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Full text of "Modern Greek grammar : for the use of classical students"

The ^nthon Library. 



COLLECTED BYvCHARLES ANTflON, 

Professor of Grreeli and ILiatin in 
Ooluxnbia. Oollege. 



Purchased jrby Cornell UniveYaity, 1868. 

V 



Cornell University Library 

arV10606 

Modern Greek grammar : 




3 1924 031 266 939 
olin.anx 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031266939 



MODEEl^ GREEK GRAMMAR: 



USE OF CLASSICAL STUDENTS. 



JAMES DONALDSON, M. A. 

OBESE TOTOB TO THE 0NIVEBSITr OF EDINBUBGH. 



EDINBURGH: 
ADAM & CHAELES BLACK, 

BOOKSELLERS TO THE QUEEN. 



MDCCCLIII, 

63 



CORNELl\ 

UfMlVERSilY 



\J 



LIBRARY 



y^ 



PEE FACE. 



This Grammar is sent forth in the hope that it may attract the 
attention of Scholars to an interesting field of Hellenic literature, 
which is almost entirely unknown to British Students. All that 
the Compiler had to do was to take five or six of the modem 
Greek Grammars, extract what was pecuUar to the modern Greek, 
and present it in as condensed a form as possible. The-€lassical 
Student is thus saved time and expense ; for modern Greek Gram- 
mars necessarily contain a great deal of matter with which he is 
already acquainted. The present Grammar, too, might have been 
compressed into smaller dimensions, if those irregularities, which 
are now banished altogether from the written language, had been 
omitted. But as one of the most interesting departments of mo- 
dem Greek literature is the Ballad poetry, and as the changes 
which characterise modern Greek form a part of the history of the 
Greek language, for the benefit also of travellers in Greece wish- 
ing to converse with the common people, I have given a copious 
list of the popular variations. This is the more needed, that 
Corpe's Modern Greek Grammar, though otherwise very good, 
is here remarkably deficient. 

In regard to the part of this Grammar which relates to the com- 
parison of ancient with modern Greek, I have been left almost 



ii PREFACE. 

entirely to my own resources, not having seen the CEolo-Dorie 
Grammar of Christopoulos, nor the Grammar of Bamvas. Tin; 
Grammars which I used were — 

1. Nova Methodus of Father Thomas (Paris, 1709), of which 
there was a paiUal translation by H. Robertson, M.D. 

2. A Translation of M. Jules David's Parallel of the Ancient 
and Modern Greek Languages, by John Mitchell, London, 1824. 

3. Graramatica Linguse Grsecae Kecentioris, JRomae. In Col- 
legio Urbano, 1837. (By Franz.) 

4. An Introduction to Neo-Hellenic, by Henry Corpe ; Lon- 
don, Groombridge & Sons, 1851. 

5. The Grammar in Col. Leake's Researches. 

I have also examined Sophocles' Modern Greek Grammar, but 
had not the book beside me while compiling. 

I have compared the statements of these Grammars with the 
results of my own reading, and with what I have observed in con- 
versation with Greeks whom I met in London. I have also added 
a few things which I did not find noticed in the Grammars. 

In the sketch of Greek literature, I am indebted — 

1. To Col. Leake's Researches in Greece — London, 1814 — 
wliich contams a Modem Greek Grammar, and an account of Mo- 
dern Greek Literature, with extracts from several of the earlier 



-PREFACE. Ill 

poems. Ail honour to Col. Leake, for hie is the only Englishman 
who has worked properly in this field. 

2. To a small Tractate by Alex. Negris, called, " The Literary 
History of Modern Greece." 

3. To Christian August Brandis's Mittheilungeu fiber Griechen- 
laiid. Vols. II. & III. 

There is also a list of early modern Greek writers in Ducange's 
•Gloss. Med. et Infimae Greecitatis. 

In all cases where I have pronounced an opinion on modern 
Greek works, except in the case of Germanos, whose character I 
take from Brandis, and Tricoupi's historical work, the reference 
to which in § 15 infra, is added by Professor Blackie, I have read 
the books themselves, or large extracts. 

Some say that modem Greek is quite different from ancient. 
Let such devote an hour or two to this Grammar, and then give 
judgment. It is really astonishing to notice the number of forms 
which, differing from Attic Greek, coincide with the proper forms 
as seen in verbs in /u or in Sanscrit. Altogether, there are very 
few forms that do not find their parallel in the ancient language. 
As to words, there is no doubt that the language was corrupted 
by intermixtures ; but these foreign elements have been systema- 
tically expelled ; and now I think it may be said with truth, that 
tliere is not a purer language in Europe. For, owing to the flexi- 
bility and scope of the language, every new idea which this pro- 
gressive age creates, and which, when transplanted into such lan- 
guages as English and French, or even German, retains the form 



iv PHEFACE, 

(sometimes Greek, asphonography) given it in its birthplace, is 
clothed with a Greek dress on its reaching a Greek mind. Thus, 
for a steam-boat they have ar^oVXo/ov ; for a railway-carriage, 
AT/j.a,i/,A^a ; for a balloon, ai^os-arov ; for a toilette, xaXhjjvrn^m ; 
for daguerreotype, fjXioroVia, &c. 

Apart from its excellencies as a language, modem Greek de- 
serves the careful study of the Scholar. It abounds in illustra- 
tions of the Classic Writers, and already, though very little has 
been done, several words, such as avoiyai, to get into the open sea, 
in Xenophon's Hellenica, have been explained by its help. A 
knowledge of it is also of the utmost importance to Greek etymolo- 
gists, and it has been used for etymological and lexical purposes, 
though sparingly, by Pott, Donaldson, Liddel and Scott, and 
others. 

It is the Theologian, however, who will find the greatest help 
in modern Greek. And the reason is obvious. The present 
language of the Greeks is the result of oral tradition, and is there- 
fore a representative of the ancient conversational dialect of the 
Greek people. Accordingly, it contains many ancient forms, just 
as we find in Scottish or in some of the dialects of the counties of 
England, words and expressions occurring in Shakspere, but now 
obsolete in written English. It also contains numerous Doric, 
CEolic, and Ionic, as well as Attic foims ; as might have been ex- 
pected, for there is not the slightest reason to suppose that the 
Attic was the conversational dialect of any but the smallest por- 
tion of the Greeks. Now, on looking over the field of Greek 
literature, the remains of the use of a conversational dialect are 
to be found principally in Homer, the comic poets, and the 
writers of the New Testament ; and accordingly modern Greek 



PREFACE. T 

bears most analogy to these. Thus, for instance, the forni 
asra^vs is common to Homer, the Kew Testament, and modern 
Greek. But as the dialect of the New Testament is nearest in 
time to the Neo-Hdlenic, it resembles the Neo-Hellenic in the 
greatest number of points. It, too, takes forms from aimost all 
dialects, as atpiuvra,!, &c. (See Winer, Gram. § 4.) It abounds 
in verbs which insert a v after the vowel, as aXXoiovai for aXKoiiu. 
And even particular expressions, such as a-irh //-lag, at once, are 
common both to Hellenistic and Neo-Hellenic. There ^re also 
multitudes of words peculiar to these two dialects. Of the similar 
grammatical forms, numerous instances are given in this Grammar, 
but the passages quoted might have been multiplied indefinitely. 
A vast deal has yet to be done in illustrating the New Testa- 
ment dialect from modern Greek ; and I have no hesitation in as- 
serting, that next to a knowledge of Aramsean, perhaps before it, 
the most essential requisite to a proper comprehension of the 
New Testament dialect, is a thorough acquaintance with the pre- 
sent language of the Greeks. 

It may be remarked also, that modern Greek is now beginning 
to receive that attention which it deserves. Pennington makes 
use of it in his Book on Greek Pronunciation ; Professor Blackie 
has gone still &rthcr into the matter in his " Pronunciation of 
Greek;" and the Athenjeum (on Corpe's Grammar), and the 
Times (on Tricoupis's Greek Revolution), have pronounced fa- 
vourably on the language. So that we may confidently hope 
that the time will soon come when no man can be pronounced 
a Greek scholar, who is not master of Nep -Hellenic, and when 
that language will be taught in our schools and colleges. Conti- 
nental Scholars in this as in many other matters, have gone far 
ahead of us. Many Germans, such as Koss, Brandis, Thiersch' 



VI PREFACE. 

s)ieak the modern dialect, and in Paris it is taught in the Uni-' 
versity. 

In order to save constant repetition of the words, I have used 
the letter H. for the Hellenic, as the Greeks call the ancient lan- 
guage ; and Neo-H. for modern Greek. I have also used the 
letter P. to express the popular or vulgar dialect, which occurs in 
the early modem Greek writers, in the Ballads, and in the conver- 
sation of the common people. 



SKETCH OP NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 



1. The modern Greek language is known under a variety of 
names. The one usually given to it up to recent times was the 
Romaic ; but, as that appellation pointed to a corrupt age and to 
a state of slavery, it has been generally discarded by native writers, 
and the language is now called the Neo-Hellenic. » 

2. Neo-Hellenio is generally said to be a development or a 
corruption of Ecclesiastical or Byzantine Greek. There can be 
no doubt that the greater number of its peculiar forms do oc- 
cur in Hellenistic ; but whether it arose from a particular va- 
riety such as the one mentioned, or whether it be not the result 
of a variety of causes, some of them in operation long before the 
time of the HeUenistic, let the reader determine from the follow- 
ing Grammar. Col. Leake does not recognise an ecclesiastical 
dialect at all ; and correctly, if the word ecclesiastical is used to 
designate the Greek of the Fathers ; for the language of the Fa- 
thers; just like that of the Byzantine writers, is not Plellenistic, 
but a modification of the aoivri didXixrog. The Neo-Hellenic was 
rather contemporaneous with the Byzantine than posterior to it j 
for, while the latter was usually employed in writing, and was an 
imitation of earlier Greek, the former was the language used^iir ' 
conversation and by the common people. Indeed the Byzantine, 
as we have it in the Alexiads of Anna Conmena, or even in Can- 
tacuzeuus (not to mention earlier writers), is not much inferior in 



2 SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 

purity to Pausanias, and writers of his age ; certainly not far, if 
at all, below Achilles Tatius and some others of the Greek novelists. 
There arose also another variety of Greek, principally among the 
patriarchs and bishops of the Greek Church (whence its name, 
Ecclesiastical), in which were retained most of the old inflexions 
with a strange mixture of Turkish and other foreign words. In 
this dialect the influence of the Hellenistic (perhaps we should say, 
Neo-Hellenic) was very great. It used such forms as ^X6a,, had no 
dual, and rarely employed the optative. But this priestly language, 
as far as I can ascertain, was not earlier than Jfeo-Hellenic. Very 
curious specimens of it are to be seen in Martin Crusius's Turco- 
Graecia. 

Some of the Greeks themselves, Christopoulos especially, main- 
tained that Neo-Hellenic was a union of the (Eolic and Doric, and 
the poet published what ho called an CEolo-Doric grammar of the 
language. There are various dialects of Neo-Hellenic. Of these 
the Tsakonianhas attracted the attention of Thiersch, Leake, and 
others, as it difiered considerably from the other dialects, and con- 
tained, or as Leake thinks, was merely supposed to contain, Doric 
forms not found in these. 

3. The earliest Neo-Hellenic works, of whose date we are sure, 
belong to the 12th century, and are the productions of Prodro- 
mus (he styled himself Ptochoprodromus), a monk who addressed 
one of his efiusions to the Emperor Manuel Comnenus, and con- 
sequently must have lived about the middle of the 12th century. 
Specimens of his poetry are given in Leake's Researches. Leake 
says he got them from Ducange, Gloss. Med. et Infim. Grtecitatis ; 
but on examining the book (Du Fresne's edition), I found none 
collected, but a few lines scattered here and there under diiferent 
words. The language does not differ from the Neo-Hellenic of 
the commencement of the 19th century. Ducange gives extracts 
also from other Neo-Hellenic poems, which were written in the 
14th and 15th centuries ; but neither of the merit of these nor of 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLBNIC LITEEATOKE. 3 

that of the poems of Ptochoprodroraus, can an estimate be formed, 
as large extracts were never published.* 

4. After the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, the Greek 
nation was reduced to the most abject state of slavery, sometimes 
under the power of the Turks, sometimes under that of the Vene- 
tians. Education was neglected ; there were few learned men 
among them ; and even those who could have written books, would 
have been unable to publish. The consequence was, that few 
Neo-Hellenic books made their appearance, and the language was 
corrupted by a vast intermixture of Turkish and Italian words and 
phrases. This was the state of matters down to the time when 
the deeds of the Prench Kevolution stirred up the Greek mind to 
thoughts of liberty and progress. 

5. During this state of stagnation, Crete was almost the only 
place in which there was the least literary spirit, and here appeared 
several poets in some respects remarkable and worthy of study. 
The most illustrious of these is Vincenzo Cornaro (about the end 
of the 16th century), whose poem, the Erotocritos, has been re- 
published several times. It is a long and rather dry Epic, but 
containing passages of sterling poetry, and interesting as a partial 
reflection of its own age. The names of its heroes are borrowed 
from antiquity, and the occurrences, are supposed to take place 
when good King Heracles reigned at Athens ; but the characters 
belong essentially ' to the Middle Ages, and the poem is allied to 
similar Italian works of the same period. Leake and Brandis have 
given abstracts of the poem, and Brandis conceives he discovers in 
it a vein of poetry quite peculiar and distinct from the Italian 
school. 

The other poems produced in Crete (most of them in the 1 7th 

* For a more particular account of Prodiomus, see Dr Smith's Dictionary, 
art. Theodorus Prodromus ; Bernhardy (Grand. Gr. Litt. vol. ii. p. 503) 
asserts that Prodromus is the author of the 62d Anacreontic. 



4 SKETCH OF JJEO -HELLENIC LITERATURE. 

century) decidedly belong to the Italian scliool. Of these Inay be 
mentioned the Erophile, a tragedy in five acts, by George Chor- 
tatzi, full of horrors, and based on an Italian play ; King Rhodo- 
linos, by Andreas Troilos, another tragedy similar in nature to the 
former ; and the Fair Shepherdess, a pastoral. 

6. Almost all the early Neo-Hellenic works were poetical. The 
earliest specimens of prose are to be found in a book, the title of 
which, as it tells its own tale, we copy : " Turco-Grasciae Libri 
Octo, a Martino Crusio, in Academia Tybengensi Graeco et Latino 
Professore, utraque lingua edita ; quibus Grsecorum status sub 
imperio Turcico, in Politia et Ecclesia, Oeconomia et Scholis, jam 
inde ab amissa Constantinopoli ad hsec usque tempora luculentur 
describitur, Basileaj.'' There is no date on the title-page, but 
that attached to the dedication is 1584, The book is quite com- 
mon in our Ubraries. 

This Collection' contains various works by the learned men in 
Greece, with whom Crusius corresponded. Some of these are in 
the old Greek, others in the modern. In the latter there is a 
history of the patriarchs of Constantinople to the year 1577, by 
Manuel Malaxos. There are also various Neo-Hellenic exercises 
and remarks on the popular language, and a large number of let- 
ters, some in ancient Greek aryi some in modern. The collection 
contains, also, the celebrated Neo-Hellenic translation of the Ba- 
trachomyomachia, by Demetrios Zenos of ZakjTithos, on which 
several German scholars in recent times have written learned com- 
mentaries. Altogether the book is very valuable for the informa- 
tion it gives us both as to the state of Greece, and also of its lan- 
guage, in the end of the 1 6th century. 

7. The 18th centjary boasts of few Neo-Hellenic works, and 
the best writers often employed the Hellenic. The most remark- 
able men were Eugenics Bulgaris, Nicephoros Theotoki, and Me- 
letios. 



SKETCH OP NEO-HELLENIC LITERATUEE. 5 

Eugenics Bulgaria was born at Corfu in 1716 ; in 1775 was 
raised to the archbishopric of Cherson by the Empress Catharine, 
— afterwards resigned it in favour of Theotoki ; and died at Pe- 
tersburgh in 1806. Bulgaria was very highly esteemed by his 
countrymen. His most famous work was a treatise on Logic, 
which became very popular. Besides this and several other ori- 
ginal works and poems, he translated a number of celebrated 
books. 

Nicephoros Theotoki was also a native of Corfu. He was twenty 
years younger than Bulgaris — was educated at Bologna and Mantua 
— became Archbishop of Cherson, then of Astrachan — retired, and 
died at Petersburgh in 1800. His works were principally theolo- 
gical and philosophical. 

Meletioa was born at Joannina, and in 1703 became Bishop of 
Athens. His Geography and Ecclesiastical History, though de- 
fective, were the means of great good to his fellow-countrymen. 

8. About the end of the last century a new era began to dawn 
on Neo-Hellenic. A national enthusiasm took possession of the 
minds of a goodly number of educated Greeks, who resolved to 
raise their country from the degradation into which it had sunk. 
As a consequence of this movement, education was extended among 
the Greek people, and the language gradually threw off those 
Turkish and Italian elements with which it had been encrusted. 
This improvement is still going on ; and as education advances, 
and the Greek people learn the ancient language, foreign admix- 
tures are rejected, and Hellenic words used instead. 

Khigas of Velestina was the originator and leader of the Greek 
Revolution. A man of bold and strong heart, of extraordinary 
energy and perseverance, he dedicated his life to the regeneration 
of his country, and sealed his services by a heroic death. The lyre 
was one of the instruments with which this high-souled man acted 



6 SKETCH OF NEO-BELLENIC UTEUATURE, 

upon his fatherland ; and several of his songs were sung with en- 
thusiasm by the Greeks. One of these, given by Byron (in Mur- 
ray's collected edition of Byron's Works, and in some of the edi- 
tions of Childe Harold), '' Come on, sons of the Greeks," 
deserves to rank among the first of war-songs. 

The man who did most for the Greek language at this time, 
was Adamantines Korais (or Coray), a physician of Chios, and a 
first rate Hellenic scholar. He devoted all his energies to the en- 
lightenment of his fellow-countrjTnen, and employed himself in 
making translations into Neo-Hellenic ; in editing the ancient 
authors for the Greeks ; and in writing appeals to the Greek 
nation, flis style is remarkably good, clear, and powerful. He 
also took a prominent part in the controversies which raged at 
this time as to the forms which should prevail in the Neo-Hellenic. 
One party wished to expunge all modern, or what they fancied 
modern forms, while the other was to retain all the barbarisms 
which had found their way into the language. Korais adopted a 
middle course, and, while rejecting foreign words, retained most 
of the pecuhar Neo-Hellenic inflections and constructions. One 
of those opposed to Korais in this matter, but co-operating with 
him in endeavours to educate the people, was the poet Athanasios 
Christopoulos who adhered to the vulgar Greek. His poems are 
sweet, charming, graceful, and smooth, and were great favourites 
with the Greek ladies. 

9. The end of the last and the commencement of this century 
produced several comic poems, such as the " War of the Ele- 
ments," from which Leake gives extracts, and the 'Fuaao-TaM^o- 
' AyyXoc, noticed by Byron, and described by Leake. In 1817, 
appeared a comic poem, the Hermilos of Perdikaris, and in 1821 
the Demos, a Klephtic poem by Spuridion Trikoupis, a man who 
afterwards took a prominent part in the Greek Revolution and the 
aflairs of the Greek Church, and who pronounced a funeral oration 
on Byron in MissolonghL About this time also (1824), Fauriel 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC UTEEATniSE. 7 

published his celebrated collection of the Greek ballads. Many 
of these were translated into Englishby Charfes B. Sheridan 
(London 1825), with dissertations on the Klephts. A German 
translation also, accompanied by the Greek, was made by Wilhelm 
Miiller. These ballads are well worth perusal : they breathe a 
bold spii-it ; afford insight into the dangers and hard struggles of 
brave men ; and occasionally give affecting touches of maternal 
and filial attachment — of love stronger than death, and of ardent 
patriotism and devotion to religion, 

10. Since the time of the Greek Revolution, literature has been 
cultivated in Greece with great spirit, and some remarkable works 
have made their appearance. At the head of their poets stand 
two brothers, Panagiotis and Alexander Soutsos, who resemble 
each other in many features of their character. They are both 
ardently attached to their country. Indeed a deep feeling of the 
Hellenic glories, and a longing for a restoration of something like 
the good old times, seem to be prime movers of all they have writ- 
ten, and occasion the grandest efforts of their muse. They are 
without doubt men of genius, and that, too, of rather a higher 
order. 

The works of Panagiotis Soutsos, are a volume of poetry con- 
taining a drama, love songs, and elegies ; a novel (Leandros), a 
sacred poem (The Messiah), and a collection of lyrics, which he 
calls the Lyre. The works of Alexander are similar. He has a 
poem called the JJi^i-yrXai/ufiivoe, corresponding to the drama of 
Panagiotis, which is named the ' Odomogog. The poem of Alex- 
ander is very much in the style of Lord BjTon's Childe Harold, 
some parts of which, especially the address to the ocean, are imi- 
tated with considerable power. A young Greek wanders to Rome 
and France, and thus gives the poet an opportunity of describing 
places in these countries, and making reflections on their destiny. 
Some of the verses are exquisite, and full of genuine poetry. The 
story, however, which is the basis of the whole, has too much of 



8 SKETCH OF NEO-HEIXENIC LITERATURE. 

the affectations and exaggerations characteristic of French novel- 
ists. Alexander Soutsos has also written a novel, The Banished 
One of 1831. It is rather too political for English taste, and 
demands from the reader an intimate acquaintance with the prin- 
cipal agents in the later acts of the Greek revolution ; notwith- 
standing this, it is exceedingly interesting, and some chapters are 
written with a depth of feeling and a beauty of language, not un- 
worthy of the best age of Greece. Other parts of the novel dis- 
play the writer's satirical and comic powers, as do two poems 
which are printed along with the Wanderer. The other work of 
Alexander is his Panorama. Among the recent poets of Greece, 
may be mentioned Karatsoutsas, whose lyrics are sweet and ele- 
gant. 

11. Jakobaki Rizos Jferoulos, Charmouzis and Rangavis, are 
among the most successful of the dramatic writers. Neroulos 
occupies a prominent position in the history of Greece. He has 
written a French " Course of Greek Literature" (Geneva 1828) ; 
and a history of the Greek Revolution. His comedies were 
published anonymously, or rather under fictitious names, such as 
Ba^x^Tga^. The name of the comedy of Charmouzis, is Tup^o- 
3/wZT»)5, and came out in Athens in 1835. Rangavis is one of 
the most illustrious scholars of Greece. Two volumes of his 
poetry have appeared, one in 1837, and the other in 1840. 
They contain two dramas, a number of lyrics and songs ; some 
wiitten in the usual Neo-Hcllenie, and others in the popular dia- 
lect ; and translations of the First Book of the Odyssey, and of 
the Phoenissas of Euripides ; besides some French and German 
verses. There is a want of dramatic power in the two plays : the 
speeches are too long : and the whole is too much spun out : but, 
notwithstanding, there is a great deal of delicious poetry in them, 
and they will well repay perusal. The songs are remarkably 
good, and some of the popular ones are written in a bold and 
dajbing style, congenial to their subjects, and full of spirit. 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 9 

12. There have been a considerable number of Greek histo- 
rians, but they have generally confined themselves to the late 
occurrences of their own history. At the head of them stands 
Perraevos, whom Niebuhr thought not unworthy of a place beside 
the ancient historians. His " Memoirs of Different Battles fought 
between the Greeks and Turks from 1820 to 1829," are admir- 
ably written. The style is manly and straightforward, with none 
of that Gallicism which appears in many Neo-Hellenic writers, and 
even in the Soutsoses ; and he shews great power in depicting 
scenes. His narrative never fails to keep up the attention, and 
sometimes excites thrilling interest, especially when the subject he 
handles draws forth his own patriotic feelings. Two or three 
accounts of Suliote exploits and battles are written with Homeric 
vigour as well as faithfulness. Bishop Germands has also his 
recollections of the Rise of the Kevolution — a work which par- 
takes in a considerable degree of the simplicity and straight- 
forwardness of Perrsevos's. Joannes Philemon has given an 
account of the STCiiciia, or secret society, which worked so ear- 
nestly in the cause of Greek freedom, and brought about the Re- 
volution ; and Dionysius Sourmelis has written a history of Athens 
during the same eventful period. There is also a history of 
Greece from 1715 to 1835, by Ambrosius Phrantzis, and a his- 
tory of Hydra, Petza, and Psara during the same time, by No- 
menides. 

Among those who have devoted themselves to ancient history, 
the most famous is Paparrigopoulos, who has been actively em- 
ployed, as well as some of the other writers already mentioned, in 
the education of the Greek youth. 

13. The Greeks have very keenly discussed ethical and religious 
questions, and sometimes their newspapers are filled with contro- 
versies which look rather strange in the midst of politics. For a 
long time they were not allowed to write on politics very freely, 
and accordingly they gave themselves up to religious investigations 



10 SKETCH OP KEO-HELLKNIC LITERATUKE. 

and squabblings. Pharmakides stands at the head of their religious 
writers. Neophytos Bamvas has written on Ethical Fhiloaophy, 
and numerous works on PoUtical Economy and cognate subjects 
have been translated. The Greeks have also several works on 
Mathematics, but by far the greatest number are translations. 
They have also had several illustrious physicians, and works on 
Anatomy ; but frequently books on such matters are written in 
ancient Greek, which is still regarded as the proper language of 
scientific men. 

14. Among philologists, Asopius, Eangavis, Constantinos QSeo- 
nomos, N. Bamvas, and Gennadios, hold the first rank. Bamvas 
has published a Syntax of ancient Greek, as well as a compa- 
rative grammar of the ancient and modern. Gennadios, too, has 
published a grammar of the Hellenic, which has obtained the sanc- 
tion of government, and is accordingly used in the schools. It is 
much superior to many of the grammars used in Britain. It has 
reached a third edition. 

There are also several good oriental scholars among the Greeks ; 
and there are translations in Neo-Hellenic of Brahminical works, 
which have never been translated into any other European lan- 
guage. 

15. There are now several newspapers in Athens. The articles 
are often written with great spirit, and owing to the peculiar stand- 
point of the writers, their ideas on European matters arc generally 
highly interesting and instructive. 

The Greeks have also produced lexicons of the Hellenic and 
Neo-Hellenic, but none of first-rate excellence. The Neo-Hellenic 
Lexicon of Scarlatto Byzantino (Athens, 1835), is the best. There 
are likewise lexicons of Keo-Hellenic and Italian, Keo-Hellenic 
and French, Neo-Hellenic and German, and Neo-Hellenic and 
English. The English Lexicon is by Lowndes, but its character 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLEKIC LITERATURE. 11 

I don't know, as I have never seen it. Tauchnitz publishes a very 
useful little Lexicon, Neo-Hellenic and German, by Theodor Kind, 
■which may be had for a few shillings. 

15. Several Neo-Hellenic books have been either reprinted or 
published in England. One of these is by Stephanos Xenos, 
who is also the author of the " Devil in Turkey." It is styled 
"'H XLayaogft.ioi "Exheig," and is a description of the Crystal 
Palace, first contributed to two Neo- Hellenic newspapers, the 
Amalthia and the Athena. It is' beautifully printed, elegantly 
written, and illustrated with very good plates, and, as it contrasts 
modern art and its inventions with ancient, it is the most suitable 
memorial which a scholar could have of the Great Exhibition. But 
by far the most valuable Neo-Hellenic work published in England 
is the first volume of the History of the Greek Revolution by the 
same Tricoupi, whose name is mentioned above. See a notice of 
this in the Times newspaper, October. " 

The Greeks generally find great difficulty in publishing, because 
they have a narrow literary public in their o^vn country. Almost 
all the Greek works that have appeared have been got up at the 
cost of rich Greek merchants. Might not our scholars do some- 
thing to help the Greeks in this matter ? If they were to buy 
Neo-Hellenic books more liberally, they would find themselves 
much the better for it, and they would be contributing toward the 
advancement of that country, their attachment to which is generally 
strong and elevated. 

I. ALPHABET. 

1. The letters of the alphabet are the same as in H. 

The following letters have a different pronunciation in Greece 
to what they have in England : — 

tj, ;, u, II, 01, VI = ee in been. They may also have the short 
sound corresponding to ee, as i in pin. 

B 



12 SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIO LITEKATUKE. 

a/ ^ ai in pain ; ou = oo in boon. 

av = af, av, £u = ev, ef. rju = if, ef, ev. The v sound is given 
before /3, y, d, the liquids and the vowels. 

/3 =. V in vase. 

7 before ►, f, a, o, ca, ou, has a guttural, aspirated sound, to 
which there is nothing similar in English. It is the same as the 
Hebrew ayin, in the word Gomorrha, and might be represented by 
gh. Before /, s, )j, a,i, ei, oi, it has the sound of y. yaXa, = ghala, 
ay/OS = ayios. 

5 = th in the, 3 = th in thaw. 

X, is founded like a soft s, or like z in zone. 

Though ■3' and r are sounded as in English, //.ff is sounded as 
mb, and n as nd, jjiHtojiu = emboro, ami ^ andi. 

r; and r^ before the ee sound, is pronounced as ch. When it 
follows V, they are sounded as j. In other cases they are sounded 
as ts or tz. 

In transposing from English into Greek, b is represented by ^t, 
w by ou, ch by rs or tZ. 



II. ACCENTS AND BREATHINGS. 

1. Accents are the same as in H. The common people some- 
times misplace the accents, and in this way the laws generally 
given for accentuation are occasionally violated. Comp. /j,s//,a)i>/i,rj 
in Corinna, fr. 21, Bergk., and Mridiia in Sappho, Joann. Alex. 
4, 28, in Ahrens. De Dial. CEol. p. 12. 



SKETCH OF NEO-HKLLENIC LITERATURE. 13 

Though the breathings are regularly placed on words, the Greeks 
neglect the aspirate in pronunciation, as in CEolic ; see the gram- 
marians quoted by Ahrens, De Dial. (Eol. pp. 19, 20, note. 

III. DECLINABLB PARTS OF SPEECH. 

General Remarks, 

1. The dative case is seldom used, unless in particular phrases. 
It is supplied by the accusative, sometimes with and sometimes 
without lis. 

There is no dual number. The (Eolic had no dual. Air. De 
Dial. CEol. p. 108. Doric seldom used it, Ahr. De Dial. Dor. pp. 
222 & 298 ; and it does not occur in the New Testament. 

IV. ARTICLE. 

1. The article is the same as in H. In the popular dialect 
»i and raTs or rjis occur instead of ai and rAj. eJs is frequently 
used for our indefinite article (sometimes in Hellenistic, Matth. 
viii. 19 ; xxi. 19), its declension being the same as in H. ; only that 
instead of iJg for the nom. sing. sWs occurs not unfrequently. 

V. NODN. 

1. The First, Second, and Third Declensions are the same as 
inH. 

2, There are forms of nouns, not to be found in H., derived 
from foreign languages. 

a. Nouns in ou are thus declined : 

Sing. PL 

Nom. PaXXoO. PaXXoESa. 

Gen. TaXkovi. PaXXo-Jdaiv. 

Ace. FaXXouv. FaXXfi~A'(,s (ej). 



M SKETCH OP NKO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 

6. Many words in as are declined like -vl/ajas, a fisherman. 

Nom. ■^a^&i. >)/aga3£s. 

Gen. -vJ^ajS. ■'^a^ddiut. 

Ace. ■^a.^&v or a. -^a^adig. 

So in P. some nouns in jjs and a ; those in ?is retaining the jj 
in the sing. 

c. Feminine nouns in ui are variously declined. 

Mag/yS, Maria, has /La^iyws in the gen. 

AeS'Trai, Madam, has Aeittous, and pgoVtuhas pgoVou ; the accus. 
in all being like the nom. 

d. Turkish words are thus declined : 

Nom. ^arsni, a pilgrim ; plur. ^oiTeijSeg, regular, o xa^ef 
(coffee) ; plur. xa(p'sSeg. 



Gen. ;^arir?. 


xa(p£. 


Ace. ^arariv. 


xaplv, -k. 


Voc. ;^arir?. 


xa^E. 


i (par/jji. 


(paT/i'eSeg. ' 


rfig <f>arijisg. 




Tiji' ipar/ih. 




(par/A. 





3. Several nouns in ug that belonged to the third declension in 
H., are sometimes declined according to the Attic form of the 
ccond, as, yiXag (also in Hellen. See Jelf. Greek Grammar, 
116, 4. Comp. also ejos and ysXos of the second deal, in CEolic. 
Ahr. p. 120) ; and mg belongs to the third (as in the New T.) 

4. Spoken Language. — a. Some nouns in as of the First Decl, 
have a in the genitive sing, (as in Doric), and some in ng have »i. 



SKETCH OF NKO-HELLENIC LITERATTIEE. 15 

h. In the First Decl. the ace. sing, sometimea loses the final v, 
and the nom. and aoc plur. have aig instead of ou, ac. The aoc. 
plur. in aig is CEolio. 

c. In the Second Decl. the v in the ace. sing, of masc. and in 
nom. and ace. sing, of neuter nouns, was frequently struck off as 
rh aXoyo, the horse. (Comp. rouro, and such words.) An irre- 
gular plural of neuter words was sometimes used, as aXoyara, 3d 
decl. for aXoya. Comp. wjoffcii'irara, Odyss. xviii. 192 ; Jelf, 117, 
8 &9. 

d. Words in rov lose the ov in the nom. and ace. sing, as vaid! 
for 'Ko.iiiov. 

e. Ace. plural of mase. and fem. nouns of the Third Ded. often 
ends in eg. 

f- Some nouns are declined partly according to the First (Third ?) 
partly according to the Second ; as, 

Nom. Gen. Ace. o ^ogajt-ag, -m, -a ; plur. ^i^xoi. The trans- 
position of words from the third to the second decl. is common in 
<Eolic, See Jelf, 115, 1. a. obs. 2. 

g. Many masculine nouns and the pres. part. act. use the form 
of the ace. plur.* for the nom. sing. ': as o yi^mrag, the old man ; 
and many feminine use that of the ace. sing, as, ^ yura/Sta, the 
woman. They are thus declined ; Nom. yi^ovrag. Gen. ace. and 
voc. yi^ovTU. Nom. ace. voc. yuvoma. Gen. yvvulxag. On this 
irregularity see Madvig's Latin Grammar by Woods, Preface, p. vi. 
note ; and comp. such strange readings of some MSS. of N. Test. 
as ^iioav, Tischendorf. Prolegg. in N. T. 1849, p. xxiv. 

* This form is really the accasative sing, with the ; added, as a sign of 
the masculine, , 



1 6 SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 

h. Some nouns in i/iov belong to the Third Decl., and hare areg 
in the gen., as y^d-^i/iov, y^a-^ijJMTOi. Jelf, 117, 8 ; as m c. 

VI. ADJECTIVE. 

1. Adjectives are declined as in H. 

2. Spok-en Language. — a. Adj. in jjc are seldom used, and those in 
05, Of, ov, are changed into adjectives of the first and second de- 
clension. 

i. yXuxuj, and such adjectives, were thus declined : 





Masc. ■ 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Ncut. 


Nom. 


yXux-i)s, 


-^.&, 


-u. 


"': 


-£/A, (s), 


-vii. 


Gen. 


yXvA-io^, 


-ilag, 


-;oD. 


-uSJv, 


-vuv, 


~vuv. 


Ace. 


yXux-i/n, 


-tiat, 


-». 


-icug, 


-iialg, 


-v&. 


Voc. 


yXvx-ii, 


.u&, 


-i). 


-cl, 


-eialg, 


-u&. 



c. Adjectives in Ofhad the gen. fem. in ous, and the nom. and 
ace. plural in aig, 

d. For fiiyai and l^iya, /JbiydXog and /iiydXo'j are used. 

3. The comparison of adjectives is the same as in H. The form 
in len^og, leraTog, however, is often used instead of orsjo?, orarog. 
The superlative, as in Italian and French, is sometimes formed 
by 'rXiov, preceded by the article. The following are thus com- 
pared : 

xaXig, xaX^resoj, xaXdiiTCCTog, and xdXXiSTog, 

xaxJs, xuxuTiiog, xax^Tioog, and ^u^oTi^tg, xaxuirctrog, Hd- 

xidrog, and ^cl^ierog. 
fi^iyag, /iiyaXtjTi^oc, /jLiyaXijraTug, and /iiyidTog. 
•jto'm;, •SiPiSeoTi^og^i and tXe/otejos, ToXXoraros, and irXiiSTtti, 



SKETCH OF NEO- HELLENIC LITERATURE. 17 

iXlyog, oX/ycSrsjog, iXd^ierog. 
•rioxofifiiiivog, T^oxo/ji/isviSTSgog, v^oxo/Ji/Ji-eviSTaTos. 
xovTig^, short, has xovr^re^og in addition to the regular compa- 
rative. 

^guTog, 'X^ariiTi^og. 

Vn. KTJMERALS. 

1. Numerals are the same as in ancient Greek. In conversation, 
the words for 30, 40, and on to 90, are contracted, rg/dira, 30," 
*ajai/ra, 40 ; 'jnvrjvra, 60 ; i^rjVTa, 60 j sCSo/i^ira, 70 ; oySoiji- 
ra, 80 ; evuvrjvra, 90. 

VIII. PRONOUNS. 

1. Personal Pronouns. — 'Eyii and tfi) are declined as in H. 

a. The follomng forms are used in the Spoken Language : — 
Nom. Jtfi), thou. Ace. sing. B/isva, me ; sdha, thee. Nom. pi. i/Ziii'g, 
yre ; ce/j, laiTg, ye. Gen. plur. /*as, l/j,a,g, of us ; aag, of you, 
Aoc. plur. fi&g, i/J-ag, us ; IffSs, eag, you. 

6. For the gen. and ace, sing, and plur. of aurhg, he, the same 
parts of the article are generally used, as riv E/Va, I told him. 

c. In the Spoken Language, I, thou, he, are sometimes ex- 
pressed by Tov Xoyov /JjOV, tov Xoynv gov, <rov "Koyou rou, as to\j 
Xoyou sou ygapE/s, you write. This use of Xoyog is in some de- 
gree analogous to that often occurring in the N. T. by which it is 
substituted for the Hebrew word for name. See discussions on the 
Xiyog of John i. 1. 

d. iavTou contains the idea of self simply, sccvnu /iov, of me 
myself. Something similar in N. T. So in P. Dial, avarog /lov, 
ffou, I myself, &c. from aMg ; (Comp. aurdg and ara,^.') 



] 8 SKETCH OP NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 

"2 DemonstratiL-e Pronouns. — lusTvog, ourog, a'jro;, are declined 
as in ancient Greek. The spoten Language contains different 
forms of them : thus, ixiTvos becomes xsTvos. ovrog becomes 
TouTog, and aurhg, avroiog. 

n-jTog had the following irregularities : 

Sing. Nom. rouTo:, sTourog, rourjj, iroirri. 

Gen. rourouvoij, rounju/u, Irourjjs, rourjjv^g. 

Ace. STOurov, rouTy}t, irohrriv. 

Plur. Kom. roZroi, irovroi, tovttiio)^ irduTaig, iroura. 

Gen, erouTCiiv, toutuvuv, murrivuii. 

Ace. iTourog, TovTri'joiig, TouTouvoiig, roiraig, eTohraig. 

aOroKis is thus declined : 
* 
Sing. Nom. a-jTovog, avrrjvdg, aurjjn], avrovo, aurrjvh. 
Gen. auroumD, auTTivov, a,UTjivtjg. 
Ace. avrova, avrtiv^, 
Plur. Xom. aurjjvw. 

Gen. aurutSiv, airtjvZv. 

Ace. avrouvodg, a\irri'Joug, auralg, aurjjva/s. 

3. Possessive Pronoun. — 6 liixog /Ji,ou, ri ibr/.r] ^ou, rj /S/hov ,<4oi/, 
my ; o idixog aov, thy, &c. liixhg is frequently written idixhi. 
Korais derives it from 'Idiog. 

i. Relative Pronoun. — 'ig is seldom used, ogrig not unfrequently : 
imTog (il quale), however, is the proper modern Greek relative. 
A smiilar use of o oToTog occurs in later Greek writers, such as 
Pausanias. See Book I. c. xiv. 2. It is declined regularly. Instead 
of it octD, sometimes written VoS, is employed for all cases in the 
P. dialect. So in English, wherein, or m which. 

6. Interrogative Pronouns.— rig and iroTog are used for the 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. • 19 

inter. They are declined regularly ; 'iroTog, however, was often 
declined irregularly. 

Sing. Nom. m'oToe, irola, iroTov. 

Gen. rrolov, to;ouvoD, 'ttoiuvov. 
'iroiavou, irolug, -aoiavrig. 
Ace. 5ro?oi' 'ftoTav, voTo. 
Plur. Nom. •xoToi, -aoiaig, voTa. 
Gen. 'Toiiav, iroiavSiv. 

Ace. ffo/oti5, 'n-oiavoig, 'ffoiaig, mlaig, mm. The accent 
varies, '!roio; occurring ; Tiv&g is sometimes found instead of rig. 

6. The following pronouns are used by the modems : xdh 
(indecl.) every; xa,6svag or nahlg (like sJf) everyone; xanlg, 
xaffo/os, any one ; xiiri, some, something ; xd/ji.'jroeog, some one ; 
/diog, the same; fis^ixhi, some, several; S'noiog (different from 
relative in accent), O'lroioedrj'jroTi (oys/o; P.), whoever ; rddi, nro/og 
l^radiiroiog P.), such an one ; Ti'TTors, any thing ; ('rasa (indecl.) all ; 
xaSaelg, 'iraaaslg, •Trani.vaiig, every one, are P. forms.) 

VII. VBKB. 

1. a. — The Optative Mood is rare, and used only in wishes 
or prayers. So generally in the New Testament.* 6. The In- 
finitive also is rare, and occurs only in the written language, 
c. There is no Middle Voice, though there are some deponent 
verbs. 

2. The tenses are : — The Present, the Imperfect, the Future, 
the Aorist, the Perfect, and the Pluperfect. Of these the Future, 
the Perfect, and the Pluperfect are formed by the assistance of 
auxiliary verbs. There is also a Compound Conditional tense. 

* Some of the writers of the New Testament never use the opt. LaJce em 
ploys it in an indirect past interrogation as well as in the expression of wishes ; 
and in Peter, 2d Epist., it occurs with tl, though the readings vary. 



t>0 



SKETCH OF NEO-HBLLENIC LITERATURE. 



3. Table of a Regular Veri. 




Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. 


Participle. 


Present, yf«f<u. vx y^ifai. y^iipi. y^xfuv. 


y^ac^uy^ 


Imperfect, cy^itipx. 




Aorist, ij^joii^a. m y^a^iii. yjai/-!. y{a^/'>I. 


y^d^J/as- 


Perfect, tx" Vi'i'^'V- 




Pluperfect, iix:" y(ii^v 




Future, BsXiu y^oi^ri^ or y^atpuv. 





Conditional, rf^sXa y^ai^-jj, or y^aipuv. Scriberem. 
Passive. 

Present, y^atpofteth voi y^a^aif^Bci, y^dipaV' 

Imperative, ly^a^ofitiv, 

Aorist, iy^d<p$viv. va. y^a^iu, ' y^d^ov. 

Perfect, ijfiitt y^et/ifiivos. 

Pluperfect, itxii yg«^^«v. 

Future, SiX«f y^dtpsir^ai or y^oL(pSvtv. 

Conditional, ii^iXa yfdpirSai or y^xfiriy. Scriberer. 



y^ettptirHxi. ypa^efuvoi. 



7!" 



ypttfStis, 
y^xfifiine* 

y^KipfijirofiEvof 
Scribendus. 



4. This table, taken principally from the Grammar of Franz, 
Jiffers from tables of a similar nature given in other grammars in 
some respects, because several modes of spelling are in vogue. 

VIII. ACTIVE VOICE. 

1. The present is inflected as in H. y^dpouv ia commonly 
used as the third person plur. This form is generally said to 
be derived from the Doric 3d pers. plur. in our;, but I am inclined 
to think that it is simply a contraction from the common form in 
ousiv, as 'iipm for spuffan. Jelf, 279, 1. Comp. on the other hand 
iXi'i Cretan gloss for i^ovgiv, Hesych ; but see Ahr. De Dial. 
Doric, p. 293. 

In P. yguoouvs or ygapouw for the 3d p. plur., also yjapo/tE 
for the 1 St pers. pi. 



2. The imperfect is thus inflected : sygap -a -ej -e -afiiv -ire 
-av. The first person in a is an old form, and occurs in Ionic, 



SKETCH OP NEO- HELLENIC LITERATURE. 21 

irlSsa, and sa. Jelf, 192, 3 ; 287. The augment n occurs. 
tygaipov is sometimes used for the 1st per. sing. P. forms are 
iyoa.!faii,a,v for 1st per. plur. and iyga,(po\in, ljga,<f!a,Si, yga^aw, 
yga.<paei for the 3d pers. plur. 

3. The Aorist is inflected like the imperfect, 'iyga-i^ai; is found. 
For the second person of the Aorist in s; comp. a similar change 
of as into £s in the perfect in MSS. of New Test, xexo'rlaxig, 
Tischen. Prolegg. p. xxv. note. The modal vowel i is epic. Jelf, 
194, 7. The following are popular forms, iy^d-^a.'j.Sjygd-J^a.fii 
-y^d-^isTi -y^a-^/oiv, y^d'^an, Vy^d-^an, also ey^d-^adi. This 
last is worthy of notice. The proper form of the 3d per. plur. 
perf. was awi, which was changed into air/, and did not take the 
form of av till the Alexandrine writers. The proper form of the 
First Aorist, 3d pers. plur., was avri, which form was changed into 
an, but very likely the older form was udi. Jelf, 191, 194. Tisch. 
Prolegg. xxv. 

When the First Aorist is not in use in H., the Neo-H. takes the 
second aorist, and inflects it as the first. This was common in 
Alexandrine writers, and in New Test. Jelf, 192, 8. Tisch. 
Prolegg. p. XXV., and not unknown to classic times, wjosswstfa 
occurring in Eurip. Troad. 292, though the word is sometimes 
amended, Jelf, 247, 2. ii'Xaro occiu-s in Simonides of Ceos, fr. 
5, V. 7. Hermann altered the reading into ei'Xsro. 

4. The Perfect is not generally found in the earlier Neo-H. 
writers. Another form besides that given in the table is 'i^ta 
yga/i/isvoii, and for the plup. we have in like manner sJp^a y^a/n/jiivov. 
The use of 'ix'^ and other verbs as auxiharies was not unknown to 
classic writers. Pennington, in his book on the Pronunciation of 
Greek, gives several instances. See also Liddel and Scott's Lexi- 
con on 'i^u and Wi'Kai. 

5. The Future has various forms, Sea&i y^d-^fi or y^d-^si occur- 



22 SKETCH OF NEO-HEIXENIC LITERATURE. 

ring commonly in the written language, while the usual conversa- 
tional future is 3a yga4'W or y^apw. 3ii is a contraction for 
SeXe/ v&, and should be followed by the conjunctive. It is generally, 
however, joined with the Indicative. Some writers, as Tricoupis, 
always use 3a, and never SeT^w, to express ivill, would, shall, and 
should. This is similar to the classic use of av, which perhaps is 
an obscured form of some auxiliary verb. 3s vSi (or Ssui), 3(i va, 
and SeXe; yjapw are th^ee other forms of the future. Between the 
use of y^aipii and yga^vj/s*, there is this distinction : SeXo/iEi/ y^dipii 
or 3d ygapo/iEJ/, We shall write and continue to write : '^eXo/iiV 
y^a-i^ii or 3a yga-vJ/OittEK, We shall write, once for all. 

6. The conditional has another form besides that given in the 
table, corresponding to 3EXE/ ygapeo ; r^hXi ygapia, ^hXi y^dpiig. 
I should write, &c. 

7. Imperative. 
Present. 2 p. sing. yga^E. pi. y^dfire. 

3 p. sing, as yodpn. a; yodfiiigi or y^dftm, 
Aorist. 2 p. sing, y^d-^i. pi. y^d-^UTi or ete. 

3 p. sing. a.g yod-^r^ as y^d-ifHaei or ouv. 

The as here is a contraction for cJpEc, and is sometimes joined 
with the first pers. pi. conj. or indicat., to form a first pers. plur. 
imperat. ; as, as y^dfa/av, let us write. Comp. S,(pirs 'iSai/itv in 
Mark xv. 36, where there is the various reading apEs. In 
Matth. xxvii. 49, the reading apig is undisputed, ygapj) and 
yga-vj/^l are sometimes written y^dfei and ypa-^ti. 

8. Conjunctive. — y^apsj and y^d-^u are inflected as in H. 
The 2d and 3d persons plur. have sometimes in and ow instead 
of )jr£ and oiai. In Homer, the short vowel in the Conj, is quite 
common, Jelf, 200, 2 ; also in Pindar, Boeckh, Not. Crit. in Pind. 
Pyth. xi. 10. P. forms are, y^dfufii, y^d-^cii/j,i ; and ygdfotive 
and yjK'vJ/oui'E, 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 23 

9. Infinitive. — The infinitives are used only in conjunction with 
the auxiliary verbs, yodpiiv is generally written ygd^ii and 
yja-vj^jj (for y^d'^ai) y^d-^n. 

10. Participles. — The present participle in the spoken lan- 
guage is 'y^d(povTag, like y's^ovrag for yiguv. 

IX. PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. Indicative. — Present. The present is the same as in H. 
unless in the second person sing., which is y^dfiSai. This is the 
oldest and proper form of the second pers. sing., and belongs still 
in H. to verbs in jli. y^aipou/iiaah, ygapoi/iaors or yjapoi/AEore, 
ygapsffrs or ygapoutfre, and yodipomrai, are P. forms. The use 
of r in some of these, instead of the &, seems to arise from the 
tendency seen in Hellenic (see Lucian, Judic. Voc. § 10, p. 95, 
cited by Donaldson in his Cratylus, p. 103), and fully developed 
in French, German, and Italian, to change th into t. In French 
and German the sound is excluded ; in Italian, from which the 
popular ITeo-H. took the custom, the h is struck out ; as tema 
and teologia, from thema and theolo^. 

2. The Imperfect is the same as in H. sy^d(fiieo (as in verbs 
in /j,i), is sometimes used for sygdipov. 

The popular forms of this tense are numerous. 

Sign. 1. P. sy^d^otj//,oiiv. ' Plur. iygapovfj, -egri or -cign. 

2. lyc'dipoiiaom, lyjapoOors or eygapoio'atfrs. 

3. iy^d(p-omTO,-iTov-(ivvrav. hy^a,<pomr -avi ov -uv. 

There is also a form with jj, as augment, and e as the final let- 
ter of all the persons, riyga^oxifi^ovvi, fiy^afoheovn. Sometimes 
the augment is omitted altogether, lyoapoufiaeh, iy^d<po\i(l6ai 
or ly^dftan are also found. 



24 SKETCH OF KEO-HELLKNIC LITEEAITEE. 

3. Tlie first Aorist is inflected as in ancient Greek. There is 
a popular form iygap^ijxa inflected like the Imperfect active, 
eyjaprjjza and yja^rjjxa are irregular forms of the same. 
ly^aifSfixave and iygaipSrixagi, are found sometimes instead of 

4. The Compound Tenses require ns remarks. The plu- 
perfect is sometimes made by ^/j,oijv yga/j,/j,siiog. The future 
passive is formed iu as many ways as the future active. 

5. Imperative. 

Present 2 p. y^a^di/, y^u/ptrh. Aorist y^i-^eu^ y^et^^firi, 

3 p. as y^dipnritif as yaa^uvTai, as y^aipS'^^ as y^af^aitrt(v'), 

ai ygdipTfj, y^dfTTiri, as yoa^Touvs, ag y^&piomi or y^a.^6o\jai, 
are P. forms of the Aorist Imp. a; y^afiSoiJfMi, ig used as a 
first person in the P. dialect. Comp. Mark vii. 27. 

6. Conjunctiue. 
a. The Present Conjunctive is the same as in Ancient Greek, 
except the 2d person sing., which is y^a.<pieai, or rieai. The e is 
often substituted for the jj, as y^dfteOi, instead of y^dfirjcSi, 
y^afou/j-aari, or Ecrs and ygd<povvTai are popular forms. 

6. The Aorist Conj. is the same as in Ancient Greek. In- 
stead of yoafSSiei, y^apOouv is often used, and instead of 
yia(p6Z/J,t\i, ygatphv/MV occurs. ygafiSovdi is a vulgar 3d pers. 
plur. y^dipr-u-rjg-fi, &c., is a vulgar form. 

7. Infinitive. 
The Present Infinitive is seldom used. The Aorist occurs only 
m the compound tenses, and is generally written y^a(p6rl. It is 
derived from y^aipS^v, and is sometimes written so.° This is the 
(Eolic inf. (accent difi"erent). Ahrens De Dial. CEoI. p. 141. 



SKETCH OF ISEO-HBLLENIC LITERATURE. 25 

8. Participle. 

The perfect participle yoa/jkf/^'svog, has sometimes the augment 
ysy^ixfi/jisvog. 

X. AUXILIARY VERBS. 

1. The auxiliary verbs are £%(«, ^sXia and iT/Lai. //,iXXa is also 
used occasionally as an auxiliary, as in Ancient Greek. 

2. 'i^ia and SsXw are inflected as y^difxa. a. s'%w, imperf. 
£(^a. 'i^u has no aorist, which is supplied either from Xa/iQavct) 
or xiUTiu, 'tkaZa or ixgarrjSa,. h. SsA.m, ^'^eXa, n6iXr,ea,. 

S. sJjua/, I am, is thus inflected. 

Present. ' Imperfect. 

Sing. 1. iifj.m. PI. I'lfAiSiL. Sing. 1. »|Imov or B^nv. PI, 1. tisaix. 

2. sTfra/, eriT^s. nirovv. 2. a^S-e or ^cratrh 

3. £/Vdi/. Eivesj. 9jTa. 3. ^a'«y Or f]T0v. 

First aor. serdSi^v. Fut. SsXw ilaSai or (rra^i?. 

Imperative. 
Sing. 2. Effo or s/ffou. PI. ilsh. 

3. af ^i/a/. a; riva,i. 

Conjunctive. — ^/ji-a/, ^tfa/, ^vat, ^//,s6a,, ^aSi, rjvai ; sometimes 
written with / subscript in the singular. 

Participle, uv, ouffa, ov. 

a. The Neg-H. form of sJ/ia;, is a middle of which there were 
parts used in H., as 'ieo/j-ai. The third pers. plur. ihui, probably 
arose from ilnTai, and the third pers. sing., from iiTai, though, in 



2C SKETCH OF NEO-HELLESIC LITEUATURE. 

the latter the change is strange and unusual. Some of the best 
Neo-H. scholars in Greece (Gennadios for instance) write it iht. 
In the Imperative, sVo is Doric, Ahr. De Dial. Dor. p. 321 ; and 
tftfo occurs in Sappho, f. 1. v. 28, where one MS. reads sgo. 

h. The inflexion of iifj,ai is subject to many variations in the 
P. dialect. In the present there are the following. 1st pers, 
plur. E/^Effroi', uij.agTi or E;'|ttEO'rj(i') ; in 2d pers. plur. e/ote or 
iles. In the imperf. 3d pers. sing, rirov and rirav ; 1st pers. plur. 
yj/MiSre, ^/j,i(!ti(_v) ■ 2d pers. plur. rjaaari : 8d pers. plur. ^rav 
and iJTav!. In the imperative we have : 

Present. Plur. 1. ctg eif/t,e<STev. 

Sing. 2d pers. ai iisai. 2. ag ^ah, ^ars or ehri. 

3d pers. as sha,i. 3. as ihai. 

In Conjunctive, ruiasn and rtari, in the 1st and 2d pers. plural. 
Of the Participle ovrag and idTovrag are popular forms. 

XI. CONTRACTED OR CIRCUMPLEX VERBS. 

1. The Contracted Verbs in aw, ew, and ow, are inflected as in 
H. The Imperfects, active and passive, have, however, another 
and more common form : In the act. it is sri/iouda, STaTouea, 
idnKouea (comp. idoXioZaas in Rom. iii. 13), and is inflected like 
Eyjapa. Imperfect pass, is — 

1. STi/iov/iouv. PI. ETifiou/isSa,. So i'jrarov/i.ouy and sSrjXov/jiOVii. 

2. sTiiMhsouv. irii/yo-jaaah. 
S. eTif/iOXJTO. kriijjiivvTO. 

2. In the popular dialect these verbs are sometimes pronounced 
as if they were uncontracted (Epic. Jelf, 240, 241) ; and in the 
early Neo-H. their inflexion is altogether irregular. Thus : 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 27 

Pres. Act. Indie. 
Sing. 1. ^aerZ* PI. ^asrWiU^iii. 

3. ^aira jSottfroCff;, or /SaoToDw. 

Imperfect. 

Sing. 1. ICaffrouv. PI. 1. sCae:To{)Ba,//,ev. 

2. ISaffras. 2. iSoiffTars. 

3. sCaffra. 3. iQaanueav, 

Pres. Ind. Pass. 
Sing. I. ^agTou/^M. PI. 1. ^agnu/ngTiv, 

2. /SaorSffa/. 2. ^aST&gTi. 

3. jSaorara/. 3. jSaffroDira;. 

Imperfect. 

Sing. 1. £SoiifroiJ/.nji;ii. Plur. 1, iSagTov/Jtiinv. 

2. s^afTOuaovv. 2. IZaerari. 

3. sCaifroDi/ro, or sfSaSraTO. 3. ICacrroDiirav, 

The present Ind. Act. *arw as in H. 

The Imperfect Indicat. Act. 
Sing. 1,. wciroui'. Plur. 1. s'!rarovea/j,tv, 

2. evdrnis. 2. l«rars/7-£. 

3. IffarsK. 3. £*aroDtfav. 

Present Indicative Pass. 
Sing. 1. varoij/iai. Plur. 1. wariiaiili^iSTiv. 

2. ffars/stfa;. 2. ffars/oCffrs, or iroiri'ssh. 

3. •ffars/sra/. 3. wars/oOi/ra/. 

* Comp. iy^ for iyx^si in Aloman fr, 114, Bergk, and Philemon's Lexi- 
con, 3. v. uyot^ca. 



28 SKETCH OF NE0-HEIJ.KN1C LITERATURE. 

Imperf. 
Sing. 1. lva.Tm{>[MW. Plur. 1. iimTimi/iighv, 

2. E^raTE/ouwu. 2. I'jra.riiovdh, or 

s'jraTsiigh. 

3. IffarE/oui'TO, or cvaTii'mv.] 3. ivaTsioZvTat. 

3. Several verbs are conjugated very irregularly in the popular 
dialect. The following are the most common : 

Present, fayu, to go (yva/yia in the written language). 

Sing. 1. Tayoi. Plur. 1. vd/Liv. Imperfect, evdyaiva, infl. 

2. was.* 2. TarE. like sygapa ; and first 

3. -ffa. 3. ffaff/, or wavi. Aor, sV}] ya like Ej'ga-4/a. 

Imperative. 

1. as irdfiiv. 

Sing. 2. ways, or aiii. 2. as tote. 

3. as wa/E/. 3. as waff*. 

Xsyw, I say. 

Present. 
Sing. 1. Xs'yw, Xsw. PI. 1. Xe/ieu. Imperf. sXEya like Eyja- 

2. Xes. 2. Xete. pa ; and 1st Aorist sJwa 

3. Xe. 3. Xeve, or "kiei. like 'iy^a-^a. 

Imperat. 

1. oJs E/VoD/iev. 
Sing. 2. WE, or E/WE. 2. as w;Ve. 

3. as e;w^. 3. as woCff/. 

* The omission of y between two vowels, and tlie consequent contraction 
of two syllables into one, is a common phenomenon in language. So Hagel, 
German j English, hail. In Greek it is formed by the soft pronunciation of 
of the y. 



SKETCH OF NKO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 29 

Present. 
Sng. 1. rjtiyft). Plur. 1. Toii/jLSK 

3, rjw. 3. rjStf/, or r^tan. 

Imperfect. 

Sing. 1. ir^iaya^ Plur. 1. sf^dya/iS}/, 

2. srgwj. 2. JrgwrE. 

3. srgM. 3. Irgwyai/E. 

Aorist. 
£ing. 1. ipaya. Piur. 1. Ipaya/ieiL 

2. EpayES. 2. e<pari. 

3. Epayt. 3. Ipayans, or i^dya<fi. 

Future. 

Sing. 1. 3e potya. Plur. 1. Ss pS/iEK. 

2. Se pas. 2. Se pars. 

3. ^£ pa. 3. Se pavE, or pa*;. 

Imperative Mood. 

.2. payE. 2. parE. 

3. as pa. 3. a; pavE, or pas'/. 

Several other verbs are contracted in the present, as — 

Ss^w, Ses, Se, SeiUei', Set-e, Sek. 

xXaiyu (xXa/a;), to weep ; z^.a/'j, xXo^ }CKa,7ii,iv^ Tikarri, 

xXa/P. Comp. Xo\J/iaj, Theodor Band's Neugriechische 

Anthologie, p. 159. 



30 SKETCH OF NEO-HELLF.NIC LITEEATURE. 



XII. GENERAL REMARKS ON THE VERB. 

1. The Conjugation of Modern Greek verbs will present no 
difficulty to the scholar. The aorists are nearly all the same as 
in the ancient. There is a tendency, however, to greater regu- 
larity, as IpEgtfjjii for riv'i'^itiv. 

2. The augment in verbs which have a preposition beginning 
with a consonant, for their first syllable, is placed before the pre- 
position, as exardXaZa, I understood, from xaraXa/iZditii. 
Comp. EffjopjjrEuffan and such words. See Tisch. Prolegg. xxv. 

3. Verbs which in the ancient language terminated in Xia,' or 
gsu, have a v before the a ; as eriXva and <pi^\iu for sriXXoi, fi^ia. 
So ancient verbs in loi and ou end in the modern language in 
Efw, and ova or wku, as bhu, I bind, (pan^ovo), ^^uetiviii. First 
Aor. Bfani^aga, s^idaasa, ; (comp. ddia and Smcii. The insertion 
of the \i is common in Hellenistic.) 

i. Ancient verbs in ctca are sometimes changed into verbs in va, 
>s ri^vZ, from 'jre^dm ; and the P. Neo-H. is fond of verbs in 
aivu, as '!ra,6a,ivca, /iaiahu. 

5. Some verbs that in Attic have a in the ^future, have in P. 
Neo-H. § as in Doric, as, eQddTa^a, and a ff is sometimes used 
where there was none in H. ; as ^off/iExos from SiSo/ihog. Comp. 
aiudTog in Sunonides of Amorgos, fr. 6, v. 56, and dri/jjaeTos in 
Mimnermus, fi-. 1. 

XIII. ADVERBS. 

1. They are for the most part the same as in H. A few occur 
very fi-equently which do not occur in the ancient language, though 
for the most part mere variations of ancient words. 



SKETCH or NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 31 

idu, here (said to be from ^Ss by metathesis) ; a/iegoig, imme- 
diately ; fSeZalag, jSsCa/a, (H.") Yes ; certainly : vai, fLaXiera 
(H.) are also used in this sense. 

dh (oudiv) not, 'i^i (ou;^/), no : firi, (Jii\\i, not. &h corresponds 
to H. ou;£, but is not used alone. ,«.)] and ,0.^11 correspond to i^n ; 
0;^/ replies to questions, No, and occurs also in a few phrases such 
as o')(i lU.owii', not only ; rtijga {rf i"^'?)) ^o^ > '''i^ovTi, indeed 
(common in H., but written rSi ovti. Probably, however, it was 
sometimes written as in Neo-H. Comp. Pearson's emendation of 
rip OVTI for irrmmra in Suidas on ' AXv-fidv, where the confusion 
seems to have arisen from the two words being written together ;)* 
TsXog •xavraiv, (H.) at length ; &x6/mj, still, yet ; 'irgi, so j wdvTa, 
always; tl&v ne-quidem, at least, (Mark vi. 56.) The following 
are found in the P. dial : dfydi, (from a^yog) late ; U'lrinsi, (a'jth, 
sKsT,) afterwards ; •ai^si (tsjuo'/), last year ; o^Tgo^A, of/yV^Z; (sfi' 
'ir^oekv, comp. .ffiolic and Doric, i/i^^osSa, and the reading e/i'ffgo- 
hv in Theoer. Idyll. 9, v. 6.) before, forward ; xafi«6eov, xa/^- 
•TToaaKi, neveV so little ; xaitou xdvou, sometimes ; adavoi, adavSi, 
immediately ; roLGin^g, in some place. 

2. Several adverbs are used as prepositions. Most of them would 
be recognized at once by the classical student. We shall mention 
those that are peculiar to Neo-H. 

avd/iiiBd rou, or i'lg rhv, between him ; a'Trofieaci 0,96 rov, from 
within. There are several other adverbs compounded with avh, 
easily recognizable. Mwd nv, or iic rhv, near him ; fj,at^l tou, 
or /jti rhv, together with ; ei//jd nv, or iig rhv, near him ; T^iydoai 
rov, or eig nv, round him. 

XIV. PREPOSITIONS. 

1. They are almost all the same as in H. The cases which they 

* Various other emendations, however, have been proposed. See Schnei- 
dewin's Delectus, p. 238. 



32 SKETCH OF NKO-HELLENIC LITEnATURE, 

govern are sometimes different, and their sense is occasionally 
slightly changed, avrl, ix, rr§h, govern the gen. ; awh, eig, /*£, 
-rohc, the accus. ; e\i, the dat. ; di^, liri, xarot., /isri, ^sf/, i^rsj, 
iwJ, gen. and ace. ; '?ra,^a, gen. dat. and ace. 

a. el; has the signification of h as well as its own Hellenic. 
This is Hellenistic. Comp. Mark i. 21, 39, x. 10, (See Tisch.'s 
edition, as the readings vary), John i. 18, where there is no 
various reading. This use of e/'s is frequent in critical editions of 
the New Test, h and eig (svs) are really the same, as in German 
and Latin in serves for both ; h is used for tig, and is followed by 
the accusative in Boeotic and sometimes in Pindar, iv with the 
dative is also, though rarely, used for ilg, as in John v. 4. Com- 
pare also the Scottish into, as in the song of " Saw ye Johnnie 

comin' " — 

" 1 hae twa sarks into my kist." 

fig for iv is also H., see Person ad Eurip. Phoeniss. 1381,"cited 
by Donaldson in his Cratylus. Iv is very seldom used, though it 
is becoming more common. It occurs regularly in several phrases, 
as h TodovTw, in the meantime, iv rfi 'EXXddi, &c. 

6. di& (written yia in P. dialect; comp. the form of di& not 
very dissimilar in sound, in the Sapphic word ^asXs§a/iai', fr. 88 
Bergk. ; and see liobeck. Path. G. S., Elem. p. 203 ; comp. also 
journal from diurnal), besides its usual meaning, has with the ace. 
the sense of the Hellenic tig. He came to the city, rjXh 8i& t^v 
■xokiv. It also often supplies the place of the H. Dative. 

c. fu signifies with, and is frequently used to express the H. 
modal dative. I have no doubt that /4s is an old form, like xa. 
See Donaldson's Cratylus, p. 244. 



XV. CONJUNCTIONS. 

m (from 7i/a) that: It continually occurs, owing to the absence 



8KETCH OP NEO-HELLINIC LITEKATUEE. 33 

of the Infinitive ; ha is very common also in Hellenistic, being 
used in the N. T. according to an apparently Latin idiom for ut, 
Luke i. 43 ; viii. 31, &c. In the popular dialect it is frequently 
used for on, as is also <!rSig. Another v& is joined with the ace. and 
points out ;■ v& rhv •xa.ripu, behold the father. 

//lOKovoTi Qih oXov or;), though ; /xoXovtouto (jjis oKov roDro), yet ; 
/iA (Italian), a,,ari, ■jrXfiVyhMt ; asoi/ (occurs in H. and Hellenistic 
in the form aip' o5 (Luke xiii. 25,) in same sense), when ; d,u,u, 
&//,a offou, ixiSiig oVou, as soon as ; avleoic, whether ; tiugov, until 
(Luke xiii. 21) ; b'TJ, while (Luke v. 34, &c.) ; Jw'ffw, whUe ; offov 
xa; ail, however ; iie&v, dan, iis va, as if; ay xat, although; fj,i 
TO va, because. 

xal is found instead of vA. -irSts ^//.moiT xal r^uiyei ; how can 
he eat ? jiokig in one clause and aai in another correspond to 
our no sooner — than, (H). Another use of -/.ai occurs in such sen- 
tences as 'ifjjZa xa! 5a afaXleiii, Enter : for I shall shut ; apaXieu 
being from dffpaX/^w. 

XVI. INTERJECTIONS. 

aXol/iovov, ah : alas ! a/isrors (P. word //laxd^i), that, followed 
by fa. 

XVII. SYNTAX. 

1. The syntax of Neo-H. is much simpler than that of the H., but 
most of its rules are the same. The frequent use of va is the most 
noticeable feature. The following points of difference may be 
noticed. 

2. Neuter nouns in the plural take a plural verb. This con- 
struction occurs sometimes in classic Greek. Jelf, 385, tries to 
make out a difference of meaning, but not always with success. 
It is quite common in the New Test., Matt. xxvi. 31, Mark v. 13, 



34 SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 

ix. 3, xiv. 27, &c. It was also frequent in the Byzantine writers, 
even the best of them, as Agathias. See, for a collection of in- 
stances in that writer, the Index in Niebuhr's edition, p. 418. 
" Neutra pluralia," he says, " ssEpissime cum verbo plurali." 

3. In the P. dialect niig is often used for tu\i, as ^ ti/Ij^ roiJff, 
their honour. Also nouns, expressive of quantity, measure, or 
weight, take the noun that follows them in the ace, as sVa voTrj^i 
x^asl, a cup of wine, (sometimes in H., Jelf, 435, e.) 

4. Some adjectives are followed by the genitive or ,«s. 6/jioTog 
roS avSiui'^rou or //,i riti avSgco'jrov. 

5. The comparative degree takes airi and -Tra^d, more frequently 
than the genitive, as ffopwrsgos affj, or ^aga rhv diSdgKaXov, wiser 
than the teacher. For Tagti with comp. (which is classical,) see 
Jelf, 637, iii. 3, g. 

6. Several verbs that take an ace. and dat. in H. govern two 
accusatives in Neo-H., and in the P. an ace. and gen. Sometimes 
a preposition is used to express the dative, as, rb ilira, rovro, I 
told him this, or touto iT'jra ilg avTiv. In P. row iJ'!ra nvro. 

7. In addressing a person, the second pers. plur. is more re- 
spectful than the singular, and when a title is given, the verb is 
put in the person of the pronoun. 

8. //,n is joined to participles ; never dh. A tendency to this 
use is seen in Hellenistic, and even in such writers as Lucian. 

XVIII. GENERAL REMARKS. 

1. Some early Neo-H. writers made every word terminate in a 
vowel, as in Italian ; hence such forms as yjapo/is, or yjapouvs ; 



SKETCH OF NEO-HELLESIC LITERATfURE. 35 

<sr xaroixia for the ace. sing, or t6u for rjv. So Attic, oiinel for 

2. Frequently in P. tie initial vowel of a word is struck off. 
iixhs for t&ixh; ; /iiXSi, I speak, for ofuXu ; ^svphi, for e^sL^u. So 
in Italian, scampare from excampare. 

3. Generally editions of the ballad and early Neo-H. poetry 
have enclitic words written along with the previous word as one 
«rord, as xugT^v/iou, for xupt^s p^u. 

4. In P. poetry ii& suffers crasis, as m£^jj for m eSjj), yd^iig, 
for wi e%s;£. 

5. In P. poetry the ei cS lie preposition ilg is taken away, as 
erogog for iii rh ing. 

6. The P frequently makes verbs end in yyta, as affci5;^i'w for 
a-jcudiia, px'''^j for 'pi-jttu, dju^'"^ for diiinin. viZyu for wVrw is 
noteworthy. 

7. The change from the lenis to the aspirate is exceedingly 
common in the P. ; 7cKifTris for nXi-ffrrig, o^rii for oxrii. , 

8. The omission of a vowel in the middle of words is very 
common in P. xo^p'^ for xogvtpii, ^d^iBTi for ^a^iSiTi, Z^iiSTi for 
^(igiri. Comp. seraj for iSSTcu. 

9. Verbs compounded with ix often undergo the following 
change, especially when they begin with /3. The x is placed 
after the initial consonant of, the verb, but dianged into /, as 
ixZalm becomes eZyaha. The s is frequently struck off, as 
^ydXku for sxGdM^ai, and the ^ is occasionally changed into u. 



36 SKETCH OF NEO-HELLENIC LITERATURE. 

Thus the form suya.'kei, which occurs in a poem of Panagiotis 
Soutsos, arises from IQydXii = ICyaXXs/ =r exQaXXii, 

10. In the P. Si is changed into yi or lyi, as yid or Jy/a, for 
&ia,. So also the aspirate is sometimes converted into y, as y/sgJs 
for /Ego's. A y is occasionally placed before a vowel ; as some 
think, instead of the jEolic Digamma, as yfi for ^'. If this be the 
case, it would tend to confirm the reading of the Hesychian Codex 
in various words, such as yT^ai (See Ahr. De Dial. iEol. 5, 2,) to 
which modem scholars have generally given a digamma, as fT^ai. 

11. In the P. X is frequently changed into f as ri^hv for ^X^sv. 
Comp. ruhv (passim in Theocritus), and the gloss of Hesychius, 
Knpaka^yia- xnpaXaXyta. Also xXiZavoi ; in Attic, xg/£avos. 

12. In the P. prepositions and some other words suffer apocope, 
as ac rh (poZov, for clvo r. p. This was common in .^olic. 
Ahrens De Dial. iEol. p. 149. acr ffarejwv in Alcjeus, fr. 102. 
Bergk. Wlien a word suffers elision, it is sometimes written as 
though it had been apocopated, as eJv o for ihai o. 

13. Elision is common in the article, and the verb ilfiai, (r* 
OTOMV for rh o-xoibv, s/'n' for eJvai,) and aphaeresis in eT/iai, and the 
relative oToS ; as, 'vai for thai, sometimes even V ; Va; for ihai 
(comp. 'erh for eUTiv, in Aristophanes and comic poets), and tou, 
or even V, for otoD. 

14. p frequently takes the place of % as pjjxag/ for Sjjxaf/. So 
in ancient Greek, p^g and S;jj. Comp. the remark of Athenaeus, 
xi. p. 500, on ffxWos and guvpog ; auyyivig yag tSi (p to &. 
SX/Cw may be written in Neo-H. either SX/'Sw (H.), or (pXiia 
(H.), aixf-iZu. 

15. T, ^, or (j>, sometimes takes the place of u, as we have seen 



SKETCH OP NBO-HELLENIC LITEKATURE. 37 

u take the place of /3 in luydXii ; as apsvrjjg for auS'evrtig, ixa-^s 
for ixauds, s^rj^t-^i for i^rigiuae. 

16. The order of letters is sometimes changed, as w^ixa for 
•Trlxga, y^miZiu for yvaig/^w. Comp. in H. sVga^ov from itigSto, &c. 
Perhaps the ancients took as great liberties in this respect as the 
moderns ; comp. the form hii<p^aeai for Sii(pSagga,i, in Ibycus, fr. 
47, Bergk. Bemhardy derives the form from die^av, the (p being 
placed for the digamma (Grundr. ii. p. 493), but Lobeck (Path. 
Gr. Serm. Elem. p. 496,) justly recognizes the authority of the 
writer from whom the passage is taken.