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Full text of "History of Shiawassee and Clinton counties, Michigan"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




Cornell University Library 




olin.anx 




^' 



XI 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924032193504 



HISTORY 



OF 



s 




EE Ai m§ WK, 



MICHIGAN, 



WITH 



Illustrations and Biographical Sketches 



OF THEIR 



PROMINENT MEN AND PIONEERS. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

D. W. ENSIGN & CO. 
188 0. 



-P^ 



PRESS OF J. B. LIPPINCOTT A CO., PHILADELPHIA. 



PREFACE. 



This History of Shiawassee and Clinton Counties has been preparer! witii the intention to make it 
as coniplete and accurate as possible; to produce a truthful and exhaustive narrative of events of im- 
portance or general interest which have occurred within the present boundaries of these two counties 
from the period of their occupation by the aborigines down to the present time ; to embody all obtainable 
facts, but to exclude from the narrative everything of doubtful authenticity, confining it as closely as 
practicable to the limits of Shiawassee and Clinton, and referring to no outside matters except such as 
could not properly be omitted because of .their close connection with the history of the region which is 
especially under notice. 

The work is divided into three parts. The first part, embracing twenty chapters, is devoted to 
matters common to both counties, viz., a short account of the occupation of their territory by the native 
Indians as far back as tradition reaches; the operations of white traders among the red men through all 
this region ; the several Indian cessions of land covering the territory now forming Shiawassee and Clinton; 
internal improvements, including a mention of Territorial roads, State roads, and railways traversing the 
two counties, and of the several projects formed in early years for improving the navigation of the Shia- 
wassee, Maple, and Looking-GIass Rivers ; military history, principally referring to the services performed 
in the war of the Rebellion by a large number of Michigan regiments, all or nearly all of which contained 
soldiers from both Clinton and Shiawassee Counties. Next after these general chapters is given a separate 
history of Shiawassee County, its citi'es, Owosso andCorunna, and each of its townships; and this part is 
followed by a similar separate history of Clinton County, its principal village, and the several towns. 

The township histories are largely made up of accounts of pioneer settlers, the work which they 
performed and the privations which they endured while transforming the wilderness into fruitful fields. 
In this connection it is proper to say that if errors are discovered (as it is nearly certain there will 
be) in the orthography of some of the family names of the early and later residents of Shiawassee and 
Clinton, it is largely to be attributed to the fact that the names have been found spelled differently 
(and sometimes in as many as three or four different ways) in the county, township, church, and society 
records, and that even members of the same family are not infrequently found to vary in the orthog- 
raphy of their surname. Under such circumstances it cannot be regarded as a matter of surprise if 
the writers of the county and township histories, often finding themselves wholly at a loss to know 
which manner of spelling to adopt, have sometimes made the mistake of choosing the wrong one. 

The historical material for the work has been gathered partly from county, township, and society 
records, and to some extent from old newspaper files, but principally from conversations with the oldest 
residents and best-informed people, of whom a very large number in each county have been called on 
and consulted; and all, with hardly an exception, have fully and freely — to the extent of their ability 
imparted the information sought. The pioneers and other citizens of Shiawassee and Clinton Counties 



PREFACE. 



who have thus furnished information are so numerous that it is impracticable to give them the separate 
individual mention which they are entitled to receive, but grateful thanks are tendered to each and all for 
the assistance which they have so obligingly extended. The writer also desires especially to express his 
acknowledgments to the editors and proprietors of the several newspapers, the county and township officers, 
the pastors and leading members of the churches, and the gentlemen of the legal and medical professions 
of the two counties, for favors and courtesies received from them in the preparation of the work. 

F. E. 

Philadelphia, Pa., August 14, 1880. 



CONTENTS. 



SZISTOE/IO-A-Xj. 



HISTOET OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON 
OOUNTIES. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I.— 'Indian History of the two Counties 9 

II. — Indian Treaties and Cessions of Lands^ and Indian Emi- 
gration 17 

III. — Internal Improvements 25 

IV. — Military Record 39 

v.— Third Infantry 43 

VI.— Fifth Infantry 45 

VII.— Eighth Infantry 53 

VIII.— Ninth Infantry 60 

IX.— Tenth Infantry 63 

X. — Fourteenth Infantry 68 

XI.— Tvfenty-third Infantry 75 

XII. — Twenty-seventh Infantry 85 

XIII. — Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Infantry and First En- 
gineers and Mechanics 88 

XIV. — First and Second Cavalry 93 

XV.— Third Cavalry 97 

XVI.— Fourth Cavalry 99 

XVII.— Fifth Cavalry 102 

XVIII.— Sixth Cavalry lOB 

XIX.— Tenth Cavalry 108 

XX. — Other Soldiers from Shiawassee and Clinton Counties . Ill 



SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

XXI. — Location, Topography, and Mineral Resources . . 116 

XXII. — Civil Changes, Early Settlements .... 118 
XXIII. — Organization of the County; Courts and Other 

Matters 121 

XXIV. — County-sites and County Property .... 126 
XXV.— The Press, The Professions, Civil List . . . .130 
XXVI. — County Societies, Agriculture, Manufactures, Popula- 
tion 138 

XXVII.— City of Owosso 144 

XXVIII.— City of Corunna 165 

XXIX.— Antrim Township 177 

XXX.— Bennington Township 386 

XXXI.— Burns " 198 



OHArTEE pAoE 

XXXII. — Caledonia Township 211 

XXXIII.— Fairfield " 220 

XXXIV.— Hazelton " 226 

XXXV.— Middlebury " 238 

XXXVI.— New Haven " 248 

XXXVII.— Owosso " 259 

XXXVIII.— Perry " 265 

XXXIX.— Rush " 272 

XL. — Shiawassee " 279 

XLI.— Sciota " 291 

XLII. — Vernon " 300 

XLIII.— Venice " 314 

XLIV.— WoodhuU " 322 



CLINTON COUNTY. 

XLV. — Boundaries, Topography, Mineral Resources . . 331 

XLVI.— Changes of Civil Jurisdiction 334 

XLVII. — Early Settlements, County Organization, Courts, and 

other County Matters 336 

XLVIII.— The Professions, Press, Civil List . . . .345 
XLIX. — County Societies, Agriculture, Manufactures, Popula- 
tion 353 

L.— Village of St. Johns 363 

LI. — Bingham Township 379 

LII.— Bath " 386 

LIII.— Bengal " 393 

LIV.— DeWitt " 403 

LV.— Dallas " 414 

LVI. — Duplain " 422 

LVII.— Eagle " 436 

LV III.— Essex " 443 

LIX.— Greenbush " 458 

LX. — Lebanon " 469 

LXL— Ovid " 478 

LXII.— Olive " 491 

LXIII.— Riley " 497 

LXIV.— Victor " 509 

LXV.— Watertown Township 519 

LXVI.— Westphalia Township 533 



bioc3-E/-a-I'h:ioj^Xj. 



BenjOimin 0. Williams 
Hon. Amos Gould 
Elisha Salisbury 
Hon. Josiah Turner . 
William M. Kilpatriok 
D. M. Estey 
James M. Guile . 
Ezra L. Mason , 
John 0. Adams . 
I. S. A. Wright . 

















PAGE 
158 

160 
161 
162 
163 
163 
164 
165 
183 
184 



PAGE 

Walter Wright 184 

Calvin M. Fuller 185 

Nathaniel Durfee 185 

Allen Beard 185 

Benjamin F. Howard 186 

Isaac Gale 194 

Newoomb Mitchell 195 

Samuel Nichols 196 

John Innes 197 

Jonathan M. Hartwell 198 



CONTENTS. 



:BXOG-TtJ^FJE3:XGJi^T^. 



Truman W. Rowly 
Roger Haviland . 
Robert Fox 
Isaac S. Barnura 
Nicholas Braden 
Amos Foster 
Thomas P. Green 
W. W. Smith . 
Thomas R. Young 
Ephraim F. Bennett 
George B. Munson 
Ithial L. MuDSon 
John Judd . 
W. W. Warner . 
Jesse Rhoades 
John Boman 
George W. Slooum 
George H. Warren 
Leonard F. Kingsley 
James Kenney , 
William Tubbs . 
Horace C. Main . 
Jacob Weidman . 
Phineas Burch . 
Wellmnn Hart . 
Daniel Young 
H. B. Cram 
Isaac M. Banks . 
A. P. Greenman and Wife 
William Newberry 
John Whaley 

Mrs. Nellie P. McClintock 
Willard Ryan . 

R. Reed 

Henry Jennings Van Akin 

James Van Akin 

Nathan M. Smith 

Hon. F. G. Bailey 

Alonzo H. Owens 

Andrew J. Van Ripi 

Francis F. Mann 

John P. Shaft . 

Hon. Oliver Lyman Spaulding 

John H. Fedewa 

Robert M. Steel . 

John Hicks 

John R. Hale 



PAGE 


. 207 


. 208 


. 208 


. 208 


. 209 


209 


. 210 


. 210 


. 219 


. 226 


. 225 


. 226 


. 234 


. .. 2.S6 


. 237 


. 237 


. 244 


. 245 


. 246 


facing 246 


. 247 


. 248 


. 266 


. 257 


. 257 


. 258 


. 259 


facing 280 


" 284 


. 290 


. 290 


. 300 


. 300 


facing 306 


. 312 


. 313 


. 313 


. 321 


. 321 


. 329 


. 330 


facing 330 


. 377 


. 377 


. 378 


. 378 


. 385 



PAGE 

John Avery 

Daniel Ridenour '^® 

James N. Smith ^''^ 

Benjamin F. Young ^''^ 

George Allen *^'' 

George F. Dutton ^^^ 

Daniel Dutton *^^ 

E. V. Chase facing 433 

William Tillotson ^^^ 

George R. Doty 434 

Lyman Cobb ^^^ 

Comfort Ranney ^^^ 

Willis Leach ^^^ 

David Clark 4*2 

George W. MoCrumb 442 

Mrs. Sally Hawley Beers 443 

William A. Hewitt 466 

Solomon P. Creasinger 456 

0. F. Peck 457 

Nathan R. Lowe 457 

Capt. David S. French 467 

David Levy 468 

William T. and Robert E. Davies 468 

Charles Sessions .,....••. 477 

Ezekiel De Camp 489 

B. M. Shopard 490 

Dr. Solon C. King 491 

Augustus Gillett 497 

John W. Outcalt 497 

Lyman Hungerford 5"'' 

Philip P. Peek 608 

Jonathan Owen facing 508 

John C. Brunson 516 

William S. Parker 517 

Mrs. Sarah Parker 517 

Epson Parker 517 

C. R. McKee 518 

Ainsworth Reed ,........■ 518 

James Upton .......... 618 

Chas. Edward Hollister 519 

George Gall ... 628 

Eliel Ingersoll 529 

Wm. F. Dutton 630 

George W. Kinney .... .... 531 

Stephen Hill 532 

Frank Noeker 541 



ILLTJSTKyJ^TIOlTS. 



State Capitol Building facing title 

Mm)S of Shiawassee and Clinton Counties . . . facing i 

Portrait of Okemos . . ... 
Shiawassee Court-House 



facing 



15 
116 



CITY OF OWOSSO. 



Eetey Manufacturing Company's Works and Office, between 150, 151 
Portrait of Benjamin 0. Williams 

" Alfred L. Williams . 

Residence of Benjamin 0. Williams 
Portrait of Hon. Amos Gould (steel) 

" Elisha Salisbury 

" Hon. Josiah Turner . 



facing 



158 
168 
158 
160 
161 
162 



PAGE 

Portrait of William M. Kilpatrick 163 

" James M. Guile . . . . . . .164 

" EzralTj. Mason 165 

ANTRIM TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of B. F. Howard facing 178 

" C. M. Fuller "180 

" with portraits of Nathaniel Durfce and Wife " 183 

Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. John C. Adams . . . .183 

" Mr. and Mrs. I. S. A. Wright . . . .184 

Residence of Walter Wright facing 184 

Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Wright ... " 184 

Residence of Allen Beard " 185 

Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Allen Beard ... " 185 



CONTENTS. 



IL31.TJSTK/^TI03<rS. 



BENNINGTON TOWNSHIP 

Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Hartwell 
Residence of J. M. Hartwell 
Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Gale . 

" Samuel Nichols and Wife 

" Lyman Hickey and Wife 

Residence of Lyman Hlokey 

" Newoomb Mitchell 

Portraits of Newoomb Mitchell and Wife 
Portrait of John Innes 



BURNS TOWNSHIP 



:d) 



Residence of Roger Haviland . 
Portraits of Roger Haviland and Wife 
Residence of Thomas P. Green . 
Portraits of Thomas P. Green and Wife 
Portrait of Mrs. Thomas P. Green (deceasei 
Residence of Isaac S. Barnum . 
Portraits of Isaac S. Barnum and Wife 
Residence of Amos Poster . 
Portraits of Amos Foster and Wife . 
Portrait of Truman W. Rowly . 
Residence of Robert Fox . 
Portraits of Robert Fox and Wife 
Residence of Nicholas Braden . 
Portraits of Nicholas Braden and Wife 
Residence of William W. Smith 
Portraits of William W. Smith and Wife 



CALEDONIA TOWNSHIP 

Residence of Thomas R. Young 

Portraits of Thomas R. Young and Wife . 



PAGE 

facing 188 

" 188 

facing 194 

. 196 

. 196 

facing 196 

" 197 

" 197 

. 197 



facing 200 

" 200 

" 202 

" 202 

" 202 

" 204 

" 204 

207 

" 207 

. 207 

facing 208 

" 208 

" 209 

" 209 

210 

" 210 



facing 219 
. 219 



FAIRFIEtD TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of B. F. and B. R. Bennett 

" Ithial L. Munson . , . . . 

" G. B. Munson . . . . . 

HAZELTON TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of John Roman . 
Portraits of John Judd and Wife 
Portrait of Mrs. Matilda Judd (deceased) 
Portraits of W. W. Warner and Wife 
" Jesse Rhoades and Wife 



MIDDLEBURY TOWNSHIP 

Residence of George H. Warren 
Portraits of Geoi-ge H. Warren and Wife 
Portrait of George W. Slocumb . 
" Leonard F. Kingsley 
Portraits of James Keuney and Wife 
Residence of Horace 0. Main . 
Portrait of William Tubbs . 



NEW HAVEN TOWNSHIP 

Residence of Jacob Weidman . 
Portraits of Jacob Weidman and Wife 
Residence of Wellman W. Hart . 
Portraits of Phineas Burch and Wife 

" Daniel Young and Wife . 

" H. B. Cram and Wife 



SHIAWASSEE TOWNSHIP 

Residence of John Whaloy 

Portrait of Isaac M. Banks 

Portraits of A. P. Greenman and Wife 

Residence of William Newberry 

Portraits of William Newberry and Wife 



facing 220 

" 222 

224 



facing 232 

. 235 

. 236 

. 236 

. 237 



facing 242 

" 242 

. 245 

. 246 

facing 246 

" 247 

. 247 



facing 256 

" 256 

" 257 

. 257 

. 258 

. 269 



facing 279 

280 

" 284 

" 290 

290 



SCIOTA TOWNSHIP. 

PAOE 

Residence of Willard Ryon facing 294 

Portraits of Willard Ryon and Wife .... "294 

Residence of Mrs. Nellie P. McClintook ... " 298 

Portrait of Mrs. Nellie P. MoClintock ... " 298 

" Miss Alta B. McClintock ... " 298 

VERNON TOWNSHIP. 

Portrait of R. Reed facing 306 

Residence of N. M. Smith " 313 

Portrait of Henry J. Van Akin 313 



VENICE TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of Alonzo H. Owens . . . between 318, 319 
Portraits of Alonzo H. Owens and Wife . . " 318, 319 
Portrait of Hon. F. G. Bailey 321 



WOODHULL TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of Andrew J. Van Riper . 
Portraits of Andrew J. Van Riper and Wife 

" Francis F. Mann and Wife 
Portrait of John P. Shaft 



facing 329 

. 329 

. 330 

facing 330 



CXjXlSTTOlsr COTJIsTTY. 

Clinton County Court-House facing 331 

Geological Map of the Lower Peninsula ... " 332 

ST. JOHNS. 

Portrait of John Swegels 364 

" 0. L. Spaulding facing 370 

Residence of Richard Moore " 372 

J. Hicks "374 

" R. M. Steel "376 

" J. H. Fedewa "377 

BINGHAM TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of John Avery facing 382 

Portraits of John Avery and Wife .... " 382 

Residence of Daniel Ridenour " 384 

" J. R. Hale "385 

BATH TOWNSHIP. 

Portrait of James N. Smith 392 

BENGAL TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of Benjamin F. Young .... facing 402 

DE WITT TOWNSHIP. 

Portraits of George Allen and Wife 414 

DALLAS TOWNSHIP. 

Portraits of George F. Dutton and Wife 421 

" Daniel Dutton and Wife 422 

DUPLAIN TOWNSHIP. 

Portrait of E. V. Chase facing 433 

Portraits of William Tillotson and Wife 433 

" George R. Doty and Wife 434 

Portrait of Charles R. Doty 434 

Hotel and Farm Property of George R. Doty . . facing 434 

Portraits of Lyman Cobb and Wife 436 

Portrait of Comfort Ranney 436 

" Willis Leach *36 



CONTENTS. 



IXjXjTJSTI2.^TI03srS. 



EAGLE TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of George W. MoCromb . 
Portraits of George W. MoCrumb and Wife 
Sesideoce of Oliver Doty . 
Portraits of Oliver Doty and Wife 
Residence of George Gall . 
" David Clark . 

Portrait of Sally H. Beers . 

ESSEX TOWNSHIP. 

Portrait of 0. F. Peck 
Residence of 0. F. Peck . 
Portraits of William A. Hewitt and Wife 
Portrait of Solomon P. Creasingcr . 
" Nathan R. Lowe . 

GREENBUSH TOWNSHIP. 

Park House, D. S. French proprietor 

Portrait of David Levy 

Residences of William T. and R. B. Davies 
Portraits of William T. and R. E. Davies . 



LEBANON TOWNSHIP. 

Portraits of Charles Sessions and Wife 



OLIVE TOWNSHIP. 



PAGE 

facing 438 

" 438 

" 440 

" 440 
442 

" 442 

. 443 



facing 446 

" 446 

. 455 

. 456 

. 457 



facing 467 

. 468 

facing 468 

" 468 



477 



OVID TOWNSHIP. 



Ovid Carriage- Works .... 

Residence of Ezekiel De Camp . 
Portraits of Ezekiel De Camp and Wife . 

" B. M. Shepard and Wife 

Portrait of Mrs. Matilda Shepard (deceased) 

" Dr. Solon C. King . 



facing 486 

" 489 

" 489 

. 490 

. 490 

. 491 



Residence of Augustas Gillett .... 
" John W. Outcalt .... 

Portraits of John W. and William Outcalt 

RILEY TOWNSHIP. 

Portrait of Lyman Hungerford .... 
" Philip P. Peck .... 

Portraits of Jonathan Owen and Wife . 



PAGE 

facing 496 
" 497 
" 497 



. 507 

. 508 

facing 508 



VICTOR TOWNSHIP. 

Residence of Ainsworth Reed . 
Portraits of Ainsworth Reed and Wife 
Residence of James Upton 
Portraits of James Upton and Wife . 
Residence of Epson Parker 
Portraits of Epson Parker and Wife . 
Residence of Charles E. Hollister 

" Mrs. Sarah Parker 

Portrait of Mrs. Sarah Parker . 
Portraits of John C. Branson and Wife 
Residence of John C. Brunson . 

" William S. Parker 

Portraits of William S. Parker and Wife 
Portrait of 0. R. McKee . 
Residence of Mrs. Mary A. McKee . 

WATERTOWN TOWNSHIP 

Portraits of Eliel Ingersoll and Wife 
Residence of William F. Dntton 
Portraits of William F. Dutton and Wife 
Portrait of George W. Kinney . 

" Stephen Hill . 

Residence of Frank Noeker 
Portraits of Frank Noeker and Wife . 



facing 510 

" 510 

" 511 

511 

512 

" 512 

" 513 

514 

" 514 

. 516 

facing 516 

" 517 

. 517 

. 518 

facing 518 



. 529 

facing 530 

" 530 

. 531 

. 532 

facing 541 

" 541 



HISTORY 



OF 



SHIAWASSEE Al CLITON COITIES, IICHIM 



BY PKANKLIN ELLIS, 



CHAPTER L 

INDIAN HISTOBY OF THE T"WO OOtJlfTIES. 

Forests, Rivers, and Indian Mounds — Tradition of Sauk Occupancy 
and Expulsion — Cliippewa Occupation — Early Indian Traders — 
Indian Villages, Fields, and Agriculture — Their Peculiar Super- 
stitions — The Chief Okemos — Character of the Indians of this 
Region — Fearful Ravages of Smallpox among them in 1837. 

A SECTION of country lying in the form of a parallelo- 
gram, about forty-six miles in length due east and west, 
and twenty-four miles wide from south to north, through 
which the principal meridian of the State passes, one mile 
east of the centre, and of which the south boundary is 
parallel to, and twenty-four miles north of, the base line ; — 
this is the modern geographical description of the territory 
embraced in the counties of Shiawassee and Clinton. But 
many years ago, before the surveyor's transit or compass had 
marked the course of a meridian or a base line across the 
peninsula, this same territory could not have been described 
much more correctly than as a wilderness tract, extending 
from the Grand River north and east, embracing nearly 
the whole of the valleys of the Wabwaysin (Looking-Glass) 
and Du Plain* Rivers to their heads ; as also the valley 
of the Shiawassee River, from the point where its two prin- 
cipal branches mingle their waters, down the course of the 
main stream for more than two-thirds of the distance to the 
place where it enters the Saginaw. This was a country of 
dense forests and timbered openings, occasionally inter- 
spersed with small prairies,f tamarack swamps, apd marshes 
covered with coarse, rank grass ; and it was well watered by 
the streams above mentioned, and their tributaries. Its 
only human inhabitants at that time were the native In- 
dians, and it is with these people that its history com- 
mences ; though the existence here of numerous earthen 
mounds (which were of unknown origin, and wholly unlike 

* The name given by the early French traders to the stream now 
known as the Maple River. 

t The field-notes of the original surveys of Clinton and Shiawassee 
Counties, by deputy United States surveyors, mention "prairies" 
and "prairie lands," found in a, majority of the townships of both 
counties. 

2 



anything known to have been constructed by those to whom 
we apply the term aborigines) has induced the belief that 
they were the works of a people who were superior to the 
Indians, and the predecessors of the latter in their occupa- 
tion of the country. 

These mounds were generally circular or oval in form, 
from ten to forty feet in diameter, and two to six feet in 
height. They were found in various parts of both coun- 
ties, but the largest number in any one locality were found 
in the valley of the Maple River, in the northeast part of 
Clinton County.J That they were built for purposes of 
sepulture is made more than probable, from the fact that all 
or nearly all which were examined were found to contain 
human bones. An exception to this, however, was a mound 
discovered on the bank of the Shiawassee River, near New- 
burg, in Shiawassee County.§ This was nearly circular in 
form, and consisted of a parapet inclosing an interior space. 
It was surrounded by a ditch, and had an opening or gate- 
way facing the east, with detached mounds fronting this 
entrance. It has been supposed, from the peculiar construc- 
tion of this work, that it was built for purposes of defense. 
But what were the objects for which the mounds were built, 
or who were the people who erected them, are mere topics 
of speculation. History has but to record the bare fact of 
their existence, before passing to the meagre annals of the 
native tribes who were found in occupation of the country. 

All that is or can be known of the history of the Indians 
who once inhabited the interior region now included in the 
counties of Shiawassee and Clinton may be easily and 
briefly told, for it is all, or nearly all, embraced in a period 
which is within the recollection of settlers who are yet 
living and in full possession of all their faculties. 

When this wilderness region was first penetrated by white 
explorers they found it occupied by bands of the Saginaw 
tribe of the Ojibwa or Chippewa nation, mixed with a few 
Ottawas and still fewer Pottawattamies, which latter two 
had perhaps become allied by marriage or otherwise with 

J An account of this group of mounds will be found in the history 
of Ovid and Duplain townships in this work. 

^ Described by B. 0. Williams, Esq., who visited it in the year 
1829. 

9 



10 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



the dominant Chippewas. The last named, however, have 
always been mentioned in Indian history, and recognized by 
the United States Government in all treaties, as the original 
owners of the country bordering the Saginaw River and 
its tributaries, and of the great wilderness stretching away 
thence northwestwardly towards the Straits of Mackinac. 
The Indians inhabiting the valley of the Shiawassee River 
were known to the early traders and settlers as the Shia- 
wassee bands of the Saginaws, and these were the same 
people who also occupied the country along the Looking- 
Glass, the Maple, and the Red Cedar Rivers, though the 
several bands were not infrequently designated by the names 
of the streams on which their villages or camps were located. 
All of them, however (except the Ottawas and few Potta- 
wattamies who were found among them as before men- 
tioned), were from the same parent stock, and members of 
the same tribe or nation, — the Saginaw Chippewas. 

But if we may believe their own traditions, the Chippe- 
was had not always been masters of these forests and rivers, 
nor did their occupancy extend back to years beyond the 
memory of their ancestors. The story told by their old 
men (and which is -to some extent supported by authentic 
history) was to the effect that, ages before, in the days of 
their great-grandfathers, all the hunting-grounds bordering 
the streams which find their outlet in Saginaw Bay, and all 
the forests and openings extending thence west to the 
Grand River, were held and inhabited by the Sauks, a pow- 
erful and warlike people, who not only felt entirely able to 
keep their own country, but who were often in the habit of 
making bloody forays ioto the territory of other tribes, who 
consequently hated them, and longed to exterminate, or at 
least to expel them from the region which they regarded as 
an Indian paradise, abounding as it did with fish, deer, 
beaver, and almost every kind of game. This desire to 
subjugate or destroy the powerful Sauks and to seize their 
teeming hunting-grounds, burned nowhere more intensely 
than in the breasts of the Chippewa warriors, whose home 
at that time was far away at the north. But they dreaded 
the prowess of their enemies too much to venture an attack, 
and this consideration held them in check for many years, 
though their hatred constantly increased and their wish to 
possess the Sauk country became so ardent as to well-nigh 
overcome their fears. 

At last their ambitious desires could be controlled no 
longer, and they resolved at all hazards to attempt the 
enterprise which they had so long meditated. For this 
purpose they held council with the Ottawas of the north 
(whose country was contiguous to their own), and dispatched 
messengers to the southern branch of the Ottawas (who 
then occupied what is now Southeastern Michigan) asking 
them both to join in a war of invasion. Their proposition was 
favorably received, a league was formed, and the confeder- 
ated bands set out speedily and secretly on their bloody 
expedition, which was destined to result in their complete 
triumph. 

The invaders entered the country of the Sauks in two 
columns ; one, composed of the southern Ottawas, marching 
from the southeast through the forests to the bend of Flint 
River, where Flint City now stands, while the northern 
confederates moved in canoes from Mackinac, paddling 



down the west shore of Lake Huron, and boldly crossmg 
Saginaw Bay by night, landed in two detachments, marched 
stealthily up along the shore of the river, and at the proper 
moment and at a preconcerted signal fell like a thunder- 
bolt on the principal village of the Sauks at or near the 
present site of Saginaw City. " No precaution," says Mr. 
Pox, in his history of Saginaw, " had been taken by the 
Sauks to guard against danger, for none had been antici- 
pated. The night wind sighed through the dark pine-tops 
in mournful cadence, and the gentle spirit-bird hovered over 
the sleeper with its low, gushing death-chant ; but its warn- 
ing notes were unheard, and still the sleeper slumbered on. 
Suddenly a wild, unearthly yell broke fearfully upon the 
ear of night, and awoke a thousand echoes. Aroused by it 
the Sauks sprang to their feet, but were met by the fierce 
Chippewas, who commenced an indiscriminate slaughter. 
Some were tomahawked, some leaped into the Saginaw and 
were drowned, while a few escaped to impart the death news 
to their brethren." Those who escaped, and others from 
neighboring villages which had not yet been attacked, fled 
in their canoes to a small island in the Saginaw, where they 
believed themselves safe, — at least for a time, — ^for their 
foes had no canoes in the river. But in this they were 
mistaken, for the ice was rapidly forming, and on the 
following day or night it had become strong enough to 
permit the passage of the pursuing Chippewas, who there- 
upon crossed to the island and renewed the attack with such 
energy and ferocity that of all the Sauk refugees who had 
taken shelter there not a single man was left alive, and only 
about a dozen women were spared. The place, in after- 
years, became known a'S " Skull Island," from the great 
number of skulls* and other human bones which were 
found in its soil. 

After completing their bloody work on the island, the 
Chippewa and Ottawa warriors moved rapidly up the river 
to the confluence of the Flint and Shiawassee Rivers, where 
they met the victorious band of southern Ottawas, who had 
destroyed the villages on the Flint and massacred nearly 
all the inhabitants, the few survivors retreating in terror 
towards their principal villages on the Saginaw, where they 
vainly hoped to find safety from their enemies. These 
panic-stricken fugitives now turned and fled up the valley 
of the Shiawassee, where they were relentlessly pursued by 
the invaders, and here the result was the same as it had 
been on the Saginaw and Flint. All the villages on the 
Shiawassee were given over to destruction and massacre ; 
the Sauks were completely overthrown and almost exter- 
minated, only a miserable remnant escaping westward 
through the dense forests to the Grand River, and down 
that stream to Lake Michigan. 

The Chippewa and Ottawa warriors were now absolute 
masters of the Sauk country, but they did not immediately 
remove their settlements here. The conquered territory 
was for a long time held as a hunting-ground, which was 
roamed over in common by the bands of the two tribes. 



* Ephraim S. Williams, Esq., of Flint (brother of B. 0. Williams, 
Esq., of Owosso), who was located at Saginaw for several years in the 
fur trade, says this tradition is probably well founded, for he has 
often visited the island in question, and has seen many mouldering 
skulls exhumed there. 



INDIAN HISTORY OF THE TWO COUNTIES. 



11 



But when they found that some of their young bmves who 
entered these forests disappeared and were never again seen 
or heard of, their superstitious fears were awakened, and 
they came to the firm belief that the eddies of the streams 
and the dark recesses of the woods were infested by evil 
spirits, — the ghosts of the murdered Sauks, — who had come 
back to their old domain, and were thus mysteriously wreak- 
ing vengeance on their destroyers. The dread inspired by 
this belief and the strange disappearance of their young 
men became at last so strong that they entirely abandoned 
the country, and for years afterwards no Chippewa or Ottawa 
hunter braved the terrors of the " haunted hunting-grounds." 
But after many moons (no one can say how many) they 
ventured back, though still in dread and fear, and finally 
in favored spots there sprang up many villages of the Chip- 
pewas,* while their bark canoes sped swiftly over the bright 
waters of the lakes and streams. And this (the tradition 
says) was the manner in which the tribe that became 
known as the Saginaw-Chippewa acquired and occupied the 
domain which the Sauk chiefs and warriors had once called 
their own. 

The Chippewas of the Lower Peninsula possessed all the 
fierce and sanguinary characteristics of their northern kin- 
dred. From the time when England wrested the lake 
country from the possession of the French this tribe was 
distinguished for its aggressive disposition, cruelty, and 
treachery ; and during the almost continuous Indian wars 
and conspiracies of the succeeding half century its chiefs 
showed a spirit as turbulent and untamable as that of the 
parent nation, — the Ojibwas of Lake Superior. The story 
of their ravages is found in all the annals of Indian hostili- 
ties. They were prominent actors in the Pontiac war 
of 1763 ; in the Indian alliance against America in the war 
of the Revolution ; in the savage rising which was quelled 
by " Mad Anthony" Wayne a few years later ; and they 
were among the most energetic and efficient allies of Te- 
cumseh in his prolonged warfare against the United States. 
They did bloody work at the Raisin, at Sandusky, and on 
many other fields, and finally they fought with fierce des- 
peration in the battle of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813. But 
that day extinguished forever the warlike spirit of the 
Chippewas, for then and there '' the hopes of the red man 
perished." Their total defeat in that battle, and the death 
of Tecumseh, annihilated all possibility of successful resist- 
ance to the government, and all hope of holding their hunt- 
ing-grounds against the advance of settlement and civiliza- 
tion. So the Saginaws, like other Michigan tribes, sued for 
peace, gave hostages for their future good conduct, received 
a pardon (which they scarcely expected) for their past 
offenses, and retired to their villages — sullen and dejected, 
but thoroughly subjugated — and never again made war 
against white men. Nearly twenty years afterwards, the 
Wisconsin chief, Black Hawk, sent emissaries among them 
to distribute " war-quills" and invite them to join his 
bands in a new war, but they made reply that the Chippe- 



* It does not appear that the Ottawas ever came to this section of 
country in any considerable numbers, but many of that tribe emigrated 
from their northern lands (on the east shore of Lake Michigan, north 
of Grand Traverse Bay) and settled in the southeast, in the vicinity 
of Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit, St. Clair, and Huron Rivers. 



was would not again raise the hatchet against the pale- 
faces, who were masters of the land, and under the protec- 
tion of the Great Spirit. 

The earliest knowledge of the Indians, as they existed 
in their native wilderness, was gained by white men who 
went among them for purposes of trade, — the most impor- 
tant branch of which was the purchase of furs. Of these 
traders, the first of whom any account is found, as being 
located in the country of the Saginaw-Chippewas, was a 
Frenchman named Bolieu (called by the Indians, Kase- 
gans) ; and soon after him there came another of the same 
nationality, named Trembld (since corrupted to Trombley), 
who established himself at Saginaw. The date of Bolieu's 
coming is not exactly known, but it is certain that h"e was 
trading with the Saginaws before the commencement of 
the present century. He married a full-blood Indian 
woman, f a sister or near relative of Neome, head-chief of 
the Pewonigo band of Indians, who lived at Pewonigowink, 
on the Flint River. He (Bolieu) prosecuted his trading 
business with the Indians living on the Flint and Shiawas- 
see, and, without doubt, with those on the Looking-Glass 
and Maple Rivers also. It is not known where his post 
was located, but there is strong probability that it was on 
the Shiawassee River at the Big Rapids (Owosso), near the 
present residence of B. 0. Williams, Esq., for at that place 
there are still in existence portions of two ancient chimneys 
and some other ruins which Mr. Williams (than whom no 
person in Michigan is more competent to judge) pronounces 
to be the remains of an old trading-post. This opinion is 
strengthened by the fact that at the same place there are 
still to be seen pits in the earth, evidently made for the 
burying of canoes.J As it is certain that this place was 
not occupied by any of the later traders, it seems highly 
probable that it was the post of Bolieu, the pioneer trader 
among the Saginaws. If so, the buildings must have been 
erected nearly or quite as early as the commencement of 
this century. 

Two of the earliest traders who followed Bolieu and 
Tremble into the Saginaw country were Jacob Smith 
(named by the Indians Wahbesins) and Conrad Ten Eyck, 
who established at Saginaw before the opening of the war 
of 1812-15. Both of these men found it necessary to 
abandon their posts during the continuance of that war, 
but returned to Saginaw at the close of hostilities. In the 
fall of 1819, Smith removed his trading-post to the Grand 
Traverse of the Flint River (where Flint City now stands), 
and remained there in trade till his death, in the spring of 
1825. He was of German parentage or descent, and a 
native of Quebec, Canada. Two of his daughters (Mrs. 
C. S. Payne and Mrs. T. B. W. Stockton) are still living at 
Flint, and another daughter became the wife of Gen. John 
Garland, United States Army. His son, Albert J. Smith, 
is, or was recently, living in South America. 

f A daughter of theirs, Angfilique Bolieu (whose Indian name was 
Tawoumegogua), was sent at the age of twelve years to ' Betroit, 
where she received a tolerable education. She married a Frenchman 
named Coutant, and after his death she became the wife of Jean 
Baptiste St. Aubin, of Detroit. 

{ The Indians (and the traders, who learned the custom from them) 
were in the habit of burying their canoes in winter, to prevent them 
from being ruined by the frost. 



12 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Louis Campau commenced in the Indian trade at Sagi- 
naw in 1815. He remained there many years, but finally 
removed to Grand Rapids, where he passed the remainder 
of his life, and died highly respected. Antoine Campau, a 
brother of Louis, also located at Saginaw in 1815 or 1816. 
John B. Cushway,* Gen. Riley, of Schenectady, N. Y., 
and Whitmore Knaggs came to this Indian country as 
traders not long afterwards, as did also Baptists Cochios, 
who established his post on the Flint. All these traders 
dealt with the Indians inhabiting the valleys of the Shia- 
wassee, Looking-Glass, and Maple Rivers, but only Cushway, 
Campau, and Knaggs located trading-houses in this region. 
It was in or about 1820"j' that Whitmore Knaggs came to 
open his post at the " crossing of the Shiawassee," — that is, 
the place where several trails crossed that river, on the In- 
dian reservation of Kechewondaugoning,J or " Big Salt 
Lick." The name given to the place by the French (very 
probably by old Bolieu himself) was " Grand Saline." 
The white settlers afterwards called it " the Knaggs place," 
for the old trader by whom it was established, and his son, 
who was its last occupant as a trader. The post was situ- 
ated on the river, in the northwest corner of the present 
township of Burns. 

In 1820 the nearest trading-posts to Knaggs' on the south 
and west were that of the two Godfroys (father and son), 
located on the. Huron, at the present site of Ypsilanti, and 
that of Rix Robinson " at the Thornapple and on Grand 
River, above and below." These merchants, as well as 
those at Saginaw, divided the trade with Knaggs to some 
extent, but there is little doubt that the latter took the 
lion's share among the Indians living within his range. 
Not long after the time mentioned, a Frenchman named 
Battise (correctly Baptiste) opened a post on the upper 
waters of the Grand River, in the present county of Jack- 
son, and this became a somewhat popular trading-place, 
even for some of the Indians living as far north as the 
territory of Clinton and Shiawassee Counties. 

Whitmore Knaggs was succeeded, about 1824, by a 
man named Grant, who continued in the trade for a time, 
but became so unpopular with the Indians that they finally 
drove him from their country. 

The successor of Grant in the Indian trade on the Shia- 
wassee was Richard Godfrey, who reopened the post at 
Kechewondaugoning in 1828. In the spring of 1829 this 
post was visited by the brothers Alfred L. and Benjamin 
0. Williams, who were then making a tour of exploration 
with a view to permanent settlement, they being probably 
the first white men who visited Shiawassee County with 
that intention. The Godfrey trading-post, as it existed at 

* Cushway was called by the Indians Pewabicorzo, or "the iron- 
shod," because he wore heavily-nailed boots. 

t A list of the licensed traders in Michigan in that year places 
Knaggs' post "on the river Shiawassee, at the Indian Eeservation." 

J This tract of three thousand acres was reserved to the Indians of 
the Shiawassee bands, in the treaty concluded by Gen. Cass at Sagi- 
naw, Sept. 24, 1819. The name of this reservation is spelled in the 
treaty Ketchewaundaugenink, which is perhaps as nearly correct as 
any other manner of spelling, — the orthography of Indian names 
being at best a matter of taste or caprice. It was located in the 
northwest corner of the present township of Burns and southwest 
corner of Vernon, and comprised also small parts of Shiawassee and 
Antrim. 



that time, is described by B. 0. Williams as a rude log 
house and stable, with bark. roof, and then in charge of 
John B. Cushway, as Godfrey's agent. The post was con- 
tinued by Godfrey's successors, Antoine Beaubien and 
John Knaggs, until about 1839. 

On the south side of the Maple River, at the site of the 
present village of Maple Rapids, a trading-pest was opened 
as early as 1826, but whether the first trader there was 
John B. Cushway or George Campau is a matter of some 
doubt. It is certain that it bore the name of the first-named 
proprietor in 1837, for on the 17th of March in that year 
the Legislature passed an act laying out a State road " from 
the seat of justice in Eaton County to Cush way's trading- 
pest on Maple River in the county of Clinton." Mr. James 
Sowle, of Essex, is of the opinion, however, that Cushway 
carried on the trading-station before Campau, which latter 
seems to have been the one recollected by old residents 
as the first proprietor. He was a brother of Louis and An- 
toine Campau, and was known to the Indians as Waugoosh, 
or " the Red Fox." His successor in trade at the post on 
the Maple was John Johnson, who became a permanent 
resident, and died there since 1875. Mr. Campau is (or 
was very recently) living at Grand Rapids. The Cushway 
or Campau trading-station, with the Genereau post, on the 
river below, in Ionia County, took a large part of the trade 
of the Indians living on the Maple and Looking-Glass 
Rivers, but there was also for a time a post on the Grand 
River, in Ionia County, kept by Gilbert W. Prentiss and 
one or two associates, who (it was said) were also engaged 
in counterfeiting, and were driven away from their post by 
the Indians, on whom they had passed some of their spuri- 
ous coin. The same fate also befell them at a trading- 
station which they opened in 1834, in Cehoctah township, 
on the north border of Livingston County, adjoining Shia- 
wassee. 

The Williams trading-post, which secured a very large 
business among the Indians of this section of country, and 
which is particularly noticeable from the fact that the two 
young men who opened it became permanent residents and 
very prominent citizens of Shiawassee County, was estab- 
lished in August, 1831, by Alfred L. and Benjamin 0. 
Williams, for Rufus W. Stevens and Elisha Beach, of Pon- 
tiac. The location of this trading-station was a very little 
north of the north line of the Kechewondaugoning reser- 
vation, at the point where the Chicago and Lake Huron 
Railroad crosses the Shiawassee River, on or very near the 
dividing line between the townships of Shiawassee and 
Vernon. To this station there were brought fuiB collected 
within the present counties of Shiawassee and Clinton, as 
well as in adjoining counties to the south and eaat. Their 
trade within the limits of Clinton, however, was much less 
than in Shiawassee, as much of the Indian trade in the 
former county was secured by Genereau, at the post on the 
Grand River, and by Campau, at his station at Maple 
Rapids. 

In 1832 the brothers Williams became agents for the 
American Fur Company, and continued as such until 1836 
when they began trading on their own account, and re- 
mained until 1837, when the post was vacated and the 
business abandoned, the Indians having been in that year 



INDIAN HISTORY OF THE TWO COUNTIES. 



13 



so greatly reduced in numbers, and so much scattered and 
demoralized by the ravages of a fatal pestilence among 
them, that their trade was no longer of any value. The 
owners of the trading-station then removed to Owosso, 
where Mr. B. 0. Williams yet resides. He still speaks the 
Chippewa language almost as fluently as English. He un- 
questionably knows more of the Indian history of this 
region than any other person, and it is principally on in- 
formation furnished by him that this account of the Indians 
of these two counties is based. 

In 1 830 the Indian villages or settlements on the Shia- 
wassee River were those of Kechewondaugoning, on the 
reservation of the same name, and Shigemasking (meaning 
" soft-maple place"), near Shiawasseetown. The former 
was the summer residence of Wasso, the principal chief of 
the Shiawassee bands. These were the only villages on 
the river within the boundaries of Shiawassee County. 
Below, on the same stream, but a few miles north of the 
county line, was the Chippewa village of Che-as-sin-ning or 
*' Big Rock," at the site of the present village of Chesaning. 
This was a much larger village than either of those pre- 
viously mentioned. Its people were under the chief Sher- 
manito, who died in 1836 and was succeeded in the chief- 
ship by Nokchikaming. 

On the south branch of the Shiawassee, in Livingston 
County, near its northern border, was a very small settle- 
ment of Indians at Assineboinaing (" Rocky Place"). 
This had in earlier years borne the name of Nabobish, 
which was then also the name of its chief. His succe.«sor 
was old Portabeek, who is yet recollected by residents of 
that part of Livingston County. This settlement or village 
was entirely abandoned by the Indians about 1830. Away 
to the eastward, and nearly on the boundary between Gene- 
see and Oakland Counties, was the village of Kopenicorn- 
ing, situated by a small lake, which is yet known by the 
same name. This was a village of the " Fisher tribe" of 
Saginaws, of whom a few are still living in Genesee 
County. 

On the Looking-Glass River, in what is now the town- 
ship of Antrim, there had been an Indian village of con- 
siderable size, but this had been abandoned prior to 1831. 
Farther down the stream, on its northern ba-rik, just above 
the place which is now the village of De Witt in Clinton 
County, there was still in existence at that time the Chip- 
pewa village of Wabwahnahseepee, of which the chiefs 
were Wahbaskonoquay, or " Whitelocks," and his son, 
Canorbway. This village was broken up soon afterwards, 
and there are now few, if any, of even the oldest settlers 
in Clinton County who have any recollection of the exist- 
ence of an Indian village at this place, though the place 
continuecj to be for many years a favorite ground for the 
temporary camps of wandering parties of the Chippewa 
bands. This was a well-known place to the early white 
settlers, who called it the "Indian Green." Some four 
miles above this, but on the opposite side of the river, at 
Lowry Plains, there was another large and much frequented 
camp-ground, and still others were found at difierent places 
up the stream, in both Clinton and Shiawassee Counties. 

On the south bank of the stream which the early French 



traders called La Riviere du Plain, but which the English- 
speaking settlers named Maple River, was the village of the 
chief Makitoquet, located on what is now to be described 
as the northwest part of section 3, township of Essex. 
This settlement remained and prospered (as much as any 
Indian village can ever be said to prosper) for a considera- 
ble time after the coming of the first white settlers. There 
were also villages of Makitoquet's people farther down the 
river, in the present township of Lebanon (on section 14 
and at one or two other points), but these were not as an- 
cient as the one first mentioned ; and they were, in fact, 
more like camps than permanent villages, but were always 
fully occupied during the sugaring season. The sub-chief, 
Wintagowish, was a kind of lieutenant to Makitoquet. 
The latter became a land-owner (having purchased land 
from government) in Lebanon in 1837. 

Passing from Makitoquet's village down the Maple River 
to a point at or very near where the present village of Muir 
stands, there would have been found at that time a settle- 
ment of Chippewas, mixed with Ottawas, all under the 
authority of a chief named Cocoose. The name of this 
chief was also the name of the village. West of this, on 
the Grand River, at the place which is now Lowell, Kent 
Co., was the chief Kewagooshcum's village, also composed 
of Ottawas and Chippewas. Many miles farther up the 
Grand River, on its west bank, in the present township of 
Danby, Ionia Co., and near the west border of Clinton 
County, was the village of Pe-shimnecon (Apple Place), 
which was under the authority of the chiefs Dayomek and 
Kekonosoway, the latter of whom was stabbed to death by 
one of his own braves in a drunken brawl. This village, 
unlike most of the others named, continued to be held by 
the Indians as a place of residence until within recent 
years. 

A few miles south of the southern boundary of Clinton 
County were settlements of the people known as Red Cedar 
Indians, though they belonged to the Shiawassee bands of 
the Saginaws. Their principal chief was the veteran 
Okemos, and next to him in authority were Manitocorb- 
way and Shingwauk, of the first two of whom further men- 
tion will be made. 

" The various bands," says Mr. Williams, " all belonged 
to the Chippewa or Saginaw tribe. We found them scat- 
tered over this vast primitive forest, each band known by 
its locality or chief. They subsisted principally by hunting, 
though all had summer residences, where they raised min- 
dor-min (corn), potatoes, turnips, beans, and sometimes 
squashes, pumpkins, and melons." 

At or near all their villages, on the Maple, the Looking- 
Glass, and the Shiawassee, there were corn-fields, which they 
planted year after year with the same crops. The largest 
of the corn-fields in all this region were those in the vicin- 
ity of Shermanito's village on the Shiawassee, now Ches- 
aning, Saginaw Co., a little north of the Shiawassee County 
line. Fields of considerable extent were situated midway 
between Vernon and Shiawassee Town. Smaller ones were 
found near the villages and camping-grounds on the Look- 
ing-Glass, the Grand, and Maple Rivers, as also at Keche- 
wondaugoning, on the Shiawassee. At the latter place 
there was a small Indian orchard of stunted and uncared- 



14 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



for apple-trees, and similar ones were found at several 
places in both counties. The Indians carried on their agri- 
culture in a careless, slovenly, and superficial way. Of 
course they were ignorant of the use of plows, and the few 
implements which they had were of the rudest and most 
primitive kind. They had plenty of poor and scrawny 
ponies, but these were wholly uncared for, and were never 
made use of except for riding. From lack of care, and the 
planting of the same fields for many years in succession, 
these had become overgrown with grass, weeds, and sumach- 
bushes, so that the crops obtained were very meagre, and 
but for the almost boundless stores of food furnished by the 
streams and forests, the people must have been constantly 
in a state bordering on famine. 

It was their custom during the autumn to move from 
the vicinity of their fields, proceeding up towards the heads 
of the streams, making halts at intervals of six or eight 
miles, and camping for a considerable time at each halting- 
place for purposes of hunting and fishing. Upon the 
approach of winter they floated back in their canoes (car- 
rying them round rapids and obstructions), and betook 
themselves to their winter quarters in comparatively shel- 
tered places within the shelter of the denser forests. From 
there the young men went out to the winter hunting- and 
trapping-grounds, through which they roamed till the ap- 
proach of spring, when all, men, women, and children, en- 
gaged in sugar-making until the sap ceased to flow : and 
after this process was finished they again moved to their 
corn-fields, and having planted and harvested, and fished 
and hunted up to the head-waters of the streams during the 
summer and autumn, they again returned to their forest 
camps or villages to pass the winter as before. 

The manufacture of sugar was one of the principal In- 
dian industries, if the term industry can be properly applied 
to anything existing in an Indian community. They pro- 
duced large quantities of this article, and of as good quality 
as b made by white people. Having completed its manu- 
facture for the year, they packed it in mokoks (vessels or 
packages neatly made of birch-bark) and buried it in the 
ground, where it was kept in good condition for future use 
or sale. Their sugar- making resources were, of course, al- 
most unlimited, for noble groves of maple abounded every- 
where. There were extensive ones in the vicinity of the 
Big Rapids of the Shiawassee, and many others of perhaps 
equal extent along the valleys of the Maple, the Looking- 
Glass, and other streams ; and, in fact, through nearly every 
part of the territory of Clinton and Shiawassee Counties. 

The Chippewas, like all other Indians, were extremely 
superstitious ; indeed, they appeared to be more marked in 
this peculiarity than were most of the other tribes. It has 
already been mentioned that the ancestors of the later Sagi- 
naw Chippewas imagined that the country which they had 
wrested from the conquered Sauks was haunted by the 
spirits of those whom they had slain, and that it was only 
after the lapse of years that their terrors became allayed 
sufficiently to permit them to occupy the " haunted hunt- 
ing-grounds." But the superstition still remained, and, in 
fact, it was never entirely dispelled. Long after the valleys 
of the Saginaw, the Shiawassee, and the Maple became 



studded with white settlements, the simple Indians still 
believed that mysterious Sauks were lingering in the forests 
and along the margins of their streams for purposes of 
vengeance ; that munesous, or bad spirits, in the form of 
Sauk warriors, were hovering around their villages and 
camps, and on the flanks of their hunting-parties, prevent- 
ing them from being successful in the chase, and bringing 
ill fortune and discomfiture in a hundred ways. So great 
was their dread that when (as was frequently the case) they 
became possessed of the idea that the munesous were in 
their immediate vicinity, they would fly, as if for their 
lives, abandoning everything, — wigwams, fish, game, and 
peltry, — and no amount of ridicule from the whites could 
convince them of their folly, or induce them to stay and 
face the imaginary danger. " Sometimes, during sugar- 
making," said Mr. Truman B. Fox, of Saginaw, "they 
would be seized with a sudden panic, and leave everything, 
— their kettles of sap boiling, their mokoks of sugar stand- 
ing in their camps, and their ponies tethered in the woods, 
— and flee helter-skelter to their canoes, as though pursued 
by the Evil One. In answer to the question asked in re- 
gard to the cause of their panic, the invariable answer was 
a shake of the head, and a mournftil ' an-do-gwane' (don't 
know)." Some of the northern Indian bands, whose country 
joined that of the Saginaw Chippewas, played upon their 
weak superstition, and derived profit from it by lurking 
around their villages or camps, frightening them into flight, 
and then appropriating the property which they had aban- 
doned. A few shreds of wool from their blankets left stick- 
ing on thorns or dead brushwood, hideous figures drawn with 
coal upon the trunks of trees, or marked on the groundin 
the vicinity of their lodges, was sure to produce this result, 
by indicating the presence of the dreaded munesous. Often 
the Indians would become impressed with the idea that 
these bad spirits had bewitched their firearms, so that they 
could kill no game. " I have had them come to me," says 
Mr. Ephraim S. Williams, of Flint, " from places miles 
distant, bringing their rifles to me, asking me to examine 
and resight them, declaring that the sights had been removed 
(and in most cases they had, but it was by themselves in 
their fright). I have often, and in fact always did when 
applied to, resighted and tried them until they would shoot 
correctly, and then they would go away cheerfully. I 
would tell them they must keep them where the munesous 
could not find them. At other times, having a little bad 
luck in trapping or hunting, they became excited, and would 
say that game had been over and in their traps, and that 
they could not catch anything. I have known them to go 
so far as to insist that a beaver or an otter had been in 
their traps and got out ; that their traps were bewitched or 
spell-bound, and their rifles charmed by the munesous, so 
that they could not catch or kill anything. Then they 
must give a great feast, and have the medicine man or con- 
jurer ; and through his wise and dark performances the 
charm is removed and all is well, and traps and rifles do 
their duty again. These things have been handed down 
for generations." 

A very singular superstitious rite was performed annually 
by the Shiawassee Indians at a place called Pindatongoing 
(meaning the place where the spirit of sound or echo lives) 



INDIAN HISTORY OP THE TWO COUNTIES. 



15 



about two miles above Newburg, on the Shiawassee River, 
where the stream was deep and eddying. The ceremony 
at this place was witnessed in 1831 by Mr. B. 0. Williams, 
of Owosso, who thus describes it : " Some of the old In- 
dians every year, in fall or summer, offered up a sacrifice 
to the spirit of the river at that place. They dressed a 
puppy or dog in a fantastic manner by decorating it with 
various colored ribbons, scarlet cloth, beads, or wampum 
tied around it ; also a piece of tobacco and vermilion paint 
around its neck (their own faces blackened), and after burn- 
ing, by the river-side, meat, corn, tobacco, and sometimes 
whisky offerings, would, with many muttered adjurations 
and addresses to the 
spirit, and waving of 
hands, holding the pup, 
cast him into the river, 
and then appear to 
listen and watch, in a 
mournful attitude, its 
struggles as it was 
borne by the current 
down into a deep hole 
in the river at that 
place, the bottom of 
which at that time 
could not be discovered 
without very careful 
inspection. I could 
never learn the origin 
of the legend they then 
had, that the spirit 
had dived down into 
the earth through that 
deep hole, but they be- 
lieved that by a pro- 
pitiatory yearly offering 
their luck in hunting 
and fishing on the river 
would be bettered and 
their health preserved." 
Once a year, soon 
after sugar - making, 
nearly all the Indians 
of the interior repaired 
to Kepayshowink (the 

great camping-ground), OKEMOS. 

which was at the place 

where Saginaw City now stands. They went there for the 
purpose of engaging in a grand jubilee of one or two weeks' 
duration, engaging in dances, games, and feats of strength ; 
and as they were usually able to obtain liquor there, these 
gatherings often brought about quarrels and deadly fighting. 
" If an injury had been done to one party by another it 
was generally settled here, either with property, such as 
arms, ponies, or blankets, or by the price of life. If the 
injury had been one of an exceedingly aggravated nature, 
a life was demanded, and stoically and unflinchingly yielded 
up by the doomed party." Many an inveterate Indian feud 
reached a bloody termination on the "great camping- 
ground" at Saginaw. 




Although the Red Cedar band, of which Okemos* was 
the leader, had its settlements several miles south of Shi- 
awassee and Clinton Counties, yet a brief mention of the 
old chief is not out of place in the history of these 
counties, for it was in one of them that he first saw the 
light, and in the other that he died ; and the territory of 
both of them was roamed over as a hunting-ground for 
many years by him and his followers in common with the 
bands whose villages and fields were within its boundaries. 
Okemos was born at or near the Grand Saline, in what 
is now Shiawassee County, at a date which is not precisely 
known, but which has been placed by some historians at 

about 1788. That this 
date is nearly the correct 
one seems not improb- 
able, for reasons which 
will presently be given. 
He was of Saginaw 
Chippewa stock, his 
people having been of 
the Shiawassee bands 
of that tribe. It has 
been said by some that 
he was the nephew of 
the great Pontiac, but 
there is little reason to 
believe that such was 
the case, though it is 
not strange that he 
should, in the spirit of 
genuine Indian boast- 
fulness, be more than 
willing to favor the idea 
that he sustained that 
relation to the redoubt- 
able Ottawa chieftain. 

How and where the 
earlier years of Okemos 
were passed is not 
known. His first ap- 
pearance as a warrior 
was at Sandusky in 
the war of 1812, and 
his participation in 
that fight was the prin- 
cipal event of all his 
life. On that occa- 
sionf eighteen young Chippewa braves, among whom were 
Okemos and his cousin Manitocorbway, and who were serv- 
ing as scouts on the side of the British, had come in from 
the river Raisin, and were crouching in ambush not far from 



» Okemos, or Ogemaw, meant, in the Chippewa language, "Little 
Chief," and Che-ogemaw, " Big Chief." Whether the name " Little 
Chief," as applied to this Indian, had reference to his small stature 
(as he was very short) or to the extent of his power and authority as 
a chief, does not appear. 

t The account here given of the participation of Okemos and his 
cousin Manitocorbway in the fight at Sandusky is written from facts 
furnished by B. 0. Williams, Esq., of Owosso, who had a minute 
account of it from the two chiefs themselves, with both of whom he 
was well acquainted. 



16 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



the fort of Sandusky, waiting to surprise the Ariierican 
supply-wagons or any small detachment that might pass 
their lurking-place. Suddenly there appeared a body of 
twenty American cavalrymen approaching them directly in 
front. The red warriors promptly made their plans, which 
was to wait till they could count the buttons on the coats 
of the troopers, then to deliver their fire and close on them 
with the tomahawk, fully expecting that in the disorder 
produced by their volley they would be able to kill most of 
them and take many scalps. But they had reckoned with- 
out their host. When the flash of their guns disclosed 
their place of concealment the cavalrymen instantly charged 
through the cover upon them, sabre in hand. Almost at 
the same instant a bugle-blast echoed through the woods, 
and a few moments later a much larger body of horsemen, 
warned of the presence of an enemy by the firing, came 
up at a gallop to the help of their friends. The Indians, en- 
tirely surrounded, were cut down to a man, and, gashed and 
pierced by sabre-thrusts, were all left on the field for dead. 
Most of them were so, but life was not quite extinct in 
Okemos and Manitocorbway, though both were wholly in- 
sensible, and remained so for many hours. At last Okemos 
returned to consciousness, and found that his cousin was 
also living and conscious. Together these two managed 
to crawl to a small stream near by, where they refreshed 
themselves by drinking, and washing off' the clotted blood, 
and then, crawling, rolling, dragging themselves painfully 
and slowly along the ground, they at last reached the river, 
found a canoe, succeeded in getting into it, pushed off into 
the stream, and relapsed to a state of insensibility, in which 
condition they were not long afterwards discovered and 
rescued by Indians of their own or a friendly band. When 
at last they again returned to consciousness they were sur- 
prised at finding themselves in charge of squaws, who were 
faithfully and tenderly nursing- them. Finally, both recov- 
ered, but Okemos never wholly regained his former vigor, 
and Manitocorbway was little better than a cripple during 
the remainder of his life. Each had been gashed with a 
dozen wounds; the skulls of both had been cloven, and 
they carried the" broad, deep marks of the sabre-cuts to 
their graves. 

Okemos was but a common warrior in the fight at San- 
dusky, but for the high qualities and endurance which he 
showed at that time he was made a chief, and became the 
leader of the Red Cedar band of Shiawassee Chippewas. 
He obtained, through the intercession of Col. Godfrey, a 
pardon from the government for the part which he had 
taken in favor of the British, and he never again fought 
against the Americans. The same was the case with his 
kinsman, Manitocorbway. 

After the close of the war Okemos made a permanent 
settlement with his band on the banks of the Cedar River, 
in Ingham County, a few miles east of Lansing. There 
were the villages of Okemos, Manitocorbway, and Shing- 
wauk, — the latter two being also chiefs. Their settlements 
were all located in the vicinity of the present village and 
railroad station of Okemos, and there the band remained 
till finally broken up and scattered. 

Through all his life Okemos was (almost as a matter of 
course) addicted to the liberal use of ardent spirits, and in 



his later years (notably from the time when his band be- 
came broken up and himself little more than a wanderer) 
this habit grew stronger upon him, yet he never forgot his 
dignity. He was always exceedingly proud of his chief- 
ship, and of his (real or pretended) relationship to the 
great Pontiac, and he was always hoastful of his exploits. 
But he sometimes found himself in a position where neither 
his rank nor his vaunted prowess could shield him from 
deserved punishment. Upon one such occasion, in the 
year 1832, he appeared at the Williams trading-post on 
the Shiawassee, and, backed by twelve or fifteen braves of 
his band, demanded whisky. B. 0. Williams, who was 
then present and in charge, replied that he had no liquor. 
" I have money and will pay," said Okemos. " You had 
plenty of whisky yesterday, and I will have it. You re- 
fuse because you are afraid to sell it to me !" " It is true," 
said the proprietor, " that I had whisky yesterday, but I 
have not now, and if I had, you should not have it. And 
if you think I am afraid, look right in my eye and see if 
you can discover fear there." The chief became enraged, 
and ordered his men to enter the trading-house and roll 
out a.barrel of whisky, saying that he himself would knock 
in the head. " Go in if you wish to," said Williams, care- 
lessly, "my door is always open I" But the braves were 
discreet, and did not move in obedience to their chiefs 
order. Then Okemos grew doubly furious, but in an in- 
stant Mr. Williams sprang upon him, seized him by the 
throat and face with so powerful a grip that the blood 
spirted ; he snatched the chief's knife from his belt and 
ordered him to hand over his tomahawk, which he did 
without unnecessary delay. He was then ordered to leave 
the place instantly, and never, as he valued his safety, to 
be seen at the trading-house again. Disarmed, cowed, and 
completely humbled, he- obeyed at once, and moved rapidly 
away followed by his braves, who had stood passively by 
without attempting to interfere in his behalf during the 
scene above described. 

Some time afterwards Mr. Williams visited the settle- 
ments of the Red Cedars for purposes of trade, and made 
his headquarters at the village of Manitocorbway, whom 
he held in high esteem as an honest, peaceable, and straight- 
forward Indian. While there a messenger came to him 
from Okemos, — whose village was not far ofi^, — ^requesting 
him to come there and trade with him. He had not. in- 
tended to go to Okemos' village, and was not disposed to do 
so even upon this invitation ; but at the earnest solicitation 
of his friend Manitocorbway he finally went, and was re- 
ceived by Okemos with marked deference and respect. 
The chief had previously dealt at Baptiste's trading-post, 
on Grand River, below Jacksonburgh, but from this time 
all his trade was taken to the Williams station on the 
Shiawassee. This incident illustrates that Indian trait of 
character which invariably led them to give their warmest 
friendship and admiration to those who had boldly defied and 
chastised them, instead of allowing themselves to be brow- 
beaten by their threats and insolence. 

After the breaking up of his band on the Cedar, Okemos 
had never any permanent place of residence. It is said 
that he then resigned his chiefship to his son,* and this 

' This son, John Okemos, is now a farmer in Montcalm Co. Mich 



INDIAN TREATIES AND CESSIONS OP LANDS. 



17 



may be true, but if there was such a pretended " resigna- 
tion" it was wholly nominal and without effect, for he had 
ceased to have a following, and therefore had no real chief- 
ship to resign. It has also been stated that in his latter 
years he degenerated into a vagabond, a common drunkard, 
and a beggar, but this is wholly incorrect. He was cer- 
tainly fond of liquor, and occasionally became intoxicated, 
but never grossly or helplessly so, nor was it a common prac- 
tice with him. Neither was he a beggar; for, though 
small presents were often bestowed upon him, it was never 
done on account of solicitation on his part. That he was 
regarded with a considerable degree of respect is shown by 
the fact that he was not infrequently entertained as a guest 
at the houses of people who had known him in his more 
pro.sperous days. This was done by citizens of Lansing, 
Corunna, and Owosso ; among the latter being tlie brothers 
A. L. and B. 0. Williams, the two earliest white acquaint- 
ances of the chief in all this region. 

Okemos died on the 4th of December, 1858, at his camp 
on the Looking-GIass Eiver, in Clinton County, above the 
village of De Witt. His remains — dressed in the blanket 
coat and Indian leggins which he had worn in life — were 
laid in a rough board coffin, in which were also placed his 
pipe-hatchet, buckhorn-handled knife, tobacco, and some 
provisions ; and thus equipped for the journey to the happy 
hunting-grounds, he was carried to the old village of Pe- 
shimnecon, in Ionia County, and there interred in an ancient 
Indian burial-ground near the banks of the Grand River. 

The age of Okemos is not known. Some writers have 
made the loose assertion (similar to those which are fre- 
quently made in reference to aged Indian chiefs) that he 
was a centenarian at the time of his death, while others 
have reduced the figure to between eighty and eighty-five 
years. In one account of him his birth is placed in the 
year 1788, as before mentioned. Mr. B. O. Williams was 
told by both Okemos and Manitocorbway that the Sandusky 
fight was the first in which they had ever been engaged, 
apd that both of them were at that time young and inex- 
perienced warriors. This, with the fact that until the end 
of his life Okemos was lithe in body and elastic in step, 
showing none of the signs of extreme old age, renders it 
probable that the year mentioned was nearly the correct 
date of his birth,* which would give him the age of seventy 
years at the time of his death. 

Of the character of the Indians of this region, and their 
melancholy fate, Mr. B. 0. Williams says, " They were 
hospitable, honest, and friendly, although always reserved 
until well acquainted ; never obtrusive unless under the 
influence of their most deadly enemy, intoxicating drink. 
None of these spoke a word of English, and they evinced 
no desire to learn it. ... I believe they were as virtuous 
and guileless a people as I have ever lived among, previous 
to their great destruction in 1834 by the cholera, and again 
their almost extermination during the summer of 1837 by 

* This would make Okemos about twenty-five years old at the time 
of the Sandusky fight; and, from the statement which both he and 
Manitocorbway made to Mr. Williams, it is almost certain that his 
age could not have been more than that (and was most probably a few 
years loss) at the time of the fight. 

3 



the (to them) most dreaded disease, smallpox, which was 
brought to Chesaning from Saginaw, — they fully believin" 
that one of the Saginaw Indians had been purposely inoc- 
ulated by a doctor there, the belief arising from the fact 
that an Indian had been vaccinated by the doctor, probably 
after his exposure to the disease, and the man died of small- 
pox. The Indians always dreaded vaccination from fear 
and suspicion of the operation. 

" The Asiatic cholera of 1832 did not reach the interior 
of Michigan, but in 1834 it seemed to be all over the 
country, and was certainly atmospheric, as it attacked In- 
dians along the Shiawassee and other rivers, producing con- 
vulsions, cramps, and death after a few hours. This began 
to break up the Indians at their various villages. The white 
settlements becoming general, and many persons selling 
them whisky (then easily purchased at the distilleries fqr 
twenty-five cents per gallon), soon told fearfully on them. 
When the smallpox broke out in 1837 they fled to the 
woods by families, but not until some one of the family 
broke out with the disease and died. Thus whole villages 
and bands were decimated, and during the summer and fall 
many were left without a burial at the camps in the woods, 
and were devoured by wolves. I visited the village of Che- 
as-sin-ning — now Chesaning — and saw in the summer-camps 
several bodies partially covered up, and not a living soul 
could I find, except one old squaw, who was convalescent. 
Most of the adults attacked died, but it is a remarkable 
fact that no white person ever took the disease from them,f 
although in many instances the poor, emaciated creatures 
visited white families while covered with pustules. Thus 
passed away those once proud owners of the land, leaving 
a sickly, depressed, and eventually a begging, debased rem- 
nant of a race that a few years before scorned a mean act, 
and among whom a theft was scarcely ever known. I do 
not think I possess any morbid sentimentality for Indians. 
I simply wish to represent them as we found them. What 
they are now is easily seen by the few wretched specimens 
around us." 



CHAPTER IL 

IBTDIAN TBEATIES AND CESSIONS OF LANDS— 
USTDIAN EMIGEATION. 

Treaties of 1V95 and 1807 — Cession of Territory East of the Prin- 
cipal Meridian- — Treaty of Springwells in 1815 — Treaty of Saginaw 
(1819) and Cession of Lands West of the Meridian — Indian Reser- 
vations — ^Plans for Indian Emigration — Removal of Pottawattamie 
Refugees. 

It is a principle which has been recognized by the gov- 
ernment of the United States from the time of its formation, 
that the Indians had possessory rights in the lands which 
they occupied, but that those rights could pass from them 
only to the government, and that this could only be done 
by their own voluntary act in public and open council held 

I It is a singular fact, also, that although the disease was so exceed- 
ingly fatal to the Indians on the Shiawassee, and in less degree to 
those in the valley of the Looking-Grlass, it was not communicated to 
the Maple River Indians at all, and they remained wholly unharmed 
by it. 



18 



HISTORY OF SHIAWxiSSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



by an accredited agent or commissioner of the United States, 
■with the chiefs and head men of the tribes interested. And 
this principle and method have always been observed by 
the government in treaties held with Indians for the pur- 
chase of their territory. 

The treaty by which the first cession was made of Indian 
lands now in the State of Michigan was concluded on the 
3d of August, 1795, at Greenville, Ohio, by Gen. Anthony 
Wayne, for the United States, with the chiefs of the Chip- 
pewa, Ottawa, Pottawattamie, and other tribes, who there 
ceded to the United States " the post of Detroit and all the 
lands to the north, the west, and the south of it of which 
the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to 
the French or English governments, and so much more 
land to be annexed to the district of Detroit as shall be 
comprehended between the river Rosine (Raisin) on the 
south, Lake St. Clair on the north, and a line, the general 
course of which shall be six miles distant from the west end 
of Lake Erie and Detroit River," with several other tracts, 
among which were the post of Michilimackinac and lands 
adjixcent, and the island of Bois Blanc ; mentioned as being 
an extra and voluntary gift of the Chippewa nation. 

On the part of the government it was expressly stipu- 
lated that " the United States relinquish their claims to all 
other Indian lands northw.ard of the river Ohio, eastward of 
the Mississippi, and westward and southward of the great 
lakes and the waters uniting them, according to the bound- 
ary line agreed on between the United States and the 
King of Great Britain in the peace made between them in 
the year 1783." This the government did in consideration 
of the peace established by the treaty, and of the cessions 
made by the Indians, as well as " to manifest the liberality 
of the United States as the means of making the peace 
strong and perpetual." It was also declared in the treaty 
that '• the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands are 
quietly to enjoy them ; hunting, planting, and dwelling 
thereon so long as they please, without any molestation 
from the United States ; but when these tribes or any of 
them shall be disposed to sell their lands or any part of 
them, they are to be sold only to the United States ; and 
until such sale the United States will protect the said Indian 
tribes in the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all 
citizens of the United States, and against all other white 
persons who intrude upon the same." This treaty left the 
Indians still, in possession of all JNlichigan except the six- 
mile strip along the Detroit River, the island of Bois Blanc, 
Michilimackinac, and a few small tracts in actual possession 
of white occupants (principally French settlers) outside the 
six-mile strip. 

All the southeastern part of Michigan (including four- 
fifths of the present county of Shiawassee) was ceded to 
the United States by the terms of a treaty concluded at 
Detroit, Nov. 17, 1807, " by William Hull, Governor of the 
Territory of Michigan, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and 
sole commissioner of the United States to conclude and si^n 
a treaty or treaties with the several nations of Indians north- 
west of the river Ohio, on the one part, and the sachems, 
chiefs, and warriors of the Ottoway, Chippcway, Wyandotte, 



and Pottawattamie nations of Indians on the other part." 
The territory here ceded was described in the treaty as " be- 
ginning at the mouth of the Miami River of the Lakes (the 
Maumee), and running thence up the middle thereof to the 
mouth of the Great Auglaize River ; thence due north 
until it intersects a parallel of latitude to be drawn from 
the outlet of Lake Huron, which forms the river Sinclair ; 
thence running northeast on the course that may be found 
will lead in a direct line to White Rock in Lake Huron ; 
thence due east until it intersects the boundary-line between 
the United States and Upper Canada in said lake ; then 
southwardly, following the said boundary-line down said 
lake, through the river Sinclair, Lake St. Clair, and the 
river Detroit into Lake Erie, to a point due east of the 
aforesaid Miami River ; thence west to the place of begin- 
ning." In payment for this immense tract of land, the 
Indians were to receive from the government — -in money, 
goods, agricultural implements, or domestic animals, at the 
discretion of Gen. Hull — the sum of three thousand three 
hundred and thirty-three dollars and thirty-three cents each 
to the Chippewa and Ottawa tribes, and one-half that sum 
each to the Wyandottes and Pottawattamies ; with an 
annuity of two thousand dollars each to the Chippewas 
and Ottawas, and one thousand dollars each to the other 
tribes. The Chippewas and Ottawas were also to be fur- 
nished each with a blacksmith for the period of ten years ; 
the former to reside at Saginaw and the latter at the Indian 
settlement on the Maumee, " to do such work for the said 
nations as shall be most useful to them." 

The line forming the western boundary of the tract 
ceded by this treaty, viz., the line from the mouth of the 
Great Auglaize, and running " thence due north until it 
intersects a parallel of latitude to be drawn from the outlet 
of Lake Huron," was known fur many years after as the 
" Indian Boundary-Line," and this, prolonged northward to 
the east end of Bois Blanc Island, in the Straits of Macki- 
nac, was identical, or very nearly so, with the line afterwards 
adopted by the United States surveyors as the principal 
meridian of the lower peninsula of Michigan, which is the 
dividing-line between the counties of Clinton and Shiawas- 
see. The territory which the Indians ceded at the Detroit 
treaty embraced all of Michigan lying east of this line as 
far north as the northwest corner of the township of Sciota 
in Shiawassee County, and south of a line drawn from 
thence northeast to Lake Huron; thus including all of 
Shiawassee County except the township of Fairfield and 
parts of the townships of Middlebury, Owosso, Rush, and 
New Haven. Over all of the ceded territory until sold to 
settlers the Indians had the right reserved to hunt and fish 
at will during good behavior. 

After the close of the war of 1812-15 a treaty was held 
at Springwells, near Detroit, by Gen. William H. Harrison, 
Gen. McArthur, and John Graham, on behalf of the gov- 
ernment, with the chiefs of the Chippewa, Ottawa, and 
Pottawattamie tribes, for purposes of conciliation, and to 
restore to these Indians the rights which by their hostility 
to the United States during the then late war they were 
considered to have justly forfeited, and which they them- 
selves scarcely expected to be allowed to retain. The 
treaty, which was made and concluded on the 8th of 



INDIAN TREATIES AND CESSIONS OF LANDS. 



19 



September, 1815, declared that " the United States give 
peace to the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Pottawattamie tribes. 
They also agree to restore to the said Chippewa, Ottawa, 
and Pottawattamie tribes all their possessions, rights, and 
privileges which they enjoyed or were entitled to in the 
year 1811, prior to the late war with Great Britain; and 
" the said tribes upon their part agree to place themselves 
under the protection of the United States, and of no other 
power whatsoever." Previous treaties and cessions were 
also confirmed and ratified. 

The treaty by which the Indian owners ceded to the 
United States a large scope of territory including all the 
present county of Clinton and all that part of Shiawassee 
not embraced in the Detroit cession of 1807, was held at 
Saginaw, in Septeinber, 1819, by Gen. Lewis Cass, Gov- 
ernor of Michigan and ex-officio Indian commissioner, with 
the chiefs and head men of the Chippewa tribe of the lower 
peninsula. Soon after the close of the war of 1812-15 the 
attention of West-bound emigrants from the old States began 
to be strongly directed towards Michigan Territory, and it 
became evident to the clear mind of Governor Cass that, 
broad as was the domain acquired by the treaties of 1795 
and 1807, it would soon be found too narrow to receive the 
immigration which had already begun to spread westward 
and northward from Detroit. He therefore at once set 
about the task of securing further cessions from the na- 
tives, and having laid bis plans before the government, 
and received its sanction with authority to proceed in the 
matter, he convened the chiefs in council, .as above men- 
tioned. 

The Governor, accompanied by quite a numerous retinue, 
composed of his secretaries, Robert A. Forsyth (who was 
also acting commissioner), John L. Leib, and D. G. Whit- 
ney, with several other persons, set out from Detroit on 
horseback on the 7th of September, and proceeding north- 
westwardly through the woods and openings by way of 
Royal Oak, Pontiac, Silver Lake, Grand Blanc, and the 
Grand Traverse of the Flint River (now Flint City), ar- 
rived at the Saginaw treaty-ground on the 10th. Two 
small vessels, — a sloop and a schooner, — which had left 
Detroit a few days before, had already arrived, and lay 
moored in the river. They were laden with subsistence 
stores, silver coin to be used in payment for the lands ex- 
pected to be ceded, and goods intended for Indian presents; 
and. they brought also a company of the Third United 
States Infantry, under command of Capt. C. L. Cass (a 
brother of the Governor), who had disembarked his com- 
mand, and encamped it on the bank of the stream. The 
presence of these troops was thought to be necessary, in 
view of the possibility of an attempt at violence by some 
of the bands. 

On his arrival. Gen. Cass found a large number of In- 
dians assembled, but yet the attendance was not as numer- 
ous as he had expected. Having found, upon inquiry, that 
a number of the more remote bands were unrepresented, 
he dispatched runners to the villages on the Huron (now 
Cass), Flint, Shiawassee, Mishtegayock, Maple, and Titta- 
bawassee Rivers, to give further notification to the chiefs, 
and to urge them to come in and join in the council. 



This pressing invitation had the desired effect, and nearly 
all the absentee chiefs and warriors, with their squaws and 
pappooses, made haste to join their red brethren at the 
rendezvous. 

When all had come in, and the preparations were com- 
plete, the council was opened, in a large house (or more 
properly a bower, as its covering was composed principally 
of the branches of trees) which had been built for the 
occasion, on the bank of the Saginaw, by Louis Campau, 
the trader, by direction of Gen. Cass. All around this 
structure, and crowding closely up to the line which they 
were not allowed to enter, were squaws and pappooses from 
every band of the Saginaw Chippewa tribe, eager to look 
upon the ceremonies which were little less than mysterious 
to them. Next in their front — and inside the leafy 
" council-house" — were the young men and warriors, 
while within their circle, seated on the trunks of trees 
which had been placed there for that purpose, were the 
chiefs and sagamores, those of highest rank being clustered 
round a low platform of hewn logs, on which were seated 
Gen. Cass, his secretaries, — Forsyth, Leib, and Whitney, 
— Capt. Cass and Lieut. John Peacock, of the Third In- 
fantry, Capt. Chester Root, of the United States Artillery, 
Whitmore Kuaggs (Indian trader, sub-agent, and principal 
interpreter), and some others. Other interpreters present 
were Louis Beaufait, John Hurson, William Tuckey, and 
Henry Connor, who was known among the Indians as 
Wabaskindebay, or " White Hair." Among the traders 
who made themselves oflScious on the occasion were Louis 
and Antoine Campau, Jacob Smith, and Archibald Lyons, 
who was afterwards drowned in the Tittabawassee while in 
the employ of G. D. and E. S. Williams at their station 
near where Midland City now stands. 

Gen. Cass opened the council by an address to the In- 
dians, delivered through his interpreters. He told them 
that the Great Father (the President) earnestly desired 
to preserve and perpetuate the peace which had been estab- 
lished between their tribes and the government ; that he 
had the welfare of his red children at heart, and wished to 
see them gradually change their mode of life by depending 
more on the pursuits of agriculture and less on hunting 
and fishing, which would grow more and more precarious 
year by year because the advance of white immigration 
was moving resistlessly towards them, and in a little time 
their streams would become less prolific, and their game 
would be driven to more remote hunting-grounds; He 
explained to them that the government, wishing to pur- 
chase their lands for the use of white settlers, would pay 
them a generous price ; and that other lands, ample in 
extent, and as fertile as these, would be set apart for the 
perpetual use of themselves and their children. 

The original object of Gen. Cass was not only to induce 
the Chippewas to cede their lands, but also to obtain from 
them an agreement to remove from the peninsula and locate 
themselves on tracts to be selected for them west of Lake 
Michigan, or perhaps beyond the Mississippi. This object 
was made apparent by the tenor of his opening speech, and 
it roused the opposition and resentment of the chiefs to 
such a degree as to threaten a suspension of all negotiations. 
The first Indian who spoke in reply to the Governor was 



20 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Kishkawko* the principal chief of the Saginaws. He 
spoke in a violent and angry manner against the cession of 
any of their lands, and advised the breaking up of the 
council. He was, however, considerably under the influ- 
ence of liquor at the time, and on this account his harangue 
had less effect than that of Ogeinawkeketo (a name mean- 
ing " chief speaker"), who immediately followed Kishkawko 
in a speech which was far less violent, but quite as uncom- 
promising in its opposition to the objects of Gen. Cass. 
Mishenanonequet and other chiefs spoke in nearly the same 
vein, and when the council was ended for the day the pros- 
pect of the conclusion of a treaty was far from favorable. 
At the close. Gen. Cass, after having told the chiefs in a 
friendly manner to go to their wigwams " and smoke and 
talk the matter over together," retired with his secretaries 
to their quarters in a state of disappointment and great 
anxiety in view of the not improbable failure of the nego- 
tiations. There was one favorable circumstance, however : 
the chief, Kishkawko, had reached a state of helpless in- 
toxication, and he remained in that condition for the follow- 
ing eight or ten days, not again making his appearance 
until all the terms of the treaty had been agreed on. 

The Indians had retired sullen and almost rebellious, and 
no other session of the council was held for several days. 
But during that time powerful influences in favor of the 
treaty had been brought to bear on them by Jacob Smith 
and other traders, who wished, for private reasons of their 
own, to see the sale consummated. The trader Smith, in 
particular, was high in favor with old Neome and a great 
number of the other chiefs, and his influence over them 
was great. He was favorable to the cession, because in it 
he expected to (and eventually did) secure a number of 
choice reservations of land for his children. Archibald 



* Kishkawko was not u, Chippewa, hut a member of one of the 
Canadian tribes, who came to Saginaw and bj some means was ena- 
bled to usurp the power and place of principal chief. He was de- 
scribed as "a miserable tyrant and a villainous coward." Mr. Tru- 
man B. Fox, in his mention of Kishkawko, says: ''The early settlers 
of Oakland County were very much annoyed by this villain and his 
cowardly band as they passed through that section of the country on 
their way to Maiden to receive their annual presents from the British 
government. Kishkawko was in the habit of traveling with thirty or 
forty scoundrels, whom he called his warriors, and taking advantage 
of the sparsencss of the settlements would levy contributions upon 
the poor settlers. If his demands were not readily complied with he 
would take what he wanted by force, such as cattle, hogs, etc., thus 
subjecting the poor settlers to great suffering and continual fear. 
Upon one occasion, after his arrival at Detroit, which happened a 
few days before payment, his men being very hungry, he applied to 
some of the authorities for food, 'for,' said he, 'unless ray young 
men get something to eat it will be impossible for me to restrain them 
from robbing the settlers along the route.' 'Sir,' returned Gen. 
Cass, 'if your young men commit any depredations upon the settlers 
I will send my young men to punish them.' Notwithstanding this 
intimation depredations were occasionally committed upon the set- 
tlers with impunity. Kishkawko at length came to his end in a man- 
ner strikingly in keeping with his wicked and cowardly career. One 
day, while encamped at a place a little above Detroit, known as Chaine 
Farm, he got into a drunken row and killed an Indian. He was 
arrested by the proper authorities and imprisoned in the old Detroit 
jail, where he remained several months. Feeling assured from his 
past conduct that he need expect no mercy or lenity from the hands 
of those he had so often outraged, and that his death was certain he 
anticipated the law by taking poison, supposed to have been provided 
bim by his squaws." 



Lyons was another who expected (and received) a similar 
favor for his half-breed daughter Elizabeth. Several other 
traders (among whom a principal one was Louis Campau) 
stood well in the confidence of the Chippewas, and all these 
exerted their powers of persuasion to induce the Indians to 
make the treaty, in the hope of receiving certain arrearages 
due them out of the silver coin which would be paid in 
consideration of the cession. 

Gen. Cass, although he was Governor of Michigan and 
commissioner of Indian affairs, and was backed by the 
military force of the United States, did not wield one-half 
the power over the savages which was exercised by these 
traders ; but the latter used theirs so effectually that at the 
end of a few days they had nearly overcome the opposition. 
Having accomplished this result they notified Gen. Cass 
(who had all the while been aware of the means that were 
being employed), and he thereupoii reconvened the chiefs 
and warriors in the council-house. 

At this second council there was still a considerable 
amount of discussion among the chiefs, but as the principal 
difficulty had already been surmounted by the arguments 
and persuasions of the traders, the scenes of the previous 
meeting were not re-enacted here. All the circumstances were 
now favorable for the conclusion of a treaty. The most de- 
termined opponent, Kishkawko, was absent (not having yet 
recovered from his debauch), and the chief speaker, Oge- 
mawkeketo, had been won over by the traders. Gen. Cass, 
having found that the Indians were bitterly hostile to the 
plan for removing them beyond Lake Michigan, and that 
if the measure was insisted on it would most probably re- 
sult in the failure of the treaty, had ceased to press the 
proposition, and substituted for it the plan of granting 
tribal and individual reservations within the tract to be 
ceded. These circumstances had wrought such a favorable 
change in the feelings of the chiefs that the parties had 
little difficulty in agreeing on the terms of a treaty, which 
was virtually concluded at this sitting ; all that remained to 
be done being to engross it in due form, and to affix to it 
the signatures of the commissioner, the chiefs, and the wit- 
nesses. 

On the following day (September 24th) the third and 
last session of the council was held, and the treaty was 
formally signed. The Indian attendance was much larger 
at this than at either of the previous councils, being esti- 
mated at fully two thousand chiefs and warriors ; while a 
still greater number of women and children were crowded 
together on the outskirts of the assemblage. The ceremony 
of signing the treaty was made as imposing as possible. 
The first name written upon the document was, of course, 
that of Lewis Cass, United States Indian commissioner, 
and this was followed by the totems of one hundred and 
fourteen Chippewa and Ottawaf chiefs. Old Kishkawko 
had finally come out of his prolonged trance, and was 
present— somewhat sullen, but very quiet and dignified— 



t Only a very few Ottawas, however, were included among the 
chiefs who signed the Saginaw treaty. The Ottawas were regarded 
as the owners of a small part (the southwestern portion) of the lands 
ceded by this treaty ; but they had no proprietorship in the eastern 
part, which (including the two counties to which this history has ref- 
erence) was embraced in the domain of the Chippewas. 



INDIAN TREATIES AND CESSIONS OP LANDS. 



21 



and afiBxed his mark to the treaty with those of the other 
chiefs. The execution of the treaty was witnessed by 
Acting Commissioner R. A. Forsyth ; the Governor's sec- 
retaries, Leib and "Whitney; Capts. Cass and Root and 
Lieut. Peacock ; Gabriel Godfroy, sub agent ; tlie inter- 
preters Knaggs, Beaufait, Hurson, and Tuckey; John 
Hill, army contractor ; Henry I. Hunt, Barney Campau, 
William Keith, V. S. Ryley, J. Whipple, A. E. Lacock, 
John Smyth, B. Head, Richard Smyth, Louis Dequindre, 
and Conrad Ten Eyck. 

After the signing, a large table was spread before the 
commissioner, and on this table were placed great piles of 
silver half dollars, which, under the direction of Gen. Cass, 
were to be paid out to the representatives of the several 
bands. This part of the ceremony was watched with great 
interest by both chiefs and traders, but for somewhat differ- 
ent reasons. Many of the chiefs were indebted in consider- 
able sums to the trader Louis Campau, who had received 
their promise that when the payment was made to them his 
claim should be liquidated, at least to the amount of fifteen 
hundred dollars. He had already notified Gen, Cass of this 
agreement, and was now anxiously waiting, hoping to re- 
ceive the money from the commissioner without having it 
pass through Indian hands at all. But three of the other 
traders present were not pleased at the prospect of having 
so considerable a part of the Indians' money appropriated 
to the payment of their old debts. One of these three was 
Jacob Smith, who at once set about the task of persuading 
the wily and treacherous Kishkawko and some of the other 
chiefs to demand that the entire sum due them should be 
paid to the Indians, to be applied by them as they saw'fit. 
This diplomacy was so entirely successful that when the 
commissioner explained to the chiefs that Campau was ex- 
pecting to receive his dues, and asked if they consented to 
the arrangement, they replied that they were his children, 
under his protection, and expected that he would pay the 
money into their hands. The general could not disregard 
their expressed wishes in this particular, and he therefore 
directed that the money be paid to them, which was accord- 
ingly done by the secretaries, much to the disgust of Cam- 
pau, who, seeing that his money was lost, and believing 
Smith to be the cause of his discomfiture, leaped from the 
platform where he had been standing, and struck the latter 
two stunning blows in the face. Quick as lightning Smith 
turned on his assailant, but Henry Connor and Louis Beau- 
fait interposed between the belligerents and stopped the 
■ fight. 

After tlie payments had been made. Gen. Cass ordered 
five barrels of government whisky to be opened, and the 
liquor to be dealt out to the Indians. Upon seeing this, 
Campau, still filled with wrath at the treatment he had 
received, and blaming the general almost as much as Smith 
for it, ordered up ten barrels of his own whisky, knocked 
in the heads, and posted two men with dippers to supply 
the Indians as they came up. Of course the scene of in- 
toxication that ensued was indescribable. At about ten 
o'clock, the Governor, having become thoroughly alarmed at 
the infernal orgies that surrounded the trading-house in 
which lie was quartered, sent his private secretary, Forsyth, 
with orders to Campau to shut off the supply of liquor; 



but the trader only deigned the grim reply, " Gen. Cass 
commenced it himself." Then a platoon of Capt. Cass' 
company was detailed to guard the store-house. Soon after 
they had been posted, a new arrival of Indians demanded 
whisky, and, upon being refused and held at bay, rushed on 
the guard to force an entrance, during which attempt one 
of them received a bayonet wound in the leg. In an instant 
the war-whoop was sounded, and in a few minutes more 
swarms of savages, infuriated with liquor, and tomahawk in 
hand, came rushing towards the store. " Stop the liquor, 
Louis !" screamed the Governor of Michigan Territory, as 
he stood in the door of his quarters with a night-cap on 
his head. " We shall all be murdered ! Stop the liquor, I 
say !" " Certainement, mon gln^ral," replied Campau, 
" but you begun it, and you allowed Smith to rob me. I'll 
keep you safe, but remember you commenced it, mon g6n- 
6ral." He appeared to think that the satisfaction of thor- 
oughly frightening Gen. Cass for having allowed Jacob 
Smith to rob him, as he said, was cheaply enough purchased 
by the expenditure of ten barrels of whisky. " I lost my 
whisky and my money," he afterwards remarked, " but I 
had good revenge on Cass." 

By the combined efforts of the interpreters and traders 
the Indians were at length pacified, and they retired to 
their wigwams to sleep off the effects of their intoxication. 
After they had entirely recovered from their debauch they 
became perfectly friendly and tractable, and even after the 
commissioner and his staff of a.ssistants had departed for 
Detroit, they sent the orator-chief, W^ashmenondequet, to 
overtake him, and express to. him their pleasure and satis- 
faction at the result of the council. 

By the terms of this treaty, the Indians ceded to the 
United States an area of territory estimated at about six 
millions of acres; on consideration of which cession, the 
government agreed to pay to the Chippewa nation annually, 
forever, the sum of one thousand dollars, in silver coin, and, 
also, that all annuities to be paid them in pursuance of the 
stipulations of previous treaties should thereafter be paid 
in silver. The terms of the treaty of Greenville (in 1795), 
giving the Indians the right to hunt and fish at will upon 
the ceded lands, so long as they remained the property of 
the United States, were applied to this treaty. They were 
also to be permitted to make sugar wherever they chose 
upon the same lands and during the same period, but with- 
out any unnecessary waste of the trees. The boundaries 
of the cession, as described in the treaty, were as follows : 
" Beginning at a point in the present Indian boundary line 
(id^tical with the principal meridian of the State) which 
runs due north from the mouth of the great Auglaize River, 
six miles south of the place where the base line, so-called, 
intersects the same ; thence west sixty miles ; thence in a 
direct line to the head of Thunder Bay River ; thence down 
the same, following the courses thereof, to the mouth ; 
thence northeast to the boundary line between the United 
States and the British province of Upper Canada ; thence 
with the same to the line established by the treaty of De- 
troit in the year 1807 ; and thence with said line to the 
place of beginning.'' 

This immense tract joined the cession of 1807 along the 
line of the principal meridian, and extended thence west- 



22 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



ward to a point about three miles northeast of the site of 
the village of Kalamazoo. From this point, the western 
boundary of the cession was an unsurveyed line extending 
northeasterly through the present counties of Kalamazoo, 
Barry, Ionia, Montcalm, Isabella, Clare, Roscommon, and 
Crawford to Montmorency, embracing all the country be- 
tween the diagonal line mentioned and Lake Huron ;* thus 
including, of course, the entire territory of Clinton County, 
and all of Shiawassee which had not been covered by the 
cession of 1807. 

Within the boundaries of the great tract conveyed to the 
government by the treaty of Saginaw a number of tribal 
and individual reservations were made, viz. : A tract of 
8000 acres, including an Indian village, on the east side of 
the Au Sable ; 2000 acres on the Mesaquisk ; 6000 acres, 
to include an Indian village, on the north side of the Kaw- 
kawling ; 640 acres on the same river, " for the use of the 
children of Bowkowtonden ;" 9640 acres, in three tracts, 
on the Huron (Cass) River ; an island in Saginaw Bay ; 
a tract of 2000 acres " where Nabobish formerly stood ;" 
1000 acres "near the island in Saginaw River;" 2000 
acres "at the mouth of Point Augrais River;'' 10,000 
acres at Big Rock, on the Shiawassee, and " 3000 acres on 
the Shiawassee River at a place called Ketchewandauge- 
nink;" 6000 acres at Little Forks, on the Tetabawasink 
(Tittabawassee) River, and 6000 acres, near the same 
stream, " at Blackbird's town ;" 40,000 acres " on the 
west side of the Saginaw River, to be hereafter located ;'' 
" one tract of 5760 acres upon the Flint River, to include 
Reaume's (Neome's) village and a place called Kishkaw- 
bawee ;'' individual reservations on the Saginaw River to 
" the Crow'' a Cliippewa chief, and to throe half breed sons 
of Gen. Riley ; also eleven individual reservations of 640 
acres each, at the Grand Traverse of the Flint River, em- 
bracing the site of the present city of Flint ; five of the 
reservations last named being granted for the use of the 
five children of Jacob Smith the trader, whose influence 
with the Indians (exerted principally in view of the secur- 
ing of these same tracts) was largely instrumental in gain- 
ing the Indians' consent to the treaty, and without which 
it could hardly have been made. 

The ten-thousand-aore reservation "at Big Rock on the 
Shiawassee River'' was located a short distance north of 
the boundary of Shiawassee County, in Saginaw, at the 
present village of Chesaning, which took its name from the 
old Indian village of Che-as-sin-ning (Big Rock), which 
was included in the reservation. 

The tract of two thousand acres to be located " where 
Nabobish formerly stood" was never laid out, but was 
merged in the forty-thousand-acre reservation " to be here- 
after located" on the west side of the Saginaw. The old 
village of Nabobish (so called for the chief of the same 
name, who died before 1830) was the place which was 



*■ The Indian title to all that part of the Lower Peninsula which 
romained in possession of the Indians after the conclusion of the 
Saginaw treaty was extinguished by the treaties of Chicago (Aug. 29, 
1821) and Washington (March 28, 1886). By the former the Indians 
ceded the southwest part of the State as far north as Grand Elver; 
and by the Latter, ^11 the remainder of the peninsula (except a few 
reservations) which hud not been included in previous cessions. 



known among the later Indians as Assineboiuing, situated 
on the south branch of the Shiawassee, in what is now the 
township of Cohoctah, in the county of Livingston. The 
reason why the Nabobish reservation was never surveyed 
and set apart for the use of the Indians in accordance with 
the terms of the treaty is not known, but the fact that it 
was never done caused great dissatisfaction among them ; 
and during all the years of their stay in this region they 
never ceased to refer to it in bitter terms, as an act of bad 
faith on the part of the government. The tract of three 
thousand acres reserved " on the Shiawassee River, at a place 
called Ketchewandaugenink," was the " Grand Saline" or 
" Big Lick" reservation, embracing lands in the northwest 
corner of the present township of Burns, Shiawassee Co., 
and also extending into the adjoining townships of Antrim, 
Shiawassee, and Vernon. This was the only reservation 
ever laid out for Indians within the territory of Shiawassee 
and Clinton Counties. 

Neither the reservation of Kechewondaugoning nor that 
which was promised at Nabobish was, strictly speaking, 
within the scope of the Saginaw treaty, nor within the tract 
there ceded ; for, as has already been stated, the cession of 
1807 included within its boundaries — -as described in the 
treaty of Detroit — a territory which, extending northward 
as far as the centre of the west line of Shiawassee, and run- 
ning thence northeasterly to White Rock on Lake Huron, 
covered all of that county except the northwest corner, — 
about one-sixth part of its area. But the Indians did not 
so understand it. They had no means of knowing where 
thffdescribed lines would fall, and they supposed that the 
northern boundary of that cession would pass to the south- 
ward of the head-waters of the Shiawassee River, while in 
fact it crossed that stream within the present boundary of 
Saginaw County. The fact, however, that they believed 
themselves to be still possessors of the Shiawassee A^alley is 
proof that they never intended to include it in the lands 
ceded by the treaty of 1807. Whether Gen. Cass knew 
that this region was comprehended within the limits of that 
cssslon — or, indeed, whether the northern boundary de- 
scribed by the treaty of Detroit was ever accurately run — 
does not appear ; but if the commissioner was aware of the 
fact, he did not, and could not, insist on the right of the 
government to the lands which the Indians believed to be 
still their own, for by so doing he would probably have 
enraged them to such an extent that the treaty of Saginaw 
could not have been concluded. 

PLANS FOR INDIAN EMIGRATION. 
It has already been mentioned that one of the principal 
objects of Gen. Cass in convening the treaty-council at 
Saginaw in September, 1819, was to procure from the In- 
dians an agreement that they would gradually emigrate from 
their old hunting-grounds in Michigan and remove beyond 
the Mississippi River, or at least to the country lying to the 
westward of Lake Michigan ; but in this the commissioner 
was disappointed, as we have seen. This repulse, however, 
did not cause the government to abandon its cherished idea, 
and, finally, after many long years of persuasion, the minds 
of the red men seemed to have become fully prepared to 



INDIAN EMIGRATION. 



23 



entertain the proposition for ultimate removal to the new 
countries of the far West. Finally, at the beginning of the 
year 1837, Henry E. Schoolcraft, Indian commissioner, 
met the chiefs and head men of the Chippewas in council 
at Detroit, where, on the 14th of January in that year, a 
treaty was concluded by which the tribe ceded to the United 
States all the reservations, except those granted to individ- 
uals, under the Saginaw treaty of 1819, but retained the 
right to continue for five years in undisturbed occupation 
of their tracts on the Augrais Eiver, and on the Mushowusk 
River west of the Saginaw ; no white man to settle or en- 
croach on those tracts under penalty of five hundred dol- 
lars. The United States agreed to furnish a farmer and 
blacksmith for the tribe as before, and to continue the dona- 
tions of cattle and farming utensils. The lands embraced 
in the ceded reservations were to be surveyed by the United 
States and placed in the market with the other public lands 
as soon as practicable, and the amount due the Indians from 
this source to be invested by the President in some public 
stock, the interest to be paid annually to the tribe in the 
same manner as their annuities were paid ; and if, at the end 
of twenty years, the Indians should wish the said stock to 
be sold and the proceeds divided among the tribe, it might 
be done with the consent of the President and Senate. 

But the most important part of this treaty was that in 
which the Chippewas agreed to remove from the State of 
Michigan as soon as a proper location for them could be ob- 
tained, ibr which purpose a deputation was to be sent to 
view the country occupied by kindred tribes west of Lake 
Superior; " and if an arrangement for their future and per- 
manent residence can be made there which shall be satis- 
factory to them and the government, they shall be permitted 
to form a reunion with such tribes and remove thereto. If 
such an arrangement cannot be efifected the government of 
the United States will use its influence to obtain such 
location west of the Mississippi River as the legislation of 
Congress may indicate." An amendment was made to the 
terms of this treaty by a new treaty made by Mr. School- 
craft with the Chippewa chiefs at Flint River, Dec. 20, 
1837, by which the United States agreed to reserve a 
location for the tribe " on the head-waters of the Osage 
River, in the country visited by a delegation of the said 
tribe during the present year; to be of proper extent agree- 
ably, to their numbers, embracing a due proportion of 
wood and water, and lying contiguous to tribes of kindred 
language ;" the meaning and intent of this being to abro- 
gate that article of the treaty of Detroit which entitled 
them to lands in the country lying west of Lake Superior. 
It was provided by the treaty that the sum of fifty cents for 
each acre of Indian reservation land sold by the United 
States should be reserved ''as an indemnification for the 
location to be furnished for their future permanent resi- 
dence, and to constitute a fund for emigrating thereto." 

Immediately after the treaty of Flint Eiver, Commis- 
sioner Schoolcraft called another council, to be held at Sagi- 
naw, the reasons for which cbnvention were set forth to be 
that " the chiefs of the bands have represented that combi- 
nations of purchasers may be formed at the sale of their 
lands [meaning the reservation lands relinquished by the 
treaty of Detroit, Jan. 14, 1837], for the purpose of keep- 



ing down the price thereof, both at the public and private 
sales, whereby the proceeds would be greatly diminished ; 
and such a procedure would defeat some of the primary 
objects of the cession of the lands to the United States, and 
thereby originate difliculties to their early removal and ex- 
patriation to the country west of the Mississippi." The 
council was held and a treaty made, in which it was pro- 
vided that the reservation lands ceded by the treaty of 
1837 should be offered for sale by proclamation of the 
President, and that the sales should be conducted in the 
same manner as the sales of other government lands, which, 
together with other guarantees and safeguards to protect 
the Indians from being wronged in the sale of their reser- 
vations, had the effect to quiet their apprehensions. This 
treaty was concluded Jan. 23, 1838. 

The time set for the final evacuation of the Michigan 
peninsula by the Saginaw Chippewas was January, 1842, 
or five years from the conclusion of the treaty of Detroit, 
in which they gave their assent to the project of emigra- 
tion, and relinquished their reservations, except those on 
Mushowusk and Augrais Rivers, which last two they were 
to hold until the expiration of the five years of grace. But 
the plans of the government looking to the removal of the 
Chippewas from Michigan were never carried into effect. 
Long before the time agreed on for their departure they 
had bitterly repented of their promise to remove to the 
lands in the far West, and they prayed *the Great Father 
that they might be allowed to remain on almost any terms, 
and to die in the land of their birth. Probably, however, 
this had less effect in averting their doom of expatriation 
than the fact that, in the mean time, they had been almost 
exterminated by the ravages of the smallpox, which left 
but a feeble remnant of their once numerous tribe. The 
bands were broken up, and the few miserable and dejected 
ones who survived the scourge became too widely scattered 
to be easily gathered together for banishment. Some of 
them, in dread of being removed West, preferred to cross 
into Canada, — and did so. Others (and the greater pro- 
portion) weift northward into what was then the wilderness. 
These, or their children, are some of them now living on 
the reservation in Isabella County ; a few yet remain in 
Saginaw, Gratiot, and other counties towards the north ; 
but very few, if any of them, are now residents of Shia- 
wassee or Clinton. 

EEMOVAL OF POTTAWATTAMIE REFUGEES. 

The policy of the United States government in reference 
to the Pottawattamie tribe was the same which was pur- 
sued towards the Chippewas, except that with the former 
the plan of emigration was carried out to the end, and 
most of the people of that tribe were ultimately removed 
beyond the Mississippi. The Pottawattamies, by various 
treaties, from 1821 to 1828, had ceded their country to the 
government, but, like the Chippewas, they had retained 
several reservations. In September, 1833, however, they 
ceded these reservations to the United States, and at the 
same time agreed to evacuate and remove from their lands 
within three years. They were not removed promptly at 
the expiration of the time agreed on, but in the autumn of 
1838 a large number of them were collected on the St. 



24 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Joseph River (by some persons who had taken the contract 
from government to remove them) and were sent West, es- 
corted by United States troops. Many, however, had left 
their villages and hidden themselves to avoid being taken, 
and quite a number who started, escaped from the troops 
and returned. In 1839 the process was repeated, and many 
Indians were collected through all the country from the St. 
Joseph eastward to the Huron. But even after this second 
attempt, a large number of Pottawattamies (amounting in 
all to several hundreds) had evaded the vigilance of the 
contractors, and remained behind. In 1840 it was under- 
stood that a very determined effort would be made to collect 
all the lingerers and remove them, but the dejected fugitives 
were equally determined to avoid capture, if possible, and 
a body of them numbering about two hundred men, women, 
and children, with their old chief Muckemoot, fled for 
safety to the northern part of Shiawassee County. 

Early in the autumn of that year (1840) Gen. Hugh 
Brady* arrived at the village of Owosso under orders to 
use the troops at his command in capturing the Pottawat- 
tamie band, who were supposed to be lurking in the woods 
and swamps to the northward. This duty of hunting down 
the poor wretches and forcing them into exile was very 
distasteful to the gallant old soldier, but his orders left him 
no choice. His troops were to be used to assist the con- 
tractors in collecting and guarding the Indians, ^nd after- 
wards in escorting them on their weary way to the Mis- 
sissippi. 

Observation and inquiry soon revealed the fact that the 
fugitives were a few miles north of Owosso, engaged in 
picking cranberries on the marshes in the vicinity of the 
Shiawassee River. It was not long, however, before the 
Indians became aware of the presence of Gen. Brady, and, 
of course, knew too well the nature of his errand. Upon 
this the old chief, Muckemoot, started eastward with two 
or three followers, and passed swiftly on through Genesee 
and Oakland Counties, heading for Canada, and fully re- 
solved never to be taken alive. The companions of Mucke- 
moot had firearms, but the chief himself Imd only his 
bow and a quiver of arrows at his back, with knife and 
tomahawk in belt. 

^■' Hugh Brady was born in Northumberland Co., Pa., in the year 
1768. He entered the United States army as ensign in 1792, and 
served with great credit under *' Mad Anthony" Wayne in the Indian 
campaigns which followed. He was made lieutenant in February, 
179i, and captain in 1799. In the reduction of the army, which was 
made soon afterwards, he was mustered out of the service, but was 
restored with his former rank in 1808 by President Jefferson. He 
fought with great bravery in the war of 1812, and was severely 
wounded at the battle of Chippewa, where, as Gen. Scott said in his 
report of the engagement, ^' Old Brady showed himself in a sheet of 
fire." The Hon. George C. Bates says of him : *' Again and again 
he faced death on the battle-fields of Chippewa, Queenstown, Niagara, 
and Lundy's Lane, amidst such slaughter as was never seen on any 
previous battle-field of our country. He was colonel of the Twenty- 
second Foot Corps, which crossed bayonets with Col. Basden, of the 
British Twenty-first. Ho was so diffident, so modest, so brave, that 
any mention of his gallant exploits in his presence would drive him 
from the circle of conversation. But whenever duty called him to 
action he went calmly, resolutely to it. Not only was Gen. Brady a 
true soldier, but in all the broadest aspects of the word he was an 
accomplished American gentleman." His death occurred at Detroit 
in 1851, the result of his being thrown from his carriage by a pair of 
frightened horses. 



When their flight became known a party of three or 
four white men set out on horseback from Owosso in pur- 
suit. The chief and his men had kept to the woods for 
many miles, but before reaching Pontiac they took the 
road and pressed on with all speed towards Auburn. Near 
that place the pursuing party (having heard of the Indians 
several miles back) overtook and passed them without 
awakening their suspicions. Keeping on for a considerable 
distance the white men finally halted, and when the savages 
came up, demanded their surrender. Old Muckemoot, see- 
ing that he was entrapped, made an involuntary movement 
of defense, but recovered himself in an instant (probably 
realizing the hopelessness of resistance with bow and arrow 
while covered by the firearms of his opponents), and he 
coolly demanded to know what they wanted, and why they 
interfered with him on his peaceful journey. " Who are 
you?" said the white man whom he addressed. "I am 
Ogemawkeketo, the Saginaw chief. Why am I molested ?" 
" No," said the white man, " I have known Ogemawkeketo 
for many years. You are not he. You are Muckemoot, 
the Pottawattamie chief, and you must go with me." Then 
the old Indian saw that further dissimulation was as vain 
as resistance. His countenance fell, and he answered very 
sadly, and yet proudly, "Yes, it is true; I am the great 
chief of the Pottawattamies, and it is well for you that 
you came on me unawares, for otherwise Muckemoot could 
never have been taken I I would fight you now, but it is 
too late I I will surrender ! It is very hard, but I will go 
with you !" 

The other Indians, following the lead of their chief, sur- 
rendered peaceably, and all were taken to Owosso. After 
the capture of Muckemoot and his followers the main 
body of Pottawattamies did not make much effort to escape, 
and they were finally all (or very nearly all) taken in the 
vicinity of the cranberry marshes, in the present township 
of Rush. They were brought into Owosso in squads at 
different times, and these, as they arrived. Were placed 
under guard. Some of them were quartered in a wooden 
building which had been erected for a hotel, but more in 
the Log Cabin which had been erected on the southeast 
corner of Main and Washington Streets as a rendezvous 
for the supporters of Harrison and Tyler in the Presiden- 
tial campaign of that year. They were kept in those 
buildings for a considerable time, until all who could be 
found had been brought in. Then a number of four-horse 
wagons were brought to the place, and into them were 
loaded the women and children, with their few utensils and 
other movable articles. Some of ihe Indian men were 
allowed transportation in the wagons, some rode on ponies, 
and many were obliged to travel on foot. Formed in this 
manner, and closely guarded by troops in front and rear, 
the mournful procession of Pottawattamies moved out on 
the road, and sadly took their way to the place of their 
exile beyond the waters of the Mississippi. 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

INTEBBTAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

Laying out and Construction of Early Roads in the two Counties — 
Maple River Navigation Projects — Navigation of tiie Shiawassee — 
Northern Railroad and Northern Wagon-Road — Detroit and Shia- 
wassee Railroad Company — Detroit, Grand Haven and Milwaukee 
Railway — Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw Railroad — Detroit, Lan- 
sing and Northern Railroad — Port Huron Railroad Project — Chi- 
cago and Lake Huron Railroad Line— Other Projected Railroads. 

Wherevee immigrants of the Anglo-Saxon race estab- 
lish themselves as pioneers in wild interior regions, the 
opening of routes of travel between their isolated settle- 
ments and the nearest civilized communities is one of the 
first labors which they are called on to perform. In many 
cases, when the country is heavily timbered (as was the 
case through the greater part of the counties of Clinton 
and Shiawassee), this is a heavy task, and one which the 
pioneer is sometjimes obliged to attend to before he can 
transport his family and their movables to the place which 
he has chosen for a home. If his location has been selected 
in a country of openings, he still has some labor to perform 
in clearing a path through thickets which arc occasionally 
found barring the way, or' in filling wot places with brush- 
wood to allow the passage of his team ; and even if he is 
migrating on foot, without the convenience of either wagon 
or animals, he will sometimes find it necessary to fell a tree 
or two across a water-course, to serve as a foot-bridge for 
his wife and children, with their scanty stock of household 
goods. And whether the work be light or heavy, the 
opening of these rude tracks to pioneer settlements is road- 
making, — the first step in the direction of public internal 
improvements in all now countries which are remote from 
navigable waters. 

The earliest highways in the section of country to which 
this history has reference were the Indian trails, several of 
which were found traversing the territory of Clinton and 
Shiawassee Counties at the time when the first settlers 
came here. The most important of these was the one 
known as the " Grand River trail," which, leaving that 
river at the mouth of the Looking-Glass, passed up the 
last-named stream on its northern side through Clinton 
County to what are now the villages of De Witt and 
Laingsburg, and thence through Shiawassee County south 
of the village of Hartwellville to a point where an ancient 
Indian village was situated on the Looking-Glass in the 
present township of Antrim. There it forked, and the 
more southerly branch (known as the Red Cedar trail) 
passed south to the Cedar River in Livingston County, but 
the main Grand River trail continued eastward, crossed 
the Shiawassee River where the present hamlet of Burns 
stands, bore away southeast to Byron, and thence across 
the southwest corner of Genesee County and the northeast 
corner of Livingston into and through Oakland County to 
Pontiac and Detroit. 

The "Saginaw trail" passed from the great Indian camp- 
ground at Saginaw, up the Saginaw and Shiawassee Rivers 
to the " great crossing" of the latter stream, where it joined 
the Grand River trail. The Saginaw and Grand River 
trail, passing up the valley of the Bad River in Saginaw 
4 



County, crossed to the great bend of the Maple River in 
Gratiot County, and thence passed down the latter stream 
through Clinton County to Genereau's trading-post on 
Grand River. Another trail left the one last mentioned at 
the great bend of the Maple and passed southeastwardly 
up that river, through Clinton and Shiawassee .Counties, to 
join the Grand River trail at the crossing of the Shiawas- 
see. Almost directly through the centre of Clinton County 
a trail led southeastwardly from Maple Rapids to Scott's 
(De Witt village), where it crossed the Grand River trail 
and the Looking-Glass River, and thence passed to the 
Grand River in Ingham County. Besides the trails al- 
ready mentioned, there *vere a number of others of less 
importance which traversed the territory of Clinton and 
Shiawassee Counties, and some of these were selected as 
the routes of early roads to the pioneer settlements. 

When Richard Godfrey came to establish his trad- 
ing-post at the great crossing of the Shiawassee in 1828, 
he brought his goods from Oakland County by way of the 
Indian village of Kopenicorning and across the south part 
of Genesee County to his destination. The wagon in which 
these goods were transported was without doubt the first 
vehicle, as the route over which it came was the first road 
(if the rude wagon-track through the woods could be consid- 
ered as such) which entered or existed within any part of 
the territory of these two counties. In the year 1833 
a road was cut through the woods over very nearly the 
same route from Kopenicorning (in the extrpme northwest 
corner of Oakland County) to the Williams trading-post of 
the Shiawassee, this being done mainly by the proprietors 
of that post, A. L. and B. 0. Williams, assisted by the 
few pioneer settlers who had then located themselves on or 
in the neighborhood of its line. 

The principal one of all the early roads in these counties 
was that known as the " Pontiac and Grand River road," 
which ran from Pontiac to Ionia, and, of course, traversed 
the entire breadth of both Shiawassee and Clinton Counties. 
It ran from Pontiac westward through Oakland, and passed 
" Hillman's Tavern" in the township of Tyrone, Livingston 
Co , whence its route was by way of Byron, Burns, Fre- 
mont, Hartwellville, and Laingsburg, in Shiawassee Co., 
and De Witt and Wacousta, in Clinton, to Portland and 
Lyons, in Ionia. The pioneer travelers over this road (or at 
least the Shiawassee and Clinton part of it) were members 
of a party of colonists who were brought from the State of 
New York by Judge Samuel W. Dexter, to settle on lands 
which had been purchased by him in Ionia County. This 
party of immigrants, numbering sixty-three persons, came 
from the east, through Oakland County, and arrived at the 
Shiawassee River in the early part of May, 1833. There 
were six or seven families of them, besides several single 
persons, all traveling with wagons, containing their movable 
property, and having with them oxen, cows, and swine. Ar- 
riving at the Grand Saline, where Antoine Beaubien had a 
trading-post, their leader (Judge Dexter) asked that trader 
to pilot and assist them to their destination on the Grand 
River, but as he refused to undertake it, the judge then 
applied to B. 0. Williams, of the trading firm located be- 
low on the river. He was then engaged in his spring farm- 



26 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



ing, and was unwilling to leave it, but finally acceded to 
Judge Dexter's proposal and started out to guide the party 
on their way through the wilJerness fiom the Sliiawassee 
to the Grand Eiver. The account which he gives of that 
pioneering journey is this : " Having in vain tried to get 
Beaubien to pilot them, Messrs. Dexter, Yeomans,* and 
Winsor came to us for help. I left our planting, taking 
my blankets and small tent, and in six days landed them at 
Ionia, looking out the route, and directing where the road 
was to be. This was the first real colonizing party we had 
ever seen, — myself having never been farther than De Witt 
(the Indian village). I then induced Macketapenace 
(Blackbird), a son of Kishkawkof the usurping chief of all 
the Saginaws, to pilot us past Muskrat Creek, and from 
there proceeded with the party. At that point, a son of 
Mr. and Mrs. Dexter, a child of about two years old, died 
of scarlet fever. We buried the child by torch- and candle- 
• light, in a box improvised by the party. . . . The road we 
opened was next year followed by others, and was substan- 
tially the present Grand River road through Shiawassee and 
Clinton Counties, and was traveled for many years after." 
Mr. Williams is correct in saying that the route traveled by 
him with the party of Ionia colonists was nearly the same 
as that of the Pontiac and Grand River road, east of De 
Witt, but west of that place it was entirely different, as it ran 
thence northwestwardly through the present townships of 
Riley, Bengal, and Dallas, and down the south side of Stony 
Creek to Ionia County. It was on section 31 of Bengal — 
on the farm q{ Judge Cortland Hill — that the child of 
Judge Dexter was buried, as narrated by Mr. Williams. 
The route opened by this party between De Witt and Lyons 
became known as the " Dexter trail," and was cut out and 
traveled for a number of years, but a large part of it was 
afterwards closed and taken into the farms through which 
it passed. 

On the 9th of March, 1844, the Governor approved " an 
act to establish and improve the Pontiac and Grand River 
road," over the route which has already been described. 
In 1845 an amendatory act was passed (approved March 
12th), which provided " that Philip S. Prisbee, Elkanah 
Parker, and Daniel Donclson be, and they are hereby, ap- 
pointed commissioners to examine any part of the Pontiac 
and Grand River road, and to make alterations of route 
according to their judgment ;" and by the same act, Robert 
Toan, of the county of Ionia ; Loyal Palmer, of Clinton ; 
Jonathan M. Hartwell, of Shiawassee ; Samuel N. Warren, 
of Genesee ; and Archibald Phillips, of Oakland County, 
were " appointed special commissioners, each for the county 
in which he resides, whose duty it shall be to direct and 
superintend the performance of all labor which by the pro- 
visions of this act, or the act to which this is amendatory, 
are to be performed on said road, and to expend all monies 
which may accrue to said road by the provisions of said 
acts." Under the provisions of these, and acts passed in 
subsequent years appropriating non-resident taxes, and by 
labor applied by the highway officers of the several town- 
ships traversed by it, the road was gradually worked and 
made passable in its entire length, though it was not until 



* Erastm Yeoman?, afterwards a prominent citizen of loniii. County. 



July, 1854, that it was declared opened through Clinton 
County. It has been an important thoroughfare to these 
two counties (though much less so now than formerly), and 
it is still known and mentioned by its ancient name, — the 
Pontiac and Grand River road. 

The Detroit and Grand River road — more generally 
known in the counties through which it passes as the 
" Grand Eiver Turnpike" — was established by act of Con- 
gress, passed on the 4th of July, 1832 (Michigan being 
then a Territory), directing the President to appoint three 
commissioners " to lay out a road from Detroit, through 
Sciawassee County,f to the mouth of the Grand River," 
for military and other purposes. The road was accordingly 
" laid out," and the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars 
was expended by the government in the years 1833 and 1834 
in working the eastern part of the road ten miles out from 
Detroit. A further appropriation of twenty-five thousand 
dollars was made by Congress, March 3, 1835, and this 
amount was expended in 1835-36 in clearing the road one 
hundred feet wide through the timbered land, and in con- 
structing bridges on its line across the Rush, Huron, Shia- 
wassee (south branch), and Cedar Rivers. This was the 
last work done on the Grand River road by the general 
government, as Michigan had ceased to be a Territory and 
became a sovereign State. A grant of five thousand acres 
of land was, however, obtained from the United States for 
the benefit of the Grand River and Saginaw roads, of which 
grant this road received its proportion. 

After the United States ceased making appropriations 
for the Grand River road very little was done on it for a 
time. The State, however, took up the work soon after, 
and the construction of the road was continued by State ap- 
propriations from time to time, one of these being made by 
an act approved April 2, 1841, which provided that five 
thousand dollars be expended on the construction of this 
road, under the direction of the Board of Internal Im- 
provement ; this sum being taken from the sixty thousand 
dollars which remained unexpended of the appropriations 
previously granted for the Northern Wagon-Road,J which 
project had at that time been virtually abandoned. By 
these appropriations, and by the expenditure of local high- 
way taxes upon it, the Grand River Turnpike was finally 
made an excellent road, which for many years accommodated 
a vast amount of travel. So great was the traffic upon it 
at one period prior to the opening of the railroads through 
the section tributary to it that the vehicles passing over it 
—heavy wagons, light carriages, and stage-coaches — formed 
an almost continuous procession. With the opening of the 
Detroit and Milwaukee, and Detroit, Lansing and Northern 
Railroads this great travel suddenly ceased, and the former 
glory of the Grand River Turnpike departed. ■ The route 
of the turnpike, being entirely south of the present territory 



t Shiawassee County at that time extended south as far as the centre 
of the present county of Livingston. 

t The Northern Wagon-Eoad, of which the route lay through the 
whole breadth of Shiawassee and Clinton Counties, and for which the 
Legislature made an appropriation of thirty thousand dollars in 1841, 
will be found mentioned in succeeding pages in connection with the 
account of the old " Northern Railroad." 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



27 



of Shiawassee, enters Clinton County at the southeast corner 
of the township of Watertown, and passes northwestwardly 
through that and the township of Eagle into Ionia County. 

The first Legislature of the State of Michigan, at its ses- 
sion of 1835-36, provided for the layiog out and establish- 
ment of a large number of State roads, and among them 
were a number of which the routes were partially within 
the counties of Shiawassee and Clinton. These were au- 
thorized by act approved March 26, 1836, as follows : 

1. " A State road from Pontiac, in the county of Oak- 
land, on the most direct and eligible route to the village of 
Brooklyn, in the county of Clinton, and thence to the seat 
of justice in said county." Jonathan P. Stratton, William 
C. Rumsey, and Enos Leek were appointed by the act 
" commissioners to lay out and establish the same." 

2. A State road " from the village of Pontiac, in the 
county of Oakland, by the most direct and eligible route, to 
terminate at the county-seat of Ionia." The commissioners 
appointed to lay out and establish this road were Alfred L. 
Williams, William Terry, and Erastus Yeomans. The 
route of this road crossed the entire width of the counties 
of Shiawassee and Clinton/ 

3. " A State road from Jacksonburgh, in the county of 
Jackson, through the centres (as nearly as may be) of the 
counties of Ingham and Shiawassee, to Saginaw, in the 
coiinty of Saginaw." Commissioners, Daniel Coleman, 
David Scott, and William R. Thompson. 

4. A State road from Pontiac, in Oakland County, to be 
laid out "on the most direct and eligible route until it inter- 
sects the Grand River at the mouth of the Looking-Glass 
River, passing the White Lake (Oakland County) settle- 
ment, Alfred Williams' on the Shiawassee River, and the 
county-seat of Clinton County." The commissioners ap- 
pointed to 'lay out and establish" this^road were Alfred 
L. Williams, Jonathan F. Stratton, and David Scott. 

5. State road to be laid out running "from the village 
of Pontiac, in Oakland County, to Mapes and Bursley's 
mills, on Ore Creek, in township 3 north, of range 6 east, 
and thence to the centre of Shiawassee County." To lay 
out and establish this road John S. Webber, Samuel Mapes, 
and George Buckley were appointed commissioners. The 
act authorizing the above-mentioned roads was declared to 
be inoperative and void after Dec. 31, 1839, as to such of 
them as should not at that time have been laid out and 
established. 

It will be noticed that four of the five roads above men- 
tioned were to have their eastern termini at Pontiac. As 
it is certain that the public good could not have required 
so many highways running through these counties to that 
point, it might seem strange that the Legislature should 
have authorized all of them, but for the fact that it was 
expressly provided in the law that all State roads so author- 
ized were to be under the care of the commissioners of 
highways for the several townships through which they 
were to pass, and " subject to be by them opened and kept 
in repair in the same manner as township roads may be by 
them opened and kept in repair." It was also provided 
that " in laying out and establishing the roads, or any of 
the roads named, the State shall not be liable for the ex- 



penses or damages incurred thereby." Therefore, as the 
laying out of these roads brought no expense to the State, 
it was the policy of the Legislature to grant such as were 
asked for by interested parties, though without any expec- 
tation that all would be actually built. 

The second Legislature of the State, at its regular session 
in 1837, passed an act (approved March 17th) which author- 
ized the laying out of State roads to cross the territory of 
Clinton or Shiawassee County, or both, as follows : 

1. A road " from Byron, in the county of Shiawassee, 
to Shiawassee town, so called, in town 6 north, of range 3 
east, and from thence to Leach's Place in section 10, of 
town 6 north, of range 1 east, and from thence by the most 
direct and eligible route to the village of Lyons in the 
county of Ionia." The commissioners appointed to lay out 
this road were Francis J. Prevost, Archibald Purdy, and 
Henry Leach. 

2. " A State road at or near Farmington City, so called, 
in the county of Oakland, running by the head of Walled 
Lake to Byron, in the county of Shiawassee," with Erie 
Prince, Isaac Wixom, and John Thomas as commissioners 
to lay out the same. 

3. A road " commencing at the village of Marshall, in 
the county of Calhoun, and from thence to Saginaw City, 
so called, in the county of Saginaw.'' The route of this 
road must necessarily pass through the county of Shia- 
wassee. The commissioners to locate and establish it were 
Sidney S. Alcott, Cyrus Hewett, and Charles T. Gorham. 

4. A road "from the seat of justice in Eaton County, 
to Cushway's trading-point, on Maple River, in the county 
of Clinton, on the most direct and eligible route." The 
commissioners appointed were William Wheaton, Stephen 
B. Rogers, and Philander R. How. 

5. A road " from De Witt, in Clinton County, to Pe- 
Shimnecon, in the county of Ionia;" for the location of 
which Sylvester Scott, Alexander Chapel, and Philander 
R. How were appointed commissioners. 

6. Truman H. Lyon, A. F. Bell, and John McKelvey 
were appointed commissioners to lay out and establish a 
State road " from the village of Pontiac, in the county of 
Oakland, by the most direct and eligible route to the vil- 
lage of Lyons in the county of Ionia." 

In 1838 (by act approved March 9th) the Legislature 
authorized the establishment of a State road " from the 
Rochester Colony, in Clinton County, thence on the most 
direct and eligible route to the county-seat of Ionia,'' and 
appointed Lyman Webster, Lockwood Yates, and Cyrus 
Lovell commissioners for that purpose. In the following 
year (by act approved April 18th) Samuel Barker, Charles 
Baldwin, and John Ferdon were appointed commissioners 
" to lay out and establish a State road, commencing at the 
village of Owosso in the county of Shiawassee, and running 
thence on the most direct and eligible route by the way of 
Rochester Colony, so called, to a certain point of intersec- 
tion with a State road running from Ionia to the Rochester 
Colony, at or near the dwelling-house of Hiram Benedict, 
in township 8 north, of range 3 west." 

An act of the Legislature, approved March 4, 1840, ap- 
pointed Joseph P. Roberts, ApoUos Dewey, and Elias Corn- 
stock commissioners " to lay out and establish a State road , 



28 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



commencing at the village of Mason, in the county of 
Ingham, thence in a northerly direction to the village of 
Owosso, in the county of Shiawassee, and to file the survey 
of so much of said road in the ofiBce of each township clerk 
[in any township] through which the road shall pass as 
shall be laid out in each township." And by another sec- 
tion of the same act Daniel Ball, Alfred L. Williams, and 
Alpheus F. Williams were made commissioners to lay out 
and establish another State road (a northern continuation 
of that above mentioned) " commencing at the village of 
Owosso, in the county of Shiawassee, running from thence 
in a northerly direction on the most practicable route to 
Saginaw City, in the county of Saginaw, and to file the 
survey of so much of said road in the ofiBce of each town- 
ship clerk [in any township] through which the said road 
shall pass as shall be laid out in each township." 

For several years after 1840 the Legislature authorized 
very few State roads to be laid out through Shiawassee or 
Clinton County. The popular excitement in that direction 
had in a great measure expended itself during the first three 
years succeeding the organization of the State, and not one- 
half the roads authorized by the Legislature in those years 
had been built, or even located. Railroad schemes, too, had 
already begun to attract public attention, and a few years 
later projects for the construction of plank-roads became so 
popular that many persons believed that this kind of high- 
way was destined to come into universal use, and to super- 
sede the common road. These, and other causes, had the 
effect to divert attention from the opening of new State 
roads during a number of years preceding the removal of 
the State capital to Lansing, but the accomplishment of 
that removal, in 1847, caused the people, particularly those 
of Shiawassee, Clinton, and other neighboring counties, to 
desire more and better roads, to afford access to the new 
seat of government. Among the numerous State roads 
authorized at the next succeeding session of the Legislature 
(in 1848) were several to be laid out within Shiawassee and 
Clinton Counties, viz. : 

1. Alexander McArthur, Jonathan M. Hartwell, and 
Luke H. Parsons were appointed (by act approved April 1, 
1848) commissioners "to lay out a State road from the 
village of Flint, in the county of Genesee, by the way of 
the village of Corunna, in the county of Shiawassee, to the 
capital of this State, or to such other point, touching any 
road leading to the capital, as the said commissioners, or a 
majority of them, may deem proper." 

2. A State road was authorized, to run " from the vil- 
lage of Michigan, in the county of Ingham, on the most 
direct and eligible route by the way of Owosso, in the 
county of Shiawassee, and Northampton and the forks of 
Bad River, in the county of Saginaw, to the city of 
Saginaw." The commissioners appointed to lay out and 
establish this road were William Smith, Alfred L. Wil- 
liams, and Daniel Gould. 

3. Harvey T. Lee, John Thomson, and James M. Cum- 
mings were appointed commissioners " to lay out and estab- 
lish a State road on the most eligible route from the village 
of Byron, in the county of Shiawassee, to the capital of 
this State." 

4. A northeastern extension of the last-named road was 



authorized by the appointment of Hartford Cargill, 
Ephraim Fletcher, and George C. Holmes as commissioners 
" to lay out and establish a public State road from Flint vil- 
lage, in the county of Genesee, through the township of 
Gaines ; thence on the most direct and eligible route to 
Byron, in the county, of Shiawassee, intersecting the State 
road at that place." 

5. James Seymour, Alexander McArthur, and Luke H. 
Parsons were appointed commissioners with authority " to 
lay out and establish a State road from the village of 
Corunna, in the county of Shiawassee, on the most eligible 
route to the village of Flushing, in the county of Genesee." 
And by the same act, J. B. Bloss, Simon Z. Kinyon, and 
Isaac Castle were made commissioners to lay out and estab- 
lish a State road from Corunna " to a point at or near 
where the present traveled road, leading from said village 
of Corunna to Shiawasseetown, touches the Shiawassee 
River." 

An act approved March 31, 1848, appropriated six 
thousand acres of internal improvement lands " for the pur- 
pose of improving certain roads in the county of Clinton, as 
follows, viz. : three thousand acres thereof upon a road to 
be laid out from the village of De Witt to the village of 
Mapleton, in the township of Duplain, crossing the line of 
the Northern Railroad at or near the residence of Stephen 
W. Downer ; also one thousand acres thereof for laying 
out and improving a branch of said last-mentioned road, 
commencing at a point where it intersects the Northern 
Railroad line, and running thence to the northeast corner 
of section 25, in the township of Essex ; and from thence 
on the most eligible route to a point at or near the 
centre of the township of Greenbush, in said county of 
Clinton ; and also two thousand acres of said land for 
laying out and improving a road from the village of De 
Witt through the German settlement in Westphalia to 
Lyons, in tho county of Ionia ; said appropriation to be 
expended within the limits of the county of Clinton." An 
act passed at the same session (approved March 21, 1848) 
appropriated seven thousand acres of internal improvement 
lands in the lower peninsula " for the purpose of opening 
and improving the road leading from Corunna, in the 
county of Shiawassee, to a point at or near the forks of 
Bad River, in the county of Saginaw." 

It should be borne in mind, in reference to the roads au- 
thorized by the Legislature, as above mentioned, that the 
" laying out" of roads in that manner (particularly in the 
earlier years) was by no means equivalent to opening and 
making them ready for travel ; that some of them so au- 
thorized were never opened at all ; and that in nearly every 
case a long time (sometimes a number of years) intervened 
between the time when a State road was laid out by the 
commissioners and the time when it was actually worked, 
opened, and made passable for vehicles. 

There have been a number of State roads laid out in 
Clinton and Shiawassee Counties later than those mentioned 
above. It is impracticable to notice in detail the laying 
out and construction of all these, but it is proper to men- 
tion the Shiawassee and Saginaw, and the Clinton and 
Gratiot State roads, as among the most important north-and- 
south thoroughfares of these counties. The first mentioned 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



29 



was laid out from Owosso to St. Charles in 1861, and was 
worked through in 18G2 to 1864 by Philip Mickle, con- 
tractor. The project of planking this road between Chesa- 
ning and Owosso was started, and a short distance was 
planked in 1865 (the first plank being laid April 27th of that 
year at Chesaning), but the planking was not extended 
into Shiawassee County. 

The fine thoroughfare passing northward through the 
village of St. John's, and thence into Gratiot County, is a 
part of the line authorized by act of Feb. 12, 1859, which 
provide^ for the laying out of a State road " from Port Hu- 
ron, in St. Clair County, to Bay City ; thence westerly to the 
meridian township line between ranges 2 and 3 west ; thence 
southerly to St. John's, in Clinton County ; to be known as 
the Port Huron, Bay City and Clinton road." The sec- 
tion passing through the north part of Clinton into Gratiot, 
however, has usually been known as the St. John's and 
Gratiot road. This section was built by Christopher C. 
Darling, of Lansing, in 1859 and 1860, but has since been 
improved at great expense by the townships of Bingham 
and Greenbush, so that it is now one of the best highways 
in the county or State. 

PLANK-ROADS. 

Projects for the construction of plank-roads began to 
come into general favor in Michigan about the year 1847, 
and it was in that year that the first two of these companies 
whose proposed route lay across any part of the territory of 
Shiawassee or Clinton County were formed, as follows : 

The Pontiac and Corunna Plank-Road Company — in- 
corporated by act approved March 17, 1847 — was "em- 
powered and authorized to survey and lay out a road com- 
mencing at the village of Pontiac, and running thence 
northwesterly through the village of Byron and the village 
of Shiawassee to the village of Corunna, in the county of 
Shiawassee, . . . and to construct and keep in repair a 
plank or macadamized road on the route so established from 
the village of Pontiac to the village of Corunna." Horace 
C. Thurber, J. W. Crandall, Jairah Hillman, George C. 
Holmes, J. B. Bloss, Seth Beach, and William Axford 
were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to 
the capital stock, which was authorized to the amount of 
two hundred thousand dollars. 

The Portland and Shiawassee Plank-Road Company was 
incorporated at the same time as the above. This company 
was authorized " to survey and lay out, on the line of any 
existing highway, or elsewhere, a road commencing at the 
village of Portland and running thence easterly to some 
eligible point on the Pontiac and Corunna Plank-Road." 
Commissioners appointed, Peter Laing, David Sturgis, and 
Harvey Hunter. Capital authorized, two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. The object of these two companies was 
to plank the Pontiac and Grand River Road from Pontiac 
to Portland. 

After 1847, and before the enactment of the general 
plank-road law, the Legislature incorporated the following- 
named companies, each of which proposed to build plank- 
roads through some part of Shiawassee or Clinton County, 

viz. : 

The Clinton and Bad River Plank-Road Company, in- 



corporated April 3, 1848. Route, "from the village of 
De Witt, in the county of Clinton, on the most eligible 
route to the forks of Bad River, in the county of Saginaw." 
Commissioners, J. W. Turner, Daniel Ferguson, Stephen 
W. Downer, Chandler W. Coy, and Robert E. Graver. 
Capital, seventy-five thousand dollars. 

The Portland and Michigan Plank-Road Company, in- 
corporated April 3, 1848. To build a plank-road from 
Portland, Ionia Co., to the town of Mijhigan (now Lan- 
sing), Ingham Co. Commissioners, William F. Jennison, 
A. Newman, and Hezekiah Smith. Capital, fifty thousand 
dollars. An amendatory act, approved March 8, 1851, 
empowered this company to enter upon and use the De- 
troit and Grand River turnpike between Lansing and Port- 
land. 

The Owosso and Bad River Plank-Road Company. In- 
corporated April 3, 1848, to build a road from the village 
of Owosso to the forks of Bad River, in Saginaw County. 
Commissioners, Alfred L. Williams, Amos Gould, and 
John B. Barnes. Capital, forty thousand dollars. 

The Michigan and De Witt Plank-Road Company. In- 
corporated April 3, 1848. Proposed route, " from the town 
of Michigan, in the county of Ingham, to the village of 
De Witt, in the county of Clinton." Capital, ten thousand 
dollars. Commissioners, James Seymour, Siloam S. Carter, 
J. W. Turner, George T. Clark, and David Ferguson. 

The Corunna and Saginaw Plank-Road Company. In- 
corporated April 3, 1848, " to lay out, establish, and con- 
struct a plank-road from Corunna, in the county of Shia- 
wassee, to Saginaw, in the county of Saginaw, or to such 
intermediate point as the stockholders of said company 
shall determine." Capital, fifty thousand dollars (after- 
wards increased to seventy thousand dollars). Commis- 
sioners, Isaac Castle, Alexander MoArthur, Ransom W. 
Hawley, Luke H. Parsons, Ebonezer C. Kimberly, and 
Samuel W. Cooper. To these were afterwards added 
Gardner D. Williams, James Fraser, Charles S. Kimberly, 
and David Eaton. 

The Howell and Byron Plank-Road Company. Incor- 
porated March 25, 1850, to construct a plank-road from 
Howell, Livingston Co., to Byron, Shiawassee Co. Capital, 
thirty thousand dollars. Commissioners, Josiah Turner, 
George W. Lee, B. W. Dennis, F. J. Prevost, and Noah 
Ramsdell. 

None of the above-mentioned companies built their pro- 
posed roads, or any part of them, within these two counties, 
and the only reason why they have been noticed here is to 
show how general was the plank-road mania here, as in 
other portions of the State, and also to show what were the 
several projects of this kind, and who were their originators. 

MAPLE EIVEE NAVIGATION PROJECTS. 
In the first half of the present century, before the days 
of railroad communication, the people of Michigan, like 
those of other States, were disposed to place an extrava- 
gantly high estimate oa the importance and value of their 
rivers for purposes of navigation, and to favor bold and 
often visionary projects for the improvement of the streams, 
in the expectation (which was seldom if ever realized) of 
securing great advantages from the utilization of these 



30 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



water-ways. Such projects were conceived and their pro- 
secution commenced with regard to the principal rivers of 
Clinton and Shiawassee Counties, — the Shiawassee, Grand, 
and Maple, and the improvement of the latter two was em- 
braced in the internal improvement system (more fully 
noticed in succeeding pages) which was adopted by the 
State at the regular session of its second Legislature in 
1837. 

In that year an act was passed (approved March 20th) 
which provided : '■ Section 5. — That the sum of twenty 
thousand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated 
out of any moneys which shall come into the treasury to 
the credit of the internal improvement fund, for the fol- 
lowing surveys, to be made under the direction of the board 
of commissioners : for the survey of a canal or for a canal 
part of the way and railroad the balance of the route, com- 
mencing at or near Mount Clemens, on the Clinton River, 
to terminate at or near the mouth of Kalamazoo River ; 
and for the survey of a canal route to unite the waters of 
the Saginaw River with the navigable waters of the Maple 
or Grand Rivers', and for the purchase of surveyors' and 
other instruments ; and for the survey of the St. Joseph, 
Kalamazoo, and Grand Rivers, with a view to the improve- 
ment of the same by slack-water navigation." Section 7 
of the same act provided : " That the sum of fifteen thou- 
sand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated out of 
any moneys which shall come into the treasury to the 
credit of the said internal improvement fund, to be applied 
to the construction of a canal to unite the waters of the 
Saginaw with the navigable waters of the Grand or Muple 
Rivers, if said board of commissioners shall decide that it 
is practicable to construct a canal on said route." 

Under the authority conferred by this act the board of 
internal improvement caused a survey to be made by Tracy 
McCracken, Esq., chief engineer of the Saginaw and Maple 
Rivers Canal, and this survey resulted in the location and 
adoption of a route running from the forks of the Bad 
River (a navigable tributary of the Saginaw), in Saginaw 
County, westward to the Maple River, at its " Big Bend," 
in Gratiot County. The report of the survey was regarded as 
exceedingly favorable, showing the existence of a remarkable 
valley or depression, extending westward from the waters 
of the Saginaw to those of the Maple ; that these waters, 
flowing in opposite directions, were only three miles distant 
from each other at one point, and that between them the 
highest elevation necessary to be crossed was only seventy- 
two feet above Lake Michigan. It was along this valley 
and across this low summit that the engineer located the 
route of the canal, which, with certain slack-water improve- 
ments to be made to the east and west of it, on the Bad, 
the Maple, and the Grand Rivers, was to open a line of 
uninterrupted navigation between Lake Michigan and Sag- 
inaw Bay, and to bring prospe'rity to all the country conti"- 
uous to it. 

Contracts were let for the grubbing and clearing of the 
route and for the excavations upon a five-mile section on 
the most difficult portion of it ; the last-named contract 
being taken by Norman Little, of Saginaw. Another part 
of this work was taken by Alpheus Williams. Work was 
commenced in 1838, and was continued with more- or less 



\i<ror until July of the following year, when it was sus- 
pended. The immediate cause of the suspension is made 
apparent by the following extract from the official report of 
Rix Robinson, president of the State board of internal 
improvement, dated Nov. 30, 1839. He says : " Early in 
the season Norman Little, Esq., the principal contractor on 
this work, expressed to me his incapacity to proceed with 
the work in case the State should fail to pay his estimate 
for labor monthly, and punctually according to the tenor of 
his contract. There being no possible means for me to 
obtain sufficient funds for that purpose, the work Jias ac- 
cordingly been abandoned by him. The chief engineer, Mr. 
McCracken, in his report for 1839, said : " It was not to 
be expected that the contractor for this work, which, from 
its position, is one of the most difficult to execute, would 
be able or willing to prosecute it without prompt payment 
on the part of the State, which, failing to meet its engage- 
ment in the payment of the monthly estimates, was averred 
by the contractor as the cause of the work being aban- 
doned. This occurred some time in June last [1839] ; 
since then nothing has been done towards the construction 
of the work. . . . Most of the work required upon one 
section of the canal, together with the greater part of the 
clearing and grubbing of the line under contract, has been 
completed. There is now upon the line several thousand 
feet of plank and timber intended for the locks and dams. 
A great portion of the timber is framed, and will, from its 
present exposed condition , decay very rapidly." 

The suspension of work by the contractora in July, 1839, 
proved to be a final abandonment of the construction of the 
canal as a State work. The timbers mentioned by the chief 
engineer as having been intended for the construction of 
locks and dams remained to rot on the ground, and the 
remnants of some of them have been visible in recent 
years in the town of Chapin, Saginaw Co. (a few miles 
from the northeast corner of Clinton County), having been 
left to decay in the place where they were framed more 
than forty years ago. 

The sums expended on the Saginaw and Maple River 
Canal (and which were, of course, a total loss to the State) 
were as follows : In the year 1838, $6271.12 ; in the year 
1839, $15,985.69; total, $22,256.81. 

Ten years after the abandonment of this canal project by 
the State, the Legislature of Michigan (by act approved 
March 30, 1819) incorporated Gardner D. Williams, James 
Frazier, and D. J. Johnson, of Saginaw City ; Adam L. 
Roof, of Ionia County ; Rix Robinson, of Kent ; D. H. 
Fitzhugh, John F. Mackie, and Charles Yates, of New 
York City, as the " Saginaw and Grand River Canal Com- 
pany," with authority " to enter upon the canal commenced 
by the State, as their property, at the forks of the Bad 
River, and upon lands on either side and through which 
the said canal may pass, to the bend of Maple River, a 
tributary of Grand River, and as far on that river as may 
be thought proper ; to construct a tow-path, and concen- 
trate the water for canal use, and to dig, construct, or ex- 
cavate the earth ; to erect or set up any dams, locks, waste- 
weirs, sluices, feeders, or any other device whatsoever to 
render the same navigable with boats, barges, or other 
craft." The company was also empowered to make such 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



31 



improvements on the Bad, Maple, and Grand Rivers as 
might be necessary to carry out the objects for which it was 
incorporated. The capital stock of the company was placed 
at two hundred thousand dollars, and its charter was to 
continue for a term of sixty years. The revival of the 
project reawakened hopes that the Maple River was at last 
to become part of a navigable water-way between the two 
great lakes ; but no work on the canal was ever done by 
the company, and finally the enterprise was definitely 
abandoned, never to be again revived. 

At the present time a small steamboat, named the '' May 
Queen," is running on the river from Maple Rapids to 
Bridgeville, Gratiot Co. ; this part of the stream being 
deepened and made navigable for craft of that size, by the 
dam at the Rapids, which sets the water back for many 
miles. 

At about the same time when the Maple River improve- 
ments were in agitation, a project was started for the con- 
struction of a canal along the Looking-Glass River between 
De Witt and Wacousta, but the work was never accom- 
plished, or even actual^ commenced. 

NAVIGATION ON THE SHIAWASSEE. 
The improvement of the Shiawassee River, so as to form 
a slack-water navigation from the Big Rapids of that stream 
northward to the Saginaw, was a project which had been con- 
templated by the founders of Owosso from the time when 
the first settlements were made at that place. Between 
them and the outside world there were no roads practicable 
for heavy transportation, and the obstacles to the construction 
of such for a distance of more than fifty miles (to Pontiac) 
were at that early day regarded as almost insurmountable. 
It seemed to them, therefore, that their settlement must 
continue in its isolated condition, and that very little im- 
provement as a village could be expected until they could 
secure communication with Saginaw by making the river 
beatable. These were the considerations which gave birth 
to the idea of improving the Shiawassee, and but a short 
time elapsed before they moved towards the execution of 
the plan by procuring the necessary authority from the 
Legislature. 

The " Owosso and Saginaw Navigation Company" was 
incorporated by act approved March 21, 1837. By this 
act Daniel Ball, Alfred L. Williams, Benjamin 0. Wil- 
liams, Lewis Findley, William Gage, Gardner D. Williams, 
Norman Little, Samuel G. Watson, Ephraim S. Williams, 
Elias Comstock, Alexander Hilton, and Perry G. Gardner 
were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to 
the capital stock, which was authorized to the amount of 
one hundred thousand dollars. The company thus incor- 
porated was empowered " to enter upon the river Shiawas- 
see, and upon the lands on either side, and to use the rocks, 
stones, gravel, or earth which may be found thereon in the 
construction of their works, first giving notice to the owners 
or occupiers of the land ; and to form and make, erect and 
set up any dams, locks, or any other device whatsoever 
which they shall think most fit and convenient to make a 
complete slack-water navigation between the points herein 
menlioncd, to wit : from the village of Owosso, situate on the 



Shiawassee River, to and down said river to a point where 
the Flint River intersects the Shiawassee ; and the locks for 
the purposes of passing steamboats, barges, and other craft 
up and down said river shall be of sufficient width and 
length to admit a safe and easy passage for steamboats, 
barges, and other craft, up as well as down said river." 

The company (in which Daniel Ball* was the leading 
man, and Sanford M. Green a prominent member) com- 
menced the work in 1837, and continued it during that 
and the following season, expending several thousand dol- 
lars on the river in removing fallen timber, driftwood-, 
and other obstructions (principally between Chesaning and 
the mouth of Bad River), erecting dams, and constructing 
tow-paths above Chesaning. The river was thus made nav- 
igable for flat-bottomed boats or scows, several of which 
were built with foot-boards at each side, on which men 
walked forward and aft in " poling'' the craft up the stream. 
This poling process was employed on that part of the river 
which is below Chesaning, but above that place horses were 
used. At some points the tow-path was made on the east 
side of the stream, and at others on the west (for the sake 
of economy in its construction), the horses being crossed on 
the boat from one side of the river to the other as occasion 
required. Larger boats were afterwards used for floating 
produce down the river from Owosso. One " Darham" 
boat, built at that place by Ebenezer Gould and others, 
carried a cargo of two hundred barrels of flour from 
Owosso to Saginaw. 

The company was reincorporated under the same name by 
act approved May 15, 1846, Amos Gould, Alfred L. Wil- 
liams, Benjamin 0. Williams, Elias Comstock, Ebenezer C. 
Kimberly, Lemuel Castle, Isaac Jjale, George W. Slocum, 
George Chapman, Edward L. Ament, Anson B. Chipman, 
and John B. Barnes being appointed commissioners to re- 
ceive subscriptions to the stock, which was authorized to 
the amount of one hundred thousand dollars. In addition 
to the powers granted by the incorporating act of 1837, the 
company was now authorized " to construct a canal from 
some point on said river Shiawassee to such point on Bad 
River as they may hereafter determine upon, and to make 
such improvements on said Bad River as will render the 
same navigable." After this reincorporation there were 
some further improvements made on the river by the con- 
struction of a lock at Chesaning, the building of several 
weir-dams, and in other ways ; but the company never 
availed itself of the authority conferred to build the canal 
between the Bad and Shiawassee Rivers. Boats continued 
to be run on the river at favorable stages of water for some 
years, and in fact this navigation was never wholly aban- 
doned until the opening of the Detroit and Milwaukee 
Railroad superseded this unreliable and unsatisfactory 
means of transportation. It was then entirely discontinued, 
after having been used to a greater or less extent for some 
fifteen years, during which time it is doubtful whether its 
advantages ever compensated for the outlay incurred in the 
improvement of the river. 



* Mr. Ball had previously been engaged in boating on the Genesee 
River, in New York, and it was he who originated the idea of secur- 
ing navigation bj the Shiawassee Kiver, 



32 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



NORTHERN RAILROAD AND NORTHERN WAGON- 
ROAD. 

Very soon after Michigan emerged from the condition of 
a Territory to assume that of a sovereign State, and even 
before its admission as a member of the Federal Union, 
measures were originated having for their object the adop- 
tion by the State of a comprehensive system of public 
improvements ; and, in pursuance of this plan, the Legis- 
lature at the session of 1837 passed an act (approved 
March 20th in that year) " to provide for the construction 
of certain works of internal improvement, and for other 
purposes," by which the board of commissioners of internal 
improvements in the State was authorized and directed, 
" as soon as may be, to cause surveys to be made for three 
several railroad routes across the peninsula of Michigan ; 
the first of said routes to commence at Detroit, in the 
county of Wayne, and to terminate at the mouth of the 
St. Joseph River, ia the county of Berrien, to be denomi- 
nated the Central Railroad. The second of said routes to 
commence at the navigable waters of the river Raisin, pass- 
ing through the village of Monroe, in the county of Mon- 
roe, to terminate at New Buffalo, in Berrien County, and 
to be denominated the Southern Railroad. The third of 
said routes to commence at Palmer, or at or near the mouth 
of Black River, in the county of St. Clair, and to terminate 
at the navigable waters of the Grand River, in the county 
of Kent, or on Lake Michigan, in the county of Ottawa, 
to be denominated the Northern Railroad ; which roads 
shall be located on the most eligible and direct routes be- 
tween the termini above mentioned." It was provided by 
the same act, " That the sum of five hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars be and, the same is hereby appropriated, 
to be taken from any moneys which shall hereafter come 
into the treasury of this State to the credit of the fund for 
internal improvement, for the survey and making of the 
three railroads mentioned in the first section of this act, as 
follows : for the Southern Railroad, the sum of one hundred 
thousand dollars ; for the Central Railroad, the sum of four 
Imndred thousand dollars ; and for the Northern Railroad, 
the sum of fifty thousand dollars.'' 

The State Board of Internal Improvement, acting under 
the provisions of this act, caused the surveys to be made 
without unnecessary delay. The routes thus surveyed for 
the " Central Railroad" and the " Southern Railroad" were 
(excepting the western portion) substantially the same as 
those of the Michigan Central and Michigan Southern 
roads of the present. The '■ Northern Railroad" route was 
surveyed and located to run from the St. Clair River by 
way of Lapeer and Flint River village (now Flint City), 
nearly due west, to the Big Rapids of the Shiawassee (now 
the city of Owosso) ; thence through Owosso and M'ddle- 
bury townships, in Shiawassee County, and westwardly in 
the same tier of townships through Clinton County (pass- 
ing through the southern part of the present corporation 
limits of St. John's) to Lyons, in Ionia County, and from 
there westward to Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Grand 
River, a distance of two hundred and one miles. This was 
of course, the first survey made for railroad purposes 
through any part of Clinton or Shiawassee Counties. The 
work was done by Tracy McCracken, chief engineer. of the 



road, and his assistants, under supervision of Commissioner 
James B. Hunt, who had been placed in charge of the 
survey by the Board of Internal Improvement. 

In 1838 contracts were let for clearing and grubbing 
that portion of the line between its eastern terminus and 
Lyons, Ionia Co., a distance of about one hundred and thirty 
miles. The contract for the section extending from Lyons 
to the line between ranges 2 and 3 east (near the cen- 
tre of Shiawassee County) was awarded to A. L. and 
B. 0. Williams, of Owosso. The section joining this, and 
extending eastward across the remainder of Shiawassee 
County, was taken by A. H. Beach & Co., of Flint. The 
next section eastward was awarded to Gen. Charles C. Has- 
eall, of Flint. Twenty miles of the section east of Lyons 
was sublet by the Williams brothers to Messrs. Moore & 
Kipp at about two hundred and fifty dollars per mile. The 
specifications required the grubbing of a central strip 
twenty feet wide, and the clearing of a breadth of twenty 
feet on either side of this strip. Outside these clearings, 
on both sides, " slashings" were to be made, each twenty 
feet in width, making a total breadth of one hundred feet. 
The work of clearing the route wa| commenced in the fall 
of 1838, and by the 1st of September following it was 
completed in all the sections between Lyons and Port 
Huion, except about three miles in Shiawassee County east 
of Owosso, and seventeen miles east of Lapeer. 

Contracts for grading some parts of the line were made 
in the fall of 1838, among these being that of a ten-mile 
section eastward from Lyons to B. 0. Williams and Daniel 
Ball, of Owosso. The work of grading was commenced 
on the contracted sections in January, 1839, and was pros- 
ecuted till the following July. " The contractors then 
stated," said the chief engineer, in his report dated Dee. 7, 
1839, " that unless they were paid punctually they could 
not proceed with their work. I then informed them, in 
accordance with uiy instructions, that if they continued 
the work their estimates would, as usual, be made monthly, 
but that it was probable that they would only be paid 
in treasury orders, which would be payable out of any 
moneys received into the treasury to the credit of the 
internal improvement fund. The contracts for grading 
were then abandoned immediately, but those for clearing 
and grubbing, which were not then finished, have 
since been completed." In regard to those contracts for 
grubbing and clearing the chief engineer said : " It may 
not be improper for me to state that it is probable that 
many of the contracts upon this road were let to those who 
considered that they were to be benefited by its speedy 
completion, and, in consequence, bid so low that they have 
lost money in the prosecution of the works assigned them." 
This remark of the engineer was probably as applicable to 
the grading contracts as to those made for clearing the 
line. It is certain at all events that those who took the 
latter class of contracts found them to be decidedly unprofit- 
able. 

The last of the appropriations by the Legislature for the 
construction of the Northern Railroad was one of forty 
thousand dollars, made by act approved April 20, 1839, 
making the total amount appropriated for the enterprise 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Of this there was 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



33 



expended upon the line in surveys, clearing, and construc- 
tion the following amounts, viz. : 

In 18.37 $8,226.25 

" 18.38 12,772.44 

" 1839 39,122.09 

Total ; $60,120.78 

The figures given above* show that at the close of oper- 
ations in 1839 there remained of the amount of appropria- 
tions made for this northern line of railroad an unexpended 
balance of eighty-nine thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
nine dollars and twenty-two cents. In view of this fact, it 
might at first be regarded as strange that, with this very 
considerable balance remaining, the work should have been 
so suddenly brought to a close, but it must be remembered 
that the figures indicating the unexpended balance did not 
represent a corresponding amount of ready cash on hand 
and immediately available. The extract given above from 
the chief engineer's report fully explains the reason why 
the contractors abandoned their jobs in the summer of 
1839 ; and it only remains to say that the construction of 
the Northern Railroad, being suspended at that time, was 
never resumed. 

As has already been stated, all legislative aid to the 
northern line of railway ceased with the appropriation made 
in April, 1839. Soon after this, the financial embarrass- 
ments of the State caused a feeling to spring up among 
the people and their representatives that the adoption of so 
extensive a plan of internal improvements had been pre- 
mature, to say the least, and the result of this growing 
sentiment was the restriction of appropriations to such 
works as did, or could easily be made to, return the inter- 
est on their cost. Accordingly, further aid was withheld, 
except to the central and southern lines (then in partial 
operation), and finally, in 1841, all idea of the construction 
of the " Northern Railroad" as a State work was abandoned, 
and the Legislature passed " an act relative to the appro- 
priation upon the Northern Railroad" (approved April 2d 
in that jear), which recited in its preamble that " it is 
thought impolitic under the present embarrassments of the 
State to make at present further expenditures on said road 
for the purpose of a railroad ;" that " a large amount has 
been expended in chopping, grubbing, and clearing said 
road, which, if left in its present condition, can be of no 
interest to the people of the north ;" and that " it is the 
united wish and request of the people in the vicinity of 
said road that the same should for the present be con- 
verted into a turnpike- or wagon-road, and thus open an 
important thoroughfare through the centre of the tier of 
counties through which the said road passes, and thereby 
render the money heretofore expended on said road avail- 
able to the best interests (under existing circumstances) of 
the people in the northern section of the State." It was 
therefore enacted that the commissioners of internal im- 
provement be directed to expend thirty thousand dollars 
of the unexpended balance of the moneys which had been 
appropriated for the Northern Railroad "for bridging, clear- 

» Taken from the official report of Rix Robinson, L. S. Humphrey, 
and William E. Thompson (composing the Board of Commissioners 
of Internal Improvements) to the Legislature of Michigan, dated 
Dee. 1, 1839. 

5 



ing, and grading said road, or so much of it as the said 
commissioners shall judge will be most beneficial to the 
inhabitants and public in the section of country through 
which the same passes, so as to make a good passable wagon- 
road." 

In March, 1843, an act was passed " to authorize the 
construction of a Wagon-Road on the line of the Northern 
Railroad," and ordering the application and appropriation, 
for that purpose, of all the non-resident highway taxes for 
a distance of three miles on either side of the line, to be 
expended under the superintendence of a special commis- 
sioner to be appointed for each of the counties of St. Clair, 
Lapeer, Genesee, Shiawassee, Clinton, and Ionia. The act 
was repealed in 1846, but in the following year another act 
was passed (approved April 3, 1848) " to provide for the 
construction and improvement of the Northern Wagon- 
Road from Port Huron, in the county of St. Clair, through 
the counties of Lapeer and Genesee to Corunna, in the 
county of Shiawassee," and appropriating " twenty thou- 
sand acres of internal improvement lands" for the purpose. 
To carry its provisions into efiect the Governor of the State 
was authorized to appoint a special commissioner, and he 
did so appoint to that position the Hon. Alvin N. Hart, of 
Lapeer. Still another act was passed in 1849 appointing 
Lewis S. Tyler, Albert Miller, and Henry Hunt as com- 
missioners, " with power to relocate, upon the most eligible 
ground, the Northern Wagon-Road from the village of 
Flint, in the county of Genasee, to the village of Corunna, 
in the county of Shiawassee." 

The result of all the laws passed and appropriations made 
for the construction of the Northern Railroad and Northern 
Wagon-Road was the clearing of the route of the former 
as before mentioned, and the grading or partial grading of 
parts of that route (but principally east of Owosso) into 
an indifferent wagon-road, which never prov^ed to be of 
much practical advantage to Shiawassee County, and still 
less to Clinton. 

DETROIT AND SHIAWASSEE KAILKOAD COM- 
PANY. 

The Detroit and Shiawassee Railroad Company was in- 
corporated by act of the Legislature, approved March 22, 
1837, under the provisions of \?lnch Marshall J. Bacon, 
Silas Titus, Elijah F. Cook, Thomas Curtis, Alfred A. 
Dwight, Robert Warden, Jr., and Ely Barnard were ap- 
pointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to the 'capital 
stock, the amount of which was placed at five hundred 
thousand dollars. The company so created was author- 
ized and empowered " to construct a railroad with a single 
or double track from Detroit, in the county of Wayne, 
through Farmington, in the county of Oakland, Kensing- 
ton, in the township of Lyon, Byron, in the county of 
Shiawassee, to Shiawassee village, in said county of Shia- 
wassee ; with power to transport, take, and carry persons 
and property upon the same by the power and force of 
steam or animals, or of any mechanical or other power, or 
combination of them." The company was required by its 
charter to commence the construction of its line within 
one year ; to finish and put in operation twenty-five miles 
of road within three years; and to complete the whole dis- 



34 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



tanoe within six years from the date of incorporation, under 
penalty of forfeiture of charter. A change of route was 
authorized by act approved April 6, 1838, but no part of 
the line was ever built ; few, if any, subscriptions to the 
stock were procured, and the company, having eflFected only 
a temporary organization, ceased to exist by non-compliance 
with the conditions under which it was created. The in- 
corporation of this company being a matter of very little 
importance is mentioned here only because its charter was 
the first which was granted by the Legislature authorizing 
the construction of a railway in any part of the territory 
which now composes the counties of Shiawassee and 
Clinton. 

DETKOIT, GRAND HAVEN AND MILWAUKEE 
EAILWAY. 

The line now known as the Detroit, Grand Haven and 
Milwaukee Railway was the first which was built and com- 
pleted to any point within the boundaries of the counties 
of Shiawassee and Clinton ; and it was also over the eastern 
link of this line (the old Detroit and Pontiac road, which 
was in operation many years before the locomotive reached 
the waters of the Shiawassee River) that the inhabitants 
of these counties enjoyed their earliest railway facilities, by 
means of stage lines which ran from Lyons, by way of De 
Witt, Laingsburg, an3 other points in Shiawassee, Genesee, 
and Oakland Counties, eastward to the successive termini 
of the railroad, — first at Royal Oak, then at Birmingham, 
and finally at Pontiac. For this reason it seems proper to 
make brief mention here of the building and opening of 
the Pontiac Road, for though it was purely an Oakland 
County enterprise, yet it was one in which the people of 
Shiawassee and Clinton were interested, — first, because its 
connecting stage lines gave them communication over it, 
and afterwards because by its extension it became a part of 
the grand through line which passes through these coun- 
ties to Grand Haven and Milwaukee. 

The Detroit and Pontiac Railroad project was agitated 
in Oakland as early as the spring of 1830, and an act in- 
corporating the " Pontiac and Detroit Railway Company" 
was passed by the Legislative Council of the Territory, and 
approved by Gov. Cass, on the 31st of July in the year 
named, this being the first railway company ever chartered 
in Michigan. The corporators were John P. Helfenstein, 
Gideon 0. Whittemore, William P. Mosely, AVilliam 
Thompson, Hervey Parke, " and such other persons as 
shall associate for the purpose of making a good and suffi- 
cient railway from Pontiac to the city of Detroit," the 
stock of the company to consist of one thousand shares, at 
one hundred dollars each. This company, however, found 
the project to be too heavy for the means which they could 
command, and their charter became void by reason of their 
failure to comply with its conditions. 

A second company was formed, and an act granting a 
new charter was passed by the Territorial Legislature, and 
approved by the Governor, March 7, 1834. Under this 
act, William Draper, Daniel Le Roy, David Stanard, John- 
son Niles, Seneca Newberry, Elisha Beach, Benj. Phelps, 
Joseph Niles, Jr., and Augustus C. Stevens were appointed 
commissioners to receive subscriptions to the stock of " The 



Detroit and Pontiac Railroad Company," the amount of 
which was fixed at fifty thousand dollars. Tho work was 
to be commenced within two years from the passage of the 
act, and completed within six years, the charter to be for- 
feited by failure to comply with these conditions. The 
principal stockholders were Alfred Williams, and Sherman 
Stevens, of Pontiac, who were also managers of the affairs 
of the company. Operations were soon commenced, but 
very slow progress was made in the construction of the 
road, and it was not until the fall of 1838 that a track 
(which even then was composed of wooden rails for a part 
of the distance) was completed as far as Royal Oak, and 
trains made up of cars of the most inferior description were 
run from Detroit to that point by horse-power. In the fall 
of 1 839 the road was extended so that the trains ran to 
Birmingham, and steam was introduced as a motive-power 
for their propulsion. , At that time (September, 1839) the 
Pontiac papers contained the advertisement of Henry J. 
Buckley, agent and conductor, informing the public that 
the trains were then running two trips a day between De- 
troit and Birmingham, and making connection at the latter 
place with a daily line of " post-coaches" for Pontiac and 
Flint, and a semi-weekly line for Lyons on the Grand 
River, by way of Byron, De Witt, and other points in 
Shiawassee and Clinton Counties. 

In 1840, the company being heavily in debt and without 
means of payment, the road was sold at sheriff's sale, and 
passed into the hands of Dean Richmond, of Buffalo, and 
other capitalists of the State of New York. Then followed 
another period of delay and discouragement, but finally, in 
September, 1844, the road was opened to Pontiac, which 
for more than ten years continued to be the western ter- 
minus, and the point of connection with the stage-lines run- 
ning to Flint, Saginaw, and the Grand River. 

In the earlier years of its operation, this road was made 
the subject of unmeasured ridicule on account of the poverty 
of the company, the rough and superficial manner in which 
the line was constructed, the poor quality of its carriages 
and machinery, and the exceedingly slow and irregular time 
made by the trains between Pontiac and Detroit. . From 
an article which appeared in the Detroit Post a few years 
since, containing some reminiscences of pioneer railway 
travel, the following — having reference to the Pontiac line 
— is extracted: "The trains would frequently stop be- 
tween way stations at a signal from some farmer who 
wished to ask a few questions, or to take passage. An 
old lady denizen of a farm-house, with spectacles of a primi- 
tive manufacture placed high upon her forehead, came 
running out to the train, waving her bandanna. Her signal 
being heeded, the train was brought to a stop, and her 
inquiry of the conductor was, if a certain lawyer named 
Drake was on board. After receiving a negative answer, a 
short conversation was kept up before the train started on 
Its journey. It was no uncommon occurrence for the en- 
gineer, who kept his shot-gun with him, to bring down 
game from his engine, shut off steam, and send his fireman 
after the fruits of his marksmanship. The road being laid 
with strap-rail, one of the duties of the conductor was to 
keep a hammer for the purpose of spiking down ' snake-heads' 
whenever they were seen from the cab of the engineer." 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



35 



An old resident of Shiawassee County has said to the 
writer, that he recognizes this as a truthful description of 
the operation of the Pontiac road in the year 1841, and 
there are no doubt many others who have similar recollec- 
tions of their travel upon it at about the same period. 

After a few years of operation with the primitive and 
unsafe " strap -rail," the line was leased for ten years to 
Gurdon Williams, but the lease was purchased or relin- 
quished before its expiration, and the road came into the 
possession of a company, of which H. N. Walker, Esq., 
was made the president. Under his administration a suffi- 
cient amount of money was raised on the bonds of the road 
to relay the track with solid T rails and to make other 
improvements necessary to put the road in condition for 
business. 

Immediately after the completion of the road from De- 
troit to Pontiac a project was formed to build a railroad 
from that village westward through Shiawassee, Clinton, 
and other counties to Lake Michigan at the mouth of Grand 
River, to connect at that point with steamers for Milwaukee 
and other lake ports. This resulted in the formation of the 
" Oakland and Ottawa Railroad Company," and its incor- 
poration by act of Legislature approved April 3, 1848. 
The persons appointed as commissioners to receive sub- 
scriptions to the capital stock (which was fixed at two mil- 
lion five hundred thousand dollars) were Gurdon Williams, 
Edward A. Brush, H. C. Thurbor, Alfred Williams, Bow- 
man W. Dennis, John Hamilton, C. P. Bush, W. A. Rich- 
mond, and Charles Shepard. The company was empowered 
by the act " to construct a railroad with a double or single 
track from the village of Pontiac, in the county of Oakland, 
to Lake Michigan, in the county of Ottawa, pa.ssing it 
through the most desirable and eligible route, by the way 
of Fentonville," qnd was required to begin its construction 
within five years and to complete it within fifteen years 
from the passage of the act. In 1850 an act was passed 
(approved March 20th), providing " That the Detroit and 
Pontiac Railroad Company be and they are hereby author- 
ized to extend said railroad so as to connect with the Oak- 
land and Ottawa Railroad when constructed, thus forming a 
continuous line of railroad through the village of Pontiac." 
The construction of the Oakland and Ottawa road was 
commenced in 1852, and in the following year H. N. 
Walker (who was a leading spirit in this as well as in the 
Pontiac road) purchased in England twenty-six hundred 
tons of iron, which was estimated to be sufficient to lay the 
track through to Fentonville. On the 13th of February, 
1855, the Governor approved "An act to authorize the 
consolidation of the Detroit and Pontiac and the Oakland 
and Ottawa Railroad Companies, so as to form a continuous 
line from Detroit to Lake Michigan, under the name of 
the Detroit and Milwaukee Railway* Company." By this 
act the name of the Detroit and Pontiac was changed' 
to that of " The Detroit and Milwaukee Railway Com- 
pany," which was empowered to increase its capital stock 
to an amount not exceeding ten millions of dollars ; and it 
was provided that " the said company is hereby authorized, 
* The name was changed to "'Detroit and Milvpaukee Railroad 
Company" in IStiO. 



for the purpose of forming a continuous line, to purchase 
all the property, rights, and franchises of the Oakland and 
Ottawa Railroad Company upon such terms as shall be 
mutually agreed upon ; and the stockholders of the said 
Oakland and Ottawa Railroad Company shall, in case of sale, 
become stockholders of the said Detroit and Milwaukee Rail- 
way Company, in such proportions as may be agreed upon 
in the terms of sale ; and the said Oakland and Ottawa Rail- 
road Company shall thereupon become merged in the said 
Detroit and Milwaukee Railway Company." 

Under the authority so conferred the two companies were 
consolidated, and the Oakland and Ottawa became the De- 
troit and Milwaukee line. The work of construction west 
of Pontiac had proceeded but slowly during the three years 
succeeding its commencement, but as the new company had 
negotiated a loan in Europe to the amount of one million 
two hundred. and fifty thousand dollars, it was now pushed 
more vigorously, so that in October, 1855, the road was 
opened to Fentonville, where stage "connections were made 
for Grand River, and for Flint and Saginaw. In the fol- 
lowing spring the locomotive entered Shiawassee County for 
the first time, and on the 1st of July, 1856, the road was for- 
mally opened to Owosso, where the arrival of the pioneer 
train was hailed with demonstrations of almost unbounded 
delight and exultation. The same enthusiasm greeted the 
opening of the road to St. John's on the 16th of January 
following. Well might the people of Clinton and Shia- 
wassee congratulate themselves as they saw the first, trains 
speeding westward, for their coming was an event which 
lifted the ban of isolation from these counties, and more 
than doubled the value of their domain. 

Between St. John's and Ionia the work was prosecuted 
with vigor, and the road was completed to the last-named 
place in September, 1857. Finally, on the 22d of Novem- 
ber, 1858, the line was opened to its terminus at Grand 
Haven, and the locomotive traversed the entire peninsula 
from Detroit River to Lake Michigan. 

The Detroit and Milwaukee road, although a very great 
benefit to Shiawassee and Clinton Counties, proved a bad 
investment for its original stockholders. The foreclosure of 
the bondholders' mortgage in 18G0 placed the road in the 
hands of a receiver, and it remained in this condition until 
Oct. 19, 1878, when it became the " Detroit, Grand Haven 
and Milwaukee Railway," by passing into the possession of 
a company of that name, organized in the interest of the 
Great Western Railway of Canada. It is still owned and 
controlled by that company. 

The road enters Shiawassee County in the township of 
Vernon, and passes thence northwestward into Caledonia. 
Then, turning to a nearly due west course, it crosses the 
remainder of Shiawassee County and all of Clinton through 
the third tier of townships north of the south line of the 
counties. The stations on the line within these counties 
are Vernon, Corunna, and Owosso, in Shiawassee, and 
Ovid, Shcpardsville, St. John's, and Fowler, in Clinton. 

JACKSON, LANSING AND SAGINAW KAIL- 
EOAD. 

The first link in the present important line known as the 
Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw Railroad was built as part 



36 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



of a proposed line to run from Araboy, near the south line 
of the State, to Traverse Bay on Lake Michigan. The 
Amboy, Lansing and Traverse Bay Railroad Company 
became incorporated in 1857 for the purpose of construct- 
ing the line above mentioned, and in the expectation of 
receiving in aid of such construction certain lands granted 
by an act of Congress approved June 3, 185G. The act 
referred to provided " that there be, and hereby is, granted 
to the State of Michigan— to aid in the construction of 
railroads from Little Bay de Noquet to Marquette, and 
thence to Ontonagon, and from the tvfo last-named places 
to the Wisconsin State line ; also from Amboy, by Hillsdale 
and Lansing, and from Grand Rapids to some point on or 
near Traverse Bay; also from Grand Haven and Pfere 
Marquette to Flint, and thence to Port Huron — every 
alternate section of land, designated by odd numbers, for 
six sections in vfidth, on each side of each of said roads." 
Where such odd-numbered sections had already been sold 
by the United States, or pre-empted, then the deficiency to 
be made good by selections of a like number of alternate 
sections of land owned by the government outside of the 
six tiers of sections ; but in no case to be farther than fif- 
teen miles from the lines of the proposed roads. By an 
act of the Legislature of Michigan, approved Feb. 14, 1857, 
the State accepted this grant of lands from the United 
States, with the terms and conditions imposed. 

The route on which it was originally proposed to build 
the road from Amboy to its Lake Michigan terminus was 
by way of Hillsdale and Lansing, and from the latter point 
northwestwardly to Traverse Bay, leaving Owosso and 
Saginaw far to the east of its route ; but the influence of 
these two cities was exerted to change the route and bring 
the road to their own borders. This wAS accomplished, 
though at great danger of losing the land-grant, a strong 
effort being made to deprive the company of its benefit, on 
the ground that it had never been the intention of Congress 
to give lands in aid of roads built on routes unnecessarily 
circuitous, as this was claimed to be. One of the Lansing 
newspapers, in ridiculing the alleged crookedness of the 
line, named it in derision the " Bamshorn Railroad," a term 
which clung to it (almost entirely superseding its legitimate 
title), and has not yet been forgotten. 

Among the men who were most influential in promoting 
the success of the Amboy, Lansing and Traverse Bay road, 
and who were especially prominent in its board of directors, 
were Judge Amos Gould and Alfred L. Williams, of Owosso ; 
George C. Monroe, of Jonesville ; and Alvin N. Hart, of 
Lansing. The construction of the road was commenced in 
1857 on the section between Lansing and Owosso; and 
though there ensued many delays and discouragements to 
the friends of the enterprise, the obstacles were finally 
80 far overcome that the road between Lansing and Owosso 
was completed and opened for travel and traffic about Nov. 
20, 1862. The Owosso Press of Jan. 10, 1863, said, 
" The rush over the Ramshorn road to Lansing this week 
has been like the rush to a newly-discovered gold-mine." 
The business of the road seems to have been considerable 
from the first, but it was far from being sufficient to render 
it profitable to the stockholders, and in 1864, under pres- 
sure of financial difficulties, it passed into the hands of a 



receiver, — the Hon. C. C. Trowbridge, — who held posses- 
sion about two years, operating it through the superintend- 
ent of the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, that road fur- 
nishing the rolling-stock. In the latter part of the year 
1866 it was sold with all its franchises to the Jackson, 
Lansing and Saginaw Railroad Company, which was or- 
ganized as the Jackson and Lansing Railroad Company, 
Feb. 23, 1864, and changed its name to that of Jackson, 
Lansing and Saginaw, Feb. 24, 1865. It opened its road 
for business from Jackson to Lansing in June, 1866, and 
through the whole distance, — Jackson to Owosso, — in- 
cluding the purchased road, in January, 1867. 

The Amboy, Lansing and Traverse Bay Company, after 
opening its road to Owosso, in 1862, continued the work 
of construction on the section of the road between Owosso 
and Saginaw, and a considerable amount of grading was 
done before their financial difficulties compelled suspension. 
The work was continued by the Jackson, Lansing and Sagi- 
naw Company immediately aftej; the purchase, and was 
pushed with such vigor that the road was opened through 
Saginaw and Bay City in the same year. The railway 
line thus opened, affording communication with important 
points north and south, was and has continued to be an 
important one to the interests of Shiawassee County, though 
much less so to those of Clinton. The road is now operated 
by the Michigan Central Railroad Company. Its route 
lies through De Witt, Bath, and Victor townships, in 
Clinton County, and Sciota, Bennington, Owosso, and 
Rush, in Shiawassee. At Owosso City it crosses and con- 
nects with the Detroit, Grand Haven and Milwaukee 
Railroad. 

DETROIT, LANSING AND NOBTHERN RAILROAD. 

The railroad line now known as the Detroit, Lansing 
and Northern, which crosses a corner of the southwestern- 
most township of Clinton County, was formed by a con- 
solidation of the Detroit and Howell, the Howell and Lan- 
sing, and the Ionia and Lansing Railroads. The last-named 
road (which included all of the Detroit, Lansing and 
Northern line that is within Clinton County) was com- 
pleted and opened for travel between Ionia and Lansing in 
December, 1869. The Detroit and Howell and the How- 
ell and Lansing Companies (the titles of which indicate 
their respective routes) were consolidated in April, 1870. 

In September next following the consolidation the fran- 
chises were conveyed to James F. Joy and other capitalists 
composing the " Detroit, Lansing and Northern Railroad 
Company," to which the Ionia and Lansing Railroad was 
soon after conveyed by consolidation. The road between 
Detroit and Lansing was completed about Aug. 10, 1871, 
and on the 22d of the same month the officers of the com- 
pany opened the line from Detroit to its (then) northern 
terminus at Kay wood Station, five miles north of Green- 
ville, Montcalm Co., the road having been completed from 
Ionia to the last-named point in September, 1870. It was 
completed in August, 1871, to Howard City, where it forms 
a connection with the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad. 
This point continued to be its terminus for several years. 
In 1877 the name was changed from Detroit, Lansing and 
Lake Michigan, to Detroit, Lansing and Northern Railroad, 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



37 



as it is at present. It has been extended from Howard 
City to Big Rapids, Mecosta Co., and was opened for trafiBo 
to the last-named point May 31, 1880. The road passes 
through Clinton County for a distance of about twelve iniles, 
and three of its stations — those of Eagle, Delta, and In- 
gersoU's — are located in the townships of Eagle and Water- 
town. 

THE PORT HURON RAILROAD PROJECT. 

Soon after the abandonment of the old " Northern Rail- 
road" by the State, — which has been mentioned in pre- 
ceding pages, — the project was taken up by an association 
of individuals who were, by act of Legislature approved 
Jan. 30, 1847,* incorporated as " the Port Huron and Lake 
Michigan Railroad Company," with authority " to construct 
a railroad with a double or single track from Port Huron, 
in St. Clair County, running westerly until it shall intersect 
Lake Michigan at or near the mouth of Grand River, with 
power to take, transport, and carry property and persons 
upon the said railroad, or any part thereof herein author- 
ized to be constructed, by the power and force of steam or 
of animals, or of any mechanical or other power, or of any 
combination of £hem which the said company may choose 
to use or apply." John Wells, Alvin N. Hart, Charles C. 
Hascall, Alfred L. Williams, Jesse P. Turner, Ira Porter, 
Edmund B. Bostwick, and Thomas W. White were ap- 
pointed charter commissioners to receive subscriptions to 
the capital stock, which was authorized to the amount of 
two millions of dollars. The company was required to com- 
mence its road in five years, and to complete it in fifteen 
years, from the passage of the act. And the State relin- 
quished to the company all her rights and privileges in the 
line of the Northern road wherever the company might 
wish to construct its road over that route. In alluding to 
this relinquishment by the State, the directors of the com- 
pany (in a statement published for the purpose of influen- 
cing subscriptions to the stock) said that " instead of pay- 
ing the State for what it has done towards the construction 
of the road, the company have a donation of all that one 
hundred and ten thousand dollars in cash, and twenty 
thousand acres of land, have accomplished." 

It was, in efiect, a revival, by a private company, of the 
Northern Railroad scheme, which had been commenced and 
abandoned by the State ; and its proposed route, east of 
Ionia County, was to be the same as that which had been 
grubbed and cleared in 1838-39 for the old road. Of 
course, the resuscitation of the scheme, and the prospect 
that after all a railroad would be built through Shiawassee 
and Clinton Counties (the Oakland and Ottawa company 
not having then been chartered), was very cheering to the 
people living on or contiguous to the route, but the hopes 
thus raised were destined never to be realized. 

During a long series of years great efforts were made by 
the promoters to secure funds for the construction of the 
road, and many changes were made in the management of 

* The Legislature had passed an act of incorporation of the same 
company in 1846, but it had been vetoed by Governor Feloh on the 
ground that it might defeat the sale of the Southern and Central roads, 
negotiations for their purchase from the State being then in progress. 
This sale having been effected, and the objection thus removed, the 
incorporating act was approved in 1847, as stated. 



the company, but all to no effect ; the accomplishment of 
the object so earnestly desired seemed as remote as ever. 
In 1855, Mr. N. P. Stewart, of Detroit, procured the or- 
ganization of a new company, under the general railroad 
law, called the " Port Huron and Milwaukee Railroad Com- 
pany," to build a railway line from Port Huron to Grand 
Haven, there to connect with steamers for Milwaukee. The 
survey of the route was made without delay, the right of 
way obtained, and for a time the work of construction was 
pushed most vigorously. A dock was built at Port Huronj 
some twenty miles of grading was done, and about a mile 
of track was laid at the Port Huron end of the line, so that 
the people living in the counties traversed by the route 
(who oared chiefly for the success of the project, with but 
little regard as to which company should build the road) 
began to feel sure that at last their hopes were to be real- 
ized. But they were again to be disappointed, for, about 
the time that the work had progressed to the stage above 
mentioned, Mr. Stewart procured — or at least assented to — 
the passage of an act of Legislature consolidating this with 
the Detroit and Milwaukee road at Owosso ; and from that 
time, work on the eastern portion of the road was sus- 
pended, and the means raised for its construction were used 
on the last-named road west of Owosso. This help to the 
Detroit and Milwaukee road pushed that line westward 
through Shiawassee and Clinton Counties, but it prostrated 
all hope of the building of the additional line to Port 
Huron. 

To follow the history of the hopes, disappointments, and 
delays in the building of the Port Huron and Lake Michi- 
gan road is unnecessary, for it has little reference to these 
counties. It is sufiicient to mention that, under a reor- 
ganization of the company, work was resumed near Port 
Huron in March, 18B6, and that after nearly six years 
more of disaster and delay the road was, on the 13th of 
December, 1871, opened for travel from Port Huron to the 
city of Flint, beyond which point, westward on the original 
route to Owosso, nothing has since been done. A con- 
siderable part of the route, however, had previously been 
graded between Flint and Owosso, several miles -of this 
grading being in Shiawassee County. 

CHICAGO AND LAKE HURON RAILROAD LINE. 

The " Chicago and Northeastern Railroad Company" was 
incorporated under the general law by the filing of articles 
of association in the office of the Secretary of State, Aug. 12, 
1874, the object of its formation being the construction of 
a railroad from Lansing to Flint, to connect at the former 
city with the Peninsular Railway and at Flint with the 
Port Huron Railroad, and with these to form a through 
line from Chicago to the city of Port Huron. 

The preliminary work on the Chicago and Nortlieastern 
road was commenced in November, 1874, and it was pushed 
with vigor during 1875 and 1876, so that at the close of 
the latter year the road was nearly ready for traffic. It 
was formally opened about the 1st of February, 1877, and 
was operated as a part of the " Chicago and Lake Huron" 
line, which enjoyed a very heavy business (particularly in 
freighting) until the early part of 1879, when it was broken 
up by the Chicago and Northeastern link being purchased 



38 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



by an Eastern capitalist (understood to be William H. Van- 
derbilt, or parties in his interest), for the purpose of de- 
stroying a formidable competitor to other through lines 
under his control. This was for a time a severe blow to 
the Grand Trunk Railway, as it destroyed its Chicago con- 
nection, and measures were at once taken by that company 
to supply the place of the Chicago and Northeastern link 
by a new road from Flint to Lansing by way of Owosso. 
A survey of the route (or rather a resurvey of the original 
route of the Port Huron and Lake Michigan road between 
Flint and Owosso) was made in April, 1879, and this re- 
sulted so favorably that in July of that year Mr. Charles 
B. Peck, general manager of the Chicago and Lake Huron, 
advertised for bids for the immediate construction of the 
road, full-tied, with stone and iron bridges and steel rails. 
It seemed then as if the old project of a railroad from 
Shiawassee County direct to Flint and Port Huron — a pro- 
ject which, as the Northern Railroad and afterwards as 
the Port Huron and Lake Michigan Railroad, had been 
agitated, but held in abeyance for more than forty years — 
was destined at last to be realized ; but the hopes of the 
people in this direction were destined to be again disap- 
pointed, for the Grand Trunk Company afterwards suc- 
ceeded in regaining possession of the Chicago and North- 
eastern link between Flint and Lansing, which is still owned 
and operated by that company as a part of their through 
line to Chicago. The road, entering Shiawassee County at 
its southwestern corner, passes in a northeasterly direction 
diagonally through the townships of Woodhull, Perry, An- 
trim, Shiawassee, and Vernon, from which last-named town- 
ship it crosses the county-line into Genesee. 

OTHER PROJECTED RAILROAD LINES. 
In August, 1869, the Owosso and Big Rapids Railroad 
Company was incorporated under the general railroad law, 
having for its object the construction of a railroad from 
Owosso to Big Rapids, Mecosta Co., this being intended 
as a northern connection of the Toledo, Ann Arbor and 
Northern Railroad, which was incorporated in the same 
year, designing to build a road from Toledo by way of Ann 
Arbor, Howell, and Oak Grove, in Livingston County, to 
Owosso. Nothing was accomplished by this company (the 
Owosso and Big Rapids), and in 1871 it was changed in 
name and object, becoming incorporated as the Owosso and 
Northwestern Railroad Company, with T. D. Dewey as 
president, Gilbert R. Lyon secretary, and E. A. Todd as 
treasurer, for the purpose of building a road from Owosso 
to Frankfort, Benzie Co., on Lake Michigan. Work was 
commenced on the line, and a great part of the necessary 
grading was done on a section of about thirty miles in 
length, from Owosso to Pine River, in Gratiot County. 
This was done prior to the financial revulsion of 1873, but 
the panic of that year caused a suspension of operations, 
and no progress has since been made in the prosecution of 
the enterprise. Its promoters, however, believe that the 
road is destined to be completed, and to prove successful. 

The subject of railroad communication from St. John's 
village southward began to be agitated in 1864, upon the 
incorporation of the Jackson and Lansing Railroad Com- 



pany, which, as was understood, contemplated not only the 
building of a road from Jackson to Lansing, but also the 
securing of a northern connection tlirough the counties of 
Clinton, Gratiot, and Isabella. The route, if so extended, 
would almost necessarily pass through St. John's, and so 
great was the confidence of the people of this part of Clin- 
ton County that such a result would surely be reached that 
one of the papers of the village, in its issue of June 3, 1864, 
announced, in reference to this project, that" the enterprise 
is now a fixed fact." The opinion, however, proved to be 
unfounded, for in the following, year the Jackson and 
Lansing became the Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw Rail- 
road Company, and changed the proposed route of its road 
to conform to its change of name and title. The old 
" Ramshorn" road to Owosso was purchased, and became a 
part of the Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw line, and St. 
John's had no longer anything to hope for from that com- 
pany. 

The Lansing, St. John's and Mackinac Railroad Company 
(having for its object " the construction of a road from 
Lansing northward through the villages of De Witt, St. 
John's, Ithaca, Alina, St. Louis, and Salt River to Mount 
Pleasant, Isabella Co., and thence north to a junction with 
the Flint and P6re Marquette Railroad," and eventually to 
Mackinac) was incorporated about May 1, 1869, its officers 
being R. M. Steel, President ; I. A. Fancher, Vice-Presi- 
dent ; Oliver L. Spaulding, Secretary ; and S. S. Walker, 
Treasurer. In aid of the construction of this road the 
townships of De Witt, Olive, Bingham, and Greenbush, in 
Clinton County, voted an aggregate sum of eighty-five 
thousand dollars, and deposited their bonds to that amount 
in the office of the Secretary of State, under Act No. 45, 
of the Laws of Michigan for 1869. But this act was de- 
clared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the State; 
and upon this announcement the townships took the neces- 
sary measures to recall and cancel their bonds. ■ In conse- 
quence of this the company proceeded no further towards 
the construction of the road, and became to all intents and 
purposes dead. The survey of the route of the road be- 
tween Lansing and St. John's had been made in November, 
1869, and it. was continued northward from St. John's, but 
beyond these preliminary surveys the company did no 
work upon the line. 

Upon the collapse of the Lansing, St. John's and Macki- 
nac Railroad the Gratiot and Isabella County promoters of 
that enterprise transferred their support to the Owosso and 
Big Rapids and Saginaw and St. Louis Railroad projects, 
which were then being agitated. This withdrawal of sup- 
port, however, did not wholly discourage the people of St. 
John's from making a further attempt, and in the fall of 
1871 the Lansing and St. John's Railroad Company was 
incorporated for the purpose of building a railroad between 
the two points named in its title. The corporators resident 
in St. John's were Oliver L. Spaulding, Alvah H. Walker, 
Henry M. Perrin, Porter K. Perrin, John Hicks, Charles 
Kipp, 0. W. Munger, R. M. Steel, Samuel S. Walker, 
Randolph Strickland, M. Heavenrich, George W. Em- 
mons. The officers of the company were R. M. Steel, 
President; H. M. Perrin, Treasurer; 0. W. Munger, 
Secretary ; 0. L. Spaulding, Charles Kipp, and P. K. Per- 



MILITARY RECORD OF SHIAWASSER AND CLINTON. 



39 



rin, Executive Committee. The sum of sixty thousand 
dollars was raised by subscriptions to the stock, and the 
company proceeded to make the preliminary surveys ; but 
the monetary panic of 1873 caused a suspension of opera- 
tions, and nothing has been done towards grading the road- 
bed. 



CHAPTER IV. 

MILITARY KECORD OF SHIAW^ASSEE AND CLIN- 
TON. 

The Mexican War — The First Michigan Regiment — Record of the 
two Counties in the War of the Rebellion — The Second Infantry — 
Bull Run Campaign — Peninsula Campaign — Battles of Williams- 
burg and Fair Oaks — The Seven Days' Fight — Campaign under 
Gen. Pope — Fredericksburg — Campaigns in Kentucky and Missis- 
sippi — In East Tennessee — Veteran Re-enlisttnent — Campaign of 
the Wilderness — In Front of Petersburg — Fall of Petersburg — 
Muster Out, and Return Home, 

Neither Shiawassee nor Clinton County has any mili- 
tary history dating farther back than the commencement of 
the war between the United States and Mexico. At the 
breaking out of the " Black Hawk War," about fourteen 
years before that time, the entire territory of these coun- 
ties was but a wilderness, containing less than ten white 
inhabitants ; and its condition was nearly the same when, 
three years later, the quarrel known as the " Toledo War" 
caused the mustering of a considerable number of troops, 
which were furnished by the older counties of the State. 
At the outbreak of the Mexican war the circumstances 
were different. The total population of these two counties 
had increased to nearly nine thousand, and included about 
thirteen hundred men liable to do military duty, but still 
there were not many who were in a condition which made 
it possible for them to leave their families and farms to be- 
come soldiers. Of these a few volunteered in the Michigan 
Regiment (and some probably in other commands), and 
served honorably through the war. A part of the names 
of those who so volunteered have been found, and are given 
in this chapter. 

On the 18th of May, 1846, was issued the requisition 
of the President of the United States, calling upon the 
several States for troops to serve in the war with Mexico ; 
and under this requisition the " First Michigan Volunteer In- 
fantry Regiment" was organized and placed under command 
of Col. T. B. W. Stockton. Company C of that regiment 
was raised and commanded by Capt. A. H. Hanscom, of 
Pontiae, assisted by his first lieutenant, Thomas H. Hunt, 
and second lieutenants (for it had two of that grade) C. 0. 
Conant and A. P. Hanscom. It was made up of men of 
whom a few were enlisted at Detroit, but by far the greater 
part at Pontiao and other points in Oakland County, at 
Brighton in Livingston County, and at Corunna and other 
places in Shiawassee County ; recruited in November and 
December, 1846. From the roll of the company, as mus- 
tered at the Detroit Barracks, Dec. 22, 1846, are taken the 
names of those who enlisted in Shiawassee County, as fol- 
lows: 



Charles Baker, enlisted at Corunna. 

Timothy W. Brown, enlisted at Corunna. 

Charles Curl, enlisted at Corunna. 

James Culbert, enlisted at Corunna. 

Charles Harpe, enlisted at Corunna. 

J. Jingall, enlisted at Corunna. 

Lewis Lyons, enlisted at Corunna. 

William H. Lovejoy, enlisted at Corunna. 

Andrew H. Letts, enlisted at Corunna. 

Elisha A. Morgan, enlisted at Corunna. 

William R. Chapman, enlisted at Owosso. 

H. P. Murray, enlisted at Owosso. 

Levi Prangley, enlisted at Caledonia. 

Daniel Phelps, enlisted at Caledonia. 

Nathan M. Smith, enlisted at Caledonia. 

Matthias Sehermerhom, enlisted at Caledonia. 

Bartley Siegel, enlisted at Caledonia. 

George W. Ormsby, enlisted at Burns. 

Joseph B. Stone, enlisted at Burns. 

The First Michigan Regiment was rendezvoused at 
Detroit, where it was mustered on the 22d of December, 
and on the 25th of the same month (before its ranks were 
full) it left for the seat of war to move by way of Spring- 
field, Ohio, Cincinnati, and New Orleans. Arriving at 
Cincinnati it was embarked on the steamer " Andrew Jack- 
son," and arrived in New Orleans ten days later. After a 
stay of about one week, during which time it was encamped 
on Gen. Jackson's battle-ground of 1815, it took passage 
for Vera Cruz, and arrived at that city about the middle of 
January, 1847. It remained encamped outside the walls 
of Vera Cruz for about three weeks, at the end of which 
time it moved with other forces, amounting in all to two 
thousand men, under command of Gen. Bankhead, to the 
city of Cordova, in the interior. A second detachment, 
under Lieut.-Col. (afterwards general) A. S. Williams, had 
left Detroit some time after the departure of the main body 
of the regiment ; and this detachment now came up and 
joined the command at Cordova. Col. Stockton, of the 
First Michigan, was made military governor of the city, 
and remained there in that capacity until the close of the 
war. While there the regiment was engaged in gar- 
rison duty and occasional skirmishes with guerrillas while 
acting as guard to supply-triiins, but did not participate in 
any general engagement, though it suffered severely from 
sickness among the men. It was ordered home in May, 
1848, and in due time reached Detroit, where it was mus- 
tered out of the service July 18th in that year. 

The Fifteenth United States Infantry, which served in 
Mexico in the division of Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, and 
fought in some of the principal battles, contained a large 
number of volunteers from this part of Michigan, and is 
said to have included a few from Shiawassee and Clinton 
Counties, but the names of these cannot be given here, for 
the reason that the muster-rolls of the regiment are not 
accessible. 

The Mexican war, however, was but a trivial matter when 
compared with that mighty struggle — the war of the Re- 
bellion — which opened some fifteen years later, and it is 
with the commencement of that great conflict that the real 
military history of these counties begins. When on the 



40 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



13th of April, 1861, the tremendous news ran through the 
wires of the telegraph that a United States fort had struck 
its colors to a band of armed insurgents, and when, two 
days later, the President of the republic called on the States 
to furnish a great army of volunteers to preserve the life 
of the nation, there was no State which responded with 
more alacrity than Michigan, and there were none of the 
counties in the Beautiful Peninsula in which the fires of 
patriotism flamed up more promptly or burned more 
brightly than in Clinton and Shiawassee. Five days after 
the issuance of the President's call, and just one week after 
the day when the rebel flag supplanted the stripes and stars 
above the brown ramparts of Sumter, an impromptu mass- 
meeting (the largest which had ever convened in Shiawassee 
County) was held at Owosso, to take measures for sustain- 
ing the government in its time of peril. The Hon. Amos 
Gould was called to the chair, and Judge Josiah Turner, 
B. 0. Williams, and T. D. Dowey were made vice-presi- 
dents of the meeting. Resolutions were presented and 
adopted by the meeting without a dissenting voice, calling 
upon every man to ignore and bury all party difierences and 
prejudices, and to devote life, fortune, and sacred honor to 
the support of the government and the preservation of the 
Union. 

A meeting similar in purpose, and equally large and en- 
thusiastic, bad been held on the previous evening (Friday, 
April 19, 1861), at Clinton Hall, in the village of St. 
John's. James W. Ransom was called to the chair, and a 
committee was chosen to draft resolutions. This committee, 
composed of Oliver L. Spaulding, Randolph Strickland, 
W. H. Moote, Joab Baker, Henry Walbridge, H. C. Hodge, 
and H. S. Gibbons, reported resolutions nearly identical 
with those passed at the Owosso meeting, and these were 
adopted unanimously, and with great enthusiasm. At this, 
as at the Owosso gathering, arrangements were made for 
holding another meeting a few days later, and at these sub- 
sequent meetings measures were taken to promote the 
raising of companies of volunteers in the two counties, and 
resolutions were passed pledging support (if needed) to the 
families of soldiers absent in the army. 

These meetings at St. John's and Owosso were supple- 
mented by others, held in many of the townships of both 
counties, and at all these the same patriotic spirit was mani- 
fested. Enlistments commenced immediately. Men left the 
farm, the store, and the workshop to volunteer in their coun- 
try's service. Many of these, unwilling to wait for the 
organization of companies in their own county, went to 
other places to enlist, and before the 1st of May a few men 
from both counties had left for Detroit, Lansing, and Grand 
Rapids, to place their names on the rolls of companies or- 
ganizing there. By that time, however, recruiting had com- 
menced both in Clinton and Shiawassee, and on the 4th of 
May the papers announced that Capt. Richard Baylis had 
made good progress towards enlisting a company at St. 
John's and Ovid, and that a company recruited at Owosso 
and Corunna was already full, and had been accepted by 
the military authorities of the State. 

From that time, during four years of war and terror, the 
counties of Clinton and Shiawassee responded well and 
promptly to the numerous calls for volunteers, and furnished 



for the several armies fully three thousand men,* who served 
in more than fifty regiments, — infantry, cavalry, artillery, 
and engineers. Several of these regiments, most notice- 
able for the number of Shiawassee and Clinton County 
men included among their members, are especially men- 
tioned in succeeding pages in historical sketches of their 
organization and services in the great war for the union. 

SECOND INFANTRY. 

When, at the fall of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln 
called on the several loyal States for an army of seventy- 
five thousand men to sustain the power of the government 
against a rebellion which had unexpectedly proved formid- 
able, Governor Blair, of Michigan, responded by issuing 
his proclamation calling for twenty companies out of the 
uniformed volunteer force of the State, with field and staff 
officers, to compose two regiments of infantry, to be placed 
at the disposal of the President if required. The War 
Department had placed the quota of Michigan at one full 
regiment, but the Governor very wisely concluded — and 
the people of Michigan concurred in the opinion — that a 
second regiment should be made ready for service if it 
should be needed, as he believed it would be. Four days 
after the Governor's call (April 19th) the State's quota 
was filled, and her first regiment ready for muster into the 
service of the United States,* fully equipped with arms, 
ammunition, and clothing, awaiting only the orders of the 
War Department, and on the 13th of May it left Detroit 
for Washington, being the first regiment to arrive at the 
capital from any point west of the Alleghany Mountains. 

The Governor's call for twenty companies had been 
promptly and fully responded to ; and so, after making up 
the First Regiment, there still remained ten companies 
which, having failed to secure places in the First, were 
ready and anxious to be organized as the Second Regiment 
of Michigan. Nine of the companies composing this regi- 
ment contained men from Clinton and Shiawassee, though 
none of them were principally, or even largely, made up of 
volunteers from these counties. 

On the 20th of May, 1861, the Second Regiment was 
announced to be full, and on the 25th it was mustered into 
the United States service for three years by Lieut. -Col. E. 
Backus, U.S.A. The field-officers of the regiment were 



* Clinton and Shiawassee were credited in the adjutant-genoral'a 
office for about three thousand four hundred men furnished to the 
government, but this is considerably above the number of those who 
actually served in the army from these counties. This discrepancy is 
to be explained by the fact that of the large number who re-enlisted 
as veteriins each man was counted twice, and that each man who 
paid commutation money in lieu of personal service was counted as a 
soldier furnished by the county, though never actually in the service. 
A few men also volunteered in the naval service, and these went to 
swell the aggregate credit. 

In regard to the lists given in these pages of officers and men from 
these counties serving in the several regiments, it is proper to say 
that great care has been taken in transcribing them from the rolls in 
the adjutant-general's office, and in verifying them, when practicable, 
by surviving members of the regiments to which they have reference. 
If, notwithstanding this, they are found (as they doubtless will he, to 
some extent) incomplete, it should be remembered that it is on ac- 
count of the neglect of officers whose duty it was to return full and 
complete records with the muster-out rolls filed in the adjutant-gen- 
eral's office. 



MILITARY RECORD OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON. 



41 



Israel B. Richardson, colonel ; Henry L. Chipraan, lieu- 
tenant-colonel ; Adolphus W. Williams, major. In the 
afternoon of Thursday, June 6th, the Second Regiment, 
one thousand and twenty strong, emharked on three steamers 
(one side-wheel and two propellers), and at eight o'clock 
P.M. left Detroit for Cleveland, arriving there the following 
morning. From Cleveland it proceeded by railway, via 
Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, and Baltimore, to Washington, 
reaching the capital on the 10th. 

The regiment made a stay of several weeks in the District 
of Columbia, its camp being named " Camp Winfield Scott." 
It was brigaded with the Third Michigan, First Massachu- 
setts, and Twelfth New York, the brigade-commander 
being Col. Richardson, of the Second Michigan. When 
Gen. McDowell made his forward movement towards Ma- 
nassas, this brigade moved with the army into Virginia, and 
was engaged in the fight at Blackburn's Ford, July 18th, 
and in the battle of Bull Run, Sunday, July 21st. In the 
panic and disorder which ended that disastrous day the 
Second Regiment behaved with great steadiness, covering 
the retreat of the brigade towards Washington, for which 
it was warmly complimented by the heroic Richardson. 

After Bull Run the regiment was encamped for some 
weeks near Arlington, and later in the season at Fort Lyon, 
Va., where it remained during the fall. About December 
20th, substantial and comfortable winter quarters wore con- 
structed at " Camp Michigan," three miles from Alexandria, 
On the Acotink Road. While this camp was in process of 
construction an officer wrote that " Cabins are growing up 
on every side, adorned with doors and windows, procured 
by a process called ' cramping,' which is somewhere on the 
debatable ground between buying and stealing.'' Here 
the regiment remained until March, 1862, when it moved 
with its brigade and the Army of the Potomac to Fortress 
Monroe, and thence, up the Peninsula, to Yorktown and 
Williamsburg, at which latter place it took active part in 
the severe engagement of Monday, May 5th, sustaining a 
loss of fifty-five killed and wounded. 

From Williamsburg the Second moved, with the army, 
up the Peninsula to and across the Chickahominy, and 
fought in the battle of Fair Oaks, May 31 and June 1, 
1862. Its loss in that engagement was fifty-seven killed 
and wounded, though only seven of the companies were 
engaged. 

In the retreat (or " change of base," as it has sometimes 
been called) from the York River Railroad to James River, 
the regiment fought at Glendale (or Charles City Cross- 
Roads), June 30th, and at Malvern Hill, July 1st. From 
the latter field it retired with the army, and moved to Har- 
rison's Landing, on the James, where it remained until the 
general evacuation of that position, August 15th, when it 
marched down the Peninsula, and was moved thence, by 
way of the Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River, with other 
troops, to the assistance of the imperiled army of Gen. Pope 
in the valley of the Rappahannock, during which campaign 
it took part in the fights of August 28th, 29th, 30th, and 
in the battle of Chantilly, September 1st. 

At Fredericksburg the Second was n.ot actively engaged. 
It crossed the Rappahannock on the 12th of December, but 
in the great battle of the next day was held in reserve, and. 
6 



sustained only a loss of one- killed and one wounded by the 
enemy's shells, but was, with the Eighth Michigan, among 
the last of the regiments of the army to recross to the north 
side of the river on the 16th. 

On the 13th of February, 1863, the regiment moved to 
Newport News, Va , and on the 19th of March took its route 
to Baltimore, and thence, by the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road and steamers on the Ohio River, to Louisville, Ky., 
with the Ninth Army Corps, of which it was a part. The 
corps remained in Kentucky during the months of April 
and May, and in June was moved to Mississippi to reinforce 
the army of Gen. Grant, near Vicksburg. The Second went 
into camp at Milldale, near Vicksburg, on the 17th, and 
a few days later was stationed at Flower Dale Church. On 
the 4th of July, the day of the surrender of Vicksburg, the 
regiment left Flower Dale, and moved east towards the cap- 
ital of Mississippi, to take part in the operations against 
the rebel army of Gen. Johnston. It arrived in front of 
Jackson in the evening of the 10th, and on the 11th ad- 
vanced in skirmish line on the enemy's rifle-pits, which were 
taken and held for a time. Superior numbers, however, 
compelled the Second to retire from the position, with a loss 
of eleven killed, forty-five wounded, and five taken prison- 
ers. On the 13th and 14th of July the regiment was again 
slightly engaged. On the 17th and 18th it was engaged in 
destroying the Memphis and New Orleans Railroad, in the 
vicinity of Jackson and Madison, and then moved through 
Jackson (which had been evacuated by the enemy) back to 
Milldale, where it remained till August 5th, when it marched 
to the river, and thence moved with the Ninth Corps, by 
way of Cincinnati, to Kentucky, and encamped at Crah 
Orchard Springs, in that State, on the 30th of August. 
Here it remained twelve days, and September 10th broke 
camp and took the road for Cumberland Gap and Knox- 
ville, Tenn., reaching the latter place September 26th. It 
moved from the vicinity of Knoxville, October 8th, and was 
slightly engaged at Blue ^Springs on the 10th. On the 
20th it was again at Knoxville, but immediately afterwards 
moved to Loudon, and thence to Lenoir, Tenn., where, on 
the 8th of November, its men commenced building winter 
quarters. The strength of the regiment at that time was 
reported at five hundred and three, present and absent. 

The anticipation of passing the winter at Lenoir was soon 
dispelled by the intelligence that the enemy, under Gen. 
Longstreet, was moving up the valley of the Tennessee in 
heavy force, evidently having Knoxville as his objective 
point. On the 14th of November, the Second Regiment 
with its division (the First Division of the Ninth Corps) was^ 
ordered out to meet and repel Longstreet, who was reported 
to be crossing the Tennessee, below Loudon. He was found 
in force near HuflF's Ferry, on the Holston, and the division 
fell back to Lenoir. Here a line of battle was formed, but 
on the enemy coming up, the retreat towards Knoxville was 
resumed, the Second Regiment, with its brigade, forming 
the rear-guard. On the 16th it again stood in line at Camp- 
bell's Station to resist the advance of Longstreet,- who was 
pressing up with great vigor. A sharp engagement ensued,' 
in which the Second lost thirty-one in killed and wounded; 
The position was stubbornly held till dark, when the retreat 
was resumed, and the regiment reached Knoxville at five. 



42 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHiaAN. 



o'clock in the morning of the 17th, after a march of nearly 
thirty miles through mud and rain, and a battle of several 
hours' duration, all without rest or food. It took position 
on a hill below the city, at Fort Saunders, where rifle pits 
were constructed, and where the regiment remained during 
the siege which followed. On the 19th and 20th it was 
slightly engaged, and on the 24th, under orders to attack 
a line of rifle-pits, it advanced under command of Maj. By- 
ington, moving several hundred yards across an open plain 
swept by a front and flank fire of musketry and canister. 
The line was carried, but could not be held ; the attacking 
force was dislodged and compelled to retire, with a loss to 
the Second Regiment of eighty-one killed and wounded ; 
this being very nearly one-half its whole number who were 
in the fight. Among the killed was Adj. William Noble, 
and Maj. Byington was mortally wounded. 

In the morning of Sunday, Nov. 29, 1863, a force of 
the enemy, consisting of two veteran Georgia brigades of 
McLaws' division, made a furious and persistent assault on 
Fort Saunders, but were repelled, and finally driven back 
in disorder, with a loss of eight hundred in killed, wounded, 
and prisoners, and three stands of colors. With the force 
inside the fort during this assault were Companies A, F, Q, 
and H, of the Second Michigan. Their loss, however, was 
inconsiderable, being only five killed and wounded. From 
that time the regiment saw no fighting at this place other 
than slight skirmishes, and on Friday night, December 4th, 
the enemy withdrew from before Knoxville, after a siege of 
eighteen days' duration. 

The Second marched from Knoxville, December 8th, 
and moved to Rutledge. On the 16th it moved to Blain's 
Cross-Roads, which was its last march in 1863. During 
-the year that was then about closing the regiment had 
moved a distance of more than two thousand five hundred 
miles. It remained at Blain's for about a month, during 
which time it was " veteranized," the number re-enlistins 
as veterans being one hundred and ninety-eight. About 
the middle of January, 1864, it moved to Strawberry 
Plains, thence to Knoxville, and to Erie Station, remaining 
at the latter place until February 4th, when it moved under 
orders to proceed to Detroit, Mich., and reached there 
twenty days later. Here the veteran furlough was given 
to those who had re-enlisted, and Mount Clemens was 
made the place of rendezvous. At this place the regiment 
received orders, on the 4th of April, to proceed to An- 
napolis, Md., to rejoin the Ninth Army Corps, which had, 
in the mean time, moved from Tennessee to Virginia to 
reinforce the Arn)y of the Potomac. The regiment left 
Annapolis on the 22d, proceeded to AVashington, and 
thence into Virginia, where, on the 5th of May, it crossed 
the Rapidan and joined the army, which was then moving 
into the Wilderness. For six weeks following this time 
the Second was, with its companion regiments of the brigade, 
so constantly employed in march, skirmish, or battle, that 
it is hardly practicable to follow the intricacies of the 
movements ; but the following statement of casualties during 
that time shows where and how it fought. The statement 
which includes only the killed and wounded (and not the 
missing), is taken from the report of the regimental sur- 
geon, Richard S. Vickcry, viz. : 



In the Wilderness battle, May 6th, killed and 

wounded 38 

At Spottsjlvania Court-House, May 12th, killed and 

wounded 11 

At 0.x Ford, North Anna, May 24th, killed 1 

Skirmish of May 27th 1 

Pamunkey River, May 31st 2 

Skirmii^h, June 1st 5 

Skirmish, June 2d 2 

Battle of Bethesda Church, June 3d 38 

Cold Harbor and other actions, from June 4th to 

June 10th 9 

The regiment crossed to the south side of the James 
River on the 15th, reached the enemy's works in front of 
Petersburg on the 16th, and took part in the attacks of 
the next two days with the following losses in killed and 
wounded, viz. : 

In bottle of June 17th 91 

In battle of June 18th 83 

Recruits to the number of five hundred or more had 
joined the regiment since the veteran re-enlistment, — other- 
wise such losses would have been impossible. 

On the 30th of July the Second took part in the engage- 
ment which followed the explosion of the mine, and sus- 
tained a loss of twenty killed and wounded and thirty-seven 
missing. Having moved with the Ninth Corps to the 
Weldon Railroad, it there took part in repelling the ene- 
my's assault on our lines, August 19th, losing one killed 
and two wounded. On the 30th it crossed the Wcldou 
Railroad, and moving towards.the enemy's right flank, par- 
ticipated in the engagement of that date at Poplar Grove 
Church, losing seven wounded and twelve missing. It was 
then encamped for about a month at Peebles' Farm, but 
moved, October 27th, in the advance on Boydton Plank- 
Road, losing seven wounded in that afiair. It then re- 
mained at Peebles', engaged in picket duty and fortifying, 
till November 29th, when it moved to a point about ten 
miles farther to the right, on the City Point and Peters- 
burg Railroad, and there remained in the trenches during 
the winter. On the 25th of March it fought at Fort 
Steadman, and sustained severe loss. It again lost slightly 
at the capture of Petersburg, April 3d. It then moved to 
the South Side Railroad, eighteen miles from Petersburg, 
and remained nearly two weeks, but in the mean time the 
army of Lee had surrendered, and the fighting days of the 
regiment were past. It moved to City Point, and embark- 
ing there on the 18th, was transported to Alexandria, Va., 
from whence it moved to a camp at Tenallytown, Md. On 
the 27th of May it was detached for duty in Washington 
City, and remained there for about two months. On the 
29th of July (having on the previous day been mustered 
out of the service) it left by railroad for Michigan, and on 
the 1st of August it reached Detroit, and was soon after 
paid and disbanded, after four years and a quarter of hon- 
orable service. 

OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE SECOND INFANTRY FROM CLINTON 

COUNTY. 

Field and Slaff. 

M^j. Porter K. Perrin, St. John's ; com. April 1, 1864 ; disch. for disability. Not. 

23, 1864. 

Company A. 
2(1 Lieut. Jos. Berry, Dnplain ; com. April 1, 1864 ; taken pris. July 30, 1864; 

died in rel>el prison, 1865. 
Geo. C. Bell, mustered out. 

Reason Craven, Duplain ; died of disease at Annapolis, Md., Oct. 30, 1864. 
Luke B. Hicks, mustered out. 
Miner Hicks, mustered out. 



THIRD INFANTRY. 



43 



Company B. 

iHt Lieut. Alex. Bichards, St. John's ; com. April 25, 1865; muat. out July 28, 

18G5. 

Company C. 

Mortimer Doyer, died of disease at Wliite Hall, Pa., Aug. 20, 1864. 
Sidney C, Johnson, must, out July 28, 1865. 
Wm. J. Rogers, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 

Company E. 

2d Lieut. James H. Welliogs, De Witt; com. Aprill, 1864; diach. Dec. 28,1864. 

Abram F. Kimball, must, out Aug. 9, 1865. 

John F. Munaon. must, out July 11, 1865. 

Geo. Passmore, muat. out July 28, 1865. 

Wm. Schuler, missing in action. 

Asa Tillotson, died in action near Petersburg, Va., Aug. 1, 1864. 

Gmwpany F. 
Jas. M. Birmingham, Duplain ; mustered out. 

Company Gl 
Jerome L. Curtis, died pf wounds at Washington, April 10, 1865. 
Daniel C. Pierce, died of wounds, June 17, 1864. 
Wm. B. Parker, must, out May 15, 1865. 

Company H. 
Silaa S. Babcock, died in div. hosp., March 19, 1865. 
Geo. B. Morse, died in Washington, D. C, July 3, 1864. 
Smith H. Stanton, died in action near Petersburg, June 17, 1864. 
Ichabod I. Towne, died in Washington, D. 0., Nov. 11, 1864. 
Abram White, must, out, Juue 22, 1865. 
John H. Williams, must, out June 26, 1865. 

Company L 
Emory Yance, disch. at end of service, July 21, 1864. 

Company K. 
2d Lieut. OrUndo S. Perkins, St. John's ; com. April 19, 1861 ; sergt. 27tb Inf. ; 

disch. Dec. 28, 1864. 
Barzillai (Toats, died at Philadelphia of wounds, July 30, 1864. 
Sanford Mayes, muat. out July 20, 1865. 
Caleb Hall, must, out July 28, 1865. 
Enoch Hand, must, out Oct. 10, 1865, 

Isaac V. Jones, Bengal ; died in bosp. 9th Army Corps, July 1, 1861. 
Matbew Moore, died of wounds in 1864. 
Corp. E. Teeta, Greenbush. 

SOLDIEES OF THE SECOND INFANTRY FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Company G. 
Andrew Alien, must, out July 28, 1865. 

Company E. 
Orren C. Chapman, died of wounds at Washington, D. C, July 17, 1864. 
Frank Collins, must, out July 31, 1865. 
SHnford Hadden, disch. for disability, Sept. 18, 18G4. 
George W. Keyes, must, out July 28, 1865. 
James D. Milla, died of disease at Waahington, D. C, July 21, 1864. 

Company F. 
Dennis Birmingham, disch. for disability. May 12, 1362. 

/ Company K. 

Charles 0. Loynes, disch. by order, June 3, 1865. 



CHAPTER v. 



THIKD INFABTTRY. 



Organization of the Regiment at Grand Kapids — Battle of Bull Run 
— Peninsula Campaign — Seven Days' Battles — Fredericksburg, 
ClianoellorsTille, and Gettysburg — Service in New York — Mine Run 

;The Wilderness and Spottsylvania — Cold Harbor — The New Third 

Infantry — Service in Tennessee, Alabama, and Texas. 

The Third Michigan Infantry was recruited in the 
month of May, 1861, and had its rendezvous and camp of 
instruction at Grand Rapids. Clinton and Shiawassee, 
Counties furnished to this regiment about seventy men, 
who were distributed among six of its companies, the 
larger number being found in Company G-. Most of the 
Shiawassee men in the Third were originally members of 



the " IngersoU Rifles," which was raised by Capt. Quack- 
enbush for the Fifth, but were transferred to this regiment 
on accouQt of the " Rifles" being filled to considerably more 
than the maximum strength. 

The Third Regiment was mustered into the United 
States service, one thousand and forty-two strong (officers 
and enlisted men), on the 10th of June, 1861, under Col. 
D. McConnell. Three days later it left Grand Rapids and 
proceeded to Washington, D. C, where it arrived on Sun- 
day, the 16th, and moved to the Chain Bridge, where it 
encamped at " Camp McConnell." It was soon after 
assigned to the brigade commanded by Col. Israel B. 
Richardson, and first met the enemy at Blaekbum's Ford, 
Va., on the 18th of July. On the 21st the regiment, 
with its brigade, was engaged in that famed conflict, the 
first battle of Bull Run. In the disaster of that day the 
Michigan regiments proved themselves to be among the 
bravest and most steadfast of the troops engaged. The 
army commander. Gen. McDowell, said, in his report, that 
" Richardson's troops were the last to leave the field," and 
the correspondent of the New York Tribune who was pres- 
ent at the battle wrote to that journal an account of the 
fight, in which he said, "I was told that a few regiments, 
besides the three faithful ones of Blenker's brigade, had 
come in in fair order, and that they were the Second and 
Third Michigan and the Massachusetts First, of Richard- 
son's brigade." When the defeated and disorganized' Union 
army fell back on Washington, this brigade served as rear- 
guard. It maintained its position at Centreville Heights 
until the morning of July 22d, and when all detachments 
and stragglers had passed to the rear, it deliberately took 
up the line of march to Washington, where it arrived in 
good order. Immediately afterwards the brigade was 
assigned to the duty of guarding the position at Bailey's 
Cross-Roads, «ind picketing other highways leading to 
Alexandria and Washington from the South. After assist- 
ing in the construction of the defenses of Washington, the 
Third went into winter quarters near Alexandria, Va., and 
remained there until March, 1862, when it moved with 
McClellan's army to the Peninsula. 

At the battle of Williamsburg, fought on the 5th of May, 
1862, Berry's brigade* of Kearney's division moved to the 
front through mud and rain, at double-quick, formed line 
under fire, and immediately charging a superior force of 
the enemy, recaptured a lost position and artillery, and did 
not stop until the enemy was dislodged and beaten back from 
his position. In regard to this fight, a New "York Tribune 
correspondent said : "By confessions of rebel prisoners, eight 
hundred of Berry's men, mostly of Michigan regiments, drove 
back sixteen hundred of the enemy.'' At Fair Oaks, on the 
31st of May, the Third particularly distinguished itself, 
losing thirty men killed, one hundred and twenty-four 
wounded, and fifteen missing. Among the wounded was 
its commander, Col. Stephen G. Champlin. The Prince de 
Joinville, an eye-witness of this battle, said : " As at Wil- 
liamsburg, Kearney comes to re-establish the fight. Berry's 
brigade of this division, composed of Michigan regiments 



* Composed of the Second, Third, and Fifth Michigan, and Thirty- 
Seventh New York regiments. 



44 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEK AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



and an Irish battalion, advances firm as a wall into the 
midst of the disordered mass which wanders over the battle- 
field, and does more by its example than the most powerful 
reinforcement." 

The Third was engaged at Savage Station and Peach 
Orchard, June 29, 1862 ; Glendale (or Charles City Cross- 
Koads), June 30th; Malvern Hill, July 1st ; and Grove- 
ton (or Second Bull Run), Aug. 29, 1862. In the latter 
battle it lost twenty men killed, besides a large number 
wounded and missing. Proceeding from Edwards' Ferry, 
Md., via Warrenton and Falmouth, Va., to Fredericks- 
burg, Va., the regiment was engaged at the latter place 
Dec. 13, 1862, losing nine men wounded. At Chancel- 
lorsville, on the 1st, 2d, and 3d of May, 1863, it sustained 
a loss of sixty-three men killed, wounded, and missing. 

On the 11th of June the regiment began a toilsome 
march via Centreville, Va., Edwards' Ferry, and Frederick 
City, Md., to Gettysburg. The roads were dusty, the heat 
intense, and the men suffered terribly. At Gettysburg, on 
the 2d and 3d days of July, 1863, the Third fought 
bravely, sustaining a loss of forty-one men, killed, wounded, 
and missing. Having followed the enemy to Williamsport, 
it marched thence to Harper's Ferry, crossed the Potomac 
at Berlin, and moved forward to Manassas Gap. On the 
17th of August, 1863, the regiment proceeded to Alex- 
andria, Va., and from there to New York City, whither it 
had been ordered to aid in the preservation of the public 
peace and in keeping down a mob during the then pending 
dralt. Remaining there a few days, it proceeded up the 
Hudson to Troy, N. Y., where it was stationed two weeks. 
It then returned to its brigade in the Army of the Potomac, 
arriving at Culpeper, Va., Sept. 17, 1863. 

On the 26th of November, 1863, the regiment took part 
in the Mine Run campaign, engaging the enemy on the 
27th at Locust Grove, and on the 30th gt Mine Run. 
With the army it returned to Brandy Station December 2d, 
having lost during the movement thirty-one men in killed, 
wounded, and missing. One hundred and eighty members 
of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans Dec. 23, 1863. 
They received a thirty days' furlough, and at the expiration 
of that time returned to their command. 

From December, 1863, until the beginning of May, 1864, 
was a season of inactivity. On the 4th of the latter 
month the Third crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, ad- 
vanced to Chancellersville, and during the three following 
days was in the midst of the terrific battle of the Wilder- 
ness, sustainiag a heavy loss. It was also engaged at 
Todd's Tavern on the 8th and at Spottsylvania on the 12th, 
where it participated in the successful charge of the Second 
Army Corps. At the North Anna River it again encoun- 
tered the enemy. May 23d and 24th. The Pamunkey 
River was crossed on the 27th, and the advance continued 
towards Cold Harbor. During this month of continuous 
fighting the regiment sustained a loss of thirty-one men 
killed, one hundred and nineteen wounded, and twenty-nine 
missing. 

At Cold Harbor, on the 9th of June, 1864, the regiment, 
with the exception of the re-enlisted men and such as had 
joined since the original organization, and certain desig- 
nated officers, was ordered home for the purpose of bein" 



discharged. The remaining officers and men — some three 
hundred and fifty in number — were formed into a battalion 
of four companies, and attached to the Fifth Jlichigan In- 
fantry. The order consolidating these regiments was con- 
firmed by the War Department June 13th, and on the 20th 
day of June, 1864, the old Third, which had been one of 
the first to take the field in defense of the government, was 
formally mustered out of the United States service. 

THE NEW THIRD INFANTRY. 

On the 18th of July, 1864, the President issued his proc- 
lamation calling upon the loyal States for five hundred thou- 
sand more men. Volunteers from the several States were to 
be accepted for one, two, and three years, as they elected. 
Michigan's quota under this call was more than eighteen 
thousand, of which twelve thousand had to be recruited or 
drafted. Governor Blair determined to raise six new regi- 
ments of infantry, viz., the Third, Fourth, Twenty-eighth, 
Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first, or one in each 
Congressional district, and in pursuance of this plan, issued 
his proclamation on the 21st of July, 1864. On the 29th 
of the same month orders were issued to reorganize the 
Third Infantry, and to Col. Moses B. Houghton (formerly 
lieutenant-colonel of the old organization) was intrusted 
the charge of raising the new regiment. Grand Rapids was 
named its place of rendezvous, and the Fourth District its 
field for recruiting. 

The exigencies of the service did not permit the com- 
plete organization of all these regiments before the enforce- 
ment of the impending draft (Sept. 5, 1864), and seven 
companies, which had been raised for the Thirtieth at 
Pontiao, were distributed between the Third and Fourth, 
four companies going to the former and three to the latter, 
and the organization of the Thirtieth was abandoned. The 
Third, thus reinforced, completed its organization at once 
(October 1.5th), and, being mustered in with eight hun- 
dred and seventy-nine officers and men, left camp for Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1864, going thence to Decatur, Ala. 
It remained at Decatur — having meanwhile a skirmish with 
the enemy at that point — until November 25th, when it was 
transferred to Murfreesboro', Tenn., and ordered to duty at 
Fortress Rosecrans. 

On the 7th of December, while Gen. Milroy was engaged 
at the Cedars with the principal part of Forrest's rebel com- 
mand, Faulkner's rebel brigade of mounted infantry made 
a dash on the picket-line at Murfreesboro', drove in the 
guard, and gained possession of the town. After a spirited 
engagement of an hour's duration, four companies of the 
Third, together with an equal number of companies of the 
One Hundred and Eighty-firet Ohio, with a section of ar- 
tillery, repulsed the rebels and pursued them two miles. 

The regiment remained at Murfreesboro' and its vicinity 
until Jan. 1.6, 1865, when it was moved to Huntsville, Ala., 
and assigned to the Fourth Army Corps. On the 31st of 
January it was ordered to Eastport, Miss., and proceeded 
as far as Nashville, Tenn., when, the order being counter- 
manded, it returned to Huntsville, remaining there until the 
middle of March. With its brigade it then marched to 
East Tennessee, occupying successively positions at New 
Market, Bull Gap, and Jonesboro', where it was employed 



FIFTH INFANTRY. 



45 



in pursuing, capturing, and driving off the numerous guer- 
rilla bands infesting that region. The Third was ordered to 
Nashville, Tenn., on the 20th of March, arrived there the 
28th, and on the 15th of June, 1865, with its corps, pro- 
ceeded by rail from Nashville to Johnsville, Tenn. ; thence 
by steamers down the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi 
Rivers to New Orleans, arriving on the 5th of July. After 
a short delay the regiment proceeded in vessels to Indian- 
ola, Texas, and thence it marched to Green Lake. On the 
12th of September it started out for Western Texas, and, 
after a fatiguing march of fourteen days' duration, it 
reached San Antonio. During the following winter two 
companies were on duty at Gonzales. Early in the spring 
of 1866 the entire regiment was ordered to Victoria, Texas, 
and was there mustered out of the service, May 26, 1866. 
Marching to Indianola, it took steamers to New Orleans, 
going thence via the Mississippi River to Cairo, 111., whence 
it was transported by railway to Detroit, Mich. It arrived 
there June 10, 1866, and was soon after discharged. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY SOLDIEES IN THE THIKD INFANTRY. 
Company B. 
John N. Foster, died of diseaBe, June 15, 1862. 
Bichard Herrington.disch. for disability, April 1, 1862. 
Aaron Herriugton, disch. for disability, March 11, 1863. 
Benben Hopliins, disch. for disability, March 30, 1863. 
Theron Janes, veteran, enl. Deo. 23, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Mortimer Marlthiim, died in action at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862. 
Lyman McCarty, disch. for disability, Aug. 9, 1861. 
Ezra Ransom, disch. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862. 

Company C. 
William Choatea, died of disease at Camp Blair, Va., July 1, 1861. 
Christian Foster, disch. for disability, Oct. 10, 1861. 
Henry Reubelman, veteran, onl. Dec. 21, 1863. * 

Abijah Southard, disch. at end of service, June 20, 1864. 
Casper Thener, veteran, enl. Dec. 21, 1863. 

Company D. 
Willard McKay, disch. for disability, Aug. 8, 1861. 

Company F, 
James Gunnegal, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1864. 

Company G. 
Charles T. Goodell, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863; died in action at Wilderness, 

Va., May 6, 1864. 
Eben D. Jackson, disch. for disability, Nov. 10, 1862. 
Patriclc Kilboy, disch. for disability, Oct. 24, 1801. 
Francis Maguire, disch. for disability, Dec. 21, 1861. 
Lemuel Smith, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Charles Shaft, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863 ; must, out Aug. 23, 1865. 
John Shaft, veteran, enl. Deo. 24, 1863; died June 22, 1864. 
James Trimmer, disch. for disability, Aug. 6, 1862. 
Arthur Walkins, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863; must, out July 6, 1865. 
Philo H. Wier, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863; died June 16, 1864. 

SOLDIEES IN THE THIRD, FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company B. 
Burnett Hopkins, trans, to 5th Mich. Inf. ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Lewis Rogers, trans, to 5th Mich. Inf. ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Bbenezer Sweet, trans, to 5th Mich. Inf. ; must, out July 5, 1865. 

Company C. 
Francis Brinnick, died in Andersonville prison pen, July 12, 1864. 
Herman Hardenburgh, missing in action, June 30, 1862. 
Alexander Parks, trana. to 5th Mich. Inf.; disch. for disability, Sept. 3, 1864. 

Company X>. 

Jerome Briggs, missing in action. 

Clinton Corey, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863 ; trana. to 6th Mich. Inf. ; must, out 

July 5,1-65. 
Edgar Green, disch. for disability, May, 1862. 
Amos W. Gillott, died in Virginia, Sept. 20, 1862. 
William H. Hicka, disch. for disability, Feb. 24, 1863. 
Philander J. Myers, disch. to enl. in regular army, Jan. 18, 1863. 
Webster Morris, Ovid. 
James Reynolds, disch. at end of service, June 20, 1864. 



Charles Vosburg, disch. for disability. May 20, 1863. 
Elbridge Wellington, disch. for disability, Aug. 5, 1861. 

Company F. 
Asa B. Daniels, trans, to 5th Mich. Inf. ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Elijah Fish, died in action at Groveton (Bull Run), Aug. 29, 1862. 
Warren Stone, trans, to 5th Mich Inf. ; must, out July 5, .865. 
Charles B. Sands, trans, to 5th Mich. Inf.; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Chauncey D. Webster, trans. to 5th Mich. Inf.; must, out July 5, 1865. 

Compamy G. 
Sergt. George M. Cook, Eagle ; disch. for disability, Feb. 10, 1863. 
Corp. John Blanchard, died in action at Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 
Corp, Case B. Wickham,died in action at Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 
Mus. Dewitt C. Forman. pro. to principal nius. 

Augustus Billings, died at Douglas Hospital of wounds, June 17, 1862. 
Joshua R. Benson, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863 ; trans, to 5th Inf. ; must, out July 

,5, 1865. 
John Bissell, must, out July 5, 1865. 
William Clark, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863 ; trans, to 6th Inf, ; must, out July 

6, 1865. 
George W. Davis, veteran, enl, Dec, 24, 1863 ; trans, to 5th Inf. ; must, out July 

5, 1865. 
William H, Davis, veteran, enl, Dec, 24, 1863; died in action at Wilderness, 

May 6, 18' 4, 
Charles Gaskiil, died in action at Seven Pines, May 31, 1862, 
Calvin D, Holmes, died of wounds. May 18, 18G4. 
Andrew J. Heth, disch. for disability, March 18, 1863. 
Henry W. McRoberts, died of disease at Fort Monroe, March 23, 1862. 
Moses F. Newman, trans, to 5tb Mich, Inf.; must, out July 5, 1865, 
Henry J. Patterson, veteian, enl. Deo. 24, 1863; trans, to 5th Mich. Inf.; umst, 

out July 5, 1865. 
Charles H, Rose, disch. for disability. May 25, 1862. 
Chauncey Strickland, died of disease at Grand Rapids, June 13, 1861, 
Harrison Sickles, died of disease in Virginia, March 24, 1862. 

Company K, 
Wallace W. Wade, must, out Aug. 13, 1802. 

Company C {new Third). 
Corp. Benjamin F. Fuller, Westphalia; enl. Sept, 3, 1864; died of disease in 

Texas, Nov, 6, 1865. 
Samuel F. Cranson, must, out May 25, 1866. 
John Gallagher, must, out Sept, 25, 1865, 
John J, Langdon, must, out June 14, 1866. 
Jason S. Meishon, must, out May 26, 1866. 

Spencer H. Northrop, died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 9, 1866. 
George Rich, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 28, 1865. 
William S. Stiles, died of disease in Texas, Dec. 7, 1865. 
Prescott Vernon, must, out May 25, 1866. 



CHAPTER VI. 

FIFTH INFAWTBY. 

Organization at Fort Wayne — Winter Quarters in Virginia — Battles 
of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, and Charles City Cross-Roada — 
Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettys- 
burg — Mine Run — Veteran Re-enlistment — ^Tho Wilderness Cam- 
paign—Consolidation of the Third and Fifth— Spring Campaign 
of 1865— Close of Service. 

One of the companies of the Fifth Infantry was raised 
wholly in Shiawassee County, and two others contained 
a number of men from that county and Clinton. The 
Shiawassee company — originally known as the " IngersoU 
Rifles" — was the first one raised in the county for actual 
service, its formation having been commenced in the latter 
part of April, 1861. On the4thof May following its strength 
had been raised to seventy-four, rank and file (as was an- 
nounced in the Shiawassee American of that date), and not 
long afterwards its ranks were filled to about twenty men more 
than the maximum number. This excess of men afterwards 
joined the Third Infantry at Grand Rapids. The com- 
manding officer of the" Rifles" was Capt. Louis B. Quack- 
enbush, who had been principally instrumental in recruiting 



46 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



the company. The other two original commissioned officers 
were First Lieut. William Waken.shaw, and Second Lieut. 
William K. Tillotson, both of whom had been active in 
procuring enlistments. 

Several weeks passed after the company was full before 
it was definitely assigned to its regiment. This period was 
passed in perfecting its organization, drill, and discipline, 
and on the 10th of August the " IngersoU Rifles" left 
Owosso one hundred and ten strong, and proceeded to the 
regimental rendezvous at Fort Wayne, Detroit, where it 
lost its recruiting name, and was designated as Company 
" H" of the Fifth Michigan Infantry. The regiment hav- 
ing completed its organization was mustered into the United 
States service on the 28th of August, 1861, with a total 
strength of about nine hundred officers and men, under 
command of Col. Henry D. Terry. 

On the 11th of September, at an early hour in the morn- 
ing, the men of the Fifth Regiment broke camp at the 
Fort Wayne rendezvous, packed their knapsacks, and pre- 
pared for their' departure to the front. It was a momentous 
business, and nearly all the day was consumed in the prepa- 
rations which in their later days of campaigning they 
learned to accomplish in a half-hour. At a little before 
four o'clock in the afternoon the several companies were 
marched to the parade-ground of the fort, and there formed 
in line for the reception of a flag, — the gift of Messrs. F. 
Buhl, Newland & Co., of Detroit, — which was about to be 
presented to the regiment. There were many spectators 
present, consisting of citizens of Detroit and friends and 
relatives of the departing soldiers, who had come to say 
good-by, — many of them for the last time. The crowd 
was kept back by the unceasing labor of guards stationed 
along the line. When the swaying to and fro of the people 
in the vain effort of each one to stand in front of the others 
had ceased. Marshal Whiting, with Mr. Frederick Buhl on 
one side and Alderman Backus on the other, stepped for- 
ward bearing the colors. Approaching to within a few 
paces of Col. Terry, Mr. Backus made a few well-timed 
remarks on behalf of Mr. Buhl, which were responded to 
by Col. Terry in an appropriate manner. The flag, which 
was of heavy silk, fringed with gold and surmounted by a 
gilded eagle, was handed to Sergt. Asa A. Rouse, of " E" 
company, who had been designated as the color-bearer of the 
regiment. At the conclusion of the ceremony the companies 
were marched back to the camp-ground for supper ; a few 
final preparations were made, and between seven and eight 
o'clock the command was marched to the river and em- 
barked for Cleveland, en route for the national capital. The 
journey of the regiment from Detroit to Washington was 
described in a letter written by an officer of the regiment, 
from which account the following extracts are given : 

" We embarked on Wednesday evening, September 11th, 
on the steamer ' Ocean,' for Cleveland. Our journey 
was pleasant but rapid. As the shrill whistle of the 
steamer gave the signal for our departure, the most intense 
excitement prevailed, and when she swung round from her 
moorings cheer after cheer rose from the decks, for our 
country and her flag, our homes and the dear ones left be- 
hind us, and was returned with the same spirit ana enthu- 
siasm by the numerous crowd that thrpnged the wharves to 



witness our departure. About three o'clock in the morn- 
ing we arrived at Cleveland, where we were detained till 
nine o'clock, and then took the cars for Pittsburgh. As 
the bell rang to warn us of our departure, crowds of people 
gathered round the cars to bid the Wolverine boys good- 
by. Nor was Cleveland behind in giving us a warm re- 
ception. The whole line as far as Pittsburgh was crowded 
with people of all grades, from the aged grandparent to the 
lisping child, to see us pass. At nine o'clock the. same 
evening we arrived at Pittsburgh, where wc took supper, 
changed cars, and resumed our way for Washington by the 
way of Harrisburg. We arrived in the latter place be- 
tween two and three o'clock the next morning. There we 
were numbered off' and stowed away in cattle-cars of the 
most old and dilapidated kind, and in this wretched way 
we proceeded to Baltimore, where we were again furnished 
with good coaches. We arrived in Washington on Sunday 
morning, somewhat fatigued from our long journey. We 
remained there till night, when we received orders to 
march, — to what place we did not know. We were soon 
prepared for the journey, and after a march of some three 
or four miles we arrived at Meridian Hill, where we learned 
we were to encamp." 

Meridian Hill is in the northwest part of the city of 
Washington, and at this place the Fifth remained until the 
morning of Wednesday, September 18th, just one week 
from the day of departure from Detroit. It then broke 
camp and marched down through the city to the arsenal, 
where the men were furnished with indifferent Springfield 
muskets. Thence the regiment moved across the Long 
Bridge into Virgrnia and out to Arlington, where it bi- 
vouacked for the night, and on the following day marched 
about two miles farther from the river to Hunter's Chapel, 
where it halted and pitched a camp, named Camp Richard- 
son, in honor of Col. Richardson, to whose brigade (of 
Heintzelman's division) it had been assigned for duty. On 
the 22d a part of the regiment was placed on picket some 
two miles farther to the front. This was the first time the 
men of the Fifth stood in front of the enemy, and here it 
was that they first heard the crack of hostile rifles. 

On Saturday the 28th of September, six companies of 
the regiment moved to Munson's Hill, Va. The remainder 
of the regiment came up immediately afterwards, and to 
Col. Terry's command is due the credit of first occupying 
this position in the front where an attack was hourly looked 
for, though none was made. At this place the regiment 
was without tents, and constantly engaged on fatigue duty, 
felling timber, and, with the Thirty-seventh New York, 
constructing substantial earthworks on the hill. On the 
12th of October the Fifth moved to Hunter's Creek, two 
miles south of Alexandria, and the men were put on similar 
duty in the construction of Fort Lyon, and remained so 
occupied at that place for about two months. 

In the early part of December the regiment moved about 
three miles farther down the Potomac, to " Camp Michi- 
gan," where the men were supplied with Sibley tents, and 
set about preparing winter quarters. The enemy was in 
their front, though not in much force, and the regiment 
remained here in comparative comfort through the winter 
of 1861-62, and until the general movement of the Army 



FIFTH INFANTRY. 



47 



of the. Potomac, in March. The first of the operations of 
that campaign was a feint made by nearly the whole army 
in the direction of Manassas, which was immediately fol- 
lowed by the transportation of the immense host down the 
Potomac to Fortress Monroe. The Fifth embarked at Al- 
exandria, and moved with the army to the Virginia Penin- 
sula, when, on the 4th of April, 1862, it marched with its 
division towards Yorktown, arriving in front of that strong- 
hold on the following day. 

The Fifth, as a part of the investing force, remained in 
front of Yorktown until Sunday, the 4th of May, when the 
Union army was electrified by the announcement that the 
hostile works had been evacuated during the previous night, 
and that the enemy was retiring towards Richmond. The 
forces of Gen. McClellan were at once put in motion to 
pursue, and the Fifth Michigan, with its brigade, moved 
from camp on through the evacuated intrenchments at about 
three o'clock p.m., taking the road towards Williamsburg, 
but bivouacking for the night a short distance beyond York- 
town. At two o'clock in the morning of Monday, the 5th, 
the men were turned out in the pouring rain to prepare for 
marching ; but the regiment did not move until about ten 
A.M. Then forward over the almost bottomless roads, 
which were clogged and blockaded by artillery, cavalry, and 
army wagons, the men of the Fifth pressed on towards the 
field where the battle had been in progress since the early 
morning. For hours they struggled on through the mud 
and rain, and as they approached Williamsburg the thun- 
der of artillery and the continuous roar of volleys told too 
plainly of the work on which they were about to enter. 
Order after order came from the front to hurry up the 
brigade, and about the middle of the afternoon the Fifth 
stood in line of battle, about five hundred strong, in front 
of the enemy's position, the Thirty-seventh New York 
joining its line, the Third Michigan being in support of a 
battery, and the Second Michigan being held in reserve. 
These four regiments formed the Third (Berry's) brigade, 
of Gen. Phil. Kearney's division. 

It was not until between three and four o'clock that the 
Fifth delivered its first fire, but from that time it was kept 
up without intermission till nearly dark. The ammunition 
being then nearly exhausted, the order was given to charge 
with the bayonet. It was obeyed with alacrity. The reg- 
iment charged, carried the rifle-pits in its front, and occu- 
pied them through the night. The rain ceased and the 
sky cleared during the night, and the morning of the 6th of 
May opened bright and beautiful ; but the enemy had retreat- 
ed, and was then some miles away on the road to Richmond. 

Williamsburg was the first battle-field of the Fifth 
Michigan, and a wild initiation it was. The regiment went 
in with about five hundred men, and out of this force its 
loss was one hundred and fifty-three in killed and wounded. 
The heroism of the Fiflh and its companion regiments of 
the brigade in this battle is attested by the following order 
of Gen. Berry, the brigade commander, viz. : 

"SPECIAL ORDER. 

" HEADQUAHTEnS THIRD BRIGADE, KeAHNEy's DiYISION, 

" Willi AMSBnBG Battle-Field, May 8, 1862. 

" The commander of the brigade takes great pleasure in 
makin" this official communication to his command : That 



they by heroic fortitude on Monday last, by making a 
forced march through mud and rain, each vying with the 
other to see who could most cheerfully stand the hardships 
the time called for, making thereby a march that others 
shrank from ; coming into a fight at double-quick, made 
doubtful to our side by the overwhelming mass of the 
enemy poured upon our centre ; by a rapid deploy and 
quick formation, and by coolness, precision, and energy 
beat back the enemy, recapturing our lost position and 
artillery, and also by a heroic charge took a stronghold of 
the enemy, and thereby dislodged him and drove him on 
the plain beyond his well-chosen position, have done them- 
selves great honor, have honored the States of Michigan 
and New York, and have won a name in history that the 
most ambitious might be proud of. 

" R. G. Berry, 
" Brig.-Gen. commanding Third Brigade." 

In the advance from Williamsburg the Fifth moved with 
its brigade up to and across the Chickahominy, and took 
its place in the lines confronting Richmond. Again, on 
the 31st of May, it fought in the battle of Fair Oaks, and 
again it suffered terribly ; its loss in killed and wounded 
being one hundred and forty-nine out of about three hun- 
dred men who entered the fight, — this being proportion- 
ately much greater than its loss at Williamsburg. Among 
the killed of the Fifth at Fair Oaks was Capt. Louis B. 
Quackenbush, commanding the Shiawassee company. 

During the "Seven Days'" battles which accompanied 
the " change of base," or more properly the retreat, of the 
army from the Chickahominy to the James, the Fifth 
Michigan fought bravely at Charles City Cross-Roads, 
losing thirty-three killed and wounded and eighteen miss- 
ing. It was also engaged at Malvern Hill, July 1st, with 
slight loss. After the evacuation of Harrison's Landing 
the regiment was moved with its command and other 
troops up the Potomac, and thence to the succor of the . 
sorely-pressed Array of Virginia under Gen. Pope. In 
this duty it was engaged, but without severe loss, at 
Manassas, August 30th, and at Chantilly (where the gal- 
lant Kearney fell) on the 2d of September. Later in the 
fall, when the Army of the Potomac under its new com- 
mander. Gen. Burnside, marched towards Fredericksburg, 
the Fifth Michigan, as part of the force, marched from 
Leesburg, Va., on the 1st of November, moved down the 
Rappahannock, and encamped on the left bank of that 
stream near Falmouth. 

When the operations were comraenced against the strong 
position of the enemy on the heights of Fredericksburg, the 
regiment crossed the Rappahannock with the attacking col- 
umn on the 12th of December, and took gallant part in the 
disastrous battle of the following day, in which it lost its 
commanding ofiicer, Lieut.-Col. John GiUuly. The story how 
the men of the Fifth fought on that bloody day is briefly 
told in the official report of Maj. Sherlock, who assumed 
command when his superior officer fell. It is as follows : 

"Headquarters Fifth Michigan Volunteers, 
" Bivouac on the Battle-Field, Deo. 15, 1862. 

" Capt. Wilson, A. A. A. Gen. 

" Sir, — In accordance with a circular from headquarters, 
I have the honor to submit the following report of the part 



4S 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLIxNTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



which this regiment sustained in the action of the 13th 
instant. The regiment, under command of Lieut.-Col. 
John Gilluly, came upon the field at half-past one o'clock, 
and after shifting from place to place, occupying different 
positions, constantly exposed to a furious fire of shot and 
shell, was at length detailed to support Randolph's Battery, 
which was in rather a precarious situation, on account of 
the falling back of some regiments thrown out in front of 
it. At this juncture the regiment was ordered forward, and 
opened an effective fire upon the enemy, who were sheltered 
by a brush fence, and after a brisk conflict drove them to 
the woods. Lieut.-Col. Gilluly fell mortally wounded 
while cheering on the men, and I assumed command. 
The regiment remained on the scene of action till evening, 
when the First New York relieved us, and we retired in 
perfect order, carrying with us our dead and wounded. 
The regiment numbered two hundred and seventy-two, rank 
and file, and our loss is nine killed and seventy-four wounded. 
The officers and men behaved nobly throughout the short 
but sharp conflict, and it would be an act of injustice to par- 
ticularize where all demeaned themselves so well ; yet I can- 
not forbear mentioning Color-Sergt. Bergher, who stood up 
bravely, waving the colors defiantly in the face of the foe. 
" I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" R. T. Sherlock, 
" Major Commanding Fifth Michigan Infantry." 

On the 15th of December the regiment recro.ssed the 
river from the battle-field, and returned to its old camp at 
Falmouth. In January it took part in the historic " Mud 
March" up the Rappahannock to Banks' Ford, and on the 
abandonment of that expedition returned again to its camp, 
where it passed the remainder of the winter. On the 1st 
of January, 1863, it numbered less than seventy men fit 
for duty, but this number was soon after increased by re- 
cruitment and returns from hospital. 

On the opening of the spring campaign, under the new 
commander of the army, — Gen. Hooker, — the Fifth moved 
up the Rappahannock, crossed the river on the 1st of May, 
was engaged at the Cedars on the 2d, and took part in the 
great battle of Chancellorsville on the 3d, where it again 
lost its commanding officer, Lieut.-Col. Sherlock, killed in 
action. The losses of the regiment in the engagement of 
the 2d and 3d were fifty killed and wounded and thirty-one 
missing. On the 6th of May it recrossed the river to its 
north bank, and marching twenty-eight miles in twelve 
hours, reoccupied its winter quarters at Falmouth. 

Immediately after the battle of Chancellorsville the Con- 
federate commander marched northward with the intention 
of invading Maryland and Pennsylvania, and as soon as the 
object of this movement became apparent the Army of the 
Potomac was put in motion to intercept him. On the 11th 
of June the Fifth Michigan moved northward with the 
column, and in that day marched eighteen miles in seven 
hours. On the following day the same distance was made, 
through intolerable heat and dust, in six hours. The 
inarch was exceedingly rapid and laborious through all the 
distance. On the 25th of June the regiment marched 
twenty-eight miles in eleven hours, though the day was ex- 
cessively sultry. In the evening of the 1st of July it 



bivouacked at Emmettsburg, Md., within six hours'. march 
of the field of Gettysburg. 

The regiment with its brigade left Emmettsburg at four 
o'clock in the morning of the 2d, and marched with the 
greatest possible rapidity to Gettysburg, where it arrived at 
ten o'clock A.M., having made the last ten miles of the dis- 
tance in three hours. The regiment was placed in position 
on the field near the left centre of the line, where it re- 
mained till about two o'clock, when the brigade was moved 
to the front. Between three and four o'clock three com- 
panies — A, B, and H — of the Fifth, under Capts. Waken- 
shaw and Generous, were deployed as skirmishers, and 
moved forward across a ravine, up a steep, rooky hillside, 
and through an open wood to the edge of a wheat-field ; 
the remainder of the regiment moving up over the same 
ground to a position partly sheltered behind trees and 
rocks. Soon a battery opened on them directly in front, 
but soon changed position about one hundred rods farther 
to the left and again opened, but soon ceased firing, when 
a heavy body of Confederate infantry moved out in close 
column from the cover of the woods, and charged furi- 
ously with the peculiar rebel yell. They were received 
with a fire which drove back their first line, but they re- 
formed and again charged with greater desperation than 
before. Simultaneously the enemy charged also on the 
centre and drove it back, thus exposing that part of the 
line in which was the Fifth Michigan to a murderous cross- 
fire and the danger of being assaulted in flank. This cir- 
cumstance, with the furious charge in front, compelled the 
regiment and its brigade to fall back for nearly half a mile, 
which they did in good order, and fighting over every rod 
of the lost ground. Soon after this the regiment was re- 
lieved by another, and was not again engaged, though the 
battle continued till darkness closed the carnage of the day. 
The Fifth had been engaged less than one hour, but in that 
brief time it had lost one hundred and five men killed and 
wounded, and five missing. On the 4th of July it was 
held in reserve and not engaged, except slightly in skirm- 
ishing. In the evening of that day the Confederate retreat 
commenced. 

The regiment moved from Gettysburg with other troops 
in pursuit of the retiring enemy to Williamsport, on the 
upper Potomac, and afterwards, the pursuit having been 
abandoned, marched down the river to Berlin, crossed from 
that point into Virginia, and moved by way of Manassas 
Gap to a beautiful camp at Fauquier White Sulphur 
Springs, where and in that locality it remained until the 
16th of August, when orders were received for the Fifth 
and Third Michigan Regiments to report at Alexandria, 
Va. The movement ordered was a mysterious one, and all 
kinds of surmises were indulged in by officers and men as 
to their probable ultimate destination. 

The Fifth Regiment embarked at Alexandria, August 
22d, on board the ocean steamer " Baltic,'' which had also 
on board four other regiments of the " Ohio brigade," to 
which the Fifth was at that time temporarily attached. The 
ship moved down the Potomac early in the morning of the 
23d, but had only proceeded as far as Matthias Point when 
she grounded on a sand-bar, and remained fast in that position 
for four days. By removing the anchor, three hundred 



FIFTH INFANTRY. 



49 



tons of coal, and two regiments, and with the assistance of 
five tug-boats, she at last got afloat and moved down the 
river and through Chesapeake Bay to the ocean, where she 
turned northward towards her destination (which was the 
city of New York), and arrived there on the 30th. The 
troops, which had been sent here to assist in quelling the 
draft riots, if necessary, were disembarked on Governor's 
Island. The Third Michigan had preceded the Fifth by 
another vessel, and these two regiments were now ordered 
to proceed up the Hudson lliver to Troy. They embarked 
on river steamers, reaching Troy the next morning. They 
were first quartered at the armory, a day or two later at 
the court-house, and finally, on the 5th of September, they 
were removed to the Fair-Grounds. The Trojans were 
very much surprised at seeing two Michigan regiments in 
their streets, but they received them most hospitably, so 
that the men of the Fifth counted their stay at Troy among 
the most pleasant of all their war experiences. No duty be- 
yond that of the camp and the drill-ground was required 
of the regiment during its sojourn at Troy, and the neces- 
sity for its presence there having passed it left on Sunday 
evening, September 13th, for New York by steamer, and 
arriving there in the following morning, left immediately 
by railroad for Washington under orders to rejoin the Army 
of the Potomac. It arrived at Washington in the night of 
September 15th, and three days later proceeded to Alex- 
andria, whence, alter a stop of one day, it was moved to 
Fairfax Station, and from there to the camp of its old bri- 
gade, between that place and Culpeper. The brigade was 
the Third of the First Division, Third Corps, Army of the 
Potomac. 

On the 17th of November the regiment moved to the 
Rappahannock River, crossed at Kelly's Ford, and soon 
after moved to near Brandy Station, occupying a deserted 
camp of the enemy. On the 26th it crossed the Rapidan 
with the forces which were moving to Mine Run. Taking 
part in that expedition, it was engaged at Locust Grove on 
the 27th, and there lost several killed and wounded. It 
reached the front of the enemy's works at Mine Run, where 
for thirty-six hours it remained in support of a battery. 
From Mine Run the Fifth fell back with the army, and 
again occupied its camp at Brandy Station, which became 
its winter quarters until the 28th, when (the requisite num- 
ber of re-enlistments having been obtained) it left for 
Michigan on veteran furlough. It arrived on the 4th of 
January at Detroit, which was designated as the rendez- 
vous, and then its members entered upon a brief period of 
freedom and enjoyment with their families and friends. 

Having been considerably augmented by recruiting 
during its stay in Michigan, the Fifth Regiment, composed 
of veterans and recruits, left Detroit on the 10th of Feb- 
ruary, 1864, and proceeding by way of Washington, reached 
Brandy Station in the evening of the 17th, and marched 
four miles northwest to camp, and took position with its old 
command in the Army of the Potomac. In the latter part 
of March a general order was issued dissolving the First 
and Third Corps, and consolidating their troops with those 
of the Second, Fifth, and Sixth Corps. The First and 
Second Divisions of the Third Corps were transferred to the 
Second Corps, and made to constitute its Third Division. 
7 



The Third Division of the old corps was transferred to the 
Sixth Corps.* " Thus," wrote a member of the Fifth 
Regiment, — A. K. Sweet, of Detroit, — " was wiped out of 
existence the gallant old Third Corps, with which our for- 
tunes had been so long associated, and of which we formed 
a part. Its glorious name, which we in some small degree 
had helped to make illustrious, and in which we justly felt 
a soldier's pride, became one of the things that were. The 
corps had long been a mere skeleton of its former self 
The old Third Division had been consolidated with the 
First and Second immediately after the battle of Gettys- 
burg, and a new division of ten thousand fresh troops, 
under command of Gen. French, added. The old com- 
manders of heroic fame, whom the men had learned to 
love and respect, had gone, and a stranger filled the place 
of command made glorious by Heintzelman and Hooker. 
Still the glorious associations that clustered around the 
name gave it a tender place in our hearts, and when at last 
its death-knell struck, and the men so long associated in a 
common history of the toil and triumph separated to their 
various destinations, many a brave fellow felt a twinge of 
sorrow and pain like that which pierces the heart as we 
stand at the grave of a friend, and the cold clods of the 
valley close over the dear face and shut it from our sight 
forever. . . . 

" On the 31st of March we broke camp and marched to 
the south side of the railroad in the vicinity of Brandy 
Station, and took up our new quarters in the Second 
Brigade, Third Division, and Second Corps. The men 
were allowed to retain the diamond badge, — a deference to 
their feelings which was thankfully appreciated. The sense 
of pain and disgrace slowly passed away as we became 
better acquainted with our new companions in arms, for 
they were as fine a corps of men as the Army of the Po- 
tomac or any other in the world could boast, and we were 
now under command of a general of brilliant abilities and 
most intrepid bravery, Gen. W. S. Hancock. Gen. D. B. 
Birney, our old brigade and division commander, was in 
command of the division. We soon began to feel at home 
in our new relations, and with the old red diamond to re- 
mind us of the glorious past, we were soon ready as ever to 
do and dare for the honor of the old flag and the success of 
the common cause. 

"... Towards the last of April nature had begun to 
spread her rich garniture of green over hill and plain, and 
soft gales from Southland fanned us with the first delicious 
breath of spring. The warm sunshine, as May approached, 
soon dried up the mud from the spring rains, and the roads 
were once more in a condition for the movement of army 
trains. On every hand the sure indications of an early 
opening of field operations were apparent. A few days of 
bustle and preparation and the last finishing touches were 
complete. A week of comparative quiet followed, like the 
lull that precedes the bursting of the storm, and then, on the 
evening of the 3d of May, the first move in what will go down 
to history as the great campaign of the war commenced. No 
drum-beat or bugle-note sounds a warning, but silently as 



* The Fifth Regiment at this time was only three hundred and 
ninety strong, including twenty-four sick. 



50 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



spectres in a dream, regiments, brigades, and divisions leave 
their camps and fall into line. Already the vanguard is on 
the march, and the dull tramp, tramp, comes from out the 
darkness mingled with the low rumbling of artillery and 
baggage trains. The camp-fires, as they light up the scene 
with their fitful glare, reveal the faces of the men as they 
stand leaning on their guns awaiting their turn to fall into 
the line of march. They have little time to wait, for every- 
thing moves with clock-like precision, and the long lines 
follow each other in quick succession and disappear in the 
darkness, until at last what was a few hours before a vast 
city of snowy tents, with streets thronging with busy life, 
is now one vast tenantless expanse of smouldering camp- 
fires, over which broods the midnight stillness, unbroken 
save by the echoes that come fainter and fainter from the 
distant footsteps of the receding hosts. 

" The morning finds us still on the march and nearing 
the Rapidan, which we cross without opposition at Ely's 
Ford, about nine A.M. We rest half an hour on the heights 
beyond, from which we enjoy a fine view of the surround- 
ing country, — a picturesque succession of hill and plain, 
with its distant background of mountains against the west- 
ern horizon. 

" The men, having marched all night with only a short 
respite at sunrise for cofl"ee and ' hard tack,' began to feel 
the need of rest and sleep. But the march is soon re- 
sumed and pushed forward at a rapid pace. The weather 
is uncommonly hot for the time of year, and the narrow 
forest-roads, walled in on either side by a dense under- 
growth, afforded scarce a breath of cooling air. It was the 
first march of the season, and the men had not become 
hardened to fatigue by exposure. But tired, sleepy, and 
footsore, we hobbled on as best we could until about two 
P.M , when we arrived on the old battle-ground of Chaucel- 
lorsville and halted for the rest of the day. 

" How familiar looks every object around ! There is the 
old Chancellorsville House, where Gen. Hooker had his 
headquarters. But only the roofless, blackened walls re- 
main ; the rest was destroyed by fire during the battle. 
Farther on is the little country cemetery, with its white 
fence and the white farm-house standing near, around 
which raged the fiercest tide of battle on that lovely Sab- 
bath morning in May. There is the field hard by where 
the regiment lay for two hours or more the target for a 
rebel battery. Just across that low swale, a little to the 
left, is the open field where that battery stood, and on 
which, the night before, Birney's division formed for the 
midnight charge; and there, too, is the thick hedge of 
cedars bordering the field, through which we tore our way 
to the charge, making night hideous with yell and whoop 
and wild uproar, as if Pandemonium had turned loose all 
its fiends at once. 

" There is the old rifle-pit along the edge of the swale 
still standing, and the narrow belt of open timber between 
it and the plank-road, where the regiment rallied after the 
uproar had subsided, and, in blissful ignorance of our im- 
minent danger, passed the remainder of the night in sleep. 
And here on the same ground and almost the identical spot 
we again bivouac for the night." 

The men of the Fifth had started on the campaign each 



carrying five days' rations, and sixty rounds of ammunition. 
In the morning of the 5th of May the regiment left its 
bivouac at Chancellorsville, and moved on the road leadino* 
to Orange Court-House. The enemy was met, and a des- 
perate battle ensued. On the morning of the 6th the regi- 
ment was again engaged, making a successful charge on the 
rebel works, capturing a stand of colors and thirteen hun- 
dred prisoners, and suffering in this, as in the fight of the 
previous day, a heavy loss in killed and wounded. By the 
loss of Col. Pulford and Maj. Matthews (both severely 
wounded in the fight of the 5th of May, the command of 
the regiment had devolved on Capt. Wakenshaw. In the 
battle of the 6th he also fell, severely wounded, losing his 
right arm. 

The Fifth was again engaged with the enemy on the 8th 
of May, and lay under a heavy artillery fire until noon of 
the 10th. It fought again on the 11th, and (with the rem- 
nant of the Third Michigan, which was acting with it) 
took part in the charge on the enemy's works at Spottsyl- 
vania Court-House on the 12th. In this charge it cap- 
tured two stands of the rebel colors, and was highly com- 
plimented for gallant conduct both by Gen. Hancock and 
Gen. Meade. 

From Spottaylvania it moved forward by forced marches, 
and, on the 23d of May, took part in the assault of the 
works on the north bank of the North Anna River, at 
Jericho Bridge ; the regiment carried them, captured a 
number of prisoners, and drove the rebel force across the 
river. In the afternoon of the 24th the regiment crossed 
the river under a very heavy artillery fire, and again drove 
the enemy from his position. On the 27th it recrossed the 
North Anna and marched to the Pamunkey River, which 
it crossed the same day. From the 28lh to the 31st of 
May the wearied and hungry men worked day and night 
throwing up fortifications, and on the latter date the regi- 
ment took part in a charge upon a line of works, which 
they gallantly carried. Marching from the Pamunkey. it 
reached Cold Harbor on the 5th of June, and immediately 
commenced the erection of earthworks. It remained here 
a week, and during that time the Third Michigan Infantry 
(having become reduced to a mere skeleton, and the term 
of service of a large part of its men having expired) was 
consolidated with the Fifth under the following field-order 
of the corps commander, viz. : 

"Headquarters Secoxd Army Corps, 

„ . , „ "June 10, 1864. 

" k>pecial Orders. 

(Extract.) 

" The term of service of the Third Michigan Volunteers 
having expired, that regiment, with the exception of re- 
enlisted men or such as have joined since date of original 
organization, and. such oflicers as are hereafler designated 
to be retained, will at once proceed to Michigan, and report 
to the Superintendent of Recruiting for that State, for the 
purpose of being discharged. Descriptive lists must accom.- 
pany all men sent home. The remaining officers and men 
of the regiment will be formed into a battalion of four com- 
panies, to be attached to the Fifth Michigan Veteran Vol- 
unteers, which regiment will be at once consolidated into 
six companies, — and all officers not hereinafter designated 



FIFTH INFANTRY. 



51 



to be retained will be mustered out of service. The follow- 
ing officers will be retained in the above organization : 

" Third Michigan Regiment. — Colonel B. R. Pierce, 
Captain Simon Brennan, Captain Daniel S. Root, Captain 
Thomas Tate, Lieutenant Daniel Converse, Lieutenant John 
F. McGrinley, First Lieutenant Jerome B. Ten Eyck, First 
Lieutenant Charles A. Price. 

" Fifth Michigan Regiment. — Major S. S. Matthews, 
Surgeon Henry F. Lyster, Assistant Surgeon P. B. Ross, 
Adjutant George W. Waldron, Regimental Quartermaster 
Hudson B. Blackman, Captain William Wakenshaw, Cap- 
tain Charles M. Gregory, Captain James W. Colville, Cap- 
tain Amos A. Rouse, Captain Edgar H. Shook, Captain 
James 0. GunsoUy, First Lieutenant Walter Knox, First 
Lieutenant John Braden, First Lieutenant Andrew Ham- 
lin, Second Lieutenant George B. Dudley, Second Lieu- 
tenant S. S. Lyon. 

" This order is subject to the approval of higher au- 
thority. 

"By command of Major-General Hancock. 

(Signed) " Francis A. Walker, 

" Assistant Adjutant- General." 

The order was confirmed by the War Department on the 
13th of June. 

The Fifth left Cold Harbor June 12th, crossed the 
Chickahominy at Long Bridge on the same day, reached 
Harrison's Landing on the 13th, crossed the James River 
on the 14th, and arrived in front of Petersburg late in the 
night of the 15th. On the following day, towards evening, 
it was engaged with the enemy, and carried the assaulted 
line of works. 

During all the memorable but monotonous siege of Peters- 
burg, from the time when the regiment reached the front of 
that stronghold until the close of the great drama of the 
Rebellion, the service of the Fifth Michigan embraced a 
series of movements, changes of position, labors on fortifi- 
cations, picket and railroad duty, life in. the trenches, 
marchings, skirmishes, and battles, which it would be too 
tedious to follow or to enumerate. In its assaults upon the 
works in front of Petersburg, during the campaign of 1864, 
its loss was fifteen killed, fifty-two wounded, and nineteen 
•missing,— total, eighty-six. It fought at Deep Bottom, 
July 27th, 28th, with a loss of twelve wounded, and at 
Boydton Plank-Road, October 27th, losing nine killed, 
fifty-two wounded, and forty-three missing. It was also 
engaged at Strawberry Plains, August 14th to 17th, and at 
Poplar Spring Church on the 30th of September. During 
the year following the commencement of the Mine Run ex- 
pedition, in November, 1863, the total loss of the regiment, 
in killed, wounded, and missing, was five hundred and forty- 
nine. 

From October, 1864, to the middle of January, 1865 
the Fifth occupied Fort Davis, in the front line of works 
at Petersburg. On the 15th of January it formed a part 
of the force with which Gen. Warren made his raid south- 
ward to the Weldon Railroad ; and after its return from 
that expedition was posted for about two weeks at Hum- 
phrey's Station, and then moved back to the front of 
Petersburg, and remained there until the 25th of March, 



when it moved with other forces to Hatcher's Run, and 
took part in the assault on the works at that place, sustain- 
ing the weight of a heavy engagement for four hours. In 
the final assault on Petersburg the Fifth took part, and is 
said to have been the first to plant its colors on the cap- 
tured works. On the 6th of April the regiment with its 
brigade attacked the retreating enemy at Sailor's Creek, 
and captured a stand of colors and a large number of pris- 
oners. The enemy being followed closely by the brigade 
on the 7th and 8th of April, the Fifth Regiment, acting 
as flankers and skirmishers, became engaged at New Store, 
but with slight loss. And finally, on the 9th, it was present 
in the front, in line of battle, at the surrender of the Con- 
federate army by Gen. Lee. It lay at Clover Hill, near 
the place of surrender, until the 13th, when it moved back 
to Burkeville, and on the 1st of May started on the march 
to Washington by way of Richmond. 

The regiment took its place in the great review of the 
Army of the Potomac, at Washington, May 23d, and re- 
mained in the vicinity of the city until June 10th, when 
it left for the West, proceeding by the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad to Parkersburg, W. Va., and thence by steamer 
on the Ohio to Louisville, which place it reached on the 
14th. Moving to Jeffersonville, on the north side of the 
Ohio, it remained there until July 4th, when it was nius- 
ered out of the service as a regiment, and on the 6th left 
by railroad for Detroit, where it arrived on the 8th, and 
where, on the 17th of July, 1865, the men of the Fighting 
Fifth received their pay and discharge. 

OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE FIFTH FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNT?. 

Field and Staff. 
iBt Lieut, and Q.M. William II. Alien, Byron ; com. Aug. 28, 186-1 ; bvt. capt. 

U. S. VolB , April 9, 1865, " for gallant and meritorious services during 

recent campaigns terminating in tlie surrender of the rebel army under 

Gen. Robert E. Lee;" must, out July 6, 1866. 
Non-CommuBUmed Slaff. 
Hosp. Steward William H. Allen, Eyron ; veteran, enl. Dec. 10, 1863 ; pro. to 2d 

lieut. Co. D, June 10, 1864. 
Com.-Sorgt. Geo. A. Winans, Middlebury ; pro. to 1st lieut. Co H, June 10, 1804. 

Company A. 
Samuel M. Atkins, died in action at Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862. 
Edward Burgoy no, disoli. for disability, Dec. 4, 1864. 
David Hines, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 16, 1863. 
John Little, veteran ; enl. Dec. 16, 1803. 
Isaac Lovfjoy, veteran ; must, out July 21, 1865. 

Company S. * 

Abraham Vandemark, must, out July 6, 1865. 

Company C. 
John W. Cook, must, out May 24, 1865. 

Company D. 
Capt. James 0. Gunsolly, Owosso, com. June 25, 1863 ; disch. at end of service, 

Oct. 15, 1864. 
2d Lieut. William H. Allen, Byron ; com. June 10, 1864 ; pro. Ist lieut. and q.m. 
Edgar Calkins, died of disease at Washington, D. C, May 27, 1863. 
Anthony Clees, disch. by order. May 11, 1866. 
Charles Condon, disch. for disability, Aug. 20, 1862. 
John Holcomli, disch. at end of service, Aug. 27, 1864. 
Hiram Johnson, disch. for disability, Jan. 19, 1863. 
David Johnson, must, out June 15, 1865. 
Patrick Keveny, must, out June 15, 1865. 
William Kintera, disch. at end of service, Aug. 27, 1864. 
Sylvester Neariiig, died of disease near Falmouth, Va., Nov. 22, 1862. 
Asahel Rust, disch. Aug. 9, 1802. 
James M. Shippey, disch. at end of service, Aug. 27, 1864. 

Company F. 
Joseph H. Bennett, disch. for disability, Nov. 30, 1861. 
Andrew Bliss, disch. for disability, April 11, 1802. 



52 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Ashley B. Clark, disch. for disability, Aug. 21, 1862. 

Robert Campbell, disch. for disability, Aug. 15, 1862. 

Thomaa Eglin, died of wounds, July 14, 1862. 

Daniel Hurley, diach. for disability, July, 18G2. 

BradFord F. Smith, died of disease, Oct. 18, 1861. 

WlHiam K. Whitney, died of disease at Camp Michigan, Feb. 24, 1862. 

Cornpany G. 
Otis B. Fuller, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. 

Company H. 
Capt, Louis B. Quackenbush, Owosso; com. June 19, 1861 ; killed in battle of 

Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862; buried in Seven Pines National Cemetery, 

Va. 
Capt. William Wakenshaw, Owosso; com. June 1, 1862; let lieut., June 19, 

1861 : wounded May 6, 1864 ; capt. in Yet. Res. Corps, Nov. 7, 1864. 
Ist Lieut. Wm. K. Tillotson, Owoaso; com. June 1, 1862; 2d lient., June 19, 

1861 ; wounded at Williamsburg, Va., May o, 1862 ; disch. for services in 

Vet. Res. G>rps, June 30, 1863. 
l8t Lieut. James 0. Guusolly, Owosso; com. July 12,1862; 2d lieut., June 1, 

1862 (sergt.) ; pro. to capt., Co. D. 
1st Liout Geo. A. Winans, Middlebury ; com. June 10, 1864 ; pro. to capt. and 

must, out, July 5, 1865. 
1st Lieut. David B. Wyker, Owosso ; com. June 29, 1863 ; 2d lieut., June 1, 1862 ; 

died in action at Germania Ford, Nov, 27, 1863. 
2d Lieut. John Shontz, Byron ; com. Nov. 7, 1864 ; 2d lieut., Oct. 1, 1864 ; must. 

out July 5, 1865. 
Sergt. Hiram L. Chapman, enl. Aug. 28, 1861; disch. for disability, April 10, 

1862. 
Sergt. Morton Gregory, enl. Aug. 28, 1861 ; disch. fur disability, Dec. 10, 1861. 
Sergt. David B. Wyker, enl. Aug. 28, 1861 ; pro. to 2d lieut, June 17, 1862 ; Ist 

lieut., Juno 29, 1863 ; killed at Germania Ford, Nov. 27, 1863. 
Sergt. John Shontz, enl. Aug. 28, 1861; pro. to 2d lieut. 

Sergt. Lucien A. Chase, enl. Aug. 28, 1861 ; disch. for disability, April 14, 1862. 
Sergt. Washington Howard, enl. Aug. 28,1861; died of disease, Feb. 22,1862. 
Corp. William Bowles, enl. Aug. 28, 1861; trans, to Inv. Corps; disch, Aug. 27, 

1864. 
Corp. James 0. Gunsolly, enl. Aug. 28, 1861 ; pro. to 2d lieut. 
Corp. Orpheus B. Church, enl. Aug. 28, 1861 ; disch, for disability. 
Corp. Alpha A. Carr, enl. Aug. 28, 1861 ; disch. for disability. 
Corp. George A. Winans, enl. Aug. 28, 1861 ; pro. to com.-sergt. 
Corp. Charles Ormsby, died of disease at Fortress Monroe, April 10, 1862. 
Witgoner Jerome Trim, disch. for disability, Nov. 18, 1862. 
John C. Adams, disch, for disability, July 22, 1862, 
Chauncey W. Anible, disch. for disability, Sept. 30, 1862. 
Wm. H. Borst, disch. for disability, Nov. 27, 1862. 
John Beebe, veteran, died June 16, 1864. 

Augustus Breekell, died of disease at Camp Pitcher, Dec. 27 , 1862. 
Franklin S. Church, died of disease at Alexandria, Jan. 11, 1862. 
Charles H. Collier, died of wounds, May 8, 1864. 
Jeremiah Cassidy, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. 
William Cummings, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863; diach. by order, June 3, 1865. 
Levi Clark, veterau, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; disch. fur disability, Jan. 15, 1865. 
Egbert Campbell, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 18G5. 
Alfred B. Ciane, veteran, pnl. Dec. 15, 1863; must, out, July 5, 1865. 
Charles Colman, must, out May 30, 1865. 
Marcius S. Crawford, disch. for disability, Oct. 8, 1862. 
Thomas M. Clay, disch. for disability, Oct. 8, 1862. 
John W. Close, disch. for disability, Oct. 8, 1862. 

Benjamin C. Cook, disch. for disability by reason of wounds, Oct. 8,1862. 
John Q. A. Cook, disch. for disability, Dec. 4, 1862. 
James Carmody, disch. for disability, Sept. 24, 1862. 
Isaac Felter, wounded at battle of Wildernows. 
Amos Finch, disch. for disability, Slay 11, 1862. 
Clark Fineout, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Dwight D. Gibbs, disch. for disability, Oct. 8, 1862. 
Wm. H. Harrington, disch. for disability, Feb. 20, 1863. 
Melvin Houghtelin, disch. for disability, Aug. 22, 1862. 
Martin N. Halstead, died in action at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. 
Myron E. Halstead, died in action at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. 
Allen Herrington, died of wounds, May 27, 1864. 
William H. Herrington, wounded in battle of the Wilderness. 
Michael Helms, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863. 
William F. Herring, died May 3, 1863. 
Christopher Haynes, killed in battle of Wilderness. 
William A. Hall, veteran, eiil. Dec. 15, 1863; died in action at Wilderness, Va., 

May 5, 1864. 
Oscar F. Halstead, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863; disch. by order, Oct. 21, 1864. 
Henry Herrick, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; disch. by order, Feb. 4, 1865. 
George W, Harris, veteran, enl. Dec, 15, 1863 ; must, out July 1 0, 1865, 
Stephen M. Hammond, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863; muat. out July 5, 1865. 
Benjamin Hoag, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 18ti5. 
Richard Haley, must, out May 31, 1865. 
Ebenezer M. Isham, diach. at (nd of service, Aug. 27, 1864. 
Joel M. Jackson, disch. for disability, Oct, 2, 1865. 
Jefferson Kinney, disch. for disability, May 22, 1864. 
Henry A. Keyes, disch. for disability. 
John K. Kelly, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. 



John D. Keye.q, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1865. 

John V. Lindsay, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1805. 

Isaac Lovejoy, wounded at battle of Wilderness, May, 1864. 

Thomas Lawrence, disch. for disability, Nov. 20, 1862. 

Edgar M. Leonard, disch. for disability (loss of arm at Gettysburg), Oct. 14, 

1863. 
Daniel Martindale, disch. for disability, July 22, 1862. 
Orlando Mataon, killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. 
William F. McDivit, disch. for disability, May 1, 1862. 
Lyman McCarthy, disch. for disability, Dec. 5, 1862. 
Peter McLean, disch. for disability, Sept. 25, 1862, 
Alexander McDivit, died of disesise at Yorktowu, Va.. May 6, 1862. 
Edward McNeal, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., July 25, 1862. 
Thomas Murlin, died of disea.se at Alexandria, Va., Oct. 28, 1862. 
Amos Moore, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; died of disease near Petersburg, Va., 

Oct. 22, 1864. 
Jacob Manshaw, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863; disch. by order, Oct. 21, 1804. 
Merriman Morehouse, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; died of Qisease at Salisbury, 

N. C, April 27, 1863. 
Milton Mattoon, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
William Murlin, must, out May 31, 1865. 
William Munshawee, must, out May 25, 1865. 

Herman T. Newman, veterau, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Theodore Odell, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; disch. for disability, May 23, 1865. 
Andrew J. Patterson, disch. for disability, Dec. 10, 1861. 
John M. Rubs, wounded at battle of Wilderness, May, 1864. 
James N. Peck, died of disease, Feb. 8, 1862. 

William H. H, Shulters, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Nov. 6, 1862. 
Charles C. Scott, died of disease, April 12, 1862. 
Abram K. Sweet, must, out May 31, 1865. 

George A. Shelley, wounded at battle of the Wilderness, May, 1864. 
Samuel A. SutlierUnd, disch. for disability. May 25, 1865. 
Oren S. Skinner, disch. for disability. 
James Shulters, disch. for disability, Nov. 11, 1862. 
William Taylor, disch. for disability, Oct, 8, 1862. 

Howard Worthington, died of disease at Camp Michigan, Feb. 24, 1862. 
John Weis, died of disease, Jan. 18, 1863, 
Marcus Wakeman, died of wounds, April 25, 1865, 
Patrick Waters, pro. to sergt.; wounded at Wilderness, May, 1864; veteran, 

eul. Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1865. 

CLINTON COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE FIFTH INFANTRY. 
Company C. 
Frederick L. Buell, must, out July 5, 1865. 
Chandler Ferguson, disch. for disability, June 20, 1862. 
David Goodrich, died of disease at Washington, Sept. 25, 1861, 
Wm. H. Goodrich, must, out July 5, 1865, 
Vfilorous Green, disch. for disability, Jan. 19, 1863. 
Ortun B. Green, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 16, 1864. 
Morritt Howe, died in battle at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. 
Clinton McMurtry, St. John's. 

Jos. Moi'ton, St. Juhn^s; disch. for disability, Aug. 10, 1862. 
Alvin McGowaii, disch, for disability, Aug. 27, 1862. 
Edwin Peny, disch. at end of service, Aug, 28, 1865, 
Uiiah G. Tucker, died in action at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862. 
Jubn S. Weatlierwax, died in action at Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Geo. E. Webb, Olive ; disch. for disability, March 18, 1863. 
Nathaniel D. Wickbam, disch. at end of service, Aug. 28, 1864. 

Company D. 
Elisha A. Elwood, must, out May 13,1865. 
Edwin Forman, disch. for disability, June 20, 1862. 
James A. Fornian, disch. for disability, March 19, 1863. 
David Frost, died of disease at Camp Michigan, Dec. 27, 1861. 
John D. Ingall^, veteran, enl. Dec. 15, 1863; must, out July 5, 1805. 
Ira P. Jones, disch. by order, Oct. 6, 1862. 
Samuel Lee, disch. for disability, Feb. 7, 1863. 
Charles B. Laud, must, out July 5, 1865. 
Alson H. Reed, disch. for disability, Aug. 9, 1862. 
William Reed, disch. at end of service, Aug. 27, 1865. 
Peleg Sweet, disch. for disability, Jan. 8, 1863. 
Robert K. Smith, must, out May 13, 1865. 

Nathaniel S. Wells, veteran, enl, Dec. 15, 1863 ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
Henry C. Williams, disch. by order. 
Daniel G. Wade, disch. at end of service, Sept. 5, 1864. 

Company F. 
Ist Lieut. Joshua R. Benson, Riley ; com. Nov. 9, 1864, 2d liout. ; Sept. 18, 1864, 
sergt. ; must, out July 5, 1865. 

Company B. 
Russell N. Bagley, disch. for disability, Jan. 13, 1863, 
Almeron Daniels, disch. for disability, May 31, 1865, 
Daniel L. Harrington, died of disease, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Nathan S. Ross, died in action at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. 

Cojr^ani/ I. 
Alexander Parks, disch, for disability, Sept. 3, 1864. 



EIGHTH INFANTRY. 



53 



CHAPTER VII. 



EIGHTH INFANTRY. 



Organization of the Eighth at Camp Anderson— The Port Royal Ex- 
pedition — Battles of Port Royal Ferry and Wilmington Island- 
Terrible Conflict at Seceesionville — Campaign under Gen. Pope — 
South Mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg — Campaigns in 
Kentucky, Mississippi, and East Tennessee — Veteran Re enlist- 
ment and Return to the Army of the Potomac — The Wilderness 
and Petersburg — The Eighth leads the Union Column into the 
City — End of Service and Muster Out. 

The Eighth Regiment of Michigan Infantry was or- 
ganized in the summer and fall of 1861 by Col. William 
M. Fenton, who became its commander, and led it bravely 
on many bloody fields. One company of this regiment was 
composed principally of Clinton County men, and another 
was in the same manner distinctively a Shiawassee com- 
pany. Volunteers from these counties were also found in 
the ranks of five of its other companies. 

The Clinton company contained the earliest enlistments 
that were made in that county, dating as early as May 1st, 
when Captain Richard Baylis commenced recruiting for 
a company to join the Second Infantry. It was called 
the " Clinton Rangers," and was filled in about two weeks, 
but was after all too late for acceptance in the Second, 
and this fact caused the announcement to be made, on the 
17th of May, that " the Clinton Rangers are hereby dis- 
banded.'' Afterwards, however, most of the " Rangers" 
volunteered in other companies, principally in the " St. 
John's Union Guard," which was organized at Clinton 
Hall, St. John's, June 22d, by the enrollment of fifty names 
of volunteers, and the choice of the following ofiicers of 
the company, viz. : Oliver L. Spaulding, Captain ; W. H. 
Paine, First Lieutenant; Charles F. Smith, Second Lieu- 
tenant ; William T. Magoffin, W. Ely Lewis, J. W. Brad- 
nor, N. T. Jones, and A. B. Nourse, Sergeants; and An- 
thony Cook, Luther Pratt, Edwin Hewett, and Aaron B. 
Taylor, Corporals. A " board of directors" was also chosen, 
composed of Charles Kipp, Henry Walbridge, Timothy 
Baker, Stephen J. Wright, and William Sickels. The 
company met for drill under these ofiicers, but was soon 
afterwards reorganized as the " St. John's Volunteers," un- 
der Capt. Gilbert E. Pratt and 1st Lieut. W. Ely Lewis, 
and having been augmented by a number of volunteers 
from Gratiot County, was assigned to duty with the Eighth 
Infantry, and designated as Company B of that regiment. 

The Shiawassee County company of the Eighth was re- 
cruited and organized in August, 1861, under Capt. J. L. 
Quackenbush, of Owosso, and 1st Lieut. Albert Bainbridge, 
of Byron, in the expectation that it would be joined to the 
Ninth or Tenth Regiment. It was, however, assigned to 
duty with the Eighth, and designated in the organization 
of that regiment as Company I. 

The Eighth Infantry was rendezvoused at " Camp An- 
derson," Grand Rapids, on the 21st of August. There it 
remained for four weeks, engaged in drill, organization, and 
the filling of its ranks to the maximum number. On the 
18th of September it moved to Detroit, and thence to a 
camp at Fort Wayne, below the city, where, on the 23d, it 
was mustered into the United States service for three years 
by Capt. H. R. Mizner, U.S.A., its strength when mus- 



tered being nine hundred. Its field-officers, besides Col. 
Fenton, were Lieut. -Col. Frank Graves and Maj. Amasa 
B.. Watson. 

Orders for the departure of the regiment were received 
on the 26th of September, and on Friday (the 27th) it 
embarked on the steamers " Ocean'' and " May Queen," and 
moved down the river and lake, arriving at Cleveland the 
following morning. From there it moved by railroad 
through Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, and Baltimore to Wash- 
ington, where it arrived on the 30th, and encamped on 
Meridian Hill, its camp being named " Camp Williams." 
In due time the men received arms and equipments, and on 
the 9th of October the regiment moved to Annapolis, Md., 
and there occupied the grounds of the Naval Academy. 
On the 19th of October it was ordered to embark on board 
the ocean-steamer " Vanderbilt," then lying at Annapolis. 
It was evidently bound on some distant expedition, but its 
destination and object were unknown, and were matters of 
endless surmise and speculation among the officers and men 
during the passage down the Chesapeake. On the " Van- 
derbilt" with the Eighth was the Seventy-ninth New York 
Regiment, called the " Highlanders," and neither regiment 
appeared to be very favorably impressed with the appearance 
or presence of the other. One who was present on board the 
ship at that time wrote afterwards concerning this, as follows : 
" The men of the Eighth Michigan and Seventy-ninth New 
York looked distrustfully on each other. The ship was 
rather uncomfortably crowded, having eighteen hundred 
persons on board, and every effort to obtain better storage 
by one party was jealously watched by the other. The 
Eighth regarded the Seventy-ninth as a sot of foreigners 
and sots, and the latter regarded our men as a lot of un- 
drilled bushwhackers, tinged with- verdancy." How long 
this state of feeling continued does not appear, but it is 
certain that there was afterwards developed between them a 
friendship which became absolute affection, — so strong and 
marked that it was proverbial among the different commands 
of the army where, the two regiments were known. 

Upon their arrival at Fortress Monroe they found the 
roadstead crowded with a fieet made up of war-steamers and 
transports filled with troops. This fleet, including the 
" Vanderbilt," went to sea in the morning of October 29ih, 
and the sight was grand and inspiriting. For a time the 
winds favored and the sea was comparatively smooth, but 
afterwards a heavy gale came on in which the vessels were 
scattered, and three or four of them were lost. During 
this time the troops suffered greatly from sea-sickness and 
overcrowding on the transports. The fleet had sailed under 
sealed orders, and its destination was aS yet unknown ex- 
cept to the naval and military commanders. At last the 
storm abated, the vessels one by one returned within sig- 
naling distance of each other, and the low shores of South 
Carolina became visible on the starboard hand. Six days 
(which seemed as many weeks) from the time of its de- 
parture from Fortress Monroe the fleet arrived off' Hilton 
Head, S. C, Nov. 4, 1861. The object of the expedition 
was now apparent, and, with a smoother sea and an enemy 
almost in sight, sea-sickness and dejection gave place to 
buoyant spirits and eager enthusiasm. 

The fleet was composed of fourteen armed vessels, twenty- 



54 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



two first-class steamers, twelve smaller steamers, and twenty- 
six sailing-vessels. The commander of the fleet was Com- 
modore (afterward Admiral) S. F. Dupont, whose flag-ship 
was the splendid steam-frigate " Wabash." The land forces 
consisted of thirteen regiments of volunteers, in three 
brigades, — in all, about eleven thousand men, — under com- 
mand of Gen. T. W. Sherman. The Second Brigade, com- 
posed of the Fiftieth and One Hundredth Pennsylvania, 
Eighth Michigan, and Seventy-ninth New York, was under 
command of Brig.-Gen. Isaac I. Stevens. 

The channel connecting Port Royal harbor with the sea 
was guarded on either side by a strong rebel fortification. 
These were known as Forts Walker and Beauregard, and 
the reduction of these, by the navy, was the first work to 
be done. For three days after their arrival the vessels re- 
mained in quiet, below, as the weather was not considered 
suflSciently favorable for operations; but on the 7th the 
" Wabash" set her signal for battle, and advanced to the 
attack, followed by the other armed ships in their proper 
order. They moved in a circular line, up, past one fort, 
and down, past the other, delivering their tremendous 
broadsides into each as they came abreast of it. With the 
fire from the ships, and the responses from the forts, it was 
almost a continuous volley of artillery, which shook the 
earth and made the very waters tremble. But at length 
the fire of the forts began to slacken, their replies grew 
more and more feeble, and finally the stars and bars above 
their ramparts gave place to the white flag. A little later 
the standard of the Union floated above the captured works 
on both sides of the channel. 

On the following day the Eighth landed at Hilton Head, 
and occupied Fort Walker. On the 17th of December, it 
moved to Beaufort, a place of surpassing beauty, where 
many of the wealthy people of Charleston had, in the old 
days of peace, made their summer residences. It was now 
found deserted by nearly all its inhabitants except negroes. 
The camp at this place was made in a grove of magnificent 
live-oaks, on the public square, which was surrounded on 
all sides by stately mansions. Except on account of the 
losses sustained by the Eighth in the vicinity of Beaufort, 
the stay of the regiment at this place was among the most 
pleasing of all its experiences during its term of service. 
On the 18th, Companies A and F, of the Eighth, were 
sent on a reconnoiteriug expedition to the mainland, across 
Coosaw River, and while engaged in this service, David 
Burns Foote, of Capt. Guild's company, was killed by the 
enemy ; he being the first man of the regiment who fell 
in his country's service. The Eighth, during the time it 
was stationed at Beaufort, was engaged in other reconnois- 
sances, and in picket duty; and detachments occupied 
Grey's Hill, Ladies' Island, Pinckney's Island, Brickyard 
Point, and some of the neighboring plantations. 

The first battle in which the regiment was engaged was 
that of Coosaw River, or Port Royal Ferry, Jan. 1, 1862. 
An official report by Col. Fenton to Gen. Stevens, embracing 
an account of that engagement, is here given : 

"Headquarters Eighth Michigan Regiment, 

"Maislasd, Port Koyal Ferky, Jan. 1, 1862. 

" Brig.-Gen. Stevens : Sir,— I have the honor to re- 
port that in compliance with your order this- regiment was 



safely landed at the Adams House on the mainland, having 
effected the crossing in flatboats from Brickyard Point, 
Port Royal Island, and took up its line of march towards 
the enemy's battery at this place at one o'clock p.m. On 
our approach towards the ferry we were ordered to attack 
(as skirmishers) a masked battery which opened fire on us 
from the right. I immediately detached the first two and 
tenth companies, and directed their march to the left and 
front on the battery, which was followed by four additional 
companies to the right and front. The fire of the battery 
with shells continued on our lines until the skirmishers 
reached the right, when it was turned on them, and on 
their approach right, left, and fuont to within fifty to one 
hundred yards of the enemy's position, a fire of musketry 
was opened upon them. The force of the enemy, as well 
as the battery, was concealed to a considerable extent by 
trees, brush, and underwood, but appeared to consist of two 
mounted howitzers, suppoi'ted by a regiment or more of in- 
fantry and some cavalry. The skirmishers were measurably 
protected by underbrush and furrows, and continued their 
fire upon the enemy, which was returned by volleys of mus- 
ketry and shells from the battery. Our fire was well di- 
rected, and seemed to be efiective. One mounted officer 
who seemed to be very active, was seen to fall from his 
horse, at which the troops on the enemy's right were 
thrown into confusion. Their position seemed to be 
changing to the rear, and as our skirmishers were called 
off and the regiment formed in line the enemy's fire ceased. 
The regiment was then marched to its position in line of 
battle in rear of the fort at this point. 

" Lieut.-Col. Graves led the left and Maj. Watson the 
right of the skirmishers. The major, in leading on the 
line, received a severe fiesh wound in the leg. I have to 
report that officers and men behaved with admirable bravery 
and coolness. The loss of the enemy from the well-directed 
fire of our skirmishers cannot bo less than forty. Our loss 
is seven wounded, two missing. A list is appended. I have 
the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"Wm. M. Fenton, 
" Col. Eighth Michigan Regiment." 

Of the three companies which made the attack, Capt. 
Pratt's company (" B," known in the regiment as the 
" Clinton Boys") had the right of the line. The left of 
this company was joined by the right of " A" company, 
and the left of the line was held by Company K. The 
affair of Port Royal Ferry, although not a great battle, 
was extremely trying to the qualities of raw troops, as 
they then were, but they went through it with the same 
cool and admirable bravery which they afterwards exhibited 
on many bloodier fields. Capt. Pratt's company sustained 
no loss in killed, but it had a number wounded, among 
whom were James Dodge, L. L. Warner, Henry 0. Brown, 
Frederick Miller, and Amos Wetherby, acting orderly- 
sergeant. 

During the months of January, February, and March 
the regiment was employed in drill and picket duty, but 
always ready to respond to marching orders, which were 
constantly expected, and were finally received on the 9th 
of April, when the Eighth left Beaufort and moved to 



EIGHTH INFANTRY. 



55 



Tybee Island, Ga., where it was reported to Gen. Q. A. 
Gillmore, commanding the operations against Savannah. It 
was present (but not engaged) at the bombardment of Fort 
Pulaski, on the 10th and 11th, as also at the surrender of 
that formidable work. 

On the 16th of April seven companies of the regiment, 
each about forty strong, and including the Clinton and 
Shiawassee companies, — B and I, — were detailed, with 
a detachment of Hhode Island artillery, as an escort 
to Lieut. C. H. Wilson, chief of the topographical engi- 
neers, Department of the South, to make a reconnoissance 
of Wilmington Island, with a view to the erection of forti- 
fications upon it if found practicable. The force was em- 
barked on the steamer " Honduras," and moved to the 
place designated, where it landed and proceeded to the 
execution of the duty assigned. This resulted in an en- 
gagement with a force of the enemy, consisting of the 13th 
Georgia, " Oglethorpe Light Infantry," and the " Altamaha 
Scouts," in all about eight hundred strong. A detailed 
account of this movement and battle is given in Col. Fen- 
ton's official report, of which the following is a copy : 

"Headquarters Eighth Eegiment Mich. Vols. 
"On board the Bteamer ' Honduras,' off Wilmington Island, 
Ga.,- April 16, 1862,— eleven p.m. 

" Lieut. W. L. M. Burger, Acting Assistant Adjutant- 
General. 

" Sir, — I have the honor to report, for the information 
of the general commanding, that in compliance with Special 
Orders No. 41, I embarked with seven companies of the 
Eighth Michigan Regiment, as an escort to Lieut. C. H. 
Wilson, Topographical Engineer, on a reconnoissance off 
Wilmington Island. Two companies were landed at Scri- 
ven's plantation under command of Capt. Pratt, with orders 
from Lieut, Wilson to skirt Turner's Creek. The other 
five companies were landed at Gibson's plantation. Two 
of those companies were ordered to skirt Turner's Creek. 
A third was to take the road to the right, towards the ferry 
at Canan's Bluff, to protect the boat party up Oatland 
Creek. Owing to the small number of boats, and the dis- 
tance from the steamer, which was aground, some delay 
occurred in the disembarkation. I directed Lieut.-Col. 
Graves to follow with the second company to skirt Turner's 
Creek ; but he by misdirection took the road to the right, 
towards Canan's Bluff, and on landing with the remaining 
companies, I received information from him that the enemy 
were in force at Flatwood's plantation, and to the left of 
the road. This made the reconnoissance with boats unsafe, 
and I ordered the companies all in and stationed the re- 
maining companies to guard against an attack at our land- 
ing, and sent out strong pickets on both roads. I believe 
the advance of the company to the right, instead of along 
Turner's Creek, saved my command, as it sooner enabled 
me to post the men to advantage, and take a position from 
which the enemy's approach could be observed. The enemy 
appeared to be the Georgia Thirteenth, about eight hundred 
strong, armed with Enfield rifles. As they approached, 
about four p.m., with a strong body of skirmishers in the 
skirt of woods below the road, the companies to the right 
and left of the road, in accordance with my instructions, 



opened fire. I immediately sounded the charge for an ad- 
vance of the companies in the rear of the first line ; but 
the first line misunderstanding the signal, fell back to the 
next company. A constant and effective fire was kept up 
on both sides from the cover of the trees and bushes. 
Lieut. Wilson, who had returned with the boat's party, 
here proved of great service to me, and took a party, at 
my request, to the left. I ordered a company to the right, 
to flank the enemy. Both operations were successful, and 
in a few moments the enemy retreated in confusion, leaving 
several dead on the field, and followed by our men with 
loud cheers. It being now about sunset, I recalled our 
troops, and giving to Lieut. Wilson the command of pickets 
stationed to guard against surprise, formed the companies 
into line as originally posted, sent the dead and wounded 
in boats to the ship, and gradually and very quietly, under 
cover of darkness, withdrawing the men, sent them on 
board as fast as our limited transportation would allow. 
At the last trip of the boat I embarked, accompanied by 
Lieut. Wilson, Lieut.-Col. Graves, and the remainder of 
the command, at about ten o'clock p.m., and immediately 
brought on board the two companies left at Scriven's plan- 
tation. After the enemy retreated we were unmolested. 
It is due to the ofiicers and men of the command to say 
that generally they behaved with cool and intrepid courage. 
Adj. Pratt fell dead near my side, gallantly fighting, musket 
in hand, and cheering on the men. Our loss, I regret to 
say, was comparatively large, — ten killed and thirty-five 
wounded, out of a command of three hundred men. 
Among the wounded was Acting Lieut. Badger, of Com- 
pany C, who was in charge of the advanced picket, and 
exhibited undaunted courage. He, with one of his men, 
was taken prisoner. Both escaped and were brought in 
when the enemy retreated. The captain of the ' Honduras' 
is deserving of great credit for his kind attention to the 
wounded, and he afforded us every facility for the comfort 
of officers and men in his power. I respectfully refer you 
to Lieut. Wilson's report, which I have seen, which con- 
tains some facts not embraced in this report ; among others, 
in relation to the men detailed in charge of the field piece 
on board ship, who were vigilant and attentive. Herewith 
I transmit a list of casualties. 

" I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
" William M. Fenton, Col. Commanding." 

The part of Lieut. Wilson's report to which Col. Fenton 
alluded as having reference to the detachment in charge of 
the field-piece was as follows : " Lieut. Caldwell and sixteen 
men of the Rhode Island volunteers, with one light six- 
pounder, were left in charge of the steamer. The gun 
could not be handled on account of the inability of the 
boat to lie alongside the landing. . . . After holding the 
ground for three hours the entire force was quietly em- 
barked without further accident, though it must be con- 
fessed that had the enemy renewed his attack while we 
were embarking we should have suffered great loss. Our 
five small boats could not move more than fifty men every 
thirty minutes, and the steamer lay in such a position that 
the six-pounder could not be brought to bear without jeop- 
ardizing the lives of our own people." 



56 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTOxV COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



From Wilmington Island the command returned to Beau- 
fort, and the first knowledge which Gen. Stevens had of 
the battle of the 16th was conveyed by the arrival of the 
dead and wounded from that field. The dead were buried 
with all military honors, the entire brigade attending their 
funeral. 

During the month of May the Eighth was engaged on 
picket duty and other similar .service, on Port Royal Island. 
On the 2d of June it moved thence to Stono River, S. C, 
to relieve the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts Regiment, on 
picket on James Island, where the Eighth arrived on the 
day following its departure from Port Royal. Here it was 
attached to the First Brigade of the Second Division, 
under Gen. Stevens ; the brigade being placed under com- 
mand of Col. Penton, and Lieut. -Col. Graves succeeding to 
the command of the regiment. 

The battle of James Island (or Secessionville, as it is 
frequently called) was fought on the 16th of June. In it 
the Eighth Michigan took a more prominent part, and suf- 
fered more severely, than any other regiment, and its losses 
here were, taking everything into consideration, more ter- 
rible than it sustained on any other field during its long 
and honorable career. Secessionville, the scene of the 
battle, was described by Dr. J. C. Wilson, surgeon of the 
Eighth Regiment, as " a village composed of a few houses 
whose owners have seceded from them, situated on a narrow 
neck of land jutting into the stream on the east' side of 
James Island, skirted by tidal marshes and swamps on 
either side, and difficult of approach, except from the 
westward, where is a rebel fort which commands this 
entrance." The fort was a formidable earthwork, with a 
parapet nine feet in height, surrounded by a broad ditch 
seven feet deep, and protected by a broad and almost im- 
penetrable abatis. The neck of dry land over which (alone) 
it was approachable was barely two hundred yards in width, 
and every inch of it could be swept at close range by can- 
ister from the six heavy guns of the fort and by musketry 
from its defenders. And it was over such ground, and to 
the assault of such a work, that the troops of Stevens' 
division moved forward at four o'clock in the morning of 
that bloody and eventful 16th of June, 1862. 

The attacking column was composed of Col. Fenton's 
and Col. Leasure's brigades, the former composed of the 
Eighth Michigan, Seventh Connecticut, and Twenty-eighth 
Massachusetts Regiments, and .the latter of the Forty-sixth 
and Seventy-ninth New York and One Hundredth Penn- 
sylvania, with four batteries of artillery, — in all thirty- 
three hundred and thirty-seven men. The followirig account 
of the battle was written by the correspondent of the New 
York Tribune, then at James' Island, and published in that 
paper immediately after the fight : 

"The advanced regiments were the Eighth Michigan, 
the Seventy-ninth New York, and the Seventh Connecticut. 
There is some confusion as to the order in which these 
regiments came up to the fort ; it seems, however, from the 
best information within reach that the glorious but unfor- 
tunate Eighth Michigan was the first there, led by its gal- 
lant Lieut.-Col. Graves. The immediate assault upon the 
fort was not successful, and the cause of its failure, as is 



usual in such cases, is difficult to determine. . . . It appears, 
from the statements of some of the officers and men in these 
regiments, that about one-half mile from the fort there was 
a narrow pass through a hedge, and the men were compelled 
to pass through, a very few abreast, thus delaying their 
advance. The Eighth Michigan got through and pushed 
on with great vigor up to the fort, which they assaulted 
with a shout. They were met with a murderous fire from 
the fort in front, and from flanking batteries. A few of 
these brave men overcame all dangers and difficulties^ and 
rushing over the dead bodies of their slaughtered comrades, 
actually climbed into the fort; but it was impossible for 
them to maintain their ground there against the fearful 
odds which opposed them, the men who should have sup- 
ported them being delayed in passing through the hedge. 

" The Eighth was obliged to fall back as the Seventy- 
ninth New York came up, led by the brave Col. Morrison, 
who mounted the walls of the fort and discharged all the 
barrels of his revolver in the very faces of the enemy. 
Wounded in the head, and unsupported, 'he was obliged to 
retreat. About as far behind the Seventy-ninth as that 
regiment was behind the Eighth Michigan came the Seventh 
Connecticut, which made a spasmodic and almost indepen- 
dent effort against the fort, but was obliged to fall back. 
Thus the brave regiments which were intended to act in 
concert as the advance went into the fight one at a time, 
one repulsed and falling back as the other came up, thus 
creating confusion, and rendering abortive the charge on 
the fort at this time. 

" The Eighth Michigan has been most unfortunate. For- 
ward in every skirmish and battle, always in the advance, 
it has lost a considerable number of its officers, and can now 
scarcely .number three hundred men. All these regiments 
fought well, and piled their dead around the fort ; but it 
was a terrible sacrifice and a vain one. 

" The first, as has been said, to reach the fort were the 
Michigan Eighth, and New York Seventy-ninth. This was 
not the natural order, but the Seventy-ninth, hearing the 
cheers of the Eighth, ran past the other regiments and 
joined the Eighth as it reached the works. Both regiments 
suffered terribly from the fire of the enemy as they ap- 
proached, — the Eighth from grape and canister, the Sev- 
enty-ninth from musketry, as the nature of their wounds 
show. Badly shattered, and wholly exhausted from three- 
fourths of a mile on the double-quick, many fell powerless 
on reaching the works ; while a few, in sufficiently good 
condition, mounted the parapet, from which the enemy had 
been driven by our sharp and effective fire, and called upon 
the others to follow them. 

" At about nine o'clock, which seemed to be the crisis of 
the battle, and when the generals seemed to be consulting 
whether they should again advance upon the fort, or retire, 
the gunboats decided the question by opening a heavy can- 
nonade in our rear, which, instead of telling upon the 
rebels, threw their shot and shell into our own ranks. This 
must have resulted from ignorance on their part as to our 
precise position, owing to the rapid changes upon the field, 
and in the intervening timber. The shells fell and buret 
in the very midst of our men, — several exploding near 
the commanding general and his staff. The effect of this 



EIGHTH INFANTRY. 



57 



unfortunate mistake was an order for the troops to retire, 
which they did in perfect order, taking position on the old 
picket-line." 

In the Scottish American newspaper ,^of New York, there 
appeared, a few days after the battle, a communication from 
an officer of the Seventy-ninth Highlanders, in which the 
gallantry of the Eighth at Secessionville is thus noticed : 
"I should mention that the Eighth Michigan, small in 
number, but every man a hero, had been repulsed from the 
fort, with terrible loss, just as we advanced. The Michigan 
men could not have numhered four hundred when they ad- 
vanced ; when they retired they had one hundred and 
ninety killed and wounded. One company alone lost, I un- 
derstand, no less than ninety-eight men. The ordeal through 
which they had passed the Seventy-ninth were now experi- 
encing. Shot down by unseen enemies, and without having 
an opportunity of returning the fire with any effect, the 
men got discouraged, but remained stubbornly on the 
ground until the order was given to retire, — an order, let 
me say, which was only rendered necessary by the shameful 
fact that, notwithstanding the strong force within support- 
ing distance, no support came. The fort was ours had we 
received assistance, but it is a fact that cannot be gainsaid 
that every man who fell around its ramparts belonged to the 
Eighth Michigan and the Seventy-ninth New York, — the 
two weakest regiments, in point of numbers, in the whole 
force under command of Gen. Benhani." 

The Eighth Regiment went into the fight with a total 
strength of five hundred and thirty-four officers and men, 
and its loss in the assault was, according to the surgeon's 
report, one hundred and forty-seven killed and wounded 
and thirty-seven missing ; this being more than one-third 
of the number engaged. The first report of its loss made 
it somewhat greater than this. Gen. Stevens, in his 
" General Order No. 26," dated James Island, S. C, June 
18, 1862, mentioned the heroism of the Eighth Michigan, 
as follows : " Parties from the leading regiments of the two 
brigades, the Eighth Michigan and Seventy-ninth High- 
landers, mounted and were shot down on the parapet, offi- 
cers and men. These two regiments especially covered 
themselves with glory, and their fearful casualties show the 
hot work in which they were engaged. Two-fifths of the 
Eighth Michigan and nearly one-quarter of the Seventy- 
ninth Highlanders were down, either killed or wounded, 
and all the renTaining regiments had a large number of 
casualties. ... In congratulating his comrades on their 
heroic valor and constancy on that terrible field, the 
commanding general of the division has not words to ex- 
press his and your grief at the sacrifice that has been 
made. Our best and truest men now sleep the sleep that 
knows no waking. Their dead bodies lie on the enemy's 
parapet." 

Gen. Stevens' command evacuated James Island on the 
5th of July, the -Eighth Regiment being the last to leave, 
as it had been the first in the advance. Moving to Hilton 
Head, it embarked there July 13th, with the Seventy-ninth 
New York, Twenty-eighth Massachusetts, Seventh Con- 
necticut, and other regiments for Fortress Monroe, where 
they arrived on the 16th, and landed at Newport News on 
the following day. They knew they were destined to rein- 
8 



force the Army of the Potomac after its disasters in the 
Seven Days' fight, and they did not like the change, for 
they preferred to remain in the South, where their laurels 
had been won. The Eighth remained three weeks in camp 
at Newport News, and during this time Col. Fenton left for 
Michigan to obtain recruits, and Lieut.-Col. Graves was 
left in command of the regiment. The command left this 
camp August 4th, and moving to the Rappahannock 
River, took part in the campaign of Gen. Pope, fighting at 
second Bull Run, August 29th and 30th, and at Chantilly, 
September 1st, losing considerably in both engagements. 
Soon after, it moved with the Ninth Army Corps (to 
which it had been attached) into Maryland. It fought at 
South Mountain, September 14th, losing thirteen, wounded, 
and was again engaged in the great battle of Antietam, 
September 17th. Early in that day it formed in line on 
the right with its brigade, but about noon, when the battle 
became general, it was ordered to the left, and took posses- 
sion near the historic Stone Bridge. " A more terrific fire 
than we here met with," wrote an officer of the regiment, 
" it has not been my lot to witness. It equaled, if it did 
not exceed, that of James Island. At first our men gained 
ground and drove the enemy half a mile, but the battery 
that covered our advance and answered to the enemy's in 
front getting out of ammunition, together with the arrival 
of a fresh rebel brigade from Harper's Ferry, flanking our 
position and bringing our men under a cross-fire, changed 
the fortunes of the day in their favor, and when night 
closed upon the scene of carnage the enemy reoccupied the 
ground wrested from them at such fearful sacrifice in the 
afternoon." The bridge, however, was not retaken by the 
enemy, and, although the Union forces had been driven 
back here on the left, the advantage remained with them 
on other parts of the field. The battle was not renewed to 
any extent on the following day, and the enemy, while 
keeping up the appearance of a strong line in front, re- 
treated from his position to the Potomac, preparatory to 
crossing back into Virginia. 

The loss of the Eighth at Antietam was twenty-seven 
killed and wounded, — a less which appears quite severe 
when it is remembered that the regiment went into action 
with considerably less than two hundred men, having been 
reduced not only by its terrible losses in previous battles, 
but also by discharges ; more than two hundred and fifty 
men being discharged from the Eighth in the year 1862, 
of whom just one hundred enlisted in the regular army. 
The places of these were being filled to some extent by re- 
cruits, of whom a number joined the regiment the day 
before Antietam ; and it was said of them that, although 
they had never before heard a hostile gun, they endured 
the terrible initiation of that day with almost the steadiness 
of veterans. 

For about a month after the battle the regiment re- 
mained in Maryland, a short time in the vicinity of An- 
tietam, and a longer time in Pleasant Valley. On the 26th 
of October it marched to Weverton, and thence to Ber- 
lin, Md., where it crossed the Potomac on pontoons into 
Virginia. It passed through Lovettsville, Waterford, 
Slack's Mills, Rectortown, and Salem, to Waterloo, where, 
on the 11th of November, it received the announcement of 



58 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Gen. Burnside's promotion to the cotnmaud of the army. 
On the 15th it was at Sulphur Springs, and moved thence, 
by way of Fayetteville and Bealton Station, to a camp 
about ten miles east of the latter place, where was read the 
order forming the "right grand division" of the army, by 
uniting the Second and Ninth Corps, under command of 
Gen. E. v. Sumner. On the 18th the regiment marched, 
leading the brigade, to Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, 
where the army was rapidly concentrating. Here it re- 
mained (a part of it acting as provost-guard of the division) 
until the 12th of December, when it crossed the Rappa- 
hannock to Fredericksburg, but was not engaged in the 
great battle of the 13th. It recrossed on the 15th, and re- 
mained at Falmouth until Feb. 13, 1863, when it moved 
with the Ninth Corps (which had been detached from the 
Army of the Potomac) to Newport News, Va., and there 
camped, evidently waiting orders for a further movement, 
which the officers and men hoped might take them back to 
the department of the South. 

On the 20th of March the Eighth Regiment, being again 
under marching orders, embarked at Newport News, on the 
steamer "Georgia," preparatory to the commencement of the 
long series of movements and marches in the Southwest 
which afterwards gave it the name of " the wandering regi- 
ment of Michigan." It left Newport News on the 21st, 
arrived at Baltimore on the 22d, and proceeded thence by 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Parkersburg, W. Va., 
reaching there on the 24th, and embarking on the steamer 
" Majestic" for Louisville, Ky., where it arrived at noon on 
Thursday the 26th. At that time it was brigaded with the 
Second, Seventeenth, and Twentieth Michigan Regiments, 
under Brig.-Gen. Orlando M. Poe (formerly colonel of the 
Second), as brigade commander ; this being the First 
Brigade, First Division, Ninth Army Corps. This corps 
(then a part of the Army of the Ohio) had for its im- 
mediate mission in Kentucky to observe and hold in check 
the forces of the guerrilla chief, John Morgan, who, at 
that time, seemed to be omnipresent in all that region, and 
whose movements were giving the government no little 
trouble and alarm. 

The Eighth moved by railroad from Louisville on the 
28th, proceeded to Lebanon, Ky., and remained stationed 
there and at Green River Ford, Ky., for some weeks. 
While the command lay at Lebanon there was issued the 
first number of a paper entitled The Wolverine, which was 
announced as " published by members of the Eighth Michi- 
gan Infantry, and will be issued as often as circumstances 
will permit." How many numbers of this journal were 
ever published is not known. 

About the 1st of June the Ninth Corps, which had been 
scattered in detachments at various points in Kentucky, 
was ordered to move to Mississippi to reinforce the army of 
Gen. Grant, then operating against Vicksburg. The Eighth 
Regiment moved with the corps, going to Cairo, 111., by 
rail, and then embarking on boats on the Mississippi River, 
was transported to Haynes' Bluff, Miss. From there it 
moved to Milldale, Miss., and remained there and at Flower 
Dale Church, near Vicksburg, until the operations against 
that stronghold ended in its capitulation, July 4th. Then 
it moved with the corps towards .Jackson, Miss., in pursuit 



of the army of Johnston, who had been hovering in Gen. 
Grant's rear, attempting to raise the siege of Vicksburg. 
In the several engagements which occurred from the 10th 
to the 16th of Julj^ the Eighth participated, but suffered 
little loss ; and after the evacuation of Jackson, on the 16th, 
it returned to its former camp at Milldale, remaining there 
till August 6th, when it again took boat on the Mississippi 
and moved north with the corps. It reached Memphis in 
the night of the 11th, and passed on to Cairo and thence 
to Cincinnati, where it arrived on the 18th, and, crossing 
the river, camped at Covington, Ky. From Covington it 
moved by way of Nicholasville to Crab Orchard, Ky., 
reaching there August 27th, and remaining there in camp 
two weeks. On the 10th of September it was again on 
the march, and moved by way of Cumberland Gap to Knos- 
ville, Tenn., reaching there on the 26th. 

The Eighth was slightly engaged with the enemy at Blue 
Springs, October 10th, and, after considerable marching and 
countermarching, went into camp, October 29th, at Lenoir 
Station, where it remained until November 14th. It was 
then, with its division, ordered to Huff's Ferry, on the 
Holston River, to check the advance of Longstreet, who 
was reported moving up from Georgia towards Knoxville. 
He was found in strong force, and the Union troops retired 
before him, and passing back through Lenoir, continued 
the retreat to Knoxville. Being hard pressed, however, a 
stand was made at Campbell's Station on the 16th, and a 
battle ensued, lasting from about one p.m. until dark, and 
resulting in a loss to the Eighth of eleven wounded. Du- 
ring the night the retreat was continued, and the regiment 
reached Knoxville in the morning of the 17th, after an 
almost continuous march of two days and three nights, in- 
eluding a battle of several hours' duration, moving over the 
worst of roads though mud and rain, and with less than 
quarter rations. 

Then followed the siege of Knoxville by Longstreet, 
which continued eighteen days, during all of which time 
the regiment occupied the front line of works. On Sunday, 
November 29th, two veteran Georgia brigades, belonging to 
McLaws' rebel division, made a furious assault on Fort 
Saunders (one of the works in the line of fortifications in- 
closing Knoxville), and were repulsed and driven back with 
a loss of nearly eight hundred men, the Eighth Michigan 
being one of the regiments which received and repelled the 
assault. 

In the night of the 4th and 5th of December the enemy 
withdrew from Knoxville. The Eighth took part in the 
pursuit, but with no results, and on the 16th it encamped 
at Blain's Cross-Roads. This proved to be the last camp 
which it occupied for any considerable length of time in 
Tennessee. It remained here about three weeks, during 
which time three hundred of its members re-enlisted as 
veterans. On the 8th of January, 1864, the veteranized 
command, under orders to report at Detroit, left its camp 
and took the road across the Cumberland Mountains for the 
railroad at Nicholasville, Ky., nearly two hundred miles dis- 
tant. It reached that place in ten days, having made an 
average of nearly twenty miles a day, over miserable roads, 
and through the ice and snow of the mountain passes. 
From Nicholasville the men went by rail to Detroit, reach- 



EIGHTH INPANTEY. 



59 



ing there January 25th. At the end of their furlough, 
March 8th, they left for the front, and proceeded to Annap- 
olis, Md., where they rejoined the Ninth Corps, which had 
in the mean time been ordered from Tennessee, to reinforce 
the Array of the Potomac. 

On the 23d of April the Eighth moved by way of Wash- 
ington across the Potomac to Warrenton Junction. When 
the spring campaign opened it moved (May 4th) with the 
army, crossed the Kapidan on the 5th, and on the following 
day was hotly engaged in the Wilderness, losing ninety-nine 
in killed, wounded, and missing. On the 12th it took 
part in the assault on the enemy's intrenchments at Spott- 
sylvania Court-House, losing forty-nine officers and men in 
the bloody work of that day. During the fight the corps 
commander. Gen. Burnside, rode up, and called out to the 
regiment, " Boys, you must support this battery and hold 
the hill at all hazards, for it is the key to our safety !" A 
moment later he inquired what regiment it was, and Col. 
Ely informed him. " Ah," returned the general, " the 
Eighth Michigan ! I know you. You'll hold it !" and 
rode away. 

The regiment crossed the Pamunkey River May 28th, 
and moved towdrds Bethesda Church, where, in the battle 
of June 3d,- it gallantly charged and carried the enemy's 
rifle-pits, sustaining a loss of fifty-nine killed, wounded, and 
missing. On the 12th it was encamped near Mechanics- 
ville, Va. The next day it crossed the Chickahominy, and 
on the 14th crossed the James River, from which point it 
moved by a forced march to the front of Petersburg, ar- 
riving there in the evening of the 16th. On the 17th and 
18th it took part in the attacks on the enemy's works, losing 
forty-nine killed and wounded. For six weeks after that 
time it was constantly employed on the fortifications, under 
fire. In the fight at the " Crater," July 30th, it was en- 
gaged, losing thirteen killed and wounded. Soon after it 
moved to the Weldon Railroad, and fought there in the 
action of August 19th, losing thirty in killed, wounded, 
and missing. It was again engaged, with but slight loss, 
on the 21st ; and on the 30th it took part in the battle of 
Poplar Grove Church, losing eight wounded. 

The Eighth remained near Peebles' farm engaged in for- 
tifying and picket duty till November. 29th, when it moved 
again to a position before Petersburg. The strength of the 
regiment at that time was only about three hundred men 
fit for duty. It assisted in repulsing the enemy in his at- 
tack on Fort Steadman, March 25, 18()5, and on the 2d 
of April it was engaged in the attack on Fort Mahon, as- 
sisting in carrying the work, and being the first regiment to 
place its colors on the hostile ramparts. The next day it 
marched into Petersburg. After this it was employed on 
guard duty on the South Side Railroad till the 20th, when 
it marched to City Point, and on the following day em- 
barked on transports and proceeded to Alexandria, Va., 
from which place it moved to Tenallytown on the 26th. It 
moved into the city of Washington May 9th, and was there 
engaged in guard and patrol duty until July 30, 1865, 
when it was mustered out of the service. It left Washington 
on the 1st of August, and on the 3d arrived at Detroit, 
where it was paid off and disbanded, and the survivors of 
the " Wandering Regiment of Michigan" returned to their 



homes. During its existence the Eighth Regiment had 
moved more than seven thousand miles by land and by sea ; 
more than nineteen hundred men had marched in its ranks, 
and it had been engaged in thirty-seven battles and skir- 
mishes in seven diff'erent States of the Union. 

OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE EIGHTH FBOM CLINTON COUNTY. 

Company B. 

Capt. Wm. Ely Lewis, St. John's ; com. April 1, 1862 ; 1st lieut., Aug. 1, 1861 ; 

pro. to maj. March 12, 1863; iiillecl in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 

1864. 

Capt. Robt. G. Hutchinson, St. John's ; com. March 13, 1863 ; 1st lieut.. May 14, 

1862 ; died of disease at Detroit, Jan. 2, 1865. 
Capt. James P. Dodge, St. Jolm's; com. Jan. 2, 1805; 1st lieut., Co. G, Oct. 27, 

1864; must, out July 30, 1865. 
2d Lieut. Sauil. A. Baldwin, Watertown ; com. July 5, 1864 ; pro. to capt., Co. 

E, Nov. 9, 1864. 
Sergt Jas. Travis, St. John's; disch. for disability, Dec. 2, 1861. 
Sergt Chaa. F. Smith, St. John's: pro. to 2d lieut., Co. K, May 14, 1862. 
Sergt. Jas. P. Dodge, St. John's; veteran, eul. Dec. 29, 1863; pro. to 2d lieut., 

July 5, 1864. 
Corp. Wm. H. Smith, St. John's ; eul. Aug. 12, 1861 ; disch. Oct. 29, 1862. 
Corp. Chas. F. Valleau, St. John's; eul. Aug. 13, 1861 ; died of diseaaa at Wash- 
ington, Oct. 20, 1861. 
Corp. M. J. Morton, St. John's; enl. Aug.l5,lS6l ; died of disease in Mississippi, 

July 30, 1863. 
Corp. Tompkins Dunlap, St. John's ; enl. Aug. 15, 1861; disch. for disability, 

March 3, 1863. 
Wagoner Moses Brown, St. John's; enl. Aug. 12, 1861; disch. at end of service, 

Sept. 22, 1864. 
Joshua Aldricb, disch. to enl. in regular army, Oct. 28, 1862. 
John Austin, disch. Oct. 31, 1862. 
Benj. F. Brown, disch. for disability, Nov. 29, 1862. 
Frederick Burke, died of disease, Dec. 2, 1861. 
Chas. E. Blauchard, died of disease, April 9, 1862. 
Albert M. Bennett, died of disease at Baltimore, Md., March 21, 1863. 
Darroll Brewer, died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., April 19, 1863. 
Clark C. Brewer, died of disease in Michigan, Feb. 17, 1864. 
Henry A. Brown, died in battle at Sputtsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Henry 0. Brown, disch. for disability, Feb. 9, 1863. 
Wm. H. Brown, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
Marshall Bachelder, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
John K. Brooks, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863; must, out July 5, 186S. 
Saiiford Baker, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; disch. by order, June 13, 1865. 
Hansom A. Brooks, veteran, enl. Feb. 17, 1864; disch. by order, June 20, 1865. 
Sheldon Crowell, died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862. 
Wm. A. Button, died in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864. 
Henry W. Davenport, died ot disease at Washington, March 30, 1863. 
Enoch Doty, disch. Feb. 19, 1863. 
Franklin Doty, disch. for disability, April 11, 1863. 
Don A. Duty, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; must, out July 30, 1865. 
Saml. Dillingliam, trans, to Vet. Ees. Corps; disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 

1804. 
Lcroy M. Dodge, died at James Island, S. C, June 10, 1862. 
Jeremiah Dooling, must, out July 30, 1865. ' 

David Forest, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863; disch. for disability, Aug. 17, 1864. 
Marchus M. Face, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
Hiram Gardner, Greeubush ; died of disease at Port Eoyal, Nov. 17, 1861. 
Willett S. Green, died of disease at Millikeii's Bend, La , June 22, 1863. 
Francis F. Gleason, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1803 ; must, out July 30, 1865. 
Wm. J. Hildreth, must, out July 30, 1865. 

Morris H. Hill, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; disch. by order, June 13* 1865. 
Wm. J. Hanimoud, disch. by order, June 9, 1865. 
Jumes M. Himes, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 27, 1864. 
Lester E. Jewett, disch. to enl. in regular army, Oct. 27, 1862. 
Chas. Kelly, disch. for disability, Dec. 9, 1862. 
Wm. Kelly, died in action at Blue Springs, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863. 
John J. Kniifin, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; must out July 30, 1865. 
Enos H. Kimmel, must, out July 30, 1865. 
Geo. W. Lewis, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 9, 1864. 
Jolin M. Look, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
Joseph Miller, disch. to enl. in regular army, Oct. 29, 1862. 
Miles Mansfield, disch. for disability, Oct. 24, 1862. 
Saml. McVeigh, disch. for disability, Oct. 25, 1802. 
Horace Mosier, disch. by order, June 15, 1865. 
Frederick Miller, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
Geo. McVeigli, died in action at James Island, S. C, June 16, 1862. 
Harrod Morton, died in action at James Island, S. C, June 16, 1862. 
David Mayhew, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., 

March 7, 1804. 
James Morrison, must, out July 30, 1861. 
Charles Mysett, must, out July 30, 1865. 
Charles Marsted, must, out July 30, 1865. 
Charles Otis, trans, to Vet. Bes. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. 



60 



HISTOKY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Andrew Post, disch. for djealiility, Aug. 20, 1862. 

Darina Pictell, disch. for disability, Feb. 16, 1863. 

Chiis. D. Putnam, disch. at end of Bervice, Oct. 19, 1864, 

James L. Patterson, disch. by order, June 5, 18C5. 

Wm. S. Seaver, disch. by order, April 12, 1865. 

Wm. H. Sage, disch. by order, June 1, 1865. 

Wm. H. Smith, disliarged Oct. 31, 1862. 

Andrew J. Smith, disch. for disability, Nov. 29, 1862. 

Joseph Silvers, disch. for disability, Jan. 15, 1863. 

Frederick Schwarz, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 

George P. Steadman, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 

Samuel Strickland, died of disease, Dec. 15, 1861. 

"Wm. J. Strickland, died in action at James Island, S. C, June 16, 1862. 

Myron Ti-acy, died of disease, April 26, 1862. 

John D. Thomas, died in action at James Island, S. C, June 16, 1862. 

Homer Terwilliger, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; didcb. by order, June 13, 1865. 

Amos Weatherly, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; must, out July 30, 1865, 

Compawj C. 
Capt. Chas. F. Smith, St. John's ; com. May 27, 1863 ; di^ch. at end of service, 

Oct 18, 1864. 
Ist Lieut. Simon McLaughlin, St. John*8 ; com. Sept. 28, 1864 ; must, out July 

30, 1865. 
Darius C. Wait, died of disease at Deaufort, 8. C, Dec. 28, 1861. 
Ephraim Brown, St. John's. 

Company E. 
Capt. Samuel A. Baldwin, Watertown ; com. Nov. 9, 1864, 2d lieut. Co. B , sergt. 

Co. E; must, out July 30, 1865. 
Ist Lieut. Timothy L. Baldwin, Watertown ; com. April 25, 1865, sergt. Co, E; 

must, out July 30, 1865. 
Thos. T. Davenport, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 
Kenneth F. Morse, trans, to Vet. Res. Coi-pa, Jan. 15, 1864. 
Marcus L. McCrum, must, out July 30, 1865. 

Comipany G. 
1st Lieut. Jas. P. Dodge, St. John's ; com. Oct. 1, 1864 ; 2d lieut., July 5, 18G4; 
pro. capt. and must, out July 30, 1865. 

Company U. 
Luther J. Winter, disch. by order, June 1, 1865, 

Company I. 

Chas. Hildreth, disch. for disability, Dec. 9, 1862. . 

Company K. 

1st Lient. Chas. F. Smith, St. John's; com. Nov. 1, 1862; 2d lieut. May 14,1862; 
pro. capt. Co. C. 

OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE EIGHTH FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Company A. 
Elisha Bird, died of wounds, Oct. 23, 1864. 

John Minchin, died in actiun at Weldon Railroad, Va., Aug. 19, 1864. 
Albert Marten, must, out July 30, 1865. 

Company E. 
Charles Brott, disch. for disability, April 27, 1865. 

Company F. 
Ist Lient. Oscar P. Hendee, Curunna ; com. April 25, 1865; 2d lieut. May 6 

1864; must, out July 30, 1865. 
William S. Close, disch. for promotion in 29th, Nov. 17, 1864. 
Joseph L. Hoyt, died of disease at Wasbington, D. C. 
Edwin Wliitney, must, out July 30, 1865. 
Melancthon E. Whitney, must, out July 30, 1865. 

Company G. 
Smith Doubleday, died near :?eter»burg, Va., June 25, 1864, 
Company H. 

let Lieut. John R. Dougherty, Shiawassee; com. April 25, 1861 ; must, out July 

30,1865. 

Company I. 

Capt. Jay L. Quackenbush, OwoB.so ; com. Sept. 5, 1861 ; resigned March 3, 1862. 

1st Lieut. Albert Bainbrid^e, Byron ; com. Sept. 5, 1861; resigned April 7,1862. 

1st Lieut^ Bartley Siegel, Shiawassee; com. May 1, 1863; must, out July 30 
1865. ' 

Sergt. Wm. R. Smith, Owosso; enl. Sept. 7, 1861 ; disch. for disability, April 21 
1863. * ' 

Sergt. Bartley Siegel, enl. Sept. 10, 1861 j .veteran, Feb. IT, '63 ; pro. to Ist lieut. 

Sergt, Johu I. Knoop, Byron ; enl. Sept. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability April 21 
1863. ' ' 

Sergt. Cyrus H Roys, Byron ; enl. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died of disease at Washing- 
ton, Feb. 16, 1863. 

Corp. Geo. W. Love, Owoaso; enl. Sept. 7, 1861 ; disch. Oct. 22, 1862, 

Corp. Edwin Ayres, Owosso; eul. Sept. 16, 1861; died in action in Georgia 
April 16, 1862. ' 

Corp. D. H.Williams, Vernon; enl. Sept. 9, 1861; disch. for disability Sept 28 
1862. » F • , 



Musn. Judson A. Clough, Shiawassee; enl. Sept. 2, 1861; dlscU. at end of 

service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
Joseph Ames, ditich. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
David N. Arthur, veteran, enl. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Alonzo Batchelder, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863; must, out July 30, 1865. 
John K. Bunting, disch. for disability, April 10, 1862. 
Henry Brown, disch. for disability, Oct. 18, 1861. 
James W. Bronson, disch. for disability, Jan. 20, 1863, 
Albert Bittner, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22,1864. 
Frederick T, Bently, died near Petersburg, Va,, July 31, 18G4. 
Peter F. Camus, disch. Feb. 3, 1863. 
George F. Camus, died of wounds, June 20, 1862. 
Samuel B, Corsons, died of disease at Hilton Head, S, C, Nov. 17, 1861: 
Horace L Clark, died of disease at Crab Orchard, Aug. 30, 1863. 
Thomas F. Clark, must, out July 30, 1865. 
Oscar I. Card, disch. for disability, Feb. 13, 1862. 
Wm. H. Carr, disch. for disability, Feb. 13, 1862. 
Philip W. Colman, disch. for disability, Oct, 15, 1862. 
Wm, H. H. Chase, di.'ich. for disability, Marcli 6, 1863, 
Benjamin Dutcher, disch. for disability, Feb, 13, 1862. 
William Demond, disch. to enlist in regular service, Oct. 27, 1862. 
diaries Desuness, disch. by order. 
Martin Decker, veteran, enl, Dec. 29, 1863 ; died of disciise in Michigan, March 

17, 1864. 
Gridson M. Dutcher, died of disease at Newport News, March 7, 1863. 
John W. Eckman, disch. for disability, Feb, 13, 1862. 
Charles Freeman, disch. for disability, Dec. 9, 1862. 
William Freeman, died of disease, Oct. 21, 1801. 
Royal D. Hendee, missing in action at James Island, July 16, 1862. 
Oscar P. Hendee, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Henry House, must, out July 30, 1805, 
Jacob Hubbard, disch. for disability, Feb. 13, 1862. 
Reuben Hydom, discli. for disability, June 29, 186;i. 
George W. Jewel], disch. for disability, Aug. 19, 1862, 
Adonijah Jewell, disch. to enlist in regular service. 
Frederick Kurrle, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1861, 
Jacob M. Klingingsmith, disch. for disability, Oct. 9, 1861. 
Francis S. Lum, disch, for disability, Oct. 29, 1862. 
Wm, W. Lemunyon, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863. 
John B. MathewBon, disch. at end <if service, Feb. 6, 1865. 
Henry McClellen, disch. to enlist in regular service. Sept, 22, 1862. 
Asro Miller, died of disease at Clark's Plantation, Miss., July 21, 1863. 
George W. McComb, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; died near Petersburg, Vs., 

Aug. 21, 186-1. 
Alpheus Ott, veteran, enl. Dec. 29,1863 ; dfsch. for disability, Feb. 7,1865. 
Edward Ogden, disch, at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
John W. Prandle, disch. at end of service, Sept. 19, 1864. 
George W. Porter, dl>ch. for disability, Feb. 22, 1862. 
Wm. R. Punches, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 29, 1864. 
Walter S. Ryness, veteran, enl. Dec. 29, 1803 ; disch. by order, July 28, 1865. 
John Sliourtz, veteran, eul. Dec. 29, 1863; must, out July 30, 1865. 
Hiram Spear, vctemn,enl. Dec. 29, 1803; must, out July 30, 1805. 
Bartley Seigel, veteian, enl. Feb. 17, 1864; must, out July 30, 1865. 
William Sbiesler, died of wuunds,Sept. 7, 1862. 
Benjamin 0. Simons, disch, Feb. 15, 1862. 
Dewitt Titus, disch, for disability, Sept. 1, 1862. 
William Turner, disch. for disability, Oct. 15, 1862. 
Wm. U. Wood, disch. for diuability, Sept. 28, 1862. 
Francis Whitmore, disch. at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864. 
Benjamin L. Washbourne, died in action at James Island, July 16, 1862. 
Simon Wolf, veteran, enl. Doc. 29, 1863; died at Hanover Town, Va, May 31 

180-1. 
Charles W. Young, must, out Sept, 22, 1865. 

Company K. 
John Emery, must, out July 30, 1865. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

NIlfTH INPANTBY. 

Organization of the Ninth— Serriee in Kentucky— Battle and Dis- 
aster at Murfrecsboro'-High Opinion of the Ninth expressed by 
Gen. Thomas— Assignment of the Regiment to Duty at Army 
Headquarters— Veteran Rc-enlistment-The Regiment on Duty at 
Atlanta, Chattanooga, and NashTille— Muster Out and Diseharg*. 

The Ninth Infantry Regiment of Michigan was raised 
during the latter part of the summer and in the early au- 
tumn of the year 1861. Its rendezvous was at Fort Wayne, 
Detroit, where its organization was perfected, under the 



NINTH INFANTRY. 



61 



following officers : William W. Duffield, Colonel ; John G. 
Parkhurst, Lieutenant-Colonel; Dorus M. Fox, Major; En- 
nis Church, Surgeon ; Cyrus Smith, Assistant Surgeon ; 
James G. Portman, Chaplain ; Henry M. DuflSeld, Adju- 
tant; Charles H. Irwin, Quartermaster. - 

In the ranks of the Ninth during its term of service 
were more than one hundred men from Shiawassee, and 
some from Clinton County. Those from Shiawassee were 
principally in Capt. George K. Newcombe's company, 
which was raised by him in August, 1861, and was known 
during the period of its enlistment as the " Fremont 
Guard." In the organization of the regiment this com- 
pany was designed as Company F. 

The regiment, having been armed with weapons of an 
inferior class, was mustered into the United States service 
for three years, by Capt. II. R. Mizner, United States army, 
at the rendezvous, October 23 and 25, 1861, and on the 
last-named day left Detroit for the seat of war in the South- 
west, being the first regiment from Michigan which entered 
the field in the Western departments. It reached Jefier- 
sonville, Ind., on the 27th, and on the following day was 
moved by steamboat to Salt River, Ky. It was soon after 
engaged in the construction of a defensive work on Mul- 
draugh's Hill, and made its winter quarters in that vicinity. 
During their stay at that place the men of the Ninth were 
terribly afflicted with measles and other disorders, as many 
as four hundred having been on the sick-list at one time. 

Immediately after the fall of Fort Donelson, the regi- 
ment was moved by transports from Salt River to Nashville, 
Tenn., whcrff it remained for some weeks ; then moved to 
Murfreesboro', and was posted there from April to July, as 
one of the chain of detachments which were placed to 
guard the reat and communications of Gen. 0. M. Mitchell, 
in his advance on Huntsville, Ala. During that time it 
formed part of the force with which Gen. Negley made a 
demonstration against Chattanooga, reaching the north bank 
of the Tennessee River, opposite the town. After that 
expedition it was again stationed at Murfreesboro' and vi- 
cinity, and on the 13th of July the six companies which 
were at that place (the other four, under command of Maj. 
Fox, being at Tullahoma) were attacked by a body of the 
enemy's cavalry, three thousand five hundred strong, under 
Gen. N. B. Forrest. Of this battalion of the Ninth at 
Murfreesboro' one company (B) forty-two strong, under 
First Lieut. Wright, was quartered in the court-house, and 
five companies were camped in a body in the northeastern 
outskirts of the village on the Liberty turnpike, — all under 
command of Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst. Col. Duffield was pres- 
ent, but not on duty, he having arrived in the evening of 
the 11th, in company with Gen. Crittenden, on business 
connected with the formation of a new brigade, of which 
Col. Duffield was to have the command. The Third Min- 
nesota Infantry Regiment (nine companies, four hundred 
and fifty strong) was encamped on the bank of Stone River, 
less than two miles to the northwest of the town, and with 
it was Hewett's (First Kentucky) Battery of four guns. 

Forrest's attack on the camp of Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst's 
battalion was made at four o'clock in the morning of Sun- 
day, the 13th of July. He had evidently expected that it 
would be a surprise, but such did not prove to be the case. 



Col. Parkhurst had been warned of their approach, for 
the noise made by fourteen thousand hoofs sounding on the 
hard macadamized roads was so great that the alarm was 
given before the head of the rebel column reached the 
picket line, a mile out of the town, so that, although they 
came in at full speed, the Union force was prepared to 
give them a very warm reception. The result was that 
the first attack was successfully repelled, with considerable 
loss to the enemy, who then withdrew and proceeded to 
attack the company occupying the court-house. Upon the 
withdrawal of the enemy from his front, Lieut.-Col. Park- 
hurst at once dispatched a,messenger to the colonel of the 
Third Minnesota, at Stone River, informing him of the 
situation, and asTting him to come to his (Parkhurst's) as- 
sistance. With this request the officer in question, for 
what doubtless seemed to him good reasons, declined to 
comply. It was believed that he might have done so with 
good prospects of success, he having a comparatively large 
force, including an efficient battery. Certainly any attempt 
of Col. Parkhurst — with his little force of less than three 
hundred men, including the company in the court-house, 
and with no artillery — to effect a junction with the Minne- 
sotians, in the face of such an overwhelming body of the 
enemy, would have been almost fool-hardy. 

At the court-house the attacking party met a very warm 
reception from the defending garrison, who held them at 
bay for two long hours, and only yielded when they found 
such a course inevitable, the enemy having gained posses- 
sion of the lower story of the building and set fire to it to 
compel the surrender. Immediately after their capture 
they were sent to the rear, in the direction of McMinuville, 
without an hour's delay, for the rebel commander believed 
that his work might at any moment be interrupted by 
Union reinforcements from either or all of the several de- 
tachments posted at different points in the vicinity ; a very 
natural supposition, which might easily have been verified. 

From the siege of the court-house the enemy returned 
to the attack of Col. Parkhurst's position, which, during 
the brief cessation of hostilities, had been strengthened by 
such slight defenses as the men had been able to construct 
in the short time, and with the insufficient means and ma- 
terials at their command. Slight as they were they af- 
forded some shelter to the defending force, who, though 
outnumbered more than ten to one by their assailants, 
fought with the most determined and persistent bravery 
until past noon, when, as it became evident that they need 
look no longer for succor, and that further resistance was 
useless, their leader submitted to the inevitable and sur- 
rendered. During the eight hours through which they had 
stood at bay their loss had been thirteen killed and eighty- 
seven wounded. The enemy admitted that his own loss 
in killed alone had been thirty-five, and there is little doubt 
that it was much beyond this figure. Among the captured 
officers were Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst and Capt. Mansfield. 
The first was marched away by the victorious rebels. Capt. 
Mansfield being unable to endure the march was left be- 
hind, paroled, as was also Col. Duffield, who had been badly 
wounded during the fight. His companion in his unfor- 
tunate visit to the post — Gen. Crittenden — had also been 
captured at the hotel in the village, and was taken away 



62 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUxNTIBS, MICHIGAN. 



with the other prisoners, to whose numbers was also added 
the Minnesota regiment before mentioned, and the men and 
officers of Hewett's Battery. 

At McMinnville, Forrest paroled the enlisted men whom 
he had captured, and they returned to Nashville, whence 
they were sent to Camp Chase. He, however, retained the 
officers and took them to Knoxville. From there they 
were sent to Atlanta, then to Madison, Ga., where they re- 
mained for a considerable time, then to Columbia, S. C, to 
Salisbury, N. C, and finally to Libby Prison, at Richmond, 
where they were eventually paroled. Col. Parkhurst was 
exchanged in December, 1862., In the mean time the 
portion of the regiment which had escaped capture at 
Murfreesboro' had been engaged againsf the enemy at 
Tyree Springs, Tenn., and at Munfbrdsville, Ky., about the 
time of Gen. Buell's advance from Louisville to Perryville 
and Bowling Green. 

On the 2-ith of December, 1862, Lieut.-Col Parkhurst, 
then in command of the Ninth (Col. Duffield was perma- 
nently disabled by the wounds received at Murfreesboro', 
and resigned less than two months after that time), reported 
for duty at the headquarters of Gen. Thomas, near Nash- 
ville, and was assigned to duty as provost-marshal ; his 
regiment (reorganized and with ranks refilled by the ex- 
changed- prisoners) being detailed as provost-guard of the 
Fourteenth Corps. The remark was made by Gen. Thomas, 
on the issuance of the order assigning it to that duty, that 
he had fully acquainted himself with the history of the 
part taken by the regiment in its defense of the post of 
Murfreesboro' against Forrest, and that just such a regi- 
ment was what he needed at his headquarters. 

The duty to which the Ninth was thus assigned was 
performed by the regiment from that time until the expi- 
ration of its term of service. For the manner in which it 
performed the duties devolving on it at the battles of Stone 
River and Chickamauga (particularly the former), Col. 
Parkhurst and the regiment were warmly complimented by 
Gen. Thomas. When that general assumed the chief com- 
mand of the Army of the Cumberland, after Chickamauga, 
Col. Parkhurst (who received his promotion to the colonelcy 
Feb. 6, 1863) was made provost-marslial-general of the de- 
partment, and the Ninth became provost-guard at army 
headquarters. In December, 1863, the regiment, to the 
number of two hundred and twenty-nine, re-enlisted as a 
veteran organization, received a veteran furlough, and re- 
turned to Michigan in a body, arriving at Coldwater in 
January, 1864. At the expiration of its furlough, re- 
assembling at the same place, it left on the 20th of Feb- 
ruary for the front, with its ranks filled to about five 
hundred men. At Chattanooga it returned to duty at 
headquarters, and in the summer and fall of 1864 partici- 
pated in all the operations of the Army of the Cumber- 
land in Georgia and Tennessee. It entered Atlanta on its 
evacuation by the enemy, and was there engaged in pi'ovost 
duty till November 1st, when it returned to Chattanooga. 
During October sixty-nine members were discharged by 
expiration of their term of service, but as a large number 
of recruits had been received during the year, the regiment, 
on the 1st of November, 1864, numbered eight hundred 
and ninety-seven enlisted men. It remained in Chatta- 



nooga until the 27th of March, 1865, when it was moved 
to Nashville. There it stayed on duty at headquarters and 
as "uard at the military prison until the 15th of September, 
when it was mustered out of the service, and on the fol- 
lowin" day left fou Michigan. It arrived at Jackson oq 
the 19th of September, and one week later the men were 
paid off and disbanded. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY SOLDIBKS IN THE NINTH INFANTRY. 
NonrCammisswned BUiJf. 
Sergt.-Maj. Wm. K. SelloD, Owosso ; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. G. 
Q.M.-Ser6t. Arthur B. Hathaway, Owosbo; pro. to 2i lleut. Co. K. 

Cfmypawj A. 
Delos Hourd, dJBch. by order, June 2-i, 1865. 

Company B. 
James B. Cummings, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., May 28, 1865. 
Marsliall F. Frericli, disch. by order, July 24, 1864. 

Company D. 
John Miller, disch. by order, Aug. 10, 1806. 
James N. Place, disch. by order, June 20, 1865. 
Wilson D. Smith, disch. by order, Aug. 30, 1865. 

Company E. 
Hiram B. Andrews, disch. by order, May 16, 18C5. 
John K. Holt, disch. by order, Aug. 17, 1866. 
Martin Judtl, niudt. out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Bansom B. Rhodes, disch. by order, June 20, 1865. 

Company F. 

Capt. Geo. K. Newcombe, Owosso, com. Oct. 12, 1861 ; pro. to maj. of 7th Cav., 

Dec. 10, 1802. 
William W. lirown, disch. by order, Aug. 26, 1865. 
William H. Babcock, disch. for disaliility, Oct. 1, 1863. 
John Colby, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863; must, out Sept. 15, 1806. 
Steiihen A. Crane, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
George Cordray, veteran, enl. Nov. 3, 1863; must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Justus Collmru, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 

Jacob H. DoolitUe, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., July 18, 1862. 
James Drown, died of disease at West Point, Ky., Nov. 26, 1862. 
Lntber Drown, disch. April 17, 1S62. 

Francis Denning, veteian, enl. Nov. 3, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Adam Dubeck, veteran, enl, Dec, 7, 1863; must, out Sept. 15, 1805. 
John Doney, veteran, enl, Dec. 7, 1863; must, out Sept, 15, 1865. 
Sullivan Fay, veteran, Dec. 7, 1803 ; must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Henry T. Fish, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn,, April 13, 1866. 
Samuel H, Gnihani, disch, for disability, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Edward Graliam, disch. for disability, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Isaac Gould, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863; must, ont Sept. 15,1865. 
Frederick Ghutekunst, must, out Sept, 15, 186.5. 
Beubeu Harvey, veteran, enl . Dec. 7, 1803 ; must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Lyman Hammond, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
George Holland, must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 

Cyrus Hill, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn,, July 7, 1862. 
Edward Hagernutn, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Oct, 21, 1862. 
Edward Jones, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Bartlett Johnson, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Morris Jackson, must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
James E. Jackson, disch. for disability, Dec. 14, 1862. 
George W. Knight, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
John Lampman, disch. for disability, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Alfred Lefevre, disch. by order, Sept. 27, 1865. 

Herrick Lefevre, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863; must, out Sept, 15, 1865. 
Alexander Morris, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Edward McCann, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Frederick Moore, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Frederick Newman, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
George W. Phillips, disch. for disability, Sept. 30, 1862. 
Joseph H. Bhodes, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 
Henry Rein, disch. at end of service, Oct, 14, 1864. 
William U, Rhodes, died of disease at Corunna, Mich., Feb. 27, 1864. 
Edwin W. Bobinson, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., July 7, 1862, 
George A. Stickler, accidentally drowned at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 18, 1866. 
Archer Simonds, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1803 ; disch. by order, Sept. 29, 1865. 
Bodolph M, Stickler, veteran, enl, Dec, 7, 1803 ; must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Obadiah Smith, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Philip Schwable, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 
Michael Strahel, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 
Herman Scbmitgal, must, out Sept, 16, 1865. 



TENTH INFANTKY. 



63 



Simeon Spanlding, imiBt. out Sept. 15, 18G5. 

George Scougal, inuet. out Sept. lo, 18G5. 

■William P. Treadway, veteimi, enl. Dec. 7, 1P63 ; must, out Sept 15, 1806. 

Ira M. Ware, veteran, enl. Kdv. 28, 18G3 ; must, out Sept. 15, 1865, 

Isaac Wetter, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863 ; must, tut S*-pt. 15, 1865. 

Cljauncey D. Wliitman, veteran, enl. Kov. 11. 1863; disch. for disability, April 

17,1864. 
Darius Watkins, disch. for disability, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Bicliard WHllace, disch. at end of service, Oct. 14, 1864. 
l>aniel D. Wise, died of diseaee at Murfreesboro', Tenn., March 14, 1863. 

Company G. 
2d Lieut. William R. Sellon, Owosso; com. Feb. 8, 1862; pro. to Ist lleut., Co. I. 
Horace 0. Curtis, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
James Crandall, muBt. out Sept. 15, 1866. 
George Holland, muKt. out Sept. 15, 1866, 
John Miller, must, out Sept. 16, 1866. 
Eli R. Rood, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Company H. 
Levi A. Bronson, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Andrew Curtis, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 
Thaddeus Huff, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Joseph HufT, disch. by order, Sept. 6, 1865. 

Alexander Montgomery, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Apiil 9, 18G4. 
John O'Conner, disch. by order, Sept. 6, 1865. 

Willis Palmer, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., March 23, 1863. 
Patrick Quinn, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Company I. 
Ist Lient. William R. Sellon, Owosso; com. Sept. 23,1862; pro. to lieut.-col. of 

102d U. S. Col. Troops, Aug. 17, 1863. 
Joseph Brown, must, out Sept, 15, 1865. 
Jeremiah Coif, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Chailes H. Coif, disch. by order, Sept. 11,1866. 
Ira A, Johnson, disch, by order, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Michael Punches, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Company K. 
2d Lieut. Arthur B. Hathaway, Owosso ; com. Oct. 14, 1864 ; must, out Sept. 15, 

1865. 
David M. Arthur, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Leroy Chapin, disch. for dieabilify, Sept. 18, 1863. 
Cornelius Coraon, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1,1863; must, out Sept, 15, 

1863. 
Eli F. Evans, disch. for promotion, Dec. 14, 1864, 
William P. Horton, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., July 10, 1866. 
George A, Harrington, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., May, 1861. 
Charles P. Jones, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 
Daniel McCoUura, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
William G. Rouse, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 
Chauncey 0. Rouse, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Samuel B, Reed, must, out Sept. 15, 1866. 
Albert Snow, must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Franklin Scougall, must, out Sept, 15, 1865. 
William Shattuck, must, out Sept. 15, 1866, 
Allen Slater, veteran, enl. Dec. 7, 1863. 
John Sabine, died of disease at Louisville, Ky. 
James B. Sanderson, discb. for disability, June 22, 1863. 
Luther Truesdale, disch. by order, Sept. 28, 1865. 
Alexander Yanwormer, disch. by order, Sept. 6, 1863. 
Abel Yanwormer, disch. for disability, Sept. 9, 1863. 
Elthaner Yanwoimer, must, out Sept. 16, 1865. 

Company L. 
Orlando Harrington, disch. for disability, April 9, 1863. 



CLINTON COUNTY MEN IN THE NINTH. 

Company D. 
Wilbert Thompson, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Company E. 
Peter Bertram, disch. at end of service, Oct. 14, 1864. 



CHAPTER IX. 

TENTH INFABTTRT. 

The Tenth Organized at Flint — Campaigns and Marehes in Missis- 
sippi, Tennessee, and Alabama — Pursuit of Longstreet in East 
Tennessee — Winter Quarters in Georgia — Battle at Buzzard's Roost 
— Veteran Re-enlistment — Atlanta Campaign — March to the Sea — 
Carolina Campaign — March to Washington — -The Grand Review- 
Muster Out. 

In the composition of the Tenth Regiment there were 
several companies which contained men from Shiawassee 
and Clinton Counties ; but the greatest number of these 
were found in the ranks of " A" company, which was 
largely recruited at Byron (the home of its commanding 
oflBcer) and Corunna, and was made up almost entirely of 
volunteers from Shiawassee and the northern part of Liv- 
ingston County. The name by which this company was 
known while being recruited and before receiving its desig- 
nating letter in the regiment was that of " The Byron 
Guard ;" its captain and first lieutenant being respectively 
Henry S. Burnett, of Byron, and Robert F. Gulick, of 
Corunna. 

The " Byron Guard"' was raised in the fall- of 1861, 
under authority received by Capt. Burnett from the Gov- 
ernor of Michigan, dated October 4th in that year. On the 
28th of the same month it had reached the minimum num- 
ber of men, and on the 2d of November the captain re- 
ceived orders to report with his company at Flint, the 
rendezvous of the Tenth Infantry, to which regiment it 
had been assigned. It reached Flint November 5th, eighty- 
six strong, and was the second company to report at the 
rendezvous, the company known as the " Saginaw Rangers" 
having reached there three days earlier. In the organiza- 
tion of the regiment, however, the " Byron Guard" re- 
ceived the first letter, and the " Rangers" were designated 
as Company B. The last of the ten companies reported 
at Flint on the 26th of December, and by the 20th of Jan- 
uary all had been filled and the organization of the regi- 
ment was perfected. 

The camp of instruction at Flint was named " Camp 
Thomson," in honor of Col. Edward H. Thomson, of that 
city, president of the State Military Board. At this camp, 
on the 5th of February, 1862, the Tenth Infantry was re- 
viewed by Governor Blair, and on that and the following 
day it was mustered into the United States service by Col. 
Wright, U.S.A. The Tenth was now an organized regi- 
ment in the service of the government, under the following 
field-oflScers, viz. : Colonel, Charles M. Lum ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel, Christopher J. Dickerson ; Major, James J. Scarritt. 
The ceremony of presentation of a national flag to the 
regiment was performed on Friday, the 11th of April, at 
the camp of instruction. 

The regiment, nine hundred and ninety-seven strong, 
took its departure from Camp Thomson on Tuesday, the 
22d of April, its first destination being known to be St. 
Louis, Mo. There was then no railroad from Flint to the 
line of the Detroit and Milwaukee road, and therefore the 
men were moved to Holly Station on wagons and other 
vehicles furnished by patriotic citizens. This first stage of 
their long journey was accomplished in a snow-storm, which 



64 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



gave additional sadness to partings, some of which proved to 
be final. At Holly, after abundant feasting, the command 
took the train for Detroit, and after marching through the 
city to the Michigan Central depot, escorted by the " Lyon 
Guard" and Detroit "Light Guard," embarked on a train 
consisting of twenty-three passenger and five freight cars, 
drawn by two locomotives, and at a little before midnight 
left for the West. Michigan City was reached at two 
o'clock P.M. on Wednesday, and at six p.m. on Thursday 
the regiment was at East St. Louis. On the following day 
it embarked on the steamer " Gladiator," and at four p.m. 
on Friday moved down the Mississippi. Cairo was reached, 
and during the short stop which was made there the most 
sensational rumors were circulated : that desperate fighting 
'was then in progress at Pittsburg Landing, on the Tennes- 
see (the known destination of the regiment) ; that the river 
at Paducah was filled with dead floating down from the bat- 
tle-field above ; and many other stories of similar import. 
But the " Gladiator" moved on up the Ohio and Tennessee 
OD Saturday afternoon, passed Fort Henry on Sunday, and 
on Monday night reached Pittsburg Landing, but was or- 
dered to proceed four miles farther up the Tennessee to 
Hamburg, which place was reached on Tuesday, the 27th, 
just one week after the departure from Cump Thomson. 
Here the regiment was disembarked on the 28th, and on 
the 29th was assigned to duty in Col. James D. Morgan's 
brigade, Payne's division, left wing Army of Mississippi. 
On its first advent among the veterans of Shiloh the regi- 
ment received the usual attentions which old soldiers pay to 
fresh troops, such as sneering allusions to the cleanness of 
uniforms and the size of knapsacks, with frequent appli- 
cations of the epithets " paper-collar soldiers," "band-box 
regiment," and many similar compliments ; but all this was 
given and received in good-humor, for all knew that a few 
days of marching would lighten the knapsacks and remedy 
the objectionable brightness of uniforms, and after the first 
action all would be old soldiers together. 

The first march of the regiment in the enemy's country 
was made on the 29th, when it moved up about five miles 
and bivouacked for the night in the woods. On the 1st of 
May it again advanced towards Farmington, Miss., and re- 
mained in the vicinity of that village until the enemy's 
evacuation of Corinth, May 30th. During this time it was 
several times slightly engaged in skirmishing, but sustained 
no loss except on the 26th, when the adjutant, Lieut. Syl- 
vester D. Cowles, was instantly killed by the bullet of a 
sharpshooter while on picket. 

The entire summer of 1862 was passed by the regiment 
in marching, camping, picketing, and similar duties in the 
north part of the States of Mississippi and Alabama, but 
without any notable event (more than an occasional skirmish) 
occurring in its experience. On the 1st of June it was at 
Kienzi, Miss., and from the 2d to the 11th was at Boone- 
ville and in its vicinity. About June 15th it encamped at 
Big Springs, six miles from Corinth, and remained there 
five weeks. At this place a Fourth of July celebration was 
held, and the stay at this camp was regarded by all as among 
the most agreeable of all the regiment's sojournings during 
the war. On the 27th of July the headquarters of the 
regiment were at Camp Leighton, Tuscumbia, Ala., but the 



several companies were posted at difierent places for a dis- 
tance of twenty miles along the. Memphis and Charleston 
Railroad, engaged in guarding that line. Lieut.-Col. Dick- 
erson, who was at Town Creek, Ala., with a part of the 
re"-iment, evacuated that place in haste in the night of the 
31st on account of the (reported) advance of a heavy force 
of the enemy. The camp was reoccupied the next day, as 
the enemy (if there had been any in the vicinity) had 
moved in another direction. 

The headquarters of the regiment remained at Camp 
Leighton until September 1st, when it received orders to 
move towards Nashville, and on the following day it crossed 
the Tennessee River and moved northward. The march 
(the line of which lay through Rogersville, Athens, Elkton, 
Pulaski, Lynnvi'lle, Columbia, Spring Hill, and Franklin) 
occupied nine days, and in the evening of September 11th 
the regiment with its brtgade reached a point two miles 
south of Nashville. There it remained until the 15th, when 
it moved through the city and encamped in the suburbs. 

For nearly two months the force of which the Tenth 
Regiment was a part (consisting of the divisions of Gens. 
Palmer and Negley) remained at Nashville without com- 
munications, surrounded by the forces of the Confederate 
Gen. Breckinridge, and compelled to live by foraging on 
the neighboring country, crowding back the enemy every 
time that parties were sent out from Nashville for this pur- 
pose. But finally, on the 6th of November, the advance 
of the Army of the Cumberland (moving southward from 
Kentucky under Gen. Rosecrans, in pursuit of the rebel 
Gen. Bragg) reached Edgefield, on the north side of the 
Cumberland, opposite Nashville ; thus opening communi- 
cation with the Ohio River for the force which had so long 
been beleaguered in Nashville. 

The army of Rosecrans remained encamped around Nash- 
ville until the 2Gth of December, when it moved forward 
towards Murfreesboro', on the campaign which culminated 
in the great battle of Stone River, December 31st, and 
January 1st and 2d. The Tenth Michigan did not take 
part in this forward movement, but remained nearly seven 
months after that time at Nashville, engaged in provost, 
grand guard, and fatigue duty, and in protecting communi- 
cation between Nashville and Murfreesboro' and other 
points. Upon one occasion, Jan. 3, 1863, two companies 
(one of them being Capt. Burnett's), while guarding a train 
between Nashville and Murfreesboro', were attacked by a 
large guerrilla force of the enemy, but repulsed them, taking 
fifteen prisoners and killing an equal number without loss 
to themselves. Again, April 10, 1863, a force of forty- 
four men of the Tenth Regiment, having been sent under 
command of Lieut. F. W. Vanderberg to guard a railway- 
train, were attacked by a body of the enemy's cavalry in 
ambush at Antioch Station, three miles north of Lavergne, 
the train having been stopped for some cause ^when the 
attack was made. Lieut. Vanderberg fell mortally wounded 
at the first or second fire, and five of his men were killed, 
ten wounded, and three taken prisoners, making a total loss 
of nineteen, or two-fifths of the force engaged. This (with 
the exception of the loss of its adjutant, killed on picket 
in Mississippi) was the first loss inflicted on the regiment 
in action by the enemy. 



TENTH INFANTRY. 



65 



The men and oflScers of the Tenth had begun to regard 
Nashville as their permanent camping-place, and some of 
them had formed such strong attachments there that when, 
on the 19th of July, orders were received to move south- 
ward, they were welcomed with very little of the enthusiasm 
which similar orders would have produced a few months 
earlier. But the regiment moved in the morning of the 
20th, and reached Murfreesboro' at noon of the 21st. Here 
it remained on picket and guard duty till August 19th, when 
it again marched southward. 

The history of the regiment during the four months 
next succeeding its departure from Murfreesboro' is that of 
an almost continuous march through the States of Tennes- 
see, Alabama, and Georgia. It passed south through Poster- 
ville, Shelbyville, Farmington (Tenn.), and Lewisburg to 
Columbia ; remained there on provost duty from the 23d 
"to the 26th of August; moved on through Pulaski and 
Lynnville to Athens, Ala. ; remained there from August 
29th to September 1st ; thence passed through Huntsville, 
Brownsville, on Flint Eiver, Ala., Larkinville, Scottsboro', 
and Bellefonte to Stevenson, Ala., remaining at the last- 
named place on provost duty from the 7th to the 21st of 
September ; moved to Bridgeport, Ala., remained there till 
October 1st; moved at midnight, through dense darkness and 
fathomless mud, on the road to Jasper, Tenn. ; passed that 
place and moved to Anderson's Cross- Roads ; remained 
there picketing from the 3d to the 18th of October; 
moved to Dallas, Tenn., thirteen miles above Chattan6oga, 
on the north side of the Tennessee River ; remained there 
three days within hearing of the cannonading between the 
hostile armies at Chattanooga; moved again October 24th, 
passed through Washington, Tenn., and arrived on the 
26th at Smith's Ferry over the Tennessee, fifty-five miles 
above Chattanooga. There the regiment remained for 
nearly four weeks, during which time the men had con- 
structed comfortable quarters with fireplaces and other 
conveniences, believing that this would be their camping- 
place for the winter, which was then approaching. But on 
the 20th of November marching orders came, and on 
Saturday, the 21st, the Tenth Michigan was again on the 
march. In the evening of the 22d it was once more 
within hearing of the cannonade from the batteries on 
Lookout Mountain, and on the 23d it reached Camp Cald- 
well, on the right bank of the Tennessee, four miles above 
Chattanooga. , 

On the following day the Tenth crossed to the south side 
of the river and stood iu line during the progress of the 
great conflicts at Lookout and Mission Ridge, but was not 
engaged in either of those battles. Soon after midnight, 
in the morning of the 26th, it moved up the -Tennessee, 
crossed Chickamauga Creek on a pontoon-bridge, and 
marched up the right hank of that stream, where a part of 
the brigade met a small force 6f the retreating enemy, and 
a skirmish ensued in which one man of the regiment was 
slightly wounded by a spent ball. The enemy's evacuated 
works at Chickamauga Station were occupied on the same 
day, the Tenth being the first to enter the works. On the 
27th the regiment entered Georgia for the first time, pass- 
ing through Grayville and camping near Ringgold. On 
the 28th orders were received to march in pursuit of Long- 
9 



street, who was known to be in the vicinity of Knoxville. 
Under these oiders the regiment marched with its brigade 
on the 29th, and continued to move rapidly up the valley 
of- the Tennessee until December 6th, when it had reached 
a point some fifteen miles above Loudon, where the intelli- 
gence was received that Longstreet had withdrawn from 
Knoxville and retreated into Virginia. Then the column 
was ordered to return to Chattanooga. The Tenth passed 
through Madisonville to* Columbus, Tenn. (remaining at 
the latter place from the 9th to the 15th of December, 
during which time the bridge across the Hiawassee River 
was constructed, and on the 18th reached its old camp, four 
miles above Chattanooga. Here it remained till the 26th 
when It moved to near Rossville, Ga., and prepared to go 
into winter quarters after a marching campaign of more 
than four months' duration. The men had come in from 
the East Tennessee march worn out, famished, and tattered, 
many of them having no shoes, having been compelled to 
cut up their ragged blankets into wrappings for their feet. 
No men ever stood more in need of rest and recuperation. 

At the Rossville camp the men built tight and comfort- 
able log cabins, each containing a fireplace, and in these 
(when not out on picket duty) the two remaining months 
of winter were spent in a very agreeable manner. Prepara- 
tions were made for mustering as veterans, and nearly all 
the companies had the requisite three-fourths of their num- 
ber re-enlisted, when, in the evening of February 3d, the 
regiment was ordered out on picket to Chickamauga Sta- 
tion, eight miles away. It remained out till the 14th, when 
it was marched back to camp, and the veteran muster was 
completed on the 16th, three hundred and eighty. men 
signing the veteran enlistment for three years, dating from 
February 6th. The number of veterans was afterwards in- 
creased to over four hundred. The re-enlistment and mus- 
ter being perfected, the men were waiting impatiently for 
the veteran furlough (which some of them were destined 
never to receive), when, in the morning of February 23d, 
the regiment had orders to march immediately, with three 
days' rations and sixty rounds of ammunition. The men 
could hardly believe that they were again to march to the 
front before making the long-anticipated visit to their 
homes, but they fell in without much audible complaint, 
and marched away on the road which was to lead them to 
their first battlefield. The regiment moved to within a 
mile of Ringgold, and camped for the night. In the morn- 
ing of the 24th it moved to a point between that town 
and Tunnel Hill, where "the brigade joined the forces 
which had moved out from Chattanooga to make a reoon- 
noissance in force of the enemy's positions in the direction 
of Dalton and Lafayette, Ga. The enemy were flanked 
out of their works at Tunnel Hill, and retired towards 
Dalton. The Tenth (with other commands) folldwed in 
pursuit, and at about five o'clock p.m. arrived at Buzzard's 
Roost, — a rocky stronghold of the rebels, situated in a pass 
of the mountains known as Kenyon's Gap, — three miles 
from Dalton. The works were in the rear of Rocky-Face 
Ridge, and fully commanded the gap. Some skirmishing 
was done in the afternoon and evening of the 24th, and 
the regiment took position for the night between two spurs 
of Rocky-Face Ridge. 



66 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTOX COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



On the 25th the early part of the day was consumed in 
skirmishing, but about two o'clock P.M. the Tenth, with 
the Sixtieth Illinois, was ordered forward in line over the 
ridges to attack the enemy and carry his position if possible. 
They moved forward gallantly into a very hot artillery and 
musketry fire from greatly superior numbers of the enemy. 
They remained under this terrible enfilading fire for about 
forty minutes, and did what men could do to carry the 
position, but were at last forced back by superior numbers, 
and at the end of one hour and ten minutes the regiment 
reoccupied the position from which it had advanced to the 
charn-e. In this brief time it had lost forty-nine killed and 
wounded and seventeen missing, among the latter being 
Lieut.-Col. Dickorson, who was wounded and made prisoner 
by the enemy. 

A characteristic account of the battle given by a rebel 
paper (the Atlanta Register of Feb. 29, 1864) was as fol- 
lows : " On Thursday, the 25th, the enemy commenced, 
about nine A.M., to skirmish with our pickets and sharp- 
shooters. At one P.M. the Federal general, Morgan, ad- 
vanced on our right centre to force the gap. They were 
gallantly met by Reynolds' brigade, of Stevenson's division, 
Clayton's brigade, of Walker's division, and Stavall's bri- 
gade, of Stewart's division, when a lively fight took place. 
The enemy made three desperate assaults to take the gap, 
and were repulsed each time with great slaughter, being 
enfiladed at the same time by our artillery. We captured 
some twenty prisoners, among them Lieut.-Col. C. J. Dick- 
erson, of the Tenth Michigan, which regiment alone lost 
two hundred and fifty killed and wounded. That night the 
enemy fell back behind their intrenchments, — some three 
or four miles from our front line, — and a portion of their 
forces moved over to our left, and succeeded in taking a 
gap leading to the Lafayette road, through Sugar Valley, 
three miles south of Dalton." 

It will be noticed that while this account made the loss 
of the Tenth more than five times what it really was in 
killed and wounded, it admits that the two regiments which 
formed the Union attacking column encountered a rebel 
force of three brigades in a strongly-fortified position. In 
fact, neither the Tenth nor the Sixtieth Illinois had all its 
strength present in the fight, — only eight companies of 
each, making a total of about nine hundred men, being 
engaged. 

On the 2Cth the regiment with its brigade was relieved, 
and marched to Ringgold, from whieli place it returned to 
camp at Rossville on the 27th. ' About the 5th of March 
the veterans of the Tenth left the Rossville camp and 
moved to Chattanooga en route for Michigan, and arrived 
at Detroit on the 11th. There they received the veteran 
furlough, with orders to rea.ssemble at its expiration at the 
rendezvous, the city of Flint. Upon reassembling they 
remained in Flint for some days, — a visit which was long 
remembered by both soldiers and citizens. The veterans 
and recruits left Flint on the 20th of April, and moved by 
way of Fentonville to Detroit, thence by way of Kalamazoo 
and Lafayette to Jefiersonville, Ind., Louisville, Ky., and 
Nashville, arriving at the latter city April 24th. They left 
Nashville on the 27th, and marched to Chattanooga, where 
they arrived on the 11th of May, and on the 12th marched 



to their old winter quarters at Rossville, which were found 
undisturbed and in good condition. On the 13th they 
marched in search of the brigade (which had moved for- 
ward with the army May 2d), and overtooTc it in the morn- 
ing of the 16th, marching nineteen miles farther the same 
day with Gen. JeflF. C. Davis' division, which was moving 
towards Rome. On the 17th the regiment took part in 
the fight at Oostenaula River and in the capture of Rome 
on the following day, both without loss. Then followed a 
series of marches and manoeuvres by which the Tenth 
moved to Dallas, to Ackworth, Ga., and by way of Lost 
Mountain to Kenesaw, where, in the assault of the 27th 
of June, it formed part of the reserve of the charging 
column. Its losses during June were fourteen killed and 
wounded. 

The enemy having evacuated his works at Kenesaw, the 
Tenth took part in the pursuit, marching on the 3d of ' 
July, and, having crossed the Chattahoochee River, it 
advanced on the 19th to Durant's Mill, on Peachtree 
Creek, and took part in the actions of that and the follow- 
ing day, losing twenty-three killed and wounded. Through 
the remainder of July and nearly all of August it lay in the 
lines of investment before Atlanta. August 30th it moved 
with a reconnoitcring column to Jonesboro', and took part 
in the battle at that place on the 1st of September, charging 
across an open field on the enemy's works, and losing thirty 
killed and forty-seven wounded, among the former being 
the commanding ofiicer of the regiment, Maj. Burnett. 
It was claimed for the Tenth that in this action it took 
more prisoners than the number of men which it carried 
into the fight. For its conduct on this occasion it was 
complimented by Gens. Thomas, Davis, and Morgan, the 
corps, division, and brigade commanders. 

On the second day following the battle of Jonesboro' 
the Tenth moved back to the front of Atlanta, and re- 
mained there until and after the capture of that -city. On 
the 28th of September the brigade moved northward by 
railroad to Chattanooga, and thence by way of Bridgeport 
and Stevenson to Florence, Ala., the object being to expel 
the enemy's cavalry from the country north of the Ten- 
nessee River. In this the forces were but partially success- 
ful, and after a stay of about ten days they were moved 
back to Chattanooga, where a halt was made for several 
days. The Tenth with its brigade then moved up the 
» Chattooga and Broomtown valleys to Rome, Ga., where it 
joined its corps (the Fourteenth), which was moving into 
Alabama in pursuit of the Confederate army under Gen. 
Hood. It moved across the mountain to Gaylesville, Ala., 
where it remained only one day and then returned to Rome. 
From that point it moved rapidly to Etowah and Carters- 
ville, Ga., and thence south along the Atlanta Railroad, 
destroying the track and telegraph in its march, the object 
being to cut all communication with Atlanta, preparatory 
to Gen. Sherman's bold march across Georgia to the At- 
lantic. When the Tenth Regiment with its brigade ap- 
proached Atlanta in the afternoon of the 15th of November 
the city was on fire from end to end, it being the object 
of the Union general to destroy everything in it (except 
dwelling-houses) which could be of service to the enemy 
after the departure of the army. During the adternoon 



TENTH INFANTEY. 



67 



and evening of the ]5tb, shoes, clothing, and rations were 
issued to the troops, and everything was made ready for the 
forward maroh in the following morning. 

At noon on the 16th of November, the Tenth Michigan 
— forming a part of the First Brigade, Second Division of 
the Fourteenth Army Corps — moved out with its com- 
panion regiments (the Fourteenth Michigan, the Sixteenth 
and Sixtieth Illinois, and the Seventeenth New York, all 
under Col. Robert F. Smith, as brigade commander), and 
took the road to Stone Mountain, Ga., near which place it 
bivouacked for the night. The march was resumed on the 
17th, and was continued without intermission, except the 
necessary halts, until the evening of the 21st, when the 
command encamped several miles from Milledgeville, and 
remained quiet there during the following day. On the 
23d the regiment resumed the march', and on the 24th it 
passed through Milledgeville. It reached Louisville, the 
county-seat of Jefferson County, on the 28th, and camped 
there for three days, engaged in foraging and picket duty. 
Again, on the 1st of December, it moved forward, and, 
crossing the Savannah and Charleston Railroad on the 10th, 
arrived in front of Savannah (four and a half miles distant 
from .the city) in the morning of the 11th. Ten days 
later Savannah was evacuated by the enemy and immedi- 
ately occupied by the forces of Gen. Sherman. 

After a month's stay in Savannah, the Fourteenth Corps, 
including the Tenth Regiment, left the city (on the 20th of 
January, 1865) for the march through the Carolinas. The 
crossing of the Savannah River was made at Sister's Ferry, 
on the 5th of February. The Tenth remained here two 
days before moving north, and while here (February 6th) 
the non-veterans of the organization were mustered out of 
the service, just three years having expired since the com- 
pletion of the original muster at Camp Thomson. 

The regiment reached Fayetteville, N. C, March 11th, 
and was there slightly engaged in a skirmish with the 
enemy. On the 12th it crossed the Cape Fear River, skir- 
mishing at Averysboro', and on the 16th was again engaged 
at the same place, losing three men killed. Moving in ad- 
vance of the corps on the 18th, six companies being de- 
ployed as skirmishers, they struck the enemy about noon, 
and a lively skirmish ensued. The regiment was ordered 
to take pcsition at the junction of the Smithfield and 
Goldsboro' roads, and during the night it was attacked, but 
repulsed the enemy, and held its position until relieved by- 
troops of the Twentieth Corps, on the 19th, when it moved 
and formed on the right of the second line of battle at Ben- 
tonville. About four p.m. the enemy moved up in heavy 
masses,' and charged the first line, but was repulsed. Then 
the Tenth with its brigade moved forward to the first line, 
and in a few minutes the enemy was discovered coming in 
on the lefb flank. The line was at once changed to the 
opposite side of the works, and, after pouring a volley into 
the ranks of the rebels, they were charged and driven with 
the bayonet, many prisoners and arms being taken. On 
the 20th the regiment skirmished during the entire day 
and nio-ht, and on the 21st moved towards Goldsboro', 
reaching there on the 23d. Moving from Goldsboro', 
it reached Smithfield April 10th and Raleigh April 13th. 
From Raleigh it moved to Avery's Ferry, forty-five miles 



above Fayetteville, and lay there from the 15th to the 21st 
of April, when it moved to Holly Springs, on the road to 
Raleigh. On the 28th it was at Morseville, N. C, and there 
received the announcement that its campaigning was over 
and the war ended by the surrender of Johnston. In its 
passage through the two Carolinas the regiment had sus- 
tained a loss of fifteen, killed, wounded, and missing. 

Moving north on the 30th of April, the Tenth arrived 
at Richmond, Va., May 7th, and remained there till the 
10th, when it marched on towards Washington, reaching 
there about the 16th. It took part in the grand review of 
Gen. Sherman's army at the capital on the 24th. It moved 
on the 13th of June, and proceeded to Louisville, Ky., 
where it was mustered out of the service July 19th, and 
ordered to Michigan. It reached Jackson on the 22d, and 
was paid off and discharged Aug. 1, 1865. 

The length and severity of this regiment's marches 
during its term of service were remarkable. It is shown 
that during 1862 and 1863 its foot-marches aggregated 
sixteen hundred miles; that its marches in 1864 amounted 
to thirteen hundred and seventy-five miles, and those in 
1865 to six hundred and twenty miles, — a total of three 
thousand five hundred and ninety-five miles ; this being 
exclusive of the distances accomplished by railroad and 
steamer. There were few, if any, regiments in the service 
whose marching record surpassed this. The brigade to 
which the Tenth was attached during the period of its re- 
markable marchings through Tennessee, Georgia, and Ala- 
bama was quite generally known among the men of the 
Southwestern army as " Morgan's brigade of Davis' foot- 
cavalry," the division being that commanded by Gen. Jeff. 
C. Davis. 

MEMBERS 0¥ THE TENTH INFANTEY FKOM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Field mid Staff. 
Maj. Henry S. Burnett, Byron; com. Nov. IG, 1863; died in action at Jones- 
boro', Qa., Sept. 1, 1864. 

Non-CommisBioned Staff. 
Q. M.-Sergt. George A. AUen, Byrou ; en). Oct. 20, 1861 ; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. 0. 

Compant/ A. 
Capt. H. S. Burnett, Byron ; com. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. to major. 
Oapt. Samuel S. Tower, Byron; com. May 20, 1865; Ist lieut., Feb. 24,1866; 

sergeant; must, out July 19, 1865. 
1st Lieut. Robert F. Gulick, Coronna; com. Oct. 4, '61 ; resigned May 23, '62. 
Sergt. Jay J. Parkhurat, Byron ; enl. Oct. 24, 1861 ; died in Mississippi, July 30, 

1862. 
Sergt. William B. Pratt, Byron; enl. Oct. 18, 1861 ; veteran, Feb. 6, 1864; pro. 

to 2d lieut. Co. D. 
Sergt. Charles Bice, Byron ; enl. Oct. 12, 1801 ; veteran, Feb. 6, 1864 ; must, out 

July 19, 1865. 
Sergt. Delos Jewell, Byron. 
Corp. John J. Campbell, Byron ; enl. Oct. 9, 1861 ; died of disease at home, July 

30, 1862. 
Corp. Marcus P. Andrews, Vernon; enl. Oct. 19, 1861; veteran, Feb. 6,1864; 

died of disease in hospital. 
Musician William W. Barker, Newburgh ; enl. Oct^ 18, 1861 ; died at Cincin- 
nati, 0., June 27, 1862. 
Musn. Riley W. Litchfield, Corunna; enl. Jau. 14, 1862; trans, to brigade 

band. 
Wagoner Henry H. Keyea, Byron ; disch. for disability, July 9, 1862. 
Robert Agnew, disch. for disability, Jan. 2, 1863. 

William Brown, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864 ; disch. by order, May 3, 1866. 
Jonas W. Botsford, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864 ; must, out July 19, 1865. 
Miner E. Blake, corporal ; veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864 ; must, out July 19, 1865. 
Henry Baird, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; must, out July 19, 1865. 
Martin Brayton, disch. Oct. 11, 1862. 
Henry Brown, must, out July 19, 1866. 

Horace S. Calkins, veteran, enl. Feb. 0, 1864; corporal ; must, out July 19, '65. 
Albert Campbell, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; trans, to U. S.Kng.,Sept.25, 1864. 
Silas Crawl'oid, must, out July 19, 1865. 



68 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Jacob Croup, discli. for disability, Feb. 1], 1862. 

Philip Cbamberlain, disch. Aug. 5, 1862. 

David 0. Calkins, disch. for d'sability, June24, 1862. 

George CoflBn, disch, for disability, Aug. 25, 1862. 

Alfred Cronkite, died of disease at Farmington, Miss., July 5, 1862. 

Sheldon Dickson, died of disease at Farmington, Miss., July 22, 1862. 

Luman Harris, disch. for disability, Dec. 23, 1862. 

Ezekiel Jewell, must, out July 19, 1865. 

Thurlow L. Millard, died of disease on board steamer "Empress," Mississippi 

River, May 17, 1862. 
Albert Martin, disch. for disability, Aug. 5, 1862. 
William J. Mosely, disch. for disability, Oct. 24, 1862. 
Corp. George E. Mills, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; must, out July 19, 1865. 
Orlando Mills, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864 ; must, out July 19, 1865. 
Henry Miller, veteran, enl. Feb. 6,1864; must, out July 19,1865. 
Charles Newman, disch. for disability, Sept. 2, 18G2. 

George A. Parker, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1804; discli. for disability, July 22,1805. 
Thomas J. Pettis, disch. at end of service, Feb. 6, 1865. 
William J. Parks, must, out July 19, 1865. 

Abram Reigle, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; must, out July 19, 1865. 
Philip Richardson, died at regt. hosp., Nashville, Tenn., March 13, 1863. 
Israel D. Russell, disch. at end of service, Feb. 6, 1865. 
Corp. Auren Roys, disch. at end of service, Feb. 6, 1865. 
Corp. Lemuel J. Sniedley, disch. at end of service, Feb. 6, 1804. 
Allen Stephens, disch. for disability, July 17, 1862. 
Charles F. Stewart, disch. for disability, Nov. liO, 1862. 
Ira I. Sweet, disharged Jan. 14, 1863. 

George Stroud, died of disease at Farmington, Mich., May 30, 1862. 
Edwin R. Scully, died of disease at Peach-Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864. 
William J. Tower, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; disch. by order, June 12, 1865. 
Judd Vincent, died near Goldsboro', N. C, March 23, 1805. 
Edgar D. Welch, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; must, out July 19, 1865. 
Peter Wooliver, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; disch. by order, June 13, 1865. 
Gideon Whiting, discharged. 
John Walworth. 

Company B. 
Ist Lieut. Wm. Pratt, Byron ; com. May 20, 1865 ; 2d lieut. Co. D, May 8, 1865; 

must, out July 19, 1865. 

Company C. 
2d Lieut. Goo. A. Allen, Byron ; com. March 31, 1863 ; disch. at end of service, 

Feb. 6, 1865, 
James M. Gillett, died of disease at Smithes Ferry, Dec. 2, 1863. 
Edgar E. Grilly, veteran, eni. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Frank Muiiger, died of disease at Farmington, Mich., July 11, 1862. 
Henry Ostrander, died of disease at Tuscumbia, Ala., Aug. 22, 1862. 
Alvah Remington, disch. at end of service, Feb. 6, 1865. 
Daniel Spear, diM:h. for disability, Sept. 5, 1862. 
William E. Spnigue, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Company G. 
Mus. Philip Goodwin, Shiawassee; enl. Jan. 14, 1862; disch. for disability, 

March 4, 1863. 
George R. Knapp, disch. at end of service, Feb. 5, 1805. 

Company H. 
Nalhan Findlay, must, out July 19, 1865. 
Albert Hill, disch. for disability, Sept. 3, 1863. 
John Marshall, disch. by order, June 26, 1865. 
John W. M. Parks, must, out July 19, 1865. 

Company I. 
William B. Gillett, disch. for disability, July 24, 1862. 
David W. Gillett, disch. at end of service, March 10, 1865. 

Company K. 
Capt. Wm. B. Walker, Owosso; com. May 8, 1865; Ist lieut. Nov. 8, 1864; 2d 
lieut. Co. B, July 20, 1864; must, out July 19, 1865. 

MEMBERS OF THE TENTH INFANTRY FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 

CoTnpany B. 
Warren Chatfield, must, out July 19, 1865. 
Sylvester Hall, must, out July 19, 1865. 

Company C. 
Martiu B. Payne, disch. by order, June 12, 1865. 

Company E. 
Jas. P. Salisbuiy, disch. by order, June 29, 1865. 



CHAPTER X. 

rOUKTEBNTH IMTANTRT. 

Organization at Ypsilanti — Campaigns in Mississippi and Alabama — 
Marcli to Nashville— Service at Franklin and Columbia — Veteran 
Re-enlistment — Atlanta Campaign — March to the Sea and through 
the Carolinas — Battles of Averysboro' and Bentonville — March to 
Washington — Muster Out at Louisville, Ky. 

The volunteers from Shiawassee and Clinton Counties 
who served in the ranks of the Fourteenth Infantry were 
principally found in Companies D, E, and K, though a con- 
siderable number were scattered through several other 
companies. The two counties were about equally repre- 
sented in " D" company, which received its first enlistment 
Oct. 11, 1861, and attained minimum strength December 
12th. The original first and second lieutenants of this 
company were, respectively, Gilman McClintock and Cyrus 
F. Jackson,, of Owosso. 

Company E was chiefly made up of Shiawassee County 
volunteers. The date of the first enlistment in this com- 
pany is Nov. 4, 1861, and it attained the minimum 
strength December 30th in the same year. Of its original 
ofiicers. First Lieut. C. C. Goodale and Second Lieut. 
Daniel Wait were residents of Owosso at the time of its 
organization. It contained a small number of men from 
Clinton County. 

In Company K there were a few men from Shiawas- 
see County, but it was principally composed of Clinton 
County volunteers, recruited by John Kelly and Charles 
B. Rose, of Westphalia, and N. T. Jones, of Grcenbush. 
Capt. Kelly became the company commander, and Kose 
was made first lieutenant, though in the recruiting of the 
company Mr. Jones had been named as its second officer. 
One of the county papers, dated Nov. 21, 1861, mentioned 
the recruiting of Capt. Kelly's company, as follows: "An 
artillery company is being raised by Capt. John Kelly, of 
Westphalia, to be attached to Col. Sinclair's [Fourteenth 
Infantry] regiment. The name of this company is ' Kelly's 
Clinton Dragoons.' " This raising of an artillery company, 
designated as dragoons, to form a part of an infantry regi- 
ment, is mentioned in this connection as being a rather re- 
markable military event. 

The name of the company was changed soon afterwards, 
and it became known as the " Clinton Rangers." The first 
enlistment in it was made on the 7th of November; the 
company attained the minimum strength on the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1862, and on the 3d of the same month it was re- 
moved to Ypsilanti, the regimental rendezvous. The two 
other companies previously mentioned reached the camp 
of instruction at about the same time, and the three soon 
after received their designating letters — D, E, and K, in 
the Fourteenth Infantry. 

The regiment was mustered into the United States service 
on the 13th of February, under command of Col. Robert 
P. Sinclair, with Robert W. Davis as lieutenant-colonel, 
and M. W. Quaekenbush, of Owosso, as major. Two 
months more were spent in perfecting its organization and 
drill, and, after the presentation of a stand of colors at the 
camp of instruction, the command, nine hundred and 
twenty-five strong, moved from Ypsilanti on the 17th of 



FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. 



69 



April, and proceeded to the theatre of war in the South- 
west, reaching Pittsburg Landing, on the Tennessee River, 
about two weeks after the great battle of Shiloh had been 
fought at that point. Passing on to Hamburgh Landing, 
four miles farther up the river, the command was disem- 
barked, and a few days later was assigned to duty as a part 
of Col. James D. Morgan's brigade, in the Army of the 
Mississippi. This brigade included the Tenth and Sixteenth 
Illinois and the Fourteenth Michigan. The Tenth Michigan 
and the Sixtieth Illinois were added soon afterwards, and 
the brigade, as thjjs composed, remained together the greater 
part of the time during the continuation of their terms of 
service. 

About the 1st of May the command moved forward to- 
wards Corinth, Miss., at which point the enemy had made a 
stand and thrown up intrenchments. This march was a very 
laborious one, for the weather was excessively hot, and the 
Fourteenth was employed in guarding and moving to the 
front several siege-guns, each of which was drawn by twelve 
yokes of oxen, floundering through the almost bottomless 
mud of the Mississippi swamps. The men were continually 
engaged in extricating the ponderous guns from the slough ; 
in corduroying the roads, often in the face of the enemy's 
skirmishers ; and always throwing up temporary works of 
defense before bivouacking for the night. Several weeks 
were spent in this way before the Fourteenth arrived in 
front of Corinth, but, excepting some slight skirmishing, 
the regiment did not take part in the operations by which 
the enemy was forced to retire from his stronghold. 

After the evacuation of Corinth the Fourteenth spent 
the remainder of the summer in marching, skirmishing, 
picketing, and guarding railroads through Northern Missis- 
sippi and Alabama ; camping for a considerable time at 
Farmington, at Big Springs, Miss., and for a longer period at 
Tuscumbia, Ala. At this place Lieut. Wait, of " E" Com- 
pany, was left in hospital prostrated by sickness brought 
on by the hardships of the service, and from which he has 
never fully recovered. 

About the last of August it was announced that the 
command was to move to Nashville, Tenn., and on the 1st 
of September the detachments of the regiment concen- 
trated at the military ferry on the Tennessee River and 
awaited orders to move. The orders were received on the 
following day, and the command moved northward with its 
brigade. The march occupied nine days, during which the 
regiment passed through Rogersville, Athens, Elkton, 
Pulaski, Lynnville, Columbia, Spring Hill, and Franklin, 
and in the evening of the 11th bivouacked two miles from 
Nashville. Here it remained on picket duty for a few days, 
and then moved through the city to a camp on high ground, 
near Fort Negley. 

The la^)or demanded of the regiment during its stay at 
Nashville was severe, consisting of work on the extensive 
fortifications which had been laid out by Gen. Negley, the 
commandant of the post, besides constant picketing and 
guarding of forage-parties, which were continually sent out 
into the surrounding country, this being the only means of 
subsisting the forces in Nashville, as all communication 
with the city, by rail or river, was destroyed. This state 
of affairs continued for about two months, Nashville being 



held by the divisions of Negley and Palmer, but out of 
communication with the outside world, and surrounded 
on every side by troops of the enemy, principally cavalry. 
The Army of the Cumberland, however, having defeated 
the army of Bragg at Perryville, Ky., was marching south- 
ward from Bowling Green, under Gen. Rosecrans, to the 
relief of the beleaguered force, and on the 6th of November 
his advance-guard reached the river at Edgefield, opposite 
Nashville. In the early morning of the day preceding that 
of Rosecrans' arrival a large force of the enemy had at- 
tacked the positions of the troops in Nashville, and the 
Fourteenth was quite sharply engaged with the other forces 
in repelling them. Maj. Quackenbush, who was then in 
command of the regiment, had his horse shot under him 
(though not killed) in the fight. This occasion was the 
first on which the Fourteenth had ever delivered their fire 
on a battle-field. 

The arrival of the Army of the Cumberland at Nash- 
ville opened railroad communication from the Ohio River 
to Mitchelville, thirty-five miks north of Nashville, and 
soon after it was opened to the city. This gave relief in 
the matter of rations to the troops who had been so long 
imprisoned there, and lightened the forage and picket duty, 
but the labor on the defensive works of the town was still 
continued, and a great amount of work was to be done in 
repairing roads and bridges for the advance of the amiy 
southward. 

In the movements preliminary to the advance of Gen. 
Rosecrans on Murfreesboro', the division of Gen. Palmer 
(in which was the Fourteenth Michigan) was the first 
pushed to the front on the line of Stone River near the 
" Hermitage," the former residence of Andrew Jackson. 
It remained at this point facing the enemy for about eight 
days, when on the general advance of the Army of the 
Cumberland (December 26th), it was moved back to Nash- 
ville by order of the commanding general, who, as he said, 
wished to have that important place held by some of his 
most trusty and reliable troops. Five days after the ad- 
vance of the main body of the army it was fiercely engaged 
with the enemy at Stone River in front of Murfreesboro', 
and the conflict raged with great fury and with little in- 
termission until the evening of the 2d of January, at 
which time the Fourteenth Michigan received orders to 
move up with all speed to Stone River. In obedience to 
this order it was marched all night through thick darkness 
and pouring rain, and in the morning it had reached the 
field, twenty-seven miles from the camp which it had left 
in the preceding evening. But as the enemy had already 
retreated, and there was no more fighting to be done on 
that line, the regiment did not participate in the memorable 
battle which secured to Gen. Rosecrans the possession of 
Middle Tennessee. 

During the month of March, 1863, the Fourteenth was 
stationed for a few days at Franklin, Tenn., and in April it 
was ordered out with its brigade to the neighborhood of 
Brentwood, to hold the railway line between Nashville and 
Franklin. The brigade was at this time attached to the 
Reserve Corps, commanded by Gen. Gordon Granger. Hav- 
ing returned to its camp at Nashville, the regiment was 
detached from its brigade on the 2d or 3d of July, and 



70 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



ordered to Franklin. Early in September the command 
was transformed into a corps of mounted infantry, and 
eight of its companies, with a section of artillery, were 
moved to Columbia, Tenn. From that time, for a period 
of eight months, Columbia and Franklin and the railroad 
line connecting the two places were held by the men of the 
Fourteenth, who, with their cavalry equipment and Spencer 
rifles, performed excellent service in clearing the surrojinding 
country of guerrillas. They also constructed a railway-bridge 
across the Duck River, and erected formidable fortifications 
at Columbia. 

In the first part of January, 1864, the regiment re-en- 
listed as veterans, and on the 21st of February five com- 
panies — C, F, G, I, and K — left Columbia for Michigan on 
veteran furlough, at the expiration of which they returned 
to their post in Tennessee. The remainder of the regiment 
then spent a thirty days' furlough in Michigan, and return- 
ing, rejoined their comrades in the field about the middle 
of May. On the 21st of that month the regiment received 
orders to move from Columbia and join the army of Gen. 
Sherman in Georgia. How the people of Columbia received 
the announcement that the Fourteenth was to leave their 
town, is shown by the following communication from a 
Columbia correspondent to the Nasliville Union, and pub- 
lished in that journal on the day of the regiment's de- 
parture : 

" News having reached Columbia that the Fourteenth 
Michigan Veteran Volunteers, which has been stationed 
here since September last, was ordered off, a meeting of the 
citizens was convened at the court-house, and a series of 
resolutions adopted which do credit alike to the citizens and 
soldiers. The honorable and consistent and liberal policy 
of the Fourteenth Michigan has merited and won the es- 
teem and applause of all true lovers of their country, and 
their sudden removal from our midst has brought fear and 
mourning to all classes of the community. They have 
driven guerrillas and thieves from this country clear to the 
Tennessee River, and have done more to create a feeling of 
respect and veneration for the old government than ten 
thousand bayonets and proclamations could have done. 
They strengthened the hopeful, confirmed the faith of the 
true, won back the erring and terrified, and subdued the 
defiant. They fought bravely, often desperately, captured 
many prisoners, and disarmed opposition with gentlemanly 
kindness and courtesy. Ever mindful of their mission, 
they treated the people as feeling human beings, and not 
as brutes. They will be long and affectionately remembered 
by our people. 

"The chairman of the meeting, Joshua B. Frierson, 
Esq., accompanied by the committee and a large delegation 
of citizens, entered the Union Bank oflBce (post headquarters), 
explained in a few feeling sentences to Maj. Fitzgibbon 
(who had been in command since Col. Mizner went home 
on furlough nearly a month ago) and read to him a series 
of resolutions adopted by the meeting, highly flattering to 
the oflScers and men of the regiment. The resolutions 
were replied to by the major in an eloquent and feeling 
manner which drew tears from many eyes long unused to 
weep." ' 

In compliance with the order the regiment left Columbia 



and moved to Bridgeport, Ala. ; thence up on the south 
side of the Tennessee River, by Lookout Mountain, to 
Dallas, Ga., where it rejoined its old brigade, which was 
then attached to the division of Gen. Jeff. C. Davis. From 
Dallas it moved by way of Ackworth, Ga., to Kenesaw 
Mountain, where the brigade participated in the battle of 
the 27th of June. The gallant part taken in this battle 
by the division of which the Fourteenth was a part is 
mentioned in the " Annual Cyclopaedia, 1864," as follows: 
" For the second, and more important attack, portions of 
Gen, Newton's divfsion of the Fourth^orps and Gen. 
Davis' division of the Fourteenth Corps were selected. 
At a given signal the troops rushed forward with buoyant 
courage, charged up the face of the mountain amidst a 
murderous fire from a powerful battery on the summit, 
and through two lines of abatis, carried a line of rifle-pits 
beyond, and reached the works. The colors of several of 
the regiments were planted before the latter, and some of 
the men succeeded in mounting the ramparts ; but the 
death of Gens. Wagner and Harker and the wounding of 
Gen. McCook, the destructive fire of both musketry and 
artillery, and the difficulty of deploying such long columns 
under such fire, rendered it necessary to recall the men. 
Gen. Newton's troops returned to their original line, while 
Gen. Davis' Second Brigade threw up works between those 
they had carried and the main line of the enemy, and there 
remained." 

On the evacuation of the rebel works at Kenesaw the 
Fourteenth moved in pursuit of the enemy, and coming up 
with him on the north side of the Chattahoochee River, 
assaulted and carried his first and second line of rifle-pits 
on the 5th and 6th of July, capturing a considerable num- 
ber of prisoners, and sustaining a loss of forty-four in killed 
and wounded. It then crossed the Chattahoochee and took 
part in the operations in front of Atlanta, where, on the 7th 
of August, the Fourteenth sustained a loss of thirty-five 
killed and wounded in an assault which resulted in the 
carrying of two lines of the enemy's works, and the capture 
of a large number of prisoners. On the 30th of August 
it moved with its division towards Jonesboro', and was hotly 
engaged in the battle of September 1st at that place, losing 
thirty killed and wounded, and doing its part in carrying a 
strong line of works. After the battle at Jonesboro' the 
regiment returned to the front of Atlanta. 

On the 28th of September the Fourteenth left Atlanta 
and moved by rail to Chattanooga, Stevenson, Huntsville, 
Athens, and Florence, Ala., tearing up the Memphis and 
Charleston Railroad. For several days it was in pursuit of 
Wheeler's and Forrest's cavalry, but did not overtake them. 
On the 13th of October the regiment moved by rail, back 
to Chattanooga, where it remained five days, and on the 
18th again took the road, moving to Lee and Gordon's Mills, 
Ga., to Lafayette, to Summerville, up Duck Creek, through 
Broomtown Valley, Alpine, and Rome, Ga., across the 
mountains into Alabama, to Gaylesville (October 20th), and 
then back to Rome, where it was in camp November Ist, 
On the 9th it was at Etowah, Ga., and on the 13th at Car- 
tersville, where, at six o'clock A.M. on that day, the force 
" bade good-by to the cracker line, and to all communica- 
tions, and plunged into the Confederacy with four days' 



FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. 



71 



rations, marching south and tearing up the railroad as it 
moved." On the 13th it made sixteen miles, on the 14th 
twenty-four miles, and on the 15th thirteen miles, burning 
the bridge over the Chattahoochee, and reaching Atlanta at 
three o'clock in the afternoon of that day. 

" As we approached Atlanta," wrote an ofiScer of the 
brigade, "a huge column of black smoke was seen, and 
soon we found the railroad depots and buildings, with the 
foundries and manufactories, a burning mass." When night 
closed in the whole heavens were illuminated by the glare 
of the conflagration, and the innumerable camp-fires of the 
Union hosts which lay encircling the conquered city, busy 
with their final preparations for the storied March to the 
Sea. 

The troops, as they arrived at Atlanta, were immediately 
ordered to draw clothing and rations, and to make the last 
preparations for departure from the base of supplies, and in 
these preparations they were employed during a great part 
of the night. " All the troops," said Gen. Sherman, in his 
report of the Georgia campaign, " were provided with good 
wagon-trains loaded with ammunition and supplies, approx- 
imating twenty days' bread, forty days' sugar and coffee, 
a double allowance of salt for forty days, and beef-cattle 
equal to forty days' supplies. The wagons were also sup- 
plied with about three days' forage in grain. All were in- 
structed by a judicious system of foraging to maintain this 
order of things as long as possible, living chiefly if not 
solely upon the country, which I knew to abound in corn, 
sweet potatoes, and meats." 

The forces composing the great army which Sherman 
had concentrated here for the mysterious expedition, who.se 
destination was then only a matter of conjecture, were com- 
posed of four corps d'armee, — the Seventeenth (a consoli- 
dation of the old Sixteenth and Seventeenth) and the 
Fifteenth forming his right wing, and the Fourteenth and 
Twentieth forming the left wing of his grand army of 
invasion. In that army the position of the Fourteenth 
Michigan was with the First Brigade, Second Division of 
the Fourteenth Corps. The other regiments of the brigade 
were the Tenth Michigan, the Sixteenth and Sixtieth Illi- 
nois, and the Seventeenth New York, all under Col. Robert 
F. Smith as brigade commander. 

The right wing was the first to move out ; then came the 
Twentieth Corps, and lastly the Fourteenth, and with this- 
corps the Fourteenth Regiment marched away at noon on the 
16th of November. A distance of eleven miles was made 
during the afternoon, and at night the brigade bivouacked 
near the celebrated Stone Mountain, a round-topped knob 
of solid limestone about one mile in diameter at the base, 
and rising bare and gray from the level plain to a height of 
about thirteen hundred feet. From this halting-place the 
regiment set out at six o'clock in the morning of the 17th, 
and, with fine weather and a good road, made a march of 
fifteen miles, passing through the decaying settlements of 
Lassonia and Conyers' Station. On the 18th the Yellow 
and Alcova Rivers, tributaries of the Ocmulgee, were 
crossed on pontoons, and the tired men of the Fourteenth 
lighted their bivouac fires in the vicinity of Covington, the 
selt of justice of Newton County. During this day they had 
marched as train-guard, and made a distance of ten miles. 



In the morning of the 19th they resumed their journey 
at six o'clock, in a drizzling rain, and at night found them- 
selves twenty miles from Covington, and twice that distance 
from each of the towns of Macon and Milledgeville. The 
evening of the 20th saw them encamped three miles from 
Eatonton and fifteen from Milledgeville. Here the dull 
boom of distant artillery was heard, this being the first 
hostile sound which they had heard since their departure 
from Atlanta. Their march of the 21st was commenced at 
ten A.M. and was continued until three P.M., at which time 
twelve miles had been accomplished, and they went into 
camp for the night. 

Here they remained in rest during the following day, 
and here the order of Gen. Sherman was read to them 
giving the liberty to forage on the country, and to appro- 
priate anything necessary for the sustenance of man or 
beast. " These orders [said a letter written by an officer 
of the brigade] were generally lived up to, and often ex- 
ceeded. The citizens, on hearing of our approach, took 
everything of value to the woods and swamps and covered 
them with brush, or buried them in the ground. But the 
' Yanks' were not long in discovering this, and but little 
is presumed to have escaped their notice. Sweet potatoes, 
meal, flour, various kinds of liquor, tobacco, silk, and even 
coin were thus unearthed from their hiding-places, and 
many a frolic was had by the blue-coats at the Confederates' 
expense. 

" It was truly amusing to go ahead of the army proper 
and see the foragers' proceedings. They were as good as 
skirmishers and advance-guards, and often were the only 
ones we had. They never failed to rout the rebels when- 
ever and wherever found. Citizens could tell our approach 
long before the army came along, by the popping of guns, 
squealing of hogs, and the noises of various farm fowls. 
Nothing escaped the foragers' notice, and but little that was 
serviceable to. us eluded their grasp. When they came to 
a plantation they generally separated into small squads, 
each squad hunting for some special thing. As if taught 
by instinct that we meant them harm, all animals and fowls 
tried to secrete themselves or get out of reach of us. Hogs, 
sheep, and cattle would take to the woods, fowls to the 
outbuilcTings, and turkeys to the trees. But it was all 
of no avail. The enterprising and persistent Yankees, 
prompted by hunger and the thoughts of a savory dish, 
were sure to hunt them out and bring them to. We had 
orders not to fire our guns to procure food, but that order 
was only partially lived up to. Any animal which we could 
not corner and catch we shot; and when the fowls took to 
the trees or the tops of buildings the Enfield rifle was sure 
to bring them down. Often would the fat turkeys take 
shelter in the trees, and cry quit, quit ! but there was no 
quit. Occasionally the foragers would find a lot of tobacco, 
honey, or sorghum molasses. Then there was a rush and 
scramble. To many, a swarm of bees was no more an im- 
pediment to the getting of the honey than if they had been 
so many blue flies. A crowd of soldiers might be seen 
around a barrel of molasses, the head knocked in, and they 
with their cups filling their canteens, coffee-pots, little pails, 
and every available kind of vessel that would hold the sweet 
fluid. At all hours of the day they might be seen coming 



72 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



in and taking their places in the ranks, with face, hands, 
and clothes besmeared with molasses and honey. To see 
them, one might think they would stick to the Union, or 
to anything else ; and they would, too. Such was foraging 
in Georgia, and even more than can be described with the 
pen. Imagination must supply the rest." 

In the morning of November 23d, at six o'clock, the 
regiment was again on the road, and marched leisurely to 
within two miles of Milledgeville, where it rested for the 
night. About noon of the 24th it passed through Milledge- 
ville, and at night the men built their fires eight miles be- 
yond the town. Here the foragers brought in a ton and a 
half of captured flour found secreted in a swamp. On the 
25th a distance of eleven miles was made, and in the after- 
noon of the 26th the brigade reached Sandersville, the 
county-seat of Washington County. The marches of the 
27th and 28th brought the regiment to a camping-place 
one mile south of Louisville, the county-seat of Jefferson, 
where it remained for three days picketing and foraging. 

In the first five days of December the men of the Four- 
teenth marched sixty-three miles, and camped on the night 
of the 5th at Briar Creek, sixty miles from Savannah. 
During the 6th and 7th they made thirty-six miles, though 
continually impeded by timber felled across the road and 
bridges destroyed by the enemy. They had now entered 
the marshy country lying along the south side of the 
Savannah River. Their march of the 8th was uneventful, 
but on the 9th they came upon a hostile battery of three 
guns, so posted as to command a road or causeway over 
which they were compelled to pass through one of the 
swamps which were numerous in that region. The Second 
Illinois Battery was ordered into position, and soon cleared 
the road, but with the loss of one of its lieutcnauts killed. 
The rebel battery on its retreat encountered the Twentieth 
Army Corps, and was captured. On the 10th the regi- 
ment with its brigade moved southward to the crossing of 
the Savannah and Charleston Railroad, and went on picket 
in that vicinity. In the morning of the following day 
they marched nine miles south, and took position in the 
Union line of investment four and a half miles from 
Savannah, — one line being formed to face the cily, and 
another facing towards the country through which they 
had just passed. They had completed a distance of nine 
hundred and forty miles, marched since the 28th of Sep- 
tember, and now sat down to the siege of Savannah. 

The city was defended by fifteen thousand to twenty 
thousand men behind exceedingly strong fortifications, and 
the artillery-fire under which the Fourteenth in common 
with other regiments lay was unintermitting day and night. 
On the 14th news was received of the capture and occupa- 
tion of Fort McAllister, south of the city. The first mail 
received by the regiment in a period of six weeks came to 
it here on the 17th. Finally, in the night of December 
20th-21st, the enemy evacuated the city, and on the 21st 
the troops marched in. 

The Fourteenth remained a little more than four weeks 
in Savannah, and it was whispered about among the men 
that the division to which it belonged would be designated 
as the one to hold and garrison the city when the army 



should move north. This hope was soon crushed by the 
arrival of Gen. Grover's division and its assignment to the 
coveted duty, and there were many and loud murmurs of 
dissatisfaction at the result, but these were of no avail, and 
the men of the Fourteenth, in common with those of other 
commands in the division, bore their disappointment as best 
they could, and prepared for the long and laborious march 
through the Carolinas. 

On the 20th of January, 1865, the regiment moved out 
from Savannah, and took its way with the army up the 
ri^ht bank of the Savannah River, bound north. It 
reached Sister's Ferry, on the Savannah, January 28th, 
and remained there until the night of Sunday, February 
5th, when, with the other troops of the command, it 
crossed to the north side of the river. " Shouts and wild 
hurrahs rent the welkin as the feet of each successive regi- 
ment touched the soil of Carolina," — so wrote an oflBcer 
who was present at this memorable crossing. 

The regiment, after a two days' halt here, moved northward 
on the 8th, and passed through South Carolina without 
the occurrence of any especially notable event in its own 
immediate experience. The march through this State was 
much the same as it had been through Georgia, excepting 
that here the foragers found a less productive field, and the 
track of the army was marked by a far more general de- 
struction of property than in Georgia, nearly all the build- 
ings being burned, and only the tall, naked chimney-stacks 
being left standing ; while all along the western and north- 
western horizon great columns of smoke by day, and the 
red glow of conflagration by night, told how the cavalry of 
Kilpalrick were wreaking their treasured vengeance {gainst 
the Palmetto State. 

The command marched through South Carolina by way- 
of Barnwell Court-House, AVilliston, and Lexington to the 
vicinity of Columbia, the State capital, thence west of that 
city to and up the right bank of the Catawba River to 
Rocky Mount (where six days were spent in effecting the 
crossing of Davis' division), and on from that point by a 
forced march to the Great Pedee River, whore a junction 
was formed with the main body of the army. Entering 
North Carolina a short distance above Cheraw, it reached 
Fayetteville on the 11th of March, and on the following 
day crossed the Cape Fear River, the brigade of which the 
Fourteenth was a part being the first of all the army to pass 
that stream. After this crossing, the brigade skirmished 
with the enemy continually until the 16th, when the Con- 
federate forces stood for battle at Averysboro'. In the en- 
gagement which followed, the Fourteenth Michigan took a 
leading part, advancing on the enemy's works with the 
greatest bravery and carrying the first line, losing twenty- 
two in killed and wounded, and taking a considerable 
number of prisoners, though failing to dislodge the foe 
from his second line of defense. The position thus gained 
was held through the night, and in the morning it was 
found that the Confederate works had been abandoned. A 
vigorous pursuit ensued, in which heavy skirmishing was 
kept up with very little intermission until the 19th of 
March, when the enemy again stood for battle at Benton- 
ville. The Confederate force at this point numbered be- 
tween forty and fifty thousand men, under one of the ablest 



FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. 



73 



of their commanders,— Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. The 
position which he had chosen was a very strong one, being 
formidably fortified and difficult of assault by reason of a 
large swamp in its front. He did not, however, await an 
attack, but took the initiative, charging five times with the 
greatest fury on tlie temporary works of the Union troops. 
At the last charge the men of the Fourteenth Michigan 
(which held the extreme right of the Union line) and the 
Sixteenth Illinois, which joined it on the left, leaped over 
their parapet and made a counter-charge with such desper- 
ation that they captured thirty-two officers (including one 
general), two hundred privates, six hundred stand of arms, 
and the regimental colors of the Fortieth North Carolina. 
But while this was being done a force of the enemy had 
gained their rear, occupied their works, and planted their 
colors upon them. Upon seeing this they promptly faced 
to the rear, and charged back upon the works which they 
had themselves erected. A hand-to-hand fight ensued, in 
which the Confederates lost heavily, and were driven from 
the position in disorder, leaving more than one hundred 
and thirty prisoners and the colors of the Fifty-fourth 
Virginia in the hands of the Unionists. 

This closed the day's fighting on this part of the line, 
but at about ten o'clock on the following morninsr the 
Fourteenth Michigan and Sixteenth Illinois were again 
ordered forward to attack the hostile position. They ad- 
vanced at double-quick, carried the work at the point of 
the bayonet, took one hundred prisoners, and drove the foe 
before them for nearly a mile. Here they were met by two 
fresh brigades of rebels, with a full battery, but notwith- 
standing these overwhelming odds the Michigan and Illi- 
nois men charged unhesitatingly and captured the battery. 
The enemy, however, rallied, and, being so greatly superior 
in number, recaptured the battery, and forced the two Union 
regiments to retire a short distance, where they threw up a 
light defense, and held it through the day and night, this 
being nearly a mile in advance of all other Northern troops. 
During the night the enemy retreated from his position, 
and on the following day the army of Gen. Sherman took 
up its line of march for Goldsboro '. The Fourteenth Regi- 
ment reached that place on the 23d of March, and remained 
there in camp until April 10th, when it moved on the road 
to Raleigh, and kept up an almost continuous skirmish with 
the rebel forces until it arrived at that city. From there it 
moved, on the 13th, to the Cape Fear River, at Avon's 
Ferry, where the cheering news of Johnston's surrender 
was received. The fighting days of the regiment were now 
over, and on the 30th of April it moved northward on the 
road to Virginia and Washington. Proceeding by way of 
Burkeville, Chesterfield, and Amelia Court-House, it reached 
Manchester (on the south side of the James Eiver, opposite 
Richmond) on the 7th of May. After a halt of two days 
it moved across the river, through the Confederate capital, 
and pressed rapidly on towards the Potomac, where it 
arrived about the 15th of May, and went into camp at 
Arlington Heights. On the 24th it took its place in the 
grand review of Sherman's army at Washington. About 
three weeks later it left the capital, and was moved by rail 
and river to Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out on 
the 18th of July. From Louisville it was ordered to Jack- 
10 



son, Mich., and arrived there on the 21st. Eight days 
afterwards the men of the Fourteenth received their pay 
and were discharged from the service. 

SOLDIERS TEOM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY IN THE FOUKTEENTH. 

Field and SUtf. 

Lieut.-Col. M. W. Quackenbush, Owobso ; com. Nov. 11 , 18G2 ; jnaj. Nov. 1, 1861 • 

resigned March 25, 1863. 
Chap. Thomas B. Dooley, Corunna ; com. Feb. 11, 1862 ; resigned April 29, 1864. 

Non-Ciymmvmoned SUiff. 
Q.M.-Sergt. Henry 0. Jewell, Vernon ; enl. Jan. 24, 1861 ; veteran Jan. 14, 1864; 

must, out July 18, 1865. 
Com.-Sergt. Addison Bartlett, ShiawaRsee ; pro. 2d lieut. Co. B, Deo. 18, 1864. 

Company A . 

1st Lieut. Marshall Kyte, Owosso ; com. March 14, 1805 ; sergt. Co. K ; must, out 

July 18, 1865. 
John Groom, disch. Aug. 6, 1862. 
Abel Hill, must, out July 18, 1865. 

Company B. 

2d Lieut. Addison Bartlett, Sliiawassee ; com. Dec. 18,1864; com.-sergt.; res. 
April 9, 1866. 

Company D, 

1st Lieut. Gillman McClintocli, Owosso ; com. Nov. 18, 1861 ; res, July 3, 1862. 
iBt Lieut. Cyrus F. Jackson, Owosso ; com. July 4, 1862 ; 2d lieut. Nov. 18, 1861 ; 

res. Aug. 2, 1864; maj. IStli U. S. Col. Troops. 
Charles H. Allen, veteran, enl. Jan, 4, 1864, 
William H, Adams, veteran, enl. Jan, 4, 1864. 
Armead Botsford, must, out July 18, 18G5. 
Benjalnin E. Crandall, disch. Oct. 30, 1862. 

John H. Hays, veteran, enl, Jan, 4, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Jolin Hoy, nmst. out July 18, 1865. 

Henry King, vetenin, enl, Jan, 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Walter Laing, died of disease at Evansville, Ind., Sept. 16, 1862. 
Charles McCaithy, disch, for disability, July 17, 1802, 
Aaron Martin, disch, for disability, June 18, 1803, 
Orman Millard, died of disease, Middleburg, Mich. 
William C. McFarren, veteran, Jan. 4, 1804. 
David McCai-ty, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864. 
William Price, disch, at end of service, Feb, 2, 1865. 
John Kichmonds, disch. for disability, Jan. 15, 1804. 
Sidney Suiith, disch. for disability, Oct. 13, 181)3. 
Peter Skutt, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Francis Summer, veteran, Jan, 4, 1864, 

William H, Shaffer, veteran, Jan, 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Edwin R, Scutt, veteran, Jan, 4, 1864, 

Company E. 
Capt. Edward S. Simonds, Shiawassee ; com. July 7,1805; 2d lieut. Sept. 1, 1864; 

sergt. ; must, out July 18, 1865. 
iBt Lieut. C. C. Goodale, Owosso; com. Nov. 1861; res, March 30, 1863. 
2d Lieut. Daniel Wait, Owosso; com, Nov, 18, 1861; res, Feb, 4, 1863, 
Sergt. Edward S. Simonds, Owosso; enl. Kov. 6, 1861; veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; 

pro. to 2d lieut. 
Sergt. Henry Deming, Scioto ; enl. Dec. 4, 1861. 

Sergt. Evan Boberts, Antrim ; enl. Nov. 28, 1861 ; disch. Jan. 22, 1863. 
Corp. Lasello C. Brewer, Owosso; enl. Dec. 2, 1801 ; disch. at end of service, 

Marcli 14, 1866. 
Corp. Robert C. Kyle, Owosso ; enl. Dec. 21, 1801 ; disch. July 15, 1862. 
Corp. BeijJ. F. Stevens, Owosso ; enl. Dec. 21, 1861 ; disch. Feb. 10, 1803. 
John Q. Adams, disch. Dec. 30, 1802. 
Edwiu Botsford, disch. Jan. 6, 1863. 
Ebenezer Brewer, disch. for disability, July 10, 1862. 
Benjamin Bagley, disch. Nov. 21, 1802, 
Jacob Bnrlcli, disch, Oct. 17, 1862. 

John H. Barnes, disch. for promotion in 23d Kegt, Aug. 11, 1862. 
Jacob Byerly, died of disease, Aug. 21, 1862. 

Leonard Black, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1804 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Malhew Coif, disch. Oct. 10, 1862. 
George Clarli, discli. for disability, April 17, 1862. 
Levinus Coif, disch. for disability, July 15, 1862. 
Marcus Coif, disch. for disability, July 25, 1863. 
Ezra Dibble, disch. for disability, July 8, 1863. 
Byron A. Dunn, disch. for disability, July 8, 1863. 
Samuel C. Decker, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 
William B. Dunbar, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1805. 
Jacob De Forest, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864. 

Jesse Fleming, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 
John Folf, died of disease at Aiidersonville, Ga. 
William Goff, disch at end of service, March 14, 1865. 
Jotbam Hunt, disch. for promotion. May 17, 1863. 
Charles S. Harris, disch. for disability, Oct. 18, 1862. 
Nathauiel Hyde, disch. for disability, July 22, 1862. 
W Hill, died of disease at luka. Miss., Sept. 5, 1862. 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Welles J. Haynes, veteran, March 31, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 

Albert C. .lohnson, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 186.'). 

Valois H. Morse, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 

Thomas Hunger, veteran, March 31, 1864. 

Norman McLenithan, disch. March 10, 1863. 

Peter McNelly, disch. for disability, July 1, 1862. 

Husten Maliew, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 

Nathan Monroe, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 

William B. Monroe, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 

Mason Phelps, diach. Sept. 16, 18G2. 

Israel Parshall, disch. Jan. 4, 1863. 

Ira A. PoUey, died at Columbia, Tenn., Nov. 18, 1863. 

William Steen, died of disease at Owosso, Mich., June 16, 1862. 

John Seevoord, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 26, 1862. 

Daniel D. See, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1862. 

George Swimen, disch. for disability, Oct. 10, 18C2. 

John W. Simpson, disch, for disability, July 25, 1863. 

William Sargent, disch. for disability, June 16, 1863. 

George W. Smith, disch. Sept. 14, 1862. 

Edward Sanford, disch. Nov. 18, 1862. 

Allen Templer, disch. April 20, 1863. 

Charles Terwilligor, disch. by order, Jan. 3, 1803. 

Dor Tillotson, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 

William Wiers, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 10, 186'!. 

Everett Woodbury, discli. at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863. 

Company H. 
Owen Miller, disch. to enl. in regular service. 

Company I. 
Azariah Jitcb, disch. Aug. 22, 1862. 
Caleb Hall, disch. Aug. 2, 1862. 

Company E. , 

Sergt. Thomas Crane, Owosso, enl. Dec. 7, 1861 ; died of wounds at Nashville, 

Tenn., Nov. 9, 1862. 
John Buck, disch. March 18, 1863. 

James E. Crane, died of disease at luka. Miss., Oct. 21,1862. 
Allen Davis, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 10, 1862. 
John G. Dellamater, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864, 
Peter Garrison, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864. 

Joseph Guyer, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 
William Garrison, disch. at end of service, Feb. 13, 1865. 
Kichard Odcll, disch. 

William D. Piatt, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1866. 
Andrew Scott, disch. Aug. 29, 1864. 

Oliver B. Van Doran, veteran, Jan. 4, 1864 ; disch. by order, July 20, 1866. 
John W. Wester, disch. for disability, Dec. 17, 1862. 

CLINTON COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE FOURTEENTH. 
Company A, 
Ira Armstrong', disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 
Nelson Brown, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1862. 
William Hotaling, disch. Aug. 20, 1862. 

Olney H. Richmond, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. hy order, July 20, 1865. 
William W. Thayer, veteran, enl, Jan. 4, 1864; died in action at Bentonviile, 

N. C, March 19, 1865. 
Perry Watkins, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 15, 1863. 

Company C. 
James Barrett, veteran, enl. Jan. 3, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Francis Hinton, died of disease at Cincinuati, Ohio, June 25, 1862. 

Company D. 
1st Lieut. Sylvanus Bachelder, Bath ; com, March 14, 1865 ; pro. to 2d lieut. 

Dec. 29, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1866. 
Sergt. Sylvanus Bachelder, Bath ; enl. Nov. 30, 1861 ; veteran, Jan. 4, 1864 ; pro. 

to 2d lieut. 
Corp. Tlieron Wcad, Eagle; enl. Dec. 3, 1861; disch. Aug. 27, 1862. 
George Barnum, disch. March 26, 1863. 
Benj. Lyman, disch. for disability, June 18, 1863. 
John A. Bixl.y, disch. Oct. 13,1862. 
Ezra Benjamin, disch. by order, June 13, 1865. 
Jonathan Burke, died of disease at Ypsilanti, Mich., Jan. 19, 1862. 
Samuel Carl, disch. for disability, April 16, 1862. 
George S. Culver, disch. by order, May 20, 1865. 
Stephen B. Crane, disch. at end of service, April 6, 1866. 
William H. Clark, disch. at end of service, April 11, 1865. 
Jacob S. Clark, veteran, enl, Jan. 4, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1865, 
Jared De Bar, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 
William W. Fenton, diach. July 24, 1862. 
George W. Howe, disch. Feb. 10, 1863. 
Napoleon B. Howe, disch. Oct. 8,1862. 

Hanford U. Hawley, disch. at end of service, April 11, 1865, 
Jonathan Henderson, veteran, enl, Jan, 4, 1864. 
John B. Morgan, veteran, enl. .Tan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, I860. 
Samuel McKibbin, died of disease at Yiwilanti, April 16, 1862. 



Levi Morgan, died of disease in New York harbor, April 16, 1866. 

Henry W. Newsom, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1866. 

Ji>hn Sinclair, disch for disability, April 16, 1862. 

John E. Sweet, disch. Dec. 19, 1862. 

Judson Smith, disch. 

Wiiford N. Scadin, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1805. 

Andrew Seckenger, died of disease at Farmington, Miss., Aug. 2, 1862. 

Ansel Stevens, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Deo. 19, 1862. 

William Showerman, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1861; died in action at Atlanta, Ga,, 

Aug. 7, 1864. 
Alfred Sprague, must, out Jnly 18, 1865, 
Harlan P, Towner, must, out Jnly 18, 1865. 

William P. Trembly, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1805. 
Herman V. Trombly, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. by order, July 26, 1806. 
Bichard Thorp, disch. by order, Sept. 18, 1865. 
Samuel Tnlman, disch. for disability, Feb. II, 1866. 
Joshua Tliuma, died of disease at Big Springs, Miss,, Juno 26, 1802. 

Company E. 
2d Lieut. William H. Shiffer, St. John's, com. July 7, 1866; must, out July 18, 

1866. 
Oliver D, Beebe, disch. Sept, 14, 1862. 

Hezokiah Marcy, died of disease near Farmington, Miss., July 17, 1862. 
William A. Marsh, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1804. 

Company F, 
Corp. Ferdinand Platte, Westphalia; enl. Oct. 14,1861 ; re-enl. as veteran, Jan, 

4, 1861; must, out July IS, 1866. 
Anthony Arnst, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 
Henry Amerheim, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 
Francis Blondy, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 
John Baker, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. hy order, July 19, 1806. 
Peter Fox, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1806. 
Sibres Miller, disch. for disability, Aug. 16, 1862. 
Peter Pung, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865, 
Henry Bochal, veteran, enl. Feb. 6, 1864; died in action in North Carolina, 

Maijch 19, 1865. 
Peter Siindy, died of disease in Mississippi, Ang. 20, 1802. 
Timotliy Serge, trans, to Vet. Res, Corps, Jan, 10, 1865, 
Jacob Stenkle, must, out July 18, 1865, 
Anthony Wertz, disch, for disability, July 10, 1802, 
Anthony Wehr, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; discb. July 19, 1866. 

Company H. 
Henry Myers, disch. Oct. 1, 1862. 

Company K. 

Capt. John Kelly, Westphalia; com. Nov. 18, 1861 ; res. June 4, 1863. 

Ist Lieut. Chas. B. Hose, Westphalia ; com. Nov. 18, 1861 j died of disease at 
Farmington, Miss., June 11, 1862. 

Corp. Edward Brass, Duplain ; enl. Dec. 13, 1861 ; died of disease at Farming- 
ton, Mis<., July 18, 1802. 

Corp. David Luomis, Victor ; enl. Nov. 8, 1861 ; disch. April 24, 1863. 

Corp. Samuel Kinney, Greenbush; enl. Dec. 13, 1861; veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; 
absent on furlough on muster out. 

Corp. Martin C. Myers, Eagle ; enl. Dec. 31, 1861 ; veteran, Jan, 4, 1804 ; died 
in action in Georgia, July 6, 1864, 

Sergt, John Sly, Bengal; enl. Nov, 19,1861; veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; must, out 
July 18, 1865. 

Wallace Anthony, disch. Dec. 9, 1862. 

Talman Beardsley, disch, for disability, July 1, 1862. 

Wm. H. Barnes, died of disease in Ohio, Jan. 31, 1806. 

Edwin Baldwin, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 

Samuel S. Bennett, must, out July 18, 1865. 

Fredk. Carpenter, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1866. 

Jacob Cook, must, out July 18, 1865. 

Michael Cook, must, out July 18,1865. 

Charles Calkins, discb. for disability, July 23, 1862. 

Jacob L. Doud, died of disease, May 29, 1862. 

Franklin Fish, died of disease, March 25, 1862. 

Zurlel Fish, disch. for disability, March 1, 1802. 

John Fisler, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. by order. May 16, 1806. 

Daander Ferris, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. by order, Aug. 1, 1866. 

Jasper Harrington, disch, for disability, July 24, 1862. 

Kichard Jones, discb. for disability, July 1, 1802. 

Robert M. Jones, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1866. 

Marshall T. Kyte, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 

David Loomis, discb. April 24, 1803. 

Mathias Miller, must, out July 18, 1865. 

John Morolf, must, out July 18, 1866. 

Henry Murphy, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 18«5. 

Jeptha Owen, disch. for disability, Sept. 8, 1862. 

Oscar Peck, disch. for disability, Feb. 16, 1862. 

Homer Parks, disch. for disability, July 10, 1862. 

Orrin Parks, discb. Jan. 8,1863. 

Wm. H. Parks, died of disease at Detroit, Aug. 6, 1802. 

Albert Passagf, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; died in action in Georgia, July 6, 
1865. 



TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 



75 



Alphens Passage, discli. for disability, March 22, 1805. 

Thos. RicLmond, died of d'Sease, Marcli 12, 1802. 

Chas. Bobinson, died of disease at Big Springs, Miss.. July 16, 1802. 

Edward Kaby, veteran, eiil. Jan. 4, 1804; niuit. out July 18, 1865. 

ThoB. Shaw, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864 ; died in action at Jonesboro', Ga., Sept. 

1,1864. 
Henry Shiffer, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1804; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. B. 
Caleb Silvers, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1804; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Richard Silvers, disch. for disability, July 15, 1862. 
John Shook, veteran, enl. Feb. 9, 1864 ; disch. by order, July 29, 1865. 
John Spears, disch. Dec. 4, 1862. 

Belton Soper, disch. at end of service, March 14, 1865. 
Nicliolas Scbernish, disch. by order, June 8, 1865. 
Jerry Sullivan, died of disease in Indiana, July 17, 1862. 
John Sly, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Moses R. Tuttle, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864 ; died on the field, July 5, 1864. 
Marvin Thomas, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Henry H. Tillapaugh, veteran, enl. .Ian. 4, 1864 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 
Thos. Ulrich, died of disease at Nashville, Oct. 19, 1862. 
David B. Wheeler, disch. for disability, July 10, 1862. 
Chas. S. Wise, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. by order, July 26, 1865. 



CHAPTER XI. 

T"WEIfTY-THIKD IWFANTKY. 

Rendezvous and Organization at East Saginaw — Service in Kentucky 
and Ohio — March to East Tennessee and Campaign in that Section 
— The Georgia Campaign — Pursuit of Hood — ^Battles of Columbia, 
Franklin, and Nashville — Transfer to the East and Service in North 
Carolina — End of the War and Return Home. 

The Twenty-third Regriment was made up of men from 
the counties composing the Sixth Congressional District, 
and was raised and organized in the summer of 1862 under 
the President's call for volunteers, issued on the 2d of 
July, immediately after the close of the Seven Days' bat- 
tles on the Virginia peninsula. The regimental rendezvous 
was established at East Saginaw, and D. H. Jerome, Esq., 
was designated as commandant of the camp of instruction 
and organization. 

In this regiment the county of Clinton was represented 
by one full company under command of Capt. (now General) 
O. L. Spaulding, and another company (under Capt. Henry 
Walbridge) of which very nearly all the members were from 
Clinton. 

Shiawassee County furnished for the Twenty-third a full 
company under command of Capt. John Carland,* of 
Corunna, and besides the above-mentioned companies sev- 
eral others of the regiment contained men from Shiawassee 
and Clinton Counties. 

The headquarters of both the Clinton companies were 
at the village of St. John's. The first enlistment in Capt. 
'Spaulding's company was made on the 15th of July, and 
on the 6th of August it had attained the minimum strength 
necessary for muster. Soon afterwards it was reported at 
the Bast Saginaw rendezvous, and was incorporated in the 
regiment as Company A, with William Sickles as its first 
and James Travis as second lieutenant. 

Capt. Spaulding had been assisted in the recruiting of 
his company by Henry Walbridge, with the expectation 
that the latter would be made its first lieutenant, but when 
it became apparent that many more than enough men to 



• Capt. Carland was afterwards major of the regiment, and is now 
an officer in the Sixth United States Infantry. 



fill one company could be obtained here he commenced the 
formation of a second company, which was filled without 
much difficulty, and he became its captain, with Stephen 
J. Wright as first and Alonzo 0. Hunt as second lieu- 
tenant. This company was designated as G company of 
the Twenty-third. 

The Shiawassee company was recruited by Capt. Carland, 
1st Lieut. Benjamin F. .Briscoe, and 2d Lieut. Marvin 
Miller, who were its original officers. In the organization 
of the Twenty-third this became Company H. The regi- 
ment was mustered into the United States service on the 
13th of September, 1862, with eight hundred and eighty- 
three officers and men under command of Col. Marshall W. 
Chapin. The regimental surgeon was Dr. Louis Fasquelle, 
of St. John's. 

When the Twenty-third Regiment left East Saginaw for 
the theatre of war it moved by detachments. The first of 
these — composed of Companies C, H, and K — broke camp 
in the morning of September 17th, and were transported on 
the cars of the Flint and P6re Marquette Railway to Mount 
Morris, which was then the southern terminus of the road ; 
and thence were moved across the country, by way of Flint, 
to the Detroit and IMilwaukee Railroad, over which they 
proceeded by train to Detroit. On the following day the 
remaining companies left the rendezvous, and moved by the 
same route to Detroit, where they arrived in the evening, 
and all were hospitably entertained by the patiiotic citizens. 
With but little delay the ten companies were embarked on 
steamers, which landed them at Cleveland the next morn- 
ing, the weather being rainy and dismal, and the condition 
of the men anything but comfortable. From Cleveland, 
the regiment moved by rail across the State of Ohio to 
Cincinnati, whence, after a stop of some hours, it again 
proceeded by railroad, and on Sunday morning, September 
21st, reached Jeffersonville, Ind., on the north bank of the 
Ohio River, opposite Louisville, Ky. In the afternoon of 
the same day the command moved to " Camp Gilbert," 
near by, and that night, for the first time, the tired men of 
the Twenty-third slept upon the soldier's bed, — the bosom 
of mother earth. 

The city of Louisville was at that time in a panic-stricken 
condition on account of the reported approach of the rebel 
general S. B. Buckner, with a strong Confederate force. 
In consequence of this, many people were leaving their 
homes in the city and crossing to the north side of the 
river. Large quantities of government stores were also 
being transferred to the Indiana side, by order of the gen- 
eral then in command at Louisville. The Twenty-third 
was placed on duty, guarding the public property and ferry 
landings at Jeffersonville, and remained so employed for 
two days and nights, at the end of which time it crossed 
the river and camped in the southwestern suburbs of Louis- 
ville. Here the situation of the men was not the most 
comfortable, and it was made worse by their almost com- 
plete ignorance of the methods by which veteran soldiers 
manage to force something like comfort out of the most 
unfavorable surroundings. A few hours later they were 
ordered to move to another camping-place, and while on 
their way thither they passed a brigaide or division of the 
army of Gen. Buell, which had then just entered the city 



76 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHiaAN. 



afler a fatiguing forced march from Nashville in pursuit of 
the Southern army under Gen. Bragg. As the Twenty- 
third marched past the dusty and battle-scarred veterans .of 
Shiloh, Farmington, and luiia, the latter indulged (as vet- 
erans are apt to do) in many a sneer at the expense of the 
fresh troops, few of whom had yet heard the whistle of a 
hostile bullet. An officer of the Twenty-third* says of this 
incident : " Tiie contrast of their dirty, tattered, and torn 
garments with our men was a matter of much comment. 
We were surprised that they jeeringly hinted at our green- 
ness and inferiority, which a few months' experience in 
marches and on battle-fields would change. In time we 
learned that they had not been mistaken in their estimate 
of our relative merits as soldiers." 

The camp to which the regiment was moved at this time 
will be well recollected by those who occupied it as " the 
brick-yard camp," a dreary and comfortless place, where the 
command remained without tents or other shelter until the 
afternoon of the 3d of October, when the Thirty-eighth 
Brigade (Array of the Ohio), composed of the One Hun- 
dred and Second and One Hundred and Eleventh Ohio, 
One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Illinois, and Twenty-third 
Michigan, all under uommand of Gren. Dumont, marched 
away from Louisville, on the road to Shelby ville, Ky. The 
weather was very hot, the road dusty, water almost impos- 
sible to obtain, and the men, not having yet learned the 
meaning of " light marching order," were overloaded with 
the cumbrous outfits which they brought from home ; so 
that when, late at night, they halted on the bank of a muddy 
stream known as " Floyd's Fork," the exhausted and foot- 
sore troops were glad enough to lie down upon the ground, 
with no shelter but their blankets, and no thought but that 
of rest from the fatigues of this, their first severe march. 
Late the next morning they arose stifi' and sore in every 
joint, and soaked with the rain which was still falling. 
Coffee was made from the muddy water of the stream, in 
which hundreds of mules were stamping and wallowing. 
The rations were neither very good nor plentiful, but these 
were on this occasion supplemented by supplies taken from 
a mansion which stood near by, and from which the occu- 
pants had fled on the approach of the troops. " The sol- 
diers, impressed with the idea that all food, raiment, and 
other movables found in the enemy's country belonged to 
Uncle Sam's elect, proceeded to ransack the premises, 
bringing off meat, meal, vegetables, sauces, honey, jellies, 
preserves, and some pretty good stock for the stable, — a 
portion of which we recognized the next spring grazing in 
Michigan." 

From Floyd's Fork the regiment moved early in the follow- 
ing morning towards Shelby ville, which was reached the same 
evening, and the Twenty-third encamped in the vicinity of 
the village. Here the brigade remained until the morning 
of October 9th, when it moved through the village and on 
towards Frankfort, arriving in the neighborhood of that 
town the same night, the advance-guard of the force having 
already entered the city after a skirmish with the cavalry 
of the enemy, who had succeeded in destroying the fine 



» Ciipt. W. A. Lewis, of the Twenty-third, from whom all the <jno- 
tations ia this sketch (unless otherwise noted) are made. 



bridge of the Lexington and Frankfort Railroad, and had 
attempted the destruction of the turnpike-bridge, but had 
been driven away before accomplishing it. 

Laro-e numbers of negroes had fallen in with the column 
on its march from Louisville to Frankfort. Some of these 
had engaged as servants to the officers, but the greater part 
of them were following the troops without any definite ob- 
ject that was apparent. So numerous were the dusky 
crowds that " there were found among them the names or 
lineal descendants of every prominent general in the rebel 
army." A considerable number of Kentucky horses had 
also " fallen in" on the line of march, and were being ridden 
by officers and privates; but "on arrival at Frankfort there 
came for these a host of claimants, and the day was one of 
reckoning for those in whose possession they were found." 
A court-martial was instituted, and held a protracted session 
at Frankfort. " It must have made sad havoc among the 
Wolverines but for the fact that our fighting companion, 
Capt. Walbridge, who rode the best captured steed into the 
town on that eventful morning (October 10th), was the 
honored judge-advocate in the court." 

With the exception of an expedition in pursuit of the 
guerrilla chief, John Morgan, the Twenty-third remained at 
Frankfort thirteen days. It was at this time under com- 
mand of Maj. B. F. Fisher, the colonel being in command 
of the brigade, and Lieut.-Col. Pratt being absent. It was 
while the regiment laid at this place that the death oc- 
curred of Lieut. John Earle, of " E" company, on Sunday, 
Oct. 19, ] 862. His remains were sent home to Michigan in 
charge of Sergt. Lyons, and at about the same time the regi- 
ment received the sad news of the death of Capt. Norville, 
of fever, at Saginaw City, October 3d. 

At a little past midnight on the morning of the day of 
Lieut. Earle's death, the men of the Twenty-third were 
startled from their sleep by the thrilling sound of the " long 
roll," and at one o'clock a.m. they were marching rapidly 
away in pursuit of the redoubtable Morgan, who was re- 
ported to be at Lawrenceburg. Two companies of the 
regiment, however (G and K), were left as guard at 
Frankfurt. Tiio pursuing column was, almost as a matter 
of course, a little too late to overtake the main body of 
Morgan's force, but succeeded in capturing a few men and 
horses belonging to his rear-guard, and with these trophies 
the command returned the same evening to the camp at 
Frankfort, having marched twenty-six miles under the 
usual disadvantages of choking dust and great scarcity of 
water. 

The regiment took its final departure from Frankfort late 
in the afternoon of the 21st of October, and encamped that 
night in an oak grove, a few miles down the road towards 
Lawrenceburg. On the following day it passed through 
that town, and made its camp for the night at Big Spring, 
some miles farther on. The weather had suddenly grown 
cold, and many of the men suffered for need of the blankets, 
which had been foolishly thrown away as incumbrances in 
the heat and dust of previous marches. In the morning 
of the 23d the Kentucky hills and vales were white with 
hoar frost. The regiment was early in line, and during 
this day's march passed through Harrodsburg. Here the 
men were not permitted to make a free exploration of the 



TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 



town, on account of their rather damagin;; record as indis- 
criminate foragers. About noon of the 24th they passed 
through the little village of Perryville, in the outskirts of 
which the armies of Buell and Bragg had fought the battle 
of Chaplin Hills, sixteen days before, many of the Union 
and Confederate wounded from that engagement being still 
in the village, and in the farm-house hospitals of the vi- 
cinity. That night the weary men of the Twenty-third 
made their bivouac on the banks of an abundant and toler- 
ably clear stream of water, called the Rolling Fork. In 
the march of the following day, this stream was crossed 
and recrossed many times in its meanderings, and late in 
the day the regiment reached the little half-burned village 
of Bradfordsville. The latter part of the day's march had 
been made in a cold, drenching rain, which, as night fell, 
turned to snow, and on the following morning (Sunday, 
October 26th) the Arctic covering lay six inches deep over 
the ground. This was considered a remarkable event for 
that latitude, and it brought remembrances of their Northern 
homes to the minds of many whose eyes would never again 
look upon the whitened expanse of the Michigan hills and 
valleys. During all that Sabbath day the tired men en- 
joyed a season of rest and recreation around their comforta- 
ble camp fires, and while they rested the snow disappeared, 
so that their march of the following day was over bare 
roads, but free from tormenting dust. In the evening of 
the 27th the brigade arrived at New Market, Ky., where 
several commands of the rear-guard of Buell's army were 
found encamped, and where the Twenty-third and its com- 
panion regiments also went into camp and remained for 
eight days, engaged in recuperation, drill, and the prepara- 
tion of muster-rolls, to be used upon a pay-day which all 
hoped might come in the near future. 

The Twenty-third again moved forward with its brigade 
on the 4th of November, and on the following day it passed 
through Munfordsville, where a Union force of ten thousand 
men lay encamped. On the 6th it reached Dripping Springs, 
where it remained one day, and in the afternoon of the 8th 
arrived at Bowling Green, Ky., a town which " had the ap- 
pearance of having been visited by pestilence, famine, and 
the besom of destruction," as was remarked by some of the 
officers of the Twenty-third. " A large rebel force had 
wintered there, and remained until driven out by the Union 
forces under Gen. Mitchell, and they had made of the 
whole visible creation one common camping-ground." This 
place was destined to be the home of the regiment for a 
period of more than six months. Its camp (which was 
afterwards transformed into substantial and comfortable 
winter quarters) was pitched near the magnificent railroad- 
bridge crossing the Big Barren River, and the guarding of 
this bridge formed a part of the duty of the regiment during 
the winter of 1862-63 ; its other duties being camp rou- 
tine, drill, picket, provost, and railway guard, and the con- 
voying of railroad trains of stores over the road from 
Bowling Green to Nashville. While here the Twenty- 
third, with its brigade, formed part of the Tenth Division 
of the Army of the Cumberland, and they were successively 
under command of Gens. Granger, Manson, and Judah, as 
commandants of the post during the six months that they 
remained here. 



Many notable events — some pleasant, some painful, and 
others ludicrous — occurred in the history of the regiment 
during its long stay at Bowling Green. Near the town was 
a pleasure-ground, many acres in extent, with a magnificent 
spring of clear cold water i n its centre. This seems to have 
been a favorite resort for both citizens and soldiers, and we 
are told that " here, upon many a happy occasion, the beauty 
and the chivalry of Bowling Green, and many inveterate 
Yankees, assembled to enjoy the scene of unequaled hilarity 
and mirth." It was several times the case that snow fell to 
a sufficient depth for sleighing, and those opportunities for 
pleasures were improved to the utmost. Private entertain- 
ments, too, were sometimes given by the citizens, and 
" there were, in several instances, strong indications of at- 
tachments between some of the boys in blue and the fair 
damsels of Bowling Green. . . . These were oases in the 
dreary Sahara of the war." On the morning of the mo- 
mentous 1st of January, 1863, the artillery on College Hill 
fired a salute, which was afterwards changed to target prac- 
tice ; and during a part of the time of its continuance the 
camp of the Twenty-third Michigan seems to have been the 
target, for several solid shots were thrown into it, doing some 
damage to quarters, and creating no little consternation. 
This was the first time the regiment had been actually under 
fire. 

On the 6th of April, 1863, occurred one of the most dis- 
tressing events in the experience of the regiment at Bow- 
ling Green. This was the sudden death of Lieut.-CoL 
Pratt. He had mounted a powerful and restive horse, but 
was scarcely seated in the saddle when the fiery animal 
plunged and reared so violently as to fall backwards upon 
the colonel, crushing and killing him instantly. He was a 
good and popular officer, and was sincerely mourned by the 
men and officers of the regiment. 

Upon the death of Lieut.-Col. Pratt, Maj. 0. L. Spauld- 
ing (who had been advanced to that rank to fill the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Maj. B. F. Fisher, February 
3d) was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty- 
third, dating from the day of the gallant Pratt's death; 
From that time until the close of the war Col. Spaulding 
was almost constantly in command of the regiment. 

When spring had fairly opened, it began to be rumored 
that the troops occupying Bowling Green would soon be 
moved from there and enter active service. The men of 
the Twenty third Michigan did not regret this probability 
of a change, for although their experience there had been 
in some respects as pleasant as any which soldiers in time 
of war have a right to expect, yet they had been terribly 
reduced in numbers by sickness while there, and it was be- 
lieved that this evil would be aggravated by the coming of 
warm weather. Besides, they had grown tired of the mo- 
notonous duty which they were called on to perform here, 
and were, as soldiers almost always are, inclined to wish for 
a change. About the 20th of May orders were received to 
make all preparations for a movement, and to hold the com- 
mands in readiness for the march ; and on the 29th of the 
same month the regiment broke camp, and moved with its 
brigade on the road to Glasgow, Ky., which point was 
reached on the 30th, and here the Twenty-third remained 
until the 13th of June, when it was ordered in pursuit of a 



78 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



force of guerrillas, said to be at Randolph, about twelve miles 
distant. Almost as a matter of course nothing resulted 
from this expedition, and the regiment retul-ned to Glasgow 
on the 16th, after a most severe and exhausting march. 
On the 22d it again moved, with Manson's brigade, to 
Scottsville ; thence, on the 26th, to Tompkinsville ; and, 
July 4th, back to Glasgow. Here, however, it made little 
stay, but marched out (now in full pursuit of John Mor- 
gan) to Munfordsville, reaching there July 7th, then to 
Elizabethtown and Louisville by rail, reaching the latter 
city on the 11th. Morgan was now reported across the 
Ohio River, in Indiana. The Twenty-third, as part of the 
command of Gen. Judah, crossed to New Albany, Ind., but, 
making little stop there, proceeded to JefFersonville, and 
thence up the river by steamer, passing Madison, Ind., on 
the 12th, and reaching Cincinnati in the evening of the 
13th ; its brigade being the first to reach that city. From 
Cincinnati the fleet (on which was the Twenty-third, with 
the other regiments under command of Gen. Judah) passed 
up the river to Maysville, Concord, and Portsmouth, Ohio, 
at which latter place they remained until July 20th, when 
they returned to Cincinnati, and disembarked the troops. 
From there the Twenty-third Regiment, under command 
of Lieut.-Col. Spaulding, — and unaccompanied by any other 
troops, — was transported by railroad to Chillicothe, and 
thence to Hamden Junction, where it encamped for a few 
days. Within the camp-ground of the regiment at this 
place there remained a rude rostrum, from which, on a 
previous occasion, the notorious Vallandigham had set forth 
his peculiar views to the population of Southern Ohio. But 
now the same rostrum was occupied by the chaplain of the 
Twenty-third, the Rev. J. S. Smart, who most eloquently 
" consecrated it to the cause of freedom, while the regiment 
made the welkin ring with shouts for liberty and the 
Union." 

The pursuit of Morgan had now ceased, for the forces of 
that daring leader had already been driven from Ohio, ex- 
cept such as had been destroyed or captured. The regi- 
ment soon after this returned to Cincinnati, and after a 
short delay moved (under orders delivered by Gen. Burn- 
side in person to Col. Spaulding) across the Ohio to Cov- 
ington, and thence by rail to Paris, Ky., where Lieut.-Col. 
Young, with two companies of the One Hundred and 
Eighteenth Ohio, was threatened by a superior force of 
Confederate cavalry, commanded by the rebel general 
Pegram. The Twenty-third reached Paris on the 29th of 
July, just at the close of a brisk fight, which had been 
brought on by an attempt on the part of Pegram to destroy 
an important railway-bridge at that point. The opportune 
arrival of the Twenty third prevented any further attempt 
by the enemy to burn the bridge, and doubtless also saved 
the force of Lieut.-Col. Young from a second attack and 
not improbable capture. The conduct of the regiment in 
this affair was most creditable to its commander, LieUt.-Col. 
Spaulding, and to all the oflBcers and men under him. 

The regiment remained at Paris until the 4th of August, 
when it moved, by way of Lexington and Louisville, to 
Lebanon, Ky., and thence to New Market, where it arrived 
on the 8th of August, and was incorporated with the 
Second Brigade, Second Division, of the Twenty-third 



Army Corps, then organizing at that point. In thb or- 
ganization Col. Chapin commanded the brigade (composed 
of the Twenty-third Michigan, the One Hundred and Elev- 
enth Ohio, the One Hundred and Seventh Illinois, and the 
Thirteenth Kentucky), and the Twenty-third remained 
under command of Lieut.-Col. Spaulding. 

Marching orders were received on the 1 6th of August 
and at two p.m. on the following day the regiment, with its 
division, moved out and took up the long and wearisome 
march for East Tennessee. The camp of that night was 
only seven miles out from New Market, on Owl Creek 
where the command rested during all of the following day 
and night, but moved forward again at daybreak in the 
morning of the 19th, and camped that night on Green 
River. The march was resumed on the following morning, 
and two days later (August 22d) the regiment forded the 
Cumberland River and began to ascend the foot-hills of 
the Cumberland Mountains. In the evening of the 25th 
it made its camp at Jamestown, the county-seat of Fentress 
Co., Tenn. 

On the 30th the command reached Montgomery, Tenn., 
where were Gens, Burnside and Hartsuff, with the main 
body of the army, commanded by the former officer. In 
passing through this little settlement " an enthusiastic old 
lady harangued the corps upon the glory of its mission, 
alternately weeping and shouting, invokiag the blessings 
of heaven upon the troops, and pouring out volleys of 
anathemas upon the enemies of the country." 

On the ] st of September the men of the Twenty-third, 
having passed the gorges of the mountains, descended their 
southeastern slope to the valley of the Tennessee, and camped 
late at night on the right bank of the Clinch River, a trib- 
utary of the larger stream. Fording the Clinch in the 
forenoon of the 2d of September, the corps marched for- 
ward and passed through Kingston, a considerable town of 
East Tennessee, near which the waters of the Clinch join 
those of the Holston and form the Tennessee River. The 
camp of the Twenty-third was pitched for the night about 
two miles beyond Kingston. At five o'clock in the morning 
of the 3d the troops were in line ready for the march, and 
then, for eight long weary hours, the Twenty-third Michi- 
gan and its companion regiments of the brigade waited for 
the order to move. At nine o'clock in the forenoon the 
brigade was formed in square four lines deep, and while 
standing in that formation was addressed by its commander. 
Gen. White, who read a dispatch just received from Gen. 
Burnside, announcing the capture of Knoxville by the Union 
forces. Gen. White then congratulated his command, and 
called on Col. Chapin of the Twenty-third for a speech. 
The colonel responded in an address, which being brief and 
comprehensive is given here entire. He said, " Boys, the 
general calls on me to make a speech. You know that I 
am not much of a speaker, and all I have to say is, that 
you've done d d well ! Keep on doing so !" 

Long and loud acclamations greeted this vigorous ha- 
rangue ; then the brigade resumed its previous formation, 
and, after another tedious delay, moved out on the road to 
Loudon, which was reached early in the afternoon of Fri- 
day, September 4th. The enemy had hastily evacuated all 
the strong works which they had built at this place, but 



TWENTr-THIRD INFANTRY. 



79 



had succeeded in destroying the great and important rail- 
road-bridge across the river. Here the brigade remained 
for about ten days. 

Daring the latter part of the march across the mountains 
supplies had become so much reduced that rations of corn, 
in the ear, were issued to some of the troops, and after their 
arrival at Loudon this situation of affairs was but little im- 
proved until Tuesday, the 8th of September, when the first 
railroad-traim reached the town from Knoxville, and was 
hailed with wild delight by the weary and hungry soldiers. 
Before this, however, their necessities had been partially 
relieved by repairing and putting in running order a grist- 
mill which the enemy had dismantled before his evacuation. 
The advance of the wagon-trains also came up at about the 
same time that the railroad was opened for use. 

At two o'clock in the morning of September 15th the men 
of the Twenty-third were roused from their slumbers to 
prepare for a march, and one hour later they were moving 
on the road to Knoxville, twenty-eight miles distant. This 
march was performed with all possible speed, and late in the 
afternoon the regiment bivouacked within a short distance of 
the capital of East Tennessee. The next morning it entered 
the city, but soon after proceeded by rail to Morristown, a 
distance of about forty miles. Only a short stay was made 
here, and on the 19th it returned to Knoxville, and went 
into camp at the railroad depot. The next day was the Sab- 
bath, and here, for the first time in months, the ears of the 
men were greeted by the sound of church-bells, and they 
passed the day in rest and quiet, little dreaming of the furi- 
ous battle that was then raging away to the southward, upon 
the field of Chickamauga, or of the rout and disaster to the 
Union arms which that day's sunset was to witness. 

At four o'clock Monday morning the brigade took the 
road towards Loudon, and arrived thci-e the same night. 
Here the regiment occupied a pleasant and elevated camp 
in a chestnut grove, and remained stationed at Loudon for 
about five weeks, engaged in picket duty and scouting, and 
during the latter part of the time frequently ordered into 
line of battle, and continually harassed by reports of the 
near approach of the enemy under Longstreet, who had 
been detached from the army of Bragg in Georgia, and was 
pressing northward with a heavy force towards Knoxville. 

This advance of Longstreet decided Gen. Burnside to 
retire his forces from Loudon, and on the 28th of October 
the place was evacuated ; the Twenty-third Michigan being 
the last regiment to cross the pontoon-bridge, which was 
then immediately swung to the shore, and the boats loaded 
upon cars and sent to Knoxville. All this being accom- 
plished, the army moved to Lenoir, Tenn., and camped be- 
yond the town, the line of encampment extending many 
miles. The same night the camp-fires of the enemy blazed 
upon the hills of Loudon, which the Union forces had just 
evacuated. 

At the new camp on the Lenoir road the regiment re- 
mained until the 12th of November, when it moved with 
the army back to Huff's Ferry, where a heavy engagement 
ensued, in which Col. Chapin's brigade (the Second of the 
Second Division, Twenty-third Army Corps) moved to the 
attack on the double-quick, and, after a severe fight against 



overwhelming odds, drove the rebels back for more than 
three miles. The enemy's force (consisting of three of 
Longstreet's veteran regiments) took up an apparently im- 
pregnable position on a hill ; but the Second Brigade 
(Chapin's) charged the works promptly, and with such 
effect that in less than fifteen minutes the hill was cleared 
and the enemy in disorderly retreat. 

The next day after the battle the army retreated to 
Lenoir, the Second Brigade holding the most exposed po- 
sition in the column, that of rear-guard, to cover the re- 
treat. At Lenoir the camp equipage and transportation 
was destroyed, the teams turned over to the several bat- 
teries, and in the following morning the army continued its 
rapid march towards Knoxville. On the 16th the retreat- 
ing column was overtaken by the pursuing forces of Long- 
street at Campbell's Station, where a severe battle was 
fought, resulting in the repulse of the enemy and the re- 
tirement of the Union force in good order, but with a loss 
to the Twenty-third Regiment of thirty-one killed and 
wounded. The part which this regiment and its brigade 
took in the engagement was mentioned in the Journal of 
Louisville, Ky., by a correspondent writing from the field, 
as follows : 

" One brigade of the Ninth Corps was in advance, the Sec- 
ond Brigade of the Twenty-third Corps in the centre, and one 
brigade of the Ninth Corps as rear-guard. The skirmish- 
ing was begun by the Ninth Corps forming in the rear of 
Gen. White's command, which formed in line to protect 
the stock, etc., as it passed to the rear, and to cover the 
retreat of the Ninth Corps, which was the rear-guard, and 
was to file past it. Again was the Second Brigade in posi- 
tion where it must receive the shock of battle, and mu.st 
sustain more or less the honors already won. The arrange- 
ments for battle had hardly been completed before the 
cavalry came in from the front, followed by the infantry of 
the Ninth Corps, and two heavy lines of the enemy emerged 
from the woods three-quarters of a mile in front. Each 
line consisted of a division, and the men were dressed al- 
most wholly in the United States uniform, which at first 
deceived us. Their first line advanced to within eight 
hundred yards of Gen. White's front before that officer 
gave the order to fire. Henshaw's and the Twenty-fourth 
Indiana Batteries then opened on them with shell, but 
they moved steadily forward, closing up as their lines would 
be broken by this terrible fire, until within three hundred 
and fifty yards of our main line, when the batteries men- 
tioned opened on them with canister, and four batteries in 
the rear and right and left of Gen. White opened on their 
rear lino with shell. This was more than they could stand. 
Their front line broke and ran back some distance, where 
they reformed and deployed right and left, and engaged the 
Thirteenth Kentucky and Twenty-third Michigan on the 
right, and the One Hundred and Eleventh Ohio and the 
One Hundred and Seventh Illinois on the left, which were 
supported by Gen. Ferrero's command of the Ninth Corps. 
This unequal contest went on for an hour and a half. The 
only advantage over them so far was in artillery, they not 
having any in position yet. It seemed to be their object 
to crush the inferior force opposing them with their heavy 
force of infantry. The men were too stubborn ; they would 



80 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



not yield an inch, but frequently drove the rebels from their 
position and held their ground. Finding thoy could not 
move them with the force already employed, the rebels 
moved forward another line of infantry as heavy as either 
of the first two, and placed in position three batteries. 
Their guns were heavier and of longer range than those of 
the Second Brigade, and were posted so as to command Gen. 
White's position, while his guns could not answer their fire. 
They got the range of these guns at once, and killed and 
wounded several gunners and disabled several horses, when 
Gen. White ordered them back to the position occupied by 
those in the rear, the infantry holding the position covered 
by the artillery on the hill. An artillery fight then began, 
which continued nearly two hours till it was growing dark, 
and the order was given for our troops to fall back to re- 
sume the march to Knoxville." 

The Twenty-third with its brigade arrived at Knoxville 
a little before daylight in the morning of the 17th, after a 
march of twenty-eight miles without rest or food, and 
having fought for five hours, losing thirty-one killed and 
wounded, and eight missing. Then followed the memor- 
able siege of the city, which continued until the 5th of 
December, when the enemy retreated. In the operations 
of this siege the regiment took active and creditable part, 
and on the withdrawal of the forces of Longstreet it joined 
in the pursuit, though no important results were secured. 
The enemy having passed beyond reach, the regiment 
camped at Blain's Cross-Eoads, December 13th, and re- 
mained until the 25th, when it was moved to Strawberry 
Plains. From the commencement of the retreat to Knox- 
ville until its arrival at the Plains the situation and con- 
dition of the regiment had been deplorable, for many of 
its men had been without blankets, shoes, or overcoats, and 
in this condition (being almost entirely without tents) they 
had been compelled to sleep in unsheltered bivouac in the 
storms and cold of the inclement season, and at the same 
time to subsist on quarter rations of meal, eked out by 
such meagre supplies as could be foraged i'rom the country. 
The command remained at Strawberry Plains about four 
weeks, engaged upon the construction of fortifications, and 
on the 21st of January, 1864, marched to the vicinity of 
Knoxville, where it was employed in picket and outpost 
duty until the middle of February, having during that 
time three quite sharp afl'airs with the enemy's cavalry 
(January 14th, 22d, and 27th), in the last of which seven 
men were taken prisoners and one mortally wounded. From 
this time until the opening of the spring campaign it was 
chiefly engaged in scouting, picket, and outpost duty, in 
which it was moved to several different points, among 
which were Strawberry Plains, New Market, Morristown, 
and Mossy Creek, at which last-named place it lay encamped 
on the 25th of April, 1864. 

At this time orders were received for the troops in East 
Tennessee to move at once, to join the forces of Gen. 
Sherman in the forward movement which afterwards be- 
came known as the campaign of Atlanta. Under these 
orders tbe Twenty-third with its companion regiments left 
Mos.sy Creek on the 26th of April and marched to Charles- 
ton, Tenn,, from which place it moved out on the 2d of 
May and took the road to Georgia. In this campaign the 



regiment, under command of Col. Spaulding, was still a 
part of the Second Brigade (then under Gen. Hascall) of 
the Second (Judah's) Division of the Twenty-third Army 
Corps. Passing down the valley of the Tennessee, and 
thence up Chickamauga Creek, it reached the vicinity of 
Tunnel Hill on the 7th, and confronted the enemy at 
Rocky-Face Ridge, Ga., on the 8th of May, opening the 
fight on that day by advancing in skirmish-line, and taking 
possession of a commanding crest in front of the hostile 
works. In the advance from Rocky-Face the regiment 
with its brigade passed through Snake Creek Gap, arrived 
in front of Resaca on the 13th, and on the following day 
took a gallant part in the assault on the enemy's strong 
works at that place. The result of this attack was a 
repulse of the attacking column and severe loss to the 
Twenty-third Michigan. The commanding oflScer of the 
regiment (Col. Spaulding), in his report of this engage- 
ment, said : "The assaulting column was formed in three 
lines ; this regiment being in the second line, advancing 
over an open field, within easy rifle-shot of the enemy's 
position, under a terrible fire of musketry and artillery. 
The regiment in advance of the Twenty-third' broke and 
was driven back, and the one in the rear followed them. 
We moved forward until we reached a deep creek which 
it was impossible to cross, and held our position until 
ordered back. In this advance the regiment lost sixty-two 
killed or wounded. Lieut. William C. Stewart was among 
the killed." All this severe loss (out of a total of not 
more than two hundred and fifty muskets which the regi- 
ment took into the fight) was sustained during only a few 
minutes of most desperate fighting. 

Resaca was one of the most memorable among the many 
bloody battles in which the Twenty-third showed conspicu- 
ous gallantry. Gen. John Robertson, Adjutant-General of 
Michigan, says of it, " Although this reliable and model 
regiment acquitted itself with much celebrity in every en- 
counter with the enemy in which it was engaged, Campbell's 
Station, Resaca, Franklin, and Nashville will always be rec- 
ognized as prominent among its many hard-fought battles; 
and the memories of those fields, on which so much patri- 
otism and daring courage were evinced, will last while a 
soldier of that noble regiment lives." 

The enemy, though successful in repelling the assault on 
his works at Resaca, evacuated his position there and moved 
to the Etowah River,, where his rear-guard was overtaken 
and slightly engaged by the Union pursuing force, of which 
the Twenty-third Michigan formed a part. From this point 
the regiment moved on to Dallas and took a position in front 
of the rebel works at that place, where it remained from the 
27th of May until the 1st of June, and during this time 
was almost constantly engaged day and night in skirmish- 
ing with the advanced lines of the enemy. Again the rebel 
forces evacuated their strong position and moved south 
towards Atlanta, the Union troops pressing on in close and 
constant pursuit, in which service the Twenty-third Regi- 
ment participated, and took part in the engagements at Lost 
Mountain, Ga., and Kenesaw Mountain, and at the crossing 
of the Chattahoochee River at Isham's Ford, on the 8th of 
July. It had been given out by the enemy that a most 
determined stand would be made on the line of this river, 



TWENTYT-THIRD INFANTRy. 



81 



and it was expected that the crossing at tliis place must be 
a bloody one. Gen. Schofield had decided to attempt the 
passage of the river at about four o'clock in the afternoon 
of the Sth, and his plan was carried out successfully, and, 
contrary to expectation, without loss. From an account of 
this crossing, found in Moore's " Rebellion Record," and 
written by an ofiScer who was present, the following extract 
is made : 

"On the morning of the Sth the Twenty-third Corps broke 
camp at an early hour, and directed its march eastward, 
aiming to strike the river at Isham's Ford, eight miles 
above the railroad-bridge. Headquarters moved out in ad- 
vance, and riding at a rapid pace with an old man, a resi- 
dent of the country, as a guide, we emerged suddenly from 
the thick forest out upon the brink of the river bluffs. . . . 
Moving a little farther down the bluff, a close reconnois- 
sance with the glasses discovered on top of the opposite 
hill, just in the edge of a newly-harvested wheat-field, a 
single twelve-pound brass howitzer with a few gunners 
walking about it, and close down to the river's edge half a 
dozen rebel sharpshooters squatted under a large tree, just 
opposite the ford. The river here is about four hundred 
feet wide, and from crest to crest of the hills on either side 
of the river, between which the carinon must play, was 
about a third of a mile. . . . Meantime, and until late in 
the afternoon, the troops were slowly getting into shape, 
and the lumbering pontoon-trains were coming up and park- 
ing on the hill, ready to go down into the valley when 
needed. A little before four. Gen. Schofield sent orders to 
Gen. Cox to have his skirmish line in readiness, and at that 
hour pass it rapidly across a few rods of corn-field which 
lay between the hill and the river, and if they drew the 
rebel fire, to open with his cannon and silence it. 

" As the hour approached, a small party of spectators 
posted themselves half-way down the hillside, a mile below 
the ford, and with glasses thrust out from behind convenient 
trees and fences, eagerly awaited the spectacle. The cap- 
tain of the rebel gun could be clearly seen on the distant 
hill, seeking comfort as best he could (it was the hottest 
day of the year), and reading a January number of the 
Chattanooga Rebel. The gun had been drawn back to 
conceal it a little, and a sentinel sat on the brink of the 
hill to observe our movements and give notice to the gun- 
ners to bring forward the piece. The sharpshooters also 
could be seen, glaring intently out of their cover upon the 
opposite opening in the willows where the ford was ap- 
proached. 

" Our skirmish line was composed of about two hundred 
men from several regiments ; and a volunteer detachment 
of two hundred men from the Twenty-third and Twenty- 
fifth Michigan, One Hundred and Eleventh Ohio, and 
other regiments, which had in their ranks many old Lake 
Erie sailors, were assigned to the use of the oars in the 
pontoons which were to carry over the first companies. 

" At half-past four o'clock the little squad of skirmishers 
issued out of the woods which had concealed them perfectly, 
rushed rapidly across the corn-field, and when they came 
close in the rear of the willows they began pouring a sharp 
fire upon the rebel gun on the hill, and kept it up without 
cessation. The sentinel was seen to leap up hastily and 
11 



run to the rear, the gunners trundled out their gun in plain 
sight, and the sergeant stoops to sight it. But it is in vain, 
the bullets whistle so thick about his ears that, after dodg- 
ing a few moments from one side to the other, he gives up 
in despair, the lanyard is pulled, the shot plunges harmless 
in the middle of the river, and the rebel gunners all incon- 
tinently take to their heels and disappear in the woods. . . . 
Suddenly a pontoon-boat filled with blue-coats is seen Hear- 
ing the opposite shore, then another, and another. As the 
first boat touches land, Captain Daniels, whose eye is riveted 
to his glass, shouts, ' They hold up their hands ! they drop 
their guns ! they run down the bank !' The shells have 
cut off their retreat ; there is no other resource, and they 
come running down to the boats with uplifted hands in 
token of surrender. 

" Soon the pontoons had ferried over several regiments, 
who formed in line of battle at once on the top of the hill, 
but found no enemy. Soon after the troops began to cross 
the corps below began to open a lively cannonade, doubtless 
with a view of attracting the enemy's attention away from 
us. Detached as this corps is, so far away from the others, 
I am unable to- learn whether they have yet crossed over 
any forces or not ; but if I am not greatly mistaken, the 
Twenty-third Corps has crossed the first regiment of the 
army. True, they did not encounter strong forces in their 
front ; but none could tell what they would find, and the 
gallantry of the men who rushed forward to man the pon- 
toons in the face of these uncertainties, and those who ran 
up the hill with no others yet over to support them, when 
they might be met by a deadly fire from behind some 
screen, is worthy of all praise. When men are compelled 
thus to go upon suspense, and charge, it may be, upon lurk- 
ing volleys which shall leave no one of them to return, it 
requires a stouter heart than to dash forward amid the roar 
and rattle of arms, to meet a foe whom they can see. I 
have not known a more dramatic, brilliant, and at the same 
time bloodless episode in the whole campaign than was en- 
acted to-day by the corps of Gen. Schofield." Among the 
troops to whose bravery at the passage of the Chattahoochee 
the above tribute was paid, one of the most prominent 
regiments was the Twenty-third Michigan, whose men vol- 
unteered to form a part of the forlorn hope which crossed 
on the pontoon-boats. Unexpectedly, the regiment suffered 
no loss in killed, but its record of gallantry at the Chatta- 
hoochee was as bright as at Campbell's Station or Resaca. 

Arriving in front of Atlanta, the Twenty-third took part 
in the operations of the army which resulted in the capture 
of that stronghold. It was afterwards posted at Decatur, 
Ga., from which place, on the 3d of October, it moved north- 
ward in pursuit of the Confederate Gen. Hood, who was 
then marching his army towards Nashville. While engaged 
in this service, the regiment marched with its division (it 
was still in the Second Brigade, Second Division of the 
Twenty;third Army Corps) to Marietta, New Hope Church, 
Big Shanty, AUatoona, Cartersville, Kingston, and Rome, 
Ga., and from the last-named place, through Snake Creek 
Gap, to Summerville, Tenn., and Cedar Bluff, Ala., and 
thence back to Rome, where it remained a short time, and 
early in November again moved through Alabama into 
Tennessee, and was stationed at Johnsonville, employed in 



82 



HISTOllY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



garrison duty and the construction of defensive works until 
the 24th. It was then moved by rail to Columbia, Tenn., 
where it arrived on the 25th, while a heavy skirmish, 
amounting to almost a general engagement, was in progress 
near that place between the armies of Thomas and Hood. 
A part of the regiment was immediately advanced upon 
the skirmish line, while the remainder of the command 
went into position. At midnight it was withdrawn and 
ordered to the line of Duck Eiver, where it lay on the 
south side of the stream, throwing up defenses and fre- 
quently skirmishing with the enemy ; being constantly on 
duty day and night until near daylight in the morning of 
the 28th, when it retired across the river to the north 
bank, where it held position, and keeping up an almost con- 
tinual skirmish with Hood's advance till noon of the 29th, 
when it fell back with the army to the vicinity of Spring 
Hill, Tenn., about ten miles north of Duck River. Here, 
at about dark on the same day, the enemy was found in 
force occupying the road. An attack was made, and after 
a short fight the Confederates were driven from their posi- 
tion. The Union forces then resumed^ the march to 
Franklin, Tenn., and arriving there in the morning of the 
30th, immediately took position and commenced throwing 
up temporary defenses, which was continued through the 
day. At about sunset the forces of Hood, moving in four 
strong lines, assaulted the position most furiously, but were 
repulsed with heavy loss. The attack was several times 
renewed, but without success to the enemy. Finally at 
about ten o'clock p.m. the Confederate forces, concentrating 
all their energies in a supreme effort to carry the defenses, 
made their final, and by far their most desperate assault, 
charging up to and over the parapet, and planting their 
yolors on the work in front of the Twenty-third Michigan. 
But beyond that limit they did not go, for Col. Spaulding's 
men gave them the bayonet, in a counter-charge which is 
described as one of the most brilliant and effective in the 
entire history of the war. It was a short, but very desper- 
ate hand-to-hand struggle, in which the Michigan men 
gallantly held their position against the furious assault of 
the Confederates. 

Immediately after this successful repulse of the enemy, 
the Twenty-third with the other Union troops withdrew, 
and crossing the river, moved on the road to Nashville, ar- 
riving there at two p.m. on December 1st, having marched 
fifty miles in forty-eight hours, five hours of which time 
had been passed under fire in the desperate battle of 
Franklin. During the week which had elapsed since the 
arrival of the Twenty-third at Columbia the men had suf- 
fered severely from scarcity of provisions, and in the last 
two days of the movement had subsisted on less than quar- 
ter rations. 

The regiment lay within the works of Nashville for two 
weeks, and then in the morning of the 15th of December 
it moved out with its division and the other commands 
under Gen. Thomas to attack the Confederate army, which 
had in the mean time concentrated in their front just south 
of the city. In the great battles of the 15th and 16th of 
December, which resulted in the defeat and complete rout 
of Hood's army, the Twenty-third took an active part, 
and was conspicuous for steadiness and bravery during those 



two days of carnage. On the first day of the battle, " Col. 
Spaulding, with his regiment, then in the brigade of Col. 
Moore, made a most daring and dashing charge on a posi- 
tion occupied by a portion of the enemy's infantry, posted 
behind a heavy stone wall on the crest of a hill, which it 
carried in most brilliant style, capturing more prisoners than 
there were men in the line of the regiment. The flag-staff 
was shot in two and the color-sergeant severely wounded, 
but before the colors fell to the ground they were grasped 
by the corporal of the color-guard and gallantly carried to 
the front. On the 17th the pursuit of the enemy com- 
menced, and during the first three days of the march the 
rain fell in torrents, the mud being fully six inches deep, 
which, with the swollen stream, rendered progress ex- 
tremely difiicult and tedious. The pursuit was continued 
until Columbia was reached, where a halt was made and 
the movement ended."* 

Soon after this utter rout of Hood's army and its expul- 
sion from Tennessee, the Twenty-third Army Corps received 
orders to move east to the city of Washington, and on the 
1st of January, 1865, the Twenty-third Michigan, as part 
of this corps, left Columbia and took up its line of march 
for Clifton, two hundred and fifty miles distant, on the 
Tennessee River, at which point it arrived on the 8th of 
the month. On the 16th it embarked at that place, and 
proceeded thence by steamer, on the Tennessee and Ohio 
Rivers, to Cincinnati, where it arrived on the 22d, and im- 
mediately left there by railroad for Washington. Reaching 
that city on the 29th, it went into camp at " Camp Stone- 
man," D. C., and remained there until the 9lh of Feb- 
ruary. At that time the regiment moved to Alexandria, 
Va., where, on the 11th, it embarked with its corps on 
transports bound for Smithville, N. C., at the mouth of the 
Cape Fear River, and reached that point of destination 
after a pa.ssage of four days. On the 17th it moved with 
the other forces against Fort Anderson, taking position be- 
fore it on the 18th, and commencing the work of intrench- 
ing, under a furious artillery and musketry fire. Upon the 
capitulation of the fort and its occupation by the Union 
forces on the morning of the 19th of February, the Twen- 
ty-third Michigan Infantry was the first regiment to enter 
the captured work. The regiment was again engaged at 
Town Creek, N. C, on the 20th, taking three hundred and 
fifty prisoners and two pieces of artillery. In the morning 
of the 23d the Union force crossed the Cape Fear River to 
its north bank, and found that the city of Wilmington had 
been evacuated by the enemy during the previous night. 
The corps moved up the coast on the 6th of "March, and 
reached Kinston, N. C, just at the close of the severe en- 
gagement at that place. In this movement the Twenty- 
third marched one hundred and twenty-five miles in six 
days, and during the last twenty-four hours moved con- 
stantly without halting, except long enough to draw rations 
and to issue thirty additional rounds of ammunition to the 
men. 

The corps left Kinston March 20th, and on the 22d 
reached and occupied Goldsboro', where, on the following 
day, the advance of Gen. Sherman's army made its appear- 



* Gen. Kobertson's Reports. 



TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY. 



83 



ance, coming in from the south. The Twenty-third Regi- 
ment was then ordered back ten miles to Mosely Hall, to 
guard the railroad at that point while the army was receiv- 
ing-its supplies. On the 9th of April the regiment moved 
with the army on the road to Raleigh, which was occupied 
by the advance on the 13th, the Twenty-third Michigan 
entering the city on the following day and receiving the 
welcome news of Lee's surrender at Appomattox. The 
regiment remained at Raleigh until after the war had been 
closed by the surrender of the Confederate army under 
Johnston. Its fighting days were over, but its men had 
yet to experience a little more of the fatigues of marching. 
On the 3d of May it moved on the road, by way of Chapel 
Hill, to Greensboro', ninety miles distant, and reached that 
town on the 7th. Two days later it left by rail for Salis- 
bury, N. C, and remained there until the 28th of June, 
when it was mustered out of service. All that now re- 
mained of military life to the men of the Twenty-third was 
the homeward journey to Michigan, and their final pay- 
ment and discharge. They were transported by railroad 
through Danville and Petersburg to City Point, Va.,and 
thence by steamer to Baltimore, Md., where they again took 
railway transportation for the West, and arrived at Detroit 
July 7, 1865. On the 20th of the same month they were 
paid and disbanded, and each went his way to resume the 
vocations of civil life. 



OFrlCEBS AND MEN OF THE TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY FEOM 
CLINTON COUNTY. 

FieU and Staf. 
Col. Oliver Ii. Spaulding, St. John's; com. April 16, 1864; lieul.-eol. April. 6, 

1863; DiBJ. Feb. 13, 1863; capt. Co. A; bvt. biig.-gen. U. S. Vols., June 

26, 1865, " for faithful and meritorious services during the war." 
Surg. Louis Fasquelle, St. John's; com. Aug. 23, 1862 ; res. Nov. 26, 1862. 
Asst. Surg. Jos. H. Bachelor, St. John's; com. Nov. 25, 1864; hospital steward; 

must, out June 28, 1S65. 
Q.M. Charles Fowler, St. John's; com. June 20, 1864 ; Ist lient., Co. C; must, out 

June 28, 1865. 

Noti-CommuBtoned Staff. 

Sergt.-Maj. Charles Fowler, St. John's ; pro. to 2d lient., Co. C. 

Q.M.-Sergt. .loel H. Cranson, St. John's; trans, to 28th Mich. Inf., June 28, 1865. 

Q.M.-Sergt. Edwin A. Forman, De Witt; pro. to 2d lent., Co. E. 

Hosp. Stew. Ahram L. Casterline, De Witt. 

Company A. 
Capt. 0. L. Spaulding, St. John's ; com. Aug. 1, 1862 ; pro. to maj., Feb. 13, 1863. 
Ist Lieut. William Sickles, St. John's; com. Aug. 1, 1862; res. Dec. 22, 1862. 
Ist Lieut. James Travies, St. John's; com. Dec. 22, 1862; 2d lieut., Aug. 1, 1862; 

died of disease, Jan. 26, 18G3. . 
iBt Lie.nt. Edwin A. Forman, De Witt; com. Aug. 15, 1864; must, out June 28, 

1865. 
2d Lieut. Michael Lafflin, St. John's ; com. Nov. 12, 18G4 ; must, out June 28, 

1865. 
Sergt. Cliarles S. Fowler. St. John's ; enl. July 22, 1862 ; pro. to sergt.-maj. 
Sergt. Elbridge G. Wellington, Bengal; enl. July 18, 1862; pro. to 2d lient., Co. 

B, Feb. 26, 1863. 
Sergt. Edwin A. Forman, St. John's; enl. Aug. 1, 1862; pro. to 2d lieut, Co. B, 

April 16, 1864. 
Sergt. John T. Cobb, Duplain; enl. July 23, 1862; died of disease at Bowling 

Green, Ky. 
Sergt. Zelotes Avery, Bingham; enl. Aug. 6, 1862; died at Cincinnati, Ohio, 

Fob. 22, 1863. 
Sergt. Isaac N. Cochran, Watertown ; enl. July 31, 1862 ; pro. to 2d lieut. ; must. 

out June 28, 1865. 
Corp. Samuel W. Taylor, St. John's ; enl. July 28, 1862 ; died of disease at Knox- 

Tille, April 21,1864. 
Corp. Kirby Thompson, Greeubush; enl. July 24, 1862; must, out May 27, 

1865. 
Corp. Lyman N. Barber, Greenbush ; enl. July 23, 1862 ; on detached service at 

must. out. 
Corp Michael Kochford, Essex ; enl. July 26, 1862 ; must, out July 28, 1865. 
Corp. Michael J. Murphy, Essex; enl. Aug. 6, 1862 ; must, out by order, June 

17, 1865. 
Corp. Michael LafBin, St. John's ; enl. July 19, 1862 ; pro. to 2d lieut. 



Corp. Albert Bovee, St. John's ; enl. July 30, 1862; must, out by order, June 17, 

1865. 
Mus. Albert B. Niles, Watertown ; enl. Aug. 4, 1862 ; died of disease at Knox- 

viUe, Tenn., July 24, 1864. 
Mus. Theodore B. Birmingham, Duplain; enl. July 22, 1862; appointed chief 

mus., March 1, 1865. 
Wag. George Mowatt, St. John's ; enl. July 21, 1862 ; must, out May 31, 1865. 
Horace W. Avery, diach. for disability, Nov. 10, 1862. 
John A. Annis, disch. for disability, April 26, 1863. 
J. A. T. Amerman, disch, for disability, April 26, 1863. 
Ervin H. Amerman, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug. 7, 1864, 
Lyman Aldridge, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Charles T. Andrews, must, out June 28, 1865, 
Robert Anderson, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Seymour Barrows, must, out June 28, 1865. 
John S. Brubaker, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Sylvester Brown, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Moses Brown, disch. for disabilit}', March 25, 1863. 
Robert Burnett, Duplain ; disch. for disability, Feb. 20, 1863. 
William Bannister, died of disease at Newbern, N. C, April 6, 1865. 
James V. Carr, disch. for disability, Oct. 24, 1802. 
Roderick D. Carrier, disch. for disability. Dec's, 1862. 
Irving Carrier, disch. for disability, Feb. 25, 1863. 
Nelson Capron, disch. for disability, Jan. 8, 1863. 
Jos. N. Cochran, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Samuel Oocliran, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Hiram CoiTman, mast, out June 28, 1865. 
Charles Cook, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Marvin B. Dimon, must, out June 28, 1865. 
.John H. Davidson, (lied of disease, 

Rodney Eldridgp, killed on foraging expedition, Decatur, Ala. 
William W. Emery, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Eli W. Foglesang, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Loren R. Flint, died of di3e:ise at Bowling Green, Ky., March 31, 1803. 
Chas. M. Ferdon, disch. for disability, Foli. 3, 1863. 
Jas. J. Forman, disch. for disability, April 15, 1863. 
Bartlett B. Hill, died of disease at Marietta. Ga., Oct. 20, 1804. 
Wra. W. Hammond, died of disease, April 16, 1864. 
Milo H. Hewitt, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Tlieo. Hoyt, must, out June 28, 1S65. 
I.evi Halsinger, must out June 28, 1865. 
Robt. D. Heron, must, out June 28, 1865. 
John Ilensell, trans, to 28th Inf. ; must, out June 5, 1866. 
Lafayette Kergan, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Jas. Larkin, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Jos. G. Lamb, must, out June 28, 1866. 
John H. Lowell, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Benj. Land, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Richard C. Lewis, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Burney B. Martin, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Sanford S. Messenger, trans, to 28th Mich. Inf. 

Alex. McCraig, trans, to 28th Inf.; disch. at end of service, Oct. 14, 1865. 
John McOraig, trans, to 28th Inf. ; disch. at end of service, Oct. 14, 1866. 
Wayne E. Moore, must, out June 28, 1866. 
Geo. W. Myers, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Geo. Myer, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Wm. Miller, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Wm. W. Morton, died of disease in Indiana, April 14, 1864. 
John H. Owen, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 1, 1862. 
Gilbert Odell, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 7, 1862. 
James Odell, must, out June 20, 1865. 
Leander L. Quo, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Thos. Parris, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Sidney D. Parks, traus. to 28th Inf.; must, out June 19, 1865. 
Wm. H. Pennington, trans, to 28th Inf.; must, out July 26, 1865. 
Peter Reed, discli. for disability, Nov. 17, 1863. 
Guy 8. Saul, disch. for disability, April 13, 1863. 
Wm. M. Spangle, disch. for disability, Feb. 25, 18G3. 
David Smith, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Nov. 11, 1862. 
Chas. Strickland, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Nov. 9, 1862. 
Reuben Spade, died of wounds, Jan. 21, 1864. 
Merritt Seaton, died of disease at Knoxville, April 4, 1864. 
Wesley Spragne, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Geo. Titus, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Henry M. Taylor, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., March 19, 1863. 
Joseph Vernia, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., March 3, 1863. 
Cornelius Van Sickle, must, out June 28, 1866. 
Jay H. Van Deusen, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Theo. J. Wagner, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Ossian D. Wheeler, must, out June 28, 1865 . 
Jaa. B. Woodard, trans, to 28th Inf. ; must, out Nov. 9, 1865. 
Calvin P. Weller, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., March 1, 1863. 
Delso W. Warner, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Feb. 13, 1863. 
Franklin Warner, died of disease at Wilmington, N. C, March 1, 1864. 
Emery N. Warner, died in action at Resaca, Ga., May 14, 1864. 
Fred Willard, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., July 14, 1864. 
Benj. Young, trans, to 28th Mich. Inf.; must, out June 6, 1866. 



84 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Company B. 
2d Lieut. Elbridge G. Wellington, Bengal; com. Feb. 26, 1863; Sflrgt. Co. A ; 

resigned Aug. ]9, 1864. 
2d Lieut. Edwin A. Fomian, Do Witt ; com. April 16, 1864 ; pro. to 1st lieut. Co. A. ' 
John Bhinstall, disch. at end of service, Oct. 14, 18G5. 
Jacob Bartniff, must, out May 22, 1865. 
Joseph Hofner, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Owen McGonegal, trans, to 28tb Inf. 

Compawj C. 
Capt, George R, Long, St. John's; com. Nov. 30, 1864; muBt. out June 25, 1865. 
lat Lieut. Charles Fowler; com. Dec. 25, 1803; 2d lieut., Dec. 17, 1862; pro. to 

q.-m. 
John J. Oakley, mnst. out July 10, 1865. 
John Kamsey, must, out June 28, 1865. 
John W. Wilson, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 21, 18G4. 

Cknnpany E. 
Ist Lieut. George R. Long, St. John's ; com. Feb. 24, 1864 ; pro. to capt. Co. C. 
George W. Anderson, died in Andersonville prison-pun, Dec. 27, 1864. 
Charles Rcssaw, must, out June 28,1865. 
John Shafrer,muBt. out May 30, 1865.' 

Company F. 
Henry Barnes, trans, to 28th Mich. Inf. ; must, out Aug. 3, 1P65. 
Jesse Newsom, trans, to 28th Mich. Inf.; must, out Sept. 13, 1SG5. 

Company G. 
Capt. Heury Walbridge, St. John's; com. Aug. 1,1862; resigned Jan. 3, 1864. 
Ist Lieut. Stephen J. Wright, St. Johu's ; com. Aug. 1, 1862 ; resigned Feb. 6, 

1863. 
2d Lieut. Alonzo O.Hunt, St. John's; com. Aug. 1, 1862; resigned Dec. 29, 1862. 
2d Lieut. Mason S. Alexander, De Witt; com. Oct. 6, 1864; must, out June 28, 

1865. 
Sergt.John G. Cronkite, Riley ; enl. Aug. 11, 1862; disch. for disability, Feb. 13, 

1864. 
Sergt. George R. Long, St. John's; enl. Aug. 22, 1862; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. I. 
Sergt. Beuj. C. Macomber, Eagle; enl. Aug. 18, 1862; trans, to Inv. Corps, Jan. 

15, 1864. 
Corp. Elliott Shattuck, Eagle; enl. Aug. 18, 1862; on detached service since 

Aug. 17, 1863. 
Corp. Pembroke S. Buck, Bengal; enl. Aug. 11, 1862 ; must, out June 28, 1865. 
Corp. George G. Bush, Bingham ; enl. Aug. 12, 1862 ; disch. for disability, April 

2, 1863. 
Corp. Gilbert W.Smith, De Witt; enl. Aug. 20, 1862; must, out June 28, 1865, 
Corp. Daniel L. Kelly, De Witt; enl. Aug. 13, 1862; died in Richmond prison, 

Feb. 15, 1864. 
Corp. Harry C. Nutting, Riley ; enl. Aug. 1 2, 1862 ; died at Bowling Green, Ky., 

Feb. 1,1863. 
Corp. George W. Pray, St. John's; enl. Aug. 15, 1862; must, out June 16, 1865. 
Wagoner Asa W. Williams, Lebanon; enl. Aug. 13, 1862; died in Kentucky, 

Nov.. 17, 1862. 
Abijah Arnolt, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., June 0, 1863. 
Paul A. Averill, disch. for disability, April 28, 1863. 
Albert Benjamin, disch. for dis:ibility, Apnl 2, 1865. 
Oliver Blizzard, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Feb. 15, 1865. 
Henry H. Bond, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1864. 
Francis Brown, trans, to 28th Inf.; mustered out. 
Joshua Brown, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Sidney J. Bliss, mnst. out May 31, 1865. 
Henry N. Blakeslee, must, out May 30, 1865, 
Edward Chase, must, out June 28, 1865. 
John F. Carpenter, must, out June 28,. 1865. 
George H. Crego, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Lorenzo D. Cbadwick, must, out June 28, 1865. 
John P, Caster, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Freeman N. Carr, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Lewis H. Carpenter, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Nov. 7 1862. 
John Culp, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 16, 1862. 
Beuj. Cildwell, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Sept. 17,1864. 
Charles M. Cronkite, died of disease at Cincinnati, 0., Jan. 16, 18ti3. 
Andrew T. Chapman, disch. for disability, Sept. 13, 1864. 
Ezra Dansmore, disch. for disability, April 28,18&3. 
Abram Delong, must, out June 28, 1865. 
A. V. Dickinson, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Samuel Evan?, must, out June 28, 1865, 
Uriah Fritts, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863. 
William 0. Ferguson, disch. for disability, Feb, 10, 1863. 
William R. treeman, disch. for disability, Feb. 12, 1863. 
Ezra Glass, died of wounds at Knoxville, Tenn., Jan. 14 1864. 
Lewis Groesbeck, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Walter W. Qortliy, must, out June 28, 1865. 
DeloB Hayes, died of wounds at Knoxville, Tenn., July 14 1864. 
Chas. W. Hiuman, disch. for disability, 
Nathan B. Jones, disch. for disability, Jan. 7, 1863. 
Geo. G. Kniffln, died of disease at Cincinnaii, Ohio, Jan. 17, 1863. 
John D. Knapp, died pf disease at Bowling Green, Ky., March 18, 1863. 
John Lewis, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Jan. 22 1863 



Wm. L. Miller, disch. for disability, Feb. 20, 1863. 

Wm. L. Nichols, died of disease at Frankfort, Ky., Dec. 17, 1862. 

John Neal, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec, 7, 1862. 

John M. Newsome, died of disease nt Bowling Green, Ky., Not. 23, 1862. 

Daniel Newsome, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Jan. 4,1863. , 

Jesse C. Owen, disch. for disability, March 26, 1863. 

John Redmond, disch. for disability, April 2, 1863. 

peter Russell, died in Andersonville prison-pen, April 6, 1864, 

John Reed, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Andrew Robb, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Myron Sherman, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Stephen W. B. Temple, Duplain ; must, out June 28, 1865. 

L. H. Treat. 

Davis Thurston, died of disease at Frankfort, Ky., Nov. 22, 1802. 

Edward L. Tinklepaugh, died of diseaae nt Lebanon, Ky., Nov. 3, 1862. 

Clark A, Vredenburgh, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 30, 1882. 

Frank Vredenburgh, must, out June 28, 1865, 

Wm. G. Vanburgh, must, out Aug. 3,1865. 

Shnbjiel Vincent, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 1, 1863. 

Milo White, trans, to 28th Inf.; must, out April 4, 1866. 

Asa M. Williams, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., 1862. 

Thos. J. Winters, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Jan. 24, 1863. 

Alex. Watson, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Feb. 7, 1863. 

Ciiaa. G. Wright, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., April 1, 1863. 

Jared Wright, disch. for disability, Oct. 9, 1863. 

Henry West, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Company H. 
Henry L. Porter, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Edward Rose, muft. out July 24, 1865. 
Danl. Steele, died of disease at Brooke's Station, Va., Dec. 2, 1862. 

Compawj I. 
2d Lieut, Geo. R. Long, St. John*B; com. Feb. 13, 1863; sergt.; pro. to Ist lieut., 

Co.E. 
Anthony Newman, trans, to 28th Inf. 
Henry Yager, trans, to 28Lh Inf. ; disch. at end of service, Oct. 14, 1865. 

Company K. 
John W. Drake, trans, to 28th Inf. ; must, out June 5, 1866. 
Hiram Murphy, trans, to 28th Inf. 

OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY FROM 
SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, 

Field and Staff. 
Maj. John Garland, Caledonia ; com. Dec. 29, 1864, capt., Co, H ; must, out June 

28, 1865. 

Company A. 

James Gay, must, out June 28, 1865. 

David R. Nicholson, disch. at end of service, Oct. 18, 1865. 

Edwin A. Walter, must, out Juno 16, 1865. 

Company B. 
Alfred M. Bennett, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Company C. 
Abel D. Livermore, mnst. out July 24, 1865. 
Moses A. Norris, must, out May 15, 1865. 

Company D. 
Albert Guyer, must, out June 6, 1866. 

Company E. 
2d Lieut. James H. Anderson, Caledonia; com. March 11,1864; pro. to 1st Hent., 

Co. I, Oct. 6, 1864 ; trans, to 28th Mich, Inf. ; must, out June 6, 1866. 
Daniel R. Munger, disch. for wounds. 

Company G. 

Capt. Benj. F. Briscoe, Corunna ; com. Feb. 24, 18C4 ; Ist lient. Co. H ; must, out 

Jan. 8,1866. 
Sergt. Alonzo H. Crandall, Shiawassee, Aug. 14, 1862 ; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. P. 
Samuel Goron, must, out July 13, 1865. 

Truman Husted, died of disease at Camp Chase, Ky., May 15, 1864. 
Oi-son Post, disch. for disability, Oct. 16, 18C2. 
Daniel S. Post, must, out June 28, 1865. 
James St. John, disch. for disability, April 2, 1863. 
William Sterling, died of wounds, June 24, 1864. 
Edward A. Vining, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Jan. 20, 186.3. 

Company H. 
Capt. John Garland, Corunna ; com. Aug. 1, 1862 ; pro. to major. 
IstLieut. Benj, F.Briscoe, Coninna; com. Aug. 1, 1862; pro. to capt, Co, G, 
2d Lieut. Marion Miller, Caledonia; com. Aug. 1, 1862; re8.J&ec. 17, 1862. 
2d Lieut. Calviu Smith, Caledonia; com. Oct, 6, 1864. 
Sergt. Wm. H. Jones, Caledonia; e»L July 26, 1802; disch. for disability, Feb. 

12, 1863. 
Sergt. James H. Anderson, Caledonia; enl. Aug. 9, 1862; pro. to 2d lieut. Co, B. 
Sergt. Caleb Mead, Caledonia; enl. Aug. 6, 1862; must out June 28, 1865, 



TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 



85 



Sorgt. Isaac H. Post, Antrim; trans, to Invalid Corps. 

Sergt. Lutlier Santell, Venice; trans, to Inialid Corps. 

Corp. Andrew S. Parsons, Perry ; enl. Aug. 9, 18C2 ; must. out. 

Corp. Diivid West, Caledonia; enl. Aug. 7, 1802; must. out. 

Corp. E. L. M. Ford, Caledonia ; enl. Aug. 5, 1862 ; died of wounds at Knoxville 

Feb. 18, ISM. 
Corp. Jason S. ■Wiltse, Burns; enl. Aug. 14, 1862; discL. for pro. in U S Col 

Art., Aug. 11, 1864. 
Corp Ossian W. Oooa. Bennington ; enl. Aug. 13, 1862 ; discb. for disability 

May 15,186:1. 
Corp. George Dippy, Antrim; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., May IB, 1864. 
Coi-p. Charles F. Beard, Antrim; died in action at Campbell's Station, Tenn 

Nov. 16, 1863. 
Corp. John M. Calkins, Venice ; enl. Ang. l.'i, 1862 ; diech. by order, May 29, 1866. 
Corp.WilliamH.Baker, Burns; enl. Aug. 14, 1862; discb. fordisability Feb 20 

1863. ' ' ' 

Corp. Charles E. Smith, Perry ; enl. Aug. 15, 1862 ; died at Louisville, Ky., Oct 

8, 1863. 
Oliver M. Able, disch. for disability, Feb. 20, 1863. 
Uriah Arnold, must, out June 5, 1866. 
Israel G. Atkins, must, out June 28, 1865. 
William D. Bailey, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Alvah B. Beach, must, out June 28, 1865. 
James Boutee, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Orestus Biake, must, out Juno 5, 1866. 
Archibald Brown, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky. 
George L. Bailey, died of disease at New Albany, Ind., July 16, 1862. 
Samuel Brown, died of disease at New Albany, Ind., June 2;-!, 1804. 
Ebenezer Ball, trans, to Vet. Kes. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. 
Cyrus Brigbam, trans, to Vet. Has. Corps, Dec. 15, 1863. 
Chauncey W. Barnes, trans, to Mississippi Marine Brigade. 
William C. Baker, discb. for disability, Feb. 20, 1863. 
George Bentley, disch. for disabilitj-, Dec. 10, 1862. 
Henry P. Calkins, disch. for disability, April 13, 1863." 
Sidney Coy, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. 
William H. Coburn, died of disease, 

Daniel J, Clough, died in action at Town Creek, N. C, Feb. 20, 1865. 
Asa F. Chalker, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Calvin H. Card, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Samuel Conklin, must, out Jun~e 28, 1865. 
Nelson K. Calkins, must, out June 28, 1865. 
George Ceraven, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Charles Dean, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Benjamin F. Dickerson, must, out June 28, 1805. 
John L. Dippy, died at Stone Mountain, Ga., Sept. 25, 1864. 
Willett C. Day, died of disease at Frankfort, Ky., Oct. 10, 1862. 
Charles P. Day, disch. for disability, Feb. 20, 1863. 
Benjamin Defrics, disch. for disability, Feb. 22, 1863. 
Alfred Dunham, disch. by order. Jan. 5, 1865. 
Henry B. Dibble, disch, for wounds, Sept. 29, 1864. 
Daniel P. Eldridge, must, out June 5, 1865, 
Frank Garabrand, must, out June 28, 1805. 

Francis A. Hall, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Jan. 29, 1863. 
Jerome E. Harris, died of disease at Corunua, Mich., May 21, 1865. 
Merritt S. Harding, trans, to Vet. Kes. Coi-ps ; must, out July 5, 1865. 
George Lytle, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Apiil 15, 1864. 
Samuel A. Lytle, discb. at end of service, Feb. 13, 1866, 
Perrin S. LInge, disch. for disability, Oct. 20, 1862. 
Chester W. Lynds, disch. for disability, Oct. 31, 1862. 
Edos p. Melvin, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., April 1, 1863. 
Philander Murray, died of disease in Michigan, May 20, 1864. 
Marmon Moore, died of disease at Marietta, Ga., Sept. 21, 1864. 
George N. Macomber, trans, to Vet. Res. Coips, Dec, 15, 1863. 
James W. McKnight, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Frederick S. Mitts, must, out June 23, 1865. 
Julius W. Piper, must, out June 8, 1865. 
Francis Purdy, must, out June 28, 1805. 
John F. Piper, must, out June 28, 1865. 
William Plaae, trans, to 28th Begt. 
George F. Prentiss, disch. for disability, Dec. 4, 1862. 
Mosely W, Potter, disch. for disability, Aug. 20, 1803. 
James J, Peacock, disch, by order, Dec, 17, 1864, 
William H. Beam, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 1, 1863. 
David M. Richardson, must, out May 31, 1805. 
Charles 0. Russell, must, out June 28, 1865, 
George P. Seal, must, out June 27, 1865. 
Frederick Stickney, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Thomas Shaw, must, out June 28, 1866. 
Godfrey Shaoulz, must, out June 28, 1865. 
John B. Swan, must, out June 28, 1865. 
William H. Stickney, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Hubert L, ShurtlefF, died of disease at Frankfort, Ky,, Oct. 29, 1862. 
Guy J. Scofleld, died of disease at Cincinnati, 0., Dec. 20, 1862, 
George H. Spaulding, missing at Campbell's Station, Tenn., Nov, 16, 1863, 
Charles P. Stevens, trans, to Mississippi Marine Brigade, 
William H. Shaw, disch. for disability, Nov. 15, 1862, 
Orlando Titus, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky,, April 6, 1863, 



Edward A. Thompson, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Austin Trowbridge, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Paul Traynon, must, out June 10, 1865. 

Edgar L. Tyler, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. 

William D. Voohies, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 15, 1863. 

Horace Wakeman, died of disease at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

John Walters, must, out June 5, 1866. 

Charles P. Williams, must, out June 14, 1865. 

William J. Warren, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Alonzo Wallace, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Charles Wilkesou, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Comj/any K. 
Walton Mitchell, missing In action near Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 29, 1804. 
Monroe Wolvey, most, out May 30, 1805. 



CHAPTER XII. 

TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTEY. 

Organization at Tpsilanti — Services in Kentucky and Mississippi — 
Campaign in East Tennessee — Battles at Huff's Ferry and Camp- 
bell's Station — Transfer to Army of the Potomac — Tho Wilderness 
Campaign — Operations at Petersburg — Assault and Capture of Fort 
Mahon — Close of Service. 

Recruiting for the Twenty-seventh Regiment was com- 
menced in 1862, and its first rendezvous was established at 
Port Huron, Another regiment, to be designated as the 
Twenty-eighth, was commenced not long afterwards, with 
a rendezvous at Ypsilanti, Both these filled very slowly, 
and the exigencies of the service demanded their consolida- 
tion. An order was accordingly issued, directing the nu- 
cleus at Port Huron to break camp and proceed to the ren- 
dezvous of the Twenty-eighth at Ypsilanti, where the two 
commands were consolidated as the Twenty-seventh Infan- 
try, under command of Col, Dorus M. Fox, The other 
field-oflficers of the regiment were Liuut,-Col, John H, 
Richardson and Major William B, Wright, 

Clinton and Shiawassee Counties were represented by a 
few men in " A," " B," " C," " E," and " H" companies, 
and by a larger number in the " Independent Company of 
Sharpshooters," which was attached to the Twenty-seventh ; 
but the greatest number was found in Company I, which 
was principally made up of volunteers from Clinton, and 
was on this account usually mentioned in the regiment as 
the Clinton company. Its officers were Capt. Abner B, 
Wood and First Lieut, Porter K, Perrin,* of St. John's, 
and Second Lieut. John Q, Patterson, of Ovid, All its 
original non-commissioned officers were of Clinton County. 
This company, however, was not organized until several 
months after the regiment took the field, and therefore took 
no active part in its earlier campaigns. 

On the 12th of April the Twenty-seventh Regiment — 
then composed of only eight companies — ^left Ypsilanti and 
proceeded, by way of Cincinnati, to Kentucky, where it be- 
came a part of the Ninth Army Corps. In the following 
June it was moved to Mississippi and took part in the ad- 
vance against Jackson, as well as in some of the other 
movements in the Vicksburg campaign. In August it re- 
turned with the Ninth Corps to Kentucky, and on the 10th 
of September received orders to move with that corps to 

* Afterwards promoted to captain of the Sharpshooters, and to major 
of the Second Infantry. 



86 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Cumberland Gap, where it arrived about ten days later. 
Thence it moved on to Knoxville, and reached there on the 
26th. From Knoxville it moved to Lenoir Station, and 
remained encamped there several weeks. On the 14th of 
November it moved with its division to HuflF's Ferry, Tenn., 
where a brisk fight ensued with the advance of Longstreet's 
army. From this place it moved back through Lenoir on 
the retreat to Knoxville. At Campbell's Station the column 
was overtaken by the enemy, who attacked vigorously, and 
a battle of several hours' duration was fought, in which the 
Twenty-seventh lost eleven killed and wounded and ten 
missing. After this engagement the retreat was continued, 
and the regiment reached Knoxville on the following day. 
Then followed the siege of Knoxville by Longstreet, during 
which the regiment occupied a position at Fort Saunders, 
and participated in the repulse of the enemy's furious as- 
sault on that work, on the 29th of November. It marched 
with other troops in pursuit of Longstreet, when that gen- 
eral withdrew from Knoxville, and was afterwards encamped 
successively at Rutledge, Blain's Cross-Roads, and Mossy 
Creek, at which latter place it was joined by the company 
(I) from Clinton and Shiawassee, another company (K) 
and a number of recruits, numbering in all three hundred 
and sixty-two men. 

Immediately after this accession to its numbers orders 
were received for the Twenty-seventh, with its corps, to pro- 
ceed east to reinforce the Army of the Potomac. Under 
these orders the regiment left Mossy Creek on the 17th of 
March, and moved by way of Knoxville and Hall's Gap to 
Nicholasville, Ky., making the march over horrible roads 
and through the ice and snow of the mountains in fourteen 
days. From Nicholasville it moved by railroad to Annapo- 
lis, Md., arriving there on the 5th of April. At that place 
it was joined by the company of Sharpshooters, which con- 
tained a considerable number of men from Clinton and 
Shiawassee Counties, under Capt. P. K. Perrin. 

From Annapolis the regiment moved, on the 23d of 
April, to Washington and thence to Warrenton Junction, 
Va., where it took its place in the Army of the Potomac 
as part of the First Brigade, Third Division of the Ninth 
Army Corps. On the 5th of May it crossed the Rapidan 
and moved into the Wilderness, where it fought in the 
battle of the following day, and sustained a loss of eighty- 
nine killed and wounded. 

At the battle of Spottsylvania, May 12th, the regiment 
was again engaged, and fought most gallantly, charging up 
a hill to the assault of a strong earthwork. The attack 
failed, but the regiment unflinchingly held its ground, 
though almost entirely unsupported on the left, and exposed 
to a raking fire of musketry from this direction, as well as 
to the storm of shell and canister from the fort. While in 
this terrible situation the regiment joining it on the ri^ht 
was withdrawn, thus leaving both flanks exposed to the fire 
of the enemy. But the orders given to its commanding 
ofiScer were not to fall back an inch, and these orders were 
obeyed, even after the last round of ammunition had been 
expended, and until the friendly shadows of night ended 
the work of death. In this battle the loss of the Twenty- 
seventh was one hundred and seventy-five killed and 
wounded and only twelve missing. 



In the movement from Spottsylvania to the North Anna 
^River the regiment was engaged (though not heavily) on 
the 24th and 25th of May. On the 3d of June it took 
part in the battle at Bethesda Church, losing seventy-six in 
killed and wounded, among the latter being the heroic Maj. 
Moody, whose wound proved fatal. The regiment was 
present at the battle of Cold Harbor, but sustained no 
considerable loss. From this place it moved rapidly to the 
James River, which it crossed at Wilcox's Landing, It 
ariived in front of Petersburg on the 16th of June, and 
charged with its brigade on the enemy's works on the fol- 
lowing day, sustaining heavy loss. The loss of the regi- 
ment during the month of June, exclusive of the loss at 
Bethesda Church on the 3d, was ninety-four killed and 
wounded. 

From this time the Twenty-seventh was on duty in the 
investing lines round Petersburg until its final evacuation 
by the forces of Lee, but its changes of position were too 
numerous to mention in detail. It took part in the opera- 
tions at the springing of the mine on the 30th of July 
and lost severely, among its wounded being the command- 
ing oflSccr, — Col. Wright. During the month of July the 
regiment lost one hundred and twelve in killed and wounded. 
It fought in the engagements at the Weldon Railroad, on 
the 19th and 20th of August, but with a loss of only seven 
teen killed and wounded. Again, on the 30th of Septem- 
tember, it took part in the fight at Poplar Grove Church, 
with a loss of one killed and nine wounded. 

The regiment remained near this place for two months, 
but returned to the trenches in front of Petersburg on the 
29th of November, and remained there engaged in severe 
and constant duty until the 2d of April, 1865. Before 
daybreak on that day it advanced to the attack of Fort 
Mahon, which was one of the strongest of the defenses of 
Petersburg. The assault was successful ; the men of the 
Twenty-seventh charged on the double-quick, passed the 
ditch, mounted the parapet, and planted the regimental 
colors upon it. The fortification thus taken was not the 
entire work which was known as Fort Mahon, but its east- 
ern wing. The number of men of the Twenty-seventh who 
made this assault was only one hundred and twenty-three, 
but they took one hundred and fifty-nine prisoners and six 
pieces of artillery. The regiment held the captured work 
during the day against repeated attempts of the enemy to 
retake it. Petersburg was evacuated by the forces of Lee 
during the succeeding night, and the Twenty-seventh entered 
the city at three o'clock in the morning of the 3d. 

The assault and capture of Fort Mahon was perhaps the 
most brilliant exploit in all the bright record of the Twenty- 
seventh, as it was also nearly the last of its experience in 
the field of war. It moved in pursuit of the retreating 
columns of Lee, but the surrender at Appomattox followed 
a few days later, and the Army of the Potomac had no 
longer an armed foe to oppose it. The Twenty-seventh 
was soon after moved to Washington, where it took part in 
the great review of the army on the 23d of May. It was 
encamped at Tenallytown, D. C, from that time until July 
26, 1865, when it was mustered out of service. Three 
days later the men had reached Detroit, on the way to their 
homes. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 



87 



CLINTON COUNTV MEN IN THE TWENTY-SEVENTH. 
Company A. 
Jamea Brown, disch. for disiiliilily, May 9, 1865. 
Franklin Doty, discli. for disability, Jan. 6, 1865. 
Elias Myers, must, out June 2, 1866. 

Lnyton Richmond, died of disease near Petersburg, Va., June 19, 1864. 
Eicliard E. Snow, disch. for disability, March 7, 1866. 
James H. Woodruff, disch. for disability, Dec. 29, 1864. 
George A. Whitman, must, out July 26, 1865. 
William Whitman, died of wounds at York, Pa., Nov. 7, 1864. 

Company B. 
James C. Howell, must, out of Vet. Kes. Coi-ps, Aug. 9, 1865. 

Company C. 
Robert Daniels, died of disease at Washington, D. C, February, 1866. 

Company H. 
William C. Blodgett, must, out June 9, 1866. 
Henry Copenhtiver, must, out .lune 8, 1865. 
George W. Christopher, must, out June 10, 1865. 
John J. Christoplier, must, out July 17, 1865. 
Albert Loth, must, out July 7, 1865. 
James Matteson, must, out May 29, 1865. 
Eufus W. Partridge, must, out May 27, 1865. 
Joseph Tabor, disch. by order, Jan. 12, 1865. 
Frank Webb, must, out July 20, 1866. 
Benjamin F. Yeomans, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Company I. 
Capt. Abner B. Wood, Jr., St. John's; com. Deo. 20, 1803; resigned Nov. 12, '64. 
Ist Lieut. Porter K. Perrin, St. John's ; com. Dec. 20, 1863 ; pro. to capt., 1st Ind. 

Co. S. S., Feb. 29, 1804; pro. to maj,, 2d Michigan Inf., April 1, 1864. 
2d Lieut. John Q. Patterson, Ovid; com. Dec 20,1863; disch. for disability 

April 28, 1865 ; pro. to Ist lieut. Co. C, May 5, 1864 ; wounded in action 

June 18 and Dec. 7, 1864. 
Sergt. Nelson Fitch, Ovid ; enl. Nov. 30, 1883 ; disch. for wounds. 
Sergt. Joseph Berry, Victor; enl. Nov. 30, 1803; disch.; pro. to 2d Vet. Vol. 

Inf., July 1, 1864. 
Sergt. Daniel R. Ditts, Ovid; enl. Dec. 1, 1863 ; disch. for disability, Oct. 12, 1864. 
Sergt. George Simpson, Ovid ; enl. Nov. 30, 1863 ; must, out July 26, 1865. 
Sergt. William H. Hicks, Bingham ; enl. Dec. 9, 1863 ; died of wounds received 

at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864 
Sergt. Orlando S. Perkins, St. John's ; pro. to 2d lieut., Co. K, 27th Inf., April 

19, 1864. 
Corp. Cyrus Stout, Essex ; enl. Dec. 12, 1863; must, out July 26, 1866. 
Corp. William D. Hodge, Ovid ; enl. Nov. 26, 1863 ; disch. by order, May 3, 1865. 
Corp. Cornelius M. Letts, Ovid ; enl. Nov. 24, 1863 ; disch. by order. May 3, 1865. 
Corp. John S. King, Victor ; enl, Nov. 30, 1863 ; disch. for disability, Oct. 10, '64. 
Corp. .Jacob Parsage, Victor; enl. Dec. 1, '63; disch. for disability, April 20, '65. 
Corp. John W. Outcult, Olive ; enl Dec. 24, '63 ; disch. for disability, April 18, '65. 
Corp. Jacob Gibbard, Victor; enl. Dec. 1, '63 ; disch. for disability, March 6, '65. 
Mus. George F. Besley, Bingham; enl. Dec. 19, 1863; died of disease at Wash- 
ington, Aug. 16, 1864. 
Abram Bacr, must, out July 26, 1866. 
John Briggs, must, out June 6, 1865. 
Joseph Bynns, must, out July 26, 1865. 

Frederick R. Butler, St. John's ; must, out from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 3, 1865. 
Nelson Cadeon, must, out May 23, 1865. 
John Carpenter, must, out July 26, 1865. 
John Duucklee, must, out June 7, 1865. 

Jabez S. Dennison, must, out Feb. 7, 1865, for wounds received June 3, 1864. 
William S. Decker, St. .lohn's ; must, out May 12, 1866. 
Nathaniel Doak, died of disease at Petersburg, Jan. 7, 1864. 
Joseph N. Ellicott, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Joseph Fields, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Arlington L. Fields, must, out July 26, 1865. • 

John Flynn, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Ebenezer B. Fuller, must, out July 26, 1866. 
Milau Gleason, Duplain, must, out June 15, 1865. 
John E. Gleason, Duplain, must, out May 23, 1866. 
Lewis Garland, died of wounds at Philadelphia, Pa., July 4, 1864. 
Clark Gray, died of wounds at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864. 
Merrihew Green, died of disease at Alexandria, Va. 
Cleon Green, died of disease at 3d Div. Hosp., Aug. 10, 1864. 
Hivilla H. Hames, must, out July 26, 1865. 
John A. Hillaker, must, ont from Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 7, 1866. 
Charles F. Hathaway, must, out July 26, 1866. 
Hiram M. Hughes, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Henry H. Isbell, must, out July 26, 1865. 
John B. Jackway, Duplain, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Alonzo Le Baron, must, out from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 2, 1866. 
George P. Mattoon, must, out July 26, 1865. 
W. L. Maasey, died of disease at Washington, D. C, Oct. 11, 1864. 
D. P. Miner, disch. for disability, Oct. 8, 1864. 
Henry S. Marshall, Greenbush, disch. for wounds, Dec. 16, 1864. 
James E. Owen, must, out July 26, 1865. 



John E. Polton, must, out July 26, 1865. 

Joseph Y. Perkins, must, out July 26, 1865. 

Henry Putnam, Victor, disch. for wounds, Jan. 31, 1865. 

George W. Pruden, disch. Feb. 18, 1865. 

George W. Steele, disch. Nov. 12, 1864. 

Silas B. Southworth, disch for wounds, Jan. 28, 1865. 

Joseph Silvers, must, out July 26, 1865. 

Uriah Smith, must, out July 26, 1865. 

Sidney Smith, must, out Aug. 4, 1865. 

Adin 0. Skinner, Bengal, died in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 

S. B. Strickland, died of wounds at Washington, June 1, 1864. 

Henry G. Thompson, disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1865. 

James Tonse, must, out May 15, 1865. 

Hart li. Upton, must, out July 26, 1866. 

Alvin B. Wansey, must, out May 23, 1863. 

Lulher W. Wetherbee, must, out June 9, 1865. 

Palmer M. Wilbur, must, out July 26, 1865. 

Alvan E. Wells, disch. for disability, July 21, 1864. 

G. H. Whitney, died of disease at Philadelphia, Pa., July 17, 1864. 

D. F. Whitney, died of disease at Washington, Oct. 11, 1864. 

William E. Wing, died in action before Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865. 

Robert Youngs, disch. for disability, Oct. 8, 1864. 



First Independmt Company Shnrpahootera, attached to the Twenty-seventh Infantry. 
Capt. Porter K. Perrin, St. John's, com. Feb. 29, 1864; pro. to maj. 2d luf., April 

1, 1864. 
Arotus H. Allen, must, out July 26, 1865. 

Charles Bigelow, Ovid, died in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Enos Carey, died in action near Petersburg, Va , June 18, 1864. 
James H. Hathaway, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Richard M. Johnson, must, out Aug. 5, 1865. 
Henry Leonard, must, out July 20, 1865. 
George M. Lyon, must, out May 5, 1865. 
George A. Lanin, must, out July 26, 1865. 
William S. Le Clerc, died near Petersburg, Jan. 25, 1865. 
George McDowell, died of wounds at Washington. 
John M. Myer, must, out July 26, 1865. 
John A. Matthews, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Ambrose Murtaugti, must, out July 26, 1865. 
James H, Worden, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Horace B. Whetstone, must, out May 23, 1865. 
William H. Whetstone, must, out May 23, 1865. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MEN IN THE TWENTY-SEVENTH. 
Company C. 
Walter E. Norton, must, out Aug. 4, 1865, from Vet. Res. Corps. 

Company E. 
Henry Van VIoit, disch. for disability, Deo. 23, 1864. 

Company H. 
Charles D. Beach, must, out June 17, 1865, 

Company I, 
Corp. Charles Van Deusen, Fairfield ; enl. Deo. 1, 1863 ; must, out July 26, '65. 
E. Andrews, disch. for disability, Oct. 13, 1864. 
WjUiam Brown, must, out July 26, 1865. 
Charles Cole, must, out May 19, 1805. 
Reuben Davis, must, out July 29, 1865. 

Samuel Davis, died of wounds at Washington, D. C, June 1, 1864. 
Thadeus Graves, died of disease at City Point, Va., July 11, 1864. 
Samuel E. Isbell, must, out July 26, 1866. 

Jackson N. Voorhees, died of wounds at Alexandria, Va , June 28, 1864. 
Truman A. Van Deusen, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 

First Indepemlent Company of SharpshooterB^ attached to Ttaeniy^aevmth Infantry, 

Herman Ford, must, out May 23, 1865. > 

Charles H. Hammond, died of disease, July 15, 1864. 

J. J. Kenney, died of wounds at Washington, D. C. 

Aaron Munsel, must, out Aug. 5, 1865. * 

John W. Parker, must, out July 26, 1866. 

Horace Tibbetts, must, out Aug. 8, 1866, 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

TWENTT-NINTH AND THIRTIETH INFANTKY, 
AND FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS. 

Organiziition of the Twenty-ninth at Snginaw— Campaign in Tennessee 
—Fights at Deeatur, Murfreesboro', and Winsted Church — Railroad 
Duty— Muster Out— The Thirtieth Infantry— Service in Michigan 

Engineers and Mechanics— Rendezvous at Marshall— Its varied 

Services in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama — Fight 
.it Lavergne — Services in Georgia— March to the Sea and through 
the Carolinas— Garrison Duty at Nashville in 1865— Muster Out and 
Disbandment. 

TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY. 
More than one hundred men of Shiawassee and Clinton 
Counties — oflScers and private soldiers — served with the 
Twenty-ninth Infantry in the war of the Rebellion, one 
of its companies (E) being raised almost entirely in Shia- 
wassee County, under Capt. A. J. Patterson and First 
Lieut. Sidney G. Main, of Owosso, and Second Lieut. 
AVilliani F. Close, of Byron. This regiment was organized 
at Saginaw in the autumn of 1864, its muster into the 
United States service under Col. Thomas M. Taylor being 
completed on the 3d of October in that year. Three days 
later it left the rendezvous for Nashville, Tenn., where it 
arrived October 12th, and soon after moved to Decatur, 
Ala., reaching there on the 26th. On the day of its ar- 
rival at Decatur that place was attacked by the army of the 
Confederate Gen. Hood, and the Twenty-ninth was ordered 
to move to the front and occupy a line of rifle-pits and a 
small defensive work. In obedience to the order the regi- 
ment moved forward bravely and steadily, though under a 
severe fire of artillery and musketry, and held the position 
until dark, notwithstanding that the enemy made several de- 
termined efforts to carry it. The Confederate force during 
this day's fight had outnumbered the Union troops nearly 
ten to one, but during the night the latter received rein- 
forcements, and on the following day a little advantage was 
gained in the driving in of the enemy's skirmishers, and a 
slight advance of the right of the Union line. Before 
daylight in the morning of the 28th the Confederates 
made an attack, driving in our pickets and advancing their 
line considerably. This line they held against a strong at- 
tempt to dislodge them in the early morning, but they 
were afterwards driven back by a part of the Eighteenth 
Michigan, who took over one hundred prisoners in the 
affair. Later in the day a general engagement was brought 
on, the enemy assaulting with great determination, but the 
Union forces had by this time been increased to about five 
thousand men, and they were able to hold their ground 
and inflict severe loss on the assaulters. In the morning of 
the 29th it was found that the main force of the enemy 
had been withdrawn, and only a rear-guard was left in the 
rifle-pits. This rear-guard was driven out from the pits 
during the afternoon, and thus the defense of the place was 
made entirely successful. The part taken by the Twenty- 
ninth in the fight at Decatur was highly creditable to the 
regiment, and more particularly so because its men were 
then fresh from the camp of instruction, and had never 
before smelled the smoke of battle. The adjutant-general 
of Michigan in his report of this affair says : " The ex- 
emplary conduct, the vigorous and splendid fighting of Col. 



Taylor's regiment and his officers, although less than a 
month in the field, could scarcely have been excelled by 
long-tried veterans." 

The Twenty-ninth, after this battle, garrisoned Decatur 
until the 24th of November, when it marched to Murfrees- 
boro', and reaching there on the 26th composed a part of 
the defending force at that point during the siege of Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro' by Hood, being engaged with a part 
of the enemy's forces at Overall Creek, December 7th. ^ 
Having been sent out to escort a railway-train on the 13th, 
it was attacked at Winsted Church by a superior force of 
the enemy, — infantry and artillery, — and in the severe 
action which ensued it sustained a loss of seventeen in 
killed, wounded, and missing. The track was relaid under 
a brisk fire, and the regiment brought the train safely back 
to Murfreesboro' by hand, the locomotive having been dis- 
abled by a shell. On the 15th and 16th it was attacked 
by two brigades of the enemy's cavalry on the Shelbyville 
turnpike, south of Murfreesboro', while guarding a forage- 
train, and was again slightly engaged at Nolansville on the 
17th. On the 27th it moved by rail to Anderson, and was 
assigned to the duty of guarding the Nashville and Chat- 
tanooga Railroad. It remained on this duty till July, 1865, 
when it moved to Decherd, Tenn., and thence to Murfrees- 
boro', arriving there on the 19th. It was employed there 
on garrison duty till September 6th, when it was mustered 
out of the service, and on the 8th left Tennessee for Michi- 
gan, and was disbanded at Detroit about the 13th of Sep- 
tember. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MEN IN TUB TWENTV-NINTH. 
Compani/ A. 
David M. Black, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Charles A. Fiinda, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Thomas Graham, must, out May 22, 1865. 
Jasper Johu.4on, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Janies C, Luce, luust. out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Jacob Layer, must out Sept. 6, 1865. 
William U. Ormsbeo, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
David Strubie, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Company C. 
Robert McFarland, must out Sept. 6,1865. 
Kbenezer Thusgoud, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Company E. 
Gapt. And. J. Patterson, Owosso ; com. July 29, 1864 ; must, out Si'pt. 16, 1866. 
Ist Lieut, Sidney G. Main, Owosso; com. July 29, 1864; must, out Sept. 16, 

1865. 
2d Lieut. Wm. F. Close, Byron ; com. July 29, 1864 ; pro. to Ist lieut. Co. K. 
2d Lieut. John Q. Adams, Owosso; must, out as sergt., Sept. 6, 1865. 
Sergt. A. M. Parmeuter, Veruon ; eul. Sept. 2, 1864 ; must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Sergt. J. C. Woodman, Shiawassee ; enl. Aug. 25, 1864 ; must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Sergt. Chas. C. Eowell, Bennington, enl. Aug. 26, 1S64 ; must, out May 16, 1866. 
Sergt. Cyrenus Thomas, Owosso ; enl. Aug. 16, 1864* must, out Sept. 10, 1865. 
Sergt. Orrin Drown, Owosso; enl. Aug. 16, 1864; died in action at Shelbyville 

Pike, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1864. 
Sergt. PhilclusWaldron, Bennington ; enl. Aug. 22, 1864; must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Sergt. Geo. F. Brownell, Bennington; cnL Aug. 20, 1864; must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Sergt. Wm. G. Merrill, Burns ; enl. Aug. 27, 1864 ; disch. for disability, April 

19, 1865. 
Sergt. Iheo. Creque, Shiawassee, enl. Aug. 22, 1864 ; must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Sergt. Wm. J. Wiswell, Bennington; eul. Aug. 19, 1864; disch. for disability, 

June 7, 1865. 
Sergt. Edward H. Jones, Antrim ; enl. Sept. 4, 1864; must out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Corp. James M. Freeman, WoodhuU; eul. Aug. 29, 1864; must, out Sept. 6, 

1865. 
Corp. John Hutfrnan, WoodhuU ; eul. Aug. 29, 1864 ; must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Con>. Eichard Cbenell, WoodhuU; enl. Aug. 12, 1804; must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
John M. Arthur, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 13, 1864. 
William M. Batchclor, must, out Sept. 6, 1885. 
Nathan Borem, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
David Brown, must, out May 30, 1865. 
William W. Bennett, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 



THIRTIETH INFANTRY. 



89 



William Buddn, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Thomas Cyrenus, must, out Sept. 6, 1805. 

Jerfmiab Careon, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Benjamin Codweil, muBt. out Sept. 6, 1805. 

Leonard Grouse, must, out Sept. 6, 1805. 

Christopher Cook, must, out Sept. 6, 186B. 

George E. Cole, diod of disease at CoWan, Tenn., April 17, 1865. 

David W. Dunn, must, out June 7, 1866. 

John A. Drew, must, out June 27, 1865. 

David Dwight, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Ladocli Gillett, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 

Bichard German, must, out Sept. 0, 1865, 

William P. Barer, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

John W. Ragerman, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Charles B. Harris, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

George Hoag, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

William B. Hendee, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Kewell Kellogg, must, out Sept. 6. 1865. 

Cliarles N. Kilridge, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

John Klingensmith, must, out June 7, 1865. 

William H. Lavery, must, out July 18, 1866. 

Weston W. Lataunyon, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Henry L. Lamunyon, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

George Lindner, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Oscar M. Morse, niust. out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Jacob Mason, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Enos Osgood, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., April 9, 1865. 

Charles E. Perkins, must, out June 20, 1865. 

Austine Phillips, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Hiram Plainer, must, out Sept. 6, 1365. 

Leroy Regua, must, out May 22, 1865. 

William Sanderson, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Sherman Stevenson, disch. for disability. May 31, 1865. 

Andrew Vandusen, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

John E. Watson, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Seth N. Walter, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Stephen L. Woliver, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Edward D. Wooleot, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 1, 1864. 

Dennis Watkins, disch. for disability, March 7, 1865. 

Company F. 
Godfrey Armaugher, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
George Aldrich, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Noah G. Berg, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Thomas Graham, must, out May 5, 1866. 
Jacob Muffly, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
David Martindale, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
David Muffly, disch. for disability, June 3, 1866. 

Cortvpany H. 
Isaac Oassada, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Charles Hempsted, must, out Scpt.'0, 1866. 
Alonzo Hunt, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Charles Long, must, out Sept. 6, 1805. 
Leonard Robinson, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
William E. Vanpatten, must, out May 30, 1865. 
Eli Woodward, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Company K, 
Ist Lieut. William F. Close, Byron ; com. July '7, 1865, 2d lieut., Co. E ; must. 

out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Vorden H. Worden, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 



SOLDIERS OF THE TWENTY-NINTH FROM CLINTON COUNTF. 

• Company O. 
William Oilman, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Coimpawjf E. 
Salem S. Puffer, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Silenus A. Simons, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Company F. 
Ellis Buckingham, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
James L. Covel, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 26, 1865. 

Company G. 
Sergt. R. A. Burch, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Sfergt. Joseph Lathrop, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Henry C. Atwell, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Charles Hooker, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 
Francis M. Haynes, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Alexander Hovey, must, out Sept. 6, 1866. 
Albert Martin, must, out May 23, 1866. 
Edward N. Pierco, must, out Sept. 26, 1865. 
Clinton W. Rose, disch. for disability, March 22, 1865. 

12 



Albert C. Vredenburgh, must, out Sept. 26, 1865. 
John S. Wright, must, out Sept. 20, 1805. 

Company K. 
Philo Chappell, must, out Aug. 9, 1805. 

THIRTIETH INFANTRY. 

On account of the numerous attempts made by the Con- 
federates to organize in Canada plundering raids against 
our Northern border, authority was given by the War De- 
partment to the Governor of Michigan, in the autumn of 
1864, to raise a regiment of infantry for one year's service, 
and especially designed to guard the Michigan frontier. 
Its formation, under the name of the Thirtieth Michigan 
Infantry, was begun at Jackson in NovemJ)er, 1864, and 
completed at Detroit on the 9th of January, 1865. To 
this regiment Shiawassee and Clinton Counties furnished a 
total number of men equal to about three-fourths of a com- 
pany, the greater part of whom served in the ranks of 
Company K. 

When the organization was completed the regiment was 
stationed in companies at various points, one company being 
placed at Fort Gratiot, one at St. Clair, one at Wyandotte, 
one at Jackson, one at Penton, three at Detroit Barracks, 
and one on duty in. the city. But the speedy collapse of 
the Rebellion put an end to Canadian raids, and the regi- 
ment had no active service to perform. It remained on 
duty until the 30th of June, 1865, and was then mustered 
out. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MEN IN THE THIRTIETH. 
Field and Staff. 
1st Lieut, and Adj. Jerome W. Turner, Owosso; com. Nov. 28, 1804; resigned 
Apiil 7, 1805. 

Company C. 

Corp. James A. Hoy t, Bush ; enl. Nov. 18, 1864 ; must, out June 30, 1865. 

Company F, 
Jerome R. Fairbanks, must, out June 30, 1865. 
James Rummer, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Johnson Taylor, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Charles W. Williams, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Alfred B. Williams, must, out June 30, 1866. 

Company I. 
John F. Cartwright, must, out June 30, 1865. 

Company K. 
Corp. Ora C. Waugh, Owosso ; enl. Deo. 16, 1864 ; must, out June 30, 1865. 
Corp. Robert Upton, Owosso ; enl. Dec. 7, 1864; must, out June 30, 1865. 
Corp. Oscar Bailey, Owosso; enl. Dec. 2, 1864; must, out June 30, 1865. 
Corp. Elnathan Beebe, Caledonia; enl. Dec. 29, 1864 ; musr. out June 30, 1865. 
Leonard Alger, died of disease at Jackson, Mich., March 28, 1805. 
Leander A. Bush, died of disease at Jackson, Mich., Feb. 14, 1806. 
Robert F. Buck, must, out Juue 30, 1805. 
Henry Boslaw, must, out June 30, 1805. 
Edward Bright, must, out June 30, 1805. 
Ebenezer Childs, must, out June 30, 1865. 
John Crane, must, out June 30, 1805. 
Andrew Case, must, out June 30, 1865. 
T. Fancheon, must, out June 30, 1806. 
John Gannon, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Lyman E. Hill, must, out June 30, 1865. 
George Johnson, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Robert Smith, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Charles N. Wetmore, must, out June 30, 1865. 

CLINTON COUNTY MEN IN THE THIRTIETH. 
Company F, 
Elijah E. Baldwin, must, out June 30, 1865. 
George E. Bliss, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Henry P. Cutter, must, out June 30, 1865. 
John W. Day, must, out Juue 30, 1865. 
Andrew Jones, must, out June 30, 1806. 
Albert Jones, must, out June 30, 1805. 
Wm. B. Owen, must, out June 30, 1«6S. 



90 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Company K. 
Sergt. Silaa E. Losey, Bingham ; must, out June 30, 1865. 
Sergt. Albert' H. B. Fitch, Bingham ; must, out June 30, 1865, 
Corp. Charles K. Blakesleo, must, out June 30, 18G5. 
Corp. John G. Hathawaj', Bingham ; died of disease at Jackson, Mich., May 29, 

1865. 
Horace Avei-y, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Henry H. Burdick, must, out June 30, 1865. 
John Chandler, must, out Jan. 9, 1865. 
John Edwards, must, out June 30,1865. 
Herbert Estes, must, out June 30, 1865. 
John Hetherington, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Franklin Hickox, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Nelson Lorenberg, must, out June 30, 1865. 
■William Lorenberg, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Porter Pratt, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Scott Starkweather, must, out June 30, 1865. 
John W. Spaulding, must, out June 30, 1865. 
George W. Shuttes, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Clark Schram, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Charles Sherwood, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Charles Travis, must, out June 30, 1865. 
M. Vanfliet, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Wm. R. Wilson, must, out June 30, 1865. 

FIEST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS. 

The Micliigan regiment of Engineers and Mechanics 
was recruited and organized by Col. William' P. Innes (its 
commanding officer) in the summer and autumn of 1861. 
It was the intention, in raising this regiment, that it should 
be largely composed of men skilled in mechanical trades, 
and that upon entering the field they should be principally 
employed in the work with which they wore acquainted, 
a great amount of which is always required in the opera- 
tions and movements of large armies. This implied'prom- 
ise, made to the men at the time of the enlistment, was 
measurably carried out, though they were always expected 
to enact the part of fighting-men upon occaision ; and for 
this purpose they were regularly armed and accoutred as 
infantry. It can be said of them with truth that they 
always proved themselves as brave and steadfast in battle 
as they were skillful and efficient in their own peculiar field 
of labor, though it was 'in the latter that their services 
were by far the more valuable to the government. 

The Engineers and Mechanics organization was composed 
of men from almost every county in the central and southern 
part of the peninsula, the counties of Clinton and Shiawassee 
being represented in nearly all its companies, but most 
numerously in Company E. The regiment was rendezvoused 
at Marshall, and was there mustered into the service of the 
United States, by Capt. H. E. Mizner, U.S.A., October 
28 to December 6, 1861, and on the 21st of the latter 
month left Marshall, one thousand and thirty stronc, for 
Louisville, Ky. On account of the peculiar nature of the 
service required of .them, they were employed in detach- 
ments, and thus it would be impracticable to trace them 
through all their numerous marchings and labors. One of 
the detachments was under Gen. 0. M. Mitchell in his ad- 
vance on Bowling Green, and among the first Union troops 
to enter the town aft«r its evacuation by the enemy. After 
the capture of Fort Donelson opened Tennessee to the 
Union forces, the Engineers and Mechanics were speedily 
at work in that State repairing bridges and railroads and 
opening lines of communication. For eight weeks imme- 
diately following the battle of Shiloh they were engaged 
in constructing steamboat landings, wharves, and ware- 
bouses, and during the spring and summer of 1862 they 



were chiefly employed in the repair or reopening of the 
railroads between Nashville and Chattanooga, Nashville and 
Columbia, Corinth and Decatur, Huntsville and Stevenson, 
and Memphis and Corinth, and twice assisted in reopening 
the road between Louisville and Nashville. In the month 
of June, 1862, alone, they built seven bridges on the Mem- 
phis and Charleston Railroad, each from eighty-four to 
three hundred and forty feet in length — in the aggregate 
nearly three thousand feet — and from twelve to sixty feet 
in height. 

Serious difficulties existed in the regiment during the 
first months of its service, owing to a misunderstanding as 
to the pay the men were to receive, it having been found 
after their organization that there was no law by which 
they could receive the pay expected. This trouble was 
finally remedied by an act of Congress, which act also pro- 
posed to increase the regiment's strength from ten to twelve 
companies of one hundred and fifty men each, forming 
three battalions, each commanded by a major. Half the 
men, as artificers, drew seventeen dollars per month, and 
the others thirteen dollars per month. 

On the 1st of November, 1862, the regiment was en- 
camped at Edgefield, Tenn., when the alterations and cas- 
ualties to that date aggregated as follows : Died of disease, 
seventy-five; died of wounds received inaction, two; killed 
in action, one ; wounded in action, seventeen ; discharged, 
one hundred and twenty-four ; taken prisoners, fifteen ; de- 
serted, twenty ; recruits received, sixty-seven. Until June, 
1863, the regiment was stationed at Edgefield and Mill 
Creek, near Nashville, at Lavergne, Murfreesboro', and 
Smyrna, and at a point near Nashville on the Tennessee 
and Alabama Railroad. During this time the regiment 
built nine bridges, besides a number of magazines and build- 
ings for commissary, quartermaster, and ordnance stores, 
and also repaired and relaid a large amount of railroad track. 
While at Lavergne, on the 1st of January, 1863, a part 
of the regiment was attacked by two brigades of the enemy's 
cavalry, under Gens. Wheeler and Wharton, with two pieces 
of artillery, but succeeded in defeating them with serious 
loss. 

On the 29th of June the regiment moved south from 
Murfreesboro', and during the two succeeding months was 
engaged repairing and opening the railroad from Mur- 
freesboro', Tenn., to Bridgeport, Ala. Of five bridges 
completed in July, the one over Elk River was four hun- 
dred and sixty feet in length ; that over Duck River, three 
hundred and fifty feet long. During September and Oc- 
tober detached companies were employed in building an 
immense bridge over the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, 
Ala., constructing commissary buildings at Stevenson, Ala., 
and building and repairing bridges, etc., on the lines of the 
Nashville and Chattanooga and the Nashville and North- 
western Railroads ; the headquarters of the regiment being 
at Elk River Bridge, Tenn. The alterations and casual- 
ties for the year, to Nov. 1, 1863, were : Died in action or 
of wounds, six ; died of disease, fifty-eight ; discharged for 
disability, one hundred and eighty-nine; discharged for 
other causes, fourteen ; deserted, twenty-seven ; officers 
resigned, ten ; joined as recruits, three hundred and sev- 
enty-two ; aggregate strength, nine hundred and sixty-five. 



FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS. 



91 



In the months of November and December, 1863, and 
January and February, 1864, the regiment was engaged in 
building trestle-work and bridges on the line of the Nash- 
ville and Northwestern Railroad, and in the construction of 
store-houses and other buildings at Chattanooga, Tenn., 
and Bridgeport, Ala., for the quartermaster, ordnance, and 
other departments of the army. At the same time one 
battalion was engaged at Chattanooga in refitting saw-mills, 
where it continued during the months of March, April, and 
May, employed in running saw-mills, getting out railroad- 
ties, building hospital accommodations, and working on the 
defenses. 

Detachments from the other battalions • were engaged 
erecting blockhouses on the lines of the Tennessee and Ala- 
bama, the Nashville and Chattanooga, and the Memphis and 
Charleston Railroads. Two companies were at Bridgeport, 
Ala., building artillery block-houses. Two companies were 
at Stevenson, Ala., completing its defenses, while another 
battalion was stationed on the Memphis and Charleston 
Railroad, building block-houses at various points between 
Decatur and Stevenson. The major portion of the regi- 
ment was finally concentrated upon the line of the Atlantic 
and Western Railroad during the summer months of 1864, 
where it built and repaired railroads, block-houses, etc. The 
task allotted to this regiment during the campaign of 
Sherman's army, in 1864, was one of great magnitude, 
and most nobly did its members fulfill their duty. But for 
such men as composed the Michigan Engineers and Me- 
chanics, and the rapidity with which they repaired the rail- 
road right up to the enemy's skirmish line,* the more than 
one hundred thousand Union soldiers in front would many 
times have been compelled to go without their rations. 

At the close of the Atlanta campaign, headquarters of 
the regiment were established in the latter city. The al- 
terations and casualties for the year were reported as fol- 
lows : Died of disease, one hundred and twelve ; trans- 
ferred, thirty-six ; discharged for disability, etc., fifty ; 
re-enlisted as veterans, one hundred and forty-eight. 

On the 31st of October, 1864, the original term of the 
regiment expired, and such officers as desired to leave the 
service were mustered out, as were also the enlisted men 
whose terms had expired. The re-enlisted veterans, together 
with the recruits who had joined the regiment, enabled it 
to maintain its organization entire and nearly its full 
strength. 

From the 1st to the 15th of November, 1864, the regi- 
ment, with the exception of Companies L and M, was 
stationed at Atlanta, Gra., being employed in constructing 
defenses, destroying rebel works, depots, rolling-mills, foun- 



» As Johnston's army fell back from one chosen position to another 
before the fieioo attacks and flank movements of Sherman's veterans, 
the railroad was invariably destroyed by the enemy, and in a man- 
ner, too, that would seem to require days to repair it. It must have 
been a matter of great surprise and chagrin to the Confederates when, 
as was often the case in the course of a very few hours after the de- 
struction of a road, » locomotive bearing the legend " United States 
Military Railroad," driven by a greasy Northern mechanic, would 
dash up almost in their very midst, saluting them with several short, 
sharp whistles, and then a prolonged scream of defiance. The salute, 
however, as well as the cheers from the " Yanks," usually, and very 
quickly too, received a response in the shape of shells from a rebel 
b:ittery. 



dries, gas-works, and other rebel property, and in tearing 
up and rendering useless the various railroad tracks in the 
vicinity. After the complete destruction of Atlanta,")" the 
regiment set out on the morning of November 16th with 
the Fourteenth Army Corps, as part of the engineer force 
of Gen. Sherman's army, going to Sandersville, Ga., and 
thence with the Twentieth Army Corps to Horse Creek, 
where it received orders to join the Seventeenth Army Corps, 
with which it continued on to Savannah, Ga., reaching there 
Dec. 10, 1864. During this march the regiment was 
required to keep pace with the movements of the army, 
traveling over twenty miles a day, and meanwhile was en- 
gaged tearing up railroad tracks, twisting rails, destroying 
bridges, repairing and making roads, building and repairing 
wagon-bridges, etc. On the 10th and 11th of December 
the regiment built a dam across the Ogechee Canal under 
the fire of rebel batteries. 

From that time until after the evacuation of Savannah 
by the enemy, the regiment was constantly at work tearing 
up railroad track and destroying the rails of the several 
railroads leading out of the city, and in constructing long 
stretches of corduroy-road for the passage of army-trains. 
On the 23d of December it moved into the city, and five 
days later commenced work on the fortifications laid out by 
direction of Gen. Sherman. These works, constructed by 
and under the supervision of this regiment, were over two 
miles in length, and included several strong battery posi- 
tions and lunettes. The regiment was again put in motion . 
on the 3d of January, 1 865, marching to Pooler Station, 
converting the railroad into a wagon-road, and then return- 
ing to Savannah. 

It embarked on board transports for Beaufort, S. C, Jan- 
uary 26, 1865, and on the 31st started with the victorious 
army on its march to Goldsboro', N. C. It moved with 
the Fifteenth Army Corps to Banbury, S. C, thence with 
the Twentieth Army Corps to Columbia, S. C, thence with 
the Seventeenth Corps to Fayetteville, N. C, and thence 
with the Twentieth Army Corps to Goldsboro', N. C, where 
it arrived March 23, 1865. It is estimated that during 
this campaign, besides making and repairing a great distance 
of corduroy-road, the regiment destroyed and twisted the 
rails of thirty miles of railroad track and built eight or ten 
important bridges and crossings. At Edisto the bridge was 
constructed under fire from the enemy's sharpshooters. At 
Hughes' Creek and at Little and Big Lynch Creeks the 
bridges and approaches were built at night. At the last- 
named stream the men worked in water waist-deep. A 
foot-crossing was made there in one night nearly a mile in 
length, and the next day. the space was corduroyed for the 
heavy army-trains and artillery to pass over. The regiment 
destroyed factories and rebel army-supplies at Columbia, 
rebel ordnance and stores at Cheraw, and the old United 
States arsenal at Fayetteville, N. C. 

Companies L and M, which had been detached from the 
regiment early in the summer of 1864 and placed upon the 
defenses at Stevenson, Ala., having completed those works, 
which consisted of a system of eight block-houses, were 
retained in the Army of the Cumberland. They assisted to 



j- Afternoon and night of Nov. 15, 1864. 



92 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



fortify and defend the line of the Nashville and Chatta- 
nooga Railroad for some weeks, and on the 28th of Novem- 
ber, 1864, were moved to Elk River Bridge. For some 
time after that, when not interrupted by Hood's rebel army, 
they were engaged in building block-houses between that 
bridge and Murfreesboro', Tenn. During the most of the 
month of December a portion of the Engineers and Me- 
chanics was engaged in completing and repairing Fort 
Rosecrans, at Murfreesboro', Tenn., while the rebels, under 
Hood, were investing Nashville. 

A detachment, consisting of Company L of this regi- 
ment, with several companies of an Illinois regiment, which 
had been sent out to bring through from Stevenson, Ala., 
a railroad-train of supplies, was captured Dec. 15, 1864, 
after several hours' hard fighting. 

On the 1st of March, 1865, Companies L and M left 
Murfreesboro', Tenn., to rejoin their regiment, and pro- 
ceeding by rail, via Louisville, Indianapolis, Crestline, Pitts- 
burgh, and Philadelphia, to New York ; they then took 
steamer to Beaufort, N. C., thence by rail to Newbern, and 
finally joined their comrades at Goldsboro', N. C, March 25, 
1865. 

Gen. Sherman's army began its last campaign April 10, 
18G.'i. By breaking camp at Goldsboro' and moving 
rapidly to the northward, Johnston's fleeing forces were 
pursued to, through, and beyond Raleigh. The Engineers 
and Mechanics marched with the Twentieth Army Corps, 
but proceeded no farther than Raleigh, where they remained 
until after Johnston's surrender.* On the 30th of April the 
regiment moved out on its homeward march with the Sev- 
enteenth Army Corps. It Crossed the Roanoke River at 
Monroe, and passing through the cities of Petersburg, 
Richmond and Alexandria, Va., arrived at Washington, 
D. C, during the latter part of May, 1865. It partici- 
pated in the grand review of two hundred thousand veteran 
soldiers held at the nation's capital, May 23 and 24, 1865, 
and then went into camp near Georgetown, D. C. Early 
in June the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., 
thence to Nashville, Tenn., where it was employed upon 
the defenses until September 22d, when it was mustered out 
of the United States service. It arrived at the designated 
rendezvous, Jackson, Mich., September 25th, and on the 
1st day of October, 1865, was paid ofi" and disbanded. 

The battles and skirmishes which by general ordei-s it 
was entitled to have inscribed upon its colors were those 
of Mill Springs, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862; Farmington, Miss., 
May 9, 1862; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 
1862 ; Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862 ; Lavergne, Tenn., 
Jan. 1, 1863; Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 6, 1863; siege of 
Atlanta, Ga., July 22 to Sept. 2, 1864 ; Savannah, Ga., 
Dec. 11 to 23, 1864 ; Bentonville, N. C, March 19, 1865. 

CLINTON COUNTY MEN IN THE ENGINEEES. 
Company E, 
Stebbins C. Bliss, diach. at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864. 
Francis A. Coats, trans, to Vet. Ees. Corps, Sept. 1, 1803. 
JIarcua A. Case, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 
Uartin Fisher, mnst. out Sept. 22, 1885. 
Jolin Grier, most, out Sept 22, 1865. 
S. C. Hutchinson, discb. at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864, 



* April 26, 1865. 



Jan]os Kelly, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Jackson Kelly, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Saml. S. KentHeld, died of disease at Bridgeport, Ala. 

Hervey Lyon, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Clias, P. Lyon, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Arnold L, Lake, must, out Sept, 22, 1865. 

Nathan Fenny, disch. at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864. 

Luther B, Pratt, discli, fur disability, Nov, 29, 1862, 

Hull L, Prudden, disch, by order, Aug, 25, 1866, 

Merritt Randolph, disch. by order, June 2, 1862. 

Joel T. Smith, must, out Sept. 22, 1865, 

Emanuel Sumner, died of disease at Bridgoport, Aa,, March 23, 1864. 

Hiram H, Starr, disch, at end of service, Oct, 31, 1864, 

Frederick Tuttle, disch, for disability. May 18, 1863. 

Company G. 
David Scott, trans, to Vet. Kes, Corps, Jan. 1, 1865. 

Company L, 
Danl, Baughn, must, out Sept, 22, 1865. 

John Crawford, died of disease at Stevenson, Ala., Oct. 27, 1864. 
Wm, H, Hewitt, died of wonnds at Muifreesboro', Jan, 13, 1865. 
Peter W. Prudden, must, out Sept. 22, 1866. 
John Vanoise, disch. by order, July 3, 1865. 

Company M. 

Oscar F, Bristol, disch, by order, July 21, 1865, 

Saml, Crawford, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Peter Duffs, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Hiram Hilliker, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Chas. Randolph, disch. by order, May 22, 1865. 

SLirtin Sutphen, disch, by order, Sept. 27, 1865. 

Oven Sebring, must, out Sept, 22, 1865. 

Sylvester Sebring, must, out Sept, 22, 1866. 

Saml. T. Simpson, disch. for disability, April 23, 1865. 

Danl. J. Wilkinson, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MEN IN THE ENGINEEES. 
Company B, 
Nathan Colby, disch. by order, .Tune 6, 1865. 
Alexander Kellas, disch, by order, June 6, 1866. 

Company C. 
Newell E, Cady, disch, by order, July 11, 1865. 
Andrew Kinney, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Company D. 
2d Lieut, Herman W, Perkins, Corunna; com, Nov, 3, 1864 mast, out Sept. 22, 

1865. 
Daniel F. Case, disch. for disability, June 1, 1862. 

Company E. 
Isaiah Slayter, disch, at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864. 
William B, Staner, disch, at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864. 

Company F. 
William E, Delbridge, discb, by order, June 6, 1865. 

Company G. 
2d Lieut, Rodney Mann, Owosso ; com, April 12 ,1862 ; pro, to let lieut. 
John Berkley, disch, by order, June 6, 1865, 
Joseph Gest, discli, by order, June 6, 1866, 
William Stone, disch. by order, June 6, 1865. 
Charles W, Smith, disch. by order, June 6, 1865, 

Company H. 
Harrison Hackett, disch. by order, June 6, 1A65. 

Company /, 
Oliver Hopkins, discb. for disability, JaB, 14, 1864. 
James H, Marble, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 24, 1863. 

Company K. 
Charles E. BoweU, must, out Sept. 22, 1866, 

Ckympany M, 
Lewis M, Dickinson, must, out Sept, 22, 1865. 



FIRST AND SECOND CAVALRY. 



93 



CHAPTER XIV. 

FIRST AND SBOOND OAVALBY. 

The First Cavalry in Virginia in 1862 — Campaigning in 1863 — 
Raids and other Movements in 1864 and 1865 — Organization of the 
Second Cavalry at firand Rapids — Campaigning in Missouri, Mis- 
sissippi, Kentucky, and Tennessee in 1862 and 1863 — Re-enlist- 
ment — Campaigns of Atlanta and Nashville — Raidings in 1865 — 
Muster Out. 

The First Michigan Cavalry Regiment was organized in 
the summer of 1861, at Camp Lyon, Detroit, which was 
designated as the regimental rendezvous. One company of 
the regiment was chiefly made up of volunteers from Clin- 
ton and Shiawassee Counties. This company, originally 
styled the " Constitutional Guard," was recruited by Capt. 
Josiah B. Park, of Ovid, and First Lieut. Thurlow W. 
Lusk, of Duplain, under whom it was mustered and saw 
its first service. The recruiting headquarters were at Ovid, 
and the company was raised to a strength of sixty-four men 
in three days from the date of its first enlistment.* It left 
Ovid about the 1st of August, was reported at the regi- 
mental rendezvous, and designated in the organization as 
D Company of the First Cavalry. 

The regiment was mustered into the United States ser- 
vice September 13, 1861, eleven liundred and forty-four 
strong, under command of Col. T. F. Brodhead, and on 
the 29th of the same month Companies A, D, E, and M 
embarked on the steamer " May Queen," and Companies 
H, I, K, and L on the " Ocean," for Cleveland, on their 
way to Washington and the seat of war. They reached 
Washington on the 2d of October, and were soon after 
joined by C, F, and G Companies, which had been left be- 
hind in charge of the horses. About the 20th of November 
the regiment moved to Frederick, Md., where it remained 
in camp, two miles from the city, during the winter. 

Upon the opening of the spring campaign of 1862 the 
First became actively employed on the Upper Potomac and 
in the passes of the Blue Ridge Mountains. On the 23d 
of March it took part in the battle at Winchester, and won 
honorable mention for its bravery and efficiency in covering 
the retreat of Gen. Banks' forces from the Shenandoah 
Valley, being almost continuously under fire while engaged 
in that service. Afterwards it took part in the actions at 
Middletown (March 25th), at Strasburg (March 27th), 
Harrisonburg (April 2d), Winchester (second battle. May 
2'J:th), Orange Court-House (July 16th), Cedar Mouptain 
(August 9th), and at the second battle of Bull Run, 
August 30th, in which last-named engagement its com- 
manding officer. Col. Brodhead, was mortally wounded. 
The losses of the regiment in that battle were twenty killed 
and wounded, seven prisoners, and one hundred and six 
missinn-. From that time until November 1st ten more 
had died of wounds received in action, and sixty of disease. 

During the month of November, and through the follow- 
ing winter and spripg, the regiment was employed in grand 
guard duty along the line of the Potomac River, in Vir- 
ginia, from Leesburg (the locality of the battle of Ball's 
Bluff in 1861), on the northwest, to the mouth of Occo- 



« This statement is from the local newspapers of that time. 



quan Creek, below Mount Vernon. This duty, besides 
being of the most arduous and laborious kind, was one 
which required the exercise of constant and almost sleep- 
less vigilance in guarding against the inroads and attacks 
of the bold and enterprising guerrilla bands of Mosby and 
Stuart ; but so well did the men of the First Michigan 
keep their guard against surprises, that though two cavalry 
regiments of other States lost each about two hundred men 
while engaged in the sanje duty, during the same time, this 
regiment lost only about thirty men. When the enemy's 
cavalry, under the famous J. E. B. Stuart, made a raid 
along the Union lines, in February, 1863, a detachment of 
the First was sent out to observe their movements, and 
finding them on the Occoquan, at once engaged them, and 
drove them back in confusion. They, however, rallied on 
learning the weakness of the attacking party, and in turn 
charged vigorously, and compelled the Union force to re- 
tire ; yfhicli they did, however, in good order, and con- 
stantly fighting, over a distance of several miles, inflicting 
quite heavy loss on the raiders. 

When Gen. Lee invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, in 
June, 1863, and the Army of the Potomac marched north- 
ward to meet him, the First Michigan moved with the 
other cavalry regiments (June 27th) on the campaign of 
Gettysburg, and during fifteen days fought in sixteen bat- 
tles and skirmishes, being almost constantly in the saddle. 
At Gettysburg, on the 3d of July, it met and charged three 
regiments of Confederate cavalry, composing the " Hampton 
Legion," and in six minutes put the rebel force to flight ; 
but in this engagement it lost eighty enlisted men and 
eleven officers out of the three hundred who went into the 
fight. Gen. Custer, in his report of the operations of the 
cavalry at Gettysburg, said of this fight : " Arriving within 
a few yards of the enemy's column a charge was ordered, 
and with a yell that sprea4 terror before them, the First 
Michigan Cavalry, led by Col. Town, rode upon the front 
rank of the enemy, sabering all who came within reach. 
For a moment, but only a moment, that long heavy column 
stood its ground ; then, unable to withstand the impetu- 
osity of the attack, it gaye way into a disorderly rout, 
leaving vast numbers of their dead and wounded in our 
possession, while the First, being masters of the field, had 
the proud satisfaction of seeing the much-vaunted chivalry, 
led by their favorite commander, seek safety in headlong 
flight. I cannot find language to express my high appre- 
ciation of the gallantry and daring displayed by the officers 
and men of the First Michigan Cavalry. They advanced 
to the charge of a vastly superior force with as much order 
and precision as if going upon parade;, and I challenge the 
annals of warfare to produce a more brilliant or successful 
charge of cavalry than the one just recounted." 

On the following day the regiment was again engaged at 
Fairfield Gap. The following extract is from the report of 
that fight made by Col. C. H. Town, commanding the First : 
" We moved early on the morning of the 4th of July to 
Emmettsburg, thence to Monterey. Before reaching the 
latter place the enemy was discovered in force upon the 
hills to the right of the road. The regiment, being in ad- 
vance of the column, was sent on a road leading to Fair- 
field Gap. The enemy having possession of the gap, a 



94 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



chiirge was made by one squadron, which, with the re- 
mainder of the regiment deployed as skirmishers, was 
successful in driving the enemy from the gap. The regi- 
ment hold the position until the entire column had passed, 
though the enemy made desperate eiforts with superior 
numbers to drive us out.'' 

During the pursuit of the enemy from Gettysburg to 
the Potomac the men of the First were almost constantly 
in the saddle and frequently engaged. On the 6th of July 
it supported a battery under heavy fire, but fortunately 
sustained no loss. It took part in the actions at Boonsboro', 
Hagerstown, and Williamsport ; and at Falling Waters, Va., 
on the 14th of July, it was heavily engaged, capturing five 
hundred prisoners and the colors of the Fortieth and Forty- 
seventh Virginia Infantry. 

In September, 1863, the War Department authorized the 
consolidation of the twelve companies of the regiment into 
eight, and the raising of a new battalion of four companies. 
These were speedily raised, and were mustered into service 
at Mount Clemens, in December, 1863. This battalion went 
to Camp Stoneman, near Washington, in December, 1863, 
and remained there until the spring of 1864. Meanwhile, 
the two old battalions re-enlisted, came home on veteran 
furlough, and joined the new levies at Camp Stoneman. 

The three battalions went to the front together, and in 
the latter part of March, 1864, joined Gen. Sheridan's 
cavalry corps at Culpeper, Va., being still a part of the 
Michigan Cavalry Brigade. The regiment did excellent 
work in the arduous campaigns of May and June, 1864, 
one of its most brilliant engagements being that at Yellow 
Tavern, Va., on the 11th of May. The splendid charge 
of the First on that occasion is mentioned in Gen. Custer's 
report of the movement, as follows : " From a personal 
examination of the ground I discovered that a successful 
charge might be made upon the battery of the enemy by 
keeping well to the right. With this intention, I formed 
the First Michigan Cavalry in column of squadrons under 
cover of the woods. At the same time I directed Col. 
Alger and Maj. Kidd to move the Fifth and Sixth Michi- 
gan Cavalry forward and occupy the attention of the enemy 
on the left, Heaton's battery to engage them in the front, 
while the First charged the battery on the flank. The bugle 
sounded the advance, and the throe regiments moved forward. 
As soon as the First Michigan moved from the cover of the 
woods the enemy divined our intention, and opened a brisk 
fire from his artillery with shell and canister. Before the 
battery of the enemy could be reached there were five fences 
to be opened and a bridge to cross, over which it was im- 
possible to pass more than three at one time, the intervening 
ground being within close range of the enemy's battery. 
Yet, notwithstanding these obstacles, the First Michigan, 
Lieut.- Col. Stagg commanding, advanced boldly to the 
charge, and when within two hundred yards of the battery 
charged it with a yell which spread terror before them. 
Two pieces of cannon, two limbers filled with ammunition, 
and a large number of prisoners were among the results of 
this charge. . . . Lieut.-Col. Stagg, who commanded the 
First Michigan in the charge, with the officers and men of 
his command, deserve great credit for the daring manner 
in which the rebel battery was taken." 



The regiment was engaged at Hanovertown, on the 27th 
of May, and at Hawes' Shop on the 28th, where fifteen of 
its members were killed and wounded, and at Old Church 
on the 30th, where fifteen were killed and wounded. On the 
31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, together with 
other cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where it fought, 
dismounted, in advance of the infantry, having eighteen 
men killed and wounded. It shared the fortunes of the 
brigade throughout the summer, having fifty-one men killed 
and wounded at Trevillian Station (where six commissioned 
officers were killed), eleven killed and wounded at Front 
Royal, in the Shenandoah Valley, thirty-two at Manchester, 
and twenty-seven at Cedar Creek. During the six months 
closing on the 1st of November, 1864, the regiment had 
eighty-two men killed or mortally wounded in action, and 
one hundred and two less seriously wounded, while only 
thirty three died of disease. 

After being in quarters with the brigade near Winchester 
through the winter, the First went with it in Sheridan's 
great raid in March, 1865, and was warmly engaged in the 
closing' scenes of the Rebellion. A most gallant charge 
made by the regiment at the battle of Five Forks is men- 
tioned as follows : " The next morning we moved forward, 
passing over the ground from which we had been driven the 
day before. Our brigade being in advance, we soon came upon 
the enemy, strongly posted behind a large swamp, through 
which it was impossible to penetrate. Moving to the right, 
the enemy's cavalry appeared in our front, and was driven 
to his main line of works, occupied by Kershaw's division. 
In the afternoon the regiment participated in the final 
charge and capture of these works, taking many prisoners 
and pursuing the flying enemy until long after dark." 

This battle was immediately followed by the surrender of 
the Confederate army under Gen. Lee, and soon after this 
the regiment moved into the edge of North Carolina, then 
returned to Washington, and immediately after the review 
of the Army of the Potomac, on the 23d of May, 1865, was 
sent by rail and steamer to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., whence 
it was ordered across the Plains. There was much dissatis- 
faction, but most of the regiment set out on the march, 
reaching Camp Collins, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, 
on the 26th of July. Its headquarters remained there 
until about the 1st of November, when it was removed to 
Fort Bridger. There it was consolidated with those men 
of the Sixth and Seventh Michigan Cavalry who had the 
longest time to serve, forming an organization known as 
the First Michigan Veteran Cavalry. After the consolida- 
tion eight companies were sent to Camp Douglas, near Salt 
Lake City, while four remained at Fort Bridger. The 
regiment garrisoned those two stations until the 10th of 
March, 1866, when it was mustered out, paid ofi', and dis- 
banded. The men were given their choice, — to be dis- 
banded in Utah then, or to remain till June and then be 
marched to Fort Leavenworth, without horses or tents. All 
but about seventy made the former choice. The commuta- 
tion paid them in lieu of transportation, however, was not 
enough to carry them home, and on representation of the 
injustice to Congress, that body voted three hundred and 
twenty-five dollars to each member of the regiment, minus 
the amount already paid' as commutation money. This 



FIKST AND SECOND CAVALEY. 



95 



gave each member about two hundred and ten dollars extra, 
which was duly paid them by the government. 

SOLDIBnS OP THE PIKST CAVALRY FROM CLINTON COONTT. 

Field and Staff. 

Maj. Thurlow W. Lusk, Duplain ; com. Oct. 25, 1864; must, out Nov. 28, 1865. 

Non- Commissioned Staff, 

Q.M.-Sergt. Samuel L. Bra'is, Ovid; veteran, enl. Deo. 21, 186:1; pro. to 1st lieut 

Co. G. 
Q.M.-Sergt. C. V. Carrier, Ovid ; veteran, enl. Dec. 21, 1863 ; died of disease at 

Alexandria. 
Q-M.-Sergt. Edward D. Weed, Duplain; veteran, enl. Jan. 2, 1864; trans to 

Co. H. 

Company C. 
Josepli Tucker, disch. for disability. 

Comjpanij D. 

Capt. Josiah B. Park, Ovid; com. Ang. 10, 1861; pro. to maj. of 4th Mich. Cav. 

Aug. 14, 1802. ' 

Capt. Tliurlow W. Lusk, Duplain ; com. Aug. 1, 1862; 2d lieut, Aug. 22, 1861; 

pro. to maj., Oct. 25, 1864. 
2d Lieut. Harry Marvin, Ovid ; com. Nov. 12, 1862 ; must, out at end of service, 

Dec. 21, 1864. 
Sergt. Richard a. Tinch, Ovid ; enl. Aug. 12, 1862 ; died of disease at Frederick 

Md. 
Sergt. Mark B. Wansor, Ovid; enl. Aug. 12, 1862; pro. to 2d lieut. 
Corp. Henry S. Chapman, Duplain; enl. Aug. 12, 1861; disch. for disability, 

June, 1862. 
Corp. George G. Winfield, Ovid; enl. Aug. 12, 1861; killed in skirmish in Vir- 
ginia, April 1, 1862. 
Corp. James W. Howd, Duplain ; enl. Aug. 12, 1862. 
Corp. John H. Faxon, Duplain ; enl. Aug. 12, 1802. 
Mus. E. V. Chase, Duplain ; enl. Aug. 10, 1862; sergeant; veteran, ro-enl. Jan. 

4, 1864; pro. to 2d lieut., Co. F, Oct. 25, 1804; pro. to 1st lieut., Co. F, and 

trans, to Co. M ; must, out Marcli 10, 1866. 
Mus. S. L. Bra«8, Ovid; enl. Aug. 12, 1862; trans, to Co. B. 
Sad. Henry L. HoUiiter, Duplain; enl. Aug. 12, 1862; veteran, re-enl. Jan. 2, 

1804; must, out April 25, 1866. 
Far. Charles Chase, Ovid; enl. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Far. Jerome Bitely, Ovid ; enl. Aug. 12, 1802 ; must, out March 10, 1866. 
Wag. Almon Bennett, Duplain ; enl. Aug. 12, 1862. 
Byron Aldrich, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. by order, June 9, 1805. 
James Bennett, veteran, eul. Nov. 16, 180:1; must, out Jan. 16, 1866. 
Albert Bradley, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1804. 
John Bromley, veteran, enl. Jan. 2, 1864. 
Oliver CrosH, disch. for disability, Dec. 5, 1862. 
Ebenezer Cowles, disch. for disability, January, 1802. 
Evan Davis, missing in action, Feb. 26, 1863. 
S. R. Dewstoe, Duplain ; disch. for dinability, Feb. 13, 1863. 
Daniel R Dilts, disch. for disability, June, 1862. 

John Dilts, veteran, enl. Feb. 23, 1804; must, out by order, July 15, 1805. 
Morris Dilts, veteran, enl. March 3, 1864 ; must, out Aug. 7, 1866. 
George W. Davis, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out March 10, 1866. 
Francis M. Davis, Duplain ; veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864 ; must, out March 10, 

1866. 
John Hibbard, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out March 10,1866. 
John W. Hawkins, disch. for disability, Oct. 14, 1862. 
George E. Ilolltster, disch. for disability, Nov. 26, 1861. 
Jacob House, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out May 12, 1866. 
George R. Jameson, Ovid; died of disease iu Virginia, April 29, 1862. 
Morgan L. Leach, disch. for disability, Oct. 14, 1862. 

And. J. Linman, Duplain ; died of disease at Washington, D. C, Nov. 9, 1861. 
And. J. Mead, died of disease at Washington, Dec. 23, 1862. 
Bernard Oberlo, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out March 10, 1860. 
Silas S. Perry, Duplain ; veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; must, out Aug. 8, 1800. 
James F. Ross, disch. for disability, June 30, 1862. 

William A. Simmons, veteran, enl. Dec. 21, 1863; must, out July 11, 1805. 
William Sweet, veteran, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. by order. May 3, 1805. 
William D. Scott, disch. for disability, Nov. 25, 1861. 
Charles 0pton, must, out Dec. 7, 1865. 

Josiah D. Van Berger, veteran, enl Nov. 16, 1863 ; must, out Jan. 16, 1866. 
Albert Wataon, disch. for disability, June 30, 1862. 
Allen D. Watkins, disch. for disability, Oct. 9, 1862. 
Charles J. Young, disch. for disability, Nov. 26, 1801. 
Daniel C.Young, disch. by order, Juue 9, 1865. 

Company S. 
Edward Hindman, must, out March 26, 1866. 
Chailes 0. Hier, must, out June 30, 1866. 

SOLDIERS OF THE* FIRST CAVALRY FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Company O. 
Charles Bogue, veteran, enl. March 3, 1864 ; must, out March 10, 1866. 
George L. Foster, disoh. at end of service, Aug 22, 1864. 



William D. Jewell, veteran, enl. Deo. 21, 1863. 

Joseph Naracon, missing in action at Fail-field Gap, July 4, 1863. 

Company D. 
1st Seigt. Frank Shepherd, Owosso; enl. Aug. 12, 1861; disch. June, 1862. 
Corp. George P. Guilford, Owosso; enl. Aug. 12, 1861; veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; 

disch. for disability, July IT, 1865. 
Corp. Joseph 0. Hathaway, Middlebury ; enl. Aug. 12, 1861. 
Lemuel W. Bogue, died of disease at Canip Jlucker, Nov. 6, 1861. 
John Brooks, disch. for disability, Aug. 7, 1862. 

Bradley B. Bennett, veteran, enl. March 3, 1864; disch. by order, July 11, 1865. 
Henry N. Curtis, veteran, enl. Jan. 2, 1864; must, out March 10, 1866. 
Jacob Color, veteran, eul. Jan. 2, 1864; must, out March 10,1806. 
William Hankinson, veteran, enl. Feb. 23, 1864 ; must, out July 10, 1805. 
William Hyatt, veteran, enl. Jan. 2, 1804; must, out March 10, 1866. 
Egbert Maton, veteran, enl. Jan. 2, 1864. 
Henry C. McCarty, disch. for disability, Nov. 24. 1861. 
Charles W. Moslier, disch. for disability, Jan. 2, 1862. 
Willard Ryan, disch. for disability, June 30, 1862. 
Samuel H Smith, disch. for disability, June 30, 1862. 
Aaron L. Tubbs, died of disease at Camp Rucker, Nov. 9, 1861. 

Company F. 
Gustavus Brenner, must, out March 25, 1866. 

Company G. 
William Everest, must, out March 10, 1866. 
Alvah C. Laing, discli. by order, June 3, 1805. 
William Mabeen, must, out March 10, 1866. 
Alexander Mabeen, must, out March 10, 1866. 

SECOND CAVALEY. 

The Second Cavalry Regiment was organized in the 
summer and autumn of 1861, by Hon. P. W. Kellogg, 
and for this reason was generally known during the period 
of 'its recruitment as " Kellogg's First Cavalry."* It con- 
tained between fifty and sixty men from Clinton and Shia- 
wassee Counties, these being scattered through all the 
companies. The regimental rendezvous and camp of in- 
struction was located at Grand Rapids. 

The regiment was mustered into the United States ser- 
vice on the 2d of October, 1861, and on the 14th of Novem- 
ber following it left Grand Rapids for St. Louis, Mo., where 
it remained till March, 1862. It then moved to New 
Madrid, Mo., where it took part in the military operations 
against that place, and afterwards at Island No. 10. In 
May, 1862, it moved to Corinth, Miss., and was occupied 
throughout the summer in cavalry duty in Northern Mis- 
sissippi and Western Tennessee. Its colonel was then 
Philip H. Sheridan, now lieutenant-general, who had re- 
cently been detailed from duty as a captain in the regular 
army to receive the colonelcy lately vacated by the promo- 
tion of Gen. Gordon Granger. Col. Sheridan commanded 
the brigade consisting of the Second Michigan, Second 
Iowa, and Seventh Kansas Cavalry, and at its head made 
numerous excursions through the country around Corinth, 
to keep down guerrillas and learn the movements of the 
enemy. 

Early in the autumn, however, Col. Sheridan was made a 
brigadier-general of volunteers and transferred to the Army 
of the Cumberland, and about the same time the Second 
Cavalry was sent to Kentucky. In December, 1862, and 
January, 1863, it was engaged in a movement into East 
Tennesfsee, the men being in the saddle twenty-two days 
and taking part in several sharp skirmishes. Soon after- 
wards it moved into Middle Tennessee, and for several 

^ Called the First because Mr. Kellogg soon after commenced the 
organization of other cavalry regiments, ' 



96 



HISTORY OF SHIAAVASSEB AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



months its headquarters were at or near Murfreesboro', 
while it was almost constantly engaged in scoutings and 
raids through that region. 

On the 25th of March, 1863, it had a sharp encounter 
with a large rebel force under Gen. N. B. Forrest, killing 
and wounding many and capturing fifty-two prisoners. 
The Second had seven men killed and wounded. On the 
4th of June it had another brisk skirmish between Frank- 
lin and Triune, five of its men being killed and wounded. 
When the army advanced from Murfreesboro' in June, 
1863, the Second accompanied it in the cavalry division, 
driving the enemy from Shelbyville, Middletown, and other 
points. In the autumn it was engaged in scouting around 
Chattanooga, at one time being part of a force which chased 
Gen. Wheeler's cavalry one hundred and ninety-one miles 
in six days (October 3d to 8th inclusive). In November 
it marched into East Tennessee, and on the 24th of Decem- 
ber it participated in an attack on a large force of the 
enemy at Dandridge, Tenn., having ten men killed and 
wounded. On the 26th of January, 1864, the Second 
with other forces attacked a brigade of rebel cavalry on 
Pigeon River, capturing three pieces of artillery and 
seventy-five prisoners, and having eleven of its own men 
wounded. 

Three hundred and twenty-eight of the men re-enlisted 
as veterans, and in April went home on veteran furlough. 
The rest of the regiment accompanied Gen. Sherman in 
his Atlanta campaign, having several sharp skirmishes wiih 
the enemy, but ordered back" from Lost Mountain to Frank- 
lin, Tenn., were rejoined by the veterans in July. During 
the summer and autumn it was busily engaged in marching 
through Middle Tennessee, fighting with the horsemen of 
Forrest and other rebel generals. 

On the 5th of November, 1864, the regiment was at- 
tacked at Shoal Creek, Ala., by a large Confederate force 
(a part of Hood's army, then advancing against Nashville), 
and was forced back with heavy loss. It steadily fell back, 
skirmishing almost constantly with the enemy, and at 
Franklin, on the 30th of November, it resisted his ad- 
vance all day, having eighteen officers and men killed and 
wounded. 

After Hood's defeat before Nashville, the Second pressed 
hard on his rear, and at Richland Creek, on the 24th of 
December, charged repeatedly, driving the foe sixteen 
miles, and having seven men killed and wounded. After 
Hood's final retreat from the State the regiment remained 
mostly in Middle Tennessee until March 11, 1865, when it 
set out on a long raid through Northern Alabama to Tusca- 
loosa, thence through Talladega to Macon, Ga., where it 
arrived on the 1st day of May, 1865. 

After remaining in Georgia, on garrison duty, until the 
17th of August, the regiment was mustered out and sent 
home, arriving at Jackson on the 25th of August, where 
it was disbanded. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY SOLDIEKS IN THE SECOND CAVALKT. 
Conypany B. 

David Bamnm, died in action at Dandridge, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1863. 

Henry Badder, inuet. out Aug. 17, 1865. 

Abel^Ctonson, must, out May 30, 1865. 

Holland Hart, died in action at Dandridge, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1863. 



John JacUson, must, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

James H. Lyman, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864 ; disch. by order, Jan. 6, 1806. 

Comparty C, 
Dean Cntler, must, out Aug. 14, 1805. 
James A. I'arr, must, out Aug. 17, 1805. 

Company D. 
John Hicks, trans, to Vet. Ees. Corps, April 30, 1864. 
"Warren L. Woolman, must, out June 20, 1865. 

Company E. 
John Bowman, inust. but JUne 21, 1865. 
Thomas Connor, must, out Aug. 17, 1805. 
James I. May, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 
Joseph MoBher, disch. by order, Aug. 19, 1865. 

Company F. 
Charles Bradford, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 21, 1865. 
Andrew Call, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 
George Hilma, must, out July 18, 1865. 
Alonzo Mattison, must, out June 21, 1865. 
Sidney M. Slielley, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 

Company G. 
John Codger, trans, to U. S. navy, April, 1864. 
William Jiicobs, disch. for disability, Feb. 2, 1802. 
George Jewctt, disch. for disability, April 14, 1863. 

Daniel E. Lemonyon, died of disease on steamer " Woodford," April 19, 1862. 
George Lttflin, died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., Juno 22, 1865. 
Charles Lemonyon, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1804 ; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
Archibald McHenry, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 

Company H. 
Andrew Kinney, died of disease at Benton Barracks, Mo., Dec. 26, 1862. 
Emmett Mullelt, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 
Silas Newman , must, out Ang. 17, 1805. 
Owen otto, must, ont Aug. 17, 1865. 

Company I. 
Sergt. Abrnm Jones, Byron. 
James C. Graham, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 

Company K. 
Martin Spencer, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 
George Shultz, must, out Ang. 17, 1865. 

Company L. 
Azariali Martin, mnst. ont Juno 3, 1865. 
Lyman S. Thrasher, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 
Charles Yanalstin. 

Company M. 

Harry D. Wardwell, mnst. ont June 3, 1865. 
Henry Wilson, disch. by oi'der, Aug. 25, 1865. 

CLINTON COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE SECONt) OAVALKY. 
Contpany A. 
Johnson L. SutlilT, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. II, 1865. 

Company C. 
Henry P. Adams, St.John's; veteran, enl. Jau. 5, 1864; must, out Aug. 17, 1805. 
Wm. H. Buck, must, out Ang. 30, 1865, 
Christian Ilizer, died of disease at Nashville, July 13, 1864. 
Almon Kelly, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 
Robt. G. Mason, disch. at end of service, Oct. 22, 1864. 
Leroy B, Stowell, disch. for disability, Sept. 20, 1862, 
Benj. F. Tifft, must, out July 20, 1865. 

Company D. 
MuB. Jas. A. Stevenson, veteran, enl. Jan. 5, 1864 ; must, out Atlg. 17, 1865. 
Levi 8. Blakely, died of disease at Savannah, Teon., June 26, 1862. 

Company E. 
Saml. n. Barton, must, out Aug. 17, 1865. 
Jacob Blakely, must, out Juiib 30, 1865. 
John D. Moon, died of disease at Ri«nzi, Miss., Aog. 1, 1862. 

Company F, 
Jeremiah Blackman, must, out Ang. 17, 1865. 

Company I. 
Jeremiah Mahoney, must, out Jnne 30, 1865. 

Con^amj/Jit. 
Sergt. Henry H. Walker, pro. to Ist lieut. and q.-m. 
Charles M. Duke, disch. for disability, June 15, 1865. 



THIRD CAVALRY. 



97 



CHAPTER XV. 

THIBD CATALKY. 

Rendezvous of the Third at Grand Rapids— Winter Quarters in 
Missouri — Campaigns of 1862 — Marching and Fighting in Missis- 
sippi and Tennessee in 1863 — Ke-enlistment— Campaign in Ar- 
kansas—At Mobile — Services in Texas till the Close of the War. 

The Third Cavalry Regiment of Michigan was recruited 
and organized in the summer and fall of 1861, and was mus- 
tered into the United States service at its rendezvous, Grand 
Rapids, on the 1st of November of that year. Its total 
strength was eleven hundred and sixty-three officers and 
enlisted men, under command of Lieut.-Col. R. H. Gr. 
Minty. One of the companies of this regiment (Company 
B) was made up of Clinton and Shiawassee men, and a 
considerable number of soldiers from these counties served 
in eight of the other companies. 

The regiment left its rendezvous Nov. 28, 1861, and pro- 
ceeded to Benton Barracks, Mo., where Col. John K. Miz- 
ner soon after assumed command. It remained at St. Louis 
until early in the spring of 1862, when it joined Gen. John 
Pope's "Army of the Mississippi," and actively participated 
in the operations which resulted in the capture of the rebel 
strongholds Island No. 10 and New Madrid. With Gen. 
Pope's army it then proceeded by way of the Mississippi, 
Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, to Pittsburg Landing, where 
it arrived soon after the battle of Shiloh, and took an active 
part in the advance of Gen. Halleck's army upon Corinth, 
Miss. Immediately after the evacuation of Corinth by 
Beauregard, the Third was ordered to Booneville, Miss., to 
ascertain the position and strength of the enemy. While 
in the performance of this duty a small detachment of the 
regiment was sent out in advance, under one of the captains. 
It ran upon a rebel force of all arms, drove them from their 
position, halted, and bivouacked for the niglit. The fol- 
lowing morning, while eating breakfast, a Union scout dis- 
covered the enemy in the vicinity. The men left their 
breakfast half eaten, mounted, and hurried forward. They 
soon found a small body of rebel cavalry, who fled before 
them. The Union horsemen advanced at a rapid pace, 
and soon came upon an entire regiment of rebel cavalry 
drawn up to dispute their further progress. There was no 
time for consideration. If the little command liad then 
retreated, it would have been attacked and crushed by the 
el.ited Confederates. The commanding officer knew it was 
essential for cavalry to get the advantage of its own mo- 
mentum in a combat, and accordingly shouted the order to 
charge. The detachment dashed forward at the top of its 
speed, burst through the Confederate lines, and then turned 
and charged back. Tlie enemy were so demoralized by 
these movements that no attempt was made to follow. How 
many of the foe were killed and wounded was not known, 
but it was certain that at least eleven were dismounted, for 
that number of their horses accompanied the Union force 
on its returning charge. After retreating a short distance, 
the commander halted and sent a dispatch to camp. About 
four o'clock in the afternoon he was relieved by the Second 
Michigan Cavalry, under the command of Col. Philip H. 
Sheridan. The latter drove back the enemy four or. five 
miles, and then rejoined the main array. 
13 



The regiment was actively engaged in the usual cavalry 
duty of picketing and scouting throughout the whole sea- 
son. Through the month of August it was at Tuscumbia 
and Russellville, Ala. On the approach of Price's rebel 
cavalry it returned to the vicinity of Corinth. At luka. 
Miss., on the 19th of September, 1862, while in command 
of Capt. L. G. Wilcox, — Col. Mizner being chief of cav- 
alry, — the regiment was actively engaged, and was specially 
mentioned in Gen. Rosecrans' report of that battle. When 
Price and his defeated rebel army retired from the field 
the Third hung on Ws flanks and rear for many miles, be- 
coming several times hotly engaged, and causing him re- 
peatedly to form line of battle to check the Union advance. 

At the close of the year ending Nov. 1, 1862, the regi- 
ment had lost one hundred and four men who died of dis- 
ease, seven killed in action, forty-five wounded in action, 
and fifty-nine taken prisoners. Its battles and skirmishes 
to that date were New Madrid, Mo., March 13, 1862 ; siege 
of Island No. 10, Mo., March 14th to April 7th ; Farm- 
ington. Miss , May 5th ; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10th 
to 31st ; Spangler's Mills, Miss., July 26th ; Bay Springs, 
Miss., September 10th; luka. Miss., September 19th; 
Corinth, Miss., October 3d and 4th ; and Hatchie, Miss., 
October 6th. It advanced with Gen. Grant's army into 
Mississippi in November and December, 1862, and engaged 
the enemy at Holly Springs, November 7th ; at Hudson- 
ville, November 14th, where it captured an entire rebel 
company ; at Lumkin's Mill, November 29th ; and at Ox- 
ford, December 2d ; and shared in the defeat of the Union 
cavalry at Cofieeville, December 5th. 

The Third passed the winter in Northern Mississippi, 
and in 1863 was again employed in that State and West- 
ern Tennessee in almost continuous marching, fighting, and 
raiding, in the arduous service of driving out the numer- 
ous bands of guerrillas which infested Western Tennessee 
and Northern Mississippi, and repelling the incursions of 
Confederate forces from other quarters, its camp being 
most of the time at Corinth, Miss. It fought at Clifton 
on the 20th of February ; at Panola, Miss., on the 20th 
of July; at Byhalia, Miss., on the 12th of October; at 
Wyatt's Ford, Miss., on the 13th of October. At Gre- 
nada, Miss., also, on the 14th of August, the Third led 
the Union advance, and, after a vigorous fight, drove 
back the enemy, captured the town, and destroyed more 
than sixty locomotives and four hundred cars, gathered 
there by the Confederate authorities. By the 1st of No- 
vember in that year it had taken an additional number of 
prisoners, sufficient to make the whole number captured by 
it since its commencement of service two thousand one 
hundred, of whom about fifty were officers. " During the 
year (from Jan. 1 to Nov. 1, 1863) the regiment marched 
a distance of ten thousand eight hundred miles, exclusive 
of marches by separate companies and detachments." Ac- 
companying the Third in its movements was a light bat- 
tery of twelve-pound howitzers. 

On the 1st of January, 1864, the regiment arrived at 
La Grange, Tenn., wher^ it prepared winter quarters, and 
where, during January,, nearly six hundred of its mem- 
bers re-enlisted as veterans, and received the usual furlough, 
— to rendezvous at Kalamazoo. From that place they 



98 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



moved, with their numbers hirgely augmented by recruits, 
to St. Louis, where they remained about two months on 
provost duty in the city, while awaiting the arrival of new 
horses and equipments. Still dismounted, the regiment 
moved May 18th, and proceeded to Arkansas, there joining 
the army of Gen. Steele. It was mounted and armed with 
the Spencer repeating carbine on the 1st of August, and 
from that time until winter, was engaged in scouting and 
outpost duty in that State. Its winter quarters were at 
Brownsville Station, on the Memphis and Little Rock Rail- 
road. At this place the men built such line appearing 
quarters and stables, that it was called Michigan City, in- 
stead of Brownsville. 

The regiment was transferred (March 14, 18G5) from 
Arkansas to the Military Division of West Mississippi, 
under Gen. Canby, to move with the forces designed to 
operate against Mobile. In this service — as a part of the 
First Brigade, First Division, Seventh Army Corps — it 
moved to New Orleans, and thence to its objective point. 
Mobile. After the fall of that city the regiment was em- 
ployed on outpost duty till after the surrender of Lee and 
Johnston, and was then detailed as the escort of Gen. 
Canby, on the occasion of his receiving the surrender of 
the Confederate Gen. Taylor and his army. It moved 
across the country from Mobile to Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 
arriving there May 22, 1865. On Sheridan's assuming 
command of the Division of the Southwest, the Third was 
ordered to join troops designed for Texas, and left Baton 
Rouge June 10th, moving by way of Shreveport, and across 
Texas to San Antonio, where it remained, employed in gar- 
rison duty, scouting expeditions for the pi'otection of the 
frontier, and other similar duty till Feb. 15, 1866, when it 
was dismounted and mustered out of service. The men 
returned, via Victoria, Indianola, New Orleans, and Cairo, 
Illinois, to Jackson, Michigan, and there received their final 
payment, March 15, 1866. 

MEMBERS OF THE THIBD CAVALKY TKOM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company B. 

1st Lieut. William T. Magoffin, St. John's; com. Sept. 7, 1861; resigned March 

29, 1862. 
Ist Liout. Daniel T. Wellington, St. John's; com. Oct. 3, 1864, as 2dlieut. ; pro. 

to capt. Co. H, Dec. 7, 1864. 
Q.M.-Sergt. Erajjuius D, Tripp, St. John's; disch. for disability, July 24, 1862. 
Ci-M.-Sergt llorace S. Green, St. John's; died of disease at St. Louis, Marcli 3 

1862. 
Q.M.-Sergt. Enos B. Bailey, St. John's ; disch. for pro. in 11th Cav., Oct. 1, 1863. 
Corp. D. T. Wellington, St. John's; enl. Oct. 14,1861; veteran, Jan. 19, 1864; 

pro. to 2d lieut. 
Corp. Jacob P. Sleight, Bath ; disch. for pro. in U. S. C. T. 
Corp, Hiram Stelfy, St. John's ; enl. Oct, 19, 1861 ; must, out Feb, 12, 1866, 
Corp, Phineas B. Freeman, St, John's ; enl, Aug, ai, 1861 ; disch, for disability, 

Feb, 7, 1863, 
Musician James Gunner, St, John's; enl, Sept. 4, 1861; trans, from N, C, S. 

(sergt.); disch, for disability, Jan. 2, 1863, 
Musician Charles H, Eaton, St, John's; enl, Sept. 17, 1861; veteran, Jan, 19 

1864; Corp,; must, out Feb. 12, 1866, 
Amos T, Ayers, disch, for disability, Jan, 27, 1862. 
Henry Alward, mus.t, out Feb, 12, 1866, 
Theo, Ashley, must, out Feb, 12, 1866, 
John Bollon, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
Lyster K, Bond, must, out Feb, 12, 1866. 
John A, Brown, must, out Feb, 12, 1866, 
Gaines Brown, disch, for disability, Feb, 6, L862, 
Samuel Brubaker, disch, for disability, July 19, 1862, 
Abram Brubaker, veteran, enl, Jan. 19, 1864 ; must, out Oct, 9 1865. 
William H. Baker, disch. for disability, Feb. 5, 18G6, 
Euos Bachelder, died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark,, July 16, 1864, 
Charles E. Bottom, died of disease in Texas, July 24, 1865, 
W.iUiam U, H, Cook, died of disease at New Madrid, Mo,, March 24 1862, 



Wallace J, Cronkhite, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., April 30, 1862. 

John I. Cable, died of disease at Shreveport, La., July 6, 1865. 

Lawrence Croy, disch. for disability, July 2, 1861. 

Theo. W. Curtis, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864 ; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

Leonard Coffman, veteran, enl. Jan, 19, 1864; must, out Oct, 9, 1865. 

Aaron Cantrell, must, out June 2, 1865. 

Perry Cantrell, must, out May 18, 1865. 

Theo. Dowd, disch. for disability, June 4, 1862. 

Anson B.'Doyen, veteran, enl, Jan, 19, 1864 ; must, out Oct. 9, 18G5. 

Abram Eagles, veteran, enl, Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Oct, 9, 1865. 

William Eagles, veteran, enl Jan, 19, 1864 ; must, out Oct. 9, 1865. 

Charles H. Eaton, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864 ; corp. ; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

Michael N. Freer, must, out Oct. 9, 1865. 

Leonard G. Fry, must, ont March 17, 1866. 

Arthur L. Gunn, Victor; veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Oct. 9, 1865. 

Charles A. Gunn, disch. at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864. 

Oliver D. Gillson, disch, at end of service, Oct, 24, 1864, 

Stephen D. Gillson, must, out Fob. 12, 1866, 

Horace S. Green, Olive; died of disease at St, Louis, Mo., March 2, 1802. 

Wm, Hulse, Greenbush ; died of disease at St, Louis, Mo,, Feb, 7, 1862, 

Miles Hall, Victor; died of diseaseatSt, Louis, Mo,, Jan.31, 1862. 

Hiram A, Hillaker, disch, for disability, Juno 21, 1862. 

John A. Hillaker, Dnplain ; disch, for disability, June 21, 1862. 

Geo. Handbley, veteran, enl. Jan. 19,1864; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

John B. Jeffreys, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

Henry B. Johns, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

Myron A. Kniffen, died of disease at Jackson, Oct, 7, 1862. 

Thomas Lester, must, out Aug, 11, 1865, 

Elijah Mudge, must, out Sept, 19, 1865, 

James L, Miller, veteran, Jan, 19, 18G4 ; must, out Feb, 12, 1866. 

Daniel Miller, disch, fur disability, Sept, 20, 1862, 

Wm, H, Martin, died of disease in Tennessee, Juno 1, 1862, 

Ezra Nelson, vetei'an, enl, Jan. 19, 1864; disch for disability, Nov. 18, 1864. 

Daniel G. Owen, veteian, enl. Jan, 19, 1864; must, out Sept, 4, 1865, 

Jackson Page, veteran, enl, Jan, 19, 1864; must, out Fob, 12, 1860, 

Albert F, Palmer, veteran, enl. Jan, 19, 1864 ; died of disease in Arkansas, Aug, 

29, 1864, 
Charles H, Ehcinbotham, veteran, enl, Jan, 19, 1864; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
William J. Badsdale, must, ont June 2, 1865, 

James H, Bobinson, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., July 26, 1804, 
Owen Stephens, veteran, enl, Jan, 19, 1864, 
Samuel Shaw, veteran, enl, Jan, 19, 1864, 
Jacob Smith, veteran, enl, Jan, 19, 1864 ; died of disease at Baton Bouge, June 

25, 1865, 
David D, Sowles, died of disease at San Antonio, Aug, 26, 1865. 
James Terry, must, out June 2, 1865. 
John H. Tripp, must, out Feb, 12, 1866. 
Daniel Vail, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

William Vail, died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., July 12, 1864. 
Wm. L, Van Dyke, disch. for disability, July 16, 1862. 
James A. Woodruff, disch. for disability, July 23, 1862, 
Warren E. Wilton, veteran, enl. Jan, 19, 1864; must, out Feb, 12, 1866. 
Henry C. Young, Olive ; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., March 2, 1862, 

Omipany D. 
Abram Hane, died of disease at Grand Bapids, Dec. 1, 1861. 
David H, Payne, disch, for disability, Aug. 1, 1862. 

Company JE. 
Peter Clark, must, ont Feb, 12, 1866, 
Albert B. Gi-egory, must, out Feb, 12, 1806, 
Edwin Hewitt, must, ont Feb, 12, 1866, 
Charles A, Sloan, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
James M, Warren, must, out Feb, 12, 1866, 

Company H. 
Capt, D, T. Wellington, St, John's; com. Dee. 7, 1864; must, out Feb, 12, 1806, 
Wm, A, Foster, must, out Feb, 12, 1866, 

Company L. 
Charles W, Hildreth, must, out Feb, 12, 1866, 
Bobt. G, Temple, must, out Dec, 9, 1865. 

Company M, 
Francis M, Gillette, must, ont Feb. 12, 1866. 
Francis M, Jones, must, out Feb, 12, 1866, 
Lafayette Van Vliet, must, out Dec, 30, 1865, 

MEMBERS OF THE THIBD CAVALBY FEOM SHIAVITASSEE COUNTY. 

Company B. * 

Sergt, James H, Lyman, Shiawassee ; enl. Sept 14, 1801 ; veteran, re-enl. Jan, 

19, 1864; pro, to 2d lieut. Co. E. 
Corp. Wilson Wright, Vernon ; enl, Sept. 10, 1861 ; died of disease at St. Lonia, 

Jan. 22, 1862. 
Corp, John C, Woodman, Corunna; enl. Sept, 4, 1861 ; disch, for disability. 
John Bair, died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark,, Aug. 21, 1804. 
William H, Cole, died in action at Coffeeville, Miss,, Dec, 5, 1862. 



FOURTH CAVALRY. 



99 



Thomas E. Carey, veteran, onl. Jan. 19, ISIil; disoh. f.jr (ii8a,1iility,NoT.l8, 1864. 

Rnswell E. Illckey, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

Loren Harrington, veteran, cnl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out June 19, 1865. 

Robert Lawrence, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

George C. McCoy, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 28, 1862. 

Iver Roberts, died in action at Coffeevillo, Miss., Dec. 5, 1862. 

diaries P. Tillson, disch. at end of service, Oct. 8, 1864. 

Hiram T. Youngs, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1861; must, out Feb. 12, 1866^ 

Compamj D. 
William M. Case, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864 ; must, out June 2, 1865. 

Companjf E. 
2d Lieut. J. H. Lyman, Shiawassee; com. July 4, 1865 ; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
Frank Payne, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

Company F. 
Orange Storey, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Nov. 28, 1865. 

Company G. 
Silas H. Alliton, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 18C4; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
J. G. Bentley, disch. for disability, Dec. 7, 1862. 
David R. Carrier, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, ont Feb. 12, 1866. 
Harrison H. Carson, veteran, eul. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Feb. 12, L866. 
Silas W. Currier, veteran, enl. .Tan. 19, 1864; must, out June 2, 1865. 
Peter Dnmond, disch. for disability, July 21, 1862. 
Frederick Delano, disch. at end of service. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Oliver C. Gaylard, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., May 11, 1862. 
John J. Gumee, disch. for disability, July 1, 1862. 
George W. Haiiford, disch. for disability, June 11, 1862. 
Harvey J. Hopkins, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Nov. 3, 1865. 
Joseph B. Miller, died of disease at New Madrid, Mo. 
Austin Miller, ditd of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 7, 1862. 
Ellis Ott, must, out Aug. 17, 1866. 

Russell Rynesf, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out June 22, 1865. 
Thomas J. Smedley, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 186 1 ; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
Valentine Shaeppala, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
Seymour Shipman, disch. fur promotion. 1862. 
Roswell Shipman, died of disease at St. LouU, Mo., Jan. 25, 1862. 
Asa D. Whitney, veteran, enl. Jan. 19, 1864; must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 

Company H. 
AdolphuB Campbell, must, out Sept. 21, 1865. 

Company I. 
Charles Campbell, must, out Feb. 12, 1866. 
John E. Herrick, died at La Grange, June 20, 1863. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



FOURTH CAVALKY. 



Orgaoization of the Regiment — Movement to the Front — Operations 
against Guerrillas in Kentucky— Fight at Franklin, Tenn.— Ad- 
vance with the Army of the Cumberland in 1863 — The Georgia 
Campaign of 1864 — Fight at Lattimore's Mill— Pursuit of Gen. 
Hood— Raid through Alabama in the Spring of 1865— Capture of 
Jefferson Davis by the Fourth Cavalry, 

The renowned Fourth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry 
was recruited and organized in the summer of 1862, the 
city of Detroit being its place of rendezvous. Clinton and 
Shiawassee Counties were represented in eleven of its twelve 
companies, but most numerously in Company B, which was 
principally composed of men from these counties. The 
regiment was mustered into the service of the United States 
on the 29th of August, 1862, with eleven hundred and 
eio'hty-six enlisted men, and the usual complement of offi- 
cers. The commanding officer of the regiment was Col. 
Robert H. G. Minty, previously lieutenant-colonel of the 
Third Cavalry. 

The regiment left Detroit for the seat of war, in Ken- 
tucky, on the 26th of September ; being hurried forward 
without preliminary drill, on account of Gen. Buell's retro- 
grade movement towards the Ohio River, and the Confed- 



erate Gen. Bragg's advance northward, with the supposed 
intention of crossing that stream. The Fourth proceeded 
from Detroit to Jeffersonville, Ind., where it received arms, 
and made other preparations for crossing the Ohio into 
Kentucky. In the mean time, Bragg had abandoned his 
plan (if he ever entertained one) of invading Ohio, and had 
turned the head of his column southward, pursued in turn 
by Buell. The regiment crossed the Ohio on the 10th of 
October, and pressed on with all speed to join the army of 
Buell, leaving tents and baggage behind. It was soon en- 
gaged in the pursuit of the guerrilla, John H. Morgan, and 
overtaking him at Stanford, Ky., led the column which at- 
tacked his forces at that place, October 14th, defeating and 
pursuing them to Crab Orchard Springs. It also led in 
the attack on Lebanon, Ky., November 9th; five hundred 
and forty-three of its men pushing in Morgan's pickets at a 
gallop, entering the town two miles in advance of the in- 
fantry, and driving out the guerrilla leader and his force of 
seven hundred and sixty men. 

Arriving at Nashville, Tenn., it made a short stay at 
that city, and on the. 13th of December marched to Frank- 
lin, Tenn., attacked and drove out a rebel force thirteen 
hundred strong, capturing their colors and a considerable 
number of prisoners. On the 26th of December it moved 
with the Army of the Cumberland in its advance on 
Murfreesboro', fighting the cavalry of the enemy at La- 
vergne, and taking part in the great battle of Stone River, 
December 31st, when it charged the enemy three times, 
each time driving a brigade of Confederate cavalry from the 
field. The Fourth was the first regiment to enter Murfrees- 
boro', in the morning of Jan. 3, 1863 ; and from the 9th to 
the 19th of that month it took part in an important cavalry 
expedition, which drove Forrest's, Wheeler's, and Whar- 
ton's cavalry beyond the Harpeth River. During the 
month of February the regiment was constantly on the 
move, and captured one hundred and forty-five prisoners, 
including two colonels and a number of commissioned offi- 
cers of other grades. 

On the 22d of May following, this regiment with two 
companies of United States cavalry charged into the camp 
of the Eighth Confederate, First Alabama, and Second 
Georgia Cavalry, and after a sharp engagement routed them, 
taking fifty-five prisoners and destroying their camp. The 
colors of the Alabama regiment were also captured by the 
Fourth Michigan, and are now in the office of the Adjutant- 
General of the State. 

Again, at Shelbyville, Tenn., June 27, 1863, the Fourth, 
as a part of the brigade of Col. Minty, assaulted an in- 
trenched position held by a superior force of the enemy's 
cavalry, and how the regiment did its work on that occa- 
sion is told in the official report of Col. Minty, as follows : 
" At Shelbyville I found myself, with a force of fifteen 
hundred men, in front of formidable breastworks, with^an 
abatis of over one-fourth of a mile in width in front of 
them, behind which Gens, t Wheeler and Martin had an 
opposing force of four thousand men an3^three pieces of 
artillery" I detached the Fourth Michigan, in command 
of Maj. Mix, well to the right, with orders to force their 
way through the abatis and assault the works, and if suc- 
cessful to turn to the left and sweep up the intrenchments, 



100 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



promising that so soon as I heard their rifles speaking I 
would make the direct assault on the Murfreesboro' and 
Shelbyville pike. They did their work so well that as I 
entered the works on the main road.they joined me from 
the right, having carried the works and taken prisoners 
from six different regiments. The fruits of that day's 
work were the whole of the enemy's artillery and six hun- 
dred prisoners, while over two hundred dead bodies were 
afterwards taken out of Duck River, into which I had 
driven Wheeler and his entire command." 

The fight at Shelbyville was delivered during the move- 
ment of the Army of the Cumberland from Murfreesboro' 
to the Tennessee River. Through all that movement the 
Fourtli Cavalry was nearly always in the advance, and was 
repeatedly engaged with the enemy. In these fights and 
skirmishes it was always successful until it reached the 
vicinity of Chattanooga, where it was several times re- 
pulsed. On the 18th of September — the day before the 
opening of the great battle of Chickamauga — it took part 
in a severe fight with a greatly superior force of tlie enemy's 
cavalry near., Lee and Gordon's Mills, Ga., in which the 
Union cavalry was compelled to retreat, but so stubborn was 
the fighting on that occasion that the brigade commander. 
Col. Minty, said in his report that " with less than one 
thousand men the old First Brigade disputed the advance 
of seven thousand from seven o'clock in the morning until 
five o'clock in the evening, and during that time fell back 
only five miles." 

The next day, September 19th, the regiment fired the 
first shots in the disastrous battle of Chickamauga, and 
subsequently protected the left and rear of Rosecrans' army 
and the trains moving to Chattanooga. On the 20th, while 
assisting to hold the enemy in check until the shattered 
Union forces could retire from the field, Minty's brigade 
attacked and defeated Scott's rebel brigade of cavalry and 
mounted infantry, driving it back across the creek. The 
regiment bivouacked on the ground it had held, but the 
next day was compelled to share in the general retreat. 

On the 30th of September it was driven by Wheeler's 
rebel cavalry near Cotton's Ferry, on the Tennessee ; but 
from the 1st to the 3d of October the tables were turned, 
and the Fourth had the pleasure of following its late pur- 
suers with ardor and success. By the 1st of November, 

1863, the sei-vice of the regintent had been so severe that 
only three hundred of the men were mounted. This bat- 
talion was actively engaged on picket and scout duty in 
Southeastern Tennessee and Northern Georgia and Ala- 
bama throughout the winter ; the number of mounted men 
being reduced by the latter part of March, 1864, to one 
hundred and twenty-eight. Meanwhile, the dismounted 
men had been employed in various duties in the same lo- 
cality, and also in Middle Tennessee. 

The regiment, except the one hundred and twenty-eight 
mounted men, set out for Nashville on the 28th of March, 

1864, where the men received new horses and equipments, 
and were armed with Spencer carbines. On the 14th of 
April, under the command of Maj. F. W. Mix, the regi- 
ment joined the Second Cavalry Division at Columbia, 
Tenn. Thence it advanced with eight hundred and seventy- 
eight men into Georgia, where the cavalry began its arduous 



and dangerous service in co-operation with Gen. Sherman's 
army, which was then advancing on Atlanta. In this 
campaign its hardest conflict was at Lattiniorc's Mill, on 
Noonday Creek, where it took part in one of the most bril- 
liant achievements of the war. A small detachment of the 
Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry had crossed the creek, and 
becoming hotly engaged with a superior force of the enemy, 
Capt. P)-itchard, with two battalions of the Fourth Michi- 
gan, was ordered across to its support. This force had scarcely 
reached the position assigned it when a whole rebel division 
eight times their own number, swept down upon the Penn- 
sylvania and Michigan men, with the evident purpose of 
driving them back across the creek. They did not, how- 
ever, propose to go immediately, so, dismounting and avail- 
ing themselves of the protection afforded by the inequali- 
ties of the ground, they met their assailants with terrific and 
continuous volleys from their Spencer carbines. Again and 
again did the rebels bear down upon them, making desper- 
ate efforts to destroy the little force of Unionists, but being 
as often repulsed. At length, after holding their ground 
against the repeated assaults of the enemy for more than 
two hours, they retired slowly and in good order at the 
command of Col. Minty. 

The following extract from a letter published in the 
Memphis Appeal, at Atlanta, Ga.,* June 25, 18G4, gives 
the rebel version of this fight, and shows very plainly the 
gallantry of Minty's brigade and the immense preponder- 
ance of the rebel force : 

" On the 20th instant two divisions, Kelly's and Martin's, 
and one brigade, Williams', of our cavalry, went round to 
the left flank and rear of Sherman's army, — it was said to 
capture a brigade of Yankee cavalry situated at McAfee's. 
We succeeded in getting to the right place, where the 
enemy, Minty's brigade, was vigorously attacked by Williams' 
and a portion of Anderson's brigade. After a sharp conflict 
the enemy were driven from the field, Hannon's brigade 
having come up and attacked them on the flank. The 
Yankees fought desperately and fell back slowly, with what 
loss we are unable to ascertain, as they carried off their 
wounded and most of their dead. To one who was an 
eye-witness, but not an adept in the ' art of war,' it seemed 
very strange that the whole Yankee force was not sur- 
rounded and captured. Dibrell's brigade was drawn up 
a few hundred yards from and in full view of the battle- 
ground, with Martin's whole division immediately in the 
rear. This is one of the best fighting brigades the Yan- 
kees have, and to have captured or routed it would have 
added a bright feather to the plume of the successful 
hero accomplishing the feat. After he (Minty) had been 
driven from his first position, Martin's whole division was 
brought up, and lost several men of Allen's brigade. Brig.- 
Gen. Allen had his horse shot. The Eighth Confederate 
and Fifth Georgia, of Anderson's brigade, lost several killed 
and wounded. Williams' Kentucky brigade also lost sev- 
eral good soldiers.'" 

Col. Minty, in his report, after quoting this statement, 
added: 



« The Memphis Appeal was published at half a dozen different 
places, to which it was successively driven by the victorious Unionists. 



FOURTH CAVALRY. 



101 



" According to the above, there was the following rebel 
force in the field : Kelly's and Martin's divisions, consisting 
of the brigades of Anderson, six regiments; Hannon's, five 
regiments ; Allen's, five regiments ; and Johnson's, five 
regiments ; and the independent brigades of Williams and 
Dibreli, composed of five regiments each ; say in all, thirty- 
one regiments, of which the Fifth Georgia numbered over 
eight hundred. The entire force I had engaged was, of the 
Seventh Pennsylvania one hundred and seventy men, and 
of the Fourth Michigan two hundred and eighty-three ; in 
all, four hundred and fifty-three. These few men held their 
ground against the repeated assaults of the enemy for over 
two hours, and when I ordered thom to fall back, they re- 
tired slowly, in good order. I beg to call the attention of 
the general commanding to the heavy loss sustained by this 
small force. In a loss of over twelve per cent., the very 
small proportion reported missing shows how steadily and 
stubbornly they fought." 

In a note appended to this report Col. Minty said : 
" My loss in this engagement was two ofiScers and sixty- 
five men. The Marietta (Ga.) papers acknowledge a loss 
of ninety-four killed and three hundred and fifty-one 
wounded. Two battalions of the Fourth Michigan repulsed 
three sabre charges made by the Eighth Confederate and 
Fifth Georgia, numbering over one thousand men, and one 
battalion led by Capt. Hathaway repulsed a charge made 
by Williams' Kentucky brigade by a counter-charge." 

Of the two hundred and eighty-three officers and men 
of the Fourth engaged at Lattimore's Mill, thirty-seven were 
killed and wounded, and three were reported missing. 

After the capture of Atlanta, the mounted men of the 
regiment followed Hood's army northward nearly to the 
Tennessee Riyer, harassing his rear and taking many prison- 
ers. By this time only about one hundred of their horses 
remained fit for service. These were turned over to another 
command, and the Fourth, dismounted, concentrated at 
Nashville in October. It was remounted at Louisville, 
Ky., and by the last of January, 1865, was back in Ala- 
bama, on duty near Gravelly Springs, where it remained till 
the 12th of March, when it joined with other regiments 
(all under command of Gen. Wilson) in a long raid through 
Alabama, swimming rivers, building corduroy roads, fighting 
the rebel cavalry Gen. Forrest, and finally capturing the 
city of Selma, Ala., which was defended by at least seven 
thousand of Forrest's men, behind very strong fortifications. 
At one point fifteen hundred dismounted cavalrymen, of 
which those of the Fourth formed a part, charged strong 
intrenohments, and captured them in twenty minutes, hav- 
ing had three hundred and twenty-four men killed and 
wo'unded. This was on the 2d of April. On the 20th, 
after numerous adventures, the command reached Macon, 
Ga., where the news of the surrender of Lee was the signal 
to cease fighting. 

The Fourth Regiment had won an enviable reputation 
for gallantry and* steadfastness on the field of battle, but it 
was destined to gain still another title to renown by the cap- 
ture of Jefferson Davis, the '■ President" of the now dead 
Confederacy,— the figure-head of the " Lost Cause." While 
the regiment lay at Macon, Ga., it became known that 
the arch-rebel and his suite were fleeing through Central 



Georgia in the hope of escaping from the country ; and on 
the 7th of May the Fourth Michigan, four hundred and 
forty strong, under Lieut. -Col. Pritchard, left Macon for the 
purpose of capturing the rebel chief and his party. Having 
struck the trail of the fugitives at Abbeville on the 9th of 
May, Col. Pritchard selected one hundred and fifty-three of 
his best-mounted officers and men, and moved rapidly by a 
circuitous route to intercept them. At Irwinsville, at one 
o'clock in the morning of the 10th of May, the colonel 
learned that a train, which probably belonged to Davis, was 
encamped a mile and a half distant. Moving out into the 
vicinity of the camp, he sent Lieut. Purinton, with twenty- 
five men, to wait on the other side of it. At daybreak Col. 
Pritchard and his men advanced silently, and without being 
observed, to within a few rods of the camp, then dashed 
forward and secured the whole camp before the astonished 
inmates could grasp their weapons, or even fairly arouse 
themselves from their slumbers. A chain of mounted 
guards was immediately placed around the camp, and dis- 
mounted sentries were stationed at the tents and wagons. 
The result was, that this detachment of the Fourth Michi- 
gan Cavalry captured Davis, dressed partially in female 
attire, and that Col. Pritchard, with twenty-five officers and 
men of the regiment detailed as a special escort, took their 
prisoner to Washington, whence he was transferred to the 
casemates of Fortress Monroe. 

Soon after this event the regiment marched tp Nashville, 
Tenn., where it was mustered out of the service on the 1st 
of July, and nine days afterwards it was disbanded at De- 
troit. Ninety-four battles and skirmishes are inscribed on 
the record of the Fourth Cavalry of Michigan, and every 
one in the bright list is an addition to its fame. 

CLINTON COCNTT SOLDIERS IN THE FOURTH CAVALBY. 

Field and Staff, 

Liont.-Col. Josiah B.Park, Ovid; com. Feb". 18, 1863 ; maj. Aug. U, 1862; ra- 

signed Nov. 26, 186t. 

C(ympany A. 

2d Lieut. Hiram D. Treat, St. John's; com. Nov. 24, 1864; sergt.; must, out 

July 1, 1865. 
Luther W. Holmes, trans, to Vet. Kes. Corps. 
Geo. W. Niles, disch. for disability. 

Company B. 

1st Lieut. Julius M. Carter, Ovid; com. Dec. 24, 1862; 2d lient. Aug. 13, 1862 ; 
wounded in action at Kingston. Ga., May 18, 1804; pro. ciipt. Co. M; 
brevet maj. U. S. Vols., March 13, 1866, for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vices in action at Kingston, Ga.; disch. for disability. May 17, 1866. 

Sergt. Henry A. Potter, Ovid ; enl. July 28, 1862; pro. 2d lient. Co. E, Feb. 
16, 1863. 

Sergt. John N. Gilbert, Ovid; enl. July 28,1862; disch. for disability, Aug. 9, 
1803. 

Sergt. Edward Watson, Duplain ; enl. July 19, 1862; died of disease at Bow- 
ling Green, Ky., Nov. 10, 1862. 

Sergt. Conrad VVresler, Duplain; enl. July 28, 1862; died of disease at Mur- 
freesboro', Tenn., March 23, 1863. 

Sergt. Lorenzo J. Southworth, Ovid; enl. July 28, 1862 ; pro. 2d lient. Co. H, 
Deo. 10, 1864. 

Corp. Jos. M. Harrison, Bingham; enl. July 28, 1862; died of disease at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Dec. 26, 1862. 

Corp. Theo. H. Gleason, Duplain ; enl. July 18, 1862 ; died of disease at Stan- 
ford, Ky., Oct. 28, 1862. 

Corp. Vfm. W. Hammond, Ovid ; enl. July 28, 1862 ; died of disease at Louis- 
ville, Ky., Nov. 29, 1863. 

Franklin Aldrioh, disch. for disability, March 23, 1863. 

John Adams, must, out Ju'y 1, 1865. 

Wm. Bavi, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn. 

Nelson H. Beebe, Duplain ; trans, to Vet. Bes. Corps, July 1, 1863. 

Geo. H. Bennett, must, out July 1, II166. 

John W. Bradner, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Wm. W. Crow, must, out July 1, 1866. 

Lewis T. Coon, died of disease at Murfrccsboro', Tenn., March 2, 1863. 



102 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



R. F. Dayne, died of disease at Stanford, Ky. 

Wm. U. Eggleston, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Levi Flshbeck, discli. by order, June 9, 18G5. 

Andrew K. Fenion, discli. for disability, Nov. 5, 1863. 

Tlios. H. Goodrich, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Philip Hall, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 2, 1863. 

E. M. Heacox, diacli. for disability, July 25, 1864. 

Samuel Hempstead, Duplam ; di.-tch. for disability, Dec. 15, 1863. 

Franklin S. Jones, disch. by order, June 6, 1865. 

Herman D. Knowles, died of disease at Murfreesboro', May 10, 1863. 

Hermaa H. Lounsbory, died of disease at Murfreesboro'. 

Geo. McClintuck, died of disease at Nashville, April 29, 1863. 

John Morrisey, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 15, 1861. 

Guy C. Mclntyre, tians. to \et. R-s. Corps, April 10, 1864. 

FninkliQ Oldrich, disch. fur disability, Jan. 18, 1864. 

Asa Pound, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863. 

Henry Ryan, died of disease at Na^hville,TelIn. 

Charles H. Smith, died of disease at Nashvitle, Tenn. 

Norman Smith, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., April 3, 1863. 

Samuel E. Simpson, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Jos. E. Seaver, Duplain ; must, out July 1, 1865. 

John F. Sheiburii, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Chas. A. Stai kweather, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Lewis H. Wilcox, must, out July 1, 1865. 

William H. Wood, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Company D. 
John S. Harvey, must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Company E. 
2d Lieut. Henry A. Potter, Ovid; com. Feb. 16,1863; pro. 1st lieut. Co. H, March 
31, 1863. 

Company S. 

Capt. H. A. Potter, Ovid ; com. Aug. 1, 1864 ; Ist lieut. March 31, 1863 ; must. 

out July 1, 1865. 
2d Lieut. L. T. Southworth, Ovid ; com. Dec. 10, 1864 ; must, out July 1, 1865. 

Company M. 
ipt. J. M. Carter, Ovid; com. July 9, 1864; Ist lieut.; disch. for disability, 
May 17, 1865. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE FOURTH CAVALRY. 

Company A, 
Timothy Hill, must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Edward Ryno, must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Company B. 
1st Lieut. Chauncoy F. Shepherd, Owosso; com. Aug. 13,1862; res. Dec. 24, '62. 
William Armidon, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Erastus W. Blair, must, out July 1, 1865. 
B:ixter B. Bennett, must, out July 1, 1865, 
Abel A. Bradley, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Albert Babcock, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Albert R. Bradley, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Daniel F. Blair, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. 
Henry J. Bearce, disch. for disability, Nov. 18, 1862, 
George A. Chase, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Charles Dean, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 10, 1863. 
Cyrus Dean, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863. 
Benjamin Dutcher, disch. by order, July 25, 1865. 
Welton D. Fox, disch. for disability. May 11, 1863. 
C. S. Fox, died of disease at Mumfurdsville, Ky. 
L. W, Harrington, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn. 
Ira Johnson, disch. for disability, March 5, 1863. 
George Jacobs, must, out July 1, 1866. 
Charles F. Parker, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Jacob I. Powell, must, out July 1, 1865. 
William P. Stedman, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Theodore Sanford, disch. for disability, July 30, 1864. 
John D. Smith, disch. for disability, March 5, 1863. 
Darias Watkins, disch. for disability, July 14, 1862. 
William Weswell, disch. for disability, Jan. 6, 1863. 

Company G. 
Ebenczer Brewer, must, out Sept. 2, 1865, 
Thomas Brewer, disch. by order, June 26, 1865. 
Thaddeus M. Carr, disch. for disability, April 14, 1863. 
Edwin L. Howe, disch. for disability, March 19, 1563. 
Patrick Sweeney, disch. for disability, Aug. 16, 1863. 
H. H. Stewart, didch. for disability, April 14, 186:^. 
Emery T. Warle, must, out Aug. lo, 1865; 

Company E. 

1st Lieut. Joshua W. Mann, Owosso ; com. Aug. 13, 1862 ; pro. capt, Co. M, March 

31, 1863. ' 
Homer A. Bristol, died of disease at Louisville, Ky,, April 15, 1863, 
Edgar P. Byerly, disch. by order, Dec, 22, 1863. 
George A. BuUard, must, out July 1, 1865. 



Silas Bullard, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Dewitt C. Carr, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Stephen G. Fuller, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn,, Dec. 15, 1802. 

David B. Green, mu.^t, out July 1, 18G5. 

L. R. McUmber, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., July 14, 1863. 

John Nelson, disch, by order, June 14, 1865, 

George M. Rose, disch. by order, July 24, 1865. 

Anson L. Simons, disch, for disability, Jan. 19, 1863. 

Thomas L, Spafford, died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Oct. 10, 1862. 

John G. Stevens, must, out July 1, 1863. 

William 0. Stiff, must, out July 1, 1863. 

George A, Underbill, mast, out July 1, 1863. 

Company F. 
Gilbert M. Hemingway, must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 
James St. John, must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Company S. 
Albert Spinks, must, out July 1, 1865. 

Company I. 
William S. Howard, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, April 30, 1864. 
George W. Titus, trans, to Vet, Res, Corps, Jan. 10, 1864. 

Company K. 
George Sumner, disch. by order, Aug. 2, 1865. 
George W, Willets, died of disease at Gallatin, Tenn,, Jan. 24, 1865. 

Company L. 
Stillman W, Green, must, out Aug. 15,1865. 

Company M. 
Capt. J. W. Mann, Owcso ; com. March 31, 1863 ; res. Aug. 1, 1864. 
Jacob Spotta, Owosso, must, out Aug, 15, 1865. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

FIFTH CAVALKT. 

Rendezvous at Detroit — Winter Quarters near Washington — Cam- 
paign of Gettysburg, and in Virginia in 1863 — Winter Quarters at 
Stevensburg — Campaigns of 1864 and Spring of I860 — Service in 
Nortli Carolina — Transfer to Fort Leavenworth and the Plains — 
Muster Out and Disbanclment. 

Early in 1862 authority was given by the War De- 
partment to Joseph T. Copeland (then lieutenant-colonel of 
the First Cavalry), William D. Mann, and Richard Baylis 
to raise a regiment of cavalry in Michigan ; and in August 
of the same year this authority was confirmed by the Gov- 
ernor of the State. Upon receiving the Governor's sanc- 
tion, Col. Copeland established his rendezvous at Detroit, 
and in the exceedingly short period of two weeks from that 
time the ranks were filled sufficiently for muster. While 
being recruited and organized, and until it received its des- 
ignating number, the regiment was known as " Copeland's 
Mounted Rifles." 

The counties of Clinton and Shiawassee were represen- 
ted by men iu nine companies of this regiment, but most 
numerously in Company G, of which the original com- 
missioned officers were Capt. William T. Magoffin, of St. 
John's, First Lieut. George W. Townsend, of Green- 
bush, and Second Lieut. John Gunderman, of Essex ; 
while its ranks were principally filled by volunteers from 
Clinton County. One of the original field-officers of the 
regiment — Maj. Ebenezer Gould — was of Owosso, Shia- 
wassee Co., and he was afterwards promoted through the 
intermediate grade to that of colonel. The adjutant of the 
Fifth was Richard Baylis, of Ovid, Clinton Co. He had 
previously (immediately after the close of the Mexican 
war) been a non-commissioned officer in a cavalry company 
in the United States regulars, and with that command had 



FIFTH CAVALRY. ' 



103 



seen three years of Indian service in Texas and New 
Mexico, having been twice wounded, and discharged from 
the service on that account. 

The officers and men of " Copeland's Mounted Rifles" 
were mustered into the United States service on the 30th 
of August, 1862, as the Fifth Cavalry Regiment of Mich- 
igan, under command of Col. Copeland. 

For about three months after muster, the Fifth remained 
at the headquarters waiting for arms, and at the time of 
its departure — December 4th — the men had been but par- 
tially armed, though fully equipped. From Detroit the 
command moved to Washington, D. C, and remained at 
" Camp Copeland," on East Capitol Hill in that city, through 
the winter. In the spring of 18fi3, after being fully armed, 
it was attached to the Second Brigade of the Third Divi- 
sion of the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. This 
brigade became known and widely famed as the Michigan 
Cavalry Brigade. It was commanded successively by Gens. 
Kilpatrick and Custer, and gained the highest reputation of 
any cavalry brigade in the service. 

Moving from Washington in February, 1863, the regi- 
ment crossed the Potomac, and was encamped for more 
than two months at Fairfax Court-House, where it was 
visited by the Governor of Michigan. Its duty while en- 
camped here was arduous, and it was several times en- 
gaged in skirmishing, but without much loss, until the 
opening of the campaign of Gettysburg. It moved north- 
ward on that campaign on the 27th of June, and on the 
2d of July was sharply engaged with the enemy at Hun- 
terstown, Pa. On the 3d it was moved, with the brigade, 
to the York turnpike road (leading to Gettysburg), where 
it was dismounted and placed in position in front of the 
centre and left of the brigade line. The enemy advanced 
soon after noon, and how he was met by the men of the 
Fifth Michigan Cavalry is told in Gen. Custer's official 
report of the engagement, as follows: "The enemy was 
soon after reported to be advancing on my front. The de- 
tachment sent to the Oxford road was driven in, and at the 
same time the enemy's line of skirmishers, consisting of 
dismounted cavalry, appeared on the crest of the ridge of 
hills on my front. The line extended beyond my left. To 
repel their advance I ordered the Fifth Michigan Cavalry 
to a more advanced position, with instructions to maintain 
their ground H all hazards. Col. Alger, commanding the 
Fifth, assisted by Majs. Trowbridge and Terry, of the same 
rcnment, made such admirable disposition of their men be- 
hind fences and other defenses as enabled them to success- 
fully repel the repeated advance of a greatly superior force. 
I attributed their success in a great measure to the fact 
that this regiment is armed with the Spencer repeating 
rifle, wliich in the hands of brave, determined men, like 
those composing the Fifth Michigan Cavalry, is, in my 
estimation, the most effective firearm that our cavalry can 
adopt. Col. Alger held his ground until his men had ex- 
hausted their ammunition, when he was compelled to fall 
back on the main body. The beginning of this movement 
was the signal for the enemy to charge, which they did 
with two regiments, mounted and dismounted." Then 
follows the account of a counter-charge made by the Seventh 
Michigan Cavalry, in which the latter was compelled to re- 



tire, pursued by twice their number of the enemy ; but 
" by this time Col. Alger, of the Fifth, having succeeded in 
remounting a considerable portion of his regiment, gallantly 
advanced to the assistance of the Seventh, whose further 
pursuit by the enemy he checked." This was the last 
fighting done by the Fifth during that day. The brigade 
held possession of the field until dark, and then returned to 
its camping-place of the previous night. On the following 
day it was engaged at Monterey, Md., and in the pursuit 
of the enemy to the Potomac it fought at Cavetown, Md., 
July 5th ; Smithtown, Md., July 6th ; Boonsboro', Md., 
July 6th ; Hagerstown, Md., July 7th ; Williamsport, 
Md., July 7th ; Boonsboro' (2d), July 8th ; Hagerstown 
(2d), July 10th; Williamsport, July 10th; and Falling 
Waters, July 14th. It is impracticable to give a detailed 
account of the almost innumerable marches and constantly 
chancinar movements and counter-movements which suc- 
ceeded during that eventful year. It is sufficient to men- 
tion that having crossed the Potomac, soon after the fight 
at Falling Waters, the regiment took part in the following- 
named engagements, viz. : Snicker's Gap, Va., July 19th ; 
Kelly's Ford, Va., September 13th; Culpeper Court-House, 
Va., September 14th ; Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16th ; 
White's Ford, September 21st ; Jack's Shop, Va., Septem- 
ber 26th ; Jumes City, Va., October 12th ; Brandy Station, 
Va., October 13th ; Buckland's Mills, Va., October 19th; 
Stevensburg, Va., November 19th ; and Morton's Ford, 
Va., Nov. 26, 1863. Sixty-four men were killed and 
wounded during the year 1863, besides one hundred and 
twenty-one reported missing in action, many of whom were 
killed. Other reports of alterations and casualties show 
that from the time the regiment was organized until the 
close of 1863 forty men died of disease, sixty-eight were 
discharged for disability, twenty-one by sentence of general 
court-martial, fifteen by order, two for promotion, twenty 
officers resigned ; one officer was dismissed, and the total 
number of recruits received was thirteen. During the 
winter of 1863-64 the Fifth had its quarters at Stevens- 
burg, Va., and was employed mostly on picket duty along 
the Rapidan. 

In the latter part of February, 1 864, it took part in the 
raid made by the cavalry under Kilpatrick to the outer de- 
fenses of Richmond. The main body of the regiment 
crossed the Rapidan, marched thence by way of Spottsyl- 
vania and Beaver Dam Station to Hungary Station, and 
moved down the Brook turnpike to within five miles of the 
city of Richmond. Being attacked on the 2d of March by 
a superior force of the enemy, the Union cavalry was com- 
pelled to fall back on Gen. Butler's forces, stationed at New 
Kent Court-House. A detachment of the regiment had 
also accompanied the forces commanded by the gallant Col. 
Ulric Dahlgren. They moved down the James River to 
within five miles of the rebel capital. The detachment of 
the Fifth being in front, charged the enemy's works, and 
captured his first line of fortifications. Following up its 
advantage, Dahlgren's command pushed back the enemy 
from one line to another, until a point was reached within 
two miles of the city, when it was found impossible to ad- 
vance farther with so small a force. Meanwhile the rebels 
were gathering from all points, and in the endeavor to 



104 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



extricate itself from its perilous position the detachment of 
the Fifth became separated in the night (which was rainy 
and very dark) from the main portion of Dahlgren's com- 
mand. On the following day this detachment cut its way 
through a strong rebel force posted at Old Church, and suc- 
ceeded in rejoining the regiment near White House Land- 
ing. At Yorktown, Va., on the 11th of March, the regi- 
ment embarked on board transports for Alexandria, whence 
it marched to Stevensburg, arriving there on the 18th of 
April, 1864. Here a reorganization of the cavalry forces, 
under Gen. Sheridan's command, took place, and the Mich- 
igan Cavalry Brigade was thenceforth known as the First 
Brigade of the First Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the 
Potomac. 

On the 5th of May the brigade, commanded by the fiery 
Custer, again crossed the Rapidan, and soon became engaged 
in the great battle of the Wilderness ; fighting mounted, the 
first three days, against the forces led by the renowned rebel 
cavalry leader, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. On the 9th of May 
the cavalry corps set out, under Gen. Sheridan, on hi.s great 
raid towards Richmond. Three divisions, numbering full 
twelve thousand men, turned their horses' heads to the south- 
ward ; the blue-coated column, as it marched by fours, ex- 
tending eleven miles along the road, from front to rear. On 
the route they overtook a large body of Union soldiers, who 
had been taken prisoners at Spottsylvania, released them, and 
captured the rebel guard. Toward evening, the same day, 
the Michigan brigade, followed closely by the rest of the 
column, dashed into the rebel depot at Beaver Dam Station, 
scattering, almost in an instant, the force stationed for its 
defense. All night long the men were busy destroying the 
immense amount of rebel supplies accumulated at Beaver 
Dam, worth millions of dollars, consisting of three long 
railroad-trains, with locomotives, stores of goods of vari- 
ous kinds, and one hundred loaded army-wagons, the flames 
from which rose in lurid columns through the darkness amid 
the cheers of the exultant soldiers. 

At daybreak the next morning the command moved 
forward, and after tearing up the railroad-track at Negro 
Foot Station it reached " Yellow Tavern,'' ten miles from 
Richmond, on the 11th of May. There Gen. Stuart had 
assembled a large force of rebel cavalry, and a severe battle 
ensued. The Fifth Cavalry fought dismounted, and charged 
the enemy's position under a heavy fire ; routing him after 
a most stubborn resistance. The rebels lost heavily in this 
engagement, including their commanding officer, Gen. J. 
E. B. Stuart, who was mortally wounded by a private of 
this regiment. Having defeated all the forces opposed to 
it, the Union column pursued its way " on to Richmond" 
unmolested. 

The next dsry the command arrived within a mile and a 
half of Richmond, but found fortifications in front, on 
which cavalry could make no impression. Gen. Sheridan 
then turned his course towards the Chickahominy at Meadow 
Bridge. The rebels had destroyed the bridge, and a large 
force of .them disputed his further progress. The ap- 
proaches to the stream led through a swamp, along which 
not more than four men could ride abreast, and a well- 
posted battery on the opposite side cut down the head of 
the Union column, completely checking its advance. The 



leadin'' brigade vainly endeavored to force a passage. The 
next one likewise failed. 

Gen. Sheridan then sent for Custer and his Michigan 
brigade, which at once hastened to the front. There the 
youthful general dismounted the Fifth and Sixth Michigan, 
and sent them forward into the swamp as flanking-parties, 
while with drawn sabres the First and Seventh Michigan 
breathlessly awaited the order to charge. The dismounted 
men drove the enemy from their first position, advanced 
through water waist>deep to the railroad-bridge, crossed it 
on the ties, and then plied their Spencer rifles on the rebel 
cannoniers with such effect that the latter were obliged to 
turn their guns on these assailants to prevent being entirely 
enfiladed. The moment they did so Custer gave the order 
" Charge !" and the two mounted regiments, with brandished 
sabres and ringing cheers, dashed forward at the top of 
their horses' speed. The rebels had barely time to limber 
their guns and retreat ; leaving the road again open for the 
advance of the whole corps. The command then proceeded, 
via Malvern Hill, Hanover Court-House, White House, 
Aylett's and Concord Church, to Chesterfield Station, 
where it joined the main Army of the Potomac. 

On the 28th of May the regiment was hotly engaged 
near Hawes' Shop, where it aided in driving the enemy 
from their position after a desperate hand-to-hand fight. 
The loss of the regiment in this action was very severe. 
Moving to Old Church Tavern on the 30th, it was engaged 
with its brigade in the routing of Young's rebel cavalry. 
On the 31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, to- 
gether with other cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where 
it fought dismounted in advance of the infantry, and, 
although losing heavily, succeeded in capturing many 
prisoners. 

The Michigan brigade soon after set out under Gen. 
Sheridan to join Gen. Hunter, who was moving from the 
Shenandoah Valley to Lynchburg. On the 11th of June 
the command met at Trevillian Station a large force of the 
enemy, both infantry and cavalry. During that day and 
the next there ensued one of the severest cavalry fights of 
the war, the Union cavalry mostly fighting dismounted. 
The Michigan brigade did most of the fighting the first 
day, and lost heavily. The brigade battery was three times 
captured by the enemy, and as many times recaptured by 
the determined efforts of the Michigan men. The rebels 
were finally driven from the field and pursued several miles ; 
six hundred prisoners, fifteen hundred horses, one stand of 
colors, six caissons, forty ambulances, and fifty wagons 
being captured by the victorious Unionists. In this action 
Adjt. Richard Baylis was severely wounded. He had pre- 
viously been thanked in general orders by Gen. Custer, 
" for remarkable gallantry in transmitting and executing 
orders on the field" in the battle of Gettysburg, and also 
by the same general for similar gallant services in the series 
of engagements which occurred in the month of October, 
1863. And now, " for gallant services at Trevillian Sta- 
tion," he was brevetted captain. Afterwards he was 
brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel " for gallant and 
meritorious services during the war." 

Moving from Trevillian Station in the direction of Louisa 
Court-House, the regiment encountered a column of the 



FIFTH CAVALRY. 



105 



enemy, but cut its way through with considerable loss in 
prisoners. Gen. Hunter had failed to make the passage of the 
mountains. Gen. Sheridan, in consequence, then marched 
his troops to White House Landing, and soon after joined 
the Army of the Potomac, south of Petersburg. After 
serving on picket and scout duty in front of Richmond and 
Petersburg during the month of July, 1864, the Michigan 
brigade was taken on transports to Washington, D. C, early 
in August, and thence marched to the Shenandoah Valley. 
Here it followed Custer in many a desperate charge, fully 
sustaining its old renown. At Middletown the Fifth Cav- 
alry was attacked by a strong force of the enemy, but re- 
pulsed them, capturing sixty-five prisoners. Again, on the 
19th of August, while a squadron of the regiment were 
scouting to the front, they were attacked by a greatly supe- 
rior force of the enemy, under the guerrilla leader Mosby, 
and being overpowered were driven into camp with a loss 
of sixteen men killed. It was also engaged at Front Royal, 
August 16th; Leetown, August 25th; at Shepardstown, 
August 25th ; Smithfield, August 28th ; Berryville, Sep- 
tember 3d; Opequan Creek, September 19th, where the 
Michigan brigade utterly routed the enemy's cavalry and 
broke their infantry lines, capturing two battle-flags and 
four hundred prisoners; Winchester, September 19th; 
Luray, September 2ith ; Woodstock, October 9th ; and 
Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 1864, where Custer's command 
charged the enemy's 'main line, driving it back in confu- 
sion and capturing a large number of prisoners. During 
the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had seventy- 
six men killed, one hundred and seventeen wounded in 
action, fourteen missing in action, one hundred and ninety- 
four taken prisoners ; two hundred and nine recruits joined 
the regiment, while but thirty-three men died of disease 
and but two desertions were reported. 

The Michigan brigade went into winter quarters near 
Winchester, Va., in December, 1864, and remained until 
the latter part of February, 1865. On the 27th it broke 
camp, and with the cavalry corps commanded by Gen. Sher- 
idan started on a long and rapid march up the Shenan- 
doah Valley, past Staunton, over the mountains, and down 
the James River to the Army of the Potomac. The com- 
mand met with but little opposition, dispersed all forces op- 
posed to it, destroyed much property on the line of the 
Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, locks, mills, and 
aqueducts on the James River Canal, and on the 19th of 
March joined the forces assembled to give the last blow to 
Lee's rebel army. 

On the 30th and 31st days of March and 1st of April, 
1865, the Michigan brigade was warmly engaged at Five 
Forks. During these three days of battle it was in the 
advance, and on the extreme left of the Union armies, — 
fighting dismounted, — and finally succeeded, with the rest 
of Sheridan's corps, in capturing the enemy's line of de- 
fense and several thousand prisoners. From this time until 
the surrender of Lee, at Appomattox, April 9, 1865, it 
was constantly engaged with the enemy, and being in the 
advance, the flag of truce to negotiate the surrender was 
sent through its lines. After the surrender of Lee the 
regiment moved with the cavalry corps to Petersburg, Va. 
Soon after it made an incursion, with other forces, into 
14 



North Carolina ; thence it marched to Washington, D. C, 
participated in the review of the Army of the Potomac, 
May 23, 1865, and immediately afterwards, with the Michi- 
gan Cavalry Brigade, was ordered to the Western frontier. 
The Fifth was sent by rail and steamboat to Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, where the men having two years or more to 
serve were transferred to the First and Seventh Michigan 
Cavalry regiments. On the 22d of June, the regiment, as 
an organization, was mustered out of service, and returned 
to Detroit, where it arrived July 1 , 1865. 

FIFTH CAVALBY SOLDIERS FBOM CLINTON COUNTY. 
FUld (mi Staff. 

1st Lieut, and Adjt. Richard Baylis, Ovid ; com. Sept. 25, 1862 ; wounded in ac- 
tion at Trevillian Station ; pro. to brevet capt., for gallant services at 
Trevillian Station j to brevet maj. and lieut.-col., March 13, 1886, for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the war. 

Chaplain John Guiiderman, Essex ; com. Oct. 9, 18G3 ; pro. to 2d lieut., Co. B, 
Nov.25, 1862 ; must, out June 22, 1805. 

Compani/ A. 
Frank R. Simmons, trans, to 7th Cav. and 1st Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. 

Company E. 
James G. Sickles, trans, to 1st Michigan Cav. 

Company F. 
Ilansfui'd Comstock, disch. for disability, June 22, X8G3. 
Company G. 

Capt. William T. Magoffin, St. Juhn'x; com. Aug. 14, 1862; res. Aug. 1, 1864; 

pro. to brevet maj. U. S. Vols. March 13, 1865, fur gallant and meritorious 

servicer during the war. 
Ist Lieut. George W. Townsend, Greenbush ; com. Nov. 26, 1862 ; pro. to 2d 

lieut. Aug. 16, 1862 ; pro. to capt. Co. I. 
2d Lieut. John Gunderman, lilssex; com. Nov. 25, 1862; pro. to chaplain. 
Q M.-Sergt. N. S. Hammond, Essex ; enl. Aug. 15, 1862; died in action at 

Brandy Station, Va., Oct. 12, 1863. 
Com.-Sergt. William W. Humiston, Bengal ; enl. Aug. 15, 1862 ; must, out June 

22, 1865. 
Sergt. Charles I. Young, Essex ; enl. Aug. 15, 1862; must, out June 22, 1865. 
Sergt. Benj. Hawes, Essex ; enl. Aug. 17, 1862; died of diaeaso at Annapolis, 

Md., Deo. 12, 1804. 
Sergt. John Corn well, St. John's ; enl. Aug. 19, 1862; must, out June 22, 1865. 
Sergt. George B. Wixom, Olive ; enl. Aug. 15, 1862 ; died at Washington, March 

26, 1804. 
Sergt. Cliauncey Morton, Greenbush ; died in rebel prison at Blchmond, Ya., 

Dec. 13, 1803. 
Corp. Sylvester P. Bailey, Farrier; must, out June 22, 1805. 
Coi-p. Aaron D. Lyon, Essex ; died in AndersonvlUo prison-pen, July 21, 1864. 
Corp. Andrew J. Taylor, Essex ; enl. Aug. 1 5, 1862 ; disch. for disability, Oct. 13, 

1803. 
Corp. Martin Blackford, Greenbush ; enl. Aug. 18, 1862 ; must, out June 22, 

1865. 
Gabriel Anderson, must, out June 22, 1865. 
Marcus Bentley, disch. by order. May 30, 1865, 
Samuel Coleman, died of disease at Washington, D. C, Aug. 5, 1863. 
James Cronk,died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug. 3, 1804. 
John F. Cunnell, trans, to 1st Cav. 
James A. Chapman, must, out June 22, 1865. 
Loren D. Chapman, must, out June 22, 1865. 
Daniel Ferguson, must, out June 22, 1865. 
George E. Godfrey, must, out June 22, 1805. 
James Griffith, must, out June 22, 1865. 
Daniel Gunderman, disch. for disability, June 1, 1864. ' 
Edward A. Gunderman, disch. for disability, March 5, 1863. 
Levi Gibbs, died of wounds, Aug. 8, 1863. 
Daniel Handy, disch. for disability, March 1, 1864. 
William H. Hewitt, disch. Oct. 24, 1862. 

John J. Henderson, died of disease at Fairfax Court-House, May 29, 1863. 
John K. Hammond, died in rebel prison, Richmond, Va., March 15, 1864. 
Simon H. Hawes, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863. 
William L. Havens, must, out June 22, 1865. 
B. H. Hanes, must. »ut June 22, 1865. 
George C. Hooker, discli. by order, July 8, 1865, 
Oliver P. IngersoU. must, out June 22, 1865. 
Alanson Mathews, must, out June 22, 1865. 
Samuel B. McPherson, must, out Juno 22, 1805. 
James P. Minard, must, out June 22, 1805. 
Joseph M. McPherson, died of disease at Washington, Aug. 5, 1863, 



106 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Albert S. NorriB, diei in rebel prison, Richmond, Ya., March 5, 1864. ^ 

Iliraro Nest el, disch.for disability, Oct. 1, 1862. 

William S.Parker, must, out June 22, 1865. 

Jacob Bedner, died of disease at Brandy Station. Va., March 9, 1S64. 

Nathaniel Russell, died of disease in Michigan, December, 1864. 

Adam Russell, disch. by order, July 7, 18G5, 

Walter F. Reeves, trans, to 1st Micb. Cav. 

Horace A. Soule, disch. for disability, Oct. 2, 1862. 

El-win M. Spinner, died in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. 

Hiram Sturgis, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. 

William Sheriff, died of disease at Philadelphia, I'a., Sept. 3, 1864. 

William T. Smith, disch. for disability, Aug. 18, 1863. 

George H. Soule, must, out June 22, 1865. 

Albert H. Vredenburgh, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. 

Lyman Van Sickle, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug. 31, 1864. 

Jnmes H. Washington, died of disease in Michigan, March 20, 1865. 

Alonzo Wheeler, died of disease at Frederick, Md., Nov. 17, 18G4. 

Carlos A. Webster, trans, to 1st Michigan Cav. 

Miles D. Webster, must, out June 22, 1865. 

Martin Weaver, must, out June 22, 1865. 

Henry F. Warren, mTist. out by order, July 7, 1865. 

George Young, must, out by order, June 19, 1865. 

Company M. 
Hugh Jamison, died in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864. 

Company I. 
Capt. George W. TownsendjGreenbusb; com.Nov. 2,1863 ; disch. for disability, 
July 15, 1864. 

FIFTH CAVALRY SOLDIERS FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Field and Staff. 
Col. Ebenezer Gould, Owosso; com. Sept. 21, 18G4; lieut.-col. Dec. 31,1862; 
maji Sept. 2, 1862 ; wounded in action at Hagerstown, Md., July 13, 1863 ; 
disch. for disability, Nov. 10, 1864. 

Non-CommissUmed Staff. 
Sei^t.-Maj. CharI<}B Y. Osburn, Owosso; pro. to 2d lieut., Co. H, Aug. 18, 1863. 

Corr^any D. 
Thomas G. Ingersoll, died of disease at Washington, D. C, Dec. 2, 1862. 

Company F. 
John Bemis, diech.by order. May 17, 1865. 
Sanford Bemis, discll. by order, May 3, 1865. 
William D. Ingersoll, pro. to 2d lieut., Co. I. 

Company G. 
2d Lieut. Emery L. Brewer, Owosso; com. Feb. 27, 1864; wounded in action at 

Hawes' Sbup, Va., Mny 28, 1864; disch. for disability, Oct. 8, 1864. 
A. H. Clark, disch. for disability, Jan. 6, 1864. 

Thomas Johnson, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Aug. 4, 1864. 
Patrick Mitchell, must, out June 22, 1865. 

Company H. 

Capt. C. Y. Osburn, Owosso; com. Aug. 9, 1864; 1st lieut., Nov. 2, 1863; 2d lieut., 
Aug. 18, 1863; sergt.-maj.; wounded in action at Uawcs* Shop,Va., May 
28,1864; disch. for disability, Sept. 28, 1864; brevet capt, U. S, Vols,, - 
March 13, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious services during the war." 

Oliver C. Hullister, died of disease at Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 4, 1864. 

Robert Purdy, died in action at Trevillian Station, Va., June 11. 1864. 

Company I. 
2d Lieut. William D. Ingersoll, Owosso; com. Oct. 28, 1864; wounded in action 
at Five Forks, Va.; resigned, 1865. 

Company K. 
Sergt. Emory L. Brewer, Owosso ; pro. to 2d lieut., Co. G. 
Emory L. Brewer, disch. for promotion, Nov. 25, 1863. 
Andrew 1. Bemis, missing in action at Annon Church, Va., May 28, 1864. 
Adam Dell, must, out June 23, 1865. 
Charles Edwards, must, out July 17, 1865. 
William Edwards, disch. by order, June 19, 1865. 
Anson Howe, disch. for disability, Dec. 31, 1864. 
Milton Hodge, died at Brandy Station, Va., Oct. 12, 1863. 
George B. Lynds, disch. for disability, Oct. 21, 1862. 
Juliel W. Monroe, must, out June 23, 1865. 
George W, Morse, must, out June 23, 1865. 
OrvilJe Ogden, died of disease at Detroit, Mich., Feb. 25, 1865. 
Roweli P. Root, died of disease at Fairfax Court-House, Va., June 17, 1863. 
Milan S, Warren, died at Newby's Roads, July 24, 1803. 
Orlando F. Wilkinson, must, out June 19, 1865. 
Allen I. Williams, discli. by order, May 16, 1865. 

Cwiipany M. 
Junes H. McGowan, disch. for disability, Dec. 4, 1862. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

SIXTH CAVALBY. 

Organization and Departure from Miohignn — Assignment to Duty in 
the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac — Its Campaigning in 1863 
— Winter Quarters at Stevensburg — The Richmond Raid — Continu- 
ous Campaigning in 1864— Campaign of 1865 — General Pieliett's 
Opinion of a Charge made by the Sixth — Movement to North Car- 
olina — Return to Washington and Participation in the Grand Re- 
view — Transfer to Fort Leavenworth — Service on the Plains — 
Muster Out and Discharge. 

The Sixth Cavalry (one of the regiments composing the 
famed Michigan Cavalry Brigade, which won imperishable 
laurels under the gallant Custer) contained Clinton and 
Shiawassee soldiers in six of its companies, these being 
principally found in Companies D and G. The first-named 
of these companies entered the service under command of 
Capt. David G. Koyce, of Burns, Shiawassee Co., and 
the other had for its original first lieutenant, Harrison N. 
Throop, of Owosso. The regiment was recruited in the 
fall of 1862, under authority given by the War Depart- 
ment, and the Governor of Michigan, to the Hon. F. W. 
Kellogg. Its rendezvous was at Grand Kapids, where it 
was mustered into the United States service under com- 
mand of Col. George Gray, on the 13th of October in that 
year, it having on its rolls twelve hundred and twenty-nine 
oflBcers and enlisted men. 

Mounted and equipped, but not armed, it left the regi- 
mental rendezvous on the 10th of December following, and 
proceeded to the seat of war in Virginia, where it was soon as- 
signed to the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, in the Third Divis- 
ion of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac. In the 
early part of 1 863 it was encamped for a considerable time 
at Fairfax Conrt-House, and saw some service in February 
and March, but was not engaged in any notable actions 
with the enemy until the time when the rebel army of Gen. 
Lee moved northward after the battle of Chancellorsvillc. 
In that campaign it fought at Hanover, Pa., June 30, 
1863 ; at Hunterstown and Gettysburg, Pa., and Monterey, 
Cavetown, Smithtown, Boonsboro', Hagerstown, Williams- 
port, and Falling Waters, Md., in July. At Gettysburg 
and Falling Waters it was particularly distinguished. In 
reference to its part in the latter engagement the corre- 
spondent of the New York Times said in that journal : 
" The Sixth Michigan Cavalry was in the advance. They 
did not wait for orders, but a squadron composed of Com- 
panies D and G, under Captains Royce and Throop, were 
deployed as skirmishers, while Companies B and F, led by 
Major Weaver, made the charge. The line of skirmishers 
was forced back several times, but the men rallied promptly, 
and finally drove the enemy behind their works. A charge 
was then made, the squadron passing between the earth- 
works. So sudden and spirited was the dash, and so de- 
moralized were the enemy, that the first brigade surren- 
dered without firing a shot. The charging column moved 
directly on and engaged the second brigade, when the bri- 
gade that had surrendered seized their arms, and then com- 
menced a fearful struggle. Of the one hundred who made 
this charge, only thirty escaped uninjured. Seven of their 
horses lay dead within the enemy's works. Twelve hun- 
dred prisoners were here captured, and the ground was 



SIXTH OAVALRY. 



107 



strewn with dead and wounded rebels. Among the killed 
was Maj.-Gen. Pettigrew, of South Carolina." The two 
companies particularly mentioned in this account were 
those whose ranks were principally filled with Shiawassee 
County men, and Capt. Royce, commanding Company D, 
died there, as a brave soldier would wish to die, in the 
thunder and smoke of the charge. 

Crossing the Potomac into Virginia after the battle of 
Falling Waters, the regiment was engaged with the enemy 
at Snicker's Gap, July 19th; Kelly's Ford, September 
13th; Culpeper Court-House, September 14th; Raccoon 
Ford, September 16th; White's Ford, September 21st; 
Jack's Shop, September 26th ; James City, October- 12th ; 
Brandy Station, October 13th ; Buckland's Mills, October 
19th ; Stevensburg, November 19th ; and Morton's Ford, 
November 26th. From the latter date it remained in 
winter quarters at Stevensburg until the 28th of February, 
186 1, when it joined the cavalry column of Kilpatrick, on 
his great raid to the vicinity of Richmond. Returning 
from that expedition to camp at Stevensburg, it was trans- 
ferred to the First Cavalry Division, and soon after moved 
camp to Culpeper. 

Companies I and M, which had been operating in the 
Shenandoah Valley during the year 1863, rejoined the 
regiment on the 3d of May, 1864, and two days later the 
command moved across the Rapidan and into the Wilder- 
ness. It was engaged, and fought bravely, near Chancel- 
lorsville. May 6th, and skirmished on the 7th and 8th. 
On the morning of the 9th it moved with Gen. Sheridan's 
command on the raid to the rear of the Confederate army, 
holding the advance. From this time its history is one of 
almost continuous movement, which may be summed up 
by the enumeration of the fights and skirmishes in which 
it took part, as follows: Beaver Dam, Va., May 9th; 
Yellow Tavern, May 10th and 11th; Meadow Bridge, 
May 12th; Hanover Court-House, Va., May 27th; Hawes' 
Shop, May 28th ; Baltimore Cross-Roads, May 29th ; Cold 
Harbor, May 30th and June 1st; Trevillian Station, June 
11th and 12th ; and Cold Harbor, July 21st. 

Early in August the Michigan brigade, with others of 
Sheridan's command, was transferred to the Shenandoah 
Valley, where the Sixth took active part in all the skir- 
mishes, battles, marches, and counter-marches that occurred 
■ during this part of the operations in the Valley, — a cam- 
paign which had made the names of Sheridan, Winchester, 
and Cedar Creek famous for all time. The principal actions 
in which the Sixth participated in the valley were those 
of Front Royal, Leetown, Smithfield, Opequan Creek, Win- 
chester, Luray, Port Republic, Mount Crawford, Fisher's 
Hill, Woodstock, and Cedar Creek. In December, 1864, 
it went into winter quarters near Winchester. Its total 
list of killed to November 1st amounted to fifty-five, while 
forty-four of its members had died of disease. 

During the last days of February, 1865, the regiment 
began its final Virginia campaign. After a long and event- 
ful march under Sheridan, during which it helped to defeat 
the rebel Gen. Rosser at Louisa Court-House, to break up 
the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and to destroy 
the looks, aqueducts, and mills on the James River Canal, 
it reached White House Landing on the 19th of March, 



moved thence to and across the James River, and joined 
the Army of the Potomac in time to take part in the final 
battles of the war, being engaged at Five Forks, Va., March 
30th, 31st, and April 1st; at Southside Railroad, April 
2d; Duck Pond Mills, April 4th; Sailor's Creek, April 
6th ; and Appomattox, April 9th. In one of these en- 
gagements the rebel general Pickett was captured, and he 
afterwards spoke of the charge of the Sixth on that occa- 
sion as " the bravest charge he had ever seen." 

After Lee's surrender the regiment moved to Petersburg, 
thence to North Carolina, and then north to Washington, 
D. C, where it marched in the great review of May 23d. 
Immediately after it was ordered West, and moved with 
the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, via Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, and the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers, 
to Fort Leavenworth. There it received orders to move 
over the Plains, westward, on duty in the Indian country. 
The officers and men were greatly disgusted at this, but 
they would not soil their noble record by disobedience, and 
so they moved unhesitatingly to the performance of the dis- 
agreeable duty, on which they remained till the 17th of 
September, 1865, when the men of the regiment whose 
term did not expire before Feb. 1, 1866, were consolidated 
with the First Michigan Cavalry, and the remainder of the 
command was ordered back to Fort Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out of service, Nov. 24, 1865. Returning to 
Michigan, it arrived at Jackson, November 30th, and was 
there disbanded. 

SIXTH OAVALEY SOLDIERS FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
FiM, and Stag. 
As3t. Surg. Jaa. Sleetli, Byron ; com. March 1, 1863 ; must, out Nov. 7, 1865. 

Company A. 
Freeling Potter, must, out July 11, 1865. 

Company D. 
Capt. David G. Boyce, Burns ; com. Oct. 13, 1862 ; died in tuition at Falling 

Waters, Va., July 14, 1863. 
Com. Sergt. Henry M!. BiUiuga, Burns ; enl. Sept. 4, 1862 ; trans, to Inv. Corps, 

Jan. 1, 1864. 
Sergt. Saml. C. Smith, Caledonia ; enl, Sept. 1, 1862 ; disch. by order, June 9, 

1866. 
Sergt. Alonzo Ferguson, New Baven ; enl. Sept. 9, 1862; must, out from Inv. 

Corps, Sept. 4, 1865. 
Corp. Chas. Simpson, Eurus ; enl. Sept, 5, 1862 ; disch. for pro. in 11th Cav., Oct. 

22, 1863. 
Corp. Wm. U. Dailey, Burns; enl. Sept. 9, 1862; died in action in Virginia, 

May 28, 1861. 
Mus. Wm. H. Bust, Burns ; enl. Sept. 3, 1862 ; must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Mus. And, J. Williams, Burns ; enl. Sept. 26, 1862 ; must, out from Inv. Corps, 

July 19, 1866. 
Wagoner Jas. W. Itathbone, Caledonia ; enl. Sept. 8, 1862 ; must, out June 12, 

1806. 
Orin B. Arnold, disch. for disability. May 24, 1863. 
George W. Aldrlch, disch. for disability, July 28, 1863. 
Jacob H. Alliton, must, out Nov. 24, 1866. 
David 0. Austin, must, out June 26, 1865. 
Peter Bough ton, must, out March 25, 1866. 
Ezra D. Barnes, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
George W. Boteford, must, out Aug. 8, 1865. 

Augustus M. Barnes, Supposed lost on steamer "Sultana," April 28, 1865. 
Alexander Crawford, must, out March 25, 1866. 
Henry Cole, must, out Nov. 2^, 1865. 
David Campbell, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Henry W. Cramer, must, out Dec. 12, 1865. 

Gilbert Dutcher, died of disease at Kichmond prison, Va., Feb. 12, 1864. 
Edwin J. Emery, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Ferdinand Enler, must, put Nov. 24, 1865. 
Alva F. Ewlngj must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
John H. Green, must, out July 10, 1865. 
Philander Gleason, must, out March 27, 1866. 
George K. Harris, mnst. out March 25, 1866. 
Hartford Harding, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 



108 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



George Hopkins, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Jacob Haist, must, out Nov. 24, 1S65. 

Horace Hart, died of wounds at Hanover, Va., July 3,1863. 

Ira C. Hardirtg, died in action at Summorville Ford, Va., Sept. 16, 1863. 

James M. Hath, discli. for disability, July 1'2, 1865. 

John Judd, trans, to Vet. Kes. Corps, July, 1864. 

L. F. Jumes, died of wounds at Htiwes' Shop, Va., May 28, 1864. 

Edwin Judd, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

W. K. Kendall, died of disease at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 4, 1864. 

Albert Lyon, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, July, 1864. 

D. S. Munger, disch. for pro., Feb. 17, 1«64. 

Thomas Murray, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Albert Otis, died in action at Falling Waters, Md., July 14, 1863. 

Truman Osgood, died of disease at Washington, D. C, July 22, 1863. 

Samuel E. Pitts, disch. for disability, June 1, 1863. 

Abraham Polly, disch. for disability, Dec. 5, 1864. 

William E. Parker, must, out May 31, 1865. 

Allen W. Rhodes, died of disease at Richmond prison, Va., Nov. 20, 1863. 

Siimuel Sherbourne, died of disease at Richmond prison, Va., April 12, 1864. 

Ananias Stafford, died in action at Hawes' Shop^ Va., May 28, 1864. 

Jacob Sciler, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Martin Simpson, must, out Nov, 24, 1865. 

Edward Simpson, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

William H. Shaft, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Joseph Shaffer, missing iu action. 

John Van Dyke, died of disease at Andersonville, 6a., June 20, 1864. 

Tiffany S. Wright, must, out Mfiy 24, 18G5. 

Dennis C. Welch, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 1, 1864. 

Company E. 
George Bennett, disch. for disability. 

Company F, 
George Dutcher, died of wounds at Annapolis, Md., Oct. 2, 1863. 

Company G. 
Ist Lieut. Harrison N. Throop, Owosso ; com. Oct. U, 1862; pro. to ciipt., Co. K, 

March 13, 1863. 
Q.M.-Sergt. Norton Gregory, Owosso ; enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; must, out Nov. 24, 

1865. 
Com. Sergt. Geo. B. W. Ingersoll, Owosso ; enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; killed in action 

in Virginia, Aug. 28, 1864. 
Sergt. Isaac F. Parkhurst, New Haven ; enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; trans, to Inv. Corps, 

Nov. 15, 1863. 
Sergt. Danl, 1. Wyker, Owosso j enl. Aug. 30, 1862; died of disease at Annapo- 
lis, Dec. 9, 1864. 
Sergt. John B. Kay, Woodhull; enl. Sept. 9, 1862 ; taken pris. at Brandy Sta- 
tion, Va., Oct. 11, 1863. 
Corp. Wm. M. Linsley, New Haveu ; enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; disch. from Inv. Corps, 

July 19, 1865. 
Corp. Jas. N. Smith, Owosso; enl. Sept, 3, 18C2; mustered out. 
Corp. George H. Wyman, Owosso; enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; died in hospital, March 

28, 1863, 
Teamster Jacob Pettit, Owosso ; enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Farrier Andrew P, Gulp, Scioto; enl Aug. 30, 1862; died of disease, Nov. 4, 1863. 
Farrier L. I. Eckler, Bennington ; enl. Sept.2, J86:i; taken piisoner; must, out 

by order, June 12, 1865. 
Joshua Austin, died of disease at Washington, D, C, March 10, 1863. 
John Allen, died of disease at Riclimond, Va., Sept. 24, 1864, 
Artemu^ W. Angel, must, out Nov. 24, 1865, 
Jamt'S Bull, must, out Jnne 5, 1865. 

John Covel, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., April 17, 1864. 
Arthur Colyer, died of disease at Washington, D. C, Feb. 21, 1863. 
George Dutcher, died of disea.se nt Summerville Ford, Va., September, 1863. 
Seih Dutcher, died of disease at Owosso, Mich., Nov. 12, 1864. 
Isaac Deniiston, died of disease at Washington, D, C, June 20, 1864. 
John Deniiston, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
George Edwards, must, out March 10, 1866, 
Avery D. French, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863. 
Henry H, Train, trans, to Ist Cav. 
Albert N. Train, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Samuel Gmham, must, out Aug, 17, 1865. 

Lewis E. Galusha, died in action at Falling Waters, Md., July 14 1863. 
John B. Graham, disch. by order, Jan. 28, 1865. 
Henry Herst, must, out July 5, 1865, 
George W. Judd, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863. 
John H. Moon, died of disease at Audersouville prison, Nov. 12 1864. 
Jesse Monroe, disch. July 10, 1865. 
Abraham Ott, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Peter I. Putnam, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. 
John E. Potter, died of disease at Fairfax Court-House, Va., April 1 1863. 
John P. Ream, died of disease at Fairfax Court-House, Va., April 3 1863. 
Oliver H. Rathboue, died of disease at Washington, D. C, March 15 1863. 
John P. lUy, missing in action. 
Almond N. Stephens, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
George Stickler, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Samuel J. Southworth, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 



James Vanderhoof, died of disease at Andei'sonville prison, Ga., April 23, 1865. 
Christian Wolenhuigh, must, out Nov. 24, 1S65. 
William F. Williams, nnist. out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Orange Williams, disch. for disability, June 11, 1864. 

Company H. 
Capt. Henry L. Wise, Caledonia; com, Oct. 13, 18G2; pro. to maj. in 11th Cav. 

Aug. 31, 1863. 

Company K. 

Capt. H. N. Throop, Owosso ; com. March 16, 1863 ; resigned July 10, 1864. 



SIXTH CAVALRY SOLDIERS FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company D. 
Chas. Ferrir, trans, to 1st Mich. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. 
Chas. E. Haviland, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Company E. 
Com, Sei-gt. Amos T, Ayers, Bingham ; euI.'Oct. 13, 1862; disch. for pro., Oct. 

13, 1863. 
Sergt. Marvin D. Avery, Bingham ; enl. Sept. 9, 1862 ; killed in action at Tre- 

villian Station, June 11, 1864. 
Corp. Benj. B. Tucker, Duplain ; enl. Sept. 9, 1862 ; disch. for disability, Feb. 28, 

1863, 
Mns. John A. Gates, Bingham; enl. Oct. 8,1862; disch. by order, March 6,1865. 
Marion Case, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Geo. I. Goodale, died in rebel prison, Richmond, Va., Jan. 12, 1864. 
Henry M. Harrison, died in action at High Ridge, Va., April 6, 1865. 
Samuel Hoyle, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., July 14, 1865. 
Chas. O. Haire, trans, to 1st Mich. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. 
Edwin C. Hinman, trans, to Ist Mich. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. 
Martin Lerg, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Gershom W. Mattoon, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Wm. T. Martin, died of disease at Washington, D. C, July 25, 1864. 
And. J. Miller, tians. to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb, 15, 1864, 
Moses C. Nestel, trans, to Vet, Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864, 
Hiram J. Saterlee, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Sept. 3, 1864, 
Lewis H, Yeomand, died in action at Brandy Station, Va., Oct, 13, 1863, 

Company G. 
Mu8. John C. Taylor, Bingham; enl, Sept. 17, 1862; must, out Nov. 24, 18G5. 
David Camp, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 19, 1864. 
Allen Dryer, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Wm. Finley, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 10, 1864. 
Jag. McDaniels, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Henry Sprague, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Geo. W, Taylor, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863. 

Company H. 
James Reynolds, must, out June 13, 1865. 
Winchester R. Rice, must, out July 10, 1862. 



CHAPTEE XIX. 

TBITTH CAVALRy. 

Organization of the Tenth— Its Advance into Kentucky— Movement 
thence to Knoxvillo, Tenn.— Arduous Service in East Tennessee, 
Virginia, and North Carolina— Unsuccessful Pursuit of ■Teffcraon 
Davis — Disbandment of the Tenth. 

Company P of the Tenth Cavalry was largely made up 
of Shiawassee County men, recruited in that county by 
Capt. Chauncey F. Shepherd, of Owosso, who had pre^ 
viously served in both the First and Fourth Cavalry Regi- 
ments. 

Company H was raised in Shiawassee County by Capt. 
Peter N. Cook, of Antrim, who was its original command- 
ing officer. Prior to Sept. 1, 1863, he had recruited sixty 
men for this company, and had reported with them at the 
rendezvous. The remainder were recruited soon after, — 
nearly all of them being from Shiawassee County. 

Company I was almost entirely composed of Clinton 
County men, largely recruited by First Lieut. Enos B. 
Bailey and Second Lieut. George M. Farnham, who were 
original officers of the company. 



TENTH CAVALRY. 



109 



The rendezvous of the Tenth was at Grand Rapids, 
where it was organized and mustered into the United 
States service with nine hundred and twelve officers and 
men, and with Col. Thaddeus Foote as its commanding 
officer. On the 1st of December, 1863, it left its rendez- 
vous and was transported to Lexington, Ky., whence, on 
the 13th, it moved to Camp Nelson. From that camp it was 
moved, on the 25th of January, 1864, to Burnside Point, 
from which place it marched, on the 29th of February, for 
Knoxville, East Tenn. It was engaged, though with but 
little loss, at Bean's Gap, March 26th, and at Rheatown, 
April 24th ; but a more severe fight was had on the 25th 
at Carter's Station, near Jonesboro', Tenn., when the Tenth, 
with the Third Indiana Cavalry, were sent to destroy a 
railroad-bridge across the Watauga River. At Carter's 
the Tenth and Third attacked the enemy within his earth- 
works. The Tenth fought dismounted, charging at a 
" double-quick" over the outer rampart through a galling 
fire into the main bastion, driving the enemy out com- 
pletely, to seek protection in a rocky gorge. The fight 
lasted from two P.M. until dark, and resulted in ,a loss to 
the Tenth Regiment of seventeen, killed and wounded. 

The operations of the regiment during the months of 
May and Juno embraced little that was out of the usual 
monotonous round of cavalry duty, excepting that a detach- 
ment, one hundred and sixty strong, while engaged on a 
reconnoissance to Bull's Gap and Greenville, encountered a 
superior force of the enemy, attacked and routed them with 
severe loss, capturing twenty-six prisoners and a number of 
horses and mules. 

On the 23d of July the Tenth took part in an attack 
made on a rebel brigade at Blue Springs, Tenn., driving 
the Confederates from their position in disorder. In this 
the loss of the regiment was six wounded. It returned to 
Strawberry Plains on the 31st. On the 4th of September 
the regiment attacked the forces of Gen. John H. Morgan 
at Greenville, routed them, took a large number of prison- 
ers, and killed the guerrilla chief: During the remainder 
of that month the men of the Tenth were continually in 
the saddle, in pursuit of Wheeler's and other rebel cavalry, 
and frequently overtaking and fighting them, though not 
taking part in any general battle. In all the month of Oc- 
tober it was engaged in picket duty and scouting. 

At the end of October the regiment was posted at Straw- 
berry Plains, and remained there for more than a month 
engaged in camp duty, scouting, and erecting defensive 
works. While there it was attacked (November 14th) by 
a force of rebel cavalry, with artillery, under command of 
Gen. Breckinridge. This attack was commenced by the 
artillery from the opposite side of the Holston River, and 
the cavalry force at the same time threatened the position 
from the rear. The fight, which was a prolonged skirmish, 
with almost continual artillery firing from the opposite side 
of the river, was kept up for a number of days, but the 
enemy was decisively repulsed on the 24th, and withdrew 
from the field. On the 6 th of December the regiment 
marched under orders to Knoxville, and thence soon after- 
wards to Saltville, Va., where it assisted in destroying the 
Confederate salt-works at that place, having been engaged 
at Kingsport, December 12th, at Bristol, December 14th, 



and at Saltville, December 20th. After the accomplish- 
ment of the purpose for which the force was sent out, it 
returned to Knoxville, having had a smart skirmish at 
Chucky Bend on the 10th of January, 1865. 

The Tenth remained at Knoxville until the latter part 
of March, when it marched with its brigade to the north- 
ern part of East Tennessee, and soon afterwards joined an 
expedition to North Carolina under Gen. Stoneman. In 
this incursion it fought the enemy at Brabson's Mills, 
March 25th, and at Booneville on the 27th. Turning 
thence northward by way of Wilkesborough, it penetrated 
to the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad at Christiansburgh, 
Montgomery Co., Va., reaching that place on the 5th of 
April, and then taking part in the destruction of nearly 
one hundred miles of that railway line. Then it moved 
to Henry Court-House, ninety-five miles away, and made 
that distance in a little less than twenty-four hours. At 
that place, on the 8th of April, it was attacked by a heavy 
rebel force of cavalry and infantry, but successfully held 
its ground with only a slight loss. On the 9ih of April 
(the day of Lee's surrender) the Tenth with its companion 
regiments left Henry Court-House, moved south, destroy- 
ing the railroad line, fighting at Abbott's Creek and High 
Point on the 10th, capturing the town of Salisbury and 
with it an immense amount of stores, and then, passing 
down the Catawba River, engaged in the business of pick- 
ing up bands of rebel cavalry, who had heard of the sur- 
render of Lee and were endeavoring to make their escape 
to their homes. A few more skirmishes (among which 
was one at Statesville on the 14th and another at Newton 
on the 17th of April) finished the fighting of the Tenth 
Cavalry. News of the surrender of Johnston's army was 
received soon after, and then the regiment was sent on an 
expedition having for its object the capture of Jefferson 
Davis ; but in this it was forestalled by the Fourth Cav- 
alry. When it was found that the pursuit of the rebel 
chief would be fruitless, the regiment was ordered west- 
ward, and passing by way of Stevenson, Ala., into Ten- 
nessee, it remained on duty in that State until the 11th of 
November, when it was mustered out of service at Mem- 
phis, and thence proceeded directly to Michigan, arriving 
in Jackson on the 15th of the same month. A little later 
the men received their final payment and dispersed to 
their homes. 

TENTH OAVALBV SOLDIERS FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTr. 
Fidd and Staf. 
Miij. P. N. Cook, Antrim ; pro. from capt. Co. H ; must, out Feb. 11, 1865. 
Chaplain Henry Cherry, Owoaso ; com. Dec. 3, 1863 ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Non-Gommissioned Staff. 
Sergt.-Maj. L. T. Rounswell, Caledonia; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Chief Mus. John L. Wild, Caledonia ; enl. Sept. 10, 1863 ; pro. to 2d lieut., Co. F. 

Company A, 
Capt. Myron A. Converse, Corunna ; com. Jan. 5, 1865 j 1st lieut., April 1, 1864 ; 

must, out Nov. II, 1865. 
iBt Lieut. John R. Bennett, Shiawassee ; com. Sept. 2, 1865 ; 2d lieut., Co. H. 

Company D, 
A. F. Carlton, discli. by order, June 17, 1865. 

Company F. 
Capt. Chauncey F. Shepherd, Owosso ; com. June 6, 1863 ; resigned for disabil- 
ity, Feb. 25, 1864. 
l8t Lieut. Wm. E. Cummins, Corunna ; com. July 25, 1863 j pro. to capt, Co. I. 



no 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



Ist Lieut. JohD L, Wild, Corunna; com. Jan. 1, 1865; 2d lieut., April 1, 1864 ; 

must, tiut Nov. 11, 1865. 
2d Lieut. M. A. Converse, Corunna ; com. July 25, 1863 ; pro. to 1st lieut., Co. A. 
Q M.-Sergt. L. S. Rounswell, Caledonia; npp. sergt.-maj. Sept. 18, 1865. 
Com.^ergt. Wilson M. Burk, Owosso; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. Lucien A. Cbase, Owosso; pro. to 2d lieut., Co. G. 
Sergt. Jiinies E. Conklin, Owosso; died of disease in Kentucky, Feb. 11, 1864. 
Sergt. Eber D. Jackson, Caledonia ; must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Sergt. Albert K. McBride, Caledonia; must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Sergt. Perry Swain, Vernon ; must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 
Sergt. Christian Prine, Perry; must, out Nov. 20, 1865. 
Sergt. Joel M. Jackson, Caledonia; must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 
Corp. John Parsons, Perry; must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Corp. Edward S. Treadway, Perry ; died of disease at Knoxville, Aug. 1, 1864. 
Corp. Lewis T. Putnam, Vernon ; disch. for disability, Oct. 1, 1865. 
Corp. Daniel Morehouse, Middlebury ; trans, to Vet. Res. 0/orps. 
Farrier David W. Palmer, Caledonia; died of disease at Grand Bapids, Not. 18, 

1863. 
Mus. Eliaha P. Tew, Caledonia; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Saddler Abner Sejirs, Burns ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Wagoner Albert A. B;irnes, Caledonia; disch. for disability, Aug. 25, 1864. 
Henry E. Angus, discli. for disability, Feb. 20, 1864. 
Alon Beckley, missing at High Point, N. C, April 25, 1865. 
Robert H. Barton, must, out June 13, 1865. 
Charles M. Calkins, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Daniel Conklin, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Oscar F. Card, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Edward R. Clifford, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Feb. 13, 1864. 
Hiram Clark, died of disease at Camp Nelson, March, 1865. 
Charles Conklin, disch. for disability, Feb. 19, 1864. 
Levi Eldridge, must, out June 8, 1865. 
Charles D. Foster, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Wm. E. Forney, died of disease at Grand Bapids, Mich., Nov, 18, 1863. 
Elialia C. Gleason, must, out Nov. H, 1865. 
William Gleason, must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 
George Howe, must, out May 27, 1865. 
George W. Harrie, must, out Nov. 22, 1865. 
Eeubon J. Holmes, must, out Nov. II, 1865, 
Andrew J. Hovey, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Willard S. Hawthorn, must, out Nov. 11, 1805. 
Hiram Halleck, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Peter Hamlin, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Andrew Hart, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Feb. 3, 1864. 
AlbertE. Huntley, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Feb. 1, 1864. 
Samuel Holcomb, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Feb. 9, 1864. 
Henry Howe, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky,, March 1, 1865. 
Friend D. Jackson, died of disease atCorunna, Mich,, Nov. 12, 1863. 

Company F. 
Carpenter Jacobs, died of disease at Somerset, Ky., Feb. 13, 1864, 
Lambert Johnson, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
David Kinyon, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Daniel L. Kinyon, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Charles Kiuney, must, out Nov. 11, 18G5. 

Daniel Kief, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., March 9, 1864. 
Otis Lamunyon, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
James Mole, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Henry C. McCarty, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Jerry M. Mallery, died of disease at Knoxville, Tonn., Feb. 2, 1865. 
Alvin Owen, must, out Nov. 11, 18ii5. 
Daniel Owen, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Edward Pu:nam, must, out Nov. II, 1865. 
Frank Putnam, must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 
John N. Pratt, must, out Nov. 27, If 65. 
George F. Prior, must, out May 11, 1865. 

George R. Simms, died of diseaae at Camp Nelson, Ky., Dec. 28, 1863. 
John Snow, died of disease at Owosso, Mich., Nov. 24, 1863. 
William Thomas, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., April 23, 1864, 
Philip Thomas, must, out June 9, 1865. 
John D. Thomas, must, out Nov, 11, 1865. 
William B. Walcott, disch. for disability, Feb. 20, 1864. 
John Woodruff, died of disease in Michigan, March 1, 1805, 

Company G. 

2d Lieut. Lucien A. Chase, Owosso ; enl. Feb. 18, 1865 ; must, out Nov, 11 1865, 

Levi Hall, must, out Nov, 11, 1865. 

James H. Morgan, died of disease at Lenoir, Tenn., June 5, 1865, 

Company H. 
Capt. Peter N. Cook, Antrim : com. Aug. 26, 1863 ; pro. to major, Feb, 18, 1865. 
Capt. Edgar P. Byerly, Owosso; com. Feb. 18, 1865 ; Ist lieut., July 25, 1863; 

must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
2d Lieut. J. Q. A. Cook, Antrim ; com. July 25, 1863 ; resigned April 12, 1864, 
2d Lieut. John R. Bennett, Shiawassee ; com. Feb. 18, 1865 ; sergt. ; pro, to Ist 

lietit., Co. A. 
Sergt. John L. Banks, Shiawassee ; disch, by order, Aug. 3, 1865, 
Sergt. Lewis Decker, Antrim ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. Aaron Herrick, Shiawassee ; trans, to Inv, Corps, June 16 1864. 



Sergt. David F. Tyler, Perry; must, out Nov. 11, 1805. 

Sergt. Jacob N. Decker, Antrim; died of wounds at Knoxville, Tenn., May 24 
1864. ' ' 

Sergt. Samuel B. R^venaugh, Shiawassee ; disch. for disability. May 31 1865. 

Sergt Robert D. Adams, Antrim; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Corp. Samuel H. Graham, Woodhull ; must, out Nov, 11, 1865, 

Coi"p. Wm. H. Bachelder, Antrim ; died of disease in Kentucky, March 25 1864 

Corp. John N. Baker, Antrim ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Corp. Stephen D, Stedman, Perry ; died in Andersonville prison-pen, Oct, 31 
1864. 

Corp. Piatt S. Pelton, Shiawassee ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 

Corp. And. Bliss, Burns ; must, out Nov. 11,1865. 

Corp. Chaa. F. Coles, Shiawassee, disch. by order, Oct. 17, 1865. 

Mus. Gideon Whitman, Corp., Burns ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 

Mus. Samuel H. Bennett, Antrim; died of diseaae in Kentucky, Feb. 24- 1864, 

Saddler Geo. Hart, Shiawassee ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 

George Bentley, died of di^ieaae at Camp Nelson, Feb, 27, 1864. 

Francis M, Baker, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., April 5, 1864. 

William Battishill, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., June 10, 1864. 

William R. Bugbee, died of disease at Somerset, Ky., Feb, 27, 1864. 

John R, Bennett, diach. for promotion, May 29, 1865. 

E. E. Barnes, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Walter Brown, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Hector E. Bentley, mu.st. out Nov. 11, 1865. 
John S. Babeock, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Edgar Cole, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

George W. Coif, must, out Nov. 22, 1865. 

Andrew Crowell, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Samuel W. Carr, died of disease at Detroit, Mich., Sept. 12, 1865. 

L. A. Decker, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., April 24, 1864. 

Peter Dumbud, must, out Nov. 24, 1865. 

Benjamin Dufreze, must, out Nov. 22, 1865. 

George P. Dean, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Samuel H. Graham, must, out Nov. 11, 1805. 

Hale P. Goodwin, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., March 27, 1865, 

Daniel B. Herrington, must, out May 19, 1865. 

Truman W. Hemingway, must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 

Reuben C. Hutchings, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Hlrani Johnson, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Sylvester Ketchum, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864. 

Alfred Lamunyan, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

John B. Lucas, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

John C. Levy, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Robert Lyons, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Arthur Mead, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

George F. Merrill, must, out May 19, 1865. 

William F. McDivit, disch. by order, Feb. 4, 1865. 

Loren D. Pock, died of disease at Grand R ipids, Mich., Nov. 18, 1863. 

Martin Pierce, died of diseaae at Andersonville, Ga. 

Thomas Ratigan, died of disease at Andersonville, Ga. 

Samuel Robinson, died of disease at Andersonville, Ga, 

Willirtm A. Bich.irddon, must, out Nov. 14, 1865. 

John W. Simpson, died of wounds at Knoxville, Tenn., May 7, 1864. 

William H. Sbaw, disch. for disability, June 23, 1864. 

Hiram W. Stevens, disch. by order, May 1, 1865. 

Almon M. Sandford, must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 

William O. Sherburne, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Allen Scott, must, out Nov. 11, 18G5. 

Allen H. Terberry, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

William Vaughn, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., May 2, 1864. 

Frederick Wolf, d.sch. by order, June 30, 1865. 

Company I. 
Capt.Wm. E. Cummings, Oorunna; com. Jan. 7,1865; must, out Nov. U, 1865. 
Melvin Hauglitland, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Company M. 
William M. Decker, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
George W. Hickox, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

William Roberts, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., July 24, 1864, 
Charlea Thomas, must, out Nov. 11, 1865, 

TENTH CAVALRY SOLDIERS FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Field and Stqff. 
Maj. Harvey B. Light, Eureka; com. Jan. 6, 1865 ; must, out Nov, 11, 1866. 

Company B. 

Ist Lieut. Nelson Robinson, Jr., Eureka; com. Aug, 3, 1865; must, out Nov, 11, 

1865. 
John Hodges, must, out Nov, 11, 1865. 
Homer Parkes, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Tompkins Parkes, must out Nov, 11, 1865. 
Albert Van Alstine, died of diseaae at Somerset, Ky., Feb. 12, 1864, 

Company D. 
Allen Hicks, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 



OTHER SOLDIERS FROM SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON. 



Ill 



Comparty E. 
Capt. Harvey B. Light, Eureka; com. July 25, 1803; pro. to maj.. Jan. 6, 1866. 
2d Lieut. Nelson K Kobineon, Eureka ; q.m.-seigt. ; pro. to iBt lieut. Co. B, 

Aug. S, 1865. 
Mu8. John B. Lackey, Kiley; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Farrier Alfred V. Boosa, Eureka ; muat. out Nov.ll, 1865. 
Wagoner Levi Spnuldinp, Eureka; disch. for disability, April 26, 1864. 
John M. Benjamin, disih. by order, Sept. 6, 1865. 
James 0. Chart,, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Jan. 17, 1864. 
John Porter, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Company F, 
Sergt. Tillman Beardslee, Ovid; must, out May 17, 1865. 
Coe S. Swegles, disch. for disability, Sept. 20, 1865. 
John Sinclair, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Company G. 
Sergt. Oscar E. GroTer, Eagle; died of disease at Purdy, Tenn., Oct. 23, 1865. 
Corp. Azro M. Bates, Eagle; disch. for disability, Sept. 10, 1864. 
John Brown, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Company K. 
Daniel Ackley, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Company I. 
Capt. Enos B.Bailey, St. John's; com. Jan. 22, 1864; 1st lieut. July 25, 1863; 

must, out Jan. 7, 1865. 
Ist Lieut. George M. Fnrnham, St. John's ; com. Jan. 22, 1864 ; 2d lieut. July 25, 

1863; pro. to capt. Co. K. 
2d Lieut. John Spears, Riley ; com. Oct. 19, 1865 ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Q.M.-Sergt. Josepli S. Tucker, Kiley ; disch. for disability. Tune 1, 1865. 
Com.-Sergt. Oscar Chase, Bingham; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. Daniel C. Tucker, Riley ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Sergt. Willaid N. Daggett, Greenbush ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. Lyman J. Daniels, Watertown ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. Charles H. Rose, Watertown ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. Samnel S. Lee, Do Witt ; sick and absent, Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. James M. Shultcrs, Bingham ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Q.M.-Sergt. William Adams, Greenbush ; must, out Nov. 18, 1865. 
Corp. Eugene B. Ketchnm, Bingham ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Corp. William J. Esler, Eagle ; must, out Oct. 23, 1865. 
Corp. Emmett Kirby, Greenbush ; must, out May 26, 1865. 
Corp. Charles 0. Cohen, Lebanon ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Sergt. John Spears, Riley; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. 1. 
Sergt. Frank H. Eossman, Watertown ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Mus. Orlo W. Berniingham, Duplain ; disch. by order, Sept. 11, 1805. 
Mus. Fred. Brown, Westphalia ; died of disease at Grand Rapids, Mich., Nov. 

13, 1863. 
Saddler Paul J. Averill, Olive ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Farrier Abram Bennett, Westphalia; disch. for disability. May 23, 1864. 
Farrier Geo. W. Baker, Greenbush ; died of disease in Kentucky, Feb. 11, 1804. 
Teamster Richard Cook, Olive ; must, out Nov. 10, 1865. 
Oliver Babcock, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., March 31, 1864. 
Edwin Burrows, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., March 24, 1804. 
Joseph L. Brink, died of disease at Camp Nel^n, Ky., Jan. 7, 1804. 
Charles Bacon, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Feb. 21, 1864. 
Stephen H. Baker, missing in action. 

William T. Blizzard, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., May 20, 1864. 
Andiew Bailey, trans, to Vet. Bes. Corps. 
John Brown, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
James Brown, disch. by order, Oct. 3, 1863. 
Edwin Bushnell, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Abram (,'ook, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
William Coverstone, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Linus Densmore, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Jan. 20, 1864. 
Chauncey Ferris, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Alonzo Force, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
John W. Force, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
laiac Grant, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Isaac H. Harrington, must, out Oct. 20, 1865. 
Charles J. Hoople, must, out Nov. 11, 1805. 
George J. Huggett, drowned at Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 12, 1865. 
Daniel S. Hathaway, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Feb. 1, 1804. 
Godfrey Kline, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., July 13, 1804. 
Ljman W. Kimball, died of disease at Grand Rapids, Mich., Oct. 2, 1863. 
Myron J. Lattimore, died of disease at Detroit, Mich., Feb. 26, 1864. 
James A. Laughlin, disch. for disability, Oct. 6, 1803. 
Gould E. Mathews, disch. by order, June 19, 1805. 
B. B. Owen, must, out May 12, 1865. 
Alexander Parka, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Lorenzo D. Philips, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 1, 1804. 
W. W. Stiles, died of disease at Somerset, Ky., Feb. 28, 1864. 
Alvin Sears, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., May 4, 1864. 
Warreu Stiles, died of disease at Nashville, Nov. 6, 1864. 
Edmond H. Sitts, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 
Jackson A. Sanborn, must, out Nov. 11, I860. 
B. Frank. Sanborn, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 



John W. Stanswoll, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Emery B. Smith, must, out Nov. 11, 1866. 

Jesse E. Stone, sergt., Duplain ; must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

Lafayette A. Townson, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Oct. 4, 1864. 

Zenas J. Thomas, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 6, 1864. 

Denison Van Vliet, disch. by order, Sept. 25, 1865. 

Samuel Whitlock, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Feb, 11, 1804. 

Elliott Wright, died of disease in Tennessee, .Juno 11, 1864. 

Anthony Winans, must, out Nov. 11, 1866. 

Charles Williams, must, out Nov. 11, 1865. 

William Wells, must, out Nov.ll, 1865. 



CHAPTER XX. 

OTHEK SOLDIEBS FBOM SHIA"WASSEE AND 
CLINTOM' COUNTIES. 

Representation of the Two Counties in Twenty-five Infantry and 
Cavalry Kegiments, and Eleven Michigan Batteries. 

Besides the regiments of which histoi-ical sketches have 
already been given, there were many others containing Clin- 
ton and Shiawassee County soldiers, whose record is equally 
honorable, though they served in regiments in which these 
counties were less numerously represented. Of the oflBcers 
and enlisted men who served in these regiments lists (made 
from the official records in the adjutant-general's office) 
are given in this chapter. 

SOLDIERS or THE FIRST INFANTRY. 

CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company F. 
Alpheus Bixby, disch. for disability. May 12, 1864. 

Company H. 
Andrew J. Briggs, veteran, Dec. 26, 1863. 
Alvalma L. Dickinson, disch. by order, June 10, 1805. 
James B. Marsh, disch. at end of service, Aug. 30, 1864. 

Company I. 
David W. Zacharias, must, out July 9, 1865. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
Company H. 
George W. Laking, disch. for disability. 

FOURTH IKFANTRY. 

SOLDIERS FKOM CLINTON COUNTV. 
Company K, 
James G. Abbott, died of disease in New York, June, 1862. 
Strgt. Ezra Brown, Duplain, disch. at end of service, June 28, 1864. 
Alonzo Force, disch. for disability, Jan. 16, 1862 
Colwell Martin, disch. for disability, Not. 1, 1862. 
Orrin E. Perry, disch. at end of service, June 28, 1864. 

Company I {New Fourth). 
Hiram A. Barber, disch. at end of service, March 8, 1866. 
Zoar H. Bates, disch. at end of service, March 8, 1866. 
Harvey Cook, died of disease iu Texas, Oct. 22, 1865. 
William A. Dietz, disch. at end of service, March 8, 1866. 
Giles Hill, died of disease in Texas, Nov. 6, 1865. 
Charles V. Lewis, died of distase in Texas, Nov. 4, 1865. 
Washington Lewis, disch. at end of service, March 8, 1866. 
Albert H. Miller, disch. at end of service, March 8, 1866. 
John D. Sherman, disch. at end of service, March 8, 1866. 

SOLDIEKS FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
CoMpany K, 
Thomas Sherry, disch. at end of service, June 28, 1864. 

Company E (New Fourth). 
George Bradison, must, out May 26, 1866. 

Company C. 
James Dftvis, roust, out Feb. 26, 1866. 



112 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE AiND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



SIXTH INPANTKT. 

MEN FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
Company A. 
Solomon Henry, disch. for disability, Aug. 2, 1865. 
Seymour Lyon, must, out Aug. 20, 1865. 

SEVENTH INFANTRY. 

MEN FKOM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
Company B. 
Gilbert A. Frazier, diach. Jan. 20, 1862. 
Oscar S. Jewett, trans, to Yet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864. 
Ansel James, died of disease at Camp Benton, Md., Nov. 16, 1861. 
Cad. S. Pelton, missing in retreat from Fair Oaks. 
Caleb B. Pelton, disch. at end of service, Sept. 9, 1864. 

Chmpany F. 
Benj. F. Green, disch. for disability, June 6, 1862. 
Henry S. McCarry, disch. for di8al.ility,May3, 1862. 
Jacob D. Snyder, disch. for disability, Oct. 10, 1862. 
Wellington Stark, disch. for disability, June 23, 1862. 
William Stone, died of disease at Point Lookout, Md., Jan. 1, 1863, 
John D. Walker, disch. for promotion, Aug. 4, 1862. 
William White, disch. for disability, Nov. 5, 1861. 

MEN FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company G. 
Thomas Stevens, must, out July 5, 1865. 

Company M. 
■ Charles Hale, disch. for disability, Oct. 17, 1862. 

ELEVENTH INFANTRY (NEW). 
MEN FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
Company B. 
George W. White, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 3, I860. 

Company H. 
John Brt-ndel, must, out Sept. 16,1865. 

TWELFTH INFANTRY. 

MEN FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company B. 
Birdsley Morse, must, out Feb. 15, 1866. 

Company C. 
Geo. Oliver, disch. by order, June 17, 1865. 
Valororous Oliver, must, out Feb. 15, 1866. 

Company D. 
Wilson M. Holmes, disch. by order, May 28, 1865. 

Company F. 
David Whalin, died cf disease in Arkansas, Aug. 17, 1863. 

Company G. 
Edward C. Hinman, disch. Aug. 18, 1862. 
Albert A. Sheiman, disch. for disability, Aug. 26, 1862. 

Company K. 
A. J. Austin, disch. at end of service, Nov. 20, 1863. 
J. B. Moss, disch. at end of service, Nov. 20, 1863. 

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. 

CLINTON COUNTY VOLUNTEERS. 
Company B. 
James Anderson, disch. by order, June 8, 1865. 
Lewis C. Gardner, disch. by order, June 16, 1865. 
Alson P. Kinney, disch. by order, June 8, 1865. 

Company C. 
George C. Baker, must, out July 25, 1865. 

Company D. 
Sergt. Michael Miller, Westphalia ; enl. Nov. 12, 1861; disch. at end of service 

Jan. 16, 1865. * 

Michael Bechtold, disch. for disability, July 21, 1863. 
Gerritt S. Finn, veteran, enl. Jan. 18, 1864 ; died of disease in Georgia Feb 28 

1865. * * ' 

Lorenzo Hance, disch. for disability, May 1, 1862. 
Hiram S. Miller, disrh. at end of service, Feb. 17, 1865. 
Anson J. Rammer, diach. for disability, Feb. Zi, 1863. 
Frank Wiler, disch. for disability, Sept. 15. 1802. 
Mathias Webber, disch. on order, June 20, 1865. 



Company F. 

Sergt. Walter Delong, Lebanon; enl. Oct. 5,1861 ; diod in actional Stone Elver 

Tenn., Dec. 29,1862. 
William G. Annis, veteran, enl. Jan. 18, 1864 ; must, out July 26, 1865. 
Silas H. Catlin, veteran, onl. Feb. 10,1864; disch. at end of service, July 18 '65. 
David R. Corey, disch. for disability, March 8, 1863. 
Nathan Evant, disch. for disability, Dec. 10, 1862. 
Frederick Fifield, died at home. 
George W. Hewitt, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn. 
Webster Lawrence, must, out July 25, 1865. 
William McRoberts, must, out July 25, 1865. 
Horace McRoberts, died of disease at Kalamazoo, Feb. 9, 1862. 
Laureston B, Myers, disch. for disability. 
Phinney B. Millard, disch. for disabilily. 
William M, Payne, disch. by order, June 8, 1865. 
Reuben Place, must, out July 25, 1865. 
Joseph Randolph, disch. for disability, Dec. 10, 1862. 
Sylvester Stoddard, disch. by order, June 8, 1865. 
Orrin A. Smith, died of disease at Nashville, Dec. 20, 1862. 
James D. Sowle, missing in action. 
Silas Tripp, died of disease, July 21, 1862. 
David Tripp, disch. by order, Jan. 19, 1863. 

Company G. 
John Hoover, must, out July 25, 1865. 



Walter Weaver, died in action at Stone River, Tenn,, Dec. 31, 1862. 

Company K. 
Edward Everett, must, out July 18, 1865. 
Tobias Egner, discharged July 20, 1864. 
Clark S. Green, discharged Sept. 5, 1862, 

FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
Lewis Whitman, veteran, enl. Feb. 15, 1864. 

FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MEN. 

Company A. 
James Delaney, disch. by order, May 30, 1865. 

Company B. 
Richard Haines, must, out Aug. 13, 1865. 

Company O. 
Nelson Cengart, mn'»t. out Aug. 13,1865, 
William S. Corwin, disch, for disability, July 28, 1863, 

Company F. 
Corp. Richard Ralph, Corunna ; enl. Jan. 5, 1862 ; disch. at end of service, Jan. 

28, 1865. 
Reuben Cudney, disch. for disability, July 24, 1862, 
Benjiimin F. Dunlap, must, out Aug. 13, 1865. 
John S. Skelton, must, out Aug. 13, 1805. 

Company I. 
1st Lieut. Henry F. Wallace, Corunna; com. Jan. 1, 1862; wounded at battle of 

Shiloh, April 6,1862; thanked by Gen. Rosecrans in special orders for 

gallantry and efficiency at the siege of Corinth; disch. for disability, 

Sept. 1, 1862. 
2dLieut. John Edwards, Corunna; com. Jan. 1, 1862; res. April 17,1863. 
Sergt. James Brown, Coritnna; enl. Dec, 29, 1861 ; disch. for disability, Nov. 12, 

1862. 
Cotp. John A, Wallace, Corunna; enl. Dec. 20, 1861; veteran, Feb. 14, 1864; 

absent on furlough at muster out. 
Henry H. Barnes, veteran, enl. Feb. 14, 1864 ; must, out Aug. 13, 1865, 
John Crow, died of disease at Big Black River, Miss., Aug. 14, 1863. 
Wallace Dibble, died in action at Shiloh, Tenn., April 6, 1862. 
Tliomas Donahue, disch. fur disability, March 31, 1863. 
Alonzo Johnson, disch. at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863. 
Heniy Punches, disch, for disability, Nov, 6, 1862. 
James Penfold, died of disease at Pittsburg Landing. 
Samuel B. Revunaugh, disch, for disability, Aug. 29, 1862. 
Warren J. Woolman, disch. at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863. 
Thomas Yerton, died of disease in Tennessee, June 1, 1862. 

CLINTON COUNTY MEN. 
Company C. 
Joseph Humeston, died of disease at Detroit, Mich., March 3, 1865. 

Company G, 
Ezra B. Dietz, disch. by order, May 30, 1865. 

CoTnpany I. 
Charles Minke, disch, by order. May 30, 1865. 
Robert Wyman, must, out Aug. 13, 1865. 



OTHER SOLDIERS FROM SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON. 



113 



Company K. 
■William H. Koe, disch. at end of soivice, Not. 17, 1866. 
Sainiiel A. Smith, died of disease in Mississippi, Aug. C, 1863. 
Christian Taylor, disch. by order. May 30, 1865. 

SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MEN. 
Company B. 
William II. C. Hall, must, ont Jnly 8, 1865. 
Henry F. Monroe, must, out July 8, 1865, 

Company D. 
Daniel Boaa, died of wounds at Alexandria, Ya., Oct. 27, 1864. 

Company F. 
Thomas Catlin, disch. by order, May 3, 1865. 

Company H. 
George Broom, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Mathew Crowter, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863; died of wounds, near Petersburg, 

Va., June 21, 1864. 
George W. Erray, died in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 
Nicholas Fitzpatrick, died of disease at Hall's Ilill, Va., Nov. 14, 1862. 
Alfred E. Trazier, disch. by order, Dec. 15, 1861. 
David Gordon, disch. by order, July 13, 1865. 
Warren Hatben, died of wounds, 1862. 
Hiram Johnson, disch. for disability, Aug. 27, 1864. 
Sanford G. Morton, disch. at end of service, Sept. 7, 1864. 
Nathaniel B. Overton, died in action at Gaines' Hill, June 27, 1862. 
Adoniram J. Payne, died of disease at Washington, D. C, Oct. 2, 1861. 
Charles J. Perry, disch. for disability, Oct. 13, 1863. 
Jesse Parmenter, wagouer, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863 ; disch. for disability, Feb. 

20, 1865. 
leander A. Vandusen, disch. at end of service, Sept. 7, 1864. 
William H. Wilkinson, disch. for disability, Sept. 25, 1862. 

Company K, 
Joseph G. Scott, died of disease at Washington, D. 0. 
Isaac H. Scott, died in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 
Bradley S. Whitney, must, out July 8, 1865. 

First Independent Company. 
Jacob F. Wagner, must, out July 8, 1866. 

CLINTON COUNTY MEN. 

Company B. 
Lloyd G. Stever, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863 ; must, out July 18, 1865. 

Company F. 
John G. Daker, died of disease in Virginia, Oct. 21, 1861. 
Jeremiah Walker, died of disease at Baltimore, Md., Nov. 20, 1862. 

Company G. 
David Clark, disch. by order, May 20, 1866. 

Compsmy H. 
1st Lient. Daniel Lyon, St. John's ; com. Sept. 27, 1864; sergt. Ang. 15, 1861; 

veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863; wounded at Hatcher's Bun, Va., Feb. 6,1865; 

disch. for disability. May 15, 1865. 
Sergt. Lafayette L. Trask, St. John's; enl. Ang. 13, 1861; disch. for disability, 

Jan. 3, 1863. 
Corp. John T. Newell, St. John's ; enl. Sept. 1, 1861 ; died in action at Gaines' 

Mill, June 27, 1862. 
Corp. Theodore L. Everest, St. John's ; enl. Aug. 16, 1861 ; disch. for disability, 

Sept. 17, 1862. 
Abram Bigelow, disch. for disability, Feb. 21, 1862. 
Carlos Bellnws, veteran, enl. Dec. 24, 1863 ; must, out July 8, 1865. 
John J. Partello, disch. at end of service, Sept. 7, 1864. 
Joseph Van Vechten, died in action at Bull Eun, Aug. 30, 1862. 
David Wainwright, discharged. 

SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. 

FEOM CLINTON. 

Company H. 
Dclos W. Vanderberg, died in action at South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862. 
Noah Wilkes, must, out June 3, 1866. 

Company K. 
Walter Love, died of disease at Camp Chase, Ohio. 
William Merritt, disch. for disability, Jan. 4, 1864. 

FEOM SHIAWASSEE. 
Company F, 
Sylvester Everts, died of disease at Washington, D. C, Feb. 23, 1863. 
William Jordan, died in action at Aniiotam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862. 

15 



EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY. 

FEOM SHIAWASSEE. 
Company D. 
Smith Bntterfield, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 20, 186 1. 
Orlando E. Sheldon, must, out Sept. 15, 1865. 
Williams L. Walters, must, out May 16, 1865. 

FEOM CLINTON. 
Company F. 
Capt. Sheridan F. Hill, Eagle; com. capt., Co. G, March 27, 1866; 1st lieut., 
Co. F, July 27, 1862; must, out June 26, 1865. 

NINETEENTH INFANTRY. 

FEOM CLINTON. 
Company J). 
Leonard Caswell, must, out June 10, 1865. 

TWENTIETH INFANTRY. 

FEOM CLINTON. 
Company B. 
John J. Beadle, trans, to 2d Mich. Inf. ; must, out July 6, 1865. 
Wilbur G. Hibbard, trans, to 2d Mich. Inf. ; must, out July 28, 1866. 

FEOM SHIAWASSEE. 
Aaron Blanchard, must, out July 28, 1865. 

TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY. 

FEOM CLINTON. 

Company A. 
Sergt. James J. May, Eiley ; enl. Aug. 1, 1862 ; disch. for disability, Dec. 24, '62. 

Company D. 
Amos M. Delta, must, out June 8, 1866. 

Company G. 

Mus. Henry M. Lewis, De Witt; enl. Aug. 16, 1862; must, out of Inv. Corps, 

June 26, 1865. 

Company I. 

James C. Van Liew, trans, to 14th Mich. Inf.; must, out July 18, 1865. 

Myron J. Stewart, trans, to 14th Mich. Inf. ; must, out July 18, 1865. 

Company K. 

George D. Barker, died of disease at Murfreesboro'. 

Jonathan Catlin, disch. for disability, Feb. 9, 1863. 

Geo. W. Glaasbrook, died of disease at Camp Bradley, Jan. 31, 1863. 

Calvin Merwin, died of disease at sea. 

Cliarles Eosencrans, disch. for disability, Feb. 12, 1863. 

Malcolm Sherwood, disch. for disability, Jan. 24, 1863. 

Calvin Terwilliger, disch. for disability. 

TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRY. 

FEOM CLINTON. 
Company D, 
Milton A. Farmer, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug. 1, 1864. 
Kichard F. Masters, trans, to 2d Mich. Inf.; must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

FEOM SHIAWASSEE. 
Company A, 
Andrew Fillinger, must, out June 26, 1865. 
Henry Fillinger, must, out June 26, 1865. 

TWENTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. 

FEOM CLINTON COUNTY. 

Company A. 
Charles Willard, died in rebel prison. 

Company F. 
Joseph Coryell, died in action at Fitzhugh Crossing, Va., April 29, 1863. 
James Hubbard, died in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. 

Company S. 
Dewitt C. Bntterfield, disch. for disability, Feb. 21, 1863. 
Aimon S. Cook, must, out June 30, 1865. 

Myron Demaix died at Washington, D. C, of wounds, Dec. 9, 1863. 
Morris Hoople, missing in action. 

Leander E. Hoople, disch. for disability, March 30, 1865. 
V. E. W. Lemm, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, April 28, 1864. 
William Morgan, died of disease at Belle Plain, Feb. 24, 1863. 
Nathaniel Moon, died of wounds at Alexandria, Va., Aug. 4, 1864. 
Ira F. Pearaall, disch. for disability, April 11, 1863. 



114 



HISTOKY OF SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN. 



WilHam F. Reed, disch. for disability, Feb. 25, 1863. 

Micholtis Baby, missing in action. 

Joseph Shank, must, out May 24, 1865. 

Andrew J. Stevens, mnst. out June 30, 1865. 

John Steele, must, out June 30, 1865. 

Charles Stickles, disch. for disability, Nov. 15, 1862. 

Samuel Steele, disch. for disability, Sept. 26, 1862. 

Charles W. Thomas, disch. for disability, April 30, 1863. 

Company I. 
Mathew Black, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Theodore Hiller, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Job Sexton, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Homer Watson, must, out June 30, 1865. 

Company K. 
William Morse, must, out June 30, 1865, 

FKOM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Company D. 
Orrin Dodge, must, out June 30, 1865. 

Oowpany E. 
Manley M. Boington, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Jerome B. Frasier, must, out June 30,1865. 
Lewis Metcalf, must, out June 30, 1865. 

Company G. 
James V^. Goodfellow, disch. for disability, June 3, 1865. 
Orville C. Simonson, died of wounds, June 18, 1864. 
William H. Van Otter, disch. for disability, Sept. 20, 1862. 

Company K. 
Henry L. McCarthy, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Dexter B. Proper, must, out June 30, 1805. 

BeoruUs. 
James Ackley, must, out June 28, 1865. 
Samuel A. Hubbard, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Edward Leeland, must, out June 30, 1865. 
David B. Shannon, must, out June 30, 1865. 

TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. 
FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

NonrGommimoned Stajf. 
Priuc. Mue. George G. Harris, Antrim ; enl. Aug. 6, 1862 ; must, out June 4, *65. 

Company B. 
James M. Clements, must, out June 4, 1865. 

Company E. 
Willis E. Brown, must, out Sept. 10, 1865, from Vet. Res. Corps. 
John L. Bennett, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Cliarles Bennett, must, out June 4, 1865, 
Ashley C. Elder, must, out June 4, 1865. 

FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 

Non- Commissioned Staff. 
Hosp.-Stew. Zadock B. Freeman, Bath ; pro. to asst. surg. 

Company D, 
George Hawkins, must, out June 27, 1865. 
Andrew Silvornail, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 20, 1863. 
Sergt. William D. Towner, died of disease at Jackson, Mich,, Sept. 27, 1862. 

Compantf S. 
Napoleon Delong, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 15, 1863. 

TWENTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. 

FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Company B. 
Ist Lieut. Eli F. Evans, Vernon ; com. Nov. 26, 1864 ; must, out June 5, 1866. 

Company E. 
Samuel A. Luther, disch. at end of service, Feb. 13, 1866. 

FIRST REGIMENT LIGHT ARTILLERY. 
MEN FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
Battery A. 
let Lieut. Hezekiah E. Burchard, Ovid; com. March 6, 1865; 2d lieut. Sept. 6, 

1864 (sergt) ; must, out July 28, 1865. 
Alexander Robertson, must, out July 28, 1865. 

BaUery E. 
Caleb G. Powell, must, out Aug. 30, 1865, 
James H. Redson, must, out Aug. 30, 1865. 



Battery S. 
Henry C. Grant, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864. 
Isaac P. Place, must, out July 22, 1865. 

Thirteenth BattetT,. 
George D, Ensign, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Hcman Frisk, must, out July 1, 1866. 
Julius Frisk, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Benjamin F. Freeland, disch. by order, May 6, 1865. 
Edward Judd, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Robert Lapworth, must, out July 1, 1865. 
William J. Ottoway, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Asa B. Sheldon, must, out July 1, 1865. 

MEN FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Battery A. 
Geo. Butterfleld, must, out July 28, 1865. 
Chas. W. Eaton, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. 
August Rochol, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, AprillO, 1864, 
Danl. C. Warren, must, out July 28, 1865. 

BaUery D. 
Wagoner Saml. Fowler, Bath ; enl. Oct. 26, 1861 ; died of wounds at Hoover's 
Gap, Tenn., June 26, 1863. 

Battery E. 
Marvin Albright, disch. for disability, July 27, 1862. 
Chas. M. Chadwick, diacli. to enl. in regular army, Nov. 27, 1862. 
Oliver Cunningham, must, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
G. H. Groom, must, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Ralph W. Holley, must, out Aug. 30, 1865, 
Wm. R. Newman, must, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Wm. H. Rheinbotham, must, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

BaUery Q. 
Hiram Miller, 
Geo. H. Van Tyne. 

BaUery I. 
Wm. A. Ingraharo, died of disease in Indiana, Oct. 12, 1864. 
Janathan Miller, must, out by order, June 23, 1865. 

Battery L. 
Joseph Miller, disch. by order. May 15, 1865. 

BaOeryM. 
Silas H. Jones, must, out Aug. 1, 1865. 
Silas Watson, must, out Aug. 1, 1865. 

THIRTEENTH MICHIGAN BATTERY. 
FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
John C. Clark, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Wm. E. Clark, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Oliver P. Morgan, must, out July 1, 1865. 

FOURTEENTH MICHIGAN BATTERY. 

FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
GotUeb Carche, must, out July 1, 1865. 
Hem"y Geer, must, out July 1, 1865. 

SEVENTH CAVALRY. 

SOLDIERS FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 
Field and Staff. 
Maj. George K. Newcombe, Owosao; com. Dec. 10, 1862; wounded in action at 
Gettysburg, July 3, 1863; resigned Oct. 13, 1863. 

Company G. 
Capt. Joseph I, Newman, Owosao ; com. July 31, 1864 ; disch. tor disability, Feb, 

27, 1865. 
Jacob Russell, must, out Dec. 15, 1865. 

Company E. 
William H. Palmer, trans, to 1st Cav,, Nov. 17, 1865, 

Company 0. 
1st Lieut. Joseph I. Newman, Owosso ; com. Oct. 15, 1862; pro. to capt. Oo.O, 
Sergt. John 8- Gates, Owosso ; must, out Dec. 15, 1865, 
Corp. Alanson J, McCann, Perry ; disch. by order, June 2, 1865. 
Corp. Irwin Bennett, Perry ; missing in action, Oct. 19, 1863. 
Teamster Norman Van Alstino, Sciota; trans, to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. 
Farrier Wm. Bartholomew, Owosso; must, out at end of service, Dec. 28, 1866. 
Wagoner Leonard L. Howe, Owosso; must, out at end of service, Dec, 28, 1865. 
Jeremiah Ackley, trans, to Vet. Rea, Corps, May 15, 1864. 
Amos Finch, must, out Dec. 28, 1865. 
William Gillson, must, out Doc. 28, 1865. 
Jei-man H. Johnson, died of disease at Andersouville prison, Ga., Aug. 4, 1864. 



OTHER SOLDIERS FROM SHIAWASSEE AND CLINTON. 



115 



Howard A. Tibbetts, died of disease at Fairfax, Va., Juno 25, 1863. 
Henry Weatherbee, trans, to Vet. Ees. Corps. 

Company H. 
Oliver D. Decker, disch. for disability, Sept. 30, 1863. 

SOLDIEKS mOM CLINTON COUNTY. 

Cornpany A. 
Charles E. Dusson, must, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Company B. 
Sergt. James Anderson, Hureka; disch. Aug. 20, 1863. 

Company E, 
Elisha J. Hlgbee, died of disease at Winchester, Ya., Deo. 10, 1864. 
Almon H. Isham,'mu8t. out July 17, 1865. 
Amos Towman, must, out Sept. 11, 1865. 

Company I. 
Henry Cook, trans, to 1st Midi. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. 
Bodney W. Choat, must, out July 17, 1865, 
Calvin E. Green, must, out Dec. 15, 1865. 
Chester C. Hildreth, must, out July 17, 1865. 
John Kirkland, trans, to Ist Mich. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. 
James Monroe, trans, to Ist Mich, Cav,, Nov. 17, 1865. 
Sidney Staunton, trans, to 1st Mich, Cav,, Nov. 17, 1865. 
Perry Shepherd, must, out July 17, 1865. 

Company M. 
Emery Bowen, trans, to Ist Mich. Cav,, Nov, 17, 1865. 
Josiah Cobb, disch, for disability, Oct, 3, 1863, 
Benjamin R, Tinkle, must, out Dec, 8, 1865. 
W, H, Hanuuond, disch, for disability, Nov, 6, 1863, 
John 0. Meyer, missing in action at Buckland Mills, Va., Oct, 19, 1863. 
Joseph E. Stickles, trans, to let Mich, Cav,, Nov, 17, 1865. 

EIGHTH CAVALRY. 

MEN EBOM SHIAWASSEE, 

Company A, 
James H, Williard, must, out June 13, 1865. 

Company F. 
Charles li. Young, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Company L. 
Simon Hanse, disch, for disability, Sept. 15, 1863, 
Charles Williams, died of disease on board transport " Baltic," Doc. 30, 1864. 

NINTH CAVALRY. 

FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Asst. Surg. Morgan L. Leach, Duplain j com. Nov. 3, 1862 ; resigned for disability, 
July 15, 1864. 

ELEVENTH CAVALRY. . 

FROM SHIAWASSEE. 

Field and Staff. 

Maj. Henry L. Wise, Corunna; com. Aug, 31, 1863; must, out Aug, 10, 1865. 

Non-Commiasioned Staff. 

Hosp, Stew, Owen Blanchard, Sciota; trans, to N, C. S., 8th Mich. Cav,, July 

20, 1865. 

Company B. 

Capt. Charles Simpson, Owosso; com. Feb. 1, 1864; 1st lieut. Aug. 1, 1863; 

must, out Aug, 10, 186.5, 
Sorgt. Walter C. Dewitt, Middlebury ; trans, to 8th Cav. 
Sergt. Earl S, Hall, Owosso ; trans, to 8th Cav. 
Sergt. Theo. T. Dewitt, Middlebury ; trans, to 8th Oav. 
Sergt, Walter Belgan, Sciota ; disch, by order, June 12, 1865. 
Far. Elisha Koed, Bennington ; must, out July 16, 1865. 
Far. Charles D. Stimson, Middlebury ; must, out June 12, 1865. 
Charles H, Culver, must, out Oct, 2, 1865. 
Charles D. Hunt, must, out June 30, 1865. 

George N. Hathaway, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Jan, 23, 1864, 
Harvey C. Sumner, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 
Oliver Sisco, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Company C. 
Edgar Bruno, died of disease at Lexington, Ky,, Feb. 7, 1864. 
M. 0, Doty, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 7, 1864. 
Levi B. Smedley, disch. by order, July 13, 1866. 

Company D. 
Henry C. Woodward, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., July, 1864. 

Company F. 
Sidney S. Morse, died of disease at Lexiugton, Ky. 



Company M. 
A, Furgeson, disch, by order, Feb. 2, 1865, 
William Grant, must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company B. 

Sergt. Ralph H. HoUister, Victor; trans, to 8th Mich. Oav. ; must, out Sept. 22, 

1865, 
Sergt, Charles Valentine, Victor ; trans, to 8th Mich, Oav.; must, out Sept, 22, 

1865, 
Mus. John F, Stortz, De Witt ; trans, to 8th Mich, Cav, ; must, out June 16, 1865, 
John 0, Aldrich, trans, to 8th Mich. Cav. ; must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 
George S, Bartlett, trans, to 8th Mich, Cav, ; must, out Sept, 22, 1865, 
John T. Craig, trans, to 8th Mich, Cav. 

James P. Cross, trans, to 8th Mich, Cav, ; must, out Oct, 7, 1865. 
Elijah Carman, trans, to 8th Mich, Cav. ; must, out Sept, 22, 1866, 
Charles M, Doty, tians. to 8th Mich. Cav. ; must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 
James Price, disch. by order, July 16, 1866. 
' John Parker, disch. for disability, June 24, 1865. 
Edward Strickland, trans, to 8th Mich, Cav,; must, out Sept 22, 1865. 
Oliver M. Munzey, trans, to 8th Mich. Cav. ; must, out Sept. 22, 1865. 

Company K, 
Sergt, Henry P, Clark, De Witt ; trans, to 8th Mich. Cav, ; disch, for promotion, 
Charles H, Reynolds, died of disease at Lexington, Ky,, Sept. 16, 1864. 

Company L. 
Newberry Eddy, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., July 19, 1864, 
Moses F, Hamliu, disch. for disability, June 5, 1865, 

FIRST MICHIGAN SHARPSHOOTERS. 

MEN FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 

Company E. 
Asher Le Baron, died of disease at Chicago, 111., Jan, 20, 1863. 

Company I. 
Wm. Dellenbaugh, missing in action near Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. 
Henry A. Howe, died of disease at Chicago, 111,, Nov. 24, 1863. 
Horace Martin, died in action near Petersburg, Va.,June 17,1864. 
Ira Martin, died of disease at Annapolis, Md,, Jan, 13, 1865. 
Daniel H. Spicer, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Oct. 4, 1864. 
Charles Sutherland, missing in action near Petersburg, June 17, 1864. 

FIRST MICHIGAN (ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND 
UNITED STATES) COLORED INFANTRY. 

FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company C, 
1st Lieut. Edward Cahill, St. John's ; com. Jan. 19, 1864 ; pro. capt, Co, D. 
2d Lieut, Jacob F, Sleight, Bath; com, Dec, 23, 1864; must, out Sept, 30, 1865, 
Jasper Mofiatt, must, out Sept, 30, 1865. 

Company D. 
Capt. Edward Cahill, St. Ji hn's ; com, Jan, 16, 1865 ; must, out Sept, 30, 1865, 
let Lient, Wm. E. Sleight, Bath ; com. May 6, 1864; 2d lieut. Jan. 20, 1864; 
must, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

FROM SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 

Field and Staff. 

Lieut.-Col. Wm, R, Sellon, Owosso ; com, Aug. 17, 1863 ; 1st lient. 9th Infantry. 

Company C 
John Thompson, must, out Sept, 30, 1865. 

FIRST REGIMENT UNITED STATES SHARP- 
SHOOTERS. 

FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company C. 
David H. Kellogg, died of disease at Washington, April 10, 1862. 
Henry E. Spears, died of disease at Yorktown, Va,, Oct. 10, 1862. 

SECOND REGIMENT UNITED STATES SHARP- 
SHOOTERS. 

FROM CLINTON COUNTY. 
Company B. 
Ellis W. Hagei*ty, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 
John H. Thompson, died in action near Petersburg, Sept. 9, 1864. 
Richard Warfle, died in action at Spottsylvania, May 11, 1864. 

TWENTIETH INDIANA BATTERY. 

John Burgoyne, Woodhull, Shiawassee Co.; veteran. 



SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

LOCATION, TOPOGBAPHS", AND MIlfEBAIi EB- 
SOUKCES. 

Boundaries, Surface, Soil, and Streams— Qoologieal Formation— Re- 
sults of Explorations for Coal and Salt— Tlie State Geologist's 
Opinion relative to Coal-Mining in Michigan. 

Shiawassee, which is one of the counties in the fourth 
tier, — counting northward from the southern line of the 
State, — has for its western boundary the principal meridian 
(which is the division-line between this and Clinton County), 
and is bounded on the north by Saginaw, east by Genesee, 
and south by Livingston and Ingham, the last-named three 
counties having been formed in part from its original terri- 
tory. It is now one of the smallest counties in the State, 
for although it contains the same number of townships 
(sixteen) which are embraced in each one of several other 
counties, the western range of townships in this has only 
about two-thirds the usual width; this being the result 
of a mistake or miscalculation in the making of the original 
surveys. 

This county is properly regarded as among the best in 
Michigan in regard to the productive quality of its soil 
and its adaptation to the purposes of agriculture. The 
surface, which can nowhere be termed hilly, is generally 
rolling, though in many parts of the county there are found 
quite extensive tracts of comparatively level country, which 
in the original field-notes of the government surveyors are 
frequently mentioned and described as •' prairie-lands." 

The principal waters of the county are the Shiawassee, 
Maple, and Looking-GIass Rivers, and their tributary 
streams. The Shiawassee is formed of an eastern and a 
southern branch, which, taking their rise in the lakes of 
Oakland, Livingston, and Genesee Counties, join their 
waters in the southeast corner of Shiawassee ; from which 
point the main stream flows in a general northwesterly 
and northerly course through nearly the entire length of 
the county, crosses its northern boundary nearly at the cen- 
tre of it, and thence flows northward through Saginaw 
County into the Saginaw River. The Shiawassee River, 
in traversing this county, passes the cities of Owosso and 
Corunna and the villages of Vernon, Shiawassee, and 
Byron. 

The Maple River, taking its rise in the central and 
southern parts of the county, flows thence in a northwest- 
erly direction into Clinton. The sources of the Looking- 
GIass River are in the northwest part of Livingston County 
and the extreme southern part of Shiawassee. Its course 
through this county is first nearly north, and afterwards 
generally west, to the point where it crosses the west 
boundary-line into Clinton County. Neither the Looking- 
116 



Glass nor the Maple become streams of much size or im- 
portance until after they pass out of Shiawassee County. 

The northeast part of the county is watered by the head 
streams of the Misteauguay River, which flows northward 
into Saginaw County and enters the Flint River five miles 
above its mouth. 

Of the geology of Shiawassee County there is little to 
be said, more than to mention the efibrts which have been 
made here from time to time for the discovery of coal 
veins and salt springs, and to notice the results of those 
explorations. 

The second Legislature of Michigan, at its regular ses- 
sion in 1837, passed an act (approved February 23d in that 
year) which provided " that the Governor is hereby au- 
thorized and directed to nominate, and by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate to appoint, a competent 
person, whose duty it shall be to make an accurate and 
complete geological survey of this State, which shall be 
accompanied with proper maps and diagrams, and furnish a 
full and scientific description of its rocks, soils, and minerals, 
and of its botanical and geological productions, together 
with specimens of the same." Under this act the Governor 
appointed as State geologist, to take charge of the survey, 
Dr. Dougla.ss Houghton, who in the fall of the same year 
set out with three assistants and made a cursory explora- 
tion of Shiawassee County and the contiguous country, the 
object of the visit being to examine the outcroppings of 
bituminous eoal and the salt springs which were reported 
to exist in this region. The party left Detroit by wagon 
conveyance, and proceeded to Byron and thence to Co- 
runna and other points below on the river. One of the 
assistants of Dr. Houghton in that expedition was Bela 
Hubbard, Esq., of Wayne County, who writes in reference 
to the examination then made in Shiawassee County as fol- 
lows : " In the early part of the season, during the progress 
of the geological survey, beds of bituminous coal had been 
discovered in the bank of Grand River, in Ingham and 
Eaton Counties ; and the rocks met with through the cen- 
tral part of Shiawassee (belonging to the coal-measures) 
gave hope of finding an outcrop here. Prospecting was ac- 
cordingly commenced by us at Corunna, but, with the 
slender means at command, did not prove successful. Yet 
sufficient was determined from the character and dip of the 
rocks and other indications to warrant a recommendation 
to the settlers to continue the investigation." This recom- 
mendation of Dr. Houghton caused considerable search and 
several excavations to be made, resulting, in 1839, in the 
discovery of a thin vein of coal, from which small amounts 
continued to be taken annually until the formation, many 
years later, of a company to work the vein. An account of 



w^fm^ss^^^^f^'s^msfs. 







COURT HOUSE, CORUNNA SHIAWASSEE. Co. MICH. 



LOCATION, TOPOGRAPHY, AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



117 



the working of the mines in the vicinity of Corunna is 
given in the separate history of the township of Caledonia. 

Of the geological formation in the Corunna region Prof. 
Rominger,* State geologist, says : 

" The hottom of the Shiawassee Valley near Corunna is 
all formed of rock-heds of the coal-measures where the 
erosions of the drift period have not destroyed them and 
filled their places with debris. The upper sand-rock of the 
formation is in many places entirely swept away, and the 
shale-beds below lie denuded to the surface. The two 
mines opened at Corunna, a mile or two east of the village 
[city], have begun their shafts in the shale-beds ; one of 
them, the more northerly situated, was abandoned at the 
time of my visit. The other, located within a short, semi- 
circular bend of the river, was worked. In the oblique 
drift leading to the bottom of the mine the following 
section is offered : 

Drift 9 feet. 

Shale, dark, partly black '. 30 " 

Sandstone 4 " 

Black, slaty shales, containing Hngula and 

discina, besides compressed lamelli branches 6 " 

Coal 1 foot. 

Fire-clay 4 feet. 

Black, slaty shales, as above 8 " 

Coal, from 3to4 " 

Fire-clay 4 " 

Black shales 4 " 

Arenaceous shales continue to the bottom, which is eighty 
feet below the surface. The fire-clay seams are usually 
arenaceous, and contain stems of stigmaria. The shale- 
beds contain centicular concretions of kidney-ore in the 
non-decomposed condition of gray amorphous carbonate of 
protoxide of iron ; seams and nodules of iron pyrites are 
also found dispersed throughout the whole formation. In 
the coal-seam the pyrites are concentrated into a band of a 
few inches in thickness. The coal is of bituminous qual- 
ity, of the same character as the Jackson coal. Not far 
off, west from the mine, the shale formation is found cov- 
ered by the upper coarse-grained sand-rock, inclosing stems 
of calamites. The visible thickness of the rock is about 
fifteen feet, but it is probably thicker if it could be seen 
better exposed. Other outcrops of the sandstone are to be 
found in the river-bed four miles above Corunna." 

Coal was found outcropping in the bank of the Shia- 
wassee Kiver at Owosso, and in 1857 or 1858 a shaft was 
sunk for the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad Company at 
this place on land of Judge Comstock. Prof Eominger 
notices this operation, and mentions the coal formation in 
that vicinity as follows : " The next disclosures of the coal- 
measures [he having previously mentioned those of Ingham 
County] we find on Shiawassee River, near Owosso and 
Corunna, in both of which places coal-mines are opened. 
The shaft of the Owosso mine is close to the river, within 
the village limits. It begins in a blue shale with coaly 
vegetable remains, under which a coal-bed of fifteen inches 
is found resting on fire-clay six feet in thickness; then 
another coal-seam, likewise of fifteen inches, succeeds. The 
bottom part of the shaft, which is forty feet deep, is formed 
by shales and fire-clay ; the fire-clay is'partly of a hard, 
sandy nature, and contains numerous stems and leaves of 

* Geological Survey of the State of Michigan, 1876. 



Stigmaria ficoides. The coal is of a rich bituminous qual- 
ity and tolerably free from sulphur, but the seams are too 
thin to be profitably mined. . . . Several companies have 
tried to work it, but gave it up after a short time as not 
returning enough to cover the expense." He then gives 
the record of a boring three hundred and seven feet in 
depth, put down near the railroad at Owosso, and in which 
a vein of coal was found at a depth of about one hundred 
and eighty feet, but this was so thin as to be worthless. 

" The coal-measures,'' says Professor Rominger, " are fre- 
quently noticed in the bed of the Shiawassee below Owosso, 
as far down as St. Charles. A locality of particular interest 
is near the mouth of Six-Mile Creek, six miles north of 
Owosso. In the bluffs of the Shiawassee River we observe 
the lower part formed of blue shales, with seams of sand- 
rock and abundant concretions of kidney ore ; the top is 
drift, with a considerable intermixture of angular debris 
from the underlying strata. Under the shale, emerging a 
few feet above the water and partly submerged, are layers 
of a black, shaly lime-rock, visible in a thickness of four or 
five feet, containing numerous fossils, partly in calcified 
partly in pyritous condition. . . . The same limestone is 
seen a quarter of a mile off in the bed of Six-Mile Creek ; its 
ledges are there more even, — bedded flagstones, — less shaly 
than those seen in the Shiawassee River. Close under the 
lime-rock is a fifteen-inch bed of coal, quantities of which 
have been taken from the river-bed when the water is very 
low. The coal reposes on a soft, plastic clay of greenish- 
white color, which incloses stems of stigmaria and large, 
calcareous, nodular masses of cone-in-cone structure. Stems 
of stigmaria are also found in the upper shales of the bluffs 
and in the geodes ; when split open, fronds of ferns are some- 
times found, but their occurrence is rare. A few steps from 
the mouth of Six-Mile Creek some parties made an experi- 
mental shaft about thirty feet deep, and from that point 
drilled to one hundred feet below the surface. From the 
material thrown out of the shaft, I see that shales of 
various colors, with seams of sand-rock and conglomerate, 
besides an abundance of kidney-ore, compose the surface- 
layers as far as the shaft went. Mr. Ott, thj owner of the 
land, informed me that four beds of coal, amounting in all 
to eleven feet, were found in the boring. . . . The record 
in itself is somewhat doubtful, and the hesitation to take it 
as a true representation of facts is increased by the subse- 
quent act of the discoverers of so rich coal deposits (eleven 
feet within a vertical thickness of twenty feet of strata). 
Mr. Ott ends his story by saying that the men, after they had 
reached the depth of one hundred feet, left the place not to 
return again." 

Borings have been made from time to time in various 
parts of the county, some having for their object the ob- 
taining of brine for the manufacture of salt, some for the 
discovery of coal veins, and some having both these ends 
in view ; but none of these have, so far as ascertained, re- 
paid the outlay. One of the most notable of these was a 
hole sunk to the depth of one thousand and one feet on 
Section 5 of the township of Owosso (several miles north- 
west of the city), by Mr. George Collier for the proprietor. 
The record of this boring gives the following as the strata 
passed through : 



118 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



Drift : 121 feet. 

Shale 20 " 

Coal 4 " 

Shale 54 " 

Hard rook 15 " 

Shale 33 '| 

Sand-rock 220 *' 

Limestone 3 " 

Soft shale 20 " 

Sandstone (with brine) 77 " 

Blue and red shales 434 " 

In 1859 a boring was •made by a company of Pennsyl- 
vania men on section 23 of the township of Caledonia, 
one and a quarter miles northeast of Corunna. A depth 
of eight hundred and seventy-four feet was reached, and 
the following is the record of the strata passed : 

Drift 30 feet. 

Shales and slate-rock 60 " 

Coal 1 foot. 

Sand-rock and shales 285 feet. 

Thin alternate strata of rock and iron ore,.,.... 28 *' 

Shales and sand- rock 330 " 

Weak brine struck at this depth. 

Porous sand -rock 140 *' 

A great number of other borings in various parts of the 
county might be mentioned and statements given of the 
strata through which they passed-; but these would be 
neither valuable nor interesting. They are but records of 
failure, so far as their disclosure of any valuable mineral 
deposits is concerned. This is unquestionably true in re- 
gard to all borings and excavations yet made in Shiawassee 
County, unless the mining operations at Corunna are to be 
regarded as an exception, which is, to say the least, ex- 
tremely doubtful. That a similar opinion is entertained by 
so eminent a geologist as Professor Rominger, in regard to 
explorations and experimental excavations, not only in this 
county, but in the entire lower peninsula, is made clear by 
his summing up on this subject, as follows : 

" The benefit to the commonwealth of a geological in- 
vestigation consists not only in adding discoveries of new 
stores of minerals to those already known, but to a much 
greater extent, I think, in causing to be fairly understood 
the uselessness of explorations for certain minerals in places 
whore they do not exist. Thousands and thousands of 
dollars have been spent in this way, which could have been 
saved to their owners if they had had a clear comprehen- 
sion of the structure of the earth's crust which they ex- 
plored, or had asked advice of some one better informed 
than themselves. . . . 

" The coal-fields of Michigan, supposed to cover a space 
of eight thousand square miles, are up to the present day 
of very inferior importance in the economy of the State. 
Only four mines are in actual operation, and these are 
worked with but a small force of men. Searching for the 
causes of this neglect of apparently so great stores of 
wealth buried beneath our feet, we find one of them in the 
imperfect exposure of the rock-beds, which, with the ex- 
ception of those in a few limited districts, are all deeply 
covered by drift deposits. This would be no serious im- 
pediment if the coal seams were spread in a continuous 
sheet over the surface of a certain horizon ; we could then 
without much risk go down and uncover them; but all 
coal deposits are confined originally to certain limited basins, 
and if we consider that the coal series, as the youngest of 
the stratified rock-beds on the peninsula, has been without 



protection, by later deposits exposed to the vicissitudes of 
untold ages, we must expect to find a large proportion of 
the deposits destroyed and swept oflF; in particular, during 
the drift epoch the coal formation must have suffered im- 
mense destruction from the moving glacier masses. The 
direct proof of this is furnished by the large quantity of 
dihris of the coal-measures mixed with the drift material ; 
but the drift action has not only destroyed a large propor- 
tion of the coal formation, but has at the same time filled 
up the eroded gaps with loose drift material, hiding the ex- 
tent of destruction from observation, and thus rendering 
our mining operations always hazardous in a deeply drift- 
covered region, because we have no means whereby to know 
how much of the supposed underlying rock-strata has es- 
caped destruction. . . . This loose, porous mass of rfeim, in 
proper comminution to make a soil, and being composed of 
every variety of mineral substance necessary for the suste- 
nance of vegetable life, formed the destiny of this strip of 
land ; it makes it an agricultural country. No great min- 
. oral wealth is hidden here under our feet which we could 
have reached through the gaps, so it were better they were 
closed and leveled, to enable us to harvest golden ears of 
wheat and corn from their surface, than that we should 
enter shadowy subterranean passages in search of wealth, 
endangering our lives, and without any certainty of success 
in the end." 



CHAPTER XXII. 

CIVIL CHANGES-BAKLT SBTTLBMEITTS. 

The several Counties which have included the Territory of Shiawassee 
— Erection of Shiawassee County — Reduction of its Territory — 
Settlements in the County from 1831 to 1836. 

The first of the counties of Michigan, as also the first 
which was laid out to contain any part of the territory 
afterwards included in Shiawassee, was the county of 
Wayne. This county was first laid out, or rather pro- 
claimed, by the executive of the Northwest Territory, 
Aug. 18, 1796, to embrace all of lower Michigan and por- 
tions of Indiana and Ohio. But although Wayne, as thus 
laid out, contained a considerable number of inhabitants and 
sent its representative to the General Assembly of the 
Territory at Chillicothe, its white population was nearly all 
clustered at its county-seat, Detroit, and along or near the 
waters of its southeastern border, and its jurisdiction — 
scarcely extending a half-dozen miles back from the lakes 
and navigable streams — had no existence in all the vast 
wilderness of the interior. The county was again "laid 
out,'' this time with a greatly reduced area and with more 
definite limits, by proclamation of Governor Cass, dated 
Nov. 21, 1815. It was then made to include all "that 
part of the Territory of Michigan to which the Indian 
title has been extinguished," thus embracing all of the 
lower peninsula lying east of the principal meridian as far 
north as a point due west from the outlet of Lake Huron, 
and thence northeasterly in a right line to White llock, in 
the present county of Sanilac. Within the boundaries of 
this great tract was included all the present territory of 



CIVIL CHANGES. 



119 



Shiawassee County, except a small portion (about one-sixth 
of its area) in the northwest corner. 

An executive proclamation, dated Jan. 15, 1818, erected 
the new county of Macomb, with boundaries described as 
follows : " Beginning at the southwest corner of township 
No. 1, north of the base-line (so-called); thence along 
the Indian boundary-line, north, to the angle formed by 
the intersection of the line running to White Rock, upon 
Lake Huron ; thence with the last-mentioned line to the 
boundary-line between the United States and the British 
Province of Upper Canada; thence on said line south- 
wardly to a point in Lake St. Clair due east from the place 
of beginning ; thence due west to the eastern extremity of 
the said base-line, and with the same to the place of begin- 
ning." This embraced all the lands north of the base-line 
which had previously been included in the county of 
Wayne. But in the Governor's subsequent definition and 
establishment of the boundaries of the new county, it was 
made to extend westward only as far as the line between the 
eleventh and twelfth ranges east of the meridian, so that 
the territory between that line and the meridian was not 
included in Macomb County proper, but was attached to it 
in the same manner that Shiawassee County was afterwards 
attached successively to Oakland and Genesee. 

One year after the erection of Macomb a large part of 
the territory which had been attached to that county was 
set off to form the new county of Oakland, which was 
erected by proclamation of Governor Cass, Jan. 12, 1819, 
its boundaries being described as follows : " Beginning at 
the southeast corner of township No. 1, in range No. 11, 
north of the base-line ; thence north to the northeastern 
corner of township No. 6 in the same range ; thence west 
to the Indian boundary-line [the principal meridian] ; 
thence south to the base-line ; thence east to the place of 
beginning," thus including the south half of the present 
county of Shiawassee. It is shown in the preamble to the 
Governor's proclamation that this erection of Oakland 
County was considered to be in advance of the require- 
ments of its people, but in view of a probable increase of 
population sufficient to demand it in the near future. The 
proclamation was not, therefore, made immediately oper- 
ative, but was to take effect and be in force from and after 
Dec. 31, 1822. Nearly three years before that time, how- 
ever, the people of Oakland petitioned the Governor, re- 
questing that their county should be organized, and this 
was accordingly done by executive proclamation dated 
March 28, 1820. At that time, and for some two years 
afterwards, the lands which now form the south half of 
Shiawassee County were included as a part of Oakland ; 
about two-thirds of the north half still remained attached 
to Macomb, and a fraction in the northwest corner — being 
included in the lands then recently ceded by the Indians 
in the treaty of Saginaw — were not within the limits of 
any county. 

Shiawassee was erected a separate county by proclamation 
of Governor Cass, dated Sept. 10, 1822, its boundaries, 
as defined in that document, being as follows : " Beginning 
on the principal meridian, where the line between the 
eighth and ninth townships north of the base-line inter- 
sects the same, and running thence south to the line 



between the second and third townships north of the base- 
line ; thence east to the line between the sixth and seventh 
ranges east of the principal meridian ; thence north to the 
line between townships numbered eight and nine north of 
the base-line ; thence west to the place of beginning." The 
same proclamation which thus erected the county of Shia- 
wassee provided also for the erection of Saginaw, Sanilac, 
and Lapeer, and attached all these four counties to Oak- 
land, from which a large proportion of their territory had 
been taken. This attachment of Shiawassee to Oakland 
continued in force for nearly fourteen years. 

At its erection, in 1822, Shiawassee County embraced, in 
addition to its present area, the northeast quarter (four 
townships) of Ingham County, the north half (eight town- 
ships) of Livingston County, and eight townships (the 
same which are now Argentine, Fenton, Mundy, Gaines, 
Clayton, Flint, Mount Morris, and Flushing) in the county 
of Genesee. The erection of Ingham County (Oct. 29, 
1829), of Livingston County (March 21, 1833), and of 
Genesee County (March 28, 1835), cut off those portions of 
the original territory of Shiawassee (in all, a strip of two 
townships in width from its entire eastern and southern bor- 
ders), and reduced the county to its present limits. The 
organization of the county of Genesee was effected by act 
of the Legislature, approved March 8, 1836; and it was 
by the same act provided " that the county of Shiawassee 
be and the same is hereby attached to the county of Gene- 
see, for judicial purposes, until otherwise directed by the 
Legislature." The act took effect on the first Monday in 
April of the same year, and from that time until Shiawassee 
was organized as a county — in 1837 — it remained so attached 
to Genesee. It had also been made a part of the town- 
ship of Grand Blanc, Genesee Co., by the operation of an 
act approved March 26, 1835, which provided " that the 
county of Shiawassee shall be attached to and comprise a 
part of the township of Grand Blanc, for the purposes of 
township government." This township jurisdiction con- 
tinued until March 23, 1836, when the Governor approved 
an act which provided " that the county of Shiawassee be 
and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate 
township by the name of Shiawassee. . . ." This town- 
.ship continued to embrace all the territory of the county 
until March 11, 1837, when an act was approved providing 
that " all that portion of the county of Shiawassee known 
as townships 7 and 8 north, of ranges 1, 2, 3, and 4 
east, be and the same is hereby set off and organized 
into a separate township by the name of Owosso." And 
by other sections of the same act, township No. 5 north 
in range 4 east, was erected as the township of Burns ; 
and township No. 6 north, in the same range, was set off, to 
be organized as the township of Vernon. These were the 
only townships erected in the cdunty prior to its organiza- 
tion, so that at that time its territory was subdivided as 
follows : Owosso township comprehended within its limits 
the entire north half of the county ; the townships of 
Burns and Vernon embraced, respectively, the same terri- 
tory as at present ; and the remainder of the county that 

part which is now included in the townships of Antrim, 
Shiawassee, Bennington, Sciota, Woodhull, and Perry — 
formed the township of Shiawassee, which had been re- 



120 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



duced to three-eighths of its original dimensions by the 
laying out of Owosso, Burns, and Vernon. 

The above account exhibits the changes of jurisdiction 
through which the territory of Shiawassee County had 
passed prior to its separate organization, in 1837, as also the 
several township subdivisions which existed within it at 

that time. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

The settlements which had been made in the county 
prior to its organization were numerous, but liad been made 
chiefly during the last year of the period under considera- 
tion. The first white settlers within the county were the 
brothers Alfred L. and Benjamin 0. Williams; for although 
Whitmore Knaggs had located here about 1820, Mr. Grant 
a few years later, and Richard Godfrey in 1828, yet these 
were in no sense settlers, but merely transient traders, who 
came to deal with the Indians so long — and only so long — 
as the traffic continued to prosper. But the case was dif- 
ferent with the brothers Williams, who came from their 
home in Oakland County in April, 1829, to prospect in 
Shiawassee, with the full intention of becoming settlers 
here. " We concluded," says Mr. B. 0. Williams,* " when 
we became of age we would settle in this new and beautiful 
virgin forest ;" and they carried out this intention in August, 
1831, when they came to the county, and located on lands 
entered by Alfred L. Williams (Benjamin 0. being then 
still a minor) on the Shiawassee, adjoining the north line of 
the Kechewondaugoning reservation. And although they 
were at first traders, they soon began to cultivate land, and 
becoming in every sense settlers, remained for nearly a half 
century the seniors among the residents of Shiawassee 
County, as Mr. B. 0. Williams is at the present time.")" 

About two years after the Williams brothers came, the 
second settlement in Shiawassee was made by John I. Tin- 
kelpaugh, who brought his family and located on section 
24, of township 6 north, of range 3 east, in May, 1833. 
He had previously cleared a small part of his land on the 
river-bottom and planted it, this being the first land plowed 
in the county. Mr. Tinkelpaugh afterwards became a resi- 
dent of Greenbush township, Clinton Co., and died there 
in the fall of 1879. He was a brother of Captain Edward 
Tinkelpaugh, of New York, the commander at difierent. 
times of the " North Star," " South America," and other 
ocean steamers running from that port. 

Other settlers who came in the same year were Hosea 
Baker, his son, Ambrose Baker, and his son-in-law, Aaron 
Swain, all of whom settled in the same township, and 
Henry Leach and Jacob Wilkinson, in township 6, of 
range 4. 

The settlements made in the county in 1834 were but 
few, though entries of land and preparations for permanent 
occupancy were numerous. In 1835, however, the number 
of actual settlers was considerably increased, and their set- 
tlements were extended northward and westward into the 
township which is now Caledonia, and to the Big Rapids of 
the Shiawassee, now Owosso. Among those who came in 
and made permanent location in the two years named were 



* Michigan Pioneer Collections, vol. ii. p. 477. 
t Mr. A. L. Williams, after a, residence of many years in Owosso, 
removed to Virginia, where he is now living. 



Isaac M. Banks (in town 6, range 3), John Swain (in 
Caledonia), Samuel N. Whitcomb, Josiah Pierce, and Jamas 
Rutan (in Vernon), Zachariah R. Webb (in the township 
now Venice), and Louis Findley, Kilburn Bedell, David 
Van Wormer, John D. Overton, and Henry S. Smith, at 
the Rapids. Overton and Van Wormer came as tenants of 
Judge Elias Comstock, who had purchased land at the 
Rapids, and had made some improvements in 1835, in 
preparation for permanent settlement there. In the same 
manner, Henry S. Smith (who had previously made a 
temporary halt near Shiawasseetown) moved to the new 
settlement at the Rapids, and occupied a log house erected 
for A. L. and B. 0. Williams. 

In this year (1835) the first settlement in the southeast 
corner township (now Burns) was made by Dyer Rathburn, 
from New York State. Naturally it would seem that this 
part of the county should have been the first settled, for 
not only was it nearest to the older settlements in the 
counties south and east, and was traversed by the old 
thoroughfare from Pontiac to the Grand River, but it con- 
tained the county-site (as then established), and the region 
contiguous to the confluence of the east and south branches 
of the Shiawassee was one of great natural advantages. 
The reason why these causes did not induce the first set- 
tlers in the county to locate in this township was undoubt- 
edly because the lands in the most favored localities had 
been secured many years before by Judge Dexter, and were 
held by him for purposes of speculation. 

The year 1836 saw the greatest influx of immigrants 
into Shiawassee, as was also the case in most other counties 
of the lower peninsula. In that year settlements spread 
through the county with great rapidity, particularly along 
the line of the Grand River road (or trail) and contiguous 
country. The list of those who came in as settlers during 
that season is too numerous to be given at length, but men- 
tion may be made of a few in several of the townships em- 
bracing difl'erent sections of the county. In the southeast 
corner township there came among the settlers of that year 
Maj. Francis J. Prevost, Robert Crawford, John Burgess, 
Wallace Goodin, John B. Barnum, P. L. Smith, and S. S. 
Derby, several of whom were members of the Byron Com- 
pany. Passing westward in the townships of the same 
tier, there were among the settlers of 1836, Allen Beard, 
Lyman Melvin, Peter Cook, Alanson Ailing, and others (in 
Antrim) ; Josiah Purdy (in Perry) and Josephus and John 
WoodhuU, in the township which was afterwards named for 
them. Peter Laing came in the same year, and founded 
the village of Laingsburg, in what is now the township of 
Sciota, and Samuel Carpenter, Mason Phelps, and Milton 
Phelps also made settlements in the same township. Ben- 
nington received its first settlers in the persons of Samuel 
Nichols and his unmarried brother James, who had entered 
their lands in the previous year, and came to locate perma- 
nently in the spring of 1836. In the fall of that year 
Jordan Holoomb and Aaron Hutchins came to the same 
township, and Lemuel Castle and several others came there 
on prospecting tours, and made preparation for settlement 
in the following spring. In 1836, William Newberry, 
Ephraim Wright, William M. Warren, and many others 
located in what is now the township of Shiawassee. John 



OKGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 



121 



Smedley, Noah Bovier, William K. Keed, and Joseph Par- 
menter were among the immigrants of this year in Vernon, 
Capt. John ^Davids in Caledonia (on the present site of 
the city of Corunna), and Judge Comstock at Owosso. 
Settlements were also made in the same year in Middle- 
bury, on the west border of the county, by Obed Hatha- 
way, George W. Slocum, and some others, and in New 
Haven by Horace Hart and Richard Freeman. The other 
townships of the northern tier remained unsettled until 
a later date. 

The above brief mention of a very few of the pioneers 
of Shiawassee is made here merely for the purpose of 
showing the manner in which the settlements spread from 
the point where they commenced, on the Shiawassee River, 
to other points of the county. More extended and detailed 
accounts of the early settlements and settlers will be given 
in the separate histories of the several townships. 

The rapid immigration of 1836 brought with it a fever 
of speculation in wild lands. It was not long before hun- 
dreds of speculators from the East were swarming here, 
eager to select and purchase the best tracts of government 
land, and this, of course, resulted unfavorably for the prog- 
ress of the county. Numerous projects of "improvement" 
were conceived and villages were started, which apparently 
prospered for a time, but some of which afterwards decayed, 
and went down as rapidly as they had sprung into existence, 
and by the close of the year 1837 the prospect of material 
progress in Shiawassee County began to assume a less rose- 
ate hue than it had worn only a short time before. The 
situation of affairs at that time at some of the principal 
points in the county, was noticed by Bela Hubbard, Esq. 
(who made a tour through this section in the fall of 1837, 
as an assistant of Dr. Douglass Houghton in his geological 
explorations), as follows : 

" Byron, in the southeast corner of Shiawassee County, 
was the termination of our wagon journey. The name 
had long occupied a prominent place on all the old maps of 
Michigan, — at that time a decade was antiquity, — and held 
out to the new-comer the promise of a large and thriving 
village. The reality was disappointing. It possessed, all 
told, but a mill and two houses. At Byron we exchanged 
our wagon for a canoe, and commenced a descent of Shia- 
wassee River. 

" From Byron to Owosso, about twenty miles direct (but 
many more by the course of the stream), our way lay mostly 
through lands more heavily timbered, but varied with open- 
ings and occasional plains. Through this part of the coun- 
try roads had been opened and settlements had made rapid 
progress. . . . Shiawasseetown at this time contained a 
dozen log cabins and as many frames unfinished. One of 
these was of quite a superior construction, and indicative of 
the era of speculation through which the country had passed. 
It was three stories in height and designed for a hotel. The 
whole village was under mortgage and was advertised to be 
sold at public vendue. 

" Corunna, the county-seat, we found to consist of one 
log house, situated on the bank of the river, and occupied 
by a Mr. Davids, who a year before, and soon after the organ- 
ization of the county, had made an entry here. A steam- 
mill was in process of erection. About twenty acres of land 
16 



had been cleared and planted, and never did crystal stream 
lave a more fertile soil. 

" Three miles below was ' located' the village of Owosso, 
already a thriving settlement, containing a dozen log build- 
ings, one frame one, and a saw-mill. With the exception of 
a few scattered settlers upon the plains south of the line of 
the present Detroit and Milwaukee Railway, such consti- 
tuted the entire white population of Shiawassee County." 

The real and personal valuation of the several townships 
of the county, at a period ten years later (1847), is given 
below, as showing the progress which had been made in Shi- 
awassee County during that time by settlement and improve- 
ment, viz. : 

Antrim township $31,7.39 

Barns township , 39,254 

Bennington township 33,911 

C.iledonia township 51,748 

Middlebury township 18,810 

New Haven township (two survey township's) 27,768.50 

Owosso township (two survey townships) 46,598 

Perry township 32,003 

Sciota township 19,747 

Shiawassee township 46,304 

Venice township 20,169 

Vernon township 31,322 

WoodhuU township 20,402 

Total of county $419,755.50 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

OKGAWIZATIOIM OP THE COTJITTT— COTJBTS AWD 
OTHEK MATTERS. 

Shiawassee organized by Act of Legislature — First Election— Subdi- 
vision of the County into Townships — The Board of Supervisors — 
Wolf Kecord — Establishment of Courts in Shiawassee County and 
their Early Proceedings. 

The organization of the county was effected under au- 
thority of an act of the Legislature, approved March 13, 
1837, which provided " That the county of Shiawassee be, 
and the same is, hereby organized for county purposes ; 
and. the inhabitants thereof shall be entitled to all the rights 
and privileges to which, by law, the inhabitants of other 
counties of this State, organized since the adoption of the 
constitution, are entitled." Under this act a special election 
was held in May, 1837, resulting in the election of Levi 
Rowe as Sheriff, Andrew Parsons as County Clerk, Josiah 
Pierce as Treasurer, James Rutan and Alfred L. Wil- 
liams as Associate Judges, Elias Comstock as Judge of 
Probate, and Daniel Gould as County Surveyor. Sanford 
M. Green was made prosecuting attorney by appointment. 
By this election the organization of Shiawassee County 
was made complete. 

At that time the county embraced the townships of 
Shiawassee, Owosso, Burns, and Vernon, as has already 
been mentioned. The next subdivision was made by an act 
approved March 6, 1838, which erected survey-township 
No. 5 north, of range 3 east, into the township of Antrim 
(its territory being the same then as at present), and sur- 
vey-townships Nos. 5 and 6 north, of range No. 2 east, 
into the township of Bennington, which thus included, 
in addition to its own present territory, that of the town- 
ship of Perry, 



122 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



By act approved April 2, 1838, the township of Wood- 
hull was erected, to comprise " all that portion of the 
county of Shiawassee designated by the United States sur- 
vey as townships Nos. 5 and 6 north, of range No. 1 east," 
so including the present towns of WoodhuU and Sciota. 
By the erection of WoodhuU the territory of the old 
township of Shiawassee was diminished to its present size. 
The first reduction of the original area of Owosso town- 
ship was made by an act (approved March 21, 1839) which 
erected survey-townships Nos. 7 and 8 north, of range 
No. 1 east, into the separate township of Middlebury. 
The same act also took from the territory of Owosso sur- 
vey-township 7 north, of range 4 east (the same which is 
now Venice), and attached it to the township of Vernon. 
On the following day (March 22, 1839) the Governor 
approved an act in which k was provided that " All that 
part of the county of Shiawassee designated by the United 
States survey as township No. 7 north, of range No. 3 
east, which lies east of the west line of sections Nos. 5, 8, 
17, 20, 29, and 31,* in said township, be, and the same 
is, hereby set off and organized into a township by the 
name of Caledonia; and the first township-meeting shall 
be held at the house of Alexander McArthur in said town- 
ship." 

The reduction of Bennington township to its present size 
was effected by the passage of an act (approved March 15, 
1841) which provided that " all that part of the county of 
Shiawassee designated by the United States survey as town- 
ship No. 5 north, of range No. 2 east, be, and the same is, 
hereby set off and organized as a separate township by the 
name of Perry." The size of this town has remained un- 
changed to the present time. 

New Haven township was erected by act of March 20, 
1841, to comprise survey-townships numbered 8, in ranges 3 
and 4 east. These were taken from Owosso township, and 
are the same which now form the towns of New Haven 
and Hazelton. 

The township of Sciota was formed by act approved 
Feb. 16, 1842, to include survey-township 6 north, of 
range 1 east. This being taken from the original territory 
of WoodhuU reduced the latter township to its present size. 
An act of the Legislature approved March 9, 1843, pro- 
vided that " All that part of the county of Shiawassee desig- 
nated by the United States survey as township No. 7 north, 
of range No. 4 east, formerly belonging to the township of 
Owosso, but now to the township of Vernon, be, and the 
same is, hereby set off and organized as a separate township 
by the name of Venice, and the first township-meeting 
thereof shall be held at the house of Neely Sawtell." This 
was the same territory which, by act of March 21, 1839, 
had been taken from Owosso and attached to Vernon, 
which latter township was consequently reduced to its orig- 
inal and present size by the erection of Vernon, as above 
mentioned. 



* It will be seen that in this erection of Caledonia upon the terri- 
tory of survey-township 7 north, of range 3 east, sections Nos. 6, 1, 18, 
19, and 30 were not included, but remained a part of the township of 
Owosso. By an act approved Feb. 16, 1842, however, these sections 
were taken from Owosso and annexed to Caledonia, thus making its 
limits coextensive with those of the survey-township. 



Hazelton township, embracing town No. 8 north, in 
range 4 east, of the United States survey, was erected by 
act of March 25, 1850. It was taken from J^ew Haven, 
and its erection left the latter township with its present 
boundaries. 

The last township taken from the territory of Owosso 
was that of Rush, which was laid out and organized under 
the provisions of an act approved March 28, 1850. By 
the erection of Rush (comprising survey-township 8 north, 
of range 2 east) the area of Owosso was reduced to a single 
one of the eight survey-townships which it originally em- 
braced. 

The youngest township in the county is that of Fair- 
field, which was erected with its present territory by action 
of the Board of Supervisors on the 4th of January, 1854. 

BOAKD OP SUPEEVISOES— COUNTY COMMIS- 
SIONERS. 

The township of Shiawassee, organized on the 23d of 
March, 1836, comprised the entire territory of Shiawassee 
County, as before noticed. The first township-meeting was 
held at the house of Hosea Baker, who was elected super- 
visor' for that year, and represented the township in the 
Board of Supervisors of Genesee County, to which this 
county was attached. The townships entitled to a repre- 
sentation at the time of the organization of the county, in 
1837, were Shiawassee, Owosso, Burns, and Vernon, and 
De Witt and Watertown, of Clinton County, which was 
then attached to, and composed a part of, Shiawassee. 

No record is preserved of a meeting of the board in the 
fall of 1837, but the fact that such meeting was held is 
proved by the action of the board at the session of 
October, 1838, when that body rescinded a resolution 
" passed in October last," in reference to wolf-bounties. At 
that session, which commenced on Tuesday, Oct. 2, 1838, 
at the place known as the Shiawassee Exchange, situated 
on the Shiawassee River, Lemuel Castle was chosen chair- 
man, and Francis J. Prevost clerk pro tern. At the close 
of that meeting the board adjourned to meet the next day 
at the hotel at Shiawasseetown, kept by Lucius W. Beach. 
The supervisors present were Lemuel Castle, of Benning- 
ton ; Elias Comstock, of Owosso ; H. B. Flint, of Antrim ; 
Francis J. Prevost, of Burns ; Thomas Beal, of Shiawas- 
see ; James Rutan, of Vernon ; Jonathan WoodhuU, of 
WoodhuU, Shiawassee Co. ; and Hiram Benedict, of Wan- 
daugon, Calvin Marvin, of Watertown, and Welcome J. 
Partelo, of De Witt, Clinton Co.f The first business was 
the examination of wolf-certificates, and twenty-five of these 
were audited, covering an amount of three hundred and 
seventy-five dollars, without names attached, but designated 
by numbers. 

The townships of Owosso, Burns, Shiawassee, Water- 
town, and the village of Mapleton (the last two in Clinton 
County) had made requests to the supervisors for money 
to buUd bridges. After considerable discussion it was de- 
cided to levy the tax for the erection of the bridges, upon 
the county instead of the several townships. The amount 

f The townships of Bennington and Antrim were organised in 
March, 1838, and WoodhuU in April of the same year. Wandaugon 
(now Lebanon), Clinton Co., was organized also in March, 1838. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 



123 



to each and the location of the bridges are here given ; 
Owosso (at the village), three hundred dollars; Burns 
(near John Knaggs), two hundred dollars ; Shiawassee, 
fifty dollars ; De Witt (Looking-Glass River, near Welcome 
J. Partelo), one hundred dollars ; Watertown (Looking- 
Glass River on town line between ranges 3 and 4), one 
hundred dollars ; W^andaugon (Heywood Creek on State 
road), one hundred dollars ; Mapleton (on Maple River), 
one hundred dollars. 

The committee on equalization of assessment rolls re- 
ported that " the assessment appears to be equal." The 
aKsresate amount of the several towns was as follows : 



1838. 



Owosso $297,681 

De Witt 297,087 

Burns 66,643 

Walertown 194,350 

WoodhuU 81,025 



Bennington $96,224 

Vernon 66,856 

Sliiawassee 66,037 

Antrim 64,096 

Wandaugon 186,028 



It was resolved that the sum of $2076 be levie.d upon the 
county as a State tax, and the sum of $4924 for county 
purposes. Elias Comstock and James Rutan were appointed 
a committee to apportion the amount upon the several 
towns, which was reported as follows : 



Owosso 

De Witt 

Watertown.... 

Burns 

WoodhuU 

Bennington... 

Vernon 

Sliiawassee.... 

Antrim 

Wandaugon .. 



Assessment, 

$290,681.00 

297,087.00 

194,350.00 

66,643.00 

81,025.00 

96,224.00 

66,866.00 

66,037.00 

64,096.00 

186,028.00 



State and 
County Tax. 

$1430.00 
1470.00 
954.20 
.323.20 
393.00 
471.90 
322.00 
299.10 
306.20 
915.60 



Town Tax. Poor Tax. Total Tax. 

$283.60 $1714.00 

212.50 $60.00 1733.00 

30.00 

26.00 

50.00 



217.80 
138.80 
160.00 
128.10 
210.00 
456.90 
142.80 



50.00 



1202.00 
487.00 
603.00 
600.00 
532.00 
926.00 
448.00 



157.50 1073.00 



$1,409,026.00 $6885.10 $2170.90 $205.00 $9318.00 

The board was in session several days, closing on the 6th 
of October. 

By the provisions of a law passed by the Legislature 
in 1838, the powers and duties of the Board of Supervisors 
were transferred to a Board of County Commissioners, to be 
composed of three members. The first election of County 
Commissioners was held early in November. The Board of 
Canvassers met on the 13th of the samemonth, and was 
composed as follows : 

Antrim, Allen Beard. 

Bennington, Ira B. Howard. 

Burns, Francis J. Prevost. 

Owosso, Elias Comstock. 

Shiawassee, Peter Turner. 

WoodhuU, Peter Laing. 

De Witt, Ephraim H. Utley. 

Watertown, Charles R. Spicer. 

The canvasser who represented Wandaugon was not 
present, and the canvass proceeded without him. 

The three county commissioners elected were Lemuel 
Castle, Ransom W. Holley, and Ephraim H. Utley. The 
board met and organized on the 20th of November, 1838, 
in Shiawasseetown, at the hotel of Lucius W. Beach. 
Lemuel Castle was chosen chairman. 

After organization wolf-certificates were audited to the 
amount of $100.84, but little other business was brought 
before them. The board convened at Corunna on the 8th of 
July, 1839, and on September 23d of the same year at the 



Shiawassee Exchange ; the latter meeting being held for the 
purpose of adjusting accounts between Clinton and Shia- 
wassee Counties, the former having been organized March 
12, 1839. An agreement giving a balance of $202.91 to 
Shiawassee County was signed by Lemuel Castle, R. W. 
Holley, L. Rowe, Commissioners of Shiawassee County ; 
E. H. Uiley, Calvin Marvin, Commissioners of Clinton 
County ; and John Gould, Treasurer of Clinton County. 

On the 7th of October, in the same year, the commis- 
sioners convened at Corunna, and accepted a block of land 
three hundred feet square donated by the County-Seat 
Company, designated on the recorded plat of Corunna as 
the " public square." 

Dec. 31, 1839, a statement of the appropriations for 
1838 and 1839 was made, viz. : 

1838 

For bridges .' $1000.00 

Bounties on wolf-scalps 117.50 

Expenses of county canvass 86.02 

Sheriff's fees 186.76 

Expenses of criminal prosecutions 52.55 

County clerk's fees 97.37 

Expenses of circuit court 7.75 

Contingent expenses of Clinton and Shiawas- 
see Counties 479.88 



Total $2009.81 

1839. 

For bounties on wolf-sealps $49.00 

Criminal prosecutions 49.91 

Expenses of circuit court 23.25 

Sherirsfees 58.13 

Prosecuting attorney's salary 150.00 

County clerk's fees 127.33 

Contingent expenses of county 212.70 

County building 345.00 

Total $1015..S2 

The business of the county was transacted by the com- 
missioners until the office was abolished by act of Legisla- 
ture, approved Feb. 10, 1842. The powers which had been 
exercised by the commissioners were then resumed by the 
supervisors of the county. 

The Board of Supervisors convened at the court-house in 
the village of Corunna on the 4th of July, 1842, when the 
following-named members were present: M. B. Martin, 
David Bush, Jr., Sanford M. Green, Lyman Bennett, Lem- 
uel Castle, R. W. Holley, Andrew Parsons, John Palmer, 
Allen Smith, John K. Tyler, John WoodhuU, and Hum- 
phrey Wheeler. This was the first meeting held by the 
board under the law of 1842, and from that time to the 
present the supervisors have continued to exercise their 
functions as financial managers of the county. 

WOLF KECOKD. 

An act was passed by the Legislature of the State for the 
destruction of wolves Dec. 28, 1837, and Feb. 9, 1838, 
another act was adopted. The last section, repealing the 
act of the previous December, provided " That every per- 
son, being an inhabitant of this State, as well Indians as 
others, who shall kill a full-grown wolf, or wolf's whelp 
under the age of three months, in any organized township, 
shall be entitled to a bounty of $8 for each full-grown wolf, 
and $4 for each wolf's whelp ;" the person claiming such 
bounty to take either the wolf or the head thereof, with the 
ears and skin entire thereon, to a justice of the peace, and 
make oath before him as to the facts and circumstances of 



124 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



the killing. It was thereupon the dflty of the justice, if 
satisfied with the statement, to certify the same and burn 
the ears and scalp of such wolf The certificate, in turn, 
was to be presented, with the affidavit, to a supervisor or 
commissioner within fifteen days, and if by either of them 
found to be correct, it was to be presented to the next 
county board, and if then found all right by that body, the 
bounty was to be allowed and paid out of the county treas- 
ury, one-half of which was to be charged over to and 
paid out of the State treasury. By one provision of the 
act a Board of Supervisors, or of Commissioners, had " au- 
thority to award and allow, at the expense of their respec- 
tive counties, such other and further bounties for the de- 
struction of wolves and panthers as they might deem 
proper." This act, approved Feb. 9, 1838, was " to remain 
in force three years and no longer," although the law was 
afterwards extended to Feb. 10, 1844, and the records 
show bounties paid for that purpose several years after that 
time. 

The first business of the Board of Supervisors of the 
county at the session commencing Oct. 2, 1838, was the 
examination of wolf-certificates. An additional bounty of 
91 appears to have been added to the State bounty, making 
the bounty for wolves $9 and whelps $5, as the first items, 
appended, show : 

" The board then voted, to allow a bounty of $9 each on 
five wolves, killed as described in certificate No. 1, $45. 

" Also on three wolves, $9 each, as described in certifi- 
cate No. 2, $27. 

"Also on two wolves, $9 each, as described in certificate 
No. 3, $18. 

" Also on one wolf [whelp], $5, as described in certifi- 
cate No. 4, $5." 

Twenty-five certificates were examined and allowed in the 
same manner as above, embracing a total of twenty-six 
wolves and eleven whelps. On the 4th of October, the 
third day of the session, the board rescinded a resolution 
" that was passed in October last," allowing a county 
bounty of $5 for the destruction of wolves. No attention 
seems to have been paid to the action of the Board of Su- 
pervisors of the year previous in the examination of the 
twenty-five certificates, but they evidently considered it of 
sufficient importance to rescind it. At the meeting of the 
county commissioners on the 18th of November (the month 
following), 1838, the State bounty only was allowed. They 
also recorded the names of those to whom bounties were 
granted. Below are given the names of persons, date of cer- 
tificate, and amount of bounty allowed from that time. 

Nov. 20, 1838.— Hiram Stowell,* $8 ; Silas W. Rose, $8. 

Jan. 7, 1839.— Rufus C. Rathbone, $16 ; Enoch Willis, 
$16; George Nichols, $8; Benjamin Morton, $4. The 
last is a further allowance on wolf-certificate No. 21 in the 
twenty-five certificates passed in October, 1838. 

March 4, 1839. — Morris Cushman, $8; Lewis Hart, 
$4.50 (whelps). 

July 17, 1839.— Allen Baird, $5. 

Sept. 20, 1839.— George Campau, $32. 



* Mr. Stowell and several others in the list were residents of Clin- 
ton County, which was then a part of Shiawassee. 



Nov. 20, 1839.— Rufus C. Rathbone, $44. 

Jan. 10, 1842.— Ezra L. Mason, $10 ; Albert B. Mason, 
$8; William Sladden, $8. 

Feb. 24, 1842.— John F. Swain, $10; Ezra L. Mason, 
$10. 

March 28, 1842.— A. McArthur, $10 ; Jesse Whitford, 
$8. 

Dec. 21, 1843.— Jacob Esty, $13 ; Ambrose Baker, $13 ; 
Wellman Castle, $26; George W. Slocum, $13; Robert 
G. McKee, $13 ; George Rowell, $13 ; Jesse Whitford, $13. 

Nov. 12, 1844.— Clark D. Castle, $13; Hiram Haight, 
$16; Amasa Rowell, $13; George Bibbins, $13; Nicholas 
Woolman, $13; Apollos Dewey, $26. 

Jan. 4, 1845.— Joel B. Goss, $6; William Placeway, 
$13; Marvin Secord, $13. 

Oct. 16, 1845.— Joel A. Hart, $30; Nathaniel Kimball, 
$15; Apollos Dewey, $15; E. P. Mason, $13; Ambrose 
Baker, $13; Hiram Haight, $13; Rial B. Chase, $15. 

Oct. 15, 1846.— Ezra L. Mason, $45 ; Daniel D. Slo- 
cum, $15. 

Wolf-certificates were granted for several years, the last 
account on the records being Jan. 5, 1869, when Mr. Rush 
presented a claim for a bounty for killing a wolf in favor of 
B. W. Steer, and moved that the same be allowed. The 
certificate, however, was referred back to claimant for fur- 
ther proof, and as it is not again brought up it is fair to 
presume it was not again presented. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF COURTS IN SHIAWASSEE 
COUNTY. 

By the act under which Shiawassee County was organ- 
ized it was provided that " The Circuit Court of the county 
of Shiawassee shall be held at the county-seat if practica- 
ble, and if not, at such other place as the sheriff of said 
county shall provide until county buildings shall be erected. 

" The county of Shiawassee shall belong to the second 
judicial circuit, and the terms of the Circuit Court shall 
commence on the first Monday of June and December in 
each year." 

The first term of the Circuit Courtf of Shiawassee 
County was, in accordance with the provisions of the above 
act, held at the office of the county clerk on the 4th day of 
December, 1837. There were present the Hon. Alfred L. 
Williams and the Hon. James Rutan, associate judges. 
No circuit judge was present. Levi Rowe was appointed 
crier for the term. The sheriff was ordered to appoint 
four constables to attend during the term, and he appointed 
Noah Bovier and Mason Phelps (only two), and they and 
Aaron Swain, the under-sheriff', were ordered to attend. 

Application was then made by Sanford M. Green (now 
circuit judge of the eighteenth judicial circuit) to be ad- 
mitted as an attorney and counselor-at-law. After exam- 
ination he was admitted. There being no prosecuting 
attorney in the county, the court appointed Mr. Green to 
act in that capacity for the term. The following are the 
names of the grand jurors in attendance at that term : 
Daniel Ball, Daniel Gould, Horace Hart, Robert Crawford, 

t This slietch of the Circuit Court of Shiawassee County is fur- 
nished by the Hon. Josiah Turner, judge of the seventh judicial 
circuit. 



FIRST COURTS. 



125 



Thomas P. Green, Elisha Brewster, Stephen Post, Samuel 
Brown, M. Bradley Martin, Ira B. Howard, Ephraim 
Wright, Cornelius W. Miller, James Van Aukin, Joseph 
Parmeter, Josiah Pierce, John Smedley, Samuel W. Hard- 
ing, and S. N. Whitcomb. Daniel Ball was appointed 
foreman. A few of these gentlemen are still living in the 
county, honored and respected by all, but the large majority 
of them are believed to be dead. The grand jury found 
one indictment, charging a man with peijury, and they were 
then discharged. 

The records show the following entry : " John Knaggs 
vs. Phillis, his wife. On motion of Sanford M. Green, 
counsel for said Knaggs, the court ordered that said Knaggs 
have leave to present a petition for a divorce from Phillie, 
his said wife, at the next term of the court ; and that said 
Knaggs shall cause a written notice to be served upon his 
said wife at least thirty days before the said term of the 
court of his intention to present such petition and of the 
hearing thereof." 

This was the first proceeding in the county to obtain a 
divorce, and it would be a novel way to get a party into 
court at this day. 

The court adjourned on the second day of its session. 
The next term of the court was held on the 4th day of 
June, 1838, by Hon. James Rutan, one of the associate 
judges. The grand jury were impannelled, but soon re- 
ported to the court that they had no business before them, 
and the court at once adjourned without day, no other 
business having been transacted. 

The next term commenced on the 25th day of Novem- 
ber, 1838, and was held by the associate judge, the circuit 
judge not being present. 

The first petit jury ever summoned in the county was 
present at this term, and their names were as follows: 
Harvey Harmon, David T. Tyler, Stephen Post, Samuel 
W. Harding, Francis F. Mann, John Smedley, William P. 
Laing, George Harrington, John B. Clark, Ichabod Knee- 
land, Eli Shattuck, Calvin Sweet, Rufus Collier, Nicholas 
P. Harder, Samuel N. Whitcomb^ Samuel Millard, and 
Ephraim Wright, very few of whom are now living. The 
grand jury at this term found five bills of indictment, but 
no further business was transacted. The next term of the 
court was held on the 7th day of May, 1839, when the 
Hon. Charles W. Whipple,* circuit judge, and Hon. James 
Rutan, associate judge, presided. This was the first term 
in the county at which a circuit judge was present. At 
this term George W. Wisner and Alfred H. Hanscomb 
were admitted to the bar, and were for many years there- 
after distinguished lawyers at Pontiac. Both are now 
dead. The first trial ever had in this court was at this 
term. It was a criminal case, and the jury did not agree. 
At the May term, 1840, the case of Robert Crawford vs. 
Liberty Lyman was tried by a jury, and a verdict was ren- 



» Judge Whipple was 



born in New York, and removed with his 



father to Detroit when a boy. He was educated at West Point. He 
was several times elected to the State Legislature, and in 1836 and 
1837 was speaker of the House of Representatives. In 1838 he was 
appointed a justice of the Supreme Court, which office he held for 
many vears. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 
1850. "He was a man of great dignity and an eminent jurist. He 
died Oct. 25, 185fi 



dered for the pkintifiF for f 17.55 damages, being the first 
civil case ever tried in this court. At this term the late Gov- 
ernor Moses Wisner made application for admission to the 
bar, and the court appointed as examining committee Wil- 
liam L. Mosely, Edward H. Thomson, and Artemas Thayer, 
and after examination Mr. Wisner was admitted. 

On the 3d day of May, 1843, a term was held, at which 
the Hon. George Morrell, then chief justice of the Su- 
preme Court, presided. 

The next circuit judge of the county was the Hon. Ed- 
ward Mundy, who held his first term commencing on the 
2d day of August, 1848, and his last term was held in 
June, 1850. 

Judge Mundy was among the earlier emigrants to the 
Territory of Michigan. He was the first Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of the State, under the first State constitution, in 
1835 and 1836, and again held the same office from 1837 
to 1840. In 1847 he was appointed attorney-general, 
which office he held until 1848, when he was appointed a 
justice of the Supreme Court, and from"1844 to 1848 he 
was a regent of the State University. He died in 1851. 

The nest circuit judge of the county was the Hon. 
Sanford M. Green, who held his first term in the county in 
May, 1852, and continued to so preside until May, 1857, 
when he was succeeded by Judge Josiah Turner, the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

Judge Green was born May 30, 1807, in Grafton, N. Y., 
and was admitted to the bar in New York in 1832 ; re- 
moved to Michigan in 1837 and settled in Owosso ; elected 
to the State Senate in 1842 ; appointed commissioner to 
revise the statutes in 1844, and reported to the Legislature 
of 1846 ; elected to the Senate again in the fall of 1845, 
and served two years ; was appointed judge of the Supreme 
Court by Governor Ransom in 1848, and held that office 
until May, 1857, and was chief justice two years of that 
time. From Jan. 1, 1858, to April, 1867, and from June, 
1872. to the present time he has held the office of circuit 
judge, — now of the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit. 

PKOBATE COURT. 

The first session of this court of which any record is ex- 
tant was held at the village of Owosso, Feb. 13, 1838, Elias 
Comstock, probate judge, presiding. The first proceedings 
were " in the matter of the estate of Samuel Carpenter, 
deceased." Application was made by Alvin S. McDowell 
for letters of administration upon the above estate, which 
were granted upon giving bond in the sum of two thousand 
five hundred dollars, the bond being signed by A. S. Mc- 
Dowell, William Phelps, and John Runciman. John Hill, 
Jordan Holcomb, and Aaron Hutchins were appointed ap- 
praisers of the property, with orders to report on the 10 th 
of March, 1838. 

On the same day application was made by Isaac Thomp- 
son of Ionia County, for letters of administration on the 
estate of Daniel Barker, of the county of Clinton. Bond 
was given in the sum of three thousand dollars, and signed 
by Isaac Thompson, Frederick Hall, and Joseph Letanker. 
The appraisers were Nathan Benjamin, Thaddeus 0. War- 
ren, and Silas Crippen. The first will (that of Orrin Perry) 
was offered for probate on the 12th of June, 1838, bearing 



126 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



date April 30th of th^ same year. Elizabeth Perry was 
appointed executrix, and Washington Z. Blanchard and 
Horace B. Flint executors. Letters were issued April 25, 
1839, to Kalph Williams as guardian of Violetta Car- 
penter, a minor under the age of fourteen years and a 
daughter of Samuel Carpenter. Lewis Lindley was ap- 
pointed, April 1, 1839, guardian of Lucinda Phidelia Be- 
dell, a minor, daughter of Kilburn Bedell. The will of 
Moses Kimball, one of the proprietors of the Shiawassee 
Company, was presented for probate. It was dated Nor- 
wich, Huron Co., Ohio, Sept. 18, 1837, and recorded in 
the county of Shiawassee in 1838, as part of the property 
mentioned in the will was in this county. 

Judge Comstook served as probate judge until 1841, 
when he was succeeded by Ira B. Howard, whose first busi- 
ness was the division of the estate of Samuel Carpenter. 

COUNTY COURT. 
The county courts which had existed in Michigan prior 
to April, 1833, were abolished by law at that time, but 
were re-established by an act of the Legislature in 1846. 
Under the law last named the first session of the county 
court of Shiawassee was held at Corunna on the 5th of 
April, 1847, Judge Robert R. Thompson presiding. 
During the continuance of the county court Judge Thomp- 
son presided until June 3, 1851, from which time A. B. 
Chipman, the Second Judge, presided till the end of the 
year, when, by a limitation embodied in the constitution of 
1850, the county courts ceased to exist, and their business 
was transferred to the circuit courts. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

COUNTY-SITES AND COTJNTT PEOPBKTY. 

Establishment aDd Vacation of the County-Site at Byron — Location 
of the Seat of .Tustice at Corunna — Erection of Court-House and 
Jail — Fire-Proof Offices — Poor-House and Poor-Farm. 

On the 4th of August, 1824, the Governor of Michigan 
Territory approved an act providing for the appointment 
of commissioners to locate the seat of justice of Shiawassee 
County. Under this act James McCloskey, Frederick A. 
Sprague, and William Meldrum were appointed such com- 
missioners, and were instructed to report their action to the 
Legislative Council at its next session. They proceeded to 
perform the duty assigned them, and duly made report to 
the council, in accordance with their instructions, that they 
had selected the village of Byron, and had there established 
the county- site. Shiawassee County then embraced, in ad- 
dition to its present territory, eight townships that now 
belong to Genesee County, eight townships that are now 
included in Livingston, and four townships of the present 
territory of Ingham County, — in all twenty townships, 
forming a belt two townships wide, along and outside of 
the entire south and east border of this county as it now 
stands. So the county-site determined on by the commis- 
sioners was then near the territorial centre of the county ; 
but, in addition to the fact of its geographical position, it 
was said that the influence of Judge Samuel W. Dexter of 



Washtenaw County, was potent in securing the selection of 
that site, which was probably the fact ; for it is certain that 
he was then the proprietor of a large amount of land at 
that place, that the site was established on a part of his 
tract, and that the expenses of location were paid by him 
from his private means. It is proper to mention, however, 
that this payment by him was in conformity with the pro- 
visions of the law directing the appointment of the com- 
missioners, which required that they should receive their 
compensation (two dollars per day for time necessarily 
employed) from the proprietor of the land on which they 
should decide to locate the county-site. 

But the erection of Ingham County in 1829, of Living- 
ston in 1833, and of Genesee in 1835, reduced Shiawassee 
to its present limits, leaving Byron, the county-site, within 
one mile of its eastern, and within two and a half miles of 
its southern boundary, making apparent the necessity for 
the selection of a new seat of justice nearer the centre 
of the reduced territory of the county. This caused the 
passage by the Legislature of " An act to vacate the seat 
of justice of Shiawassee County'' (approved February 26, 
1836), embodying the following preamble and provisions, 
viz. : " 

" Whereas, the county of Shiawassee has been so divided 
since the seat of justice was established therein as to leave 
the same in the southeast corner of said county and within 
one mile of the east line thereof; and whereas no public 
buildings or improvements have as yet been erected or made 
at said seat of justice; therefore, 

" Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of 
Representatives of the State of Michigan, that the seat of 
justice for the county of Shiawassee as now established be 
and the same is hereby vacated, any law to the contrary 
notwithstanding." 

The county-site being thus vacated, the Governor (under 
a law then in force authorizing him to appoint commissioners 
to establish county-sites in counties having none) appointed 
John Greenfield and Col. Garry Spencer, of Detroit, and 
Samuel Axford, of Macomb County, as commissioners to 
locate a county-site for Shiawassee. This appointment was 
made on the 12th of March, 1836, and on the 1st of April 
of the same year the commissioners' report was filed locating 
the county-site on the west half of the northeast quarter 
of section 28, in township 7 north, of range 3 east, — the 
present site of Corunna. Proclamation was issued by the 
Governor confirming the location on the 1st of July, 1836. 

The commissioners while examining the diflFereut bear 
tions made their headquarters at the Exchange (the Williams 
trading-post). They were accompanied by the Hon. Jacob 
M. Howard, B. 0. Williams, and others. Three days were 
spent in examining the different locations, visiting the Big 
Rapids (Owosso) and other points, and after consultation, 
decided upon the present site. The organizing act provided 
that the courts should be held in such place as the sheriff 
of the county should select, and the first court was held at 
the place known as the Shiawassee Exchange, in the school- 
house, on the 4th day of December, 1837. The October 
term of 1838 was held at the house of Lucius W. Beach, 
atShiawasseetown, and adjournment was made to November 
of the same year, at the " Exchange." For some reason not 



COUNTY-SITES AND COUNTY PEOPERTY. 



127 



given in the records, this court was held at Owosso on the 
date mentioned, at rooms over the store of Gould, Fish & 
Co., on the southwest corner of Washington and Exchange 
Streets. 

Section 6 of act No. 62, approved March 25, 1840, pro- 
vides that " the Circuit Court shall be held at Shiawassee- 
town in said county." An act supplementary to this (ap- 
proved April 1st, five days later), provides that the act passed 
March 25, 1840, " shall in no wise affect or alter the loca- 
tion of the county-site of said county, nor shall the same 
be construed as vacating or changing the same, but shall 
be considered only as authorizing the courts for said county 
to be held in the village of Shiawasseetown, until the pro- 
prietors of the present county-site, or the county commis- 
sioners of said county, shall furnish a suitable building at 
said county-site for the accommodation of said courts, to 
be approved by the county commissioners or a majority of 
them." 

On the 7th of October, 1839, the Board of Commission- 
ers unanimously agreed to accept of a block of land three 
hundred feet square in the village of Corunna, designated 
on the recorded plat of that village as the " Public Square," 
which was offered by the County-Seat Company as a dona- 
tion to the county of Shiawassee. A contract was made 
by Stephen Hawkins with the Board of Commissioners for 
the erection and completion of a building on the public 
square for county ofiSces. The sum to be paid for buildings 
was $382.50. The office building was about twenty by 
thirty feet in size, situated near the northwest corner of the 
square, and built of wood. It was moved across the street 
in 1846, and is now used as a market. In the latter part 
of 1839 a building belonging to the County-Seat Company 
was rented by the county commissioners for their sessions, 
and for purposes of holding court. In April of the next 
year the following letter was sent to the commissioners : 

" COKUNNA, April 17, 1840. 

" To THE Hon. CouNTr Commissioners : 

" Gentlemen, — The proprietors of the county-seat of Shia- 
wassee County do hereby tender to the said commissioners, 
for the use of the county, the building heretofore used by 
the county commissioners for county purposes, and which 
was engaged by them for the purpose of holding the Cir- 
cuit Court for said county. 

" The said building is thirty-six feet in length and twenty 
feet in width, and will be furnished by the said proprietors, 
fitted up with convenient and comfortable seats afad a 
proper desk for the judges. It is now lathed and plastered, 
and fires will be kept up in said building during the session 
of the court. 

" The house now occupied by Alexander McArthur will 
be occupied during the season of the ensuing term of the 
Circuit Court as a tavern, and extensive accommodations and 
supplies will be provided, sufficient for all the persons who 
may be in attendance on said court. Stables accommodat- 
ing upward of fifty horses will be prepared, and an abund- 
ance of provender is already provided. All of which is 
respectfully submitted. 

(Signed) "A. McArthur, 

'■^ Agent for the ■proprietors of the present county- 
seat of Shiawassee County." 



The building spoken of in the above letter was situated 
on the corner of Eraser Street and Shiawassee Avenue, 
where Preston & Wheeler's store now stands. The sum 
paid by the commissioners for the use of the room for the 
courts was $30 per annum. The house was a wooden 
building, situated on the east side of Shiawassee Avenue, 
and occupied the site where now stands the drug-store of Kil- 
burn & Shattuck. It was destroyed by fire several years later. 

At a meeting of the county commissioners on the 24th 
of February, 1842, the subject of raising money for the 
erection of a court-house and jail was brought up and dis- 
cussed. It was decided to present the question to the peo- 
ple at the next annual town-meeting, which was done, and 
the proposition to loan the sum of $4000 for that purpose 
was defeated. 

On the 4th of July, 1842, the Board of Supervisors met 
and resumed the functions which had for three years previ- 
ously been vested in the county commissioners. After organ- 
ization a committee was appointed to examine the title of 
the county to the parcel of land donated to the county, and 
known and designated as the " Public Square." 

Mr. Castle, one of the committee, reported an abstract of 
title, and stated that he saw no evidence of fraud and con- 
sidered the title good, but did not concur with the opinions 
expressed by Sanford M. Green, Esq. Mr. Green presented 
the following report as containing his individual opinions 
and views in relation to such title, though drawn up in 
form as the report of the committee : 

" To the Board of Supervisors of the County 
OF Shiawassee ; 

" The committee appointed by this Board at its last ses- 
sion to examine the title of this county to a tract or parcel 
of land described as the ' Public Square,' in the village of 
Corunna, respectfully submit the following report : That we 
have performed the duty imposed upon us by a careful 
examination of the records in the office of the register of 
deeds of said county relating to said parcel of land, assisted 
by the register of deeds and by A. McArthur, Esq., who 
was present with us at the examination of the records, and 
gave us all the explanation and information in relation to 
said title which the nature of the case seemed to require or 
admit of, and we herewith submit a brief abstract of said 
title as it appears of record. 

" In tracing the title by the description contained in the 
deed presented by the board at its July session, the first in- 
quiry that seemed to arise was. Where is the village of Co- 
runna, in which the ' Public Square' in question is located ? 
For the purpose of ascertaining this part we very naturally 
applied ourselves to the recorded map or plat of said village, 
from which we had a right to suppose we should be able to 
learn the precise location. On an examination of the map, 
however, we find no description of the section, township, or 
range in which it is located, nor any description of the 
' Public Square' by its boundaries, courses, and extent, 
nor any designation of the uses or purposes to which it is 
devoted, excepting what appears from the indorsement on 
the face of the square itself; and this designation being gen- 
eral, without limitation, if it amounts to anything, sets apart 
and devotes said square to the general use of the public. 



128 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



and we find that the public, as defined by Mr. Walker and 
others, means ' the general body of a nation ;' and this defi- 
nition we believe to be in accordance with the common and 
correct use and application of the term when used without 
limitation, as in this case. Hence it would seem to follow as a 
necessary consequence that, if this map amounts to anything 
in legal contemplation, it vests in the County of Shiawassee 
the fee of this parcel of land in trust to and for the general 
and common uses and purposes of the great body of the 
people of this great nation, and for no other use or purpose 
whatever. This map appears to have been indorsed upon 
the face of it with the names of three individuals as trus- 
tees, but of whom, or of what, does not appear by that map, 
nor are their names either placed at the bottom of the 
map, after the manner of a signature, or attached to or 
connected with any statement in relation to the said map. 
In order to pursue the examination of the title, it became 
necessary that we should seek information of the where- 
abouts of the town of Corunna out of the records. Accord- 
ingly, we inquired of Mr. McArthur, and were verbally in- 
formed by him that Corunna was located upon the west 
half of the northeast quarter of section 28, town 7 north, 
range 3 east, and that Col. Andrew Mack was the original 
purchaser of said lot from the United States ; and upon the 
examination of a schedule in the register's office, it appears 
that said lot was purchased by him, but we find no patent 
to him from the United States for this land, of record. The 
first deed of the lot upon the record is a deed from Col. 
Mack and wife to A. McArthur of an individual fourth 
part of it. 

" The rest is a trust-deed executed by Messrs. Mack and 
McArthur and their wives to Chauncey Hurlbut, A. D. 
Fraser, and John Norton, Jr., purporting to vest in them 
the legal estate, but no interest in the fee of the land, in 
trust for the benefit of a company or copartnership firm 
styled the Shiawassee County-Seat Company, under certain 
articles of association which are recorded with said trust- 
deed. These trustees were vested with power to make con- 
veyances upon the requL-sition of the directors of the com- 
pany, which requisitions are not required to be recorded ; 
and in case either or all of said trustees should resign, or ne- 
glect or refuse to act conformably to the requirements of 
the directors of this private company, their trusteeship and 
all powers vested in them by the deed of trust was abso- 
lutely to cease and be at an end, without any record 
thereof, or any declaration to that efi"ect by the directors. 
They were also to exercise their powers subject to and in 
conformity with the original articles of association, and such 
alterations or amendments as might at any time be made 
thereto in the manner therein specified ; none of which al- 
terations or amendments are required to be made a matter 
of record. The directors of said company are also subject to 
change by election, resignation, etc., so that there is not re- 
quired to be any record evidence of any change that may 
hereafter take place in the trusteeship, directory, or funda- 
mental organization and constitution of the company itself. 
"It appears, also, that while trustees are thus appointed 
for the benefit of the individuals composing this company, 
and a legal title is vested in the trustees to their use, yet by 
the articles of association the individuals of said company 



are expressly declared to have no interest in the lands so 
conveyed in trust, but the scrip, by the ownership of which 
they became members of the association, is declared to be 
personal property, and is transferable from hand to hand, 
like negotiable paper. The trust-deed covers other lands 
than these upon which the village is said to be located, and 
provision is made for the purchase of more to be contracted 
in the same manner, and the trustees are authorized to lay 
out a town upon the lands referred to in the deed without 
specifying on what part or parcel of the same. 

" From the foregoing statement it appears perfectly obvi- 
ous that within a few days or weeks after the execution of 
the trust-deed the powers of the trustees may have ceased. 
The directors of the company may have resigned, and the 
character of the association may have been entirely changed, 
while the records cannot afford us any light or evidence in 
regard to it. Subsequent to the recording of the map, we 
find a quit-claim deed to the county, executed by an indi- 
vidual as trustee, purporting to convey the interest of such 
individual as trustee to the county commissioners for the 
uses of the county, covering the ' Public Square.' But 
whether the grantor was the trustee of the proprietors or of 
the company, or had any power to make such deed at the 
time it was executed, we have no means of knowing. The 
deed now tendered to the Board of Supervisors purports to 
be executed by the trustees of the Shiawassee County-Seat 
Company, but the same difficulties are ibund in this deed 
that attached to the former deed, — the warrants, being made 
in behalf of men who have no interest in the land, and who 
have no title of record, and are constantly changing, can be 
of no value. Moreover, we cannot sec what right any indi- 
vidual can have to convey this ' Public Square,' as trustees 
or otherwise, after it has once been devoted by the record- 
ing of the map to the whole body of the people at large 
without any designation of its particular uses. It is proper 
to observe that there are papers placed upon the records 
purporting to detail some of the proceedings of this com- 
pany and its directors, etc., but they are not placed there 
pursuant to any provisions of the articles of association, 
nor in virtue of any legal or judicial sanction, and cannot, 
therefore, be any evidence to us of the facts they purport to 
detail. Some of them are neither fully acknowledged nor 
properly witnessed, and we are unable to understand by 
what authority they are made an incumbrance upon the 
records of this county, especially of our records of deeds. 

" No one, we think, can fail to have perceived in the de- 
tails of these transactions that a wide door has been opened 
for the practice of stupendous frauds without leaving any 
trace of them upon the records. That such frauds have 
been practiced by this company we do not undertake to say 
nor to intimate ; but that an association could be got up in 
a manner more peculiarly calculated to admit of the com- 
mission of ruinous frauds upon the community, were they 
inclined to do so, with a strong probability of escaping the 
just consequences, we cannot well imagine. When the 
title to land is involved, and such land may bear but a very 
small value compared with the improvements that may be 
made on it, we think the record ought to show the title 
perfect, and that the honesty and integrity of no man or 
set of men, whatever their reputation may be, ought ever to 



COUNTY-SITES AND COUNTY PROPERTY. 



129 



be trusted, nor do we think that any honest man ouo-ht 
ever to exact it." 

It does not appear, however, that any action was taken, 
either then or afterwards, as a result of this opinion of 
Mr. Green. 

On the 4th of January, 1847, rooms were rented of E. 
J. Van Buren for three years, at thirty dollars per year, 
for county offices. These were in a building north of the 
Bacon block. In April of the same year the board ordered 
the Judge of Probate to hold his courts in the office of the 
Register of Deeds. In the month of April, 1850, the 
Board of Supervisors resolved " that it is expedient at this 
time to take the necessary steps for the erection of a court- 
house at the present couaty-site of our county." A com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting of Supervisors Parsons, 
HoUey, Harder, and Cummins. A report was submitted 
the next day, substantially as follows : A building was to 
be erected, forty by sixty feet in dimensions, two stories 
high ; the upper part to be a court-room and two jury- 
rooms ; the lower part to be divided in the centre length- 
wise by a hall eight feet wide ; the sides to be divided into 
six rooms, two of which are to be fitted up for a jail, the 
others for accommodation of county officers and a grand- 
jury room. The walls to be brick, the lower story sixteen 
inches thick, upper wall twelve inches thick. The com- 
mittee expressed the opinion that the building could be 
erected for four thousand five hundred dollars. Resolutions 
were offered and adopted arranging for raising the amount 
necessary and for the erection of a court-house. R. "W. 
HoUey, L. H. Parsons, and Z. Bunce were appointed a 
building committee and authorized to receive plans, adver- 
tise for proposals, make contracts, and superintend the erec- 
tion of the court-house. The contract was let to George 
0. Bachman, to be completed on the 1st of November, 
1851. The Board of Supervisors, at the January session 
in 1852, adopted a resolution " that the chairman of the 
Board notify the present owners of the court-house here- 
tofore occupied by the county that they have no further 
use for the same." This building was purchased soon after 
by the Baptist Church, and occupied by them as a house of 
worship. It is now removed a little south of its former 
location, on the corner of Eraser and Woodworth Streets, 
and is used as a parsonage by the society. The present 
court-house was placed in charge of the sherifi' on the 6th 
of January, 1854, and the next day the building com- 
mittee was discharged. 

The first official action taken in reference to the erection 
of a fire-proof office building for the county was the intro- 
duction in the Board of Supervisors of the following pre- 
amble and resolution, July 9, 1865, viz. : 

" Whereas, The county offices now occupied by the 
County Register and Treasurer are too small and inconve- 
nient for said offices, and also unsafe for the records of said 
offices, it is desirable and proper that suitable offices be 
erected, detached from the court-house ; therefore 

" Resolved, That the building committee be and is hereby 
instructed to cause the erection of two fire-proof offices for 
said offices in the court-house yard, south of the court- 
17 



house, at such point as the committee may designate. And 
it shall be the duty of said committee to procure a suitable 
design for said offices, and let the contract for the building 
of the same as they may deem for the best interests of the 
county. That, for the purpose of accomplishing the above 
object, said committee are hereby authorized and empow- 
ered to borrow, not to exceed three thousand dollars, pay- 
able in not less than two or over five years from date, and 
to issue bonds of the county for the same, said bonds to be 
countersigned by the clerk and sealed with the seal of the 
office." 

The resolution was adopted on the next day. The build- 
ing was erected in the court-house yard, south of the court- 
house, and is the same which is now occupied by the 
Register of Deeds and the Treasurer. The office of the 
county clerk is in the second story of the court-house. 
The Judge of Probate occupies an office in the lower story. 

POOK-HOUSE AND POOU-FARM. 

The first action of the Board of Commissioners in refer- 
ence to the county poor was taken on January 9th, 1839, 
when Sanford M. Green, Isaac Castle, and Hiram Stowell 
were appointed to take charge of the poor of the county, 
their terms of office commencing January 7th of that year. 
Nothing further appears of record until Dec. 24, 1841, 
when the distinction between town and county poor was 
abolished, and the poor became a county charge. The sum 
of two hundred dollars was appropriated from the incidental 
fund for their support. On the 24th of February, 1842, 
the superintendents of the poor were authorized and directed 
by the Board of Commissioners to purchase a farm, not to 
exceed one hundred and sixty acres of land, to be used as a 
poor-farm, " and to make such improvements, by the erection 
of buildings upon the farm, as the necessity of the case may 
warrant." No action having been taken by the superintend- 
ents during the spring, the board, at a meeting July 6th 
of that year, suspended the resolution relating to the pur- 
chase of a poor-farm until further action. On the 21st of 
December, 1843, a committee previously appointed to con- 
fer as to the best methods of supporting the poor of the 
county submitted the following report, which was adopted : 

" The committee to whom was referred the matter of sup- 
porting the poor in this county report that it appears, by 
the superintendents of the poor, the amount expended for 
their support for the last year is three hundred and fifteen 
dollars. Your committee are of the opinion that at present 
no means can be provided which will enable the county to 
support the paupers therein with less expense than they 
have been supported for the last year. Considering the num- 
ber of paupers who have had assistance from the county, 
it shall be divided into districts so as to accommodate the 
paupers in procuring physicians employed in each district 
by the year or otherwise, as the superintendents shall think 
proper. The plan of dividing the county into districts 
your committee recommend, as follows : Burns, Vernon, 
Antrim, and Shiawassee, 1st District ; Caledonia, Venice, 
and New Haven, 2d District ; Owosso, Bennington, Sciota, 
and Middlebury, 3d District; Perry and WoodhuU, 4th 
District." At this meeting three hundred dollars was ap- 
propriated for the use of the poor. There is no further 



130 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



record of importance until Jan. 21, 1846, when seven hun- 
dred and seventy dollars was appropriated for the same 
purpose. 

On the 7th of January, 1847, the superintendents of the 
poor were directed by the supervisors to purchase a farm, 
not to exceed one hundred and sixty acres of land, and to 
erect suitable buildings thereon, for which purpose the sum 
of two thousand dollars was to be raised by tax, one-quarter 
of the amount in 1848, one-quarter in 1849, and the bal- 
ance in 1850. On the 13th of October, 1847, eighty acres 
of land (the south half of the southwest quarter of section 
32, Caledonia) was purchased for a county farm. 

At the October session of the next year it was resolved 
to raise a county tax of two thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-seven dollars and seventy cents (including five hun- 
dred dollars appropriated) for the purchasing and fitting up 
of the poor-farm. 

At the June session of the supervisors, in 1858, the 
committee on public buildings reported the dwelling on 
the poor-farm as being in a very unsuitable condition for 
the accommodation of the poor. After careful examina- 
tion, fifteen hundred dollars was appropriated for the erec- 
tion of buildings convenient for the purpose. These build- 
ings — completed in January, 1859 — are the same which are 
still in use. 

By the last report of the superintendents of the poor 
(for the year ending Sept. 1, 1879) it is shown that the 
expenses on the farm for that year were $2060.39 ; that 
there was expended for support of insane persons at Detroit, 
Pontiac, and Kalamazoo, 11854.62 ; that the value of pro- 
ducts raised on the farm was $1059.97 (estimated) ; that 
the number of persons receiving support at the county- 
house was 32. 



CHAPTEE XXV. 

THE PHESS-THE PKOFESSIONS— CIVIL LIST. 

Newspapers in the County- — The Legal Profession — Early Lawyers — 
The Present Bar of Shiawassee — The Medical Profession — Early 
Physicians — Shiawassee County Medical Association — Homoeo- 
pathy — Shiawassee Civil List. 

The result of much patient inquiry and research is 
the disclosure of the fact that there is probably no person 
now living in Shiawassee County who is able to give with 
anything like certainty the date of the establishment of 
the pioneer newspaper of the county, or its early changes 
of proprietorship. It has, however, been ascertained be- 
yond reasonable doubt that the first public journal in Shia- 
wassee was published at Owosso by Edward L. Amcnt; 
that this journal was in existence in the early part of the 
year 1839, and that its name was the Shiawassee Express 
and Clinton Advocate, having a circulation in both Shia- 
wassee and Clinton, — the latter county being at that time 
still attached to and a part of the former. 

The Owosso Argus was also established by E. L. Ament 
in 1841. Dr. C. P. Parkill, of Owosso, who was in early 
life a printer by trade, recollects that in that year he 
worked on the Argus in Owosso, and that Mr. Ament 



was then its proprietor. A proof of the existence at 
that time of both the papers above mentioned is found 
in the record of the Board of Supervisors, under date of 
June 22, 1841, at which time it was by the board "Re- 
solved that the foregoing preamble be published in the 
Owosso Argus, and Shiawassee Express and Clinton Advo- 
cate." But on the other hand, a copy of the Owosso Argm, 
dated Sept. 20, 1848, and which has been examined by the 
writer, bears the number 47, of Volume V., which would 
place the first issue of the paper at about Nov. 1, 1843. 
Yet it is proved to have been in existence at least two years 
before that time, both by the testimony of Dr. Parkill and 
by the record of the supervisors. This being the case, 
the facts only are given as above, without any attempt to 
account for the apparent contradiction. Nor can anything 
further be stated as to the continuance of the Shiawassee 
Express and Clinton Avocate after the date at which it is 
found mentioned in the record above referred to. 

The Argus, however, continued to be published at Owosso 
by Mr. Ament until his death in December, 1847, when it 
was published by Ephraim H. Gould, who was a son of 
Daniel Gould, of Owosso, and who had previously been a 
compositor on the paper under the proprietorship of Mr. 
Ament. In the summer of 1848, Mr. Gould was suc- 
ceeded as publisher of the Argus by M. H. Clark, who 
changed the name of the paper to that of Owosso Argm 
and Shiawassee Democrat. In the latter part of the year 
1849, he removed the paper to Corunna, and continued to 
publish it there as the Shiawassee Democrat, until 1856, 
when he removed to Omaha, Neb. 

The Owosso American was commenced in the summer of 
1854 by C. C. & O. R. Goodell, the oflSce of publication 
being in the south part of the National Hotel at Owosso. 
In the following year the paper was sold to Charles E. Shat- 
tuok, who remained its proprietor until the winter of 1856- 
57, when it passed into the possession of Ephraim H. 
Gould, from whom in 1858 it was purchased by John N. 
IngersoU, who changed its name to that of Owosso Amer- 
ican and Peninsular State Times, and continued its pub- 
lication under that title at Owosso till May, 1862, when 
Mr. IngersoU removed it to Corunna, and having merged 
in it the Corunna Democrat, which he had purchased a 
short time before, changed its name to that of the Shia- 
wassee American, under which name it is still published. 
After its removal to Corunna it was increased in size from 
a seven-column to a nine-column folio. Mr. IngersoU con- 
tinued to be its sole proprietor until May 26, 1880, when 
Mr. George W. Owen, the publisher of the Shiawassee 
Republican, merged his paper in the American, and became 
a partner with Mr. IngersoU in the publication of the latter. 
The American is Republican in its politics. 

The Owosso Press (a six-column folio) was commenced 
in 1862 by Hanchett & Lyon, its first number being issued 
on the 20th of September of that year. It was purchased 
on the 9th of September, 1863, by Green & Lee, who in- 
creased its size to an eight-column folio, and published it 
until Jan. 1, 1867, when it was purchased by J. H. Cham- 
pion & Co., who are still its proprietors and publishers. 
The paper is Democratic in politics. Since January, 1871, 
its office of publication has been in a brick block owned 



THE PROFESSIONS. 



131 



by Champion & Co., and situated on Washington Street, 
Owosso. 

The Owosso Crusader, an eight-column folio, was started 
by Abner B. Wood at Owosso in 1870. It was published 
by Mr. Wood till 1873, when it was sold to Charles L. 
Fuller, who in 1875 removed it to Gaylord, Otsego Co., 
Mich., where it is still in existence as the Otsego County 
Herald. 

The New Era was established at Owosso, May 5, 1873, 
by a company consisting of A. B. Wood, J. Stedman, and 
A. M. Bannister. The paper was for a time the organ of 
the State Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, and reached a 
circulation of nearly three thousand. In 1875, A. B. Wood 
became sole proprietor, and two years later removed it to 
the county-seat, where in June, 1877, its name was changed 
to that of Shiawassee County Atlas, as it is at present. It 
is a five-column quarto, " National" in politics, edited by 
Abner B. Wood, and published by the " Atlas Publishing 
Company." 

The Shiawassee Republican was started at Owosso, Feb. 
21, 1878, under the fanciful name of Odd Change, by 
Perkins & Gregory. Some changes of proprietorship suc- 
ceeded, and in April, 1879, the paper was purchased by 
George W. Owen, was enlarged, and its name changed to 
the one first mentioned. On the 26th of May, 1880, it 
was consolidated with the Shiawassee American, under the 
name of the latter. 

At Corunna the first newpaper was the Shiawassee 
Democrat, which was started in the fall of 1841 by Wil- 
liam B. Sherwood, and was continued by him until the 
spring of 1843, when the paper was discontinued, and the 
press and material were removed to Flint, Genesee Co., and 
there used by Mr. Sherwood in the publication of the 
Genesee County Democrat.* 

The Corunna Democrat was a later paper published at 
the county-seat, but the date of its first issue cannot be 
given. It was purchased by John N. IngersoU, and merged 
with the Shiawassee American, as before mentioned. 

The Corunna Weekly Courier was established Oct. 1, 
1859, by William B. Pulis, editor and proprietor. It was 
not long-lived. 

The Corumia Journal was first issued by 0. A. Gould 
& Co., in February, 1860. It expired Aug. 29, 1861, 
under the proprietorship of Jones & Ford. The other 
papers which have existed at Corunna are those which 
are now published there, the American and the Atlas, 
and both these, having been commenced at Owosso, have 
already been noticed with the papers of that city. 

In the towns along the western borders of the county the 
first newspaper published was the Laingsburg Recorder, 
started by E. L. W. Baker, in August, 1870. It continued 
for about one year, and then ceased to exist. 

The Laingsburg Herald was commenced soon after the 
paper last mentioned. Its editor and proprietor was Mr. 

* About five years later, the name was revived by M. H. Clark, and 
was by him added to the title of his paper, the Owoeto Argua. After- 
wards Mr. Clark (as before mentioned) removed his paperto Corunna, 
dropped the first part of its name, and published it as the Shiawassee 
American till 1856. 



Judevine, who sold to Charles Wilcox. At the end of 
about two years from its commencement the paper was 
discontinued. 

The Laingsburg News was first issued on the 2d of No- 
vember, 1877, by J. C. Stone, by whom it is still published. 

The Laingsburg Leader, a seven-column folio, was es- 
tablished at Laingsburg village, in June, 1880, by W. C. 
Walters, who has continued as its proprietor to the present 
time. 

The Vernon Herald, a seven-column folio, was first is- 
sued at Vernon village. May 7, 1878, by a stock company, 
with A. L. Chandler as editor and manager. It is now 
owned and published by Lucius E. Gould. 

The Bancroft Bulletin, a six-column paper, published at 
Bancroft village, and the Morrice Times, published in Perry 
township, are both edited by William Secord. The former 
was first issued in August, 1879, and the latter in Sep- 
tember of the same year. 

THE LEGAL PKOFESSION. 
EARLY LAWYERS OF THE COUNTY. 

The first attorney who practiced his profession in Shia- 
wassee County was Sanford M. Green, who came from Jef- 
ferson Co., N. Y., and settled at Owosso in 1837, being 
connected with the water-power and improvement company, 
of which Daniel Ball was the head. He had previously 
been admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of New 
York, and was admitted in this county soon after his arrival. 
In 1841 he became associated in business at Owosso with Mr. 
Smith, a lawyer who had come here from Ann Arbor, and 
who returned to that place not long afterwards. Mr. Green 
was appointed prosecuting attorney of Shiawassee County 
in 1837, and held the office till 1842, when he was elected 
to the State Senate. In 1843 he removed to Pontiac, and 
did not again return to this county as a place of residence. 
He was afterwards twice re-elected to the Senate. In 1844 
he was appointed commissioner to revise the statutes of 
Michigan, and reported to the Legislature of 1846. He 
served on the Supreme Bench of Michigan from 1848 to 
1857 ; as circuit judge from Jan. 1, 1858, to April, 1867 ; 
and again from June, 1872, to the present time. He is 
now judge of the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit, residing at 
Bay City. He is the author of " Green's Practice," which 
is in general use by the profession in the State. 

Andrew Parsons, a native of Rensselaer Co., N. Y., and 
afterwards a resident of Mexico, Oswego Co., in that State, 
emigrated from the latter place to Washtenaw Co., Mich., in 
1835, and removed in the following year to Shiawassee. He 
was active in his efforts to procure the establishment of the 
county-site at Corunna, and after it was so established, and 
the business of the county was removed to that place, he, with 
his brother Luke H. Parsons (who had previously resided 
in Washtenaw County), located in Corunna and commenced 
business under the firm-name of " L. H. & A. Parsons, 
Attorneys-at-Law." From that time Andrew Parsons con- 
tinued to be a resident of Corunna until his death. He 
was the first clerk of Shiawassee County, was subsequently 
register of deeds for eight years, and also held the office of 
prosecuting attorney. He was elected to the State Senate 
in 1846, was regent of the University in 1852-54, and was 



132 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



elected Lieutenant-Governor in 1852. On tlie resignation of 
Governor Robert McClelland, to accept a place in the cabinet 
of President Pierce in 1852, Mr. Parsons became Governor, 
was inaugurated March 8, 1853, and served during the re- 
mainder of Governor McClelland's term. In November, 
1854, he was elected a member of the House of Representa- 
tives, and having served during the winter session of 1855, 
returned to Corunna, and died there in June of the same 
year. Mr. Parsons showed himself to be a man of decided 
ability in the office of acting-Governor, as well as in the 
numerous other positions which he filled ; but he was not 
regarded as among the most conspicuous members of the 
bar of the county. 

Luke H. Parsons, brother of Andrew Parsons, and also 
a native of the State of New York, emigrated to Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich., in or about 1835, and was there admitted to the 
bar. He removed to Corunna, Shiawassee Co., about 1839, 
and entered on the practice of the law in that village with 
his brother Andrew, as above mentioned. He was elected 
register of deeds in November, 1846, judge of probate 
in 1848, prosecuting attorney in 1852, and regent of the 
University in 1857. He continued in practice at Corunna, 
and was one of the leading lawyers of the county until his 
death at that place in 1862. 

Amos Gould, a native of Aurelius, Cayuga Co., N. Y., and 
a law-student with the Hon. William H. Seward and Theo- 
dore Spencer, at Auburn, N. Y., practiced law in that place 
until 1843, when he removed to Michigan, and located at 
Owosso in the following year. He purchased the mill prop- 
erty of Daniel Ball, and carried on the business until the 
property was destroyed by fire in 1848. Meanwhile (in 
1845) he had commenced the practice of law in Owosso, 
and he continued it most successfully for twenty years ; re- 
tiring from its active prosecution in 1865, to attend to his 
extensive property interests. He was elected judge of pro- 
bate in 1844, and held the office during the full term ; he 
was supervisor of Owosso continuously from 1845 to 1850 ; 
was prosecuting attorney of Shiawassee County for two 
years, and elected to the State Senate in 1852. Judge 
Gould occupies a high place among the early lawyers of 
the county, and has been distinguished and successful 
through all the years of his practice. 

William F. Mosely was a native of the State of Ohio, 
and in 1825 emigrated from that State to Oakland Co., 
Mich., where he practiced his profession, and filled the 
offices of prosecuting attorney and probate judge. From 
Pontiac he removed to Fentonville, and in 1840 became 
prosecuting attorney of Genesee County. About 1842 he 
came to Shiawassee County, and settled on a farm, doing 
something, however, as a lawyer. Subsequently he located 
in the village of Newburg, and gave his attention to the 
business of his profession. He was a master in chancery, 
and several times filled the office of prosecuting attorney of 
Shiawassee County, both by appointment and election. He 
enjoyed quite an extensive practice in this county. He was 
a man of good ability, witty and quick at repartee, but not 
remarkably strong in argument, and somewhat lacking in 
confidence. He died in 1860. 

David Bush, Jr., settled at Shiawasseetown as a mer- 
chant prior to 1840. He afterwards studied law, and was 



admitted to the bar, but never took high rank as a lawyer. 
He was elected county commissioner in 1840, and hold 
some towniship offices, among which were those of justice 
of the peace and supervisor. 

George 0. Bachman practiced law in Corunna for a few 
years, but afterwards became an Episcopalian clergyman, 
and having filled the sacred office at Adrian and other 
places returned to Corunna, and was rector of the church 
of his denomination there at the time of his death. 

John P. Richardson (a brother of Lieutenant-Governor 
0. D. Richardson, of Pontiac) came to Corunna as a law- 
yer about 1850. He was a good counselor, well read in 
the law, but lacked confidence in his own powers, though 
he enjoyed a fair amount of business, and performed it to 
the satisfaction of his clients. After a residence of a few 
years here he removed to Omaha, Neb. 

Ebenezer Gould, a brother of Judge Amos Gould, settled 
in Owosso in 1837, and soon afterwards engaged in mer- 
chandising, milling, and other pursuits. He commenced 
reading law in 1846, and was admitted to the bar in 1851, 
when he became associated in business with his brother, 
Hon. Amos Gould. He continued in active practice in 
Owosso until 1875, with the exception of his term of ser- 
vice in the war of the Rebellion, in which he served hon- 
orably with the Fifth Michigan Cavalry Regiment, and 
became its colonel. In 1866 he was elected prosecuting 
attorney of the county. He died at Owosso, Sept. 7, 1877. 
" As a lawyer he was dignified, deliberate, and painstaking, 
acting with the greatest fidelity to his clients, and to every 
interest in his charge. In social life he was a kind, sym- 
pathizing neighbor, and a genial friend." Although he 
had but a common education, he had a strong legal mind, 
and became one of the leading members of the bar of the 
county. 

S. Titus Parsons, a brother of Andrew and Luke H. 
Parsons, studied law in their office and was admitted to the 
Shiawassee County bar in May, 1854 (having previously 
been admitted in Mexico, Oswego Co., N. Y.). He located 
in Corunna, and remained in practice there for more than 
twenty years. He was elected prosecuting attorney in 1856, 
re-elected in 1858, and again elected in 1872. He was a 
representative in the Legislature for the terms of 1863-64 
and 1867-68, and was elected a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1867. In 1877 he removed to De- 
troit, where he is still in practice. 

Hugh McCurdy, who had reached a prominent position 
among the members of the Oakland County bar prior to 1855, 
removed in that year to Corunna, where he at once entered 
upon the practice of his profession. He was appointed 
prosecuting attorney in the first year of his residence in 
Corunna; was elected judge of probate in 1860, State 
senator in 1864, and has since that time again filled the 
office of prosecuting attorney. He has ; continued in the 
practice of his profession in Corunna until the present time, 
and is now the leading member of the bar of Shiawassee 
County. 

Spencer B. Raynale, a son of the veteran physician. Dr. 
Ebenezer Raynale, of Birmingham, Oakland Co., entered 
the law-office of Hugh McCurdy as a student, and, on his 
admission to the bar, became associated with Mr. McCurdy 



THE PROFESSIONS. 



133 



in business. He was elected prosecuting attorney in No- 
vember, 1860. In 1865 he became cashier of the First 
National Bank of Corunna, and continued in that position 
until Jan. 1, 1871, when he resigned, to take the office of 
prosecuting attorney, to which he had been elected in the 
previous November. From that time he continued to prac- 
tice at the Shiawassee County bar until prostrated by the 
sickness which ended in his death, Sept. 26, 1874. 

J. T. Miller was admitted to the bar oi» Shiawassee 
County in October, 1856, but never practiced extensively. 
He afterwards removed to Detroit. 

0. T. B. Williams was admitted in 1852. He filled 
some public offices, but is not to be mentioned or regarded 
as among the prominent members of the bar of Shiawassee. 
The foregoing mention of early lawyers is intended to 
include those who commenced practice in this county dur- 
ing the first twenty years of its organization. Most of 
those of later date will be found named in the following 
list, which is taken from the attorneys' roll of the county. 
The roll, however (and consequently this list), is known to 
be incomplete. 

Amos Gould, admitted Nov. 9, 1843. 
R. D. Johnston, admitted May 20, 1857. 
Jay L. Quackenbush, admitted May 20, 1857. 

George K. Newcombe, admitted April 13, 1858. 

Gilbert R. Lyon, admitted April 13, 1858. 

Ebenezer Gould, admitted Sept. 12, 1851. 

S. Titus Parsons, admitted May, 1854.' 

0. T. B. Williams, admitted December, 1852. 

J. T. Miller, admitted Oct. 2, 1856. 

H. M. Newcombe, admitted Aug. 25, 1858. 

James Heath, admitted Feb. 8, 1859. 

Albert S. Wheadon, admitted Feb. 7, 1860. 

Amos M. Kellogg, admitted Feb. 11, 1860. 

Edward R. Davis, admitted May 1, 1860. 

John Carland, admitted Feb. 5, 1861. 

Curtis J. Gale, admitted Feb. 5, 1861. 

Frank Allen, admitted Feb. 8, 1861. 

David A. Elliot, admitted Feb. 4, 1862. 

Benjamin F. Bush, admitted Aug. 7, 1862. 

James M. Goodell, admitted Sept. 8, 1863. 

Alphonso J. Southard, admitted April 5, 1865. 

Hiram L. Chipman, admitted Oct. 4, 1865. 

G. H. Weeden, admitted April 19, 1867. 

A. Judson Loomis, admitted Aug. 5, 1868. 

H. H. Pulver, admitted Feb. 5, 1869. 

Lucius E. Gould, admitted May 4, 1871. 

J. E. Graham, admitted Sept. 12, 1871. 

Theron B. Pray, admitted Feb. 6, 1872. 

H. C. Hoyt, admitted May 8, 1872. 

Wm. E. Cummin, admitted Sept. 10, 1872. 

Alex. McKercher, admitted Sept. 10, 1872. 

Almon C. Brown, admitted Sept. 10, 1873. 

Peter N. Cook, admitted May 6, 1874. 

Friend Davis, admitted Feb. 9, 1875. 

Samuel W. Baker, admitted Feb. 1, 1876. 

Joseph B. Wilkins, admitted Feb. 3, 1876. 

William M. Kilpatrick, admitted May, 1807. 

John D. Bennett, admitted Dec. 14, 1869. 

James M. Pulver, admitted May 5, 1870. 



Selden S. Miner, admitted Jan. 17, 1878. 
T. P. Hackleman, admitted May 7, 1878. 
Stearns F. Smith, admitted May 10, 1878. 
Charles C. Houpt, admitted April 16, 1877. 
Glen D. Young, admitted Jan. 3, 1880. 
Frank A. Rogers, admitted May 11, 1880. 
Following is a list of the members of the Shiawassee 
County bar at the present time — 1880 : 



CORUNNA. 

Hugh McCurdy. 
James M. Goodell. 
Curtis J. Gale. 
J. D. Bennett. 
Wm. E. Cummin. 
Almon C. Brown. 
Peter N. Cook. 
Albert R. McBride. 
Levi J. Hamilton. 
Wm. A. Fraser. 
Glen D. Young. 

VERNON. 

Alex. McKercher. 
Mathew Bush. 

BYRON. 

James Sleeth. 



OWOSSO. 

Amos Gould. 
Gilbert R. Lyon. 
Wm. M. Kilpatrick. 
Jerome W. Turner. 
Lucius E. Gould. 
E. R. Hutchins. 
Stearns F. Smith. 

LAINGSBURG. 

. J. M. Pulver. 
J. B. Wilkins. 
H. H. Pulver. 

MIDDLEBURY. 

Samuel W. Baker. 

BANCROFT. 
M. V. B. Wixom. 



THE MEDICAL PKOEESSION IN SHIAWASSEE 
COUNTY. 

EARLY PHYSICIANS. 

The earliest settlers of Shiawassee County who needed 
medical attendance before any physician had settled in the 
county were dependent upon Dr. Cyrus Baldwin, of Grand 
Blano, and Dr. Samuel W. Pattison, of Dibbleville (now 
Fentonville). The former came from Onondaga Co., N. Y., 
in the spring of 1833, and located at Grand Blanc, and 
soon obtained an extensive practice over a wide range of 
country, and four years later removed to Atlas, in the same 
county, where he practiced for a number of years. One of 
his eariiest visits (if not the first) to Shiawassee County 
was in the spring of 1836, when he was called to Owosso 
to attend the sickness of David Wormer. 

Dr. S. W. Pattison came to this State on an exploring 
expedition in the summer of 1835, and traveled through 
parts of Shiawassee, Clinton, Ionia, and Barry Counties, 
and finally settled at Fentonville, Genesee Co., that place 
being a central point where several Indian trails came, 
too-ether. From this point his ride extended in all direc- 
tions, often following Indian trails or guided through tim- 
bered openings by blazed trees. He relates two instances 
of visits that extended into Shiawassee County, which are 
here quoted : " Quite late in the afternoon a message came 
for me to go to Esq. Crawford's, in Byron, Shiawassee Co., 
sixteen miles ofi^, and that I would have to leave my horse 
two and a half miles short of Mr. Crawford's, as* there 
was no bridge across the Shiawassee. I used all dili- 
gence, leaving my horse in good hands at the river, and 
crossed on trees fallen in and across the stream. It was 
in November, 1836, and my path was an Indian trail lead- 



134 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



ing through oak-openings and through what is now Byron 
village, but at this time not a house, only one, a Mr. Jen- 
nings', between the crossing and Mr. Crawford's. It soon 
began to snow, and darkness almost like Egypt hid every 
object, my only guide being the Indian trail, and the snow 
soon covering that, so that I had to find it by kicking 
away the snow, and to add to my perplexity there were two 
trails from the river, meeting in perhaps half or three- 
quarters of a mile, and when I came to the junction I was 
bewildered and took the upper trail back to the river. I 
now had to retrace my weary steps, and finally reached Mr. 
Jennings', expecting he would guide me, but he was on the 
bed sick, and his wife with the sick family half a mile 
farther ; I undertook it, and soon found myself back, and 
Mr. Jennings, sick as he was, guided me till I could see 
the light of Mr. Crawford's house, where I was joyfully 
received, as I was needed. Had I lost the trail so well 
worn by Indian feet I had no guide many miles north, — not 
a house, — and I should probably have wandered in vain 
for a shelter. 

" In the month of October* I received a message from 
Judge A. L. Williams, of Owosso, to make him a profes- 
sional visit, — distance thirty miles, and twenty-five miles 
from Flint, where the board [supervisors of Genesee 
County] were to meet next day, at nine o'clock A.M. The 
twenty-five miles was through an unbroken wilderness, 
much of the distance heavy timber, and the traveler was 
guided only by blazed trees. I fouod Mr. Williams very 
sick with malarial fever, and assuming a somewhat typhoid 
type, and I felt it my duty to remain with him until two 
o'clock the next day, when I left, with that noble man John 
Swain for a guide, well supplied with fireworks and blank- 
ets in case we had to lie out overnight, as the nights had 
become cold and frosty." 

Soon after this Dr. Pattison removed from Fentonville to 
Owosso. Of the reasons which induced him to make this 
change he says, " The original plan of the Northern Eail- 
road from Port Huron through Flint, Owosso, etc., to the 
mouth of Grand River left Fentonville without a thorough- 
fare. This, with the unsettled state of society, and its 
being the outside of the county, led me to make the change, 
which, however, I did with great reluctance, having formed 
a wide acquaintance north, south, east, and west, through 
good roads for a new country. Again, in Owosso were 
several prominent businessmen, — A. L. and B. 0. Williams, 
that prince of pioneers, Dan Ball, who afterwards went to 
Grand Rapids, Judge Elias Comstock, Sanford M. Green, 
A. B. Chipman, John Swain, Mr. Martin, the Goulds, Par- 
kills, etc., men of whom any community might justly be 
proud. Also near by and in full sympathy at that time 
with Owosso were the brothers Andrew and Luke Parsons, 
promising young lawyers, the first of whom afterwards was 
elected Lieutenant-Governor. All seemed anxious that I 
should become a citizen among them, and made me quite a 
pecuniary consideration, not only in an eligible building site, 
but assisting in building a fair dwelling for that day. And 
so the change was made, leaving the place where I had 
buried my beloved mother and my invalid daughter, so that 



* The visit here mentioned was made in the year 1838. 



to this day I have an abiding sympathy not only for the 
place, but for the people who so kindly treated us in our 
aflSiction. Both of these places have become flourishing 
and prosperous villages, and have railroads leading through 
them ; both have suffered depressions. Owosso failed to get 
the county-seat, and the Port Huron road was abandoned 
for years. To make the matter worse, that financier, Dan- 
iel Ball, became discouraged, and removed with his capital 
to Grand R«(|)ids ; Judge Sanford M. Green went to Pon- 
tiac, and several others followed his example.; and Owosso, 
with its beautiful location, splendid water-power, and enter- 
prising citizens, was shut in on every side but one by heavy- 
timbered lands and bad roads, making it absolutely neces- 
sary for a physician to ride on horseback, which I had done 
for several years, making long and painful rides, until it 
brought on a difiSculty which unfitted me for doing business 
that way. I must either abandon my life's work or go 
where I could ride in a carriage. I did the latter, and came 
to Ypsilanti in the spring of 1845." 

The quotations given above are from an article furnished 
to the Washtenaw Pioneer Society in 1878 by Dr. S. 
W. Pattison, who still resides in Ypsilanti in his eighty- 
fifth year. He lived, when in Owosso, on the southeast 
corner of Washington and Mason Streets, and his office was 
in a part of the house. He was a careful, thoughtful 
practitioner, and met with a fair share of success. 

The first physician to reside in the county was Dr. Jo- 
seph P. Roberts, who came from New York (where he had 
practiced several years) to the township now known as 
Perry, in the fall of 1837, and settled near the present depot 
of the Chicago and Lake Huron Railroad. He located land, 
built a log house, and was called to attend a patient the 
first night of its occupancy by Deacon Austin, who is still 
living. Dr. Roberts died in the winter of 1844-45. His 
time was not wholly given to his profession, but he only 
practiced in cases of emergency near home, devoting his 
time principally to farming. 

In 1837, Dr. Washington Z. Blanchard was at Shiawas- 
seetown and kept the hotel at that place. Concerning him 
as a physician but little has been ascertained. He did not 
remain long, and is said to have removed to Lyons, Ionia 
Co., Mich. 

Dr. Peter Laing was a physician prior to his emigration 
to this State. He located the land on which Laingsburg 
stands, and built there a hotel late in 1836. He did not 
practice after coming to this county except in cases of 
emergency. 

Dr. Abner Sears came to Byron about 1838, and remained 
a few years. 

Dr. C. P. Parkin, a native of Niagara Co., N. Y., emi- 
grated to Michigan when nineteen years old, and in the 
fall of 1841 came to Owosso. He was a printer by trade, 
and worked for one year on the Owosso Argus, then pub- 
lished by E. L. Ament, on the northeast corner of Wash- 
ington and Exchange Streets. He was employed as a 
teacher in Shiawassee and surrounding towns for a short 
time, and in the spring of 1843 commenced the study of 
medicine with Dr. S. W. Pattison, in Owosso. He re- 
mained with Dr. Pattison until the removal of the latter 
from the town, when he entered the office of Dr. Barnes, 



CIVIL LIST. 



135 



completed his studies in two years, and graduated at Wil- 
loughby Medical College, in Ohio, in 1846. He returned 
to the county and practiced in Bennington twenty years. 
In 1868 he removed to Owosso, gave up practice, and opened 
a drug-store, where he is still engaged in business. He 
was a member of the Legislature in 1857. 

Dr. Pierce left the city of Philadelphia and emi- 
grated to Michigan in 1842. He located at Corunna, 
where he was the first physician. He was very learned 
and methodical, but not a successful practitioner, and after 
about five years returned to Philadelphia, weary of the 
toil attendant upon country practice. 

Dr. William Weir was an early resident of Shiawassee- 
town, and was, from 1840 to 1850, the leading physioan 
in the county. He was not a graduate of any college, but 
was a close student and had a thorough knowledge of 
medicine as known in those days. He removed to Albion 
later, and while on his way to this county on a visit, died 
at a hotel on the route. 

Dr. Nicholas P. Harder was a physician who' located at 
Newburg, and lived at that place following his profession. 
He practiced a few years at Corunna and returned to New- 
burg, where he remained until his death. He was elected 
county treasurer and supervisor of his township. 

Dr. John B. Barnes, a native of Lowell, Mass., graduated 
at Williamstown College, in that State, and practiced at Lock- 
port, N. Y. In 1842 he emigrated to Michigan, and com- 
menced practice at Owosso, where he still lives. He was 
foremost in this section , in the anti-slavery struggle, a 
director of the " underground railroad," and intimately 
acquainted with Garrison, Phillips, and others of the anti- 
slavery leaders of that day. 

Dr. E. M. Bacon, a former resident of Albion, N. Y., 
and a graduate of Geneva Medical College, emigrated to 
Michigan and located in Corunna in 1846. Dr. Bacon 
very early acquired a large practice, and experienced all 
the hardships of the pioneer physician, finding long rides 
on horseback a necessity of the undeveloped condition of 
the country. He removed temporarily to California in 
search of health, but returned and died in Corunna in 
1869. His early death was doubtless hastened by ex- 
cessive application to the requirements of his profession. 

Dr. Freeman McClintock and Dr. L. D. Jones, from 
Ohio, came to Laingsburg, in this county, in the spring of 
1846, and commenced practice, but returned to Ohio in 
the autumn of that year. Dr. McClintock again visited 
Laingsburg in 1847 and resumed practice ; he remained 
until 1851, when he removed to California, but in 1856 
returned. From that time he has been engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits. He was succeeded by Dr. J. D. North, 
of Washtenaw County, who practiced for three years, and 
returned to Ann Arbor. His practice was taken in 1862 
by Dr. E. B. Ward, who is still the leading physician of 
the township. 

" After the railroad was completed through the county, 
doctors swarmed in like the locusts of Egypt." This is 
the remark of one of the oldest physicians of the county, 
and it is the reason why it is thought impracticable to 
notice here in detail the physicians of later date than those 
who have already been mentioned. 



SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 
In December, 1879, several physicians united in a call 
to the physicians of the county to convene at Owosso for 
the purpose of forming a county medical society. The 
meeting was held, and adjourned to meet at the same place 
in January, 1880, at which time Dr. Jabez Perkins was 
elected President ; Dr. A. J. Bruce, Vice-President ; Dr. 
L. M. Goodrich, Secretary ; and Dr. W. C. Hume, Treas- 
urer. Meetings are now held at Owosso every three months. 
The members of the society at present are Jabez Perkins, 
C. McCormick, and Charles A. Osborne, of Owosso ; A. G. 
Bruce, L. M. Goodrich, and C. F. Armstrong, of Corunna ; 
W. C. Hume, Bennington ; D. C. Holley, Vernon ; G. 0. 
Austin, Perry ; E. B. Ward, Laingsburg ; W. B. Fox and 
Harvey, Bancroft ; Tock, Lothrop. 

HOMCEOPATHY. 

The first physicians of this school who came to this 
county were Dr. John D. Kergan and Dr. F. B. Smith, 
who entered into partnership in Corunna, about 1868. In 
1871 the latter moved to Owosso. Dr. Kergan was a grad- 
uate of the Victoria College, in Canada, as an allopathist. 
In 1870 he was clerk of the State society, and is a member 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. He removed 
to Newburg, remained there about a year, and in 1878 to 
Detroit, where he is now in practice. 

Alexander McNeale, a native of Canada, came in 1870 
to Corunna, where he practiced about two and a half years, 
and removed to New Albany, Ind. 

Dr. B. F. Knapp came to Byron about 1874, and is still 
there. Dr. John Babbington, a native of Canada, came to 
Corunna in 1876, studied with Dr. Kergan, graduated at 
the Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, and commenced 
practice in Corunna in 1876. Dr. Knapp, now of Ban- 
croft, came to that place in 1877, and is now in practice 
there. Dr. Alexander R. Ball came from Canada to Co- 
runna in 1878, and commenced practice. He graduated at 
the Western Homoeopathic College, Ohio, in 1862, and 
practiced in Mason and Marshall in this State before coming 
to this county. Dr. A. H. Annis is a practicing physician 
in Hazolton. He commenced practice about 1878. 

SHIAWASSEE CIVIL LIST. 
This list embraces the names of residents of Shiawassee 
County who have held important civil ofiSces in the State 
or national government, and also of principal officers of the 
county since its organization. 

LIBUTBNANT-GOVBENOR OF MICHIGAN. 
Andrew Parsons, elected Nov. 2, 1852 ; term commenced 
January, 1853; inaugurated acting-Governor, March 8, 
1853; served to Jan. 1, 1855. 

STATE SENATORS. 

Sanford M. Green, elected November, 1842 ; re-elected in 
1844. 

Andrew Parsons, elected in November, 1845 ; term com- 
menced on Jan. 1, 1846; re-elected in 1847. 

Amos Gould, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 

John N. Ingersoll, elected November, 1860. 

Hugh McCurdy, elected November, 1865. 



136 



HISTOEY OP SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



Jerome W. Turner, elected Nov. 3, 1868. 
James M. Goodell, elected Nov. 5, 1872. 
Lorison J. Taylor, elected November, 1876. 

REPRESENTATIVES IN THE LEGISLATURE. 

Robert G. McKee, elected November, 1838. 

Lemuel Castle, elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1839 ; re-elected 
November, 1840. 

Francis J. Prevost, elected Nov. 7 and 8, 1842. 

Robert R. Thompson, elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1844. 

Mortimer B. Martin, elected Nov. 2, 1847. 

Herman C. Noble, elected Nov. 7, 1848. 

Ebenezer C. Kimberly, elected Nov. 5, 1850. 

Nicholas Gulick, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 

Andrew Parsons, elected Nov. 7, 1854. 

Dr. Charles P. Parkill, elected November, 1856. 

Sullivan R. Kelsey, elected Nov. 2, 1858 ; re-elected 
Nov. 6, 1860. 

Paul C. Sprague, elected Nov. 4, 1862. 

S. Titus Parsons, elected Nov. 4, 1862. 

William P. Laing, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 

Nathan G. Phillips, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 

S. Titus Parsons, elected Nov. 6, 1866. 

Charles Locke, elected Nov. 6, 1866. 

John N. Ingersoll, elected Nov. 3, 1868. 

Edgar B. Ward, elected Nov. 3, 1868. 

William D. Garrison, elected Nov. 8, 1870. 

Charles Y. Osborne, elected Nov. 8, 1870. 

Frederick G. Bailey, elected Nov. 5, 1872 ; re-elected 
Nov. 3, 1874. 

Benjamin Walker, elected Nov. 5, 1872. 

Lorison J. Taylor, elected to fill vacancy caused by death 
of Benjamin Walker ; re-elected Nov. 3, 1874. 

Rasselas Reed, elected Nov. 7, 1876 ; re-elected Nov. 5, 
1878. 

Derwin W. Sharts, elected Nov. 7, 1876 ; re-elected 
Nov. 5, 1878. 

MEMBERS OP CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

Francis J. Prevost, elected Nov. 6, 1849, convention of 
1850, convened at Lansing, June 3d. 

Josiah Turner, S. Titus Parsons, elected Nov. 6, 1866, 
convention of 1867, convened at Lansing, May 15th. • 

SUPREME COURT JUDGES. 

Sanford M. Green, appointed in 1848, served until 
1857. 

Josiah Turner, appointed by Governor Bingham, May 9, 
1857, to fill vacancy caused by resignation of S. M. Green ; 
held till January, 1858. 

CIRCUIT COURT JUDGES. 

Sanford M. Green, elected April, 1852 ; term commenced 
May, 1852. 

Josiah Turner, elected April, 1857; term commenced 
May, 1857; re-elected three times and still holds the office. 

REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. 
Andrew Parsons, 1852 to 1854. 
Luke H. Parsons, elected April 16, 1857. 



ASSOCIATE JUDGES. 
A. L. Williams, elected November, 1837. 
James Rutan, elected November, 1837. 
Elias Comstook, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 
Joseph P. Roberts, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 
Isaac Castle, elected Nov. 6 and 7, 1844. 
Jonathan M. Hartwell, elected Nov. 6 and 7, 1844. 
George W. Slocum, elected Nov. 14, 1848. 
James Cummin, elected Nov. 14, 1848. 

COUNTY .lUDGB. 

Robert R. Thompson, elected ■ Nov. 3, 1846 ; re-elected 
Nov. 5, 1850. 

SECOND JUDGES. 
Isaac Gale, elected Nov. 3, 1846. 
Anson B. Chipman, elected Nov. 5, 1850. 

CIRCUIT COURT COMMISSIONERS. 

Ebenezer Gould, elected Nov. 2, 1852 ; re-elected Nov. 
7, 1854. 

Samuel T. Parsons, elected Nov. 4, 1856. 

George K. Newcombe, elected Nov. 2, 1858. 

Gilbert R. Lyon, elected Nov. 6, 1860 ; re-elected Nov. 
4, 1862. 

Henry M. Newcombe, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 

James M. Goodell, elected Nov. 6, 1866. 

Hiram L. Chipman, elected Nov. 3, 1868. 

R. Bonner Wyles, elected November, 1870. 

Lucius E. Gould, elected Nov. 5, 1872 ; re-elected Nov. 
10, 1874. 

Curtis J. Gale, elected Nov. 10, 1874. 

James G. Miller, elected Nov. 7, 1876. 

Lucius E. Gould, elected Nov. 7, 1876. 

Seldon S. Miner, elected Nov. 5, 1878. 

JUDGES OF PROBATE. 
Elias Comstock, elected November, 1837. 
Ira B. Howard, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 
Amos Gould, elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1844. 
Luke H. Parsons, elected Nov. 14, 1848. 
Robert R. Thompson, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 
John B. Barnes, elected Nov. 4, 1856. 
Hugh McCurdy, elected Nov. 6, 1860. 
Sullivan R. Kelsey, elected Nov. 8, 1864 ; re-elected 
Nov. 3, 1868 ; Nov. 5, 1872, and Nov. 7, 1876. 

SHERIFFS. 

Levi Rowe, elected May, 1837. 

Elisha Brewster, elected November, 1838 ; re-elected 
Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 

David Bush, elected Nov. 7 and 8, 1842. 

Elisha Brewster, elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1844 ; re-elected 
Nov. 3, 1846. 

Alonzo Howard, elected Nov. 14, 1848 ; re-elected Nov. 
5, 1850. 

John M. Fitch, elected Nov. 2, 1852 ; re-elected Nov. 7, 
1854. 

William P. Laing, elected Nov. 4, 1856 ; re-elected Nov. 
2, 1858. 

Jonah Fuller, elected Nov. 6, 1860 ; re-elected Nov. 4, 
1862. 



CIVIL LIST. 



137 



Seymour Shipman, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 
David Parker, elected Nov. 6, 1866; re-elected Nov. 3, 
1868. 

George A. Winans, elected November, 1870. 
Benjamin B. Swain, elected Nov. 5, 1872. 
Andrew G. Kelso, elected Nov. 10, 1874. 
William J. Lewis, elected Nov. 7, 1876. 
Clark D. Smith, elected Nov. 5, 1878. 

COUNTY CLERKS. 

Andrew Parsons, elected May, 1837. 

Ira B. Howard, elected November, 1838. 

John K. Smith, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 

Joseph Purdy, elected Nov. 7 and 8, 1842 ; re-elected 
Nov. 4 and 5, 1844, and Nov. 3, 1846. 

Ebenezer F. Wade, elected April 7, 1848, to fill vacancy 
caused by death of Joseph Purdy ; re-elected Nov. 4, 1848 ; 
Nov. 5, 1850. 

Elias Comstock, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 

Cortes Pond, elected Nov. 7, 1854. 

Elias Comstock, elected Nov. 4, 1856 ; re-elected Nov. 
2, 1858. 

George C. Holmes, elected Nov. 6, 1860 ; re-elected Nov. 

4, 1862 ; Nov. 8, 1864. 

Philip W. Coleman, elected Nov. 6, 1866. . 

John E. Grahain, elected Nov. 3, 1868 ; re-elected 
November, 1870 ; Nov. 5, 1872. 

Almon C. Brown, elected Nov. 10, 1874 ; re-elected 
Nov. 7, 1876. 

Newton Baldwin, elected Nov. 5, 1878. 

COUNTY REGISTERS. 

No record of Register in 1837 or 1838. 
John M. Gilbert, elected November, 1838. 
Andrew Parsons, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840; re-elected 
Nov. 7 and 8, 1842, and Nov. 4 and 5, 1844. 
Luke H. Parsons, elected Nov. 3, 1846. 
James E. Chaffee, elected Nov. 14, 1848 ; re-elected Nov. 

5, 1850. 

Owen Corcoran, elected Nov. 2, 1852 ; re-elected Nov. 

7, 1854. 

George W. Goodell, elected Nov. 4, 1856. 

Chauncey S. Converse, elected Nov. 2, 1858 ; re-elected 
Nov. 6, 1860, and Nov. 4, 1862. 

William Oakes, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 

Charles Holman, elected Nov. 6, 1866; re-elected No- 
vember, 1868; November, 1870; November, 1872; No- 
vember, 1874 ; November, 1876 ; and November, 1878. 

COUNTY TftEASURERS. 

Josiah Pierce, elected May, 1837 ; re-elected November, 

1838. 

Isaac Castle, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840 ; re-elected 
Nov. 7 and 8, 1842. 

Alfred L. Williams, elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1844. 

Nicholas P. Harder, elected Nov. 3, 1846. 

Archibald Purdy, elected Nov. 14, 1848. 

James Cummin, elected Nov. 5, 1850 ; re-elected Nov. 
2, 1852 ; Nov. 7, 1854. 

Ransom W. Holley, elected Nov. 4, 1856. 
18 



Pliny S. Lyman, elected Nov. 2, 1858 ; re-elected Nov. 
6, 1860 ; Nov. 4, 1862. 

James Cummin, elected Nov. 8, 1864; re-elected Nov. 

6, 1866; Nov. 3, 1868; November, 1870. 

Matthias L. Stewart, elected Nov. 5, 1872 ; re-elected 
Nov. 10, 1874 ; Nov. 7, 1876 ; and Nov. 5, 1878. 

COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. 
Lemuel Castle, Ransom W. Holley, Ephraim H. Utley, 
elected November, 1838. 

Levi Rowe, elected April 29, 1839. 
David Bush, Jr., elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1839. 
Peter Cook, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 
Francis J. Prevost, elected April 5, 1841. 
Archibald Purdy, elected Nov. 1 and 2, 1841. 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS. 
Ezekiel J. Cook, elected April, 1870 ; re-elected April 

7, 1873. 

COUNTY SURVEYORS. 

No record of Surveyor in 1837-38. 

Daniel Gould, elected November, 1838. 

Philander T. Maine, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 

Nelson Ferry, elected Nov. 7 and 8, 1842; re-elected 
Nov. 7 and 8, 1842; Nov. 4 and 5, 1844. 
• Andrew Huggins, elected Nov. 3, 1846 ; re-elected Nov. 
14, 1848; Nov. 5, 1850. 

Josiah B. Parker, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 

Andrew Huggins, elected Nov. 7, 1854. 

Monroe Holley, elected Nov. 4, 1856. 

Ezra L. Mason, elected Nov. 2, 1858 ; re-elected Nov. 6, 
1860 ; Nov. 4, 1862 ; Nov. 8, 1864, and Nov. 6, 1866. 

Horace C. Maine, elected Nov. 3, 1868. 

Ezra L. Mason, elected November, 1870. 

Abner B. Wood, Jr., elected Nov. 5, 1872 ; re-elected 
Nov. 10, 1874. 

Lyman Mason, elected Nov. 7, 1876 ; re-elected Nov. 5, 
1878. 

PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS.* 

Sanford M. Green, appointed 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 
and 1841. 

J. C. Smith, appointed 1842-43. 

William F. Mosely, appointed 1844. 

Andrew Parsons, appointed 1845^6. 

William F. Mosely, appointed 1847-48. 

Amos Gould, appointed 1849. 

Richard B. Hall, elected Nov. 5, 1850. 

Luke H. Parsons, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 

William F. Mosely, elected Nov. 7, 1854. 

S. Titus Parsons, elected Nov. 4, 1856 ; re-elected Nov. 
2, 1858. 

Spencer B. Raynole, elected Nov. 6, 1860. 

Benton Hanchett, elected Nov. 4, 1862. 

James M. Goodell, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 

Ebenezer Gould, elected Nov. 6, 1866. 

James M. Goodell, elected Nov. 3, 1868. 

Spencer B. Raynole, elected November, 1870. 

* Prosecuting Attorneys were appointed by the Governor until the 
adoption of the constitution of 1850, when the office became 
elective. 



138 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



S. Titus Parsons, elected Nov. 5, 1872. 
Hugh McCurdy, elected Nov. 10, 1874. 
William M. Kilpatrick, elected Nov. 7, 1876 ; re-elected 
Nov. 5, 1878. 

CORONERS. 

David H. Tyler, elected November, 1838. 

Ephraim H. Utley, elected November, 1838. 

John WoodhuU, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840 ; re-elected 
Nov. 7 and 8, 1842. 

Lyman Melvin, elected Nov. 2 and 3, 1840. 

Henry Leach, elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1844. 

George Harrington, elected Nov. 4 and 5, 1844. 

Horace B. Flint, elected Nov. 3, 1846. 

Eliphalet B. Tooker, elected Nov. 3, 1846. 

Aaron Swain, elected Nov. 14, 1848. 

Henry Leach, elected Nov. 14, 1848. 

George Harrington, elected Nov. 5, 1850. 

Levi Rowe, elected Nov. 5, 1850. 

Humphrey Wheeler, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 

Joseph Howe, elected Nov. 2, 1852. 

Humphrey Wheeler, elected Nov. 7, 1854. 

Palmer C. Card, elected Nov. 7, 1854. 

William H. Eddy, elected Nov. 4, 1856. 

David Ingersoll, elected Nov. 4, 1856. 

Jonah Fuller, elected Nov. 2, 1858. 

Eli D. Gregory, elected Nov. 2, 1858. 

Enoch Eddy, elected Nov. 6, 1860. 

James Garrison, elected Nov. 6, 1860. 

George L. Hitchcock, elected Nov. 4, 1862. 

James Garrison, elected Nov. 4, 1862. 

Garry Tuttle, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 

Tolman Warren, elected Nov. 8, 1864. 

S. M. Marshall, elected Nov. 6, 1866 ; re-elected Nov. 
3, 1868. 

Mills Tuttle, elected November, 1866 ; re-elected Nov. 
3, 1868. 

H. M. Marshall, elected November, 1870. 

George T. Swimm, elected November, 1870. 

Benjamin F. Taylor, elected Nov. 5, 1872 ; re-elected 
Nov. 10, 1874. 

Wells B. Fox, elected Nov. 5,1872; re-elected Nov. 10, 
1874. 

John L. Miller, elected Nov. 7, 1876. 

Ezra M. Harvey, elected Nov. 5, 1878. 

John L. Miller, elected Nov. 5, 1878. 



CHAPTER XXVL 

COXJirTY SOCIETIES— AGEIOtriiTUEE— MANTJFAC- 
TUKES— POPTJIiATIOlf. 

Old Settlers' Society of Shiawassee County — Shiawassee County Fire 
Insurance Company — Shiawassee County Agricultural Association — 
Agriculture of the County — Manufacturing Statistics — Population. 

OLD SETTLEBS' SOCIETY OP SHIAWASSEE 

COUNTY. 
Early in February, 1873, a call was issued through the 
county newspapers for the holding of a meeting to form a 
pioneer society in Shiawassee, similar in its objects to so- 



cieties of the kind existing in many other counties of the 
State. The tenor of this call was as follows : 

" Desiring to perpetuate the history of Shiawassee County, 
and the personal reminiscences of its early days, as well as 
to foster a social feeling among the pioneers, we respectfully 
invite such of the present residents of the county as had 
settled in Michigan previous to Jan. 1, 1845, to meet with 
us at the court-house, in Corunna, on the 22d inst., at 
one o'clock p.m., to form an old settlers' society for the 
county. 

" Isaac Gale. Alex. McArthur. 

S. R. Kelsey. Wm. Frain. 

J. H. Hartwell. S. B. Bugbee. 

F. P. Guilford. Allen Beard. 

G. G. Doan. James Cummin. 
John 0. Henkley. John Spaulding. 
S. Hawkins. Roger Haviland." 
Jonah Fuller. 

Pursuant to this call a large number of old settlers con- 
vened at the court-house in Corunna, and organized by 
choice of the Hon. Isaac Gale, of Bennington, as chairman, 
and John N. Ingersoll as secretary. S. R. Kelsey, J. N. 
Ingersoll, and William Newberry were appointed to draft a 
constitution, which was prepared, presented, and adopted, 
naming the association the " Old Settlers' Society of Shia- 
wassee County," and setting forth that " the objects of the 
society are to cultivate social relations, and to collect and 
preserve biographical sketches, statistics, and historical facts 
and reminiscences which arc fast fading from memory." 

The annual meetings of the society are held at the court- 
house in Corunna. Picnics have been held during the 
summer months at the following places : 

Caruthers' Grove, near North Newburg, June 13, 1873; 
Hawkins' Grove, Caledonia, June 20, 1874; Grove near 
Pitts Corners, Bennington, June 26, 1875 ; Hawkins' 
Grove, Aug. 19, 1876; Caruthers' Grove, Aug. 11, 1877; 
Gates' Grove, near Owosso, Aug. 17, 1878 ; Court-House, 
Corunna, June 14, 1880. At these meetings addresses 
are made by speakers from different parts of the county, 
essays are also read, all bearing on the early settlement and 
incidents connected with it. 

The roll of the society shows the names of its members, 
their place of residence, and place and date of birth, as 
follows : 
Ebenezer F. Wade, Burns ; Massachusetts, 1810 ; settled 

in Michigan in August, 1843. 
John N. Ingersoll, Corunna ; Massachusetts, 1817 ; settled 

in Michigan in 1837. 
John R. Barnes, Owosso; Massachusetts, 1807; settled 

in Michigan Sept. 7, 1842. 
Samuel W. Cooper, Corunna ; New York, 1812 ; settled in 

Michigan in May, 1842. 
James Renney, Middlebury ; New York, 1800 ; settled in 

Michigan in April, 1845. 
Anson B. Chipman, Owosso ; Vermont, 1812 ; settled in 

Michigan in January, 1837. 
Jonah Fuller, Corunna ; Massachusetts, 1820 ; settled in 

Michigan in 1835. 
Henry W. Becker, Caledonia ; New York, 1818 ; settled 

in Michigan in 1836. 



COUNTY SOCIETIES. 



139 



William Newberry, Shiawassee ; New York, 1812 ; settled 

in Michigan July 2, 1836. 
Sullivan R. Kelsey, Byron ; Vermont, 1805 ; settled in 

Michigan in December, 1842. 
Isaac Gale, Bennington ; New York, 1808 ; settled in 

Michigan in April, 1840. 
John Innes, Bennington ; Scotland, 1815 ; settled in Mich- 
igan in August, 1836. 
Roger Haviland, Burns; Ireland, 1812 ; settled in Michi- 
gan in February, 1840. 
George W. Slocum, Middlebury ; New York, 1810 ; settled 

in Michigan in January, 1838. 
C. S. Johnson, Corunna; Massachusetts, 1804; settled in 

Michigan in November, 1838. 
William G. Smith, Woodhull; New York, 1804; settled 

in Michigan in April, 1842. 
A. H. Owens, Venice ; New York, 1823 ; settled in Michi- 
gan in July, 1835. 
J. S. Simonson, Shiawassee ; New York, 1820 ; settled in 

Michigan in October, 1845. 
James Cummin, Shiawassee; Ireland, 1814; settled in 

Michigan in December, 1840. 
N. G. Phillips, Shiawassee ; Connecticut, 1825 ; settled in 

Michigan in April, 1838. 
William Morris, Perry; Scotland, 1801 ; settled in Michi- 
gan in August, 1836. 
Joseph Parmenter, Shiawassee ; Vermont, 1810 ; settled in 

Michigan in September, 1835. 
H. J. Van Aukin. 
Henry Wiltsie, Corunna; New York, 1812; settled in 

Michigan in October, 1838. 
J. M. Van Aukin, Vernon ; New York, 1820 ; settled in 

Michigan in 1843. 
S. B. Bugbee, Bennington ; New York, 1811 ; settled in 

Michigan in October, 1837. 
Archibald Purdy, Bennington ; New York, 1811 ; settled 

in Michigan in November, 1836. 
George Rowell, Bennington ; New York, 1828 ; settled in 

Michigan in March, 1841. 
I. M. Chipman, Owosso; New York, 1817; settled in 

Michigan in 1840. 
T. H. Lemon, Shiawassee ; New York, 1816 ; settled in 

Michigan in 1843. 
Cortes Pond, Corunna; New York, 1812 ; settled in Mich- 
igan in 1842. 
H. S. Allen, New York, 1818 ; settled in Michigan in 1832. 
Andrew Huggins, Corunna; Massachusetts, 1817; settled 

in Michigan in 1839. 
Benjamin Hulick, New York, 1825 ; settled in Michigan 

in 1845. 
E. Gould, Owosso; New York, 1818; settled in Michigan 

in 1837. 

John Spalding, Perry; New York, 1814; settled in Mich- 
igan in 1840. 

J. R. Thompson, Caledonia; New York, 1809; settled in 
Michigan in May, 1833. 

Reuben Place, Shiawassee ; New York, 1814 ; settled in 
Michigan in 1835. 

Allen Beard, Antrim ; New York, 1810 ; settled in Michi- 
sjan in 1836. 



C. C. Rowell, Owosso ; New York, 1835 ; settled in Mich- 
igan in 1841. 
J. M. Fitch, Corunna; 1832. 

E. W. Wallis, Perry ; New York, 1818 ; settled in Michi- 
gan in 1844. 
A. Van Aukin, Shiawassee ; New York, 1814 ; settled in 

Michigan in 1835. 
Hiram Davis, Shiawassee ; New York, 1813 ; settled in 

Michigan in 1837. 
J. W. Dewey, Owosso ; New York, 1818 ; settled in Mich- 
igan in 1827. 
L. H. Chappen, Bennington ; New Hampshire, 1797 ; 

settled in Michigan in 1844. 
C. S. Cronkhite, Venice; New York, 1818; settled in 

Michigan in 1844. 
I. W. Rush, Owosso ; New York, 1822 ; settled in Michi- 
gan in 1840. 
L. Hopkins, Owosso ; New York, 1826 ; settled in Michi- 
gan in 1836. 
J. G. Marsh, Woodhull ; Maine, 1830 ; settled in Michi- 
gan in 1837. 
John A. Mason, Perry; Michigan, 1841. 
James H. Hartwell, Shiawassee; New York, 1824. 
B. 0. Williams, Owosso ; Massachusetts, 1810 ; settled in 

Michigan in 1815. 
Freeman McClintock, Laingsburg ; New Hampshire, 1811 ; 

settled in Michigan in 1846. 
Almon B. Clark, Bennington; Michigan, 1837. 
Phineas Burch, New Haven ; Canada, 1814. 
Thomas R. Young, Caledonia ; Connecticut, 1812 ; settled 

in Michigan in 1839. 
M. L. Stevens, Perry ; New York, 1820 ; settled in Mich- 
igan in March, 1847. 
J. B. Wheeler, Corunna ; New York, 1829 ; settled in 

Michigan in March, 1838. 
Charles Wilkinson, Venice; New York, 1813; settled in 

Michigan in 1834. 
Schuyler Ferris, Caledonia; New York, 1818. 
G. M. Roberts, Caledonia ; New York, 1813. 
S. A. Yerkes, Bennington ; Michigan, 1827. 
Mrs. Susan A. Burgess. 
Elnathan Brown, Venice ; New York ; settled in Michigan 

in 1837. 
B. M. Waterman, Caledonia ; Vermont ; settled in Michi- 
gan in 1839. 

HONORAKY MEMBEES. 

Mrs. Sarah Bacon. Mrs. B. Allen. 

Mrs. Lucius Beach. Mrs. Marietta Gale. 

Mrs. H. H. Johnson. Mrs. Julietta Rowell. 

Mrs. Manning Hathaway. Mrs. Anna Olcott. 

Mrs. N. P. Harder. Mrs. Marie E. Cronkhite. 

Mrs. James Cummin. Mrs. Rosina Simonson. 

Mrs. E. F. Wade. Mrs. Lorinda Williams. 

Mrs. Catherine Haviland. Mrs. J. B. Wheeler. 

Mrs. Susan Spaulding. Mrs. Margaret Innes. 

Mrs. Caroline A. Parsons. Mrs. Ruth Phelps. 

Mrs. Emmeline R. Wallis. Mrs. Eunice Cooper. 

The following is a list of the officers of the society from 
its formation to the present time : 



140 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



1873.— President, Isaac Gale ; Vice-Presidents, A. B. Chip- 
man, William Newberry ; Secretary, E. F. Wade ; 
Treasurer, 8. R. Kelsey. 

1874.— President, John Spaulding; Vice-Presidents, A. B. 
Chipman, William Newberry ; Secretary, E. F. 
Wade ; Treasurer, S. R. Kelsey. 

1875.— President, A. B. Chipman ; Vice-Presidents, G. 
W. Slocum, Roger Haviland ; Secretary, E. F. 
Wade ; Treasurer, S. R. Kelsey. 

1876.— President, George W. Slocum; Vice-Presidents, 
William Newberry, Ebenezer Gould ; Secretary, 
Ebenezer F. Wade ; Treasurer, S. R. Kelsey. 

1877. — President, George W. Slocum; Vice-Presidents, 
William Newberry, Roger Haviland ; Secretary, 
James B. Wheeler ; Treasurer, E. F. Wade. 

1878. — President, Roger Haviland; Vice-Presidents, B. 
0. Williams, A. B. Clark ; Secretary, James B. 
Wheeler ; Treasurer, E. F. Wade. 

1879. President, William Newberry; Vice-Presidents, 

Roger Haviland, B. 0. Williams; Secretary, 
Cortes Pond ; Treasurer, E. F. Wade. 

1880. — President, William Newberry; Vice-President, 
Roger Haviland ; Secretary, Cortes Pond ; Treas- 
urer, E. F. Wade. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MUTUAL FIRE INSU- 
EANCE COMPANY. 

In the month of May, 1861, Enoch Eddy, G. Sugden, 
Ezra D. Barnes, N. G. Philips, E. Cook, Isaac Gale, Nor- 
man Green, Enos Merrill, Benjamin Walker, and William 
Newberry, all residents of Shiawassee County, associated 
themselves together as an incorporated company for the 
transaction of insurance business under the above title. 
The articles of association limited the territory to Shia- 
wassee County, and restricted the insurance to dwellings, 
barns, and out-buildings upon farms, " together with house- 
hold furniture, farm implements, stock, and grain which 
may be therein or on the premises," against loss by fire or 
lightning. 

The organization was not perfected until the spring of 
1862, when Enoch Eddy was elected President; Cortes 
Pond, Secretary ; and W. G. Smith, Treasurer. On the 
3d day of May of that year Cortes Pond commenced taking 
applications for policies. 

In 1867 the company had three hundred and forty -six 
outstanding policies, with an assessment that year of four- 
teen hundred and twenty-three dollars and forty-four cents 
and expenses of one hundred and fifty-three dollars and 
fifteen cents. 

The company has steadily increased in usefulness, and 
gained the confidence of the community, and on the 31st 
of December, 1879, it had fifteen hundred and fifty-five 
outstanding policies, covering a total risk of two million 
eight hundred and twelve thousand nine hundred and fifty- 
six dollars. 

The total resources are two thousand two hundred and 
five dollars and ninety-four cents, and total liabilities four 
hundred and fifty-five dollars and fifty-nine cents. The 
amount paid for losses during the year (of which two thou- 
sand three hundred dollars occurred in prior years) was five 



thousand one hundred and ten dollars and seventy-three 
cents. Amount of salaries and fees one thousand one hun- 
dred and twenty dollars and ninety-six cents. But two as- 
sessments have been made during the year. 

The present ofiScers are Roger Haviland, President; 
Fred. J. Bailey, Vice-President ; Ezra Mason, Secretary ; 
Jefferson D. Leland, Treasurer ; R. Haviland, E. Mason, 
and E. S. Burnett, Directors. 

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY AGKICULTUEAL ASSO- 
CIATION. 
No records have been found of the organization or pro- 
ceedings of the old Shiawassee County Agricultural Society, 
but a few facts have been gleaned from the papers of that 
day, and from the secretary's reports to the State Society. 
The Shiawassee Society was formed in 1850, and held its 
first fair in the fall of that year, at the village of Corunna, 
on grounds situated on the south side of the river, prepared 
by the citizens of that place. In 1854 the fifth annual 
fair was held on the 11th and 12th of October. The offi- 
cers were Robert R. Thompson, President ; P. S. Lyman, 
Secretary ; James Cummin, Treasurer ; Ezekiel Cook, M. 
B. Martin, Isaac Gale, M. H. Clark, Daniel Lyon, Execu- 
tive Committee. There were three hundred and twenty- 
two entries. The amount received for membership tickets 
and visitors was eighty-one dollars and twenty-five cents. 
The number of entries made at the fair of September, 1855, 
were five hundred and twenty; receipts for membership 
and single tickets was one hundred and forty-six dollars and 
twenty-seven cents. The fair in 1858 was held at Corunna. 
The officers of that year were Isaac Gale, President ; P. S. 
Lyman, Secretary ; Charles E. Kimberly, Treasurer. 

No further information can be gained of any meetings 
of the old society, and it appears to have become inop- 
erative, as on the 16th of March, 1860, a new society 
was formed, and articles of association were adopted and 
signed by the following-named persons, viz. : Isaac Gale, 
George Sugden, James Lawlcr, A. H. Byerly, B. 0. Wil- 
liams, George W. Slocum, Benjamin Walker, Benjamin W. 
Davis, p]dward F. H. McKay, John W. Dewey, Enoch 
Eddy, and an organization under the name and style of the 
Shiawassee County Agricultural Association was perfected 
by the choice of the following persons as first officers: 
Isaac Gale, President ; B. W. Davis, Secretary ; Adam W. 
Byerly, Treasurer ; J. W. Dewey, George W. Slocum, B. 
F. H. McKay, Enoch Eddy, and Geo. B. Sugden, Direc- 
tors. A meeting of the board of directors was held at 
Gould's Hall, Owosso, on the 23d of March, 1860, at 
which time by-laws were adopted. At a later meeting, in 
June of the same year, it was resolved that the fair be 
held at Owosso for a term of five years, on condition that 
the citizens of Owosso provide not less than six acres for 
the use of the association (to be surrounded with a tight 
board fence), build necessary buildings and sheds, dig a 
well to be provided with a pump, and grade a carriage- 
drive and track, two rods wide at least and eighty rods in 
circumference, the same to be provided without any expense 
to the association. Seven hundred dollars was subscribed 
for the purpose, and the lease was afterwards extended to 
ten years, and a permanent building erected at an expense of 



AGRICULTURE. 



141 



one thousand dollars. The first fair of the association was 
held on the 17th, 18th, and 19th of September, 1860, on 
the ground prepared by the citizens of Owosso, situated 
on Hickory Street. 

The total receipts were $303.50. The annual fairs con- 
tinued to be held at the same place until 1880. In 1866 
five hundred dollars was expended in extending the track, 
the citizens of Owosso contributing two hundred and fifty 
dollars and the association the balance. At a meeting held 
April 17, 1877, it was decided to purchase thirty acres of 
land, known as the Eggleston tract, at one hundred dollars 
per acre, and two small lots of land containing about one acre. 
In the spring of 1880 the buildings on the old grounds were 
removed to the new and repaired. One acre of ground, on 
which a dwelling-house is located, was purchased for five 
hundred dollars ; this will be occupied by a tenant who 
will have charge of the grounds. A floral hall will be 
erected in the summer of 1880, a half-mile track is now 
being graded, and the first fair of the association on the 
new grounds will be held in the fall of 1880. 

The following is a list of the officers since the orgamza- 
tion of the association : 

Presidents. — 1861, Benjamin Walker; 1862, Isaac Cas- 
tle ; 1863, Geo. L. Hitchcock ; 1864, John W. Dewey ; 
1865, Ezra D. Barnes; no record for 1866; 1867-68, 
Isaac Gale; 1869, A. H. Byerly ; 1870, S. A. Yerkcs ; 
1871, Wm. Newberry; 1872-73, Wm. Rideout; 1874, 
John W. Dewey; 1875-76, C. Hibbard ; 1877-80, John 
W. Dewey. 

Secretaries. — 1861-62, George L. Hitchcock; 1863, 
Henry B. Gregory ; 1864, George L. Hitchcock ; 1865, 
A. G. Young ; no record for 1866 ; 1867, George P. 
Moses; 1868, N. McBain ; 1869, George P. Moses; 
1870-73, C. A. Osborne; 1874, Emory L. Brewer; 1875 
-78, Newton Baldwin ; 1879-80, J. A. Armstrong. 

^Veaswrers.— 1861-62, E. D. Gregory; 1863-65, New- 
ton H. Robinson; no record for 1866; 1867-69, A. G. 
Kelso ; 1870-73, A. B. Chipman ; 1874, Amos G. Young ; 
1875-76, A. B. Chipman ; 1877-80, C. A. Osborne. 

AGRICULTURE OF THE COUNTY. 
In the history of its agriculture Shiawassee differs very 
little from nearly all the counties of the Peninsula. The 
first care of the farmers who came to till the virgin soil 
was, of course, to provide subsistence for their families ; and 
so the first crops which they planted or sowed in the open- 
ings, or in their small clearings in the timber, were only 
such as were required for this purpose, and chief among 
these was wheat. Potatoes and other esculents were pro- 
vided for, but the article of prime necessity was wheat, and 
to it a great proportion of the tilled area was devoted. The 
abundant crops which they obtained soon relieved their ne- 
cessities, and placed them beyond the reach of possible 
want ; and then, from the surplus of their crops, they began 
to realize a revenue in money, though the very redundancy 
of the yield of wheat in this and adjoining sections of 
country brought the price so low at times that the remu- 
neration for the labor of raising, harvesting and hand- 
thrashing, and transporting the grain to a distant market 
seemed discouragingly small. The experience of later years, 



however, has shown that the immigrant farmers of the early 
days were not far from right in their estimate of the im- 
portance of wheat culture upon such a soil as this, where 
its constantly increasing and almost uniformly successful 
cultivation has been the foundation of so large a proportion 
of the agricultural wealth and prosperity. After the first 
struggle with poverty was over, and particularly after in- 
creased and improved means of transportation were secured, 
the wheat-fields gradually increased in size and in profita- 
ble returns per acre ; and though other grains are and have 
always been produced quite extensively, yet it is wheat 
more than any other product of the soil that has brought 
comfort and wealth to the farmers of the county. 

The raising of cattle and sheep has been carried on to a 
considerable extent, but it has never assumed as great im- 
portance here as in some other parts of the State, nor has 
as much been done here in the extensive and general intro- 
duction of improved breeds. In the report of the secretary 
of the Shiawassee Agricultural Society for 1854 it is stated 
that a full-blood Devon bull was introduced into the county 
as early as 1837, by L. Lyman, of Shiawassee township ; 
that in 1839, Ezekiel Cook, of Bennington, brought in a 
Devon and a Durham bull from Ohio ; and that in 1841, 
Alexander McArthur, of Corunna, was the owner of a bull 
of imported stock, but that the animal had died in the se- 
vere winter of 1842-43. A Durham bull was also sent 
from Oakland County to Shiawassee by James B. Hunt. 
In 1851, Deacon Cook, of Bennington, brought in a fine 
young Durham bull from the herd of Mr. Brooks, of Oak- 
land County, and a Durham cow from the Wadsworth 
herd, of Geneseo, N. Y. (purchased from Mr. Uhle, of Ypsi- 
lanti) ; and J. H. Howe, now of Owosso, received a Durham 
bull from the same famous herd. At about the same time 
several pure-blood bulls and cows were brought to the county 
by Isaac Castle of Shiawassee ; Thomas B. Green, of 
Burns ; Abner L. Gilbert, of Caledonia ; and Stimson and 
Dewey, of Owosso. Among these were Durhams, Ayr- 
shires, and one or two of the Holderness breed. Prom the 
animals above mentioned came much of the improved stock 
of the county. 

The same report from which the foregoing facts are gath- 
ered mentions that in 1854 a flock of one hundred and 
fifty Spanish Merino sheep was purchased in the county. 
At the fair of the agricultural society of the county in that 
year Durham cattle were exhibited by C. S. Johnson, of 
Caledonia, and H. Johnson, of Venice ; Devons, by Isaac 
Castle and C. S. Johnson; Ayrshires, by Isaac Castle and 
L. C. Eddy ; Merino sheep, by Isaac Gale, J. M. Hart- 
well, and J. W. Brewer; Spanish and French Merinos, by 
Luke H. Parsons and J. W. Brewer,-^the last-named gen- 
tleman exhibiting a very fine imported ewe from the flock 
of A. S. Patterson, of Newark, N. J. 

The introduction of pure-blood sheep into the county 
dates from about 1852 (though some grades had been 
brought here before 1840), and by reference to the pro- 
ceedings of the agricultural society it is found that the 
credit of being the pioneers in the introduction of Merino 
and Saxony sheep into the county is given to Isaac Gale 
and J. M. Hartwell, of Bennington ; L. Lyman, of Shia- 
wassee ; R. W. Holly, of Vernon ; and R. Burdick, of By- 



142 



HISTOKY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



ron. There is no doubt, however, that others besides these 

gentlemen might with propriety be added to the list. Since 
the introduction of pure-bloods was commenced, as above 

mentioned, the improvement in sheep-breeding has spread 
gradually, but so generally that it would be invidious as 
well as impracticable to attempt to follow its progress 

through the county. The same may also be said of the 

general increase of improved breeds of cattle, both pure- 
bloods and grades. 

The development of the agricultural interests of Shia- 
wassee County is shown (perhaps more clearly than could 
be done in any other way) by the statistics given below, 
having reference to this county. They are taken from the 
census returns of the years indicated, viz. : 

1840. 

Number of neat cattle in the county 2,143 

** sheep in the county 375 

" swine " " 3,807 

Tons of hay cut in the preceding year 502 

Bushels of wheat produced (harvest of 1839) 19,584 

" Indian corn produced (harvest of 1839) 13,772 

" oats produced (harvest of 1839) 10,937 

" barley " " 206 

" potatoes" " 23,007 

Pounds of wool sheared (1839) 683 

Pounds of inaple-sugar made (1840) 25,933 

Value of the products of the dairy (1839) $2,147 

1850. 

Whole number of occupied farms 746 

Cash value of occupied farms $734,965 

Number of acres improved 31,203 

" neat cattle 5,148 

" sheep kept in the county ; 7,087 

" swine " " 3,262 

Total value of livestock $13.^,739 

Bushels of wheat produced (harvest of 1849) 61,834 

rye " " 650 

" Indian corn (harvest of 1849) 66,505 

" oats " " 32,705 

" barley " " 289 

" buckwheat " " 6,284 

" potatoes " " 26,475 

Value of orchard products (1849) $1,041 

Tons of hay produced " 7,136 

Pounds of wool sheared in 1860 21,738 

" maple-sugar made (1850) 61,157 

" butter made (June, 1849, to June, 1850) 110,823 

" cheese " " " 16,400 

1854. 

Number of acres improved land 30,043 

Whole number neat cattle 6,735 

" " swine 4,760 

" " sheep 8,472 

Pounds of wool shenred (preceding year) 21,364 

" pork marketed " " 81,495 

Acres of wheat harvested " " 6,111 

Bushels " " " " 74,171 

Acres of corn " " " 4,111 

Bushels of corn " " " 64,947 

" all other kinds of grain (preceding year).... 26,381 

" potatoes raised (preceding year) 33,629 

Tons of hay cut " " 10,655 

Pounds of butter made " " 132,612' 

" cheese made " " 16,062' 

" maple-sugar manufactured (1854) 43,787 

1860. 

Whole number of occupied farms in the county 892 

" " acres improved 43,727 

Total cash value of farms $1,957,834 

Number of neat cattle kept in county 8,427 

" swine " " 6,156 

" sheep " " 19,379 

Total value of live stock $326,724 

Pounds of wool sheared in preceding year 46 770 

Bushels of wheat harvested preceding year 101,101 

rye. " " " 6,773 

" Indian corn harvested preceding year 93,467 

" oiits " " " 43,071 

" barley " " " 3^329 



Bushels of buckwheat harvested preceding year 2,830 

" potatoes raised preceding year 54,190 

Value of orchard products $8,976 

Tons of hay cut in preceding year 12,679 

Pounds of butter made preceding year 251,011 

" cheese " " " 18,682 

" maple-sugar made preceding year 96,723 

1864. 

Number of acres improved in the county 64,913 

" neat cattle kept in the county 11,527 

" sheep over six months old 43,187 

Pounds of wool sheared in preceding year 134,188 

" pork marketed " " 332,172 

Acres of wheat harvested " " 14,950 

Bushels of wheat " " " 109,301 

Acres of corn " " " 6,428 

Bushels of corn " " " 129,670 

" all other grains harvested in preceding year. 76,236 

" potatoes raised in preceding year 58,628 

Tons of hay cut in preceding year 21,847 

Pounds of butter made in preceding year 336,134 

" cheese " " " 27,^29 

" maple-sugar made in preceding year 95,666 

1870. 

Number of acres improved In county 111,390 

Value of farms in county $8,12.^,000 

" all live stock $1,181,149 

NuQiber of sheep kept 46,536 

Pounds of wool shorn 192,612 

Number of milch-cows 5,864 

Pounds of butter made in preceding year 491,696 

Bushels of wheat harvested in preceding year 484,687 

" Indian corn " " " 262,861 

" oats " " " 202,510 

" barley " " " 17,341 

" buckwheat " " " 9,947 

" potatoes raised in preceding year 240,162 

Tons of hay cut in preceding year 32,464 

Pounds of maple-sugar made (1870) 32,999 

1874. 

Total acres of improved land 118,781 

Number of farms 2,813 

Average area of farms (acres) 86^ 

Number of neat cattle kept 18,920 

" swine over six months old 8,132 

Pounds of pork marketed in preceding year 793,646 

Whole number of sheep kept 43,403 

Number of sheep sheared in preceding year 41,680 

Pounds of wool " " " 186,277 

Acres of wheat harvested ** " 30,641 

Bushels " " " " 463,412 

Acres of corn " " " 10,760 

Bushels " " " " 391,745 

" of all other grains harvested in preceding year, 356,432 

'* of potatoes raised in preceding year 110,286 

Tons of hay cut in preceding year 29,667 

Pounds of butter made in preceding year 743,363 

" cheese " " " 34,380 

" maple-sugar made in 1874 67,356 

Bushels of apples raised in preceding year 114,811 

Value of fruit and garden vegetables $60,470 

Number of acres in all kinds of fruits 6,966 

WHEAT CROP OF 1877 BY TOWNSHIPS. 

Bushels. 

Antrim 60,667 

Bennington 77,351 

Burns 71,343 

Caledonia 42,416 

Fairfield 26,448 

Hazelton 41,046 

Middlebury 62,344 

New Haven 36,595 

Owosso 47,614 

Owosso City 3,275 

Perry 60,420 

Rush 33,518 

Sciota (not returned) 

Shiawassee 77,172 

Venice 38,495 

Vernon 63,061 

Woodhull 46,947 

Total of county 778,712 

In that year Shiawassee County stood at the head of all 
the counties in the southern four tiers (comprising the best 



MANUFACTURES— POPULATION. 



143 



agricultural portion of the State) in the average yield of 
wheat per acre of the area harvested. 



MANUFACTURING STATISTICS. 

Though Shiawassee cannot be termed a manufacturing 
county, yet it contains a considerable number of manufac- 
turing establishments, and these will be found fully noticed 
in the histories of the cities and townships in which they 
are situated. In this place, however, we give a series of 
manufacturing statistics relating in their aggregate to the 
whole county. They are compiled from the census reports 
for the years named, extending from 1840 to 1874, the re- 
turns for the present year (1880) not having yet been 
made. 

The earliest report containing manufacturing statistics 
for the county of Shiawassee is that of 1840, which shows 
as follows : 

Number of saw-mills in the county 8 

" flouring-mills in the county 1 

Barrels of flour manufactured in 1839 800 

Total amount of capital invested in manufactures $46,873 

Value of home-made manufactures (1839) $1,000 

By subsequent census returns the following statistics of 
manufactures in the county are shown for the years indi- 
cated, viz. : 

1850. 

Number of flouring-mills 5 

Capital invested in flouring-mills $31,000 

Barrels of flour manufactured preceding year 11,700 

Value of product $36,400 

Number of saw-mills (water, 6; steam, 1) 7 

Capital invested in lumber manufacture $10,500 

Annual product of lumber (feet) 1,500,000 

Value of product $9,990 

Aggregate amount of capital invested in all kinds of 

manufactures (flour-mills and saw-mills included) $71,075 

Number of hands employed in all manufactures 75 

Aggregate value of annual product of all kinds of man- 
ufactures in the county $110,474 

1854. 

Number of flouring-mills reported 3 

Capital invested in flouring-mills $23,000 

Barrels of flour made in the preceding year 5f884 

Value of flour manufactured " " $29,681.75 

Number of hands employedin flour-mills 8 

" saw-mills operated in the county (steam, 1 ; 

water, 4) 5 

Number of feet of lumber sawed in preceding year 1,300,000 

Value of lumber product in preceding year $0,950 

Amount of capital invested in lumber manufacture $9,200 

Number of persons employed " " 11 

Amount of capital employed in all other kinds of man- 
ufacturing $9,850 

Value of products of same in preceding year $4,500 

Number of persons employed in same IS 

18*64. 

Number of flour-mills reported 5 

" runs of stones 12 

Amount of capital invested in flouring-mills $48,000 

Barrels of flour made in the preceding year 19,926 

Value " " " " $110,245 

Number of persons employed in flour-mills 12 

" saw-milla operated in the county (steam, 5; 

water, 7) ^ . ^^ 

Capital invested in lumber manufacture $26,200 

Feet of lumber sawed in preceding year 1,105,000 

Value of " " " $1M80 

Number of hands employed in lumber manufacture 36 

Number of manufactories other than saw-mills and flour- 
mills (steam, 3; water, 8) 11 

Number of persons employed in same 120 

Amount of capital invested in same $49,850 

Value of products of same in preceding year $65,630 

Coal-mines operated in county 1 

Pounds of coal produced in preceding year. 2,400,000 

Value of product at mine $3,600 

Amountof capital invested $1,000 

Number of persons employed 5 



1874. 

Number of flouring-mills in county (steam, 2 ; water, 6) 8 

" runs of stones in operation 22 

Barrels of flour made in the previous year 42,450 

Value " " " $284^800 

Capital invested in flouring-mills $184,600 

Number of persons employed in flouring-mills 26 

" saw-mills in the county (steam, 7; water, 9) 16 

Feet of lumber sawed in preceding year 11,550,000 

Value " " $120,500 

Capital invested in lumber-manufacture $71,600 

Persons employed in *' 73 

Number of wood-working* manufactories (steam, 5j 

water, 1) 6 

Capital invested in same $33,200 

Value of product in preceding year $44,000 

Number of persons employed 24 

" iron-workingf manufactories 4 

Capital invested in same $25,700 

Value of product in preceding year $47,000 

Number of persons employed 26 

'* musical-instrument manufactories 1 

Capital employed in same $3,000 

Value of product in preceding year $3,000 

Number of persons employed 4 

" wagon-, carriage-, and sleigh- manufactories 2 

Capital invested in same $6,000 

Value of product in preceding year $13,000 

Number of persons employed 11 

" furniture- and chair-factories 4 

Capital invested in same $51,200 

Value of product in preceding year $121,000 

Number of persons employed 76 

*' stave- and heading-factories 3 

Capital invested in same $12,800 

Value of product in preceding year $12,500 

Number of persons employed 29 

" barrel-, keg-, pail-, and tub-factories 1 

Capital invested in same $1,000 

Value of product in preceding year $3,000 

Number of persons employed -5 

'* tanneries reported 1 

Capital invested in same $20,000 

Value of product in preceding year $50,000 

Number of persons employed 22 

" saddle-, harness-, and trunk-factories re- 
ported 1 

Capital invested in same $2,000 

Value of product in preceding year $4,000 

Number of persons employed 3 

" breweries reported in county 2 

Capital invested in same $1.3,000 

Viilue of product in preceding year $16,000 

Number of persons employed 7 

" paper-mills 1 

Capital invested in same $20,000 

Value of product in preceding year $14,130 

Number of persons employed 14 

*' boot- and shoe-factories 1 

Capital invested in same $4,000 

Value of product in preceding year $20,000 

Number of persons employed 15 

" pot- and pearl-ash factories 1 

Capital invested in same $500 

Value of product in preceding year $3,000 

Number of persons employed 2 

" brick- and tile-manufactories 2 

Capital invested in game $4,500 

Value of product in preceding year $12,000 

Number of persons employed 24 

" stone- and mavble-works 2 

Capital invested in same $2,500 

Value of product in preceding year $11,000 

Number of hands employed 8 

Total number of manufacturing establishments (includ- 
ing saw-mills and grist-mills) reported in the county 

for the year 1873 68 

Persons employed in same 364 

Capital invested $464,500 

Value of product for the year $805,930 

Coal-mines operated (1874) 2 

Capital invested $168,549 

Men employed 41 

Value of product at mines $39,000 

POPULATION OP THE COUNTY. 
The total population of Shiawassee County in the year 

1837, as shown by the census returns of that year, was 

* Including in this class planing- and turning-mills, and sash -, 
door-, blind, and spoke-factories, 
f This class includes foundries, machine-shops, and boiler-works. 



lU 



HISTOKY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



1184; in 1840, 2103; and in 1845 it was 3010. The 
population at several later periods, from 1850 to 1874, in- 
clusive, is given by townships in the following table : 

1850. 1854. 

Antrim 282 41.S 

Bennington 60 660 

Burns 717 949 

Caledonia 500 905 

Corunna (Village and 

City) 

Fairfield 74 

HazeJton 26 72 

Middlebury 132 229 

New Haven 150* 174 

Owosso 392 621 

Owosso (City) 

Perry 313 445 

Rush 126 

Scioto 191 297 

Shiawassee 810 917 

Vernon 674 790 

Venice 186 409 

Woodhull 250 338 

Total of County 5233 7419 12,898 13,465 20,858 21,773 



1860. 


1864. 


1870. 


1874. 


646 


727 


992 


985 


895 


1,005 


1,424 


1,490 


1,065 


1,173 


1,557 


1,498 


1,203 


1,664 


891 


1,008 


864 




1,408 


1,345 


346 


352 


632 


643 


350 


389 


822 


1,134 


616 


605 


1,018 


969 


448 


522 


999 


1,148 


573 


589 


1,058 


1,050 


1,169 


1,346 


2,065 


2,448 


670 


693 


1,058 


1,016 


346 


397 


683 


774 


499 


538 


1,270 


1,312 


1,146 


1,168 


1,422 


1,336 


1,100 


1,144 


1,797 


1,785 


575 


569 


986 


1,076 


387 


584 


776 


756 



CHAPTER XXVII. 
CITY OF OWOSSO.f 

The Location of the City and i(8 Advantages — Early History, Settle- 
ment, etc. — City Incorporation and Organization — First City As- 
sessment — List of City Officers — ^Fire Department and Water Supply 
— Mills and Manufucturing^Educational — Secret Benevolent Asso- 
ciations — Other Associations —Religious. 

The city of Owosso,| the most important commercial 
and manufacturing point in Shiawassee County, is situated 
on the Shiawassee§ River, at the crossing of the Detroit 
and Milwaukee and the Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw 
Railroads. From the junction of these roads it is seventy- 
nine miles to Detroit, seventy-eight to Grand Rapids, thirty- 
seven to Saginaw, twenty-seven to Lansing, and three miles 
to Corunna, the county-seat. 

Its beautiful and healthful location, great natural advan- 
tages, together with its superior railroad facilities, render it 
one of the most desirable dwelling-places in Central Michi- 
gan. Lying mainly within the township of Owosso, its 
corporate limits extend eastward into that of Caledonia, em- 
bracing a total area of four square miles. " The Shiawassee 
enters the city from the east, thence flowing over its rocky 
bed rapidly to the northward, until the west line of section 
13 is crossed, it then turns sharply to the north and con- 
tinues in that direction beyond the northern limits. 

* Including Rush. 

t By John S. Schenck. 

J According to Mr. B. 0. Williams, this name was derived from that 
of " Wasso," the principal chief of the Shiawassee band of Chippewas, 
who, prior to the first occupation of the county by the whites, and for 
several years subsequently, lived near Shiawasseetown; Upon the 
organization of the township, in 1837, the letter was prefixed to 
the chief's name, and the same adopted as the name of the new town- 
ship. The hamlet in its midst, as yet without a cognomen other than 
that of " The Rapids," or the " village of Shiawassee Rapids," also, 
very naturally, assumed the same name. Originally the word was 
spelled wasso, but, by common — perhaps improper — usage, it has in 
recent years obtained its present orthographical style. 

J Chippewa term for "straight running river." 



Owosso of to-day contains about three thousand inhabi- 
tants, and with its river and race, the substantial iron 
bridges spanning them, the mineral springs, the inequalities 
of the surface, adorned with elegant residences and well- 
kept lawns, the regularly laid out residence-streets, shaded 
with luxuriant native forest-frees, the streets of trafiBc, 
lined with impo.sing brick structures, the whirr of wheels 
in the manufactories, the whistling of locomotives and 
the rumble of freighted trains, the dome of a handsome 
school building, and the spires of numerous church edifices 
surmounting all, combine to form a picture at once satisfac- 
tory and pleasing, to make the little city appear — what it 
really is — busy and beautiful, the home of many citizens 
of thrift and culture. 

EAELY HISTORY, SETTLEMENTS, Etc. 

The reader will observe by referring to the history of 
Owosso township that during the year 1823 Deputy United 
States Surveyors Joseph Wampler and William Brookfield, 
working separately and accompanied by their respective as- 
sistants, ran out the township and sectional lines prevailing at 
the present time, and that ii-om their meagre field-notes we 
obtain the earliest authentic information concerning the oc- 
cupancy of this immediate vicinity by the English-speaking 
whites. Meanwhile, ten years had elapsed since the original 
survey. No settler's rude cabin or stumpy fields as yet de- 
faced nature's landscape, and, save occasional visits from the 
half-breed French and Indian coureurs-de-hois (forest-run- 
ners), Wasso's band of Chippewas and the wild beasts of the 
forest were the only occupants of this portion of the Shia- 
wassee Valley. 

The time last mentioned brings us to the spring or early 
summer of 1833, — a time when Benjamin 0. Williams, in 
pursuing his journey to Saginaw, via the broad Indian trail 
which followed the course of the Shiawassee, passed this 
way in company with the Chippewa chief, E8h-ton-e-quet,|| 
or "Little Bear." Mr. Williams and his guide journeyed 
on Indian ponies, and as they came out on the open plain 
which skirted the right bank of the river at the Che-boc-wa- 
ting, or " Big Rapids," the sight unfolded to them was most 
pleasing. A halt was made on the high ground near the 
present school-building, where a better and more extended 
view was obtained. They saw here magnificent water- 
power privileges, beautiful rose-willow plains extending 
to a considerable distance back from the east bank of the 
river, while on the opposite side was a wooded tract of dense, 
heavy timber, — the place, in fact, described by William 
Brookfield in 1823, in these words : " Plains or oak-openings. 
Land first-rate. Good soil. No large timber. It was long 
ago burnt off. Undergrowth white and prickly ash, poplar, 
thorns, and briars ; all in abundance." 

After surveying the beauties of nature for a few moments, 
Mr. Williams turned to his companion and remarked, 
" What a fine farm could be made here !" 

" Yes," replied the chief; and then, giving further ex- 
pression to his thoughts and the knowledge that the white 
men were steadily encroaching upon the hunting-grounds of 
his people, continued, " Not many more moons will 



He was aljo known by the French as Monoousin, or " My Cousin." 



CITY OF OWOSSO. 



115 



over my white brother's head ere the pale-faces will have 
mills, a town, and cultivated fields here." 

Fully determined to possess himself of a portion, at least, 
of this fair domain, the journey was resumed towards Sagi- 
naw. Upon his return to their trading-post, " The Ex- 
change," Mr. Williams acquainted his brother, Alfred L. 
"Williams, of his discovery, and urged that they purchase, 
with what available cash they had, lands at the " Big Rap- 
ids." Deferring to his elder brother's judgment, and accom- 
panied by him, B. 0. Williams again visited this region the 
same summer, when the brothers concluded to locate lands 
here, recognizing its value for mill-sites, and strongly sus- 
pecting that it would be a central point in a new county. 
Acting upon this determination, Alfred L. Williams pro- 
ceeded to Detroit, and on the 2d of August, 1833, the first 
land in the surveyed township transferred to individual own- 
ership was entered in the names of Alfred L. and Benjamin 
0. Williams, being a portion of section 24. Their means 
of obtaining ready cash at that time were very limited, and 
their purchase did not cover as much territory as they de- 
sired. Therefore, when more money was obtained, addi- 
tional lots were purchased on section 13, November 13th of 
the same year, in all about two hundred acres. 

From the date last mentioned until the summer of 1835 
no other purchases were made in this vicinity or township. 
The Messrs. Williams had made no improvements, and 
" land-lookers'' had not penetrated the wilderness thus far. 
However, in June, 1835, Elias Comstock and Lewis Find- 
ley, from Oakland Co., Mich., entered lands situated upon 
section 13 (the former upon section 2-1 also). In -July, 
1835, the Messrs. Williams entered additional land upon 
the same section, and in October of the same year Abel 
Millington, of Washtenaw Co., Mich., Trumbull Cary, of 
Genesee Co., N. Y., Peter A. Coudrey, of New York City, 
and Elias Comstock and Seth Beach, of Oakland Co., Mich., 
entered lands situated upon sections 13, 14, 23, and 24, all 
within or near the present corporate limits of the city of 
Owosso. 

Early in July, 1835, the first settlement in the northern 
half of Shiawassee County was commenced at the " Big 
Rapids of the Shiawassee," the locality now known as the 
city of Owosso, by people from Oakland County. The 
movement was inaugurated by Elias Comstock, Lewis Find- 
ley, and Kilburn Bedell (a son-in-law of Findley), who 
having purchased lands here in June of the same year, 
were desirous of beginning immediate improvements upon 
them. Therefore a party, consisting of Elias Comstock, 
Lewis Findley, Kilburn Bedell and wife, John D. Overton, 
his wife and one child, and David Van Wormer, with his 
wife and one child, left Pontiac in the first days of July, 
1835, and began their journey to this point. Their house- 
hold effects and their women and children were mounted 
upon two wagons, drawn by two ox-teams ; two or three 
cows were also brought along. July 4th was celebrated by 
cutting out roads. An Indian trail was followed mainly, 
but frequently it was diverged from and a route of their 
own cut out, in the endeavor to keep upon dry ground and 
the most direct course. 

Upon their arrival, Mr. Findley immediately built a log 
cabin and settled on the east part of the northwest frac- 
19 



tional quarter of section 13. His son-in-law, Mr. Bedell, 
located- a short distance north, on section 12, while the 
Messrs. Overton and Van Wormer, who were in the employ 
of Mr. Comstock, erected and occupied a double log house, 
which stood near the river (the lot now owned and occupied 
by Hon. Jerome W. Turner), the latter being the first build- ^ 
ing erected within the limits of the city proper. After his 
tenants were comfortably housed and cared for, Mr. Com- 
stock returned to Pontiac, where he passed the succeeding 
winter. 

During the fall of 1835 another settler arrived at "The 
Rapids," in the person of Henry S. Smith. He was a 
blacksmith by trade, the second settler in the county 
(John I. Tinkelpaugh having been the first), and first lo- 
cated just below Shiawasseetown in the fall of 1832, 
where, associated with a Mr. Cooley, and possessing a few 
goods and a barrel of whisky, he endeavored to establish 
an Indian trading-post. His wife, a delicate, nervous 
woman, and five children joined him in 1833. The ven- 
ture at Shiawasseetown did not succeed very well, however, 
and in the fall of 1835 he was induced by Alfred L. Wil- 
liams to remove and take up his residence at the " Big 
Rapids of the Shiawassee." A log cabin was erected on 
land now known as block 24, east side of the race, and 
when occupied by himself and family he became the first 
settler on the site of the original village plat. The early 
settlers remember him as a genial, liberal, and good fellow, 
who had the confidence and esteem of all who knew him. 
He brought the first plow into the county. He was elected 
as the first collector, and also one of the highway commis- 
sioners in 1837 ; was re-elected to the same oflBces in 1838, 
and in 1839 or '40 removed with Daniel Ball to Chesaning, 
thence to Grand Rapids, where it is believed he still resides. 
Of the settlers before mentioned we will here add that 
Lewis Findley opened the first farm in the township. He 
became the first supervisor of Owosso in 1837, and again 
filled the same position in 1841. After continuing as a 
resident of this township for a number of years, he finally 
removed to Six-Mile Creek. His son-in-law, Kilburn Be- 
dell, was the first one in the settlement to depart from the 
cares and troubles of this life. Apparently in perfect 
health, early in March, 1836, he proceeded to visit the 
" Exchange" for the purpose of transacting some business. 
Returning, he arrived at a point near the Byerly farm, when 
he became seriously ill. People at the Van Wormer and 
Overton cabin were notified of his condition. They at once 
hastened to his assistance, placed him upon a hand-sled, 
and brought him to the cabin, where all the appliances and 
remedies at hand were used for his restoration. But they 
were of no avail. He died the same evening, and on the 
following day was buried on his own land, near the banks 
of the Shiawassee. Mr. Comstock, who was then present 
in the settlement, made the cofiin from cherry lumber 
which Mr. Bedell had brought in to manufacture into tables. 
Messrs. Van Wormer and Overton continued as residents 
here but two or three years. 

Hon. Elias Comstock, who has been prominently identi- 
fied with the history of this community since 1835, was 
born at New London, Conn., Dec. 18, 1799. His father, 
Rev. Elkanah Comstock, was a Baptist clergyman, and re- 



146 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



moving from Connecticut to Albany Co., N. Y., about 1802, 
was pastor of the Baptist Church in the town of Berne 
until 1807. He then removed to Cayuga Co., N. Y., 
serving as pastor of churches in the towns of Scipio and 
Owosco, N. Y., until the fall of 1824, when, with his 
family, he emigrated to Michigan. He settled at Pontiac, 
and became the first pastor of the first Baptist Church in 
the Territory. His son, Elias Comstock, received the ad- 
vantages afibrded in the common schools of New York 
State, and finally completed his studies under the tuition 
of Mr. Ellis, at Skaneateles, N. Y. From his eighteenth 
year until his removal to Michigan, May, 1823, he was 
occupied as a teacher in Cayuga Co., N. Y. Soon after 
his arrival he engaged in teaching in Detroit as assistant to 
John Farmer, then principal of the Detroit Academy. He 
next taught school in Pontiac, which then contained less 
than a dozen families. In 1824 he engaged in mercantile 
business at Stony Creek, Oakland Co. The following 
year he returned to Pontiac, where he became the suc- 
cessor of John J. Jermain, the first merchant of that 
place. He was appointed clerk of Oakland County by 
Governor Cass in 1827, and soon after, by the same 
authority, became justice of the peace, continuing to hold 
both oflBces for eight years. While filling the positions of 
clerk and justice he also found time to clear and cultivate 
a farm of eighty acres, which is now wholly within the limits 
of the city of Pontiac. 

Having sold his possessions in Pontiac in 1835, he then 
located land* on the Shiawassee River, now a part of the 
city of Owosso. Like others, he located his land with the 
idea that Owosso was to be the county-seat ; but the inter- 
ests of Detroit land-owners prevailed, and Corunna was 
established. By the settlement of Messrs. Overton and 
Van Wormer many improvements had been made upon 
his purchase. A dwelling-house had been erected for him 
by Henry S. Smith, and in pursuance of his plans, on the 
15th of May, 1836, he settled his family at " The Rapids," 
completing the journey from the " Exchange" in a canoe. 
Holding an appointment as justice of the peace of Oakland 
County, and as this region was then attached to that county 
for all judicial purposes, he became the first resident justice, 
and the succeeding year (1837) was elected to the same 
position in the new township of Owosso. During the years 
1838, '39, and '40 he served as supervisor. lu subsequent 
years he has served as judge of probate, county judge, asso- 
ciate judge of the Circuit Court, and in 1852, 1856, and 
1858 he was chosen county clerk on the Republican ticket. 
Although more than fourscore years of age, yet in apparent 
good health and honored by all who know him. Judge 
Comstock still resides in the beautiful little city he assisted 
to found forty-five years ago. 

In the autumn of 1835 and the winter succeedins, 
Messrs. A. L. and B. 0. Williams became active in the pre- 
liminary work necessary for the establishment of a village 
on their purchase. The veteran surveyor Hervey Parke, 
of Pontiac, came up and platted the village of Shiawassee 
RapidSjf on lands resting on the right bank of the river. 



» See list of land-entries, history of Owosso township. 
f Maps of this plat hare not been preserved. 



A petition praying for the. right to dam the Shiawassee 
River received favorable consideration at the hands of the 
Territorial legislative body then in session, and by an act 
approved March 28, 1836, Alfred L. and Benjamin 0. 
Williams, their heirs and assigns, were authorized to build 
a dam across the Shiawassee River four feet in height, at 
a place known and described as " The Rapids," on section 
24, in township No. 7 north, of range No. 2 east. The 
act further specified, " They shall also build a good and 
sufficient lock, not less than seventy-five feet in length and 
sixteen feet in width, for the passage of boats, canoes, rafts, 
and other water-craft." 

Early in 1836 a bargain was completed between the 
Messrs. Williams and Daniel Ball & Co., whereby the 
latter became the owners of one-third of the village plat, 
besides the water-power and the land lying between the 
proposed mill-race and river. Silas and Daniel Ball also 
purchased of the general government in March, 1836, lands 
situated upon sections 24, 25, and 36. Daniel Ball was a 
practical millwright, an energetic business man, and, in pur- 
suance of his project to establish mills and to assist in 
building up a village, arrived here from Rochester, N. Y., 
early in the autumn of 1836, with a number of families, 
people frequently spoken of as " Ball's colonists." Among 
them were Rufus Collier, Simon Howell, John B. Griswold, 
William B. Hopkins, Henry Crooks, Daniel Fletcher, Mr. 
Sweet, John Lute, Mr. Hilton, Mr. Siegel,J who had 
served with the First Napoleon, and perhaps others whose 
names are not remembered. 

Machinery for Ball's saw-mill, and the greater portion of 
the goods belonging to this party of settlers, had been 
shipped to Saginaw, from whence it was proposed to bring 
them up the Shiawassee on canoes, rafts, etc. But on the 
6th of October a heavy and unseasonable snow-storm came 
on, which, falling upon trees yet clothed in their summer 
verdure, caused many of them to bend and fall into the 
stream, thus rendering navigation impossible until cleared 
away. In the long delay which ensued before getting 
their household articles considerable privation and hardship 
was experienced. Cabins were first erected, and after the 
various families were comfortably quartered therein, work 
was commenced on the mill-race. The latter, the dam, and 
a saw-mill were completed sometime during the year 1837. 
Mr. Ball occupied the log cabin built by Henry S. Smith 
in 1835 for a store, and it is believed became the first 
postmaster at about the same time. 

During the spring of 1837, Alfred L. Williams moved 
from the "Exchange" to the village and establishpd the 
store known at that time as " Williams' trading-post." 
His brother, B. 0. Williams, did not permanently settle 
here until the following year. The log dwelling-house first 
occupied by A. L. Williams stood just in front of Dr. 
Barnes' present residence. Mr. B. 0. Williams relates 
that the mosquitoes and gnats were terribly annoying dur- 
ing those days. Smudges of rotten wood were kindled each 
night, and pans of the same smoking material carried into 
the rooms. One night, when the Williams brothers and 



i His wife received the credit of having given birth to the first 
child (.John Siegel) born in the township. 



CITY OF OWOSSO. 



147 



two or three workmen were occupying the building, the 
busy insects were more than usually on the alert; the 
" smudge" seemed to have no effect on them whatever. In 
sheer desperation, Alfred L. Williams arose and threw a 
handful of red pepper in the fire. Nearly suffocated, the 
inmates ran to open air for their lives. The mosquitoes, 
however, were quieted for that night. 

The year 1837 throughout was an eventful one in the 
history of Owosso. It witnessed the formation of the town- 
ship ; the completion of the race ; an increased number of 
settlers, in the persons of Daniel Gould, who became the 
first county surveyor, Austin Griffis, Ebenezer Gould, an 
early merchant and lawyer, and afterwards known to fame 
as colonel of the " Fighting Fifth" Michigan Cavalry, Anson 
B., William, and Isaac M. Chipman, Sanford M. Green, 
George Parkill, and others ; and the survey and location of 
the Northern Railroad,* which, in passing from Port Hu- 
ron, through Lapeer, Flint, Corunna, Owosso, Lyons, Ionia, 
and Grand Rapids to Lake Michigan, was to become one of 
the most important internal improvements ever adopted by 
any State. 

At this time, too (1837), the citizens of Owosso began 
looking about them for some means of conveying goods to 
and from their settlement • other than by the miserable, 
deep-rutted wagon-roads leading to Pontiac, Detroit, and 
Ann Arbor, and by an act of the State Legislature, ap- 
proved March 21, 1837, the Owosso and Saginaw Naviga- 
tion Companyf was incorporated, and Daniel Ball, Alfred 
L. Williams, Benjamin O. Williams, Lewis Findley, Wil- 
liam Gage, Gardner D. Williams, Norman Little, Samuel 
G. Watson, Ephraim S. Williams, Elias Comstock, Alex- 
ander Hilton, and Perry G. Gardener were named as cor- 
porators. . Their purpose was to make navigable the waters 
of the Shiawassee River between the two points named in 
the title of the act. The capital stock was to be one hun- 
dred thousand dollars, divided into shares of twenty-five 
dollars each. Besides those mentioned, other inhabitants 
of Owosso aided in finding means for pushing the work, — 
notably Ebenezer Gould and David D. Fish. 

This company went forward and expended several thou- 
sand-dollars and worked for two years in removing ob- 
structions of drift-wood and fallen timber, principally be- 
tween Chesaning and Bad River. Tow-paths, stone dams, 
and the many other expedients necessary to render the river 
navigable to Saginaw were adopted. Messrs. Daniel Ball 
and Sanford M. Green worked in the water beside their 
men from daylight till dark, meanwhile tormented by mos- 
quitoes- continuously. One of their foremen, John B. 



» In 1838-39 much of this proposed line was cleared and grubbed 
out, and considerable grading was done at various points along the 
line. But the scheme was abandoned in the latter year, and except 
where it has since been used as the " Northern Wagon-Koad" the 
money thus'cxpended by the State was thrown away. 

f Another company under the same name was empowered by an 
aot of the Legislature, approved May 15, 1846, to continue the work 
in the endeavor to render navigable the Shiawassee. Those named in 
the act as commissioners were Amos Gould, Alfred L. Williams, Ben- 
jamin 0. Williams, Elias Comstock, Ebenezer C. Kimberly, Lemuel 
Castle, Isaac Gale, George W. Slooumb, Edward L. Ament, Anson B. 
Chipman, and John B. Barnes. But after some further expenditure 
of time and material the project was abandoned. 



Griswold, also greatly aided their efforts. At that time, to 
fail in this work was thought fatal to the success of set- 
tling the country, as the expense of hauling over the terri- 
ble wagon-roads was ruinous to business men. The com- 
pany finally succeeded in rendering the river navigable for 
flat-bottomed boats, and one Durham boat was built by 
Ebenezer Gould and others, which was capable of carrying 
and did carry over two hundred barrels of flour at one 
cargo from Owosso to Saginaw. Mr. B . 0. Williams, from 
whose published pioneer recollections we have gathered the 
information concerning the navigation of the Siiiawassee, 
says that several scows were first built, with foot- or run- 
ning-boards at each side for the boatmen to pole the boat 
up the river. From Chesaning a horse was used for tow- 
ing, occasionally jumping the horse upon the bow of the 
boat to cross him over the river when the opposite bank 
afforded better facilities. 

In 1838, Messrs. Ebenezer Gould and David D. Fish 
established themselves as merchants in the village. They 
were really the first, if we except the small stock kept by 
Daniel Ball for the accommodation mainly of his workmen, 
and the goods brought here by A. L. Williams from his 
trading-post, " The Exchange." 

On the 13th of October, 1838, the land now known as 
the original platj of the village of Owosso was surveyed 
and mapped by Daniel Gould, surveyor, at the instance of 
Alfred L. and B. 0. Williams, proprietors. An explana- 
tory note of the surveyor says, " This plat includes the fol- 
lowing parcels of land: the northeast fraction of the 
northeast fractional quarter of fractional section 24; the 
southeast fractional quarter of fractional section No. 13, in 
township 7 north, range 2 east ; and the west part of the 
southwest fractional quarter of section No. 18, in township 
No. 7 north, of range No. 3 east." 

Grounds set aside for public uses were " Fayette Square" 
and the " burying-ground." The streets, as shown by the 
original map, ran north and south, east and west. Those 
running east and west are North, Oliver, Williams, Mason, 
Exchange, Main, and Comstock. Those running north and 
south. Mulberry, Pine, Adams, Water, Ball, Washington, 
Park, Saginaw, and Hickory. All are four rods wide ex- 
cept Washington and Main Streets, and Exchange Street 
as far west as Water, which are six rods in width. 

Dr. S. W. Pattison, the first practicing physician to re- 
side in the county, came from Fentonville, Genesee Co., 
and settled in Owosso in 1839. Dr. Joseph P. Roberts 
had previously settled in the territory now known as Perry 
township, but he devoted all his energies to farming. He 
was one of the earliest settlers there, and possessed a well- 
cultivated mind. Before Dr. Pattison came to Owosso, the 
early settlers, in cases of dire emergency, sent to Fenton- 
ville, to Grand Blanc, and to Flint for physicians. For the 
treatment of ordinary cases of fevers, fever and ague, etc., 

J Additions to the original plat have been made by Louisa A. Gould's 
subdivision of out-lots 1 and 4, June 30, 1856; S. K. Barnes, July, 
1856 ; Alfred L. Williams, Oct. 22, 1856 ; Lucy L. Comstock, Aug. 16, 
1857; LouisaMerell, Aug.l8, 1857; Williams & Lyon, October, 1857 ; 
Charles L. Goodhue, Jan. 9, 1860 ; A. L. and B. 0. Williams' subdi- 
vision of out-lots 6 and 7, June 30, 1864 ; Jennett H. Kelly, Sept. 3, 
1866; Erastus Barnes, June 4 and 5, 1868; Mary A. Chipman, May 
25, 1869; A. L. and B. 0. Williams, Sept. 13, 1872. 



148 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



many of the pioneers were provided with lancets and common 
medicines, and in their use became quite expert. Particu- 
larly was this the case with Mr. B. 0. Williams, who during 
the early years preceding the settlement of physicians 
treated many patients successfully. 

In 1839 the township voted two hundred and fifty dollars 
for the purpose of building a bridge across the river at the 
Washington Street crossing, and during the same year 
Messrs. Ball, Green & Co. erected the first grist-mill. This 
was a great acquisition to this portion of the country, as 
previously no grist-mills were nearer than the " Thread 
Mill" in Flint. Other business enterprises, such as wool- 
carding and cloth-dressing mills, an iron-furnace, and various 
small mechanical shops, soon followed, and the village 
slowly yet steadily gained in importance and population. 

It would be a matter of impossibility at this time to follow 
in close chronological order the further history of Owosso, 
so far as relates to the names of inhabitants, the precise 
date of their settlement, and the gradual development of 
business interests. It will not be attempted therefore, 
other than to give the names of resident tax-payers at two or 
three difierent intervals of time. 

In 1844 the tax-paying residents of the village of 
Owosso, alphabetically arranged, were 



Ament, Edward L., news- 
paper publisher. 

Ament, Winfield S., black- 
smith. 

Barnes, John B., physician. 

Barnes, Erastus. 

Becker, H. W. 

Comstock, Elias. 

Comstock & Pattison, mer- 
chants. 

Chipman, Anson B. 

Chipman, I. M. 

Comstock, Luther. 

Collier, Bufus. 

Collier, Orrin. 

Carr, William A., cabinet- 



Chipman, William. 

Crooks, Henry. 

Casper, Felix, wool-carding, 
etc. 

Conrad, Justus. 

Fletcher, Daniel, wagon- 
maker. 

Foot, Philip. 

Goodhue, Charles L., mer- 
chant. 

Goodhue, J. M. 

Griffis, Austin, saw-mill. 

Griffis & Whitcomb. 

Griffis, Alanson, cooper. 

Graham, J. N., physician. 

Gould, Daniel, surveyor. 



Gould, Daniel, & Co., fur- 
nace. 

Gould, Amos, attorney and 
owner of grist-mill. 

Gould, Amos, and others, 
water-power, and all the 
land between the mill- 
race and river, about fif- 
teen acres. 

George, Oscar. 

Hardy, Seth, clergyman. 

Howell, Simon. 

Moses, Charles M. 

McGilvra, Daniel. 

Morton, Benoni. 

Pattison, Samuel W., phy- 
sician. 

Perkins, Sprague, brick- 
maker. 

Parkill, George, carpenter. 

Phillips, John G. 

Parkill, Charles P., an early 
teacher. 

Roberts, J. P. 

Smith, L. v., carpenter. 

Simons, William. 

Tyler, David F., blacksmith. 

Tillotson, Matthew N., mer- 
chant. 

Williams, Alfred L. 

Williams, Benjamin 0. 

Whitcomb, Samuel H. 

Whitlock, Joseph. 



Additional residents mentioned in 1850 were James M. 
Williams, William H. Keytes, David IngersoU, Dr. Charles 
T. Disbrow, David W. Wheeler, Ebenezer Gould, Samuel 
Wallace, Ira Merell, Robert G. Martin, Arthur Keytes, 
Dwight Dimmick, Jesse H. Quackenbush, Lucius G. 
Hammond, George L. Hall, George Jones, Alexander 
Clagherty, William R. Chipman, Thomas D. Dewey, Ran- 
dolph L. Stewart, Joseph Hedges & Co. (woolen-mills), 
Merrill H. Clark, D. Stewart & Co., George W. Collier, 
William Smith, and Ezekiel W. Stickney. 

CITY INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION. 

By the completion of a portion of the lines of the Detroit 
and Milwaukee Railroad in 1856, and the Amboy, Lansing 
and Traverse Bay road in 1862, and the activity created in 
consequence of Owosso becoming a railroad junction, the 
people concluded that for their better government a city 
charter was necessary. The village then contained about 
one thousand inhabitants, and in accordance with their 
wishes, by an act of the State Legislature approved Feb. 15, 
1859, the city of Owosso was created. 

Extracts from that act describe its original and present 
boundaries, etc., as follows : 

" That so much of the townships of Owosso and Cale- 
donia, in the county of Shiawassee, as are included in the 
following territory, to wit: Sections 13 and 24, and the 
east half of sections 14 and 23 in township 7, north of 
range No. 2 east, and also the west half of sections 18 and 
19 in township No. 7 north, of range No. 3 east, being in 
the county of Shiawassee, be and the same is hereby set off 
from the said townships of Owosso and Caledonia and de- 
clared to be a city, by the name of ' the City of Owosso,' 
by which name it shall hereafter be known." 

The city was divided into four wards, whose boundaries 
were defined as follows : The First Ward to include that por- 
tion lying north of the centre of Main Street and west of 
Washington Street. The Second Ward all that portion 
lying north of the centre of Main Street and east of the 
centre of Washington Street. The Third Ward all that por- 
tion lying south of the centre of Main Street and east of 
the centre of Washington Street ; while the Fourth Ward 
embraced all that portion lying south of the centre of Main 
Street and west of the centre of Washington Street. 

After arranging for the election and appointment of 
officers, designating their duties, and the enactment of 
various laws for the government of the city, it was further 
ordered that the first election under the charter should be 
held on the first Monday of April, 1859. The polling- 
places designated were " In the First Ward, at the inn kept 
by Jacob Aberle ; in the Second Ward, at the inn kept by 
Alfred Stewart ; in the Third Ward, at the store now kept 
by William Goff ; in the Fourth Ward, at the inn kept by 
S. J. Harding." 

FIRST CHARTER ELECTION. 
Pursuant to the provisions of the foregoing act, the elec- 
tors assembled at their respective polling-places on Monday, 
April 4, 1859, for the purpose of electing city officers, and 
as a result the following-named officers were declared elected : 
Amos Gould, Mayor ; John N. IngersoU, Clerk ; Daniel 



CITY OF OWOSSO. 



149 



Lyon, Treasurer ; E. W. Barnes, Supervisor of the First 
District ; Blisha Leach, Supervisor of the Second District ; 
Charles M. Moses, Charles L. Goodhue, Aldermen of the 
First Ward; Daniel L. Thorpe, Thomas D. Dewey, Alder- 
men of the Second Ward ; John Gutekunst, George K. 
Black, Aldermen of the Third Ward ; Stillman J. Harding, 
Eli D. Gregory, Aldermen of the Fourth Ward ; Ira Mer- 
ell. Justice of the Peace for the Second District ; George 
K. Newcombe, Amos M. Kellogg, School Inspectors ; Daniel 
Wait, M. W. Quackenbush, Directors of the Poor; Robert 
Hodgkins, of the First District, and Ephraim Gould, of the 
Second District, Constables. 

PIEST CITY ASSESSMENT. 

In June, 1859, the first assessment was made on the 
people residing within the city's corporate limits, and their 
names,* arranged alphabetically, were : 



Amnet, W. S. 
Andrews, H. S. 
Andrus, W. H. 
Aberle, Jacob. 

Ayers, . 

Alraandinger, J. D. 
Beckel & Co. 
Byerly, Adam H. 
Bradley, H. H. 
Bennett, J. S. 
Brooks, Daniel. 
Bush, Frank. 
Bush, G. & B. 
Burnham, W. D. 
Burpee, M. W. 
Bagg, H. C. 
Bagg, C. C. 

Bagg, J. H. 

Barnes, Erastus. 

Brynell, H. D. 

Barnes, Mrs. S. K. 

Babeock, Wm. F. 

Baldwin, George. 

Black, Geo. R. 

Bellinger, A. D. 

Barnes, E. W. 

Beebe, A. M. 

Beebe, Charles M. 

Barnum, Mrs. J. A. 

Burgess, F. W. 

Comstock, Elias. 

Comstock, L. R. 

Case, William. 

Cobb, D. J. 

Chipman, A. B. 

Cbipman, M. 

Collier, Geo. W. 

Collier, Mrs. R. 

Collier, C. H. 



Clark, Robert. 
Chamberlin, Levi. 
Chapel, G. W. 
Corbin, Mrs. W. 
Chipman, Wm. R. 
Caille, Joseph. 
Carr, W. A. 
Colar, Jacob. 
Colt, Mrs. M. 
Cornelius, J. W. 
Dewey & Stewart. 
Dewey, T. D. 
Davis, Lewis B. 
Dimmick, D. 
Decker, S. C. 
Fletcher, William. 
Gutekunst, John. 
Guile, J. W. 
Gilbert, Thomas. 

Gute, Fred. 

Goodburn, E. 
Gregory, E. D. 

Gould, L. A. 

Gould, Amos. 

Gould & Co. 

Gould, Mrs. I. H. 

Gould, D. 

Gould & Todd. 

Goodhue, C. L. 

Goodhue, S. H. 

Howell, Simon. 

Hurgenhaus, H. 

Hedges, Joseph. 

Hughes, Geo. 

Hodgkins, Robert. 

Hakes, S. W. 

Horton, J. 

Harding, Stillman J. 

Holman, Charles. 



» These names are copied from the roll. If any are misspelled the 
errors must be attributed to the assessor. 



Heartstuff,"!" John. Robinson, W. E. 

Hitchcock & Bro. Randall, A. M. 

Howard, Charles. Randall, E. P. 

Harmon & Retan. Russell, John. 

Howe, E. L. Retan, B. L. 

IngersoU, D. Rice, John. 

Ingersoll, Wm. Rushton, Mrs. J. 

IngersoU, Jno. N. Reynus, Russell. 

Josenhauns, G. Stewart, John. 

Knill, Henry. Stewart, M. L. 

Kellogg, Amos M. Smith, E. 

Kingsland, Geo. Smith & Yates. 

Keytes, Wm. H. Shattuck, Charles. 

Kelly, John. Secord, M. 

Kitredge, Frank. Sly, Wm. 

Lyon, W. J. Struber, L. 

Leach, Elisha. Spencer, Laura. 

Lamunion, Abel. Stewart, A. 

Lyon, Daniel. Simmons, C. B. 

Lyon, Joel. Smith, Wm. 

Lewis, Hiram L. StiUwelJ, Mrs. M. 

Laubcngayer, Jno. F. Stewart, R. L. 

Laubengayer, J. B. Sherman, Mrs. Louisa. 

Mullen, D. J. Taylor, Benj. P. 

Moss, Morris. To'dd, Edwin A. 

McBain, Newton. Thorpe, Daniel L. 

Murray, John. Van Doren, J. B. 

Miller, A. Van Doren, J. D. 

Miller, John F. Weeks, D. 

Mann, J. W. Whitman, E. A. 

Merell, Ira. Whalen, Mrs. Sarah. 

Mann & Gould. Williams, A. L. 

Moses, Charles M. Williams, B. D. 

Morris, W. M. Williams & Bro. 

Newcomb, Geo. K. Wait, Daniel. 

Osborn, L. E. Williams, A. L. (agent). 

Phillipson, C. Williams & Co. 

Pangburn, J. White, E. E. 

Post, A. White, E. E. & Bro. 

Perry, J. B. Young, James H. 

Parsons, H. Young, Russell. 

Palmer, J. C. Yates, Joseph. 

Quackenbush, M. W. 

The total amount of tax levied in that year was 
$3984.11, applied to the following purposes : 

State $257.99 

County 382.12 

City 990-00 

School district 2148.25 

" library 25.00 

Howard Street grading 95.00 

Highways ^•6' 

Collectors' commissions 80.08 

$3984.11 

Since its incorporation, and especially during the last 
decade, many and important improvements have been made. 
Streets have been filled and graded, miles of side-walks laid, 
a fire department created, and the many other details neces- 
sary to the health and comfort of its citizens have been 
attended to by efficient municipal authorities. 

t Probably Hartsuff. 



150 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



Matters pertaining to its present manufacturing and 
banking interests, churches, secret associations, etc., will be 
found upon other pages. 

LIST OF CITY OFFICERS. 

The following lists show the names of mayors, clerks, 
treasurers, supervisors, justices of the peace, and aldermen 
elected during the years from 1860 to 1880, inclusive: 

Mayors. Clerks. Treasurers. 

1860. Amos Gould. John N. Ingersoll. Anson E. Chipman. 

1861. Adam H. Byerly. And'w J. Patterson. " " 

1862. Benj. 0. Williams. " " " " 

1863. Charles M. Moses. " ". " " 
1864.- Josiah Turner. 

1865. " 

1866. John B. Barnes. 

1867. Anson B. Chipman. And'w J. Patterson 

1868. Thomas D. Dewey. " " 

1869. Benj. F. Taylor. " " 

1870. Edwin A. Todd. " " 

1871. Eli D. Gregory. Henry W. Parker. 

1872. David Gould. Jones S. Davis. 

1873. " " " " 

1874. " " Newton Baldwin. 

1875. Wm. M. Kilpatrick. " " 

1876. And'w J. Patterson. George Colt. 

1877. James Osburn. " " " 

1878. " " Tliomas V. Perkins. " ' 

1879. Jerome W. Turner. " " George Colt. 

1880. Wm. A. Woodard. George W. Loring. ' " " 



H. L. Stewart.® Stillman J. Harding. 

Charles Y. Osburn. " " 

Henry B. Gregory. Andrew G. Kelso. 



H. B. Gates. 
Henry C. Knill. 
H. B. Gates. 



Newton Baldwin. 



ALDERMEN. 



18C0. 
1861. 
1862. 
1803. 
1864. 
1866. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1809. 

1870. 
1871. 

1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1876. 
1870. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 



First Ward. 
E. L. Stewart. 
Chos. M. Moses. 
Gilbert R. Lyon. 
John Stewart. 
Eii D. Gregory. 
1. M. Chipman. 
Edwin N. Knapp. 
1. M. Chipman. 
Cephas W. Clapp. 
James 0;jburn. 

Geo. B. Hughes. 
Erastus E. White. 
John W. Thorn. 
James Osburn. 
George Fauth. 
W. H. Andrus. 

Geo, Carpenter. 
Chas. A. Osburn. 

Nath. A. Finch. 
Edwin A. Todd. 
Fred. Osburn. 
Thomas Nelan. 



Second Ward. 
Tlios. D. Dewey. 
Newton Baldwin. 
Daniel Lyon. 
Joseph J. Austin. 
Eobt. W. Durkee. 
Benj. F. Taylor. 
G. L. Hitchcock. 
M. A, Gregory.f 
George R, Black. 
Geo. W. Loring. 
Arthur McHardy. 
Chas. P. Parker. 
C. W. Hastings. 



Third Ward. 
R. 0. Beckwith. 
John Gutekunst. 
E. C. Beckwith. 
John Gutekunst. 
Wm. S. Boerem. 
John Gutekunst. 
Darius Elwell. 
John Gute. 
Edgar P. Byerly. 
H.H. Waters. 

Edgar P. Byerly. 
B. C. Beckwith. 



Benj. 8. Eutan. L. C. Brewer. 
Henry B Gregory. John Gute. 
Benj. S. Eutan. " " 

C. A. Baldwin. Geo. W. Chapel. 
Geo. W. Loring. J. F. Wilder- 

muth. 
Arthur McHardy. Geo, W. Chapel. 
Oscar Wells. Edgar P. Byerly, 

Chas. Lawrence. W, J, Westlake. 
Oscar Wells, F. Wildermutb. 



SUPERVISORS. 
First District. Second District. 

1860. Benjamin W. Davis. M. W. Quackenbush. 

1861. Benj. 0. Williams. " " 

1862. Ebenezer Gould. Charles A. Baldwin. 

1863. George P. Moses. " " 

1864. Geo. L. Hitchcock. " " 

1865. " " 



Fourth Ward. 
Eli D. Gregory. 
Daniel Wait. 
Jos. J. Newman. 
J. B, Van Doren, 
Edwin L. Howe. 
Benj. F, Eobbius. 
M. Hansnian. 
James F. Yeats. 
Leonard L. Howe. 
N. H. Welcher. 

William Lewis. 
Leonard L. Howe. 

D. L. Densmore, 
Leonard L. Howe. 
A. J. Patterson. 
Eli D. Gregory. 
James F. Yeats. 
Wm.J. Miller. 

J. F. Wolverton. 
Eli D. Gregory. 
James F. Yeats. 
Elliott V. Smith. 



At Largo. 



1866. Ebenezer Gould. 

1867. Ezekiel Salisbury. 

1868. Isaac S. Bockee. 

1869. " " 

1870. David Gould. 

1871. " " 



Charles B. Shattuck. 
it it 

J. L. Quackenbush. 
Adam H. Byerly. 



Charles Y. Osburn. 



* Henry B. Gregory appointed to fill vacancy, May 16, 1864. 
t George W. Loring elected to fill vacancy, April 20, 1868. 



First District. Second District. At Large. 

1872. Ezekiel Salisbury. Adam H. Byerly. John H. Champion. 

1873. " " " " Wm. M. Kilpatrick. 

1874. " " " " 

1876. " " " " Gilbert R. Lyon. 

1876. Tim. M. Templeton. Henry W. Parker. Wm. M. Kilpatrick. 

1877. " " Chas. A. Baldwin. Adam II. Byerly. 

1878. Leonard L. Howe. " " " " 

1879. Nathaniel A. Finch. " " Stearns F. Smith. 

1880. " " " " " " 

JUSTICES OP THE PEACE. 



First District. 
1861. Eliae Corastook. 
1865. John B. Van Doren. 
1869. Hiram L. Chipman. 
1873. John B. Van Doren. 
1877. Lawrence Van Dusen. 



Second District. 
1863. IraMerell. 
1867. " "■ 
1871. Benjamin F. Taylor. 
1875. " " 

1879. " " 



FIEE DEPAKTMENT A2SID WATER SUPPLY. 

Prior to the autumn of 1871 the city possessed no fire 
apparatus of any description, although the Common Council 
had voted upon the matter frequently. During the time 
mentioned, however, fifty leather fire-buckets and some 
eight or ten ladders were procured. In the spring of 1870 
a hook-and-ladder truck and eight Babcock fire-extinguish- 
ers were purchased. A fire company — of which Frederick 
Wildermuth was foreman — was organized at about the same 
time. But the real organization of Owosso's fire department 
did not take place until 1876. 

In February of that year a Silsby steam fire-engine was 
purchased, and in April following city fire department 
ofiicers were elected. Centennial Engine Company, Defi- 
ance Hose Company, No. 1, Reliance Hose Company, No. 2, 
and Phoenix Hook-and-Ladder Company were regularly 
organized during the same year. 

Following are lists of city and company fire department 
officers for the years of 1876 to 1880, inclusive : 

CitT/, 1876. — ThomasD. Dewey, Chief Engineer; James 
Osburn, First Assistant ; Henry B. Gregory, Second Assist- 
ant ; Moses Keytes, Treasurer ; Newton McBain, Secretary. 

1877-79. — Thomas D. Dewey, Chief Engineer; James 
Calkins, First Assistant ; John D. Evens, Second Assist- 
ant. 

1880.— Nathaniel A. Finch, Chief Engineer ; Henry A. 
Woodard, First Assistant ; William Douglass, Second As- 
sistant ; Warren A. Woodard, Secretary ; Moses Keytes, 
Treasurer. 

Centennial Engine Company, No. . . . : 1876. — A. E. 
McCullom,J Foreman; George W. Collier, Assistant Fore- 
man ; L. A. Hamblin, Secretary ; H. B. Gates, Treasurer ; 
Walter A. Osborn, Engineer ; George W. Collier, Assistant 
Engineer. 

1877. — George W. Collier, Foreman ; Moses Keytes, 
Assistant Foreman ; Walter A. Osborn, Engineer. 

1878-79. — Moses Keytes, Foreman ; Warren A. Wood- 
ard, Assistant Foreman ; Walter A. Osborn,- Engineer. 

1880. — Moses Keytes, Foreman ; Warren A. Woodard, 
Assistant Foreman ; George B. Hughes, Treasurer ; George 
W. Loring, Secretary ; Walter A. Osborn, Engineer ; Frank 

% McCullom resigned in May, 1876, when George W. Collier was 
elected foreman and Charles A. Baldwin assistant foreman. 










la 
§1 

a: 
^^ 






CITY OF OWOSSO. 



151 



Cherry, Assistant Engineer; Charles Owen and Frank 
Cherry, Firemen. 

Phoenix Hoolc-and- Ladder Company : 1876. — J. Fred. 
Wildermuth, Foreman ; Charles W. Matthews, Assistant 
Foreman ; John F. Wolverton, Secretary ; J. Fred. Wil- 
dermuth, Treasurer. These officers have served continu- 
ously to the present time. 

Defiance Hose Company, No. 1 : 1876-78. — Albert Chip- 
man, Foreman ; D. Dwight, Assistant Foreman ; George H. 
Bedford, Secretary and Treasurer. 

1879-80 D. Dwight, Foreman ; D. A. Barnum, As- 
sistant Foreman ; George H. Bedford, Secretary and Treas- 
urer. 

Reliance Hose Company: 1876-79. — Nathaniel A. 
Finch, Foreman ; John S. Hoyt, Assistant Foreman ; Isaac 
S. Cooper, Secretary ; George Smith, Treasurer. 

1880. — Thomas J. Horsman, Foreman ; John S. Hoyt, 
Assistant Foreman ; Isaac S. Cooper, Secretary ; and Fred- 
erick Osburn, Treasurer. 

The city fire apparatus, including two thousand feet of 
hose, is in good condition, and its water-supply, in case of 
need, is derived from the river and mill-race, also from two 
capacious cisterns where a large quantity is stored. Water 
for drinking and culinary uses is obtained from wells. 

MILLS AND MANUFACTURING. 
Among the manufacturing interests which once had an 
existence in Owosso, but have now passed away, was that 
carried on in the pioneer saw-mill erected by Daniel Ball 
& Co., in 1837 ; the grist-mill built by Ball, Green & Co., 
in 1839, which burned ten years later; Felix Casper's 
vrool-carding and cloth-dressing works, established some 
time between 1840 and 1844, in a building now forming 
part of Woodard's furniture-manufactory and planing-mills ; 
the woolen-mill which burned in 1867 ; and the building 
owned and occupied by the " Owosso Woolen Manufac- 
turing Company," which was built in 1867, and burned 
in 1873. These mills all deserve a place in history, and 
some of them have been alluded to on previous pages. 

The manufacturing interests of to-day are represented as 
follows: The flouring-mill of Messrs. Dewey ■& Stewart 
was established by them in 1850. It stands near the foot 
of the mill-race, below and on the opposite side from the 
site of the old grist-mill. It hegan operations with two 
run of stones. Gradual additions have been made to its 
capacity until it now has six run of stones, and will flour 
sixty bushels of wheat per hour. Power is derived from 
both water and steam. They have in connection, also, a 
saw- and feed-mill, which is carried on in a building erected 
in 1863 as a saw- and plaster-mill. 

Messrs. Fletcher & Koberts' grist-mill was built in 1871, 
the present owners always having had a controlling interest. 
Steam-power is used, and the work— chiefly custom— is per- 
formed by two run of stones. 

L. B. Woodard's sash-, blind-, and door-manufactory, in 
connection with his lumber-yard, has been operated by him 
since 1866. Previously it had been controlled by the 
Messrs. White Brothers, who flrst established the business. 
Thirty men are employed, and his annual sales are from 
fifty thousand dollars to seventy- five thousand dollars. 



The Owosso Foundry and Machine-Shop of Messrs. 
Yeats & Osborn came into their possession in 1876. This 
is the site of the original furnace or foundry established by 
Daniel Gould & Co. previous to 1844. Meanwhile it has 
been owned, enlarged, and occupied by many parties. The 
business of the present consists in general repairing and the 
manufacture of pumps, plows, and various agricultural im- 
plements. Seven men are steadily employed, and power is 
derived from the Shiawassee River. 

The Shiawassee Iron- Works were established by Ran- 
dolph L. Stewart about 1865. The present firm, Messrs. 
Howell, Cossitt & Bateman, came into possession in 1869. 
Their business is general repairing, the manufacture of en- 
gines and agricultural implements. From five to ten men 
are employed. The building occupied is the one formerly 
used by Russell Young as a sash-, door-, and blind-manu- 
factory. 

George W. Oakes' sash-,- door-, and blind-manufactory was 
established by himself, July 1, 1879. He employs six men. 
The Union Mattress Company, which manufactures ex- 
celsior, husk, hair, and moss mattresses, was established in 
June, 1879. Seven men and women are given employment. 
The Owosso Handle-Factory, now controlled by Mason 
Wood & Co., was established by Mason Wood and Charles 
Osborn in 1872. They continued the business about six 
months, when finding that with their facilities they could 
not successfully compete with others, operations were dis- 
continued. Mr. Wood improved the lathes in use, and 
a^ain successfully engaged in the manufacture of all kinds 
of handles of irregular forms.' He has since had several 
partners. In the fall of 1879, David Gould assumed an 
interest, and under the present firm-name eight men are 
employed, and the most complete wood-turning lathes in 
operation in the United States are daily turning out scores 
of perfect hickory handles. Axe-handles are a specialty, 
and their goods find ready sale in the various States from 
Maine to Texas. 

The Estey Manufacturing Company, composed of Jacob 
Estey, of Brattleboro', Vt., D. M. Estey, and Charles E. 
Rigley, of Owosso, Mich., was incorporated as such Feb. 3, 
1879, and the actual stock paid in at that date was fifty- 
three thousand three hundred and fifty dollars. This busi- 
ness was first established in 1868 by D. M. Estey, who 
controlled it until the formation of the present company. 
A factory for the manufacture of common bedsteads, a 
saw-mill, store, and village-lots are owned at West Haven, 
in New Haven township, — a village which has sprung up 
since the projection of this enterprise. In Owosso City 
are situated the ofiices and warerooms of the company. 
Here also are manufactured ash and walnut chamber-suits, 
eleo-ant in design and finish, under contract by the Messrs. 
White Bros. Eighty men receive direct employment by 
the operations of this firm, and their manufactures, the sales 
of which amount to seventy-five thousand dollars yearly, are 
shipped to various points extending from Vermont to 
Missouri. 

The Woodward Brothers' furniture-manufactory has 
been controlled by them since Aug. 1, 1866. The first 
edifice on the site of their buildings was the woolen-mill, 
built as early as 1844, and for a number of years carried 



152 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



on by Felix Casper and others. In 1855 it was changed 
into a manufactory of furniture, sash, doors, and blinds, 
and operated principally, we believe, by the Messrs. White 
Bros. 

The Messrs. Woodards have thirty men in their employ. 
Their manufactures consist of medium and fine grades of 
furniture, done in ash and walnut, and their sales aggre- 
gate twenty thousand to twenty-five thousand dollars yearly. 

John Gute established the first brewery in the county 
in Owosso in 1855, and at first made present-use ale. 
During the past fifteen years attention has been chiefly 
devoted to the brewing of lager beer. The Owosso City 
Brewery has a capacity of two thousand barrels per annum, 
and is now owned and operated by Albert Gute. 

BANKING. 

Under the name of D. Gould & Co. and the manage- 
ment of Amos Gould, banking business was first com- 
menced in Owosso in 1854 on the corner now occupied 
by the First . National Bank building. The present 
building was erected in 1857, and in 1865 the busi- 
ness of exchange and brokerage was merged into that 
of the First National Bank. The latter bank organized 
with a capital of fifty thousand dollars. It was afterwards 
increased to one hundred thousand dollars ; but has since 
been decreased to its present capital of sixty thousand dol- 
lars. Upon its organization, Amos Gould was elected 
President, Thomas D. Dewey Vice-President, and Adam 
H. Byerly Cashier. Messrs Gould and Dewey still occupy 
the same positions, but the cashier's desk has since been 
filled by Orville Goodhue, George P. Moses, and Charles 
E. Hershey ; by the latter since the death of Mr. Moses in 
November, 1875. 

Mr. M. L. Stewart established his present bank of ex- 
change and brokerage in 1869. He came to Owosso first 
in 1860, and engaged in merchandising. His present busi- 
ness house was erected in 1869, when, in consequence of 
losing his hearing, he relinquished trade and engaged in 
banking. From a small beginning he has, by the exercise 
of industry and economy and a strict attention to the minor 
details of his business afiairs, attained his present financial 
success. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Samuel N. Warren, who ofliciated as clerk at the first 
township election in 1837, and was elected as one of the 
assessors at the same meeting, taught the first school in the 
village, in the winter of 1837-38. This was a private 
scliool, and its sessions were held in an unoccupied log 
house which stood on or near the site of the present brick 
planing-miil. 

Prior to this, however, some action had been taken by 
school inspectors and the school director, as will be shown 
by the following extracts from the records : " At a meeting 
of the inspectors of primary schools of the township of 
Owosso, held at the office of the township clerk, Tuesday, 
Aug. 8, 1837, Alfred L. Williams and Elias Comstock were 
present. Elias Comstock was chosen chairman of the board, 
whereupon it was concluded to set off sections 11, 12, 13, 
14, 23, 24, 25, 26, in township 7 north, of range No. 2 
east, and sections 7, 8, 17, 18, 19, and 30, in township 7 



north, of range No. 3 east, as school district No. 1, and the 
first school meeting therein shall be held at the store of A. 
L. & B. 0. Williams, in the village of Owosso, on the 22d 
day of August, 1837, at four P.M." 

The meeting was held, and Benjamin 0. Williams elected 
director. On the 2d of October, 1837, he rendered his 
annual report, as follows : 

"To THE Township Board op School Inspectors: 
" Gentlemen, — I hereby transmit you a report of the 
condition of schools in district No. 1, oT which I have the 
honor to be the director, to wit: The whole number of 
children in my district between the ages of five and seven- 
teen years is thirty. 

" There has been no school taught in the district, and no 
moneys have been received by me. The district has voted 
to raise the following sums for school purposes, viz. : five 
hundred dollars for building a school-house, seventy-five 
dollars for the purchase of a school library-case, and ten 
dollars for the purchase of books. I have the honor to be, 
gentlemen, 

" Your obd't serv't, 

"B. 0. Williams." 

Although the first school building was not erected until 
about the year 1840 or 1841, the leading citizens have 
always taken a lively interest in educational matters, and 
the excellence of Owosso's schools has ever been pro- 
verbial. 

The old school building, since repaired and enlarged, is 
now used as a house of worship by the German Lutherans. 

By an act of the State Legislature, approved March 11, 
1846, the Owosso Literary Institute was incorporated, 
Messrs. Elias Comstock, Alfred L. Williams, Benjamin 0. 
Williams, Amos Gould, Charles L. Goodhue, Anson B. 
Chipman, and John B. Barnes being named as corpora- 
tors. They were authorized to employ capital to the 
amount of ten thousand dollars, and " to have power to 
establish and continue in the township of Owosso an insti- 
tution of learning for the instruction of persons in the 
various branches of literature, and the arts and sciences." 

However, nothing further was heard of the institute, 
and the youth of Owosso continued to pore over the volumes 
issued by Brown, Kirkham, Morse, Adams, Olney, Web- 
ster, Sanders, and others in the old structure until 1858, 
when a portion of the present handsome edifice was com- 
pleted. This was an occasion of great rejoicing among 
parents and pupils, and the event was noticed by a local 
paper of date Oct. 23, 1858, in the following words: 

"OPENING OF THE OWOSSO UNION SCHOOL. 

" This institution was opened for the reception of pupils 
on Thursday last, in the presence of a large number of the 
friends of education, who have by their untiring efforts 
successfully carried forward the enterprise to its final com- 
pletion. 

" The building is of the most substantial character, being 
constructed of brick, and beautifully finished with the oak 
of the country. It is divided into three principal apart- 
ments, two recitatiou-rooms, besides large and commodious 



CITY OF OWOSSO. 



153 



reception- halls, and will accommodate some two hundred 
scholars. 

" The school will consist of three grades, the primary, 
intermediate, and the upper departments, where the higher 
English branches will be taught, also the languages ; music, 
both vocal and instrumental, with its charming influence, 
will not be wanting, the board having secured the services 
of a competent teacher for that department. 

" The grounds located for school purposes are situated 
upon the right bank of the beautiful Shiawassee, a little 
north and west of the village, and embrace about four 
acres, covered with a fine growth of pristine oak, in the 
centre of which is located the school building. 

" At an early hour on Thursday morning the large upper 
room in the building was filled with parents and children 
of the district. The proper officer of the district called 
the meeting to order, after which prayer was offered by the 
Rev. Mr. Goodale, of this place. At the request of the 
Board of Education, the parents and children were ad- 
dressed by Mr. Kellogg, late of the Albany Normal School, 
Rev. John M. Gregory, of Ann Arbor, Rev. Mr. Taylor, 
Hon. Amos Gould, and Hon. A. L. Williams, of this place. 
The district is gfeatly indebted to the latter gentleman for 
material aid and valuable services in urging to completion 
this praiseworthy enterprise. 

" The remarks of all the gentlemen were timely and 
fitting the occasion, calling up pleasant reminiscences of the 
past and opening up to the youthful mind bright prospects 
in the future. 

" Mr. Winchell, the principal of the school, in behalf of 
himself and associate teachers, expressed his sense of obli- 
gation to the board, and to the gentlemen who had addressed 
the meeting, for the kind greeting and warm and generous 
manner in which they had been received by the friends of 
education in Owosso, pledging himself that no effort should 
be wanting on their part to fully meet the hopes and ex- 
pectations of the friends of the school. 

" Our slight acquaintance with Mr. Winchell prompts us 
to believe that the board made a wise choice in selecting 
him for principal of the institution. 

" We understand that the school is rapidly filling up, 
and that large numbers of applications for admission have 
been received from those residing out of the district ; and 
we doubt not that before the close of the first term the 
teachers will be straitened for room, and that an extra 
primary department will have to be opened in some other 
section of the village." 

A few years subsequently the building just mentioned 
was enlarged to its present proportions, and in still later 
years other frame school-houses have followed, which are 
situated in the various wards. As showing the present 
condition of schools, we subjoin the following statistics, 
gathered from the annual report for the year ending Sept. 
1, 1879: 

Number of children of school age residing in the , 

city 805 

" " attending school during the 

year 729 

" brick houses 2 

" frame houses 3 

" sittings 800 

Value of school property $60,000 

20 



Men teachers employed 4 

Women " " ]2 

Paid men teachers $1,536 

" women teachers $:i,172 

Total resources for the year $12,258.59 

Bonded indebtedness $24,000 

The present Board of Education consists of Messrs. B. 
0. Williams, David Parker, Gilbert R. Lyon, Eugene R. 
Hutchins, Joseph H. Howe, and 0. Smith. 

SECRET BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATIONS. . 
OWOSSO LODGE, No. 81, F. AND A. M. 

This lodge held its first communication May 2, 1855, 
under a dispensation granted by George C. Monroe, Grand 
Master of the State of Michigan. 

The officers first installed were Myndert W. Quacken- 
bush, W. M. ; Alfred L. Williams, S. W. ; Benjamin 0. 
Williams, J. W. ; Warren Ladd, S. D. ; and Horace Hart, 
J. D. 

A charter was granted Jan. 10, 1856, and on the same 
date the following officers were installed: Myndert W 
Quackenbush, W. M. ; Alfred L. Williams, S. W. ; Ben 
jamin 0. Williams, J. W. ; Randolph L. Stewart, Treas- 
urer; Charles C. Goodall, Secretary; Elisha Leach, S. D. 
John B. Barnes, J. D. ; and William J. Lyon, Tiler. 

Subsequent presiding officers have been Elisha Leach 
from Dec. 27, 1856, to Dec. 27, 1859 ; M. W. Quacken 
bush, Dec. 27, 1859, to Dec. 27, 1861 ; Elisha Leach, 
Dec. 27, 1861, to Dec. 27, 1862; Eli D. Gregory, Dec 
27, 1862, to Dec. 27, 1863; Henry C. Knill, Dec. 27 
1863, to Dec. 27, 1867 ; Benjamin 0. Williams, Dec. 27 
1867, to Deo. 27, 1868 ; Henry C. Knill, Dec. 27, 1868 
to Dec. 27, 1869 ; Eli D. Gregory, Dec. 27, 1869, to Dec, 
27, 1871 ; Henry C. Knill, Dec. 27, 1871, to Dec. 27 
1872 ; Eli D. Gregory, Dec. 27, 1872, to June 24, 1874 
Jabez Perkins, June 24, 1874, to June 24, 1875 ; Wil- 
liam J. Lyon, June 24, 1875, to Dec. 27, 1877 ; Walter 
A. Osborn, Dec. 27, 1877, to Dec. 27, 1879. 

The present officers, who were installed Dec. 27, 1879, 
are Charles H. Cossitt, W. M. ; Thomas Nelan, S. W. ; 
Grenville S. Beardsley, J. W. ; Joseph Manning, Treasurer ; 
Benjamin F. Taylor, Secretary ; Bndress M. Shafer, S. D. ; 
George H. Bedford, J. D. ; John T. Wolverton, Tiler; 
Rev. Levi B. Stimson, Chaplain; Charles W. Parker, 
Jacob S. Lewis, Stewards ; James Calkins, William J. 
Westlake, and E. R. Hutchins, Prudential Committee. 

The lodge includes one hundred members at the present 
time, and regular communications are held Wednesday 
evenings on or before the full moon. 



OWOSSO CHAPTER, No. 89, E. A. M., 
began work under a dispensation granted early in the year 
1873. The first officers, viz., Myndert W. Quackenbush, 
M. E. H. P. ; Anson B. Chipman, King ; Joseph Man- 
ning, Scribe ; George B. Hughes, C. H. ; Franklin B. 
Smith, P. S. ; Richard Chipman, R. A. C. ; Henry W. 
Parker, Treasurer; Newton Baldwin, Recorder; Newell H. 
Welcher, M. 3d V. ; Martin Hausman, M. 2d V. ; John 
Rogers, M. 1st V. ; and Ezekiel Salisbury, Guard, were 
installed April 22, 1873. 

A charter was granted Jan. 24, 1874, and on the 17th 
of February of the same year the following officers were in- 



154 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY. MICHIGAN. 



stalled : M. W. Quackenbush, M. E. H. P. ; Anson B. Chip- 
man, King; Joseph Manning, Scribe; George B. Hughes, 
C. H. ; Franklin B. Smith, P. S. ; Richard Chipman, R. A. 
S. ; Ezekiel Salisbury, Treasurer; Newton Baldwin, Re- 
corder ; Newell H. Welcher, M. 3d V. ; John D. Evens, 
M. 2d V. ; John Rogers, M. 1st V. ; Justin H. Wells, 
Guard. 

Other presiding officers have been Anson B. Chipman, 
from December, 1874, to December, 1876 ; Charles A. Os- 
born, December, 1876, to December, 1878 ; Franklin B. 
Smith, December, 1878, to December, 1879. 

The present officers are Martin C. Dawes, M. E. H. P. ; 
Samuel Lamfrom, King ; Moses Mix, Scribe ; George B. 
Hughes, C. H. ; Thomas Nelan, P. S. ; Charles H. Cossitt, 
R. A. C. ; Joseph Manning, Treasurer ; Benjamin F. Tay- 
lor, Recorder; Walter A. Osborn, M. 3d V.; George H. 
Bedford, M. 2d V. ; Bernhard Rose, M. 1st V. ; John T. 
Wolverton, Guard ; Rev. Levi B. Stimson, Chaplain ; Wil- 
liam J. Westlake and George R. Black, Stewards. The 
chapter has a total of fifty-eight members. Regular convo- 
cations are held on the first Friday in each month. 

OWOSSO LODGE, No. 88, I. 0. 0. F. 

This lodge was instituted Jan. 23, 1865, by Special 
Deputy B. W. Davis. Among the charter members were 
Josiah Turner, William R. Chipman, Henry Barnum, 
Lewis Swartz, F. P. Guilford, E. Van Houten, Henry M. 
Newcombe, and P. M. Rowell. 

The first officers installed were Josiah Turner, N. G. ; 
William R. Chipman, V. G. ; Henry M. Newcombe, R. S. ; 
P. M. Rowell, P. S. ; and F. P. Guilford, Treasurer. 

Judge Turner was Te-elected N. G. for the last half of 
1865. Subsequent presiding officers of the lodge have 
been Amos G. Young and Henry M. Newcombe, in 1866 ; 
Morris Osbum, Amos G. Young, 1867 ; Col. Gould, N. H. 
Robinson, 1868; H. H. Pulver, J. W. Zimmerman, 1869; 
N. H. Robinson, John H. Champion, 1870; D. H. Wil- 
son, E. R. Brown, 1871 ; Thomas Nelan, James F. Yeats, 
1872 ; Bert Wicking, Hugh Douglass, 1873 ; George W. 
Loring, Jacob Aberlee, 1874 ; T. M. Templeton, W. Mat- 
lock, 1875; Archibald Robertson, Oscar Wells, 1876; 
George R. Black, H. W. Martin, 1877 ; C. A. Watkins, 
John W. Thorn, 1878 ; C. C. Gregory and William M. 
Kilpatrick, 1879. 

The present officers (June, 1880) are S. F. Smith, N. G. ; 
Mason Wood, V. G. ; Archibald Robertson, R. S. ; George 
W. Loring, P. S. ; and Moses Keytes, Treasurer. Number 
of present members in good standing, forty-three. The 
lodge held its meetings in the Williams Block until July 
1, 1873, when a removal was made to the elegant and com- 
modious rooms at present occupied. Regular meetings are 
held every Friday evening. 

ORIENTAL ENCAMPMENT, No. 59, I. 0. 0. F., 

was instituted Sept. 4, 1873, by A. Ferguson, M. W. G. P., 
the charter members being George W. Loring, Thomas Ne- 
lan, George R. Black, Archibald Robertson, Jacob Aber- 
lee, Morris Osburn, Hugh Douglass, A. Barkley, William 
R. Chipman, and Jacob Upwright. 

The officers first installed were George W. Loring, C. P. • 



George R. Black, H. P.; Archibald Robertson, 8. W.; 
William R. Chipman, J. W. ; Jacob Aberlee, Scribe ; A. 
Barkley, Treasurer. 

Subsequent C. P.'s have been George R. Black and 
Archibald Robertson, in 1874 ; Timothy M. Templeton, 
Oscar Wells, 1875 ; Charles W. Mathews, John W. 
Thorn, 1876 ; Charles McCormick, Willoughby Matlock, 
1877 ; C. C. Gregory, C. A. Watkins, 1878 ; Benjamin S. 
Retan and H. W. Martin, 1879. 

The officers for the first term of 1880 are Charles Wil- 
liams, C. P. ; Charles McCormick, H. P. ; William M. 
Kilpatrick, S. W. ; Archibald Robertson, S. ; Oscar Wells, 
F. S. ; George W. Loring, Treasurer; Charles Jackson, 
J. W. 

The encampment embraces a total of thirty members in 
good standing. Regular meetings are held in Odd- Fellows' 
Hall on the first and third Wednesday evenings of each 
month. 

EQUITY LODGE, No. 402, KNIGHTS OF HONOR, 
was organized in Good Templar Hall, city of Owosso, Nov. 
20, 1876. The officers first installed were John W. Thorn, 
Past Dictator ; Franklin B. Smith, Dictator ; Nathaniel A. 
Finch, Vice-Dictator ; William J. Westlake, Asst. Dictator ; 
Oscar Wells, Chaplain ; William K. Tillotson, Guide ; Geo. 
C. Walker, Reporter ; Newton McBain, Financial Re- 
porter ; John S. Hoyt, Treasurer ; Frank McCurdy, Guard- 
ian ; Chester J. Stewart, Sentinel ; Nathaniel A. Finch, 
William K. Tillotson, John S. Hoyt, Trustees. 

Subsequent presiding officers of the lodge have been 
John W. Thorn and Nathaniel A. Finch, in 1877 ; William 
J. Westlake, Oscar Wells, 1878 ; Chester J. Stewart, John 
S. Hoyt, 1879. 

The present officers (June, 1880) are John S. Hoyt, 
Past Dictator; Walter A. Osborn, Dictator; E. B. Ed- 
monds, Vice-Dictator ; Robert G. Marsh, Asst. Dictator ; 
Hiram L. Lewis, Reporter ; Perrin S. Crawford, Financial 
Reporter ; William J. Westlake, Treasurer ; Chester J. 
Stewart, Guide ; Alvin Evans, Chaplain ; Oscar Wells, 
Guardian ; G. Josenhans, Sentinel ; John S. Hoyt, John 
W. Thorn, Walter A. Osburn, Trustees. 

The lodge has thirty members at the present time, viz, : 
Newton McBain, John S. Hoyt, John W. Thorn, Na- 
thaniel A. Finch, Willard F. Goodhue, William J. West- 
lake, Chester J. Stewart, Oscar Wells, George R. Black, 
John Rogers, Horace D. Lewis, Henry J. Merrill, Alvin 
Evans, Amos G. Young, Hiram L. Lewis, Walter A. Os- 
born, Albert Thayer, John Gute, C. E. Hershey, G. Josen- 
hans, Perrin S. Crawford, B. B. Edmonds, Robert G. 
Marsh, Milton E. Fisher, Charles A. Norcross, John G. 
Saxe, Samuel Runyon, Joseph B. Davy, George C. Walker, 
and George R. Hoyt. Regular meetings are held in Good 
Templars' Hall, in the city of Owosso, on the second and 
fourth Tuesdays of each month. 

OWOSSO LODGE, No. iS, A. 0. U. W. 

This lodge was organized June 4, 1878, in Odd-Fellows' 
Hall, city of Owosso, where the first installation of officers 
took place the same date. 

The officers elected were Welcome L. Farnum, Past 



CITY OF OWOSSO. 



155 



Master Workman ; William M. Kilpatrick, Master Work- 
man ; C. McCormick, General Foreman ; William N. Pool, 
Overseer; L. L. Baker, Recorder; Charles E. Hershey, 
Receiver; Benj. S. Retan, Financier; Oscar Wells, Guide; 
Thomas Nelan, Inside Watchman ; John D. Evans, Out- 
side Watchman. 

Those officers who have since presided over its meetings 
have been C. McCormick and Thomas Nelan, in 1879, and 
Thomas M. Wiley, who is the present (June, 1880) Master 
Workman. Other officers of the present time are Thomas 
Nelan, P. M. W. ; Charles H. Cossitt, G. F. ; Hiram L. 
Lewis, 0. ; J. W. Zimmerman, R. ; Benjamin S. Retan, F. ; 
John C. Dingman, Receiver ; Jacob S. Lewis, I. W. ; Wel- 
come L. Farnum, 0. W. 

Among its eighty-one members are Welcome L. Farnum, 
Benjamin S. Rutan, John W. Thorn, John H. McCall, 
Charles E. Hershey, Frederick Schmezer, Charles H. Cossitt, 
Joseph H. Gillett, L. L. Baker, John T. Wolverton, Wil- 
liam N. Pool, Nathan D. Ayres, C. McCormick, James F. 
Yeats, William E. Copas, Robert D. Crawford, Hiram L. 
Lewis, Charles H. Parker, Hugh Douglass, Newton Bald- 
win, John D. Evans, Harrison H. Frain, Nathaniel A. 
Pinch, James A. Chapin, U. F. Clapp, J. W. Zimmerman, 
Thomas Nelan, Thomas M. Wiley, Geo. R. Black, Horace 
H. Rogers, William M. Kilpatrick, William S. Hodges, 
Benjamin F. Taylor, Geo. W. Ayres, R. Lamson, John L. 
Miller, H. M. Lindsay, John C. Dingraan, L. B. Holman, 
J. W. Likens, Nathan W. Finley, Wellington Clark, C. S. 
Williams, Henry G. Titcomb, Jacob S. Lewis, Hiram E. 
Galusha, William Broad, George B. Hughes, C. Soderquist, 
George W. Owen, James A. French, W. F. Guile, Samuel 
A. Pierpont, Silas Bailey, Albert E. Hartshorn, Norman C. 
Payne, John W. Houck, A. Schuknesht, Michael Strahl, 
Charles L. Bradley, G. W. Dehn, Michael Punches, Frank 
E. Sheldon, William J. Lewis, Daniel Harter, David Dwight, 
Harmon N. Miller, Alfred Drown, William H. Andrus, A. 
Wicking, W. H. Osborn, Martin S. Post, John A. JVIcKen- 
sie, E. W. Sheldon, W. A. Hitchcock, Nathaniel Ball, W. 
W. Hart, Robert Thompson, A. McKensie, F. Newman, 
and L. A. Hamlin. 

Their meetings are held in Odd-Fellows' Hall on the first 
and second Tuesdays of each month. 

OTHER ASSOCIATIONS. 
THE SHIAWASSEE MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
composed of Henry W. Parker, Horace D. Lewis, Isaac L. 
Peck, Amos G. Young, William L. Van Tuyl, Ezekiel 
Salisbury, Jerome W. Turner, John S. Hoyt, Thomas C. 
Garner, Anson B. Chipman, Newton Baldwin, Moses Mix, 
and Timothy M. Templeton, was incorporated in January, 
1876. 

THE SHIAWASSEE COUNTY MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCIA- 
TION, 

of which Henry W. Parker, Horace D. Lewis, Isaac L. 
Peck, Amos G. Young, William L. Van Tuyi, Ezekiel 
Salisbury, John S. Hoyt, Anson B. Chipman, Newton Bald- 
win, Edwin Van Tuyl, Hiram L. Lewis, Jr., and Moses 
Mix were named as corporators, was duly incorporated, ac- 
cording to the laws of the State of Michigan, Jan. 30, 1878. 



THE OWOSSO DRIVING-PARK ASSOCIATION, 

incorporated Oct. 20, 1879, was organized by the election 
of Thomas D. Dewey, President ; Newton McBain, Secre- 
tary ; and John Stewart, Treasurer. Other members were 
Jabez Perkins, A. J. Patterson, E. P. Byerly, A. McHardy, 
J. F. Wildermuth, A. G. Kelso, J. D. Evens, George P. 
Jenkins, M. W. Willoughby, 0. Sharpstene, D. Wait, and 
William Samer. 

Owosso's Cornet Band and Wesener's Orches- 
tra are both prominent institutions of the city. The 
latter was organized by Hugo G. Wesener, in November, 
1878, and consisted of six members, namely, Hugo G. 
Wesener, piano and leader ; August Wesener, first violin ; 
Jasper Gregory, flute ; Gottlieb Hoppham, clarionet ; C. C. 
Gregory, cornet ; and William Sharpstene, trombone. 

The present members of the orchestra are Hugo G. 
Wesener, flute and director ; August Wesener, first violin ; 
Henry Moore, second violin ; John Wesener, viola ; Oscar 
Moore, bass; Gottlieb Hoppham, clarionet; C. C. Gregory, 
cornet ; and William Sharpstene, trombone. The members 
are in good practice and render most excellent music, play- 
ing only classical pieces. They have already given four 
grand concerts, appearing first and second with fifteen per- 
formers, third and last with twenty-five. 

Of the cornet band we have obtained no data, other than 
that J. H. Bobbins has been its leader for some fifteen 
years. It has had its ups and downs, but at the present 
time seems to be highly proficient and harmonious, and at 
the State band tournament, held at Flint in June, 1880, 
one of its members won the prize ofiered for the best trom- 
bone solo. 

RELIGIOUS.* 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF OWOSSO (OLD ORGANIZA- 
TION). 

Among the early settlers of Owosso and its immediate 
vicinity were a number of Baptists. They commenced 
holding religious services in June, 1836,'j" and continued 
them from Sabbath to Sabbath for a year more, the time 
of their meetings being occujJied in singing and prayer and 
the reading of published sermons by some one of their 
number. As brethren of other denominations came in 
they temporarily united with these people, and greatly 
assisted in maintaining religious worship. 

On the 13th of January, 1838, a meeting was held at 
the house of Elias Com'stock for the purpose of organizing 
a Baptist Church. Elias Comstock was chosen moderator 
and Abraham T. Wilkinson clerk. Rev. Benjamin B. 
Brigham was also present to assist them. After consulta- 
tion it was resolved to form a church, to be known as the 
First Baptist Church of Owosso, whereupon the follow- 
ing brethren and sisters presented church letters, viz. : 

* This article includes brief historical sketches of all the church 
organizations in the city, except that of the German Lutherans, who 
failed to respond, although earnestly requested to furnish data. 

■(■ The first sermon was preached in the fall of 1836 by Rev. Samuel 
Wilkinson, of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was an early 
resident of the county, a pioneer teacher also, and subsequently re- 
moved to Flint. Rev. John Booth, a Baptist pioneer minister, 
delivered the next sermon some time during the year 1837. 



156 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



Elias Comstock, Lucy Comstock, Abram T. Wilkinson, 
Lucinda Wilkinson, Reuben Griggs, and Betsey Griggs. 

Elder Brigham, Elias Comstock, and Reuben Griggs 
were appointed a committee to prepare and report a con- 
stitution, code of articles, and covenant. On the 10th of 
February, 1838, Elizabeth Fletcher, Hannah Morton, and 
John F. Swain* were received as members, and in July of 
the same year Jacob Martin and Benjamin Morton. During 
this time Elder Brigham preached occasionally and admin- 
istered the Lord's Supper. 

Early in 1839, Rev. William Pattison, an aged minister, 
his son. Dr. Samuel W. Pattison, and family, came here from 
Fentonville, and uniting with the church, added much to 
its strength. Father Pattison preached while sitting in his 
chair, and will long be remembered by the early settlers. 
Among the members received during that year were Rev. 
William Pattison, Samuel W. Pattison, Phoebe Pattison, 
Charles Pattison, Prudentia Pattison, Eliza A. Peck, Castle 
Peck, Rev. James R. Eldridge, and Mary Ann Eldridge. 

In 1840, Leonard Stimpson, Nancy Ball, Roby Ann 
Murray, Stephen Hawkins, Rawson White, Mary Ann 
White, John Kingsley, Marcina Perkins, Charles Stimp- 
son, John Vanderhoof, Daniel Fletcher, E. J. Van Buren, 
Barnard Morton, Cynthia Wheeler, Caroline Comstock, 
Ann Sumner, Mary Ann Smith, Harriet Young, Sprague 
Perkins, Abram Covert, Daniel D. Fish, Wealthy Swain, 
Benj. 0. Williams, Alvira Hawkins, Ira Murray, Rev. 
John ■ Gilbert, Elizabeth Gilbert, and Samuel Whitcomb 
became members. 

Elias Comstock and Reuben Griggs were first elected 
deacons Feb. 10, 1838. John F. Swain was elected clerk 
at the same time. He was succeeded after some time by 
Dr. Pattison. The early meetings were held at the dwel- 
ling-houses of Deacon Comstock and John F. Swain. 

In June, 1839, Rev. James R. Eldridge became their 
pastor, and continued until the fall of 1840. Rev. John 
Gilbert, from Mount Clemens, then became pastor for a 
short time ; but early in life he was called to join the 
redeemed above. Rev. Silas Barnes succeeded him, by 
preaching at irregular interiBils, until some time in 1843, 
when this organization was dissolved. Several of its mem- 
bers then united with the Maple River Church, where they 
continued until the formation of the present 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF OWOSSO. 

This church was organized at a meeting held in the 
house of worship of the Congregational Society, Nov. 15, 
1856, Rev. S. Chase, of Detroit, being present and as- 
sisting. 

The constituent members were Elias Comstock, Daniel 
Lyon, Mrs. Betsy Lyon, Homer P. Kimball, Mrs. Hannah 
0. Kimball, Mrs. Mary D. Pangburn, Philetus D. White, 
Wellington White, Erastus E. White, Mrs. Anna A. White, 
Jacob B. Perry, Mrs. Hannah Perry, Reuben M. Randall, 
Mrs. Sarah Randall, Mrs. Phebe Randall, William Hurrell, 

* He was married to Wealthy Irons, by Rev. BeDJamin B. Brig- 
ham, Dee. 22, 1837. Another early marriage was that of Walter R. 
Seymour to Nancy Ann Findley, by Samuel N. Warren, J. P., July 
2, 18.S7. These are the earliest marriages of which we have obtained 
any authentic data. 



Elisha Hurrell, Cyrus F. Jackson, Mrs. Jessie Jackson, 
and Mrs. Polly Sawyer. 

Elias Comstock and Daniel Lyon were chosen deacons, 
and Erastus E. White clerk; and in-May, 1857, the church 
was received into the Shiawassee Baptist Association. On 
the 23d of August a meeting was held in the Congrega- 
tional church. Rev. A. E. Mather, of Pontiac, delivered 
a sermon, after which he baptized two candidates, and the 
church for the first time celebrated the Lord's Supper. 

In March, 1858, Gould's Hall was secured as a place for 
holding religious meetings, and in April following Rev. 
Joel Lyon was called to the pastorate, a position which he 
accepted, commencing his labors May 1, 1858. In Jan- 
uary, 1859, the members voted to build a house of worship, 
not to cost over six hundred dollars. This building was 
built on lands leased from Deacon Daniel Lyon, and was 
twenty-four by fifty feet in dimensions. It was dedicated 
Oct. 9, 1860. Elders George W. Harris and John Booth 
were present and assisted in the dedicatory ceremonies. In 
April, 1861, Rev. Joel Lyon resigned, and in September fol- 
lowing Rev. A. M. Hunt assumed the pastorate. He re- 
signed Jan. 1, 1863. John H. Osborn, a lay preacher, then 
supplied until March, 1864, when Rev. John Booth settled 
as pastor. Aaron Hinckley was chosen deacon in December, 
1865. Mr. Booth resigned in February, 1866, and on the 
1st of June, 1866, Rev. William R. Northrup came, re- 
maining one year. The church was then supplied by Revs. 
J. Moxam and H. A. Rose until May, 1869, when Rev. 
B. J. Boynton settled as pastor. He remained until hia 
death, which occurred in August, 1870. 

In November, 1869, the lot occupied by the present 
church edifice was purchased, and in September, 1870, the 
church building was removed upon it. Rev. C. E. Hul- 
burt began his labors in April, 1871, and remained until 
June, 1873. Rev. Joel Lyon then supplied until March 
1, 1874, when Rev. Welcome L. Farnum, the present 
pastor, settled. 

The present church edifice, a brick structure forty by 
seventy feet, was commenced in May, 1875, and dedicated 
May 17, 1877. It has sittings for four hundred people, 
and cost ten thousand dollars. Present membership of 
the church, two hundred and sixty-three. The Sabbath- 
school connected with it was organized in 1860. Welling- 
ton White and Gilbert L. Osborn were chosen deacons in 
December, 1877. They with Elias Comstock compose the 
present diaconate officers. The present clerk, Erastus E. 
White, has served in that capacity since the organization 
of the church, in 1856. 

THE FIRST OONGRESATIONAL CHURCH OF OWOSSO 
was organized Jan. 18, 1853. The first meeting, and other _ 
subsequent ones until the building of their church edifice, 
was held in the school-house, the building now occupied by 
the German Lutherans. 

Among the early members were Amos Gould, Charles 
L. Goodhue, Anson B. Chipman, D. Lyon Thorpe, Erastus 
Barnes, John B. Barnes, B. W. Davis, and Alfred L. Wil- 
liams. The first board of trustees was composed of Amos 
Gould, Charles L. Goodhue, D. Lyon Thorpe, Anson B. 
Chipman, and Erastus Barnes. Rev. 0. M. Goodale was 



CITY OF OWOSSO. 



157 



chosen chairman of the second meeting of the society, but 
whether he was the first pastor the records do not show. 

A church edifice was erected in 1854-55. Kev. A. H. 
Fletcher became pastor in 1858, and served during the 
succeeding year. Other pastors were James R. Griffis in 
1860 ; A. Sanderson, 1862 ; Henry Cherry, 1863 ; John 
Patchin, 1864 to 1868 inclusive; Charles H. Bissell, 1869- 
70; D. W. Sharts, 1871 to 1874 inclusive; D. A. More- 
house, 1875 ; Rev. L. 0. Lee, July, 1875, to May, 1880. 

In the summer of 1871 tlie work of enlarging the 
church building was completed, and it was then reded- 
icated. The society now numbers two hundred and 
eighteen members. 

CHRIST CHURCH (PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL) OP OWOSSO. 

This parish was organized under the ministrations of the 
Rev. Thomas B. Dooley and the Rev. Henry Banwell, May 
10, 1858. For some two years previously, however, Revs. 
Messrs. Dooley, Banwell, and Brown, representing the Pon- 
tiac, Lansing, and Flint Churches, had visited the people 
here, and held occasional services in the school-house and 
in a public hall. 

The corner-stone of the church edifice was laid Sept. 26, 
1859, and the building was consecrated by the bishop of 
the diocese Nov. 18, 1871. The structure is of brick, 
with tower, spire, nave, and chancel. Its dimensions are 
eighty by thirty-six feet, and its interior decorations are 
most beautiful. Complete, it cost ten thousand dollars. 
Not the least among the attractions of this handsome edifice 
is a sweet-toned bell of two thousand pounds from the 
foundry of Meneeley & Kimberly, Troy, N. Y., bearing 
the following inscription : 

"D. 0. M. 

1879. 

Christ Church Owosso. 

S S Harris Bishop 

L B Stimson Rector 

Et Spiritus Bt Spousa 

Bicunt Veni." 

Since its organization the following clergymen have of- 
ficiated as rectors of the parish : Revs. Henry Banwell, 
Thomas B. Dooley, Augustus Bush, George A. Whitney, 
and Levi B. Stinson. 

ST. PAUL'S (ROMAN CATHOLIC) CHURCH 

was organized in the fall of 1871, the original members 
being Peter Connelly, Michael Dwyer, John Connelly, 
John Murphy, John Wade, Patrick Downey, William 
Dwyer, Michael Grady, Michael Howard, Phil Kavauagh, 
Frank Hurst, Charles Hagan, Martin Clary, Lawrence 
Doyle, Michael Rourke, Thomas Grady, Jerry King, 
Michael Carmody, Joseph Constein, Patrick Rourke, Wil- 
liam Cook, Patrick Carmody, James Laffin, John Tracey, 
Tim Conroy, Michael Toole, John Hogan, Richard Haley, 
Patrick Cavanaugh, Daniel Sweeney, William Tracy, Mrs. 
John Huntington, Edward Marony, John Holleran, James 
McCarty, Mrs. William Ellis, Richard Grace, Maurice 
Mack, Philip Butler, James Evans, David Burns, John 
O'Neil, Michael Doyle, Patrick Hamberry, William Marrah, 
James Tobin, Patrick Gorman, John Haley, Patrick Koyn, 
Richard Walsh, and Michael Keyes. 



Their church edifice was commenced in 1872, and roofed 
in December, 1874. It is of brick, as yet unfinished, 
costing so far over twenty-three thousand dollars, and has 
sittings at the present time for five hundred people. One 
hundred and nine families constitute the present member- 
ship. 

Rev. J. J. Kraemer served as pastor until the spring of 
1877, when he was succeeded by the present incumbent. 
Rev. James Wheeler. 

THE FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

of Owosso was organized about the year 1856. Its records 
are meagre, and not much can be learned from them con- 
cerning the history of this organization. Their first house 
of worship is now owned and occupied by the Lutherans. 
A second church edifice was built in 1865 at a cost of 
nearly five thousand dollars. It has about three hundred 
sittings. Among those who have served as pastors have 
been Revs. Seth Reed, James T. Hankinson, J. C. Coch- 
rane, James Venning, Elijah H. Piloher, J. S. Joslin, 
T. Wilkinson, D. Whitely, W. J. Clack, H. Hodlekiss, 
C. R. Kellerman, and W. H. Osborne. 

SALEM'S (GERMAN) CHURCH OP OWOSSO, 

of the Evangelical Association, was organized by the Rev. 
John M. Houk, April 22, 1862. The first services were 
held in the dining-room of the building now known as the 
Exchange Hotel, of which, at that time, Jacob Aberly was 
proprietor, and among the original members were Christian 
Moesner, Frederick Gutekunst, Frederick Launstein, John 
Miller, Christian Kurrle, Frederick Kurrle, John Storrer, 
Michael Strehl, Philip Schnabel, Hermann Schmidgall, and 
Mrs. Caroline Moore. 

In the year 1864, under the management of Rev. John 
Meek, a house of worship, with sittings for two hundred 
people, was built at a cost of twelve hundred dollars. 

The work of building up a church here commenced, 
however, in 1858, when the Ohio Conference of the Evan- 
gelical Association sent as missionaries to this region the 
Revs. Frederick Zeller and Christopher Roehm. 

Mr. Houk was succeeded by Rev. John Meek, and he in 
turn by Mr. Houk again. Subsequent pastors have been 
Revs. C. Ude, two years ; Christopher Roehm, two years ; 
J. M. Fuchs, two years ; S. Henne, two years ; John Orth, 
one year ; Frederick Schweizer, two years ; and Lewis 
Brumm, the present incumbent. 

Meantime, churches of this denomination have been es- 
tablished in the townships of New Haven and Bennington. 
In 1875 each of them erected houses of worship, and in 
1877 the church in Chesaning, Saginaw Co., — which is 
also in this district, — erected a church edifice. Two hun- 
dred members of this denomination now reside in the 
county of Shiawassee. 

Rev. John M. Houk, who has served as the presiding 
elder of this district for the past seven years, relates that 
nineteen years ago he traveled through six diflFerent coun- 
ties to preach to the Germans. Then they were poor, and 
but few in numbers ; now they are wealthy, and greatly 
multiplied. 



158 



HISTORY OF SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



BIOGEAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 





ALFRED L. WILLIAMS. 



BENJAMIN 0. WILLIAMS. 



BENJAMIN 0. WILLIAMS. 

The gentleman whose name heads this biographical 
sketch, and his brother, Alfred L. Williams, were the first 
two white settlers in Shiawassee County, forty-nine years 
ago ; and both have been residents in, and among the most 
prominent citizens of Owosso, for a period of forty-three 
years, — with the exception of temporary absences in the 
prosecution of their extended business enterprises elsewhere. 
Their father, Maj. Oliver Williams, was also a well-known 
and universally respected citizen of Michigan (a resident of 
Detroit and of Oakland County) for more than a quarter 
of a century. 

In the year 1638, Robert Williams emigrated from Wales 
to America, and settled in Roxbury, Mass. For more than 
two hundred years his descendants lived in that place, from 
which most of the families of the name in this country 
have sprung. Oliver Williams, one of the sixth generation 
from his ancestor, Robert, was born in Roxbury, on the 27th 
of August, 1774. He was early apprenticed, and learned 
the trade of hatter, which business he carried on at Con- 
cord, Mass., for several years. In 1796 he married Miss 
Mary Lee, a native of Concord (born July 11, 1777), and 
continued to live in that town until 1808, when he came to 
Michigan, and established a general mercantile business in 
connection with the fur trade, making his headquarters at 
Detroit. He purchased his goods in Boston, Mass., carried 
them in covered wagons to Buffalo, N. Y., and transported 
them thence by water carriage on Lake Erie to Detroit, 
generally making two trips in a year to and from Boston, 
and traveling on horseback between that city and Buffalo. 
During the year 1811 his purchases of goods in Boston 
amounted to more than sixty-four thousand dollars. 



In the winter of 1810-11, Maj. Williams had built, at 
the mouth of the Rouge River, a large sloop, which he 
named " Friends Good Will," designed to be used for the 
transportation of goods upon the lakes, in the prosecution 
of his business. In the summer of 1812 the sloop (with 
Maj. Williams on board as supercargo) visited the port of 
Michilimackinae, where she was chartered by the United 
States authorities to transport military supplies thence to 
Fort Dearborn, Chicago, and to bring back furs and other 
merchandise from the government factor there to Detroit. 
Before the return of the vessel to Michilimackinae that 
post had fallen into the hands of the enemy, and upon her 
entrance into the harbor on her way back to Detroit she was 
seized by the British commandant as a prize of war. Maj. 
Williams was made a prisoner, but was paroled and sent to 
Detroit, and was there when the town was afterwards dis- 
gracefully surrendered by Gen. Hull. The sloop " Friends 
Good Will" was renamed by her British captors the " Little 
Belt," and being armed with a battery of three guns, took 
part in the naval battle of Lake Erie, in 1813. There she 
was recaptured by Commodore Perry, and in the following 
winter was destroyed by fire at Buffalo. 

In the fall of 1815, Maj. Williams removed his family, 
consisting of his wife and nine children, — six sons and 
three daughters, — to Detroit. They traveled in a carriage 
and a four-horse covered wagon from Concord, Mass., to 
Buffalo, taking passage at the latter place on the schooner 
" Mink" for Detroit, where they arrived on the 5th of 
November, and where the family made their home for about 
four years. 

Maj. Williams had lost very heavily by the capture of 
his vessel and other disasters during the war of 1812-15, 
and finding it impossible to obtain reimbursement from the 



r 



I 



5 




lXi,tU.J-^ 



CITY OP 0W0S80. 



159 



United States, or in any manner to recover the property 
lost, determined to leave Detroit and become a farmer. 
Having that object in view, he purchased, in 1818, three 
hundred and twenty acres in Waterford township, Oakland 
Co., a short distance northwest of Pontiac, and to this tract 
he removed his family in 1819. Here, upon the homestead 
which became widely known as the "Silver Lake farm," he 
passed the remainder of his life in quiet and in enjoyment 
of the respect and esteem of his numerous friends and ac- 
quaintances. His death occurred on the 7th of October, 
1834, at the age of sixty years. 

The children of Maj. Oliver and Mrs. Mary Williams 
were fourteen in number, twelve of them being born in 
Massachusetts and two in Detroit. Of the latter, one died 
in infancy, and of the former, four died young. Those who 
lived to maturity were the following, viz. : 

1. Ephraim S. WilUams, born at Concord, Mass., Feb. 
7, 1802. He was an early settler in Saginaw County, and 
is now living in the city of Flint, Genesee Co. 

2. Gardner D. Williams, born in Concord, Sept. 9, 1804. 
He was an early settler at Saginaw, and died there in 
1858. 

3. Caroline Lee Williams, born at Concord, Feb. 11, 
1806. Married Rufus W. Stevens, of Grand Blanc, Gene- 
see Co., and lived there and at the city of Flint. She died 
in 1850. 

4. Mary Ann Williams, born at Concord, May 9, 1807. 
Married Schuyler Hodges, of Pontiac, Oakland Co., and is 
still residing there. 

5. Alfred L. Williams, born at Concord, July 18, 1808. 
Settled in Shiawassee Co., Mich., in 1831. His residence 
is at Owosso, though temporarily living in Virginia, in 
charge of a railroad enterprise. 

6. Benjamin Oliver Williams, born in Concord, Nov. 18, 
1810. Settled in Shiawassee County in 1831. Came to 
Owosso in 1837, and still resides there. 

7. Alpheus F. Williams, born in Concord, Nov. 12, 
1812. An early settler in Saginaw. Removed to Califor- 
nia, and now resides at Oakland in that State. 

8. Harriet L. Williams, born at Concord, Mass., Feb. 10, 
1814. Married George W. Rodgers, at Pontiac, Oakland 
Co., and now resides in California. 

9. James Monroe Williams, born at Detroit, Mich., on 
the day (Aug. 14, 1817) when his excellency James Mon- 
roe, President of the United States, arrived in that city. 
Maj. Oliver Williams was marshal of the day on the occa- 
sion of the public reception of the President, and named his 
infant son in honor of the city's distinguished guest. James 
M. Williams is now living in Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Alfred L. and Benjamin 0. Williams were, as has been 
mentioned, the first two settlers in Shiawassee County. In 
August, 1831, they set out from Pontiac with two assist- 
ants and a double team loaded with goods, and passing 
throuo-h the intervening wilderness, came to the Shiawassee 
River at the point where that stream is now crossed by the 
Chicago and Lake Huron Railroad, and where A. L. Wil- 
liams had entered an eighty- acre tract of government land. 
Here they opened a trading-post, and soon after built the 
building which later became known as the « Shiawassee 
Exchange," a double house one and a half stories high, 



used as a dwelling and store-house and afterwards as a 
tavern. 

In July or August, 1833, the brothers Williams pur- 
chased lands at Che-boc-wa-ting, or the Big Rapids of the 
Shiawassee (Owosso), this being the first purchase of lands 
in the north half of the county. In 1835 the younger 
brother, B. 0. Williams, established a mercantile business 
at Pontiac, and remained there two years. 

In the spring of 1836, B. 0. Williams, with his elder 
brother, Gardner D. Williams, of Saginaw, went to the city 
of Washington in charge of a party of tMrteen Saginaw- 
Chippewa chiefs for the purpose of concluding a treaty by 
which the Indians should sell to the United States the 
tribal reservations . granted them by the treaty of Saginaw 
in 1819. This negotiation was ultimately successful. The 
deputation remained about three weeks in Washington, 
and the whole journey consumed about two months, — the 
means of traveling at that time being by stage and canal. 

In the spring of 1837, B. 0. Williams returned from 
Pontiac to Shiawassee County, and with his brother, A. L., 
located permanently on their lands at Owosso, where they 
at once commenced extending and adding to the improve- 
ments which had been begun there under their direction 
in the fall of 1835. In this removal from their old trad- 
ing-post above, on the Shiawassee, they retained the " Shia- 
wassee Exchange" property, but this they sold the next 
year to the American Fur Company. 

In 1838, B. 0. Williams married Miss Sophia A. Smith, 
of Canandaigua, N. Y. His first dwelling-house was 
erected in Owosso, near the present residence of A. L. 
Williams. He afterwards built a house on the lot adjoin- 
ing Judge Gould's. The residence which he now occupies 
was built in or about 1869. 

A contract for grubbing and clearing about forty miles 
of the line of the old "Northern Railroad" (from the 
centre of Shiawassee County westward to Lyons, Ionia 
Co.) was taken by A. L. and B. 0. Williams, at 1248.50 
per mile, and one-half of the distance was sub-let by them 
to Messrs. Kipp and Moore, of Ionia. The work was com- 
menced in November, 1838, and was completed in the 
summer of 1839, but resulted in loss to the contractors. 
In 1839, B. 0. Williams and Daniel Ball took the contract 
to grade ten miles of the same road, eastward from Lyons, 
but only a part of this work was completed before the 
definite failure and abandonment of the project by the 
State. 

Soon after the commencement of the California gold 
excitement, the brothers A. L. and B. 0. Williams re- 
solved to try the experiment of mining on the Pacific slope, 
and in the year 1850 they migrated thither, took up a 
claim in Nevada County, and commenced operations. They 
named their claim "Pontiac Hill," and theirs were the ^ 
first hill-diggings opened in California. The history of 
Nevada Co., Cal., gives to them the credit of finishing 
the first water-race for gold-washing in the county. It ran 
from Nevada City to Rough and Ready. Gold was found 
within thirty feet of where they commenced work, and ten 
feet below the surface they took out a ten-quart pan of 
earth which yielded one hundred and twenty-six penny- 
weights of gold. They remained at this place for two 



160 



HISTORY OP SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 



years, then sold their claim and returned to Owosso. In 
May, 1852, they again went to California — sending a party 
of men with horses by the overland route — and purchased 
a water-right in Sierra County, which they worked suc- 
cessfully, and on which over half a million dollars has 
since been expended. Accompanying them were their 
brothers, Alpheus F. and James M. Williams, who re- 
mained in charge of the mining operations while the elder 
two returned to Michigan. 

In 1863-64, B. 0. Williams accompanied Col. Hayden, 
of Ohio, on a tbur for the discovery and working of gold 
and silver mines in Honduras, Central America. They 
made a very thorough exploration of the region in question, 
but no extensive operations resulted from the discoveries 
made. 

Alfred L. Williams was prominently identified with the 
project of the Amboy, Lansing and Traverse Bay Railroad, 
which was chartered in 1857. He became the first presi- 
dent of the company, and was chiefly instrumental in ob- 
taining for the road its proportion of the lands granted to 
the State of Michigan in aid of railroads by act of Con- 
gress passed in 1856. Mr. Williams continued to be one 
of the most prominent men in the management of this 
railroad until its sale, in 1864. In 1876 he, with several 
associates, obtained from the State of Virginia a grant 
giving them the use of the tow-path of the James River 
Canal as a bed for a railway to run from the city of Rich- 
mond westwardly to Clifton Forge, in Allegany County, 
there to intersect the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad at the 
latter point. The enterprise is a most promising one, and 
Mr. Williams is now in Virginia engaged in its prosecution. 

Benjamin 0. Williams has always acted with the Demo- 
cratic party from the casting of his first vote, in 1832, until 
the present time. He has frequently served the party as 
delegate to State conventions and in other similar ways, 
but has never had any political aspirations. He has held 
the oflBces of justice of the peace, mayor of the city of 
which he was one of the founders, and has been elected to 
a number of minor positions, but he has never held an 
office which was the result of his own seeking. His family 
have resided in Owosso from 1838 until the present time. 
He has three children living, viz. : James A. and Charles 
S., who are engaged in business at Owosso, and Benjamin 
0., Jr., who is freight-agent of the Great Western Railroad 
at Detroit. 



HON. AMOS GOULD. 



The life-work of few men illustrates more graphically 
a series of struggles and triumphs than does that of Judge 
Amos Gould, of Owosso. An honored and successful coun- 
selor, a faithful and industrious practitioner, he has ever 
maintained that reputation for fidelity to duty which is the 
general characteristic of the American lawyer. His ac- 
quirements were not attained as light and idle pastimes. 
Each advance step was taken after due deliberation, and was 
then laboriously maintained. Years added to his strength. 



and untiring industry greatly increased his stock of knowl- 
edge, until in the full and complete man we scarcely discern 
the feeble beginning. 

The knowledge of Mr. Gould's ancestry begins with his 
grandfather, Capt. Ebenezer Gould, of Killingly (Windham 
Co.), Conn. He was a young married man of good repute, 
by occupation a farmer, who attained the rank of captain of 
militia during the Revolutionary war, and later removed to 
Granville, Washington Co., N. Y. He purchased a large 
farm, which he improved and lived upon until his death, 
which occurred about 1808. Mrs. Gould, his wife, was a 
Miss Robbins, of Connecticut, and became the mother of 
eighteen children, who were at one time all residing under 
the parental roof. The father of Amos Gould, after his 
marriage, about the year 1805, to Miss Polly Simmons, 
removed from Granville to the old town of Aur_elius, south 
of Auburn, N. Y., where their son Amos was born, Dec. 
3, 1808. The father there purchased a farm and began 
the work of clearing, to which he devoted himself with 
vigor until called again to the early home to participate in 
the settlement of the estate of his parent. In 1813 he re- 
turned to his pui'chase in Cayuga Co., N. Y. 

Amos has a vivid recollection of those early days, and 
recalls distinctly the war of 1812. On their return from 
the East troops were seen encamped along the Mohawk 
River. Farther west, in Onondaga County, the camp-fires 
were burning, and a regiment of cavalry overtook the emi- 
grants on the route to their home, and having divided, 
rode swiftly past and disappeared in the distance. 

The son remained on the farm with his father assisting 
in the labors of the husbandman, and devoting the winter 
to such study as was afibrded by the public school of the 
neighborhood. 

From the age of ten years Amos developed a fondness 
for reading, and eagerly availed himself of such material as 
was afforded by the ladies' library established in the vi- 
cinity. One or two private collections were also accessible 
to him. 

In 1824 an opportunity occurred of enjoying the supe- 
rior advantages of a school in Auburn, where the languages 
were taught, and where he added greatly to the limited 
knowledge of Latin he had previously acquired. This con- 
tinued with interruptions for two years, after which the 
academy at Aurora, Cayuga Co., opened its doors to him, 
and in 1827 he entered the sophomore class at Hamilton 
College, Clinton, N. Y. 

Mr. Gould pursued his studies until an unfortunate cir- 
cumstance caused the temporary suspension of the institu- 
tion, when, lacking means to enter another seat of learning, 
he engaged in teaching in Auburn, N. Y. He also en- 
tered at this time the office of William H. Seward as a 
student of law. 

Later he became associated with Theodore Spencer, son 
of Chief Justice Spencer, of New Yo