Stack. 



cial colors, however, can be furnished as re- 
quired. Stairways, deck framing and other 
structural steel parts are finished with paint 
or air drying enamel applied after the stack 
is erected. 

Steel bracket construction is particularly 
adapted for use in a one-tier stack but may be 
used in stacks of two or more tiers. Where 
the uprights have to carry heavy superimposed 
loads they can be strengthened, either by thick- 
ening the steel plates from which they are 
formed or by reinforcing them with structural 
steel members. 

The tubular steel bracket stack is made 
in any width, height or length. It is inadvis- 
able, however, to go beyond 3 feet 6 inches 
in the length of compartments, or above 10 
feet in the height of the stack. Even at 10 
feet several rows of the adjustable shelves are 
inaccessible. 

The simple construction of this stack 
makes it easy to pack for shipment and any 
good mechanic can erect it by following the 
instructions furnished. 




Fig. 101-b. SNEAD TUBULAR STEEL BRACKET STACK 
View looking toward closed end shelf support. 



[ 62 J 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 102. 



PERSPECTIVE VIEW AND DETAILS OF SNEAD STAR COLUMN BRACKET STACK 



SNEAD STAR COLUMN BRACKET STACK 

The principles involved in the shelf adjustment of this stack are similar to those used 
in the Snead Tubular Steel Bracket Stack. The Snead Star Column Bracket Stack, however, 
is much stronger and is designed for greater heights or to carry heavy floors. It is too ex- 
pensive to use in a one-tier or two-tier stack. 

The intermediate uprights are of heavy steel star sections, specially rolled for Snead & 
Company; the ends are of heavy t sections. Adjustment slots are punched in those flanges 
of the uprights which stand parallel to the face of the range. 

Shelves are triple flanged on the front and back edges into a rigid box form and single 
flanged on the ends. To the end flanges are fastened the brackets which carry the shelves. 
Hooks and lugs on the back edges of the brackets engage in the slots of the uprights, the 
hook forming the support, while the lug serves as a guard to prevent dislodging of the shelf 
by an upward blow. An offset in the back of the brackets allows the shelves to be inter- 
changed throughout the stack and provides for the adjustment of the hooks of opposite shelves 
in the same adjustment slot. This offset also prevents books coming in contact with the ad- 



[ 63 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 

justment hooks. Round flanges, turned on the front and top edges of the brackets, prevent 
injury to books. 

The distance between the back edges of shelves at the same level in a compartment is 
only Iq: inches, and the distance between the ends of two adjacent shelves is only f inch. 
This construction affords the greatest compactness possible in the bracket stack, the structural 
members being kept soUd and all waste space being eliminated. 

In this type of construction, the shelves are usually finished with baked enamel, and 
shelf support uprights or columns, steel framing, stairs, etc., with air-drying enamel applied 
after the stack is erected. 

The Snead Star Column Bracket Stack, while cheaper than the Snead Cast Iron Bracket 
Stack, is more expensive than the Snead Tubular Steel Bracket Stack. 




Fi;;. 103. MEDICAL AND CHIRURGICAL FACULTY OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Vieu. in second tier of Snead Cast Iron Bracket Stack showing stack ready to receive future tiers above. Pilaster design 



ends. 



[ 64 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



SNEAD CAST IRON BRACKET STACK 

The uprights of the Snead Cast Iron Bracket Stack are solid, substantial and remark- 
ably stiff and strong. Each consists of a single casting neatly molded from patterns parted 
in the center, sand-blasted, surface ground and filed to obtain the best possible finish. 

The end uprights are of an 
attractive pilaster design as 
shown in Fig. 103 on opposite 
page. By placing one upright 
above the other, a stack of any 
number of tiers may be built. 
Shelving is formed of pic- 
kled cold rolled, annealed and 
patent leveled steel plates, with 
triple flanges on the front and 
back edges. The brackets, also 
of steel plates, fit against the 
ends of the shelf and are fas- 
tened to the front and back 
flanges, a portion of the bracket 
being carried around the back 
to form a brace. See Fig. 104. 
This insures a perfectly square 
and rigid connection and makes 
it impossible for the shelf brack- 
ets to spring from the support- 
ing lugs on the uprights. The 
shelves are adjusted and held 
in place by means of hooks, on 
the back upper corners of the 
brackets, which engage with 
lugs on the uprights. 

The uprights, framing and 
stairways are usually finished 
with an aluminum bronze or 
air drying enamel, applied after 
the erection of the stack. A baked enamel finish can be furnished if desired. Shelves are 
always finished with baked enamel, usually black. 

Many prefer this stack with solid cast iron uprights, to the Tubular Steel Bracket Stack, 
but owing to its greater cost, it is not so generally used, 




Fig. 104. LAW LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILL. 

View at bottom of the five-tier Snead Cast Iron Bracket Stack, showing details of bracket shelves 
and shelf adjustment lugs. 



[ 65 ] 



STANDARD VS. BRACKET STACKS 

AS a choice has sometimes to be made between standard and bracket stacks, a state- 
ment of their relative merits is in order. The following comparison is not based on 
any particular makes of stack but on the general features which naturally belong 
to each of the two types. 

The characteristic point of difference between a standard and a bracket stack lies in 
the form of the shelves and shelf supports. The word "standard" is here used to indicate 
the broad upright support which holds the ends of the shelves. For the purpose of reducing 
the cost, the shelf supports of the bracket stack are made as narrow as possible and so have 
to support the shelves in cantilever fashion. As the post-like supports are not wide enough 
to cover the ends of the shelves and keep the books upright the shelves are provided with 
end brackets. While the shelf supports in the bracket stack are cheaper than those of the 
standard, the bracket shelves are more costly as they are excessively heavy; consequently 
the difference in price between the two types is not large. 

The irregular outlines of the bracket ranges present an unattractive appearance. The 
unsupported front edge of the shelf gives a suggestion of insecurity which has a basis in 
reality. The books look as if they might topple over on the slightest provocation. The 
shelves frequently become dislodged accidentally and have been known to drop on glass 
flooring and crack it. The brackets themselves sometimes bend or become loose on the shelves 
so that they do not fit the shelf supports. 

The brackets prevent a close adjustment of shelves to hold large folios lying flat and 
they give an insufficient support to tall books standing upright. In stacks of this type there 
is danger of straddling the books over the brackets and marring the leaves. The bracket 
construction is particularly objectionable in a stack room open to the public, as the projecting 
members are fiable to catch on clothing. Considerable book space is wasted between the 
end brackets, and between the back edges of the shelves. This latter space is sometimes 2 
inches or more in width, thus allowing books to drop through. 

The desirable features of the Open Bar shelf are never found in a bracket stack, nor 
do bracket stacks have the fixed bottom shelf at deck floors which serves as a fire, dust and 
water stop and prevents books falling from the upper to the lower stories. The solid cover 
plate, which is a characteristic feature of the standard construction, is a great protection to 
the books from dirt and other injury and is frequently used as an extra shelf when the mov- 
able shelves are full. The omission of the cover plates and the fixed shelves between tiers 
largely account for the cheapness of the bracket type. 

Practically all of the first class important library buildings of recent construction have 
standard stack equipment and for most buildings, proposals are not received for the bracket 
construction. The only advantage in the latter is a slight economy in first cost, and this is 
more apparent than real. 

[ 66 ] 



LAYING OUT A STACK ROOM 



No absolute rules can be laid down for the arrangement of a stack room. Too much 
depends on the size and shape of the room and the manner in which it is to be used. 
A stack open to the public should have more liberal aisle space than a storage stack. 
The range aisles in an open stack may be approximately 3 feet wide and the main aisles any- 
where from 3 feet to 6 feet. Too great liberality in aisle space is expensive in the cost of 
deck floor construction and limits the book capacity of the whole building. Ample aisle 
space looks well when a library is new and the shelves only partially filled, but as the books 
accumulate and the stack becomes crowded to overflowing, all space save that absolutely 
necessary for aisle room becomes a source of regret to the librarian. The stack of the British 
Museum is a good example of this ; the range aisles were originally about 7 feet wide, but 
so great became the demand for book space that movable cases were suspended on rollers from 
the deck floor above each tier. These stood in front of the fixed shelving. This about doubled 
the stack capacity, but at the cost of making 
two-thirds of the books inaccessible without first 
moving one of the heavy rolhng cases. 

In an open shelf stack room the range aisles 
may be made as long as 18 feet when open at 
both ends and 12 feet when "blind" at one end. 
In a storage stack the ranges may be made as 
long as 30 feet and the range aisles as narrow 
as 27 inches to give the maximum book capacity. 
Although a person can pass through an aisle 21 
inches wide, it is difficult to use the lower rows 
of shelves with aisles under 27 inches. The 
ranges should be so placed that adjacent shelf 
supports stand exactly opposite one another 
across the aisle. If this is not done the floor 
framing becomes unsymmetrical and costly. 

The length of the shelves is largely gov- 
erned by the dimensions of the stack room. 
A distance of 3 feet between the centers of 
shelf supports is usual, but this figure may be 
varied if necessary. A closer spacing increases 
both the number of shelves and shelf supports, 
thereby adding to the cost. The use of longer pig. los. old stack room, British museum, london 
shelves is frequently warranted, 3 feet 6 inches Auxiliary cases suspended on rollers. 

being quite common. stack Ulustrated was not sappUed by The Snead (J Co. Iron Works 




[ 67 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 

The double-faced ranges for public, college and law libraries are generally made about 
17 inches wide with 8 inch adjustable shelves. A few 10 or 12 inch wall ranges or 20 and 
24 inch double-faced ranges may be provided for over-size books, or all the bottom fixed 
shelves may be widened from 2 to 4 inches as shown in Figs. 2, 17 and 106, on pages 13, 
22 and 69. Sometimes ranges are preferred, having projecting ledges about 2^ or 3 feet 
above the floor, with 10 or 12 inch shelves below and 8 inch shelves above. See page 70. The 
ledge is convenient for consulting books and does not seriously cut off the most valuable por- 
tion of the aisle space. 

The stairs and booklift should be in a central location or adjacent to the main entrance. A 
stairway in the center of a stack room is usually more serviceable than one at each end. 

SNEAD VERTICAL (PROTECTED) DECK SLIT 

It is a well established principle of bookstack construction that an open space or deck 
slit should be left between the bottom fixed shelves and the curb angles bordering the stack 
deck floors so that proper ventilation of the stack room will be possible. In ordinary stack 
construction this opening is about 3 inches wide, measured horizontally, and it has sometimes 
been criticised on account of the possibiHty afforded of objects dropping through the deck. 

This objection has been eliminated by the Snead Vertical Deck Sht Construction which 
has shelf supports widened at the bottom so that the fixed shelves extend over to the edge of 
the deck floor and entirely cover and protect the ventilating opening, which now extends in 
a vertical rather than in a horizontal direction. The height of the bottom shelf above the 
deck floor is usually about 3 or 4 inches, leaving an opening of 1 or 2 inches between the top 
edge of the curb angle and the bottom flange of the fixed shelf. The wide bottom shelves also 
afford convenient accommodationf or over-size books right in the same range with the smaller 
books, and this without encroaching on the valuable portion of the aisle space. It is the width 
of aisle at elbow and shoulder levels that counts, rather than the width at the floor level. 

Furthermore, the upward flowing air currents in a multiple-tier stack carry dust, and if 
these currents pass through the deck floors along a line several inches in front of the face 
of the range, the dust particles are not so liable to be deposited on the books. 

Another feature of the Snead Standard Stack which can accompany the wide bottom 
shelf and make it practicable to shelve books right along in their proper order, irrespective 
of size, is the interchangeability of regular and "Over-size" adjustable shelves. See opposite 
page and Fig. 29, page 29. The proportion of large books in a library is usually smafl, so 
that if the bulk of the shelves are made 8 or 9 inches wide, and aU fixed bottom shelves and 
about 5 per cent, of the adjustable shelves 10 or 12 inches wide, convenient and adequate 
accommodation can be had for the entire collection, with a minimum waste of space. 

The vertical deck slit, wide bottom shelf and interchangeable regular and "Over-size" ad- 
justable shelves were first designed for use in the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library of 
Harvard University, in order that the students and attendants using the stack would not be 
confused by the classes of books being broken up on account of variation of size. Books on 
the same subject properly belong together, and it is awkward and needless to separate them 
simply because one book may be larger than another. 



[ 68 



LIBRARY PLANNING., BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 106. SNEAD VERTICAL (PROTECTED) DECK SLIT 

Section through stack floor, showing top and bottom of typical range, with wide fixed bottom shelf, "Over-size'' adjustable shelves 
and protected Vertical Deck Slit of the Widener Memorial Library. See also Fig. 116, page 80. 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 107. ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE LIBRARY, TORONTO, ONT. 

Stack with ledge ranges, continuous marble deck floors (no deck slits) and open design range fronts. Upper shelves 8" wide, 

ledge lO" wide, lower shelves 13" wide. 



[ 70 ] 



WIDTH AND CAPACITY OF SHELVES 

No definite rules can be laid down regarding the width of shelves required for libraries 
as much depends on the method of classification, space available and usage to which 
the library is put. Where economy and compactness of storage are important, 8 
inch shelving is recommended for bookstacks in general. Books deeper than 8 inches can 
be taken care of in various ways : by making the fixed bottom shelves from 9 to 12 inches 
wide; by providing adjustable shelves 9 or 10 inches wide to fit on the 8 inch shelf supports; 
by providing one or more ranges with 10 or 12 inch shelf supports and shelves; or simply by 
allowing the books to project a little beyond the front or back edges of the shelves. Most 
books ai'e 6 inches or less in depth and it is well to bear in mind that waste space back of 
books collects dirt and is objectionable while the same space added to the width of the aisles 
becomes valuable. 

The number of volumes that can be stored per lineal foot of shelving depends on the 
character of the books. The following table has been prepared by averaging the data 
collected from various general and special libraries. For convenience in computing the 
amount of stack necessary, the capacity for both single-faced and double-faced ranges has 
been added, this being based on stacks 7 or 7^ feet high with seven rows of shelves, six adjust- 
able and one fixed, in the height. 

Vols, per foot Vols, per lineal foot of Vols, per lineal foot of Recommended 

Kind of books. of shelf. single-faced range. double-faced range. width of shelves. 

Circulating 10 70 140 8 inches 

Fiction 9 63 126 8 " 

Economics 9 63 126 8 

General Hterature ... 8 56 112 8 " 

Reference 8 56 112 8-10 " 

History 8 56 112 8 " 

Technical and Scientific .7 49 98 8-10-12 " 

Medical 61 45^ 91 10 " 

Law 6 42 84 8 " 

Public documents ... 6 42 84 8 " 

Bound periodicals . . . 5^ 38^ 77 10-12 " 

U. S, Patent specifications 2 (144 vols, per year) 14 28 8 " 

[ 71 ] 



STANDARD DIMENSIONS 



FOR the sake of convenient reference a summary of the regular sizes and dimensions 
of various stack parts are given below. It is well to take up with the manufacturer 
any changes that may seem necessary in these dimensions. 
Stack tiers 

Heights. 7 feet and 7 feet 6 inches, measuring from deck floor to deck floor. 
Stack aisles 

Main. 2 feet 6 inches to 5 feet or more, depending upon shape and size of room. 
Minor. 2 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 6 inches or more, depending upon conditions of use. 
Stack stairs 

Straight Runs. Well length, 8 to 9 feet; 11 or 12 risers; width usually about 30 inches. 
Stack ranges 

Lengths. As required, preferably in even multiples of shelf length adopted. 
Widths. Single-faced, 8f, 9f, lOf and 12^ inches for books; 18| and 22| inches for 
newspapers. Double-faced, I65, 18|, 20^ and 24^ inches for books; 37 and 44| 
inches for newspapers. 
Range cornices 

Depth. 2 inches for drawn steel, 3 inches for "Unit System." 
Shelf supports 

Thickness. Of intermediates seven-sixteenths inch, of ends five-eighths inch. Central 
stiffening ribs about 4 inches wide. Cornices project about 1 inch beyond face of ends. 
Adjustable shelves 

Lengths. As required, usually about 3 feet, uniform if possible; maximum about 3 feet 

6 inches. 
Widths. 8, 9, 10 and 12 inches for books; 18 and 22 inches for newspapers. 
Thickness, g inch to f inch ; greater for long span, soHd plate shelves. 
Fixed bottom shelves 

Height from deck. 2 inches with horizontal, 3 or 4 inches with vertical deck slits. 
Electrical arrangements 

Vertical ducts. On end shelf supports, ^ inch x 2 inches in cross section. 
Sivitch boxes. On end shelf supports, for single or double switches as required. 
Horizontal conduits. For main feeds, sizes as required; for branches ^ inch round (actual 
diameters, internal .623 inch, external .84 inch). 
Deck floors 

Glass Slabs. Usually f inch thick, sometimes 1 inch thick for large spans. 
Marble Slabs. 1^ inches thick. Slate, if used, same thickness as marble. 
Total Thickness. For ordinary spans, measuring from top of slabs to bottom of steel 
beams : with glass, 3^ inches; with marble, 4 inches. 

[ 72 ] 



PRICES OF STACKS 



INQUIRIES regarding shelving installations frequently take this form: "We are about ready 
to equip our stack room; please send catalog and prices." It is easy to send a catalog but 
impracticable to give a satisfactory estimate of prices without some specification of re- 
quirements. Stacks are built to order, to fit each library. Consequently each contract must 
be estimated separately. The cost varies from 40 cents to $1.00 or moi'e per lineal foot of 
shelving for straight stack work. The arrangement of the stack room, length of ranges, 
width of shelves, height of tiers, number of rows of shelves, number and position of stairways 
and booklifts, freight rates, packing charges and market price of steel, are only a few of the 
many factors which enter into the cost estimate. It is, therefore, almost impossible to quote 
list prices and discounts which will be intelligible and accurate. In requesting an estimate, 
architect's plans and sections should be sent. If these are not available, sketches with figured 
measurements will do. There should be a full description of the requirements of the library 
and the condition of the room. The more particulars given, the easier becomes the task of 
making a close and satisfactory estimate. For stacks but one tier high the following data is 
required: Standard or bracket type. Number of ranges. Width of each range. Length of 
each range. Height of each range. Number of rows of shelves in the height. Color of 
finish desired. It should also be stated whether or not it is proposed to add an upper tier 
of stack with a deck floor over the first tier some time in the future. 

For stacks of more than one tier in height, added information concerning the number 
of tiers, dimensions of the deck floors, position of stairs, gallery railings, window guards, etc., 
is needed. 

Where ranges are to fit against a wall, a detail should be furnished showing any projections 
from the wall, i. e., base boards, chair rails, etc., so that, if possible, the uprights may be 
notched around the same. See Fig. 36, page 34. Mention should be made of the trim 
around windows and doors and of any radiators or steam pipes which might interfere with 
the stack. 

Although stacks are built to order, there are established manufacturing standards, 
patterns and dies, to which it is necessary to conform for the sake of economy. Special 
construction, designs or sizes are expensive. It is well in stating requirements to mention 
those features which are essential and those which are merely preferred and therefore sub- 
ject to modification. In other words, give as much freedom as possible for the development 
of the stack according to the spirit rather than the letter of the requirements. Such latitude 
tends toward economy and toward rendering the finished result more satisfactory to the 
user. 



[ 73 ] 



TIER HEIGHTS 



ONE of the basic principles of the modern bookstack is to have every shelf accessible, 
without the use of steps or ladders, to a person of average height. The old arrange- 
ment of running shelving to the ceiling without a gallery is looked upon with disfavor. 
A mezzanine floor or gallery, although adding to the cost, is more practicable and economical 
in the end. Such a floor, however, is not feasible where the ceiling is less than 12^ feet or 
13 feet high. 

The regular stack tier heights are 7 feet 
or 7 feet 6 inches. These may be modified 
if necessary, but if 7 feet 6 inches is ex- 
ceeded by more than 2 inches modification is 
liable to cause a considerable additional ex- 
pense. Moreover, there is waste space in tiers 
that exceed 7 feet 6 inches, as the upper rows 
of shelves are inaccessible. The height of the 
bottom tier can be increased a few inches by 
increasing the height of the stools supporting 
the uprights under the bottom fixed shelves. 
These are ordinarily 2 inches above the floor. 
In planning a library it is advisable to have 
the distance between the main floors of the 
building multiples of the stack tier heights, 
so that as many as possible of the stack floors 
will be on a level with the main floors. This 
greatly increases the convenience of access 
to the stack and allows book trucks to be moved 
without hindrance from the stack room to 
other parts of the building. See section of 
New York Public Library on page 144 and 
section of Library of Congress on page 136. ^ ,„„ ^^,^^ „^ 

•' "^ f b ^- F,g. 108. STACK ROOM, DENVER PUBLIC LIBRARY 




[ 74 ] 



STACK ENGINEERING 



THE various engineering requirements which may arise in the construction of a building, 
such as the supporting of floors and roofs and the bracing of walls, are easily fulfilled 
by the Library of Congress stack construction. Ordinarily the stack is a self support- 
ing structure surrounded by masonry walls. It is customary to reinforce the walls by tying 
them, at intervals of about 7 feet, with the stack deck floors. This also serves to steady the 
stack tiers and renders diagonal bracing within the stack unnecessary. However, when diag- 
onal bracing is used, the stack can be made an entirely independent structure and may sup- 
port curtain walls enclosing it. 

The rows of stack uprights, generally about 3 feet on centers in one direction, 4 feet or 
5 feet in the other, and thoroughly braced about every 7 feet in their height by the deck floors, 
can easily be made to carry heavy superimposed loads. The two-tier basement stacks in the 
Brookhne, Mass., Somerville, Mass., and Gary, Ind., Public Librai-ies and the stack in the 
Library of Hawaii, carry floors above. The two-tier stack at Whitinsville, Mass., and the 
three-tier stack of the Coburn Free Library, Owego, N. Y., support their own roofs. In the 
Elizabeth, N. J., Public Library the medical reference room in the second story rests on the 
four-tier bookstack below. In all the above buildings the stack uprights, each consisting of a 
single through casting with central stiffening ribs, required no extra reinforcement. 

The castings are so designed that shelf supports for even a one-tier or two-tier stack are 

generally strong enough for 
use in the bottom of a seven- 
tier stack. This permits of 
the shelves being made the 
same size and interchange- 
able throughout, and some- 
times has other advantages. 
For instance, a two-tier 
stack in the old Indiana 
State Normal School Li- 
brary was reset in the new 
building and two tiers added 
above, with plans for still 
another. Such use was in 
no way contemplated when 
the stack was built, but the 

Fig. 109. GORE HALL. HARVARD UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. extra Strength WaS the 

Structure in course of demolition, winter 1913, to make room for the Widener Memorial Library. meaUS of SaVlUSf SeVeral 

Note that stack structure is entirely independent of the surrounding walls. inn 

Stack illustrated was not supplied by The Snead ^ Co. Iron Works tnOUSanCl QOliarS. 




[ 75 ] 





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o 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



As a rule when stacks are unusually high, or the superimposed loads excessive, the stack 

uprights consist of central structural steel columns with flat cast iron shelf supports attached 

in each tier. The columns are in multiple tier lengths, breaking joints at the deck floors and 

securely braced by the deck framing. The accompanying sketches, Figs. 

112-a and 112-b, show how the strength of these columns can be increased 

' indefinitely, without encroaching on book space, by simply lengthening the 

Fig. 112-a. Range Front arms of the columns. In a twenty-tier stack the ends of the rectangular 



J=. 



4- 



Fig. 112-b. Partition 

SECTION THROUGH 

UPRIGHTS 

Showing flat cast iron 

shelf supports attached 

to central structural steel 

columns. 



shelves need not be more than ^ inch apart and their back edges f inch 
apart; thus no available book space is occupied by the structural work. In 
the Library of Congress there are four nine-tier stacks with these structural 
steel columns. One of these, the new southeast court newspaper stack, 
carries above it a work room and over that, its own roof. The main stack 
room of the New York Public Library is seven tiers high and supports the 
floor of the great reading room. The new Widener Memorial Library of 

Harvard University has a ten-tier stack carrying a floor of seminar and lecture rooms. 

A floor carried on a stack can be made unusually thin as the points of support are close 

together. A construction is frequently employed having 3 inch I beams running along the top 

of each stack range, either underneath or imbedded in a reinforced concrete slab 3 inches to 

6 inches thick. Allowing 2 inches for the fin- 
ish above the slab, the total thickness of the 

floor need be only 5 inches to 8 inches, thus 

affording a great saving in space and floor ma- 
terial. Although stacks are well adapted for 

carrying uniformly distributed loads, they are 

not so well fitted for the heavy concentrated 

loads of masonry walls or columns within a 

reading room. If necessary these columns and 

walls can be provided for in the stack structure 

but it is usually less expensive to continue 

heavy columns down through the stack. 

The original stack in the University of 

Michigan Library, of the Gore Hall type, car- 
ried a museum floor above. To increase the 

stack space plans were made to build a two-tier 

stack in the museum room. The stack below 

was not strong enough, however, to carry the 

increased load. There was then, no alternative 

but to suspend the new stack. New steel roof 

trusses were placed across the room parallel 

to the old wooden trusses, which remained in 

place. From the steel trusses steel bar sus- p.^ ^^3 coburn free library, owego, n. y. 

PenderS were dropped at intervals 01 4 feet to sloping roof of stack room carried by cast iron struts on top of third 

11-1 1 l_li.J' ^'^^ shelf supports. Tops of these shelf supports are tied together by 

6 feet and to their lower ends were bolted pairs two steei angles instead of flanged cover piate. 




[ 77 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

of steel channels just clearing the floor. There was one pair of channels for each range and 
they were entirely concealed by the bottom fixed shelves and base of the end shelf supports. 
On top of these channels the two-tier stack with its marble mezzanine floor was built, and over 
the stack a reinforced concrete slab was constructed to isolate the old wooden roof and 
eliminate fire risk. See Fig. 110, on page 76. 

In the Bibliotheque St-Sulpice at Montreal, the librarian's office and cataloging room 
are built directly in the stack room, with book ranges above, below and to one side. See 
main floor plan on page 199 and transverse section on page 200. 

The stack room of the Widener Memorial Library, see plan on page 155, has been 
constructed with study rooms incorporated in the stack work, and also with rows of reading 
alcoves placed along the outside walls. 

Both in new buildings and in alterations, interesting engineering problems frequently 
arise in connection with the bookstack. If taken up at the outset with the stack manufacturer, 
a solution can usually be found that is safe, simple and economical in space and construction. 




Fig 115. MAIN STACK ROOM, NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

View in center of seventh tier, showing stack columns supporting steel beams and terra cotta arch floor of main reading room 
overhead. Heating and ventilating duct in left foreground. See Fig. 114 for view in seventh tier during construction. 



[ 79 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 116. HARRY ELKINS WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

Construction view showing portion of fifth stack tier carried by girders over ground story reading room. The lower part of the 
shelf supports are extended into the aisles to carry wide fixed bottom shelves. 



FOUNDATIONS 



STACK foundations are provided, as a rule, by laying a concrete slab over the whole 
stack room floor, of such thickness or so reinforced that it will carry the loads without 
cracking. Economy is sometimes gained by making the floor thin and having a concrete 
beam under each row of stack columns to form a continuous footing. It is impractical to put a 
separate footing under each column as the latter occur at such close intervals (about 3 feet 
in one direction and 4 feet in the other) that the footings run together. The floor and lower 
walls should be thoroughly damp-proofed so that the first tier will be dry enough for books. 
When the soil under a building is of such a nature that settlement is liable to occur, 
the area of the footings under the waUs and of those under the stack should be so propor- 
tioned that the pressure on the ground will be everywhere equal, thus causing uniform settle- 
ment. On this account it may be necessary to use the beam footing construction, with the 
concrete slabs between not bearing directly on the ground. This distributes the stack loads 
over a small area and equalizes the pressure under the stack and wall footings. In cold 
weather all footings should be protected from freezing ; otherwise the floor may heave up in 
places and push the shelf supports out of true, not only with each other but also with the 

surrounding walls. 

If an air space is de- 
sired under the stack room 
floor it is good construction, 
although expensive, to have 
walls or rows of piers with 
brick arches between them 
in the cellar under the stack 
ranges. Where there is to 
be a basement under a stack 
room, two methods of con- 
struction are available. The 
first and most economical is 
to continue the stack col- 
umns down to the basement 
floor and to make the floor 
above of light construction 
similar to a regular stack 
deck, but without deck slits. 
^■'^■'"- NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY . „ ,, The second is to use larger 

Construction view, September 1, 1905, in main stack room, showmg cast iron columns m cellar which a 

carry the seven-tier bookstack. Note cast iron brackets built into the wall for the attachment of stack StrUCtUral COlumnS Under 

deck floors. Such brackets are not recommended as they require the greatest care in setting to insure , . 1 • 1 , i 

their being in exact position. Bvcry scconcl or third stack 




[ 81 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



upright (or possibly at 
greater intervals) and to 
construct a heavy grillage 
on top with a beam upon 
which each row of stack up- 
rights may rest. This gives 
more space in the basement 
for mechanical equipment 
or working purposes than 
the first method, but the 
space cannot readily be used 
for book storage. The cel- 
lar columns should be fire 
proofed unless it is certain 
that the space will not be 
used for the storage of in- 
flammable material such as 
empty boxes, waste paper 
furniture, etc. These might endanger the stack structure in a way not possible with books. 




Fig. 118. OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, COLUMBUS, O. 

View showing steel columns, 9'-0" high, carried through cellar to support the six-tier stack above. 

Columns are provided with holes for the attachment of the future shelf supports in the basement tier. 



,?^* 




SNEAD METAL MUSEUM CASE, STYLE "O'^ 
See also pages 89, 100 and 26L 



STACK WEIGHTS 

ALTHOUGH the dead loads of stack construction vary with each stack installation, 
they can be accurately determined; the weight of the books and the live load on the 
k- stack decks must be assumed. The proper allowance for deck live load differs with 
each building, 70 lbs. per square foot is frequently used for a stack of but a few tiers to make 
sure that the deck framing will be amply stiff to prevent deflection and vibration. However, 
it is out of the question to consider that any such live load could ever come on all the decks. 
Therefore, the assumed live load may be greatly reduced when calculating the strength of the 
columns and might be disregarded entirely so far as the foundations of the stack are con- 
cerned. A conservative basis of calculation is to assume a live load of 40 lbs. per square foot 
for the top deck and reduce the amount 10 per cent, for each tier below. 

Unit weights given below are a safe average for an ordinary bookstack : 
Shelf supports and shelves, 6 to 10 lbs. per cubic foot of range. 
Books 20 



Deck framing 4 

f inch glass flooring .... 10 

1^ " marble flooring ... 18 

Live load 40 



square foot of gross deck area. 
" " net area. 

" " of glass or marble area of top 



tier, and reduce the amount 10 per cent, for each tier below. 

When a stack must be erected on a floor of light construction, there is sometimes a 
prejudice in favor of the use of a bracket stack rather than a standard stack. This prejudice, 
however, is not well founded since the difference in weight between the lightest kind of a 
bracket stack and a substantial standard stack is almost negligible when proper account is made 
of the weight of books, deck floors, deck framing and live load on floors. In either case, the 
weight of the last four items should be the same. The shelf supports, or uprights, of the 
bracket stack are lighter than those of the standard stack, but the shelves themselves are 
heavier, so that the net difference in weight is but a small proportion of the total weight of 
the stack construction. In fact, after making proper allowance for the weight of books and 
the live load on decks, the total weight on the floor with a bracket stack might be as much 
as 4^ per cent, less than with a standard stack, but is more likely to be only 1 or 2 per cent, 
or even nothing. 

The books themselves are the principal factor to be considered in reference to floor 
loading, as they are far heavier than the shelf supports and shelves, and the variation in 
their weight is much greater than the variation in weight of the different types of stack. 

The following plans and unit weights are given to show two extreme cases and a medium 
example. It is unhkely that the combination of extremely heavy weights in the last example 
could ever be obtained in an actual bookstack, but it serves to illustrate the maximum limit 
of weight. 

[ 83 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



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PLANS AND UNIT WEIGHTS 

These plans and unit weights are assumed to show examples of hght, 
medium and heavy stack construction. 

Computations on opposite page. 









UNIT WEIGHTS 






Light, used with PI 


in N Medium, used with Plan O 

1 


Heavy, used with Plan P 


Stack construction 


7 lbs. per cu. ft. 






8 lbs. per cu. ft. 


11 lbs. per cu. ft. 


Floor framing 


3 lbs. per sq. ft. 






4 lbs, per sq. ft. 


5 lbs. per sq. ft. 


Deck flooring 


%" glass, 10 lbs. 


per sq. ft. 


Pi" marble, 18 lbs. per sq. ft. 


VA" slate, 20 lbs. per sq. ft. 


Books 


20 lbs. per cu. ft. 






25 lbs. per cu. ft. 


30 lbs. per cu. ft. 


Live load 


20 lbs. per sq. ft 






40 lbs. per sq. ft., decreased 
10<''f. for each tier. 


70 lbs per sq. ft. 


Tier height 


r-0" 




1 7'- 3" 


7'- 6" 



I i t-t t'^f l 



I- t t f=^" 

^3' DECK 3LIT 



■« I A B C 



M-^i*^3'-6'-*-3'-6-i-3'-6-i- 6-0' -i-3-6'^j'-6'-*-3-6'i-J-6-i-3-( 



Plan N. 
Fig. 120. LIGHT CONSTRUCTION 



r 



EpizzErD 



A » B -% C 



'•P it DECK 51JT'9 



rfr-T— 



riT^ 



M-i t \--r 



t ^j^ tit 



I I I 1 i~r 



t fff \h 3 "inn^zEn: 



1 t t--4 fiT~i I- I t t t "n 






Fig. 122. 



■di-3'<U-3'<U-3'^Cij-n. 3'-oi-3'.ni 3'.Qi-3.ai-3.o 

Plan P 
HEAVY CONSTRUCTION 



S' O — l-3'-3-i-J-3"-i-3-3'-l-3-J-*-3-i- 

Plam O 
Fig. 121. MEDIUM CONSTRUCTION 



Note for next cage: In calcula- 
ting W for plan O, the width of 
the stack room was measured 
from the blank wall to the middle 
of the main aisle. The framing, 
flooring and live load for the 
other half of the main aisle are 
carried by the outside wall. 



Ftg. 119. 



[ 84 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 
TABLES OF BOOKSTACK WEIGHTS 

Examples of light, medium and heavy stack construction according to conditions of 
plans and weights on opposite page. The figures given show the weights in pounds at the 
foot of each typical stack shelf support; also the weights per square foot on stack room floor, 
for any number of stack tiers and deck floors from one to twenty. 

This table merely illustrates the general variation of stack weights; detailed calculations 
should be made whenever actual construction is undertaken. 



A = Weight at typical aisle end shelf support. 
B = Weight at typical intermediate shelf support. 



C = Weight at typical wall end shelf support. 
W = Weight per square foot on stack room floor. 



PLAN' N 
Using light unit weights 



Tiers 


Decks 


A 


B 


c 


1 





441 


882 


441 


2 


1 


1622 


2188 


1404 


3 


2 


2803 


3493 


2367 


4 


3 


3983 


4799 


3330 


5 


4 


5164 


6104 


4293 


6 


5 


6345 


7410 


5256 


7 


6 


7526 


8715 


6219 


8 


7 


8707 


10021 


7182 


9 


8 


9887 


11326 


8145 


10 


9 

! 


11068 


12632 


9108 


11 


10 


12249 


13937 


10071 


12 


11 


13430 


15243 


11034 


13 


12 


14611 


16548 


11997 


14 


13 

1 


15791 


178.54 


12960 


15 


14 


16972 


19159 


13923 


16 


15 


181.53 


20465 


14886 


17 


16 


193.34 


21770 


15849 


18 


17 


20515 


23076 


16812 


19 


18 


21695 


24381 


17775 


20 


19 


22876 


25687 


18738 



w 



36 

98 

159 

220 

282 

343 

405 

466 

528 

589 

650 

712 

773 

835 

896 

958 

1019 

1080 

1142 

1203 



PLAN O 
Using medium unit weights 



583 

2152 

3658 

5102 

6482 

7800 

9054 

10246 

11375 

12441 

13444 

14385 

15325 

16265 

17206 

18146 

19086 

20026 

20967 

21907 



B 



W 



1166 

2910 

4617 

6289 

7925 

9525 

11090 

12618 

14111 

15570 

16991 

18377 

19762 

21148 

22534 

23920 

25305 

26691 

28077 

29462 



583 
1455 
2309 
3144 
3962 
4762 
5544 
6309 
7055 
7784 



9187 
9880 
10573 
11266 
11958 
12651 
13344 
14037 
14730 



69 

181 

290 

396 

499 

600 

699 

794 

887 

978 

1066 

1151 

1236 

1321 

1406 

1491 

1576 

1661 

1746 

1831 



PLAN P 
Using heavy unit weights 



769 

2453 

4137 

5821 

7505 

9189 

10873 

12557 

14241 

15925 

17609 

19293 

20977 

22661 

24345 

26029 

27713 

29397 

31081 

32765 



B 



1538 
3765 
5993 
8221 
10449 
12676 
14904 
17131 
19359 
21586 
23814 
26041 
28269 
30496 
32724 
34951 
37179 
39406 
41634 
43861 



C 

769 

1883 

2997 

4111 

5225 

6339 

7453 

8567 

9681 

10795 

11909 

13023 

141.37 

15251 

16365 

17479 

18.593 

19707 

20821 

21935 



w 

118 

297 

476 

654 

833 

1012 

1190 

1369 

1548 

1726 

1905 

2084 

2262 

2441 

2620 

2798 

2977 

3156 

3334 

3513 



EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF THE TABLES 



The weight on the bottom floor of a stack room 7 tiers 
high, including of course 6 stack decks, is, in the "light" ex- 
ample, 7526 lbs. under each shelf support A, 8715 lbs. under 
each shelf support B and 6219 lbs. under each shelf support C, 
or a total of 405 lbs. per square foot over the total area of the 
stack room floor. 



Should it be desired to install a two-tier stack (with one 
deck floor) of "medium"' weight, the table shows that the stack 
room floor would have to be capable of carrying 181 lbs. per 
square foot, in addition to the live load calculated for the floor 
and that the concentrated loads under each shelf support would 
be: at A, 2152 lbs., at B, 2910 lbs. and at C, 1455 lbs. 



[ 85 ] 



STACK ROOM WALLS 



IT is important to have stack room walls square, straight, plumb and free from projec- 
tions, as the building of a book stack to conform to small irregularities is impractical. 
The stack must be kept within minimum dimensions, even though the space outside these 
dimensions be wasted. All mouldings and projecting trim should be eliminated as they hinder 
a close fit. A beam projecting from a wall where there are to be wall ranges is most objec- 
tionable because it necessitates the ranges being built out far enough to clear. The uprights 
cannot well be notched around, since their strength depends on continuous flanges along the 
back edges. Placing the ranges in front of the beam leaves an opening behind, which must 
be protected by steel plate or wire mesh backing to prevent books falling through. Wall 
ranges should be set close against the walls so that metal range backs are unnecessary as 
the pockets formed behind are both space wasting and insanitary. 

Stack deck floors are usually connected to adjoining masonry walls at intervals of from 
6 feet to 8 feet, in order to tie together and brace both the building and stack and to provide 
a partial support for the wall aisles so that they will not have to be cantilevered out from 
the shelf supports. As a rule the curb angles bordering the deck floors clear the walls one 
inch or two inches to provide for irregularities and ventilation. The floor connections are best 
made after the walls are finished. This is done by means of cast iron brackets expansion 
bolted into place. Repeated experience has proved the difficulty of depending on the masons 
setting anchors in the right positions. If anchors must be built in, they should be specially 
designed so that small irregularities of position can be overcome when the stack work is 
connected. 

It is hardly necessary to say that all outside walls should be furred or insulated so as to 
keep dampness away from the books. Common brick painted white does not make a bad 
facing for the interior walls of a storage stack. White plaster is better. Next comes light 
colored face brick and, best of all, white enameled brick. Plaster is usually put on before 
the stack is set, because of the difficulty in working around deck floors and uprights. 



[ 86 ] 



NATURAL LIGHTING 



IN large storage stacks natural light is not necessary and it is often advisable to assign all 
outside rooms to other purposes. However, in small libraries it is unlikely that artificial 
light will ever entirely supersede daylight. Where daylight is to be depended upon, a larger 
window area is required than for ordinary rooms whose interiors are not packed full of books 
and stack construction. 

From an aesthetic point of view, the design of the windows in a stack room is frequently a 
difficult problem. A stack naturally requires a window at the end of every aisle in each tier, but 
the outside appearance of such an arrangement is inharmonious with the architectural treat- 
ment of most buildings. Consequently, long slit windows have been adopted with such success 
that they have come to be considered the typical stack window. They more truly represent their 
purpose than rows of small windows as they indicate that the interior behind them is one large 
room. Furthermore they may be worked into the exterior design in a way that is both interest- 
ing and attractive, as shown in Fig. 123. 

In the New York Public Library the centers of the piers are opposite every other range, 
while in the Widener Library they are opposite every third range. In both instances there is 




Fig. 123. REAR VIEW OF NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, SHOWING LONG SLIT WINDOWS OF STACK ROOM 
BELOW THE LARGE WINDOWS OF THE MAIN READING ROOM 



[ 87 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 

direct light for each stack aisle. See Figs. 147 and 160. The masonry piers can be stiffened if 
necessary by heavy metal ties running across the windows at the deck levels or about 3 feet 
above, where they will not cast objectionable shadows. The outside reveal of the windows may 
be made as shallow as desired to give room for a folding or stationary ledge inside, a matter of 
great convenience for work in the stack. In a narrow stack room it is permissible to have the 
ends of the ranges opposite the windows if the uprights are of open construction with a light fin- 
ish and wide side aisles. This allows the light to hit at a good angle for illuminating titles. 

The position of windows is rather more important than their size since the most valuable 
light comes from the glass nearest the ceiling. The highest light is effective for the greatest 
distance from the windows and roughly speaking half the illumination comes from the upper 
third of glass area. For this reason windows but one tier high can be made nearly as efficient as 
slit windows, if their tops are placed a little above the deck floor of the tier overhead so that the 
highest rays are unobstructed. See transverse section of Library of Congress stack on page 15. 





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Fig. 124. VIEW IN NORTHWEST COURT, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, SHOWING WINDOWS OF 

NORTH STACK ROOM 



[ 88 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

Prism glass with ribs arranged to throw the Hght rays horizontally across the stack tiers is 
of assistance in illuminating deep rooms. Open work shelf supports, a white finish on the stack 
construction and walls, white marble floors and deck slits are valuable for making the available 
light go as far as possible. Light rays pass freely through the openings or else are reflected 
from the white surfaces. In a stack so designed the books themselves form the principal obstruc- 
tion to light. 




SNEAD METAL MUSEUM CASE, STYLE "D" 
See also pages 82, 100 and 26L 



[ 89 ] 




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ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING 



THE artificial lighting of modern stack rooms is now accomplished solely by means of 
electricity which, if properly installed, is entirely safe. Gas has been found incon- 
venient and costly and in some of the old libraries it was discovered that the bindings 
and the leaves of books shelved near the ceiling were rapidly being destroyed by its fumes. 
Tungsten lamps, because of their economy in the consumption of current, are preferred 
to the old style of carbon lamps. Lock sockets should be provided in open stack rooms. 

There is much room for improvement in stack lighting systems. As a rule the upper 
shelves are brightly illuminated, while the titles of books on the lower shelves are read with 
difficulty. The use of opalescent glass shades of proper curvature, aids in lighting up the bot- 
tom row of books and protects the eye from the intense glare from the bare filaments, but 
the distribution of light which they give is not uniform. Special reflectors are made which 
distribute the fight rays equally over the whole face of a range, but they greatly increase the 
cost of the lighting installation. Indirect lighting is not generally practicable as it requires 
too great a consumption of current. White marble deck floors do much to distribute light 
for they not only reflect the rays upwards but diffuse them by reflection from the under side 
of the floor above. Where glass floors are used, arrangements are sometimes made to con- 
trol the lights of the tier be- 
low so that they will shine 
up through the floor and illu- 
minate the lower shelves. 
This method although form- 
erly popular, is now seldom 
used in new buildings as it 
complicates the wiring and 
is costly to install. 

The choice of a method 
for controlling the lights of 
a stack room should be de- 
termined by the conditions 
of use. Small libraries ordi- 
narily have one main switch 
board controlling all lights 
in the stack, with chain pulls 
for individual lights. This 

arrangement saves in cur- 
Fig. 127. ST. CHARLES THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, OVERBROOK. PA. ^^^^ ^^^ .^ ^^^ j^_^^^ ^ 

View showing electric lights controlled by chain pulls. Conduits carried by stack cover plates. When . ■ , 11 T, 1 ll ,, 

second tier is added, conduits can be raised to new level by merely disconnecting them at the walls. tO mStall. it alSO ailOWS the 




[ 91 ] 




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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

conduits to be run perpendicular to the ranges, so that they are supported by the cover plates 
over a single tier or over the top of a stack of several tiers. 

The most widely used method of electric light control is to have double push-button 
switches on alternate end shelf supports for the lights in each stack aisle. With double 
switches it is evident at a glance that the Hghts in any aisle are controlled by the switch nearest 
at hand. Sometimes switches are placed on the opposite ends of the same range, for the 
convenience of the attendant, who enters at one end of the aisle and leaves at the other. End 
switches are also employed where the utilization of the lights below a glass floor is desired. 

Occasionally, tassel switches are used at the aisle entrance. These cost less than end 
switches and are sometimes necessary where a special design of end shelf support interferes 
with the fixed switch box. 

In some of the largest stack rooms, gang switches are placed at convenient points to 
illuminate large sections at a time, the theory being that Hghts are more likely to be turned 
off at one switch than at several. This method is used in the New York Public Library and 
was in use in the Library of Congress until supplanted by "time Hmit" switches. 

These "time limit" switches are operated by means of clock-work running in oil and are 
customarily placed on alternate end shelf supports along the main aisle. As an attendant 
enters an aisle to get a book he pushes the nearest switch. He then has to pay no further 
attention to the lights as they go out automatically after the lapse of a fixed period of a few 
minutes. They can be kept burning indefinitely, however, by inserting a special key in the 
switch. Although the price of these switches is from ten to fifteen dollars each, it is esti- 
mated that in the Library of Congress they have halved the consumption of current and 
globes As they come into use more generally their cost will undoubtedly be decreased. 
They will not be recommended, however, by readers who like to browse. 

In the Harper Memorial Library of the University of Chicago, the lights in each aisle 
are controlled by means of a hinged bar extending across the entrance. When entering the 
aisle, the bai is lifted and the lights are automatically turned on. They are switched off again 
when the bar is raised at departure. See Fig. 129. 

The spacing of the lights varies with conditions, but the general rule is to place 16 candle 
power carbon lamps or 25 Watt tungsten lamps about 6 feet apart in range aisles and from 
12 feet to 24 feet in the main aisles where the lights are in constant use. Occasionally 
a portable bulb, protected by a wire screen and mounted on a handle attached to an extension 
cord, is used. These portable Hghts are found convenient for searching lower shelves. 

Elpctric wires should always be protected by metal conduits and ducts. These conduits 
shoula be designed to have the wires accessible for repairs. If the wires are protected by 
metal and the current supply properly fused, there is no danger of fire from a short circuit. 

The electric wiring of a stack room is usually a sub-contract with the stack manufacturer. 
However, it is best placed under his control, so that the stack work can be properly prepared 
to receive the conduits and switches. The appearance and convenience of many stack rooms 
have been injured by not considering the lighting question until after the stacks were installed. 



[ 93 ] 



M 



HEATING AND VENTILATING 

"ANY different methods for heating and ventilating stack rooms have been attempted, 
but none have proved more satisfactory than the system installed in the Library of 
Congress stacks. See sections of Library of Congress, pages 14 and 15. This 
system will work either in conjunction with the heating arrangements or independently of 
them as the weather requires. 

The Library of Congress stacks have fresh air intakes leading into the basement from 
interior courts covered with grass, and practically free from dust. By means of electric fans 
the air is first drawn through closely woven wire mesh screens to eliminate the larger foreign 
bodies. It is then thoroughly filtered for the removal of dust and may be washed with water 
sprays, although this precaution is seldom found necessary. From the filters, the air passes 
through the heating chambers, where radiators heat it to any temperature desired. From 
here, under the pressure of the fans and its own natural tendency to rise when warmed, the 
air flows into the stack room and up through the stack structure. The deck slits along the 
faces of the ranges and around the walls permit an equitable distribution of the fresh air. In 
cold weather the difference between the temperature of the air outside and that within the 
stack room is sufficient to cause a continuous outward flow through louvres in monitors on the 
roof. In warm weather exhaust fans, mounted in the monitors, supplement those in the base- 
ment and help to keep the air circulating. The system is rendered fully efficient by the fact 
that all the stack room windows are hermetically sealed. Sealed windows also aid considerably 
in eliminating the dust. One of the great advantages of this system is that there are no 
hot pipes in the stack room to occupy valuable space and injure adjacent books. Nor do the 
upper tiers tend to become over-heated as is the case with the direct system of heating from 
radiators. 

In the stack rooms of small libraries where an indirect heating system is impracticable, 
the mistake should not be made of distributing radiators or pipe coils uniformly through the 
height of the room. Such an arrangement makes the upper tiers unbearably hot when the lower 
ones are only comfortably warm. As the warm air is free to rise through deck slits and stair 
wells the space occupied by the stack should be treated as one room and not as a series of 
low stories. 

Proper atmospheric conditions are of prime importance for the preservation of books. 
The following are a few simple rules to follow: 

1. Do not overheat the stack room. From 60 degrees to 70 degrees is a good range of 
temperature. 

2. Avoid dampness and unnatural gases in the atmosphere. 

3. Demand cleanliness in the handling of the books both within and without the library. 

4. Books should be kept in clean open places where they have the benefit of good 
ventilation. Air should circulate freely around each volume to prevent disintegration. The 

[ 94 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



late Dr. W. F. Poole said that books breathe 
just as do human beings and have practically the 
same requirements for fresh clean air. 

Mr. William R. Reinick, in his article "In- 
sects Destructive to Books," printed by the 
American Journal of Pharmacy, recommends 
good ventilation and the avoidance of insect 
breeding places. He says in part that : 

"Late investigations have disclosed facts 
which show that insects are not only in search 
of the paste in bindings, but also of the cloths, 
woods, papers, inks, leathers, parchments, oils, 
etc., which go to make up the books. 

"It has been stated that more books and 
papers are destroyed by small forms of life in 
one year than by fire and water combined; and, 
from the facts given by various writers and the 
statements made to me in letters by many Hbra- 
rians and others, especially where the libraries 
are located in warmer regions, I am positive 
that this statement is true. 

"As far as the destruction of these insects 
by poisons is concerned, they are practically 
worthless, because whenever the poison is used 
to destroy one insect it will attract other insects 
who have need for this poison." 
A stack which lends itself to thorough ventilation and is so constructed as to eliminate 
hollow, dust and filth collecting spaces, may be easily fumigated. Occasion for such action arose 
in January 1908 when one of the staff of the Washington Public Library was taken ill with 
smallpox. The building was promptly closed to the public and disinfected, where necessary, 
with formaldehyde. In the stack room the process was simple, owing to the fact that the build- 
ing was equipped with a Snead Standard Stack. The ventilating slits in the decks, the open 
construction of the shelf supports and shelves, and the entire absence of hollow enclosed spaces 
allowed the formaldehyde fumes to penetrate everywhere. 

Volumes which have been exposed to contagion should be fumigated individually. This may 
be done by the Beebe carbo-gasoline method. This consists of immersing the books in a solution 
of gas-machine gasoline containing two per cent, of phenol crystals. After twenty minutes 
they are removed and placed before an electric fan for two minutes and then stood on end for 
from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. 

Another method of disinfecting consists of immersing the books in a solution of gasoline 
containing five per cent, of carboHc acid. 




Fig. 130. EXAMPLE OF HAVOC WROUGHT BY INSECTS AT 
HILL MEMORIAL LIBRARY, BATON ROUGE, LA. 

Previous to the installation of the new metal stack. 



[ 95 ] 



BOOKLIFTS, ELEVATORS AND OTHER 
STACK ACCESSORIES 

HAND-POWER AND ELECTRIC BOOKLIFTS 

THE satisfactory installation of a booklift depends largely upon the selection of that 
equipment which best meets the conditions and requirements of each case. There are 
two general classes of bookhfts: hand-power and electric. Hand-power lifts are used 
in small libraries for short runs and light loads. Those required to carry one or two books 
at a time should be light and rapid running while those designed to carry loads of 100 to 200 
lbs. or more should be strong and so geared that they operate with ease. When a small hft 
may sometimes be used for a few books and at other times for heavy loads, a compromise must 
be effected. One type of hand-power lift which has proved very satisfactory for high-speed 
services, consists of a pair of balanced trays, or one counterweighted tray, running between 
guides. These guides are preferably made of polished brass tubing or Kalameined brass, to 
present a neat appearance. One of them may serve as a speaking tube to connect various 
floor levels, while the counterweights run within the other. The quick running of this type 
makes it useful for serving a delivery counter from a department above or below. A lift 
designed for heavy loads, however, must necessarily move slowly. The mechanical apparatus 
can be geared for any speed required but, when once set, cannot be readily changed. Booklifts 
are usually equipped with a device to make them self sustaining in any position of the run. 

In large stacks it is 
generally advisable to in- [''Standard par.tition standard ranqe front, 

stall electric booklifts. 
These are usually built to 
carry from 100 to 300 lbs., 
at a speed of about 100 to 
150 feet per minute. The 
hoisting machine can be 
located either at the top or 
at the bottom of the shaft. 
Generally it is preferable 
to have it in the basement 
in a small room or wire 
mesh enclosure alongside 
the shaft, where it can be 
readily cleaned by the jani- 
tor or engineer. Electric 
lifts are best controlled by 




Fig. 131-a. 



Plan of Booklift shaft running through the end compartments of a series of 
superimposed ranges. 



[ 96 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 131-b. VIEW OF BOOKLIFT CAR AND STEEL PANEL ENCLOSURE, AKRON, OHIO, PUBLIC LIBRARY 

The booklift travels through the end compartments of a series of superimposed ranges. For plan of a similar arrangement, see 
Fig. 131-a. on opposite page. The enclosure is frequently made of panels of wire mesh similar to that forming the backing of 

the single-faced range alongside the stairway. 

means of push-buttons arranged to meet different requirements of service. Safety devices 
render these push-buttons inoperative while any booklift door is open or while a car is in 
motion. The several systems of control are as follows: 

One Point Control with Signals. With this system there is a central controlling station 
to which all messages must be sent and from which point the booklifts are operated. This 
control is efficient in a stack employing more than one lift. 

Full Automatic Control. This consists of a full set of controller buttons, on each of the 
floors or decks, by means of which the car is called to or sent from the station. 

Call Button Only. This system is used where telephones are installed in the stack room. 
It is similar to the Full Automatic Control except that the car can only be called to a station 
and cannot be sent to other points. 

Cars are generally made of steel, 12 to 18 inches deep, 2 to 3 feet wide and 2 to 3 feet 
high. Removable shelves are convenient for handling books of various sizes. 



[ 97 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 

At times a booklift is located outside the stack room, and opens into it, but almost in- 
variably, it is placed directly in the stack room, where it is most accessible for the attendants. 
When installed within the stack it is generally included in the stack contract, since the stack 
manufacturer must provide the structural framing and enclosure for the Hft shaft, the Hft it- 
self being supplied by a specialist. It frequently develops that the greatest convenience and 
compactness can be obtained by running the lift as shown in Figs. 131-a and 131-b. 

ELECTRIC ELEVATORS 

The most serviceable elevator for a stack room is one large enough to accommodate 
both passengers and book trucks. Push button control, consisting of a call button at the ele- 
vator door and a bank of push buttons inside the car, renders the services of an attendant 
unnecessary. Safety appliances, similar to those used with electric booklifts, are always pro- 
vided. Electric elevators should only be used in large libraries and tall stacks as their installa- 
tion forms a rather disproportionate expense for a small library. 

BOOK CONVEYORS 

Automatic book conveyors are designed to carry books both vertically and horizontally 
and perhaps from one building to another. Their action may be almost human in intelligence 
and in fact, mistakes are generally the fault of the operator and not of the conveyor. A de- 
scription of the book conveyors in the Library of Congress will serve to explain the working 
of such appliances. See section of Library of Congress on page 14. 

Conveyors in Stack. Each of these consists of a pair of parallel, endless sprocket chains, 
20J inches apart, driven continuously throughout the day, at a speed of 100 feet per minute, 
by means of a small electric motor. The chains run over sheaves of such size that the hanging 
trays pass freely over the axles wherever the direction is changed. Eighteen book trays are 
suspended from the chains at equal intervals. These trays are made of aluminum, for light- 
ness, with small fittings of brass and ii'on. The tray bottoms consist of horizontal sets of 
parallel brass fingers, five-eighths inch apart, attached at the back and turning up slightly in 
front to prevent the books from projecting over. The trays thus pass flatwise through similar 
sets of teeth, or toothed racks, located at the various stations. At deck stations two such 
racks are provided, one at the arriving and the other at the departing part of the chain, for 
the automatic delivery and taking on of books. In the reading room both racks are on the 
same side, one above the other, one sloping inward, the other outward. As a tray arrives 
at its delivery station its contents are combed off and slide into a softly padded box. The 
capacity of each tray is the equivalent of a quarto, 3^ inches thick. The automatic action of 
the trays is secured through a'set of movable spurs or keys on the back, one for each station 
and one general key. When a book is taken on, a dial is set by hand by which the general 
key is withdrawn and the tray prevented from responding to any call until its load is dis- 
charged at the proper station. 

Conveyor to Capitol. This consists of trolleys running between parallel rails and having 
attached to them carriers large enough to hold a bound newspaper volume or a leather pouch 
of similar size and shape, for small books and other matter. Each carrier consists of a 
set of deep parallel hooks similar to the hanging human hand with fingers turned upwards, 

[ 98 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

nearly to the top. They are hung Hke a pendulum and always travel in an upright position, 
their loads being taken on and removed by the carriers passing upwards or downwards through 
toothed racks. The conveyors are moved by means of small flexible, endless wire cables, of 
which there are three along the route: one in the library, one in the capitol and the third, 
connecting these two, in the tunnel between the two buildings. The cable in the central loop 
is driven faster than those in the buildings, thus increasing the speed of deliveries. 

ENCLOSURES 

Elevators, Hfts, conveyors, etc., running through a stack require some form of enclosure. 
This is generally made of a steel frame with panels of steel plates, wire mesh or wire glass. 
Panels of flat wire, woven into a square mesh, are recommended since they give an attractive, 
Ught and open appearance. Steel plates while somewhat cheaper are not so satisfactory. 

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 

Pneumatic Tubes are used in large libraries for transmitting messages between the 
delivery desk and the different stack levels. The system consists of metal tubing installed be- 
tween the various points of communication, and cartridge shaped carriers, usually about two 
inches in diameter, which hold the message slips. A partial vacuum formed in the tubes in 
front of the carriers causes the atmospheric pressure to drive them to their destination. 
Their cost of installation and operation is prohibitive for a small library. 

The Telautograph is a delicate electrical apparatus, with writing pad attachment, by 
means of which a fac-simile of any message written at the sending station is immediately re- 
produced at the receiving station. It is sometimes used instead of the pneumatic tube service. 

Intercommunicating Telephones are used in large modern library buildings to connect 
the different departments with each other and the stack tiers with the delivery desk. Auto- 
matic telephones are now on the market'which eliminate the necessity of a central exchange. 

PNEUMATIC CLEANING 

A pneumatic cleaning apparatus is a valuable accessory for any stack. By its use, dust 
is actually removed from books and floors instead of merely being stirred up to settle in an- 
other place. A stationary plant is quite unnecessary and costs considerably more to install 
and operate than a portable machine, as the latter has only short tube lines and consequently 
loses very httle power in transmission. Furthermore, it need only be in operation while 
cleaning is actually being done. The portable machine can be attached either to the electric 
light sockets in the stack or to plugs specially provided at convenient points. 

Probably the most efficient cleaning machine for a library stack room is a combination 
plenum and vacuum apparatus with two hose connections, one terminating in a hook shaped 
nozzle which serves as a blower, and the other terminating in a cone shaped bell at the apex 
of which is attached the vacuum tube. The operator works with blower in one hand and bell 
in the other. He passes the nozzle back along the tops of books or other dust covered sur- 
faces and blows the dust forward in the direction of the bell. It is then drawn into the 
vacuum tube and filtered out by the machine. By this means, dust is driven from small crevices 
and corners which could not be reached by a regular vacuum cleaning apparatus. 

[ 99 ] 



UNDERGROUND BOOKSTACKS 



LITTLE has been done as yet towards building bookstacks underground, except in so 
far as basement rooms of library buildings have been utilized. However, this method 
A of storage becomes a necessity when adjacent space is required and architectural con- 
siderations or injury to light prevent an above ground addition. The expense of an under- 
ground stack is greater than that of a stack of corresponding capacity above ground, on 
account of excavating, heavy retaining walls, underpinning of adjacent buildings and admin- 
istration solely with artificial lighting and ventilation. 

As dampness is extremely injurious to books, the floor, roof and walls of the under- 
ground stack room should be thoroughly waterproofed. They should also be carefully insu- 
lated so that they will not be cold enough to condense the moisture in the air that touches 
them. A cork paint on all interior surfaces, where practicable, will prevent condensation 
although it cannot be wholly depended upon for insulation. Provision should also be made to 
prevent surface water draining into the stack during heavy rains or in times of fire in ad- 
jacent buildings. 

In humid weather the temperature of the underground stack must be kept above that of 
the outside air, otherwise the increased pressure will force out the dissolved moisture and 
cause condensation on the metal work. 




SNEAD BRONZE MUSEUM CASE, STYLE "P" 
See also pages «2, H9 and 261. 



[ 100 ] 



PARTIAL EQUIPMENT 



IN planning a library building, sufficient stack space should be provided to accommodate 
growth for many years. It is often advisable to install only a part of the bookstack at 
the outset and to make future extensions as required. If there is no roofing or masonry 
work to be done, this proceedure is a simple matter and may be handled in several ways to 
meet various conditions of the general plan of the building. 

1. The first tier or first few tiers of the stack may be installed at the beginning, with 
provision for the addition of future tiers above. In this case it is well to equip the upper- 
most tier with a portion of the framing for the deck next above so that the electric conduits 




Pj^ ^32 BANGOR PUBLIC LIBRARY, BANGOR, ME. 

ViL in basement tier showing bare structural steel columns partially equipped with shelf supports and shelves. The columns 
support the second tier ^vhich is on a level with the main floor of the buildmg. 



[ 101 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 

for this tier may be permanently supported by passing them through the steel floor members. 
If this is done, the electrical work will not have to be disturbed when the height of the stack 

is increased. 

2. A portion of the stack room may be equipped with a stack of full height and future 
expansion effected by adding additional tiers of ranges, from time to time, to cover the balance 
of the available floor 
space. The overhang 
of the deck floors pro- 
jecting beyond the 
stack ranges can be 
carried by tempora- 
ry struts so arranged 
that they will not 
have to be removed 
until the new ranges 
take up the deck 
loads. The guard 
raUs placed between 
these struts can be 
disconnected and re- 
used each time an ad- 
dition is made. 

3. When a library 
is so planned that an 
upper tier of the book- 
stack is on a level 
with the main floor 
of the building, this 
tier, being needed 

most, should of course be installed first. This necessitates support from the tiers below but 
does not require the installation of full equipment. The initial cost of the stack can be re- 
duced by supplying only the shelf supports and deck framing of the lower tiers and omitting 
the shelves and floor slabs. Or the combination cast iron and steel construction, page 26, 
may be used. In this case only the deck framing and central steel columns for the shelf 
supports need be supplied in the lower tiers as seen in Fig. 118, page 82, thus further reducing 
the initial expense. The stack may be extended either by attaching shelf supports to the steel 
columns or by building on more tiers above. 




Fig. 133. 



BANGOR PUBLIC LIBRARY, BANGOR, ME. 



View in second tier showing stack ready to receive tiie future second deck and third and fourth tiers. The top 

cover plates are provided with a removable steel cornice which can be reused on the future tiers above. Tempo- 

rar.v bars support the electric conduits, which will later be suspended under the deck floor framing of the third 

tier, so that they will not have to be disturbed when the additional work is installed. 



[ 102 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING 

.4 SECTION DEVOTED TO SPECIAL ARTICLES ON THE PRINCIPLES 
INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING OF LIBRARY BUILDINGS 



SOME ESSENTIALS OF LIBRARY DESIGN 

By A. D. F. HAMLIN, A. M, L. H. D. 

Professor of the History of Architecture, Columbia University; Consulting Architect to Carnegie 
Library Committee of Brooklyn, N Y. and to Building Committee for Central Library, Brooklyn. 




HE public library is one of the 
most highly developed types 
of buildings to be found in 
American architectural prac- 
tice. By careful study of the 
problems it presents, prima- 
rily by librarians and second- 
arily by architects, its require- 
ments and the best means and devices for meeting 
them have been more completely woi'ked out and 
standardized than those of any other type of edifice 
except the modern office building. Taken as a whole, 
the libraries of the United States, large and small, 
represent American architecture well-nigh at its best. 
Library buildings may be broadly divided into 
two main classes, the large and the small, the dif- 
ference between which is one not merely of size but 
also of function. To the first class belong all those 
in which the gathering under one roof of a variety 
of functions and services necessitates a special and 
complex plan for their accommodation; to the second, 
all such as by reason of simplicity of function and 
organization have simple plans and can be super- 
vised by a very small staff. Thus it may happen that 
the single library which serves an entire town of 
moderate size may be smaller and simpler than a 
branch library in a large city. 

All libraries are devices for bringing books and 
readers together. As such they comprise in all cases 
three fundamental elements: First, accommodations 
for the books; Second, accommodations for the 
readers; Third, accommodations for the staff— the 



active human agents in bringing books and readers 
together. 

To these fundamental elements may be added 
any number of accessories, such as picture galleries, 
lecture rooms, club rooms, workshops for printing, 
binding and the like. But these are not in them- 
selves essentials of a library building. The three 
classes of accommodations mentioned above are 
essentials and must be provided in every building 
however small. Such accessoi'ies as a heating plant, 
toilet rooms, stairs, vestibules etc., are of course 
included in any complete public building. 

The art of library design is the art of providing 
the most perfect accommodations for each of the 
three above named requirements, in such relation to 
each other that the books will be transferred from the 
shelf to the reader in the shortest possible time with 
the fewest steps and least labor both for readers and 
attendants. 

Before discussing the various means for accom- 
plishing these ends, it is in order to set forth briefly 
a more detailed classification of library buildings 
with reference to the character of their service. 
Here again two main divisions appear: reference 
libraries, whose books are used only within the build- 
ing; and circulating libraries, from which the reader 
may borrow books to be taken home. Practically 
all public libraries of this second class provide also 
for the use of books within the building, so that the 
combination of the two kinds of service does not 
constitute a third and distinct class. In such build- 
ings the two classes of readers may be served, as in 



[ 103 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



the smaller libraries, from one central loan desk; or, 
as in the larger libraries, in different rooms, from 
different desks and by distinct sets of attendants. 

Special subdivisions of these two classes are 
formed by the libraries of colleges or other learned 
institutions, professional organizations and other 
societies or clubs. In these the use of the library is 
restricted to certain privileged classes —the members 
of the institution, club or association; and in the 
case of professional and technical libraries, the books 
are confined to a more or less narrow range of sub- 
jects connected with the profession or science to 
which the library belongs. These restrictions give 
occasion for special arrangements not required or 
not practical in the generality of public libraries. 

ACCOMMODATIONS FOR BOOKS 

Taking up now in order the three essential fac- 
tors of a library plan, we may remark that the storage 
of books may be on any one of three systems, or a 
combination of them: (a) the alcove system; (b) the 
open shelf system; (c) the stack system. By the 
first of these, the gi-eater portion of the area of a 
large room, on one or both sides, is divided into 
alcoves by book-cases projecting from the wall. The 
books are stored in these cases and on wall shelves, 
often in two or three stories forming galleries. 

In the majority of public hbraries, until the later 
years of the nineteenth centui-y, the major part of the 
books wci-e stored upon the shelves of alcoves two or 
three stories high, opening upon a lofty central hall or 
passage, as in the former Astor Library, New York, 
the Peabody Library in Baltimore, the Cincinnati 
Library (see page 13) and most of the famous Old 
World libraries. The second system is that which 
places the books within the immediate reach of all 
the readers, either in wall cases, or in wall cases and 
wing cases forming alcoves, usually shallow and 
limited to li feet in height, so that all volumes are 
within arm's reach of an ordinary adult. By the 
third system the books are stored in bookstacks, 
forming tiers of shelves in stories not over Tg feet 
high, set as close together as convenience will allow, 
in a wing or structure quite distinct from the read- 
ing rooms, though a part of the same building, and 
placed so as to be chrectl.\' accessible from the loan 
desk or delivery- room. It may be separated by fire- 
walls and fire-proof doors from the rest of the build- 
ing; or, if the whole building be thoroughly fire- 
proof, it may form an open chamber or wing extend- 



ing back from the main structure. The stacks are 
metal structures, independent of the walls of the 
buildings, and are usually designed and erected by 
concerns which make a specialty of their construction, 
upon specifications prepared by the architect, prefer- 
ably with the technical advice and assistance of the 
stack manufacturer, to fit the structure he has de- 
signed. The system of storage in stacks, which has 
revolutionized American library design, was devised 
by Professor William R. Ware, to solve the problem 
of the enlargement of the Harvard College Library 
in 1876. In these stacks the shelves were of wood, 
but were carried by an iron framework standing in- 
dependent of the walls from the cellar up, and sup- 
porting its own floors. 

In the modern stacks the shelves are usually of 
metal. The stack system is of especial value where 
a large number of volumes must be stored in a re- 
stricted space, or kept together under the control of 
the library staff. The open shelf system — which has 
given rise to much controversy between those who 
believe that the loss of books due to free access of 
readers to shelves is more than offset by the advan- 
tages of such free access, and those who do not — is 
frequently made use of in particular reading rooms 
of libraries which at the same time store the greater 
part of their books in a stack room or stack wing. 
The alcove system has been generally abandoned 
since about 1890, because the projecting stacks or 
cases separating the alcoves cast wide shadows and 
cut off a large part of the room from the view of the 
attendant in charge. Where, however, the number 
of readers is small or restricted to certain definite 
classes, as in most libraries of colleges and clubs or 
societies, well-lighted alcoves may be advantageously 
provided, each alcove being devoted to one general 
department or category of books and made large 
enough to accommodate several readers at one table. 
Such alcoves form a series of quiet study rooms 
opening upon a central hall or corridor, each profit- 
ing by the spaciousness and airiness of the large 
room of which all are a part, while affording some- 
what of the quiet and seclusion of a special study 
room. Modern examples of such a room are seen in 
the University Club and in the Avery Architectural 
Library of Columbia University, both in New York. 
For public libraries in general, however, the arrange- 
ment is wasteful of space and difl^cult of supervis- 
ion. In the new Springfield, Mass., City Library (see 
pages 202 and 203) there is an interesting combina- 



[ 104 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 134. 



READING ROOM. UNITED ENGINEERING SOCIETIES, 
NEW YORK CITY 



View showing alcove arra ngement for study tables. Snead Standard Stack installed in the second tier. 
Books on each of the various branches of engineering are arranged around their respective alcoves. 



tion of the three systems, in a large open-shelf room 
with two-storied radiating stacks, controlled from 
the attendant's desk at the center of radiation and 
forming, by their outward divergence, a series of 
open alcoves near the windows, each with its readers' 
tables. 

ACCOMMODATIONS FOR READERS 

These comprise three principal features: the 
reading room, card catalogs and delivery desk. The 
last claims our attention first as the connecting link 
between the stored books and the readers. It is the 
central point and focus of the library, in which the 
three elements of the library meet— books, staff and 
readers. Theoretically, therefore, it should stand 
between the stack room and the reading rooms, and 
this is its usual physical location. Thus placed, it 
should be so disposed as to "control"- that is, com- 
mand a view of— the largest possible portion of the 
public space in front and on either side— entrance, 
deHvery-space, card-catalog-space and reading rooms 
—and at the same time be in closest proximity to 
the chief supply of books, which is usually a stack 
room or stack space. The space behind the delivery 
desk should be ample for the maximum number of 
attendants who may at any time serve it; it is better 
to have it too large than too small. It must be 



abundantly lighted, preferably 
by side windows, as overhead 
lighting by a skylight fails early 
in the day. On no account 
should the attendants here be 
compelled to depend during the 
daylight hours on artificial light. 
A sufficient space should be left 
free in front of the desk for the 
readers who are awaiting their 
books or their turn at the desk. 

READING ROOMS 

Reading rooms are of various 
kinds: general reading rooms, 
children's rooms, reference 
rooms, magazine or periodical 
rooms, special rooms for fiction, 
history, art books, technical 
branches, etc.; special study 
rooms, seminar rooms, in col- 
lege and university libraries for 
conference between students 
and teachers, etc., etc. Each kind of room demands 
its special treatment as to size, location and equip- 
ment, but certain considerations apply to all alike. 
The shape may be almost any simple geometrical 
form consistent with perfect lighting and good ser- 
vice, but it should be without ells, recesses, deep al- 
coves or encumbering columns and projections- the 
simpler the better. Circular and octagonal rooms, 
though often condemned by theorists, present no 
fundamental objections, and where the alcove or 
open shelf system prevails, may be made extremely 
convenient as well as architecturally imposing, as 
in the beautiful Radcliffe Library at Oxford, the 
British Museum reading room in London, the Con- 
gressional Library at Washington and the Columbia 
University Library. The objections alleged against 
these examples are due to defects of planning and 
arrangement in other respects rather than to the 
mere form of the room itself. 

The most important fundamental consideration 
in the form of the reading room is its lighting. If 
lighted from one side, its width should not be more 
than 50 to 60 per cent, greater than its height to 
the top of the windows. Windows may have sills 
as much as 4^ or even 5 feet from the floor in a 
room of 14 or 15 feet clear height. This allows of 
wall cases 3i to 4i feet high continuously along 



[ 105 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



the window wall in open shelf rooms. It is the high 
light that counts in lighting the further parts of the 
room. A reading room lighted on both sides may 
be 30 or more feet wide with a height of 15 feet. 
Skylighting may be employed in certain cases, but 
as already remarked, it fails early in the day as com- 
pared with side lighting, and should never be the 
sole means of day lighting when side lighting is 
possible. 

Reading rooms should be planned so as to be 
within easy reach of the stack room, unless res- 
tricted to the use of books stored in the reading 
room itself; and so as to be completely visible and 
controllable from the central desk or, as in the 
larger libraries, from that of the special wing or 
department to which each belongs. 

PROVISION FOR THE STAFF 

Accommodations for the staff comprise in gen- 
eral: (a) oihces for the librarian and his assistants; 
(b) catalogers' room or rooms; (c) rooms for special 
services, such as accessions, branch station delivery, 
etc.; (d) workshops for printing, binding, repairing, 
packing and unpacking books, and for mechanical 
repairs; (e) locker rooms, lunch rooms and rest rooms 
for the staff; and (f) janitor's quarters, store rooms, 
etc. In large libraries and central libraries, a trus- 
tees' room and committee rooms will be required. 
No general rule can be laid down for these, but in 
all cases the convenience of the users of the room, 
good lighting and easy access are the essential con- 
siderations. Avoid dark and tortuous corridors, 
steep and winding stairs, toilet rooms opening di- 
rectly opposite public rooms or upon conspicuous 
passages, and study the minor, as well as the greater, 
amenities and comforts of the service. 

HEATING, VENTILATION, ETC. 

With regard to heating, ventilating and artifi- 
cial lighting, each building presents a special prob- 
lem, and the only general rule to be laid down is that 
of making excessive rather than inadequate provision 
for all three, so as to allow for later expansion. The 
success of a system of heating and ventilation de- 
pends less upon the system than upon the way it is 
designed and carried out. The advice of a compe- 
tent engineer expert in laying out and superintend- 
ing the installation of the system should always be 
sought. The extra expense of such service is in the 
end an economy and not a loss. With regard to 



the artificial lighting two things are important, that 
it should be abundant, and that as far as possible 
all lights should be prevented from glaring directly 
into the eyes of the readers. What is called "in- 
direct lighting" should be resorted to as far as 
practicable. It costs more in current, but saves eye- 
strain. 

PRELIMINARIES TO BUILDING 

In undertaking the erection of a library build- 
ing, supposing an eligible site to have been secured, 
the first step is to formulate a definite program of 
the accommodations to be required, in as great de- 
tail as possible, with the aid of the librarian if he 
has had experience in such matters; otherwise with 
the aid of a consulting expert, who should be either 
an experienced librarian or an architect of estab- 
lished and varied experience in library design. In 
some cases it might even be well to employ experts 
in both professions. The choice of the architect to 
design the building upon the program thus pre- 
pared should be made directly if possible. A com- 
petition may be resorted to in the case of a large 
and important edifice, if the committee in charge 
find themselves unable to agree upon a direct selec- 
tion. In that case care must be taken to place the 
conduct of the competition in the hands of a com- 
petent expert and to make it conform in all respects 
to the requirements of the Code of the American 
Institute of Architects, otherwise it will be impos- 
sible to secure the participation in the competition 
of architects of the highest reputation, whether 
members of the Institute or not. In the case of 
large and costly buildings, it is often a wise economy 
to employ, throughout the whole process of design 
and erection, a competent consulting architect hav- 
ing no other relation to the enterprise. His disin- 
terested advice is often of the greatest value in pre- 
venting or correcting errors of taste or judgment 
on the part alike of committee and architect, avoid- 
ing controversies, and arbitrating them when they 
arise. Never attempt cheese-paring in the matter 
of fees and commissions. Competent architects, 
engineers and expert librarians are worth all they 
cost, and none other should be employed. 

In the matter of cost, it is wise to figure up 
the approximate actual total cubic contents of all 
the required areas, from cellar floor to roof, add 
one-third for walls, stairs, corridors, halls, closets 
and contingencies, and multiply this by a figure of 



[ 106 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING. BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 135. 



THE MAIN READING ROOM, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



cost per cubic foot to be furnished by an experienced 
architect or builder for the type of construction and 
finish desired. Then cut down your requirements 
to remove the excess which this calculation almost 
invariably produces over the sum available— or in- 
crease the appropriation. The actual cost of other 
buildings of approximately like character and size 
will assist in reaching a fair and practical result. 
Committees, like many other clients, are apt to re- 
quire of their architect far more than their funds 
will allow, and this is not fair, either to the archi- 
tect or to themselves. 

As to construction: except where abundant 
funds are available, the cost should go into solid 
construction rather than into architectural splendor. 
Build fire-proof ivhenever possible. In every case, 
without exception, the book room or stack room. 
and stacks should be fire-proof; also the stairs and 
stair halls where a second story exists, and the floor 
construction above the heating plant. Avoid wood- 
en furring and wooden laths in non-fireproof 
structures. Take special pains with the roof to 
avoid possibility of leakage from either rain or 
snow. Entrust the building of your stacks to none 
but experienced stack-builders. Remember that 
first-cost economies may result in cost for mainten- 
ance and repairs far greater than the interest on the 
saving effected. Solidity, simplicity, durability and 
convenience should be the watchwords of every 
library building committee. 

CAPACITY 

In figuring on the storage or volume capacity 
of a library, allow a general average of eight vol- 
umes per running foot of single shelving. Law- 
books may be figured at four or five volumes, 
children's books at ten volumes, per running foot. 
Allow on the average 1 foot of height per shelf. 
Make special allowance for large reference books and 
art books. Stacks and shelving generally are set up 
in 3-foot sections, 7 to Tg feet to a story. Thus 
a double-faced stack section with seven shelves will 
hold on the average 7x3x8x2 volumes = 336 
volumes; a single-faced or wall section of the same 
height, 168 volumes. Double stacks are generally 



set 3 to 4 feet apart. A closely set stack room will 
contain, when all the shelves are filled, twenty-two 
to twenty-five volumes per story per square foot; 
eighteen to twenty volumes is a safer estimate. Thus 
a stack room 20 x 40 feet inside measurement, with 
six stories of stacks, should accommodate 800 x 20 
X 6 = 96,000 volumes. But this makes no allowance 
for expansion, for which ample room should always 
be left. 

From the "Elementary Principles" laid down 
by the American Library Association to be ob- 
served in library construction, the following coun- 
sels are especially commended to the attention of 
library building-committees: 

"The interior airangement should be planned 
before the exterior is co?isidered. 

"Plans should provide for future growth and 
development. 

"A library should be carefully planned for 
economical administration. 

"Public rooms should be planned for complete 
supervision by the fewest possible attendants. 

"No convenience of arrangement should be 
sacrificed for architectural effect. 

"There should be good natural light in all parts 
of the building. Windoios should extend to the 
ceiling. 

"In a book room or stack, windows should be 
opposite the aisles. 

"Flights of stairs should be straight and not 
circular. " 

To these excellent counsels may be added: 

In public libraries the main floor should be as 
near as possible to the street level. 

Rooms and offices open to the public should be 
arranged so as to be easily and obviously accessible. 

Corridors and communications should be as 
short, straight and direct as possible. Stairs should 
have easy steps, never more than twelve between land- 
ings, and should not be too wide. 

Other things being equal, a building on a simple 
and obvious plan costs less, both to cmi and to admin- 
ister, than one built on complex lines. 



[ 108 



PLANNING A LIBRARY BUILDING 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BOOKSTACKS 
By THEODORE W. KOCH, M. A., Librarian, University of Michigan 

Reprinted from ■' MIchifidii Libraries.' Vol. 1, No. /, .June, 1912. 



THE rapid development of American libraries 
is constantly commented upon. There are 
many ways of gauging this growth— by 
comparison of the number and sizes of libraries, by 
statements of the area over which they have 
spread, or statistics of their use. A comparative 
study of the older buildings and the new ones will 
serve equally well the purpose of illustrating the 
changed conditions. In Boston the old public 
library on Boylston Street, one of the earliest of 
the alcove type of building, was vacated a score 
of years ago. The Boston Athenaeum, recently 
remodeled, still stands as a representative of this 
class, where the books are arranged in alcoves, 
several tiers high, running around the sides of the 
reading rooms. In New York the Astor Library 
was the best illustration of this style of library 
architecture. Most of the larger cities of the East 
have outgrown this type and moved their book 
collections into modern structures with splendidly 
equipped rooms for different classes of readers and 
fire-proof stacks for the reservoir supply of books. 
In the main buildings of the public Hbraries of 
Detroit and Cincinnati, old alcove structures are 
still in use and on entering these the visitor is at 
once impressed with the inaccessibility of the books, 
the waste of space from a structural standpoint, 
and the disturbance to readers not only from at- 
tendants going to the various alcoves for books, 
but also from the presence of so many volumes 
rising in tier over tier of ornate iron supports and 
shelving. The effect is not productive of a quiet 
receptive state of mind. Contrast this sort of a 
reading room with the dignity of Bates Hall in 
Boston, or the new reading room of the New York 
Pubhc Library. Here we do not feel overburdened 
with the accumulation of the ages around us. On 
open shelves around the room are the most im- 
portant reference books, while the main stock of 



books is in the background and the reader has his 
few selected volumes brought out to him where he 
can study them in surroundings suited to assimila- 
tion. The, old idea of the library as a storage place 
for books is giving way to the modern one of the 
library as an educational institution where books 
are to be used as tools. The old alcove construc- 
tion with all the books in sight helped the reader 
to realize the storage idea, but to-day everyone 
knows that the modern stack is the better storage 
house and it is best to have most of the reading 
done outside of the stack. 

In the earliest buildings equipped with stacks 
there was a distinct line of demarcation between 
the stack and the reading room, emphasized by a 
fire-proof wall. The reading room was quite bare 
of books, the entire collection being kept in the 
stack room, which was in consequence called the 
book room. To-day the reading room must be well 
equipped with the best up-to-date reference books, 
some standard authors and open shelves or display 
racks for popular books, while the stacks are used 
for the storage of the bulk of the collection. In the 
smaller libraries the book stack is frequently noth- 
ing more than a single tier of compact double-faced 
shelving at one side or in the back of the reading 
room, to which everybody has free access. In the 
larger libraries one sees the stack in its more 
characteristic form, occupying a separate wing of 
the building, distinguished on the exterior by the 
regular rows of narrow windows, close together, 
suggesting an interior framework of steel, with a 
range of shelving between each pair of windows, 
and with glass or marble floors at such a distance 
apart that a person of average height can with 
ease reach the books on the uppermost shelf, which 
nearly touches the ceiling. While the average 
stack is so planned that the light of day is sufficient 
to enable an attendant to find any book stored in 



[ 109 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



it, the use of electric light 
makes it possible to erect stacks 
in the interior of buildings and 
for the storage of less used ma- 
terial under gi'ound. Stacks of 
this type do not permit the su- 
pervision of readers and are not 
ordinarily open to the general 
public. 

In planning a library the 
general outlines should be deter- 
mined by the architect and libra- 
rian in consultation. Of recent 
years we have seen the archi- 
tects and librarians coming to 
a better understanding of one 
another. Mutual concessions 
have been made and the archi- 
tect has begun to reaHze that 
he can learn something about 
what a modern library building 
ought to be by consulting the 
librarian, and the latter has con- 
fessed his dependence upon the 
architect for putting into con- 
crete shape whatever is practi- 
cable in his sometimes unformed 
ideas as to the relation of the 
various parts of the building. 
The change in this respect is 
illustrated by comparing the 
splendid accommodations for 
the public card catalog, the 
union catalog and the like in the 
New York Public Library, 
with the lack of adequate pro- 
vision for anything of this kind 
in the Boston Pubhc Library. In one case the Hbra- 
rian planned for this special feature, while in the 
other the architect was uninstructed on this particu- 
lar need, or, we might say, the dimensions to which 
the card catalogs were to grow had not been realized. 
There is a general feeling that the problems 
of adapting library buildings to the changing 
methods of library administration will be worked 
out by the library and the architectural professions 
jointly. As stated by one architect, the first work 
must be done by the librarian and should consist 
in reducing to writing a description of the purpose 
and scope of the library, particularly helpful if the 




Fig. 136. 



BOSTON ATHEN/EUM 



View of reading room, taken before alterations, showing alcove stack arrangement. The same general 
arrangement, but with new Snead Standard Stacks, followed in remodeling. 



library be of some such special type as that of a 
college or university. The study required to formu- 
late and classify his own ideas would doubtless lead 
the librarian into some new conceptions of the pur- 
pose of his library. The future as well as the pres- 
ent must be considered and other libraries should 
be visited with a mind open for new impressions 
and ready to gi-aft any improved ideas upon the 
parent stock. 

The architect, having consulted with the libra- 
rian and being in possession of his data, should 
study the problem sympathetically and try to get the 
point of view of the man who is later to administer 



[ 110 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



the building and the institution it houses. That the 
building should be planned from the inside is an 
axiom not only approved by librarians, but recog- 
nized as fundamental by architects. We know of 
Hbrary buildings where the design of the exterior 
has governed the arrangement of the interior to a 
lamentable extent, as where a French renaissance 
exterior of what would seem to a passer-b\' a one- 
story building, encases a three-story structure. 

There is no special design to whicli the library 
exterior can be said to conform. Like the interior, 
it has changed with the changing methods of 
library administration. The problem has been to 
provide rooms of varying sizes, arranged for the 
carrying on of certain library work, and the exterior 
is largely determined by the arrangement of these 
inner factors. 

Considerations that will enter into the planning 
of the library, and especially of the stack, are : 

First. The nature of the library, whether a col- 
lege, university or a public library. The books in a 
university library are used intensively by a limited 
number of readers; the under-graduates are not or- 
dinarily admitted to the stacks. In a public library 
the circulation feature is usually predominant. 

Second. Whether wholly a reference library, or 
partly for circulation, or an open access library. If 
the public is to be admitted to the shelves, the aisles 
are naturally made wider than if the stack is pri- 
marily for storage and is open to the attendants only. 

Third. The size of the library. In a very small 
library, free access is taken for granted and wall 
shelving wiU suffice. For a library requiring only 
a small stack, but one tier high, and with httle 
likelihood of outgrowing it, a radiating stack is 
found to reduce the difficulties of supervision. 
Where more than one tier of metal stacks is built 
on the radiating principle, the cost of construction 
is so much higher than in the ordinary parallel 
arrangement as to be prohibitive. 

Fourth. The class of books to be housed. Scien- 
tific and technological books require deeper shelving 
than volumes of belles lettres. Books on architec- 
ture and the fine arts require special shelving, while 
newspapers are a problem by themselves. No class 
of books will eat up the shelving so rapidly as our 
metropolitan dailies. If the policy of the library is 
to include any special collection of considerable size 
along any line it would be very helpful if it were 
known in advance of planning the building. If bound 



newspapers are to be indulged in to any great extent' 
it would be desirable to have the stack run below 
ground where the simplest form of structural work 
could be used to accommodate these bulky volumes. 

One item that will help decide the question of 
the size of the stack needed is the average annual 
growth of the library. For the average public library 
it will be necessary to consider in this connection 
such factors as the number of books discarded each 
year, and the number of these that are replaced. 
In a college or university library the discards are 
comparatively few, being mainly in the class of text 
books, and required or collateral reading. In the 
smaller public library the average number of books 
out in circulation will enter into the problem. A 
given amount of shelving will accommodate a certain 
number of books; but if in a small library one-fifth 
of the collection is as a rule out in circulation only 
four-fifths the amount of shelving is necessary that 
would be required if the books were not allowed to 
circulate or were of a character which would not 
tempt readers to borrow them. Of course, it is at 
no time desirable to have all the shelves filled to 
overflowing. From a fourth to a third of vacant 
shelf room ought to be available for shifting the 
collection when large additions are made or when 
reclassification of any section becomes desirable. 

The custodians of many of our smaller public 
libraries feel the necessity for constant "weeding 
out" of their collections, sending to the larger 
depository libraries of the neighborhood such 
material as has not been called for within a given 
time, or disposing by sale of items which seem un- 
suited to their particular clientele. This tends to 
keep down the size of the collection and to prevent 
its growing too rapidly out of its shelf accom- 
modations. 

But do what we librarians may, books will 
accumulate on our hands at a surprisingly rapid 
rate. The common mistake is to build too small 
rather than too large a building, and especially too 
small a stack. I know of one college library that 
had no sooner been comfortably settled in its new 
Carnegie building than its custodian was compelled 
to ask for additional stack room; and I know of a 
university library which has a building under way 
with a stack so wholly inadequate that one would 
think that even the trustees of the institution could 
see what they were bringing upon themselves— the 
necessity of an extension within a few years, with 



[ 111 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



the risk of the usual patchwork effect. It is seldom 
indeed that a university library is planned with a com- 
prehensive scheme for future development. Students 
come and go, their numbers increasing but slowly, 
while the books come, for the most part, to stay. 
Hence the book storage space is liable to be outgrown 
much sooner than the accommodations for readers. 

A location that must present architectural 
facades on all sides is unfavorable to extension. It 
is better to have a distinct front and rear. A cor- 
ner lot or a site with parking all around it necessi- 
tates a greater expenditure for building materials, 
while an inside lot, with good frontage, admits of a 
utilitarian stack on the rear without any architec- 
tural pretensions whatsoever. Sloping ground is 
advantageous for practical reasons as giving a chance 
for a high basement in the rear, with two or more 
stack levels below the main reading room floor. Of 
course it is desirable that the library should be 
separated from other buildings as far as possible, so 
as to give an abundance of light and air on all sides 
and to diminish the danger from fire. 

To sum up : The first thing for a board of 
trustees to do in planning a library building is to 
get a librarian, if a competent one is not already in 
their service. It will not do to think that a make- 
shift librarian will answer during the period of plan- 
ning and building, and that a better one can be en- 



gaged after the new building is erected and occupied. 
It may then be too late to rectify blunders which will 
represent a serious annual drain on the resources of 
the library, costing in the aggregate many times the 
difference between the salary of the makeshift and 
the competent librarian. The competent librarian 
should be on hand from the beginning, even before 
the new building is thought of. He may be needed 
to point out the necessity for better accommodations, 
or to create a demand for larger activities. When 
on hand it will be impossible for him to be ignored. 
If competent he will make himself so useful to both 
the trustees and the architect that neither will wish 
to ignore him in planning for a new building. Of 
course it is unfortunate that not all librarians realize 
that they should criticize practical arrangements and 
not architectural details, and that not all architects 
understand that the ideas of the librarian should be 
given the fullest consideration in order to make a 
truly successful building, which requires first of all 
that it should be good from a utilitarian point of view 
and secondly from an aesthetic standpoint. But the 
architects and the librarians are coming to recognize 
where their separate provinces lie, what interests 
the}^ have in common, and how they can co-operate 
in building the libraries of the future, which, while 
beautiful, must first serve the purposes of the insti- 
tutions they house. 



[ 112 ] 



SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY PLANNING 

By EDWARD L. TILTON, Architect 

Reprinted from the IJIimry Journal of September, 1912 



PROPER library planning may now be called 
a science, since it is possible to formulate 
certain rules which, if carefully followed, 
will produce a methodical and rational result; it is 
likewise an art, since it calls for a skillful and sys- 
tematic arrangement of means for the attainment 
of some desired end. The combination will produce 
a construction both practical and aesthetic. 

The principles involved require the accommo- 
dation of the greatest number of readers or patrons 
under hygienic conditions, and with due care for 
their comfort, for the housing of the maximum 
number of books and contents, and for an aesthetic 
expression of the building's purpose, both within 
and without. These principles are fundamental, 
and are applicable to all libraries; they are likewise 
sufficiently flexible to admit the inclusion of any 
new discovery which may develop better arrange- 
ments as the science advances. The method of 
procedure is simple. Given a certain appropriation, 
not over 80 per cent, should be devoted to the 
construction, including heating and lighting, and 
from 20 to 22 per cent, to equipment, furniture and 
fees. The following formula will apply : 

.80a* 

In which x equals the size of plan in square feet; (a) 
equals the appropriation; {b) equals the cost of 
construction per cubic foot, which for a fireproof 
building might range from twenty-five to forty 
cents, and for a non-fireproof building from fifteen 
to thirty cents, depending upon various local con- 
ditions, including prevailing rates of wages and 
materials; (c) equals the height of the building, 
measured from the basement floor level to the top of 
the roof if flat, or half up the slope of the roof if 
pitched; the height of a basement and one-story 
building is about 30 feet, and the height of a base- 

*78 per cent, is a closer approximation, but 80 per cent, is 
taken for easy figuring to demonstrate the theory. See the 
tabulation near the end of this article. 



ment and two-story building is about 40 to 4,5 feet. 

To apply the formula concretely, let us assume 
the appropriation (a) to be $150,000, 80 per 
cent, of w'hich would be $120,000. If a fireproof 
two-story and basement library be required, (b) 
would equal, say, $.30, and (c) 40 feet, or be would 
equal 12 which, divided into (.80a), $120,000, would 
give a resultant x of 10,000 square feet, which 
would permit of a building 100 x 100 feet, 80 x 125 
feet, or similar proportions, in deciding which the 
shape of the lot might be a factor. 

With the total appropriation of $150,000, we 
should endeavor to house 150,000 volumes (or one 
dollar per volume), and to accommodate 300 readers 
(at $500 each), allowing a maximum of 30 square 
feet per seat; this would require 9,000 square feet 
of floor space for the various rooms destined for 
the use of readers, such as reading, reference, 
children's, periodical, newspaper and such special 
rooms as the librarian may demand for medical 
and historical collections, club rooms, etc. 

The 150,000 volumes may be distributed, allot- 
ting approximately 100,000 to the stacks and 50,000 
to shelving throughout the various reading rooms. 
The size of the stack may be determined by divid- 
ing the 100,000 volumes by 20, which gives 5,000 
square feet for a tier of seven shelves, and allows 
sufficient space for aisles and gangways; this 5,000 
square feet may be arranged in two or more tiers, as 
the exigencies of the case demand, giving 2,500 
square feet if in two tiers of seven shelves each; 
1,250 if in four tiers, etc. When possible, it is well 
to allow 20 per cent, leeway to these figures, in 
order to avoid close stacking and to give some free 
shelf space. Several advantages are gained by keep- 
ing the stacks below the level of the first floor, as in 
the new Springfield, Mass., Library, (see pages 202 
and 203) and the Somerville, Mass., Library (see 
page 225) thereby leaving the valuable main floor 
space free for readers and reference shelving. In 
the latter building the stacks do not extend to an 



[ 113 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



outside wall, but are lighted by "second light" 
through glazed partitions, leaving the periphery of 
the building free for reading rooms. This idea is 
also applicable to stacks extending vertically through 
the building, and has several decided advantages. 
Darkness is better for books than direct sunlight, 
and an interior stack may be readily ventilated. A 
plan to be economical and well laid out should have 
a minimum space devoted to corridors and stairways, 
and a maximum space for library purposes. In 
"monumental" libraries recently constructed, only 
50 per cent, of the ground area is available for li- 
brary use, the remainder being given up to walls, 
halls, stairs, etc. In the Springfield Library the simi- 
lar proportions on the main floor are 85 per cent, 
and 15 per cent. 

In the imaginary problem under consideration, 
with a ground plan of 10,000 square feet, we can 
assume, therefore, that 8,500 square feet of the main 
floor may be divided so as to allow, say, for the 
delivery room 500 square feet; for reading rooms, 
open shelf rooms for fiction, reference and other 
rooms as the librarian may designate, 8,000 square 
feet. The basement may need to accommodate 
heating and mechanical plants besides stack space, 
which will reduce somewhat the residuum to be as- 
signed to newspaper rooms, lecture room and work 
rooms for receiving, unpacking, binding, etc. The 
second floor's available area may also be less than 
that of the main floor, owing to possible light wells. 

The available areas may, therefore, approxi- 
mate: basement, 6,500 square feet; main floor, 8,500 
square feet; second floor, 5,000 square feet; or a 
grand total of 20,000 square feet, to be apportioned 
among the various departments possibly as follows: 

Delivery room 500 

Several rooms for readers' use 9,000 

Stack ( area of one tier) . . 3,000 

Catalog and work rooms . 2,500 

Librarian and staff rooms . 2,500 

Lecture rooms 1,050 

Collections, etc 1,450 

The lecture room, unless usable for other pur- 
poses, is apt to make the least return, and should 
not, therefore, be too large nor occupy valuable 
space on the main floors. For a building to cost 
$150,000, the lecture room might be in the base- 
ment and limited to 150 seats, which at 7 square 
feet, will require 1,050 square feet to allow for 
proper aisles; the height to ceiling should be not less 



than 12 feet, making 12,600 cubic feet and at 30 
cents (the cubic foot cost of our building) will rep- 
resent $3,780 as the amount invested in the lecture 
room, the interest on which at 5 per cent, is $189, 
to which must be added the expense of light, heat 
and janitor's labor. It is usually better economy to 
hire a hall in the neighborhood for lectures or en- 
tertainments likely to attract large audiences and 
include only a small lecture room in the library 
building. 

The working space and rooms should be 
ample to insure the proper running of the machinery 
of administration. Comfortable quarters for the 
staff, including rest room, locker room and kitchen- 
ette, will yield better returns in efficiency and 
library results than those obtained from a dispro- 
portionate lecture room. A good librarian and an 
efficient staff are as essential to a library as a com- 
petent president and faculty are to a college, and 
it is equally important to maintain an esprit de corps 
and an esprit d'ouvrage if the public are to receive 
adequate return for their financial and spiritual 
investment. To insure a continuation of such "divi- 
dends," the humanistic element should be considered 
with a solicitude at least equal to that accorded to 
the machinery of a steamship. 

The comfort and convenience of the public are 
enhanced by the proper location, arrangement and 
design of the reading room. The collaboration of 
librarian and architect is here vitally requisite. 
The size and shape of any reading room can best 
be determined by plotting out the furniture. The 
tables should be spaced about five feet apart and 
the same distance from the walls of the room. The 
details are too diverse to enlarge upon here, since 
the individual preferences of the librarian and the 
requirements differ with every locality. But a 
fundamental condition applicable to every case is 
that of maintaining a reasonable pi-o rata cost per 
reader accommodated. In our supposititious problem 
we have allowed 9,000 square feet for reading and 
ancillary rooms to accommodate 300 readers at 30 
square feet for each. The appropriation being 
$150,000 makes each of the 300 seatings represent 
$500 outlay. 

The lighting of the library is of paramount 
importance, and to accomplish a satisfactory result 
it is well to follow the school house requirements 
and make the glass area of reading rooms equal 
to 20 per cent, of their floor areas. The light from 



[ 114 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING^ BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



the windows will be effective in the room for a 
distance equal to about one and one-half times the 
height of the top of window from the floor. Ceil- 
ing lighting will be advisable for spaces not properly 
illumined by the windows. 

A module or width of bays approximately 12 
feet, will be found to produce a good relation be- 
tween sohds and openings. For our building of 
125 feet by 80 feet, there is no common denom- 
inator, so we can modify the dimensions to 129 feet 
10 inches by 77 feet 5f inches, which will also 
produce 10,000 square feet, and give ten modules 
to the front and six modules to the sides of 12 feet 
lOf inches. 

Artificial illumination is usually and preferably 
secured by some electric s\stem. The carbon lamp 
is yielding to the tungsten lamp, owing to the 
increased economy secured by its gi-eater power at 
less wattage. The amount of light required may 
be roughly figured at one watt (tungsten lighting) 
for each square foot of floor area when a direct 
lighting system is used. Indirect or semi-direct will 
require a Httle more wattage per square foot. The 
main floor of our building, with its 10,000 square 
feet, will therefore require for proper direct illumi- 
nation enough lamps to yield 10,000 watts. If 30 
watt lamps be used, there will be a total of 333 
lamps, and if three lamps be used to each fixture, 
there will be 111 outlets; and if each circuit of 
twelve lamps has a switch, there will be twenty- 
eight switch outlets, or a total of 139 outlets, at an 
approximate cost of $5 each, or $695 for the main 
floor. It is not necessary, however, to have so 
many switches, since most of the circuits can be con- 
trolled directly from the panel board. This $695 
may be reduced to terms per cubic foot. The main 
floor, with 10,000 square feet, may be assumed to 
have a height of 15 feet or 150,000 cubic feet, 
which, divided into $695, gives .46c, or less than one- 
half cent per cubic foot. The total cubage of our 
building, including basement and second stories, 
being 400,000, will require on above basis $1,840 
to cover the expense of the wiring for lamps. The 
panel boards for the several circuits in the reading 
rooms are best located near the delivery desk, 
within easy reach of the library attendant. 

In addition to the electric light wiring, proper 
allowances must be made for an interior telephone 
system and public telephone connections, for call 
bells, for standard clock system and watchman's 



clock, for electric book lifts, for all of which, in 
the building under consideration, we may set aside 
$4,500. 

The heating of the library is usually accom- 
plished by a steam system. The number of square 
feet of radiation is calculated by the Mills formula 
of 2-20-200; that is, the sum of the glass area, 
divided by 2; the solid wall area by 20, and the 
cubic foot contents of the room by 200. For ex- 
ample, the building we are assuming covers 10,000 
square feet, by 40 feet in height, or 400,000 cubic 
feet; the glass area equals 2,000 square feet (or 20 
per cent, of floor area); the wall area equals the 
periphery of the building (120 + 80 + 120 + 80), 
400 lineal feet by 40 feet height, or 16,000 square 
feet, less the 2,000 feet of glass, or 14,000 square 
feet. The following formula will apply: 

ga, wa I cc 

"''~y 20 200 
in which x equals the square foot of radiation re- 
quired; ga equals glass area of windows and ceiling 
lights; iva equals solid wall area; cc equals cubic con- 
tents. Applying this formula to the above figures, 
we obtain the following results: 

2,000 , 14,000 I 400,000 _^ 
2 ^ 20 ^ 200 '^'^^^ 

square feet of radiation. If the radiation be con- 
cealed behind shelving or seats, it should be in- 
creased by about one- third, or, say, 1,200 square feet, 
giving a total of 4,900 square feet, to which add 25 
per cent, for supply and return pipes, and another 
25 per cent, for reserve power in boiler, or 50 per 
cent, of 4,900 equals 2,450, giving a grand total of 
7,350 square feet, which indicates the requisite boiler 
rating. The cost of this will approximate 75 cents 
per foot, or $5,512.50 for heating the building. An 
additional percentage of radiation should be allowed 
for walls on north sides and for ceilings under flat 
roofs, but 5 per cent, of the total appropriation 
should cover the expense of "direct" steam system. 

The mechanical ventilation in an ordinary li- 
brary building may be limited to the lecture room, 
and a possible small amount in the shape of "direct- 
indirect" for certain of the reading rooms, the cost 
of which would approximate 25 cents additional, or 
$1,837.50, entailing the total estimate for heating 
and ventilating of $7,350, or one dollar per foot of 
of the sum above. A "plenum" system for the entire 
building is expensive to operate, and experience 
shows that when installed the use of the fan is apt 



[ 115 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



to be soon discontinued. The writer has arranged a 
simple system, first tried at Cleveland and since 
installed in many buildings, b\' which the radiators 
or coils are concealed back of insulated shelving and 
supplied with openings at floor and at top of cases to 
permit the circulation of air. When the shelving 
runs beneath windows, either high or low, there is 
an opportunity to arrange an effective method of 
ventilation by opening the window slightly and insert- 
ing a deflector. Even with closed windows there is 
a continual circulation of the room air engendered 
by the spaces containing radiation between walls 
and back of shelving, which act like flues. 

The furniture will consist of delivery or charg- 
ing counter, catalog cases, bulletin boards, tables, 
chairs, shelving and the various items of equipment 
for the rooms devoted to periodicals, newspapers, 
fine arts and special collections, as well as the suite 
for the librarian and staff, for the cataloging and 
work rooms, and for the lecture room. 

Our building, as before stated, is intended to 
accommodate 300 readers, and for convenience we 
can assume the tables will be the standard three 
feet by five feet size for four persons, making a 
total of seventy-five tables and 300 chairs. The 
50,000 volumes to be distributed throughout rooms 
will need about 1000 feet of bookcases, five shelves 
high in children's room and seven shelves high else- 
where, and will cost about S3,500. Metal shelving 
can be installed for nearly the same price. 

The stacks form an important adjunct to the 
library. As before indicated, the amount of stack 
required may be calculated by multiplying the square 
foot area of the stack room by twenty volumes if 
but one tier of seven shelves be required; by forty 
if two tiers be required, and so on. Conversely, if 
we wish to know the size of stack room necessary to 
house 100,000 volumes in one tier seven shelves 
high, we divide by twenty, giving 5,000 square feet; 
for two tiers divide by forty, giving 2,500 square 
feet; for three tiers, divide by sixty, giving 1,667 
square feet, and so on. Metal stack construction is 
an invention of recent years, and its rapid develop- 



ment has kept pace with the modern library de- 
mands. There are several makes of metal stacks 
upon the market, each claiming to have special 
features of superiority over its competitors. The 
system originally conceived by Bernard R. Green, 
and installed in the Library of Congress, has since 
from time to time, been improved and used in build- 
ings where the conditions imposed heavy loadings of 
superimposed tiers of floors, and also where com- 
pactness, as well as strength, was a desideratum. 
The weight of each tier of stacks, with its com- 
plement of books, may be figured at 125 pounds to 
the square foot. The cost may be roughly com- 
puted at $2 per square foot of stack room for each 
tier, or 10 cents per volume. 

To summarize the foregoing, we can subdivide 
the $150,000 appropriation under the following 
heads: 

General construction, exclusive of 
heating and electric work . . 
Heating work with limited 
ventilation 4 



72i% 



Electric work 



la 



Stacks 7g " 

Furniture 6 " 

Lighting fixture 2 " 

Contingencies OOg " 

Architect 6 " 



100% 



After analyzing and proportioning the various 
elements of the plan as indicated, the architect's 
skill should be invoked to produce an artistic building. 
The scientific or mathematical consideration of the 
problem resembles the human skeleton, which is 
similar in child and adult, black, white and red men, 
but the flesh covering may over one be beautiful and 
over another be the reverse. 

It is not possible to give more than general 
hints in an article of this description since there are 
many ramifications which lead off into various refine- 
ments that make for economy of plan and expression 
in design. 



Extracts from an address delivered by Mr. Edward L. Tilton before the Ohio <§■ 
Michigan State Library Associations, Cedar Point, Ohio, September 4th, 1911. 



"The cost per cubic foot of a building, thoroughly 
fireproofed throughout, including floors and roof and 
faced with stone or even marble, can be brought to 



30 cents, and including best stacks and equipment 
to 35 cents. A non-fireproof brick and terra cotta 
building, well finished, can be brought to 20 or 25 



[ 116 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



cents, and in some cases to a little under 20 cents. 

"The following computations have been made 
of the cost of a building in relation to its seating 
capacity for readers and to its volume capacity: 
Allowing 30 square feet floor space to each reader 
as full capacity in rooms allotted to reading and 
reference purposes, then $500 per reader should 
easily cover the cost of an average suitable building 
and permit the inclusion of a lecture room and all 
the necessary elements and accessories. The cost 
of housing books varies from one to two dollars per 
volume, the former where stack construction and 
wall shelving in reading room is used, the latter if 
the open shelf and wall shelving is adopted. The 
first type of shelving brings the book to the reader; 
the second, the reader to the book. 

"The location of a branch building in towns of 
the second or third class is probably best deter- 
mined by the conditions geographical, topographical 
or racial, and the size and cost of the building by the 
number of population in the section to be served 
reckoned roughly at about two dollars per capita. 



A city of about 300,000 population and covering say 
an area of 30 square miles would have possibly one- 
third of the people served directly by the central 
building, leaving 200,000, or 7,000 people per square 
mile beyond the center, and each branch might 
serve four square miles; i.e., a mile each way from 
the branch, or 28,000 people, requiring therefore in 
the city a total of seven branches. Business centers 
also control the location of branches. 

"When a building, as before stated, costs about 
$2 for every volume housed therein, the cost of inter- 
est and maintenance might be approximated as 35 
cents per volume, as representing the minimum an- 
nual average expense of each book upon the shelves. 
Or to put it in another way, 25,000 volumes will 
require, say, a $50,000 building. Add for expense 
of land, say, $5,000, making building and land cost 
$55,000 on which interest at 5 per cent amounts to 
$2,750. To this add annual upkeep charges such 
as salaries, light, heat, etc; say, $6,000, or total of 
$8,750 for 25,000 volumes, which give an average 
amount of 35 cents per volume as a minimum for a 
small library." 



[ 117 ] 



A LIBRARY BOOKSTACK IN THE DARK 

By BERNARD R. GREEN, C. E. 

Read at the Baltimore meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1909 



UNTIL recently the free admission of daylight 
had been deemed an indispensable requisite 
in the bookstacks of libraries. Masses of 
shelving were wont, on that account, to be kept small 
because artificial illumination was not only inade- 
quate and expensive, but overheating and dangerous. 
The breadth of aisles was limited to secure even a 
moderate amount of daylight. It was likewise con- 
sidered necessary to locate the exterior walls so that 
they would give not only free access to the light, but 
would insure a safe distance from exterior fire. To 
all this handicap was added the even greater neces- 
sity of a proper regard to architectural appearance. 

Under such conditions large isolated lots and 
wide courts seemed to be the only solution at hand. 
The bookstacks, in consequence, extended over 
wide areas at ever increasing distances from the 
center of use. But even here there were limits — 
the walls must not be so high as to overshadow each 
other. The result was that not more than a third 
of the ground devoted to the stack could be used 
by it. Added to this inconvenience was not only the 
costly space-consuming expanse of exterior but the 
proverbial fickleness and frequent failure of the day- 
light, due to cloudy weather, the time of day and the 
seasons of the year. These accumulated uncertain- 
ties have at last not only rendered artificial illum- 
ination a necessity, but an economic advantage. 

Moreover, sunlight is often so bright and hot 
that it becomes injurious to the exposed books, 
thereby making adjustable shades an indispensable 
part of the equipment of a stack room. Now, win- 
dow shades, it is well known, are not only expensive 
in their first cost and in their maintenance, but they 
are also expensive in the time and the annoyance 
they require for their operation. Even the diffused 
daylight, which their adjusted aid gives, is more or 
less injurious to books in the long run. Books, in 
fact, are much better off in the dark. 

In the construction and arrangement of a book- 
stack, therefore, the maximum of economy will be 



reached if the shelving be so compacted that only 
space for convenient access to all the books is pro- 
vided. That is to say, every possible cubic foot of 
the entire bulk of the stack should be available for 
the books themselves and the minimum of the cubic 
contents taken up by the stack structure and the 
space necessary for access to the books. 

Such a structure is at the present day made 
entirely feasible by the use of light steel framework 
and shelving, mechanical elevators and book car- 
riers, artificial ventilation, and the incandescent 
electric light, or tungsten lamp. The Library of 
Congress has used such a stack to fill up one of its 
courts. The court is about 150 feet long, 74 feet 
wide and 80 feet high, with a roof resting on the 
numerous slender steel columns which carry the 
stack structure, from the foundation to the roof. 
There are nine tiers or stories of shelving with a low 
basement for the distribution of fresh air circulating 
upward through the stack and discharged at the roof. 
Great economy in the consumption of electric cur- 
rent is secured by the use of time-limit switches 
which automatically turn off the lights a few minutes 
after they are connected. 

The fact that the stack is enclosed in a court 
and surrounded by a heated building makes the heat- 
ing of it a simple matter, because only a moderate 
quantity of fresh air is needed to counteract the 
relatively slow vitiation of the interior air of the 
stack. The heating of such a stack may be done 
with either direct or indirect radiators. Those con- 
taining warm water are preferable. As the stack 
decks contain sufficient openings for ventilation, 
neither flues nor special airways are needed for the 
passage of the constantly upward flow of the air, 
which is controlled by plenum and exhaust fans at 
the bottom and top respectively. 

In economy of space, in bulk, simplicity, and 
consequent low cost of construction and maintenance, 
such a stack is analogous to an ice house, which is 
but a protecting plain shell or envelope, filled solidly 



[ 118 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 137. SOUTH-EAST COURT, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

Steel frame for the nine-tier Snead Standard Stack, in course of construction. Roof over stack carried by this steel frame. 



with ice. The purpose of the shell is not to carry 
floors or roof, or shelving, but is to exclude weather 
and fire and to prevent depredation. Viewed in this 
light, the stack may be built as a simple mass of 
shelving within the walls of an existing court as at 
the Library of Congress, or it may be built within 
sohd plain walls constructed for the purpose, with- 
out windows or openings. In fact, such a stack may 
be built, embodied and concealed, anywhere within 
a library building, local conditions of space, cost, 
administration, and architectural considerations 
being the only determining factors. 

The bookstack, especially if it were a large one, 
has up to this time been the bete noir of the architect, 
who not only sought to give it the demanded day- 
light but also to harmonize its architecture with that 
of the rest of the building. To-day the shape of 
the bookstack, its location, dimension and frontage 
are relieved of the all-controlling daylight stipu- 
lation. It may be a tower or a well, or both com- 
bined, or an inside mass hidden or buried, invisible 



and unsuspected, leaving the well-lighted, attractive 
spaces for the various library purposes. With such a 
bookstack, books may be very conveniently read in 
the daylight and then stored away safely in the dark. 

The height, length and breadth of such a stack 
are limited only by the economy of elevator service, 
ground damp proofing, and lateral distance from the 
center of administration or use. It is obvious, how- 
ever, that these limitations admit of enormous pos- 
sibilities. Why, for example, might not a stack be 
forty tiers high and 400 feet square, holding in con- 
veniently accessible arrangement, 100 millions of 
volumes and occupying but one ordinary city block? 

Fire is not a serious danger with such a book- 
stack, because books, as they are ordinarily placed 
on the shelves, do not burn or communicate fire 
readily, and the stack itself is wholly fireproof. If 
so desired, the long stack may be divided vertically 
by a fireproof wall and the tall stack horizontally by 
fireproof flooring, into compartments, like the hull 
of a ship. 



[ 119 ] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



L' 



IBRARY Building: Some Preliminaries," 
by F. P. Hill, in Library Journal, 1899, vol. 
24, pp. 563-569, emphasized the necessity 
for enthusiasm on the part of the librarian, the im- 
portance of interest among the trustees, visits to 
other libraries, methods of securing money, function 
of the consulting architect, the selection of a site, 
conditions of competition and award of contracts. 
Some of the remarks center around the Newark 
Public Library, on which compare W. K. Stetson, 
"Planning for Efficiency in Library Buildings," in 
Library Jounml, 1911, pp. 467- 168. J.C.Dana has 
a helpful note in Public Libraries, 1902, pp .406-407. 
Papers by the late Bernard R. Green, "Planning 
and Construction of Library Buildings," in Library 
Journal, 1900, vol. 25, pp. 677-683, and "Library 
Buildings and Book Stacks," in Library Journal, 
1906, vol. 31, pp. 52-56 contain many excellent sug- 
gestions. A paper by Edward B. Green, a Buffalo 
architect, in Library Journal, Dec, 1901, vol. 26, pp. 
865-867, takes up general principles and discusses 
some special buildings. He quotes the article by 
C. K. Bolton, "The Planning of Small Libraries," 
in The Brickbuilder, 1901, (abstracted in Public 
Libraries, 1901, vol. 6, p. 620). J. L. Mauran, of 
St. Louis, published "Housing the Books," in Public 
Libraries, 1901, pp. 603-606, and a paper on the 
"Relationof the Architect to the Librarian," is sum- 
marized in the same volume, pp. 475-176. Other 
papers byarchitectsare:W. A. Otis, "Library Build- 
ings from the View-point of an Architect," in Public 
Libraries, vol. 8, pp. 202-207; Grant C. Miller, 
"Library Buildings," in Iowa Library Quarterly, vol. 
3, pp. 1-8; Norman S. Patton, "Designing of a Col- 
lege Library," Asheville meeting of the American 
Library Association, 1907, (Proc. pp. 270-274). Ed- 
ward L. Tilton, at the joint meeting of the Ohio and 
Michigan Library Associations, gave an illustrated 
lecture on the architecture of small libraries, (pub- 
lished in Michigan Libraries, Dec, 1911). See also 
"The Views of a Consulting Architect," by A. D. F. 
Hamlin, Narragansett Conference of the A. L. A., 
1906, (Proc. pp. 57-62). 



Charles C. Soule published in Library Journal 
for April, 1892, an article entitled "How to Build a 
Library." See also "How to Plan a Library Build- 
ing for Library Work," by Mr. Soule, (Boston Book 
Co., 1912) . "Points of Agreement Among Librarians 
as to Library Architecture," by Mr. Soule, appeared 
in the Brochure Series of Architectural Illustrations 
for Nov., 1897, which also contained a brief paper on 
"Library Architecture," by the late Russell Sturgis, 
and "Planning a Library from the Librarian's Point 
of View," by William E. Foster. "New Ideas in 
Library Buildings," by Mr. Foster, as published in 
the American Architect, July 30, 1898, vol. 61, pp. 
38-39, are extracted from his report to the A. L. A. 
in 1898, the full text of which is found in the Library 
Journal, vol. 23, C pp. 13-17. The A. L. A. Publish- 
ing Board issued in 1902 as "Library Tract," No. 4, a 
condensed study of "Library Rooms and Buildings," 
by Mr. Soule. See also Mr. Soule's article in Stur- 
gis's "Dictionary of Architecture and Building," vol. 
2, pp. 749-759. W. R. Eastman, late library inspector 
for the State of New York, has published papers on 
library buildings in Public Libraries, 1901, vol. 
6, pp. 474-475, and Library Journal, 1901, vol. 26, 
C pp. 38-43. In revised form the latter paper was re- 
printed by the New York State Library and by the 
A. L. A. Publishing Board, 1908. An article by Mr. 
Eastman on "Library Buildings of Moderate Size" 
appeared in Library Journal, vol. 27. pp. 80-81. 

Amian L. Champneys, an English architect, has 
published "Public Libraries, a Treatise on their De- 
sign, Construction and Fitting, with a Chapter on 
the Principles of Planning," (London, Batsford, 
1907) which will be found more useful to British than 
to American students of the subject. "Small Library 
Buildings; a collection of plans contributed by the 
League of Library Commissions, with introduction 
and notes by Corneha Marvip," (A. L. A. PubHshing 
Board, 1908) will prove helpful alike to architects, 
librarians and trustees. "A PortfoHo of Carnegie 
Libraries," by Theodore W. Koch, (Ann Arbor, 
George Wahr, 1907) contains exterior and interior 
views, with floor plans, of some eighty libraries. 



[ 120 



SNEAD STACK INSTALLATIONS 

PARTIAL LIST WITH COST DATA 



SOME general information on the cost of library 
buildings may be found on page 106 of Pro- 
fessor A. D. F. Hamlin's article, "Some 
Essentials of Library Design" and in Mr. Edward 
L. Tilton's article, "Scientific Library Planning," 
page 113. 

Regarding the relative costs of buildings, Archi- 
tect Grant C. Miller writes: "In comparing the costs 
of buildings one should not compare the cost per cu- 
bic foot of a large building with that of a small build- 
ing, as a small building will cost sHghtly more in 
proportion. It is almost impossible to compare the 
cost per cubic foot of a building designed by one 
architect with that of a building designed by another 
architect. There are as many different ways of 
measuring and comparing as there are individuals. 
We take the cubic contents from the cement floor 
in the basement to the top of the ceiling joists in 
the top story. You will note that the attic spaces 
are not measured. Of course it is not wise to com- 
pare a steep pitched roof with a flat roofed build- 



ing, but compare only buildings of a similar type. 
We find that public library buildings, not fireproof 
— but of especially good construction otherwise, 
cost anywhere from 17 to 25 cents a cubic foot. 
The classic style of architecture costs from about 
20 to 25 cents a cubic foot, and other styles of a 
more economical nature from 17 to 20 cents. The 
library for the University of Tennessee at Knox- 
ville (non-fireproof) cost about 23 cents a cubic 
foot. The library for Purdue University at 
Lafayette, Ind. (fireproof) cost 25 cents a cubic foot. 
Both of these buildings are in comparatively cheap 
locaHties. If one were to erect buildings of this type 
in Iowa, Minnesota, or even Wisconsin, the price 
per cubic foot would be a little higher. In general, 
fireproof buildings cost about 20 per cent more than 
those that are not. In quoting the price per cubic 
foot for buflding, we have included most of the equip- 
ment, that is, the equipment of the first floor in the 
public libraries and nearly all of the equipment in 
college libraries." 



Note: Name of librarian given below is either that of the librarian in office at time of stack inslct/ldtion. 
in charge at date of compilation of this list. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



ir of I he librarian 



Building 



Page 



Architect 



Library of Congress 

Washington Public Library 

Army War College 

Engineer's School 

Department of Agriculture . 

U. S. Soldiers Home 

Bureau of Education 

Bureau of Crop Estimates. . . 

Bureau of Mines 

Bureau of Plant Industry . . . 



217 



Librarian 



Herbert Putnam., 



Smithmeyer & Pelz and E. P. 
Casey. Bernard R. Green, Eng. 

Albert Randolph Ross ; George F. Bovvernian. 

McKim, Mead and White. . . 
McKim, Mead and White. . . 
Rankin, Kellog & Crane ... 



Ykar Cubic | Cost 

COM- Cost ' foot i per 

PLETED CONTENTSJCU.FT. 

1897 .%.;U5,1H)(I H),0(I(),(JO() S.(i3 



Henry E. Haferkorn. 
Miss C. R. Barnett.. 

Herman Miller 

J.D. Wolcott 

Louise'Hayward 

Mrs. E. F. Spofford . 
Cora L, Feldkamp. . . 



1902 
1907 
1914 
1910 



S370.0()l) 960.000 , :^.39 
S700,000 I 2,5()0;0()0 S.2M 



§100,000 



477.000 



8.21 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 



New York Public Library 138 

Columbia University Library, N. Y. City. . . 148 
American Museum of Natural History, . . . 

New York City 
United Engineering Societies, N. Y. City . . 105 
American Society of Civil Engineers, New 

York City 
Kent Hall, Columbia University Law School, ' 169 

New York City 
American Geographical Society, N. Y. City 251 



Carrere «S: Hastings 

McKim, Mead & White. . 
Trowbridge & Livingston . 



Howes & Morse 

Eidlitz & Mac Kenzie. 



Edwin H. Anderson, Dir.. 
F. C. Hicks, Actmg Libn.. 
Dr. R. W. Tower 



1911 .S9.466.HIII1 10,.382.fi(l() 8.87 
1897 .'<l,l{|K,.i(lll 3,530,U0U S.31 



Wm. P. Cutter.. 
Chas. W.Hunt.. 



McKim, Mead & White — F. A, F. C Hicks. Acting Libn.. 
Goetze, Consulting Engineer 
Chas. P. Huntington D. Randall Maclver 



1907 
1897 



1910 
1910 



.s.jOO.UOO 1,006,000 



[ 121 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 
NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY ~ Co>itinued. 



Building 



Union Theological Seminary, N. Y. City. . . 168 

Syracuse Public Library, Syracuse, N. Y. . . 240 

Russell Sage Foundation Library, N. Y. City 255 

Jewish Theological Seminary, N. Y. City.. . 183 

Canandaigua Historical Society and Wood .... 

Library, Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Elizabeth Public Library, Elizabeth, N.J.,. 220 

Williamsburg Branch Lib., Brooklyn, N. Y. 231 
Pacific Branch Library, Brooklyn, N. Y.. . 232 
Carroll Park Branch Lib., Brooklyn, N.Y .. I 233 
New Rochelle Public Library, New Rochelle. 219 

N.Y. 
Cornell University Law Lib., Ithaca, N. Y. 
St. Elizabeth's College Library, Convent 186 

Station, N. J. 
Frances Folsom Cleveland Library, Wells 184 

College, Aurora, N. Y. 
MontclairFree Lib., Upper Montclair, N. J.. | 

Cobum Free Library, Owego, N. Y 77 

Summit Free Public Library, Summit, N. J. .... 
Hispanic Society of America, N. Y. City. | 251 
Cooper Union Library, New York City.. 
G. P. Putman's Sons Co., 45th St. Book 36 

Store, New York City 

Lotos Club, New York City 

Private Library of Thomas Mott Osborne, 

Auburn, N. Y. 
Flower Memorial Library, Watertown, N.Y. 
Rochester Theological Sem. Rochester, N.Y. 
General Theological Seminary, N. Y. City.. 



Little Falls Public Lib., Little Falls, N. Y.. 
The Association of the Bar of the City of 

New York 
New York Law Assn. Library, N. Y. City 

Y. M. C. A. of New York City 

New York Genealogical and Biographical 

Society, New York City 
American S. P. C. A. of New York City.. . . 
Union College Library, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Rochester Medical Assn., Rochester, N. Y. 



Architect 



Allen & Collens . 
James A. Randall 
Grosvenor Atterbury 
Arnold W. Brunner, 
Claude Bragdon 




Edward L. Tilton and C. Godfrey 
Poggi, Associated Architects 
Walker & Morris. 
Raymond F. Almira 
Wm. B. Tubby & Bro 
Albert Randolph Ross 

Wm. H. M 
Maginnis & Walsh 

Beverly S. King and Harry Les- 
lie Walker, Associated Archts 
Nelson & Van Wagenen 
H. Sumner Gardener. 
Earl Harvey Lyall 
Chas. P. Huntington 



Donn Barber 

Henry Wilhelm Wilkinson 

Orchard, Lansing & Jorolemon 
J. Foster Warner 
Charles C. Haight 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 



Widener Memorial Library, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Mass. 

New Hampshire Historical Society, Con- 
cord, N. H. 

Boston Athenaeum, Boston, Mass 



Springfield City Library, Springfield, Mass, 
Blackstone Memorial Library, Branford, Ct. 
Brookline Public Library, Brookline, Mass 
Manchester Public Lib., Manchester, N. H.. 
Andover-Harvard Theological Seminary, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Fall River Public Library, Fall River, Mass. 

Lynn Public Library, Lynn, Mass 

New Hampshire State Lib., Concord, N.H.. 
Mason Library, Great Harrington, Mass... . 
Somerville Free Public Library, Somerville, 

Mass. 

Be\erly Public Library, Beverly, Mass 

Bangor Public Library, Bangor, Me 

Williams Memorial Library, Trinity College, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Perkins Institute for the Blind, Watertown, 

Mass. 

Proctor Public Library, Proctor, Vt 

Hartford Medical Society, Library Wing, 

Hartford, Conn. 



152 
250 
253 
202 

210 

2I,S 
170 



229 
225 

212 
228 
187 



237 
411 



Horace Trumbauer. 



Guy Lowell., 



Bigelow & Wadsworth, Archts 
of remodeling 

Edward L. Tilton 

S. S. Beman 

R. Clipston Sturgis 

Edward L. Tilton. 

Allen & Collens 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson - 

Geo. A. Mooif 

A. P. Cutting 

Blanchard & Barnes 

Edward L. Tilton 

Cass Gilbert 

Peabody & Stearns 

La Farge & Morris 

R. Clipston Sturgis 

Harry Leslie Walker 

A. Raymond Ellis 



William Coolidge Lane. . . 

Otis G. Hammond, Supt 

Charles K. Bolton 

Rebuilt 

Hiller C. Wellman 

Chas. N. Baxter 

Louisa M. Hooper 

F. Mabel Winchell 

Dr. Owen W. Gates 

Geo. W. Rankin 

Harriet L. Matthews 

Arthur H. Chase 

Emma J. Sheldon 

Drew B. Hall 

iMartha P. Smith 

Charles A. Flagg 

Walter B. Briggs 

Laura Sawyer 

Mary K. Norton 

Dr. Walter R. Steiner.... 



1915 
1912 

1915' 
1912 
1896 
1910 
1913 
1911 

1900 
1910 
1895 
1913 
1913 

1913 

1913* 

1914 



1913* 
1912 



SBOO.OOO 



?355,000 
«300,000 
8250.000 
S250,000 
S225,000 



S225.000 

$54,500 
$125,000 

$107,000 
«138,000 
.? 150 ,000 



«23,000 
815,000 



675,000 



1,100,000 
442,000 
700,000 
735,000 
681,000 



148,500 
44.7,000 

240,000 
361,000 
312,500 



74,000 
58,000 



?.74 



$.35 

S.fiS 
$.36 
$.35 
S,33 



S.37 
.S.2N 



$.38 



$.31 
.5.26 



* Of non-fireproof construction 



[ 122 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 
NEW ENGLAND ST ATES ~ Continued. 



Building 



Page 



Architect 



Librarian 



Schauffler Memorial Library, Mt. Hermon. 19(1 
Mass. 



Parish & Schroeder Elizabeth Conway. 



Southboro Public Lib., Southboro, Mass. . . 
Whitinsville Public Library, Whitinsville. 

Mass. 
Converse Memorial Library, Maiden, Mass. 

Davis Memorial Library, Phillips - Exeter 

Academy, Exeter, N. H. 
Jacob Edwards Library, Southbridge, Mass. 
Ferguson Memorial Library, Stamford, 

Conn. 

Rhode Island Medical Society, Providence, 
R.I. 

New England Historical and Genealogical 
Society, Boston, Mass. 

Portland Public Library, Portland, Me--.. 

East Greenwich Free Library. East Green- 
wich. R. I. 

Dalton Public Library, Dalton, Mass 

Canton Public Library, Canton, Mass, 

J. V. Fletcher Library, Westford, Mass 

Hyde Park Public Lib.. Hyde Park, Mass. . 

Reuben Hoar Library, Littleton, Mass 

Dowse Library, Sherborn, Mass 

Howe Library, Hanover, N. H 

Dunbarton Public Lib., Dunbarton, N. H.. 
Fitchburg Historical Society, Fitchburg, 
Mass. 

Providence Diocesan Office and Library, 

Providence, R. I. 
Redwood Lib. and Athenaeum, Newport.R.I. 
Vermont Free Public Library, Montpelier, 

Vermont. 

Masonic Library, Boston, Mass 

Meriden High School Library, Meriden, Ct. 
Ridgefield Memorial Library, Ridgefield, Ct. 
Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Sta- 
tion, New Haven. Conn. 
Maine Historical Society, Portland, Me. . . . 



Caribou Public Library, Caribou, Me. 
Exeter Public Library, Exeter, N. H. 



236 

23H 



Alfred Cookman C;iss. 
R. Clipston Sturgi.s. . . . 



H. H. Richardson 

Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge. 

188 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. . 



Francena E. Buck. 
Mrs. W.H. Fuller. 



H. W. Fison.. 
Mabel Cilley . 



224 



252 



Little & Browne 

Tracy, Svvartwout& Litchfield. 



Clarke, Howe & Homer. 
Brainerd 8i Leeds 



Ella E. Miersch 
Alice M. Colt... 



F. H. Fassett. .. 
Angell & Swift. 



H. NeiU Wilson 

Bigelow & Wadsworth. 

H. M. Francis 

Clark & Russell 



Dr. Geo. D. Hershey . 
Wm. P. Greenlaw 



Alice C. Furbush 

Mrs. Ella D. Chapman. 

Mrs. M. E. Davidson. . 
Mrs. Wm. F. Downes.. 

Mary C. Bunce 

Elizabeth Ainsworth . . . 



Perkins & Betton Cora Whitcomb Da 



H. P.White., 
C.W. Bixby., 



H. M. Francis & Son 

Murphy, Hindle & Wright. 



Loring & Phipps, 



Guilbert & Betelle 

Raleigh C. Gildersleeve . 



F. H. Fassett. 



Astle & Page 

Rotch and Tilden. 



Elizabeth Dowse Coolidge 

Etta M.Clark 

Stack wing 

Ruth Emerson 

Theresa N. Garfield 

Rt. Rev. Matthew Harkins, 
D.D., Bishop. Providence 

George L. Hinckley 

; Rebecca W. Wright 

Thomas W. Davis, Record- 
ing Grand Secretary 
Willis J. Prouty. Principal 

Jennie Smith 

Miss V. E. Cole 

Evelyn L. Gilmore, Libra- 
rian and Curator 

Sarah A. Roberts 

Carrie W. Byington 



Year 

COM- 
PLETED 

1912 

j 1912 
I 1911 

; 1884 
' 1897 
; 1912 

1915 , 

1911 I 

1912 ' 

1913 

1889* 
1915* 

1893* , 

1902 

1896* 

1899 

1895 

1914 

1773 

1914 



Cubic , Cost 
Cost foot per 

contents cu.ft. 



S66,800 
S19.000 



810,300 
$26,000 

S27,200 



1912 

1914 
1913 



1913 

1882* 



1912* I $10,000 
1894* i 



PENNSYLVANIA AND DELAWARE 



College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pa , . . 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., Pa. . . 
Haverford College Library, Haverford, Pa. 
Biddle Law Library, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Delaware State Capitol, Dover, Del 

American Philosophical Society, Phila., Pa. 

Pittsburg North Side Carnegie Free Library. 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Bradford Public Library, Bradford, Pa 

Reading Public Library, Reading, Pa 

Theological Seminary of St. Charles Borro- 
meo, Overbrook, Pa. 

Dropsie College, Philadelphia, Pa 

Krauth Memorial Library. Mt. Airy, Pa. . . 

Zoological Laboratory, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

University of Pennsylvania Lib., Phila., Pa. 

Van Wickle Memorial Library, Lafayette 
College, Easton, Pa. 

Newtown Public Library, Newtown. Pa 

Gratz College, Philadelphia, Pa 

U. S. Naval Home, Philadelphia, Pa 

Jefferson Medical College Lib., Phila., Pa.. 



254 



49 



176 
186 



192 
239 



Cope & Stewardson 

Wilson, Harris & Richards. 

Baily & Bassett 

Stewardson & Page 



Dr. Chas. Perry Fisher. . 

Edward L. Nolan 

A. C. Thomas 

Mrs. M. C. Klingelsmith . 



Edward L. Tilton 

Frank Miles Day & Bro. 
Henry D. Whitfield 



Edward L. Tilton 

Henry D. Whitfield and Alex. F. 

Smith, Associated Architects. 
Harris & Richards 

Pilcher & Tachau 

Watson & Huckel 

Cope & Stewardson 



Thomas W. Wilson. 
Dr. I. Minis Hays .. 
Edward E. Eggers.. 



Susan L. Sherman. 
Edward A. Howell., 



Furness & Evans. . 
Harris & Richards. 



Henry L. Reinhold, Jr. 
Pilcher & Tachau 



J. T. Windrim. 



[ 123 ] 



Father A. J. Schulte 

Stack wing 

Dr. Cyrus Adler 

Rev. Luther D. Reed 

Morris Jastrow. Jr 

Morris Jastrow, Jr 

John C. Stonecipher 

Stack wing 
W. E. Martindale 



Charles Frankenberger. . 



1909 
1909 
1912 
1900 

1911 
1789 
1889 
1890 

1914* 
1913 



1910 
1912 
1908 
1911 

1891 



$300,000 

tl55,000 

$12,063 



«450,000 
810,000 



J161,900 
872,500 
$59,300 



1911 : $11,100 
1911* '• .S4..500 
1909 j 825,600 



1899 



$47,500 


155,000 


$.31 


$34,800 


76,300 


$.46 


$56,200 


204,300 


$.22 


$136,000 






$75,000 






$63,800 


211,300 


$.30 


$41,000 


174,500 


$.24 


$77,800 


404,400 


$.28 



121,500 $.55 
111,000 $.16 



29,820 
73,900 
85,600 



54,000 



955,400 

452,600 

52,700 



43,480 



974,500 
233,000 
329,400 



133,500 
37,000 
99,300 



$.35 
$.35 
$.32 



$.32 
8.34 
$.25 



$.23 



!.16 
(.26 



8.17 
$.12 
8.23 



* Of non-fireproof construction 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



SOUTHERN STATES 



Page 



Gilman Hall, Johns Hopkins University,' 
Library-, Baltimore, Md. 

University of North CaroHna Library,... 
Chapel Hill. N. C. 

Hill Memorial Lib., University of Louisiana, 
Baton Rouge, La. 

University of Tennessee Library, Knoxville, 
Tenn. 

Loyola University Lib., New Orleans, La.. 

Coa-^t Artillery Training School, Fort Mon- 
roe, Va. 

Louisville Public Library, Louisville, Ky. 

Virginia State Library. Richmond, Va 

Texas State Library, Austin, Texas 

George Peabody College for Teachers, , . 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Mary- 
land, Baltimore, Md. 

Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Ga... 

Phipps Psychiatric Institute, Baltimore, Md. 
Florida Agricultural Experimental Station. 

University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 
Sulphur Springs Public Library, Sulphur 

Springs, Texas 
Wheeling Public Library. Wheeling, W.Va. 
Gainesville Public Library, Gainesville, Tex. 
Greenwood Public Lib., Greenwood, Miss.. 
Benedict College Library, Columbia. S.C.. . 



194 



196 



191 
193 



256 



Architect 


Librarian 


Year 

COM- 
PLETED 


Cost 


Cubic 

FOOT 
CONTENTS 


Cost 

PER 
CU. FT. 


Parker, Thomas & Rice 

Frank P. Milburn & Co 

Col. W. L.Stevens 


M. Llewellyn Raney 

Louis R. Wilson 

Inez Mortland 

Sabra W. Vought 

Father Albert Biever 

Maj. T. W. Winston 

George T. Settle 

H. R. Mcllwaine 

E.W.Winkler 

EUzabeth Lee Bloomstein. 

Marcia C. Noyes 


1914 
1911* 

1903* 

1911* 

1911 
1909 

1907 
1895 
1888* 

1909* 

1874 
1912* 
1913 
1911* 

1909* 

1910* 

1914 
1904* 


$500,000 
848,000 

856,400 

$150,000 
854,000 

$274,900 
864,000 

840,000 
$12,000 

811,000 


273,700 

765,300 
185,000 

952,300 
572,100 
400,000 

37,000 


8.21 


De Buys, Churchill & Labouisse. 


$.20 
S?9 


Pilcher & Tachau 

W. M. Poindexter 


$.29 


E. C. Meyers 

Ludlow & Peabody 


$.11 


















W.A.Edwards 


T. VanHyning 

Effie Brinker 

Etta M. Roberts 

Lillian Gunter 

Mrs. W. R. Humphreys... 
M. Virginia Ashton 


8.10 


Charles W. Bates 

Wm. Albert Tackett 




Cleveland & Godfrey 


8.30 







CENTRAL STATES 



Harper Memorial Library, University of 

Chicago, Chicago, III. 
University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, 

Mich. ' 

Ohio State University Lib., Columbus, C. . 
University of Illinois Library, Urbana, III.. ' 
Purdue University Library, Lafayette, Ind.. 
University of Wisconsin Agricultural Hall 

Library, Madison, Wis. 
Wisconsin State Capitol Law Library. Madi- ' 

son. Wis. 
Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, 

Ind. 
Gary Public Library, Gary, Ind 

Evanston Public Library, Evanston. Ill 



Lincoln Hall, Uni\t-rsit\' of Illinois, Urbana, 
III. 

Hebrew Union College Lib.. Cincinnati, O.. 

Wisconsin State Historical Society. Madison, 
Wis. 

Ohio Mechanus Institute, Cincinnati, O . . . 

Akron Public Library, Akron, O 

Natural History Building, University of Illi- 
nois. Urbana, III. 

U. S. Naval Training Station, North Chi- 
cago, III. 

Transportation Building, University of Illi- 
nois. Urbana, III. 

Western College for Women, Oxford. Ohio 

Peoria Public Library. Peoria, III 

Appellate Court Library, Mt. Vernon. 111... 

Sault Ste. Marie Public Library, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Mich. 



164 
76 

172 
174 

247 

181 

14 

222 

78 
82 

97 



Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 



Albert Kahn, Architect of re- 
modeling 

Allen &Collens 

James M. White, Sup. Archt... . 

Patton & Miller 

Arthur Peabody 



George B. Post & Sons. . 
J. F. Alexander & Sons., 



H. D. Whitfield and J. Ver- 

plank. Associated Architects 
James Gamble Rogers and Chas. 

A. Phillips. 
James M. White, Supervising 

Architect 

A. Lincoln Fechheimer 

Ferry & Clas 

Samuel Hanaford & Sons 

Frank Weary 

James M. White, Super\'ising 

Architect 
Jarvis Hunt 

James M. White, Supervising 
Architect 

Yost & Packard 

Richardson & Salter 



J. C. Teague . 



Dr. Ernest D. Burton. 
Theodore W. Koch . . . , 



Olive Jones 

Phineas L. Windsor 

Wm. M. Hepburn 

Walter M. Smith.— C. S. 

Hean. Dept. Librarian 
Gilson G. Glazier 



Arthur Cunningham. 

Louis J. Bailey 

Mary B. Lindsay . . . . 
Phineas L. Windsor . 



Adolph S. Oko 

M. M. Quaife, Supt., 



John L. Shearer 

Mary Pauline Edgerton., 
Phineas L. Windsor. . . , , 



Rev. Frank Thompson. . . 
Phineas L. Windsor 



Grace E. Derby . . 

E. S. Willcox 

A. C. Millspaugh . 
AdahE. Shelly... 



1912 
1897 
1913 



1910 

1912* 

1908 

1911 

1912 
1900 

1909 
1902 
1896* 

1911 

1912 

1893 
1897* 
1854* 
1905 



8285,000 

^160,000 

S97,140 



S115.200 

S72,000 

$135,500 

§250.000 

$40,000 
$762,000 

8718,300 

$82,000 



$67,900 
$30,000 



1,360,000 


8.21 


714,000 


8.24 


426,600 


$.23 


568.000 


8.20 


297,200 


$.24 


383,000 


$.35 


1,106,200 


8.23 


140,000 


8.29 


2.628.600 


8.29 


3.637,500 


$.20 



WESTERN STATES 



University of Missouri Liby. .Columbia, Mo .... 

Multnomah County Public Library, Port- 204 

land, Ore. 

Sl Paul Public Library, St. Paul, Minn.... | 221 



James P. Jamieson 

Doyle, Patterson & Beach. 



Elc.tus D.Litchfield. 



Professor H. O. Severance 
Mary F. Isom 

Wm. Dawson Johnston . . . 



1915 


$200,000 


763.370 


8.26 


1913 


8450,000 


2.039.000 


$.22 


1915 









*o 


non-firepr 


oof constru 


ction 



[ 124 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 

WESTERN STATES-Continued 



BLIILniNG 



Denver Public Library. Denver, Colo | 208 

Arkansas State Capitol Law Library, Little ' 246 
Rock, Ark. , 

Supreme Court and Library Building, Salem, 
Ore. 

University of Oregon Library, Eugene, Ore. 
Washington University Medical School, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Sioux Cit> Public Library, Sioux City, Iowa 
Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar FalLs, 

Iowa 
Mercantile Library, St. Louis, Mo 

Iowa State University Law Building, Iowa 195 
City, Iowa 

Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhat- 
tan, Kan. 

Leland Stanford, Jr. L^niversity Library, 
Stanford University, Cal. 

Louis George Branch Library, Kansas City, 234 
Mo. 

School of Mines and Metallurgy, Rollo, Mo. 

University of Missouri, Biology Building, 
Columbia, Mo. 

South Dakota State College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts, Brookings, S. D. 

Coleraine Public Library, Coleraine, Minn. 

Wallace Public Library, Wallace, Idaho. . . . 

Academy of Idaho, Pocatello, Idaho 



Architect 



Albert Randolph Ross. 
Cass Gilbert 



Librarian 



Chalmers Hadley. . 
Peyton D. English. 



248 W. C. Knighton | Edna M. Hawley. 



W. C. Knighton... 
Theodore C. Link . 



Edward L. Tilton 

Proudfoot, Bird & Rawson. . . . 

Mauran & Russell, Architects of 

remodeling 
Proudfoot, Bird & Rawson 



Seymour Davis 

Chas Edward Hodges. 
Charles A. Smith 



M. H. Douglass 

Mrs. Helen Tiesler . 

Jeanette M. Drake. 
Ellen D. Briscoe .... 



Howe, Hoit & Cutler. 
James P. Jamieson, . . 



W. L. R. Gifford.. 
Merton L. Person. 
Arthur B. Smith .. 

Geo. T. Clark 

Purd B.Wright..., 
Jesse Cunningham., 



W. H. Powers. 



Geo. E. O'Connor. 
Julius P. Zeitel . . . 



Jessie B. Bollinger 

Mrs. A. R. Carpenter 

Gretchen Louise Smith. . . 



Year 




CuBfC 


Cost 


COM- 


Cost 


FOOT 


I'EI) 


PLETED 




rONTKNTh 


CU.FT 


1910 


1340,700 


805,000 


$.38 


1911 


J750.000 







1914 

1915 
1915 

1912 
1910 



1909 

1894* 

1900* 

1913 

1912 
1914 

1883 
1911 



1210,000 797,000 .«.26 
S30,000 100,300 s.:ii) 



832,400 



$75,000 I 348,900 | ,?.22 
$175,000 I 853,700 $.21 



$100,000 400,000 



123,400 



(.25 



$.26 



$100,000 577,043 .^.17 
181,500 



CANADA 



Legislative Library, Toronto, Ontario 244 

Provincial Library, Victoria, British 242 

Columbia 

Provincial Library, Edmonton. Alberta... 36 

Saskatchewan Legislative Library, Regina 

Sask. 

Bibliotheque St-Sulpice, Montreal, Quebec. | 198 

Toronto Public Reference Library, Toronto. 206 

Ont. 

Knox College Library, Toronto, Ont | 

McGill University Medical Lib., Montreal, ' ... 

Quebec 

Victoria College Library, Toronto, Ont .... ' 189 

Ottawa Public Library. Ottawa, Ont | 230 

Hamilton Public Library, Hamilton, Ont 

Calgary Public Library, Calgary, Alberta. . . 

Moose Jaw Public Lib., Moose Jaw, Sask.. | 226 

Regina Public Library, Regina, Sask 223 

Calgary Court House Law Library, Calgary, j .... 

Alberta 

Edmonton Court House Law Library, Ed- 

monton. Alberta 

Fort William Public Lib., Fort William, Ont. ! .... 

Tillsonburg Public Lib., Tillsonburg, Ont 



Geo. W. Gouinlock. 
F. M. Rattenbury... 



Avern Pardoe 

E. O. S. Scholefield , 



J. Chalmers, Structural Engineer 
Edward and W. S. Maxwell 

Eugene Payette 

Wickson & Gregg and A. H. 
Chapman 

Chapman & McGiffin 

Brown & Vallance j 

Sproatt & Rolph 

Edgar L. Horwood 

A. W. Peene 

MacLean & Wright and Hodg- 
son, Bates & Butler 

Reid & McAlpine 

Storey & Van Egmond 

Richard R. Blakey, Provincial 
Architect 

Richard R. Blakey, Provincial 
Architect 

Hood & Scott 

W. A. Mahoney 



John Blue. . . 
John Hawks 



Aegidius Fauteux. . 
Geo. H. Locke , . . . 



Rev. Edward Cockburn. 
Miss M. R. Charlton.. . 

A. E. Lang 

Wm. J. Sykes 

Adam Hunter 

Alexander Calhoun 



A. H.Gibbard 

J. R. C. Honeyman. 
Mrs. G. H. Norton. 



Lena Smith, L.L.A. . 
Miss. M.J. L. Black., 



1912 I $750,000 I 1.650,000 
1914 sBOII.onii 727,000 



1912 

1913 
1909 

1914 
1910 

1909* 
1906* 
1912 
1912* 

1913* 

1912 

1913 



1911 



$285,000 I 950,000 

$260,000 ' 1,092,200 

$500,000 ; 1,562,600 

$600,000 i 

$85,000 
$90,000 



S81..5IIO 
$50,000 



17.143 
365,600 



$100,000 265,784 



203,000 
225,000 



$.45 
8.68 



$.30 
$.24 



$.32 
$.35 



$.23 



t.38 



i.40 
f.23 



Library of Hawaii, Honolulu, T. H 

Philippines Library, Manila, P.I 

Dairen Public Library, Dairen, Manchuria. 

Bureau of Education, Manila, P. I 

Parliamentary Library, Wellington, New 

Zealand 
Sydney Public Library, Sidney, New South 

Wales 



FOREIGN 



Henry D. Whitfield.— H. L. Kerr, 
Supervising Architect 



John Campbell, Government 
Architect 



Miss. E.J. Allyn 

James A. Robertson, Dir. 
Frank R. White, Director. 

F. M.Bladen, F.R.G.S.. 



1913 



1913 I $104 



,400 



419,000 



$.25 



' Of non-fireproof construction. 



[ 125 ] 



LIBRARY BUILDINGS, PLANS 
AND INTERIORS 



MONUMENTAL LIBRARIES 

COLLEGE, SCHOOL AND SEMINARY LIBRARIES 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES 

PARLIAMENTARY AND STATE LIBRARIES 

SOCIETY AND INSTITUTE LIBRARIES 



All buildings illustrated have been equipped with Snead Stacks 



Owing to the necessity of limiting the size of this book, it has proved impracti- 
cable to illustrate more than a small part of the material available. Consequently 
some of the most important buildings have been omitted in order to show a 
variety of typical examples and to give representation to different localities. 



MONUMENTAL LIBRARIES 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Smithmeyer & Pelz and Edward P. Casey, Architects, Bernard R. Green, Engineer 

Herbert Putnam, Librarian 



AN ACT of Congress, passed April 15, 1886, 
authorized the construction of a Hbrary ■ 
building substantially according to the plan 
submitted by John L. Smithmeyer, with such 
modifications as might be found necessary or ad- 
vantageous. The original designs for the building 
were furnished by John L. Smithmeyer and Paul 
J. Pelz, and the architectural details were worked 
out by Paul J. Pelz and Edward P. Casey. 

The construction of the building was under the 
direction of a commission until October, 1888, when, 
before the foundations were laid, the commission 
was abolished by Congress and the work placed 
under the control of General Thomas L. Casey, 
the Chief of Engineers of the Army. He placed 
Bernard R. Green in charge as superintendent and 
engineer, who upon the death of General Casey, 
March 25, 1896, succeeded to full control until the 
building was completed February 28, 1897, at the 
cost, exclusive of the land, of $6,344,585.34. 

The building is approximately 470 feet by 340 
feet and had originally four inner courts 150 feet by 
75 feet to 100 feet, and it consists of cellar, basement, 
first, second and attic stories, with an octagonal 
dome rising 120 feet above the main roof. Later 
a ten-tier stack was constructed in the southeast 
court, the roof of this structure being carried 
directly on the steel frame of the stack. 

The central feature is the main reading room, 
100 feet in diameter, extending from the first floor 
to the inner dome, a distance of 125 feet and lighted 
through eight large arched windows in the clere- 
story. It has 210 desks, thirty-six alcove tables and 
can accommodate 250 readers at one time. In the 
alcoves are two tiers of metal shelving holding 
over 120,000 volumes. The distributing desk in 
the center of the reading room is connected with 
the three main stacks by pneumatic tubes and with 
the north and south stacks by mechanical book 
carriers. 

Each stack has nine "decks" or floors, each 



7 feet high. The dimensions and capacities of the 
stacks are as follows: 



Location 




Depth 


Length Height Volumes 
capacity 


North stack 




44'8" X 


llO'O'' X eS'O" 713,500 


South stack 




44'8" X 


110'0"x65'0" 713,500 


East stack 




44'8" X 


SO'O" X 65'0''' 173,000 


Southeast court 


stack 


74'0" X 


150'0" X SCO" 1,045,000 



Total capacity of four main stacks, 



2,645,000 



The Smithsonian room on the second floor is 
131 feet by 35 feet and has a book stack of three tiers 
provided with an electric elevator. The capacity 
of this stack is about 150,000 volumes. 

A three-tier stack has also been installed in 
the north curtain, second floor, for manuscripts and 
documents, the total capacity being 250,000 volumes. 
The westerly stacks in the first tier are enclosed 
with plate glass for greater security. 

In the attic are rooms for photography, repair 
of prints and manuscripts, storage, a public restau- 
rant, and a room containing a book stack of 80,000 
volumes capacity for the Slavic section. 

The music division occupies a portion of the 
north curtain in the basement story, with auxiliary 
bookstacks in the cellar directly below. It has a stor- 
age capacity of 12,840 feet of 13 inch deep shelving. 

Outside of the three main stacks the basement 
story contains the reading room for the blind, the 
departments of music and copyrights, a branch of 
the Government Printing OflSce, the offices of the 
superintendent, chief clerk and the watch, and the 
mail room which handles all material arriving at 
or dispatched from the library building, including 
all mail matter and books delivered for outside use. 

The building already contains over one hun- 
dred miles of shelving for books exclusive of that 
for prints, maps and charts. 

The cellar space is devoted to the machinery 
room, heating apparatus, workshops and storage. 
The boilers and coal vaults are located under the 
parking, near but quite outside the building, at the 
east front. 



[ 131 ] 




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3 



NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 



Carrere & Hastings, Architects 
John Shaw Billings, Late Director (deceased) 



Edwin H. Anderson, Director 



THE New York Public Library was founded 
on the 27th of May, 1895, by the consoh- 
dation of the Astor Library, the Lenox 
Library and the Tilden Trust. At that time a 
board of twenty-one trustees was elected from the 
boards of these three corporations, and provision 
was made for maintaining a free public library, with 
such branches as might be considered advisable. 

The site chosen for the main building was the 
eastern end of Bryant Park on Fifth Avenue, 
between 40th and 42nd Streets, then occupied by 
the old reservoir. In 1897 the City of New York 
agreed to erect a building which was to be admin- 
istered by the trustees, with certain restrictions as to 
time of opening and the maintenance of a circulating 
library. The city furnished both site and money 
for construction. 

On November 11, 1897, the architects for the 
new building were selected in competition. The 
removal of the reservoir was begun in June, 1899 
and on May 23, 1911, the building, completed at a 
cost of $9,466,566, was opened to the public. 

To the librarian the most interesting features of 
the plan are: First, the placing of the main reading 
room on the top floor at the rear, immediately above 
the main stack room, its floor being supported by 
the stack uprights. This gives a well lighted, well 
ventilated, quiet room conveniently located over the 
book "reservoir." Second, the arrangement and dis- 
tribution of special reading rooms in such a way as 
to make the books shelved there easily available for 
use in the main reading room, and to allow unre- 
stricted access to the books on the part of the investi- 
gators and special students. Third, the grouping of 
the administration rooms and offices on the south 
side of the building, leaving the east, north and 
west sides for reading rooms or storage of books. 

The building is in the form of a rectangle, 390 
feet front by 270 feet deep. The heights of the 
floors are as follows: cellar, 13 feet; basement, 15 
feet, first story, 22 feet 6 inches; second story, 16 
feet; third story, ceiling height 11 to 23 feet; main 



reading room, 50 feet. The heights of the base- 
ment, first and second stories were made multiples 
of the stack tier height, 7 feet 6 inches, in order 
that the first, third and fifth stack decks might line 
up with the main floors of the building. The area 
covered by the library, exclusive of the open south 
court, is 115,000 square feet and its cubic contents 
is 10,380,000 cubic feet. 

The material used is largely Vermont marble 
bonded in brick walls, steel beams with terra cotta 
arch floor construction, roof of copper and glass and 
window frames of bronze. 

The main bookstack occupies the larger part 
of the rear of the building and extends upward 
through the basement, first and second stories. It 
is 297 feet long, 78 feet wide, and is made up of 
seven tiers, each 7 feet 6 inches high, with deck 
floors of Ig inch marble. 

Each stack tier is divided into four quadrants 
designated as Northwest, Northeast, Southwest and 
Southeast. Each section consists of twenty-nine 
double-faced ranges, composed of ten compartments 
with six adjustable and one fixed shelf in each com- 
partment. Along the walls are compartments 24, 
26 and 30 inches deep, fitted with sliding shelves. 
In all the main stack contains 96,000 adjustable and 
16,000 fixed shelves, which placed end to end would 
extend a distance of 63.3 miles. The capacity of 
this big stack is about 3,000,000 volumes. In forty- 
three other rooms in the basement, first, second and 
third stories Snead bookstacks are provided with a 
combined capacity of 500,000 volumes, making the 
total stack capacity about 3,500,000 volumes. 

The main reading room is 76 feet by 295 feet, 
and accommodates about 800 readers. In the cen- 
ter is the delivery department having pneumatic 
tubes and four electric elevators connecting it with 
the different levels of the stack room below, while 
auxiliary elevators are placed at each end of the 
stack. A pneumatic tube service connects the main 
reading room with all rooms in which there are 
special collections. 



[ 139 ] 






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THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




m m m m # # a a 



2 lO ZO 30 40 SO „„^ 

6CALE .1 - ^ I I I rtn 



Fig. 156. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, NEW YORK CITY 



[ 150 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




6CALE, ^ 



zo ."io to so 



rtir 



Fig. 157. THIRD FLOOR PLAN, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, NEW YORK CITY 



[ 151 ] 




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THE HARRY ELKINS WIDENER MEMORIAL 
LIBRARY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Horace Trumbauer, Architect 



THE Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, 
completed during the year 1915, houses the 
principal book collection of Harvard Univer- 
sity, as well as the precious group of rare and won- 
derfully interesting books bi'ought together by Mr. 
Widener. It stands, in part, on precisely the same 
spot as old Gore Hall, a building which for seventy- 
five years sheltered the richest and most widely used 
collection of college books in America. The new 
building faces inward towards the college grounds, 
forming one side of a quadrangle, the other three 
sides of which are occupied by University buildings. 

From the rear of the entrance hall on the first 
floor, monumental stairs lead to the second floor 
which contains the main reading room overlooking 
the college grounds. This room, accommodating 
336 readers, is 192 feet by 40 feet and extends 43 
feet to the roof. The other three sides of the build- 
ing, however, contain a third floor of special collec- 
tion and seminar rooms which rest directly on and 
are carried by the bookstack below. The stack, ex- 
tending across the rear and along the greater part 
of both sides of the building, contains ten tiers with 
a total capacity of 2,206,000 volumes. Vertical deck 
slit construction with wide, fixed bottom shelves and 
protected openings is employed on all deck floors. 
The inconvenience and unsightly appearance of 
vents, ducts and pipes carried through the book- 
stack is eliminated by the provision of an open space 
of about three feet, between the first and second 
tiers, through which all these conductors are carried. 

The stack room is ventilated in a simple and 
economical manner by means of plenum fans forc- 
ing fresh, properly heated air into the basement and 
exhaust fans drawing the partially vitiated air out 
from the top. 

One of the distinguishing features of the stack 
is a row of stalls along each outside wall, each stall 
being well lighted and having comfortable room for 



William Coolidge Lane, Librarian 

a table and chair. The stack thus becomes practi- 
cally a working laboratory, with the best possible 
accommodations for individual and continuous work. 
A striking innovation is found in the provision of a 
large number of small study-rooms about 10 feet by 
12 feet, or 12 feet by 15 feet for the private use of 
professors and others. These are provided in five 
tiers. Although these study-rooms open into the 
stack, some of them are separated from it by a 
screen, thus allowing students and visitors access to 
the rooms, without passing through the stack proper. 

Other studies are provided in different parts of 
the building, the total number being seventy-four. 
The upper floor contains fourteen studies, nineteen 
rooms to be used for special libraries and seminars, 
a photographing room, the Library's collection of 
maps and manuscripts and many of the special col- 
lections, such as the Classical Library and the Child 
Memorial Library, which were formerly in other 
buildings. The building contains thirty-six miscel- 
laneous rooms equipped with Snead Steel Shelving. 

As the center of the building was reserved for 
the Widener books, the delivery room was placed 
to one side. This was deemed permissible since, in 
a college library, the greater part of the students 
find the books necessary for daily work in the read- 
ing room, while advanced students and officers have 
direct access to the shelves and in most cases prefer 
to look up their own books and work in the stack 
rather than to call for books at the delivery desk. 
These conditions greatly reduce the proportion of 
books issued from the desk. The giouping of the 
reading room, reference books, card catalog and 
delivery desk, all in close juxtaposition, but separate 
one from another, is a great advantage. 

Ease of communication between the different 
floors and departments is facilitated by telephones, 
pneumatic tubes, book lifts, book conveyors and 
passenger elevators. 



[ 153 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 159. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN, WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



[ 154 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



^^^^^'3[^^^^^(i <q^r^^f 





Fig. 160. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN, WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



[ 155 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKST^INC. 




Z 10 10 iO -W 50' 



Fig. 161. SECOND FLOOR PLAN, WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



[ 156 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 162. THIRD FLOOR PLAN, WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



[ 157 ] 




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COLLEGE, SCHOOL AND 
SEMINARY LIBRARIES 

GILMAN HALL, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

HARPER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, CHICAGO UNIVERSITY 

UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

KENT HALL, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ANDOVER-HARVARD THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

PURDUE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

ST. CHARLES THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

LINCOLN HALL, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

IOWA STATE TEACHERS' COLLEGE 

KRAUTH MEMORIAL LIBRARY, MT. AIRY, PA. 

INDIANA STATE NORMAL SCHOOL LIBRARY 

HEBREW UNION COLLEGE LIBRARY 

.JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

WELLS COLLEGE LIBRARY 

ST. ELIZABETH'S COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DROPSIE COLLEGE LIBRARY 

WILLIAMS MEMORIAL LIBRARY, TRINITY COLLEGE 

DAVIS LIBRARY, PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY 

VICTORIA COLLEGE LIBRARY, TORONTO 

SCHAUFFLER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, MOUNT HERMON, MASS. 

LOYOLA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

VAN WICKLE MEMORIAL LIBRARY, LAFAYETTE COLLEGE 

COAST ARTILLERY TRAINING SCHOOL LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA LIBRARY 

IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY LAW LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE LIBRARY 




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GILMAN HALL, BALTIMORE, MD. 
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects 

GILMAN HALL, the new fireproof library 
of the Johns Hopkins University, was com- 
pleted during the year 1914, at a total cost 
of about .*;6()(),000. It is the first of the major build- 
ings to be erected at Homewood, where all depart- 
ments of the University, except the Medical School, 
are to move. 

Oilman Hall is the crown of the campus- 
marked so by its place at the head of the main 
quadrangle, by its architectural distinction, espe- 
cially due to the portico and clock tower which rises 
to a height of 120 feet, by its size and by its function. 
The arrangement of the building is noteworthy be- 
cause of the organization of the stack as a series of 
departmental libraries, planned in the first instance 
by the librarian who served as a secretary of the 
faculty committee of five entrusted with the prepar- 
ation of a program. After adoption by the com- 
mittee and acceptance with minor adjustments, on 
the part of the faculty, it was elaborated by the 
architects. 

The plan grew out of the unique library tradi- 
tion of the University. Heretofore the library had 
not had a stack, but consisted of a group of depart- 
mental collections, each shelved in a separate room 
or suite of rooms. The problem was to preserve to 
faculty and students that immediate contact with all 
the material of a subject, so important to work of 
research, and yet secure the convenience of the in- 
evitable stack. This was essentially accomplished 
by putting the offices and seminar rooms of a depart- 
ment on one side of a corridor, and on the other 
the stack with accommodations therein for graduate 
students. The building floors correspond to alter- 
nate deck floors of the stack and in two tiers, con- 
tained between one floor and the next, are stored 
books of the subject pursued by the department 
across the corridor at that level. In the stack a space 
fifteen feet wide is left between ends of ranges and 
the prismatic glass windows. Terrazzo floors, sur- 



Dr. M. Llewellyn Raney, Librarian 

faced with cork or linoleum, are laid at building 
floor levels, and here are tables, chairs and individual 
lights for graduate students. To complete the de- 
partmental organization of the stack, deck-slits at 
building-floor levels are closed and forced ventilation 
is provided. 

Nor is this all. Kindred departments can be 
brought to the same floor for there are two such 
stack systems, set sixty feet apart. The room which 
ties them together on each floor is the seat of library 
service and control, with departmental librarian, 
branch catalog, current journals, new, reserved and 
reference books, etc. 

The stacks will ultimately contain nine tiers, 
each consisting of thirteen ranges, 21 feet long. At 
present, however, only tiers 3 to 8 inclusive are 
equipped. These have nearly ten miles of shelving, 
accommodating about 450,000 volumes. Approxi- 
mately 300 graduate students can find accommoda- 
tions in the stacks and their adjacent reference 
rooms. The rooms across the front and rear pro- 
vide quarters for undergraduate instruction but are 
intended for future expansion of graduate work and 
library administration. 

The reading room occupies a complete floor in 
the rear, being reached from both lateral corridors 
as well as through an ornate enclosed bridge span- 
ning the court. It has over 6,000 square feet of 
floor space, and an abundance of natural light coming 
from four sides and the top. Artificial illumination 
is operated under the indirect system. The floor is 
covered with inlaid cork. The radiators are re- 
cessed and send their heat through horizontal grilles 
in the window sills. Around the walls is an unbro- 
ken line of shelving which will hold about 15,000 vol- 
umes and 300 current journals. The room opens in- 
to both stacks at the fifth tier, i.e., midway vertically. 

As for control, one desk attendant in the read- 
ing room at night can throw open all shelves and 
still have command. In the day, three suffice. 



[ 161 ] 




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THE HARPER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, 
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 



Shepley, Rutan & CooLiDGE, Architects 

FROM 1892 to 1902 the General Library of 
the University of Chicago was housed in a 
temporary one-story brick building. In 1902 
the library moved into the new Press Building, and 
in the same year the first active steps were taken 
toward the erection of a permanent central library 
building. The committee appointed for the purpose 
recommended that the library building be made the 
central member of a group of nine buildings which 
should include the Divinity School, Law School, 
Historical and Social Science group, Philosophy 
group. Classical group. Modern Language group 
and the Oriental group, each to contain a depart- 
mental library, so constructed as to have the read- 
ing rooms of each at approximately the same level 
with the reading room of the central building. 

Mr. John D. Rockefeller promised to give, up 
to $800,000, three-fourths of whatever amount 
should be raised for the erection of a central library 
building as a memorial to Dr. Wm. Rainey Harper, 
first President of the University. Over $200,000 
was raised in subscriptions. The above sums with 
interest which accrued before and during the pro- 
cess of building, somewhat exceeded one million 
dollars. Of this sum approximately $800,000 was 
spent upon the building and its furniture, and over 
$200,000 set aside as an endowment fund for the 
physical maintenance of the building. Ground was 
broken on January 10, 1910, the corner-stone laid 
June 14, 1910, and the building completed in June, 
1912. 

The main reading-room is on the third floor of 
the middle section of the Harper Library. Adjoin- 
ing it in the west tower is the public catalog and 
general delivery room. From this floor bridges lead 
immediately to the libraries in the Haskell Oriental 
Museum and the Law Building. Eventually there 
will also be immediate communication with the read- 
ing rooms of the other buildings of the group, which 
still remain to be built. The general administrative 



Dr. Ernest D. Burton, Director 

offices and working rooms of the libraries are on 
the second floor. Other offices and rooms for spe- 
cial collections are provided in the fourth, fifth and 
sixth stories of the two towers. 

The bookstacks rest directly on the basement 
floor and are carried independently of the building. 
The first floor, with the exception of the east tower 
stack, is temporarily given up to classrooms and a 
suite of offices for the president of the university. 
Eventually the partitions of this space and those 
of the floor above will be removed and the stack ex- 
tended from below, increasing the present capacity 
of about 525,200 volumes to over 1,000,000 volumes. 
The basement stack is so designed that when the ad- 
ditional stack tiers are added in the first and second 
stories the weight will be carried through the base- 
ment stack to the basement floor and not on the 
main first floor. 

In the building there are 81 rooms providing 
accommodations for over six hundred readers and 
office space for about 50 members of the staff and 
faculties. A passenger elevator and two stairways 
extend the entire height of each tower. Electric 
book-lifts in both towers run from lower basement 
to the sixth floor. Pneumatic tubes for the convey- 
ance of book orders and charging cards connect 
I various parts of the building. Speaking tubes and 
telephones facilitate communication. 

The center court, bounded on the south by the 
library building; on the east by the Law School, and 
on the west by the Haskell Oriental Museum, will be 
known as the Harper Court, and eventually, it is 
expected, there will stand in the center of it a bronze 
I statue of President Harper. 

In the stone carvings, both exterior and interior, 
in addition to the traditional designs characteristic 
of Gothic architecture, much use has been made of 
the coats of arms of European, American and Asiatic 
universities, and of the individual marks of the most 
famous European printers. 



[ 165 




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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 172. 



HARPER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 
Basement tier of Snead Standard Stack showing side switclies on end shelf supports. 




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THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 179. 

OHIO STATE 

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

COLUMBUS, O. 

Allen & Collens, Architects 
Miss Olive Jones, Librarian 



Fig. 180. VIEW IN SEVEN-TIER 
SNEAD STANDARD STACK 



Several shelf compartments have 
been temporarily omitted to make 
room for study tables near win- 
dows. Along the center 3-foot 
aisle, partition shelf supports have 
been used instead of range fronts 
so that adjustable shelves can later 
be placed across the aisle to in- 
crease the stack capacity. In the 
basement tier, structural steel col- 
umns have been installed to sup- 
port the six-tier stack above. See 
Fig. 118, page 82. The columns 
are designed so that, at some fu- 
ture time, shelf supports and 
shelves can be easily attached. 
Space is left above the stack to 
allow the installation of a future 
eighth tier. 



VIEW FROM THE CAMPUS 




[ 172 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING. BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 181. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 182. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, COLUMBUS, O. 



The small stack adjoining the main stack room was designed for the storage of bound newspapers and 

periodicals. Story heights of the building are in even multiples of the stack tier heights so that the main 

floors line up with certain of the stack deck floors. 



[ 173 ] 



THE S^EAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 183. 



VIEW OF EXTERIOR 




Fig. 181, 



MAIN READING ROOIM 
PURDUE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, LAFAYETTE, IND. 



Patton & Miller, Architects 

"Direct-indirect" system of illumination used throughout the build^''"'' "' ""'"'''' '^''™''"" 



[ 174 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 185. 



ma:in floor plan 




Fig. 186. 



g:round floor plan 



PURDUE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, LAFAYETTE, IND. 
Stack room contains a three -tier Snead Standard Stack; third tier on a level with main 
floor of building. Provision has been made for two additional tiers above present stack. 



[ 175 ] 




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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. ISS. 



INTERIOR OF LIIBRAIRY 




Fig, 189. 



M'AIN FLOOR PLAN OF LIBRARY WING 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF ST. CHARLES BORROMEO, OVERBROOK, PA. 

The library contains a one -tier Snead Standard Stack which has a capacity of 103,300 volumes. Solid 
paneled design range fronts have been supplied and the bottom fixed shelf in each range has been 
extended to accommodate oversize books. Provision has been, made for the addition of a future tier 
above and the stack is fitted with a removable cornice which may be reset on the future second tier. 
The electric conduits are carried directly on the stack cover plates. See Fig. 127. When the stack is 
extended, the conduits will be disconnected at the walls and raised to a new level above the second 

tier, no alterations being necessary. 



[ 177 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 







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y U A U R A N G L E FRONT 




^CALE III 1 '?! 1^ IIJ ' » ^> 
Fig. 191 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



LINCOLN HALL, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILL 
Ja.mks M. White, Supervising Architect ' r, t T,r 

Fhineas L. Windsor, Librarian 

l7f jZiZttTl" " seminar and special study rooms. Those in the seminar rooms are designed to receive future second 

tiers. The building, known as a laboratory of the intellectual sciences," has its library divided and placed in separate rooms 

or series of rooms so that each becomes a working laboratory for a special department, containing books, documents, maps 

photographs, slides, busts and other material relative to the subjects treated. 



[ 178 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING. BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




3 10 13 ZD 7i t 



Fig. 193. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



IOWA STATE TEACHERS' COLLEGE, CEDAR FALLS, IOWA 
Proudfoot, Bird & Rawson, Architects Miss Ellen D. Briscoe, Librarian 



[ 179 ] 




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Fig. 202. 



VIEW FROM THE CAMPU.S 



Fig. 203. 




VIEW IN FIRST TIER OF STACK ROOM 



FRANCES FOLSOM CLEVELAND LIBRARY, WELLS COLLEGE, AURORA N Y 
Beverly S, King and Harry Leslie Walker ' Miss Alice' E. Sanborn 

Associated Architects r -i 

ijiljranan 

Funds for the purchase of this stack were raised by individual and group donations. The opposite ends of the 
ranges illustrated above contain tablets marking the separate sections purchased by the respective donors. 



[ 184 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 204. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 205. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 

FRANCES FOLSOM CLEVELAND LIBRARY, WELLS COLLEGE, AURORA, N. Y. 



[ 185 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 206. ST. ELIZABETH'S COLLEGE LIBRARY, CONVENT STATION, N. J. 

Maginnis & Walsh, Architects Sister Marie Elise, Librarian 



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Fig. 207. DROPSIE COLLEGE LIBRARY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

PiLCHER & Tachau, Architects D^ Cyrus Adler, Librarian 

Building designed to house several departments at present, but provision has been made so that it may ultimately be used for 

library purposes only. 



[ 186 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 















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SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 209. FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

WILLIAMS MEMORIAL LIBRARY, TRINITY COLLEGE, HARTFORD, CONN. 
La Farge & Morris, Architects Walter B. Briggs, Librarian 



[ 187 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 210. 



EXTERIOR VIEW 




Fig. 211. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



DAVIS LIBRARY, PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY, EXETER, N. H. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects Miss Mabel Cilley, Librarian 

On the ground floor are two rooms being used as study rooms. These will later be put to 
library use. A cataloging room, stack room and toilets are also contained on this floor. 



[ 188 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 212. 



VIEW FROM CAMPUS 




Fig. 213. 



GROUND FLOOR PLAN 



VICTORIA COLLEGE LIBRARY, TORONTO, ONTARIO 
Sproatt & RoLPH, Architects A. E. Lang, Librarian 

Upper story contains two large seminar rooms and several small rooms for research work. 
Basement contains offices, book bureau, receiving room, caretaker's quarters, attendant's room, 
cloak room, lavatories, boiler room and storage space. Stack room entirely fireproof ; stone 

interior walls and steel sash. 



[ 189 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




FiK. 214. 



EXTERIOR VIEW 




Vm.-liT,. I'IRST FLOOR PLAiX 

SCHAUFFLER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, MOUNT HERMON, MASS. 
Pauish & ScHROEDER, Architects Mis.s Elizabeth Conway, Librarian 



[ 190 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 216. 



EXTERIOR VIEW 




Fig. 217. TWO-TIER SNEAD STANDARD STACK, GOTHIC DETAIL 

LOYOLA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 
De Buys, Churchill & Labouisse, Architects Father Albert Biever, Librarian 



[ 191 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 2r). 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



VAN WICKLE MEMORIAL LIBRARY, LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, EASTON, PA. 
Harris & Richards, Architects John C. Stonecipher, Librarian 

When the new bookstack wing was added, the two-tier bracket stack contained in the old building, 
being too weak to support further construction, wtis reset as a single tier above a two-tier Snead 

Standard Stack. 



[ 192 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 220. 



K R O i\ T E L E \ A T I O N 




F,g. 221. FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

COAST ARTILLERY TRAINING SCHOOL, FORT MONROE, VA. 
Francis B. Wheaton, Architect 



Major T. W. Winston, Librarian 



[ 193 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




VIEW FROM CAMPUS 



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Fig. 223. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA LIBRARY, CHAPEL HILL, N. C. 
Frank P. Milburn & Co. Architects 



Louis R. Wilson, Librarian 



[ 194 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 224. 



MAIN READING ROOM 




Fig. 225. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY LAW LIBRARY, IOWA CITY, lA. 
Proudfoot, Bird & Rawson, Architects Merton L. Person, Librarian 

Snead Standard Stack ranges with removable steel cornices form alcoves along the sides of the reading 
room giving students direct access to the books. The stack is designed to receive a mezzanine floor when 
an extension of capacity is required. When this addition is made, the cornices of the first tier ranges will 

be reset on those of the second tier. 



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PUBLIC LIBRARIES 

BIBLIOTHEQUE ST-SULPICE, MONTREAL 

FALL RIVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS 

MULTNOMAH COUNTY, PORTLAND, OREGON 

TORONTO, ONTARIO 

DENVER, COLORADO 

BROOKLINE, MASSACHUSETTS 

BEVERLY, MASSACHUSETTS 

GARY, INDIANA 

LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 

WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

MANCHESTER, NEW HAMPSHIRE 

NEW ROCHELLE, NEW YORK 

ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY 

ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA 

EVANSTON, ILLINOIS 

REGINA, SASKATCHEWAN 

FERGUSON MEMORIAL, STAMFORD, CONN. 

SOMERVILLE, MASSACHUSETTS 

MOOSE JAW, SASKATCHEWAN 

LIBRARY OF HAWAII, HONOLULU 

BANGOR, MAINE 

MASON LIBRARY, GREAT BARRINGTON, MASS. 

OTTAWA, ONTARIO 

WILLIAMSBURG BRANCH, BROOKLYN, N, Y. 

PACIFIC BRANCH, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

CARROLL PARK BRANCH, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

LOUIS GEORGE BRANCH, KANSAS CITY, MO. 

SOUTHBORO, MASSACHUSETTS 

PROCTOR, VERMONT 

WHITINSVILLE, MASSACHUSETTS 

NEWTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA 

SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 




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Fig.:231. 



TRAXSX'ERSE SECTION 



riRST TLGDE 




Fig. 232 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION 
BIBLIOTHEQUE ST-SULPICE, MONTREAL, QUEBEC 



[ 200 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 233. 



ENTRANCE V 1 E V\' 




Fig. 234. 



MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



FALL RIVER PUBLIC LIBRARY, FALL RIVER, MASS. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects Geo. W. Rankin, Librarian 

The stack room, originally designed *to accommodate six stack tiers, has been gradually filled up with 
Snead Standard Stack by adding one tier at a time. 



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FIRST FLOOR FLAN 




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Fig, 239. 



BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



SPRINGFIELD CITY LIBRARY, SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

On the second floor, just above the entrance hall, is located a fireproof vault in which valuable books and papers may be stored. 

To the left of this are the medical library and study, and rooms for administration and cataloging. To the right are a large lecture 

hall and a map room. An exhibition room occupies the rear of the building on this floor. 



[ 203 




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Fig. 244. 



TORONTO PUBLIC REFERENCE LIBRARY, TORONTO, ONTARIO 



The absence of corridors and the grouping of the several departments has developed a plan with practically no waste space. 

The delivery room, in direct communication with every other room on the first floor, is so located as to allow complete control 

from this one central point; and the stack room setting free on three sides, affords an opportunity for extensive expansion. 



[ 207 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 246. 



BOOKSTACK AND DELIVERY DESK 
DENVER PUBLIC LIBRARY, DENVER, COLO. 



Albert Randolph Ross, Architect 



Chalmers Hadley, Librarian 



[ 208 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 247. 



• • • • 

SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 248. 



F.IRST FLOOR PLAN 
DENVER PUBLIC LIBRARY, DENVER, COLO. 



[ 209 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




FiK. 249. 



V I E W F K () M S T R E E T 




Fig. 250. 



R. Clipston Stl'rgis, Architect 



VIEW OF DELIVERY ROOM 
BROOKLINE PUBLIC LIBRARY, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

Miss Louisa M. Hooper, Librarian 



[ 210 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 251. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 252. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 

BROOKLINE PUBLIC LIBRARY, BROOKLINE, MASS. 
The reading room floor is carried by the two-tier Snead Standard Staci< in the basement. 



[ 211 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 253. 



ENTRANCE VIEW 




Fig. 254. 



VIEW IN SECOND STACK TIER 



BEVERLY PUBLIC LIBRARY, BEVERLY, MASS. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect Miss Martha P. Smith, Librarian 

The view in the bookstack shows marble deck floors, double-paneled range fronts, and lift 
enclosure with steel ledge and wire mesh panels. 



[ 212 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 255. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 256. MAIN FLOOR PLAN 

BEVERLY PUBLIC LIBRARY, BEVERLY, MASS. 

The building has been planned to allow extension of the stack, not only by adding tiers, but also by 
increasing the number of ranges in each tier by extending to the rear. 



[ 213 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 257. 



ENTRANCE VIEW 




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Fig. 258. 



VIEW IN TOP TIER OF STACK ROOM 



GARY PUBLIC LIBRARY, GARY, IND. 



H. D. Whitfield, Architect 



Louis J. Bailky, Librarian 



The floor of the reading room, directly above the stack room, is carried by the shelf supports of the 

Snead Standard Stack. 



[ 214 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 259. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 







Fig. 260. 



BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 
GARY PUBLIC LIBRARY, GARY, IND. 



Gary has been growing so rapidly that the Carnegie appropriation was increased before the library building 
was commenced. Future expansion of the building is planned by adding new wmgs at each end. 



[ 215 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 261. 




Fig. 262. FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



LOUISVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARY, LOUISVILLE, KY. 



PiLCHER & Tachau, Architects 



George T. Settle, Librarian 



On the second floor are located children's, class, study and art rooms; the third story contains a museum. Clerestory windows 

light the two upper tiers of the stack room. In the basement are janitor's and service rooms, a lecture hall and a newspaper 

and public documents room. The electric switches in the stack room control the lights under the glass floors of each tier. 



[ 216 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 263. 



ENTRANCE VIEW 




1 — ip'^^f pn 




iCALE 



Fig. 264. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN ' 
PUBLIC LIBRARY, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



George F. Bowerman, Librarian 



Albert Randolph Ross, Architect 

A large Memorial Hall occupies the central space in the second story; the left wing contains a lecture hall and the right wing is 

used for newspapers and periodicals. This story also contains the upper part of the stack, trustees' room and several study rooms. 



[ 217 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 265. 



VIEW OF EXTERIOR DURING CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 266. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MANCHESTER PUBLIC LIBRARY, MANCHESTER, N. H. 
Edward L. Tilton, Architect Miss F. Mabel Winchell, Librarian 

The stack room, extending through the basement and first stories, is open to the readers. 



[ 218 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 267. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




SCALE 
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Fig. 268. FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

NEW ROCHELLE PUBLIC LIBRARY, NEW ROCHELLE, N. Y. 

Albert Randolph Ross, Architect Miss Jessie Brainerd, Librarian 

The stack room forms the central feature about which the other rooms have been planned. 



[ 219 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 270. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



ELIZABETH PUBLIC LIBRARY, ELIZABETH, N. J. 
Edward L. Tilton, Architect Chas. A. George, Librarian 

The four-tier Snead Standard Stack supports the floor of the medical library above. The 

basement story contains the lower part of stack, lecture room, staff room, work and store 

rooms. On the second floor are executive and administrative offices, cataloging, special 

study and exhibition rooms, and six rooms for special collections. 



[ 220 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 271. 



REPRODUCTION FROM ARCHITECT'. S PERSPECTIVE 
Building in course of construction, 1911. 




Fig. 272. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MR. JAS. J. HILL'S REFERENCE LIBRARY AND ST. PAUL PUBLIC LIBRARY, ST. PAUL, MINN. 
Electus D. Litchfield, Architect W. Dawson Johnston, Librarian 

Although under one roof, these libraries are, in effect, separate institutions and will be administered as such. While Mr. Hill's 
Library will contain a private collection and will be supported by him, it is understood that it will be free to public use. This 
library will consist, in the main, of one great room with three tiers of galleries. The St. Paul Public Library will contain, besides 
those rooms usually required, a children's auditorium, a binding and printing department, a room for the blind, a kitchen, lunch 
and sitting room for the staff, and a staff class room with studies adjoining. A feature of the plan is the direct communication 
between departments and the absence of wasteful hall space. This is the last building on which the late Charles C. Soule acted 

in an advisory capacity. 



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Fig. 277. 



EXTERIOR VIE\¥ 




Fig. 278. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAX 



FERGUSON MEMORIAL LIBRARY, STAMFORD, CONN. 

Tracy, Swartwout & Litchfield, Architects Miss Alice M. Colt, Librarian 

On the second floor are located a small exhibition hall and a general reference room. 



[ 224 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 279. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 280. 



BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



SOMERVILLE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 
Edward L. Tilton, Architect Drew B. Hall, Librarian 

The two-tier Snead Standard Stack, carrying the delivery room floor above, occupies the center of 
the basement story, which space could be put to no other use owing to its lack of direct natural 
light. Note that the main floor consists of but one great room, with glass partitions in one corner, 

enclosing the librarian's offices. 



[ 225 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



AM /m. 




Fig. 281. 



ENTRANCE VIEW 




Fig. 282. FIRST STACK TIER 

MOOSE JAW PUBLIC LIBRARY, MOOSE JAW, SASK. 
Reid & McAlpine, Architects A. H. Gibbard, Librarian 



[ 226 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 283. 



FRONT VIEW 




Fig. 284. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



LIBRARY OF HAWAII, HONOLULU, T. H. 
Henry D. Whitfield, Architect Miss E. J. Allyn, Librarian 

The two-tier Snead Standard Stack supports the "lanai" or open air reading room above. Second story 
contains an auditorium, Hawaii Historical Society room, club room and a children's story room. 



[ 227 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 286. 

MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



BANGOR PUBLIC LIBRARY, BANGOR, ME. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects Chas. A. Flagg, Librarian 

Stack room designed to accommodate four tiers of stack. At the outset only the second tier, as seen 

above, was installed over the bare steel columns of the first tier. Later the central portion of the 

first tier was equipped with shelf supports and shelves. 



[ 228 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 288. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MASON LIBRARY, GREAT BARRINGTON, MASS. 
Blanchard & Barnes, Architects Miss Emma W. Sheldon, Librarian 

The single tier of Snead Standard Stack, with solid paneled range fronts, has a remov- 
able steel cornice so that a second tier may be conveniently installed when required. 



[ 229 ] 






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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 291. 



FRONT VIEW OF EXTERIOR 




Fig. 292. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 
WILLIAMSBURG BRANCH LIBRARY, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



Frank P. Hill, Librarian 



Walker & Morris, Architects 

This is the largest of the Brooklyn branches of the Carnegie library system. The delivery desk forms a focal point from which 
the librarian has absolute supervision, including even the radial aisles in the two-tier stack. The change of axis gives a distinct 
separation between the children's and the reading rooms. The basement contains a lecture hall with stage, anterooms and toilet 
under the reading room; work and storage rooms under the children's room; and toilets, boiler room, and fan under the stack. 



[ 231 ] 




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Fig. 296. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



CARROLL PARK BRANCH LIBRARY, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Wm. B. Tubby & Bro., Architects Frank P. Hill, Librarian 

Directly under the stack room and delivery desk, is located a stage and auditorium 

with direct access to the street. To the left are three large study rooms and to 

the right a staff room, work room, janitor's quarters, and lavatories. 



[ 233 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 297. 



VIEW OF EXTERIOR 







Fig. 29X. 



STACK AND READING ROOM 



LOUIS GEORGE BRANCH LIBRARY, KANSAS CITY, MO. 
Chas. A. Smith, Architect ' □ d ur 

f. a. Wright, Librarian 

The open shelf principle is here fully developed as the stack room is entirely open to the readers and forms the 

principal architectural feature of the interior. 



[ 234 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 299, 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



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BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 
LOUIS GEORGE BRANCH LIBRARY, KANSAS CITY, MO. 
Note that the assembly roo:n in the basement ^^^^e reached tWgh a sid^^^ 
directly from the street, without passmg through the hbrary proper. 



[ 235 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 301. 






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FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SOUTHBORO PUBLIC LIBRARY, SOUTHBORO, MASS. 
Alfred Cookman Cass, Architect Miss Francena E. Buck, Librarian 

Basement floor contains stack room, public documents and unpacking rooms, boiler 
room and storage space. 



[ 236 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING^ BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 303. 



ENTRANCE VIEW 




Fig. 304, 



DELIVERY ROOM, WITH STACK AT LEFT 
PROCTOR PUBLIC LIBRARY, PROCTOR, VT. 



Harry Leslie Walker, Architect Mary K. Norton, Librarian 

The stack room, placed directly opposite the entrance, contains a two-tier Snead Standard Stack with colonial design range fronts. 



[ 237 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. r.05. 




Fig. 306. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



WHITINSVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARY, WHITINSVILLE, MASS. 
R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect Mrs. W. H. Fullrr, Librarian 

The two-tier Snead Standard Stack is contained in the basement and first stories and 

carries the roof above it. Besides the boiler and storage rooms, the basement also 

contains a bindery, an unpacking and branch room and a large working space. 



[ 238 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 307. 



VIEW OF EXTERIOR 




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Fig. 



MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



NEWTOWN PUBLIC LIBRARY, NEWTOWN, PA. 
Henry L. Reinhold, Jr., Architect W. E. Martindale, Librarian 

This shows a typical plan for a small town library. The floor space has been 
divided into three units: stack room, general reading room and children's reading 
room, arranged in such manner as to allow supervision by a single attendant. 
Provision has been made for the addition of another tier of Snead Standard Stack. 



[ 239 ] 




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PARLIAMENTARY 
AND STATE LIBRARIES 

BRITISH COLUMBIA PARLIAMENTARY LIBRARY 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE LIBRARY 

ARKANSAS STATE CAPITOL 

WISCONSIN STATE CAPITOL 

SUPREME COURT LIBRARY, SALEM, OREGON 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig 313 BASEMENT FLOOR OF LIBRARY WING SHOWING FIRST 

TIER OF SNEAD STANDARD STACK 

BRITISH COLUMBIA PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, VICTORIA, B. C. 



[ 243 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 





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Fig. 315. 



VIEW FROM QUEEN'S PARK. SHOWING NEW LIBRARY W^NG 




Fig. 316. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN OF LIBRARY WING 



ONTARIO PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, TORONTO. ONTARIO 
George W. Gouinlock, Architect Avern Pardoe, Librarian 

This wing was designed to allow the addition of future stories above. The third and fourth 
stories are devoted to library purposes, the administration offices being placed in the third 
story on a level with the legislative rooms of the main building. Each of the two stories con- 
tains a two-tier Snead Standard Stack occupying the center of the floor space, while the space 
adjoining the windows is devoted to work and study rooms. 



[ 2U ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 317. 



VIEW IN LIBRARIAN'S OFFICE 

The single-faced, paneled back counter with shelving, opening on opposite side, the standing desk and the 

Unit System wall shelving with ledge, are all of Snead manufacture. 




Fig. .318. 



GENERAL VIEW OF BOOKSTACK. THIRD FLOOR 



A double-faced Snead Newspaper Counter entirely surrounds the stack, serving the triple purpose of a railing, 
a convenient storage space for bound newspaper volumes, and a long consulting table. 

ONTARIO PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, TORONTO, ONT. 



[ 245 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 




Fig. 319. 



\IE\V OF EXTERIOR 




Fig. 32(1. 



SUPREME COURT LIBRARY ROOM 
ARKANSAS STATE CAPITOL, LITTLE ROCK, ARK. 



C.\ss GiLHERT, Architect 



Peyton D. English, Librarian 



A three-tier Snead Standard Stack is installed along two side walls, with a spiral stairway and con- 
necting galleries. This arrangement shows how a stack room can be combined with a reading room 

so as to give direct access to all books. 



[ 246 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 321. 



VIEW DURING CONSTRUCTION 




Fig. 322. 



UNIT SYSTEM SNEAD STANDARD STACK IN LIBRARY 
WISCONSIN STATE CAPITOL, MADISON, WIS. 



Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects 



GiLSON G. Glazier, Librarian 



The Hbrary contains a Unit System Snead Standard Stack with solid paneled range fronts, ornamental card 
frames, steel base and cast iron cornice. It is planned to move the library into another wing as soon as the 
building is completed, altering the length of stack ranges where necessary to conform to the new conditions. 



[ 247 J 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 



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Fig. 323. 



VIEW OF EXTERIOR 



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Fig. 324. LIBRARY FLOOR PLAN, SECOND STORY 

SUPREME COURT AND LIBRARY BUILDING, SALEM, ORE. 
W. ('. Knighton, Architect Miss Edna M. Hawley, Librarian 

The library consists of one room with reading space in the center and a two-tier Snead Standard Stack 
on either side. This allows readers to work among the books and gives a spacious architectural effect. 



[ 24.S ] 



SOCIETY AND 
INSTITUTE LIBRARIES 

NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

RHODE ISLAND MEDICAL SOCIETY 

BOSTON ATHENAEUM 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 

PHIPPS PSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTE 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION BUILDING 

MEDICAL AND CHIRURGICAL FACULTY OF MARYLAND 




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Fig. 326. HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA, E. L. Stevenson, Secretary 

AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY, Bauman L. Belden, Director 
Charles P. Huntington, Architect n^vv York City 




Fig. .327. AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, NEW YORK CITY 

Charles P. Huntington, Architect D. Randall MacIver, Librarian 

The three buildings illustrated on this page form a group on upper Broadway and 156th Street. They 

were erected with funds given by Mr. Archer M. Huntington. Snead Standard Stacks are in use in 

the Hispanic Society and Geographical Society buildings. 



[ 251 ] 



THE SNEAD AND COMPANY IRON WORKS, INC. 








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RHODE ISLAND MEDICAL SOCIETY, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
Clarke, Howe & Homer, Architects Dr. Geo. D. Hershey, Librarian 

A three-tier Snead Standard Stack has been installed in the stack room and Snead 
Standard wall shelving in the committee room on the first floor. Excepting the stack 
room, the entire second story is devoted to an assembly hall, while the basement con- 
tains a large lunch room and kitchen, book storage space and boiler room. An apart- 
ment of four rooms and bath, with entrance hall connecting directly with the street 
is located in the basement, below the stack room. 



[ 252 ] 



LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 




Fig. 330. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 




Fig. 33L 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



BOSTON ATHEN^UM, BOSTON, MASS. 
BiGELOW & Wadsworth, Architects of remodeling Chas. K. Bolton, Librarian 

In remodeling the building, the old alcove arrangement was retained but all wood stacks were 
replaced by metal Snead Standard Stacks. New fireproof floors and windows were constructed 
and all interior finish was made of noncombustible material. The architecture of the old building 

has been followed in this new work. 



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ARCHITECTURAL AND ORNAMENTAL IRON WORK 

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MACDONALD ROLLER RAMMING AND 
PATTERN DRAWING MOLDING MACHINES 

FOUNDRY EQUIPMENT 








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LIBRARY PLANNING, BOOKSTACKS AND SHELVING 



r 




Fig. 342. SNEAD MEDICAL MUSEUM CASE, (Style M-1) McGILL UNIVERSITY, MONTREAL 
Sloping glass top case of metal construction. See also pages 82, 89 and 100. Upright cases of steel 
or bronze, with hinged or sliding doors and steel or glass adjustable shelves are also furnished, according 
to standard designs or to meet special requirements. Special attention is given to securing the maximum 
glass area, an attractive appearance, simple, durable construction and thorough protection from dust. 




Fig. 343. SNEAD STEEL SHELVING, PUBLIC SCHOOL No. 108, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
The uprights are pressed into three-quarter inch beads along front and back edges to secure the requisite 
stiffness and to form a smooth surface of contact for the books. The shelves are adjusted at any re- 
quired interval by means of bolts passing through the webs of the uprights. 



[ 261 



GENERAL INDEX 

WITH PRINCIPAL PAGE REFERENCES 

See also "Buildings Illuslniled" and "Architects Represented" which follow. 



Page 

Accommodations for books 104 

Accommodations for readers 105 

Adjustment slots (Bracket Stack) 60 

Adjustment teeth 18, 19, 20 

Air space under stack room 81 

Aisles; blind, 67; main, 72; minor, 72; length of, 67; width 

of 67, 72 

Alcoves 109, 110, 253 

Alcove system of storage 104 

Aluminum bronze 31 

American Numismatic Society 251 

Amherst College Library 11 

Architect and librarian, relation between 110 

Architectural effects subordinate to arrangement and con- 
venience 108 

Artificial illumination an economic advantage 118 

Artificial lighting 91, 115 

Astor Library, New York City 104, 109 

Atmospheric conditions, rules for proper 94 

Avery Architectural Library, Columbia University 104 

Back clips 59 

Back stop 28, 59 

Baked enamels 31 

Base boards. Fitting stack around 33, 73 

Basement under stack room 81 

Base plate (Bracket Stack) 60 

Bates Hall, Boston 109 

Beebe carbo-gasoline method of fumigation 95 

Birkmire, William H 18 

Bookledge; portable, 28, 59; stationary 36, 70 

Booklifts 96, 212 

Books the principal weight factor of stack 83 

Bookstack; definition of, 13; bookstack fittings, 56; with 

glass doors, 42; with wire mesh doors 42 

Bookstack Principles 12 

Book supports 56 

Boston Athena;um 11, 109 

Boston Public Library; old building, 109; new building. . . 110 

Bottom floors 47 

Bracing angle (Bracket Stack) 60 

Bracing of stack 75 

Bracket Stack, 16, 61; Standard vs. Bracket Stack, 66; 
weight compared with Snead Standard Stack, 83; 

reset on Standard Stack 192, 230 

British Museum, London 67, 105 

Build too large rather than too small Ill 



Page 

Carbon lamps 91 

Card frames; brass, hanging, ornamental bronze, provision 

for 57 

Cast iron; its characteristics, 18; its advantages over steel, 
18; opportunities offered by use of, 39; cast iron cor- 
nice and base, 45, 55; Cast Iron Bracket Stack 65 

Cast iron and steel construction 26, 77 

Capacity; of library building, 108; of shelves, 71; of stack, 

per square foot per tier 108 

Cataloging room built into stack 79, 199, 200 

Chair rails. Fitting stack around 73 

Chain pull switches 91 

Cincinnati Public Library 13, 104, 109 

Circulation of books in a small library Ill 

Classic design range fronts 23, 25 

Closed end (Bracket Stack) 60 

College, School and Seminary Libraries 159 

Colonial design range fronts 22, 24 

Columbia design range fronts 22, 24 

Columbia University Library, reading room 105 

Combination alcove, open shelf and stack system 105 

Commercial use of Snead Standard Stack 36 

Commissions for architects, engineers and expert librar- 
ians 106 

Committee rooms 106 

Comparative weight of Snead Standard Stack and 

bracket stack construction 83 

Compartment 19 

Competitions for library buildings 106 

Conduits; electrical, 72, 93, 101; carried by stack cover 

plate 91 

Concentrated loads in a stack room 77 

Concrete floors 47 

Connecting knee 20, 21 

Considerations in planning Ill 

Construction views of Snead Standard Stack, 17, 78, 80, 81, 158 

Consulting expert 106 

Consulting table around bookstack 245 

Continuous newels for stack stairs 48 

Control of lights; chain pulls, 91; gang switches, 93; 
hinged bar switches, 92; push button, 91; tassel 

switches, 93; "timedimit" switches 93 

Corridors and communications 108 

Cornices; cast iron cornice, 41, 45; depth of cornices, 72; 
removable steel cornices, 34, 44; unit system cornice 

cover plate, 20, 21, 35, 45; cornice cover plate 44 

Cost; of housing books, 117; of interest and maintenance 



[ 263 ] 



GENERAL INDEX 



Page 

of Library Building, 117; of a Library Building, 117; 
in relation to its seating capacity for readers, 117; in 
relation to volume capacity, 117; reducing initial cost, 
102; of upkeep of a Library Building, 117; costs of 

Library Buildings 121 

Counter with shelving 245 

Curb angle 19, 20, 21, 28 

Dampness, Guarding against 81, 100 

Dark stacks 118 

Daylight, Irregularities of 15 

Dead loads of stack 83 

Deck floors, 13; Continuous 70 

Deck flooring 13, 19, 20, 21, 28, 46 

Deck framing 46 

Deck slit; horizonal, 19, 20, 28; vertical (protected), 13, 

20, 68, 69; widths of 68 

Design of exterior of library building Ill 

Desk, Snead Standing 41 

Detroit Public Library 109 

Diagonal bracing (Bracket Stack) 60 

Diaphragm 19, 20, 21, 28 

Division of library in Lincoln Hall, University of 111 178 

Doors, automatically closing 15 

Double-faced ranges 18 

Ducts, electrical 72, 93 

Dust carried by air currents in stack 68 

Dust collecting surfaces reduced to a minimum 54 

Electricity 91 

Electric wiring, Placing contract for 93 

Electrical work; horizontal conduits in stack, 72; electrical 
work in stack, 46, 102; switch boxes in stack, 72; ver- 
tical ducts in stack 72 

Enclosed stack analagous to an ice house 118 

End shelf support (see range front). 

Engineering problems should be taken up with stack manu- 
facturer 79 

Exhibition cases 82, 89, 100, 261 

Expansion, provision for 73, 101, 102 

Extension of building 112 

Fascias 50, 51 

Fees for architects, engineers and expert librarians 106 

Filler bar 21 

Finish on stack work; bronze, 31, 39; special, 39; on fixed 
parts, 31; on metal work, 31; on movable parts, 31; 

on one tier stacks, 33; for newspaper stacks 53 

Fire, Danger of in a bookstack 119 

Fireproofing in a bookstack 82 

Fire and dust stops 15, 68 

Fittings, Bookstack 56 

Fixed stack members 15 

Flanged cover plates 15, 44 

Floor angle 19 21 

Floor tee 19, 20, 21 

Floors, 46; thickness of deck floors, 72; glass, 72; marble, 

72; slate 72 

Footings Under Stack; continuous, separate, uniform 

settlement of 81 

Foundations 81 



Page 
Fumigation, Adaptability of Snead Standard Stacks to.. . 95 

Fumigation of individual volumes 95 

Gang switches 93 

Gas, use of in a library 91 

Gilman Hall, Text relative to 161 

Glass floors 46, 47 

Gore Hall, 11; stack in Gore Hall, 12: in course of demol- 
ition 75 

Gothic design range fronts 23, 191 

Green, Bernard R Frontispiece, 11, 12, 118 

Growth; provision for in a library building, 108; provision 

for in a bookstack (three methods) 101 

Guard railings 19, 48 

Hamlin, A. D. F 103 

Harper Memorial Library, Text relative to 165 

Hebraica, collection of rare, in United States 183 

Heating of library building 115 

Heating and ventilating; of a library building, 106; of a 

stack room, 94; ducts, 79; Library of Congress system, 94 

Heavy stack construction 84 

Hinged bar control for electric lights 92, 93 

Holes for attachment of future deck framing. . . 22, 23, 34, 44 

Horn locks, 19, 20, 28; tests on 30 

Imitation finish on a bookstack 31 

Indicators, for tiers, sections and ranges 58 

Insects destructive to books 95 

Interior arrangement of a library building should be 

planned before the exterior 108 

Intermediate shelf support, (see partition ); section through 

steel, 16; intermediate support, (Bracket Stack) .... 60 

Inspection and tests of shelf supports 26 

Junction box. Electrical 22 

Kidder's Architects' and Builders' Pocket Book 18 

Koch, Theodore W 109 

Label holders 58 

Laying out a stack room 67 

Layout of ranges 12, 13, 67 

Lecture room 114 

Ledge; portable, 28, 59; stationary 36, 70 

Ledge ranges 36, 70 

Librarian and architect, Relation between 110 

Library bookstack in the dark 118 

Library Buildings, Plans and Interiors 127 

Library of Congress; stack competition, 12; dark stack, 118; 
longitudinal section of North stack, 14; plan of North 
stack, 14; reading room, 105, 107; stacks in the 
Library of Congress, 12; text relative to, 131; trans- 
verse section of North stack 15 

Library Planning 103 

Light weight stack construction 84 

Lighting; of a library building, 105, 114; of a reading room, 105 
Lighting of a stack room, 87, 91; artificial lighting, 91, 

115; natural lighting, 87; aids to natural lighting .... 89 

Lights, Spacing of 93 

Live loads on stacks 83 

Location; of library building, 112; of branch buildings.. . . 117 

Lock sockets (electrical) 91 

Low cases for children's room 42 



[ 264 ] 



GENERAL INDEX 



Page 

Magazine case 40 

Main corridors 13 

Main floor of building 108 

Marble floors ,|,Q 

Marble tile floors 47 

Materials of stack construction 13 

Mechanical ventilation of a library building 115 

Medium weight stack construction 84 

Metal museum cases 82, 89, 100, 261 

Mezzanine floor 202, 222 

Monumental Libraries 129 

Museum cases 82, 89, 100, 162 

Natural lighting of a stack room 87 

Newels, Continuous 48 

Newspapers; ancient blanket sheets, 53; storage of bound 

newspapers Ill 

Newspaper counter 245 

Newspaper shelves 52 

Newspaper Stack, 52; Snead Unit System 53 

Newspaper Volumes; accommodation for a small number 

of, 53; sizes of 52 

New York Public Library, 110; interesting features of plan, 

139; text relative to 139 

Open Bar shelf, plan and section 15 

Open Bar shelves (see Shelves) 

Open construction 13 

Open end (Bracket Stack) 60 

Open shelf principle 234 

Open shelf system 104 

Ornamental lamps and gates 258 

Ornamental railings 48, 50, 51 

Parliamentary and State Libraries 241 

Partial equipment, 101, 102 and 55, 82, 165, 172, 177, 201, 

205, 213, 223, 228, 229, 256 

Partitions, 18, 19, 20, 21; section through cast iron, 15; 

section through cast iron and steel, 26, 77; thickness 

of, 72; used instead of range fronts, 172; partition 

stool 21 

Peabody Library, Baltimore, Md 104 

Periodical case 40 

Planning a Library Building (with special reference to 

bookstacks) 109 

Plans and unit weights of bookstacks 84 

Portable book ledge 28, 59 

Preliminaries to building 106 

Preserving newspaper files 52 

Prices of stacks 73 

Prism glass 89 

Principles in library construction, elementary 108 

Provisions for expansion in a stack room 73 

Provision for growth, (three methods) 101 

Provision for the staff 106 

Public Libraries 197 

Public rooms 108 

Push button switches 92, 93 

Radcliffe Library, Oxford 105 

Radial bookstacks 13, HI, 202, 203 

Railings 48, 50, 51 



Page 

Range, definition of 13 

Range front; section through cast iron, 15; section through 

cast iron and steel 26, 77 

Range fronts, 18, 19, 20, 21; stock patterns and standard 

sizes of, 22, 23; thickness of, 72; width of 22, 23 

Range front stool 21 

Ranges; length of, 72; location of, 88; sizes to use, 68; 

width of 72 

Reading room 105, 114 

Reflectors 91 

Reinick, Wilham R 95 

Removable steel cornice 34, 44, 102 

Reusing old stack 75, 181 

Requisites for proper book storage 12 

Roller cases g7 

Roller shelves 52 

Rolling ladder 36 

Rooms and oflices open to the public 108 

Scientific Library Planning I13 

Section through; cast iron range front, 15; cast iron par- 
tition, 15; cast iron and steel range front, 26, 77; cast 
iron and steel partition, 26, 77; sheet steel shelf sup- 
port, 16; Snead Standard Stack, 19, 20, 21, 28; verti- 
cal (protected) deck slit, 13; Tubular Steel Bracket 

Stack 60 

Seminar room 149 

Shelf bracket (Bracket Stack) 60 

Shelf compartment 19 

Shelf adjustment horn lock 28 

Shelf adjustment teeth 18, 19, 20 

Shelf pins, 28, 30; tests on shelf pins 30 

Shelf supports (see Range fronts), 15, 18, 19, 21; strength 

of, 75; tests on, 26; thickness of 72 

Shelf support (Bracket Stack) 60 

Shelves, 15; adjustable, 20, 21; finish on shelves, 28; fixed 
bottom shelf, 20, 21, 28; fixed bottom shelf or dia- 
phragm, 19, 20, 21, 28; fixed bottom shelf as a fire and 
dust stop, 28; fixed bottom shelf, height from deck, 
72; interchangeability of regular and over-size shelves, 
68, 69; length of shelves, 67, 72; open bar shelf vs. 
roller shelf, 53; open bar newspaper shelf. Advantages 
of, 52; — open bar shelves; chart showing deflection of, 
30; excessive weight on, 29; with deep bars, 29; dust 
on open bar shelves, 27; extensive use of, 28; plan of, 
15; flexibility of, 27; section through, 15, 28; table of 
weights and deflections for, 30; tests on, 29; "over- 
size" shelves, 29, 68, 69;— Solid plate shelf, 28; wide 
bottom fixed shelf, 69, 80; width and capacity of, 71; 

wood shelves 11, 27 

Shelving for small libraries 33 

Single-faced ranges 18 

Sizes of bound newspaper volumes 52 

Sizes, Standards for bookstack work 72 

Skylights 15, 106 

Slate floors 47 

Slit windows 87 

Sloping shelves 40 

Snead products, other than bookstacks 257 



[ 265 ] 



GENERAL INDEX 



Page 

Society and Institute Libraries 249 

Solid paneled design range fronts 23, 25 

Some essentials of Library Design 103 

Spacing of lights in bookstack 93 

Special construction of stacks 73 

Special designs of stacks 18 

Special finishes on stacks 39 

Special shelving 39 

Spiral stairs 48, 246 

Springfield City Library 113 

Stack; a self supporting structure, 75; bracing of, 75; carry- 
ing floor above, 24, 76, 78, 79, 211, 214, 220, 225, 227, 
243; carrying roof above 75, 77, 238; carrying 
superimposed loads, 75; enclosed stack analagous to 
an ice house, 118; stack engineering, 75; floors, 46; 
heights of, 72; in temporary quarters, 247; stack de- 
signs other than Snead, 16; stack room walls, 86; 
stack system, 104; stack weights, 83; stock patterns and 
standard sizes, 22, 23; suspended from roof trusses, 

76, 77; tiers 13 

Stairs and railings 48, 72 

Stair treads 48 

Stairway between ranges 49 

Standing desk 41 

Star Column Bracket Stack 63 

Steel office shelving 43, 259, 260, 261 

Stiffening rib 19 

Stools 20, 21 

Standard dimensions 72 

Standards, Established manufacturing, for stack work ... 73 

Standard vs. Bracket Stack 66 

Steel book supports 56 

Steel shelving 259, 260, 261 

Storage of maps and prints 39 

Story heights 1.52, 173, 205 

Straight stairs 46 

Strength of shelf supports 13 

Study alcoves built in stack 155, 156 

Study tables near windows 172 

Surgeon General's Library 11 

Suspended cases 67 

Suspended stack 76, 77 

Switch boxes, Electrical 22, 72, 92 

Table of bookstack weights 85 

Tall ranges 36 

Tassel switches 93 

Teeth of shelf supports 18 

Temporary struts 102 

Terrazzo floors 47 

Tests; on horn locks, 29; on Open Bar shelves, 29; on shelf 

pins, 29; on shelf supports 26 

The modern bookstack 11 

Thorough ventilation around books .54 



Page 

Three fundamental elements of a library 103 

Tier heights, 20, 21, 74; height of building floors in rela- 
tion to tier heights 74, 152, 173, 205 

Tie channel (Bracket Stack) 60 

Tier, section and range indicators 58 

Tilton, Edward L 113 

"Time-limit" switches 93, 118 

Top angles 45 

Top clearance 45 

Top finish 44 

Trustees' room 106 

Tubular Steel Bracket Stack 60, 61 

Tungsten lamp 91 

Type storage cases 260 

Underground bookstacks 100 

Uniform settlement of stack and wall footings 81 

Unique features of Snead Standard Stack 16 

Unit weights of Snead Standard Stack 83, 84, 85 

Unit System base and cornice 35, 55 

Unit System cornice cover plate 35, 45 

University Club Library, New York City 104 

University of Michigan Library 11, 76, 77 

Vacant shelf room Ill 

Value of competent librarian when planning 112 

Ventilation; of a stack room, 94; of a library building, 106, 115 

Vertical (protected) deck slit 13, 20, 68, 69 

Volumes per foot of shelving 71 

"Wall brackets 81 

•Wall end 19 

Walls of a stack room 86 

Ware, William R 11, 104 

Ware & Van Brunt 11 

Weight; books the principal factor of stack weight, 83; 
comparative weight of Standard and Bracket Stacks, 
83; of books, 83, 84; of deck-framing, 83; of glass floor- 
ing, 84; of marble flooring, 84; of slate flooring, 84; 
of "heavy" stack construction, 84; of "medium" stack 
construction, 84 ; of "light" stack construction, 84 ; 
of shelf supports and shelves, 84 ; of stacks, 83, 85 ; 

table of bookstack weights 85 

Widener Memorial Library, Text relative to 153 

Width of bays 115 

Width and capacity of shelves 71 

Windows; hermetically sealed windows, 15, 94; window 
guards, 19, 48; location of windows, 108; of reading 
rooms, 105; of stack room, 87, 88, 168; position of 

stack room windows 88 

Winsor, Justin 11 

Wire book supports 56 

Wire mesh doors 42 

Wood graining 31 

Working rooms 114 



[ 266 ] 



BUILDINGS ILLUSTRATED 

HAVING SNEAD STACK INSTALLATIONS 



Page 

Akron, Ohio, Public Library 

Stack room 97 

Alberta Parliamentary Buildings, Edmonton, Alberta 

Bookstack 36 

Newspaper stack 55 

American Circulating Library, Manila, P. L 

Stack room 37 

American Geographical Society, New York City 

Exterior 251 

Stack room 90 

American Type Founders Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

Type storage cases 260 

Andover-Harvard Theological Seminary, Cambridge, Mass. 

Exterior 170 

Stack room 170 

Commons Hall 170 

Plan 171 

Arkansas State Capitol 

Exterior 246 

Supreme Court library room 246 

Bangor, Maine, Public Library 

Stack room 101, 102 

Exterior 228 

Plan 228 

Beverly, Mass., Public Library 

Exterior 212 

Stack room 212 

Plans 213 

Bibliotheque St-Sulpice, Montreal, Quebec 

Stack in course of construction 17 

Exterior 198 

Plans 199 

Sections 200 

Boston Atheuceum, Boston, Mass. 

Newspaper stacks 54 

Old reading room 110 

Plans 253 

Boston, Mass., Public Library 

Exterior, entrance detail 258 

British Columbia Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B. C. 

Exterior 242 

Plan 243 

Plans of library wing 243 

Brookline, Mass., Public Library 

Stack room 76 

Exterior 210 

Delivery room 210 

Plans 211 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Public School, No. 108 

Steel Shelving 261 



Page 

Carroll Park Branch Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Exterior 233 

Plan 233 

Cassella Color Co., New York City 

Steel office shelving 259 

Coast Artillery Training School, Fort Monroe, Va. 

Exterior 193 

Plan 193 

Coburn Free Library, Owego, N. Y. 

Stack room 77 

College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stack room 25 

Exterior 254 

Plan 254 

Columbia University, New York City 

Exterior 148 

Seminar room 149 

Plans 150, 151 

Davis Memorial Library, Phillips Exeter Academy, 
Exeter, N. H. 

Exterior 188 

Plan 188 

Delaware State Capitol 

Stack room 24, 49 

Denver, Colo., Public Library 

Stack room 49, 74 

Stack room and delivery desk 208 

Exterior 208 

Plans 209 

Dropsie College Library, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Exterior 186 

Elizabeth, N. J., Public Library 

Stack room 92 

Exterior 220 

Plan 220 

Evanston, 111., Public Library 

Exterior 222 

Plan 222 

Exeter, N. H., Public Library 

Stack room 61 

Fall River, Mass., Public Library 

Exterior 201 

Plan 201 

Ferguson Memorial Library, Stamford, Conn. 

Exterior 224 

Plan 224 

Frances Folsom Cleveland Lib., Wells College, Aurora,N.Y. 

Exterior 184 

Stack room 184 

Plans 185 



[ 267 ] 



BUILDINGS ILLUSTRATED 



Page 

Gary, Ind., Public Library 

Exterior 214 

Stack room 214 

Plans 215 

Gilman Hall, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Exterior 160 

Plans 162, 163 

Harper Memorial Library, University of Chicago 

Stack room 92, 167 

Exterior 164 

Plans 166 

Hartford Medical Society, Hartford, Conn. 

Periodical case 40 

Hebrew Union College Library, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Exterior 182 

Plan 182 

Hispanic Society of America, New York City 

Exterior 251 

Indiana State Normal School Library, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Exterior 181 

Plan 181 

Iowa State Teachers' College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Exterior 179 

Plan 179 

Iowa State University Law Library, Iowa City, Iowa 

Main reading room 195 

Plan 195 

Jewish Theological Seminary, New York City 

Exterior 183 

Plans 183 

Kent Hall, Columbia University Law School, N. Y. City 

Exterior 169 

Krauth Memorial Lib., Lutheran Theo. Sem., Mt. Airy, Pa. 

Exterior 180 

Plan 180 

Library of Congress 

Sections, north stack 14, 15 

Newspaper stack room 54 

View in northwest court 88 

Stack room 90, 137 

Reading room 107 

Southeast court stack under construction 119 

Exterior 130 

Plans 132, 133, 134, 135 

Section 136 

Library of Hawaii, Honolulu, P. I. 

Stack room 24 

Exterior 227 

Plan 227 

Library of the Philippines and Bureau of Education, 
Manila, P. I. 

Sliding wire door case 42 

Louis George Branch Library, Kansas City, Mo. 

Exterior 234 

Stack and reading room 234 

Plans 235 

Louisville, Ky., Public Library 

Exterior 216 

Plan 216 



Page 

Loyola University Library, New Orleans. La. 

Exterior 191 

Interior, showing bookstack 191 

McGill University Medical Museum, Montreal 

Medical museum case 261 

Manchester, N. H., Public Library 

Exterior 218 

Plan 218 

Mason Library, Great Barrington, Mass. 

Exterior 229 

Plan 229 

Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, Baltimore, Md. 

Stack room 64 

Exterior 256 

Plan 256 

Moose Jaw, Sask., Public Library 

Exterior 226 

Stack room 226 

Multnomah County Public Library, Portland, Ore. 

Exterior 204 

Plans 205 

New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, N. H. 

Main reading room 38 

Newspaper room 55 

Exterior 250 

New Rochelle, N. Y., Public Library 

Plans 219 

Newtown, Pa., Public Library 

Exterior 239 

Plan 239 

N. Y. O. & W. Ry. Offices, Grand Central Sta., N. Y. City 

Steel shelving 260 

New York Public Library 

Technology room 10 

Reading room for the blind 32 

Children's room 33, 42 

Sliding shelves in stack room 39 

Patents room 40 

Science room 48 

Stack room during construction 78, 81 

Stack room 79, 146 

Rear view 87 

Exterior 138 

Plans 140, 141, 142, 143 

Section 144 

Reading room 145 

Genealogy room 147 

Ohio State University Library, Columbus, Ohio 

Stack room prepared for expansion 82 

Stack room 172 

Exterior 172 

Plans 173 

Ontario Parliament Buildings, Toronto, Ont. 

Assistant Librarian's office 41 

View of stack 70 

Exterior of library wing 244 

Plan of library wing 244 

General view of bookstack 245 

View in librarian's office 245 



[ 268 ] 



BUILDINGS I 

Pace 
Ottawa, Ont., Public Library 

Stack room 230 

Plan 230 

Pacific Branch Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Exterior 232 

Plan 232 

Phipps Psychiatric Institute, Baltimore, Md. 

Library 43 

Exterior 255 

Proctor, Vt., Public Library 

Delivery room and stack 237 

Exterior 237 

Purdue University Library, Lafayette, Ind. 

Exterior 174 

Main reading room 174 

Plans 175 

Putnam's G. P. Sons' Book Store, New York City 

Interior 36 

Regina, Sask., Public Library 

Exterior 223 

Plan 223 

Rhode Island Medical Society, Providence, R. I. 

Committee room 37 

Exterior 252 

Plan 252 

Russell Sage Foundation Building, New York City 

Exterior 255 

St. Charles Theological Seminary, Overbrook, Pa. 

Interior of library 91, 177 

Exterior 176 

Plan of library wing 177 

St. Elizabeth's College Library, Convent Station, N. J. 

Exterior 186 

St. Paul, Minn., Public Library 

Exterior 221 

Plan 221 

SchauflRer Memorial Library, Mt. Hermon, Mass. 

Exterior 190 

Plan 190 

Somerville Mass., Public Library 

Plans 225 

Southboro, Mass., Public Library 

Exterior 236 

Plan 236 

Springfield, Mass., City Library 

Exterior 202 

Rice Hall and delivery desk 202 

Stack room 202 

Plans 203 

Supreme Court and Library Building, Salem, Ore. 

Exterior 248 

Plan 248 



LLUSTRATED 

Page 

Syracuse, N. Y., Public Library 

Plans 240 

Toronto, Ont., Public Reference Library 

Exterior 206 

Plan 207 

Union Theological Seminary, New York City 

Exterior 168 

United Engineering Societies, New York City 

Reading room 105 

University of Illinois, Law Library, Urbana, 111. 

Stack room 65 

University of Illinois, Lincoln Hall, Urbana, 111. 

Seminar room 25 

Exterior 178 

Plan 178 

University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Stack room 76 

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Exterior 194 

Plan 194 

University of Tennessee Library, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Plans 196 

Van Wickle Memorial Library, Lafayette College, 
Easton, Pa. 

Exterior 192 

Plan 192 

Victoria College Library, Toronto, Ont. 

Exterior 189 

Plan 189 

Washington, D. C, Public Library 

Exterior 217 

Plan 217 

Whitinsville, Mass., Public Library 

Exterior 238 

Plan 238 

Widener Memorial Library, Harvard University 

Steel shelving 43 

Constructional model of stack 69 

Stack room during construction 80 

Exterior 152 

Plans 154, 155, 156, 157 

Exterior during construction 158 

Williams Memorial Library, Trinity College, Hartford 
Conn. 
Plans 187 

Williamsburg Branch Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Exterior 231 

Plan 231 

Wisconsin State Capitol 

Supreme Court Library 41 

Exterior 247 

Stack in library 247 



[ 269 ] 



ARCHITECTS REPRESENTED 

ARCHITECTS OF BUILDINGS HAVING SNEAD STACK INSTALLATIONS 

[PARTIAL LIST] 



Page 

Alexander & Sons, J. F 181 

Allen & Collens 168, 170, 172 

Almirall, Raymond F 232 

Angell & Swift 123 

Astle & Page 123 

Atterbury, Grosvenor 255 

Barber, Donn 122 

Baily & Bassett 123 

Bates, Charles W 124 

Beman, S. S 122 

Bigelow & Wadsworth 253, 123 

Bixby, C. W 123 

Blakley, Richard R 125 

Blanchard & Barnes 229 

Bragdon, Claude 122 

Brainerd & Leeds 123 

Brown & Vallance 125 

Brunner, Arnold W 183 

Campbell, John 125 

Carrcre & Hastings 138 

Cass, Alfred Cookman 236 

Casey, Edward P 130 

Chalmers, J., Structural Engineer 36 

Chapman, A. H 206 

Chapman & McGiffin 125 

Clarke, Howe & Homer 252 

Clark & Russell 123 

Cleveland & Godfrey 124 

Cope & Stewardson 254, 123 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 188, 201 

Cutting, A. P 122 

Davis, Seymour 125 

I )ay, Frank Miles & Bro 123 

De Buys, Churchill & Labouisse 191 

Doyle, Patterson & Beach 204 

Edwards, W. A 124 

Eidlitz, Cyrus L. W 122 

Eidlitz & MacKenzie 121 

Ellicott & Emmart 256 

Ellis, A. Raymond 40 

Fassett, F. H 123 

Fechheimer, A. Lincoln 182 

Ferry & Clas 124 

Francis, H. M 123 

Francis, H. M. & Son 123 

Furness & E\ ans 123 

Gardener, H. Sumner 122 

Gilbert, Cass 212, 246 

Guilbert & Betelle 123 

Gildersleeve, Raleigh C 123 



Page 

Goetze, F. A., Consulting Engineer 169 

Goodrich, Lewis 124 

Gouinlock, George VV 244 

Green, Bernard R., Engineer 130 

Haight, Charles C 122 

Hanaford & Sons, Samuel 124 

Harris & Richards 176, 192 

Hodges, Chas. Edward 125 

Hodgson, Bates & Butler 125 

Hood & Scott 125 

Horwood, Edgar L 230 

Howe, Hoit & Cutler 125 

Howes & Morse 121 

Hunt, Jarvis 124 

Huntington, Chas. P 251 

Jamieson, James P 124, 125 

Kahn, Albert 124 

Kerr, H. L 125 

King, Beverly S 184 

Knighton, W. C 125, 248 

La Farge & Morris 187 

Link, Theodore C 125 

Litchfield, Electus D '. 221, 224 

Little & Browne 123 

Loring & Phipps 123 

Lowell, Guy 250 

Ludlow & Peabody 124 

Lyall, Earl Harvey 122 

MacLean & Wright 125 

Maginnis & Walsh 186 

Mahoney, W. A 125 

Mauran & Russell 125 

McKim, Mead & White 148, 169, 258, 121 

Maxwell, Edward & W. S 125 

Milburn, Frank P. & Co 194 

Miller, Wm. H 122 

Moore, Geo. A 122 

Murphy, Hindle & Wright 123 

Meyers, E. C 124 

Nelson & Van Wagenen 122 

O'Connor, Geo. E 125 

Orchard, Lansing & Jorolemon 122 

Parish & Schroeder 190, 122 

Parker, Thomas & Rice 160 

Patton & Miller 174, 196 

Payette, Eugene 198 

Peabody, Arthur 124 

Peabody & Stearns 228 

Peene, A. W 125 

Perkins & Betton 123 



[ 270 ] 



ARCHITECTS REPRESENTED 



Pacr 

Phillips, Chas. A 222 

Pilcher & Tachau 186, 216, 123 

Poggi, C. Godfrey 122 

Poindexter, W. M 124 

Post, Geo. B. & Sons 247 

Preacher, C. Lloyd 124 

Proudfoot, Bird & Rawson 179, 195 

Randall, James A 240 

Rankin, Kellog & Crane, 121 

Rattenbury, F. M; 242 

Reid & McAlpine 226 

Reinhold, Henry L., Jr 239 

Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen 122 

Richardson, H. H 123 

Richardson & Salter 124 

Rogers, James Gamble and Chas. A. Phillips 222 

Ross, Albert Randolph, . 208, 217, 219 

Rotch & Tilden 61 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 164, 123 

Smith, Alex. F 123 

Smith, Chas. A 234 

Smithmeyer & Pelz and Edward P. Casey 130 

Sproatt & Rolph 189 

Stevens, Col. W. L 124 

Storey & Van Egmond 223 

Stewardson & Page 123 



Page 

Sturgis, R. Clipston 210, 238, 122 

Tackett, Wm. Albert 124 

Teague, J. C 124 

Tilton, Edward 1 49, 202, 218, 220, 225, 123, 124, 125 

Tracy, Swartwout & Litchfield 224 

Trowbridge & Livingston 121 

Trumbauer, Horace 152 

Tubby & Bro., Wm. B 2.33 

U. S. Supervising Architect 122 

Verplank, J 124 

Walker, Harry Leslie .184, 237 

Walker & Morris 231 

Warner, J. Foster 122 

Watson & Huckel 180 

Weary, Frank 97 

Wheaton, Francis B 193 

White, H. P 123 

White, James M 178, 124 

Whitfield, Henry D 214, 227, 123 

Wickson & Gregg and A. H. Chapman 206 

Wilkinson, Henry Wilhelm 122 

Wilson, H. NeiU 123 

Wilson, Harris & Richards 123 

Windrim, J. T 123 

Yost & Packard 124 

Zeitel, Julius P 125 



[ 271 ] 



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